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OBiograpl^ical, l^isitoncal, auD ?DcjScnptite 






F— N 







Cleveland Abbe, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Meteorologist U. S. Weather Bureau, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
William xMartin Aiken, F.A.I.A. 

Architect ; New York. Late Supervising Archi- 
tect of U. S. Treasury Uepartmeut. 
Edward Atkinson, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Economist, and President Manufacturers' Mutl. 
Ins. Co., Boston, Mass. Author MiU Con- 
struction .■ What It Is and What It Is Xot ; 
Right Methods of Preventimj Fins in Mills. 
Charles Babcock, M.A., Hon. Mem. A.I.A., 
Hon. Mem. R.I.B.A. 
Emeritus Professor of Architecture, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
W. J. Baldwin, Mem. Am. Soc. C.E., Mem. Am. 
Soc. M.E. 
Expert and Consulting Engineer in Heating 
and Ventilation ; New York. 
Charlks I. Bek&, F.A.I.A. 

Architect ; New York. 
C. H. Blackall, M.A., F.A.I.A. 

Architect ; Boston, Mass. 
Edwin- H. Blashkiei,i>, N. A., Hon. Mem. A. I. A. 
Mural I'aintpr; N'.-w York. .loinl Author 

if^U>n, rn/rs: .1 1,^!" T \' i.ari. 

H. W, I'.KLWLi:, ll^.ii \- 1: I l; \. 

Aulliui- luaiiv \'.rr ■ i ■ i in the Pro- 

ceedings K. 1. li. A. , L>.iia '11, i:iigland. 
Arnom. W. Bkunneu, F.A.1..V. 

Architect ; New York. Joint Author Interior 

Kcclesiologist and Decorative Designer ; Presi- 
dent Church Glass and Decorating Co. 
Wai.tkr C>)()k, F.A.I.A. 

Architect ; New York. President Soc. of Beaux 
Arts Architects; President N.Y. Chapter 
A. I. A. 
Edward Cowles, A.M., M.D. 

Medical Supt. McLean Ho.spital, Waverley, 
Mass. ; Clin. Instruc. Ment. Dis. Ilarvanl 
R. A. Cra.m. 

Architect ; Boston, Mass. 


• Vn 

Painter and Decorative Artist; New 
York. Author Mural I'aintinif. 
Frank .Minks Day, K.A.I. A. 

Architect : Pliiladelphia, Penn. 
Charles de Kav. 

Writer on Fine Art ; New York. Author Ai/e 
and Works of liarye, the Sculptor. 
F. S. Dellenbauoh. 

Painter ; Writer and Lecturer on American 
Archieology and Ethnology ; New York. 
William he Mon(;AN. 

Keramist and Designer ; London, England. 

Barr Ferree, Hon. Cor. Mem. R.I.B.A., Cor. 

Mem. A. LA. 
John Safford Fiske, L.H.D. 

Alassio, Province of Genoa, Italy. Writer on 
Fine Art, especially of Italy. 
Arthur L. Frothingha.m, Jr., Ph.D. 

Princeton, N.J. Professor Ancient History and 
Archaeology, Princeton University ; Late 
Editor Am. Journal Archieology ; Joint 
Author History <il' Sriili,iiii-i-. 
William Paul Gekhaui., C.i;. 

York. Cousultini; Ilii-iiieer for Sanitary 


■, M^ 1 



Anhiiect ; New 'I'urk ; President Architectural 

Wii.i.mm' 11. '(.....i.w;ah, M.A. 

Arehieolo-isi ; New York. Professor Brooklyn 
lii^t. ot ,\ii> and Sciences (Curator since 
ls;i;», , .\uilHir The Grammar of the Lotus ; 
li'iiiKiii II ml Mi'dicEval Art; Jienaissance 

mill M..,l. ni Art. 

Alk.wm.ik (,i;miam, F.S.A., Mem. Council 
London, Kngland. Author Travelsin Tunisia; 
Iliiiiidns of the Roman Occupation of North 
A. I). V. Hamlin, A.M. 

Adjunct Professor Department of Architecture, 
Columbia University, New Y.ork ; Author 
A Text-book of the History of Architec- 

.Virhlle,! ; New York. 

Geor(;e Hill. M.S., C.E., A.ssoc. Mem. Am. Soc. 
C.E., Mem. Am. Soc. M.E. 
Architect ; New York. Author Qftice Help 
for Architects ; Modern Office Buildings; 
Test of Fireproof Floor Arches. 
Fred. B. Hinciiman. 

Architect ; New York. Late U. S. Engineer 

William iVicii Hutton. C.E., Mem. Am. Soc. 
C.E.. Mem. Inst. C.E., Mem. Inst. C.E. of 
Civil Engineer ; New York. 
John La Faroe, N.A., Hon. Mom. A.I.A. 

Mural Painter, Artist in Mosaic and Decorative 
Windows ; New York. Author Considera- 
tions on Painting; An Artist's Letters from 


W. R. Lkthabt. 

London ; England. Joint AuUior Sancta 
Sophia, Curixtanthviple ; Author Archi- 
teclure, Mysticiam, and Myth ; Leadwork, 
Old and Ornamental. 
W. P. 1'. LosoKKLLow, S.B.. Hon. Mem. A.I.A. 
Cambridge, Mass. Editor CyclopnEdia of Archi- 
tecture in Italy, Greece, and the Levant; 
Auilior Essays un Architectural UUstory ; 
The Column and the Arch. 
Allan Mak«lasu. I'li.D., L.ll.D. 

Profes-sor Arcbajology and the History of Art, 
Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. ; 
Joint Author Uintory of .Sculpture. 
Hbsry Kltgeiw Maksiiall, M.A., F.A.I.A. 
Architect; New York. Author Pain, Pleas- 
ure, and Esthetics; Esthetic Princi- 
Gkorge p. Merrill. 

Head Curator IJept. of Geology, U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C. ; Professor 
Geology and Mineralogy, Corcoran Scien- 
tific School of Columbian University, Wa.sli- 
ington, 1).C. ; Author Stones for Buildiwj 
and Decoration; Jiocks, Rock-weather iny, 
and Soils; The Onyx Marbles. 
\y. T. Partridge. 

Lecturer on Architectural Design, Columbia 
University ; New York. 
Charles A. Platt. 

Architect and Landscape Architect ; New York. 
Author Italian Gardens. 
Coi(Vi>ON T. Plruv, C.E., Mem. Am. Soc. C.E. 
Civil Engineer; New Y'ork. Author Pam- 
phlets and Reports on Construction and 
RissELL RoiiB, S.B., M.A.LE.S. 

Boston, Mass. Author Electric ]yirinfi for 
the Use of Architects. 
W. C. Sauise. 

Assistant Professor of Physics, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass. Engineer for 
Acoustics, Boston Music Hall (1900). 
Alexandre Sandier. 

Architect ; DirecteurdesTravauxd'Art, Manu- 
facture Nationale, Sfevres, France. 
Jean Sciiopfer. 

Paris, France. Author many articles on 
Architecture in American and European 

Montgomery Schuyler, A. M., Cor. Mem. A. LA. 
New York. Author Studies in American Archi- 
tecture; Joint Editor , Veto York Times. 
F. D. Sherman, Ph.B. 

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Columbia 
University, New York. 
Edward R. S.mitii, B.A. 

Librarian Avery Architectural Library, Colum- 
bia University, New York. 
Charles C. Solle. 

Boston, Mass. President Boston Book Com- 
pany ; Trustee Am. Library Assoc. ; Trus- 
tee Brookline, Mass., Pub. Lib. 
R. Phene Si'iER.*, F.S.A., Mem. Council R.LB.A. 
London, England. Editor Fergusson's His- 
tory of Ancient and Mediaral Architecture, 
Tliiril Edition ; Editor Pugin's yormandy, 
Second Edition. 
Danfori) N. B. Stirgis. 
Architect ; New York. 
Richard CLii-iToN Stirgis, F.A.I.A. 

Architect ; Boston, Mass. 
Andrew T. Taylor. F.R.I.B.A., R.C.A. 

Architect ; Montreal. Author Toirers and 
Spires of Sir Christopher Wren ; Dominion 
Drawing Books. 
Edward L. Tilton. 

Architect ; New York. Late Student and Ex- 
plorer, Am. School of Classical Studies, 
Athens, Greece. 

T. F. ' 

, B.S. 

Architect ; New York. 
Henry van Brlnt, F.A.I.A. and late President 
A. LA. 
Architect; Kansas City, Mo. Author Greek 

Liiu.i (iiiil nihil- Architectural Essays. 
Wll.l.lAM l; \\ M.I . I.I .1)., F.A.I.A. 

I'roii >~ A II .Columbia University. 

N. "1 A r .1 Treatise on Plain 

,11,"' ' M . ,. ; . 'I /'. ispective. 
H. Lan.^.o.m. Wvkk.n. F.A.LA. 

Architect ; Boston. Mass. As-st. Professor of 
Architecture, Lawrence Scientific School, 



r.l 1 

Peter B. w i..iii. I'.A I, 

Architoci ; ChicaLro. 

State Board of Exa 

.HT, A.B.. F.A.LA. 

I Boston. Mass. Author 

■ fare in Boston. 

The Author of Architect, the, in Italy records his indebtedness for special information to the Com- 

mendalore Cauiillo Boito. 
The Author of Lvw, — U) Mr. Philip Golden Bartletl. 
The Author of Misic Hall, —to .Mr. Theodore Tliomas. 
The Author of Surveying, —to Mr. Edward B. Sturgis. 


A GOOD dictionary will be good reading even if a column or a page be read consecutively ; 
but it will be still better reading if the reader is in the mood to take a little pains and turns to 
one article after another, following not the alphabetical sequence of the terms, but the sequence 
of his own thought. This matter of the student's use of the book, briefly touched upon in the 
Preface to Vol. I., becomes of more obvious importance now that two thirds of the whole work 
is in print. There are some large general subjects which can be fairly well studied if this plan is 
followed ; and with the appearance of the third and final volume, four months hence, these studies 
can be carried yet farther. 

An obvious instance is that subject, the most important to us modems of all matters of 
architectural history, the system of building and design of the great Empire, from 50 b.c. to 
250 A.D. The building and the art of the European world since that time, and of much beyond 
the European world, take their origin in what was done during that epoch ; and yet there is so 
little generally known about it, and it is so misunderstood, that all architectural thought and 
writing is seriously marred by this lack of accuracy. This very subject will be found treated at 
great length in the Dictionary. If, for instance, the reader begins with Italy, Part IX., Latium, 
and especially the second division of Part IX. where the city of Rome itself is treated ; if then he 
seeks in the other parts of the article, Italy, for Roman remains, and farther in the article France, 
especially Part X., and in Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsida, and North Africa ; if he then studies 
Memorial Arch, Memorial Column, Amphitheatre, Basilica, and the technical terms referred to 
under Columnar Architecture, the subject will have been presented to him from several points 
of view. The appearance in Vol. III. of the general ai'ticle on Roman Imperial Architecture and 
that on Syria, with Portico, Thermae, and Tomb, may seem to complete fairly well (especially if 
Masonry, Vaulting, and the like be looked up) the presentation of what is known on the general 

The mechanical and scientific art of building may be followed up from item to item in the 
same easy and natural way ; and the present volume gives Floor, Foxmdation, Frame, Framing, 
Iron Construction, Masonry, and Mortar, to be read with Builder, Brickwork, and the like in Vol. I. 

Gas Fitting and House Drainage come here ; Plumbing, Ventilation, and Warming in Vol. III., 
and these may be read in connection with Hotel, or with Apartment House (and with Tenement 
House, when it appears), or with Library, or with Hospital ; for to many readers these hygienic 
departments are what is most important in modern building. The valuable and novel work given 
in Vol. I. under Acoustics, and its kindred shorter articles, receives a practical confirmation in 
Vol. II. by the article Music Hall ; and some further help is given in Vol. III. under the caption 
Sounding Board. 

The volume now issued contains the longest of the guidebook articles, Italy first, treated with 
unexampled thoroughness ; France, Germany, Greece, Japan, North Africa, each written by one 
who knows well and loves the land in question and its monuments. Other vast regions, such as 
India, have received treatment less full and less minute, because of their very gieatness and of 
their less immediate interest to students of European tradition ; Farther India and Hungary, 
Ireland, Mexico, have proportionate space allowed them. There are articles which must be con- 
sidered as continuations of those named above ; thus Moslem Architecture helps greatly Tmlia 
and North Africa, as it will iiclp Balkan Peninsula and Egypt in Vol. 1., an.l Tcrsia, Si.ain, and 
Syria in Vol. III. 


U. S. 


I. Flamboyant Architecture 43, 44 

II. Font 55, 56 

III. Fountain 79, 80 

IV. France, Architecture of. i'late 1 95, 96 

V. France, Architecture of. Plate II. 103, 104 

VI. France, Architecture of. Plate III 115,116 

VII. France, Architecture of. Plate IV 131, 132 

VIII. Gallery 169, 170 

IX. Germany, Architecture of. I'late 1 201, 202 

X. Germany, Architecture of. Plate II 219, 220 

XL Germany, Architecture of. Plate III 235, 236 

XII. Greco-Roman Architecture 307, 308 

XIII. Greece, Architecture of 315, 316 

XIV. Haddon Hall, Derby.shire, England 341, 342 

XV. Henri Deux Architecture 371,372 

XVI. Henri Quatre Architecture 377, :!78 

XVII. H6tel 409, 410 

XVIII. Inlay 481, 482 

XIX. Italy, Architecture of. Plate 1 521, 522 

XX. Italy, Architecture of. Plate II 541, 542 

XXI. Italy, Architecture of. Plate III 575, 576 

XXII. Italy, Architecture of. Plate IV 597, 598 

XXIII. .Japan. Plate 1 623, 624 

XXIV. Japan. Plate II C.33, 6.34 

XXV. Khan 673, 674 

XXVI. Leaning Tower 721, 722 

XXVII. Louvre 805, 806 

XXVIII. Memorial Arch. Plate 1 853, 854 

XXIX. Memorial Arch. Plate II 859, 860 

XXX. Mexico, Architecture of 897, 898 

XXXI. Minaret 909, 910 

X.XXII. Moslem Architecture 9(13, 964 

XXXIII. Mural Paintinp; 981.982 

XXXIV. Neoclassic Architecture 1009,1010 



sized pattern of the 

FACADE. The architectural front of a build- wreath, in sense 5, j 
ing ; not necessarily the principal front, but any | given horizcmtal j.l: 
face or presentation 
of a structure which 
is nearly in one plane, 
and is treated in the 
main as a single ver- 
tical wall with but 
minor modifications. 
Thus, if a large build- 
ing presents toward 
one street a front con- 
sisting of the ends of 
two projecting wings 
with a low wall be- 
tween them enclosing 
a courtyard, that 
would be hardly a 
facade, but rather two 
fa(,'ades of the two 

With buildings 
which present on all 
sides fronts of similar 
or equivalent elabo- 
rateness of treatment, 
it is, perhaps, incor- 
rect to speak of a fa- 
cade ; thus, in a great 
church, although the 
west front may be 
described by this 
term, it is inaccurate 
because that front 
would not be what 
it is were it presented 
without the flanks or 
north and south sides. 

The facade rather (^omes of street architecture I material or more 
and of buildings which have but one front con- | Ashlar, B ; Face ; 
sidered of sufficient impor- 
tance to receive architectu- 
ral treatment. — R. S. 

FACE (v.). A. To dress 
or finish one or more faces 
of a piece, member, or struc- 

B. To provide with a 
relatively highly finished 
face by the application of 
a finer or more elaborately 
worked material. 

In stair building, a full- 
inclined projection of a 
■oduced by jfrojecting the 
1 vertically upon an in- 
clined plane which 
corresponds to the 
slope of the wreath, 
or as nearly so as 
jioshible. If the plan 
of the wreath is, as 
usual, described on a 
circular arc, the face 
; mould will be ellip- 
' tical. {See Falling 

FACET. Any one 
of the several polyg- 
onal faces of a crys- 
tal or cut jewel; 
hence, any one of the 
laces or plane surfaces 
of a stone cut into 
like forms, as in rusti- 
cated masonry where 

each i 

to 1 

pyi-amidal projection. 
There are many exam- 
ples in Italy, among 
tliem the e.\terior east 
I'acade of the Doge's 
p.il.icc ut V<'nice and 
.\u- l",.l,.//„ (lei Dia- 

t i;n 


Arches, in Vknuk. 

ough tirlck work iiliown In « In covered In 
by very thin fticlnif of marble. 

Miii\ -iiii line which 

'"'• moie important face, 
**"' especially when con- 
stmcted of better 
elaborately worked. (See 
Face Brick, under Brick ; 

FACING. Any mate- 
rial used to face with, 
whether forming an inte- 
gral ])art of a structure and 
l)uilt simultaneou.sly with 
;t as in certain methods of 
lirick building, or applied 
to tlie compicteil rough 
structure as a veneer, as in 
the ca.se of a marl)le dado; 
in this sense distinguished 

from Face Work. (Sw .\j<lilar ; Face ; Face 
Brick, uM.ler Brick.) (Cut, cols, o, G.) 

FACTOR OF SAFETY. Tlie «iuantity liy 
whicli tlic imincricuUy stated ultimate strength 
of a UK-iiilur is iliviilcHl, in order to determine 
what force the raendter may resist with entire 
safety. Thus, in })nutice, an iron column is 
commonly allowed to support a load only one 
hfth the amount it would jutu:dly carry before 
breaking, the factor of sjifety thus being five. 
The amount of a factor of s;ifety, as usually 
employed, is determined by experience and ])nu:- 
tice, but is arbitrarily aissumed in any given 
case or arbitrarily established by law or custom. 
(See StRMigth of Materials.) — D. N. B. S. 

FACTORY. ^1. A building in which fac- 
tors (that is to say, agents, as of merdiants or 
other business men) reside or conduct their busi- 
ness. In this sense, the term corresponds nearly 
to the Italian fonduco. In the Middle Ages, 
and to a certain e.vtent in later times, the mer- 
chants of one country doing business in another 
required a building which would be a centre of 
their jjosition as tolerated foreignere who must 
have some common office and place of gathering. 
Even in very recent times the existence of such 
buildings in Oriental lands is not unknown. The 
factory (called in French hdtel, or simply vnai'soH) 
of an important commercial country built in a 
seaportofanothercoramercial country would often 
be a building of some architectural pretensions. 

B (abbreviated from manufactory). A build- 
ing in which manufactiuing is carried on. 
Such buildings rarely receive architectural treat- 
ment ; but some cotton mills and the like have 
square entrance towers and present a seendy 
appearance of decent constniction and simple 
proportion. (For their structural peculiarities, 
which are sometimes of interest, see Slow Burn- 
ing Construction.) — R. S. 

FAIENCB. Pottery of coarse or dark col- 
oured body covered by an opaque coating, such 
as is called enamel, which enamel may be elabo- 
rately painted. This is the proper signification, 
and it covers all the beautiful decorative wares 
of Italy from the fifteenth to the eighteenth 
centuries, including the richest varieties of ma- 
jolica, and also the various potteries of France 
of slightly later epoch, such as those of Rouen, 
Nevers, Moustiers, and many more. The.se 
wares are often very soft, both enamel and 
body ; but when used for external decoration, 
such iis wall tiles and the like, the same cH'ects 
of colour and brilliancy are pos.sible with an ex- 
tremely h.ard and enduring substance, and the 
greatest epochs have been marked by the pro- 
duction of cresting tiles, ridge tiles, finials for 
painted roofs, and the like, which are perfectly 
durable. (See Epi ; Keramics ; Tile.) — R. S. 

FAIN, PIERRE ; architect and sculptor. 
In ir)01-l.J0_' Fain worked on the archi- 
episcopal i)aliu;e at liouen. December 4, 1507, 

he contracted with others to buihl the chaixl 
of the chateau of Gaillon (Eurc, France). In 
1509 he comjiletcil the portal leading from the 
outer to the, inner court at Gaillon, which is 
now at the Ecule des Beaux Arln, Paris. (See 
Dclorme, Pierre.) 

Deville, Comj.tf'S de Gmlh.n. 

sculptor; b. 171G; d. IT'Jl. 

Catherine II. invited Falconet to Russia to 
make the colossal equestrian statue of Peter 
the Great. The CEiivres d'£tienne Falconet, 
Statitaire (6 vols. 8vo) were published in 1781. 

Gonse, Sctdpture Fran(;aise ; La Grande En- 

painter, architect,and sculptor ; b. 1 -l^S ; d. I't.M. 

Falconctto spent twelve years in an exten- 
sive study of the antique remains of architec- 
ture and sculpture in Rome. He also measured 
and drew the antiquities of Verona, Naples, and 
Spoleto, and later of Pola, in Istria. He set- 
tled finally in Padua, under the patronage of 
Luigi Cornaro, for whom he designed and built 
the famous palace now called Giustiniani, which 
bears his signature and the date 1524. Falco- 
nctto built the Porta S. Giovanni. Padua, in 
1528 (signed) ; made the design and mwlel for 
the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, Patlua ; 
and other buildings. In 1533 he liegan the 
stucco work of the Cappella del Santo, irt tlie 
church of S. Antonio, Padua, which was fin- 
ished after his death by Tiziano di Guido Minio. 

Miintz, licnaissaiice ; Kcdtenbacher, Die ^rcAi- 
tektur der Italienischcn lii'iiaissance. 

FALKENER, EDWARD ; architect and 
archifiologist ; b. February, 1814; d. Dec. 17, 

He was a student of architecture at the Royal 
Academy, London, and in 1839 won its gold 
medal. He travelled extensively in Asia Minor, 
Syria, Egj'pt, Greece, Crete, Italy, and Russia, 
and in 1849 excavated a house in Pomiieii. 
Falkener was editor of the Museum of Clas- 
sical Antiquities during the three years of its 
publication. He published a pamphlet on the 
ancient theatres in Crete (1854), Ihedalos, or 
the Causes and Principles of the Excellence 
nfOreek Sculpture (1860), a pamphlet on the 
Hypa'thron of Greek temples, and other works. 

Obiluarv in Journal of Royal Institute of British 
Arrhilect."', 18!)«-18!)-. p. 149. 

FALL (.IS of a roof, gutter, or the like). 
Same as I'ildi. 

FALLING MOULD. In stair building, a 
full-sized i)attein of the side of a wreath. It 
is cut out of a thin piece of veneer, or the like, 
following the lines of the developed {i.e. un- 
rolled or opened out) curved elevation, and is 
then bent around the wreath to give the actual 
lines of the steps, mouldings, and other parts. 
(See Face Mould.) 

1: -, ^ 

" > i ■ ^' 





FALSE BEARING. In Eiijclisli iLsa^% a 
bearinj^ or ijnint ul .sii])|i.)rt wliich is not ver- 
tk-ally over the 8Ui)])orting stnuturc 1x>low, as 
that wliich is atl'orded by a projecting corljel or 
cantilever. (Api)arently an attempt to trans- 
late the Frencii term, ]>orte-ii-fai(^.) 

FAN. A contrivance for creating a current 
of air, either witiiin a limited space, as in a 
room to which no air is supplied from without 
(compare Punkah), or as in the ventilation of a 
house, a mine, or the like, in which cases air is 
driven liy it from without into the space to be 
ventilated, or from that space outward. The 
fans used merely for agitating the air in a room 
are cither revolvetl slowly in a horizontal i)lane 
and have large vanes or wind's, cr arc whi'cl- 


FANE (I.). A temple, especially one de- 
voted to pagan worship ; hence, a place of wor- 
ship of any kind, but in a general and somewhat 
poetical sense. The word ^jro/<M(f is connected 
with this as meaning outside of (before) the 

FANE (II.). A weathercock ; a vane. 
The term means originally a flag (German, 
Faliiie), and in the present signification is 
prolwbly confused with Vane. 

FAN GROININO. Same as Fan Vaulting, 
under Vaulting. 

FAN LIGHT. Strictly speaking, a glazed 
sash filling the arched head of a door or win- 
dow o])euing, and having radiating sash bars 
lik.' a fan ; hence, any window occupying a 

> AND Wrought Iron, from a Doorway 

shaped, set vertically, and revolved at high 
speed. (For the fan used in thorough ventila- 
tion, see Ventilation ; Warming.) 

Plenum Fan. One which supplies a cur- 
rent of air by forcing it from without into the 
given space. 

Vacuum Fjin. One which causes a current 
of air by drawing it out from the given space. 

FANCELLI, LUCA; architect; b. 1430; 
d. about \:>0\. 

On the recommendation of Cosimo de' Medici, 
Luca entered the service of Ludovico Gonzaga, 
Maniuis of Mantua, about 1450, and superin- 
tended his constnictions for forty years at Man- 
tua. He carried out, from the jjlaiis of Albert! 
(.sec Alberti), the small church of S. Sebastiano 
(1400-1472) and the more important one of S. 
An<lrca (begiui 1472). After the death of Giu- 
liano da Maiano (sec Giuliano da Maiano) he 
was employed by Ferdinand I., King of Naples. 

BraRhirolli, Lnra FnnreUi in L'Arrhirio Sto- 
rirn Lmnhardo, Vol. III. (18711); Carlo d'Arco, 
Dolle Arti i degli Arttliri di Mantova. 

similar position over a door or window. (Com- 
pare Transom Light.) 

FAN ROOF.^ A vaulted roof adorned with 
fan tracery. 

FANSAGA, COSIMO; architect and 
scul|.tor; b. l.-.Ill, at IJergauio, Italy ; d. 167f<. 
According to Milizia, he built the facade of 
the church of S. Sj)irito de' Napolitani, in 
Rome. About 1626 he went to Naples, and 
built the fat^ade of the church of S. Fcrdinando 
(1628), the church of S. Theresa (Terresella, 
1625), the fine facade of the Sapienza, and 
6tlier buildings. 

Gurlitt, Oesrliirhte dps Jinrnckstilfs i)i Itnlien , 
Milizia, Mrmorie ; Sasso, Monmnruti di Xapoli. 

F ANT AIL. A. Any meml»er or piece of 
construction having a form ajiproaching that 
of a fan, as a dovetail or a combination of radi- 
ating pieces. Especially, a centring constructed 
with such pieces, and hence, — 

B. One of the radial struts forming the 
support of the ribs in a centring, as above 


FAN TRACERY. (See Fan Vaulting, 
under Vaulting.) 

FAN -WINDOW. A. The same as Fan 

B. Any approximately semicircular or semi- 
elliptic window upon a horizontal diameter ; 
especially one having radiating bars or lead- 
ing, like a fan in appearance. (See Fan 

FANWORK. Decorative work abounding 
in fanlike patterns ; especially Fan Vaulting, 
and the imitation of this and of late Lierne 
Vaulting, in the carved stone canopies of tombs 
and the like. 

FANZAGA. (See Fansaga.) 

FARLEIGH, RICHARD DE ; architect. 

Supposed to have built the spire of Salisbury 
cathedral, England, about 1334. 

Redgrave, Dictionary of Artists. 

clesiastic and architect. 

Abbot of Gloucester from 1472 to 1498; 
finished the Lady Chapel of Gloucester cathe- 
dral begun by Abbot Henley between 1457 and 

FARM BUILDINGS. Those which are oc- 
cupied by an agriculturist and his family and 
assistants, and including all the stables, poultry 
houses, cart sheds, and the like, which make up 
the necessary provision for carrying on the work 
of a farm. In the United States it has never 
been customary to make of tlie farm buildings 
any architectural arraiiLCi'incnt nr L'lnuping; and 
even in England the m-cidi ntul .lustcring of the 
different structures in ),I;i,vs tniind convenient 
at the moment has limi Ljciifi-.dly the rule. 
Moreover, in botli (•(mntrics the common use 
of cheaper and less ciKhiiin'j- material, such as 
wood, has caased tlie crcctiini d' liams, cribs, 
sheds, and the like, wliirh lia\. hd permanent 
character. On the ('(intincnt d' ilunipe the un- 
settled condition of tiic iduntry fnr many cen- 
turies, and the constant possibility of attacks 
by a considerabl(! force, have always led to the 
arranging of farm buildings around a court and 
with but few windows in tiu; exterior walls, and 
those high above the ground. There, results 
from this system an extremely suggestive archi- 
tectural arrangement which it is easy to make 
effective in every way ; and the rnueii more com- 
mon use of masonry has tended to make these 
French and German farms permanent orna- 
ments of the country. The same arrangement 
and disj)OHition carried out on a larger scale and 
at greater cost produces the typical manor house 
of the ('(Hitiiiental u.atioiis, ,,'f whirh many ad- 
iiiiralilc ex.'uiiiilcs still cxi.^t, at li-ast in ])art. 
One nf the most .al t .a.-t I \ r nf thrsc is tilC cele- 
brated Manoir d'Ang.., mar \ araiigcville (Seine 

Inf^rieure), in Xormandy. (Compare Barn ; 
Byre ; Colombier ; Dovecote ; Stable.) 

Halsted, Barn Plans and Out-Buildings ; Den- 
ton, Farin Homesteads of England ; Narjoux, His- 
toirc d' line Ferine. „ ^^ 

FARMHOUSE. That one of a number of 
farm buildings in which the farmer and his 
family reside. 

FARMING SHELTER. A structure erected 
by American Indians near their tilled fields, 
where crop tenders dwell till harvest time. 
These constructions are of various kinds, from 
rude brush shelters to good houses built of 
stone, on the level, in cliffs, or forming small 
villages. Of the latter class the modem vil- 
lage of Nutria, belonging to Indians of Zuni, 
is a good example, though there is a growing 
tendency to occupy such villages all the year, 
as there is now no defensive motive for retiring 
to the pueblos when the crops have been gath- 
ered. Many cliff dwellings and cavate lodges 
were no more than fanning shelters. (See 
Communal Dwelling.) — F. S. D. 

ham, Nicholas.) 

OF. That of the old native states of Burmah, 
Siam, Anam (now more commonly called Cochin 
China), Cambodia, which is more or less de- 
pendent upon Siam, Lower Cochin China with 
Saigon as its capital, and the Malay Peninsula 
with the ancient town of Malacca. The Euro- 
pean occupation of single points like Singapore, 
now for many years, Pulupenang and the prov- 
ince of Wellesley, and Burmah since 1885, all 
by the British, and the very extensive invasions 
of the eastern coast (Anam and Cochin China) 
by tlie Fnticli, liave nnt suffic;.! to change the 

areliite.tural (|uc>ti tor tlie l.uilding of the 

Europeans lias not attainnl an\ iinadiar impor- 
tance. The same tmincal ,-limate which makes 
domestic architi'ctuic a thing (if little account 
has prevented the i'acturies and dwellings (if 
Europeans fmin assiiining an areliiteetural char- 
acter worthy nf special note. 

The Freiicii g'iMinineiit centre at Saigon has 
one or two Imildiims dt |iscudo-European style; 
and with better taste tlie barracks arc sur- 
rounded by broad balccinies, giving them a seiui- 
trojiical look not iiiej.'gant. .An iion bridge of 
great boldness spans the Inoad Chinese river at 
Saigon. The country is almost wholly within 
the tropics, and much the greater i)art of it lies 
between the Tropic of Cancer and the line of 
ten degrees north latitude ; that is to say, ex- 
actly the latitude of the West India Islands. 
If the insular form of the latter, opening parts 
of the territory to the regiilating climatic inlhi- 
ence of the ..(ran and to the steady trade wind 
for much more liiaii half tlie year has given tc 
them an e.xecptiuiially favourable climate, the 

climate of Farther Iiulia is divcrsitietl by moun- 
tain chains ; and nothing at all resembling the 
great plain of Northern Imlia, with it« extreme 
heats of summer contrasting with a much colder 
winter, seems to exist, tiic ijec'uliar conditions 
of the mountainous country alone excepted. 
The whole peninsula, in general, is thinly set- 
tled, for, while its superficies is about equal to 
the United States eiist of tlie Mississippi, the 
highest estimate jtut upon its total population 
is about 35,000,000. In other words, it is 
much more tliiidy settled than any of the states 
of Western Euroi>e, and in this respect cannot 
bear the least comparison with the peninsula 
of India, projjcrly so called, or the southern 
provinces of China. 

One result of these conditions is that vast 
tracts of forest, with enonnous trees arguing a 
duration of six or seven centuries, cover half the 
larger peninsula, and this not merely in the 
almost unknown interior, but within fifty miles 
of the sea in many places. It is in these vast 
forests that are found those surprising ruins 
which have been explored chiefly by French 
government missions, and whicli are spoken of 
by the French writers as the work of the 
Khmers. The district assigned to this ancient 
people is on the boundary between Siam and 
Cambodia, along the twelfth and thirteenth 
degree of latitude, and due east of Bangkok. 
Fragments of the ancient buildings have been 
brought to France, and Delaporte (op. cit.) has 
given a number of representations which seem 
trustworthy, sometimes of a building as conjec- 
turally restored, tiiough only in detail, the main 
masses remaining intact, sometimes of a meas- 
ured plan, sometimes of fragments as the artist 
saw them. The general character of these 
buildings is one with that of the pagodas, stu- 
pas, and topes of India, in that they are with- 
out interiors in the ordinary sense, consisting, 
as they do almost exclusively, of shrines carried 
up into pinnacle-like masses, and larger struc- 
tures in wiiich many shrines are combined, and 
piled liigh witii ma.s.ses of carved stone. The 
shortcoming of all this work is, as a European 
student conceives it, in the absence of structural 
reasons for architectural design. Although the 
Oriental builder has had what few Europeans 
have ever possessed, a jjower of designing in 
the abstract, — of designing for monumental 
effect and without utilitarian significance, — 
there still is something lacking wlien it aj)- 
j)oar3 that v;ust and lofty stnicturcs of carved 
stone are in the forms and pro])ortion« which 
we see merely because tlicy were tliought to l)c 
effective in those forms and when carved witli 
those details. The lover of highly siMHializiHl tra- 
heated or arcuated buihling, witii its rcsidting a])- 
propriatenesH to secular or to religious uses, feels 
in that work with wliich he h:us greater famil- 
iarity a satisfaction whicli the most magnificent 


piles of the East do not afford to him. Thus 
much lu-ged, there remains nothing but praise 
and the question of relative merit Ix'tweeu the 
sujx-rb mined piles of tiie forests of Camlwdia, 
those hardly less mined of tlie Malay Islands 
(see Malay Architecture), and the better known 
religious pUes of India proj)er. 

A shrewd writer luis pointed out that in all 
the Khmer monuments tlie doorwa}', or gate- 
way of entrance, is the imjwrtant feature. 
With this statement should be compared the 
significance of the Indian gateway towers (see 
Gopura) and the city gates with their defences, 
their water steps, and their accessories (see 
Ghat). It i.s worthy of consideration, also, 
how far the respect shown by the Chinese for 
the memorial gateway independent of walls or 
enclosures (see Pailoo) and the Japanese torii 
(see Torii) compares with this disposition to 
adorn gateways which lead, at all events, to 
a covered and enclosed place of prayer and 
meditation. The Khmer gateway is in itself 
of no gieat size. It allows an elephant with 
its canopied sadiUe seat to pa.ss through, and 
is, therefore, IG or 18 feet high in tiie clear; 
but the.se limited dimensions have nothing to 
do with the enormous structure which is found 
piled upon and above the square head of the 
gateway. The famous temple near the city of 
Angkor, or Ongkor, which Ls called indifterently 
the Angkor Wat or the Nakhou Wat, is very 
like the Boro Buddor in Java, but larger. The 
platform is 600 feet square, and from this rises a 
slowly developing ma.ss of steps and j)latforms 
carrying porticoes, covered corridors, and nine 
lofty towerlike masses only to be compared to the 
Buddhist temple gateways of India. Cut stone of 
the most massive character is the material, except 
that wooden ceilings, sometimes serving as tie 
beams, are used in places where a roundal roof 
having the shape of a wagon vault is found, 
whose structure of the corlielled or horizontally 
hrllrl ],;,-,!. v.ii:U -.nins inadequately pro- 
t. Tiic ruins of the city of 

A ! \ . Tli'Mu) art^ so lost in a 

(1. •; , ti.i. ,1 I !. ' I'll cxphjration is of im- 
mense dilHoulty. Malaria of deadly kinds and 
abounding carnivorous and poisonous ci-eatures 
make access difficult, and nothing apjiroaching 
complete exploration luis lieen carried out by 
any European. The city is knowni to contain 
a great pahvce spoken of as that of the forty- 
two towers, and a temple called the temple of 
I '.a ion. 

In Burmah, the architecture which has at- 
tracted the attention of Europeans is much 
more recent than the undat^vl l)Ut verj' ancient 
buildings of Caml>odia. The palaces and tem- 
ples, though not wholly unlike the ancient stone 
pago(ia.s, are to a great extent built of wood, 
which, being of enduring quality and protected 
by lacquer, gilding, mosaic, and the like, all 


which were kept in repair so long as the build- 
ing was cherished, has proven as indestructible 
as that of the Japanese temples. At Kangoon 
there is indeed a monstrous pagoda commonly 
called the Shway Dagoon (by Fergusson, Shoe- 
dagong), which is, indeed, of stone, and so is the 
magnificent and, from any point of view, beau- 
tiful tope of the temple at Pegu, the Shway 
Madoo (Fergusson, Shoemadu) ; but the palaces 
at Mandelay and elsewhere seem always to have 
been largely of wood, and the exquisite decora- 
tion by means of gilded and lacquered ornament 
and mosaic of glass of many different varieties 
seems to have been thought sufficient as splen- 
dour for even an absolute and splendour-loving 
monarch. The important building known as 
the Queen's Monastery (kioun), in Mandelay, is 
entirely of wood, and in part has been left to 
show tlie etfei^ts of the weather, the unpainted 
wood ai-qiiiriii^' a lovely gray in the equable 
and warm rliiiiutc Gilding, however, has been 
evidently an iinportant part of the adornment 
and of ceremony in Burman architecture, the 
effect of which metallic lustre when seen invest- 
ing richly modvdated surfaces is far more harmo- 
nious and refined than when it is applied to such 
smooth rounded cupolas as those of Paris. 

All these buildings are one-storied. Even 
when the roofs are piled high like those of the 
Japanese pagoda, balconies and sloping roofs 
succeeding one another for a height of seven or 
more apparent stories, there is but one floor of 
occupation. Balconies and galleries there may 
be above, but the avoidance of upper floors is 
so complete that the assertion is made by Eu- 
ropean travellers that tlie lluniiaii sense of per- 
sonal di'^ulty Iniliids any onr tn endure the feet 
of oth.T iHTs..ns iH'in- al.ovr his lirad, and that 
on this ac-i-(, lint iiiijier stnrics are unknown. The 
result of the one-story ananixenitiit has been the 
development of a columnar arrhitccture of ex- 
traordinary interest. Si par: 
unlike Roman Doric ei.liiimi 
of capital to shaft ami m I 
capital, but the shall- an 
proportion to their liei;;lit ; i 
and their surfaces are iumh 
low relief reminding our of 
pillars in Pompeii and tlie s 
lare of the Palazzo Vecchio i 

The architecture of Siani 
of less importance than that of Burmah ; and 
that of the eastern coast is still more nearly that 
of a race which, though having many of the 
habits of a civilized people, has never under- 
taken great architeetural lalimnN. 'I'liniii','h- 

out the peninsula tli.' .Ion,,, li, ;,ivMi,.,li f 

the peopl,., tli(Mi!,di, as In, In, ,, -i,, . I,, I ;il„,v,., 
.slight and of a eharai-lci- nol .q,),:,!,!:! In p.iina- 
nent, is yet worthy of the closest study hy all 
interested in domestic building. The tropical 
residence, as suggested in the article House, is 

■ i)roportions 
raetcr of the 
\ thicker in 

1 Florence. 
i admitted to be 


apt to consist of little more than uprights and 
a roof, the walling, of whatever description, 
being of little consequence, and often tempo- 
rary. To raise a floor above the earth and to 
support it on posts which are difficult for rep- 
tiles and insects to climb is to pmviiU' the ex- 
treme of comfort which the ilimate ilrnianils. 
As, however, it is not considernl imiK.rtant to 
make such a dwelling stately m- imijres.-^ivc in 
appearance, domestic arrhitritnif is iu itself a 
matter of inevitable ami almost iinthought-of 
picturesque effect, while any a]iproach to gran- 
deur is to be had only by the great accumulation 
of small buildings within a fortified enclosure or 
upon a walled ten-ace. 

It is unfortunate that European buildings in 
tropical countries are always built on European 
lines, or with such slight and fantastic admix- 
ture of foreign elements as spoils their character 
without giving them a new and independent 
significance. If European architects of intel- 
ligence, with power to see the possibilities of the 
local systems of constraction and arrangement, 
were to try to develop the pillared and heavily 
roofed house of Farther India into a European 
dwelling or palace with nftices, very beautiful re- 
sults might foUow. This, wliirh is t'ru,' in a special 
sense of Japan, with its lii^lily oiiiiiii/.ed archi- 
tecture of post and beam, is apjilicalile to the 
more tropical regions under consideration. 

Albert de Poun-ouville, L'Art Indo-Chinois ; De- 
laporte, Voyaye au Cambodge ; James Fergusson, 
Hist()i~y of Indian and Eastern Architecture; 
Henri Mouhot, Travels in Indo-China, Cambodia, 
and Laos; Gamier, Voyage d' Exploration e« 
Indo-Chine ; Abel Remusat, Nouveaux Melanges 
Asiatiques ; Mrs. Ernest Hart, Picturesque Burma, 
Past and Present (with many illustrations) ; Cap- 
tain Henry Yule, Mission to the Court of Ava in 
1855 ; Lieutenant G. C. Rigby, Report of a Tour 
through the Northern Hhan States; Captain John 
Harvey, R A., Report of the Tlietta Column and 
Work in the Southern Chin Hills. 

— R. S. 

FASCES. The ancient Roman emblem of 
civil authority — a number of rods bound to- 
gether with an axe into a cylindrical bundle, 
it a|ipears frotiuently in Roman and in modern 
carved ileroration. 

FASCIA. In Latin, a bandage, a strip ; 
hence, — 

A. Any one of the long narrow bands or 
divisions of the Ionic architrave, each i)rqject- 

ing slightly beyoml tl lielow, as described 

by Vitruvius. llnir, , :il .•. - 

B. In nindiiii 11 I ' , ;in\ similar band, as a 
string course or lirlt, or liie plane face of a cor- 
nice or like niend)er, but always a vertical sur- 
face, and broader tlian a mere fillet. 

FAST. Any simple contrivance to be at- 

taciied to a door, window, or the like, to secure 

it when dosed. Usually, in combination, us 

sash fust, easement fast. 



FASTIOIUM. In Latin, the crest or top 
of a roof ; the whole roof or upi)er part or side 
of anything ; esjx'cially, a roof liaving pediments 
or gables, as distinguished from one which does 
not atfei't in this way the exterior of the build- 
ing. In no sense common in English usage, but 
originating the adjectives fastigiate, -ious, and 
the French fdite. 

FAUCES (Latin plural noun, the throat, 
etc.). A passiigc, inlet, or the like ; in Vitru- 
vius (VI., 4) a p;us.sage in a house, and gener- 
ally, in Roman arclw-ology, euch a passage, es- 
pecially if from the atrium to tiie peristylium, 
or garden. In Man's Pompeii, however, it is 
assumed that this is erroneous, and that the 
only passage properly called fauces is that from 
the vestibulum to the alrium. The main reason 
for this seems to be the general giving of Greek 
names to all rooms, etc., back and beyond tiie 
atrium, wliile the old Latin names remain to 
tlu- rwms of tlie original house. (See plan of 
House of Paiisa, under House.) 

FAUCET. A tube or hollow plug to facili- 
tate the discliarge or passage of water or other 
fluid, and fitted with some contrivance by which 
the flow is controlled. (See Spigot.) 

More specifically, in plumbing, a contrivance 
for allowing the outward flow of water and stop- 
ping it at will, this being usually a fixture at 
the end of a supply pipe for hot or cold water. 

^^'atcrspouts so small as to be evidently in- 
tended for faucets, and wTought into very beau- 
tiful representations of lions' heads, dogs' heads, 
and the like, are found among Roman remains. 
These are usually of bronze. In modern deco- 
rative art, where the fittings of the bathroom or 
dressing room are to be made especially elegant, 
silver, plain or oxidized, and silver gilt have 
been used, tlie modelling being by sculptors of 
ability. I"' ' * ■- wholly exceptional, be- 
cause 111 1 1 1 1 iliances are made with 
suflicii ii' .inpletcness of finish in 
great 411 1 low price. In British 
usage, a 'l',.!.. (.S.v Cock.) — R. S. 

Compreasion Faucet. One in which the 
valve is du.scd by being forced against its se.-it 
by compression applied through the handle. 
This is usually a screw by which, when turned, 
the valve is raised or lowered. 

Fuller Faucet. A certain kin<l of Compres- 
sion Faucet, the name being originally connected 
with ;i p.itciit. 

Rabbit-ear Faucet. A self-closing faucet 
in whicli a spring is compressed and tiie valve 
opened by the action of a i)air of handles. 
These project from the faucet in tiie form of a V', 
and arc siiaped so as to give somewhat the ap- 
pearance of a pair of rai)ijit's ears. They are 
pressed tfigether to oiK-n the valve. 

Seli-cloBing Faucet. One containing a de- 
vice whicli aiitomatii-jiiiy closes tiie valve when 
tlie lianille by which it is opened is releaseil. 


The device is generally a spring, which must 
be compressetl to open the valve. 

Swing Faucet. One having a liorizontal 
biblike outlet which controls a valve by l)eing 
rotated about a vertical pipe forming the inlet. 
The valve is oi)ene(l when the horizontal arm is 
swung over the basin or other vessel, and is 
closed when the arm is turned away at the 

■Wheel Faucet. One in which tiie valve is 
operated liy turning a wheel on an axis project- 
ing fnmi the (Hitlct. The term is not specific, 
and iLsually apjjlies to a Compression Faucet ia 
which tlie screw is turned by a wheel attached 
to the head. 

FAULCHOT, OtBARD; architect. 

The most important member of a family of 
architects employed in the city of Troves (Aube, 
France). In 1577 he replaced Gabriel Favreau 
as maUre de Voiuvre (supen'isiug architect) of 
the cathedral of Troyes. 

Assier. Acs arts et leu artistes de Troyes. 

FAVISSA. An underground cellar or res- 
ervoir under a Roman temjjle for the storage 
either of water, or, more generally, of worn-out 
and useless sacred implements and furnishings 
of the temjile. 

FEATHER. A. A small projecting mem- 
ber worked along the edge of a board or the 
like, as in matched boarding. In this .sense 
more commoidy Tongue. ■ 

B. Same as Loose Tongue (which sec, under 

FEATHER BOARD. Any Iward having a 
feather edge ; cs]KHially, in British usage, the 
same as Cla])t)iiiinl, ,1. 

FEATHER BOARDINO. Feather-edged 
boards or ila|ilMianls, especially those intendetl 
to lie aiiplicil til tlic slic.itliing of wooden build- 
ings, cacii lidard uvcilaiiiiiiig with its thick eilge 
tlic thin cdirt' of the one below. (See Clap- 
Ix.anl : F.atluT E.l-c.) 

FEATHER EDGE. An edge formed by 
bevelling one or both sides of a slab, Iwanl, or 
the like, wholly or in part, so that tiiey meet 
in a siiarp arris ; or, by extension, a relatively 
narrow face endosetl Ijetween such sloping sides 
when they apjuoach witliout meeting. 

FEATHERING. The cusping of tracery ; 
the elaboration of tracery liy means of cusps. 
Tiie term is not common ; introduced in the 
early years of medieval archaeological research, 
it has l)een generally replaced by Foliation. 

Double Feathering. The "sulHlivisions of 
larger cusps l)y smaller ones. (See Cus]) ; 



NIG; .Miil|.t..r and arcliitc.l ; .1. U'.IU. 

He built, about 1460, the Loggia del P.ipa, 

at Siena, and also, at Siena, the open chapel 



near the Palazzo dei Diavoli. He made the 
beautiful holy water basins at the cathedral. 
Federighi designed four important compositions 
in the great mosaic pavement of the cathedral 
of Siena (see Beccafumi). He was employed 
in Rome during the pontificate of Pius II. 
(Pope 1458-1464). 

Miintz, Lfs arts a In cour des papes ; Geytnuller- 
Stegmann, Die ArrhUcctur der Renaissance in 

chitect and writer : h. Kil't: (1, .Tunc 11, 169.5. 

He was hitftorioiintjilii- ih-s hi'iti/mnts </" njt, 
and was secretary of the AcadMiiiir dc I'Arrliitec- 
ture at its fuundatimi in 1G71, and pulilislipd 
Entretiens sur la vie et les ouvrages des jAus 
excellents peintres a7icien.t et modernea (Paris, 
1885), Les Maisons royales des bords de la 
Loire (first publishwl in 1874), and ntliur 

works. His s,m Jrnn Fl-anr,,is surrrcdrd liini, 
and publisllfd h'rrur;/ /, /sfori'j >i,' dr hi r!,','t 

des ouvnKti's drs plus cilebres urchitectes 
(12mo, Paris, ITO.J). 

Lance. Binioniiaire; Bauchal, Diclionnaire. 

COIS. (See Felibien des Avaux, Andr^.) 

FELLOWSHIP. A. The position of a 
Fellow, one of the me-mbers of the corporation 
of a college, or the like. 

B. A kind of scholarship ; a foundation or 
grant as of a certain sum of money paid annu- 
ally to encourage post-graduate studies or to 
give opportunity for foreign travel. 

The term in sense A formerly implied life 
membership and residence in a college, with a 
share in the revenues and in certain rights 
of management. As this institution gave op- 
portunities for study the term grew to cover 
the srnse B. In ncarlv all .if tlir existing 
arrhitertural fell..wsliins the moiKV allowed 

■■, to 1: 

nde.l i 


The oldest existing lelluw.ship in arehiteeture is 
the Grand Prix de Home, which was founded 
by the French Academy of the Fine Arts in 
1720, and has been offered continuously ever 
since. The holders of this prize, which is open 
only to French citizens, receive a pension from 
the government of eight hundred dollars per year 
for four years, and arc given commodious quar- 
ters, rent free, in th(! Villa Medici at Rome, 
where they are expected to reside a greater por- 
tion of the time, and to pursue their studies 
under the immediate guidance of the resident 
director. Next in importance is the travelling 
fellowship of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, which aff'ords the holder the oppor- 
tunity for a year's travel on the Continent. Be- 
sides this, several of th(^ European governments 
have established travelling fellowships for archi- 
tecture, but none of them are of special note. 
In the United States there arc six architectural 
foundation.^, the oldest of which is the Rotch 


Travelling Scholarship, established and endowed 
by the heirs of Benjamin S. Rotch in 1883. 
The holder of this scholarship receives the sum 
of one thousand dollars per year for two years, 
during which time he is expected to travel and 
study in Europe under the advice and direction 
of a committee appointed by the Boston Society 
of Architects. A so-called Roman Fellowship 
was established in 1894, open in competition 
to graduates in architecture from either Cornell 
University, the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, the University of Illinois, Syracuse Uni- 
versity, Lehigh University, Columbia University, 
or the University of Pennsylvania, and to all 
American^ students who have spent two years 
in the Ecole des Beaux Arts. This fellow- 
ship provides for eighteen months in foreign 
travel and study in Italy, Sicily, and Greece, 
ten months to be spent as a student of- the 
American School at Rome, and the other eight 
months as may be agreed upon between the fel- 
low and the Excc\itive Comniittco of tlie Ameri- 
can School of Anlntecture in Koine. Tlu iv are 
two architectural iell.,wsliiiis in New Yoik, loth 
oftheminconneeti(.n with ('olunibia I'liivirsity, 
designated as the Columbia and the ]\IcKini Fel- 
lowships. The former was endowed by Mr. F. A. 
Schermerhorn, of New York, in 1889, the suc- 
cessful candidate being expected to spend at 
least one year in foreign study. The second 
fellowship was endowed by Mr. C. F. McKim, 
in 1890, with two prizes given out simultane- 
ously every second year, so as to alt. mate with 
the awards of the Columhia Fellow^hi].. There 
is also an architectural fellowship, estahlished 
in 1893, under the direction of the architectural 
department of the University of Pennsylvania, 
the winner of which is required to spenil a full 
year of study abroad. The fellowship idea is 
being worked out in a somewhat different man- 
ner at Cornell University, where a fellowship is 
awarded each year for two years to encourage 
post-graduate study. The holder is required to 
study at the University during eight months of 
each year, alternating with four months' travel 
abroad under the direction of the Department 
of Architecture. This fellowship has been in 
existence only since 1898. — C. H. Black all. 
FELT. A material resulting from the com- 
pressing or matting together of minute fibres, 
as of wool or fur, the fibres clinging to each 
other by their natural roughness or microscopic 
hooklike protuberances ; therefore, generally, a 
flexible clothlike stuff" made without weaving 
and without the spinning of threads. Tlie finest 
felt known to modern times is that made in 
Persia, where floor cloths an inch or more in 
thickness, and of consiilerable size, are made to 
replace the very costly carpets of the country. 
These pieces of felt are sometimes richly adorned 
by the insertion into the surface of fibres of va- 
rious colours, the whole substance being felted 

together. In Euroi* ami the United States 
the architectural use of felt is cliiefly limited 
to the fovering of heating piiJes, deafening and 
lining of walls and Hoors, and the like ; the ma- 
terial, being an excellent non-oonduetor, tends to 
keep heat in, and tliereby aid its Side delivery 
at a distiint jwint, while at the same time wood- 
work is protected from ignition. — li. S. 

FENCE. A structure, as of bars, pasts, and 
the like, used to enclose fields, gardens, orchards, 
etc. The term is generally limited to those in 
common use in connectiim with farms and coun- 
try resiliences of the common sort. As long as 
wood is plentiful there is a disi)osition to enclose 
and .separate all the fields of a farm from one an- 
other and from the high road, and fences are of 
various kinds, as the zigzag, or worm fence, post 
and rail fence, etc. As wood becomes scarce and 
dear these disaj)pear, and are replaced, as in 
England in old times, by hedges ; and jis in the 
newly settled countries and in the present age 
of cheap metal working, Ity wire secured to 
liglit iron uprights, or by slender strips of steel 
twisted or not, and sometimes fiu-nisbed with 
sharp hooks or " barlw " at frequent internals. 
Tiiese common fences have the advantjige over 
hedges in that they do not aftect the landscajje 
as nuuh, for the hedge divides a distant hillside 
into parallelograms niucli too stroncrly m;irke<l, 
and, moreover, a hrA-^r •' ' ' ' ' ' " liide 
miles of country fniiii til. pass- 

ing in the road. 'J'lir w acr, 

ii.ssumeai)lea.sant cdl'iiu ai ! ■ tally, 

while the light iron fence is piiKiically invisible. 

(For fences made of boards set upright, 
planed, and finished, see Paling.) — R. S. 

FENESTELLA. A. Generally, a small 
glazcil opening in an altar, shrine, or reliquary, 
to arte ml a view of tlie relics it contains. 

li. A small niche on the south side of an 
altar above a piscina or credence. 

C. Sometimes an opening for a bell at the 
top of a gable. 

FENESTRAL (n.). A small window, or (in 
old English usage) a window filled with oiled 
paper or cjotli instead of glass. 

FENESTRAL (a(lj.). Of, or pertaining to, 
a uiip|..u. 

FENESTRATION. A. The arrangement 
HI a imililiiig of its windows, especially the 
more important anil larger ones. In this sense 
fene-stration is nearly the .same thing as the pro- 
viding of daylight for the interiors of buildings. 
(See Lighting.) (Cut, cols. 21, l'2.) 

B. The art of adorning or designing archi- 
tecturally the exterior of a building liy the 
|)roper arrangement ami apportioning of win- 
rlows ami doors consi<lered togetiier as openings 
in tin; wall, affording sjiots of darkness contra-st- 
ing with the lighted surface of the wall, and 
also nffording convenient spots for concentrating 
onmmental treatment. 


blc ..<lirine or rcli<iuary in a church, to contain 
relics of saints or martyrs. 

B. A fixed shrine for relics ; or a place in a 
church reserved for such a shrine. 

writer on architecture; b. 1808 at Ayr, Scot- 
land; d. 1886. 

James Fergusson was educated at the High 
School iu Edinburgh and entered the firm of 
Fairlie, Fergii.sson and Comi)any at Calcutta, 
India. He retired from business later, and de- 
votetl himself to archa'ological study. In 1840 
he was elected member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, of which, at his dejith, he was a Nace 
president. In 1857 he was apjwiuted a mem- 
ber of the Royal Commission to inquire into the 
defences of the United Kingdom. He ])ublished 
The niii.strnted JIandbook of Archilcclure (2 
vols. 8vo, 1 8.55). This book was re\'i.sed ami pub- 
lished under the title, A Ilistorif of Arrhitec- 
tnre in all Countries from the Earliest Times 
to the Present Duij (4 vols. 8vo, 1865-1876). 
In 1878 he published The Temples of the Jews 
and the other Buildings in the Harani Area 
at Jerusalem. The Jlistori/ of the Modern 
St;/les of Architecture appeared in 1862, and 
a separate History of Eastern and Indian 
Architecture in 1876. In 1869 Fergu.s.son 
was appointed secretarj^ to Austin Henry Lay- 
ard, commi-ssioner of jiublic works, and latef 
inspector of public buildings and monuments. 
In 1871 he won the gold medal of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects. He was aa 
active member of several commissions for the 
decoration of S. Paul's cathetlral. 

Le.>.lie Stephen, Dictioniiry of Xational Biog- 

FERLEY. (See Farley.) 

FERME ORX^r^. A farm, and especially 
the buikliiigs and gardens of a farm, treated in 
a decorative manner, and generally the residence 
of a man of means who carries on agriculture, 
stock-raising, or the like, for his gratification. 
Such buildings are not to be confounded with 
farm buildings of the Continent of EurojK', or 
the small manor houses of England of the sev- 
enteenth and earlier centuries, although these 
may be extremely elalwrate in their architectu- 
ral character. Such a farm, as many of tho.se 
in Normandy and northern France, was the 
centre of verj' serious agricvdtural and money- 
making occupations, but the conditions of the 
time required defensible buildings, and the 
spirit of the time required architectural trejit- 


The central tower of the old Norman cathe- 
<lral of I)\irham was altereil by Bishop Feme- 

kSKsTRATioN : Palazzo Anoaront-Manzoni, Grand Canal, Venice. 
An example of effective design, with many and large openings and little solid wall. 

try, and the University. In 1856 he was n 
professor of architecture in tlie Techni 
Ilorhsrhule (Vienna). 

Mcyor, Conversations Lexicon. 

FESTOON. Anythin.u^ h;iiii:in,i,' in m n 

ham about 1241-1249. He constructed a lan- 
tern ;ii)ovc tliP main airhos. 


ar.'lut,M-t ; 1,. July 7, l^i'S; .1. .lulv 1 I, 1HS:(. 

Klnui 1H17 tu'l,S,-,l I'.r.trl sl,„llr,| in thr 
In I^<r.r. l.r wn„ til>t l.n/,r in tl,r',-nMi|.rtitio„ 

for the coiiHtructioii of tlie V^otirkirche in 
Vienna. After travelling in Italy, France, and 
the NetherlandH, he returned to Vienna and fin- 
ished that building in 1879 in tlir style of the 
French cathedrals of the tliirteeiitli centiiry. 
He built at Vienna the Austio lluii^'arian 
bank, the Auntrian Muscnmi for Art and liidus- 


..f 11. .\ 

ing from two i.oints, heaviest at tlio mi.ldl 
lightest at the jwinta of suspension. Siu' 
toons are common in Oreco-Homan architei 
the most celebrated instances being those o 
fri(!zc of the round temi)le at 'I'lvoli. 
were taken uj) by the later neoilassic arch 
and nuicli used in the .seventeenth and 


teenth centuries. The avoidaiu-e of festoons in 
all other styles than those named is somewhat 
remarkable, for the form is naturally a l)eauti- 
ful one anil not dittii-ult to a)miH>se. The ap- 
parent rejison is tlie verj' artificial chanifter of 
the bunilied nuisses of lejives, flowers, and fruit 
wliii-h are generally employetl ; but it is still 
worthy of inquiry why the natunil fall and 
sweep of branches traine<l from tree to tree, or 
of wild vines in the forest, have never suggestetl 
anything to the sculptor of ornament. The most 
delicate of modem festtwns are tiiose of Michel- 
angelo's smaller sacristy at S. Lorenzo, Florence; 
they consistof laurel-like leaves forming an iuibri- 
eati-d jjiittern. (See Encarpus ; Swag.) — R. S. 

FIAMMINOO. The name by which Flem- 
ish artist.s WKikiiig in Italy were usually known. 
(See Bolugiie, .lohii ; Duijiie-snoy, Fram^ois.) 

FIBROUS SLAB. A material intro<luced in 
1851 and used instead of wood, and also instead 
of plaster, for interior finish. The dome of the 
reading room of the Boston Museum is described 
as line.l with it {A. P. S.). (For the use of sucii 
iii.oinlm-tilili' slabs of material, compare Staff.) 

RAVANTE DEI ; arciiitcct and engineer. 

A letter of (.iiacomo della Quercia (see Gia- 
como della Quercia) dated July 4, 1428 (Mila- 
nesi, op. cit.) ascribes to Fieravanti the castle 
(rocca) of Braccio dei Fortebracci, at Montone 
near Perugia, Italy, and tlie reconstruction (begim 
1525) of the right wing of the Palazzo Publico 
at Bologna, which had been burned in 1424. 

Corrado Ricci, Fieravante Fieravanti in Archi- 
vio Storico dilV Arte, Vol. IV., 1891 ; MUanesi, 
Documenti deW arte senese. 

DOLFO DEI ( ARISTOTELE i ; architect, eii- 
gin.vr. ai,.l matlu-niatiriaii; 1.. before 1418; d. 
alter 1480. 

A son of Fieravante dei Fieravanti (see Fie- 
ravanti, F. dei). He entered the service of 
Nicholas V. (Pope 1447-1455) in Rome, and 
moveri the great monolithic columns from the 
church of S. Maria soi)ra Miner^•a to the Vati- 
can. He suggested to Nicholas V. and Paul II. 
the transportation of the olwlisk of the Vatican 
to the Piazza di S. Pietro, which was finfilly 
accomplishecl by Domenico Font^ina (see Fon- 
Una, D.) in 158G. He served the Sforza in 
Milan and in 14G7 was invited to Hungary by 
tlie King .Matiiias Corvinus, for wiiom he built 
bridges over the Damilie. In 1472 he was in 
the 8er\'ice of Ferdinand I., king of Naples. 
In 1475 he went to Russia and for Ivan III. 
built the cjithedral of the Assumption at Mos- 
cow and jirobabiy also jxirtionK of the Kremlin. 
He prf)l>ably designed the fiu^mle of the Palazzo 
del PiMlesU'i in Bologna. 

MalaRola. Drllf cone operate in Mntra da Aris- 
tfitele Fioravanll; Canetta, Arititotele da Boloi/na; 
Amico Hicci, Storia delV Architettura in Italia. 

FIESOLE, MINO DA. (.See Mino da Fie- 

.sol.v ) 

FIGURE. In wood, .same as Grain. 

FIGURING. The process of adding to ar- 
diitcctural drawings the dimensions of the parts 
shown. The mere statement on a drawing that 
it is to such and such a scale (as four feet to 
one inch) is not sufficient ; first, because the 
delay caused by laying a rule on the drawing is 
considerable, and second, because there is grent 
j)ossibility of error. It is customary to figure 
the extreme dimensions and also the minor 
dimensions ; thus, if the total length of a house 
is, over all, 102 feet 4 inches, that figure is put 
upon the drawing, while if there are three main 
subdivisions which measure respectively 40 feet, 
47 feet 8 inches, and 14 feet 8 inches, those 
dimensions also are added, and it is the business 
of the draftsman to see that the a<ldition of the 
three equals the larger measure. This is car- 
ried still further, and every separate room, every 
window, every door, every bre^ik in the wall, is 
figured in the same way. The form of this fig- 
uring is generally as follows : — 

the little arrowheads or crowfeet denoting by 
their points the exact termination of the dis- 
tance whose dimension is given. The dotted 
lines are usually the constniction lines of the 
drawing carried out, as it were, to infinity, and 

nuirked by dots, or a 8i)ecial coloiir, as far as it 
may be necessary, to show exactly the limits of 
the figure given. 

Figure I. shows this system applied to a 
single room in a plan of the usual sort given to 


workmen for their guidance. Figure II. shows 
a plan often followed in drawings made to show 

to the employer ; such drawings as are included 
in what are generally spoken of as preliminary 
studies. — R. S. 

BRLINO, AVERULINUS); architect ; b. about 
1400 ;d. after 14G5. 

The surname Filarete {phil-arete, lover of 
virtue) is given by Vasari, but is not found in 
contemporary sources. He assisted Ghiberti 
(see Ghiberti) on the second gate 'of the bap- 
tistery. Filarete made for EugeniusIV. (Pope 
1431-1447) the bronze doors of S. Peter's 
church at Rome (1445). Soon after the acces- 
sion of Nicholas V. (Pope 1447-1455) he went 
to Milan, where he held the position of cathe- 
dral architect from February, 1452, to July 5, 
1454. Filarete's chief work is the Ospedale 
Maggiore at Milan, of which the first stone was 
laid April 12, 1457. He undoubtedly made 
the plans and carried out the southwestern 
short side and the adjacent portions of the 
long side as far as the main court. He left 
the work in 1465. Filarete began the cathe- 
dral of Bergamo in 1457. His famous Trat- 
tato dell' Architettura, written for the instruc- 
tion of the Duke Fniiice.sco Sforza, was begun 
about 14(10 and finish.Ml in 14(54. 


" Ihu 

'I St; 

1, L<'h,' 

W'prkp, des Antonio 
f.modi Milano. 


He built tlic upper cliunh of S. Francesco at 
As.sisi, finished in 125;5. 

I'roihiii'.'hain, Introduction of (Gothic Avchitoc- 
turr, inlii llolij. 

bat in.u plane — (N. E. D.) 

li. \ rebate made by a fili.stcr, as defined 
abcive ; especially th(! rebate of a sash bar, which 
n'ccivcs \\\i- cdgt! of tlic glas.s. 

FILLET. A. A relatively small and narrow- 
fiat moulding, gen<;rally as a plain band in a group 


of mouldings ; either of rectangular section, pro- 
jecting, or sunk, from the general surface ; or 
simply a flat surface included between other 

B. A thin strip of material having more or 
less the form of a fillet in sense A. 

Back Fillet. The narrow flat surface of 
the return of a tfim or casing, which projects 
slightly from the surface of the wall. The term 
is applied to this surface even if merely a fillet 
in the ordinary sense, that is to say, an un- 
broken flat strip. — R. S. 

FILLETING. Material, such as mortar, 
used as a substitute for flashing, at the meeting 
of a sloping roof with a wall. The mortar is 
carried up the side of the wall and over one or 
two courses of slates or tiles, the next course 
lapping over it. It is very liable to leaks from 
settlement and from loose slates. 

FILLING. Rough masonry used for the 
body of a wall which has a facing of smoother 
and more finished material ; or for the loading 
of the haunches of an arch. 

FILLING-IN PIECE. In a framed struc- 
ture, any piece shorter than those composing the 
main portions and used for the shorter spans 
and smaller spaces ; as tail beams, jack rafters, 
and the like. 

FILLING-IN STUFF. A species of sizing 
rubbed inti) thi' jhucs of any fibrous or porous 
material in order to provide a good surface for 
painting or varnisiiin<r. Compositions prepared 
especially for woodwork are called wood fillers. 

FILTER. A device intended for the me- 
chanical j)urification of water by straining out 
the solid suspended impurities in the same. 
Filters operate by gravity or under water press- 
ure. Water is filtered on a large scale by 
means of aitiricial fiU.'i- bc.ls, .•nnip,.so.] of layers 
of gravel ami .-aii'l (-ami liltiat ii.n ). 1 )(>niestic 
filters arc cither pivvMiiv till. as placed on the 
line of main .>(a\ici' pipes, when tliev elcau.se the 
entire water siippl\ <<{ \\\f li.mse, or drinking 

the Pasteur ("hanil.ciland and iicrUcfeld filters 
which render the water practically germ free. 
The filtering material may be sand, gravel, char- 
coal, iron, quartz, porous stone, cloth, jjaper, 
porcelain, or infus.oial earth. -W. P. G. 

FINIAL. A lioss, a knoll, or a more elabo- 
rate ormuneni at the point of a spire or jjinnacle. 
The finials which cin«u th,' pinn.acles in Gothic 
churches are often (.f urcat Keauty : their posi- 
tion bringing their oinaiiicntal tivatuicnt against 
the sky and thus causing them to lie less clearly 
seen, does not prevent them from being among 
the richest and most eftective parts of the asso- 
ciated sculpture of the edifice. The term is 
sometimes extended to ai)ply to the hi]) knob or 
<-\)\ and simihir culminating ornaments. 

FINISH. -1. Elegance or refinement in a 
completed piece of work ; esijccially in tlie work- 


manship or mechanical excellence of the work 
as distinguished from its design or significance. 
It is to be observed, liowever, that in some kinds 
of work the significance itself dciM-nds upon high 
or elaborate finish. Thus, in Florentine mosaic 
as applictl to walls, or marble inlay as applied 
to pavements, the intended effect is not ob- 
tained without very perfect w'orkmanship. 

B. Those pai-ts of the fittings of a building 
wliich come after the hea\-y work of masonry, 
flooring, etc., has been done, and which are gen- 
erally in plain sight and are closely connected 
with the final appearance of the building. The 
term is es])cci:dly a])plicd to interior work and 
often in connection witli .sonic other word form- 
ing a compound term. (See the subtitles.) 

Cabinet Finish. Interior finish in hard 
woods, framed, panelled, moulded, and varnished 
or polished like cabinetwork in distinction to 
finish in soft woods nailed together and com- 
monly painted. (United States usage.) 

— A. D. F. H. 

Hard Finish. Fine white plaster whidi, when 
used, tonus the last coat of a piece of plastering. 

Inside Finish. In tlie United States, the 
fittings, such as doors and door trims, window 
trims, shutters, door-sjiddles and the like, dadoes 
or wall lining with wood, marble, or tile ; some- 
times also mantelpieces and even sideboards, 
presses, or dressers if put up permanently. The 
term is most commonly used for the woodwork 
of orilinary dwelling iiouses and business build- 
ings, but is extended to tlie most elaborate and 
permanent w,,rk.~U. S. 

FIORAVANTI. (See Fieravanti.) 

FIORE DI PERSICO. A marble of 
which pieces a r. 1 I.' nian Imperial 

remains. Thd' t varieties dis- 

tinguished by It . >uch as chiaro 

(light), rosso (red), etc-. It is thought to have 
been brought from the mainland of Greece. 

FIR. Same as Fur. 

FIRE AIjARM. a. a device for auto- 
matically giving notice of a considenible rise of 
temperature, as in a room. It is generally man- 
aged by means of electricity. (See Alarm ; 
Thermostat, under Electrical Appliances.) 

B. A bell which may be sounded as a means 
of giving notice of a conHagration. 

FIRE ALTAR. An altar used for burnt 
sacrifices. The altars of antiquity were, many 
of them, of this kind. Where the altar is of 
Btone ami small, especially if it is decorated with 
8c\dpture, the inference may be that the suK 
stiinccs burned would be small in quantity and 
symlxdical or representative of the whole sacri- 
fice ; and such altars when within a house or 
temple may be supposed to have been used for 
burning incense ; or, at least, not for animal 
sacrifices. (See Altar.) 

FIRE BACK, rrimarily, theback ofafire- 
plafc. The term is iismilly applied, however, 


to the east-iron or other metal lining frequently 
applied to the backs of fireplaces ; sometimes of 
highly ornate design. Ventilating tire backs 
have been the objects of much experiment and 
invention, especially in France ; they are of 
various patterns, usually tubular. ser\nng to 
warm the cold air admitted from out-of-(KH)rs 
and to <leliver it so warmed through registers 
into the room. 

FIREBOARD. A board or sbutterlike 
contrivance to close the opening of a fireplace 
when not in use, whether of wood or of cast or 
sheet metal. Called also summer piece and 
chinniey board. 

FIRE CIiAT. Any clay atlapttnl for mak- 
ing fire brick (which see, under Brick). 

FIRE DOOR. In a furnace, stove, or the 
like, the doorway or opening through which 
fuel is supplied and the fire is tended. Also 
tlic diior, usually of iron, which closes it. 

FIRE ESCAPE. A contrivance for enabling 
persons to escape readily from a burning build- 
ing ; either fixed or movable. The movable 
and adjustable fire escai)es are numerous, differ- 
ent patent devices competing with one another 
for popular favour ; the ladders and other ap- 
pliances used by fire departments in cities are 
also of this character. Fixed fire escapes are 
generally of the nature of a ladder or a series 
of ladders or stairs of wrought iron eonnecteil 
with landing places, such as balconies, and lall 
arranged on the exterior of a building, connect- 
ing in each story with a window or windows, 
all of which are easy of access. (For dimen- 
sions, etc., see Apartment House.) The laws 
in some American cities require the use of fire 
escapes for certain buildings, such as tenement 
hon.ses, apartment houses, hotels, and business 
buildings, and generally all buildings where 
more families than one, or the occupants of 
more oftices or sets of offices than one, are liable 
to be exposed to the danger of fire. The sig- 
nificance of such laws seems to be that where 
one tenant may, by his carelessness, endanger 
the lives of other tenants the use of fire escapes 
is compulsoiy. In clubs, however, even the 
largest, the law does not often require their use ; 
l>erhaps because but few persons sleep in such 
j)laces, and also because of their quasi private 
chiiracter. (See Lcgi.slation.) The great fre- 
quency of fires in American cities, and the ter- 
rible loss of life which has sometimes resulted 
from a fire, as in a hotel or factory, have caused 
these laws to be very commonly enacted and 
fairly well enforced. At the same time, the 
general feeling that fire escapes disfigure a 
building or, at Iwist, lower it in the scale, as 
suggesting a building for common and humble 
use^ rather than elegance, has caused a ten- 
dency to resist or evade the law in all practicable 
ways. The only reme<ly for this seems to be 
the adoption of some system of fire escajH'S 


which shall be architectural in character, rather 
decorative than disfiguring to the building, and 
forming a part of the general design. A New 
York architect, and one of the chief contributors 
to this work, has suggested the use of balconies 
without ladders, but with adjustable bridges 
from balcony to balcony, horizontally along a 
front. If these bridges drop into place by 
their own weight, as when a cord is cut, they 
may be trusted, and the horizontal balconies 
can easily adorn rather than disfigure the build- 
ing. Tile or other masonry, rather than iron, 
should meet the hands of those who are seeking 
to escape from fire. 

A few houses in New York have an incom- 
bustible stair and staircase provided in a recess 
or compartment arranged in the exterior wall, 
and continuous from sidewalk to cornice. This 
stair and staircase may communicate only with 
balconies which pass along the front at the 
different stories, and the shaft or recessed mem- 
ber may be entirely without communication by 
doors or windows with the intcridr. The ad- 
vantage of this over the fiicpmnf .stair and 
staircase within is tliat the fmnicr is not likely 
to be rendered entirely useless by dense smoke. 
— R. S. 

FIRE HOUSE. A. In the United States, 
in general, any building for the keeping of the 
fire-e.xtinguishing apparatus of a municipal fire 
department. A popular, but not specific term. 
(Se.! Engine House ; Truck House.) 

B. Same as House Place ; in allusion to the 
fact that here alone was a fireplace in early 

FIREPLACE. That part of a building which 
is arranged for the making of fires, as for warmth ; 
especially, such a provision when made for open 
fires of coal or wood, as distinguislied from fur- 
naces, stoves, or the elabi irate hypocaust of the 
Romans. In this sense the fireplace is either 
the heartii in tlie middle of the room, as com- 
mon in iiriiiiitive times, the smoke escaping 
through (ipeiiiii^(s in the' roof (.see Louver), or a 
part iif a c-hiiimey. This latter sense is much 
the must ciiiiiiiiMii and is the ni.hiiMi-v use of the 


1 the 


lirectly with 

lai-c hnr„| r,„n-|.n,Mln,- 11, size to llje hearth 
uimii ulihh Ihr (iiv is made, tlie wall may be 
coiiliiiiiou,^ licliiiid the licarth, with the hood 
aixi the Hue al">\e |iinjrcMng from its surface. 
This arrangement, wliieii was not uncommon 
in mediijeval times and as late as the sixteentli 
century, is hardly coHipatil)le with the modern 
use of fuel or with the modern desire to avoid 
all such inconvenience as might arise fmni the 
blowing about of smoke l)y accidental draughts. 
The very small rooms used by modems make 


this device, as well as the " fire on the hearth " 
in the middle of the room, impracticable. The 
fireplace is, then, to be considered as a recess or 
a space enclosed by two jambs or cheeks, and 
terminating above in the flue. The decoration 
of the fireplace has always been important, be- 
cause that one part of the room is wholly differ- 
ent in its uses, and probably in its material as 
well, from the rest. The mantel shelf and man- 
telpiece, in all their forms, result from the desire 
felt to surround the opening of the fireplace with 
incombustible material, and to make use of this 
for a special decorative treatment ; and also from 
the expediency of putting one or more shelves 
where it is evident that no piece of furniture can 
be placed permanently. (Cuts, cols. 31, 32.) 
— R. S. 

FIREPROOF (adj.). Capable of resisting 
heat, such as that of conflagration ; said of a 
building, or a part of a building, and also of 
materials and fabrics. By extension, calcu- 
lated to resist lieat : or capable of resisting 
considerable luat ; nv, laiely, slow to burn. 
The term Sldw-liurimiL,' ( 'mistruction (which 
see) has a separate tei'huieal signification. 

— C. T. P. 

FIREPROOF (v.). To make fireproof or 
fire resisting ; that is to say, to make proof 
against, or at least to partially protect from, 
the effects of great heat or a eonfiagration, 
either by a treatment, as by chemicals, of the 
thing to be made "fireproof," or by its pro- 
tection with other materials. 

The object so treated or protected is always 
one wliich is combustible or suscejitible of injurj- 
when exiinsed to a -reat h.-at ur to a tire. When 



r,l It 

nil 1 




e.l wit 

ial \ 

from lire. V/uud lias l.een s(. treated \\ ith chemi- 
cals as to yield but slowly to a great heat and 
to burn to ashes without bursting into flame. 
Woods whicli have been fireproofed in this way 
have been ailoj.ted hy critain naval bureaus for 
the interior lim^hiiiL' oi war vessels. Textiles 
arealsoliic|iro,.i;(l ; an.l nil tains properly treated 
for that iiur|")se uill not Inirn. All parts of 
steel tianies in liuihhngs slmuld be fireproofed. 
— C. T. P. 

FIREPROOFING (n). A. Material or a 
combination of materials intended to make build- 
ings fireproof 

li. The art, process, or act of making build- 
ings fireproof. In colloquiid ])hra.seology, a 
fireproof building is one in wliich at least the 
external walls and the floors nre constructed 
of incomlMistil.lc matevi.-il Only rarely are the 



ing. that a lire|.r 

in the full meuiiiiig of i 

ainst fire 


; c/-/:^- ...^-.77/,/;^/^^ 


It would be well if generally accepted terms 
had been coined for buildings, expressing, from 
the point of construction, different degi-ees of 
resistance to fire. Without them, circumstances 
and the context must govern the accurate 
meaning of the words. 

Some of these words and expressions have, 
also, limited and definite meanings in certain 
localities, which are not accepted at all in other 
places. For example, "to fireproof" means, in 
certain localities, to protect wooden beams with 
incombustible material, and " fireproofed con- 
struction " is likewise made to mean a construc- 
tion of wooden beams protected from fire by a 
covering of some incombustible material. 

Buildings that could not burn have been .built 
in all ages. Buildings hnvf ,iNo been made in 
all ages and in all cliiiiatis, lia\ inj,' only a small 
portion of combustible material in tiieir construc- 
tion, so the idea of making the construction 
proof against fire is not at all modern. 

Since the fall of the Roman Empire, the 
buildings of the Latin races and in the south 
of Europe have been commonly of masonry with 
but little use of wood. In the northern part of 
Europe, however, and in America, wood was more 
available and timber was always used more in 
construction. Fires were always more prevalent 
in London tlian in Paris, and it has been mainly 
due to this fact. 

Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, very few buildings were built in Eng- 
land, or in the north of Europe anywhere, or in 
the United States, of which the floors and roofs 
did not depend upon wooden beams for tlieir 
support. In many cases, however, for two 
centuries or more, this timber construction had 
been disposed of, or combined with concrete 
material in sucli a way, that fires would burn 
but slowly, and such forms of construction were 
adopted with that end in view. 

The first organized effort in England, looking 
toward the reduction of fire los.ses liy emplnyiiig 
improved forms of construction, uccnii'd ahuut 
1775, when Parliament appointed a "oininitteo 
to investigate the subject. Cast-iron beams and 
brick arches began to be used in the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, and were employed to 
a considerable extent until about 1850, when 
rolled beams were invented. (See Iron Con- 
struction.) About this time the attention of 
English architects was particularly called to the 
importance of changing the construction. The 
fire officers of London had been trying for ten 
years or more to arouse a sentiment in behalf 
of methods which would lessen the danger of 
fire. It was then predieteil that the new rolled 
beams carrying liriek arelns would iMJcome the 
permanent method of iii.ikiiig fireproof floors; 
but the importance of covering tlie soffits of the 
beams was not appreciated. It was ten years 
later, between 1860 and 1870, when sueli floors 


had been constructed in numerous warehouses, 
and tried in fires that liad warped and bent the 
iron work so that the buildings were quite 
destroyed, before the mistake was satisfactorily 
demonstrated. The construction was condemned 
by the fire department of London, which pro- 
claimed that iron could never be used to make 
a floor indestructible by fire. It did not occur 
to them that the beams could be protected ; 
but in 1866 a patent was issued to a French- 
man for an arch which was devised for this very 

Flat arches made of solid clay blocks were 
occasionally used on cast iron beams prior to 
1 850, and a flat arch made of hollow clay blocks 
was made in 1850 for the floor of a lunatic 
asylum belonging to the Society of Friends, in 
York, England. The area covered was about 
15,000 square feet. The cast beams were, i^ 
to 5 feet apart. Each block was about a foot 
long, and the completed arch weighed 31 
pounds per square foot. Except that the 
soffit of the arch was not below the beam, it 
was, therefore, in all essential respects, the same 
as the most modem side construction arch. 
Floors of that character, however, have never 
been popular in England, though they liave been 
exceedingly so in America since 1870. Brick 
arches, beams protected with a furring, .and 
furred ceilings, have been used in Europe to a 
much greater extent. 

For a time after rolled beams were invented, 
many firepi-oof Hoors were made in England by 
conneetiiiL,' the beams witii stri])s of wood of 
small si/e restiiii,' (.11 the bottom flanges. They 
were spaecd near to eaeh other, the intervals 
being about as wiile as the stii]is, and the area 
tints formed was coxered with a lillinj^ of con- 
crete of one kind "V anofhii', whieli was made 
to completely en\clo|i the woodwork. Floors 
of this kind'wiMv used |,artii-ularl,v in dwelling 
liouses. Tlie-e methods hax'e lieeu rei)laced in 
latter yeai-s iiy a great variety of other adap- 
tations of concrete to floor construction which 
contimie to be u.sed, especially in the higher 

In France the rolled beams were used as soon 
as they began to be maimfactured. The floors 
were made fireproof by the use of a b^ton made 
witii plaster of Paris. The beams were cov- 
cre<l with a lacing of iron bars, hanging low 
between the beain.s, which, in turn, carried the 
bdton. Both the bars and the beams were com- 
pletely embedded and so protected. Brick arches 
are also used in Paris with otlicr forms of 

In Germany, as in England and France, a 
great many inventions of fireproof floors have 
Ixien patented, but few of them are in use owing 
to the conservatism of the authorities. That 
country has also liad to learn to protect iron- 
work by the reiwated destruction of iron con- 


structed buildings in great fires, those in the 
wiirehuuses of Hamburg being especially notable. 
A furring of wire lath and plaster known there 
as " Baritz " is now commonly useil in Berlin and 
the other great cities for covering the metal 
wiierever it is exposed. Brick arches are gen- 
erally used, and hollow clay constructed ardies 
are not usetl to any extent. 

In America the use of both rolle<l beams and 
clay has had a greater development than in 
Europe. The first beams were rolled in 1854, 
and the first flat arches of hollow blocks of clay 
were ma*le in 1873. In 1855, however, hollow 
blo<'ks of clay material were usetl with rolled 
beams in Cooper Institute, New York City, 
each block reaching from beam to beam. The 
first iron beams were used in the brownistone 
courthouse in the City Hall Park of the same 

The soffit tile commonly usetl in American 
practice, 8upporte<l under the beams by the 
arches on each side, is an American invention, 
matle in 1883. Brick arches are used to some 
extent, and, especially since 1890, a great 
variety of concrete methods of construction have 
been introduced. They are also being widely 
employed. The demand for hollow clay prod- 
ucts, both for floore and interior wall constnic- 
tion, has, however, greatly exceeded that for all 
other materials. The capital invested and the 
tonnage output of such products for the ditt"erent 
parts of the country are given in the following 
table : — 


OiTPiT IN Toss FOR 1S9T. 




Total In 


K«t of Ohio.. 
Ohio and west- 












Total In l-nlt.-d 


The porous material is made of clay and 
combustible products, mostly sawdust, mixed 
in about equal jjroportions. The combustible 
material having been burned out in the kiln, 
the baketl clay is left in the " jmrous " state 
re(juire<l. The object of this is to give to the 
material greater fire-resisting ipialitie.s, by means 
of the little air cells contained in it ; and be- 
cause, as has been proved by repcited exiK- 
riences, it allows of an unc<iual expansion and 
contraction in the same piece, without rujjturc, 
much grejiter than dixw the hard-bunied mate- 
rial. It allows also of driving nails directly 
into it*t matw. The semipfirotis material is 
made with much lc«s of the combustible prod- 
ucts. B<itli of these materials are used lor 

partitions and the like because of their greater 
lightness and fire-rcjsisting qualities. The term 
" terra-cotta lumber " is often applied to this 

As to their resistance to buniing, buildings 
may \)e divided into two general classes, one in 
whidi the fireproof qualities are dei)endent 
upon tiie use of brick and stone to the exilu- 
.<ioii of wood, and the other in wiiich they are 
chiefly dependent on what are genendly termed 
" fireproofing materials " protecting ironwork. 
The oldest fireproof buildings are of the mas- 
sive character. Warehouses and office build- 
ings of all kinds, and most large buildings of 
private ownership in America, are now being 
made of tlie lighter and cheaper steel frame 
construction. (See Iron Construction.) There 
is no sharp division l>etween the two classes. 
Indeed, the steel frame construction has been 
evolved from the massive. The walls of the 
latter, thick enough and strong enough to carry 
all the floors adjacent to them, gradually were 
superseded by walls that carried no load but 
their own weight, and these in turn were sui)er- 
seded by walls wliicii are carried from floor to 
floor on frames of structural steel. 

The older buildings will not be seriously af- 
fected by fire because the botly of the material is 
everywhere so heavy and substantial that fire 
eff'ects cannot be far-reaching; the newer, be- 
cause the exposed materials are inde.stmctible, 
and perfectly protect the steel framework from 
any injurj' in ca.se of fire. 

Probably, a» a whole, the massive have been 
made most perfectly fireproof; but tliose expe- 
rienced in steel frame constniction can now 
build equally well with modem methods, in 
spite of the fact that special measures for fire- 
proofing are required to a mucii greater extent 
by these than by the massive system. 

The tendency of the times is to build the 
massive lighter by using some of the features 
of steel frame construction. Division walls 
carrj'ing floors are omitted, and a steel con- 
struction with partitions of fireproofing mate- 
rial are used instead. There is also a growing 
tendency to make the metal portions hejivier, 
and, as a whole, more sul)stantial. 

The covering of the bottom flanges of beams 
and girders in flcxirs should lie sufficient to pn>- 
tect the lieams from heat, even under very high 
temperatures. To do this, the covering must 
either be a good nonconductor of heat, or it 
must l)e constructed witli Imllow air spaces or 
air cells, recjuiring tiic iicat to p;u4s through more 
tlian one medium to aflect the metal. To W 
effective, tlie covering must also be strong 
enough to endure the cx])aiision and contraction 
whicli must occur when exposed to great heat, 
with the possible eflect of streams of coKl 
water. It must be such that it will presene 
it« integrity under the severei^t treatment. 


Many devices for the jnirpose have been pro- 
duced, but none of them have yet been found 
perfectly satisfactory. Work, otherwise admira- 
bly constructed, is often faulty in this particu- 
lar, and this is true in spite of the fact that no 
other feature of fireprooting is more important. 
The covering of 


the floor beams and their arches, and if the 
windows and doors are made so that an ordi- 
nary fire cannot pass through them, a fire will 
be confined to the room in which it originates. 
The building will then be fireproof so far as the 
effect of au internal fire of wooden fittings or 

umns is also quite 
often imperfectly 
done, but the means 
at hand for that 
work are ample for 
the very best con- 
struction. But the 
most inexcusable 

fault is the constniction of partitions on top of 
wood flooring, or with the openings framed with 
strips of wood so as to destroy the continuity 
of the fireproofing materials. In a fire, these 
are invariably consumed, and, in consequence, 
the partition of fireproof material goes to pieces ; 
when, if metal had been used instead of wood, 
they would have jiroperly served their purpose. 

The material used in the floors between 
beams, also in the partitions, and for covering 
of columns and other exposed ironwork, must 
not only be incombustible, but it must also be 
practically indestructible. If it cannot be heated 
without injury for a considerable time to 2000° 
Fahrenheit and cooled again, either slowly, or 
suddenly as when exposed to a stream of cold 
water, it certainly is not good material for the 
purpose. It ought also to endure this test 
when only one surface is heated, which means 
that the material must be able to withstand a 
marked inequality of expansion and contraction. 
It not only should preserve its integrity under 
su<;h circumstances, but its strength ought not 
to be impaired. 

The conditions in buildings divided into com- 
paratively small rooms are not the same as they 
are in buildings used for warehouses and stores, 
which are often entirely without divi.sion walls. 
In an ordinary office building, the burning of 
the contents of a room must be expecteil t" at 

ist ruin the decorations, tlie plasterini,', and 

furniture is concerned. This standard of pro- 
tection is, however, not attained by many of 
the new high buildings of America. A building 
will be fireproof in tlie highest sense only when 
combustible matter and material which can be 
destroyed by heat is excluiled absolutely from 
the ciiiistniction of the building. Such build- 
ings arc ]iussiMi' and practicable by either the 
steel iVanic (ir massive methods of construction. 

Metal-covered doors and door frames and 
metal-covered sashes and window frames can 
now be obtained, which can hardly be detected 
from wood by casual observation. The win- 
dows for borrowed light, in partitions between 
rooms, are almost universally defective ; but it 
is now possible to provide them with glass that 
will permit the passage of light without going 
to pieces when exposed to a fire. (See Wire 

The destruction must, of course, be greater 
in very large rooms stored with inflammable 
materials, as in warehouses and all department 
stores which are open over large floor areas. 

If the construction of the floors and the 
covering of metal is everywhere what it ought 
to be, the integrity of the stnicture will be 
preserved ; but there seems no way of protect- 
ing buildings of this class from very great injury, 
or of saving their contents from total destnu-- 
tion when a fire is once well started, except 
by dividing them some way into a])artmcnt8. 

It 1 


■. 1)C( 

I sug- 

tliat, while 

the woodwork used in finishing floors and walls ; 
but the building can be made so that the fire 
need not extijnd to ai^joining apartments. If 
the jirotectirig material is indestnictible, if the 
partitidiis and division walls are framed every- 
where with metal and are l)uilt directly upon 

be j)(i 
of fin 

and large ware- 
houses open over 
l<»iVVlMlhi'-.u"in'"'' '" entire floors, and 
even from story to 
during the hours of actual use, it might 
)ssible to devise movable screens or curtains 
i'|iiMnl niatnial lor use at other hours that 
1 ( llr, iii;ill\ r^.iiiiiK" a fire in anyone of tlie 
nHni., .,, , i:,M,sl,..(l. No such complete 
'ver, as yet been made. 


Greater reliance luus U-tii juit \\\K>n systems of 
rtoodiug made to work autoiuiitiwilly. As de- 
stnietioa by water is as bad a« destruction by 
tire, and as there must always remain some 
uncertainty in the jjerfect operation of an appa- 
ratus, it would seem that deiMjndence upon 
some feature of construction is most to be 

Protection from outside fires is, of course, 
quite as ueeessarj' as protection from those of 
internal origin. Successful constniction in this 
res|)ect de|)ends upon the choice of materials 
for the exterior walls, upon tlie i)rotection of 
spandrel beams and colimins, and upon the 
window exposure. Without question, the last 
is the most important consideration. It is 
luuloubtedly tlie greatest weakness of fireproof 
buildings. Tiie glass used in exterior windows, 
great or small, will go to pieces when expose<l 
to a great heat. Shutters on the outside of 
the window do not fill the demand, whether 
of iron or of wood covered with metal. On 
street fronts they destroy the decorative char- 
acter of tlie building, and are not to be con- 
sidered. Facing alleys and courts, and in rear 
walls, they are generally not clo.sed when the 
buililing is vacated. Indeetl, tliere seems no 
way to enforce their use. Interior rolling iron 
simtters are used to some extent. These are 
much more easily operated, and they may finally 
prove to l)e the solution of the problem. 

The choice of materials for the construction 
of exterior walls and the covering of the span- 
tlrel beams and columns is also a source of 
weakness in a good many fireproof buildings. 
Granite, marble, and limestone will surely go 
to pieces when exjwsed to a hot fire. If they 
are u.sed in j)lace8 of great exposure, it should 
always be with the understanding tliat the 
exterior walls will be greatly damaged by the 
burning of a(|joining buildings. Columns and 
beams in wall construction should always be 
covered on the outside as well as on the inside 
with fireproofing material of some kind that 
will thoroughly jirotect them from injur)'. The 
too common |)ractice of covering such constnic- 
tion with a few inclics of },Maiiitc or marble, or 
of any kind of stone, without any other material 
intervening, is radically wion;.;, ami should be 
jjrohibitcd by law in everj' large city. 

Well-chosen brick are undoubtedly tlie best 
material for the construction of exterior walls, 
so far as their resisUince to fire is concerned. 
A large jjart of the ornamental tena cotta now 
used to HO great an extent with brickwork in 
the constniction of facjulcs can also be relied 
upon ; but lK)th the terra cotta and tlie brick 
vary in resisting qualities with the character 
of the clay of which they are made, and in 
im|)ortant structures they should not be relied 
u|H)n merely Iwcause they are terra cotta and 
brick, but because the resisting qualities of the 


I particular product in question have been estab- 
lished by experiment. 

Many imiwrtant buildings are so situate<l 
that there win Iw no gi-eat outside exposure ; 
and, with proper protection to the ironwork, 
granite, marble, and other stones are as effectual 
for all practical purposes as any other material. 
The same idea should also goveni their use in 
interior construction. There are rooms that 
never contain infiammable material, such as 
entrances and public rooms, where they may be 
safely used. 

Steel should never be exposed, either inside 
of the building or out, altiiough up to 600° 
he;it does not materially atfect its strength. 
Ca-st iron, also, should \ye covered when used 
as a jjart of the construction, but sometimes 
it may be successfully and wisely used as a 
protection to steel construction. 

Stairs should be constnicted in all large 
buildings with solid metal treads and risers, 
preferably of steel ; and the use of marble or 
slate treads, supported on their edges by the 
risers, should never be permitted. In a fire a 
stairway is first to sutfer if the flames can possi- 
bly reach it, and where the treads are made of 
marble alone they not only go to i)ieces at once 
but they become veritable traps, both for those 
who are seeking escape, and to firemen who may 
enter the building. 

In America, dwellings, apartment houses, 
and tenements are not generally made of fire- 
proof construction, and in most American cities 
tiiere is no security against fire in such build- 
ings excei)t that attbrded by the fire depart- 
ment. In some of the larger cities, however, 
the laws re(]uire verj' perfect construction of 
division and exterior walls, fire walls rising 
above the roof, and the like, so tiiat fires rarely 
spread from one to another. In Euroi)e, floors 
and partitions of such buildings are much 
more commonly constructed of fireproof, or at 
least of incombustible, materials. Metallic 
lath, in combination with plaster and concrete, 
has l)een u.sed to a large extent for this puri)ose 
in all the larger cities. 

Tiie problems relating to the protection of 
ironwork from fire are closely related to tlii' 
liroblein of protecting it from corrosion, jmr 
ticularly in spandrel constniction. Tliougii 
they may seem to be quite indeiwndent of each 
other, they are really closely allied, and any 
consideration of one to tlie neglect of the other 
must result to tiie disadvantage of tlie building 
as a whole. No method of fire jjrotection is 
accejitable tliat docs iitit at the same time jm)- 
vide, or in some way permit, of the prnjier 
protection of the metal from corrosion. 

Wherever iron is use<l in connection witii 

concrete or plaster combinations as a part of a 

fireproofing material, the necessity of protection 

from corrosion is even yet more neceasary. 



While both liiue and ordinary Porthviid cements 
have been recognized as conservators of iron 
and steel, it has been repeatedly proven by 
experience that not all combinations of this 
character are enduring, and the failure of the 
metal means the failure of the whole product 
of which it forms a part. 

Although the last half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury has witnessed a remarkable increase in 
methods of construction having for their object 
the prevention of fire, there is yet much to he 
done. The time is nnt far distant when tlie 
use of conibustihlc niatcrial in the construction 
of floors and partitions in all tin' i^Tcater cities 
of both Europe and America will lie prohibited 
by law, except, possibly, to some extent in 
minor finishing, where the burning could do 
no harm. 

The day is not far distant when some ai'irjit- 
able plan will be devi.r.l l.v xvhirl, tlir Inmn s 
of the rich and ])oi>i- alike >hall lie mailr as 
proof from fire as the hcst (iliice and warehouse 
buildings of modern construction. 


FIRE REGULATOR. An automatic device 
to control the draft to the fire of a steam boiler, 
adjusted so as to be operated by the pressure of 
the steam. 

FIRESTONE. Any stone thought to be 
peculiarly fit to resist great heat. Such a mate- 
rial occasionally used in England is described 
as having a large quantity of silica, and is 
apparently a sandstone capable of resisting even 
the direct effects of fiame under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, as in connection with an open fire- 
place. In the United States, some varieties 
of Western sandstone, generally of light brown 
colour, are found unusually resistant. 

FIRE STOP. Any piece or mass of incom- 
bustible niatrrial used as a filling in the spaces 
of the t'rann'wiirk or to close other open parts of a 
strmturr, in orilrr to prevent the passage of fire. 

FIRM (u'l nrrully used in the plural). One of 
two ratti IS wliirli form a truss; as a pair of 
firms. Thr t( i in is local in England, or nearly 
obsolete. (Comimre Cmtch.) 

FIRRING. Same as Furring. 

FIRST PIECE. Locally, in Lancashire, 
England, the Hilf;ci)iece of a roof. — (A. P. S.) 

FIRST STONE. In Great Britain, same 
as Foundation Stone, li. 

FISCHER, KARL VON; architect; b. 
1782; d. 1820. 

Professor of architecture in the Academy of 
Munich. His most important building was the 
old .Munirii theatre, built in 1818, burned in 
\X'J'-',, and irlinilt Under the name Jlof- idkI 
Nalin„al Trnir,: (See Klenze.) 

S>-,il..rl. ir,}„sl/,r r.fficnn. 
BERNHARD : anliitrrt ; li. I (",.-)() ; d. ITl'.i. 
Fistlnr von Eria.-h was a contemporary of 


Andrea Pozzo (see Pozzo, A.), and was edu- 
cated in Rome. Returning to Vienna, he began 
the iSchloss Scho7ibn(ini, the construction ot 
which was interrupted by the death of the 
Emperor Joscjih I., and built the church of 
S. .Carlo Eorn.nico (begun 1715), the Peters- 
kir'che, the palarc of the Prince Eugen, now 
Flnanziuuiisli'i-iiiin (1703), the Trautson pal- 
ace (1720-1730), the HofbUdinthek (1722- 
1726), all in Vienna, the K<,U,vi<'i>kii:-h,- in 
Salzburg (1G9G-1 707), the Kurfiirstcn Ki>p,'JU 
in the cathedral of Bresluu, Germany (1722- 
1727), the Clam-Gallus palace in Prague, 
Bohemia (1707-1712), and other buildings. 
He published Entivurfe historischer Baukunst 
(1 vol., folio, 1725). 

Gurlitt, Barockstil in Deutschland ; Ebe, Spat- 
Eoiaiitsancc ; Lowy, Wien vor 150 Jahren. 

EMANUEL; an-liitect : h. Iti'J."); .1. 1742. 

A sou of Johann Bcndiard Fis,-luT von 
Erlach (see Fischer von Erlacli, J. B.). He 
completed many of his fivther's most important 
buildings, the Hofhibliothek (Vienna), the 
church of S. Carlo Borromeo, and others. 

Gurlitt, Barockstil in Deutschland. 

FISH (n.). A piece of wood or metal 
secured to the side of a beam or the like to 
strengthen it ; particularly, when used to secure 
two timbers or the like, when joined end to 
end. In the latter case, two fishes are gener- 
ally used on opposite sides ; sometimes four. 
Also called fish piece and fish plate. (Com- 
pare Flitch.) 

FISH (v.). To strengthen, join, or secure 
by means of a fish or fishes. 

FISH BEAM (n.). In mechanics, a beam 
which beUies out, and usually on the under side. 
-(C. D.) 

The use of this term is objectionable because 
it suggests a relation to the accurate term 
fished beam. (See Fish (n.) and (v.).) 

FISH MARKET. (Sec Market.) 

FIVES COURT. .\ l)uildini,' jirejiared for 
the game of lives, in which the lialls are struck 
by the palm of the hand, usually jjrotected by 
a glove. That which is really requisite for the 
play is a solid wall with slightly projecting 
wings, like buttresses, and usually a piece of 
netting at the top to prevent the balls from 
flying over the top of the wall. Tlie more 
elaborate structure is a kind of room with only 
three walls, 11 feet wide and 27 feet long within 
the walls, but without a roof 

trical .Vppliance.s.) 

FLAG. Any comparatively thin piece of 
stone suitable for j)aving. Most stones thus 
used arc samlstones or mica schists which split 
rcadilv into .slabs. 

FLAGSTAFF. A pole to whicli a flag 

is secured, and from wliich it HontH. The term 



is generally couliiied to jjoles set vertically, as 
those are luuch the largest, and are placed iu 
the nuKst prominent positions. 

In most cases, the HagstaH" is merely a taper- 
ing stick painteil wliitc and capped with a 
sheave through which the lialyards run. It is 
rare that any decorative treatment is attempted. 
There are, however, instances of this, and it is 
interesting to note that all designers who try to 
use the tlagstart" in a decorative way make it 
mudi thicker than mere strengtli would require, 
and |)aint it in darker colours, perhaps in more 
colours than one. The most offective decoration 
connected with the flagstaff is, however, the 

or without eusi>s, and triangles between tlie 
circles, but Uikc the shape of flames. The stoue 

"'I f 

foot socket or stand in which it is set up. Any 
amount of rich ornamentation may be given to 
this sujiporter ; tlie most celebrated and prob- 
ably the richest instances existing l>eing in 
Venice in the Piazza, and in front of the churdi 
of S. Mark. These three bronze standards are 
the work of Alessandro Leopardi, and were put 
up at the l)(!ginning of the sixteenth century. 
— R. S. 

FLAGSTONE. Same as Flag. 

FLAMBOYANT (adj.). A. Having to do 
witli the hitt! Frenclj (Jothic window traceries, 
whicli are so arranged that the openings l)ctween 
the stone piers are no longer circles, either with 

Iii'r<; nre cut in S curves and meet at acute 

' i::d the genend aspect of the ojjcnings 

: lught to resemble flames rising eitiier 

t ir at an angle with the vertical. The 

. 1 icuch, but in France the significance is 

^. iierally applied to that which gives out flame 

1 resembles flame, or to what is very brilliant 

ml shining. It is less used in a strictly archi- 

' vtural sense in France than in Englan<l. (See 

I i.ince, Architecture of; Gothic Architecture; 

I racery ; Window.) 

li. Having to do with the French Gothic of the 
late fifteenth and early 
si.xteenth centuries; 
namely, that which has 
flamboyant wind o w 
tracery. As this pecul- 
iar tracery prevailed in 
France from tiie clo.se 
of the Hundred Years' 
War until about 1495, 
the term ser\'es to de- 
scrilie the magnificent 
late Gothic, of which 
characteristic buildings 
are the church of S. 
Maclou at Rouen, the 
western part of tiie ca- 
thedral of Tours, the 
cathedral of S. Pol de 
Leon, S. Wulfran at 
Abbeville, the church 
of S. Riquier, not far from Abbeville, 
church of Brou at Bourg-en-Bresse. — K. 


FLAN. To splay tbe sides of an opening, 
as the jambs of a door or window. (Rare or 
local English.) 

FLANDIN, EUGENE. (See Coste, Pas- 
cal Xavier.) 

FLANGE. A rim projecting laterally on 
one or on each side of any member, usually at 
right angles to the general surface ; as the flat 
upj)er and lower portions of an I beam at right 
angles to the web ; a collar at the ends of 
wrought iron pipes by means of which they are 
secured together. 

FLANK (n.). A. A lateral face of a struc- 
ture ; an end or side as distinguished from the 
front or back ; a return at either side of the face 
of a stnicture or part of a structure. 

B. In Scotland, a valley of a roof. 


FLANK (v. t. and V. int.). To stand, or 
to be placetl at, the sides or flanks ; to provide 
with sides or flanks ; as an entrance gate may 
be flanked liy a column ou each side ; a court 
may lie tiaiikcd liy the wings of a building. 

FLAP. ^1. One fold of a folding door, 
shutter, or the like ; especially where two parts 
are hinged together, so that the door or shutter 
hinged to one side of an opening is itself in two 
parts which fold together when the door or 
other leaf is opened wide. 

B. A hinge of which the straps, leaves, or 
flat plates are intended to be screwed to the side 
of a door, shutter, or the like ; in this contrast- 
ing with butt hinge, probably an abbreviation 
of Flap Hinge. 

Front Flap. In a folding door or shut- 
ter, the part which is in front and visible when 
the shutter is open and is folded back against 
tlie jamb. It is usually hinged directly to the 
fLwd frame or jamb. (Compare Back Flap.) 

FLASHING. Pieces of sheet metal covering 
the ji'iiit.s or angles between a roof and any ver- 
tical surface again.st which it abuts, as of a wall, 
parapet, or chimney, to prevent the leakage or 
driving in of rain water ; also, such pieces cover- 
ing the hips and valleys of shingle or slate roofs, 
or the like ; or covering the joints about window 
frames, etc., in frame buildings. Plain flashing 
is formed with a single strip turned up a few 
inches against the vertical surface to which it is 
tacked or otherwise secured, and running up 
under the slates, tiles, or shingles to a slightly 
higher level. For greater security an aprmi, 
usually of lead, may lie ;iHi\r.l to ih.- u.dl ;il.i.\,> 

the first strip, wllieh il o\ell;i|i^ ; IIm' ,i|.im|i 

being driven into the joints of the m.-isomy jno 
tects the joint of the flasiiing proper. Against 
a brick chimney or gable parapet the sloping 
joint is protected by step fliishing ; short pieces 
overlapping like slates rejilaee tlie iniitiiiiioiis 
strip, ea(rh turned into a ditlt i. nt Imi i/Miitai 
joint of the brickwork. Flashiirj :i-iin t t ine- 
work are driven into grooves ciil to recen e thi m ; 


in all cases the joint is cemented with common 
or elastic cement. — A. D. F. H. 

FLAT (adj.). A. In painting, having little 
or no gloss. (See Dead ; Flatting.) 

B. In colour and in coloured surfaces of any 
substances or make, uniform, without gi-ada- 
tion. A wash of water colour is commonly laid 
as flat as possible. In decorative painting of a 
high character, flat tints are commonly avoided 
because they are injurious to the general effect 
of the work ; and gi'adation is very important. 

FLAT (n.). One story of a building, and 
hence the whole, or a considerable part, of a 
story used as a residence. The term has been 
in use for many years in Scotland, where the 
lofty houses of Edinl)ui-,L;ii have been let in flats. 
In London, wheie, sinee almiit 1875, the rent- 
ing of separate apartments lias been a custom 
slowly increasing, such apartments are generally 
called flats, and the building itself is spoken of 
as a " flat " house, with or without the quota- 
tion marks. Up to 1880 the only large build- 
ing of the kind was the Queen Anne's mansions. 
In New York, which has led the other cities of 
the United States in tlie matter of apartments 
taking the place of separate houses, th<' teiin 
flat has received a local mianiii-- e\pres>jiig 
something rather more cle.i;aiit and spaei(jus than 
a set of rooms in a Tenement House, and less so 
than an apartment in an Apartment House. In 
speaking of an ajjj^artement of a Paris maison 
d (oyer or the Wohnung of a German or Vien- 
nese house of the type, the word " apartment " is 
more commonly used, but flat would be equally 
appropriate. — R. S. 

FLATTING. Painting with a coat of paint 
without gloss, presenting a dead surface when 
diy ; usually mixed with turpentine with little 
or no linseed oil. Also, dabbing a still wet coat 
of paint with a stiff brush to conceal the usual 
brush marks, and to produce an even-appearing 

FLATTING COAT. A coat of such paint- 
ing as will produce the effect of Flatting. (See 

FLAXMAN, JOHN; sculptor; b. July G, 
17.").-.; d. December 7, 182G. 

.Joliii Flaxman was the son of a moulder of 
plaster casts in London. In 1769 he entered 
tiie Royal Academy schools. He exhibited at 
the Academy after 1770. For many years after 
177.') Flavmaii was emplov.'d .'it the potterv of 
the M,'-.r>. \\v,hIv^^ 1.' AKmit 1 7S.-, 1 7S(i 

at Chicliestei- eatlie.lral, an.l th.it of Mis. Mof- 

ley in Gloucester cathedral. In 1787 Flaxman 
settled in Rome. Returning to England in 
1794, his first work was the monument to Lord 
Mansfield in Westminster Abl«>y. In 1800 lie 
was elected a member of tlic Royal Academy. 
Flaxman designed monuments to (^a])tain Mon- 
tague in Westmin.stcr Abbey, to Sir .Joshua Key- 


nolds, Earl Howe, ami Lonl Nelson in S. Paul's 
cathedral, to the Baring family at Micheldever 
ihunh, Hampshire, to Mary Lusiiington at 
Lewishain, Kent, and other works. In 1810 
he waselectetl professor of sculpture at the Koyal 

Kedgrave. Dictionary of Artists; Stephen, Di<- 
tioiiary of Xatioital Bioijraphy. 

FIiECHIi. In French, a spire, large or small. 
In English, usually a comparatively small, 
slender spire surmounting and forming part of the 
construction of a roof, as is common at the junc- 
tion of the nave and transept roofs of French 
Gothic churches; and may include the lower 
story of the same stnicture with vertical walls 
or uprights. 

vc'liijK'd liy the iifuple uf Flanders. This ancient 
geographical region has been considered for many 
years as divided into the three districts of French 
Flanders, Eastern Flanders, and Western Flan- 
ders. French Flanders is for the greater part 
of its extent included in the modem territory of 
France, but Tournai and Mons, with the country 
around them, form part of the kingdom of Bel- 
gium and include the cities of Ghent, Audenardc, 
Saint-Nicolas, and reaches to the river Schelt 
opposite Antwerp. Western Flanders includes 
the cities of Bruges, Ypres, and Courtrai, and 
this also belongs to Belgium. The architecture 
of this region is strongly influenced by that of 
France at almost all epochs. (See Belgium, 
Architecture of.) — R. S. 

FLEUR-DE-LIS ; -LYS. (More properly 
Fleur dc T/i>ys, that is to say, flower of Louis, 

rather t! ' '■ " •• . t ) An ornament long 

associat I ] lower in France, con- 

sisting.' I minted members above 

and till'' A, a horizontal crossbar. 

Of the thiuu upper ones the middle one stands 
erect, the two others are strongly curved out- 
ward and downward, one on either side. The 
lower members are treated in a similar though 
less pronouncetl fashion, but in very alistract 
and simple forms are sometimes united into one 
mass. It is sUited that this ornament was first 
borne as an heraldic charge by Louis VII. of 
France, who died 1 180. The escutcheon of the 
kings of France was afterward charged with 
fleurs-ile-lis thickly set in diagonal order, the 
number Iwing indifferent ; but in the reign of 
Henry IV. this was changed, and from this 
time on the royal shield w.-w ch.arged with three 
fleurs-dc-liH, two above, side by side, and one 
liclow. The first of these arrangements is called, 
in heraldic language, " France Ancient " ; the 
second, " France Modern." (See Giglio.) 

— R. S. 

FLEURON. In French usage, a plastic 
semblance of a vegetable form u»e<l as the 
crowning feature of a tlecorative member, as 
a finial, <^pi, or the like. 


e Electrical Aj.pli- 

FLTER. One uf the steps of a straight part 
of a flight of stairs having a tread of uniform 
width, an<l peri)endicular to the general direc- 
tion of the stairs; distinguished from Winder. 

FLIGHT. In a stair, a contimious series of 
steiis uninterrupted by landings ; by extension, 
but improperly, any numlier of such series 
forming together the stjiir from one floor to 
another, even when landings are introduced. 
(See Stair.) 

FLINT. An impure form of quartz, opaque 
or slightly translucent, and of several colours in 
pale neutral shades. As a building material, it 
is fit only for building with a great abundance 
of mortar, much as was customarj' in the Roman 
Imperial buildings, the resultant mass being very 
much like concrete, at least in its hardness and 
endurance. In parts of England where this 
stone is common, and found in masses larger 
than is usual elsewhere, it is customary to face 
walls with flints by selecting the largest pieces 
and tho.se which show the smoothest face when 
split. Small and non-decorative buildings are 
those in which this material is most commonly 
used ; but ])arts of elaljorate churches, such as 
the filling alwve the vaults and even parts of 
the face wall, where it is unbroken, are so con- 
structed. — R. S. 

FLITCH. .1. A plank, or similar thin 
piece, secured to the side of a beam with whii h 
it ciirresiKinds in length and depth, or nearly 
.-id, and which it serves to strengthen; one of 
several such pieces or beams secured together 
side by side to form a lar-or lK^■lm or girder. 
(Compare Fisli.) 

B. Same as Slali. 

girder composed of flitches, as defined under 
Flitch, A ; usually, one constructed as de- 
scribetl under Flitch Plate. 

FLITCH PLATE. An iron plate used as a 
Flitch, in sen.se A ; generally, between two 
wooden beams, as in doubled headers and 

FLITCROFT, HENRY ; architect ; b. Aug. 
2'J, KJ'JT : d. Manh ."), 1769. 

A son of .leliVy Fliteroft, gardener of King 
William III., at Hampton Court (Englan.l). 
May 14, 1726, he entered the ottiee of the 
Board of Works, and in 1758 Wfus appointed 
comptroller of the Board, succeeding Rijiley. 
He was svicceeded by Sir William Chambers 
(see Chambers). 

Hedprave. Dictionary of Artists. 

FLOAT (n.) (1.). A stmcture like a raft, 
but usually, in architectural usage, smtwthly 
decked or floored. Boathouses aiul Iwthing 
house."*, such as those maintained by cIuIms and 
the like, are often built upon floats, or have floats 
used as landings and docks. 


FLOAT (n.) (II.). A plasterer's tool for 
smoothing a coat of iila.ster while soft, and 
bringing it to a true, even surface. Its essen- 
tial feature is a thin lilade having a smooth 
plane surface. 

FLOAT (v.). To smooth as with the plas- 
terer's float, or in some similar manner; said 
of a coat of plaster, cement, or the like, which 
is applied in a very soft, almost liquid, condi- 
tion, so that it can readily be brought to a true 
and smooth surface. 


FLOAT STONE. A stone u.sed to grind 
or rub brickwiJi!^ to a true cun'ed surface, the 
brick having previously been laid and roughly 
cut approximately to the required shape. 

FLOOR. A. The assemblage of pieces, as 
boards, planks, tdes, or the continuous mass of 
material, as cement, concrete, asphalt, which 
forms the lower and generally horizontal sur- 
face of the interior of a building or any part 
of a building ; or, in like manner, the upper 
surface of a platform, bridge, or the like ; tliat 
surface upon wiiieh we walk and place furni- 
ture, portable objects of all sorts, but generally 
the upper surface of a construction rather than 
a surface laid solid upon earth or filling be- 
tween solid walls. (See Flooring.) 

B. The entire horizontal structure for the sup- 
port of a floor in sense A, together with such a 
floor itself. In this sense the whole system of 
timbers or iron beams, including girders, sum- 
mers, binding beams, trimmers, headers, and 
ordinary joists or floor beams are included as well 
as the upper surface, the arrangements for 
deafening, and perhaps the deafening itself, ami 
even the finish beneath (for which see Ceiling). 

The simplest liouse floor is composed of boards 
laid upon and nailed to joists or beam.s, which 
rest upon tljc walls. If the walls are too far 
apart girders, (ir large beams, are placed to sup- 
port one or both ends of the joists. The girders 
may rest upon walls, or upon posts or columns. 
In modern so-called fireproof buildings, the floors 
are generally supported by iron or steel beams 
and girders, and the surface between them is 
formed in various ways : by flat arches of brick 
or terra cotta ; by slabs of ctjucrete made in 
place, generally strengthened by iron bars or 
rods, or wires bedded in it ; or bent plates of 
corrugated iron reaching from beam to l)eani, 
upon which concrete is placed. For bridge 
floors, "buckled jdates" (which see) arc riv- 
eted to the steel joists, and are covered with 
concrete and a paving of stone, wood, or as- 
phaltum. Buckled plates are thin plates of 
iron or steel formed by i)rcH8ure, the central 
portion of which is crowned or raised, forming 
a very flat dome, and leaving a flat margin on 
the e<Jges for riveting in place. Plates may 
be about g inch thick, 3 or 4 feet square, and 
Ik! raised in the centre "J or '\ inches. 


In the followmg subtitles the reference is 
to sense B, unless otherwise specially stated : — 

Apparatus Floor. In the United States, 
the ground floor of a fire house or patrol house 
where is kept the fire-extinguishing, or other, 
apparatus and horses. 

Carcass Floor. The assseinblage cif beams 
and girders in place, to receive a tluor in tlie 
sense A. 

Ceiling Floor. The assemblage of roof 
beams, or rafters, and ceiling joists in place, 
to receive a ceiling. 

Double Floor. A. One in which large 
joists, called binders, binding joists, or primary 
joists, carry the floor joists above and the ceil- 
ing joists below. 

B. A floor in sense A, which consists of 
two thicknesses of planking, the lower one 
being usually <if rouirh material brought tn an 
even thickne>s an.l carefully nailed to the tim- 
bers, its purpose being merely to give better 

Swiss Solid Timber Hovsk ; ti 
A.ND THE Flooring all re 
System of Stiles and Panels. 

and more uniform support and easier nailing 
to the upper shell, or layer, which is usually 
of choice material. 

Double-framed Floor. In English usage, 
a floor having two systems of support, the 
common terms being girders for the primary 
or heaviest tindjcrs, binding joists, which rest 
on them, and the joists, or floor beams, which 
are carried by the latter. It is customary to 
specify or to state, in definition, that in such a 
floor the ceilini; is cairieil by separate ceiling 
joists. In the rnitc.l States, ceiling joists are 
used or omitted without much reference to the 
framing of the lloor projuT. 

Fireproof Floor. One composed of fire- 
resisting materials carried by iron or stiel 
beams. (See Finproofing.) 

Folded Floor. A floor in sense A, in 
whieli tile cross joints of boards or planks are 
contimious, cither across the entire floor or 
across a series of boards. 

Framed Floor. One in whieli the binding 
joists are carried l)v still larger girders. (See 
i)oub!e Floor, tibove.) 


Mill Floor. A floor of the form usual in 
mills. (Set- .MiU ; Slow-buniing Construction.) 

Naked Floor. A. The framing whiih forms 
the i-oiistructional part of the floor without the 
flooring and ceiling. 

Ji. Une in wiiiih the floor joists extend from 
wall to wall. —(A. P. S., under Single Frame.) 

Solid Floor. A. One composetl of joists 
set close and .spiked togetlier. 

R SauR- as Mill Fl()..r, alH.ve. 

Straight Joint Floor. A fl(X)r in sense A, 
in whii-li tlif jniiits between the sides of the 
boards or plauk-s are continuous from end to 
end. — K. S. 

FLOOR HA NGER. A Stirrup Iron ; used 
for hanjriiijr the framed tiniliei-s of a floor. 

FLOORING. Same as Floor in sense ^1, 
or the material prejiared for such a floor. In 
the United States this is the general term for 
the material used for finishing a floor ; that is, 
for providing the smooth and level surliK>e u]wn 
wliiih we walk ; it C(jrre.s])ontls with Roofing, 
Sitlintr, Sheatliintf. and with Ceiling in its more 

FLORENTINE LILY. Same iis Giglio. 

ter, J.) 

leaves and foliage or made to re.semble or sug- 
ge.st flowens ; e.y. many mediieval capitals, fini- 
als, and mouldings, particularly in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. 

FLORID. Highly ornate; extremely rich 
to the j)()int of over decoration ; a term ap])lied 
in general to works of any style or period ; but 
more specifically used also to characterize the 
art of several jjcriods in which a style having 
reached its culmination has passed into a stage 
of exce.ssivr di>plriy fii.lini: in r\trav,ii:aiir,' aii.l 
decline. - ; 

art, th( 

tury ; ill ;,. ,.,,,.,,,. .-; m. >..,,,„ ,,i inn m 

century j,'enerally, in France, England, Germany, 
and Spain. 

FLORIS, CORNELIS DB ; architect and 
sculptor; b. 1518; d. Feb. 20, 1575. 

A famous architect and 8culi)tor of Antwerp 
(Belgium), and a brother of Frans Floris, the 
painter. Cornells studied in Rome and was 
architect of the Stad/uii.s (City Hall) of Aut- 
werj), which wiis finished in 1560, burned down 
in 1581, and rebuilt in the same style l)y an- 
other architect. He built the so-called Ooster- 
hiiiH at Antwerp. 

Iinnicrzeel, Ilollaiidsrbe en Vlaamsche Kunste- 

FLUE. A passage provided through solid 
material, as the substance of a wall, for the 
passing tipward of smoke, or for the carrying 
of a draught of air upward or downward, as in 
forced ventilation. Flues are most commonly 

built solid in the brick wall and faced with 
jilaster of some kind (see Paigetting; Parget 
Work) ; or lined with glazed earthenware j)ipe 
or similarly uniforndy siiaped solid material not 
liable to absorb gases. 

FLUSH (ad.j.). Even with, in the same 
plane with, something else, whether adjacent or 
not ; in e.xact alinement with the surrounding 
surface. Thus, a flush panel has its surface in 
the same jjlaue with the surrounding frame ; 
two piers having the same projection from a 
wall may be said to have their outer faces 

FLUSH (v. int.). A. In mason work, in 
British usjige, to break or chip off" from the 
face, as in the case of stone or brick which is 
too heavily loa<led near the edge. 

B. To come to the surface; to become 
flushed ; said of mortar which is forced into a 
joint or by pressure spread and distributed in a 
joint until it appears at the face or bed. 

FLUSH (v. t.). A. In laying up masonry, 
to fill a vertical joint or joints with mortar 
which is rammed or worked into the interetices 
until they are filled approximately flush with 
the surrounding surface. 

B. In sewers, plumbing, and the like, to 
supi)ly water, usually with great force and 
speed, for the purpose of clejinsing. 

FLUSH RIM. In the bowl of a water- 
closet, a rim toniiing a channel or tube with in- 
lets hy wliirh tlie 1m)w1 is flushed from all sides. 
FLUSH TANK. A box made so as to hold 
water and fitted with certain machinery by 
means of which any part of the phunbing of "a 
house or the like can be flushed at will. The 
most common form of the machinery which j)ro- 
vides for the discharge and stoppage of the 
wntrr is a lever pidled from above or from 
iiirh opens a valve, which valve will 
until the lever Is released. A common 
u'cnerally controls the automatic flow 
. ■• ... . iiom the supply pipe, and fills the tank 
again to its original level. (Also cjilletl Flush 

FLUTE. A gioove or channel ; especially, 
one of many such channels which are parallel 
or nearly so, and used for a decorative purjMise. 
The most conunon use of this decoration is in 
the shafts of colunms, those of Grecian and 
Greco-Roman origin being eonunonly so treated. 
It is customary to distinguish lictwet^n the 
channels which adorn the shaft of the Greek 
Doric order and which are elliptical in section, 
and separated one from another by a common 
arris, from thejlutes of the Ionic and Corinth- 
ian orders, which are circular in section, deeper 
in i)roportion, and are separated one from an- 
other by a narrow fillet. This distinction is 
not always maintained. (See (Channel.) Flutes " 
are used in other than stniight lines in such 
work as the strigil ornament. 


FLY. Ill a theatre, the space above the 
stage, and concealed from the front by the wall 
above the proscenium arch. (See Fly Gallery ; 

FLYER. Same as Flier. 

FLY GAIJJGRY. In a theatre, one of 
the galleries over the stage, from which parts 
' of tlie scenery are hung and managed. Com- 
monly spoken of as " tlie Hies." (See Fly.) 

FLYING BUTTRESS. (See Kiittn s^ ) 

FODERA ; FODERO. In Italian, a lining, 
as of a garment; hence, a casing or veneeiing, 
as of marble. 

FOIL. In tracery, any one of several lobes, 

circular, or nearly so, tangent to the inner side 

^^ of a larger arc, as of an arch, 

j>^p ^;^,. and meeting each other in 

"/^^mjl^\\ points, called cusps, project- 
<fjf^' i^. \ iii.U' inward from the auh, oi 

\ * -'J' '''''■^'^- '^^^^'^^ *"*^''^ '"'""^ 
.X V, .. '^/' make a trefoil ; four, a ijua 
— ^' trefoil; five, a cinquetod, oi 

Foil: Opening quintefoil ; six, a se.xfod and 
WITH Five a large number, a nuiltifoil 
Foils, called ht i 

CiNQUEFoiL. Mere cusps on an arth pio 
duce foils only when con- 
nected by arcs, usually more than semicircles. 
When the foils are very small and numerous, 
as in Moorish arches, the arch is called a cusped 
arch rather tliaii a liiiiliilnil arch. Foils are 
encouiitercil oeca.-ionally in early mediaeval 
(Romanesque) work and in late florid work, but 

they characterize especially the Middle Pointed 
period in France, England, and Germany. 
(Called also Feathering; see Tracery.) 

— .\. I). F. H. 

tect and engineer ; b. ir.L'l ; d. ItlOO, 

Folti iiiiule the model for, and laiilt, after 
lol'j, the i)alace of Giovanni Uguccioni, in 
Florence (unfinished). There is a Hketcii of 
this famous design in the UHizi, by Giorgio 


Yasari, the younger. The building is still in 
the possession of the Uguccioni family. 

Geymiiller-Stegmann, Die A7Xh. der Ren. in 
Toscana ; Mazzanti del Badia, BaccoUa delle Mig- 
liori Fahbriche. 

FOLIATE (adj.). A. Made, provided, or 
adorned with foils, as in mediaeval tracery. 
When a foil is adorned with subordinate foils 
the tracery is said to be double foliate ; if these 

Foliated Capital, 

c. 1177. 

are again adorned with minuter foils, it is triple 
foliate. Tracery with cusps may be foliate even 
when the cusps are joined, not by true circular 
arcs, but by other curved outlines. 

B. Made or adorned with leafage or leaf- 
like forms, as a foliate capital, a foliate corbel. 

FOLIATE (v.). A. To form into leaves or 
leaflike shapes. 

B. To adorn with foliation. 

FOLIATION. The state of being foliate ; 
foliate decoration. 

FONDACO. In Italian, a factory in sense A. 

a very large building of about 1510, designed 
either by Fra Giocondo (see Giocondo), or by 
an unknown artist called merely Girolamo Te- 
desco (Jerome the German). Its large surfaces 
of plain wall were e covered with noble paint- 
ings by (iiorLiioiie, 'i'itiaii, and others of the 
great .sciiool ,,f \'en,.tian painters. 

a beautiful Byzantine building which, in 1850 
and thereafter, was ruinous, but still of ex- 
treme iiiter(\st. It has been elaborately rebuilt, 
and is essentially a new building. (See Museo 

FONDAMENTA. In Italian, an embank- 
ment or <|uay eonstiuetod along the side of a 
water clianncl. in j'^nglish usage, tlie term aji- 
plics espcicially to tiiose in Venice, which form 
8tone-pav(!d thoroughfares along many of tbo 


(inali, the term being ui^ed in the names of 
lull streetii. (Compare Kiva.) 

FONT. A baptismal basin in which the 
iatir lui till- aihiiiuistratiou of baptism is cou- 

FOXT, \ 


tained, or into which it is poured, or both. 
The Christian Church from the first moment of 
its existence was conii)elled to determine just 
how the water of bajHism was to be applied to 
the person of the neophyte, and consequently 
the instruments to l)e emi)loyed in its atliniiiis- 
tration. History tells us that three methods 
of baptizing or touching the body with water 
were countenanced, viz. by immersion, attusioii, 
and a.spei-sion. It was not until the end of the 
third century that we know of a 
time and place being especially 
set apart for the administration 
of baptism. (See Baptistery.) In 
the earliest representation now in 
existence of a baptism, a fresco 
in the catacombs of S. Calixtus 
at Ii<ime, the sjicrament is lieing 
given by affusion or pouring ; 
nevertheless immersion seems to _ — 

have been the ordinary mode in 
tiie primitive age of Christianity. 
The font used in a baptistery was ^. 
a large cistern, which was either 
sunken in the floor or raised alnive 
it. The administrator and the 
candidatt! both descended into the 
water; but lus the Roman world ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
Jiecame convertc<l to the faith the 
baptism of adult catechumens lie- 
came less and less custonuiry, while that of 
children k'came more and more so ; consetiuently 
the necessity of the lulministnitor entering the 
water ceased. The fonts were made smaller, 

mere bowls standing on pillars or bases of some 
kind, but large enough to receive a child for 
immersion. They were made of stone, marble, 
silver, lead, brass, and wood, and often lined 
with lead. In form they 
followed the variations of 
architecture, every style 
having its own ; the earli- 
est fonts were square, or 
square with roimded cor- 
ners, renting on blocks of 
stone or five legs; then 
followed the circular form 
standing on four legs, the 
cylindrical on drums, the 
octjigonal and hexagonal 
with foundations of like 
form. The avcnige size of 
the inside of the bowl in 
these ancient fonts was 
from 1^ to 2 feet in di- 
ameter "and 1 foot deep ; 
tiie Ixjwl was covcretl with 
a flat board, hinged and 
held in place by staples 
and a lock; the opening of 
the bowl wiis almost al- 
ways circular, no matter 
what form the exterior might Ih?. The orna- 
mentation varied ; sometimes it was geometrical, 
sometimes symbolical, often hcnddic, rfnd in 
some cases inscriptions were employetl in a 
decorative way. The more usual mediaeval 
fonts consisted of three parts : a liowl, a stem, 
and a plinth, and each part was usually made 
of a single stone. The place in which these 
fonts stood was almost invariably nejir the west 
entrance of the church. If there was a south 

: Cathedral, 

(Ais.NK), KRA^•CK; 12th CKNTI'RY. 

door the font was placed to it« left, and there- 
fore nearer the west front ; and this arrangement 
continut^ in mo<lern times, except when- a bap- 
tismid chapel exists. The modem font, as a 



general rule, corresponds with the architectural 
details of the church in which it is placed. It 
sho\dd be large, of good material, provided with 
a tlrain and cover, and it is well to raise it 
above the tloor on an elevated plat- 
form with one or more steps. Its 
dimension is not tixed, but the fol- 
lowing will he fiiund in modern 
practice to be right : height, 3 feet 
4 inches ; diameter across the top, 
1 foot 11 inches, diameter of in- 
terior, 1 foot \^ inches, and 1 foot 

Robert Robinson, Boston, 1817, 
History of Baptism; Ardiwologia, 
Vol. X., Obsi'i-oiifioHS on an Anri.-nt 
FontatBltrnhan, : \-A. XI.. X.^Ores 
of Fonts in Scil.nui : V^l, X.KV., 
Thomas Birhm.ms Lflbrs nil Err. 
Arch, in France. I'or illustrations 
of English fonts, see F. A. I'aley's 
Baptismal Fonts, London, 1844. 
— Caryl Coleman. 

gOIS LEONARD ; architect ; b. 
Sept. 20, 17G2 ; d. Oct. 10, 1853. 

Fontaine was a jjupil of Antoiue 
Francois Peyre (see Peyre, A. F.). 
In 1785 he went to Rome, where 
he was joined by Charles Percier 
(see Percier). He was associated 
with Percier in Paris, and together 
they were made directors of the 
decorations of the opera house. 
When Napoleon became First Con- 
sul they were made his architects, and retained 
that position under the Euijiire. Percier and 
Fontaine restored the cliatiuux nf Malmaison, 
Saint-Cloud, Compifegiic, \ rvsuiilcs, and other 
imperial residences. They restored the buildings 

1814 Percier retired from their association. 
Fontaine was court architect of Louis XVIII., 
for whom he built the Chapelle Expiatoire in 
the Rue d'Anjou, Paris. During the reign of 

Font of Stone, at Ur( 

;ar Laon (Aisnk), France, 

Font OK Stonk: Knoi.ish Cchik, c Ija). 

of tiie court of tlie Louvre, and ilcnigned and 
built the Arc de Triomphc du Carrousel. They 
laid out the Rue de Rivoli, and built additioiw 
to the palace of the Tuilerics iu that street. In 

Charles X. he was architect to the Duke of 
Orleans, for whom he restored and enlarged the 
Palais Royal. He was chief arcliitect of Louis 
Philippe. During this reign he renio<lellcd the 
garden in front of the Tuilerie.s, thus contrib- 
uting to the defacement of the monument of 
Philibert De I'Orme (see De I'Orme, P.). Fon- 
taine was architect in charge of the Louvre, tlie 
Tuileries, and the royal buildings until 1848. 
From 1831 to 1833 he was architect of the 
Theatre Franc^ais, Paris. In 1849 he was 
chosen president of the Consfil ilrs hdtimoit.t 
ririls. (FortiielM,nks i„iblishe,l bv I'ereierand 
Foiitaineine(,llal)..r.itinii,seel'eivier.) Fontaine 
piibli.siicd alone a Jlistuin' ih< I'aJais Jioynt, 
4to, 61 pi. 

Maurice Du Seigneur in Planat's Encyclopidie ; 
C\\. Lucas in La Grande Encydopedie. 

FONTANA, CARLO; architect; b. 1634; 

. 17 

I not known that Carlo was related to 
citiier Donienico or Ciovanni Fontaiia (see 
Fontana, D. and (}.). He Wius a pupil of 
Bernini (see Rernini). He built the facade of 
the church of S. Marcello in tiie (Nji-so (Rome, 
1683), the monument of Queen Christina of 
Swwlen in S. Peter's church (1689), the fac^julo 
of the church of S. Maria in Triwtovere (1702), 


tlie cupola of the cathedral of Montcfiascone and 
the cathetlral of Fulda ( 1 69G). The villa of the 
princes of Liclitenstein at Vienna was built from 
his designs between 1697 and 1700. He built 
the Palazzo Bolognetti (now Torlonia), Rome, 
1G80, the Palazzo Grimani, Rome, the Villa 
Viseonti at Frascati, and the great ])ortal of the 
Palazzo Reale at Genoa. Foutana succeeded 
Mattia de' Rossi as architect of S. Peter's church 
in the reign of Innocent XII. (Pope 1G91-1700), 
and published his descriptive monograph, Tern- 
plum Vaticanitin, in 1694. He published also 
works on the Flavian Amphitheatre, on the aque- 
ducts, and on the inundations of the Tiljer. 
Fontana designed several fountains in Rome. 
His nephews, Girolamo and Francesco Fontana, 
assisted him in his work. Girolamo built the 
cathcilral and fountains of Fniscati. 

Gurlitt, Geschirhte des Barockstilesin Jialien ; 
Ebe. ,'<iiatJleHaissance; Alilizia, Mcmorie. 

FONTANA, DOMENICO; architect; b. 
va:]-. d. 1607. 

Domciiieo Wius lx>m in Lombardy near Lake 
Como, and came to Rome during the lifetime 
of Michelangelo. He wjis a protkjf of the Car- 
dinal Montalto (Pope Si.\tus V.," 158.5-1590). 
AlM)ut 1580 he built this cardinal's villa (later 
Villa Negroni, Rome). When Montalto became 
Pope he nuule Domenico pontifical architect 
(1585). He built the lantern of the main 
cupola of S. Peter's church according to the 
designs of Michelangelo. Fontana moved the 
obelisk of Nero's circus from its old position 
to the Piazza di S. Pietro (1586). He also 
placed the obelisk of the Piazza del Popolo 
(1587) and that of the Piazzi di S. Giovanni in 
Laterano (1588). About 1586 he began the 
fa9ade of the northern transept of the church 
of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. He also 
built the Palazzo Laterano and the palace of 
Sixtus V. at the Vatican. The fountain of tiie 
Acqua Pjiola, Rome, is usually credited to his 
brother Giovanni (see Fontana, G.). Domenico 
designed the similar fountain of the Termini, 
Rome. He built the facade of the Palazzo 
Quirinale in the Via Pia (see Ma.scherino). In 
1592 Domenico removed to Naples, and built 
there the Palazzo Reale. 

Ebe, Spat- RenainMnce ; Strack. RniKtenkmiiler 
noms; .Milizia, Memnrie : Siusso, Mouumrnii di 
yapoli; Falda. F<iutnnp di Itnmn. 

tan:i. Carlo.) 

FONTANA, GIOVANNI; architect; b. 
aU.ut 1510; d. 1614. 

Giovanni came to l^)n)e with his younger 
brotiier Domenico (see Fontana, I).), whom he 
a»wistc<l in many of his undertakings. He was 
engineer and contractor rather tiian arciiitect, 
and wiiH esjK'<'ially concerned with the restora- 
tion and constniction of )U|ue<lucts, laying out 
streets, and the like. He arranged the water- 


works in the Vatican gardens and at the ViUa 
Mondragone, at Frascati. The design of the 
fountain of the Acqua Paola, Rome, is attrib- 
uted to Giovanni, although it is doubtless quite a.s 
uuieh the work of his brother Domenico and his 
nephew. Carlo Matlerna (see Madema, C). 
When Domenico went to Naples in 1592 Gii>- 
vanni succeeded him as papal architect under 
Clement VIII. (Pojie 1592-1605). 

For liiMioirrapliy. see Fontana, Domenico. 


FONT ANT. ANTOINE; sculptor and ar- 

Worked at the chateau of La Rochefoucauld 
(Charente) during the second half of the six- 
teenth century, and his sculptured portrait, 
with the date 1838, is to be seen in the ImiIus- 
tratle of the great staircase, his name lieing 
carved in an adjoining panel. 

Bauchal, Dictionnaire ; Lance, Dictionnaire ; 
Michon. Slatislique monnmentale de la Charente 
el la Rurhefoucauld ; Eyrlfes, Chateaux historiques 

FONT COVER. A lid for a baptismal 
font ; usually movable, and suspended aliove 
the font either by a counterpoise or by a swing- 
ing crane, to all of which apparatus a highly 
decorative character is generally given. The 
cover, or lid proper, is usually canied out in 
the same architectural design, agreeing with 
that of the font itself. In a few cases the 
font is enclosed at top with an immovable 
structure ; a sort of prolongation uj)ward of 
the bowl itself, but opening on one side, at 
lojist, by means of a door. (Cnt, cols. 61, 62.) 

(.S,.. <;,...■..„„, ,1, 11a Quercia.) 

FOOT BASE. A moul.iing alnnc a plinth. 

FOOTING. The lowermost part of a foun- 
dation wall, cs]jecially the wide base course, or 
the series of stepped courses which begin with 
stones or concrete three or four times as wide as 
tiie siiperstructure, and gradually grow narrower. 
(Sec Fomwlatioii.) 

FOOTING STONE. Any stone intended 
for the ioiistnictioii of a fcxiting ; especially, a 
broad, Hat stone for forming the base coui-se of 

FOOT LEVEL. A pocket instrument con- 
sisting of a foot nUc hinged in the middle and 
iiaving a small spirit level set in the edge of 
one arm, and generally containing a pivoted 
and graduated bhwle by which any angle formed 
by the two anns of the rule may lie subtemiwl 
and me;isured ; or by which may Iw determined 
the slope made by one arm with the horizontal 
a.-^ shown by the level. 

FOOTLIGHT. One of a series of lights 

along the front etlge of a theatrical, or similar, 

stage, which they light while being Cdiuealed 

from the audience. In the letter theatres, 


L J-r- ^trr^ 

It Wiis.-.ist ill 1U6. 

these lights are (I'JOU) In-iiig gradually alian- 
(loiivtl, and other Kystoiiis of illuuiiiiatiuii intro- 
duced by means of which the stage is lighted 
in a nioi-c realistic manner, avoiding the awk- 
wanl aiiiH.'arance of shadows cast upward from 

FOOTPACE. (See Pace.) 

FOOTSTAIiL. A. The lowermost part of a 
sujjjMirting member, as of a pier or pillar, hav- 
ing generally some distinctive architectural treat- 
ment ; tlms the moulded footstall of a raediieval 
pillar corresixinds to the base of a Greco- Roman 

IS. The petlcstal whidi supports a pillar, 
altar, statue, or tlic like. 

FOOTSTONE. .1. (See Gravestone.) 

/>'. Same as a Knecler, when situated at the 
f.H.t cf thrs|,,| :, ir.ihle wall. 

FOOT TABLE ( S,r Fractable.) 

sculptor and medalist ; b. about 1452 ; d. alxjut 

Caradosso was boni in Lombardy, the son of 
a jeweller. At the court of Lodovico Sforza 
(II Moro), in Milan, he was associated with 
Leonardo da Vinci (see Leonardo da Vinci) 
and Bramante (see Bramante). The charming 
terra cotta frieze in the sacristy of the church 
of S. Satiro, at Milan, was undoubtedly made 
by him. 

Miintz. f.n Hi'iiaissinirr a Vepoqne (le Charles 
VIII.: I!.ii"l..tti, Anisii Lombardi a Iluma. 

FORCING HOUSE. A greenhouse espe- 
cially adaptid ti) an almormal stimulation of 
the growtii of plants. (See Greenhouse.) 

FORE-AND-AFT (adj.). Extending from 
the front to tiie rear; longitudiiuil. In the 
United States, sjiid of partitions, or the like, 
whicli lie in the direction of the length of the 
typical city house, and, therefore, generally, 

FORE CHOIR. Same as Antechoir. 

FORECOURT. The outer court of a large 
building, or ius.scndilage of buildings. The en- 
trance to a palace or a jmblic building of impor- 
tance is commonly througii an outer court, the 
forecourt, which givcj* access to many difierent 
iloorways, and which is reache<l fmm without 
by a gate, or gates, in an iron railing. Where 
tlie main buildings consist of a centre and two 
wings which advaiwe on either side, tiie fourth 
side iR'ing closed by a railing or a wall or lower 
and HulK)rdinate buildings, the court witiiin is 
eonunonly the forecourt, as tiiere will be no 
outer one. Vehicles are commonly excluded 
from the forecourt, except the carriages of dis- 
tinguished personages. (See Cour d'Honneur.) 

FOREMAN. The chief of some depart- 
ment of a workshoj) or industrial establish- 
ment : especially, in the building trades, the 
head man among the em])loyee« and the second 
in command to his employer, representing him 


in his absence. The term is .st)mctime8 applied 
to the senior or chief workman on a given joli, 
as in the work being done uix)u a single build- 
ing. (Sec Boss, III.) 

FORE ROOM. The princii)al riMini of a 
residen<-e ; a parlour or reception i\K>ni. (United 
States or local.) 

FORK. Same as Cnitcli. 

])ractice of landscape arcliitectiu-e when applied 
to designs of a regular and symmetrical charac- 
ter; that is, with little reference to natural 
dispositions, but rather on a geometrical plan, 
with straight walks, clijjpcd hetlges, carefully 
arranged grouping of trees, and comparatively 
a large amount of architectural adornment in 
the wav of parai)ets, terraces, pedestals, anil 
tlie like. (Sec Garden : Landscaiie Architec- 

sculptor and architect. 

He was a native of Valencia, Spain, and 
studied in Italy. There is a record of jiayment 
to him on March 8, 1511, for the great retable 
of the cathetlral of Zaragoza, Si)aiii. 



MASO ; builder and architect ; d. April, 149J. 

In 148-t Formentoue was syudiais of the 
guild of carpenters at Vicenza. He appears in 
records of U89, 1490, 1491, and 1492 as su- 
perintendent of the works at the Palazzo deila 
Ragione (Vicenza), afterward transforme<l into 
the Basilica (see Palladio). In 1498 he pre- 
sented the model for the Palazzo Pubblico, at 
Brescia, Italy. 

Masrini, Tomaso Formenton in Archivio Ve- 
ni-lit. Vol. III. ; Zaniboni, Mnnnrie inturne alle 
jiiilihlichp Fahhriche della citth di Brescia. 

FORMERET. In French usage, a longi- 
tudinal arch of a series of vaults. In a French 
Gothic church of the usual type the formerets 
are the arches in the outer side walls and the 
eorresiwndiiigones along the in.side of the aisles, 
fonniiit,' i)art of the supjwrt of the clearetory 
walls. ■ 

FORNICATION. The process, or act, of 
covering with a vault ; vaulted roofing or cov- 
ering. (See Fornix.) 

FORNICIFORM. In the shai)e of a vaulte<l 
roof or ceiling. (See Fornix.) 

FORNIX. An arch or vault, especially un- 
der a building; a triumphal arch ; a sjilly ])ort 
in a wall ; the classioU Latin term akin to J'or- 
iiK.s ami fitriiun (an oven), and thus to furnace, 
and the root word of several terms given above, 
signifying arched, or vaulted. In late Latin it 
is used for a brothel (in Rome, often an under- 
ground vaidted chamlier), whence fornication 
in the criminal sense. 

FORSTER, LUD"W1G: ;ir.iiitect ; b. 1797 
(at Bayrcuth, Bavaria); d. June IG. 18G;i. 


Forster received his training at the academy 
in Munich and from the architect Nobile in 
Vienna. He had a considerable practice in 
Vienna. His most important undertaking was 
the estabhshment in 1836 of the Allgememe 
Bauzeitung, Vienna, the leading German archi- 
tectural periodical. 

Seubert, Kunstler-Lexicon. 

FORT. A fortified post, usually small, and 
often one out of many such works which to- 
gether make up a Fortress. By extension, the 
term is applied to advance posts of a civilized 
government among savage or barbarous people, 
even if the fortifications are slight and rather 
formal than for real defence. 

FORTIFICATION. A. The art and prac- 
tice of making a post defensible, as in protect- 


assailant approaching \ery near to the wall and 
trying to undermine it, or to effect a breach in 
it, or to ascend it by means of ladders, or else 
to force the gate. Great height of wall and 
elaborate preparation at top of such wall for 
the shelter of the defenders was therefore the 
primary requisite. (See Castle.) In modern 
times, however, no masonry is visible except in 
the case of the seacoast "castles" as they are 
calliil, that is to say, works intended to resist 
only the attacks of ships and to prevent the 
pa.ssiug of .such ships into a harbour or river 
mouth or the Uke. A modern fortress presents 
to the eye of the beholder from outside nothing 
but a series of grassy slopes ; and within, the 
walls which rise around the enclosure of a forti- 
fied city and which belong to the fortifications, 


ing a city against attack or in providing a place 
of shelter which will enable a small number of 
men to hold out against the attack of a larger 

B. A structure, or series of structures, for 
the purpo.se described above. 

Modem fortification begins with the great 
engineers of the .seventeenth century, and it 
has reached in our time a development wiiich 
makes its study a very serious and important 
branch of science. Ancient fortification is more 
attractive to the architectural student because 
the rcHults of its most skilful and scientific 
operations are pictures([ue and ettective, wiiether 
in ruins or in complete rejjair. 

It is to lie (ihMcrvcd ttiiit licfore the invention 
and (-oiKiilciMl,!,' d. \r|,,|iinciii of attack by 
means ..l' -iiii|miw.|(i, ihi- .l.-tciu-i! of the walls 
of a castle ni- city ua- \criical or nearly SO, the 

are usually the walls of barracks only, or else 
are unbroken smooth pieces of inside facing of 
ramparts and the like, having no battlements, 
nor openings of any kind. 

(For minor and more temporary fortifications, 
see Block House ; Palisade.) (Cut, cols. G7, 
6S.) — R. S. 

FORTRESS. A strong place ; a town or 
city fui'nishcd with a citadel and surrounded 
by fortifications, or more rarely a post fortified 
in an elaborate way though not having within 
its walls any inhabited district; a strong and 
extensive fortified jjlace of any epoch. 

FORUM. 1m ilonian archasology, a public 
market jilaco or open square; used in earlier 
ages as tlie one principal centre of a town. 
The Roman Forum (Forum Ronianum ; Fonun 
Magmim) was the narrow valley Ix-twccn the 
Palatine Hill on the southwest, the Capitoline 


Hill on the northwest, and the Viminal Hill on 
the northeast, the ground rising slowly toward 
the southejist to the Celian Hill. This small 
space coidd hardly be eulargeil because of the 
rising ground un everj' side of it, and also 
iMJcause of the important buildings with whiih 
it was surrounded and which eneroached upon 
it on every side. The temples whose ruins still 
remain were late edifices; but they stocxl on 
the sites of much earlier buildings, which sites 
were sacred and could not well be abandoned. 
But the building emi^erors seem to have been 
little inclined to enlarge the original forum even 
where that might have been done, on the north- 
east, but rather to have added oijen sijuares of 
their own which they surroundecl with stately 
buildings and which vastly surpassed the Fi 


FORUM BOARIUM. Between the Tiber 
and tiie I'ulatiiic- Hill and including the temple 
of Vc-t:i. ()ii.;:iii:illy the cattle market. 

FORUM MAGNUM. Same as Forum 
RouiaMui... (S,v Fciuin.) 

FORUM OF AUGUSTUS. North of the 
Fonim Komauum, with which it was connecte<l 
by the Forum of Ca'sar. It contained the 
temple of Mars the Avenger (Mars Ultor) ; 
and large fragments of the tcmjjle and the 
bounding wall still remain visible from the Via 
di Tor de' Conti. 

Juliuui). Budt by Julius immediately in con- 
nection with the Fonun Romanum, on the 
northwestern side and due north of the rostrum 
and the Mamertine prison. It 

:; > ■! 



■ e e 


\. Church: Cathbdbai. of Coimuka, Poktical. 

Magnum in splendour as well as in size. (See 
the names of these Imjjerial Fora below.) Be- 
sides those wliich are known to have existed, it 
i.s altogether probable tliat tlie great stnictures 
north of tiie Cajiitol, and which are a.ssociated 
with the names of the Antoniiie emperors, were 
also groujjcd around fora. The fora of other 
Italian cities occupy but little i)lace in archiuo- 
logic^l study, but there were many towns in 
Italy, in Cis-Aljiine Gaul, etc., wiiosc names 
are composed with the term, as Forum Appii 
in Latiuin, Forum Cornelium, now Imola, in 
north Italy, Fonnn Julii, now Frejus, on the 
French Kiviera. (For a similar u.se of an ar- 
chit<'ctunil term forming part of a iiroj)er name, 
see County Courthouse.) (Cut, cols. 69, 70.) 

hiis not lieen explored on account of the super- 
incumbent modern buildings; but it is known 
that it contained tl)e temple of Venus Genetrix. 

FORUM OF NERVA. Called al.-^o Fonim 
Transitorium, because aHording connection l)e- 
tween other fora. It was built during and 
after the reign of Nerva, and contained the 
Kjilcndid temple of Minerva. Tlie great columns 
called le cohinuace, and which stand on the 
Via della Croce Bianca, IxlongiHl to the interior 
facing of tlie Ixmndarv wall of this fonim. 

FORUM OP TRAJAN. The greatest of 
all the imi)erial foni of Home. It is generally 
held to include, first, tlie vast open K|)ace snr- 
rounde<l by a peristyle which adjoins the Fonim 
of Augustus on the nortliwcst ; tlicu the cnor- 

^ KlO O 

-^r. E ' ji 

!— I 




^; 1 

D H 






mous Basilica Ulpia, its loii^ a.s the fonun was 
wide, and iiaving oiii-, or jxrhaps two, roundeti 
apses at tiie uortiieast and southwest ends next 
the open wivmre in which stands tlie still exist- 
ing Column of Trajan, and which had on either 
side of it a library building, and, finally, far- 
ther to the northwest and toward the Capitol 
and the Quirinal Hill, the temple of Trajan, 

rOSSATI. GASPARD: architect. 
In 1S47, iindd the sultan Alxlul Mcsjid, 
Fossati began the restoration of the church of 
S. Sophia at Constantinople. He published Aya 
iSofia, Conslanlinople, as recent It/ restored, 
London, 1852 folio. 

Lothaby and Swaiiison, The Church of Sancta 

Restored plan, 

Forum of Trajan. 

a-sllica and temple enclosure. The column of Trajan Is thf object b< 

with another great space around it faced by a 
continuous colonnade. This whole group of 
buildings wa.s called by aucient writers, and 
with evident rea.son, the most magnificent thing 
in Rome or in tlie world. 

FORUM PACIS. Built by Vespasian; 
southeast of the Forum of Augustu.s, with the 
space between them in which the Forum of 
Ner\'a was built afterward. The forum con- 
tained the temple of Peace of which no frag- 
ment is now known to exist ; but the groimd 
hivs not been explored, nor even the buildings 
upon it removed. 

FORUM ROMANUM. (Sec definition 


I Forum 


of Neivaabov.) 

at the southern iioint of the city, and west of 
the Stal)ian Gate, about :{80 feet in extreme 
length, and situated on tlie verge of a low cliff 
which itself, with but slight additions to its 
height, formed the ilefeiice of the town at that 
point. It contained a Grecian Doric teini)le 
which is completely ruined, but seems to have 
been heptastyle (a very rare form) with eleven 
columns on the flank, and p.seudo-dipteral. 
The fomm was faced on two sides by a colon- 
narle, and an Ionic portic^i at the northern end 
served as a principal entrance. ' 

FOUNDATION. The base or substructure 
which sup])orts a building. It is a])plied l>oth 
to the platform, either natural or artificial, jjre- 
pared for carrying the structure, and to the 
base of the wall or pier as enlarged to distrib- 
ute the weight upon the platform. There are 
certain general principles which are applicable 
to all classes of foundations. 

1. Upon the natural .soils the base of the 
masonry must be sutticient to tninsmit to the 
subsoil no more weight per unit of area than it 
will bear with safety. 

2. The supporting surface must be as nearly 
homogeneous as possible and of eijual resistance 
throughout, in order to avoiil the necessity of 
elaborate methods to overcome such inequality. 

3. The surface must Ix; horizontid in one or 
several planes, or perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of the pressure upon it. 

4. The centre of pressure must coincide as 
nearly as po.ssible with the centre of magnitude 
of the base. 

5. The base of the foundation shotdd be sunk 
below the reacli of frost, even in rock ; and in 
imjiortant buildings of a jwrmanent character 
they should go much deejter to guard against 
unforeseen changcji of surface or other disturb- 
ing causes. 

6. The soil upon which it is proiwsed to build 
must bo carefully examined and tested, lest an 



apparently firm ground be of little thickness 
and cover a soft underlying stratum. Where 
possible the bearing power of the ground should 
he ascertained, and the permanent load propor- 
tioned accordingly, and if necessary the exca- 
vation must be continued until a sufficiently 
resisting material is found. The excavations 
and experience of neighbouring buildings upon 
the adjoining soil form a useful guide. 

The enlargement of the base of the wall or 
pier to distribute the load over a larger surface 
is termed the footing. It is usually spoken of 
as made in steps, but this need not be, although 
if made of flat stones it naturally assumes that 
form. To resist cross strains upon the footing, 
its height should be about twice its projection. 
If made of a single bed of Portland cement con- 
crete, its thickness may be once and a half its 
projection, lest it be broken off by the reaction 
of the compressed earth. 

The condition that the centre of pressure 
shall coincide with the centre of figure of the 
base cannot generally be fultillcd in foundations 
upon city lots where tlic wall nt' tliv building 
extends to the limit of the Int, ami where any 
increase of width of base iini.-t lie inaile on the 
inside of the wall. When this is done the 
weight is no longer evenly ilistiiliutcd, but is 
greater at the edge nearer tlic cLutre of press- 
ure. If, for instance, the footing be made 
to project on the inside only of the wall, and 
this projection be one half the thickness of the 
latter, the maximum pressure upon the soil will 
be at the outer edge, and one-third greater than 
if there were no footing. With ordinary build- 
ings on firm ground a niodorntr drviatirni is not 
serious. In the tall storl -k, Irtmi l,uiMin ■■. in 
which great weights are lii'i'M'j III ii|miii the iMnnts 
of support, the exterior w.ilN aiv .Miiird \>y cm- 
tilevers which restcentrally\i|iMii |.ii is well within 
the limits of the site. (Sn' lion ( '..nstruction.) 

Of the natural soils, IkipI -oli,| n.rk, rcniented 
and indurated gravels, ]iaiti,i]l\ .In Mm |, used rocks 
which can with difficult) In' . m r.itrl with the 
pick, whose stability is not iihiluk ,1 l.y satura- 
tion, which are not displarcl l,y tlir inovciiicnt 
of sub.surface water, and wlndi do not ino\c 
laterally under pressure, tli.>r ;nv iiv.ncd as 
incompressible. Solid rock ir.[iiiics only to be 
excavated to a depth below the reach of atmos- 
pheric influences, to have soft parts removed, 
wide joints and seams filled up, and, if much 
inclined, to be made nearly level. Hard rock 
will safely bear any pressure that can Ikj bronglit 
upon it by masonry. If very rough it may be 
levelled witli a lud' of concrete. 

If it -lioiiM Ik necessary to place upon rock 
a heavily loaded steel or iron column, witli its 
lied jilate or without it, a special study should 
be made. 

Partially decomposed gianite and gneiss rttcks, 

indurated gravel, etc., will Ixjar safely 10 tons 



(2000 pounds each) to the .square foot. They 
need only to be levelled, and soft loose parts 
removed. Coarse gravel in a thick bed will carry 
8 tons. Quartzose sand at a moderate depth, 
protected from flowing water, can be loaded with 
4 tons per square foot with a slight initial com- 
pression — a fraction of an inch. If, however, 
the sand is exposed to the action of flowing 
water, and especially to water rising from be- 
low (springs), it is very unstable, and more so 
if it is very fine or micaceous. These sands 
settle into a hard and compact mass if the flow 
of water can be stopped ; otherwise they are of 
the most intractable, and each case generally 
requires special treatment. 

The condition of the sand must be considere<l 
in each case. In deep excavations it has already 
received a certain compression from the super- 
incumbent weight, but freshly moved sand may 
be compressed nearly twenty per cent by ram- 
ming and flooding with water. Artificial means 
of preventing lateral movement due to pressure, 
such as sheet-piling, are rarely necessary, the 
resistance of the adjacent earth being generally 
sufficient and increasing with the depth. This 
fact permits the weight that can be borne by 
the sand to be considerably increased beyond 
the limit named above. Compacted sand, after 
a slight initial compression, yields only by lat- 
eral flow, which in extreme eases lifts the adja- 
cent surface. The remedy for this is to increase 
the depth of the foundation until the lateral 
resistance is sufficient to prevent the movement. 

Clay varies greatly in character. Clays suit- 
able for making bricks, those resulting from the 
decomposition of the granitic rocks, are very 
suitable for foundations in dry places. Those 
CMiiiiiig from the feldspars — and some of the 
traiisi)orted clays have a great affinity for water 

— are very soft and wholly undesirable for foun- 
dations. The former will generally bear with 
safety 3 or 4 tons to tlie square foot, but it is 
better to limit the ihvssiiiv to 2 or 2-|- tons. 
It is true that liuihliiiL;> ha\e 1 u'en erectccl which 
bore nioie li.a\ily u|ioii ilnir toiuidations than 
the weiudiis heie -i\r]i ; l.iit soils vary in char- 
.icter by intinileh Mnall delves, and it is im- 
|,osMl,|e't,Mletine/lnMl\ t lie I , ni Us of one Variety, 
'{'he picssures here <:i\en are safe for ordinary 
earths of the kintls described. 

On soils like that of Chicago, — a soft, satu- 
rated clav, with a firm layer oti top, which will 
bear .'5000 to jOOO p.unnis to ili,. square foot, 
and where no helter material \souM lie reached 
by further e\ea\alion uilliin leasoiiahle limits, 

— very \\id<' lootuj^is ina.\ be. made hy the use 
of steel beams bedded in concrete. The weight 
upon each column or jiier nuist be computed, 
and the area of its ba«e carefully proportioned 
to the weight. Upon tliis area, first covered 
with a bed of concrete 12 to 18 inches thick, is 
laid a course of steel beams ; upon them, trans- 


versely, a narrower course is laid, auJ then, if 
iietnl Ije, others, uutQ the bedplate of the pier 
is reached. As each course of steel is laid, tiue 
concrete is rammed between the Ijeams. The 
projection of each course beyond the one above 
it is just what the transverse strength of the 
beams will permit them to carry of the i)ressure 
on the foundation or of the reaction of the soil. 
If beams of sufficient strengtli are used, more 
than two courses will rarely be required. The 
column should rest on a large rigid peilestal. 
It should be noted that in these concrete-steel 
foundations, and in all other cases where cross 
strains come upon concrete, tiiat material is to 
be made with Portland cement, with not more 
than tiiree parts of .sand. 

The methoil of wide foundations may be ap- 
plied to timber platforms, where tliey can lie 
used ; that is, when in water or in permanently 
wet earth. Thick planks or timbers are laid 
transversely of the trench ; upon these longitu- 
dinal timbers are placed, and, if necessary, other 
transverse and longitudinal pieces, depending on 
the width of foundation and strengtii of the 
transverse timljers. The longitudinals distrib- 
ute the weight lengthwise of the wall. This 
system of timber or iron beam footings is known 
as grillage. The piers of a railway bridge over 
the Susquehanna rest upon grillages which are 
real pyramids of 12-inch timbers crossing each 
otiier in alternate layers, the bottom course 
resting on piles. 

Excavations for foundations, more especially 
on city lots, even of moderate depth, frequently 
need to be supported by sheet piling or shores. 
It will sometimes be more economical, and much 
more safe for adjacent buildings, to excavate for 
piers or short lengths of wall, and connect them 
alx)ve by arches if a continuous wall is needed, 
the pits being filled with concrete. This method 
may be adojjted up to depths of 20 or 30 feet if 
a firm substratum is found at that depth. To 
av(jid disturbance of surrounding gi'ouud alter- 
nate jjiers may be made, and the intermediate 
holes can then be .safely excavated. 

If the accessible strata underlying a building 
are not sufficiently strong to sui)i)ort its weiglit, 
the following methods present them.sclves : ( 1 ) 
the surface may be compacted to a certain 
depth ; or (2) the weiglits may be transmitted 
to a lower bearing stratum by means of ])iles ; 
or if the bearing stratum is at too great a 
depth to \m.\ reached by piles, (.3) long jiilps 
may be driven into the softer soil, which will 
resist displacement an<l support the weight by 
the friction of the soil upon the surface of the 

Timber piles are used in two ways : to trans- 
mit the weight ujion them flirectly to a hard 
stratum too deep to Ik; economically reached in 
other ways ; or, wlien the hard stratum cannot 
thus be readied, to Hupport tlieir load by their 


friction in the earth. In the former case, if 
the soU is stifi" enough to give some lateral sup- 
jjort to the pile, it may be loaded with as much 
as the timber will sjifely bear. If in water for 
a considerable part of its length, or in a fluid 
ground, it must be treated as a long column, 
subject to bending strains. If hard ground is 
to be penetrate<i, the pile may need an iron 
shoe to jjrevent its point from being bruised 
and broomed. The best shoe is a cast-iron 
solid cone with a flat base, in which is a pin to 
enter the foot of the jiile and hold the shoe in 
place. The end of the pile, cut square, has 
thus a firm bearing on the shoe. Care must 
be taken that the pile is solidly fixed for at 
least a part of its length. Bridge piers built 
on short piles through silt, though resting on 
hard rock, have come to grief through the tilt- 
ing of the piles. If the pile does not reach a 
bearing stratum its resistance to sinking will 
be due to its friction in the soil. For this c&ne 
there is no general rule, although formulas in- 
numerable have been published. These aim to 
deduce the weight which will be safely borne 
from the penetration of the pile under the last 
blows of a ram of certain weight ftxUing from a 
given height. The uncertainty of the results in 
due to the variable character of ditt'erent soils. 
The nde which l)est applies to the theoretical 
conditions is that of Weisbach and of Colonel 
Mason (U. S. A.), which probably gives results 
relatively correct for the same soil. It' is as 

follows : the load to be borne = — x ;, 

s w + ic'' 

in which w = weight of ram, tc', weight of pile, 
h — height of fall, and s = j)enetration of pile 
at last blow. For ordinary mixed soils of sand 
and clay, the results of this formula should be 
divided by 4 to obtain safe results. 

But, as has been said, the relation between 
))enetration and loatl varies with difierent soils. 
In .some soft inaterials, piles which have pene- 
tratii! f • 11' re under a single blow, 

after I have not moved at all 

undn In a mtxlcrately firm, 

])lasti' .:. ! - . u on the .surface of the 

jiile may be ukcii at GOO pounds to the square 
foot. In sand, piles are with difficulty driven 
with the ram or hammer. Tliey are eiisily put 
down by means of a "water jet." This means 
a small pipe carried down to the point of the 
pile through which water is forced. The water 
rising along the i)ile loosens the sand, and the 
l)ile will frequently sink l)y its own weight. 
Tlie efficiency of the jiiie driver incrcjuses more 
rapidly with tiie weight of the hummer than 
witli the height of fall. For this rejison the 
steam hammer is the more efficient, l)cing a 
very heavy hammer with short and rajiid stroke. 
Experience, as well as theory, demonstrates that 
the blow of the hammer on the sound wood of 


the pile is much more effective than when the 
head of the pile is crushed and '-broomed." 
With the steam hammer it is possible to avoid 
broominj^ altogether by placing a steel plate or 
an iron cap on the pile. 

The piles, being driven, are cut off at, or be- 
low, low-water level, and either capped with 
hard timbers upon which a floor of planks is 
laid, or the earth between the piles is excavated 
to a depth of a foot or more, and a bed of con- 
crete laid over the whole area occupied by piles 
and about a foot outside and over them, upon 
which the masonry may be built. Sometimes, 
to support a column or small pier, the piles are 
capped with large blocks of stone. In this case 
a large bedplate, or base, must be used, lest 
the weight, coming upon the edge of the stone, 
may cause it to tip, and throw excessive weight 
on a few piles. 

If piles support a wall exposed to lateral 
pressures, as a quay wall, some of them should 
be driven obliquely, pointing from the wall, and 
fastened to the foundation, to act as buttresses, 
and prevent the wall being pashed out of line. 

Some earths in water are so soft that they 
will not hold the piles. The latter may be 
kept in place by a mass of riprap (loose stone) 
filled between and around them. 

Of the different methods of consolidating soft 
ground, that of short piles or sand piles is the 
most simple. It is of no value, however, in 
soils soft enough to flow under low pressures. 
In this method short piles are driven close to- 
gether, not to reach a bearing stratum or to 
hold by friction, but to compress laterally the 
mass they penetrate, and so harden it. To be 
of value they should cover a much larger area 
than the base of the foundation, otherwise it 
would only transmit its load to a lower stratum 
of the same low-bearing ]")\v(i-. it nuist also 
extend to such depth tliat thr uinlrrlving ground 
will be confined by the ad.jari nt soil. If the 
ground is dry, timber ]iil(< will ii^t Kr durable. 
They may be drawn, ami iln liil-v till.Ml with 
coarse sand well conii)ai I.. I. A Hmilar surface 
consolidation has been |jraiii-ril m liain'c. A 
long metal cone is (haven inln ila' suii, with- 
drawn, and the hole tilled with ^aml. Tlnsc 
methods are not recominiaiiJiMl uiiji'ss ti>v liu'lit, 
temporary structures. Such sand ])ik's exert a 
lateral i)rcssure upon the surrounding ground. 

The wide foundation trench filled with sand or 
gravel is of vahie when it transmits the xvei..ht 
to a depth where it will he e,,nline,| l.,te,,,||v. 

Inverted arches are s.mirtMn.. um,! I,e|ur,n 
detaeh.'d piers to tran.-niil the load .,vcr the 
len-th of til,' enntinnnn. InotinK between them, 
ami it 1,^ .-ahl that the \\ Imle area of a building 
has lieen rnveied with inverted groined arches, 
the pieis lesting (III their reversed abutments. 
These methods arc quite efficient for the inter- 
mediate piers, but the terminal, or outside piers, 


are supported on one side only, and the thrust 
of tlie arches tends to displace them. Special 
provision must be made to meet this condition. 
In general, such foundations are neither desir- 
able or necessary. 

The weight upon the foundations of the mod- 
em steel skeleton buildings of great height ren- 
ders it necessary that they shoidd rest directly 
upon the rock, or its equivalent, when the rock 
is some distance below the water line, as in 
parts of New York. This is accomplished by 
the use of cylinders, or caissons, sunk by means 
of compressed air. (See Caisson, I.) The 
cylinder foundations are similar to the caisson, 
and are put down in a similar manner by the 
use of compressed air. The cylinder reaches to 
the surt'are. The tulie connecting the air lock 
is placed in the e_\ linder, and weight given by 
filling aruuiid it witli concrete. The caisson 
has also been used, like a diving bell, in har- 
bour works. The masonry is built inside of 
it, and it is raised as the masonry is built up 
until within a few feet of water surface, when 
it is lightened and floated off. Thin cylinders 
of steel plates have also been sunk by means of 
water jets applied through a perforated ring 
around the bottom of the cylinder. If the 
ground is moderately free from boulders and 
from old timbers, the cylinder can be sunk with 
great facility. But it is still full of sand or 
mud, as the case may be, which must be ex- 
cavated from the surface, while the cylinder is 
kept from collapsing as the earth is removed 
from the inside by wooden frames at intervals. 
When excavated to the hard bottom, and the 
latter cleaned, it is filled with concrete depos- 
ited through the water ; or after a certain quan- 
tity of concrete has been placed, the cylinder 
may be pumped out, precautions being taken 
against collapse. 

In foundations under water, or water-holding 
material, if the site can be dredged or a level 
bed prepared oitlier liy na ans of piles, or on a 
bearing stratum, a |.u i ..i -ntion of wall may 
be built in an oi'lninN e,ii-.M,ii. a box with de- 
tachable sides an. I a -imii- il,„n-. It is floated 
to place and sunk eiiher li\ Imildinj,' up the 
masonry or by lettin- in wain-. The sides are 
then detached, lea\ mu the pier ^e^tilll,r ,,» atim- 

ber platform. If tin lott annot be prepared, 

a cofferdam is fre.pn ntly resorted to. If in shal- 
low water and clean rork hoitoin, posts are eon- 
neeteil l.y (liuhh' valini: pieces top and bottom, 
ami two emlo-uir^ of ,-ueli frames surround the 
Mte and aie ke|il Ml place by weights. " Slicet- 
jiiling " or plank.-, llieir lower end cut toa sharp 
edge, are placed between the walings and driven 
down on the rock so that the sharp end will fit 
its shape. The sjjace between the rows is tlicn 
filled with clay, gravel, or other water-tight ma- 
terial, after wliicli the cofferdam may be pumi)ed 
out, and the masonry laid "in the dry." If 


the water is deep aud the bottom sand or mud, 
heavy piles must first be driven to support the 
sheeting and all parts must be proportione<l to 
the pressures against them. The coflerdam in 
deep water lias been to a large extent superseded 
by the compressetl air caisson. 

ANTiere the water is not deep, a pier may be 
maile by filling with concrete a space surrouiidal 
1\V a permanent enclosure of sheet piling, upon 
a bottom first deiined to a firm substratum. 
The frame of the enclosure is made of jwsts witli 
double horizontal waling pieces. Tlie.se are put 
in place after the site is dredgeil and stout planks 
are put down between the double walings, form- 
ing a caisson to contain the concrete. The 
enclosure of timl>er and jilank remains per- 
manently. Concrete deposited through water 
is not 80 sound or strong Jis if laid "in the 
dry," but the structures built as descrilied above 
have been found durable and satisfactory. Other 
metiiods of foundation under water belong to 
large marine works wliicli do not concern the 
architect. — W. R. Hutton. 

Glenn Brown, Healthy Foundfitions for Houses 
(reprinted from the Sanitary Etujineer). 1 vol. 
12mo, 1«80, New York, Van Nostrand ; Jules Gan- 
dard. Foundations, translated by L. F. Vernon 
Harcourt, M.A., New York, Van Nostrand, 1801, 
1 vol. Iflrao ; George T. Powell, Foundations and 
Foundation Walls for all Classes of Builditigs, 
New York, 1880, 1 vol. 8vo. 

of a foundation ; or prepared for or fit for a 

Ji. One such stone prepared to be laid mth 
especial ceremony. (See Cornerstone.) 

FOUNDRY. A building or series of build- 
ings in which is carried on the operation of ca-st- 
ing metivl, including the furnaces for the melting 
of the metal. Architecturally, the building has 
really no character, a simple shed or open struc- 
ture, like a railway station of large size, form- 
ing the chief buililing, to which are .added in 
some ciuses sejjarate houses for stwim engines 
and otlicr appliances. 

FOUNTAIN. Originally, a spring or con- 
tinuous sujiply of water, natural or artificial, 
and hence, architectu- 
rally, a structure or 
artificial setting or 
mounting of such a 
water supply ; often 
extensive, costly, and 
architecturally splen- 
did. Fomitains are of 
two principal kinds : 
(1) tliose which offer 
a basin or several 
basins into which the 
water falls, and allow the water to be taken 
either direct from the spout or dij)ped from the 
baxin ; (2) those which are intended chiefly for 
decorative effect and only casually, and some- 


times not at all, for the purposes of persons 
wishing to draw water. 

Of ( 1 ) are the numerous fountains in the open 
squares of Italy, France, and other countries of 
Europe. The basin may be, as at Viterbo 
(built in the twelfth centurj), large and polyg- 
onal, with an upriglit shaft in the middle from 
which the water spurts ; of this kind are the 
public fountains at Salon in Provence, where 
tiiey are the chief water supply for the whole 
town. Of this da.ss also are tliose at Florence, 
adjoining the Palazzo Vecchio, the fountain 
built in the si.xteenth century with a group of 
Nejjtune and Triton by Ammanati, two much 
smaller fountains in the Piazza dell' Aimunziata, 
and at Rome, the great fountain in the Piazza 
Navona; as are also a great number of foun- 
tains, some small and unimportant, some large 
and magnificent. Most of the fountains in the 
United States are of this kind. Where the 
city is large and contains many fountiiins besides 
other arrangements for obtaining water, as nota- 
bly in Rome, those fountains with large round and 
polygonal basins are very commonly shut off with 
railings, and treated merely as works of art and 
as ornaments of the streets and squares in which 
they are situated. There are also those foun- 
tains in which the water springs from the face 
of a wall, the basin being on one side only. Of 
tliese the largest is the fountain of Trevi at 
Rome, but there are many others, sometimes 
very small, as where four fountains sjiring out 
of four ojjposite angle walls on the Via delle 
Quattro Fontane, and others very architecturally 
treated, as in Paris. 

Of (2) are especially those fountains at Ver- 
sailles which adorn the great gardens of the cha- 
teau and which are allowetl to play on Sundays 
and holidays ; sometimes in their complete force 
(les grandes en}ix), but more often in a reduced 
form, the cost being verj- great for each separate 
display. These fountains in their original fonn 
were the work of Louis XIV. at the time when 
the gardens were completed. At the garden 
of the palace of Herrenhausen, near Hanover, 
there are a few fountains, and one of these is 
of singidar beauty, the stream l>eiiig thrown to 
a height of something over two hundred feet in 
a single jet. 

There are some fountains which partake of 
both of these characters ; thus the two great 
fountains in Rtinie in the Piazza di S. Pietro, 
where each has two bjisins of bronze raised 
above tiie large one on the level of the square, 
the water rising alxjvc the ui)j)ermost basin in a 
small jet and falling again over the rim of it 
into the larger, and thence into the great basin 
below. These are imitated at Munich and in 
other cities of Europe, the charm being always 
in the constant flow of water in a sheet, not 
very large, but pleasant Iwth to the eye and ear. 
Somewhat akin to this system are those foun- 

nvf liv ilillcicnl si'iilplors. Allctilion may be called 
to the v(!ry unusual treatment ot the pilasters in 
connection with the diagonal rcssauts, and tlie 
heavy ribs of the roof. 


tains which depend for their effect entirely on 
the overflow from au upper basin. Such a one 
is that at the Trocad^ro palace in Paris, where 
the sheet of water is given a peculiarly beautiful 
effect. It is to be noted that extreme care is 
needed in the adjustment of such a basin to 
bring its edge to au exact horizontal plane, so 


primal motive of decoration being almost ignored. 
The cistern or other water supply is completely 
concealed, perhaps from motives of precaution 
to guard its purity, and the water runs in small 
streams from faucets. As a contrast to these 
structures is to be noted the great reliance placed 
upon the beauty of the moving water itself, and 


Fountain op thk <i\ 


\ 1 ^ -^ 1 I \N ) 

as to allow a thin sheet of water to o 


also its sound, in nearly all the Kumiu-an 

uniformly at all points. 


The touritains of Constantinn|ilc .hk 


Some recent iiivnitimis iiavr been eni])loyed 

MoliaiiiuHMhui cities are of a |.iruli:,i 

iimI III 

to diversify fountains still mun. ; thus in New 

tliat tliry c.uisisteachof asniiill .In.,,! 1, 


York, jets hav 1.,, n nit n.,|„,r,l which rise high 

polygonal or rectangular, fini.iiiMni.il, i|. 


and then sulisiiic tn a jnwcr elevation at very 

with colonnades, arcadr-, nn 1,, ,, ;,n.| . 


lirief intervals. (Ciils, e,.|s. S.'i, 84, 86.) 

besides carving and |i;niitr.| ii|.-. luii 



only very small basins toi,,-, ivc ilic wad 

r; tins 

York, ill Ceiitial Talk, at tlic foot of the Ter- 







race. The subject is " The Angel troubling the 

near the Jardin des Plantes ; built in the 
reign of Louis Philippe on the site of an earlier 


in the soutliwest, on the Kue de Grenelle. De- 
signed by Bouchardon in the reign of Louis XV. 
This fountain has an interesting architectural 
disposition, emblematic of the city of Paris, and 
the rivers Seine and Marne, with statues of the 
four Seasons in niches, and symbolical bas-reliefs. 

in the Place Louvois opposite the National 
Library. It is a very graceful design of Vis- 
conti, with sculpture by Klagmann, which, 
though it has been carried out in cast iron 
coated with bronze, is effective as seen through 
the veil of constantly fallini; water. 

near the great National Library, Rue Richelieu ; 
a wall fountain with a seated figure of Molifere 
by B. G. Seurre, and two statues of Muses by 

At Rome, in the Piazza del Quirinale ; famuus 
for the colossal groups of men restraining Imrscs ; 
called also Castor and Pollux. Of Greco-Koman 
style, prnbalily late. 

at the angle of tlie Palazzo Veccjiio, by Am- 
manati, sixteentii century. 

at the southern end of the liridge of the same 
name, built in 1860. 

in front of the chiucli of S. Sulpice ; designed 
by Visconti, and Imilt i.i IS.^,7. 

At Rome, on the ri<,dit bank nf th.' Tiber, near 
the church of S. Pietn. in .Moiitoriu, The basin 
and the ctlier .lccM,rations are ])artlv tai<en from 
ancient buildiii-s. 

Same as Fountain (jf Trevi, lielow. 

Paris. Now near the great market (Halles 
(Jentrales) and jdaced in a small sipiare. Tills 
was first built in the sixtrcnili (■cnluiy l)y I'ierre 
Lescot, with sculpture li> •Ii.im (.'Miijun ; l)ut it 
was moved in the rei^'ii ol' Lmiis .\\'|., murli 
altered and dcfacei], and the xundvxn restoration 
of it is (inly |i.ii I i.il. Its e.\([uisite bas-reliefs 
arc widely knnun, liut tlie fountain as it was 
originally desi;;neil exists oidy in more or less 
authentic prints ; it seems, however, to have 
been of exquisite design, and was certainly a 
high, upright, vaulted pavilion, with four arches 
in the four sides, each ffankcd by pilasters, 
above the entablatun; of which rose a sculp- 
tured attic ami a small eu|)oia. 


Alhambra, at Granada, Si)ain. It .stands in 
the middle of the court to which it gives its 
name. Court of the Lions. It consists of an 
alabaster basin, twelve-sided, and supported by 
twelve lions, which are very rudely carved, 
although their lack of realism may have some 
quasi-heraldic significance. 

in the Luxembourg Gardens, with several mytho- 
logical statues by Ottin. 

OVO. lnIl)i(M( tint ^\ltll tin 1 lonze boar, 
an ex((ll(nt ( op\ of tin mti |in in tlie Uftizi 

as Founti.in of the Innocents, al.ov.', 

At Pari.s, near the Luxembourg Gardens, built 
in 1874; remarkable for the group by Carpeanx 
of the four Quartera of the World supporting tlio 



Tartani-in). In the In-art ..| KdHK-, near the 


the work of Beniini. It stamLs in the Piazza 
Barlierini, in the uorthwestern corner of Rome, 
near the Villa Ludovisi. 

termination of the ancient aiiueduct, c«illecl Aqua 
Virgo (see Aiineduet). Tlie wat«r springs from 
an elaborate architectural fataile, forming one 
of the walls of the Palazzo Poll ; the basins 
in front of it are very large, and in places are 
accessible to all. The water is celebrated for 
its iturity, and tlitrc are interesting popular 
superstitions i-<iiicorninu' it. 

FOUR COURTS, THE. A public building 
in Dublin, Ireland ; built at the close of the 
eighteenth centurj'. It is occupied by the Courts 
of Chancery, of Queen's Bench, of Common Pleas, 
etc., and many minor offices. It contains deco- 
rative and historical sculpture, and is a building 
of importance. 

FOWI. HOUSE. (See Poultry House.) 

FOXTAIL WEDGE. A wedge of hard 
wood or Mittal, to .-secure a tenon, ])in, or the 
like, firmly in a mortise or other hole which 
does not e.xtend through the piece, by its inser- 
tion part way into the end of the tenon or pin, 
so that, when driven into the hole, the wetlge 
is forced up into the tenon or pin, forcing its 
sides apart. When the bottom of the mortise 
is wider than the mouth, a tenon so wedged 
cannot be withdrawn, iis it then forms a dove- 

FOX WEDGE. Same as Fo.xtail Wedge. 

FOYER. In French, a room for gatherings 
or meetings ; especially, in theatrical language, 
the room of meeting for the actors, the dancers, 
or other persons connected with the theatre, 
and to which, under certain conditions, other 
persons, such as patrons of the tiieatre, are 
admitted. In a large French theatre, the foyer 
of the actors is an important and even ricidy 
decorated hall. The term in French is also 
e.\tendetl to signify a jdace of promenade for 
the audience, as between acts, or during the 
long recess between two pieces. At a French 
opera house there will generally be three foyers, 
that of the singers, that of the ballet, and that 
of the public. 

The term is used in English in any or all 
of the above significations, and without much 
accuracy. — R. S. 

upon the gable wall of a biiilding when carried 
above the roof to form a jiarajtet ; esi>ecially, 
when broken into cur^•es, stejis, or tlie like. 
Special names have lieen given to different por- 
tions of the fractable, according to the various 
outlines of the gable; a flat portion at the 
bottom being coped with a Foot Table ; curved 

portions with Boltels or Bottles ; a rectangular 
step with its copings is a Square. 





ly '".7.-J ' 

% - 



(I.). A stmcture of smaller parts 
brou;:ht together to fonn a whole; especially, 
in building, an assembliige of slender and rcla- 


tively long pieces (see Framing). The 
of a house, when of masonry, is not called the 
frame, but the skeleton of wood or ironwork 
put up for a building or part of a building is 
so designated. Frames may be composed of 
hollow parts, as tubes or boxes : thus, the com- 
mon window frame of sliding sash windows 
is made of two upright boxes to contain the 
weights and cords, a sill below, and a head or 
yuke above. 

Box Frame. Same as Cased Frame. 

Cased Frame. A window frame for sliding 
sash having hollow uprights to contain the sash 
weights, called pidley boxes or pulley cases. 
These are composed of the pulley style, form- 
ing the jamb next the sash, 
and having at the top a pulley 
for each sash (usually two) ; the 
inside casing; the outside cas- 
ing ; and (except in cheap work) 
the back lining. These boxes 
form the two upright sides ; the 
head or yoke and the sill are 
secured to them. 

FRAME (II.). A border pre- 
pared to enclose and isolate a 
picture, bas-relief, or the like. 
The use of the frame in strirtly 
architectural practice is not \ i n 
common, because the wainv( i • 
ing, marble lining, stucco decni i 
tion, or the like, usually provii h - 
for the setting of whatever deco- 
rative panels may be inserted ; 
but in some styles of decoration 
the frame is designed es])ecially 
for the work of art, and in tliis 
case it may frequently l^e more 
or less movable. In Italy, in 
the seventeenth centuiy, paint- 
ings were often encloseil by ex- 
tremely massive, caiTcd, and 
coloured wooden fi-ames, having 
8 to 12 inches on the fiat and The walls and par 
4 or 5 inches projection, and tms is"^!! Gci-m* 
these often took varied forms, 
as oblong octagons, ovals, iind the like. The 
picture, or other work of art, with its frame, 
•■ ■ • ■ •■ ;i definite place; 


FRAME BOARD. Same as Panel Board. 

A house biult by means of a framework, usu- 
ally of timber and scantling. This, in modem 
times, is covered outside by boarding, shingUng, 
sheet metal, and the like, and within by wood 
slieathing or by plaster. In the Middle Ages 
ami ill the fifteenth and following centuries 
timber limises tlircmghout Eiu-ope were elabo- 
rately fi.uiicil, liiit were not sheathed as above 
descril)e(l. (See IJhiek and White Work; 
Chalet ; Half Timber ; Wood Construction, 
Part I.) 

FRAMING. Originally and properly, the 
putting together of parts to produce a whole ; 

roiild • 

' 1"'''I''' 



large flat ceilings of palaces and neoclassic 
churclies, were framed witii wood, carved and 
gilded, and the whole composition of many 
pietures and tlieir frames h;.s reiiiailU'.l in place 
periliaiieiitly for thre(' eeiitiiries. SoiiiethiM!,' 
(,f tiiis is seen in the iiinvaMe frames wlii.'ii 
are still retained aw mounts for portraits and 
other paintings of the same period. (For the 
Frame as used in Mural PaintingH, see Border.) 
— R. S. 

Frame House. 
Ions of studs, with intertles to carr>- floor-beams and for stiff- 
plo rafters, but with a curb enclosing the opening for a lantern, 
model ; and it Is shown that an outer shell of brick Is Intended. 

the making of a structure of definite form and 
purpose out of parts especially prepared for it. 

Til nind<M-ii building, especially the jnittiiiu' tn- 
'^rtlicr 'if sli'iidor and comparati\rl\ Ion-- piei !•>. 
siirh .1- Immiiis, joists, girders, ]i(i-i-, an. I ilie 
like, .if tiinlier; or similar or (■..n-esiioniliiig 
parts of iron ; or both in a skeleton ; wliich 
skeleton is the essential stracture of the build- 
ing or part of the building. By a peculiar forc- 
ing of this signifir.iticii, tlie teiiii wm-. f..nnerly 
used by carpenter^ r\rlii-i\ (■!> Ini- tlir putiin^ 

togetlier of u I l.\ m. m^ <■( nhuli-.s and 

tenons. This .lislmrti.m dr^appears, uf .•„urse, 
in ironwork of all kinds, and, in modern times, 
rar(!ly obtains in any class of work. — 11. S. 
Balloon Framing. (See under B.) 


Braced Framing; Full Framing. In the 

Unitt^l States, tlie iiu-tlnxl uf coustnicting 
■wooden buildings iu which the priueipal timbers, 
as posts and girts, arc secured by mortise and 
tenon joints, jiinned together and stiffened by 
many diagijnal braees secured iu like manner. 
Thus distiiisruislie.1 from Kallnon Framing. 

of the niiKleni state ui France, iis it has been 
since 1871. For the purposes of tliis inquiry. 
it may be diridal into ten jjarts, namely : — 


1. Parisian France 

II. Flemish France 
III. Normandy 
IV'. Lorraine 

V. Brittany 
VI. Angevin France 
VII. Aquitanian France 
VIII. Auvergne 
IX. Burgundian France 

X. Languedoc and I'rovence 

This region was all included in 
the Roman Gallia. The Roman re- 
mains found in all i>;iits „i' it may 
be treated togctlnr. an. I \riy luirtly, 
as the study given to tiniii lias lieen 
but superficial. 

For the epoch of the earlier Ro- 
manesque architecture, we have to 
c.n-i.ler the in.— .li.'- ....■.■it..-v of 

tlir kinL'^..f F! : 

tii-t aii.l haw r 
.Ml.li -reat null-. 
mandj-, annexed tu 
France in the twelfth century ; Brit- 
tany, hardly one socially with the 
French monarchy during tliis periuil ; 
the dukedom and tlie county of Bur- 
gundy, Lorraine, Poitou, Auvergne, 
and all the south and southwest. For the 
Gothic epoch, we have still to consider a num- 
ber of states as indejjendent or nearly inde- 
fjendent of tlie crown, and others whose relation 
to the crown was constantly varj'ing, with the 
result that their social condition is not neces- 
sarily the same as that of the undisputed and 
continuous royal dominion, and their building 
and decoration very diHerent. It is not until 
the l)eginning of the Renais.sance in France tiiat 
the country is one in tiie modem sense ; and 
even then the religious wars put off for a cen- 
tury the perfect unification of the kingdom, 
while also the boundaries were more limited 
than they were at a later time. 

The purpose of the above remarks is to point 
out that the term "French Architecture," or 
Frendi influence in architecture, must 1k' used 
with ditlercnt meanings when it is ai)plie<l to 
different epochs of time ; and, moreover, that 
French architecture is not altogether the same 
tiling as the architecture of France. The build- 
ings contained within the boundaries of the 


France of to-day are those with which we have 
to do. These are verj' numerous, and their 
interest is verj- great. Even a list of the im- 
portant buiUlings and those representative of 
the diflerent styles in each district wouhl occujiy 
a volume. A day's walk fixjm one small town 

to another may be through a countrj' whose 
architectural remains deserve a month's study. 
In fact, France is the richest country in Euro|)e 
in buildings of value to the Western student, 
and later tiian tlie time of the fall of the Roman 
Imperial dominion. It is true that the Latin 
and .semi-Byzantine churches of Italy are not 
ecjualled by the few remains of the earliest 
medi.eval work in France ; but what there is of 
the.'ic earlier days and the somewhat later domed 
duirches of'tli.' .■.>iitr.' .in. I southwest is as unique 
in every " ' In architecture of Italy, 

and is at I [ nt in the development 

of more i. m ,,i 1, ture. In the eleventh 
century France takes the lead in Europe, with 
the noblest and richest as well as most varied 
Roniancsciue. In tlic twelfth century the lead 
is still more decided, in sjiite of the magnificent 
(}ernian round-arched cathedrals ; for the Gothic 
art iH'ginning about 1 1 hO is entirely French in 
the strictest sense, all the otiier European lands 
having tiken tlieir primary and most of their 
subsequent impidses from the French royal 


domain. The later and the latest Gothic, that 
of the fifteenth centurj-, which the French 
writers treat as the earliest work of the Renais- 
sance, is still the first of its time in Europe in 
interest and value ; and when, at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, the classical feeling 
coming from Italy had really gained a foothold 
in the North, the resulting styles (those of 
Louis XII., Francis I., and Henry II.) are the 
most beautiful result of the new movement, and 
are beautiful and suggestive in a peculiar way. 
In like manner the later styles, those which 
followed the pacification of France under 
Henry IV., long remained the models for Europe 
in a special sense ; for, in France, this style of 
the Decadence is preserved from lifelessness and 
hopeless chill, and the attempts at revival under 
Louis XV. and under Louis XVI. are each in 
its own way full of the interest which attaches 
to bold experiments guided by good taste. 

On the whole, then, the architecture of 
France since the beginning of the Romanesque 
period is the most important for the modern 

There remain prehistoric structures of rude 
stones in many parts of the country, and espe- 
cially in the northwest, as in Brittany. At 
Quiberon and at Carnac (Morbihan) are re- 
markable and famous groups of rough stones ; 
dolmens and cromlechs are numerous in the 
same region, and there are remarkable tomb 
entrances at Ess^ (Ille-et-Vilaine) and at Ba- 
gneux. Pre-Roman fortifications of the Gallic 
tribes remain at several points, as at Roc-de- 
Vic (Corrfeze) and at the great hill near Autun, 
where undoubtedly .stood the fortiticil town of 
Bibracte, and these fortitic.itions :ivv oi'tiMi sin- 
gularly interesting as coiilimuii;,' aii'l ilhistrat- 
ing the Commentaries of (J;esar on tiie Gallic 
War. No remains of architectural monuments, 
in the proper sense, exist of any time previous 
to the Roman dominion. There is in the far 
.south a (iri'ik inllurnic, of which there will be 
mention in I'lit X ( I'mvence and Languedoc) ; 
but throii.'liMut tlir Mi'ith the remains of build- 
ings of thr tii>t luiir centuries of our era are 
wholly Iiiipi ri;il llmiiaii in character, showing 
less deviation fn.iii ihc accepted administrative 
type funiishcil l^v tl"' l)uildings of the Imperial 
city than do the k ni.iius of the same epoch in 
North Aliira 111 S\ 11,1 (see those terms). Be- 
sides the iFiiildiiigs 111' I'rovence and Languedoc, 
there is a curious temple at Vienue (Isfere) ; 
at Nantua (Ain) are the remains of a temple ; 
and two ruins of the same kind are at Autun. 

Temples, likr tlir;,(rvs, l.riii- -cii.nilly built 

within thr w.ills n| tlir aiMMht . ii\, aiv apt to 

beso.-Mv.ar,! I.v l.inMinu- '■! Hi. i Inn town 

that exploralioii of tinni is cMiviiirly dillicult. 
City gates, however, and memorial arcliwayH 
jvre often left in good condition. There arc 
many in the south, but in the north the two 


Roman gates of Autun, the Porte Noire at Be- 
sancon, the double gateway at Saintes (Cha- 
rente-Infe'rieure), now rebuilt on another site, 
but with accuracy, and the splendid triple arch 
of Reims, are of peculiar importance. Roman 
aqueducts remain in part in many regions of 
the country, and those near Paris, especially at 
Arcueil, are identified with the aqueducts built 
or enlarged by the Emperor Julian to supply 
the baths of his favourite city, Lutetia, which 
baths are now recognized as part of the Roman 
construction on the south bank of the Seine, 
where the Hotel de Cluny now stands. There 
are remains of Roman theatres at many points, 
and the theatre of Besancjon has left fine archi- 
tectural fragments; but the only structure of 
this kind which has been found at all complete, 
in the north, is that at Lillebonne (Seine-Inf^- 
rieure). This has been uncovered, and partly 
studied and analyzed since 1840; and in the 
same town are remains of Roman bathing es- 
tablishments and some splendid mosaics. A 
magnificent amphitheatre existed at Bordeaux, 
of which a fragment remains, and is called 
popidarly the palace of Gallienus. At Cahors 
(Lot) a similar fragment is called Porte de 
Diane. The monument at Cussy and that at 
Vienne are of great interest ; and hardly less 
important is one at Estelle (Haute-Garonne), 
and one near Tours. The study of Roman re- 
mains in the north of France has not, however, 
been carried very far. Thus, great numbers of 
villas have been discovered, but in hardly any 
instance have the plans been studied exhaust- 
ively. When such investigation has been car- 
ried on, the record of it is generally confined to 
some local archaeological journal whose circula- 
tion is not great. It is to be noticed, however, 
that many of the larjro villas seem to have been 
fortified at the tiim- '<( tin- liaiiiarian invasions, 
and that in this way tin y pas-nl gradually into 
the condition of nifdiaval strong castles, in 
which case the Roman remains have either dis- 
appeared altogether, or are deeply buried under 
the more modern structure. — R. S. 

Parisian France ; tliat cnnt inllnl I'nnii an early 
,»Tiod l.y thr Fiviich inniiaivliy, hut excepting 
Normandy, which h;ui peculiar characteristics. 
No part of this region wiis dependent ujwn the 
Holy Roman Empire after the time of the Treaty 
of Verdun (843). It included in tiie fifteenth 
centuiy the Isle-de-Francc, Picardy, Chartres, 
Vendorae, Touraine, Blois, and Orleans, the great 
countship of Champagne, and the dukedom of 
Bcn-i, to wliieli inav lie added [h,- e.Mintshipof 
Nevers as lieiiiL: iimmv nraii\ akm to ili,' royal 
country llian \n its -..uiIumi ii('iL;lilH.m,>, jiojiti- 
cally and .socially. This -real tr.tet of.aFuntry, 
embracing the modern departuients of Aisne, Ar- 
dennes, Aulie, Cher, I'lure-et-Loir, Haute-Marne, 
Iiidre, Indre-et-Loire, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, 


Marne, Nifevre, Oise, Seiue-ct-Marne, Seine- 
et-Oise, Soiume, and Yoiine, has for its most 
northern towns of importance Abbeville and St. 
Quentin ; for its westenimost landmark, Tours 
or Chinon ; for its easternmost, Chaumont or 
Langres ; and as marking the southernmost 
boundarj', Nevers, or Chateauroux. It is 
wthin this region that the Romanesque archi- 
tecture took that constmctional form which 
made the growth from it of the Gothic system 
]fossil)le ; it is here that the Gothic construc- 
tion and Gothic art grew up and had its most 
perfect development ; it is within this district 
that all but one or two of the most important 
Gotiiic cathedrals were built and still stand ; 
and here the greater part of the late Gothic or 

Flamboyant structures were erected. It is at 
least equal to any part of France in tlie value 
and beauty of its lienaissance chateaux, and in 
the importance of those few churches which we 
have from the RciKii.s.saiicc eitoch. It is in 
Paris and its immediate neighbourhood that 
by far the most ini])i)rtaiit late ncDcla.ssic builil- 
ings were built, those wiiich in tiic seventeenth 
anil eighteenth centuries set the pace for the 
development of the Post-Renaissance styles 
througliout Europe. The architectural monu- 
ments of this region arc so very numerous and 
of such peculiar importance that it will be im- 
practicable to give even such a brief and merely 
suggestive list of buildings as can be furni.shed 
for other districts (see Parts II. to X.). On 
the other hand, the history of French architcc- 


tare is in a way discoverable, if we pass in 
review the architectural growth of this region. 
There will be exceptional chapters in that his- 
tory which have nothing to do with Parisian 
France, liut those chapters do not lead on to the 
history of the times following. 

The Romanesque archit<'cture, as we find it 
within this region, ignores the cuiwla on penden- 
tives and all attempt at vaulting a square by 
means of such a cupola (for which see Part VII.) ; 
it ignores almost wholly the pointe<l arch which 
was rather common in Aquitanian France and in 
Auvergne (see Parts VII., VIII.). Every effort 
was made to vault the churches in a way as 
nearly as possible like to those chandlers of 
ancient Roman baths and other buildings, 
which, in the 
ninth and again 
in the eleventh 
century, were 
somewhat famil- 
iar to the inhab- 
itants. As, how- 
ever, the Roman 
system of build- 
ing with the solid 
block of mortir 
ig^^^ masonry could 
"'T • hardly be achieved 
/ bv these poor and 
undertook the 
bold t;u-*k of doing 
what the Romans 
had never done, 
and building 
groined vaults 
with separate vis- 
ible stones. These 
were not, indee<l, 
what we now call 
cut stone ; they 
were rather what 
we should call 
squared rubble or dressed rubble, no jiiece l>eing 
larger than a man could carry on his shoulder 
or otherwise up a ladder, and then put into 
place without the aid of machinery. The 
vaidts thus constructed were sprung from walls 
which were of necessity vcrj' tiiick and hca\T, 
nuich heavier tlian stn'ugth alone nnjuircd. 
Tiie idea of a solid buttress jjrojecting several 
feet beyond the wall was too bold for the timid 
workmen of that time ; they used, indetnl, a 
separately coml>incd i)iecc of masonry at the 
point where the vaults pushed horizontally in 
the most formidable way, and this j)icce of 
more carefully laid nnisonry they allowed to pro- 
ject very slightly beyond the exterior face of the 
wall ; but this was all they tried. Under these 
circumstances the aisles, 1)eing narrow and also 


low, could be vaulted without much risk, and 
that with square groined vaults very similar to 
Roman work in all except the details of con- 
struction ; but the nave could hardly be vaulted 
successfully in any such w x}, and the history of 
those centuries is in greit meisure a recoid 
of how one high \ault after another fell in 
ruin, and took the walls with it 

It is not asserted here th it it w as only in 
this part of France that thet 
periments were being tried 
along the Rhine, and at 
Cluny in Burgundy (Part 
IX.), and in the south near 
Perigord, in the south- 
west, and in Pro\ 
ence in the southeast, 
the same experiment 
was being tried. Ev en 
in Palestine the cru 
sading Franks devel 
oped a system of 
groined vaulting v, ith 
cut stone ; and this, 
carried out under the 
direct influence of the 
splendid stone ton 
structions of the 
fourth, fifth, and si\th 
centuries, then in per 
feet condition in many 
parts of Syria, led to 
a neater, fairer, and 
more elegant system 
of twelfth century 
building than any 
used in Western Eu 
rope. The reason 
why the Romanesque 
vaulting of this pirt 
of France is of such 
peculiar importance 
to us is because it 
led directly to the 
ribbed vault of the 
Gothic period. 

This ribbed vault 
grows directly out of 
the use of the trans 
verse arch (a?c 
doubleau) and the 
corresponding w all 
arch (formeret). -'*, , 

Two transverse arches 

and two wall arches Fkanck, Part I.: 

form the outline and 

the frame of each Romanesque groined vault ; 
that is to say, of each "square" of vaulting, 
which vaulting square may be a parallelogram 
of any proportion. The builder of each vault- 
ing sijuare must have felt, as he sprung the 
transverse arches across the uave uud uimilur 


arches along the lines of the wall, whether the 
wall in question was built altogether beneath 
or beside his new arch, or was yet to be carried 
up, — he must have felt that if only he could 
spring a similar arch diagonally across his 

vaulting square his work would l)e half done. 
Without such diagonal arch he had the dilH- 
cult problem of the Roman groined vault to bo 
imitated in inferior materials and by means 
of a costly and troublesome centring of wood. 
With the possible diagonal arch, he must have 

felt that tlic pntlik'in would disappear, and that 
he would liave nothing l>iit triangles to vault : 
one triaugle at a time, one piece less than one 
quarter the size of the vaulting square, and 
stayed on each of its three sides by a solid 
arch which he could trust. The manel is that 
this, like all other bold innovations in building, 
should have been so slow in coming. 

As to the irregularly shaped intervals left 
above the ring-sha|)ed aisle which mns around 
the apse — the deambulatory — the difficulty 
of vaulting this was very great indeed ; and this 
difficulty also disappeared at once and altogether 
the moment the idea of a diagonal arch took 
shape. For here another improvement sug- 
gested itself, one destined to have the greatest 
effect upon the future histoiy of architecture. 
The continuous diagonal arch came to be looked 
upon as two half arches, each springing from 
an abutment below to a keystone or boss {clef) 
at the crown of the vault. This idea once 
seized, and the clef made an abutment in its 
turn, so that each half arch became in itself 
an independent arch dejjending upon two sepa- 
rate points of support, one at its foot and the 
other at its top, anything could be done. An 
irregularly shape<l vaulting square migiit have 
five of these half arches, or seven, or four so 
arranged that no two of them would form a 
continuous arch. The clef would be kept in 
place by their mutual pressure, and each half 
arch would stand for itself, an almost indepen- 
dent member. 

The high vaults of the nave, of the choir, or 
of the transept were at once seen to be as easy 
as the low vaults over aisle or chajjcl ; but also 
at once it was evident to the alert and now 
thoroughly awakened minds of the builders of 
1160 what the difficulty would lie of resisting 
the thrust of these high vaults, and at the same 
time the way to overcome that difficulty. It 
would not do to Iniild a huge buttress wall 
upon the transverse arches of the aisle, nor yet 
to start such a buttress wall from the foundii- 
tion beyond the floor of the aisle, and thus cut 
the aisle into short pieces. It became evident 
that one more arch or half arch could be used, 
namely, one which would leap across the whole 
width of the aisle, and transport the thrust of 
one corner of each vaulting-square to a buttress 
pier built outside of the aisle, and engaged per- 
iiapa with its outer wall. This wa.s the Hying 
buttress, an<l these two grejit eleniciits in build- 
ing, the ribbed vaidt and the flying buttress, 
were inseparable, and together made up Gothic 
building. The vault de|)endent ujxin sej)arate 
arches strong enough to carrj- its weight, which 
arches \\c call ribs, and the flying buttress car- 
rying the thrust of one group of ribs from the 
abutment to any place where it might be con- 
venient to take it up finally by the dead weight 
and resistance of the great mass of masonry, — 


out of this combination all Gothic architecture 

All this took place in the Isle-de-France. 
Within a small district of which the city of 
Paris fonns the centre are to be found all the 
very early churches in which Gothic building 
as above described was used frankly and with- 
out restraint. The little church of Tracy-le- 
Val, and that at Saint-L^ger in the forest of 
Laigue, together with the abbey church of 
Morienval (all in Oise), are for us modems the 
earliest monuments of the nascent Gothic art ; 
and in the great abbey of Saint-Denis (Seine), 
especially in its porch and choir, is found the first 
large monument in which the Gothic builders 
can be seen working at their ease. This ablx-y 
of Saint-Denis has been wdled the latest work of 
the Transition, and as its date is known (1140) 
it fixes the development of Gothic building at 
least twenty-five years earlier than it has been 
the custom to date this ste]) in building. Louis 
Gonse (op. cit.), writing shortly before 1890, 
says without hesitation that the practice of 
building the vault "sur croisee d'ogives" (that 
is to say, on diagonal ribs) was practised in the 
Isle-de- France as early as 1125. The evidence 
for this is not exactly complete if a series of 
monuments of certiiin date is required. It is 
rather a safe conclusion drawn from the com- 
parison of a large amount of circumstantial 
evidence. Neither the dates of the churches 
nor the exact time in the construction of each 
church when a given vaulting square was com- 
pleted are ascertainable with perfect accuracy. 
Churches as early as the date given above and 
with a certain part of their vaulting dei)enilent 
upon constructional ribs exist at Berri (Oise) 
and at La Noel-Saint-Martin (Oise), and indeed 
a near approach to rib vaulting is to be found 
in La Basse (Etivre, the ancient church of S. 
I'^tienne at Beauvais (Oise). In the neighbour- 
hood of Soissons several small churches have 
been examined, none of which can be later than 
1140, and each of which shows succcssftil at- 
tempts at vaulting with ribs. In the neighbour- 
hood of Laon there are similar examples. At 
Saint-Leu d'Esserent (Oise) is a further advance 
in the vaulting of the most interesting Norman 
church. Finally in Paris itself we have a build- 
ing of known date with Gothic vaulting com- 
l)letely established in all the choir and the 
dcanibidatory. This is the former church of S. 
Martin dcs Champs, now forming a part of the 
Coti.serratoire (hs Arts pt Mi'tiors; there is 
general agieenicnt fis to the date of the choir, 
namely, about 1140. 

Before the twelfth centurj' was out there were 
begiin the Gothic cathedrals of Paris, Amiens, 
Chartres, Laon, Noyon, Soissons, Reims, and 
Meaux, all within the district we are now con- 
sidering (see Cathedral), anil inunediately 
afterward were Iwgun those of Bourgcs, Troyes, 


Tours, Sens, and Senlis, also Ijelonging to 
Parisian France. Contemiwraneously witli these 
great buildings were begun a number of ciunrlies, 
now impossible to tnife, besides a gieat 
number which still exist, and carrial on 
with varying degrees of speed in all parts of 
this favoured region. No one catliedral and 
scarcely a church has come down to us com- 
pleted in the style of the early Gothic art, and 
this bec-aiLse the changes in style atlopted by 
the builders followed one another more rapidly 
than the walls could rise and the vaults l)e 
turned. Everywhere there are later vaults upon 
earlier substructures, later naves added to earlier 
choirs, chapels of a still later date built around 
these earlier choire, towers begun at tiie time of 
the Transition, finished in the fifteenth ceuturj-, 
and windows of early form filled witli tracery 
of the latest Flamboyant taste. Fortunately 
the determination of dates is not of the utmost 
importance to the .student of architectural art; 
and a design like the west front of Chartres 
with Romanes(iuc ])iin-hes covered with sculp- 
ture, one tower cMiiplit.' to its cross of the 
earlie-st Gotliic ta^t^ an. I ^instituting the most 
l)eautifid mcdiaval tow.i in Europe, and one 
tower begun at the same time but finished in 
the Horid style of the fifteenth century — such 
a compositi(jn, as it exists, is capable of giving 
every whit as much i)leasure historically and 
artistically as if we had the west front as its 
master of the works conceive<l it about 1160. 

The changing Gothic styles have never been 
treated chronologically. No one seems to have 
followed closely the growth of that singidar 
sjjirit which refuses to accept pennanently that 
which has formed it, which rciiches out after 
new and perhaps less desirable things, and 
which wTecks in a few years everj" sjdendid con- 
cci)ti(m of man — the spirit of continuity lieing 
so nuicii less powerful tlian the search for 
novelty in all artistic tendencies. There is no 
ojjportunity here even to describe the dittcrent 
Gothic styles wiiicii succeeded one another in 
this Parisian region ; it is only to be stated 
here that the most imjiortant momnnents of the 
later Gothic style are the choir of Beauvais 
cathedral (Oisc), comi)leted aljDut 1270, and 
rci)aired with slight alterations after the vault 
had fallen in con.'<e(juen<-e of the to<i great bold- 
ness of the stnicture ; the famous and s])lendid 
Sainte Chapelle of Paris ; tiic duirch of S. 
Urbain at Troyes, begun alK)ut lL'70 ; and con- 
t<'inporaneou8 with this several civic buildings 
su<-li iis the Syncxlal Hall of Sens. All the ca- 
tiu'drals have much work of the middle and 
clo.se of the thirteenth century, and this in the 
form of porches, chapels, and the like, if not in 
tlic main memlwrs of the structure. In the 
fourteenth centvirj-, however, there are no im- 
jportant. ecclesiastical buihlings. Nothing tiiat 
run lie compared with S. Ouen at Rouen is to 

be found in this whole Parisian region. It is 
not until after tlie close of the Hundred Years' 
War that, in the fifteenth century, the Flam- 
boyant style begins to make its wonderful record 
here jus elsewhere throughout the north. The 
peculiar leadership of the central region has, 
indeed, j)assed away ; its work has Ijeen done 
both socially and artistically in the creation of 
the powerful French monarchy and a masterful 
French lejidership in architectural art. The 
florid architecture of Ablx-ville (S. Wulfran), of 
Saint-Ki^uier and of Notre Dame de I'Epine, of 
the north tower of Chartres cathe<lral, the church 
of S. Jacques at Paris (the tower only remain- 
ing), of the palace hall at Poitiers, and of the 
house of Jacques Coeur at Bourges, of Chateau- 
dun and of the Hotel de Cluny at Paris, vies 
with that of the splendid monuments of Rouen 
in the west, Albi and Brou in the south, and 
Avioth in the far northeast. 

The architecture of the Renaissance took its 
rise of necessity with the royal influence, be- 
cause they were the nobles of the court who 
receivetl the Italian influence and who were 
prepared to push the extremely unclassical and 
un-Italiau movement which liegan under Louis 
XII. In this reign France was prosperous and 
at peace, and a number of mast interesting 
Iniildings were erected in that curious modified 
style halfway between Gothic and Renaissance, 
of which one wing of the chateau of Blois is 
our best exami)le. Other buildings of this 
character are the HOtel de Yille at Douai 
■ (Nord), of Dreux (Eure-et-Loir) and of Com- 
picgne (Oise), and of Saint-Quentin (Aisne), 
and the bell towers of the cathedral of Tours 
(Indre-et-Loire). The chateau of Gaillon of this 
time has left oidy a few fragments and a splen- 
did memoi-}. Each of these was eompletetl 
Ijefore l.'J20, except the Tours Ijelfries, which 
lingered on lor some years longer. Under 
Francis I., whose reign began in \ri\ry, a more 
classical influence was swin to prevail, and yet 
the buildings of his reign, even in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the royal residence, whether at 
Paris, at Blois, or at Fontainebkuiu, are as far 
JUS poissible from showing a purely chissical or 
even a purely Italian spirit. The northern 
wing of the chateau of Blois, and the whole of 
the great royal hunting seat at Chandxird, the 
chateau of ('hciionccau, the ciiatcau of Saint- 
(!cnnain-cn-L:i\c, and large parts of the chateau 
of Foiitaincblcau jtre.scrve this style for us 
The chiiteau of Ecouen (Seine-et-Oi.se) is enough 
in itself to show the more formal side of the 
building of this epoch. The admirable church 
of S. Eustache at Paris in its first conccjition 
belongs to this same epoch. This is almost the 
only buililing in which a fair attempt was made 
to iniite non-Gothic details with a Gothic struc- 
ture in any ecclesiasticid building ; and while 
the ojjinion is frequently exprcs.sed that this 


iA ^ 



1 i 

[» M ] 


f-: ai -J 
















'.^ ".-^, . «..»•--. ""t"' ■\rj;:\;;.[ 



AIbi (Tarn) ; tlie cathedral church of S. CMU', 
from the iiorilicaHt. The roof JH vaulted with ribs 
in the true (Jothic manner, but the bultrcKBeH which 
take up the thruxt of the vaults are the divlHiona be- 

I'l tlic extrrnal walls arc kept high 
111 face, apparently with the idea of 
. ll Herve as a fortilication. The 
of brick. 


„ 1 

^^^ 'K-f 



attempt was a failure in this particular edifice, 
such failure will not ai)iJt'ar bo evident if the 
building is consideretl by itself without reference 
either to the Gothic buildings preceding it or the 
graver classic churches which were to follow it. 
It was an experiment destinetl to have no re- 
sidts, but not the less interesting on tiiis account. 
With the reign of Henri II., the son and suc- 
ce-isor of Francis I., the Renaissance proper in 
France draws to an end. The last Valois, 
Charles IX. and Henri III., did little work, and 
yet it was in their reigns that the palace of the 
Tuileries was buUt in its original shape and 
large parts of the Louvre as we now have it 
were completed, especially tiie western side of 
the square court. The chateau of Ecouen 
is also in great part of thi.s ejioch. With the 
religious wars there was a great pause in the 

activity of building, but -with Henri IV. that 
manly and simi)le style took shape whose 
traces are to be found especially in the city of 
Paris, still intact in the Place des Vosgcs, and 
still traceable, though nearly ruined, in the 
Place Dauphinc. Tiic most showy building of 
this time is the original palace of the Car- 
dinal Mazarin, fronting on the Rue Vivienne, 
and now incorporated in the great National 

Of tlie succeeding reign are the Hotel de 
Sully, Rue S. Antoine, Paris, so much of the 
Palais Royal as remains intact, chiefly the front 
toward the south on the Cour d'Honneur ; and 
outside of Paris the centnd part of the great 
chateau of Versailles, namely, the l)rick and 
stone edifice forming the tiirce sides of the Cour 
dc Marbre and distinguislicd by its facades in 
red and white from the more severe fronts im- 
mediately at^oining. The palace of the Luxem- 



bourg is of this time, and tiie admirable church 
of S. Gervais S. Protais, both in Paris. 

The reign of Louis XIV. was a score of years 
old already beft)re the freer design of his prede- 
cessor's time disapjieared. Then, as the gran- 
diose feeling of the great king prevailed with 
all his ministers and employees, the stately but 
cold classic style superseded everji;hing else. 
The colossal order was not universal ; even in 
his favourite chateau at Versailles it is not used 
in the long facatles, but, in the chapel, the dLs- 
jiosition of a large colonnade within and of pro- 
portions similarly vast for the exterior, give 
to the building all the dignity of which they 
are capable. It is curious that the noblest 
buildings in this grand monarchical style came 
into existence, not under Louis XIV., but in the 
reign of his less high-minded, less serious, less 
dignified successor. It is then that tiie admi- 
rable buildings on the north side of the Place de 
la Concorde in Paris were built, and the digni- 
fied Ecole Militaire on the Champ de Mars. 
This severe and admirable style was indeed 
contemporaneous with a verj' inferior develoj)- 
ment of the neoclassic taste, namely, the rococo 
style, which, however, was Jcept well away from 
the buildings of tlie favoured region of which we 
are now speaking. While the buildings last 
named above and the two Trianons were rising 
near Paris, the palaces on the Rhine and in 
the duciiy of Lorraine were as extravagapt as 
the lass of all classical tradition could make 
them. There is, however, a certain reckless- 
ness in the design of the years ending with 1775, 
and to correct this the reaction of the reign of 
Louis XVI. appeared, whose best manifestation 
is peiliai>s in the littlf faradc on the Quai 
d'Orsav in Paris, innr a private )ialacc, now tiie 
liomofthc I,.-io,i ,,nion,mr. — It. S. 

n. ; Flemish France ; that is to say, the small 
region adjoining Picardy on the north, comjms- 
ing the ancient countshii) of Artois and the 
greater part of Hennegau, both of which fonne<l 
a jiart of French Flanders in its largest accepta- 
tion. Tiie whole country is now contained in 
the modem departments of Le Nord an<l Pas de 
Calais. Tliis very small district must neces- 
sarily be separate<l from Parisian France (see 
Part I.), Ix-cau.se the arciiite<turc of tiie country 
during the Romanesque and Gothic ejiochs, and 
still more during the time succeeding the liegin- 
niiig of the Renaissance, differs essentially from 
any French architecture properly so called. It 
is far more nejirly Flemish than French, and 
far more closely akin to the architecture of 
modem Belgium than to that of even the most 
immediately adjoining French districts. 

The Roman remains are unimjiortant, nor 
arc there representative buildings of the round- 
arched twelfth century style, — a splendid bap- 
tismal font in the churcli of ChtJreng (Nord) 


beiug the most important piece of sculpture of 
the time to which attriitimi has been called. 

The attractive pait nt' tlif architectural his- 
tory of this district is in the late Gothic buildings 
and in those of the estaMished Renaissance. 
Thus, at Arras (I'as ,!,• Calais), a part of the 
old Hotel .!.• Vill.s ..fwhieh th.T.Mimst he further 
mention helnw-, and at Saiiit-( )iiiei- (Pasde Calais) 
two fascinating cluux-lies, are nf late ( ruthic style. 
At Lille (Nord) the great elmivh ni' S. .Maurice, 
a five-aisled hall church, of a type uiiliuown in 
central France, is of tlorid Uotliic except the 
outer aisles. The Hotel de Ville at Douai (Nord) 
and its adjoining beflroi is entirely Flemish, like 
a building of Ghent or Courtrai ; a long building 
with one important story above the basement, 
and dormer windows in the roof, the one face 
broken by a very noble battlemented tower and 
the other by an apse-like projection containing 
the chapel, and which is on the axis of the tower. 
However modernized and even enlarged in our 
own time, this is one of the most beautiful of the 
Flemish town halls. 

Of the epoch of the Renaissance there are 
buildings which it is hard to name apart from 
their still lingering Gothic feeling, or even from 
still existing Gothic details. Thus, the Hotel 
de Ville at Cassel (Nord) has the entire lower 
story built with pointed arches except the 
entrance doorway, which, together with the 
important story above and the roof and its 
gables and dormers, is in the classical taste. 
The three-centred arches and the construction 
in materials of contrasting colour show the 
spirit of the years shortly before and after 1620, 
and the sculpture of a great frieze is apparently 
of the same date, while the doorway is somewhat 
later. The same experience awaits one who 
.studies the Hotel de Ville at Arras, named 
above, for the tower aii'l lai-c |iarts of the main 
buildini,^ an' of uiiiiii-,takalile iieoclas.sic spirit, 
while theiuass of the structure is still medieval 
of the latest style ; in I'act, this building com- 
prises at once a Flemish town hall comparable 
to that at Audenarde, and a building of a similar 
class in a florid seventeenth century style, very 
curious and very interesting in its masses and 
their relation to one another. Of confirmed 
Renais-iance style is the beautiful tower at 
Bergues, which, in spite of the arched panels 
with which its sides are slightly variegated, is 
as it was left by the sixteenth century, a Renais- 
sance tower of the most interesting .sort. The 
town gates at Cassel and at Cambrai (Nord) are 
fa.scinating bits of work of the time of Henry 
IV. or Louis XIH. 

Of Post-Iienaissance architecture there are 
a<lmirable private houses in several of the cities 
of this department, and one or two public build- 
ings of singular vahu;. Sucii is the military 
hospital at Saint-Omcr, at least in its present 
condition, which dates from 1750, after a dc- 


structive conflagration. The cities were pros- 
perous in the reigns of Louis XV. and XVI., 
and much of iutere-tmi; details ,,t' the^e times 
remains. Thus, t(j name the nia_L;nitieent wood- 
work in the sacri.sty uf S. i'lene at Duuai is to 
name only one of many pieces which the traveller 
loves to visit. The Hotel Colbert at Saint- 
Omer, and the old Bourse at Lille with the coats 
of arms of Philip IV. of Spain carved over its 
great doorways, express perfectly the Flemish 
taste of the seventeenth centurj', which, indeed, 
lingered on in this region until almost our own 
time. The very noble cathedral at Arras shows 
no local feeling whatever, and is as severe a 
classical study as if it had been designed in 
Italy, but this is of the first years of the present 

Of strictly modern buildings is the Hotel de 
Ville at Arras, and this, though Renaissance in 
ill si.;n. as il particularly inspired by an ancient 
liiiililiiiL;- oeeupying the same site, is to be 
creiliteil to a still living architect as completely 
as is the new Hotel ile Ville of Paris. — R. S. 

HI.; Normandy; the aneiiut iluchy, a fief of 
the French monarchy, but iiraetieally indepen- 
dent until its conquest by l'liili]i Anunstus at 
the commencement of the thirteenth eentury, 
from that time a part of Frame, The control- 
ling population beiiii^- of foreiun blood, conquer- 
ing immigrants from Seamlinax ia, gave to the 
social life and the art.s uf the country a pecul- 
iar character. The Romanesque of Normandy 
is radically different from that of the art of the 
same epoch in the provinces immediately south 
(see Parts VI. and VII., Angevin France, 
Aquitanian France), and from the royal domain 
at the east (see Part I., Parisian France). The 
conquest of England by the Duke of Xormandy 
in the eleventh century caused a i loser intellec- 
tual alliance between his Continental and his in- 
sular dominions than existed between Normandy 
and any of the neighbouring Continental states, 
and the result of this is seen in the strongly 
Norman character, first of English Romanesque, 
and then of En.ylish (Jothie (see England, Ar- 
chitecture of ; Gothie Aivliiie, lure in England). 

The .single fact that the people of Normandy 
cared less for vanltinL; ilian ilieii- (Continental 
neighbours is of i:irat ini|iorianee, because 
everywhere else in Noithwe-ieni I'.urope the 
question, how to vault lirst, the eastern i)art 
of the choir ; next, the aisles ; anil lastly, the 
high nave — was the most important architec- 
tural (luestion of all. Throughout the early 
Middle Ages the effort of the northern buihl- 
ers was to close their churches with masomy in 
one form or another, and as they could not im- 
itate the vaulting of the Roman structures, 
which still rcinaincd for th<ir models, the ques- 
tion wliat ti. substitute for tiiat system was 
the binning (|ucstioii ; but the Normans seem 


L\:' <r:" ^ ^ 

[ 7 

h '-^^^ 







to have had no such overmastering desire for 
the vault, and it remains a characteristic of the 
Norman churches tiiat they were built very 
commonly with wooden roofs and without even 
the preparatory steps being taken for masonry 
roofs at a later time. Even where the aisles 
were vaulted there was no attempt made to 
raise the higli vaults of the nave. This ten- 
dency was carried across the Channel ; and at no 
time did the English builders care for the vault 
as did those of Central, Eastern, and 
Southern France. In fact, it is m 
England that the Noiiiiaii K.iman 
esque reached it- -iratcst siilendoui, 
and to study it rightly tlie cathe- 
di'als of Peterborough, Winchester, 
and Saint Albans, with Waltham 
abbey and other of the conventual 
churches, especially in the north, 
are fully as important to the student 
as even the great churches of Caen 

Another marked difference in style 
between the Roinaues(pie of Nor- 
mandy and that of tlie adjoining 
provinces is in the comparative pov- 
erty of the sculpture in tlie former 
The rich and significant sculpture of 
Poitou and Anjou — still more that 
of the Limousin and P^rigord — is 
unknown in Normandy, and its place 
is taken by zigzags, billets, disks, and 
similar geometrical ornament, while 
the tendency toward replacing sculp 
ture by mouldings is evident from 
an early date. 

The t\M> uivat iniivciitual churthes 
of Caen (Cilva^lo-), S. Eticnnc (Ab- 
baye n„x //n,n,„rs) and La Trinitd 
(Abb(ii/<- iiii.r Diiiii's), are among the 

mane.si|ur'. The rlnircii of S. Michel 
de Bcauccllis, also at Caen, should 
also he ( uii-i(l' n (I. The south tower 
111 Divi's (Calvados) 
iipiiiid-an-hfd tower 

ll,r;illr,l TnurSaint 


the fortified church of Vire (Calvados), are im- 
portant monuments of this style. 

When the ribbed vault was established within 
the original royal domain of France, Normandy, 
still a quasi-independent state and often at war 
with its suzerain, the king at Paris, was not 
very quick to receive the impulse ; and Gothic 
art was forty years old (a great lapse of time 
in the rapid progress of that reformation) before 
it, then fuUy developed, could enter Normandy 

of Saint 
and thr 



amoti;; thr most iiii|iiiitaiit arrhitec- 

1 .L !• xl • 1 J. I-RANCK, 

tural monuments oi this character 
which exist in France, although the 
Rouen tower hiis lost its original crowning mem- 
bers. This loss is the more regrettable because 
the singular disposition, with very lofty and 
slender dormer windows relieved against the 
[>in', innnifests itself at 
' niv as the transition 
I liM ait, and it would 
I I'll,' able to see what 
Ilia II ill station, anil to 
11 ill. The churches 
I L.I mult and Dom front 
(( alvados), as well as 

slopin',' jiyiaiiiid 
an earl\ tiinr, ;it 
from L'niiiaiM -,r|i 

be of the -rr.il,- 

was peiliai)s ii 
trace it V)ack n. a 
of Serquigny (llu 
(Ome), an<l S,r, 

in the train of the royal armies. It is not 
until the late V.uXVv of the fourteenth, and .still 
more ol' ilic liltrcnili, ci-iitury that Normandy 
becomes ('mil iiinilal in stylf; and at this time 
the English wiic i|rvflu])iiig their own single 
indci)endcnt style, the national "Perpendicular 
Gothic," with its formal tracery and florid roof- 
ing. Thus, in the city of Rouen, the early parts 
of the cathedral, although built with pointed 
anihes throughout, arc hardly Gothic in spirit ; 
they were built by reluctant hands whose nin«- 
tcrs longed for the simpler art of an earlier day ; 

while the high vaults, 
aud especially the 
sculpture of the thir- 
teenth ccnturj-, arc al- 
ready French Gothic, 
and in tlic church of 
S. Ouen is to be 
found the most impor- 
tant French Gothic 
building of the entire 
fourteenth century. 
In the same town we 
shall find late Gothic 
building witli all tiie 
glory of the Flamboy- 
ant style. 

Some of the most 
attractive churches 
of Normandy are 
frankly transitional, 
the Gothic feeling, 
even that mwlitie<l 
Gothic feehng of Nor- 
mandy, contrasting 
witii tlie earlier style. 
Sucii is the Ciithe- 
dral of Coutances 
(Manche), and such 
are parts of S. Jean 
at Caen (Calvados), 
and many smaller 
buihlings, as the i)art- 
ly ndned abljcy near 
Granville (Manche), 
called commonly .V>- 
batje de la Lucerne. 
of first - rate impor- 
tance are the cathe- 
dral of Scez (Orne), the catliedral of Lisieux, 
and tlie churciies of Norrey and Douvres (Cal- 
vados), the church of Pont Audemcr (Eure), 
and the ruined abbey of Jumi^ge.s (Seiue-Inf^- 
rieure). One monument, orgrouj) of monuments, 
is, however, so unicjue in cliaracter tliat it de- 
serves to take rank even before the great cathe- 
drals of the district. The abbey aiul town of 
Mont-Saint-Michcl possess an admirable Ro- 
manesque diurdi, which throughout the Middle 
Ages had vaulted aisles and a wooden central 
roof, but a choir of iierfected Norman Gothic 
with vaults ; and tliis building, of high interest 
in itself, is surroimded by the most extraordi- 
narj- group of cloisters, vaulted halls and cham- 
bens, staircases, gateways, and fortifications, 
which can be found anywhere, piled up in one 
small site. The disentanglement of the styles 
represented in this crowd of curious buildings 
requires tlie study of months, and ran only be 
set forth, as it has In^en set forth in books es- 
pecially devoted to the subject. (See Corroyer, 
op. cit.) 


The florid Gothic 
of Nonnaudy is at 
one with that of 
Fiaiu-e. At the close 
of tiie Hundred Years' 
War, alwut 1450, 
France was united as 
one people, and the 
architecture of the 
next half century is 
among the mast 
sjdendid of her tri- 
umphs. At Rouen, 
always the capital of 
the duchy and the 
))r()vin(e. the lantern 
ots. Oiirii, tlie tower 
..1 s.l.aiiinit.thever)' 
.Mt.rrstin,'. though 
at tlic time unfin- 
(ii-v, the north tower 
of t he west front of the 
cathe<lral, and espe- 
cially the unmatched 
church of S. Maclou, 
are all of this splendid 
epoch. Largi* parts 
of the cathedral of 
E\Tcux (Eure), the 
bishop's palacf*, the 
clock tower, or bef- 
/Vo/. and the church of 
S. Taurin, in the same 
tt.wn ; the church of 
P.iiit rKv.-que; that 
of Dives - sur - Mer ; 
that of La TriniU', at 
Falaise ( Calvados) ; 
the churches of S. Germain and S. Martin, at 
Argentan (Orne) ; the cathedral of Saint-L6 
(Manche) ; — these are but a few of tiie build- 
ings of this time — buildings which vie with 
any of the florid Gothic architecture of central 
and eastern France in beauty, variety, and a 
true architectural sense of limitation and of re- 
straint in the midst of the search for splendour. 
They are surpassed in no resi)ect, except by two 
or three of the greatest churches of the royal 
domain, as at Abbeville, Beauvais, and Saint- 
Riquier (for which see Part I. of this inquirj). 
The works of the classical Renaissance are 
very abundant in Normandy, and are of sin- 
gular attractiveness ; but none of them are of 
very great size or cost. The small chateaux, 
or, lus tliey might with greater pro])riety be 
called, the maiinirn, of the years immediately 
following the ex])ulsion of the Englisli, arc 
among the most attractive buildings for the 
student. The time, still fnll of memories of . 
war and civic confusion, hardly allowed of the 
construction of countr>' liouscs without some 


means of defence, and accordingly the buildings 
of the manor were ranged around a large coiu"t- 
yard, to which they served as rampart, and 
from which they had their only entrance. A 
single gateway, more or less fortified, senred as 
entrance to this great enclosure. The famous 
' Manoir d'Ango, near Varangeville (Seiue-In- 
firieure), is only superior to others ia the vari- 
ety of it.s l,uil(liii-s uii.l till' umiMi.il amount of 
applied nruaiiiciit ; that ..r IliH.s with its re- 
markal.k- tdWi-rlikc i,i,uv,,ii hous,., and that of 
Livet (L'alvadus) with its tiiiilMT l.ariis and vom'- 
dence of brick and stmir, and thi- unpivtrnd- 
ing little chateaux of ('rir,|ii,.\ ill,., Ai;iu'ssau, 
and Fontaine Henri (Calvadnsj, (Jariuugts, 
La Vove, and Tesse-la-Madeleine (Orne), "are 
all important ; and there are some little manors 

, Roi 

in the Orne, as at Cord; 
C^neri, which an- ( 
buildings. The Kcnais.anr, 
church architecture in Nmn 
dent knows from the ihj|iii1, 
sidal chapels of S. Pienv, 
church of S. Etienne le \u-\ 
(to be distinguished carct'nll 
of S. Etienne, named ahn\r), th.nmh 
well-established classical taste and hav 
Renaissance details min^-jeil euriuusly 
those of late Gothic character, is pec 
iarly successful as an architectural 
composition. The flat roof of the 
choir at Tilliferes (Eure) and the 
extraordinary wooden porch of 
the little church at Ry 
( Seine - Inf^rieure ) are _,,■{ 

unique bits of Renais- 
sance detail like 
nothing else in ^_ 
Europe. The ^^. 
square tower, cen- ^. 
tral in the church, 
or standing free, re- 
oeivedatteiitiiiii dur- 
ing the ClMM-ll nf I he 
Renaissance, an<l 
several of the finest 
specimens which ex- 
ist are in Normandy. 
Such are tlie central 
tower of S. Pierre at 
Coutances (Manche), 
the tower of the 
church at Mortagne, 
and that of the 
church of S. Ger- 
main at Argentaa 

Of the later clas- 
sical styles arc the 
churcii of S. Oer- 
vasi S. Protais at 
(Jisorw, and the 

ud Saint- 
tlio larger 
ithout its 
every stu- 
'f the ap- 
but the 
same city 
e abbey , 

.>f less 
ring the 
:with / 


ruined abbey of Bec-Hellouin (Eure) ; also, in the 
same department, the chateaux of Beaumesnil 
and Chambray. The north tower of Evreux 
cathedral should also be compared with the earlier 
towers named in the last paragraph. The 
Hntel de Ville, at Aleni'ou (Orne), and the pre- 
leeture (if the same city are Valuable pieces of 
street architeetuie, and so is, in one sense, the 
bishop's palace at Seez. Chateaux, in the 
strict sense of manor houses, not necessarily of 
great size, are as numerous in the style of the 
einiiteenth century as they are of an earlier 
e|H,eli ; ,Mieh aiv" thnse of Medavy (Orne), 
i^hiill\ le-\'i.(niite (Calvados), Buissou-de-Mai, 
ami CiMix Saint LentVoy (Eure), — all of this 
intere>tiim ehiss. Finally, for strictly modern 
iMiilihuL:-, there are to be mentioned the chateau 
nt (,iiiesnay-(;aesuon (Calvados), the Hotel de 
Ville at Breteuil (Eure), and the extraordinary 
collection of buildings which make up the mon- 
astery of La Trappe (Orne), in which one of 
the most successftd of modem pieces of ribbed 
vaulting, and its necessary accessories, is com- 
bined with severity and an absence of applied 
, ornament well worthy of special note. (Cut, 
cols. 119, 120.) — R. S. 


IV. ; Lorraine ; including parts of the an- 

■ ;. cient duchy of Lothringen (Lorraine), the 

•- duchy of Bar, the bishoprics of Toul 

-_ and Verdun. The district includes 

the modem departments of Meuse, 

" _ i,lM.inthe-,.t-Moselle, 

which last is maih' u]) from 

Mcurtlie and Moselle 
as they existed be- 
iv fore the War of 
^ 1871. This tract, 
small as it is, must 
be considered apart 
from the great I'egion 
of central France 
(Part I.) because of 
its long dependence 
upon the German 
Empire and its late 
annexation to 
France. Nancy, 
I'.pinal, Bar-le-Duc, 
and Verdun hardly 
cume under French 
influence more than 
the towns on the 
Rhine or in West- 


1 style.s, 
I ling the 


character that it requires careful study, and in 
detail, to diflerentiate them, this fact is the 
more interesting as showing the immense influ- 
ence of French art and tlie wide ratliation of that 
influence from 1050 to the rise of the time of 
the well-established classical Renaissance. 

The early Romanesque work of this region is 
of extreme interest, for, although there are but 

few pieces requiring special mention, they are of 
unusual character. Tlie crypt of the church at 
Remiremont is one of these. The cliurch at 
Rambenillers (Vosgcs), though it hiis some 
Gothic additions, shows a singidarly pure and 
simple Romanesque style, and the church of 
Roliainville (Vosges) is one of the best small 
round-arched churches in France. The often 
cited appearance in Rlienish art of elements 


borrowed from Byzantine sculpture is hardly 
notable in these duirches among the hill country 
of Lorraine. Their sculjiture is as severe anil 
as strictly architectunil in diaracter iis that of 
Normandy. With tiie Gotliic epoch there ap- 
pears at Epiual (\'osges) a cliurch of the earliest 
period hardly past the time of transition. At 
Saint-Di^ (Vosges) the cloister and the choir-of 
the church, very bejiutiful though of mixed 
style, retain their unaltered Gothic character. 
At Pont-i-Mousson tlie churcii of S. Martin, 
though strictly tiiirtecnth century Gothic in 
character, is most unusual in the j)lan, wiiicli 
undoubtedly recalls the ]»lan of a primitive 
cliurch. There is a magnificent Gothic font 
in this church, and among the curious houses 
he town are traces of pure mediii>val work, 
iiius in view of the extreme rarity of do- 
-lic Gothic architecture which has not been 
• 1 cly restored. 

Ill the late Gothic epoch the choice is still 
_ • iter, and the buildings more splendid. The 
(Hical palace at Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle), 
well known through pliotograiihs and draw- 
ings, retains its very curious covered gallery 
of the ground storj- wliicli supports, in a fash- 
ion reminding one of the street arcades of 
Switzerland and Italy, the principal story 
above, and the splendid gateway with* the 
equestrian statue. The church of Remire- 
mont, of which the cryj)t is mentioned Above, 
and that of Saint-Nicolii.s-du-Port (Meurthe- 
ct-Moselle) are, in the main, of the years fol- 
lowing 1490; altiioiigii tlic la.xt named has 
some florid Gothic work of a still later epoch. 
At Avioth (ileuse) is one of the most curious 
Gothic monuments in Europe, a church of 
singidarly grave and rese^^•ed design with 
florid tracery and two very elaborate porches, 
and having in addition a wholly unique chapel, 
small and open, a mere shelter for an altar 
to be used on certain occasions, and standing 
apart from the church, to which it is attached 
by a purely ornamental screen. This last of 
Flamboyant style, ius is the little chapel. 

Of the epoch of the Renai.s.sance proper, 
tliere are some pieces of mingled sculpture 
jind architecture fit to vie with any similar 
structures. Thus, the retubles at Hatton- 
Chatel and Saint-Mihiel (Meuse), together 
with a woo<len group in the latter church, are 
the undoubted work of the Lotharingian sculp- 
tor Ligicr-Richier. In each instance the 
sculpture takes precedence of the architectural 
setting and, indeeil, may be classed with the 
magnificent groups at Solesmes (Sarthe) (for 
which see Part VI.). At Hatton-Chatel the 
whole composition is magnificent, a triple dispo- 
sition with deep reccj^se-s divided and enclosetl 
by pilasters which carry a pediment ; the cen- 
tral division arched up with a higher super- 
structure, the side divisions square-headed like 


what is called a Venetian doorway or window, 
and all of proportions as delicate as unusual, and 
invested with charming Renaissance decorative 
sculpture setting oil' the realistic groups of the 
three great divisions. In the little church of 
Etain (Meuse) there is another group by the 
same great artist, but less architectural in its 
disposition. Some of the tombs in the church 
of the Cordeliers at Nancy are of interest, and 
that of Ren^ II., the hero of the war against 
Charles the Rash of Burgundy, is an elaborate 
piece of early Renaissance screenwork and relief 
sculpture, as rich and varied as anything in 
Lombardy. The original sculptures (kneeling 
statue of Rend and statue of the Madonna and 
Child) have disappeared and have been replaced 
by modern work of some merit ; and a certain 
lack of harmony between this sciUpture and the 
carved and painted shrine in which it is set up 
leaves the rich decoration in form and in colour 
more noticeable and more easy to study undis- 
turbed. The diocese of Saint-Did contains a great 
number of curious wayside crosses and churchyard 
crosses to which a special monograph has been de- 
voted ; and fortunately, as their small size and re- 
mote situation would otherwise have left them 
nearly unknown. Some of these are of the Re- 
naissance, and are of an origin not later than the 
sixteenth century whatever the style of their sculp- 
ture may be. In this, as in other respects, they 
resemble the calvaries of Brittany (see Part V.). 
Of late neoclassic work there is much in 
Nancy itself. The cathedral is of the years fol- 
lowing 1 70.3, and in and near it are several pairs 
of 'wrought-iron gates of the utmost richness, 
dating from the time of the Duke Stanislaus, 
and well known to students for their unsur- 
passed splendour. In the same town, the hotel of 
the marshal commanding the military district 
is of the eighteenth century, and fronts upon 
a circular esplanade surrounded by colonnades, 
a small but effective architectural disposition. 
The celebrated Adam house, the home of sev- 
eral sculptors, is covered with the decorative 
work of its former inmates ; its date is about 
1720. At Epinal is a IL'trl ,!,■ Ville of the 
eighteenth century. At .Mosm Mniitu i ( Vosges) 
the most important relic nf tin rminri- ;il)bey is 
the church, which dates IVoiii 1 7GlJ, and of about 
the same date is the cathedral of Saint-Did. 
The church of S. Jacques at Lundville (Vosges) 
and the carved stalls and ciborium in the ca- 
thedral of Verdun (Meuse) are of the eighteenth 
century, and all these interesting costly struc- 
tures of that time remind the historical student 
how prosperous was this region under the reigns 
of the last dukes and the sueee.'ding Freiuh 
administration. The great ehrifenii of lldiiii'- 
mont (Vosges) is practically a modern huililing 
and might l)e classed as of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, although its design is of an earlier epoch 
of neoclassic taste. — R. S. 


V. Brittany, which for the puipose of this 
inquiry, may be taken as including the modern 
departments of Finistfere, Cotes-du-Nord, Mor- 
bihan, lUe-et-Vilaine, and Loire-Inferieure, 
possesses an architecture which, since the begin- 
ning of modem European civilization, has 
always presented many contrasts with that of 
neighbouring provinces. The abundance of 
granite rock and the comparative scarcity of 
other building stone is one cause of this. The 
separate racial character and distinctive lan- 
guage of the people, together witli their st niggles 
for independence of the >."nnii;ui ilukedom and, 
later, of the French kingdom, have also power- 
fully influenced all the civilization of the 

Of buildings of the Romanesque epoch the 
most interesting is certainly at Dinan (Cotes-du- 
Nord), the Church of S. Sauveur. This l.uiM- 
ing, of which the south flank is of the eleventli 
century and the portals of the west front of the 
same date, or hardly later, has been altered at 
different times so as to possess a late Gothic 
aisle alon^r its nortli side, and a west gable of 
the same eijuch with a splendid Flamboyant 
window. The tower erected over the sanctuary 
is, in the main, Romanesque, but with very 
late, even semi-classical, fittings in the up])er 
stoiy. The importance of the ehunh, however, 
is in the earhest parts where, on the south flank, 
half-round engaged columns serve as buttresses, 
and these, together with corbels of slight pro- 
jection, carry a stone cornice which, however, 
has been modernized. There are few Roman- 
esque monuments of equal interest in the west 
of France. At Daoulas (Finistfere) is a most 
interesting Romanesque cloister much ruined. 
The round church at Quimperld (Finistfere) is 
well worthy of study for those who have time 
to investigate its plan and to trace its original 
design, but it has been almost wholly rebuilt. 
At Saint-Matthieu, near Brest (Finistfere), there 
is a very interesting church of the Transition, 
reminding the student of the abbeys of York- 
shire, in having pointed arches, but being other- 
wise completely Romanesque and without any 
trace of vaulting. The date given for this most 
interesting structure is 1160. 

Of Gothic buildings there is little represent- 
ing the early or the j)erfected thirteenth century 
style. There is nothing of consequence to com- 
pare with the great cathedrals or with the 
parish churches of the royal domain, Burgundy, 
Champagne, or Normandy. The cathedral of 
Dol, descril>ed below, is of the great thirteenth 
century ejioch, but is very peculiar in style. 
Filteentii eentury Gothic is, however, not rare 
in Brittany. Perhajjs the most ini])ortant 
monuments arc the churches of Saint-Pol-cle-Ldon 
(Finistt're). Here, the cathedral is a fourteenth 
century churcli with very beautiful west towers, 

a south transept witli a splendid rose window, 
and an interesting interior containing much 
later work. This, being executol in granite, 
should be compared witli the soft stone churches 
of the Paris region and the north, or, if a 
building of the same date is souglit for, tlie 
abbey church of S. Ouen, at Rouen. It is 
seen here that differences of material liave little 
weight with the ardent promoters of a growing 
style of arcliitecture. Granite is found to do 
the same work as the softer stones, and the 
main difference to the builders wa.s probably in 
the added ditticidty of shaping and tooling the 
separate stones. Detail, of course, is strongly 
affected by hanlness of the material. The 
small church of the Creisker or Kreizker, in the 
centre of the town, as its Breton name implies, 
has a noble central tower resting upon open 
arches which span the nave, and rises to a 
great height without buttresses or other breaks 
of its square prism than windows with deep 
jambs and arciiding also somewhat emphatic. 
It carries a lofty spire pierced with sexfoil and 
cinquefoil openings and flanked by four large 
open pinnacles. No Gothic buildings in the 
northwest of France are more worthy of study 
than these; there is an interesting ossuary or 
bone hou.se of later date. In the same depart- 
ment, the little church of Rosporden is interest- 
ing, and has a spire and pinnacles of great 
l^eauty. The cathednd at Quimper, in the 
same department, contains a<lmirable transition 
work in the interior of the nave, but the whole 
exterior is of the fourteenth century, except the 
spires of the west front, which are entirely 
modem, though supposed to Iw in imitation of 
the ancient ones. Tiie flying buttress system 
of the choir and apse, though simple, is of great 
beauty of proportion. The cathedral of Nantes 
is an iiii|iMit.int flnthic diurch, more in keeping 
with til.' .limvl,,-. .,f northern France than 
those a)' i\>' nail!.,!, a fact accounted for by the 
situati(Hi ot tlic tiAvn on the river Loire, and 
accessible from Tours and the heart of royal 
France. The portals of tlie west front are 
much later in detail tlian the greater part of 
the stmcture. This church contains two splen- 
did tombs, which are described below. The 
cathedral of Dol (Ille-et-Vilaine) is of singidarly 
sombre aspect, being built entirely of gray 
granite. It is built in the tliirtccnth century 
style, and is one of tlie few instances of a very 
large church of the Gothic eiKich almost wholly 
uniform in style. It is curiously like some 
English churches in two respects : first, in 
having a scpiare cast end (compare the cathedral 
of Laon in the district of Fnince proper) ; and 
secondly, in the lownc-ss of its walls and roof 
A minor peculiarity, which results in part from 
this inferior height, is the steep slope of the 
flying buttresses, in whicii again a comparison 
may Im; made with English Gothic buildings. 

The extraordinarj' massiveness of the parts and 
the absence of external buttresses to the aisles 
increase the unusual character of the exterior. 
There is a beautiful late Gothic church at Le 
Croisic (Loire-Inft^rieure), anotlicr at Locronan 
(Finistfere), and others of a later date at G\\6- 
rande (Loire-Infcrieure), Graces (Cotes-du- 
Nord), and at Dinan, where the greater part 
of the church of S. Sauveur, also mentioned, is 
of Ijeautiful late Gothic, and where the church 
of S. Malo in Dinan is of the same epoch, and has 
a most attractive interior. The feudal castles 
and town halls of Brittany have great interest, 
and the student of militarj' architecture should 
visit Tonquedec (Cotes-<lu-Nord), Gu«?rande 
(Loire-Inferieure), Dinan, and Sucinio (Morbi- 
han), the last of which is an enormous fortress 
in such condition that its plan and arrangement 
CAU be almost perfectly understood. The great 
fortress of .Tussclin must Ix? mentioned in a suc- 
ceedinjr ipara<rra]ili, but its exterior defences are 
of the fourtciiitli ciiitury. 

Interesting tinilicr-built houses are very 
numerous in Brittany, and it is impossible to 
enumerate the towns where they can be found. 
Saint-Malo, Morlaix, the village of Josselin, 
Lamballe (Cotes-du-Nord), may be mentioned, 
but the larger towns, which the visitor seeks 
for their ecclesiastical and other monuments, 
contain also many of these minor buildings. 

The curious Calvaries (Cafvnires) or out-of- 
door monuments of the Cnicifixion, though 
generally, in their present condition, of a much 
later date, belong to the Middle Ages in their 
origin. The one at Plougiistel, near Brest (Fini- 
st^re), lias a i)latforin about twelve feet high, 
upon which are about thirty figures of half life- 
size, while upon the buttresses or flanking pro- 
jections are many other figures in high relief. 
From the centre of the platform rises a great 
cross, perliaps fifteen feet high above the sub- 
structure, and adorned with crossbars and cor- 
bels which carry the figures of the Marys and 
the other immediate attendants of the Crucifix- 
ion, while two small and less adorned uprights 
carry the crosses of the two thieves. The whole 
of this immense combination of nnle archi- 
tecture and nider sculpture is intended to aid 
toward a clear comprehension of the Passion in 
all its successive stages as exi)oundcd by the 
Church. Similar, but often sinallcr, Calvaries 
are at Plougouver an<l Guiiiiiliau, IMcylK-n, and 
Comfort, in the same dci)artmcnt, tlie last of 
these being a modern structure erected on the 
site of an ancient one. 

The work of the Renaissance in Brittany 
takes on curious jirovincial forms, some of 
which are of extraordinary interest. They 
should l>e compared with the buildings of the 
same epoch in eastern and southeastern Ger- 
many on account of their novelty and dashing 
treatment, while, at the same time, they arc 


more elegant in design. There is cli 
enough in the details of the church tower at 
Saint-Thegonnec (Finistfere), but the general 
proportions of the tower are extremely gi-aceful. 
At Le Boiirg-de-Batz (Loire-Inferieiire) is a very 
plain and severe sixteenth century tower of very 
graceful outline, dominating the interesting ruins 
of the Gothic church. At Faouet (Morbihan) is 
the west front of a church of mingled Renais- 
sance and Gothic forms, rudely built in granite, 
and here are also an ossuary and other structures 
of the sixteenth century. The little church of 
Chateaulin (Finistere) may be studied on ac- 
count of its curious tower.s and gables, in front 
of which is a small Calvary. At Kerjean, in 
the same department, is a curious manor house 
of the early seventeenth century. Of French 
Renaissance less abnormal and more like that 
of the Centre, there may be named the church 
of S. Armel at Ploermel (Morbihan) where the 
portals are of singular beauty in the style of 
Francis I., and at Nantes, where the interior 
court of the chateau has early Renaissance and 
Transition details of equal merit. The strong 
castle at Josselin has a building fronting on its 
court which has been the favourite subject for 
artists. This is the well-known long facade, 
with one stoiy of windows in the walls, while 
two-story dormers rise from the walls and pro- 
ject from the steeply sloping roof There is in 
the cathedral of Nantes a tomb of the early 
Renaissance, the tomb of the Duke of Brittany, 
Francis II. It is one of the finest monuments 
of the time. 

Of modem work is a very remarkable tomb, 
also in the cathedral of y.-xiitrs, tin- munument 
to General De LamoriciJiv, rrlclnati.l as the 
commander of the Papal aiiiii(> n|i|,i,-,iiis Gari- 
baldi. This tomb is d(r..i.ii,,| liv a marble re- 
cumbent statue of the ilea. I ami tmir bronze 
symbolic statues at the ani;l( --, all by Paul 
Dubois. Its design is b\ iln- anliitnt IJoitte; 

it is of exquisite l;clial->,iiir|. (l,'v|._;ii, with 

a canopy supporird ..n pila-ii is an. I columns, 

and is altogctlici- ■ ni ihr inn-t imiiortant 

pieces of moilcrn aivlntcriurul and sculptu- 
resque diwio-M. - i;. S. 

VI. ; Angevin France. The small district 
which is designated here as Angevin France is 
bounded on the north by Normandy, and is sit- 
uated on both sides of tlio Loire, including the 
thr<!e departments of .Mayiimc, Saitlic, and 
Maineet-Loire. History ai'i.l aivl,ii,ri nral his- 
tory alike prevent the ti( al im ni ,,1 tins region 
as a part of Brittany, or iNninjaiiily, >iv France 
proper, or other larger historical division. It is 
nearly conterminous with the ancient jmivinces 
of Ai\jou and Maine. Tills region, although 
the home of the powerful Angevin kings of 
Western Gaul and England, lost its political 
importance early in tlie thii-teenth century, and 


both before and after that time had rather suf- 
fered the architectural iuiluence of neighbouring 
lands than originated anything of importance. 

Romanesque architectiu-e is well shown by a 
few buildings of extraordinary interest. Such 
are the ruins of the iniiJ.jrtaiit aliliey of S. 
Aubin at Anger.?, a buiMiiiu- so varied in its 
detail, so rich iu its sruliitmvil unianicntatiou, 
and so unique in many of its dispositions that 
it deserves the closest study. In the same city 
the remains of the convent of S. Martin should 
also be studied ; and the ancient hospital of S. 
Jean, the ancient Hotel-Dieu, contains a twelfth 
century cloister and other Romanesque remains. 
The interesting church of Pre-en-Pail (May- 
enne) has been rcstdicd with nival coniiileteness 
and has lost all its (ni^inal chaiactrr except in 
the sculptured detail-, as at the \ve>t (l.Hir. At 
Cunanlt (Maiiu-et Lciiv) i.s a very ancient 
cliurcli, ^vllicll, as late as 1890, had been only 
repaired in a tew jilaces, and was still intact in 
all its inipDitaiit jiaits. The door is of extraor- 
dinary interest and beauty. Chemill^, in the 
same department, has a central church tower 
of a somewhat later date — Romanesque of 
about 1150, with an octagonal stcme spire 
which is brought to the s.ale of the belfry 
below by means of stone doimer A\iiulows. 
This whole church is of importance, but the 
door is especially valuable. The most impor- 
tant piece of Romanesque work in the district 
is the great abbey of Fontevrault. The build- 
ings of this establishment are used as a ])rison, 
and are kept in perfect condition ; they are, 
also, somewhat difficult to visit with any thor- 
oughness, but the extent and completeness of 
the ancient monastery and the great number of 
important pieces of architecture and of sculptu- 
resque ornament make it especially necessary to 
every student. The church retains one of its 
curious early cupolas, by which it is identified 
as one of tliat series of domical churches for 
which see the distiicts of (iuieinie ami Poitou. 

The kitchen of the I .MMeiA is ,,f Liter date 

than tlie ehinvh, hut still eaii\, .and, like the 
kitchen of ClaMouKuiv, in i'.ii-land, is r,M,fcd 
l.v a curious |,vrainid. ' It is in Ihi, .d.hev that 
arc still pivMTvcd the lour |.,.v,ou. portrait 
st.atucsorAni^eviiiUingsaiid.iiiccns; Henry II. 
of England, Richard I. of England, Eloanorc de 
Guienne, and Isabelle d'Aiigouleme, three of 
these being in soft stone, the fourth in wood. 
Parts of the cathedial of Le Miins are also 
worthy of special notice l)y tlie student of pre- 
Gothic architecture, es])ecially a great south 
doorway with its iiol)le sttituary worthy to be 
compared to that <.f the west tnmt of Cliartivs. 
The most imiiortant (iotiiie nionunieiit of the 
district is the noble cathedial of Le Mans. Th.' 
choir and ea«t end of this church are unique be- 
cause of the system of vaulting adopted I'nr the 
aisle, which curves around tlic choir proi)er, the 


vaulting being aminged altoniately in squares 
ami triangles. This system, afterward followed 
in the cathedral of Tuleilo, in Spain, is practi- 
cidly unknown in the north, exi-ept in this one 
instance. The chajH-ls, which are arranged 
around this east end, and radiate in the usual 
way, are of lumsual dejith, ami the Chapel of 
the Virgin is longer than the otliers. The re- 
sult is, for the exterior, one of the most charm- 
ing choirs in France, containing the spirit of the 
Gothic construction carried to its highest devel- 
ojjment. The towers of this cathedral are of 
little importance, and, in consequence, its dis- 
tant asjjcct is not imposing, except at the east 
end. In the same city the large church of 
Notre Dame de la Couture, though nnuii re- 
stored within, even to tlie spoiling of its Roman- 
esque choir, retains the scidpture of its fine 
doorway practically unaltered, and remains very 
picturesque in its exterior ett'ect. The catheilral 
of Angers has a west front of Transition style, 
of which the great doorway is peculiarly inter- 
esting. The church of EvTon (Mayenne) is late 
Gothic, with details of a singularly heautifid 
type. Two churches exist at Saumur (llaine- 
et-Loire) of which the early Gothic details are 
of great interest ; these are S. Pierre and Notre 
Dame de Nantilly. There is also the chapel of 
a nunnery, wliicli is a small church of great 
l>eauty. Of late Gothic buildings, one of the 
most effective residences in France is the build- 
ing at Angers now used as the Museum, — a 
beautiful town house of the fifteenth century. 

The Renaissance in Aiyou spent its strength 
mainly on minor houses and small residences. 
Of these the Chateau Chemaze, though less re- 
fined in detail and in architectural treatment 
generally than the small buildings on the Loire 
and in the east of France, is of extreme interest. 
Saint-Ouen (Mayenne) has another chateau wth 
a splendid spiral staircase of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and a chimney-piece with heraldic bear- 
ings, the whole of oxtranrdinary l)eauty of detail. 

Montreuil-B(ll i- ' ^^ ■ ' I.nire), Mezanger 

(Mayenne), a- nne) have each 

chateaux of t ' I of a pure and 

elegant styl.. .t" the sixteenth 

and .seventeeiitli cciiluiic;> arc rather numerous 
in the small towns of this department, and the 
city of Le Mans also contains a number, one of 
which, bearing the sign Tumbour des Fompiox, 
is of rich and florid oniamentation. The most 
impoi-tant nionument of the Renaissance in this 
district is, however, the singular and elsewhere 
unmatched array of sculpture in the little ciiunli 
of Solcsmes (Sarthe). This cluin-h lias little 
interest for the student except in the sculptures 
which fill the small north transept. In this 
there are groups representing the fainting of 
the Virgin at the C^ross, the Coronation of the 
Virgin, tiie burial of tlie Virgin, and the Assump- 
tion, each of these consisting of many figures 


associated together in an architectural frame- 
work of that curious Transition style which 
marks the passing into the classical Renais- 
sance while still the (idthic spirit was strong. 
There are other s.-uljitinvs in tlie church. 

— R. S. 
VH. ; Aquitanian France ; including the 
ancient couutship of Poitou, the Limousin, and 
Ptirigord, the great duchy of Gascogne, and 
such little inland states as Chateauroux and 
Cahors. This includes the modem departments 
of Basses-PjT^nees, Charente, Charente-Infi^- 
rieure, Deux-St-vres, Dordogne, Gers, Gironde, 
Hautes-PNTenees, Haute-Vienne, Landes, Lot, 
Lot-et-Garonne, and Tarn-et-Garonne. 

The gcograjjliical name, Aquitauia or Aqui- 
taine, can only lie used jis a general indication. 
Diu-ing the Hundred Years' War and thereaf- 
ter, tiie duchy of Aquitania covered the whole 
countrj- from the boundary of Touraine south- 
ward to Gascony, or even included Gascony and 
reached the Pyrenees. After 14.50 the term 
almost disappears from history and is replaced 
in part by Guieiiiie. Its value as describing a 
part of France, is that from Julius C;esar's time 
to nearly the end of tlie Middle Ages it desig- 
nated what is now southwestern France, with 
the possible exception of the country immedi- 
ately north of the Pyrenees. 

Throughout this region there should be found 
Roman remains of great imi>ortance ; but the 
rebuilding of churdies, large villas, and city 
walls, as mentioned in another part of this 
inquirj', has caused the di.sajipcarauce, or the 
concealment under later work, of the greater 
part of the.se remains. Drawings have been 
preserved of the magnificent Roman building 
which e.xistetl at Bordeaux until late in the 
seventeenth century, and of tiiose parts of the 
Bordeaux amphitheatre which were not removed 
until about 1800. 

The special glorj- of this district is the won- 
derful collection of Romanesque churches which 
cover the land. The large towns and the little 
villages alike have round-archal chiu-ches whose 
ei)och can be ascert^iined with some exactness, 
and which succeed one another throughout the 
eleventh and twelftli centuries. The domical 
churches of Saint-Michekl'Entraigues, Gensac, 
Rouillac, Saint-Amant-<le-Boixe, Fleac, and tlie 
cathedral of Angouleme are all, in tiie Charente, 
and l>esides the.se there are many churdies 
wliich have at lea.st one cupola, its, for instance, 
at the cnmsing of the traii.sei)t and nave. No 
other part of France |x>.ssesse.s buildings of this 
character. The nu)st famous of all these churches 
with cupoliis is S. Front at IVrigeux (Dor- 
dogne) ; but this building hius sutVcred a destmc- 
tive restoration wiiich, though it has resulted 
in an interesting modern cluuch studied from a 
Romanesiiue original, has lost all its exterior 


character and some part of its interior authen- 
ticity. The original church has been very 
carefully reproduced in the plates of Vemeilh 
(op. cit.). The ruined abbey church of Bos- 
chand (Dordogne) has kept at least two of its 
cupolas and the semidome of the choir, and the 
construction of its pendentives and the super- 
incumbent work is easily studied. 

Romanesque sculpture also is to be seen 
within this district in its highest development 
of somewhat unruly splendour. The churches 
named above are generally more simple ; but the 
fagade of the churches of Saint-Jouin-de-Marnes, 
and Surgferes (Charente-Inf^rieure), S. Croix at 
Bordeaux, and especially the wonderful abbey 
of Moissac (Turn ct-Garonne), together with 
the abdvc iMiiitd I iitheilral of Angouleme, are 
rich ill sculjituic Inith of figure subject and 
floral, and are, in tlii.s respect, unique in Europe ; 
the only buildings comparable being those of 
Poitiers, named in another part of this study. 
One of the two or three churches in France 
which retain traces of the very earliest Chris- 
tian building north of the Alps is at Saint- 
Gdn^roux (Deux-Sfevres). Of the time of the 
Transition from Romanesque to Gothic are the 
veiy curious Lanterns of the Dead, or cemetery 
beacons as they have been called, at Fernioux 
and Ol^ron (Charente-Inft^rieure), at Aitfres 
(Deux-Sfevres) and at Cellefrouin (Charente). 
Some of these are in their present state evi- 
dently of the Gothic period ; but their original 
conception is earlier. Their slender spirelike 
forms are the more interesting because of the 
close connection traceable between them and 
the towers of many of the churches of the same 
date; tliMsi> iiainid above, and others, as the 
towers ol' Friiiiuux (< 'liarente-Inf^rieure), Plas- 
sac (Cliaiviit.), and 'I'rois- Palis (Charente). 

The (Irpaitiiii lit (if Charente-Inf^rieure on 
the .scashniv hi- a -|i((ial class of Romanesque 
churches uciicrally nii restored, sometimes simple 
and sometimes very ricli, cared for by the State, 
and yet not made museums of, but still serving 
their purpose as places of worship. These are 
all basilica-like churches with roofs either vaulted 
or intended to be vaulted, and without cupolas ; 
one of the finest of them is Bassac with its 
magnificent four-storied tower with round arclies, 
and topped by a conical roof. Two small and 
highly enriched buildings are the churches of 
Echebrune and Echillais. A splendid church 
with long transept arms and scul|)ture of unique 
character and richness is that of Aulnay. Not 
unlike Aulnay is Avit ; Pont-l'Abbi' has one of 
the finest west fn.iits in Vr.wn; admirable in 
proportinn and rxl i aoidinariK ih 1, in sculpture. 
The rhnirh nf l;,-|;nnl I, a. an rMiaonlinary 
polygonal aps,. dr,.„rat,.d wi. I, arradr. and carv- 
ing of purely architectural character, done for 
efifjct of light and shade, and almost withoiit 
reference to natural forms. Finally, the great 


church of S. Eutrope at Saintes has, apart from 
its Gothic tower, one of the most splendid 
unaltered Romanesque exteriors and a vaulted 
interior of the twelfth century carried on very 
massive arcs donbleaux. The little Hotel de 
Ville of Saint-Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne) has 
been made famous by Viollet-le-Duc's restoia- 
tion and published drawings ; it is the only 
public building of this class which dates from 
an early period. 

The Gothic architecture of this district is 
not so peculiarly important, nor is it so distin- 
guished from that of other parts .,f Fnui.'e. The 
most impoitaiit tmihlings are the eatlndrals of 

nd i;,. 


S. Seurin and S. Michel at Bordeaux. 8. Jlichel 
has an isolated tower; and, in connection with 
the cathedral, though standing 200 feet away 
from the east end, is the famous tower Pey- 

^ ^f& 

France, Part VII.: Church of S. Ectropius, 

Saintes (on Seashore); Fi.ouin Romanesque 

Berland, named from that archbishop of Bor- 
deaux who saw to this building in the fifteenth 
century. Of the Gothic epoch arc the towers 
of the port at La RoclioUe, two of them still 
flanking the entrance to the mo(hiii dock and 
the third now surrounded Ia made land. tlio\igh 
this is the only one which retains its ancient 
spire. Nothing that has been preserved in 
Europe is at all of the character of these towers. 
They diff'er essentially from the mediicval mili- 
tary architecture which is generally cited. Of 
the latest Gothic style are parts of the cathe- 
dral of Auch (Gers) and of Limoges (Hautc- 
Vienne), and there is a wonderful cliapel at 
M('nigoute, anil a church at Touars (Deu.x- 

Of the earliest Renaissance are parts of the 
famous chateau of Pa\i ( Basses- Pyrt^nt^es), iden- 
tified with Henri IV. in his youth, and also 
parts of the cliAteau of Ndrac (Lot-et-Garonnc), 

■which also was a dwelling of Henri before he 
could even claim to be king of France. The 
c;ithedral stalls of Auch, named in the above 
paragraph, are of this epoch (1520-1530), and 
are famous for their magnificent and florid 
carving. The chateau of Cadillac (Giroudc) and 
thai of Busson (Lot) are as important architec- 
turally as the better-known chateaux of Oiron 
(Deux-Sfevres) and La Rochefoucauld (Cha- 
rente) ; and each of these buililings is essential 
to the right understanding of that stately 
domestic architecture which made up the strength 
of the classical revival in France. The famous 
staircase of La Rochefoucauld, the work of 
Antoine Fontant, and the private chapel of 
Oiron are of peculiar interest to the student, 
and the manor of Oiron is particularly cele- 
brated because of the inlaid potterj' of the 
time of Henri IL which was long known by 
the name of this estate, and of which there are 
tiled surlaces in parts of the building. The 
jub^ of the cathedral of Limoges is no longer in 
its original place, but is still preserved in the 
church and nearly complete. It dates from 
1533 and is of unusual richness, a piece of 
associated sculpture of unique character. 

Of Post-Renaissance work one of the most 
admirable things in this region is the church of 
Notre Dame at Bordeaux. This is a surpris- 
ingly successful piece of street architecture 
applied to a church; its front bears the date 
of 1707. The cathedrals of La Rochelle and 
Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) and the west 
front of the cathedral of Auch are of the seven- 
teenth century, the last named structure is of 
peculiar importance. The famous Phare de 
Cordouan at the mouth of the Gironde dates, in 
its original form, from the reign of Louis XV. 

Of modern buildings the great city of Bor- 
deaux contains some of importance as to size 
and general reputation among the architects of 
France ; but the great theatre with its dodeca- 
style colonnade is perhaps the oidy one having 
any particular charm. As a curious contrast to 
this is the little theatre at Angouleme, built at 
a much later time than that of Bordeaux. This 
is a li^lit and -lar.ful .m.! sdnicwhat fantastic 
huiMini:, .-ilmv, al.K ~u_'_',-i i\c (jf the purpose to 
which it i> .lr,|„,,'.,.l i; S. 

Vm. ; Auvergne ; the territory once occHipied 
by the dukedoms of Bourbon and Auvergne, and 
by several smaller semi-indej)endent states, and 
now divided into the departments of AUier, 
Cantal, Corrfeze, Creuse, Haute-Loire, Loire, 
Puy-<le-Dome. This is a hilly region, and for 
the most part thinly populated. There are no 
cities of gre^it size, nor have there bex-n at any 
time communities so prosperous or so ambitious 
as to erect buildings of great importance. All 
students of French architecture know this region 
as the home of the curious and beautiful variety 


of Romanesque design which includes colour in 
external effect, and which is represented by the 
church of Notre Dame du Port at Clermont- 
Ferrand (Puy-de-Dome), by its near neighbour, 
the church of S. Saturnin, with a beautiful 
inlaid frieze in the aj)se wall, by the churches 
at Brioude (Haute-Loire) and Issoire (Puy-de- 
Dome), and by the famous cathedral of Le Puy 
(Haute-Loire). In these buildings there is car- 
ried to a greater extent than elsewhere the sys- 
tem of mosaic of coloured materials on a very 
large scale, the tessenE of ordinary mosaic being 
repkced by blocks of freestone of considerable 
size, and having the usual colours of reddish and 
grayish brown shading upward to cream colour. 
There are, however, many Romanesque build- 
ings in this district of more simi)le style but of 
equally great interest. Such are the church of 
Chatel-Moutagne (Allier), of the most stem 
simplicity ; that of Ebreuil with its remarkable 
frontispiece forming a western tower of oblong 
section nearly as wide as the whole three-aisled 
church, and opened below into a vaulted porch ; 
and at Saint-Menoux (Allier), a larger and more 
pretentious church, with a square central tower 
of fine transitional character, but with unmixed 
twelfth century Romanesque style throughout 
the greater part of its structure, although the 
pointed arch alternates with the round arch in 
the nave arcades. The church at Beaulieu 
(Corrfeze) and the Priory church at Charlieu 
(Loire) are buildings of the utmost importance 
for their early twelfth century sculjtture, in the 
richness, variety, and significance of which these 
churciies rival the great buildings of Poitiers and 
its neighbourhood (see Part VII). The ancient 
church at Saint-Nectaire (Puy-de-Dome), though 
much restored, has preserved its imique capitals 
with historical scenes and incidents, and a free 
treatment of costume. 

The most valuable Gothic building of this 
region is the church of La Chaise-Dieu (Haute- 
Loire). It is as large as a second-chuss cathe- 
dial, and, next to the c^ithedral of Clermont- 
Ferrand, is the largest Gothic building in this 
part of France ; but its height is as nothing 
cxjmpared to central Gothic churches of the 
same size, and it is singularly devoid of sculp- 
ture. In these two re.s])ccts it reminds the stu- 
dent of many English clnu-ches; furthermore, 
the verj' severe and formal Gothic of ejirly style, 
leaving large surfaces of heavy wall pierced with 
small lights, is, witiiout closely resembling any 
English monument, akin to the style of the 
transitional abbeys of Yorkshire. On the other 
liand, the tracerj', both early and late, and the 
treatment of the mouldings and similar details, 
arc absolutely French. This cliurch, situate<l on 
the iiiglicst ])oiiit above tlic .sea of any impor- 
tant building in France, and built of singularly 
hard stone, has the unique character of a moun- 
tain cathedral. The cathedral of Clermont- 

VerHailles (Seine et Oise) ; chapel of tli(! Koyal Hart, who lia<l Ih-cm for ten years the snperintt'iidfiit 
Chateau. This buiidiiif; wjw fiiiiHhed about 1710, of ImiUlinns for the kin;;. 'I'lie exterior corresponds 
after the death of its designer, Jules Uardouin Man- closely to the plan and interior arrangement. 


Ferrand would be attractive and valuable but 
for comparison with the more important build- 
ings farther north. Its modern west front will 
be cited below. Tlie cathedral of Moulins 
(Allier) has much interesting late Gothic work, 
especially in the chapels disposed around the 
choir, and its recent enlargement must be men- 
tioned below. The Abbey Church of Souvigny 
(Allier) contains long stretches of Romanesque 
cloister and other very early fragments combined 
with late Gothic vaulting, tombs, and screen- 
• work, and tracery of unsurpassed beauty. In 
the church at Aubazine (Corrfeze) is a very 
splendid Gothic monument called the Tomb of 
S. Stephen, that is, of S. Etienne d'Obasine, a 
monastic saint of the twelfth century. 

The disposition to use colour in an external 
decoration, which has been alluded to above, 
appears again at a much later period in the 
strange tiled roofs of Moulins and Bt'nissons- 
Dieu, and in certain brick walls of the same 
and neighbouring towns. In each of these 
methods of decoration the most is made of the 
few simple colours obtainable, the roof tiles hav- 
ing more colours and more brilliant ones, and the 
ailditional brilliancy of ceramic glaze. 

The hilltops of Auvergne are crowned with 
ruined castles of the highest interest for the 
study of mediaeval fortification, and as pictur- 
esque in themselves and in their position as any- 
thing on the Rhine or in Carinthia. The most 
notable is the huge chateau of Bourbon I'Ar- 
chambault (Allier). As to Renaissance work, 
the little town of MontfeiTand, which forms an 
eastern suburb of Clermont, is rich in curious 
dwelling houses. Even where the greater part 
of the building is modernized, a doorway or 
even a whole facade is yet intact. 

Of modern work the inust imiKirtMiit thing is 
the extraordinary acliirviniciit of tlir architect 
Millet, who has '.uhM a Im,- „avr t., the cathe- 
dral of Moulins, and ha.s made therein a study 
of Notre Dame at Paris, jirc.serving the charm 
of the prototyjie in a way very rare in modern 
work. The western end of the catiiedral of 
Clermont-Ferrand, two bays in length, and in- 
cluding the west front, was built by Viollet-le- 
Duc, but the spires have not been conij)leted. 
— It. S. 

IX. ; Burgundiaii France : iiicliiiling tin- casteni 
districts fnjin Ciiatillcju and Belfort on the north 
to the boundaries of Provence ; embracing tiie 
country once included in the kingdom of Bur- 
gundy, the countship of Burgundy (Franche- 
Comt^) and tlie Dnrhy .,1' liurgimdy ; and 
including the iiio.l. m .|r|iaiiiiiiiits of Ain, Cote- 
d'Or, Doubs, Di.une. II mirs Alpcs, Haute- 
SaAne, Haute-Savoie, iserc, .Jura, lihone, Savoie, 
and Saone-efc-Loire. 

The Romanesque architecture of this region, 

though there are but few churchcB, compara- 



tively, of great extent or elaboration, abounds 
in valuable material. The little mountain 
churches of the Hautes-Alpes and the Savoie 
are worthy of minute study on account of their 
simple eflectiveness ; nothing in the Tyrol or in 
southern Germany can surpass them in this, 
while they have some details of great purity. 
The admirable crypt of S. Laurent at Grenoble 
(Is^re) is one of the most important pieces of 
Romanesque north of the Alps. At Lyons, 
the church of S. Martin d'Ainay has a central 
tower and a west tower of great value for their 
decoration by arcading ; these towers have not 
been injured by the restoration which has 
changed the character of the church. At Saint 
Donat (DnJme) the cluireh has also an admirable 
square tower. In fact, these Italian-like bell 
towers, square and plain, with arcaded belfries, 
are as well worthy of study as the smaller 
campanili south of the Alps ; all students 
know the importance to architectural study of 
these unpretending structures. The church 
of S. Barnard at Romans (Drome) is perhaps 
the richest piece of Romanesque sculpture and 
architecture in this region ; its south porch, 
though much broken, has not been ruined by 
restoration, and is of extraordinary beauty. 
Larger churches are those of Embrun (Hautes- 
Alpes) with a porch absolutely like a Lombard 
porch, with the columns resting upon the backs 
of lions, and S. Pierre at Vienne (Ls^re). At 
Saint Paul de Verax (Ain) is a churcli with an 
early Romanesque doorway and arcade Hanking 
it with sculptures of sin!,'nlar sinipliiity ; the 
whole, though in the mountain region near 
Geneva, reminding us of the church fronts of 

With the beginning of the Gothic building 
style, the differentiation of the Burgimdian from 
the central French style begins to interest the 
student ; but the subtle distinctions which make 
it up cannot be described here. The tendency 
is always away from the severely logical style 
based entirely upon its vaultedj-oofs and toward 
a reminiscence of the Romanesque variety of 
external treatment. The sculpture of the Bur- 
gundian Gothic churches is, though not very 
abundant, of peculiar value ; one of the most 
important specimens is that achiiirable frieze 
wliieh, taken fn.m the Jul..' ,.\^ tlie lillle church 
at li.airget (Sav,.ic), is imw l.uill inlu its walls. 
These sculptures veiirescnl llic I'assi.in uf Christ, 
and are narralive aial (lrsrn|.ii\e to a degree not 
commonly readied hy C.aiiic w.irk. The splen- 
did catiiedral nt' .\iit\in is the in().st important 
piece of transitional arehiteeture in France, 
showing the almost unwilling departure from an 
early Romanesque type and the gradual slow 
accoi)tan('e of the overmjistering style from tlio 
northwest. The church of Notre Dame at 
Dijon (( 'ote-d'Or) may be considered a typical 
piece of Burgundian Gotl)ic; its beautiful arcaded 


front forms a structure as completely inde- 
pendent as the larger farade at Strasburg, 
or the west fronts of Kipon or Wells. This, in 
other words, is not Gothic church building, but 
it is admirable street architecture, carried out 
under the influence of the Gothic style. On the 
other hand, the body of the church is normal and 
of siugidar lightness and simplicity of effect. 
The admirable church of S. Benigne in the same 
city shows, like tlie church last named, the local 
intiuences mainly in its west front. The jjlan 
of this church is worthy of peculiar attention by 
modem builders of city churches. The splendid 
northern doorway of the west front of the church 
at Semur (Saone-ct-Loire) retains in good con- 
dition the most admirable thirteenth century 
sculpture in the east of France. All this sculp- 
ture has to do with purely secular story. There 
are no cathedrals of the first imjwrtance witliin 
the district, but those of Autun, Lyons, and 
Vienne must be included in every study of 
cathedral building. 

Of the latest Gothic school are one or two 
buildings of unique character ; the famous hos- 
pital at Beaune, whose courtyard, with lofty 
steep roof and high dormer windows, is familiar, 
and the still more celebrated Church of Brou 
in the suburb of the town of Bourg-en-Brcsse 
(Ain). There is also the abbey of Hautecombe, 
which was sis elaborate once, at least in its 
external design, as the church of Brou itself, 
and even now in its rebuilt condition is attrac- 
tive. As for the famous Brou church itself, the 
building alone without its tombs would rank 
with the church of S. Riquier and tliat of S. 
Wulfran at Abbeville, as of the small list of 
important late Flamboyant designs; but with 
the tombs of princes which it includes, as a 
museum nf tiftrniith century and sixteenth cen- 
tury ait iiiK I I ill. 1 ill Europe. Such architec- 
ture .( - li\ an almost imperceptible 
gradat t the Renaissance, for in 
France im i.iil.i l laiiaissance architecture is 
not very strongly marked by the classical influ- 
ence. The Italian example was followed but 
slowly anywhere outside of the immediate in- 
fluence of the court at Paris. A famous and 
valuable instance of this peculiarity is the church 
of S. Michel at Dijon. Somewhat later are the 
two attractive buildings at Bcsancon (Doubs), 
the Hotel de Ville and the Palais de Justice, e«ch 
valuable to the modern practical student on ac- 
count of the very abundant and carefully con- 
sidered fenestration. The famous chateau of 
Bussy-Rabutin, near the village of Bussy-le- 
Grand (Cdtc-d'Or), has l)ecn thoroughly given in 
the pages of Sauvageot (op. cit.), and so has the 
Hotel Vogii^ at Dyon ; this last Ijeing probably 
the most important city house, architecturally 
spcjiking, of all the neodassic buildings in 
France. There are one or two buildings of the 
Post-Renaissance styles which deserve esjjecial 


notice. One of these is the Chateau de Vizille 
(Is^re), a building seldom mentioned by the 
books, but curiously valuable as a piece of bold 
grouping. The t^uperb church of S. Madeleine 
at Besancon (Doubs), begun 17 40, is a metro- 
jwlitan building in everjthing except its situa- 
tion in a small mountain town ; nothing more 
stately is to be found than its vaulted interior. 

Of modern architecture in the district there 
are several town halls and ^uairieti of interest, 
but often designed by Parisian architects. The 
library and museum at Grenoble (Jstre) is an 
unusually graceful design. The most original 
and valuable monument of the district in recent 
times is the Lion of Belfort, a vast sculpture in 
the side of the clitt' which ri.ses above the town. 
It is the work of Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, 
the sculptor, and the author of the colossal 
Liberty Enlightening the "World in Kew York 
harbour. — R. 8. 

X. ; Provence and Lauguedoc. In tlicir 
architecture, ;is in tlieir history, these two jjrov- 
inces have so much in common and so many 
points of contact, that an account of their build- 
ings can best be given by treating them to- 
gether. Throughout their whole history — up 
to the time of the ab.sorption of Provence by 
France under Louis XI. in 1 481 — the similar 
architectural styles of these jirovinc&s, like their 
common language, diftered strikingly from ^bose 
of northern France. The styles of architecture 
in that portion of Languedoc which immediately 
adjoins Provence were indeed identical with the 
Provencal styles and cannot in any way be dis- 
tinguished from them. But in the Romanesque 
period western Languedoc has characteristics 
somewhat peculiar to itself and is, alwut Tou- 
louse especially, more strongly influenced by the 
style of Auvergne than by that of Provence. 
Tiie ancient Provence (including within that 
term the A'enaissin, the domain of the popes at 
Avignon, and the little countship of Orange), 
comprised the modern departments of Vau- 
cluse, Ba.sses-Alpes, Alpes-Maritimes, Var, and 
Bouches-du-Rhone ; while the adjoining Lan- 
guedoc corr&sjjonded roughly to the departments 
of Ard^che, Gard, H^rault, Lozfere, Aveyron, 
Tarn, Aude, and HauteGaronne. Ariege and 
Pyn^nees-Orientales, approximately coiTcspond- 
iiig to the old counties of Foix and Roussillon, 
may be included with LangiuHloc. Architec- 
turally, however, the departments of Ard^che, 
Gard, and about half of H^rault must be 
reganled as forming part of Provence, while the 
province of Dauphind, es])ecially that part of 
it which is includetl in the department of Drome 
and the southern part of Is^re, was under the 
influence of the successive Proven(;al styles. In 
Roman times these pro^^nces formed together 
the Provincia Gallica, and tlic Roman architec- 
ture of this region, much of which is singularly 


well preserved, soon acquired a quality of its 
own, which distinguishes it from the Koman 
work of Italy. This is in part perhaps due to 
the vigorous individuality of the Gallic race, in 
part to the influence of the Greek colony of 
Massillia, the modem Marseilles, and in part to 
the invariable use of cut stone which is charac- 
teristic of all the styles of Provence and east- 
ern Languedoc. In the later period of Roman 
art the proportions and details are crude (per- 
haps even more so than at the same time in 
Italy), but on the other hand there is in the 


coarsely quarried blocks of stone the little river 
Touloubre, at this point nearly 40 feet wide. 
But the striking features of the design are the 
twin triumpiial arches across the roadway, one 
at each end of the bridge. At Aries (the 
Roman Arelate) there are several Roman monu- 
ments of first importance. Of these the arena 
or amphitheatre is in an unusually good state 
of preservation. The exterior of this monu- 
ment has arcades in two stories of the Roman 
arch order similar to the arcades of the Coli- 
seum in Rome. The lower order is Doric, the 

France, Pak- 

work of the province a robust originality of 
conception and a vigour of execution whicli com- 
pensates for this lack of refinement. Perhaps 
the oldest Roman monument of importance in 
Provence, of which anything remains, is to be 
found in the ruins of the temple at ■Vern^guc8 
(BouchcH-du-Rhone), about halfway between 
Aix and Avignon. Its Corinthian caj)itals 
show decided Greek influence, and arc refined 
and elegant in protiortinn, tlioni'li wimewhat 
over attenuated. Not In Ik.iii \ m n. '/ucm, at 
Saint ('hiuniiH, Ih an > r,,,!iii l\ miiic'stiiig 
Roman bridge, which N|,;iri^ u iih .1 m .Ic arch of 

upper, Corinthian, surmounted by an attic. The 
arena is an ellipse, 228 feet by 128 feet. Tlie 
theatre is less well preserved, but contains some 
b(!autiful examples of Corinthian columns and 
I)ieces of entablature. The ancient cemetery, 
known as Les Aliscanij)s (Elysii Cnmpi), oon- 
tains a f.w Kmiian fM„il.s. .Some fifteen miles 
to tlif iioiil,,:,.! .if \il,s, near the little village 
of Saint I.'.imn mI,,- ,mi. icnt (ilaniini) are two im- 
j)ortanl Knnian .slnutiucs : a riciily sculptured 
triumphal anli of a single opening, of wliich 
tlie upper part has disajipcared, and wliich is 
I)robabiy of the time of Titus or Triyan ; and a 


tomb monument of much later date, awkward 
in many of its details, but of unique interest 
on account of its picturesque towerlike design 
(crowned by a circular open colonnade of squat 
Corinthian columns) and on account of its 
very perfect state of preservation. At Cavail- 
lon (Vaucluse) is a triumphal arch, square in 
plan, an arch in each face, and having Corin- 
thian pilasters on each angle ornamented with 
rich acanthus aralies<jues verj' refined in execu- 
tion. At Carpentras, northeast of Avignon, is 
another well-preseried triumphal arch of late 
date, verj' wide in proportion to its height, and 
with three-tjuarter Corinthian columns at the 
angles. It is important becjiuse of its imita- 
tion in Romane-sfjue times in the jwrtal of the 
cathedral at Avignon. At Orange (the ancient 
Arausio), northwest from Carpentras, is the 
largest triumplial arcli in Provence of three 
openings, and one of the best preserved Roman 
theatres that has come down to our day. The 
proscenium structure, although badly mutilated, 
remains to its full height. It was an elaborate 
design in three stories of superposed orders. 
Northeast again from Orange, at Vaison, there is 
a Roman tomb and bridge. At Frt^jus, on the 
coast southwest of Nice, are remains of Roman 
baths and an aqueduct, and at Riez (Basses- 
Alpes) four columns of a temple colonnade still 
remain standing. 

In Languedoc the Roman remains of impor- 
tance (witli the exception of a ruined bridge of 
three arches at Saint Thib^ry in Hcirault) are 
all in the department of Gard, concentrated at 
Nimes (the ancient Nemausus) and its imme- 
diate neighbourliood. Nimes itself po.ssesses 
more examples of Roman architecture than any 
other city of France. Portions of the city 
walls still remain with two well-preserved gate- 
ways : the Porte de France, with a single arch- 
way between two ruinous towers ; and the richer 
Porte d'Auguste with four openings — the two 
central, larger, arclied ; the two side openings, 
smaller, with lintels. But the most beautiful 
and most important Roman building is the so- 
called Maimii-C<irr<'i\ tlic ono almost perfect 
Roman temiil' aiiied to our day. 

It is hexastsl. ' very noble archi- 

tecture, and I ry first years of 

our era. It lii I iuid is now used 

as a museum. ^ ' ' i- :iii amphitheatre 

in good presciN I !i m style to that at 

Aries and of \ '' \ ii.iil\ i Im >:iine size. There 
are also important ruinain.s of public baths, in- 
cluding a great rectangidar hall or Nymphmum ; 
an admiral)le example of the influence which 
the use of large blocks of stone, so abundant in 
the country, has exerted on all the Provencal 
styles. The hall is vaulted with a barrel vault 
in which the Rcmian method of using i)erma- 
nent centring ribs is applied to cut stone con- 
struction in a manner similar to that which 


they employed in central Syria, where similar 
conditions prevailed. Transverse arches of 
stone span the hall, and ujjon these, as centres, 
other arches are built of slabs resting from rib 
to rib. Along the sides of the hall are rec- 
tangular niches with pediments alternately tri- 
angidar and segmental. Between them were 
Corinthian columns on pedestals (oidy a few 
remain standing), carrj'ing the entablature from 
which springs the vaidt. These baths were 
sujjplied with water by a great aqueduct, of 
which there are remains in the magnificent 
series of arches known as the Pont du Gard, 
which crosses the ravine of the Gardon twelve 
miles north of Nimes. At Sommieres (Ganl) is 
a ruined bridge of the time of Tilierius. Of the 
.seventeen arches which originally crossed the 
Vidourle at this point eight now remain. 

After the fall of the Roman Empire the ancient 

Proviii'-- ••■'■ ' " 'iiiilpr the com])aratively 

civili/- : ^ iiinl Ostrogoths. But 

it is ui hit.itural development 

at tlii- I -' ntially from that of the 

rest of Wcitciii Euiuijc. In spite of the argu- 
ment of Ri5voil, there is nothing, as Dehio has 
shown, which can with any likelihood be ascribed 
even to the subsequent Merovingian and Carlo- 
vingian epochs, save a few fortress towers such 
as those erected by Franks or Saracens upon 
the walls of the amphitheatre at Aries. The 
churches built at this time, of which the chroni- 
cles speak, were probably plain basilicas with 
piers and arches, and have practically all disai>- 
peared as a residt of the invasions and destruc- 
tions of the Saracens in the eighth, ninth, and 
tenth centuries, and the sulxsequcnt reconstruc- 
tions. It is impossible therefore to trace the 
origin of the Proven(j<al Romanesque style of the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries. But it is easy 
to perceive why in this romantic land, which is 
neither France nor Italy, but which stands mid- 
way lietweeu them, borrowing from Iwth, there 
slu)uld have develoi)cd, contemixirary with the 
literature of the trouliadours, the most elegant 
and refined of all the Romanesque styles. These 
causes are to he. found in the facts that no por- 
tion of the Empire outside of Italy became so 
thoroughly Romanized, ami that this comer of 
Europe sufiered less almast than any otiier from 
the migrations and invasions of barbarians, so 
that the cla-ssic character was maintained and 
cla.ssic traditions never quite died out. More- 
over the monuments themselves were preserved. 
The region of the south of France, in which these 
monuments still exist, will l)e found to indicate 
the extent of the Provent^al Romanesque style. 
The excellence of the building stone of the coun- 
try counted for nnich, but the continuance of 
the knowledge how to use it and the pn)ximity 
of good mwlels counted for nu)re. Structurally 
the great fact of the Provent^al style was its 
being the first to develop a church building 


which was throughout a stnicture of stone. 
Wood is not found in the construction of any 
of these buildings. The constant character- 
istics of the style are mainly the following : The 
church plans consisted of a single nave or a nave 
and side aisles (without transepts or with tran- 
septs forming a T-shaped plan with one or three 
apses). These were ceiled with barrel vaults of 
stone, covered with sloping stone gable roofs 
resting directly on the vaults, roof and vault 
forming a single mass of masonry. The roofs 
frequently have pierced crestings of stone, and 
antefixse are sometimes used, as on the roofs of 
Greek and Roman temples. The barrel vaults 
are generally ribbed with great arches at equal 
intervals. External buttresses strengthen the 
walls opposite each transverse arch. Longi- 
tudinal arches below the springing of the vault 
often connect the main piers within, forming a 
series of shallow niches, which lighten the walls 
and correspond to the nave arcades, where these 
exist. These niches are sometimes deepened and 
form a series of side chapels with baiTel vaults 
whose axes run transversely to the single nave, 
as at Cavaillon and Orange. Where side aisles 
exist they are iiarrnw, and the piers carrying the 
nave arches are laii^e in proportion. The thrust 
of the liarn.'l vault is met by very heavy walls, 
and in the ca.se of tlu; existence of side aisles by 
carrying these up nearly as high as the nave 
vault, so that there are no clearstory windows and 
nave and aisles are under one roof, or the clear- 
story is very low. The barrel vaults of the 
aisles are frequently ramped upward to meet the 
thrust of the central vault, which is often pointed 
to reduce the thrust. Occasionally, iis in the 
cathedrals of Marseilles and Frejus, plans similar 
to the churches of Cavaillon and Orange have 
groin vaults over the nave (in place of ban-el 
vaults) aliutted liy transverse barrel vaults over 
the chapels, a selieiiie of construction precisely 
like that of the basilica of Constantine in Rome. 
But this scheme of construction is rare; groin 
vaults usually occur only over the bay of the 
crossing, and .sometimes (even when transepts 
do not exist) over the bay in advance of the apse. 
In rare cases the dome or the cloister vaults are 
u.sed over this bay. The earlier buildings and 
many of the later ones are almost devoid of de- 
tail ; but they are nearly always very impressive 
from the beauty of their proportions, their con- 
structive simplicity, their unity of conception, 
and their admirable cut stone masonry. The 
influence of such Roman constructions as the 
Nymphaium at Nimes is obvious in spite of 
the difference in metho<l. 

The oldest post-Roman piece of building now 
extant in Provence, which has any architectural 
character, is perhaps the oratory of S. Tro- 
phimus built into the hillside beneath the impres- 
sive and picturesque monastery of Moutmajour, 
near Aries. Dehio places it before the year 


1000. The oldest certaiidy dated piece of Pro- 
vencal Romanesque is the little Chapel of the 
Holy Cross (a Greek cross in plan) at the foot 
of the hill of Montmajour. As is proved by the 
inscription discovered by R^voil, it was dedicated 
in 1019. It shows peifect masterj' of the con- 
stractive methods employed. Its builder. Abbot 
Rambert, carried out also the crypt, at least, of 
the mona.stery church, and may have buill a 
large portion of the unfinished church itself, 
which is of the single-nave T-shaped plan with 
three apses. Such detail as exists, as in the 
apse windows, is Latino- Byzantine in character, 
not unlike similar detail of the same date in 
Italy, but showing less rudeness of conception 
and handling. The beautiful cidister is of the 
twelfth century. The chureh on the island of 
Saint Honorat-de-LMns I let ween Fn-jiis and Nice 
is three-aisled without cleaistoiv. It is of two 
dates, of which the older portion (almost bald in 
its simplicity, with a very rude front) may be 
before the year 1000. The chapel of the Holy 
Trinity, in the same island, a small structure 
Avith a curious conical dome on rude pemlentives 
over an oblony compartment, is re-arded by 
Yiollet-le-Duc and Revoil as of the seventh or 
eighth century, by Dehio as of the tenth or 

A very marked Lombard influence makes it- 
self felt in the treatment of the detail of certain 
buildings in the department of Ibiault, which 
probably date from the first half of tlie eleventh 
century. These are especially : the remarkable 
bell-tower at Puisalicon, which strikingly recalls 
some of the Lombard companili, and the 
churches of Saint-Martin-dp-Lnndres and Saint- 
Guilhcinde-L),Wrt. The f.rmer has a .short 
single-aisled barrel-vaulted nave and east, north, 
and south apses with an oitaj;onal d.mie at the 
crossing. The wall strips and arcadcd cornices 
of the exterior, the detail of the capitals, and the 
profiles of the mouldings are strongly suggestive 
of Lombard work. Still more is this the case 
with the boldly designed and picturesque abbey 
church of Saint-Guilhemde-D^sert. This is a 
T-sha])ed basilican church, the apse of which 
hii-s a hold, Mind an-ade, of marked Lombard 
character, iinnn'diately under the cornice. As 
belonging in part to the same group, may be 
mentioned the curious circular chiu-ch of Rieux- 
M(^rinville near Carcassonne. More like other 
Proven<;al buildings is the charming little chiu-ch 
of S. Pierre at lle.Ms (Ilcraull). 

A marked chm i ii i i-tc ,,f the Provencal 
style, as it ailvan. , >, |. n- imitation of classic 
detail: in part, dosdy following the Roman 
remains of tiie neigld)()urhoo<l ; in part, — C8i)e- 
cially in later examples, — showing adajjtations 
of classic motives, which recall closely in theme 
and detail the Christian work of central Syria 
of the fourth to the sixth centuries. This influ- 
eiu!e uiay well have come from the pilgriuiagcji 


and crusades. The similiir material used would 
be likely es]:)ecially to strike a Provencal, and 
Provenc-e aud Languedoc had usu:dly close re- 
lations with the cnisiulers' priucedoin of Antioch, 
where lay all the central Syrian buildings which 
much of this work so closely resembles. But 
in the earliest buildings which l>elong to this 
tendency we see only imitation of the Roman 
work of Provence itself. The date of this con- 
scious revival of classic form cannot be certainly 
determined, but the eiirliest example of it is 
probably the porch of the cathedral of Notre- 
Dame-dcs-Doms at A^ngnon, which Ramee and 
Dehio agree in placing in the last decade of 
the eleventh centurj', in other words, about the 
time of tlie first cnisade. This porch is almost 
a reproduction, even to the treatment of many 
of the details, of the Roman triumjjhal arch at 
Carpentnis, with variations showing Byzantine 
influence. The interior of this church has been 
much altered. It is barrel-vaulted a.s usual, 
but is remarkable for a dome inappropriately 
placed over an oblong bay, aud carried on longi- 
tudinal sqiunch arches. Tlie chapel of S. Gabriel, 
near Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhone), otherwise a 
plain barrel-vaiUteil structure, has a rich portal 
closely imitating cla.ssic detail. In greater or 
less degree, the same tendency is seen in tlie 
abbey at Vaison, the church of S. Quciiin at 
the same place, the chiu-ches of CavaiUon, 
S. Marie-au-Lac at Le Thor, of S. Ruf (all 
in Vaucluse), S. Restitut, La Garde-Adh^mar, 
and especially Saint-Paul-trois-Cliatejui.x (all in 
Drome). Not only do the porches show the 
close following of classic detail, but cornices 
and friezes also; and Corinthian pilasters or 
three-<iuartcr columns oriiaiiient t!^ i- -' ■ 1' 
the aj.s.s. Tins Hrlmrss ,,f ^:- 
is carct'ullv coiitiinMl to tln' en;' 
the apse, and the cL.jst.T. At ^,, r 
Chateiiux, Roman Doric liil.i-in- u,,! aichc.s, 
forming a Roman order, an- iniitatnl witli excel- 
lent effect, below the Coiinthianr-.nir entabla- 
ture which forms the main coniice. Friezes of 
figures in the classic manner occur in tlie cathe- 
drals of Vaison, Cavaillon, and Nimes. The 
cathedral of Aix (B()U(hes-<lu-Rh6ne), a curious 
conglomerate of all tiie Provencal styles, has a 
jiortal somewliat similar in detail to that of the 
catheilral of Avignon. Tlie cliurciies of Mague- 
lonne (Herault) ami the fortified church of Le.s 
Saintes-Maries (Gard) .show similar diaracteris- 
tics. All these churdics iiave strongly niarke<l 
individual traits whicii give them charm, and 
in all of them is tlie Provencal refinement 
of proportion. The little churcli of Molh'-ges 
(Bouches-ilu-Rhonp) is intcrcstiiig from iiavinga 
small lielfry, imitated fnnii tlie crowning feature 
of the Roman tomb at the iieiglibouring Saint- 
Remy. But not all the buildings, erected after 
this classic tendency shows itself, are influenced 
by it. Tliey abbey of Le Thoronet (Var) is a 


very complete example of a Cistercian monastery 
of twelfth centuT)' with church and cloister, 
chapter house and refectorj-, in jierfect preserva- 
tion. But the detail shows almost no imitation 
of classic remains. The sturdy projiortious 
of columns and arch-orders in the cloister are 
almost Xorman in their effect. The ablieys of 
Senanquc (Vaucluse) and Silvacanne (Bouches- 
du-Rhone) are similar. 

The style culminates in the magnificent abbey 
church of S. Gilles (Gard). It was l>cgun by 
Coimt Raymond IV. of Toulouse, one of the 
leaders of the firet cmsade, who, on account of 
Ills devotion to the saint and his ablwy, pre- 
ferred to be known as Comte de St. Gilles. 
The church was still unfinished at tiie outbreak 
of the iniquitous crusade against the Albigenses 
in 1209. The vaults of the nave were com- 
jileted by a niiister builder of the north of 
France after Il'GI. The church, still incom- 
plete, was ruined by the Huguenots at the end 
of the sixteenth centurj'. The choir down to the 
bases of the piers, and the transepts, except the 
northern wall, were destroyed, as were also 
the vaults of the nave and aisles, save one bay 
of the aisles, which now sen'es as a sacristy. 
The church was revaiUted between 1G50 and 
1655 with ugly rococo vaulting at a much lower 
level, and a new apse wa.s built to the west of 
the crossing, so that the length of the church 
was reducetl by about one half The building 
suffered again in the Revolution. But, in spite 
of all these mutilations, it still remains the most 
magnificent fragment of Provencal architecture, 
and one of the most impressive of Romanesque 
buildings. The width of the church diminishes 
sli^rlitly from west to east. The stonccutting 
tlnnu;.'liout is marvellously perfect even for 
rinNencc. The joints are so fine that a knife 
Made cannot be inserted in them, and the plinths 
of the columns of the ambulatory, which still 
remain in place, have their sides accurately cut 
to the curve of the apse. The sjiiral staircase 
in the north wall of the choir, with its spiral 
barrel vault, is a manel of accurate stereotomy. 
The north wall of the tran.«ept, of most delicate 
detjiil and pmiiortion, shows remains of the ribs 
(decorated with the ciievroii) of the vault which 
originally covered it. The remaining bay of the 
north aisle liius also vaults of tiie twelftii century. 
The church has a remarkable crj'pt of unusual 
extent. Its vaulting is segmental, springing 
from low, fluteil, rectangular jiiers. But the 
most wonderful feature of the churcii is the great 
portid of the west front. This is jirobably the 
earliest e.xamjile in Western architecture of that 
union of the three western doorways of a great 
church in a single coni])osition whicii was after- 
ward followed in the porelies of Northern Gothic 
cathedrals. The motive is strikingly similar to 
thatofthe great porch of Kalat-Seniaan in central 
Syria, from which it was probably borrowe<l. The 


figure sculpture shows clearly imitation of the 
Byzantine ivory triptychs, of which large numbers 
were imported into the West. But the Western 
and distinctively mediaeval feeling shows itself 
in a certain vigour of handling throughout, and 
its grim humour finds vent in some grotesque 
heads, and in the beasts which travel along the 
moulding below the frieze. The couchant lions, 
which support the columns on either side of the 
central door, show that the designer was famil- 
iar with the devouring beasts in similar posi- 
tions in north Italian churches. In richness 
and beauty of composition, and in excellence of 
execution, this splendid portal is hardly sur- 
passed by any of the great Gothic porches. 
Immediately opposite the facade of the church 
is an interesting Ronianes(|ue house. Probably 
somewhat later in date, and imitated from the 
central portion of the portal of S. Gilles, is the 
great porch of the church of S. Tiophime at 
Aries. The composition is somewhat more reg- 
ular and even richer in its figure sculjitnre, which 
is somewhat more firmly liamlltMl. It lias every 
evidence of being a later jjni'liictinn Ky the same 
masters. Its single arch is slij^htly jxiinted, and 
it is crowned by a low gable, in this respect still 
more resembling the central part of the porch 
of Kalat^Semaan. The church of S. Trophime 
is older than the porch. It is three-aisled with- 
out clearstoiy, with pointed, ribbed barrel vaidt 
over the nave, and ramping barrel vaults over 
the very narrow side aisles. The piers are very 
heavy in proportion to the spans they carry. 
The choir is of Flamboyant Gothic. But of 
greater interest than the church is the adjoin- 
ing cloister, the richest and most beautiful of 
all the cloisters of Provence. The larger part 
of it is of the twelfth century, evidently of the 
same date as the church porch. Tiie round 
arches of this portion rest on coupled columns 
with richly sculptured capitals, many of whicii 
contain figure subjects. The piers are sculptured 
with figures of saints, precisely similar in treat- 
ment to those of the porch. The cloister is barrel 
vaulted. The remaining portion of the cloister 
is of the Guthic jji'iidd, with pointed arches, and 
is of luurh It-s iiit, rest. The motive of the 
porch c)!' S. Tiniiliiinc reappears in a simpler 
and modilied luna in the porch of the church 
of S. Marthe at Tarascon, while that of S. 
Gilles, very much simplified, deprived of its 
sculpture, and much more northern in feeling, 
is found again in the porch of the iiicom|)lete 
facade of the church at Saint-Pons in Hcrault. 
Similar to the l>eautiful cloisters of Provence 
is the ex(iuisitc cloister of Elne, south of Per- 
pignan (Pyn-ndes-OrientalcH). 

As already stated, the same Count Raymond 
IV., who began the church of S. Gilles, the 
culminating building of the Provencal style, 
built at his capital, Toulouse, the great (;iiurcli 
of S. Semin, the central building of the lio- 


manesque of western Languedoc. It wa.s be- 
gun in the year 1091 — twenty-five years 
before S. Gilles. Unlike Provence, the dis- 
trict of which Toulouse is the centre is with- 
out building stone, which has to be brought 
from a distance. It has always, therefore, 
made large use of brick. Like most of the 
buildings of Toulouse, S. Semin is of brick 
with stone trimmings ; it is a great five-aisled 
church with boldly projecting three-aisled tran- 
septs, and with an ambvdatory about its apse 
and radiating chapels. In this latter respect 
and in its constructive system it follows the 
style of Auvergne, having galleries over its side 
aisles and its central barrel vault abutted by 
half barrel vaults in the aisles. Its curious 
octagonal brick tower at the crossing in five 
receding stories is, in its upper stages, of the 
thirteenth century, with triangular, in place of 
arclitMl, i.|iciiiiigs, and there are several other 
similar rlmnli towers in the city of the latter 
(late. In detail, S. Sernin is quite unlike the 
churches of Provence, and is influenced more 
by the Romanesque of Auvergne and Aquitaine. 
At Albi the Romanesque portions of the church 
of S. Salvi show similar influences. But there 
is no evidence that the influence of these build- 
ings was extensive in Languedoc. Most of the 
building that preceded the Albigensian wars 
has disappeared ; but the oldest part of the 
cathedral of Toulouse and of S. Nazaire at 
Carcassonne are more closely allied to Proven- 
cal work. The Albigensian wars abruptly 
broke off the architectural development both 
in Languedoc and Provence. As the result of 
these wars Languedoc, toward the end of the 
thirteenth century, was added to the royal do- 
main of France, and the buildings constructed 
after this borrow the Gothic forms of the north, 
although applying them to the local scheme. 
The Romanesque cathedrals of Marseilles and 
Fr^jus, already refeiTed to, are reproduced in 
Gothic forms in the two churches erected by 
the orders of S. Louis in the lower town of 
Carcassonne, and this scheme is followed in 
other clnirches, nmst uf which arc fortified. 

The m.ist >|,]rn,li.l of tllr.M' is ll,r rallH.llal nf 
Albi, whirl, ,s ,,f thr f.milrrntll rr,,lm\. In 
this case ril.l.cl vaulls take tlu^ |.lar,. ,,f the 
earlier transverse barrel vaults between the in- 
terior buttresses. The church is mainly of 
brick with turrets ojjposite each buttress. It 
hiis a supi ill ilaniKn\aiit Gothic porch of stone. 
The great wi.iili oi ihr vault in proportion to 
the liei.u'lil. III' iliMinr of aisles, and the two 
tiers of .Ir, |,|\ ,,. ■,>.,, I chapels between the 
buttresses -i\r 111,- iiilniMi- ., \,t\ .1 liferent as- 
pect tVnni llial of liMlllirlll (;..ll,lr rhurelieS, 

and this .litlcivn.-e i. uicivase.l l.y the Italian 
wall and ceiling paintings of the end of the fif- 
tiicnth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. 
The abbey cimreh of S. Bcrtnuid dc Coniinges 


(Haute-Garonne) is similar in scheme, and both 
churches have very rich choir stiUls and screens 
of the sixteenth century, Flamboyant at Albi, 
and of Renaissance design at S. Bertrand. The 
choir of the church of S. Nazaire at Carcas- 
sonne, built between 1320 and 1330, is one of 
the most notable Gothic monuments of Lan- 
guedoc. Its rich tracery and sculpture and 
admirable construction are worthy of most care- 
ful study, and it continues the constnictive tra- 
ditions of the region in having its aisles carried 
to the height of tlie nave. But the greater por- 
tion of tiie later Gothic churdies of Provence and 
Languedoc are of comparatively little interest, 
anil ditfer hardly at all from such buildings in 
the north, as for instance the similar fifteenth 
century churches of Carpentras and S. Pierre 
at Avignon. 

Of only less interest than the church archi- 
tecture are the remains of city walls, fortresses, 
and castles. Foremost among them is the 
ancient castle and circuit of the city of Carca-s- 
sunne, which exists complete, restored by Viol- 
let-le-Duc. The oldest parts are Visigothic, and 
may perhaps rest on Roman foundations, but 
the greater portion of these picturesque and im- 
l)re.ssive walls dates from tlie twelfth to the 
fourteenth centuries. Very impressive, also, 
are the walls of Aigues Mortes (Gard), built 
by Philip the Bold (1272). Farther up the 
Rhone, at Tara-scon, is the castle of King Ren^ 
of Anjou; and at Avignon, which on the death 
of Alphonse and Jeanne of Toulouse, in 1270, 
became the property of the popes as their share 
of the spoils of the Albigensian wars, still stands 
the great palace, or fortress, of the popes, with 
the perfectly preserved circuit walls of the city 
built by them in the fourteenth centurj-, while 
across the river is the fortress of Villcneuve- 
lez-Avignon, built ;it the s^ntif period. Provence 
is rich in pictiin - pi. . i-tl^ - tininor importance, 
among which iiii\ 1" umi iMucd those of Si- 
miane (Basses-All" -), l,:i llu rue (Vaucluse), and 
Les Beaux (Bouclics-.hi-Hhr.iic). These are of 
various dates, from the twelfth to the sixteenth 

The archiepiscopal fortress palace of Narbonne 
(in Languedoc), and the cathe<lral, are both of 
the fourteenth century, and of great interest. 

The Renaissance work of Languedoc and 
Provence is .still less distinctive than the Gothic 
work that preceded it. The city of Toulouse 
is unusually rich in Iienais,sance work, from the 
time of Francis L to Henry IV. The latter 
especially favoured the town, and imi)ortant 
portions of the city buildings known as La 
Capitole were built by him, though the great- 
est part of it is later. Like the Gothic and 
Romanesque work lu-fore it, that of the Rcnai.s- 
sance in Toulouse is distinguished by its com- 
bination of brick and stone. The stone carving 
is unusually rich and fanciful, if often capricious 


and unreasonable. Carjatid figures in every 
variety of form and attitude are used in win- 
dow jambs and mullions, often executed with 
unusual grace and refinement. The most im- 
portant monuments of the time of Francis L 
at Toulouse are the splendid piirtal of the 
church of La Dalbade (almost of north Italian 
design) and the rich gateway which leads to 
the enclosure of tlie church of S. Serniu. But 
the chief Renaissance monuments are the jial- 
accs, or hotels. Of these the stvcalletl Hotel 
Du-Vieux-Raisin, or de Las Bordes, the Lyc^e 
(partly late Gothic), the Hotel d'Assezat, the 
Hotel de Caulet, and the so-called Maison-de- 
Pierre of the time of Henr}' IV., are the most 
important. At Avignon a numl>er of later 
Renaissance buildings show stray Italian influ- 
ence, if indeed they are not of Italian design. 
Such are the Hotel Crillon, the Hotel des Mon- 
naies, and the Church du hyc6e. 

At Montpellier (Herault) is a grandiose cha- 
teau d'eau and aijucduct and a triumphal arch 
iiud statue of Louis XIV. 

Of more modern buildings, the only one which 
seems to call for mention is the museum at Mar- 
seilles with the great semicircular colonnade and 
fountain of Long-Champ, an effective composi- 
tion erected by Napoleon III. Although the 
distinctive development of Provence and Lan- 
guedoc, in their architecture as in their litera- 
tvire, was suddenly and violently arrested by 
the horrore of the religious wars and persecu- 
tions of the thirteenth century, yet none of the 
subsequent styles — which followed the larger 
development of the French nation, of which the 
ancient county of Toulouse then became a part 
— could altogether esc:ii)e the romantic influ- 
ences of this wonderful and too little known 
conier of Europe, interesting alike in its archi- 
tecture, its literature, its pathetic history, and 
its unique and picturesque scenery. 

— H. L.\NGFORD Warren. 

Archives de la Commisnion des MonumeiUs 
Ilislori'iHes, pub. of 18.'.:>-1872 ; Arrliives de la 
Commission des Monuments Uisloriques, begim 
in 1898, still (1!»01) in course of publication; 
Banchal, Xoiiveaii Dictionnaire Bioyraphique et 
Criti<inf des Arrhitertes Fran(;ais ; Ilaniui, L'Ar- 
rhiteiiiire moderne en France; Berty, La lienais- 
sancp monitmentalr en France; Calliat, Histoire 
de I'l'tilisp de .Saint Eustache ; Cliampeaux, VArt 
decoratif dans le vieux Paris; Champollion- 
Kifieac, Monograph ie dn Palais de Fontainehleau ; 
Chateau, Histoire et caractcres de V architecture 
en Franre ; Corroyer, Description de rabhai/e du 
Mont Saint-Michel ; Davie, Architectural Studies 
in France; De Laborde, La Jtenaissance des arts 
a la cour de France ; De Vcrneilli, L' architecture 
hyzantine en Franre: Dilke, French Architects 
a'nd Sculptors of the XVllIlh Century; Du Cer- 
ceau, Les plus excellent s Imstimiiits de France; 
Fcrree, The Chronohn/i/ of the Ctihedral Churches 
of France; Oarnier." Le H<,iinl Opha ; G^lis- 
Didot, Le Peinture decorative en France du XI' 
au XVI' Steele; (J^li.s-Didot. La Peinture deco- 
rative en France du XVI' au XVII' siecU; Gey- 


miiller, Les Du Cer 
ceau, leur vie. et leur 
auvre; GeymuUer 
Die Baukunst der Re- 
naissance in Frank 
reichs (forms part of 
the Handbuch der 
Architektur) ; Gur 
litt, Die Baiikiinbt 
Frankrpichs; Hi 
vard, I.ii Frn-nrcir 

Johnsnn, S^,.ri,„ 
of Frr 

ture ; Lau 

, />/V, 

e des ArchiteUes 
Fran(;'iis ; Lassusand 
VioUet-le-Duc, Notre 
Dame de Paris, 
vignard, Les styles 


: Len. 

Statistique Moi 
tale de Paris; Liibke 
Geschichte der Re 
naissance in Frank 
reich ; Macgibboa, 
The Architecture of 
Provence and The 
Riviera; Magiie, 
L'aeuvre des peintres 

N.vrjoux, Monuments 
eleves par la ville de 
Paris, I80O-I8SO, 
Palustre, La Rennis 
sance en France, 
Pattisoii, The Re 
naissance of Art m 
France; Pugin and 
Le Keux, Specimens 
of the Architectural 
Antiquities of Nor- 
mandy ; K6voil, Ar 
chitecture romane du 
midi de la France, 
Roussel, Histoire et 
Description du Cha- 
teau d'Anet; Rouyer 
and Darcel, Vart ai 
chitectural en France 
depuis Fran<;ois I 
jusqu^a Louis XIV , 
Ruprich- Robert, 
L' Architecture 
Norma nde : Hup- 
rich- KoluTi. 
L'eglis,- . / /, 

de-drarr. ICi:, 

leer,; uuim,. /.■ 

Saint raul, lll.-i, 
Sauva},'.-ni. r/,,„. 

Chare III. : \ imIi, 
de raniuhrinrr 

Vnllet le Due Lrilre 

VANNI; ; wood worker (i,i/<ir.sial(,re), ar.-lii- 
twt, and (■ii<,'iiiccr ; 1). 1 12S. 

In 14H7 he iissistcd La Ccci'ii in building the 

fortress of Sarzana, Italy. A " Friinciscus 

JohannJH carpentarius Florentinus," who in 1 158 

hiiilt the catafahjue of (Jalixtus III. (Pope 


1455-1458), ih doubtlchs tlic &ame person Hi 
was the instructor of Giuli mo and Antonio da 
San G illo (I ) (stt S m (, illo G and A ) 
Miint/ / s irti a 1 1 t m I ■< Pi/ ■, \ isiii 




arciiitect a'nd sculjjtor ; d. about l.')l.';t. 

fVanrois married a dau>;iitcr of (inillaunic 
Rcgnault, nephew of .Michi'l Colonilie (see 
Colonibe, M.). In 1500 he became sujiervisinK 
arehitect of the eatlicdral of Toui-s in u.ssoeialion 
witli his brother Martin Franeois. 

Giraudet, Les Artistes Tourangeaux. 

FRANCOIS, OATIEN ; architect. 
A sell <it' Hastycn Francois (see Francois, 
B. ). He Wiis employed first on the chateau of 
Chcnoneeaux. May 16, 1521, he was made 
matt re d'oeuvre of the king in Touraine 

Giraudet, Lfs Artistes Tourangeaux. 

FRANK, (v. t.). To frame together, as 
stiles and rails having moulded edges, by miter- 
ing only to the depth of the moulding, the rest 
of the end of the abutting piece being cut square 
or tenoned and joined to the other in the usual 
manner ; said especially of sash bars. 

Refectory in a nioiiiu-itic establishment. (Some- 
times fraterj' and fratrv.) 

State.*, a building erected for the use of some 
association of college students called a fraternity. 
Such societies are generally more or less secret ; 
and some of them have a federal constitution 
with several (sometimes twenty or thirty) 
branches, called chapters, each in a separate 
college. The fraternity house is then, often, 
the home of one of these chapters ; and may 
have, besides meeting rooms, a number of lodg- 
intr rooms for the members, and even a common 
dining hall. 

FRAZEE, JOHN; sculptor; b. July 18, 
1790; d. Feb. 24, 1852. 

Frazee was first employed as a stonecutter 
in Haverstraw, New York. He afterward, 
with Launitz, opened a marble yard on Broad- 
way, IS'ew York City. His mantelpieces, 
monuments, and the like were remarkable for 
beauty of workmanship, especially in the let- 
tering. His name is cut on the architrave of a 
window in the northern front of the old Custom- 
hou.se, now the Subtreasury Building, in New 
York. He did not design the building, how- 
ever, but superintended its construction. 

Tuckerman, Book of American Artists ; Ameri- 
can Arrh it fct. Vol. X.XXVIII., p. 80. 

FREDERICKSBORG. A royal castle of 
thekin->r.l D.niiiark ; on the island of Sjaelland 
and north of ('o|jeiihagen. It is a very large 
building of considerable architectural merit, 
built in the early years of the seventeenth 


Frederik van Amsterdam was a well-known 
gla.ss painter of the sixteenth century in Holland. 
He designed the fine windows of the abbey of 

Immerzeel, HoUandsrhe en Vlaamsche Kunst- 
schiltlfrs. etc. 

historian and writer on architecture. 

Professor Freeman, the historiiwi, first became 

known as a writer on architecture through a 

hook of travels in Dalmatia. This was followed 


by a History of Architecture (1849, 8vo), An 
Essay on the Development of Window Tracery 
in i'/fy/a/K/ (1850-1851, 8vo), Jiemarks on the 
Architecture of Llandaff Cathedral (1850, 
8vo), History of the Cathedral Church of 
Wells (1870, 8vo), Historical and Arcfiitec- 
tural Sketches, chiefly Italian (1876, 8vo), 
CaJfiedral Churches', Ely and Xorwich (1883. 

Stephens. Life ami Letters of E. A. Freeman; 
Obituary in Jnunutl I!. I. li. A.. .March 'li, 18t>2. 

FREEMASONS. (See Guild.) 

FREESTONE. Any limestone or sandstone 
of very homogeneous structure that can be 
worked freely in any direction. — G. P. M. 

FRENCH CURVE. An instnunent used 
in mathematical drawing. (See Curve.) 

FRESCO PATNTINQ (from lulian fresco, 

Painting on fresh, wet plaster. All sorts of 
mural paintings, from encaustic to distemper, 
are indiscriminately and wrongly called frescoes. 
The process of true fresco painting is as follows : 

Pure limestone consists of carbonic acid and 
lime, and is therefore a carbonate of lime. The 
limestone is subjected to heat, the ciirlwnic acid 
is expelled, and there remains lime. If to this 
lime, water be added, the residt will Ix; hydrate 
of lime. Only a certain amount of water com- 
bines chemically with the lime. Wiien hydrate 
of lime is exposed to the air, the water i^ ex- 
pelled by carbonic acid and the result is again 
carbonate of lime, the original limestone chemi- 
cally speaking, for mechanically the cohesion of 
limestone is never regained. Sand is usually 
mi.xed with the liquid lime to augment its 
cohesiveness. The pigments are applied while 
the wet plaster is drjing and hardening, that 
is, while the carbonic acid is expelling the water. 
The painting luust be finished before its exi)ul- 
sion is complete. A thin crust of carbonate of 
lime will then be formed over the painting and 
the particles of colour liecome encased in carbon- 
ate of lime, thus protecting it from water and 
moderate friction. If the painting Ik? continued 
after the plaster has lost the greater part of its 
water, no crust will be formed and the jiigments 
will ha deprived of their natural protection. 
.Moreover, when dry, they will exhibit chalky 
s|)()ts. Brick walls are the best. Those of 
stone are not objertionable. Both should have 
sufficient " key " to hold the plaster. Lathing 
is inferior to brick or stone for perpendicular 
surfaces, but under all circumstjuices, the wall 
nuist lie dry and exempt from saline efflorescence. 
X limestone free from foreign ingre<iients yields 
Jx>st lime for fresco. After the lime has been 
well mixed with water it is poured into earthen 
pits and kept there for at least a year, — the 
longer the better. If t(K) fre.sli, it will blister 
and flake off". When Uiken out of the pit the 
lime is again mixed with water until it is aliout 


as thick as milk, well strained, and the super- 
fluous water poured off. It has then the 
consistency of cream cheese, and is ready to be 
mixed with the sand. No hair is to be used. 
Two plasterings are necessary for fresco : 

(1) The arriccio, or rough cast. 

(2) The iiUonaco, or sciulbo, or finishing 
, coat. 

The pni]i(irtiim of sand to lime varies accord- 
ing to the riiliiicss I if the lime. GeneraUy, the 
rule is two jiarts of sand to one of lime. The 
arriccio shuuld bu a httle less than half an inch 
in thickness, and applied in two or three quickly 
succeeding coats. Its surface should be rough- 
ened to give a key to the intonaco. When it 
is thoroughly dry, it is ready for the intonaco 
on which the fresco is to be painted. After the 
arriccio is saturated with water, the intonaco 
is spread in two thin coats, the whole bi-ing 
about one tenth of an inch thick. Sunutinus 
marble dust is mixed with the jilastrr lor the 
intonaco, and, occasionally, colour, to icihue its 
whiteness to a middle tint. Supiiositii,', now, 
that the arriccio is ready to receive the iufdiKirn, 
the painter indicates to the plasterer the i)ortii)n 
to be painted in one day, which the plasterer 
proceeds to cover with the intonaco. The cor- 
responding portion of his cartoon is cut off and 
transferred to the wet intonaco, either Ijy 
pouncing, or by passing over the outline with a 
style, which leaves a depression in the plaster. 
For delicate works pouncing is preferable. The 
palette for fresco is a quiet one, which, in a 
measure, accounts for its harmonious tones. 
Chalk — not lead — is used for white. The 
colours, when dry, appear liijlitei- and warmer 
than when first applinl to tlir rn,,! ltimn' plaster 
which ultimately ilm-s wliite. 'I'o jii.l-'' of their 
final effect, the painter tries tlie rolours on a 
piece of dry umber, whieh ininir(hati'ly alisoiKs 
their moisture. It is well to ]ireparc tlic whole 
of a needed tone at once, it being dittiiult to 
match tones in fresco. 

There are two schools of fresco, the one char- 
acterized by its comparatively tliin, transparent 
qualities, and the inodmitc nsr of impasto ; the 
other, by a more -vihioih n-t- of it. To thr 
former school iielon.,' all Ihc laih painlirs fiom 
Cimabue to Rai^hael and Mi.lul.in-elo inclu.sive. 
The other sciiool came later, but in Ijoth schools 
the medium is only water. When the day's 
task is completed, the workman cuts away the 
unpainted plaster with a sharp instrument and 
bevels the edge. While painting a figure, it is 
well to paint a portion of the background 
at the same time to avoid iiaidn( ss of eontour 
and preserve the integrit\ of th. onilme. On 

the following day, the pla-i-o r j ihe fresh 

intonaco to that of tiie |>re((diii>; <la>, and so 
on, until the picture is coni|)lctcd. All retouches 
must be made with colour tempered with si/c, 
that is, a necco, or dry, or when the plaster is 


no longer wet. Secco is opaque, and perishable 
if exposed to moisture, and the less of it the 
better. When a considerable part of the work 
is unsatisfactory, it must be destroyed and 

Fresco has the advantage of being cheap, 
lasting, and decorative in tone. It has a dead 
surface which is the sine (jna non of mural 
painting; it may be either transparent or 
opaque. Vasari characteiizcs it as the most 
virile and durable of all pro,-, ss.s. It was used 
by both Greeks and Romans, and it was the 
process of the early Italian and Kenaissance 
painters. It is used in Italy to-day. 

— Frederic ( 'kownixshiei.d. 

FRESCO-SECCO. This is a poor substi- 
tute for fresco. When the plaster is perfectly 
dry, the surface is rubbed with j)umice stone, 
and late on the day previous to that on which 
the painting is to be couimenied, the i)laster 
must be carefully washed with watei into which 
a small portion of lime has been iufu.sed. The 
following morning the wall must be again 
washed. Afterward, the cartoon is fastened 
up, the outline pounced, and the artist com- 
mences his work-. The colours used in this 
method arc >i!inlar to tiiose employed in true 
fresco. Till- linieuatei- necessarily yields a veiy 
feeble ]iroti vt i n'.:' mist of earlionate of lime, too 
frelile, arconliiiu- to the antlmr's rxp.'riineut.s, to 
protei-r the pi-nirnts. r.nt there are those who 
say that they have praetised this method with 
success. (See Freseo Painting.) 


FRET. .1. Same as Meander. 

B. A similar ornammtatio,, l,y means of 

right lines tonnin.L: an-les with one another but 

carried over a laru'<T -nrtaee. Thns, certain Ori- 

d by 

■ lin 



t ha 


Diamond Fret. A fret or meander in which 
the lines form obtuse and acute angles with one 
another. The term is extended to mean a sim- 
ilar ])attern in wliieli the lines, though forming 
ri-ht angles with one anolhi'r, are set diagonally 
to the main lioiindinc- linesof the border or other 
limited .surface to whieh the fret is applied. 

Dovetail Fret. A fret or meander with 
trapezoidal instead of rei;tangular repeats, form- 
ing a series of interlocking or countcrchanged 

FRETWORK. In general, any decoration 
of Frets or l\Lean(hrs. Hence more parlieu- 
larly, in modern times, interlaced openwork of 
wood, metal, or stone ; reticulated openwork, 
especially such aw is intricate and composed of 
small units like tiie Arabic Mcshrebeeyeh. 

FRIARY. A mouiustcry for the occupancy 
of a cla.ss of moidcs known as friars. (See 
Monaatic Architecture.) 


FRIEZE. Any long and narrow, nearly 
horizontal, architectural member, esi)ccially one 
which has a chiefly (lecorative purpose. Esfx'- 
cially, in Ga'cian, Gn'co-Roman, and neo- 
classie architecture, that horizontal band which 
fonns the central and usually the most impor- 
tant part of the entablature. In the Doric 
order this band is cut across by the triglyplis 
and is thus divided into metopes, the triglyjjhs 
having always strongly marked vertical lines, the 
metopes being commoidy adorned with sculjtture 
in relief or with painting. In the other orders, 
and in all otlier varieties, the frieze is a contin- 
uous band which is that part of the entablature 
most usually ornamented, or most richly orna- 
mented when all receive decoration. Thus, in 
a Roman temple, such as the JMaison-Cctrree 
at Nimes, of the Corinthian order, the frieze is 
filled with a richly worked scroll, rather mean- 
ingless when forming the principal feature of 
the entablature, but contrasting with the much 
smaller and less complex sculpture of the archi- 
trave and cornice. 

The use of the general term frieze for the 
chief part of the entablature indicates its strong 
relation to ornamental horizontal bands gener- 
ally. It is, in fact, such a band, placed above 
the columns from which it is separated by the 
simpler and more obviously con.structional archi- 
trave, while it i> M |,.ir.iti,l alxi from the begin- 
nings of the lo^r l'\ lii I :■ |. -ting cornice witii 
its drip and tli. i. ;iltiij_' i.. |, shadow. In the 
Parthenon, a h;uul nl tin rnhcst and most ex- 
quisite sculpture in low relief terminates at top 
the plain wall of the naos, and tiiis mu.'st have 
seemed to the builders the natural terniinatif)n 
of such a wall, for it w.us placed so high luider 
the roof of the pteroma that the question of its 
proper lighting has greatly intcrestod modem 
students. Tlic .mfcr fii.v.r nf tlir l*;irtlir,n.n, 
namely, that tni-iiiiii_' |i:irt ..itiir riitjlil.iiuiv. i^ 
divided by tri;,'l\ pii- mt" iii.-tii|"> ~.i,l|,iii.f.| m 
very high rclici, tin' .lilliivucc in ihc wlwi uf 
the sculpture being obviously suggested by the 
difference in the direction and quantity of light 
received. At A.ssos, the Doric temple had an 
architrave sculptured with figures in relief, while 
the metopes between the triglyplis were not so 
adorned ; it would, therefore, be not incorrect to 
say that the architnive of tlie temple of Assos 
by exception Wius turned into a sculptured frieze, 
while the arciiitectural frieze above was not 
sculptured. The celebrated Mausoleum at Ha- 
lic^rnassus must have had several friezes at dif- 
ferent heights ; the enclosure of the Heraion at 
Gjolbaschi has one frieze on the exterior of the 
bounding wall near the top. The sthcallcd 
Harpy Tomb from Xanthus, now in the Britisli 
Museum, has a frieze at the top of the slightly 
sloping shaft and beneath the overhanging pro- 
jection of the stone roof, which frieze is about 
half as high or broad as it is long on either side ; 

but it runs all around the small monument and 
seems to tie it together and give it unity and 
artistic purp»jse. The Choragic Monument of 
Lysicrates lias a frieze of delicate sculptures 
of figures in action, and leaving an unusual 
amount of background plain, and this distribu- 
tion reminds the student of the frieze of the 
Erechtheion, which must have been somewhat 
similar in effect, probably liecause of the plan 
followed of attaching to a Iwckground of one 
colour the figures worked in a ditferent mate- 

In media'val architecture the frieze is not a 
common nr an iniiicntant feature, except in the 
painted licrc.rati f interiors. — R. S. 

FRIEZE PANEL. .1. Same as Metope. 

B. In carpentrj- and joinery, one of the up- 
per panels of a door or piece of wainscoting, or 
the hke, when forming a crowning member, — 
generally horizontal, — above a higher panel- 
work or other siuface ; this upper row, with 
the framing which contains it, being considered 
as a frieze. 

FRIGIDARIUM. In a Roman bathing 
establislinicnt (.•*ce Therma") the cold room ; 
that is to say, usually the large room in which 
was the bath of unheated water. This, in a 
great establishment, like those in Rome, was 
frequontlv a large swimming tank. 

CAMPIONE) ; .1. .Julv 10, 1 .S9U. 

Maivo.'anic to tli.' works of tlio .•athe.lral of 
Milan on March 5, l;J87, the year after its 
commencement. Calvi (oji. cit.) supposes that 
he designed the building. This honour seems 
rather to belong to Simone da Orsenigo (see 
Simonc da Orsenigo). 

Boito, Dtiomo di Milano ; Annali del Duomo ; 
Calvi, \otizie. 

FRIXONO. (See Frisone.) 

FRONT. One face of a building, or of a 
larjrc inenibcr of a buihiing, as a jiavilion or 
the like, e.s])ccially the most important face con- 
sidered from the point of view of its architec- 
tural character or its visibility from without. 
When used in any less specific sense, the term 
is usually qualified. Thus, if a house stands 
at the comer of two streets, the side in which 
the entrance door is placed is commonly spoken 
of iis the front, and the face on the other street 
as tlie end or side wall ; but tliis side may 
again be called the front on such a street. 
(Compare Facade.) 

FRONTAL. A. Formerly, a small pedi- 
ment or like decoration over a door, window, or 
niciie (in this sense, now ob-solete ; see Fronton). 

B. A decorative covering for the front of an 
altar below the table ; commonly of cloth, like 
a lambrequin or valence, embroidered and cov- 
ering only part of the front ; sometimes of wood 
carved and painted, sometimes of gold or silver 
set with gems. — A. D. F. H. 


PRONT DOOR. The principal door of 
entrance, especially of a private liouse, apart- 
ment house, or other building of residence, as 
distinguished from the door leading to the 
kitchen and other domestic offices, and also 
from all other doors of entrance in the rear or 
side wall. 

neer; d. about lOG a.d. 

He first appears about 70 a.d. as prcetor 
urbanus under the Emperor Vespasian ; 75 a.d. 
he was appointed governor of Britain, and was 
superseded in that office by Agricola iu 78. In 
97 he was appointed curator aquarum, or super- 
intendent of the aqueducts. He was succeeded 
about 106 A.D. by the Younger Pliny. (See 
Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Caius.) Two of his 
works are extant : Strategeynaticon, Libri I V. ; 
and De Aqumductibus Urbis Romm, Libri II. 

Ilerschel, Frontinus and the Water Supply of 

FRONTISPIECE. The principal fa^de, or 
part of a facade, of a building, especially wlien 
this is much more decorative than the rest, and 
is in a sense separated from it in design ; more 
especially, a subordinate feature as a porch, a 
doorway treated more elaborately than the rest 
of the facade, and more or less as a separate 
composition applied to the front. 

PRONTON. In French, a pediment ; and 
by extension, any member occupying nearly the 
same position, either fronting a roof, or sur- 
mounting a window opening, or the like. In 
English usage, rare and generally confined to a 
pediment-shaped member crowning the arclii- 
traveof;ui openiii,-. (See Oon.nct.) 


WALTER ; aM"it ; d. U12. 

About IIUU Walter Frowccster, abbot of 
Gloucester, built, i.r ciiiscl to be built, the 
great cloisters of his mnuastrrv. 

Britten, Arrliit<rtiir<i/ .intiijiiitips. 

PRUSTUM. A. In geometry, a tnm- 
cated cone or pyramid ; or, more accurately, 
that portion of any solid left between its base 
and a plane which cuts off the apex or upper 
portion parallel to its base ; hence, — 

B. A drum of a column, or of a pier when 
the section of the pier comprises one jiicce. 

PUPITIUS (PUPIDIUS) ; anhitict. 

According to Vitruvius (\'II., |iiaf,) Fufitius 
was the first Roman writer on architecture (de 
his rebus /rriinus inslituil edere voliimen). 

Vitruvius, cd .Mariiii. 

PUGA, FERDINANDO ; architect ; b. 1699 
(Florence); d. ah^ut 17s|. 

Fuga was called {,, i;,,inc ]<y CHement XII. 
(Pope 1730-17 10) t,, ,nriiplcic the works begim 
by Alessandro Sjiccclii (sec Spec(;iii, A.) at the 
Palazzo Quirinale. His earliest independent 
work is the Palazzo delia Consulta near the 
Quirinal, and his most important undertaking 

the Palazzo Corsini in Rome (1732). His last 
years were spent in Naples. In 1781 he began 
tlie reconstruction of the cathedral of Palermo. 

Gurlitt, Geschichte des Barockstiles in Italien. 

PULBERT ; bishop and architect ; d. April 
10, 1029. 

The cathedral of Chartres, probably the fourth 
church erected ou the site of the present build- 
ing, was burned Sept. 7, 1020, during the 
reign of Robert le Diable, duke of Normandy. 
The bishop Fulbert devoted himself to the 
immediate reconstruction of the church. The 
crypt of the church was completed about two 
years after the conflagration. The cathedral 
was completed during the administration of his 
successor, the bishop Thierry, and dedicated 
Oct. 17, 1037. The towers were added after 
1115. This church, with the exception of the 
towers which still stand, was destroyed by fire 
in 1 1 94. The present cathedral was built on 
its ruins. 

Bulteau, Monographie, de la cathedrale de 
Chartres; Bulteau, Description de la cathedrale 
de Chartres. 

PULL-CENTRED. Semicircular; said of 
an arch. Obviously a translation (partially 
erroneous) of the French term plein cintre. 

PULLER, THOMAS; architect; b. 1822 
(in England); d. Sept. 28, 1898 (at Ottawa, 

Fuller was articled to an architect in London, 
and assisted J. R. Brandon (see Brandon, J. R.) 
in the preparation of his works on Gothic archi- 
tecture. He practised in the "West Indies and 
in Canada, and in 1863 took charge of all gov- 
ernment buildings at Ottawa. In 1868 Fuller 
and Laver were chosen (by competition) archi- 
tects of the capitol at Albany, New York, and 
held that position until they were superseded 
by H. H. Richardson (see Richardson, H. H.), 
Eidlitz, and Olmsted. In 1 881 he was appointed 
chief architect of the Dominion Government, and 
held that office until 1897. 

American Architect, Vol. LXII., p. .^7. 

PUMOIR. In French, a smoking room ; 
especially, one in a public building or place of 
public resort, or the like. 

PUR. To apply Fumng; generally with 
up, down, or out. Thus, a ceiling which is 
suspended some distance below the joists, by 
means of furring, is said to be furred down; 
a roof which is carried on furring some distance 
above the roof beams is .said to be furred up. 

FURNACE. An apparatus by means of 
whicii a fire may be brought to a great heat, 
which heat may then be utilized in any way 
desired. Ordinarily, sudi a structure u.sed for 
the heiiting of the interior of any building ; in 
this sense, divisible into hot air fiirnace, hot 
water funuice, and steam furnaite ; altliough 
more conmionly limited to the liot air furnace 
alone. Such a furnace is distinguished from a 


stove in that the liot air, collet-ted in a large 
chamber, passes to different jiarts of the bnlKI- 
ing by means of pipes and Hues, whereas a stove 
generally heats the room in whicli it stands by 

direct nuliation , although some part of the licit 
of tlic st<ne may be di\erted, and the <i>\e 
become, in a sense, a furnace. (See Warming.) 

FURRING. A light framework, or simply 
strips, — generally of w(X)d, but sometimes of 
metal, — apjilied to walls, beams, or similar 
surfaces to supjjort sheathing, plaster, or other 
form of finish. Its pur])ose is either to give a 
more uniform and even structure for the appli- 
cation of such a finish ; or to form an air space 
behind such a finish ; or to give a semblance 
of a constructive form, as the imitation <<{ 
a vault, by means of some plastic mati 
rial carried on a frame of the necessary 
shape. By extension, in recent times, 
hollow brick or tile used for such 

strip, generally of 
for furring. Specifically, iu 
the United States, a strip 
of spmce, 1 inch by 2 
inches in size, used 
chiefly in furring 
the inner face of ai 
outside wall to 
form an air 

A mouldin- ..f 
coiive.K round- 
ed section, 
car\-ed into 
beads or the 
like; asunder 
an ovolo or 
echinus, in a 
classic cajiitnl, 
of an archi- 


The Kliaft of a column or pilaster, equivalent to 
the Fnmdif&t. (Obsolete.) 

B. Locally, in Devonshire, the ridge of a 
roof. — (A. P. S.) 

The corrugated surface tu 

GABLE. A more or less triangular-sliajied 
piece ot wall closing the end of a double 
pitched or ga])le roof. The toj) of the wall may 
be bounded by the two slopes of the roof 
when this overhangs ; or it may form a para- 
[ii t following, more or less, the slopes cf 
tlic roof behind. Hence, any piece of 
wall of the same general shape, having 
purely oniameiital purpose. 
French make a distinction lie- 
■en the jnijiton, which is jirop- 
ily the enclosure of the roof 
at either end, and the gable, 
which is more commonly 
oniameiital ; but in Eng- 
lish no separate term hius 
been introduced. It is 
often imi)<>ssible to 
fi.\ the lower boun- 
dary of a ga- 
ble ; but also 
very often a 
band, either of 
mouldings or 
of merely orna- 
iiieiital inlay, 
is carried 
across, usually 
for the artistic 
purpose of 
holding the 
j)arts firmly to- 
gether in aj)- 
pejirance. The 
only use of g!i- 
bles in classical architecture is in the pediments, 
and even this is rare in other than temjile 
architecture. In the mediaeval styles, however, 
the gable, both constnictive and ornamental, 


. M fl^.i,V''/:f;A: 

v^ >v 

<^ ^'L. 

I^U A \ 1 





large and small, is a 
very important item 
in the general decora- 
tive system. In the 
earlier post - Gotliic 
styles, esjjecially in 
the north of Europe, 
such as the German 
Renaissance and the 
Elizabethan in Eng- 
land, the gable, 
whether forming a 
part of the 
structure, or sending 
as tlie front of the 
dormer, is the chief 
decorative feature. 
(For tiie elaborate 
Elizabethan gables, see 

Stepped Gable. 
One who.«e si 
more or less the form 
of a continuous scries 
of steps following the 
slope of the roof be- 
hind. — R. S. 

Same as Large 

a building having a 
double pitch roof, one 
of tiic end walls which 
terminates at top in a 

pole or bar of wood 
laid along the edge of 
a roof at one side of 
the gable to secure the 


tliatch or shingles ( 

roof boarding at that cxjaised 

GABLE ROOF. (See under Roof.) 

GABLET. A miniature gable, usually employe<l a.s 
a decoration, especially in Gotliic building, where it is 
u.sed chiefly as a decorative form of coping, as on a but- 
tress, ])innacle, or the like; to decorate and emplia.xize 
in arcli, as in a decorative arcade, or in a church facade. 
(Cut, col. IG.'j.) 

GABLE -WALL. A. Same as Gable End. 

B. By extension, in the United States, any side 
wall of a city house of the usual type ; becau.>*e such 
houses had formerly, most often, gable roofs ))it('lied 
to the front and rear, the side walls being then 


GABRIEL, JACQUES (I.); architect. 

An architect of Argeiitan (Orne, France). 
In 1605 he contracted to build the vaults of 
the church of S. Germain at Argentan. He 
designed the Hotel de Ville of Rouen, begun 
1607, which was never finished. 

De la Qu6ri6re, Hotel de Ville de Rouen. 

Gablet East Dfri i 

GABRIEL, JACQUES (II.); architect ; d. 

Jacques (II.) was a nephew by marriage of 
Jules Hardouin-Mansart (see Hardouin-Man- 
sart, J.) He was the principal constnictor 
employed at the chateau of Versailles, where 
he built the canal, reservoir, etc. In 1667 he 
built the establishment of the Gobelins. In 
1675 Gabriel undertook the construction of tlie 
new buildings of the chateau of Claguy. In 
1685 he began the construction of the Pont 

Bouriat, V Architecte Gabriel in Nouvelles Ar- 
chives, 1876; Guiffrey, Comptes de Louis XIV. 

GABRIEL, JACQUES ANGE ; architect ; 
b. Oct. 24, 1698; d. Jan. 2, 1782. 

Jacques was the son of Jacques Jules Gabriel 
(see Gabriel, Jacques Jules), and assisted his 
father in many undertakings. At the deatii of 
his father in 1742 lie succeeded iiim as premier 
architectp. of Louis XV., and continued and 

COmplctrd liKHIV ..f tlir l.uil,!i.l-s 1,,-ull 1 .> 
him. In 17i:. Im'U.t-, ma. lrM,.sy», ■/,„,■ <,/„/,■„/ 
des h(1H,H< His rn,i,ni.r. In 17.M !:.■ nia.lr ll,r 

plans lor the Inuldin-s of tin: lOrolc MiliUiiv, 
Paris, which was Iniilt mainly by Alexandre 
Brongniart (see Brongniart, A.) between 1752 
and 1787. In 1752 he took part in the 
famous c.oncours for the creation of the Place 
Louis XV., now Place de la Concorde, Paris. 
His plans were accepted in 175.'J. Work was 
begun in 1754 and the Place was oi)encd in 
1763. The Colonnades in the Rue Royah; 
were not completed until 1772. Between 175.'$ 
and 1774 Gabriel rebuilt the central pavilion. 


the right wing and Salle de Spectacle, of the 
Palace of Versailles. Between 1762 and 1768 
he built the Petit Trianon in the gardens of 
Versailles. In 1755 he was intrusted with the 
restoration of the Lou^Te, principally the east- 
ern portion with the colonnade designed by 
Claude Perrault (see Perrault, Claude). This 
part of the palace had never been roofed over 
and was mucli injured. About the same time 
he rebuilt the chateau of Compifegne. 

Dezallier d'Argenville, Vies des fameux archi- 
tecte.'' et scnlptoirs : Herluison, Actcs de Vetat 
civil; Kaguenet, Pclits riUfiri'rs historiqiies. 

b. April 6, 16(37; d. Ajnil 2:^, 1742. 

Jacques Jules was a son of Jacques Gabriel 
(II.) (see Gabriel, Jacques, II.). In 1709 he 
was created controleur des bdtiments at Ver- 
sailles and architecte ordinaire du roi. Be- 
tween 1728 and 1733 he built the Hotel Dieu 
at Orleans (Loire, France), and in 1727 made 
plans for the reconstruction of the public 
buildings of the city of Rennes which had been 
biuned in 1720. In 1730 he made plans for 
the Palais Royal at Bordeaux (Gironde, France), 
which was completed in 1 749. He began also 
the exchange and customhouse in that city, 
which were finished by his sou Jacques Ange 
(see Gabriel, J. A.). In 1738 Gabriel com- 
menced the restoration of the Hotel des 
Comptes, Paris. This building, remodelled by 
Louis Joseph Due (see Due, L. J.) for the pre- 
fecture of police, was destroyed by the com- 
mune in 1871. 

Lance, Dictionnaire ; Tingeron, Vie des archi- 
tectes franrais. 


Gabrielis built the palace (Schloss) at Ans- 
bach, Bavaria, which was begun in 1713. In 
1735 he was city architec-t of Augsburg, Bava- 
ria, and built a chapel in the cathedral of that 

Lcssinsi, Schloss Ansbach ; Gurlitt, Barockstil 
in Deutschland. 

and architect. 

In 1 383 Agnolo made drawings for the seven 
figures of Virtues on the Loggia dei Lanzi 
at Florrn.v, whirl, wrrc oxccutc.l by others. 
,\rr,,nlin- to ^•asari, tlir rl,uivl, ..f S. Romolo, 
Kl.iivnrr, «as Imih In.ni his ,l,.M,-ns in 1356. 
lie painted frescoes at S. Crorc, S. Sjiirito, and 
other Florentine churcho-s. 

Karl Frey, Loqgia dei Lanzi; Vasaii, Milaiiesi 

GAGE (and its coinpoiunls), (S,r Gauge.) 

sculptor and anlntr.t ; I.. Mlumt I l7S;d. 1536. 

A son of Doniciiico (iagini (sec (Jiigini, D.), 
and the most important member of this family. 
.\n interesting work of his is the monument of 
(Jeronimo Rosso, maile for the church of the 

abandoned convent of the Frati Minori Osscr- 
vanti di San Francesco at Ciistroreale, near 
Messina (about 150G). The contract for the 
splendid decorations of the ai)se of the catiie- 
dral of Palermo was made in 1510. This work 
was destroyed by Ferdinando Fuga (see F\iga, 
F.) in his restorations in 1781. Only fragments 
remain. About 1515 he was commissioned to 
decorate in msirble the tribuna of the church of 
S. Cita at Palermo, his most important exist- 
ing work. Autonello was succeede<l by his sons 
Giandomenico, Antonio, and Giacomo. 

1)1 Miuzo, IGayini. 

MENICO; .sculjitor and architect ; d. 14'J2. 

Donicnico came from Bissone, near the lake 
of Lugamo in Lombardy, to Palermo, Sicily, 
wliere he founded a large and important family 
of .sculptors. He is first mentioned in a con- 
tract, dated Nov. 22, 1463, for a monument 
erected in tlie church of the convent of S. Fran- 
cesco, Palermo, for Pietro Speciale {Mafjnifim). 
He iiKide tlie beautifiU sarcophagus of Antonio 
(Iiijriiano in the church of the Carmine at 
.Marsala, Sicily, the sumjjtuous decoration of 
the capella of Christina in the cathedral of Pa- 
lermo, and other works. 

Di Marzo. / Gnriini. 

GAGINI. GIACOMO (Sec Gagini, An- 



Gagini, Aiitoni.,.) 


^lay 16, 1733, Gai wa.s cunuuissioned to 
iiiak.'the bronze gates of the loggietta of the 
(■am|ianile in the Piazza di San Marco, Venice. 
He made also two monuments in the chapel of 
the Sagred" family in the church of S. Fran- 
cesco (U'lla Vigiia. 

QAILHABAUD, JULES ; archieologist 
and historian of architecture ; b. Aug. 29, 1810 ; 
d. April 15, 1888. 

Gailiiabaud was at first engiiged in commerce, 
but after 1839 devoted himself to archieology. 
He formed an important collection of engrav- 
ings, which was destroyed with the Hotel tie 
Ville, Paris, in May, 1871. Gailhabaud 
founded the Revue arcMolofjifjite in 1844, and 
|i\dilisiicd Len Motiniueitts (iiirieim et mo- 
(lenies, Paris, 1840-1850, 4 vuls. 4to, and 
IJ Architecture (III V an XVII' siMe, 1850- 
1858, 4 vols. 4to. 

La ffrnndf Eunjrlnppdip. 

GAIN. A. The l)evelled shoulder fonned 
above a tenon on the end of a Wmn or similar 
piece, in framing. In the United State-s, niore 
commonly Tvisk. 

B. A groove in a niemWr or j)iece to receive 
the end of another, as by dailoing. 

OAINACO. PONS DE ; builder {opera- 


In 12G5 I'uns de Gainaco assisted Guillaume 
Artaudus in the con.struction of the Pont Saint 
Esjmt over the Rhone. (See Artaud.) 
De Girardot, Fonts au XIII* siecle. 
OAINE. Anything having the sha|>e of a 
sheath ; hence, the lower i)art of a terminal or 
hermes where a shaft of rectangular section 
tapers toward the base on which it stands. 
The term is also, in common usage, extended 
to i)ilasters of like outline having a capital in 
l.lacc "f a liiimaii head. 


He \va.-~ ciii]>lnyc(l on the cathedral of Lin- 
coln, England, in the fourteenth centurj'. His 
tomb in the cathedral bears the incomplete date 
June, MCCC . . . 

Brilton, Architectural Antiquities, Vol. V. 
GAIiBE. In French, the general outline, 
the exterior proportions and character, e.spe- 
cially and primarily, of an architectural or deco- 
rative composition. Used in the same sense in 
English, and expressing an idea covered by no 
one English word. 

GALILEE. In English churches, a subor- 
dinate and accessory room, usually near the 
entrance. The original use of the term and its 
derivation is uncertain. 

It is generally held that there are only three 
galilees left in England ; namely, at the cathe- 
drals of Durham, Ely, and Lincohi ; these are 
situated as follows : — 

At Durham, across the west end ; a room 
whose roof is supjjorted by twelve piers carry- 
ing on round arches four walls which supjmrt 
the roof, which room is accessible from the 
north and south aisle through the square towers, 
which are commonly called North Galilee Tower 
and Sovith Galilee Tower to distinguish them 
from the central tower and those smaller ones 
at the end of the transept. 

At Ely, a jwrch of motlerate size projecting 
from the tower which filb the middle of the 
west end. 

At Lincoln, a somewhat larger porch open- 
ing into the southwest tran.sept (that is. the 
southern arm of the principal or western tran- 
sept) fn.ni the w.'stcrn side. 

GALILEE PORCH. Same as Galilee, in the 
restricted sense ^nvcii above. The term origi- 
nated in the ohl habit of calling many halls, 
such as .sacristies, outside chapels, rooms in the 
trifi>ri\un, etc., by the name of "galilee," which 
called for the further discrimination conveyeil 
by tiic conipom.d term. 

GALILEI, ALESSANDRO ; arcliitcet ; 
b. Klill ; d. 1737. 

Altlioiigh a Florentine, nmch of Galilei's cjirly 
life was s])ent in England, where Sir Christo- 
pher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh were then 


ilti, ealUMl Lou-if (ii IJiifl.ul..; 
•j.k' (if the Vatican. Tliis wiile 
-s of thirteen vaultod squares, 
each vault having fuur priucipal paintings of bibli- 

cmI siil)jeola. The in.s|>ir.ili..ii fur the iinaiiKeiiunt 
of llie paintings came hugely from the discovery in 
Kapliael's time of ancient Koniaii ciecoration, aa in 
chambers of the Thermoi of Titus. 


practising. He appears in Rome during the 
reign of Clement XII. (Pope 1730-1 740). His 
most important work is the main facade of the 
church of S. Giovanni in Laterano (1734). 
Galilei designed also the facade of the church 
of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, planned by Giacomo 
Sansovino (see Sansovino, G.) and built by 
Antonio (II.) da San Gallo(sce San Gallo, A., II.). 
His Capella Corsini at the Lateran is especially 

Gurlitt, Geschichte, des Barockstile.s in Italien ; 
Ebe, Spat-Renaissaiice ; Milizia, Mcmorie. 

tive painter; b. July 15, 18l'l' ; d. Dec. 1, 

Galland was bom in Geneva, Switzerland, 
of French parents. He first entered the atelier 
of the architect Henri Labrouste (see Labrouste, 
H.), and afterward studied with the decorator 
Pierre Ciceri. In 1851 he went to Constanti- 
nople to decorate a private palace. Returning 
to Paris, he entered upon a long period of great 
activity. Among his most important works 
in Paris are the "Preaching of S. Denis," a 
large picture at the Panth(;on, the ceiling of 
the great amijliitlicatre of the Sorbonne, twenty- 
six siiltjcrts ri'ini sciiting the "Glorification of 
Labor " at tlic Hntcl de Ville, Paris, and other 
works. Galland designed the diploma of the 
universal exposition of 1889. 

Henri Havard, VCEuvre de P. V. GaUnnd. 

GALLERIA. In Italian, a gallery ; in most 
of the English senses of the word, especially a 
covered and lighted way for foot passengers, 
with booths and shops. The Galleria Vittore 
Emmanuele, in Milan, is an important struc- 
ture of this sort, spacious and very lofty, open- 
ing on two iui])ortniit streets and upon the 
Piazza del Dumuo, ami sliiltcring the entrance 
and show winclnw-s of sliops of good character. 
(Compare Arcade, II. ; Passage, II.) 

GALLERY. A. A room or hall much 
longer than its breadth. In old Engli.sh prac- 
tice the term seems to have conveyed two mean- 
ings : (1 ) that of a place of amusement (compare 
the probable derivation from " gala " or another 
terra implying sport and gayety), and (!') that 
of a passage from room to room. It is to l)e 
noted that in old English and ('(uiiiin ntal Ikhiscs 
corridors and passages were imi usually pni- 
vided, and that rooms opened into each cither; 
if, then, a gallery served as an unobstructed 
means of communication between a staircase 
and a telroom, or the like, the term woidd 
acquire that additional meaning. Galleries in 
English manor houses are often very simple in 
architectural detsign ; low, plainly panelled 
in oak, and with flat ccilingH ; but one side 
would be, in and aft(!r the JOIizabcthan era, a 
continuous row of windows l)roken by one or 
more projecting bay windows, and the other 

side would have two or more ornamental chim- 
ney pieces. A very few richer ones exist. 

As these galleries were the common place of 
deposit and exhibition of family portraits, suits 
of armour, banners, trophies of the chase, carved 
and inlaid cabinets, together with chairs, settles, 
and tables, of greater or less richness, the tran- 
sition of meaning to that given in definition C 
below was natural. 

B. A balcony or loggia used in connection 
with a much larger hall or room, as for the 
musicians who might be employed on an occa- 
sion of a festival or for divine service, or for the 
use of persons looking down upon the gathering 
in the large room. Singing gallery is used as 
the English equivalent for the Italian cantoria, 
as in the case of those which were formerly in 
the cathedral at Florence and are now in the 
National Museum of that city, and of that 
fonnerly in S. Maria Novella, Florence, and 
now in the South Kensington Museum. The 
stern gallery, poop gallery, and quarter gallery 
of a ship, as in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, were of this nature except that these 
projecting balconies, as they were in reality, 
were enclosed and housed over. They received 
a highly decorative treatment in the case of 
certain men-of-war, and artists of first-rate 
standing were employed to design them and 
the whole after end of the ship. The gallery 
of a church is a means of seating more persons 
within a tolerably short distance from the read- 
ing desk or pulpit than could be accommodated 
on the floor. It is usually supported on iron 
or wooden posts, but, with proper construction, 
elaborate cantilevers or brackets can be used to 
do this work and thus leave the floor of the 
church unobstructed. Such appliances are 
capable of being made very (Icccirative. The 
gallery of a theatre is similar in imriMisc to that 
of a church, but assumes ^'eiierally the form of 
a long horizontal curve mure nr less bdrsoshne- 
shaped, and is often set out of liMri/nntal line, 
even in its front, in order to allow the umr," 
easily of grouping the seats so that every persdn 
in the audience can see the stage. (See Theatre.) 
Such galleries are often divided into private 
boxes. In some very recent theatres the fronts 
have been treated like series of bowed small 
balconies, one to each box. In galleries of 
theatres and churches the question of fireproof- 
ing or of protection against fire becomes, in 
recent times, of extreme importance. The 
problem of such protection is a very difficult 
one in these cases. (See Fircproofing ; also 
Slow-burning Construction.) 

C. A large room used for the exhibition of 
works of fine art or, less often, of scientific col- 
lections, instniments of ))rccision, and the like. 
Such a room is spoken of generally as a picture 
gallery, or one used for other jHirposes, as a 
sculpture gallery, or the like. It is generally 

admitted that pictures in uil colour, especially 
large oues, should be lighted l>y top light. 
(For the admission and disposition of such 
light, the sectious through the gallerj-, the rela- 
tive height of walls, size of oj^euiiigs, etc., see 
Skylight.) It is to be observed tliat in a long 
and narrow room the arrangement of tlie side 
wall with the skylight above is the unit, and 
that evenlhing nuist give way to tlie proper 
distribution of these parts. 
It is, tlierefore, an error 
to try to iuing pictures on 
the end walls. It is the 
side walls oidy whidi 
should receive the paint- 
ings for which the gallery 
is intended, excejit that 
the space left at the ends, 
after doors, etc., have been 
provided, may be used ex- 
perimentally to place cabi- 
nets or to put up screens, 
as it is found expedient. 
The practice in the gal- 
leries of the Louvre is 
good in this respect. The 
architectural disposition 
should be such that tlie 
section through the gal- 
lery shows ui)on the end 
wall, so that the cove or 
slope or coniice at the 
top of the side wall should 
not be returned across the 
end walls, but should 
abut s(|uarely against 
them. There is, of comsc, 
no difficulty in arruiiu'ing 
this with the anhitcr- 
tural treatment of the 

A sculpture gallery is 
generally better if liglited 
from tlie highest j)art ui' 
the side wall. Perlia])s 
the best lighting of sculp- 
ture galleries in Europe 
is that of the National 
Museum at Naples, where Galleuy : that at i 
the light comes through smTor'No^uTrT 

the lunettes under the 
vaulting ; but as it comes from one side only, 
the system is not perfect. The halls of the 
Central Mu.seum at Athens are much simpler, 
and these are lighted l)y windows arranged as 
high as practicable aViovf tlic floor and near 
the ceiling. Tlir (;i\pt -Ik at Munidi is 
lighted mainly fn ill, ' ■ I martlicirtop, 

but with various .1 1 1 i ; ti.ms according 

to the varying anlnu. tiii, .,i Uic rooms of this 
elaborate building. 

In this sense the tenn is used loosely for the 


buildings in wliidi such galleries are included : 
see the sulvtitles. 

D. A narrow passage connected in some 
intimate way with the architectural design of 
the building. The triforimn gallery of a large 
Gothic church is an instance ; the exterior gal- 
leries of many CJothic churches belong to the 
same class. They are sometimes, as at Stras- 
burg, mere balconies, verj- narrow and protected 

by lofty ornamental parapets. In other cases 
they are arranged like triforium galleries, but 
narrow in proportion to their height and 

E. An arcade or colonnade or other architec- 
tural feature, long and high but not wide or 
deep. Tiiis is an extension of dclinition I>, 
and the structure is practically a i)assa;,'cway 
which has been obstructed by skitues or tlie 
like ; in other words, a possible passageway not 
used for that purpose but made a decorative 


feature. Of this nature is the Royal Gallery, 
or Galerie des Jiois, at the cathedral of Amieus, 
or that of Paris, or that of Reims. The use of 
the term in Tennyson's PaZace of Art, "Round 
the roofs a gilded gallery that lent broad verge 
to distant lands," is inaccurate because all that 
the description implies is a parapet. In a simi- 
lar sense to this the word is applied to a very 
small railing of wood or iiu'tal canifil along the 
edge of a table top, or nf the slidf .if a cabinet 
or 6tagfere. (See Whispcriu,!;- (lalltiy.) 

F. A passage outside of a building, as one 
which leads from one building to another; 
especially if somewhat architectural in treat- 
ment. The side porticoes of the colonnaded 
streets of Syria (see Street; Syria) were gal- 
leries, and so is the ambulatory of a cloister. 
The term is used, in the absence of a special 
one, for such structures as the covered porticoes 
enclosing the Piazza di S. Pietro at Rome, and 
for the covered way which leads from one of the 
gates of Bologna to the church of the Madonna 
di S. Luca, three miles distant and placed upon a 
high hill ; it is also applied to the unarchitectural 
but long and important passages which lead 
from the Pitti Palace to the Palazzo Vecchio in 
Florence, and from the Vatican to the Castel 
S. Angelo in Rome. (See Corridor.) 

G. Same as Galleria. — R. S. 

National Gallery. In London ; started 
1824 and occupying the building which was 
begun in 1832 on the north side of Trafalgar 
Square. The building has been much ridiculed, 
but is not without a certain simple dignity 
in spite of its feeble cupolas. The Royal 
Academy occupied the castcni lialf nf the build- 
ing until 1870, when that instituiiun was re- 
moved to Piccadilly, and the wlmlc Imilding was 
given up to the National Gallery. 

National Portrait Gallery. In London ; 
started 18.56 ; has been recently moved to the 
building erected for the purpose on the north- 
ea.st side of the National Gallery toward S. 
Martin's Lane. 

Orosvenor Gallery. In London, New Bond 
Street ; a building erected at tlie expense of Sir 
Coutts Lindsay for the exhibition of pictures ; 
opened about 1880, biit now abandoned. 

Uffizi Gallery. In Floiciicc, fS(^c Uffizi.) 

GALLETING. Tlic um' nt diiiis of stone 
I iiiIpMc masonry by 


, the 


material so u.-^cd. Called also (iarrctiiig. 

painter and architect; b. lOf)? (at IJologna) ; d. 

Ferdinando was the son of Giovanni Maria 
Galli, a painter. The family took tlic name 
Bibiena from a little town in Tuscany. Ferdi- 
nando entered the service of Ranuci-io Farnese 
II., at Parma. He was called to Spain by 
King Carlos III. At the coronation of the 


Emperor Charles VI. in 1711 he went to 
Venice where he remained until 1716. Return- 
ing to Parma, he built the church of S. Antonio 
Abate. The extraordinary decorations of the 
double ceiling of this church were painted by 
him also. One of his last works was the 
Teatro Recde in Mantua. Like the other 
members of his family he was especially inter- 
ested in the construction and decoration of 
theatres and in scene painting. His Archi- 
tettura Civile was pubbshed in 1711. 

Gurlitt. (jeschichte des Barockstiles in Italicn; 
Milizia, Memorie. 

architect; b. 1659; d. 1739. 

Francesco was a brother of Ferdinando Galli 
da Bibiena (see GaUi da B., Ferd.), and like him 
especially interested in the development of thea- 
tre construction and scene painting. He worked 
at Mantua, Genoa, and Naples. In this last 
city he arranged the triumphal entry of Philip 
v., king of Spain. Francesco went to Vienna 
where he built a great theatre. He was se- 
lected by the Marchese Scipione Maffei to build 
the theatre of the Accademia de' Filarmonici at 

Milizia, Memorie; Gurlitt, Geschichto dis Bn- 
rockstiles in Ualien. 

architect; b. 1696; d. 1757 (at Berlin). 

Giuseppe was the son of Ferdinando Galli da 
Bibiena (see Galli da B., Ferd.). He went to 
Vienna with his father and spent his life in the 
service of the various ({mnau courts. He was 
especially intorest.d in theatre construction, 
scene ]iaiiitiii,fc, the ilr.-(.i:ition of processions, 
and the like. In 17l':i he ananjiedan imperial 
fete at I'r.eiue. lie huilt a theatre at Bay- 
reuth, Davaria, in 17 17, and ill 1750 rebuilt 
an opera hou-e at iMesden, now destroyed. 

Gurliii, (^1 !<i-liiiiiii <h s Barockstiles in Ilalien. 

GALLIFA, G. DE ; architect. 

He directed the construction of the Capella 
Real de S. Agueda at Barcelona, in 1315. 

Viilaza, Adiciones. 

GALVANIZED IRON. Inm coated with 
zinc. The iiurpose of so proteeting iron is to 
jjrevcnt lustinL; Kv keeping; the moisture from 
its surt'aee. it is, how c via', common to paint 
thor(iiiu'hl.\ all aiiielis of galvanized iron as soon 
as tlicy a IV put into place. 

yl. l'iop(rly, iron which has been covered 
first with tin by galvanic action, and subse- 
i|U(iitly with zinc by immersion in a bath. 

li. In common usage, but impro])erly, iron 
wliicii has been so coated by a non-galvanic 
j)roce8s ; having been immersed hot in a bath 
of zinc and otiier chemicals which form an alloy 
on the Hurfnce of the iron. 

fROSSELLINO) ; .Hculptor and arcliitcet ; b. 
1427; d. 1179. 



Antonio wius the youngest of five brothers 
Gambarelli who had a shop (botega) on the 
comer of the Via del Proconsolo in Florence. 
The others were Domeuico (b. 1407), Bernardo 
(see Gambarelli, B.), Giovanni (b. 1417, d. 
1496), and Tonimaso (b. I4l>l>). His principal 
work, the monument of the Cardinal Jacopo of 
Portugal, in S. Miniato near Florence, was 
ordered in 1461. According to Vasari he built 
also the chapel in which it is placed. Antonio 
designed the tomb of the Duchess of Amalfi in 
the church of Jlonte Oliveto at Naples. He 
was assisted by Antonio Barocci da Milano on 
the tomb of Roverella in the church of S. 
Giorgio at Ferrara (finished 1475) and by Mino 
da Fiesole (see Mino da Fiesole) at Pistoia, 
which was begun by his brother Bernardo before 
his death. 

Von Geymuller-Stefrmann, Die Arch, der Ren. 
in Toscana; Miiiiiz, Renaissance; Vasari, Blash- 
field-Ilopkins ed. ; Va.sari, Milanesi ed. ; C. C. 
Perkins, Tuscan Sculptors; C. C. Ferkins, Hatid- 


TEO (ROSSELLINO ; .■iivliit.'ct and sculptor: 
b. 14U;i (at Flonnr.) ; ,[. KG;} (buried Sci)t. 

The surname RosscUino belonged originally 
only to his brother Antonio (see Gambarelli, A.). 
The Gambarelli were a family of stonecutters 
of Settignano. Bernardo first appears in 1434 
in the records of tlie Palazzo della Frateniit<\ 
dci Laici at Arezzo, of which he built the upper 
part; the campanile is later. In September, 
1439, he acquired a house on the corner of the 
Via Proconsolo, Florence, and with his four 
brothers established there a botega. His most 
interesting creation, and a very important Re- 
naissance work of its kind, is the monument of 
Leonardo Bmni in the church of S. Croce in 
Florence, which was ordered by the consiglio of 
Arezzo between 1444 and 1448. The tomb of 
Beata Villana at S. Maria Novella in Flor- 
ence was ordered in 1451. He was probably 
associated with Alberti (see Alberti) in the 
construction of the Rucellai palace, Florence, 
about 1450, and in Rome from that time until 
the death of Nicholas V. in 1455. The grefit 
apse of S. Peter's church (removed by Bramante) 
and extensive changes at the Vatican are credited 
to their cooperation. (See Von Geymiiller, op. 
cit.) Bernardo wjis employed by Pius If. 
(iEneas Sylvius Piccolomini, Pojjc 1458-1464) 
in his transformation of the village of Corsignano 
into the city of Pienza. He l)cgan tlie churcii 
and palace in 1460, and finished them about 
1462. The municipal building and bishop's 
palace were finished about 1463. The Pic- 
colomini palace in Siena is attributed to Bernardo, 
finished after 1498. 

Dr. Hans von Stepmann in 7>iV Arrhitektur der 

Rennisnaure in Tnscaiia ; Mtinlz, Rrnaissnnre ; 

Mliulz, Les arts it la courdes papes ; Dr. Ileinrich 


Holtainger. Piema; Vasari. Milanesi ed. ; Vasari, 
Blashlield-Hopkius ed. ; Von Gevuiuller. article 
Rramante in Transactions R. I. B. A.. lSi>0. 

arciiitect ; d. Feli. 20, 1 181. 

Jlay 8, 1458, Gamlxdio was appointed jjto- 
tomaestro at the church of S. Zaccaria in Venice. 
He superintended the e.xtensive reconstruction 
undertaken at this time, for which he is supposed 
by Paoletti to have nuide the designs and models. 
July 8, 1473, he was ordered by the Venetian 
Senate to fortify S. Servolo. 

Paoletti. Rinascimenlo in I'enezia. 


Heinrich came from Germany to Milan in 
1391 and superintended the constniction of the 
cathedral for five months. It Wivs formerly 
suppo.sed that he designed the cathedral. 

Boito, Duomn di MiUmo. 

GANDON. JAMES ; architect ; b. Feb. 29, 
1742 (Lnncloii); .1. Dec. 24, 1823. 

A pupil of Sir William Chambers (see 
Chaml>ers). With John Woolfe of the board 
of works he published two volumes in continua- 
tion of the Vitruvius Britaunicus of Colin 
Campbell (see Camplwll, C). In 1780 he de- 
signed the customhouse, and in 1786 the House 
of Commons in Dublin, and Aug. 1, 1795, 
laid the first stone of the Inns of Court in Hen- 
rietta Street, Dul)lin. 

Mulvany, Lif<- of Cnndnn. 

chitect ; b. 1787 ; d. 1850. 

His name was originally Gandy. He changetl 
it to Deering in 1827 on the acquisition of an 
estate. He was a younger brother of Joseph 
Gandy (see Gandy, J.). In 1811 he went to 
Greece under the patronage of the Dilettanti 
Society, and associated himself with Lord Elgin, 
whose seat at UnMuii Hall, Scotland, he afterward 
built. His principal works in London were Exe- 
ter Hall, Strand; S. Mark's chapel. North Audley 
Street; part of Inivcrsity College, and others. 

Red-raw. DirH.oi.ir;, nf Artists. 

GANDY, JOSEPH M. ; architect; b. 1771 ; 
d. December, 1843. 

A brother of John Peter Gandy-Deering (see 
Gandy-Deering, J. P.). He was a pupil of 
James Wyatt (see Wyatt, James). In 1794 
he went to Rome and in 1795 won the Pope's 
first-class medal in architecture. He was em- 
ployed by Sir John Soaiie (see Soane, J.) and 
assisted John Hrittoii (.-;ee Britton, J.) in his 
architectural jxiMi.Mtions. His brother, Michael 
Gandy, published An/iilcrtural Illustrations of 
IF/nf/.s'orwith text liv John Britton (folio, 1842). 

Kedijravo. /)irti,„i„r>i of Artists. 

GANDY. MICHAEL. (See Gandy, Joseph 

GAN6sOTE. The smaller bark house of 

the Iroquois. ConstructcHl like the Hod^nosote 


or Long House. It contained along the side 
walls one berth above another, as in a ship. 
Eight persons could be accommodated. Dimen- 
sions were about fifteen feet by twenty on tlie 
ground and fifteen feet in height. (See Com- 
munal Dwelling. ) — F. 8. D. 

GANTREE: GANTRY. In building, a 
framework, jilatform, or the like to support a 

GAOL. (^See Prison.) 

GARDEN. A tract of ground usually but 
not always open to the sky, in which plants are 
grown under the special care of man; distin- 
guished from a field under cultivation by the 
more constant and minute care which it receives. 
(See the subtitles ; also Landscape Architecture.) 

Botanic ; -al Garden. One prepared for the 
bringing together of plants with a view to scien- 
tific inquiry. The most celebrated in Europe 
is the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. That of 
Kew near London is far more decorative, and 
partakes of the nature of a park; it has an 
enormous greenhouse. In some towns botanic 
gardens are made the ornamental adjuncts to a 
palace, or the like ; especially in the tropical 
colonies of European powers where attempts 
have been made to naturalize the plants of 
another part of the tropical world, as when the 
mango and the breadfruit are brought to the 
West Indies. 

Formal Garden. One laid out with straight 
paths, and regularly balanced and symmetrically 
planned, as distinguished from one which, to a 
certain degree, follows the irregularity of wild 
nature. Usually, and when the garden is laid 
out on a considerable scale of cost and display, 
there are terraces, perrons, or flights of steps 
leading from one level to another, walls with 
piers supporting vases, statues, and similar 
adornments, and sometimes the trees, hedges, 
etc., are clipped and brouglit into wholly arti- 
ficial sliapes. (See Landscape Arciiitecture.) 

Hanging Garden (Jforto Pensilis). (A 
term taken from Pliny's Natural History.) 
One supj)orted on vaults or arches and carried 
high above the streets of a town. Those of 
Babylon, described by Strabo and otiiers, were 
of very great size, but nothing is known of their 
construction nor of the way in which the soil 
Wiis maintained in proper condition. 

Roof Garden. A covered or sheltered, but 
otherwise ojjen, room or series of rooms on 
a city roof, enabling persons to enjoy the air. 
In many houses of the south of France these 
exist ; stnall, usually occupying part of a story, 
the rest of wliicli is wholly enclosed. In some 
Italian palazzi arc very extensive loggie, at the 
top, with columns carrying the general roof, but 
otherwise open at the sides. In American I'ities 
some attempt has been made in this direction, 
both by jjlaccH of resort, as restaurants, and in 
connection with clubs. 



"Winter Garden. A conservatory, especially 
a large one and of some pretensions ; used as 
a place of resort during the inclement season, 
and sometimes so arranged that it is agreeable 
in the summer as well, when the glass roof, etc., 
is open. Such gardens are attached to palaces 
and large dwellings in Europe and America, and 
the term is extended to places of pubhc resort, 
usually on the tops of city buildings, or in courts 
and yards covered in with glass. 

and arrangement of buildings used in gardens ; 
all architectural structures forming parts of 
gardens, such as teiTaces, perrons, parapets, 
fountains, orangeries, greenhouses, and the gar- 
den fronts of large and principal buildings, such 
as chateaux and other coimtry houses. This is, 
therefore, an important part of the general sub- 
ject. Landscape Architecture. The term is in 
common use in German WTiting, and while there 
is a lack of logic in using this as a subdivision 
of the larger term, it seems better to employ it 
literally translated than to try to coin another. 

GARDEN HOUSE. A. A house situated 
in a garden ; usually a summer house, a more 
or less open place of shelter for temporary use. 
(Compare Casino; Summer House.) (Cut, cols. 
179, 180.) 

B. A dwelling house having a garden attached 
to it, especially, such a dwelling in or close to a 
city. Thus, Milton is said to have removed in 
1652 to " a pretty garden house in Petty France, 

GARDENING. The care of gardens and the 
cultivation of plants therein ; especially, when 
used without qualification, the care of ornamental 
plants, flowers, flowering shrubs, and the like. 
By extension, and because a garden in the orna- 
mental sense applies naturally to decorative 
grountls of whatever extent, the designing, lay- 
ing out, planting, and arranging of large and 
small parks, whether in coimection with public 
or private buildings, or separately prepared for 
the benefit of the community. In this latter 
sense, the terms Landscape Gardening and Land- 
scape Architecture are commonly employed. 

GARDEROBE. Originally, a place for the 
safe kcrjiinf,' of ^'aiiiionts, etc. By extension, in 
French, a latrine : used in English in niediasval 
archu'ology as garderobe tower, that in which 
the latrines were placed. 

GARGOVIiE. A water spout, especially 
one projecting from a gutter and intended to 
throw the water away from the walls and 
foundations. In mediu'val architecture, the 
gargoyles, wl)i<'h liad to be very numerous 
because of the miny untti is which were carried 
on the tops of il\ in,' Kmii. ,sis, and higher and 
lower walls, wcic oiim m rv ilfcorative, consist- 
ing, as they did, of stone images of grotesiiuo 
animals, and the like, or, in smidler buildings, 
of iron or lead. 


OARNACHE. JEHANCON ; architect ; 

d. ■dt\i-T ir)L>y. 

Alxiut 1 4^") Garnache was nuvde supervising 
architect of tlie cathe<lral of Troyes (Aube, 
France). Under the direction of Martin Chani- 
Ijiges (see Chainbiges, M.) he worked ou the 
towers and portal of the fat^ade. 

Assier, Les Arts H les artistes dam Vancienne 
capitdle de la Champagne. 

OARNET. (See Ganiet Hinge, under Hinge.) 

architect; b. Nov. 6, 1825; d. Aug. 3, 1898. 


n^ral des bdtimeiUs cicils. He was also archi- 
tect of the city of Paris for the fifth and sixth 
arrondis-seuients. In the competition for the new 
opera house, Paris, in 1860, instituted by the 
government of Napoleon III., Garnier's design 
won fifth place in the first trial, and first place 
in the second. He finished the facade of the 
building in 1867 and the interior in 1875 (see 
Baudry, Paul). In 1875 he was made insjjec- 
teur general, and in 1887 and 1895 vice-presi- 
dent of tiie Conseil yi'ueral des bdtimenis 
cirils. Next to the opera house, Garnier's most 

Gamier was a pupil of Levcil II. Lcba^ (.sec 
Leba.s) and the Ecolc des Beaux Arts. In 1 848 
he won the Premier Grand Prix de Rome in 
. architecture. His PHVo/f/e 7?wHie of the fourth 
year was a splendid restoration of the Doric 
Temple of ^igina, which was published by the 
French govcnimcnt in its scries of Jtp.ttanrar 
tions des inmitniieuts antifjues in 1884. Gar- 
nier visited Greece, Turkey, Magna Grccia, and 
other Meditcrrancjui countries, and in 1855 
returned to Paris. In 1855-1856, and again in 
1W59-1860, he was au.litor of the Conseil gi- 

striking work is the ciusiiio at Monte Carlo, 
Italy. He built also in Paris the Cerde de la 
librairie, the Panorama.s \'alentino and Marigny, 
the tombs of Hizct, Vict.)r Masse, and Offenbach 
at the Clmi'tii^re dii Xord. Gamier designed 
the ()b.scrvatory at Nice and many important 
villius in France and in the Kivicra. He pub- 
lished lie.ttauration ilcs (omheaux des rois 
Afigevins en Italic (54 jjIs. in folio) ; Le Theatre 
(Paris, 1876, 8vo); Le Xoiivel Opera (Paris, 
1875-1881. text 2 vols. 4to, plates 3 vols, folio) ; 
Monoijraphie deVObservatoire de Nice (Paris, 

1892, folio) ; Histoire de Vhahitation lunnaine 
(Paris, 1894, 4to). Garnier contributed a 
famous article on 3Iicliel-Anye, (itrhitecte, to 
the series which was published in the Gazette 
des Beaux Arts in 1876. 

Charlrs I.uras, in r„us/rnrt,;,„ M,.J, ,■„., Au-iist 

tn'mt li,'rHn;'mm. 

POLYTE. (See Garnier d'lsle, Jean Charies.) 


architect and landscape architect; b. 1697; 
d. Dec. 12, 1755. 

Dec. 3, 1730, he succeeded Desgots as des- 
sinateur des plantes et parterres des jar- 
dins dii roi. As one of the architects of 
Madame de Pompadour he was employed with 
L' Assurance (see Cailleteau) to build the chateau 
of Bellevue. He designed the gardens of Cr^cy 
(Eure-et-Loir, France). At the time of his 
death he held the office of contrdleur general 
des hdtiments du roi. His son, Charles Hip- 
polyte Garnier d'lsle, succeeded him in that office. 

Leroy. Depe.nses de Madame de Pompadour; 


. Die, 

GARRET. A. Originally, and expressing 
it.s tirobable derivation from the French guerite, 
a watchtowcr, a place for a watchman, a cor- 
belled turret, or the like ; in this sense obsolete. 

B. The open space in any building beneath 
the roof and above the uppermost story of fin- 
ished rooms. Thus, in a house with a double 
pitch roof, the garret is usually high in the 
middle ; but as the beams which form the ceil- 
ing of the topmost story are made to serve as 
tie beams for the roof, the height of the garret 
diminishes to nothing at the eaves. It is com- 
mon to restrict the term to so much of this roof 
story as is left unfinished, excluding any rooms 
which may be brought into shape within this 
general sjiace. 

GARRETINO. Same as Galleting. 

GARTH. A planted enclosure ; a term con- 
nected with garden in derivation as in meaning. 
Especially, in modern usage, the open space of 
a cloister; that piece of ground which is enclosed 
by tiie anibulatories or covered ways. 

h. Ihr. 10, IT'.i:!; a. April L' 1 , 1847. 

In \si)'.> (Iiirtiici- iiilcrnl the academy in 
Munich, and in 1812 wmt L. I';ni^, where he 
studied under Percier (mv 1',ivi,i,. He later 
travelled in Italy and ShNs In |s_'() he was 
appointed professor of aidiilc rtmc in the acad- 
emy at Munich, and was at the same time 
director of the porcelain manufactory. In 
Munidi he built most of the large builiiings of 
the Lndiuiiixtrasse, i.e. tlu; FeUlhcrni- Halle 
(IKII), tll.-"/v<'</''/7.s/im;//«(finislird IH45), the 
Library (1831-lHi2), the University (1835- 


1840), the Siegesthor (1844), and the Blinden 
Institut. He built also in Munich the Wittels- 
bacher palace (1843), the arcades of the New 
Cemetery, and other works. In 1836 he visited 
Athen.s, where he built the royal palace. In 

,^40 he built thcPn 



■ AschafiFen- 

Iralsof Bam- 

iH'iiT (Spires). 

Allemagne ; 

GAS FITTING (also Gas Piping). The 
art, practiic, ni trailc nf cutting, fitting, and 
putting together the pipes in buildings used for 
the conveyance of gas for lighting, heating, and 
cooking purposes. 

Gas fitters form a distinct trade, though often 
gas piping is included in plumbers' work. In 
j)iping a house for gas, the number of gas 
lights and the number of gas ranges, gas logs, 
and gas water-heaters are ascertained first, as 
tlie estimated gas consumption governs the size 
of service pipe. This is put in by gas compa- 
nies, and its size is 1 inch for small dwellings, 
while larger buildings require l^, 2-, 3-, and 
4-inch pipes. A shut-off is placed on the service 
pipe to control, from the outside, the supply of 
gas. Gas service and distiilmtiii;;- pi]ir.-. in Ijuihl- 
ings are made of wrought inm, wliitli, in the 
best class of work, is galvanized, to pivvtiit rust- 
ing. The pipes are cut to measure, the ends 
threaded, and put together with screw joints. 
Sockets, elbows, bends, tees, crosses, and reduc- 
ing fittings are used for branches or changes in 
direction. The fittings shoidd be of malleable 
iron, with beads, and galvanized. Joints should 
be tightened without gas fitters' cement, and the 
practice of applying cemeut to sand holes or 
leaky joints is reprehensible. It is equally bad 
to fill pipes with water to tighten up joints, as 
this usually leads to future trouble by reason 
of the pipes rusting on the inside. Gas piping 
should l)e tested liy means of a mercury gauge 
and force piiin|i, ami with '^ 1 material and com- 
petent woikinan^liip pipes r.'a. lily stand a press- 
ure test ul' is inclies nf nieieiiiy. Leaks are 
found by iiitruilueiiig .suli»huric ether, or by 
applying soapsuds to the joints and fittings. 

Branches for side lights are made | indi, 
branches for chandeliers ^ inch ; in the best 
practice no pipe smaller than -\ inch is used. 
The Table is usefid in proportioning the size of 
risers, distributing lines, and branches : — 



Lknoth ok Pipb m Yahoh 

,N IN...K* 
























In gas heating and cooking : — 

a }-inch pipe supplies one gas log or cooking range, 
consuming 35 cubic feel per hour ; 

a J-inch pipe supplies two gas logs or cookin" 
range burners ; 

a 1-inch pipe supplies four gas logs or cooking 
range burners ; 

a l}-iueh piix- supplies seven gas logs or cooking 
r:ini.'e burners, using :J5 cubic feet of gas, 
or :i iiidporiionately smaller number of larger 

PilJes are run with continuous fall toward 
the gas meter, to keep the system free from con- 
densed vapour. Branches are taken up from 
side or top of running lines, and brackets are 
run up from below. Outlets must be securely 
fastened, and drop lights made plumb. Nip- 
ples for side and drop lights must be of exact 
length for the fixtures. 

The gas meter, furnished by the gas company, 
is set in a cool place in the cellar. Where gas- 
eous fuel is used, companies sometimes furnisii 
a separate meter, and it is better to run special 
lines to outlets for gas heating or cooking. Gas 
fixtures are usually hung by the manufacturer, 
though it is Ijetter to have gas fitters do it. 
Chandeliers shoiUd have large supply tubes and 
heiivy gas keys, witli strongly made soldered pin- 
stops, and all fixtures should be tested. Glass 
globes surrounding gas flames should have bot- 
tom openings 4 or 5 inches in diameter. Col- 
oured and opal glass globes absorb much ligiit. 
Tlie hissing or singing of flames, caused by ex- 
cessive pressure, is remedied by pressure regu- 
lators on the service pipe, or governor burners 
at the fixtures. These control the pressure, or 
flow, of gas, retiuce the gas bills, and secure a 
better illumination. The use of gas for cooking 
purposes is increasing every year, and prejudice 
against its expense gradually disappears. Prop- 
erly mann-r-d. ,-o.,kin,u' hy ^m, is a> .-ronomical 
as by .-:,!, an. 1 I,;,, ur.an .i,.'!.],.,,!..! a.lvantages. 
Heiltlli- 1;\ •_':,-. at |av.,,,t 1 al,- , |,a. -r,l by gns 

comi.anirs, is ..,|,u:wliai c-xjKii.,ivc ^^l,cn burn- 
ers are kept lighted for jnany liours ; but the 
method is convenient and reasonably cheap 
where heat is only occasionally wanted. 

Gas Lighting and Gas Fitting, in Van Nostrand's 
Science Series. 

— W. P. Gerhard. 

GAS FIXTURE. An appliance for the 
burning of illuminating giis in .such a way as 
to give out light freely and sjifely. The term 
is generally applied to the brackets, pendants, 
lustres, and the like u.se<l indoors, rather than 
to the lamp-posts or tlic larger brackets used in 
streets or squares. The term "gasolier," modi- 
fied from " chandelier," has Wn used for pendant 
fixtures of three or more lights, and the term 
" bracket " is commonly used for fixtures pro- 
jecting from walls, whether they are of one or 
of many burners. (See Gas Lighting.) 

GAS LIGHTING. The artificial illumina- 
tion ol interiors an.l of streets and public squai-es 
by means of gas flames or jets. In houses, gas 
lighting is accomjilishetl by means of more or 
less ornamental wall brackets and chandeliers 
adapted for burning iUuminating gas in burners 
or tips, arranged singly or in clusters. The gas 
IS conducted through the fixtures in tubes, and 
the flow is controlled below the burner by a gas 
key. (See Gas Fitting ; Gas Fixture.) 

— W. P. G. 
GAS PIPING. The art and the process of 
fitting a house, or the like, with pijKis for gas 
supply. (See Giis Fitting.) 

GATCH. Plaster as used in Persia for deco- 
rative purposes. (See Chunam ; Persia, Archi- 
tecture of ; Plaster; Stucco.) 

GATE. A. A movable barrier, hung or 
shdmg, which closes a gateway. The distinc- 
tion between door and gate is not obsened ; 
the term "gate" carries ^^^th it (1) the idea of 
closing an opening in a barrier, as a fence, wall, 
grating, or the like, rather than an opening into 
a covered building ; (l>) the idea of a grating of 
iron or a framing of timber, rather than a solid 
and unpierced valve or valves ; but this distinc- 
tion is not always obser^•e<l, as when a large and 
important pair of doors are called gates, as city 
gates. Where there are solid doors closing a 
doorway into a public building, and outside of 
these are doors of iron grating meant to shut at 
nigiit, the latter are often, and properly, called 
gates. (Cut, cols. 185, 186.) 

B. A gateway; hardly accurate in this 
sense, although common, especially in composi- 
tion and in proper names. (Compare Door • 
Doorway.) ' 

Balance Gate. A gate hung at each side 
by an axis or jjivot on which it turns in a ver- 
tical arc, allowing, when open, passage under- 

Water Gate. A. A gate in a dam or 
canal to stop or otherwise control the flow of 

B. A gate by which access is obtained to an 
enclosed or separated Ixnly of water. 

GATE CHAMBER. J. A nxnu of any 
kind in a gate building, :us a Gate Tower or 
Gate House. 

B. A sunken panel, box, or recess into which 
one fold of a gate may be receive<l when it is 
opened widely, and is not to be allowed to block 
the jjassage. 

GATE HOOK. That part of a gate hinge 
which IS .secured to the immovable jamb, post, or 
I.illar, having the form of a hook to which the 
gate is hung by means of a ring or staple. 

GATE HOUSE. A. A building enclosing 
or a.coinpaiiyiiig a gateway of an important 
building ; often in ancient buildings made de- 
fensible and always containing rooms in which 
the gate keeper and others might be lodged. 





(See Gate Tower, which is another form of the 
same thing.) 

B. A gate keeper's lodge, if forming a house 
by itself. 

C. In hydraulic engineering, a building within 
which the water giites of a resen'oir are situated, 
or in which the regidation and management of 
those gates i.s carrietl on. 

OATZiPOST. A post, usually one of two, 
between which a gate swings or slides. Tlie 
term is extended to cover large and massive 

structures of masonry as of cut stone, or even 
very large monf)liths of arciiitectural character. 
GATE TCWER. A gate house of consid- 
eral)le height and size, and either fortified, or 
of architectural pretension. The entrances of 
fortified citie.s, media-val strong castles, and 
the like, have been commoidy arranged in gate 
towers, by means of an archway aH'ording en- 
trance to the ground floor of tlie tower, and 
another one lea<ling into the tower from tlie 
court. Each of these arcliways allows of defen- 
sible appliances, as strong gates, a j)ortcidli8, 
loopholes or embrasures for archers, musketeers, 

or military engines; and some gate towers are 
arranged so that the assailant on forcing one 
gateway finds himself in a court open to the 
missiles from above, and from which he cannot 
emerge without forcing another gateway or re- 

GATEWAY. An entrance such as is in- 
tended to be fht.sed by a gate ; hence, commonly, 
a passageway through a barrier, ciidasing wall, 
fence, or tlie like, and in this differing from a 
doorway. (Cut, cols. 1S7. 189, 190.) 

Brandenburg Gateway (Brandenburger 
Thor). At Berlin, a screen of columns form- 
ing a two-faced hexastyle triumjjhal or memo- 
rial portico, in a inotlified Grecian Doric style, 
with a bronze quadriga by Schatlow on the top, 
through which the city is entered from the park 
called the Thieigarten. It was built at the 
close of the eigliteenth centurj-, the architect 
being ('. C. Langhaus. 

Golden Gateway (I.). That at Jerusalem ; 
a (joulijc gateway in the outer (casteni) wall 
of the fortified citadel, called Harem-es-Sherif, 
undoubtedly a restoration in late Roman times 
of an earlier gateway. It is a large build- 
ing, with inner and outer passagewavs, now 

Golden Gateway (II.). The Porta Anrea 
at S]ialato ; tliat which formed the gate on tlie 
lam! side in the outer wall of the great Palace 
"\ l)iu,-lctian. 

Lieu Gateway ; or Gate of the Lions. At 
M\oii;c, in Greece. The ancient gateway to 
til. ritadel or acropolis at the northwest angle 
it the triangle which it encloses. A long pas- 
^.i_'c between walls of dresse<l stone leads to a 
tlc.uiway ten feet wide, which is closed at the top 
by a very large stone fonning a lintel. This 
stone, sixteen feet long and eight feet high, is 
of a generally triangular sliape, and upon it are 
cut the two lions of very archaic type, resting 
their forepaws on the top of a short ct)lumn, so 
that they rear up, each toward tlie other, their 
backs following the sloping line of tlie lintel. 
Tlie hcnds are entirely missing, and may have 
lieen of bronze. Tlie work is of unknown date. 
(See Myccn;ciin Architecture.) 

GATHERING. That jiortion of a channel, 
duct, or similar narrow enclo.sure which is con- 
structed with approaching sides, by which the 
pas-sage is contracted, a-s over a fireplace at tlie 
beginning of tlic tine. 

GAU, FRANZ CHRISTIAN : arcliitect ; b. 
June 15, 1790, (Cologne, Germany) : d. 18r)4. 

Gau Wiis naturalized jus a Frencii citizen and 
1>ecame a pupil of Debrct (see IXbret) and 
Lebas (see Lcbiis). He undertook tiic comjile- 
tion of the great work concerning Najioleon's 
e.xj)edition to Egj'pt, and also fini8he<l the third 
and fourth volumes of Francois Mazois's lxM)k 
oil the ruins of Pompeii (see Mazois, F.). From 
1831 to 1844 (Sau was architect of the prisons 

\^ IN iiii: f iiY \v\i I, PI KU(.i\ II \n 

II iiii|N II il niirk, fi)llo\\iiiK LtruHcuii tradiluiiis 

and hospitals of Paris. He ijublished Antiqui- 
tes (h la Niibie (Paris, 1820, 1 vol. folio). 
Bauilial, Dirtioniutirr. 


Ill 1532 he replaced Gia-rard Cardin lus super- 
vising arehiteet of the i-athetlral of Sens. In 
1535 he built the laut^rn of the stone tower and 
in 1537 the vaults near tlie Cha|>elle S. Croix. 

Quantiii, Xotke historique de v£gUst de .Sens ; 
Lance. Dirtionnaire. 

GAUGE (n.). A. In plastering, a certain 
definite quantity of phuster of Paris added to 
other plaster or mortar to facilitate setting. 

B. In roofing, the exposed jjortion of a slate, 
tile, or the like, when laid in place. 

GAUGE (v.). ^1. To bring to a given size 
or a given dimension, as tiiickne.ss, or the like. 
Tiie term properly signifias to test or measure 
(see Gauge, n.), but it is in common use as 
implying the rubbing, cutting, or other process 
whidi brings the object into shape. Thus, the 
bricks require<l for the voussoirs of an arcli 
which is to be ornamental in character, es])e- 
cially if small in proportion to the size of the 
material, are commonly specified to be gauged 
and rubbed ; that is, brought to the exact size 
and shape ; rublied smooth. 

B. In plastering, to prepare or mix with 
plaster of Paris ; the term meaning originally 
to measure tiie quantities, then to mix such 
measured quantities, finally, to mix especially 
those ingredients which are submitted to care- 
ftd mejusurement. (See Gauge, n.) 

Straight-gauged. Set straight by the use 
of the gauge, or ;us if by use of the gauge ; said 
especially of a row of tiles, slates or the like in 

GAUGED ARCH. An ardi of which the vous- 
soirs iiavc been treated iis dcscnl)ed under Gauge 
(v.), A. Specifically, ..ne Iniilt ..f g-augod brick. 

Same a.s Gauge (n.), ,1. 

Plastering, such as rcpairimcaml the ai)](licati..ii 
of mouldings or ornauicnts, whi<'h is done witii 
gauged mortar. 

GAUNTRY. Same as (Jantrce. 

tect; I.. Jan. 'J, 17yO (at Troycs, France): d 
May 19, 1855. 

Gauthier was a pupil of Charles Percier (see 
Perci 'r), and in ISIO won the Grand Prixile 
Rami' in architecture. Returning to Paris, he 
was niiule architect of the hospitals in associa- 
tion with Huv^ (sec Huv^) in 1823, and alone 
in 1833. He is best known l)y his work. Lea 
plus beaux Mificea de la ville de Gfines et de 
SCI niviro7i.i, Paris, 1818-1831, 2 vok folio. 

LiUicc, Dirlionntiire ; llalfvy. Xotirp nirrolo- 
{/i'jiii- in Uevue (fimrole de rArrhiteclure, Vol. 
XIII., 1865. 


GAUZE. (See Wire Gauze.) 

GAVEL. Same as Gable. (Obs.) 

GAWNTRY. Same as Gantree. 

GAZINI. (See Gagini.) 

GEISON. In Greek and Greco-Roman 
architecture, the projection from the face of a 
wall of the coping or eaves ; especially the 
broad shelf in front of the tympanum of a i)edi- 
ment and formed by the top of the cornice of 
the entablature below. The triangular panel 
may be fiiLsh with the face of the architrave of 
this lower entablature, or may l)e set farther in, 
making the recess for the stjituary or the like 
so much deeper and increasing the width of the 
geison. In the Parthenon at Athens this pro- 
jection, or the width of the geison, is nearly 
three feet. The term is often extended so as 
to imply the mass of cut stone itself which 
projects and forms the cornice of the horizontal 
entablature. — R. S. 

OEMEL; GEMELLED. Coupled, espe- 
cially in medi;eval architecture, as gemelled 
arches, etc. 

GEMINATE; -ED. Coupled: especially 
in columnar architecture, said of coupled 
columns in a colonnade. (Compare Accouple- 

GENDROT. JEAN, architect. 

April 24, HO.-i, i)y letters patent of Rene? 
d'Anjou, titular king of Xaple-s, then residing 
in France, Gendrot was created master of , the 
works for Anjou and Maine. 

Lecoy de la .Marclie ; Lis comptes da roi Rene. 

GENERATOR, (.-^cc Ihiinnio.) 

GENOA, BARTOLOMMEO ; architect ; b. 
1518; <1. 15.VS. 

A son of Girolamo Gcnga (see Genga, G.). 
In 1538 he came to Florence and was asso- 
ciated with Vasari (.see Vasari) and Ammanati 
(see Ammanati). He wjw employed by the 
Duke of Urbino at Pcsaro and Urbino. 

Seubert, KiinxtU'r-hricon. 

GENGA, GIROLAMO; painter, sculptor, 
and architect ; b. 1476; d. 1551. 

The painter Girolamo Genga was employed 
iis architect by the Cardinal of Mantua and the 
Duke of Urbino. He built the Villa of Monte 
Imperiale near Pesaro, and the church of S. 
Maria delle Grazic at Sinigaglia. 

Miinlz, Eenaisxancf. 

tect; b. Feb. 4, 17GG; d. Oct. 3, IS 11. 

Nov. 10, 1798, he bi-gan the old mint 
in Berlin which Wiis destroyed in 1H86. In 
1809 he built the first aullience hall of the 
University of Berlin. 

Drnkmiih-r r«n J!, rlin. 

lish architecture, belonging to tlu- Decorated 
style characteristic of the thirteenth centur)', 
and having much geometrical tracery. The 


term is one of many attempts at a minute and 
classified uomenclature which it is probably im- 
possible to secure. 

theory of proportion in architecture which 
assumes the existence of a geometrical basis or 
system by which proportions may be deter- 
mined and upon which the parts of the build- 
ing may be put in the right place for producing 
the best i-tfcrt. (Sre Proportion.) 

the reigns of the four Georges in England, 
namely from 1714 to 1830. The term is more 
usually employed for the architecture of the 
earlier reigns. Thus, Buckingham Palace, built 
under George IV., would not so often be called a 
building of the Georgian style as a piece of 
modern or nineteenth century architecture. On 
the other hand, the churches of S. Maiy Wool- 
worth, S. Martin's in the Fields, and Somerset 
House are specimens of the earliest and latest 
buildings which are more usually designated by 
the term we are considering. 

Architecture of the same epoch in America 
has been called, generally, " Colonial," or •' Old 
Colonial " ; but some recent writers have applied 
the term Georgian to this also, as an expletive 
more accurate and more descriptive. (See 
Colonial ; England, Architecture of; United 
States, Architecture of.) — R. S. 


The second architect of the cathedral of 
Cologne. In 1254 he succeeded Heinrich Soy- 
nere (see Soynere, Heinrich). 

Fahnc, Bmuneisler des IColner Doms. 
GERLACH, PHILIPP ; architect ; b. 1 G79 ; 
d. 1748. 

A pupil of J. B. Broebes (see Broebes). His 
chief buildings are the church of the Friedrichs 
ho.spital in Berlin and the Garnisonkirche at 
Potsdam, near Berlin. 

Hoimiaiui. Dnikni'Vcr von Bfrlin. 
That of tiic states constituting tlic present Ger- 
man Empire. If in the various lands which 
we call by the collective name Germany we 
include the eastern provinces, and also the 
Austro-Hungarian dominions, we shall find 
that it is inhabited by people of such vari- 
ous races, languages, manners, and religions 
that we might reasonably expect great con- 
trasts in architecture ; but if we except the 
Italian provinces of Istria and South Tyrol, 
nir.-uK the ra<,.. Ofroursp, here 

desigllir^ f \llliill re 

a rule, whatever is 
originates within is 
able German ibnn. 

ihty of 


The early inhabitants appear to have com- 
menced their architectural operations by scoop- 
ing out caves in the rocks or hillsides ; laut it is 
very difficult in these works to distinguish be- 
tween what has been done by nature and what 
by man in an uncivilized condition. 

The great cave at Ettershausen, near Ratis- 
bon, is undoubtedly a natural object, but con- 
verted into a primitive stronghold ; high up, in 

lorrowed from without or 
welded into an unmistak- 

Germany. Part I. (thic Rhineland) : Capitals 
FROM Work of the ICarlv lliTH Century; 
Church at Nkoweilkr, Elsass. 

the great rock, it overlooks for many miles the 
valley of the Naab and its junction with the 

There is a primitive class of structure, of 
which the rock-cut church of S. Salvator at 
Swjibisch-Gmiind, in Wiirtemberg, is a very 
interesting example. Here we see a precipi- 
tous rock jtierccd with deejvset windows at 
irregular intervals, and if wo enter this curious 
structure, we find ourselves in a rock cut cham- 
ber, its rudely arched ceiling 8u|)porti'd upon 
piers, devoid of architectural arrangenuuit, and 

almost ilark but for the lamps glimmering be- 
fore the altars. Over this is another c-lmrch, 
or chapel, also cut out of the rock, which has 
been altered during the fifteenth century ; it is 
impossible to ascertain the date of the lower 
cliurch, but tradition ascribes it to a period 
previous to the Christian era. 

Tiiere was a somewhat similar rock-cut crypt 
beneath the ancient church at Dietkirclien on the 
Lahu, but it was filled up when the church was 
rcstoral a few years back. 

There are in Germany prehistoric remains of 
quite a different character, such as the Ilaupt- 
tempeUt Stettin, though they are not numerous. 

Fragments of Roman buildings e.xist all over 
Germany. To the student of German architec- 
ture, the works to be seen at Treves (Trier) are 
the most instructive. Of these the Porta Nigra 
is perhaps the most valuable, because it rettiins 
the whole of its original surftice work. Tlie 
order is Doric and the effect striking, though it 
is not a work of the best period ; its date is not 
clearly ascertainable, some authorities ascribing 
it to the time of Augustus, and others to a pe- 
riod as late as that of Constantine. A certain 
want of refinement in detail seems to militate 
against tlic tn>t th.niv, ami thruse of the Doric 
order aiuu. -, >ir..iiil,v ...mih-i the latter. 

The .atiir.lial lii-t nvrtr,! by S. Helena 
decidedly 1)w.-,.m'.s.-m.vs Kuniau i\iiiains, notably in 
the large Corinthian cajjitaLs embedded in the 
walla. The basilica, the niins of the baths, 
amphitheatre, and bridges are also Roman, as 
is also the elegant sculptured monument of 
Igel. Roman works are also to be seen at 
Cologne, OnblnTitz, Xanten, Cleves, Gmiind, 
Baml" 1 ■ ■ ' ^r^. The nunninients left 
by th. niiaiiy were suttiiicnt to 

estalili ' I y rciiiarkahle are the 

early m ..i n works. There is, how- 
ever, one element in German architecture which 
is far more difficult to trace to its original 
source, and that is the Eiistern influence, which 
is so conspicuous in the Romanesque buildings, 
and which chiefly exhibits itself in churches, 
planned and constnicted in culx's, polygons, and 
circles covered with domical vaults, somidomes, 
and lunette vaulting. The iilca would seem to 
suggest itself tliat tiiese features must liave found 
their way up the Danube from Constantinople, 
or through Russia ; but when we come to con- 
sider Hungary and Poland we fail to find any 
decided proof of this. Of course, this may l)e 
owing to the scanty remains of mediicval archi- 
tecture at present existing in the southeastern 
states of Germany. We do certainly find round 
iind polygonal churches in the Austrian domin- 
ions, but ius buildings of a similar chanwter are 
to be seen in Norway and Sweden, they cannot 
be regarded us proving mucii. It hius lieen ad- 
vanced by some writers tliat these Eastern 
characteristics were introduced from North Italy 


either by way of Istria or the Tyrol, but in both 
of these provinces we search in vain for the re- 
quired link between the Romanesque of Lom- 
bardy and that of Germany. The catlie<lral of 
Trent appears at first sight to sujjply that link, 
but unfortunately the date inscribed upon the 
builtling is 1240, so that, althougli it is entirely 
in the round-arched style, it is later than the 
perfected Gotiiic church of Our Lady at Treves 
(Trier), commenced in 1227. 

A suggestion has reached us that the Han- 
seatic League may have intro<luced Eastern fea- 
tures, but if tliis were the case we should 
probably find their influence more marked in 
secular than in ecclesiastical works ; but this is 
certainly not the case. It has also Iwen stated 
that one of the German orders of knights who 
joined the crusades may have intrwluced these 
Eiustcm pecuharities. Now, altliougii there 
may be something in this idea, it is hardly 
sufficient to account for the establishment of 
a style of architecture. Some writers are of 
opinion that the Irish monks who converted 
several districts of Gennany to Christianity 
may have introduced a kind of Eastern-looking 
architecture from Ireland ; it does seem proba- 
ble tliat tliey may have influence<l certain forms 
of ornamentation, and there is a feature in tlie 
cathedral of Freising, in Bavaria, whicli seems 
to point to this. S. Columbanus and his com- 
panions are buried in the crypt where tlieir great 
stone sarcophagi are still to be seen, and tnree 
or four of the columns which sujiport the vaidt 
above them are rudely carved with snakes and 
lizards coiling round the shafts, which look 
like early Irish work. The crj-pt itself was 
built in 1160, but a carefid examination of 
tliese columns convinced us that they formed 
portions of an earlier building. 

When Charles the Great erected the minster 
at Aachen, 796-804, he introduced architects 
and workmen who erected churclies in many 
parts of German}', though with the exception 
of Aachen and a small portion of the church at 
Lorsch, near Worms, there are no buildings now 
existing in Gormaiiy wliich can be classed as 
undoulit..! I'.v;i- r-iii works, tliough the apse 
of tlic I) I ' II (in-the-Rhine and the 

western i - ■ < - I aid at Worms may pos- 

sibly l.el.o,^ 1,. Ihil ,linol. 

During the ^liddlc Ages the Germans l>or- 
rowed ideas from the French, and it is possible 
tliey may have cojned these Eastern charac- 
teristics from buildings in Auvergne or the 
south of France, just as, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, they took their Gothic ideas from the 
north of France. Now, from wliat we have 
already stated, it is evident that several influ- 
ences were at work which became factors in the 
formation of the German style of architecture, 
though no single influence was stifliciently pow- 
erful to account for all its characteristics. 



I. ; The Rhine and the Rhinelands. If we 

enter Germany from Holland by the Rhine, one 
of the first objects which 
attracts attention is the 
beautiful wood-clad hill 
of Cleves, crowned by 
its ancient castle some 
two miles off, but con- 
spicuous far and wide 
over the great flat plain 
through which the 
Rhine flows. Here we 
are indeed in the land 
of legend and romance, 
for that great brick 
tower is the celebrated 
Swan Tower of Lohengi 
has Roman fragments and inscriptions built 
into its walls. The neighbourhood of Cleves 
abounds in objects of interest ; some six miles 
off" is the very ancient town of Xanton, said to 
be the site of the castle of the Nibeliiii<,'s. Ro- 
man objects are constantly found liert", as it was 
one of the most important settlements on the 

Rhine. The place is now reduced to a mere 
village justly celebrated for its extremely mag- 
nificent church, which both internally and ex- 

Germant, Part II. (: 

, and the old castle 


ternally is rich i 


? and sculpture, and a 

pert.rt stni-clu.uM- ol mrdi.rval works of art, 
staiiird u'lit-;, iiiituiv,-, wnml cai'viiigs, and an- 
cient luriiiturr. The \v(>t tiniit and towers are 
Romane.s.juf, but the beautitul church attached 
to them was commenced in the year 1263 and 
completed about a century later. The choir 
fallows the plan of the church of Our Lady at 
Treves (which will be described later on), but the 
building itself belongs to the richly developed 

Tho cittreincly 

It iH toel), th<^ Italian InHii- 
1(1 arnuigeuivat of tbu ribs 

iWK the lilifhont rcnoh of 

school of We«tplialia. It consists of a lofty 

navo and four aisles, supported by double flying 



buttresses, very like those of Cologne cathedral. 
The stately choir tenuiuate.s in five apses. The 
cloister and chapter house are simpler, and built 
into their walls are Roman monuments and in- 
scriptions. Few churches in (jcrmany have 
so thoroughly escaped modeniization. The t'jwn 
retains its medi;eval walls and gates, which arc 
worthy of inspection, and a museum of Roman 
antiquities found on the spot. 

Some five miles from Xanten is another inter- 
esting old towni, Calcar. The church is a plain 
brick building, partaking more of the Dutch 
than the Westphalian style ; it is, however, as 
rich in beautifid furniture as Xanten. This 
remarkable characteristic is accounted for by the 
fact that a noble school of painters and wood 
carvers existed at Calcar in the fifteenth and 
si.vteenth centuries. There is a pretty old to\Mi 
hall which p^cser^'es some memorials of this 
school of which so little is known. 

The next building which claims our attention 
is the minster of S. Quirinus at Neuss, a noble 
example of the latest Romanesque style, consist- 
ing of a nave and four aisles with western tran- 
sejtts and a grand western tower. Tiie choir 
consists of three semicircular apses radiating 
from a lantern. Round and pointed arches 
u.sed in juxtaposition. The 
church is one of those very 
striking ones which makes 
one regret that the Germans 
abandoTiPfl this style for 


chiefly arises from the curious manner in which 
the church is planned. The nave consists of a 
lolly polygon of unetpial sides arranged so as to 
be longer from e;ist to west than from north to 
south. The vaulting is very much dometl up 
toward the centre, and there is a long aisleless 
choir built over a very ancient crjjit, with gen- 
uine Roman mosaic pavements. The beautiful 
nave of this church was completed as late as 
the year 121*7. The noble church of S. Kuui- 


, Ihi.- 

I near 
the ground, no doubt 
it records the com- 
mencement of the 

We will now pass 
on to what may be 
regarded as the 
hejuhiuarters of Ger- 
man medi;eval archi- 
tecture, the city of 

The church of S. 
Maria-im-Capitol is 
an example of verj' early Romanesque, conse- 
crated in the year 1049 and stnicturally little 
altered since ; it has apsiilal choir and transepts 
all j)lanneil in a similar way with aisles going 
round. S. Mary's is a very severe plain build- 
ing, with square piers, unmoulded arches, and 
simple cross vaulting, but it has a decided 
Eastern character about it, which is al.so to be 
noted in the slightly later churches of the Apos- 
tles and S. Martin ; but that which exhibits 
this characteristic in the most marked degree is 
the church of S. Gereou. Here no doubt it 

bert, an example of the latest Romanesque, was 
erected hetweeii t lie years 1230-1218, the lat- 
ter t • - • • ■■ !' Ttant epoch in the history 
of '. lire, for in that year was 

c.i: i; oatlicdral of Cologne. 

( ^ .1 is s»ip])().scd to have Wen 

designed by Ucrhanl (Von Rile).* It apjiears 
most remarkable that the completion of S. 
Kunibert's ami the commencement of the cathe- 
dral should have taken place in the same year, 

' There is scarcely sufficient evidence to estab- 
lish the surname. 


as one might have thought that at loast a cen- 
tury had elapsed between the two events ; but 
it is now an acknowledged fact that the cathe- 
dral is French as to its general arrangement, 
and the earliest portion of it a direct copy from 
the cathedral of Amiens. In fact the chevet 
and radiating chapels are almost identical in the 
two buildings, and as Amiens was commenced 
in 1220 and Cologne in 1248, to Robert de 
Lnzarches must be given the credit for the idea. 
Amiens was far advanced in 1269, because that 
date occurs in the stained glass of the clearstory 
windows, and (according to VioUet-le-Duc) the 
exterior was ([uite completed in 1 288 ; at Co- 
logne, on the other hand, the choir alone was 
not finished until 1322. 

Cologne cathedral had such an important 
influence on German architecture that we must 
attempt to realize exactly how far it was a copy 
of Amiens, and in what particulars the German 
architects departed from their 
French original. Kugler and 
other wTiters teU us that Ger- 
hard erected the whole of the 
lower portions of the apse, but 


after a very careful study of the building we 

cannot help arriving at a diff"erent conclusion. 

The following are our reasons for differing from 

such eminent authorities. 

At Amiens the piers, 
which support the 
great apse, are of a 
very early form and 
look archaic for their 
date (1220) as they 
follow a twelfth cen- 
tury, rather than a 
thirteenth century, 
treatment. Whereas, 
on the otiier hand, the 
rhevet and its .-haiu'ls 

tlie dicvel and chap- 
els. Yet, when we 
come to examine the 
main apse itself, we 
tihall find marked de 


most important is in the great jjiers, which at 
Cologne are far more comi)lex in plan, with 
capitals and bases set out upon an octagonal 
outline ; whereas at Amiens the square is strictly 
maintained and the foliage of the capital is stiff- 
leaved, at Cologne it is quite naturalistic ; 
whereas at Amiens the piers and arches round 
the apse look like twelfth century work, at 
Cologne they possess every clmractoristic of the 
fourteenth cciitur>. ^\'ll^ll \\c ronie to the 
triforium all attimpt tn ImIIiiw the Amiens de- 
sign is completely aKuiidniied. It Wduld appear, 
in fact, that the apsidal chapels at Cologne were 
copied from Amiens and were probably built 
roimd the apse of the old Romanesque cathedral, 
and that at a later period, some time liefme 
1322, the Romanesque apse ami ehoir wrvc 
taken down and rebuilt as we imw see tliem. 
This work was probably couimcueed by the 
architect called Meister Arnold, who died in 
the year 1301, and was completed by his son, 
Meister Johann. The choir was consecrated 
1332. There can be no doubt, we think, that 
these later architects, while retaining the ground 
plan of Gerhard, abandoned the Amiens design 
and carried out the work with a more original 
and national spirit. 

About fourteen miles from Cologne, in a deep 
glen surrounded by most lovely scenery, is the 
sequestrated Cistercian abbey of Altenberg. This 
noble church should be carefully examined and 
compared with both Amiens and Cologne, in 
order that we may thoroughly understand the 
architectural development of the latter church. 
Although Altenberg was not commenced until 
1235, i.e. seven years later than the groat ca- 
thedral, yet it may be regarded as tin; earlier 
church of the two, as it was carried on stead- 
ily and without interruption. The building is 
about 400 feet long, much plainer than Co- 
logne, mutilated and whitewashed all over, with 
a painful look of desolation about it, yet in some 
respects it is a nobler design than Cologne. Tlu^ 
details of Altenberg are inspired by the local 
Westphalian school, hence we find cylindiieal 
columns used in the place of piers; notwith- 
standing this, however, the choir and ajise of 
Cologne were certainly influenced by those of 
Altenberg and were not improbably works of the 
same architects. Our space will not permit us 
to enter into a detailed account of this most 
beautiful church, but we must call attention to 
its glas-s, which, though it is simple grisaille and 
of one uniform treatment and colour scheme 
throughout, is so magnificent in effect iw to 
have itnj)resscd us more than any ghuss we 

Altenberg is a difficult place to get at, as 
th(Tc is no direct coinnuuii(;atioii ex(«i)t l)y tak- 
ing a carriage from Cologne, but no one should 
omit seeing it. 

The new west front of Cologne cathedral is 


somewhat disappointing, but probably the mod- 
ern architect found himself bound to adhere to 
the old design, and no doubt he was right in 
doing so, for although it is certain that the 
mediaeval architects would have modified it as 
it was being carried out, yet the new flfeche, over 
the crossing, is a wainiiii,' to nineteenth century 
architects not to metlille with ancient designs. 
According to ancient plans the church was to 
have had an open stone lantern in the centre, 
instead of the ugly cast-iron pinnacle which so 
greatly disfigures it. 

"Who, by the way, made the design for the 
west front, which now hangs up in the cathe- 



J: life 

AT KliKIliUKli, I5AI)EN; Uookway of THK Sai'- 

dral 1 It was discovered in three parts, and it 
is said that Zwirner found one portion beneath 
a beehive in a village. The name of the 
draftsman i.s, however, unknown. Perhaps it 
may have been Johann Von Kiiln, whom the 
S])aniards call Juan di Colonia, and who 
designed the western spires of Hurgos cathedral 
for Bishop Alfonso dc Cartagena between 
1435-1 loG.' There is certainly much resem- 
blance between the liurgos ami Cologne si)irc8. 
Cologne catiiedral is rich in ancient glass ; 
the fifteen clearstory windows of the choir are 
> Street's Spain, p. 20. 

superb fourteenth century examples, and that 
over the shrine of the three kings in the extreme 
eastern chaj>el of the apse is i)eculiarly inter- 
esting, because it is Romanesque in design .and 
belonged to the earlier cathedral. The five 
windows in the north aisle of the nave were 
executed between the years 1507-1509. Their 
design has been attributed to Aldegraver. The 
modem windows in the south aisle, though good 
in drawing, are totally unsuite<l to stained ghiss. 
There is much interesting furniture in the ca- 
thedral, especially the choir stalls, and the so- 
calletl Agilolphus Altar, a sumptuous combination 
of woodwork and painting executed in the year 
1521. The celebrated Dotubild, tlic most 
magnificent German picture of the fifteenth 
centurj', is by a painter named Stephen Lochner. 
The new work at Cologne is on the whole satis- 
factory, for when admiring the interior of this 
grand church one does not realize the fact that 
half of it is modern. 

There are several other churclies in Cologne 
which must be noticed. S. Scveriii is a large 
and excellent example of a fourteenth century 
Rhenish type ; S. Andreas, a ciiarming Roman- 
esque building with fourteenth century choir 
and a singularly beautiful narthex. The great 
Jesuit church is a remarkable work, for tliough 
dating 1G21-1629, it is Gothic, and may !« 
regarded as the latest successful attempt at the 
erection in Germany of a great church in that 
style. The vaulting is very ably constructed. 
The soffits are very concave and rest ujjon a net- 
work of ribs so well poised, that although the 
span is dose upon 40 feet, the dcarstorj' has 
no buttresses. Tiie tower, though Romanesque 
in style, is of the same date and is a curious 
example of a common attempt at the revival 
of the Romanesque style in the seventeenth 

The Eathhaiis at Cologne has a striking 
Gothic tower and a double portico which is one 
of the earliest examples of the chtssical revival 
in Germany, dating 1569-1571. The Giir- 
zeuich is a good example of an old Gothic 
municipal building. 

The ancient domestic architecture of Cologne, 
which a few years back wa-s so singularly inter- 
esting, has now almost entirely disappe^ired to- 
gether with tiic ancient city walls. Fortunately, 
however, some of the gates have been preserved 
with the Clurenthurm, which may possibly be 
Roman work. 

Tlie Museum, a poor Gothic building, is said 
to be in the English style, though why we are 
at a loss to understand. 

Between Cologne an<l Bonn is Bruhl, where 
there is a very griicefnl chateau erected by the 
Archbishop-Elector Clement Augustus lietween 
1725 and 1740. It is a charming example of the 

' Examples are to be seen at the abbey churches 
of S. .Maltliias. Trfevj's, and S. Knimeran, Ratisbon. 


rococo style sumptuously decorated by Anducci 
and Caniioli. The sUiircase is magnificent and 
probably the hest example of late Renaissance 
work in north Germany. 

The Rhine south of Cologne is extremely rich 
in ecclesiastical architecture, and as uo other 
portion of Germany presents so many interesting 
examples, and such magnificent ones, we shall 
chiefly confine our obser\-ations upon this ueigli- 
bourhootl to the churches. Moreover, the 
domestic work, though highly picturesque, is 
less remarkable than that of several other 

The minster church of Bonn is a beautiful 
Romanesque stmcture of the Cologne school ; 
choir dated 1175, nave, 1270, though it looks 
quite half a ccnturj' earlier, as the arches are 
nearly all round ; it has three lofty sjjires, one 
in tlie centre and two flanking the apse. 

At Schwartz-Rheindorf is a singular Roman- 
esque church in two stories, of very elaborate 
architecture ; and at Heisterbach the exquisite 
ruined apse of a Cistercian abbey 1210-1333. 

The churches of Sinzig, Salzig, Andeniach, 
and Laach are examples of perfected Rhenish 

Vallendar is an early basilica with a flat 

The numerous castles which a<ld so much to 
the picturesqueness of the neighbourliood are 
not of great architectural value, for although 
striking in outline, they have been rediu-ed to 
mere ma.sses of masonrj'. Rheinfelds and 
Ileidienberg are exceptions. De Lassaulx, 
quoting an olil chronicle, says that the latter is 
in the "Asiatic style." 

At Coblentz is an ancient bridge over the 
Moselle, close to the jimction with the Rhine, 
which is said to be partly of Roman work, and 
three remarkable churches; that of S. Castor 
is very early Romanesque and was built evi- 
dently for a flat ceiling. Tlie present handsome 
vaulting dates from the year 1498; it has four 
towers and possesses interesting screens and 
monuments. S. Flarian, also Romanesque, but of 
a later type, contains curious staineil glass. The 
Liebfrauen Kirche is a lofty and very graceful 
stmcture; nave, 1529, choir, 1404-14:H. It 
contains an interesting monument to its archi- 
tect with the inscription Anno IJ^iiO obiit 
Joannes de Sf/r;/ lopicida inceptor Inijus 
chori. The word "lapicida" is often used to 
signify an architect, though cejnentarius or 
iiiiijisti /■ <'/}iriiii, ;[]■(■ iiimc coiiiinon in ancient 
cIm, uiiiriit>. Tlii> . Inn, li li.i- a feature not un- 
(■■iiiiiiioii HI (lriiii.ui\. Tlir tiirnrimn isso large 
aiul iiu]H,itaiit that 11 i> us,,! as a galierj- called 
in Germany Miimnrrhor (men's clioir). 

At Boppard the fine large Koniancsqiic church 
has singidar vaidting : the ribs do not spring \i]) 
from the capitals, but descend from a centre ring, 
like those of an umbrella. 

Oberwesel possesses a beautiful church com- 
pleted in 1321, with an exquisite rood screen 
and high altar. Another fine fourteenth century 
church with a still grander high altar is to he 
seen at Lorsch, and S. Werner's chaprl at 


shadowed which were developed in later churches. 
Strange to say, no cathedral in the country has 
suffered so frequently from fire. Six times it 
has been wholly or partially destroyed. The 
eastern chnir dates between 10:'7-1 l.'^T ; the 

U1-, 1397-1412. 
\ great fire de- 
-tioyed all the 
icMifs in 1756, and 
CMC in 1793 con- 
sumed "every- 
thing tliat A\as 
. nnil.u.tible." 
'11h i.i^t tile took 
I'Liic uuiy in the 
jiu'.^ent centuiy. 
For some time the 
church was used 
a^ a powder mag- 
.i/iiie, and was 
■■ilterward con- 


IIkssk; South Flank, c. ] 

Bacharach, 1293 (now in niiuH), \h one of the 
moHt graceful works produced in (lormaiiy in the 
Middle Ages. It was probably dcHigned by one 
of the architects of Cologne cathedral. 

The (-athedral of Mayencc is to (Jerman Ro- 
manesque what (!r)lognc catheilral is to (fotliic, 
and in it wc shall fimi most uf tiie ideas furc- 

id it re- 
it.^ orig- 
Aitcr all 

• MClf-situdcS 

it mi<;ht ^\cil be 
.'supposed tliat 
there was little 
Morth seeing in 
tins great church, 
Imt, on the con- 
tiary, it is still one 
I if the most inter- 
(■■~ting buildings in 

iMaycnce is one 
iif tliose double 
( hurchcs which are 
|M'i-uliar to Ger- 

_ iii.iny, that is to 

, ,, ,, say, it is like two 

.KS ClILKCH AT OlTENUKlM, 1, , , ... 

A.D. catliedrals with 

their west fronts 
removed, and the two eastern portions joined 
together. Thus it has apses at either end, two 
choirs, two \niiT of transepts, two crossings 
crowned by lantern towers, and four other 
towers flanking tiie angles. This j)lan of church 
probably originated in the ecclesiastical states, 
as we usually find it in the cathedrals and abbey 

churches of the tlioct-ses ot the prince-bishops. 
It is :ihnost coiitinetl to central Germany, rarely 
met with in the north, and we know of no 
examples in Austria or Hungary. 

A little way beyond Mayence is Oppenheim, 
where there is one of these double churches, 
erected for the most part in the Gothic 
period; choir, 1362; nave, fourteenth 
century. A few miles further on is 
Worms, with a beautiful Romanesque 
cathedral, all carried out in the Kime style, 
with six t4)wers and two choirs; 1181. 
Worms is a most interesting ancient 
city. The church of S. Paul is one of 
the oldest buildings in Germany, 
jjortions of which are 
the ninth centuiy. The Gothic 
church of Our Ljuly can only 
be examined inteniallj', as 
the wiiole of its e.xterior is 
enclosed by the vineyard 
which produces the cele- 
brated Liebfraumilch. 
The ruins of the 
bishop's palace 
in which was held j 
the celebrated 
Diet of Worms 
were pulled down 
a few yeare since 
to make room 
for an infants' 
school. A most 
interesting build- 
ing is the twelfth 
century synar 
gogue, the oldest 
now existing in 

Mannheim is 
by no means an 
interesting place, 
as none of its 
buildings date 
back more than 
a century. Tiie 
Rathhaus, how- 
ever, is dignified, \ 
and the plan- 
ning of the town 
may offer a lii ' 
to our survey' 
how tfj arraiiL 
perfectly straight 

streets, and yi't <.ii'.v)an\. im i i iimk \:m\ 
avoid those acute 

angles which are sucli awkwaid, iiicdiivonicnt, 
and unsightly fcitures in oiu- motleni towns. 

A HJiort way from the Rhine is Heidellwrg, on 
the banks of the Necker, with its celebrated 
castle in a magnificent situation. The Otto 
Heinrich's buildings are among the earliest 

Renaissance works in Germany, 1556-1559. It 
may, however, be doubtetl whether they are quite 
worthy of the enthusiasm bestowed upon them, 
though there is a picturesque charm about the 
whole place, which may well account for the un- 
bounded admiration which it so frequently elicits. 


1 10 " ®i 

li© - o' 













•■-;;^y^ LM 



To return to the Rhine, on its western bank 
we shall find the ancient city of Si>eier or Spires. 
The catliedral, 10:30-1061 (but comjjleted in 
the twelfth century), is a miv.>*teri)iecc of the 
early li<imanc.squc style, ]ilain but excec<UngIy 
dignified and erected on a vast scale, 474 feet 


long and 90 feet to the vaulting. It is the 
largest pure Romanesque church in Europe, and, 
according to De Lassaubc, the second largest 
church in Germany. Eight emperors are buried 
in the crypt behind the high altar. Spires at 
present belongs to Bavaria. 

Strasburg is a grand old city, with picturesque 
ancient streets and lofty churches. The superb 
cathedral is the most elaborate building erected 
in Germany during the Middle Ages ; and it is 
most instructive to compare it with that of 
Spires, as they are fairly close together, and 
nearly the same size. The cathedral of Spires 
overawes one with its stern dignity, severe sim- 
plicity, and vast soUdity. Strasburg enchants 
by the lightness of its construction, elegance «i' 
detail, and marvellous workmanship. That st ylf 
of ornamentation which consists in concealing the 
walls nf a building behind openwork screens of 
traitiy is ]jri]i;i|is carried to an excess. This is 
certainly tlir > a-e with the tower, which assumes 
the apjiearanre nf a building enveloped in scaf- 
folding, perhaps intentionally so ; but undoubt- 
edly the celebrated spire is the least satisfactory 
portion of the wliole building. The west front, 


Synagogue is much the more lovely statue of 
the two. 

The nave looks very French in design, as the 
clearstory windows occupy tlie whnlc wall s]ia(e, 
and the triforium is glazcil ; all are lilleil uiili 
the richest old gla.ss. The wails aiv uf a .jeep 
red stone, almost purple, and they liave e.seajjtcl 
painting or whitewash. The effect is mag- 

The transepts and choir are much lower than 
tlie nave, and date from the thirteenth century. 
They are, however, of a pure and beautiful style ; 
and one of the columns in the south transept, 
adorned with niches and called the Angels' Col- 
umn, is a most elegant example of thirteenth 
century carving and sculjjture. The magnificent 
font, jnilpit, oriraii case, anil clock are among the 
nin-t cl.iljMiatr i'\aiii|iles . .f late ( ierinaii Gothic. 
Siiasl.iii- i~ lull of intcivsini- rlmrches. The 
IHiiiripal i'nitestant eliinvli ol S. Thomas, which 
is e,,nteniporary with the tiatiscptH of the cathe- 
dral, is a singularly elegant example of thirteenth 
century Gothic. 

At Alt Breisach is a noble church with a rich 
rofid screen and high altar, the latter inscribed 
"H. L. 1520." 

Some twelve miles from the Khinc is the 

cathedral of Frciburg-iHi-Breisgau, a niHgnificent 

church, with the most thoroughly Ixyuitiful Hjiire 

in all Germany. Tlie nave and western porch 



are inscribed with the date 1270. The spire, 
which is of open tracery work, grows out of a 
lofty octagonal lantern, superimposed upon a 
square tower. The whole is broached together 
with pinnacled buttresses ; and the composition 
is a perfect combination of all that is graceful 
and elegant, united with strength and stability. 
It is built of a rich rose-coloured stone. Two 
other small spires flank the choir. The mterior 
is rich in stained glass and has some remarkal)ly 
fine furniture, as well as a very graceful fountain, 
a strange object in a church, but a verj' j)lea.sing 
one. Tlie trade hall, opposite the cathedral, is 
an inteie-tiiiu- example of seciUar Gothic work. 
The I'ldt^'stant eliureh, a large Romanesque 
liuildiiiu'. is curious from the fact that it was 
reniii\ed tii'iu another place and rebuilt here a 
i\■^v years back. 

n. ; 'Westphalia. Hanover, Saxony. We 
must niiw lea\'i' the KliMie tn notice certain 
buildings which, though situated in the Rhine 
provinces, are at some distance from the great 
river itself. We will commence with West- 
phalia. The city of Miinster, the capital of 
the former powerfid prince-bishopric, like all 
oTJ;, r ( . rlisiastical cities in Germany, is full of 
iiitei(-t, both as to its churchas and secular 
l.uildiims. The great street, called }'ri>n-ij,nl 
Marl./, is .me of the most <li-iiitir,l in the.'oun- 
trv. The loftv u-al.lrd houses, f,,rthe most part 
built of stone', have richly ,-arv,'d -al.les and 
are supported upon Gothic arcades, beneath 
which is the pavement {as in many of the 
Italian cities). The stately Rathhaus is treated 
in tlie same manner, its lofty gable adorned 
with open tracery and its front ornamented 
with elaborate niches filled with statues. The 
catiicdral stands in a kind of close, and is for 
the most part thirteenth century work, consist- 
ing of a nave nearly 50 feet in span arranged 
in cubiform bays ; it has double transepts and, 
as originally erected, iuid two choirs, but the 
western one has disappeared to make way for a 
late Gothic facade ; the lower portions of tlie 
western towers date from 1174--r_'03, the rest 
of the building 1220-12G0. The south porch 
is a magnificent example of the transition from 
Romanesque to early Gothic, adorned with a 
profusion of carving and excellent sculpture. 
The gable of the great south transept, Sah'Or 
tor's Giebel, 1508-1552, is a rich example of 
the latest German Gothic. 

The churches of Miinster are remarkable and 
with few e.\ce])tions are of that form called by 
the German Halloihini. That is to say, the 
nave and aisles are of the .s.une heigiit without 
clearstory or transejits. The Liihfrinifii Kinhf 
is an elegant example of l.'MO -l.'UC), with an 
exquisite tower, which together with its open 
lantern is 180 feet in height, and was coniiiletcd 
in the year i;J7l. 

-J 14 


The Lamberti Kirche, in the Principal 
Markt, is a large and very elaborate Ilulleubuu, 
commenced in the year 1374 ; ita lofty doorways 
and open staircase in the chancel are excellent 
examples of Gothic detail 

The Ludijeri Kirche is cruciform, with an 
octa<,'onal central tower crowned by a most 
graceful open lantern. 

Paderbom, tlie capital of another prince- 
bishopric, h;w a remarkable cathedral with a 
huge Romanesque western tower, dated 1058- 

10G8. The church consists of a nave, aisles, 
and transeptH, the south one wiuarc-ended, 
and the north apsidal. The choir, which is 
raised upon a high crypt, is square-cmU'd. Tlic 
nave is internally very striking. It is tlic 


earliest example of a Halle uhau nave in any 
German cathedral. The detail is thirteenth 
century, more like French than German work. 
Almost touching the cathedral is the singidar 
little cluirch of S. Bartholomew, which dates 
from the close of the tenth centurj-, and is a 
perfect Ilalh'uhan on a diminutive scale. The 
vaults are domical, saucer-shajied, but oval in 
plan over the aisles. They are suppxrtcil by 
slender columns of an imitation Corinthian 
order, with curious capitals and entablature. 

In view of 
these facts and 
much other e^^- 
dence for which 
we have not suf- 
ficient space 
here, we are con- 
vinced that the 
church ori^ri- 
natetl in "\Ve.-t- 
p h a 1 i a and 
B erborn itself, 
and we cannot 
ajrree with Mr. 
Fergii.<son in re- 
lenlxui church 
a.s tyjiical of 
soutiicru Ger- 
many, iis it is 
common all over 
the north, ex- 
cept on the 
banks of the 
Rhine, where are verj' few examples. 

The cathedral of Miinden is perhnjis the 
most thoroughly sati.sfactory example of a 
IlnUcnbau church, of large dimensions and 
dating from the commencement of the four- 
teenth century. It is a most noble building, 
]>oth as to i)roportion and detail. All these 
Westi)lialian examples are better in eftect than 
the later ones, especially those in southeni 
(Jerniany, because tlie aisles are kept iij) to the 
exact level of the nave vaulting. AVhereas 
in tiie later and soutiiem exami)les the vault- 
ings of the ai.slcs are somewhat lower, which 
leaves an ugly dark si>ace above the main 
arches, often imparting a gloomy asjwct to 
the whole interior of the building. 

There is a very interesting and little known 

town in Westphalia calletl ScK-st. It jios- 

sesses a Ronninesque cathedral not unlike tiie 

earlier portions of P.-ulerlKirn, witli its huge 

tower built over a singidar porch now ti.scd ns an 

armoury. The churcli contains very early exani- 

j)lc8 of wall jiainting and some twelfth century 

stained glass. All tlie ten or twelve churches 

in iSoest are interesting examples of Westpha- 



lian architecture, from the earliest Romanesque 
down to the latest Gothic. The Wiesenkircke 
has an interior so rich in altars, carvings, 
stained glass, and ancient furniture that it is 
scarcely to be equalled in all Germany. The 
People's Altar, which, in defiance to all ecclesi- 
astical precedent, the Lutheran j)ossessors of 
the building have barbarously converted into a 
pulpit, stands beneath an exquisite baldacchino 
of stone some thirty feet high, and is flanked 
on either side by tall stone candelabra. Soest 
was formerly a Free T'ity of the Empire, and 
one of the scats nf the Hiuiscatic League, but 
its trade and iirospcrity have l.ini,'- deserted it, 
and left it the very dcui'lest of all dead cities. 


a twelfth century building, cruciform in plan, 
with two original towers like a little minster. 
In this busy and pnisi.cnius pniviuce a good 
deal of new building has litm u^ing on, mostly 
very uninteresting and cunniiniiplace. There is, 
however, one very notable exception, and that 
is the work of Herr Guldenpfennig of Pader- 
bom. This gentleman's work deserves notice ; 
it is conceived in a purely local spirit, his idea 
being to revive the beautiful old Westphalian 
architecture, adapting the four- 
teenth century style for churches 
an'd the sixteenth century style for 
secular buildings : his churches at 
Hoerde, Paderborn, and elsewhere 



r .1 





One great drawback in studying German 
archit(!cture is the absence of ancient villages 
and their churches. This is not to V>c wondered 
at, b(;iauHo during the Thirty Years' War the 
commaiidcrH on eitlicr side made a clean sweep 
of all villages for strategical purposes, or nitii- 
les-sly handed them over to their ill-paid and 
undisciplined followers to be pillaged ; and then 

Westphalia, however, possesses a few village 

churches, though in every case the houses are 

tnodern. One of these is Wissel, near Calcur, 


are more satisfactory than most modern Ger- 
man ones. A college and schools which he has 
erected at Paderborn seem remarkably well 
suited to an old city. His domestic work is 
quite what one rccpiirea in additions made to 
those old towns, but what strikes one as being 
most charming are tiir iniinrinus lai inii.uix's 

and buildings in the ii(i.;lil'"inii I, wlm-li, 

witliout being in the lia>t cMravagaMl nr ccicn- 
tric, ]>ossess much of tiiat i)ictur<'.s(jucnc.s.s whicii 
delights us in such structures of the ])iust. 
Fortunately the cathedral of Paderborn has 


been placed in his hands, and has undergone a 
far more judicious and scrupulous repair than 
any old church in Germany. 

The Moselle, which falls into the Rhine at 
Coblentz, bisects a pro\ince the greater por- 
tion of which, in former times, belonged to 
archbishop-electors of Treves (Trier). 

We have previously described the valuable 
Roman remains at Treves, and its mediieval 
architecture is equally striking; its cathedral, 
a vast double-choir church witii four towers, 
with an interior of twelfth and tliirteeuth een- 
tiu^' architecture, is particularly striking, and 
presents that large and undivided space which 
would be so u.seful for congregational purposes 
in modem places of worshij). Close to the 
cathedral, with a cloister common to both, is 
the church of Our Lady, certainly the earliest 
example of thoroughly develoj)ed Gothic in Ger- 
many. Althougli tlie first impression is that 
of great intricacy, closer obsen'ation will dis- 
cover that the j)lan is really simple, consisting 
of a Greek cross with a square enclosing the 
intersection in such a way as to form four 
smaller squares, each of which hits two apses. 
To a certain e.xtent, the idea is borrowed from 
the French church at Braine, near Soissons ; 
and as that building was completed in 1216, 
and Trfeves commenced in 1224, the Treves 
architect probably borrowed a hint, though his 
idea of inverting the plan to form the western 
portion of the building and liis treatment of 
tlie superstructure were thoroughly original, 
and he succeeded in creating one of the most 
beautiful works in Europe. The interior is ex- 
quisitely graceful; unfortunately, the succeed- 
ing architect returned to the Romaiie.'^quc style, 
and crowned the graceful buiMiiifr with a heavy 
square tower. Tlie cloisters sliow a eiuinus at- 
tempt to convert the Gothic into a round arched 
style, for although the windows have fully de- 
veloped tracery, yet every light is round-heatled. 

The domestic architecture of Trfeves is highly 
interesting, many of the houses dating from the 
fourteenth century. The treatment of their 
gables is peculiar and original, the chinmey 
breiists being brouglit to the front, bisecting the 
gable, and suj)ported u])on an elaborate arched 
bracket. In one or two instances tiie front of 
the house is adorned by a conventional imita- 
tion of a vine in low relief e.xecutetl in plaster, 
a style of decoration of which we know of no 
other examples. 

In the northern portion of this Rhine prov- 
ince is Aix-la-Chapelle, with its catiie<Jra], the 
most ancient in Germany, undoubtedly Byzan- 
tine work. The octagonal work is crowned by 
a gabled ridge-and-furrow dome, and internally 
vestiges of mosaic decoration may 1>e traced. 
There is an e^irly puljiit of silver and other curi- 
ous works of art, and very ancient metal screens 
that arc said to date from the time of Constan- 


tine. The town hall is built up out of the re- 
mains of Constantine's palace. 

The lovely river Lahn falls into the Rhine at 
Lahnstein, and is rich in castles ; the most in- 
teresting ones are Hohenstem, Nassau, Stein, 
and Laurenberg, in niins ; Dietz and Runkel 
still entire and very picturesque. Weilburg is 
an immense stnicture, superbly situated, partly 
ancient, the more modem portions forming one 
of those palaces common in this part of Ger- 
many, and of which Gotlia, Weimar, Ansliach, 
the vast unfinished palace at C'jissel, and Pom- 
mersfelden, are among the best examples. 
These late German Neoclassic buihlings are 
not very impressive, and are somewhat tame 
imitations of the French chateaux of Louis 
XIV.'s and Louis XV.'s times. Intemally 
they are decorated in that poor style of rococo 
which prevailed in uortiiem and central Ger- 
many, which, while possessing all the unconstruc- 
tive appearance of the French ornamentation, is 
wanting in its refine<l luxuiy. The Germans 
themselves, in ridicule of its afi"ectation and ar- 
tificiality, describe it as the Pigtail and Peri- 
wig style ; then, of course, in Germany, it is not 
combined with the graceftd painting of Watteau 
and Le Bmn or Grcuze, which, of course, would 
redeem anything from looking commonplace. 
Tlie German ilecorative painters of this period 
went to work with a heavy hand, and their 
" heavens " were not ethereal, but simply masses 
of paint. One turns with jileasure from the con- 
sideration of such works to that magnificent group 
which crowns the great rock almost surrounded 
by the waters of the Lahn at Limburg. Noth- 
ing could be more striking than the picture 
]ireseiited by Limburg cathedral and its environ- 
iiicnt. StaiKliiig on a great ])latform, inacccs- 
sitile fniiii tlie riverside, and crowned with seven 
spires, it is one of the most graceful thirteenth 
century churches in all Germany. The building 
is no less beautiftd intemally than externally. 
Very lofty, cmciform in plan, it has a large ojien 
triforium forming an upj^er aisle all round the 
building, in which the male portion of the con- 
gregation sit, the floor of the ciiurch being given 
over to the women. A picturesque old castle 
which iH'longed to the Knights of S. George 
almost touches tiie apse of the cathedral, while 
at the foot of the rock, cxccjit where it rises 
sheer out of the water, cluster the quaint gables 
and churches of the U)\vn. 

Wetzlar also jtossesses a magnificent church 
which has the i)eculiarity of two west fronts. 
That which actually ends the building is of 
early Romanesque work, with two curious tow- 
ers. Some TiO feet in front of this rises a rich 
unfinished fourteenth centurj- fa<;ade, connected 
with the existing church by an unfinishtnl wall 
on one side and a very noble tower on the other, 
the sjjacie between the two west fronts forming 
an oi)en court. The nave is a Hallenbau. 

I. <li»tiiiK fr..iii KiiiKH, Uk- rijtlit, (li.oi-wii.v, uiid niiiiiy dilTcrfiii 

I into the tyiii- paHHiiKi'H of liililiual and lcK<'nilnry liiHtory an 

iiMi-kalily early arranged in the tivu tium under the great arcli. 
M f. 'Ihe Cm- 


S\hklilkl'lVll\Ml III 

7^ \/ \;V v \;; 

^:a ' / 

"i P ' EF EE CI ~U, ^— ^ li It 




^i^^'^^S?:??^^*'"^ -^^r:^ ^ ^^ 



There arc deep trausepte and a large ehoir \inth 
aisles and clearstorj'. luternally there is a tine 
rood screen. 

Still following the Lahn, we come to Marburg 
with its justly celel)ratcd church ; it is a huge 
Uallenhau of early Gothic, erectetl between the 
years 1235-1*283, greiitly resembling the Lieb- 
frauen KireJie at Treves. 
The windows are in two 
tiers, a somewhat imcom- 
luon treatment in a Ilal- 
lenbau, and the tnuerj' is 
all imcusped. It is full of 
magnificent fiiniiture, al- 
tars, screens, and stained 
glass. There is a very im- 
portant ca-stle here, chieHy 
Komanesque, with a vaulted 
hall supported by slender 
columns, and a curious 
chapel. There is also a 
picturesque sixteenth cen- 


r II.: Rathhaus at Maodbburo, Saxony; c. IGfiO. 

tury liiUhhuis and some excellent e.\ami)les of 
half-tini1x?red domestic architecture in the town. 
The ardiitecturc of Hanover is of some im- 
portance, tiiough the caii)ital itself does not jios- 
HCHS any remarkable e.vami)le8 of mediieval work; 
its nKMlcrn buildings, however, are instnu-tive 
as exhibiting in a very distinct manner the rest- 
lessness of architectural thought in Germany 


during the present century. A very fine theatre 
erected some half a century back is in tlie severe 
Itahan Renaissance style, but most of the other 
modem buildings in the town are in the German 
Eclectic style, which we shall consider more iully 
when we describe Munich. A remarkable re- 
action, however, seems to have set in, if we may 
judge from tlie new Catholic cjithedral erected 
in memory of Von Windliorst, the last prime 
minister of Hanover. This building is a scrupu- 
lous revival of a fourteenth century church, and 
is one of the most successfiil and elaborately 
carrieil out attempts of the kind in Germany. 

Osnabnjck has a noble 
transition Romanes<iue ca- 
thctlral with three massive 
towers, rather English-look- 
ing, a square east end, and 
Latly Chapel not unlike 
Chester. The interior, 
though verj' severe, is ex- 
tremely striking and con- 
tai ns many objects of i nterest. 
Brunswick also possesses 
a fine Romanesque cathe- 
dral, completed alxiut the 
year 1227, full of objects 
of interest. The churches 
of S. Giles, S. Catherine, 
and S. Andrew are all valu- 
able examples of Gothic 
architecture of an early 
character, and well worthy 
of study. The secular build- 
ings are of more than ordi- 
uar)' value. The liathhaitu, 
in a very jiure Gothic style, 
is one of the most elaborate 
secular buildings in Ger- 
many. The Gvwaudhans, 
with its stately gable, is a 
satisfactory example of Re- 
naissance, and siiows tliat 
it is tpiite possible to ])ierce 
neurly the whole front of a 
building with windows witii- 
out in any way depriving it 
of dignity and solidity. 

Hildcsheim is, without 
doubt, one of the mast in- 
teresting citiea in Europe. 
Every kind of architecture 
which is to be found in the 
German Emiiireis licre illus- 
tratetl. Whether we regard tlie remarkable 
antiquity of its churches, tlicir invaluable curi- 
ositic."!, nr its cxtnonliiiary wealth of donu'stic 
arcliitcrtinf. it i^ iiiiii|ui'. Although its churchej* 
(111 not )iiis-i--^ tlic s|.liTiil(iur of those of Cologne, 
tlicy illustr.it.' :.n .Mili.r ci.ocii. The cathedral, 
S. Miduicl, and S. Gothard are all examples of 
the tenth and eleventh centuries, in which the 

Roman basilica type has been strictly adhered 
to, and the imitation of Roman work is obvious. 
The fiat ceiling, with its ancient decoration, still 
remains at S. Michael's. Though restored, this 
remarkable church, erected between the years 
993-1022, is fairly perfect, with the exception 
of its western apse, for it was a double-choir 
church. A singular feature is to be observed : 
the sculiitiire is expcnted in artificial stone, and 
is (if u xrry liiuh onlir .if merit; on the screens 
between the wi'.vt i-lhiii' and its aisles the figures 
are aliimst ( rreek in tlieir refinement. The 
celebrated Bishop Bernward, who introduced 
this style of work into Germany, has left many 
examples of his art both here and in the cathe- 
dral. His folluwers, Bisliiip Azelin, win, .lied in 
1054, an.l V.i.hny Hazil-, IU7'.i, liav,. also 

of early art. The euthe.lnil has uuiurtuuately 
been modernized internally, but its bronze doors, 
dated 1015, are covered with bas-reliefs which 
are the most valuable works of this period ex- 
isting iu Germany. The curious bronze col- 
umn, in imitation of that of Diocletian in 
Rome, ornamented with small subjects in relief, 
the great chandelier, 22 feet in diameter, in the 
nave, and numerous objects in the sacristy, 
illustrate Bernward's artistic ability, or that of 
the sculjitors whom he introduced from Italy. 
Althiiiiili the i-athedral is, in its present con- 
ditiun, mith.r a very dignified nor magnificent 
biiihlin.;-, it w.inld be difficvdt to discover one 
richer in works of art of every period. The 
font, a noble bronze casting of the thirteenth 
century, the fourteenth century choir stalls, and 
the sixteenth century rood screens are most in- 
teresting examples of their various periods. It 
is greatly to be regretted that a Hanoverian 
architect of the Eclectic school, some forty years 
back, rebuilt the west front, destroying the 
ancient forehall of this church.' 

The third early church, S. Gothard, which 
from an architectural point of view is the finest, 
dates from 1133. It is perhaps the most 
beautiful church of that date in (Germany, but 
has suffered extremely from a vecont restoration. 
The upper portions of the clmir, whirh w. re fine 
fourteenth century work, lia\.' lie.-n |iiill.:l down 
and rebuilt in imitation of ];.inianes.|ui' work. 
The stalls, which were most beautiful, with the 
exception of two or three, have been destroyed, 
and the whole ancient ritual arrangement of the 
buil.lin^' has 1i,vn .oniiihl.lv ii|i.. (. A small 

an.l U-lv llllle .-hui.!, .I.JhMh.l l- ,^ Ala,.:,.,!, 
th.Hl-h .,f V.a-V htllr ml. Ml II rlr, |H, ,. r. a 

collccti.m of ni..st. inLelc.lin- ehmeli |.I.U.e of 
very early date, Bcarcely wurpa«sed anywiiere in 

The domestic work of Hildesheim iu unrivalled 
in its way. The houses arc for the most |)art 
built entirely of woo<l, and in8tca<l of the Hpaces 

" It resenibled the one Htill exiuting in Minden. 


between the beams being filled in with plaster 
or brickwork, as is most commonly the case, 
here they consist of elaborately carved wooden 
panels. The building called the Knockenhauer 
Ampthaus is extraordinarily elaborate, and iu 
the older streets of the to^vn every house is a 
study. They date mostly from the latter part 
of the sixteenth and earlier years of the seven- 
teenth centuries. 

Ducal Saxony possesses several very interest- 
ing to-\vns, especiaUy Erfurt with its cathedral, 
fourteen churches, and interesting civil and 
domestic buildings. The cathedral and church 
of S. Severin stand side by side, upon a platform 
some 50 feet high, and are approached by stone 
staircases. Each has a JIallenbau nave, that 
of the cathedral poorly designed, as the aisles 
are much wider than the nave. At S. Severin, 
however, there are four aisles to the nave, the 
whole under one great external roof. Inter- 
nally, the effect is decidedly fine and very nuich 
resembles the cathedral at Zaragossa in Spain. 
Both of the Erfurt churches have three towers, 
all close together between the nave and choir, 
but at the cathedral a bay of the old Roman- 
esque nave is left beneath them ; there are 
transepts. The ett'ect is not altogether pleas- 
ing. There are, however, two noble features 
about the cathedral : the loftv aisleless-ch.iir, 
1349-1353, is lighted by fift.M'n .x.^iisit.' win- 
dows full of stained glass, ami th.i.' is an ex.. c.l- 
ingly rich triangular porch at th.' en.l .if the 
north transept. Both of these may rank among 
the most splendid mediaeval works in Germany. 
The cloisters of the cathedral and the lofty stone 
canopy ovei the font at S. Severin are well 

Halli.isia.lt ]i.isses.ses a remarkably elegant 
cathe.lral, evi.lently a work of the Cologne 
school. It is full of interesting works of art, 
and has the advantage of having nearly all been 
built at the commencement of the fourteenth 
century. The plan is far more like a small 
French cathedral than a German one. It re- 
tains the whole of its ancient fittings and furni- 
ture, among these bein'.: a very majrnifieeiit rooil 
screen. Altli.iui;!. th.' .hui.h is laith.Tan, yet 
nowhere in (Jermany .1.. «.■ lin.l a nmri' siini|itii 
ous collection of eliureh jilat.', ]irii'sts' rolies, altar 
cloths, etc., showing how very conservative Ger- 
man Protestants are. There are some fine 
churches at Mag<leburg, osjieeially the catiiedral. 




Banilxn-g iu Bavaria, of wlii.h il is .•\i.l.nlly a 
copy. It possesses two most ini.i.siin,' i.i.mI 
screens, one liaving tiic rooil li.l.iu Ih.' L,Mllery 
instead of above it, — the only example we have 
ever seen. The cathedral of Meissen has been 
much praised for its ojMJiiwork spire, which 


is, after all, a poor imiution of Freiburg-ira- 

Although Saxony contains a great number of 
ancient churches, niedla;val buildings, castles, 
etc., yet they cannot be said to be remarkable 
for originality, and are less instructive as objects 
of study than those of most other parts of 

Dresden is decidedly a very handsome city, 
but it contains no ancient buildings of any im- 

■will enable one to draw distinctions between 
the Franoonian school in the north, the Rhenish 
in tlie Palatinate, the Danubian in the centre 
and eiist, the Swabian in tlie south and west. 
The river Main falls into the Rhine opposite 
Mainz, and presents nothing worthy of notice 

portance. There are only two churches that are 
particularly worthy of notice, the Fraueu Kirche 
and the Catholic church. Both are in tlie rococo 
style. The Frauen Kirche is, however, an 
original-looking building, with a lofty stone 
dome. The royal palace is a not un])i(ture.sque 
Neodassic stnicture, with a striking-looking 
tower. The Zivintjer, a viist structure of various 
dates, a portion of wliioh forms a magnificent 
picture gallery, and the very noble opera iiouse 
opposite to it, are works of Semper. The latter 
is one of the most beimtiful buildings of its class 
in Europe. The architect has retained the old 
Roman external form, with its arcades, which 
liavc ail oxtrcmcly iiitcrostiiii,' rtfcct. 

m. ; Bavaria, 'Wurtemberg. The jiicsciit 

of small states tacked on to tlie (jld dukedom 
wliich gives the name. Some of these were 
ecclasia-stical, — such, for instjince, as the prince- 
bishoprics of Wiirzburg, Freising, Eichstatlt, 
Passau, and Spires. Others were secvdar states, 
— such as the Rhine Palatinate, Ansbach, Ot- 
tingrn, Bayrouth. Others imperial cities, — such 
as Nuremberg, Augsburg, Ratislxin, Rothenburg, 
S< liwciiifiirtli, etc. This will naturally account 
for a certain amount of variety in the archi- 
tectural schools, though they are not very 
strongly marked ; but a careful examination 

until the city of Frankfort is reachal. The old 
part of Frankfort is picturesque, and was far 
more so before the fire whicli a few years ago 
destroyed the pictiu-esque old Kraut Market and 
greatly injured the cathedral. The latter, with 
tlie exception of its beautiful tower, is not a very 
inipiirtant mediieval work. It is a small four- 
teenth century cliurcli, to which a huge jiair of 
transepts have licen added, about the fifteenth 


century, to make space for the coronation cere- 
monials of the Holy R<iman Eniiwrors. Tlie 
only other mcdiieval buihling in the town of any 
importance is the Liehfraiien Kirche, a good 
example of Rlienisli Romanesque. Altliough the 
modern parts of Frankfort are hand.'^ome, well 
built, and ably planned, yet tiiere is notliing 
])arti(iilarly remarkable from an architectural 



point of view. The only objects of special 
interest in this neighbourhood are the abbey of 
Seligenstadt, on the Main, a large Roinauesque 
fhurdi, internally modernized, and the superb 
thirteenth century church of Gclnhausen, upon 
a little river called Kinzing, which runs into the 
Main at Hannau. It is a very pure example of 
the latest phase of Rhenish Roniane.s(iue when 
it began to assume Gothic tracer}' forms. The 
church has lieen thoroughly restored .since the 
writer saw it, wlien it was in a most dilapidated 
condition, and one of its spires was twisted into 


Pompeian house, and it is said trial to live in it. 
At Wertlieim are the ruins of the grand castle of 
Liiwenstein and an interesting fifteentli centurj' 
church, witli a singular nxxl screen and a very 
remarkable sculpture<l monument rejiresenting a 
knight in full armour holding the hands of two 
ladie.s, one of wliom has rather an Eastern tyjjc 
of face. The storj' is told of a kniglit lieing 
taken pri.souer by the Turks, and, althougli he 
iiad a wife at home, he " was force«l to marry 
the Sultan's daughter." Tliere does not ai»j)car 
to be a word of truth about the story, nor can 

a corkscrew sliape, like the celebrated one at 
Chesterfield, in Derbyshire (England). Tiie 
Main enters the Bavarian teiTitories close to 
the interesting old city of Aschaftenburg, wiiere 
there is a striking old palace 1605-1618, in a 
style resembling English Jacoljean, with five very 
lofty towers crowned by bulbous spires, and an 
ejirly Romanes(iue church of the basilica ty])e, 
with western tran.septs and cloisters surrotuiding 
that j)ortion of the building, like the laiifyniKj of 
a Nonvegian church. There are two fine ba.s- 
reliefs in bronze, by Johann and Peter Vischer. 
Ludwig I. erected a villa here in imitation of a 

it Ikj asccrtainetl who are represented on this 
l)pautiful monument, or whether in fact it is a 
monument at all. 

The pleasiint old prineo-bishoii's city of Wiirz- 
burg, charmingly situate<l on botii banks of the 
Main, comiected by a mcditeval bridge adorned 
by colossal statues, contains a cathetlral and 
twenty-(me churches. The distant views remiiitl 
one of Florence. The cathedral, a vast Roman 
e.s(|ue building with four spires, consecrated in 
1 1 S9, was modeniized intenially in the year 
1700 and covered with rococo plaster work. It 
must be acknowlalgeil that this is remarkably 


good of its kind, and the correct anatomy of the 
vast figures supporting the vaulting leaves no 
doubt of its Italian origin. Against the piers 
are statues of the long line of prince-bishops who 
have ruled this see, the earliest dating from the 
eleventh century. The must remarkable, how- 
ever, are those of Bishop Shiiiiiliiii:, 141)'), and 
Von Bibra, 1521, by the cmimut h.ral sculptor 
Tilman Rhiemenschneider, and there is a mag- 
nificent thirteenth century bronze font. At the 
NeumwLster Kirclie, which adjoins the cathedral, 
some remarkable cloisters were discovered some 
years back. They were adorned with sculpture 
of a Byzantine character. The graceful Marien 
Kirche, on the market place, is a Hallerihau of 
rich Gothic work, 1377-1469, its columns and 
doorways adorned with statues by Tilman Rhie- 
menschneider. The great Italian church, called 
the Stifthaiuj, 1679, has a finely designed 
dome by Petrini. The church of S. Burkard 
(Biirchardikirche) has a Romanesque ba.silica- 
like nave of the tenth centurj', and a late Gothic 
choir which is built over the road. 

There is some interesting sixteenth century 
domestic architecture and a very curious town 
hall, portions of which are KoinaneMiue. TJie 
great palace built by the aieliitect llalta/.ai 
Neuman is one of tlie tinest mnnd Imililinus in 
Germany. The staircase and entrance hall are 
magnificent. The great castle of Marienberg, 
which overlooks the town from a lofty rock, 
contains a very remarkable ancient church, cir- 
cular in plan, and said to be the earliest building 
in this part uf (lerinany. 

A few miles tidin Wurzburg are two very in- 
teresting village churches at Griinsfeldhausen 
and Oberwittighausen. The first naiincl has an 
octagonal nave united by a i<inii nt necking to a 
small octagonal choir, with a very elegant oc- 
tagonal tower rising up between the two ; it is 
rich Romanesque work. The second church has 
an octagonal nave with a square tower in the 
centre supported internally upon four solid 
arches, and a small apsidal chancel. As noth- 
ing of the kind is to Ik; found in the neighbonr- 
hood, it would be interesting to trace out the 
hi.story of these two buildings. 

The Main between Wiirzburg and Bamberg 
is almost as rich in mediiuval antiquities as the 
Rhine. Heidingsfeld has a church partly Ro- 
mane.squc and partly Gothic, with a beautiful 
atone pulpit and tabernack 
remarkably jiictures.nie t.iui 
Gothic //a/^/,//<(,/ clnnvli uM 
attached to its column-, n,a. 
about GO fe<;t higli, and a vei 
font. In the churchyanl is 
teenth century chajjcl with 
adorned with sculpture. The Jialliliavi 
scribcfl with the dates 1498-1499, is a most 
perfectly preserved Gothic structure, full of 
ancient furniture of the same date as its erec- 


Inirate bronze 
xquisite four- 


tion. Dettelbach has a very curious church 
with two towers, one circular and the other 
square, connected by a bridge close to the top. 
It has a charming Rathhaus built across the 
street and a little river. 

About fourteen miles off" is the delightful 
medieval towm of Rothenburg, on the Tauber, 
with towers, walls, and gates all perfect, most 
interesting domestic architecture, and an ex- 
tremely fine church with two cm-ious openwork 

stone spires and some magnificent altarpieces 
carved by Tilman Rhiemenschneider. The 
other clnnvliis in tin tnwn, though small, are 
full of ancient unrksolart. 

To return t.. tlic Main. At Hasfurth are 
twn verv intercom- chnrclu^s ; nnc, called the 
/,'iltrrs-h;null,. ,> nnc ,.1' the ricii,.>l and nmst 



armorial bearings. 

Hamlwrg, another j)rince-bishop's city, hii-s a 
singularly Ijeautiful cathedral, which is certainly 


the noblest example of early Gothic work in Ba- 
varia. It has a double choir and tour lofty 
spires; the eastern choir is elaborate Roman- 
esque work, 1237; the western, elegant first 
pointed ; the towers flanking the western choir 
greatly resemble those of Laon, in France, 
though they were completed in 1274, nearly 
a centurj' later than those of the French cathe- 
dral. The interior, which is very striking, is 
rich in caning and sculpture ; the bas-reliefs 
uix)n the screens of the eastern choir (thirteenth 
centur}') are probably tlie finest in the whole of 
Germany ; no building in the whole land is so 
rich in monuments. One of the earliest is that 
of S. Stephen, king of Hungary, an equestrian 
statue. In the centre of the church is the mag- 
nificent tomb of the Emperor Henry II. and 
Queen Cunigunda, the work of Tilman Rhie- 
raenschneider, 1513. It is adorned with excel- 
lent sculpture executed in Salzburg marble. 
The western choir stalls are l)e<vutiful examples 
of fourteenth century woodwork. A cliapel, 
which leads out of the south transept, has its 
walls literally covered with bronze bas-reliefs, 
the monuments of former bishojjs and canons 
of the church. The town of Bamberg is full 
of ancient churches, but the most beautiful of 
them, the Marien Kirche, with a very rich 
Gothic choir, has been atrociously modernized 

For domestic and military architecture Ger- 
many possesses no city equal to Nuremberg; 
nowhere are there such magnificent streets, 
such noble houses, such walls, gates, and tow- 
ers, or such a striking mediaeval castle. Not 
the least interesting objects in this beautiful 
city are the vast warehouses and granaries 
with their stupendous roofs, often jjierced by 
as many iis six ranges of dormer windows. The 
liDUscs have a peculiarity of arrangement : their 
(laiiks, and not their gables, are turned toward 
tlic street, but the roofs are adonied with mag- 
nificent dormers crowied by dwarf spires. The 
Na.ssau House, fourteenth century, luus an elabo- 
rate parapet, and boldly corljelletl turrets at the 
angles. The house called Chorlein, near S. Se- 
bald, po8ses.ses the most beautiful oriel window 
in Nuremburg, 1513. The fountains are justly 
celebrated. The Schone-Brunnen, 1 385-1 39G, 
is a lofty Gothic spire some 60 feet high, adorned 
with a profusion of sculpture, and is certainly 
the most beautiful structure of the kind in 

The churches are rather of the Swabian type. 
S. Lawrence, begun 1275, has a fine west front, 
nave with aisles, and clearstory ; and large 
Jlalleribau choir, 1439-1471. It is a fine 
example of Gothic architecture, though that 
ugly Swabian feature, the substitution of a 
blank wall in jjlace of the triforium, mars what 
would otherwise have been a singularly beauti- 
ful interior. All criticism, however, vanishes 


when we come to examine the magnificent de- 
tails, sculpture, car^-ing, stained glass, and fur- 
niture of ever)- description. Adam Krafts 
exquisite sjicranient house and Veilstross's grand 
sculpture of the " Annunciation " are amongst 
the most magnificent of the very numerous 
works of art in this splendid church. 

The Sebaldus Kirche ha-s a very fine early 
nave with double aisles and a Hullenbau choir, 
in the centre ( if wliidi stands the noblest produc- 
tion of the eail_\ K't ii.ii-~aip <• sciiool in Germany, 
the shrine of s" S, i,aM. Ky 1 'eter Vischer, 1508- 
1519. A niaj:iiiiir<iit trijile canopy of bronze 
forms a baldacchiuo over the shrine, adorned 
with statues of the twelve apostles and innu- 
merable statuettes. All the churches of Nu- 
remberg contain objects of great interest. 

Ratisbon, or, as the Grermans call it, Regens- 
burg, perhaps the most ancient city in Germany, 
is situated at the junction of the Danul>e and 
the Regen, exactly at that point where the Dan- 
ube reaches its most northern limit. Perhajjs 
Ritisbon may be regarded architecturally as the 
second most important town in Germany, and 
is to Danubian architecture what Cologne is to 
the Rhine. In this most interesting town, con- 
taining a cathedral and twenty churches, we 
find examples of almost everj' kind of European 
architecture, both ecclesiastical and secular. 
The cathedral is regarded by Fcrgusson and 
other writers as the most perfect Gothiq church 
in Germany, and, though it is of moderate size, 
only about 300 feet long, it would be difficult 
to find a more imix)sing and thoroughly satisfy- 
ing building. The plan is one of extreme sim- 
plicity. As it rises from the ground, it consists 
of a nave and ai>lrs. terminating in three apses ; 
at till . li ai-t ii\ level, however, it becomes cru- 
cifiiiHi \'} t;ai!se|it> ]irojecting to the aisle walls, 
so thai uu iil.ui ihero arc neither lateral chapels 
nor transepts. It is of great height, 126 feet 
to the vaulting, and about 100 feet wide, meas- 
uring over nave and aisles. Evidently, the 
problem which the architect of this church had 
to solve was one which is of the greatest in- 
terest to the modern American and English 
architects. It was this : how to erect ujx)n a 
comparatively small site in the heart of a city 
filled with unusually lofty buildings a verj- dig- 
nified cathedral. It is said that the celebrated 
Albertus Magnus was the man who overcame 
this difficulty, and gave the scheme for the 
present cathedral. He was certainly Bishoji of 
Ratisbon when the cathedral waa commenced 
in 1278, and was prior of the fine Dominican 
church when the latter was commenced in 1274. 
Now, although the cathedral is a vciy elaborate 
building, and the Dominican church a very i>laiu 
one, the same masterly treatment and the siiKtle 
knowledge of proportion are characteristic of 
both buildings. The interior of the cathedral ia 
most impressive, and the grand west front, part 

of which only dates from 1404—1486, is certainly 
the most magnificent in Gennany. The two 
great towers, the spires of which have only been 
just recently completed, are nobly planned, and 
the triangular porch between them is one of the 
most exquisite works of medireval times. Most 
of the windows are of beautifiil old stained glass, 
and as the altars stand beneath canopies coeval 
with the building, there is a harmony which is 
not frequently met with in old churches. The 
cloisters, which are very extensive, do not join 

that beautiful thirteenth century style of pointetl 
Gothic which is peculiar to the Danube and its 
immediate neighbourhood. This style is re- 
markable, from the fact that, unlike all other 
early thirteenth century work in Germany, it 
has no Romanesque characteristics about it. 
The churches of tlie Neider-Miinster, the Oher- 
Miinster, and the abbey of S. Emmeran, also 
in Ratisbon, are early Romanesque works of the 
basiUca type, unfortunately much modernized 
internally. The last named has a curious crypt 

Germany, Paut III. : St. Michael's Church, Munich, Bavakia ; Interior of Nave ; c. 1585. 

the cathedral, and are thus more like the cam- 
pondnto of an Italian cathedral ; they are bi- 
sected by a large vaulted hall full of ancient 
monuments, from which two ancient chapels are 
entered. The larger, that of S. Stephen, is said 
to have been the original cathedral, and dates 
from the ninth or tenth century. The other 
one looks like a baptistery, and is tliirteenth cen- 
tury work ; Vjoth contain tlieir original altars. 

Close to the cathedral is a very remarkable 

thirteenth century Gothic church called the 

Alte-I'furr. Two thirds of the area is covered 

by vaulted galleries, and its architecture is of 


at the west end, above ground, sujjporting a 
choir and altar. There is also a very beautiful 
thirteenth century cloister of the (•liaractcri.sti<' 
Dannl.i.-m s.'Ii.m.I, oxm.iii.Ics „f vlii.'h .■nv to he 
f.nn.l in .\^l^tlia. ll is .sn,nruli.,l ,l,tlirult to 
(Irlninin,' u lirtl.rr tins M \ Ir ,.,,■, mat, .1 in l!at- 

isl.on, a uuw\ its way ,ln,r„ ||„. Lanul,.', or 

whether it had its rise in the Austrian abbeys, 
and found its way vp the Danube. (See Aus- 
trian States, Architticturo of.) The Scotcii 
ablxjy church of S. James is a very valuable 
cxan^plo of a late Romancsipie basilica, and Iwis 
escaped alterations or modoruizatiun. 


The domestic buililiiiji^s are as remarkable as 
tlie et-clesiastical, many of them dating from the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. They are so 
lofty as to be absolute towers, and there is a 
remarkable feature about them wliich may be 
worthy of consideration by American and Eng- 
lish architcc'ts who have to erect very tall build- 
ings in cities. They are comi)letely free from 
horizontal lines or features of any description ; 
all details, whether structural or ornamental, 
are vertical. There is a very interesting Rath- 
haus, chiefly fourteenth centurj', which retains 
some of the earliest tapestry we have ever seen. 
Municli does not contain many valuable ex- 
amj)le.s of mediieval architecture. The cathe- 
dral, which, by the way, wa.s only made the sec 
of a bishop at the commencement of the pre.sent 
century, is a vast brick Ilallenbau more re- 
markable for its size and magnificent stained 
glass than for stnictural beauty. The court 
church of S. Michael is the most interesting 
Renais-sance ecclesiastical building in Germany, 
erected between the years 1585-1591 ; it is a 
vast single span church wth chapels between 
the buttresses. The great stone barrel vaidt 
of the nave is over sixty feet in span. There is 
some uncertainty as to the architect ; by some 
writers it is attributed to De Witt, called by the 
Italians Candido, and by others to Frederic 
Sustris. Munich, however, chiefly attracts at- 
tention on account of its modem buildings. 
German architects have here had an opportunity 
of distiiiguishini; themselves such as has lieen 
granted nduln'i .1-. d nini.' the present cen- 
t\iry. KiiiL.' I. ■ _ • incd to make Mu- 
nich the nil-! I i: til in Europe, and 
with great wi-liu 1j, '-I'vived tiie idea, not 
of rebuilding the ijuaint old city, but of erecting 
a new towni adjoining it, a kind of "glorified 
sub\irb." Space and expense were of little or no 
importance, material and skilled workmen were 
at hand, and a school of decorative painters was 
established who were rcjuly to adorn the build- 
ings when erected with wall ]iicturcs of great 
excellence. Given all these favourable condi- 
tions, did the German architects rise to the 
occiusion and is modern Mimich tiie architectu- 
ral Eldonulo one has a right to exjjcct ? Two 
schools of thought were at work from tlie first, 
one led by Klenze, whose idea was to adapt 
cliiKsical styles of architecture to motlern re- 
quirements, and tiie other by Gartner, who 
attempted to invent a new style by tiie combi- 
nation of diussical, mediieval, and lieiiaissancc. 
The works of the first school are exiiibited in 
the old Pinakotiiek, 1826-1836, by Klenze, 
tiie Giypt.thek, also by Klenze, 1816-1830, 
and the Propyhea, 1862, by Klenze, all very 
nolile buildings, though especially in the case 
of the Propyhea almost too distinctly cojiies of 
ancient work. The other school, called the 
Eclectic School, produce<l the Ludwiga Kirche, 


1829-1842, by Gartner, the Librarj', the new 
Pinakothek by Voit, 1846-1853, the Mjiximil- 
iaueum, and the great street leading up to it. 
Now there is certainly no reason why a motleni 
architect shoidd not mix together any number 
of styles, pro\nded he makes a liarinonious com- 
bination of tliein and is master of the various 
elements he is dealing witli, and we must ask 
the question. Did these German arciiitects create 
harmonious combinations, and were tiiey masters 
of the Romanesque and Gothic styles which they 
combined with the classical ? Is there anything 
to be Ibund in the Aiier Kirche by Ohlmiiller 
1830-1839, to lead one to tlie conclu.sion that 
tiie German architects of the jMjriod iuid a very 
deep knowledge of Gothic ? or in the exterior of 
the Allerheiligen Kapelle that tliey understood 
Byzantine work? and can any one find any 
hopeful signs for the future of a style whose 
most recent developments have prmlucetl the 
Maxiinilianeum and the great street leading to 
it? Of course tlie Liulnigs Kirche and the 
Allerheiligen Capelle have splendid features 
about them, but iiow much of this is owing to 
their magnificent decorations liy Cornelius and 
Hess and to their sumptuous internal material ? 
And even the basilica by Liebland, 1850, a 
great church 270 feet long, 83 feet wide, sup- 
ported upon 66 columns of gray Tyrolese mar- 
ble, its walls eucnisted with costly marbles and 
fr&scoes by Hess and Schraudolph, could scarcely 
fail to be striking ; but what of the exterior 
where all these adventitious aids to its archi- 
tecture were wanting? Can it be said to be 
either striking or interesting ? Of course if the 
Eclectic School had 8tarte<l some forty years 
later, and numbered amongst its designers such 
Gothic architects as Professor Schmidt of Vienna, 
Jlichael Stadtz of Cologne, Guldenpfennig of 
Paderbom, combined with the knowleilge of 
classical styles of such men as Klenze or 
Schinkel, the result might have indeed been 
a triumph for modern arciiitectiire, and we 
might have possessed a ~t\l. ul I !; w nld equal, 
if not surpass, the glci' i - 

Augsburg, the ancii ii i ■ ^A.ihia, is a 

noble city, and is to (iriii an l;< . u— luce what 
Ratisbon is to the early German Gothic, and 
Nuremberg to later. The lofty Renaissance 
houses turn tiieir great gables towards the 
Majfimiliau Stranse, the glory of the town, and 
possibly the noblest street in Eiiro])e, in the 
centre of which stands the great Jtathhaim, 
built by Eliiis Roll, 1616-1020. The eleva- 
tion consists of a colossal gable 147 feet broatl 
and 175 feet iiigii, flanked i)y octagonal towers 
crowned by ogee domes. The building is of 
brick, but enriched here and tiiere by bronze 
work. In this same street are three very lofty 
towers. The Fire Tower, called the Perlach, 
close to the Itathhnu.t, was commenced 989, 
but rebuilt from alxmt 40 feet to the ground by 


Elias HoU in 1615; it is 226 feet high and 
crowned by a lantern. The church of S. Moritz 
on the other side of the street has a very simi- 
lar tower, and that of S. Afra at the extreme 
end of the street has a tower 300 feet high. 
These towers are very Easttm in typr, crowned 
by pear-shaped domes. They aic ciiumKin all 
over the south of Germany, iJu-sm, and Turkey. 
We have been unable to di.s((i\er any of an ear- 
lier date than the sixteenth century. The church 
of S. Afra is a fine late Gothic building, 1476- 
1500, commenced by Hans Luitpol and com- 
pleted by Burkart Engleberger. Like everything 
in Augsburg it is on a grand scale, 316 feet long, 
94 wide, and 100 to the vaulting. There are 
three magnificent f.uintains in this street adorned 
with colossal HlCUIVs, sra Ik uses, rtc, ill lironze, 
dating fmni the cldsc i.f the sixtivntli rcntury. 
What strikes one so much abuut thcui is the 


upon very slender columns. It is a very grace- 
ful building, and its five porches are adorned 
with rich sculpture. The architect was Meister 
Hans Steinmetz, but the upper portion of tlie 
steeple was not completed until the middle of 
the sixteenth century. It is, however, entirely 
Gothic work and the continuation of the same 
design. The domestic architecture of Landshut 
is excellent, the houses for the most part having 
narrow fronts and very lofty pinnacled gables. 
There is an elegant httle Italian palace with a 
pretty courtyard and rooms adorned with charm- 
ing panelling and parquetry. Overlooking the 
town from the top of a lofty hill is the castle 
of Trausnitz, one of the most interesting in 

Germany, Part III.: Villa 

great size of their basins and the plentiful sup- 
ply of water which splashes about amongst the 
great bronze figures, creating quite a sea in the 
large pools, which are full of fish, and giving an 
air of freshness to this wide and very long 
street. The cathedral at Augsburg is a very 
curious church with two choirs, the eastern dat- 
ing from the fourteenth century and the west- 
em, together witli the nave, from the tenth 
century. There arc ■.'rand liniiizc- doors covered 
with baa-reliefs and the (ailn -t stained glass in 
Europe. The older Kisliup,, thidne in the west 
choir, a marble seat HU[)i)<)rled on lions, is said 
to be Roman work. There are fine stalls, inter- 
esting furniture, and perhaps the best collection 
of pictures in any German cliurch. 

Landshut, another grand old city, has the 
houses of its principal street built over arcades. 
The great church of S. Martin possesses the 
loftiest brick tower in the world, 454 feet high. 
The church itself is a vast Ildllculxiu, 315 feet 
long and 100 feet to the vaulting, supported 

Bavaria. It possesses a curious thirteenth cen- 
tury chapel with some interesting sculpture. 
The aiiartments on the ground floor are all 
vaulted in the .style ..f the liftcciith century, 
but tho.se on the ui)]icr stories were decorated 
and fitted up by De Witt (Caudido) at the dose 
of the sixteenth century. The stoves are beau- 
tiful examples of earthenware work and tiles. 

The cathedral of Ulm is, according to De 
Lassaube, the third largest church in (urinany, 
but since the completion of its steejilc smnc few 
years back, it is, if measured in bulk, the scccind. 
Its great dimensions and magnificent lumiture 
entitle it to consideration, but wiion the oppor- 
tiuiity of erecting one of the largest churches in 
Christendom was ottered to its arciiitccts, sec- 
onded by the assistance of workmen, seulptor.s, 
and stained glass painters of unsurpassed excel- 
lence, it is indeed strange that they should have 
produced so unsatisfactory a building. It is in 
every way the reverse of Ratisbon ; an enormous 
site was available, — a town of uulimitol arwi, 


by no means cIdsoIv Imilt, — ami a magnificent 
opiKirtunity, yet although it is double the size, 
the smaller church is dignitietl and most impres- 
sive, wliereas no large ciiurch in Euroi)e is so ill 
designed as that of Ulni. It hiis been siiid that 
it is a village church magnifie<l to tlie size of a 
cathedral. Of course the Swabian architects 
delighted in simplicity of plan, but here the idea 
is greatly exiiggerated. A grejit ciithe<lral nearly 
500 feet long and 144 feet to the vaulting, con- 
sisting of a nave and aisles, a western tower, 
and a low single-aisled choir, is an affectation 
of simplicity. That ugly feature, a huge blank 
wall in place of a triforium, is disagreeably 
apparent, and is all the more objectionable 
from the j)overty of detail in tiie arches and the 
vaulting. The tower is the only portion of the 
building which is striking or magnificent. Its 
lower portion consists of an open hall, which is 
undoubtetlly striking. The church is, however, 
like many of the German cliurches, a perfect 
museum of beautiful works of art. The Sacra- 
ments' house, 90 feet high, is a masterpiece of 
tabernacle work. The stalls, altarpieces, and 
stjiined glass are not to be surpassed in Eurojte. 
The great tower has recently Iwen completed, 
but its outline is not quite siitisfactory. 

St\ittgart is a handsome city, chiefly remarka- 
ble for its modern architecture. The Scliloss is 
a pictures<iue Renai.ssance building, 15.53-1570. 
The new palace, 1746-1807, is not specially 
interesting. The tlieatre, which almost joins 
it, and the KonhjHbau are not undignified, yet, 
although the town is handsome, it caimot be 
said to contain any work of great excellence. 

The picturesque little town of Schwiibisch- 
Gmiind is celebrated as the birtliplace of two 
of the greatest architects of tlie Middle Ages, 
Henry and Peter Arler ; of the elder brother's, 
Henry's, work the Tleiligeiikreulz Kirche, 1357, 
is a brilliant example. Henry Arlei- is bclieveil 
to be that Enrico Di Gamodio who commenced 
Milan cathedral, and there is a certain similarity 
between the details of the church at Gmiind 
and the great cathedral, especially about tiie 
disposition of the niches over tlie doorways and 
tlie large windows round the aisles of the apse. 
Tliat Henry Arler designed tlie celebrated Cer- 
tosa at Pavia is far l&ss likely, as we trace no 
re.semblance to his style in that building. Tlie 
younger brother, Peter, was scarcely less cele- 
brated, and we have given notice of his works 
in Bohemia ; he also erected the fine church at 

Wiirtciiibcrg possesses a fair number of inter- 
esting churches, but our space will not .allow of 

Mir dc.s 

: tlicni 


IV the Baltic Province Brandenburg, Sile- 
sia, and German Poland. I'lic i)r(i\ iiicc,-; (if the 
Gcrnian Kini)irc on the bonlers of the Haltic, 
that is to say Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, 


Pomerania, Danzig, Enneland, and Kdnigslierg, 
have an architecture which is jieculiar to them- 
selves, but which partakes of the characteris- 
tics of all the Baltic countries. Thus, there is 
no great distinction to be noticed l)etween those 
of Pomerania and Sweden, Fricsland and Gott- 
land ; though the details are somewhat varied, 
yet the general resemblance is so remarkable as 
to point to a common origin. The material 
used is usually brick, but bears no resemblance 
to the brick constniction in any other parts 
of Europe. In Holstein, however, Flemish in- 
fluence is conspicuous, notably at Lubeck, a 
magnificent old town, rich in churches and 
domestic architecture. Tiie Frauen Kirche is 
a most remarkable building of grand dimensions, 
with lofty clearstorj- and spire-crowned western 
towers. It is extremely plain e.xtenially, but 
the interior, though whitewashed all over, is 
particularly striking. The cathedral, the church 
of S. Catherine, and S. Jakob are also noble 
works, and all possess elaborate mediieval fur- 
niture and fitting. Schwerin, Wismar, Rostock 
in Mecklenburg, Stralsund, Aiiklam, Stettin, 
Stargard, Koslin, in Pomerania, all possess 
magnificent churches of this brick arciiitecture, 
one peculiarity about which is that brickwork 
is treated almost precisely like stone. Now 
althougii it is to be admired for intricacy of 
detail, elegance of form , and variety in colour, 
it must be acknowledged that it is not equal to 
the treatment of brickwork in the buildings of 
Italy and the south of France, and for this rea- 
son there is always sonicfliiiiL' niisntisfactorj- in 
art when one kind of iii,,i. nil .1, ii\.- its treat- 
ment from another. N.iwii). 1)1 kuoik of the 
countries we have just nn iiti..ii, ,1 i- cs.scntially 
brick in construction, and the dcUiil is evolved 
fi-om the special peculiarities of the materials ; 
but in the case of the Baltic buildings they 
would be more complete and fitting if the 
design had been carried out in stone. Whether 
this singular treatment of brickwork originated 
in Sweden, Pomerania, the extreme eastern dis- 
tricts of Enneland, Kbnigslterg, and Marien- 
weider, or in Brandenburg, it is impossible 
to determine ; it certainly appears, however, to 
have received its iiighest develojiment in Dan- 
zig, which was geographically a portion of 

A few miles from Danzig is the aiuicnt town 
of Marienhurg, with its magiiiticcnt ca.stlc, 
which was erected in the thirteenth century liy 
the Teutonic branch of the Knights of S. .Joliii 
of Jenisalem who settled here in the year 1281. 
This vast castle covers an imniense area, and is 
divide*! into three distinct buihlings all within 
one enclosure ; the earliest portion was com- 
pleted in 1309. The noble central building, 
resembling the keep in an English castle, 
and containing the knights' hall, chaj)ter house, 
and chapel, was erected between 1351-138'_'. 


This castle, the grandest in all Germany and 
noblest example of bric-kwork, was commenced 
while the neighbourhood was for the most part 
pagan. Under the auspices of the Knights of 
S. John rose the fine towns of Danzig, Marien- 
burg, Elbing. Ermeland, adjoining this terri- 
tory, was the see of a prince-bishop, and is 
still the most northern Catholic bishopric in 
Europe. Its capital, Frauenburg, possesses a 
cathedral which is a most characteristic example 
of this Baltic style. It is a very lofty Hallen- 
baa, with four very slender gabled towers. 
The choir was completed in 1342. Danzig is a 
splendid old town, with im- 
mense gabled houses and 
churches. The Marien Kirche 
is a colossal building, com- 
menced in 1343 and completed 
in the sixteenth century. In- 
ternally it is a vast Hallenhau, 
but externally, owing to the 
aisles being gabled at right 
angles to the nave, and there 
being six slender towers pla(;ed 
between the gables in addition 
to the huge tower at the west 
end, it presents a very impos- 
ing appearance, though, like 
many of the other churches in 
this di.strirt, it looks more like 
an immense t(nvn hall than 
a church. This secular look 
about the churches of north- 
east Prussia is very strange to 
the eyes accustomed to English 
or French churches. It prol> 
ably arises from the fact that 
in this part of Europe alone 
the secular and domestic build- 
ings were cotemporary in their 
inception with the ecclesiastical. 
In point of fact, the Kniglits of 
S. John, who were the posses- 
sors of the province, commenced 
their works by erecting vast 
residential castles, as we see 
at Marienburg, so that, instead 
of architectural development taking its initiative 
from churches, secular buildings originated it. 


building. The town halls in Pomerania and 
Mecklenburg have these curious masking walls 
carried up several stories high, pierced with 
quasi windows opened to the sky. Although 
no doubt these buildings are very picturesque, 
the style of architecture which produces such 
eccentric shams cannot be regarded as grand 
art. This curious kind of work is also found 
at Posen and Silesia, though it does not hold 
undivided sway, as is seen from such buildings 
as the choir of the cathedral and the churches 
of S. Elizabeth and Holy Cross at Breslau, 
which belong to a far more dignified school. 

Germany, Part IV. : Zeughaus 

Eastern Prussia; 

This semi-secular chi 
also exhibits itself i 
S. Catherine's, at Bi 
ampin, the cxtriiur i 

ConCCidrd licliiiKl {ji( 
terminatcjl in inum 
glazed ijrickwork of 

cter about the churches 
Brandenburg and Silesia. 
ti(l(Mil)urg, is a curious ex- 

thc cliiiiM'li being almost 
■rd scicriis of brickwork, 

ariouH colours. At I'renz- 
lau the eastern portion of the great church is 
hidden from view by a va.st gabled end whicli is 
simply a masking wall, as the absolute eastern 
termination of the building consists of three 
apses, so that the plan and elevation can 
scarcely be recognized as lielongiug to the same 


Although Berlin is for the most part a modem 
city, there are some interesting exiuiiy)les of 
mediteval work upon tlie island ; es|irri,illy, the 
old Kloster Kirclic, tliiitecnth ccntuiy, and 
S. Mary's, a very jileasint; Iniirteenth century 
building. Before the time, iiowcver, of Fred- 
eric 1., Berlin was an unimportant country town 
in an uninteresting locality and upon a most 
undesirable site, surrounded by a dead level 

flat — a eDMihiiiatic f marsh and desert, with 

a stagnant, muddy <liteli. What could have 
induced Pru.ssian kings to select it as their 
capital surpasses com])rehension, as there are 
no natural beauties about the i)lacc. The water 
supply is uncertain and iusufficieut, and the 

drainage absolutely iiupossihle; however, not- 
withstanding these tlitlicultie.s and drawbacks, 
it must be acknowleilged that modern Berlin is 
one of the handsomest and most <ligiiitied cities 
in Eurojie ; most ett"ectively j)lanned with great 
leading thoroughfares at right angles, the ijublic 
buildings finely grou|X'd together and brought 
strongly into evidence, eitiier in or near to a 
noble street with a greiit double avenue of lime 
trees along its centre called Cuter den Linden, 
which enters the to\m at the Brandenburg 
Gate, erected 1789-1792, crowned by a victory 
in a (juadriga. The general ettect of this monu- 
ment is not unpleasing, altiiough it is only of 
brick plastered over. The first imjiortant i)ub- 
lic building in Berlin was the arsenal, com- 
menced by Xehering in 1685 and finished by 
Schliiter. It is in the rococo style, and im- 
posing from its vast size. The royal palace, by 
the same architects, is a not unpleasant build- 
ing, but Berlin owes its chief architectural 
merit to Schinkel, who erected the grand mu- 
seum, 18.30, M'ith its ma^nififoitt folomiado, in 
the I.^i::- ^1^1... -.., ::"<' i; • ■. \ ■' ] -, 


revive the Gotliic for ecclesiastical. L'liloitu- 
nately, like most architects of his time, his 
Gothic was wanting in study from ancient work, 
and, consequently, unsatisfactory, as may be 
seen from a large church which he built at 

Tli. X •■ ' c ,]l,iv, 1843-1855, by Halm- 
hul ■ king and beautiful build- 

in;: . style. The Jiathhau.% 

1801 .- -, . ..itily and imposing structure 

with liomauesquc detail, which somehow or 
other does not seem to adapt itself well to the 
requirements of a modern ])iiblic building. 

The Reichs.srl„,i:.a,„i, 1X8.5-1887, is in a 
somewhat scvn, l> ii,;iii.| Italian Renaissance 
style, very di^inih .1 uni -pli mlidly carried out. 

A consideral)lc iiumhcr nl large churches have 
been recently erected in Berlin. The most im- 
portant is the King William Memorial church 
in Augusta Victoria Platz. It is in the Rhenish 
Romanesque style, with five spires, and is cer- 
tainly striking, though the interior hius rather 
more the effect of a great hall than a cinirch. 
This seems to lie the general idea of a modern 
church in Berlin, and strangely enough has been 
even taken up by the Catholics, who, in the 
S. Sebastian church and the S. Pius church, 
1 89.3- 1 89f), have ado]>U'd this idea. No doubt 
it may lend itself well to Protestant form of 
worship, but wc cjinnot help thinking that the 
chunh of S. Michael, with its lofty Gothic nave 
and aisl&s and apsidal choir, is much more suited 
to ('atholic ritual. 

The <lomestic architecture of Berlin seems to 
be developing itself far more in the mediajval 


and Niiremberg lines than in the severe Renais- 
siince or classic ones. Some of the cafVs re- 
cently erected are extremely elegjint buildings. 
Berlin has always been celebrated for its statues 
and monuments. Riuch's monumental grouj) 
and eijuestrian statue to Frederick the Great 
is etjualled by few modem works and suii)a.<.<e<l 
by none. The new national monument to 
William I., erc<ted in 1890, is a verj' well- 
designed and striking combination of architec- 
ture and sculpture. 

Kugler, Ilandbuch der Kumtt/tgrhichte, 1866 ; 
Kugler, Klfinschri/ten (a numerous series) ; 
Otte, Ilandbuch der JurcM. /< unst-AtThaolti(jie 
dfs deutschen Mittelalters ; MUller, Dinkmdifr 
detilscheii Battkunst ; MUller, Beitrage zur 
deutschen Kunst, etc.; Orijan fur ChristUche 
Kunst. (publication still proceeding) ; Chapuy, 
AUemafine monumentale ; Whewell, Architectural 
Xiiles on Herman Churches; K'mg, iSludy-book- of 
Mediaval Architecture and Art, London, 1S58 ; 
Kugler, Pommetsche Kunstgeschichte ; ruttrich, 
Denkmale der Baukuust des Mittelalters in 
Sachsen; Boisser^e, Dmkmale der Bauk. ron 7 
bis zum 13 Jahrhundert am Xiederrhein ; Quasi, 
Deukmiiler der linuLinixi i,, Hrntland ; Schmidt, 
Btiudenkmah - / / s.iuer i'mgebung ; 

LUbke, Die M.ir /, 1 1 , ..ifalen .BrewJ-r, 

Some CViuicA. ~ \ ■urhood of Clevcs 

(paper read bn- i. ;i . l;. 1 I; A.. London. 1891) ; 
Grier und Gorz, Doiktiiah nmxiiiischer Baukunst 
am Bhein ; Ileideloff und MUller, Die Kunst des 
Mittelalters in Schieaben ; W. \\. Brewer, Papers 
upon the Media^al Architecture of Central Ger- 
mani/, Bavaria, and Bohemia (published in The 
Builder. London, 18C6 to 181)0) ; Popp and Bulan, 
Architektur des Mittelalters in Regensburg ; Sig- 
liart, Die Mittelalterl. Kunst in der Erzdiocese 
Milnchen-Freising ; Haupt, Backstein Bauten der 
Benaissance, 189St, Frankfort a/M ; Wasmuih, 
Architektur der Gegemcart, Berlin (publication 
still proceeding) ; Licht, Architektur Deutsch- 
lands; Forster, Denkmale deutscher Baukunst, 
Bildnere.i und Malerei vom Einfuhrung des Chris- 
tenthums bis auf die neueste Zeit, Leipzig, 1866- 
18G'J ; Hugo Licht, Architektur Berlins. 

U. W. Bkewkk. 


The chronicler Gerviise gives an account of 
Canterbury during the years of his own expe- 
rience, first describing the church as he knew it 
before the conflagration of 1174, then the events 
of the fire, and histly the progr&ss of the recon- 
struction. His account is printed in Willis 
(01). cit.). 

Stephen, Dictionary of National Biography; 
Willis, Canterbury Cathedral. 

OESSO. In Italian art, hard plaster such 
as is u.>;cd for exists from works of art, and also 
as a ground for minal jiainting. (See Encaus- 
tic : Frc.-Jco Painting ; Fresco Secco.) 

OESSO DURO. In Itidian art, gesso of 
suiK'rior (piality, taking a hard finish and used 
for casts from works of sculpture. Bas-reliefs 
made of this material and usually painted for 
the further protection of the surface were made 


in considerable numbers during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries ; some of these are 
of very high rank as works of art, and are rec- 
ognized and catalogued as such. They are 
often mounted in highly decorated and quasi- 
architectural frames, and the culour witli which 
the plaster is i)aintcd very nt'trii imitates the 
ordinary colour of tciru ciitta. — 11. S. 

GHAT; GHAUT. In India, a landing 
place with steps and a bi-oail ipiay, a.s on the 
bank of one of the great navii^aMe ri\ers. 
There is often on the land sid.' uf tlie (juay a 
piece of architectural wallini: with a gateway 
carried through it, much resiinliliii'^ tiie gates 
in the outward wall of a tiiitili<'d city. (See 
India, Architecture of.) 

GHBERYS, ADAM ; architect ; d. Dec. 
10, 1394. 

Architect of the dukes of Brabant. He 
directed in 1363, at the ducal palace in Brus- 
sels, the construction of a chapel now destroyed, 
and in 1376 built the chateau of Vilvorde. 

Bioyraphie Nationale de la Be.lgique. 

GHETTO. In ancient cities of Europe, espe- 
cially in Italy, the Jewish quarter; a district 
to which the Jews were confined. As the re- 
striction lasted until veiy recent times, the old 
ghetto is often found to be full of unaltered 
ancient buildings, and in some cities that quar- 
ter is peculiarly interesting to students. The 
Ghetto of Rome, undisturbed until 1887, sur- 
rounded the so-called Porticus Octavise — the 
building named after Octavia, the sister of 
Augustus, and partly rebuilt under Septimus 
Severus. The Ghetto was therefore close to 
the Tiber, and lay betweni the theatre of Mar- 
cellus (Palazzo Orsini Savelli) im the southeast, 
and the church of S. Maria in .MonticelH on the 
northwest ; lying therefore ihie we.st from the 
Campidoglio and hardly more tlian one quarter 
of a mile distant. 

GHIBERTI, LORENZO DE' ; goldsmith, 
sculptor, and architect ; b. 1378 ; d. December, 

The earliest of the three pairs of bronze 
doors of the baptistery of P'loroiieo was made 
by Andrea da Pisu (s,'e .\ii,hv.i da Pisa). In 
UOl a competition w.a. opmrd for another. 
According to Vasari the eonipetit(JTs were (ihi- 
berti and Bmnellesco (see Brunellesco) of Flor- 
ence, Giacomo della Querela and Fran(;esco 
Valdambrini of Siena, Nicolo Spinelli and Nicolo 
Lambcrti of Arez/o (see (!iaroni,i della Querela 
and Lambert!, X.), and Smione of ( 'olle in Val 
d' Elsa. The conjiietiiiw pandsuf the "Sacri- 
fice of Abraham," e.xeeuled hy Prunelle.sco and 
Ghiberti, are both in the Museo Nazionale, Flor- 
ence. Gliiberti was successful, and began the 
work ill December, 1403. It was finished 
in April, 1424. In a document of April 16, 
1420, he is mentioned as associated on ecpuil 
terms with Brunellesco in building the cupola 


of the cathedral of Florence. He api)ears occa- 
sionally in the records, but had little to do with 
the actual construction (see Brunellesco). Jan. 
2, 1424 (before the completion of his first 
doors), Ghiberti received a commission for an- 
other pair for tlie Florentine bajitistery. This, 
the most eeh'lirated work of its kind in exist- 
ence, was tinishi'd in 14")L'. It is composed of 
ten panels in rehef rejiresentiny subjects from 
the Old Testament. In the framework are 
Inists and ti-ures in liiuh relief, (Jhil.erti mod- 
elled also the beautiful framew(,rk of Ijirds and 
foliage. The cartoons for many of the painted 
glass windows in the Florentine cathedral were 
drawn by Ghiberti. He was succeeded by his 
son Vittorio ; and there were sculptors of the 
Ghiberti family in the sixteenth century. Much 
of our infoiinatinn aliout Ghiberti is taken 
from his Commentaries, extracts from which 
are published liy Perkins in his ninnoi,naiih. 

Perkins, (,'hil:;-ti <t s..„ , ■,■,./,■ : i;evni..i„l. ,sVj(7p- 
ture Jiorcitiiie : lii'vni.ai.l, /.-.,■,„.:,, (Uuhcrti; 
Muntz, Les prh-iirseurs <h' la /;ri,,iiss,(„rr ; Va- 
sari, Milanesi ed. ; Vasari, Blaslitield-IIoiikius ed. 


Ghini first appears in the records of the 
cathedral of Florence in 1355 as a member of 
the commission appointed to consider the model 
of Francesco Talenti (see Talenti, F.). In 1357 
he was em|ilove(l to lav the foundations of the 
first four ].iers ,,f the' nave. In 1358 he was 
associated with Franet^seo Talenti, and in 1364 
superseded him as chief architect of the cathe- 
dral. About 1360, Ghini appears to have 
made a model (called chicxa jnccola in the 
records) which called for five hays in the nave, 
and five chapels aliout the rotunda. Aug. 13, 
1366, this model w.is sui.,Ts,Mled l.y that of the 
commission of architects .md jiainters {niKcstri e 
pittori) according to whi.h the church was 
built essentially as it st.an.ls. (Sc.- Ilrunellesco.) 
August, 1371, (Hiini's name ajipcars in the 
records for the last time. 

Nardini, Giovnimi ,ii I.,,,.,. Cliini ed il Dik.iw, 
del 1630; Pietro \iun. 1/ ArrhUHtn (liovnnni di 
Lapo; Guasti, S<nit„ M.n-iu .1,1 Finn. 

GIACOMO. Roman architect. (See Cos- 

Pietra.saiita, (Jiacomo da.) 

GIACOMO DELLA PORTA ; architect ; 
b. 1541 at Milan ; d. KU)! at Konie. 

The most im|.oitanl of the pupils of Vignola 
(see Bar.>/./io, C). |;,iucen l.-.(il and 1573 he 
was ocen pied at (Icno,,, his |iiiiici pal work there 
being the ,-,.n,|.lclion of ihe church of S. Au- 
nunziata. Alt.T the dc.ith of Vignola in 1573, 
he returned lo l.'ome and limshed the church 
called // (li'sii, l»gun l.y that architect. Before 
his death in 1564, Michelangelo and his iussis- 
tants had made a model for the cuj)ola of 
S. Peter's church (Rome), and had completed 


the construction a« far as the cornice of the 
drum. The cupola itself was built by Giaconio 
della Porta. He also built the Palii/zo Paluzzi, 
the Palazzo Chigi in the Piazza Colonna, the 
Palazzo Serlupi, the Palazzo d' Este, the fa(jade 
of the church of S. Maria in Monte (1579), the 
fa<;atle of the church of S. Luigi de' Frances! 
(loSy), all in R»jme. He was very successful 
in designing decorative architectural accessories. 
He made several tine fountains in Rome, the 
most imi>ortiint of which is the Fontana delle 
Tartanighe (of the Turtles), the figures of which 
were modelled by the sculjitor Taddeo Landini. 
Della Porta's Villa Aldobrandini near Frascati, 
his last work (1598-1603), with its fine garden 
and casino, is especially characteristic. 

Redtenbacher, Die Arrhitektur der Italienischen 
Benaissance ; Miintz. Renaissance; Charles Gar- 
nier, Mirhel-Ange, Archilecte. 


(or Guercia) ; sculptor; b. about 1374; d. 

Giacomo probably derived his name from the 
village of Querela Grossa, near Siena, Italy. 
In 1401 he competed for the bronze doors of 
the baptistery in Florence (.see Gliiberti). One 

of his most rli.iiniili.,' \\Mik- i^ thr iv.iiilil.i'lit 

statue on tlir ni-iiiiinrht t.. ILn n. wiir iii I'.imI.i 
Guinigi, in tin- .ailH.li.il -I ].'■■< ']''■■ iii~t 
contract for the limiiiaiii t '' A<\ 

Campo, the so-called Font. i, 

dates from Jan. 22, 1409. I 1 

in 1419. The rctable of tla 1 . m 

the church of S. Frediano at Lucca wita tiu- 
ished in 1422. About 1430 he made one of 
the bas-reliefs in the font of the baptistery at 
Siena. Another is by Donatello (see Dona- 
tello). March 28, 1425, Giacomo made a con- 
tract to decorate the great portal of the church 
of S. Petronio in Bologiui. The bas-reliefs, 
representing scenes from the Creation, which he 
made for this door are auKjng the finest works 
of the early Italian Renaissance. 

Cornelius, Jacopo delta Querria ; Sidney Col- 
vin, Jacopo delta Querela; CJuizzardi-Davia, Le 
SruHure delle. Porte delta Basilica di San Pe- 

GIACOPO. (.^cp Giacomo.) 

GIALLO ANTICO. (See Giallo Antico 
Marl.le, un.ler .Marble.) 

GIAMBERTI. (See San Gallo.) 

GIB. In wood framing or iron work, a metal 
meiiilKT, usually one of a pair, for retaining two 
or more jtarts which are to Ix; keyed together. 
Its form is that of a cramj), a metal strap hav- 
ing its ends bent at right angles to the main 
part. Two of them are inserted on ojipositc 
sides of the aperture or mortise prejiared for 
the keys (we<lge8), so that the returned ends 
will fit closely to the outer faces of the con- 
nected members, which are thus prevented from 


slipping or spreading when the keys are driven 
between the gibs. 

GIBBONS. GRINLING ; sculptor ; b. April 

4, 1648; d. Aug. .3, 1720. 

The greatest of English wood carvers. Gib- 
bons was bom at Rotterdam, Holland, and 
probably came to England in 1667, the year 
after the Great Fire in Loudon. He attracted 
the attention of John EveljTi in 1671, who 
presented him to King Charles II. and Sir 
Christopher Wren (see Wren). He was em- 
ployed by Wren to carve the superb choir stalls 
and bishop's throne in S. Paul's cathedral, 
London. He decorate<l also the library and 
chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
employed by the king at Windsor, Whitehall, 
and Kensington. There is a superb room by 
Gibbons at Petworth, extensive decorations at 
Chatsworth, and a throne at Canterbury cathe- 
dral. His delicate birds and flowers are to be 
found in very many of the great houses biult in 
England in his time. In marble he executed 
the fine tomb of Viscount Campdeu at Exton, 
the font of S. Margaret's, Lothbury, and other 
works, all in England. 

Walpole, Anecdotes; Cunningham, Lives; 
Kvelvn, Diary; W. G. Rofiers, Pemarks on 
(rriuli„i/ <lihl,„ns. 

GIBBS, JAMES ; architect ; b. Dec. 26, 
1682 (at Aberdeen, Scotland) : d. Aug. 5, 1754. 

He was the son of Peter Gibbs, a ,Roman 
Catholic merchant of Al>erdeen, and took his 
M. A. degree at Marischal College, Aberdeen. 
After the deiith of his i)arents he entered the 
service of a builder in Holland. He was dis- 
covered by John Erskine, eleventh Earl of Mar, 
who sent him to Rome, where he entered the 
school of Carlo Fontana (see Fontana, C), 
surveyor general to Pope Clement XI. Return- 
ing to London in 1709, he won the friendship 
of Sir Christopher Wren (see Wren). The 
church of S. Mary le Strand was l>egun by 
Gibbs Feb. 15, 1714. August, 1721, he l>egan 
for Hariey, Eari of Oxford, the churcli of S. 
Peter, Vere Street, London, and a little later 
the tomb of Matthew Prior, in the .sotith 
transept of Westmijistcr Abl>ey. March 19, 
1722, the first stone was laid for his famous 
church of S. Martin's in the Fields, and June 22, 
1722, he liegan the "Senate Hou.se" in Cam- 
bridge. In 172.3-1725 he built the church of 
Allhallows in Der])y (exeejit the tower). Gibbs 
prepared a scheme for rebuilding the (juadrangle 
of King's College, Cambridge. Only the west- 
ern side was carried otit. Tiie (jua<lrangle of 

5. Bartholomew's hos])ital was Ivgim bv him 
June 9, 1730. The first stone of the Ra.ldiffe 
Library at Oxford, his liest building, was laid 
June 16, 1737. It wjus built from a finul of 
£40,000, left by John Railcliffe, M.D. Gibbs's 
books and drawings are prescrvc<l at Oxfonl. 
He published A Book of Architecture contain- 


ing designs by James Gibbs, 1 vol. folio, 1728 ; 
The Bides for Drawinrj the Several Parts of 
Architecture, 1732; Bibliotheca Radcliffi.ana, 

Herbert P. Home in the Century Guild Hohhy 
Horse for January and July, 1889 ; Stephen, Dic- 
tionary of National Biography. 

I'.ritiHl, .lialccts ;i l;ir-c nl.utc in the jamb and 
lintel of a doorway niailc to rccoive the door 
when Khut, ho that it nhall be fluHh with the 
face of the wall, the door In-itiK arranged to 
open outward. (Spelled also Jiblet.) 

GIGLIO. A flower-.shaped ornament recog- 
nized as the special bearing or badge of the city 
of Florence. It strongly resembles the fleur-de- 
lis, but has on either side of the central spike 
a slender flower stalk. Its forms, also, are in a 
sense fixed and definite, whereas the fleur-de-lis 
has been used for many purposes, and in many 
ages and countries, and has no one form which 
can be positively called the correct one. It has 
been called in modern heraldic books Fleur-de-lis 
Florence ; but this is probably a recently coined 

GILD (v.t.). To apply gilding. 

GrLDING. A. The art or practice of apply- 
ing gold leaf or gold powder to the surface of 
anything, so as to give it, to some extent, the 
appearance of gold. By extension, the applica- 
tion of some other substance which more or less 
nearly approaches the appearance of gold, in this 
sense more properly described by another term 
(see Bronzing). 

B. The surface and metallic appearance given 
by any of the processes referred to under A, as 
in the phrase, there is too much gilding in the 

Much the best and most permanent method 
of gilding is to apply a very thin layer of pure 
gold, usually called gold leaf. It is, however, 
easy to give to a moulding or raised ornament 
the appearance of being solidly gilded without 
much use of the leaf; for the production of this 
eifect a peculiar shade of yellowish colour is 
ciiililiiycd under the general name gold colour, 
ami only those parts receive the actual metal 
w iiich will receive and reflect the light the most 
stroii^^ly. flililing is not usually a means of 
^Miiily display or of what is called "barbaric" 
niaiciiifiiciicc. To the decorator gilding is rather 
thf uiiiv.isa! harmonizcr. If, as often hai)i)cns 


, Ww 



ISC ,>t strong 
till- (lcsii,'ner 

<:oli| icniaiiis at iiis iiand the most sure remedy 
loi tiiis lark of harmony. Moreover, the greatest 
aitisis in tiir use of pure and strong colour use 
L'oM with niuili freedom. Thus, in some of the 
lincst ( 'hinrsc enamels, it is evident that the gold 
line sr|iaiatiiiLC llie small patches of colour is re- 
licil upon foi- a background or relief to keep the 
whole in place. 

In gilding for decorative effect it is not the 
metal which is very (lostly (see Gold leaf) ; it is 
the necessity of going over the work at least 
twice, first with gold size, and afterward witli the 
gold leaf, which has to be very carcfidly handled, 
applied, allowed to dry, and then rubbal, that 
tli(^ loose fragments may lie removed. — R. S. 

GILI, JEHAN; architect. 

(iili was cliosen consul of the corporation of 

nia-sons of Montj)ellier twenty-four times before 

1396. The contract which he made for the 

portal of the monaBtery of S. Firmin is one of 



the most interesting ilmuiuent.s in existence on 
the military arehitocture of the Middle Ages. 

Reniiuvieret Kicanl. Mallres ile pierre de llont- 

GILLY, FRIEDRICH ; aicliitcct ; b. Feb. 
10, 1771 : .1. Am- :}, ISOO. 

A .sonuf David Gilly,0/>e/-6a((n(//< in Berlin. 
Gilly was one of the mo.st talented German 
architects of his time. His early death, how- 
ever, preventeil the accomplishment of any verj' 
imjjortant results. There are a few buildings in 
the vicinity of Berlin which are ascriljed to him, 
but he is liest known by his sketches and designs, 
of which there ure three jwrtfolios in the Tech- 
iiische Ilorhschiilc at Charlottenburg, near Ber- 
lin. He had great intluenceupon thedevelopment 
of the architect Schinkel. (See Schinkel.) 

Bnrrmaim, KunstdeiikmSler von Berlin. 

GIN. An apparatus answering the purpose 
of a Crane or Derrick, consisting of three legs 
united at their tops, thus forming a tripod. A 
windlass is usually secured between two of the 

GINAIN PAUL REN± l60N; architect; 

i. .:.,.'. •.'. I iiinlnt' Lcbas (.see Lebas), and 
^v.,u^u. /'/.,„„, (,<<u.<lJ'rixde Rome hi 1852. 
He built in Paris the church of Notre Dame des 
( 'liaiups. tiic library of the Facultil de M(?decine, 
till' ilusi-e Brignole-Galiera, and other works. 
He wa.s professor of architecture in the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, member of the Iii.stiliit, and 
archilecte honoraire of the French government 
and the city of Paris. 

Necrnhiqie in Construction Moderne, March 12, 
1898 ; I'enanruni, Les Architectes eleves de V Ecole 
des B,nux Arts. 

GINNELL. In local British usage, a pa.ssage 
betuv.n tun buildings ..r the Hke.— (A. P. S.) 

VANNI; architect, engineer, and epigra])hist 
of Verona, Italy; d. lietween 1515 and 1519. 

Fra Giocondo was a Franciscan monk and 
one of the most learned men of his time. He 
made a collection (Iwgini 1477) of two thousand 
Latin inscriptions, which wjis dedicated to Lo- 
renzo de' Medici (Corpnn Iiiscriptiotnati Lati- 
vonim. Vol. IIL, p. xxvii.). He published a 
celebrated critical edition of Vitruvius, in 1511, 
.Ic.lirut.d tn Pope Julius IL The charming 
L.._'L , I. 1 I h i.'li,. at Verona (1476-1492) is 
HI uithnut documentary evidence. 

Ill 1 ; ' I. I . rutcred the service of Ferdi- 

nand I., Mii;; III Naple.s. After the capture of 
Naples by Gharles VIIL in 1495, he followed 
the French king to Paris, and in 1497 wjis 
established at AndMiise. jehaii Jncmubis, dc- 
rlsf'iir de Ba.stimeiix is mentioned twice in 
Archives de VArt Fraurnis, (Vol. L, pp. 108, 
I If)). The chateau of Gaillon, the Pont Notre 
Dame, the old Chambre des Comi)t<-s, and other 
works in France have l)een ascribed to him. In 


fact, however, his name is not found on the 
records of any imj)ortant stnicture of the time, 
e.xcej)t the Pont Notre Dame at Paris (1499- 
1512) (Leroux de Lincy, op. cit.). In 151.3 
Giocondo was associated with Rjiphael and 
Giuliano da San Gallo in the construction of S. 
Peter. A design for that building, attribute<l 
to him by Antonio da San Gallo (II.), is in the 
Uffizi (Von Geymiiller, Les Projets primitifs, 
p. 263). 

Orti-Manara, Dei Larori Architettoniri di Fra 
Giocondo ; Tipaldo, Eluyio ; \'on Oeyuiuller, Lrs 
Projets primiti/s ; N'asari, Milanesi ed. ; I'alustre, 
La Renaissance en France, Vols. I. and II ; Ar- 
rhires de V.lrt Franriiis ; Leroux de Lincy. 
Rechirches historii/ins sur le Pont Xotre Dame. 


GIOTTO DI BONDONE : painter, architect, 
sculptor; b. about 12ii7 ; d. Jan. 8, 1337 (at 

One of the greatest of jiainters, begiiuier of a 
great movement, author of important wall paint- 
ings in the Arena chapel, Padua, in the church 
of S. Francesco at Assisi, in the Bargello at 
Florence, and elsewhere. See his life in ihc- 
tionaries of painters. After the death of 
Arnolfo di Cambio (see Arnolfo di Cambio) the 
construction of S. Maria del Fiore (cathedral, 
Florence) advanced little until 1331, when work 
was resumed under the care of the Arte della 
Lana (Wool Merchants' Guild). Ai)ril, 1334, 
Giotto was chosen architect of the cathedral, of 
the new city walls, and other ])ublic works. 
July 18, 1334, he laid the foundations of the 
campanile of the cathedral, of which, at his 
death, he had completed the first story. The 
intciT tin/ rr-r- ..f T\vr-;iv iii)(> bas-rclicfs which 
iXvr.- - -ii.'d by Giotto, and 

l,r..lM'\ , .,, , ... .. I xMth tin- assistance 
of AiJm., ,1, 1',-., ,-,. Al.I.v,-, da Pi.sji). The 
remaining li\c arc by Luca della Robbia (see 
Robbia, Luca della). 

Karl Prey, Stndien zu Giotto ; Selvatico, Sulla 
capellina de(ili Scrovegni ; John Ituskin, Giotto 
and his Works in Padiia ; Harrj' Quiiier, Giotto; 
(iuasti, Santa Maria del Fiore ; Heyniond, Sculp- 
ture Florentine ; Va.sari, iMilanesi ed. 

GIOTTOS CAMPANILE. The liell tower 

of the catiiiMhal of Floniicc, admittedly fnun 
the designs of (Jiotto, who did not live to see it 
completed. It is the most imjiortant j)iece of 
that late manifestation of Italian Gothic which 
carried with it much external decoration in 
coloured marbles combined with sculpture. 

GIOVANNI : l.'miian architect, sculptor, 
and ii,..>air,.t. ,Sr.. C.sniati.) 

da Fircnzc.) 


mata is known only as a.ssoiiated with .Mino da 

Ficsole (see Mino .la Fie.soU) in his Bonian 

work. Tschudi (op. cit.) ascril>e.s to him the 



Koverella monument in the church of S. Cle- 
men te in Rome, about 1476. 

Tscliudi, Giovanni Dalmata. 

GIOVANNI D'AMBROGIO ; sculptor and 

In 1383 he was employed to carve some of 
the figures designed by Agnolo Gaddi (see Gaddi, 
A.) for the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. The 
small northern portal of the Florentine cathedral 
with the Madonna and adoring augels, formerly 
ascribed to Giovanni Pisano, was made by him. 

Frey, Loggia dei Lanzi; Reymond, Sculpture 

Montonsoli, Fra Giovanni da.) 

GIOVANNI DA PISA; sculptor and archi- 
tect ; b. about 1240 ; d. about 1320. 

Son of Niccolo Pisano (see Niccolo da Pisa). 
In 1274 he went to Perugia to superintend the 
construction of the fountain of the great piazza 
from his father's designs. The bas-reliefs of 
the lower story are especially ascribed to him. 
Between 1278 and 1283 he built the cloister 
which surrounds the Campo Santo at Pisa. 
The church of S. Maria della Spina, Pisa, 
ascribed to him by Vasari, was not built before 
1323. Between 1302 and 1311 he made a 
pulpit for the cathedral of Pisa which was ruined 
by the conflagration of 1596. Fragments of 
this pulpit are now in the museum of the city 
of Pisa. In 1289 he began the facade of the 
cathedral of Siena. His design was modified 
by the architects of the next century. The pul- 
pit of S. Andrea at Pistoia is one of his most 
important works (1303). He commenced the 
enlargement of the cathedral of Prato in 1317. 

Supine, II Pergamo di Giovanni Pisano nel 
Duomo di Pisa, in Archivio Storico delV Arte, "Vol. 
v., p. 65. 

GIOVANNI DA PONTE ; architect; b. 
1512; d. 1597. 

Giovanni was a pupil of Scarpagnino (see 
Abbondi, Antonio). In 1 558 he was appointed 
proto of the reconstruction of the buildings on 
the island of the Rialto, Venice. In 1589 he 
began the construction of the bridge of the 
Rialto. Giovanni restored the Doge's palace 
after the fire of 1577, and about 1589 built the 
prison opposite that building. 

Temanza, Vite degli arehitetti e scultori Vene- 
ziani; Miintz, Renaixmnce; Ebe, Spdt-Renais- 
sance ; Milizia, Memorie. 

GIOVANNI DA SIENA; architect and 
military engineer. 

One of the leading military architects of 
the fourteenth century in Italy. Dec. 17, 
1386, he superseded Antonio di Vicenzo (see 
Antonio di Vicenzo) as constructor of the bastion 
of S. Procolo, Bologna. In 1391 he restored 
the tower at Rastellino near Bologna. In 1392 
he superseded Lorenzo da Bagnomarino as archi- 
tect of the Castel Bolognese. About 1422 


Giovanni entered the service of Niccolo d'Este 
at Ferrara, and in 1424 rebuilt the fortress at 
Finale near that city. 

Corrado Ricci, Giovanni da Siena ; Guidicini, 
Cose MirahiU. 

GIOVANNI DA UDINE. (See Ricamatori, 
Giovanni de'.) 

glass painter. 

Son of Bonino d' Assisi, one of the earliest 
glass painters in Italy. After 1325 he made 
many of the windows of the cathedral of Orvieto 
under the supervision of the architect Lorenzo 
Maitani (see Maitani). He was assisted by 
Andrea di Mino da Siena, Vitaluccio Luti, Tino 
d' Angelo d' Assisi and Tino di Biagio. Trans- 
lucent alabaster was used with the glass in the 
windows at Orvieto. They have been much 

Fumi, Duomo d' Orvieto. 


The old basilica of the Lateran was ruined 
by fire Aug. 21, 1361. There is a letter by 
Petrarch to Urban V. (Pope 1362-1370) at 
Avignon, describing the condition of the build- 
ing and urging its restoration. The reconstnic- 
tion was begim at once. The architect employed 
was Giovanni di Stefano da Siena. From 1372 
to 1389 he was supervising architect of the 
cathedral of Orvieto. 

Fumi, Duomo di Orvieto; Rohault de Fleury, 
Le Latran au Moyen Age ; Milanesi, Documenti. 

GIRALDA. The tower of the cathedral in 
Seville, Spain ; the name being apparently from 
the vane at the top, which is large and deco- 
rative (Sp. girar, to turn). The tower is 
Moorish, and 50 feet square, and was originally 
much less lofty than at present ; the present 
belfry, with several rows of arcades, having been 
added toward the close of the sixteenth century. 
Tlie figure which adorns the shaft of the vane 
is of broiizo, nnd an Italian work of the same 
date as the bclIVy, about 1568. 

GIRANDOLE. A candlestick with several 
s(»cl<i't.s tor candles, usually made into a deco- 
rative object and sometimes large and very 
elaborate. This method of lighting apartments 
was introduced in the seventeenth century. It 
is to be noted that there are three chief forms 
in which candlesticks intended for gi'ouping 
many candles together are made : Lustres, or 
chaiHleli.Ts in the usual sense, which ban- from 


II. Id 

I sol I, I 


called also by an extension of uuotlicr tciin, 
either Appliques, or Sconces. Of these, i,'ir.iii 
doles are capable of the most splendid elicit, .iihI 
they sometimes are so permanent and massive 
as to form jmrt of the anihitectural decoration 
of a large apartment. — R. S. 


GIRARDINI (GIRARDIN) ; architect. 

K.)r the (lu\va;;or Diulii-ss t.f Bourbon, mother 
of Louis llinri, I'riiui- ol (.'oiuli-, Girardini began, 
in \722, the old Palais Bourbon, Paris, which 
was reiuotlelled into the present Chanibre des 
Deputies. (See Cailleteau and Joly.) 

Joly, Jicstauraliou de la Chambre des Deputes. 

6IRARDON. FRAN9OIS; sculptor and 
architect ; h. March 17, \&2S, at Troyes (Aube), 
France; d. 1715. 

Girardon was a pupil of Franijois Anguier 
(see Anguier, F.). He studied in Rome, and 
on his return became the favourite sculptor of 
Charles Lebnm (see Lebrun). His earliest 
known work is the tomb of the Duke d'Epernon 
and his wife in a chapel of the church of Ca<lil- 
lac (Gironde, France). In 1690 Girardon con- 
tracted to build the great altar of the church of 
S. Jean-au-Marche in Troyes, which still exists. 
About 1699 he began the equestrian statue of 
Louis XIV. which stood in the Place Louis le 
Grand (now Place Vendome), and was melted 
down for cannon in the Revolution. Perhaps 
his most famous work is the monument of the 
Cardinal Richelieu in the church of Sorbonne, 
Paris. Many of his works are in the Garden of 

Gonse, Sculpture franf;aise ; Mariette, Abece- 
dario; Genevay, Style Louis XIV. 

GIRDER. Any, generally horizontal, mem- 
Irt fiillilliiij; the functions of a beam; differing 
ffdin a Lrain inily us being larger or of more 
coMipli.airil -tincture, or sis being used for the 

(S,-,. 1:. 1 |; ■ . I: ., |;nilt, Com- 

p.M.n.l, Latti.v, I'lat... an.l Trussed Girder, see 
those terms under Bc.im.) 

Open "Web Girder. Any girder of which 
the web is pieiced, or composed of parts having 
open spaces between them. Usually, a small 

GIRDING BEAM. Originally, a beam 
which girds, i.e. holds together the walls or 
piers ; obsolete ; apparently the original form 
of girder (which .see). 

GIRDLE A band, usually horizontal ; espe- 
ciallv (iiic rin^'iiij,' thr shaft of a column. (Com- 
iiaiv .\unulatcd; V.-.uuU;] Column.) 

GIROLAMO TEDESCO : arcliitcct. 

Ill 1. ■)().-) hv ina.lc the Ir] (nr tlic Fondaco 

del Tc<hs,-lii in \'ciurc, xvlurl, was cxcMitcd by 
Giorgio Spavciito (.sec Sitavcnto, G.) and Antonio 
Scarpagnino (see Abbondi). 

I'aolctti, Jiinascimento. 

GIRT. A. A small girder or the like. More 
specifically, in brace-frame building, the hori- 
zontal mcmlwrs which are framed into the posts, 
and Hfime of which support the floor iH'ams. 
(Compare Ribbon, and see Framing ; Wood, 
Construction in.) 


B. Same :us Fillet, B (rare or local). 

C. The dimension of any more or less cylin- 
drical member or piece lueiisuretl around its 
jjerimeter. Slore specifically, the dimension of 
a cunt'd or broken surface, as of a group of 
mouldiiiirs, iiica.surcd by following its jirofile. 

GIXnilANO DA MAIANO ; w oodworkcr 
(intarsiatore), architect and engineer ; b. 1432 ; 
d. Oct. 17, 1490. 

A brother of Benedetto da Maiano (see 
Benedetto da Maiano). In ascribing the Palazzo 
di S. Marco and other important buildings in 
Rome at tiiis jjeriod to Giuliano da Maiano, 
Vasari probably confuses him with Giuliano da 
San Gallo. (See San Gallo, Giuliano da.) His 
name does not appear in the Roman records. 
In 1468 he designed the Capella di S. Fina at 
Saint Gemignauo near Florence. In 1472 he 
designed the Palazzo del Capitano at Sarzana 
near Spezia, Italy. May 26, 1474, he began 
the cathedral of Facnza, and at about this time 
built the palace of the Cardinal Concha at 
Recanati. April 1, 1477, he was elected capo- 
maestro of the catheilral of Florence. Between 
1475 and 1480, with Francione (see Francione), 
he made the wooden doors of the Sala d'Udienza 
at the Palazzo della Signoria, Florence. He 
also assi-sted Baccio Pontelli (see Pontelli) at 
the ducal palace of Urbino. In July, 1487, 
Giuliano was paid through the bank of the 
Gondi in Florence two hundred ducats for the 
models of the palaces of Poggio Reale and of 
the Duche-sca near Naples. Feb. 17, 1488, 
he entered the ser\'ice of Alfonzo, Duke of Cala- 
bria, afterward King Alfonzo II., and con- 
structed for him these two palaces. Of the 
Poggio Reale, Giidiano's most important work, 
nothing remains except a drawing by Serlio 
(see Serlio). 

C. von Fabriczy, Giulinnoda Maiano architrtto 
del Du.nnodi /■Vir;,c„ ; Vasari, .Milane.si ed.. Vol. 
II., p. 407; .Miintz, li, naissanrv. Vol. II.. p. WM. 

Gallo. Ciuiiano ,]a.) 

(See r.au'li-ni, Ciuliano.) 

GIULIO ROMANO. (See Pijipi. Giulio.) 

GIUSTO. (See .Juste.) 

GIVRY. (See Colard de Givry.) 

GLASS. A mixture of silica and some 
alkali resulting in a substance hard, >isually 
brittle, a bad conductor of heat, and ])o.sse,s.scd 
of a singular lustre which, as it resembles the 
brilliancy of no other common substance, is 
known by the name of vitreous or glassy 
lustre. The most common kinds of gljiss are 
made by fusing together some ordinary form of 
silica, such as santl, with a sodium salt or some 
compound of potiussium replacing the sodium 
either wholly or in jiait, and sometimes with 
lead. There is no formula of universjd apjdica- 
tion ; moreover, some varieties of glass contain 


ingredients which are kept secret by the maker, 
or are compounded in a way which is kept 

The different kinds of glass in use in archi- 
tectural practice are : — 

1. Clear glass in sheets more or less per- 
fectly transparent and including ordinary win- 
dow glass, plate glass, and several imitations 
of the latter, sometimes sold under the name 
of plate glass. Under this head come the vari- 
ous modern varieties of glass whose surface is 
deliberately roughened or ridged or furrowed or 
pressed in patterns with the purpose of reduc- 
ing its transparency and allowing it to trans- 
mit light while shutting oif the view of what 
may be beyond. (See below. Corrugated; Pris- 
matic ; Ribbed ; Rough Plate Glass.) 

2. Glass in small tesserae or in tiles of 
moderate size, usually opaque and very commonly 
coloured. These are used for mosaic of the 
ordinary fashion, as in flooring and in the 
adornment of walls and vaults. The tiles are 
usually cast in one piece, in this resembling 
plate glass ; and it is easy to produce very inter- 
esting bas-reliefs and also inlaid patterns of great 
beauty, which may be complete in each tile or 
may require many tiles to complete the design. 
Such work was common among the Romans, 
who lined rooms with glass as freely as with 
marble. The tesserte, however, are more com- 
monly cut from large sheets by steel tools. The 
tesserae are sometimes gilded, and so prepared 
to give to a mosaic picture a background or 
partial decoration in gold, by making the glass 
tessera in two parts, laying a piece of gold leaf 
between the two, and uniting the whole by heat. 
(See Mosaic.) 

3. Glass in sheets coloured throughout its 
mass and used chiefly for decorative windows. 
(See Pot Metal.) 

4. Glass in sheets, flashed, as it is called ; 
that is to say, coloured by means of a finer coat- 
ing of deep coloured glass on one or on both 
sides. This device is used for colours which 
would be sombre if the whole substance were 
coloured a-s in pot metal. The deep reds are the 
colours usually so treated. This also is used 
for decorative windows. 

Hoth the third and the fourth kinds of glass 
arc tiioditicd in many ways, especially in modem 
times, by the addition of an opaline tinge by the 
u.sc of arsenic or other chemicals. The opalescent 
quality, when applied to otherwise uncoloured 
glafw, may be described as clouded with a whitish 
gray opacity, which, however, sliows by trans- 
mitte<l light a ruddy spark. In the manufacture 
of glass for windows of great cost and splendour, 
it him been found that such opalescent gl.'iss, 
when it has rectcived strong and rich colour in 
addition tf) the opaline quality, is capable of 
rnon; perfect harmony, tint with tint, or of a more 
hanrionioiiH contract, colour with colour, tiian if 


the opaline character had not been given to it. 
(For glass used in decorative windows, see 

5. Glass cast in solid prisms, and in pris- 
matic and pyramidal shapes, for the purpose of 
being set in metal frames and used for vault 
lights. (See Vault Light.) 

6. Glass in the b.Hly ,,r wliich some foreign 
substance is iiitindm-cil. Tliis may lir dciiif with 
purely decoratiw rtt'ect, as liy the artists of tlie 
Roman imperial epoch in vcs.scLs of eunsiduruble 
thickness and mass, and this has been imitated 
by the modern Venetian glassworkers. Wire 
glass (which see below) is made on a similar 
plan for purposes of safety from fire. 

7. Soluble glass, for which see the sub-title. 

— R. S. 

Corrugated Glass. That of which at least 
one face is ridged ; but the term is usually con- 
fined to glass which is ridged on each face, the 
whole substance of the glass being bent into 
wavelike corrugations exactly as in the case of 
corrugated metal, — the valley on one side form- 
ing the ridge on the other. 

Crown Glass. That which is made by the 
blowing tube, which produces a bulb-shaped 
mass which, transferred to the pontil, is re- 
volved rapidly until it suddenly opens out into a 
circular plate. The glass so produced is often 
streaky and of unequal thickness. This peculi- 
arity, which has caused the abandonment of 
crown glass for ordinary window glass, has 
caused its use in producing partly opaque and 
richly coloured glass for modern windows ; but 
the sheets made in this way are usually of small 

Flint Glass. A composition of white sand, 
potasli, nitre, and a large amount of red lead, — 
in fact, half as much red lead as all the other 
above-named ingredients together, — to which 
mass is added "cullet," as in the case of plate 
glass. This glass is not usal in strictly archi- 
tectural work. It is very soft, and scratches 
easily. It has, however, extraordinary refrac- 
tive power, and on this account is used liir 
imitation jewelry of all sorts. In tiiis way it 
enters into architectural decoration, not <inly in 
windows, but in the "jewelled " liauirs of altar- 
pieces and similar decorative ajiplianccs. Klint 
glass with a still greater amount nf red liail is 
called strass, and is the substance (•(iiuuniidy 
used under the name of "paste" for mock 

Ground Glass. Glass of which the surface 
has been roughened, properly by grinding, or 
more usually by acid, by tlie sand blast, or in 
some similar way, the purpose of the operation 
being to make it nntransparent. 

Iridescent Glass. A common translucent 
glass nl' siunc kind, the surface of which has re- 
ceived, by aitilicial niean.s, an iridescence like 
that of a .soai. i.uht.lc. Tlie ancient Roman and 


Greek and other ghuss, especially that found 
buried in the earth, has an iridescence which 
comes from a slow process of dcconijKJsition. 
The sheet of glass gradually resolves itself into 
thin films, and the iridescence is thus a natural 
result like that in a metallic ore. Tlie irides- 
cent gliuss is supposed to l)e made in imitation of 
this, but it does not resemble it very strongly. 

Jealous Glass. (Jlass depolished or otlier- 
wisc linislicd m) its to let light pass while it has 
lost its transparency. 

Marbleized Glass. One of which the sur- 
face is marked by small irregular veins, indicating 
the places where the glass has been deliberately 
shattered by plunging into water while hot and 
then rcnicltcd. 

Painted Glass. (See Window.) 

Plate Glass. A compoiuid of white sand, 
sodium carbonate, lime, and either alumina or 
manganese peroxide, together with a quantity — 
almost equal to the mass of the above materials 
— of "cullet," or old window glass broken up 
for remelting. The plate glass is then a solid 
casting made by pouring the melted "mCtal" 
upon a flat table of oust iron upon which a cast- 
iron roller of the same length as the table's width 
moves from end to end. The movement of the ■ 
roller, wliich rests upon ridges at the sides of the 
t:\]>\o. fivi'-; the thickness of the plate, and bubbles 
.ii .<\],rv tl.iw- are snatched from the semiliquid 
nil ~ \'\ |i iM . IS. The perfect evenness of the 
.-iiir.Mi .111,1 the high polish, upon which, after 
the purity uf the piece, the unequalled trans- 
parency and brilliancy of plate glass depend, are 
obtained by careful grinding and polishing on 
both sides. 

Rough plate glass, used for parts of floors, is 
cast very thick, and its upi)er surface is left as it 
cools, — neither \':f'- L.i'iT ,„,iwii...i 


Glass of ver\ 
made by a total! 
polished so as t i l 
plate glass ; and I 

■ - - ■ i' I ■- til real 
mictiiMrs M.l,! under 
that name, and deceptively, and sometimes uniler 
the name of patent plate gla<;s, or of one com- 
pounded of "plate" and a .jii il:'\;ii_ l. im. T'.r 
great strength of real ])lai< I i ■ | 1 

by these imitations. Ti m 1 ; i 

plate glass, the plate gla.^. uni i -i ii..;i..i.- aii.l 
large windows is most conmiouly spoken ot as 
" polished plate " ; sometimes also by other and 
temporary local names. 

Prismatic Glass. A glass of which one sur- 
face is smooth, while the other is marked by 
ridges of prismatic section ; distinguished from 
ribbed and corrugated glass by the sharp-edged 
character of the ridges. This glass may be so 
made and so fi.ved in windows tliat dayliglit 
passing through it may 1m; refracted liorizontally, 
or nearly so, and may in this way illuminate a 
very large internal sj)Mce. Its use in mills in the 
United States has added greatly to the conven- 

ience of the large r 

where many oi)eratives 

Ribbed Glass. That which hjis at least one 
surface ridgetl i.r ribbed. The term is usually 
confined to that which has only one surface so 
markeil, to distinguish it from corrugated glass. 

Sheet Glass. That produced by blowing 
into a cylinder which is constantly increased in 
size, and which is then spUt lengtiiwise by a 
cutter. Being then heated afresh, it falls open 
by its own weight, the sheet so produced being 
generally about 3 feet by 4 in size. It is rubbed 
smooth with some soft material, formerly by a 
piece of partially charred wood. When sheet 
glass is highly polished, it is sometimes called 
jjicture glass, and sometimes, when it is decep- 
tively clear and smooth, patent plate glass. 
(See Plate Gla.ss, above.) 

Soluble Glass. A mixture of potash or of 
soda with common silica. It retains its liquid 
form, and is iLsed to fix mural paintings. (See 
Water Glass, Ijelow.) 

Stained Glass. That which is coloured either 
in its whole mass (pot metal) or by means of 
fla.siiing, or by means of an applie<l stain. The 
only perfectly successful stain is that which gives 
a yellow, which, coming into use toward the close 
of the fifteenth century, caused a sudden change 
in decorative windows throughout the north of 
Europe. The crimson of fljish glass, is produced 
by certain oxides of copper, and by a mixture of 
gold with oxide of tin. Blue in many different 
shades, green, purjde, etc., are produced by the 
use of cobalt, though other chemicals are some- 
times combined with it. Manganese gives a 
dark purple glass, ajiproaching black, which can 
be brought to almost complete opacity by means 
of the depth of colour alone, thus giving to the 
worker in coloured glass great results in the way 
of grailation. (See Silver Stain, under Stain ; 

"Water Glass. A mixture of a soluble sili- 
cate with an oxide ; therefore a liquid or liqui- 
fiable glass. It is not mixed with the pigments 
in painting:, oxcrpt orcnsionally for retouching, 
sprinkler, to the 

. l.ei 

inte.1 with 

' , I , ualer. In fa.t, it is a 

■ ii-..u.\i , ..i.il ;in i/i.Hr.s.> corresponds in princi- 
])le to tiiat of fixing a charcoal drawing. It has 
lieen much and successfully employe<l in Germany 
on interior walls. There seems to be more doubt 
jis to its durability on exterior walls. For a full 
exposition of the process the reader is referrtHl 
to the early pamphlet by Dr. J. N. Von Fuchs 
(18l>.")) ami tlie later work by Adolph Keim, of 
Municli. - F. ('. 

Window Glass. That which is used for 
ordinary wiiidow.s, as in dwellings. This usetl 
to l)e connnonly Crown (Jlass (which see above) ; 
but this nnmufacturc has nearly ceased. It is 
now more commonly Sheet Glass ; (which see). 


■Wire Glass. That which has a continuous 
network of wire enclosed in the solid mass ; a 
plate of this glass may bear a very great heat, 
as of a contlagration, without losing its consis- 
tency altogether, although its translucency may 
be destroyed, and it may be much cracked. 

— R. S. (except for Water Glass). 

GLAZE. A. To furnish with glass, as a 
window sash or a door. The past participle 
glazed is used more especially to describe the 
presence or use of glass in a place where it is 
not uniformly put, as a glazed door, the more 
common phrase for which in the trade is a sash 
door. On the other hand, the phrase "glazed 
sash " means commonly machine-made window 
sash with the glass in place ready for delivery, 
the common way of supplying both sash and 
glass to a new building. It is only the large 
lights of plate glass, as for show windows, which 
of late years are brought to the building without 
being first fitted to their sash. 

B. To give (to anything) a polish or glassy 
surface ; in this sense rare in the building trades, 
excefit in keramics ; thus, glazed tile is com- 
monly used in contradistinction to unglazed 
(i.e. mat or rough surface) tile. — R. S. 

GLEBE. The piece of land considered as 
belonging for the time to the holder of an eccle- 
siastical benefice in connection with the Cluuch 
of England. It is sometimes treated as includ- 
ing buildings, the house provided for the in- 
cumbent, and its appurtenances. 

GLEBE HOUSE. A house provided for the 
occupancy of the incumbent of an ecclesiastical 

GLEBE LAND. Same as Glebe. 

GLORIETTE, THE. A casino in the gar- 
dens of the palace of SchiJnbrunn, near Vienna, 
set high on a ridge, and consisting of an en- 
closed central pavilion and two open arcaded 
wings, the whole being about 1 40 feet long. It 
was built by Jo.seph II. and Maria Theresa, in 

GLORY. In religious art, an appearance 
as of light emanating from the person, which is 
indicated in a way often very conventional and 
abstract, in painting, sculpture, and decoration 
of different sorts. The use of this attribute 
seems to be of Eastern origin, and the Buddhist 
and other parts of .\sia, sini-c the tcntli century, 
offer many instances of tins metliml u[ disiin 
guishing the important ami nmst saried person 
age in a composition. Tliis Uuiu may be lakitn 
as the general one including all the special forms 
known Vty the terms Aureola, or Aureole, which 
surrounds the whole person ; Halo, which sur- 
rounds the head only ; Nimbu.s, which, in its 
original signification of a cloud, should be as 
general as glory, but is most commonly used as 
synonymouH with halo ; and Vesica Piscis, which 
is the aureole, only of a special pointed, oval 
shape. In mediieval architectural sculpture, 


the glory of any kind was often treated simply 
as a frame in relief, often carved with leafage, 
and as completely an architectiu-al moulding 
or group of mouldings as the archivolt of a 
window ; its position surrounding a sacred per- 
sonage explaining its especial significance, while 
its presence called attention to the figure which 
it surrounded. — R. S. 

GLYPH. Literally, a cutting of any sort ; 
in its more usual sense as an architectural term, 
any one of many grooves, channels, flutes, or 
the like, usually vertical or nearly vertical. 
(See Di^lypb ; Strigil Ornament ; Triglypli.) 

GLYPTOTHECA. A building for the pres- 
ervation anil exhibitinn of seuljituie. The term 
Glyjitothek may be taken as a modern German 
modification of it. 

GLYPTOTHEK. A building for the exhi- 
bition of sculpture; the term being introduced 
as the name of the building erected by the care 
of Ludwig I. of Bavaria, 1825-1848, while still 
crown prince. The immediate purpose was to 
provide a home for the sculptures brought from 
the Temple of JEghm. 


GMUND, PETER VON. (See Parler, 

GNEISS. A rock of the same composition 
as Granite, but with a more or less banded or 
foliated strueture.—G. P. M. 

GOBBO (Humpback) H.. (See San Gallo, 
Battista; S.ilari, Cristoforo.) 

tect ; b. Dec. 26, 1781 ; d. Dee. 7, 1869. 

Goilde was a pupil of Lagardette. In 1805 
he was made inspector of the public works of 
the city of Paris. From 1832 to 1848 he liad 
charge of the first section, which included the 
Hotel de Ville, the churches, temples, ceme- 
teries, etc. In this capacity he commenced 
with Lesueur (see Lesueur) the enlargement of 
the Hotel de Ville and between 1838 and 1848 
restored th,' eliureb of S. Germain I'Au.xerrois. 

GENE ; architect; b. July 31, 1809; d. May 
1.5, 1879. 

Godobreuf was a pupil of Blouet (see Blouet) 

■ .\elli 

e Led 



111 IS 

of the 

.' he \ 

• /■;<■ 

of the 

, I 'a 

Ecola dc.s J'oids d. Cha. 

1859 with the construction of the Kmlc dn 

Ohiie Maritime. From 1867 to 187.3 he was 

architect of the commission des luoniiviods 


Narjoux, Paris; Monuments Mcvl's par la Vdlc; 
Bauchal, nirtionnaire. 

GODINET. (See Gaudinet.) 

GODOAVN. In Eastern countries, frequenteil 

by European travellers, a storehouse of any kind. 



The term seems to be of ludiau origiu, and is 
generally stated to be derive<l from the Malay, 
although other derivations are suggested. It is 
in use throughout India, and in the Chinese 
and Japanese ports, and is applied loosely by 
Europeans in the East to any plate of deposit. 
Tlius, the Japanese Kura is called a godown, 
though improperly, for the general term, origi- 
nating in ordinary farm buildings and the like, 
should not be ai)plied to those much specialized 
fireproof storeliouses. 

GODROON. A conve.x rounded oniament, 
differing from a unit of Reeding in not having 
parallel sides and uniform section throughout. 
Commonly it has one end rounded and the other 
tafKiriug to a point. The term is more properly 
usefl for silverware or the like than in architec- 


(Srr (;..rt.'l„K,l,r, 1 ',1 1 US .1 .irol iU>. ) 


architect and engraver; b. Feb. 28, 1788. 

He wa-s a pupil of P. J. de Broe and at the 
Royal Academy of Ghent. Goetghebuer pub- 
lished Clioix des vionuments, Mifices et mai- 
sons les plus remarquables du royaume des 
Pays-Bas. He built the Hotel des Postes in 
the Wapenplaats in Ghent and other important 
buildings. His brother Fran(jois Joseph was 
also an architect of note. 

I Vlaamsche Kunst- 

60INO. In British usage : 

A. Of a step, the horizontal distance between 
two successive ri.sers. (See Tread.) 

B. Of a stair or flight, the horizontal distance 
bptwi'cn till' first and last risers. 

GOLDEN HOUSE. (Latin, domus aurea.) 
\ Lir.it |i:il,i. r ill Rome, with park, larger and 
siiialhr liiki s, dlil trees brought to the spot and 
great numbers of buildings ; built and arranged 
by Nero after the burning of Rome in A.D. 64. 
Its remains lie on the southern slope of the Es- 
quiiine Hill, and northeast of tlie Coliseum. 
(See account in Lanciani's Ruins and Excava- 
tions, Book IV, XI.) 

GOLD LEAF. Gold beaten veiy thin. It 
is customary to discriminate Ijetween gold foil, 
which is in sheets as thick as some kinds of 
paper, and gold leaf, of which it may be said, 
following the encyclopiedias, that an ounce of 
gold (worth about SI 6) may be beaten out to 
cover 300 or 400 square f(vt. The cost of 
gilding is tlicivfrnv n..t lar-dv in Uie value 
of the liirtal u>r,|. (S,T (ill. ill,-.) 

GOLDSTONE; . . , ir.Ki-t n- and architect. 

AlM)ut 1 \M I'rioi (Jol.i.siuiic, liist of tiie name, 
built tlie southwest tower and porch and the 
Virgin cliapel (Neville's chapel) at Canter- 
bury cathe<lral. AlK)ut IT)!.') Prior Goldstone, 
second of the name, i)uilt the central tower. 


Their names are iuscriljed in .symbols on their 

Britlon, Cathedral Antiquities, Canterbury. 

OONDOUrN, JACQUES: architect; b. 
Oct. 1, 1737; d. Dec. L>9, 1S18. 

Gondouin was a pupil of Jacques Franc^ois 
Blondel (.see Bloudel, J. F.). He dcsignetl and 
built the Ecole de Medecine, Paris, which was 
begun in 1709 and finished in 1786. In as.so- 
ciatiou with Le])ere he built between 1806 and 
1810 the Colonne of the Place Vendome, for- 
merly Colonue de la Grande Armee. 

Benoit. L'Art franrais sous la Revolution et 
sous r Empire ; Quatreni^re de Quincy, Xotice de 
M. Cromtouin. 

GONTARD. KARL VON; architect; b. 
1738; d. Sept. 2.3, 1791. 

Gontard received his training in Paris, and 
travelled in Italy, Sicily, and Greece. In 1764 
he entered the service of Friedrich II. (Frederick 
the Great). He built at Potsdam, near Berlin, 
the ottices of the Xeues F<dast, the Freund- 
schajlstempel and Marble Palace. He built in 
Berlin the KiJnigsbrucke with its colonnade, the 
two towers of the Gensdarmen Markt and other 
important buildings. 

Borrmann, Kunstdenkmaler von Berlin ; Meyer, 

DRO ; painter and a 
(at Mmlrid). 

At tlie age of nineteen he painted the decora- 
tion of the theatre of the Buenretiro, Madrid. 
In 17.52 he was made director in architecture at 
the Academy of S. Ferdinando at Madrid. 

OOPURA. In Indian architecture, a gate- 
way, as of a town or temjjle enclosure ; esj)e- 
cially, in the wTitings of European students of 
Eastern art, a gateway tower, i.e. one built 
above the main entrance to a temple, as if to 
call attention to its position. (See India, Archi- 
tecture of.) 

GORGE. In some orders of columnar archi- 
tecture, a band around the .shaft near the top, 
or forming part of the capital near the bottom ; 
a fillet or narrow member which .seems to divide 
the capital from tlic shaft. In those onlers, 
such as Roman Doric, in which tiie capital 
proper is a small, thin moulding, tlie gorge is 
used to give to the capital a certain height and 
mass, and it may then be a band of some inches 
in width between two groups of mouldings, the 
whole forming a necking which is larger than 

the cipit.d itsrlf. 

GORGERIN. Same as Necking. 

GORGON. In architectural sculpture, the 
reincstiitatioii of a monster somewhat resembling 
a Woman witli iiuge mouth and teeth and glar- 
ing ryes. (See ( iorgoneion.) 

GORGONEION. The representation of a 
gorgon's head. In earlier work it Wiis without 


; b. Feb. 27, 1719 


serpents ; in later work, with many and much 
involved and convoluted serpentine botlies sur- 
rounding the face. It is represented as borne 
upon the segis carried by Pallas Athene, and 
occurs in Grecian architectural sculpture, es- 
jjccially of the earlier work. 

GOSPEL SIDE. (See Ambo.) 

of the Goths properly so called. This is not 
now traceable nor to be identified except in Spain, 
where a very early Romanesque may be ascribed 

to the Visigothic kingdom, before the Moorish 
conquest. Even of this, no complete buildings 
can be named, but separate caijitals an<l some 
larger members are built intn Mumisli an. I dtlicr 
buildings. (See Bibliograpliy uimIci- S|iaiii.) 

B. That of populations "alna.ly skilled in 
building, but brought under Gothic ndo. Of 
this, the most imj)ortant instance remaining is 
that of Ravenna : the buildings erected under 
the rule of Thcodoric (King of the Ostrogoths 
from 475 a.d.. King of Italy from 493), and 
which show a peculiar modification of Latiti Ar- 
chitecture (which see ; see also Italy, Part V.). 

C That which originated in nortiiern central 
France about the middle of the twelfth century, 
and which at the close of that century had spread 


over what is now northern France ; while de- 
tached buildings in England, in northern Spain, 
and on the Rhine were beginning to show its 
influence. In this sense, the term is an inven- 
tion of the classical Renaissance, and expresses 
contempt. The thirteenth century was the time 
of complete development of the original style as 
described below; but in spite of veiy serious 
modifications which are often spoken of as cor- 
ruptions or signs of decay, the style which may 
be properly called Gothic continued to prevail 
in France until 1500, in Germany and in Spain 
nearly as long, and in England until even a later 
(late. France was always its chief centre, the 
architecture of no other country equalling it in 
dignity or beauty, in perfectly rational and 
Idgical workiiij,' out of its principles, or in l)eauty 
of sculptured detail. 

In Spain, however, there is architecture, prob- 
alily the work of French architects, of extraor- 
dinary' dignity and splendour ; and in England 
the style was developed in a peculiar way with 
strong national characteristics, on a smaller 
scale, without the great expense of money and 
labour which tlie French buildings must have 
required, and yet in a peculiar way attractive. 
(See England, Architecture of ; Gothic Architect- 
ure in England.) In Germany no general princi- 
ple of growth can be found, for the architecture of 
the Rhineland was constantly receiving new in- 
spiration from France, and that of the more 
eastern provinces varies greatly from one district 
to another. In Italy a style was introduced 
from eastern France and the liliineland at tho 
very close of the twelfth century. It retained 
tliere its true northern chaiacter nnly in the 
liands of its original intniilncers, wlm seem to 
have been the Cister.'ian nmnks ; elsewhere it 
was modified almost out of recognitinii, while 
yet it prevailed until the introduction of classical 
(h'tails about U20. (See Architecture; Neo- 
classic ; Renaissance Architecture.) 

The esseni-e nf (luthic areliitecture is in its 
vaulting. 'i'liKai-hout the earlier Middle Ages 
there was a cdnstant attempt tu rodf tlie aisles 

nf the 

I.) Tlu" 

nd I 

iiisii|jrialil(' were in the curved aisle which was 
carried muiid the apselike end of many Roman- 
esque churches. When, however, the idea wiis 
suggested of a rib of sinne tlmiwn in an inde- 
pendent arch from impnst tn ilnpu^l, and carry 
ing the weight of a vauli which should rise from 
it, a solution was otfcnd wiiich was found to lie 
sufficient for all the problems which miglit arise. 
Take, for instance, a i)lan as in Fig. 1. If a 
simple vault is sprung across from A to C, this 
will go on diminishing like a funnel us far as 
HI), and if another vault intersects it at riglit 
angles this will be a vault spiimg across from 

CtoD aud from .1 to B. This will be groinwl 
vaulting ; but the result will lie extremely ugly 
and very unsafe. To take a single instance, the 
point O where the 
vaults meet would 
be no longer tlie 
highest point of 
the vault, and the 
most ungainly ef- 
fect woidd 
be pro- 
duced by 



the groins 
AD and BC above 
the point of intersec- 
tion. If, however, the 
point 0', is taken as 
the highest point of 
the vault, and inde- 
pendent ribs are sprung 
the four imposts 
A B C D' to a boss 
or plate of stone at 
the point 0', then 
those four ribs divide 
„. ,,..,,, the vault into four tri- 

Diagram of Tttultlng of circular , 

Jcanibuiflior}'. angles very easy to 

build so long as they 

are built directly upon the ribs, throwing their 

whole weight and thrust upon their ribbed 


If, now, the space 

to ho vnultc 

1 is of tlic 

usual square or i ' 

■ ' 1 

Mich as is 

given by oiieot tli. 

vc or aisle. 

the.sanic system i>l 

I plan gen- 

eraliy hke Fig. 1'. 

it appears 

that two of the 1 

It the ccn- 

tral boss ma\ ' 

will 1)0, in 

the same vertical y. 

oforc, fo 




Gothic Archfthcturk : Fio. 2. 

Ian of nno comnart 
half nil, Aoh n 

r A nothlc vault, A O h 
illaeonnl rib; A OH. ro 
tlio bens or clff; J, 

traoBvorso arclicn ; A C,BD, wall 

a single arch with a continucms or a broken 
curve. The two ribs AO and OIJ, for instance, 
in Fig. •>, form a round or jwinted arch the side 


view of wliich woidil be nearly like that in Fig. 
3. This arch, however, is not absolutely complete 
becau.se the two ribs meet at a boss which will 
be place<l at 0, Fig. 3. If, however, we take 
the arch at BD or the arch at CD, Fig. 3, we 
have a pointed arch which has no boss, or in 
other wonls, an onlinary pointed arch. This 
arch will have no keystone, but a joint at the 
apex, and in that respect the true Gothic arch 
diflers from the pointed arch often used in Italy, 
and in nuxlern times. 

We have still, however, to provide against 
the thrust or outward horizontal or diagonal 
pressure of this cluster of arches. If the vault- 
ing square which we have considered hitherto 
should occupy the whole width of tlie church, 
or other building to be roofed, it will \x sufficient 
to put he^a\'y piers of masonrj- at the points 
where the riljs of the vault have their inijjosts, 
or at or near the points A, B, C, aud D, Fig. 2. 
This will give a result nearly like Fig. 4, the 
famous Sainte-Chapelle at Paris. The great 
piers, seen projecting from the side walls, which 
take up the thrust of the inside vaults by their 
mere passive resistance, are called buttresses. 

Gothic Architecture: Fio. 3. 

Diagram of riba corresponding with Fig. 2. 

In all vaulted buildings something of this kind 
luis to be provided, but in the case of Ronian 
buildings (see Roman Imperial Architecture), 
those great masses of material are generally 
within the building somewhere, and form divi- 
sion walls, or in some other way encumber the 
floor. If, however, the more usual type of 
church is under consideration, and the nave has 
aisles on either side of it, it will be necessaiy to 
take up the thrust of the higli vaults of the nave 
by some other device ; because tlie a|)pcarance 
of such grcjit i)iei-s in the very heart of the aisle 
on cither side would be to defeat the very object 
of such a building, by encumlx'ring the internal 
space which is intended to be free and open. 
If, in a church of simple idan, as in Fig. 4, the 
buttresses are jnit outside the building ; so also 
they nee<lcd to be in the more complicate<i plan, 
if the scheme of the Gothic builders was to Ik- 
carrie<l out. The result was a system like that 
shown in the right-hand half of Fig. T) : an ar- 
rangement overhejid, by which the thrust oC the 


great vaults over the nave was carried through 
the air across the width of the aisles and thrown 
upon the buttresses, which are seen outside of 
the aisle walls. This system of caiTying the 
thrust horizontally, or nearly so, and far over- 
head, was adopted almost at the begin- 
ning of the Gothic period ; for, indeed, 
the chief characteristic of the Gothic ar- 
chitecture is its extraordinary logic and 
deliberate reasoning out of point after 
point, the needs being always met 
new devices, and those devices treated as 
decorative features. The fly- 
ing buttress, which resulted 
from this necessity and this 
resolute way of meeting 
it, is shown in its general 
scheme in Fig. 5. It will be 
seen from these diagrams 
that all that is really essential 
is the carrying ot the bar of 
stone along a cert im hue 

which repicsents the thnist 

of the vault , or, at all e\ ents, 

the providmg of the ni I'^s of 

stone in that place and along 

that line, although, ot ( our-e, 

a larger and he i\ u r m iss 

might be used which would 

disguise the true nituie of 

the construe tion Thi-^, how 

ever, the Gothic buildiis 

never did. Thtir flying hut 

tress is a sloping bai or stiy 

of stone put where it is most 

needed, and he Id in jilui In 

the simple dev K c of m n li 

underneath it ("sm 1 Imii^ 

Buttress, under ])\itti ss ) 
The full Gothu pi m 

shown in Fig 6 is in 

development of the di i^i i 

given abovi th i \ i tl 

ai.sleat tlic i i> 

bulatory) 1 til 

nearly as m 1 i„ I II 

plan is, indeed, c ipibh t 

considerable viricty, fhii>- 

it is not esstntiil tint ill 

the vaulting squares oi dl 

the piers should be of the 

same size. The d,.igr..ihs. 

Figs. 2 and 3, show what is 

called quadripartite vaulting, 

and, in Fig. 6, the similar 

lines of the nave and iiisles show the same kind 

of vaulting, but the system called sexpartite 

vaulting might also be used. 

It has been said above that the arch nt AC 

in Fig. 2 and in Fig. ."$ would l)c a plain pointed 

arch without a boss. This kind of arch be- 
came, then, the natural form for an opening 


toward the outer air, such as a window, or an 
opening from bay to bay within the church. 
The exterior aspect, then, of the Gothic church 
soon became notably a long row of such pointed 
arches alternating with large buttresses project- 

ing boldly between the 

characteristic jjointed arch became a beloved 
feature of the de(U)rative designer, as well us a 
necessary part of the construction, and many 


arclies wore built in this way ti) .sjtaii (PiH-niiip* 
which (lid not need so strong a closure. Thus, 
in the interior view of a large church there is 
no necessity for the jjointed arches over the 
small openings of the triforiuni, but the jwint^d 
• arch very soon became a matter of course and 
was used everywhere, as in arcades or the like. 
Another i)eculiarity of the matured Gothic is 
the complete disapjjearance of the wall in all 
imj)()rtant places ; for, as the roof of stone is 
entirely carried on pilasters and jiiers sujiported 
vertically, and the thrust of the vault is taken 
up by the buttresses (with or without flying 
liuttresses to carry the thmst to the buttress), 
so there remains no longer any duty for the wall 
to fulfil. The gla-ss of the windows, therefore, 
with the slender stone tracery which held it iu 


Gothic Architecture: Fig. 5. 

A, Imlf section of earlv baMllra wlUi tic-boain roofs; B. Iialf 
sertlon of (iothic church with raultinc and (lying buttrrs ■.-». 
Both buildings on the same ground plan. 

place, was allowed to fill the whole space he- 
neath the jwinted arch, except tiiat a low, very 
thin wall was built l)eneath the sill of the win- 
dow, having no utility excejjt to attord a less 
fragile means of enclosure at the lower level 
wlicre injury was to be feared. Hence arose 
tiic familiar saying, which is not wholly incor- 
rect, that a Gothic church wiia a roof of stone 
with a wall of glass. Although a Gothic church 
is much more than that, it is that also ; and its 
builders (Mijoyc^d the novelty that they had in 
their hands so imich that every ett'ort wjus made 
tliniugh long lapses of time to diminish the size 
of the stone u])riglits and to increase the general 
appcar.mcc of lightness, o]>enness, and a])])ar- 
ently impossible piling of weight and miws upon 

sK-lider uprights. This is a prilici])ic of design- 
ing exactly as admissible svs the putting of light- 
ness ujxm weight ; grandeur, gnic^, and diversity 
of projwrtion can be obtained in either way. 
The Gothic builders, having chosen their princi- 
ple of design, followed it out with a boldness 
never before seen in the historj' of architecture, 
and produced a style which, more than any 
other style, or j)erhaps more than all combine<l, 
gives a seemingly infinite variety, with a uni- 
form and unvarj'ing principle of coustniction 
and design. 

The love of the pointed arch brought with it 
a love for the stee]) upward sloping line, and a 
strong verticality of design. Thus, the wwHlen 
roof which Wfis put as a mere shell or mask 
above the stone vault in order to keep the rain 
from it, was made unneeessjirily steep because 
the style had grown in that direction, while the 
steep roof was of course, no worse, or even a 
little bettor for it'j i)uri)o.se, ha^^ng no real fault 
except it- Livat r,.,t. and the surface exposetl to 
the aciMii ,,( tl„ wind. It i.s, however, a mis- 
take til .sii]i]iiise that the great relative height 
of the Continental Gothic churches was merely 
matter of verticality of design. Fig. 5 shows 
the aisle with its sloping r(M)f above its vault, 
and the nave rising high alx)ve the aisle roof 
so as to have a large clearetory window. This 
clearstory window determine.s the height of the 
nave roof: and if the architects wanted a great 
Miluiiie nf liirlit iinuicd ill .it tlu'sc large win- 
.inws. tliry hail til make th.> height of the clear- 
stcii y very great. Tiie matter of proportion also 
was to be considered, and the side view of this 
double row of arches ojien below and fille«l with 
windows above was an imi)ortant consideration. 
If, for instance, the width of the aisle were 12 
feet, the nave would 1h> nearly twice as wide ; 
and the j)iers which separate the aisle from the 
nave would need t.. be at leiist 16 feet high to the 
tojis I I til 11 . i]i I lis, for even this would make 
the II. . k,ii_~ -I t!i. -e capitals only 13 feet from 
the 111". I. lull tinu this height everything else 
results, and it will be found that, with the width 
of aisle we have supposed, the height of the 
nave vault from the floor to its crown would 
be 61 feet, and the height to the ridge of the 
roof would be 82 feet. If, now, the church is 
doubled in its horizontjd dimensions, and the 
nave is made 50 feet wide, we have a height of 
127 feet to the crown of the vault and 171 fei't 
of total height to the ridge of the nnjf, which is 
very nearly that of the great French cathedrals 
of the thirteenth century. In other words, it 
was no four de force which the Gothic archi- 
tects were engaged in, but the carrying out of 
their simple and obvious principles of Jcsign, 
which they fearlessly followed wherever thoy 
might lead. 

The decoration of the Gothic structure is 
chiefly derived from" skilful and elal)oratc stone 


cutting, including sculpture, and this stone cut- 
ting is of two kinds : first, the repetition in a 
decorative way of forms which were once purely 
constructional; and, secondly, of forms sug- 


for the solidity and dignity of the building. 
Less of such ornamentation as this, with even 
more of sculpture of natural form, would be 
welcome to such critics. It is noticeable, how- 

GOTHIC Architec 
Transept peculiar in having 

ire: Fig. 6. Cathedral of Noyon (Oisk), France. 

> rounded ends. Elaborate vaulting of deambulatory and apsldal chapels. 

gested by visible nature, of plants and animals. 
The second kind of decoration was a direct in- 
heritance from the Romanesque work out of 
which the Gothic architecture had grown. But 
the first kind came of that intense love for the 
style which they had invented, peculiar to the 
Gothic builders. Thus, in the sculpture which 
is put upon the outside of a gable, like that of 
the transept of Notre Dame, there are little 
arcades and tracery suggested in the stonework, 
and there are also pieces of very rich sculpture 
of natural form in great variety and abundance. 
It seems to many persons that the first of these 
two styles of decoration was carried too far, and 

ever, that no other system of architecture had 
ever included much attention paid to external 
sculijture except in the reliefs of the Egyptian 
pyluns, and this was hardly architectural sculp- 
ture, but rather carving put upon a wall as 
a convenient place for its exhibition. Greek 
decorative sculpture was very limited in the 
number of its parts and in its application, the 
sculptures which now excite our wonder having 
been almost free from architectural character. 
The Gothic builders were, therefore, without 
examples before them of a sculptural decoration 
applietl freely to the exteriors as well as to the 
interiors of buildings, and their feeling may well 

the constant succession of bliml and open tra- 
ceries, arcades, moulded bands and (-ornices, 
pinnacles resting upon open cages of light stone- 
work, too numerous, too varied, and too fanciful 

have been tliat the building would better carry 
ott' the abundant wealth of representative sculp- 
ture which was put upon it, if this sculpture 
had an elaborate and highly wrought framo- 


work of sc-ul|)tiire without siguiticauco or refcr- 
euce to nature. 

Gothic architecture was originally ecclesias- 
tical almost altogether. Few buildings except 
churches required the vaulted roof upon light 
Bupjjorts. The interiors of the great castles of 
the time were, indeed, vaulted in imitation 
of the churches, but in these cases the Viiults 
were supported by such ponderous masses of 
wall that the (Jothic priucijde disappeared alto- 
gether. Dwelling houses, in the cities espe- 
cially, in the later times, were often beautifully 
adorned with tlie external features of Gothic 
architecture, but their Hoors would generally be 
made of wood, and each room was tlien covered 
by the flat under side of the floor above. Large 
houses of assembly, such as the Synodal Hall 
of Sens, were, indeed, vaulted much as the 
churches were. 

The discovei-j of the Gothic principle of con- 
struction was contemporaneous with an unprec- 
edented growth in the art and practice of archi- 
tecture, and buildings were multiplieil all over 
tlie land in every prosperous country of Europe. 
The number of churches built between 117.5 
and 12.50 is something incredible. The build- 
ing of the great cathedrals is a chapter in Euro- 
pean history which is entirely unique (see 
Church Building). For the structures them- 
selves which still remain in Europe and can still 
be studied, reference must be made to tlie arti- 
cles on the arcliitecture of the diff'erent coun- 
tries in which Gothic architecture prevailed, — 
England, France, etc. 

Gonse, L'Arl gothique ; C. H. Moore, Develop- 
ment and Character of Gothic Architecture ; Unge- 
witter, Lehrhuch der Gotischen Kanstruktionen ; 
Thomas II. Kiiii:. Thi- Stmbi Book of Median- al 
Arrhitecturr " ' .1 ', \ ii Essenwein, Die 
romanixche n . • ■ liaiikunst (forms 

part of the 1 1 // '.nrh, 2d PL, Vol. 

IV., 1st and J I : : .1 with military and 

domestic architecture : :ill ]>iil)lished) ; VioUeUle- 
Duc, Dictionnaire Raisonne de V Architecture 
Fran<^aise, 10 vols. ; Edward S. Prior, A History 
of Gothic Art in England; G. E. Street, Some 
Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain, and 
Brick and Marble in the Middle Agci ; and in the 
general bibliopraphy the works by Schnaa.se, Ku- 
,;,'ler, I.ubke. (iailliabuud, G. T. Scott. (See also 
Ijihljoji ,|,i,i. - n;i !■ I I"ii<,'land, France, etc.) 

Ill •• ,:■ • iiiMiiographs and treatises on 

till I. i! lure of separate towns and 

priiviiH , . ;ii - i \ . I \ iiwiny volumes of plates with- 
out text, i>r Willi Imi little text, such as Hicliard 
Norman Shaw's Architectural Skelchen from the 
Continent; Nesfield's Specimenx of Media'val 
Architecture chiefly selected from Examples of the 
12th and ISth Centuries; H, J. Johnson. Speci- 
mens of Early French Architecture; \V. Gals- 
worthy Davie, Architectural Studies in France. 
— R. S. 

LAND, ill speakiiit,' of Kii^riisii (iothie it ii:us 
hivii ciisfoiiiMry in KiiKland to divide it into four 
more or less arbitrary divisions. 


First, tiie traditional, covering the period 
between the Norman Romanesque, and that 
marked by the general adoption of the pointed 
arch, from 11 40 to 1200. 

Second, the early English, the first true 
Gothic period, covering roughly the time from 
1200 to 1300. 

Third, the decorated, from 1300 to 1400. 

Fourth, the perpendicular, from 1400 to 1550. 

The names are not altogether fortunate, nor 
is it possible to fix the dates which bound any 
one of the above styles. It seems best, there- 
fore, to speak of centuries rather than styles. 

All the phases of Gothic up to 1350 began 
and had their mast perfect fulfilment in France. 
There Gothic was solely concerned with the 
problem of the vault and its suj)ports. Inci- 
dentally the wall was obliterated, and they 
studietl the filling of the space. In discussing 
English Gothic it will be unnecessary to touch 
upon those features whose history belongs to the 
general development of Gothic, and attention 
will be concentrated on the points which are 
essentially English. 

The English were never attracted by the 
vault problem, and, although there is abundant 
evidence that the principles of the vault were 
understood, they were not kwked ujion as essen- 
tials. Therefore the sense of a building enclo.sed 
by walls was never lost, and wood frequently 
took the place of a stone vaidt. Both were 
probably due to the long duration of the early 
types, Saxon and Norman, which made so much 
of wall surface, to the lack of ambition or the 
abundance of wood, and to the wide influence 
of Cistercian simplicity. The thirteenth cen- 
tury showed, as essentially Englisii features, the 
great length, tlie transepts and double tran- 
septs, and the square east end with ita group of 
lancets. The west fronts were not logical end 
walls of a great building, but screens, used as 
at Wells to form a frame for sculpture. The 
isolation of England and its comparative peace 
enabled domestic work and the .semidomestic 
buildings of the monastery almost to keep pace 
with the ecclesiastical work. Thus an clement 
of simplicity, almost of domesticity, was intro- 
duced. As the thirteenth century saw the cid- 
mination of the logical Gotiiic of the lie de 
France, so did it see the best English work. 
The English level wiis not so liigli, but both 
earlier work and also much of the later work 
vie with that of the most perfect time in beauty 
and interest. 

The early fourteenth century marked the 
abandonment of the sim])licity of the tiiirteenth, 
and the adoption of jirofusc ornament. ]Slore 
especially Wiis it marked in England by the 
multiidication of ribs in the vault, and divi- 
sions in tlie window which formed tracery of 
great iK'auty. The cleric character of English 
1 work iis coiitTiisted with the laic Continental 


work, produced many beautiful buildings, in 
the chapter houses, dormitories, halls, and refec- 
tories of the great abbeys. All of these show 
a knowledge of Gothic principles and a purely 
English treatment, modified in various localities 
by mason craft, or Icjral materiul. 

With the eml nf the fourtnntli century Eng- 
land had advaniid tar awuy from Continental 
lines, and the movcnu'Ut wliich began about 
1350 developed rapidly into a purely English 
style. Towers and spires, which, owing to the 
long low lines of the buildings were always 
favourite features in England, were brought to 
great perfection in the fifteenth century. Do- 
mestic work, which was now becoming more 
prominent, was influenced by this last phase of 
Gothic well into the seventeenth century. 

The only constructional feature of this period 
was a logical development of mason craft. 

As soon as the rib became a fixed feature in 
the vault, the English began to plan a means 
by which to simplify the many curves which 
the varying length of the ribs seemed to de- 
mand. The outcome was the system generally 
adopted and which led eventually to the fan 
vault. The diagonal rib, being the longest, 
was taken as the basis, and this was composed 
of two curves, the one the curve of the wall 
rib, tlie second a curve of greater radius, the 
two together producing the four-centred arcli. 
AU the other ribs were portions of this fixed 

Then a still further step was taken in the 
direction of mechanical production. Taking a 
square compartment, the ribs were made not 
only of the same curve but of the same li>iii,^tli, 
so that all the ribs stopped at a fixed h(ii,4it 
and at a fixed distance from the springing;. 
This resulted in a fan-sha])ed vault. The wall 
rib and the transverse rib alone reached the 
central lines, and a space was thus left which 
was filled with flat blot^ks, as in the vault of 
Gloucester cloisters, or with great pendants, as 
in Henry the Seventh's chapel. Moreover, the 
filling between the ribs was no longer a vault, but 
was a slab of stone reaching from rib to rib. 

However wonderful, and in a way beautiful, 
this work appears, it must ever remain a me- 
chanical tour de force, in no way to be com- 
pared with the best French vaults, which speak 
in every line and stone of the intelligent hand 
of the artist. 

The four-centred arch, first devised to meet 
the exigencies of the diagonal ril), became, 
when the arches were all identical, tlie curve of 
the wall rib, and then of thi^ window opening. 
Tims it grew to be th(; keynote of the later 
perpi-n(li>-uhii- work. — U. (Ji.iF-sroN Sruucas. 

GOTHIC REVIVAL. The attenijit during 
the nineteentli century to restore Gothic archi- 
tecture to the position it held in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, as being the only style 


in use, and lending itself alike to buildings of 
all classes. In the absence of general accept- 
ance, the movement became more exclusively a 
matter of church building, in which it had, 
indeed, originated. It was understood by the 
earliest revivahsts that the architecture of the 
Middle Ages was primarily that of churches ; 
but it was also understood by them that the 
style created as an ecclesiastical style was ex- 
tended into buUdings of all kinds, even into 
fortresses, just so far as the conditions, site, 
plan, and structure allowed. Thus, a small 
house could not be Gothic in the strictest sense, 
as having none of its rooms vaulted ; and a for- 
tress could not be Gothic in the strictest sense, 
because even the riblied vaults of the halls and 
corridors were retained by enormously thick 
walls, instead of by buttress and flying but- 
tress without the aid of walls, which were re- 
placed by great spaces of glass. The revivalists, 
therefore, were of different minds, some being 
strongly led tow9,rd ecclesiological conclusions, 
and trying to re-create what they esteemed to 
be the only proper architecture for Christian 
churches ; while others were minded to restore 
the conditions of the thirteenth century in all 
those things which were compatible with mod- 
em improvements. 

The revival took shape in France, Germany, 
Belgium, and the Netherlands, as well as in 
Great Britain ; and at a later time its doctrines 
were accepted by architects in the United States. 
The brick church in the Au suburb of Munich (see 
Ohlmiiller) was built about 1837, and about the 
same time S. Clothikle (which see, under Church) 
was built ill Paris from the designs of F. C. Gau 
anil Theodore liaUu (see those names). These 
wcie ty]iical of oii,i,'iiial work on the Continent; 
luit there was little of this compared with the 
{.neat amount of work done in the way of resto- 
ration and conseiinent addition to the great cathe- 
dral establishments. Thus, when Notre Dame 
of Paris was in the way of being restored, a 
large building, intended for vestries, chapter 
house, and the like, was built on the south side 
of the ehnn-li, and earefnlly planne.l in the style 
of tlie rlnnvh itsi'lf, this l.einix, t lieivtmv, just SO 

fully .studied in detail from the -real example 
before it, while its plan, and even its general 
outline and mass, were entirely modern. This 
building, however, designed by Viollet-le-Duc, is 
one of tiie most perfect specimens in existence 
of the revival of an ancient style. The resto- 
ration, often ruinous, of great buildings carried 
witii it also a great deal of study of mediaeval 
sculjiturc, and the |iriMei|ples and ])ractice ac- 
cording to which it was carried on. It was 
soon discovered that tiie jjroduetion of the enor- 
mous amount of excellent 8culi)ture, still exist- 
ing or already destroyed, of France and the 
neighbouring countries, had been possible only 


under a state of sotiety and a condition of the 
working mason and stonecutter such as was no 
longer in existence, or even witliin reasonable 
possibility of revival. Still, other serious at- 
tempts were made to educate, at legist, a ccrtiiin 
number of stonecutters in the line of Gotliic 
decorative can-ing. (See Gothic Architecture ; 

In England, however, the enthusiasm excited 
was much greiiter than elsewhere, the number 
of iulvocates and practitioners was also greater, 
and the results were, for a time at least, prom- 
ising. In 18;56, when the Houses of Parlia- 
ment (see Westminster Palace) were undertaken, 
the terms of competition required tliat the build- 
ing should be designed in the Gothic or Eliza- 
bethan style. All over England parish churches 
were repaired, restored, or rebuilt in what wiis 
intended to l)e pure Gothic arcliitecture ; but 
here again ditlerence of opinion and of practice 
was seen, and while some were busily engaged 
in studying, moulding, and reproducing, as closely 
as possible, forms and details of a given epoch, 
in the style of which their church or town hall 
was to be erected, others were studying Italian 
Gothic, with its effects of polychromy, and 
French Gothic, wtli its freer treatment and 
richer sculj)ture, and were engrafting these for- 
eign elements of ardiitectural eftect upon the 
English stock. What was called at one time 
Victorian Gothic was, indeed, characterized es- 
sentially by the introduction of many Italian 
features, such as the alternate colouring of the 
V()us.soirs of arches, the introduction of bands 
and patterns of brickwork into external and 
internal wall surfaces, and a general simplicity 
of mass, relieved bv such <-nlour cttccts as these 

n.l 1 


lif.l Stutrs, tlic bml.ling of the 
chunh ..f tlic Holy Trinity in Br.H.klyn, about 
1845, and of Trinity church in New York, 
about 1847, marks the earlier introduction of 
the movement. Churches of certjiin Christian 
sects were from that time on commonly Gothic 
in their general character, while other religious 
bo<lies chose, rather, a round-ardi mediieval 
style. The most carefully studied ])iece of 
Gothic church building in America is, perhaps. 
Trinity ciiapcl, on West Twenty-fifth Street, 
New York City, the work of Riciiard Upjohn, 
who was also the architect of Trinity church. 
In civic buildings, the most remarkable stnic- 
ture was certainly the National Academy of 
Design, in New York City ; in which an attempt 
not matched for thoroughness, except in one or 
two Englisli buildings, was made to revive 
Gothic siiiljiturc according to its supposed medi- 
icviil methods and i)r()ces8C8. 

The n-ult iif the (iothic revival has lieen this : 
that in (Ircat j'.ritain and in the British coIo 
nie.s ciiurclics are still commonly built in some 
form of the Gothic style. Some of these build- 


ings are admirable in design, and William But- 
terfield, one of the earliest masters of revived 
Gothic (see church of All Saints, under Church), 
has built two important churches in Austraha ; 
while Pearson's design for the cathedral, though 
not wholly carried out, is a remarkable achieve- 
ment. Also, there still appears, at intervals, 
a domestic or civic building etiuall}' media-val 
in character. The larger public buildings of 
tiie last thirty years have been, however, almost 
exclusively neoclassic in character, and the ma- 
jority of private houses more nearly classical 
than Gothic in their design. In the United 
States a strong influence of French academic 
teaching has been felt, and tiiere arc but a few 
architects who still retain a preference in their 
work for nietlia-val forms. This fact of the 
strongly ncochussical influences of France car- 
ries witli it the statement that the study of 
Gothic architecture has almost ceased in that 
countr}', in spite of tiie influence of Viollet-le- 
Duc and his powerfiU contemporaries. Still, 
the buildings of certain ecclesiastical and monas- 
tical establishments are bnilt in some form of 
Gothic ; and the much more common practice 
of vaulting in France makes the French modem 
Gothic much more nearly me<li:eval in character 
than any except tlie very few monuments in 
England. The architects who i)rod\icetl these 
buildings are, however, a small class apart. 
(See Architect, The, in France ; France, 'Archi- 
tecture of.) In Germany, although tiie great 
majority of tlie buildings are neoclassical in 
character, Gotliic architecture in some form is 
still used for si)ecial ecclesiastical undertakings 
and for some important ci\ic buiklings. The 
votive church in Vienna, by H. von Verstel, 
finished in 1879, is ranked a.s one of the two or 
three most i)erfect reproductions of mediieval 
art; but the new liatlihaus, in the same city, 
built by F. Schmidt a few years earlier, is an 
unsuccessftil attempt to adapt the style to a 
building for public business. — R. S. 

GOTTJON, JEAN ; sculptor and architect. 

As Goujoii a])i)ears first in Normandy, it is 
supposed that lie wjus Iwni there. It is not 
known that he ever studied in Italy. He is 
first mentioned in a contract dated Aug. 9, 
1541, for two columns .snjiporting tiie organ 
h)ft of the church of S. Maclou at Rouen (see 
Castille, Colin). The two sculptured wooden 
doors in the porch of this cliurch arc always 
ascribed to Goiyon witliout evidence, except 
such as is derived from their style, — in this case 
very convincing. A third door on the side of 
the church is later, and may be by another 
hand. From alwut 1542 until 1544 he was 
associated witii tlie arcliitect Pierre Lescot (sec 
Lescot) and the sculptors Laurent Rcgnauldin 
and Simon Leroy in the construction and deco- 
ration of the choir screen (jub(^) of the church 
of S. Germain I'Auxerrois, Paris. The juW 


was destroyed in 1745. The records of this 
work have been preserved, and two of its bas- 
reliefs by Goujon are now in the Louvre. About 
1544 he became architect to the Constable 
Anne de Montmorency, and was associated 
with Jean Bullant (see BuIIant) in the decora- 
tion of the ch.iteau of Ecouen. The chimney- 
piece by Goujon at Ecouen is extremely fine. 
In the dedication of Jean Martin's translation 
of Vitruvius, published in 1547, for which 
Goujon drew many plates, he is mentioned as 
architect to the king, Henri II. After this 
time, and probably until his death, he was oc- 
cupied in association with Pierre Lescot in mak- 
ing the splendid sculpture on the facade of the 
Louvre at the southwest angle of the old court. 
The pairs of figures about the oeils-cJe-boevf 
over the doors are especially fine. The con- 
tract for the music gallery, supported by four 
caryatides in the lower hall of this building, one 
of his most famous productions, was made in 

The so-called Fountain of the Innocents, in 
Paris, was originally a loggia built at an angle 
of the old cemetery of the Innocents (see Foun- 
tain of the Innocents) on the corner of the Rue 
Saint-Denis and the Rue aux Fers, Paris. 
June 10, 1786, the cemetery was suppressed. 
The fountain, with Goujon's bas-reliefs, was 
rearranged in the square which replaced the 

Goujon's decorations of the chateau of Anet 
date from about 1553 (see De I'Orme, P.). Of 
these, the most important is the group of Diana 
with a stag, which is now in the Louvre. The 
sculptured decoration of the Hotel Carnavalet, 
Paris, is attributed to Goujon by Sauval. After 
1 562, Goujon's name disappears from the meagre 
records of the works at the Louvre. He was 
probably a Protestant, and it has been supposed, 
without proof, that he was killed in the massa- 
cre of S. Bartholomew (Aug. 24, 1572). A 
"Giovanni Goggeon francese, intagliotore di 
rilieve," who died in Bologna, Italy, between 
1564 and 1568, is supposed by Montaiglon (op. 
cit.) to have been the great French sculptor. 

Oailhabaud, Jean Goujon, architecte et sc.ulp- 
ti'ur ; Montaiglon. Jean Goujon; Reveil, (Envre 
do GoKjon, text by Pottier ; Berty, Les Grands 

tect ; b. May ITj, 178G; d. Feb. IC), lH,-,7. 

A pupil of Alavoine (see Alavoinc) and Hiiyot 
(.see Huyot). In association wit li llict. (Irilldii, 
and Tardieu he published <'li<,:.i- iTrdij!, ■,'.-< 
jtroji'l/'K et. cnns/riiilx I'li Fnnirc diijiuis li; 
romn,<;u;u,H'„f <h, Xl\ xirrlr /I'aris, 1825- 
1H.")0, :', \i,ls. Inli.,) .iimI Ihx mil's pilfjli</>ieS 
,'/ ,1,-s hahilaf,ons pari H;,/n'n's, Paris, 1852, 

(lu Sci^ 

in I'larial'.s Knnjrto- 


GOUST, L. ; architect. 

Goust was appointed inspector of the works 
at the Arc de Triomphe de I'Etdilc, Paris, under 
Chalgrin (see Chalgrin), whom he su.-.v,-,l,.(l as 
architect of the building after his death in ISll. 
From 1813 to 1823 work on this monument 
was interrupted. From 1823 to 1830 it was 
continued by Goust in association with Huyot 
(see Huyot). 

Lance, Dictionnaire. 


French, Architecte du Gouvernement.) One 
who has been employed on public work. Ap- 
parently, the term is retained after the work is 
done, and is employed as an honorary appella- 
tion, if not by the bearer of it, then Ijy his 
publishers or those who may write of him, and 
serves as a means of giving professional rank. 

B. In America, the supervising architect of 
the treasury department, in whose hands is the 
designing and supervising of the greater part of 
the buildings erected by the government of the 
United States, except in cases where, by general 
or special law, local architects are employed to 
carry out special buildings. 

GRADIENT. The slope or divergence from 
the horizontal of a street, path, or the like, 
usually described as 1 in 10, I in 17, etc., 
the " one " signifying the vertical rise ; but 
also described as so many in the hundred or 
thousand, the round numbers applying to the 
horizontal measurement. A moderate gradient 
of a carefully laid out street or of the approach 
to a bridge is 1 in 25 to I in 35 ; of a railroad, 
85 feet in 1000. 

GRADINE. In Itahan, a step ; hence, in 
English writing on Italian art, the superalter, 
a raised shelf set above the altar and at its 
back, usually as, long as the mensa, one third 
or one fourth as wide, and having the front 
clo.sed in. This front is, then, frequently 

[>d with painting,' 

I this 

'■ !"■' 


ambassadors from the states i.f (In 
of other foreign poweis) ucic supi" 
there during certain eeivni.mies 

Forum, in wllieli tliel-e \\:is speal^ 

the Knipir.'. 


(Jracl built the Soplticnkii 

Uorrniann, D<nkin 


GRAFFITO. In Italian, a scratching or 
incisiug upon rough material, as a phistered 
wall ; the term is applied especially to the 
ancient scratciieil insciiptions which have been 
of value to modern ardueologists. (See also 

GRAIN (n.). The fibres of wood taken 
together ; the fibrous or strongly marked longi- 
tudinal texture of wood in which the sheaves 
of the siip vessels, all running one way, cause 
a marked distinction between. the character of 
wood if cut crosswise or lengthwise of the log. 
Blocks for wood engraving are cut across the 
grain, but in nearly all other careful workman- 
ship the end grain is avoided, and a perhaps 
excessive care is shown by mwlern carpenters 
and joiners never to allow this end grain (that 
is to say, the texture of tiie wood as shown when 
cut across) to be seen. Even in wood when cut 
in the direction of the grain, that is, lengthwise, 
there is a ditterence in the adhesiveness of the 
parts. According as a log is cut into parts in 
the direction or nearly in the direction of the 
radii of one section of the log considered as a 
circle, the wood will be foimd tougher and less 
liable to split. It is well known that a log 
allowed to dry naturally will be found checked, 
or divided deeply by checks. (See Check.) If, 
then, parts are taken out of a log in such a way 
that the broad surfaces of these parts go in the 
direction of these checks, those parts will have 
little or no tendency to split. Advantage is 
taken of these circumstances to saw wood quar- 
tcriiiir. ;is it is called (.see Quarter, v.), the wood 
.-|i. .-Lilly tivcird in this way being oak, on 
:i.-.i.nnt ..i t In- ,,iicn character of its grain. The 
tcnri is u>r.l also to indicate the pattern or 
veining caused by the irregularity of the 
arrangement of the sap vessels and fibres. 
This, in somo wnnds, is of inrat beauty, and 
ii ■• ■ •■ ; ■ -Ml ..f tile root, 

-I |.i-.i|,rting 
li...,. ;,,. ;,.... .X ..; ,i „.,^, ,.,,i nvc, contains 
W(X)d ot a very beautitui j)attern. The finest 
and most precious pieces of this kind are com- 
monly sawed into tliin veneers, which are then 
used by gluing them to thicker pieces of inferior 
wood. (For the imitation of grained wood, see 
Grain, v.) — R. S. 

GRAIN (v.). To produce, by means of 
painting, an imitation, more or less close, of the 
natural grain of wood. The process is chiefiy 
one of wiping, with a cloth held firmly upon 
the end of a stick, narrow bands in freshly laid 
paint ; the.se bands sliowing light in contrast 
with the darker and thi(;ker jjaint left on either 
side. If, for instance, paint of the colour of 
walnut is laid over a lighter priming, a skilled 
grainer will use his wiping tool with greater or 
less pressure, as he wishes to ])r<Klu('e broader 
and paler or narrower and darker stripes. 

These 8trii)e.s, ke]it close togetiicr and nearly 
parallel, constitute graining of the sim])lest 
kind. But the process in the more elalwratc 
patterns is similar to this. Graining is not 
now fiishionable, the tendency having been of 
late yeiirs strongly toward painting of a more 
purely decorative sort, so that graining is in a 
sense despised, even by persons of not very 
critical habits in decorative art. As late as 
1860, however, it was very common both in 
England and America, and there exist in our 
libraries books on the art and practice of house 
painting in which the art of graining is insisted 
on as one of considerable importance. In the 
decoration of Abbotsford, for instance, grained 
imitation of ancient wood is used in clo.se juxta- 
position to the ancient wood itself brought from 
destroyed or mined buildings. — R. S. 

GRAIN ELEVATOR. A building with 
appliani'cs for receiving grain in large quan- 
tities from railway cars or other carriers, 
weighing, storing, and delivering to ears or 
vessels. It contains a receiving hopix;r into 
which the grain drops when discharged from 
the railway car, an elevator formed of buckets, 
or cups attached to an endless band, by which 
it is raised to the top of the building and dis- 
charged into a garner, from which it flows 
through spouts to a weighing machine. Thence 
it is transported to bins for storage by con- 
veyor belts, or directly into railway or shijjping 
spouts. The storage bins are deei> aiid narrow 
pockets, constructed of timber and ])lank ll' or 
14 feet square, and from 40 to 80 feet deej). 
They are usually without ventilation, but 
some have perforated tul)es running through 
the centre. The elevatore are sup])lietl with 
all the necessary machinery and appliances to 
save time and labour. There is usually a 
movable " marine " leg for unloading grain 
arriving by water. This is a flexible box con- 
taining elevator belts which raise the grain 
from the vessel's hold. The capacity of tiie 
modern grain elevator varies from half a million 
to three or four million bushels. The floating 
elevator is similar in principle to the one de- 
scribed, but much smaller. It has a movable 
leg for uidoading anil loading vessels, and is 
fully equipped with all modern machinery. It 
is used for tratisshipment, but not for storage. 

The exterior of tlie grain elevators are plain, 
but the arrangements for ligliting, et<"., often 
produce a picturesque outline, and they rise 
high above the houses of the city. 

— W. R. HrTTON. 

GRANARY. A place for the deposit of 
grain in large qmmtities. In modern times 
a purclv general term. (Compare Grain 

GRAND STAND. A jilatform arningcd 
for sjjcctators at a race-c<Mirse, a gromul for 
athletic exercises, and the like ; especially such 


a stand when roofed and treated arcliitectu- 

GUSTE HENRI VICTOR ; architect ; b. July 
15, 177t) ; d. l.'^yO, at Kio de Janeiro. 

A pupil of Delannoy and Percier (see 
Percier) at the i!cole des Beaux Arts. In 
1799 he won the Premie)- Grand Prix 
d' Architecture, with Gasse. About 1814 he 
went to Brazil and erected at Hi" de .laiiriin tlie 
Palace of the Fine Arts, the Exchuii-c, and ntiier 
important buildings. Grandjraii df Mc)iiti;,'ny 
published Recueil des plus beavx Tomheaux 
executes en Italic pendant les XV' et XVI' 
slides (Paris, 1813, folio), and Architecture de 
la Toscane, in association with Auguste Faniin 
(Paris, 1815, folio). 

Benoit, L''Art franf^aise sous la Bevolution et 
V Empire; Maurice Du Seigneur in Planat's 

GRANGE. Originally, a granary ; hence, 
a farmstead ; the buildings of a farm taken 
together. The term was used at first in a 
special significance of a group of buildings con- 
nected with the agricultural department of a 
monastery, a large manor house, or the like, t)ut 
it does not appear that the tiain was Icui^ 
limited to this signification. With Sliakt'spcaic 
and other writers of the reigii nf Elizabeth the 
term is common in the sense of a farming place 
of any kind. 

GRANITE. A massive igneous rock con- 
sisting essentially of quartz and orthoclase 
feldspar, but usually carrying mica, hornblende, 
or other minerals in addition. Hence, known 
as mica granite, hornblende granite, etc. 

— G. P. M. 

GRANJA, LA. A country palace of the 
kings of Spain, situated in the mountains about 
fifty miles from Madrid and 4000 feet above 
the sea. The palace was built by Philip V. 
in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

GRAPERY. A greenhouse especially 
adapted to the cultivation of grapes, either 
with or without artificial heat ; in the latter 
case the house i.s called a cold grapery. (See 

GRAPPIN, JEHAN (1.) ; architect and 

A son of Robert Grappin. He worked with 
his father on the church of S. Gervais et S. 
Protais at Gisors (Oise, France) until his death. 
His name disappears from the accounts of the 
buililing in 1547, and was replaced by Pierre 

(For hil)liof,Taphy, see Orappin, Koberl. ) 

GRAPPIN, JEHAN (II.); architect and 

Son of Jehan Grappin (I.). He worked at 
firnt under Pierre de Monteroult at the church 
of S. GervaiB et S. Protais at Gisors (Oisc, 


France). In 1562 he became himself super- 
vising architect. 

(P'or bibliography, see Grappin, Robert.) 
GRAPPIN, ROBERT; architect and 
sculptor; d. about 1537. 

In 1521 Robert appears as supervising 
architect {mattre de Vaiuvre) of the church of 
S. Gervais et S. Protais at Gisors (Oise, 
France). After 1537 his name disappears 
from the accounts of the church. (See 
Grappin, J., I.) 

GRASS HOUSE. The permanent dwelling 
of the Wichita American Indians and of others 
of the same stock, the Caddoan. It is a 
dome-shaped structure of poles thatched with 
grass and banked with earth at the bottom. 
A square framework of 8-inch logs is built 
within the area formed by a circular trench. 
Poles are then planted in the trench and 
brought together across the top of the log 
frame and firmly boiuid in place by elm bark. 
Smaller poles are then attached horizontally 
from ground to top, and upon the structure 
thus foimed a thatch of grass is laid, over- 
lap] lini,^ in courses, shingle fashion, from below 
up, tlie r(jd.s fixing each layer of grass to the 
frame being covered by the succeeding layer. 
A smoke hole near the top is left as usual in 
redskin houses of this class, while at opposite 
sides are doorways, with doors made of a frame 
of rods covered with grass. This is the " straw 
house" of Coronado's Quivira. (See Earth 
Lodge; Tipi ; Wickyup; also p. 131, American 
Anthrnpologist, N. S. 1, 1899.) — F. S. D. 

ORATE. Originally and properly, a grat- 
ing; in ordinary usage, that form of grating 
which is used to retain fuel in place while the 
air which supplies combustion passes freely up- 
ward from below between the bars. In this 
sense, especially, (1) a basket-like receptacle of 
bars such as is used in an ordinary fireplace ; 
sometimes hung by rings or sockets upon hooks 
built into the jambs, sometimes supported on 
feet, and in this latter case often call.d ha^krt, 
or basket grate. Soft or liituiniiiMiis .Mai is 
more commonly burned in gnitrs .if tliis last- 
named form. (2) The bottom, or Hoor, of a 
fire room or fire box in a furnace or stove of any 
sort. In this sense, usually and normally fiat 
and placed horizontally, but often .aiianucd to 

revolve, to drop at mic si.lr wlnlr ivmainini,' 
supported on a pivot, onvm tn ti.M upon itself; 
these devices being for greater CDiiviiucnce in 
dunipint,' the fuel when it is desired to clean 
the giate and start a fresh fire. — R. S. 

GRATING. A structure of bars held to- 
g(!ther by cross pieces of any sort, or .similar 
bars crossing one another in at least two direc- 
tions, or, finally, of bars arranged in some more 


elaborate pattern. In this sense the term is 
equally ajjplicable to a frame luiule of thick bars 
or Ix'unis of wood, and to a lighter and slender 
stnicture, as of mettil. This is the generic term, 
and grate, grille, grillage are usetl in special 
senses. Gratings of wood are use<l to admit air 
and light, or to allow of vision through an 
obstacle, while at the same time ingre.ss or egress 
is prohibitc<l, or, when jilaced horizontiiUy, an 
opening is made safe iigainst persons or things 
falling into it accidentally. This is its most com- 
mon use in building. The o{)enwork partition 
across the parlour of a convent or the visitor's 
room in a prison is called by tliis name, although 
frequently the bars are wide apart and may even 
reach from floor to ceiling without cross pieces. 
In this sense the term approaches in signification 
the terms Piilisa.le : Stc.-kade. — R. S. 

GRATZ. HANS VON. (See Niesenberger, 

GRAVE MONUMENT. The structure 
raised upon or near a grave to mark its place, 
and usually to record tlie name, etc., of the de- 
cejused. The simplest form is the heaped-up 
mound of ejirth covered with soil. This was 
often, in old English graveyards, held in place 
by a light net or lattice of osiers which were 
allowed to decay before l)eing removed. The 
addition of a gravestone of any sort seems to 
have been in Christendom the more usual step 
to take in the way of a more permanent memorial ; 
but in many parts of Euroi)e it has been for 
centuries customary to erect small crosslike 
memorials of wood or of wrought iron, and 
upon these is often placed some tablet or frame 
within which perishable memorials, such as 
an inscription on pa])er, (;an be preserved for a 
time. On some of these tablets are placed 
usually very small paintings of souls in purga- 
tory; and it may l)e added that a similar 
memorial acting Jis a cenotajih is often placed 
as near as possible to the spot where the person 
has been drowned, killed by robbers, or by acci- 
dent ; the purpose in each ca.se l^eing to request 
the prayers of the passer-by. Grave monuments 
in the open air were seldom more elalwrate than 
this, previous to our own time of elaborate and 
extensive cemeteries ; at present it is not un- 
common to set up a monument of considerable 
height and elaboration and frequently of many 
thousand dollars' cost at, or near, the grave in 
such a cemetery. The ol)elisk, column, or other 
shaft, or the still more elaborate tombal structure 
80 put up sometimes serves jus a memorial of 
the graves of a numl)er of persons, as those 
belonging to the same family. — R. S. 
GRAVE MOUND. Same as Barrow. 
GRAVESTONE. A stone marking a place 
of Imiial ; the simj)lest form of tondi ; often 
cjillcd tonihstoni-. It is but seldom tliat a 
memorial slab (the simplest form of ccnotajdi) 
is called by this name. 



Among the Greeks, graves in the open air 
were marked by ujjright stones carveil sometimes 
into the shajjc of pillars of circular section, 
sometimes into fiat slabs decorated on one side, 
or on both, and often adorned by an oniamental 
cTowa (compare Stele), and sometimes by a piece 
of sculpture, a statue, group, figure of a beast, 
or an imaginary monster, or an imitation of a 
funeral va.se, sometimes of great size. At the 
cemeteiy on the western side of the ancient city 
of Athens, gravestones have been found of ex- 
traordinary beauty. One is a sphinx and 
another is a siren, each of these being symbol- 
ical of death (on the Xanthiau tomb in the 
British Museum harpies are carrj-ing away 
spirits of the dead) ; another is carved with a 
low relief of a lion, and with rosettes of great 
beauty ; another bears three vases in low relief, 
and it is understotnl that this means that the 
persons commemorated died unmarried ; another 
is the sculptured semblance of such a vase " in 
the round," and mlorned with exquisite sculp- 
tures in very low relief; several have a portrait 
of the deceased with certain attendants, the 
function of which last personages is not well 
understood. Under Stele tiie two most mag- 
nificent of these gravestones are described. 
Similar monuments exist in different museums 
of Europe. It is not quite settled how far these 
stehe are strictly gravestones, anil how far they 
are set up in convenient places, as we put up 
slabs in churches without the supjjosition that 
the grave is near. (See Cenotaph.) 

Graves not within any building are commonly 
marked either by one very large stone, covering 
practically the whole grave, and inscribed with 
names, etc., on the upper surface, or they have 
a larger headstone and a snuiUer footstone. 
In the first ciise, the -slab is not unfrequently 
mounted upon a low substructure of brickwork, 
or the like. A variant of this form is when the 
stone is not merely a slab having the two large 
faces parallel, but is cut with an upward slope, 
forming a ridged roof-like cap or cover for tiie 
grave. This form may l>e further modified by 
l)eing cut to the semblance of a cruciform roof, — 
two ridges crossing one another at right angles, 
ejich ending either in two gables or in two back- 
ward slopes, as in a hipped roof. This last- 
named form is capable of decorative treatment, 
for the ridge may lx^ adorned by the semblance of 
a cross as long and as wide as the whole stone, 
and this may again receive floriated and otiier 

In the second case, the headstone nearly always 
receives the greater part of the inscription and 
the oniamcnt, and the side turned toward tlie 
grave is apt to receive more than the reverse sitle. 

(For otiier forms of memorial put up at the 
grave, see Grave Monument.) 

Among Mohammedans, the nde of their 

religion limits grave monuments to simple 



brickwork ; but this is interpreted with some 
liberality, and the tarkibeh is an oblong, rec- 
tangular structure not unlike an altar tomb, but 
very simple, and having an upright stone called 
a shahid at the head and another at the foot. 
That at the head has commonly a curious knob 
or finial at the top, which is carved into some 
semblance of a turban or other headdress. In 
the crowded cemeteries near Constantinople, the 
tarkibeh seems to be omitted or reduced to a 
very small size and sunk deeply in the earth. 
— R. S. 

ZOON VAN ; architect. 

He was city architect of Leyden, HollaTid, and 
built the Mare Kerke in that city in 1639, the 
oldest domical church in Holland. 

Galland, Hnllandische Bmikunst. 

GREAT-HEAD. (See Gro.sseteste.) 

the Grecian people in the mainland of 
Greece, the islands, and the colonies 
previous to the complete establishment 
of Roman dominion, about 100 B.C. 

The architecture of ancient Greece 
in its Prehistoric Period (3000- 
1500 B.C.) reflects the nomadic char- 
acter of its wandering tribes. The 
use of perishable materials, the absence 
of organic construction and of a fixed 
style, characterize these early efforts ; 
and yet the one example which best 
illustrates the building art of this 
period, the second of the nine successive 
settlements which occupied the site of 
ancient Troy, exhibits many features 
which linger throughout the entire 
history of Grecian architecture. The 
typical form of a rectangular building 
preceded by a porch was now estali- 
lished, and the specifically Grecian 
love of symmetry shown in the repeti- 
tion of the porch at the rear of the 
building. Similarly the gateway of this Trojan 
city and that of the courtyard of the palace 
••onsisted of two porches set back to ba(;k, a 
form which was subsequently elaborated iiitd 
the imposing Propyhiea of the Acr()i)()lis at 
Athens. Various arcliitcctnntl .Ictnils — sucli 
as antie or terminal i.ihot.T. ami mhmc dr,-,,- 

were already in use in this pm-Ml, Imt ,-nl,uniis 
and the gable roof seem to have been absent. 

The period which followed \\a» been called the 
Mycen^an Age, because the Acropolis and 
tombs of Myc(-n:e hav(' furnisli.d the nir.st 
representative examples of tlic civilization uliicli 
followed the prehistoric a-.^. The liinils ,,rthc 
period, tliough still in dispute, are i.y tiie lic.st 
authorities placed at 1500 u.c. to 1000 M.c, 
though in Home quarters this civilization may 
have Imen begun earlier than 1500 B.C., and it 


was too strongly and widely established to have 
ended everywhere at as early a date as 1000 B.C. 
The centre of this civilization, judging from the 
magnificent remains at Tiryns, Mycense, and 
Argos, was apparently in Argolis, but it left sub- 
stantial traces to the north as far as Thessaly, 
to the east as far as Troy, to the south in Egypt, 
Cyprus, Crete, and many of the Greek islands, 
and to the west in Sicily and Italy. Its 
strongly fortified palaces indicate established cen- 
tres of monarchical government, with types of 
architecture so strongly marked as to become 
fixed for centuries. These types follow along 
the lines of Grecian architecture of the previous 
period, but show more advanced construction, 
with decorative forms of more pronounced Ori- 
ental character. The building sites were more 
carefully levelled, the strongholds surrounded by 
compactly constructed walls of massive quad- 
rangular or polygonal blocks. The palaces 

still to have had flat clay roofs, although 
the conical false vaults of the beehive tombs 


inilicate the possibility that domical coiistructiou 
may liave been used in the building cf houses. 
The column was now employed as a supiwrting 
member in the palace porches and in tlic arcades 
of the courtyards ; but it was not yet a charac- 
teristic and distinguishing feature. A peripteral 
Mycena^n building did not exist. At Troy, 
where the sixth city corresponded in date to the 
settlements at Mycenic and Tirj-ns, the non- 
cohininar type of architecture still survived, 
notwithstanding the great advances wiiich ha<l 
been made in stone constniction. Even in 
Argolis, stone columns seem not to have been 
used. The columns were of wood, and, judging 
from the stone copies of columns upon Mycena;an 
tomb-facades, were decorated with channellings 
or sheathed with ornamental plates of bronze. 

complex character, seems to indicate that My- 
ccniBan architects, no less than those of Egjpt, 
Ribylonia, and As.sjTia, utilized all the resources 
of colour and decorative design to adoni tiie 
facades of their buildings. This decoration had 
little or no relation to the ardiitectural con- 
stniction. The aliundant use of sjarals and 
rosettes show it belongs to the same family or 
oniament representeil at Troy in the i)receding 
periotl. The painted and sculptural walls of 
the palaces and lieeiiive tombs show an enlarged 
acquaintance with Egj'jjtian ornamental motives, 
while in some cases, like the painting of the bull 
and its trainer at Tirjnis, there is an indepen- 
dence of treatment indicating that in painting as 
in arcliitecture the Myceuajaus were no mere 
copyists of Oriental art. 

Grecian Arcritkcturk: Pkufilbs o 

d^6, early capiuls found on the Acropolis at A 

ind 6, early capitals found on the A 
Propylala. Nos. 4 and 5, Athens; 

benou. No. 7, Corl (Southern Italy) ; 

The tomb-facjailes and some small objects of in- 
dustrial art .suggest tliat Mycena;an columns 
diminished in diameter from summit to base, 
but this impractical feature could not have 
exi8te<l long, even if it were attempted by My- 
cenaean architects. The capitals of columns 
consisted of one or more cushion or torus 
mouldings, a species which may have served 
as a prototype for the early Doric capital. Upon 
the columns rested the entablature of wood, 
decorated with a frieze which, in some cases at 
least, foreshadowed the triglyphs and metopes 
of the Doric order. The palace walls, usually 
constructed of sun-<lried l)rick, were covered 
with stucco and painted ; the cement floors 
were also omamcnte<l with incised and i)ainte<l 
designs. The fa(jade of the tomb of Atreus near 
Myceuas, which is a veritable marble mosaic of 

The Dorians and Ionians brought to an end 
the Mycenaian civilization and established grad 
ually new forms of art, following in great me;»sure 
the traditions alrejidy ft-^tablished on the soil of 
Greece. The new civilization was democratic 
in character, and buildings representative of the 
interests of the people, such as the temple, the 
theatre, the gymnasium, made the strongest 
demands upon the architects; fortified palaces 
ofthekiiitrs «.iv nou ..l.J.Mtsof the pa.st. Even 
private n.-il' n., ~ \w i. t..r a long peritKl unini- 
portiint. ri ■ II' u ' i\ ili/atioii was at once more 
religious ami iii.jn iiiti llictual. The tem]ile 
Ijecame eminently the ataiulard and tyi)e from 
which other buildings drew their inspiration, 
and religious sculpture dominated all other 
forms. The intellectual character of Dorian 
and Ionian art is exhibited not only in its 


subjei-t-niatter, but also in its technical per- 
fection. Architecture became now as never 
before a field in which artists sought to arouse 
intellectual emotion through refinements of form 
and harmonious proportions. 

In the construction of the walls of buildings, 
stone and marble largely replaced the sun-dried 
brick of the Mycenoean period, but reminiscences 
of brick construction survive even in these walls 
of stone. Thus the small blocks of which the 
walls are composed are unnecessarily set upon 
a high surbase which now serves a pui'ely orna- 
mental purpose. The regularity of brick con- 
struction also survives in the use of blocks of 
uniform size laid in parallel courses with joints 
set in alternate Vjond. Flat wooden roofs covered 
with clay seem to have been first employed, 
their eaves being protected by cornices of terra 
cotta. When roofing tiles were invented, per- 
haps in the eighth century, the peaked or gable 
roof made its appearance and became the typical 
Grecian roof. So universal was its use that 
a Grecian temple without a gable roof would 
seem a solecism. 

It may have been the introduction of the 
gable roof which led to a second feature of the 
religious arciiitecture of this period, that is, 
the peripteral character of its temples. The 
Grecian temple seems incomplete until sur- 
rounded by columns. The cause which led the 
Dorians and lonians to build peripteral temples 
is still obscure, but certainly this feature of their 
architecture became as marked a characteristic 
as the gable roof. So small a portion of the 
entire structure as the capital of the column has 
been used from the time of Vitruvius to the 
pre.sent day as the chief element in distinguish- 
ing the so-called "orders." All tliis results 
from the fact that the column, which in the 
Mycenaean period was subordinate, was now the 
predominant element in Grecian architecture. 
(See Columnar Architecture ; Greco-Roman 

Besides the gable roof and surrounding col- 
umns, there is a third characteristic feature of 
Doric and Ionic temples : the stepped base upon 
which the building reposed. Foundations above 
the ground level were hardly necessary on the 
hard soil of Greece ; hence, this base is appar- 
ently of foreign origin. But neither Egyptian nor 
Mesopotamian prototypes offer a ready explana- 
tion. The normal temple base was a tribasmos ; 
that is, the superposed rectangular platforms of 
which it was composed were three in numlier. 
Variations from this standard were, however, by 
no means uncommon. A temple without a base 
would have appeared to the Greeks of this period 
like a statue without a pedestal. 

The eminently sculptural sen.se of the Greeks 

is evinced in their architecture still further by 

their use of painted and carved decorations, and 

by very delicate refinements in the use of curved 



surfaces. The earlier temples, made of rough 
stone or brick, with cornices overlaid with terra 
cotta, were uniformly covered with a tliiii luyer 
of stucco, and painted. Prehistnii.- ( Jiniaii and 
Mycenaean, as well as Oriental, rxami.le estab- 
lished this i,racti.-e as traditinnal, and it was 
too visi-ful ill ,iri\iii;:- unitMririity to cnuie material 
or faulty coiistrihtliili t.. l.i- easily set aside. But 
l)arallel with tlie development ot sculpture, arch- 
itectural painting was confined more and more 
to tiie imitation or emphasizing of sculptural 
deiuration. As compared with a Myceniean 
fai-ade, such as that of the tomb of Atreus, a 
Dcirii- (ir Iiinii- facade depended less upon the 
kaleidiisccipie eH'ects of colour and more upon the 
clear presentation of its structural and sculptiu-al 
parts. Thus the capitals of columns, the tri- 
glyphs, the cornices, and mouldings were empha- 
sized by colour ; more important still were the 
masses of red or blue, which formed the back- 
ground for the gable sculptures, the sculptured 
metopes, and continuous friezes. In its fully 
developed form the Grecian temple was not 
merely a shrine for the statue of the divinity 
within, it was also a framework for its external 

The external sculptures of the temple con- 
sisted of groups, usually of free standing figures, 
in the triangular gables ; of compositions in high 
relief for the Doric, and in low relief for the 
Ionic, frieze. Capitals and mouldings made also 
demands upon the sculptor's chisel. The sub- 
ject of the external sculptures was not always 
directly related to the divinity of the temple. 
The principal or eastern gable was frequently 
filled with a tranquil group, while the western 
presented a more active or violent scene. The 
metopes required a series of simple compositions, 
like the labours of Herakles, while the unbroken 
Ionic frieze demanded a procession or a combat 
involving many figures. 

The substitution of curved for horizontal and 
vertical lines and surfaces was a refinement of 
building in special accord with the plastic sen.se 
of the Greeks of the best period. The temjile 
base, the architrave, and the upper and lower 
lines of the metopes were not perfectly horizon- 
tal, but slightly convex, and the columns were 
not constructed with a rectilinear but a curved 
profile. This refinement was so delicate that 
these curved lines and surfaces long escaped 
observation, but since attention has been called 
to them, similar phenomena have been discov- 
ered in Egyptian obelisks, columns, and archi- 
traves, and it has been shown that the practice 
Wius carried into Christian architecture by Byzan- 
tine Greeks and Italian architects long before 
the Renaissance. The motive which guided tiie 
Greeks in their u.se of curved lines or surfaces is 
not altogether obvious. It is ditticult to \nm-Q. 
that this wa« done either to correct an ()])tical 
illusion, a« waa held by Vitruvius, or for the sake 

of prtxJuciug a perspective illusion, as suggested 
by Professor Goodyear ; it seems more likely 
that the Greeks found in this device a means 
of avoiding the mechanical impression likely to 
be produced by straight lines and surfaces, and 

divinity and for the deposit of votive offerings, 
hence the sunlight which streamed through the 
entrance doorway was sutficient for the purpose. 
Windows therefore were unnecessary. There is 
no eudence that clearstory windows, which seem 

Grecian AacHiTKCTnHK; Anolk or an Ionic Buildino; One Cou.m.u Caimal 
C0M.M0N Ionic Capitals. 
Tbo bro&d band In eicb capital would bo decorated by anthcmlona In a rich building. 

of giving to their buildings a more pla.«itic exter- 
nal form. (See Refinements in Design.) 

Grecian temples were generally of moderate 

proportions. They were not halls of worsiiip, 

but shrines for the protection of the statue of a 


to have l^een employed in the Mycensran palace, 
occurred in the Grecian temple ; and it is most 
improlmble that l)yj){ethral <leviccs of any i*ort 
were emjiloycd in the normal temple. A tlat- 
roofed building, especially a large hall of roluinns 


like the Telesterion at Eleusis, may have been 
lighted by an opaion in the roof, and possibly 
some of the Greek colonies in the Alexandrian 
period may have had domical temples with an 
hypaethral opening like that of the Pantheon in 
Rome. But such cases have little or no bear- 
ing on the case of the rectangular, gable-roofed 
temple of classic times. 


In the arrangement of the temple plan, the 
Dorians developed the rear to resemble the 
front of the temple, producing thus a bifacial 
type, whereas the lonians generally adhered to 
the unifacial plan. In the erection of temple 
walls and columns the Dorians gave to both a 
slight inward slant, whereas the lonians made 
them vertical. In their columns the Dorians at 

N Ionic Building; Nohth Doorway 

In reference to style, Grecian architecture of 
tlie classic period may be most conveniently 
considered an either Doric or Ionic. It is not 
yet possible to establish an yEolic type of 
architecture, and the traditional Corinthian was 
no more than a slight variation of the Ionic. 
The Doric and Ionic iiad many elements in (;om- 
mon. They are branches of the same stock. 
Hut tlicy (lifter also in many particulars besides 
the capital of the column. 

an early date discarded the base, which the 
lonians retained and developed. The typical 
Doric shaft tapered toward the top, liad a 
relatively strong entasis or curved profile, was 
])rovided with twenty cllijjtical (•hanii('lliinrss('|)a- 
rated by sharp aiTises, and in iicight ranged 
from four and a lialf to six and a half tiiiifs its 
lower diameter. The Ionic shaft tajjcred less, 
had a slighter entiwis, was enriched by twenty- 
four semicircular channellings separated by Hat 

fillets, and in height ranged from eight and a 
half to ten lower diameters. A more marked 
distinction occurs in the capital. The Doric 
capital seems to have been moulded upon Myce- 
naean prototypes, its jjrincipal mcmlx'r, the 
ecliinus, being originally ratlier flat and hav- 
ing a rounded profile. In the sixth century the 
echinus became proiwrtionately higher and h:ul 
a strong profile with a curve resembling a 
paralx)la, while in the late fifth century the 
profile of the echinus was almost rectilinear. 
Its decoration consisted of can'ed amiuli or flat 
bands at the base of the echinus, occasionally 
of carved floral or geometrical design at the 
neck (if the capifcd, and sometimes of painted 
ornament on the echinus itself The crowning 
meml)cr of the capital was the abacus, usually 
a cubiwil block, tlie value of which was to break 
the abnipt transition from echinus to architrave. 
The less monumental examples of Doric capitals 
exhibit many variations of the normal type. The 
Ionic capital consisted of three parts, the neck, 
the volute or scrolls, and the abacus. The neck 
was occasionally distinctly marked by carved 
ornament, but usually appears as a thin echinus 
moulding, omamentetl in part with carved or 
painted eggs and darts, and in part concealed 
from view by the scrolls. The volutes form the 
characteristic member of the Ionic capital. In 
the archaic examples the volutes on the face 
of the capital seem to spring from the shaft like 
the petals of an Egyptian lotus and between 
them is figured a .somewhat Hattcned palmette. 
By the fifth centuiy the palmette has disap- 
peared, the volutes no longer rise from the 
shaft, but are united by waving lines. In the 
Alexandrian period the lines which unite the vo- 
lutes are more nearly horizontal and straight. 
Tiie abacus in all periods was relatively thinner 
tlian in Doric examples, and its faces were fre- 
quently covered with an egg and dart or leaf 
ornament. While the front of an Ionic capital 
appears a-s a conventionalized lotus flower, the 
side view h.i- littlr ripjiM'-'iit connection with the 
front, ati'l i .piiearance of a scroll 

of parcliiih ' I ! '■■:■ • r l)y a central ribbon. 
Such a ca]!!!.!! \\ 1- lii'li alile to the temple in 
aiitis, but was adapted with difficulty to the 
peripteral temple. A special capital for the 
comer liatl to he constructed with rather awk- 
ward diagonal volutes. 

Doric and Ionic buildings differed also in the 
entablature. The Doric architrave presented in 
part an unbroken surface, whereas the Ionic was 
divided vertically into three parallel and hori- 
zontal bands. Alwve the architrave tlie frieze 
in the Doric order was divided into triglyphs 
and metopes, the triglypiis being apparently a 
reminiscence of the ends of the ceiling l)eam8, 
and the metopes the 8pa<-es Iwtween the In-ams, 
which were closed and decorated with painted 
oniament or relief sculjitiirc. In the Ionic order 


the frieze was an \uibroken meml>cr, ornamented 
by a continuous band of paintetl or sculptured 
ornament. The ends of the ceiling beiinis are 
not forgotten altogether in the Ionic order. 
They appear above the frieze, structurally their 
proi>er place, but they are diniinislied in size and 
appear as a decorative moulding known as the 
dentils. The other mouldings diflered in the 
two orders. The Dorians hatl a preference for 
mouldings of simple or strong profile, decorated 
with severe oniament ; the lonians made their 
mouldings of more delicate profile and with 
more graceful ornament. 

The Grecian orders of architecture were well 
adapted to buildings of a single story and of 
moderate size, especially when constructed 
of white marble. Tlie attempt to apply tkm 
to buildings of large dimensions usually ends in 
failure, for columns cease to be pleasing when 
magnified or multiplied beyond a certain normal 
limit. White marble also lends itself best to 
this style of architecture, the glory of which 
lies in refinements of form and proportions and 
in scidptured ornament. — Allan Marqi'.vxu. 

Stuart and Revett, T7te Antiquities of Athens ; 
Stuart and Kevett, Antif/uities of Athens and 
other MnnxLinents of Greece; Chandler, Revett, 
and Pars. Ionian Antiquities, published icith per- 
mission of the Society of Dilettanti; Unedited 
Antiquities of Attica, comprisiuff the architectural 
remains of'Elensis, Jlhamnus, Sunium, and 
Thoricus, by the Society of Dilettanti ; Cockenll, 
Kinnard, Donald.son, Jenkins, and Rallton, The 
Antiquities of Athens and other places in (ireece, 
Sicily; Texier, Description de VAsie Mineure ; 
K. Botticher, Die Tektonik d<r IMlenen ; F. C. 
Penrose, An Investigation of the Principles of 
Athenian Architecture; L. Lohde, Die Archi- 
tektonik der Hellenen ; V. F. Krell, Oeschichte 
des dorischen Styles; E. Blocht. Die Griechisch- 
Dorische Architeklur ; A. Choisy, Etudes epi- 
tjraphiques sur V architecture grecque ; V. Laloux, 
V Architecture grecque ; The Journal of Hellenic 

GRECO-EL. (S.r TluMitocoj.uIi.) 
arcliitecture of tlic \hxuu and column, tlic lintel 
being used pure and unmi.\e<l by the Greeks, 
but forced into union with the arch by the 
Romans. Its elementary type is the Order, 
a primary composition or unit of composition, 
consisting of the column and its load, the 
cntaljlature, and executed, as a rule, in stone. 
When these two jiarts had been evolved and 
shaped, as they were eariy by the Gnvks, into 
definite and permanent forms, they constituted 
the Order. They hardenetl into types, — at firet 
into two, the Doric ami Ionic, — not immutable 
indeed, but subject to small variations of pro- 
portions and of adjustment of mouldings and 
the like, yet distinct and fixed as 8|)ecies of 
animals and plants. Of the two parts that 
made the onier, the upjx-r (the entablature) 
consisted of three members : the architrave, 
the beam or lintel that spanned from column 


to coliunii ; the frieze, a low belt of wall, plain 
or decorated, borue by the architrave : and the 
cornice at the top, which (irdinarily crowned 
the composition, uniting a wall with a roof, 
and consisting of an overhan^^'iiiy slali su]ii)orted 
by mouldings, or by brackets reenforced by 

The columns had their prescribed capitals, 
and except in the Greek Doric, their bases. 
Their continuous support was in some buildings 
a simple platform, as in the Greek temples, in 
others a basement consisting of a strip of wall 
with base and light cornice mouldings, which is 
sometimes accounted as part of the order, and 
which by the Romans was often cut into 
detached pieces called pedestals, one under each 
column. So shapiil, the nrders were the 
direct embodiment of tlic simiilest idea of 
building cnnstnictiou next to a )ilain wall — a 

classical architcctur,' was in idea strictlv 
trabcatrd, and even tlie arch ad.lcd by the 
Romans did not change the artistic intention, 
although it greatly changed the actual con- 
struction, until in later hands it revolutionized 
the forms. The characteristics of classical 
architecture, by natural development from the 
forms of the orders, are broad simple masses 
and straight lines, horizontal and vertical, the 
horizontal prcil(,iiiinati]i,i,', the vertical sul'nnli- 
nated. It owed its smj^Milar cliarin as much in 
the consistency with which tlicse cliaraiteristics 
were preserved and to the breadth, harmony, 
and rejiose which were gained by them, as to 
the beauty of proportions and details that we 
find in the Greek exanijiles, won by centuries 
of persistent reliiiini,^ (if the same tnrnis. 

The purest f.,rin (.t classic architecture was 
the Greek. It was as strictly a trabcated 
architecture as the Egyptian, and fixed the 
types of classic building from the beginning, 
and for all subsetjuent ages. It was small in 
scale and its types were few and simple, as 
were its refjuirements. The life of the Greeks 
was out of doors ; towns were small and com- 
pact, their houses were insignificant, in narrow 
streets crowded abuut tljc central market place, 
where were accunnilated tlieir ]iulili<- buildings, 
and especially the temples, cotispicuous and 
chief among the buildings as the churches 
in mediicval towns. Their architecture was 
essentially public architecture ; its central and 
primal type the temi)le, a rectangular hall or 
cella, faced at one end or both, or entirely sur- 
roiindal by an order arranged in a colonnade, 
and covered by a pitched roof with a pediment 

at cfich end. The^' lew ,1c ntary forms, 

inventcjl in the evuhitiun nf ilic temjde — the 
order, the colonnade, the |iediment, and the 
pitche<l roof — with the rectangular plan, 
sufficed in all their buildings, from which 
visible curves and obli(|uc angles were severely 

banished, except for an occasional round build- 
ing, tholus or exedra, and the curved seats of 
the theatres and stadia, which, being sunk in 
the ground and without walls or roofs, are 
hardly to be called buildings. 

The primitive life of the Greeks was a life of 
religion and warfare, and their religion was inti- 
mately concerned with their wars. Their archi- 
tectural study was lavished on their tein[)les, 
and the forms evolved fnr tlie,-c were .•.mse,-rated 
by tra.litidu. Half a dn/.m diirereiit sdicmes 
of plan were devised, to suit .liHVivut arrange- 
ments of the colonnades (see Temple), and two 
chstinct types of order, — the Doric, used first in 
Hellas, the Ionic, first in the Asiatic colonies ; 
these once determined, thiiush n(jt with all the 
scheduled minuteness wliicli \'itruvius prescribes 
for the Romans, yet l>y tixd tra,lirion, were held 
to with a persistence tliat ])rcchi(led anv con- 
siderable modilicati.iii ot tvpe in tiie form of 
cntalJaturcorcoluuni, caint'al or niouMin- The 
types once clioscn, tlu' (Jiet'ks never showed any 
desire to change them ; generation after genera- 
tion went on refining and readjusting their ele- 
ments till they reached a delicacy and elegance 
of line and proportion that no architecture has 
equalled. No change of scale altered the rela- 
tion of parts, or disturbed the simplicity of the 
composition. A large temple was only a small 
teiiijijc of the same class magnified; a small 
ordei was, as it were, the photographic reduc- 
tion of a large one. The order thus made in- 
violable became the whole substance of their 
architecture, standing alone and covering jjracti- 
cally all the building to which it belonged, witli 
nothiTig above it, and under it only a platform 
or a ba.M'iueiit wall. It was too rigid to lend 
itsi'lf I a>ily to coud)inations ; it was scarcely used 
m more tl'uui one .story. The use of the lintel or 
beam forbade wide spacing in stone architecture, 
and so limited the size of the orders ; the habits 
of the Greeks and the moderate size of their 
communities did not call for large buildings ; 
their great gatherings were in the open air ; 
buildings for the shelter of the public were long 
galleries, called stoas, or halls divided into com- 
paratively narrow aisles. The only large build- 
ings were the teini)les of a few of the great 
colonial cities, and in the greatest of these the 
chamber or cella, encompassed by colonnades, 
hardly exceeded 40 feet in width. So the 
single order sufficed for, or limited, all their 
buildings, and hence the harmony and the ele- 
gant simplicity of their architecture. Hence, 
too, the absence of com])lcxity in the plans and 
combinations of their buildings so far as we 
know them by their remains. 

Tile architecture of the beam is naturally also 
that of tiie column, the column being only a 
beam set on end, and Greek building was dis- 
tinguished by the prevalence of colonnades : the 
temples were girt with them ; they surrounded 


tlie agora- or markets ; tliey extended iu long 
stoiis or portieiHJS again.st tlie hillsides, and from 
one public building to another ; they divideil the 
larger halls and the eellas of temples into aisles. 
This led to a great multiplying of vertical and 
horizon tid lines and right angles, — the horizontal 
lines always terminating the comjwsition except- 
ing in jjediments or gables, — and to a conspicu- 
ous expression of repose and stability which was 
increased by the habit of rigid symmetry in the 
arrangement of parts. It also led to the subor- 
dination of the wall surface, which in their im- 
portant buildings, being in a great degree hidden 
behind the colonnatles, bewime a secondary ele- 
ment in the architectural effect ; so that there is 
hardly any style except the developed Gothic 
in which the architectural members are so 
prominent and the wall surface so surbordinated 
as in the Greek. The Greeks, linng in a 
country of wooded hills and marble mountains, 
built only in stone, roofing their buildings with 
wood. Like the Egyptians, they knew the arch 
and occasionally used it ; like them, they rejected 
it fmni their important architecture. Imported 
ti'iii Kiuliarous countries and built of brick, a 
<lr^|ii~ril material, it was put to inferior uses, 
liuililiiig of tlrains and the like, and hidden 
under ground. 

Tlie Romans were the natural inheritors of 
the architecture of the Greeks, the architecture 
of the lintel and the order, both through the 
Etruscans, ami immediately from the Greeks. 
Bring a hard-headed, practical people, apt for 
wai ,(ihI iloiiiiiiidii, but not for culture, they 
(■'■lit. lit. .Il\ a. vjited their art, first from the 
(•.iii|ii. I. I l'.iru>ians and then from the con- 
quiiiil (inik.>, wliose superiority in so subor- 
dinate a matter they were ready to accept for 
what it was worth. So they took their archi- 
tecture unquestioningly, and with it the traili- 
tion of the supremacy and inviolability of the 
orders. For them the order was still the em- 
bodiment of what wa^ most stately and sacred 
in building. Th. \ • ' ■ ,, ;,, 

preserving the an 

Etru-scans and t i 

them, using only i..i ...,.' ...... i , .;, .md 

rejecting the arch, except that lu ooiue lew late 
instances the interior was vaulted. They some- 
times expanded the cella till it took in the width 
of the colonmides, preser\-ing the order engaged 
or embedded in the side walls of the cella, as 
we still see in the temjjlc called the Mainon 
Cdrree at Nimes, — .1 treatment for which the 
Greeks had given them an example in the great 
temple at Agrigentum. They liked to raise the 
cohunns above the platform on a ba.sement, 
while they kept the general outline of the 
temi)le unchanged and retained the traditional 
porticoe-s and pediments at the ends. To the 
end, wherever they wantcil monumental archi- 
tecture, the single order, magnified to the full 

dimension that was called for, was the substance 
of their design. But they were too practical, 
inventive, and independent to confine themselves 
to such simple use of the orders as sufficed for 
the Greeks. As they grew powerful, their re- 
quirements outran their traditions, strong in the 
beginning. Not essentially a religious peojile 
like the Egj'ptians and the early Greeks, after 
the republic was ended, as they grew more 
powerful and domineering, they made their an hi- 
tecture, like their empire, worldly and secular. 
Their temples ceased to be their mo.<t important 
buildings. Palaces, baths, theatre-s, amphithea- 
tres, far exceeded them in size and splendt)ur. 
The two orders of the Greeks were not enough 
for their need of variety, and they inventetl 
three more. They piled them on each other in 
their theatres and amphitheatres : in the Sei)ti- 
zonium, the great biurack of Septimius Sevenis, 
there were seven stories of them, we are told. 

The Romans had no prejudice against the 
arch. As architecture they had inherited it 
from the Etniscans, who, building in stone, 
had u^r.l it iii..imnientally, of which we may 
still -. . . \.iMi|i|, > in the city gates of Volterra, 
Fai.Tii. aii.l I'mmia. They must have u.-<cd it 
early, i.cilia)..> independently, for ordinary build- 
ing ; for Rome was built in an alluvial region, 
and in the days of her jjoverty brick was prob- 
ably her usual building material, as we infer 
from its abunilant later use and from the well- 
known boast of Augustus that he found her a 
city of brick, and left her a city of marble. It is 
difficult to build freely in brick without the arch. 
We first find it in the ruins of Me^jopotamia, 
an alluvial countrj' devoid of building stone, as 
if it were the child of the bricklayer. It was 
too serviceable to l)e set iiside ; and evidently its 
nobility and dignity when used on a grand scale 
impressed the Romans, for it wiis the form they 
persistently chose for monuments of triumjjhal 
arches with which the emperors, from Augustus 
down, bcs]irinkled Italv. Indeed, a.* traWated 
a;.i,;i.Muir, l„.r,i .■in,..ni: tlie >.a.vi-.l,.tal Kjryp- 

,lu;i,;h.iliua, an.l w;u ahva\.s coii.seerated to 
the building of temjiles, so the architecture of 
the arch may be called syndwlic of civic and 
warlike dominion, — an architecture of palaces 
and of buildings for display. The Assyrians and 
Rt)mans, warlike, aggressive, domineering, and 
ostentitious, were its |)atrons. For the Romans, 
as their emjjirc gained on the world, and under 
their rule cities grew ])o|)ulous and wealthy, 
and filled with such great public buildings a.s 
were unknown In-fore, the arch was fouiul their 
best servant. It gave so nmch flexibility to 
their style, adapting itself to every increase of 
scale, liearing any burden, and by the concur 
rent introduction of cur\-ed lines brought so 
1 nuu'h variety into the plans of buildings, so 


much splendour of ertect into the exteriors, that 
a practical, sumptuous people like the Romans 
could not but make the most of it. Accord- 
ingly they made the arch the constructive basis 
of most of their civic arcliiteeture ; but, working 
always in deference to Greek art, they could not 
give themselves up to a purely arched style, and 
they set to work to use the order and the arch 
together. With this combination they enor- 
mously increased the magnificence of their build- 
ings. They piled arcades on arcades, and orders 
on orders, making their theatres and amphithea- 
tres great monuments which have never been 
equalled. Their palaces and baths were vast 
complexes of courts, corridors, porticoes, halls 
of every variety and contrast of shape and size. 
Their streets and squares were lined with miles 
of colonnades, arcades, temples, and lofty pal- 
aces. Perhaps there never has been such an 
accumulation of architectural magnificence as 
there was in imperial Rome. The whole heart 
of Rome was not a mass of streets, like any 
modern city, but a great congeries of open 
squares bordered by galleries colonnaded or 
arcaded, and communicating freely with each 
other, so that one might walk for half a mile 
through forum after forum, among temples and 
basilicas, exedras, porticoes, triumphal arches 
and columns, and a whole population of stat- 
ues. The Palatine Hill was covered close with 
enormous palaces, whose intricate plans and 
sumptuous decoration are the wonder of the 
modern ex])lorer. 

Tlie Itdiuans have been much blamed because, 
having liurrowcd the architecture of the orders 
from the Greeks, they did not maintain its 
purity. It is true that they did not succeed 
in combining the arch and the order without 
prejudice to both ; that they used the orders in 
ways that did not suit them, and made changes 
in their proportion and decoration that robbed 
them of the exquisite purity which the long 
elaboration of the Greeks had wrought into 
them, making them mechanical and common 
in comparison. The Romans were not artists in 
form, as the Greeks were ; but it is unfair, in 
comparing, not to recognize that their architec- 
ture is, after all, a much greater intellectual 
achievement than the Greek. Its problems 
were far more coiiiplcx and diltirult than those 

of the (Jrcck, its <■ I'liih.n^ i,'iaiid('r, its com- 

liinations more in\vnti\r ,i,hI inlnvsting. The 
Romans were inrap;,l.|c .,f Givrk L'rair an-l re- 
filiemcnt; l)iil their wmk slmu.^ Intility n\' in 

verition and live c. lan^l ••{' rr^nnivr.. uliirh 

are not .scimi in thcGivck. 'i'lic(;ivck types, 
we have .seen, were few and simple, complete, 
and ob<lurate to modification, inapt for combi- 
nation. Two orders of different Hcales would 
not acf'ommodate in any part. We see how in 
tii(! Doric temples the ceilings of the i)tcroma8 
are laid on without adaptation to the colonuadea. 

In the Erechtheum at Athens, the only some- 
what complex Greek building that remains to 
us, the great parts, though put together with 
care for harmony of masses, are absolutely with- 
out interadjustment. Except for some conti- 
nuity in the base mouldings, there is no sign of 
thought in fitting the parts together beyond 
chopping them ofi" and laying one against the 
other as they come. The habit of cumulative 
design seems to have been foreign to the Greeks ; 
of Roman architecture, as would appear, this 
was the strong side, and it is doubtful whether 
anything has surpassed the nia.jesty of its great 
combinations. The vault, wlirh the Koinans 
inherited with the arch tVnm the Ijmseans, and 
its natural counterpart, the dome, gave enor- 
mous value to these combinations. They used 
few forms of vault, — the barrel vaidt, plain 
and annular, the groined vault of equal inter- 
secting cylinders, the spherical dome and half 
dome, — but these gave variety and dignity be- 
fore imknown to their interiors. They covered 
spaces which, so far as we know, the Greeks 
had not dreamed of covering, and handled their 
vaulting with a boldness and security that even 
the Gothic builders hardly surpassed : the dome 
of S. Peter'* has less span than that of the Pan- 
theon, though it is hung higher ; its great nave 
is but a yard wider than that of the basilica 
of Constantine. 

Abuse has been poured upon the Romans for 
neglecting to design an architecture to siut the 
arch, and for studying instead to ally it with 
the order. But it is difficult to see why they 
should have done otherwise. Having received 
from their earliest days a consecrated type which 
was to them the noblest of building forms, and 
having in use also a subordinate form, — the arch, 
— too serviceable to be neglected but of capacities 
not yet developi'd, when they began to Imild on 
a great scale ami I'or great etieets they nat\irally 
did not discard the lirst and set I hem-elves to 
deduce an architecture from the si'cond alone. 
Tlie natural course was to use hoth togi'tjier 
until in the end that one prexailed uhieh was 
fittest to survive, ami this they did. Their 
problem was, and they eoiiM hardly escape it, 
to combine the arch ami the onlei-. If we ex- 
amine their solution impartially we shall be more 
inclined to confess their skill tiian to accu.se 
them of dulness. Tlie Roman way of combin- 

ing the two 

1 idea to build the v, 
:-iesofarehes with i)i( 

heiglit and the preponderance of their entabla- 
ture, but rather awkwardly increasing their 
stride. They bound the parts together by 
carrying the base mouldings of the pedestals 
round the piers ; suiTctunded tlie arcli with an 
archivolt which echoed the architrave of the 


eiitaliLiture, iiiul wa-s the form previously used 
to border stjuare openings ; tliey lulded an impost 
moulding to receive the archivolt, which gave 
the jjier an analogy to the <'olumns without 
making it less a part of tiie wall. Finally they 
set a keystone at the crown of the arch to re- 
ceive the overhang of the entablature miilway 
between the columns. This not only gave the 
arch an apparent structural relation to the en- 
tablature, but, what was artistically more 
important, it bound the two parts of the compo- 
sition together at the top, as the base mouldings 
bound them at the bottom. This keystone, 
which so used is perhaps the best detail contrib- 
uted by tlie Romans, has been sorely misunder- 
stoixl and misused by later biulders. That the 
order and the arch, embodiments of opposing 
principles of construction, should make a perfect 
union was not to be expected ; but to the Romans 
the combination was perhaps inevitable, and at 
least their composition is artistically skilful and 
effective, if it is irrational in that the order 
aj)pears to be doing the supporting work of the 
arch. Tlie problem, indeed, was probably solved 
by Greek brains, for the Romans, we may 
remember, did no work but that of administra- 
tion ; their work was done for them by freedmen 
and slaves, — that is, by conquered foreigners 
and their children. The workshops of Rome 
were full of imported workmen and artists, 
mainly Greek. It was enough for the Romans 
to prescribe and administer their architecture. 

That part of the order which was really apt 
for combination with the arch, the column. ha<l 
been inimemorially joined with the entablature ; 
to se|)arate them involved the dismption of the 
ortler, and for three hundred years it was not 
thought of. The pier was the natural support 
of the arch, which was but a hole in a wall, and 
two archways wlii.h ad.i'iined left a pier between 
them. T.I I'-r by a column and 

readjust ti. nutter of contrivance 

and ditficul; never attempted to 

detach the (•..iuinn iroiii liic entablature, or to 
find any other support lor tiie arch than its 
pier. The forced alliance between arch and 
order lasted throughout the classical period. 
But at the end of this period the vault showed 
the way. The lunettes of the groinc»l vaulting 
over a high clKirstory, as in the Baths of Dio- 
cletian, or the Basilica of Constjintine, left 
between them a narrow pend;int which c<Uled 
for a special support. A vaulted roof could 
not, like an archway, be set under an order ; it 
must rest upon it. Here wa-s the natur.al posi- 
tion for a single column, and the Romans were 
used to single columns standing in front of their 
triumphal arches and carrying each its block of 
ental)Iature, broken forward over it. Column 
and entablature were not to be 8eparate<l ; they 
were tjiken together and set under the pendant 
of the vaulting, as against the triumphal arch. 

This arrangement, often copieil in modern imita- 
tions of classic anhiteeture, still shows in the 
tmn.sept of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli 
at Rome, which was the grait hall of the Baths 
of Diocletian. The lesson of this was obvious, 
but it was reservetl for the jjrogre.ssive eastern 
provinces to apply it. The i)ala(e built lor the 
same Diocletian tti live in Jifter his alxlication, 
now transformed into the town of Spalato in 
Dalmatia, is the oldest building we know in 
which the block of entablature is omitted and 
arches bear directly on the columns, while else- 
where in the same building we see the normal 
coinl.; 1 it; :i r iV, Roman areatles; and in the 
B:i~i: 1 I tine, built at about thesame 

tiiin : . I of the Baths of Diocletian 

is ii.|,ai 1. li..- kisiliea was the last great 
building of imi>erial Rome, and there is no indi- 
cation that in it the order was ever divided. 
The change seen at Spalato was a beginning of 
the growth of the mediicval styles. The union 
of the column with the arch has never since been 
set aside. Its survival when classic architecture 
was revived in the Renaissance was the most 
conspicuous difference between the new classic 
and the old. Its history in the interim belongs 
to Romanesque and Byzantine architecture. 

If the arch was the ready servant of the 
Romans in construction, they found the onler — 
or made it — scarcely less serviceable in design. 
Their genius for administration shows, itself as 
clearly in their buildings as in their polity. 
They rai.sed up a body of well-trained engineers, 
who did an enormous amount of skilful build- 
ing throughout the empire, as the remains of 
their works witness, to our astonishment, at 
this day. There are many indications that 
their great buildings were in charge of engi- 
neers more than of artists. The character of 
the design as well as the constniction seems to 
show that the chief concern was to develop 
such a system for both that when the general 
scheme of a great building hiul been devised by 
the engineers or master builders, trained design- 
ers could carry it out to a result which could be 
prescribed in lulvance by rules and formuhu. 
They dealt in masses of masonry, arches, walls, 
and piers on an enormous scale, building so 
solidly that they could build fast, and like the 
Pharaohs, by armies of unskilled workmen. 
The Greeks had been in their smaller way far 
nicer constructors : their buildings were wrought 
throughout of cut stone, fitteil together like 
cabinet work. The buildings of the Romans 
were piles of rough bricks and concrete ; they 
overlaid them with an architectural envelope, 
stately, elalwrate, and finely enough wrought to 
satisfy their not very exacting taste. It was 
l)ossible to do this on a grejit scale with an 
architecture which had Ijeen disciplined into a 
rigid system of proportions and decorations, 
where every form was definitely prescribed, and 


the small details were repeated iu absolute uni- 
formity by the hundred or by the rod. If we 
may trust Vitruvius, this was the rule under 
which Roman architecture was brought. None 
could have submitted to it so easily as the 
architecture of the order ; none coidd have fur- 
nished so facile a basis for it as that of the 
Greeks, in which the conditions of harmony, 
effectiveness, and a minutely ordered system 
were already secured. That the Greek forms 
suffered under such unsympathetic handling, 
that they were cheapened by meclianical itera- 
tion, was inevitable ; but we must not refuse 
the Romans the credit that is really theirs, of 
having embodied in them many noble concep- 
tions and grand combinations of which the 
Greeks had not dreamed. — \V. P. P. Lonij- 

Ch. Chipiez, Histoi 

tioii) ; 1',. 
Pompfi ; I 

let de 



Gebduden, Altertlii 

chives de la commission dis niiiiiiiiiirnis liislnni/Ki-s 

publiees par ordre di; son < j-n II, iiir M. .1. F,,,il,l ; 

F. Reber, Geschichte di-r B<i.iil-ii usi ,„i All, r/lnone ; 
H. Nissen, Pompcjanischc stixii, ii .-.m- SHi.iii/.iuide 
des Allerthums ; J. Ucliard. ,ly. /,,/, ,7,,,, ,/, ]>,nn- 
pei — ordre ionique — lievuc >jiii. d,- rurrh., 18(i0 ; 
ordre Corinthien — Revue ijini. de Vnrch.,\W>2 ; 

G. E. Perrot, G. and J. Delbet, Er.plortttion 
archeologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie (Rev. 
gen. de Varch., 1874); Ch. Norinand, Essai mir 
Vexisteuce d^une architecture metallique antique, 
etc., Encyclopedie d'arch., 1883. 

GRECQUIi. A meander ; especially one of 
the simplest kind, the lin&s of which make 
right angles with one another and are few, and 
arranged in one sequonco. 

of those lands which are now occupied by i)eo- 
ple of Greek race and traditions, chiefly the 
modern kingdom of the Hellenes. 

The architectural history of Greece proper 
and the adjacent islands may be divided into 
periods coinciding with its political history as 
follows : 

I. Prehistoric Period to First Olympiad, 776 


IV. I,;Uc I'l riod to Roman Conquest, 140 ii.c. 
V. Uoinaii Tcriod to Coustantlne and Cliris- 

tianity, 325 a.i.. 
VI. Byzantine Period to Kali of C'i)nslaiitinoi)le, 
1463 A.u. 


VII. Turkish Period to Independence Declared, 

18.30 A. D. 
VIII. Modern Period to 1898. 

The beginning of Period I. is lost in the mists 
of antiqiuty. The most remarkable ruins are 
found in the Argolic district at Tiryns, Argos, 
and Mycense, and in Bceotia at Orchomenos. 
These elucidate and confirm many Homeric 
descriptions, and bear witness to a vigorous 
and artistic eivilizatinn. The massive fortifi- 
cation walls indicate a state ofsuciety resem- 
bling feudal Eurn],e 1,1 th.' .Mi. Idle Ages, while 
the heantiful )iieee.s of jewellery, the swords 
inlaid with i;uM and silver, the vessels of pre- 
cious iiictals, and many other relics of skilled 
wdikiiiaii-liip fo\uid by Dr. Schliemann at 
]\Iy.cii;c m\c us glimpses of the life of an 
avti>tiially tcliiied people. The surpassing 
Idvcliiii ss i,t' the scenerj' and the facility of inter- 
coiuse with Oriental countries luiturally served 
to stimulate the early artistic (Icvclopuiciit of 

the ] pie near the ArgivelJulf, and Hemd.itus 

tells (if the commercial attractions ud'ered by 
this section to the Phoenician traders. At 
Tirviis there is a ruined palace with accesso- 
ries, surrounded by massive fortification walls 
referreil to in the Iliad, II., 559. Dr. Dorp- 
feld's restoration enables us to picture all (the 
propylaea, megaron, bath, colonnaded courts, 
wcinien's apartments, etc.) which composed this 
royal stronghold. Tiryns occupies a low rocky 
hill rising from the Argive plain about one mile 
distant from the gulf Its oblong shape of 
nearly 1000 by 300 feet is enclosed by walls 
which to Pausanias rivalled in W(jnder the 
Egyjjtian Pyramids, and tradition asserted to 
be the work of Cyclops. The original exterior 
height of the walls was probably 65 feet ; their 
thickness varied from 16 to 57 feet, iu parts 
honeycombed with galleries, chambers, and stair- 
ways. Two varieties of local limestone were 
used in blocks, of which some measure 6 to 10 
feet long by 3 feet wide and high. The stones 
were laid up roughly in courses with beds more 
or less dressed, and in a clay mortar which has 
been partly removed by the action of lizards, 
rats, and rain. The galleries and chambers, 
honeycombing the tiiicker walls, have a note- 
worthy roof construction, peculiar to this period 
in Greece, which consists in ;i gradual conver- 
gence of the horizontal la\crs ol' ^toncs, and 
resembles a rough \auli in a|.|H;naiicc hut not 
in principle. We find ihis constiuciion again 
in the sanctuary of Hera Tcleia, ]\It. Odia, 
Eubnea ; in tlie " beehive " tombs at Myceiuu 
and elsewhere, aiul in the corbelling used to 
relieve the door lintels of this period. The 
gates and doorways had rebated stone jambs 
with wooden doors, secured by lieavy wooden 
Iwlts let into holes in tiie jambs ; at Mycena; is 
a typical example, tlie " Lion Gate," which 
derives its name from tlie two lionesses whose 


headless IxkIIcs are carved on the stone slab fill- 
ing the triangular tympanum formed by the 
lintel and sides of tlie relieving corl)els. This 
piece of sculjjture is, architecturally, most ap- 
propriate both iis to design and position. 

The propyheum at Tirjns is a prototype of 
the noble portal on the Athenian Acropolis ; 
while the Megaron, or Great Hall, seems an 
incipient temple with its jwrch (iistyle in antis 
and its main roof supported on interior columns. 
The general plan at TirJ^ls fiirthermore reveals 
a picturesque irregularity combined with a skilful 
disposition of the main parts typified in later 
times by the Erechtheum. The architectural 
transition, therefore, from the Mycenjean age to 
that of Pericles is a natural sequence, although 
several centuries intervened. 

The columns supijorting the Megaron roof 
were four wofxlen pillars on stone bases, sur- 
rounding a circular hearth of nearly 11 feet 
diameter. This arrangement of the hearth illus- 
trates the passage in the Odyssey (VI., 304), 
where Ulysses is directed by Nausicaa to the 
queen. The smoke from the fire escaped through 
an opening in the roof, which may have been 
elevateil over the hearth like a clearstory sup- 
ported on the four pillars. All of the Megaron 
floor e.xcept this hearth is of lime and pebble 
concrete, polished and decorated with rectangles 
and squares forme<l by incised lines, and painted 
alternately blue and red. The lower portion of 
the house walls was built of rubble stonework 
laid in clay mortar, and plastered ; the upper 
portion of sun-<lried bricks. The plastering con- 
sisted of a coat of clay and another of lime 
smoothed and painted while still fresh. In 
painting, tlie colours used were white, black, 
blue, red, and yellow. The vestibule of the 
Megaron was decorated with a beautiful frieze 
of alabaster and blue glass and a wainscot of 
wood. The axis of the Megaron coincides with 
tiiat of its large forecourt, and is parallel and 
adjacent to that of a smaller court and hall 
belonging to the women's apartments. Similar 
arrangements for the men's and women's apart- 
ments of this period are found at Mycenae and 

Anotiier interesting feature at Tiryns is the 
bathroom, which iiad a monolithic floor 10 feet 
by l;} feet by 2\ feet thick, and weighing twenty 
tons. This gi^rantic limestone block is polished 
and sloped io dniiii the water. A painted frag- 
ment of a terra eotta batli-tub wiis found with 
thick rim and two iiandles. 

About eigiit miles north of Tiryns is a foot- 
hill of Mt. Euboea commanding the Argive plain, 
and once sacred to Hera. A Cyelopican wall of 
large boulders, more ancient in appearance even 
than the Tirj'nthian walls, supports a terrace 
partially paved with irregular flat stones, and 
upon which once stood the Hcneiim, proltably 
the oldest peripteral temple in Greece of wiiicii 

there are any remains. It was built chiefly of 
wood, and it« destruction by fire is mentione<l 
by Pausanias, II., 17. 

Alwut two miles farther north lies Mycena% 
whose walls show stones tt>ole<l and fitted in 
ashlar courses and jwlygonal masonrj*. But of 
chief architectural intt-rest here are the bwhive 
tombs, whose counterparts are also found in 
Attica and Boeotia. The largest of the eight at 
Mycenie is the so-called Tholos of Atreus, or 
Tomb of Agamemnon, excavated by Dr. Sehlie- 
maun. An approach or dromon 115 feet long 
and 50 feet wide leads horizontally to a great 
circular subterranejin chamber built in the hill- 
side. The walls of the dromos are built of 
large stjiiared blocks. The doorway to the 
chamber is 17 feet 9 inches high and 8 feet 1 
inch wide at top and 8 feet 9 inches wide at 
bottom. Each doorpost was decorate<l with a 
half column of dark gray alabaster. The shafts 
tapered downward, and were ornamented in 
relief with spirals in zigzag bands. Over 
the lintel a triangular space was left similar to 
tiiat over the Lion Gate. This triangular s|)ace, 
measuring about 10 feet on the sides, was filleil 
up with slabs of red jwrphyry laid horizontally 
and adorned with rows of spirals. Tlie passage 
leading from the doorway into the great chamber 
is 18 feet long, and is roofol by two enormous 
slabs beautifully cut and polishetl, of which the 
inner one is 3 feet 9 inches thick, 271 feet long, 
17 feet broad, and weighs ajiproxima'tely 130 
tons. The great beehive-shaped chamlx'r meas- 
ures 50 feet in diameter at the floor and 50 feet 
high. It is built of tooled breccia blocks 
smoothed and well fitted on the inside, and 
laid in horizontal courses, gradually converging 
until the apex is covered by a single stone, 
which, however, is not a keystone, since the 
dome is not constnictal on the arch principle. 
Hea\y stones are placed on the outside to keep 
the horizontiil courses in position. Bronze nails 
and nailholes in the wall indicate that bronze 
rosettes or similar oniaments were used for 
decoration. On the north side of the l)eehive 
chamber a doorway ojjens into a smaller dark 
chamber 27 feet square and 19 feet high, entirely 
cut out of the rock. 

Our Period II. directs the attention more to 
religious architecture. The separate states and 
colonies formed bv earlier migrations an> uiiifie<l 
bv the Olvmiiie t'estiv.ils and D.^lphie on.eles. so 
that we lind tlie same type use.! lor the old He- 
neum at Olympia, the IleeatompiMlon at Athens, 
and for the temples at Corinth, yEgina, and 
Delphi. It is the ancient megaron developed, 
with the principal addition of an enclosing col- 
onnade, or peristyle, and built of finer material 
and with greater artistic skill ; the statue of 
the deity, the oracular fire, or tripod, occupies 
the position of the old hearth. Forms formerly 
executed in wood are now built of st(me or mar- 


ble. Architectural terra cotta (mouldings, roof 
tiles, antefixie, etc.) are found at various sites, 
but of similar patterns, as though having ema- 
nated from one central manufactory. At Olym- 
pia, the treasury of Gela had a stone cornice 
encased with terra cotta. The institution of 
religious festivals and games concentrated a 
wealth of architecture in certain favoured cities. 
Each city of importance built a treasury at 
Olympia, Delphi, or elsewhere, in which to de- 
posit reconnaissant gifts and trophies. The 
games required the gymnasium, stadion, palaes- 
tra, and bouleuterinn ; the accompanying sacri- 
fices iieces.sitated the temples, altars, porticoes, 
and stoa, while to the heroes of the hour were 
erected statues and tripods until the sacred 
grounds became fairly crowded with the various 

Our " classic " period (III.) is the culminating 
era. The successful repulse of the Persians had 
sent a wave of exhilaration throughout Greece 
which stimulated eftbrt and inspired thought. 
With true artistic instinct the architects limited 
their ettbrts to developing and refining the old 
forms. Atiiens had been chief in repelling the 
Persian invader, and also stood foremost in the 
activity which ensued, with Argos second. Ar- 
tists had developed apace with the rapid growth 
of wealth and refinement, and, as in the times 
of all good art, the architects, sculptors, and 
painters interlocked arms or were embodied in 
the same individuals. 

The octastylc Parthenon on the Athenian 
Afinpi.lis rc|iiiscnt> thr perfect Greek temple. 
Pfiiiosc iTriK' /'riiiri/ili'.s uf Athenian Archi- 
tcrtiiri') (liscuvcrccl by larcful measurement that 
its design embodied the most subtle curves. 
(Sec Refinements in Design.) The general 
type of temple, however, continued to be hexa- 
style ; the Zeus temple at Olympia and the 
H(;ra temple at Argos both contained ehrysele-- 
phantine statues of the deity similar to the 
Athena figure in the Parthenon ; the statues 
in the Parthenon and Zeus temple were both 
executed by Pheidias ; the Hera statue by his 
bnitiicr sculptor, Polycleitos. Everywhere we 
find great activity ; Ionian influences arc bearing 
fruit, as shown by the Nike temple, the Erech- 
theum, and the interior columns of tlie Propy- 
lannn at Athens and nf the Apdln tcini.le at 
Bassa;. We find 1 )nnr tnuplrs at .Nh'-alMpoli-s, 
Tegea, Kpi.laurus, Ai1h„,, KIr.i.is, Itliamnus, 
Siinion, Dclo.s, and Dclj-hi, whose ruins tell 
their history niore or less clearly. The polyg- 
onal Tiiasonry at Rhamnus is a spiritual link 
witli tlie early work of Mycenic. 

Other buildings besides temples ha<l been 
perfected. Next in beauty, and at times rival- 
ling them, were the stoa.s, — colonnaded buildings 
devoted to various uses. The Poikile, or painted 
stoa, of Athens's market phuic, was painted by 
I'olygnotus ; the stoa Biisilcus, where the archon 


sat in judgment, was a prototype of the Roman 
basilica. The Lesche at Delphi was a loung- 
ing or club room famous for its frescoes by Polyg- 
notus. The stoa of the Athenians at Delphi, 
the Echo Colonnade of Olympia, and the stoas 
at the Argive Heraeum, at Epidauros, Thoricos, 
and Oropos repay careful study. 

Religion and athletics were associated in 
Greece. Gymnasia and stadia at Athens, Meg- 
alopolis, Delos, Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia, and 
Nemea equalled the temples in importance. 
The gymnasium type consisted of a peristylar 
court, from which opened rooms for baths and 
exercises, both physical and intellectual. Un- 
der Roman influences the scope of the gymna- 
sium was extended. The stadion was an oval 
race track 600 feet long, with seats for spec- 

The theatre, originally only a circular space 
like the modern Greek threshing floor, had de- 
veloped with the drama, and its design may be 
traced at Man tinea, Argos, Epidauros, Sicyon, 
Athens, Thoricos, Delos, Eretria, Megalopolis, 
and Delphi. Dr. Dorpfeld has lately published 
his views controverting Vitruvius and other au- 
thorities regarding the arrangements of the 
Greek stage. 

Gateways and propylaea, resembling the early 
one at Tiryns, are found at Athens, Eleusis, 
Olympia, and Delos. 

In oiu- "late" period (IV.), the artists, in- 
capable of advancing farther, began to copy. 
AVc SCO the cause in the political conditions. 
Tiic Miutlitiii decks were conquered by the less 
rcfiiicil .Maccildiiiaiis. Athens was no longer the 
cliicl' centre, tlic successors to Alexander had 
made their capitals at Alexandria and Antioch. 
The Hellenic spirit which leavened the world 
became diluted. From giving, Athens began to 
receive. She was adorned, still, by buildings, 
but only through the munificence of Philohellcnic 
princes and nobles from foreign parts. Arclii- 
tcctuvc Imcainc thinner, both in s(>ntinient and 
<h-siuii, a< slinui, l,v the Zeus Icmnle at N.'liiea, 

lid the 

I tiM 

v.l ; 

it is tlie donor. Attains II. dt' rei-,L;aiuiiii built 
a stoa in Athens, ami that iire|iaii's us gradually 
for the final domination of the K.mians. The 
ciioragic ludnuuienl of l.\sieiaies iiitriHluees a 
new and bcaiitilul imte ainidsl u'iiiciall> (h'l'ieas- 
ing harmony. It sei\es as a t\|ie loi- the Co- 
rinthian onU'r, (if which \M' liial nthcr interesting 
specimens in the Tlmhis ai Kphlaiiros ami the 

Philippeion at 01yiii|iia, all circular stiiicl\ires, 

and in the doorway ot the i.cta-onal Clepsydra, 
or Tower of the Winds, in Athens. 

Before leaving this period, it would be well to 
dwell a moment on the temple construction. 
Indigenous arcliitecture is inttucnced by tlie 
local building materials. In Greece, wotwl was 
originally used for column and entablature. 

Stone was graduaUy KulistituU'il, retaiuing and 
petrifying the traditional wooden forms; the 
stone e])istyle was originally a wooden ginler ; 
the triglyplis were beam ends ; the metope slabs 
tilled the spaces once open between the l)earas, 
wherein jirobably stood votive gifts represented 
later by the metojw sculptures ; tlie guttje were 
nail-heads ; the cornice soffit showed the rafter's 
slope. A wooden entablature permitted greater 
intercolumniations than were admissible with 
stone. The old Argive Heneum had wood 
pillars of 2 feet diameter, sjjaced 1 H feet on 
centres. With the introduction of stone, the 
intercolumniation was decrea-sed by setting the 
columns nearer together, or by increasing their 
diameter, or both. The old Heneum at Olympia 
illustrates the gradual substitutiim of stone for 
wood. The early column capital hiul a broatl 
abacus and ec^hinus designed for the greater sup- 
port of the epistyle. In time these and the 
column were better proportione<l and massiveness 
yielded to grace. In the later j>eriod an over- 
refinement ami attenuation produced weakness, a 
worse architectural fault than excess of strength. 

The stone columns were usually built of sev- 
eral drums fastened together with wootlen dowels 
and revolved on their beds until the grinding 
made rlose joints. To facilitate thi> (ii.nation, 
sfvcral knobs were left on tlic >t..nr .Iruu,^ w lien 
dressed at the (piaiTy, and tlirx- w. iv t..,,lr,l „ff 
when the channels were cut at tlic luiiltiiiii,'. At 
Delos (Apollo Temple) ami at Eleu.sis (Portico 
of Philon) the channels were never finished. In 
early work sixteen channels, and even fourteen 
(Argive Heraeum) were not unusual, but in the 
best period Doric columns had twenty channels 
and Ionic twenty-four flutes. The stone cohunns 
were often given a thin coat of lime plaster and 
painted an orange yellow. When nuirble was 
used, its smooth surface rendered the plaster 

The members of the entablature were also 
painted, chiefly in reds, blues, and yellows. The 
cynia and other mouldings, when not can-ed, 
were ilecorated with stencil ornaments of the 
anthemion and other conventionalized types. 
The stones of the entablature were raised into 
position with ropes and ta.kle. Ill earlier w,,ik. 



s iiiir 

^l.le. : 


were made. The sluues ^^el■e la.stene,! t.,-elher 
with bronze and iron clamps, whose form is i>ne 
indication of a building's age. The clamps of the 
Ixst littli centuiy period had the form of adouble 
T (Di'- Josef Dunn, Die Baiikmist der Grie- 
chot). Various marks were used by the IJreek 
masons for centring the columns and numlxring 
the stone courses. Early roof tiles were of terra 
cotta until nvzes, .,f Naxos, .")80 ii.c. invented 
tiles of marble (I'ausaniiLs, V., 10). The temi^le 
was ineuniplete until the sculptor iiad sui)plc- 
mented the architect's work by filling the ja'di- 


nicnts and metopes with comjxjsitions to the 
glory of its deity. 

The early naos or cella was long and narrow, 
its width doubtless regulate by the roofing 
ability of the builders. Gradually the cella 
was widened and two rows of interior columns 
aided in supporting the roof, recalling the 
Tirjnithian Megaron. Later exi)ansion of this 
constmction 1«1 to the seven rows of columns in 
the Telesterion at Eleusis, whose similitude to 
the HyiKJStyle Hall at Karnak uuide it an ap- 
propriate sanctuary for the Egyjjtian-like Eleu- 
siniau mysteries. The cella or naos wjus prece<led 
by a pronaos, which is found in the ancient 
megaron, and continued in the Byzantine church 
as tiie narthex. Behind the cella was the 
opisthotlomos, a storeroom for valuables. 

The Doric temjile was usually hexastyle and 
peripteral, with twelve or more cxjlumns on the 
sides. A unit of mciisurement reigns throughout 
the fifth century temples at tlie Argive Hera'um 
and at Olympia, which equals 0.326 metres, or 
12| inches. The columns of the Argive temple 
were spaced ten units apart, except at the angles, 
where they were nine units ; the triglyjihs two 
units wide, and the metojies three units sipiare. 

The krepidoma of the Doric temi)le consisted 
usually of three ste])s. On the toji one, or 
stylobate, the columns were j)laced, their posi- 
tions indicated by masons" X murks on the 
stones, and a small hole at the jiuu-tion of the 
cross to insert one leg of a compjuss for describing 
the circle and laying out the diagram on the 
stylobate for the channels of the columns. The 
stone without the circle was then cut away to a 
lower level, lea^^ng the projection to mark the 
column's jwsition. An incline or ramp made an 
eisy ascent to the entrance for the sacred pro- 

The orientation of the temple was usually 
such that the rising sun, at the time of year of 
the festival nmst sacred to its deity, would shine 
into the main entrance. At Bassic is an excej)- 
tional arrangement ; tlie main axis of the temple 
is north and south, while the side door admits 
the eastern sunlight. 

Our Period V. shows Greece under the yoke 
,.f Itnin.', a ,-,.iiditinn I,..> t.. l.e .lej.lored .since 

III. (He,,;,,, Matr^ 1;„1 p,,,\,,, ll;,,, inability for 

enabled tiie (.Me.k arti>tic >i.ml -radually to 
revive, or at leant to be preserveil I'nmi utter 
extinction. As the riches of the world poured 
into Rome, the demands of luxury attracted the 
peojUe who alone possessetl the art instincts 
cajiable of catering to their political masters, to 
whose ^^dgarity we nuist attribute the frequent 
exhibitions of ])cr\-crted taste. 

Th.' K<.man buildings in (irccce worthy of 
note an> but few, and their ruins usually overlie 
earlier Greek work. A small circidar U-mple 
23 feet in diameter dedicated to Home and 


Augustus confronted tlie east end of the Parthe- 
non. On the south slope of the Acropolis 
Herodes Atticus dedicated an odeum to his 
wife and at Olympia he built an exedra. At 
the Argive Herajum are remains of a building 
whose hollow floor and wall construction re- 
sembled that of the baths at Pompeii ; the 
upper floor, supported on small piers about 2 
feet high and 2 feet apart on centres, was con- 
structed of large tiles laid on the piers, over 
which was spread concrete and finally a mosaic 
or tile pavement. The air, warmed in a furnace 
room, percolated under the floors and through- 
out special hollow tile lining in the side walls. 
These wall tiles were coated with plaster 
which was probably painted while still fresh. 
At Olympia are ruins of Roman thermae and 
of a house attributed to Nero, while throughout 
Greece are traces of Roman aqueducts and 

Hadrian's era of affected eclecticism trans- 
ported and confused the styles of all countries ; 
the arch in Athens which marks the quarter 
built by Hadrian and the huge Corinthian 
columns of the Olympeion, though grand, are 
discordant elements in the city of Athens. 

The Byzantine period (VI.) finds Greece still 
but a province of the vast Roman empire, an 
empire now rapidly disintegrating. This period 
derives its title from Byzantium (Constanti- 
nople), where is found its most beautiful type, 
S. Sophia. It is limited from the reign of 
Constantine, 325 a.d. to 1453, when Constan- 
tinople fell before the Mohammedan conquerors. 

The architectural elements which compose 
the Byzantine style had, however, been grad- 
ually assembling for centuries before the time 
of Constantine, and are traceable in early ages 
to Egypt, Assyria, and Persia. The chief 
characteristic of this style is the dome, sup- 
ported on pendentives springing from a square 
or rectangular plan. Monasteries, convents, 
small churches, and chapels are found through- 
out Greece often occupying sites originally 
sacred to the pagan cult, but as examples of 
Byzantine architecture they are small and un- 
important. (Sec I'.vzaiitiTic .Arclutccturc.) 

During the Tnrki>h |Hiin,l (VII.) fn.in I l.-.:i 
to the War of In(lri»n,h-ncc, JH.'H, Orcccc lay 
prostrate under Mohaniinedan rule, almost dead 
to the world. Her art was stationary. 

The.se four centuries may be passed over 
quickly, as there is nothing of special interest in 
the Turkish fortresses, mosques, or minarets to 
warrant delay. 

The modern period (VIII.) begins with the 
successful expulsion of the Turk. It is a period 
of hopeful anticipation rather than one of 
especial achievement thus far. The latent 
Greek spirit has not had time to recuperate 
after centuries of oppression. Modern architec- 
ture in Greece is not indigenous. Austrians 


and Germans have designed most of her build- 
ings, of which the royal palace, the Zappeion, 
the National Museum, Academy of Science, 
university, and Dr. Schliemann's house, all in 
Athens, are most noteworthy. 

The U-\)C of the villagers' house in Greece 
to-day can iliti'cr but little from that of ancient 
times. A \aid or court is enclosed by high 
walls excLpt such spaces as are occupied by the 
dwelling, stables, and outhouses. The building 
material is sun-dried or mud brick. An ex- 
terior stone stairway leads to the second story 
of the house, which, like the ground floor, 
usually consists of but one room. 

Ilrnrv Fansliawe Tozer, Lrctims of the Geog- 
r.i,.l:, ■.( i:,:.r. : II. mv ran-i.auv Tozer, 77te 
/■' " /' ■ '' 1 ' '"''■.< — Greet, I, 

A - I i.iiides—Grece, 

II. I ' . , /,, , , .iinl other guide- 

1.- ■ A ' I. Im.1.1, I inii.r ,i J:Ji/Hses Byzan- 

/::.■• . ' . IslJ; Auguste Choisy, VArt 

.'. ' r ,, l:>r.",:iins, 1883; Gazette des 

j: .1,/ , .-.'7, Aiiiile on Mistra by Lucien 

and S. H. Barnaby, 
n Greece (not yet pub- 

yuiL^iiv . K. \v. 

Byzantine Archit 

— Edward L. Tilton. 

A building of which the 
roof and some, at least, of the sides are glazed 
sashes, contrived for the protection and growth 
of exotic and tender plants incapable of endur- 
ing the open air during the colder months of the 
year ; to afford to native plants the advantage 
of perpetual summer through the inclement 
season ; or to force the growth of flowers, fruits, 
and vegetables. In order to obtain the condi- 
tions of temperature necessary to these pur- 
poses, greenhouses are generally provided with 
artificial heat and means of ventilation. They 
are the adjunct of gardens, and, according to 
their especial functions, are distinguished as 
conservatories, which properly are for the pres- 
ervation of tender plants, whether potted or 
bedded; hothouses, or forcing houses, where a 
higher temperature is maintained with the neces- 
sary degree of humidity ; orcliiil liouses, ludvided 
with tropical heat ; warm and cold grajicrics. 
There are also many specific subdivisions, such 
as palm houses, orangeries, rose houses, etc., in- 
cluding glazed buildings of many sorts for the 
growth of specific market produce. Green- 
houses to accommodate flowering and ornamen- 
tal plants in general arc provided with ranges 

of ( M slielviii- for pots, a|.i.i"Niniatelv cor- 

i-esp.mdiii- witli tlie slop,, nl the -lazr.i roof, 
\vhetiier single or donl.le, \Mlh ,, shelf,,,- 1„mI of 
.soil fur propagating purposes a;.;ainsl thc^ outer 
wall, and a narrow pas.sage between. The old 
custom of setting the glass in wooden frames 
with putty is now in good work suijcrsedcd by 
framing the glass in metal sasii, s ,,,iiiii\i,i with 
glitters to carry oft" the water ,,t , on, I, nil i,,n, as 
in the system known as the lo ndl, ,S\.m. m. 


The form ami height of greenhouses are sub- 
je<-t to iiKiiiy variations acxonling to use ; for 
lofty tropical phitits they are built with greater 
height, and often witii turvilinear roofs, domes, 
pavilions, and transepts of decorative ciianicter. 

When attached to, and forming part of, a 
dwelling house, the greenhouse becomes a i)lace 
rather for the display, than specifically for the 
preservation and growth, of omanieutal and 
tliiwcring plants, and has a decorative character 
ada[)te(l to its position ;is an element in a gen- 
eral architectural scheme. Wiicn so placed it 
is, by common but strictly incorrect usage, called 
a couservatorj' ; and when considerably enlarged, 
so as to occupy a court with a glazed roof, 
it becomes properly a winter garden (jardin 
d'hiver), where not only potted and tubbed, 
but l)e<lded, plants are displayed, with fountains, 
Btatuarj'. and other decorative adjuncts. (Sw 
("onscrvaton- ; Forcing House: Grapery; Hot- 
1k,us,-.) — li. Van r.iUNT. 

Tlic iiiodcni stnicturcs arc tlic Danish houses 
of Eurojjean jjattern adapted to the extreme 
cold, and the huts of the Eskimo. In the line 
of ancient architectural works are the remains 
of stone churches and other buildings of the 
early Norsemen. At Katortok the walls of a 
church still stand almost entire. The masonry 
is not coursed. (See Iglu ; Iglugeak ; Snow 
House.) F. S. D. 

GREEN ROOM. Same as Foyer, in the 
sen.se of a place of meeting of the actors in a 
theatre ; the original English word for such a 
room, which, however, was generally a very 
poor and jjlain room originally hung and fur- 
nislu'd witli green, though no particular reason 

GREETING HOUSE. A reception room or 
jilaee of meeting cunnected with a church or 
convent in early (Christian times. — (C. D.) 

GREMP, HANS. (See Hans Von Stras- 
burg. ) 

GREPON. A council house of Nicaragua 

GRIFFE. In French, a claw; but by ex- 
tension, a spur or jjrojection ; in English, a spur 
iPKiJeeting from the round base of a column and 
filliiij,' a ])art of tiie triangle fonned by tiie i)ro- 
jection of the Kipiarc plinth below. The pri- 
mary use of this is to give the column a broader 
biise iind to diminish the amount of the cutting 
away of the solid stone. The griffe, however, 
is often used for elalwratc ornamentation, being 
car\ed into vegetable or even animal form. Its 
use is chiefly confine<l to mediieval styles. 

GRIFFIN. In decorative art, an imaginary 
creature coni|>oun(UHl of lion and eagle. The 
more common rcpi-e.sentations show lion's ])aws, 
eagle's wings, and a hcjul furnished with a 
hooked beak. In Greco- l{«miaii art these crea- 
tures occur in sculptunxl friezes on marble urns, 


and the like, but they are more effectively used 
in Italian Romanesque art, where admirably 
designed creatures of this sort are used for the 
sujiports (if tlie columns of chunli porches. 

tect ; d. Sei)t. la, l.j7l.'. 

Tiie .son of Guglielmo Grigi (see Grigi, G.). 
In 1550 hesucceededScarpagnino(see Ablwndi) 
its protomaestro of the Scuola di S. Rocco, 
Venice. May 22, 1567, with a Magistro An- 
drea della Vecchia, he contracte<l to build the 
church of S. Giorgio Maggiore at Venice accord- 
ing to the designs of Andrea Palladio (sec I'al- 

I'aoletti. llinmcimeulo in \\u.r.i.K Vol. II. 

Alzano (" Guglielmo Berganuiscti," Temanai) ; 
architect and sculptor {lapicidu), iu Venice ; 
d. 1550. 

Grigi's most imiwrtant work is the charming 
Capella Emilianaat the church of S. Michele in 
Isola near Venice. He assisteil in tlie con- 
struction of the Procunitie Vecchie, the churcli 
of S. Andrea della Certosa (destroyed), the choir 
of the church of S. Antonio, and the Scuola di 
S. Rocco, all iu Venice, and the Palazzo della 
Ragione in Vicenza. 

Paolrtti, liinascimento in Venezia ; Miintz, 
lienaissancf ; Temauza, Vite. 

GRILLAGE. A grating or structure of 
timliers laid horizontally side by side arfd cros.sed 
by others, and .so on for several thicknesses, the 
whole being intended to carry a foundation on 

piling or on soil not otherwise fit to receive it. 
By innnediatc transference to new material, a 
similar stnicture made of bars of iron or steel, 
such as rolled rails. (Sihj Foundation; also 
illustration of Crib.) 

GRILLE. In French, a grating of any sort, 
especially of liglit ironwork, such ius a gridiron, 
or a gnite of a fire])lace. Architecturally, in 
French, and by adojition in English, a defence 
of metal, usually wrought-iron bars, high enough 
and close set enough to prevent the passage of 


a body, and serving in this way to enclose a 
courtyard or the grounds around a public build- 
ing ; or to fill up the place between two masonry 
piers, or between two pavilions of a building. 
The term in English is generally restricted to 
something rather elaborate and arcliitcctural in 
character. In this sense the wurd is used m.hu'- 
times for a metal window guard, even wlini the 
opening is small. It is customary also to use 
the term as synonymous with gate when a door- 
way is closed by a swinging or sliding grating 
instead of a solid door. — R. S. 

GRXLIi ROOM. A room in a restaurant, 
hotel, or rluli where it is supposed that the chief 
entertainment atibrded is broiled meat, 
such as chops, steaks, etc., served jjromptly 
at tables placed near the fire used for the 

, architect. 

Grimaldi's first work in Naples was the : - 
convent and church (1.590) of S. Apostoli. 
In 1608 he built the fine Capella del ': 

Tesoro at the cathedral, Naples. He built , " 
the church of S. Maria degli Augeli at ' f 
Pizzo-Falconc near Xajiles. The recon- 
struction of the rhureh of S. Paolo Mag- 
giore, Na]i]es, was arcouiiilished from his 
designs after his death. 

Sa.sso, Storia de' Monumenti di Napoli ; 
Gurlitt, Geschichte des Barockstiles in Ital- 
ien; Ebe, Spdt-Rennisitance. 

GRIMUHALDTTS ; areliiteet. „^ 


diagonal rib of a ribbed vaidt, and also to the 
whole of a groined vault taken together. The 
only sense in which it can be rightly used seems 
to be in the series of larger and more carefully 
dressed stones laid as voussoirs in the angle be- 
tween intersecting arehos in which stones the 

GROINED VAULTING. (See Vault, and 
Groin Vault under ^■a\dt.) 

The erypt 
Italy, is signe 
bjiler accolyla 

.,f the .-atlLiral ..f Sutri, 

1 bv him: (Irinnihohlus pres- 

. It was buUt m the twelfth 


, Boman Artists of the Middle Ages. 

GRISATLLE. Fainting in monochrome, 
especially in rather delieate gray. By extension, 
any flat ornanieiitati(Jii wliieh is devoid of effects 
of colour; thus, ornamental windows composed 
of uncolouretl but rough and not perfectly trans- 
parent glass set in lead sash are commoidy said 
to be en gri.saille. Tiie term is generally used 
as a French word. 

GROIN. The arris formed by the salient 
between two intersecting vaults. In the most 
common form of vaulting wilh gruin-. the \aults 


nd V 


at tJH^ 

■ the 


vault. (See 

GROIN ARCH. A ]mrc of arched con- 

Ktniction forming in some way the angle between 

two simple vaidts. The term has no accurate 

significance, and is applied erroneonsly to the 


GROINING Piopeilj, the meetmg ot 
simple vaults, such as bairel vaults, at an angle 
so as to form a more elaborate structure. (See 
Groin Vault, under Vault.) By extension, the 
building of groined vaults generally. 

Underpitch Groining. The groining and 
also the groined vaulting residting from the 
intersection of a larger and higher vault by 

ed tli.at the 

smaller ones. It is geii 
larger and the snialhT \anlts 
the same plane and haxc the s.n 
the same, shape, viz., nf seiiiieiivnla 
smaller vaults will then iiitir>e,t t 
but will not rearh almve its hauih' 
Welsh Groining. Same as 

GROIN POINT. A groin in the strict 
•sense given above ; a ma.son'.s term to designate 

GROIN RIB. The diagonal rib in a ribbed 
vault c,(iu|)ying the place where a groin might 
be eoiistruetod ; an erroneous expression, as a 
riblied vault is not groined. 

GROOVE. A narrow continuous sinking, 
usually of the same width and depth througiiout. 
Groove.s are worked on the edges of lioards and 
planks for the purpose of making tongued and 
grooved flooring and sheathing. 

GROSE. FRANCIS ; aiiti.iuan : b. alwut 
17:H ; a. May 1 L', IT'.U. 

Grose published in 177;{ the fii-st number of 
his Aiitkjuities of Emjland and M'ulen, and 
completed the work in 1787 (London, 4 vols, 
folio). The Antiquities of Scotland was pub- 
lished in 1789-1791 (Lonilon, 2 vols. 4to). 
The Antiquities of Ireland, liegun by him, 
Wius published after his death by Dr. Edward 
Ledwich (London, 1791-1795, '2 vols. 4to). 
The Military Antiquities appeared in 1796- 
1798 (London, 2 vols. 4to). 

Slcjilicn, DirtiiiHiirij of Xational Biof/raphij. 
ERT; i;i>liM|, ,,f J.iiirnin : d. \2'):\. 

KohiTt (iiosscteste, iJislio]) of Lincoln, is sup- 
posed to have built, or to have caused to be 
built, tlie transept of the catliedral of Lincoln, 
England, to have completed the nave, and to 
have carried the central tower (rood tower) to 
the l)eginning of tlie upi)er story. 

Pe-rge, Hubert (irosseteste ; Storer, Cathedral 
Churcfi of Lincoin. 

GROT. l*i()i)crly, a cave ; in architecture, 
a jiiiT.' i.f nickwork in which a cave is simulated. 
GROTESQtTE. A. Properly, having to do 
with a cave or caves ; hence, rude, not accord- 
ing to system or the canons of art, wild, irregular, 

B. By extension, in describing ornament which 
is of a new or unexpected character, akin to the 
original use of Arabesque, fantastic and un- 
classed. The monsters and tlie exaggerated 
human and animal forms of raediseval sculpture 
are often called by this term, and so are tlie 
strange creatures, half human and half animal, 
and tlie scrollwork in which a part of the body 
of a man or a beast emerges from a flower; 
which tlie Renaissance artists inherited from the 
Roman imperial painting. 

Used as a substantive in each of these senses. 

— R. S. 
GROTTO. Same as Grot. 
GROUND (L). Anything used to fix a limit 
or to regulate the thickness or jtrojection of the 
more permanent or of exterior finished work. 
The term is generally used in the plural ; thus, 
grouiuLs in ordinary building are pieces of wood 
secured to the jamb of a doorway, as in a brick 
wall, or to the base of a stud partition, to stop 
the pliustering at the edge and to determine its 
tliickne.ss, and to these grounds the wooden 
trim may be nailed, or tlie grounds may Ije re- 
moved. Also, any strip secured to a wall, and 
more or less em1>edded in the jjlaster, to furnish 
a nailing, as to secure a wooden mantel, heavy 
trim, or the like.— D. N. B. S. 

GROUND (II.). A. In painting, the sur- 
face of uniform colour up<m which ornaments 
and tlie like are relieved, coiTcspondiiig nearly 
to Background in relief sculpture, and to the 
French chamj). 



B. (Use<l attributively) having to do with 
the grounil or background ; tliu.s, ground colour 
is the colour usisl for the ground as in defini- 
tion .1. 

GROUND FLOOR. Proi)erly, that fl.wr 
of a building which is most nearly on a level 
with the surrounding surface of the ground. 
By extension, sjime as Ground Story. 

GROUND STORY. That story of a build- 
ing the floor of which is nearly on a level with 
the surrounding surface of the ground. The 
term should be limited to such a story when its 
floor is not more than two or three steps above 
or below the sidewalk in a city, or the court- 
yard, greensward, or the like, nearest approach- 
ing it, in the country. Thus, in the case of a 
house with a iiigh stoop, as in many American 
cities where the principal floor is seven feet above 
the sidewalk, and the floor of the basement 
story is five feel below it, there is properly no 
gnmud story. 

GROUPED. Standing in close proximity 
to one another but not in contact ; said of 
columns when more than two are brought near 
together, especially in the case of the compound 
piers of Grothic architecture, where a large 
central column or pier has small shafts set a few 
inches from it, as especially in Salisbury cathe- 
dral. Such a pier is described as consisting of 
grouped shafts. (See Clustered Column.) 

GROUPING. A. The act of, arranging 
buililiiiirs or jiarts of buildings in a definite way, 
and for aicliitcctural ettect. 

B. Tlie state of being grouped or arranged. 

C. A gioup with reference to the nature of 
the assemblage or the grejiter or less merit of 
the artistic ettect produced. The simjilest 
grouping is that where two buildings or two 
important wings, pavilions, or the like, resem- 
bling one another closely, are set in a sort of 
pairing. Thus, on the Campidoglio at Rome, 
the two buildings whose design is ascribed to 
Michelangelo, one occupied by the Capitoline 
Museum and the other called the Palace of the 
Conserv-ators, are .set fiice to face, with the width 
of tlie square l)etween them. This grouj), how- 
ever, may !« considered as made up into a trijile 
group either by considering tiie Palace of tlie 
Senator as. forming a third menilH-r, or even by 
reference to the equestrian statue of Marcus 
Aurelius which is halfway IxJtweeu their fronts ; 
or the whole layout of the square, with the three 
buildings on three sides and the important and 
celebrated statue in the middle, may be con- 
sidered together as a group of four parts. So, 
in the ca.se of the two towers of Notre Dame 
lookeil at from tiic west ; they may be con- 
sidered togetiier as a grouj) of two united by a 
much smaller central division, or the very .strong 
horizontal divisions of the facade may l» con- 
sidered as more important than the vertical 
divisions made by the towers, and the front may 


be taken all together as a group of three prin- 
cipal parts, of which only the upper part is 
divided into a group of three. 

This possibility of looking at any group from 
several different points of view has produced 
extreme vagueness in the common discussions 
of the subject. Fancied resemblances between 
a smaller architectural object, as a member of 
a building, and a much larger structure, as an 
entire building, are also introduced into the dis- 
Thus, in the case of our lofty tower- 

3 business buildings erected since 1880, it is 
1 that the comparison to a column or 
pillar is safe and is complete ; and it is asserted 
as a positive rule of design for such structures 
that they should be divided into a base, a high 
and comparatively plain shaft, and a crowning 
structure which is likened to a capital. If, 
however, these buildings are compared to the 
finest steeples in existence, a different system of 
grouping at once appears, namely, tlie division 
into vertical wall and high and slender roof, With 
perhaps an intermediate member which, if it 
exists, may be much smaller tlian either the 
upper or the lower part just described, or may 
be a-s large and prominent as, for instance, the 
roof or spire. If, then, .iik'sIk.uM takr a tower- 
like tweuty-stnry l)uililiii- wlii.li li.ul l.rcn pre- ' 
viously divided into a gioiip of thivc jiarts as 
above suggested, and if to that were added four 
or five stories more in the way of a rooflike or 
spirelike pavilion, the group woidd be at once 
changed and the inadequacy of the previous 
arrangement would appear, for the new group 
of four parts would be far more effective than 
the old group of three. So in the case of hor- 
izontal grouping. It is a good general prin- 
ciple to have a central feature, and many a 
simple house front with one or two windows or 
groups of windows in each story may be saved 
from disurdcily iiisiirnilirance by a very small 
but well-]>laicd t'catun', as a niche, a panel with 
inscription, or the like. On the other hand, 
the immense variety of the possible groupings 
in such cases, and still more in the case of large 
and varied buildings with many pavilions, towers, 
separate roofs, and the like, is so great that 
hitherto the makers of rules of architectural 
design have generally avoided the subject. The 
book named below is a serious attempt at re- 
ducing to order the various theories upon this 
subject, and of providing a possible working 
basis for further study. 

John Beverly Robinson, Principles of Arrhitrr- 
htrnl (,'ompimlion ; (in attnnpt to order ainl plirosi' 
idi-ax which have hitherto f/ci'it oiili/ felt In/ tlie in- 
■Me of deKiijners. New York, IHW). 

GROUT. Mortar made thin for pouring 
intri tlic interstices of a masonry wall ; for sprciul- 
ing over a bed of concrete to form a sinooth 


finish ; and for other similar purposes where the 
use of stiff" mortar is impractical. 

GRtJBER, BERNHARD; architect; b. 

Griiber studied painting and architecture at 
the academy of Munich, Bavaria. He was 
employed on the restoration of the cathedral of 
Regensburg, Bavaria, and in 1842 went to 
Prague, where in 1844 he was appointed pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Art. A list of his 
works is given in Wurzbach (op. cit.). 

Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon. 

GRtJNBERG, MARTIN; architect. 

After March 24, 1699, he was royal director 
of buildings at Berlin, Pnissia. He built the 
Kolnische JiathJiaus, unci the Gai-nisonkirche, 
and began the Friedrichs Hospital, all in Berlin. 

Borrmann, Denlcm&ler von Berlin. 

GRtJNE GEWbLBE (The Green Vaults). 
In Dresilcn, Germany, the ground floor chambers 
of the roy;d palace ; so called from the original 
colours of the decorations, and containing a vast 
collection of costly decorative objects. The 
vaults themselves are not of importance. 

GUARD BAR. Any bar serving as a pro- 
tection or means of security ; especially, a 
slight parapet, as set above the sill of a window, 
and secured commonly to the jamb on either 
side, thus permitting persons within to lean 
upon it in comparative safety while looking out 
of the window. It commonly consists merely 
of a single bar, but is often a quite elaborate 
structure, and may project from the face of the 
wall so as to enclose a considerable space above 
a wide sill, as is common in Italian residences. 
— D. N. B. S. 

GUARD CHAMBER. Same as Guard 


GUARD HOUSE. A. A buildinir, us in a 
fortress, a ].ris,,M, or the Ilk.', in which the 
guard is stationrd. Its ,,ur,,o,sc is the .same as 
that oi' the Guard Room. 

B. Locally, or perhaps anciently, the term 
retained in certain districts for a jail or place 
of confinement. 

GUARD ROOM, A room in a fortro.'^s or 
the like, usnaiiy near the entrance gateway: 
large, ])ennanent, and intended lor the use of 
the guard for twenty-foin- hours, for the night, 
or the like. As it is from the guard, so chosen 
and separated from the rest of the military 
force, that the sentinels are taken, and as the 
term of sentry duty is .■il\\.i\s luiet', the larger 
part of the guaril is uviMi.ill\ live iVoni imnie 
diatc duty and may lind slieltn- in the guard 

GUARINI. D. GUARINO ; architect ; 
h. 1621 (at Modena, Italy) ; d. I (iSf). 

Guarini was a Tlieatine monk who carried 
the l)aroquc style in Italy to its extreme dovel 
opment. In 1G74 he became the court arclii- 


tect to the Duke Carlo Euiuianuele II. of Savoy. 
He served also his sueees.sor, the King Vittorio 
Amadeo I. His most extraordinary buildings 
are the domical church of S. Lorenzo and the 
sanctuarj' (also domical) of the Madonna della 
Cousolata, lx)th in Turin. He built about 1657 
the mortuary chapel of the house of Savoy at 
the church of S. Giovanni (Turin). Buildings 
were erected from Guarini's designs at Lisbon 
and Prague. He built the The;itine church of 
S. Anne on the Quai VolUire, Paris, which has 
been ilestroyed. Guarini was a sijcculative 
writer on philosophy and mathematics. His 
last work was an Architettura civile. 

Gurlitt, GfsrhichtP ties Barockstiles in Italian; 
Ebe, Spat-licnainiiance. 

GUDGEON. A. The stationary portion of 
a simple wrought-iron hinge, forming a pintle 
or eye to liokl the movable leaf, which is usually 
a band or strap. It has a flaring end which is 
secured in a masonry jamb, or a plate or strap 
which may Ije bolted or screwed to the wood- 
work. (See Hook and Eye Hinge, under Hinge.) 

B. In certain parts of Great Britain, a mem- 
ber in the framing of a roof. Its e.\act char- 
acter and place vaiy with locality. 

GUEKEN, CLAUDE; builder {entrepre- 
neur) and architect. 

Guerin was one of the firet constructors 
employed on the chapel of the Valois at Saint- 
Denis, near Paris. After 1571 he built the 
H«jtel de Soissons under the direction of Jean 
BiUlant (.see Bullant). 

s du roi; 

GUEST HOUSE. A. In a large estab- 
lishment, such as a convent, especially in the 
Middle Ages, a building prepared for the use 
of strangers. 

B. A place of public entertainment ; an inn. 

GUGLIA. In Italian, a building or part 
of a building, having the shajjc of a pyramid, 
obeli.sk, or pinnacle. Any building having a 
generally upright and slender form, when not 
easily classified under some other technical name ; 
thus, a small pagoda or tope, or a monument of 
undescribed architectural character, or an elabo- 
rate German stove of enamelled earthenware 
may be saiil to lie a guglia or of guglia form. 
(Also A-ru-ii.i.) 

GUGLIELMO, FRA. (See .\gnelli, G\igli- 

Marrilhit, (liiillaun.odc.) 

GUILD. Formerly, and to a limited extent 
in moijern usage, an associ;ition of merchants, 
arti.sans, or mechanics, both em])l()yces and 
mastei-s, of the same trade or similar trades, 
organized for nmtual (irotection, advancement, 
and the instruction of apprentices bound over 
to the association ; and also for benevolent pur- 


poses, a£ in providing for destitute members, 
bearing the expenses of burial, and the like. 

There is very little information regarding 
lu'lairies or a-s-swiations of craftsmen among 
the Greeks : one evident fact is the consider- 
able amount of individual freedom allowed to 
the architect* as compared to his condition 
under Roman rule. 

Rome. In ancient Italy the colleges of 
craftsmen were organized at an early dale, — 
perhaps even in the kingly jieriod, — but were 
discouraged by the first em|K'rors as dangerous 
institutions. Hadrian — himself an amateur 
architect — decided not only to recognize them, 
but to organize them under strict government 
control, enrolling in them the ma-ss of the work- 
ing population and using them as an imjwrtant 
l)art of the huge administrative machine. In 
return for exemption from militarj^ sernce and 
taxation, the mcml)ers of these colleges (col- 
leijiu) were obliged to give their expert services 
to the State for a small remuneration, the 
amount of which was detemiined by the State. 
A tariff for such services was issued liy the 
Emperor Diocletian. The following further re- 
strictions were placed ou individual lil>erty : 
(1) No member was allowe<l to change his 
occupation ; (2) the occupation was made 
hereditiiry, the father teaching it to his sons; 

(3) no memljer was allowed to change his 
residence, transferring from the colleyimn of 
one city to that of another, and any one vio- 
lating this nde was brought back by force; 

(4) apparently no one who did not belong to 
such a colleyium wiis allowed to exercise any 
manual occupation. Hence the craftsman's con- 
dition \n\< 1 \ • 'I < 1) 1 1 ill- 'IT public sernce ; heretl- 
itaryociMi _ i in mciiihershipofsome 
college. W : ; I tliis tliat the ordinary 
labour undu lia .huvi.uii of these master crafts- 
men (aside from their own assistants) was 
secured by forced corvee, and that the materials 
for construction were furnished by the State, 
which received lumlicr, bricks, stone, and lime 
as tax in kind, we can understand both the 
rapid erection and the immense number of 
Roman iMi'r ■ :t^. On the other hand, 
thecrati: t; w.l to work by contract 
for priviii 

Each r,,,, /,.,,, 1..1.1 its meeting house and 
office called nchohi. It had a president under 
whom was a secretary, and the memlwrs were 
s\jbdivided into groups of tens (decuries) and 
hundreds (centuries), each group being regu- 
larly officered as if it were a military organi- 
zation. Regular instruction in the various 
branches seems to have l)ecn given at the 
schola, and sometimes a stijiend was attached 

'ThrouRliout this article the word "architcol " 
is used in its etyniolojtical sense as master buililer 
or master of tlie works, without reference to the 
modern profeasiou. 


to the teaching. The Theodosian Code says, 
" Architects enjoy immunity so that they may 
the more easily teach the practice of their art 
to their children." The number of colleges 
connected with construction was considerable, 
owing to the Roman tendency to specialize. 
The builders of scaffolds and constructors of 
centres, the marble cutters, marble incrusters, 
hewers of timber, and quarryers, each had their 
separate organization. This specialization was 
carried still further within the college itself. 
Thus, among the stone masons and wall 
builders, one set worked on foundations, an- 
other on walls, and still another on arches and 

Thus heredity and subdivision of labour 
made for imniDliility of style and methods. 

Besides tlu' iiiipcri.il laws affecting all cor- 
poration.s tliniu.uiioiit the empire, some of which 
are preserved in tlie Codex Theodosianus, 
each corporation had its special regulations 
about such matters as membership require- 
ments, fees, meetings, religious ceremonies, 
artistic and technical standards, aid to poor 
artisans, funeral services, etc. Thus far de- 
tailed information on most of these points is 
scanty. It is certain that both citizens and 
freedmen belonged to the colleges ; the remain- 
ing inscriptions point to a predominance of 
freedmen over citizens in the case of the 

Owing to enforced residence and differences 
in their private standards, local schools were 
developed in various parts of the empire. It 
is, however, evident that the restrictive laws 
were enforced only in Italy — especially in 
Rome. In the East an antique Greek liberty 
was encouraged, and after the seat of power 
was transferred to Constantinople the restric- 
tions were practically dropped ; they found no 
place in the laws of Justinian, though the 
associations of artisans in Constantinople were 
already becoming troublesome. 

Byzantium. The condition of the collci,'cs 
in the Orient in the matter of organizatimi 
appears to have varied but little from tlic timr 
of Justinian to the present day. At the IichI 
of each wius and is a piotd mauMstiT, assisted 
by a secretary. ThouLjli the cniiKiintiuns wnr 
local their members ti-a\rlliil |iciin(li,;ill\ , 
singly or in bodies, enjuyiiiL: tlir Im-pitalii \ mI' 

and ottering their services to luMtlnr iuiM- n 

in other places. In tlieir in.livi.lual tVeeMnm 
and in other ways the Byzantine were far mure 
closely allied than the Roman associations to 
our mediaival guilds. In Antioch, Alexandria, 
Milan, and especially Ravenna the e.,IIi'j;es cdii- 
tinned to flourish during tin' eailv I'.w.antine 
period, and in Rome itsell' they suixncd all 
vicissitudes until the end of the Middle Ages, 
though their name was changed from culle()iuiii 
to Hchola, from tlieir place of meeting. Taken 

as a whole the scholoe, as distinguished from 
clergy and nobles, represented the people, and 
wielded great power. 

Lomhardy. When the Lombards devas- 
tated Italy (end sixth centiuy), they did not 
entirely extinguish these associations within 
their new territory ; and when the Lombards 
turned to civilization they called on the guilds 
for architects and granted them privileges. 
This is shown liy the L.iuiluxvd laws, issued in 
643 by Kntari," and in 7 1J l.y Luitbrand. 
Here the master arrlnterts are i-alleil niiifjistri 
commariitl, their responsibilities delined, and 
a maximum tariff' of prices set for different 
kinds of work, in faint imitation of the Roman 
regulations. The companions or colleagues of 
tJH'se iiiiiijistri, themselves not yet passed mas- 
teis, aic al.-o mentiMiie.l. Such master masons 
are spuken of in otlier Lombard documents of 
LuecH, Tuseanella, etc. As they could hold 
property and make contracts they were evi- 
dently not slaves, as the mass of Romans cer- 
tainly were under the Lombards. Though at 
first of Roman descent, the nuiijixtr! cninna- 
Ci'ni soon admitted Lombards to membership in 
their associations. They built in either of two 
manners — the Gallic, or wood construction, 
and the Roman, or stone and brick construc- 

A grent deal of nonsense has been written by 
grave ;uitliorities on tlie>e ntdijistri comma- 
cini; chapters and e\in volnnies have been 
based on the supposition that Commacinus 
means "a native of Como," and that this 
region was so specifically the centre of the 
revival of architecture under the Lombards as 
to give its name to tlie ]iio|essioii of arehitect; 
master from Como ^ arrliitect. '>\\r\\ a fact 
would be without a parallel, ami is, heside.S, an 
etymological blunder. The w.nd I'mn-ntdcinus 
is from the same stem as iiinr'ni, the common 
late Latin word for stonema- with the addi- 
tion of the collective pivllx, and may also be 
c.innected with the current I'.v/.antine word for 

■actical an-hit, 
Mi, 1,11,' J;/' 


multiplication of lay 
artists m Italy as so.m as tiie aits were patron- 
ized, in thi' clcxciith and twelfth centuries, 
proves till' activity and existence, in many parts 

of lt:d\. of till' ('oiiimacine asso(;iations, and 

the ive,,r,l-, ~hn\\ that they iiavelled great dis- 

t:in.-f. t\iiii|iarci| with tin' rest of monk- 
riddeii i'airope Italy shows, then, only an infini- 
tesimal percentage of monastic as compared 
with lay architects. Some of the media!val 
guilds that then sprang up were modelled 
(lirectly, like those of Veni(;e, on Byzantine 
originals ; others in Lombardy and Rome went 
back to classic models ; while the Tuscan, latest 
of all, were based on Lombard models. In one 
respect Roman tradition ruled (piite generally, — 
the transmission of occupation in the stime 


family. This can Itest W stiuliiHl in the signed 
monuments of the Roman mediii.'vai schot)!, 
where a family c;in be tnueil through four or 
five generations (families of Paulus, Kaiuurius, 
Laurentius), and each family could ka^p a large 
workshop in whicii tlu; various branches of 
decoration as well as constniction were taught 
and practised. In this particular — the prac- 
tice of several branches of art by a single 
artist — these aissociations differeil fundamen- 
tally from the ancient Roman. 

Tlicse Italian guihls, iis they increased in 
membership and developal in artistic methmls, 
found it necessary to reduce to wTiting their 
statutes and rcgidations, which may at first 
have been handed down orally. This was done 
during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
in every city of any size and artistic spirit 
(Venice, Pisa, Lucca, Florence, Siena, Penigia, 
Bologna, etc.). The guild wiis very careful to 
guard its reputation by stringent retiuirements 
of artistic integrity and thoroughness, and regu- 
lated even the maximum number of apprentices 
for each master, and the quality of the mate- 
rial ased, as well as the methods for settling all 

Freemasons. In the flood of literature on 
the modem Freemasons, the attempt has often 
l)een made to coimect their mysterious signs and 
symbols and their vows of secrecy with the 
mediicval guilds, and their origin has even been 
carried back to ancient times through the mag- 
istri commacini. While there is no proof of 
such coiiMOction, there is m •■■■■■ ■ i—v in- 
ten-tin- to rxaiiiiue. In : , re 
is l.ntl, lit.raiv an.l uu.u..: for 
believin- that in tli.' airlul,,: ! ,:,,ly 
in the eleventh century the Italian cuiuiuucini 
took a leading part, erecting in the Rhenish 
province, in Burgundy, and in Normandy monu- 
ments that \\<vv in a >t\le different from any- 
thing then kn-\\M m I, me and Germany, and 
which serve 1 i- mi!- t • native artists. This 
fact is not .snili.n nilv n coj^nized. In the rest 
of Europe the artistic field had been occupied 
exclusively by monks since before tiic Carlovin- 
gian period. It is therefore probable that the 
impulse given by tliese incoming Lombard artists 
to the practice of architecture by the laity led 
to the formation of guilds of lay artists in 
Northern Europe, where they came into exist- 
en(!e, certainly long after Italy was honey- 
combed by them, toward the close of the twelfth 

As to the element of secrecy and mystic signs 
in connection with the guilils, it seenm purely 
mytiiical, and the idea is due probably to the 
following circumstimces. Of all crafts that 
of architecture — as Vitruvius contends — had 
always l)een 8uppose<l to ret|uirc the broadest 
iis well iw the deepest knowledge. When the 
crafts were at a low ebb, even the modicum of 


geometric and static knowleilge preserved by 
the architects of the decadence must have 
seemed remarkable. In the time of Charle- 
magne it is evident that Vitruvius — as Egin- 
hanl shows — Wiis still used, and even fortiio.se 
incajiable of understanding him some equiva- 
lent knowledge wjis generally transmittal orally 
or in wTiting from one generation to another, 
within a limited group. This monopoly or 
patent was held as a valuable secret. But the 
secrecy was then and afterward purely profes- 
sional — not politictd or anti-religious. Then 
the strange or mythical animals anil .symlwls 
carvetl on so many churches are sujiposed to lie 
part of masonic mysterj' ; it has long since 
been demonstrated that these weird productions 
have a symbolic meaning, taken straight from 
those popular mediaeval fables, the Bestiaries, 
whose origin is even attributetl to St. Augus- 
tine. Finally, there are signs cut in metlia'val 
monuments which receive the same interpre- 
tation. These are really of several classes : 

(1) quany marks, wiiich usually disap|)ear on 
finished monuments, and the like of which have 
always been in use since early Egyptian times ; 

(2) builders' marks, which are often so cut its 
to be visible after the structure is completed, 
and originally made in order to indicate the 
exact position of each bloi-k or member ; (;}) ma- 
sons' signatures, monogram.s, or conventional 
marks, which we find occasionally on ancient 
monuments, and verj* frequently in %zantine 
architecture. Evidently there is nothing s|)oeial 
to Freemasoniy in all this. 

There remains but one point, the secret watch- 
words, signs, or grips by which the " brother " 
was recognized. It has oft«n been shown how 
closely the different lodges of an art association 
were bound together, and what frequent relations 
the lay architects, as grejit travellers, nmst have 
hiid with lodges in otiier cities, which were 
bound to give them help an<l Imspitality. The 
inference of tiie use of secret signs for purposes 
(if recognition is obviou.s, but not jirovtii until 
their use in Germany in the fifteenth century. 

There is no sign that the Italian local knlges 
of architects ever joined in a confederation ; but 
this was the case in Germany, where the lodge 
of Strasburg, doubtless the ohlest and founded 
from France in the thirteenth centurj'. wxs 
made the supreme lodge in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, with atithority over the others thrDUglmut 
Germany. In northern France and Flanders 
the guilds ac(]uired even more power than in 
Germany. Probably it was in Germany, how- 
ever, where the fight with the nobles and clergy 
was more difficult, that the jussociations of 
artisiins had recoui^se to those secret methods 
that have given colour to the pretensituis of 
Freemasonry, though their laws an<l statutes 
received approval and were published (li^fi.T). 
With the i)reponderance of the individualism of 


the Renaissance, the importance of the associa- 
tions gradually waned in Italy, and was prac- 
tically extinct there in the sixternth century. 
Their continuance was largely y/v* f'<rinii. Dur- 
ing the seventeenth century, with the cessation 
of their usefulness came the traiislonnatinns that 
made them seem dangerous to public order, and 
led to the coercive measures of the eighteenth 
century throughout Europe, which gave Masonry 
its stamp of secrecy. — A. L. Frothingham, Jr. 

GUXLDHAIiL. A hall for the meetings of 
the controlling members of a guild, association 
of artisans, or merchants, or persons associated 
together without primary religious purpose ; an 
institution originating in England in the earlier 
Middle Ages. The separate halls of ancient 
guilds in London are known by other names (see 
Company Hall, under Hall). In modern times, 
a municipal building is commonly called guild- 
hall, as in Bristol, York, Plymouth. 

The Guildhall, especially so called, is in Lon- 
don, on King Street, and is a municipal building, 
deriving its name probably from the custom of 
permitting the diti'eicnt <,'uil(ls tn hold meetings 
in it ; for its puri)iisc has always been connected 
with the municipality itself. Tlie present struc- 
ture was partly built after the Great Fire in 1 666, 
and then wholly rebuilt in 1789 in a fantastic 
Gothic style, but in 1866 restorations were 
begvm, a new open timber roof constructed, and 
the front brought to more strictly archiEological 
correctness. — R. S. 

GUTLLAIN, AUGUSTIN; builder and 
architect; b. Jan. 4, 1581 ; d. June 6, 1636. 

A son of Pierre Guillain (see Guillain, P.). 
He was associated with his father, and in 1613 
replaced him as director of the public works of 
the city of Paris. At the old Hotel de Ville, 
Paris, he built the pavillion on the left behind 
the Pavilion du S. Esprit. 

(For bibliof^raphy. see (luillain, V.) 

GUILLAIN, GUHiLAUME ; builder (entre- 
pre.neur) and architect; d. after ir)8-_'. 

Guillaume Guillain married a rierette Cham- 
biges, who is supposed to have been a daughter 
of Pierre Chambiges (I.) (see Chaiiibiges, Pierre, 
I.), and appears to have succeeded him about 
1 544 as maltre des oeuvres of the city of Paris. 
With Jehan Langeois, he engaged to builfl the 
chateaux of Saint Geniain en-Laye and La 
Muette, accordingtii till' cMiitiaci whicl. Lad heen 
made with Pierre ChandH-e- 1 1.), Sr|,i. _'•', 1.");!',). 
Between 1555 and 1.j(;8 lie ncei\ed huge pay- 
ments for the construction of that portion of the 
Louvre which was designed by Pierre Lescot 
(see Lescot). In 1578 he assisted at the delib- 
erations relative to the Pont Neuf, Paris. 

Berty, Topographir, Louvre et Tnilerics ; Palus- 
tre, Re.nniKnance ; I)e Labonle, Compleg den hUti- 

GUILLAIN, PIBRRE ; Ijuildcr (entrepre- 
neur) and areiiitcct. 


A son of Guillaume Guillain (see Guillain, 
G.). He was associated with his father, after 
1575, in the direction of the public works of the 
city of Paris, and in 1578 in the deliberations 
relative to the construction of the Pont Neuf. 
April 20, 1582, he succeeded his father. From 
1594 until after 1600 Guillain was associated 
with Pierre Chambiges (II.) (see Chambiges, 
Pierre, II.) and others in the construction of 
the western half of the Grande Galerie of the 
Louvre and the adjacent parts of the Tuileries. 

Berty, Topographie, Lorivre et Tuileries; Her- 
luison, Artta do Vetat civil ; Vaclion, Hotel de Ville. 

Marcillat, CJuillaume de.) 


Guillaume was abbot of Mont-Saint-Micliel 
(Manche, France) from 1299 to 1314. He 
rebuilt his monastery, which had been nearly 
destroyed by lightning in July, 1300. 

Corroyer, Abbaye du 3Iont-Saint-Michel. 

GUHiLOCHE. An ornament composed of 
curved lines usually intersecting with one an- 
other, differing from a fret or meander which is 
composed of straight lines. As the French term 
guilloche has no such exact and limited mean- 
ing, so the English term is often used for any 
ornament cduipused of interlacing lines, bands, 
riblx.ns, nr the like. (AIs,, guih.che.) 

and architect. 

In a manuscript of the monk Genoux, at 
the Bibliothfeque Nationale, it is recorded that 
Guinamundus, a monk of the monastery of 
Chaise-Dieu, made the monument of S. Front, 
first bishop of Perigueux, at the cathedral of that 
city, in the year 1077. 

Blanche, L' Anririiiii ax inoyen age; Chen- 

GULA. A niiiiililiiig (ir group of mouldings 
having a large hollow, as a cove or cavetto. 
The term is used also as synonymous with 


According to an inscription, Petrus and his 
sons, Morisu and Jacobus, built the church at 
San Lorenzo, now Ama.seno, Italy, finished 1291. 

Frothiiigliani, Rumnn Aitixts of the Middle Ages. 

GUMPP, GEORG ANTON; architect; b. 
1670; d. 1730. 

Gumjjp was one of the most important arclii- 
tects of the baroque style in Gennany. His 
best works are the S. Jacobskirchc (171 7-1724), 
the S. Johanniskirche (1729), tiie Landlnuis 
(1719-1728), the Turn und Taxis palace, ail at 
Innsbruck in the Tyrol. 

li Deiilsrh- 


GUNDULF; icilesiastic aiul arcliitei-t ; b. 
about 1U24 ; d. 1108. 

Boru in France, anil l>ecame about 1060 a 
monk of the Abbey of Bee. In 1077 he was 
appointed Bishop of Roelicster, England, by 
Lanfranc (see Lanfrane). He built, or caused 
to l>e built, the catiie<lral of Rochester. Of his 
work, a part of tlie vrypt, a part of tlie west 
front, and the tower on tlie north side remain. 
For William the Conqueror, he built the Great 
White Tower i» London. 

BayUy. / / ' / u.inn; Storer, History of 
Jtoclicii4 1 I \\ i]\>»,A)tiiliaStirrii;livit- 

ton ami li: '/ s •'/ the Tower of London. 

GUNTERS CHAIN. A chain, each link 
of which is composed of a steel bar witli a 
small ring at each end, the bare having a tixeil 

length and larger sulxli visions being marke<l by 
pieces of brass of a recognized form secured at 
every tenth link to tiie rings which join the 
links. Until recently this was the imi)lemcnt 
always use<l in Great Britain and the United 
States for measuring land; each link was 7.92 
inches, so that the whole chain of 100 links 
was ()() feet long, and so that 100,000 square 
links were eciual to an acre. 

GUSSET. A triangular piece of metal to 
serve iis a brace in the angle formed by two 
intei-secting members of a fratnework, either to 
stiffen the connection, or as a support of one of 
the nunnbers. 

GUTTA. In Grecian Df)ric architecture, one 
of a iiuinlicr of small <Mrcular ornaments in low 


relief which are cut on tlie under side of the 
mutulcs and the regulie. (See Entablature.) 

GUTTiE-BAND. Same as Regula in a 
Grecian Doric entablature. 

GUTTER. A channel, trough, or like con- 
trivance to receive and convey away water; 
whether in connection with the roofs of a build- 
ing, or forming jiart of a pavement, roadway, or 
the like. Wlien used on a building it may 
either form part of a roof-covering turned up 
and support^ ulong, or near, the lower eilge of 
the slope ; or it may be in the form of a trough 
of metal or wood hung from the edge of the 
roof; or it may be part of a masonry structure 
below, in which case |)erliaps of cut stone and 
forming part of the cornice or serving itself as 
the crowning feature. 

Arris Gutter. A gutter or eaves trough of 
V-sliaped section, and hence showing an arris 

Fillet Gutter. A narrow gutter on 
tlic slo[)e of a roof against a chimney 
>'V the like, formoii of sheet metal turned 
..vera fillet of wood. — (A. P. S.) 

Parallel Gutter. A gutter con- 
>tnut(Ml with (Icided, deep, parallel 
.'-iilos, a.s distiiiguisiied from one formed 
merely by tlie slojiing sides of a valley, 
or brought alxiut by the meeting of a 
roof with a wall or tlie like. 

Parapet Gutter. A gutter con- 
structed along the lower edg^ of a slo])- 
iiig roof and concealiNl by a low parapet 
formed by cariying uj) the side wall, 
ronimon in England, but a i>oor form 
of construction, inasmuch as the greater 
I.art of tiie gutter lie.s over the ceiling 
I., low instead of over the street. 

GUTTER BOARD. A Ward, or, 
III recent times an iron slab, to bridge 
over a gutter, as along a curb, so ius 
to form an easy slope for the passage 
of vehicles from the roadway ujwn the 
"" sidewalk or into a building. 

GUTTER HOOK. A light iron 
hook or strap used to hold in jilace tiie 
upjier edges of a metal gutter; or perhaps to 
supjiort the gutter. 

GUTTER MEMBER. The exterior or front 
of a roof gutter when considered as a menilx'r 
of the external architecture, as the topmast 
moulding of a cornice or a member crowning 
the cornice. In Greek temple archit<M-turc, the 
cornice along the eaves was crowned by sucli a 
moulding, which formed the outer fiu-e of an 
earthenware gutter. In .some modern styles, 
the gutter, usually of metal, is elalwrately 
adorned and becomes an ini])ortant feature in 
the design, because terminating the wall with a 
very ornanuntal band. 




' ' '■ 1 



= 11 


GUTTER SPOUT. A water spout leading 
from a roof gutter, either as a gargoyle or in 
the way of a pipe led to the ground or to 
another roof. 

GWILT, JOSEPH; architect and author; 
b. Jan. 11, 1784: d. Sept. 14, 1863. 

Joseph was a son of George Gwilt, surveyor 
of the County of Surrey, England. In 1801 
he entered the school of the Royal Academy, 
London. He had a good practice as architect 
and held the office of surveynr in succession to 
his father from 1807 to 1846. In 1816 he 
visited Eome. Gwilt is kn.iwn liy liis books, 
A Treatise on the Efjiiilihrnn/i o/' Airha^, 

(8V0, 1811), NotiziaArrlnlrrlnnna IhlUuna 

(8vo, 1818), Sciogmijhi/, or Exumples of 
Shadows with Rules for Their Projection, 
(8vo, 1822), an annotated edition of Sir 
William Chambers's Treatise on the Decora- 
tive Part of Ciril Arrhitr,i,n;- (182.1), a 
translation of \'itin\ius (ISi'ii), und the 
Enci/clopcedia of ArrhiUflurr, Jlisturicul, 
Tlieoretical, and Practical (8vo, tirst ed. 
1842), reedited by Wyatt Papworth, in 1876. 

Stephen, Dictionary of National Biographij ; 
Obituary m Builder, Oct. 3, 1863. 

GYMNASIUM. A. A place for physical 
exerci.se, as (1) among the ancient Greeks, a 
public place more or less ofiicial and govern- 
mental in character in which the young men 
were duly exercised. (2) In modern times, a 
large and high room, sometimes forming a build- 
ing by itself, and treated architecturally, but 
always arranged for the reception of gymnastic 
apparatus, such as vertical and horizontal bars, 
ladders, swinging ropes, trapezes, and the like. 
(See Palaestra ; Stadium.) 

B. In Germany, and elsewhere in imitation 
of Germany, a high school. In the German 
cities, the Gymnasium is the school for classi- 
cal studies and those branches which are akin 
to these, and is opposed to the Real Schnle, 
which is the school for mathematics and 
scientific training generally; the one being 
considered as the preparation for the university, 
the other as the preparation for the polytedmic 
Bchool, the school of engineers, or the like. 

— II. S. 

GYN. Same as Gin. 

Greek arch;eo]„gy, that part nf a large dwell- 
ing which is dcvotcil to the women, hence, the 
family rooms as distinguished from the more 
public rooms where the master and his soldiers 
or male dependents commonly lived. 

Ji. In modern times a haram ; the living 
place of the women in a dwelling of any nation 
or ejjoch. 

C. In ecclesiology, that part of a cliurcii 
occupied by women to the exclusion of men, as 
in early Christian practice, and still to a <'(itaiii 
extent in the East. 



GYNiECONITIS. Same as Gym 

GYNAIKEIOS. Same as Gyna;ceum. 

GYPSUM. Hydrous sulphate of lime. 
(See Aiabast.T.) — G. P. M. 

entering into the formulas for the strength of 
columns. It is equal to the Moment of Inertia 
of a surface divided by the area. (See Moment 
of Inertia.) — W. R. H. 


In 1842 he went to Jcmsalcni to arrange 
for the erection of the Anglican cathedral which 
was built from his designs. Habershon pub- 
lished The Finest Existing Specimens of 
Ancient Half-timbered Houses in England, 
(London, is;;!;, loii,,). 

Arch. Pill'. S.ii: lUi-tuninry. 

HACHURE. hi aivhitectural drawings, 
.same as liatchinu-; also a line or system of lines 
uscl in hat.-iiinK. 

HACIENDA. In Spanish America the 
chief house on an estate or xcry large farm, and 
hence and more often, the estate itself as a 
whole. — F. S. T). 

HACKING. The breaking of one course of 
stone in a wall into another course of a different 
height ; especially, in a case where a course of 
larger stones is interrupted and the course is 
continued with smaller ])iccps. It appears that 
two courses of smallci stones need not corre- 
.spond exactly to auntiiei- cniiisc of larger stones, 
but that hacking mu\v nearly apjiroaches build- 
ing which is known as Random Coursed Work. 

HADDON HAIiIj. A great country house 
in Derbyshire, England, now imoccupied. Cele- 
brated for its unaltered Elizabethan character 
and for its lu'autiful foiinal gardens. 

HADRIAN'S MOLE. The great mausoleum 
of Haihian at Home; now, Castel S. Angelo. 

HiEMATINUM. In Latin, red; used ab- 
solutely as i-c]iresenting the phrase hwmatinum 
ritnnn, red gla.ss; in this sen.se, the term has 
been applied to Roman glass of deep red 
colour, as in the fragments of tile which have 
been found. 







church, and pierced in such a direction that a 
person in the aisle or transept can see the altar. 
Called also Squint, and more rarely Loricula. 
Openings of this character are not uncommon, 
but it is not certain tiiat they were originally 
intended for the purjjose mentioned. 


HA-HA FENCE. A barrior made by a re- 
taining wall at a place where the ground level 
is (rlia[ij,'ed. From the upper side this barrier 
or enclosure will be invisible or hardly seen ; a 
desirable result sometimes in landscape archi- 
tecture. Written also Haw-Haw. 

HATKATi. In Arabic, a sjinctuary ; a holy 
place. Used by writers on the arclueologj- of 
the Levant for a shrine of a Christian church 
in the Ea.st. 

HATKATi SCRES>N. The screen of a sanc- 
tuary ; in Ea.^tcrn Christian churches, of other 
' sects than Creek, that which coiTespouds to 
the Ii-diiDstu.sis. (See Choir Screen and refer- 
ences. ) 

HALFPENNY, JOHN. (See Halfpenny, 

HALFPENNY, JOSEPH ; draughtsman 
and engraver ; b. Oct. 9, 1 748 ; d. July 1 1, 181 1. 

He was clerk of the works to John Carr (see 
Carr) during his restoration of the cathedral 
of York, England. Halfpenny published Gothic 
Onunaeut.i in the CdthcdrcU Church of York, 
(1795-1800), Frcujmenta Vetusta, or the 
Jtemains of Ancient Buildings in York, 
(1K07), and" other works. 

Sl( phcn. Difliiinnrij of Xntiotial Biography. 

HALFPENNY, WILLIAM ; aliius Mi<liacl 
lio:uv ; .-.n-lnt.vt. 

He is known by his numerous practical works 
on architecture : Multum in parvo, or the 
Marrow of Architecture (17l'2-1728, 4tt)), 
Practiad Architecture (London, 1730, 12mo), 
Perspective made easy (1731, 8vo), Modern 
Bnilder'a Axsistant (1742-1751, folio), and 


other works. He was assisted by John Half- 

Stephen, Dictionary of Xational Biography. 
HALF-RELIEF. Sculpture in relief, be- 
tween lia.- leliei and altorelief; a term of no 
accurate or ]ireri-e value. 

HALF TIMBERED. A. Composal of 
timber so far as the framing is concerned, the 
spaces of which framing are then filled in with 
masonry in some form; this is the more iLsual 
meiining given to the term, but certain British 
authorities claim that such building as this is 
really whole timbered, the filling in by means 
of masonry having nothing to do with the 
construction in timber. 

B. Having the lower story or stories of 
masonry, such as stonework, and the upper 
stories, or perhaps only the walls of the galiles, 
framed of timber. This definition is given by 
tlio.se writers who object to the use of the term 
in the sense A. 

In building done in wood according to either 
definition, the timbers show on the outside, 
and are usually arranged so as to form a some- 
what ornamental pattern. In this res]>ect the 
buildings of some parts of the continent of 
Europe, such as Normandy and northwestern 
France in general, ami large parts of Germany, 
are found more stately in design than the 
English examples ; with more sculpture and 
with a beautiful system of proportion. On the 
other hand, this system of building last'ed long 
and was popular in England ; the patterns of 
tin fiaiiic w.'ik itxlf were elaborate; and many 
■ , il.l. I \ iiii|.l.> remain, even of .stately 
iitiy iii.iii>i .11-, built in this way. It is a 
:' .i-iiial/le tluniv tiiat during the reigns of 
James I. and Charles I. and the Restoration, 
country houses built by residents of London 
or nobles connected with the court were liuilt 
1. 1 masonry acconling to the revived cla-ssical 
th. .11,- brought from Italy and France, 
\\liilc tlio.se built by proprietors who reside*! 
in tlie country were built according to the 
tra<litional methods with nuich use of timber. 

The filling of the sjiaees between the timbers 
was done sometimes with brickwork or rubble- 
stone masonry (comj)are Nogging ; Brick Nog- 
ing) and sometimes by means of stout oak laths 
plastere<l on both sides. In cAse there were 
two sets of laths, one at the outer and one at 
the inner side of the wall, eiu'li set plasterecl 
on e^ich side, there was obtained a very warm 
and solid filling. (See AVwkI, Constniction in, 
Part I.) (Cuts, cols. 345, 346; 347; 349, 
3.W) — R. S. 

HALL. A. A rix)m very large in propor- 
tion to rooms for sleeping or for family or indi- 
vidual use ; a covered and enclosed place of 
gathering. In speaking of the great tlierma' 
of the Rcimans, the tepidarium, usually an ob- 
long in shajie, is commonly called a hall, and in 


like manner we speak of the halls of Assyrian 
palaces; while the Egyptian temple interiors, 
crowded with columns, are called hypostyle 
halls, as those at Karnak. So those mediwval 
churches which have the aisles and nave of 
nearly the same height are called hall churches 
(Hallenkirchen) to distinguish them from 
churches of the more usual type, and the great 


portant part of the mediieval dwelling. The 
disposition of the College Halls at Oxford and 
Cambridge gives still a good idea of what the 
halls of Manor Houses were in the times of 
Elizabeth and later. Such a hall is to be 
thought of as low and long, simple in plan, and 
lighted from side windows ; but there are ex- 
ceptions. Thus, at Wallaton (Nottinghamshire), 



HorsK, MouFTON Or n Hali (Cheshirk), c. 1590. 

builihng at Sens, called by tlie Fioudi Sialic 
tiijiioaaU', IS called in Eiigli>,h a Synodal ll.ill 
In Engli^li domestic building, tlie hall w.us the 
only important room in the oailj Miildlc Ages, 
theic tlic lord, his family, and all lu-^ retainers, 
dependents, and serfs, iik t at nu ds, and here 
alone could they find hIk iter and waniitli Even 
lat(r, ,iH prnatc bcdriionis and sitting rooms 
b(;( line more numerous (see Bower , Closet , 
Solar), tlic hall remained much the most im- 

built by John Thorpe, the hall rises high above 
the other buildings in imitation of mediaeval 
castle keeps ; and is lighted by windows very 
high above the floor. It was common, as cMrly 
as the Fourteenth century, to cut nil' witli a 
hcieeii that part of the hall in whi<li wcic tlic 
doors leading to the open air, in onler to give 
more warnitli ami privacy ; and these screens 
aie still a marked feature of the College Halls 
named, and also of those Company Halls in 


London which have reUiinetl their original 

In recent times, the term hall is applied to a 
large room used for lectures, |>oliticAl meetings, 
concerts, and the like, and such a term as 
Concert Hall is differentiated from the term 
Theatre as signifying a square-cornered room 
without gidlerics, or with galleries in one tier 
only, and not arranged with a stage and appli- 
ances for scenery. Such a room, used in a small 
town or Nnllage, as a place for gatherings of many 
kinds, lectures, eutertaiumeuts, and the like, 

often receives the name of Town Hall, which 
name is extende<l to the building which contains 
it. (See definition B.) A similar u.se of the 
hall was common in manor houses on the conti- 
nent of Europe, but as the need of fortified 
dwellings lasted longer there, the fortresses of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries include 
very large halls, of which the outer walls are 
generally mmle by the c\irtuins of the fortifi- 
cation. (Sec Castle.) And these lialls were 
sometimes two, three, or four in numl)cr, serv- 
ing evi<lently as shelter for the garrison, which 
was in these cases so numerous that the lord 

could not expect to have it all under his own 
eye. In this way, the signification of the term 
is extendetl to imply any verj- large room except 
wlien it is 80 long and narrow as to become a 

B. A building erected with the chief pur- 
pose of sui)plying a h:dl in sense ..1. Thus, a 
building containing a large concert hall, with 
many rooms for other purposes, will take tiie 
common name of Music Hall. The most im- 
portmt structure in which the term is used in 
both senses in England is the celebrated "We.'^t- 
minster Hall. 

C. At the English Universities, a college ; 
the term being used in combination in tiie names 
of certain institutions, the organizations of which 
differ somewhat from those of the colleges com- 
monly so called. 

D. Part of the compound name applied very 
loosely to buildings not necessarily halls in any 
of tlie above senses. Thus, a separate buililing 
of many American colleges is so called, as ilas- 
sacimsetts Hall. 

E. In British usage, a manor house, and in 
i> sense forming part of the names of many 

- . h buihlings, as Haddon Hall. 

/'. Ill n-., lit tiiiu'-s the room into which tlie 
I. HI. I .In !, ,,|i, M wlien it is large enough to Ih> 
11. ii. ti 11 a II • 1. vistibule. Thus, in a countr>' 
l;.iu>i-, il' the nitnuK-e door opens directly into a 
i...i]a large enougli, or a passage wide eijough, to 
. 'Mtain some furniture, as a settle, table, and 
the like, that room or passage is the hall. It 
is an error to speak of tlie room in which the 
stair is contained as a hall. The proper name 
for that is the staircase ; but a mo<lern misuse 
'f that term has caused tiie u.se of the terms 
- 1 lir Hall and Stairway Hall. In small houses, 
i wcver, it often hapi>ens that a single sjtacc 
(i vr 7 feet wide and 25 feet long, or of about 
that magnitude, serves as hall and passjige, and 
also contains the stair. (Cuts, cols. 3.51, .'i.'i'J ; 
354; 355, 356; 357, 358: 359, 360; 362.) 
— K. S. 

Albert HaU. Property, the Royal Albert 
Hall, ill Kensington, London ; a building for 
al and other festivals, finished in 1874, 
and, like the Albert Memorial, named from the 
Prince CoiLsort. It provides for an orchestra 
and chonis of 1200 persons, and an audience of 
7000 ; the exterior is not without interest, hav- 
ing a frieze of some decorative effect ; and the 
iron roof is remarkalile. 

Carnegie Hall. (Properly, Music Hall.) In 
New York ; built at the expense of Andrew 
Carnegie, from the de.'<igns of William B. Tuthill, 
aided afterward by H. J. Hardenliergh. 

aty Hall. In the United States, a public 
building for the transaction of tlic municipal 
business, or some part of it; especially, for the 
executive branch of the city govcniment. (Com- 
pare Broletto ; Hotel deVille; Pakzzo Public*.) 

HALF-TIM 1!1;KI;U llorsii at bKAUVAia (OlSK), KKANCIi. 

Fio. 1.— U.\i.L oi Oakuam Castlk, Ki 


Cloth Hall. An exchange for cloth mer- 
chants ; that at Ypres, in Belgium, is an extraor- 
dinary and valuable piece of civic Gothic. The 
building of Eumachia, in Pompeii, was probably 
a cloth hall. 

Company Hall. The large room used by a 
society or association bearing the name in which 
tlie word company occurs ; hence, the whole 
building containing such a room. The term is 
used especially for certain important buildings 
in London, which are still the property of the 
ancient companies of merchants, mechanics, etc., 
dating from the Middle Ages. There are twelve 
Great Companies, and five or six others which 
are not so notable; the most important build- 
ings of the Great Companies are Mercers' Hall, 
in Cheapside, built immediately after the Great 
Fire; Fishmongers' Hall, near London Bridge, 
rebuilt in 1831 ; Ironmongers' Hall, in Fen- 
church Street, built 1748 ; but each of the Great 
Halls is worthy of study. 

Faneiul Hall. In Boston, Massachusetts ; 
laiilt in 1742; called the "Cradle of Liberty" 
from the early meetings of Revolutionists which 
were held there. It is of what would now be 
'•ailed old Colonial or Georgian architecture, but 
is not of elaborate (lesi<ru within or without. 

Guild HaU. (See Guildhall.) 

Hypostyle Hall. One Jiaving many columns. 
The term is rarely applied except to one of a 
very few great monuments of antiquity. That 
of Karnak, in Egypt, among the ruins of the 
ancient Thebes, is 175 feet long from door to 
door, on the main axis of the group of temples 
and courts, and nearly 340 feet wide, and is 
crowded with columns, 12 larger (o\-er 60 feet 
high) and 122 smaller. Its dVrniutiou within 
and without is extremely rich and vaiinl. It 
was built by Ramses I., Seti I., and Rumiscs TL, 
about 1400 to 1300 B.C., kings of the 19th 
Thcban l)ynasty. 

Moot Hall. In English archaeology, a place 
of judgment ; hence, in recent times, a liall for 
debate, esj)ecially when oc(Mi]ji(d Ijy a soi-irty 
who.se purpose is discu.ssion of (jucstions of the 
day, such as is sometimes called a moot court. 

S. George's Hall. A public building in 
Liverpool, Lancashire, England ; built about 
1854, the architect being Lonsdale Elmes. It 
is about 400 feet long, with a very elaborate 
(Jorinthian peristyle, and contains law courts 
and a great hall 1G9 feet long by 74 wide, in 
which are given musical and other entertain- 
ments. It is an important architectural mon- 
ument, and one of the least faulty buildings of 
th(^ middle of the century. 

Serveints' Hall. In a large residence, a room 
H(!t apart for the general use of servants, com- 
monly serving also as tlieir dining room. 

Town Hall. A large central building in 

which the ImsinesH of the town is transacted, 

and wliich generally includes a hall for public 



?s, and a clock tower, with numerous 
offices. The Flemish town halls are treated 
under Belgium and France (Part II., Flemish 
France), also under Cloth Hall. (Compare City 
Hall ; Village Hall.) 

Trade Hall. A public hall in a city for the 
general business and meetings of merchants and 
manufacturers ; also for incorporated trades. 

Village Hall. That building of a village 
whicli serves a purf)ose similar to that of the 
town hall of a larj^.r community. 

"Westmijister HaU. In London ; a building 
290 feet long in.side, containing one single enor- 
mous room with but very small accessory struc- 
tures, the span between the walls being nearly 
68 feet and the roof in one single span built of 
oak without tie-beams, the mo.st important ])iece 
of mediieval woodwork existing. It rises at the 
ridge to a height of 92 feet. It lias never been 


seriously iiyured or restored, but was repaired 
judiciously in 1820. The building as it now 
stands w:is built by Ricliard II. 

HAT.T.AN; HAT.T.AWD. In the dialect 
of Scotland and the north of England, a par- 
tition, a.s in a cottage, often a solid one without 
openings of any sort as when used to separate 
tiic part of the cottage occupied by the family 
from that used as a cowiiouse. The N. E. D. 
defines the term lus meaning especially the i)ar- 
tition between the door and fireplace which 
shelters the room from the draught of the door. 
(Calle<l also Speer.) 

HAIiL CHURCH. A church with aisles 
but without cltarstories, the interior of which 
is a iiall of a]i]jroxiniately uniform height 
tiiroughoiit. (See Hallenbau.) 

HAIiLE AU BLE. (Wlieat Hall or Com 
Hall.) In Paris; a circular building, dating 


He was Bauhispektor at Niiniberg, Bavaria, 
and in 1810 went to Greece, where he was asso- 
ciate<l with C. R. Cockerell (see Cockerell, C. R.) 
in his excavations at ^Egina and Phigaleia. It 
was tlirough his agency that the sculpture of the 
pediments of the temple of Athena, at ^Egina, 
were secured for tlie (Ilyptothek, in Munich. 

Sc'ubcrt. h'iiiislli r-Lej-irmi. 

HAIiLES CENTRAJjES. In Paris, the 
central market house, built from the designs 
of Louis Pierre Baltard about 18G0. It is one 
of the earliest mo<lern light structures of iron 
and gla.'ss, and is still a mo<iel of arrangement 
and stnictiirc ; pmliably the finest market house 
in Kurn,,,., 

HAIiliET, STEPHEN. (See Thornton, Dr. 

HALL HOUSE. A. In local British usjige, 
the principal room of a farmhouse. 

Fio. 4. — H.\i 

from 1766, with twenty-five arched doorways 
leading to a great rotunda. The roof, in form 
of a cupola, is tiie earlie-st important piece of 
iron work applied to building. (See Iron Con- 

HALLE AUX DRAPS. Same a.s Cloth 
Hull (which sec, under Hall). 

HALLENBAU. .\ buililing resembling a 
hall in its construction or |)lan ; esjjecially in 
(jlcrnian diurch architecture, a church whose 
aisles are carried to a heigiit eijual or nearly 
equal to that of the nave, so that there will 
l)e no clearstoiy, and so that tlie whole interior 
shall appear as a large hall divided by two (or 
more) r.m^'cs of cdlumns cairying arches. 

HALLENKIRCHE. A Half Church. (See 
also H.'dlciihan.) 

aivliit.ct ; I,. 177 1. 

(Skk Fio. .X) 

B. By extension from the preceding defini- 
tion, the principal building of a farm. 

a Same as Hall, E. 

the .Mliainbra at Crana.ia, Spain; a not very 
large ciianibcr ojicnini,' .mt of the Court of 

room fonning a part of the Tza|)otec niins of 
Mitla, in Oaxaca, Mexico. It contiiins a row 
of six round stone columns through the middle, 
longitudinally, each 9 feet 4 inches in circum- 
ference and about 12 feet high. (See Mexico, 
Architecture of, Part I., Precolumbian.) Viol- 
let-le-Duc hius made a study of the restoration 
of the building ccmtaining this hall. — F. S. D. 

HALLWAT. A hall serving as a passage- 
way : a corridor or entry. Apiiarently confmed 
to the Unitol States. 


HALO. That form of the Glory which is 
rejiresented around the head alone. (See Aure 
ole ; Glory.) 

join, a.s two j)ieces of wood, l>y cutting away 
each one for part of its tliicknt'S-s, .so that each 
fits into the other. The faces forming the joint 
need not necessarily be parallel with the onter 
faces, nor need they lie plane surfaces. 

NART: aivliit.M-t ; d. Au-u.-t, 1540. 

A iiatunil son of .James, first Earl of Arraii 
and master of the works to King James V. of 
Scotland. He built the northwest portion of 
Holyrood Hou.se, Edinburgh, and was employed 
on the castles of Edinburgh, Sterling, and Rothe- 
sav, all in S.'othmd. 

HAMILTON, THOMAS : architect. 

In 1820 he designed the memorial to Robert 


A Turkish bath ; especially, 
an establishment in a Euroj)eau city for bathing 
in the Oriental way by sweat rooms, manipula- 
tions, cold plunge, and the like. (Written also 

HAMMER. In Stonedressing, same as 
Axe (11.). 

masonry, the faces of which have been shaped 
and brought to an approximately smooth surface 
by means of the hammer aloue. (See Stoae- 

Burns at Ayr, Scotland, and April 28, 1825, 
laid the first stone of the High School, Edin- 
burgh (Grecian Doric). He had a large prac- 
tice in Scotland. 

nuilder, Vol. XVI., p. 140, and Vol. XVII., 
p. 2i:5. 

HAMLET. A. In Great Britain, a village 
of little con.sequence, esj)ecially a village which 
docs not in itself constitute a parish, and has 
therefore no parish church. 

B. In some of the United States, the official 
designation of certain villages. 

Tlie term is sometimes used, perhaps erro- 
neously, in the sense of a farmstead, — that is 
to say, of a group of buildings standing isolated 
in the country and belonging to a single estab- 


IN (OiSK). (Skk Kio. a.) 

HANCE. In Great Britain, the curve of 
shorter radius which adjoins the imix>st at 
either side of a three-centred, four-centred, or 
similar arch. By extension, a corl)el at either 
end of a lintel of a dm)r or window oi>ening, 
and this because the corln-l and the lintel taken 
together api)roach the form of a niany-centre<l 
cune. The term seems to have been originally 
ecjuivalent to a lintel, and then by confusion 
with the wonl Haunch to have gained its mean- 
ing as given alwve. It is probably obsolete or 

HANDLE. (Of a door, draw, or the like.) 
(Sec the technical terms Knob; Lift; Pull.) 

HAND-RAIL. The top bar of a parapet 
when nnule of slender pieces of material, as a 
balustrade. Generally, the horizontal or in- 


clined piece of material upon which rests, or is 
likely to rest, the hand of a person going up or 
do\vii stairs, or leaning upon the parapet. In 
staircases between solid walls the hand-rail is 
often a cylinder of small diameter secured to 
the wall and serving merely to aid a person in 
ascending the stairs. Elsewhere it is often a 
very massive bar, and if of stone may have a 
section of two hundred square inches. 

HANGER. In the building trades, any 
contrivance, fixed or movable, for the suspen- 
sion of any structure or member. Usually, in 

Beam Hanger. A contrivance serving the 
purpose of a stirrup, but more elaborate and of 
better finish. 

Door Hanger. A hanger for the support 
of a sliding door, especially such a door when 
hung from above. The meaning of the term 
is usually extended to mean the entire appa- 
ratus for such purpose, including the track or 
rails from which the door may be supported. 

HANGER BOARD. (See Electrical Appli- 

HANGING (I.). A piece of material used 
for covering and decorating the wall of an 
apartment; originally, tapestry or some kind of 
textile fabric hung to hooks, hence the nnme. 
In modern times, more commonly in the plural, 
as Paper Hangings, hangings of silk, and the 

HANGING (II.). The art or process of se- 
curing in place a door, casement, or shutter, by 
means of hinges, or a sliding sash or the like by 
means of counterpoise and cords, or sliding doors 
when these are supported from overhead or 
from the side by means of sheaves or rollers of 
any kind. 

HANGING BUTTRESS. The semblance 
of a buttre.s.s, u.sually having the upper part, 
the weathering, etc., like other buttresses of the 
same building, and put in to carry out the se- 
quence ; supported, however, upon a corbel or 
in some similar way, and not firmly based upon 
the ground. Such an addition might be of use 
a-s enabling a greater w('if;iit of masonry to lie 
applied at the hauiidics nf an arch abdvc ; liut 
of course is not a buttress in the [irnpci- sense. 

MEISTER) ; architect. 

Ii:ins von Berckheim was architect (We.rk 
Mi'iMcr) of the city of Strasburg in the first 
half of the fifteenth century. He built tlie 
public granary of Strasburg, a part of which 
still remains. 

Ofirard, Lex Arthfx 'le V Ahnre. 

GREMP) ; bell founder. 

'I'lie gnvit bell of the cathedral of Strasburg 

(Alsace, (iermany) which weighs nine thousand 

kilogrammes and is only rang on the most im- 

jiortant occaaions, bearw the date July, 1427, 


and the name Mar/ister Joannes de Argen- 
tina ; that of Oveniai, one of the fine-st in 
Alsace, the date 1429, and that of S. Adelphe 
de NeuwiUer the date 1431, and the name 
Meister Hennin von Strassburg. All doubts 
less refer to the beU founder, Hans von Strass- 

Gerard, Les Artistes de V Alsace. 

HANS WINLIN. (See Erwin, II., von 

HANSE. Same as Hance. 

b. April 2, 1803; d. May 2, 1883. 

.,A,>i,. Fig. 8. — I'LA- 
UrPKR Stohy of Tow 

A brother of Theophilos Hansen (see Hansen, 
T.). In 1831 he won a stipend at the academy 
in Copenhagen which enabled him to travel in 
Italy and Greece. He was made rdiut architect 
at Athens. Hansen desi.i^Mied the university at 
Athens and in association witli Scliaul)ert and 
Ludwig Ross (see Sehaubert and Koss) rebuilt 
the temple of Nike Apteros on the Acropolis, 
putting into place the ancient blocks of marble, 
which had been recovered when the Turkish 
fortifications were destroyed. 

La Grande Enajclopedie. 


HANSEN, THEOPHIIiUS ; anhitwt ; b. 
Julv n, l«i;J (at C..])oiiliagcii) ; d. Feb. 17, 

Hansen was educated at the academy of 
Coj)eiihageu. In 1838 lie visited Italy and 
Greece and practised for eight years in Athens, 
building at this time the oljservatory near that 
city. Reaching Vienna in 1846, he was asso- 
ciated with Ludwig Forster (see Forster, L.) in 
conducting the Alleyeineine Battzeitung, and 
built the Watten Museum of the Arsenal and 
other buildings in a media-val style. He again 
went to Athens in 1860-1861 to build the 
Academy, one of his most successful works. 
In the reconstruction of the city of Vienna 
(begun in 1857) Hansen built the Exchange 
(1869-1875), the Academy of Fine Arts (1874- 
1876), and the Parliament House (1883). 

Niemann and Feldegg, Tlteophilos Hansen; 
Farrow, liectnt Development of Vienna. 

HAFSIj. Same as Hasp ; an old fonn now 

HARAM. In countries inhabited by Mo- 
hammedans of civilized town life, tliut part of a 
dwelling which is appropriated to the females. 
The term i< :i tr.in-^litoration of the Arabic, and 
has ]i;i~~..l iiii ' lliiu'lisli as the common name, 
but (liti.i. i:t t.riii- are employed in ditferent 
countrir- ; tliii-. Ill India the term is zenana. 
In Cairn til.' lar.'.i- i,.,u^,'s aiv sn arran,<,'e(i that 
there is an inn.r ,-..urt t-i' llir liaraiii. ill which 
cases thr arranirnncut (it tiir n.oius about that 
court is U'lt uiiiikf that connected with the 
outer or incii's court. 

HARD FINISH. (See Plastering.) 

HARMANDUS : architect. 

On the uiiiirr |.ait of tlir old tower of the 
cathedral of ('liaitns ( I'.ui.- it-Loire, France) is 
inscribed tlic name Hariiiaiulns and the date 
1164. Harmandus is sup])o.sed to have been 
the architect of the old tower. 

Gonse, L'Art (iothique. 

tect ; b. .\|.iil IG, 1616 (at I'ari.s) ; d. May 11, 
1 70S (at Marly). 

Jules Hardouin was the son of Raphael Har- 
douin, jyeintre ordinaire du roi and Marie 
Gauthier, a niece of Francois Mansart (.see 
Mansart, N. F.). He added his grand-uncle's 
name to his own and was known as Hardouin- 
Man.sart, frequently signing himself Mansart. 
He studied architecture with Francois Mansart 
and Libt^ral Bruant (see Bruant, L.). While 
assisting Bniant in the construction of the 
Hotel de Vendome, Paris, he was pr&sented to 
tlie king, Louis XIV., who requested him in 
1672 to design the chateau of Clagny for 
Ma<lame de Monte-span. In 1674 he was 
commissioned to enlarge the new chateau of 
Saint-Germain-cn-Laye (finished under Henri 
IV.; but destroyed in 1776). Oct. 22, 1675, 


Hardouin-Maii.-«irt was appointed arc/iitecte du 
roi and later contrdleur (/in^ral den bdtiiueuts 
du roi. In 1675 he was admitte<l to the 
Acad niie de I'Architecture. His name apj)ears 
for the first time in the accounts of the palace 
of Versjiilles, Feb. 26, 1677. He was occupied 
with that building during the remainder of his 
life. At this palace he built between 1679 and 
1681 the great .southeni wing. He finished in 
1684 the Grande Galerie, overlooking the fiark 
in the central pavilion, and the garden facmle 
of the central pavilion. Between 1684 and 
1688 he built the great northern >»'ing, thus 
completing the entire length of 580 metres. 
He built the grand stairway, and in 1698 be- 
gan the beautifid Orangerie. The chapel of the 
chateau was begim in 1696, but was not finished 
until 1710 (after Mansart's death) by Robert 
de Cotte (see Cotte, R. de). In 1683 he eom- 
mencetl the chateau of Marly. In 1685 he 
a]3]iroved the plans of Francois Remain for the 
Pont Royal (see Gabriel, Jacques, II.). In 1686, 
he was appointed ^)/'e«iiera/-c/u7ec/erfM roi, and 
in the following year sold the otfice of contrdleur 
general den bdtiments du roi to his grand- 
nephew, Jacques Jules Gabriel (see Gabriel, J. 
J.). In 1 688 Mansart built the two wings of the 
Grand Trianon in the Park at Versailles, which 
were afterward connected with a colonnade by 
Robert de Cotte. He continued the work of 
Liberal Bruant at the Hotel des Invalides, 
building the portal of the church in 1693. He 
designed the dome, which was well under way 
when he died, but was not finished until 1735. 
Mansart was assistetl in his work by Roliert de 
Cotte, who succeeded him as premier architecle 
in 1708, bv Charle-s Davilcr, and by Cailletcau 
called L'.Usur.in.e (s»h- Caillcteau). 

JEAN; architect; b. 1700. 

Jciin was the son of Jacques Hardouin-Man- 
sart, conseiller an Parlement, and grandson of 
Jules Hardouin-Mansart (see Hardouin-Mansart, 
Jules). A legacy of forty thousand li^Te8 was 
left by Colljert (d. 1683) to rebuild the facade 
of the church of S. Eustache in Paris. The 
old portal, built by Charles David (see David, 
Charles) was torn down in 1733, and the new 
facade Ixjgun the following year by Jean Har- 
douin-Mansart. After much interniption it was 
completed in 1788 by Pierre Louis Morejiu. 

Jal. Dictionnaire ; Du Seigneur in Planat's Kn- 

JACQUES ; .uvliitct ; b. 1 TO.i. 

Sicur de Levy and Coiiqite de Sagonne, a 
younger brother of Jean Hardouin-Mansart de 
Jouy (see Hardouin-Mansart de Jouy). He 
was created memlwr of the Acadf^niic and airlii- 
tecte du roi in 1735, and between 1742 and 
1754 built the important cliurch of S. Louis 
(cathedral) at Versailles. He built also in 


Languedoc the monastery of the Dames de S. 
Chamont and the Abbaye Royale of Prouilles. 

Du Seigneur in Planat's Encyclopklie ; Kiigue- 
net, Petits Edifices Itistoriques. Duchesne, Xotire 
historique sur Jules Ilardouin-Mansart ; Guiffrey, 
Comptesdes batimetUs de Louis XIV. ; Suuvaijeot, 
Palais, chateaux, hotels et maisons de Fmnce ; 
Michel Hardouin, Chateau de Cluaii;/ ; ]h- La- 
borde, Versailles ancien et mtaler/ir ; Dussicux, 
Le Chateau de Versailles; Gavard, }'ersiiiUe.s, 
Galerie historique. 

HARP PAN. Clay more or less firmly 
compacted with gravel or sand approaching 
Conglomerate in structure and hardness. It 
can generally be loosened with the pick. 

HARDWARE (as used in building). (See 
Builders' Hardware.) 

HARDWICK TTAT.T. An ancient English 
manor house near iMan.sfield, in Nottingham- 
shire. It is of tlie reign of Elizabeth, and very 
little altered. It is habitable, partly furnished, 
and contains some excjuisite works of art. 

(BARON) VON; architect ; b. 1700 ; d. 1753. 

A pupil of Tessin (see Tessin, Nicodemus, 
I.) ; he continued the construction of the royal 
palace at Stockholm, Sweden, begun by that 
architect. He was royal architect and held va- 
rious offices at the Swedish Court. 

Fiissli, Allgeraeines Kunstler Lexikon. 

HARNESS. The straps, bolts and other 
contrivances by which a bell is suspended from 
its stock. By extension, the entire apparatus 
by which a bell is hung and tolled. 

HARRISON, HENRY G. ; architect ; b. 
1813; d. 189.5. 

He designed several important buildings in 
New York City, and became prominent in con- 
nection with the architectural schemes projected 
by Mr. A. T. Stewart for Garden City, Long 
Island. Of the proposed buildings only the 
cathedral, designed by Harrison, was carried out. 

Obituary in American Architect, Vol. XLIX, 
p. 07. 

architect; b. 1735; d. 17'J5. 

Educated in France and Italy, and was chief 
royal architect at Copeidiageii, Denmark, and 
director of the Academy of Sciences in Stock- 
holm, Sweden. He built the propyliEa of the 
royal palaces in Copenhagen and other impor- 
tant buildings. 

Wcilsbach, Xtit Dansk Kunstner Lexicon. 

(BARON) VON ; anliitcct ; b. .July L'O, Is:i3 ; 
.1. .Ian. 1, isyi. 

He was educated at the Collegium Carolinum 
in Braunschweig, Germany, and at the academy 
of Vienna, and travelled in Italy, France, and 
England. In 1854 he won first prize in archi- 
tecture at the academy of Vienna. He won 
also second prize in the competition for the new 


facade of the cathedral of Florence. In asso- 
ciation with Semper he designed at Vienna the 
Museums of Art and Natural History, built 
between 1872 and 1884, and the new Imperial 
Palace. He designed also the Hofburg theatre 
at Vienna. He published Das K. K. Hof burg- 
theater in Wien (1890, folio). 

Farrow, i?«ceH< Development of Vienna ; Meyer, 
Konversations- Lexikon ; Hasenauer, Hofburgthe- 
ater in Wien. 

HASP. A fastener for a door, lid, or the 
like, usually in the form of a plate or bar of 
metal hinged at one end, and with a slot or 
opening to receive a staple. A padlock, or in 
default of this a pin of wood or the like, being 
passed through the staple, the door, etc., is 
held fast. 

HATCH (n.). A rough door; the original 
signification being connected with the idea of 
grating or crib work, but in general use having 
equal application to that which is solid and 
uniform in surface ; especially, — 

A. A heavy door filling the lower part of a 
doorway ; either completed by a second heavy 
door above (see Dutch Door), or shut when the 
larger or more permanent door is opened, as 
when business of some kind is to be done across 
and above this lower door acting as a barrier or 
counter (see Buttery Hatch). 

B. A door in a nearly horizontal position ; 
in this sense like Trap, except that it conveys 
the idea of a much larger opening to be filled 
by the door in question. The hatches of ships 
are not hinged, but are lifted off and put on 
again so as to cover the Coaming, or in some 
cases are made to slide ; but in architectural 
practice a hatch is usually hinged, and is often 
secured by a counterpoise, or is held in some 
way to avoid falling heavily when allowed to 

C. By extension, the opening closed by a 
hatch. In this respect, exactly resembling the 
use of gate for gateway, door for doorway, and 
the like. — II. S. 

HATCH (v.). To cover or partly cover with 
closely (liMwn lines. (See Hatching.) 

HATCHING. Drawing by means of small 
and numerous lines laid close together. In 
freehand drawing, hatching may be used to 
produce effects of rounding and to distinguish 
shades from shadow.s, and the like. In archi- 
tectural drawing, it is more commonly used to 
distingiiish the cut or .sectional parts from those 
shown in ordinary jjrojcction. (Compare 


HATFIELD HOUSE. An ancient English 
manor house in Hertfordshire, England, the 
greater part built in the reign of James I. It 
is inhabiteil by its owner, the Marquis of Salis- 
bury, anil is full of architectural interest. 

HATHORIC. Having to do with the Egyp- 
tian goddcHs llathor. Used especially of 

capitals in the later architeeture of Egypt char- 
acterized by masks of the goddess. 

HATHFACE. Same as Estrade or Dais in 
the sense of a raised platform. In this sense, 
probably derived from corruptions of haut-pu^ 
and hauU-pace; by confusion with Halfpace, 
whose origin moreover is doubtful, a landing or 
platform on a staircase. 

HAUNCH. That portion of indefinite ex- 
tent whicli i.s included between tlie crown and 
the abutments of an arch. 

baron ; administrator and pohticiau ; b. March 
27, 1809 (at Paris); d. Jan. 11, 1891. 

The family of Baron Haussmann came origi- 
nally from Cologne, Germany. He was edu- 
catetl at the College Henri IV., Paris, now 
Lycee Condorcet. He sided with Louis Philippe 
in the revolution of 1830, and May 22, 1831, 
was ma<le secretaire g^nh-al of tlie prefec- 
ture of Vienne, France. He was promoted to 
various sous-pr{'fectures. Haussmann was a 
supporter of Louis Napoleon wlio, as President 
of the Republic, appointed him to the prefecture 
of the Var, January, 1849. Haussmann as- 
sisted Napoleon III. in the Coup d'£tat of 
Nov. 7, 1852, and on Jan. 23, 1853, was ap- 
pointed Prifet de la Seine. He held that 
office for sixteen years and accomplished a com- 
plete transfonnation of the city of Paris. He 
remodelled the sanitary system of tlie city, de- 
stroyed old quarters, annexed suburbs, laid out 
boulevards and wide streets, created parks and 
public gardens. Under his patronage, also, sev- 
eral monumental works on the history, archa;- 
ologj', and architecture of Paris were prepared 
and published, such as Ilistoire giuh-ale de 
Paris (see Berty, Adolphe), Paris dans *sa 
splendeuT (3 vols, folio). Promenades de Paris 
(2 vols, folio, 1867-1873), and other w.,rks. 
He was removed from office at tl)' . oiimi. n . 
ment of the ministry of Emilc iiii\,,i m .l.n 
uary, 1870, and devoted the niii.iMHlcr "'i his 
life to the jireparation of his Memoirs. 

Haussmann, Mhaoires. 

HAW-HAW FENCE. (See Ha-Ha Fence.) 

HAWKSMOOR. NICHOLAS ; architect ; 

}). \w>\ ■ d. 17;{(;. 

At tlic iv^v of cit;litcen lie became the scholar 
and domestic clerk of Sir Cliristopher Wren 
(see Wren) and wjvs emi)loyed by hiin from 
1682 to 1690 as deputy surveyor at Chelsea 
Hospital, and after 1705 as deputy surveyor at 
Greenwicii Hosj)ital, London. He Jissisted 
Wren in the construction of S. Paul's catliedral 
from June 21, 1675, until its comjjletion. 
Hawksmoor was associated with Vanbrugh (sec 
Vanbrugh) at Castle Howard, 1702 to 17U, 
and at Blenheim Palace, 1710 to 1715. At 
Oxford lie designed the library of Queen's Col- 
lege, 1692, and the two towers of All Souls' 
College, both of which buildings have been 


ascribed to Wren. Jan. 6, 1716, he was 
aj)iiointtHl surveyor to the committee in charge 
of the construction of churches in the city of 
London, and designed several churches for 
them, the best being those of S. Marj' Wool- 
notb, 1716-1719, and S. George Bloomsbury, 
1720-1730. He was made surveyor of Westmin- 
ster Abbey at the death of Wren, and com- 
pleted the towers. His excellence lay in his 
attention to details and thorough knowledge of 

Blomlield, Benaissance Architecture in Eng- 
land; Hirch, London Churches; Wren, Paren- 
tnlia ; Britlon and I'ugin, Public Duildimjs of 

HA7A, RODRIGO DEL; sculpU)r and 

In 1575 Hay a made the statues of S. Andres 
and of S. Matias in the cathetlral of Burgos, 
Spain. In 1577, with his brother Martin, he 
commenced the great rctable of that church. 

Bermudez, Diccionario. 

HEAD. A. In general, the top or upper 
member of any structure ; the top or end — 
especially the more prominent end — of a jiiece 
or member. 

B. A roofing tile of half the usual length, 
but of the same width ; for forming the first 
coui-se at the eaves. 

HEADER. Any piece or member which is 
laid in a direction transverse to a peries of other 
similar members which abut against it. Spe- 
cifically, — 

A. In the framing of a floor or roof, the 
piece which is framed into one or two trimmers, 
and which in turn supports the tail pieces. 

B. In brickwork, and more rarely in build- 
ing with cut stone, a i)icce of material, as a 
brick, having its length placed across the wall 
and scrvinr: to a certain extent as a bond. (See 
r,..n,l ; Ihirkwork; Stretcher.) 

HEADING (n.). That which forms or 
serves as ;i liead, or as a header, or a combina- 
tion or .series of eitiicr. 

HEADING COURSE. A course of heiul- 
ers in a brick wall, or tlie like. In ordinary 
brick building in the United States, four or five 
courses of stretchers alternate with one heading 
course ; in Great Britain, every alternate course 
is usually a heading course. 

HEADPOST. A jwst or stanchion at the 
head of a stall ; i.e. the end at the manger. 
(Compare Heelpost.) 

HEADROOM. Tlie clear space allowed 
above a flight of .steps or a flcwr, platform, or 
the like, so that a jK-rsim passing will have 
abundant room. The space should be sufficient 
to remove all sense of atinoyance from the near- 
ness of the floor or flight of stairs alx)ve. 
Thus, where stairs are arrang«l, one flight 
above another, 7 feet in the clear vertically 
is the least space that should be allowed. Ajb 


soon as a stair and its surroundings assume 
some architectural character, the headroom must 
be much greater than this, and its proper dis- 
tribution is an important consideration in plan- 
ning. By extension, the term is loosely applied 
to any space allowed vertically for a given pur- 
pose ; as when an attic room is said to have 4 
feet headroom at the low side nearest the eaves. 

HEADSTONE. (See Gravestone.) 

HEADWAY. Same as Headroom. 

HEALING. Roofing; the covering of a 
building by any system ; local in parts of Great 

HEARSE. Originally a grating of any kind, 
as a portcullis at the gate of a fortress, or a 
fence around and perhaps above a tomb ; in 
this latter sense either temporary and intended 
for the display of burning candles, drapery 
of rich stuffs, and the like on occasions of cere- 
monies; or of iron as a permanent protection. 
By extension in the sixteenth century and later, 
a temporary stracture of wood, canvass, and 
the like, set up as part of the display at a pub- 
lic funeral, as of a prince. It was arranged 
like a temporary triumphal arch in the streets 
to receive banners, herahlic devices, and the 
like. It is by an extension of this meaning 
that its modern significance of a wheeled car 
has come in. Also Herse. (Cut, cols. 379, 380.) 

Altar Hearse. A framework built above 
or around an altar, and intended on certain 
occasions of ceremony to be covered with hang- 
ings and to carry lighted candles. — R. S. 

HEART BOND. (See under Bond.) 

HEARTH. A piece of floor prepared to 
receive a fire ; whether in the middle of a room, 
as in primitive times, and in buildings of some 
j)retensions — the smoke being allowed to escape 
through openings in the roof; or, as in later 
times, the floor of a fireplace in the modern 
sense. The hearth of ancient times was some- 
times raised above the floor, and then had often 
a low rim around it ; and sometimes sunk be- 
neath it, forming the bottom of a shallow pit. 
In either case it might be fitted with certain 
permanent holders for wood representing the 
(logs or andirons of later times. Some cooking 
hearths, as in Pompeii, are raised a foot or more 
above the floor, and are built of masonry, with 
an arched opening at one side in which fuel 
might have been kept. The hearth, then, in- 
c!\i(ies properly the entire floor from the back 
lining of the fireplace to the outermost edge of 
the incombustible material. In builders' usage, 
however, it is very often customary not to 
include in the term the rougher flooring, as of 
hard brick, which is enclosed between the actual 
cheeks of the recess made in the wall or chim- 
ney breast. According to this custom, the 
hearth, or, as it might be called, the outer 
hearth, is usually a slab of slate, soapstone, 
marble or other fairly resistant material, which 


is placed outside of and beyond the fireplace 
proper. The mantelpiece in modern usage gen- 
erally rests upon it, as do the fender and the 
front feet of the basket grate, or other fittings. 
A flooring of tile sometimes replaces the slab of 
stone. Whatever the material of the hearth, it 
is usually supported upon a flat arch of brickwork 
which often is built between the trimmers of the 
floor below. (See Trimmer Arch, under Arch.) 

HEARTING. Masonry forming the interior 
or body of a wall, pier, or the like, as dis- 
tinguished from the facework. (Compare Back- 
ing; Fining.) 

HEARTWOOD. The wood formed at the 
interior or " heart " of a tree. It is quite free 
from sap, — the more so as the tree becomes 
older, — of finer and more compact and even 
grain, and therefore harder. It is usually con- 
sidered better for general use than the outer 
portion of the trunk which contains the sap, 
and is, hence, known as sapwood. The latter 
has comparatively little strength and is more 
liable to rapid decay. 

HEATHER ROOFING. A variety of 

HEATING. (For heating of water, see 
Boiler ; Plumbing ; Range : for heating of inte- 
riors, see Warming.) 

HEATING, ELECTRIC. (See Warming.) 

measuring 100 feet ; a Greek term applied by 
the ancients to the Temple of Pallas Athene at 
Athens. Much discussion has been given to the 
question which building was intended and where 
the measurement was to be taken. The sound- 
est opinion seems to be that it refers to the 
actual cella or naos of the Parthenon, and that 
the measurement of that building, outside the 
walls, is 100 Attic feet. 

HECATONSTYLON. A building having 
one hundred columns. — (C. D.) 

HECK. A. A hatch or trap. 

B. A fastening for a door. — (A. P. S. ; C. D.) 

HEEL. A. A moulding called cyma re- 
ver.sa; a local builder's term. 

B. That j)art of an upright post or of a 
rafter in the sloping part of a roof which rests 
upon the sill or plate. 

HEELPOST. A. A post or stanchion at 
the free end of the partition of a stall. 

B. A post to receive the hinges of a gate ; 
either a part of the gate, or the stationary sup- 
port to which the gate is hung. 

The term appears to have no certain mean- 
ing, unless in tlie sense of definition A. (Com- 
pare Head post.) 

HEGIAS OF ATHENS ; sculptor. 

Tli<> first mastrr of i'hidias (see Phidiius). 
An inscription bearing liis name ha.s been found 
on the Acropolis at Athens. 

CoUinnon, Hi.iloire. de la Sculpture Grecquc ; 
Overbeck, Schriftquellen. 


VON : :irtliit.it, paiiittT, iiiid eiij,'raver ; b. Feb. 
li, IT.s.^ ; (i. Sept. 28, 186."). 

Ill 182J he was appointc<l iirofessor at the 
Pohjtevhnische Scliule in Nuniberg, Bavaria, 
and custodian of tlie inoniunents of that city. 
Hcideloff is Ijcst known by his books. Orna- 
ment ik des Mittelalters. 18;i8 ; Bauhiitte de.i. 
Mittelallers in Deut.sriiland, 1844 ; Kitnsl 
des Millekdters in Srhindji-n, ISo.'j; and 
other works. 

Seubcrt, Kiiusll'r-li/-ir..ii. 



HEINRICH VON ULM; architect. 

Two an liitiits of tliis name appear in the 
history of the const riKtion of the cathedral of 
Ulin, Germany. Heinrich, the elder, was 
doubtless the earliest arcliitect of the church 
(begun 1377). A second Heinrich appears in 
1387. They probably belonged to the same 
family as Ulrich and Mathias Eusingen (see 
Mathiiis and Ulrich von Eusingen), who worked 
on the cathedral in the fifteenth century. 

1're.x.sel, Ulm vnd sein M'unster. 

HELICAL LINE. The central or deter- 
mining line of a helix or spiral, such as a 
volute, corresponding to the axis or straight line 
upon which an ordinary building or detail is 

HELICED. Decorated with helices, such 

HELICOGRAPH. An instrument for draw- 
ing a spiial (helix) ; consisting of a wheel car- 
rying a pencil, and working on a shaft which is 
cut into the thread of a screw. As the shaft 
is turned about a pivot at one end, the wlicel 
constantly apjjroaches (or rece<les from) the 

HELIEITTM. A building or enclosure dedi- 
cated to the sun considered as a divinity. (Also 

HELM, -WILLEM VAN DER ; architect. 

He was jirohably a \M\n\ of Pieter Po.st (see 
Post, Pieter). He built the Waard Kerke in 
Leyden, Holland, and several important gates in 
that city. 

Oalland. IJolldndi.irhe Bnukungt. 

HEM. The slightly raised rim of a volute 
of an Ionic capital, forming a border and follow- 
ing the sjiiral of tlie cun'e. 

HEMICirCLE. Same as Hemicycliuin. 
That of the J-Jrolc den Beaux Arts at Paris, a 
room of generally semicircular shape serving as 
a hall for ceremonies, has tlie cur^■c(l wall deco- 
rated by a <elcbrat«l mural painting, the work 
of Paul Delaroche. In the new buihliugs of 
the SarlKinne, Paris, the large lecture room has 
the wall behind the siHyiker only slightly curved, 

couciively, but this also is ciilled hemicycle. It 
is covered by a noble painting by Puvis de 

HEMICYCLIUM. In classical archa-ology 
a more or less nearly semicircular structure in 
the si'ii.'m; of an e.xedra of the simpler form ; 
that is to sjiy, a long and curved bench or seat 
of i)erinaneiit character.- By extension the t«rm 
applies to a hall or jwrtico fitted with such 

HEMIGLTPH. The haH" channel, which 
forms a clianifcr on each verticiil etlge of a 

HEMITRIGLYPH. In some modifications 
of classiial anhiltctiire, a half or large portion 
of a tri^'ly)ih ;it a puint where the frieze is sud- 
denly cut arross, ;is at a rei-iitraiit angle. 

HENHOUSE. Same as I'l.ultry House. 

HENRI DE BRUXELLES : architect. 

Henri cam.' originally from Flanders. In 
1382 he won the coiniKtition for the choir 
screen (jubd) of the cathedral of Troyes (Aube) 
France. This work was begim April 22, 1385, 
and finished in 1388. It was destroyed in 

Assier, Les arts et les artistes dans Vancienne 
capitate de lit Cliampaijuf. 


French, tliat of Henry tla^ Se.oiid, the second 
king of the eoin])leted Heiiai.s.sjince, who reigned 
1547 to 1559. The style known as U Archi- 
tecture Henri Deux is that of tile French Re- 
naissance properly so called, and is of the greatest 
purity. The classical Renaissance was not per- 
fectly established in France until this reign, for 
during the preceding reign, that of Francis I., 
nuich of tlie mediieval feeling remained in 

In French, that of Henry the Fourth, the king 
who.se title Wiis finally recognize<l by all parties 
about 1598, and who die.l ICIO. The style 
known as L' Architecture Henri QMa/re appears 
complete at the close of the long anarchy of the 
religious wars ; it is strongly differentiated from 
the pure architecture of the French Renaissance 
(see Henri Deux ; Renaissance). The style is 
firm, spiriteil, rational, but devoid of especial 
charm ; u style of severe utilitarianism, as far 
as that was po.ssible in an age when the tradi- 
tions of decorative art were still fresh. The best- 
known buildings are those of Paris, as, especially, 
the hoiwe fronts on the Place des Vosges and 
the Place I)aii]>liine, but also large part* of the 
Palace of Fontaiuebleau, such as the Galcrie des 
Cerfs an.l the ( 'our du ( 'iieval Hlanc. The long 
gallcrj- of the Louvre on the water front con- 
necting the old Louvre with the ])alace of the 
Tuileries was continued miiler Henri IV., but 
the alterations extending even to complete re- 
building have changeil the character of the 
design ; moreover, the greater part of this work 

A private house in Orltans (Loirul), called llic far to modify tlieir dt'sisiis to confor 

honHi! of Diane de I'oitiers and known to liave wliiie tiio details are all of cxiiuisilf < 

been built about IMO. The building is now used are well shown in this design. The In 

for a inus(aini of lo(!al anticjuities. The conditions two i)rojcctinK corners willi very dilTrn 

of the early French Henaissance — the artists columns is very curious, 
'loniiiiul of the classical orders and uricorUiu how 


w;us carried mit during the next reign, that of 
Louis XIII. 

EASTRY) ; ecclesiastic and architect; d. 


Henry was elected prior of the cathedral of 
Cantcrburj', England, in 1285. According to 
the Obituary of Canterbury (Autjlia Sacra, 
Vol. I., p. 141) "he decorated tlie choir of the 
chiirch with mo.st beautiful stonework delicately 
carved." This work is mentioned more specifi- 
cally in his Register. Tiiese notices refer un- 
doubtedly t.) tlie tine cneli.sure of tiie choir, much 

Hekbi Qi 

of which remains. The north doorway is still 

Willis. Catiterliury Cathedral; Wharton, An- 

Having .seven columns ; said of a portico. 

B. Having a portico of seven columns at one 
or at each end ; said of a building such as a 
temple. (See Columnar Architecture.) 

HERiBXJM (Greek 'Hpaioi/ : Heraion). A 
temple or sacred cndostirc dedicated to the god- 
dcs-s Hera or Here. That at Olympia in tiic 
Morea, (Jreece, i.s most celebrated. 

HERALDRY. The art and science of the 

herald ; tiie oidy branch of which at all con- 



nected with architecture is the determination 
and marshalling of arms. (See Achievement; 
Arms : Escutcheon.) 

HERCOS. Ill (Jreek, a fence or enclo.sing 

architect; b. Uct. 12, 1705; d. Keb. 2, 1703. 
Supposetl to have received his training from 
Germain Bofirand (see Boflrand, G.), and was 
made architect in ordinary to Stanislas I., King 
of Poland, and Duke of Lorraine. At Lun^ville 
(Meurthe-et-Moselle), France, then a city belong- 
ing to the duke, he built the towers and the 
tribune of tiie organs of the church of S. 
Remy, the Hotel des Carmes, and many other 
imjiortant buildings. At Nancy (Meurthe- 
( : M -. ■ I, France, then the capital of Duke 
, lie built the church of Bon Secours, 
t of the Minimes, and the imjior- 
I : 11 Ti.itis of the Place Royale (now 
nimcnced in 1751, which 
II le Ville, the episcopal pal- 

.1.. II '•! AilL.t, the theatre, the College 
I ; vale de .Medecine, the Hotel Jacquet, and 
the Arc de Triomphe. Her^ de Corny pub- 
lished Reciieil des plans et ^l^vaiions des 
'■'i/mux, jardins, et d^q^endances que le 
■' de Poloyne occupe en Lorraine, Paris, 
7"i.'{, folio; Plans et Elevations des bdti- 
II Is de la place Royale de Xancy, etc.; 
.'■■neil des fondations et itablissements 
'sjjar le roi de Pologne, Limdvillc, 1762. 
Lepage. Archives de Xancy ; Du Seigneur in 

Ill's Knojrlopldie. 
HERLEWIN ; abbot of Glastonbury ; d. 

He destroyed the old church at Glaston- 
buiv, Eii^dand, and laid the foundations of 
the new and much larger building. 
l)ni:dale, MonaMiron, Vol. I., p. 4. 
HERMES. In Greek arclucolog}', a figure 
haviiii.' the head, or head and bust, of a god 
^ lestiiii; upon a plain, blocklike shaft. It is 
s\ipj)osed that the use of these figures is of 
\« ly remote anti<iuity. By extension, and 
es]ieeially at Athens, any four-cornered pillar 
finished at top with an indication, however 
slight, of a luunan head ; such figures were con- 
sidered ius inviolable on account of tlieir use 
in marking boundaries of landed property 
(called also Term ; Terminal Figure ; see also 

HERMITAGE, THE. A palace of the 
Czars of Russia ; built by Catherine II., and con- 
nected with the Winter Palace, at Saint Peters- 
burg. It is celebrated for it« great picture 
gallerj', library, and collection of Greek Viuses, 
arnis/and other works of art. 
HERMODOROS; arehitwt. 
Hermodoros of Salamis built the temidc of 
Mars in the region of the Circus Flaminius in 
Rome. This temple was probably founded by 


A Imililing of private 
to rent, built in tlu- relKii of Henry IV., anil forming 
a jMirt of the intereHtinf; Place des Vost'es. The 
front niven in tlie plate forms the end of llie narrow 
Hue Biraguu which enters the open I'lace through 

ership with aparlmenUs the archway in the middle of the facade. 

front on Ihe I'lace is 

similar. This work, in nd 

s iharact^'ristic of the e|iod 

and Rtvle of the Kucce 

edins reii;n (Lonw 'Ireize), 

whieh reuins many of i 

ts features. 


Brutus Galloecus in the year 139 B.C., and con- 
tained a statue by Scopas (see Scopas). 

Brunn, Geschichte der griecMschen Kunstler. 

HERMOGENES; architect. 

An architect of Asia Minor who is mentioned 
frequently by Vitruvius without any indication 
of the precise time in which he lived. His 
temple of Diana at Magnesia is mentioned by 
Vitruvius as an example of a pseudodipteral 
temjtle, a style of buikling which he is supposed 
to have invented. He wrote descriptions of 
this building and of the temple of Bacchus at 

Vitruvius, Marini ed. 

HERNANDEZ, GER6nIMO ; sculptor and 
architect; b. about 1586 ; d. 1646. 

He was born at Seville, Spain, and was a 
pupil of Pedro Delgado. He made a statue of 
S. Geronimo in the cathedral of Seville and 
numerous retables of the Spanish churches. 

Bermudez, Diccionario. 

GORIO; sculptor and architect; b. 1566; d. 

Hernandez made the great retable of the 
cathedral of Plasencia, Spain. An extended list 
of his works in sculpture is given by Bermudez 
(op. cit.). 

Bermudez, Diccionario. 

HEROON. (See Heroum.) 

HEROUM Greek {i^pwov ; Hcroon). A build- 
ing or sacred enclosure dedicated to a hero, that 
is to say, to a person more than an ordinary 
man, whether considered as a demigod or not. 
Hence, by extension, a tomb or cenotaph, as 
when dedicated to a personage of great dignity. 
In this latter sense, used both in Latin of the 
classical period and in the Greek of tlie Byzan- 
tine emj)ire. 

painter and architect; b. 1622 (at Seville, Spain); 
d. 1685. 

A son of Francisco Herrera the elder, painter 
and engraver. He studied in Piome. At the 
death of his father in 1656 he niinind to 
Seville, Spain, and after paint iult si \,i,iI pic 
tures for the cathedral of tlmt rit\, u.nt tu 
Madrid. In 1681 he was made sui.civisiug 
architect of the Alcazar, Pardo, Campo, and 
Huen Retiro at Madrid. 

Stirliiig-Maxwcll. Aiuinh of the Artists of 
Spain; IV-nmid.^z, lJirri„ii„ri„'. 

HERRERA, JUAN DE; arcliitect ; b. 
about 15;i0. 

The favourite architect of Philip II. of Sj-ain. 
He studied philosophy at Valladolid, Spain, and 
vi«it<;d BruH.sels and later Italy. After tlic dcatli 
of Juan de Toledo (see Tol.ulo, Juan de) whose 
u.ssociate he was, he HU(u:eeded him as architect 
of the Escorial. He designed the church of 


the Escorial, the cathedral of Valladolid, and the 
bridge of Segovia. In 1597 he published illus- 
trations of the Escorial engraved by Pedro Perret. 

Stirling- Maxwell, Annalsof the Artists of Spain. 

HERRINGBONE (adj.). Diagonal in ar- 
rangement ; set diagonally ; said of many small 
members closely succeeding one another, and 
usually set at forty-five degrees with the general 
direction of the row, and at right angles with 
the members of the adjoining 
rows. Thus, in a waU buQt ^;S^^^\\\\\\^ 
of thin stratified stones, such /////% 
as slate of certain qualities, \\\VO00c^ 
the stones in successive rows y////////////, 
may be laid alternately slop- 
ing upward from left to right ^vI^^t^^.^ 

and from right to left. In 
an ornamental floor short lengths of plank are 
often laid in this way. 


HERSE. Same as Hearse. (Cut, cols. 379, 

HEXAPARTITE. Same as Sexapartite, as 
applied to vaulting. 

A. Havmg six columns ; said of a ])ortico. 

H. Having a portico of six culumns at one 
or at each end ; said of a building such as a 
temple. The majority of the larger Grecian 
Doric temples are hexastyle. (See Columnar 

HEXAPROSTYLE. Having a portico of 
six (•(iluiiiiis ill fruiit ; that is, hexastyle at one 
end ami •witlniut coluuins along the sides. 

HEXASTYLOS. A hexastyle building 

HIERACOSPHINX. An Egyptian sphinx 
of the kind which conibines the head of a hawk 
with a lion's body. 

HIEROGLYPH. A figure usually or fre- 
(lucutly r<>i)rcsentative of some object, as an ani- 
mal, a wc-ipoii, a utensil, or the like; or else a 
sini])lf /.ii;/,.iu', ciiilc, parallelogram, oval, or simi- 
lar ciinxriitidiiiil nprcscntation of a well-known 
olijcit td.i loinplcx to be readily represented; 
stiuiiliiiix t'lT a sound as a syllable, and in this 
way tniiiiing part of an inscription. The term 
si;,'iiiliis "sacred cutting," and originated in the 
belief that tiic Egyptian figure writing, to which 
was lirst ajijilicil tlu; name hieroglyphic, was 
exclusively nligidus in character. Such writ- 
ing dilicrs fmni Ciiiiirse syllabic writing in that 
each figure rc|in'srnts sninctliiiiLr, and is net a 
merely conventinnal mark ; and in (ircdiativc 
and ornamental wmk it KMiuircs t.. lie enclosed 
in a decided frame in order to avoid a scattered 
and dislocated look. It is jjrobably much easier 
to make a statelier and ett'ective design of a se- 
ries of Chinese charatrters or of Arabic letters 
than to use hieroglyphs successfully in the same 
way; but the Egyptian use of the last-named 









method of writing shows how much can be clone 
in this latter way by an artistic people. (Com- 
pare Cartouche.) — R. S. 

HIEROGLYPHIC. A. Expressed in hier- 
oglyphs, as a sentence or passage. 

B. Consisting of hieroglyphs, as an inscrip- 
tion of an Egyptian obelisk or pylon, or a Mexi- 
can or South American temple. 

HIBHON. In classical, especially Greek, 
archaeology, a holy place of any kind, espcciully 
a temenos ; that is to say, tlie f-acrcd i'iiclo>ui-c 
of a temple or shrine. The hieiou of Asklt]iiMS 
at Epidauros, that of Zeus at Olymjjia, tli;it of 
ApoUo at Delphi, and that of Hera at ArgDs 
were celebrated in antiquity for the crowd (if 
interesting buildings, moimments, statues, and 
other works of art which they contained, and 
each of these has been more or less thoroughly 
explored by modem archaeologists. 

HILDEBERT; monk and aivliitect : d. IOl'.",. 

In 1020 Hildebert, the se.-.uid aM.-t of tlmt 
name, began for Richard II., l>iikr <<\' .\mi- 
mandy, the Romanesque church of iloiit-S:dut- 
Michel (Manche), of which the transepts and 
four bays of the nave still remain. He was 
chiefly occupied with the enormous substructure 
of the building. Instead of cutting away the 
crest of the rock, he constructed an immense 
lilateau even with the crest, a part of the mass 
being occupied by crypts and subterranean 

Corroyer, Description du Mont- Saint-Michel. 

HILL FORT. A rude defensive post occu- 
pying the summit of a hill or a strong position 
among hills, as, in antiquity, those which grew 
to be the citadels of important towns ; and, as 
in India, the works of native tribes. Especially, 
an earthwork of North American Indians en- 
circling the summit of a bluff or hill. Fort 
Ancient, in Warren County, Ohio, is a good 
example. — F. S. D. 

HINDPOST. Same as Heelpost, as in the 
partitions between stalls in a stable. 

styles of building in hidia which prevails tlie 
most widely througliout thi; ])ciiiiisula, and 
shows the least influence of foi( i;:ii coikiih lois. 
In this sense it might be consi.lncd to iii<liidc 
tiie Hu<ldhist and Jaina as well as tlie later 
ones, hut not the Mohammedan architecture of 
wliicli th(! great centre is at Agra. According 
to a more strict definition, the term would ex- 
clude the Buddhist and Jaina buildings as well 
as the Mohammedan buildings, and would in- 
clude only that architecture which has taken 
shape since the almost complete expulsion from 
India of till' iiuddhist ri'ligioii in all its forms. 
It seems evident that no arcuiate use of the 
term exists ;is ap|.lieii to uniiiteeture. (See 
Iiuddhist; Dravidian ; India, Architecture «>f; 
Jaina.) — R.S. 


HINGE. A connection used to attach and 
support a member or stmcture so that it may 
be movalile as about a pivot; as a door, sash, 
table leaf, or the like. 
The movable member 
may be hung by means 
of the hinge to a fixed 
support as a frame or 
jamb, or to another mov- 
able piece. 

In its common form, 
a hinge consists of two 
flaps or leaves of metal, 
each of which has one 
edge bent about a ])in, 
wholly or in part ; such 
a portion, or both to- 
gether, forming the 
knuckle. The pin thus 
forms a pivot about 
which one flap is free to 
turn when the other is 
permanently secured. 
The simplest form of 
hinge may be formed 
by a hook permanently fixed, as the stationary 
member, and a ring secured to the movable 
member. — F. B. H. 

Blind Door Hinge. A hinge designed espe- 
cially for a blind door ; usually one of a pair of 
double-acting hinges on the principle of the 
" hook and eye " hinge. The special feature of 
the device is in the lower hinge, of which the 
pin projects from an inclined lug upon which 
the shank of the eye travels ; the inclined plane 
causing the door to remain at right angles to 
the jamb when undis- 
turbed, or to return 
to such a position by 
gravity when opened 
and released. 

Butt Hinge. Any 
form of hinge in 
which the leaves are 
applied to the edge 
or hutt of the frame 

that Nvhrll el. 

leaves lold I,; 

on each otliei 

distinguished from 

liinges intended to be 

applied to the faces 

of the jambs and "'nok. sw.ss ^V'sKvl'il 

other members ; as tbknth Ckntuky. 

flap hinges, strap 

hinges. Many forms of hinges may be used in 

cither way, and the placing of such a hinge 

might be described Jis set a.s a flap, or aa a butt. 


CroBS-gamet Hinge. A strap having the 
form of till" letter T: tlie erosspieire forming the 
stationary memln-r, tlie long stem being the 
movatile Hap. The latter hiis sometimes also a 
crosspieee eorresiK)n(ling to the stationary tlap. 

Double-acting ; — Action Hinge. A hinge 
so arranged that the diKir or other valve to 
which it is attached may swing on both sides of 
the jambs. Such a hinge is usually m the form 
of a butt hinge fitted with springs by which 
the valve is automatically closetl and held in the 
plane of the o])eiiing. 

Dovetail Hinge. A strap hinge witli lx)th 
leaves Haring from the pin in the form of a 

Fast Joint Hinge. One in which the pin is 
permanently retained in place by the flaps ; so 
distinguished from loo.se i)in and loose joint 
hinges. Usually a Butt Hinge. (See Heave- 
off Hinge.) 

Flap Hinge. The ordinary form of hinge, 
usually with both leaves applied on the surface. 
(See Butt Hinge.) 

Floor Hinge. A double-acting hinge secured 
to the floor or sill and forming a vertical pivot 
on which a door may turn, the head of the door 
having a single jiivot to correspond. 

G-aruet Hinge. (Same as Cross-garnet or 

Gate Hinge. A form of flap hinge in which 
the knuckle is sup])orted by a lug projecting 
from the surface of either flaj), often with a con- 
trivance similar to a rising hinge so that the gate 
or sliutter will remain fixed when swiuig out. 

Gravity Hinge. A hinge designed to close 
a door or the like automatically by the action 
of tlie force of gravity. Commonly a Rising 
Hinge. (See also Blind Door Hinge.) 

Heave-off ; Lift-off ; Loose Joint Hinge. 
One in which one half of the knuckle forms a 
part of each flap, the upper one being removable 
from the pin, so that tlie shutter or door can be 
readily removed. Usually a Butt Hinge. 

H Hinge. (See Parliament Hinge.) 

Hook and Band Hinge. A modification of 
the Hnok and Eye hinge witli the shank of the 
eye formed into a straj), for securing to the face 
of tlie door or other valve. 

Hook and Eye Hinge. A primitive form 
of hinge consisting of an eye worked ujwn the 
end of a spike and resting upon a hook or jiin 
worked on tiie end of a similar sjiike ; tlie spikes 
Ijeing (lriv(>n res])eetively into door and frame. 

Lift-off Hinge. (See" Heave-ott" Hinge.) 

Loose Joint Hinge. (St« Heave-oH' Hinge.) 

Loose Pin Hinge. (Usually, Loose Pin 
P.utt.) One in wliich the pin is not secured to 
either flap, so tliat it is readily withdrawn, so 
that the door, etc., can be easily unhung. 

Parliament Hinge. A form of strap hinge 
with leaves enlarged so that when the hinge is 
oi>cn it has the general form of the letter II. 


Pew Hinge. A small butt hinge of iron or 
brass witli a rising joint, projecting from one to 
two inches from the lace of the door ; as its 
name imjilies, it is for light doors. The hinge 
lifts the door slightly as it is opened so as to 
dear obstructions on the floor, and enables it 
when wide oi)en to fold back against the wall 
over all projections so as to lie in a plane par- 
allel with the plane of the opening. 

Pivot Hinge. A double-acting spring hinge 
swinging on ])ivots let into lugs on the jamb plate. 

Reenforced Hinge. A patent strap hinge 
with two thicknesses of metal surrounding pia 
and extending on leaves. 

Rising Hinge. A form of gravity hinge so 
construeteil that when the door to which it is 
attached is oj)ened the door is lifted somewhat 
from the floor so as to pass over a rug, carjwt, 
or other obstruction, and will also have a ten- 
dency to close itself The use of thresholds or 
saddles in doorways makes this device less es- 
sential. Hinges for blinds are sometimes so 
constructed in the United States that they rise 
only in process of oj)ening or shutting and fall 
back into normal place not only when they are 
fully closed but fully open. This device is in- 
tended to take the jjlace of ordinary fastenings 
used to prevent the blind from Ix'ing blowni by 
the wind when opened back against the outside 
wall. Usually a Butt Hinge. A common form 
has the joints of the knuckle oblique so that, 
when turned, the moving flap riscs'on th3 other. 

Screen Hinge. A form of a Butt Hinge so 
arranged tiiat tlic leaves of a screen may fold ou 
either side of each other. 

Setback Hinge. A hinge which, in open- 
ing the door, blind, .shutter, or casement to 
which it is attached, lifts it slightly and drops 
it again when fully oi)ened so as to prevent it 
from swinging in the wind. 

Shutter Hinge. (See Gate Hinge.) 

Single Action Hinge. Similar to Double 
Action, but allowing the door to swing one way 

Skew Hinge. One having the joints of the 
knuckle oliljinie as described under Rising Hinge. 

Spring Hinge. A hinge fitte<l with some 
form of spring, generally a coiled spiral of steel, 
to cause it to shut automatically. 

Strap Hinge. A simple and ]>rimitive form 
of hinge, with two long leaves, one made fiust to 
the frame and the other to tlie <l.Kir. The leaves 
are often oiiiameiitally treated by foliation or 
incised patterns ; and such hinges of wrought 
iron received much con.sideration during the 
Middle Ages and formc<l important parts of the 
decoration of doors. 

T Hinge. A modification of the Strap 
Hinge, with one long leaf ami one narrow one, 
the hitter In-ing made fiist to frames too narrow 
to receive a long leaf, and set periieiidicular t<i 
the h)ng leaf (Sec Garnet Hinge.) 


Turnover Hinge. A hinge of any sort so 
made or so set that the door, or casement, which 
it carries can be swung back flat against the 
face of the wall, or piece of furniture. Almost 
always a Butt Hinge. 

Water Joint Hinge. A hinge so contrived 
that its action will not be, to any extent, im- 
paired by the action of rust. Usually a simple 
hinge for gates, cellar doors, and the like, hav- 
ing its two parts joined by interconnecting 
loops or eyes. — F. B. H. 

HINGINGr POST. A post or similar up- 
right member, to which a door or the like is 
hung by its hinges. (See also Hanging Stile, 
under Stile.) 

HIP. A sloping salient angle in a roof, 
where the slope of the roof changes direction, 


the other by a hip ; or the bevel which must be 
given to the end of a rafter, so that it will con- 
form to the oblique construction at a hip. 

HIP KNOB. A vertically projecting pin- 
nacle, ending in a finial, ball, or similar feature, 
and situated at the end of the ridgepole in a 
hipped roof. The hip rafters meet at that 
point, and sometimes in their framing require 
a central vertical piece, of which the hip knob 
is the natural decorative termination. The hip 
knob is, however, more commonly a mere orna- 
ment of the form called for at that place, and 
sometimes forms part of the metal or pottery 
covering of tlie end of the ridge. 

HIPPODAMUS ; sophist and engineer (arcA^ 

Hippodamus was pmlialily fmin :\Iiletus in 

Hip: Roof with Four Hips, Nkukirche, Switzerland, 1734. 

and one plane cuts or intersects another. Thus, 
in a double pitch roof, where there are no ga- 
bles, and where the ridge is shorter than either 
of the wall plates which nm parallel to it, tlie 
roof falls back at a slope above the end walls, 


lid .. 

n,l at 

Asia Mmor. Accordmg to Ai-istotle (Politics, 
VII., 10, 4), he was the iu^t to pay attention 
to the proper arraniri mm m ..t ,iii, ■, lb hid 
out the Pira;us (the pi 1 1 i \ h i i unli \\i.l( 
streets radiating fiom iIh i ■( ,1 \ i i iid 

iiips, Mc ilip Uoof, Hipped Uoni; un.lcr Uuiif. 

(P'or roofs in which the liip is not cai-ried al 
the way from the ridge to the plate, but i 
shorter, so that a truncated gable results, sc 
Jerkin Head.) 

HIP BEVEL. The angle between the tw 
BJopes of a roof which are separated one froi 

i< ^, such 

I inch. 

..[ |„> 1 hlM m 
it) llalicai na.-9»us, 

I! II '. li I ' ihr (inechiDchfn Kiinstlfi: 

HIPPODROME A In Grecian arclKi-- 
ln-\, .1 pi II ( pio\ idcd for hor.sc racing, chariot 
adng, .tiid the like It is probable that none 


was ever as large aud elaborate as even a Roman 
third-class circus, and the majority of them were 
probably very simple and temporary in their 
construction, natural hillsides being used as far 
as possible to provide sloping arrangement of 

B. In modem times, a kinil of circus, dis- 
tinguished by a long and narrow arena replac- 
ing the ordinary Ring. There have been but 
few hippodromes in this sense, and those which 
have existed, as in Paris, and, for a few years, 
in New York, have been di.stingulshed by more 
serious contests, better riding, and a closer 
imitation of chussical entertainments than tlie 
uiodern rircus can ofiVr. — K. S. 

HIP ROLL. Same as Hi]! Moulding. 

GTJSTIN ; gla-ss painter, enameller, jjotter, 
engraver, etc.; b. 150:5; d. 1569. 

A son and pupil of the elder Veit Hirsvogel 
(see Hirsvogel, Veit), and one of the most versa- 
tile of the German artists of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. He painted eleven windows in the chapel 
of S. Rochus in Nuremberg, Bavaria, from de- 
signs by Albert Diirer (see Diirer). He invented 
improvements in the processes of glass making, 
and wa."? a skilled oiiaineller, draftsman, engraver, 
musician, [iitt.r, stdiiccutter, and mathemati- 
cian. He ilr>ii:iic.l numerous fine earthenware 
stoves, (if wliirli till re are examples in the Mu- 
seum at Nuremberg. His stoves were widely 

HIRSVOGEL, VEIT, the elder; glass 
painter; b. UGl ; d. 1525. 

In 1495 he was ap])ointed Stndtglaser at 
Nuremberg. He made four important windows 
in the S. Sebaldus Kirche in that town. His 
son Veit, the younger, was also ghiss painter. 
(See Hii-svo-cl. Au.-ustin.) 

Seuli.Tl, ICn„sibr-l<xU;,n. 

HISPANO MORESQUE. Having the char- 
acteristics of the MohaniuK'ihuis in Spain and 
of their work. Tiie building and tlie oma- 
mentai arts of tlie Spanish Moors were much 
in advance of their fellows who remained in 
Africa. (See Moorish Arclii lecture. ) 

so important from its architectural chanicter or 
historical associations as to be registered, cared 
for, and partly controlled by the state or muni- 
cipality — especially in France, one of those put 
under the direction of the Commission des 
MoH u m eiits Ilistoriques. 

The soil of France is covered with monuments 
that tell tlie history of the arcliitecture of tliat 
country. Tlic Dolmens and the Menhirs mark 
the prehistoric period ; then follow the trium- 
phal arches, temples, iujueducts, ampiiitheatrea, 
reminders of the Roman epoch ; then, after the 
Roman periotl of transition, comes the French 

architecture, properly so called, springing into 
existence spontaneously in the different prov- 
inces, and producing masterpieces everywhere; 
finally, we find the delicate architecture of the 
Renaissance, and the styles of Louis XIV., 
Louis XV., and LouLs XVI. At the present 
time we have to add to all tliis wealth of art 
the monument-s, megalithic, Roman and Arabian, 
of Algeria and Tunisia. 

Unfortunately, for more than two centuries, 
indifference, ignorance, and even scorn for the 
edifices of the Middle Ages, still more than tlie 
action of the weather and revolutionary troubles, 
have destroyed or allowed to perish a number of 
valuable monuments. 

It has been given to our century to under- 
stand tliat to preserve these edifices was to 
make the past live again to the profit of the 
present and of the future. 

As early as 1790 and 1792 a commission was 
organized, and expenses were authorized for the 
purpose of prescribing the monuments of the past. 
But it was not until 1830 that the National 
Legislature associated itself with a movement 
which took place at that time, and votc<l, for 
the first time, a credit of 80,000 francs, subject 
to the direction of the then existing Direction 
des Beaux Arts. 

The grant of a regular credit led to the nomi- 
nation of an inspector general, Ludovic Vitet, 
who should occupy himself with looking up those 
edifices having need of immediate care. 

He filled this office during two years. His suc- 
cessor. Prosper M^rim^e, inspired tlie architects 
with a new ardour, and very soon the National 
Legislature, understanding the importance of the 
office that had been created, raised to 120,000 
francs, and then in 1837 to 200,000, the amount 
of the sums allowed for the preservation of his- 
toric monuments. It then became necessary to 
have the employment of this sum directed by a 
commission. This was the first Commission of 
Historical ^Monuments. It Wiisconipose<lof eight 
i;i i;,l . :~. AI. ~~i, urs Vatout, Lepprevost, Vitet, 
1' M u. Taylor, Cari.stic, Duban, and 

I M r, of wliom the first-named was 

I'l' i : t .t;-i the last-named secretary and 
inspector general. 

In 1839 the sum was raised to 400,000 francs. 
The commi.ssiou was i-eorganized. The Mini.ster 
of Fine Arts became its president, Vitet aud 
Mi^rira^e were elected \-ice-presidents, and five 
new members were ajipointed. Tiie commission 
occupied it.sclf at once with collecting all the 
documents necessary for aiijircci.iting tlic arclii- 
tcctural worth of tlie monuiiionts of eadi dejiart- 
ment, regarding tiiem from an artistic an<l 
historical point of view. It was very soon 
rc^ady to make the first classification, and to 
appropriate judiciously the resources they lia<l 
at their disposal. The object it had in view, 
above all others, was to aid in the restoration 


of the edifices which remain as the types of an 
architecture, and which mark the gi'eatness and 
the decadence of an epoch. It applied itself 
also to the undertaking of complete i-estorations, 
and put aside for that purj)ose considerable 
sums of money in order to obtain satisfactory 

At the present time the classification of the 
historic monuments is made according to the 
following regulations : — 
France : 

1. Megalithic monuments. 

2. Antique monuments. 

3. Monuments of tlie Middle Ages, the Re- 

naissance, and of modern times. 
Algeria : 

1. Megalithic monuments. 

2. Antique monuments. 

3. Arabic monuments. 

The number of monuments classified in the list 
amounts to more than 2000. Unfortunately, 
this classification does not place the edifices 
under shelter from mutilations, and even from 
demolitions. The present state of the legisla- 
.tion does not give to the commission any means 
of exacting respect for its decisions ; and while 
Italy, Greece, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Norway have been able to take the precautions 
necessary for preserving their artistic wealth 
from all attack, the law in France has as yet 
done nothing to protect against the relentless 
hand of man monuments which have stood firm 
against the action of Time. 

Still, it can be said that in spite of the diffi- 
culties and obstacles met with by the commis- 
sion on its way, it has been able to preserve for 
France some specimens of architecture of every 
epoch from the earliest historic times down to 
the present century. It has been able to dis- 
cover the processes of the ancient builders, 
determine the methods employed by them, and 
define the principles according to which must 
be executed every restoration worthy of that 

Tlie credit allotted to the commission that we 
have seen to be in 18.'M), 400,000 francs, was 
carried to 600,000 from 1842 to 1847 inclu- 
sive; rai.sed in 1848 to 800,000 francs; in 
1855 to 870,000 francs; then in 1859 to 
1,100,000 francs, a sum which has not been 
augmenttnl since that time. 

It is proper to snv th;it the credit of 1 , 1 00,000 
francs isoiilva Vnu>\\\,v A hi. Tin- .• -unmrr 

of the local .■Milnini.-tl;,linn. is IIMlrr,! nlln, ,lr 


II loi 

by the commission, and nearly all the parislies 
possessing historical monuments contribute un- 
hesitatingly to their restoration. It is thus 
tliat the government, with a credit of 1,100,000 
francs, is able to have executed each year work 
amounting to about 3,000,000 francs. 


In 1848, 1852, 1860, 1871, the commission 
was subjected to various alterations. At pres- 
ent it is composed of forty members chosen 
from among the high functionaries of the fine 
arts, and directors of museums, architects, paint- 
ers, and archaeologists. It is aided in its work 
by forty architects, who charge themselves with 
seeing that all things are properly done, and 
who are elected after having passed a special 
examination. Among them may be mentioned 
P. Boeswilwald, De Baudot, Daumet, Formige, 
Gout, Lisch, Simil, Suisse. Among those who 
are no longer living may be recalled the ven- 
erated names of E. Boeswilwald, Labrouste, 
Laisne, Lassus, E. Millet, Questcl,Viollet-le-Dac. 

Outside of the interest that is attached to 
monuments that have been saved from ruin, 
these restorations form, as a residt, skilful and 
intelligent workmen. The work is, indeed, very 
varied, and requires a thorough acquaintance 
with the divers systems of stmcture, and the 
ignoring of all routine. Every day new prob- 
lems are declaring themselves, and every day 
the task of the master and of the workman 

The architect, also, obliged to put himself in 
close relation with the workmen whom he 
directs, and to instruct each one, must act with 
absolute precision and leave nothing to chance. 

The work of restoration of any of the classi- 
fied monuments is only authorized by the gov- 
ernment after an examination by the Commission 
of Historical Monuments, of the e.stimates, plans, 
and drawings showing the state in which the 
edifices are found to be, and the reparations 
they require. In the archives of the commission 
is a collection of the drawings of these works, 
executed by the best architects of this century, 
and they form to-day a collection of the highest 
interest, which includes faithful souvenirs of the 
edifices which it has not been possible to save. 

Not wishing these precious documents to 
remain unknown and almost inacTcssihle, the 
commission has niHlcifalsni tlic pulilii-atidii of 
its most reiiiarkal.jr iliawm-s. It has liccu 
directed in its rhoicc by thr impartiality that 
has always guided it, and it has sought to col- 
lect in tills work every style and every school. 

The first series, composed of 4 volumes in 
folio, including 4.-5 mo,io;r,,,,l,s, and 237 
plates, is roliiplctcd. Til.' s.rninl is (1899) in 
course of piihliratioti. A i i;\. Svmuku. 


conlclclary -I' 1 lilies r, ,|l-l It lltlllg, with Egypt 

aihl r.ali\ Iniiia, the tliinl irrcat power of the 
aii.'inif \M,il,| l.dorr ,■. 1 1)00 li.c. Their monu- 
ments are found tiiroughout Asia Minor and 
Syria, where they were politically supreme, and 
these in the style commonly called Pelasgic or 
Cyclopean by the Greeks. As tlie CJreeks 
termed Pelasgians the early Asiastie colonists 
who brought civilization to the islands and to 


Greece proper, aiitl lus tlu-.se emigrants came 
from Hittite lands, it would seem as if the 
Pelasgians were Hittites. This explanation is 
confirmed by recent discoveries. From its 
broader use, however, the term Pelasgic seems 
preferable, to include both Eiistern and Western 
branches of the style. Hence Hittite archi- 
tecture is treated un<ler the heading Pi'liu*gic. 
— A. L. ¥., Jr. 

tect; b. Aug. 20, 1793; d. xMarch 25, 1867. 

Hittorff was born at Cologne and naturalized 
as a French citizen. He was a pupil of Charles 
Percier (see Percier). Between 1«19 and 1823 
he visited England, Gennany, Italy, and Sicily. 
After 1825 he built with Lep&re the church of 
S. Vincent do Paul, Paris. About 1831 he was 
architect >4' the I'^nisian prisons. In 1833, as 
the result nf a ( ipiniictition, he was made archi- 
tect of tlic Place lie la Concorde, the Chaiiips 
filysdes, and the Place de I'Etoile. In the Place 
de la Concorde he built the pedestal of the 
obelisk, placed the statues of the cities of France, 
and completed the decoration, lamps, fountains, 
etc. From 1844 to 1866 Hittorff Wiis architect 
of the Column of the Place Vendome, Paris. 
The Neo Grec movement received much help 
from him ; and the church of S. Vincent de 
Paul is often spoken of as a montiinent of the 
style; (but see Neo Grec). In 1864 he was 
made general inspector of the Conseil des bdti- 
ments civils. He won a first-class medal at 
the exposition of 1855. In association with 
Zanth (see Zanth) Hittorff published Archi- 
tecture Moderne de la Sicile (one vol. folio, 
Pans, 1835), and Architecture Antique de la 
Sicile, recueil des monuments de Segeste et 
de S&linonte (text one vol. 4to, plates one vol. 
folio, Paris, 1870). He publisiied alone Resti- 
tution du, Temple d'Empedocle d. Selinonte; 
ou I' Architecture polychrome chez les Orecs 
(text 4to, atlas folio, Paris, 1851). 

Normand, Notire hislorique de Hittorff in 
Monileur dot ArrUiUcli-s (18(>7) ; Sotire Xecrolo- 
gique in llevuede r Architecture, Vol. XXV., 1807. 

HOARD ; -ING A wall or close fence 
made of planks ; usually rough and temporary, 
as in cities, to enclose ground not built upon. 
The term seems not to be common in the United 
States. The use during the Middle Ages of 
temporary wooden galleries and parapets at tlie 
top of fortress walls has involved the reintroduc- 
tion of this term as a kind of translation of the 
French hourde, whicli is thought by some to lie 
originally an English word altered by French 

HOARE, MICHAEL. (See Halfpenny, 

HOB. A. Tiie horizontal upper surface of 

the masonry filling on either side of a grate in 

a fireplace. The term, as well as the thing 

itself, is English and of the eighteenth century. 



Old fireplaces arranged for burning wood were 
readily adapte»l for the use of coid by building 
in a dwarf wall nf masonry, in the middle of 
which wiis .set a grate with space left below for 
the acces^^ of air. Tiie two small spaces on the- 
top of the dwarf wall were convenient for setting 
things that had to be kept warm, and e;ich of 
these was a holi. According to the N. E. D. 
the term signifies the whole piece of masonrj'. 

B. In recent English usage, " tlie iron plated 
sides of a small grate on which tilings may be 
set to warm." 

HOBAN, JAMES ; architect. 

He was a native of Ireland and settled in 
Charleston, South Carolina, before the Revolu- 
tion. Jidy, 1792, he came to Washington and 
was employed on the public buildings there for 
more than a quarter of a century. His plan 
for the President's mansion (the present White 
House) was acce])ted, and this building was 
built by him. He rebuilt it after its destruction 
by the British in 1814. He superintended the 
constniction of the old Capitol from the designs 
of Dr. Thornton (see Thornton). 

Howard, Architects of the American Capitol. 

HOD. A Ijox for carrjnng building materials, 
es|)ecially mortar ; usually sliaped like a trough 
and with a pole secured to the bottom. The 
trough or box Ijeing set upon the labourer's 
siioulder, the pole serves to steady and balance 
the load. Hods are now usually ^raised to the 
scaffolding by machinery of some kind. (Com- 
pare Hod Elevator.) 

HOD ELEVATOR. A contrivance for rais- 
ing a large number of loaded hods at one time. 
One of the forms is an endless chain resembling 
somewhat a tte.vible iron ladder ; this serves for 
the workmen to use in ascending, or, when set 
in motion, for carrying up the hods. (See 
Hoist ; Lift.) 

HOD^iNOSOTE. (See Long House.) 

HOF. In (nrnian, originally a court in the 
sense of an open yard, and hence, exactly as in 
English, a court in the sense of an establishment 
kept up by a sovereign or great noble. In 
common use as a prefix, connected with the 
court or government. Thus, Ilofkirche, a 
church connected in one of several waj-s with 
the palace, but not usually the palace chn|)el. 
Jloflheuter, a theatre maintained wholly or iu 
part by the goveniment, and considered as Ixjing 
under the special patronage of the prince. 

HOGAN (ho-gawn). In the Navajo and 
Ai)achc languages, a hou.se. (Written also 
hogun, for the latter.) — F. S. D. 

HOG-BACKED. Cambered ; a])plied espe- 
cially to the ridge of a roof, which, if not some- 
what so raised in the mi<hlle, is apt to look as 
if it sagged, and is also apt to sag in reidity in 
the course of a few years. 

HOIST. An appliance for raising passengers 

or materials to a height, as to a scaffold or 



within a building to an upper floor. In its 
simplest form it is merely a tackle operated by 
a horse or by hand. In its more elaborate 
forms, as when operated by steam, it is not to 
be distinguished from an elevator, except, pos- 
sibly, as being rougher or as having simpler 
machinery or lower speed. The two terms are 
often used as synonymous. 

Derrick; Elevator; Gin; Hod Elevator; Hoist.) 

HOISTWAY. The vertical passage or 
channel through which a hoist of any kind as- 
cends. Thus, in buildings, it is commonly pro- 
vided that the hoistway, or the clear space 
carried through the floors from top to bottom, 
shall be enclosed with solid partition or with 
gratings to ])revent accidents. (See Elevator 
Shaft, under Shaft.) 

HOLDFAST. An implement for securing 
anything in place, or which when secured itself 
to a solid structure makes easy the fixing of other 
more movable parts to it. Many different forms 
of hook, bolt, spike, etc., have received this 
name at different times. The A. P. S. Diction- 
ary describes one as common in Great Britain 
which is a wrought-iron spike with a shoulder 
intended to secure a shelf, bracket, or the like. 

HOLL, ELIAS; architect; b. Feb. 28, 
1573 (at Augsburg); d. 1636. 

In 1600-1601 he visited Venice, where he 
learned the elements of Renaissance arcliitecture. 
In 1602 he was appointed city architect of 
Augsburg, Germany. The city derived its 
principal architectural characti-ristics fmni the 
buildings erected durini,' the next twenty years 
largely from his designs. His chief work is the 
Eathluaifi, hciSHu An-. 2.",, 1615. 

Leybold, I>'/s L'.i/hhuus tin- Stadt Augsburg; 
Meyer, SoU,sti,;n.iru,.lnr ,1,,. KUns IIoll ; Rudolph 
Kcmpf, AU-Ainisl,nrij. 

Nctheriaiids, Arrhiteetureof.) 

HOLLAND, HENRY ; architect ; b. about 
1716; d. 1806. 

He designed Claremont House, Surrey, Eng- 
land, for Lord Clive, and directed the construc- 
tion of Battcrsea Bridge, London, etc. His chief 
work was the reconstruction of Carlton House, 
Pall Mall, London. This palace was begun in 
1788, an<l destroyed in 1827. In 1791 he de- 
signed Drury Lane Theatre, London, for R. B. 

Stfjilicn, Dirtiovnry of Nntional Biography; 
Kiilianlsiin, 'I'hr \i-w Vitruvius BrUannicua ; 
Wilkinson, LoihUihi fllustrata. 

HOLLAND HOUSE. A private residence 
in Kensington, London, built originally in 1607, 
and, it is thought, from the designs of Jtiim 
Thorpe. It belonged to the first Earl of Hol- 
land, a partisan of (Jharles I., wlio was beheaded 
ill 1649. It has had a singular history, but in 
spite of alteration, retains much of its original 


character, and has splendid and imaltered 

HOLLAR, -WENCESLAS ; engraver ; b. 
1607 (at Prague in Bohemia); d. March 28, 

The famous engraver Hollar was brought to 
England by the Earl of Aiiindel in 1637. His 
engravings of cathedrals and other important 
buildings are especially fine, and his views of 
cities are of extreme value. 

Redgrave, Dictionary; Walpole, Anecdotes; 
Parthey, Wenzel Hollar, Berlin, 18.35. 

HOLT, THOMAS; architect; d. Sept. 9, 

He was a native of York, England, and a 
carpenter. He is supposed to have come to 
Oxford about 1600, when Sir Thomas Bodley 
was beginning his New Schools. Holt is credited 
with the design of these buildings, especially the 
great tower, tiie faeade of which is decorated 
with the five orders supeiiniiioscd. 

Blomfield, J!<-i)<ii^s>i„rr Architecture in Eng- 
land; Wood, Antiquities of the University of Ox- 

the ancient residence of the kings of Scotland. 
In great part rebuilt in the reign of Charles II., 
but containing a few of the ancient rooms. 

HOLY WATER BASIN. (See Be^nitier ; 
Pila ; Stoup.) 


Ill 1 6 1 6-1 6 1 9 he built the fa9ade of the liath- 
haus in Nuremberg, Germany. This building 
had been begim in 1340, and enlarged by Hans 
Beheim in 1521-1522. 

Wolff-Mayer, Nurnherg's Gedenkbuch ; Festing, 
Gang durch Nurnherg. 

HOMESTEAD. In Great Britain, and 
generally in literature, the whole group of 
buildings forming a residence, especially a coun- 
try residence, as a farm or small manor house, 
together with the land they occupy ; a general 
term for the buildings and land forming the 
home of a family. In the United States, and 
also in Canada, a piece of land considered ade- 
quate for the support of a family settling upon 
it, and as such, limited to 160 acres by several 
acts of Congress, especially the " Homestead 
Act," passed in 1862. Sucli pieces of land 
(one-quarter of a square mile) might be taken 
up free of cost by actual settlers, and by laws 
of the United States ami of eeilain states were 
exempt from seizure in jinieess (■! delit. 

(Sec Central .Aineri.M, .Arehitectuiv of.) 

HONEYCOMB WORK. Primarily, any 
kind of <iecoiative work forming a ])attrrn with 
a reti(nilated mesh resembling or suggestive of a 
honeycomb. Particularly a system of decoration 
widely usetl iu the Moslem styles of architecture 



upon peudentives, corbelled-out masonry, and 
niche hea<ls, and consisting of an intricate com- 
bination of minute brackets, inverted pjTamids, 
and tiny squiuches successively projecting row 
over row ; the aggregation of niches and hollows, 
of geometric forms, producing the suggestion of 
a broken honeycomb. This work, wiiich is more 
commonly called Stalactite Work, is sometimes 
WTOught in stone, but more often in ]jlaster ; and 
in interiors is richly painted and gilded. It is 
a conspicuous element in the architecture of 
Cairo, North Africa, and of the S])anish Moors ; 
slightly less so of the Persian and Turkish archi- 
tecture, and is hardly at all found in that of 
Moslem India. (See Moslem Architecture ; also 
special articles on the Moslem styles named 
above.) — A. D. F. H. 

ment of iintlieniions of the form common in 
Gnrk .lec.rativ.' s.-uliituiv. 

VilhmMr II. .1111. urt.) 

HOO, ■WILLIAM DE ; pri.if. 

Ciiosen prior of the cathedral of Rochester, 
England, in 1239, and built or causetl to be 
built tlie choir of his church. 

Wharton, Anylia Sacra, Vol. I., p. 393. 

HOOD. A rooflike canopy over an opening, 
esi>e(ially over a fireplace. In particidar : — 

A. In medi;eval and later architecture, a 
structure of masonry or of i)laster work held by 
a frame of wood or tlie like, which is entirely 
secured and protected by the plaster, and pro- 
jecting from a wall above a hearth. The flue 
for the smoke pa-sses upward from the top of the 
hoo<l, :ni.l is ^rninally cuncoalcd in the wall. 

ch.M.l, . ,.:,.•.-,-.. II,,,; tl. h'.pl,.-?. 

Hood ovkk Fii; 


from the wall, or on light columns, one or more 
on either side. 

B. In mwlern usage, a light pyramidal or 

conical <'overing as of iron susjiended over the 


furnace of a laboratory or the like, or even a 
cooking range, either hung free from the ceiling 
or supported on light uprights or set agiiinst the 
wall, as the furnace, etc., stands free or has one 
side engaged. The use of such a hood is mainly 
for ventilation ; sometimes very importjint to 
prevent disagreeable or noxious smells 

from pen'ading the building. A flue 

and special provision for the circulation 
of air in the flue are therefore necessarj-. 
(Cuts, vuh. :V.):,, .'lOG. .'597, 398.)— R.S. 

HOOK. A meml>er, usually of 
metal, of which a j)art is bent at an 
angle or to a cun'e so that, when secured 
in jilace, the free portion can, by means 
of the l)end, serve for suspension, at- 
tachment, or security. In its simpler 
form it may l)e merely a Ix-nt wire which 
can l>c screwed or driven into a wall. 
Chimney Hook. A large hook, generally 
of wrought iron, secured to the masonrj' inside 
of a fireplace or chimney, for susi)cnding uten- 
sils or provisions over the flame or in the smoke. 

(Compare Craue, which may be considered as 
a more elaborate form.) 

HOOK AND BUTT. A form of Scarf 

Joint (wliieh sec, under Scarf). 

HOOKE, ROBERT ; physicist, astronomer, 
and architect; b. July 18, 1635; d. Maidi 3, 

This celebrated philosopher and physicist was 
a cotemporary and rival of Sir Christopher Wren 
(see Wren). Sept. 19, 1G67, he exhibited a 
model for rebuilding the city of London after 
the Great Fire of 1G66, which was not adopted, 
but secured for him the appnintmcnt of dtj 
surveyor. He designed, in Londnii, Ilftlili lu m 
Hospital, Montague House, bun ltd in Hl^h th, 
College of Physicians, and, in 1G91, AldLiunu 
Aske's hospital in Iloxtcu). 

Stephen, Dictionani of Xational Biography. 

HOPPER. In builiiiiig, anything ha\ ing the 
shape of a hopper of a mill ; i.e. a funnel-shaped 
or reversed hollow conical or pyramidal object 
of any sort, or something approximating to that 
shape. Thus, in simple appliances for ventda- 
tion, a hopper casement is a piece of sash having 
a slope outward and upward, allowing air to enter 
at the top ; and the term is still applied when 
su( h a piece of sish is hinged at tlu bottcnn md 
allowed to swing outward it pkiMUt It hi-. 

side pieces, so that when opened the air passes 
at tlie top only. By extension, but erroneously, 

the term is applied to sloping objects whose 
smallest part is at the top, as a ventilating 



HOPPER HEAD. A hopper - shaped 

iitcli-basin at the head of a water leader. 
HORIZON LINE. ( Sr.' Horizontal Line.) 

( risnn ■ a t.Tin use.l to (listiii,i,niish it from 



f tliat 


h-awing, a line aeross tl„" pi.t, 

ing the horizontal plane NNliirl, ,, 

the eye of the speitainr ; the 

I lane on the pietniv plane. Calleii also 

liorizon line. 

tion one of the ])laiies to which the vertical 



teet ; b. Aug. 24, 17UU (at Stocidiolm, Sweden); 
d. Feb. 9, 1753. 

From 1728 to 1753 he superintended the 

istraction of tlic royal palace in Stockliolin, 

and designed many public buildings in the 
Italian style. 

Arrh. Pub. Soc. Dictionary. 

HORN. A. Something projecting, usually 
of small size, and tapering more or less toward 

a point. One of tin- luur angle-s of a Coriiitliian 
abacus is in this sense a honi ; and the term 
may be applied to one of tlie strong-stemmed 
projections terminating in leaf form which were 
characteristic of thirteenth century Gothic sculp- 
ture. (French crochet.) 

B. A volute like that of an Ionic capital, for 
wliich the more extende<l term ram's horn would 
seem to be more appropriate. 

C. One of the corners of the Mensa of an 

HORN CENTRIj. a small disk, originally 
of traii.sparciit lioni, with three minute pointed 
legs, to he ])lac-i'(l on a drawing at the centre of 
a required circle i>r arc, to protect the paper 
from injuPi- by tlic ])()int of tlie compa.s.se.s. 

HOROLOG-rUM. A building intended to 
contain, or support, a timepiece; whether this 
be a sundial, a water clock as in the 8o-calle<l 
Temple of the Winds at Athens, or a clock 
with works and a dial. 

HORSR A. A beam or scantling sup- 
I)orted horizontidly by a pair of legs at each 
end, the tops of each pair uniting with the 
horizontal piece, and their feet spreading so as 
to form a broad stable base. 

B. A handbarrow with four legs, usually 
about two feet high, so that the handles come 
easily within the workman's reach. 

C. A i>ortable j)latform supported on two 
brackets and arranged so as to be hooked to the 
sill of a window, and to provide standing room 
outside the wall for carpenters, glaziers, and 
the like. Several movable devices receive this 
name, but have hardly a close connection with 
building. (See Builders' Jack, umier Jack.) 

I). Same a.s Horse Block. 

HORSE (v. t.). To cut (a piece of lumber) 
into a ])eculiar sliape. In this sense, limited to 
one or two special memlx?rs of a building; 
thus, a hor.scd string of a flight of stairs is one 
which has been sawed alternately horizontally 
and vertically so that the upper edge shows a 
series of riglit-angletl projections to which may 
be secured the treads and risers whicli are to 
form the steps. The string of a stjiir so treated 
is said to be horsed or liorsed-out, as distin- 
guislied from jjloiiglicd or jilougliod-out ; and the 
same terms arc used for tlie i-omiilcted stairs. 

HORSE BLOCK. A solid block, as of 
stone, or a platform, set near a door or else- 
where for jjersons wisliing to mount on liorse- 
back or enter a veliide. At some doorways of 
modern houses such a platform is constmcted 
in the width of tiie flight of steps leading to 
the level of tiie doorsill, corresponding in lieight 
to three or four steps, and projecting past them 
outward to uliout the line of the lowest riser. 
This ni.iy lie .inaii'.'i'd where vehiclcj? as well as 
horses ciM lie ili.iwn up clo.se beside it. 

HORSEGUARDS. In London ; the build- 
ing of the army administration of (Jrcat Britain. 


It stands between Whiteiiall and St. James's 
Park, and was built by William Kent anil John 
Vardy alwut 1742 in what Wiis considereil the 
Palladian manner, though it is not a columnar 
building nor decorateil with pilasters. 

HORSE-OUT (v.). Same as Horse (v.). 

HORSESHOE. (Used attributively.) Hav- 
ing the form and somewhat resembling a horse- 
shoe, as a horseshoe arch ; or suggesting the 
idea of that form ; this being very oflen remote 
enough from the actual curved shai>e. Thus, 
the great double staircase in one of the courts 
of the Palace of Fontainebleau has always l)een 
called the Horseshoe Staircase, and a similar 
name is given to a perron in the new Louvre, 
although in neither case is the actual plan very 
suggestive of a horseshoe. 

HORTON, THOMAS DE; abbot ; d. 1377. 

He eoninieii.vd ImiMini: the cloister of the 
cathedral of Cloiuvster, Enghiiul, in 1.S51. He 
built also the nortii transept of the cathednd. 

Winkles, Gloucester Cathedral ; IJritton, Cathe- 
dral Antiquities, Vol. V. 

HOSPICE. In French, a resort for trav- 
ellers; usually one maintained by monks or ctm- 
nected with a religious or charitable fraternity. 
It is the Latin term /(0,*;>(7/i/wi modified (see 
the passage concerning the derivation of these 
terms at the beginning of the article Hospital ; 
see also Hospitalium). The word in French 
means also a kind of almshouse, but in this 
signification has not been atlopte<J in English. 

HOSPITAL. (From the Latin honjyes (gen. 
liOHpitis), which, like earlier fonns of the word 
in other languages, meant both host and guest ; 
hence the word honpitalis, a guest ; hos])italia 
and hospitium were used for the place in which 
a guest was received as an inn or lodging house. 
Through the French Jiostel, and ho.-<pital, which 
later became lidlel and liopitaJ, the like words 
with distinctive meanings came into the English 

A building for the care of the sick, or for 
surgical operations and the subsequent care of 
those who have undergone them. 

In the gradual development of the ideas 
which have fountl expression in provision for 
the care of the sick, since the beginning of the 
Christian era, the forms of construction of 
hospitals in more nKxiern times have bwn 
largely inttuencetl by their a-sswiation with 
religious interests. The monastic institutions 
took on the character of i)laces of entertain- 
ment and refuge for Imth the well and the sick ; 
thus the earlier hosjiitals that were constmcted 
solely for the sick maintainetl a distinctive 
architecttu-nl chnmcter, and were large and 
8troni;l\ riiili. m; 1 -ing open courts. A few 
ancient . 1 main, in European coun- 

tries, i . ih owe their i)rcservation 

to the ;iii. !. '..ii.; monumental cliaractcr of 
their anliit<eturc; and the monastic influence 


is still seen in some of even the most recent 
examples in wiiich architectural effects are given 
undue prominence. The mediaeval idea appears 
to have been to collect in large halls as many 
patients as possible ; this rendered supervision 
easy, while it conformed with the desire of 
philanthropic founders and builders to produce 
imposing exterior effects. The great hospital 
at Milan for 3,500 patients is an existing 
example; and the old Hotel Dieu of Paris con- 
sisted of an extraordinary aggregation of wards 
added to wards in a many-storied building. 
The old S. Thoma-s Hospital of London, of 
later date, was of like character. 

The crowding of the sick and wounded 
together in large buildings, with wards inade- 
quately ventilated and lighted, was the cause 
of a terrible mortality; the medical profession, 
more than a century ago, appreciated this, and 
strongly condemned and protested against such 
hospital construction. This had little effect in 
Europe, but with the experience of the War of 
the Revolution this country was saved from 
such extreme errors ; ami even then the mili- 
tarj' surgeons declared the sii|.(iiiirity of huts 
and barracks. Before tlu' iiiidillc of the present 
century John Howard in England proposed 
small wards with large opposite windows, and 
that water-closets should be outside the wards ; 
and surgeons refused to operate in unhealthy 
hospitals. In Paris the Lariboisifere was the 
first example of a pavilion hospital of any im- 
portance; it was completed in 1854, avowedly 
upon the principles promulgated by the Academy 
of Sciences in 1778. But later the new HGtel 
Dieu, completed in 1876, although a very costly 
pavilion hospital, is one of the worst examples 
in modern times of many-storied buildings ; 
there was great opposition to it by the medical 
profession of Paris. 

It was the experience of the civilized world 
in the third quarter of this century that has 
largely caused the remarkable change in the 
methods of caring for the sick and wounded. 
In the Crimean War the mortality in the badly 
drained and ventilated and overcrowded hospi- 
tals at Scutari rose to .427 of the cases treated, 
while in the rough wooden huts above Balaclava 
ii was under 3 per cent. The lesson of the war 
w;us that not only is a pmijcr nllnwaiu-c nf ciiliic 
Kpac« necessary, but tlnic must !.«■ live inu\c 
ment of air. Dr. i\r ( •li.uiUH.nt wmtr, " hur 
many disea-ses, especially the .•iciitc, tlir iiinvst 
hovels with plenty of air are better than the 
most costly hospitals without it." Florence 
Nightingale said, "It may seem a strange 
principle to enunciate, as the first requirement 
of a hospital, that it shall do the sick no harm." 

The American Civil War, followed by the 
Franco-Prussian War, emphasized the expe- 
riences which seemed to establish the principle 
that all constructions for the care of acute 


medical and surgical diseases should be tem- 
porary, and so cheaply built as to make it 
practicable to destroy them and build anew 
every twelve or fifteen years. A number of 
examples of this idea in hospital construc- 
tion were built prior to 1875, particularly in 
America, France, and Germany. The substan- 
tial, permanent hospitals were then regarded 
with regret for their cost, and as only to be 
tolerated; and as requiring great care to correct 
their evils. It was believed that the high rates 
of mortality in such hospitals were due to de- 
fects of construction ; and that, as the well are 
made sick by "crowd-poisoning," so the sick 
placed under like influences are all the more 
surely hurried to their death. These evil con- 
ditions were characterized as due to " hospital- 
ism" and "hospital influence," and certain 
"hospital diseases" were recognized. It was 
proved by these experiences that the safety of 
the sick and wounded from the infectious influ- 
ences of hospitalism could be prevented by 
separating them more from each other, giving 
them ample air-space and a sufficient supply of 
pure air in one-story buildings, and by main- 
taining cleanliness. 

The architectural requirements of a hospital, 
under the influences just described, had thus 
become reduced to very simple terms for their 
practical adaptation to the essential purpose. 
Tlie student of the subject, in order to under- 
stand the reasons for the great apparent change 
of opinion in these matters, during the last 
twenty-five years, in the minds of those who are 
best informed, needs only to recognize the in- 
fluence of the remarkable progress in medicine. 
As the "germ theory" of disease beeiime estab- 
lished it explained more iireri>ely what the real 
hospital requirements aic, ami then it was 
revealed how to meet tiiein. Tlie prinei])lo of 
cleanliness was found td re(|uiie iidt (uily the 
exclusion of morbific germs tium winnnls, but it 
meant also purity of Imspital atm(.s|j|iere. It, 

from the li.Mlies of the sjrk r,,ul,l 1 ,e ,leMro\e,| 
by antiseptics, and that ase|,tie methnds heing 
employed in surgical operations and in tlie 
dressings of wounds, no poisonous influences 
were permitted to exist in the hospital, or were 
not generated tliere. It became evident that 
extreme simph.ity in the i;,iiiis nf the liuildings, 

re.iuired, l)ut tliat almost any hospital can be 
kept free from infectious influences. 

The problem of construction then assumed a 
more definite form. It wfis found that hosijital 
buildings of a durable and comfortable (character 
were not only permissible, but better in all 
respects, than the tein])orary structures which 
had certain inevitable defects. While the one- 
story pavilions are still the best for the infec- 
tious diseases and surgical cases in their acute 


forms, the majority nf tlic iiimatos of a large 
hospital may he ])roi)i'rly jjlacwl in two-story 
buil(liii<,'8, and exfei)tioiially in a thinl story, 
provided that the arrangements for insuring the 
air supply and ventilation are ade(iuatc and 
effective, and that the buildings themselves are 
sutficiently separated from each otiier, and of 
moderate size. These forms of constnution all 
require carefid regard for simplicity of the in- 
terior finisli, to render wall surface-s as non-ab- 
sorbent iis is practical)le, to make it easy to 
keep them clcjin, and to prevent the lodgment 
of dust. The perfection of modern plumbing 
jjermits also the more convenient arrangement 
of lavatories and watcr-doscts, witliout resort to 
extreme meiusures for isoiatin;,' thi-ni from the 
wards. The principles of construction here 
imi)lied are now generally jiecepted with 
modifications and adaptations to the various 
requirements of large and small hospitiils, ac- 
cording to their general or special character, 
and the circumstances of their location. The 
soundness of the.se principles is manifest in the 
continued evolution of inijjroved forms as the 
s])ccial itMiuircments become licttcr understood 
in ditferent ca.ses. Those primiplcs that should 
govern the building of hospitals dcmaiul first 
that they should serve the best interests of tlie 
sick. Even under the best conditions conflicting 
indications are involved, as between the advan- 
tage of the isolation of each sick person from all 
others, and, on the other hand, a proper economy 
in the humane care of many who need it — a 
consideration which demands that they shall 
1k> airgrccratc.l in considcrahlc nund)crs. In 
tiie pnibleni of hosiiital constnictiDn certain 
I)rinciples have come to be accepted as a.vioms 
which slioidd keep within the limits of suit- 
ability even a proper desire for the pleasing 
architectural effects that greatly contribute, in 
their jdace, to the salutary milinn.cs of the 
hospital. The general pinhiiil.- Iiaving been 
stated, the purport >■! iIh>. a\i..iiis may be 
given in a 8i)ecification ol the ici|uirements of 
good hospital constnu-tion. Taking a general 
hospital of average size :us a ty])e of all, the fol- 
lowing subjects are to be considered. 

1. Location and site, — water supply and 
drainage. 2. Foundations and materials. 
3. Constniction of wards and their service 
rooms. 4. Construction of administration, 
operating, and service buildings. 5. Size of 
hospital and arrangement of buildings. 6. Heat- 
ing, ventilating, and lighting. 7. Furniture 
and fittings. 

1. Location and site, — water xiipphj and 
drainage. The questions arising here are 
hygienic and economic ; the first relate to the 
aspecit with reference to exposure, to sunlight, 
and tiie prevailing winds as to their Iwing fa- 
vourable fir the contrary, and to the conformation 
of the ground favouring good drainage. The 

site should be somewhat elevattnl, with a dry, 
gnivelly, or sandy soil. If there is an under- 
lying and uneven stratum of clay it should be 
carefully drained ; and unhealthy surroundings 
should be avoided. The ground area should 
average not less than 300 scjuare feet per bed 
in a city, and some authorities prescribe two or 
three times that amount when it can be had. 
Economic considerations are involvc<l with refer- 
ence to an urban or suburbiui site, — e<ise of 
access for patients and physicians, and cost of 
land. In a city, a whole square is desirable, 
that there may be sufficient space to allow a 
distance between the hosjjital and the highest 
surroimding buildings of at least twice their 
height. The indications iis to a good water 
sup])ly and proper sewerage are obvious. 

2. Foiindaiionn and materials. In laying 
foundations they should be damp proof, with 
special care to intercept the flow of grounil 
water, in order that the Ijasement spaces may 
be kept dry ; and the construction shoidd per- 
mit them to Ije well ventilate<l. The basement 
story should Iw 6 to 8 feet high, and the 
first floor shoidd be 5 feet, if jiossible, above 
grade ; if too high it invites the danger of Wing 
useil for storage, whicli is inadmissil)le under 
the wards. Hospitals intended U) he permanent 
are best for most localities and climates when 
built of durable materials, — brick or stone, or 
both together, — thus requiring little rei)airing, 
and comfortiible in all seasons.' Hollow walls 
jdastercd directly upon tiieir inner surface avoid 
spaces that harbour dirt and vermin, and mitigate 
the effects of extremes of temiierature. For 
fireproof construction very satisfactory result-s 
are gained by using thin vitreous tiles, in con- 
nection with brick walls, to form the shall-iw 
arched supj)orts of ceilings, floors, stairways, 
etc., in the old Roman fiushion, to the exclusion 
of all wood framing. The use of terra cotta 
lumlier for partitions is well knowni, and for 
thin walls, giiining economy of space, expanded 
metal lathing ujion iron supports hiis been em- 

The fact that there is perflation of a large 
quantity of air through the walls of a luHise 
suggests that they may become saturated witii 
organic matter filtered from the air. Great 
stress has been laid upon the need of rendering 
inner surfaces impermeable; l>ut there ajipeai-s 
as yet nothing mort' serviceable, luider the more 
onlinary circumstances, than well-painted jilii.^ 
tered walls which can he washed with soap and 
water ; there is le.ss objection Ui this with the 
u.se of modem aseptic methods in the care of 
the sick. When there is reason for it, as in 
wards for infectious disea.ses, oi>erating rooms, 
toilet rooms, and the like, the whole, or lower 
half, of the walls may he lined with Keene's 
cement to bo iiainted ; or use may Iw mtule of 
slate, uiartile, i)lain or hannnered ghiss, and 


enamelled brick or tiles. Forms of these may- 
be had for bases, chair rails, and to construct 
hollow curves for comers between walls or 
where they join the floors and ceilings. For 
the latter, metal plates are coming into use. 
There should be a minimum of woodwork. 

Floors of hard pine are generally satisfactory, 
in temperate climates, in wards and rooms for 
the sick ; such floors can be kept clean easiest 
in most places by the use of wax and paraflin 
dressings. In tlie attempts to provide an im- 
I)er\'ious flooring, asphalt and granolithic cement 
have been used in operating theatres and acces- 
sory rooms, and in such places as out-patient 
departments, lavatories, etc. ; but after some use 
such floors have required painting. The later 
use of terazzo flooring and that made of cubes 
of marble laid close together with still less of a 
cement surface, have been more satisfactory. 
Wlien there is a long stretch of these surfaces, 
the inevitable cracking has been prevented by 
division lines .sometimes marking them ott" in 
panels, or in a corridur bv rios.s stii|if.s nf ;i dif- 
ferent cuLnnvd iiiail.lr." In ull llnms where 
they join the walls, thr mat. rial of ,„„. ,„■ tlie 
otlier should be worked to ]\,nn a lioUow curve. 

3. Constructiun i,/ n-iinls ,n,<l Ihdr sercke 
rooms. The unit of euiistiuctinii i, the hospital 
ward. Its size may \aiy for small or large 
hospitals and for difleiviit rlasx s of patients, 
twenty to thirty-two beds !» iii;,^ w jthin the limits 
of safety and suitable tor eonNcuieiiee and econ- 
omy of service. WartLs (jf four to ten beds, or 
single rooms, are necessary for special cases or 
in small hospitals. Wards for patients with 
acute infectious diseases, or serious surgical cases, 
are best placed in a separate pavilion of one story. 
Exceptionally, pavilions may be two-storied ; 
and in a large hospital, a few proper cases may 
be selected for a third story. 

Long wards with opposite rows of windows 
and Ijeds were formerly considered best ; but 
wards that are square, octai^onal, or round in 
form are found to be exeeliint, u'eiierally having 
a chimney, vent shift, and fiiv|iiaees in the 
centre of the ward. The widtli of oblong wards 
siiould be from 24 to 30 feet. Wiien tlie heads 
of two opposite beds are placed 18 inches from 
the walls, a clear space of 12 feet is left in the 
centre of a ward 28 feet wide. A linear wall 
space of 1\ feet gives a floor area of 105 feet per 
l)cd ; and a ward for twenty-four beds would be 
00 feet long ; a hci',dit of 1 •_• fr. I I feet at the 
centre of a sji-litiv anhed e.ilin- is aniplr, and 


have a window to cacli l)C(i, l)ut ordinarily it is 
allowable to place two IkmIs between each pair 
of windows. These should iiave an area equal 
to 2.") or 30 H(iuare feet for eacli bed, with sills 
2 to 2J feet from the floor; and double win- 
dows are advisable in cold climatca. 


One or two small rooms for separation of 
patients from others should be attached to every 
large ward. The servii-e rooms proper are a 
dimng or serving room with food lift : a scullery 
or duty room; a small day room with adjoining 
toilet room for head uur.se ; rooms for linen and 
patients' clothing; and a broom clo.set. The 
lavatoiy and bathroom may open directly upon 
the con-idor ; and the former may be arranged 
as a lobby to the water-closets ; all these rooms 
should be well lighted. Sun rooms are often 
placed on the southern exposure of wards, hav- 
ing broad windows, or, if practicable, glass roofs 
and panelled removable sides. A broad con- 
necting corridor between buildings is sometimes 
thus utilized. 

4. Construction of administration, operat- 
ing, and service buildings. The administrative 
part of a hospital contains the business offices, 
rooms for residence of otiicers and sei vant.-, store- 
rooms, and rooms for nurses, wheiv tin re is no 
special house for them. This buildmu may fol- 
low ordinary forms as to interior construction, 
except that simplicity should prevail. The 
service buildings, which are wholly or in part 
detached in large hospitals, include the kitchen, 
laundry, boiler house, etc. ; convenience and 
economy of service should be studied here, 
with strict regard for the requirements of light, 
air, and cleanliness. In small hospitals, the 
kitchen may be within the administration house, 
provided it has an ample ventilating chimney, 
to the eSiciency of which a smoke flue from an 
adjoining boiler or furnace room may contribute. 

The operating theatre, with a few accessory 
waiting and etherizing and apparatus rooms, 
constituting a separate building, though con- 
veniently connected with others by a covered 
way, has been a common arrangement ; an out- 
patient department is sometimes included, or the 
latter is also separate in a large hospital. A 
more recent practice is to associate with a 
smaller operating' theatre a inimber of rooms 
for special suri^ieal work, with the re<|uiivd 
waiting rooms ami those f.n stei ili/ini;- and 
storage of dressings, instruments, etc. Tlie 
elaborate use of metal, porcelain, marble, and 
glass in all these rooms has been indicated. 
The aseptic character of such construction has 
seemed to justify th.' addition of a mimber of 
rooms in the ,-,ame building for the after treat- 
ment of ..|» |ati\e eases. 

A |.atho|o-ieallal...ratorvsli,,uldlH'an adjunct 
ofe^er^ mo.lern hospital of any in.portanee ; a 
ino|,erb eonstituted buihling n,ay contain also 

uary. These ajjartments may have connections 
with the main buildings of the iiospital. Every 
hospital should have a completely detaciicd disin- 
fecting house, equipped with apparatus for 
subjecting infected clothing to the heat of steam 
under prebsure. 



5. Size of hosjiital and arrangement of 
buildings. It is the rule tliat every hospital 
must be enlargetl as its benefits arc appreciated 
and as the population whidi it ser\-es incre:ises ; 
the estimate Wius made in 1867 tiiat there should 
be four hospital beds for every one thousand in- 
habitants of London. In American cities one- 
ludf as much general hospital accommodation 
would be ami)le. The natural growth of every 
hospital should be j)rovided for when it is 
founded ; allowance should Ije made for ground 
space, to permit tiie addition of pavilions and 
special service buildings. An administration 
building, ma<le large enough to be at first the 
residence of officers, nurses, and others, even 
including patients, may be used later more 
exclusively for official purposes. 

The a<hninistrative and service departments 
being conveniently centralized, the paWlions 
containing wards should be arranged with spe- 
cial care to gain their exposure on three sides 
to sunlight ; service rooms may be placed on the 
fourth or northerly side. The axis of a long 
ward should lie near a meridian line or to the 
west rather than to the east of south, if that 
position is more expedient. The rale for the 
distance between buildings is twice the height 
of the highest one. Much depends upon the 
contour of the ground, the ajjproaches, and other 
considerations tliat must be carefully studied 
before any plan is begim. 

6. Heating, ventilating, and lighting. The 
first two of tli&se topics arq inseparable ; there 
should be a<lequate provision for the escape of 
impure air to let the fresh air in. It is a cardi- 
nal principle that there should be an abundant 
air supply warmed by indirect radiation, for 
which steam heat is the most controllable for a 
large ho.spital. The inlets may be near the 
floor, in the outer wall near or under a window ; 
the outlets should of)en into vent ducts, lx)th 
near the floor and ceiling, the upper ones having 
valves to close tliem. Vent ducts sliould lead 
to a warmed vent shaft, or to a chamber in the 
loft of considerable size where the holding of a 
body of warm air, before its escape through the 
ventilating openings .above, tends to determine 
tlie upward flow. With heat in these vent 
shafts and chambers, a more efficient extraction 
system is cnn^titntrd ; after the provision for 
tiial -\-i. , ■ ! ,. i.. lliirj fan fn ruiitr,,] 

tllr l: :- ■ - M-.l tnr,,nMlIUtc 

tlir pi-' , ':• \rnl||at,n;,',l„rt 

directly to the outer aii um Ijc dei)ended upon. 
These general principles should be carried out 
by the experts in these matters, who should be 

The artificial lighting of hospital wards is 
m;ule ewy by the modern perfection of electric 
ligiitiiig ; and the deterioration of the air by 
burning gas is avoided. 


7. Furniture and fittings. In the planning 
of hospital wards, structural considerations 
should have regard, as far as necessaiT, to 
the principles of simplicity in all funiishings, 
fixtures, and fittings. The movable articles of 
ward furniture are now made almost entirely 
of metal, paintetl or enamelled, or fittetl with 
glass, as table tops for example ; in like manner 
the fixtures of the toilet and bathrooms should 
be of materials imper%ious to al»orptiou of 
organic matter. The plumbing fixtures should 
be exjwsed as completely as possible ; it is a 
gowl ride to keep the wastes and traps of water- 
closets above the floor, or to place trajw below 
the ceiling in the room below, the object being 
not to permit these or jiipcs of any kind to run 
laterally in the space under the floor. In some 
cases, a pipe shaft (2 X 2}, feet) has been used 
for ventilating such rooms, and made to convey 
all the perpendicular nins of pipes, — for hot 
and cold water, steam, etc. Into these shafts 
they can be le<l laterally from the room. 

There are still to be considered small hospitals 
in communities where large ones are neither 
practicable nor necessarj', and special hospitals 
of dificrent kinds. A point of special inten-st 
concerning the.se is the growing demand for 
servicciible and inexpensive buildings in small 
towns and villages. A great advance has been 
mjule within a few years in devising satisfactory 
forms of construction suitable to such circum- 
stances. Some single buildings, and small groujw 
of them suitably arranged, have been planned 
and built with aflmirable success. 

In the constniction of hospitals for special 
diseases it is always possible to make a practical 
adaptation of the accepted axioms, the strictest 
extremes not always licing required. The great 
institutions for the in.sane present problems for 
special study, concerning which there are chang- 
ing views as well as differing needs and circum- 

Tiie subject of hospitals has a peculiar interest 
in that the best structural results are to be 
gained through a rccognition of the fact that re- 
quirements are combined of which the liest 
knowledge is held by experts in two professions 
and in neither singly. The historj' of hospital 
construction ])roves that its evolution is on the 
truest lines when the combination of knowledge 
and experience on all sides of the eoini)lex prob- 
lem lends to lou'leal results. — Kl>WAIU) CoWI.K-S. 

Chelsea Hospital. For iiualided soldiers; 
built by Cliarles 11. and in part from tlic designs 
of Sir Christopher Wren. It is an interesting 
building, in great part of red brick, and encloses 
three quadrangles, one of which is large and 
stately in efl"cct. The growth of Ltindon has 
cau.sed it to be included now iu a densely built 

Cottage Hospital. One for a small eoniinu- 
nity, iis a \'illagc or small town, or for a special 

>~ B^ 


i fc S 


form of disease, or depending upon a separate 
small foundation, whii'h in disposition, plan, and 
design may be thought to resemble a cottage or 
several cottages rather than the more elaborate 
public building. 

Greenwich Hospital. For invalided sailors 
and otiier men who have served in the British 
na\-y. It was founded by Charles II. but was 
built chierty by Mary II. and by her husband, 
William III., from the designs of Sir Christo- 
pher Wren. The growth of the town has 
brought this hospital and the beautiful park 
attached to it close to the built-up region of 

Pavilion Hospital. One in which the wards 
occupy separate buildings, connected with one 
another by narrow and well-ventilated corridors, 
if at all. One in Berlin has twenty-eight beds in 
each ward ; the wards occupy each the whole of 
one story of a pavilion, and the pavilions are 
wholly detached and removed from one another by 
six times their width and five times their height. 
One in Nuremberg, with pavilions only two 
stories, or wards, in height, with steeply sloping 
roofs above, has the pavilions sixty-eight feet 
apart, and also wholly unconnected. A recently 
accepted design for a public hospital at Wiesba- 
den has larger buildings, with smaller wards ; two 
in each story of each building ; but these build- 
ings are veiy widely distributed over a large park- 
like piece of ground, and have absolutely no 
intercommunication except by the out-of-door 
paths. S. Thomas Hospital, in London, built 
about 1870, has much larger wards and four 
stories of them in eacli pavilion ; but these pa- 
vilions are separated from one another by one 
and a half times their height ; although, from 
tlie river, certain tower-like additions to the 
fronts make them seem broader and therefore 
nearer together. In tliis case an ambulatory 
only one story high connects them at one end, 
but at the other end they are attached to a long 
stretch of buildings wliich are taken up by the 
administration, the anatomical theatre, and tiie 
like. It is a compromise between the systems 
of separate and of attached pavilions. Johns 
Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore, has pavilions 
separated from each other by nearly twice their 
width, so far as the wards are concerned, but 
each pavilion is broader wiiere the private rooms 
and tlie lodgings of the attencjants are situated, 
and at this part they are coiniected by covered 
galleries. A not unsimilar arrangement exists 
in the Hopital de Lariboisiere in Paris. The 
distinction between even the least successful of 
these and the regular building completely en- 
closing square or rectangular courts is obvious, 
and is of admitted importance. 

Some pavilion hospitals have a certain number 

of circular or polygonal pavilions. Tiiere are 

two at J.iims Hojikins Hospital and in the 

Cliild's Hospital at Bradford there is one pa- 



vilion two stories high, about sixty-eight feet in 
external diameter and containing in each ward 
twenty-eight beds arranged in a circle, their 
heads to the wall. The advantages of tiie circu- 
lar pavilion are obvious ; it is only a question 
whether they are counterbalanced by greater 
disadvantages, as, for instance, in the consider- 
able loss of space. — Edward Covvles. 

Snell, Charitahle and Parochial Establish- 
ments; (iaUon, llriilthij Hospitals; ^Degen, Der 
Ban itir Krr/ii/.-< ,,/niiisfr ; Husson, Etude sur les 
Hopit'iii.r : Jlimlitt. Hospitals and Asylums of 
the Worhl : Kuliii, l(in,ik,.nhauscr in Uandbuch 
der Arrliiicht Id- : \\ i'.m.."., 1: KV.t-^i w, (iriindriss- 
vorhildi r I-., II I,. ■ \ . Oppert, 
HosplhfU. Iiijiiij' . Narjoux, 

HOSPITATiTUM. A. In Konian archae- 
ology, a guest chamber (Vitruvius, VI., 10). 

B. In a Roman theatre, one of the two 
entrances reserved for strangers, that is for 
actors representing personages supposed to 
arrive from foreign cities (Vitruvius, V., 7). 

HOSPinUM. In Roman archaeology, a 
guest chamber, or, by extension, a place such 
as an inn, where strangers were habitually enter- 

HOTEL. A building arranged for and 
adajjted to the purpose of lodging, feeding, and 
caring for the wants of travellers, persons with- 
out domicile, or those desiring a temporary or 
permanent place of residence which shall not 
entail eftbrt or responsfRility, beyond a pecu- 
niary one, on their part. 

The modern hotel sJiould not only afford 
ample means of furnishing lodging and food to 
those seeking those necessities, but such pri- 
vacy, comfort, luxury, or means nf entertain- 
ment as maybe secured in a ]iii\ate duniicile, 
and in addition every means ot carrying out the 
domestic, public, or social functions of life. 
Further, it should afford means of offering 
diversion or anuisement to those abiding under 
its roof, and may also jiresent (ippDrtiiuities for 
the transaction of business witiiin its walls; 
although shops should not lie ineiir])orated 
within the scheme, except in ao far as they con- 
tribute to the daily actual needs of the guests — 
as might be maintained of a barber, hairdresser, 
newsdealer, or ticket agent. 

In plan a city hotel slio\dil — where possible 
— be a parallelogram, eithei- square or with the 
width and length witliin the iimportion of two 
to three, and if practicable all sides should front 
upon streets or open spaces. The courts, light- 
ing and ventilating rooms not upon the fronts, 
should aggregate at least from one-fitth to one- 
sixth the total area covered ; the main or central 
court should comprise one half of this open 
area, and may be unroofed and form a driveway 
or entrance, as in the Grand Hotel at Paris ; be 
roofed with gla.ss at the to]) as in the Kaiserhof 
at Berlin ; or be roofed with glass part way of 


its height as in the Waldorf-Astoria at New 
York. The first treatment is only possible 
where space can be spared, but is not ecouonu- 
cal ; the second impairs the projier ventilation 
of the rooms opening into the court ; while tiie 
latter has been found to possess the greater ad- 
vantages. The ground floor should be upon the 
level of the main avenue upon which the build- 
ing fronts, or raised but slightly above it, the 
main entrance being upon the principal front. 
A covered portico should protect this entrance 
and a driveway pass under it, which may be 
extended into tiie building and out again, al- 
though this feature is not essential and has 
some objections. One or more private entrances 
should be provided for those desiring to avoid 
the publicity of the main entrance, and to reach 
tho.se portions of the house devoted to amuse- 
ment or public entertainments. The main en- 
trance should open upon a spacious and imposing 
hall, decorated and embellished in a rich and 
sumptuous, although severe, manner, to impress 
the visitor with the sense of the comfort, lux- 
ury, refinement, or cheer which are to be found 
within the walls. This apartment, variously 
termed vestibule, foyer, hall, rotunda, etc., 
according to its shape or size, should be regjirded 
as of great importance, as it is the heart of the 
building from which all life springs and to 
which it returns ; in size large enough to accom- 
modate :i iiiultitudi' of arriving and departing 
travcilti-. aii.i at the same time to admit of 
interrnu'-r !« tv,..:i tli.v<p Ind^'iti!: in or visiting 
their , ; iM.rc mod- 

ern li ! ' allow 

only i 111' other 

accuiuii 1, II rooms, 

cafes, siiioki II L' nu'cment 

has not been i tul ; on 

the contrary tli tlie im- 

portance of this ;qi:n; a place 

where guests of botli -• "K'. 

The setting apart (ii I -i women 

is being abandoned, and ail iimhus arc lor u.se of 
both alike, the only restriction being that in 
one or more dining or reception rooms smoking 
is not permitted. This has led to the adoption 
of glass partitions or screens, dividing or form- 
ing the various public apartments, and a<lmits 
of greater freedom in social life, less exclusive- 
ness and fuller opportunity to view the life and 
movement going on within the house ; privacy 
being found in the more retired drawing-rooms 
located in the upper stories. 

The dining rooms should be bright and cheer- 
ful, botii Jis to light and decoration ; being used 
by day as well a.s night, it is essential that arti- 
ficial light be not wholly relied upon ; a luxu- 
rious and (piiet air should pervade them rather 
than that of grandeur or size. The trejitment 
of a portion of the space set apart for dining as 
a garden, using plants, flowers, fountains, etc., 


has become general, and is a marked feature of 

The cafe for men is an advance npon the 
smoking room of old houses, as oHering greater 
comforts and accommodation, while convei-sa- 
tion, reading, or newspaper and writing rooms, 
to which may be added a library, are necessary 
adjuncts to, and should form a part of, the 
mcxlem house, as they do in all representative 
American hotels. 

The kitchen of a modem hotel being one of 
its most impoitant features, the greatest judg- 
ment should be exercised in its arrangements 
and disposition. The dining room, cafe, restau- 
rant, etc., necessarily spreatling over so great an 
area, centralization is alxsolutcly required, and 
separate stairways or passages for each room to 
be ser\e<I should be provide«l ; easy access mean- 
ing quick service, which is a sine qua non of 
motlern living. Where dining rooms are more 
than one story above the kitchen, they are 
reached by two or more quick-running lifts, 
controlled from the kitchen, but where such 
dining rooms are large or important, it is not 
unusual to have a separate kitchen contiguous 
to same. Kitchens should always he finished 
in materials easily kept clean, such jis marble 
or tiles for floors and walls, and access should 
be given to the public for inspection, as tending 
toward improved discipline in the service, and 
confidence or interest in the patrons. 

The staircases, owing to the atlbption of ele- 
vators, have become a secondary means of reach- 
ing the upper stories, and less importance is 
given to their size and decoration ; they should 
exist, however, as a means of communication in 
case of panic, or as a reserve shoulil elevator 
service be crippletl. From the ground floor to 
the next above, or possibly to a third story, the 
staircases should be ample, easy, and well i)laced, 
as these are more use<l than to stories above, 
and form important decorative features. 

The elevator service should consist of a suffi- 
cient number of quick-running electric or hy- 
draulic lifts, having commodious cars, each 
capable of carrying ten or more passengers ; in 
a building of more than ten stories, one such 
lift should be provided for every one hundred 
and fifty guests ; the sj^ed at which they can 
lie most successfully nm has been found to be 
about 450 feet per minute. Freight and ser- 
vants' lifts — the same machine answering for 
both purposc-s — should be provided in one- 
fourth the proportion named for guests. 

The stories forming the lodging portion of the 
house should be dividitl into rooms varying in 
size and arrangement, viz. : single chamliers or 
bcdnxims ; suites, two or more connecting rooms, 
generally parlour, lM?<lroom, and bathroom (or 
simply bedroom and Imthroom) ; and apartments, 
sets of rooms cut oflf from the main corridors 
by private door and anteroom, embracing par- 


lour, dining room, several bedrooms, bathrooms, 
ami pantries. The extreme of comfort is ton 
often intrenched upon by reduciii;; the size of 
the guests' rooms to supply a i^natcr inimlicr, 
but the plan cannot be too stroii;^iy ilrjiiriatiM, 
although the cost of the land upon wliich the 
house stands usually leads to its adoption ; this 
can only be overcome, where ground space is 
restricted, by adding to tlie number of stories ; 
the rooms in upper stories are lighter and less 
noisy than those nearer the ground level, hence 
are more desiraljle. 

A marked feature of luxury in modern hotels 
is tlie number of bathrooms and their fittings ; 
there should be at least one of these connecting 
with every two chambers, and, for important 
suites of apartments, e;ich chamber should have 
its own bathroom. All hatlirooms sliould ha\e 
a window opening upon the outer air, and in no 
case should bathrooms open upon shafts which 
give ventilation to other rooms. 

In the design of the facades, the serious prob- 
lem of taking care of the multitude of windows 
can only be met by a proper disposition of 
masses and a carefully studied outline, leaving 
tlie windows to be disposed with a symmetrical 
arrangement as far as practicable, but not em- 
phasized as features of the design ; the roof 
should help largely to give character and dignity, 
but should not waste room in the plan by eccen- 
tric angles or too great a recession from the per- 
j)endicular; wholly extraneous constructions for 
(jrnamcnt simply are to be avoided ; the struc- 
ture being monumental from its size and orderly 
handling rather than from individual features 
of too evident assertiveness. 

One feature of the modern hotel is that which 
provides vast, luxurious, and commodious apart- 
ments for entertainment and amusement, such 
as ball rooms, concert and lecture halls, banquet 
rooms, and suites where weddings and other 
social functions may be held. These, while not 
forming a necessary part of the hotel proper, 
are valuable adjuncts. These rooms are usually 
placed on the first story above the ground 
floor, and arc reached by special entrances, pri- 
vate staircases, and elevators, and slmuM be so 
arranged that two or more eiitntaimiK iits laii 
take place at the same time withnul (onllicliiii,' 
with each other, and without distin liint,' or 
encroaching upon the privileges nl' tlir n-ular 
guests. The dining room or restaiii ant raiiarity 
of the modern hotel is generally licyoiid the 
limit required for the guests lodging within the 
house, 80 as to accommodate transient guests 
who desire to dine or to take their meals with- 
out lodging. 

Another extraneous feature of the modern 
hotel, but sometimes added, is the roof garden. 
Utilizing the entire roof of the structure and 
l;iying out the same to simulate a garden, with 
walks, shrubbery, and vine-covered trellises, 


illuminated at night, an attractive space is 
gained for dining and light entertainments, such 
as (■(uiceits, etc., in temperate and fair weather. 
Tliis necessitates aliundant or extra elevator ser- 
\ice, as the rei^uhir service would not be ade- 
quate for tiie purpuse. — H. J. Hakdenbeegh. 
HoTEIi. In French (the term being con- 
tinually transferred to English in connection 
with special appellations, or otherwise), a build- 
ing larger and more costly than other buildings 
of the same general class, or distinguished from 
them by peculiarities of use. The word seems 
to have had a more general application during 
the sixteenth century and before that time, im- 
plying in old Fi'cnch any building in which men 
lived or followed their vocations ; since then, 
the change has been wholly in the direction of 
limiting it to the more sumptuous buildings; 
as follows : — 

A. A large dweOing for a single family ; and 
in the cities (as most families live in apartments 
in large houses containing many apartments) 
especially a house Imilt for the occupation of 
one family only. In this sense it is applied ret- 
rospectively to larue ImildiiiL^s of the Middle 
Ages (see the following titles). 

B. In special cases, the public edifice in 
which the business of a governmental depart- 
ment, or the like, is carried on. In this sense, 
often apparently signifying still a place of resi- 
dence ; thus, the Hotel des Finances or Hotel 
du Ministre des Finances is in name as well as 
in fact the residence of the minister as well as 
the business place for his many assistants and 
clerks. It is less easy to explain the term 
Hotel des Monnaies — the Mint of Paris. 

As in Italy it is often said that a palazzo is 
merely a house with a great door into which a 
carriage can drive, so it is said in Paris that a 
hotel is merely a house with a po7'te cocMre. 
The infrequency of the use of imlais and the 
inapplicability of c/id/eau to the city house 
leaves no word but hotel for the many impor- 
tant structures whi<h are liaicl to classify other- 
wise. (Cuts, cols. II.-., 4|(i. 117, 418.) — R.S. 

in Xormaiidy : a building in tlie latest (lothic, 
with remaikalile bas-reliefs on the wall of the 

ni- the Hotel de Vill.'. The building is of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, partly the 
work of Pierre Lcs,,,1, .and completed by F. 
Mansart. There are .vculptni-cs on tlu" princi- 
pal front and on the comi winch aie attributed 
to Jean Goiijon, and are of iniportaiHT. The 
building has been adapted for use as a museum, 
and hiis lost part of its original internal char- 
acter, but is still worthy of study. 

h6TEI> de BOUROOONE. In Paris; 
of which oidy one tower remains (now often 
called Tour dc Jmit sans I'eur). It was the 


1«« ETAGE 

. Vestibule of parte eochire with passage tc 

'. Vestibule to sUlrcase, two steps above A. 

: Porter's room, or office. 

I. Kitchen. 

'. Bedroom of porter, or office. 

. C'arrla);o house. 

Stoey above Ground Stoby. (Sek Fk 

J. Dinlnc roipm. 

A'. Laniline plare. 

Z, .)/. Drawing-rooms (salons). 

X. Salon, or library. 

0. Sert-lce room ^.butler's paotryi. 

Fio. a. - H..TRL : Plw ok Oki xikmk I^:! 

.MiovK <;KorNn Stout. fSKr. Kio. 1.) 

h6tel de cluny 

Paris residence of the Dukes of Burgundy down 
to tlie time of the fall of the independent power 
of those princes with the death of Charles le 

HOTEIi DE CLtJNY. A large dwelling 
house in Paris, built for the city residence of the 
abbot of the great monastery of Cluny, and now 


finest and best preserved pieces of developed 
Gothic architecture applied to a civic building 
which still remain. It has been restored for 
the purposes of a town hall, but without serious 
injury to its pristine character. 

great hospital and asylum for invalided soldiers ; 

occupied by :i nuisciuii of niediieval and more 
recent art. The building was built toward the 
cloHC of the fifteenth century, and remains gen- 
erally unaltered ; one of the most beautU'ul late 
Gothic civic l)uildingH existing. 


bourge-s, France. Tiic building ia one of the 


founded by Louis XIV. ; the building was fin- 
ished in 1675. It stands on the south bank of 
the Seine at the head of the great open Espla- 
nade den InvalideH. There are but few old 
soldiers living there at present, and a large 
part of the building is occupied for museums 
uiul similar public purjioscs. (For the church 


a^joiuiug, see church uf S. Louis, under 

Peran, Description historif/ue de V Hotel Royal 
des Jiiralidex ; Liniiiel, Uisloire de V Hotel Royal 
des Invalided. 

mint ; an interesting buililing of the eighteenth 
century, on the soutli bank of the Seine near tlie 
Pont Neuf. Its sj)ccial interest for Wsitors is 
tlie museum of coins and medals, historically 
and artistically of tiie first importance. 

h6TEL des VENTES (more properly 
lies Vi'utes MnbiU^res). In Paris, a public 
building in which nearly all auction sales are 
conducted, and famous therefore on account of 
the magnificent works of art and great collec- 
tions wliich have been sold in its rooms. The 
present building is in the Rue Drouot, and is 
often <aile<l Hotel Drouot. It is of no sjjecial 
architei-tiiral importance. 

building in which i.s located the ccuti 


H6tEL DIEU. lu French, a hospital ; 
especially one of tho.se in certain cities where 
the building and the establishment have re- 
sulted from a gift of charitable people in former 
times. Those of Paris, Lyons, Beauue, are par- 
ticularly celebratetl. 

h6tEL drouot. (See Hotel des 

HOTHOUSE. \ greeidiou.se in wliidi a 
high t<'ni|wTatun' is maiiitainiHl. 

HOTON, "WILLIAM DE ", master mason. 

Oct. 1, l.i.")l, Wilhani de Hoton, mason, son 
of William de 11. .ton, al.so a ma-son, succeeded 
Thomas de Patenham as master mason of the 
cathe<lral of Durham, England. 

Browne, Church of S. Peter, York. 
b. March l>0, 1741 (at Vei-SiuUes) ; d. Julv 

IC, \^-i^. 

Hoiidon was a pupil, first of Michel Slotltz 
(see Sjodtz, M.), and afterward of Pigalle at 
the Ecole Jes Beaux Arts. He won the 

authority of a nuuiicipality. Several very im- 
portant building.s, ancient and modern, are com- 
monly called by tins name, but they are never 
mentioned without geographical indication af- 
forded by tlie name of their cities, and, therefore, 
do not need mention here. Tliut of Pari.s, built 
in part uikUt Henry IV., destroyed in 1871 by 
the C'omnmne, and rebuilt with great splendour 
in our own time, is occasionally mentioned with- 
out tlie name of the city. 

V Architecture, series of articles on ^fairips et 
Hotels de Ville ; Calliat, Hotel de Ville de Paris 
avec line histoire de ce monument ; Lacroix, //I'.i- 
toire de V Hotel de Ville in Hoffbauer, Paris a tra- 
vers les Ages; Vachon, L'Ancien Hotel de Ville 
de Pari.s. 

HOTEL DE VOGU6. In Djjon, Bur- 
gundy. A beautiful city iioiise of the sixteenth 
century, with two admirable fa(;aile8, one on tlie 
court of entrance and the other on the garden. 

(NoK..). Kr 

Grand Prix de Rome in 17G1 at the age of 
twenty. During his stay in Rome he made 
the famous statue of S. Bruno in the portico of 
the church of S. Maria degli Angeli. Houdon's 
best work is in jHirtraiturc. Of his jxirtrait 
statues, perhaps the most important is the su- 
perb Voltaire of the Tiieatre-fran^ais, Paris. 
Houdon Wius his own bronze founder, and was 
without a rival in that art. In 1 78.") he visited 
America with Franklin, and made tiie statue of 
Washington at the capitol in Richmond, Vir- 

De Monlaiglon et Duplessis, Houdon, in Revue 
Universelte des Arts, Vol. I. ; Gonse, SculfKure 
Fran(;aise ; Benott, VArl /ran<;ais sous la Rivolu- 
tion et r Empire. 

HOUSE. A dwelling ; the term being usu- 
ally restricted to tiiose dwellings which have 
Home clalxiration ; excluding Cabin, Cot, Cot- 
tage ill its original sense. Hut, Iglu, Shack, 


Hotel de Cluny, Paris. 


Shanty, Tipi, Wigwam, and the like. Build- 
ings inhabited by many families are generally 
called by some fom]X)und term of which the 
word house or dwelling form.s a part ; as Aj)art- 


the climate is fairly warm, with but a short 
winter, the house is almost invariably built 
direct uiwn the jrround, witliout cellar or sub- 
structure of any kind. At the present time 

e large room which 
n\ ided temporarily or other- 
iis, it is often called by the 
I the case of the very large 
structures of Fiji, Samoa, and other islands of 
the Pacific; especially New Zealand. Where 
the local name is not used, the term hut is often 

local name, as i 

excellent houses are built in the cities of tropical 
South America with the princii)al rooms set im- 
mediately upon tlie ground, wliicli has Ijeen pre- 
viously dug out and filled in again with specially 
prepared and hard-rammed earth or sand, and 
this covered with a pavement of some kind. 
The inclination of the ground is often followwl. 
so that it is not imusual to find the open court- 
yard, where the family dinner table is set under 
an awning in an especially breezy comer, higher 
in level than the reception rooms ; and the 
stables may be still higher on the hillside, con- 

• t •' ^ 

applied to such buildings as this. At the same 
time, the distinction between tliese and the early 
house of the most civilized peoples of the Medi- 
terranean world is not very great. Wherever 

necting perhaps with another street. This is in 
the trade wind region, within the trojjics ; anil 
outside of this belt of e<|uable warm weatlier, 
and even within it as Northern European inttu- 

Fig. 3. — House at Moudjeleia in Stria, of Romaj 
KoMAN Country House in a Quiet Province. 

enoes prevail, the houses are apt to have their 
principal rooms raised above the ground. This 
i.s sometimes done by means of uprights, as of 
wood, or built of brick, upon which the lower 
floor is supported and between which the ground 
is left open except as some grating or lattice- 
work keeps away intruders. In all these re- 
s[)ects the habits of Egyptian, Assyrian, and 
Greco-Roman antiquity may be seen revived. 

The original Roman house consisted of tlio 
atrium alone, in whieli \\;is the l';iiiiil.v slc(|iih-- 
l)lace, cooking place, ami plure ,,{' li.ihit.ition l'iii 
(■rally. The additions to tlie iiouse in the way 
of small clo.set8 for sleeping places (see Cubic- 
uhnn) a separate eating room (see Cenaculum ; 
Triclinium) and the like, were made gradually, 
exactly as, in our own times, the house of a 
settler in a new country will consist of one room, 
with perhaps a garret in which one can sleep. 
In the Roman house of later times, many of the 
dispositions of the plan are apparently tradi- 
tional remains of the simple, early plan ; thus, 
the ala; (see Ala) seem to be the window rc- 
C(!sses of the atrium, although the windows were 
abandoned when tlie open compluvium wa« in- 
troduced. The warmer the country, the less 


these additional appliances seem to 
be required. 

We know little of the private 
house in Egypt, in Mesopotamia, or in 
Greece. The ruins that have been 
explored are generally those of royal 
j)alaccs ; and the resemblance between 
tiiose and the smaller house of the 
same epoch is very difficult to trace, 
for it depends largely upon the social 
position of the inferior. Thus, we 
h<i\e little information even for the 
b'oiiian dwelling as to the sleeping 
I u i- of the numerous household 
-1 1\ c ; and we can only infer by com- 
IMiison with modem experience that 
many of them slept in any corridor or 
hall of the house during the colder 
weather, and out of doors, under the 
roofs of porticoes, and the like, during 
the summer time. The dwelling house 
of the Greeks is known to us chiefly 
by tlie appearance, in Roman dwell- 
ings of a later time, of features which 
we take as being Greek in origin, 
either from tradition or by strong in- 
herent probability. The disposition 
to build around the open court, which 
still exists in the Mediterranean lands, 
in other subtropical and in all tropical 
countries, was universal in Greece and 
in Italy. The Roman atrium, whether 
at first roofed solidly, or with an open 
louver like the megaron of the early 
palaces, was, in historic times, usually 
open in the middle, with a cistern 
p catch the drippings of water from the 


partial roof. (See Atrium ; Caviedium ; Com- 
pluvium ; Implnviuin.) As larger houses were 
built, other courts were added, and this in city 
as well as in country, until much later times. 
Thus, a second and larger atrium, often calleil by 
the generic name peristylium, with a large cistern 
in the middle which was made decorative, was 
surrounded by the rooms of the family, while the 


•was usually accompanied by a jwrtico along one 
side at lea.st. Tlie larger houses of Pomjjeii, 
although in the iicart of a dose-built town, arc 
not diflerent in character from viUas in the coun- 
try, except tiiat tlie courts and esjiecially the 
gardens are smaller (see plan, House of Pansa). 
In all these hou.ses the second storj- is of minor 
importance, uur is its exact dis|)ositiou nor its 
use thoroughly well known in any one instance. 
(See Cenaculum ; Pergola.) 

On the other hand, it is known positively 
that the houses of the city of Rome were often 
four or five stories in height. The more splen- 
did houses, such as that one recently brouglit to 
light near what is called the gardens of Sallust, 
contained at least three stories of somewhat 
large and statily rooms. The houses which 
were built in tiie more crowded jiarts of the 
city for the dwellings of the poorer classes are 
littlr kiiiiwn, but it is evident that they were 
I'Hi-iii:,' hmi.se.s, or, as we say in America, tene- 
iiinit h.piiscs, not wholly unlike the modern 
ixauiplcs. The emperors, and especially Ha- 


:'■;.; r 

original atrium, now treated as an outer court, 
wa-H accomi)anied by the rooms of the porter and 
other dependants, and sometimes by a shop or 
several shops ; which might be occupied by the 
proprietor, who sold there the fruits of liis 
estates, exactly as is still done in the palazzi of 
the Italian town.s, or which might l)e rented to 
others. Beyond the rooms surrounding the peri- 
stylium there was, where i)racticable, a still 
larger open space, treated as a garden, but this 

drian, iasued very positive edicts alxiut the 
housing of the people of the city, and to a cer- 
tain extent similar regtdations seem to have 
lieen put in force for the other cities of the 

All of this modernization — all this serious 
study of social jiroblems and attempt to solve 
them — was brouglit to on end by the rapidly 
approaching decline of the imperial system, 
lu the modem epoch, l>eginning with the Mid- 


die Ages, several curious phenomena appear, 
which probably had their counterpart in an- 
tiquity, though traces of it are lost. Thus, it 
is known that the earlier country houses of 
England and of Germany were habitually built 
with the barn and the residence in one, so that 

one roof covered, and one four-square building 
enclosed, the stalls for horses, the stalls for 
cattle, the great storage place for hay and other 
fodder and that for grain, the cooking place, 
the separate accommodations, if any, of tiic 
master's family, and the places of safes keep- 
ing for whatever valuables he might possess. 
Houses of this character still exist among 
the larger chalets of Switzerland. A great 
barn floor might run through the centre of the 
buiMing, lengthwise ; on each side of this Were 
stalls, priliaps hnrscs ,m ..iic sidr and oxen and 
cows oil llir (,tlicr, while above these wcm tiio 
lofts for fod.ier and the like. At tlie end of 
the l)arn floor was the fireplace; and the fire, 
burning on an open hearth, without a flue, sent 
its smoke through all parts of the building, 
thus protecting the human inmates to a certain 
extent from the inconveniences of the presence 
under the same roof with them of the cattle 


and matters kept in storage. Insects and the 
like would hardly be of much annoyance, and 
stable smells were hardly to be feared where 
everything was impregnated with a constant 
odour of wood smoke. At a later time the 
master's bedchamber was put \\\> beliind the 
hearth, and the point is maile in aiieient docu- 
ments that from ins be^lplaee he eould see all 
parts of the interior. The further advance of 
the demand for comfort and for some display is 
seen in the building of a separate room for the 
mistress of the household (see Bower), and at 
a later time of a separate room for the sleeping 
place of the otiier women of the establishment ; 
these having originally slept in tlie lofts or in 
special parts of them on one side, while the 
men occupied the other. The twelfth century 
had come before the country house in northern 
Europe had fairly separated itself from the barn 
and stable. Then appears the house of the 
lord of the soil, in which the great hall (see 
Hall) is the only important room. In this the 
master and his family ate at the same long 
table with the whole household; or, at least, 
on a table raised upon a platform and immedi- 
ately connected with a lower table. A building 
of this importance would have a Solar (which 
see) and a Bower, and outhouses in consider- 
able abundance, so that the opportunities of 
shelter for the dependants were not far to seek. 
The smaller house, that of the freeholder of no 
large means, would consist of a Hall and noth- 
ing else beyond a chamber in the roof, in all 
respects resembling a modern English cottage 

Fio. 7. — Housk: Typicai, Plan op Ancient Moor- 

Comparison with Modern Plan. (See Fio. 14.) 

of the smaller type. The development from 
this to the large country house of the time of 
Queen Elizabeth is direct and simple ; nor ha.s 
there been any interruption in the natural evo- 
lution of the dwelling even to tiie jjrescnt day, 
except where the deliberate adoption of a plan, 


supposed classical or iu some way authoritative, 
has forced an otherwise undesirable arrangement 
of the rooms. 

In the cities the difference between the house 
of antiquity and that of the mediicval and 
modern ejjochs is more marked. Tiie house of 
the thirteenth century in a CJerman or French 
town would occupy as little ground as possible, 
because of the crowding natural to a walled 
city, constantly growing in wealth and in popu- 
lation, but unable to expand beyond the ring 
of its defences. Such houses still exist ; and 
those of the fifteenth century, built on the 
same plan, are not uncommon. It is usual 
to have a small courtyard which divides the 
house into a front building on the street and 
a back building, tiie two being connccf..! 
by a narrow covered way, which in t ' 
upper stories may be enclosed, and sir 
even as a place of storage or as a sl« . 
ing place for dependants. The courty.i 
would contain the well ; and the stain .1 
usually was a corkscrew or spiral occuj . 
ing but little room and placed in an an,u'l< 
of the court. It might then be more or 
less enclosed ; in a house of .some preten- 
sions, especially in a Isorthern town, tlie 
staircase would become a solid round tower 
with a roof of its own. The rooms of tlie 
front building would be lighted from the 
street and from tiie court ; the windows 
on the street being generally smaller, 
and those of the lower stories very 
small and strongly guarded with 
wrouglit-iron gratinLfs. By tiie be- 
ginning of tiie fourteontli centurj' 
this distinction partly disap- 
pears, and the house fronts from 
that time are extremely varied 
and beautiful, with windows of 
considerable size. This is es])e 
cially the case in cities when 
great and continued prosperit\ 
and the absence of internal war 
fare gave tlie householder 
confidence. Thus, in Venice, 
even from the twelfth cen- 
tury, the water fronts are 
exquisitely graceful and fan- 
tfistic, with great numbers of 
windows — the wliole front 
being opened upas completely 
as in our modern residences. 


Coeur at Bourges, is hardly different in character 
from the smaller house describe«l. Thus, in the 
mansion last named, the chapel is built above 
tiie entrance gate, and on each side of it are 
rooms, both on the ground floor and above ; 
while opposite the entrance and across a court- 
yard larger in proportion to the greater size of 
the establi-shment rises the main house with 
three staircase towers, each one connecting with 
rooms on three stories besides the garret. Here 
again there is a well in the court, and here also 
partly enclosed and covered galleries connecting 
the front buildings with the rear ones; the 
main difference being tliat, as here the house 
s built ag-ainst the inner face of the city 
all, the main rooms are ligiitwl only or 
•liiefly from the court, to which, there- 
fore, special pains was given to make it 
sunny and airj'. (See, in addition to 
the references above, Ala ; Andron ; 
Fauces ; Gallery ; Hall ; (Ecus ; Solar ; 
Tablinum ; Vestibulum ; and the 
terms denoting modern 6ubdi^^sions of 
a house.) (Cuts, cols. 433, 434 ; 43.5, 
"" 437, 438; 439, 440.)— R. S. 

Fio. 8. 
The Gothic forms and details 

throanhout the 

The back build- 
ing, wliich took its light only from the court in 
most instances, was still sufficiently open and 
airy to be entirely pleasant. Even at this day 
one can hire a room in a German town house of 
the fourteenth century with no windows except 
those on the open gallery looking on the court, 
and can l)c entirely comfortable. The town house 
even of a very wealthy resident, such as that 
splendid fifteenth century mansion of Jacques 

Basement House. In New York and other 
Anieriwm cities, a house of which the jirincipal 
entrance is into tiie story below that of the 
principal drawing-rooms, jus most common in 
London. There are assumed to be three kinds 
of these, viz. : — 

First, English Basement House, which type 
has been in use since 1840, but has never been 
very common. In this it is usual for an office 
or reception room and the dining room to 


occupy the story of entrance, the kitchen to be 
in the cellar or sub-basement, and a cellar for 
the furnace, fuel, stores, and the like, to occupy 
the space in front of the kitchen. The front 
door of such a house was seldom more than 
three steps above the sidewalk. 


story where the front door was contained only 
the same rooms as in the English Basement 
House. The chief use of the high stoop was 
to allow of a subcellar, or, in other words, of 
two stories below tiie sill of the front door. 
Thud, The American Basement House, which 





Good example of tho Frenc 

Second, The French Basement House, which 
type was introduced about 1864 or 180;'3. In 
this there was a stoop as ingh sometimes as 
that of the high-stoop house proper, but the 

HousK AT Bkauvais, c. 1540. 

I simpler manlfostutlons. 

type was introduced about 1880. In this the 
kitchen and other domestic; ofhccs, and the 
entrance vestibule with tlie foot of the main 
stairs, occupy the ground story. 

Fig. 10. — Housj 

h. \ Storage for grain a 
<l. Vestibule, from whi< 

door on the right leads to the 
uouse ; lum on loo leii tu tbo baru at d, by means uf 
a slight descent. 
Living rouin, with great pottery store in upper right hand 


/. Bedchamber, with flxeil bedplace and, D( 

g. Kitchen. 

h. Store house for wood, with trap door i 

of the gal- 


right, which in this inst«.c 

« is i>arUy 




Church House. A parish building for meet- 
ings, festivals, and the like. 

Earth House. A prehistoric subterranean 
chamber ; a local name in Scotland. These are 
especially numerous in the northeast. They 
resemble somewhat the Tholos of Atreus at 
Mycenie, being beehive-shaped, of stone, and 
heaped over with earth, forming low mounds 
above tilt- general gradr (called also Pict's House). 

Hanse House. Same as (iinlilliall. 

High-stoop House. In New York and 
some other American cities, a house furnished 
with a stoop, having from six to twelve steps, 
and with the drawing-rooms, dining rooms, etc., 
in the story to which the front door at the 


farms. The house is, then, the most important 
mansion in a country neighbourhood, especially 
in England, and often has a park dependent 
upon it. (See Country House ; Seat, and sub- 
title Country Seat ; also Chateau.) 

Pict's House. Same as Earth House (see 
subtitle above). 

HOUSE (v.). To frame, or to put together 
two members by the insertion of one into a re- 
cess, groove, or the like, formed in another. 
The term is more applicable to such a connec- 
tion when of considerable relative extent, and 
especially when of the full thickness of the in- 
serted member, rather than when formed by 
means of a comparatively small tenon or tongue. 







^'^ ; 



.... n .. f . 



1 ■'■ '- p 




Fig. 12. — House called Hotel d*Assi6zat, at Toclodse. 

See Accoupleiuont, illustration, and Arcade, il 

head of the stoop gives immediate access. This 
type of house may be considered as a direct 
8ucfe.s8or to the small and simple village houses 

which had, of course, no y.retciicr- of a story of 
drawing rooms reni..vc,l Inn,, tla^ ,„ti-a.ice; the 
chief ilitleicnce l.rin- ,„ I he ,,l;,c,ng of the 
Idtchen in the stoi-y l,ch,w that of the entrance, 
in New York, while in Piiiladelphia, Baltimore, 
and other cities, the kitchen generally occupied 
a l)ack building (see L), and in Boston a modi- 
tication of the English Basement House was 
used (.see Basement House above). 

Manor House. A house occupied by the 
Ion! (,f a manor, whir'h formerlv a l.mdcl 
estate of which parts wcv hchi l.v |m',-o,i. ,„ h 
peculiar way, serving ami d, iii-,,i|ri,L i,|jn,, the 
lord — is now little more than pmpeity icnted in 

I house 

Thus, Dado (v.) is almost e,|ini 

(v.), while an aiTaiigeii,(i,t by moitise and 

tenon would hardly be callcil housing. 

HOUSE BOAT. A la,-c Hat boat upon 
which is erected a dwrllin- s,itlicic,,t lor resi- 
dence. In the rivers of China, lairmah, and 
parts of Hindustan such structures have been 
used for the dwellings of families for many 
years. In China the word is used also for 
boats used by European families on river jour- 
neys. In England and the United States they 
are used for residence in pleasant weather and 
as a place of summer resort. The boat may be 
moored in a lake or in an unfrecjuented reach 
of a river. 

HOUSE DRAINAGE. Tho arrangements 
for the removal of sewage and water from 



Fig. 13.— Row of Small Houses. Rue d'Ofkrkmont, Pa&is. 

The extreme neatness of tlie i)lan is noticeatle. 

Hi. J J 

Tho square cc 

huildings, comprising a system of drain, soil, 
and vent J)ii)c.s, the plumbing fixtures with 
traps and ap])urtcnanfca, and in sonic case-s the 
pijjcs f(jr the removal of storm water from roofs, 
yards, courts, and areas. 

Fig. 1 shows tlie manner in which the drain- 
age of a house should !« arranged in atrordance 
with modern i)rinoiple8 of sanitation. The 
main house sewer is connected witii the sewer 
in the street ; the house drain is carried above 

the floor of the cellar, and provided near the 
front wall with drain trap and 'fresh air inlet. 
It receives, by means of Y-branches, the vertical 
soil and w;iste lines, also the pipes intended for 
the removal of rain water, and branches from 
areas and yards. 

Vitrified stoneware pipes are used for the 
main outside house sewer to within a few feet 
of the foundation walls ; under special condi- 
tions iron sewer pipes arc used. The diameter 
of the house .sewer depends upon tiie number 
of plumbing fixtures in the building, except 
where it receives rain water, when the size 
of the lot to be drained and the rainfall govern 
its size. In Greater New York, for instance, 
sizes of house sewers arc detcrniined upon the 
basis of a rainfall at the rate of 6 inciics per 
hour, and of a house sewer running nearly full, 
with a velocity of at least 4 feet jicr second. 

Talile I. gives the areas of lots drained by 
different sizes of pipes : — 


; No.] 


TKR OF I'll-B 

Orado of Sewer Vi 
lueh per Kool."^* 

Gr«t<. of Sewer « 
Ineh |«>r Foot. 





2,000 sq. fcPt. 

f)i{Mt0 " " 
O.IMIO " " 
O.KXI ■• •• 
ll.tUMl ■■ • 

2,.W0 8q. feet. 
4. .wo '• " 
7.500 " " 
10.;>00 " " 


It is not always nect'ssiiry tc) provide for 
extreme amounts of rainfall. Generally small 
houses are readily tlrained by 4-inch sewers, 5- 
inch sewers answer for a large city iiouse, and 
6-inch sewers are required only for large build- 
ings. For buildings covering a wide area it is 
better to provide two or more 6-inch sewers. 
The smaller the pipe, the larger must be the 
inclination given to secure a velocity of flow 
preventing deposits. Table II. gives suitable 
rates of inclination for pipes of ditfereut diame- 


; No. II. 

2-inch pipes to have fall of 1 

10 '• 1 " 100 

The comparative smoothness of the inside of 
house drains has an influence upon their dis- 
charging capacity. Smooth vitrified pipes de- 
liver more water than rough cast-iron pipes. 
Table III. gives the discharge in United States 
gallons per minute of smooth vitrified and of 
rough iron pipes of different diameters, and at 
various grades, running full: — 

Table No. III. 


lEU Pipr.s. 


Rate of 

Diameter in 


4 5 6 8 

Rate of 

Diameter in 

4 6 6 8 





rm 840 2i:« 
■.m mi \rm 
•.".>:! 48C. 1 '.>:«! 

1 : •-'« 



I'iilUili 4 

Where sufficient fall cannot be obtained, 
Hushing arrangements .should be provided. 
House sewers should have tight joints to pre- 
vent leakage and contamination of the soil 
under anil around habitations, or tiic pollution 
of the drinking water in wells in the country. 

Two cardinal principles applying to all in- 
side house drainage arrangements are : — 

(1) All waste matter capable of being trans- 
ported by water must be removed completely 
as soon as produced. 

(2) The air of the street sewer and of the 
house pipes must not be jjermitted to enter the 
building through the outlets of fixtures. 

It is better to carry house drains e.\po.scd 

above the cellar floor, and plumbing fixtures in 
the cellar should l>e avoided. Drain, soil, and 
waste pijx's slioidd lie of hea\-y iron pijie, either 
cast-iron ))lumlx?rs' soil pipes or heavy screw- 
jointed wrought-iron pijx^s. Cast-iron pipes 
alxjve the cellar floor are left uncoated, for the 
tarring covers up sand holes and other defects, 
while wrought-iron pipes are protected against 
rust by asphalting or galvanizing. The advan- 
tages of a screw-jointed soil and Wii^ste pipe 
system are rigidity, jicrmanent tightness of the 
screw joints, and fewer joints as the pii^es can 
be u.sed in longer lengths. In larger buildings 
the screw-jointed .system with recessed drainage 
fittings is now preferred, but it is also apphetl 
in the best modem dwelling houses. 

Junctions and connections are made with 
Y-branches, for right-angled connections impede 
the flow and create stoppages. Changes in 
direction are made under 45 degrees, and no 
short quarter Ix'nds are used. Cleaning hand 
holes are providetl at traps, bends, junctions, 
and upper ends of lines. 

To prevent pressure of air, soil and waste 
pipes are extended full size up through the 
roof, and no i)ipes above the roof should be 
smaller than 4 inches. Soil and waste lines 
are carrieil straight to the roof and have projier 
fittings to receive branches from fixtures on the 
ditterent floors. Pipes aliove the roof are ex- 
tendetl at lejist 3 feet, their outlets being left 
open and unobstructed. • 

To induce a circulation of air through the 
pipes, the system is provided with foot ventihi- 
tion at its lowest point. When the drain is 
trapped before connection with the house sewer, 
circulation is obtained by a fresh air pipe on 
the house side of the trap carrietl out of doors 
to a jilace remote from windows and from the 
air supply of the heating apparatus. Where 
>rr. ( t M\\ri> arc constructed in accordance with 
;i \\. II 1. -i.iir.j plan, and are amply flu-shcd 
i:; 1 \r :! 1, ,;,.!, and where house jilumbing is 
tt -ii .1 I,, ~ci urc absolute tightness, main traps 
and fresh air inlets may be omitted, and the 
soil pipe sj'stem will receive air from the ven- 
tilating manholes on the street sewers. 

Leatl waste pipes, of weight as per Table 
IV., are used only for short branches connect- 
ing fixtures with the soil and waste hnes. 

Table No. IV. 

DiAllltTFK OK Pll-K IN 


IT IN PoiNr 

* l-(R 






Where practicable, fixtures sliould have sep- 
arate connections to the vertical lines. Table 
V. gives the sizes of soil and waste pipes and 
of lateral branches from fixtures : — 

Table No. V. 


Main soil pipes for dwellings 4 

Main soil pipes in large buildings of more 
than four stories, in tenement houses, fac- 
tories, schools, hospitals for insane . . 5 

Waste pipes in dwellings 2 

Waste pipes for buildings of more than four 

Branches for water-closets 4 

" " slop sinks 3 

■' " pantry and kitchen sinks . li-2 

" " bath tubs '2 

" " spray, douche, or needle batli ;! 

" " foot tubs, sitz tubs, bidets . IJ 

" " one wash basin l| 

" " row of wash basins .... 2 

" " set of laundry tubs .... 2 

'• " each tub IJ 

" " one urinal l.i 

" " row of urinals 2' 

An essential requirement of a system of house 
drainage is the safe trapping of plumbing fix 
tures. By this is meant the ajiplication of a 
suitable device under tlie waste nutlet which 
permits waste water to tiow c iff while it inter- 
poses a barrier against the return uf soil pipe 
air. {See Trap.) To lie sclt-cleunsing, traps 
should not be larger than the lnuiirh waste pipe 
as above given. The simjilcst Idim cif trap con- 
sists in a pipe bent in the shape of tiie letter U, 
and holding a certain depth of water forming a 
water seal. Atmospheric and other influences 
tend to destroy the seal. An abnormal pressure 
in a soil or waste pipe may force the seal by 
back pressure; sudden and quick discbarges 
of water through a soil pipe create a suction 
behind the water column, and exert a siplioning 
effect on the traps. During prolonged disuse of 
a fixture the water seal is lost by evaporation, 
amd the seal may also be destroyed by cajiillary 
attraction. Mechanical traps with Hnating halls, 
flap valves, checks, heavy lialls, cte., have hecii 
devised as an additional protection, but these are 
only partly efte