wenceslaus ii of legnica : définition de wenceslaus ii of legnica et synonymes de wenceslaus ii of legnica (anglais)

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Wenceslaus II of Legnica

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Wenceslaus II's tombstone in Nysa.
Wenceslaus II of Legnica (Polish: Wacław II legnicki; b. 1348 - d. 30 December 1419), was a Duke of Legnica since 1364 (only nominal; from 1409 he reigned alone and personally) until 1413, Bishop of Lubin (1375-82) and Wroclaw (1382-1417; also Duke of Nysa-Otmuchów).

He was the second son of Wenceslaus I, Duke of Legnica, by his wife Anna, daughter of Casimir I, Duke of Cieszyn.

Life

Duke Wenceslaus I didn't want to divide the already small Duchy of Legnica between his sons; for this, he destined Wenceslaus II and his younger brothers Bolesław IV and Henry VIII to the Church, leaving his oldest son Rupert I as the only and true ruler over Legnica. By 1363, Wenceslaus II was appointed as a Canon of the Chapter in Wroclaw (although he only took formal possession of this post in 1368).

After his father's death in 1364, Wenceslaus II and his brothers were placed under the guardianship of their uncle Louis I the Fair and later by his older brother Rupert I. Louis I took a special interest in the spiritual career of his nephew and since 1371, prepared him for the future post of Bishop of Wroclaw.

Since 1363, Wenceslaus II began his studies in the University of Prague, and in the decade of 1370 he travel to Montpellier, France, were he obtained a degree in canon law. In 1373, he was chosen as Bishop of Olomouc.

On 3 December 1375, Wenceslaus II was appointed by Pope Gregory XI as Bishop of Lubin, although by canon law, the legal age by this tipe of post was since thirty years. From the rule of Wenceslaus II in Lubin was known little; was founded only some information from Wenceslaus as Bishop at the Synod in the Archdiocese of Gniezno, Kalisz in 1378.

The diocese of Lubin produced few incomes. In addition, his location on the border between Brandenburg and Bohemia left Lubin considerably damaged during the war between Wittelsbachs the Luxemburgs. For this, Wecneslaus decide to move the diocese's capital from the diocese to Fürstenwalde.

In 1378 appeared before Wenceslaus II the chance to obain the Diocese of Wroclaw, because the elect Bishop Teodor of Klatow didn't received papal approval. Initially it appeared that the election of Wenceslaus II not cause any problems, but the death of Emperor Charles IV and the Western Schism in the Church left the post vacanted during almost six years, until 19 April 1382, when Wenceslaus II finally received confirmation of the Pope as the new Bishop. Facilitated the nomination that during 1379-1382 Wenceslaus II's brother Henry VIII acted as Administrator of the Diocese.

Wenceslaus II quickly became known by his forceful politics, standing invariably at the side of the Roman Papacy; at a reward for his loyalty in 1385 Pope Urban VI wanted to give him the title of Cardinal. For unknown reasons, the Duke-Bishop refused. If he accepted, Wenceslaus II would be the first Polish Cardinal.

The first years of his rule in the Wroclaw Diocese Wenceslaus II was merged in a bitter dispute with the local nobility , who tried to eliminated the law immunities of the Church. Shortly afterwards he was requestes to made a settlement of the dispute to King Wenceslaus IV, which Wroclaw whose bishops resisted to allowed the King to granted them the church property, including churches, as a fiefs. The case was even more serious for Wenceslaus II, because he doesn't have yet the King's approval for his episcopal dignity.

The settlement has been finally maded in 1382: Wrocław obtain the right to import goods from outside the clergy district (permitted only on the acquisition of their own needs, without the possibility of sales). In addition, King Wenceslaus IV approved for young Legnica Duke the Episcopal dignity and then Wecneslaus II officially received the Duchy of Nysa-Otmuchów as a fief belonging to the Diocese of Wroclaw.

As Bishop of Wroclaw Wenceslaus II was an efficient administrator. In 1415 he ordered the imposition and modification in the episcopal Diocese of a secular law court, which most of his items in the next few centuries become in pattersn for the rest of Silesian courts. Wenceslaus II's activities were expressed in Synods organizated by him (in 1401, 1405, 1406 and 1410).

The Duke-Bishop was also known for giving large sums to the Church foundations. During this time were founded: the Canon College in Otmuchów, and Kolegiatas in both Głogów and Niemodlin. In the disputes between the Polish Duchies and the Church he didn't hesitate to use the excommunication to his relatives (for example, the banned was applied by him to Duke Bolko IV of Opole).

This attitude caused several problems to Wenceslaus II, in particular the attacks of estates whose leaders were banned by him (like Duke Henry IX of Lüben). In order to raise funds for the defense, Wenceslaus didn't hesitate to pledge Church property.

In the governments of the Wroclaw Diocese, for some time Wenceslaus received the help of three Auxiliary bishops: the Benedictines: Tylman Wessel and Mikołaj of Boleslawiec and the Dominican Diersław.

On 12 January 1409, after the death of his last surviving brother Rupert I without male issue, Wenceslaus II became in the sole heir of the Duchy of Legnica; two months later, on 19 March, he designated as his heirs the brothers Henry IX and Louis II of Brieg, grandsons of Louis I the Fair. In 1413 Wenceslaus managed to united the Diocese of Wroclaw and the Duchy of Legnica in one state, trying in this way to save the title of Bishop to his successors.

On 16 March 1413 Wenceslaus II resigned from the government of Legnica and gave it to Louis II. That decision triggered in several war between Henry IX and Louis II, because the younger brother Henry IX resented that the whole principality was given to Louis II. Henry protested to Wenceslaus II and tried to convince him to revert his decision, but the Duke-Bishop maintain the inheritance over Louis.

In 1417, the tired and old Wenceslaus II sent to Pope Martin V his resignation from the Bishopric. Soon, Rome decided to approve it and on 17 December 1417 was chosen the new Bishop of Wroclaw: Duke Konrad IV of Oleśnica.

Wenceslaus II then retired to the Episcopal Seat of Otmuchów, were he spent his last years. He died on 30 December 1419, and was buried in the local Kolegiata of St. Nicholas. After the transfer of the Chapter all the Bishop's remains with their tombstones have been moved to Nysa. Since 1682 Wenceslaus II's remains and tombstone were placed in the Church of St. Jakob.

References

Preceded by
Wenceslaus I
Duke of Legnica
with Rupert I (until 1409),
Bolesław IV (until 1394),
and Henry VIII (until 1398)

1364–1413
Succeeded by
Louis II
Preceded by
Przecław von Pogarell
Duke of Nysa
1382–1417
Succeeded by
Konrad IV
Bishop of Wroclaw
1382–1417

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