(My original has many pictures and illustrations. Please excuse this installment until I am able to complete it.)
1946 1946 1946 1946
The Dachau Camp Jewish Communist Show Trials: 40 officials were tried; 36 of the defendants were sentenced to death on 12/13, 1945. Of these, 23 were hanged on the 5/28 -29, 1946, including the former commandant Gottfried Weiss and the camp doctor Claus Schilling. Smaller groups of Dachau camp officials and guards were included in several subsequent trials by the U.S. court. On 11/21, 1946 it was announced that, up to that date, 116 defendants of this category had been convicted and sentenced to terms of imprisonment. The Mauthausen Camp Trials: 61 officials of this camp were tried by a U.S. military court at Dachau in March/April, 1946; 58 defendants were sentenced to death on 5/11, 1946. Those executed included the commandant of the SS-Totenkopfverbände. The Flossenbürg Camp Trial: 52 officials and guards of this camp were tried between 6/12, 1946-1/19, 1947. Of the defendants, 15 sentenced to death and 25 to terms of imprisonment. The Buchenwald Camp Trial: Between April and August, 1947, 31 defendants were found guilty. Of these 22 were sentenced to death; 9 to imprisonment. The Mühldorf Camp Trial, five officials were sentenced to death by a U.S. war crimes court at Dachau on 5/13, 1947 and seven to imprisonment. The "Dora"-Nordhausen Trial: On 8/7, 1947 it convicted 15 former SS guards and Kapos (one was executed). The trial also addressed the question of liability of Mittelwerk V-2 rocket scientists.
Notable death sentences: Viktor Zoller: Former commander of guards at Mauthausen Camp was tried and Sentenced to death in April, 1946 and hanged 5/21, 1947. August Eigruber: Ex SS-Obergruppenführer, Gauleiter of Oberdonau (Upper Danube) and Landeshauptmann of Upper Austria for his responsibility for crimes at Mauthausen camp was hanged at Landsberg Prison on 5/28, 1947. Eduard Krebsbach: Ex SS-Sturmbannführer and chief physician of Mauthausen Camp, tried and sentenced to death 5/28, 1947 for murders by lethal injection and gassing. Josef Kisch: Ex SS-Gruppenführer and former official of Mauthausen camp was tried and sentenced to death 9/15, 1947 for murders of Allied POWs. Hans Moeser: Former commandant of Nordhausen Camp was sentenced to death on 12/30, 1947. Following appeals, he was hanged on 11/26, 1948. Jürgen Stroop: he was sentenced to death by the Dachau International Military Tribunal for the summary executions of the Allied airmen in Germany, but extradited to Poland, found guilty of war crimes and executed in Warsaw by the Polish authorities in 1952. Kurt Mathesius: Former commandant of Nordhausen, hanged himself while awaiting trial in May, 1947.
A Second Belsen Jewish Communist Show Trial (June 13–18, 1946) by a British Military Court. On trial was Kazimierz Cegielski, a Polish (Jew?) national and former prisoner at Bergen-Belsen who, according to his testimony, had arrived in March 1944. Known as "der Große (Big) Kazimierz" (to differentiate him from another kapo with that name), he was charged with cruelty and murder. [Kapos were prisoner functionaries selected by the SS to be supervise their fellow inmates. Kapos are like Trustees and were initially selected from the ranks of common criminal (the most populous). Later on, political (communist) inmates were chosen and then inmates from other subversive groups (Jews and foreign criminals). Kapos were chosen to manage their own groups and Kapo gangs developed. Since Jews could be common criminals, communists or any number of nationalities, they dominated camp systems. As the war progressed, SS camp personnel left the management of the camps to Kapos and only secured the perimeters.] Cegielski was accused of beating – sometimes killing – sick and weak prisoners with large wooden sticks or poles. While at Bergen-Belsen, he had an affair with another prisoner, Henny DeHaas, a Jewish woman from Amsterdam. After the war, in 1946, he was arrested in Amsterdam, ostensibly looking for DeHaas so he could marry her. He was convicted on 6/18, 1946 and sentenced to death by hanging. The day before his execution, he stated that his real name was Kasimir-Alexander Rydzewski. He was executed on 10/11, 1946.
The Mauthausen-Gusen Camp Jewish Communist Show Trials (3/29 – 5/13, 1946, 8/6 -8/21, 1947) by the Dachau International Military Tribunal. Between, a total of 69 former officials were tried. Among them were some of the former guards at the Mauthausen-Gusen camp system and August Eigruber, a former Gauleiter of Upper Austria. The first trial had 60 former members of the camp's administration and August Eigruber, a former Gauleiter of Upper Austria. Among the defendants were also Viktor Zoller (former commander of the SS-Totenkopf guard battalion), and doctors Friedrich Entress (an SS member and a medic who practiced medical experiments(or survival surgeries?) on hundreds of inmates; killing most of them with injections of phenol), Eduard Krebsbach and Erich Wasicky (responsible for running camp's gas chambers). The Mauthausen-Gusen commander, Franz Ziereis, was shot several weeks after the liberation of the Mauthausen-Gusen camps and died in former Camp Gusen I on 5/24, 1945. All of the defendants were accused of a wide variety of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Among them was murder, torture, beating and starving the inmates. After six weeks all the defendants were found guilty. 58 were sentenced to death by hanging (9 were later paroled and their sentences were changed to life imprisonment), whilst three were sentenced to life imprisonment. All the death sentences were carried out on 5/27-28, 1947 in Landsberg Prison.
August Eigruber – hung; Viktor Zoller – hung; Dr Friedrich Entress – hung; Hans Altfuldisch – hung; Josef Riegler – hung; Willy Brünning – hung; Emil Müller – hung; Kurt Keilwtz – hung; Franz Kautny – hung; Johannes Grimm – hung; Adolf Zutter – hung; dr Eduard Krebsbach – hung; Heinrich Häger – hung; Hans Spatzenneger – hung; Otto Striegel – hung; Werner Grahn – hung; Dr Willy Jobst – hung; Georg Gössl – hung; Hans Diehl – hung; Paul Kaiser (Gusen) – hung; Dr Waldemar Wolter – hung; Gustav Kreindl – hung; Willy Eckert – hung; Hermann Pribyll – hung; Josef Leeb – hung; Dr Wilhelm Henkel – hung; kapo Willy Frey – hung; Leopold Trauner –hung; Wilhelm Müller – hung; Heinrich Eisenhöfer – hung; Andreas Trumm – hung; Rudolf Mynzak –hung; Erich Meissner – hung; kapo Rudolf Fiegl – hung; Josef Niedermayer – hung; Julius Ludolf – hung; Hans Hegenscheidt – hung; Franz Huber – hung; dr Erich Wasicky – hung; Theophil Priebel – hung; Kaspar Klimowitsch – hung; Heinrich Fitschok – hung; Anton Kaufmann – hung; Stefan Barczey – hung; Karl Struller – hung; August Blei – hung; Otto Drabeck – hung; Vincenz Nohel – hung; Thomas Sigmund – hung; Heinrich Giese – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Walter Höhler – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Adolf Rutka death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Ludwig Dörr – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Viktor Korger – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Karl Billman – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Herbert Grzybowski – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Wilhelm Mack – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment); Ferdinand Lappert – death by hanging (changed to life imprisonment) ; Michael Cserny – life imprisonment ; Paul Gützlaff – life imprisonment ; Josef Mayer – life imprisonment
The Second Mauthausen Camp Jewish Communist Show Trial started on August 6, 1947. Altogether 8 former members of the camp's administration were accused of the same set of crimes as in the former trial. On August 21 the verdict was reached. Four Nazis were sentenced to death by hanging, one for life imprisonment, two for short-term sentences and one was acquitted of all the charges. The death sentences were carried out on August 10, 1948. Franz Kofler – hung; Gustav Petrat – hung; Michael Heller – hung; kapo Quirin Flaucher – hung; Emil Thielmann – life imprisonment ; Hermann Franz Bütgen – 3 years in prison ; Arno Albert Reuter – 2 years in prison ; Stefan Lennart – acquitted.
The Hamburg Ravensbrück Jewish Communist Show Trial were a series of seven trials for war crimes against camp officials from the Ravensbrück camp that the British authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Hamburg after the end of World War II. These trials were heard before a military tribunal; the three to five judges at these trials were British officers, assisted by a lawyer. The defendants included camp personnel of all levels: SS officers, camp doctors, male guards, female guards (Aufseherinnen), and a few former prisoner-functionaries who had tortured or mistreated other inmates. In total, 38 defendants were tried in these seven trials. 21 of the defendants were women. Executions relating to these trials were carried out at Hameln Prison by British hangman Albert Pierrepoint.
The First Ravensbrück Jewish Communist Show Trial (12/5, 1946 until 2/3, 1947. Sentences: Johann Schwarzhuber Deputy camp leader, Death; Gustav Binder Warden, Death; Heinrich Peters Warden 15 years, released 5/18, 1955 ; Ludwig Ramdohr Gestapo inspector, Death; Martin Hellinger Medical doctor 15 years, released 5/14, 1955 ; Rolf Rosenthal Medical doctor, Death; Gerhard Schiedlausky Medical doctor, Death; Percy Treite Medical doctor, Death and committed suicide on 4/8, 1947; Adolf Winkelmann Medical doctor, Died during the process on 2/1, 1947; Dorothea Binz Chief warden (Oberaufseherin), Death; Greta Bösel Warden, Death; Margarete Mewes Warden 10 years, released 2/26, 1952; Elisabeth Marschall Nurse, Death; Carmen Mory Inmate Kapo, Death, committed suicide on 4/9, 1947; Vera Salvequart Inmate Kapo, Death, executed on 6/2, 1947; Eugenia von Skene Inmate Kapo 10 years, released 12/21, 1951; The death sentences (except for Salvequart) were executed on May 2—3, 1947, in Hameln. Two more defendants, camp leader Fritz Suhren and "work leader" Hans Pflaum, escaped from custody prior to the trial. They were reapprehended under assumed names in 1949 and handed over to the French authorities, who already ran another Ravensbrück trial in Rastatt at the time. Both men were sentenced to death in that trial and were shot on June 12, 1950.
In the Second Ravensbrück Jewish Communist Show Trial, which lasted from 11/5–27, 1947, the only defendant was Friedrich Opitz, another camp official who had managed to flee before the first trial began. Opitz had been a factory leader in the concentration camp. He received a death sentence, which was executed on February 26, 1948.
In the Third Ravensbrück Jewish Communist Show Trial, the so-called "Uckermark trial" that took place from April 14-26, 1948, five female camp officials of the camp Uckermark, were indicted on four charges: Mistreatment of allied women in Uckermark ; Participation in the selection of allied women for the gas chamber in Uckermark ; Mistreatment of allied women in the camp Ravensbrück ; Selection of allied women for the gas chamber(none, of course!) in the camp Ravensbrück. The camp Uckermark was about one mile from the Ravensbrück camp. It had been opened in May 1942 as a prison or camp for girls aged 16 to 21 that were considered criminal or just difficult. Girls that reached the upper age limit were transferred to the Ravensbrück women's camp. Camp administration was provided by the Ravensbrück camp. In January 1945, the juvenile's camp was closed and the infrastructure was subsequently used as a camp for "sick, no longer efficient, and over 52 years old women". Sentences Johanna Braach Criminal inspector; warden in the juvenile's camp acquitted; Lotte Toberentz Camp leader of the juvenile's camp acquitted; Elfriede Mohneke Warden of the camp 10 years, released 6/14, 1952; Margarete Rabe Warden of the camp lifetime; in 1950 to 21 years, released 6/16, 1959; Ruth Neudeck Chief warden of the camp, Death, then executed on July 29, 1949. Braach and Toberentz were acquitted because they had worked at Uckermark only while it still was a juvenile's camp, and there were no allied women there at that time: the camp was used exclusively for German girls, whose fate or treatment was of no interest to the tribunal.
The Fourth Jewish Communist Show Trial was held from May to June 8, 1948. The accused were all members of the medical staff of the camp at Ravensbrück, including one inmate that worked as a nurse. The charges again centered on mistreatment, torture, and sending to gas chambers (impossible!) of women of allied nationality.: Benno Orendi Medical doctor, Death, then executed 9/17, 1948; Walter Sonntag Medical doctor, Death, executed 9/17, 1948; Martha Haake Nurse 10 years imprisonment, then released on January 1, 1951 due to medical reasons; Liesbeth Krzok Nurse 4 years, released 2/3, 1951; Gerda Ganzer Inmate Nurse, Death. Ganzer had already stood trial for her activities in Ravensbrück in 1946 before a Russian military tribunal and had been acquitted. In Hamburg, she was found guilty, but her death sentence was commuted into lifetime on 7/3, 1948, which in turn was reduced to 21 years imprisonment in 1950 and further to 12 years in 1954. She was finally released on 6/6, 1961.
In the Fifth Jewish Communist Show Trial, three SS members were accused of having killed allied inmates of the Ravensbrück camp. The trial lasted from June 16 to 29, 1948. The judgments were handed down on July 15, 1948.: Arthur Conrad SS warden, Death, then executed September 17, 1948 ; Heinrich Schäfer SS warden 2 years imprisonment, then released October 28, 1949 ; Walter Schenk SS warden 20 years imprisonment, then released August 3, 1954
The Sixth Jewish Communist Show Trial lasted from July 1–26, 1948. Both defendants were accused of having mistreated allied inmates of the Ravensbrück camp.: Kurt Lauer SS warden 15 years imprisonment, then released May 7, 1955 ; Kurt Rauxloh SS warden 10 years imprisonment, then released September 26, 1954 due to medical reasons
The Seventh Jewish Communist Show Trial from July 2–21, 1948. Six (female camp wardens) were tried. The charges were mistreatment of inmates of allied nationality and participation in the selection of inmates for the gas chamber. : Luise Brunner Chief warden (Oberaufseherin) 3 years imprisonment ; Anna Friederike Mathilde Klein Chief warden acquitted due to lack of evidence ; Emma Zimmer Chief Warden, Death, then executed September 20, 1948; Christine Holthöwer Warden acquitted due to lack of evidence ; Ida Schreiter Warden, Death, then executed September 20, 1948 ; Ilse Vettermann Warden 12 years imprisonment.
The Auschwitz Jewish Communist Show Trial (11/24, 1947-12/22, 1947) Polish authorities tried 41 former staff of the Auschwitz camps. The trials ended on December 22, 1947. The best-known defendants were Arthur Liebehenschel, former commandant; Maria Mandel, head of the Auschwitz women's camps; and SS-doctor Johann Kremer. 38 other SS officers — 34 men and four women — who had served as guards or doctors in the camps were also tried. Sentences: Summary: 23 death sentences, 16 imprisonments from life sentences to 3 years, one person acquitted. Liebehenschel, Mandel and Kremer were condemned to death, as were Hans Aumeier, August Bogusch, Therese Brandl, Arthur Breitwiser, Fritz Buntrock, Wilhelm Gehring, Paul Götze, Maximilian Grabner, Heinrich Josten, Hermann Kirschner, Josef Kollmer, Franz Kraus, Herbert Ludwig, Karl Möckel, Kurt Mueller, Eric Muhsfeldt, Ludwig Plagge, Hans Schumacher and Paul Szczurek (Arthur Breitwieser and Johann Kremer had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment). Luise Danz, Hans Koch, Anton Lechner, Adolf Medefind, Detlef Nebbe, and Karl Seufert received life sentences; Oswald Kaduk was sentenced to 25 years' imprisonment; Alexander Bülow, Hans Hoffmann, Hildegard Lächert, Eduard Lorenz, Alice Orlowski, Franz Romeikat, and Johannes Weber were sentenced to 15 years; Richard Schroeder received 10 years, Erich Dinges five years, and Karl Jeschke three years. Hans Münch was acquitted. Rudolf Höß, sentenced in another trial, was executed on April 16, 1947 in front of the crematorium at Auschwitz I. All other executions were carried out in a Kraków prison on January 28, 1948; Maria Mandel and Therese Brandl were the first to be executed.
Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Höss (11/25, 1901 – 4/16, 1947) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel), and from May 4, 1940 to November 1943 the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp. Höss joined the Nazi Party in 1922 and the SS in 1934. He was hanged in 1947 following his trial in Warsaw. In his tortured confessions and threats to his family, he gave several wild statements. Höss was a defense witness at Nuremberg with these confessions. Yet, in his memoirs, under this weight, he wrote, "A great deal happened in Auschwitz, presumably in my name, on my direction, on my orders, about which I neither knew, nor would have tolerated, nor approved of."
****National Personifications of countries: Lady of the Mountains (Iceland); Ola Nordmann (Norway); Holger the Dane (Denmark); Mother Svea (Sweden); Finnish Maiden (Finland); Adelita (Mexico); Uncle Sam (USA); Mother Canada (Canada); Jock Tamson (Scotland); Kathleen Ni Houlihan (Ireland); John Bull (England); Dame Wales (Wales)
International Vehicle Codes by the UN's Geneva Convention on Road Traffic of 1949 and the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of 1968.: ALBANIA AL, AUSTRIA A, BELARUS BY, BELGIUM B, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BIH, BULGARIA BG, CROATIA (Hrvatska) HR, CZECH REPUBLIC CZ, DENMARK DK, ESTONIA EST, FINLAND FIN, FRANCE F, GEORGIA GE, GERMANY (Deutschland) D , GIBRALTAR GBZ, GREAT BRITAIN GB, GREECE GR, HUNGARY H, ICELAND IS, IRELAND IRL, ITALY I, LATVIA LV, LIECHTENSTEIN (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) FL, LITHUANIA LT, LUXEMBOURG L, MACEDONIA (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) MK, MALTA M, MOLDOVA MD, MONACO MC, MONTENEGRO MN, NETHERLANDS NL, NORWAY N, POLAND PL, PORTUGAL P, ROMANIA RO, RUSSIA RUS, SAN MARINO (Republic of) RSM, SERBIA SRB, SLOVAKIA SK, SLOVENIA SLO, SPAIN (España) E, SWEDEN S, SWITZERLAND (Confederation of Helvetia) CH, UKRAINE UA, UNITED KINGDOM (Great Britain) GB, VATICAN CITY (Stato della Città del Vaticano) SCV.
****Fraudulent Memoirs of Hitler: There were many authors of stories of Hitler. Some were obviously fraudulent for many reasons, usually monetary profit or Allied propaganda. Ghostwriters would take memoirs and twist them until their originators would deny them. Some of these frauds discredited each other. Many mixed truth with fiction. Authors who knew, believed and trusted Hitler before the turning point of the War or some other incident would turn against him with seemingly opposite memories. The ‘good’ Hitler became the ‘bad’ Hitler. Authors would feign ignorance to save their own lives or reputations. Others were never real friends but just opportunists. Some are mentioned elsewhere in this Thesis. Here are some more examples:
(Reinhold Hanisch, painted by Hitler, 1910) Reinhold Hanisch (1/27, 1884 -2/2, 1937) was an Austrian migrant worker and sometime business partner of the young Adolf Hitler. Hanisch, who published articles on Hitler, with whom he had lived in 1910, is, next to August Kubizek, one of the few witnesses to Hitler's Vienna years. The veracity of Hanisch’s publications, however, must be taken with caution.
In the Vienna homeless shelter in Meidling, where he lived, he met Hitler, December 21, 1909. In 1910 Hanisch lived with Hitler, whom he took under his wing, in the Meldemannstraße men’s dormitory. The first months of 1910 constituted a kind of Hitler-Hanisch Partnership: While Hitler painted postcards and pictures, mostly watercolors, Hanisch took over their sale. The men shared equally the sums received. Finally, Hitler split with Hanisch, accusing Hanisch of selling one of Hitler’s paintings (a very carefully crafted view of the Vienna Parliament) and keeping the entire proceeds of the sale for himself. Hanisch denied this charge. In order to secure a new revenue stream, Hanisch began painting and became Hitler’s competitor. Hanisch supplied, among others, the Jewish frame dealer Jakob Altenberg with pictures and postcards. On August 4, 1910 Hanisch was reported to the police by another dormitory resident, Siegfried Löffner, who was acting as Hitler's seller. The Vienna police discovered that Hanisch was registered in Vienna under the false name of Fritz Walter. On August 11, 1910 a Viennese court sentenced Hanisch to seven days in prison. After 1930, Hanisch worked as a painter. He produced watercolors, which he sold as alleged works of Hitler from their years in Vienna. On May 7, 1932 Hanisch was sentenced to three days in jail. Hanisch’s memoir of Hitler posthumously appeared in 1939 in The New Republic. In 1933, after spending several months in prison Hanisch continued to forge Hitler pictures. On December 2, 1936 he was sentenced to prison for fraud. Hanisch probably died February 1937 in detention. Besides some lies in the memoir, Hanisch stressed that Hitler had a good relationship with the Jews in the men’s home. Hitler associated almost exclusively with Jews and his best friend in the home was the Jewish copper cleaner Josef Neumann. Another Jewish friend was a one-eyed locksmith's assistant, Simon Robinsohn, who came from the town of Lisko in Galicia. The truth of these statements has been verified by historians. (?)
Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Edgeworth Morgan KCB (2/5 1894 – 3/19 1967) was a British Army officer who fought in WWI & WWII. He is best known as the Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander (COSSAC), the original planner of Operation Overlord. In September 1945 Morgan became the Chief of Operations for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Germany. In January 1946 he created a furor by claiming that there was a secret Zionist organization that was attempting to facilitate an "exodus" of Jewish people from Europe to a new state in Palestine with Soviet encouragement. He later wrote: “I had been able to piece together a reasonably comprehensive picture of the way in which the UNRRA set up was being most skillfully used to promote what was nothing less than a Zionist campaign of aggression in Palestine. In defiance of the prohibition by the British Mandatory power, reluctant as ever to employ decisive means, the admirably organized Zionist command was employing any and every means of forcing immigration into the country irrespective of the hardship and sufferings of the immigrants, few of whom seemed to have spontaneous enthusiasm for the Zionist cause. The whole project evidently had Russian connivance, if not actual support, since its success would conduce to the elimination of British authority in a vital area of the Middle East.” UNRRA expected that Morgan would offer his resignation but he did not do so. An attempt to clarify his position "off the record" failed, and Morgan was fired by UNRRA Director (Jew) Fiorello La Guardia for repeatedly making accusations against Jewish displaced persons that were broadly interpreted as offensive. Morgan retired from the British Army in December 1946 with the honorary rank of lieutenant general.
Henry Wallace, Secretary of Commerce, under President Harry Truman, wrote in his dairy that in 1946 "Truman was "exasperated" over Jewish pressure that he support Zionist rule over Palestine. Wallace added "Pres. Truman expressed himself as being very much 'put out' with the Jews. He said that 'Jesus Christ couldn't please them when he was here on Earth, so how could anyone expect that I would have any luck?' Pres. Truman said he had no use for them and didn't care what happened to them."
William Joyce (4/24 1906 – 1/3 1946), nicknamed Lord Haw-Haw, was a fascist politician and Nazi broadcaster to the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He was executed for treason by the British government as a result of his wartime activities. Before execution: “In death as in life, I defy the Jews who caused this last war, and I defy the power of darkness which they represent. I warn the British people against the crushing imperialism of the Soviet Union. May Britain be great once again and the hour of the greatest danger in the West may the standard be raised from the dust, crowned with the words – you have conquered nevertheless. I am proud to die for my ideals and I am sorry for the sons of Britain who have died without knowing why.” In 1924, while stewarding a Conservative Party meeting, Joyce was attacked and received a deep razor slash that ran across his right cheek. It left a permanent scar which ran from the earlobe to the corner of the mouth. Joyce was convinced that his attackers were "Jewish communists".
Abraham Leon (1918-1944) (born Abraham Wejnstok), was a Jewish Trotskyist activist and theorist. He was born in Warsaw but his family moved to Belgium where he grew up. Leon exhorted Belgian workers to fight both Hitler and Churchill in the classical Leninist fashion of turning the World War into civil war. He wrote The Jewish Question: A Marxist Interpretation, a work which remains a widely used Marxist analysis of Jewish socio-economic history, published in 1946. He writes of Jewish Capitalism.
Heckle and Jeckle are postwar animated cartoon characters created by Paul Terry in 1946. The characters are a pair of identical anthropomorphic magpies who calmly outwit their foes in the manner of Bugs Bunny, while maintaining an aggressively mischievous streak reminiscent of the early Woody Woodpecker or Screwy Squirrel. Unlike Bugs Bunny, their comic aggression is often unprovoked, and in a number (perhaps most) of their cartoons (Moose on the Loose, Free Enterprise, The Power of Thought, Hula Hula Land) their foes win in the end.
Jeckle speaks with a slightly falsetto English accent, and his dialogue is somewhat more refined. Heckle is more rough around the edges, and speaks with a more informal, slangy vernacular and gruff New York dialect. While both are basically brash, cynical and antagonistic, Heckle may be more openly confrontational, and Jeckle slightly more devious. In spite of their accents, many critics consider these characters as portraying Negroes.
March 18, 1946 Purim, the Jewish holiday of Revenge against Gentiles. Jews throughout the world label specific enemies as Haman and Christianity in general as Haman. Other episodes of revenge throughout the year could still be connected to the spirit of Purim.A Purim parade in the Landsberg DP (displaced persons) camp celebrating the holiday in March 1946. Various vehicles took part in the procession, with a prop representing an effigy of Hitler hanging, and a man wearing camp inmates' garb.
Germany’s reduced dependency upon imports and its phenomenal increase in productivity and exports provided Germany with an economic and social advantage with which neither Britain, the USA and the USSR could compete. Furthermore, severe social deprivation, the effect of the Great Depression, social unrest and economic uncertainty in these countries were in contrast to Germany which was experiencing an economic and social miracle. Germany had to be destroyed. Hitler was well aware that Britain and America would seek to resolve their problem by initiating a trade war that would destroy Germany and grab its markets. “The war was not just a matter of the elimination of Fascism in Germany, but rather of obtaining German sales markets.” (Winston Churchill, Fulton, March 1946)
Rabbi Spitz, American Hebrew, March 1, 1946 – “American Jewry too must come to grips with our contemporary anti-Semites. We must fill our jails with anti-Semitic gangsters, we must fill our insane asylums with anti-Semitic lunatics, we must combat every alien Jew-hater, we must harass and prosecute our Jew baiters to the extreme limits of the laws, we must humble and shame our anti-Semitic hoodlums to such an extent that none will wish to dare to become "fellow-travelers."
Hermann Alexander Graf Keyserling (7/20, 1880–4/26, 1946) was a wealthy philosopher from the aristocratic Baltic German Keyserlingk family. He married the granddaughter of Otto von Bismarck. His son Arnold Keyserling was a renowned philosopher as well. They were both called Anti-Semite, only because they considered the two nations different. He actually wanted the Germans to be more like the Jews.
****Japan War Crime Trials
May 5, 1946 International Military Tribunal for the Far East to try the Japanese , but other Asian countries tried far more Japanese—an estimated five thousand, executing as many as 900 and sentencing more than half to life in prison. Twenty-eight Japanese military and political leaders were charged with Class A crimes, and more than 5,700 Japanese nationals were charged with Class B and C crimes, mostly entailing prisoner abuse. China held 13 tribunals of its own, resulting in 504 convictions and 149 executions.
The Japanese Emperor Hirohito, and all members of the imperial family such as Prince Asaka, were not prosecuted for any involvement in any of the three categories of crimes. As many as 50 suspects, such as Nobusuke Kishi, who later became Prime Minister, and Yoshisuke Aikawa, head of the zaibatsu Nissan, and future leader of the Chuseiren, were charged but released without ever being brought to trial in 1947 and 1948. Shiro Ishii received immunity in exchange for data gathered from his experiments on live prisoners. The tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948.
Following the model used at the Nuremberg Trials in Germany, the Allies established three broad categories. "Class A" charges alleging "crimes against peace" were to be brought against Japan's top leaders who had planned and directed the war. Class B and C charges, which could be leveled at Japanese of any rank, covered "conventional war crimes" and "crimes against humanity," respectively. The indictment accused the defendants of promoting a scheme of conquest that "contemplated and carried out ... murdering, maiming and ill-treating prisoners of war (and) civilian internees ... forcing them to labor under inhumane conditions ... plundering public and private property, wantonly destroying cities, towns and villages beyond any justification of military necessity; (perpetrating) mass murder, rape, pillage, brigandage, torture and other barbaric cruelties upon the helpless civilian population of the over-run countries."
They were accused of war in violation of international law by waging unprovoked war against China; Waging aggressive war against the United States; Waging aggressive war against the British Commonwealth; Waging aggressive war against the Netherlands; Waging aggressive war against France (Indochina); Waging aggressive war against the USSR; permitted inhumane treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) and others; and disregarded their duty to take steps to prevent atrocities.
The evidentiary standard was greatly relaxed. The Charter provided that evidence against the accused could include any document "without proof of its issuance or signature" as well as diaries, letters, press reports and sworn or unsworn out of court statements relating to the charges. Article 13 of the Charter read in part: "The tribunal shall not be bound by technical rules of evidence . . . and shall admit any evidence which it deems to have probative value". War time press releases of the Allies were admitted as evidence by the prosecution while those sought to be entered by the defense were excluded. The recollection of a conversation with a long-dead man was admitted. Letters allegedly written by Japanese citizens were admitted with no proof of authenticity and no opportunity for cross examination by the defense.
"Tanaka Memorial" The prosecution argued that a 1927 document known as the Tanaka Memorial showed that a "Common Plan or Conspiracy" to commit "Crimes against Peace" bound the accused together. Thus, the prosecution argued that the conspiracy had begun in 1927 and continued through to the end of the Asia and Pacific War in 1945. The Tanaka Memorial is now considered by most historians to have been a forgery; however, it was not regarded as such at the time.
Former Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo maintained that Japan had had no choice but to enter the war for self-defense purposes. He asserted that "[because of the Hull Note] we felt at the time that Japan was being driven either to war or suicide".
Justice Radhabinod Pal (India) produced a 1,235-page judgment in which he dismissed the legitimacy of the IMTFE as mere victor's justice. "I would hold that each and every one of the accused must be found not guilty of each and every one of the charges in the indictment and should be acquitted on all those charges," concluded Pal. Pal did not question whether the Japanese military had committed atrocities during the war. While taking into account the influence of wartime propaganda, exaggerations and distortions of facts in the evidence, and "over-zealous" and "hostile" witnesses, Pal concluded, "The evidence is still overwhelming that atrocities were perpetrated by the members of the Japanese armed forces against the civilian population of some of the territories occupied by them as also against the prisoners of war."
The Khabarovsk War Crime Trials held by the Soviets tried and found guilty some members of Japan's bacteriological and chemical warfare unit (Unit 731). However those who surrendered to the Americans were never brought to trial as MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological weapons. One of the focuses of the Tribunal was crimes against peace, but Gen. MacArthur himself after retirement on May 3, 1951 in the Senate Armed Services Committee stated, "They (Japanese) feared that if those supplies were cut off, there would be 10 to 12 million people unoccupied in Japan. Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security."
Because the United States had provided the funds and the staff necessary for the running of the Tribunal and also held the function of Chief Prosecutor, there were some who argued that it was difficult, if not impossible, to reconcile these different elements with the requirement of impartiality with which such an organ should be invested. This apparent conflict gave the impression that the tribunal was no more than a means for the dispensation of victor’s justice. French National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen state that If we talk about war criminals, aren't those who bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki also war criminals?
Justice Radhabinod Pal, the Indian justice at the IMTFE, argued that the exclusion of Western colonialism and the use of the atom bomb by the United States from the list of crimes, and judges from the vanquished nations on the bench, signified the "failure of the Tribunal to provide anything other than the opportunity for the victors to retaliate." In this he was not alone among Indian jurists of the time, one prominent Calcutta barrister writing that the Tribunal was little more than "a sword in a [judge's] wig".
According to Herbert Bix, Brigadier General Bonner Fellers "immediately on landing in Japan went to work to protect Hirohito from the role he had played during and at the end of the war" and "allowed the major criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the emperor would be spared from indictment." "With the full support of MacArthur's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor".
On March 7, 1950, MacArthur issued a directive that reduced the sentences by one-third for good behavior and authorized the parole of those who had received life sentences after fifteen years. Several of those who were imprisoned were released earlier on parole due to ill-health. The Japanese popular reaction to the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal found expression in demands for the mitigation of the sentences of war criminals and agitation for parole. Shortly after the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect in April 1952, a movement demanding the release of B- and C-class war criminals began, emphasizing the "unfairness of the war crimes tribunals" and the "misery and hardship of the families of war criminals." By the end of 1958, all Japanese war criminals, including A-, B- and C-class were released from prison and politically rehabilitated. In 1978, the kami of 1,068 convicted war criminals, including 14 convicted Class-A war criminals ("crimes against peace") were secretly enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine. The fourteen Class A war criminals enshrined at Yasukuni including former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo.
****Japanese War Crimes. The Japanese have a more societal view of man as opposed to the Jewish/Western hyper-individualism. They did treat the general Allied POW troops with meager subsistence, but the Allied Officers had every convenience and nicety. The Allies treated the Japanese as sub-human and committed numerous atrocities against them, simply killing many who they could have taken prisoner.
List of major incidents of atrocities from the Victor’s perspective (from Wikipedia): Andaman Islands occupation ; Balalae Island ; Korea under Japanese rule ; Massacres: Alexandra Hospital massacre ; Banka Island massacre ; Changjiao massacre ; Kalagong massacre ; Laha massacre ; Manila massacre ; Nanking Massacre ; Palawan Massacre ; Parit Sulong Massacre ; Sook Ching massacre ; Tol Plantation massacre ; Wake Island massacre ; War crimes: Bataan Death March ; Burma Railway ; Comfort women ; Hell ships ; Panjiayu tragedy ; Sandakan Death Marches ; Three Alls Policy ; War crimes in Manchukuo ; Changteh chemical weapon attack ; Kaimingye germ weapon attack. (All have revisionist explanations.)
This was a major war of Asians against Western Imperialism and Western Communism. As many nationalities joined Germany in its fight, so did many nationalities join Japan in its fight. Japanese war crimes were not always carried out by ethnic Japanese personnel. A small minority of people in every Asian and Pacific country invaded or occupied by Japan collaborated with the Japanese military, or even served in it, for a wide variety of reasons, such as economic hardship, coercion, or antipathy to other imperialist powers.
Unlike many other major powers, Japan had not signed the Geneva Convention (1929)—also known as The Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva July 27, 1929—which was the version of the Geneva Convention that covered the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II. Nevertheless, an Imperial Proclamation (1894) stated that Japanese soldiers should make every effort to win the war without violating international law. According to historian Yuki Tanaka, Japanese forces during the First Sino-Japanese War, released 1,790 Chinese prisoners without harm, once they signed an agreement not to take up arms against Japan again. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), all 79,367 Russian Empire prisoners were released, and were paid for labor performed, in accordance with the Hague Convention. Similarly the behavior of the Japanese military in World War I (1914–18) was at least as humane as that of other militaries, with some German POWs of the Japanese finding life in Japan so agreeable that they stayed and settled in Japan after the war.
Many historians consider the killing of Chinese who were suspected of guerilla activity to be perfectly legal and valid, including some of those killed at Nanjing, for example. They take the view that many Chinese civilian casualties resulted from the scorched earth tactics of the Chinese nationalists and are wrongly attributed to the Japanese military. Some Asian administrations cooperating with the Japanese were necessarily harsh to conquer native warlords’ criminality. Korea, for example, was "better" than the previous rule in terms of human rights and economic development.
The Kantōgun (also known as the Kwantung Army) was at least partly culpable for needless harshness. Although the Kantōgun was nominally subordinate to the Japanese high command at the time, its leadership demonstrated significant self-determination, as shown by its involvement in the plot to assassinate Zhang Zuolin in 1928, and the Manchurian Incident of 1931, which led to the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932. Moreover, at that time, it was the official policy of the Japanese high command to confine the conflict to Manchuria. But in defiance of the high command, the Kantōgun invaded China proper, under the pretext of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. However, the Japanese government not only failed to court martial the officers responsible for these incidents, but it also accepted the war against China, and many of those who were involved were even promoted. (Some of the officers involved in the Nanking incident were also promoted.) Hirohito deliberately styled his rule in the manner of the British constitutional monarchy, and he always accepted the decisions and consensus reached by the high command.
Some activists outside Japan are also attempting controversial reinterpretations of Japanese imperialism. For example, the views of a South Korean ex-military officer and right wing commentator, Ji Man-Won, have caused controversy in Korea and further abroad. Ji has praised Japan for "modernizing" Korea, and has said of women forced to become sex slaves: "most of the old women claiming to be former comfort women, or sex slaves to the Japanese military during World War II, are fakes."
Unit 731 was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. Unit 731 was based in Harbin in Manchukuo. It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army. Between 3,000 and 12,000 men, women, and children were murdered. Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in post-war politics, academia, business, and medicine. The reason they were not tried was that the information and experience gained in the studies of the biological warfare was of a great value for the US biological weapons development program. (How much of the known information is propaganda?)
1946****The French Foreign Legion is a unique military unit in the French Army established in 1831. The legion was specifically created for foreign nationals wishing to serve in the French Armed Forces. Commanded by French officers, it is also open to French citizens, who amounted to 24% of the recruits as of 2007. The Legion is today known as an elite military unit whose training focuses not only on traditional military skills but also on its strong esprit de corps. As its men come from different countries with different cultures, this is a widely accepted solution to strengthen them enough to work as a team. Consequently, training is often described as not only physically challenging, but also extremely stressful psychologically.
The purpose of the Legion was to remove disruptive elements from society and put them to use fighting the enemies of France. Recruits included failed revolutionaries from the rest of Europe, soldiers from the disbanded foreign regiments, and troublemakers in general, both foreign and French. Algeria was the Legion's home for 130 years. The Legion was primarily used to protect and expand the French colonial empire during the 19th century, but it also fought in almost all French wars including the Franco-Prussian War and both World Wars. Following the WW II, many former German soldiers joined the Legion to pursue a military career with an elite unit, an option that was no longer possible in Germany. To this day, Germans constitute a strong presence in the Legion.
The "Legionnaire's Code of Honour” - The Legionnaires spend many hours learning it, reciting it, and then getting the vocal synchronisation together: Art. 1 - Légionnaire, you are a volunteer serving France with "Honour and Fidelity".; Art. 2 - Each legionnaire is your brother in arms whatever his nationality, his race or his religion might be. You show to him the same close solidarity that links the members of the same family.; Art. 3 - Respect of traditions, devotion to your leaders, discipline and comradeship are your strengths, courage and loyalty your virtues.; Art. 4 - Proud of your status as Legionnaire, you display this in your uniform, which is always impeccable, your behaviour always dignified but modest, your living quarters always clean.; Art. 5 - An elite soldier, you will train rigorously, you will maintain your weapon as your most precious possession, you are constantly concerned with your physical form.; Art. 6 - A mission is sacred, you will carry it out until the end respecting laws, customs of war, international conventions and, if necessary, at a risk of your life.; Art. 7 - In combat, you will act without passion and without hate, you will respect the vanquished enemy, you will never abandon your dead or wounded, nor surrender your arms.
(The Legion is our Fatherland) is the motto of the Legion. The French Foreign Legion respects the original fatherland of the légionnaires who are totally free to preserve their nationalities. The Legion even asks the agreement of any légionnaire who could be sent in a military operation where his country of origin would be committed.
The Pioneers of the Legion are the combat engineers and a traditional unit of the Legion. The sapeurs traditionally sport large beards, wear leather aprons and gloves and hold axes. The sappers were very common in the French army and in other European armies during the Napoleonic era but progressively disappeared in the 19th century, except in the Legion. In the French Army, since the 18th century, every grenadier battalion had a small unit of sappers. They had the mission to advance, under the enemy's fire, in order to destroy with their axes the obstacles drawn by the enemy and to clear the way for the rest of the infantry. The danger of such missions and their short life expectancies, allowed them certain privileges, such as the authorization to wear beards. Also notable is the marching pace of the Legion. In comparison to the 120-step-per-minute pace of other French units, the Legion has an 88-step-per-minute marching speed. Contrary to popular belief, the adoption of the Legion's slow marching speed was not due to a need to preserve energy and fluids during long marches under the hot Algerian sun. It hails back to the slow, majestic marching pace of the Ancien Régime, and its reintroduction was a "return to traditional roots".
1946 The Italian Social Movement (MSI), and later the Italian Social Movement–National Right, was a neo-fascist and post-fascist political party in Italy. Formed in 1946 by supporters of former Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, the party became the fourth largest party in Italy by the early 1960s. The MSI gave informal local and eventually national support to the Christian Democrats from the late 1940s and through the 1950s. In the early 1960s, the party was pushed to the sidelines of Italian politics, and only gradually started to gain some political recognition in the 1980s.
5/11, 1946. British advocate of monetary reform C.H. Douglas (see 1924) requests proof for the alleged figure of six million killed Jews, while noting the “enormous numbers” of Jewish survivors in Germany.
5/22, 1946. American scholar Austin Joseph App (see 1973) in a letter to Time magazine questions their assertion that 6.5 million Jews lived in Europe excluding Russia at the time of the outbreak of World War II. App found this claim exaggerated and reminded of the high number of Jews still present in Germany by the end of the war as well as the flow of 3 million refugees, most of them presumably Jews, into the United States prior to and during the war years, concluding that “What we have heard regarding the Jewish population of Europe and its treatment is not substantiated fact”.
5/22/1946 In Kunmadaras, Hungary, a pogram resulted in the killing of two and wounding of fifteen Jews. The frenzy was instigated by the crowd's belief that the Jews had made sausage out of Christian children.
The Greek Civil War was fought from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek governmental army, backed by the United Kingdom, United States, and the Democratic Army of Greece (ΔΣΕ), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania. It was the result of a highly polarized struggle between leftists and rightists which started from 1943 and targeted the power vacuum that the German-Italian occupation during World War II had created. One of the first conflicts of the Cold War, according to some analysts it represents the first example of a postwar Western interference in the internal politics of a foreign country, and for others, marked the first serious test of the theory of the so called Churchill-Stalin percentages agreement.
July 4, 1946 Anti-Jewish (read Red) pogrom at Kielce, Poland. Jewry had declared that only 80,000 Jews survived in Poland, but at this pogrom 150,000 fled to West Germany. At this embarrassment, their emigration to Palestine and the US was carried out in record time. Later organized Jewry stated that 390,000 survived the war; the truth is that even many more survived.
July 22, 1946 The King David Massacre -Jewish terrorists blew up a hotel, and killed 91 British soldiers, and blamed the atrocity on Arabs. When later caught, they said the British had a list of their Arab spies and were going to turn them over to the Palestinians. The goal of the False Flag was to pit the British against the Palestinians.
Herbert George (H G) Wells (9/21, 1866 – 8/13, 1946) was an English author, best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary. Together with Jules Verne, Wells has been referred to as "The Father of Science Fiction". H G Wells “Zionism is an expression of Jewish refusal to assimilate. If the Jews have suffered, it is because they have regarded themselves as a chosen people.”- (The Anatomy of Frustration) “A careful study of anti-Semitism, prejudice and accusations might be of great value to many Jews, who do not adequately realize the irritation they inflict” (Letter of November 11, 1933) "The Jews looked for a special savior, a messiah, who was to redeem mankind by the agreeable process of restoring the fabulous glories of David and Solomon, and bringing the whole world at last under the firm but benevolent Jewish heel." (The Outline of History) Wells was in the habit of referring to KARL MARX as "a shallow third-rate Jew," and "a lousy Jew" in private correspondence. (Norman MacKenzie, H. G. Wells) "It is highly probable that the bulk of the Jew's ancestors 'never' lived in Palestine 'at all,' which witnesses the power of historical assertion over fact." (H. G. Wells, The Outline of History). In 1933, Wells angered many Jews by refusing to join a committee against 'anti-Semitism' because of "a natural reaction to the intense nationalism of the Jews and to the very distinctive role they play in the world of art and business." (Letter of November 11, 1933) His “Travels of a Republican Radical in Search of Hot Water” was, like “Anatomy of Frustration”, a double-barreled blast at Zionism -and it stirred up a minor maelstrom of Jewish protest, including angry letters from the presumably non-Jewish Eleanor Roosevelt. Wells, writing to the London Jewish Chronicle, June 12, 1936: "Are we Gentiles never to be allowed to utter any impression of the ancient, narrow and radically egotistical Jewish culture except in terms of cringing admiration and subservience? I ask the Jewish reader just to think why his tradition has irritated diverse peoples, as it has done through the ages."
Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (8/11, 1907– 8/30, 1946) was the leader of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria. During World War II, Rodzaevsky tried to launch an open struggle against Bolshevism, but Japanese authorities limited the RFP’s activities to acts of sabotage in the Soviet Union. Rodzaevsky published numerous articles in the party newspapers Our way and The Nation; he was also the author of the brochure "Judas’ End" and the book "Contemporary Judaisation of the World or the Jewish Question in the XX Century".
Robert Alphonso Taft (9/8, 1889 – 7/31, 1953) was a Republican US Senator and a prominent conservative statesman. As the leading opponent of the New Deal in the Senate from 1939 to 1953, he led the successful effort by the conservative coalition to curb the power of labor unions, and was a major proponent of the foreign policy of non-interventionism. However, he failed in his quest to win the presidential nomination of the Republican Party in 1940, 1948 and 1952. In 1957, a Senate committee chaired by John F. Kennedy named Taft as one of the five greatest senators in American history, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun, and Robert La Folette.
On October 5, 1946, Taft noted, events were weakening these "ideals of justice and equality ... [making] every man ... subject to the arbitrary discretion of his ruler or some subordinate government official". In foreign affairs, he referred to the agreements made during World War II with the British and Soviets at Teheran, Moscow and Yalta--"secret agreements distributing the territory of the earth in accordance with power and expediency" rather than with the "rule of law". But Taft saved his strongest attacks for the recently completed Trial of the Major War Criminals at Nuremberg--attacks that, as one authority puts it, made him "probably the best known" critic of the trial. Altogether, Taft had four legal criticisms of the trial, three of which consisted of the use of arbitrary power to curb individual rights, while the fourth was a prediction about the deterrence value of such a trial. First, the trial violated the "fundamental principle of American law that a man cannot be tried under an ex post facto statute." Second, the trial of the "vanquished by the victors cannot be impartial no matter how it is hedged about with forms of justice." Third, the trial was based on the "Russian idea of the purpose of trials, government policy and not justice, having little relation to our Anglo-Saxon heritage." And fourth, Taft warned that the trial and its sentences would not "discourage the making of aggressive war, for no one makes aggressive war unless he expects to win". "Westbrook Pegler commended Taft. Noting that a "quick, nasty response" came from members of both parties, Pegler argued that such abusive language was the price that "honest men must be brave enough to face when they express unpopular opinions on sensitive subjects". Pegler's view was popularized almost ten years later in John Kennedy's Pulitzer Prize winning book, Profiles in Courage. Kennedy praised Taft as a "man who stuck fast to the basic principles in which he believed" and for his "unhesitating courage in standing against the flow of public opinion". As a conservative, he was against the war in Vietnam.
Oct 16, 1946 - Hermann Göring commits suicide two hours before his scheduled execution. Hermann Wilhelm Göring, (1/12, 1893 – 10/15, 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. He was a veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, and a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as "The Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron". In 1935, Göring was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe (German: Air Force), a position he was to hold until the final days of World War II. By mid-1940, Göring was at the peak of his power and influence. Adolf Hitler had promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, making Göring senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. By 1942, with the German war effort stumbling on both fronts, Göring's standing with Hitler was very greatly reduced. 2/17. Hermann Göring remarks in a conversation with prison psychologist G.M. Gilbert that the newsreels depicting heaps of emaciated corpses at the concentration camps could have been fabricated by anyone, and also expresses doubt in the six million figure.
April 29. During his interrogation at IMT Nuremberg, Julius Streicher (see 1938) states: “I first heard of the mass murders and mass killings at Mondorf when I was in prison. But I am stating here that if I had been told that 2 or 3 million people had been killed, then I would not have believed it. I would not have believed that it was technically possible to kill so many people; and on the basis of the entire attitude and psychology of the Fuehrer, as I knew it, I would not have believed that mass killings, to the extent to which they have taken place, could have taken place.” “Later during the same interrogation he added: “To this day I do not believe that 5 million were killed. I consider it technically impossible that that could have happened. I do not believe it. I have not received proof of that up until now.”
When I once asked Lord Haldane (pro-Jewish) why he persuaded his friend, Sir Ernest Cassel (Jew), to settle by his will large sums on the London School of Economics, he replied, “Our object is to make this institution a place to raise and train the bureaucracy of the future Socialist State.“ Brigadier-General John Hartman Morgan (3/20, 1876 – 4/8, 1955), K.C., was a British general and lawyer. Morgan was also a legal adviser to the United Nations War Crimes Commission at Nuremberg from 1947 to 1949.
1946 Stille Hilfe ("Silent assistance for prisoners of war and interned persons") is a relief organization for arrested, condemned and fugitive SS members, similar to the veterans' association, set up by Helene Elizabeth Princess von Isenburg (1900–1974) in 1951. The aides co-operated closely with the organization ODESSA (organization of former SS-members) and Bishop Alois Hudal in Rome. The legal assistance for arrested war criminals was first organized by the attorney Rudolf Aschenauer (1913–1983), who also formulated and submitted requests for grace and revisions. The organization paid vacation, dismissal and Christmas benefit to the prisoners and also supported their families. They were not only limited to humanitarian activities but also pursued a past-ideological and revisionist objective. Princess Isenburg, a strict Catholic, tirelessly pleaded the victims' cause in conservative circles and with high-ranking church representatives (even up to the Pope). Johannes Neuhäusler (1888–1973) in particular, who not only had suffered detention/imprisonment by the Gestapo, but also had been held by the Nazis in the Dachau concentration camp as a special prisoner, was most effective in public opinion, even among western Allied officials. The churches to a large extent withdrew support with the release of the time-serving Germans from Landsberg prison in 1958. In the following decades they worked somewhat in secret with revisionist organizations. It was decided in November 1999 to deny Stille Hilfe non-profit, i.e. charitable, status.
(on right with mother) Gudrun Burwitz (née Himmler ) was born 8/8, 1929. Her father was Heinrich Himmler. She has never renounced the Nazi ideology and has repeatedly sought to justify the actions of her father, relative to the context of his time. Heinrich Himmler died in British captivity. She contested that his death was a suicide from a concealed cyanide capsule, as others did. She married a journalist and author and had two children. She has remained active in the Nazi community (Neo-Nazism), and has since 1951 been a member of Stille Hilfe, an organization providing support to arrested, condemned or fugitive former SS-members. In 1952 she helped to found Wiking-Jugend which was organized after the Hitler Youth model. She was a longtime friend of Florentine Rost van Tonningen (died in 2007). Gudrun Burwitz has intensified the support for Nazi war criminals in recent years. This was particularly evident in the case of Anton Malloth, a supervisor of Theresienstadt, who was extradited to Germany in 1988 and after a prolonged public trial was sentenced in 2001 to life in prison. During 1988-2001 she arranged his stay at an expensive nursing home in Pullach at the southern outskirts of Munich. There was a public outcry when it was discovered that the premises had been the property of the prominent Nazi Rudolf Hess and that the stay was largely financed by public welfare funds. The "Wiking-Jugend" (WJ, "Viking youth") was a German Neo-Nazi organization modeled after the Hitlerjugend. The Wiking-Jugend was outlawed as unconstitutional on 10 November 1994.
****Post-War Communists conquer Eastern and Central Europe.
US abandons 20-25,000 American GIs to Soviets.
Unofficial agreement held between Communists, Capitalists and Zionists. This paper’s focus is on wars by US. Other countries including Communist wars of invasion or infiltration are not elaborated upon.
Horace Jeremiah "Jerry" Voorhis (4/6, 1901 – 9/11, 1984) was a Democratic politician from California. He served the US House of Representatives from 1937 to 1947. He was the first political opponent of Richard Nixon, who defeated him for re-election in 1946 in a campaign cited as an example of Nixon's use of red-baiting during his political rise. He earned a master's degree in education. In 1928, he founded the Voorhis School for Boys and became its headmaster. He retained the post into his congressional career. In the House of Representatives, Voorhis was a loyal supporter of the New Deal and compiled a liberal voting record. His major legislative achievement was the Voorhis Act of 1940 requiring registration of certain organizations controlled by foreign powers. During a writing career spanning a half-century, Voorhis penned several books. Voorhis was elected as a member of Phi Beta Kappa, was president of the Christian Association, and was greatly influenced by the Social Gospel movement. While attending Yale, he came to believe that "the Christian Gospel is to be taken seriously, and that needless poverty and suffering on the one hand and special privilege and inordinate power on the other are entirely contrary to its precepts".
Voorhis also involved himself in the local community. He organized cooperatives among the local ranchers and farmers. Voorhis began publishing articles, writing in 1933, "We could produce plenty for all, but we don't do it ... we will do it only when all producing wealth is owned publicly. ... Incidentally, we would then be living in the kingdom of God." Voorhis was reelected to Congress four times and had one of Congress's most liberal voting records. He supported New Deal initiatives, including Franklin Roosevelt's controversial court packing plan. In the run-up to World War II, Voorhis urged neutrality. Once war was declared, Voorhis supported the internment of Japanese-Americans, though he suggested that the evacuations be done in as voluntary a manner as possible and that officials be appointed to administer their property to avoid forced sales at bargain prices. During the war, Voorhis advocated more efficiently taxing higher incomes and war profits, planning against postwar unemployment, and planning for the nutritional needs of Americans. Voorhis also opposed dominance of big business in the war effort. Voorhis often opposed the petroleum industry and the Federal Reserve. Voorhis “temperamentally and philosophically loathed” Communism. Voorhis also served as a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Youth for Christ (YFC) was formed in 1946. Following WW II, some Protestant evangelists began ministering to the youth of America and especially the younger members of the U.S. Armed Forces. In 1945, a number of youth leaders from met at Winona Lake, Indiana. Evangelist Billy Graham was the first full-time evangelist of YFCI. Success for YFCI came from the promotional publicity in the newspapers and magazines owned or influenced by William Randolph Hearst. Due to the publicity by Hearst during a Los Angeles campaign, Billy Graham suddenly became a media star. By 1946 (TIME magazine, 2/4, 1946), Youth for Christ International had approximately 300 units in the United States and possibly 200 or more overseas. The average attendance at rallies in 1946 was 350. The largest attendance at that time was 70,000 at Soldier's Field in Chicago.
1946 “The Empire of the City” by E C Knuth tells of ‘the city’ operates as a super-government of the world. Table of Contents: 1.The Fundamental Basis of Internationalism, 2.Geopolitics and the Background of Modern Wars, 3.The Eastern Question, 4.The Concert of Europe, 5.The European Concert Ends in the East, 6.The New Order of Freedom, 7.The New Order Ends in the East, 8.The Liberals Against the Conservatives and War, 9.The Money Power in Power Politics .-. . . 10.The Secret Sixth Great Power, 11.A Study in Power, 12.The Problems of The Peace, 13.The Five Ideologies of Space and Power: 1"One World" Ideology, 2."Pan-Slavic" Ideology, 3."Asia for the Asiatics", 4.Pan-Germanism, 5.Pan-American Isolationism, 14.Conclusion.
Heinrich George (10/9, 1893 – 9/25, 1946) was a German stage and film actor. George was an active member of the Communist party during the Weimar Republic. He was able to reach an accommodation with the Nazi regime. He actively worked with the Nazis. George had a stocky build and a Berlin accent which made him readily recognizable to German audiences. Cooke and Silberman describe him as "the actor most closely tied with fascist fantasies of the autocratic and the populist leader". Although George had been a Communist before the Nazi takeover, he was nonetheless interned as a Nazi collaborator under the Soviets and died of starvation.
Friedrich Meinecke (10/20, 1862 – 2/6, 1954) was a German Jew Liberal and historian, probably the most famous German historian of his generation. As a representative of an older tradition still writing after World War II, he was an important figure to the end of his life. Under the Third Reich, he had some sympathy for the regime, especially in regard to its early anti-semitic laws(against alien Jews). Meinecke remained in public a supporter of the Nazi regime, in private he became increasing bothered. Meinecke's best known book, (The German Catastrophe) of 1946, sees the historian attempting to reconcile his lifelong belief in authoritarian state power with the disastrous events of 1933-45. His explanation for the success of National Socialism points to the legacy of Prussian militarism in Germany, the effects of rapid industrialisation and the weaknesses of the middle classes, though Meinecke also asserts that Hitlerism benefited from a series of unfortunate accidents, which had no connection with the earlier developments in German history. In 1948, he helped to found the Free University of Berlin. British historian E. H. Carr cites him as an example of a historian whose views are heavily influenced by the Zeitgeist: liberal during the German Empire, discouraged during the interwar period, and deeply pessimistic after World War II.
William Montgomery McGovern (9/28, 1897 – 12/12, 1964) was an American adventurer, Northwestern University professor, anthropologist and journalist. He was possibly an inspiration for the character of Indiana Jones. “From Luther to Hitler: The History of Nazi-Fascist Philosophy” (1946). McGovern's life may be more incredible than the fictional character he spawned. By age 30, he had already explored the Amazon and braved uncharted regions of the Himalayas, survived revolution in Mexico, studied at Oxford and the Sorbonne and become a Buddhist priest in a Japanese monastery. He became a beloved lecturer, war correspondent and military strategist. Reputed to speak 12 languages and deaf in one ear, McGovern was an academic celebrity known for outlandish foreign dress and holding court in Northwestern's University Club.
1946 Richard Howard Stafford (Dick) Crossman OBE (12/15, 1907 – 4/5, 1974) was a British author and Labour Party politician who was a Cabinet Minister under Harold Wilson, and was the editor of the New Statesman. A prominent socialist intellectual, he became one of the Labour Party's leading Zionists and anti-communists. Crossman is noted for his colorful if highly subjective three-volume Diaries of a Cabinet Minister. "The Second World War," observed Crossman in March, 1946, "by the total elimination of Germany, destroyed the European balance of power."
1946 "Battle doesn't determine who is right. Only "who is left," Peter Bowman observed in his book, Beach Red 1946
1947 1947 1947 1947
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. Mining takes place in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Canada. The company was founded by Cecil Rhodes, who was financed by Rothschild. In 1927, Ernest Oppenheimer, a German Jewish immigrant, managed to wrest control of the empire, building and consolidating the company's global monopoly over the diamond industry. During this time, he was involved in a number of controversies, including price fixing, antitrust behavior and an allegation of not releasing industrial diamonds for the US war effort during World War II. Over the last century, De Beers has been highly successful in increasing consumer demand for diamonds. One of the most effective marketing strategies has been the marketing of diamonds as a symbol of love and commitment. A young copywriter working for N. W. Ayer & Son, Frances Gerety, coined the famous advertising line "A Diamond is Forever" in 1947. In 2000, Advertising Age magazine named "A Diamond Is Forever" the best advertising slogan of the twentieth century.
The Crime of Our Age (1947) – dedicated to the Christian People of America by Ludwig Adolphus Fritisch shows the suffering of dispossession and forced repatriation against a defeated and starving Germany from the perspective of the Christian believer. A solid look at what the allies really did as opposed to the fables of “Nazi terror.”
Ginger Rogers (born Virginia Katherine McMath; 7/16, 1911 – 4/25, 1995) was an actress, dancer, and singer who appeared in film, and on stage, radio, and television. She made a total of 73 films, and was best known as Jew Fred Astaire's romantic interest and dancing partner in a series of ten Hollywood musical films that revolutionized the genre. Ginger was a staunch conservative. She was one of the members of "The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals", an anti-communist organization, along with John Wayne, Ronald Regan, Walt Disney, and Ayn Rand. Her mother was a "friendly witness" for the 1947 House Committee on Un-American Activities and she publicly supported the blacklist.
George Morgenstern, 1906-1988, the author of the first Revisionist book about the December 7,1941 Pearl Harbor attack and the complex history which preceded and followed it, died in Denver, Colorado on July 23, 1988, in his 83rd year. Morgenstern's book, titled Pearl Harbor: The Story of the Secret War, published by Devin A. Garrity in New York in January, 1947. (1941)
The Constitution of Japan has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947. The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty. The constitution, also called "the Peace Constitution “is most characteristic and famous for the renunciation of the right to wage war contained in Article 9 and to a lesser extent, the provision for de jure popular sovereignty in conjunction with the monarchy. The constitution was drawn up under the Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace Japan's previous militaristic absolute monarchy system with a form of liberal democracy. Currently, it is a rigid document and no subsequent amendment has been made to it since its adoption.
Japan is still an occupied nation with about 100,000 American troops there. For a few years after the war, the Americans engaged in wholesale rape, prostitution and theft.
****Recanting: After the War, many former Hitler loyalists would outbid each other in distancing themselves from Hitler and the Nazi movement. Especially, celebrities with their perceived career needs would state in their autobiographies or standard biographies of how they resisted Hitler. Through the decades, those who had embraced Nazism would write or speak of being persecuted instead. Many who were not even adults when the war finished would speak of personal persecution. A sampling of these:
Karl Valentin (6/4, 1882- 2/9, 1948) was a Bavarian comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author and film producer. He had significant influence on German Weimar culture. Valentin starred in many silent films in the 1920s, and was sometimes called the "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". The society which continues his legacy states the lie that he was persecuted.
Margarete Slezak (1/9, 1901-8/30, 1953), Jew Opera and Chansonettes singer, film and stage actress. She wrote her biography in German called "The Apple Doesn't Fall Far From the Tree."
Actors who were Communists or opponents include Heinrich George, Eugen Klopfer, Emil Jannings, Werner Kraus, Mathias Wiemann, Gustav Grundgens, and Alexander Golling. They all had great careers during the Nazi period.
Heinrich George (10/9, 1893- 9/25, 1946) was a German stage and film actor. He had one of his first roles in the Fritz Lang directed film Metropolis and the first film version of Berlin Alexanderplatz (1931). After the Nazis won elections, he took over leading a group of "non-desirable" actors and acted in a number of films before and during WWII, including Hitlerjunge Quex, Jud Süß, and Kolberg. He died in 1946 in the Russian concentration camp.
Emil Jannings (7/23, 1884 – 1/2, 1950) was a German actor. He was not only the first actor to win the Academy Award for Best Actor, but also the first person to be presented an Oscar. During the Third Reich, he starred in several films which were intended to promote Nazism, particularly the Führerprinzip: The Youth of Frederick the Great (1935), ("The Ruler" 1937), ("Uncle Kruger" 1941) and The Dismissal of Bismarck (1942). Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels named him "Artist of the State" in 1941.
Werner Johannes Krauss (6/23, 1884 – 10/20, 1959) was a German stage and film actor. Krauss became a worldwide sensation for his demonic portrayal of the titular character in Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. He also played the title role of William Shakespeare's Othello in a 1920 adaption, and played Iago in a 1922 adaptation. He was prominently featured in Paul Leni's Waxworks (1924), Ewald Andre Dupont's Varieté (1925), F.W. Murnau's Herr Tartüff, and The Student of Prague (1926). He was made an Actor of the State by Joseph Goebbels, and subsequently played the roles of two stereotypical Jewish characters in Jud Süß (1940). He also played Shylock in an extreme production of The Merchant of Venice staged at Vienna's Burgtheater in 1943. After World War II, Krauss was 'forgiven' to the extent of being invited to German film festivals.
Carl Heinrich Franz Mathias Wieman (6/23, 1902-12/3, 1969) was a German theater - and film actor. Among his most famous roles on the big screen is the Ghost Rider in the film version of the 1933er novella by Theodor Storm. He also acted in the film I Accuse of 1941, which dealt with euthanasia. He also regularly recited German poetry and literature on the radio like the extensive series "Goethe told his life". Wieman also recited long passages from the Odyssey by Homer on record and his legendary "Peter and the Wolf", in which he took over the part of the narrator. In the 1960s, he was a popular advertising spokesman.
Gustaf Gründgens (12/22, 1899 – 10/7, 1963), was one of Germany's most famous and influential actors and his career continued undisturbed through the years of the Nazi regime. His single most famous role was that of Mephistopheles in Goethe's Faust in 1956/57, which is still considered by many to have been the best interpretation of the role ever given.
Jacob Rader Marcus (1896–1995) was a scholar of Jewish history and a Reform rabbi. He was awarded a Ph.D. in 1925 and returned to Cincinnati, where he lectured until 1995. Marcus founded the American Jewish Archives in 1947. He is, perhaps, best known for his work on Medieval European Jewish history, The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book: 315-1791, first published in 1938. In a post-WWII Britannica under the article WW II and the Jews, he writes that thousands (not millions) of Jews died at the hands of the Germans. In the 1947 edition of Encyclopaedia Brittanica, American-Jewish historian Jacob Marcus describes the fate of the European Jews under National Socialist rule and occupation in the following way (in the article ”Jews”): “In order to effect a solution of the Jewish problem in line with their theories, the Nazis carried out a series of expulsions and deportations of Jews, mostly of original east European stock, from nearly all European states. Men frequently separated from their wives, and others from children, were sent by the thousands to Poland and western Russia. There they were put into concentration camps, or huge reservations, or sent into the swamps, or out on the roads, into labor gangs. Large numbers perished under the inhuman conditions under which they labored.(?) While every other large Jewish center was being embroiled in war, American Jewry was gradually assuming a position of leadership in world Jewry.” No mention of gas chambers or an extermination policy targeting Jews is made in this edition, leaving the reader with the impression that Marcus, one of the foremost contemporary experts on Jewish history, either did not put credence in the mass gassing allegations or was reluctant to mention said claims in print. The text quoted above was retained in the 1952 and 1956 editions of the encyclopedia.
****Media Fabrications: Along with all the prewar and War lies, the Jewish media continues to lie. For instance, the BBC sent to the dpa(German Press Agency) in about 1974, that the Reich had offered a bounty to sink the British “Queen Mary”. It was discovered to be an all-out lie. There is nothing new to old “Holohoax” victims to lie with a complicit media.
****Gene's Ten Cowboy Commandments began to evolve as early as August 1947. 1) A cowboy never takes unfair advantage - even of an enemy. 2) A cowboy never betrays a trust. He never goes back on his word. 3) A cowboy always tells the truth. 4) A cowboy is kind and gentle to small children, old folks, and animals. 5) A cowboy is free from racial and religious intolerances. 6) A cowboy is always helpful when someone is in trouble. 7) A cowboy is always a good worker. 8) A cowboy respects womanhood, his parents and his nation's laws. 9) A cowboy is clean about his person in thought, word, and deed. 10) A cowboy is a Patriot.
March 7, 1947 Purim, the Jewish holiday of Revenge against Gentiles. Jews throughout the world label specific enemies as Haman and Christianity in general as Haman. Other episodes of revenge throughout the year could still be connected to the spirit of Purim.
Mar 11, 1947 Truman Doctrine - The Truman Doctrine is a set of principles of U.S. foreign policy created on March 12, 1947 by President Harry S Truman. In his speech to Congress, Truman declared that the United States, as "leader of the free world", must support democracy worldwide and fight against communism. The approach was conceived with the help of George Marshall and Dean Acheson, two influential associates. The Truman Doctrine represented the harsh aspect of containment policy, and the Marshall Plan was the soft side. The declaration of the Truman Doctrine served to inhibit the formation of coalition governments that included communist elements.
3/21, 1947 President Harry S. Truman signed US Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as the "Loyalty Order". The order established was designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government. He hoped to quiet right-wing critics who accused Democrats of being soft on communism. Additionally, he advised the Loyalty Review Board to limit the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to avoid a witch hunt. The program investigated over 3 million government employees, just over 300 of whom were dismissed as security risks. Initially, both the D.C. Circuit Court and the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the procedures of EO 9835 and the Supreme Court did so on a tie vote. By 1953, it was practically dead.
Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine NATO "stay-behind" operation in Italy after World War II. Its purpose was to continue anti-communist actions in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. The role of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in sponsoring Gladio and the extent of its activities during the Cold War era, and its relationship to right-wing terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead and other similar clandestine operations is the subject of ongoing debate and investigation.
The Mont Pelerin Society is an international organization composed of economists (including 8 winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences), philosophers, historians, intellectuals, business leaders, and others who favor classical liberalism. Its founders including Friedrich Hayek, Karl Popper, Ludwig von Mises, George Stigler, and Milton Friedman. The society advocates freedom of expression, free market economic policies, and the political values of an open society. It was founded on April 8, 1947, at a conference organized by Friedrich Hayek. Originally, it was to be named the Acton-Tocqueville Society. After Frank Knight protested against naming the group after two “Roman Catholic aristocrats” and Ludwig von Mises expressed concern that the mistakes made by Acton and Tocqueville would be connected with the society, the name of the Swiss resort where it convened was used instead. This was the Austrian school of Economics formulated by Jews.
April 1947. Conservative author Elizabeth Dilling (see 1934) claims the six million figure to be false.
Jun 5, 1947 Marshall Plan - The Marshall Plan (from its enactment, officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary program, 1948-52, of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling the threat of internal communism after World War II. Very little actually went to Germany, did not begin to cover damage or theft from the Allies, and was not at all responsible for the Economic Recovery of Germany.
General of the Army George Catlett Marshall (12/31, 1880 – 10/16, 1959) was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, Marshall served as the U.S. Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State his name was given to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. General Marshall admitted the Germans never had a plan to conquer the world.
****Truman and Israeli Terrorists: (1946-47)
1946 “My efforts to persuade the British to relax immigration restrictions in Palestine might have fallen on more receptive ears if it had not been for the increasing acts of terrorism that were being committed in Palestine. There were armed groups of extremists who were guilty of numerous outrages. On June 16 eight bridges were blown up near the Trans-Jordan border, and two other explosions were set off in Haifa. The following day there was a pitched battle between Jews and British troops in Haifa, other explosions had started a fire and caused great damage in the rail yards there. British officers were kidnapped. Others were shot at from passing automobiles. Explosions took place in ever-increasing numbers, and the British uncovered a plot by one extremist group to kidnap the British commander in chief in Palestine. –Memoirs of Harry S. Truman, (1956).
“Jesus Christ couldn’t please them when he was on earth, so how could anyone expect that I would have any luck.”-Truman
In the summer of 1947, the so-called Stern Gang of Palestine terrorists “Jews sent President Truman letter bombs. Zionist terrorist letter-bomb attacks on major political leaders in Great Britain and the US (1972 book by Margaret Truman)
Truman has a village and an institute named for him and is regarded as a hero in Israel for defying almost all his foreign policy advisers and recognizing the new Jewish state of Israel as soon as David Ben Gurion declared its existence in May of 1948.
Ernest Bevin (3/9, 1881 – 4/14, 1951) was a British trade union leader and Labour politician. He co-founded and served as general secretary of the powerful Transport and General Workers' Union from 1922 to 1940, as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour Government he supported the creation of NATO. After the 1945 general election, Bevin became Foreign Secretary when Britain was almost bankrupt as a result of the war and yet was still maintaining a huge air force and conscript army, in an attempt to remain a global power. The security zone in Jerusalem was dubbed "Bevingrad" during Bevin's term in the Foreign Office. He earned the hatred of Zionists by refusing to remove limits on Jewish immigration to Palestine in the aftermath of the war. Britain's economic weakness, and its dependence on the financial support of the US (Britain had received a large American loan in 1946, and mid-1947 was to see the launching of the Marshall Plan), left him little alternative but to yield to American pressure over Palestine policy. At the reconvened London Conference in January 1947, the Jewish negotiators were only prepared to accept partition and the Arab negotiators only a unitary state (which would automatically have had an Arab majority). Neither would accept limited autonomy under overall British rule. Bevin was infuriated by attacks on British troops carried out by the more extreme of the Jewish militant groups, the Irgun and Lehi, commonly known as the Stern Gang. The Haganah restricted itself to less direct attacks, further restricted after the King David Hotel bombing to illegal immigration activities. In 1946, an Irgun plan to assassinate Bevin and other British politicians was foiled by the security service, MI5.
June 1947 At least 8 politicians received terrorist letters in which explosives were cleverly concealed. Among those who got such letters were Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones, President of the Board of Trade Sir Stafford Cripps, and former Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden. In 1946, Jewish terrorists plotted to assassinate Ernest Bevin, the foreign secretary as part of their campaign to establish the state of Israel. Five terrorist cells from the Stern Gang and Irgun were planning to descend upon London with bombings and assassinations, the MI5 files are said to have shown, but, in the end, only some 20 letter bombs were sent, with Bevin his Tory predecessor Anthony Eden mentioned as among the recipients. (2006 The Times of London)
The terror campaign against the British worked. The British gave up their mandate and turned the whole question of Palestine’s future over to the UN to decide. Under heavy pressure from the US, the majority of the UN General Assembly voted to partition Palestine into Jewish and non-Jewish sectors. This final arrangement, according to Bevin, was “…so manifestly unjust to the Arabs that it is difficult to see how we could reconcile it with our conscience.”
The Zionists wanted massive Jewish immigration from Europe and total political control of Palestine, with the apparent eventual goal of supplanting the entire non-Jewish population from the area. Such policies would certainly have been—and have been—prejudicial in the extreme toward the rights of the locals, and the British refused to institute them, incurring the murderous wrath of the terrorist Stern Gang, with one leader being Yitzhak Shamir and the Irgun, with one leader being Menachem Begin. Why British government officials, and Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin in particular, would have been targeted for killing by the Zionist terrorists can be well appreciated by reference to Bevin’s Wikipedia page.
On July 21, 1947, after Truman had a conversation with Henry Morganthau, his Jewish treasury secretary, Morganthau called to talk about a Jewish ship in Palestine -- possibly the Exodus, the legendary ship carrying 4,500 Jewish refugees who were refused entry into Palestine by the British, then rulers of that land. "He'd no business, whatever to call me," Truman wrote. "The Jews have no sense of proportion nor do they have any judgement (sic) on world affairs. Henry brought a thousand Jews to New York on a supposedly temporary basis and they stayed."
6/23, 1947 Taft–Hartley Act monitors the activities and power of labor unions. Labor leaders called it the "slave-labor bill" while President Truman argued that it was a "dangerous intrusion on free speech. Nevertheless, Truman would subsequently use it twelve times during his presidency.
Raoul Wallenberg (8/4, 1912 – 7/17, 1947?) was a Jew humanitarian from Sweden who worked in Budapest, Hungary, during World War II to rescue Jews. Between July and December 1944, he issued protective passports and housed Jews in buildings established as Swedish territory. He was reported to have died on July 7, 1947 while in Soviet care. The circumstances of his death have long been in question, with some say he was alive at least through 1987.
****The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). This agency was formed in order to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for the branches of the United States military. Prior to the formation of the OSS, American intelligence had been conducted on an ad-hoc basis by the various departments of the executive branch, including the State, Treasury, Navy, and War Departments. They had no overall direction, coordination, or control. Roosevelt requested that William J. Donovan draft a plan for an intelligence service and he was appointed as the "Co-ordinator of Information" in July 1941. The Office of Strategic Services was established by a Presidential military order issued by President Roosevelt on 13 June 1942, to collect and analyze strategic information required by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to conduct special operations not assigned to other agencies. During the War, the OSS supplied policy makers with facts and estimates, but the OSS never had jurisdiction over all foreign intelligence activities. The FBI was responsible for intelligence work in Latin America, and the Army and Navy guarded their areas of responsibility.
Among other activities, the OSS helped arm, train and supply resistance movements, including Mao Zedong's Red Army in China and the Viet Minh in French Indochina, in areas occupied by the Axis powers (but not the Allies) during the Second World War. The OSS also recruited and ran one of the war's most important spies, the German diplomat Fritz Kolbe. Other functions of the OSS included the use of propaganda, espionage, subversion, and post-war planning. At the height of its influence during World War II, the OSS employed almost 24,000 people. The OSS was riddled with Communists, perhaps even half, to work with the communist French Resistance or the Soviets or Communist Chinese.
The National Security Act of 1947 established the United States' first permanent peacetime intelligence agency, the Central Intelligence Agency, which then took up the functions of the OSS. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government, reporting to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior United States policymakers. The CIA also engages in covert activities at the request of the President of the United States of America. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 created the office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which took over management and leadership of the US Intelligence Community.
****Joint Chiefs of Staff - As the military of the United States grew in size following the American Civil War, joint military action between the Army and Navy became increasingly difficult. The Joint Army and Navy Board was established in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Yet, the Joint Board accomplished little as its charter gave it no authority to enforce its decisions. The Joint Board also lacked the ability to originate its own opinions and was thus limited to commenting only on the problems submitted to it by the Secretaries of War and Navy. As a result, the Joint Board had little to no impact on the manner the United States conducted World War I. In 1942, President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill established the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS). The first members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff were: Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy USN, Special Presidential Military Advisor; General of the Army George C. Marshall USA; Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King USN; General of the Army* Henry H. Arnold USAAF. With the end of World War II, the Joint Chiefs of Staff was officially established under the National Security Act of 1947. Today, their primary responsibility is to ensure the personnel readiness, policy, planning and training of their respective military services for the combatant commanders to utilize. The Joint Chiefs of Staff also act in a military advisory capacity for the President of the United States and the Secretary of Defense. In addition, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff acts as the chief military advisor to the President and the Secretary of Defense. In this strictly advisory role, the Joint Chiefs constitute the second-highest deliberatory body for military policy, after the National Security Council, which includes the President and other officials besides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs.
The Current Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Chairman Admiral Michael Mullen USN; Vice Chairman General James Cartwright USMC; General George W. Casey, Jr. USA; General James F. Amos USMC; Admiral Gary Roughead USN; General Norton A. Schwartz USAF; Uniformed Service Chiefs not Members: Admiral Robert J. Papp, Jr. USCG; Surgeon General of the US Vice Admiral Regina Benjamin US Public Health Service; Director, NOAA Com Officer Corps Rear Admiral Jonathan W. Bailey Natl Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad.
****ODESSA, (“Organization for Former SS Members”) is believed to have been an international Nazi network set up toward the end of World War II by a group of SS officers in order to avoid their capture and prosecution. There may have been an official network, but more than likely it was individuals helping individuals. There were many Catholic priests who helped German, Croatian and other fugitives and refugees. European Nations previously allied with Germany helped refugees’ emigration. South American Nations sympathetic to Germany accepted these emigrants. Over 10,000 former German military made it to South America along escape routes.
Juan Domingo Perón (10/8, 1895 – 7/1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina. He was overthrown in a military coup in 1955. He returned to power in 1973 and served until his death in 1974 when he was succeeded by his third wife. Perón and his second wife, Eva Duarte, are immensely popular among many Argentinians, and to this day they are still considered icons by the Peronist Party. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor. In 1938 Perón was sent to many countries of Europe, to study them. At his return, he would explain that he had a positive impression about Syndicalism during the government of Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany. By that year, he thought that those countries would become social democracies. His exact words were as follows: “ Italian Fascism led popular organizations to an effective participation in national life, which had always been denied to the people. Before Mussolini's rise to power, the nation was on one hand and the worker on the other, and the latter had no involvement in the former. [...] In Germany happened exactly the same phenomenon, meaning, an organized state for a perfectly ordered community, for a perfectly ordered population as well: a community where the state was the tool of the nation, whose representation was, under my view, effective. I thought that this should be the future political form, meaning, the true people's democracy, the true social democracy.” After World War II, Argentina became a leading haven for Nazi war criminals, with explicit protection from Perón. Perón also expressed sympathy for Jewish rights and established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1949. More than 45,000 Jews emigrated to Israel from Argentina.
María Eva Duarte de Perón (5/7, 1919 – 7/26, 1952) was the second wife of President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. She is usually referred to as Eva Perón, or by the affectionate Spanish language diminutive Evita.
Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (11/3, 1912– 8/16, 2006) was a Paraguayan military officer and president from 1954 to 1989.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (4/19, 1882–8/24, 1954) served as president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 until his suicide in 1954. Vargas led Brazil for 18 years. Vargas also won the nickname "O Pai dos Pobres" (Portuguese for "The Father of the Poor") because of his worker's policy.
9/22, 1947 Loy Henderson (6/28, 1892 – 3/24, 1986, joined in 1922) strongly warned Secretary of State George C. Marshall that partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states was not workable and would lead to untold troubles in the future. Henderson was director of the State Department's Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs and his memorandum, came less than a month after a United Nations special committee had recommended partition. Henderson informed Marshall that his views were shared by "nearly every member of the Foreign Service or of the department who has worked to any appreciable extent on Near Eastern problems."
****The Good War-The Eastern Front: Perhaps because of the Cold War, America adopted the theme of the clean Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. This version was promoted by a network of former Wehrmacht officers and Bundeswehr offices. The Operational History Section led by General Franz Halder produced over 2500 manuscripts from 700 different German officers. All exonerated themselves from war crimes.
Hugh John Lofting (1/14, 1886 – 9/26, 1947) was a British author, trained as a civil engineer, who created the character of Doctor Dolittle (1920)— one of the classics of children's literature. In Doctor Dolittle: “Tommy and I will meet you outside and we'll pawn the gew-gaws at that Jew's shop opposite the bed-maker's.” In 1942, he wrote “Victory for the Slain” and showed his Christian instincts, an excerpt: “A way of life: Via Crucis!/ The Stations of the Cross unfold./ The Calvary-pilgrimage around you, walls—/ Recounting walls, who also tell/ The trials which ancient chivalry befell,/ Those sagas great and lessons grim/ That followed Resurrection's Hymn.”
GATT -The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1995. The original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.
AK-47 Hugo Schmeisser (9/24, 1884 – 9/12, 1953) was a German developer of infantry weapons. In 2009, Mikhail Kalashnikov admitted that Schmeisser "helped" design the famous AK-47, (developed in 1947), which strongly resembles Schmeisser's StG44. His imprisonment in the Soviet Union was extended beyond that of the other weapon specialists by a half year. He finally returned home on June 9, 1952. Lt Gen Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (11/10 November 1919) is a Russian small arms designer, most famous for designing the AK-47 assault rifle, the AKM and the AK-74.
Wystan Hugh (W H) Auden (2/21, 1907 – 9/29, 1973), was a poet, noted for stylistic and technical achievements, engagement with moral and political issues, and variety of tone, form and content. The central themes of his poetry are love, politics and citizenship, religion and morals, and the relationship between unique human beings and the anonymous, impersonal world of nature. He was a philo-Semite and homosexual. The Age of Anxiety (1947) tells of 4 persons discussing guilt, isolation and rootlessness during wartime. Hope in Christianity is presented as the solution.
Josef Greiner (Styria, 1886— (after 1947)) was an Austrian writer. He supposedly knew Adolf Hitler during Hitler's time in Vienna and later published two memoirs on this topic, for which he is best known. He moved to Vienna around 1908 and earned his living through various jobs, including as a sign painter, and as a lamplighter for a cabaret. He lived in a dormitory from Jan to April 1910; Hitler moved into the dormitory in Feb 1910 and stayed until 1913. Supposedly, at one point they worked together in a job that involved filling old tin cans with paint and then going door to door to sell it. In 1938, Greiner wrote a memoir entitled (His Struggle and Victory: A Memoir of Adolf Hitler). He praised Hitler, calling him "Lord of Ostmark", a "genius", and a "messiah". Greiner sent copies of this book to Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Goebbels, and Hermann Göring, saying that the book could be mass distributed. In the Nazi Party files of the time, Greiner is referred to as an "extortionist" and Greiner's repeated attempts to join the Nazi Party, beginning in May 1938, were rejected. After the War, Greiner took advantage of his rejection by the Nazis to portray himself as a resistance fighter. In 1947, he wrote (The End of the Hitler Myth). Greiner sent a copy of this book to Joseph Stalin, offering his services to facilitate Soviet-German economic relations.
“The End of the Hitler Myth” contains several demonstrable errors about Hitler's life. For example, Greiner places Hitler in Vienna in 1907-1908, at which time Hitler was still living in Linz. He tells several stories about Hitler's anti-Semitic behavior at this time, including a story that he tormented one Polish Jew with stink bugs and by giving children "Aryan chocolate" to induce them to torment their Jewish playmate as a "filthy Jew". Greiner also claims that at one point Hitler attempted to rape one of his models (although Hitler in fact never painted people during his time in Vienna). He also claims that Hitler contracted syphilis from a Leopoldstadt prostitute. He also claimed that in 1945, Hitler did not commit suicide, but instead fled from Berlin in an airplane. Greiner's claims to have been a heroic leader of the Austrian resistance also appear implausible.
Some US Intelligence Atrocities:
1947 Project CHATTER was a US Navy program from 1947-1953 focusing on the testing of drugs in interrogations and the recruitment of agents. Their search included laboratory experiments on both animal and human subjects. The project was geared to identifying agents both synthetic and natural that were effective during interrogation. The project was centered around, but not restricted to, the use of anabasine (an alkaloid), scopolamine and mescaline.
1951 Project ARTICHOKE was a CIA project that researched interrogation methods and arose from Project BLUEBIRD on August 20, 1951, run by the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence. Artichoke became Project MKULTRA on April 13, 1953. The project studied hypnosis, forced morphine addiction (and subsequent forced withdrawal), and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects. ARTICHOKE was an offensive program of mind control that gathered information together with the intelligence divisions of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and FBI. In addition, the scope of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that stated, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?"
1953 Project MKUltra was the code name for an illegal, covert research operation by the Central Intelligence Agency, experimenting into the behavioral engineering of humans through their Scientific Intelligence division. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953 and finally halted in 1973. The program used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens. MKUltra involved the use of many methodologies to manipulate people's individual mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture. The research was undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies. Project MKUltra was first brought public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Ford commission to investigate CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed in 1973.
Operation Dormouse was a covert operation launched in 1975 by the CIA to divert attention from Project Artichoke and direct it to the infamous Project MKULTRA. Among other participants, Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld have been specifically implicated in Operation Dormouse, working with the CIA to suppress information on Artichoke from surfacing.
MKNAOMI was the code name for a joint Department of Defense/CIA research program lasting from the 1950s through the 1970s. It is generally reported to be a successor to the MKDELTA project and to have focused on biological projects including biological warfare agents—specifically, to store materials that could either incapacitate or kill a test subject and to develop devices for the diffusion of such materials. Both the CIA and U.S. Army's Special Operations Command (SOC) also modified guns that fired special darts coated with biological agents and various poisonous pills. The darts would serve to incapacitate guard dogs, infiltrate the area that the dogs were guarding, and then awaken the dogs upon exiting the facility. In addition, the SOC was also designated to research the potentials for using biological agents against other animals and crops. A 1967 CIA memo which was uncovered by the Church Committee was confirmed to give evidence of at least three covert techniques for attacking and poisoning crops that have been examined under field conditions. On November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon (Yay!) abolished any military practice involving biological weapons and Project MKNAOMI was dissolved. On February 14, 1970, a presidential order was given to outlaw all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and nonliving toxins.
1947 The Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima (now most known as the World Apostolate of Fátima) is founded in America honoring the Fatima visionaries and circulating Soul magazine to 70,000 anti-Communist enthusiasts. In the spring of 1947 the message of the apparition at Fátima began to seep into the American mass media. The Holy Father approved with the words, "As the world chief against communism I bless you and all members of the Blue Army." In 1950 there were already one million enrolled members, and in 1953 five million. Currently, there are over 20 million members.
The American Jewish League Against Communism (AJ-LAC) was founded in 1947 by Rabbi Benjamin Schultz. Rabbi S. Andhil Fineberg of the American Jewish Committee put on an energetic anti-Communist effort. These efforts allowed the defense organizations to pretend that Jews had officially purged themselves of their well-documented Marxist tendencies.
Folk og Land ("People and Country") was a Norwegian ‘revisionist’ newspaper (1947-2003), published in Oslo. It was an organ of Historical revisionism (negationism) for Norwegians who were found to be Nazi collaborators during the WWII. Folk og Land had its predecessor in Skolenytt, stenciled and published by the Kristiansund-based former teacher Nils Vikdal from 1947. His agenda was to spread news to former members of Lærersambandet, a trade union for teachers set up by the Quisling regime during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany (1940–1945). It was stenciled until the summer of 1948, when printing began. The name was also changed to 8. Mai, named after the day the occupation ended. Folk og Land was formally started on 12/6, 1952, edited by Finn Brun Knudsen. It had an informal affiliation to the organization Forbundet for Sosial Oppreisning (FSO, later renamed Institutt for Norsk Okkupasjonshistorie). The newspaper makers claimed that their circulation was six of seven thousand in the 1960s. They stated that aggressors other than Germany caused the Second World War, that the Allies caused most harm during the war, and that once Germany had occupied Norway, collaborators (including Quisling) did the right thing in that they represented a Norwegian rule over the country instead of letting Germans take over. In its last years of existence, Folk og Land was published monthly. The last issue came on 4/27, 2003. Hans Fredrik Dahl has stated that "in several cases, the historical revisionism of the magazine has proven worthwhile".
Johannes Kringlebotn (7/3, 1898–1959) was a Norwegian newspaper editor. He edited Folketanken and, during the Nazi era in Norway, Stavanger Aftenblad. After serving a treason sentence he returned in the 1950s and from 1952-7 edited the historical revisionist newspaper Folk og Land. He was involved in politics and organizational life in the interwar period, and was also among Norway's top-ten middle distance runners. He lost his position at the war's end, the prosecutor wanted eight years of forced labor and confiscation of money, but in the Gulating Court of Appeal in August 1946 he was sentenced for treason to four years of forced labor. None of his money was confiscated. He was acquitted for several of the trial points.
Marshall Mason Knappen (1900-1/17, 1965) was a historian. And Call It Peace: America's dangerous blunders in re-education the Germans (1947) Knappen suggested that the Morgenthau Plan "corresponded closely to what might be presumed to be Russian wishes on the German question. It provided a measure of vengeance and left no strong state in the Russian orbit."
Walter Millis (3/16, 1899 – 3/17, 1968) was an editorial and staff writer for the New York Herald Tribune from 1924 to 1954. Millis was a staff member of the Fund for the Republic from 1954 to 1968. He later became the director of the Fund for the Republic's study of demilitarization in 1954. Millis, widely recognized as a historical writer, wrote eight books including: Road to War: America 1914-1917 (1935); This is Pearl! The United States and Japan—1941 (1947); Why Europe Fights; Viewed Without Alarm: Europe Today (1937); Arms and Men: A Study of American Military History (1963), The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain (1931); and An End to Arms. He also edited The Forrestal Diaries.
Aleister Crowley (10/12, 1875 – 12/1, 1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast 666, was an English occultist, mystic, ceremonial magician, poet and mountaineer, who was responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosophy, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early 20th century. Crowley was also bisexual, a recreational drug experimenter and a social critic. In many of these roles, he "was in revolt against the moral and religious values of his time", espousing a form of libertinism based upon the rule of "Do What Thou Wilt". Because of this, he gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, and was denounced in the popular press of the day as "the wickedest man in the world". Crowley's believed in the blood libel against the Jews: “Human sacrifices are today still practiced by the Jews of Eastern Europe, as is set forth at length by Sir Richard Burton in the MS which the wealthy Jews of England have compassed heaven and earth to suppress, and evidenced by the ever-recurring Pogroms against which so senseless an outcry is made by those who live among those degenerate Jews who are at least not cannibals. Crowley rhetorically asked how a system of value such as Qabalah could come from what "the general position of the ethnologist" called "an entirely barbarous race, devoid of any spiritual pursuit", and "polytheists" to boot. As Crowley himself practiced polytheism, some read these remarks as deliberate irony. In private comments on Mein Kampf, Crowley said that his own preferred "master class" was above all distinctions of race. Even thought his Jewish disciple who edited his books left much of this out, Crowley repeated his claim that Jews in Eastern Europe practice ritual child-murder in at least one later work as well, namely the section on mysticism in Magick (Book Four).”
1948 1948 1948 1948
Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the US government. VOA provides a wide range of programming for broadcast on radio and TV and the Internet outside of the U.S. in 44 languages. VOA produces about 1,500 hours of news and feature programming each week for an estimated global audience of 123 million people. Direct programming began shortly after the United States' entry into the war. The first live broadcast to Germany, called ("Voices from America") took place on Feb. 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war. . . . The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth."
1/27/1948 Smith-Mundt Act- US Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948. It is a regulation which allows the US to establish and initiate media outlets which are aimed at non-American audiences in order to further the diplomatic and political objectives and interests of the U.S. overseas; however, these media outlets, including radio and TV stations, are unavailable to the U.S. citizens. According to this law, the materials which are produced to be broadcast through certain American media outlets cannot and should not be disseminated and publicized domestically and can be only available to the members of Congress and academicians. With the concerted efforts of several U.S. Congressmen, the Act was amended to read: "no program material prepared by the United States Information Agency shall be distributed within the United States." There was controversy because even the U.S. lawmakers had come to the conclusion that it was an all-out replica of the propaganda machinery of the former Soviet Union and Nazi regime. The agenda becomes one of sowing seeds of discord between different groups of foreign nations by airing programs in which nothing can be traced but mere propaganda, falsification and fabrication.
Winifred Utley, commonly known as Freda Utley, (1/23, 1898 London, England – 1/21, 1978 Washington, DC) was an English scholar, political activist and best-selling author. After visiting the Soviet Union in 1927 as a trade union activist, she joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1928. Later, married and living in Moscow, she quickly became disillusioned with communism. When her Russian husband, Arcadi Berdichevsky, was arrested in 1936, she escaped to England with her young son. In 1939 they moved to the United States where she became a leading anti-Communist author and activist. Utley's father was involved with George Bernard Shaw, the Fabian Society. From 1926 to 1928, she was a research fellow at the London School of Economics. She was friends with leftists like George Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell and Harold Laski. In 1940 she expressed her disgust with communism and the Soviet Union in her book The Dream We Lost, later published as Lost Illusions. Author Pearl Buck wrote: "It is a strongly unassailable indictment of Russian Communism. It is a strongly dramatic story and one interesting enough to make a major novel, the story of a brilliant mind, rigorously truthful in its working...”
In 1945 Reader's Digest sent Freda Utley to China as a correspondent. The trip resulted in Last Chance in China which held that Western policies, especially cutting off armaments to the Chinese Nationalists, favored the Chinese Communist Party victory. In 1948, Readers Digest posted Utley to Germany, resulting in Utley's next book, The High Cost of Vengeance which criticizes as war crimes Allied occupation policies, including the expulsion of millions of Germans from European nations and the Morgenthau plan. She also accused the United States of torture of German captives, the Allied use of slave labor in France and the Soviet Union and criticized the Nuremberg Trials legal processes. Utley's book was excoriated by The (Jewish) New York Times but praised by Reinhold Niebuhr in The Nation magazine. Following the Suez Canal Crisis of 1956, Utley spent six months in the Middle East and published her last book on international affairs Will the Middle East Go West? In it she warned that America's support of Israel would drive the Arab countries into the waiting arms of the communists.
Utley supported the 1938 Munich Agreement with Adolf Hitler because she thought the Soviet Union was more dangerous than Hitler and doubted the U.S. and Britain could defeat the German war machine. Once in America she sympathized with the America First Committee which opposed America's entry into World War II. In 1941 she reached a mass Reader's Digest audience calling for a negotiated peace between Germany and England. And she opposed the demand for Germany's unconditional surrender. Knowing her views were rooted in opposition to the Soviet Union, the Friends of the Soviet Union tried for four years to have her deported. Finally in 1944 Congressman Jerry Voorhis passed a private bill for "the relief of Freda Utley" from the Alien Registration Act of 1940.
Utley's criticisms of Allied policies in her book The High Cost of Vengeance from 1949 included charges of "crimes against humanity" and statements like: "There is no crime that the Nazis committed that we or our allies did not also commit ourselves." "I had referred to our obliteration bombing, the mass expropriation and expulsion from their homes of twelve million Germans on account of their race; the starving of the Germans during the first years of the occupation; the use of prisoners as slave laborers; the Russian concentration camps, and the looting perpetrated by Americans as well as Russians."
Gerhart Eisler (2/20, 1897– 3/21, 1968) was a German Jew politician. He was a prominent member of the Communist Party during the Weimar Republic. From 1929 to 1931 he was a liaison between the Communist International and the Communist Parties in China and then from 1933 to 1936 to the United States. Eissler was charged in two trials in 1947 first with refusing to answer the HUAC, then of violating U.S. laws by misrepresenting his Communist Party affiliation on his immigration application. Newsweek described him in its February 23, 1948, issue as the "number one Red agent".
“The Jewish Problem” by (Frank Albert-Duquesne) Among Catholic writers, Frank Albert-Duquesne (1896-1955) was arguably the most qualified to deal with the "Jewish problem". Son of a rabbi converted to Catholicism in 1864, down through the paternal line of Jacob Frank, the mystic antitalmoudique 18th century, and by his maternal grandmother of Heinrich Heine, initiated from his earliest childhood to the Biblical and the rabbinic tradition, a disciple of the master Hebrew Vulliaud Paul Frank-Duquesne has continued throughout his life to scrutinize the many tributaries of the Jewish question. Frank Duquesne was familiar with the Kabbalah, the Targoumim, the Midrashim of the sacred books of the Old Testament, the Talmud. This knowledge enabled him to judge harshly certain doctrines and tendencies of the rabbinate. In 1948 he wrote Satan and based on rabbinic literature that the Messiah designed by popular Jewish theology is the one which succumbed to the devil in the wilderness. The Messiah of Judaism in the first century AD, is the Antichrist of the Gospels.
Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi (10/2, 1869 – 1/30, 1948) was an ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon total nonviolence. Many today say that this concept helped India to gain independence, but Bose’s Revolution probably had more impact. He has inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. He is officially honored in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu Nationalist. Gandhi also had a befuddled theology and personal morality. He was a self-promoter, buying out his own first edition, so further editions were ensured. Journalists had to file heavily edited transcripts of his words. He was racist toward blacks. He slept with young women. He had a major homosexual (Jew) love. [Reading his words, he really isn’t an anti-Semite, but does condemn Jewish violence against Palestinians, while not condemning Arab violence against Jews. He and his grandson have watched their backs well.]
"Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French… What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct… If they [the Jews] must look to the Palestine of geography as their national home, it is wrong to enter it under the shadow of the British gun. A religious act cannot be performed with the aid of the bayonet or the bomb. They can settle in Palestine only by the goodwill of the Arabs… As it is, they are co-sharers with the British in despoiling a people who have done no wrong to them. I am not defending the Arab excesses. I wish they had chosen the way of non-violence in resisting what they rightly regard as an unacceptable encroachment upon their country. But according to the accepted canons of right and wrong, nothing can be said against the Arab resistance in the face of overwhelming odds.” –Gandhi
Erskine Barton Childers (3/11 1929–8/25 1996) was a writer, BBC correspondent and UN senior civil servant. He was the eldest son of Erskine Hamilton Childers (Ireland's fourth President). His grandfather was author Robert Erskine Childers. "The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) monitored all Middle Eastern broadcasts throughout 1948. The records, and companion ones by a United States monitoring unit, can be seen at the British Museum. There was not a single order or appeal, or suggestion about evacuation from Palestine, from any Arab radio station, inside or outside Palestine, in 1948. There is a repeated monitored record of Arab appeals, even flat orders, to the civilians of Palestine to stay put."
1948 Jakob Klatzkin (10/3 1882 – 3/26, 1948) was a Jewish philosopher, publicist, publisher. He rejected the notion of Chosenness for the Jewish people, either religious or secular. He argued that the only meaningful goal for Zionism was regaining the land of Israel and normalizing the conditions of Jewish existence also that assimilationist were "traitors to their Judaism". He criticized Ahad Ha-Am for the notion that morality was the key to Israel's uniqueness. He believed that ethic is universal, not the possession of a particular people. He maintained that the spiritual definition of Judaism denied freedom of thought and led to national chauvinism. “We Jews are aliens….a foreign people in your midst and we….wish to stay that way. A Jew can never be a loyal German, whoever calls the foreign land his Fatherland is a traitor to the Jewish people.”
“We are not hyphenated Jews; we are Jews with no provision, qualification or reservation. We are simply aliens, a foreign people in your midst, and we emphasize: we wish to stay that way. There is a wide gap between you and us, so wide that no bridge can be laid across. Your spirit is alien to us; your myths, legends, habits, customs, traditions and national heritage, your religious and national shrines, your Sundays and holidays... they are all alien to us. The history of your triumphs and defeats, your war songs and battle hymns, your heroes and their mighty deeds, your national ambitions and aspirations, they are all alien to us. The boundaries of your lands cannot restrict our movements, and your border clashes are not of our concern. Far over and above the frontiers and boundaries of your land stands our Jewish Unity… therefore, no boundaries can restrain us in perusing our own Jewish policy… We can only live freely among peoples who have not yet reached their national maturity... Therefore, we'll lose our overseas colonies when America reaches that stage, and its people will come out of the 'melting pot' as a national unity.” (Crisis and Decision)
Francis Parker Yockey (9/18, 1917 – 6/16, 1960) was an American political thinker and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium, published under the pen name Ulick Varange in 1948. This 600-page book argues for a race-based, totalitarian path for the preservation of Western culture. Although best remembered today as a writer, Yockey was active with many far-Right causes around the world throughout his adult life. He also wrote “The Enemy of Europe”, a sequel which is now lost, but presumably was talking about the Jews. Feb 1948. American neo-Fascist ideologue and political activist Francis Parker Yockey, who in 1946 had been assigned to work in Wiesbaden, Germany, as a prosecutor in war crime trials, publishes the book Imperium using the pseudonym Ulrick Varange. On page 533 of its original edition we read: “These fact-creations [concerning the Pearl Harbor incident] were as nothing, however, to the massive, post-war, “concentration-camp” propaganda of the Culture-distorting regime based in Washington. This propaganda announced that 6,000,000 members of the Jewish Culture-Nation-State-Church-People-Race had been killed in European camps, as well as an indeterminate number of other people. The propaganda was on a world-wide scale, and was of a mendacity that was perhaps adapted to a uniformized mass, but was simply disgusting to discriminating Europeans. The propaganda was technically quite complete. “Photographs” were supplied in millions of copies. Thousands of the people who had been killed (will have) published accounts of their experiences in these camps. Hundreds of thousands more made fortunes in post-war black-markets. “Gas-chambers” that did not exist were photographed, and a “gasmobile” was invented to titillate the mechanically-minded.
The Organization of American States (OAS) is a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C. Its members are the 35 independent states of the Americas. All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5/5, 1948, there were 21 members: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela. Barbados (1967), Trinidad and Tobago (1967), Jamaica (1969), Grenada (1975), Suriname (1977), Dominica (1979), Saint Lucia (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1981), Bahamas (1982), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1984), Canada (1990), Belize (1991), Guyana (1991). As of May 2011, there are 66 permanent observer countries, including the European Union. Its stated priorities now include the following: Strengthening democracy; Working for peace; Defending human rights; Fostering free trade; Fighting the drugs trade; Promoting sustainable development.
****Nazi Economics was well in the mainstream of German economics:
1) The Historical School of Economics emerged in 19th century, and held sway there until well into the 20th century. This school held that history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics was culture-specific (of the Volk), and hence not generalizable over space and time. Most members of the school were also (Social Policy-ers), i.e. concerned with social reform and improved conditions for the common man during a period of heavy industrialization. The Historical School can be divided into three tendencies: the Older, led by Wilhelm Roscher, Karl Knies, and Bruno Hildebrand; the Younger, led by Gustav von Schmoller, and also including Etienne Laspeyres, Karl Bücher, Adolph Wagner, Georg Friedrich Knapp and to some extent Lujo Brentano; the Youngest, led by Werner Sombart and including, to a very large extent, Max Weber. Predecessors included Friedrich List. The Historical school was involved in the ("strife over method") with the (Jewish) Austrian School of Economics.
2) The Freiburg School was founded in the 1930s at the University of Freiburg. It builds somewhat on the earlier Historical school of economics but stresses that only some forms of competition are good, while others may require oversight. This is considered a lawful and legitimate role of government in a democracy in the Freiburg School. The School provided the economic theoretical elements of Ordoliberalism and the Social Market Economy in post-war Germany.
3) Ordoliberalism is a school of liberalism that emphasized the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its potential. Ordoliberal ideals (with modifications) drove the creation of the post-World War II German social market economy and its attendant Wirtschaftswunder. In the beginning, many Ordoliberals called themselves Neoliberals (“new Liberals”) to separate themselves from old school classical liberalism. Ordoliberal theory holds that the state must create a proper legal environment for the economy and maintain a healthy level of competition (rather than just "exchange") through measures that adhere to market principles. The concern is that, if the state does not take active measures to foster competition, firms with monopoly (or oligopoly) power will emerge, which will not only subvert the advantages offered by the market economy, but also possibly undermine good government, since strong economic power can be transformed into political power. Monetary policy should be the responsibility of a central bank committed to monetary stability and low inflation, and insulated from political pressure by independent status. Fiscal policy—balancing tax revenue against government expenditure—is the domain of the government, whilst macro-economic policy is the preserve of employers and trade unions. Wilhelm Röpke considered Ordoliberalism to be "liberal conservatism," against capitalism in his work Civitas Humana (A Humane Order of Society, 1944). Alexander Rüstow also has criticized laissez-faire capitalism in his work (The Failure of Economic Liberalism, 1950). The Ordoliberals thus separated themselves from classical liberals like Jew Ludwig von Mises and Jew Friedrich Hayek. There is a similarity between the Ordo/Freiberg school and The Frankfurt School of Critical Theory, due to their influence from Max Weber. Both groups took up the same problem, but in VASTLY different directions. For their political philosophy, Ordoliberals were influenced by Aristotle, Tocqueville, Hegel, Spengler, Karl Mannheim, Max Weber, and Husserl.
These two are credited with the Economic Miracle, but only because they forced the German people into more economic hardship.:
Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (2/4 1897–5/5 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. He is notable for his leading role in German postwar economic reform and economic recovery. A staunch believer in economic liberalism, Erhard joined the Mont Pelerin Society in 1950 and used this influential body of neoliberal economic and political thinkers to test his ideas for the reorganization of the West German economy.
Wilhelm Röpke (10/10, 1899– 2/12, 1966) was Professor of Economics and the main spiritual father of the German social market economy, theorizing and collaborating to organize the post-World War II economic re-awakening of the then destroyed German economy, deploying a program which sometimes is now referred to as the Soziologischer Liberalismus.
6/20, 1948 The Deutsche Mark was introduced on Sunday by Ludwig Erhard. A few weeks later Erhard, acting against orders, issued an edict abolishing many economic controls which had been originally implemented by the Nazis, and which the Allies had not removed. He did this, as he often confessed, on Sunday because the offices of the American, British, and French occupation authorities were closed that day. He was sure that if he had done it when they were open, they would have countermanded the order. The introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade (where American cigarettes acted as currency). This wiped out 90% of government and private debt, as well as private savings. Prices were decontrolled, and labor unions agreed to accept a 15% wage increase, despite the 25% rise in prices. Although the new currency was initially only distributed in the three western occupation zones outside Berlin, the move angered the Soviet authorities, who regarded it as a threat. The Soviets promptly cut off all road, rail and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade. In response, the U.S. and Britain launched an airlift of food and coal and distributed the new currency in West Berlin as well.
German Economic Miracle: The term Wirtschaftswunder (German for "economic miracle") describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting a social market economy). The fundamental reason for the quick economic recovery of West Germany can be found in the Exogenous growth model. West Germany had a skilled workforce and a high technological level in 1946, but its capital stock had largely been destroyed during the war. Acts to strengthen the German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years of the early occupation. The Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industries decided at the Potsdam conference was virtually completed by 1950; equipment had then been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in the west and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,700,000 tons. Although the industrially important Saarland with its rich coal fields was returned to West Germany in 1957, it remained economically integrated in a customs union with France until 1959 and France extracted coal from the area until 1981. West Germany proceeded after 1948 to quickly rebuild its capital stock and thus to increase its economic output at stunning rates.
In addition to the physical barriers that had to be overcome for the German economic recovery (see the Morgenthau Plan) there were also intellectual challenges. The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, and used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. Beginning immediately after the German surrender and continuing for the next two years the U.S. pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany. John Gimbel comes to the conclusion, in his book "Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany", that the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U.S. and the UK amounted to close to $10 billion. During the more than two years that this policy was in place, no industrial research in Germany could take place, as any results would have been automatically available to overseas competitors who were encouraged by the occupation authorities to access all records and facilities.
The Marshall Plan gave a moral boost, but very little actual financial assistance until the recovery was already in full swing. Meanwhile thousands of the best German researchers and engineers were being put to work in the Soviet Union and in the U.S. (see Operation Paperclip)
The Berlin Blockade (6/24, 1948 – 5/12, 1949) During the multinational occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. The success of the Berlin Airlift brought humiliation to the Soviets who had refused to believe it could make a difference. The blockade was lifted in May 1949 and resulted in the creation of two separate German states. (The Allies helped the ‘terrible’ Germans after bombing them to smithereens and after cheering ‘gallant’ Russia. Now the Germans are ‘gallant’.)
1948 Major-General Sir Edward Louis Spears, 1st Baronet, KBE, CB, MC (8/7, 1886 – 1/27, 1974) was a British Army officer and Member of Parliament noted for his role as a liaison officer between British and French forces in two world wars. He headed the Committee for Arab Affairs in Britain in the late 1940s and believed that the Jews were not ‘Semites' or connected to Palestine but descendants of the Khazars in Asia.
****Israel Founding - In November 1947, the United Nations voted in favor of the partition of Palestine, proposing the creation of a Jewish state, an Arab state, and a UN-administered Jerusalem. Partition was accepted by the Zionist leadership but rejected by Arab leaders, and conflict began. The Jewish forces generally did everything they could to force the Palestinians to flee their cities, towns and villages. The Arab flight which numbered 60,000 by the end of March 1948, increased dramatically after April 9, 1948, the date of the infamous Dir Yassin massacre, when Menachem Begin's Irgun (with the tacit complicity of Ben-Gurion's Haganah) slaughtered more than 100 civilians from a "friendly" Arab village near Jerusalem. News of the massacre, including cases of rape, spread quickly throughout the Arab community and led to the terrified mass flight of civilians in search of safety. Before the middle of May '48 almost 300,000 Palestinians had fled. Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948 and neighboring Arab states invaded the next day. One reason that Ben-Gurion opted for Statehood on May 14 despite international opposition was because he understood that if he held back and a truce was effected, a new Israeli State might well be forced to repatriate the hundreds of thousands of Palestinians already made refugees. Moreover, by mid-May, there remained more than 500,000 Palestinians in areas that the Jewish forces controlled or desired for their state. Ben-Gurion had no intention of allowing such a large Arab minority to remain in Israel and therefore he chose war. In the end, Israel razed more than 500 Palestinian villages and more than 800,000 Palestinians were exiled forever from their homes.
An unprepared Arab nation entered the war reluctantly. The Arab forces were divided politically and, contrary to myth, they were no match for the Jewish forces in numbers either. The combined Arab armies totaled no more than 25,000 troops; including 10,000 Egyptian troops, 4,500 Transjordanian troops and perhaps 3,000 troops from Palestine itself, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon respectively. In contrast, all estimates of front-line Jewish troops, united under a single command, put the number at least at 25,000. In addition, some estimates of Jewish forces are as high as 60,000 or 90,000 more if settlement troops, irregular forces and others are counted. (Flapan, p. 196) With these figures in mind, it is easier to see how Ben-Gurion could gamble on a unilateral declaration of the state of Israel on May 14, and war.
In 1948, the Zionists expelled from Palestine 100,000 Christians. During the 1948 war, Zionists destroyed desecrated and profaned Christian churches, convents and institutions throughout the Occupied area of Palestine. During the June the June war of 1967 Israeli forces shelled and damaged many churches in the old city of Jerusalem and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Israeli Authorities censor all films and plays to prevent mentioning the name of Jesus Christ. The Zionist reflected with their action the deep-felt hatred of everything Christian embedded in the Zionist ideology. Testimony shows that this hatred went so deep that the Zionist authorities removed the international “+” sign from mathematics textbooks because of the resemblance of the plus sign to the Christian Cross. Orthodox Jews in Israel spit on Bibles and at crosses. They do not even use the plus symbol in mathematics, because it looks like a cross. They use an inverted T instead.
****Israel was also aided in its creation by Adolf Hitler. Through the Transfer Agreement, Jews and goods emigrated from Germany to Israel. In some ways, Philo-Semites and Anti-Semites work together. Philo-Semites want Jews in Palestine and Anti-Semites want Jews out of their countries. Within Christianity, how much Philo-Semitism is Anti-Semitism in disguise? Dispensationalism declares that in the final war of Armageddon, Jews will be killed in Palestine.
Israel Prime Ministers (The Prime Minister of Israel is the country's chief executive.): David Ben-Gurion 5/14, 1948–1/26, 1954; Moshe Sharett 1/26, 1954–11/3, 1955; David Ben-Gurion 11/3, 1955-6/26, 1963; Levi Eshkol 6/26, 1963-2/26, 1969; Yigal Allon 2/26, 1969-3/17, 1969; Golda Meir 3/17, 1969-6/3, 1974; Yitzhak Rabin 6/3, 1974 20 6/1977; Menachem Begin 6/20, 1977-10/ 10, 1983; Yitzhak Shamir 10/10, 1983-9/13, 1984; Shimon Peres 9/13, 1984-10/20, 1986; Yitzhak Shamir 10/20, 1986-7/13, 1992; Yitzhak Rabin 7/13, 1992- 11/4, 1995; Shimon Peres 11/4, 1995-6/18, 1996; Benjamin Netanyahu 6/18, 1996-7/6, 1999; Ehud Barak 7/6, 1999-3/7, 2001; Ariel Sharon 3/7, 2001-4/14, 2006; Ehud Olmert 4/14, 2006-3/31, 2009; Benjamin Netanyahu 3/31, 2009 –
May/1948-January/1954 (Jewish Supremacist) David Ben-Gurion (Grün or Green)(10/16, 1886 -12/1, 1973) was the first Prime Minister of Israel and a Zionist leader. After leading Israel to victory in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Ben-Gurion helped build the state institutions and oversaw the absorption of vast numbers of Jews from all over the world. King David Hotel explosion of July 22, 1946, which resulted in the deaths of 92 Britons, Arabs and Jews, and in the wounding of 58, was not just an act of “Jewish extremists,” but a premeditated massacre conducted by the Irgun in agreement with the highest Jewish political authorities in Palestine-- the Jewish Agency and its head David-Ben-Gurion. David Ben Gurion's War Diaries (1982) He oversaw numerous crimes against Muslim and Christian Arabs.
“Jerusalem is not the capitol of Israel and world Jewry: it aspires to become the spiritual center of the world…” (David Ben-Gurion, Jewish Chronicle, London, Dec. 16, 1949)
“In Jerusalem, the United Nations (a truly United Nations) will build a Shrine of the Prophets to serve the federated union of all continents; this will be the seat of the Supreme Court of Mankind, to settle all controversies among the federated continents, as prophesied by Isaiah…” (David Ben-Gurion, Look Magazine, Jan. 16, 1962)
Lehi (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) referred to as the Stern Group or Stern Gang, was a militant Zionist group founded by Stern in the British Mandate of Palestine. Its avowed aim was forcibly evicting the British authorities from Palestine, allowing unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish state. It was the smallest and most radical of Mandatory Palestine's three Zionist paramilitary groups (Haganah, Irgun, and Lehi), and never had more than a few hundred members. Lehi split from the Irgun in 1940. Lehi assassinated Lord Moyne, British Minister Resident in the Middle East, and made many other attacks on the British in Palestine. It was described as a terrorist organization by the British authorities. Lehi assassinated United Nations mediator Folke Bernadotte and was banned by the Israeli government. The United Nations Security Council called the assassins "a criminal group of terrorists," and Lehi was similarly condemned by Folke's replacement as mediator, Ralph Bunche. Lehi and Irgun were jointly responsible for the massacre in Deir Yassin. However, Israel granted a general amnesty to Lehi members on 14 February 1949. Former Lehi leader Yitzhak Shamir became Prime Minister of Israel in 1983.
****Mossad is officially formed as Israel’s intelligence agency. It is primarily involved in Black Ops throughout the world for the benefit of Israel even to the detriment of its allies. It is alleged that the Mossad motto: "For by wise counsel thou shalt make thy war: and in multitude of counselors there is safety." – Proverbs 24:6) where deception stands for wise counsel. Mossad has access to Jewish helpers all around the world called sayanim (sg. sayan). This is a fifth column for Israel.
There are three principal organizations of The Israeli Intelligence Community has three organizations: Mossad (foreign intelligence service); Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (General Security Service) .
Shin Bet (Sherut haBitachon haKlali or Shabak(General Security Service)), is Israel's internal security service. It’s motto is ("Defender that shall not be seen" or "The unseen shield").
Aman (Agaf HaModi'in) is the central, military intelligence body of the Israel Defense Forces. Aman was created in 1950 and is an independent service, and not part of the ground forces, navy or the Israeli Air Force.
Kidon (bayonet or "tip of the spear") is the name of a department within Israel's Mossad that is allegedly responsible for assassination and kidnapping. Kidon is suspected of being behind a number of assassinations in the Operation Wrath of God campaign carried out by Israel after the 1972 Munich massacre. According to Israeli author Aaron Klein, Kidon was known as Caesarea until a reorganization in the mid-1970s. According to Gordon Thomas, Meir Amit, who directed Israel's intelligence service, the Mossad, stated that all actions done by the Kidon unit were sanctioned by the prime minister. Training for the unit can take as long as two years. All candidates are recruited from Mossad's ranks. A special training base exists somewhere in Israel's Negev desert.
****The Carrot and the Stick - Israel has offered free land and benefits to poor Jews living elsewhere. Israel’s agents have bombed Jewish communities in the Middle East and have blamed Arabs. An example was the once thriving Jewish community in Iraq forced out in the 1950’s. It is estimated that 800,000 to 1,000,000 Jews were either forced from their homes or left the Arab countries from 1948 until the early 1970s; 260,000 reached Israel between 1948–1951, and 600,000 by 1972. The Jews of Egypt and Libya were expelled while those of Iraq, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon and North Africa left as a result of physical and political insecurity. Most were forced to abandon their property. By 2002, these Jews and their descendants constituted about 40% of Israel's population.
Naeim Giladi (1929- 2010) was a Jewish anti-Zionist, and wrote “Ben Gurion's Scandals: How the Haganah and the Mossad Eliminated Jews”. Giladi states he subsequently had difficulty finding employment because of discrimination against Arab Jews. Giladi has strong views on Zionism and its negative effects and his article begins with the following passage: "I write this article for the same reason I wrote my book: to tell the American people, and especially American Jews, that Jews from Islamic lands did not emigrate willingly to Israel; that, to force them to leave, Jews killed Jews; and that, to buy time to confiscate ever more Arab lands, Jews on numerous occasions rejected genuine peace initiatives from their Arab neighbors. I write about what the first prime minister of Israel called 'cruel Zionism'. I write about it because I was part of it."
****Eretz Yisrael (The Land of Israel) refers to the land in the southern Levant which the Askenazic (pretend) Jewish people regard as their God-given homeland. The most precise geographical borders of the promised land are given in Exodus 23:31, which describes the borders as the Red Sea, the "Sea of the Philistines" i.e. the Mediterranean, and the "River" (the Euphrates). It corresponds approximately to present-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, the western part of Jordan and the southern part of Lebanon; at other times it embraced only the area around Jerusalem.
Early statehood Aliyah to Israel (1948–1950) After Aliyah Bet, the process of numbering or naming individual aliyot ceased, but immigration did not. A major wave of immigration of over half a million Jews went to Israel between 1948 and 1950, many fleeing renewed persecution in Eastern Europe, and increasingly hostile Arab countries.
Aliyah to Israel from Arab countries (1947–1972) Around 900,000 Jews from Arab lands left, fled, or were expelled from various Arab nations. In the course of Operation Magic Carpet (1949–1950), nearly the entire community of Yemenite Jews (about 49,000) immigrated to Israel. In three and a half years, the Jewish population of Israel had doubled, inflated by nearly 700,000 immigrants (300,000 of them came from the Muslim world and the rest from Europe), which was one of the causes of the austerity. Many Israeli immigrants were Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews who left Arab countries to move to Israel. In many of these cases they had been persecuted and sometimes forced to leave their homes. 114,000 Jews came from Iraq in 1951 in Operation Ezra and Nehemiah. Many from the Arab lands continued to the US.
Jew René Samuel Cassin (10/5, 1887– 2/20, 1976) was a French jurist, law professor and judge. After World War I, he formed a leftist, pacifist Veterans organization. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 for his work in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948. He was the president of the Alliance Israélite Universelle (see 1860) from 1943-1976. (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has huge sections plagiarized from the Soviet Constitution. How did it work for them?!)
Aug 3 Alger Hiss (11/11, 1904 – 11/15, 1996) was an American lawyer, civil servant, businessman, author and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and UN official. Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.
Jew Harry Dexter White (nee Jakob Weiss) (10/9, 1892 – 8/16, 1948) was an economist, and a senior U.S. Treasury department official. He was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, and reportedly dominated the conference and imposed his vision of post-war financial institutions over the objections of John Maynard Keynes, the British representative. After the war, White was a major architect of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. In August 1948, White testified and defended his record to the House Un-American Activities Committee. Three days after testifying he died of a heart attack at his summer home in Fitzwilliam, NH. A number of sources, including the FBI and Soviet archives, indicate that he passed secret state information to the Soviet Union during World War II.
****1948 The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide fellowship of 349 global, regional and sub-regional, national and local churches seeking unity, a common witness and Christian service. It is a Christian ecumenical organization that is based in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland. The fellowship includes denominations collectively representing a Christian population of some 590 million people in nearly 150 countries in all regions of the world, over 520,000 local congregations served by some 493,000 pastors and priests, in addition to elders, teachers, members of parish councils and others throughout more than 120 countries. After the initial successes of the Ecumenical Movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910 (chaired by future WCC Honorary President John R. Mott), church leaders agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work (conference)|Life and Work Movement organizations. Its official establishment was deferred with the outbreak of World War II until August 23, 1948. Delegates of 147 churches assembled in Amsterdam to merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement. Subsequent mergers were with the International Missionary Council in 1961 and the World Council of Christian Education, with its roots in the 18th century Sunday School movement, in 1971.
Previous Assemblies: Amsterdam, Netherlands, (8/22–9/4 1948); Evanston, Illinois (8/15- 8/31 1954); New Delhi, India (11/19–12/5 1961); Uppsala, Sweden (7/4–7/20 1968); Nairobi, Kenya ( 11/23– 12/10 1975); Vancouver, British Columbia (7/24– 8/10 1983); Canberra, Australia (2/7–2/21 1992); Harare, Zimbabwe (12/3–12/14 1998); Porto Alegre, Brazil (2/14–2/23 2006)
Presidents in 2011: Archbishop Anastasios of Albania, Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania; John Taroanui Doom, Maohi Protestant Church (French Polynesia); Rev. Dr Simon Dossou, Methodist Church in Benin; Rev. Dr Soritua Nababan, Protestant Christian Batak Church (Indonesia); Rev. Dr Ofelia Ortega, Presbyterian-Reformed Church in Cuba; Patriarch Abune Paulos, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church; Rev. Dr Bernice Powell Jackson, United Church of Christ (United States); Dr Mary Tanner, Church of England
10/1/1948 Commander Anton Muller, Military Police Service, Vienna: “The Allied Commissions of Inquiry have so far established that no people were killed by poison gas in the following concentration camps: Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau, Flossenburg, Gross-Rosen, Mauthausen and its satellite camps, Natzweiler, Neuengamme, Niederhagen (Wewelsburg), Ravensbruck, Sachsenhausen, Stutthof, Theresienstadt.
“In those cases, it has been possible to prove that confessions had been extracted by torture, and that testimonies were false. This must be taken into account when conducting investigations and interrogations with respect to war crimes. The result of this investigation should be brought to the cognizance of former concentration camp inmates who at the time of the hearings testified about the murder of people, especially Jews, with poison gas in those concentration camps. Should they insist on their statements, charges are to be brought against them for making false statements.”
Charles Austin Beard (11/27, 1874 – 9/1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century. He published hundreds of monographs, textbooks and interpretive studies in both history and political science. His works included radical re-evaluation of the founding fathers of the United States, who he believed were more motivated by economics than by philosophical principles. He disagreed with the official Pearl Harbor story and was an isolationist.
Sep 17 Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg; in Swedish: Greve af Wisborg (1/2, 1895 – 1/17, 1948) was a Swedish diplomat and nobleman noted for his negotiation of the release of about 31,000 prisoners from German concentration camps during World War II. In 1945, he received a German surrender offer from Heinrich Himmler, though the offer was ultimately rejected. After the war, Bernadotte was unanimously chosen to be the United Nations Security Council mediator in the Arab-Israeli conflict of 1947-1948. He was assassinated in Jerusalem in 1948 by the militant Zionist group Lehi (commonly known as the Stern Group or Gang), while pursuing his official duties. The Lehi was led at the time by Yitzhak Shamir, who was later to become Prime Minister of Israel.
**William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, OM, CMG (12/17, 1874 – 7/22, 1950) was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from 12/29, 1921- 6/28, 1926; from 9/25, 1926-8/7, 1930; and from 10/23, 1935-11/15, 1948. A Liberal with 22 years in office, he was the longest-serving Prime Minister in British Commonwealth history. He is commonly known either by his full name or as Mackenzie King. Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition (as a boy, his motto was "Help those that cannot help themselves"), and played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state. Feb. 10, 1937, In his diary, Prime Minister Mackenzie King met a Russian Jew immigrant who related that he had built a furniture and clothing business on, had three sons and a daughter and was now retired. King recorded in his diary: "The only unfortunate part ... is that the Jews having acquired foothold ... it will not be long before this part of Ottawa will become more or less possessed by them." A few months later, King visited Germany to meet Chancellor Adolf Hitler, and recorded: "My sizing up ... was that he is really one who truly loves his fellow man ... There was a liquid quality about (his eyes) which indicates keen perception and profound sympathy. Calm, composed, and one could see how particularly humble folk would have come to have profound love for the man. As I talked with him I could not but think of Joan of Arc. He is distinctly a mystic."
The following day, he wrote he had lunch with the Nazi foreign minister Konstantin von Neurath, who "admitted that they had taken some pretty rough steps ... but the truth was the country was going to pieces ... He said to me that I would have loathed living in Berlin with the Jews, and the way in which they had increased their numbers in the city, and were taking possession of its more important part. He said there was no pleasure in going to a theatre which was filled with them. Many of them were very coarse and vulgar and assertive. They were getting control of all the business, the finance, and ... it was necessary to get them out to have the Germans really control their own city and affairs." King responded "I wrote a letter of some length by hand to von Neurath whom I like exceedingly. He is, if there ever was one, a genuinely kind, good man."
In March 1936, in response to the German remilitarization of the Rhineland, King had the Canadian High Commissioner in London inform the British government that if Britain went to war with Germany over the Rhineland issue that Canada would remain neutral. In June 1937, during an Imperial Conference of all the Dominion Prime Ministers in London convened during the coronation of King George VI, Mackenzie King informed British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain that Canada would only go to war if Britain were directly attacked, and that if Britain were to become involved in a continental war then Chamberlain was not to expect Canadian support. Also during 1937, King visited Germany and met with Adolf Hitler, becoming the only North American head of government to do so.
Hideki Tōjō (12/30, 1884 – 12/23, 1948) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, member and succeeding leader of the Taisei Yokusankai and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. Tojo was strong advocate of peaceful relations with the US until the US Oil embargo on Japan. After the end of the war, Tōjō was sentenced to death for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and executed by hanging on 23 December 1948.
1948 Frederick John Partington Veale (F J P Veale) (1897-1976) was an influential English historian and attorney. A prolific writer, Veale was a regular contributor to The Nineteenth Century and After, a respected British monthly review. In addition to articles on economic and historical questions, he wrote four books, including The Man from the Volga: A Life of Lenin (1932), Frederick the Great (1935), and Crimes Discreetly Veiled (1958). Certainly his most important and influential work was Advance to Barbarism (1948). This eloquent work traces the evolution of warfare from primitive savagery to the rise of a “civilized” code of armed conflict that was first threatened in the US civil war, and again in the First World War, and was finally shattered during the Second World War. The ensuing “War Crimes Trials” at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and their more numerous and barbaric imitations in Communist-controlled Eastern Europe, Veale argues, established the perilous principle that “the most serious war crime is to be on the losing side.” His book contains skepticism towards certain allegations advanced during IMT Nuremberg: “Yet another discordant note was struck through the inability of the Soviet authorities to resist any opportunity to poke sly fun at their capitalist allies-for example, they solemnly adduced in evidence ‘a jar of human soap,’ alleged to have been made from the bodies of executed prisoners- a manifest gibe, in the worst possible taste, at the famous ‘Corpse Factory Myth’ put into circulation with the aid of forged documents by the British emotional engineers during the war 1914-1918”. Veale also criticizes Allied hypocrisy concerning war crimes, pointing out that the expulsion of Germans from East Prussia, Pomerania, Silesia, and the Sudetenland affected 15 million people, whereof 2 million are estimated to have been killed or died from cold and hunger. Veale pointed out that the Nuremberg trials showed that the rule in the future will be that defeated leaders, military and civilian, will be executed. Hence, no leader in wartime will spare any available and effective horrors which may avert defeat.
Albert Einstein and Hannah Arendt protest Menahem Begin’s trip to the US.
Dec 10 The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Compare with the Jewish Communist (Soviet) Constitution. Many articles were lifted word for word. We all know how terrible that turned out for the Russian people!
Erich Kern, (born Erich Knud Kernmayr on 2/7, 1906 – 9/13, 1991) was an Austrian conservative journalist. He became noted as a writer of revisionist books that sought to glorify the activities of the German soldiers during the Second World War. In 1941, Kern, who already held honorary SS officer's rank, enlisted in the Waffen-SS as a private. In 1948 he wrote “Dance of Death” and bemoaned the failure of Germany in the Soviet Union, arguing that a German victory would have brought culture to the uncivilized Russian people. In 1946, he was a founder of the Gemünd Circle, in which former leading personalities of the SS and Nazi Party participated in an attempt to form a postwar political organization. His publications sought to exonerate the Wehrmacht, Waffen SS and Nazi organizations of any wrongdoing. Kern was a supporter of the pan-European nationalism that became important in post-war far right politics and was a regular contributor to Europe-Action, a journal devoted to this ideal controlled by the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes of Dominique Venner. Active in German politics, he served as a member of the Socialist Reich Party, the National Democratic Party of Germany and the German People's Union. Selected Works: The other Lidice. The tragedy of the Sudeten Germans. 1950; The great witch-hunt. Remains the German soldier outlawed? 2nd Ed. 1960; From Versailles to Hitler. The terrible peace. 1961; Sacrifice of a people. Total war. 2nd Ed. 1963; Germany in the abyss. 1963; Crimes against the German people. Documents Allied atrocities 1939 - 1949. 6th Ed. 1964; Neither peace nor freedom. German destiny of our time. 1965 From Versailles to Nuremberg. The sacrifice of the German people. 3rd Ed. 1971; Perjury against Germany. 2nd Ed. 1971; Adolf Hitler and his movement. The party leader. 2nd Ed. 1970; Adolf Hitler and the war, the military commander. 3rd Ed. 1978; Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. The statesman. 3rd Ed. 1983; Willy Brandt - appearance and reality. 1973; Thus Germany was betrayed. A documentary about the betrayal of World War II. 2nd Ed. 1974; Betrayal of Germany, spies and saboteurs against their homeland. 4th Ed. 1976; SPD - without a mask. A political documentary. 7th Ed. 1976; The tragedy of the Jews. Fate between propaganda and truth. 1979; Allied crimes against Germans. The silent victims. 1980; Crimes against the German people. A documentation of Allied atrocity. 8th Ed. 1983.
1948 The Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) is a federation of 22 Lutheran, Unified (Prussian Union) and Reformed (Calvinist) Protestant regional church bodies in Germany. The EKD is not a church in a theological understanding because of the denominational differences. However, the member churches share full pulpit and altar fellowship. In 2008, the EKD had a membership of 24.515 million parishioners or 29.9 percent of the German population. Only one member church (the Evangelical Reformed Church) is not restricted to a certain territory. In a certain way, the other member churches resemble dioceses of the Anglican or Roman Catholic churches from an organizational point of view. The system of state churches disappeared with the monarchies, and there was a desire for the Protestant churches to merge. It was realized that one mainstream Protestant church for all of Germany was impossible and that any union would need a federal model. The churches met in Dresden in 1919 and created a plan for federation, and this plan was adopted in 1921 at Stuttgart. Then in 1922 the 28 territorially defined Protestant churches founded the German Evangelical Church Confederation (DEK). Because it was a union of independent bodies, the Church Union's work was limited to foreign missions and relations with Protestant churches outside Germany, especially German Protestants in other countries.
In July 1933, the German Evangelical Church (DEK) was formed under the influence of the German Christians. In 1948, after the Nazi model for union, the Lutheran, Reformed and United churches came together as the Evangelical Church in Germany. Allied forced denazification hindered any hint of nationalism. Under modern Jewish cultural marxism, women are now ordained and blessing of same-sex unions is practiced in 10 member churches. Protestantism is the major religion in Northern, Eastern and Middle Germany: the Reformed branch in the extreme northwest and Lippe, the Lutheran branch in the north and south, and the United branch in Middle and Western Germany. While the majority of Christians in Southern Germany are Roman Catholic, some areas in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria are predominantly Protestant, e.g. Middle Franconia and the government region of Stuttgart. The vast majority of German Protestants belong to a member church of the EKD. Even though around 30 percent of all Germans belong to a member church of the EKD, average church attendance is only around a million people attending a service on Sunday. (The Nazis encouraged church attendance.)
SS-Sturmbannführer (Major) Walter Reder (2/4, 1915 – 4/26, 1991) was a German Waffen-SS officer who served with the 3.SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf and the 16.SS-Panzergrenadier-Division Reichsführer-SS. He was a Knight's Cross and German Cross in Gold winner. After the war he was convicted of war crimes in Italy. 43 years a prisoner for war crimes he never committed. The atrocity tales to the contrary, Reder's men had never even set foot in Marzabotto. Nevertheless, they were accused of burning families to death in their homes and using flame throwers against unarmed civilians who had taken refuge in various churches. In no time Reder's name appeared in large print on a roster of “war criminals." The sham trial of Walter Reder lasted from 1948 to 1951. No one was surprised when an Italian kangaroo court found him guilty and sentenced him to life imprisonment in the fortress of Gaeta.
Helen Mears writes Mirror for Americans: Japan (9/14, 1948) Mears, author of The Year of the Wild Boar (1942) returned to Japan as part of an advisory commission on labor. This is not, however, a study of the occupation, but goes father back into an analysis of the emergence of Japan as the spearhead of Asiatic liberation, establishing the Greater Asiatic Co-Prosperity Sphere as an effort to break free from the western democracies. Here is the case for Japan- here is the charting of our failure to accept the basic differences in the Pacific and European conflicts. Here are the errors of judgment, the myths promulgated to explain our policy, the falsity of the picture of the Japanese as an aggressive warlika people, the underplaying of the facts as they emerged of Japan's lack of supplies, food, man-power, equipment. She pictures a Japan defeated long before Potsdam strengthened their flagging spirit to survive; she shows that the demoralization of the troops was based on propaganda that painted American soldiers as just what we visualized Japanese soldiers to be. She does not defend the barbaric cruelty of the Japanese, but does criticize our failure to recognize the roots. She challenges the illusion of stability in re-educating the Japanese, claiming that the universality of our economic principles is debatable, that cultural and social reform cannot be built on our assumptions. She paints a grim picture of a wholly prostrate nation, to whom democracy and punishment seem synonymous.
Oct 1948. French fascist writer Maurice Bardèche (see 1998) publishes the book (“Nuremberg or The Promised Land”) in which he criticizes the IMT and its verdict, especially focusing on claims made by the French trial delegation that the German occupation forces had sought to ”exterminate” the French population. He notes that contemporary German documents shows “the solution of the Jewish problem” to have “consisted only of an assembling of the Jews in a territorial zone which one called the Jewish Reserve”.
Oct 1948. Austin J App writes a letter to the Philadelphia Inquirer criticizing the treatment of Ilse Koch. The letter mentions the abuse of captured Dachau guards, as well as the torture and deceptions used to extract confessions from them. It also contends that the discovery at Buchenwald of lampshades made of human skin is an “unproven allegation”. In regards to the alleged criminal use of human remains, App draws a parallel to events in the Pacific War where US soldiers fashioned souvenirs out of the bones of fallen Japanese.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 12/9, 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 1/12, 1951. It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Jew Raphael Lemkin. Lemkin coined the word genocide in 1943. All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. The number of states that have ratified the convention is currently 142.
Prior to its ratification of the convention, the US Senate was treated to a speech by Senator William Proxmire in favor of this treaty every day that the Senate was in session between 1967 and 1986. In February 1986, the U.S. Senate voted 83 to 11 in favor of ratification, albeit with a list of "reservations". It took another two years before Congress passed legislation that actually implemented the convention by making genocide a crime under U.S. law. (The US reservations were opposed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, UK)
1948 Hans Rothfels (4/12, 1891 – 6/22, 1976) was a nationalist conservative German Jew historian. He supported an idea of authoritarian German state, dominance of Germany over Europe and was hostile to Germany's eastern neighbors. After his applications for honorary Aryan status were rejected, due to his Jewish ancestry, he emigrated to Great Britain and later to US, after which he became opposed to Nazi regime. Rothfels returned to West Germany after 1945 where he continued to influence history teaching and became an influential figure among West German scholars. In 1910, he converted to Lutheranism. Rothfels had been a leading pupil of Friedrich Meinecke. Rothfels served in the German Army as a reserve officer and was badly wounded near Soissons. In 1918, Rothfels's dissertation on Carl von Clausewitz, led to his degree. Rothfels claimed that Bismarck was neither the "iron chancellor" nor an "opportunist", but rather a profoundly religious man struggling to deal with a reality that whose full complexity was only understandable to God. He defended Bismarck's Germanization policies against Poles claiming they were "defensive".
Rothfels was hostile towards the Weimar Republic, through combination of authoritarianism and mass national movement, he hoped, it would be destroyed, and connections with Western democracies broken, and envisioned that on ruins of this state a new Reich would emerged formed out of East Prussian Baltic Northeast and Southeastern outposts of former Habsburg Empire. In foreign affairs, he often denounced the Treaty of Versailles and the eastern borders it had imposed on Germany. Rothfels advocated German domination of Eastern Europe and making its population into serfs. A major interest of Rothfels in the 1920s was his belief in the obsolescence of the nation-state, and the need for a "loosening up" of the Versailles borders through increased protection of minorities. Rothfels promoted an idea of race classification based on readiness of non-German ethnic groups in Eastern Europe to submit themselves to rule of German Third Reich. The Eastern and Southeastern nationalities were to be "restructured" and integrated with German "master race". Non-Germans would have been subject to hierarchical employment conditions and essentially have status of indentured workers, based on racist criteria. Those living outside the "German sphere" were to be classified by hierarchy based on their "cultural heritage" and ruled under direction of Germans and a vassal class that would collaborated with them.
Rothfels was forced to leave his university position due to his Jewish ancestry, despite intervention by Hermann Rauschning the Nazi president of Danzig Senate and Theodor Oberlander, director of League of German East and NSDAP's East Prussian intelligence agency and forbidden to teach a year later. While Rothfels tried to get an honorary Aryan status with support by Joachim von Ribbentrop, his efforts were fruitless. He reluctantly left Germany in 1938 for Britain. (Wikipedia- What decided the issue for him was his experience during the Kristallnacht pogrom when his house was looted and trashed by the SA and he himself was arrested and held by the Gestapo for several hours, during which he was deprived of his crutches and beaten up.) (Was this really true? Above it says that he left after he wasn’t accepted as an honorary Aryan.) After teaching at Oxford from 1938 to 1940, Rothfels was interned (as a German?) on Isle of Man. He defended German hegemony over the Baltics. Rothfels left for the US, befriended the American publisher Henry Regnery and became active in the Republican Party.
In 1948, Rothfels published his most famous book, The German Opposition To Hitler, which celebrated the 1944 assassination plotters. Rothfels accepted Edmund Burke's idea that the best defenders of liberty come from the upper crust of society. Rothfels argued that the actions of the July 20 conspirators were motivated a sense of noblesse oblige, devotion to the principles of Christianity and the highest form of patriotism. Rothfels was opposed to any sort of Sonderweg interpretation of German history, and argued that Nazism was the result of the general problems of modern civilization, which Rothfels saw as based on a set of values that were overtly materialistic, secular, and dehumanizing, and which had reduced most people to a mindless mass. He was dismayed by public opinion polls taken immediately after World War II in the American zone of occupation that showed the majority of Germans had a low opinion of the men and women involved in the July 20 plot. Rothfels was determined that Germans should see them as heroes, not villains.
He worked hard for the rest of his life to exonerate German nationalism from the taint of Nazism. During the 1950s, Rothfels was one of the few German historians who attempted a serious examination of the Holocaust, which was a subject that most German historians preferred to ignore during that decade. In particular, he broke new ground by publishing Kurt Gerstein's (fraudulent) reports relating to the Final Solution in the first edition of the Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte in 1953 and another article in 1959 that examined the plight of Polish Jewry under Nazi rule. In his works Rothfels aimed at minimising the German hostility to Jews, while highlighting any attempts to save them by German individuals. Crimes and support for anti-semitism were downplayed, and opposition to racial discrimination portrayed by Rothfels as dominant. As such his text produced a vision of history in which for example the 1930s were virtually absent from anti-semitism, and non-Jewish Germans were completely willing to help Jews. After his return to Germany, Rothfels took a strong stand against those whose work he felt could exonerate the Nazis.
Another area of interest for Rothfels was the expulsion of the ethnic German population from Eastern Europe after World War II. In the 1950s, Rothfels worked with Theodor Schieder, Werner Conze and other historians to produce the multi-volume Documentation of the Expulsion of Germans from East Central Europe. Many later prominent historians such as Martin Broszat, Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Hans Mommsen were involved in this project.
Many see him as apologist for the anti-democratic German Right, and in particular, his attitude towards the Weimar Republic has recently been the subject of controversy in Germany. The historian Ingo Haar in his 2000 book Historiker im Nationalsozialismus called Rothfels an enemy of the Weimar Republic and a Nazi sympathizer. The historian Heinrich August Winkler has strongly criticized Haar, who had erroneously used a radio address Rothfels gave in 1930 praising Friedrich Ebert, Gustav Stresemann, and Paul von Hindenburg as great German leaders as a proof for Rothfels' support of Hitler.
Crusade in Europe by Dwight Eisenhower 608p. 1948 This massive memoir does not mention ‘gas chambers’.
The Second World War by Winston Churchill. It was largely responsible for his being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953. Churchill labeled the "moral of the work" as follows: "In War: Resolution, In Defeat: Defiance, In Victory: Magnanimity, In Peace: Goodwill". First edition in six volumes: The Gathering Storm (1948), Their Finest Hour (1949), The Grand Alliance (1950), The Hinge of Fate (1950), Closing the Ring (1951), Triumph and Tragedy (1953). This massive memoir does not mention ‘gas chambers’.
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