List of countries by continents

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This article consists of a list of countries by continent, along with their capitals.

There are multiple continent classification systems in use. The first continent system is the seven continent system consisting of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania/Australasia, North America, South America and Antarctica.

The six continent system is essentially the same as the seven continent system, the only difference being two continents are merged. There are two versions of the six continent system, one merging Europe and Asia to create Eurasia, and the other merging North and South America to create The Americas

The five continent system is applying Eurasia and The Americas together, all other continents remain the same.

Finally the four continent system is the same as the prior, however Africa joins Eurasia to become Afro-Eurasia, leaving only Oceania and Antarctica as separate continents.

The only variable in these systems is Antarctica. As Antarctica has no permanent population it isn't uncommon for it to be removed from these classification systems.

The most common system used varies from country to country.

There is no universally accepted answer as to how many countries in the world there actually are. The minimum answer is the 193 United Nations member states. However, there are many more constituent, de facto and self-proclaimed independent states that are typically added to that list. Additionally certain highly autonomous first level administrative divisions fall under the definition of the word country.

The list below follows the seven continent system and predominantly includes only U.N member states unless otherwise stated.

Africa[change | change source]

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area, accounting for about a fifth of the world's land. With 1.3 billion people as of 2018, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. It is surrounded by large areas of water. There are 54 fully recognized and independent countries in Africa, and 14.7% (1.216 billion) of the world's population lives there. It is thought to be the continent where the first humans evolved.

  1. Algeria - Algiers
  2. Angola - Luanda
  3. Benin - Porto Novo, Cotonou
  4. Botswana - Gaborone
  5. Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
  6. Burundi - Gitega
  7. Cameroon (also spelled Cameroun) - Yaoundé
  8. Cape Verde - Praia
  9. Central African Republic - Bangui
  10. Chad (Tchad) - N'Djamena
  11. Comoros - Moroni
  12. Republic of the Congo - Brazzaville
  13. Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) - Kinshasa
  14. Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) - Yamoussoukro
  15. Djibouti - Djibouti
  16. Egypt (Misr) - Cairo
  17. Equatorial Guinea - Malabo
  18. Eritrea - Asmara
  19. Ethiopia (Abyssinia) - Addis Ababa
  20. Gabon - Libreville
  21. The Gambia - Banjul
  22. Ghana - Accra
  23. Guinea - Conakry
  24. Guinea-Bissau - Bissau
  25. Kenya - Nairobi
  26. Lesotho - Maseru
  27. Liberia - Monrovia
  28. Libya - Tripoli
  29. Madagascar - Antananarivo
  30. Malawi - Lilongwe
  31. Mali - Bamako
  32. Mauritania - Nouakchott
  33. Mauritius - Port Louis
  34. Morocco (Al Maghrib) - Rabat
  35. Mozambique - Maputo
  36. Namibia - Windhoek
  37. Niger - Niamey
  38. Nigeria - Abuja
  39. Rwanda - Kigali
  40. São Tomé and Príncipe - São Tomé
  41. Senegal - Dakar
  42. Seychelles - Victoria, Seychelles
  43. Sierra Leone - Freetown
  44. Somalia - Mogadishu
  45. South Africa - Pretoria
  46. South Sudan - Juba
  47. Sudan - Khartoum
  48. Swaziland (Eswatini) - Mbabane
  49. Tanzania - Dodoma
  50. Togo - Lome
  51. Tunisia - Tunis
  52. Uganda - Kampala
  53. Western Sahara - El Aaiún (disputed)
  54. Zambia - Lusaka
  55. Zimbabwe - Harare

Antarctica[change | change source]

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle. It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia.

About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice. However, there is a large part where the ice does not cover land: the ice shelves. There are important geographical features covered by the ice. The huge Lake Vostok has been covered by ice for at least 15 million years. There is a massive rift valley and a huge mountain range, both of which are covered at present.

Asia[change | change source]

Asia is the largest and most populous continent and is a continent in the seven continent system. Asia consists of forty-eight countries as per the United Nations along with many other highly autonomous regions and disputed areas that are often generalised as countries of their own.

  1. Afghanistan - Kabul
  2. Armenia - Yerevan
  3. Azerbaijan - Baku
  4. Bahrain - Manama
  5. Bangladesh [1](বাংলাদেশ) - Dhaka (ঢাকা)
  6. Bhutan - Thimphu
  7. Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
  8. Cambodia (Kampuchea) - Phnom Penh
  9. China - Beijing
  10. East Timor (Timor Leste) - Dili
  11. Georgia - Tbilisi
  12. India - New Delhi
  13. Indonesia - Jakarta
  14. Iran - Tehran
  15. Iraq - Baghdad
  16. Israel - Jerusalem
  17. Japan - Tokyo
  18. Jordan (Al Urdun) - Amman
  19. Kazakhstan - nursultan
  20. Kuwait - Kuwait city
  21. Kyrgyzstan - Bishkek
  22. Laos - Vientiane
  23. Lebanon (Lubnan) - Beirut
  24. Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
  25. Maldives - Malé
  26. Mongolia - Ulaanbaatar
  27. Myanmar (Burma) - Naypyidaw
  28. Nepal - Kathmandu
  29. North Korea - Pyongyang
  30. Oman - Muscat
  31. Pakistan - Islamabad
  32. Philippines - Manila
  33. Qatar - Doha
  34. Russia - Moscow (Russia is a part of Asia geographically,but politically it is a part of Europe)
  35. Saudi Arabia - Riyadh
  36. Singapore - Singapore
  37. South Korea - Seoul
  38. Sri Lanka - Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte (administrative), Colombo (commercial)
  39. Syria - Damascus
  40. Tajikistan - Dushanbe
  41. Thailand (Muang Thai) - Bangkok
  42. Turkey - Ankara
  43. Turkmenistan - Aşgabat
  44. Taiwan - Taipei
  45. United Arab Emirates - Abu Dhabi
  46. Uzbekistan - Tashkent
  47. Vietnam - Hanoi
  48. Yemen - Sana'a

There is no official boundary between Europe and Asia, however Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey are considered a part of Asia by the United Nations.

Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations due to the ongoing dispute with the People's Republic of China

Europe[change | change source]

Europe is the second smallest continent, but the third most populous. It is a continent in one of the seven continent systems and the seven continent system. In other systems it is part of Asia, Eurasia or Eurafrasia. Below is the list of fully sovereign or de facto countries that are indisputably and entirely situated within Europe. The 45 countries are:

  1. Albania (Shqipëria) - Tirana
  2. Andorra - Andorra la Vella
  3. Austria (Österreich) - Vienna
  4. Belarus (Беларусь) - Minsk
  5. Belgium (Dutch: België, French: Belgique, German: Belgien) - Brussels
  6. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina) - Sarajevo
  7. Bulgaria (България) - Sofia
  8. Croatia (Hrvatska) - Zagreb
  9. Cyprus (Κύπρος) - Nicosia
  10. Czech Republic (Česko) - Prague
  11. Denmark (Danmark) - Copenhagen
  12. Estonia (Eesti) - Tallinn
  13. Finland (Suomi) - Helsinki
  14. France - Paris
  15. Germany (Deutschland) - Berlin
  16. Greece (Ελλάδα) - Athens
  17. Hungary (Magyarország) - Budapest
  18. Iceland** (Island) - Reykjavik
  19. Republic of Ireland (Éire) - Dublin
  20. Italy (Italia) - Rome
  21. Kosovo** - Pristina
  22. Latvia (Latvija) - Riga
  23. Liechtenstein - Vaduz
  24. Lithuania (Lietuva) - Vilnius
  25. Luxembourg - Luxembourg City
  26. North Macedonia (Македонија) - Skopje
  27. Malta - Valletta
  28. Moldova - Chisinau
  29. Monaco - Monte Carlo Quarter
  30. Montenegro (Crna Gora, Црна Гора) - Podgorica
  31. Netherlands (Nederland) - Amsterdam (Capital), The Hague (Government)
  32. Norway (Norge) - Oslo
  33. Poland (Polska) - Warsaw
  34. Portugal - Lisbon
  35. Romania - Bucharest
  36. Russia** Moscow (Europe up to the Ural Mountains; Asia: the rest to Vladivostok)
  37. San Marino - San Marino
  38. Serbia (Србија) - Belgrade
  39. Slovakia (Slovensko) - Bratislava
  40. Slovenia (Slovenija) - Ljubljana
  41. Spain (España) - Madrid
  42. Sweden (Sverige) - Stockholm
  43. Switzerland (German: Schweiz, French: Suisse, Italian: Svizzera, Romansh: Svizra) - Bern
  44. Ukraine (Україна) - Kyiv or Kiev
  45. United Kingdom - London
  46. Vatican City** (Italian: Città del Vaticano, Latin: Civitas Vaticana) - Vatican City

There is no official boundary between Europe and Asia, as a result the continental status of some countries is often disputed. However Russia is considered to be European by the United Nations. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey are considered to be a part of Asia by the United Nations.

Kosovo is a highly recognised disputed territory with de facto independence.

Iceland sits on the European - North American tectonic plates. The Western half sits in North America, while the Eastern half sits on the European tectonic plate.

Vatican City State is a U.N observer state and not a U.N member.

North America[change | change source]

North America is the third largest continent and the fourth most populous. It is a continent in the 7 continents system, consisting of 23 countries and 22 dependent territories which are:

  1. Antigua and Barbuda - St. John's
  2. Anguilla - The Valley (territory of U.K.)
  3. Aruba - Oranjestad (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
  4. The Bahamas - Nassau
  5. Barbados - Bridgetown
  6. Belize - Belmopan ( Central America)
  7. Bermuda - Hamilton (territory of U.K.)
  8. Bonaire - part of the Netherlands
  9. British Virgin Islands - Road Town (territory of U.K.)
  10. Canada - Ottawa
  11. Cayman Islands - George Town (territory of U.K.)
  12. Clipperton Island - (territory of France)
  13. Costa Rica - San José ( Central America)
  14. Cuba - Havana
  15. Curaçao - Willemstad (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
  16. Dominica - Roseau
  17. Dominican Republic (Republica Dominicana) - Santo Domingo
  18. El Salvador - San Salvador ( Central America)
  19. Greenland - Nuuk (territory of Denmark)
  20. Grenada - St George's
  21. Guadeloupe - (territory of France)
  22. Guatemala - Guatemala
  23. Haiti - Port-au-Prince
  24. Honduras - Tegucigalpa ( Central America)
  25. Jamaica - Kingston
  26. Martinique - Fort-de-France Bay (territory of France)
  27. Mexico - Mexico City
  28. Montserrat - Plymouth, Brades, Little Bay (territory of U.K.)
  29. Navassa Island - Washington, D.C. (territory of U.S.)
  30. Nicaragua - Managua ( Central America)
  31. Panama (Panamá) - Panama City ( Central America)
  32. Puerto Rico - San Juan (territory of U.S.)
  33. Saba - The Bottom (territory of Netherlands)
  34. Saint Barthelemy - Gustavia (territory of France)
  35. Saint Kitts and Nevis - Basseterre
  36. Saint Lucia - Castries
  37. Saint Martin - Marigot (territory of France)
  38. Saint Pierre and Miquelon - Saint-Pierre (territory of France)
  39. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Kingstown
  40. Sint Eustatius - Oranjestad (territory of Netherlands)
  41. Sint Maarten - Philipsburg (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
  42. Trinidad and Tobago - Port of Spain
  43. Turks and Caicos - Cockburn Town (British Overseas Territory)
  44. United States of America - Washington, District of Columbia
  45. US Virgin Islands - Charlotte Amalie (territory of U.S.)

South America[change | change source]

South America is the fourth largest continent and fifth most populous. It is a continent in the seven continent system. In other systems it is part of The Americas. The 12 countries and 3 dependent territories belonging to it are as follows:

  1. Argentina - Buenos Aires
  2. Bolivia - Sucré
  3. Brazil (Brasil) - Brasília
  4. Chile - Santiago
  5. Colombia - Bogotá
  6. Ecuador - Quito
  7. Falkland Islands - Stanley (territory of U.K.)
  8. French Guiana - Cayenne (territory of France)
  9. Guyana - Georgetown
  10. Paraguay - Asunción
  11. Peru - Lima
  12. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands - (territory of U.K.)
  13. Suriname - Paramaribo
  14. Uruguay - Montevideo
  15. Venezuela - Caracas

Oceania[change | change source]

Several terms are in use to describe the region of Australia and the nations of the Pacific Ocean. The term Oceania is usually preferred, and this is the term in use by the United Nations. The term Pacific Islands generally excludes the islands of New Zealand, and the continent of Australia. The indigenous Māori of New Zealand are Polynesian people.

Historically, the region was called Australasia. This term is based more on natural history (geology, and geography) rather than on politics. This term means Australia, New Zealand and the whole of New Guinea, plus those islands which are geologically connected.

The countries (14 total) are listed below according to their UN classification:

  1. Australia - Canberra
  2. Federated States of Micronesia - Palikir
  3. Fiji - suva
  4. Kiribati - South Tarawa
  5. Marshall Islands - Majuro
  6. Nauru - no capital; biggest city is Yaren
  7. New Zealand - Wellington
  8. Palau - Melekeok
  9. Papua New Guinea - Port Moresby
  10. Samoa - Apia
  11. Solomon Islands - Honiara
  12. Tonga - Nuku'alofa
  13. Tuvalu - Funafuti
  14. Vanuatu - Port Vila

Australasia is not a politically designated region. It is a natural region of islands designated by its geology, geography, botany and zoology. It is also an ecozone.

  1. Australia
  2. Flores
  3. Lombok
  4. Melanesia
  5. New Caledonia
  6. New Guinea
  7. Sulawesi
  8. Sumbawa
  9. Timor

References[change | change source]

  1. "Bangladesh National Portal".

Other websites[change | change source]