Yearbook of International University College - Volume 7 (2014)
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YEARBOOK
OF
INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Volume VI
TENTH INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE

EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT:
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES
Scientific Research and Creativity` 2014



VI
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22-25 2014 .
2014 .

YEARBOOK
OF
INTERNATIONAL
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Volume VII
Includes scientific articles and reports
from the 10th International Scientific
Conference on the topic of
Educational Management: Effective
Practices
September, 22-25th, 2014
and Scientific Research and
Creativity of 2014
EDITIONALBOARD

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9300 , . 3
e-mail: icollege@mail.bg
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Assoc. Prof. Todor Radev, PhD, IUC,


Bulgaria
Prof. Svetlana Arkhypova, PhD,
National Bohdan Khmelnytsky
University of Cherkasy, Ukraine
Assoc. Prof. Maria Birca, PhD,
Moldova State University
Prof. Dimitrina Kamenova, PhD, IUC
Viktoria Gedinach, PhD, IUC
Silviya Stoyanova, IUC
ADDRESS FOR
CORRESPONDENCE
3, Bulgaria Str., 9300, Dobrich,
Bulgaria
Publisher: International University
College, Bulgaria

ISSN 1312-6539

,
!

All authors are responsible for the


content and references of the
manuscript!

/CONTENTS
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THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE IN EDUCATION.... 10
Dimitrina Kamenova, Mariyana Todorova, International University College,
Dobrich, Bulgaria

... 19
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NEW FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON WORLD UNIVERSITY EDUCATION.... 51


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............................... 78
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SCIENTIFIC THINKING AS INNOVATIVE CONCEPT IN EDUCATION AND ITS
RELATIONSHIP WITH INTELLIGENCE. 94
Sergiu Sanduleac - SPU Ion Creanga, Republic of Moldov

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... 117
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THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS.. 128
Anna iianu Moldova State University
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. 133
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RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION ASSESSMENT..143
Ala iianu - Technical University of Moldova
PERSONALITY-ORIENTED LEARNING AS A BASIS OF HUMANITARIZATION
OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS TRAINING.. 149
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. 156
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...........164
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BEST PRACTICES FOR LIFE-LONG LEARNING CENTER ADMINISTRATORS IN
TEKRDA, TURKEY: MENTORING AND COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE.... 167
Duygu Doan, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda; zge Hacifazliolu, Kltr
University, Istanbul; Kbra ner, Tekirda, Fatih onukcu, Abdlkadir Iik,
Bahadr Altrk, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
LIFELONG LEARNING WITH MOODLE.....174
Ludmila Novac Moldova State University

.. 180
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... 185
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192
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USING ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS IN EFL CLASSES.. 200
Olga Duhlicher, Cristina Blajin Moldova State University
OBJECTIVES AND PRIORITIES OF LIFELONG LEARNING: A CASE STUDY
UNIVERSITY PERSPECTIVA-INT.. 207
Ludmila Oleinic, Perspectiva - INT University, Republic of Moldova
USING VIDEO IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM: REASONS, TECHNIQES AND
SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS.. 210
Cristina Blajin, Olga Duhlicher - Moldova State University
OBSERVATION AS A TOOL OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT... 217
Marcela Calchei, Maria Brc - Moldova State University

INTEGRATING ASPECTS OF PREVENTION AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN


FROM VIOLENCE IN CURRICULUM FOR INITIAL AND LONG LIFE
TEACHERS LEARNING 221
Mariana Botezatu - Moldova State University

.. 226
.., .. - . ., . ,
RELIMINARY STAGES REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CONTINUING
EDUCATION
OF
THE
TEACHERS
FROM
REPUBLIC
OF
OLDOVA... 234
Elena ap - Pedagogical State University Ion Creang, Moldova
MOBILITY AND INTERACTIVITY BY FORMING OF NATURAL SCIENCE
COMPETENCIES IN THE PRESCHOOL GROUP .. 242
, - 2,
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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, PROBLEMS AND
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS: THE CASE OF TURKEY 247
Abdlkadir Iik, zge Selvi Yavuz, Gamze Yldz eren, Duygu Doan,
Bahadr Altrk, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda, Turkey
BENEFITS OF USING COMMUNICATIVE METHODOLOGY IN HIGH
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.. 262
Lela Abdushelishvili, Caucasus University, Georgia
HOW DO EDUCATIONAL LEADERS INTEGRATE LIFE-LONG LEARNING INTO
THEIR LIVES: THE SEARCH FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE CASE OF
ERKEZKY .. 265
Duygu Doan, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda; zge Hacifazliolu, Kltr
University, Istanbul; Kbra ner, Tekirda; Abdlkadir Iik, Bahadr Altrk,
Namk Kemal University, Tekirda, Turkey

III. :
NON-FORMAL AND INFORMAL EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPING
PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND COMPETENCES.. 273
Diana Popova - Burgas Free University, Bulgaria

............................................................................................. 280
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.. 284
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ROLE-PLAYING APPROACH IN THE CONTEMPORARY EDUCATION .. 348
Silviya Stoyanova, International University College, Dobrich, Bulgaria
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356
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HANDBOOK FOR MANAGERS - MANUAL FOR COOPERATION WITH
STUDENTS... 365
Diyan Dimov International University College, Dobrich, Bulgaria

IV. :

NGOS AND EDUCATION: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AT THE
ROMANIAN BLAK SEA COASTAL AREA A CASE STUDY..... 375
Carmen Bucovala - Ovidius High School, Constanta, Romania
THE ROLE OF PUSH AND PULL MOTIVATIONS IN HUNGARIANS LEISURE
TRAVELS 382
Matyas Hinek, Katalin Szalai Kodolnyi Jnos University of Applied Sciences,
Budapest, Hungary

... 397

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THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE


FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE
IN EDUCATION
Prof. Dimitrina Kamenova, PhD, Sen. Lecturer Mariyana Todorova,
International University College, Bulgaria



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Abstract: The paper explores the factors, which limit the normal course of work of
educational institutions. Emphasis has been placed on those problems that create excessive
conflict environment. The problem areas have been divided into five groups according to
teachers and educational managers professional qualities taking into consideration the
dialogue between the two research fields - management and pedagogy. The classification of
factors serves as a basis for highlighting the role of IUC, especially that of the Department
for Modern Methods of Education, which provides such forms of work in order to respond
adequately to the problems displayed. The innovative format and characteristic features of
the Masterclass as an effective training form have also been presented.
Keywords: Master class, Department for modern methods of education, managerial
competence, groups of problems
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1. Introduction. Actualities of the problem.


The managerial competence is such a complex ability that in general provides
effective planning, organization and control of every activity. It can be
recognized, on the one hand, in the work of the head of an institution,
including an educational one (school, kindergarten), and on the other hand, in
the teachers work as the teacher is the main performer of planning,
organizing and supervising lesson activities. All these provide educational
and cognitive progress for the student, and scientific, pedagogical and
professional praxeological prosperity.
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The resources and strengths of International University College - Albena,


Bulgaria (IUC) for the development of managerial competence in the field of
business are the reasons for taking a number of initiatives in support of
educational institutions and their employees for the preparation and
implementation of the latest theoretical formulations of effective
management practice based on dialogue between pedagogy and management
in education.
2. Methodology of research
Purpose:
Through the role of the International University College (IUC) for the
development of managerial competence, to identify those factors in
education, which impede, to the level of a conflict situation, the successful
operation of educational institutions as a whole and their managers and
teachers work, and to respond with adequate mutually reciprocal forms and
initiatives for resolving the (factors) problems caused.
IUC initiatives in support of educational management, outlined in the
following two directions - management of the educational institution and
management in the classroom - are related to finding and implementing
various forms of support for educational institutions and their employees. The
search is performed in the preparation and implementation of the latest
theoretical formulas in the practice of effective management in education, in
the above mentioned two directions.
This role has been taken by the Department for Modern Methods of
Education (MME) at IUC, whose main purpose is to activate the dialogue
between the attainments of the two scientific areas - management and
pedagogy. As it has been already indicated, the reasons for such an
interdisciplinary dialogue are rooted in its resources to create a specific
synergy as follows:
1) in the aims of both management and pedagogy to implement a
change in the organization and in the individual through their
development in order to achieve success (attainment);
2) in the process of creating the change planning, organising,
implementing and evaluating the achievements (control);
3) in the methods of achieving the initiated change closely connected
with the impact on human factors in terms of their thinking, emotions
and behaviour.
Thus the aims of the Department for Modern Methods of Education are
characterised by the dialogue whose foundations are in the School for
Dialogue between Management and Pedagogy in the following areas:
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implementation of a two-semester teacher training programme for


graduate and undergraduate students in economics;
conducting in-service training courses for teachers and managers of
schools in the field of managerial competence in the above described
two directions management of educational institutions and
management in the classroom;
conducting training courses in foreign languages, as well as
methodology of teaching subjects in a foreign language (CLIL).
The main form of the dialogue between management and pedagogy is
Masterclass with the following characteristics:
Organised for educators who want to achieve success in practice through
innovation;
Relative heterogeneity of the participants in masterclass editions they
work in various types of educational institutions on different stages or levels
of education - kindergarten, middle school or high school education
(including vocational). Moreover Masterclass editions also include students
as facilitators or moderators, and training is done by a team of trainers (not a
single teacher) (see 2);
The training is practically oriented necessary skills are developed and
applied in the very course through specially designed work situations created
by the course trainers;
Each Master Class is held outside the "classroom" following a peculiar
geography depending on the subject of the course. For example, if the
theme of the course is Development of the Entrepreneurial Culture at School
/ Kindergarten, then the real conditions of the shop, market, etc. are included
in the geography of the course itself;
Each Masterclass student has the opportunity to publish their original
innovation based on the dialogue between management and pedagogy in the
Yearbook of IUC.
For example, 143 participants took part in the School of Masterclasses at the
Department for Modern Methods of Education in 2013/2014 academic year.
Seventeen of them were heads of schools and kindergartens, and nineteen
published their papers in the college yearbook. The results of the factors that
create conflict situations in the contemporary educational environment
revealed by the study are obtained through surveys and discussions with all
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Masterclass participant in the editions of 2013/2014 academic year, namely


the above mentioned number.
The main research methods are distributed as follows:
1) to identify the problem - priority organizing of discussions and
brainstorming in small groups, debates;
2) to solve the problem - priority problem solving in a group; case study,
situational game, theater and so on.
Results of the research
The methods used for identifying and solving the problems of education
are based on the dialogue between achievements of management and
pedagogy as separate fields of study which have common projections in the
applied science.
The study revealed the following important factors that create conflicts in
school life nowadays:
) Managers of educational institutions:
1) Creating an attractive vision of the school and the team of educators insufficient resources for strategic thinking in order to use the mission as a
piercing blade strategy among the competitive educational institutions;
2) Managerial competence in building the profile of the employee / teacher
according to the requirements needed in relation to the school "strategic
professions" vision, and hence in the evaluation of human resources working
in the school;
3) As a consequence of the deficit described above, the need for managerial
competence in the development of human potential as an inexhaustible
resource for the educational organization. Reciprocally, the deficiencies or
problems described are related to the teacher as the manager of the classroom
and lesson activities: creating a vision which is a set of values, students
portfolios with a view to their systematic development and, accordingly, the
assessment of their achievements in educational environment;
4) Insufficient development of skills to manage conflict situations and
aggression at school;
5) The necessity of developing entrepreneurial skills or in general, qualities
like enterprise, initiative and innovation.
In terms of external factors creating a conflict situation, the heads of
educational institutions are described as such.
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1) Inefficient working institutions with which the school interrelates


this factor is indicated by 78% of respondents;
2) Dealing with the resistance to change to an insufficient extent - 67%
of those surveyed identified it as an extremely strong factor;
3) Accumulation of excessive stress and inability to cope with it as a
factor causing conflict in education - 43%.
The study revealed the following major problems in the group of:
B) Teachers:
1) Necessity to develop skills in classroom management - a priority in the
field of students motivation and organisation of the lesson;
2) Management skills in the classroom in terms of the organisation of the
class, so that all students take part as active participants in their cognitive and
selfcognitive actions;
3) Collaborative (teacher and students) skills to Control conflict situations
and problem solving skills - both cognitive and social;
4) Giving a new meaning to the evaluation skills of the 21st century - from
evaluation (in the 20th century) to goal setting training, and not vice versa;
5) Ability to conduct and participate in a didactic dialogue leading to mutual
understanding of both the roles teacher and students - through
participation in networks and ensuring prosperity;
6) Reflection about the holistic approach to learning - the perception and
encouragement of the student (and his/her teacher) as a whole person their
cognitive, emotional and behavioral worlds in unity.
In terms of the external factors creating conflict situations for teachers, they
are the following:
1) Imperfections of the "System" this factor was valid for 73% of
the respondents;
2) Insufficient motivation for working effectively - the factor was
valid for 77% of the respondents.
The revealed factors that give rise to conflicts (25 in number) are divided into
five main groups, after applying the methods related to solving one of them
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chosen by the respondents. After creating a scenario to solve it in a group, a


live presentation in front of all participants in the training course follows.
Group One: School Heads Managerial Competence;
Group Two: Teachers Professional Skills;
Group Three: Emotional Intelligence;
Group Four: Social Intelligence;
Group Five: Mentality Factors.
Group One: School Heads Managerial Competence
The factor "system in education" lack of rules (clear and specific)
and their frequent replacement, as well as their ambiguous
interpretation;
Ineffective management - keeping bad relationships and priority
usage of violent methods by imposing goals instead of using
teachers and students personal aspirations;
Differentiated payment and lack of funds - underdeveloped skills
for economic competency, which lead to insufficient financial
discipline and inadequate facilities - the unequal distribution of
resources/funds is stated to be one of the important factors in
conflict situations;
Lack of flexibility in cases of unexpected conflicts;
Lack of sufficient skills to bring the rules into play for the
establishment of normal discipline and properly understood and
used freedom;
Underdeveloped skills for decision making (in collaboration with
the associates) and inability to clear tasking the execution of such
tasks generates conflicts;
Underdeveloped skills for managing differences (in mentality and
in the educational environment) - identification, development,
support and retainment of talents;
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Poor organisational skills leading to excuses for lack of time;


Poor communicative culture.
Group Two: Teachers Professional Skills
Insufficient recognition of their own professional potential, which
influences the effective implementation of tasks;
Lack of experience to provide professional freedom in order to
innovate, and hence low professional self-esteem;
Partial awareness of hierarchy or lack of its observance these result
in poor discipline;
Inability to give tasks clearly and observe their execution creates
conflicts in the classroom;
Inability to distinguish between personal (family) problems and the
role requirements of the position held;
Underdeveloped organisational skills (lack of time) in connection
with building information networks with students, through which
everyone teaches the others.
Group Three: Emotional Intelligence
Lack of emotional intelligence - according to the respondents, more
often the emotion comes before thinking than vice versa;
Excessive suppression and lack of emotions sharing;
Professional interference into the right to privacy;
Imbalance and lack of patience (as a manifestation of tolerance);
Desire to dominate over students.
Group Four: Social Intelligence
Insufficient knowledge of the actual characteristics of the social
environment and underdeveloped social skills (intelligence) inadequacy of the environment; deficient social skills;
Maintaining negative relationships with colleagues and between a
student and a teacher - for supremacy, for rightness and rivalry;
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Poor communicative culture - wrong understanding of expression and


inadequate speech;
Group Five: Mentality Factors
Deformation of values and absence of a system of values as a guide
for the implementation of a professional learning activity - evidence
of underdeveloped skills in vision creating as a strategic element of
the managerial competence of the heads of educational institutions
and teachers as participants in creating the vision of the school and as
creators of the vision of the class;
At times unreasonable struggle for power, authority and influence
leading to conflicts and so on.
Factors in the third, fourth and fifth groups are valid for both school
managers and teachers.
Conclusion
The main conclusions which this study suggests are related, on the one
hand, to redefining the above described factors creating conflicts in education
today. The redefinition of these factors focuses on the role of the
International University College - Albena for the construction of a consistent
set of themes and forms of practical training by the heads of educational
institutions and the teachers working in them. A systemic attack will reduce
the "conflict temperature" in the school and will provide an environment for a
genuine dialogue of knowledge between teachers and students, which will
lead to the experience of cognitive (for students) and professionally effective
(for teachers) achievements. These achievements will have a meaning and
will inspire the effective management of the school head.
The study demonstrated the effectiveness of the dialogue between
management and pedagogy presented in the logic of the School of
Masterclasses as an innovative product of the Department for Modern
Methods of Education at the International University College - Albena in
Bulgaria.
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4.

18



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FEATURES OF THE SPHERE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT
Prof. Oleksander O. Romanovskyi, D-r
Ukrainian-American Humanitarian (Liberal Arts) Institute Wisconsin
International University (USA) Ukraine, Kiev - rector
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Abstract: The features of innovation in the field of higher education and science are
considered. The main problems and the main path of innovative development of higher
education, the direction of innovations in the field of higher education and basic (desired)
results are analyzes. The types of innovations in higher education, which can lead to
innovative changes, innovation economic and market type, other types of innovation, as well
as funds management of innovative activity in the field of education are studied.
Keywords: innovative development of higher education; types of innovations in
education; academic (university) entrepreneurship; commercialization of the results of
training and research activities of the university.

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39



. , .
APPROACHES AND PATTERNS FOR EXAMINATION OF SCHOOL
ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
Prof. Viara Todorova Gyurova, ScD, Sofia University St. Kliment
Ohridski, Faculty of Education (Faculty of Pedagogy)
:

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Abstract: Paper presents some actual approaches and patterns for examination of
organizational effectiveness and possibility for its application to analyzing of school
effectiveness.
Keywords: educational management,
effectiveness.

organizational effectiveness, school

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50

NEW FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON WORLD UNIVERSITY


EDUCATION
Prof. Ljudmila V. Knodel, D-r,
Institute of the Criminal-Executive Service of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

. . . ,
- , . ,
Education at all times to a greater or lesser degree, worked in an
innovative mode. Another thing is how to innovate universally or locally?
What is meant by innovation in education? Most of the definitions as the
main key contain the words "innovation", "new", "renewal". We can not
agree with it. The modern concept of "education" is associated with the
interpretation of such terms as "learning", "education", "development".
However, before the word "education" became associated with education, it
had a wider meaning. Dictionary definitions consider the term "education" as
a noun from the verb "to form" in the sense of "create", "form" or "develop"
something new.
Create new this is an innovation. Thus, education is essentially
already an innovation. But to what end is developed something new,
previously unknown? Surely, in order to get better results, as the previous we
are no longer satisfied. Moreover, these new results must be reliable, stable.
Therefore, in our view, innovation in education a purposeful change, brings
in its particular object new elements, giving stable and more effective results.
Implementation of the national educational project to improve the
quality of education, introduction of profile and distance learning, new
information and communication technologies in the educational process and
the process of governance, the material basis of new principles of financing
and self-control this is not a complete list of the tasks that will fall on the
shoulders of the leaders and administrators of educational institutions.
A number of specific contradictions that are inherent to the national
education can be identified between:
the standardized training for all students and their individual abilities
and interests;
the rapid development of science and real cognitive abilities of
students;
trends towards specialization training and task-round development
of the personality;
51

the ruling in the higher school education and reproductive society's


need for people with development of creative abilities.
We offered the following types of innovation:
1 Retroinnovation when modern practices tolerated in a slightly
modified form of already existing in the past, but due to historical
circumstances cease to apply the phenomenon, such as a gymnasium, lyceum,
specialized education, and so on.
2 Analogue innovation when well-known approach is taken and
entered private modification, for example, underrated 1000 point scale is
used, or a modular complemented system.
3 Combinatorial innovation when several blocks known as a result
of their association obtained a brand new product.
4 The essential innovation, when there is really a new move, such as
"School of the dialogue of cultures."
For the dissemination of innovation can be divided into innovations:
learning; education; management; retraining.
Innovation in higher education should be focused on the transfer of
knowledge, the mastery of basic competencies, which allow acquiring new
knowledge independently.
Innovation in higher education is primarily a condition for
improving the quality of education and increasing the competitiveness of a
particular institution of higher education in the educational market.
On the basis of this typology can be described as an innovative field
of national education. For example, under the proposed innovations in
training to understand the new methods of teaching, new ways of organizing
activities, innovations in the organization of the content of education
(integration (cross-curricular) program), methods of evaluation of the
educational outcome. By innovations in training and retraining of education
should consider new methods of teaching, new ways of organizing activities,
as well as new retraining programs focused on changing the quality
requirements of education: distance learning; the creation of networks;
tuition; the creation of integrated interdisciplinary training courses for new
occupational groups (education managers, experts, and teachers profile
school).
Activation of innovative research society in almost all spheres of life
is determined by the challenges of the present, associated with the finiteness
of natural resources, the query part of humanity to a higher quality of life, the
desire to be better educated, healthy, globally informed of the
multidimensional state of the world, and so on. Nowadays information
technologies in education opens up a whole range of different innovative
areas, among which the most modern didactic aspects of information
technology.
Modern man today must:
52

skilfully adapt to real-life situations in the society;


to use the acquired knowledge and skills creatively;
be able to think critically;
be able to extract, alter the information received from different
sources, and use it for personal development and self-improvement.
The main objective of the higher educational institution where
innovations are being introduced is developing a program of innovation,
which is aimed at the development of innovations and innovative processes in
research and intellectual activity. Today, the most successful in introducing
innovations in higher education are the following processes:
development of training projects for various sectors of the economy;
research and application of fundamental nature;
the use of educational technologies that allow students to select
courses.
Innovation the buzzword. But as embodied innovation in such a
conservative area like high school? And what is the difference between
training and education? Webinars with professors, virtual diplomas, remote
business school.
Higher education is a top priority for every civilized man. Over the
past few centuries higher education has been considered prestigious, and its
owners should refer to the special stratum of society. Education a
purposeful process of care and education for the benefit of human society and
the state, which says human achievement in the form of educational levels
established by law. Higher education in the developed countries, in contrast to the
secondary and primary, is not universal.
However, in most developed countries, about half of the population passes
through the higher education system. This system is considered to be an important
sector of the economy and a major source of scientific knowledge. As the
globalization of science, technology and economics, international cooperation in the
preparation of high-skilled talent and knowledge becomes necessary to respond to
global challenges.
Higher education in developing countries over the past decade significantly
strengthened its position in the international education community. In the period
from 2000 to 2007 the number of students in tertiary education in the DC increased
by 75% and has been calculated as in 2010, more than 100 million, compared to 66
million students in all developed countries.
No less impressive is the dynamics of the number of students in
tertiary education in selected DC during this period. In China, for example,
an increase of 344%, and the total number of students is now nearing 30
million students. In India, this figure is closer to 15 million. Another dozen
already have from 1 to 3 million students.

53

This scale has been made in view of the rapid growth to reach young
people post-secondary education and increase the total enrollment of
students.
The proportion of students in tertiary education in the period from
1980 to 2007 in the DC Asia increased from 5% to 26% (China 1% and 24%,
respectively), in Latin America from 6% to 34% (Argentina 22% and 65 %),
in the Arab world from 9% to 23% (Tunisia: 5% and 31%). However, the
coverage of youth in African countries remains low 6%, as well as in a
number of the most backward countries in Asia and Latin America. However,
the group of countries with the lowest coverage of tertiary education from
0.5% to 2.5% are exclusively African countries.
Development provided as the state participation in its financing, and
the extensive development of private higher education institutions, rely on
their own financial capabilities. For example, government spending on 1
student, calculated at purchasing power parity of national currencies in India
are about $ 1200, in Thailand $ 1430 in Iran $ 2780, and in Malaysia
more than $ 7,500.
In Latin America, this figure varies from $ 1.6 thousand. Chile up to $
3000 in Brazil and nearly $ 5,000 in Mexico. Even greater variation is
characteristic of the Arab countries: Egypt $ 1000, Tunisia $ 3.600.i more
than $ 360,000 in Kuwait.
In African countries, public expenditure per student are quite
significant, which is one of the reasons for low coverage of higher education
of youth. In 2007, they reached in Togo $ 1,300, Angola $ 3,500 in Chad
$ 5.1000 and $ 5.500 in Ethiopia.
According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, public expenditure
per student in Russia in 2010 amounted to $ 2.6 thousand. And the total cost
per student in state universities $ 5000. In the United States, the figure was
$ 10,600.
The private sector is an important position in the ranks of DC. In the
period of 2005-2007 the proportion of students of private universities in the
total number was in Argentina 24%, Mexico 33%, Venezuela 42%,
Colombia 50%, Brazil 75%, Chile 78%. Among Asian countries, the
largest share of the private sector is in the Philippines - 66%, in Indonesia 65%, Iran 54% and Malaysia 33%. In China in 2002, the number of state
universities was in 1396, in which most of the students received a paid
education, and private - 1202. In Arab countries, there is also the expansion
of private universities. They are trained in Lebanon, 50% in Jordan 25%, in
Egypt 19%. In Egypt, only for the 2000-2010 period number of students in
private colleges and universities increased by 200%. In Africa, this figure
varies from 4% in South Africa and Nigeria, to 18 and 24% in Kenya and
Ethiopia respectively.
54

In a DC there is stronger feeling of the effects of globalization, which


are the main factors in the internationalization of universities.
The percentage of students participating in international mobility, for
the 2000-2010 period continued to grow in South and West Asia, with 1 to
1.5%, in the Arab countries: from 2.5 to 3%, and in Africa, from 5 to 5.7%.
In other regions, it remained unchanged. However, the overall share
of mobile students from the RS in 2007 amounted to 68% of the global total,
and the number reached 1.9 million. The role of universities as centres of DC
training foreign students, especially at the regional level. In 2000, only 10%
of participating students in mobility of Latin American universities prefer
other countries of the region, and in 2010 this figure rose to 23%.
Universities in African countries prefer to train 25% of mobile students in
Africa an increase of 5% compared to 2000. In the Arab countries, this
figure increased respectively from 16 to 18%. Basic educational programs in
the Arab countries in 2010 trained 80,000 foreign students, including in
Lebanon and Saudi Arabia to 23000, Jordan 22000 and Morocco 7000.
In Asian countries enrolled 122,000 foreign students, including
42,000 in China (still 152 thousand. Foreign students enrolled in various
courses IN), Malaysia 24,500 in India 13 000 in Thailand 11,000 were
enrolled in universities in Africa 74 thousand. Foreigners mainly in South
Africa 61000. Least of all foreign students enrolled at universities in Latin
America 54000.
A significant contribution to this figure did Cuba 27,000 people.
Followed by Brazil, Argentina and Chile from 7 to 14 000 students in each
country.
However, the 5.4% student mobility from the DC directed to
developed countries. Only China and India in 2010, taught in the OECD 570
thousand. Their students 420000 and 150000 respectively.
Abroad, mainly in the countries of the West, trained from 7 to 18
thousand. Students from Ecuador, Argentina, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon,
Venezuela, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Colombia; from 23 to 30,000 from
Algeria, Brazil, Thailand, Vietnam and Mexico; more 40000 from Morocco
and Malaysia. African countries differ in that they sent the highest proportion
of its students to study in foreign universities almost 6% compared to the
global average of 1.8%. In the least developed among them, this figure rises
to one third or more. The largest number of mobile students is in Nigeria
17000 and Kenya 14,500 people.

55




. . , . ,
,
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SOCIAL WORKERS AND
SOCIAL EDUCATORS IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATION
INTO THE EUROPEAN SPACE
Prof. Svitlana Arkhypova, PhD,
National Bohdan Khmelnytsky University of Cherkasy, Ukraine

Abstract: The first steps of the Ukrainian-Polish cooperation in future social educators
and social workers training within the framework of the "Dual Degree" Program are
described. The main ways of the program realization, advantages and possibilities for
participants of the program, positive results and difficulties in the project realization are
presented.
Keywords: European educational space formation, "Dual Degree" Program.
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2. : , ,
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3. // " ",
2004. 60-61. . 7-11.
4. . .

-http://www.tempusrussia.ru/MIIT-seminar/DD-Oleynikova.pdf.
5. Petrangovskaya N.R. Modern Requirements for the Professional Training of NonLinguistic Specialists within the Common European Framework of Reference
(English for Specific Purposes).// - -2011- 2(8).9-11.
6. Trends Shaping Education 2010. - Centre for Educational Research and Innovation,
OECD, 2010.-P.12-31.
7. Transcript of " " - - do
prezentacji[ ]. : //http://prezi.com/0n2kezahwsf/do-prezentacji/.

64


., . . . . ,

, . ,
AKMEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL-PEDAGOGICAL
PREPARATION OF MANAGERS
Prof. Nikolay Chobitko, D-r.
Ukrainian State University of Finance and International Trade,
Kyiv, Ukraine
Abstract: he article highlights the psychological and pedagogical aspects, which
are important in the process of training of managers of foreign economic activity.
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. ,
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ON THE EXPANSION OF THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF THE
METHODS OF TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL LEARNING
IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
prof. Georgi Ivanov, D-r,
Angelina Kalinova Trakia University, Stara Zagora
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Abstract: The report presenting the results of our research on the problems of the
modern foundations of the methods of technological education in primary school as a result
of its development of basic sciences.
We studied the scientific basis of biometrics and subject - justification of the specific
reflection of the achievements of this new scientific field on the methodology of technical and
technological education in primary school.
eywords: technology training, methodology, biomimicry, bionics.

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77



. . , -

THE USE OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN


PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS
Prof. Olga Shapran, D-r, Head of the Department of Pedagogy
Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky Hryhoriy Skovoroda State Pedagogical University
(Ukraine)
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Abstract. The article defines the essence of the concept of innovative educational
technology level system use this definition. The author summarizes the experience of the use
of innovative teaching technologies in the practice of professional training of future
teachers.
Keywords: innovative teaching technologies, the European credit transfer system of
training, regional university complex, contextual learning, quasi-professional activities and
interactive technology.

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84

. . ,
" ", . ,
CHALLENGES OF DECENTRALIZATION TO THE
INSPECTION/MONITORING IN SECONDARY EDUCATION
Rumyana T. Gyoreva, PhD student - South-West University "Neofit Rilski" ,
Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
: ,
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bstract: In the past few decades, theories and practices related to monitoring in
education are becoming more and more important. A number of governments, institutions
and organizations are trying increasingly to introduce the practice of monitoring for
monitoring, evaluation and analysis of educational systems. The report examines the
challenges facing the need for inspection / monitoring for converting Bulgarian school in
modern, accessible and high quality. The emphasis is on achieving higher efficiency in
school management organizations and improve the quality of education through the
implementation of monitoring, evaluation and analysis, and implementation of assertive
environment to support and encourage schools to improve the quality of education.
Keywords: monitoring, inspection, decentralization

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79 %, -
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Gerd Schweizer, Ulrich Mller, Thomas Adam. Wert und Werte im
Bildungsmanagement.

93

SCIENTIFIC THINKING AS INNOVATIVE CONCEPT IN


EDUCATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH INTELLIGENCE
Sergiu Sanduleac,
University lecturer, SPU Ion Creanga, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: In this article author try to explain the difficulties to interpret the nature of
intelligence and present a research about the relationship between intelligence and scientific
thinking as a concept that it is necessary to be present in system of education. The research
was conducted in several universities from Republic of Moldova.
Keywords: scientific thinking, intelligence, students, system of education, development.

Scientific thinking is a concept that more and more pays attention of


educators, teachers and researchers. They include the scientific education in
their activities in order to increase children cognitive abilities.
As the studies demonstrate, the contexts of mind are closely related
with cognitive performance. Therefore we applied intelligence tests to see if
the level of intelligence of the students is a factor of interdependence with
scientific thinking and critical thinking as a close component of it [1, 2, 3].
Under the skills report as a resultative - productive subsystem of
personality, intelligence plays an important role in the scientific formation in
researchers, because it facilitates the involvement of human subjects in
various activities on the one hand and allows the successful completion of a
single type of activity, on the other hand [4].
Thus, A. Binet distinguishes four forms of intelligence: objective
intelligence, subjective intelligence, practical intelligence, the literate
intelligence. J. P. Guilford, as well defines four forms of intelligence:
practical intelligence; symbolic intelligence; semantic intelligence; social
intelligence and empathic intelligence. E. L. Thorndike defines three forms of
intelligence: abstract, practical and social. D. Hebb and R. Cattell have
defined two forms of intelligence: fluid (type A) and crystalline (type B). Fr.
Paulhan also distinguishes two forms of intelligence: analytical intelligence
and synthetic intelligence. H. Gardner, introducing the concept of multiple
intelligence, and identifies seven different forms of intelligence: linguistic,
musical,
logical-mathematical,
spatial,
kinesthetic,
interpersonal,
intrapersonal. J. Baron, D. Goleman, S. Hein, J. D. Mayer, P. Salovey and J.
Segal, highlights a new form of intelligence: emotional intelligence. R.
Sternberg develops triarchic theory of intelligence [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Due the
presence of different approaches that try to explain the nature of intelligence
it is very difficult to interpret the relationship between intelligence and
94

scientific thinking, but it is necessary, because the nature of scientific thinking


cannot be explained without the concept of intelligence. There is a general
consensus that there are different levels of intelligence, and that different
individuals have different capacities of intelligence. In other words, individuals
differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt
effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various
forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought [10, p. 77]. But,
how many and what kinds of different types of intelligences exist, and how to
define intelligence, is still at debate [11].
In this article we intend to present the results of students scientific
thinking that depends on the level of intelligence or in other words how the level
of intelligence influences the scientific thinking.
Experimental research was conducted entirely in the period 2008-2013,
in several higher education institutions: The total survey sample was 415
subjects. To measure the level of students intelligence were given two tests of
general intelligence. In the first step was applied Bontila general intelligence
test, but because he failed to correlate with scientific thinking, it was applied
again another test of the same series (I-2) for a more comprehensive verification
obtained data.
Looking at the results in figure 1, in percent, the report is as follows:
10.9% had a low average level of intelligence, 30.5% of all subjects had
accumulated borderline level of intelligence, 25.7% have average level of
intelligence, 20.3% have high average intelligence level, and 11.9% have
superior level of intelligence and only 0.6% very superior level of intelligence.
Analyzing the data presented, we can draw the following conclusions. The
highest values of level of intelligence starts from borderline level to average and
then the high average level, other levels indicate lower frequency. This
distribution of data shows a well developed level of students intelligence. And if
we calculate the negative values of the level of intelligence, is 41.4%, we
convince that this percentage is lower than the positive values taken together, the
very superior, superior, high average, low average, in total 58.5%.
0%

0,60%

30,50%

11,90%
20,30%

25,70%
10,90%

Very Superior

Superior

High Average

Low Average

Borderline

Extremely Low

Average

Fig. 1. Distribution data of students intelligence level (%).


95

Analyzing the intelligence level in students from first, third year of


study, and second cycle of study (master- graduate students) from figure 2.
We found a predominance of borderline levels in all subgroups, 35.8%
students from the third year, 32.9% graduate students and 26.5% students
from first year of study. The average level is characteristic to (29.8%) of
students from first year of study, followed by graduate students with (22.8%)
and students in the third year of study (21%). A high average level of
intelligence have 24.1% of graduate students, 19.9% students in the first year
of study and 17.3% of students in the third year of study. An average level of
intelligence is characteristic to 24.1% of graduate students, 19.9% students in
the first year of study and 17.3% to third year students. Superior level of
intelligence is present in 17.7% of graduate students, 11.1% on first year
students and 9.3% third year of students. Low average level of intelligence
has been certified in 14.8% in the third year students, 13.9% in students from
the first year and 1.3% graduate students (master). A very superior level was
reached in 1.3% graduate students, 0.7% students from the first year of study
and 0% in the third year.
40,00%

35,80%
32,90%

29,80%

30,00%

24,10%
19,90%
17,70% 17,30%

20,00%

14,80%
13,90%

11,10%
9,30%

10,00%

26,50%

22,80%
21%

1,30%
0,70%
0%

1,30%

0%0%0%

0,00%
Very
Superior

Superior

students I year

High
Average

Average

students III year

Low
Borderline Extremely
Average
Low
graduate students (master)

Fig. 2. Distribution data of students intelligence level on subgroups (%).

Graphical presentation and analysis of the results demonstrate that


there is no trend of change in the level of intelligence in university students.
Next we review the chart where is the level of intelligence based on students
level of scientific thinking.

96

40,00%

33,30%

31,10%

30,00%

10,00%

25%

24,40%
20%

17,80%
13,30%

20,00%

33,10%

30%

13,30%

19,10%
13,60%
9,30%

8,90%
4,40%

3,30%
0%

0,00%
highest order thinking

higher order thinking

Very Superior

Superior

High Average

Low Average

Borderline

Extremely Low

lower order thinking


Average

Fig. 3. Distribution data of students intelligence based on level of scientific


thinking (%).
From figure 3 we conclude that in subjects with the highest level of
scientific thinking have a high average level of intelligence, in proportion of
31.4%, followed by those with average level - 24.4%, followed by subjects
with borderline level of intelligence - 17.8%, and low average, with 13.3%,
superior level by 8.9% and very superior, 4.4%.
Compared with those who had a higher order scientific thinking,
possesses in large average level of intelligence (33.3%) and borderline level
(30%), 20% - extremely low level of intelligence, 13.3% - high average and
3.3% - superior level of intelligence. The same trend is maintained in subjects
with lower order of scientific thinking. Thus 33.1% have borderline level of
intelligence, 25% - an average level, 19.1% - high average, 13.6% - superior
level of intelligence and 9.3% of subjects presented with low average level of
intelligence. In the latter case we see that in subjects with lower order of
scientific thinking appear higher values at some positive levels of intelligence
versus those who have higher order of scientific thinking.
However, positive trends are kept higher in subjects with highest
order thinking. The results allow us to conclude that there are significant
differences between subjects with different order of scientific thinking. This
was confirmed statistically (F2,308 = 2.690, p = 0.069), homogeneity of
variances is provided (p> 0.05).
To see the relationship between intelligence and scientific thinking we
performed Pearson correlation. This correlation was chosen after determining
symmetric distribution of data. Thus, between intelligence and scientific
thinking are showing a significant correlation r = 0.077 to p = 0.175
significance threshold, after applying the first test Bontila. The correlation
between general intelligence test variables in I-2 and scientific thinking test
was found to be directly proportional, significant but weak r = 0.167 at a
significance level p = 0.003. This warns us that a good scientific thinker and
97

a researcher with a well developed scientific thinking should not necessarily


possess a very superior level of intelligence, but a certain level of
development of intelligence is found to be necessary, as demonstrated by the
presence relationship data. So intelligence is the basic element which makes
the development of scientific thinking, but it is not single component. Also it
was registered a correlation between variables general intelligence (I-2) and
general intelligence, both of which are designed to measure intelligence, the
correlation coefficient was r = 0.178 at a significance level p = 0.002.
Table 1. Correlations between the studied variables (general
intelligence, intelligence (I-2), scientific thinking
Variables

Sci. th/ Int.


Sci. th/ Int. (I-2)
Int. / Int. (I-2)

Pearson correlation
coefficient
(r)
0.077
0.167
0.178

Sig.

p=0.175
p=0.003
p=0.002

To ensure reliability of results, we performed the correlation between


variables intelligence (I-2), general intelligence, scientific thinking, according
to subgroups (first year students, third year students, graduate students). It
was assumed that at a certain stage of scientific thinking development,
intelligence had a role or impact. However, this hypothesis has not been
confirmed. Pearson correlation coefficient of variables intelligence and
scientific thinking, in the subgroup of first year students was r = 0.141 to p =
0.085, in subgroup third year students was r = 0.080 to p = 0.477, in graduate
students correlation coefficient was r = 0.040 at p = 0.725. Also we made the
correlation between intelligence (I-2) and scientific thinking separately. So
the correlation coefficient between intelligence (I-2) and scientific thinking in
first year students was r = 0.008, at a significance level p = 0.923, the third
year students, correlation coefficient r = 0.423, at a significance level p =
0.001, r = 0.087 in graduate students, at a significance level p = 0.446. A
significant correlation was shown to be at the subgroup of students from the
third year, which speaks of a certain influence, at this stage. So presented
data does not allow us to conclude that there is some significant relationship
between variables intelligence (I-2), general intelligence and scientific
thinking except subgroup of third year students. Also it is performed
correlation between variables intelligence (I-2) and general intelligence by
subgroup showed that there is a weak correlation, but significant in the
subgroup of students from the first year (r = 0.169, p = 0.038) and graduate
students (r = 0.229, p = 0.042).
98

We conclude that the intelligence is directly dependent on the scientific


thinking and scientific thinking depends on the level of intelligence. Students
can have a very superior, superior, high average, average level of intelligence,
but this is not a prerequisite for a well-developed, highest order of scientific
thinking. All subjects with very superior level of intelligence that does not mean
they have excellent cognitive abilities to think scientifically. So intelligence is an
important but not decisive variable in students scientific thinking development.
Examining the level of students intelligence and the assumption that it
would be a component or a condition of scientific thinking development, it was
concluded that the level of intelligence in students is well developed. Therefore,
in statistical terms have been highlighted weak interdependence between the
intelligence and the scientific thinking, but they are not confirmed by the second
test of intelligence. This certifies that the scientific thinking is directly dependent
on the level of intelligence. But it is possible that intelligence is a necessary but
not sufficient for scientific thinking development. Not everyone possesses both
intelligence can be creative, can invent something new. Intelligence in this case
remains a component that deserves to be studied in a separate research into a
more complex form in all its aspects. Plus all not every intelligence test exhausts
all aspects of this concept. A student may have great intelligence, but this is not a
requirement that would ensure the development of scientific thinking.
References:
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.

Bontil G. Culegere de teste psihologice de nivel i aptitudini. Orientare i


consiliere profesional. Centrul de documentare i publicaii al Ministerului Muncii.
Bucureti, 1971. 63 p.
Chi M.T.H., Hutchinson J., Robinson A. How inferences about novel domain related concepts can be constrained by structural knowledge. In: Merrill Palmer
Quarterly, 1989, nr.35, p. 27-62.
Means M., Voss J. Star Wars: A developmental study of expert and novice
knowledge structures. In: Memory and Language, 1985, nr. 27, p. 746-757.
Sanduleac S. Trsturile de personalitate ale unui bun gnditor tiinific. In:
Psihologie. Pedagogie special. Asisten social, 2010, nr 1 (19), p. 40-45.
Gardner H. Inteligene multiple. Noi orizonturi. Bucureti: Sigma, 2007. 320 p.
Pinker S. Cum funcioneaz mintea. Bucureti: All, 2009. 728 p.
Stein S., Book H.E. Fora inteligenei emoionale. Inteligena emoionala i succesul
vostru. Bucureti: Allfa, 2003. 277p.
Sternberg R. J. Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press,
2000. 696 p.
Thorndike E.L., Bregman E.O., Cobb M.V., Woodyard E. The measurement of
intelligence. New York: Techers College, Columbia University, 1927. 616 p.
Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, S. J.,
Halpern, D. F., Loehlin, J. C., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R. J., & Urbina, S.
Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 1996. p. 77-101.
Han S. Paik, Washington University. One Intelligence or Many? Alternative
Approaches
to
Cognitive
Abilities.
In:
http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/paik.html (vizited 09.09.2014)

99

EUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR BACHELOR AND MASTER


OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAMS
Prof. Yulia Romanovska, PhD - Vice-rector of Ukrainian-American Liberal
Arts Institute Wisconsin International University (USA) Ukraine

-
. . ., .
-
()
Abstract: The approach of developing the idea of improving the quality of vocational
training in a two-level scheme of "bachelor" and "master" on the base of using the
experience of university education in the United States in combination with the basic
provisions of the Bologna process is considered. As an example, the UkrainianAmerican
Liberal Arts Institute Wisconsin International University (USA) Ukraine experience of
combining curricula and programs in the field of business administration of American and
Ukrainian universities is studied.
Keywords: bachelor's and master's curricula and programs; business administration;
international and European standards of training.
:


.

"
() "
- .
: ;
-;
.

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements


between European countries designed to ensure comparability in the
standards and quality of higher education qualifications.
Developing the idea of improving the quality of vocational training in a
two-level scheme of "bachelor" and "master" is sometimes advisable to use
the experience of university education in the United States in combination
with the basic provisions of the Bologna process.For example, to improve the
quality of tuition and training of bachelors and masters in business
administration and compliance with international standards and, primarily,
the European standards, UkrainianAmerican Liberal Arts Institute
Wisconsin International University (USA) Ukraine (WIUU) is already
using the method of combining educational programs of American and
100

Ukrainian universities.
As a result of the effective combined training in the WIUU its BBA and
MBA programs were accredited by the Foundation for International Business
Administration Accreditation (FIBAA) Agency, which is strongly respected
in the world business and academic circles. The purpose of FIBAA is to
promote the quality and transparency in education and science by awarding
quality certificates to educational programs and educational institutions in the
areas of higher education and continued professional development. The fact
that WIUU received this accreditation is a signature of the highest quality of
its BBA and MBA programs. Practical benefits thatBBA degree gives
students the opportunity to either continue their education in MBA or PhD
programs, or get a prestigious job in Ukraine or abroad.The MBA graduates
can receive numerous increased opportunities in employment and continued
education in Europe and the USA.
Let us briefly consider the main points of this experience.
1. Bachelor of Business Administration Degree (BBA)
Business education at WIUU prepares students to assume effective and
responsible leadership roles in organizations and business. The curriculum
has been designed to meet this goal. The liberal arts classes provide the
foundation for students to understand themselves and their dynamic work.
Students learn to communicate and develop an understanding of cultural,
social, economic, international and technical environments in which we live.
This major provides students with an introduction to the functional areas of
an organization, basic managerial and organizational concepts, and an overall
view of policy making. The qualitative and quantitative nature of this
common core enables students to develop their critical and analytical skills.
The curriculum provides students an opportunity to gain more insights on
specific business areas of their interest as well as greater understanding of the
global society. Also the entire program is designed to foster a strong
command of the English language. Students must earn a minimum of 120
semester credits (approximately 40 courses taught in English). Completion of
the intermediate level of at least one foreign language (except English) is
required. Students who enroll in summer courses at WIUU or at partner
universities abroad can complete the program in less than four years. The
program leads to International BBA Diploma.
Curriculum structure
This is a rigorous program spread over eight semesters in four years.
The BBA program comprises of the following course components:
Core Courses 81
General Education Courses 39
101

WIUUBachelors and Masters Academic Programsrequire 1.5-2


academic hours
of students independent study for each classroom (auditory) hour of training:
Total : 120 credit hours (1800 auditory hours)
Total time of required independent students work are 2700-3600
hours
Core Courses:
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Course No.
ECN101
MGT101
BSN101
BSN201
ECN202
ENG303
ITC303
MATH302
ACC301
ACC402
BSN402
ECN403
FIN501
FIN602
MGT502
BSN504
ECN603
BSN605
BSN605
MGT703
MGT704
ECN704
FIN703
BSN706
ECN805
MGT805
ACC803

Course title
Microeconomics
Principles of Management
Introduction to Business
Introduction to International Business
Macroeconomics
Interpersonal Communications
IT Applications
Statistics
Accounting I
Accounting II
Principles of Marketing
International Institutions and Organizations
Business Finance I
Business Finance II
Organizational Behavior
Business Ethics
Theory of International Economic Relations
Business Law
Marketing Research
Human Resource Management
Multinational Enterprise
Monetary Theories and Banking Systems
Risk Management
Business Policy
World Economy
Operations Management
Audit
Total:

102

Credit
hours
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
81

General Education Courses:


No

Course No.

Course title

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

ENG101
ENG102
ITC101
ENG201
ENG201
ITC202
MATH201
LNG301
LNG402
PSY401
LNG502
LNG602
SOC602

English Composition I
Business English I
Computer Science I
English Composition II
Business English II
Computer Science II
Mathematics
Russian/German/Spanish I
Russian/German/Spanish II
Psychology
Business Russian/German/Spanish I
Business Russian/German/Spanish II
Sociology
Total:

Credit
hours
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
39

2. Bachelor of Management Degree


Our program exemplifies a good balance of qualitative and quantitative
courses. Courses are taught from the middle and senior management
perspective and develop the skills, knowledge and insights that enable a shift
from functional expertise to broad-based strategic leadership. The
participants receive solid fundamentals along with the tools which can be
immediately applied in a current business setting. Our goal is to prepare a
competent and confident leader who can face the challenges of tomorrow.
This Degree Program is accredited by the Ministry of Education and
Science of Ukraine. It leads students to receiving a Ukrainian State Diploma.
3. Bachelor of International Business Degree
This program integrates international dimension throughout the whole
curriculum, which enables students to become successful employees and
leaders of multinational companies. The program exposes students not only
to the theoretical dimensions of international business, but also to different
cultures, customs and business practices, which is invaluable knowledge in
our globalized economy.
Our students develop analytical, management and quantitative skills,
which enable them to advance the performance of new and existing
companies. These skills, together with advanced knowledge of qualitative
areas of business and foreign languages make our students highly competitive
on the job market.
WIUUs goal is to help students become effective, successful and
ethical leaders of international business.
103

Students in this Program have an opportunity to spend one semester at


WIUU Partner University abroad.
4. Joint Ukrainian-American Bachelor Programs
WIUU offers joint Ukrainian-American Programs leading students to
American Degree Bachelor of Business Administration and Ukrainian
Degrees Bachelor of International Business and Bachelor of Management.
Students completing Joint Ukrainian-American Bachelor Business Program
receive an International Bachelor of Business Administration Diploma and a
Ukrainian Bachelor of International Business Diploma or Ukrainian Bachelor
of Management State Diploma (the latter is accredited by the Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine).
5. Joint Ukrainian-American Program Bachelor of Management
and Business Administration
WIUU offers joint Ukrainian-American program: Ukrainian degree Bachelor of Management American Degree - Bachelor of Business
Administration. Students who have completed a joint Ukrainian-American
program obtain Ukrainian State Diploma Bachelor of Management,
International Diploma Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA).
Ukrainian program meets state standards to prepare BA in knowledge
0306 "Management and Administration" area of training 6.030601
"Management" and is accredited by the Accreditation Commission of
Ukraine.
In the curriculum, which includes more than 60 disciplines, organic
part of the American discipline program (40 courses 120 credits from BBA
program) taught in English.
Students study the following subjects in Ukrainian language:
Social and human sciences:
Philosophy
History of Ukraine
History of Ukrainian Culture
Ukrainian Language for Professional Purposes
Fundamental and General Disciplines:
Higher and Applied Mathematics
Basic Economic Theory
Econometrics
Microeconomics
Macroeconomics
Professionally-Oriented Courses:
State and Regional Governance
104

Innovation Management
Strategic Enterprise Management
Administrative Management
Law
Administrative Law
Employment
Business Economics
State Regulation of Economy
Audit
Logistics
International Trade Enterprises
International Economic Relations
Basics of Labor Protection
During their training, students complete two courseworks and pass two
internships. Much attention is paid to thebachelors practical experience
involving students into activities of actual companies and organizations,
allowing future graduates gain the necessary practical skills and continue to
quickly adapt to the real business environment. One of the emphases in the
educational process is the development ofstudents critical thinking, moral,
ethical and environmental behavior.
6. Joint Ukrainian-American program - Bachelor of International
Business and Business Administration
WIUU offers joint Ukrainian-American program: Ukrainian degree Bachelor of International Business, American degree - Bachelor of Business
Administration. Students who have completed a joint Ukrainian-American
programreceive Ukrainian State Diploma
Bachelor of International Business, International Diploma Bachelor
of Business Administration (BBA).
Ukrainian program meets state standards of Bachelor in the field of
Knowledge 0302 "International Relations" area of training 6.030206
"International Business".
In the curriculum, which includes more than 60 disciplines, the organic
part of the American program (40 courses - 120 credits from BBA program)
is taught in English.
Students study the following subjects in Ukrainian language:
Social and humanity sciences:
Philosophy
History of Ukraine
The history of Ukrainian Culture
105

Ukrainian Language for Professional Purposes


Fundamental and general disciplines:
Mathematics for Economists
Economic Theory
Microeconomics
Macroeconomics
Public International Law
Country Studies
International Information
International Relations and World Politics
Econometrics
Professionally-Oriented disciplines:
History of Economic Studies
Strategic Management
Law
Employment
Logistics
International Economic Relations
Fundamentals of Diplomacy and Diplomatic Work
Diplomatic Protocol and Etiquette
Basics of Labor Protection
7. Master of Business Administration Degree (MBA)
WIUU is proud to offer the MBA program. Our program is focused on
the traditional MBA curriculum, and exemplifies a good balance of
qualitative and quantitative courses. Courses are taught from the middle and
senior management perspective and develop the skills, knowledge and
insights that enable a shift from functional expertise to broad-based strategic
leadership. The participants receive solid fundamentals along with the tools
which can be immediately applied in a current business setting. Our goal is to
prepare a competent and confident leader who can face the challenges of
tomorrow.
We are striving for continuous improvement and excellence within our
MBA School. We assess what we do and measure how effective we are in
accomplishing our goals. We have faculty and staff that are dedicated to
WIUU and are concerned with the success of each student.
Curriculum
MBA program at Ukrainian-American Liberal Arts Institute Wisconsin
InternationalUniversity (USA) Ukraine is comprised of 15 courses. To
106

enhance the strength of the learning environment, the University utilizes


technology to deliver course content. This includes the use of exclusive online and face-to-face courses.
The curriculum is as follows:
No

Courses No

Credits

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

International Marketing
International Management
International Law
Organizational Behavior
Human Resources Management
Operational Management
Statistical Business Analysis
Monetary Theory and Banking Systems
Contemporary Problems of International Economics
Advanced Finance
IT Applications / E-Business
Research Methods and Analysis
Advanced Accounting
Seminars in Business Policies
Marketing Management
Total:

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
45 credits

Auditory
Hours
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
675 hours

8. Master of International Management Degree (MIM)


The Master of International Management (MIM) program is accredited
by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.
The MIM program has been designed for students who have already
completed a course of study on a Bachelor, Specialist or Master level and
who wish to specialize for careers in international management.
Effective management of resources is the key to the success of any
company or venture. As the economy becomes more complex and
competitive, the demand for talented MBA graduates keeps growing because
during the period of study, they acquire the skills needed to maximize
individual and organizational productivity.
The MIM program at Ukrainian-American Liberal Arts Institute
Wisconsin International University (USA) Ukraine is designed to develop
innovative entrepreneurial leaders and foster diversity. Our students enjoy
small class sizes, a diverse international student body, accessible faculty and
a dedicated staff.
In WIUU you will find many opportunities to grow and develop both
professionally and personally.
curriculum includes theoretical studies combined with interactive
and practical work:
107

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Courses No

Credits

International Private Law


Intellectual Property
Labor Safety
International Civil Law
Research Methods and Analysis
Management of International Business
International Marketing
Investment Management
International Credit, Payment and Currency
Transactions
IT in International Management
Principles of Management Consulting
Teaching Methodologies at Higher Education
Establishments
Customs Regulations
Enterprise Competitiveness
International Tourism Management
Insurance
Total:

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Auditory
Hours
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45

3
3
3

45
45
45

3
3
3
3
48 credits

45
45
45
45
675 hours

Students must complete and defend the Master Thesis.


Moreover, students enrolled in MIM program are required to have
Internship. WIUU students are offered an opportunity to become interns in
the field of international management at prestigious Ukrainian, international
and joint companies with the perspective of obtaining a job after graduation.
During their internship students are supervised by the experienced faculty
and company executives.
Thus, to improve the quality of bachelor's and master's education in the
sphere of business administration it is advisable to unite international and
national aspects of programs, especially during transitional period of national
education development.
The proposed by WIUU approach to
combinecurricula of American (European) and Ukrainian universities is a
successful example of programs development enabling its students to be
competitive both on national and international markets.

108


. - ,

BASIC WORK OF THE SCHOOLS MANAGER
Assoc. Prof. Svetlozar Vatsov, PhD,
University of Shumen "Konstantin Preslavsky"
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Abstract: For the right organization of the schools manager work, it is important a
good planning to have been done for their assignments. Our surveys, made in several
schools, show that the weekly and the monthly rhythm are the two main and most common in
the directors work rhythms. More than a half of the headmasters in the schools have a strict
work schedule. Despite the obvious advantageous of planning your work, there are still some
principals who think that the time spent for planning your daily tasks, is actually a waste of
time. It is necessary every school principal to plan in advance their work and assignments,
not only for the day or the week, but in a long term, too. While planning your work and time,
the headmasters use different ways and techniques, addressed in the report.
Keywords: Schools manager, planning, work rhythm, techniques for planning.

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HOMESCHOOLING AS A FACTOR FOR CREATION AND
MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
Miroslava Dimitrova, PhD, International University College, Bulgaria
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benefits for their members. Family and school environments and their ability to create and
sustain social advantages have been analyzed and compare based on secondary researches
and literature review. The results show that home brings more social advantages than
school; therefore homeschooling could prove particularly beneficial for creation and
management of the social capital.
Keywords: homeschooling, social capital, accumulation and management of social
capital, social competences

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:
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2.

Bassani, C. (2006), A test of social capital theory outside of the American context:
Family and school social capital and youths math scores in Canada, Japan and the
United States, International Journal of Educational Research, 45
Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital, Handbook of theory and research for
sociology of education, Greenwood
Coleman, J.S. (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital, American
Journal of Sociology, 94
Coleman, J.S. (1990), Foundations of social theory, Cambridge, MA, Harvard
University Press

3.
4.
5.

126

6.

7.
8.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.
18.
19.

20.

21.
22.
23.
24.

25.
26.
27.

Crockenberg, S., Litman, C. (1990), Atonomy as competence in 2 year olds;


maternal correlates of child deficance, compliance and self-assertion,
Developmental Psychology, 26
Crosnoe, R. (2004), Social capital and the interplay of families and schools, Journal
of Marriage and Family, 66
De Graaf N., D., De Graaf, P.M.& Kraaykamp, G. (2000), Parental cultural capital
and educational attainment in the Netherlands: A refinement of the cultural capital
perspective, Sociology of Education, 73
Dufur, J.M, Parcel, T.L., Troutman, K.P.(2013), Does capital at home matter more
than capital at school? Social capital effects on academic achievement, Research in
Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 1-21
Grubb, W.N. (2009), The money myth: School resources, outcomes and equity,
New York: Russell Sage
Hart, B.& Risley, T.R. (1995) Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of
young American children, Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes
Heckmann, J.J. (2008). School, skills and synapses. Economic Inquiry, 46
Knowles, G., Luke, B. Barraket, J. (2013) Investing and reinvesting in social
capital: The spill-over effects of social capital in self-help groups, Journal of
International Development 25
Lareau A. (2011), Unequal childhood: Class, race and family life, second edition
with an update a decade later, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Leitch, C.M., McMullan, Ch., Harrison, R., T. (2013), The development of
entrepreneurial leadership: the role of Human, Social and Institutional Capital,
British Journal of Management 24
Lin, N. (2001), Social Capital: A theory of social structure and action, New York:
Cambridge University Press
Lin, N., Cook, K. Burt R.S. (2001), Social capital: Theory and Research, New
York: Aldine de Gruyter
Lines, P. (2000) Homeschooling comes of age, the Public interest No 140
Morgan, S.L., Sorensen, A.B. (1990), Parental networks, social closure and
mathematics learning: A test of Colemans social capital explanation of school
effects, American Sociological Review 64
Morgan, S.L., Sorensen, A.B. (2009) Intergenerational closure and academic
achievement in high school: A new evaluation of Colemans conjecture, Sociology
of Education, 82
Parcel, T.L., Dufur, M.J. (2010), Capital at home and at school; review and
synthesis, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72
Portes, A. (1998) Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology,
Annual review of sociology
Putnam, R.D. (2000), Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American
community, New York: Simon & Schuster
Walker, A.K., MacPhee, D. (2011), How home gets to school: Parental control
strategies predict childrens school readiness, Early Childhood Research Quarterly,
26
Takehiko Kambayashi (2002) Forging a Path for Homeschooling
Taylor, L.A. (1997), Home in School: Insights on Education Through the Lens of
Home Schoolers, Theory into practice, 36
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rural environment for childrens performances, Procedia Social and Behavioral
Sciences

127

THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE EDUCATIONAL


PROCESS
Anna iianu, master student
Moldova State University
Abstract: Human resources give flavour to the organization. The department of
human resources is responsible for recruting, selecting, training and evolution of the stuff.
Personalities can be grown only by experts, integral persons who know how to teach and like
this process these are professors. Students are formed by those who teach them and those
who work on the educational process.
A changing world order has freed us to take a look at the ways people are managed
in organizations. In higher educational institutions like universities, human resources also
referred to as intellectual capital, are the various categories of employees or people who
contribute their collective value of capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences and
motivation for the growth of the university.
Keywords: human resources, higher education, human being, to learn, to teach, to
inspire, to manage, economy, development;

Introduction
Human resources is the set of individuals who make up
the workforce of an organization. "Human capital" is sometimes used
synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers
to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can
contribute to an organization). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include
"manpower", "talent", or simply "people".
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which
the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from
one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education
frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be
autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one
thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly
divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and
then college, university or apprenticeship.
Human resources in education
Teachers are recognized as key to educational quality and success in
any societys education system. Understanding the importance of human
resource policies and practices in the process of recruiting, retaining,
professionally supporting and providing the proper working environment for
sufficient numbers of teachers that meet the needs and expectations of quality
education for all in essence give us the power to create a decent work
agenda for these highly valued professionals.
128

Educational process is based on the relationship between students and


professors. Students goal is to achieve knowledge and to learn new habits
increasing personal skills. Professor has to feel his students and find the best
way to teach them based on their personality. Professor has to set those tasks
from which students have to learn and form themselves. A professor is that
person who teaches not only from books, but also from heart. That is why the
personality of the teacher form students atitude. When a student starts to learn
a new subject, he is like a sponge, ready to imbibe all over and only professor
can teach what is good to be remiss.
A changing world order has freed us to take a look at the ways people
are managed in organizations. In higher educational institutions like
universities, human resources also referred to as intellectual capital, are the
various categories of employees or people who contribute their collective
value of capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences and motivation for
the growth of the university.
Human Resource Management ensures that human talent is used
effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. All over the
world now, Human Resource management is being affected in all aspects by
two major forces: changing workforce demographics and globalization, and,
higher education institutions are not being excluded. It is thus becoming more
crucial for Human Resources to understand these issues and strategize in
order to contribute directly to organizational strategies. Effective Human
Resource management of any institution should embrace: new
recruitment/hiring techniques; talent management strategies; compensation
and benefits practices; equal employment opportunity policies; health, safety
and security programs; employee and labor unions and human resource
information systems. Time has shown that human resources managed through
these broad practices can make practical difference in terms of three
organisational outcomes; productivity, quality of work life and profit.
In search of the best practices of human resources management, the
United States has played a significant lead in effective management of human
resources, through institutional adherence and compliance to the legislative
and regulatory environment. This case study seeks to examine the Human
Resources Management practices of the Human Resources office at the
University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) in the United States of America.
Chosen as a model university for this study, the goal is to study how the
department of human resources functions and draw lessons of significance
for my home university. It focuses specifically on recruitment and other
functional roles played by the department in support of UNOs strategic plan,
its divisional structural functions and the general human resource
management practices that affect staff of the university. This Education and
Human Resource Strategy Plan covers all subsectors, from the pre-primary,
through primary and secondary, to the Technical and Vocational Education
129

and Training (TVET) and tertiary. However, all are interconnected, reflecting
the transversal synchrony that runs across the entire system. For each
subsector the rationale for change and innovation has been expatiated upon,
prior to indicating the strategic goals that have to be met.
The challenges of human resource development and lifelong learning
should be taken with renewed energy to ensure sufficient number of skilled,
competent and versatile labour ready to offer quality services/products and to
face the challenges of the global economy confidently.
The Knowledge Economy demands that a human resource
development system be developed that is pertinent to the needs of workplace:
people have to have the intrinsic flexibility to adapt to changing demands
through systematic training and retraining itself an important appendage of
lifelong learning. Indeed, all research points to the fact that the more
educated and skilled the people are, the better they are able to adapt to
changes. Promoting human resource development in line with national
economic and social objectives becomes then a critical challenge, and this
necessitates fostering a culture of training and lifelong learning at the
individual, organisational and national levels for employability and
increasing productivity.
A key requirement of the knowledge economy is the availability of a
vibrant, skilled and knowledgeable, capable and motivated human resource,
both academic and non-academic, in the sub-sector that is able to respond
positively to the challenges ahead. New recruitment policies will be
implemented which confer greater flexibility in appointments to the tertiary
education institutions, in fixing the terms and conditions of employment so as
to be able to attract appropriately qualified and experienced persons from
industry, the professions and the public sector as well as reputed overseas
professors in the emerging fields to lead Centres of Excellence. Concurrently,
measures will be taken to retain leading and quality academic staff. Equally,
mechanisms will be developed for joint institutional appointments, interinstitutional staff exchanges and secondments.
In order to ensure that the investment in human resource development
benefits the largest number of citizens, there is a need for a proper planning.
In this context, the National Human Resource Development Plan (April
2007) was prepared by the HRDC. The NHRDP is defined as a policy
framework for education and training programmes and career progression to
meet the countrys skills and competence needs. The core objectives of the
NHRDP are to (a) estimate the demand for manpower in key sectors in terms
of different skills/knowledge; (b) decrease the mismatch between the demand
for and supply of manpower, and (c) develop proactive human resource
development policies.
In the absence of natural resources, a small and undeveloped country
has to attract capital investment. In the global, competitive economy, capital
130

investment follows human resource capacity. Singapore, for example,


developed its highly skilled workforce within the context of a strategy to
attract foreign direct investment (FDI) in high-technology industries.
The capacity to implement the Strategy Plan depends on the existence
of a highly motivated
management staff at the Headquarters that would provide policy and strategy
direction. New skills and added responsibilities would be required from
education managers at all levels. Extensive training and staff development
programmes will therefore be needed in order to ensure that staff at all levels
build the necessary capacity to enable them to meet the challenges of the
proposed management model. Senior and middle-level managers will require
training in strategic planning, management, policy development, procurement
procedures, financial management analysis and reporting. Capacity building
has been identified as an integral component of the Strategy Plan and a well
programmed human resource development scheme shall be developed and
implemented. Rectors and headmaster will also receive training in education
management consistent with the intention to devolve local management and
expenditure authority to the school level.
Considering international human resouce practice in ISES, as an
international educational institution, the following assessments can be made:
since ISESs fundation, there has been a quantitative and qualitative increase
in the number of teachers. The human resource practice in ISES fundation
has switched from time-varying and growing. ISES that has determined its
fundamental values as quality, modernity, reliability, originality, teamwork,
leadership and success, does not discriminate according to the cultury and
geography of the teachers. ISES, at the same time, gives maximum
importance to the values and attitudes of teachers. Human resources in ISES
consist of top management, school principals, teachers and the other
employees who make catering, clearning, security and other personnel
servicies.
Human resouce functions in international companies carried out eight
essencial activities: recrutment, training and development, performance
appraisal, employee atitudes and motivation, compensation management,
career management, employee and employer relations. It is observed that
international companies use four different applied methods to provide human
resources: ethnocentism, polycentrism, geosentrizm and regiosentrizm.
Conclusion
Human Resource Management ensures that human talent is used
effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. All over the
world now, Human Resource management is being affected in all aspects by
two major forces: changing workforce demographics and globalization, and,
higher education institutions are not being excluded. It is thus becoming more
131

crucial for Human Resources to understand these issues and strategize in


order to contribute directly to organizational strategies.
Human resources in educational process focus on the following:
To recruite and select professors
To train professors
To test out students
To welcome students, faculty, staff and the greater community
To contribute to sound decision making and problem solving
To develop leading practices
To enhance skills and expertise
To support health and well-being
Human resources give flavour to the organization. The department of
human resources is responsible for recruting, selection, training and evolution
of the stuff. Personalities can be grown only by experts, integral persons who
know how to teach and like this process professors. Students are formed by
those who teach them and those who work on educational process.

References:

1. Leob S., Paglayan A., Taylor E., Understanding human resources in broad-access
higher education, Stanford University, 28 p., 12 November 2012;

2. Education and human resouces strategy plan 2008-2020, Ministry of Education,


Culture and Human Resources, 164 p., Mauritius 2009;

3. Handbook of good human resource practice in the teaching proffesion, International


labour office, 316 p., Geneva 2012;

4. http://www.irex.org/sites/default/files/Ackom%20Case%20Study.pdf
5. http://www.academia.edu/7368184/Human_resource_management_practices_in_int
ernational_sebat_educational_schools

132



. , , . ,

THE HUMAN RESOURCES COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF


DIMITAR HADJIVASILEV STATE HIGH SCHOOL OF
ECONOMICS
Rumyana Ivanova,
Principal of Dimitar Hadjivasilev, Svishtov, Bulgaria
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142

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION


ASSESSMENT
Ala iianu, senior lecturer, PhD student,
Technical University of Moldova
Annotation: The present work is an attempt to present assessment/evaluation as a
main part and the most important in the teaching process. Evaluation is perhaps the most
complex and least understood of the terms. Inherent in the idea of evaluation is "value."
When we evaluate, what we are doing is engaging in some process that is designed to
provide information that will help us make a judgment about a given situation. Generally,
any evaluation process requires information about the situation in question. A situation is a
core term that takes into account such ideas as objectives, goals, standards, procedures, and
so on. When we evaluate, we are saying that the process will yield information regarding the
worthiness, appropriateness, goodness, validity, legality, etc., of something for which a
reliable measurement or assessment has been made.
Keywords: assessment/evaluation, criteria, method, strategy, teaching process,
reliability, validity.

1. Introduction
Teachers and trainers are inevitably involved in assessing learners. It
is an important, if not the most important factor in formal education at all
levels. Assessment, the way it is designed and implemented especially at
higher education indicates how various, and many times conflicting, are the
requirements of the main stakeholders in the educational process the
students, teachers, parents, managements, employers and society more
generally. The importance of assessment can scarcely be overemphasized. It
is generally agreed to be single most important influence on learning.
According to Erwin and Knight (1995 as quoted in Freeman and Lewis 1998)
if all other elements of the course point in one direction and the assessment
arrangements in another, then the assessment arrangements are likely to have
the greatest influence on the understood curriculum. Unfortunately,
assessment often works against, rather than for learning: Assessment can
encourage passive, reproductive forms of learning while simultaneously
hiding the inadequate understanding to which such forms of learning
inevitably lead. It is not uncommon to hear statements like if you focus on
learning a subject well, you cannot get good marks in the final examination,
getting good marks in examinations does not ensure good placement or
one needs to prepare for placement separately from preparing to get good
marks. Unfortunately the design and practice of assessment can be
hampered by a number of common myths (Freeman and Lewis 1998).
Assessment must always be a competitive process, with learners pitted
against one another.
143

The excellence of a few requires the failures of many.


Fear of failure is the best form of motivation.
Collaboration between learners is cheating.
Assessment happens only at the end of the course.
Assessment processes should be hidden from the learner.
Anxiety and pain are necessary accompaniments to rigorous assessment.
Assessment can be fully objective and scientific.
If students assess themselves, they are overly generous.
We explore assessment in higher education with the assumption that all the
above listed statements are myths.
2. What is Assessment?
The term assessment, (Brown, et.al. 1997) comes from Latin ad
sedere, which means to sit down beside. Thus according to them assessment
is primarily concerned with providing guidance and feedback to the learner.
We take a position that this is indeed the main function of assessment. But
the original use of this word was quite different. According to The New
Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Dictionary the sense of sit
down beside derives from the words use by the legal profession, meaning to
sit down beside judges in a court (Freeman and Lewis 1997). Some five or
six hundred years ago, an assessor was a person who advised a judge or
magistrate on technical points (compare the word assize) and these
technical points seem largely to have related to fines or taxes. Indeed, the
word is till used in relation to income tax (a tax assessment) and various
kinds of insurance (assessment of loss). The main meanings of assess have
been to
Fix the amount of tax or fine
Impose a tax or fine on a person or community
Estimate the value (property, income and so on) for taxation
Estimate the worth or extent of, judge or evaluate
The last meaning is closest to the one that is used in education a meaning
associated with the word only since the middle of the twentieth century.
Assessment is formally defined as a measure of performance (Gagne et. al.,
2005). Educational assessment is the process of documenting, usually in
measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment is a
mechanism for providing instructors with data for improving their teaching
methods and for guiding and motivating students to be actively involved in
their own learning. As such, assessment provides important feedback to both
instructors and students. Assessment gives us essential information about
144

what our students are learning and about the extent to which we are meeting
our teaching goals. But the true power of assessment comes in using it to give
feedback to students. Improving the quality of learning in a course involves
not just determining to what extent students have mastered course content at
the end of the course; also involves determining to what extent students are
mastering content throughout the course. Thus, in addition to providing the
instructors with valuable information about our students' learning, assessment
should assist the students in diagnosing their own learning. That is,
assessment should help students "become more effective, self-assessing, selfdirected learners." (Angelo & Cross, 1993, p.4)
There is considerable evidence showing that assessment drives student
learning. More than anything else, our assessment tools tell students what we
consider to be important. They will learn what we guide them to learn
through our assessments. Traditional testing methods have been limited
measures of student learning, and equally important, of limited value for
guiding student learning. These methods are often inconsistent with the
increasing emphasis being placed on the ability of students to think
analytically, to understand and communicate at both detailed and "big
picture" levels, and to acquire life-long skills that permit continuous
adaptation to workplaces that are in constant flux. Moreover, because
assessment is in many respects the glue that links the components of a course
- its content, instructional methods, and skills development - changes in the
structure of a course require coordinated changes in assessment.
Evidence of the extent of students learning come their behavior, as used in
its broadest sense. The students behavior may be specific to a course or more
general, or it may encompass a wide range of activities like oral written and
practical. What is assessed may be focused on a product (a report, a solution,
a software program, physical unit produced), on the process by which a
product is created or process alone; or any combination of these. These
constitute evidence, in present day parlance, on which judgment may be
based.
We can assess only a sample of the behavior as it is impractical to do
otherwise. In a course on differential equations it is not possible to set
questions on every possible combination of parameters and terms. Given
such a practical constraint, we need to sample behavior that is representative
of the required performance. The sample should be of sufficient size in order
make proper judgment.
When we assess, we make inferences about students current and future
performance. One type of inference is evaluation, which is an interpretation
of assessment in terms of marks, grades (A, B, C etc.) or qualities (very good,
145

good, fair, poor etc.). We use the word test to mean any procedure used to
assess the performance described in the objectives.
Assessment is the process of measuring some aspect of a candidate.
Assessment is carried out using tests and the term Assessment is treated as
being equivalent to an Assessment Test.
An Assessment Test is an organized collection of items that are used to
determine the values of the outcomes (e.g., level of mastery) when measuring
the performance of a candidate in a particular domain. An Assessment test
contains all of the necessary instructions to enable the sequencing of the
items and the calculation of the outcome values (e.g., the final test score).
Item is the smallest exchangeable assessment object within. An item is more
than a 'Question' in that it contains the question and instructions to be
presented, the response processing to be applied to the candidates
response(s) and the Feedback that may be presented.
3. Reliability and validity
Good assessment requires minimizing factors that could lead to
misinterpretation of results. The two criteria for meeting this requirement are
reliability and validity.
In general, high-quality assessments are considered those with a high level of
reliability and validity. Approaches to reliability and validity vary, however.
Reliability: Reliability relates to the consistency of an assessment. A reliable
assessment is one which consistently achieves the same results with the same
(or similar) cohort of students. Various factors affect reliability including
ambiguous questions, too many options within a question paper, vague
marking instructions and poorly trained markers. Traditionally, the reliability
of an assessment is based on the following:
Temporal stability: Performance on a test is comparable on two or more
separate occasions.
Form equivalence: Performance among examinees is equivalent on
different forms of a test based on the same content.
Internal consistency: Responses on a test are consistent across questions.
Validity: A valid assessment is one which measures what it is intended to
measure. For example, it would not be valid to assess ability to design a
circuit through asking the student to explain the theory of devices used in the
circuit. As per the report by Entwistle and Percy (1973), when teachers were
asked about the aims of higher education, there was surprising agreement that
it existed to promote higher order intellectual activity and outcomes, such as
critical or creative thinking and conceptual understanding. However, when
the accompanying assessment was scrutinized, this seemed to require merely
146

the detailed and accurate reproduction of course content. The gap between
the stated aims and the assessment is the result of assessment not being valid,
that is, the assessment is not in alignment with the stated aims. There are
several links in the assessment chain (Freeman and Lewis 1998).
The outcome must be defined and worth achieving (curriculum validity).
The assessment must seem credible to students and other stakeholders
(face validity).
The performance assessed must be acceptable measure of outcome (valid
in the sense of being typical and indicative).
The assessment must reflect the content and balance of the teaching and
learning, not going beyond this for example, it would not be valid to
assess students by having them make an oral presentation if they had not
had chance to use this method during the course (content validity).
The method used must be an appropriate way of assessing the
performance.
Most of the discussions about validity till now relate to students past
performance (retrospective validity). It may also be called "subject-matter"
validity, used widely in education, predicts the score a student would get on a
similar test but with different questions. "Predictive validity is used widely
to select students for future opportunities, such as courses or careers.
Generally, performance assessments have higher predictive validity than do
paper and pencil tests. It should be noted that retrospective validity is a prior
necessity for predictive validity.
Some of the guidelines can be followed to improve the validity of assessment
are:
Assess important rather than trivial outcomes, even if these are harder to
assess.
Create interesting assessment opportunities that motivate students to give
their best.
Explain why you are assessing and what you are assessing so students are
likely to find the experience credible and worth while.
Use appropriate assessment methods, even if this means that there is a
greater level of challenge in devising them.
Assess what you have actually covered in the curriculum.
4. Conclusion
A good assessment has both validity and reliability. In practice, an
assessment is rarely totally valid or totally reliable. The more reliable is our
estimate of what we purport to measure, the less certain we are that we are
actually measuring that aspect of attainment. The dominance of the selection
purpose of assessment has meant that more attention has been paid to
147

reliability than validity. Yet in most circumstances, validity is more


important of the two. It is sometimes tempting to sacrifice validity for
reliability, concentrating only on what we can most easily or consistently
measure.
American Association for Higher Education has identified 9
Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning that can be
regarded as a conclusion to this paper. These principles are:
1. The assessment of student learning begins with educational values
2. Assessment is most effective when it reflects an understanding of
learning as
multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time.
3. Assessment works best when the programs it seeks to improve have clear,
explicitly stated purposes. Assessment is a goal-oriented process.
4. Assessment requires attention to outcomes but also and equally to the
experiences that lead to those outcomes.
5. Assessment works best when it is ongoing not episodic.
6. Assessment fosters wider improvement when representatives from across
the educational community are involved.
7. Assessment makes a difference when it begins with issues of use and
illuminates
questions that people really care about.
8. Assessment is most likely to lead to improvement when it is part of a
larger set of conditions that promote change.
9. Through assessment, educators meet responsibilities to students and to
the public.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Freeman R. and Lewis R. (2002): Planning and Implementing Assessment, London,


Routledge.
Erwin T.D. and Knight P. (1995): A transatlantic view of assessment and quality in
higher education, Quality in Higher Education, 1 (2) pp179-88.
Brown G., Bull J. and Pendlebury M. (1997): Assessing Student Learning in Higher
Education, London, Routledge.
Gagne R.M., Wager W.W., Golas K.C. and Keller J.M.(2005): Principles of
Instructional Design, Thomson Wadsworth.
Astin A.W.; Banta T.B.; Cross K.P.; El-Khawas E.; Ewell P.T; Hutchings P.; Marchese
T.J; McClenney K.M.; Mentkowski M.; Miller M.A; Moran E.T.; Wright B.D.: 9
Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning; prepared for AAHE

148

PERSONALITY-ORIENTED LEARNING AS A BASIS OF


HUMANITARIZATION OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS TRAINING
Myroslava Chepurna,
Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine
-


,
,
.


.
: - ,
.
Abstract: The article deals with humanitarization of professional education. It is
suggested that he paradigm of personality oriented learning with a focus on selfdevelopment, self-education and self-identity of a person becomes central in this case.
eywords: personality-oriented education, humanization and humanitarization,
lifelong education.

Radical changes in the socio-economic life and political system of


Ukraine require reforming the national system of higher education. It became
evident that the old education is not able to prepare the expert for a new
society. The main task of rebuilding society today isman formation, creation
of conditions for free manifestation of mans abilities. Education plays
leading role in solving this problem.
Education as a social way of ensuring of cultureinheritance,
socialization and personality development occurred together with the advent
of the society and has evolved with the development of thinking and
language. In search of an answer to the philosophical question: "What
determines what: community forms education or education is the very
foundation of society?" scientists conclude that there is no clear answer.
Interaction between society and education as its subsystem has always been
unequal, because education is dependent on public and state funding.
Social processes of the third millennium, which take place very
rapidly led to the revival of humanistic traditions in education and training.
Humanistic orientation of education appears to facilitate the intellectual,
149

moral and cultural development of the individual, professional growth and


self-improvement of futurespecialists, their humanization. Understanding the
purpose of education only as the formation of systematized knowledge and
skills led to its dehumanization.
The current Law of Ukraine "On Education" says that education in
Ukraine based on the principles of humanism, democracy, national identity
and mutual respect between nations and peoples. The aim of education is the
development of human personality and the highest values of society, the
development of talents and mental and physical abilities, education of high
moral character, formation of citizens capable to make their own choice,
enrichment of the basis of intellectual, artistic and cultural potential of
people, improvement of educational level to ensure national economy with
qualified professionals. Thus a new concept of higher education in Ukraineis
legislated, it takes the focus from narrow professional approach to training
future specialists as a person. The paradigm of personality oriented learning
with a focus on self-development, self-education and self-identity becomes
central in this case.
Analysis of trends and directions of professional training points to the
necessity of overcoming sidedness, technocracy and specialization, which
still exist. In technical colleges there is the underestimation of the student's
personality, his/her place, role and importance in social development,
diversity of individual characteristics and abilities of students are not
considered.
It follows that higher professional education should focus not on the
subject of knowledge, training, but on the development and self-identity of
the person in his preparation for future career. It is possible to implement
professional education only when the real implementation of the new learneroriented educational paradigm exists in practice. Conceptual framework of
this paradigm is the idea of priority of the individuality in higher education
adequateto the current trends of socio-economic development and the
opportunity to focus on full implementation of the internal potential of each
student.
Analyzing literaturewe can define the main provisions of personality
oriented learning paradigm which is represented as a cultural type of
education, which ensures the development of human subjects of culture and
personal life with its natural, social and cultural qualities. A man develops
not only as a subject of knowledge, the subject of life, but as the subject of
culture - its medium, user, creator.

150

Appeal to human values education means a return to the bosom of


culture, its humanization, humanitarization, pure cultural and educational
environment, relationship to the student as a free sovereign subject of
training, responsibility of educational institutions for the quality
ofprofessional training. The most important principles of education reform
should be: turning to universal values, turning to the individuality and
creative potential of students in their preparation for future careers.
The initial concepts of personality- oriented learning we consider the
idea of personality as a target and a factor of educational experience during
professional training. In this understanding of personality-oriented education
is not the formation of quality planned personality, butcreation of conditions
for the full expression and proper function of students. So such functions are
assigned to them: selective (choice of values and lifestyles), indirect (in
relation to external influences and internal impulses behavior), critical (with
respect to the proposed external values and norms), the function of selfregulation in achieving the objective, reflective, orienting (building personal
world view), function of responsibility for decisions that are taken to ensure
the autonomy and sustainability of the inner world of creative transformation,
self-actualization (the desire for recognition of his/her "I" by others), to
ensure a level of spirituality according to personal requirements.
Knowledge of personal features allows, in turn,to consider a
fundamental aspect of the concept of personality-oriented learning as the
nature of the experience, which means the development of personality. First
of all, it is didactically processed socio-cultural experience that exists in the
form of training and program materials ("educational standards"), and
personal experience in the form of emotions and self-development.
The student can be considered as a subject of vital activity, so education in
this case is based on his/her life experience (not only experience of cognition,
but also communication, productive activity, art, etc.) so that he could
become not only a subject of own learning activities, but also present and
future life.In addition to intellectual development it requires personal growth,
developing strategic business skills, creativity, critical, system needs and
motives, abilities to self-determination, self-development, positive selfconcept and others.
When considering personality-oriented teaching there is a focuson the
essence of personality based learning, whichshould be differentiated.
Differentiation means focus on personality, his intellectual and moral
development,the development of the whole person rather than individual
qualities. The education could be considered personality-oriented when it
focuses on:
151

- level of training in this area of knowledge and degree of overall


development, culture, i.e. previously acquired experience;
- peculiarities of mental structure of personality (memory, thinking,
perception, ability to manage and regulate emotional sphere, etc.);
- identity, temper.
Designing researchers carry out verification of education based on the
idea of transition from traditional to a new type of educationpersonality
oriented, which would create conditions for the full value educational needs,
individual and creative development of students, free choice of school etc.
There is no doubt the fact that the reformation of higher education based on
the concept of personality-oriented learning is a necessity nowadays.
Analysis of psychological and educational literature on personalityoriented learning has shown that modern Pedagogyis more and
moreinterested in issues of personality-oriented professional education. This
problem is reflected bothin the writings of scientists and practicing teachers.
Nowadays, the concept of personality oriented professional
educationdevelops. Today the main purpose of higher education is seen as
developing of the ability of vigorous activity, work in all its forms, including
the professional creative work. This does not mean that the role of knowledge
in any way diminished, now it becomes a tool for individual development of
students, not just the main and sole purpose of education. Implementation of
personality-oriented training and education provides that the student really
becomes the central figure of the educational process and is seen as an
integral personality with its emotional and spiritual spheres. Supporters of a
holistic approach to education intentionally emphasize that all aspects of
human life are interrelated and education should take care of the development
of physical, emotional, social, aesthetic, creative and spiritual qualities of
each individual.
In post industrious society, a society of advanced manufacturing and
information technologythere are changes in requirements for skilled workers.
In addition to professional knowledge and skills, there is increasing demand
for professionally significant qualities such as independence, the ability to
make responsible decisions, creative approach to any business, the ability
forlong life learning, flexibilityin life, communication and others. Formation
of these qualities is possible with broad introductionof personalityorientedlearning intopractice of professional school.
people

One cannot ignore the fact that nowadays the professional activities of
in almost all spheres are filled with unprofessional or
152

overprofessionalcomponents. In this regard, the task of universities is not


only to give young people the education and the profession, but also to instill
them the prerequisites to constant, continuous lifelong education.
In higher education, there is a large layer of educational components
which can be attributed neither to general education, nor, in fact, professional
education. These components are necessary today in any profession. They are
so called "basic qualifications" and include the mastering of skills to use
computer databases and data banks, presentation technologies and products,
knowledge of foreign languages.
The availability of special overprofessionalknowledge, skills,
qualities, characteristics that ensure specialist professional mobility,
competitiveness and social security is no less important than the social
training.
Basic conceptof personality-oriented education is the most consistent
with the purpose and objectives of education in modern universities.
They are:
- personal and professional development of the student - the main
goal, which changes the position of the subject of study in all phases of
educational process;
- blurring the boundaries between the process of learning and
education; their divergence occurs only at specific content and educational
technologies;
- subjective student activity who "creates learning and makes
himself";
- criteria for effective organization of professional education - the
parameters of personal and professional development (key characteristics of
training);
- integration of social and professional features of a teacher in the
content and educational technology, their transformation into factors of
professional development of students and individual style of teaching
activities;
- changing the regulatory requirements for educational demands for
self-determination, self-education, self-sufficiency in educational and
professional activities;
- standard of education is not a goal but a tool that determines the
direction and limits of the use of educational content as the basis for the
professional development of the individual. Having analyzed some aspects
of personality-oriented learningwe can outline its key principles:

153

- recognition of the individuality of the student as the subject of the


educational process;
- appeal to personal (life) experience of the student, his need for selforganization;
- proactive nature of professional education, which is provided by the
formation of professional competence and development of overprofessional
qualities (key qualifications)of future specialist;
- organization of the space environment;
- determining the content of professional education by level of
development of modern social, informational, industrial technologies and
future careers (i.e., the content of education is determined by the future).
- design of humanitarian environment in the universities;
- high level of activity, consciousness and personal autonomy in
educational activities;
- design of professional, educational activities and continuous
updating of expertise and key skills.
Adherence to these principles allows to understand the motives of
training activities and professional requirements to assimilate the proposed
educational information, create conditions for fruitful research, it enables the
appeal to the highest limits of intellectual ability of students in order to
constant improvement. If the primary purpose of education is the
development of personality, the main goal of professional education is
professional development of the individual.
Thus, the reorientation of education to a person who develops,
renaissance of humanist tradition is the most important problem posed by life
itself, and serves the purposes of humanization of society.
Modern most important trend in the system of higher education is to
implement a new paradigm focused on humanism, culture and aimed at
overcoming of authoritarian style of education and training.
Further development of education possible with orientation of training
process on the student, so there is need of fundamental changes in organizing
the existing education system. The central figure in the educational
institution, its core is a student, who is considered at the individual level, in
all the richness of his personal qualities, interests, needs and aspirations.
Hence, an important task of the educational institution is to create a favorable
microenvironment in which the person develops. We believe that in the
context of humanitarizationof future specialistseducation in universities
purposefully constructed humanitarian environment acts as such
microenvironment.

154

References: (Translated and transliterated)


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// - , 1996, 1.- . 126-127.
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4. Marginson S. After globalization: emerging politics of education//Journal of
Education Policy.- 1998.-Vol.14.-p.22-30.
5. Spaulding S. New Orientations in Education. - Oxford University Press, 2005. - 183
p.
6. Woolston Cris. J. Science Teaching in Higher Education II Science Education
towards the Year 2000II Aspects of Education.- Hull, 1996. Number 53.

155



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THE ROLE OF SCOUT SOCIETY FOR THE IMPROVEMENT
OF INFORMAL EDUCATION PROCESS
Bagryana Ilieva, PhD, University of Rousse Angel Kanchev, Bulgaria
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THE UNIVERSITY AS A FOCUS OF AKME-PERSON FORMATION.
Assoc. Prof. Natalija Terentieva, PhD
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critical and innovative thinking, able to self-improvement and self-realization in terms of
sustainable development.
Keywords: university, akme-person, critical and innovative thinking.

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166

. :
BEST PRACTICES FOR LIFE-LONG LEARNING CENTER
ADMINISTRATORS IN TEKRDA, TURKEY: MENTORING AND
COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE1
Duygu Doan, Instructor (M.A.), Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Assoc. Prof. Dr. zge Hacifazliolu, Kltr University, Istanbul
Kbra ner (B.A.), Tekirda
Prof. Dr. Fatih Konukcu, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Prof. Dr. Abdlkadir Iik, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Bahadr Altrk, Lecturer (M.Sc.), Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Abstract: This study is based on a local workshop carried out to increase the
qualifications of local administrators of educational institutions in terms of both knowledge
and competencies in Life Long Learning (LLL). The workshop and administrators training
sessions were tailored conducting the model of communities of practice in a way that
administrators could share their experiences and best practices while contributing to the
needs analysis in life-long learning as well as developing strategies for their own life-long
learning. The data collection process is based on both quantitative and qualitative research
design (Maxwell, 1999). As a result of the workshop and the training sessions, themes and
sub-themes of strategic priorities in life-long practices for the locality of Tekirda have been
identified.
Keywords: Life-long Learning, Communities of Practice, Mentoring, Education,

Introduction
Within the paradigm of internationalization and Europeanization, importance
of Life Long Learning has increased. With this influence, administrators of
Life Long Learning Centers, NgOs, Public and private sector are expected to
become more professionally and academically oriented. In this era new
responsibilities are attributed to the administrators. Life Long Learning (LLL)
is a phenomenon, which has economic, social, political and cultural impacts
and we should channel the changes and recent developments that occurs in the
country in a positive way with the most effective methods. Schools, NgOs,
Public and Private Sector cannot be isolated from the effects of lifelong
learning and internationalization. Therefore administrators should discover
constructive approaches through careful diagnosis and an approach that leads
to constructive experiences for the individuals at all ages. In this project,
1

This paper is based on the project entitled as MANAGE.EDU: Efficient Education Management
Network for LLL in the Black Sea Basin funded by EU Black Sea Basin Joint Operational
Programme.

167

Educational Administrators from Tekirda region are tailored a unique


program in line with the idea of mentoring that integrates the idea of LLL.
Moderator of the sessions has been working on issues of Mentoring and
Communities of Practice (Bakiolu, Hacfazlolu and zcan, 2010;
Hacfazlolu, 2010) in the last few years. The remaining part will present
the purpose method and results of the study.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to increase the qualifications of administrators
(school administrators, local ministries of education and administrators from
NgOs) in terms of both knowledge and competencies in Life Long Learning.
This workshop aims at both increasing the qualifications of administrators,
working specifically in fields that may have an influence in the life long
process and allowing administrators to share their best practices in LLL.
The purpose of the project and simultaneously the workshop is to find
answers to the following sub questions:
- What are administrators perceptions of Life Long Learning in terms
of recent trends?
- What sorts of strategies could be used to develop and disseminate Life
Long Learning
Within the scope of the Project, workshop and administrators training
sessions were tailored based on the model of communities of practice in a
way that administrators could share their experiences and best practices as
well as developing strategies for life long learning. The data collection
process of the project is based on both quantitative and qualitative research
design (Maxwell, 1999). In quantitative part, an experimental study, aiming
at testing the difference occurred in the self efficacy of administrators in life
long learning was used, which was followed with a qualitative study
Workshop Procedure
This workshop has three main phases, first sharing the recent trends in life
long learning and the idea of quality then creating a communities of practice
platform. The third is the needs analysis part. The content development was
maintained through the support received from two experts from the Faculty
of Education. The training part was also pursued through the support of the
sector as well as the scholars working in the field of teacher education and
leadership. The final phase constitutes the backbone of the project in ways
of revealing the difference observed among the administrators during the
implementation of trainings as well as providing implications that could be
168

conducted in future studies. Best practices and the ways how they were
implemented also constituted the significant part of the sessions. The
remaining part of the paper is allocated for the findings.
Data Collection Procedure
Participants who hold administrative positions at schools, technical schools,
life-long learning centers, governmental and non-governmental organizations
were sent an official letter inviting their voluntary participation, informing
them of participation requirements and safeguards, and asking that they
certify their informed consent. To interview participants, researchers
contacted them through Namk Kemal University Rectors Office requesting
their participation. Participants were reassured that their identities and all
identifying information would remain confidential unless they wished to be
identified by name or role. No real names were listed on any documents or
data related to this research unless permission was given by the participant.
Total 42 administrators including 9 females and 33 males attended the whole
workshop, which consisted of 4 sessions.
As for the quantitative part, the participants
completed a questionnaire of 16 items 8 of which were demographic and 8
items being open-ended questions revealing their individual and professional
life-long learning experiences. Participants filled in the questionnaires during
the first two sessions of the workshop. As for the qualitative part, data was
collected from the administrators through focus group discussions.
Participants reflections and thoughts were collected during these discussions.
Two experts from the field of research design and evaluation were actively
involved in all the phases of the project.
Findings
Data collected from the participants were given and interpreted in the rest of
the paper. Five themes were determined as a result of the workshop. Findings
were categorized as: Creating a Life-Long Learning Culture among all the
Stakeholders, Cooperation with Families and involving them as the active
participants, Increasing quality of life for all the individuals, Increasing
strategic cooperation with NgOs, unions and the related strategic partners and
Creating LLL platforms for the Disadvantaged Groups.

169

Strategic Priorities
Table 1. Strategic Priorities: Themes and Sub Themes
Creating a Life Long Learning Culture among all the Stakeholders
Cooperation with Families and involving them as the active participants
Increasing quality of life for all the individuals
Increasing strategic cooperation with NgOs, unions and the related strategic
partners
Creating LLL platforms for the Disadvantaged Groups
As it could be seen in the table above, Creating a Life Long Learning
Culture among all the Stakeholders is one of the primary themes mentioned
by the participants. This idea also aligns with the philosophy of life long
learning centers across Europe. As well, cooperation with families is also
mentioned as the themes that needs special emphasis. The third theme
encompasses all the other themes with the idea of increasing the life quality
of all individuals. Therefore from rich to poor, young to old all the
individuals have the right to get life long education and support. Within this
perspective the fourth theme emerged and strategic partnerships have been
put forward as the priority that needs to be implemented. Fifth theme
underlines the care and support that needs to be given for the disadvantaged
not only in terms of economic reasons but also as living conditions and health
conditions.
Best Practices
Participants were asked to share the best practices they implement at their
institutions. Their responses fall into following five categories: Creating
community of learners, supporting the disadvantaged, mobility and exchange,
distance learning, documentation.
Table 2. Best Practices for Life-learning: Themes
Creating community of learners
Supporting the disadvantaged
Mobility and exchange
Distance learning
Documentation
______________________________________________________________

170

Creating Community of Learners


European Union projects appeared to set a ground for school administrators
in terms of international cooperation and partnership. All the participants
expressed their willingness to visit other countries. This approach should be
extended on a wide spectrum. Most of the participants also emphasize on the
effectiveness of in-service training. Education taken in the universities
becomes inadequate years after graduation in rapidly changing world. By this
perspective, the need for in-service training increases to keep up with these
changes. Few of the participants said that one to one interviews with the
individuals in the fields of their studies extended their experiences as an
administrator. By this way, they can have a chance to learn the way how they
deal with problems. Following themes were determined during these
dialogues:
- Theme 1: Visionary and Instructional Leadership Role of LLL
Center Administrators
- Theme 2: Visionary and Instructional Leadership Role of
Educational Administrators as LLL facilitators
- Theme 3: Continuous Professional Development of
Educational Administrators: Creating Communities of
Practice
As it was asserted by Zengin and Hacfazlolu (2013), Communities of
Practice and Mentoring Network should be established to provide an
ongoing professional development system for Program Administrators. In
this way, Program Administrators could be provided with the opportunity to
share and learn from each other. It was revealed during the workshop that
several attempts have been initiated by kur and LLL centers but this has
been provided on a limited number of piloting schools. Ikur authorities and
other local ministries of education indicated that they are working a model
that is more systematic so that a community of learners could be supported.
Supporting the Disadvantaged
Policies to decrease unemployment should cover socio-economically
disadvantaged groups. An administrator cited that handcrafts courses for
families of socio-economically disadvantaged students motivates them.
Another participant added that lifelong learning practices should include
various layers and groups of society. Courses towards housewives to take up
a domestic profession contribute budget of family and the national economy.
Another disadvantaged group is individuals who are needed special training
such as disabled citizens. It was revealed during the discussions that one of
the priorities of lifelong learning is to increase literacy and decrease
unemployment by special training to join labor market.

171

Mobility and Exchange


Within the paradigm of internationalization of universities, importance of
mobility and has increased. With the influence of internationalization,
Administration of educational institutions and Life Long Learning Centers
are expected to become more professionally and academically oriented. In
this era where mobility of academics and students became common in many
countries, new responsibilities are attributed to university administrators
(Zengin and Hacfazlolu, 2013). Within this new wind, administrators of
Life Long Learning Centers, Local Ministries of Education and Schools also
have key roles in the process of internationalization. This idea has been
supported by almost all the respondents. Participants expressed their
willingness to visit educational institutions in different parts of the world and
learn from the lived experiences. It was revealed during the focus group
discussions that only a few of the administrators had the opportunity to have
this international experience but they mentioned the increasing awareness
towards European Union supported projects. A couple of them asserted that
they are planning to develop their foreign language competency so that they
can interact with their counterparts in Europe.
Distance Learning
In Turkey, open high school and university programs are suitable for students
who drop out of high school or cannot attend formal education because of
different reasons. By attending such programs individuals can increase job
opportunities and can be promoted in their professions.
Documentation
A limited number of participants mentioned documentation as a method for
dissemination of best practices. Setting a platform for mutual contact and
collaboration appears to encourage various stakeholders in terms of
participating lifelong learning practices. Administrators underlined the
importance of network and protocol agreements with lifelong learning centers
located in cities. Such practices encourage participants to create efficient
learning environments and motivate them to share their experiences and
knowledge. For instance, the importance of exhibiting the products which are
produced during year was mentioned by a manager as a best practice.
Conclusion
The study both with its findings and its training basis focus on the experience
sharing of educational administrators regarding The Notion and Legal
Structure of Life Long-Learning in Turkey, The Social Role and
Responsibilities of Life-Long Learning centers, Behavioral Aspects of
Administrators (leadership, motivation, negotiation and persuasion),
Mentoring, Creating Communities of Practice. The core elements identified
172

by the empirical part of this study would establish a basis for the curriculum
which can be modified, enhanced or customized by the chambers of
commerce, municipalities, research centers, professional and trade
associations, the institutions of higher education and the other stakeholders to
offer the NGO training as part of their continuing adult education programs.

References:
Bakiolu, A.;Hacfazlolu, . & zcan, K. (2010) Influence of trust in principals
mentoringexperiences at different career phases. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and
Practice. 16 (2): 245-258.
Gmeli, A. . & Hacfazlolu, . (2009). Globalization and Conflict Management at
Schools. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences. 4 (1): 183-198.
Maxwell, J. (1996). Qualitative research design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yldrm, A. & imek, H. (2008).Sosyal bilimlerde nitel aratrma yntemleri. Sekin:
Ankara.
Wenger, E. (2008). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Zengin, B. & Hacfazlolu, . (2013). Profile of preparatory school administrators at
universities.Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences

173

LIFELONG LEARNING WITH MOODLE


Assoc. Prof. Ludmila Novac, PhD,
Quality Management, Curriculum Development and Evaluation Department
Moldova State University
Abstract
The learning platforms are very useful, convenient and appropriate to our days,
they greatly supplement the traditional learning methods and they help the teachers in their
daily activity. Teachers learn best when they work together to solve common problems. Thus,
it is very important to join learning network of teacher leaders and get resources, tools,
strategies, and access to committed colleagues willing to share their expertise, and
experience to develop solutions to the issues we are facing in school and university.
Keywords:
Moodle Community; Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment
(Moodle); traditional learning methods, modern learning methods, learning platforms,
learning network; resources, tools, strategies; teaching skills.

Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated" [1]


pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Therefore, it
not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal
development, but also self-sustainability, rather than competitiveness and
employability [2].
A well-developed society can be built through educational
institutions. The education is the most important to maintain and raise the
development level of the country. Thus, the new generation is the most
important part of the social classes, which has the role and obligation to
continue and to maintain the intellectual development of the country.
The education lies at the basis of the intellectual society and education
in turn is based on a well founded set of principles, a set of values and
strictness, that can be maintained only by competent specialists and based on
a well-formed system and adequate to the requirements of the labor market.
The new education policy, (foreshadowed in the finalities of
education), involves an educational management that would ensure
organizational development by promoting educational strategies to enhance
the performance of human resources, focusing on training and development
of human personality, able to take independent decisions to achieve their
destiny. A such educational strategy (for higher education institutions in
Republic of Moldova), led to the construction of the curriculum based on
competencies, which is their organization in relation to demand of units on
the labor market, starting by identify the conditions in which different social
and professional roles (of the future graduate) will be developed.
Modernization of education leads directly to the introduction of new
forms of teaching. Composition of the personal learning environment differs
174

from one person to another, depending on professional and personal interest,


goals, preferential learning style, the experience to use the informational
technology etc. So, the new resources based on information technologies,
represents the technological support which is used to fill forms of training
both in pre-university institutions and higher education institutions.
The training platforms are very useful, convenient and appropriate for
current period, which greatly supplement and complement traditional
methods of instruction. One of the most used platforms for training, in many
countries is Moodle, which comes to help teachers by providing technological
support and means for transmission of information, assessment of
knowledge, and learning tools and techniques.
Moodle (acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment [3]) is a free software e-learning platform, also known as a
Learning Management System, or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE).
Moodle was originally developed by Martin Dougiamas to help educators
create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative
construction of content, and is in continual evolution. The first version of
Moodle was released on 20 August 2002. The number of users and the
number of Moodle courses, released using the resources of this platform,
increase rapidly every year. From October 2010 has a base of over 49,953
registered users and verified websites serving 37 million users in 3.7 million
courses. Number of users and number of Moodle courses annually placed
further increase with a rapid pace. As of June 2013 it had a user base of
83,008 registered and verified sites, serving 70,696,570 users in 7.5+ million
courses with 1.2+ million teachers [3].
The fact that Moodle is an open source learning platform, led directly
to its mass use by educational institutions in many countries, and last years it
is used by several educational institutions in Republic of Moldova, in
secondary education, and especially in higher education.
The whole set of techniques and tools (provided by Moodle [4-7] for
ease of training) completes it and adjust to new social and economic
conditions, the pace of life in which both teachers, and pupils or students are
involved in several activities simultaneously. Thus, the Moodle courses can
be offered for both distance full time or part-time learning form, offering
didactical support and educational components.
In this way, some people can do training courses by interests, or
compensation studies, others can study at the second faculty, while already
have a job, or to study at two faculties in the same time, if the institutional
rules allow this (usually it is possible to study at the second faculty only
through part-time learning form).
However, Moodle provides a great opportunity for those who are
unable to get to the institution. At present many people are interested to study
and obtain a certificate or diploma in the study result in some prestigious
175

institutions. The financial problems or problems of moving to another


country is often a major impediment, which decreases the chances for those
who still have a very good training, extensive knowledge and an exceptional
ability to learn and to progress in their research careers. Another category of
people who are limited in training are those who can not move to the
institution everyday , although being in the same locality, due to the health
problems, or having certain physical disabilities. The distance learning is an
appropriate solution for this category of people who want to do some
research and study skills.
Moodle has a number of functions that can be defined. The main
function of the platform is the training, whether it's professionalization
courses or general education courses, as well as refresher courses or
retraining, or some part of psycho-pedagogical module etc. Another category
of functions not less important are the functions of management, provided
through the platform. In this category we can mention the most important
functions of information, mentoring and guidance. Thus, through the
platform we can offer indications from the administrative corp of the
institution on various organizational issues, guidance, or connection with
certain events related to the work of the institution, faculties or of the student.
From the same category of management can be considered the functions of
questioning on certain problems or important issues, questions regarding the
evaluation of teachers and the quality of the offered courses, and other
matters requiring consideration of the teachers opinion and of the students.
Thus, through the Moodle platform can be done various surveys and
assessment questionnaires, in order to make some important decisions for the
institution or for some faculties.
An important role of Moodle on professional training is the role of
teaching skills development. The training role through the professionalization
courses can be expanded in optimal mode also for the psycho-pedagogical
module for all specializations of teaching cathegory. The parallel
implementation of the psycho-pedagogical courses is an important result of
the university teachers training. Moreover, in the process of the platform's
use for training and working with students, we can develop teaching skills
and discipline management, as well as guidance in the study process. The
structure, the organization and the management of courses on the Moodle
platform require us to keep in control the information provided for our
students and to track their activities on the platform throughout the period of
the active course. Probably, one of the most important elements in the
learning process through the Moodle platform, is to establish a clear plan and
to delineate information that students can access for the respective period. It
is particularly important to indicate the deadline for certain activities and
imposes certain restrictions on access to certain sections, or to provide
additional information, if it is necessary. All these factors have an important
176

role to ensure the quality, while the offered conditions and the proposed
informations fit the requirements that we impose, in order to develope skills
and abilities for the respective specialization.
It is also important to organize and to provide many activities for
individual work, for regular self-assessment, or within each chapter, as well
as for the summative assessments. Thus, the ongoing collaboration with
students by focusing their attention on each of the proposed activities, and
highlighting the need for formation of some skills, we can maintain their
activity throughout the period of the course, by continuous monitoring and
highlighting the importance of all activities as a whole, and in particularly.
The knowledge assessment is particularly important in the study
process. The assessment,
moreover, is a necessary component of any functioning social system, it
confirms the level of efficiency. The evaluation carried out in the education
system is closely correlated with other social systems. In this regard, Moodle
offers us a number of tools [1,3], which facilitates the evaluation of
knowledge in the learning process. All techniques provided by Moodle gives
us the possibility to create different types of tests, both for regular
assessments, summative and final assessments (for periods of certification),
also for the current assessment, or for the self-assessment in the learning
purposes and to check the level of comprehension.
To launch tests we can establish certain periods and, in this way,
Moodle allows us to apply some restrictions on the period and the date of
access to appropriate tests (or deadline) also the duration of the test and the
number of possibilities to repeat the test for accumulating a promotion score,
or maybe to obtain another greater score, if the person does not agree with the
given rating and claim another higher grade. In the case of the self testing or
for the testing during the individual study course, may be allowed to perform
more repetitions of the test, but for the final evaluation of the test is
recomended to be more rigorously and to set some restrictions on the
duration of the test period, and access to additional information, to ensure
that the assessment will be objective. Thus, in this case this platform offers
opportunities for retaining required restrictions and the organization and
monitoring of the test in a virtual environment.
Given the multitude of all possibilities and tools provided by Moodle
[4], the educational institutions and the Moodle Community have fixed
certain requirements for training and organization of courses, also the criteria
of their assessment, in order to optimize the structurization of courses,
according to the common standards and appropriate for objective assessment
of adequate knowledge. Also, aimed at streamlining the learning process, it is
necessary to comply with certain requirements and indications, according to
the certification schemes, offered and approved by Moodle Communities and
educational institutions.
177

Thus, the most important requirements are the following: organization


of courses to match to a logical structure clearly defined, and the information
to be optimally distributed for all chapters, the content to be rich and
represented in clear and accessible various forms of presentation, also to
provide the curriculum of the course, the objectives of topics, and the
necessary finalities in order to learn this course. It is important to apply a
corresponding design, an optimal management of the courses, and the logical
arrangement to be appropriate. The functionality and the easy navigability of
the courses are also very important, they must to correspond to a well-defined
logical structure.
The aspects of working with students are particularly important, also
to establish the monitoring of the individual work and performance of the
tasks, to apply some solutions to keep the students in permanent activity
through motivation and evaluation, by the inclusion of some activities of
learning and self-assessment, by providing tasks for the study and individual
work. To this end, Moodle provides various tools for working with students,
by organizing tasks involving students in individual and team activities. And
the overall look of the course depends only on the creativity of teachers
which develop the course, also on the multitude and variety of tasks offered
to the students for learning.
The forums used for discussion and collaboration between students
and teachers, can be helpful for exchanging information, organizing
competitions and activities to develop learning skills and prompt reaction for
response. The forums are useful if you expect a feedback from the students
regarding the comprehension of the provided material for the respective
theme; or for the simple reason to keep in touch with students enrolled at the
course.
In context of using Moodle in order to organize courses for students of
the part-time studying form, the application of the Blended Learning is the
perfect solution to combine the classical teaching model with the distance
learning model. So we are not obliged to establish only the direct contact
with students or and to teach only through the classical model. Combining of
those two methods of teaching and assessment can be done successfully,
using cyberspace through Moodle platform, similarly to the contact with
students in the audience. Thus, we can firmly say that using Moodle, there are
some advantages for both teachers and students, especially for students who
are studying through the part-time learning form, but also for those who are
studying through the full-time learning form.
In this context, we can notice that, the promotion of an institution can
be made including through the development of the electronic course
management system, also through the quality of the courses posted on
Moodle. A well-developed platform of courses can be a good image for an
educational institution. As well as, a well-developed platform could attract
178

more students and can be a good incentive for them, through attractive rates,
through diversity of tasks and rich amount of information. Each institution
should promote and develop electronic courses on educational platforms in
the interest of pupils and students, in order to educate the younger generation
at the pace of learning skills development and application of knowledge in
practice.
By the way, the less experienced teachers should obtain the
experience of those who have
already developed electronic courses and use them actively in the learning
process, and thus to continue the fruitful cooperation in the realm of
knowledge development and training of young specialists.
References:
1. Department of Education and Science (2000). Learning for Life: White Paper on
Adult Education. Dublin: Stationery Office.
2. Commission of the European Communities: "Adult learning: It is never too late to
learn". COM (2006) 614 final. Brussels, 23.10.2006.
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/lifelong_learning/
c11097_en.htm
3. http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moodle#cite_note-2
4. http://docs.moodle.org/25/en/Main_page
5. http://www.moodle.md/
6. http://moodle.org/
7. http://moodle.com

179

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TRAINING OF STUDENTS IN THE CONDITIONS


OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Mariya Dimova, Hristina Milcheva,
Trakia University, Medical College, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
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Abstract: Bulgaria is a country with a rich cultural diversity, in which all ethnicities have
intercultural relationships. The higher education, in the conditions of growing cultural
diversity requires creating a supportive environment for each individuals and positive
interpersonal relations, ethnic and cultural tolerance, equality and respect for ethnic and
religious differences.
The aim of this report is to represent the experience of the Medical College of Trakia
University- Stara Zagora, regarding the training of students in an intercultural environment,
which has its advantages and benefits both for students and for the team of teachers by
building positive attitudes and tolerant attitude towards cultural differences and creating a
good basis for successful intercultural communication.
Keywords: cultural diversity training, intercultural
communication, tolerance, cultural competence

environment,

intercultural

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ADAPTED MODELS OF LEARNING THROUGH QUANTUM
ALGORITHMS
Nikolay Raychev, PhD candidate,
International University College, Bulgaria
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Abstract: The integration of artificial intelligence into a mixture of interactive tests
makes the learning process more interesting and enriching. The lecturer can stimulate and
guide the student through a series of challenges in view of his/her specific needs. The
introduction of adapted models covers the entire learning process: its design, development,
implementation, analysis and adaptation. We use a hybrid solution the analysis and the
adaptation are partially done by the lecturer and partially automatic. With the help of this
tool, the lecturers act as researchers of the dynamics, which confirms or denies their
hypotheses about the best possible approach.
Keywords: e-learning; quantum, graphs, quizzes; linked data

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[1] G. A lvaro and J. A lvaro. A Linked Data Movie Quiz:
the answers are out there, and so are the questions. [blog post], August 2010.
[2] S. Auer, C. Bizer, G. Kobilarov, J. Lehmann, and
Z. Ives. DBpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data. In 6th International Semantic Web
Conference (ISWC), Busan, Korea, pages 1115. Springer, 2007.
[3] C. Fellbaum. WordNet: An Electronical Lexical
Database. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998.
[4] O. Hassanzadeh and M. Consens. Linked Movie Data Base. In Workshop on Linked Data
on the Web (LDOW), 2009.
[5] J. Hees, T. Roth-Berghofer, R. Biedert, B. Adrian, and A. Dengel. BetterRelations:
Detailed Evaluation
of a Game to Rate Linked Data Triples, October 2011.
[6] G. A . Rey, I. Celino, P. Alexopoulos, D. Damljanovic,
M. Damova, N. Li, and V. Devedzic. Semi-automatic generation of quizzes and learning
artifacts from linked data. In Linked Learning 2012: 2nd International Workshop on
Learning and Education with the Web of Data, at the World Wide Web Conference 2012
(WWW2012), 2012.
[7] K. Siorpaes and M. Hepp. Games with a Purpose for the Semantic Web. IEEE Intelligent
Systems,
23:5060, May 2008.
[8] K. Siorpaes and E. Simperl. Human Intelligence in the Process of Semantic Content
Creation. World Wide Web, 13:3359, March 2010.
[9] T. Susi, M. Johannesson, and P. Backlund. Serious
Games - An Overview. Technical report, HS-IKI-TR-07-001, 2007.
[10] J. Waitelonis, N. Ludwig, M. Knuth, and H. Sack.
WhoKnows? - Evaluating Linked Data Heuristics with a Quiz that Cleans Up DBpedia.
International
Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education (ITSE), Special Issue on Multimedia
technologies for e-learning, 8(4):236248, 2011.
[11] L. Wolf, M. Knuth, J. Osterhoff, and H. Sack. RISQ!
Renowned Individuals Semantic Quiz: a Jeopardy like quiz game for ranking facts. In
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Semantic Systems,
I-Semantics 11, pages 7178, New York, NY, USA,
2011. ACM.

191


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FROM CUSTOMS AND TECHNOLOGIES TO


ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Angelina Kalinova,
rof. Georgi Ivanov, D-r, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
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Abstract: A name of the subject "Life and Technology" to be changed to "Technology
and Entrepreneurship." In this paper we present the integration of entrepreneurship
education in "Technology and Entrepreneurship" in primary education, which requires the
development of new methods of teaching this course.
Keywords: change, entrepreneurship, integration, technologically trained primary
education

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199

USING ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS IN EFL


CLASSES
Assoc. rof. Olga Duhlicher, PhD, Cristina Blajin MA, University Lecturer
Moldova State University, The Department of Specialized Modern Languages
Abstract: Until recently, assessment in many pans of the world has focused primarily
on high-stakes examinations. However, with the increased popularity of multiple-measures
assessment, institutions worldwide are adopting alternative forms of assessment. The
purpose of this article is to mention the importance of alternative assessments and some
types of alternative assessments used in the teaching career, these are: the writing portfolio,
essay items, K-W-L charts, the project works and mind mapping. We will proceed with a
description of a type of assessment, and namely, the story or text retelling, how it meets the
five principles of assessment. We will specify some changes that have to be undergone in
order to make alternative assessment better serve the needs in instruction. These ways are:
e-portfolios, practicing scoring, using audio and video recordings and practicing more using
rubrics.
Keywords: assessment, alternative assessment, e-portfolio, project, rubrics, mind
mapping, K-W-L charts, essays.

Assessment serves needs at all levels of the education hierarchy:


assessment helps educators set standards, create instruction pathways,
motivate performance, provide diagnostic feedback, assess/evaluate progress,
and communicate progress to others [5].
Dissatisfaction with the existing standardized testing has given rise to
proposals for new assessment alternatives which will better capture
significant and enduring educational outcomes.
Although alternative assessment implies new strategies for looking at
educational outcomes, the process for developing these assessments is based
on decades of measurement research. Developers of high-quality tests adhere
to the following process with certain variations:
Specify the nature of the skills and accomplishments students are to
develop.
Specify illustrative tasks that would require students to demonstrate these
skills and accomplishments.
Specify the criteria and standards for judging student performance on the
task.
Develop a reliable rating process.
Gather evidence of validity to show what kinds of inferences can be made
from the assessment.
200

Use test results to refine assessment and improve curriculum and instruction;
provide feedback to students, parents, and the community [5, p.12].

Educators have come to realize that alternative assessments are an


important means of gaining a dynamic picture of students academic and
linguistic development. Alternative assessment is defined as the ongoing
process involving the student and teacher in making judgments about the
student's progress in language using nonconventional strategies [4]. Else V.
Hamayan describes alternative assessment procedures as those techniques
which can be used within the context of instruction and can be easily
incorporated into the daily activities of the school or classroom [3]. The
purpose of alternative assessment is to gather data about how students are
processing and completing authentic tasks in the target language. In general,
alternative assessments meet these common criteria:
focus is on documenting student growth over time, rather than on
comparing students with one another;
emphasis is on students' strengths (what they know and can do with the
language), rather than on their weaknesses;
consideration is given to the learning styles, language proficiencies,
cultural and educational backgrounds, and grade levels of students;
they are authentic because they are based on activities that represent actual
progress toward instructional goals and reflect tasks typical of classrooms
and real-life settings.
Alternative assessment is often viewed as being an alternative" to
traditional types of assessment, but this is not necessarily the case.
Alternative assessment should be used in conjunction with traditional
assessment, as part of a comprehensive multiple-measures assessment
scheme. Perhaps a more suitable term for alternative assessment would be
additional assessment," as it should be used in addition to, rather than instead
of, traditional testing. However, having established that alternative
assessment and traditional assessment are not mutually exclusive, to better
understand the essence of alternative assessment it is helpful to contrast it
with traditional assessment [1].
J. L. Herman, P. A. Aschbacher, and L. Winters [5, p.6] proposed a set
of characteristics of alternative assessments. They state that alternative
assessments:
a. require students to perform, create, produce, or do something;
b. tap into higher level thinking and problem-solving skills;
c. approximate real-world applications;
201

d. use tasks that represent meaningful instructional activities;


e. ensure that people, not machines, do the scoring, using human
judgment; and
6. call upon teachers to perform new instructional and assessment roles.
Although there is no single definition of alternative assessment, the
main goal is to "gather evidence about how students are approaching,
processing, and completing real-life tasks in a particular domain" [6, p.9].
Alternative assessment has become a regular assessment technique in
our career as university teachers. Students are, highly motivated to complete
tasks in a quality manner, as they had a concrete representation of their
efforts. We have been using this type of assessment in all our classes, with
students of different interests and needs. It is an accurate representation of
student outcomes and learning, but more important, it stimulates us to teach
in a more creative, relevant, and interesting manner. There are numerous
types of authentic assessment used in classrooms today [5], and one example
of a form of alternative assessment is the writing portfolio. Writing class can
be a difficult class to create a test for assessment purposes. Having students
create a writing portfolio throughout the school year can be an excellent
assessment method. For each unit or new lesson you teach, students must
pick one finished piece of work to include in their portfolio. These pieces
must obviously be graded individually based on a rubric, but the finished
portfolio at the end of the year will be a great way to show the improvement
in the students writing abilities over the course of the academic year. We
also found that the actual process of our students collecting, refining, and
subsequently evaluating their work provided powerful learning opportunities.
Another example of a form of alternative assessment is essay items.
Essay items are very flexible and can be used to measure students mastery of
all sorts of truly worthwhile curricular aims. Writing essay items students
will carry out a carefully reasoned analysis of different topics you give them.
Essay items also give students a great opportunity to display their
composition skills. This method implies some difficulties: the time required
to score students essays and the potential inaccuracies associated with that
scoring. Theres really no way for classroom teachers to get around the timerequirement problem, but a help in this respect will be the use of rubrics,
which will make the scoring of essays more precise. With respect to the
second problem, inaccurate scoring, we have learned from efforts to evaluate
essays that it is possible to do so with a remarkable degree of accuracy,
provided that sufficient resources are committed to the effort and well-trained
scoring personnel are in place [10].
We had success using K-W-L charts (what I know/what I want to
know/what I've learned) to begin and end some units of study in British and
American civilization. Before the unit, this strategy enabled us to gain an
awareness of students' background knowledge and interests. Afterward, it
202

helped us assess the content material learned. K-W-L charts can be developed
as a class activity or on an individual basis. For students with limited English
proficiency, the chart can be completed in the first language or with
illustrations. Before a unit of study, teachers can have students fill in the K
and W columns by asking them what they know about the topic and what
they would like to know by the end of the unit. This helps to keep students
focused and interested during the unit and gives them a sense of
accomplishment when they fill in the L column following the unit and realize
that they have learned. [11].
Mind mapping, also referred to as webbing or thinking maps is a form
of alternative assessment. It helps students structure and order their thinking
by creating a visual representation of concepts and their understanding. Mind
mapping can be used to improve reading comprehension in both fiction and
non-fiction texts, and across a variety of genres. Mind maps work because
they give the reader another (visual) way to process information. Because the
concept of a story is depicted through images and can show their graphic
relationship to each other the reader is given more information in which to
aid his or her understanding. Mind map is a tool for enhancing learning and
thinking. It provides a structure to reveal various aspects of a story such as
the sequence of events, the key points, the cause and effect, the relation of
ideas and so on. Students can use mind maps for revising and clarifying
thoughts to get the deep meaning of a story [8]. It can be used with the class
presentation in order to have your students demonstrate their level of
knowledge learned through a unit. This can be done either individually, or as
a group. This assessment method should be explained at the beginning of the
unit, so that students know what to expect. This activity allows the teacher to
observe his students performing the skills he is teaching.
Projects are typical examples of alternative assessments and a very
effective means of mixing classroom practices with long-term assessment.
Whereas some projects can last the entire length of the class, other projects
can be accomplished within days, weeks, or months. Project work creates
opportunities for language learning through problem solving, cooperative
learning, collaboration, and negotiation of meaning. Projects should engage
students with their creative nature, and encourage students to produce
language that is both accurate and authentic. Projects can come in many
forms, and students can work as individuals or in groups. They can be based
in reading, writing, listening, speaking, or integrate all four language skills.
Project work has been described by a number of educators and has been
found to have the following features:
focuses on content learning rather than on specific language
targets is student-centered (though the teacher plays a major
role to support / guide students);
203

is cooperative rather than competitive;


leads to authentic integration of skills and processing of
information from varied sources mirrors real-life tasks;
culminates in an end product chat can be shared with others
has both a process and product orientation;
is potentially motivating, stimulating, empowering and
challenging usually results in building student self-confidence,
self-esteem, and autonomy as well as building language skills
and content learning [1].
Projects should be assessed in the same way that writing samples are
assessed. In other words, teachers have the option of using either a holistic
handing scale or an analytical one that separates out important categories.
We will continue with a description of a type of assessment, and
precisely, how it meets the five principles of assessment. The activity which
we want to describe is story or text retelling. This type of activity is
authentic, because it is based on or closely resembles actual classroom
activities [9]. The language used in the texts is as natural as possible; the texts
which are selected are relevant for the learners everyday use and they
reproduce real-world tasks. In terms of reliability, the students in this activity
respond orally, and they are rated according to a rubric designed before
beginning the activity and the students are aware of this rubric. Also, in this
activity the teacher can ask probe questions about the text. These questions
are clearly presented and structured in dependence of their complexity, from
easy ones to more complex questions, they are easy to understand. This
lowers learners anxiety, so this is a prompt to reliability. This (the fact that
the questions are easy to understand) affects both reliability and validity. We
may consider this activity to be practical, as the material resources needed to
implement the activity are not high.
Secondly, the marking is easy to do, as rubrics are provided.
Additionally, it considers the time and effort involved for scoring and the
assessment is worth students effort. When it comes to validity, we can say
that this activity reflects real-life tasks, and, as we have mentioned the
questions asked by the teacher are easy to understand, as well as the
strategies for assessing students are mentioned in the curriculum. This
activity encourages good instruction and it enables students to demonstrate
what they know. This activity proves to be valid as students perform as they
will have to in life. This form of alternative assessment is introduced in the
classroom in order to help teachers analyze student progress and guide learning
and instruction. This form of assessment will encourage teachers and students to
focus on progress and significant accomplishments. This activity will give
204

students data about their performance, what are their strengths and weaknesses.
This activity is useful for the teachers as well. The results of the students will
provide information about the effectiveness of the curriculum and about the
strengths and weaknesses of the strategies which are employed by the teachers.
In such a way, there is evidence of washback, as this activity gives feedback to
teachers and learners and provides conditions for peak performance by the
learners and the teachers. The teacher may record the students errors, or make
the students record errors, and then, the students correct their own errors and
show their corrections to the teacher. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that
this type of assessment demonstrates the five principles of assessment: validity,
reliability, practicality, authenticity, and washback.
Further, we will specify ways of making the types of alternative
assessment better serve our needs in instruction. The work at the university has
motivated us to expand the portfolio and to proceed further with alternative
assessment in order to meet student needs and to keep our pertinence and
intellectual vigor as a teacher. A change that we would like to introduce is to
develop e-portfolios. E-portfolios have the potential to enhance teaching,
learning, and assessment practices. They are an ideal way to integrate technology
into the classroom, providing for real results for each student [7].
Secondly, we would like to practice scoring, this means that we will score
the papers in pair with another teacher; we will exchange papers, rate the papers
and then discuss the two papers which were rated. Usually the papers are scored
by one teacher, but in order to make the assessment more reliable the papers
have to be scored by two teachers at the same time. Teachers have to take notes
while they are rating, if needed, to describe why they assigned a score to a
particular paper [9].
Then, we would like to use audio and video recordings. As technology has
advanced, more and more tools have become available to teachers to document
student learning and performance. Videotapes, audiotapes, photographs, and
slides are technologies that have become readily available and accessible in most
classrooms today to document the progress of student work. Not only are these
technologies helpful for teachers to assess student progress, they can be used by
students in their own self-assessment. Recording students several times over a
period allows for comparisons that reveal student progress toward learning goals
[12].
Lastly, we would like to practice more using rubrics. They are a basic tool
to communicate educators expectations to students and allow educational
professionals to give a structured and comparable feedback. Frequently, when
introduced to rubrics, teachers feel that this is exactly what they needed, but, at
the same time, teachers have to afford time to apply rubrics to all grading
procedures [2]. Once students are familiar with the use of rubrics for evaluation,
they can gradually begin to assess their own learning and provide feedback to
their peers. This aspect of alternative assessment can easily be included in the
evaluation of a lesson.
205

onclusion
In conclusion, it should be noted that it is important to assess student
learning after a lesson, and finding ways to do so without having them take a test
may be a more appropriate method of assessment at times. Good assessment
reliably measures something beyond the specific tasks that students are asked to
complete. The results of good assessment identify what students can do in a
broad knowledge or skill domain. It should be mentioned that standardized tests
are here to stay and teachers need to help the public understand the appropriate
uses of these tests and their common misuses. Meanwhile, there are multiple
sources of alternative assessments that can and should be utilized by teachers to
better serve the educational needs of their students, because the focus on
alternative assessment is likely to instill in students lifelong skills related to
critical thinking that build a basis for future learning, and enable them to
evaluate what they learn both in and outside of the language class. Thus, this
paper has attempted to highlight several of these alternative assessments.
References:
1. Coombe, Christine A., Peter Davidson, Barry O'Sullivan, and Stephen Stoynoff. The
Cambridge Guide to Second Language Assessment. Cambridge UP, 2012.
2. Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel, Open Learning Cultures: A Guide to Quality, Evaluation, and
Assessment for Future Learning. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2013.
3. Hamayan, Else V. Approaches to alternative assessment. Annual Review of Applied
Linguistics, 15, 212-226, 1995.
4. Hancock, C.R. (Ed.). Teaching, testing, and assessing: Making the connection.
Northeast Conference Reports. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co., 1994.
5. Herman J. L., Aschbacher P. R., Winters L., A practical guide to alternative assessment.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1992.
6. Huerta-Macias A., Alternative assessment: Responses to commonly asked questions.
TESOL Journal, 5(1): 8-11, 1995.
7. Lorenzo, George, and John Ittelson, An Overview of E-Portfolios. Educative Learning
Initiative, 2005. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3001.pdf
8. Marton, Ference, and Shirley Booth. Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, NJ: L.
Erlbaum Associates, 1997
9. O'Malley, J., Valdez Pierce, L., Authentic assessment for English language learners:
Practical approaches for teachers. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Pearson, 1996.
10. Popham, W. James. Test Better, Teach Better: The Instructional Role of Assessment.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003
11. Tannenbaum, Jo-Ellen. Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students.
ERIC Digest. Retrieved from <http://ericae.net/db/edo/ED395500.htm>.
12. Worley, T. M., Alternative assessment: methods to make learning more meaningful.
Presented at Pathways to Change: International Conference on Transforming Math and
Science Education, 2001. Retrieved from
http://k12s.phast.umass.edu/stemtec/pathways/Proceedings/Papers/Worley-p.doc

206

OBJECTIVES AND PRIORITIES OF LIFELONG LEARNING:


A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY PERSPECTIVA-INT
Assoc. Prof. Ludmila Oleinic, PhD,
Head of Department of Methodical Training
Perspectiva-INT University, Republic of Moldova

University Perspectiva-INT goal is to contribute to the growth of


personal skills of the students, to the formation of market economy based on
knowledge in the Republic of Moldova and to the creation of the European
Higher Education Area through training and high quality research [1]. In this
regard, implementing by the University Perspectiva-INT lifelong learning is
to contribute to developing advanced knowledge of teaching, research and
reflection, characterized by sustainable economic development of the
country, more jobs and better and greater social cohesion.
In particular, the University aims to encourage trade context,
cooperation and mobility between education institutions and systems in the
country and abroad [2] so that they become elements of reference at an
international level.
University Perspectiva- INT, through the implementation of lifelong
learning is open to virtually everyone involved in education or training:
students, trainees and adult learners;
teachers , trainers and other staff involved in any aspect of lifelong
learning;
people in the labor market;
institutions or organizations providing learning opportunities in any field of
education or training;
persons and bodies responsible for systems and policies concerning
specific aspects of lifelong learning at local , regional and national level;
enterprises, social partners and their organizations at all levels, including
trade organizations and chambers of commerce and industry;
bodies providing guidance, counseling and information on lifelong learning
issues;

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associations working in the field of lifelong learning, including students,


trainees, teachers and adult learners;
research centers and bodies involved in issues related to education and
training;
non-profit, voluntary and non-governmental organizations ( NGOs).
In this context, the general objectives of the institution in this area is to
encourage exchanges, cooperation and mobility between education
institutions and systems in the country and the European Union as they
become benchmarks.
In turn, the specific objectives are:
contribute to the development of a quality education throughout life, to
promote performance, innovation and a European dimension in systems and
practices in the field;
to support the achievement of a european area for lifelong learning;
help to improve the quality, attractiveness and accessibility of the
opportunities for lifelong learning available within Member States;
to emphasize the contribution of lifelong learning to social cohesion, active
civic spirit, intercultural dialogue, gender equality and personal development;
to promote creativity, competitiveness, employability and chances of
developing entrepreneurship;
promote language learning and linguistic diversity;
to contribute to increased participation in lifelong learning for people of all
ages, including those with special needs and disadvantaged groups regardless
of their socio-economic environment;
to support the development of ICT- based content, services, pedagogies and
innovative practices for lifelong learning;
to reinforce the role of lifelong learning in creating a sense of European
citizenship based on understanding and respect for human rights and
democracy, and encouraging tolerance and respect for peoples and cultures;
to promote cooperation in quality assurance in all sectors of education;
to encourage the best use of results, innovative products and processes, as
well as the exchange of best practices in the field in order to improve the
quality of education and vocational training.
208

In this context, individual mobility, involves the inclusion of such


activities, such as:
mobility of students aiming to study in a higher education institution in
another country;
students' mobility in order to make placements in enterprises, training
centers, research centers or other organizations from another participant
country;
the mobility of teaching staff in higher education institutions or staff
invited the undertakings to carry out teaching activities;
mobility of teachers or other staff in higher education institutions for the
purpose of their training in another country;
intensive language courses organized for students, teachers [3].
Additionally, participation in project of the Black Sea Basin lifelong
learning implies a possible exchange of experience and best practices, for
which the institution emphasizes the priority and great interest in terms of
European integration.
With the process of European integration, University Perspectiva-INT
also takes into account and aims to help develop cross-community policies, in
particular by: promoting awareness of the importance they have cultural and
linguistic diversity in Europe, and the need to combat racism, prejudice and
xenophobia; making provision for learners with special needs, especially
helping to promote their integration into mainstream education; the
promotion of equality between men and women and contributing to
combating all forms of discrimination on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic
origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

Literature:
1.

http://www.perspectiva.md/ro/index.php

2.

http://www.perspectiva.md/ro/index.php?id_vn=3

3.

http://www.perspectiva.md/ro/index.php?id_s=42

209

USING VIDEO IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM: REASONS,


TECHNIQES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS
Cristina Blajin, MA, University Lecturer, Assoc. rof. Olga Duhlicher, PhD,
Moldova State University, The Department of Specialized Modern Languages
Abstract: One of the greatest strengths of video is the ability to communicate with
viewers on an emotional, as well as a cognitive, level. Because of this ability to reach
viewers emotions, video can have a strong positive effect on both motivation and affective
learning. Not only are these important learning components on their own, but they can also
play an important role in creating the conditions through which greater cognitive learning
can take place.
This paper argues for a broad view of using video in language learning. It presents
the main reasons to use video in the ELT classroom. Then, it reviews some basic techniques
for showing videos in a classroom, these are: pausing, mixed-up scenes and audio on/picture
on. Lastly, it mentions some suggestions for teachers to make their lessons engaging for
students.
Keywords: Video, tool, technique, resource, learner, teacher

Without question, this generation truly is the media generation, devoting


more than a quarter of each day to media. As media devices become
increasingly portable, and as they spread even further through young
peoples environments - from their schools to their cars - media messages
will become an even more ubiquitous presence in an already media-saturated
world. Anything that takes up this much space in young peoples lives
deserves our full attention.
- Kaiser Family Foundation
Video is a form of multimedia that conveys information through two
simultaneous sensory channels: aural and visual. It often uses multiple
presentation modes, such as verbal and pictorial representations in the case of
on-screen print and closed-captioning [5].
According to Rik Ruiterand and Pinky Y. Dang videos in a classroom
are great tools for teaching oral skills at all levels. Videos are powerful in
presenting contextual language for lower levels and great for advanced
students in note-taking practice when preparing for university lectures. When
choosing a video segment, keep in mind that the material should have a wide
appeal for everyone watching; its length is between 30 seconds and five
minutes (rarely more than ten minutes); the language is accessible to viewers;
and unfamiliar vocabulary and background information have been introduced
[9].
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We would like to mention the reasons to use video in the ELT


classroom as formulated by Lewis Lansford:
1. Video speaks to Generation V
Skype was released in 2003 and YouTube followed in 2005. The iPad
was unveiled in 2010. Internet usage has increased from 16% of the worlds
population in 2005 to about 40% today (nearly 80% in developed countries).
For Generation V (the V stands for video), video isnt just a passive form of
entertainment, its also the mode of delivery for interactive communication,
and for information accessed on a daily basis. Our students are accustomed to
using video, and we teachers can use that to our advantage.
2. Video brings the outside world into the classroom
We now have more access than ever to video. Newscasts,
advertisements, comedy routines, documentaries, dramas, and even academic
lectures are available on DVD, via the internet, or even as student-produced
projects. Most of whats out there wasnt originally produced as teaching
material, which means it serves an authentic real-world communicative
purpose. Some materials, for example the Discovery Channel documentary
videos that accompany Cambridge University Presss new Unlock series, are
authentic materials adapted for language teaching. This is the best of both
worlds: authentic subject matter not originally produced as ELT material, but
later adapted to be pedagogically sound through grading.
3. Video engages learners
Some teachers feel that watching a video is entertainment rather than
education. However, if we think of a video as a text a source of information
and we create a lesson around it that helps learners develop language, then
we can use video to capture and hold learners attention, while at the same
time teaching them.
4. Video is a great source of information
English learners especially students of English for academic
purposes often need to carry out research for projects. Film and video
(documentaries in particular) can be excellent sources of information. The
visual input often helps clarify and support the language input, making
research more effective. It works at lower levels, too. In many cases, we can
completely ignore the audio portion of a video and still be left with a great
source of visual information. This is especially useful when we want to
control the language level; we dont need to grade the input, but instead can
grade the language activities we provide.

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5. Video provides stimulus for classroom activities


Academic skills such as summarizing, paraphrasing, and giving an
opinion are often linked with reading as a source of input. However, a video
is also an information-rich text that can provide students with the ideas and
concepts that they must learn to manipulate successfully. Many teachers
successfully use video in the flipped classroom, where learners are given
input (for example a YouTube video) outside of the classroom to feed into
output, which can be done during class time. Video can also provide a good
reference point for critical thinking: for example, in considering
advertisements, learners can develop the skills of considering motivation,
whether or not supporting details are valid, and so on.
6. Video provides a good model for learner output
Many teachers have had great success with student-produced
newscasts, interviews, documentaries, and so on. Having seen the model on
video, learners can then produce their own version of the original. In
situations where learners have access to video cameras (often on their own
phones), the result can be an actual video. However, students can also
perform videos live in the classroom, focusing on the content rather than the
medium [4].
Videos are great tools for the classroom and many students love the
opportunity to practice their listening skills with them. Here are some basic
techniques for showing videos in a classroom:
1.
Pausing

Teachers can pause the video at strategic places of a scene and


have students guess what is going to be said next and then play back the
scene to compare.

Teachers can use this function to ask concept questions to


check for the student understanding.

Teachers can pause the video at points showing particular


facial expressions from the characters and have students guess what the
characters are feeling or thinking.
2.
Mixed-Up Scenes

If you have a DVD player, teachers can show scenes out of


sequence for students to arrange in the correct chronological order.
3.
Audio on/picture on

Teachers can give students a set of comprehensive questions


before a clip and they have to try to answer them after the viewing.
Teachers can present some vocabulary items that are seen in the clip
and students have to answer questions on its appearance, location, condition,
and so forth afterwards [9].
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As Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya state, it is the teacher


who selects the video, relates the video to studentsneeds, promotes active
viewing, and integrates the video with other areas of the language curriculum.
Video is an extremely dense medium, one which incorporates a wide
variety of visual elements and a great range of audio experiences in addition
to spoken language. This can be baffling for many students. The teacher is
there to choose appropriate sequences, prepare the students for the viewing
experience, focus the studentsattention on the content, play and replay the
video as needed, design or select viewing tasks, and follow up with suitable
postviewing activities.
Published language teaching video materials usually provide guidance
for teachers. Indeed, the most sophisticated of these are usually part of a
multimedia package that, in addition to the videos themselves, includes
viewing guides, student textbooks, teacher manuals, and audiocassettes [7].
Further, we will mention some suggestions for teachers to make
their lessons interesting and useful for students. As we have stated above
there are published language teaching video materials which provide
guidance for teachers. One great example is Window on Britain 1 and 2
series which provides a unique insight into different aspects of the British
way of life. The subject matter loosely follows the syllabus on the new Italian
edition of WOW! Window on the World, although the video is not designed to
be strictly graded and is useable in its own right. The eight units were shot on
location and combine factual information with some semi-dramatized scenes.
Both videos in this series contain eight factual reports, introduced by a
presenter: An Introduction to Britain; Schools; Food; Homes; Sport;
Festivals; Pop; London, Work, Animals, Holidays, The Media, Leisure, The
Environment, Health, and Law and Order. At each level the video is
supported by an Activity Book for students and a Video Guide for teachers.
The Activity Book includes 'Before, While and After you watch' exercises for
full exploitation of the video, including quizzes, competitions, project work,
discussions and role play, a final 'Read and Write' section in each unit
providing additional texts related to the topic and a 'Language Window'
section in each unit which includes review exercises. The Video Guide
includes full teaching notes, answers to the exercises, cultural information
and a complete transcript [11].
Another useful tool that we use to make lessons more engaging is the
UK Parliaments Education Service [10] which provides online games,
videos and activities to support young peoples understanding of Parliament
and democracy. All the videos available on this site are also uploaded to
YouTube which leads us to the next tool that we recommend using in classes:
video-sharing sites. There are many choices like YouTube, Vimeo,
Dailymotion, Metacafe, Facebook and among many. But there are 2 leaders
you can't ignore - YouTube and Vimeo.
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According to the 2013 Pew online video survey' and the 2011 video
sharing sites report', video-sharing sites, mainly YouTube and Vimeo, have
been a major driving force in the increasing percentage of online adults who
post, watch, and download videos. The percentage of online adults who use
video sharing sites grew from 33 percent in 2006 to 71 percent in 2011 [1].
YouTube and Vimeo are excellent resources for online video.
YouTube is no doubt the largest video sharing and embedding site, while
Vimeo is a popular video site that is loved by professional crowd, artists,
musicians, film enthusiasts and filmmakers. YouTube is the third most
visited website in the United States according to Alexa's data. Every minute,
over 100 hours of videos are uploaded to YouTube. That mean a large
community with massive video clips. It's totally free to use YouTube. Every
user can upload unlimited video to YouTube (15 minutes/2GB per file
however). Vimeo is ranked top 100 most visited website in US from Alexa's
data, far behind YouTube. However, Vimeo has lots of creative films
compared to YouTube's entertaining clips [2].
In addition to the main site, Vimeo also offers Vimeo Video School, a
great collection of video tutorials and best practices, as well as Vimeo on
Demand, which includes a selection of full length films and a directory of
channels. Vimeo Enhancer allows uploaders to modify the looks of the video
and add music and audio. In addition to the browser based Enhancer tool,
Vimeo has also partnered with Getty Images to provide a platform for R roll
submissions from Vimeo filmmakers.
YouTube (which is owned by Google) is a massively popular video
sharing website where users can upload, view, and share video clips. Videos
can be rated, and the average rating and the number of times a video has been
watched are both published. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the
site; registered users have the ability to upload an unlimited number of
videos.
The site also has various functions that provide the ability to
comment, annotate, and subscribe to content feeds for particular videos. The
video player allows for sharing videos through social media outlets such as
Facebook, Twitter, and Google +, but also provides shortened URLs and
embed code for use in content and learning management systems. YouTube
also offers closed captioning and options for transcripts on most videos [1].
However, we should mention here that the search functionality on
sites can change, navigational tools can move around, and websites can
disappear as can content. It is advisable to use a bookmarking system to save
links. If you can't find a previously accessed link or resource, try a Google
search. Due to issues and activities surrounding rights management, such as
expired licensing and copyright infringement it is important to know that
multimedia content can be fluid and is often not a permanent resource. Seek
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out permalinks and permaURLs whenever possible. If you have created and
uploaded the video, capture it for future use.
It is possible to capture streaming video, but before you copy, save, or
distribute any content online, make sure you have the legal right to do so.
Tools like KeepVid allow streaming videos to be downloaded in limited file
formats, and You Tube provides instructions for owners and uploaders of
YouTube content.
Another resource that we can use at the lessons is Google. One of the
benefits of using Google is the range of search options it provides, especially
for multimedia. As with all searches, it is important to venture past Google's
first ten results, but there are ways to refine searches for more accurate
results. Google provides a full listing at Google Inside Search. By setting up
a Google account, users get more functionality and options when searching
via enhanced search features visible only when logged in. Users concerned
about privacy should proceed carefully and read the account agreement.
Google has both an Advanced Search portal and a Video Search portal. Either
can be very helpful when hunting for multimedia content [1].
Finally, in preparing materials and activities care should be taken in
the selection of the video material, in particular regarding the areas of length
and content. A five-minute sequence from a movie is likely to contain more
than enough language for the students to cope with, and so it is better to
expose students to several short sequences, each followed by activities which
practice and recycle the target language, than to show a half-hour sequence
and then give students exercises which rely more on memory than
understanding.
Regarding content, and as with choosing teaching materials of any
kind, the needs and proficiency of the students is of paramount importance. It
is possible to take scene from a movie such as Pulp Fiction, and through a
battery of activities and lots of repetition, have a class of intermediate
students more or less completely understand it. However, the benefits of this
are questionable: understanding a particular scene won't help them
significantly to understand the movie as a whole, and the dense, idiomatic
language of that movie won't provide them with much language they can
easily use outside the classroom.
On the other hand, for a very advanced class, Pulp Fiction may
provide a fertile source, not only of contemporary American language, but
also of cultural issues which could be used for class discussion [3].
According to Joseph Mukalel, the role of films, the television and the
video in general cannot be over-stressed. The potential of these for
classsroom teaching has been fully recognised. The video has now been
envisaged as applicable to the teaching of all subjects and all disciplines.
These have a significant role to play in presenting the material for group
work. The use of such audio-visual aids and other technological devices
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mentioned above are of help in presenting the basic material and in language
work that can follow from the material presented [6].
All things considered, digital video and internet-based technologies
today bring new promises to the field of education and professional
development in general. Although some challenges need to be overcome, we
believe that video and Internet-based technologies are already playing a
crucial role in shaping learning experiences and are greatly supporting the
educational process. Through thoughtful planning, video instruction can be
used to promote interactive learning. Videos can be used to help promote
student curiosity, speculation and intellectual engagement. They can help
promote group learning discussions and activities allowing learners to use
knowledge they already have and higher-order cognitive skills required to
extend their knowledge.
References:
1. DeCesare, Julie A. Streaming Video Resources for Teaching, Learning, and
Research. Chicago, IL: ALA TechSource, 2014.
2. Fisher, Brian. "YouTube VS Vimeo: What Are the Differences?" ISkysoft.
Retrieved from <http://www.iskysoft.com/online-video/vimeo-vs-youtube.html>.
3. Hoodith, Andy. "Using Video in the ELT Classroom." ELTNews. Retrieved from
<http://www.eltnews.com/features/teaching_ideas/2002/10/using_video_in_the_elt_classro.h
tml
4. Lansford, Lewis. "Six Reasons to Use Video in the ELT Classroom - Cambridge
Conversations."
Cambridge
Conversations.
Retrieved
from
<http://www.cambridge.org/elt/blog/2014/03/six-reasons-use-video-elt-classroom/>.
5. Mayer, R.E., Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
6. Mukalel, Jospeh. "Creative Approaches to Classroom Teaching " Discovery
Publishing House, 2004.
7. Richards, Jack C., and Willy A. Renandya. Methodology in Language Teaching: An
Anthology of Current Practice. New York: Cambridge UP, 2002.
8. Roberts, Donald F., Ulla G. Foehr, and Victoria Rideout. "Generation M2: Media in
the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds Report." Retrieved from
<http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/generation-m-media-in-thelives-of-8-18-year-olds-report.pdf>.
9. Ruiter, Rik, Pinky Y. Dang. Highway to E.S.L.: A User-friendly Guide to Teaching
English as a Second Language. Lincoln, Neb.: IUniverse, 2005
10. "Teaching Resources and Lesson Plans." UK Parliament. Retrieved from
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.parliament.uk%2Feducation%2Fteaching-resources-lessonplans%3Fcat%3Dvideo>.
11. "Window on Britain." Oxford University Catalogue. Retrieved from
<https://elt.oup.com/catalogue/items/global/multimedia_digital/window_on_britain/?cc=glob
al&selLanguage=en&mode=hub>.

216

OBSERVATION AS A TOOL OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT


Marcela Calchei, MA, Department of Foreign Language and Literature,
Assoc. Prof. Maria Brc, PhD, Continuing Education Department,
Moldova State University
In the recent years the educational field in the Republic of Moldova
has become not only an area of major social importance but also a political
priority. Three years ago the Ministry of Education decided to improve the
educational system in Moldova and the first step that was taken was changing
the condition and the methodology of organizing and conducting the
Baccalaureate exam, which is the final a national examination and diploma
awarded to students who successfully complete their secondary-school. Than
main objective of this main reform of the educational system was to eliminate
fraud. As a result in 2012, 88 % students who passed all the baccalaureate
exams whereas is 2013 only 68.28% of students succeeded to do it. [, 11]
Moreover in 2013 the average grades dropped only 0.03% had an average
grade of 10, 1% succeeded to pass the baccalaureate with an average grade
between 9.00 and 9.99 and 6.8% received a baccalaureate diploma with an
average grade of 8.00 and 8.99. In 2014 around 56% of the candidates passed
this exam. These results are quite disappointing not only the relatives of the
students but also for the country as they reflect the true picture of our
educational system.
The causes of this state of affairs are various and each of them must
be dealt professionally. But one of the main reasons is the quality of teaching.
And though the teachers themselves state that professionally they are
teaching very well, the data proves there is a big problem that each
participant of the process of teaching has to assume.
Teacher education in Moldova is grounded in the Soviet tradition and
in the past 20 years suffered content changes, thought the structure of the
education remained the same. According to the Framework Plan for Higher
Education and other normative documents for graduates to have the right to
teach at any educational institution they have to accumulate 60 ECTS credits.
First of all a pre-service teacher receives education in three main pedagogical
areas: psychology, theory of education and didactics of a given subject
(methodology of teaching), which equal to 30 ECTS credits that are
accumulated mainly in the classroom. Secondly pre-service teacher have
various practices that include observation and teaching in secondary
educational institutions. Its the combination of theory, observation and
practical use of the knowledge and feedback for the future teacher. It is also
worth mentioning that the teacher training module is taken within first cycle
(Licentiate) and in the Republic of Moldova teachers do not have to take any
217

tenure examination and it is the administration of the schools that is responsible


for staff selection. Also according to the Education code of the Republic of
Moldova the secondary school teachers are obligated to have a master degree,
though it is not stipulated in which field.
The situation of teachers professional development is also regulated by
various legal documents such as Regulation for Teaching Stuff Certification
(2013) and the Law on Education of the Republic of Moldova (2004). According
to these five year teachers have to go through the certification and either receive
a teachers degree or a confirmation of a teachers degree. The Map of Credit
and Quantification Methodology, Accumulation and Recognition of Professional
Credits includes three main activities: professional development classes, didactic
and research activities (writing materials, textbooks, curricula and mentoring
activities) and evaluation (portfolio and performance interview). Mentoring
activities are optional and they are crepitated only with 4 ECTS credits which
represent 120 hours. Thus the system does not encourage the teachers to mentor
and the junior in-service teachers are not provided with a mentor. Thus
mentoring appears only in pre-service education. Another problem with this type
of certification is that observation of lessons; reflection on teachers classroom
activities and feedback is not included in this schema. Only reflection on the
system of education is credited. Thus, teachers are not encouraged to learn not
only professional development classes but also to learn through observation and
reflection, an aspect that is largely used in pre-service teacher education. Due to
the fact that observation is not used neither as a research method not as a training
technique in the educational system the theory and practices that are shared
during professional development classes might simply not reach the classroom
and what is more important the main subject of our educational system the
student.
Observation is the process of recording the teachers and students
actions in the classroom which later is followed by reflection on certain aspect of
the class. Reflection is a practice that is aimed at analyzing critically but in
positive terms the actions. Observation and reflection are not substitutes of
formal education and training. Reflection is the practice that used to work on
teaching competences and also a practice that facilitates the transference of
research findings into practice and vice-a-versa. Unfortunately today in-service
teachers view lesson observation as a form of their teaching assessment or
evaluation and less as a learning tool, let alone do they perceive observation as a
professional development tool that they could personally use to improve their
own teaching skills and also to mentor junior in-service teachers.
Central to the discussion of reflection has been John Dewey. He defines
the notion of reflexive thought as active, persistent, and careful consideration of
any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that
support it and the further conclusions to which it tends [Dewey;6]. According
to Donald Schn, who has contributed immensely to with a framework of
reflective thinking, there are two types of reflection: (a) reflection-in-action
which is the process of reflecting on your actions while you are performing them
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and (b) reflection-on-action which constitutes the thinking back upon what you
have done. If the first type allows the students to adjust instantly to some new
situations then the second type involves the application of knowledge in the
reflection of what has been performed. [3,2] Reflection-on-action is a posterior
reflection and it enables the student and the teacher to explore the actions and the
reasons of some action and decisions that were take during the teaching process.
Schns framework of reflective teaching has been adopted by a lot of education
and professional development programs. Killion and Todnem expended Schns
framework of reflective teaching and added the third type of reflection, i.e.,
reflection-for action that is aimed at guiding future actions. [5,15]For the
purpose of professional development the most common used reflection used
after each microteaching is reflection-on-action.
Effective learning cannot occur unless students and teachers reflect upon
their own teaching or the observed classes. In service teacher trainings is formal
education and these trainings contain some group observation and later on
discussion. But informal observation of classes by teachers is not a common
practice though it should become a requirement and promoted at the level of
personal need of each teacher. The principle task of a pre-service teacher during
observation is to observe the students interaction with the teacher and with other
fellow students and to notice how the teacher facilitates or impedes the learning
process. The information collected by the pre-service teachers during these
sessions is carefully reflected upon and this aids the trainee to acquire the art of
teaching.
In the case of an in-service teacher observation is the tool an acceptable
tool of professional development both financially and logistically. Peer
observation can help each teacher answer some questions related to teaching and
learning and which are not answered in formal trainings. Furthermore, through
this observed classes in-service teachers can question their own teaching
procedures. It is also a tool that can help the observed teacher train mostly
emotionally for open lessons. Unfortunately this tool is totally misused in
secondary and primary educational institutions of the Republic of Moldova and
if observation is used then it represent an assessment tool through which the
teacher is given negative feedback and less positive or constructive feedback,
which distorts the initial objective of observation.
Another technique that should be used in teaching is taking videos of the
lesson. The purpose of this recordning is for the teachers themselves to observe
theori on teaching. The recording can be done from diferent angles: the camera
can be focused mostly on the teacher or on the students. The teachers later on
can view their own lessons and efficiently reflct on their own lessons as this
gives a detailed view on the lesson and the teacher can actually observe all
students and notice some aspects of the class that they could miss during the
teaching process. This technique is used extensively in training pre-service
teachers and these traininees find it extreemly useful as they can see their
teaching skillls in practice before they start their practicum and actually work of
their skills. Wheras the in-service teachers do not use this technique mostly due
219

to their busy schedule or lack of equipment. Reflectie teaching is a method that


is definilly improving the teaching though when teachers see their own classes
they become more awar of the little things that they do of the actives that
facilitate learning and those that impede learning.
Moreover, the institution of mentor should be largely implemented in
each educational establishemnt and if there are no mentors in the schools where
juniou teachers activate, then a solution could be the creation of a database with
videos of sample lesson of various teachers of different subjects. This database
should be open to the prfossionals that are engaed in the edcational system of a
country or of a region and those who have access to this data base should be able
to upload videos and also communicate. Thus teachers from rural ares who do
not hvae a collegue in their schoolwhom they could observe could observe
teachers from other parts of the country and upload some of their own videos
and receive some constructive feedback from other teachers. In countries where
the educational system has academic problems such solutions could be cheap
and productive. Teacher should be involved in online communities and this type
of professional develpment should be promoted at the national level as this
promotes sharing of best practices and experience.
In conclusion is it utmost important for the teachers to comprehend that
the observation and reflection on what they are doing in the classroom that
fosters students learning and what does not help students acquire skills and
competences will improve contribute to the students academic achieve and the
educational bodies that take decisions should encourage observation and
reflection of classroom activities as a means of professional development of preservice teachers. Moreover, they should promote mentoring as a means of
quality assurance in teaching in each class, thus focusing on the processes that
are taking place in the classrooms. Teachers should know that they could always
talk to someone about their lesson plan and ideas and also observe and learn
from and with other teachers. As the education system is probably the only field
in our society that today teaches students that will have to use the skills and
competences acquired today in five years.

References:
1.
2.

3.
4.

Dwey, J. (2007). How we think. New York, Cosimo.


Examene i Evaluri Naionale. Ministerul Educaiei al Republicii Moldova,
Agenia de
Asigurare a Calitii, Chiinu, 2013. Retrieved on 27.08.2014
http://www.aee.edu.md/sites/default/files/document/raport_examene_2013.pdf
Farrell, T. C. (1998). Reflective Practice in an EFL Teacher Development Group.
TESL reporter 312 .pp 1-10
Killion, Joellen P.Todnem, Guy R. (1991) "A Process For Personal Theory
Building. (Cover Story)." Educational Leadership 48.6:14. Professional
Development Collection. Web. 27 June 2013.

220

INTEGRATING ASPECTS OF PREVENTION AND PROTECTION


OF CHILDREN FROM VIOLENCE IN CURRICULUM FOR INITIAL
AND LONG LIFE TEACHERS LEARNING
Mariana Botezatu, Deputy Chief, Department of Quality Management,
Curriculum Development and Evaluation,
Moldova State University
Abstract: This article reports on the practices of higher education in the Republic of
Moldova concerning integrating aspects of prevention and protection of children from
violence in curriculum for initial and long life teachers learning and specific skills developed
in this domain.
Keywords: violence against children, specific skills, initial and continuous teachers
training

Teachers training in higher education in the Republic of Moldova consists


in preparing students as future specialists in educational sciences by
cultivating practical-actionable, relational-axiological scientific skills. In
general, the purpose of education is preparing the child/pupil for life, training
people with social skills and with firmly contoured axiological systems, and
this responsibility lies, first of all, on the teacher. In educational process the
latter is continually facing a series of challenges which he must respond with
professionalism and pedagogical tact.
Violence is one of the major problems of the contemporary world.
Various forms of violence in social, school and familial sphere with negative
impact on physical and mental health of the child demand actions from the
whole society.
Generally, the term violence includes all forms of physical, mental and
sexual violence in the form of abuse, neglect and exploitation in direct or
indirect forms, which threaten or affect the dignity of the child physically,
psychologically or because of his social and development status. [1, p.5]
Violence is also regarded as a learned behavior being tangentially
identified, particularly, in relation to violence of adults against children,
making the association between dysfunctional family and potentially violent
behavior of children coming from these types of families. Reducing the
phenomenon of violence against children can only be achieved if we know
causes, sources, triggering factors, manifestation forms, possibilities of
prevention and intervention.
The official statistic data from the Republic of Moldova show a big
number of cases of violence against children with various forms of
manifestation, and there exist numerous cases of violence against children
covered in printing press and audio-visual media. For ex., in the second
221

semester of academic year 2013-2014 about 6282 of children suffered from


violence, of which - 3034 cases of physical violence, 1886 - psychological
violence, 1176 - neglect, 153 - labour exploitation, 31 - sexual violence, 2 trafficking and prostitution. Most of the cases - 2666 were notified by
teachers, 2090 - by children, 822 - by parents, 704 - by employees of the
educational institution [3]
Concerns of the Republic of Moldova to combat all forms of violence
against children are demonstrated through the adoption of a relevant legal
framework, which consists, at present, of over 18 national laws and
regulations, and ratification of international laws.
The enforcement of that legal framework depends largely on proper
training of specialists, who are able to prevent and protect the child from all
forms of violence, humiliating and degrading treatment, an a priori condition
for this is to ensure favorable learning environment. Thus, teachers should
help students feel important, unique and recognize their value; should permit
students to work in an autonomous manner; should help students feel safe
and confident; should encourage relationships of empathy, respect and
friendship for each other; should organize teamwork; should allow students
the opportunity to express their ideas and feelings.
Also, the specialists are those who can promote, including by personal
example, nonviolent and positive strategies of parental education, guiding
parents to adopt a constructive interaction with the child, using nonviolent
communication and respect of his rights.
Based on the analysis of current situation, reflected in various researches,
studies, reports, the higher education institutions in the Republic of Moldova,
by recommendation of the Ministry of Education, initiated a process for
teachers of training the skill of prevention and protection of children from
violence by integrating the following specific skills in framework of
curriculum for initial and long life teachers learning for all domains of
vocational training in the general field of study - 14 Educational Sciences.
Nr.

1.

2.

Specific skills

Recommended content elements

Knowledge/
understanding of
needs and rights
of children.

Development of childs personality at different age stages.


National and international legislation concerning childrens
rights.
Childrens rights for protection from all forms of violence, abuse,
neglect and exploitation.

Identification
and notification/
reporting
suspected cases
of violence,
neglect,

Conceptual delimitations: violence against children, abuse,


aggression, neglect, exploitation, child trafficking.
Types and forms of violence against children.
Sources, causes and risk factors in appearance of violence.
Consequences of violence for childs development.
Violence in school: forms of manifestation and parties.

222

exploitation,
trafficking of
children.

School situations that determine appearance of violence.


Domestic violence. Familiar situations that
determine
appearance of violence.
International and national legislation in domain of childs
protection from violence.
Physical and psycho-behavioral signs of forms of violence
against children.
Notifying, recording and reporting about suspected cases of
abuse.
Tools of recording and reporting about suspected cases of childs
abuse: referral sheet, registry, semestrial reporting sheet.
The role and responsibilities of parents/carers and state
institutions in the identification and notification of suspected
cases of abuse.

3.

Intervention in
suspected cases
of violence,
neglect,
exploitation,
trafficking of
children.

Psychological peculiarities of child victim and children who


exhibit violent behavior.
Protection interview: purpose, content, realization principles.
Realization of protection interview with child in risk situation.
Initial evaluation of suspected abuse case: objectives and
content.
Professional communication techniques with children suspected
of being abused.
Examination of violence cases in educational institution.
Organizating activity of Internal school working group.
Intervention plan after examining the case of abuse.
Multidisciplinary team: purpose and objectives, members,
activity principles, activity content, responsibilities, working
procedures.
Collaboration of institution (kindergarten/school) with members
of multidisciplinary team within complex evaluation.
Psycho-pedagogical assistance for the abused child and the
family. Monitoring cases of violence against children.

4.

Promotion /
organization of
activities
of primary,
secondary and
tertiary
prevention of
violence with
children/pupils
and parents /
carers.

Conceptual delimitations: primary, secondary and tertiary


prevention of child abuse.
Planning activities for prevention of violence against children:
methods and techniques for identification of needs, content,
process, finality.
Educational institution as factor of protection and development
of autoprotection skills for children/pupils.
Promoting parental education programs in perspective of
preventing violence against children.
Rights, obligations and responsibilities of parents/carers in
childs growth, development and education.
Impact of physical and humiliating punishment on children.
Constructive/non-violent methods of educating/disciplining
children.
Types of meetings with parents. Organizing a meeting with
parents: objectives, content, teaching strategies, development
modalities.

223

Specific skills regarding prevention and protection of children from


violence is correlated with the goals of professional training of specialists in
the field of Educational Sciences, for example: Application of
communication methods and skills; Application of regulatory-normative
documents provisions in educational process; Monitoring and resolving
situations specific for educational environment from the perspective of
respecting human/child rights; Intersectoral cooperation in constructive
problem solving, etc.
The corresponding skills should be developed through specialized
courses, such as, for example: Theory of Education, Age Psychology, School
Psychology,
Psychopedagogy
of
Communication,
Conflictology,
Psychopedagogy of Deviant Behavior, Psychopedagogy of Family, Nonformal Education, School Psychological Service, Child-centered Education,
Pedagogical/professional Ethics, Inclusive Education, Psychopedagogical
Counseling, Educational Management, etc. The enumerated courses
contribute directly, tangentially or integrates harmoniously the specific skills
under consideration. For example, specific skill Promotion / organization of
activities of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of violence with
children/pupils and parents / carers can be developed at courses Non-formal
Education, Psychopedagogical Counseling or School Psychology etc.
In this context, specific skills regarding prevention and protection of
children from violence were integrated in the set of specialized subjects from
the curricula totaling 180 or 240 academic credits, staggered in three or four
years of study at Cycle I level License, in all professional training programs
of general domain 14 Educational Sciences.
At the same time, we should mention that there exist various professional
Masters programs at Cycle II that provide strengthening these skills through
academic courses, eg. Human Rights and Child Protection, Theory and
Practice of Minors Protection, European Practices of Minors Protection,
Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice, Pedagogical and Social
Assistance, Victimology, Behavioural Pedagogy, Psychopedagogy of Deviant
Behavior, Psychopedagogical Assistance of Abused Persons.
Long life teachers learning is not just a continuation of the initial one, but
also an opportunity to provide training of these skills through an approach
from perspective of the accumulated experience. The analysis of
problematics of child protection against any form of violence, maltreatment
or exploitation, in the framework of long life teachers learning, we
recommend it to be approached through analysis of the current observations,
elaboration of extracurricular educational projects and Individualized
educational plan, solving case studies, problem situations, and through
valorification of best practices in preventing and resolving the cases etc. It is
224

important for trainers to identify life long training teachers needs and to
focus on these inerests, eg.: it was found that teachers know and can identify
forms of violence, but do not have a formed skill to intervene in such cases,
here accent should be done on the establishment and functioning of a
multidisciplinary team, etc.
To ensure the quality of training specific skills under consideration,
Moldova State University in cooperation with NGOs in the field has
organized and continues to organize various seminars, round-table
discussions, trainings with university and school teachers, taking into
consideration the integrated approach within the initial and life long training.
In conclusion, the main purpose of higher education in domain of initial
and life long teachers training is to prepare competent specialists ready to
intervene promptly and efficiently in any socio-educational situation that
influences the child by providing a favorable environment for the
development of childs personality. These two domains of responsibility are
complementary.
References:
1. Phenomenon of violence against children, support material, CIDDC, Chisinau, 2012
2. www.edu.md/Applicational Methodology for Procedure of institutional organization and
intervention of educational institutions workers in cases of violence against children, Order
of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Moldova no. 858 of 23.08.2013
3. www. statistica.md/public/files

225



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233

PRELIMINARY STAGES REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF


THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF
CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE TEACHERS FROM
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Elena ap,
superior lecturer Pedagogical State University Ion Creang, Moldova

Abstract:


.
.

.
Keywords: management of informational system, informational technologies,
quality of education, continuing professional development (training)

A development of the educational system in Republic of Moldova


ready to react to the changes of time, is possible only in the situation of
highly skilled teachers and school managers, accumulated during the
continuing professional development. The continuing professional
development includes all periods of activity in the pedagogical domain and
includes the professional experience, the motivation of teachers. For this is
required a thorough evidence of processes, of dynamics of the growth of the
professional developments level, of development of professional skills of the
teachers and school managers. The creation of new ways for education/
perfection of teachers and school managers, standardization of the work
procedures and of the consolidation of data structures, decreasing of waiting
time, offers to school managers a direct access to information, to promotion
of computational concepts among the teachers and the growth of the school
leading quality.
For ensuring a performant management, the managers need ample
information, using which they are able to base their opinion, to make a lot of
decisions regarding the current activity, forecasting, for investments of
teachers for the efficient leading of a school unit.
For the designing of the informational system in the management of
teachers is necessary to know the variety of consecutive elements of the
system, in order to eliminate and decrease the complexity and difficulty of
problems not allowing reaching a certain goal, to make them solvable. Ceau,
in his researches, [2, p. 176, 1439 p.], states that the designing of an
234

informational system, consists of 5 stages with a specific number of phases:


definition of the study area, definition of the requirements to which the study
corresponds, knowing and critical analysis of the actual system, designing of
the new system, implementation and observation of the new system. [ibidem]
First step, the definition of the study field, consists of three phases:
understanding the necessity of a study the number of teachers working in
the institution, the period of the last development, graphical plan of the
development of teachers with indicating the formation periods for the next
five years, the offer of the continuing formation of teachers, formation offers
from another centers in the country and abroad, setting the topic through
defining the activities that relate to continuing development, analyzed in the
secondary education institutions, setting the study at full level of the
institution faculty system, that should lead to a resignation according to the
systems requirements, to ensure the balance between the involved resources
of both sides.
For the professional development management of teachers is
suggested to achieve the setting of the informational system at the levels
components only for the management of professional development, for
teachers from high school education for solving and anticipation of problems
and difficulties with which are confronted not only the school managers, but
also the faculty of continuing formation at the State Pedagogical University
Ion Creang, from the city Chiinu. Setting and modernization of the
informational system [6], proposes knowing the objective category that
must be taken into consideration and achieved during the setting of the
system form the domains: economical, informational, managerial and social,
for understanding the role and the place of the setting and implementation of
the system. [ 2] This kind of economic objectives of development of the
informational system in the management of development of teachers targets:
increasing of the undergraduate institution income and of the continuing
development faculty; decreasing the costs for the continuing formation
courses; increasing the activity quality of development at the continuing
formation faculty; increasing the economical profitability of the continuing
formation faculty and increasing the study quality in institutions as a result of
attending the continuing formation/development courses by the teachers.
From the specific informational objectives we can list: ensuring that the
information is operational and that the level of managers from foundation
degree institutions is documented, also of continuing development faculties;
improving the informational flow and circuits by increasing the information
quality and by decreasing the information quantity, consistency, relevancy,
accuracy, opportunity and accessibility; connection of the informational
system to the data banks that refer to the continuing professional
development from the republic; increasing the informations convey speed;
permanent renovation of the informational systems hardware of the faculty
235

and foundation degree institutions, increasing the functionality of the


informational system at the components level development management of
teachers and of those with leading functions. The managerial objectives focus
on: ensuring a quality safety of the information for the development and
implementation of institutions strategies and policies; development of
teachers; developments intensification, teacher development and motivation
in foundation degree institutions; ensuring the quality functionality of the
informational system at all levels. From social objectives will be underlined:
selection and promotion of teachers with a high and professional preparation
from foundation degree institutions from Republic of Moldova; income
increases as a result of advancement of these teacher categories; creating a
work environment by extending the computerization of the foundation degree
educational institutions.
For the implementation of these objectives, is required to be taken
into consideration the definition stage of the requirements that imply:
problem identification, that have at their base the connection cause - effect
and starts from the causes that started the study, as it is shown in Fig. 1, and
implies the setting of the objectives based on the identified problems and that
require a direct involvement of the persons trained in analysis domain.
Composing the preliminary study requires the presentation of the
organizational structure, analyzed restrictions of the informational system in
the management of teachers, the compartments of the examined sample,
information and documents that will be assumed in the system [2p. 178,
1439 p.]

Fig. 1. Participation degree at the achievement of the informational system.


Source: [1, 427 p.]
Please note the translation of the words from Fig.1:
Analiza preliminar preliminary analysis
Proiectarea logic logical projection
Proiectarea tehnic technical projection
Construirea construction
236

Testearea, implementarea testing, implementation


Exploatarea exploitation
Beneficiar beneficiary
Specialist - specialist
The stage knowledge and critical analysis of the informational
system, management of the actual formation suggests that every institution
has an informational system that contains necessary information of the
execution system and of the decision system. In most cases these information
are not structured by levels, domains, compartments, but present more a base
of statistical data. Even though it has a certain intake in the object
achievement of the institution and decision making. However with the actual
conditions in the analysis stage, the system structure is being stabilized, the
entry information is being analyzed and classified by levels, domains,
compartments, together with the information that are being analyzed as well,
all the primary components of the system: data, flows, circuits and
informational procedures. This is done in order to determine the information
quality that circulate in the system dynamism, realism, multilateralism,
opportunity, safety and accuracy, precision, rightness and adaptation to the
requirements of the suppliers and beneficiaries of the informational system.
Information inclusion after specific characteristics, flows and informational
circuits, in mutual accordance with the tasks, skills, responsibilities of each
manager is used also in line with the type of decision that they make. As a
result all the primary information are materialized in the reports, documents,
analysis, static indicators and refer to all the aspects that characterize a
specific activity domain. As states the Jinga Ioan the informational
classification in schools must contain: tuition plan, school network and the
dynamics of the school flows; classification of occupations and
specializations and the need of graduates, in fields; material base of the
education; funding sources and the level of expenses; all aspects regarding
human resources ( from the level of qualification to payroll); education plans,
analytical programs and the schedule; education situation discipline state,
frequency/ attendance and others. [4.]
In our case we mean only the information regarding the professional
formation domain of teachers and of those with leading positions from the
foundation degree educational institutions. The first step in the development
of the informational system in the management of formation of teachers is the
diagnosis of the informational system in the management of the formation of
the teachers present in the foundation degree educational institutions. In this
way is also the evaluation of the managerial informational system and its
analysis is done in order to identify and underline the strong points and
weak points, for the sake of systems reorganization, such that it works at
the desired parameters.
237

In the materials of the Project ID: 63876 Optim E -Manager! [3 ].


For the diagnosis of the informational system ( processing after Verboncu,
2001) we find the following information: strong point and generating causes:
level of computerization of execution processes relatively high, retrieval, in
organizational documents, of the main aspects that refer to informational
organization of the management; existence of the specialists in informatics.
Weak points and reasons for them: visible mismatches between the
quantity of circulated information and hierarchical position of the beneficiary
managers; existence of a big number of standardized documents and those
that are not; poor quality of the circulated information; informational routes
not well enough sized. As a result of determining these points, were made the
following recommendations: improvement of the information quality;
rationalization of the informational documents and their circuits; promotion
of the appropriate informational procedures; determination of informational
needs of the managers; insurance of a full consistency between the
informational requirements and the quantity and the quality of the circulated
information.
For the experimental stage of development of the informational
system in the management of the formation of teachers, that was conducted at
the Faculty of Continuing Formation/ Development of teachers and of those
with leading positions, during the years 2010-2013, participated over 200
school managers: 100 directors and vice-directors from foundation degree
educational institutions from Republic of Moldova and over 100 of Master
degree students in Educational Management and in educational institutions in
which these managers work.
As a result of a diagnosis of informational system in the management
of formation of teachers were put on record the following results:
strong points and generating causes: a relatively high level of
computerization of the execution level direct connections with the
general and regional educational and with the schools from the
republic; direct connections between the teachers from schools; use of
communicational informational technologies;
- retrieval of organizational aspects and of continuing professional
formation activities in regulatory documents plan offer, programs
teacher, thematic programs, trainer, cost, objective, formation needs;
- existence of the material base classrooms well-furnished and
equipped with modern technology;
- existence of trainers in different domains of formation and of
specialists in the domain of informational technologies.
Reasons for these weak points can be:
238

- mismatches between the faculty send information and the position of


the managers, because of a later information view, the activity periods
of continuing professional formation are not respected;
- Violation of rights of the teachers to choose themselves the center of
continuing professional formation;
- low quality of the circulated information by other sources, to the
address of the continuing formation;
- insufficiency of the informational channels directed to the teachers;
School managers, experiment participants have made the following
recommendations:
- improvement of the circulated information quality to the educational
institutions and vice versa: from educational institution to the faculty
of continuing formation;
- preventive determination of the needs, that will be send to the
faculty, for the achievement of some quality formation activities;
- offering a choice for the teachers to choose themselves the center of
the continuing professional formation;
- insurance for a full consistency between the informational
requirements and the quantity, quality of the circulated information
on time transition of an annual offer plan of continuing formation in
every school, in order to offer a possibility to make the graphic plan
of the teacher formation in schools; confirmation of received
information, naming the responsible person for the information
transition, selection, processing, information saving.
Informational system in specialty literature is analyzed after the way
the system is functioning in order to underline its drawbacks filtering
(intentional modification of the information), distortion (unintentional
modification of the information), redundancy (repeated registration of the
information, or similar information) and overloading of the informational
circuits (circulation of a large amount of information, than necessary).
Researchers I.Verboncu and O.Nicolescu suggest a table for the detection of
informational deficiencies, in which are recorded, identified, analyzed the
most important informational deficiencies distortion, filtering, redundancy,
overloading of the informational systems. [5, p. 91, 488 p.] [Annex 1]
In order to warn and identify the informational deficiencies is
recommended the consulting of all continuing formation managers involved,
of foundation degree educational institution managers; such that they can
always be known with the circulated information, know to identify the types
of deficiencies and how to remove them. A way to warn and solve the
deficiencies is to maintain the electrical, phone connections etc. For a high
quality informational system (fully or at the level of its components) it is
important that the rationalization requirements of the information are
239

respected. The same source suggests an analysis procedure of the


rationalization requirements. [5 p. 92, 488 p. Annex 2]
In conclusion we can state that the undertaken analysis regarding
the development of the informational system in the formation management of
the teachers requires that as its model as in included information in the
informational model, to identify and analyze the most important
rationalization requirements with respect to the information. This information
requires to be realistic, multilateral, concise, synthetic, safe, reaching the
informational beneficiary in the time of need, dynamic and adapted to the
characteristics of the involved staff.
References:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Ctlin Iancu, Proiectarea i implementarea unui sistem informaional, Analele


Universitii Constantin Brncui from Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2009 , 427 p
Ceau Iulian, Encicopedie managerial, Editura ATTR, 1439 p
http://portal.optime-manager.ro/access/content/group/8819ae43-3499-4323-becfd44aa0541927/MANAGEMENT_OPERATIONAL_CAPITOLUL_2.pdf,
vizited
12.03.2014;
Jinga, I., (2001), Mangementul nvmntului cu privire special la nvmntul
preuniversitar. Editura ALDIN, Bucureti.
Nicolescu Ovdiu, Sistemul informaional managerial al organizaiei, Editura economic,
2001, p. 92, 488 p;
Reproiectarea si Modernizarea Subsistemului Informational n: biblioteca.regielive.ro
... Management, accessed 02 02.2014

Annex 1
Table 2.1. Analysis of the informational deficiencies
Nr.
crt.
1
1.

Types of
informational
impairments
2
Distortion

2.

Filtration

3.

Redundancy

4.

Overloading of
the
Informational
channels

Manifestation of impairments

Managerial and economic


consequences

3
Blackout.
Lack of proper
functioning
hardware.
Incorrect transmission of the
information through other sources.
Intentional modification of the plan
by competitors.
Intentional transmission of the
wrong plan.
Transmission of the offer plan twice
with changed periods, changed
prices etc.
Transmission of information (offer
plan) to the beneficiaries by more
clients.

4
Offer plan, cost, periods will not
arrive to the beneficiaries on time.
Disproportionate
presentation
during the formation courses.
Incomplete participant groups.
Overburdened specialties.
Lack of living conditions.
Lack of classrooms.
Failure of implementing the offer
plan.
Decrease of the faculty income.
Lack of sources for purchasing
the material and technological
resources.

240

Annex 2
Table 2.2. Analysis by angle of the informational requirements
Nr.
crt.
1
1.

International
Requirements
2
Realistic

2.

Multilateral

3.

Synthetic
concise

4.

Accuracy and safety

5.

Operative

6.

Dynamical

7.

Prospective

8.

Adapted to
involved staff

and

the

Disrespecting
3
The period will not be
declared, specialty of the
setting activities, course costs.
Will
not
ensure
the
understanding
of
the
formation
processes,
economical aspects, technical,
scientifically of the faculty.
Leads to the complexity of
the execution processes and
managerial ones, waste of
time.
Will be missing the safety
beneficiary in the setting of
the formation activities.
Will be missing the optimal
period beneficiary for sending
the teachers to professional
formation courses.
Course planning will not be
done depending on the
formation requirements.
Old, useless information that
do not have any value.
If the staff is not well
prepared, there will be no
insurance for an appropriate
reception of the beneficiarys
message.

241

Managerial and Economical


Consequences
4
Offer plan, cost, periods will not
arrive to the beneficiaries on time.
Disproportionate
presentation
during the formation courses.
Incomplete participant groups.
Overburdened specialties.
Lack of living conditions.
Lack of classrooms.
Failure of implementing the offer
plan.
Decrease of the faculty income.
Lack of sources for purchasing
the material and technological
resources.

MOBILITY AND INTERACTIVITY BY FORMING OF NATURAL


SCIENCE COMPETENCIES IN THE PRESCHOOL GROUP
Atanaska Hristova, Valentina Maeshka, United Kindergarten 2,
Mezdra, Bulgaria



,
2 - . ,
Abstract: The Environmental protection is one of the most actual issues nowadays,
underlain in all levels of the educational system. The adaptability of the children to the
Environment is formed in the preschool period through core natural science competencies,
which are result of the acquired system of knowledge, skills and attitude to natural objects
and phenomena. We share good practices from the developed and approbated technological
model for forming of natural science competencies in the preschool group- 6 year- old
children. Its structure contains optional mobilities for converting the natural Environment
into educational through interactive methods and means, real partnership of the families and
fundament, based on the ecological strategy and activities related to internal and European
projects. The results are based on the mobile educational Environment, which provides
possibilities for mastering the system of knowledge about the Nature and stimuli for ecofriendly interaction with the natural Environment. The developed technological model proves
in an experimental way its effectiveness in forming natural science competencies in the
preschool group.

Humanity can only exist in continuous interaction with the Nature,


drawing on its materials and energy so we should protect it and change it
sensibly, thinking of its value (Konaktshieva, 2013, p. 63).
Education in sustainable development is an extremely important and
integral part of the system for survival measures. The Ecological direction
becomes one of the main dimensions in the modern educational training.
Each level of the educative system focuses on the problem because of its
actuality.
Preschool childhood is the period in the human life that leaves the most
lasting impressions in our development. Conservation of the Nature in a
direct contact with it is a priority program of educational work in the
kindergarten. The foundations of the ecological culture are set to build
Ecological awareness in the children and to educate them as future guardians
of the Nature. The adaptability of the children to the Environment is achieved
through core natural science competencies, which are result of the acquired
system of knowledge, skills and attitude to natural objects and phenomena.
242

Does the system have a specific result- 6-7- year- old children with natural
science competencies, formed in the kindergarten?
Yes, for the pedagogical staff of ODZ 2 Mezdra it is a fact.
SUBJECT of our attention was the use of interactive methods and means
in non- standard mobility in interaction of the children with the Nature.
OBJECT: The achievements of the 6- year -old children from the
preschool group in the educational
Direction Natural world.
GOAL: Development and approbation of a technology model for forming
of natural science competencies in the preschool group 6- year- old
children.
TARGETS:
1. To organize the natural environment into educational and the
educational into natural.
2. The children to acquire within their capacity scientific knowledge about
the Living and the
Nonliving Nature.
3. To improve the concept and the skills for eco- friendly interaction with
the natural Environment.
4. To stimulate the adaptability and the constructiveness towards the
Nature.
EXPECTED RESULTS: Acquired common system of elementary
knowledge about the objects from the Living and the Nonliving Nature:
- Their traits and characteristics
- About the natural phenomena and regularities
- Ways and norms of attitude in the natural environment.
STRUCTURE OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL:
1. FIRST MOBILITY: Let the Nature in
Content:
Knowledge interactive methods and means: situational and debatable
Skills: experimental applicable activity method of designing,
modelling
2. SECOND MOBILITY: Make a green step out
Content:
Knowledge: interactive methods and means: situational and debatable
situational and debatable - experiment
3. Real partnership of the family in two mobilities.
4. Fundament:
Developed and approved Strategy of ODZ 2- Mezdra for
converting the
natural Environment into educational.
243

Implementation the activities related to the ecological project Small


hands for big actions, program Long life learning, sector program
Comenius, multilateral partnerships of ODZ 2- Mezdra.
- Implementation of activities related to mini- projects in all age groups:
- Come on across our eco trail - nursery /1-3 years./
- Our eco trail shares experience, games and knowledge - group /3-4
years./
- Our eco trail tells group /4-5 years./
- Healthy spirit in healthy body group /5-6 years./
- Hug a tree, hear the voice of the earth V group /5-6 years./
FIRST MOBILITY: LET THE NATURE IN

Activity

1.

Seasonal bio
organic
garden in the
group
Our fishes

2.

Interactive
methods,
means
discussion,

Knowledge
about:

Skills:

Attitude:

seed
bulbs,
flowers

Observation, care
for plants

Case study,
simulation
Role plays,
Team work,
discussion

Ornamental
fish
recycling

Preparing the
soil and the
seeds for
planting
Feeding,
breeding
Making
costumes from
waste materials

Positive attitude
towards the product
of others

Separate
collection of
waste
Ways for
energy
receiving
from the sun,
from the water
, from the
wind, biomass
Alternative
energy
sources
Living and
Nonliving
Nature

Use separation
bins

Observation,
criticism, kindness

Energy saving

Responsibility, they
discover the results
of their activities

Fulfilling the
given tasks

Attitude to the use


of energy from the
alternative sources
thriftiness

recycling

Skills for
interaction with
adults

3.

Workshop
for costumes

4.

Stuck, Plast
and Hart

3 D film

5.

Lets do it
together

Online games

6.

My clever
house

7.

Find the
right answer

National
painting
competition
Interactive
board

8.

Leaf by leaf

action

244

Describing
objects and
phenomena

Care for them

Demonstrating
responsibility

SECOND MOBILITY: MAKE A GREEN STEP OUT

Activity

1.

Ant farm

2.

Hug the
tree

Role plays,
discussions,
experiments

Trees, shrubs,
herbs

3.

Little sock
with waste

discussions,
experiments

Observing
different
kinds of waste

4.

Zoo
corner

5.

The magic
of the
energy

Project
Kindergarten
for the family
Practicum
among the
Nature

6.

The little
tourists

Eco excursion

7.

Healthy
spirit in
healthy
body

Traditional
sports holiday

Domestic
birds and
animals
Construction
of boiler with
grass
/biomass/,
solar water
heater and
stove
Orientation
following a
map
Health is a
values

Interactive
methods,
means
Plays,
experiments

Knowledge
about:

Skills:

Attitude:

Growing ants
in the farm

Realizing the
principle of
surviving
Discovering
and
preservation of
refuge in the
eco trail
Checking the
results

Demonstrating
responsibility

Feeding,
cleaning the
corner
Cognitive
skills through
elementary
experimentalapplicable
activity
Defining
animal and
plant species
For active
outdoor
activity

Maintaining the eco


trail clean

Demonstrating of
watchfulness and
curiosity in
decomposing of the
materials
Demonstrating care
and watchfulness
Controlled use of
electrical energy and
water in the group.

Orientation in norms
for self-care and selfhealth protection

RESULTS:

1. Practical realization of the idea for organized educational natural


Environment, which provides different stimuli for demonstration of curiosity,
creativity and humanity.
2. Acquired common system of elementary knowledge about the objects
from the Living and the Nonliving Nature through optional mobilities and
interactive methods and means.
3. An unified community engaged with problems related to the
Environment protection

245

CONCLUSION:

The developed and approbated technological model satisfies the


requirements for a good educational practice, because its effectiveness in
forming natural science competencies in the preschool group is proved
experimentally.

References:
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

Gyurova, V & Co. Interactivity in the educational process. ., 2006.


Gyurova, V. The child in the kindergarten, Topic: Objectives of the educational
package European key competencies and key instructive cores in the educational
directions. ., 2013.
Konaktshieva, P. The child and the Nature. Theoretical fundaments and content of
the Environmental education in the kindergarten. V. Tarnovo, Sv. Sv. Kiril i
Metodii, 2013.
Konaktshieva, P. The child and the Nature. Technological organization of the
ecological education in the kindergarten. , V. Tarnovo, Sv. Sv. Kiril i Metodii,
2013.
Kostova, . Interactive ways for forming of ecological awareness and attitude. . ,
2002.

246

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION,


PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS: THE CASE OF
TURKEY
Prof. Dr. Abdlkadir Iik, Res. Asst. zge Selvi Yavuz, Res. Asst. Gamze
Yldz eren, Instructor Duygu Doan, Lecturer Bahadr Altrk,Turkey

Abstract: The existence aim of higher education intuitions in Turkey is to make


progresses that can develop the society in all aspects and enable economic and social
prosperity. Higher education institutions have been assigned both for raising skilled, well
informed individuals and carrying out scientific studies and publications in order to reach at
this aim.
In this study, introducing institutions, academician, education planning that
constitute Turkeys higher education system is the first step. The main aim of the study is to
analyse in detail the higher education financing methods and the higher education finance
structure in Turkey.
Therefore, firstly, information about Turkeys higher education system was given
and later, present situation of higher education was examined with numbers. And later then,
financial features of higher education services were examined. Finally, present financing
methods in Turkey were rehearsed through treating theoretically finance of higher education
service which is accepted as a semi-public service.

1. Higher Education and Higher Education Institutions in Turkey :


General Framework
Higher Education Law, Law no. 2547, identifies the higher education as
a education and training complement in all stages, comprising four half year
at least, based on high school, in national education system. The main aim of
the higher education was defined as to make real both individual and
community development through enabling economic, scientific, technologic,
social, and cultural development. In this context, higher education institutions
are supposed to both make scientific productions and raise students in order
to make this aim real.
Higher education institutions in Turkey comprise universities in Turkey
and in abroad that Turkey established and faculties, institutions,
conservatories, academies and high technology institutions being included in
these universities. In this institutions, associate degree, undergraduate and
postgraduate education have been given. Minimum two years associate
degree education in academies, minimum four years undergraduate education
in departments depending on faculties, and minimum two years postgraduate
and doctorate education in institutions have been given. On the other hand,
247

postgraduate education about branches of art and education ofproficiency in


art have been provided in conservatories.
Except for universities and high technology institutions, also higher
education institutions depending on military organization and law
enforcement agency are present. In Police Academy, the law enforcement
agency and in the Glhane Military Medical Academy, Military Academies,
and Non-Commissioned Officer Colleges, the military organization have
been providing higher education.
Instructors are present at various stages in higher education
institutions.As well as these academic members that can be listed as
professor, associate professor, assistant professor, and academician, there are
also academic assistants as lecturers, experts, research assistants, translators
and education and training planners. As stated above, instructors are
supposed to both provide education-training for students and do scientific
researches and publications.
Higher education institutions in Turkey are belong to the state or
private institutions, also named as foundation. Education is given in different
ways in these institutions. These higher education types are classified as
formal, non-formal, distance and open education with regards to the
admission, way, time and duration of training. Formal education is the
education type that the students are obliged to attend to the higher education
institution to take the lessons. Non-formal education aims to service to the all
parts of society wish to take education, in a wide field. While education is
given to students through various communication channels in open education,
education is given in different period of time, with just the obligation of
taking part in exams, in distance education.
There are two supreme board managing the high education system:
Council of Higher Education and Interuniversity Council. Council of Higher
Education (YK) is an independent public institutions organising and
administering all higher education institutions. YK are supposed to direct to
all researching, education-training, planning, and budgeting activities of all
higher education institutions. Interuniversity Council are supposed to check
all education-training, scientific research and administration activities of all
universities in the country and enable coordination among them.
To start a higher education, students, completing the high school
successfully, are subjected to a central exam applied by the Head of Student
Selection and Placement Centre dependent on YK. Students are placed to
higher education institutions they prefer, with scores they got from this
central exam (YGS) and high school grade point average according to
success rating and quotas of institutions.

248

2. Higher Education in Turkey with Datum


Republic of Turkey, set up in 1923, as a new established state after the
Liberty War and World War I, was reorganising the economic, political and
social structure,descending from Ottoman Empire, with radical reforms.
Undoubtedly that, one of the most important of these reforms is being the
official language Turkish and be brought of Turkish alphabet with Latin
letters. To rise the rate of literacy which is very low especially for women
and the country population has been one of the basic purposes from the first
years of the republic. Just after from the World War II, literacy was in
tendency to rise with the factors of economic development, social welfare
enhancing and urbanisation and reached over 90% at the present time.

Figure 1. Literacy rate in Turkey between 1950-2010 (women, men, and


totally).
(Men, Women, Totally respectively) Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya, 2014:
41)

In addition to rise in literacy rate, schooling rate also have risen since
1950s to the present. Schooling rate have showed an increase almost ever,
from the abovementioned date, at the all stages of education. As can be seen
in above figure (Figure 2), higher education schooling rate have been risen
from 1.3% to 75% in 72 years. Although adequate level in schooling in
higher education cannot be reached yet, it is seen that popularization after
2000 has been begun.
249

Figure 2. Schooling rate at different levels (gross) between 1950-2012.


(Primary school, secondary school, high and equivalent schools, and higher
education respectively) Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya, 2014: 42)
Firstly the literacy rate, secondly schooling rate in all levels and finally
popularization in higher education accruing in the course of timeshow us that
supply in higher education have climaxed in the course of time. As can been
seen in Figure 3, while there is just 1 university in 1933, total university
number have risen to 175 in 2013. From the establishing of Republic until the
1980 period, as the other economic activities, the dominance of the state was
at the stake also in education service with the effect of being a new
established state and inadequacy of private capital. From 80s, gaining
strength of private sector has been enabled via privatization policies with the
effects of domestic capital,occurred in the course of time, and transmission to
open economy. Meaning of all these periods for higher education is the
entering of private universities into the education life. Despite the rate of state
universities are always higher, rise of private institutions in higher education
have been observed with the climaxing of private universities in the course of
time. From 2014, total number of Turkeys inland and outland higher
education institutions, also including ones in the military organization and
law enforcement agency, is 196.

250

Figure 3. University numbers between 1933-2013.


(State and Foundation respectively) Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya,
2014: 46)

In higher education, not only the supply but also the demand have always
showed increase. Comparatively with the increased university number,
number of university student and graduate have always risen. (See Figure 4
and Figure 5.)
One of the most important problems of our day is the unbalance between
supply and demand in higher education. Demand for higher education always
grew as a result of social development and education level risen with the
policies such as ever increasing young population, rising to 11 years of
compulsory education. Even the numbers of universities have increased in the
course of time, gap between the number of students and quotas of universities
have gradually increased and, at the present, entering into university have
become gradually difficult among so many candidates via a central exam
with the result of competition (See Figure 6).

251

Figure 4. Number of university students between 1974-2013.

252

Figure 5. Graduated students between 1982-2012.


(Years, associate face to face education, associate open education,
undergraduate face to face education,undergraduateopeneducation,
postgraduate, doctorate, medical speciality, and final total respectively)

253

Figure 6. Number of candidates, applied to exam and placed in university


between 1980-2013.
(Total appliance and Total placement respectively)
Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya, 2014: 48)
Increase in the number of universities and students have also accorded
the number of instructors and members. Universities whose numbers are
continuously increasing, have gradually increased their demand for academic
personnel on yearly basis. Increasing on yearly basis in Figure 7 and present
academician number in Figure 8 have been observed.

Figure 7. Academician number between 1974-2013.

254

(Instructor (total) and academic member (total) respectively)


Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya, 2014: 92)

Figure 8. Number and Distribution of Academicians at 2013-2014


Academic Year.
(State Universities, Foundation Universities, Foundation Vocational High
School, Total (left-to-right, respectively))
(Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Instructor, Lecturer,
Expert, Research Assistant, Translator, Education and Training Planners,
Academician General Total (top-to-down, respectively))
Values for Women, Men and Total value has been given respectively.
Source: YK Road Map (etinsaya, 2014: 93)

255

3. Theory: The Financial Qualification of Higher Education and its


Finance
3.1. The Financial Qualification of Higher Education
In economy, produced goods and services are categorised as fully-public,
semi-public, private goods according to their qualifications. This
categorization is made according to quality of subject goods and services,
sharing of its benefit, pricing,existence of rivalry according to consumers in
its consumption, existence of finances tax. For instance, if national security
and defence services cannot be priced, if produced goods and services
benefit is not sharable, if there is not rivalry in its consumption, and if its
finance is provided with taxes, it will be categorised as fully-public goods.
Contrary to this, if its benefit is sharable, its pricing is possible, rivalry is in
the question in consumption and if a good or service, for example; a box of
chocolate, is financed not through taxes but through producer, it will be
evaluated as private goods.
Besides,there are semi-public goods and services that resembles partly to
public, partly to private goods and services. While it cannot be possible to
point out who is going to benefit from some of them, sometimes it is likely to
specify who is going to benefit from some of them, so pricing will be
possible accordingly. Education and health services are categorised as semipublic goods and services.
The most important reason behind the evaluation of education as semipublic goods is that it has both social and personal benefit. Education
provides income because of raise in personal status, self-improvement, better
quality of life and job found via education. For this reason, some of the
economists bring forward that through financing education individually these
benefits should be reached. On the other hand, education provides benefits
also to society externally. There are social benefits such as the rise of level of
social education as the level of individuals education rise, procuration of
technological and scientific improvement, providing of economics and social
welfare. For this reason, a part of economists bring forward that the financing
of education privately or individually will decrease social benefit. The
material and non-materialanalysis of social and personal benefit and costs of
higher education can be observed on the table below. (See Table 1).

256

Table 1: Personal and Social Benefits and Costs of Higher Education

Costs

Financial benefits

Non financial benefits

Personal
Tuition and university
fee, Study materials, pre
university expenses
Higher efficiency and
higher profit, better job
opportunities,
higher
savings, personal and
professional mobility

The wealth of education,


better
working
conditions,
higher
individual statute, higher
job Satisfaction, better
health
and
life
expectancy,
advanced
spending
decisions,
more fun and hobby
activities.

Social
Tuition and university
fee, Study materials, pre
university expenses
Higher
national
efficiency, higher tax
revenue, more labour
flexibility,
more
consumption,
less
dependent
on
government,
Social
adaptation,
cultural heritage and
appreciation of social
diversity, increase in
social mobility, decrease
in crime rate, more
donation and aid studies,
increase in capacity to
adapt
to
new
technologies, increase in
social
and
political
participation

Table above summarizes the personal and social benefits and costs of
higher education. At this point, whether the education will be charged
through focusing on personal benefits or by taking social benefits into
consideration, education will be financed through taxes.
3.2.
Finance Methods of Higher Education
In the financing of higher education, different finance methods are being
used such as public resources, private resources, student debiting and
scholarships.

3.2.1 Finance with Budget Resources


One of the finance methods of higher education constitution is the
financing with budget resources by public proportion. This finance is
either made directly with current public expenditure or indirectly with
transfer expenditures provided to students or their families.
257

3.2.2 Finance with Private Resources


Finance with Private Resources is a finance method which is realized
through such procedures as tuition fee for higher education service, tuition
fee loans, scholarships and providing the higher education constitution with
the ability of realization of income. When the public resources spared for
higher education become insufficient, finance with private resources is used.
Besides, as it is stated before, since higher education service is partly
sharable due to education, and despite of its procurement of personal benefits
since it is financed thoroughly by government with public resources, might
have a deforming effect on distribution of income in economics.
In order to refrain from this negative effect and in order to provide
education expenses, which is hard to cope with public resources, tuition fee is
charged through pricing of higher education service. Apart from tuition fee,
in order to equalize social inequality and regulate market failure, students
may prefer student loans. Here the student,who is not able to take higher
education service because of impossibilities, by renouncing some ofhis /her
future income, takes higher education. Besides, the procurement of student
loan by private sector is important. Otherwise, if the loan is not paid back, it
will be financed through taxes again and public finance will be in question.
Additionally, financing of tuition fees with scholarship is
considerably common in world. Besides private sector, local or central
administrations can provide student scholarships.

3.2.3. Private Sector Support: University-Industry Collaboration


Third method in the financing of higher education is the collaboration
of the units in university which studies especially on technological inventions
and improvements and R&D departments of private sectors. Private sectors
provision of technological support and financing the higher education
constitutions operates in R&D area sector is beneficial for both sides. While
firms are acquiring technological superiority, also higher education
constitution finds a solution to its finance problem. Nowadays, this kind of
finance method is being common in USA and in industrially advanced
countries.

4. Finance of Higher Education in Turkey


4.1 Finance of State Universities
We have already mentioned that public higher education
constitutions, state universities within higher education constitutions are high
in number. Although state universities work as supplementary budget
constitutions, support of Exchequer is considerably important. To 1990s, the
258

ratio of Exchequers support to budgets of higher education constitutions was


80%.
Later, circulation capital income have found more place in the finance
of universities and the ratio of circulation capital in higher education
constitutions has improved approximately to 40%. Therefore, support of
Exchequer has decreased approximately to 55%.
Third resource in the finance of higher education is tuition fee. At the
beginnings of 2010s when the ratio of tuition fees in university budget was 45%, with legal amendment made in 08/29/2012 tuition fee has been
abolished. Since the subject date, only students of evening education,
students who have not graduated within normal study period and students
who take education in foreign language are charged for tuition fee.
Apart from subject incomes, other incomes that the state universities
have only covers 1-2% however, these incomes are being used in current
expenditure.

4.2 Finance of Private or Foundation Universities


Private higher education constitutions, in a word foundation
universities provide their finances with their own resources that is to say
tuition fees. In the beginning of 2000s, according to a research, foundation
universities provide 95% of university expenditures from tuition fees and 5%
from Exchequers support.
5. Problems and Solution Suggestions
Problems about the finance of higher education constitutions can be
listed as below:
Since higher education become widespread and grows rapidly,
higher education constitutions require more and more public
resources and insufficiency of public proportion in meeting
this necessity.
Inability of higher education constitutions in financing itself
on its own and creating resource and contrary to inclination in
world, collaboration in terms of R&D between universities and
private sector is weak and highness of dependence to public.
Dependence of high education constitutions to public for
finance brings along its dependence to authority and
supervision of public in terms of administrative and
bureaucratic means.
Finance with taxes again if present tuition fee loans, which is
offered by public, is not paid back.
259

Inequality of opportunity resulting from the education, semipublic good which is partly charged, and exclusion of talented
and clever students from the system caused by market failure.
Disequilibrium of supply and demand in the market for high
school service, negative rivalry environment which has
negative effect on young candidates resulted from the limited
number of contingent although there are lots of students who
want to take higher education.
As higher education constitutions, their contingents therefore
university graduate numbers are increasing constantly, young
unemployment rates also increase.
For the problems of finance and market failure of higher
education constitutions that is tried to be stated above,
suggested solutions in literature are listed below:
According to some of the scientists, higher education
constitutions, which are a substantial burden for public
proportion, should provide its higher education finance with
private resource finance through following cost-sharing
policy. That is to say, higher education should be priced
because the benefit that higher education provides for a person
is higher than the benefit provided for society.
According to a group who claims exactly the contrary, the
benefit that higher education provides for society is higher
than the benefit provided for a person and public proportion
should search for more resource in order to meet excess
demand.
Another solution suggestion for the finance of higher
education service is the creating of new resources through
collaboration with private sector via R&D technologies.
Nowadays in most of the developed countries this practice has
become widespread. However; in developing countries like
Turkey, this kind of finance method is not widespread that
much.
Contribution of private sector in tuition fee/student loans and
scholarships should be improved.

260

Concluson
Before moving on finance of higher education, the major subject of
the study, with this introduction the system is tried to be taught in general.
For this reason, a panorama of Turkeys higher education system, which
consists of functional qualifications and statistics, is given. The operation of
higher education system is held through mentioning constitutions that
compose higher education, types of educations given in constitutions,
academicians who give the courses, higher constitutions administrating
constitutions in this proportion.
Later deducing from YK data, statistics about higher education such
as rate of literacy, schooling rate, number of universities, students and
academicians are analysed historically, and the structure of higher education
system is aimed to be told more extensively.
In
the designation of finance method, higher education services semi-public
service qualification is extremely important. Partly sharing ability of its
benefit and for this reason it is observed that, its pricing reveals two main
different views about finance. One of the views about this is that higher
education provides more benefit to a person and therefore, higher education
should be priced and cost shall be shared between student and constitution
that is to say it should be financed with private resources. Other one is that
higher education provides more benefit to society than to a person, for this
reason finance should be provided by public.
As in theory (and like the other examples around the world) higher
education should be provided with public or private resources also in Turkey.
However; both the muchness of state universities and since Turkey is a
developing country, it can be observed that higher education is generally
financed with public resources and public cannot meet the demands of higher
education. The suggested solutions for Turkeys finance problem are the
popularization of finance with private resources and improvement of the
collaboration between private sector and universities.

261

BENEFITS OF USING COMMUNICATIVE METHODOLOGY IN


HIGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Prof. Dr. Lela Abdushelishvili,
Caucasus University, Georgia
Summary: In the modern age, information, communication and communication
technologies are extremely important. Respectively, a lot of research is done and enhanced
interest towards communication phenomenon is observed. Communication studies even get
developed as a separate direction.
The importance of verbal communication has become much more significant in the
process of integration of the Georgian educational system in the European educational space since
the communication competence is placed as a second one among 5 main competencies of the
European educational standard which indicates that it would be impossible to gain success in
any sphere without communication. Therefore, developing this competency is the first and
foremost objective because a human being needs to know how to communicate properly and
refine and develop such skills and approaches as clearly expressing the opinion, sending and
receiving the message, formulating the argument, debating and having critical thinking,
which largely determine their final success.
Thanks to implementing various projects and getting involved in conferences it was
made possible to study in-depth principles of adult and high education and training and
problems of communicating in the foreign language, presenting them to a wider
audience and making them internationalized as well as practically implementing them
and carrying out observations. Several lessons conducted using the communicative method
have been video-taped to ensure use of respective methods and approaches, which was then
used to make the conclusion that using communicative methodology in high educational
institutions develops not only the language skills of trainees but it also enables them to
develop critical thinking and reasoning. This is a very effective modern and up-to-date
method which can be used successfully across the curricula and subjects with the view
of enabling learners to express themselves effectively and state ideas properly.
Individuals with such effective communication skills become life-long learners,
successful managers, directors, CEOs, decision makers and facilitators which positively
impacts their professional achievements and success.

It is worth noting that, in general, in the process of learning a foreign


language adult learners are not provided with information about how adults
learn and their abilities are not envisaged respectively. As a result, the foreign
language learning process is a difficult for them, hard to overcome and
majority of learners give it up on the way. To avoid such an outcome, we not
only rose awareness of our trainees in the issues but also taught them how to
learn, distribute time effectively, finetuned the training courses to their
specific needs and, whats most important, showed them the videos of their
lessons to observe themselves and improve their speaking, pay attention at
such communication strategies as simplifying what is being said, maintaining
good eye contact while speaking and active listening, using linking words
and devices. From this point of view, one of scientific novelties is
involving the learners in the process of developing their communicative
262

skills in the foreign language, constant monitoring of their progress and


observation and discussing identified drawbacks and problems together
with them to wipe them out. This method helped them to gain more selfconfidence, made them more joyful and, whats most important, substantially
developed their communication skills in the foreign language.
Based on all the above-mentioned, it is obvious that our research
question - developing oral communication skills of adult learners in the
process of studying a foreign language is extremely substantial in the
modern educational sphere which has not been studied much in the Georgian
reality.
THE SCIENTIFIC NOVELTY OF THE RESEARCH lies in the
fact that it is the first time that the outcomes of quite an original research in
the area of studying the foreign language through the communicative method
are presented. Besides, the hypothesis is proven that learning a language
through the communicative method rather than the traditional grammartranslation one is much more effective and results-oriented for adult learners.
THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH is to investiage the development
of communication skills of adults in the foreign language and create such
methods and strategies the use of which will lead to the effective
development of language skills of adults. Besides, the research aims at
displaying the problems adult learners face while communicating in the
foreign language and how use of communicative methodology helps them to
overcome these problems.
Based on the general aims of research, the following specific
objectives are addressed:
1. Use of language tasks and technologies helps learners to become
more open, overcome the frustration of speaking in the foreign language,
develop a higher degree of self-confidence and, whats most important, be
able to communicate in this language successfully.
2. After the learning process ends (as well as during it), the learner is
able to express and formulate his/her own opinion in the foreign language
freely, with confidence and without thinking too much about grammar rules.
Respectively, s/he can communicate in the real life more easily.
3. If the learner plans proper strategies while speaking, s/he will be
able to speak freely. What this means is that when the foreign language
learner clearly gets to him/herself what to say next, s/he develops a kind of
brief and quick plan and needs no detailed linguistic analysis.
4. Even when learners do such tasks which make them focus more on
the form, they prefer to use the time given to them to formulate their views
logically and define sematic connections.
5. While carrying out the language task, planning of proper strategies
makes an extremely positive impact on how successfully learners will use
necessary information and be able to speak.
263

6. Task-based teaching and use of technologies at foreign language


lessons enabled learners to become more open, overcome frustration, develop
more self-confidence and, whats more important, communicate in this
language successfully.
7. The task-based teaching method is much more effective to ensure
that the learners do not develop discomfort and lock themselves in, do not get
shy and when they are confronted with the need to talk, they do not prefer to
be silent rather than speak.
Research methods: qualitative and quantitative research
questionnaire and observation.
Research material: adult learners and teachers. Subject of research:
the process of learning communication skills since in the process of foreign
language learning great attention is attached to how the learning process is
planned and implemented using various ready-made materials or the ones
developed specifically for the given program. Object of research: adult
learners.
The theoretical value of research/work lies in the fact that
communicative language teaching method serves as the methodological basis
of it which aims at learning the foreign language so that the speakers are able
to establish effective communication in the foreign language environment. As
a result of learning the western experience, useful elements have been
adapted to the Georgian reality through developing various methods.
The practical value of research/work is defined by the fact that as a
result of research and creative work numerous training and educational
courses have been developed which were successfully implemented at the
adult education establishments. Namely, business communication for BA and
MA students of business and law at Caucasus University, general and
communication English courses for the employees of the Ministry of
Environment, specific English/legal translation for MA students of Tbilisi
State University. This is extremely valuable material for making respective
observations and conclusions.

264

HOW DO EDUCATIONAL LEADERS INTEGRATE LIFE-LONG


LEARNING INTO THEIR LIVES: THE SEARCH FOR WORK-LIFE
BALANCE CASE OF ERKEZKY
Duygu Doan, Instructor (M.A.), Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Assoc. Prof. Dr. zge Hacifazliolu, Kltr University, Istanbul
Bahadr Altrk, Lecturer (M.Sc.), Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Prof. Dr. Abdlkadir Iik, Namk Kemal University, Tekirda
Kbra ner (B.A.), Tekirda
Introduction
Maintaining harmonious integrity in a persons life is a complicated and
continuous process (Ashforth, 2000; Keene & Quadagno, 2004;
Hacfazlolu, 2010). The ways in which school principals maintain
balance in their professional and private lives could be influenced by their
personality and from their socio cultural experiences. However it is obvious
that each one of them encounter various road blocks in quest of work life
balance. In our mentoring and workshops (October 2013), it appeared that
school principals perceive the notion of Balance as one of the main
challenges in their careers. Both in focus groups and face to face interviews
they asked for professional help in ways of dealing with this challenge. To
answer this need we conducted a pilot study with the school principals in
erkezky region, which is affiliated with Tekirda. Moderator of the session
is also one of the authors in this study. The workshop lasted 1,5 hour and it
was arranged in collaboration with the Tekirda Local Ministry of Education.
All the principals were invited to a high school and they were hosted during
the workshop by that school.
Workshop started with the explanation of Balance from the basis of
psychology and related scientific studies. Then the moderator shared stories
of research findings conducted on leaders who reflected upon their stories of
work life balance. After one hour presentation moderator asked participants
to fill in a form and then they were asked to share their own experiences with
the groups.
All the reflections were transcribed and categorized according to themes.
Analysis of the interviews was divided into five phases suggested by
Marshall and Rossman (1999), these include: organizing the data,
identifying themes, patterns and categories, testing the emergence hypothesis
against the data, searching for alternative explanations of the data and writing
the report. Selected anecdotes and quotations were used to illustrate the
lived experiences of the principals. Following themes emerged: The first
theme is Maintaining balance between work and family and the second
theme is dealing with time constraints. This paper begins with the literature
265

on balance in leadership and four types of balance: segmentational,


compensational, instrumental and conflictual is introduced. Almost all the
participants asserted that they use compensational balance and steal from
their family lives to meet the demands of their duties as a school principal.
One of the principals indicated that he has never attended a parent-teacher
conference since he had to attend the meetings at his school. Stories of the
principals also showed that almost all of them use compensational balance
in their lives and only two of them said that they can find suitable time for
their own professional, physical and psychological development activities.
Half of the participants indicated that they postpone seeing a doctor when
they experience a health problem. They said they find no time for selfreflection although they are aware of the importance of it.
School administrators and authorities are expected to develop strategies to
enable them to harmonize to work life balance. This will also reveal
positively to their school settings. It should be noted that the more they reveal
their potential the more their teachers and students will be successful. The
results of this study are only a snapshot of an ongoing project. Therefore,
further studies will focus on strategies of finding balance as well as for
reflection and mentoring.
Literature Review
Work-life balance refers to several aspects of the meaning of word balance.
Considering in noun form, balance means harmony of different things. When
associated with a person, it refers to mental or emotional stability. In verb
form, as defined by Oxford Dictionary, to balance means offset or compare
the value of (one thing) with another: or establish equal or appropriate
proportions of elements in a whole. All these definitions indicate the
harmonization and unity of distinct features in equal amounts. When balance
is considered with life elements, the latter definitions make more sense since
family, career or continuous job as well as health, community, spiritual life,
social life and relationships can be accepted as core elements of the life.
Therefore, work-life balance can be seen as the harmony or equally
proportioned roles of life. Guest (2002: 262) underlines the significance of
time spent for work and time spent outside work, for the rest of life. Rantanen
et al. (2011: 28) express that psychological well-being, high self-esteem,
satisfaction and overall sense of harmony in life are the indicators successful
work-life balance

266

Sense of Self

The work itself

Sense of Balance

Neal Chalofsky (2010: 20-21) describes integrated wholeness as a balance of


the work and the sense of self, by balancing the work or career and with the
rest of life. He calls it the meaningful work model. Greenhaus et al. (2003)
mention three aspects of balance as time, involvement and satisfaction. In
other words, balance is the sum of how the time we spend is divided among
our roles related to work or career, family, friends and relationships, how
much is our psychological being is involved in each role and how much
satisfaction we obtain from each role. Chalofsky (2010; cited in Maslow,
1943: 370) states that the concept of integrated wholeness is accepted as the
foundation stone of motivation theory. A sense of balance concerns the
choices we make between the time we spend at paid work, unpaid work
(work at home, with family, as a volunteer) and pleasurable pursuits. We try
to keep up with it all job, home, community, health, family and personal
relationships but life doesnt feel fulfilling. We are not doing what we want
to do and we are not acting according to our true values (Chalofsky, 2010:
22). The conflict between the demands of work and the decline of work as a
central interest of life results in imbalance between work and life outside
work (Guest, 2002: 258).
In related literature, work-life balance is discussed from several aspects,
usually based on the relationships or conflicts between work and other social
roles of the individual. Guest (2002) mentions five models regarding these
relationships: Segmentation, compensation, spillover, instrumental and
conflict models. Rothard and Dumans (2013: 73) mention six linking
mechanisms as spillover, compensation, segmentation, congruence, resource
drain and work-family conflict. Spillover, compensation, segmentation and
congruence represent observed relationships between work and family
constructs whereas resource drain and work-family conflict represent
outcomes of work and family role enactments (Rothard and Dumans, 2013:
73). The segmentation model assumes that work and non-work are two
distinct domains that have no influence o each other. Spillover model
however, hypothesizes that each domain may either have positive or negative
267

effects on the other. Interdependence of work and life causes positive and
negative spillover) on each domain (Naithani, 2010: 150) if one is not
satisfied with work or family life or other segments of life Compensation
model proposes that you can compensate the demands lacking in one domain
with something in another. Instrumental model says that the individual may
reach success in one domain (e.g. work, family life, community) through the
activities of the other domain. Conflict model hypothesizes that high levels of
demands with all roles in life will cause the individual to make a difficult
choice, which would cause another conflict for him/her. Regarding workfamily conflict; time based, strain based and behaviour based incompatibility
are supposed to arise between role responsibilities (Maertz and Boyar, 2011:
72). Although spillover, segmentation and compensation are the predominant
models characterizing the relationships between work and non-work roles
(Rothard, Dumans, p. 73), the former ones are seen as more theoretical
models requiring empirical support (Guest, 2002: 258).
In addition to these traditional models, Rantanen et al. (2011) define two
contemporary approaches as overall appraisal and components models.
Overall appraisal approach is defined as an individuals general assessment
of his or her life situation in a sense that work-life balance means
satisfaction and good functioning at work and home with a minimum of role
conflict (Rantanen et al., 2011: 29; Clark, 2000: 751), A Components
approach refers to multiple facets that precede balance and there are
different measures for different aspects of work-life balance (Rantanen et al.,
2011: 29).
Establishing a balanced or satisfactory load of work and non-work roles is a
problematic issue. Naithani (2010) points to the impact of traditionally
gender-biased roles and segments of life on that imbalance. Although today,
careers and professional roles are not undertaken only by males, some nonwork roles such as mother still gives more responsibility to the female about
children and childcare (Naithani, 2010: 150) and this may cause overloaded
demands. Similarly, in a single-earner family, traditional father role causes
the male to take care of short-term, long-term savings on the family basis
(Naithani, 2010: 150), which creates more demand on financial domain for
the male. Furthermore, psychological traits and individual differences may
also influence the balance or imbalance of work and life. Workaholics, who
choose to work for long hours at the expense of other activities, may be an
example as they perceive some reward since working long hours is their own
choice. (Guest, 2002: 260). Individual differences are also considered a
potential reason for the arise of work and family conflict because personality
traits of an individual may not be compatible with the ones required for that
268

specific role in one domain causing work-family conflict (Maertz and Boyar,
2011: 72).
Participants
In line with the purpose of the study, 26 narrative stories were
collected during the workshop and the focus group discussions. All the
participants are school principals. Out of 26 principals 2 are female and the
rest are male. 10 of them have more than 10 years of experience; 10 between
6-10 years; 6 1-5 years of experience as a school administrator. All of them
work at various schools that could be perceived as disadvantaged groups
since they have immigrant students at their schools. Socio-economic profiles
of the parents are generally low when compared to schools at Tekirda City
centre schools.
Workshop and Data Collection Procedure
The workshop lasted 1.5 hour and it was arranged in collaboration with the
Tekirda Local Ministry of Education. All the principals were invited to a
high school and they were hosted during the workshop by that school.
Workshop started with the explanation of Balance from the basis of
psychology and related scientific studies. Then the moderator shared stories
of research findings conducted on leaders who reflected upon their stories of
work-life balance. After one-hour presentation, moderator asked participants
to fill in a form and then they were asked to share their own experiences with
the groups.
All the reflections were recorded by taking the permission of the participants.
Then all the conversations were transcribed and categorized according to
themes.
Data Analysis
Analysis of the interviews was divided into five phases suggested by
Marshall and Rossman (1999), these include: organizing the data,
identifying themes, patterns and categories, testing the emergence hypothesis
against the data, searching for alternative explanations of the data and writing
the report. Selected anecdotes and quotations were used to illustrate the
lived experiences of the principals.
Themes and Sub-Themes
As can be seen in the Table below following themes emerged: The first
theme is Maintaining balance between work and family and the second
theme is dealing with time constraints.
269

Table 1. Themes Emerged Regarding Balance of School Principals


Themes and Sub-Themes
Theme 1. Maintaining balance between work and family
Theme 2. Dealing with time constraints
Maintaining Balance between Work and Family
Almost all the participants (24/26) asserted that they use compensational
balance and steal from their family lives to meet the demands of their duties
as a school principal. One of the principals indicated that he has never
attended a parent-teacher conference since he had to attend the meetings at
his school with the following words:
I devoted my whole life top school and my students. I have always
thought that my students are my children However my son came
with a complaint one day and said that he wishes he was my student.
In this way he could see me more and I could talk to him more. This
was a sad comment for me Then I thought he was right I
arranged millions of teacher-parent conferences and meetings at my
schools but I have never attended one of my sons meetings (School
Principal Ahmet)
Ahmets words echoed in most of the school principals words. They asserted
that their work life balance is mainly built on compensational method.
Sometimes they experience conflicting balance, in which their days end with
arguments within the house. From time to time 5 of them accepted that they
over-react events in an aggressive way since their tolerance seems to weaken
in challenging atmosphere.
Theme 2. Dealing with Time Constraints
Stories of the principals also showed that almost all of them use
compensational balance in their lives and only two of them said that they
can find suitable time for their own professional, physical and psychological
development activities. Half of the participants indicated that they postpone
seeing a doctor when they experience a health problem. One of the principals
noted the following words to illustrate his time constraints. They said they
find no time for self-reflection although they are aware of the importance of
it.
Every Friday I plan to see my dentist Then I postpone This has
been in my agenda for more than a year n daily routines there has
always been a priority that affects my personal plans (School
Principal Hasan).
It appeared during the focus discussions that a few of the principals has been
using Segmentational Balance in their professional lives. However, when
talking about their work life balance, they were not aware that there was not
270

balance in their lives. One of them indicated that his hobby is working and he
spends all the weekends at the schools. The other also noted similar
comments. At the end of the workshop they came to realize that focusing too
much on their professional is unhealthy which may end with negative
drawbacks. One of the main difficulties experienced by almost all of the
participants (21/26) that they can never turn off their mobile phones during
their private times. They are aware of the fact that they still continue work
even though they are in a family gathering since they keep on checking their
e mails or messages. The reason why they are so obsessive to their work is
that they are afraid that they may not be reached in case of an emergent
event.
Conclusion
Findings of this study align with Hacfazlolu and ztabaks study (2014)
on stories of balance at disadvantaged schools in Istanbul. In the mentioned
study, it was revealed during the conversations that school leaders use
compensational balance most of the time in order to encourage female
students and mothers to use instrumental balance. The study also reveals
experiences of school leaders and the way how interpersonal relations are
based on trust. In cases where there is trust and sincerity, female students
and mothers feel more belonging to their schools as well as having a smooth
transition to a new culture (Hacfazlolu and ztabak, 2014). Adjustment
and sustaining a balance between an administrators work and his or her
family is an ongoing struggle they deal with throughout their lives. This has
been confirmed in the previous studies by Hacfazlolu (2010) on women
leaders in higher education.
This study is designed to examine the accounts of school principals in
erkezky. Although principals have common characteristics of being an
administrator at their schools, they have diverse characteristics with regards
to social and family structures. Their reflections are expected to provide some
insights for school principals working at schools in various parts of other
regions.
Strengthening work-life balance of educational leaders should be one of the
most urgent concerns on the agenda of educational policy makers and
authorities. It makes a great difference who the leader is and what the
conditions are that surround them. Although the contexts may be different
there are certain themes that encompass the lives of educational leaders in
different ways in many cultures. School leaders are in need of collegial
support that enables them to harmonize their private and professional lives.

271

References:
Chalofsky, N. E. (2010). Meaningful Workplaces: Integrating the Individual and the
Organization. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Jossey-Bass. ProQuest Ebrary, retrieved on 15 September
2014.
Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. (2003). The relation between work-family
balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63: 510531.
Guest, D.E. (2002). Perspectives on the Study of Work-life Balance. Social Science
Information, 41: 255-279.
Hacfazlolu, . (2010). Entry and transition to academic leadership: Experiences of women
leaders from Turkey and the U.S. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice. 10 (4): 22212273.
Hacfazlolu, . & ztabak, M. (2014). Maintaining Balance in the New Culture: Stories
of Immigrant Female Youth, Mothers and School Leaders. Paper Presented at Enirdelm
Conference, Finland, 17-20 September.
Maertz, C.P. Jr., & Boyar, S . L. (2011). Work-Family Conflict, Enrichment, and Balance
under ''Levels'' and ''Episodes'' Approaches. Journal of Management, 37(1): 68-98.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. R. (1999). Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage.
Naithani, P. (2010). Overview of Work-Life Balance Discourse and Its Relevance
in Current Economic Scenario. Asian Social Science, 6(6): 148-155.
Oxford Dictionary.< http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/balance>
retrieved on 15 September 2014.
Rantanen, J., Kinnunen, U., Mauno, S. & Tillemann, K. (2011). Introducing Theoretical
Approaches to Work-Life Balance and Testing a New Typology Among Professionals.
Creating Balance? International Perspectives on the Work-Life Integration of Professionals.
Kaiser, S., Ringlstetter, M.J., Eikhof, D.R., Pina e Cunha, D. (Eds.). Berlin-Heidelberg:
Springer-Verlag. 27-46.
Rothard, N.P., & Dumans, T.L. (2013). Research Perspectives: Managing the work-home
interface. Work-Life Balance: A Psychological Perspective. Jones, F., Burke, R.J. &
Westman, M. (Eds.). Psychology Press.

272

. :

NON-FORMAL AND INFORMAL EDUCATION


FOR DEVELOPING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND
COMPETENCES
Assoc. Prof. Diana Popova, PhD
Burgas Free University, Bulgaria

. - ,
,
Abstract: In the 21st century lifetime employment is rather an exception than a rule.
Change of jobs or career paths usually happens when people have limited time or resources
to devote to formal education. Non-formal and informal education is much more economical
and effective for the development of professional skills and competences and is a way to
cultivate lifelong learning.
The paper provides definitions of the above alternatives to traditional learning,
throws some light on the EU situation, and shares good practices in this field observed
during a study visit to Perugia, Italy. Discussed is the status of non-formal and informal
education in the EU and the interest of the member-states to validate it by adopting a system
of assessable and transferrable competences demanded by the job market.
Keywords: formal, non-formal and informal education; competences; lifelong
learning; labour market

Introduction
In the 21st century keeping a job or undertaking a new one is very
demanding and requires constant updating of knowledge, skills and
competences. A lot of people change jobs at least once in a lifetime either of
their own free will or under the pressure of economic, technological or other
factors. Today professional development should encompass the whole scope
of ones career starting with ones formal education and continuing through
ones professional life span facilitated by non-formal and informal education.
It is a process of planned actions followed by formal or informal assessment
providing opportunities for improving professional competence and selffulfillment, and increasing job satisfaction. Professional development should
be based on a thorough and up-to-date evaluation and prioritization of market
273

needs (supply and demand) and benchmarked against the attainment of


planned outcomes. Leaving or losing a job necessitates a transfer of
knowledge, skills and competences to a new enterprise or even a new
segment of the economy. Often former experience turns out to be insufficient
or irrelevant under the new circumstances. When people are faced with the
need to change jobs or career paths they usually have limited time or
resources to devote to formal education. Non-formal or informal methods of
gaining professional skills and competences are much easier and more
economical than yet another formal degree course. However, the potential of
these alternatives to formal education is not yet thoroughly understood or
achieved. The reasons are the lack of educational legislation and funding, as
well as the inadequate education-business partnership both on a national and
on an EU level.
Defining non-formal and informal education
Interestingly enough the talk about non-formal and informal
education is not recent. It started way back in the 1970s when it was realized
that there was a mismatch between formal education and what jobs required
from graduates. In his book The World Educational Crisis Coombs (1968)
analyses the rising concern about the lack of synchronization between
education and economy with the former lagging behind the socio-economic
changes.
As the economies of industrialized countries (and their educational
systems) also [like those of poor countries] faltered during the 1970s, it was
re-emphasized that the educational crisis was indeed worldwide (Fordham,
1993). It was then that planners and economists in the World Bank began to
make a distinction between informal, non-formal and formal education
(ibid.) Evidently, the realization that education should be on a par with the
economy, hence with the job market, made the stakeholders in the western
world reconsider alternative ways of getting professional qualifications.
However, more than four decades later in the EU member states there is little
formal recognition of the competences developed outside formal educational.
Any discussion about the above issue will be irrelevant without a
clear understanding of what the current terminology means. The definitions
below, that Coombs et al (1973) provide, substantially highlight the
differences between the three types of education.
Informal Education: the truly lifelong process whereby every
individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily
experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her
environment from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the
marketplace, the library and the mass media
Formal Education: the hierarchically structured, chronologically
graded educational system, running from primary school through the
274

university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of


specialized programmes and institutions for full-time technical and
professional training.
Non-Formal Education (NFE): any organized educational activity
outside the established formal system-whether operating separately or as an
important feature of some broader activity-that is intended to serve
identifiable learning clientle and learning objectives. (Coombs et al 1973)
These definitions are perfectly in tune with the 21st century economy
and education. For the purpose of everyday use by stakeholders from all
social strata a simplified version of the terms used to delineate these types of
education may be necessary. Outlined below are some key characteristics of
the different ways people can gain knowledge, skills and competences.
Formal education is structured, follows a formally approved
curriculum, and is conducted by professionals, specially trained for the
purpose. It is controlled by a ministry of education and learners obtain formal
diplomas or certificates after successfully completing a certain educational
level. In most countries it is compulsory up to a certain level/age. After the
introduction of the ECTS most of the diplomas/certificates awarded in the EU
member states are recognized across the Union.
Non-formal education may be structured but not very strictly and may
or may not follow a formal curriculum. Normally it does not have to comply
with the regulations which are compulsory for formal education. Learners do
not obtain a formally recognized degree, diploma or certificate. Training is
performed by either formally educated teachers, or by people from other
walks of life, or by leaders with more experience that the trainees. Peoples
participation in non-formal education is voluntary, determined by interest or
perceived needs, and a source of enriching experience and satisfaction.
Informal education is characterized by none of the features of the first
two types of education, except that it is also a source of knowledge and skills.
Participation is not voluntary, and learners do not get a degree, diploma or
certificate. There is no curriculum or specially designated teacher or trainer.
Informal education takes place every day and everywhere as people
communicate with family, friends, peers, and colleagues, and get in contact
with the environment.
The boundaries between the three types of education can be blurred as
one of them may contain features of the other two. For example, in formal
education learners can be offered opportunities to learn in a non-formal
setting while on a field trip, or a teacher can teach them skills and
competences that are not subject related but are related to life. Today formal
education alone cannot meet the challenges of modern society and needs the
support of non-formal education. The synergy between the two, accompanied
by proper informal education can ensure the success of lifelong learning.
While formal and non-formal education can be steered, monitored, assessed,
275

and improved, informal education, which takes place in unpredictable places


and times, cannot be formally impacted. Informal education is in the hands of
the family, friends, the media, various communities, and in recent years, the
Internet.
Non-formal and informal education in the EU
As early as 1972 a UNESCO publication says: We propose lifelong
learning as the master concept which should in future determine the shape of
educational systems (UNESCO 1972:182). According to Fordham (1993) if
this is accepted, out-of-school education becomes as important as the formal
system. He continues to claim that education and schooling should not be
considered inseparable and that learning can take place in any place, at any
time and can pertain to people of all ages.
While non-formal education has been popular in developing
countries, where it has been implemented by Peace Corps, British Council,
UNHCR and UNICEF volunteers, in Europe it has not received enough
adequate attention. It has been neglected for decades probably because the
European countries have been focusing exclusively on formal education and,
within the EU, on setting up and improving the ECTS (European Credit
Transfer System).
There are, though, some European countries with significant
experience in carrying out activities of non-formal education. Such activities
normally differ from one country to another contingent on traditions, labour
market demand, demographics, and other factors. Probably the oldest nonformal education system is that of Denmark which started with the opening
of the first Folkenhjskole (Folk High Schools) in 1844. In the late 1970s the
so called production schools became their successors. Today there are
approximately 110 production schools all over the country which cater
mainly for unemployed young people without enough formal schooling to get
a job. The stay in these schools cannot exceed one year and learners are
offered training in skills and competences identified by educators,
municipalities, businesses and youth organizations which are represented on
the school boards. (See http://pub.uvm.dk/2000/prod/16.htm) The
qualifications that young people can obtain at these schools allow them to
continue their education and get a specific professional qualification.
According to a 2010 report of the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (2010) the following EU countries are active
in the recognition of NFE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands,
Norway,
Spain,
Slovenia,
Switzerland,
and
UK
(See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonformal_learning).
Despite the positive statistics, educationalists from Belgium, Czech
Republic, Greece, Hungary and Italy have shared with the author of this
276

paper their concern about the insufficient recognition that NFE receives in
their home countries, and an even greater concern that skills and competences
gained through NFE in one EU state are not acknowledged in the other
member states. At a study visit held in Perugia, Italy participants from over
ten EU countries observed and discussed some good NFE practices in action
at the Universita dei Sapori.
Good practices from Perugia, Italy
Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria and the capital of
the province of Perugia. It is located in central Italy. Even though it is full of
history and art, and is blessed with beautiful landscape it is off the beaten
path in Italy. The region strives to attract more tourists and keep them longer
in the area in order to provide more permanent jobs for the population. The
necessity to revive the economy which has declined in recent years has made
the local authorities and educational institutions develop a plan whereby to
provide opportunities for people without academic education to gain
knowledge, skills and competences recognizable in the tourism sector
without going into formal education. One such institution is the training
centre Universita dei Sapori which has developed a structured systemic
approach to establishing needs for future work skills and designed nonformal courses to match these needs. The focus is on the market needs for
professionals in the hotel, restaurant and catering services.
The title of the study visit organized by Universita dei Sapori in
Perugia was New Skills for New Jobs in Tourism New Cooperation to
Validate Non-Formal and Informal Learning. The five-day experience
provided the participants with insights into the good local practices and
demonstrated tangible outcomes of the non-formal training available for the
public. The training centre offers courses for tourism workers made
redundant, for high school dropouts, for people with no or limited
qualifications, for self-employed adults, and for interested learners from other
countries. The courses are tailor made to match the exact learners needs.
They can be short or long, more general or very specific, for example, Bakery
and Pizzeria, Linguistic cooking, Beef and pork in the Italian cuisine, Main
Italian food products, Fresh and dry pasta, The Mediterranean diet in the
Italian cuisine, Italian cuisine: between tradition and innovation, Italian
pastry and hand-crafted gelato, Chocolate in the Italian confectionary
tradition, etc. There are daytime and evening courses, courses held on the
premises of the training center or at a company, paid for by the learners, with
vouchers provided by the municipality, or fully paid by the employer. Most
of the courses are an amazing combination of culinary training, language,
culture, hands on experience, and tasting.
Each course has specific goals and aims at developing well defined
specific skills. Study visits and workshops, food and wine tasting, history of
277

cuisine and local culture, all of these combined with a learning by doing
approach; total immersion in the authentic culinary traditions, history,
language and culture of the area; direct contact with local manufacturers and
entrepreneurs; and trainers with a sound knowledge of arts and crafts.
The work done by the staff of Universita dei Sapori and the shared
experience and expertise of the other participants in the study visit can, if
properly implemented:
Improve the impact and the status of NFE and create
the conditions for empowering people as real actors of society, both
local and European, with a special focus on their employability;
Help to acknowledge the role and the way NFE is
perceived within a common Europe and promote sharing and adopting
culturally diverse educational approaches and methods of NFE,
intercultural learning, and a transfer of acknowledged and assessed
skills and competence;
Enhance the power of NFE as a tool for social
inclusion and for stimulating learners initiative and entrepreneurship;
Encourage learners to really build their own training
process, improve their quality of life, and increase their chances of
getting a job.
Validation of non-formal and informal education in the EU member
states
The aim to achieve the above positive effects on a large national and
European scale depends on, among other things, all stakeholders being
proactive in adopting and implementing good NFE practices in parts of the
country and in economic sectors where labour is scarce, or where
unemployment is high. With the free labour market in the EU large numbers
of people seek employment outside their country of birth. For them it is
essential to be able to demonstrate skills and competences gained as an
outcome of NFE and have them recognized by the employer. This brings us
to the very important issue of the validation of NFE skills and competences.
A common validation system should be developed and implemented in all
EU countries with the purpose to make legitimate all knowledge, skills and
competences that a person may acquire and demonstrate outside formal
education irrespective of where or when they have been gained. In order to
enable and promote mobility in the European area, a system that
acknowledges certification of NFE qualifications from all member states
should be implemented.
Gradually, validation of non-formal and informal education is
becoming a key aspect of lifelong learning policies. Lifelong learning, it is
asserted, requires that learning outcomes from different settings and contexts
can be linked together. As long as learning, skills and competences acquired
278

outside formal education and training remain invisible and poorly valued the
ambition of lifelong learning cannot be achieved. (Danielle and Bjornavold,
2004: 69).
This is a good warning for the policy makers in the EU and national
education systems. The Declaration of Bologna states that a greater emphasis
should be placed on the learning outcomes and the assessment of acquired
competencies. Outcomes are measurable, any skill or competence, being an
outcome, is measurable. So there is no reason why those resulting from nonformal and informal education should not be acknowledged and validated for
the sake of the individuals and of the society, to avoid waste and duplication
of efforts, time and resources.
References:
Coombs, P. (1968) The World Educational Crisis, New York, Oxford University Press.
Coombs, P. with Prosser, R & Ahmed, M (1973) New Paths to Learning, New York:
International Council for Educational Development.
Danielle C and J. Bjornavold, European Journal of Education, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2004, from the
Introduction pp. 69-89
Fordham, P. (1993). Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes in YMCA
George Williams College ICE301 Lifelong learning, Unit 1 Approaching lifelong learning.
London: YMCA George Williams College. Available in the informal education archives.
[http://infed.org/mobi/informal-non-formal-and-formal-education-programmes/.
Retrieved: 25.08.2014]
UNESCO (1972) Learning to Be (prepared by Faure, E. et al), Paris: UNESCO.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.01418211.2004.00167.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

279

. . . . . ,
, ,

ONTOGENETIC DIMENSION FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT


OF PROFESSIONALS
Prof. Eduard Pomytkin, D-r, Institute of Pedagogical Education and
Adult Education (Academy of Pedagogical Sciences), Kyiv, Ukraine

bstract: The problem of studying the valuable aspects of professionalism inherent to the
individual and personal ontogenetic characteristics of the person is updated. Authors
periodization way of life of the person in charge to such characteristics as integrity;
functionality; interdependence is offered. Its application allows you to select the basic stages
of career counseling and development, design trajectory professional achievements
personality in the process of individual psychological counseling of clients.
Keywords: personality, professionalism, periodization way of life, professional
orientation, leading activities, identification, personal development of professional.
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283



. . . . ,
Get Win
USING OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERACTIVE
TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
Vera Pomyluiko, PhD,
Teaching and Development Professional at Corporate University
Get Win
bstract: The article deals with the types of interactive technologies. The author
proposed a classification of interactive technologies according to the purpose of their usage.
Keywords: professional education, interactive technologies, classification of
interactive technologies, types of interactive technologies.
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTISTIC LITERACY IN THE LATE


- EARLY CENTURY, AS THE BASIS FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF DECORATIVE ART IN EKATERINOSLAV
PROVINCE
Assoc. rof. Tatjana K. Kasyan, National Bohdan
Khmelnytsky University of Cherkasy, Ukraine
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bstract: In the article the formation of artistic credentials in education, as the
basis for the development of decorative art Ekaterinoslav province in the second half of XIX
- early XX centuries.
Keywords: training, education, art appreciation, decorative and applied art,
Ekaterinoslav province, the Zemstvo reform.



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298



. . . . . ,
,

FEATURES OF PREPARATION OF THE SOCIAL PEDAGOGUES


IN THE CONTEMPORARY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Prof. Roman Petrishin, PhD,
Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivanofrankivsk,
Ukraine
Abstract. The article deals with various aspects of the social workers to practice,
singled out the problems and prospects for further development in today's educational
environment.
Keywords: social educator, training, adaptation of students social competence.
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303




. . . . . ,
, . ,
PREPARING STUDENTS FOR TAKING VITAL STRATEGIC
DECISIONS AS A PREREQUISITS FOR FORMING THE
PERSONALITY OF THE FUTURE PROFESSIONAL
Prof. Lyubov Pomytkina, D-r,
National Aviation University, Kiev, Ukraine
Abstract: Considered the problems of individual formation of a future professional, in
particular, students preparation to making strategic life decisions in three areas: the
definition of own life position, the professional self-determination and a choice of a marriage
partner. Identified the key psychological and pedagogical conditions of students
preparation to aforementioned decisions.
Keywords: decisions, decision-making, strategic life decisions, students.
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2. . .
: / . . : , 2013. 381 .
3. Lyubov, Pomytkina. Personal readiness of youth to making strategic life decisions //
European Applied Sciences. Germany (Stuttgart), May, 2013, 5. . 155157.

306

. . . . ,

, -,

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROFESSIONALISM OF FUTURE


SPECIALISTS IN TOURISM IN THE PROCESS OF SELFPERFECTION
Raisa Zagnibida, PhD - Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University,
Institute of Tourism, Ivanofrankivsk, Ukraine
Abstract. In the article development of professionalism is described in the process
of self-perfection of future specialists on tourism, maintenance of self-education and selfeducation of such specialists is exposed, certainly akmeologichni approaches which it is
expedient to adhere to during organization of professional self-perfection of students in
higher educational establishments.
Keywords: akmeologichniy approach, self-perfection, self-education, samorozvitok,
self-education, professionalism, process of self-perfection of future specialist, is on tourism.

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313




., ... . ,

, ,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE
FORMATION OF CREATIVE PERSONALITY
OF YOUNG STUDENTS
Prof. Elena Krivopishina, D-r, Lviv State University of Life Safety
Abstract. The author represents in the article the analysis of the problem of student
creative personality formation from the standpoin of system-strategic creativity concept; on
the basis of the empirical analysis, furcation factors which influence the creative personality
formation at adolescence have been singled out; sensitive periods of creativity have been
identified.
Keywords: creative personality, ethno-ecological factors, time and space
characteristics of the environment, furcation factors.
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317



. . ,
, . ,
DEVELOPMENT OF DIDACTIC SKILLS OF THE
CONTEMPORARY PROFESSIONAL IN THE FIELD OF TOURISM
Irina Petkova, Assistant Prof., International University College, Bulgaria
Abstract: This article describes the empirical experience of the author when delivering
training in the hospitality industry. The aim of the paper is to indicate the potentialities to
create develop and strengthen the didactic skills among hospitality managers and
supervisors. The article is going to discuss the current situations conserving planning and
delivering training in hospitality industry specific issues in training adults, types of
training that are deviled according to the company needs and trainees maturity in the way
to face the competition. This paper examines the reasons that trainings are ignored in
current reality and challenges trainers meet in hospitality organizations.
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http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/identifying-learning-talent-developmentneeds.aspx
http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/survey-reports/learning-development-2014.aspx
http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/survey-reports/learning-talent-development-2013.aspx
http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/digital_assets//HRWhatsNext.pdf

326



..., . . ,
,
QUESTIONS ABOUT PROFESSIONALISM OF SOCIAL WORKERS
FROM THE POSITION OF THE AKMEOLOGICAL APPROACH
Prof. Galina Mayboroda, PhD National Bohdan
Khmelnytsky University of Cherkasy, Ukraine
Abstract. The article analysis the major theoretical and practical aspects of social
workers professionality with akmeology point of view.
Keywords: professionalism, Psychology akmeology point of view, social worker,
professional activity
.

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http://nashaucheba.ru/v25602/_.,__._?page=4

331

. . ., . . ,
, ,

TRENDS IN PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE IN UKRAINE


Assoc. Prof. Svetlana Kogut, PhD Ukrainian Catholic University, Lviv,
Ukraine
Summary. Taking into consideration the inevitability of globalization impacts on the
education system of Ukraine the author considers general tendencies of the development of
modern pedagogy, points out the interaction between innovations in science, professional
education and labor market demands; reports on the results of the analysis of psychological
and pedagogical literature on professional pedagogical education problems.
Keywords: pedagogical science, modern education, interdisciplinary, comparative
researches, professional pedagogical education.
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336



. . . . ,
. . ,
,
STRATEGIES FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
OF THE SPECIALIST DOING A MASTER COURSE
Prof. Renate Vaynola, D-r,
National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv, Ukraine


Summary. The article is filed response strategies for personal development of the future
of the social teacher in the process of training in the magistracy. Particular attention is paid
to the use of resources practices, creative competitions and master classes.
Keywords: personal development strategies, master, training, future social worker.
.

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4. . . //
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339





. . . . . ,
-
,
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
FROM PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY IN THE INNOVATIVE
EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Prof. Yurij Shapran, Dr.,
Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky Hryhoriy Skovoroda State Pedagogical
University, Ukraine
.

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Annotation. The article deals with the problem of formation professional
competence of students from pedagogical university in the innovative educational
environment. The author classified the types of educational environment, analysed its
structural components (technical, technological and social-subjective) that relate to the
structure of the professional competence of future teacher.
Keywords: educational environment, types of educational environment, innovative
learning environment, the components of innovative educational environment and
professional competence, teacher.

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347

ROLE-PLAYING APPROACH IN THE CONTEMPORARY


EDUCATION
Silviya Stoyanova,
Marketing specialist - International University College

,
, . ,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a modern method in education in
the face of role-play approach in teaching. It is suggested that the implementation of role
playing in teaching brings a number of advantages to the students. The focus is brought on
the changing roles of students and teachers. The use of innovative methods in educational
institutions has the potential to improve education through motivation.
Keywords: role play, education, teaching, motivation, good practice
:
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.


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According to the famous Irish poet William Butler Yeats the


education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire and we should
strive to apply this through the use of modern methods of teaching in the field
of contemporary education.
The change which different generations of pupils undergo requires a
change on the side of the teachers as well. To meet the expectations and the
needs of the pupils the teachers have to go out of the norm and become more
flexible in their approach to the youths and when making important decisions
regarding the learning process. While the traditional learning methods assign
a passive role of the pupils, the modern generation is striving to gain more
central and active role in the learning process. The main engine to stimulate
348

the activation of pupils in class is the teacher who by the use of modern
educational methods could provoke their interest and encourage them to act.
The role of the teacher is also changing gradually. From the one who
is leading the lesson and teaches theoretical knowledge, he becomes a man
who aims to guide and help the pupils to take in the right direction. Only the
theoretical knowledge is no longer enough for the learning of the study
material. The practical application of the theory is more imperative and
important in order to understand the nature of the study of a particular
subject. The pupils could be involved not only in the learning process itself,
but also in the preparations, as an incentive to give ideas for the organization
of the learning environment (classroom) and the way of conducting classes.
Expressing their own opinion and taking an active part in the process gives
them the confidence to feel important and responsible as main initiators of
the overall organization.
The current generation is dependent on the Internet and has an access
to variety of informational tools through which obtain information about the
things that excites the young people. Damodharan (2010) found that the
information technologies have contributed to innovation in the teaching and
have made a drastic change in the paradigm of teaching and learning. In the
new paradigm, the role of the pupil is much more important than that of the
teacher, as the teacher becomes a facilitator.
Unfortunately we still evidence lack of a holistic approach in the
education of young people. This approach is characterized by change,
development and improvement. A key importance is the overall development
of children, which includes not only thinking and understanding, but also the
presence of emotion and body. According to this pupils should always be
studied, characterized and treated as a complete organism considering the
levels of the body and mentality.
According to Kamenova (2013) the need to modernize the methods of
teaching and learning is indispensable. The focus is not on information but on
incentive and motivation for personal development of the learners. According
to her, the problems giving rise to difficulties are with educational,
managerial, social and socio-psychological nature.
The pupils can be hardly intrigued only by presenting the theoretical
knowledge backed up by a few examples. They have high expectations of
presenting lessons in a more attractive way and the divergence of these
expectations with what they receive leads to discouragement and
unwillingness to attend classes. This necessitates the search for alternative
approaches to learning as role plays, case studies, discussions, and more.
349

Unlike before, when the communication between the pupils was limited to a
minimum in the modern school the interaction and contact between them
should be supported. Except a different approach to the class as a whole such
is supposed to occur towards each pupil individually as well. Each child has a
unique personality with talents and qualities that owns therefore this implies a
different approach to each in order to stimulate the development of the talent.
The learning of a content as facts, which have no connection with
reality or the everyday life of pupils can be forgotten quickly because they do
not have the basis on which to make the association of the learned material
with an event and here the role-plays would have a significant role in the
learning process.
What is a play? What is fun?
Before considering play methods, it should be clarified what exactly is meant
by "play". According to the dictionary it is the "pursuit of entertainment and
fun," and by fun its understood "enjoyment, amusement, or light-hearted
pleasure." Of these two interpretations, we can safely conclude that the play
and the fun are interrelated. The play is characterized with positive emotion
and the satisfaction that brings to the players as well as with the interest
towards the new.
In the literature in the field of pedagogy the role-play is presented as a
method of education and upbringing. According to Andreev, the game is "a
special way of reflection and understanding of reality through our own
activities in the imaginary plan" (Andreev, 1996: 241). From other side
Daskalova defines the role-play as "a means of socialization and as such it
reflects some ideals, visions, goals and aspirations of the adult society"
(Daskalova and others., 1998: 26).
In learning environment the play can be used with several
applications- as an independent technology for the absorption of topics, as an
element of the overall technology, as particular lesson or part of a lesson and
as extracurricular work (Duhavneva, 2006).
According to Vassileva the play model "is formed by individually
motivated need for education through special activity that taking place in an
imaginary plan in the specific time and space of the "outside-real life
interrupts the pragmatic interest and joins the natural processes of
understanding of the reality through including of intentional, personally
formed unconventional ways of knowledge "(Vassileva 2002: 121).
Ceoni and Marquez (2008) mention four positive traits of the play
methods. Firstly, it is commitment that exists among the participants as a
350

result of a motivating environment. Secondly the authors emphasize on


imagination, on which are based most of the games and which takes the
players into the fictional world. The determination of precise and clear rules
for the implementation of the game and the achievement of results on third
and on fourth-through the game can be supported the learning process in
order to acquire new knowledge.
The role-play methods contribute to a number of advantages in the
development of the children and for their growth as individuals. They
activate the youths to improve their knowledge and skills and promote the
development of critical thinking. A positive attitude towards learning,
through the game is formed because it is not just learning of facts. It supports
the development of interpersonal relationships, the ability to work with others
and creates a sense of responsibility.
Types of role-plays
The three main types of role-playing games that are most common are
simulation games, situational games, drama-games. The simulation game
takes place in an imaginary scenario where usually a situation is played
which in real life would be dangerous to health. In the situational games are
played cases that raise tensions in order to present a solution to a difficult
situation. For the implementation of the drama-game the pupils should
reincarnate in the role of the characters from the script, the game can take the
form of dialogue, monologue or pantomime. The role -play is often identified
with the dramatization (Mukalel, 1998).
The pupils could be directly involved in the game without any
expectation or with preparation as the teacher explains and provides various
information resources in the form of text, video, music, and others who help
for the performance of the role-play.
In the performing of roles the reaction of the participants in a given
situation and their willingness to make decisions could be traced and it can
help to build interpersonal interactions. The attitude and perception of a
participant can be changed when the roles are changed, which allows a
situation to be viewed from another angle.
For proper implementation of role-playing games some important
steps have to be followed. First the teacher considers the scenario of the roleplay and prepares instructions for the implementation of each role, prepares
the necessary materials, specifies the rules and organizes the space, then sets
the task and assigns the roles. After completion of the game the teacher gives
feedback to the participants and draws a lesson seeking to distinguish the real
from the role-play situation. The teacher could provide the opportunity to the
351

pupils to come up with the plot for the game thus entrust them with more
responsibilities (Killen, 2006). In this way they could be involved not only in
the implementation of the game, but also in the preparations.
The errors that would prevent the implementation of role-playing
game could be: lack of instructions or incorrect instructions, mixing
imaginary with the real situation, the lack of time management, interruption
of the game or incomplete comment at the end of the game.
Kirova (2001) makes a clear distinction between the role play and
simulation. According to her the role-play is always simulated, as it can
simulate both: the others and our own behavior. The focus of the role-play is
on the behavior of all actors, and in the simulation, which has a broader sense
the focus is on the components of reality, which is simulated. Stremba and
Bisson (2009) also distinguished role-play from simulation. In his opinion the
role-play is synonymous of sociodrama and usually plays a case for solving
of conflict or presents an important historical moment and implementation of
feedback to the players. While in the role-play there are several participants
in the simulations the whole class is involved.
A study of McCarthy and Anderson (2002) role-playing game is
much more effective than the traditional method of learning in which the
teacher is at the center. Therefore the role play should be used as a strategy
for teaching: it provokes social interaction, and the belief that effective
learning can take place when teachers make students solve problems that are
beyond their accumulated experience. The role-play leads to a number of
positive factors such as the acquisition of new knowledge and application of
what youve learned to develop new skills and change behavior (Killen,
2006).
Good practices:
Good practice 1: Drama-game: With the advent of the innovative
technologies in the education the focus is on the discovery, collaboration and
creativity. On this occasion a drama-game with the participation of teachers
was held, which show that it is possible to be applied on several levels. The
scenario of the game could be played in original, where the participants only
have to reproduce it and develop skills to work with others. It could also be
developed an alternative scenarios, where the freedom to invent new storyline
to be given and to provoke the participants for innovation and creativity.
The role-play, which will be described in details was implemented by
teachers participating in the first-innovative practicum Masterclass for
352

innovative teachers and managers in education, organized by the


Department of modern methods in education part of International University
College.
The introduction to the game was done with a modern interpretation
of the Russian national tale "The turnip" by comparing the characters with
the modern school. In the innovative version of tale the turnip is represented
in the face of the pupil, the grandfather takes the role of the principle, the
grandmother as the vice-principal, granddaughter as the teacher, the doggy in
the role of the pedagogical advisor, the kitty as a librarian and the mouse as a
representative of the social networks like Facebook.
According to the new interpretation, this is a story about the school in
which the turnip (the student) is not swaying. The postmodern pupil is easily
discouraged and loses interest in the class. The reason is the use of outdated
for his time educational methods that lead to poor results because they do not
meet the expectations of the young people. The grandfather (the principal)
calls the grandmother (vice principal) for help, and in turn she is calling the
granddaughter (the teacher) from which we can judge for the hierarchy in the
school, which states the management of the institution.
In order to pull out the turnip are called a number of specialists such
as the doggy, the kitty and the mouse. The mouse in the face of social
networking (Facebook), which to some extension could be perceived as a
pest in the school is also attracted. But if used properly, the social networks
could have a positive effect in the communication between teachers and
pupils. In good coordination of the collaboration between the generations a
result can be achieved.
According to the rules in order to implement the game the teachers
had to be divided into groups of 8 people and distribute the roles by choosing
one storyteller. Each group was tasked to write a new plot of the story
corresponding to the management of the school / class in the postmodern
conditions, but with the same successful outcome as in the original tale.
Operating time was 20 min., and 1 min for the performance in front of the
others. A jury was selected, which was assigned with the task to evaluate the
participants and to give feedback, drawing a lesson and making a summary of
the performances. This type of game builds skills for working in a team,
interpersonal relations and provokes the development of managerial
competence in each teacher to organize the teaching process in the
educational institutions.
Good practice 2: Within the camp for young entrepreneurs high
school students (10-12 grade) worked on the case study- "Be the change."
353

The students were divided into several teams of 5 people as all had to
take on the role of social entrepreneurs and create a business plan for a
product or service that would benefit the society as a solution to one of the
biggest problems we face in Bulgaria, such as poverty, unemployment, health
problems, problems in education, etc.. The role -play had a competitive
nature and had to be fulfilled for two hours and a half, as the most innovative
projects were awarded.
As a result, the children shared exclusively satisfaction from the given
opportunity to be part of such an environment, to be team players, to get into
a conflict situation, to be conceptual and creative, to manage their time, to
test their presentation and communication skills and get out of the stereotype
of the passive participants. The participation in such a project opens for them
new and interesting opportunities for acquiring of useful knowledge.
Young people are prone to innovation they orient quickly in the
surrounding environment and manage to obtain the needed information
quickly. This predisposes wider application of modern methods of teaching in
educational institutions, including the role-playing approach. The games with
fun elements can help fastening teacher-student relationship. By using the
game as a teaching tool the teacher shows that despite the age differences the
generational barrier between them can be removed so the teachers can
approach the world of the high school students and gain trust and respect.
It is a fact that learning through plays (method used everywhere) is
well received by young people and that they might become an integral part of
the educational process in the future. The school girls and boys need more
role-playing initiatives in their study programmes in order to motivate them
to study and acquire new knowledge.
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355


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POLICIES TO ENCOURAGE LIFELONG LEARNING: EUROPEAN
PERSPECTIVE FOR BULGARIA
Ralitsa Veleva, assistant - University of National and World Economy, Sofia,
Bulgaria
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of 23 October 1995, establishing 1996 as the 'European year of lifelong learning', Official Journal of
the European Communities, Brussels, 26.10.95
6
. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006D1720&from=EN Establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning, DECISION No 1720/2006/EC OF
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL, Official Journal of the European Union,
15.11.2006
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. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0933&from - Youth
Opportunities Initiative, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, COM(2011) 933
final, Brussels, 20.12.2011

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competences for lifelong learning, RECOMMENDATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
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http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=BG&f=ST%2016348%202013%20INIT
3.
Breaking the ice school-to-work, LO and DA, Denmark, 2011,
http://www.da.dk/bilag/Breaking_the_ice%20-%20from_school-to-work.pdf
4.
Decision 2493/95 /EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23
October 1995, establishing 1996 as the 'European year of lifelong learning', Official Journal
of the European Communities, Brussels, 26.10.95
5.
Establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning, Decision
1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Official Journal of the
European
Union,
15.11.2006,
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006D1720&from=EN
6.
New Skills for New Jobs. Anticipating and matching labour market and skills
needs, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Commission
of the European Communities, Brussels, 16.12.2008, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52008DC0868&from 7.
Key competences for lifelong learning, Recommendation of the European
Parliament and of the Council, Brussels, 18.12.2006, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006H0962&from=EN
8.
New skills for New Jobs: Anticipating and matching labour market and skills needs,
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 16.12.2008
9.
Skills
supply
and
demand
in
Europe,
CEDEFOP,
2010,
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/Files/3052_en.pdf
10.
Youth Opportunities Initiative, Commission of the European Communities,
Brussels,
20.12.2011,
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0933

364

HANDBOOK FOR MANAGERS MANUAL FOR COOPERATION


WITH STUDENTS
Diyan Dimov, Lecturer at International University College, Bulgaria
Abstract: The managerial profession changed dramatically over the past two decades.
Modern managers have to perform more tasks, shoulder more responsibilities, and solve
more problems. The scope of the modern managerial profession has grown to such an extent
that it can hardly be described by a single book of any kind. The main goal of this handbook
is to cover the most important topics for modern managers by presenting useful insights and
advices. Two steps were performed in order to craft these insights and advices. The first step
was to implement a secondary research about the skills, competences, and practices that a
modern-day manager should utilize in order to be successful. The second step was to discuss
the above mentioned skills, competences, and practices and through active communication
with students and sharing of personal observation and experience by the author to suggest
the insights and advices that will improve the performance of contemporary managers.
Keywords: managerial profession, managers, handbook, skills, competences, practices
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Introduction
The managerial profession changed dramatically over the past two
decades. Modern managers have to perform more tasks, shoulder more
responsibilities, and solve more problems. The scope of the modern
managerial profession has grown to such an extent that it can hardly be
described by a single book of any kind. The main research goal of this
handbook is to cover the most important topics for modern managers by
presenting useful insights and advices.

365

Methodology
The types of research conducted for this paper are secondary research,
active communication with students from International University College,
and sharing of personal observation and experience by the author. Primary
research was deliberately omitted because the main idea of the research was
to actively discuss the different topics with students and to adopt their
opinion into the insights and advices provided by this handbook. The first
step of the analysis was to implement a secondary research about the skills,
competences, and practices that a modern-day manager should utilize in order
to be successful. The second step of the analysis was to discuss the above
mentioned skills, competences, and practices and through active
communication with students and sharing of personal observation and
experience by the author to suggest useful insights and advices that will
improve the performance of contemporary managers.
Organizational Culture
According to Nelson and Quick (2008): Corporate culture is a pattern of
basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new
members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization.
According to Edgar Schein (2013), organizational culture has three levels:
artifacts, values, and basic assumptions. The artifacts are rituals, symbols,
ceremonies, and personal enactment and they are most visible. Values are
what people in the organization believe and consider right or wrong. Values
are what they think the organization should offer and what not. There are
values that are accepted by everyone, and everyone says they stick to them
(espoused values). However, there are values that represent what is the real
picture and reveal the actual values of the employees (enacted values).
Assumptions are deeply seated in an organization. Employees of an
organization could be unconscious about the assumptions, not even knowing
about their existence (Schein, 2013). Such assumptions could be how
customers have to be treated in different situations. Assumptions could exist
in all kinds of relationships inside the organization, as well as relationships
between insiders and outsiders. The corporate culture may drive the
organization in different directions. It is the managers role to identify those
directions of the current culture together with the changing circumstances in
the environment outside the organization. If change in organizational culture
is required, it is the managers role to apply it. The change is not easy but by
using the artifacts, and knowing the people that work for the organization, the
manager could make the change (Nelson & Quick, 2008).

366

Motivation
Motivation is something that organizations and managers should always
look for in order to be successful and efficient (Reynolds, 2013; Pinder,
2008). Managers and leaders should be able to recognize when employees are
not motivated. Moreover, they must know how to understand the reasons for
low motivation level. Some of those reasons could be too low responsibility,
too much responsibility, low payment, low training, wrong rewards and
bonuses system. Other reasons could be personal problems and lack of other
benefits like allowance for the organizations products or services. Managers
and leaders must always show concern about their subordinates and
willingness to help them. Also, employees must always be reminded that they
are important for the organization and that actually they are the driving force
of the company (Reynolds, 2013). Employees should feel they are part of one
family whose members are ready to help them in any moment. Managers and
leaders must constantly ask for feedback their employees. In this way the
employees feel their opinion is valued and at the same time, leaders can
adjust and improve their work. Managers and leaders must be sure that the
employees have the needed training for doing their job (Pinder, 2008). If the
problem is too much responsibilities for the employees, then it might be
needed more people to be hired. If the problem is too low responsibility, the
problem could be too many people working in a department or just
inappropriate distribution of responsibilities.
Ethics
Among the advantages for the companies provided by unethical behavior
like profits increase, saving money, and overtaking the competitors, there are
advantages of ethical behavior of the companies (Shaw, 2010). According to
the International Business Ethics Institute (2005), investors and customers
value ethical companies and influence them in taking decisions. Also, ethical
companies with established values have higher employee morale and higher
levels of productivity (Shaw, 2010). Moreover, unethical behavior could lead
to damaged company reputation. Once the companys reputation is damaged,
there is a high possibility of never recovering it which leads to negative
consequences. Furthermore, companies that have strong ethical practices,
demonstrate that they value their employees, and show social responsibility
are able to take advantage of financial incentives offered by governments and
financial institutions.

367

Conflict
Conflict should be seen as positive (Moore, 2014; Lipman, 2013). There
are ways in which the organization could be kept in the positive side of the
conflicts. It is encouraged differences to be looked at as opportunities.
Bringing different people in an organization could result in increased
innovation (Moore, 2014). Also, organizations should value differences and
point out similarities. Furthermore, people should know they are united by a
common goal. There must be rewards and bonuses for a well done job and
work in cooperation. In addition, managers should teach their employees to
appreciate their strengths and weaknesses (Lipman, 2013). This will allow
them to work productively together and improve the companys positions.
Communication Styles
The good understanding of the various communication styles is essential
for a manager. This understanding allows a manager to correctly identify the
communication style that an employee is using and to choose the appropriate
communication style for interacting with this employee (Saphiere, Mikk, &
DeVries, 2005; Seiler & Beall, 2010). These two actions are important for the
successful communication between a manager and an employee. According
to Joni Rose (2007), an expert in the field of corporate training and
management, there are four main communication styles. These
communication styles are aggressive, passive, passive-aggressive, and
assertive.
The aggressive communication style is direct and forceful. People who use
it consider their own opinion as superior and try to impose it to others. This
style, as it is implied by its name, is attacking and does not respect the
opinions or decisions of others. The aggressive communicator believes that
he or she is always right and for that reason, he or she always demands his or
her own way. This is the main goal of the aggressive communication style
and in order to achieve it all kinds of tactics are used twisting the truth,
inducing guilt, and intimidating (Seiler & Beall, 2010). The aggressive
communicator is interacting successfully with passive communicators.
The passive communication style is indirect and retiring. People who use
it consider their own opinion as inferior and they keep it for themselves. They
do not talk much and try to avoid confrontation at any cost. The passive
communicator does not mind if others impose their opinions on him or her
and does not mind if others make decisions for him or her (with or without
consent). The passive communication style is characteristic with its implicit
consent and low level of involvement. The main goal of this style is to make
people who use it as invisible as possible (Saphiere, Mikk, & DeVries,
368

2005). The passive communicator is interacting successfully with aggressive


communicators.
The passive-aggressive style is a mixture of the already mentioned two
communication styles. This style is indirect but forceful. People who use it
try to avoid direct confrontation (a characteristic of the passive style) but still,
they try to impose their opinion or decision (a characteristic of the aggressive
style). They use techniques for indirect influence like manipulation and
incitement. The main goal of this style is to present an opinion or a decision
as the most appropriate one without actually saying it and making others
support this opinion or decision without actually asking them to do so
(Saphiere, Mikk, & DeVries, 2005). The passive-aggressive communicator is
interacting successfully with both aggressive and passive communicators.
The assertive communication style is direct, honest and sensible. It is
straightforward and honest to the point that no one is hurt (both mentally and
physically). People who use it choose and make their own decisions but they
are not trying to impose their opinions and decisions to others. The main goal
of this style is to create win/win communicational situations. The assertive
communicator is interacting successfully with passive communicators. The
assertive communication style is considered to be the most effective one
(Rose, 2007). However, different situations and different people require
different communication styles for the achieving of successful and healthy
communication (Saphiere, Mikk, & DeVries, 2005; Seiler & Beall, 2010).
Managers need to be prepared to communicate successfully with different
people and in different situations and that is why, managers should be well
acquainted with these communication styles.
Values and Needs (of employees)
Values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of
existence is more appropriate than other modes of conduct or end states of
existence (Twenge, Campbell, Hoffman, & Lance, 2010). There is a wide
range of values covering numerous topics and problems. The values of
employees that are important for managers are work values. Work values are
important for managers because they affect the work behavior and the work
performance of employees (Stephenson, 2011). These values are difficult for
changing or creating. Managers should be able to only identify these values
in a person. They should use this skill during the recruitment of new
employees when they should hire candidates that possess these values.
Furthermore, managers should use this skill to assemble teams, work groups,
and departments with employees that possess similar values (all kinds of
values, not only work values) because workers with similar values produce
positive results.
369

According to Nelson and Quick (2008), there are four main work values
that managers need to be well acquainted with. These values are
achievement, concern for others, honesty, and fairness. Achievement is the
desire of people to progress professionally and to carve out a career for
themselves. Concern for others is the anxiety of people about the well-being
(both professional and physical) of other people (mainly colleagues). Honesty
is the belief of people that they should always be correct and accurate in the
performing of their professional and personal duties. Fairness is the belief of
people that they should always be impartial and that they should always treat
other people (mainly colleagues) equally. Employees that possess these
values are very likely to produce positive work results (Twenge, Campbell,
Hoffman, & Lance, 2010; Stephenson, 2011).
Need theories are important for managers because they indentify and
classify the needs of employees. Managers who know and understand the
needs of employees are able to successfully motivate the employees (Berman,
Bowman, West, & Van Wart, 2006; Kremer & Hammond, 2013). According
to Nelson and Quick (2008), there are three main need theories. These
theories are Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory, McClellands Need
Theory, and Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Theory states that the behavior of people is determined by their needs.
Maslow identified five hierarchical categories of needs physiological needs,
safety and security needs, love (social) needs, esteem needs, and selfactualization needs (Kremer & Hammond, 2013). According to his theory
people begin to meet their needs from top to bottom. They start with meeting
their physiological needs such as the needs for food and clothing. Once all
the physiological needs are met people move to the next category of needs
which is the safety and security needs. This process continues until the needs
from all categories are met.
McClellands Need Theory identifies three learned or acquired needs that
are called manifest needs (Berman, Bowman, West, & Van Wart, 2006).
These three needs are the need for achievement, the need for power, and the
need for affiliation. The need for achievement is the need of people to
achieve something in their life like for example, to overcome challenging and
difficult tasks. The need for power is the need of people to influence other
people is some way like for example, to change the behavior of a particular
person. The need for affiliation is the need of people to establish and
maintain relationships with other people.
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory states that people have two sets of needs
one related to the avoidance of pain and one related to the desire for
psychological growth (Berman, Bowman, West, & Van Wart, 2006). Both of
these sets of needs are met by particular work conditions. Work conditions
that satisfy needs related to the avoidance of pain are called hygiene factors
and work conditions that satisfy needs related to psychological growth are
370

called motivation factors. Examples for motivation factors are recognition of


achievement and entrusting responsibilities. Examples for hygiene factors are
good working conditions and good supervision.
Stress and Stress Management
Stress on the workplace often produces negative outcomes for both the
employees and the organization (Martin, 2012; Segal, 2008). The negative
outcomes for the employees are aggravated physical and emotional health as
well as deteriorated work performance. The negative outcomes for the
organization are decreased productivity and lowered quality of the produced
products or provided services. Managers should be able to identify high
levels of stress and should be able to reduce this stress. According to Jeanne
Segal (2008), an expert in the field of emotional intelligence, there are six
main symptoms of high levels of stress on the workplace. These symptoms
are feeling anxious, irritable, or depressed, feeling loss of interest in work,
fatigue, trouble concentrating, social withdrawal, and using alcohol and drugs
to cope with work duties.
If managers find out that the levels of stress on the workplace are high
they should try to reduce this stress (Martin, 2012). They can use four main
stress reducing actions (Segal, 2008). These actions are to improve
communication, to consult the employees, to offer rewards and incentives,
and to cultivate a friendly social climate. The communication can be
improved by clearly defining the employees roles and responsibilities and by
sharing information that eliminates the fear of layoffs. Managers can consult
with the employees by giving them the opportunity to participate in decisions
that affect their jobs such as formulating the work schedule, determining the
workloads, and defining the work rules. The rewards and incentives can be
offered for good work performance and can be both immaterial (verbal
appraisal) and material (salary bonuses). A friendly social climate can be
created by stimulating the social interactions between the employees and by
eliminating all kinds of harassment.
Team Skills and Teamwork
Team skills and teamwork are two integral components of every
successful modern organization (Lau, 2013). Managers should develop the
team skills of the employees and they should encourage teamwork. Managers
should develop the team skills of the employees by organizing educational
seminars. These seminars can be conducted by company managers or by an
outside company that offers such seminars. Managers should encourage
teamwork by organizing teams for completing difficult tasks and project
whenever possible. Furthermore, managers should regularly organize team
371

building events. According to Richard Romando (2006), a team building


specialist, team building is not only improving the team skills of employees
and encouraging teamwork but it is also increasing the productivity,
improving the communication, improving the conflict resolution, and
increasing the job satisfaction. There are numerous different team building
events ranging from picnics to military games. Managers can either organize
team building events themselves or they can hire an outside company that
organizes such events.
Diversity
Diversity is an important issue for managers. Diversity provides
considerable benefits for organizations but it also creates difficulties (Galer,
2014). Managers should be able to deal with diversity in order to exploit its
benefits and minimize the problems associated with it. According to Patrick
and Kumar (2012), there are two main things that each manager should be
able to do in order to deal with diversity successfully managers should be
able to motivate diverse work groups and they should be able to
communicate effectively with a diverse group of employees. Diversity is also
creating some problems for organizations and managers should eliminate or
at least minimize these problems. These problems are four resistance to
change, lack of cohesiveness, interpersonal conflicts, and slowed decision
making (Galer, 2014). In order to accomplish the above mentioned two things
for dealing with diversity and to minimize the four problems associated with
diversity, managers need to know and understand the scope of diversity.
There are four main types of diversity cultural diversity, gender
diversity, age diversity, and ability diversity (Patrick & Kumar 2012; Galer,
2014). The cultural diversity represents the different cultural beliefs,
traditions, and customs of people around the world. The gender diversity
represents the differences between the two genders male and female. The
age diversity represents the differences between generations. The ability
diversity represents the differences between the abilities (both mental and
physical) that people possess. The knowledge and understanding of these
types of diversity together with their characteristics allows a manager to
successfully deal with diversity and to minimize the problems associated with
diversity.
Goal-Setting Practices
Goal-setting is the process of creating the set of desired results which a
company or a particular team wants to achieve. Clear objectives, priorities,
and purposes lead to collective achievement and to motivation on the work
place (Locke & Latham, 2006; Silverstein, 2007). Managers have to set clear,
372

measurable and weighted goals. Employees often have a need to be


challenged in order to be more productive or to be satisfied by their work
(Silverstein, 2007). In some cases unclear goals will cause a feeling of
discomfort and vagueness among employees which will have a negative
impact on their motivation and performance. Also, when goals are ranked by
importance or in other words are weighted, this will encourage employees to
work in a companys best interest without mentioning their own interest.
There are four factors which affect goal-directed efforts (Locke & Latham,
2006). They are: goal difficulty, goal commitment, goal specificity and goal
acceptance.
Conclusion
This handbook is not a precise how-to guide that explains how modern
managers should perform their jobs but it is instead a compilation of useful
insights and advices that enrich the knowledge of modern managers and help
them improve their work performance. The modern economy offers new
challenges, creates new threats, and provides new opportunities for
companies. The managers of these companies will have to deal with these
challenges, overcome the threats and seize the opportunities in order to
ensure the success of their companies. These actions are difficult to
accomplish and this handbook is helping managers to accomplish them more
easily and more productively.
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Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes, and Problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications.
Galer, S. (2014, January 24). New Study Redefines Workplace Diversity. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2014/01/24/new-study-redefines-workplace-diversity-itno-longer-means-what-you-think/
International Business Ethics Institute. (2005). Business Ethics: A Corporate Advantage.
Retrieved from http://www.business-ethics.org/corpadv.html
Kremer, W., & Hammond, C. (2013, August 31). Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that
beguiled business. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23902918
Lau, E. (2013, January 23). Why and Where is Teamwork Important? Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2013/01/23/why-and-where-is-teamwork-important/
Lipman, V. (2013, March 4). How To Manage Conflict At Work. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2013/04/03/how-to-manage-conflict-at-work/
Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2006). New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications.
Martin, J. (2012, December). 5 Daily Rituals to Manage Work Stress. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2012/12/26/5-daily-rituals-to-managework-stress/
Moore, C. (2014). The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict (4th
ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

373

Nelson, D., & Quick, J. (2008). Understanding organizational behavior (3rd ed.). Mason,
OH: Thompson South-Western.
Patrick, H., & Kumar, V. (2012, April 25). Managing Workplace Diversity: Issues and
Challenges. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Pinder, C. (2008). Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior (2nd ed.). New York, NY:
Psychology Press.
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Stress. Retrieved from http://helpguide.org/mental/work_stress_management.htm
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Differences in Work Values: Leisure and Extrinsic Values Increasing, Social and
Intrinsic Values Decreasing. Journal of Management, 36 (5): 1117-1142.

374

V. :

NGOS AND EDUCATION: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
AT THE ROMANIAN BLAK SEA COASTAL AREA A CASE
STUDY
Carmen Bucovala, PhD,
Ovidius High School, Constanta, Romania
Abstract: The roots of the education for sustainable development are planted in the
environmental education. In its more than 30 years story, environmental education have
striven towards goals and outcomes similar and comparable to thise inherent in the
sustainability. The goal of a proper human resources management policy should include a
optimisation of the pre-service and in-service training of the teachers.
Keywords: Education, environmenta, sustainable development, training

1. The general context


After many years of slow transition, Romania represents a clear
example of what could be described as the vicious circle of human resources.
On the one hand, the reforms undertaken in various sectors (economy,
education, health, employment, political system and administration) cannot
be finalized without the appropriate human resources. On the other hand,
slowing down or postponing economic reforms impede the emergence of
material and financial resources to be invested in human resources. The
mutual restriction of the human and physical capital, both on the decline, may
lead to a dangerous stagnation and blocking of the capacity for change and
social development.
To break through this vicious circle of human resources, whose
perpetuation may lead to a state of unending transition, it is necessary to
develop a global policy which would re-consider the role of human resources
in the framework of reforms. This policy should start out from two simple
premises:
human resources must indeed become a national priority, going beyond
rhetoric statements inspired by political opportunism;
this priority can be put into practice only through a clear representation of
objectives and a realistic policy based on social dialogue.
Although human resources are part of an individuals life, the way in
which they are used as well as the effects are closely linked to the life of a
community or even society on the whole. Social integration of human
resources requires that we take into account an essential form of capital, the
375

human capital, with all the fundamental characteristics associated with a


public asset: there is a direct or indirect benefit even for those who do not
take part in creating and maintaining it. It is in everybodys interest that these
resources not only be maintained but also developed in accordance with our
aspirations for prosperity, stability and cohesion.
From this perspective, human resources development is seen not as
residual factor of investment in physical capital, but as an indispensable
condition of sustainable development. The holistic approach has in view a
unanimously accepted definition according to which human resources are
necessary for the activity of the entire society. Consequently, it is not only a
question of knowledge, skills and abilities, which make up individual and
collective competencies, but also indispensable features that define human
potential: state of health, demographic potential, morality, democratic
citizenship, social cohesion, desire for lifelong learning and empowerment,
capacity for self-development and creativity.
In order to mobilize and develop the human potential required to meet
the requirement of the monern society, the following issues should be
analyzed:
including human resources in all reform programs, irrespective of field;
through training, management, innovation, community development,
civic participation and awareness, political socialization, lifelong
learning, improving the quality of work and life;
using excellence centers and efficient sectors as support for transforming
the entire society;
developing institutional capacities, especially those with innovation
potential, direct influence and of social change;
featuring competencies of adjustment to an uncertain and problematic
context, with a view to increasing capacities of competitiveness,
employment and enduring development;
combining quality and equity by establishing some new standards of
social life and delivering public and consumption services in a more
equitable way;
providing continuing training in view of lifelong learning, to cover both
the professional dimension as well as political socialization and
citizenship education;
support the biological potential of human resources, through measures
intended to improve the state of health, public hygiene, social aid and
demographic balance;
ensuring minimum standards of human resources development: basic
education for all, minimal initial training, social and vocational
integration, civic participation, social cohesion, capacity for innovation,
physical and mental health, ecological awareness, public morality, etc.;
376

considering skills and the way they are formed as compulsory criteria for
professional selection, managerial promotion and social recognition;
creating a new managerial and political elite;
re-launching scientific and technological research activities, severely
affected by the economic decline;
decentralization, regional development and focusing on specific needs;
mobilizing local communities in identifying and using their own human
resources;
training for geographical, social and occupational mobility to meet the
challenges of globalization;
combating marginalisation and social exclusion through efficient social
protection, priority support for underprivileged zones and including
vulnerable population; encouraging social participation of all individuals,
groups or organizations, stimulating joint responsibility and social
dialogue;
providing a minimal civic culture for the entire population and the use of
human rights as a fundamental principle of social relationships;
creating anticipatory skills, for solving unforeseen issues, communication
skills, critical spirit, personal development, lifelong learning, collective
negotiation, co-existence in a multi-cultural environment, tolerance and
solidarity;
developing organizational culture, stimulating entrepreneurial spirit,
teamwork competencies and risk taking, as well as preoccupation for
quality, to encourage an increase of productivity and competitiveness.
The economic and political changes of transition have had important
consequences on human resources. Citizens have had to assume new
responsibilities, new social, economic and political roles, to use their
knowledge, experience and skills in an entirely different context. This context
results from the converging action of private initiative, competition and social
insecurity as well as from the difficulties inherent to any change of regime. In
the new economic and social circumstances, the existing social capital has
been severely eroded, but has also gone through processes of alternative
actualization by adjustment and creation, consequently meeting the greater
part of the requirements of a chaotic and uncertain market.
This contradictory situation, combining decline and apathy with the
emergence of new competencies, institutes and centers of excellence, must be
used in the human resources development strategy. The new hotbeds of
innovation and expertise must become the major lever of social change. To
this end, they must be protected and preserved but also identified, encouraged
and used as centers of decision-making, management and social influence.
The reform of education is, actually, a new quality of human
resources. It is a question, on the one hand, of a re-allocation of existing
377

resources and on the other, of training human resources in another paradigm,


where quality is an objective at least as important as equity. From this
perspective the following three priorities are compulsory: improving learning
standards; training teaching staff; training managers.
From this perspective, the strategic objective human resources for the
educational system presupposes the achievement of the following:
consolidate the new school curriculum and training of teachers for the
development of the school based curriculum;
update psycho-pedagogical and methodology training of the teaching
staff according to the requirements of school development;
stimulate the intrinsic motivation of pupils and students, associating them
to the organization and administration of the learning system;
emphasizing long-term results, not performances that can be used
exclusively in an academic environment;
draw up programs preventing drop-out and school failure and diversify
the incentives of participation (in addition to conditioning child
allowance);
giving up parallel schooling (private tuition at the expense of the
family) which marks in fact the failure of formal education;
shifting to a different system of controlling quality in education, through
formative evaluation and examinations focused on performance not on
learning facts and figures by heart, and by using other relevant
instruments;
promoting training based on real competencies that can be used in the
course of ones career;
ensuring large scale use of new technologies in education;
encouraging alternative education.
2. Environmental education and education for the sustainable
development
The roots of the education for sustainable development are planted in
the environmental education. While environmental education is not the only
discipline with a strong role in the reorientiring process, is it a important help.
In its more than 30 years story, environmental education have striven towards
goals and outcomes similar and comparable to thise inherent in the
sustainability.
The international conferences in Tbilisi, Stockholm, Belgrad, Rio,
Johannerburg, related with the environmental issues, inspired the guidung
principles of the environmental education, which are: making individuals and
communities understand the complex nature of the natural and the built
environments resulting from the interaction of their biological, physical,
378

social, economic and cultural aspects and acuire the knowledge, values,
attitudes and practical skills to participate in a responsible and effective way
in anticipating and solving environmental problems and the management of
the quality of the environment. A further basic aim of environmental
education is crealy to shoe the economic, political and ecological
interdependence of the modern world, in which decisions and actions by the
different countries can have international repercurssions. Environment should
help to develop a sense of responsabily ans solidarity among countries and
regions. Special attention shoud be paid to understanding the complex
relation between socio-economic and the improvement of the environment.
The motto of environmental education and of the education for the
sustainability have been: think globally, act locally, and that is relevant in
the influence of this fields of education in promoting interdisciplinary
inquiries can be seen at all levels of education. Environmental education
have found original ways of looking and measuring human impact on the
environment, such as the ecological footprint, which estimate the number
of acres of land required to sustain individuals according to their life styles
and patters of consumption. Innovative work have been done in the field of
environmental health by relating illness to environmental stress and ways of
life.
In conclusion, the record of the environmental education movement is
one of ressourcefulness, innovation and continuing accomplishments.
Lessons learned from environmental education provide valuable insight for
developing the broader notion of education for sustainable development.
Changes in the natural environment as a consequence of human
activity increase at both the local and global level. Only by raising peoples
awareness and making them understand the functioning of the life support
systems and the relationship between the quality of the environment and the
necessity of resource exploitation, will a decrease in the man made impact
take place. The key to solving these problems is environmental education
(EE), a relevant and necessary field for all ages and for all socio-economic
levels. Environmental education includes formal education (traditional
methods of teaching in schools and training institutions) and non-formal
(clubs, associations, foundations, mass media, adult education institutions,
etc.).
The creation of a new kind of relation between individuals, society,
and nature phenomenology is imperative in order to find a new alliance that
will stop the probable eventuality of irreversible damage of the natural
population level. Such methods are useful new knowledge forms that can
enable individuals and social groups, and also increase responsibility of the
social life at all levels (economic, political, productive, cultural,
administrative, etc).
379

From this perspective, the place of educators and of the new


generation of trainers becomes obvious, but also for the adults in order to
accustom students faced with a more responsible way to deal with different
dimensions of the reality without being overwhelmed by these but, on the
contrary, sustained in diminishing the effects of the negative human behavior
upon the nature. From this point of view, the environmental education is a
kind of civic activity whose goal is to develop knowledge and action of the
people so they could observe, analyze and make the difference between the
various aspects of nature and the social situation in which they are living, in
order to understand the profound features of that.
Our environmental context, the urban structures, the totality of places
which we are exploring and that are generating new emotional, social,
cultural relationship that are influencing the development of our own identity,
puts us in contact with the multidimensional phenomenon of the micro and
macro universe. The educators should know, in the first place, that they can
make the students broaden their perspective about the environmental process,
and accustom them to decode and to analyze complex events in a dynamic
manner that characterizes the living and nonliving environment.
Currently, environmental education in Romania is very limited.
Environmental education is comprised of a few motivated teachers who are
willing to offer ecology as part of the optional hour and a few extracurricular
activities organized by local environmental NGOs. There are very few
resources available in Romanian to teachers interested in environmental
education. There are an abundance of resources in English, but these require
adaptation to the cultural and economic situation here in addition to
translation.
A locally adapted environmental curriculum that includes updated,
interactive, and dynamic teaching methods is needed to improve and further
educate a new generation of Romanian children. They need to see and
experience why ecological health matters and how they are related to it. They
need to learn that they make a difference. This approach is directly opposite
the traditional feeling embodied in the often-heard statement there is nothing
we can do.
3. Final comments
The major internal difficulties faced by the environmental NGOs are
the following: lack of human resources, limited professional experience, lack
of staff; lack if adequate public relation offices; deficient management; lack
of clearly defined strategy. The suggested solutions are: to establish criteria
for selecting members, to have specific trainings, to attract young people, to
support satellite groups, to fins sponsors and partners able to grant logistic
support for activities, to intensify exchanges of experience between NGOs,
380

to improve internal organization and operational plans, to correctly identify


the problems of the community that the NGO represents, to improve strategic
planning, to take advantage on training opportunities.
The major external difficulties faced by the environmental NGOs are
the following: a low degree of networking between NGOs, difficulty in
mobilizing funds, lack of adequate PR, lack of strategy in developing
partnership at local and national level, limited access to accurate and up-todate information. The suggested solutions are: to initiate joint projects, to set
up NGO networks in specific activity fields, to make fund raising more
professional, to establish and take advantage of relations with mass media, to
use appropriate language with the target public, to built reputation and public
trust through informational activities, to use adequate negotiation techniques,
etc.

References:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

MAYOR, F., 1999 - The Role of Culture in Sustainable Development, in Sustainable


Development education, the force of change, p 11 16.
MUNASINGHE, M., 1993 - Environmental economics and sustainable development,
Banca Mondiala, BIRD, Washington, USA, 39 p.
OCALLAGHAN, M., 1999 Public Awareness and Sustainability, in Sustainable
Development education, the force of change, p 207 250.
PREVOST, P., 1996 Training in care for the environment from professional practice to
training model, in The new learning models, ed. A. Giordan, Y. Girault, Zedition, p.
221 230.
SAUVE, L, 2002 Education relative a lenvironnement: possibilities et contraintes, in
Connexion, vol XXVII, no 1-2, p1-4.

381

THE ROLE OF PUSH AND PULL MOTIVATIONS IN HUNGARIANS


LEISURE TRAVELS
Assoc. Prof. Mtys Hinek, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Katalin Szalai, PhD,
Kodolnyi Jnos University of Applied Sciences, Tourism Department,
Budapest, Hungary
Abstract: The analysis of travel motivations is a thriving subject in international tourism
research. Leisure travel motivations of the Hungarians were examined in this study using a
questionnaire survey. The research has been carried out on the strength of the push and
pull travel motivations theory which is widely used in international literature. Six push
and six pull motivations were identified with the help of factor analysis. Based on the
respondents demographic characteristics (gender, age, educational qualification, per capita
income) we formed groups and examined the differences in motivations through an analysis
of variance. Four leisure tourist segments have been identified by a complex study of the
differences in motivations of respondents groups. The existence of these four segments is
also confirmed by practical experiences and examples of product and service marketing.
Keywords: tourist destination marketing, tourist motivations, push and pull factors, market
segmentation

1. Introduction
Although forming the physical elements and the image of destinations play
an important role in the growing competition in global tourism, it is also
substantial to understand why and how tourists choose a place to travel and
which factors influence their decision. Destination management may function
effectively indeed if besides the conscious forming of the two above
mentioned basic components it recognizes and comprehends tourist
motivations too. Knowing motivations may help in segmenting the tourist
market and create products and services that lead to more satisfied travellers.
In addition, knowing motivations and better understanding of the destination
choice process are requirements for more effective product development and
marketing it helps to keep tourists and encourage their re-buying and
revisiting (Fodness 1994, Crompton and McKay 1997, Uysal-Li-SirakayaTurk 2008).
2. Theoretical overview
There is only a limited Hungarian literature in connection with tourist
motivations most of which discusses Maslows hierarchy of needs (Maslow
1954, see e.g. Puczk-Rtz 2011). According to Maslows model, at different
levels of hierarchy of needs individuals decide to travel because of various
motivations. The desire to relax, escape or search for identity at a higher level
382

of the hierarchy are all intrinsic motivations deriving from the sociodemographical and psychological characteristics of individuals moderated by
gender, age, social status, income and other factors moreover, intrinsic
motives (also) encourage people to travel. Maslows model however, is not
proper for explaining which destination the tourist will choose and why.
Various types of motivations were set out into a logical framework by Dann
in the second part of the 1970s (1977, 1981, cited in: Bowen and Clark 2009)
based on the behaviour psychological analysis of the neo-behaviourist
researcher Tolman (1959). Dann reviewed every scientific research in
connection with tourist motivations and found out that despite
disarrangement and the doubt in cases whether or not the same phenomena
was analysed by researchers, two basic approaches can be stated:
travel can be interpreted as the tourists response to satisfy a need that
is lacking;
travelling because the destination attributes pull (attract) the tourist in
response to motivation push.
The two approaches represent the two groups of tourist motivations which
according to the categorisation of Tolman are referred to as push
(encouraging) and pull (attracting) motivations by Dann. Push factors
represent intrinsic desires and drive the tourist towards travelling. Pull
motivations are the destination attributes perceived and admired by the tourist
so they attract the visitor towards the place to see. Pull factors of the
destination are perceived in view of the tourists intrinsic (push) motivations.
Push factors can be regarded as the socio-psychological constructions of
tourists and their environment and help to explain the desire for travelling.
Most of the push factors are intrinsic motivations for instance escape,
relaxation, recreation, health, fitness and social interaction. These
components are connected to Maslows hierarchy of needs: self-respect,
belonging, recognition, appreciation and prestige are all part of the intrinsic
motivations of travelling.
Pull factors arise from destination attractiveness and become perceptible for
tourists who wish to travel. Besides tangible resources such as beaches,
recreational institutions and cultural sights, perceptions and expectations
for instance novelty, usefulness and the marketed image are also included
(McGehee et al., 1996). The destination attributes may respond to, encourage
or strengthen the intrinsic (push) motivations.
The identification and separation of intrinsic (push) and extrinsic (pull)
motivations happened at the end of the 1970s (Crompton 1979). According to
Crompton, individuals are motivated to change by a short- or long-term
disequilibrium such as the desire for breaking out from daily routine. One
may follow three different patterns of behaviour to dissolve this
disequilibrium: stay at home, travel for leisure or other purposes (e.g. visit
relatives) or travel for business. When the desire for travelling raises in
383

someone the incentive dimension of motivation changes to a deliberate


dimension and guides the tourist in choosing the desired destination.
Destination choice depends on the intensity of combining individual
motivations which are dominant in the hierarchy at the very moment that is
why at different times one responds to the same stimulus (perceived
disequilibrium) in various ways and chooses other destinations. Motivations
can be located along a continuum on one end with socio-psychological
motives and on the other with the cultural ones.
It is characteristic for the role of socio-psychological motivations that in
given cases the destination itself is not important at all and functions only as
means to satisfy the motive(s). The following ones were identified as sociopsychological motivations: escape, re-exploration and re-evaluation of self,
relaxation, prestige, nostalgia, family relationships and social interactions.
These factors are called push motivations since they can not be connected
to certain characteristic places.
Cultural factors on the other side of the motivation continuum characterize
the destination and are in a weaker connection with the individuals sociopsychological state. Crompton identified only two cultural motivations
namely novelty (referring to speciality, adventure, newness or distinction)
and education-studying (getting experiences while travelling). Consequently,
cultural motivations equal to pull motives and depend on the destination
attributes.
In spite of the fact that push and pull classification is simple and seems to
contain every motivation, these factors should not be considered as the two
end points of a dichotomy. Push and pull factors are united in consumers
mind (Goossens 2000). Tourists can create their own equilibrium between
escape the daily routine and experience the enticing new. According to IsoAhola (1982) both approach (seeking) and avoidance (escaping)
components are present in leisure motivation in general ... and tourism
motivation in particular. In other words push and pull factors do not form
the basis of two separate decisions made at different times but both are
included in the tourists decision together. Furthermore, each motivation
consists of a personal (psychological) and an interpersonal (social)
component thus four motivational dimensions arise: personal escape,
personal seeking, interpersonal escape and interpersonal seeking (Iso-Ahola
1983).
The travel career pattern (TCP) is a more recent motivational model in which
the push factors of travel motives are classified and assigned to the groups of
tourists (Pearce 2005, Pearce and Lee 2005, Dolnikar et al. 2012). Depending
on the travellers age, stage of life and travel experiences different motives
become variously important and cause travel career patterns to stand out.
Push motivation can be classified into layers based on their importance.
Escape, relaxation, novelty and relationships belong to the innermost layer
384

(core) this set of motives is always important for every tourist


independently from previous travel experiences. Motives structured into the
middle layer are moderately important and can be arranged into two
subgroups: 1) for those who have travelled less inner-oriented factors (selfdevelopment, self-actualization) are more substantial 2) for tourists who have
more travel experiences outer-oriented motivations (nature, selfdevelopment in the destination, safe relationships) become more valuable.
Less important motivations such as isolation, nostalgia, romance and
recognition are arranged into the outer layer.
Besides the above mentioned most significant studies several other
examinations were carried out in connection with travel motivations (e.g.
Uysal and Hagan 1993, Wilkie 1994, Kim and Lee 2002 etc.). Early
publications about tourist motivations had a determinative influence on
empiric examinations made after the millennium, most of which used the
push and pull framework to analyse this subject. Mainly quantitative, statistic
methods were used in these researches to identify push and pull factors the
most characteristic travel motivations are given in Table 1.
2. Method
The typical method used to examine motivations is a questionnaire survey
with an average or large sample size, usually containing numerous (in cases
more than 50) statements (items) that describe push and pull motivations.
Respondents are asked about agreement with (self-evaluation) or importance
of (evaluating importance) motivational statements on a 4-7 point Likert
scale (Huang 2009). Applying the collected quantitative data as interval or
ratio scales even advanced statistical examinations (e.g. correlation, factor,
variance or cluster analysis) can be carried out.
Table 1: Push and pull framework of tourism motivations
Push factors

Pull factors

Motivations

Destination attributes and type of facilities

Escape

Climate

Rest and relaxation

History sights

Self-esteem

Scenic beauty

Prestige

Sunshine

Health and fitness

Beaches

Adventure

Snow

385

Social interaction

Cultural events

Benefits

Recreational opportunities

Interests

Benefit expectations

Socioeconomic and demographic factors Accessibility


Age, gender, income, education, family
life-cycle and size, race/ethnic group,
occupation, second home ownership

Maintenance factors and situational factors


(safety, security, seasonality)

Market knowledge

Marketed image
Formed negative/positive destination images
Quality of services
Quality of facilities

Source: Uysal-Li-Sirakaya-Turk, 2008

A number of empiric examinations can be found in international literature


(e.g. Pyo et al. 1989, Oh et al 1995, Balogu and Uysal 1996, Usysal and
Jurowski 1994, You et al. 2000, etc., cited in: Uysal-Li-Sirakaya-Turk 2008,
Bashar and Ahmad 2010). Besides identifying push and pull factors
researches also examined how by means of them the tourist market can be
segmented e.g. what are the differences between womens and mens travel
motives (McGehee et al. 1996) or how much the travel motivations of special
target groups e.g. various segments of university students differ from each
other (Dejtisak et al. 2009). The connection of motivations, tourist
satisfaction and coming back (destination loyalty) were examined with
advanced statistical methods (e.g. structural equation modelling) by several
researchers (e.g. Yoon and Uysal 2005, Oom do Valle et al. 2006).
Since Hungarian researchers have not carried out any examinations in this
subject yet we decided to make a quantitative analysis on leisure travels using
international results. Our main purpose was to identify leisure travel
motivations and to explore motivational differences of various respondents
groups. The questionnaire started with a filter question about the basic
characteristics of travelling (why, where, when, with whom) and continued
with 56 items about push and pull motivations. The design of motivational
statements were adapted from Yoon and Uysal (2005), several items however
had to be transformed in accordance with the Hungarian touristic and social
milieu. Elements representing push motivations were motivational statements
referring to travel organizing (How important were the following motives
for you when organizing your travel?), while pull motivations appeared as
statements about destination choice (How much did the following elements
influence your destination choice). Statements had to be evaluated on a 5
point Likert scale. Respondents were asked to choose their most important
386

previous year leisure travel and give their answers concerning that. The
questionnaire closed with demographic questions (age, gender, occupation,
marital status, income).
Data were collected from a self-completed internet questionnaire. University
college students helped us to find respondents and inspire completing the
questionnaire. We aimed to choose respondents of active age because
thanks to their age, income and state of health leisure tourists mainly come
from this group. The number of female and male respondents was equal and
we also aimed to become representative with respect to age therefore 3 age
groups were formed (19-34, 35-49 and 50-64) each with the same number of
respondents in accordance with the distribution of active age inhabitants in
Hungary. In a family only one member was allowed to complete the
questionnaire. Unfortunately the survey was spatially not representative since
most of the respondents lived in towns, mainly in the Central Transdanubian
Region. Data were collected between the end of November and the beginning
of December in 2011.
The main aim of the study was to answer the following questions:
(1) Can we identify the push and pull travel motivations described in
international literature in case of Hungarian leisure tourists?
(2) Are there any motivational differences among respondents groups?
(3) Based on the motivational differences, is it possible to identify
relevant leisure tourist segments that are important for marketing?
3. Results
A total of 1096 usable questionnaires were collected and analysed. 80% of
the respondents (896 people) travelled for leisure purposes in the previous
year. Mainly financial, family, health or official causes were mentioned by
those who did not travel. Leisure tourists primarily travelled in Hungary
(61%), but there were respondents who visited more than one country during
one journey. Sea coasts and lake shores (particularly Lake Balaton) were
signed as destinations by 60% of the respondents while 1/3 of the answers
referred to urban visits. Most travelled together (with family, partner, friends,
acquaintance), only a few answered to take the road alone or in a group. 60%
of the respondents went away in summer and only 5% in winter. The
distribution of leisure tourists age groups was: age group 19-34 represented
35%, age group 35-49 represented 34% and age group 50-65 represented
31% of the respondents. 2/3 of age group 19-34 were students because
university college students helped us to collect data. 41% of the respondents
lived in the capital city, 14% in the chief town of a county, 29% in other
towns and 15% in smaller settlements. Respondent leisure tourists can be
characterized by high educational qualification, more than 50% with
secondary and more than 40% with higher education. In this context, travel
motivations of those Hungarians who have higher than average educational
387

qualification and live in urban areas (primarily in Central Hungary and


Budapest) were analysed.
First, a factor analysis was used to identify motivational elements from the
items referring to travel motives. Items in connection with push and pull
motivations were analysed separately using SPSS.
Push variables proved to be suitable for a factor analysis (KMO value: 0.766;
Bartletts test significance level: 0.000) and there was a medium correlation
between the starting variables. Principal component analysis with Varimax
rotation and Kaiser normalization was used as an extraction method.
According to the Kaiser criterion based on eigenvalue threshold a 5 factor
analysis in SPSS seemed to be suitable. After examining the loading of
variables however, one variable had to be excluded (loading of the Reexploration of self variable was under 0.5 thus it could not be clearly
assigned to any factor) following the re-testing and the examination of the
elbow diagram a six factor analysis was chosen to describe the selected
factors. The 6 selected factors explained 63.3% of the original variables total
variance hence proved to be acceptable. The six push factors and the 19
variables with the most significant factor loadings are given in Table 2.
The 26 pull variables also proved to be proper for factor analysis. There was
a strong correlation among the variables (KMO test value: 0.883; Bartletts
test significance level: 0.000). As an extraction method principal component
analysis with Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization was used again. In
accordance with the Kaiser criterion and the elbow diagram we accepted the
six factor analysis recommended by SPSS since the model explained 61.95%
of the original variables total variance. The six pull factors and the variables
belonging to them are summarized in Table 3.
Table 2: Push factors
Push factors and its variables with the most significant factor
loading
PUSH 1: Social interactions, friends, adventure
Make acquaintances, flirt
Being entertained and having fun
Search for excitement and new challenges
Get to know new pepole
Being together with friends
Being together with the family/partner
PUSH 2: Searching for novelty
Visit historical and cultural places
Visit places where one has never been yet
Trying new food
Seeing and experiencing as much as possible
PUSH 3: Escape

388

Explained variance
(%)
Variables factor
loading
14.69%
0.819
0.705
0.667
0.621
0.561
-0.553
12.64%
0.797
0.741
0.729
0.620
11.69%

Escaping the daily routine


Escaping the monotonous home routine
Enjoy to do something extraordinary
PUSH 4: Comfort and safety
Feeling at home away from home
Feeling safe
PUSH 5: Visiting relatives, rediscovering
Visiting friends and relatives
Rediscovering places that have not been seen for a long time
PUSH 6: Physical activity
Being physically active (hiking, skiing, cycling etc.)
Doing nothing at all

0.844
0.835
0.706
8.86%
0.841
0.749
8.00%
0.764
0.590
7.46%
0.729
-0.729

Push and pull motivations described in the theoretical overview can be well
identified and interpreted on the basis of the obtained factors and their
variables factor loading. The identified factors sometimes represent more
than one motivation described in literature (see Table 1). This is not an error
however and is not contrary to international experiences.
In the next step, the values of push and pull factors (motivations) among
respondents were identified on the basis of the variables factor loading and
the values of the original variables. The regression method of SPSS was used
to calculate factor values. The method is characterized by the facts that the
mean of factor values is zero and the factor values calculated for individual
respondents is either positive (the motivation is more important than average
for the respondent) or negative (the motivation is less important than average
for the respondent). With this method the nearly 50 original variables were
reduced to six push and six pull factors (motivations), individual factor
values for respondents.
Table 3: Pull factors
Pull factors and its variables with the most significant factor loading
PULL 1: Tourist attractions
Nice historic old cities
Interesting and nice towns/villages
Large towns
Different and interesting local culture
Local food and gastronomy
Interesting and friendly local people
PULL 2: Tourist services, hygiene, safety, personal space
First class accommodation
Cleanness, hygiene
High quality restaurants
Privacy (detachment from the world)
Safety (personal and/or family)
No crowd
Shopping facilities

389

Explained variance (%)


Variables factor
loading
28.88%
0.813
0.775
0.744
0.647
0.550
0.408
9.28%
0.734
0.721
0.644
0.642
0,632
0.466
0.419

PULL 3: Waterfront, exotic environment and climate


Seaside
Favourable weather and climate
Exotic environment
Quality beaches
PULL 4: Affordability
Cheap accommodation
Closeness, easy access
Inexpensive restaurants
Previous experiences on the spot
PULL 5: Mountains and physical activity
Mountainous areas
Being physically active (hiking, skiing, cycling etc.)
Outstanding scenery
PULL 6: Party and entertainment
Entertainment, party, night life
Festivals, concerts or other open-air events

7.14%
0.855
0.732
0.710
0.612
6.56%
0.791
0.733
0.607
0.408
5.99%
0.811
0.717
0.555
4.11%
0.799
0.774

In the next step of the analysis we wanted to know what kind of differences
can be identified among the various groups of respondents regarding the
mean values of individual factors as push and pull motivations. Respondents
were grouped by demographic characteristics (gender, age, income,
educational qualification) and the differences of group means were examined
with one-way analysis of variance. The normalization factor rates varied from
the 1-5 scale values of base variables substantially (among other things the
lowest and highest values were different in each factor variables), thus the
variance of individual respondents groups means were given in percentage
of the differences in minimum and maximum motivational variables values
(range of the variable). Results are summarized in Table 4.
From the data given in Table 4 it is clear that there are no significant
differences among the mean values of respondents groups formed by
demographic characteristics. The most significant variance is lower than 15%
which equals 0.75 inequality on a five-point scale. Half of the explored and
significant variance of groups means are lower than 5% which equals 0.25
inequality or less on a five-point scale.
Table 4: Differences explored by analysis of variance in the respondents
groups formed by demographic characteristics
Motivations
PUSH 1: Social interactions,
friends, adventure
PUSH 2: Searching for
novelty
PUSH 3: Escape

Demographic grouping variables


Educational
Per capita
Gender
Age group2
qualification4
income5
M:
18-34:
+2.91%
+11.49%
W:
H-A:
18-34:
+2.90%
3.72%, H+6.08%
H: +7.28%
L: 7.16%6
W:+3.66%
50-64: H: +6.57%
1

390

PUSH 4: Comfort and safety


PUSH 5: Visiting relatives,
rediscovering
PUSH 6: Physical activity
PULL 1: Tourist attractions

W:+4.15%
-

PULL 2: Tourist services,


hygiene, safety, personal space
PULL 3: Waterfront, exotic
environment and climate
PULL 4: Affordability

W:+3.65%

PULL 5: Mountains and


physical activity
PULL 6: Party and
entertainment

W:+3.95%

M:
+3.44%
M:
+3.00%
-

5.54%
50-64:
+4.02%
50-64:
+5.29%
50-64:
+2.19%
50-64: 4.60%
18-34: 4.67%
18-34:
+9.35% s
+14.41%3

S: +5.70%

H: -4.5%

H: +5.59%
-

L: -4.83%

H: +6.94%
H: -3.65%

H:
+6.14%
H: 6.32%

: Variance from the other gender mean expressed in percentage (variance of genders means is
expressed in percentage of the variables full range; the variables full range = 100); W: higher
mean of women, M: higher mean of men.
2
: Variance from the mean of the other two age groups means expressed in percentage (variance
of age groups means is expressed in percentage of the variables full range; the variables full
range = 100). 18-34: according to the Tukey B probe (ANOVA post hoc analysis) the mean of the
marked age group (e.g. 18-34 age group) differs from that of other age groups significantly.
3
: Variance of the 18-34 age groups mean compared to individual means of the other two age
groups.
4
: Variance from the mean of the other two educational qualification groups means expressed in
percentage (variance of means is expressed in percentage of the variables full range; the
variables full range = 100), H: higher, S: secondary, P: primary. According to Tukey B probe
(ANOVA post hoc analysis) the mean of the marked educational qualification group (e.g. H,
higher education) differs from that of the other groups significantly.
5
: Variance from the mean of the other two per capita income groups means expressed in
percentage (variance of means is expressed in percentage of the variables full range; the
variables full range = 100), H: high per capita income (H > 200,000 HUF per person per month),
A: average per capita income (100,000 HUF per person per month < A < 200,000 HUF per person
per month), L: low per capita income (L < 100,000 HUF per person per month). According to
Tukey B probe (ANOVA post hoc analysis) the mean of the marked per capita income group (e.g.
H, high per capita income) differs from that of the other groups significantly.
6
: Mean of the high per capita income group (H) compared to the individual means of the two
other per capita income groups.
-: there is no significant variance among the means of respondents groups on a 95% significance
level.

Mean-variances of gender groups fell between 3-4%. More considerable, but


lower than 5% variances could have been identified in case of the Comfort
and safety push motivations group means this motivation is more
important for women. In case of Tourist attractions, Escape, Tourist
services, hygiene, safety, personal space motives similar results were
391

brought these are also slightly more important for women. It was interesting
to observe that waterfronts and mountains attract men a bit more.
Significant differences can be identified among the means of age groups. The
most significant variance can be detected in the case of Social interactions,
friends, adventure push motivation: the mean of the 18-34 age group is
11,5% higher than that of the 35-49 and the 50-64 age groups. Closely
connected to this fact, there is a 15% variance between the 18-34 age group
and the 50-64 age group considering the Party and entertainment pull
motivation. It is well illustrated with the typical behaviour of young people in
practice during the travel they search for and require social interactions,
excitement and adventure much more than older people whose motivations of
that kind are less pronounced. The mean of the young age group is also
significantly higher in the case of Searching for novelty motivation while
the destinations tourist attractions are more important for the older age
group. The desire to escape is more essential for the two younger age groups,
the mean of the 50-64 age group is 5.5% lower than that of the two younger
groups.
According to the means of groups formed by educational qualification, for
people with higher education searching for novelty, escape, being physically
active and waterfront as a destinational attraction are more determining while
among those with lower education the demand for comfort and safety proved
to be more significant. The result however, is shaded by the fact that only
1.3% of the respondents have primary education (the ratio of people with
secondary education exceeded 50%, with higher education reached 48%).
In the case of respondents groups formed by per capita income for those
with the highest per capita income (more than 200,000 HUF per person per
month) the desire for novelty and waterfront as a special attraction of the
destination proved to be more substantial. They do not necessarily look for
cheap travels or destinations and re-visiting a place is less important for them
(compared to the means of lower per capita income respondents groups).
On the basis of motivational variances demonstrated in Table 4, specific
segments with more complex description and several variables can be
identified this may become useful for destination marketing as well. The
following segments can be determined in accordance with the variances
among respondents groups:
Young people who search for adventure, social interactions,
entertainment and party in leisure travels: Young adults, typically
students who have not finished higher (secondary) education yet. It is
characteristic that they look for and require novelty, social
interactions and entertainment facilities when travelling.
People who have higher income and like novelty, exotic
environment, especially waterfronts and physical activity: They are
392

people with higher education who escape from daily routine, desire
for variation, like waterfronts (sea coasts) and are willing to spend
more when travelling. In leisure travels they search for something
different (from home) and the quality of services is at least of
average importance for them.
Middle-aged people who are interested in tourist attractions:
Waterfronts are not typical destinations but other tourist attractions
are interesting for them. They want to see and experience while the
desire to escape is not a dominant travel motivation for them.
Late middle-aged people who look for the familiar and visit
relatives: According to the results this group is less identifiable. This
segment can be characterized by mainly female preferences and
probably with average and lower income. During leisure travels
comfort and safety are important for them they visit familiar
destinations and often relatives.
In accordance with the results, it has to be stated that analysis of variance
indicates whether the differences in the sample can be significant in the
whole population as well or not. Since the sample was not representative
from every aspect, the possibility to generalize the results is statistically
limited despite the explored significant variances.
4. Conclusions
On the basis of our research work push and pull travel motivations could
have been undoubtedly identified in case of Hungarian leisure travellers.
Social interactions, desire for novelty, escape and safety were among the
push motivations while attractions of the destination, tourist services and
affordability proved to be the most important pull factors. Motivational
factors revealed with factor analysis correspond to the statements found in
international literature.
Examining the motivational differences recognized among respondents and
the tourist segments identified on this basis, young people can easily be
labelled as the category of junior hook up travellers who are only just after
their teen ages, like parties, entertainment, look for easygoing relationships
and escape from the everyday family milieu they are also the typical
attendants of summer musical festivals, a very fashionable and successful
tourist product of our times. Nevertheless, this is only a superficial image.
This behaviour is not deviant at all in the case of young adults in their late
teens or early twenties since this period is an important socialization phase of
the growing-up process in which they hold social interactions (these
friendships are often more important and strong than those developed later)
and try to feel well. Leisure travel especially some-day long musical
393

festivals as part of cultural tourism creates an excellent opportunity for


them to live these motivations.
Product marketing has been deliberately building upon this age group and
their motivations for a long while. The best known commercial slogans
connected to it reflect on the desires of youngsters properly: e.g. Friends,
party and Fanta (in a brand new English version: More Fanta, Less
Serious!) or We need a non-stop week of fun together this was the
slogan of Sziget Festival in the 90s. Social interactions, friends, adventure,
party and entertainment motivations appear in our research work markedly
because data collection was carried out with the help of the young age group
concerned as members of the 18-34 age group they forrmed a substantial
segment of the respondents. Motivational importance and the demographic
groups variances would have possibly been dissimilar in case of a different
sample composition.
Further segments become relevant if their existence is proved in practice.
Nonetheless, considering that in our survey the traditional demographic
criteria were applied in segmentation, the further three segments can also be
regarded as realistic constructions. There are several examples for products
and services which reflect on target groups with different age, income and
educational qualification (see e.g. Elittrs /meaning: elite partner/ internet
dating service that targeted professionals with higher than average income).
Further motivational surveys should take as many criteria as possible into the
examination to improve segmentation. Moreover, examinations have to be
planned in order that other segmentation techniques (e.g. cluster analysis,
discriminant analysis, logistic regression) also become applicable.
Considering experiences of this study, representativity has to be improved in
the future among other things the real spatial, income and educational
qualification distribution of the examined target group has to be
approximated otherwise generalization will be limited despite the large size
sample.
It is also substantial to improve measurement techniques of motivations.
Although the multi-item scale we used to measure motivations proved to be
relatively proper, some important dimensions were missing (e.g. questions
about relaxation and various tourist activities) and the statement of scale
items should also be developed.
In future investigations connected to travel motivations it is worth asking
various target groups (e.g. inbound tourists) in diversified locations and at
different times (departure, during the journey, after the journey). This kind of
targeted examinations will give further information about motivational and
other factors that can make Hungary and the individual destinations within
the country more attractive for potential domestic and international tourists in
the future.
394

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You, X. - OLeary - J., Morrison, A. - Hong, G.-S. (2000): A crosscultural comparison of
travel push and pull factors: United Kingdom vs. Japan. International Journal of Hospitality
and Tourism Administration, 1(2), 126.

396

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,
THE CORPORATE TOURISM AS A DIVERSIFICATION
FACTOR OF ACTIVITIES OF TOURISM ENTERPRISES
Assoc. Prof. Oksana V. Vaganova , PhD, Assoc. Prof. Svetlana A.
Kucheryavenko, PhD, graduate student Svetlana G. Stenyushkina,
Belgorod State University, Russia
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Abstract. Under present conditions, when the success of a business depends on the
people, more and more attention is paid to the staff of the company. Gather under one roof
professionals, dedicated to business interests - not an easy task. To do this, you need to
create an atmosphere conducive to raise team spirit, increase employee loyalty. In addition,
each of them should be able to forward their experience and creative energy to achieve a
common goal. Achieve mutual understanding and from disparate team to become a cohesive
team helps joint corporate holiday.
Corporate holiday today - it's not just together time of working team, but also an
effective tool of motivation and cohesion of staff. Thanks to corporate actions raise labor
efficiency in working hours, reduced the level of conflict within the firm and between
employees and the company acquires a positive image among partners and competitors.
Keywords: corporate tourism; corporate holiday; incentive tourism; team building;
corporate event; MICE-industry.

397


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SOME QUESTIONS REGARDING THE TRAINING,
QUALIFICATION AND REALIZATION OF TOURISM
SPECIALISTS
Georgi Vdovichin, PhD - Burgas Prof. Assen Zlatarov University,
College of Tourism, Bulgaria
Abstract: The report refers to unresolved, as well as new questions regarding the
training, qualification and realization of tourism specialists (tourism skilled workers). The
subject is of present interest because the lack of specialists is turning into a problem for the
tourism sector. The problem can intensify and have a fatal effect on the future of tourism
unless some changes are outlined and executed. In the report is used data from a research on
the necessity of specialists in a big Black sea region and from a research on the working
conditions in different sectors of economics. The report analyzes the identified problems and
suggests specific measures for improvement.
Keywords: training, qualification, working conditions, tourism, research, analysis,
economic operator.
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TASKS FOR COMPOSING A BUSINESS PLAN IN TEACHING


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Elena Nikolova, Svetlana Vasileva, Higher School Agricultural
College, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
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Abstract: Recently, with the development of the agriculture and the provision of
funds from the European Union new goals are set in teaching the students agricultural
sciences. The lecturer of agricultural sciences is obliged to introduce such topics in their
teaching as application and structuring of a business plan. The paper considers the results
from a project work about the opportunities for the students who study agricultural sciences
to structure a business plan of their own according to a particular module in the agriculture.
The structure which is offered in this paper often occurs in the practice of developing a
business plan. The structure includes such units as Introducing an organization, Description
of a business idea, Market analysis and competitors, Financial prognostications, Activity
plan, etc.
Keywords: business plan, business idea, tasks, structure, market analysis, financial
prognostications.


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London, 1999
10. Castle E., M. Becker and F. Smith, Farm Business Management, New York,1972.
11. Turner J. M.Teylor, Apllied Farm Management, BSP Professional Books,1989
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420



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EFFECTIVE PRACTICES FOR MINIMIZING
THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION BY HEAVY METALS
Kiril Stoyanov, PhD, International University College Albena,
Dobromir Stoyanov, PhD student, University of conomics Varna
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Abstract: Environmental pollution with heavy metals presents a serious ecological
problem, because their toxicity has a negative impact on vegetable and animal lives, food,
drinking water and natuarally on the human being. In the context of the new sustainable
development values in the field of education, this article aims to make students and citizens
aware of the effective practices for minimizing the heavy metals pollution. In many cases, it
is due to the unscrupulous and irresponsible mans behaviour. Consequently, we have
made a brief analysis of the environmental situation in the town of Dobrich, by revealing
the major sources of heavy metals pollution and proposing some preventive measures.
Keywords: environmental impact, effective practices, heavy metals

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Vol. 20, 3, 2011, pp. 635642.
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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES INNOVATIVE


MULTIMEDIA LESSONS, AS A SPECIFIC WAY OF TRAINING IN
PROFFESIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES
Sevdalina Petkova, Senior Lecturer, Professional High School of
Chemical Technology and Biotechnology "Marie Curie", Razgrad, Bulgaria
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Abstract: The following expansion aims to show a more unconventional aproach in
teaching foreign language,and to justify the benefits of the unconventional methods of
teaching students.Guided by the idea that the teacher is the one who explains the
textboks,chooses the right aproach,organises the activities and arranges the school material
in his annual report,according to the expected results,that are described in the school's
program we have created the the multimedia presentation and the workbook with it,which
includes all the major componends and methods in teaching professional foreign language
and at the same time brings something a little out of the ordinary understanding of the
school period.That way we closed the gap of the lack of textbooks for this course and at the
same the we have made the lessons interesting for the students.The following report aims to
demostrate that it's not the students that need to adapt to the teaching aids,but its the
teaching aids that need to consider the interests of the children and their level of knowledge
and skills.

430

Keywords: professional foreign language,the unconventional methods, teaching


foreign language, the multimedia presentation and the workbook


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SPECIFICITY OF CREATING AN ONLINE BUSINESS AS AN
ELEMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
Veneta Atanasova bachelor, International University College Albena,
Bulgaria
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Abstract: This report examines the stages through which every new business idea
go to its realization and its transformation into an existing, functioning, competitive
company on the market. E-commerce is one of the most popular topics in our days and is
causing a great interest among various analysts. According to more and more specialists in
the field of trade, online shopping is the future of sales. This new, easier and more affordable
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