|<<||Selected anniversaries for October||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1890 – At the encouragement of preservationist John Muir and writer Robert Underwood Johnson, the United States Congress established Yosemite National Park (pictured) in California.
- 1940 – The first section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, one of the United States' first long-distance limited-access highways, opened to traffic.
- 1998 – Europol, the EU's law enforcement agency, was formed with the ratification of the Europol Convention by all member states.
- 2018 – The International Court of Justice ruled that Chile was under no obligation to restore Bolivia's access to the Pacific Ocean, which it had lost in the 19th century.
- 1263 – Scottish–Norwegian War: The armies of Norway and Scotland fought the Battle of Largs, an inconclusive engagement near the present-day town of Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
- 1879 – Qing China signed the Treaty of Livadia with the Russian Empire, but the terms were so unfavorable that the Chinese government refused to ratify the treaty.
- 1925 – Scottish inventor John Logie Baird (pictured) successfully transmitted the first television picture with a greyscale image.
- 2007 – South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun walked across the Military Demarcation Line on his way to the second inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.
- 1792 – Spanish forces departed Valdivia, Chile, to suppress the Huilliche uprising.
- 1951 – In Major League Baseball, the New York Giants' Bobby Thomson hit the "Shot Heard 'Round the World", a game-winning home run, to win the National League pennant.
- 1991 – Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
- 2003 – Roy Horn of the American entertainment duo Siegfried & Roy (both pictured) was mauled by a tiger during a performance at the Mirage on the Las Vegas Strip.
- 1876 – Texas A&M University opened as the U.S. state's first public institution of higher education.
- 1917 – First World War: The Allies devastated the German defence at the Battle of Broodseinde, prompting a crisis among German commanders and causing a severe loss of morale in the 4th Army.
- 1957 – The Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 1 (replica pictured), the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
- 2003 – A suicide bomber killed 21 people and injured 60 others inside a restaurant in Haifa, Israel.
- 2010 – A waste-reservoir dam in western Hungary collapsed, freeing 1 million m3 (35 million cu ft) of red mud, which flooded nearby communities and killed ten people.
- 610 – Heraclius was crowned Byzantine emperor, having personally beheaded his predecessor, Phocas.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Upset about the high price and scarcity of bread, thousands of Parisian women and various allies marched on the royal palace at Versailles.
- 1936 – Around 200 men began a 291-mile (468 km) march (pictured) from Jarrow to London, carrying a petition to the British government requesting the re-establishment of industry in the town.
- 1975 – Dirty War: The Argentine guerrilla group Montoneros carried out Operation Primicia, a terrorist attack in which they hijacked an Aerolíneas Argentinas flight, captured Formosa International Airport, and attacked a military regiment.
- 69 BC – Third Mithridatic War: Roman Republican forces captured the Armenian capital city of Tigranocerta.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces under Sir Henry Clinton captured Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery, and dismantled the Hudson River Chain.
- 1934 – Catalonia's autonomous government declared a general strike, an armed insurgency, and the establishment of the Catalan State in reaction to the inclusion of conservatives in the Spanish republican regime.
- 2000 – Denouncing corruption in Argentine president Fernando de la Rúa's administration and the Senate, Vice President Carlos Álvarez (pictured) resigned.
- 2010 – The first version of the Instagram mobile application was released for iOS devices.
- 1763 – King George III issued a royal proclamation that forbade British settlement of much of newly acquired French territory in North America, reserving the land for indigenous peoples.
- 1800 – French privateer Robert Surcouf led a 150-man crew to capture the 40-gun, 437-man East Indiaman Kent.
- 1985 – During severe floods in Puerto Rico, about 130 people died as a result of the deadliest single landslide (pictured) on record in North America.
- 2008 – 2008 TC3 exploded above the Nubian Desert in Sudan, in the first time that an asteroid impact had been predicted prior to atmospheric entry.
- 1076 – Demetrius Zvonimir, the last native king who exerted any real power over the entire Croatian state, was crowned.
- 1862 – The Battle of Perryville, one of the bloodiest battles of the American Civil War, was fought west of Perryville, Kentucky.
- 1956 – Major League Baseball pitcher Don Larsen (pictured) threw the only perfect game in World Series history.
- 2019 – Anti-government protests calling for free and fair elections began in Baku, Azerbaijan.
- 1708 – Great Northern War: Russia defeated Sweden at the Battle of Lesnaya on the Russian–Polish border, in present-day Belarus.
- 1780 – The deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record began to impact the Caribbean, killing at least 20,000 people across the Antilles over the subsequent days.
- 1914 – World War I: The civilian authorities of Antwerp surrendered, allowing the German army to capture the city.
- 2012 – Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai (pictured) was severely injured by a Taliban gunman in a failed assassination attempt.
- 680 – Husayn ibn Ali, a grandson of Muhammad, was killed in the Battle of Karbala by the forces of Yazid I, whom Husayn had refused to recognize as caliph.
- 1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune.
- 1911 – The Xinhai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising, marking the beginning of the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.
- 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground, came into effect.
- 1973 – U.S. vice president Spiro Agnew (pictured) resigned after being charged with tax evasion.
- 1142 – The Treaty of Shaoxing was ratified, ending the Jin–Song Wars, although sporadic fighting continued until 1234.
- 1492 – Members of Christopher Columbus's first voyage reported a sighting of unknown light on their way to Guanahani.
- 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Royal Navy captured eleven Dutch Navy ships without any losses at the Battle of Camperdown.
- 1987 – An estimated 750,000 people attended the "Great March" (pictured) in Washington, D.C., to demand greater civil rights for the LGBT community.
- 1406 – Chen Yanxiang, the only person from Indonesia known to have visited dynastic Korea, reached Seoul after having set out from Java four months before.
- 1798 – The Peasants' War began in Overmere, Southern Netherlands, with peasants taking up arms against the French occupiers.
- 1920 – Construction began on the Holland Tunnel (entrance pictured) under the Hudson River, linking New York City with Jersey City, New Jersey, in the United States.
- 1960 – Japan Socialist Party leader Inejirō Asanuma was assassinated during a live television recording by a man using a samurai sword.
- 1992 – An earthquake with a magnitude of 5.8 or 5.9 struck south of Cairo, Egypt, killing 545 people.
- 645 – Goguryeo–Tang War: Led by Emperor Taizong, the Tang army was forced to abandon a siege of Ansi Fortress.
- 1814 – War of 1812: After three days of fighting (pictured), the beached U.S. Revenue Cutter Service vessel Eagle was captured by the Royal Navy.
- 1972 – Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashed into a remote area in the Andes mountains near the border of Chile and Argentina; the 16 remaining survivors were not rescued until more than two months later.
- 2013 – During the Hindu festival of Navaratri at a temple in Madhya Pradesh, India, rumours about an impending bridge collapse caused a stampede that resulted in 115 deaths.
- 1066 – Norman conquest: William the Conqueror's forces defeated the English army at Hastings and killed Harold Godwinson (depicted), the last crowned Anglo-Saxon king of England.
- 1940 – Second World War: During the Blitz, a semi-armour-piercing fragmentation bomb fell on the road above Balham station in London, which was being used as an air raid shelter, killing at least 64 people.
- 1957 – After three days of heavy rain, the Turia overflowed and flooded the city of Valencia, Spain, causing at least 81 deaths.
- 2014 – A snowstorm and series of avalanches occurred on and around the Himalayan peaks of Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, resulting in the deaths of at least 43 people.
- 2020 – The world's first room-temperature superconductor, Carbonaceous sulfur hydride was first reported.
- 1529 – Ottoman–Habsburg wars: The Siege of Vienna ended with Austrian forces repelling the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of conquest in Europe by the Ottoman Empire.
- 1917 – Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari (pictured) was executed by a firing squad for spying for Germany.
- 1982 – Ata'ollah Ashrafi Esfahani was assassinated by the People's Mujahedin of Iran during Friday prayers in Kermanshah.
- 2006 – An earthquake registering 6.7 Mw occurred off the northwestern coast of the island of Hawaii.
- 1384 – Jadwiga (pictured) was officially crowned as "King of Poland" instead of "Queen" to reflect the fact that she was a sovereign in her own right.
- 1793 – War of the First Coalition: The two-day Battle of Wattignies concluded, with Jean-Baptiste Jourdan leading French forces to victory over Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
- 1834 – Most of the Palace of Westminster in London was destroyed in a fire caused by the burning of wooden tally sticks.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: The Gestapo conducted a raid on the Roman Ghetto, capturing 1,259 members of the Jewish community, most of whom were sent to Auschwitz.
- 1984 – The Bill debuted on ITV, eventually becoming the longest-running police procedural in British television history.
- 1814 – A wooden beer-fermenting vat in London burst, destroying a second vat and causing a flood of at least 128,000 imperial gallons (580,000 l; 154,000 US gal) of porter that killed eight people.
- 1860 – The Open Championship, the oldest of the four major championships in men's golf, was first played at Prestwick Golf Club in Prestwick, Scotland.
- 1964 – Australian prime minister Robert Menzies inaugurated the artificial Lake Burley Griffin (pictured) in the centre of the capital Canberra.
- 2000 – A fatal rail accident at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, led to the introduction of widespread speed limit reductions throughout the British rail network and eventually caused the collapse of the railway management group Railtrack.
- 320 – Pappus of Alexandria, one of the last great Greek mathematicians of antiquity, observed an eclipse that allowed historians to calculate the approximate dates of his life.
- 1356 – The most significant earthquake to have occurred in Central Europe in recorded history destroyed Basel, Switzerland.
- 1954 – The first commercial transistor radio, the Regency TR-1 (pictured), was introduced in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
- 1967 – The Soviet space probe Venera 4 became the first spacecraft to perform direct in situ analysis of the environment of another planet (Venus).
- 1596 – The Spanish ship San Felipe was shipwrecked on the Japanese island of Shikoku and its cargo confiscated by the local daimyō.
- 1914 – First World War: Allied forces began engaging German troops in the First Battle of Ypres.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: The Siege of Plei Me began with the first major confrontation between soldiers of the communist North Vietnamese Army and the U.S. Army.
- 2017 – Canadian astronomer Robert Weryk discovered ʻOumuamua (artist's impression pictured), the first known interstellar object detected passing through the Solar System.
- 1740 – Under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction, Maria Theresa (pictured) ascended the Habsburg throne.
- 1944 – World War II: Fulfilling a promise he made two years previously, General Douglas MacArthur landed on Leyte to begin the recapture of the Philippines.
- 1967 – Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin filmed an unidentified subject, which they claimed was Bigfoot, at Six Rivers National Forest in California.
- 1982 – During a UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, a large number of attendees tried to leave the Central Lenin Stadium at the same time, resulting in a stampede that caused 66 deaths.
- 1345 – Hundred Years' War: The English victory at the Battle of Auberoche marked a change in the military balance of power in Aquitaine, with the subsequent collapse of the French position.
- 1520 – The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (modern city of Saint-Pierre pictured) near Canada were visited by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes, who named them after the 11,000 Virgins.
- 1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses and 15 nuns were sent to the Ottoman Empire to help treat wounded British soldiers fighting in the Crimean War.
- 1978 – After reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft, Australian pilot Frederick Valentich disappeared while piloting a Cessna 182L across the Bass Strait to King Island.
- 1797 – Dropping from a hydrogen balloon at a height of approximately 3,000 feet (1,000 m), André-Jacques Garnerin carried out the first descent using a frameless parachute.
- 1895 – At Gare Montparnasse in Paris, an express train derailed after overrunning the buffer stop and crashed through the station wall, with the locomotive landing on the street below (pictured).
- 1940 – After evading French and Spanish authorities, Belgian prime minister Hubert Pierlot arrived in London, marking the beginning of the Belgian government in exile.
- 1966 – With their album The Supremes A' Go-Go, the Supremes became the first all-female group to reach number one on the Billboard 200 chart.
- 2015 – A sword-wielding man attacked students and teachers in a high school in Trollhättan, killing three people in Sweden's deadliest school attack.
- 1641 – Irish Catholic gentry in Ulster tried to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, to force concessions to Catholics.
- 1850 – The first National Women's Rights Convention, presided over by Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (pictured), began in Worcester, Massachusetts.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese troops began an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Henderson Field on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands from American forces.
- 1956 – The Hungarian Revolution began as a peaceful student demonstration that attracted thousands while marching through central Budapest to the parliament building.
- 1260 – Qutuz (bust pictured), the sultan of Egypt, was assassinated and replaced by fellow Mamluk leader Baibars.
- 1851 – William Lassell discovered the Uranian moons Umbriel and Ariel.
- 1931 – The George Washington Bridge, today the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting New York City to Fort Lee, New Jersey, was dedicated.
- 1945 – The UN Charter, the constitution of the United Nations, entered into force after being ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council and a majority of the other signatories.
- 1960 – A prototype of the Soviet R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile exploded on the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Kazakh SSR.
- 1760 – George III (pictured) became King of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1920 – Irish playwright and politician Terence MacSwiney died after a hunger strike in Brixton Prison, bringing the Irish struggle for independence to international attention.
- 1950 – Korean War: The People's Volunteer Army ambushed the South Korean II Corps and elsewhere engaged the 1st Infantry Division, marking China's entry into the war.
- 1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Abduction Convention, a multilateral treaty providing an expeditious method to return a child taken from one member nation to another, concluded at The Hague.
- 2010 – Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that lasted over a month.
- 1341 – The Byzantine army proclaimed chief minister John VI Kantakouzenos emperor, triggering a civil war between his supporters and those of John V Palaiologos, the heir to the throne.
- 1892 – Ida B. Wells (pictured) began to publish her research on lynching in the United States, for which she was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 2020.
- 1955 – Ngô Đình Diệm proclaimed himself president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam after defeating former emperor Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum supervised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu.
- 1994 – Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty, settling relations between the two countries and pledging that neither would allow its territory to become a staging ground for military strikes by a third country.
- 2000 – Following protests against military leader Robert Guéï, Laurent Gbagbo became the first elected president of Ivory Coast.
- 1662 – King Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to King Louis XIV of France.
- 1942 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Navy achieved a pyrrhic victory against the United States at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.
- 1967 – American Catholic priest Philip Berrigan led a protest against the Vietnam War by pouring blood over Selective Service records in Baltimore, Maryland.
- 1999 – Armed men led by Nairi Hunanyan attacked the National Assembly of Armenia, killing prime minister Vazgen Sargsyan, president of the National Assembly Karen Demirchyan, and six others.
- 2011 – Michael D. Higgins (pictured) was elected president of Ireland with far more votes than any politician in the country's history.
- 1453 – Ladislaus the Posthumous (pictured) was crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remained in control of the government.
- 1707 – The Hōei earthquake ruptured all segments of the Nankai megathrust simultaneously – the only earthquake known to have done this.
- 1918 – The Czechoslovak provisional government declared the country's independence from Austria-Hungary, forming the First Czechoslovak Republic in Prague.
- 1940 – World War II: Italy invaded Greece after Greek prime minister Ioannis Metaxas rejected Benito Mussolini's ultimatum demanding the cession of Greek territory.
- 1995 – A fire broke out on a Baku Metro train in Azerbaijan's capital, killing 289 people and injuring 270 others in the world's deadliest subway disaster.
- 539 BC – Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, incorporating the Neo-Babylonian Empire and making the Achaemenid Empire the largest in the history of the world to that time.
- 1618 – English courtier and explorer Sir Walter Raleigh was executed in London after King James I reinstated a fifteen-year-old death sentence against him.
- 1948 – Arab–Israeli War: As the Israel Defense Forces captured the Palestinian Arab village of Safsaf, they massacred at least 52 villagers.
- 1960 – A C-46 airliner carrying the Cal Poly Mustangs football team crashed during takeoff from Toledo Express Airport in Ohio, U.S., resulting in 22 deaths.
- 2013 – The first phase of the Marmaray project (train pictured) opened with an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus strait.
- 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Believing that they were outnumbered, the German garrison at Stettin surrendered (depicted) to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- 1950 – Blanca Canales led the Jayuya Uprising against the U.S.-supported Puerto Rican government.
- 1960 – Michael Woodruff performed the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.
- 1993 – The Troubles: Three members of the Ulster Defence Association opened fire in a crowded pub during a Halloween party, killing eight people and wounding nineteen others.
- 683 – During the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba, considered the holiest site in Islam, was severely damaged by fire.
- 1913 – Public-transportation workers in Indianapolis went on strike (pictured), shutting down mass transit in the city.
- 1973 – Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin aboard a hijacked helicopter that landed in the prison's exercise yard.
- 1999 – All 217 people on board EgyptAir Flight 990 perished when the aircraft suddenly crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Nantucket, Massachusetts.