Stanislaw Wojciechowski was a Polish politician, scholar, and activist in the cooperative movement. In 1922 he was elected the second President of the Republic ..

ⓘ Stanislaw Wojciechowski was a Polish politician, scholar, and activist in the cooperative movement. In 1922 he was elected the second President of the Republic ..

Stanislaw Wojciechowski

ⓘ Stanislaw Wojciechowski

Stanislaw Wojciechowski was a Polish politician, scholar, and activist in the cooperative movement. In 1922 he was elected the second President of the Republic of Poland following the assassination of Gabriel Narutowicz. He was ousted by the May Coup dEtat of 1926.

While a student at the University of Warsaw, Wojciechowski worked for the Polish Socialist movement, which at the time was a major force in the Polish independence effort. He was arrested by czarist police in 1891, and again in 1892. Upon his release he moved to Zurich, then to Paris and finally to London. In England he helped publish the Polish Socialist periodical Przedswit" The Dawn”. Active in the socialist movement, he often travelled undercover to Russian Poland, and became friends with Jozef Pilsudski. He also studied the cooperative movement, and on returning to Poland legally in 1906 he spent time working to develop Polish cooperatives. During World War I he considered Imperial Germany to be Poland’s main enemy. With the Russian evacuation in 1915, he moved to Moscow, and there in 1917 was elected president of the Council of Polish Parties’ Union. He returned to Warsaw after the October Revolution and from January 1919 to July 1920 served as minister of the interior in two separate cabinets of the new Second Polish Republic. When the Republics president Gabriel Narutowicz was assassinated in December 1922, Wojciechowski was chosen to succeed him.

During his presidency, Wojciechowski and his erstwhile friend military chief of staff Pilsudski disagreed on the political direction of the nation: Wojciechowski supported continued parliamentary government, while Pilsudski favoured a more authoritarian approach. In May 1926, due to the worsening economic issues of the country, Pilsudski staged the successful May Coup, after which Wojciechowski resigned from his post.


1.1. Biography Early life

Stanislaw Wojciechowski was born on 15 March 1869 in Kalisz into a Polish noble family with strong ties to the intelligentsia. He was one of seven children of Second Lieutenant Feliks Wojciechowski 1825-1881, a caretaker of a prison in Kalisz who participated during the January Uprising, and his wife Florentyna Vorhoff. He was raised in a spirit of patriotism and devotion to his homeland. In 1888, he graduated in the Mens Classical Junior High School in Kalisz and began his studies at the Imperial University of Warsaw where he studied at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics until 1891. He belonged to the circle of the most active conspirators, participant of the secret student groups for self-improvement. Wojciechowski was active during his studies, first in the conspiratorial organization Association of the Polish Youth "Zet", and later in the burgeoning socialist movement. By 1892, he had abandoned his studies and chose the life of an exile after his second arrest and detention by the czarist police, first going to Zurich and then Paris. There he learned the trade of typesetter with which he supported himself.

In 1892, Wojciechowski co-founded the Polish Socialist Party and many nationalist and socialists met in Paris where they participated in the following year, on the first, illegally organized party conference in Vilnius, where he met Pilsudski. In 1893, after he was deported from France. He found his new centre of life in London, where he worked as a typesetter, printer, journalist and publisher. He travelled several more times illegally to Congress Poland and the Russian Empire and smuggled printing machine components and publications into the country. Together with Pilsudski, he formed the backbone of the socialist movement in Russian Poland. In 1899, he married Maria Wojciechowska, a daughter of a wealthy landowner of szlachta descent.


1.2. Biography Political movements and career

After 1905, he left the Polish Socialist Party over disagreements on the political future of Poland and its relations to the international class struggle. After the amnesty in 1906, he returned to Warsaw and took part in the cooperative movement by Edward Abramowski. During World War I, Stanislaw Wojciechowski believed that Germany posed the biggest threat to Poland and thus decided to stay in Russia rather than side with his erstwhile friend Pilsudski. After the Russian evacuation of Congress Poland of 1915, he moved to Moscow where he remained active in Polish political circles. After the fall of the Tsarist regime was elected President of the Council of Polish Parties’ Union, and heavily engaged on behalf of the Polish Army in Russia in 1918. He was forced to leave Moscow under threat of arrest once the Bolshevik regime seized power. On 15 January 1919, the Chief of State nominated him, Minister of Internal Affairs, in both the Cabinet of Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Leopold Skulski, whom Wojciechowski replaced during his numerous absences from the country. During this time, Wojciechowski also participated in the drafting of the Polish constitution.


2.1. Presidency First election

In the legislative elections, Wojciechowski served as the candidate for the Senate though he failed to win a seat. After the legislative elections, a balance appeared between the left and right forces. This situation also preponderated in the National Assembly, which was to select a new President of Poland and produce a new presidential election. Pilsudski did not want to put up his candidacy, and Wincenty Witos was perceived as a person communicating with the right and not paying attention to the interests of rural villages. Therefore, the Polish Peoples Party "Piast" put forward and appointed Wojciechowski as the new candidate for the presidency not involved in current political games. He accepted this decision, but when the Polish Peoples Party "Wyzwolenie" informed that Gabriel Narutowicz planned to withdraw from the presidential race. Witos persuaded Narutowicz not to do that.

Wojciechowski was defeated in the fourth ballot to the landowner Count Maurycy Zamoyski who received 228 votes and Wojciechowski only reached 152 votes. Ate the time of the elections, the main candidates were Zamoyski and Wojciechowski. Narutowiczs good result was a surprise. Once the long voting was over, Zamoyski and Narutowicz advanced to the fifth ballot. Narutowicz finally won the election with the support of "Piast" Wojciechowski was eliminated on the fourth round. Narutowicz prevailed thanks to the votes of the left, of the representatives for national minorities vote these representatives were determined to defeat the National Democracy movement, and of the centrist Polish People’s Party" Piast”. This last group, initially inclined toward Zamoyski, unexpectedly switched its backing to Narutowicz instead. Eventually, Narutowicz won 289 votes, whereas Zamoyski won only 227 votes, and so Narutowicz was elected the first President of the Second Polish Republic.


2.2. Presidency Second election

Following the assassination of President Narutowicz by the ultra-nationalist painter Eligiusz Niewiadomski on 16 December 1922, Marshal of the Sejm Maciej Rataj, who served briefly as acting head of state after the assassination, set the date of a new presidential election on 20 December 1922. The right-wings put forward the candidacy of Professor Kazimierz Morawski. Wojciechowski was nominated again as a compromise candidate and Wladyslaw Sikorski. Originally, Witos recommended his own party vote for Morawski. The left-wing opposed this and decided to vote for Wojciechowski, however, in connection with the events that led to the murder of Narutowicz. As a result of the internal party discussion, it was decided to support Wojciechowskis candidacy. In the first round, Wojciechowski secured 298 votes, with Morawski only gaining 221 votes, Wojciechowski won the election and became the second President of Poland.

After the election, representatives of the National Assembly appeared in Wojciechowskis residence to notify him about his election as President. He considered that the will of the Sejm and the Senate should be followed. Alfons Erdman appeared at Wojciechowskis office and demanded him to abstain from accepting his choice. It was nevertheless too late, Wojciechowski decided that delay in this matter was improper. On 20 December 1922, Wojciechowski took the presidential oath and became President.


2.3. Presidency Tenure

During his presidency, Wojciechowski attempted to be an enthusiastic politician, who was involved in the performance of the government. He actively supported the non-parliamentary ministry of Wladyslaw Sikorski and Wladyslaw Grabski. The height of the presidents political influence corresponded with Grabskis cabinet period of activity. Wojciechowski participated in the Political Committee of the Council of Ministers and had an impact on the content of ordinances on the currency reform, created under special powers of attorney granted to the cabinet by the Sejm. Wojciechowski attempted to shape the Polish constitutional system by introducing a constructive vote of no confidence. The mission of forming a new government was entrusted to the leader of the largest group participating in the overthrow of the previous cabinet, and when Wojciechowski failed to select a cabinet, he advocated leaving the old cabinet or establishing a non-parliamentary cabinet. Wojciechowski used this method after the fall of the second cabinet of Wincenty Witos when he committed the purpose of setting a new ministry to Stanislaw Thugutt. Another indication of Wojciechowskis constitutional system was the adoption, opposite to the provisions of the constitution that the Sejm was assembling enduringly, and not in the session system. Wojciechowski never closed the session of the Sejm, which was dictated by the constitution.

Wojciechowski tried to maintain good relations with Jozef Pilsudski, who was in perpetual dispute with the succeeding cabinets and some parliamentary groups. The reason for the conflict was the organization of military authorities. Pilsudski always saw Wojciechowski as a person who would take his side. When in June 1923, Stanislaw Szeptycki addressed to the Sejm a bill on the highest military authorities, announcing the liquidation of the powerful military council, who Pilsudski served as the chairman, flared up a sharp dispute between him and the Marshal. Wojciechowski tried to settle this dispute. Accordingly, Pilsudski sent a letter to the president in which he addressed him with the words "You have acted as a hangover in the matter of honour, which does not respect the rights of honour and forgets that honour belongs to people personally, not officially." Wojciechowski tried to negotiate between the opposing parties, including took into account the Maciej Ratajs commentaries, who objected to committing the position of Minister of Military Affairs to Sikorski. Pilsudski did not want to compromise and treated Wojciechowski, as what Rataj regarded, defiantly and as a servant.

On 5 September 1924, Wojciechowski visited the Polish city of Lwow now Lviv, Ukraine. At the end of Kopernika and Legionow Street, an explosive charge was thrown towards the car where the president was travelling. Fortuitously, the bomb did not explode and the assassin was arrested. The suspect of the assassination was Teofil Olszewski from the Ukrainian Military Organization, who tried to illegally cross the German border near Bytom and was arrested by the Germans when on 3 October 1924. Olszewski was convicted of crossing the border illegally for two weeks in prison, suspended for one year, and then granted political refugee status in Germany and permission to settle in Marienburg Malbork, close to the Polish border. It was believed that the assassin was Stanislaw Steiger, an employee of a commercial company and a student of Jewish law, was responsible. The man was arrested and imprisoned throughout the trial. He was threatened with the death penalty, but then the new circumstances of the assassination came to light. The first trial against Steiger took place on 15 and 16 September 1924 ere the District Court in Lviv. The prosecutor was Alfred Laniewski, and the defender was lawyer Michal Grek. The Regional Court referred the case to ordinary proceedings with the participation of sworn judges. In the proceedings, Steiger was defended by lawyer Natan Loewenstein. The trial during which Loewenstein gave his defence speech did not take place until 16 December 1925. Steiger spent all this time in custody. Gratitude to the lawyers speech, which Loewenstein published in Lviv a year later, the accused was cleared of the charges and acquitted.

On May 7, 1925, Wojciechowski travelled from Warsaw to Krakow with the entire ceremonial held by the president. After receiving a report at the station from the commander of the honour company, Wojciechowski asked him if the soldiers were singing religious songs. After receiving a proof answer, Wojciechowski instructed the soldiers to sing some of them. They sang for about twenty minutes until the train left. Such behaviour of the president caused an understandable sensation in the country.


2.4. Presidency Fall from power

In November 1925, the government of Prime Minister Wladyslaw Grabski was replaced by the government of Aleksander Skrzynski, which had received support from the National Democrats and the Polish Socialist Party. General Lucjan Zeligowski became the new governments minister of military affairs. However, after the PPS withdrew its support, this government also fell and was replaced by that of Prime Minister Wincenty Witos, formed by Polish Peoples Party "Piast" and Christian Union of National Unity Chjeno-Piast. However, the new government had even less popular support than the previous ones, and pronouncements from Jozef Pilsudski, who viewed the constant power shifts in the Sejm as chaotic and damaging, set the stage for a coup detat. Apart from domestic turmoil, Polish politics had been shaken by a trade war with Germany, begun in June 1925, and by the signing of the Treaty of Locarno on October 16. Under the terms of the treaty, the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to secure a postwar territorial settlement in return for normalized relations with defeated Germany. On 10 May 1926, a coalition government of Christian Democrats and Agrarians was formed, and that same day Jozef Pilsudski, in an interview with Kurier Poranny the Morning Courier, said that he was "ready to fight the evil" of sejmocracy and promised a "sanation" restoration to health of political life. The newspaper edition was confiscated by the authorities.

The night of 11 May to 12 May, a state of alert was declared in the Warsaw military garrison, and some units marched to Rembertow, where they pledged their support to Pilsudski. On 12 May, they marched on Warsaw and captured bridges over the Wisla River. Meanwhile, Wincenty Witos government declared a state of emergency. At about 17:00 hours, Marshal Pilsudski met Wojciechowski on the Poniatowski Bridge. Major Marian Porwit who commanded one of the troops loyal to the government), reported to the president, then reported to Pilsudski and witnessed the discussion between the two dignitaries. Pilsudski demanded the resignation of Witos cabinet, while the President demanded Pilsudskis capitulation. After the failure of negotiations and the presidents departure, Major Porwit refused Pilsudski to let him cross the bridge. On 14 May, at about 13:00 hours, Witos cabinet decided to move from Belweder to Wilanow. Wojciechowski allowed this decision an hour later. After transferring to Wilanow, Wojciechowski and Witos negotiated with the commanders of troops loyal to the cabinet. The military decided they should move to Poznan and maintain the armed struggle from beyond. Eventually, to prevent the Warsaw fighting from turning into a country-wide civil war, both Wojciechowski and Witos decided to resign and issued an order to their troops to cease fratricidal fighting. A new government was formed under Prime Minister Kazimierz Bartel, with Pilsudski as the new Minister of Military Affairs. On 31 May 1926, the National Assembly nominated Pilsudski to be president, but he declined. Eventually Ignacy Moscicki became the new president; Pilsudski, however, wielded much greater de facto power than his military ministry nominally gave him.


3.1. Later life Scientific career

Following the resignation, Wojciechowski worked as a lecturer at the Warsaw School of Economics and the College of Agriculture in Warsaw. Wojciechowski served as the Director of the Cooperative Scientific Institute and later sat on the Scientific Council of the Institute. He published hermetic publications on cooperative activity, which he engaged in before he became an active politician. He wrote books such as the Organization of Agricultural Products Sales and the History of Polish Cooperatives until 1914. In 1937, he was the co-founder of the opposition Labor Party.


3.2. Later life Second World War

On 10 November 1939, the Gestapo arrested Wojciehowskis son, Edmund as part of German AB-Aktion in Poland, he was threatened with execution, as were other representatives of the Polish intelligentsia caught on the streets. He was later released on 4 April 1940 because of Jerzy Antoni Potocki, a former adjacent of Jozef Pilsudski. He later arrested on 12 July 1940 again because he was one of the 70 Warsaw lawyers who did not agree to remove Jewish associates from the Bar Council. The Germans offered his release in exchange for Wojciechowski signing a declaration stating that the Polish government-in-exile was constitutionally illegal. Wojciechowski refused to sign the declaration and Edmund was transferred on 15 August 1940 to the Auschwitz as one of the 1666 people of the first transport from Warsaw, where he soon died of typhus on 23 February 1941. The family received a telegram sent from the concentration camp informing Wojciechowski about his sons passing, and soon an urn of ashes containing the remains of Edmund was sent back to his parents. During the Warsaw Uprising, the ill Wojciechowski along with his wife Maria was rounded up by the Nazis and sent to the Durchgangslager 121, a transit camp in Pruszkow.


3.3. Later life Death and Legacy

Stanislaw Wojciechowski retired to private life. He died in Golabki now Ursus in 1953, at the age of 84. He was buried in Powazki in Warsaw. Until the end of his life, he was convinced that everything that was bad in the history of Poland began during the May revolution.

Stanislaw Wojciechowski experienced a political life, not unlike that of many Central European politicians during the early 20th century. A radical in his youth, his ideology matured and grew more conservative with age. He was at the forefront of over a quarter-century of Polish political development and is considered one of the founders of the modern independent Polish state. Historians in their opinion unanimously indicate that Wojciechowski remains a figure greatly underrated, they believe it should be remembered that his presidency fell on a particularly turbulent period in Polish history. He managed to make history as an outstanding politician and statesman and will remain in history as a relentless defender of democratic values ​​and a prominent patriot.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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