Crusade Magazine - 1999 by Nestor - Issuu

Page 1


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Contents January-February, 1999 Editorial To Our Readers


March for Life,

Back to Manners

Conversation Still an Obligation


January 22, 1999

Forgotten Truths We Must Not Trouble Ourselves About the Future



The Siege of Reason


Cover Story

Vatican Archbishop Joins March Against Abortion, Visits TFP



Jacinta's Striking Seriousness



Expelled by the Rosary

16 Presence of Vatican Archbishop encourages marchers.


Only in America



Russia Today


TFPs in Action

Fatima Caravans Visit

Eastern Europe


Commentary Y2K, hype, and doomsday


Basic Course of History Rome Collapses, Christianity Rises

In spite of the general chaos, the man with faith does not cover his



Family Series Where faith expelled violence: A Imelda's First Communion


golden point in history and a great lesson for the times to come.

Crusade Magazine is a publication of the American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP). Subscriptions in the United States and Canada, $24.00. Foreign subscriptions, $35.00. List of other TFP publications available upon request. Direct all subscription requests and inquiries to: Crusade Magazine, P.O. Box 1868, York, PA 17405 or e-mail to: Tel.: 888-317-5571, Fax:(717) 225-7382, Copyright 1999 by The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, Inc. This publication includes images from Corel and An Today which are protected by Copyright laws of the U.S. and elsewhere



C. Preston Noel! Ill As.sociATE Editors:

Earl Appleby Thomas Becket Jack Bumham

The change of the millennium comes at a time when many more

important factors are building up than the mere numerical significance of the date. There are many impending ques tions to which God alone knows the answer. We live in a world that has not

help and hope that they will see the results of the work we do together to

continuously fine-tune Crusade this year.

Our magazine is now entering its seventh year. It began as a modest

Eugenia Guzman Gary Lsbell Thomas J. McKenna Photography:

Orlando Lyra Circuiw\tion:

Gregory Escaro Foreign Correspondents:

responded to the call for conversion that

attempt to fill the need expressed by

AUSTRALIA: Raymond de Souza

Our Lady of Fatima issued in 1917. Indeed, this century has been one of the

friends of the American Society for the Defense of Tradition Family and

AUSTRIA: Charles E. Schaffer

bloodiest and darkest in the history of mankind, and every phase has con

Property to deepen their contact with us.

firmed Fatima's warnings. What will the

lenges to our Catholic faith have grown,

final chapter of her messages be?

but at the same time the number of

ROME: Juan M. Monies

What will happen regarding the internal disarray and division that the

Catholics who react increases daily. As

SOUTH AFRICA: Richard Urban

more enter the field of battle the diffi

SPAIN: Felipe Barandiaran

Church suffers as it crosses the thresh old of the third millennium? The

culties they face in their apostolic efforts, at work, and in their family lives

Catholic Church confronts a crisis of

become more complex. They confront

unprecedented historical proportions: the struggle between orthodox Catholics

sometimes violent and aggressive, and

and ultra-progressivists, between the common faithful and the intellectualoid

As the 1990s progressed, the chal

arguments that are often very subtle, usually difficult. The number of people in contact

BRAZIL: Jose Carlos Sepulveda FRANCE: Benoil Bemelmans

GERMANY: Beno Hofschulle PORTUGAL: Antonio de Azeredo

The American TFP

The American Society for

the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP) was founded

in 1973 to confront the profound crisis shaking the modern world. It is a civic, cultural and nonpar-

innovators who see the Church as an

with the American TFP has reached the

outdated institution they would reshape

hundreds of thousands. These individu

to serve their ends.

als have responded to the call for action that has gone out time and again.

tisan organization which, inspired

further undermines the faith of many

Thousands took active part in the protest

Supreme Magisterium of the

Catholics. They tend to look for some

against the blasphemous play Corpus

Roman Catholic Church, works

middle term that would make it easier to

Christi and helped in numerous ways,

in a legal and peaceful manner in

abandon the sometimes difficult moral

especially in distributing the three mil lion flyers that went out in the second

the realm of ideas to defend and

restraints of our religion. It is much eas

ier to go with the flow than be a "rock

half of 1998. Others worked hard to

ownership, family and perennial

organize gatherings in their homes to

Christian values with their twofold function: individual and

The stress of modem civilization

of scandal."

What will happen with our country

as its international standing declines? How will we adjust to the new threats of terrorist weapons of mass destruction on American soil? Will our country contin

ue to grow in economic prosperity? What happens when the bubble pops? Will the enemies of the family achieve their goal of same-sex marriages? How long will it take?


writing to us. We thank them for their •

receive the statues of Our Lady of

Fatima traveling with volunteer teams throughout our country. We will be there, watching and wondering, digging and preparing, spec ulating and praying, trying to help in the effort to enter the struggle that all of us

face in the run up to the year 2000. Please keep us in your prayers. The staff here at Crusade will remember all of

by the traditional teachings of the

promote the principles of private

social. The TFP's words and

efforts have always been faithful ly at the service of Christian civi lization.

The first TFP was founded

in Brazil by the famous intellec tual and Catholic leader Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira in

1960, His work has inspired the formation of other autonomous TFPs in 26 countries across the

These are just a few of the ques tions that Crusade writers ponder at the

you in our daily Rosary and other prayers. Whatever this year has in store,

beginning of this new year. Many of our

we can and must have total confidence

world's largest anticommunist

readers have shared their thoughts on these issues by answering our surveys or

that Our Lady will help those who turn

and antisocialist network of

to her. ■

Catholic inspiration.


globe, thus constituting the

Back to Manners


Still an Obligation by Michelle Taylor - onversation, once a highly prized art,

tence. No matter what the generally

Good conversation can be the finest

has no preeminence in our modem society.

"accepted" behavior has become, it is still and always will be rude and discourteous

and least expensive joy in life, for there is nothing more interesting than a human

Maybe it's our fast-paced world. Maybe, as pointed out by John Horvat in "Flight from Temperance: The Rise of the

not to make an effort to converse.

Moreover, with the art of conversation

dwindling and altogether threatening to

being. The dullest of humans has something interesting to tell. The dullest human life is

still a unique experience. The golden key to an enjoyable conver

nized to worry about such "arts." Maybe it's

vanish, we are the big losers. No football game, no TV program, no night at the movies, can replace human interaction. Our

our television-dominated environment. Yes,

society is depressed because we've become

is nothing but a failure of the imagination

maybe the lube is a big culprit.

a cluster of islands, each with its own TV

— ours — to uncover the source of another

Man-Machine" in Crusade's November-

December issue, we've become loo mecha

In any case, conversation has suffered

for a companion.

greatly and. with it, family ties, friendship,

sation is interest. The great conversationkiller is disinterest. "At bottom, disinterest

human being's uniqueness." writes essayist Phyllis Theroux in her masterful article

objective communication, teamwork, life in general, and last but not least, manners. Yes, we've had it too easy with televi

"The Art of Conversation."

So before all else, to get back into con

versation. interest has to be put back into

sion. If we want diversion, relaxation, enter

gear. Yes, interest in our fellow human

tainment, we have it at the click of a button.


There we sit, lounge, or sprawl — and

A contact must be established. First

watch. That's all, watch. The TV doesn't

and foremost is eye-contact. Unless we

look back. It talks to us, but we don't have

have some ugly crime on our souls and are

to respond. If we become tired of one pro gram. the click of another button gives

afraid it will show in our eyes, there is no reason why we shouldn't look at our inter

something new. No effort.

locutor straight in the eye and with all honesty. The eye is the window of the

If someone walks into the

room, we motion him to another

chair — if we pay him any heed at

soul, the focus of life, say the Scriptures. "The light of the body is

all — and bid him keep quiet and

thine eye"(Luke, 11:34).

watch too. A bit rude, bui it has

Contact. Look. Judge. Perceive. Assess. By just looking, one can dis

become the accepted etiquette. Of "old," when there was no

cern much about the other's frame of

TV to entertain us, the an of being

mind, temperament, mentality, out

able to approach someone and strike

look on life, psychology, and even pro

up a conversation and make a plea.sant time of it was deemed not only a grat

fession. and these are the first clues

needed for a successful approach and

ifying accomplishment but a social obligation. A person who sat by anoth er at a dinner table without making an


Then engage. Ask. Listen. Respond. Sounds simple, yet we have become

effort to converse was immediately labeled impolite, ill-mannered.

tiuly leery of jumping into conversa tions for the simple reason that once we

With our fast-moving world and our means of entertain

ment, are we still obliged to make conversation? By all means. An

"At bottom, disinterest is nothing but a failure of the imagination — ours

unwritten law holds that when cir

cumstances place one human being

— to uncover the source of another

in close proximity to another, each must acknowledge the other's exis-

human being's uniqueness"

ask someone about himself or what he does, that is what we arc bound to hetir about for the next hour or two.

Exactly. To our minds, this type of personal interaction is the biggest imaginable bore. And it is. So how can we say that the art of conversation can be a real delight?

January-February 191J9


Back to Manners

Simple. The art has been lost, but we must resurrect it. As in every art, there are rules. And both sides of the conversation,

mind you, not just one, must obey these rules. Then we have a delightful pastime. Jonathan Swift, famed for Gulliver's Travels, recorded what he called: "the ten

mortal sins against the art of conversation." By this negative method much can be learned about the positive art.

is doing — and listens to her reply. But then

becomes simply delightful and flows effort

Beth does not extend the tales of her happi


ness or woes for too long either. She thinks of something that might interest Mary. Mary is grateful for the gesture and answers as interestingly as possible, thinking all the

At the end, they part better friends. Yes, gone are the days of those man ners that made solid friendships, marriages that lasted, loves that endured.

mutual interest. The effort "pays off," for

They may return if we only believe that a human being is much more interesting and a better companion — even if harder to cul

this is the point where conversation

tivate - than the TV.

while of something that may interest Beth.

Suddenly, both strike a gold mine — a

The ten mortal sins against the art of conversation

1) Lack of attention

Forgotten Truths

2) Interrupting and talking at the same time as your interlocutor 3) Eagerness in showing off wit, knowl edge, or culture 4) Selfishness (talking only about your per sonal interests and "turning off as soon as

We Must Not Trouble Ourselves About the Future

the other says something about his or hers.)

5) Wishing to dominate the conversation 6) Snobbishness

7) Not following the train of conversation 8)Turning everything into a Joke

9) A spirit of contradiction 10) Lack of calm in presenting arguments

by Fr. Thomas de Saint Laurent "Be not solicitous," says Our Lord.

Have no illusions! Such confidence

What is the exact sense of this coun

demands great strength of soul. We have

sel? In order to obey the directions of the Master, must we completely neglect our

to avoid a double shoal: an excess and a

temporal affairs?

from negligence, takes no interest in his

deficiency. On the one hand, he who,

We do not doubt that, at times, grace

obligations and affairs cannot hope for

asks from certain souls the sacrifice

extraordinary help from God without

seem most frequent. Once 1 stood behind two middle-aged

required by strict poverty and total aban

tempting Him. On the other hand, he

donment to Providence.

who gives his material concerns the first

ladies at a supermarket check-out. One talked incessantly. The other nodded polite ly, but it was plain that her attention was anywhere else but on what the first woman

Nevertheless, the rarity of these vocations is notable. The others, be they

place in his thoughts, who counts more upon himself than upon God, deceives

religious communities or individuals, have goods; they must manage them

himself even more crassly; he robs the Most High of the place in his life that


belongs to Him.

All of these apply, yet numbers 1 and 4

was saying.

"0, because, you know, my son is so

The Holy Ghost praises the strong

If we have taken prudent care of our

this, and my son did this, and just recently

woman who knows how to govern her house well. In the Book of Proverbs, He

interests, to be afflicted about the future

shows her to us rising very early to dis

the power and the goodness of God.

he won that..." And on and on interminably. Both were conversation killers. One

talked too much about her own affairs and the other "clicked off as soon as the other

began. As a result, they parted ways in less than five minutes.

No wonder that ours is an increasingly lonely world.

We need interest. Reciprocal interest. It is rude, ill-mannered, to leave someone

standing in the middle of the floor without having given them a chance at conversation,

tribute to her servants their daily tasks and

During the long years Saint Paul the

working with her own hands as well. Nothing escapes her watchfulness. The

Hermit lived in the desert, a crow

members of her household have nothing to fear. Thanks to her foresight, they shall have what is necessary, agreeable, and

day. One day Saint Anthony came to visit

even, to a certain extent, moderately luxu

rious. Her children proclaim her blessed, and her husband exalts her virtues.

The Truth would not have praised

other that what the person says matters not

that woman so warmly if she had not ful filled her obligations. It behooves us, then, not to afflict

a bit to us.

ourselves. We must occupy ourselves

"clicking off" and making it evident to the

It could be so different. But it takes

would amount to ignoring and despising

brought him a half loaf of bread every the illustrious solitary. The two saints conversed for a long time, forgetting dur ing their pious meditations the necessity for food. But Providence thought of them; The crow came, this time carrying a whole loaf.

The heavenly Father created the

whole universe with one single word;can it be difficult for Him to His chil

reasonably with our obligations, not

dren in their hour of need? To be afflicted about the future con

allowing ourselves to be dominated by

stitutes a lack of confidence that offends

God and provokes His anger. ■

ly as if it were her own. But Mary also takes

anguish over the somber prospects of the future, and counting without hesitation

care not to presume too much, so soon

on the aid of Divine Providence.

The Book of Confidence, pp 39-42

effort. It takes manners: Mary talks a little bit about her .son and Beth listens attentive

changes the subject and asks Beth how she



The Siege of Reason by Raymond E. Drake

Many good Americans seem to be sleepwalking, wandering


hopelessly confused, psychologically over whelmed by the sheer number of dramatic and irrational events they are asked to deal with. The gravity of these events and the

speed with which they succeed one another

prevents many people from properly ana lyzing them and giving them the vigorous and thoroughly reasoned reaction they deserve.

Indeed, on December 20, for the first

time in 130 years, a President stood impeached before the country, charged by the House of Representatives with perjury

and obstruction of ju.stice. Earlier that day, the country gasped as Speaker-elect

Bob Livingston (R-La.), calling on the President to follow his example, resigned

The great danger is

ment under the sharp contrast between the Khmer Rouge leaders' triumphal welcome home and the worldwide outcry against

not his office but his political career

to allow oneself

Chile's anticommunist Pinochet — state

because of leaks to the media regarding marital infidelities. Politicians and public

to sink into the

former, condemnation without trial for the

alike now speculate as to who might be the

blissful ohlivion of unconsciousness.

bottom-feeders' next victim.

Four days before the House debates on

ments of pardon and reconciliation for the latter. Indeed, former U.N. SecretaryGeneral Boutros Bouiros-Ghali declared that

the Khmer Rouge's mass killings were the

the impeachment vote began, America

internal affair of a sovereign state, immune

watched in a daze as our ships and fighter

from the "interference" of outsiders, and that Cambodians must find their own route to

planes launched "Operation Desert Fox."

resolving their human rights issues. How dif

The air strikes ended the same day as the

placed Khmer Rouge leaders were being

impeachment vote, after the firing of 425

treated as celebrities in Cambodia where

ferent was the statement made to the BBC

sea- and air-launched cruise missiles and the

they had encouraged or tolerated the mas

on Christmas Day by London's Archbishop.

dropping of thousands of bombs in over 600

sacre of more than a quarter of the country's

Basil Cardinal Hume. He asserted that some

sorties by our warplanes, While staring at the Dantesque fireworks di.splay created in Baghdad and around Iraq, many wondered

eight million people. With their subversive

acts of torture or genocide are so wrong that

spirits undaunted (despite the luxurious

no one who commits or orders them should

receive immunity from prosecution, and

planes retaliating against attacks from Iraqi

accommodations and the bouquets they received), they made statements on the genocide that further undermined the most basic notion of good and evil. One of them. Nuon Chea, his contrition for the past reduced to a macabre joke, affirmed:

anti-aircraft batteries and missiles in the

"Actually, we are very sorry not only for the

what was being achieved. Their mental con fusion was accentuated by the fact that war,

though never declared, continued in the fol lowing weeks with American and British

northern and southern "no-fly" zones.

lives of the people of Cambodia, but even

Christmas did not bring the peace and .serenity it had in the past, On the contrary,

for the lives of all the animals that suffered

new events added to the stupor. Two highly

because of the war."

Many Americans reeled in bewilder

that, therefore. General Pinochet should

rightly stand trial. With the arrival of 1999 some Euro

pean countries have sacrificed aspects of their sovereignty in exchange for a new common currency, the euro. With this.

America's economic world leadership now faces a tremendous competitor. America's

lead was also eroded by what many around the world called our "unilateral" behavior.

January-February 1999



namely, our threat to slap 100% tariffs on European imports in retaliation for Europe's

what the building of the canal cost them and how vital it is to the world. Can they

having erected obstacles to purchases of

not rightly wonder what Panamanian con

bananas produced by giant American corpo

trol over the world's most traveled water


way has in store for American defense and

as is our most profound notion of what is true, right, and good.

Is it difficult to see that the impeach ment process "is a debate on something big ger than words" as Frank Bruni calls it? No.

commercial interests?

Many of us understand the existence of a cultural war between the world of truth and

people looking into drastic alternatives that

Meanwhile, on January 7, the Senate began its impeachment proceedings. One after another, the House Managers, being the prosecution, listed the evidence, argu ments, and legal precedents for impeaching

might be worse than the problems they hope to remedy.

the President. Henry Hyde, in his closing remarks on January 16, mentioned the

The second week of January brought

Founding Fathers' "sacred honor" and

the unraveling of Brazil's fragile economy. Within days Brazil devalued its currency,

asked if it still has meaning 223 years after being inscribed in the Declaration of

the real, by 37.5%, threatening global reces

Independence. He described the covenant of

Americans everywhere feel as if they

sion and the very foundations of the capital ist system. First it was the Asian tigers, then Russia, then Japan, and now Brazil. All of this left many Americans wondering if it's

trust between the American people and its elected president, and the fundamental trust

are in a boxing ring facing not just one

between America and the world. Trust, he

cumstances, it is only too easy to stagger

The advent of 1999 brought with it another crisis: the Y2K computer-chip

labyrinth and the unknown compounding of the problems it might entail. The uncertain ty as to the future in this regard has many

emphasized, is the heart and soul of our jus-

just a question of time before the contagion

Western investors to provincial government agencies. The unrest spread quickly to the Hong Kong stock exchange, as Western

investors became jittery over a possible default on the billions lent to Communist

China's other corporations. Back in the

States, many felt their heads spin, wonder ing if they would be facing forward or not

when it all stops.

America, and a hedonistic, neo-pagan one. However, we are not given a fair chance in this psychological arena. If even great

minds find it impossible to deal with so many crises with such global consequences, the average American feels he certainly can not handle them.

assailant, but five all at once. In such cir

under the shower of blows. The greater dan ger, however, is to allow oneself to sink into the blissful oblivion of unconsciousness,

reaches American shores.

China added to the instability, saying it would not make good on $4.3 billion lent by

absolutes on one side, and that of rela

tivism; between a Christian, God-fearing

Worn-out by the chaos of events, they simply disconnect from reality, discard logic and reason, and hoh along...

In the meantime, much closer to

home, the Colombian government began

ignoring the problems at hand, instead of addressing them. Tragically, that is what many do. Worn-out by the chaos of events

and being unable or unwilling anymore to challenge what is going on, they simply dis connect from reality, discard logic and rea son, and bob along, almost instinctively, on the waters of irrationality and feeling. The avalanche of crises in so short a time-frame reminded me of some words of

advice given by Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira, the founder of the Brazilian TFP,

to a group from the American TFP who vis

its suicidal dialogue with the FARC

tice system, the mortar that secures the

Marxist rebels who for 35 years have done nothing but undermine its authority. Their

foundations of the American house of free

fighting units continued terrorizing, kid

asks God to be witness to the truth of what

napping, and killing innocent people even as they sat around the negotiating table. In

one is saying. He reiterated that wc are the

Fatima. He suggested two requisites to keep

heirs of the Ten Commandments, Roman

in mind:

this they were consistent, having said they

Law, the Magna Carta. and the rule of law. And he finished by asking if the nation will

divine example in the Garden of Olives.

keep faith with those of its sons who died defending an America where the idea of

sufferings of His Passion, Our Lord was

are not interested in disarming. Then, as

dom. He reminded the nation that an oath

"dialogue" progressed, they stated their goal publicly: toppling the government and implementing Marxist reforms in the

".sacred honor" still had the power to stir

country. Colombia's government, however,

men's souls.

warmed by its pat on the back from the

As rousing as his words were, most of

Clinton administration, still cannot read

our nation needs the piercing bagpipes he

the writing on the wall and continues to

mentioned to break the mental numbness

believe the rebels are well-intentioned.

into which it is sinking. This quick succes sion of so many complex events has left

Major Andy Messing, an American expert

ited him a year before his untimely death in 1995. We were wondering how to cope with the growing chaos and. particularly, the chastisements foreseen by Our Lady in

First of all. to emulate Our Lord's

Foreseeing the excruciating torments and afraid and even sweat blood, but He did not allow His ainiclions to transform them

selves into anxiety. Second, to confide in Divine Provi

dence. If in much less troubled times, one would c\en say calm times. God in His goodness gave us abundant assistance and words of hope and comfort (the Fatima

on Colombia, has been quoted in The New

many Americans completely bewildered.

York Times as saying that the Marxists will

The moral honor and sheer irrationality of

message itself, for example), we have eveiy

be in control of its capital, Bogota, within

the psychological bombardment to which

reason in the world !• • e pect that He w ill do

we are being subjected tempts increasing

proportionally much more foi us when the

Even closer to home, preparations

numbers of us lo forsake the use of reason

continue for relinquishing the strategic Panama Canal to Panamanian administra

altogether. The ' uwling winds of chaos arc blowing, and many feel powerless to resist.

limes boci'ine chaotic and seemingly impossible to cope with. We must truly con

tion at the year's end. Americans know

Our most basic common sense is attacked.

a year.


fide in Him. therefore, and in the mercy of His mrst Blcssix! Mother.


IN BRIEF 0 Most favored nation update The "crime" of being a faithful Roman Catholic, loyal to Rome, continues to be

law. State Sen. William Van Regenmorter, a co-sponsor of the bill, said that the law does not contradict the Supreme Court's

severely punished by the bosses of one of the U.S.'s favorite business partners. Two more Catholic priests of the faith

1973 decision legalizing abortion, but is oriented toward curtailing domestic vio lence. The ACLU, surely fearing a prece

ful underground Church in China were

dent favorable to the life of the unborn,

arrested near the end of 1998, along with

protested that the law makes of the unborn child a separate person — a reality that nei ther they nor other abortion proponents want to acknowledge.

several laymen. The laymen were later

released, but priests such as Fr. Li Qinghua, arrested in November, face prolonged incarceration and various tortures designed to undermine their priestly vocations. The tenure includes the use of special female agents who strive to tempt the priests into engaging in sexual relations, with hidden

0Who is the madman?

group Arcigay, charged that "the Vatican

has a moral responsibility for the malaise in which many homosexuals live these days." He uttered this accusation on the first

anniversary of the self-immolation in Vatican Square of Alfredo Ormando, an

unfortunate soul who, having given himself over to homosexuality, committed the fur

ther grave sin of suicide in protest of the Church's infallible teaching on this perver sion of nature.

Imagine someone possessed of unde niable and unshakable sanity being accused

of lunacy by a raving madman. Then con

video cameras recording the whole ordeal. The videotapes are used to blackmail the victim into joining the communist-sanc

groups that the teaching of the Church regarding this sin that cries to Heaven for

tioned Chinese Catholic Patriotic Asso

vengeance is immoral and a disorder.

sider the accusations of certain sodomite

ciation and revealing connections with

Late last year, protesting homosexuals

other underground priests. Priests resisting these attempts face the threat of being sent to brutal "re-education" camps. Meanwhile, business must go on, and our trade deficit with the torturers, already over $50 billion, steadily worsens.

of both genders were refused Holy

0Closer to the truth

In Italy, early in January, Sergio Lo Guidice, leader of the sodomite activist

Communion at St. Patrick's Cathedral in

Melbourne, Australia. They were present at Mass, wearing identifying rainbow sashes,

0Property rights and religion The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, with jurisdiction over Alaska, California, and seven other western states, ruled on

January 14 that landlords may cite their reli gious beliefs in refusing to rent housing to unmarried couples.

The ruling stems from a case brought by two landlords against an Alaska law for bidding discrimination in housing based on marital status. The court said that the law

specifically to challenge the Church's teaching that homosexual activity is a sin.

interfered with a property owner's right to

The leaders of the protest said they were

his freedom of speech and property rights.

encouraged by comments made in Rome

the free practice of religion, in addition to

Knowingly assaulting a pregnant

by Canberra's Bishop Pat Power that the

Of course, the fight is far from over. The Alaska attorney general's office stated

woman with intent to cause a miscarriage

Catholic Church should be in solidarity with every marginalized group, including

that it will request a full appeals court review and, if necessary, a review by the


Supreme Court,

or stillbirth could result in life imprison ment in Michigan according to a new state

0 Monarchy again under attack Canada's Liberal Government recently leaked to the press that exploratory discussions were underway on a proposal to

It has long been the dream of egalitarians to wipe the remaining monarchies off the face of the earth.

make Canada a republic for the new millenni

When they cannot achieve this directly, they

um. This trial balloon popped when the pre

attempt to erode the status of the monarchy by

miers of Prince Edward Island, Ontario,

introducing small changes that they hope will go

Alberta, and New Brunswick said they would


oppose such a move. In Canada a constituliona!

Arthur Bousfield, editor of Monarchy Canada,

change must have unanimous support from all

points out that at the same time Prime Minister Jean Chretien's proposals were raising a storm, a


Every once and a while this tendency sur faces in our neighbor to the North.

When it does it is usually swept away

new version of Canada's citizenship oath was being introduced. Some of its subtle changes alarm monarchists. The oath

by popular protest, but each lime there

to the Queen is changed to a pledge to

remains a dent in the monarchist tradi

Canada and Her Majesty, meaning that


those who believe in God can no

Recent polls suggest that the per ception of the monarchy has not been dra.stically undermined. The royal fami ly may now even be recovering from the

Canada with God as their witness.

successors is dropped, suggesting an

scandals and tragedies sun'ounding it.

eventual end to the monarchy. â–

longer make their allegiance to Reference to the Queen's heirs and

January-February 1999


Cover Story



C7 r

Vatican Archbishop



Joins March Against


Abortion, Visits TFP by Joseph D'Agostino

Archbishop Custodio Alvim Pereira, vice president of the chapter of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, took part in this year's March for Life in Washington, D.C. on January 22. His Excellency's unofficial visit represented the first time, as far as organizers and perennial marchers could recall, that a member of the Vatican hierarchy had attended the March.

Archbishop Custodio Alvim Pereira chats with TFP Vice-

President Thomas McKenna, while watching the thousands of marchers proceed towards Capitol Hill.

March for Life leader Nellie Gray announced the Archbishop's presence to the assembled marchers. As the March itself began, he walked the length of the march's

hold fast to their principles. "I am very plea.sed with the fer vent Catholic faith 1 have seen in the United States, yesterday

course with the approximately 100,000 participants, acknowl

and today." he said.

edging American well-wishers while in full ecclesiastical

Monsignor Wach, a Frenchman who also attended the

The Prelate, Archbishop Emeritus of Louren^o Marques,

March, praised the United Slates as well. His Institute, a soci ety of apostolic life erected by Rome in 1990, trains priests in

Mozambique, came to the United States with 21 members of

its Italian seminary according to the traditional teachings of


the French group Right To Be Born, which he serves as chap

the Church. Institute priests celebrate Mass according to the

lain. A native of Portugal, he has lived most of his life in Rome, where he became a member of the chapter of Saint

Tridentine rite.

Peter's at Pope Paul VPs request after being forced to leave his African diocese by the Communist revolution in 1975. The next evening, he and Monsignor Gilles Wach,

the only country that is capable of manifesting such a desire

Superior General of the Institute of Christ the King, Sovereign Priest, visited the American TFP's Washington

"I believe it is certainly a glory for you that America is

to defend the life of the unborn. Christ is the way. the truth, and the life. Before us we see error and death. The march yes terday has shown me that there are great riches in your peo

bureau for a reception in their honor. In brief remarks, the 83-

ple.... But the culture of death reigns somewhat everywhere. It certainly reigns in your laws." Monsignor Wach said that

year-old archbishop thanked the guests and urged them to

the situation in the Old World is even worse than it is in the Continues p.10


Let us be Consistent Text of the American TFP's flyer distributed to thousands of participants of the March for Life in Washington, D.C., January 22, 1999

On this, the twenty-sixth annual March for Life, the American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property(TP?)commends you for your presence and your perseverance. We are here today to join you in a loud cry of

protest on behalf of the innocent life of the unborn child — life that has no voice but ours. At the foot of Capitol Hill, our cry will

do in opposition to the constant teaching of the Magisterium and to the moral sense of the Christian people. (...) But no pastoral method can be employed which would give moral Justification to these acts on the grounds that they would be consonant with the

condition of such people. For according to the objective moral

echo the silent scream of millions of defenseless babies murdered

order, homosexual relations are acts which lack an essential and indispensable finality. In Sacred Scripture they are condemned as

in their mothers' wombs — victims of parental abandonment,

a serious depravity and even presented as the sad consequence of

abortionist greed, medical betrayal, and political expediency. Many innocent babies have been saved through heroic efforts. But so much remains to be done. To win the fight for the

rejecting God"[Cf. Rom 1, 24-27; 1 Cor. 6, 10 and ITim 1, 10].

unborn, we must attack the Culture of Death at its roots. To

most degenerating influence in the social order," advocated "vol untary association" between sexual partners and taught that homosexual relations could be highly

defend life, we must combat;

It is not surprising that Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, who condemned the marriage bed as "the

1. Sexual Immorality

beneficial to society — for nothing can be more diametrically opposed to the fertility of life then the sterility of

The fornication and adultery that fill today's headlines break the

unnatural vice. Homosexuality mocks

sacred bonds that bind human sexu

ality to its divinely ordained pur pose — procreation. Abortion is the

ultimate guarantee of the sterility of


life, the family its protector, and God its Creator. To defend life we must

oppose homosexual vice and the

sexual license — devoid of life and

shameful effort to elevate this barren

love, and liberated from the respon

degeneracy to the status of life-giving

sibility and commitment of marital


fidelity. 4. Euthanasia

As Pope Pius XII declared,

"Marriage alone safeguards the dig nity of husband and wife and their good estate, and is of its nature the only guarantee of the children's

The same secular humanist plat form that calls for the legalization of Ted Huereha of the American TFP

distributes flyers at the March.

abortion and sodomy calls for the

legalization of euthanasia. As long as

well-being." To defend life we must uphold the sacred covenant

America does not defend all innocent human life as sacred and

of marriage.

inviolable, no man's life is safe. Just as the defenseless baby in his mother's womb is sacrificed to our self-indulgence, the lives of our infirm, impaired, and aged fall victims to the same selfish

2. Contraception

Contraception violates the nature of marriage because it denies its primary purpose — procreation. Rejection of God's gift

of children logically leads to abortion, and those who practice


As Pope John Paul II warns,"Further delays and negligence

contraception are far more likely to resort to abortion. Indeed,

could result in the suppression of an incalculable number of human lives and in a further serious degradation of all society to

abortion is the ultimate post-conception birth control. Many of

still more inhuman levels."

today's contraceptives — such as the pill and I.U.D. — act as

abortifacients that kill unborn children. As Pope Paul VI pro claimed, in the encyclical Humanae Vitae,"Each and every mar riage act must remain open to the transmission of life." To defend life we must oppose contraception.

To be consistent, we must combat all sexual immorality, contraception, homosexual vice, and euthanasia with the same

consistent and constant vigilance with which we should oppose all abortion.

3. Homosexual Vice

Like contraception, the homosexual act is an unnatural prac tice that assaults the sanctity of marriage and rejects the life to which marital love gives birth. As the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith warns: "At the present time there tire those

As the Holy Father reminds us,"Faithfulness in consistency to live in accordance with what one believes; to adapt one's own

life to the object of one's adherence. To accept misunderstanding, persecution, rather than a break between what one practices and

who, basing themselves on observations in the psychological

what one believes: this is consistency." May Our Blessed Mother, the living example of faithfulness

order, have begun to Judge indulgently, and even to excuse com

to Christ, help us bear consistent witness to God's gift of life in

pletely, homosexual relations between certain people. This they

all we do! ■

January-February 1999


•; I Jir 'tf-x

ii#5^ -^. V feS(i


W. ,te'- t :/:mj-

Some views during the Latin Mass celebrated by Archbishop Custodio Alvim Pereira at Annunciation

Church In McSherrystown, Pennsylvania

tion whatsoever, he will be an enemy to himself if he does not stay under the watch

Spring Grove, Pennsylvania, for a dinner in

and truth are afraid of showing themselves.

ful eyes of God," he said.

their honor with approximately 280 guests.

This is terrible, for it concerns the life of

Church."Man has no salvation, no explana

Lent. He and Msgr. Wach then visited the American TFP's headquarters in nearby

New. "In Europe, [the culture of death] does not triumph in all hearts and souls, but it is so powerful that the defenders of life

Like any good homilist, Monsignor

The Archbishop said in an interview through an interpreter that when he was a

mankind itself. If one were to look back a

Wach offered hope along with dire warn

little in history, one could see that we have reached the logical conclusion of the Revolution," he said.

ings. "We are at the hour of Fatima," he

youth in Portugal, "no one spoke of abor

said. "Our hearts and our souls, we have

tion. No one even knew what it was." He

given them to the Virgin Mary. She can work the greatest miracles, which will be

said that the international right-to-life movement has grown much stronger since

able to astound all of mankind."

the immediate aftermath of the liberaliza

'The eighteenth century taught people to crush the Church. The nineteenth century, the rejection of God, atheism. And the twen tieth century, which is the logical result, the

The following day. Archbishop Pereira

tion of abortion laws in the '60s and '70s.

celebrated a sung Tridentine Mass at

"In 1974," he recalled, "the movement

destruction of man," he continued. "This

Annunciation Church in McSherrystown,

against abortion was obscure, not well

century, this twentieth century, which was

known. Now we hear much more about it."

supposed to be that of the progress that was

Pennsylvania, with Monsignor Wach assist ing. Over 350 people attended the Mass,

to be the future of man, was the most crim


interview, remarked, "In the United Slates,

inal, the most abominable, in the history of man." Monsignor Wach made it clear that

Nicholas Dattilo of Harrisburg.

there is no solution to the culture of death

chapel at the parish where Perpetual Adora tion will be inaugurated in the first week of

short of the return of society to the Catholic

with the permission of Bishop

After the Mass the Archbishop blessed a

Monsignor Wach, in another translated there seems to be a survival reaction against abortion."

He also spoke of a subject close to his

heart, the old Latin Mass, which his priests still celebrate. "This Mass is the

expression itself of Christian civi lization," he said. "The new rite of the Mass introduced in 1969, as

Members of the American TFP and students from St. Louis de

Montfort Academy provided music for the Mass,singing the common

and propers.The Pontifical hymn, "0 Rome Eternal," was sung as

the recessional, accompanied by trumpets.




r,.".' -wnA-i',


0 ?

1 â– View of of Annunciation church from

the choir during the Mass 2 - Fr. Andre Meiuskey, pastor of

Annunciation Church, acknowledges the applause after TFP President Raymond Drake thanked him for having made his church available for the Mass.

3 - Monsignor Gilles Wach speaks dur

ing the dinner offered In Archbishop Pereira's and his honor at theTFP's

headquarters, the Estate of Our Lady of

Good Success in Spring Grove, Pennsylvania. 4• Archbishop Pereira gives his bless ing at the entrance of the Pierre Touissant center where the dinner was served.

5 - Nearly 300 people gathered in the TFP's dining room to honor Archbishop

Pereira and Monsignor Wach.

Cover Story

In Memoriam

Just one day before his death, Mr. Jack Minsinger posed with

Archbishop Alvim Perelra at the American TFP headquarters In Spring Grove.

In Memory of Jack Minsinger Left to right: Monsignor Wach, Archbishop Perelra, and the Rev. Vittorio Mazzuchelli, Master of Ceremonies, pose In front of Annunciation Church after Mass with acolytes,TFP volunteers, and friends.

Cardinal [Joseph] Ratzinger has said, is the auto-celebration of the assembly. While not questioning the validity of this Mass, the rite itself and the symbols used in this rite, very impover

ished symbols, do not manifest clearly the Catholic faith and all of its dogmas. Most of all, it manifests a desire of turning towards man. It is the anthropological vision of man that prevails over the divine aspects. This is not just a detail. This is the fruit of a mentality. The generations that produced this new rite of the Mass had the mentality of militancy, a socialistic goal, a socio

logical goal." He said that the "old Mass" will never leave the Church."The reason why the traditional Mass is important is not only because it is the Mass of all times, always present and always to be present from time immemorial in the life of the Church, it is important most of all because it brings men back to

On January 27, 1999, our dear friend Jack

Minsinger passed away. Bom and raised in Pittsburgh, Jack converted to the Catholic Faith at the

age of 19. Soon afterwards, he moved to Hanover, Pennsylvania, where he met his wife, Joan. He culti vated a deep devotion to the Blessed Mother, a fact noted by all. His friendship with the TFT' blossomed in rather unusual circumstances. Instead of avoiding us after reading the adverse press coverage when the

TFP moved to its new headquarters in Spring Grove, Jack stopped by to see for himself. He obviously liked what he saw. From then on he would frequently

come to visit, often bringing along a priest, religious, or other friend to introduce to us. He willingly stood up for what was right, even if it meant going against the current. We are grateful to Jack for his assistance in bringing the TFP into the local community.


In another interview, Marc Balestrieri, the executive director

of Right To Be Bom, France's largest right-to-life group, with 40,000 members, said that the American effort is much further ahead than the French. "In France," he said, "the topic of abor

tion is politically incorrect from the beginning. In the United States, people are much more open-minded and willing to discuss it."

Archbishop Pereira spent some time in Washington visiting right-to-life politicians before departing the United States to return to Rome. â–



Jack's friendly, outgoing manner made him a favorite at our headquarters. Kind, forgiving, and

generous are words that come to mind when we remember Jack. Not only was he a man with a big heart, but his heart was in the right place! Above all,

he cultivated a deep devotion to the Blessed Mother. All of us will sorely miss him and will treasure his

friendship forever. We ask your prayers for his soul.


Jacinta's Striking Seriousness by Robert E. Ritchie

Jacinta Maito's seriousness is one oftwo

The vision of Hell

Another thing that impressed me about Jacinta is that Our Lady showed her, together with Lucia and Francisco, a vision of Hell. I wonder what today's psychologists would say if asked

things about her that have always impressed me. Perhaps one reason for this is that I am sick and tired of

seeing the way many children are

raised today. There are just so many empty jokes, games, and "good

whether Hell should be shown to

times," with so little concern for

children to better lead them along

preparing the child for the reality of life, the struggle between good

the road of virtue. We would never

and evil. A child's eternal destiny depends a great deal on this early

chological damage, abuse, the

hear the end of it — torture, psy whole works! But Mother knows

formation received at home,

best, and in this case it was the

where the foundation for a seri

Mother of mothers who decided

ous Catholic education is laid.

the three Fatima children ought to

Jacinta's gaze, reflecting this seriousness, seems to penetrate far

see Hell in all of its horror.

This second impressive thing helps explain Jacinta's serious

into the future, as if looking into

ness. "If men knew what eternity

eternity. And that was her goal.

is, they would do everything to

Material things were secondary. Engrossed in the supernatural, she

change their lives," she once said.

seems aloof from worldly things. Her seriousness gave her objectivity. Objectivity

She understood Hell to be what it is —

gave her hatred of sin, a desire to convert sin

the terrible and eternal punishment for sin. "Do not offend Our Lord any more;

ners, and an increased love of Jesus and Mary.

said to Lucia. And Jacinta understood the

A profound change

ciated the beauty of virtue. The notion of

He is already much offended," Our Lady gravity of sin. In contrast, she also appre Jacinta Marto

But who was Jacinta Marto? She was

good and evil was alive and well in her

bom on March 11, 1910, the last of eleven

soul — something sadly lacking today. No

On that historic day. Our Lady asked the children a question that penetrated

one speaks of sin or Hell. When,for exam ple, was the last time you heard a sermon

with meek and humble manners, although

Jacinta's heart and inspired her to strive for

on Hell?

in other ways she was similar to children

the ideal of Christian perfection. "Do you wish to offer yourselves to God to endure all the suffering that He may be pleased to

I think Fr. Thomas McGlynn, O.P. sent a message that is a faithful echo of Jacinta's thought when he said: "The

send you, as both an act of reparation for the

accent on Hell is tremendous. It is the first son for all the rest of the revelations. Our

their cousin Lucia de Jesus dos Santos in

sins by which He is offended and an act of supplication for the conversion of sinners?" Jacinta replied with a firm "Yes!" but

Fatima. From that day forward, she under

she answered with deeds as well. She often

ments that would be visited on the world if

went a profound interior transformation.

fasted, sometimes for the whole day. On other occasions, she ate only the foods she

men did not amend their lives. We have

children of sturdy Portuguese peasants. From her earliest childhood she was blessed

her age. She played and sang, and she had her shortcomings and preferences. Her life changed dramatically after

May 13, 1917, however, when Our Lady appeared to her, her brother Francisco, and

People noticed this, and some commented: "It's so hard to understand, for she is a child

like any other, yet we perceive something extraordinary about her."

most disliked. She wore a rough cord around her waist. To save souls, no sacrifice was too great!

part of the Secret of Fatima; it is the rea

Lady went on to tell of temporal punish

seen them come — war. famine, persecu tion of the Church, the destruction of many nations. From the words of Our

Lady we must fear even greater affliction

MNUARY-FtiBRU.m 1999



unless there is a change in human conduct. But we definitely miss 'the spiritual meaning of things' if we think Our Lady came to Fatima to tell us how to convert Russia, or how to

achieve tranquillity in our earthly existence. She came to tell us how to keep out of Hell!" {Vision of Fatima). Sacrifice is the solution

The solution Our Lady gave the world at Fatima is simple. It is accessible to all. It boils down to sacrifice. Some people are willing to pray, but who is willing to sacrifice? Who is willing to suffer?

Prayer is not enough. Atonement is necessary. In our Catholic tradition we fi nd inspiring acts of reparation being per formed, like pilgrimages to distant shrines and weeks of fasting.

Things are different today. No period of history has made more effort to avoid suffering than ours. Suffering, rather than sin, is considered the greatest of evils today. People actually tor ment themselves considerably to sidestep suffering, and they usually end up hurting more in the end.

The Fatima message is inseparable from suffering. Our Lady asked us to mend our ways and reject attachment to sin. In our daily lives, that means breaking with friends who lead us into

sin. It means saying No to lustful passions. It means not watch ing immoral television programs or listening to off-color jokes. It means going against the grain when co-workers mock our Faith. All these involve sacrifice.

In accepting suffering, Jacinta set a beautiful example of striking seriousness. She embraced suffering mindful of the higher reasons of that suffering, while keeping in mind the won

by Prof. Roberto de Mattei

Hard cover, 380 pages

b&w illustrations, for only $14.95 .'' ?wiPii


I T~^he life of Professor Plinio Correa de Oliveira spans j

J. the century from 1908 to 1995. His first and most |

prized title is "Roman Catholic," and it was as a man of faith that he confronted the harrowing events of the twen tieth century. On the doctrinal field, in the field of action, and in his personal life he provided the substance for light ing the way ahead in a dark century. "With the integrity of his life as an authentic Catholic,

derful results it would have — saving souls and attaining her eternal salvation. Saint Philip Neri said, "The greatness of our love of God must be tested by the desire we have of suffering for His sake." Jacinta's sufferings proved her love for God. She passed the test. How about us? Seriousness, sacrifice, and sanctity

"In a few years, the Most Holy Virgin was able to raise this

brother and sister, Francisco and Jacinta, to the highest peaks of Christian sanctity. The picture of Jacinta drawn by the steady hand of Lucia is truly revealing:

Excerpt from

Fr. John De Marchi's book

"Jacinta always had a serious, modest, and amiable posture that seemed to transmit the presence of

on Fatima.

God in all her acts, proper to those advanced in

A Lady More

years and in great virtue. I never saw her lafter the

Brilliiinl Than

apparition] in that excessive flightiness and enthu

the Sun

siasm for frills and jokes common to children. I

cannot say that the other children ran to be with her, as they did with me; perhaps this was due to the seriousness of her bearing, rather superior to her age. If other children, or even adults, were

Plinio Correa de Oliveira offers us a confirmation of the

to say or do something ill-suited in her presence, she would rep

Church's fecundity," writes Cardinal Stickler in his preface to Prof. Roberto de Mattei's The Crusader of the 20th Century: Plinio Correa de Oliveira, recently published in Italian and now available in English.

rimand them saying, 'Don't do that which offends God, Our Lord. He is offended so much already.'

"One day Lucia gave in to the insistence of their little friends to take part in the games played at that age. Francisco called her aside and said very seriously, 'So you are returning to child's play after Our Lady has appeared to you?' 'Francisco,'

answered Lucia, 'they kept asking so much!" But Francisco, log

To obtain a copy of Crusader of the 20th Cer)tury:

ical and severe, retorted, 'Everyone knows Our Lady appeared to

Plinio Correa de Oliveira, ® (888) 317-5571 or [SDcrusade Magazine R O. Box 1868, York, PA, 17405

you, so they shouldn't find it strange for you to not want to play



or dance.'"




You are invited to take the

Story will shed a tear ofjoy as the Lady of the Rosary

children you love on a won derful pilgrimage to feel Our Lady's maternal love and care and

appears to Jacinta for the last time, after a short sickness, and carries her

to leam about her beautiful Fatima

apparitions. Children will follow Jacinta's footsteps to the Cova da Iria — the famous spot where the Mother of God appeared! They will see her kneel in awe as Our Lady approaches the holm-oak tree in a radiant sphere of light. They will feel Jacinta's sadness

Story contains so many vital lessons for children — why it is so important that they pray the Rosary, obey their parents, and follow the difficult but rewarding

as people spread a rumor that it was not the

road of virtue in this life!

Virgin Mary who had appeared, but the devil! They will shudder with her as the evil mayor threatens to throw her into a huge pot of boiling

oil if she refuses to reveal the secret. And they

innocent soul to heaven

— just as she had

promised. Jacinta's

Order Today! Only $11.95 Call (888) 317-5571


Jacinta and the Secret of Mary Adapted from a lecture of Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira on October 13, 1971

Considering Our Lady's action upon the three Fatima children in

a broader sense, the changes she brought about in them was something extraordinary — .something far beyond

their capacity. From this, we gather that Our Lady suddenly and suavely transformed them through her repeated apparitions.

Here we discover something akin to

the "Secret of Mary," of which Saint Louis de Montfort speaks. We see

I firmly believe

grace working profoundly in souls, and we see

that we must ask

how it works silently, without the person's per ceiving it. As a result, the person feels truly free. More than ever, the person feels inspired to prac

Jacinta and Francisco to

transform us, to grant us the same

gifts they received.

tice virtue and reject the evil chains of sin. Consequently, their love of God blossoms. Their desire to serve Him increases, and so does

The changes in the two children Our Lady called to Heaven, Jacinta and Francisco, was particularly striking. What does this

mean? Does this mean Our Lady will perform the same transformation upon us? Is it a fore

taste of how Our Lady intends to change humanity when she fulfills her Fatima promis es?

Can I say that the transformation in the

souls of Jacinta and Francisco are the begin ning of Our Lady's reign? Is this not her tri umph over the souls of Jacinta and Francisco,

heralds of Our Lady's message, who helped others accept the Fatima message through their prayers and sacrifices? And who still help us today through their prayers in Heaven? If this is true, it is logical that Jacinta and

Francisco be our intercessors before Our Lady and obtain the coming of her reign in our

their hatred of sin. This marvelous transformation

hearts. Is this not the mysterious transforma

of soul occurs in such a way that the person does not experience the systematic uphill struggle of those who follow the classical system of the spir itual life to obtain virtue, sanctity, and Heaven. Much to the contrary. Our Lady changes them

tion that we call the "Secret of Mary"?

same gifts they received, and to guide us, whose mission it is to live and to preach the


Fatima message. ■

I firmly believe that we must ask Jacinta

and Francisco to transform us, to grant us the

January-February 1999



11^ 1 .j(s

In May 1955, the Crusade of Reparation of the Holy Rosary, through the intercession of its Patron, Our Lady of Fatima, was graced with a miracle — the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Austrian soil. by Charles E. Schaffer our correspondent in Vienna

n French

Soviet Zone





Of the four Allied zones

of occupation,the one

assigned the Soviets was the richest and

encompassed Vienna.

ienna — A grave degeneration of

at a deadly rate. Symptoms of its metasta

Past or prologue?

faith and morals was already

sis are everywhere. The faithful have for gotten God's commandments. The crisis

which we live, but what might it have been

amply evident at the beginning of this troubled century. In 1917, the

This is the sad state of the world in

Mother of God appeared to three small

that could dwarf the heresies of the six

if we had listened to Our Lady and honored Her requests at Fatima? The brief history

Portuguese children, humble shepherds tend

teenth-century Protestant revolution, as a

that follows may provide some idea.

ing their flocks in the Cova da Iria less than

scandalous and growing number of bishops openly defy the Magisierium.

two miles from Fatima. She asked us to show contrition for our sins — and for the sins of

within the Church portends an apostasy

Since the end of the Second World

others — by prayer and penance, and by

War, the world has been engulfed in cease

amending our lives.

less conflicts on

Mankind, which had just suffered the

all five continents.

Revolutions alone have already claimed

horrors of the First World War, would have

more than five times the victims of the last

peace. Our Lady promised, if it heeded her

Great War.

words. If not, she warned, even more terrible

The persecution of the Church in

With the annexation of Austria by

Germany in March 1938, the destinies of the two nations were inseparably entwined. Naturally, the devastation wrought by the Nazi aggressors was imputed to Austria as well as Germany. As early as 1943, the Allies began to

contemplate the sanctions they would impose on the Axis powers once they had defeated them. They considered dismantling Austria and awarding its territories to coun tries victimized by the Nazis, but, in the end,

conflagrations would ensue with entire

Muslim lands has shed the blood of thou

nations vanishing from the face of the earth; the Church, founded by her divine Son, would suffer persecution; and the Holy

sands of martyrs. Across Europe, Islamic fanatics are gaining ground, threatening to

Father, Christ's Vicar on earth, would be sub



they decided to preserve the Austrian state, while placing it under Allied occupation.

jected to many trials.

Germany, and Italy, which appear more likely to fall with a whimper than with a

Like Germany, Austria was divided into four occupational zones to be adminis

bang. Not a few analysts have read the dark

tered by the United States, England,

performed a miracle during her last appear ance at Fatima in October 1917. As wit

clouds gathering on the horizon to forecast

assigned Lower Austria. With its oil fields,

nessed by thousands of onlookers — believ ers and skeptics alike — the sun danced repeatedly in the sky, then plunged omi nously earthward, as though it would fall

a Third World War, arising from the endless crises in the Middle East or, perhaps, from

agriculture, and industry. Lower Austria

the reaction of inveterate Russian commu

cled its capital. Vienna, which was also

nists entrenched in positions of power to

divided into four zones.

So that men might more readily believe her message, the Blessed Mother

upon the crowd below. Chastisement

The cancer consuming what was once called Christian civilization is progressing



reoccupy Spain and to conquer such former of



France, and the Soviet Union. The last was

was the nation's richest sector and encir

the degenerating influence of such Western imports as Playboy and MTV. Indeed,

Soviet Intentions

given the chaotic course of daily events, the next global conflict could arise at any

Within less than two years, Germany was allowed to regain a considerable degree of political independence in the American,

moment in any part of the world.

English, and French zones. From the ashes of the war unleashed by its predecessor, the Third Reich, the Federal Republic of

Germany arose. In Austria, however, the

years went by without her being granted even reduced autonomy. The Soviets favored territorial claims

levied against Austria by Tito, the dictator

of Yugoslavia, awarding that communist state lands inhabited by Croatian minorities. The Russians also backed a communist

putsch in Vienna, which tried to seize power over the whole of Austria.

In the middle of the twentieth century, as the Cold War iced in, it became evident that the Soviet Union had no intention of

abandoning the territory it occupied in East Germany or in Lower Austria â&#x20AC;&#x201D; any more than it intended to loosen its hold on its

Eastern European satellites; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and the newly formed German Democratic Republic. Today we know that until its dismantling under Gorbachev in the late 1980's, the Soviet

Union never lost a single nation it had sub

jugated. Nor did it renounce its domination of occupied territories short of force of arms, as in the defeat of the Red republic in

the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39. "Do as I say"

Consoled by the prayers of holy nuns, a Capuchin priest, Fr. Petrus Pavlicek, undertook a pilgrimage to Mariazell, Austria's principal Marian shrine, to seek the Blessed Virgin's counsel amid the dark

ening clouds threatening his homeland. On February 2, 1946, the feast of Our Lady of

Lights, he was praying ardently before the miraculous image when he perceived an interior voice that advised him, "Do as 1

say and you will have peace." To honor Our Lady's request, a renewal of her entreaty at Fatima, Father Pavlicek





Reparation of the Holy Rosary in 1947. Through the Crusade, Austrians Joined in a round-the-clock rosary, imploring the Blessed Virgin for the conversion of sinners,

peace in the world, and freedom for Austria. While his Capuchin superiors sanc tioned Father Paviicek's initiative, they were




ment of Penance. While preaching in 11 vil

sented his lost sheep with a choice. "Either everybody comes inside the church now or

lages in the region of Amstetten, Father heard nearly 6,000 confessions. On another

I will offer the Mass here." Thus did the

occasion, he remained at his post in the con

good priest end that bad custom.

fessional day and night for three days straight. Through God's grace. Father's

apostolic zeal bore fruit in a rich harvest of souls, including the most hardened sinners. One day, Father Pavlicek came upon a man pulling a heavy cart laden with hay up

a steep hill, and immediately came to his aid. As the priest was hidden from the farmer's view by the heap of hay, it was only when they arrived at the top of the hill that the man discovered what had happened. Turning to his benefactor, he said, "Now I

Storming heaven

In September 1948, Father Pavlicek introduced





Reparatory Devotion in a Capuchin church in Vienna. Crowned by the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, the Acts included sermons,

confessions, blessing of the sick and infirm, and the recitation of the Holy Rosary. Father called these devotions "assaults of

prayer," and a siege could last as long as five days. "Peace is a gift of God, not the work of politicians," he would remind his countrymen. And the gifts of God are

obtained through prayers that storm heaven as soldiers storm a fort — with confidence

Z.eff.'The statue of Our Lady of Fatima that presided over the Crusade of Reparation of the Holy Rosary. It was sculpted by the same artist who carved the international

pilgrim statues.

and determination.

The Crusade's processions with the

statue of Our Lady of Fatima on the thir teenth day of each month grew so large that Father Pavlicek resolved to launch an annu

al procession inviting all the parishes of Vienna to join in honoring the Queen of

Heaven and Earth. He chose September 12. the feast of the Name of Mary, as the day of this grand procession. Pope Innocent XI had established this

feast in 1683 to commemorate the victory of the Christian armies, through the interces

sion of the Bles.sed Virgin, over the Turkish infidels who had suiTOunded Vienna. The

date was symbolic, recalling prayers of grat itude to Our Lady for victory over one enemy of Christendom — Mohammedanism — while beseeching her for freedom from yet another — communism. Help from on high

Although Father Pavlicek invited Prime Minister Raab shows his countrymen the treaty ending the Allied occupation.

unable to support it financially. Through the good offices of the bishop of Leiria,

Vienna's Cardinal Theodor Innitzer to take

part in these Marian processions, he declined to do so. In fact, the Austrian pri

understand why the cart seemed so light."

mate had opposed bringing the statue of

But that was not the only burden the humble

Our Lady of Fatima to the Capuchin church, protesting that there was already an image

Portugal, however, he obtained a statue of

Capuchin was to lighten. After exchanging

Our Lady of Fatima crafted by the sculptor who had created the original Pilgrim Virgin. Accompanying Our Lady in pilgrimage to

a few pleasantries. Father heard his new found friend's confession on the spot. One morning when he was about to

there. "There is only one of Our Lady." he pointedly reminded Father Pavlicek — who

countless cities and villages, Father remind

celebrate Mass, Father Pavlicek observed

afterward counted 35 different representa tions of the Most Holy Virgin within the

ed the faithful of her ardent desire for the

that there were no men or children in the

Cathedral's walls.

conversion of sinners.

pews — only women."Where are your hus bands and children?" he asked. Advised that

Fervor for souls

While Cardinal Innitzer eventually surrendered to public pressure to attend a

they entered the church after the sermon, he

procession, Austria's Prime

lost no time. Leaving the altar, clothed in


Mother's fervor for souls. He urged sinners

his vestments, he strode out the front door,

Leopold Figl, needed no such prompting. When first invited, having learned that the

to be reconciled to God through the sacra-

In the town square, this good shepherd pre

Cai-dinal had declined his invitation, the

Father Pavlicek shared our Blessed




Prime Minister assured Father Pavlicek,

those who had prayed so zealously for their

"Even ifjust the two of us be present, I will

country's freedom.

go. My country demands it!" Indeed, on

Their faith having been sufficiently

every solemn occasion, he was there — candle and rosary in hand — accompanied

tried, the grace was given. On March 24,

by the members of his cabinet. When

Austrians to a conference. Believing that

Julius Raab succeeded Leopold Figl as

his nation's fumre would be sealed in

1955, their Soviet governors invited the

Prime Minister in 1953, he also assumed

Moscow, Prime Minister Raab entreated

his place in the great processions.

Father Pavlicek before his departure,

The Crusade continued to expand,

spreading throughout Austria and over flowing into neighboring Germany and Switzerland. By 1955, more than a half

"Please pray, and ask your people to pray harder than ever."

To the world's surprise, the Soviets

million Austrians — about one in ten —

announced in April that they would with draw their troops from Austria in just

had pledged to pray daily to Our Lady of

three months. On May 15, the Allied

Fatima, begging her for the conversion of

powers that occupied Austria signed a

sinners, peace in the world, and freedom for Austria. An even greater number took

treaty guaranteeing her independence. Austria was free of occupation — Soviet occupation, in particular.

part in the Marian processions and in storming heaven with assaults of prayer. A test of faith

Throughout this time, peace confer

Russian soldier left Austrian soil, some thing that could only be said of Germany in

Fr. Petrus Pavlicek was bom in Innsbruck-Wllten, In the Austrian Tyrol, on January 6,1902. His parents, Augustln Pavlicek, an officer In the Imperial army,


end Gabriele Alscher Pavlicek, came from

On October 26, 1955, the last

Moravia. As a young boy, he felt called to

ences were being held in London between

In Vienna, the multitudes marched in

representatives of the victorious Allied

the religious life, but grew Indifferent In

nations and a delegation from Austria. In eight years, 260 meetings were held with

procession — torches and rosaries in hand — gratefully bearing Our Lady of Fatima, their deliverer from communist enslave

out reaching a concrete conclusion regard ing Austria's fate.

ment. Their overflowing hearts echoed the prayer of thanksgiving offered by their

ness, he received the grace of conver sion, resolving once again to embrace hia

The Cold War intensified, and com

Prime Minister:

munism refined its methods of religious persecution in the occupied countries. It

'Today, we, whose hearts are full of faith, cry out to Heaven in joyful prayer:

seemed that God wanted to test the faith of

We are free. O Mary, we thank Thee!" ■

later years. In 1935, during a grave Ill

vocation. On December 14,1941, he was

ordained a priest of the Capuchin Order. Serving In the health services of the

German army, he was captured by the Allies on August 15,1944. Released on

July 16,1945,the Feast of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, he returned to Austria.There

he founded the Crusade of Reparation of the Holy Rosary,to which he dedicated the remainder of his life. He died on

December 14,1982.

Praying at Mariazeli, Father Pavlicek heard Each September 12 thousands gather in Vienna to thank the Mother of God for the signal

grace granted Austria in 1955 through her Intercession.

an Interior voice say,"Do as I say and you will have peace." Photos in this article.'Expelled by the Roaary" Courtesy of Rosenkram-SQhnekreuzzug urn den Frteden der Welt, Austria JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1999



- .â&#x20AC;˘ ... .





Surviving the brutal communist regime of the Soviet Union a marvelous display from aristocratic Czarist Russia is presented to America by John Horvat

Itmust have been a sight to se .

area three times the size of Manhattan?

the story of a man so awed by the

Where but in Kentucky can one find a fully

ornate, seventeenth-century gilded

ecclesiastical window. And where would

ed; his attempt was foiled.

one scramble to secure a ticket to a dazzling Only in America. "Nicholas and Alexandra: The Last

not help but think that, in fact, things like this really do happen only in America. But how is it that we can pride ourselves on our jetage transports and yet admire a fairy-tale carriage? We live in a country fraught with

Imperial Family of Tsarist Russia" made its world debut at the new First USA Riverfront

Arts Center in Wilmington, Delaware, last

August 1. It boasts one of the largest collec tions of Imperial treasures ever assembled outside Russia. Over five thousand visitors

drifted through its fourteen galleries each day. Such was the exhibit's popularity that

contradictions, and this is but one more.

its closing was postponed from December

Unlike some who might regret these contradictions, 1 do not find them disturb

31 to February 14. Crossing the exhibit's threshold, one is

ing. Rather, 1 think them delightful enig

es that challenge our myths. They repre

transported into another world. Perhaps that is the most striking aspect that helps explain why people flock to it. Although taking us back just 82 short years, the exhibit presents

sent a spectacular clash of contrasts that

a world very unlike our own.

reveal a certain captivating side of the

"We don't have anything like it," lamented one visitor. "We don't have glam our, elegance, and manners anymore." Indeed, every gallery immerses viewers in a

mas that invite us to savor and reflect upon

them fully. They are astonishing paradox

American soul.

After all, where else but near pragmat ic New York City will one find a traditional


aristocratic exhibit on Czarist Russia?

something like that in his country. This could happen, our guide continued "only in I was intrigued hearing the story. I could


turing the world's largest stained glass

commented that the man would never do


Miniature copy of the Imperial

medieval Gothic cathedral modeled after

Paris' Notre Dame and St. Denis, and fea

carriage that he could not resist the urge. He just had to sit in it. When he stepped over the small security barrier, the alarms sound A Russian visitor observing the scene

Regalia, 1899-1900, made by the Faberge Co., St. Petersburg

English fox hunt where hunters roam an

Our guide seemed delighted retelling


world of quality that they cannot help but

ruler might be. In our days of media-made

contrast with our present world. Surely we have lost something very important.

leaders, it was refreshing to see a family that

Seeing the gilded stale carriage, one

imagines it passing through the streets of Moscow carrying the czarina to the 1896 coronation. Standing before the imperial throne evokes thoughts of a royal audience. The display of elegant court gowns and striking military uniforms re-creates some

thing of the marvelous ambience that per meated that whole society.

Of particular interest is a 190-foot

lived a legend. They epitomized the very essence of what it was to be Russian.

Finally, however controversial their lives may have been, one senses the brutali ty of the Communist Revolution, whose par tisans massacred the Imperial family. As

piercing as the displayed Winchester bayo net used in that heinous act, the Revolution

that burst upon Russian society toppled more than just a government and a throne. It overthrew a way of life and a world of tradi

panorama of Mo.scow, painted in 1896 to

tion, and severed Russia from its roots.

document the resplendent coronation festiv ities for Nicholas II. Displayed in its entire

Modernity has taken this world of tra dition away from us. 1 suspect that part of

ty for the first and only time this century, it

the exhibit's charm is its healthy attempt to

communicates something of the vigorous enthusiasm of a whole people for the sym bolic person of their monarch.

reconnect us with tradition. It reminds us

"Why are we so fascinated by these dis tant monarchs?" I asked a fellow observer.

"People are enamored with royalty,"

she responded."I think it's impressive to see such perfection and quality."

I was particularly impressed by the per

that tradition is a necessary good for the

human soul, giving color and definition to life. Having lost touch with our own tradi

When pondering this kind of thing, I often wonder if perhaps beneath the veneer

of our hyper-industrial, media-hyped soci ety, a tired America lives. In those ever-rarer moments of calm, I cannot help but think this America harbors a certain yearning,

however fleeting, for the higher things of life â&#x20AC;&#x201D; things like honor, excellence, and

by the people to members of the Imperial family, and the outpouring of popular affec tion seen in paintings from the period. One

even grandeur.

senses a genuine relationship between the czar and the people,

America contradictions, found all over the

Although the autocratic regime of the

country, we see much more of the real

organic monarchy, one could catch a glimpse of what a true

nial court dress of pink and cream satin with silver embroidery, 1896

tions, our souls thirst for that lost something

ple, evident in the ornate gift from the peas

Russian czars was far from the medieval

Empress Alexandra Feodorovna's ceremo

that others had.

sonal link between the monarch and his peo ants of Kiev to their czar, the honors given


And 1 suspect that in these only-in-

America than in the pre-packaged

Hollywood images of our selves. â&#x2013;

Above: Emperor Nicholas ll's uniform as an oKicer of the

Cavalier guard of Her Imperial Majesty Empress Maria Feodorovna's

Regiment Left;The coronation

ceremony of Emperor Nicholas I! and

Empress Alexandra

Feodorovna,1898. Oil

on canvas by Laurits RegnerTuxen (1653-

1927) Photos in this article and back cover

courtesy of State Hermitage Museum,

St. Petersburg, Russia.



Today interview with Dr. Michaei Waiter.

Dr. Michael Waller is a specialist on

from the Young Communist League who

resents our wishful thinking, but nothing

Russian affairs and is executive editor of

are brought in to lead and economic transi


Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of PostSoviet Democratization. His doctoral thesis,

tion, you can't really expect a lot of truly original or realistic thinking.

which forms the core of his book Secret

So, that part was out. Additionally,

Empire: The KGB in Russia Today, won the

many of the so-called liberal reformers

1993 University Professors' Alumni Award

were themselves corrupt. There was a lot of cronyism, a lot of silent partner relations

for the best dissertation. Dr. Waller has traveled to Russia sever al times for first-hand observations of the

situation there. Crusade recently asked him to provide our readers with his personal and

Crusade: In your opinion, can

Russia ever have a functioning mar ket economy? What is lacking in terms of spiritual and moral values for this to come about?

with some of the worst elements of Soviet

Mr. Waller: I think that it can have a

industry, and a lot of corruption with some of their Western colleagues and counter

market economy, but in many ways Russia

expert insights into the current Russian drama, which the major media often does

parts as well. So I think that to say that Russia was headed toward a free-market is a complete

little to clarify. This is the second interview

misrepresentation of events. That is, it rep-

Dr. Waller has granted Crusade. The first

was published in our May-June 1996 issue.

is like Latin America in that there is an

impulse to bureaucratize everything. This bureaucratization is a waste of human

resources, a waste of initiative, a waste of

money and efficiency. Many people and many Latin Americans wonder why they

have such economic problems. Having spent much time in Latin America, I would

Crusade'. How is Russia coping

say that it's due to the bureaucracy that strangles everything, over-regulation, state intervention, official corruption, petty cor ruption, large corruption, so why bother

with its huge financial and political problems? Is the Russian govern ment following the path to a freemarket economy, or is it returning to the past?

with these countries?

Well, it's even worse in Russia. Even

Mr. Waller: It's just kind of self-

though everyone hates the State, their

destructing. It is not going back to the past, in that it can't re-impose a command econ

impulse is still to look for the state to pro

omy without lethal force on a mass scale.

is expand the bureaucracy of the Russian Federation so that, in 1998, it's larger than

vide the solution. And what Yeltsin has done

Even though some of the political leaders, some of whom we call democrats, have the

the bureaucracy of the Soviet Union as a whole, including the Soviet Communist Party bureaucracy just eight years ago.

will to do such a thing, the security forces themselves lack the will. Therefore, lethal force on a mass scale is out.

Russia can have a market economy,

Now,they were never on a transition to

maybe in a couple of generations, when they stop thinking that they have to destroy

a free-market economy, because they had too much baggage from the communist past, and this includes the so-called free-

and try rather to emulate those who are suc cessful. Our saying "keep up with the

market reformers. Most of them were

Joneses" indicates a desire to raise our

Young Communist League officials, and they

were raised


the school of

Marxism/Leninism. They could not help but carry some of that baggage along with them, and if you have a group of people




selves up just as our neighbor is doing. In this, we don't envy or hate our neighbor.

It is different in Russia. There the peo ple often want to destroy those who are suc cessful. They are envious of them, even on


farmers who, because of their innovation and knowledge of

The Russians see the whole world as profiteering off of these oligarchs and it just demoralizes them further.

how to bring their produce into market, have had successful

Unfortunately, it also doesn't make them any more pro-

turnip crops. Well, out of jealousy because they can't inno


the lesser level of farming. I have heard of many cases of

vate, the neighboring farmers will come in one night and drive tractors over the tumips, destroying all the crops. In terms of the spiritual values of the country, they are

Crusade'. You made a very strong statement in saying that U.S. policy has essentially been to sup port corrupt remnants of the old Soviet nomenklatu

lacking. The Orthodox Church presents no real moral force

ra to avoid upsetting the Russian general staff or

because it's completely compromised. Alexander U, the

security forces. Could you explain this?

Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia, is a KGB agent

whose cryptonym is "drozdob" which means blackbird. The Orthodox Church is so mired in politics that they don't pre

Mr. Waller: Sure. It is very simple. The policy was to support Yeltsin and his people no matter what. Never criti

cize them, support them as much as possible, but always be silent if they are doing anything that's nega

sent an appealing moral force. Still, so many Russians are seeking some

thing. Missionaries, as you know, have had a


lot of success over there. Not all are Catholic or

That only encouraged retrograde elements to continue their retrogression and undermine

Christian missionaries, but what the whole

the people who really wanted reform. The U.S. government policy was to support former Prime Minister Viktor Chemymirdin's govem-

thing demonstrates is that among the Russian

people there is a strong thirst for something higher than economic or political reform. They are seeking something internal. That repre

ment no matter what. It was almost like an arti

sents, as Our Lady of Fatima has told us, a real

cle of faith for the United States government.

positive force for the future if it can be har nessed and, of course, go the right way.

They knew how corrupt Chemymirdin and his people were, they knew the corruption of his bureaucracy, but they continued to pump

I think the Orthodox Church, the KGB,

and others are so alarmed at the presence of

money in â&#x20AC;&#x201D; $20 billion from Western lending

non-orthodox and especially Catholic priests

institutions. And they were content working

and missionaries that recent legal actions and

with that group of leaders because, in their view, they represented stability.

laws have really discriminated against the

Church. And I think those will probably get

Dr. Michael Waller

worse before they get better.

Crusade'. How, then, do you explain that much of the media in the West has said that there is a kind

of deep yearning for the days of the Soviet civic pic ture, in terms of the Russian people wanting the return of the Soviet regime? Is that true, a media invention, or what?

Mr. Waller: No, it's false. People miss the stability and

predictability of life under the Soviet system, especially hav ing been raised in a system in which they didn't have to take any initiative, where everything was given to them, as mea

ger as it was. That represented a lot of stability and it gave a lot of peace of mind. The people now have no pensions. Their pensions were

destroyed by the so-called economic reforms. Deliberate hyper-inflation, engineered by the government, wiped out their lifetime's meager savings. These people have nothing, and it's not just the older people. The older people will look back nostalgically on the Soviet regime, while the younger

people don't do so, but they also feel quite unsettled as to

It was the stated policy of the United States

to support this to the point where you had the Vice-President of the United States lending his name and attaching his pres

tige to whatever the Prime Minister of Russia did. It was nothing but smiles, handshakes, and congratulatory back-

slapping. It was never said that this corruption is going to damage your country, its going to damage our relations, its going to make the American people not want to assist Russia in any meaningful way.

So I think that our policy makers were essentially lazy and not very visionary, because they didn't want to rock the boat. Any time the Russians complained, Washington

stepped all over itself trying to accommodate them, again and again. Consequently, as can be seen, we have gone from hopeful times in 1991 and 1992 to tolerable but corrupt

times where there was still some ray of hope, to what we have now, with the Primakov regime, where there is really no hope for the near future. Crusade'. But this policy still continues as regards Primakov?

what their future is going to be. The younger people see

Mr. Waller: Yes. It's not so much to pump money into Primakov's government right now because no one could get

things getting worse, and they see their leaders stealing left

away with that, except maybe the Japanese.

and right. At the same time, they see Western countries prof

I think that once Primakov learns to tackle the language

iting from those corrupt relationships, whether it's the

of economic reform and to smile a little bit more and charm

United States and the Chase Manhattan Bank and the big

people better, as he is doing wonderfully with our Secretary

banks sending IMF money over that winds up stolen, or

of State, he'll get it. We just gave him 4.5 million tons of

whether its countries like Brazil, whose government has

invested heavily in the corrupt Russian bond market, much

grain free and another million and a half tons of grain on very favorable terms. I wish I could get a home mortgage on

to the detriment of their own economy.

the favorable terms the Russians are getting. â&#x2013;



Fatima caravans visit

Eastern Europe The French TFP makes amends for

the evil wrought by the red sect by Benoit Bemelmans

Every year since 1992,the French TFP has assembled groups of members from the various TFPs to visit Eastern Europe to encourage the Catholics there, who still suffer the effects of long years under communism. These "caravans" of members are organized within the framework of

the French TfT»'s campaign "Lumieres sur I'Est" — Lights Over the East — which is quite similar to the "America Needs Fatima" campaign. Five countries were visited this year: first, Ukraine and

The three Baltic countries

A quick visit to Estonia, where there are about 3,000

Catholics, allowed the image to

be venerated in the only Catholic church in Tallinn, the capital.

In Riga, Latvia's capital, a beautiful ceremony for the visit

Poland, then Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The caravan dis

of the statue was held in the

tributed rosaries, books about Fatima and about the Rosary,

cathedral, with 700 people in attendance. Other parish church

pictures of Our Lady, and other religious articles.

es were visited, too, and the Ukraine and Poland

In Ukraine, the caravan traveled to the cities of Lvov and

Kovel and to some villages in the countryside. In Kovel, where

there are very few Catholics, the numerous signs posted to announce the visit of the statue of Our Lady of Fatima attract ed great attention among practicing Catholics and others who do not frequent their churches. Bishop Sapelaks of Pokrov, awaited the arrival of the stat

ue of Our Lady with his parishioners. After the solemn entrance into the cathedral he expressed his great concern

about the moral decadence of the country, where the number of

abortions is constantly increasing. He asked that we remember the Catholics of his country, as they receive very little support from abroad.

One of the members of the caravan reported: "In Lvov, a

Catholics received the caravan

everywhere with Marian hymns. Two schools were visited in

Kelme, Lithuania. The first Catholic school in the city had

just been opened. The children, in very good order, received Our Lady singing hymns and playing instruments. Eight hundred stu

dents received the rosary booklet and beautiful pictures of the Blessed Virgin.

During the official reception at the local government hall, the head of the government of the province of Klaipeda thanked the TFPs for their 1990 petition drive in favor of the independence of Lithuania when it was still struggling to free itself from the Soviet

crowd of 1,500 people waited for the arrival of Mary. Some of

yoke, and he presented the TFP with a commemorative decoration.

them were on their knees as the statue of Our Lady passed; others showered her with flowers; yet others cried with emo

The traditional pilgrimage to the shrine of Our Lady of Siluva is the most important Marian event in Lithuania. On September 6, the

tion. Distributing books was difficult since, being so few, we

statue of Our Lady of Fatima, initially carried by the TFP members,

were almost drowning in the sea of people. "In Poland, 7,000 people, a majority of them young, par

led a cortege of 5,000 people along the four-mile pilgrimage route.

ticipated in a procession in honor of Our Lady of Fatima in

attended, and it was most impressive to see many young people

everyone was able to venerate Our Lady and receive a picture of her and a rosary booklet. In the closing address, a local government rep resentative thanked the caravan for its participation, recalling that the TFP members have attended this procession for six consecutive

praying there with devotion."


Przemysl. The buildings along the route of the procession were all decorated for the occasion. The all-night vigil was very well

The parishioners of the parish church of Pelagow, along

the way to Krakow, organized a beautiful reception with ban ners and flowers. The children there recited poems in honor of the Queen of Heaven.



Many persons took turns carrying the statue, and once at the shrine

On the way back to France, the caravan stopped in Czestochowa to pray and thank the Patroness of Poland for the blessings granted

during their trip and to ask her for special graces for all those who had benefited from the visit of the statue of Our Lady of Fatima. ■

TFPs in Action

Right At the Hill of the Crosses in Lithuania


»<<■ t wr'i


y-'i -


I- 1

»?r Above: Partial view of this year's pilgrimage to the shrine of Our Lady of Siluva, Lithuania's most important Marian event. Some 5,000 people accompanied the statue of Our Lady of Fatima

along the four-mile route.




Left and above: As the statue of Our Lady of Fatima visited schools, hospitals, and other public places In Lithuania, Estonia, 'Nj


Poland and Ukraine, members of theTFP

caravan distributed thousands of religious items.


January-February 1999



Y2K, hype, and doomsday by Thomas Becket

Among all the problems facing the world in the last year of the millennium, Y2K gels more than its share of the air time.

Technically, the problem is easy to solve,

pared for the year 2000. Virtually no activity today is immune. Energy grids, air transport,

the military, and the banking system all have COBOL coding deeply embedded in their

The difficulty is in its magnitude. It is the consequence of shortsightedness of program

computer systems.

mers in the 1960s and 1970s who had to deal

one really knows. Scenarios range from the

with the limited memory of the computers of

"end of civilization as we know it" to a few

What will happen on January 1, 2000? No

the day. One obvious and simple way to save

minor glitches at airports, ATMs, and power

space was to use two digit dates instead of

plants. It is not inadvisable to stock up on

four. They assumed that the programs they

bottled water, canned food, and firewood,

were writing would be replaced in a few

however. One celebrated computer program

years, so the problem of the millennium was

mer has even built himself a shelter to

not relevant. Most of these programs are writ ten in COBOL,a computer language that is at

weather the storm,just in case. For most of us it is difficult to get that worked up over a computer bug. There are

the same time arcane and little known to

many people working in the industry now. A few lines of code are all that is needed

to correct each individual occurrence of two-

digit dates, but the problem is finding all the occurrences. As a rough estimate of the work involved in fixing the problem, GTE calculated that it would have to run 1029 tests to ensure that its systems were safe. AT&T has more than 500 million

lines of code to review forY2K compliance. Fixing individual programs is not the whole picture.

many more ominous caveats on the threshold

of the next millennium. The twenty-first cen tury will be a century of reckoning for many choices made in the twentieth. We have only

begun to see the results of the breakdown in the family due to divorce and the contraceptive mentality. The developed world will have to reckon with its top-heavy age structures with decreasing working populations and increased dependency. The Third World

Computers are linked together and interdependent. On some net works, a problem on one computer could knock out the whole sys

may not wish to remain within the parameters set by arms-limita tion treaties that leave the tactical advantage in the hands of First World counuies. Last, but by far not least, God may no longer tol

tem, even if the problem is 99.9% repaired. The safety of financial institutions linked across national boundaries may depend on com

increase daily. What if He were to abandon humanity completely

puter networks in third world countries that will be much less pre

to its own devices? â&#x2013;

erate the blasphemies, ungodliness, and rejection of His law that

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Basic History Course



Chapter 14

As the Empire Collapses, Christianity Rises Part Two: A New World by Jeremias Wells


he Sack of Rome by Alaric

Latin and Greek and immersed himself in

in 410, although illustrat

the great classics of those languages, espe

numerous letters of stem indignation that are studied today for their brilliant satire, or

cially Cicero and Aristotle. Without any competent religious instruction, he drifted

incurred a hostile reaction. Few like to be

into moral and intellectual indifference. To

criticized, even fewer with sardonic wit.

suffering that is difficult to exaggerate.

overcome the detrimental irreligious effect of his youthful experiences, he retired to a

Damasus died, the long, pent-up antago

Massacre, enslavement, and devastation

hermit's cell in the forbidding desert

nism of the mediocre and lukewarm broke

became a way of life. But on the ruins of the

over the head of the saint. Leaving Rome,

ancient civilization, a new more permanent

between Syria and Arabia. For five years he inflicted on himself

one was rising. The Catholic Church inher

fearsome austerities. The

ing the inherent weakness of the Empire, was not a pivotal event but one episode in a continuing tragedy. The population of Western Europe underwent a horror and

more precisely for their witty invective,






never to return, Jerome established a cell in

ited the great cultural traditions of the

bewailed his miseries in : '• liuous letter:

a cave in Bethlehem near the grotto of the Nativity. There the irascible ascetic built

F.mpire, added the teachings of Christ, and

"My hideous limbs were co\ cred with sack cloth; my skin was parched dry and black,

followed his spiritual care. He now had the

in a long-drawn-out, painful process. Two

and my flesh was almost wasted away. The

.solitude to engage in his most monumemal

l athers of the Church, Saints Jerome and

Augustine, contributed greatly to this suc

days I passed in tears and groans.... I tamed my flesh by fasting whole weeks, having no

tion of the Bible, now known as the Vulgate,

cess by establishing the spiritual and intel

other company but scorpions and wild

which became the standard version in the

lectual foundation.


Western Church for a thousand years and

Saint Jerome

After the ordeal under the scorching sun, Jerome went to Constantinople to

scholar translated the New Testament from

I •;,ii ,inittcd the result to the Northem tribes

nng saint

monasteries for the men and women who

achievement: a Latin revision and transla

the basis for all other revisions. The great

While Saint Augustine is generally

study Holy Scriptures under the great

the Greek and the Old Testament directly

claimed as the greatest mind in influencing the burgeoning Western civilization. Saint

Eastern Doctor. Saint Gregory Nazianzen

from the Hebrew, a language he alone

and then on to Rome to act as secretary for

among the Church Fathers had labored to

Jerome was at least his equal as a ^c^l^)la'" in

Pope Saint Damasus. While counseling sev


combining the classical intellci ••',»! tradi

eral noble ladies in their quest for spiritual perfection, the outspoken monk lashed out against the soft, effeminate lifestyle of many Roman priests and the vain superfi ciality of their wealthy female pation.s. His

tion with a profound 'indcrstanding oi' the

Sacred Scriptures. Jet"' -me, horn a Christian h Illyria. trav eled 10 Rome in his youth. Tl... -c he .sludicrl

The outspoken monk annoyed the ene mies of his Savior even until the end of his

days. Shorlly before his death in 420, a group of heretical Pelagians, who denied the necessity of grace, attacked his monas-

January-February [QQ-)




was completed in his late teens by courses

the last thirty-five years of life untiringly

in philosophy and rhetoric which, appealing to his good side, gave the brilliant scholar a lifelong desire to seek the truth.

administering his diocese and effectively combating heresies and schisms. But it is as a theological and historical writer that west

Just as a life of impurity interfered with his idealistic quest for moral excellence, so

ern civilization pays its greatest debt.

too his involvement with the Gnostic sect of

The City of God

Manicheism obstructed his effort to find the

Several works of Saint Augustine

highest Truth in the Blessed Trinity. Therein lay the cause reaching deep into his soul

appear on the master list of the world's

that resulted in the agonizing conflict of his years in Carthage and Rome, which was not

ing are his Confessions and the City ofGod. In the former Augustine relates the struggle

resolved until he arrived in Milan in 384 at

a soul experiences in reaching the proper

the age of 29. By turning to the study of Plato, the

demands. In De Civiiaie Dei the framework

struggling genius finally freed himself from

is expanded to place the supernatural des

the materialistic aspects of the Manichees that stressed no other reality than physical substance. His comprehending mind grasped the existence of a spiritual reality. He easily

tiny of all humanity in its proper context.

graduated to the idea of God as a source of being and intelligence and the idea of a spir itual soul that finds its ultimate fulfillment

Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo

in His love. But the moral problem still per His intellectual conversion was com

bring his actions into line with his thinking, to answer the call of spiritual perfection and

dered (383), the talented teacher had just moved to Rome to seek fame and fortune.

"...not with lewdness and licentiousness...

One year after Theodosius' great victory over the pagan army of the Western Empire, Augustine was consecrated Bishop of Hippo. He died there 35 years later, in 430,

but put on the Lord Jesus Christ and make no provision for the flesh to gratify its lusts"







The year the Emperor Gratian was mur

as the ruthless Vandal army besieged the city.

Augustine's father was a village offi

his heart glow with the light of peace; the moral storm had passed over. From that time on, the heroic penitent was determined to lead a life of chastity and sacrifice. He

was baptized on April 25, 387, by Saint

was the devout Saint Monica. Both sacri


ficed almost beyond their means to provide

One year later, after the death of Saint Monica, whose persistent prayers had obtained the grace of conversion for her son, Augustine returned to North Africa,

open the way to the legal or teaching pro fessions. During his middle teens, he stud ied Latin grammar and pagan literature

replete with Roman gods involved in all

where he established a monastery. He intended to spend the rest of his days in

sorts of vice, These studies had the baneful

study and prayer, but the active life called

effect of introducing the sensual adolescent to the immoral pleasures that he so avidly grasped in early manhood. His education

crated Bishop of Hippo, the second largest city after Carthage. The great Doctor spent

him and within the decade he was conse

History 28



(Rom. 13:13-14).-With that Augustine felt

cial and small landowner and his mother

Augustine with an education that would

astrophe on the abandonment of pagan wor-

to renounce his romantic entanglements.

One day while studying the epistles of Saint Paul in the garden of his house in Milan, his distraught condition reached the apex of internal suffering. He threw himself on the ground and wept copious tears, ask ing God how long he had to endure this agony. He heard the voice of a child chant ing, "Take up and read!" Augustine picked up the volume of Paul's letters and read,


nated by their pagan education and worldly

impulses, lost their confidence in Divine Providence. The pagans, still licking their

pleted by attending the sermons of Saint

Christ; they hate the true followers of Our Lord and worship their own opinions.

Con.stantius II and the Arians were driving the Catholic hierarchy to near extinction.

The dreadful details of Alaric's plun

dering of Rome caused great lamentation and despair throughout the Empire. The Christians, many of whom were still domi

Ambrose. Now he realized that he must

seek an alternative method of worshipping

Saint Augustine Augustine lived out his life against a backdrop of continual, severe crisis. He was

relationship with God that He Himself

wounds after recent defeats, blamed the cat


teries, cruelly beat the holy monks and nuns, killing one deacon, and burned the buildings to the ground. Heretics do not

greatest literature, but the two most endear

Saint Jerome, ascetic, hermit, scholar, and Doctor of the Church


ship and the Roman gods. It was to answer these complaints, but more importantly to illustrate the relationship between the tem

ing the lower Rhine River basin and the Saxons crossing the Channel into Britain.

poral and the supernatural orders that the

and supported themselves by agriculture. Yet it was through the Franks and Saxons

These tribes lived in permanent settlements

required a man of extraordinary capacity; such was the Vandal King Gaiseric. But

along with his ability he possessed a leg endary cruelty and greed matched only by Attila the Hun.In the wake of his conquests,

Bishop of Hippo undertook the arduous, thirteen-year task of writing the City of God. Using the testimony of pagan authors,

that Christian civilization entered barbarian

he left a trail of churches burned, men mas


sacred, and women ravished. He particular

Augustine argues that irreligion and

Not only did the uncouth, foul-

ly enjoyed torturing wealthy landowners to

immorality were the true cause of Rome's downfall. Kingdoms in general, which were created by God, became evil to the degree that they departed from His holy will. Thus the brilliant saint gives us a synthesis of uni versal history in light of Christian princi ples, from the act of creation to God's inter

smelling, ill-educated east German tribes bring devastation to civilized institutions but they increased the conflict by carrying with them the germs of barbaric Arianism. This ruinous heresy largely ceased in the civilized world through the magnificent

force them to reveal the location of their

work of Saint Athanasius in the second half

pernicious attitude towards civilization, only

vention in history through a small, uncul

the Vandals among the Germanic tribes

tured Semitic people to the coming of the

of the fourth century. Unfortunately, by that time it had spread to the Goths, who trans

God-man which was the turning point of

mitted it to the rest of the east Germans. The

failed to reach any agreement with Roman culture or authority. After a hundred years of


Church faced another struggle that endan-

occupation, they degenerated into the usual

wealth and then to reduce them to slaves

and paupers. Two objectives motivated him: humili

ation of the Roman Empire and the extirpa tion of the Catholic religion. With such a

When the great power of God was

brought to earth in the person of Christ and His teaching, what was the response to those whom he had created? It fell into two cate

gories based on the object of their love: the heavenly city or, more properly, a .society built up by the love of God to the contempt of self, and the earthly society built up by the love of self to the contempt of God. Man has the power to choose his own good: either

Man has the power to choose his own good: either hy subordinating his will to the divine order, or to the satis faction of his own desires and making himself the center of the universe. The struggle between these two societies constitutes the substance of history.

by subordinating his will to the divine order, or to the satisfaction of his own desires and

gered the formation of Christendom. The

making himself the center of the universe. The struggle between these two societies

Catholic Romans and the Arian Germans

con.stitutes the substance of history.

munity based on the necessary religious

would never fuse into a single cultural com unity until that difference was resolved.

The early barbarian successor kingdoms The dismemberment of the Western

corruption and softness and were destroyed by an army from the Eastern Empire. The Huns and the Battle of Catalaunlan Fields ^

By the middle of the fifth century the Vandals and the death

of Saint Augustine

Huns had established a large kingdom out side the Empire on the Hungarian plains.

Empire into smaller barbarian kingdoms

The afflictions of the failing Empire

Although by that time they had learned to

was carried out by two different groups with

sleep in beds, or at least away from their horses, and took an occasional bath, they otherwise resisted any influence of

maintained their nomadic, pastoral back

were brought to Augustine's Hippo in his final days and, as one might expect, he mag nificently rose to the occasion. The Vandals, the most savage of the vast hordes causing

ground and thus were constantly on the

chaos inside the Empire, had descended on

Christianity and civilization. Their chief vice was greed. By threatening violence,

move from the Russian steppes into Roman territory by the Danube River crossings and occasionally the upper Rhine. Once inside

North Africa from Spain through the Pillars

they extorted huge amounts of gold from

of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar) and

Constantinople. However, when the upright and courageous Marcion and Saint

quite different results. The east Germans (principally the Visigoths and Vandals)

the Empire they continued their movement through the Balkans into Italy, southern Gaul, and Spain. The ruthless Vandals con tinued their journey and eventually occu

besieged Hippo. The influential saint had constantly preached that the good as well as the wicked must face misfortune and suffer

ing. While the wicked curse and blaspheme God, the good invoke and praise Him and

Pulcheria ascended the imperial throne in 450. they stopped all payments. By the early 440s, Attila, utilizing his talent for organization and the handling of men, had molded the frequently disorga nized tribes into a mighty, unified nation of

alities, the east Germans grabbed all the his torical headlines for the first fifty years of

use their adversity to purify their spiritual lives. Although his strength was failing him, the tired but inexhaustible bishop continued to encourage his beleaguered flock until he

the fifth century. Nevertheless, they left lit tle lasting effect on Western civilization.

died on August 28, 430. To lead a horde of 80,000 men plus

The Franks, Saxons, and related tribes, on

their women and children into North Africa

the other hand, expanded slowly into the

and then overrun all the Roman provinces

Constantinople refused any further tribute, he decided to ravage the West, beginning

distant northwest, with the Franks occupy

along the southern Mediterranean shore

with Gaul.

pied North Africa. Violent, colorful, with stirring person

unscrupulous plunderers. Cut from the same cloth as Gaiseric, but with more feroc

ity, the savage chieftain developed a diabol ical





January-February 19')9


History The successors of Alaric, after much

wandering, had settled their Visigoths in

VISIGOTH Battle of Chalons 451

Aquitaine in southwestern Gaul. Although they cohabited with the Gallo-Romans as federates or allies, they were more often in


revolt against them. With the threat of the

thundering terrorists from the East, Aetius,



the Roman supreme commander, had little

difficulty in putting together an alliance of


Visigoths, Salian Franks, and




Romans to face the terrible danger. The murderous horde crossed the

Rhine and began their march of blood and

devastation by burning Metz to the ground and killing its people and priests. Through Lorraine into Champagne, Attila cut a

swathe of horror. Numerous bishops and saints assisted their tortured cities by prayer and acts of piety and in many instances

reduced the suffering of the people. Finally the fierce nation came before the city of


1. With his left and a large



portion of his center, Attila attacked Aetius'favorable

position on high ground.

2. Aetius attacked and routed Attila's right-center and flanked the Huns' left and leftcenter with his right.

3. With all but his left beaten and demoralized, Attila drew off the remnants of his army. The Romans and Goths did not press home their victory. Attila retreated eastward to Invade Italy and menace Rome until his death two years after Chalons.


Once again a valiant bishop emerged as the defender of the people. Saint Anianus organized the defenses and urged the inhabi

rary accounts do not relate,■* but the great

"Fall of the Roman Empire," but it was a

tants to pray and resist. As the walls were

pontiff exercised some power over the

dead corpse that fell, having expired

about to crumble from the battering rams,

Hun, for he turned around and recrossed

Aetius arrived with the relief force, Attila lift

the Alps and returned to his cabins in

decades before from degenerative disease. Thcoderic, King of the Ostrogoths,

ed the siege and tried to outdistance his foe.

Hungary. What the successors of Caesar

invaded Italy in 488 and in 493 violently put

Aetius followed and forced a battle on

could not achieve, the successors of Saint

an end to Odoacer's rule. There he estab

the Catalaunian plains between Chalons and Troyes. A violent clash ensued with both

Peter dramatically did. Attila died there a

lished another Arian, Gothic kingdom, the

year later, hemorrhaging blood from his

sides sustaining heavy casualties. Late in

nose and mouth. His empire disappeared

third such kingdom in the dismemberment of the Western Empire. The Vandals ruled

the day when Attila saw his troops losing

with him.

North Africa. Sardinia, and Corsica. The

ground, he withdrew from the battlefield

Visigoths occupied most of Spain and Gaul

and eventually escaped to his base in Hungary to recover from the beating. In this

Final collapse Three years later, in a monumental

south and west of the Loire River. Besides

precarious clash between East and West, the West had prevailed.

blunder, the worthless Emperor Valentinian

Austria and Yugoslavia and the western half

III murdered Aetius with his own hands.

Attila made another attempt to subdue the West the following year. He ran through northern Italy with fire and sword. After gorging himself on its riches, he

Before the year ended, the emperor himself was assassinated. That ended the dynasty of

of Hungary. Even the Arian Burgundians had carved out a large territory in the Rhone

Italy, the Ostrogoths controlled modem

River Valley.

turned south and headed for Rome. Pope Saint Leo the Great with a delegation of notables stopped him along the way. Whether it was the power of his personali

militum) made and unmade puppet emper

As the fifth century was drawing to a close, only the pagan Franks resisted the Arian blight. Their King Clovis chose in

ors to suit his caprice. Finally, in 476, the

496 to build his kingdom on the only

ty or some supernatural power, contempo-

Bibliographical note Among the many sources used in both

parts of this chapter, the following were most

useful: several works of Christopher Dawson, in particular The Making of Europe (New York, 1945) and The Formation of Christendom (New York, 1967); Gustav Schnurer, The Church and Culture in the

Middle Ages (tr. G. Undreiner, Paterson, N. J., 1956); Henri Daniel-Rops, The Church in the Dark Ages, (New York, I960); F. Homes




in the West. Thereafter the

German commander of the Army {niai^i.sicr

barbarian chieftain Odoacer eliminated the

sound basis possible: the Catholic Faith.

pretense and ruled in his own name. To that

That will be the subject of the chapters that

date historical convention had assigned the


Dudden, The Life and Times of St. Ambrose, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1935)Vemon J. Bourke, Augustine's Quest for Wisdom (Milwaukee,

1945); Thomas Hodgkin, Italv and Her Invaders, 8 vols., (Oxford, 1916) vol. II. Also, Catholic Encyclopedia', Butler's Lives of the Saints (both the 1873 ed. and the Thurston-Attwater revision); Cambridge

Medieval Histoiy, vol. I; The Confessions of St. Augustine (tr. J.K. Ryan); and The City of God (tr. M. Dods).

Notes 1. Letter XXII, 7.

2. Cf. Confessions, VIII, 8-12.

3. Until recently it was known as the Battle of Chalons and was so listed

in Creasy's Fifteen Decisive Battles.

4. The .scene showing the Apostles Peter and Paul in the heavens above

Leo surfaced hundreds of years later.

Cf. Schnurer, op. cit. p. I £5.

Family Series


First Communion t was the year 1331.

'Come in!" called the superior of the Dominican convent, answering a discreet knock. The large medieval door opened solemnly with a quiet moan to reveal sister poner wearing an expres sion at once worried and amused.

"She is back again, Reverend Mother." "Little Imelda Lambertini?"

"Yes. She begs once more to be admitted to the

convent. I must confess it is becoming hard to resist

those large, innocent, and soulful eyes that implore so earnestly."

"Sister, she is but nine years old. Has this city

of Bologna, or for that matter, the whole of Italy, ever seen such a case? A nine-year-old nun? If

we were to receive her...but how can we? In any case, she would be homesick in three

days...Well, let me see her." Reverend Mother stood and walked down

the long arched corridor with sister porter to the reception room. As she entered, a little

girl stood up respectfully. She was a beautiful little girl, and beau

tifully dres.sed.

Imelda Lambertini belonged to a very noble family of Bologna. Italy. Her father was

Count Egano Lambertini. Both her parents were most pious and loved their daughter more than anything in this world. Yet, they had always noticed that Imelda, though she fully returned their love with all her most affectionate heart, did not seem made for this earth.

Often her mother missed her company only to find her, after lengthy searching, in some far-off cor

ner of their stately property on her knees and deep in prayer. Her mother had to call her name several times

January-February \m


iiip^ipp^y^eive F[l^:|Holy the/age of KISfand.,fcclaime#feeld

iLarapertin-i-p^^ ...•m VI•


^ A ■ MA .



©'f First i



'1 V Coniih%hicants. I

The miraculously

""i Incorrupt body of Blessed Imelda LambertinI rests in the

Church of Saint

SIglsmondo In Bologna Dominican Sisters of the Monastery of Santa Maria Maddalena where

until she answered as if waking from a deep sleep.

her parents frequently visited. "To be able to live in the same house as Jesus!" she

"But, our life is very hard. We work hard and pray a great deal, even getting up in the middle of the night to pray the Office." "Oh. Sister, I would not mind that at

all. I would be obedient and happily do

Whenever people spoke of God, her eyes brightened and her attention did not waver. And, her parents had often noticed,

thought. "What happiness!"

when Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament was

vent and ask to be received as a novice. If I

reaction. Ever so good to Imelda, as always,

mentioned, her face became almost trans figured.

cannot receive Him yet, at least I can live in

she nevertheless would have to send her

the same house with Him and serve Him

back home. But Imelda insisted.

"Oh, Mamma," she would beg, "when can I make my First Communion? When

day and night."

can I receive Jesus in my heart?"

One day she thought of a solution to

her problem. "Why, I'll knock at the con

everything I am told. Please, Sister!"

Of course, wc know Mother Superior's

To the young child in love with her

"You must wait until you are twelve,

Lord, it seemed a simple, straightforward plan. She simply walked over to the

Imelda," answered Mrs. Lambertini, "for

Dominican convent and knocked. "Sister,

the Church does not allow children to

can you ask Reverend Mother if I can come

the parlor and gazing at her imploringly,

receive before then."

live here and be a nun?"

something stirred in her good .soul. "So much insistence in one so young." she

And .so it was at that time.

To Imelda, it seemed so long to wait!

Since all the earthly powers denied her First Communion, the little girl resorted to beseeching her beloved Jesus to come to her sooner. Deep in her soul she trusted that He

would do something. At the same time, she envied the



"But, Imelda, we are all professed reli

This day, however, as the Reverend Mother Superior saw the child standing in

thought."I sense God's finger here. Perhaps

gious here. One day you will probably join us, and we will be delighted to have you, but you must wait a few years. You have such

I should let her try."

good parents and such a beautiful home, my

did not turn her away this time but spoke

To Imelda's great joy. Mother Superior

child. Are you not happy there?"

with her at length. Then she said that if her

"O, yes. Sister, very happy, but here you have Our Lord!"

parents allowed, she could be received in

the convent for a trial period.

Family Series

that something extraordinary would happen

was the small girl, kneeling with head bent as always, but hovering close above her was a white Host shining in a soft light!

to their child. Here it was. God was asking

"Quickly, Reverend Mother, come

Her good parents were saddened but

not surprised. Deep down they had expected

them for her very early, and they gave her to Him as Saints Joachim and Anna once gave

back! Look!"

The whole community hurried back

Again the Mother Superior spoke, but again there was no answer. Taking Imelda

gently by the shoulders, the good nun tried to coax her to rise, but Imelda collapsed in

her arms. Her face was fixed in an expres sion of unspeakable bliss.

their three-year-old daughter, the young

into the choir and fell on their knees at the

Imelda had once said, "I don't know

Blessed Mary, to the Temple.

incredible sight. Mother Superior understood. There was

how anyone can receive Our Lord and not die." Now she had received Him and this

no doubt that the Creator and Lord of all

first meeting with her Eucharistic Jesus was

In the convent little Imelda was like a

wanted this eleven-year-old to receive Him.

too much for her small burning heart to bear.

fish in water. She loved the silence, the long stone corridors with their beautiful arches,

She summoned the chaplain, who approached in awe with a golden paten. As

She had gone with Him.

the white and black habits of the nuns, the

soon as he had reached the kneeling girl, the

canticles, the prayer, the work. Above all else, she loved the tabernacle! Finally, she

Host settled on the paten!

was under the same roof as her Jesus. Whenever the monastic schedule permitted, there she was, kneeling in the high choir

overlooking the convent chapel, her large

eyes fixed on the tabernacle. In community life she was like a ray of

sunlight amidst so many adult sisters. They delighted in her company yet were severely warned by Mother Superior not to spoil her. Still, because of her young age, Reverend

At this, Imelda, who all the while had

her head bowed and her eyes closed as if oblivious to everything, slowly raised her radiant face and opened her mouth. Taking the host. Father Chaplain gave her her First Holy Communion. She lowered her head

once again and remained motionless.

Little Imelda Lambertini was beatified

in 1826 and was declared patroness of First Communicants in 1910 by Pope Saint Pius X, who that same year decreed that children could receive their First Holy Communion at a much earlier age. Imelda's small body lies incorrupt in a

beautiful reliquary in the Church of Saint

After a long while, Mother Superior

Sigismondo in Bologna. An expression of

approached her. "Imelda, my child, it is time to go now."

ecstatic bliss lights her beautiful face and seems to say, "My Jesus, He is my reward immensely great." â&#x2013;

Imelda did not respond.

Mother did not want Imelda to participate in all the acts of the community, especially ris ing in the middle of the night for the Office. Imelda, however, begged to be allowed

to do everything. There was no denying her. So it was that in the middle of the night the angels inhabiting those sacred halls must

have gazed in awe at a long line of white robed nuns and then a tiny white figure, all walking in silence to Matins. Two years went by. Imelda was now eleven years old. Only one aspect of her life in the con vent saddened her. She was still not able to

receive Our Lord in Holy Communion. As she watched the sisters receive, her soul burned with the wish to be among them. At

times, she could not contain her tears. Then it was that she most earnestly besought heaven to have mercy on her and let her receive, somehow...

One day as the nuns filed out of the choir after Mass, the last in line turned to look at the small white figure still kneeling in prayer. Imelda usually remained longer, motionless and absorbed in prayer. The community,quite accustomed to this, let her be. It was almost automatically that the last sister looked back

just to get a glimpse and marvel at this small wonder of Eucharistic piety.

This time, however, the respectful sister

suddenly stiffened, rooted to the floor. There


hat the Communist regime in Russia hated, brings admiration today. ^


"We don't have anything like it. We don't have glamour, elegance, and manners anymore." Such was the lament of an otherwise delighted American viewing the Nicholas and Alexandra exhibit at the new First USA Riverfront

Arts Center in Wilmington, Delaware.

Displaying some seven hundred artifacts from Russia's imperial family, among them the carriage pictured above, most of this spectacular collection had never left Russia before. Americans, given a glimpse of a marvelous bygone era, were enthusiastic. The exhibit, opened last August 1 and drawing an average of five thousand visitors a day, was prolonged through February 14 of this year. Inside, we share a visitor's commentaries and impressions(page 20).

March-April, 1999


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Contents March-April, 1999



Why the "Bad Guys" Win

Eagle or Turkey?


America's Dilemma


Two Weights and Two Measures

Cover: Bald Eagle, symbol

Cover Story


Eagle or Turkey? America's Dilemma

of our nation

Page 10: A little known part of

The Industrial Revolution


Catholic American History.

The Bigness Thing Rediscovering America



Father Nicolas Point, S.J. — The Artist Who Drew Souls

Marlology Mary: Model of Confidence


Holy Week



Catholic Apologetics


Statues... or Idols?

Basic Course of History


Saints Benedict and Gregory and the Regeneration of Civilization LOYOLA PRESS. CHICAGO

Forgotten Truths


"It is a subtle snare of the evil one." 28


1. What makes them tick?

2. Defending the Honor of The Mother of God Commentary


The Paul Weyrich Letter y-m



Saint Joseph, Martyr of Grandeur Family Series

34 1^4

Three Knights, a Princess, and a Miracle

1 ptl;

Page 18: jT-5 isil «r■^

Crusade Magazine is a publication of the American

0^1 \m

Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP). Subscriptions in the United States


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Direct all subscription requests and inquiries to: Crusade Magazine, P.O. Box 1868, York, PA 17405

or e-mail to: Tel.: 888-317-5571, Fax:(717) 225-7382, Copyright 1999 by The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, Inc.

This publication includes Images from Dynamic

Graphics, Corel and Art Today which are protected by Copyright laws of the U.S. and elsewhere.

Page 8: Everything has to be big.


But, is bigger better?

w ■*>

The veneration of statues, a Catholic tradition based on the bible

Why the "Bad Guys" Win Editor: C. Preston Noell III

Have you ever wondered why the "good guys" generally lose or—more to the

point—why the "bad guys" almost always win?

It's got a lot to do with your point of

never take a step back unless it is to take

Associate Editors:

two steps forward. Bewildered by rapid change and intim idated by forces that they do not begin to

Earl Appleby

understand, those who simply .seek to pre

Eugenia Guzman Gary Isbell

Thomas Becket Jack Bumham

view. Not, of course, that our personal

serve the status quo feel the ground move

opinions determine what is good and evil,

beneath their feet. Lacking a coherent

as the relativists maintain, for God has

agenda, they fight yesterday's battles with a


done that a long, long time ago. We refer rather to the viewpoints of the contenders

foe that is already engaged in tomorrow's, adopting the very slogans used by the revo


in the battle for the soul of America on

lution to attack yesterday's standards to

where we should be heading and how we should get there. You may be certain that the secular

defend today's.

When this strategy of surrender invari ably fails—as ultimately it must—conserva

Thoma.s J. McKenna

Orlando Lyra Gregory Escaro Foreign Correspondents:

AUSTRALIA: Raymond de Souza AUSTRIA: Charles E. Schaffer

BRAZIL: Carlos Sepulveda ENGLAND: Paul Foley

humanists who dominate our culture and,

tive Christians are inclined to retreat to the

thus, increasingly our nation have clear and definite views on both these matters, which

catacombs of their "prayer closets," locking the doors of their religious ghettoes from

help them, like a road map, to avoid wrong

the inside that the secularist left seeks to

GERMANY: Beno Hofschulte

turns and unnecessary detours.

padlock from without. Thus, they fall prey to false doctrines of.separatism, for while Christians must not

PORTUGAL: Antonio de Azeredo

be of the world, neither should we forget

SPAIN: Felipe Barandiaran

They also know, like Bismarck their forefather in revolution, that the

Kulturkampf(culture war) is real and they have no intention of taking prisoners. After all, as Chairman Mao, another of their pre decessors, once pointed out, a revolution is not a dinner party.

And what, pray tell, does the conserva

tive camp have to say about crucial questions. With a few noteworthy and com mendable exceptions, conservatives .seem to believe that their liberal neighbors are sim

ply misguided and, in their heart of hearts, want the same thing that they do—to live the American dream.

To the extent that this is true, it reveals

the myopia of what passes for conservative vision. To be sure, right and left can drool over the latest Dow Jones averages, like

Pavlov's dogs salivating at the sound of the (slock exchange) bell. To the degree that the aspirations of

earth we have a responsibility to preserve it. Why do the "good guys" lose and the "bad guys" win? In large measure, because the good lack a clear idea of what they want or, at least, what they should want.

They only know what they do not like. They lack an ideal—one that is worth dying for, and, more important, one worth living for. They would be content if things would only remain as they are or, at best, as they were yesterday—but yesterday's world was shaped by the victory of yester day's revolution. We need not abandon the battlefield—

of the name, our ideal must be more than

simply to end partial birth abortion, or even

what remains of the America of our

tion), and the family's irreplaceable role in society. We cannot cure the disease simply by

hand, have no such innocence. For them,

as a vehicle to advance their cause. They

in 1973 to confront the profound crisis shaking the modem world. It is a civic, cultural and nonpartisan organization which, inspired by the traditional teachings of the Supreme Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church, works

in a legal and peaceful manner in

promote the principles of private ownership, family and perennial

fathers—an America that endures largely in

"live and let live" does not apply to their enemies. They do not regard dialogue as a way of exchanging views, much less a means for discovering the truth, but rather

The American Society for the Defense of Tradition. Family and Property (TFP) was founded

the realm of ideas to defend and

all abortions. It must defend Christian mar

The proponents of evil, on the other

The American TFP

indeed we must not—but we should fight

riage, the integrity of the marital act,(one that is always open to its purpose, concep

candidate's platform is in inverse propor tion to his patriotism.

SOUTH AFRICA: Richard Urban

for stakes worth fighting for. To be worthy

mindless America (the wasteland) diverge,

Madison Avenue-style nostalgia, in which the number of American flags adorning a

ITALY: Juan M. Monies

that we live in it and that as the salt of the

middle America (the heartland) and of

however, it exposes the terminal naivete of

FRANCE: Benoit Bemelmans

treating the symptoms. We cannot save the soul of America merely by fighting evil.

Christian values with their twofold function; individual and social. The TFP's words and

efforts have always been faithful ly at the service of Christian civi lization.

The first TFP was founded

in Brazil by the famous intellec tual and Catholic leader Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira in

Our spiritual ancestors challenged the pagan

1960. His work has inspired the

world of their day with far fewer resources

formation of other autonomous TFPs in 26 countries across the

than are at our disposal. Their triumph gave birth to the glories of the Middle Ages.

Unless we fight, as they did, for the ideal of

globe, thus constituting the world's largest anticommunist

Christian civilization, the "bad guys" will

and antisocialist network of

continue to win, not because we had to lose,

Catholic inspiration.

but because we deserved to.

Augusto Pinochet, Jiang Zemin, and Fidel Castro. Which of these men most deserves to face an international tribunal? The answer may have more to do with political prejudice than a desire for justice.

Two Weights and Two Measures by Paul Foley

Few issues have received more atten tion in our time than human rights.

the list of world bogeymen. Let's see some

tivated land was nationalized. The results


were disastrous.

This may be due to the blatant denial

In 1970 presidential candidate Salvador

of those rights on a grand scale during this

Allende was chosen as President of Chile

Inflation galloped, wiping out savings, especially of the poor. Agriculture virtually collapsed. Wheat production fell by 73%

century by totalitarian regimes of every

by the parliament to break a constitutional

stripe and colour.

dead-lock, as no candidate had actually

between 1971 and 1973, so that Chile could

won enough votes in the elections. He was

not even meet its own seed needs, let alone

Less noticed, however, is the selective

interest in the subject often shown by the media, the intelligentsia and the political establishment. Despotic regimes of whose policies they approve are left unmolested, even supported; while they hypocritically

The controversy over the extradition of the ailing

ers, now government employees after mas

lambaste the human rights records of

Chilean ex-dictator raises

sive land reform. They went on strike and

regimes they disapprove of. They apply one set of standards to the first and quite another

set to the second. Almost invariably the first are leftist or communist, while the second are conservative or anti-communist. A case

feed its people. Shortly there appeared those

old hallmarks of all socialist regimes:

some important question about the state of internationaljustice

in point is Chile.

rationing and food queues. The first to revolt were the farm labor

blocked roads. The discontent spread to the cities, which soon resounded to the din of

thousands of housewives banging empty pots out their windows at mealtimes. During late 1972 and early 1973 the country came to a stand-still as the striking farm laborers were joined by factory workers, nurses,

The dramaticâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and somewhat under-

handâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;arrest of General Augusto Pinochet

the leader of the Communist majority in the

teachers, doctors, fishermen, dock workers,

for his part in the of human rights

new coalition Government of Popular Unity and promised "socialism, the Chilean way". It was to be a new way to commu

students, and just about every other trade

which took place during his dictatorship was the result of co-operation between the

British and Spanish governments. It stands

in sharp contrast with how both govern ments have treated some other leaders whose records on human rights make Pinochet look like a beginner. Also, we have heard almost none of Pinochet's side of the

story, because for this we depend upon the very media that has placed Pinochet high on

nism quite unlike the violent way of Fidel Castro, and was much admired by the inter

and profession. Most wonying to the gov ernment were the strikes of the miners and

the truck drivers, the latter even threatening

towards communism. 55% of the nation's

to make great bonfires of all their trucks if the government would not let them work. Strikes became marches and demonstra tions. The housewives took to the streets

industry was nationalized, including all the

banging their empty pots. At first they were

national Left,

Allende lost no time marching Chile

important industries. 90% of the means of

met with tear-gas, then with bullets. Even

distribution were nationalized. 44% of cul

handicapped people demonstrated in their

M.ARCH-.^PRH. [199


How do we intervene in

other nations'affairs with out undermining

the notion of national sovereignty?

wheelchairs and on crutches—and were set

upon by riot police. In April 1972 over 750,000 people demonstrated in Santiago. Later, a mil lion joined in the Great Freedom March. Meanwhile, the discontent showed itself in

by-elections and union elections, where the high ly unpopular candidates of the Government of Popular Unity continually lost. Nonetheless, the

Who prosecutes, and how is evidence gathered?

icizing the government was harassed and threat ened. Newspapers and radio stations were taken

whom he protested in his student days. Did he also protest against the dictator Erick Hoenecker who gave shoot-to-kill orders to stop his countrymen fleeing from the conununist

"paradise" of East Germany? No government sought the extradition of Hoenecker, who died peacefully in his bed. And who protests when western politicians and statesmen are wined and in these anarchical conditions. Allende then co-opted members of the dined in Beijing by the very people who have armed forces into his government—including the blood of Tiananmen Square on their hands? The Spanish judge Baltazar Garzon who General Pinochet—with instructions to quell sought the extradition of Pinochet showed no the unrest by any means necessary. But the sol similar zeal to arrest the tyrant Fidel Castro diers fraternized with the miners instead of shooting them and the military leaders decided when the latter travelled around Spain as a VIP a to oust Allende on hearing rumors of an couple of years ago. Considering the known left impending communist putsch. They still argue ist sympathies of Judge Garzon perhaps one it was the only way to restore order and prevent could be forgiven for suspecting that at issue was worse bloodshed. Huge arsenals of Soviet- and not an idealistic thirst for justice but the settling of an old score! Cuban-supplied weaponry were found in gov There is a final point, one of supreme ernment stores all over the country, suggesting importance. How exactly do we intervene in that if Allende's "peaceful" way to socialism failed a more forceful way would be sought. other nations' affairs without undermining the

ics of Allende. A plan to set up Maoist-style "peoples' courts" failed only because it was cut short by the coup. Crime and violence flourished

Allende died in the coup—whether by suicide or not—wielding the Kalashnikov rifle Fidel Castro had given him. None of the above facts are ever mentioned

What role wil

non-governmental organizations play?

by the liberal media, nor by any supporter of Allende's regime, even those who were eyewit ness to them. Of course not, since it would dis

credit the myth of Allende being a popular democratic ruler overthrown by a selfish clique

of military reactionaries. Another incontestable fact is that Chile, alone of all the Latin

American countries, enjoyed years of financial stability and widespread prosperity under Pinochet. This might explain why thousands of ordinary Chileans have been demonstrating in

How do we prevent such courtsfrom becoming tools in the hands of pressure groups motivated more by ideology than altruism?


Above all, we must apply the same standards to every case.

Mr. Jack Straw, the British Home Secretary, sanctioned the extradition of Pinochet against

terror to neighborhoods,especially targeting crit

to an international court?

They must not think the world will turn a blind eye while they torture and murder. But we must avoid rash generalizations which lead to faulty judgements and inadequate solutions.

bull-headed Allende pushed ahead. Education started to come under State control. Anyone crit

over and censored. Leftwing gunmen brought

What authority do we give

We should never be indifferent to viola

tions of human rights by despots anywhere.

notion of national sovereignty? What authority do we give to an international court? Who pros ecutes, and how is evidence gathered? What role will non-governmental organizations play? How do we prevent such courts from becoming

tools in the hands of pressure groups motivated more by ideology than altruism? The Pinochet case raises all these ques tions. And some even more complex ones,

precisely because it was not an international court, but the decision of a Spanish judge employing an extradition treaty, which set the episode in motion. As the network of such treaties grows, a revolution is taking place in

Santiago for his release. Excesses and abuses of human rights may

international law. Henceforth, a judge from any country might be able to arrest someone in another country and have him brought

well have taken place during and after the coup. Estimates recently quoted in the press on the number killed in the fighting and by outright exe

than common sense to see the danger in this if legal procedures and guarantees in one coun

cution vary between 3,000 and 30,000! Clearly

try are not relevant in another.

before him for trial. Nor does it take more

this means that all the facts—not hearsay—have

Already new cases are appearing. Several

yet to be fully gathered and documented. Also needing investigation are the cases of terror, tor ture and disappearance which took place during

British soldiers who served in the Falklands

Allende's time. All this must be done impartially, with the best interests of Chile in mind, and

preferably done by the Chileans themselves.

war may face extradition to Argentina. If we are witnessing the globalization of the justice system, this may be the ultimate significance of the Pinochet affair.


. ,3-



by Raymond E. Drake

For the last two weeks this souths western comer of Pennsylvania's

York County has been abuzz with joyful excitement. A pair of bald-

myself repeatedly studying the sky and

looking at the tall pine tree every time I walked between buildings. One evening I

diffiicult and worthy goals.

Small wonder—I said to myself—that

headed eagles had been seen at the dam on

on them and marvel at the pictures. I would

this noble bird was chosen as our country's symbol. Many who came before us also drew inspiration from the symbolism God

Codorus Lake. "Will they stay?" one person

interrupt my work and look out the office

placed in eagles. Julius Caesar's conquering

asked. "Will some idiot shoot them?" asked

window whenever the crows went into a fit

legions, Charlemagne's baptized warriors,

another, "You mean here?" exclaimed an

hoping to see the object of their envious

unbeliever. "For goodness sakes, I thought Alaska!" "It's been so long... Oh heavens, 1

chiding. So far though, I haven't set eyes on this champion of the sky. As the days went by my thoughts

countless Crusaders who fought to rescue the Holy Places from the infidels, all of them

just can't remember the last time we've had

climbed to a different level. I had noticed

you only saw them out west or up in

picked up an album on eagles to read a little

a couple of them eagles here!" pondered an old-timer.

No, it wasn't rumor. It was for real. As

the days Filed by and the sightings multiplied, so did people's amazement. Some stopped their day to admire the eagle's majestic

and graceful soaring high above, its while head and tail plumage blazing in immaculate snowy contrast against the deep azure

... all of them found a deep and mysterious courage in the heraldic symbolism of an eagle

beyond. Others confirmed .seeing one

perched on an old dead tree daily in the by Menges Mills.

I couldn't help but notice how happy everyone was. Some were jubilant because they had actually seen our national bird, oth ers were glad just at the thought of one being close by. I was squarely in the second group. It seemed like I was never at the right place

found a deep and mysterious courage in the heraldic symbolism of an eagle. What an interesting project, I thought, for someone to

review the fl ags and official seals of nations and states, provinces and cities, to see how many of them today still fi nd in the eagle a symbol of their best aspirations. At this my thoughts sank somewhat as 1 reflected on how we Americans see our

selves as a nation. True, the bald-headed

eagle is our national symbol, but how many Americans reflect on what this symbolism is all about? Is it a symbol for some and not for

something else. The daily burden seemed somewhat easier to cope with even though many people, like myself, hadn't seen the

eagle either. It seemed that just the thought of its presence in the area brought with it a kind of lightness, a healthy self-assurance in dealing with the day's numerous con

others? If so, considering that a nation is a

unified political entity is the eagle still appropriate as our national symbol? If the issue had to be decided again today, would the eagle still win our hearts? The questions seemed to me all the

more relevant as I recalled how Benjamin

cerns. It was .something hard to pin down, something imponderable, but it helped one

Franklin over two hundred years ago argued the for the turkey. The thought of a

leagues were aglow with how they saw an eagle landing on a tall pine right here on the grounds, and they described with vivid

think of spring, even though it was just the fi rst week in March. This imponderable

turkey as our national symbol made me cringe. I had always understood the choice

translated into a certain drive and zest for

of a national symbol as the expression of the

detail the powerful and determined thrusts

pushing onward, overcoming obstacles,

nation's noblest vision and the ideals it most

of its big wings as it lifted off again. I caught

striving undaunted and confidently towards

loved. How could a turkey be the expression

at the right time. Some of my TP? col

• -j, iff, •' •' i



other's petty world was chock full of guar

of anyone's lofty ideals? What was lofty

changing. Surely the President's official seal

about a turkey?

would bear the image of a live turkey, not a

antees, amenities, and restricted horizons.

As for Franklin's approach to the issue,

golden and crispy Perdue butterball. Of

The eagle made me think of the proudest

it seemed to have little or no elevation to it.

course the debate at our country's onset

moments in American history and the hero

The turkey, he is alleged to have pointed out,

focused on what a live eagle and a live

ism, courage and noble sacrifice in the indi

would be an appropriate symbol since,

turkey symbolize for man.

vidual lives of millions. The turkey, it

I thought of the turkeys I knew as a boy.

seemed to me, showed America at its worst:


The barnyard absorbed all of their attention,

self-interest and self-gratification coupled

This kind of reasoning upset me not a little, for it rang in fervent tribute to a mate

and it seemed like no interest remained for

the rest of the world. The feeding trough was

rialistic and consumerist worldview and

indisputably the center of their little uni

with a materialistic indifference to the high er things of the spirit. I couldn't help but think how popular

unlike the eagle, everything in a turkey was

verse. They couldn't tly,

these earthly sentiments are today. Indeed

One is at home in the vastness of

not because their wings were clipped, but because

the sky and is conatural with grand panoramas and difficult enterprises

they were too heavy and lazy. The gobblers took turns puffing themselves

they are so common I could just hear some one saying; "There's nothing wrong with Franklin's turkey idea. Like so many 'prophets,' he too was misunderstood and rejected. He wasn't wrong though,just a lit

up until it seemed they

tle too early for his times."

burst, and they

1 wasn't at all happy with this new twist

egregious disregard for man's more noble

strutted around picking a fight that never

and superior spiritual endeavors. So a phys

seemed to materialize. Despite all their bat

of reasoning. Something deep within me classified it as sophistic and deceptive. It

ical symbol that reminds us of the noble goals and virtues that should shape our

tle dress though, the turkeys faced death with seeming indifference, for when one

couldn't see even the most rabid evolutionist


sounded so absurd. And fatalistic too. 1

defending this mutation from eagle to turkey as part of the natural course of things.

country, culture, and civilization isn't use

bird was butchered the others never ran

ful? Are then nobility in the stalwart defense of truth and justice, courage in confronting opposition and persecution, and vision to foresee great dangers looming on a distant

away, but looked on casually. Their real advantage, though, was in the field of expression. Oh they were boisterous beyond belief and never tired of hearing each other

some truth to the idea of the turkey being a symbol for many today. The attitudes of no

horizon virtues that are deemed u.selcss?

out. The children quickly perceived this and

small number of Americans seem to be

Few people will contest, and certainly

proved it again and again to visiting friends.

not I, the delight of a tastefully cooked turkey during a family dinner. However, it

Any cheap imitation of a gobble... and all

Inspired by the turkey's barnyard view. With this 1 began to reficct on recent events and

the turkeys struggled to outdo each other in

some of the reactions they provoked.

seemed to me that the true focus of the

dutiful response.

The impeachment debacle and its epi logue struck me as a first and obvious exam ple. The media's reporting on the President's past doings presents facts that are increas ingly scandalous, but his continued popular

Founding Fathers' discussion revolved around the symbolism of living birds, not their demand at the meat counter. The bald-

The symbolism of eagle and turkey

conflicted in my mind. The first's noble bearing, piercing gaze and powerful flight

At the same time, I sensed there was

headed eagle we use as our national symbol

contrasted sharply with the second's unper-

is shown full of life, as were all the eagles

ceiving look, boastful strut, and gluttonous

ity seems to portray a nation largely indif

used as symbols down through the ages.

habits. One was at home in the vastness of

Even if Franklin's suggestion had prevailed,

the sky and was conatural with grand panoramas and difficult enterprises. The

ferent to good and evil, right and wrong, true and false. Indeed, I thought, how does one explain that 60 million Americans tune in to

I couldn't imagine this ancient custom


watch Miss Lewinsky's two-hour interview with ABC's Barbara Walters? Certainly not ignorance as to what she looked like or would talk about. Who can allege ignorance

upset the Russians or delay the Duma's rati fication of a SALT II treaty signed with a defunct Soviet Union. As for the public, it seemed to me that the sense of danger was

Every single one of us has a profound impact in this silent but profound battle for

after the media's furious spadework over the

terribly absent from the minds of millions

great issues affecting the nation and the

secret depths of millions of American hearts.

America's soul as we take a stand on the

last year to erode our moral barriers of

who show themselves indifferent and even

world. Our choice, influenced as it is by a

shame? Not surprisingly, the calls that apparently flooded the studio were not vent ing outrage, but inquiring as to the color of

irritated, if someone brings up such serious

thousand things particularly the example of

concerns. "Not my problem! I didn't vote for Clinton!"(That's if they're not one of the

those closest to us and the force of our own

60,000.000 or so Americans eligible to vote but who never show up at the booth). They

the eagle soars within us and we disdain the turkey's vulgar ways. But the Church teach es us that we need to struggle against our defects not just occasionally, but daily and

lipstick Miss Lewinsky had u.sed while on the screen. I remembered our steelworkcrs and

their right indignation over Russia, Japan







Washington's response to the crisis seems to be an even more aggressive pursuit of its

habits, is remade at every moment. At times

and Brazil's efforts to destroy America's steel industry. However, I also wondered how many of them and their families refuse

"feed the crocodile" engagement policy. The facts were before me and there was

the winds of adversity like an eagle and look

to buy the cheap products being dumped on

no way around them. Millions were sunk in

for a comfortable place among the turkeys at

our shores by Communist China, for the sake of principle? The in-depth reporting on the espi

.seiC-salisfied apathy, intrinsically choosing the turkey as their national symbol. But at

the trough.

onage and theft of American nuclear tech nology at Los Alamos, the leaks of satellite

viction, that millions more loved the sight of a bald-headed eagle and the virtues it .sym-

the same time. I knew with a rock hard con

until we die. When we don't and they gain the upper hand, we lose interest in braving

America's great influence in the world today brings with it great historical respon sibility. We should look at this responsibili

ty with the undaunted and penetrating gaze of an eagle, and soar towards it fearlessly,

The other's petty world is chockfull of guarantees, amenities, and restricted horizons delivery technology to China, and North

bolizcs. And 1 had no doubt whatsoever, that

Korea's determination to build nuclear inter continental ballistic missiles capable of

they too feel inspired by it even when it doesn't Hy their way.

reaching the U.S. even while their starving

I had to conclude that the debate over

population is fed by American largess. A group of concerned politicians throws

our national symbol did not cease with the

shelving of Franklin's suggestion, and that

in fact it is reenacted over the generations, being deeply intertwined in our hi.story.

together an eleventh hour proposal to "develop a missile shield as soon as techno logically possible"(I wondered if this meant

Sometimes the eagle, sometimes the turkey

1952 when we detonated our first hydrogen

is our country's true, if unconfes.sed and

bomb, or was it 1967 when Armstrong

unofficial symbol. The country's tendency towards one or the other is the resulting vec tor of individual preferences made in the

walked on the moon). However, others voice

caution for such an initiative might well




regardless of the sacrifice it entails, rejecting

disdainfully the temptation to trudge the eas ier but inglorious road of mediocrity.

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by John Hmu

Everything has to be big: We live in big houses in big cities, go to work in big cars on superhighways to reach our big businesses where we try to make big money.

It'sno secret. Americans have a thing about bigness.

We live in a big country that

of proportion among the social classes with its concept of charity to the poor that

Studies indicate that large public spaces like plazas and squares should be limited to the distance where the general

was unknown to the ancients. Proportion was like a nectar that invigorated and har monized all society.

outlines, clothes, sex, age and gait of a per

Everything has to be big. We live in big houses in big cities, go to work in big cars on superhighways to reach our big businesses where we try to make big

Perhaps one of its most impressive aspects was the medieval capacity to create ambiences agreeable to human nature.

the oval in front of St. Peter's in Rome is

money. We eat Big Macs and Whoppers.

not only looked beautiful but also were amazingly proper to the human psychology.

feels comfortable with the idea

that bigger is better.

Every aspect of our lives is somehow

touched by the superlative. Everything must be extra-, super-or mega-sized. Even problems must be big: big

Medieval castles, cathedrals and villages

Medieval proportion in architecture

was not mere subjective fancy but involved principles implicit in the very process of

government, trillion dollar debts and

perception. The medievals understood

World Wars.

there are definite upper limits as to the sizes of streets, buildings and plazas beyond which things appear colossal and

The materialistic underpinning of our nation necessarily leads us to believe that

only the big is important. And even small things can become important when enlarged by hype from big media. But bigger is not neces.sarily better. There is a certain uneasiness caused by liv


son can be distinguishedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a distance of around 450 feel. It is no coincidence that

430 feet wide; the Place Vendome in Paris

measures 450 feet; and the length of the Piazza San Marco, perhaps the world's

most delightful plaza, is 425 feet. Christian civilization naturally incorpo

rated such human proportions in all fields. In his search for perfection, medieval man brought proportion into economy, educa

tion, government and society. Arthur Lovejoy in his book, The Great Chain of Being, explains how Saint Thomas Aquinas defined nature as a great

ladder or chain of being stretching from Human measure, the best measure

German architect H. Martens in his

the lowest of God's creatures to thb gates of heaven itself. His was a tightly knit

world with a careful graduation of ranks

studies on urban architecture and human

accompanied by instructions governing

If there is one thing that the Industrial

scale proportion uncovered interesting rela

Revolution took from man it was the well-

tionships between distance and perception.

mutual responsibilities and obligations. This concern for proportionality gave the

He determined that the ideal width of a

Middle Ages a great well being.

city street, for example, would be that in which a person could recognize another

The road to bigness

ing in the shadow of awesome dimensions. being he felt by living with a sen-^ ^ of pre portion and scale. A sense of proportion Of course, not all things must be small. God Himself created the world

(about 72 feet). Residential streets requir

ing more community intimacy would be

and vast seas. But creation also is filled with intermediary sizes that somehow connect the small and large and thus

the distance (about 48 feet) where a facial expression can be distinguished. Aristotle among others noted that the best manner of viewing a building is in its entirety. The human soul feels comfortable

establish harmony.

in comprehending a whole reality. Thus,

with majestic mountains, giant Sequoias

Pre-industrial societies lived within

the height of a normal building where peo

this proportionality and adapted the tempo

ple feel most comfortable alwa\ ^ seems to

and scale of their lives accordingly. Within the framework of Christian civilization,

be around three stories depending on the width of the street. In a similar way, man can naturally view taller cathedrals and public buildings from large public squares.

medieval society took proportionality even further. Catholic society extended a sense

The Thomist concept of the order of the universe was abruptly challenged by new commercial and technological devel

opments. Jeremy Rifkin in his 1991 book. Biosphere Politics, describes how French philosopher Rene Descartes prepared the way in the seventeenth century by intro ducing a bold new cosmology. "God. the benevolent and caring shepherd of Christendom, was replaced with God the remote and cold technician, who created

and set in motion a self-regulating machiiielike universe that was orderly, pre dictable and self-perpetuating."

March-April 1999


- - ci

Fr. Nicolas Point, S.J The Artist Who Drew Souls

Rene Descartes

With the advent of the Industrial

Revolution, technology unleashed a new dynamism that habitually violated pro portionality. The massive steam engines, the gigantic factories, noises, gases and

odors all carried the note of dispropor tion. Their enthusiastic reception was a kind of triumphal support of the abnor mally colossal. The cult of bigness was bom.

Metaphysics of quantity The Industrial Revolution's obses

sion with bigness made a metaphysical

by Walter Camler

Catholic missionaries, following and even extending the footsteps of French and Spanish explorers, tra versed nearly every region of these United States in its earliest years. Jesuits, in fact, were among the first explorers in almost

Montagnes Rocheuses, is an important account of the conversions of Indians in the

regions of the Rocky Mountains. But Father Point, an avid if untrained artist, was

the first missionary to leave pictorial accounts of the daily life of the Indians

statement that quantity is worth more than quality, Making huge things came

every northern state. Laboring with unsur

to be more than crafting very refined

passed zeal, risking all, even their lives,

ones. The standard of measurement

in their desire to save souls, these brave

came to be that of size and quantity. Bigger came to be better. Thus, materi

Jesuits, and other devoted servants of

France, on April 10. 1799. the eldest of

alism entered the daily life of modem

Christ—earned the admiration of all men

several children. His formal education


of good will. One Protestant minister

began at the age of 11, when his parish

The men who built the skyscrapers, the huge interstate highways, and the massive water projects were the objects of prodigious admiration. The over

commented: "The Jesuit missionary, for

priest prepared him to receive his First Holy Communion, and continued at the

missionaries—Franciscans, Dominicans,

during the course of his apostolate. Birth and vocation

Nicolas Point was bom in Rocroy,

getting all but his holy vows, and quailing before no danger, in his zealous desire to

town's Catholic school where he learned

Christianize the untouched savage, hesi

the rudiments of Latin. When his father

whelming colossalism of the modem

tated not to pass beyond the confines of

died several years later. Nicolas had to

world seemed to mark a victory over tra

civilization, and explore the wilderness."

leave his studies to work as a laborer's

dition and Christian civilization.

Most readers are familiar with the

helper and later as a clerk to help his fami

In fact, it is a hollow victory because materialism cannot but bring

heroic labors and sanctity of those we now venerate as the North American Martyrs.

ly. Thus, even as a young man, he showed a

forth a cold and impersonal world. Its concrete, steel and glass skyscrapers are

Many also know of the missionary and

for the sake of others.

diplomatic work of Fr. Pierre Jean De

calculated to make man feel like an ant,

Smet, or the achievements of Father

a grain of sand or an atom. Its cities are engulfing oceans of asphalt, which insure the anonymity, isolation and

Junipero Serra. Too little known, however, are many others who carried on the gruel

In these early years. Nicolas showed a talent for sketching. He never received for mal training as an artist, but his mother

ing task of converting and civilizing the

annihilation of the individual.

Indians after the field had been opened.

It creates an unlivable and disjointed world that underscores the need to return

to virtue and proportion. And to look

once again with wonder at that great chain of being that produced a world of well-being and harmony.



One of these intrepid souls was Fr. Nicolas Point, S.J.

Father Point is a figure of historical

willingness to sacrifice his own intere-sts

always encouraged his natural ability, mak ing small sacrifices to buy him the materi als needed to practice it. All the days of her life she treasured a picture of the Blessed Virgin that he once made for her.

In 1815—the year the Society of Jesus

interest in his own right. All Jesuits were expected to make detailed reports of their

was restored in France—Nicolas read a life of Saint Francis Xavier that awakened his

labors, and his manuscript. Souvenirs des

desire to serve Christ as a missionary. Four

years later, he was accepted at Saint Acheul, a small Jesuit college. A new wave

memory of Our Lord's warning that "If they hate you, know that they have hated Me before you"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that Father Point and

of anticlericalism, spawned from the ratio nalist Enlightenment of the eighteenth cen tury, attacked the Order, while illness

sis and open Saint Charles College on

added to the trials besetting his vocation.

January 5, 1838.

When the Blessed Mother heard Nicolas's

prayers and restored his health, he contin ued his course with renewed confidence

and vigor.

While many European countries seemed intent on expelling the Jesuits, the

bishops of America were eager to welcome them. On August 15, 1835, the feast of Our Lady's Assumption, Fr. Nicolas Point set sail for America. Reaching Saint Mary's, a small school outside Lebanon, Kentucky, he

joined his confreres. Fathers Pierre Chazelle and Nicolas Petit, as a teacher of Latin,

while laboring to learn English himself.

his confreres were able to defuse the cri

A plague of troubles assailed the col lege as rumors spread that the school was unhealthy because of a yellow fever epi demic in the first session. Although enroll

ment had grown to 100 students by the sec ond session, another epidemic ravaged stu

dents and faculty. With a heavy heart. Father Point reported to Saint Louis as directed by his superiors.

Salishan Flatheads, a tribe whose moral

upon them as mod ern mythology would have us believe

western Montana, they encountered the

the land, which had been purchased by his

standards were remarkably high. The

predecessor. Bishop Louis Dubourg. His

Iroquois intermarried with their new-found

beneficence included a small church, a

friends and instructed them in the basic

house, a log cabin, and a promise of ten

truths of the Catholic faith. Knowing they needed missionaries to deepen their

Father Point took up residence in the log

not somethingforced

whose ancestors had been converted by some of the North American martyrs,

a village southwest of Opelousas, Louisiana. Bishop Anthony Blanc donated

cabin in the spring. During the summer. Father Point and

the Faith, which was

In 1816, a group of Catholic Iroquois,

migrated westward from Montreal. As they journeyed into the Bitter Root Valley in

thousand dollars to erect another building.

and steadfastness are indicative of their willingness to accept


establish a Jesuit college in Grand Coteau,

In 1837, Father Point left Kentucky to

The Indians'ardor

knowledge, the Iroquois and Flatheads sent representatives to encourage their spiritual fathers, the Jesuits, to send

his companions were subjected to hostile


threats. The local newspaper editorialized that the Jesuits were unfit to breathe the

he was encouraged to learn of the mission


When Father Point reached St. Louis,

pure air of Louisiana, and vigilantes

ary endeavor that a fellow Jesuit, Fr. Pierre

formed committees to drive them from their land. It was only by their tranquilli

Jean De Smet, was about to launch. Father De Smet, who had worked with Indians in

ty. kindness, and goodnessâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and their

present-day Kansas and Iowa, had jour-


Above: Portrait of an Indian woman

Left: The first procession of the Biessed

Sacrament among the Fiatheads at St. Mary's.The Latin words transiated:

"Praise the Saviour,0 Sion," are from

a hymn usually sung during such a ceremony.



neyed to the Flathead country in 1840 and

her brother entered the Society of Jesus. In

made many sacrifices attesting to his love

returned filled with enthusiasm. Father

speaking of those to whom we owe so much, she told me that our mother had, in her last moments, rested her eyes with

of God and those whose souls God had

great consolation on an image of the Blessed Virgin which I knew very well.

Europe. Father Point wrote: "What pro

Point and another priest were to accompa ny Father De Smet, the superior of this historic mission. Father De Smet described

Father Point as "zealous and courageous for the salvation of souls." Father Point was sent ahead to

Westpori, Missouri, the staging area for

serve the faithful living there, primarily

not small for men raised in the culture of

found misery reigned among these poor

The image, which she had venerated for thirty years, was one which I had painted

people! What poor huts of straw and bark!

for her'".

remains of fish, and other filth of all kinds.

wagon trains headed west. Arriving in November 1840, he built a small church to

entrusted to his care. The hardships were

Around them was the smell of animals, the Inside the huts bundles of roots were

Among the Natives

As Father Point undertook his per

thrown in a comer, skins of animals hung

from a pole, and fish were being smoked over a fire. What about the people? Dirty faces, hair in disorder, hands serving as a

French Canadian trappers and their Indian

ilous journey, he encountered vast panora

wives. Putting his artistic talent to good use, Father Point adorned the chapel with

mas and other natural splendors that stimu lated his artistic spirit. As he sketched the

pictures of Our Lord, Our Lady, and the saints. He also drew pictures of holy

from the nose, throat, from the mouth, in.

scenes for children who excelled in their

majestic beauty of God's creation, he recalled how much more readily we learn through our eyes than through our ears.


From that time on, he endeavored to teach

producing them."

By Easter of the following year, he had brought about great changes in the

his catechumens through what he called

comb, handkerchief, knife, fork, and

spoon. While eating, foul smells came

fact, from any part of the body capable of The keenest sorrows he felt arose not

from the physical hardships of his mission

moral lives of the people of Westport. It

the "silent preaching" of art, His depictions of the sacraments and

was time, however, for Father Point to

prayer, of virtue and vice, struck the

to reject Christ despite the graces He

accompany Father De Smet on the journey to the Rockies. Before leaving, he remind

Indians with their vividness. As Saint

showered upon them—graces that were in large measure the fruit of the sacrifices of this holy priest.

Augustine had observed, the eyes are the

ed his parishioners how his mother had

windows of the soul, and as the truths

encouraged him to develop the talents God

illustrated in Father Point's drawings entered the Indians' souls through their eyes, the virtues represented were

had given him so that he might use them in His service:

'"God rewarded her care, as He did

all her sacrifices during her widowhood to

impressed on their hearts. While the Indians lacked the cultural

but from the loss of those souls who chose

For his part. Father Point admired the

efforts the Flatheads had put forth in seek ing the true Faith and their steadfastness in maintaining it in the absence of Father De

Smet, who had originally evangelized

further the education of her children. The

and material advantages of more advanced

them."What these Indians had not done to

result was that all of us were attached to

civilizations, the better souls among them,

procure the services of the Blackrobes!

our home, removed from dangerous com

in their natural innocence, offered less

What distances they had traveled! What

pany, and attracted to the religious life. Twenty years after leaving my family I met a nun on the banks of a great river three thousand miles from my native land. She was my sister, who entered the novi

resistance to conversion than those who,

sacrifices they had made!"

having the benefits of civilization but fail ing to thank God for His abundant gifts, were steeped in the sin of pride.

Fruits of his labor

All was not easy, however, and in

are indicative of their willingness to accept

tiate of the Sacred Heart on the very day

dealing with the Indians, Father Point

the Faith, which was not something forced

The Indians' ardor and steadfastness

.. •— ••• S


Indians, publicly confessing faults, reveal inadvertently their heroic virtue




upon them as modem mythology would

Heart no mortal sins was committed for at

have us believe. The leader of an Indian

least four to six months. How many com

delegation seeking blackrobes for their

munities could assert the same today?

group of five boys for the glorious day of their First Holy Communion. He died

peacefully at eight o'clock in the evening

people said, "I am only an evil and igno rant man, but I thank the Great Spirit for

of July 4, 1868. It seems a very fitting

all that He has done for me. I eamestly wish to live now only to pray. I shall pray

to Himself, the day we celebrate the birth day of our Nation, for he had labored so long and so lovingly for the first

date for God to have called Father Point

until death."

And what admirable fruits were pro

Americansâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Indians.

duced in the souls of the Indian faithful by their simple faith enlivened by prayer and

A humble artist

Perhaps the most suitable closing of

the sacraments.

A 12-year old Indian girl, seeing she was about to die, asked to be baptized.

Point are words he himself penned on pub

The Iroquois who baptized her gave her

lishing his drawings. They are words that

the name Mary. The moment before she

attest to his love for the Indians and to his

died, little Mary cried,"Oh, how beauti

profound humility, a quality that the Indians greatly admired in him. "Should this collection be appraised

this brief sketch of the life of Fr. Nicolas

ful! I see Mary, my Mother." After her

death, the girl appeared to the people of

her village to tell them. "I am returning to tell you that those for whom you wait are

This Spokane Indian, aged one hundred

by a connoisseur, he would say, 'This is the work of neither a painter nor even a

and four, walked twenty miles through snow to ask for baptism

doodler.' And he would be right, for I

the true Blackrobes. You must listen to

what they say." A Spokane Indian who had reached

the venerable age of 104, nonetheless

have had no formal training in painting or sketching. But with this collection,

Illness and death leave his mission in the Rockies. He was

be baptized.

sent to Canada in order to recover his

Yet another Indian, receiving Extreme Unction from Father Point while at death's

such as it is, I do homage to you, dear

In 1847, illness forced Father Point to

walked 20 miles through blinding snow to

reader, and were it to do nothing more than give you an agreeable diversion from your serious occupations. I should be grateful to God for that. If it should,

health. The following year he was appoint ed superior of a large Indian mission con

door, was miraculously restored to health.

ducted by the Jesuits on Manitoulin Island.

however, accomplish more, that is, if it

She testified to the great happiness the

should prompt you to do for our poor

conversion of her Indian children brought

There he worked with his brother, Fr. Pierre Point, S.J. His health, however, had

to the Mother of God.

been so seriously undermined that he final

Noting the Indians' love for confes

sion and their loathing of sin, Father Point cited examples of the sorrow the Indians had for venial sins and even slight faults, the reparation they made for them, and their demands for penances. He also com

mented that in the village of the Sacred

[Indians] even the hundredth part of the

ly had to retire from active life. Despite his repeated requests to return to the missions,

good I wish for you, then, certainly, you would receive a hundredfold [blessing] in this world and in the next. If, on the

he was sent to live in a Jesuit novitiate

contrary, my production only bores you,

near Montreal.

pray for me, as I do for you, in order that God, Who alone does not err, may judge

In 1865, Father Point, still afflicted

with poor health, went to Quebec. On

both of us only in the light of His most

June 28, 1868, he finished preparing a

sweet mercy," Photos of Fr. Point's paintings: Reprinted with permission of Loyola Press, Chicago

'1 '


An Indian woman,apparently dead, showed signs of life when the formula of baptism was whispered to her

March-April 1999



in faith and inflexible in hope. That is, we must confide.

Since divine goodness is inexhaustible, God has supplied history with luminous

examples of people who were totally aban doned and, contrary to every natural expec tation, were relieved and their hopes ful

filled. Of all the examples recorded in histo ry, the Catholic's soul is never more moved than by certain episodes in Our Lady's life. Mary's betrothal: confidence amidst perplexities Tradition tells us that while still quite

young Our Lady consecrated herself to the service of the Lord in the Temple in Jerusalem. In the first years of her earthly

life, the Most Holy Virgin offered her virgin ity to God, and freed herself from anything that might prevent her from dedicating her self entirely to her Creator. It was during her time of service in the Temple that her par ents, Saints Joachim and Anna, died leaving her an orphan.

She must certainly have hoped to remain in the Temple serving God. What better place to do so? But God had other designs and chose to submit her to a difficult trial. As an orphan, she was given over to the care of the High Priest. When she turned


Mary: Model of Confidence by Valdis Grinstein

fourteen, he informed her of his intention to find her a husband. How surprised Our Lady

Few virtues are as difficult to acquire as confidence. Confidence is a conviction

aroused by Faith, it is the virtue which exercises steadfast hope when every other natural reason to hope has died. Saint Thomas Aquinas says that confidence is "a

hope fortified by solid conviction." Confide, literally means "with faith." Man, wounded by Original Sin, finds it

to preserve her vow of virginity? If she refused to marry, how could she avoid being

disobedient to the authority God had select ed to guide her? At that time, among the Jews, virginity was not understood as it is

tion to God. Yet, our loving Creator often

the hope of giving birth to the Messiah.

heals our souls by allowing situations that render us helpless, unable to act, and there fore making evident to us that we have no

the Creator for her, this situation caused the

devices. When we find ourselves stuck in such

hopeless situations, our Father Himself shows us the way out, the only way out. We must believe in His omnipotence, His infinite mercy. His justice and remain firm


was her lawful guardian whom she must obey. However, if she married, how was she

especially difficult to admit his dependence upon others and, in particular, his subordina

way out when depending merely on our own


must have been! How could this be?

Certainly the Lord knew of her vow of vir ginity, but it was also certain that God had guided the High Priest in his decision. He

today. All Israelites contracted marriage in Since she did not know the designs of

future mother of the Messiah great perplexi ty. For her, more than anything else, this was the hour for confidence: She had to confide

in God. He would sustain her vow of virgin ity, even in marriage. When the time came to select her

spouse, various candidates presented them selves. In addition to these, one other person

Confidence is the virtue which exercises steadfast hope when every other natural reason to hope has died was present, but only for a juridical reason. He was present because the law stated that in the case of orphans the nearest relative must be present to consent to the marriage.

seemingly unexplainable behavior and

was enclosed, as in a seed, all the grandeur that the Church would develop throughout

being weak in their faith, the Apostles fled.

the centuries, all the virtues that the Church

defend Him. When confronted with this

Perhaps a few of the faithful hoped

would sow, all the promises of the Old Testament, and all the actions practiced in

was there as a witness to the ceremony of

the Savior would perform a miracle from the height of the Cross which would defi nitely confirm His Divinity. But that did

selecting a husband for Our Lady.

not occur. He died and was buried.

The ways of Providence, however, are not those of men. The High Priest, inspired by God, submitted all the candidates for

Lord's death, the Apostles, the disciples, and the holy women still did not believe in

On Easter Sunday, her heroic confi dence obtained entire recompense. Various theologians teach that Our Lord, having

the resurrection, even though Our Lord had

resurrected, appeared first to Our Lady.

foretold it on various occasions.

One may imagine the happiness of that

This other was Saint Joseph. He, too, had

made a vow of perpetual virginity, but he

Our Lady's hand to a test: he whose staff blossomed would become the spouse of

The Gospels tell us that even after Our

the vigor of the New Testament. All of this existed within a single soul, the soul of Our Lady."

Mary. To his surprise. Saint Joseph's staff blossomed, even though he did not aspire

Mary Most Holy, however, believed

mother on seeing her Son resplendent with

and confided all the while. Her hope was

glory after having fulfilled His vocation of redeeming the human race in such a mar

to the hand of his relative. When confront

invincible. Despite the apparently contra

ed by the evidence of the divine will. Saint Joseph consented to wed the Virgin Mary. As he was also chaste, part of the enigma

dictory evidence. She kept the Faith and

velous and heroic way. This was the

tmsted in the divine promises.

reward for her confidence: before all oth

was then made clear to Our Lady: her vir

on the cross to the moment of the

ginity would not be compromised. Still, if He intended her to remain a

From the moment that Our Lord died

ers, she beheld the triumph of Our Lord. In these dark days, wherein so many

Resurrection, only Our Lady remained

afflictions trouble the hearts of the faithful,

unshakable in her faith of Our Lord's divini

let us do as Our Lady did and confide! The

virgin, why did God want her to marry?

ty and her hope for the resurrection.

noted French writer Edmond Rostand

Would not the contrary be better? Again,

Therefore, only she, with heroic perfection,

offers us this celebrated phrase: "It is dur

Our Lady confided in the wisdom and omnipotence of God, Who made His inten

kept alive the virtue of Faith. As Saint Paul

ing the night that it is more beautiful to

tells us, without belief in the resurrection,

tions clear by means of the Archangel

our faith would be vain. It was Our Lady

believe in the light." May these considerations of the exam

Gabriel. She was given the most exalted

vocation of being the Mother of the

alone, then, who during the time Our Lord spent in the sepulcher, kept and personified

our confidence unshakable.

Messiahâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Word Incarnateâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Who

the Faith of the nascent Church for mankind

would be bom by the work of the Holy

as a whole.

Ghost, and Whose father, in the eyes of men, would be the chaste Saint Joseph. The death of the Redeemer

Mary: the ark of

hope of future centuries In this regard, it is opportune to recall a commentary of Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira: "Since on that occasion only she

The Most Holy Virgin gave us the fol lowing example of confidence, among countless others, which she practiced dur

represented the Faith, we may also say that

ing her mortal life.

if she had not believed, the world would

Throughout His brief public life. Our

have ended. The world cannot exist without

Lord proved that He was the Son of God

the Faith. The moment that faith ceases to

by working the greatest of miracles.

exist, Providence will end the world. Because of her admirable faith. Our Lady sustained the world, and she alone gave

However, He was also the Lamb of God,

and the Heavenly Father desired that He deliver Himself up as a victim for the

redemption of mankind. This is common knowledge to the faithful today, but it was

ple of the Mother of God serve to make

continuity to the evangelical promises. All the promises repeated in the Gospels, all

Raising Our Chiidren Parents have in their children imi

tators of their own conduct, affirms

Blessed Marcellin Champagnat, the

plexity of the faithful of those times. After

the promises recurring in the Old Testament that the Messiah would reign over the earth and be the King of glory, the

having so often witnessed the Master cure

center of history, all of these promises

ues, parents must live in such a way as

the blind, heal lepers, and even raise the dead, they witnessed Him surrender with

would have passed unfulfilled if the Faith, at any moment, had been extinguished. If

Saint Paul said to the first Christians:

not so clear then. One can imagine the per

out resistance to the authorities who plot

such were to occur, the world would have

ted His death. Not only did He surrender

to end. Our Lady, however, was the ark of

Himself, but He forbade Saint Peter to

the hope for future centuries. Within her

great educator and the founder of the Marist Brothers. This is why, he contin to be able to say to their children what

"Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ"(1 Cor. 4:16).



Sorrow by Charles Huysmans

To attempt to understand the reason for the existence of sorrow, of this

appalling Benefactress, one must go back to man's beginnings, to Eden, where Sorrow was bom the moment

Adam became conscious of sin. She was

the first-born of Man's work, and, ever

since, she has pursued him upon earth, and, beyond the tomb, even to the very threshold of Paradise.

She was the atoning daughter of Disobedience; though Baptism wipes out the original slain. Sorrow it is unable to check; to the water of the Sacrament

she adds the water of tears; she cleanses souls, as best she can, with two sub

stances borrowed from man's own body, water and blood.

Hateful, and hated by all, she penal ized generation after generation; from father to son antiquity handed down haired and fear of this torturer; paganism, unable to understand her, made of her an

evil goddess whom prayers and gifts failed to appease. For centuries she bore the burden of

humanity's curse, and, weary of seeing her work of reparation provoking only wrath and abuse, she, too, impatiently awaited the coming of the Messiah who should clear her reputation and remove the hateful stigma that was hers. She awaited Him as her Redeemer

and also as her Betrothed, destined for her since the Fall; and for Him, accord

ingly, she reserved her passion, until then kept within bounds. For, from the time since her mission began, the tor tures she had dealt out were compara tively tolerable. She had to curtail her

grievous caresses to suit the proportions of mankind. She did not give free play to herself when dealing with those

despairing ones who repulsed and reviled her, when they but felt her hover ing near.



Holy Week

Only on the God-Man did she lavish

and, henceforth, she was comprehensi

the Pretorium, to Herod, to Pilate; she

all that was most exquisite in her armory.

counted up the thongs of the whips, she

ble to Christians; until the end of time

His capacity for suffering exceeded all

made sure that the thorns were prickly,

that she had known. Slie crept towards Him on that awful night, when, alone, for

that the gall was bitter, that the lancet and the nails were sharp. But when the supreme moment

she was to be loved by souls appealing to her for help in the expiation of sin, and loved, too, in memory of the

saken in a garden. He took upon Himself the sins of the world, and, having

Passion of Christ.


embraced Him, she gained a grandeur that

had come, when Mary and Magdalene and St. John stood weeping at the foot

Biographical Note

was never hers till then. So terrible was

of the Cross, and Christ gave up the

renowned French novelist, bom in 1847. He was

she that at her touch He swooned. His

ghost, and the Church came forth in

baptized a Catholic, but led a sinful life in his

Agony was His Betrothal to her. She filled His cup with the sole

floods of blood and water from the

heart of the victim, that was the end.

youtli, consequently losing his faith. In later years, he underwent a complete conversion and

blandishments that were hers to offerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Christ, unmoved, escaped for ever

entered a Benedictine monastery where he perse

atrocious and super-human torments; and

from the embrace of Sorrow, but Sorrow was rehabilitated, redeemed,

vered until his death in 1907.

as a faithful spouse she devoted herself to

Him and never left Him again till the

cleared for ever by His death.

end. Mary, and Magdalene, and the holy

Charles Marie George Huysmans was a

Tlie above text is taken from his novel, The

Oblate ofSaint Benedict. It is a synopsis of his own life and spiritual struggles. In coming to

As much decried as had been the

grips with the great problem of human suffering,

women, were not able to follow Him

Messiah, in Him she was raised. Her

his masterful pen leaves us, in the text above,

everywhere, but she accompanied Him to

mission was ratified and ennobled,

one of the most beautiful pages on the subject.

Sorrow... until the end of time she was

to be loved by souls appealing to ber for help in

the expiation of sin, and loved, too, in memory of the Passion of Christ.

'■yi ;■

•W' . u."-

The Biblicalfoundations of using statues and icons in liturgy and devotion

My Jehovah's Witnesses acquain tances, true




returned, much to my delight. After our discussion about repetitive prayer (see Crusade Magazine January-February 1998), they had promised to come back. They—a man and a woman—brought no apprentice this time, and they were pretty clued up in their incredible creed, Bible in hand, itching to joust.

A color photo of the pilgrim statue of Our Lady of Fatima—the miraculous one

that shed tears in New Orleans—hung prominently on the main wall of the living room. The JW lady did not waste time: "I used to be Catholic myself, you know," she started, "until I realized that I was worship ping idols instead of Jehovah," she said can didly. "I tossed out every idol I had and cen tered my attention on the Bible." If my visitors had been Protestants of

any major denomination, we might have had a reasonable discussion on this topic. Not so with JW's, however. The average Australian Protestant would not object to statues of

Queen Victoria in public parks, nor to stat

ues of Captain Cook or other great figures in

tions are totally foreign to Jehovah's Witnesses, so I had to speak a language they could understand. I began: "I'm glad to know that you have got rid of all of your home idols and centered your attention on

important, but the persons they represent, the messages they convey." "We must be guided by the Bible, you

the Bible," I said."Now,tell me, what would

"And the Bible is very, very clear about images and statues and idols, you know. Look at Exodus 20:2-5: Here you have

you say if 1 purchased a Bible from you and, instead of reading it, I kicked it around the room, then tore it apart, and finished by

making paper airplanes with its pages to sail out the window?" "I would say you have no respect for the Word of God and that you will incur the wrath of Jehovah. Besides, you know..."

Now, tell me, what would

you say ifIpurchased a Biblefrom you and, instead of reading it I kicked it around the room?

Australian history. Neither would the aver

age American Protestant consider the Lincoln Memorial a pagan temple dedicated

"But," I continued right away,"isn't any

to the worship of a stone image of a dead

particular copy of the Bible just paper?

President. Everyone knows those statues

What's the fuss all about? A dictionary, a

have a specific purpose, to remind us of the honored person's merits and deeds for the be disfiguring simply a piece of bronze or

telephone book, a bundle of newspapers,and a Bible are, strictly speaking,just paper and ink! Why should Jehovah be indifferent to my making paper airplanes with the pages of a telephone book, but pour His wrath upon

stone, but the memory of the person, and, by

me if I use a Bible?"

consequence,the national ideals that the per

The JW man was itching to speak. "A Bible contains a message from Jehovah, I say, and its pages must be treated with rever ence and respect because of what they repre sent. A telephone book or a dictionary does not represent the Word of Jehovah," he con

good of the nation. Anyone writing grafitti or spraying paint on these statues would not

son represented. Just as we erect statues to honor great

men and women, so we keep photos of our loved ones in special places at home or work. And it is not uncommon to kiss pic

know," said the JW lady, well-trained in the

art of changing subjects and approaches.

Jehovah's explicit prohibition against any form of idols, or statues, as you prefer to call them. I can read it for you, in your own

Bible, if you prefer." She picked up my Bible from the coffee table, and her well-trained fingers flicked through the pages nearly as fast as her quick mind could change subject in mid-sentence. Then, with a feigned glow in her face, she read aloud: "I am the Lord Thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me.Thou shalt not make

to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not

adore them nor serve them. For 1 the Lord,

thy God,am a jealous God." She paused for a moment to make sure I got the message, then finished with a studied nod,"As you see, Jehovah abhors idolatry." "Yes," I replied, "but God is not con demning sculpture or painting as such, but only insofar as the statues or other represen

tations were actually adored by the people. You have taken a text out of its natural con

text as a pretext against the Catholic Church. If you check other parallel texts, you will see that what God always condemns is the mak ing of idols to be worshiped, to be seen as "gods" by idolatrous people, and not merely as statues representing national heroes or

saints. See, for example. Exodus 20:23 and

34:17; Leviticus

19:4 and


Deuteronomy 4:23-24 and 27:15.

tures of a deceased or distant spouse, parent, child, or other loved one as an expression of

cluded with a sort of pontifical solemnity.

longing and affection.

ues," I replied. "It is not the stone or wood or

the statues as gods but merely honored tliem

whatever that is used to make them that is

as representations of persons or virtues.

But all these common sense considera

'That's exactly the way we have stat

"1 say," said the JW man,"are you actu ally saying that if the people did not worship

March-APRIL iw


"Make two cherubim

of beaten goldfor the two ends of the propitiatory" Exodus 25:17-21

Jehovah would not mind?"

Moses to carve idols for the Ark of

"Perish the thought," 1 replied. "What I'm saying is actually a lot more;

His covenant, because idolatry was—

and is—an abomination in the eyes of the towards the other, their faces being turned


God Our Lord actually commanded that statues be carved! He told the people to show more respect to them than any British

towards the propitiatory wherewith the Ark is

1 let a few seconds pass, then

to be covered. In the Ark itself you shall

subject would show a statue of Queen Victoria, or any patriotic American, the

place the commandments I will give you.'" I paused a moment, then concluded:

charged again: "When Solomon built the Temple, it was to fulfill a commandment of

Lincoln Memorial."

"Of course, we may argue about the actual

God to build a house for Himself, God. rep

resented by the Ark. Look at 2 Kings, chap

The JW lady's ironic chuckling echoed

shape or style of those statues of cherubim,

ter 7(or 2 Samuel in your Bible). Nathan the

ail over my living room. "But you do not

but the fact remains that God commanded

Prophet said: 'Thus saiih the Lord: shalt

find this in the Bible!!!" she snorted. 'This

them to be carved and placed on the Ark."

thou build Me a house to dwell in?' Notice

is Roman Catholic invention, because

The JW visitors gazed in silence.

that God does not say a house for the Ark but

a house for Himself. He was present wher

"Isn't it amazing," 1 went on,"that God Our Lord would give such detail to describe

ever the Ark was, and with the famous stat

the statues He wanted carved for the most

ues He liked so much."

"Of course not," I agreed. "But that is

sacred object on earth, the Ark of His

not what I said. God Our Lord condemned

"There was no idolatry in the Temple, I say. Jehovah abhors idolatry," said the

the carving of idols for adoration, but com

Covenant?" Silence still. "He describes the material to be used for the statues, the

manded the carving of statues for venera

method of using it, the places they were to

tion. May I show it to you in the Bible?" I

be placed, the position of the wings, even the

"Perfectly right," I answered, amazed at how much we agreed. "When Solomon built


direction of their faces.

the Temple, as 3 Kings says (your 1 Kings,

"But that was only a symbol of the cherubim in heaven, you know," said the JW

chapter 6:22-35), "Diere was nothing in the Temple that was not covered with gold: the

Jehovah would never contradict himself! How could he condemn idols and then com mand them to be carved? It can't be!"

"Be my guest!" the JW couple replied in unison.

JW man.

lady. "They were not real cherubim, or idols

whole altar of the oracle he covered also with

table. "Here it is," I said."You know that the

to be adored."

gold.' But now comes the beauty: 'And he

most sacred place in the world was the sanc tuary that sheltered the Ark of the Covenant,

"Of course not," I replied emphatically. "They were statues of cherubim, which is precisely what the Catholic Church teaches! They are demonstrably not idols, for then

made in the oracle two cherubim of olive

I picked up the Bible from the coffee

which contained the tables of the Command

ments and was so sacred that nobody but the High Priest could touch it. In Exodus 25:8,

wood, ten cubits in height...and he set the

cherubim in the midst of the inner Temple:

and the cherubim stretched forth their wings,

God Our Lord would have contradicted

and the wing of the one touched one wall,

God said: They shall make a sanctuary for

Himself, condemning and commanding the

and the wing of the other cherub touched the

Me and I will dwell in their midst.' Notice

that God does not say a sanctuary for a sym

same thing. The propitiatory and the statues of the cherubim represented the throne of

bol of Him, but for Himself. There He would

God in heaven, from where He governs the

other wall, and the other wings in the midst of the Temple touched one another. And he overlaid the cherubim with gold." My JW

dwell, in the midst of the people. Now, vers


visitors were holding their breath. I went on: "Do you know the actual size of those cheru

es 10 to 16 tell us about the Ark of the

"More: In verse 22 of the same chapter

Covenant. In verses 17-21 God said, 'You

of Exodus, speaking about the propitiatory

shall then make a propitiatory'—a cover, a lid, for the Ark, upon which the High Priest

with its two statues of cherubim, God said:

may have been comparatively .small, like the

'There I will meet you, and there, from

statues Roman Catholics have in their

bim? The ones on the propitiatory of the Ark

sprinkled blood on the feast of the

above the propitiatory, between the two

homes, but those two giants measured ten

Atonement—'a propitiatory of pure gold.... Make also two cherubim of beaten gold for the two ends of the propitiatory. Let one

cherubim on the Ark of the commandments,

cubits in height, around 16 feet! Now, that's

1 will lei) you the commands that 1 wish you

a big statue, if you ask me, bigger than the statue of Saint Peter in the Vatican!" My JW

cherub be on the one side, and the other on the other. Let them cover both sides of the

My JW visitors were dumfounded.

to tell the Israelites."

visitors gasped a bit at that.

"As you see," I concluded, "it was

"There is more: God ordered not only

propitiatory, spreading their wings, and cov

between two statues that God spoke to His

the carving of giant statues of cherubim for

ering the propitiatory, and let them look one

people. Surely God would not command

the Holy of Holies, but wall carvings as



well, like the bas-reliefs you find in many Catholic churches and monuments. The same chapter, verses about he carved with divers figures and carvings: and he made in them cherubim and palm trees, and divers representations, as it were standing out, and coming

knew exactly where I was coming from. As she was leaving, she dropped a little challenge, to see if the JW's would fall for it. They did. She said: "But God commanded that statues be carved only for the Ark and the Holy of Holies, right? Surely there are no records in the Bible of any other statue representing

forth from the walls....' Cherubim and palm trees

anything holy apart from the Ark and the Temple,

were also carved on the doors of the oracle, which were overlaid with gold, and on the entrance of the

don't you agree?" She stood by the door of the living room, and the JW's did not miss the chance to try to

Temple posts: all carvings were overlaid with gold. Even the famous large veil of the Temple had cheru

recover some lost ground.

29-35 says: 'And all the walls of the Temple round

bim wrought in it, as you can read in 2 Par-

The JW lady said,"Your wife made a very good point, you know? Surely the Ark and the Temple were

alipomenon 3:7 (or Chronicles in your version). "Now I ask you: Did God contradict Himself by forbidding the carving of idols and right thereafter

exceptions, because Jehovah abhors idolatry." "Exceptions!" I cried. "How can you speak of exceptions in the most sacred place

commanding the carving of such a wealth of statues in the most sacred place of the world, which He called

on earth in the Old Testament? Yet, it is not

His own dwelling? Or did He know very well the dif


true that God commanded no other carvings of statues. Remember the brass serpent?

ference between idols for adoration and statues for

You read its story in Numbers 21:4-9. The

decoration and veneration?"

My poor visitors had to say something. The man

people were complaining against God and Moses. God punished them by sending fiery

stuttered: "But those wall decorations were the idea

serpents, which bit the people and killed

of Solomon, not of Jehovah," he said, half-convinced. "Not so!" I interjected. "The decorations fol

sign that He accepted their repentance,

lowed the pattern that God Our Lord gave Moses for

commanded Moses to make a bronze ser- XKS

the Ark of the Covenant and Solomon for the giant statues of cherubim in the Holy of Holies. Besides,

pent and hang it on a pole. Miraculously, whoever had been bitten by the serpent could be

God himself consecrated the Temple and inhabited it,

healed simply by looking at the statue of the serpent."

from the day of the Dedication. You can read all about

My wife had to say something: "Miracles hap pening through a statue! Amazing how God Our Lord

it in 3 Kings 8. I'll just read a couple of verses for you.(They didn't quite like having R.C. folks reading the Bible for them, but they were in my house, sitting on my furniture.) Yes, here we are, the Dedication of

the Temple: 'The priests brought in the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord in its place, in the oracle of the Temple, into the holy of holies under the wings of the

many of them. Others repented. God, as a


confounds His enemies..."

"Indeed," I continued, "and the striking point is

that the Hebrews were so strongly bent on idolatry that they started to worship the serpent as a god. As a

As a sign that He

[God]accepted their

result. King Ezechias had it destroyed, as we see this

in 4 Kings 18:4. Jolly well done! As long as they saw

repentance, command

came out of the sanctuary, that a cloud filled the

it as a miraculous statue through which God healed people, it was fine. The moment they started to wor

ed Moses to make a

house of the Lord, and the priests could not stand to

ship it as a god. when they started to bum incense to

minister because of the cloud: For the glory of the

it as a sign of adoration, it had to be destroyed. Not because of its being a statue, but because of their mis

cherubim.... And it came to pass, when the priests

Lord had filled the House of the Lord.'

"Can you imagine?" I commented,"the glory of the Lord filling a house full of statues, all overlaid

use of it. Yet, the principle remains: the abuse does not destroy the use."

with gold! Remember, the golden calf the Hebrews

"But... but these things happened only in the

made at the foot of Mount Sinai was also overlaid

days of the Hebrew Scriptures, you know," said the JW lady."We are living now in the Common Era, and

with gold, but God condemned it because it was being worshiped as a god. God wanted the golden cherubim of the sanctuary carved as representations of the cherubim and seraphim guarding His celestial throne.

The calf was an idol and had to be destroyed. The cherubim were statues, carved at God's com

bronze serpent and hang it on a pole.

the Greek Christian Scriptures have freed us from the precepts of the ancient law. Jesus abolished every thing and started anew." "Is that so?" I asked. "Then in your opinion,

Jesus came to destroy, not to fulfill; to abolish, not to bring to perfection; to do away with and not to make

mand and glorified by His presence. That's the differ

the prefigure of the Old Testament become reality in

ence. If you had a complete Bible, you could read in the Book of Wisdom 14:12-29, how the folly of idol atry leads to immorality."

the New? No, my friends, Jesus made it quite clear in the Sermon of the Mount that He had come 'not to

destroy, but to fulfill.' He also said that people should

At that moment, my wife entered with coffee, tea, cookies, and cold water (summer in Western

Prophets.' That's in Saint Matthew's Gospel, 5:17.

Australia is very hot). As she placed the items on the coffee table, she caught the end of my reading, and

What the Hebrews had only in a figure, we have in reality. But don't take my word for it: Take a look at

not think that He had come to destroy the Law or the



Jesus' words; "As Moses lifted up the ser

well that the serpent was a symbol of sin in

"But it was the Roman Catholic

pent in the desert, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, and those who believe in Him might not perish, but may have life

the Old Testament—see Adam and Eve—

Church that invented confession of sins to a

and Jesus took our sins upon Himself to

priest," said the JW lady. "Please don't change the subject," I

everlasting.' That's Saint John's Gospel,

"The fiery serpents made people suffer and die, just as sin makes us suffer in this

atone for them.

replied, rather dryly. T alluded to confes

My poor visitors had probably never

life and die eternally. Those Hebrews

sion only to show the reality of Jesus hang ing from the Cross and healing the people in

realized that the brazen serpent in the desert

repented and were healed doing the will of

the New Testament as being prefigured by

was a prefigure of Jesus hanging from the cross to bring spiritual healing and life ever lasting to those who look at Him with the eyes of Faith, "I say," started the JW man, "It's all very interesting from the archeological point of view, of course, but the early

God, as it was told to them by Moses,God's

the brazen serpent on the pole healing the people in the Old Testament." "I say," said the JW man, "there is no


representative on earth, by turning their eyes to the serpent on a pole after having asked God's forgiveness through Moses. When we repent, we are healed from our sins by doing the will of God as it is told to us by the Church, God's representative on

Christians did not go round carving snakes

earth: turning our spiritual eyes to Jesus on

for veneration, you know." "Your sarcasm does you no good at

the Cross, and asking God's forgiveness through His priests, to whom He gave the

all," I replied. "You understood perfectly

power to forgive sins (John 20:23)."

record in the Bible that the early Christians

of the pre-Constanline centuries ever both ered with your paintings, statues and other 'works of art'"

"Oh? To this day the catacombs in Rome have religious paintings portraying Jesus as the Good Shepherd, the Ark of Noah, bread and fish, and many other depic

tions from early Christian times. A large number of them pre-date Constantine. In any event, you can hardly blame the early

Teaching Our Children

Christians for not having developed the art of statue-making or religious painting in the

pre-Constantine era since they, being perse cuted to the death, did not have much time

On Envy Q. Mom, what did Father John mean when he said that envy also harms the

when he considered


that John would get two farms and twenty horses, he was even sicker. He imagined many

A. It is like this. Once upon a time, there was a king who had two servants, John and Jasper. John served the king very well while Jasper did not do so well, and because of this Jasper was always envious

beautiful things he had only dreamed about before and that only now he could

have... but, again. No! John will receive

of John.

twice that! Never!

Q. Why? A. Jasper always worried that John was doing better than he and, therefore, was pleasing the king more. One day, the king, who observed

Before long, Jasper was so worked up and so very miserable that the devil

everything, decided to do something about this state of affairs. He called Jasper and

told him: "Jasper, I have decided that, for your services, I shall grant you anything

was easily able to slip in and suggest a

horrible thought to his mind. "If the king promised anything I ask, why not ask for something bad so that John gets it dou ble? Why not ask the king to put out one of my eyes? It will hurt for a moment, I will lose an eye. But think about it; I will

I did not think my visitors really got

the punch line; they were now more inter ested in talking about confession. But I was not interested in starting a new subject. As

we moved towards the door, my wife said to

them, "Isn't it interesting that Saint Paul says Jesus is the image of God? He even uses the word icon to mean image. That's in his epistle to the Hebrews (1:3)." Since our JW visitors offered no com

ment, she went on: "And do you know who was the artist who shaped the first represen tation of God, the very first image of God, to be respected and loved, not to be wor

shiped as a god, surely, but looked after and honored?"

Our departing visitors, quite curious,

you ask of me. Anything at all. I am both

still be able to see, but John... John will

halted abruptly. "I say, who was it?" asked the JW man. "Surely Jehovah would not

powerful and rich, so anything you ask

be blind!"

have liked such an image of Himself. Who

shall be given you—a house, a palace, lands, horses, carriages. Whatever you ask. There is only one condition: whatever you ask, I will give twice of its amount to John. Jasper left more miserable than ever as the thoughts grew in his mind. He thought he might request a beau tiful villa with a lake in the country, but then the thought that John would get two villas sickened him. Then he thought how he would love to have a ranch with ten of the best race horses in the land.


for artistic pursuits." Again, however,


In the fever of his black excitement,

Jasper rushed to the king as fast as his legs could carry him to make his impious request.

The king, looking at him in utter dis

was it?"

"You said it just now!" my wife replied behind her customary smile. "God Himself

was the great artist Who made the first image of Himself—and I am not talking

gust, said just five words:"Get out of my

about Jesus. Read in Genesis 1:26-27: 'God


said, let us make man in our image and like

So Jasper, who could have been a rich and happy man, lost everything.

ness. God created man in His image. In the image of God He created them. Male and

Such is envy, and such is what envy

does, making us completely miserable causing us to lose everything.

female He created them.'"

Surely the JW's had never thought of that one!

Basic HisioMy Course

ic queen resisted the temptation of bitter ness, swallowed her sorrow, and continued

her prayers and devotions. A year later another boy was bom; another baptism and another illness followed. But this time God

answered her passionate prayers and the boy lived.

Clovis was also influenced by political considerations. He saw that the Arian bar

barians had difficulty ruling their Catholic

Chapter 15

subjects. Instead of a nation divided by two

irreconcilable religions, he would mle one strengthened by unity. The astute king also recognized that Catholicism had absorbed

Saints Benedict and Gregory and

all the traditions of Rome and her civiliza

tion and appreciated the assistance provid ed by the bishops in administration, law,

the Regeneration of Civilization

and civil justice. He had already entered into a relationship of mutual admiration with the pious and austere Bishop of

Part One: The Decline

Rheims, Saint Remigius.

Still Clovis procrastinated until cir

by Jeremias Wells

cumstances forced his hand. In 496, the

In the last quarter of the fifth century,the nascent Catholic civilization faced new

dangers in its struggle with disruptive forces. In the West, practically all Roman territory was governed by barbarian kings;

Alemanni, a confederation of Germanic this hard and ambitious warrior unified all

the Franks, including the Ripuarians situated further upriver in the vicinity of Cologne. A

tribes equaling the Franks in ferocity, began to encroach on the latter's territory. A decisive battle for the control of Gaul

few years after his ascension, Clovis

ensued. As the clash wore on, the wild

destroyed the last Roman army in Gaul and

charges of the Alemanni drove their rivals

the emperors were becoming more despotic

added their lands to his kingdom, which now stretched to the Loire River. From the very

general rout seemed imminent. When

with an increasing desire to control Church

outset, this wise king treated his Gallo-

Clovis at the head of his troops failed to


Roman subjects with justice and their

lead them forward, he cried out in despera

Catholic bishops with dignity. Two great saints, Clovis's wife Clotilda

tion, "Jesus Christ, me in my dis

in the East heresies were multiplying and

Western Christendom labored under a

twofold oppression, for the subjugated Catholic Romans faced not only the lawless nature of their conquerors but also their cruel Arian hostility towards the Church.

Even Theodoric, who ruled the Ostrogoth kingdom in Italy more humanely than the

and Bishop Remigius, worked with energy

back. The Franks began to give way and a

tress, and if Thou givest me victory, I will be baptized in Thy name."'

and tact to bring Clovis into the Church, attesting that few of the great works of

Suddenly the fortunes of The Franks returned to the

Christian civilization are the

charge with such force that

battle dramatically changed.

rest, kept the two groups separate religious

products of power or genius

the Alemanni turned and

ly and socially. By refusing to accept the

but rather the result of sanc

Roman talent for order and organization and the Catholic capacity for moral regenera

tity. Clotilda, a Catholic

fled. When they saw their king dead on the battlefield,


they surrendered. A sudden

tion, the Ostrogoths, their Visigoth cousins, and the Vandals relegated themselves to

brought to their marriage an

movement of soul towards

indomitable faith and a huge reservoir of patience, and she used the example of her

Christ had given birth to a Catholic nation. After a peri

political and social sterility. Yet in these


darkest of days, Divine Providence found one man to provide the necessary break through, and so Clovis, King of the pagan

devout, virtuous life to influ

od of instruction. Bishop Remigius baptized Clovis,

ence the turbulent warrior

his sister, and 3,000 of his

Franks, enters the scene in one of the great

into recognizing the power

most reliable troops on

turning points in history.

of the Church. His confi

Christmas Day, 496.

dence in her and her religion The conversion of Clovis

With the declaration, "I

when he

can no longer let the Arians

The Salian Franks, a conglomerate of

allowed their first-bom son

occupy part of Gaul,"- the

smaller tribes, controlled the lower Rhine

to be baptized. Then the baby died. In

Catholic champion marched against the Visigoth kingdom

this hour of terrible trial that

in Aquitaine. At Vouille in

River Valley of modem Belgium and northwestem France when, in 481, the fifteen-

year-old Clovis became their king. Using force, intimidation, and downright trickery,

was manifested

plumbed the depths of St. Remigius baptizes Clovis, 501, Clovis destroyed their human endurance, the hero- first catholic king of the Franks army, personally killed King

March-April 1999


A small sample of what the barbarian invasions were like. Since the area around Rome was Indepen dent and self-contained it Is often referred

to as the Duchy of Rome

Alaric II, and liberated the Catholic popu

lation. From Belgium to the Pyrenees and from the Atlantic to the Alps, the Roman Church had triumphed. Although the soon-

to-be-converted Burgundians were still somewhat independent, they paid tribute to the Prankish king. Only a small strip along the Mediterranean temporarily remained in Gothic hands. The next two generations of

the Merovingian dynasty (named for Clovis's grandfather) unfortunately revert ed back to the barbarian lust for violence,

but the fusion of Germanic and GalloRoman elements was nevertheless now free

to develop into the French nation.

The conquered Catholic Romans were sub jected to their Arian barbarian conquerors, which severely hampered any complete civ

Moreover, when he had the chance,

ilizing of the Ostrogoths. During his last days,Theoderic's Arian

Justinian squeezed the countryside dry with

suspicions turned him into a dark and gloomy man. His inflamed mind turned

But amidst this devastation and slaughter, God planted another mustard seed high

him against two members of the Catholic,

above the plain of Campania on Monte

Roman, landowning elite who had previ ously given him invaluable support. He exe


cuted Boethius, the last great classical

philosopher, and his father-in-law. He then

In the sixth century Italy suffered

excessive taxation and unjust exploitation.

Although the step provided by the con version of Clovis was a step in the right direction, it was by itself not proportional to

compounded his tyranny by sending Pope Saint John I to prison where he died from mental and physical torture. Theodoric,

the enormous task of civilizing the barbar

sometimes called the Great, died three

ples. Those steps were taken by the monas

months later.

Theodoric's death unleashed decades

of horror on the Italian peninsula. One year Devastation In Italy

that army was also composed of barbarians, mostly Huns, Lombards, and Slavs.

ians and bringing Roman culture and the

teachings of Christ to the European peo tic order provided by Saint Benedict and the power of the papacy established by Saint Gregory the Great.

after his death, Justinian ascended the

imperial throne at Constantinople* and

The Rule of Saint Benedict

dedicated his long reign (527-565) to

The monastic movement began in the East when numerous hermits retired to the

lence that left the countryside depopulated

restoring the glory and unity of the Roman Empire. Justinian's extremely capable gen

and in ruins. Odoacer had ruled Italy since

eral, Belisarius, after having eliminated the

tice severe austerities. In time the individual

476 after deposing the last Roman emperor

Vandals from North Africa and from the

hermits in Egypt abandoned the solitary or

in the West. Then the Ostrogoth chieftain

pages of history, reclaimed most of Italy.

eremitical life and gathered themselves into

Theoderic invaded the peninsula and deci sively defeated him in 490. Odoacer fled to the safety of his capital, Ravenna, sur rounded, as it was, by impenetrable swamps. After failing to dislodge Odoacer

Unfortunately, the resourceful general, a victim of court intrigue, never had suffi cient troops or money to complete the con

communities. The knowledge of this process was brought to the West by Saint

quest, and the Goths counter-attacked. Cities were taken and re-taken as rival

during one of his exiles. By the end of the century, as we learn from the great Fathers

for three years, Theoderic came to terms

Byzantine and Gothic armies criss-crossed the peninsula, with enormous loss of life to

teries had spread throughout Italy, Northern

grievously from a series of invasions com pounded by intervals of famine and pesti

with him, agreed to rule jointly and invited his adversary to a banquet. But it seems he

had treachery rather than celebration in mind,for during the festivities he picked up his sword and split Odoacer in two from his collarbone to his midsection. Surprised by

his own strength, he remarked,"The wretch can have no bones in his body."^ Thus began another barbarian kingdom in Italy. The Arian king ruled reasonably well

throughout most of his reign. Yet, although he respected Roman institutions and cus toms, the two groups remained separated.



the barbarians and Romans alike. Rome

was captured five different times by mili tary action and completely abandoned for a period of six weeks in 546. Nor was the civilian population any better off under the so-called Greek or imperial occupation, for (*) Constaniine founded the "New Rome" at Byzantium in 330, and by the end of the century it was the permanent cap

harsh Egyptian and Syrian deserts to prac

Athanasius when he visited Rome in 339

Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine, monas Africa, and Southern Gaul. Saint Martin of Tours founded the first community at

Liguge during the 360s. Even



Benedict, the

monasteries had already made great contri butions to the growth of Christianity, Saint Patrick, of Romano-British origin, had left his monastery in Gaul to convert Ireland. Unfortunately, the movement began to decline in continental Europe because of

ital of the Empire, eventually to be called Constantinople. Since the Greek language slowly replaced Latin as the offi cial language in the eastern half, modem historians lend to

two opposite tendencies: relaxation of life

call it the By/.aniine Empire.

and observance on one side, and extreme.

often bizarre, asceticism on the other. What was needed

Dozens of monastic candidates

was a wise, acceptable, uniform rule to regulate the inor dinate tendencies of the growing population of monks. That Saint Benedict supplied. When Benedict came to Rome to study in his early teens, shortly before the year 500, the city's great splendor and glory were already beginning to crumble

flocked to the monk for spiritual guid-

under the repeated barbarian ravages. While he saw a new magnificence arising in the great churches and

while fetching some water. Benedict, who

basilicas of the popes, he saw something else as well: the disgusting immorality that surrounded him.

ance. Among those who joined his commu-


ll ' \ ^


nity, at their aristocratic parent's request, ' ' \ \ ^ were two boys: Maurus, twelve years old, and Placid, about seven. A short time after his arrival. Placid fell into a nearby lake

\ y,


was praying in his cell, immediately perceived the danger through a vision. "Go quickly. Brother Maurus; the boy Placid .

Revolted by the shameful sins of his associates, the

has fallen into the lake and is being carried [ <

teen-aged saint fled from his impure surroundings and

away by the current!"

eventually settled in a cave in the wild district of

Concerned only by fraternal charity

Subiaco, about fifty miles east of Rome. His rich supernatural life and profound meditation on

and obedience, Maurus hurried to the lake,

God incurred the wrath of the devil, who appeared to him

ran across the water and pulled his young companion out. Only when the boys were safely ashore did they realize

as an annoying black bird flying about his head. Benedict

the extent of the miracle, which they attributed to Saint

sent him away with the sign of the cross, and then a great

Benedict. Today both brothers are venerated as saints. Again, however, the devout monk was forced to

physical temptation assailed him. The remembrance of a young woman he had once seen at Rome so inflamed his

desire that he wanted to abandon his holy life. After the Spirit of Divine Love overwhelmed his carnal desires,

Benedict threw himself unclothed into a nearby bramble bush full of sharp thorns and rolled around until his body

Statue of Saint Benedict

in Subiaco, Italy

move on when a jealous priest sabotaged his work. With a select group, the holy founder set out for the lofty heights of Monte Cassino halfway from Rome to Naples to establish the motherhouse of western monasticism.

There, somewhere around 520, he wrote the "Rule" that

was lacerated and bleeding. As the Patriarch later confid

became the standard and guide for monastic living for the

ed to his disciples, that incident finished with temptation

next several hundred years.

The divinely inspired legislator extracted elements

of the flesh for the rest of his life.

This story illustrates the deeply spiritual, heroic, and supernatural aspects of Benedict's life among the desolate

from other known regulations and from portions of the Bible but breathed into them the Roman gift for govern

rocks of Subiaco that attracted other seekers of perfection

ment and order and his own profoundly Catholic spirit. He

and also made enemies of the lukewarm. His first experi ence as abbot ended when his monks, who preferred the

also supplied a sense of balance, especially in his insis

pleasure of their own willfulness rather than obedience to

tence on the three-fold duty of prayer, study, and work. But the primary task of the monk was prayer, above all the

their cho.sen abbot, put poison in his wine glass. The glass

common recitation of the Divine Office. Thus the ultimate

shattered when the holy abbot made a sign of the cross over

purpose of the Rule was to provide the necessary means

it. With that, he attempted to return to his solitary austerities.

through the practice of virtue, notably obedience, humili

But the fame of his sanctity and miracles dictated otherwise.

ty, patience, and charity, for the monk to perfect himself

The monasteries were to become a haven amidst the roaring waters of turmoil. As commerce and communications dwindled, the self-sustaining monasteries developed Into miniature cities. They grew food, built mills, baked bread, made and repaired cloth Ing and, by learning crafts, provided for other necessities. Since

the Rule required four hours of study every day, education contln ued and knowledge was preserved. From this stable environment

came the missionaries and the Influence that was to unify and restore the West.

Forgotten Truths for the moment when he enters into

"It is a subtle snare

of the evil one" by Saint Louis Marie de Montfort

[There] are those who imagine they are slighting the Son by honoring the Mother. They fear that by exalting Mary they are belittling Jesus. They can not bear to see people giv ing to Our Lady the prais

However, from a historical

script of the Rule. During this

viewpoint, the stability and regular ity that the Rule gave to monastic life proved indispensable. Not only

onslaught the Byzantine army made no effort to protect their new

had the violent plundering and war fare that had ripped apart civilized

When the dust settled, the Lombards controlled more than

life in Western Europe not abated, but it was to continue at a

half of Italy, mostly the northern and central portions excluding the

more intense pace. The

great cities on either coast. In sim

monasteries were to become

ple terms, Rome, Genoa, and Naples with their surrounding

a haven amidst the roaring


es due to her and which the Fathers of the Church

have lavished upon her. It annoys them to see more

people kneeling before Mary's altar than before the Blessed Sacrament, as

if these acts were at vari ance with each other, or as

areas on the west coast and a strip

merce and communications

dwindled, the self-sustaining

of land running from Venice through Ravenna to Ancona in the

monasteries developed into

East remained

under imperial

miniature cities. They grew food, built mills, baked

authority, but


the latter. These piecemeal divi sions lasted for two hundred years and in many respects down to the

necessities. Since the Rule

nineteenth century when Italy was unified by the revolutionaries.

required four hours of study every day, education contin

Jesus than when we honor his Mother, and we honor her

simply and solely to honor Him ail the more perfectly. We go to her only as a way leading to the goal we seekâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Jesus, her Son.

The Church, with the Holy Spirit, blesses our Lady first, then Jesus, "Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus." Not that Mary is greater than Jesus, or even equal to Himâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that would be an intolerable heresy. But in or

der to bless Jesus more perfectly we should first bless Mary. Let us say with all those truly devoted to her,

despite these false and scrupulous devotees: "0 Mary, blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus." Saint Louis Marie de Montfort,

God Alone-True Devolion lo Mary. p. 319.






ued and knowledge was pre

increased throughout the Empire. In

served. From this stable environment came the mis

589 Persians and Slavs in separate raids attacked Byzantine troops. A

sionaries and the influence

large portion of Antioch was

that was to unify and restore

destroyed by an earthquake. Sixty thousand lives were lost. In Italy

the West.

extraordinary flooding wreaked

exploitations by the Byzantine

ing a greater good. For we never give more honor to


bread, made and repaired

often of her or to pray so often to her. Here are some of the things they say: "What is the

directly to Jesus, since he is our sole Mediator. We must preach Jesus; that is sound devotion." There is some truth in what they say, but the inference they draw to prevent devotion to Our Lady is very insidious. It is a subtle snare of the evil one under the pretext of promot


Byzantine Greeks only controlled

clothing and, by learning crafts, provided for other

The Lombards

rance in all this. It is making a mockery of religion. Tell us about those who are devoted to Jesus. We should go


waters of turmoil. As com

if those who were praying to Our Lady were not praying through her to Jesus. They do not want us to speak too good of all these rosaries, confraternities and exterior devotions to our Lady? There is a great deal of igno

the monks escaped unharmed, car

rying with them the original manu

the presence of God.

havoc. Swollen mountain streams

The Gothic Wars and the fiscal

authorities had left Italy in a weak ened and vulnerable position. The

reconquest of Justinian, who died in

washed away houses and farms down river, killing men and animals by the thousands. In Rome the Tiber overflowed its banks, inundating a

large portion of the city and

565, had been a disaster for Italy.

destroying numerous buildings and

He left behind a team of decadent,

the entire store of com.

inept, and greedy officials under a governor called an Exarch who

Pestilence resembling the bubonic plague followed. All busi

ruled from the swamp-enclosed city

ness and traffic ceased, except the

of Ravenna.

mmble of the wagons can-ying the dead to be buried in pits outside the

Three years later the Lom bards. the last and least civilized of

walls. One of those mortally strick

the Germanic tribes poured over

en was Pope Pelagius.

the Alps and descended upon the hapless peninsula. The brutal,

In times of peace, the wealth and influence of the Papacy attracts many candidates who often contest with one another for the supreme

untamed conquerors, part Arian and part pagan, pitilessly ravaged all in their path. They ruined cities,

dignity. But in the hour of suffering,

bishops and clergy. A great number

the list of hopefuls is quite short. Few want the position and even less

of monks received the crown of

have the ability to handle it. Along

desecrated churches, and murdered

martyrdom from yet another horde

with the skills of administration and

of persecutors. The


diplomacy, high character and

Lombards even climbed Monte

courage were required. Only one then possessed these talents as well

Cassino to pillage and burn the Benedictine sanctuary. Fortunately,

as the strength not to be over-

whelmed by the tragedy and peril. The cler

human decree, as the easterners frequently

gy and the people flocked to Saint Andrew's

argued, but by a divine commission given by Jesus Christ to Saint Peter. When the eastern bishop called himself the

monastery on the Caelian Hill to demand that the abbot assume the thankless task, which he reluctantly did. And so Saint Gregory the Great ascended to the throne of

"Universal Patriarch" with the encourage

Saint Peter.

ment of the emperor, who saw his own power enhanced, Gregory objected.

Saint Gregory's background

Although Constantinople softened its posi tion, the Patriarch, nevertheless, kept the

Much of Gregory's early life resembled

title. The alert Vicar of Christ detected in

that of Saint Ambrose, He was born into a

this pretension the seed of a problem based

wealthy aristocratic family, received the best

on inordinate pride that eventually split Christianity into irreconcilable factions. The fact that the spirit of Roman rule and tradition was slowly shifting from the Byzantines, who were showing signs of decay, to the Papacy was illustrated by the extension of Christianity to the AngloSaxons. They had overrun England in the middle of the fifth century with the same

education available, and embarked on a

career as a high-ranking civil servant.

Long devoted to prayer and contempla tion, he tried to balance his desire for a more perfect life with a successful career in the world. At his father's death, which left him

one of the richest men in Rome, he gave up

Caste! of Sant' Angelo topped with a statue of St. Michael the Archangel replacing his sword in the sheath, symbol of the mercy of God in ending

a great plague obtained by the prayers of Saint Gregory the Great.

the balancing act and renounced all. He

endowed six monasteries in Sicily and estab

courageously, and through grace and

merciless ferocity that characterized the

lished a seventh on the Caelian Hill in his father's palace. There he retired to live the

genius pointed the way to the future as did this Vicar of Christ. During his tenure, the Papacy became a world power for the first time in history. Through bequests and other forms of

worst Germanic invasions elsewhere. In 596

life of a simple monk under an abbot and the Rule of Saint Benedict.

Although his indulgence in long fasts for the love of Christ adversely affected his health, he testified later that these were the

donations, the Pope had become the largest

Gregory sent Saint Augustine, the prior of Saint Andrew, with forty Benedictine monks to England to fulfill the long-cherished desire to bring the teachings of Christ to that island. This task was aided by another royal Catholic lady; Queen Bertha was able to

happiest days of his life. Pope Pelagius, however, desperately needed Gregory's extraordinary abilities and tenacious spirit to

landowner in Italy. Using his enormous administrative skill, he managed the papal

estates fairly and honestly, eliminating the abuses that had burdened the peasants and

influence her husband. King Ethelbert of

assist him in governing the Church.

increasing the revenues he needed for chari

Kent, and was eventually canonized, in much the same way as Saint Clotilda, who, in fact, was her great grandmother.

Consequently, he repeatedly pulled him from his hallowed sanctuary for important

ty and humanitarian purposes. Because of the helplessness of the

Impressed by the sanctity and miracles of Saint Augustine, King Ethelbert was bap

assignments. Around 580 Pelagius sent him to the imperial court as papal nuncio, which

Exarch in Ravenna, who would not or

tized along with some of his warriors a few



months later, and on Christmas day, 597,

gave the astute observer an opportunity to

Lombards, Gregory was impelled to

some 10,000 more followed them. The

assess the weakness and arrogance of the

increase his temporal jurisdiction. He

importance of this conversion cannot be

Byzantines first-hand. On his return he was

exaggerated, for the first apostles of Europe

served as the Pope's secretary.

directed military activity, negotiated peace terms on his own authority, and in general maintained public order. When Rome was

Gregory's Pontificate

besieged, he provided not only spiritual leadership but attended to the people's

elected Abbot of Saint Andrew and also

After his unanimous acclamation as

Pope, Gregory set about to strengthen the





physical needs by having com shipped in

from the papal estates in Sicily.

spiritual foundation of the Romans, which

Even while surrounded by myriad,

he realized was the source of their problems. To implore the mercy of God,the Pope orga

local dangers, Gregory was forced to defend the principle of the Pope's inherent right to rule the universal Church against the ambitious Bishop of Constantinople. Papal supremacy was not founded by

nized a massive series of processions that

merged as they crossed the Tiber on the way to Saint Peter's. Gregory, in the forefront, carried an image of Our Blessed Mother said

came from English monasteries. Gregory had garnered and enhanced

the work of the great Latin Fathers who had

preceded him, adding the disciplined moral activity of the Benedictines and the spiritu al community that was to bring culture and civilization to Europe. The Anglican schol ar F. Homes Dudden summed it up best when he declared that the "illustrious

Pontiff...did more, perhaps, than any other

single man to shape the course of European development."-^

to have been painted by Saint Luke the


Select Bibliography

Evangelist. After this supplication, the

1. Kurth, op. cit., p. 44.

plague ceased and is commemorated to this

2. H. Daniel-Rops, The Church in the Dark Ages

specialized studies for this chapter include G. Kurth., Saint Clotilda (London, 1898); T. F.

day by the Marian anthem Regina Coeli and the statue of Saint Michael high atop the

Castle of Sant' Angelo. Rarely has one man so risen above the

engulfing problems of his day, faced them

{London, 1959) p. 192.

3. H.St.L.B. Moss, The Birth of the Middle Ages (Oxford, repr, 1961).

4. Gregory the Great: His Place in History and Thought(New York, repr., 1967), p. vi.

Lindsay, Saint Benedict(London, 1949); Ildephonse Card. Schuster, O.S.B., Saint Benedict

and His Times (St. Louis. 1951); Msgr. H. K.

Mann, Lives ofthe Popes in the Middle Ages, vol.

I, part I. General histories not previously men tioned will be recorded in subsequent chapters.

March-April 1999


The American TFP In Action

ime and again on seeing our young custodians carry out

their Fatima apostolate with such dynamic dedication,

people have asked,"What makes them tick?"

I understand where people are com

ing from when they ask this question. The fact is, today there are not many young

people who would give up what the mod em world adoresâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;money, pleasure, pres

tigeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to bring the light and hope of Fatima into people's lives. Thanks be to God, our custodians are gifted young men

who have done just that. They might not be saints, but they sure love what they do,

and they use all their dynamism in Our Lady's service. Where does that dynamism come

from? In his masterpiece Revolution and Counter-Revolution, Prof. Plinio Correa de

Oliveira clearly describes the dynamism of good and distinguishes it from the dynamism of evil: "We have singled out the dynamism of the human passions unleashed in a

metaphysical hatred against God, virtue, good, and especially against hierarchy and purity, as the most potent driving force of the Revolution. Likewise, there exists a

counter-revolutionary dynamism, though of an entirely different nature. Passions as such (here referred to in their techni cal sense) are morally indifferent; it is their disorderliness that makes them

bad. However, while regulated, they

are good and obey the will and reason

faithfully. It is in the vigor of soul that comes to a man because God governs his reason, his reason dominates his will, and his will dominates his sen

sibility, that we must look for the serene,

noble, and highly effective driving force of the Counter-Revolution.

Our custodians keep focused on the

explained unless supernatural life is taken into account. The role of grace consists

supernatural life of God's grace to main tain their busy schedules. Living a very disciplined life, they put the supernatural

precisely in enlightening the intelligence, strengthening the will, and tempering the

sacraments, pray fifteen decades of the

"Such vigor of soul cannot be

sensibility so that they turn toward good. Hence, the soul gains immeasurably from supernatural life, which elevates it above

ahead of the natural. They frequent the

Holy Rosary every day, and perform many other devotions in order to attract the

grace of God to their apostolate. They

the level of human nature itself. In this

have consecrated themselves to Our Lady

strength of the Christian soul lies the dynamism of the Counter-Revolution."

as slaves of love, according to the method



of Saint Louis de Montfort.


All for Mary Visits to home; s

Visits to hospitals Visits to prisons Protesting Blasphemies


Answering plK)nes Publieations

Mtiilings Making statues and miieh more...


In contrast, many modern minds, accustomed to measuring things in a mate

rialistic way, question the importance of the supernatural life and its dynamism. As

makes tick?

Catholics, however, we know that the

dynamism of good is far superior to that of evil. In Scripture we read, "I can do all things in Him who strengthens me" (Phil. 4:13). To illustrate how God intervenes in

that our Fatima custodians begin their

apostolate every morning, and it is this cer tainty of victory that inspires them to keep up their hard work, day in and day out. When the Catholic soul is moved by the strength of grace and by the hope in Our

Lady's triumph, neither the devil, nor the

history. Prof. Oliveira continues: "When

world, nor the flesh can stand in their way

men resolve to cooperate with the grace of God, the marvels of history are

or discourage them.

worked: the conversion of the Roman

"Finally, my Immaculate Heart will triumph," echo constantly in our

Empire; the formation of the Middle

by Robert Ritchie

ing can defeat a people that is virtuous and truly loves God." It is with this conviction of victory

May Our Lady's promise,

Ages; the reconquest of Spain, starting

minds and hearts so that we may find

from Covadonga; all the events that result from the great resurrections of soul of

the courage to increase our dedication

which peoples are also capable. These resurrections are invincible, because noth-

to spreading her Fatima message, no matter the obstacles and hardships that cross our path.



Defending the Honor of the Mother of God by Robert Ritchie According to press reports, Paul Rudnik's play, The Most Fabulous Stoiy Ever Told, includes a blas

phemous reference to the Virgin Mary as a lesbian, and presents a homosexual version of the Old Testament, featuring "Adam and Steve" naked in the Garden of Paradise.

Not surprisingly, the New York Times reports that Volunteers of the American TFP send protest flyers against the blasphemous

Rudnlk is a homosexual playwright. He describes his work as "covering the entire Old Testament and a contemporary Christmas Eve open house at Chelsea loft. I wanted the Garden of Eden in Central Park,

and the possibility of Mary as a lesbian mother,

which would certainly help me comprehend immacu late conception"(The Nesi- York Times. 12/6/98). Darkness Attacks The Light

play The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told to more then 100,000 people.


book A-d

Revolution and Counter-Revolution

Like many enemies of the Catholic Faith, Paul Rudnik confuses the Immaculate Conceptionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

Blessed Virgin's conception in the womb of St. Ann without stain of Original Sinâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;with the Virgin Birth

by Plinio Correa

of her Divine Son.

de Oliveira

That someone practicing homo.sexual vice would target the purest daughter of the human race for his

fantasies is no less abject for its predictability. But when his blasphemies mount a public stage, it would be far more outrageous if we who call her Mother would remain silent, allowing her to be vilely slan dered without a word of protest. Saint Jerome said:

"A dog may bark in his master's defense, am I to stand by when God's holy name is blasphemed? I

A MUST for every Catholic library

would sooner die than remain silent." How then

should faithful Catholics react against this blasphe mous play? In Defense of Our Mother

Revolution and Counter-Revolution is an analysis of the crises of the Western world, from the advent of Humanism, the

Renaissance, and Protestantism to our day. It decisively demon

In attacking our Heavenly Mother, those re,sponsible for this blasphemous play have thrown a gaunt

strates the correlalion between these movements and the French

let to every one of her children, While only God, the Supreme Judge, knows the punishment awaiting

rebellions of the 1960's and the sexual and cultural revolutions.

unrepentant sin, seeing the silence of so many

Revolution of 1789, the Russian Revolution of 1917, the student

ers will not stand silent!

These developments are but stages of a single gnostic and egalitarian process, which for five centuries has been destroying Christian civilization. Plinio Correa de Oliveira named this process "The Revolution" and the process of counteracting it "The Counter-Revolution". In outlining the goals and methods of the

We have already launched a nationwide cam paign to mobilize public indignation against this blas

temporary man to reject the Revolution in toto and to "Restore all

Catholics, one wonders if such silence is not more

offensive and saddening to God than the offense itself.

The American TFP, our friends, and our support

phemy through the distribution of hundreds of thou sands of protest postcards by loyal sons and daugh ters of Mary. We ask you, dear reader, to join us in this peaceful and legal defense of Mary's honor by calling (888) 317-5571 to learn how you can lake part in this crusade.



Counter-Revolution he shows it to be a noble ideal that calls con

things in Christ".

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Paul Weyrich Letter by Thomas Becket

On February 15, 1999, a significant

letter by Paul Weyrich became a permanent part of the website of the Free Congress Foundation, a group that has been at the forefront of conservative policy since 1977. In his letter, Mr. Weyrich, pres

politics we believe are important," says Mr. Weyrich.

example, a striking analogy between our world and the world Catholics found them

It is his belief that the only hope for

selves in at the time of the Roman Empire.

conservatives is to isolate themselves in a

What would have become of Western

kind of quarantine from the current culture.

civilization had they not entered the debate

He is not against political action, but he sees

with the secular and pagan philosophies of

modem America as occupied territory. It

Catholic, he has never been afraid to take a stand for what he believes right. In this way,

ical correctness, the roots of which are in

the day? Where would we be without a Saint Augustine, who could write The City ofGod and challenge the pagan world on its

the philosophy of Herbert Marcuse and the

own ideological terms? It was during this

he is an exemplary figure in conservative

Frankfurt School. "The United States is

period that the great monastic ideal came to

politics. Over the years, those who have

very close to becoming a state totally dom inated by an alien ideology, an ideology bit terly hostile to Western culture."

life, but that did not entail a retreat from

ident of the Foundation, advocates a new direction for conservatives. A devout

come to be his friends know they can

depend on his integrity, a rare quality in today's politics. He has become a con

has been occupied by the ideology of polit

Of course, there is a danger in this

Catholicism's apostolic mission. Those who began to look at society as evil in itself and hence throw themselves

science for the conservative movement, and

approach, which Mr. Weyrich points out

his ideas have consequences.

when he says, "I'm not suggesting that we

selves outside the Church and doomed to

all become Amish or move to Idaho." It

extinction. The temptation to say the world

would be a mistake for Catholics to shut

is of the devil, which it is, and to equate society with the world, which it is not, pre

We should all take note of what he has concluded.

After years of efforts, Mr. Weyrich

themselves up in their living rooms with a

into a millennialist delirium found them

laments, it has become evident that the

collection of pre-1950 movies, just to wait

assumptions on which the political action of

out the storm. This defensive strategy, as

sents itself with tremendous power in times of cultural corruption. The term world as it

the movement have been based are false. It

many have found, simply does not work. We cannot just shut out the cultural rot that

sphere of influence of the devil within soci

tives that the country had a solid "moral majority." The foremost work of conserva tives was to get themselves into elective

is all around us. It will find a way in.

ety. To generalize that to the whole of

It is also questionable whether we have the right just to abandon society to its own

Catholics must work to save individuals, but

office to implement the con.servative agen da. The dominance of liberals in policy-


has long been the firm belief of conserva

making was purely a result of the tactical failure in the political arena.

The Catholic tradition is not one of

mere passivity. Our long history has had many episodes in which the cause of

is used in Catholic rhetoric refers to a

human society is completely


they must also work to save society as a whole. It is not by accident that men are social beings. Human society is a powerful instru

What has become apparent with the

Christian civilization has been threatened

ment that can operate for the salvation of

popularity of President Bill Clinton and the

almost as much as today. There is, for

individuals or for their loss. If Catholics do

continued failure of conservatives to prevail with even such basic items as the partialbirth-abortion bill is that this premise has

not fight for this great terrain, they will find

themselves not only abandoning the precept

The Catholic tradition is not

Weyrich proposes a new strategy. Adapting the counter-cultural slogan of Timothy

Leary, "Turn on, tune in, drop out," he says: "First, turn off. Turn ofT the television.... Tune out. Create

a little stillness. ..

Finally,...drop out of this culture...." "I believe that we have probably lost the culture war. That doesn't mean that the

war is not going to continue, and that it isn't going to be fought on other fronts. But in terms of society in general, we have lost. This is why, even when we win in politics, our victories fail to translate into the kind of

"love thy neighbor," but will not be able to survive in the storm of cultural rot that is

led not to success but to failure. Mr.

one of mere passivity. Our long history has had many episodes in which the cause

breaking over them. To abandon a failed strategyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in this case, the notion that politics is the entire

answerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;should not imply replacing it with no strategy at all. As Mr. Weyrich points out, we do need to quarantine ourselves. This has always been the case. Indeed, Catholic con

of Christian civilization has

servatives have known it for years. Yes.

been threatened almost as

found schools that can give our children a

throw the television out the window. Yes,

much as today.

truly Catholic education. Yes, home-school

when necessary. But, no, do not abandon the crusade for a Christian civilization.



Saint Joseph, Martyr of Grandeur

by Plinio Correa de Oliveira

To even begin to comprehend the nature of St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church, we must bear in mind two awe-inspiring facts. St. Joseph is the virgin-husband of Our Lady and the guardian-father of Our Lord.

The husband must be proportional to the wife. St. Joseph's spouse is the Blessed Virgin Mary, the most perfect of all creatures, the masterpiece of the Creator's handiwork. In her incomparable person, we find the sum of all the virtues of all the angels, of all the saints, indeed all creation until the end of time.

And these poor considerations, of course, fail to con

vey adequately the sublime perfection of the Most Holy Mother of God. From among all men, God chose the one man wor

thy to love and honor the Mother of His Only-Begotten Son as her husband, a husband proportional to his wife

in love of God, purity, wi.sdom,justiceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in every virtue. St. Joseph is that man.

But there remains something even more incompre hensible. The father must be proportional to his son, and, as we have noted, the Son for Whom God sought an earthly father was none other than His Own. There could be but one man fit for such an awe

some responsibility, the man God created for precisely this vocation and whose soul He crowned with every virtue. That man, too, was St. Joseph. St. Joseph is in proportion to the Blessed Mother and her Divine Son, What greater homage could we

render him? It is beyond our power to imagine the grandeur of St. Joseph's exaltation. Words cannot express the depth of his penetration of the most holy soul of Our Lady and the degree of his Intimacy with the Incarnate Word.

St. Anthony of Padua is commonly depicted hold

ing the Child Jesus, Because the Divine Child rested in his arms for a few moments, we deem St, Anthony par

ticularly blessed. Yet how many times did St. Joseph hold the Christ Child in his arms?

St. Joseph's were the pure lips that taught Jesus and answered His questions.

Consider St. Joseph's carpenter shop in

David, the royal family from which would come the Hope of the Nations—

others: the glory of being considered a person of little worth; the glory of taking upon himself the humiliation, ignominy,

St. Joseph, prince of the House of

Nazareth, where a son learns the trade of

knocks at the door and is rejected. But in

and opprobrium that was to fall upon

his father.

this rejection lies his glory.Taking anoth

Our Lord; the glory of being scorned by

If you can conceive of a man with the purity, humility, and wisdom to govern the Holy Family as its lord, you may begin to appreciate the sublime virtue of St. Joseph. But how did St. Joseph's contem poraries react in the face of this grandeur? St. Luke provides clear testimony. "And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him up in swaddling clothes, and

er step toward martyrdom, he leads his

men for the grandeur of his soul, even to this day; the glory that leads us to implore, "St. Joseph, Martyr of

august spouse to a poor stable, where the Lord of the Universe will be born.

Grandeur, pray for usl"

To this glory would be added many

laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn."(Luke 2:7) These last words reveal a bitter

truth. In their petty selfishness, men find it difficult to accept that which is great— much less that which is divine. You may think that men like to deal with impor

tant matters. Indeed some men do enjoy

such things, but in a superficial and self ish manner. For what attracts men is not

so much grandeur as mediocrity, a mix

ture of good and evil in which evil pre dominates.

The Slave Girl

and the Pope

Around the year 1850,still during

and the chamberlain

the era of slavery, an American

in waiting called out

family from New Orleans trav

the first name, it

eled to Rome, taking with them a young slave girl who had been baptized. By law, the very contact with Italian soil freed the girl. Marguerite, from her bonds, but she

was "Mademoiselle

Marguerite"! Astounded and

trembling, she was

ushered into the Pope Pius IX presence of Pope Pius

So we can understand why the innkeepers of Bethlehem were unwill

wished to remain as she was.

ing to make room for the Holy Family.

having been confirmed there. Marguerite had a last burning wish. She wanted to have a place somewhere along the Pope's


While St. Joseph and Mary showed the most tender kindness, their majesty was

unmistakable, even in their poverty. Distinction is acceptable when it is

path so that she could receive one father ly look and a special blessing from him.

"My child, there are many great people

accompanied by wealth, for the latter

Before leaving Rome in 1856, after

Somehow, this wish reached the ears

A voice of touching gentleness and sweetness soon dispelled her timidity.

waiting, but I wish to speak to you first. Though one be the least upon the earth,

rode up and down Via Condotti inquiring

one may be the greatest in the sight of God." The Holy Father talked with

respect. But when a poor man of great

after a Mademoiselle Marguerite. He car

Marguerite for twenty minutes. He asked

distinction knocks at the door, there is

ried a letter of audience for her with

no room within. It would have taken

the first sovereign in the world.

pardons the former. Moreover, greed incites flattery, which takes the place of

but five minutes to arrange ample

of Pius IX. The next day, a papal dragoon

"I have many hard-

ties, the letter finally

bags, but there was no room in the inn

reached the hands of the

for St. Joseph or for his wife with Child. And even had they known that the Child was the promised Messiah, they still would not have received them.

perfectly amazed slave girl and, at the appoint-

/ /

ed hour. Marguerite


ty and for sin." The Child Jesus resembled Our

Lady. She was the prefigure of the

her work.

After countless difficul-

accommodation for a mediocre money

As Donoso Cortes aptly reminds us, "The human spirit hungers for absurdi

her about her status and

/ /

found herself in the

\ have learned to accept \ them as the will of


\ He exhorted her to persevere and to do good

reception hall of the Vatican, among all sorts of dignitaries and people of rank.

The poor, unas-

N. ships." she replied, "but \ since I was confirmed I

in whatever circumstances she found her-

/ self. Then he gave her



Redeemer. St. Joseph also looked like

suming girl naturally

Him, but there was no room in the inn

imagined she would have

for the Holy Family. Thus history

a long wait until all the

records the first refusal of the Hebrew

great people there had been

people. Our Lord knocks at the doors—

presented to the Holy Father.

at the hearts—of men through the

But lo! When the door opened

Marguerite, only a 'he eyes of

^ '

the world, felt like a true

princess, for was she not God's own daughter? ■

paternal intercession of St. Joseph and He is refused.



Three Knights, a Princess, and a Miracle

Jerusalem has long be n

by Michelle Taylor

called the Holy City. It is especially so because our sweet Lord Jesus suffered


died on

one of its

heights, Mount Calvary, and

having been started by a holy Pope for such an upright purpose: to honor the sacred relics and the places where Jesus had lived and to protect those who wished to visit them. One of the greatest crusaders was

for any Catholic to visit these sacred places,

Godfrey of Bouillon, a French nobleman and an ancestor of Saint Anthony of Padua. Jerusalem was conquered under his com mand, and he was chosen as king of the Holy City. Yet, Godfrey would not hear of wearing a crown in the place where his Lord

was buried in a tomb on its outskirts.

Yet, in the Middle Ages it became virtually impossible

lord of Eppe, and the second was lord of Marchoys, regions of France that to this day still bear the same names; the third brother

bore only his title of knight. They were

noble both by blood and by deeds of great courage. The three brothers were very close and had a great devotion to the Mother of God, our blessed Lady.

They were stationed in a fortress called the fortress of Gibelline near Jerusalem,just four leagues from Ascalon, a fortified city still in the power of the Sultan of Egypt.

because Jerusalem was then in the hands of

Jesus Christ had worn a crown of thorns.

the followers of Mohammed,founder of the

What to do? He had a beautiful idea. He

Being near Jerusalem, the Saracens of

religion of Islam.

would wear a golden crown, but only if it was shaped like a crown of thorns. Trying to preserve the small kingdom

Ascalon made it their mission to make life

They repeatedly attacked the Holy City,

of Jerusalem Christian while surrounded

laid traps, stole cattle, and caused all sorts

by Islamic kingdoms who hated Christianity was no easy task. Pilgrims still had a hard time making it to the Holy City

of havoc. John of the fortress of Gibelline lived

The Mohammedans therefore attacked and

because the

sword-in-hand, fighting the Saracens of

harmed any Christian who tried to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

them along their way.

The followers of Islam

were then

known by several names: Mohammedans, Saracens, Moslems or, bluntly. Infidels

("Faithless") since they disdained the true Faith of Jesus. Moreover, they deemed it

their mission to persecute and destroy it,

One day, a holy Pope, Blessed Urban 11, gathered thousands of men before him

and urged them to fight for the sacredness of the holy tomb of Our Lord Jesus and the

right of any Christian to visit it. At this summons from God's earthly vicar, the men shouted in one great voice:

Mohammedans ambushed

The orders of chivalry Then were bom the religious orders of chivalry. These were men who were reli

gious—monks—but also warriors. Their main mission was to protect the pilgrims in their travels to the Holy City, but they also

fought wherever they were needed.

impossible for the Christians of Jerusalem.

On the other hand, the knights of St.

Ascalon daily and protecting Jemsalem. As in every conflict, victory sometimes belonged to the Christians and sometimes it smiled on the Saracens. Yet, the warfare was

constant and Jerusalem remained protected. One day, the knights of St. John were striving to rescue a herd from the Moslems

when the Moslems began to run. The

knights pursued them with more daring than

"Deus vult!"—God wills it! This became

These warrior-monks were much feared

prudence. Suddenly, they found themselves

their battle-cry in this great struggle that Urban initiated and that was to last for many years, the Crusades. The men who joined

but also respected by the Infidels because they were practically fearless. One of these

surrounded by a band of countless infidels.

orders, the Knights Templar, were known to

this effort had a red cross sewn on their

the followers of Islam as "the backless

and laid many Moslems low but, after a while, they were overwhelmed by the sheer

tunics and were called "crusaders," crux

knights." This, because they claimed never to

being the Latin for cross.

have seen their backs in battle!

At the outset, these warriors were, by and large, filled with the best sentiments

The three brothers

It was a trap. The knights fought fiercely

number of the enemy. Several were killed, many were wounded, and some were cap tured. Among the latter, unfortunately, were the three brothers, wounded and bleeding

and fought for God alone. Unfortunately, as

Another order of fighting knights was

so often happens among men, as time wore on, many who wore the cross did not honor it, but, rather, embarked on crusades for wealth, lands, or titles.

that of the Hospitallers of Saint John. And here our story properly begins. In the year 1130 there were three brothers who belonged to this order. They

There they were locked in a dismal dun

Yet, the undertaking itself was good.

were three French lords. The first was the

geon where they suffered all the hardships



heavily. Soon realizing the worth of these three knights and their illustrious rank, the

Saracens sent them to (he Sultan of Egypt.

of imprisonment, including terrible

how this babe grew and suffered and died for

hunger from being given only a little

us on a cross, and how on the third day there

bread and water.

after He rose from the dead.

The Sultan of Egypt well knew the worth of his three prisoners. First, they were

knights of Saint John; every Muslim stood

When they spoke of the Blessed Virgin with their usual passion and enthusiasm, her eyes grew wide with wonderment and inter

in awe of these warrior monks. Second,they

est. She felt her heart bum with something

As .soon as the door had closed behind

were high-bom gentlemen and noblemen of

new and sweet. She began to ask many

France. Third, they were very able men.

questions, wanting to know ail she could

Sitting on his comfortable oriental cushions, the Sultan pondered: "1 will not have them immediately killed but will rather try my utmost to make them give up their faith and join my religion. If I could only accomplish this, they would be a great asset to my kingdom."

The princess soon returned with all the necessary materials and left them to work. Ismeria, the two younger brothers turned to their older brother and asked: "How could

you have offered to carve a statue of Our Lady for the princess when none of us knows the first thing about carving or paint ing? What are we to do?"

"Worry not," said the eldest. "Let us

about our Blessed Mother.

As the days passed, she felt herself

pray and ask our good Lord Jesus and His

irrc.sistibly drawn to Our Lady and the Catholic Faith. She visited the prison more

Mother to come to our aid. They will not fail us. They never have."

frequently to learn all she could about the wonderful mysteries of our holy faith, thinking of little else. She also began to

Thus they prayed, asking God Our Lord and Our Lady to hasten to their help in this predicament for the salvation of

So thinking, he called on his wisest counselors and bid them go into the dun

geon and attempt to convince the three

young men to become Moslems. If they chose to do so, they were to be offered life, and riches beyond belief.

But those three young brothers proved a joy to their God, for not only did they not budge in their beliefs but shook the beliefs of the counselors with their solid and

enlightened arguments.


The Princess Ismeria

The Sultan was disappointed but not discouraged. He still held in his hand a pre

cious trump card that he was sure the young

knights could not battle. The Sultan had a beautiful daughter named Ismeria. The

princess was not only beautiful to behold but had exquisite manners and a brilliant mind. Summoning his daughter, the Sultan laid his plan before her. She was to begin vis

iting the dungeon to talk to the brothers about their Faith. He was sure that she, with

her beauty, charm, and intelligence, would charm the starved prisoners so that they

would be much more open to her arguments

than they had been to those of the counselors. But the Sultan could not have been

Princess Ismeria's soul. They prayed long

brothers admired and loved the Queen of

bring delicious foods with which the broth ers soon regained strength in their weak

Heaven, a thousand times more beautiful

ened limbs.

the night. Lo and behold! At midnight, the

more mistaken. Little did he know that the

than his daughter, and that they were not

only ready but eager to give up their lives

The amazing statue

and perseveringly until they fell asleep for

Mother of God. ever watchful over her chil

One day, anxious to see a likeness of

dren. sent an angel cairying her own image

So, when Ismeria began to talk to them, she was soon left speechless by their sound

the Mother of Jesus, she asked the three brothers to show her one. Alas, they had

to be placed by the sleeping eldest brother.

arguments and their ardent descriptions of the mysteries of our holy faith. Far from con

neither picture nor statue with them. She then asked whether they could make her an image that she might keep with her.

for her Son Jesus.

vincing them,she found herself drawn by the beautiful stories they told her about the true God Who became man and was bom in a sta

ble of a virgin called Mary in order to save us. She was attracted, too. as they told her

Self-possessed, the oldest of the broth ers answered: "Princess, if you will provide

us with wood and carving tools, we will make you a likeness of our heavenly Lady."

As the statue entered the prison, the room was filled with a most brilliant light

and a heavenly perfume, while the angels made their voices heard in the sweetest of harmonies.

Waking up to this melody, the brothers thought they were dreaming. Then they spied the beautiful statue of Mai^ Most

March-April 1999


Holy holding her Infant Son. Oh, the trans

ports ofjoy they felt! Down on their knees they went and, bending low, spent the night in songs and praises to the Most High and their Heavenly Queen in thanksgiving for such goodness. They called the image "Our Lady of Joy," in Latin Laetitiae, which then became Liesse.

No sooner had the sun risen than

Overcome by grace, love, and awe, the noble maiden asked for instruction and bap tism. She wanted nothing more than to be a Christian until her death if only they would

and graces without number. Through you,

my name will be famed throughout the earth. In due course, I shall usher you into Paradise forever."

let her have the statue.

"It is yours, noble lady," answered the brothers immediately. Clasping her matchless treasure to her bosom, she rushed to her room where, bend

Princess Ismeria was at the door, eager to

ing low before it, she begged the Mother of

see if they had an image for her. As soon as they showed her their treasure, she felt her

Jesus and to make of her a Christian.

God to teach her to know and love her Son

The flight

The next day, Ismeria made prepara tions to deliver the three noble knights. Moreover, she planned to flee with them. She waited for nightfall and, under the

cover of darkness, stealthily approached the prison door, which opened miraculously before her.

At first the knights were startled but on

seeing the Princess, they understood that their deliverance was at hand and new joy filled their hearts.

In a low but resolute voice, Ismeria said

to them, "Follow me boldly, fear nothing. I have full confidence in your God, and in the

Most Holy Virgin whose image I bear with me. They will guide, assist, and rescue us."

The knights stood up and, relying fully on her word, followed her through the streets of Cairo. No one seemed to notice

them as they passed. They found the great gates of the city wide open and, quickening their pace, soon reached one of the great branches of the river Nile.

They did not know how they were to cross the river. Just as the knights began to


fear that at daybreak the Sultan would sure

ly come to realize their disappearance as well as that of his beloved daughter, they saw a boat coming toward them from the

opposite bank. It was piloted by a


youth of noble bearing. "It is for you, gentle folks, that I am

come," said he. "Enter and I shall ferry you over the stream, for I know your errand." As soon as they had landed on the opposite bank, the youth and the boat van ished instantly.

They continued on their way until Princess Ismeria, feeling very weary, asked that they rest for a while. Reclining on the The dream

bare ground amidst some shrubbery, the four fell fast asleep.


That night, the Blessed Virgin her self appeared to the noble maiden in her


exclaimed. "If she is this beautiful in a

sleep and, calling her by name, said: "Be

mere statue, how much more beautiful

confident, Ismeria, your prayer is heard;

As they slept, God miraculously trans ported them by means of His angels from

she must be in person! Indeed, sirs, you

I have besought my Divine Son and Lord

Egypt to the French province of Picardy,

are great artists."

in your behalf, and He has deigned to

near the noble knights' own castle,

Then it was that they told her how the

choose you for His faithful and well-

statue had come to them from heaven because

beloved handmaid. You shall deliver

On awakening and looking around, Ismeria said: "I believe my vision has come

they were incapable of carving or painting. As proof that their words were true, they showed

her the untouched wood she had brought the

from prison my three devoted knights, and you shall be baptized and honored with my name. Through you, France will

iar sound of a shepherd's fife. Approaching

day before.

be endowed with an inestimable treasure

the lad, the knights spoke to him in

heart burn with joy and love. "How






true and we are now in France."

Suddenly, they began to hear the famil

Family Series

Egyptian, asking where they might be. "Good sirs," responded the shepherd

and having forgotten the incident of the gar den, they erected the chapel by the hospital.

ed, and there God's Mother and ours worked

so many miracles for her faithful children

boy, "speak French if you wish to be under

There the little statue was fittingly

that people began to wish to live by her.


enthroned amid throngs of people who had heard of the wonderful miracle and story.

This is how the village of Liesse became a dot on the map of France.

"You mean that we are in France?" exclaimed the second brother.

"You certainly are, sir. There," said the

One day, however, the statue disap peared from its place. Our Lady was

Meanwhile, the maiden Mary, former ly Ismeria, was received by the knights' vir

shepherd pointing to an edifice at not too

nowhere to be found - until the brothers and

tuous and noble mother into her home and

great a distance, "is the castle of

the princess remembered the garden. There

lived with her for the remainder of her days. She led a virtuous and holy life, but not a


they rushed to find the statue at the very

Only then did they become fully aware of the stupendous miracle God and the glo rious Virgin had worked for them. Moreover, not only had they been brought

spot where they had had to set it down when

they could no longer bear its weight. It was obvious where the Virgin want ed her house to be. A new chapel was erect

long one. Our Lady soon fulfilled her last promise to her and took her soul to

Paradise. Her body was reverently buried in the shrine of Our Lady of Liesse. â&#x2013;

back to France, but God, in His utter kind

ness, had placed them near their very home! Trembling with awe and falling on their knees, they raised their tear-filled eyes to heaven, breaking forth in thanksgiving. As they set out with the shepherd toward the castle of Marchoys, the princess

suddenly remembered the statue. In their haste to find out where they were, she had

left it by the stream near which they had awakened. Breathless with anxiety, she rushed back to the streamside. She found

the statue bathed in the crystal clear waters of a fountain that had bubbled up around it. Nor was this devout fountain left unreward

ed for its act of homage; for many years its waters cured numerous fevers and maladies.

Subsequent history ofthe statue of Our Lady ofLiesse

With the statue safely back in their

care, the travelers continued on their jour

ney. As they passed through a certain gar den, the little statue suddenly became so unbearably heavy that the noble maiden Statue of Our L^dy of Liesse

could no longer carry it. The knights and the

princess understood by this that the Virgin wished to remain in that place. So, they immediately promised to build her a chapel there, but they asked her to continue on with them to their home in the meantime. That

promise and that request having been made,

the statue became light once again and they proceeded.

We may imagine the joy of the knights' family, subjects, and vassals on seeing the four arrive at Marchoys, and still more on

hearing their story. They took the princess right into their home and hearts, and a few

venerated In Montreal

The miraculous statue of Our Lady of Liesse has been vener ated in her sanctuary in Picardy since the twelfth century. Many have been the favors and mira cles granted to the faithful who flocked there. Several kings, queens, and other dignitaries were among the pilgrims to this blessed shrine to request special favors. During the French Revolution

feet. Our Lady continued to grant

favors and miracles to the unceasing stream of faithful who sought her intercession.

In 1857, Pope Pius IX permit

ted that the statue of Our Lady of Liesse be officially crowned. For this occasion it was seen fit to make yet

another statue, at whose feet part of the ashes of the original were placed. Twenty years later, two

the sanctuary was sacked and pro faned, and the precious statue burned. Some pious people gathered

formation with the Jesuits in France

the charred remains and ashes, together with the head of the statue,

the second statue with them on their return to Canada. It was enthroned in

which they found in a comer of the

the church of the Gesu in Montreal,

statue. The shepherd boy had pointed out to

church. Another statue was made

them a place near a hospital that he thought might be a suitable place for such a sanctu

using this head, and the ashes of the

which soon became a popular place of pilgrimage likewise favored by

miraculous statue were placed at its

Our Lady of Liesse. â&#x2013;

days later Ismeria was escorted to Laon where Bartholomew, bishop of that city, bap tized her with the name of Mary. A while later, the brothers decided it

was time to begin to build the chapel they had promised Our Lady for her miraculous

Canadians completing their priestly obtained the signal grace of taking

ary. Considering the suggestion a good one

March-April 1999


. -v'


^ \


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Academy is offering


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Revolution and CounterRevolution

Correu de Olivoi,

by Plinio Correa de Oliveira

Vthr tfr,. I

A new Swiss Guard

swears allegiance to the Pope with the traditlonai gesture of three extended fingers

to signify faith in God, one and three.


Photo: Arturo Marl

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Contents May-June, 1999


Laying the Blame Cover Story

Hope of a Hopeless World In Memoriam

The Sacred Heart of Jesus


Thomas Zawislak



American Optimism Is Building Red China's War Machine Forgotten Truths


The health of the body may


depend on the health of the soul Interview


New Campaign Against The Blasphemous Film "Dogma' jprom the Phone

AjnerUa Netm fiati


The Rosary, a Lifesaver The American TFP in Action


22 Movie dttacking Mory t virginity coming to a theater near youl

The Orioles Play Cuba,


and America Strikes Out

Catholic Apologetics


The Great Apostasy....Did it Really Happen? Teaching Our Children


1. The More Important Things in Life 2. The Sign of the Cross

Page 18: Regarding Dogma, EMERGENCY

Basic Course of History


is the only word.

Trouble from the East

Family Series


The Little Barrel



The Tea Room

Page 33: The tiny barrel that couid not be filled.

Crusade Magazine is a publication of the American

Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP)'". Subscriptions in the United States and Canada, $24.00. Foreign subscriptions, $35.00. List of other TFP publications available upon request. Direct all subscription requests and inquiries to: Jack Burnham, P.O. Box 341. Hanover, PA 17331, Tel. 717-225-9177. Fax:(717)225-1675. E-mail address: Copyright 1999 by The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, Inc.

This publication includes images from Corel, Art Today and Dynamic Graphics which are protected by Copyright laws of the U.S. and elsewhere. ISSN 1096-3782

LCCN 98-641433 M-39

Page 12: The fatal error of believing and supporting communists


Littleton,Colorado, has now entered

shape, the reasonable response is to look at what has changed, since everything has

ties, even such as these.

a cause. When children start to kill their

which has been plagued by terrorism for

ders and suicides that can no longer be

schoolmates, we have to ask why. There

decades, that the streets were vacant at the

considered isolated tragedies, but that are

must be a reason.

the repertoire of symbols represent ing the phenomenon of mass-mur

part of a trend. Even as this editorial is being written, the shootings in Conyers, Georgia have hit the headlines. President Clinton's attempt to spin the earlier inci

dent by "not laying the blame, but sharing the responsibility" dulls the issue and reshapes it to serve as a springboard for the secularist agenda.

It might sound like a caring option not to point fingers after such a tragedy,

Mass-murder coupled with suicide is not restricted to schools. We have had

It is often noted in Northern Ireland,

beginning of the conflict. Fear kept people inside; an atmosphere of extreme abnor mality surrounded the "troubles." Later, however, even with an escalation of vio

numerous gruesome reminders that some people will seek to take their revenge on society and ultimately their Creator by going on rampages. We even have collo quial expressions for the problem, such as

lence, normality returned to people's rou tines; terrorism had become just another aspect of everyday life. Even in the most barbaric regimes,

"going postal." When it happens in

people grow accustomed to horror after a

schools, the shock at seeing innocent chil

while. They just start going about their

dren involved still affects us.

daily business again as if everything were

but that skirts the real problem. When

Unfortunately, however, the human

some new phenomenon begins taking

psyche adapts rather easily to new reali-


Will school shootings become a matter-of-fact aspect of everyday life? It is time to ask.

What has changed? Much has been made of the availabil

ity of weapons. But saying that school killings result from easy access to guns is as absurd as saying that the considerable increase in youth suicides results from easier access to rope. Safety measures are another favorite. Early detection of children with social problems and increased security at schools are offered as practical approaches that


might prevent some recurrences of the


Littleton tragedy. Counselors will attempt

to construct a politically correct program of ethical indoctrination. Sophisticated surveillance equipment will come into

play. Paranoia will reign, students will need to be informers, and parents, guards. But shortages of security guards, metal detectors, and the rest are not a cause either, and more of them will not be a true solution. Rather, these are a result of some

profound change taking place right beneath our feet.

the background. Can we decorate ourselves and our surroundings with such scenes

What has indeed changed is the approach to life that characterizes our modem world. There is one thing and only one thing that separated our distant ancestors from barbarity, but we have for

and not be affected by their message?

gotten that. America was the heir to a mil-

A student comforts a schoolmate during evacuation of Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado after two teenagers went on a shooting rampage in the facility.The student's T-shirt depicts a grinning devil leaning on a skate board with a burning city In


Increased security and stricter gun laws are weak

restraints for keeping the contented majority safe from EnnvjK:

the unleashed tempest when life is seen as nothing more

C. Preston Noell III AssocutI': Editors:

than striving for every pleasure an individual can enjoy.

Earl Appleby Thomas Bccket John Horvat

lennium of Christian civilization. Even

long as his health permits. The echoes

though infected by the viruses of the Enlightenment and Protestantism,

crime statistics are down eclipse the

America was steeped in the belief that the message of the Gospels is the only

the need to have ever-increasing sen

of the realization that most violent

massive increases in incarceration and

true foundation for a just, safe, and

tences to stem the tide of ever-increas

enduring civilization. Morality and the

ing disregard for morality and law. Too many modem Americans think they can

"work ethic" reflected the notion that

Eugenia Guzman Orlando Lyra Thomas J. McKenna PiiorooRAi'iiv:

Gary J. Isbcll Circuiation: Jack Burnham


AUSTRALIA: Raymond de Souza

life was not just about having fun. That belief has now been replaced with a purely hedonistic "ethic," driven by mass advertising, the media and

and security are necessary to prevent

GERMANY: Beno Hofschultc

Hollywood, which has created a distort

that small percentage of always-existing

PORTUGAL: Antonio dc Azeredo

ed and unrealizable archetype of human fulfillment. In reality, there are only two approaches to life, well exemplified by

psychopaths from harming others. For

ITALY: Juan M. Monies

the rest, the family environment and the

.SPAIN: Felipe Barandiaran

the two extremes of virtue and vice at

maintain a good life without the moder ating austerity of Christianity.

Even in a healthy society, policing

and, in the long run, no police state will

before any earthly thing. She expressed


for over the centuries—to love God

darker side that all descendants of Adam

have. Take away religion and family

What has happened to America, then, is not some obscure statistical

above all else, even their own lives.

trend to be corrected by appropriated

Asked by the assassin whether she

reassignment of resources. What hap

believed in God, she immediately

pened is obvious, staring us in the face.

answered yes. The re.sponse was a bullet. Eric Harris, one of the killers,

embodied the opposite extreme—revolt against God and, consequently, hatred

of His creation and everything in it. The Satanic desire to bring all else to ruin

BRAZIL: Jose Carlos Scpulveda FRANCE: Benoit Bemelmans

preaching of the clergy work together with God's grace to keep in check the

Columbine High School. Rachell Scott, one of the dead, chose to put her love and faith in God in an instant what Christians have striven

AUSTRIA: Charles E. Schaffer

The fundamental alteration has been the

eradication of Christian decency cou pled with the belief that what really

The American TFP

The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP) was founded

in 1973 to confront the profound crisis shaking the modem world.

It is a civic, cultural and nonpartisan organization which, inspired by the traditional teachings of the Supreme Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church, works

matters is how much one enjoys life and

in a legal and peaceful manner in

avoids suffering.

the realm of ideas to defend and

Perhaps we need look no further to

promote the principles of private ownership, family and perennial

with oneself was his express motive. Yes, what we are seeing is Satanism. But Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Marilyn Manson and Jerry Springer are,

find the beginning of the chasti-sement predicted by Our Lady of Fatima. By eliminating Our Lord Jesus Christ, we

leave out the only force that can sustain

social. The TFP's words and

likewise, symptoms of the sickness, not

society. Left to our own devices, we

efforts have always been faithful

the sickness itself. Even if the broad


ly at the service of Christian civi

casting standards of the '50s are reintroduced, police forces are increased in

The modern mentality must be replaced. Life is not for fun but for the cross. Only with that realization will

geometric proportions, and we close schools to open pri.sons, nothing will be

there be the sweetness of life that can


result only from Christ-like individuals

Increased security and stricter gun laws are weak restraints for keeping the contented majority safe from the

in a Christ-like society. Preaching the

unleashed tempest when life is seen as nothing more than striving for every pleasure an individual can enjoy for as

cross is not the tura-off progressivists

think when they banish crucifixes from their altars, but the way to the light— per crucem ad lucem. Thomas Becket

Christian values with their twofold function: individual and

lization. The first TFP was founded

in Brazil by the famous intellec tual and Catholic leader Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira in

1960. His work has inspired the formation of other autonomous TFPs in 26 countries across the

globe, thus constituting the world's largest anticommunist and antisocialist network of

Catholic inspiration.

May-June 1999







of a

Ifthere is an age whose sole hope

lies in the Sacred Heart of Jesus, it

is our own.

The evils committed by mankind today can scarcely be exaggerated. To mention just a few, these include blasphemy, the destruc tion of the family through abortion, divorce, euthanasia, widespread pornogra phy, immoral fashions and lifestyles, homosexuality and so on. As Pope Pius XI once said, the contemporary world is so morally depraved that at any moment it

but nevertheless unrepentant; when we

Behold the grim picture of the con

consider the alarming progress of neopaganism, which is on the verge of con quering humanity; and when, on the other

temporary world: on one hand, an iniqui

hand, we consider the lack of resolve,

scourge. Is there nothing left for mankind

foresight, and unity among the so-called remnant, we are understandably terrified at the grim prospects of catastrophes that this generation may be calling upon itself. There is something liberal or Lutheran in imagining that so many

crimes do not deserve punishment, that

tous and sinful civilization and, on the

other, the Creator holding high the divine but fire and brimstone? As we face the

dawn of the new millennium, can we hope for a future other than the scourge foretold by Sacred Scriptures for the final impeni tence of the last days?

Were God to act solely according to His justice, there is no doubt what we

such a widespread apostasy of humanity is merely the fruit of some intellectual error

should expect. Indeed, could we even

could be plunged into a deeper spiritual misery than that reigning in the world

without moral guilt. The reality is other

tury? Nevertheless, since God is not only

when Our Blessed Redeemer was born.

wise, for God does not abandon His crea

just but also merciful, the gates of salva

In consideration of so many crimes, the idea of divine vengeance naturally

tures. Rather, He continuously assists and

tion have not yet been shut against us. A people unrelenting in its impiety has

have made it as far as this twentieth cen

comes to mind. When we view this sinful

supports them with sufficient grace to aid them in choosing the right path. If they

world, groaning beneath the weight of a to follow a way other than His. the

However, He Who is infinitely merciful,

thousand crises and a thou.sand afflictions

responsibility is theirs.

does not want the death of this sinful gen-

every rea.son to expect God's rigor.

eration but lhat it "be converted...and live"

what is Our Lady's power of intercession

(Ezech.18:23). His grace thus insistently pursues all men, inviting them to abandon their evil ways and return to the fold of the Good Shepherd.

with God in our favor but a sublime

aspect of God's special love for us? Thus, it is perfectly appropriate to call her Speculum Justitiae, "mirror of Justice" on

one hand and "omnipotent intercessor" on the other. She is the mirror ofjustice

If an impenitent humanity has every reason to fear every catastrophe, a repen tant humanity has every reason to expect

every mercy. Indeed, for God's mercy to be poured on the contrite sinner, his repen

- mi?'

because God so loved her that He concen

trated in her all perfections possible to a human creature. In no other creature is He

tance need not have run its full course.

so well reflected as in her. Thus, she mir

Even while still in the depths of the pit, if to God with a budding repentance in his

rors His justice perfectly. She is the omnipotent intercessor because no grace is obtained without Our Lady and there is

heart, he will immediately find help, for

no grace she cannot obtain for us.

the sinner but sincerely and earnestly turn

Thus, on invoking Mary as Our Lady

God never disregards him. The Holy

of the Sacred Heart, we make a beautiful

Ghost says in Sacred Scripture: "Can a woman forget her infant.... And if she should forget, yet will not I forget thee"

synthesis of all the other invocations; we recall the purest reflection of the Divine Matemity: we simultaneously strike all the

(Isa. 49:15). That is, even in such extreme

chords of love in beautiful harmony, the

cases where even a mother gives up, God does not. God's mercy benefits the sinner even while divine justice cuts him down on the way of iniquity.

Modem man cannot lose sight of these two basic concepts of divine Justice and divine mercy—justice lest we dare

same chords we strike when we recite her

Our Lady of the Sacred Heart

Yet, there is one other invocation of

received and bom patiently and meekly, of sufferings endured until the last drop

It is "Advocate of Sinners." Our Lord

Jesus Christ i.s our judge, and as great as is His mercy. He nevertheless remains our supreme judge and cannot fail to exercise

presume that we can save ourselves with

pardon to the dying thief that enabled him to steal heaven. Finally, it is the love mani

despair of our salvation as long as we repent and start anew.

fested in the supreme gift of a heavenly

God is charity, so the simple mention love. It is the infinite, limitless love that

drove the Second Person of the Most Holy

Trinity to become man. It is the love expressed in the utter humiliation of a God

Who comes to us as a poor infant, born in a cave. It is the love shown in thirty

Our Lady that 1 especially wish to recall.

of blood was shed. It is the love in that last

out merits; mercy, so that we do not

of the Most Holy Name of Jesus evokes

litany or sing the Salve Regina.

mother for a wretched humanity! Each of

His Judicial duty. But Our Lady is our advocate and does solely what an advocate

these episodes has been pain.stakingly studied by the leamed. wondrously repro duced by artists, devoutly contemplated by

is supposed to do—defends the accused.

saints, and, above all, incomparably cele brated in the divine liturgy.

powerful advocate before the bar of divine

Do we not have in Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, the Advocate of Sinners, an all-

Justice whose pleas for mercy will not be

In venerating the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Church specially praises the infinite love demonstrated by Our Lord

Sacred Heart is our advocate is equivalent


To say then, that Our Lady of the

years of hidden life spent in the humility of the strictest poverty, in the three gruel ing years of evangelization, when the Son

Jesus Christ to men. Since His hetut is the

to saying that we have an omnipotent

symbol of love, by venerating His Heart,

advocate in heaven who holds the golden

the Church celebrates Love.

key to an infinite store of mercy.

of Man traveled highways and country roads, climbed mountains, crossed valleys, rivers and lakes, visited cities and villages,

Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Many and beautiful are the invoca

humanity, a humanity that falls deeper into

walked through deserts and hamlets, spoke to rich and poor, dispensing love and, for the most part, reaping ingratitude. It is the

tions used by Holy Mother Church in ref erence to Our Blessed Lady. Yet, every single one of these clearly underscores her

of salvation if it is mentioned? By all means, let Justice be mentioned; it is a

love manifested in that supreme moment

relationship to God's love. Each cele

of the Last Supper when, after generously

brates either a gift of God to her, to which she was perfectly faithful, or some special

fruits. But right alongside Justice, which targets the sinner, let us never forget mercy, which helps the seriously repentant

wa.shing the feet of His apostles. He insti tuted the Holy It is the love of that last kiss bestowed on Judas, of that

poignant look at Peter, of those insults



So, what better solution for a sinful

power or influence she has with her Divine Son. Now, what are God's gifts but a special manifestation of His love? And

sin if justice is not mentioned but despairs

duty; its omission has produced only sorry

sinner to abandon sin and thus be saved as He desires with all His Heart—the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

Cover Story

The Revelations of the Sacred Heart of Jesus to

Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque

On the Feast of Saint John the

Evangelist in the year 1673, Our Lord Jesus

appeared to His servant Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque, a nun of the Visitation. He showed her His Divine Heart all aflame and

radiating light on every side. Saint Margaret Mary describes the Sacred Heart: "It appeared more brilliant than the sun, and transparent like crystal. The wound He received on the Cross

appeared clearly. There was a crown of

thorns around the Sacred Heart, signifying the punctures made by our sins, and a cross surmounted It.... He then gave me to under

stand the great desire He had of being per fectly loved by men and snatching them from the ways of perdition down which Satan leads so many. This cau.sed Him to decide to manifest His Heart to men, with its

abundant treasures of love, mercy, grace, sanctification, and salvation, so that all those

who would be willing to render to It and procure for It all the love and honor in their

power would be profusely enriched with these divine treasures of which this Sacred Heart is the source. He assured me that He

takes a singular pleasure in being honored under the figure of this heart of flesh, whose

image He wishes to be exposed in public, in order to touch the unfeeling hearts of men. He promised me He would pour out in abun dance into the hearts of all those who would

honor It, all the gifts that fill It, and that in every place that this image is exposed and specially honored It would draw down all kinds of blessings...."

A stained glass window depicting Our Lord's apparition to Saint Margaret Mary Aiacoque, a French religious of the order of the Visitation

To obtain a copy of the picture printed on this page or a cataiog of simiiar stained glass pictures, contact; Mr. Curtis Powell of Holy Family Gifts, at(703) 367-8569. May-June 1999


Cover Story

"I will bless every house in which an image of My Heart shall be exposed and honored." human necessity for a tangible pres ence, something that can be seen, felt, perceived with all our senses, this Friend made and makes

Himself present to us. He acknowl edged this need of ours at the Last

Supper, when He allowed the apos tle Saint John to hear the divine

beating of His Most Sacred Heart. He acknowledged it when He

allowed poor, doubting Thomas to put his finger in His sacred wounds.

He acknowledged it in a most inef fable way when He instituted and

gave Himself to us in the Holy Eucharist. And He acknowledged it when He revealed to the world,

through Saint Margaret Mary, the devoted Heart that bums in His divine and human chest with the

sheer wish of doing us good. Yes, as human beings we need


to see, to touch, to hear. Just as we

Family life today can be likened to the plight of a

Safeguarding ourfamilies

by enthroning the Sacred Heart ofJesus as King of our homes

small ship in a raging sea; The precious vessel of domestic life and relationships is threatened with being swamped or rent asunder by

surging waves on all sides. A skilled pilot is needed to navigate the ship through the peril.

Sacred Heart of Jesus, not only to

His Sacred Heart so that we may always be reminded of His burning love for us. When we place a statue

or a picture of Him in our homes we are saying,"Thou art in our midst. Thou art a part of this family. We do not want to forget this." Our Lord's own words Just as Our Lord was received

guide us but to comfort us in the

into the house of Matthew, the tax

storms that rage about us. The

collector, and gave Matthew a place in His Kingdom in exchange,

Sacred Heart, Christ Our Lord, is,

Friend, our Savior. In His own

through Saint Margaret Mary He promised the same to every Catholic

words. He is "the Way, the Truth,

family: "I will bless every house in

par excellence, our Pilot, our


loved ones. Our Lord wishes us to

keep before our eyes an image of

Fortunately, we have such a

pilot, and more, such a friend, in the


keep pictures of departed or absent

and the Life."

which an image of My Heart shall

And He is so not just remotely or theoretically. Knowing the great

be exposed and honored." And He went on to explain in detail what

this great blessing would entail:"I will establish peace in their fami

sanctuary of the church with the

sanctuary of the home; finally, it is

lies; I will give them all the graces

a life of Christian penance, espe

necessary for their state of life; I

cially in rejecting the pagan ideas and customs that are steadily

will comfort them in all their afflic

tions; I will shed abundant bless

ings on all their undertakings..." In this Our Lord, a divine beg gar so to speak, entreats us to

accept Him into our midst. Unique

among beggars, however. He begs not in order to receive but so that

He may give to us, and give to us in abundance.

Holy Mother Church, the Bride of Christ ever solicitous to

fulfill His every wish perfectly,

engulfing and destroying Christian

homes and by making reparation

Promises of the Sacred

Heart of Jesus to Families Who Honor His Most Sacred Heart 1. 1 will give them all the graces

for the terrible crimes of divorce, birth control, abortion, and sensual ity in general. How will the

Enthronement restore

the family to Christ?

With the enthronement, the family gives first place to Our Lord

necessary for their state of life.

and His interests. In return, the

emony of the enthronement of the

2. 1 will establish peace in their

established for this purpose the cer Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in the


Sacred Heart assumes responsibility for the family's well being. Our


3. 1 will bless every house in which a

Lord Himself promised that He would bless and sanctify those fam

picture of My Heart shall be exposed The enthronement

ilies who enthrone Him as King. He

and honored.

Like all of the Church's tradi tional rituals, the enthronement cer

asked Saint Margaret Mary that He

4. 1 will console them in all their

be allowed to reign over the homes

emony is beautiful and inspiring.


of the rich and the poor; that He be

Gathered together at home in the pre.sence of a priest who officiates,

5, 1 will be their refuge during life and

the family publicly and solemnly acknowledges that Christ is the King and loving Master of their

especially at the hour of death.

6. 1 will shed abundant blessings upon all their undertakings.

home and family. The head of the

7. Sinners shall find in My Heart a

family installs a picture or statue of the Sacred Heart in a place of

fountain and boundless ocean of

honor in the principal room of the


8. Tepid souls shall become fervent.

home as on a throne. After this

solemn acknowledgment of the sov

9. Fervent souls shall rise speedily to

ereign rights of Christ the King

great perfection.

over them, the members consecrate themselves to the Sacred Heart.

10. 1 will give to priests the power of touching the hardest hearts.

They thereby pledge to live as 11. Those who propagate this

though the Sacred Heart were actu ally dwelling in their midst as He did at Nazareth, treating Him as an

devotion shall have their names

intimate member of the family, as a

blotted out.

friend and brother.

12. 1 promise thee, in the excessive

The ceremony, nevertheless, is

written In My Heart, never to be

just the beginning of a new life, in

mercy of My Heart, that My allpowerful love will grant to all who

.several aspects. It is a life of love,

communicate on the first Friday of the

of loving obedience to all the com mandments of Christ and His

Church; a life of prayer, especially of family prayers before the image of the Enthroned King; evening

solemnly received as King and Friend, and that His Sacred Heart be honored and loved. Hence we

may safely say that this is the means Our Lord Himself has select

ed to restore His sovereign rights over the family, and through the family, over society itself. The actual enthronement

Any family wishing to enthrone the Sacred Heart of Jesus in its home

must follow two simple steps: 1) They must obtain a suitable, pious statue or picture of Our Lord Jesus showing His Most Sacred Heart.

2)A date for the ceremony must

be set with the parish priest or any other Catholic priest who is willing and able to officiate.

Only one enthronement cere

month for nine consecutive months

mony is necessary for any particular statue or picture. Once an image is

the grace of final penitence; they shall

enthroned in the family home, it is

not die in My displeasure nor without the sacraments; My Divine Heart

sequent home to which the family

shall be their safe refuge in this last

might move. â&#x2013;

automatically enthroned in any sub


prayers and rosary in common; a

Eucharistic life, thereby linking the

May-June 1999




Omy Jesus, Thou didst say: "Amen, I say to you, ask and you shall receive; seek and you shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you." Hence I knock, I seek,


and I ask for the grace of(here state your request). Our Father..., Hail Mary..., Glory be.... O Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Thee I trust.

O my Jesus, Thou didst say: "Amen, I say to you,

whatever you ask of the Father in My name. He will give unto you." Hence I ask the Father, in Thy name, for the grace of(here state your request). Our Father..., Hail Mary..., Glory be.... O Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Thee I trust.

0 my Jesus, Thou didst say: "Amen, I say to you,

heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not

pass away." Encouraged by Thy infallible words, I now ask for the grace of (here state your request).

Our Father..., Hail Mary..., Glory be.... 0 Sacred Heart of Jesus, In Thee I trust.

Let us pray 0 Sacred Heart of Jesus, for Whom one thing alone

is impossible, namely, not to have compassion on the afflicted, have pity on us miserable sinners and grant us the grace we ask of Thee, through the intercession of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Thy tender Mother and ours.

Hail Holy Queen O Saint Joseph,friend of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, pray for us! Heart of Jesus, rich unto all that call upon Thee, have mercy on us!

I mi'high X 3

Heart of Jesus, salvation of those who hope in Thee, have mercy on us I


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In Memorlam

If' In Memory of Thomas Zawislak The American TFP recently lost a stalwart and long-standing friend. On

5000 hours of service at the time of his

April 16, Thomas Zawislak, a life-long resident of the Jackson Heights section of New York City, collapsed from a heart

An avid reader, he was particularly interested in history and most especially

attack while awaiting his train to work.

Thomas's association with us goes


the history of the Church and her saints

and heroes. His interest was not just aca demic, for he was vitally concerned

back to 1972, when his wife Maureen

about today's multiple crises in society

encountered members of the TFP selling

and in the Holy Catholic Church and

Crusadefor a Christian Civilization, an

eight-page forerunner of this magazine, on a New York sidewalk. She purchased

longed for a restoration of the spirit of those days when, as Pope Leo XIII so beautifully wrote, "the philosophy of the

a copy and took it home to her husband.

Gospels governed the states."

He savored every word of it and, shortly

Thomas, above all, was an ardent

thereafter, joined TFP members in sell

Catholic who truly lived his Faith.

ing Crusade and in other TFP endeavors,

Greatly devoted to Our Lady, he regular ly spent part of his weekends distributing leaflets about Our Lady of Fatima in various parts of New York City. He was

proudly proclaiming the various anti-

communist and anti-socialist slogans that frequently echoed down New York's con

crete canyons. Last fall he participated in the TFP's protest against the blasphe mous play Corpus Christ! in Manhattan. He also went to the streets for

another reasonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as a volunteer police man for New York City. He had logged

planning to do that on Saturday, April 17, but God had other plans.

Please join us in praying for the repose of Thomas Zawislak's soul and for his faithful wife Maureen and his sons Steven and Peter.


"Can you believe? Can you attain that certainty which is so strong that nothing shakes it, so clear that it amounts to

evidence? This is everything. When you reach this degree ofconfidence, you will see wonders realized in you." Father Thomas de Saint Laurent

Jl his little book is very big in content. Drawing on Sacred Scripture and the lives of the saints, the masterful pen of Father Thomas de Saint Laurent canies us to the serene realm of confidence.

Even if your confidence is a little shaky, as you read on you will


feel it fortified. Father Thomas de Saint Laurent explains in detail what the virtue of confidence is and why we should trust in Divine Providence with our eyes closed. A masterful and inspiring work, The Book of Confidence should be a bedside companion of every inhabitant of the twentieth century.



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May-June 1999


Zhu's jokes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; tightening the noose around our neck

m Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji speaking in Los Angeies at an April luncheon given in his

honor by Mayor Richard Riordan and the City of Los Angeles

American Optimism Is Building Red China's War Machine by Raymond E. Drake when he presented a gift to NASDAQ offi

tured, and thrown into labor camps to be

cials, a red wooden bull, he sounded like a

"re-educated" ...or die. Their "crime"? Being

one more shameful milestone in America's

good, old-fashioned fortune cookie as he

"constructive engagement" with communist China. Looking more like a successful CEO than a ruthless despot, English-speaking Zhu joked and quipped with his drooling admirers, drawn largely from our business

cheered them on with: "Always bull market!"

loyal to the Papacy and refusing to acknowl edge the communist-run and schismatic

Astoria suite or wining and dining with droves of capitalist tycoons, media magnates,

eleven Catholic bishops were either impris


and politicos, Zhu worked hard to hide the


Prime Minister Zhu Rongji's recent

nine-day tour of major American cities was

Zhu wanted to come across as a relaxed,

straightforward, and dependable trade partner with no hidden agenda or ideological hostili ty. Indeed, he is a grand wizard in the magic arts of China's "new look." He laughed at

From his first stop in Los Angeles to his last in Boston, whether in his plush Waldorf-

cold-blooded and ruthless dictator behind an

image of an accommodating liberal leader. Does China's "new look" correspond

to reality? Is China really discarding its Marxist past, the slaughter of innocents, and

Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association.

As of mid-October 1998, no less than

oned or under severe police surveillance in James Su Zhimin, 67, is the Bishop of Baoding. According to the Vatican's Fides news agency, he has spent 19 years in prison since 1956. His whereabouts are unknown since his latest arrest in 1997.

Chinese missiles would be clearly labeled, "Made in China, not in the U.S."

hard look at some facts.

His Auxiliary Bishop, An Shuxin, was arrest ed together with him. All of the priests of the Baoding diocese are either in jail or in hiding.-

He looked quite disarming when, as the No. 2 man of the world's most populated Marxist country, he pushed a button to start the day's trading at Wall Street's NASDAQ, the largest stock exchange in the world. And

Persecution of the Church

Bishop Julias Jia Zhiguo, Bishop of Zhengding, Hebei, was arrested during

Congressional concerns over China's alleged pilfering of our nuclear secrets and satellite delivery technology, saying that from now on



hard-labor "reeducation" camps? Or is Zhu's

laughing act just the latest masquerade to further dupe a gullible West? Let's take a

While comrade Zhu was being feted

and applauded by super-capitalists, Chinese Catholic clergy and laity are baned from practicing their Faith. They are beaten, tor

President Clinton's visit to China.-^

Bishop Joseph Fan Zhong Liang, S.J., Coadjutor Bishop of Shanghai, was in jail and labor camp for over 20 years as the

result of his refusal to join the schismatic Chinese

try in the world that we are more likely to be at

Catholic Patriotic Association. On March 4,

war with 10 years from now than communist

1997, the police ransacked the tiny apartment where the 79-year-old bishop lived with his

China, and here we are modernizing their mili

niece. They seized his bibles, missals, catechism,

tary. It's insanity. I think it's immoral to call the

Code of Canon Law, breviaries, religious medals,

world's worst human rights abuser our strategic partner, but it's crazy to modernize a potential

other religious books and articles, and all the money he had, approximately $2,500. This

enemy's ability to fight a war and that's what we're doing."^

amount is probably the entire treasury of the

The scathing series of reports in The New York

underground diocese of Shanghai. Bishop Fan

Times about the gross negligence, suspected espi

remains under strict police surveillance.'* Mass must be celebrated secretly. "Under ground" seminaries are destroyed when discov

from Los Alamos should be enough to outrage the Nation. When informed of the FBI's growing con

onage, and possible theft of our nuclear secrets

ered. Police scatter the crowds that gather on Marian feast days amid the rubble of the popular

cern in the summer of 1997. the White House

Marian shrine at Donglu, which was bulldozed

nothing was done for more than a year, but the Administration continued its "engagement" policy

in 1996.

The Union of Catholic Asian News(UCAN)

reports that in the Baoding diocese, only 85 miles southwest of Beijing, the persecution is unrelent ing. Last Christmas authorities went on a ram

ordered security measures to be taken. Apparently,

with China. Paul Redmond, the CIA's former counterintelligence chief who was briefed on

aspects of the Los Alamos security investigation, stated, "this is going to be just as bad as the

page. Fr. Peter Hu Duo,just released from hard

Rosenbergs."ÂŽ In the ensuing uproar, national secu

labor, was rearre.sted and tortured. Police thugs

rity adviser Sandy Berger said, "There's no ques

beat him so badly they broke his legs. His where

tion that they've benefited from this.""^

abouts are still unknown. Catholic lay leaders were gagged, blindfolded, and tortured with elec

The damage to national security may extend to more than just the reported W-88 miniature mul

tric batons and other implements. Catholic meet

tiple warhead and the neutron bomb. On April 28,

ing places were set on fire. A 12-year-old girl, who wished to "adore the Lord," was so cruelly thrashed that she required hospitalization. Catholics meeting in a vegetable shed to cele brate Christmas were arrested and fined the

The New York Times reported that millions of lines

of code on the production and simulation-testing secrets (the "legacy codes") for virtually every weapon in America's nuclear arsenal were improp erly downloaded and subsequently improperly

equivalent of a few months' wages. According to

accessed."'The secrets themselves are of little use

Bishop Andrew Tsien Tchew-Choenn of Hualien,

to anyone who lacks the appropriate high-perfor

Taiwan, similar government crackdowns against the celebration of Christmas by "underground"

mance computers that can simulate nuclear explo sions. Tragically, Red China has this advanced

Catholics occurred in Gansu. Hebei, Henan. and

technologyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;thanks to our government's engage

other provinces.^

ment policy. Since 1996. we have exported around

Espionage like never before

400 high-performance computers to China, appiu"ently everything it needs to modernize its already lethal war machine. Beijing alleges the computers

While the blood of martyrs was being spilled,


our militai-y secrets were passing hands. In the

are for civilian use. but it seems most of them

wake of leaks in satellite delivery technology, a

special bi-paiiisan House committee was set up to

ended up at nuclear-missile and military sites." Before his trip to the United States, Zhu

investigate the damage to our national security: it

joked about the intense furor, saying, "the so

stumbled on more than it had imagined. Its 700page report made 38 recommendations to the

called problem of China stealing military secrets

Adininistration and Congress. Committee Chair man Rep. Christopher Cox (R-Calif.), said,"Based

on unclassified information, 1 can tell you today

Top: Bishop James Su Zhimin of

that we have found that national security harm did

Baoding shown among his flock before


Only in late February did the Administration

decide that security was a concern in the planned sale of a $450 million satellite to China and can

his latest arrest in 1997.

Center: Auxiliary Bishop An Shuxin with his mother some time before his arrest.

cel the deal. Despite the political firestorm, how ever, a military exchange program between the

Bottom: Bishop Joseph Fan Zhong

United States and China was not suspended, roil ing many on Capitol Hill. Congressman Dana

of Shanghai

Rohrabacher (R-Calif.) stated,"There is no coun

Liang, S.J., Coadjutor Bishop Photos on this page, courtesy of Cardinal Kung Foundation


Last April 28 The New York Times reported that millions of lines of code on the production and simulation-

testing secrets for virtually every weapon in America's nuclear arsenal were improperly downloaded and subsequently improperly accessed. from the U.S. is like a tale from the Arabian

Nights" and that he hoped for a "warm

and missiles, some of which could reach us.

In Febmary, a Pentagon report high

lates the Panama Canal Treaty) approved by

the Panamanian legislative assembly on

handshake" from President Clinton to reflect

lighted the increased threat China poses to

January 16, 1997, a Chinese company,

"quite good relations."'-

anticommunisi Taiwan. China increased the

Hutchison Whampoa, Ltd., acquired a 50-

number of its short-range missiles aimed at

year lease on the American-built ports of

Chinese communism

the island from around sixty in the early

Balboa on Panama's Pacific coast and

flexes its muscles

'90s to about double that number now, and

Cristobal on the Atlantic. Testifying before

is expected to increase them to more than 600 within three years. China has 4,500

June 16, 1998, Adm. Thomas H. Moorer,

Not surprisingly, China is building up and modernizing its "peaceful" military. Its DF-31 ICBMs are thought to have a range of

5,000 miles, able to reach most of California

and parts of other Western states. Its DF-41, under development, will be able to reach every comer of the United States with its

the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on

combat aircraft (Taiwan's, although more

USN (Ret.)said,"My specific concern is that

modem, number 400) and is now buy ing newer warplanes from Russia. The buildup is such, the Pentagon said, that

this company is controlled by the communist

China could overwhelm Taiwan by 2005.'"'

Chinese. And they have virtually accom

plished, without a single shot being fired, a stronghold on the Panama Canal, something

8,000 mile-range. China is also reported to

In December 1998, the Chinese army con

which took our country so many years to

be aiding countries like Iran and North Korea to develop their own nuclear arsenals

ducted military exercises with simulated

accomplish."''' Last January, the former

)(ยง[h]dl m YOUR Your comments and suggestions about Crusade are important to

missile-firings against Taiwan, U.S. Army

chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff reiterat

troops in South Korea, and Marines in

ed his profound concern, saying; "Control of

Okinawa and mainland Japan.

the anchorages is, for strategic purposes, control of the Canal." Unfriendly control of

China is also extending its control over

strategic sea-lanes in the Pacific. While its attempt to lease the American-built Subic Bay Naval Base was not welcomed by the Philippine government, China does have a station in the mid-Pacific on the island of Tarawa. It has built an 8,000-foot runway

the Canal would cripple American logistics by preventing the timely transit necessary to maintain our "forward deployment." In these circumstances, the U.S. would have to retake

the Canal by force.'" It is unclear, however, how useful the Canal will be after a military

on the Paracel Islands,"'and in the disputed

assault and the sabotage it would likely suf

Spratly Islands it is challenging Philippine sovereignty by building military facilities

fer at hostile hands.

rial decisions to suit your needs and interests as adequately as

and stationing warships there, "to protect its fishermen." Congressman Rohrabacher

Company (COSCO), one of the world's largest cargo transport companies, with 600

possible. In that, we are better

equipped to fulfill our mission of

recently flew over the islands and stated, "They are building a fortified base on

ships, owned and controlled by the Chinese military/industrial complex, tried

lending Catholics across our vast

Mischief Reef.... By claiming territory at

to lease abandoned naval facilities in Long

nation moral and intellectual sup

Mischief Reef, the communist Chinese are

Beach, California. Its efforts were fought

us. They help us in making edito

port to continue living and defending their faith and culture. E-mail: Fax:(717) 225-1675 Phone: 1-888-317-5571 Address:

Crusade Magazine P.O. Box 341

Hanover, PA 17331

not only going to be able to control one of

tooth and nail by local residents and by

the most important waterways in the world,


but they are also in a position to grab huge energy resources It strategically borders

Randy Cunningham and Duncan Hunter. Congressman Cunningham stated, "I am


not going to stand by and watch a potential

the Taiwan Strait and links the passage of

enemy have access and control to a former naval security base."" COSCO has been

oil and commodity transport ships from the Korea."'' More ships pass within striking

involved in the smuggling of 2,000 Chinese-made AK-47 assault rifles, heroin,

range of the Spratly Islands than through

and illegal Chinese aliens."

Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean to Japan and

the Panama Canal.

The Panama Canal itself, however, is of

Panama's Law No. 5 (which apparently vio



the Palawan Passage which leads directly to

great interest to China. As a result of


Stateside, the China Ocean Shipping

Red China's ocean of serfs...

In February, The New York Times

reported on the abysmal living and working



doubtful. It recently took the unprecedented step of "clarifying" a decision it had made as to who qualified for Hong Kong resi dence after Beijing voiced its displeasure." The world's largest organ harvester

Communist China does not deny that it harvests the organs of executed prisoners for sale to the Western world, but claims

this is done with the consent of both prison er and family. Red China's barbarous prac tice horrified the world, and rightly so, par ticularly considering that even habitual pickpockets qualify for the death sentence there. With its unscrupulous ethics, and helped by Western opportunists, Beijing

continues its gruesome practice, scoffing at Underground Catholics who remain faithful to Rome by refusing allegiance to the schis matic Chinese Catholic Patriotic Organization receive Holy Communion at an outdoor Sunday Mass

world outrage." Abortion and infanticide

No other country in the world has

gone so far in destroying the family as

conditions of China's underclass of para-

there is no official figure on inmate mortal

slaves. These poor people, estimated at between 80 and 130 million in number, are

ity. China also winks as ordinary penal

China. Its one-child-per-family policy is

facilities flout the Memorandum, allowing

implemented with brutal thoroughness,

called China's "floating population." They migrate from the countryside to the large

them to contract with regular industries so

with forced abortion and sterilization,

that their products may be exported.

urban areas to eke out subsistence in squalor.

It seems that even the Adidas soccer balls

As "urban outsiders," they are ineligible for

used for the 1998 World Cup in Paris were made with penal labor.-''

beatings, and crippling fines. In Shanghai, for example, the fines equal the combined salaries of both parents for three years. The parents' "work unit" and the government

most good jobs and housing subsidies and are unable even to register a bicycle. Some apparently live in places averaging less than 2'/2 square yards per person behind the sweatshops, sharing their bunk-bed sleep

ing quarters with fellow workers. While one shift "rests," the other slaves away in the work area immediately outside. Every twelve

hours, seven days a week, roles reverse."

Unscrupulous Western capitalists have no qualms benefiting from this ocean of cheap labor.

...and its slaves

Disturbing as this is, it is innocent compared to Red China's slave prison labor. People with "a bad attitude" are sentenced

officials who "allowed" the birth are also

Freedom of the press

The Stale Department's 1998 Report on human rights in China says government control of the country's 10,000 openly dis tributed publications, including 2,500 news papers, is absolute, "All media employees are under explicit, public orders to follow the Chinese Communist Party's directives, and 'guide public opinion' as directed by political authorities." Punishment for those not toeing the party line is severe. Not even Western Journalists are left alone. Some are denied entry to the country, others are detained once inside, while others are deport

ed on trumped-up charges."

to "reeducation-through-labor" camps for

up to three years. The international media estimates 230,000 people are currently being "reeducated," but the real number

may be much higher. Since sentences to

Hong Kong and Macao The United Kingdom returned Hong

punished. This creates multiple pressures

on the parents." Infanticide, especially of girls, is ram pant and government-sanctioned. About 1.7 million children are abandoned each year, most of them girls or "unauthorized." A

cruel fate awaits children ending up in state orphanages. The government has apparent

ly "lost track" of 80% of the orphans it acknowledges to have received. Document

ed reports on the abuses in the Shanghai Children's Welfare (sic) Institute shed light on their probable fate. According to Dr. Zhang Shuyun, a physician who worked at the Institute between 1988 and 1993, the majority of "abandoned children" admitted

to the orphanage died within a year of "third-degree malnutrition." According to

Kong to Beijing on June 30, 1997, under a

Dr. Shuyun, children were selected to die by

deal known as "one country, two systems,"

starvation after a "summary resolution." Protesting employees were fired or trans

these camps are issued in summary admin

and Portugal intends to do the same with

istrative procedures, not in regular court

its territory of Macao. Not surprisingly, China is reneging on its promises. Shortly

ferred, while compliant ones were often

after taking possession of Hong Kong,

proved that city authorities were aware of the abuses, condoned them, and squelched

proceedings, the Chinese government does not call these detainees "prisoners." Its

promoted. Dr. Shuyun's documentation also

weasel-wording allows it to bypass the 1992 prison-labor Memorandum of Under standing signed with the United States and

ed legislature and appointed its own legisla tive body. In other words, democracy in

all discussion when the horrors leaked out."

keeps the labor camps off-limits to any

Hong Kong today is a sham. The indepen

inspection. Work conditions are harsh, and

dence of Hong Kong's highest court is also

a 100% mortality rate for children under 2 years."

Beijing dissolved the democratically elect

Another orphanage was reported to have

May-June 1999



Forgotten Truths

The yawning trade deficit

Despite the claims of our business leaders, China is not a market. It is a source

of cheap labor. Cargo ships dump Chinesemade products on America's shores and return empty. Consequently, our trade deficit increases exponentially, as the vol ume of cheap goods we import is far greater than the quality goods we send Beijing. Over the last nine years, the American trade deficit with China soared from $3 billion in

1989 to a staggering $56.9 billion in 1998. The jump in 1998's deficit alone was a whopping $7.2 billion. Indeed, it is hard to imagine what we could possibly produce for the average

Chinese to buy. But then the average Chinese is not the buyer of choice. Dollarwise, most of the goods we do exportâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

satellites, supercomputers, and heavy machineryâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;are not intended for use by simple people, but by government and its

enterprises. In plain English, our exports Saint Catherine giving her cloak to a beggar - From a painting in her famiiy home (Siena)

help prop up the regime. What about our imports? Sure they are "made in China," but most are produced with forced labor or in factories built and

The health of the body may depend on the health of the soul self of his sins through sacramental In his life of Saint Catherine of Raymond of Capua, narrates that

confession. When he replied that it had been several years, she immedi

after her arrival in Pisa she became

ately said: "There you have the reason

the guest of a certain Gherardo de' Buonconti. One day her host brought to her attention a young man of

this chastisement. You have allowed

Siena, her confessor, Saint

about twenty years of age, for whose good health he implored her prayers.

The Saint was told that the young man had been beset by daily attacks of fever for eighteen months.

why the Lord willed you to undergo altogether too long a time go by with out cleansing your soul by holy con fession. Go at once to confession, my son, and vomit up the corruption of sin that has infected your soul and

body." The Saint then sent for Father

managed by Western companies in cahoots

with the Red regime. These companies do not move to China to produce goods for a practically non-existent Chinese market, but to immorally take advantage of China's vast pool of cheap and slave labor in making goods destined for the West. The obscene profits enrich Western mega-corporations and the regime, but not the enslaved popu lation. The appropriate label for these prod ucts should be "Made in China with cheap and/or slave labor, for export only." The absence of a significant market

among the enslaved Chinese people and their abuse by the unholy marriage of

Beijing commissars and Western capitalists is the true reason for the galloping trade

Thomas, her first confessor, and hand

deficit. Red China's "hard-nosed negotiat

ed the sick man over to him for con

ing" and corporate America's ongoing com

and continuous onslaughts had changed him completely from a healthy young man into a feeble crea

fession and absolution of his sins. When this had been done and the

kets" is a convenient smoke screen for both

sick man had come back to her, she

sides. The truth is that China's "billion-man

ture for whom no medical care had

laid her hand on one of his shoulders

market" is as real as a Potemkin village.

been of any help. His feeble state was plain to see in his pale and emaciated

and said: "Go now, son, with the peace

of Jesus Christ our Lord; it is my will

Zhu's push for admission


that you should be troubled by those

into the WTO

fevers no more." As she spoke, it was done: From that moment the young

insisted with American businessmen and

Though he was not at the moment suffering these attacks, the previous

Saint Catherine's heart was

moved with compassion for the poor boy, but she began by asking him how long it had been since he had rid him

man never again suffered the fever, nor any symptom of it. â&#x2013;

plaint about Beijing "not opening its mar

Between the smiles and the jokes, Zhu financiers to pressure the U.S. government to back China's admission into the World

Trade Organization. He alternately cajoled Quotes taken from, Saint Raymond of Capua, The Life of Catherine ofSiena.

and threatened his capitalist friends: Had he not compromised and given special benefits




to American telecommunications firms,

WTO, which is not a bad option, but one

with communist China. And while it's good

agricultural giants, banks, and insurance

unlikely to be adopted by weak-kneed

to let our elected representatives know how

companies? All those hard-wrung conces sions and all the progress of the last thirteen


we feel, we can and should do more, for ultimately we are the ones who make the decisions that really touch the bottom line.

years would be in vain if a deal is not closed

We must not take

right away. His carrot-stick approach turned

comrade Zhu at face value

some representatives of big business into

If it takes two to pick a fight, it also

The case against communist China is

takes two to make a sale. We can and should

hell-bent lobbyists. Their fierce pressure

overwhelming. Everyone can know the

refuse, out of principle, to buy anything

made President Clinton rush after smooth-

facts, but many prefer to ignore them. They

made in China. We should not be selfish,

talking Zhu to assure him that trade talks

turn a blind eye to the enslaved conditions

lamenting the loss of our money's buying

would resume just as soon as a negotiating team could make it to Beijing.^'

of a noble people, the slaughter of inno cents, and the blood of martyrs. Mention China and they immediately think."Oh, the

power. On the contrary, we should avail ourselves of the opportunity to vent our indignation at an atheistic and anti-natural

Why is Zhu so adatnant

cheapest products in the store." The blood,

regime's cruel enslavement of a billion

about WTO admission?

sweat,and tears that go into making them so cheap are of no concern. Nor do they see the danger in building up an ideology that is America's avowed and mortal enemy.

and managers why we refuse to buy their

Zhu has reasons for insisting on a trade deal. Every year Congress must vote on granting communist China "most

favored nation" status, a vote supposedly

Communism is not dead in China. It is

predicated on China's report card. If

thriving with our money!

Chinese. We should tell store employees Chinese imports. And we can convince oth ers to do the same.

Let our giant corporations continue importing from Beijing to their hearts' con tent, but if none of us buy the goods, they will stack up and molder in warehouses.

China joins the World Trade Organization,

We must not take comrade Zhu at face

Congress would lose this possibility to slap

value. We should see his humor for what it

China's wrist, since under current WTO

is, namely, cheap tomfoolery to deceive us into dropping our guard against a fast-grow ing threat to the principles for which

Eventually, word will make its way to the

rules only for "national security interests" could the United States refuse to import Chinese goods. It is extremely doubtful

America stands.

right desk.

In an economy built on supply and

increased religious persecution of Chinese

What every American

demand, we may not be able to control the supply, but we can and should shut off our demand. It is something every American is

Catholics or an invasion of Taiwan threats

can and should do

conscience-bound to do.

to American security.^- In such circum

Most of us are in no position to influ ence the decisions made at the highest lev els that determine our country's relations

that WTO bureaucrats would consider

stances, America's only option would be to stick to principle and withdraw from the Notes

8. Cf. James Risen and Jeff Gerth,

1. Cf. "Prisoners of religious con science for the underground

"China Stole Nuclear Secrets from

Roman Catholic Church in China,"

the State Dept's 1998 Report)

Los Alamos, U.S. Officials Say" in

"Admirals sound the alarm," The New American, 3/29/99. 17. Cf. Bill Gertz,"China makes

The New York Times, 3/6/99.

move on Spratlys" in The

Democracy, Human Rights, and

1998," (hereafter referred to as

released by the Bureau of

Cardinal Kung Foundation

9. Cf. David E. Sanger and Erik

Washington Times, 1/4/99.

Labor, 2/26/99.

Pri.soner List 10/16/98.

Eckholm,"Will Beijing's Nuclear Arsenal Stay Small or Will it

18. Cf. Richard Halloran,"Admiral

25. Cf. The State Dept.'s 1998

sees storm clouds over China" in

Report. 26. Cf. Mark Landler, "In 'clarifi

2. Cf. "Did you know that..."

Cardinal Kung Foundation, 3. Cf. "Arrest of an underground Catholic bishop in China," Cardinal Kung Foundation Press

Gerth, "U.S. Says Suspect Put

Release, 6/26/98.

Data on Bombs in Files,"

4. Cf. "Chinese public security

in The New York Times, 4/28/99. 11. Cf. Gary Milhollin and Jordan

agents ransacked the home of the underground Roman Catholic

Mushroom?" in The New York Tunes, 3/15/99. 10. Cf. James Risen and Jeff

Richie, "What China didn't need

Coadjutor Bishop of Shanghai, and seized his religious goods and

to steal" op-ed in The New York

money," Cardinal Kung

The Washington Times, 2/19/99. 19. Cf. Robert Morton,"Who needs the Panama Canal" in The

Washington Times—National Weekly Edition, 3/1-8/99,

20. Cf. Adm. Thomas H. Moorer, USN Ret., "Chokehold for China," in WorldNetDaily, 1/29/99.

cation' on immigrants. Hong Kong coun bows to China" in The New York Times, 2/27/98.

27. Cf. The State Dept.'s 1998 Report. 28. Cf. The State Dept.'s 1998 Report.

Times, 5/5/99.

21. Cf. Michael White, Associated Press, "Clinton-China debate res

29. Cf. Human Rights Watch, "Death by default—a policy of

12. Cf. Bill Savadove "China

onates at California port" in The

Foundation Press Relea,se, 3/23/97. 5. "China: Violence, harassment

Premier Disputes China Stole Nuke Secrets," Reuters, 3/15/99.

News-Times, 6/11/98.

fatal neglect in China's Slate orphanages," Press Release.

22. Cf. Rep. Randy Cunningham


against Hebei Catholics reported."

13. Cf. Jane Perlez "Hopes for

(R-Calif.), speech in the House of

UCAN Press Release, 1/28/99. 6. Cf. Bill Gertz, "Missile-technol

improved ties with China fade" in

Representatives, Congressional

30. Cf. The State Dept.'s 1998 Report.

The New York Times, 2/12/99.

Record, 4/15/97.


Pentagon," Reuters, 2/26/99.

23. Cf. Elisabeth Rosenthal,"100 million restless Chinese go far from home for jobs," in The New

push by China and U.S. business

warns" in The Washington Times,

14. Cf. Charles Aldinger,"China massing missiles against Taiwan-

31. Cf. David E. Sanger,"How a

ogy transfers threaten U.S.. panel

7. Cf. Bill Gertz,"Military

15. Cf. Bill Gertz, "Chinese exer

York Times, 2/24/99.

32. Cf. Robert E. Lighthizer,"A

exchange with Beijing raises secu rity concerns" in The Washington

cise targets Taiwan" in The Washington Times, \126199.

24. Cf. U.S. Department of State, "China Country Report on

ed in The New York Times, 4/18/99.

Times, 2/19/99.

16. Cf. William F. Jasper,

Human Rights Practices for

won over Clinton" in The New

York Times, 4/15/99.

deal we'd be likely to regret" op

May-June 1999

Crusade interviews Crusade: Why does the American TFP and America Needs Fatima

undertake so many anti-blasphemy

campaigns? K i e c 111 [

Mr. Robert Ritchie: Our foremost


motivation for fighting blasphemy is to defend the honor of Our Lord, Our Lady, and the Catholic Church. When the object of one's love is attacked, the natural reac

tion is to jump to its defense. In the case of blasphemy, we see sacred things being vile

ly attacked. How can we remain silent? Is anyone surprised that a son runs to his mother's defense if she is assaulted by criminals? Of course not. It's so simple. You don't need to be a doctor in theology to react when Jesus and Mary are blas

' *■ .'4! f* I 'fJi

Nerds Fatim I'O ftjt Ul

phemed. The simple devout Catholic

HantnvT. fH Ujj,

knows that and comes running to defend Them. It's a fruit and a proof of love.

I was very impressed with the way Saint Jerome put it. 1 don't remember the


exact words, but he said that even dogs come to the defense of their masters and

that he would rather die than remain

silent as God is blasphemed. If brute ani


mals defend their masters, how can we

fail to stand up for our Creator and Redeemer?

J' ?"«"• St "•• MjT'*


The second reason is that blasphemy wears down Catholics' will to fight. Just as

-S"W/ So, J^,


f you'

the Rosary is a battering ram for Catholics in fighting evil, the devil has one too— blasphemy. He uses it to break down men's faith by constantly attacking the sacred persons of Jesus and Mary, whom we love, When the sacred is mocked time

and time again, many grow tired of defending it. The sacred then diminishes

New Campaign Against The Blasphemous Film 99

Mr. Robert Ritchie director of the national campaign Crusade: But your protest was essentially based upon mailing and a phone tree of people making calls?

in their minds. So, besides defending the

honor of Jesus, Mary, and our Catholic faith, we have the obligation to fight blas

phemy to boost people's faith. Another reason is to rally Catholics

Mr. Ritchie: Many people called. We

who are tempted to think they are alone.

publicized the theater's telephone number

When people see tens of thousandsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;even

and asked people to call, and we also had

millions of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;opposing blasphemy,

people send in protest postcards. So, the

they start to take heart again. Their enthusi

Minetta Theater received letters, calls, and

asm returns. It gives them hope. They get

pre-printed postcards against The Most

back into the fight.

Fabulous Story Ever Told. Crusade: Many people in

Crusade: I know that the

Catholic circles, sometimes even

American TFP and its America Needs

Fatima campaign were very involved in opposing the play The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told. Would you tell us exactly what was done? How did you get so many people involved in this protest? Mr. Ritchie: As far as I know, the

American TFP and its ANF campaign were

the only ones to move tens of thousands of volunteers in a nationwide protest against

priests, object that a campaign Robert Ritchie, director of America Needs

Fatima, during his interview with Crusade

against a specific blasphemous play

The Fabulous Stoiy Ever Told in

or film only serves to give it publici ty. How do you address this objec

February. But our protest campaign was only


in high gear in mid-March. During March

and April we contacted some 750,000 peo ple by distributing protest postcards through our volunteer grassroots network. I'm convinced we had a big impact

Mr. Ritchie: It's just not true. From

experience, we've found the opposite. But remember, we're talking about

blasphemy here! It's something so offen

because on April 12 The New York Times

sive to the heart and soul of a Catholic that

published an article titled "Heaven Didn't Help" followed by the subheading "In the beginning there was light, and in the end

the publicity issue is really secondary.

ing phone calls and writing letters in

there just weren't enough people to see

Our Lord's face during the Passion? I

protest, At that time, the play was still at the

it," in which one of the show producers

don't think so. She was concerned about

non-profit New York Theater Workshop.

explains that even though the theater had

The play presents Scripture from a homosexual perspective. It replaced Adam

spent heavily for advertising, they were

and Eve with homosexuals "Adam" and

theater just couldn't find the right audi

the offense being made against Him and did everything in her power to alleviate His suffering. She wasn't concerned about what people thought. She saw the object

"Steve." Horribly immoral scenes and

ence, that even after extensive efforts to

of her love, Our Lord, offended, attacked,

obscenities refer to Our Lady as a lesbian

promote the play, they hit a "brick wall."

in order to "explain" the Immaculate

Those are his words. Evidently, the play

that blasphemous play by Paul Rudnick. We found out about it in December of 1998

and urged thousands of people to start mak

not able to sell tickets. He said that the

Think about it: Did Veronica worry

about the publicity issue when she wiped

Conception. This is the most shocking

was shut down for lack of interest, and I

and suffering. She didn't ask herself if in doing so she would be giving more pub licity or attracting more attention to the

aspect of the play.

am convinced our protest played a large

outrage being committed against Jesus

part in that.


The Minetta Theater started showing




Blasphemy today puts Jesus through the same sufferings. The natural reaction

of any decent Catholic is to defend Him.I disagree 100% with people who hide behind the publicity issue in order not to

oppose blasphemy in a public way. It's a question of love, a question of whether or not a person loves Our Lord. As for the excuse that we shouldn't protest

because it attracts more people to see the blasphemy, it just isn't true. In all the protests I've been involved with, the oppo

As far as we know, following the

protest, Corpus Christi has not been shown at any other theater in this coun try. I think that this is due in large mea sure to the protest. I already mentioned the failure of The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told. I have strong reasons to believe that they are not going to show that play anywhere

Crusade: You have

just launched a new cam paign against the movie Dogma, which is now com ing out. How do you plan to go about this one, since Disney decided the film was inappropriate for them and has sold the rights to it?

else either.

So, as Catholics, I think we have the

obligation to protest. From the point of

site was always true.

view of our love of God, it's a filial

Take, for example, the blasphemous play Corpus Chrisii, which was shown

obligation to protest. You need not have

last year at the Manhattan Theater Club.


graduated from the Angelicum to know

Mr. Ritchie: Disney-owned Mira max Films produced this film. It's about

two fallen angels who try getting back into Heaven through a loopholeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a cardi nal who offers plenary indulgences to anyone who passes through an arch erect-


Protesters praying during the rally against Terrence

McNally's blasphemous play Corpus Christi In New York

City last September.

Reparation Prayer O most glorious Virgin Mary, Mother of God and our Mother, turn thine eyes in pity upon us, miserable sin ners; we are sorely afflicted by the many evils that sur round us in this life, but especially do we feel our hearts break within us upon hearing the frequent and vile insults and blasphemies uttered against thee, O Virgin

Because we love thee, we will do all that is in our

power to make thee honored and loved by all men. In the meantime do thou, our merciful Mother, the

supreme comforter of the afflicted, accept this our act of reparation that we offer thee for ourselves and for all

our families, as well as for all who impiously blas

Immaculate. Oh, how these impious sayings offend the pheme thee, not knowing what they say. Do thou obtain infinite majesty of God and His Only-Begotten Son, for them from Almighty God the grace of conversion, Jesus Christ! How they provoke His indignation and and thus render more manifest and more glorious thy give us cause to fear the terrible effects of His goodness, thy power, and thy great mercy. May they vengeance! Would that the sacrifice of our lives might join with us in proclaiming thee blessed among women, avail to put an end to such outrages and blasphemies; the Immaculate Virgin and most compassionate Mother were it so, how gladly we should make it, for we desire, of God. O most holy Mother, to love thee and honor thee with Hail Mary..., three times. all our hearts, since this is the will of God.




Thousands ofprotest cards and letters have been sent to the Minetta Lane

Theatre against the blasphemous play "The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told." We are pleased to reproduce thefollowing letter of Dr. Fritz Baumgartrier, with his kind pennission. ed for thai purpose. Another character, Bethany, then comes on the scene. She. supposedly a descendant of Joseph and

April 14, 1999

Mary, receives the mission to kill the two

lesbian? And if you don't believe the connec tion between the Ark of the Covenant and

fallen angels.

Minetta Lane Theatre

I read a publicly available script and can tell you that it really felt like going through a shower of mud—pornographic conversations, and so on. I guess they chose the name Dogma because it attacks every

18 Minetta Lane

12:1: "A great sign appeared in the sky, a

New York, NY 10012

woman clothed with the sun, with the moon

Dear Minetta Lane Theater,

stars." The woman gives birth to a child, and

belief of the Catholic faith, Saint Joseph and Our Lady's virginity. It refers to the

Holy Sacrifice of the Mass as sexual inter course, and God is portrayed by a female

rock star who just posed nude in a video. We sent a letter to Bob and Harvey Weinstein, Miramax Films co-chairmen,

asking them not to distribute Dogma. It seems they bought the rights from

Mary, then go to the vision in Revelation

under her feet and on her head a crown of 12

Satan wages war against the woman (Mary) I understand you have an upcoming play. The Most Fabulous Stoiy Ever Told. Given its contents, I presume this play is directed at the

covenant could be seen in the temple. There

ity and Victorian style modesty. Well, as a cardiothoracic surgeon hometown borders Hollywood and Beverly

thunder, an earthquake, and a violent hail

Miramax, which did a Pontius Pilate

maneuver to try to save Disney's image.

describes his play as "covering the entire Old

answered our letter. So we have contacted

verse right before it? "Then God's temple in heaven was opened, and the Ark of His

intellectual and cultural "elite," who are not bound by the constraints of traditional moral

Hills, you might stereotype me as someone your play might appeal to. Since Paul Rudnik

The Weinstein brothers have not

and her child (Jesus). But what's the Bible

Testament," let me ask whether he remem

bers the story of Michol, the wife of David,

were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of storm" (Rev. 11: 19). If any one called my mother a lesbian, I'd be pretty dam mad. If Mary is the Mother of God, shouldn't you be a little worried?

By the way, when Paul Rudnik says that the "possibility of Mary as a lesbian moth er...would certainly help me comprehend the Immaculate Conception," he exposes his

150,000 members of our America Needs

mocking David for honoring the Ark of the

Fatima campaign, urging them to register

Covenant. What does the Bible say happened to Michol? God became angered and, as pun

erroneous understanding of the Immaculate

ishment, Michol could no longer bear chil dren (2 Sam. [Kings] 6:23). What happened to

refers to Mary's being conceived without sin,

their objections by sending a protest post card to Disney, who originally produced it, and to the Weinstein brothers, the wouldbe owners.

Our grassroots network of 35,000 volunteers will help us distribute anti-


Dogma materials in their communities, at

Covenant? He was struck

their churches, schools, local supermar kets, wherever they can. We are hoping to

down dead (2 Sam. 6).

engage ten million Catholics in this

enemy of Israel when con

Uzzah when he tried to the


of the

What happened to any

protest, so we are printing up ten million

fronted with the Ark of the

"STOP BLASPHEMY!" fliers, in English

Covenant? They

and Spanish. The fliers contain two protest postcards, one to Disney/Miramax, the

utterly and completely


Conception. The Immaculate Conception not to the virgin concep tion of Jesus.

"If any one called my

Humans cannot com

mother a lesbian, I'd be

prehend scientific facts, let

pretty darn mad. If Mary is the Mother of God, shouldn't you be a

ception. Can Mr. Rudnik

alone the Immaculate Con

little worried?"


comprehend how a mole cule of DNA can direct the

physical construction of a

human being? Can Mr.

Rudnick comprehend the vast universe, with planets

other to Bob and Harvey Weinstein. The

If you don't remember (or believe) these

discovered smaller than the moon but with

one to Disney/Miramax protests their hav ing produced the film. The one to the

Bible verses, then perhaps you may take fan tasy and fiction from Hollywood more at face value. Take Raiders ofthe Lost Ark for exam ple, Remember when all Harrison Ford's ene

light years away that are more radiant than all the light in the entire known universe com

Weinsteins asks them not to distribute it

and warns that if they do we will organize the nation's largest-ever protest. We are prepared to hold local protests in front of every theater where Dogma is shown.

mies got struck down dead by the Ark? Powerful stuff.

So what's my point? Well, in the Old

more mass than the sun? Cosmic explosions

bined? Black holes, cosmic shifts, bending of light and slowing of time by gravity? No one should be so self-centered as to presume he could understand the mystery of the

Testament, the Ark of the Covenant carried

Immaculate Conception based on his own lit

Crusade: In closing, would you have something in particular to say

the Word of God (the Ten Commandments) and the prototype of the Eucharist (the

tle world.

to our readers at this time?

manna). What is the fulfillment of the Ark of the Covenant in the New Testament? It's

gross blasphemies against what he cannot

Mr. Ritchie: My message to Crusade readers at this point is this: The best way to honor Our Lady of Fatima's request for sacrifices is to stand up against evils such

as public blasphemies. It takes courage, but remember how David defeated Goliath.

With God's help we can do it, so let's get

Mary, the Mother of God, who carried the

Paul Rudnik may not be bothered by his comprehend. But what might bother him

Word of God made Flesh as well as the

more, I suppose, is that a liberal, progressive, culturally sophisticated playwright such as he

Living Manna, the Bread of Life. Now, if

can be so ignorant and uneducated about the

God was mad at Michol for her disrespect for the Ark—a wooden box—imagine God's response for your portraying His mother as a

very premises of his own play.

Sincerely, Fritz Baumgartner, MD

moving! ■

May-June 1999


From the Phone

The Rosary, a Lifesaver by Maria Becker

Wereceive innumerable calls in a day's work, both ordinary and

unusual. One recent call was

since my husband passed away in 1933, there have been no weapons in this house." "Well," he retorted, "we were told

particularly interesting. The caller had phoned about a subscription, but as the

that you were hiding weapons here. We

conversation developed she lingered over

"All right," Anne's mother said unflinchingly,"search the house." Summoning the others to join him,

the topic of devotion to the Blessed Mother and concluded by recounting a

have to search the house."

the rebels did exactly that. They ran


The caller—we'll call her "Anne"—

sacked the house on all sides until they

remembered the year, around 1945, when

came to a trunk belonging to the deceased

she, then sixteen, experienced the horror of the Second World War under her very

father. They demanded that it be opened,

roof. The family—Anne, her mother, and

rummaging through the contents, they began to play with the military apparel it

her five sisters—lived in Indonesia, as it is now called, which was then in a revolu tion of its own. The rebels were every

where. People were being sent to war camps, and for her family it was only a

contained, one cocking the military cap on his head, another toying with the medals.

Anne's mother snatched the cap and

matter of time. They had

other items from

"Give me that," she said

been left alone. On the

day that changed, the family had nothing to eat in the house but starch.

Anne was gazing out the window when a group

Play Cuba,

which Anne's mother calmly did. After

been placed under house arrest, but had until then

The Orioles

"Since the outset of the revolution

they had always prayed the rosary together."

and America Strikes Out by Raymond E. Drake


sharply. "How dare you poke fun at my husband's belongings!" Even then, to the trembling amazement

The Orioles' May 3 game with Cuba at Camden Yards was something 1 will never


1 found myself joining some 800 others,

of her daughters, her coura

mostly Cuban-Americans, protesting a ball

geous outbursts brought no reprisals from the rebels.

game for the first time in my life. Few of the fans streaming into the stadi um had given much thought to the game's political fallout, but the crowd of protesters,

of about fifty rebels

The rebels also found a

entered the yard. She

large quantity of fabric she

cried out to her mother, who was

had kept to make clothing for her daugh

the sound truck, standards, banners, and the

stretched out on a sofa suffering from

ters should they ever be sent away to the

malaria. "Get away from the window!" said her mother sharply, getting up and

making for the hall. Just then, the leader

war camps. She firmly stood her ground, saying that she had worked hard and scrimped to obtain that fabric, and cate

TFP band soon caught their attention. Some of the fans were shaken by our outrage. They took our fliers and wondered hesitantly if they should really watch the

of the rebel band entered the house.

gorically refused to give it up.

Now, Anne's mother was a tiny little

At last the rebels left the house. The

game. They stopped, first to listen, then to talk, and became appalled with what they

next day, the leader returned alone.

heard about Cuba and the continued enslave

ment of its people.

ed outside, the leader shouted the revolu

"Ma'am," he said to Anne's mother, "1 was told to come here yesterday to kill

tionary salute, "Merdekal" mimicking a

you and all your daughters. 1 don't why I

"Heil Hitler" salute. Her mother pointed

couldn't carry out that order. For some unknown reason, 1 just couldn't do it."

little about Cuba's reality. Their ideas on Cuba were a hodgepodge of impressions

woman. Her six daughters stood behind her, trembling. While the other men wait

ly ignored this. "What do you want?" she asked vigorously, standing all the while directly below a crucifix that hung on the wall. The leader showed some shock at her indifference to his salute, but instead

of responding with further aggression, as the girls feared, he muttered something about "coming for the weapons."

"What?" her mother snapped. "Ever



Having said that, he left for good. The daughters always attributed this miraculous escape from what would have been a tragic story to their mother's constant and deep devotion to the Blessed Mother. Since the outset of the

Like most Americans, they knew very

inoculated by media spindoctors. In between the breaking Monicagate scandal, they caught

glimpses of TV coverage on John Paul ITs arrival in Havana a year ago January, with a

suit-wearing Fidel Castro attending the Pope's Mass and shaking his hand. These

revolution they had always prayed the

quick shots formed a confused and hazy set of impressions in their head, clouding their good

rosary together. ■


The American TFP in Action

But as they stood there listening to the

reach the majority of the Oriole fans. For

real story, they gasped: "What?! A doctor

them, "a game is a game... don't matter

responsible for a whole hospital receives a

who's playing!" Fun was everything for

ration no different than everyone else? Only one pair of shoes, two shirts, two pants, etc. a year?" Not just this, but doc tors, as everyone in the former Pearl of the Antilles (except the nomenklalura), have a hard time finding regular staples like meat and fresh milk. And a doctor's salary is not much different than the average $12 a

these fans and the grave injustices shack

month. The Marxist dictum "from every

one according to his ability, to everyone according to his needs!" rings with cruel overtones in Cuba, crushing all incentive! These Oriole fans shuddered hearing how little children are brought to the front of the class and mocked by their teachers for wearing a scapular or saying their

prayers, and how the devotions and proces

ling 11 million Cubans were not a concern. I looked from a distance at the bleach

ers filled with people capable of enjoying a game that was no more than a betrayal of the suffering millions in the Caribbean

gulag just 90 miles from our shores. Betrayal? Sure! The message the game was

sending to enslaved Cuba, was not one of hope, but despair! While Oriole fans

Raymond Drake, President of the American TFP, greeting Congressman Robert Menendez(D-NJ)

cheered, millions across the Florida straits wept as they watched on the regime's TV,

how America, the country they pinned their hopes on, was playing ball with their jailers. I mourned too, and prayed: "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." At this, a loud roar burst from tens of

sions of the faithful are interrupted by authorities because they are a "threat to the

thousands of throats reverberating in the

regime." The thought that our presence was able to open these fans'eyes to the real

Was it the Orioles'? Was it Cuba's? I didn't care to find out. I was too overwhelmed

stakes behind the game at Camden Yards

with the realization that America was strik

Congressman Menendez with Mr. Sergio de Paz, Director of the Florida-based Study

was a great consolation.

ing out...

Commission for the Liberation of Cuba.

night air. It must have been a home run.

Our protest, however, was unable to

^fead ^ncan




Partial view of the protest in Baltimore against the Orioles' baseball game with Cuba. American TFP volunteers joined the protest with

their red standards, marching band, and a large banner saying,"For the enslaved Cuban people, Fidel Castro's 'baseball diplomacy' means little bread...and lots of circus!"

May-June 1999



r^^ -"^i '^^Jt

! V V"'-'




f someone were to list each and

Of, each particular denomina

any Tom, Dick or Harriette may, Bible in

every religious denomination

tion deems itself the authentic restoration

hand, claim that he or she has the truth.

that calls itself Christian in

of the Apostolic Faith. It matters little if thousands of denominations make exactly the same claim of holding the true faith, as

Thousands have done just that.

today's world, he would tally

thousands of them, perhaps hun dreds of thousands. They all dis agree among themselves on this -•= or that interpretation of any

given biblical teaching on faith, morals, or church government. Splinter groups have split away from splinter groups that previ ously split from other groups, and the con

fused splitting goes on. The teaching on having "one Lord, one Faith, one Baptism" is thoroughly meaningless to them. There is simply no unity among the churches, groups, sects, denominations, affiliations, organizations, and all the other varieties of the so-called Christianity that has emerged

long as they are all united against the benighted popery of Rome. And. in truth, here at least they arc consistent, for they cannot explain themselves if they admit the

possibility of Roman Catholicism being true,just like any other "Christian" church. They know that, historically, the Catholic

Church was the only Christian Church in

The myth of the Church's "apostasy"

After the death of the last Apostle—so the story goes—about the end of the first

ceniuiy, the Catholic Church began a process of doctrinal corruption, moving further and further away from the simplicity of the Apostolic Faith. No later than the end of the

second century, the corruption was already

existence in the West from the time of the

universal. By the beginning of tlie fourth

Apostles to the Protestant Revolution. The Greek schism did not reject or change basic doctrines that Protestantism rejects—the Real Presence, the role of Mary, or the

century, when Constantine gave freedom to

the Catholic Church, it had nothing to do with the original Church of Jesus Christ. Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses in

seven sacraments, for example. The Greeks

particular make this claim, but every

after the visceral inconsistencies of the

would be almost as bad as the Roman

Protestant who tries to be consistent with

Protestant Revolution.

Catholics from the Protestant point of view.

his beliefs agrees to its substance. What does the Bible say about it?

Despite so many disagreements among

themselves on so many crucial points of doctrine, there is one point on which they all agree: the Catholic Church has gone wrong.

The Catholic Church has lost the original

So. the logical conclusion is this: If

the Catholic Church did not fail in holding

Did Jesus build his Church on sand... or

the true Faith, any Protestant denomination

on a rock?

cannot explain itself: each is just a branch that broke away from the vine. But, if the

"Thou art Peter and upon this rock

faith of the Apo.stles. The Catholic Church

Roman Catholic Church indeed lost the

I will build my Church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it"

has become the "Whore of the Apocalypse."

truth, the Apostolic Faith is up for grabs:

(Matt. 16:18).



mi l l

IIM i i i i I I II

Peter's original name was Simon, meaning "grain of sand" in Aramaic. Jesus

changed his name to Kepha (Cephas, Petros, Peter, meaning "rock"—John 1:42).

Jesus promised to remain with His Church tiii the end of time

After His Resurrection, Our Lord

promised the Apostles: "Behold, I am

In so doing. He carried out His own teach

with you all days, even unto the consum

ing, for at the conclusion of the Sermon of

mation of the world" (Matt. 28:20).

the Mount He had said:

"Everyone therefore who hear.s these My words and acts upon them, shall be likened to a wise man who built his house on a rock. And the rain

fell, and the floods came, and the

winds blew and beat against that house, but it did not fall, because it was

founded on rock. And everyone who hears these words of Mine and does

not act upon them, shall be likened to a foolish man who built his house on sand. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat

against that house, and it fell, and was

These are the last words of Our Lord that

Saint Matthew recorded in his Gospel,

Ifthe Church had corrupted the Apostolic Faith after a few centiirieSj Our Lord would havefailed in His promise to be with us.

utterly ruined"(Matt. 7:24-27).

Jesus did not build His house upon a "grain of sand," a simple Simon. He built it upon a Kepha, a Rock—the Papacy— which He Himself established. Not on the

little, impetuous, capricious, boastful

Our Lord established His Church as

the arbiter of disputes among Christians: "If your brother sin against you, go and show him his fault, between you and him alone. If he listen to you, you have won your brother. But if he does not listen to you, take with you one or two more so that on the word

of two or three witnesses every word may be confirmed. And if he refuse to hear them, appeal to the Church, but if he refuse even to hear the Church, let

him be to you as the heathen and the

publican"(Matt. 18:15-18). The right of appeal to the Church pre

supposes that the Church will always exist and remain true to her mission. Otherwise,

Jesus would be telling us to appeal to a corrupted, pagan church to solve disputes among Christians. Had He commanded this. He could

and that Gospel's very last verse as well. Parting words have special meaning in

not have been the Son of God, the Good

Shepherd of our souls.

any human relationship. an assurance that He would remain with

The promise to send the Holy Ghost: guarantee of

Jesus wanted His final promise to be

Galilean fisherman, but on the solid Rock

His Church. Consequently, if the Church

the Church's indefectibiiity

He established. To this He entrusted His

had corrupted the Apostolic Faith after a

flock (John 21:15-17); to this He gave the

few centuries. Our Lord would have failed

Jesus promised the Apostles that He would send them the Holy Ghost—the

power of binding and loosing (Matt.

in His promise to be with us; He would

Paraclete, the Advocate, the Counselor—to

15:18), the keys of the kingdom of heaven

have abandoned His Church. If so. He

bear witness to Himself, to remind them of

could not be the Son of God.

everything He had taught them, and to

(Matt. 16:19), and the power to forgive sins (John 20:23).

Now, Jesus promised that the gates of hell—meaning death, underworld, grave, annihilation, and the like—would not pre vail His Church. Logically, if the Church could cor rupt the original faith of the Apostles,

even for a short time—let alone for nearly two millennia—then Jesus would have

failed in His promise. He would not have

Saint Gabriel Communications

tlons. In 1997, he launched the radio

Raymond de Souza heads Saint Gabriel

weekly "Mission Posslblel" answering

Communications, a lay apostolate of Catholic apologetics and evangelization

questions In a style similar to Fr.

in Australia, where he lives with his wife

may be contacted at:

broadcast "Sounds Catholic" and the

Rumble's famous "Radio Replies." He

Saint Gabriel Communications,

and family. In the last twenty years Raymond has addressed hundreds of

P.O. Box 201, BurswoodWA 6100

Catholic seminars, parish educational programs, schools, and lay organlza-


Australia.Tel/fax:(61-8)9277 5987

been the Son of God.

MaY-JL'NE 191)9


Catholic Apologetics

It is worth noting that

the first apostasy of followers ofJesus

remain with them forever: "When the Advocate has come,

before the Church was officially established^ when Jesus told His

disciples in

Capharnaum that He was 'Hhe bread that

came down from heaven/^

did, Saint Paul was speaking nonsense

Whom I will send from the Father,

when he made this affirmation about the

the Spirit of Truth Who proceeds


from the Father, He will bear witness

concerning Me"(John 15:26). "The Advocate, the Holy Ghost, Whom the Father will send in My


rupt the truths taught by the Apostles. If it

name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your mind whatever I have said to you"(John 14:26). "I will ask the Father, and He will

give you another Advocate to dwell with you forever, the Spirit of Truth ... you shall know Him, because He will dwell with you, and abide with you forever"(John 14:16-17),

If, in spite of all these promises of the coming of the Holy Ghost, the Church

still corrupted the Truth, then both Our Lord and the Holy Ghost failed dismally

Did the early Christians see the Church as being liable to corruption? The Faith of the first Christians is

well-documented in the writings of the early Fathers of the Church from as far back as Saint Clement, who was Bishop

of Rome while the last Apostle, Saint John, was still alive. Saint Ignatius, Saint Peter's successor as third Bishop of Antioch, Saint Irenaeus, Saint Polycarp, and Saint Justin Martyr are also wellknown defenders of the Faith of the

Apostles in the first two centuries. In their writings there is no mention whatsoever

What is the pillar and

of any "great apostasy," as non-Catholics could expect if any had happened in those days. Neither the defenders of the Church nor its enemies mention any such aposta

foundation of the truth?

sy. In fact, there is complete silence

What is the pillar and foundation of the truth? "The Bible!" any denominational

among historians in the first millennium

Christian will reply. But the Bible itself

it happened, surely somebody would have

says that the Church is the pillar and foun

noticed it.

in Their work of salvation.

dation of the Truth, the guide of

about this mythical "great apostasy." Had

The early Fathers defended the same

Christiansâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;not the Bible alone. Saint Paul

teachings that orthodox Catholics defend


today, such as the Mass as a sacrifice, the

"1 write these things to you hop ing to come to you shortly, but in order that you may know, if I am delayed, how to conduct yourself in the house of God, which is the

Church of the Living God, the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim. 3:15).

Real Presence of Our Lord in the

Eucharist, the authority of the Bishop of Rome, and so forth. In future articles we

shall examine the Fathers' teachings on various issues, which will provide Crusodc readers with a very tangible proof that Catholicism today holds the very same faith as the early Christians.

If the Church is the pillar and foun dation of the truth, how can the Church

The first real apostasy

corrupt the truth? Is Jesus not the Way, the Truth and the Life? It is thus

tasy of followers of Jesus Christ did not

ble for the Church of Jesus Christ to cor

lake place in the days of Arius or

It is worth noting that the first apos

k On the initiative of some 700 parishioners, this smail chapei for Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament was recently opened at the Church of the Annunciation in McSherrystown, Pennsylvania, it is edifying to see numbers of the faithful gathered in prayer before our Eucharistic Lord around the clock,

even in the late hours of the night and early hours of the morning, bearing silent witness to the twenty-centuries-oid faith in the Divine Presence, in these

days of materialism and so many other isms, when belief in and respect for the Real Presence has reached such a low ebb among Catholics, it is encouraging to note that McSherrystown is by no means an isolated case. Many such

chapels for Perpetual Adoration are being erected once again throughout the United States.

if ■ Nestorius. It happened before the Church was officially established, when Jesus told his disciples in

Caphamaum that He was "the Bread that came down from heaven" and that

those who ate His flesh and drank His

blood would have life everlasting.

Many disciples refused to accept His teaching on the Real Presence and "walked with Him no more"(See John

6). It is interesting to note that most of those who accuse the Church of Rome

of having apostatized from the true Faith actually follow the footsteps of those disciples who did apostatize from following Jesus because of a point of doctrine.

In those days when the Incarnate Word of God walked this earth, the

then chosen people were divided and subdivided into a variety of sects,

groups, and movements. The Pharisees, the Saduccees, the Herodians, the Zealots, and the Essenes were the most

well-known ones, aside from the prag matic publicans. They all disagreed

among themselves on important points of the Mosaic Law. On just one point was there any agreement, when they

shouted, "crucify Him!" History repeats itself. In the cen turies following the Prote.stant

Revolution, religious denominations have emerged throughout the world, each one a splinter of a previous splinter group. This multiplication of churches, sects, organizations, and cults has brought about a remarkable variety of creeds that conflict on important points

/ .i

of Christian doctrine. On one point

alone do they totally agree, that is, when they shout,"The Catholic Church has gone wrong." Yes, what was done to the physi


cal body of Christ in the past is today

perpetrated against the Mystical Body of Christ, the Church.

"No servant is greater than his master. If they have persecuted Me, they will persecute you

Our Lord did\ not

also.... Yes, the hour is coming

for everyone who kills you to think that he is offering worship to God. And these things they will

^^gfain grain of ojsand/^ sanay a simple Simon mrppn

do because they have not known the Father nor Me"(John 15:20; 16:2-3). ■

tt upon a Kephoy^a Rock—the Papacy which He Himself established. MAY-JIINI; iw»)


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The More


Things in Life by Michelle Taylor

Aprofessor once wished to demonstrate a concept to his class.

Taking a wide-mouthed vase,

them in. Let's try."

inside it. Then he asked the stu

The professor set out another vase the same size as the previous

Everyone answered in unison,


them into the vase. The pebbles set tled into the spaces between the

larger stones. Again he asked;

the water. Lastly, the young man

"And now, is it full?"

tried to place in the large stones, but these no longer fit since most of the vase was filled by the small

Then the professor took a handful of pebbles and dropped

timely articles of lasting interest for

each and every member of your family — from the history of Christian civilization to

one, then gathered the same num ber of large stones, another handful of pebbles, a can of sand, and ajar of water. Calling the student who had answered, he bade him pour in the pebbles first, then the sand and


Crusade offers

first, you will never be able to fit

he placed several large stones dents, "Is it full?"

SIX times a

"Not exactly," the professor replied. "The point is that unless you place the big stones in the vase

This time a few of the pupils hesitated, but the majority answered yes.

current Catholic events; from episodes in the lives of the saints to the persecution and martyrdom of Catholics in our own days; from inspirational stories for children to insightful discussion of child rearing; from apologetics to forgotten truths. Fully illustrated and dynamically presented,

and stones. For the third time the

serve God before all else and, in

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professor asked,"So, it is full?"

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The professor then took a can filled with sand and began pouring it in the vase. The sand filtered

into the spaces between the pebbles

Most of the students were now

unsure of the professor's meaning, but many still answered that it was.

er materials.

The professor explained his point: "The large stones are the really important things in your life, mainly the concern to love and

tion of your soul. Once you have made these your priority, then your other obligations and pursuits will

The professor then took ajar of water and poured it into the vase, saturating the sand. The pro

fall into place: your relationships

fessor now asked his class, "What

ies, work, leisure, and all the rest.

with family and friends, your stud

is the object of this demonstra

But if your first concem is with the


smaller things—the pebbles, the

A young, talented student stood up and answered,"No matter how full the 'agenda' of one's life,

important ones—the large stones— will not find a place in your life.

one can always squeeze something else in."

sand, and the water—the more

"Seek first the kingdom of God and all else will be given to you." ■

Teaching Our Children

since it is the place where Catholics bless themselves and make that sign of the cross that the devil is known to

dread. Quite disgusted, the Saint demanded of the devil what he was

doing there. The devil cackled malicious ly and replied,"The Catholics who enter

this church don't make the sign of the cross but just a sloppy 'scribble' over themselves. Scribbles don't scare me!"

A properly made sign of the cross is very powerful against the enemies of our soul, that is, the world, the flesh,


and the devil. The world means those who do not love God and want the con

trary of what God wants; the flesh

The Sign of the Cross The mark of the Catholic is the Sign of the Cross. It is truly the most impor

tant and most glorious of signs, for it is not only a reminder of the cross on

well executed, so we must bless

ourselves in a proper manner

Father," then to our hearts and

saying, "and of the Son." then touching our right shoulder

ed him to their home for dinner with the

and crossing over to the left and saying, "and of the Holy

intention of killing him. As they sat at the table, they offered the Saint a glass

Ghost, Amen," we are

of wine and insisted that he drink it. Don

selves, putting our extended palm to our foreheads and saying,"In the name of the

acknowledging that God is triune and recalling that God the Son redeemed us

with His cross. Although a very short prayer, it is a most powerful one. It is our salute to God.

But just as a military salute must be

"It Is on the mother's knee that the

men of tomorrow are formed. The mother is God's collaborator and

the Church's first apostle. She is a reflection of God's mercy. He loves

us through the mother's heart."

we should make the sign of the cross frequently—when getting up in the morning, when going to sleep at night, before meals, on passing in front of or entering a church, before beginning work or any other important activity, and whenever we feel tempted or find ourselves in danger. The sign of the cross spared the lives of at least two great saints. Some

which our God and Lord died, but a

prayer as well. Every time we cross our

Just as a military salute must be

means our bad inclinations; the devil is

he who always seeks to take us to Hell by tempting us to all sorts of evil. Since these three enemies are always after us,

enemies of Saint John Bosco once invit

Bosco, suspecting that his wicked hosts had put some sort of poison in the wine,

made a sign of the cross over the glass. As soon as he did so the glass shattered, and the poisoned wine spilled over the table and dripped to the floor. Many cen

well executed, so we must bless our

turies earlier. Saint Benedict had reluc

selves in a very proper manner. No gen eral would accept a feeble, careless

tantly agreed to become abbot over a

salute from a soldier. Much less would

God be pleased with a careless sign of

he knew they would—that his way of life was not to their liking. They had

the cross from us.

resolved to rid themselves of him. The

group of monks who later decided—as

Once, as Saint Ambrose, a great bishop and doctor of the Holy Church, entered his church and was about to dip his finger into the holy water font, he

monks had set before him. The blessing caused the vessel to break, and its poi

was surprised at seeing a horrid devil sit

soned contents spilled harmlessly onto

ting there. The holy water font, he thought, should of all places be among the least likely for the devil to perch,

the table.

Saint, as was his custom, made the sign of the cross over a vessel of wine the

Ave Crux, spes unica\—Hail, O

Cross, our only hope!

Cardinal Mindszenty teaching Our Children

May-June 1999


Basic Hist6ry Course

Western Civilization Chapter 16

Trouble from the East by Jeremias Wells

Pope Saint Martin

AsRoman Catholicism through heroic effort was beginning to see success in the West, a series of

irreversible setbacks was beginning to spell its doom in the East. The Eastern penchant for theological disputes coupled with a proud unwillingness to listen to the Pope's voice of truth erupted in a series of

pernicious heresies. With infidelity hang ing in the air like a noxious pestilence, the emperor or the Patriarch of Constantinopleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and sometimes bothâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; joined the spiritual rebellion. Military reverses also caused disrupt

ing damage. More barbarian tribes streamed down from the North into the Balkan

wedge, and the Persians attacked from the East, but the damage from these incursions was little compared with that caused by the

the papal prerogatives on matters of faith, he called a Roman synod which con demned both the heresy and the decree and Constantinople and several bishops. In a rage, Constans sent his cham

The debilitating

berlain as exarch to Rome. The latter

While Leo was employed as the chief advisor of Pope Saint Celestine, Nestorius,

ordered one of his attendants to murder

Martin as he distributed the Holy Eucharist. At the moment of attack the

Eastern heresies

Archbishop of Constantinople, gained infa mous notoriety by spreading his heresy

assassin was struck with, mak

that Christ was actually two persons and

ing him temporarily helpless. Both men recognized the intervention of God,

that Mary was not the Mother of God. Fortunately, in those days of heretical trou bles, the most powerful advocates came

warned the Pope, and left Italy. Fearing more retaliation from the emperor's agents, Martin sought sanctu

down on the side of Catholic orthodoxy,

the church doors and cruelly dragged him

notably Saint Pulcheria, a virgin and the sister of Emperor Theodosius 11, and Saint Cyril, the brilliant and dynamic Patriarch of Alexandria, then the most important see after Rome.

ary in the Lateran Basilica, but to no avail. The imperial ruffians broke down

Mohammedan hordes that smashed out of

off to a waiting ship. Suffering from exhaustion and illness, Martin was trans

The abduction and

ferred from prison to prison until he arrived in Constantinople a year later, unwashed and without proper nourish

Church to suit his own prejudices and

back 200 years to the time of Pope Saint Leo the Great.

excommunicated the Patriarch of

the Arabian peninsula in 632.

death of Pope Martin In 654 Emperor Constans 11 decided he was going to run the Holy Catholic

threads of this sad tale, we have to go

ment. The soldiers striped him of any gar

ments that symbolized his holy office, leaving him only a tunic which they

At Pulcheria's urging, Theodosius summoned the Third General Council' at

Ephesus, the first council of which we have a record of the proceedings. Cyril presided, not as Bishop of Alexandria but as explicit representative of Pope Celestine, and car ried out the pontiff's deposition of the

political needs without any interference

ripped from top to bottom. Thus exposed,

heretical Nestorius. The Nestorians eventu

from Church authorities. Among his

the Vicar of Christ was dragged through the streets of the capital with an iron col lar around his neck. He died in prison

ally disappeared from the Empire and set

usurping decrees was an order forbidding any debate or public criticism on yet another christological heresy that the arrogant emperor intended to promote. That order included the Vicar of Christ on earth.

Saint Martin I, an exceptionally brave

four months later, abandoned, cold and

The pendulum then swung in the opposite direction, from two persons to

hungry, a martyr to the faith.

one person with one nature. This aberra

What could have caused the leaders

Monophysite heresy from the Greek

to perpetrate such gross inhumanity on

words mono (one) and physis (nature). It matters little at what point these errors begin; they all result in the denial of the

the highest and most cherished represen

imperial decree. Determined to exercise

tative of God on earth? To connect the


tion came to be known as the

of the most civilized city in Christendom

and capable Pope, resolutely opposed the


tled in Persia.


Incarnation and the voluntary sacrifice of Jesus Christ in redeeming the world. Peter has spoken by Leo On June 13, 449, Pope Leo the Great wrote a letter, known as the "Dogmatic Epistle," to Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople, which laid out in definitive terms the Catholic doctrine on the subject: Jesus Christ possesses two complete and distinct natures, the divine and the human,

maneuver cast a pall over the proceedings. Towards the end, the Council, with the

papal legates absent, passed a decree that declared that Constantinople enjoyed rank

sultation with Rome.

Pope Saint Gelasius advanced and

refined the ideas of Pope Leo that guided Church-State relations throughout the Middle Ages. He introduced his famous theory of the two powers or swords that governed Christendom: the sacred authori

ty of the popes and the royal power, the spiritual and the secular. Each has its own

sphere of action, but the spiritual is higher since it is concerned with the salvation of

united in the eternal person of the Word of

souls, including those of rulers. In a letter to the Byzantine emperor in 494, Gelasius

God incarnate. He further stated that the

divine, which restored the essential element

insisted that he (the emperor) is "to be obedient to the ecclesiastical authority

that Christ suffered and died for us.

rather than to control it."^

The driving force of the Monophysite heresy in the early stages was the violent


human nature was not absorbed into the

and ambitious Patriarch of Alexandria,

Justinian controlled events in the

Dioscuros. The unruly patriarch, who had The Emperor Justinian

the support of the heretical Empress, Eudocia, who now dominated the weak-

willed Theodosius, commandeered the

council called by the emperor and pro ceeded from one act of violence to anoth

and privileges second only to Rome, sur passing the ancient Sees of Alexandria and Antioch that had been established by

Empire for nearly half a century, first as co-ruler with his uncle, Justin I, and then

as one of the most autocratic emperors in Byzantine history. Although early in his tenure Justinian acknowledged that Rome was the supreme tribunal concerning all

er. The papal legates escaped and Bishop Flavian was so badly beaten that he soon


questions of doctrine, he quickly aban doned that concept for one more pleasing


Imperial arrogance Pope Leo absolutely refused to accept

to his imperious will: that sacred law was

When informed of the proceedings of what has been termed the "Robber

Council," Saint Leo acted quickly and

the increase of power for the See of Byzantium. Like Gregory the Great 150

firmly. He held a synod in Rome which

years later, he saw that the fundamental

a branch of imperial law. The papacy's problems were compounded by the

Empress Theodora's enormous capacity for troublemaking, especially on behalf of Monophysite heretics. On fraudulent

rejected the decrees of Dioscuros. Invoking

objective was the usurpation of papal

his own supreme authority, he wrote letters to all the principals, outlining their respon

supremacy. The emperors, along with their

charges, she had the uncooperative Pope

bishops, had been arguing for decades that

Saint Silverius banished to an island in

sibilities. So decisive was his action that

since Constantinople was the imperial cap ital it should have an equivalent ecclesiasti

the Tyrrhenian Sea, where the resolute pontiff died.

Leo had not been divinely moved, the

cal rank. Saint Leo countered by staling that the pope's prerogatives came from

secured the election of the ambitious

Christian religion would have perished."-

Jesus Christ through Saint Peter and not

Virgilius to replace Silverius. When he

because of proximity to the imperial

proved less pliable than anticipated,

Justinian dragged him off to Constantinople

400 years later Pope Saint Nicholas (also called the Great) remarked. "If the great

However, Theodosius II, controlled

The conniving empress already had

by his heretical wife and the violent

palace. Leo went on to say that because the

Patriarch, remained adamant. Then, sud

spiritual welfare of all Christians under his

where he tried to browbeat and manhandle

denly, the emperor fell from his horse and

him into submission. The harried Pope, after several years of vacillating from one position to another, was finally released and

In order to bring stability to the throne,

supreme jurisdiction included the whole of man, it could not be limited to a political department. Yet sadly, the emperors over the succeeding decades resisted the God-

she married Marcion, a most devout and

given supremacy, sometimes boldly and

able general, provided she be able to pre

overtly, at other times subtly and devious ly-

died. Saint Pulcheria again took control of the court after an absence of several years.

serve her virginal state.

Marcion, who officially recognized

The Monophysite heresy, although

died while returning to Rome. All this energy had been concocted to appease the Monophysites, who in the end rejected the effort as insufficient. Justinian,

considered by some historians as the last

the Pope's "fullness of power," called the

condemned, spread over a wider area and

great Roman emperor, died in 565 at the

Fourth General Council at Chalcedon in

sank its roots deeply into the souls of the people, especially in Egypt and Syria. Three successive emperors of the period (474-518) espoused the heresy in varying degrees, causing the first open schism between East and West. Moreover, they

age of eighty, worn out by all the ecclesi

451. The papal legates introduced Leo's

Dogmatic Epistle, a masterpiece for clarity of thought, and the assembly loudly

acclaimed the document, shouting, "Peter has spoken by Leo." Monophysitism had been condemned.

Then a seemingly insignificant

insisted on determining the dogmas of belief as an inherent right without any con

astical conflicts. With the Church under

mined by imperial arrogance and the

Empire by barbarian attacks and dogmatic confusion, Justinian left the world a worse

place than he had found it. That Virgilius and the next four popes were never canon ized indicates that the Church leaders were

May-June 1999



being overwhelmed by the problems they faced

of the East. He even confused Pope Honorius I

and greatly illuminates the brilliancy of the pon

with his deft language and convinced him to remain quiet.

tificate of Saint Gregory the Great that succeed ed them.**

While Gregory reasserted papal primacy, increased its wealth and prestige, and inaugurated the monastic conversion of Europe, the Byzantine Empire rapidly deteriorated. The Slavs and the Avars, fierce Turkish raiders who were eventually

Again, in the darkest of confused days, the light of truth shone forth from a great saint. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, cut through the subtle web of sophistry and exposed the

heresy in vigorous language. Heraclius and Sergius decided that the best strategy in this

subdued by Charlemagne, ravaged the Balkans,

volatile situation was

coming on occasion even to the walls of Constantinople. In the East, the terrible wars with

to force all parties to be silent. However, in a

short period of time God silenced them all. Saint

Whatever Justinian's faults, and they were numer

Sophronius, Honorius, and Sergius died in 638,

ous, he at least kept the Empire together while increasing its size and holding off its enemies. His

later by the then morbid

the Persians resumed with disastrous results.

to be followed three years

successors failed miserably in all departments and ended their days in ignominious deaths: insanity in the first case, followed next by poisoning from a dish of mulberries, then a decapitation along with the victim's four sons by a bloodthirsty

Heraclius's grandson, Constans II, was placed


After particularly violent maneuvering,

tyrant who was in turn dismembered by his suc

on the throne at the age

cessor. As in the old Roman days, the problems of

of eleven. During his late

succession were resolved by violence, and it

teens, this ill-tempered youth repeated his grand

would not end here.

The last survivor, the crusading Heraclius,

father's edict of total

inaugurated a hundred-year dynasty that

silence under the pain of

brought some of the most disreputable rulers to the throne. This impressive soldier began his

severe penalties. The

reign on a note of greatness, however. He per sonally led an army in the field that recon quered all the land taken by the Persians and

the opening paragraphs

permanently destroyed their military machine.

tude and cruelty that to avoid the displeasure of his subjects he eventually fled to Syracuse,

Once again, the Byzantine attraction for the ological dispute reared its ugly head. Heraclius. in an effort to unify the fragmenting Empire and pacify the turbulent Monophysites, published an edict declaring that Christ had only one will (Monothelism). Like most compromises, it satis fied neither side, but only intensified the bitter ness of the conflict. With the emperor frequently

occupied with military affairs, Sergius, the excep tionally clever Archbishop of Constantinople, promoted the new heresy (really just the Monophysite heresy phrased in different terms) and won acceptance from the compliant bishops


results were described in

of this chapter. Constans ruled with such inepti

where in 668 a dissatisfied officer bashed in his

skull with a soap-dish. With the cooperation of Pope Agatho,

Emperor Constantine IV, and 174 bishops, the

(London, 1906; Vol. 5 of The Formation of Christendom), p. 439. 3. S.Z. Ehier and J.B. Morrall, Church and

State Through the Centuries (Westminster, Md., 1954), p.ll.

4. Saint Gregory the Great is discussed at length in Chapter 15 (Crusade, MarchApril, 1999, pp. 23-27).



century, was the most important church In the Byzantine Empire. Reduced to a mosque in

the fifteenth century, the basilica is now a museum.

of the christological heresies was finally put to rest at the Sixth General Council in 681, the third at

Constantinople. But it was decades too late. The

fierce Mohammedans,taking advantage of all the internal conflicts, had already reduced Byzantine

territory by about half. That huge setback for Christian civilization will be discussed in the next

chapter. â&#x2013;

Bibliographical Note

tive survey written by a medieval historian then at Penn State.

1. The term Ecumenical (universal) Council

is also used. The adjectives are synonymous. 2. T.W. Allies, The Throne of the Fisherman

Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), built In the sixth

Three general histories on the Middle Ages will be used throughout the medieval period: Jeremiah O'Sullivan and John F. Burns, Medieval Europe,(New York, 1943); Brian Tiemey and Sidney Painter,

Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 3001475(New York, 1970); Joseph Dahmus, The Middle Ages: A Popular History(New York, 1970). One should not be mislead by the last title, for it is a fact-filled, authorita

More detailed accounts are Walter

Ullman, The Growth ofthe Papal States in the Middle Ages 3rd ed.(London, 1970); and Philip Hughes, A Histo)y ofthe General Councils. 320-1870(New York, 1960).

Family Series


Lime Barrel A French Medieval Tale

Illustrated by Helene A. Catherwood

etween Normandy and

Brittany, in a faraway place and time, there lived a lord

His vassal responded patiently, saying: "Accompany us, at least."

Smiling ironically, the lord protested: "I acquiesce for your

of awesome renown. He

sakes. But 1 will do nothing for God."

possessed a castle near the sea that was so strong, so fortified, and so well

Arriving at the hermit's retreat, in the heart of the quiet and solitary forest, the knights entered the abode of the holy man. But

defended that he feared no

their lord remained outside on his horse.

king or prince, duke or

And so they took to the road.

After confessing their sins as sincerely and diligently as they

count. He was rich, and of

could, the knights pleaded with the hermit: "Father, our lord, who

great stature and handsome

remained outside, is not in a good state of soul. Please entreat him

bearing. Despite his distin

to come in for confession."

guished noble lineage, how

Leaning on his staff, the hermit went out to meet the lord.

ever, he was vain, cruel,

Addressing him with calm dignity, he said: "Welcome, Sir. Being a

treacherous, and proud, fear ing neither God nor man.

knight, thou must surely be courteous. Accept my invitation, then. Dismount, and let us go inside to speak."

He spread terror about the land, ambushing and killing pilgrims and merchants on the roads

With a churlish oath rising to his lips, the lord answered impa tiently: "Speak with thee? What for? Speak about what? We have

and byways. He observed no fasting or abstinence, attended no

nothing in common! Besides, I am in haste and wish to take my

Mass, and heard no sermons. No one had ever known another per


son as wicked as he.

Undismayed, the hermit insisted: "For the sake of the order of

One Good Friday, having awakened in a jovial mood, he sum moned his cooks, shouting, "Prepare the game 1 hunted yesterday,

chivalry, please come in to visit my chapel and my abode."

for today I want my dinner early."

forcefulness of his personality, the lord grumbled to himself: "What a misery I fell into agreeing to come hither this morning!" Very much against his pleasure, he conceded. Hoping he would

Upon hearing this, one of his knights exclaimed:"My Lord, today is Good Friday, everyone is fasting and abstaining, and lo. thou wishest to eat meat! Believe what we say: God will eventually punish thee!"

"By the time that happens, 1 shall have assaulted and hanged

Overcome by the hermit's insistence and especially by the

somehow succeed in quickly ridding himself of this bothersome hermit, the lord dismounted.

The hermit took him by the arm and led him into the chapel.

many people!" replied the lord scornfully.

When they were before the altar, the man of God said to him: "Sir,

"Art thou so certain that God will continue tolerating this much longer?" inquired the knight. "Thou shouldst hastily repent, beg for pardon, and weep for thy sins. A man of great sanctity, a

consider thyself my prisoner. Kill me if thou wishest, but I shall

hermit-priest, dwells deep in the neighboring woods. Let us go there for confession."

The lord reacted sharply: "I? I go to confession?" Then swear

ing, he remarked,"I would go there only if he had something I could despoil him of."

not freely let thee go from hence before thou hast told me all thy sins."

The lord, almost beside himself, glared at the hermit with

incredible fury. After a few alarming moments of suspense, the lord exclaimed: "I will tell thee nothing! Moreover, I do not see why 1 should not slay thee right here and now!"

The holy hermit risked his life once again. "Brother, tell me.

May-June 1999


Famiiy Series

With great strides, the lord went down to the stream

and dipped the barrel in it, but not a single drop of water went in. He tried again one way, and then another, but the barrel remained empty. then,just one sin, and God will help thee confess the others."

Swearing anew in exasperation, the

ran swiftly back to the anchorite's dwelling. Upon finding him, he exclaimed:

did not cross and virtually no waters he did

"By all the saints in Heaven, thou hast

But all was in vain.

lord barked,"Wilt thou not leave me

placed me in a great predicament with this

alone? All right, I will confess. But I shall repent of nothing, absolutely nothing!"

accursed barrel! I am unable to put a single drop of water in it!"

With mighty arrogance, he told all the sins of his stormy life at one fell swoop.

The hermit listened to him and then

lamented: "Sir, what a sad state thine is! A

not try in his efforts to fill the little barrel.

Such long, arduous, and fruitless jour neying gradually took its toll. He wasted away and became almost unrecognizable, with his hair disheveled, his skin clinging to his bones, his eyes sunken, and his veins

child could have brought this barrel back

protruding. So weakened, he needed a staff

to me brimful with water. But thou, thou

to steady himself. The empty little barrel

weep. Then he ventured another request.

hast not been able to fetch a single drop!

had become an enormous burden for him,

"Sir, give me at least the consolation of

This is surely a sign from God to thee on account of thy sins." In an outburst of anger and pride, the


Heartbroken at the sight of such cal

lous impenitence, the hermit began to

allowing me to subject thee to a penance." "Penance? Art thou trying to make a fool of me? What penance wouldst thou give me?" "In atonement for thy sins, offer God

lord retorted, "I swear to thee that I will

not wash my head, or shave, or trim my fingernails until I have filled this barrel

a fast on every Friday for the next three years," the monk stated.

and fulfilled my word. Even if I have to go around the whole world, I will yet fill this

"Fast? For three years?" protested the lord. "Hast thou taken leave of thy senses?

barrel to the brim!"


neck, the lord departed, taking with him only the garments he wore and having no

"One month, then," the holy man said


With the little barrel hanging from his

yet he continued to cany it tied about his After nearly a year of these fruitless efforts, he decided, in both anger and frus tration, to return to the hermit's abode. It

was an exhausting journey, but at last he arrived, exactly on Good Friday! The holy hermit failed to recognize the man who came to his door, but upon seeing the little barrel, he asked: "What has brought thee here, dear brother? And who has given thee this barrel? It has been

escort - except for God and his guardian

a year now since I gave it to a fair lord. I



know not whether he is alive or dead, for

"Then, for the love of God. go to a

At every brook, river, and lake he encountered, he attempted to fill the barrel, but always in vain.

he has not returned."

church and recite a Pater Noster and an Ave."

"I would find that very boring," scoffed the lord, "and a waste of time as well."

"For Almighty God's sake, do at least one kind deed. Take this little barrel to the

nearby brook, fill it with water, and return it to me!"

"Hah! If I can so easily rid myself of

In hot and cold weather alike, through

Enraged, the stranger replied: "I am that lord, and this is the state to which thou hast reduced me!" Then he told the hermit

wet and dry, he journeyed on, across

all his misadventures, still without showing

mountains and valleys, through forests and

any sign of repentance!

fields, tearing and bloodying his skin on

The man of God listened attentively and grew indignant at such hardness of heart. "Thou art the worst of men! A dog,

brambles and stones.

His days were painful; his nights worse yet. Famished, he was reduced to

begging for food. At times he unwillingly

a wolf, or any other animal would have filled this barrel! Ah, well do I see that

thee, I consent. Give me the barrel. On my

fasted for two or three days on end, not

God has not accepted thy penance, for

word, I shall fill it to the brim and quickly

being able to obtain even a piece of stale bread to appease his hunger.

thou hast done it without contrition."

bring it back, and then I can be on my way at last."

With great strides, the lord hastened down to the stream and dipped the barrel

Seeing this man, so tall and vigorous, but so unkempt and bronzed by the sun,

Seeing the lamentable state of that hardened soul, he began to weep."O God, look upon this creature Thou hast made

people were wary and fearful of receiving him. So, many a night he found no lodging

and that so madly gambles with the salva tion of his soul. Ah! Holy Mary, obtain

in the clear water - but not a single drop went in. Puzzled, he tried again, first one

and had to sleep exposed to the elements.

mercy for this man. Sweet Jesus, shouldst

way, and then another, but the barrel

In addition, he faced mockery and insults,

Thou have to choose between the two of

remained completely empty.

but he stubbornly went on. Nothing and no one was able to curb his pride or to soften

this creature."

"What!" he exclaimed. "What is this

us, unleash Thy wrath upon me, but save

supposed to mean?"

even slightly his cruel heart.

Again he dunked the barrel in the water, but to no avail. Baffled and gritting

He journeyed through England and France, Spain and Italy, Germany and

"There is nothing linking me to this man

his teeth in anger, he sprang to his feet and

Hungary. There is scarcely a country he

but God. Yet he suffers and weeps at the

Mystified, the lord stared at the weep

ing and praying hermit, and he thought:

May-June 1999


Family Series

sight of my sins. Indeed I must be the worst of men and the greatest of sinners, for he is desolate and ready to sacrifice

Tea Anyone?

himself on my account. Ah! Make me

repentant,0 God, so that this holy man may have at least the consolation of my contrition. O King of Mercy, I beg Thee,

(Continuedfrom back cover)

forgive me for everything of which I am guilty!" Thus did God do His work in that

soul. The lord's hardened heart was final

ly moved, and his contrition was so deep that his eyes began to well up with tears. A large teardrop spilled from his eye, ran down his face, and fell right into the lit tle barrel that still hung about his neck.

It is not as if tea is not popular here. After all, aside from plain water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in

Who goes to the tearoom? Nearly everyone, it seems. Mrs. Widdowson's

the world and is found in almost eighty

Anglophiles but pretty much a cross sec tion of the local population—business

percent of American households.

clients are not mere eccentric

Lo, that single tear was enough to fill the barrel to its very brim! It was a sign that God had forgiven him his sins.

According to the Tea Council of the

men, housewives, even teenagers. It is a

U.S.A., on any given day nearly 127 mil lion people—half of all Americans—

trend mirrored in other tearooms across

the country.

At that, the hermit and the lord embraced, shedding tears of joy.

drink tea. But in these tranquil tearoom retreats, one finds much more than just a

vated you to open a tearoom?" I asked

"Father, if you permit, I want to

confess again," said the lord with unac customed but sincere meekness,"but this

time with contrition for my many sins." And so, falling to his knees, he con fessed, deeply repentant and weeping abundantly.

After absolving the lord, the hermit

beverage competing with water. One finds a way of life. I decided to investigate the Black

"Why do they come and what moti Mrs. Widdowson.

"Our country is uncivil today. People don't talk because we live in a fast-paced

Rose to see if I could fi nd out more.

world where everything is packaged and

When I called to arrange for tea I was

instant. People are searching for civility in

told that the waiting list for Saturday tea is four weeks. A quick sigh of relief was

their lives," she replied.

my response, since I was considering a weekday. "It

atmosphere that imparts that exact impres sion. Observing a couple of ladies nearby,

would still be

I sensed a refreshing cordiality.

good to call a

"They're under a lot of stress," she continued, "working too many hours. A tea

asked him if he wished to receive Communion.

"Yes, Father. But hurry, please, for I

day ahead to

feel that I am about to die."

Having received Holy Communion,

Indeed, there is something about the

make sure there

break works because it's deliberate. It

is an opening,"

clean, no stain of sin remaining in his

was the friendly

causes you to slow down and focus on some other person or on yourself. The


response on the

experience of tea is about relationships."

the lord was completely purified and

"Father, thou hast done me all man

ner of good. In return, my whole being is thine. I am in thy hands. The end approaches. Pray for me." Then the lord sank into the hermit's arms and breathed his last. At that

other end of the

Yes, whom will I take next time I go?


In nearby Gettysburg, the Thistlefields

In our indus Helen Widdowson

proprietor of the Black Rose Tea Room

In Hanover, PA

trialized world, accustomed to eat

ing on the run, where time is

moment, the chapel filled with light, and

English Tearoom goes even further. Authenticity reaches the point that you will occasionally see modem Victorians wearing period clothing, complete with

hats and gloves. Afternoon tea there is a

angels descended to lead that soul to

money, it would appear that people want a

serious affair.

Heaven in a magnificent cortege, won

little more out of life. That is exactly what

ders the hermit could see on account of

owner Helen Widdowson seeks to give

his exalted virtue.

them with her establishment.

Following this, there remained before the altar only the body of the lord, clothed in rags and with his little barrel hanging from his neck.

Having spent eight years in Germany, she is impressed by the difference of life in Europe. She liked those "third" kind of places outside the home and the workplace where people can get together for leisurely conversation. Apparently she wasn't the only one looking for such retreats. After just eighteen months of operation, she is already considering expanding her tea room, and with good reason, for business

Amateur theatrics, one might think, yet it appears to be something more. Tea speaks to the soul. It calls to mind princi ples that seem so distant. The Bigham House Bed and Breakfast

End This account is based on the books Beautd

du Moyen Age by Regine Pernoud (GautierLanguereau, 1971), and Poetes et Prosateurs du Moyen Age by Gaston Paris (Hachette, 1921).



is booming.

in Holmes, Ohio, for example, invites

prospective guests to "an authentic English Tea Room in Grand Victorian Style," where

they can "step back in time to a bygone era of Victorian elegance and charm." At the Devon Tea Room in the quaint

Cape Cod village of West Dennis, Massachusetts, a similar spirit reigns. "It is see that all over America,


O iti a

Interior of the Black Rose Tea Room in Hanover, PA

people are discovering or rediscovering the pleasures of tea," claims the tearoom's pro

tearoom. Amid the triumphant vulgarity of

motional literature. "For many, a tradition al afternoon tea party brings back wonder

noisy, frantic, and hurly-burly pace of daily life, tradition appears as an elevated

ful memories."

rest for the soul. It represents good sense,

At the very aptly named Magnolia and Ivy Tearoom in the "good ole South," in

an increasingly egalitarian world and the

good breeding, good order, and the art of

Above all, such trends serve to stress

how people need tradition—especially our Christian tradition. Tradition is not just the past but an indispensable element that must rule the present. It keeps equality from sweeping away all refinement and enthron

ages the shop but also teaches others all over the country how to open their own tea

from England can find sympathy. It

explains why some Americans have a pen

ing vulgarity. It prevents freedom from serving as a pretext for chaos and depravi ty. Without tradition, the fast pace of tech nology enslaves man by turning him into a

rooms. She says that people, including

chant for all things EnglLsh. De.spite its censurable romantic aspects, the Victorian

machine. Only tradition provides that mys terious something that makes life meaning

archetype has its restful attractions that temper our fast-paced modernity. We long

ful, human, and bearable,

Plains, Georgia, Terrl Eager not only man

teenagers, visit her three shops because "they don't feel comfortable with the

cyber-future." She not only serves tea, but

living wisely. For this reason, even a distant tradition

While casually sipping my tea at the Black Rose, I could not help but feel that I

for those who feel they need a bit of polish ing, she offers a variety of etiquette classes: "Tea Etiquette," "Children's Etiquette and Dining," and "Corporate Etiquette," trained

Such themes are typically found in Victoria

and certified by the Protocol School of Washington.

treats its nearly 975,000 monthly readers to

young English girl who was also denied

features from this not-so-bygone era.

the special delight of having a leisurely

Perhaps that is the whole secret of the

for the thatched cottages, the English gar

dens, and the picturesque hamlets popular

ized by American artist Thomas Kinkaid.

magazine, for example, which regularly

had been denied something very special for too long. Yet I was comforted by the realization that I was not alone. The story has it that a long time ago there was a

cup of tea. When she grew up and made a

Tradition is notjust the past but an indispensable element that must rule the present

name for herself in this world, when peo ple recognized her as somebody, one of the first things she did—after her coronation

as Queen Victoria of England—was order a cup of tea. ■

Tea Rooms by Norman Fulkerson

What impressed me were the details, those little touches that created an ambience and put me at ease. Here was a calm spot away from the crowded fast-food places, where one is not an anonymous person dashing down a meal, "Take your time," my waitress said as she removed my plate, leaving just the ele

gant teacup in place. I calmly finished sipping my tea and continued pondering the scene around me. No,it wasn't England or even close to it, I'll grant you. But it did take a little adjusting to realize that here I was, having afternoon tea in a tearoomâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; in rural Pennsylvania.

The place was called "The Black Rose," not without a little touch of Victorian splendor. I must admit that the sight of it piqued my interest as I passed through the semi-industrial town of Hanover. It was a pleasant surpriseâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;an amid the noisy and frantic rhythm of daily life. I was even more surprised to hear that I would not be alone

enjoying my afternoon tea. Tearooms like the Black Rose are becoming very popular all across the United States. Hundreds are sprouting up in the most unlikely places. Tearooms in the land of fast-food! Such an incon

gruity! Only in America,I thought. (Conliiuu'cl on pa}H' 36)



SeptemberOctober, 1999 $5.00

In Memory of Plinio Correa de Oliveira on thefourth anniversary of his death, October 3, 1999, Crusade

Magazine offers its readers the first book-length account of his life by Roberto de Mattei

The Crusader ofthe 20th Century, by Roberto de Mattei, is the first complete study of the life, thought, and action of Plinio Correa de Oliveira. Considered by many as one

of the greatest Catholic figures of our time, Prof. Correa de Oliveira traversed the century in defense of the Church, the

Papacy, and Christian civilization. Along the way he strenuously fought Nazism, communism, and other forms of socialism; described and denounced the revolution in human tendencies,

and opposed the mysterious process of autodemolition within the Catholic Church.

Professor de Mattei documents the lifelong apostolate of this important Catholic layman who was a member of the Constitutional Assembly of Brazil, a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Sao Paulo, a journalist, an author of nine teen books and thousands of articles. He also details Plinio

CorrSa de Oliveira's role as the founder and inspirer of the numerous Societies for the Defense of Tradition, Family and

Property (TFP), which constitute the largest network of organi zations of Catholic inspiration dedicated to opposing the revolu tionary process that seeks to destroy Christian civilization.

For only $14.95 Order by calling: 1-888-317-5571

Contents September-October, 1999


Cover: The Guardian Angel,

East Timor

by Andrea Fragelli


Sleepwalking Toward the Brink Anniversary

Intrepid Anti-Communist Cardinal Celebrates Anniversary Cover Story

The Angels, Men and the Universe The industriai Revoiution


Finding the Bottom Line The American TFP in Action


America Reacts Against Blasphemy Forgotten Truths


Fatima and Blasphemy International


Innocence and the House of Lords


Catholic Apologetics


Our Suicidal Panama

Who Were the "Brethren" of Jesus?

Canal Policy

Back to Manners


Respect, Ceremony, Mannersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Friendship Killers or Boosters? Basic History Course


St. Boniface and the Benedictine

Monks Bring Civilization to Europe Teaching our Children


1. What does it mean to bring up a child? 2. The Fence

Family Series

Page: 8 34

The Angels:

Messengers of God,

Grigioâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;St. John Bosco's Dog

Custodians, Warriors,

Only In America


and Advisors

Bringing It Home With You

Crusade Magazine is a publication of the American

Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and

Property (TFP). Subscriptions in the United States and Canada, $30.00. Foreign subscriptions, $42.00. List of other TFP publications available upon request. Direct all subscription requests and inquiries to:

Crusade fJiagazine, P.O. Box 341, Hanover. PA 17331 ore-mail to: Tel.: 888-317-

5571, Fax:(717)225-1675, Copyright 1999 by The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, Inc.

This publication includes images from Corel, Art Today and Dynamic Graphics which are protected by Copyright laws of the U.S. and elsewhere.

Page: 36 Importing the Old World

ISSN 1096-3782 LCCN 98-641433 M-41

Crusade East Ximor


C. Preston Noell in

Once again, we are rocked by

Assocute EDfTOfts:

ognized Indonesia's annexation, but

Earl Appleby

images of helpless refugees dis

most nations followed U.S. leadership

Thomas Becket

placed from their homes by

and gave their tacit approval.


murderous gangs of militia members.

Timor's Marxist revolution took on

Diplomats and international relief work

a new twist with the influence of libera

ers are evacuated. Violence is general

tion theology in leftist Catholic sectors.

ized. Buildings are consigned to flames. Anarchy reigns! Starving in the hills, most of the panic-stricken population

Many priests began to preach the

awaits an uncertain end. The "interna

tional community" holds its breath as the United Nations rushes in troops,

Eugenia Guzman Orlando Lyra Gary Isbell Thomas J. McKenua

Gospel according to Marx. As a result,


Timorese Catholics became increasingly identified as Marxists by the Moslem



Gaiy J. Isbell Jack Bumham

wondering if there will be a showdown.

As Indonesia grappled with the continuing Marxist threat, its support

The threat of war dissipates as the

began to ebb around the world. The

U.N.'s "magic" takes effect, and the world sighs in relief. A new genocide

lines between its anticommunist efforts

BRAZIL: Jose Carlos Sepulvcda FRANCE; Benoit Bemelmans

has been averted. Freedom and self-

and the anti-Catholic jihad promoted by fundamentalists became increasingly

determination have triumphed again...

blurred in the eyes of world public opin

PORTlfGAL: Antonio de Azeredo


ITALY: Juan M. Monies Timor's Marxists seized their

Portuguese colony northwest of

opportunity. They gained the psycholog ical upper hand by discarding their guerrilla fatigues to dress up as the non

Australia abandoned to its fate by its

violent champions of human rights.

mother country during the 1974 Marxist-inspired "carnation revolution."

them on. Little Timor was playing out

No, this is not Kosovo in March 1999, but East Timor, the former

Today, tiny Timor and its 800,000

The new international left cheered their dream: Peace and non-violence

mostly Catholic inhabitants finds itself

were ushering in a new era of freedom

in the limelight. It is the latest backdrop on the stage of geopolitical cultural rev

and unbounded love, prevailing over

olution being promoted by the new international left.

The complexity of Timor's political development in the last few decades is particularly adequate for the drama being played out on television screens worldwide.

Beginning In the '60s, the country

was scourged by the FRETILIN, a Marxist guerrilla organization seeking independence from Portugal. Most Timorese cherished their ties to

Portugal, whose troops kept the insur gents at bay until the fateful April 25, 1974 revolution at home made them

intransigence and fundamentalism. Oblivious to these intricacies of

revolutionary psychological warfare, Indonesia misplayed its cards. Tanks, machine guns, and soldiers trained for the physical terrain of real battle take on a completely different role on a psy-battlefield. Indonesia began to look like a neighborhood bully. This gave the United Nations the opportunity to inter vene as self-proclaimed global police man.

The bottom line: We have taken

another step towards the global co-op of "states" stripped of sovereignty, and ruled by dialogue and consensus.

abandon this province.

The country's Marxists hailed vic tory and set about to establish a "dicta torship of the proletariat." Anticommu-


AUSTRALIA: Raymond de Souza AUSTRIA: Charles E. Schaffer

GERMANY:Beno Hofschulte

SRMN: FeHpc Banindianm

UHrrED^OOOM:Philip Moran,Jr. The American TFP

The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP) was founded in

1973 to confront the profound cri sis shaking the modern world. It is a civic, cultural and nonpartisan organization which, inspired by the traditional teachings of the Supreme Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church, works in

a legal and peaceful manner in the realm of ideas to defend and pro mote the principles of private ownership, family and perennial Christian values with their twofold function: individual and .social. The TFP's words and

efforts have always been faithfully at the service of Christian civiliza tion. The first TFP was founded in

Brazil by the famous intellectual and Catholic leader Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveira in 1960. His

nist Indonesia, however, could not

All of the above notwithstanding, the cruel Moslem persecution of Catholics in Timor, in Indonesia itself,

accept a Cuba in its backyard, and so

in Sudan, and in the Maghreb is totally

countries across the globe, thus constituting the world's largest

invaded and annexed the Portuguese

unjustifiable and should be the object of

anticommunist and antisocialist

eastern half of the island on December

American outrage.

network of Catholic inspiration.

7, 1975. The United Nations never rec



work has inspired the formation of other autonomous TFPs in 26

)ÂŁ ' A!

IN BRIEF 0 Acceptance of immorality by judicial mandate —by Jeremias Wells

ble adult and parental guidance. This cer tainly includes freedom from the proximi ty of immoral enticement.

rights as well. There has been at least one State-level attempt to rescind the rights of citizens to own animals. Present owners

would become "custodians" or "guardians"

The Boy Scouts have vowed to appeal directly to the United States Supreme Court. Given the Court's present

of the animals in their charge.

cated, the judiciary in numerous cases has set itself as the supreme arbiter of moral

composition and so many 5-4 decisions in

0 China boosts techno-spy

rights. In the process, religious tradition and personal conscience suffer greatly. It seems that all sorts of "rights" activists have found champions except those who want to pursue moral perfection.

United States could be endangered.

On August 4, 1999, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled by an incredible 7-

legal distinction between humans and apes

Lately in our coercive society when one freedom is exaggerated, another one is denied. To make matters more compli

landmark cases, the moral direction of the

base In Cuba

China has begun filling the gap in

—by Randall Silver!

Cuba—economically, politically, and militiiriiy—that was created by the collapse of the Soviet Empire, reports James Suchlicki

Animal rights advocates say that the

in the Wall Street Journal.

IZI Obsession with equality

"Evidence is mounting that China's

0 decision that the Boy Scouts cannot

is "arbitrary." According to Steven M. Wise of the Center for the Expansion of

use that attracted tlie Soviets.... It is an

dismiss a scoutmaster even when he is

Fundamental Rights, the "legal dichoto

ideal spot for electronic eavesdropping on

main interest in Cuba is not dissimilar to a

an admitted homosexual. A close read

my" between humans and animals is root

communication on tlie American mainland.

ing of the opinions of the justices indi cates they went far beyond a legal inter

ed in "discredited religion's beliefs," no

longer supported by the consensus of sci

In other words, it is a good base for spying. It is also a useful relay point for routing

pretation by asserting moral and social

entific belief.

intelligence back home," observes

dictums that the citizens of the Garden State must follow.

The arrogance of the court was illus trated when one justice lectured, "We renounce today that homosexuals are inherently immoral." This goes against

Professor Wise, who will teach ani

Suchlicki, director of the Institute of Cuba

mal-rights law at Harvard University this

and Cuban-American studies at the

year, argues, "It is a breach of the funda

University of Miami. During the past two years, he says, Cuba and China have exchanged highlevel military delegations, including visits to China by Cuban Defense Minister Raul Castro and Cuba's top generals, and a trip

mental principles of equality to deny pri

the beliefs of most, if not all, mainstream

mates these rights merely because they are not human beings." He says these rights should first be granted to primates, leaving

religions in America. The Catholic

the way open to conferring rights on other

Church considers the vice of homosexu


to Cuba by General Dong Liang Su, head

ality "intrinsically evil."

Animal rights aclivisls have com pared primate research to the Holocaust

of the Chinese Military Commission. In

Another outrageous statement ap

peared in the decision of Chief Justice

and research facilities to concentration

Deborah Poritz. She declared, "At a most

camps. Further, citing the civil rights

fundamental level, adherence to the princi

movement and its concomitant revision of

ple of equality demands that our legal sy.stem protect the victim of invidious dis

American jurisprudence, they have likened the legal status of chimps and other apes to human slavery. The comparisons have


To subordinate our legal system to

been characterized as "offensive" by some

'he principle of equality rather than justice

in civil rights and Jewish organization cir

seems more in line with Karl Marx and


the ongoing .socialist revolution than any

thing American. But a comprehensive dis cussion of that subject would carry us far beyond the limits of this short piece. In relation to the Boy Scouts the

"As animals are elevated to human

February, a lop-level Chinese military del egation, led by Defense Minister Chi Haotian. visited Cuba, the first such visit. "It should be no surprise," adds Suchlicki, that China would want "an electronic espi

onage base close to American shores. (CNS)

This is especially ominous in view of

developments in Panama.(See pages 4-5.)

0 Sudan accused of using

like status, people are devalued to the sta

chemical weapons against

tus of animals" said Robert Knight, senior


director of cultural studies at the Family Research Council, contemplating the nec

Christian villagers in southern Sudan are vomiting blood and miscarrying

word invidious is particularly inappropri

essarily ominous implications of such a

babies, while birds and small animals in

ate. Simply put, it means destructive, but a more elaborate image describes something

shift on the law in this country.

that opposes principles and good taste with something that is repugnant. The

Johnson, author of Reason in the Balance,

the area are dying, the result, say Western relief workers, of a chemical weapons attack two weeks ago by the Islamic

a book critical of the influence the theory

authorities in Khanoum.

chief justice has ascribed to the Boy

of evolution is having in the field of law,

Dr. Sharad Sapra. of the U.N.'s

Scouts what in reality belongs to homo

says "the naturalistic philosophy implicit

Operation Lifeline Sudan, said from


in evolutionism...breaks down the whole

basis of human rights as it was understood

Nairobi that the agency became aware of the issue after two World Food Program

some senseless egalitarianism is the free dom of "morally straight" young men to

by the framers of our Constitution."

staffers and a third relief worker had

associate with one another under responsi

sub-heading of law regarding property

What is being destroyed here by

California law professor Philip E.

This will inevitably play out in the

become sick after visiting the area. (CNS)

September-October 1999



Sleepwalking Towards the Brink Are we going to ditch the Panama Canal? by Raymond E. Drake We have long been so accustomed to ignoring Castro's tyranny in Cuba and the advances of Marxist guerrillas and libera tion theologians in Latin America that as a nation we are practically blind to another

tragedy unraveling on our doorstep.

Indeed, by noon on December 31, 1999, the suicidal Panama Canal strategy transfer set in motion by President Jimmy Carter in 1977 will have played itself out

to its doleful end. By that fateful date, full title and control of this strategic waterway

option to lease Rodman Naval Station, and the option to transfer all rights to a third party.

In the meantime, the loss of our

Panamanian bases is already creating seri ous problems for our anti-narcotics opera

tiers; Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela all

experience their cross-border terror. So

islands of Aruba and Curasao, but these new operation centers do not make up for the loss of Panama's strategic location.

of the canal to such neo-Vandals should be

setting off alarm bells In state departments

Drug enforcement flights based in the

around the world.

Our tragic withdrawal began when the 1977 Carter-Torrijos Canal treaties took

Venezuelan cooperation, and President Hugo Chavez refuses to allow any such flights in Venezuelan airspace. He peremp torily rejected the more-than-reasonable

the interim Panama Canal Commission

(PCC) was created to operate the canal until ownership and administration are

transferred in December of this year. The protocol in the Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal foresaw the possibility

of a continued American military presence to guarantee the canal's neutrality. Talks have stalemated, however, and our armed

forces are pulling out. Our military presence and facilities in Panama have steadily diminished from a

high of 67,000 troops and twelve bases during World War II to just 500 Marines and no bases today. The remaining Marines will leave as the canal is relin

quished on December 31. As we move out, the Red Chinese

move in. For $22 million a year, Panama

that they earn as much as $1.5 billion from the drug trade." They recognize no fron

ties have been leased from the Caribbean

Caribbean are of little use without

effect on October 1, 1979. The canal Zone

the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Coverdell mentioned estimates

tions in Latin America. Temporary facili

will be turned over to Panama.

and its government were dismantled, and

money, they add the lucrative proceeds of drug trafficking. "Last June, in hearings of

American offer to have a Venezuelan offi

cer aboard every flight. Chavez, a good friend of Fidel Castro, calls the drug inter-

It would not take much to

damage or destroy what thousands of men took ten years to build,

does Panama. The complete vulnerability

Guerrilla raids into Panama by the 15,000-member Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia(FARC)and the

5,000-member National Liberation Army (ELN) have led thousands of peasants and

townspeople in the remote Darien region to flee the area of conflict. They have no way of defending themselves. The Panamanian Army was disbanded after our 1989 cam paign to oust dictator General Manuel Noriega and his clique and to restore the isthmus nation to civilian rule. The coun

try's 14,000-strong National Police are simply not a challenge to the well-heeled,

heavily armed, and combat-seasoned guer rillas now strangling Colombia and tying its 160,000-man army in knots.

diction flights an affront to Venezuelan sovereignly. His true reasons are probably

poses an unpredictable risk. Assured of

Panama's disbanded military itself

linked to his affinity with the Marxist narco-terrorists who are bringing Colombia to its knees. He recently proposed an anti-

Colombian guerrilla backing, its former officers might just make a bid for power.

Chinese, Cuban, Venezuelan, and

American alliance of Cuba, Venezuela, and

While General Torrijos himself is now

these insurgents.

long dead, his comrades still exert consid

Colombia's Marxist narco-terrorists

erable influence, and they are not favorable

gave Hutchinson Whampoa, Ltd.â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a giant Hong Kong shipping concern allied to the Red Chinese armyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a fifty-year conces sion to the ports of Balboa on the Pacific

tric pylons, and other facilities with reck less disregard for any environmental dam

and Cristobal on the Atlantic. Other bene

age. They complement this sabotage by

He sent a telegram to the Caribbean dicta

fits reportedly include exclusive rights to

kidnapping executives and technicians and then demanding huge ransoms for their

tor from his plane, saying,"Returning to

certain strategic roads, the scheduling of all canal traffic, the piloting of all ships, an



themselves are a .serious threat to the canal.

to American interests, especially after

They frequently bomb oil pipelines, elec

being ousted. On his way back to Panama after signing the 1977 treaties, General Torrijos had some nice words for Castro.

release, To these substantial sums of

my country and flying over Cuba, I salute you with the usual friendship. I want the


American commitment to free enterprise and our military might. The only impedi

ment to Colombia's Marxist guerrillas blowing it up when we leave is if it would harm their subversive purposes to do so. The moment they conclude that it is in their interest to destroy this "symbol of Yankee imperialism," they will not hold back. Our surrender of sovereignty and military withdrawal is an invitation. It would not take much for them to

destroy or damage what thousands of men took ten years to build. Blowing up the dam that created Gatun Lake, for example, would stop all traffic through the canal for at least two years. Sabotage to some of the locks might shut it down for a month or more. The bitter reality is that these Marxist guerrillas have a hundred ways of using the canal to telegraph their message of subversion to the world. The ability to hold our shipping hostage will give them a

new sense of importance. Permanent or extended loss of the

canal will have a serious impact on American trade and economic prowess, but its impact on our military readiness will be devastating. As Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, a former Chairman of the Joint

Chiefs of Staff, points out, "In warfare, At noon on December 31,1999, the Panama Canal will be handed over to the Panamanian

time means lives, and that much time

government. But as America pulls out. Red China is moving In—and the Colombian narco-terrorlsts are just a few miles away.

[going around Cape Horn] can mean the

Cuban people, under your direction, to

Panama is not the target, America is. The

informed as to what is at stake. Far from

continue their march towards progress. In Latin America, your name is associated with sentiments of dignity that have been

canal is a valid ideological target with or

the scene of trouble, we shrug our shoul ders in disbelief when told of the profound

channeled to root out every vestige of dis

America. America built the canal; America

graceful colonialism."

operated it for eighty-five years; and

that life, even without the canal, will con tinue as usual.

September 7, 1977, signing of the two

America remains its largest beneficiary. No country relies on the canal more

Carter-Torrijos treaties, supporters argued

than the United States. In fiscal year 1995

attitude: our much-touted "victory" in the Cold War, the dazzling performance on

difference between defeat and victory."' The average American is poorly

In the debates surrounding the

without our military presence attached to it. The canal will forever be associated with

that a continued American presence at the

alone, a staggering 131.8 million long tons

canal would only make it an ideological

of cargo—approximately 70% of all ton

target for guerrilla sabotage. Instead of improving canal defenses and our resolve

nage passing through the canal—was

today. Last May, PCC Chief Financial

either coming from or headed to American ports. Some 13% of our international seaborne trade passes through this great engineering feat. We ship grain, oil, petro leum products, fertilizers, coal and mineral

Officer Ricaurte Vazquez said: "If you are

ores, lumber, steel, refrigerated goods,

going to make a statement, it will be against one of the big nations, but is there any point in making a statement against

machinery, and merchandise of every kind through its gigantic locks. Ships up to 965

to man them, we caved in to the psycho

logical warfare waged by the Left. This flawed argument is still heard

feet long and 106 feet wide, sailing from

Panama? What kind of sympathy is a

our Gulf ports to the West Coast, cross the

group going to get when the principle

isthmus in 24 hours, saving about 8,000

resource of a small developing economy is blown up?"' Vazquez misses the point entirely.

miles and two weeks of sailing time around Cape Horn. The Panama Canal is a symbol of

Ideological hatred against America seething in Marxist hearts. We just assume

Several factors favor this optimistic

Wall Street, the overwhelming abundance of merchandise in supermarkets, and our own liberal disposition to believe that everyone is good. All of these conspire to prevent us, and our leaders, from seeing reality clearly. Consequently, America is, as it were, in a daze. We seem to be sleepwalking. Will it take another Pearl Harbor to shake

us out of our stupor? Or will we just tum ble mindlessly over the brink ? ■

1. Michael Winfrey,"Panama says ii can hanclle

Colombian guerrillas," Reuters, May 21, 1999. 2. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, "Save Our Canal, "The New American. Aug. 2, 1999.




Intrepid Anti-Communist Cardinal Celebrates Anniversary by Thomas J. McKenna

On July 31, Ignatius Cardinal Kung of Shanghai commemorated several mile stones that few prelates in history have reached: seventy years as a priest, fifty years as a bishop, twenty years as a cardi nal, thirty years as a prisoner for the Faith,

and 98 years of life. Bishops, family, friends, and fellow ex-prisoners from as far away as Taiwan and Australia gathered in Stamford, Connecticut, to celebrate this momentous occasion with the cardinal. "It is in fact the first time that so

would not even be a

Catholic. You can cut off my head, but you can

never take away my duties.''


Cardinal Kung

his flock. In 1952 he issued a pastoral let ter titled "Consecration of the Diocese of

Shanghai to the Immaculate Heart of

Mary," a beautiful treatise on doctrine and devotional practices for the faithful.

Bishop Kung ardently promoted the Legion of Mary, but the authorities quickly declared it Illegal and accused it of engag ing in espionage. When its members were instructed to register with the Public Security Bureau as "counter-revolutionar

Communist prisons, this prince of the

bishop. IfI renounce the Holy Father, not only would I not be a bishop,I

not recognize the See of Peter. During this time he sought to instill a strong Faith in

literally all four comers of the world to pay respect to someone, the Cardinal, whom they truly love and with whom they shared the ordeal in jail," said Joseph

sponsored the commemoration. Having spent thirty years in

"/ am a Roman Catholic

be called the Patriotic Church), which did

many former prisoners came together from

Kung, the Cardinal's nephew and director of the Cardinal Kung Foundation, which

His Eminence Cardinal Kung in 1991

Communists established a parallel sect, the "Catholic Patriotic Association" (later to

ies" or risk imprisonment, the Bishop told them not to comply. As a result, hundreds of members were arrested and sentenced to

as many as twenty years of hard labor. The prison door

As the situation worsened. Bishop

Catholic Church stands as a symbol of faith for so many still suffering under the yoke of the red sect. Finally released from

imprisoned himself, so he sought to pre

prison in 1985 at the age of 84, the

preached emphatically and, above all,

Cardinal remained under house arrest until

showed fearless example in professing the

Kung realized that he might soon be pare his priests for future suffering. He

1987 when he was allowed to travel to the

Faith in face of Communist intimidation.

United States due to failing health. The road to persecution

On September 8, 1955, Our Lady's nativi ty. he wa.s arrested and imprisoned togeth er with several hundred priests, seminari

Ordained on May 28, 1930, Father Kung spent his priestly ministry as head

sentenced to life imprisonment.

master of several high schools until being named bishop of Soochow in 1949, when

were spent in solitary confinement.

the Communists took over Shanghai. His

Cardinal Kung never forsook his religious

consecration took place on the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, October 7, 1949. The following July 15 he was named Bishop of Shanghai and apostolic administrator of Soochow and Nanking. In just five short years, Bishop Kung became one of the most feared enemies of

the Chinese Communists. To usurp the Church's influence and authority, the

ans, and faithful. Five years later he was

Most of his thirty years of captivity

beliefs, and heroically inspired others to follow suit. When asked to renounce the

Papacy and cooperate with the Patriotic Association he would answer: "I am a

Roman Catholic bishop. If I renounce the

Holy Father, not only would I not be a bishop, I would not even be a Catholic.

You can cut off my head, but you can never take away my duties."

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In his first public sermon after leaving China he recalled: "During these months and years of bitter pain, how many reli

gious superiors and sons and daughters of Christ have remained loyal and true! They have heroically borne their cross, they have been sent to prison, forced to do manual

nieam."(Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build My Church). The Communists tried in vain to interrupt and silence him, but he looked straight at Cardinal Sin and

finished the hymn. This profession of faith attested to the world his unfaltering fidelity to his Church and people.

labor. Some have had to leave their homes

and families.... Some have sacrificed their

precious lives. And all for what? They

Made a cardinal

When the Communist government

were not confused, nor were they foolish,

allowed him to leave China in 1987, he

and they did all this in order to obey the

came to the United States to be with his

teaching of Jesus Christ."

Unfortunately the bishop's sufferings were increased by the fact that many of his

priests did succumb to Communist pres sure, renouncing their diocesan ordinary and their fidelity to the Papacy. This did not dampen his spirits, however, as he con tinued the walk on the road to his Calvary with a firm conviction: "Blessed are they who suffer persecution for justice's sake, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven"

Raymond Drake greeting Bishop Andrew Tsien of Hualien,Taiwan

nephew Joseph Kung. The next year he traveled to Rome where Pope John Paul II informed him that he had secretly been elevated to the dignity of the cardinalate in 1979.

requesting the release of Bishop Su Zhimin and other bishops and priests. His efforts to provide assistance and hope to the faithful in his native land are aided by his nephew, Joseph Kung, direc tor of the Cardinal Kung Foundation,

which reports on the continuing persecu tion of Catholics in Red China.


In freedom he does not forget the many bishops and faithful still imprisoned under Communism. In 1997 he sent a per sonal message to Chinese President Jiang

The Cardinal Kung Foundation can be contacted

Zemin durinc the dictator's American visit.

329-9712, or

at P.O. Box 8086, Stamford, CT 06905,(203)

(Matt. 5:10).

An act of fidelity

An inspiring example of his fidelity

came in 1985 as freedom was apparently approaching. While still under house arrest

Bishop Kung was granted an "audience" with Cardinal Sin of Manila, who was vis

iting China with the hope of contacting the bishop. It was the first time he had seen another prelate since his incarceration. A banquet was organized by the "Patriotic Church" and government offi cials. The two prelates had no direct con tact, being seated at opposite ends of a

long table with some twenty Communists between them.

As can be imagined, the event grew tedious and lifeless. At a certain point

Cardinal Sin suggested that each diner sing his favorite song. When Bishop Kung's turn came he fearlessly sang, "Tu es Petrus

et super hanc petrum aeclificabo Ecclesiain

Raymond Drake (right) and Thomas McKenna, American TFP President and Vice President, respectively, present His Eminence Cardinal Kung with an ornate crucifix during the Cardinal's anniversary celebration.

SEPTEMBER-October 1999


Cover Story

The Angels, Men and the Universe Endowed with a nature more perfect than that of men, these pure spirits were created in order to give glory to God, to direct the material world, and to be powerful helpers of men toward their eternal salvation.

by Plinio Maria Solimeo

While in ecstasy. Saint Mary Magdalen de'Pazzi â&#x2013; i>(1607) saw a religious of her Carmelite

Order taken from Purgatory and carried to Heaven by her guardian angel. Saint Frances of Rome saw her

guardian angel conduct a soul entrusted to it to Purgatory for purification. The heav enly spirit remained outside that place of

cleansing in order to present to Our Lord the suffrages offered for that soul. As these prayers, alms, and penances were accepted by God, that soul was consoled amidst its torments.

God grants every man one of angelic guardians at the time of his birth to accompany him throughout his life, protecting him and inspiring him to do

good. If the person keeps God's law to the point of attaining sanctity, by which he merits going directly to Heaven, the .soul

will be escorted to that blessed place by his appointed guardian. If the soul needs to be purified in the fires of Purgatory, as is more likely, the guardian angel will conduct him to Heaven only after his

cleansing. On the other hand, if the person has rejected the good inspirations and impulses furnished by his guardian angel, his soul will damn itself forever and be

abandoned by its angelic protector at the gates of Hell.

There is a growing reaction today against the havoc wrought by materialism and atheism in our society. Religious sen timent and belief in God and in eternal

destiny are apparently gaining ground.

especially among youths. Interest in angels and growth in devotion to these pure spirits

as well as numerous petitions invoking their intercession are symptomatic of this rebirth of spiritual values. Undoubtedly, in many cases this resurgence is intermingled with supersti tion and even manifestations of occultism.

The devils, still of angelic nature and

retaining their angelic powers, ever seek to tum human actions toward evil.

In order to attend to this salutary movement of soul so that it may develop along the proper paths, we present to our

readers some of the Church's ever timely and attractive traditions regarding the angels.

The guardian angel assigned by God to each soul begins to care for his charge

only after the baby has left the mother's womb. From the moment of conception until birth, it is the mother's guardian angel that cares for the child she carries, much as someone who cultivates a tree

charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy

also watches over its fruit.

ways. In their hands they shall bear thee up, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone"

We surely need this heavenly protec tion. Our immortal souls are destined to be

(Ps. 90:10-11).

companions of the angels, each of us occu

When we consider the guardian angels, we generally think of their protec

pying beside them in Heaven one of the thrones left vacant by the fall of the angels who revolted against God. Yet, our human

tive role. They do indeed help in this man

weakness and the constant onslaughts of

hindering them from causing us physical or spiritual harm (e.g. Acts 5:18ff.; I2:7ff.;

these fallen spirits would frustrate our striving for this heavenly goal were it not for our angelic protectors.

Is there anything the devils would not do, from the very outset, to prevent a new-

bom child from receiving the regenerative waters of Baptism, for example? Indeed,

how many young souls are deprived of this

ner, averting dangers, repelling devils and

Dan. 6:22). Their principal function, how ever, is to enlighten our minds to tmth and

sound doctrine, inspiring our intellects with good thoughts and moving our wills toward good (e.g. Acts 8:26; 10:3ff.). They also pray for us and offer our prayers and good works to God, making them more

The main mission of our guardian angels is to enlighten us as to truth

grace by having their lives cut short even

efficacious by means of their intercession

before birth because of the diabolical sin

(e.g. Apoc. 8:3; Tob. 12:12). Sometimes

of abortion? The devils are quite capable

they inflict remedial punishments upon us in order to correct us (e.g. 2 Kings 24:16).

and sound doctrine, but

Very importantly, they assist us in the hour

they just as surely protect

of numerous evils, physical, material, and spiritual. Against these angelic adversaries we surely need angelic protectors. Saint Bonaventure affirms: "The holy angel is a faithful sponsor who knows the love between God and the soul, and he

envies not, for he seeks not his own glory but that of his Lord."

The diligence of our guardian angels

of our death, strengthening us against the supreme assaults of the devil at that allimportant time. angels abound in the lives of the saints. We have already referred to the Acts of the Apostles, which recounts Saint Peter's

in watching over us is well expressed by the prophet King David in words that,

angelic delivery from prison. Saint Hildegund 'Q'(1186), for another example,

referring first of all to Our Lord, apply to

had undertaken a pilgrimage to Jerusalem

all of us as well: "There shall no evil come

with her father, who died on the way. One day, as she was travelling to Rome,she was attacked and left for dead. Finally

to thee, nor shall the scourge come near

thy dwelling. For He hath given His angels

usfrom the devils,

Examples of the powerful help of the

repelling them and

hindering them from causing us physical or

spiritual harm.

Cover Sfo September-October 1999


Angelic warriors, in the Old as well as in the New Testament, at times united with men against the enemies of the Lord. • m-sn


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Cover Story

managing to get back on her feet, she saw her angel guardian approach upon a white

traveled on the back of a mule, bearing lit tle Mariana in her arms. While crossing a

horse. The angel helped her mount and

swift-flowing creek, the mule stumbled,

took her to Verona. There, he bid Saint

and the child fell from her mother's arms.

Hildegund farewell, saying,"I will be thy defender wherever thou goest."

The predestined child was held suspended in the air by her guardian angel until her anxious mother retrieved her.

Visible protectors

Certain chosen souls, who fully pre served their baptismal innocence, were granted the special privilege of seeing their

Precious heavenly advisors

The guardian angels, our foremost

spiritual advisors, in.spire us with holy

with Saint Frances of Rome, Saint Gerald

desires and good intentions. Evidently, for of us they do this in the interior of

guardian angels extensively. Thus it was

In other passages the angels even

appear in bellicose missions. In the second book of Paralipomenon, for example, we read that Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, invaded Judea and, blasphem

ing against the true God, sent a delegation to Jerusalem to dissuade its inhabitants

from fidelity to their king, Ezechias. The King of Juda and the Prophet Isaias entered into prayer, imploring divine pro tection from the enemy soldiers. "And the Lord sent an angel, who cut off all the stout men and the warriors and the cap

Majella, Saint Gemma Galgani," Saint

our souls, although, as we have seen, there

tains of the army of the king of the

Mariana of Jesus, and others. Let us look

have been saints who by special merits

Assyrians, and he returned with disgrace

at two examples.

have received heavenly advice face to face.

into his own country" (II Para. 32:21).

Saint Frances of Rome â&#x2013; ij'(1440) was a

When Saint Joan of Arc was still a

she desired to embrace the religious life,

child, she was watching her flock one day when she heard a voice calling her: "Joan!

her parents obliged her to marry. She thus

Joan!" She clearly wondered who this

strove to sanctify herself in her married

could be in such a secluded place. Then


she was enveloped in a most brilliant light,

lady of most illustrious lineage. Although

Several children were bom of this

in the middle of which was an angel of

marriage. One of them, Evangelista, who was extremely pious and endowed with the

gift of prophecy, died angelically at the age of nine. One year after his death, he appeared to his mother resplendent with light and accompanied by a youth even more brilliant than himself. He told his

mother of the glory he enjoyed in Heaven and that he had come to announce that his

young sister Agnese would soon take her place among the angels. Also, at God's

In various parts of the Sacred Books, the angels are men tioned as being the Celestial Militia.

command, he was to leave the youth

accompanying him to help his mother in what remained of her earthly life. This

youth was in reality an archangel. From that time on, Saint Frances of

Rome enjoyed the sight of this archangel

noble and pleasing countenance, surround ed by other angelic beings who looked lov ingly on the girl. "Joan." the angel said to

her, "be good and pious, love God, and

who, according to her, shone more bril

visit His sanctuaries often." With that, he

liantly than the sun. So much was this so

disappeared. Joan, her heart aflame with

that she was unable to fi x her eyes upon

the love of God, then made a vow of per

him. He helped her spiritually and other wise many times, defending her against the

petual virginity. The angel appeared to her

attacks of the devil, who constantly

left her, she would weep with sadness.

New Testaments, often united with men

assaulted her. If Saint Frances allowed her self some unnecessary words or became

Intrepid warriors of the

against the enemies of the Lord. Thus, for example, they helped Judas Machabeus in

overly preoccupied with domestic prob

hosts of the Lord

a decisive battle (II Mach. ll:6ff.). Much

lems, the archangel would disappear,

later, angels helped the soldiers of the Cross against the Muslims, as is frequently

self once again. Our second example is Saint Mariana of Jesus, known as the Lily of Quito '!1'(1645). She was still an infant when her father died, after which her mother decided

In various parts of the Sacred Books, the angels are mentioned as being the Heavenly Militia. Thus, the prophet Isaias tells of seeing the Seraphim proclaiming to one another "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God of hosts" (Isa. 6:3). And the Apocalypse mentions a great battle in

to retire to a house in the countryside. She

Heaven, the very fi rst war, in which the

solicitous for the salvation of all men,

holy angels, led by Saint Michael the

Archangel, defeated Satan and the other

appoints angel protectors for all. In the Book of Daniel, chapter 10, we read that

rebellious angels (Apoc. 12:7).

an angel who spoke to that prophet con-

remaining hidden until she recollected her

(*) See "Saint Gemma Galgani and Her Guardian Angel" on p. 15.

at other times to counsel her, and when he

Saint Francis of Assisi being served by angels

Angelic warriors, both in the Old and

told in the chronicles of the Crusades. Protectors of men and

messengers of God

The merciful and all-loving God,


Cover Story

Good angels, my power ful protectors, do thou guard my ways and cau tiously watch over the portal of my heart...

tended on behalf of the Israelites for twen

lance over the senses, a prayer in which

ty-one days against the angel protector of Persia. Persia's guardian wanted many of the captive Israelites to remain among the Persians for the spiritual good they did

the spirit of Calvary of the time is well

their captors. Both angels obviously sought the best for those in their charge. The Archangel Michael himself came to bolster the cause of Israel's angel in the

dispute, enlightening both guardian angels, we may suppose, as to God's will concern

ing the Israelites. Much more recently, we may read in the autobiography of Saint Anthony Mary

Claret ^(1870) that he, alone one day in the choir of the Escorial, saw Satan gazing

fixedly upon him with great rage and resentment for having frustrated certain of his plans regarding the students. Saint Anthony then heard the voice of the Archangel Saint Michael: "Do not fear,

Anthony. I will defend thee." In the Annunciation, Saint Gabriel,

the great messenger and ambassador of God, conveyed to Our Lady the desires

and plans of the Divine Majesty for the Messias and for her role in that plan. It is the opinion of many theologians that it was also Gabriel who announced the birth

of Saint John the Baptist to holy Zacharias and who thrice appeared to Saint Joseph in


Good angels, my powerful protec tors, do thou guard my ways and cau tiously watch over the portal of my heart, that my enemies may not take me by surprise. Wield before me thy protecting sword! Guard also the por tal of my mouth, that no useless word

may escape my lips and that my tongue may be as a sword, whether in combating vice or teaching virtue! Close my eyes with a double seal when they complacently wish to see anything other than Jesus, but keep them open and alert in prayer and in singing the praises of the Lord. Keep watch also over the portal of my ears, that they might ever repel with disgust everything that comes from vanity or the spirit of evil. Place shackles upon my feet when they wish to lead to sin, but accelerate my steps when laboring for the glory of God or the holy Virgin Mary, or for the salvation of souls! Make my hands, like thine, ever ready to execute the orders of God. Dominate my sense of smell, so that my soul might desire nothing save the suave perfume of the flowers of Heaven. In a word, guard all my senses so that my soul may constantly

delight in God and heavenly things. My beloved angels, sweet Jesus

dreams, advising him of the divine con

ception of the Virgin Mary, bidding him to lead the Holy Family into Egypt to escape Herod's persecution, and telling him to return from Egypt after Herod's death. We have already noted the apparition of an angel to Saint Joan of Arc in antici

pation of her mission. In our own century, an angel, the Angel of Portugal, prepared Lucia, Francisco, and Jacinta for the sub

sequent appearances of Our Lady at Fatima.

presence of the Queen of Heaven, and

to beseech her that 1 might be placed in the arms of the divine Child Jesus, her well-beloved Son!

The nature of angels

Angels are purely spiritual beings, endowed with intelligence and free will,

The Bible describes in detail Saint

elevated by God to the supernatural order,

that is, endowed by grace to participate in

His intervention is also noted in more recent times with the eternal salvation of

the life of God through the beatific vision. They always enjoy this vision, even as

the treasurer of a king of Poland who had

they carry out missions on earth. Much

great devotion to him and with a bourgeois

more perfect than men, their intelligences are inerrant and their wills immensely powerful. As they have absolutely no

hands of assailants who had seized him

during a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. In the life of Bles.sed Mother

Humilitas of Florence â&#x2013; u'(1310) it is told that when she was elected abbess of her


thee, for love of Him, keep me always. O my beloved angels, 1 pray thee one day to conduct me into the

Raphael's mission involving young Tobias.

from Orleans whom he freed from the


placed me under thy carc; 1 beseech

material dependence, their knowledge is considerably more perfect than that of men; for them, to see is to know. In an

angel, knowledge denotes understanding what they behold in all its profundity, all

convent she received, in addition to her

its substance, and without possibility of

guardian angel, yet another to help her


govern the community. For her religious, she composed a simple prayer for vigi

which they were subject had immediate

It is because of this that the trial to

Cover Story

and irremediable consequences. Their

laments in an article aptly titled "Is the

desire is absolute, and when they desire

Guardian Angel Less Intelligent Than the

something there is no going back. That which they desire they desire forever. So it

Demon?"* He contrasts the portrayals of

is that after their trial they passed immedi

as well as malicious, with the all-too-com

ately to an eternity either in Hell (the rebellious angels) or in Heaven (the faith ful angels). God created the angels, like men, to know, love, and serve Him, and also to

proclaim His grandeur, to carry out His orders, to govern the universe and con

serve the species and individuals it con tains.

Msgr. Gaume writes: "As princes and

devils as astute, intelligent, and powerful, mon paintings of saccharine guardian angels. Msgr. Gaume says that "according to

the most erudite interpreters, the accidental apparitions of the angels in the world are no more than a prelude to their habitual appearance in Heaven. Thus, it is probable that in Heaven the angels will assume magnificent aerial bodies in order to delight the eyes of the elect and converse

governors of the great City of God, which

with them face to face."

comprises the entire system of creation , the angels preside, in the material order,

The marvelous classification

over the movement of the stars, the conser

of the angelic choirs

vation of the elements, and the realization

The division of the angels into nine

of all the natural phenomenon that fill us

choirs arranged in three hierarchies,

with joy or terror. The administration of

although not derived explicitly from

this vast empire is apportioned among them. Some care for the heavenly bodies,

distinction is made in relation to God,

others for the earth and its elements, others for the products of the earth, the trees,

plants, flowers, and fruits. To others is confided the government of the winds and the seas, the rivers and fountains; and to others still, the conservation of the ani

mals. There is no visible creature, great or small, that does not have an angelic power to watch over it."

Revelation, is of general belief. This to the general government of the world, or the particular management of states, societies, and persons. While all of the angels constantly

enjoy the beatific vision, it is the spe cial duty of the three choirs of the first hierarchy to stand before and glorify God. As Scripture says: "I saw the

Lord sitting upon a throne high and elevated.... Upon it stood the

Often, when God sends angels to men on some mission, the angels assume a human form in order to put our human

seraphim.... And they cried to one another and said "Holy, holy, holy, the

nature at ease. This ethereal form does not,

Lord God of hosts'"(Isa. 6:1-3). "The

however, have our same human nature,

Lord hath reigned...He that sitteth upon the cherubim"(Ps. 98:1).

that is, body and soul; it does not have ani mal or vegetative operations. To the con trary, it is much like a worker who oper ates a piece of machinery: He uses the machine to perform works peculiar to his craft, but his connection with the machine

is only for the time he is working.

The next three choirs are con

cerned with the general conduct and

governance of the universe as a whole.

The three lowest choirs look after the

particular management of states, societies,

appear, it is opportune to say something of

and persons. Guardian angels, it is general ly believed, are usually angels of the low

the way angels are depicted in art, which

est choir and occasionally archangels.

In relation to the forms in which they

often leaves much to be desired both theo

logically and aesthetically. Many of the

Conclusion: devotion and

depictions that have accompanied the con

fidelity to the angels

temporary revival of interest in and popu larity of angels are clearly not Catholic, being silly, sensual, or grotesque. What is

angelic world ought to lead us to a pro

Evidently, all of marvels of the

more common, even in older "Catholic"

found love, reverence, and gratitude toward all the holy angels, but especially

artwork, however, is a sentimentality and

toward our particular guardian angel. Saint

lack of balance, "emphasizing the good ness and purity of the faithful angels, while failing to convey their admirable intelligence," as Plinio Correa de Oliveira

(*)This article was published in TrculilUin,

... that my enemies may not take me by surprise.

Wield before me thy protecting sword!

Family and Property Magazine, a forerunner of

Crusade, in its January-February 1994 issue.



Cover Story

Bernard of Clairvaux, commenting on

The nine choirs of


angels, arranged in

the aforementioned words of Psalm 90,

says "What great reverence, what great devotion, what great confidence ought these words of the royal prophet cause within our breasts! Reverence for their

three hierarchies

august presence, gratitude for their benevolence, confidence in their protec tion."

Seraphim—Their name is derived from the Greek seraph, meaning "to bum,""to be con sumed." Ever in attendance before the throne of

God, it is their privilege to be united with God in a more intimate manner, in the ardor of charity.*

On the other hand, we should

avoid everything that could sadden our angel. Saint Bernard goes on to say;

"Live, then, with great circumspection, remembering that the angels are present

truth in a manner superior to all the angels beneath

because God has sent them to accompa ny and assist you in all your ways. Whatever be your stopping place, what ever your retreat, have reverence for your angel. Surely, you would not dare do in his presence what you would fear


to do in mine."

Cherubim—^Their name is from the Hebrew

cherub, which Saint Jerome and Saint Augustine

interpret as meaning "plenitude of wisdom and knowledge." They are also in attendance before the throne of God, and it is their privilege to see the

Saint Bonaventure emphasizes the

Thrones—^These are at times referred to as Sedes Dei (Seats of God). Also

in attendance before the throne of God, they have the mission to assist the

importance of "the obedience we

angels beneath them in the measure that it is necessary.

should render our holy angels, paying heed to their interior voices and sound

Dominations—They are so named because they rule over all the angelic orders. Entmsted with carrying out the will of God, they distribute to the angels beneath them their functions and ministries. Powers—These, conductors of the sacred order, execute the great actions that have to do with the universal govemment of the world and the Church,for which they work extraordinary miracles and prodigies. Virtues—Their name means "strength," and they are charged with remov ing the obstacles that hinder the fulfillment of the orders of God. They repel the evil angels that assail the nations and strive to divert them from their end, and thus they sustain creatures and the order of Divine Providence.

Principalities—As their name indicates, they are invested with a special authority, being the angels that preside over kingdoms, provinces, and dioceses. They are referred to in this manner because their action is more extensive and universal.

Archangels—These are sent by God on missions of greater importance among men.

Angels—These, as we have seen, watch over particular persons, defending them against enemies visible and invisible and leading them along the way of salvation. They watch over our spiritual and corporal life and, at every

moment, communicate to us the lights, the strength, and the graces we need.

advice, as that of our tutors, guardians, masters, guides, defenders, and media tors, as much in fleeing from the guilt of sin as in embracing virtue and grow ing in all perfection and holy love of the Lord."

Reverence for his guardian angel led Saint Stanislaus Koslka "fflSbS),

who saw him constantly, to the follow ing degree of consideration: When both were about to pass through a doorway, he bid his angel go through first. When at times his angel guardian refused to do so. he would insist until the angel gave in.

May it please God that so many and such beautiful examples may serve to move us to reverence and increase

our devotion to these blessed angelic spirits whom God, in His mercy, grant ed us as guardians, advisers, protectors, and messengers—particularly valuable in the neo-pagan world in which we

live—with the aim of obtaining etemal life!

(*) To assist or to be in attendance before the

In this last sense, every angel without excep

throne of God has a twofold meaning. One is

tion "assists" or is "in attendance" before the

If Saint Teresa of Avila and others could lament that the devils seem more

when the angels receive orders from God; when

throne of God, because all angels enjoy the

solicitous for our ruin than we for our

they offer Him the prayers, alms, good works,

beatific vision without interruption, even while

salvation, we can take some refuge in

and vows of men; when they defend the cause of

fulfilling some mission in the governance of the

men against the devils in the Supreme Tribunal;


Saint John Bosco's assertion that our

of the divine countenance to detect and contem

the throne of God" designates the angels of the

plate the ineffable delights that constitute their

first hierarchy, who cannot be employed in exteri

guardian angels desire to help us even more than we desire their help. Let us not fail to avail ourselves of such love


or ministries (Cornelius a LIpide, in Tob. XII, 15).

and generosity. ■

and when they fix their gaze upon the brilliance



In a strict sense, the expression "to assist before

Saint Gemma Galgani and Her

Guardian Angel From the account of her life by

her spiritual director, Fr. Germanus, C.P.

Saint Gemma Galgani, a young mystic who died at the age of 26 in 1903, enjoyed the grace of the constant sight of her guardian angel. Bom in 1878 in Lucca. Italy, she was out

standing for her angelic purity, child-like simplicity, candor, and

restrained the power and malicious ruses of the devil, who was always

just as vigilant in his efforts to do her harm. Instances are not wanting of this blessed guardian's constant watchfulness. Once when Gemma was at table with her family, one of those present did not hesitate to

innocence, virtues that no doubt help account for the special privi

blaspheme the Holy Name of God. Upon hearing this, she fainted in

lege she received. Gemma's confessor and biographer provides us

horror and, falling, would have dashed her head against the floor had

with details of her familiarity with her guardian angel. "Gemma," he writes,"saw him with her eyes, touched him with her hand as if he were a being of this world, remained talking with him as one friend with

her angel not hastened to her aid. He took her hand, supported her, and with a single word restored her. "The most important mission of Gemma's

angel was in what concerned her spiritual advancement. While he served on one side as her

another. 'Jesus has not left me alone,' she said.

'He makes my guardian angel stay with me

watchful protector, on the other she found in him a

always....' "'If I am sometimes culpable, dear Angel,

guide and inseparable companion. Dost thou not know who it is that gave me charge of thee? It is

perfect master of Christian perfection. "The holy guardian knew how to show severity when necessary. One day she told me of this in the following words: 'My angel is a bit severe, but I am glad for it. During the past few days he called me to order as many as three or four limes a day.' "Seeing the great charity lavished on her.

the merciful Jesus.'

Gemma loved her angel immensely, and his name

don't be angry with me. I want to be grateful to thee,' she said to him.

"And the angel answered: 'Yes, 1 shall be thy

was always on her lips as well as in her heart. 'Dear Angel,' she would say, 'I so love you!'

"Unable to restrain her emotion at this, the

angelic girl stood rapt in ecstasy with her angel. The angel sometimes let her see him raised in the air with outspread wings, his hands extended over

"'And why?' he would ask.

"'Because you teach me to be good, to remain humble, and to please Jesus.'

her or joined in an attitude of prayer. At other

"Another time. Gemma wrote: 'I was in bed,

times, he knelt beside her.

suffering greatly, when I suddenly became absorbed in prayer. I folded my hands and.

"1 myself." continues her confessor, "have often attended Gemma's meditations with her

Saint Gemma Galgani moved with heartfelt sorrow for my countless angel.... I noted that every time she raised her eyes to look at the angel, listen to him, or speak to him, even aside sins, I made an act of deep contrition. My mind was wholly plunged in this abyss of crime against my God when 1 beheld my angel from the time of meditation and prayer, she lost the use of her sens es. At those moments one could prick, burn, or shake her without standing by my bed. I felt ashamed of being in his presence, but he her feeling it.

"Her angel guardian was to Gemma a second Jesus, so to speak.

was more than courteous with me, and said kindly: "Jesus loves

thee greatly; love Him greatly in return." Then he added: "Art thou

She made known to him her own wants and those of others. In her suf

fond of Jesus' Mother? Salute her very often, for she values such

ferings she wanted him always by her side. She entrusted him to lay

attention very much and unfailingly returns the greetings offered

several matters before the throne of God, before the Divine Mother

her; and if thou dost not feel that she does, know that thus she

and her patron saints, giving him closed and sealed letters to them with a request to bring her the answers promptly. Those letters, as a


matter of fact, disappeared."

May Saint Gemma's intimacy with her angel, so simple, spontaneous, and full of profound humility, be an example for us

She also kept the angel busy with many letters to people in this world, often to her confessor.

makes a proof of thine unfailing trust." He blessed me and disap



"It was thus," he writes, "that she kept the heavenly messenger

continually on the move, and he most gladly favored her. Even with

Excerpts taken from Fr. Germanus C.P. {her spiritual director).

out being called, he hastened to her in every need and danger. He

Blessed Gemma Galgani, 1903, pp. 207-216.




Finding the Bottom Line


il' ^



by John Horvat It

Acoming generation of computers

production. Demand must be calculated

will reportedly have processors performing one trillion calculations per second. For the average person, the

and supplies bought. Everything in busi

meaning of such statistics is mind-bog gling and abstract.

precision, and objectivity.

What one thinks about such calcula

tions really does not matter, however, since they are not for mortal men to grasp. It is

ness requires expressing things in num

bers, which in turn guarantee efficiency,

Unfortunately, the same methods of predictable mathematical results overflow into other areas of human endeavor.

Politics is reduced to polling results; edu

merely accepted that calculations need to be made, and if more can be done in less

cation to grade-point averages. With even

time, so much the belter.

the mathematization of the world seems

In a similar way, no one really won

music being digitized, Descartes' dream of ever closer to defining reality.

ders about each calculation itself. How or if one differs from another or even what

The limits of measurement

is being calculated Is irrelevant. Individuality is swallowed up in the vast

In fact, numbers and efficiency are the standard by which things are judged, and this constantly redefines the way we think, live, and express ourselves.

ocean of numbers. The important thing is that it works. Modern man has this no-nonsense


way of seeing things. There is no beating around the bush. The only real criteria for judgment is a quick look at the numbers on the bottom line.

The bottom line. That leveling number


reduces and simplifies everything to its lowest common denominator. Modern man

has an obsession for quantifying reality. He feels empowered by numbers and sta tistics, which seem to give him control of what is happening. But do they really?

Technology encroaches on non-tech

nical areas through the flawed logic that if statistics can be used to measure eco

nomic prosperity, then statistics can just as easily be used to quantify the intangi ble: human intelligence, freedom, virtue, truth, even beauty. What cannot be reduced to numbers becomes irrelevant. The immeasurable moral universe of sin, evil, virtue, and

grace tends to disappear as hopelessly sub jective. Spiritual problems, to the extent they must be dealt with, are studied

through the prism of sociology, psycholo Playing the numbers If anything characterizes the Industrial

gy, and other social sciences.

Revolution, it is its use of numbers in

amoral. The high priests of technology,

striving toward the supreme goal of effi ciency. The very nature of mass production

deviance,' which is a statistical concept,

Technology becomes fundamentally writes Neil Postman, "call sin 'social

catapults numbers to a position of extreme

and they call evil 'psychopathology,' which


is a medical concept. Sin and evil disap pear because they cannot be measured and

Nothing could be more logical, since production must be measured in units. Schedules depend on knowing the speed of

objectified and therefore cannot be dealt with by experts."'

The Industrial Revolution

Losing the nuances Even in its own areas, technology

tends to distort reality. Standardization by its nature ignores detail and nuance. Thus, the development of technique

reduces everything to technical data. The gathering of this data is framed into a set of pre-determined options. A human ele ment is blocked out.

Scores on the Scholastic Aptitude

All inequality, commented French

sociologist Jacques Ellul, is "condemned by technology, for it reduces everything to commensurable and rational factors."^

With the bottom line firmly in place, the framework is set for the modem egali tarian mass society. Looking for meaning

Churchill reportedly divided all

knowledge into three categories: truth,

(SAT), for example, are intended to rate a student's intelligence. Factors that influ

error, and statistics. His immeasurable wit

ence results, like a severe headache or a

sensed the limitations of numbers.

death in the family, are systematically

ignored. The student's "intelligence" is forever married to his score.

The omnipresent Internet online polls

While statistics may have their role in

judging some aspects of reality, they can not be the only criteria. Indeed, the fact that numbers are amoral, shapeless, and

reportedly measure opinions on everything

egalitarian suggests a great need for other

from beanie babies to Kosovo. Yet these


pseudo-polls are only rough approxima

One of the most important elements

tions of reality since they cannot measure

men have always used to interpret reality

the passion, knowledge, or even apathy of

is tradition. Traditional society was able to

the online opinion giver. So it is with thousands of analogous situations. Like the standardized forms

of bureaucrats, life presents pre-set

options that are checked and categorized. The option "other" on the form is

give meaning to life precisely because it could include aspects excluded by modem analysts. Pre-industrial men knew how to use

practical knowledge gained by the experi

frowned upon and then folded into the

ence of life. They could project their indi viduality into their work. They knew how


to base their judgments in the context of

Creativity is thus stifled. The sterile

atmosphere of technology tolerates no

poetry, color, or subtlety. An important part of reality is lost, to the detriment of all. The great equalizer A world ruled by statistics makes

everything as anonymous as the trillion calculations per second of the future com puter. Standardized methods make no dis

tradition, myth, and ritual with an aston

ishing flexibility. The Catholic Church and Christian

in God.

"We are made for Thee," explained St.

ient to an abstraction," writes Richard Stivers in his book The Culture of

little to medieval man and that his life and

Cynicism.- "It denies the individuality of its object. Human technique makes every one equal by ignoring individual differ

history gained an enormous yet unquantifiable final meaning that is all but lost today.

Even the subject falls victim since, as Stivers notes, when salesmen use a stan



Numbers and efficiency

gious and political symbols that gave soci ety a sense of purpose and its ultimate end

"Human technique as a set of objec tive rules and procedures reduces its recip



civilization thus developed a moral and sacral universe, so brutally destroyed by a mechanical universe. They created reli

Augustine, "and our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee." With a gaze toward the infinite, it is



no wonder that finite numbers meant so

In summary, the bottom line is that

are the standard by which

things arejudged, and this constantly redefines

the bottom line often excludes many

important thingsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;like reality itself. â&#x2013;

the way we think, live.

dardized selling technique instead of per.sonal experience, they tend to lose their own individuality. 1. Nei! Postman. Technopoly, The Surrender of

3. Jacques Ellul. The Technological Sysiem. uans.

Ciilitire 10 Technology (New York. 1993), p. 90.

Joachim Neugroscliel(New York, 1967) p. 71.

and express ourselves.

2. Richard Slivers, The Cullure of Cynicism. American Moralilv in Decline (Oxford, 1994), p. 73.





Since its founding in 1973

Disney/Miramax Films:

the American TFP has

waged several campaigns against ^ blasphemies presented In tllm pro

ductions, theater plays, pamphlets, and museum exhibits. Most recently, volunteers of the American TFP have

Your production of the film "Dogma" is an abomination to the whole Catholic world and a strike at

the very core of our Catholic Faith. To

degrade the beauty and grace of the maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a despicable portrayal and a con temptible act to those of us who vigor ously uphold her dignity with the high est respect as the ever-faithful "Vessel

Dear Sirs [Disney/Miramax Films], Withdraw this blasphemy before it is too late. If you don't believe in hell, you will when you get thereâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; into an eternal company of real

demons. Your 'reward" is waiting for the public blasphemy of Christ. J.D., Succasumia, N.J.

dedicated their efforts to protesting,

of Honor." Now more than ever, our

with entirely peaceful means, the

Nation is calling for stability in the home. The film industry has a pro

Dear America Needs Fatima,

portrayal of Our Lord Jesus

found influence in that environment,

Christ and His Holy Mother in

but when it becomes corrupt, it can trickle down to the heart of the family, only to disrupt it. N.E., Eureka, Calif.

nel 2 or 3 years ago for the other movie they made against the

the soon-to-be-relcased Disney/ Miramax film Dogma, which, according to credible reports in major newspapers and

We canceled our Disney chan

Church. We recommend not to visit

Disney. J. and R. M., Miami

Dear Friends in Christ,

magazines, is clearly bias-




Our campaign, consisting mostly of public leaflcting

May God bless you in your efforts to stop the devil and his evil. I will pray for you and ask for God's mercy on those who mock Him. I have sent for my fliers and have sent my profoundest of protests to those of Disney/ Miramax. I have sold my

Disney stock and will never buy it again. Again, may God bless you abundantly in your endeavors. 1 will form a protest

group for our local movie house and will be there if need be.

R. H., Carlsbad, Calif.

and direct mailings, is alert ing people to what is going on and encouraging them to send

cards or personal letters to the film's producers to express their outrage at this affront to Our Lord and Our Lady.

These two pages present just a small sample of the responses, both to us and the film's producers, that the campaign has sparked.

Messrs. Weinstein:

Dear Mr. Ritchie,

Thank-you so much for the won derful work you are doing to promote respect for Jesu.s, Mary, the Angels and

It has recently come to my attention that you have acquired the movie "Dogma." It is my understanding that this film depicts mockery of God, the

Saints and our Church. Enclosed are

Church, the Mass, Mary's virginity, and

768 petitions to Disney /Muamax Films and 768 petitions to Bob and Harvey Weinstein. We are sending them to you

(1)to let you know tliey exist, and (2) because you will know best how to use them.

much more. I am appalled that you would even think of sending this film out to the theaters for anyone to see. I have

lost respect for the movie industry. In fact, I have lost respect for the people in the movie industry who just try to "make

Rev. J. N., Picayune, Miss.

a buck" by putting out the filth we now have in our theaters. I very rarely go to the movies anymore. And I know many more people who feel the same way I do.

Letter to the Editor;

Will you stand by without taking a stance? Can YOU just sit back without pro fessing your belief, your love for Jesus? Our riches as believers are in great jeopardy!

For the most part, it is our youth that is suffering. They do not know what it is like to go to a heartwarming movie and

Our loved ones are being defamed by othersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;despite the greatest written history of

come out of the theater with clean minds.

all times, the very word of God, the Bible. The Constitution guarantees rights, but

I am ashamed to take my grandchildren

with all rights come responsibilities! Laws were created for the GOOD of society, not

to see a film, even one that is made by

the destruction of it.

Walt Disney. It is rare that I find one I i " can trust to take my grandchildren to. I S, will keep both of you in my prayers everyday. In God we trust!

1 urge all to contact the following with your righteous indignation concerning the proposed October release of Dogma:[Disney/Miramax and Bob and Harvey Weinstein.]

G'Dale Jewelry, Birmingham, Ala.

P. W., Vidor, Texas





'-.^cKyr • ••V.'Vr'i


Dear America Needs Fatima,

Dear Sirs,

Corpus Christi, written by Terrance McNally; The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told, written by Jesse McKinley; and Dogma, produced by Disney/Miramax, mock

Scripture and every aspect of the Catholic

I have joined the battle to stop the filth, trash, and blasphemy they are trying to pass off as entertainment. I will use ray company con

tacts and customers to help you. Please send me 3 or 4 hundred ["Stop Blasphemy Now!" fliers] to start with.

Faith. This is a growing trend in the enter tainment industry that is upsetting to

D.S., Sanford Termite and Pest Control Co., Wooklynne, N.J.

Catholics. It strikes of bigotry and a desire to belittle and discredit the beliefs and tradi

tions of established religion. I feel an investi gation into why Catholics are the target of bigotry would be a timely report for your

Dear ANF,

magazine. Catholics are dismayed that Disney, a family oriented company, would be associated with the film Dogma. Disney sold

their interest in the film because of protests.

Thank you for sending me the flyers on "Dogma." I took them to my parish and I was so happy that they were gone in a few days. Every

This fact shows that Disney is aware that

one who came to Mass during the

they contributed to bigotry towards the Catholic religion. The important question is why would Disney produce a film that is so insensitive and bigoted toward an established religion? Why are Catholics targets of ridicule? In this country we are taught toler ance and respect for all different religions. Why are Catholics exempt from the respect that is due to all religious beliefs? Many Catholics feel an investigation into the big

week took one. I will fight to the death for my Blessed Mother Mary. Keep up the good fight! R. Z. Bronx, N.Y.

Blasphemies: the main reason for the

Dear Mr. Ritchie,

We will offer our prayers each day

J.P., Irvington, N.Y.

show so that it does not get to the hearts of all peoples. L. M., Exeter, N.H.

Disney/Miramax Films, I will sell my stock and encourage others to do the same. You must stop! LA., Wardwick. N.Y. 37

I am the pastor of St. Francis of Assisi Church.

Would you please send me 250 "Stop Blasphemy Now!" cards. I will attach them to my parish Sunday bulletin. Thank

you for all your organization is accomplishing. TFP has a remembrance in my prayer. Fr. G. G., Constable, N.Y.

Dear Brothers and

Sisters in Christ, Please send to the above address 850

"In a letter dated June 12.

1930, and simply addressed 'Reverend Father,' Sister Lucia

answered some questions the priest had asked concerning the First Saturdays devotions and told him why five Saturdays of reparation were requested and

.V '

\ ■■

Dear Sirs,

First Saturdays devotion

for the elimination of this abominable

otry towards Catholics is overdue.


Forgotten Truths

Dear ANF,

I received your liter ature concerning the movie "Dogma" and I am appalled! I spoke

with my pastor and have permission to have a card signing after all our Masses. The postage will be paid by our church. I

not nine or seven. She related

that while she was in the chapel on the night of May 30, 1930, she had spoken to Our Lord about this. He 'revealed' to her

that Our Lady stipulated five Saturdays because there are five kinds of offenses or blasphemies committed against her Immaculate Heart, namely, blas

copies of the "Stop Blasphemy Now! fliers. I hope to put them into our Sunday

soon as possible, and I Thank you for all you

Conception, blasphemies against her perpetual virginity, blas phemies against her divine moth



erhood (refusing at the same

Fr. J. M.,

would like to do this as

need about 1000 cards.

B.D., Flemington, N.J.

Binghamton, N.Y.

phemies against her Immaculate

time to acknowledge her as

mother of men), attempts to instill in children indifference to,

contempt of, or even hatred of

Mary, and, finally, insults and

Dear Sirs.

Hello, my name is Johnathan and I, as well as my whole family and parish, totally support this protest against the horrifying movie "Dogma." I have signed the cards and sent them and will order more. Please continue this protest. We have to win the war! Thank you so much and God bless everything you guys do over there. We are praying for you. J. G..(email)

profanations of her images or shrines."

Fr. Joseph A. Pelletier. The Sun Danced in Fatima. pp.162-163.


Innocence and the

House of Lords

social position on each generation, whether or not it is worthy of the fount of great deeds that undergirds its noble lineage.

This symbolizes a key fundament of reali ty. God, the source of all perfection, grants to all of us our gifts, unmerited. In fact, our very existence comes as an unmerited, superfluous gift, as God's hap

piness and perfection cannot be increased. He is Love itself and needs no other. He to create the universe out of an over

by Joseph A. D'Agostino

Without innocence, love burdens. Love strains and pulls, making life difficult instead of joyful. By

essarily spread love to newly created beings. God's innocence led to Creation, most European countries. The desire by some Englishmen to abolish their 800year-old parliamentary institution, the

love I mean not any emotion, but a firm

House of Lords, indicates the pending

rational commitment to labor for the good

destruction of the remainder.

and, ultimately, for the repair and perfec

flowing excess of love of love, and unnec

More than anyone else in the temporal

This is not to say that merit and free

will have no place. Every man must fulfill his freely granted humanity, living a life of virtue and striving to execute his vocation. If he is highly intelligent, or has great

capacity for leadership, he must use that

sphere, nobles promote innocence. They

gift for the glory of God and the good of

represent what is better. The security of their social position, imitating God's

his fellows. And a noble must use his gift for the same. Kings and nobles must have

intact, temptations and suffering. A man

secure throne; their method of governance;

the humility to choose, on merit, good

with love but without innocence will do

their patronage of art; and their cultivation of manner all draw men up to admire the good just as a beautiful cathedral, piece of

respect the underling more.

tion of all existence.

If a man consistently adheres to this commitment, he must survive, with virtue

the right thing with resignation, bearing his cross perhaps patiently, perhaps not even

unhappily, but without that joy that fore tastes the blessed happiness God has reserved for his elect. Such a man must be

music, or work of art does. A king sym bolizes God the Father, and nobles symbol ize God's angels, and both groups are

not meet in mortals.

Innocence is the love of love Itself. It grants a man pleasure

One must accept that while God loves all, he loves some more than others. He

strikes some, such as St. Paul the persecu tor of Christians, down in the midst of their evil and forms them into

fundamentally grim, a light to the scoffers who say that the Catholic Faith and earthly contentment can-

advisers and officials, and people often


great saints. Others who labor

When, in the eighteenth century, the We^ ICCllS West began to turn awayfrom the ideals

when his yoke chafes in the service of perfection for the same reason that a boy feels pleasure when he contemplates his hero.

and privileges ofthe aristocracy, pride and cynicism triumphed.

faithfully in the vineyard for a lifetime never rise above mid-

virtue. Nobles incarnate in

worldly terms this mystery. Sometimes divine nobility comes to reside in them,just as the divine beauty resides in Notre Dame. As a consequence of the doctrine of the Incarnation,

We remember how we fell when

though God remains separate from his

looking up to what we thought was perfec

Creation, material objects, from human bodies to buildings, can acquire him in a special way.

moments of admiration we had that we

entrusted with directing much of Creation. I speak here of nobles who publicly comport them.selves in accordance with their high vocation. Those who live dis

have no longer. "You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly father is perfect"

solute or neglectful lives can have the opposite effect on society, and indeed

endorse the unmerited inheritance of

(Mt 5:48). Innocence trains us to see

good, not bad, beauty and not ugliness.

many have. Nevertheless, more important than the

That is why little boys, even those living in

reality of concrete nobles, which in this

republics, always love to serve the king

vale of tears will always leave much to be desired, is the ideology of nobility. "It is the wise man's part to leave in darkness

es to work is superior, in a certain way, to

naive innocence of a child. He must come

everything that is ugly"(Euripides,

more godlike, for God does not have to

to terms with evil and suffering, and pre

Hippolytu.s). A noble line begins when an

work. God chose to work, to create. A

serve his innocence without naivete.

exceptional man performs a great .service

noble's work—for it is proper, though not

its noble lords because it lost its innocence.

to king or country. The hereditary nature of nobility means that God, who is

essential, to nobility to be of independent means—may be the unpaid sort, resolving

England has preserved more of it than

Nobility itself, grants the unmerited gift of

disputes in his community or acting for

tion, whether that was a father, a warrior,

or a ballplayer. We remember, despite our boyhood lies and cruelties, the clean

and rescue the princess. Of course, a man cannot have the

Western civilization revolted against



Unfortunately, the same men who wealth—and who would deny that wealth grants power in society?—find the inheri

tance of noble titles unjust. A man who inherits wealth but choos

the man who work, or the self-made man who once had to work. The first is



noble causes. And since he controls his

Americans would say that most members

own life and has servants to perform menial tasks, he may devote much of his time to elevated pursuits, reading, travel, concert-going, and intelligent conversation. These improve men more than a life dedi

of our substitute for the British House of

who did the will of the people. Cynicism, in that men began to sneer at aristocratic

Lords, the United States Senate, are among

formality, refined manners, and soon the

the best men of our country, or that they

idea of superior moral character that for

cated to the acquisition of wealth, and such

men improve society when they lead it, and inspire imitation in the lower orders. Every man has a natural respect for a

are among those who could govern us the

mality and refinement reinforce. The com


mon man ruled hearts, the new ideal of

The history of England offers many examples of lords, with inalienable claims to authority and independent wealth, stand

mediocrity conquered the old of excel lence. We face today men from elite fami lies pretending to be common in order to obtain electoral office.

has produced noteworthy accomplish

ing for liberty against the king, though to be sure this can only happen when most nobles have a stronger connection to a spe

ments, regardless of whether that particular

cific area and its people than to the court.

may be superior in blood and culture and

member has.

Indeed, the aristocracy's importance is greater than the monarchy's, for the

member of an old, traditional family that

Let us not forget that Scripture emphasizes that Christ was bom a member of the royal House of David. He may have

chosen to humble himself by entering the world in a manger part of a small con quered race, but he chose a royal birth.

Some might object that the symbolism of nobility may be all very well, but the

practical effect in a society in which a hereditary group of families has real legal

broader elite has more influence in soci

ety than any one family. A land can weather a series of bad kings, but not long a degenerate elite. Who can deny that the beauty of a monarchy complete with lords exceeds that of a republic? All of Creation

reflects God, Beauty itself, but some things reflect him more than others. A

power is undesirable. Idiotic or corrupt

man adds reason and will to the

eldest sons will succeed to influence as

appetites of a beast. A bourgeois adds

surely as wise and virtuous ones, they

wealth and sophistication to the sim plicity of the working man. A noble

might say,just as in royal houses. And why would they have the people's interests

adds independence, culture, and ideal

at heart?

ism to the bourgeois. When we bow to

I would ask them if the past 100 to

acknowledging what is better than our

proven superior. Have there been fewer

selves, if only symbolically. Any man

wars? Are society's institutions stronger? Are men's souls greater? Would the mate

who hales nobles has difficulties with

the ancien regime! Have presidents been less corrupt than kings? And I would ask, do the people truly

decide how they are governed, or does some elite always govern them? A society is a family stretched and diluted. Would a


a lord, we improve our souls by

200 years of elected Western leaders have

rial progress we have experienced due to technology not have occurred. de.spite the origin of the Industrial Revolution during

All this is not to say that nobles are in

God's eyes better than commoners. They

God Himself.

Certainly, power should not reside exclusively with a small group of fami lies. Control of local affairs should rest

largely with the local people, who have

a greater understanding of and interest

Labor Prime Minister Tony Blair has proposed leg islation expelling the traditional hereditary aristo crats from the House of Lords, the upper chamber of Britain's parliament. He wants to replace these with life appointees chosen by a commission that he himself would select. Success for Blair in this

matter would mean an end to formal political

power for the elite of Western civilization that gave us the Magna Carta. A final vote Is expected in early November.

in them than they do national affairs.

The British system, giving the people's repre.sentatives veto power over taxation

wealth, but virtue lords over all. "But

family be improved by trying to arrange its

and the promulgation of new laws, histori cally surpasses as the best. Only fools

many who are first will be last, and the last first"(Mk 10:31).

members into a hierarchy according to

should want to further unbalance the sys

merit instead of birth?

tem of king. House of Lords, House of

The monarch sits upon the throne, his

Commons, and established church counter

earthly splendor an echo of God's own,

vailing the secular power.

and God's perfection radiates upon him

Of course, when the head of anything

is not well able to lead, he should rely on underlings. But he does not lose his posi tion. Men show respect to 70-year-olds and mayors based on their social position,

When, in the 18th century, the West

alone a slap to God's face, but the difficul

began to turn away from the ideals and privileges of the aristocracy, pride and cyn icism triumphed. Pride, in that men believed that man could be like God, gov erning all himself, and that authority and

ties of its implementation easily prevent

law, even right and wrong, came not from

better results than hereditary aristocracy. I

God but from men. The legitimate govern

not only on their merit. Not only is the principle of merit

am an American, and as superior as our

ment became not the one conformed to

system of government is to those of the majority of countries, I doubt many

objective justice, but one whose leaders were supposedly chosen by the people, or

The House of Lords is like heaven.

and reflects onto the lords in ermine. Did 1

say that the lords symbolize the angels? They are more like the saints, like saints in conversation with the Lord while the rest of us more mundane souls listen to the

divine conversation in respectful silence, admiring a grand perfection, â&#x2013; Contact Joseph A. D'Agostino at; Office phone:(202) 216-0601. ext. 444 Office Fax;(202)216-0611



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Catholic Apologetics

Who Were the Brethren" of Jesus? by Raymond de Sauza

"And His mother and His brethren came,

and standing outside, they sent to Him,calling Him. Now a crowd was sitting about, and they said to Him, 'Behold, Thy mother and Thy

the first chapter of his Gospel. That is the only sense in which Our Lady had more children.

what the Bible actually says. Furthermore,

they ignore a very important point: The

brethren are outside, seeking Thee.' And He

Are the brethren of

answered and said to them, 'Who are My

Jesus Mary's children?

mother and My brethren?' And looking round

It is noteworthy that nowhere in the

on those who were sitting about Him, He said,

New Testament is there a mention of"Mary's children." Rather, we find only references to

'Behold My mother and My brethren. For

proper contexts, fundamentalists seek to jus tify their preconceptions instead of believing

word brethren does not mean only brothers and sisters from the same parents, but near kinsmen as well. The Hebrew and Aramaic

languages, lacking specific words for broth ers and cousins, use the same word for both.

Similarly, modem French designates parents

whoever does the will of God,he is My broth er and sister and mother'"(Mark 3:31-35).

and relatives with the single word parents', the context indicates which is meant.

Our Lord's teaching that whoever does the will of God is a member of His family— brother, sister, mother—stands out in stark contrast to the Jewish Old Testament con

Examples from the Bible

cept of the importance of blood ties. In the

[Lot] had been taken captive, he armed his

New Testament, sealed in His blood, a new

trained servants...and pursued them as far as

Chosen People is established—His family,

Dan.... And he brought back all his goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods..."(Gen. 14: 14,16).

"When Abraham heard that his brother

the Church, united by doing God's will. His teaching was also a great eulogy

Was Lot Abraham's actual brother? No.

of Our Lady, His Mother twice over, both physically and spiritually so. She is the first

Gen.l 1:27 tells us that Lot was his nephew, the son of his brother Aran. Yet, they are

to do God's will to perfection, giving an

unconditional "yes" to His will: "Be it done unto me according to thy word." Everyone


since then who has done God's will follows

be no strife, I pray you, between me and

her example.

you, and between my herdsmen and your

"And Abraham said unto Lot, let there

herdsmen. For we are brethren"(Gen. 13:8).

The big question

Again, they were not brothers, but uncle and

Did God will that she should have more children? Yes. She is the mother of

nephew. In the story of Jacob, Rebecca, Laban, and Rachel, the text can be confusing.

Jesus, the head of the Mystical Body, the

"When Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of

Church. For a mother to give birth to a

head without a body would be a monstros

ity of nature, so she had to give birth to the

body of true believers as well. If she gave birth to the Head in an ecstasy of divine

love, she gave birth to the body amidst bit

Jacob and Rachel at the well:"And he told her that he was her father's brother and the

and that he was Rebecca's son..."(Gen. 29:

son of Rebecca..."(Gen.29:10,12).

10. 12).

Jesus'"brothers and sisters." Fundamentalists

not use brother for nephew and uncle, this

If Hebrew had a word for cousin and did

ter pains at the foot of the Cross. Ever since the "Woman, behold thy son," Mary is our mother, the mother of all those who,

Laban, his mother's brother.... And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother,

wish to push the "brothers and sisters of

would read, "When Jacob saw Rachel his

generation after generation, do the will of Jesus" to mean actual physical children of

cousin, and the sheep of Laban his uncle....

God and call her blessed, as she foretold in

the Magnificat and as Saint Luke relates in

Mary, but the Bible says nothing like that. Quoting Bible passages apart from their

And Jacob told Rachel that he was her cousin, that he was Rebecca's son...."



Catholic Apologetics

The brothers of Jesus

The same custom of calling every near kinsman "brother" is seen in what has

become another typical objection against Jesus being Our Lady's only son, taken from Saint Mark's Gospel: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of

James, and Joseph, and Jude and Simon? Are not also his sisters here with us?"(6:3). Who were those men Mark calls broth

ers of Jesus? Besides these four men, there must have been at least two women, since

the Gospel speaks of "sisters." We need not appeal to oral tradition to find out; the Bible

suffices. A brief examination of parallel texts will provide us with the proper context to understand the degree of near kinship those "brothers" had with Jesus.

Let us investigate step by step, examin ing the circumstances of Our Lord's death and resurrection.

Step one:"Now late in the night of the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the sepulcher" (Matt. 28:1).

So, early on Sunday morning, two women named Mary came to the sepulcher, Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary."

Who was this "other Mary"? It is unlikely that she was Mary the Mother of Jesus, who is never referred to as "the other Mary" but

always as "the Mother of Jesus." Mary Magdalene is named here, so she is not the "other Mary" either. To find out who she is, then, let's see what happened on Friday evening, two nights before. Step two: "Then he [Joseph of Arimathea] rolled a large stone to the

er's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, [the other Mary] and Mary Magdalene" (John 19:25). So there were three women called

Mary by Our Lord's cross: Mary, His moth er; Mary, Our Lady's "sister" and the wife of Cleophas; and Mary Magdalene. The "other Mary" is the wife of Cleophas and a "sister" of Our Lady, which may mean a sis

ter from the same parents, or cousins, or even aunt and niece. In the profoundly fam ily-centered Jewish culture, the term sisters

here with us? And they were offended at Him. And Jesus said to them: A prophet is

not without honor but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house"(Mark 6:3-4).

From the foregoing we know that two of those so-called brothers, James and Joseph, were sons of the wife of Cleophas. This suffices to demonstrate that the word

brothers in the Aramaic language spoken in Jesus' time, like the Hebrew spoken in Abraham's time, simply meant near kins

suffices to describe them.

men—cousins, uncles, nephews—and not

Again, did the wife of Cleophas have any children besides Joseph who, being Jesus' first- or second-degree cousins, were

just siblings from the same womb. Simon and Jude were probably sons of

also called His "brothers'? Saint Matthew

gives the clue: Step five: "And many women were there, looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to

The word brothers in the

Aramaic language spoken in Jesus ^ time, like the Hebrew spoken in Abraham^s time, simply meant near kinsmen—

the other woman at the foot of the cross, "the mother of the sons of Zebedee"(Matt.

27:56). "Woman, behold thy son" A further confirmation of this conclu

sion is the fact that Our Lord, on the cross, entrusted His mother to Saint John: "Son, behold thy mother. And from that hour he took her into his own home"(John 19:26-27).

In Jewish law and customs a dying son could never entrust his mother to a

stranger if he had a near kinsman, nor even to a kinsman if he had a brother to receive

her. That He entrusted Our Lady to Saint John's care suffices to demonstrate that she had no other sons into whose care she

might go. She was entrusted to Saint John because there was no other son in the fam

cousins, uncles, nephews— and notjust siblingsfrom the same womb.

ily. On Pentecost

In the Acts of the Apostles we learn that the eleven Apostles, after Our Lord's

entrance of the tomb, and departed. But Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the sepulcher"(Matt.

him. Among them were Mary Magdalene,

which is from Jerusalem a Sabbath day's


and Mary the mother of James and Jo.seph,

journey. And when they were come in, they

Mary Magdalene and that unassuming "other Mary" were at the sepulcher already on Friday evening. They went home for the

Sabbath, returning to the tomb on Sunday morning. Saint Mark's account identifies her; Step three: "And Mary Magdalene and Mary the Mother of Joseph beheld where He was laid"(Mark 15:47).

So, the "other Mary" was the mother of a man called Joseph, certainly well-known to the Evangelist, who distinguishes him solely by his given name. Now, was this Joseph the only son of the "other Mary"?

Saint John, referring to the crucifixion on Friday afternoon, writes: Step four: "Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother, and His moth





heaven, "returned


Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet,

and the mother of the sons of Zebedee"

went up into an upper room, where abode

(Matt. 27:56). Hence, the "other Mary," the wife of Cleophas, had another son, James. Now we

both Peter, and James, and John, and

Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew

and Matthew,James the son of Alpheus, and

know that two of the "brothers" of Jesus

Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of

were James and Joseph, His cousins, the

James. These all continued with one accord

sons of the "other Mary." James became an

in prayer and supplication with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His

Apostle and was known as "the brother of the Lord," but Joseph, the other cousin, was not an Apostle. Saint Paul refers to Saint James in this way: "But I saw none of the

other apostles, except James, the brother of the Lord"(Gal 1:19). The full text of the classical objection

brethren" (Acts 1:12-14). Who was there "in one accord in

prayer and supplication"? Four categories of people: 1) The eleven apostles; 2) the women: probably Mary Magdalene, the now illustrious "other Mary", and the moth

reads: "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, Joseph, Jude

er of the sons of Zebedee, and probably

and Simon? And are not also His sisters

ing to Him; 3) Mary the Mother of Jesus,

other ladies as well, who had been minister

In Jewish law and customs

a dying son could never entrust his mother to a

kinsmm. nor^even td*a

kinsman if h^ada brotherly to receive hen That Our


Lord entrusted Omr Lady to Saint John's care hiffices to demonstrate that slk I

no other sons into whos care she might 2

Catholic Apologetics

natural course of married life she would

eventually conceive and become a mother.

So, she was asking,"How can I have a child

The scene is the

Annunciation; Our Lady responds to the angel: "How shall this happen, since I do not know man?"

(Luke 1:34)

while remaining a virgin?" This strongly suggests a previous vow of virginity. No children of Joseph

Some, accepting this, have speculated that Our Lord's brethren came from Saint

Joseph's first marriage. In principle, it is

possible that he was a widower and had married again, but this is very unlikely. If he had been married before, why should he

assume new responsibilities to remain celi bate in his second marriage? It was not cus tomary among Jews that a widower upon

Now, in Judea it was quite customaryfor teenagers to

marry, and Mary was already betrothed to Joseph Her response would make no

remarrying would agree that his wife live under a vow of virginity. If he were to remain celibate, he would remain unmar ried.

Saint Joseph did not know the grandeur of his wife

There is another explanation, a comple mentary one. Before Our Lord's birth Saint Joseph did not fully know who Our Lady was, she, the woman whose seed crushes the

sense had she not deter

mined to remain a virgin.

head of the serpent, who appears in heaven under a crown of twelve stars, the one

blessed among women, full of grace, with

whom the Lord was pleased, whom all gen erations would call bles.sed, and so forth. He knew little of this till the Child was bom in

quite fittingly mentioned separately; and

and the Holy Family went to Jerusalem,

4) His brethren. But how many of these

there is no mention of other children.

Bethlehem; until the angels called the shep herds, singing,"Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men of good

"brethren of Jesus" were there?

What we are told next is rather startling in this regard: "And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (the

The vow of virginity Catholic Tradition tells us that Mary had made a vow of virginity prior to her

number of names together were about one

marriage. Marrying under obedience, she

hundred and twenty)"(Acts 1:15). One hundred and twenty brothers! And

discovered that Saint Joseph was of the same mind. Granted, this is taught only

what about sisters? Imagine trying to

implicitly in Scripture, not explicitly, but

explain those numbers in ignorance of

that suffices for our purposes.

will"; until the star appeared and the Magi arrived with their gifts of gold for royalty, incense for divinity, and myrrh for the aton ing Victim. Joseph was awestruck! Whom had he married? He had a fair idea of his wife's

virtues, of course, but all of this? Contem

plating his spouse holding the divine Child

in her immaculate amis and tnarveling at

Jewish customs and culture! Such are the

The scene is the Annunciation; Our

absurdities of trying to interpret Sacred Scripture without the guidance of the

Lady responds to the angel:"How shall this

the beauty, grandeur, and excellence of this

happen, since I do not know man?"(Luke

spouse of God entrusted to his care, this

Magisterium of the Church.


Mother of the Messias and King of the Universe, Saint Joseph could have said,

Besides, haven't we been told that the

Now, in Judea it was quite customary

Apostles James and Simon and Jude were

for teenagers to marry, and Mary was

paraphrasing Saint Augustine, "O beauty

also "brothers" of Jesus? Why are they

already betrothed to Joseph. Her response

ever ancient and ever new, so late have I

mentioned separately? The answer, once

would make no sense had she not deter

known thee!" â&#x2013;

again, is obvious: "Brethren" were His near

mined to remain a virgin. Otherwise, in the

kinsmen, whether they be apostles or disci ples. Simple as that. But there is more: When Saint Joseph

Crusade readers are invited to visit the website of St. Gabriel Communications at To obtain tapes on Catholic

was told by the angel to return from Egypt

apologetics, please write for a free audiotape catalogue to St Gabriel Communica

because Herod was dead, there is no men

tions, PO Box 111, Forrestfield, WA 6058, Australia, or contact us via e-mail

tion of other children who might have been

bom in Egypt. Again, when Jesus was twelve



Back to Manners

Respect, Ceremony, Manners Friendship Kiiiers or Boosters? by Michelle Taylor

I'll never forget the scene. I was In a bus travelling in Ecuador and, as the bus

approached one of its stops, I noticed a father standing with his son. The latter, a

young man of about twenty, held a battered suitcase firmly in his right hand. He was

obviously travelling, and the father, a weather-beaten man, was there to see him off. So far this was common enough.

What took place next has remained with me ever since. As the bus came to a

stop, the young man suddenly went down on both knees and bowed his head before

his father. The father laid his right hand on

the boy's head and made the sign of the cross over him. The boy then stood up and the two embraced for several seconds.

Picking up his suitcase, the young man then

stepped up into the bus. The father stood there as the bus disappeared. It was evident from their complexion, facial features, stature, build, and clothing that these two. father and son, were descen dants of the Incas, once adorers of the sun-

god. Seeing such an utterly Catholic .scene carried out by these modern Incas brought

tears to my eyes. In those few nnmients 1 understood more about the dignifying and

civilizing effect the Church has on peoples than if 1 had read volumes on the subject.

There was a world of respect, love, and manners in that simple ceremony at the bus â&#x20AC;˘Stop. That young man from a lifestyle so simple and rudimentary that, in all proba bility, he could barely read, eould have stood in any of our classrooms and taught our youth a great les.sonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the lesson that

love must go hand-in-hand with respect and some measure of ceremony and manners or it is doomed to take a roller-coaster ride and

end badly.

Respect, ceremony, manners: These, if properly understood and practiced, can fos ter everlasting friendships, enduring mar riages, and the most courteous relationships.

September-October 1999


Back to Manners

oped the notion that ceremony, respectful

daughter?" The girl replied: "Yes, Madam, but do you not know that I am God's daugh

attitudes, and manners are a bit affected and

ter?" The princess, on the whole a virtuous

Somehow, however, we have devel

deprive life of spontaneity, and are, there

Catholic, was rendered speechless in admi

fore, friendship killers. Yet, I dare affirm the opposite. Human beings, even the least gifted and talented among us, have a tremendous inherent sense of their own dignity.

ration of such Christian sentiment.

Once I saw a poster in a gas station. It was a cartoon of a little boy looking straight

ahead with an expression of challenge on

So, it is erroneous to think that respect

We may try to disregard this in the name of a "more relaxed attitude," "not

we then see the very best shine forth. Again,

standing on ceremony." "being natural," or

deep inside, the person who is so treated feels grateful, grateful that his or her uniqueness and dignity as a human being is

misunderstandings, squabbles, fights, break-offs. It is in the nature of things.

Once I saw a poster in a

tion is a world of theological truth: first, that

gas station. It was a eartoon ofa little boy

second, that each one of us was redeemed

by the priceless blood of the Son of God,so

each of us is priceless; third, that God does not use molds and, therefore, each human

being is a unique masterpiece. In fact, as the great Catholic thinker Plinio Correa de Oliveira so succinctly said,

the value of every man is not just great; it is colossal. He proves this quite simply: Since man is a being created by a colossal God, a

being who will be judged by a colossal God,and who faces either a colossal reward

or a colossal punishment as a result, he can only be a colossal being. Respect

Consequently, man instinctively likes to be respected, counted for something, honored. Until the last century, men would go as far as challenging each other to duels

whatever, but then we must watch out for

We Americans think of ourselves as a

make junk." Implicit in that down-to-earth declara

God, and therefore, are certainly not Junk;

riage open these sacred doors and take down the "off limits" sign.

person with respect, attention, deference,

chills instead of warms. When we treat a

his face. The caption read,"I must be some thing really good because God doesn't

we are made to the image and likeness of

ficient and self-supporting and finds rest and renewal in its own "cell-like" intimacy. No friendship, even the most intimate, can disregard this truth. Only the bonds of mar

looking straight ahead

with an expression of challenge on hisface. The caption read, "I must be something really good because God doesn't


realistic, down-to-earth people. So anything that is "put on," such as acquired formulas for ceremony and manners, is looked at a little bit askance as not being the natural

thing to do, the spontaneous thing to do, even a little "fake."

Yet, Hollywood has driven from our

mentalities a main component of reality: original sin. At the same time, the Catholic Church teaches us that original sin is very real. Every child is conceived in it and, even though cleansed at the baptismal font, will

carry its effects throughout life. And its effects are a tendency to wrong judgments, wrong choices, and wrong-doings of vari ous sorts.

According to Saint Louis Grignion de

Montfort, all of us carry something of a beast, a snake, or a toad within us that must

be tamed or kept in check, on a leash, as it appreciated. And from gratitude to friendli ness, affection, and love is only a step.


No one considers a brace on a defec

tive leg as something unreasonable or Ceremony

Then comes ceremony. Ceremony, which encompasses manners, is respect

"fake." Rather, it is a support which one day will enable the leg to function properly. This is what respect, ceremony, and man

to defend points of honor. Of course, duels

applied to the various circumstances of life.

ners are for the whole person: a brace, a

were forbidden by Holy Mother Church, but that they still occurred proves that men

It is ceremony that requires us to call before we show up at a person's door. It is

support for a defective limb, at times a leash

value due honor.

ceremony that makes us ring the doorbell

If parents would only recognize this

It necessarily follows, then, that when this dignity is respected and when we are treated with the proper honor, we feel grate ful, and a true and deep friendship can

before entering. Ceremony stipulates that we knock before we open an occupied

simple truth, so generally denied today

ensue. Since friendship involves trust, it also follows that we will have little trust for

people who show no respect for us and much more trust in those who do,

"Spontaneity" does not always ensure

respect. Since we are not bom perfect, all of us having our faults, we tend either to offend,

forget, or ignore others if we are not careful. Once, a daughter of a king of France

verbally abused a servant girl in a "sponta neous" moment. The servant girl respectful ly complained, and the princess retorted,

"Do you not know that I am the king's



room. Ceremony leads us to teach our chil dren that under no excuse whatsoever do we

make our way into the intimate part of another family's home, namely the bed rooms, unless expressly invited, and so on. The persons or family thus treated will always be grateful that their own sanctum is respected. Every family has its areas of "sacred ground," places that are "off limits,"

to restrain the little beast inside us.

from all angles of society, how much vice could be avoided, how much virtue fostered early on before the limb is beyond recov ery!

Respect, ceremony, and a sense of

manners must be taught and taught early. For, like everything else, they take practice to become perfect. Alas, after original sin, perfection comes hard to our nature.

Granted, in the beginning of this prac

tice we are somehow "faking it," applying

because every family is a complete cell. Even though interaction with other families, friends, and society is a must for the fami

the formula "fake it till you make it" that I

lyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as for individualsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;there are certain

integral and natural pan of a person's way of being, however, the result is a delightful

times when the family is perfectly self-suf

mentioned in a previous article. Once respect, ceremony, and manners become an


Back to Manners

person to be around. A whole society of such persons is, then, a little bit of heaven. Yes, respect, ceremony, manners: truly a nice trio and not in the least cold, distanc

ing, chilling as it is often made out to be.

Basic History Course

On the contrary, this trio guarantees that the beast will remain confined and that the lady

or gentleman will emerge—and treat each other accordingly. That scene I witnessed in far-off

Ecuador, even though enacted by the sim

Western Civilization

plest of folk, was permeated by the sweet ness generated by this trio. It was too beau

Chapter 18

tiful and too lofty not to have been inspired

by another Trio, this one divine, which in turn gave us our Holy Catholic Church, the great civilizer of human nature. Even though these two Ecuadoreans, father and son, lived in a small, underdevel

oped village lost in the Andes, they had

Saint Boniface and the Benedictine Monks

Bring Civilization to Europe

been brought out of paganism into the light

of Christian civilization by Catholic mis sionaries long ago. Exposed only to the beneficial and civilizing influence of the Faith, and spared our neo-pagan, Hollywoodian, TV-generated influences, they

unknowingly created, at a given moment, a truly sublime .scene, if I could have painted it, I would have called it Love Guaranteed

by Respect, Ceremony, and Manners. ■

by Jeremias Wells

Early in the eighth century .several tra ditions coalesced into the great movement that brought Christianity and Western Civilization to Central Europe from the British Isles. The Roman mission of Pope

Saint Gregory the Great and Saint Augu.stine and the Irish mission of Saints Columba and Aiden combined to establish

in England the Benedictine mona.stic .system with its great renaissance of Latin and


Greek studies. In turn, Anglo-Saxon monks,

especially Saint Boniface, extended their

profound culture of learning, spirituality, and organization to continental Europe.

Your comments and suggestions

Christopher Dawson described the results

about Crusade are important to us.

quite well when he said that these monks

They help us in making editorial decisions to suit your needs and inter ests as adequately as possible. In that, we are better equipped to fulfill our

"were the chief agents in bringing about that

mission of lending Catholics across

Carolingian Empire but of the order of

our vast nation moral and Intellectual

support to continue living and defending their Faith and culture.

alliance between the Papacy, the Prankish

monarchy, and Benedictine monasticism which was the keystone not only of the

Saint Augustine preaches to Saint Ethelbert of Kent.

medieval Christendom in the West."'

North with East Anglia, Mercia, and the largest, Northumbria. The deep-seated

Apostolic activity in southern England

hatred of the Britons toward the invaders

E-mail: Fax:(717)225-1675

fered from the same barbarian convulsions

that affected mainland Europe. The Angles,

prevented any conversion of the latter; so they remained Teutonic in language and customs and pagan in religion until the great apostolate of Saint Gregory and the

Phone: 1-888-317-5571

Saxons, and Jutes, fierce and Germanic



like their continental counterparts, pushed

We have already seen how Augustine of Canterbury and his forty monks convert ed King Ethelbert and much of Kent with the assistance of Queen Bertha.^ When

Crusade Magazine P.O. Box 341

Hanover, PA 17331

The Christian Romano-Britons suf

the Britons to the western hills (Wales) and

established seven kingdoms—the Saxons in the South with Wessex, Sussex, and Essex, which .surrounded the Jutish

Kingdom of Kent, and the Angles in the

Augustine died in 604, however, only the small kingdoms of Kent and Essex had

September-October 1999



been converted. After Elhelbert died twelve

years later, the tiny bridgehead began to

The Irish tradition

At this point the Irish contribution

Students by the thousands flocked to them for their education, and received food,

shrink and the great mission was in danger

entered the scene. After Saint Patrick con

clothing, and books free of charge. In one

of disappearing. When Ethelbert's son and the ruling family in Essex reverted back to paganism, two of the three remaining bishops became

verted Ireland in the middle of the fifth

of the great ironies of history, the British repaid this generosity centuries later with

century, the Irish developed apart from the rest of Europe because of their insular iso

oppression, poverty, and brutal warfare.

lation. Although they were always ortho

Saint Columba (Columkille), a scholar and

disheartened and fled to Gaul. The third.

dox in doctrine, several of their practices

Archbishop Laurentius of Canterbury, pre

and observances and a certain sense of

ardent penitent from an Irish regal family, founded a monastery on the Island of lona off the west coast of Scotland which

pared to leave. Shortly before his depar

independence aroused suspicion in Rome.

ture, Saint Peter appeared to him and

Nevertheless, their superior educational

became one of the chief centers of learning

severely admonished him for abandoning his flock. The first Pope reminded

system and intense desire for spiritual per fection gave them great influence in

in the Western world.

Laurentius that he had suffered chains,

England and over the Prankish kingdom

Christian forces

blows, imprisonment, pain, and finally

through their monasteries in Gaul. Above

make a comeback

death by crucifixion that he might spread

all, the Irish delighted in arduous mission

the Gospel in a hostile world. Peter then scourged the penitent Archbishop. When the astounded King of Kent saw the marks

ary Journeys and subsequent monastic set-

In 634 the future king and saint Oswald left the safety of lona, where he had been reared, to confront Cadwallon, who had by then killed three kings in Northumbria, including Oswald's oldest brother. The night before the battle,

of the lash the next morning, he renounced his sinful life and promoted the welfare of the Church at every opportunity for the rest

Oswald erected a huge cross and prayed before it with his army. The next day,

of his life.

although with inferior numbers, he Pagan reaction in the North A breakthrough in northern England

defeated him, and left him dead on the

occurred in the powerful kingdom of


Northumbria. The chief catalyst was yet another Catholic Queen, Ethelburga, the

made him a dedicated Catholic, and he had

marched against the raging tyrant, soundly

The new king's studies at lona had

daughter of Ethelben and Bertha and there

absorbed the Celtic enthusiasm for mis

fore a direct descendent of Saint Clotilda.

sionary work. Saint Aidan and several other monks from the island monastery

King Edwin by his military prowess had

gained overlordship over the seven king doms (the Heptarchy) and married Ethelburga. As part of her entourage, she brought with her Saint Paulinus, one of the original Benedictines from Rome. Through

her influence and his zealous preaching, they converted not only Edwin, but

joined him and together they reconverted

Jarrow. He became known as the Father

Northumbria. When Oswald began to influence conversions among the West Saxons, Penda. the fiercely pagan King of Mercia.joined his forces once again with the always hostile Britons. The combined

of English History.

army defeated Oswald in a battle that took

Saint Bede writing in the monastery of

most of the kingdom. But as .so often hap

the pious King's life. Like King Edwin, he is venerated as a saint and martyr.

pens, a destructive force arose to challenge the Catholic success.

South of Northumbria lay the hea

then kingdom of Mercia. Its pagan King Penda smoldered with rage and jealousy

tlements for the love of Christian ideals.

Since cities did not exist in Ireland.

Church admini.stralion was divided by tribes and not dioceses. The bishop, when

However, as the seventh century moved into its second half, the Christian forces,

both spiritually and militarily, were gaining in ascendancy. Finally, in 654, Saint

against his converted neighbors. He

he was not also the abbot, was subordinat

Oswald's brother. King Oswy, put an end to

formed an alliance with the Welsh-Briton

ed to him in the monastic chain of authori

the heathen militar)' resistance by destroy

Cadwallon who. although baptized, har

ty. But the principal difference between the

ing the profane Mercian and his anny.

bored an even more intense hatred for the

Celt.s and Rome was based on the calcula

converted Anglo-Saxons. The unholy

tion of the date for Easter. The Roman

The importance of unity

alliance invaded Northumbria in 632. Edwin met it on the frontier with a

Church had refined the process and the iso lated Celts had not been updated. The

One year before, two young AngloSaxon noblemen who changed the direc

numerically inferior army and was disas trously defeated, dying with his sword in

incompatibility between the two systems caused much agitation.

tion of Christianity in England had embarked together on a pilgrimage lo

his hand, for which he is ranked among the martyrs of the Faith. With the typical

The Irish monks kept alive the study of Latin grammar and the classics (even

fury of a renegade Christian, Cadwallon in Greek) and became the foremost

traveled throughout Northumbria, rav

teachers in Europe, which is quite remark

aging all before him and obliterating the

able considering their remoteness from the original centers of classical studies.

newly acquired religion.



Rome. Wilfrid, nineteen, after spending four years studying at an Irish monastery, wanted to gain a fuller understanding of

the Latin Church, and Benedict Bi.scop, twenty-five, although already possessing much property, wanted to serve God more

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perfectly in the monastic state. Both, now canonized, saw the necessity of strengthen

ing the unity of English Catholicism under

Kingdoms of:


obedience to Rome.


Shortly after Wilfrid's return to England, several Church officials recog

Alcluyd \Eadwlnsburh




nized that the observance of Easter on two

different dates was destroying the unity of the Church. With the Irish influence domi


nant in many centers in northern Europe, a


continual resistance to the centralized

authority of the Papacy could have pro





voked the risk of schism. To resolve the

problem, a synod was held at Whitby in 664. Saint Wilfrid defended the universal

papal claims and with the help of King Oswy prevailed upon the Irish to submit. Unity was preserved and the mutual inter play of the best aspects of both groups

Scale of Miles .J






Although Wilfrid zealously advocated


Roman customs and the Benedictine Rule in


the monasteries he founded, his old traveling companion. Saint Benedict Biscop, played a


more influential role in advancing these ele ments to spread Christian culture. He found


A ESSEX fi \Londonlu

ed the twin monasteries at Wearmouth and Jarrow in Northumbria and endowed them

KENT gantuaria

with a great collection of books and art


works that he collected during his repealed pilgrimages to Rome and Gaul. Built of stone by French masons,


these magnificent edifices had lead roofs and stained glass windows. Jarrow pro


duced Saint Bede, the most renowned

scholar of his day and a doctor of the Church who also gained fame as the father

of English history. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People possesses a richness and depth astounding for its day


The Heptarchy (&â&#x2013; " c. England)

and ranks as one of the classics of human

history. Through Bede came the school of pagan gods, and malicious enemies who by some demonic instinct always resist

York, the scholar Alcuin, and the

Pope Saint Gregory II in 718. There he

Carolingian school on which the culture of

received a formal mandate from the great

the Middle Ages rested.

pontiff and a new name under which a grateful Church has always venerated

the Good.

Saint Boniface


by the thousands, bringing on an additional problem, the necessity of organization,

Winfrid, from the South of England,

He gained much valuable experience

The devout monk converted heathens

was quickly developing into an outstand ing scholar and teacher when he decided to

cessful mission in Friesland (modern

which he confided to Pope Gregory by messenger. The exceptionally pleased pon

follow the grace surging in his heart and

Holland). After three years, Boniface and

tiff called him to Rome, consecrated him

assist the missionary effort in Europe.

his companions sailed up the Rhine river

bishop in charge of all the German lands

After some initial failure, Winfrid, whose

to the central German areas of Hesse and

east of the Rhine, and sent him back to

mind always rose to a higher view of things, realized that the increasingly diffi cult task of an evangelist required strong

Thuringia, There they faced the various

complete his glorious task.

neer missionaries from Saint Paul to the

Destruction of the great oak

and consistent support from the Papacy. Consequently, armed with a letter of rec

Jesuit martyrs on this continent have had

to endure: a wild and primitive country

Boniface returned to his apostolate a year later and sadly witnessed a return of

ommendation from his bishop, he traveled

side broken up by mountain ranges and dense forests, a savage attachment to

many converts to their pagan rites. They were deeply attached to the worship of

to Rome and had his first audience with

by assisting Saint Willibrord in his suc

rigors and privations that all the great pio




monastery in 747 to do penance for his

sacred groves and holy mountains, of

deeds of violence. In the same year a

streams and waterfalls. He decided to


strike at the heart of their superstition.

synod was held for which Boniface

^ prepared a pastoral letter that ^ stressed the unity of the Church

He announced that he would cut

down the giant oak of Geismar, the

chief object of worship in Germany. On the specified day, a huge crowd of furious pagans and

under the Sovereign Pontiff. The synod sent Pope Zachary a declaration, signed by all the bishops


of the land, of their dutiful sub-

excited believers gathered. The


nature-worshippers expected

quick retribution from the gods for such a sacrilege. Boniface picked up his ax and took a swing

mission to the Holy See and the Roman Canons, which illustrates



^ order and ecclesiastical obedience

at the gigantic tree. A mighty blast


of wind from above shook the tree

to the Prankish kingdom.


and it came crashing to the ground, '/n miraculously falling into four equal

the truly remarkable achievement of Saint Boniface in bringing

France, as Christopher Dawson has noted, had become the center in


parts. The astonished, but now believing,i Germans built a chapel from the lumber, j

"which all the living forces of Western

culture converged: the meeting-place of

During the next ten years, Boniface reached the height of his apostolic labors.

Latin and German elements, and of

Dozens of monasteries and convents arose,

Unfortunately, the nation suffered under a

staffed by monks and nuns from England,

Mediterranean and Atlantic influences.""'

Saint Boniface declares Pepin King.

which, because they cultivated learning, became centers of civilization. Gregory II

estates to his warrior-nobles. Monasteries

died in 731 and was replaced by the third

became nursing homes for his disabled officers. This caused all aspects of reli gious life to fall into a degraded condition.

Gregory (731-741) who resumed the close relationship. Boniface seven years later traveled to

Rome, seeking to be relieved of episcopal duties so that he could preach to the Saxonsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a life-long ambition never to be realized. Not only did the wise pontiff refuse, but he opened up a new chapter in the life of the English monk. Recognizing

political system where the throne was held by a powerless adolescent and the power by a secondary official. To remedy this anomaly, Pepin sought and received approval from Pope Zachary to supersede the impotent Merovingian dynasty. In an epic-making event. Saint Boniface conse

Boniface wrote to the Pope that unworthy and unchaste men were becoming priests: Then,"rising in rank as they increase in sin, they become bishops, and those who

crated Pepin King in 751. The .stage was set for the Carolingian Renaissance of Charlemagne, the emancipation of the

are not adulterers or fomicators tu'e drunk

Papacy from the bullying tactics of the


Byzantine Empire and the Lombard nation, and the emergence of the Papal

Martel died in 741, leaving the reins

that Boniface's true genius lay in his admin

of government to his two sons, Carloman,

istrative talent, Gregory sent him back as

who ruled in the East (Austrasia), and

Legate for all Germany to reorganize the

Pepin III, who controlled the West

seventies, was free at last to return to his

Church in the southern provinces, especially

(Neustria). Boniface and Carloman, who

first love. With several companions, he

Bavaria, There he created new dioceses

possessed a true zeal for Church interests, began a thorough reform in Austrasia that

sailed down the Rhine to resume his old

which greatly aided the advance of European cultural life. However, the crown ing achievement occurred when the multitalented statesman turned his attention

toward the Prankish kingdom.

was encouraged by the Papacy, now held

by Pope Saint Zachary (741-752). The reform .spread to the entire realm when


The aging Boniface, now in his mid-

apostolate with the Frisians. But one day a hostile band of savages broke into his camp and butchered Boniface and all his companions. â&#x2013;

Pepin followed the action of his more pious brother after the latter retired to a

Reorganization In France

Although the decadent Merovingian kings still lived on in France, they had

long since given up the substance of power and drifted into a meaningless life of ease.

1. The Formation of Christendom (New York, 1967) p.175. 2. See Crusade, March-April, 1999, p. 27.

Charles Martel then ruled the kingdom as

3.Summarized from Dawson, The Making of Europe(New York, 1945) p. 212.

the Mayor of the Palace. His many mili tary exploits place Charles among the

4. Religion and the Rise of Western Culture (New York, 1950) p. 84.

great warriors of history. Unfortunately,

the victor over the Moslems severely abused the Church by expropriating Church lands. He awarded the offices of

bishop and abbot along with their landed



Bibliographical notes

The overview for this chapter was influenced

by the works of Christopher Dawson and Gustav Schnurer previously mentioned. The

best biography of Saint Boniface by a Catholic historian is Godfrey Kurth, St Boniface (Milwaukee, 1935). Several works by non-Catholic scholars are recommended for their discernment and incisiveness: S.J.

Crawford, Anglo-Saxon Influence on Western Christendom, 600-800-,(Oxford, Reprint 1966); F. M. Stenion, Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd ed.(London, rep. 1965); Wilhelm Levison, England and the Continent in the

Eighth Century (Oxford, 1946) and G. L.

Greenaway, Saint Boniface (London, 1955).

Teaching Our Children

What does it mean

to bring up a chiid? From the writings of Saint Marcellin Champagnat

"Does it mean to care for or to satisfy the child's necessities, not allowing him to

is to correct the child's vices and defects,

to the life of a beast.

such as pride, intractability, dishonesty,

"Thoms do not prick when they first

lack anything in the way of food and cloth ing? No. Does it mean to teach the child to

egoism, gluttony, vulgarity, ingratitude,

begin to grow, and newbom snakes lack

read and write and acquire the knowledge he will later need for organizing his tempo

Father Champagnat urges that these

laziness, and so on."

venom. But with time the thoms harden

and become keen as swords, and as snakes

and all other vices be cut short as soon as

grow their venom develops and increases.

they make themselves known. "One must kill the viper before it grows and produces venom; one must cure

The same holds true for the vices and

founded the Marist Brothers for the educa

the ailment before it degenerates into a

criminal habits that resist every effort and

tion of youth, shows that all of these aims

mortal illness. When a defect is first dis

become incorrigible."

are good and necessary but that they are not

cultivate virtue, since all of us, bom with

covered in a child, a suave reproach and a light punishment are enough to correct it and crush the germ of evil. If, on the other hand, one allows the defect to grow, it will

Original Sin, are inclined toward vice.

become a habit that all one's efforts will be

Implicit in this, of course, is that the necessary firmness be tempered with a

by thorns; a vine, but in need of trim

incapable of correcting. Tertullian says that incipient vices and defects that are consid

endowed as it is with intellect and free will,

ming.... The object of education is to

ered inconsequential and thus left unsup-

may blossom like the lily and bear fmit in

remove these thoms, to trim this vine.... It

pressed are the germs of the sins that lead

due season like the vine. â&#x2013;

ral alfairs? No, child-rearing is a much more noble work."

Saint Marcellin Champagnat, who

the most important goals of child-rearing. Rather, he explains, the first goal must be to

"The child is a lily, but encompassed

defects of a child; if allowed to grow and

develop, they become tyrannical passions,

good measure of goodness. Then the child,

The Fence There was a little boy with a bad temper. His father gave him a bag of nails and told him that every time he lost his temper, he should

The days passed and the young boy was finally able to tell his father that all the nails were gone. The father took his

first day the boy drove thirty-seven nails

son by the hand and led him to the fence. He said, "You have done well, my son, but look at the holes in the

into the fence.


The number gradually dwindled. The boy discovered that it was easier to

When you say things in anger, they

hammer a nail into the back fence. The

hold his temper than to drive those nails into the fence.

Finally the day came when the boy did not lose his temper at all. He told his father about it and the father suggested that the boy now pull out one nail for each day that he was able to hold his

"The fence will never be the same.

leave a scar just like this one. You can put a knife in a man and draw it out. It

won't matter how many times you say I'm sorry, the wound is still there. "A verbal wound is as bad as a

physical one." â&#x2013;


September-October 1999


Family Series

Grigio Saint John Bosco's Dog by Pauline Sanders Many are the stories and even books

nowhere and followed him to and fro. Don

that have been written about special dogs.

Bosco him.self gave the dog its name,

There were dogs who saved their owners

which means gray, that was the

lives, dogs who helped bring criminals to justice, dogs who "fought" in wars, and dogs who were so loyal to their masters

color of its fur. One of the boys at the

and served them so well that their .stories

became part of oral and written history.

Such was a dog called "Grigio." Grigio was very much like other dogs we have heard or read about, with just this differ ence: No one ever knew where he came

from, and no one will ever know for sure

where he went. Let me tell you his story. Saint John Bosco, the beloved founder

of schools for boys and of an order of priests and brothers called the Salcsians, was returning home very late one day. Because he did much good, and was a true

and great saint, there were many bad peo ple who hated him and wanted to see him dead. He had already been attacked more than once, and on this particular night, as he walked through the deserted streets of Turin, in nonhem Italy, he was prudently anxious, even though he was an extraordi narily strong man. Suddenly, he saw a great big dog approaching him. In size and appearance it looked like a wolf, with a long snout, erect pointed ears and gray fur. At first, Don Bosco thought the dog would attack him,

Oratory, Don Bosco's school, described

Don Bosco himself tells us about it. "Around the end of November of

1854, one dark and rainy night, I was returning home from the city. Avoiding the desolate and lonely places, I took the road

him: "I saw a large, strong-looking beast that made me think of a wolf. He had gray fur and a big head; his ears were straight and pointed, and he stood a little over three

that leads from the Consolata to the

feet high."

they quickened theirs; when I slowed down,

One night, Don Bosco was making his way back to the Oratory in the company of a good friend. They walked together for most of the journey, but at a certain point

Cottolengo. At a certain point I realized that two men were walking a short distance in front of me. When I quickened my steps, they slowed down. When I tried to pass them, they deftly barred my way. I then tried to retrace my steps but it was too late; suddenly, taking two leaps towards me,

they had to go their separate ways. Before the two men parted company, Don Bosco prayed to Our Lady for her protection and

they quietly threw a dark cloak over my face. 1 struggled to free myself, but it was

recommended the rest of the trip to his guardian angel. No .sooner had he said this

to shout, but in vain. At that moment.

prayer than Grigio trotted up to them. At the sight of the dog, Don Bosco's friend

sprang with his paws towards the face of

was terrified.

such a way that they were entangling the

"Don't worry," said Don Bosco, "Grigio is my friend."

hound instead of me,

Unconvinced, his companion tried to chase the dog away and even hurled a few

dog!' they screamed in terror,

stones at him. Despite being struck several times, Grigio showed not the slightest reac

elers alone.'

tion. Don Bosco's friend was amazed. "It

'but call him off, call him off now!'

can't be a real dog, Don Bosco! It's a ghost!" The man was so intrigued that he

ous wolf or bear. I called him and he imme

useless. One was trying to gag me. I tried

Grigio appeared, growling like a bear. He one and with his fangs towards the other in

"'Call off your dog! Call off your "'Yes, I will, but you must leave trav

"'All right, all right,' said the bandits, "Grigio continued howling like a furi

accompanied Don Bosco to the entrance of

diately left them. They went their way and

but as the dog came near it showed every

the Oratory. There, all of a sudden, Grigio

Grigio, walking beside me, kept me compa

sign of being extremely friendly. It wagged

was gone.

ny until we reached the Cottolengo."

its tail, snuggled its nose into Don Bosco's hand, and pawed gently at his cassock. For

"What is this?" the man wanted to

Every time Don Bosco went out he

saw Grigio coming to meet him just as

the rest of the Saint's homeward journey

know."Where did he go? Was he a real dog?!"

the great hound walked behind him, right up to the gate of the Oratory of Saint

By this time he was so upset and frightened that he was trembling. Don

ings and began to tread isolated ai eas.

Francis de Sales. And then it vanished!

Bosco had to ask two of his bigger boys to

Oratory, and they even played with him and

accompany his friend all the way home! Now we shall see Grigio in action.

stroked his gray coat. He was known among them as Don Bosco's dog and,

From then on, every time Don Bosco was out late, Grigio always appeared out of



soon as he passed all the houses ar-^ '^-Hid

Many limes he was seen by the boys at the

Family Series

therefore, much liked. And he liked them.

Thai's Don Bosco's dog!" A little later

been detained he started out later than he

With Don Bosco's friends he was the gen tlest of creatures, but with the enemies of

some of the boys led the mastiff into the dining room. He immediately dashed to

had wished. As he walked, the sun began

the saint he was like a lion.

Don Bosco. bounding around his chair in

Not only did Grigio escort Don Bosco on dangerous trips, he sometimes kept him

to eat but the dog paid no attention to it.

to set and he suddenly found himself wishing that Grigio were by his side. At that moment, he spied the dog joyfully running towards him!

from setting out on them. One evening Don Bosco had to go into the city for

"You are a very proud dog," Don Bosco chided. "If you won't eat this, what will

Bosco and his host visited and talked, and

something important. His saintly mother. Mamma Margarita, who lived with him

table, Grigio looked mutely at Don Bosco

then the whole family went into the dining room for dinner. Grigio came in with them

until her death, insisted that it was too late

for a moment. That done, he trotted to the

and lay down in one comer of the room.

and thus too dangerous for such a trip. Bound by his sense of duty, Don Bosco insisted on going. Calling a couple of his

back of the room and ran out the door. It

After a while someone remembered the

seems he had expected to find Don Bosco on the road that day. Since our saint had come by coach, Grigio had only wanted

dog and said,"We should give Grigio something to eat." The person turned

to make sure that he was

lying, but it was vacant. They looked for

safely home.

him around the room and then throughout

boys, he set out, but at the gate of the Oratory lay Grigio. "He has been there quite a while,"

explained some of the boys."We tried to make him go away and even took a stick to him, but he kept coming back." "You don't have to worry about

delight. The saint offered him something

you eat?" Placing his front paws on the

Grigio accompanied

had been opened and the

once told him that it was

shoe. Grigio growled a .second time. Don Bosco tried to climb over him, but the dog retreated and kept on growling. When Don Bosco tried to go around him, the dog rose

One day, Don Bosco

up and blocked his path. The boys shouted

found. Everyone was amazed, for nei ther the door nor any window

years, so many that a lady

impossible for a dog to live

other dogs outside had

that long. Don Bosco only smiled and said,"Maybe he is the son or the grandson of the first one."

But, as Grigio had

come, so Grigio left. went to visit an old

friend, Luis Moglia. He had been invited to

dinner, but having

at the mastiff but dared not say anything further against an angry Grigio. Hearing the noise. Mamma

Margarita came out to see what was hap

pening. "The dog has more sense than you, John!" she scolded. "I wouldn't go out if I were you!" Don Bosco was finally persuaded

to stay home. A little later he heard a commotion outside. Someone was


saying,"Don't let Don Bosco out tonight! Some men are hiding in the old house at the end of the road and

they have sworn to kill him as soon as he leaves the Oratory!" How did Grigio know? Grigio

was certainly a very unusual dog. Another oddity about Grigio is that he would never take any food that was offered to him. One

evening, Don Bosco had arrived at the Oratory much earlier than expected because a friend, the Marquis Fassati, had lent him his coach. Don Bosco was having sup

per when he overheard someone

outside say, "Leave him alone!

toward the comer where the dog had been

the house, but he was nowhere to be

Don Bosco for many

Grigio," said Don Bosco. "I can leave without fear now. Let's go, Grigio!" Instead of following Don Bosco as he usually did, Grigio stiffened, his lips curled into a menacing snarl, and he let out a deep growl. Don Bosco, surprised, nudged the dog lightly with the tip of his

Upon reaching his friend's house, Don


never barked.

Grigio was never seen again! â&#x2013;

Only in America (Continued from back cover)

Bringing It Home With You by Norman Fulkerson

Consider the fact that in Its begin

teenth-century arches and columns, bal

pronounced prejudice against the

conies and balustrades, all shipped from Italy early this century. The famous nine

Old World. Thomas Jefferson warned

against sending Americans to Europe for

teenth-century London Bridge was disman

their education, which he considered would

tled and reassembled at Lake Havasu City,

"admit the hollow, unmeaning manners of

Arizona, in 1971.

Europe to be preferable to the simplicity and sincerity of our country." In his famous essay 'The American Scholar." Ralph

Wegman's Supermarket In Allentown, Pennsylvania, has built Its gourmet food section to simulate a typical European street. Their

bread, made according to age-old French recipes, Is baked In brick ovens.The result; real French baguettes and other delicious breads

with the unique flavor that only a brick oven and centuries of bread baking can give.The French Influence can definitely be seen In their pastries

who go further still. One of these is a writer who was not satisfied with wines or

future worlds."

And yet today, that prejudice has been

buildings. Enchanted with France, she wanted to bring the whole country home. Cheryl MacLachlan's Bringing it

Homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;France is a book that explores the essence of what it means to be French and

recommends ways of introducing that French spirit into the American home. As a fomier associate publisher for an American magazine in Europe, the author

back with us. We like to recreate the taste,

felt drawn by France's allure. Its culture nourished a part of her soul "that had

scents, and sounds of Europe and integrate

heretofore been unattended."

them into our lives. Europe speaks to us of

For several years, she lived, dined, and conversed with families in different regions

something we lack; its ways call us to look beyond the tangible. In the nanosecond nineties, it fills a void in our souls for the

organic, the sacred, and the timeless. We bring home European wines to supplement our own as we search for excellence. We not only admire and enjoy French cuisine, we import their famous chefs to prepare such dishes here. Fine

of France, spending her waking hours "soaking up every detail of daily life." The result is a very American attempt to break

down the transportable components of French life for later reassembly. What was

once only in France can now be (only) in America.

In the minute details and nuances of

homes are adorned in rich European styles.

everyday life, she was able to penetrate

Fashions still take cues from European designers.

room analysis of the French home reads

Nor does this trend stop at foods and

France's irresistible charm. Her room-bymore like an essay on French culture than

fashions; it can include whole buildings. In

a manual of interior decoration. Indeed, it

New York City, one can visit the Cloisters,

have been reassembled here for Americans

is an essay since history intermeshes with the present in her descriptions of d^cor: styles of kings past enrich the modem; cre ativity abounds. Bringing it Homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;France deals with

to savor. Similarly, the Isabella Stewart

nearly everything: from the art of dressing

a division of the Metropolitan Museum of Art where whole medieval monastic struc

tures, dismantled stone by stone in Europe,


In face of such massive transplants, it is hard not to be intrigued by Americans

Waldo Emerson wrote: "I ask not for the

World by the millions, we want to bring it


The desire does not stop there.

great, the remote, the romantic; what is doing in Italy or Arabia; what is Greek art, or Provencal minstrelsy; I embrace the com mon, I explore and sit at the feet of the familiar, the low. Give me insight into today, and you may have the antique and

largely overcome. Not only do we like to visit the Old

as well.

Gardner Museum in Boston features fif

nings, the United States harbored a

Only In America

a window to the choice of wallpaper, from

The French understand that decoration,

knowing fine porcelain to understanding kitchen tiles; from judging a good wine to tasting fine cheese; from savoirfaire to

like a fine wine, takes time. Present in the

bien recevoir—the art or knowing how to

with items inherited from previous genera

French ambience is an underlying tone of tradition. The French surround themselves

are not readily transportable. Still, our Herculean efforts to do so speak of a hunger for tradition and assuage desires not

easily satisfied in our postmodern world. Indeed, it speaks of yet more. Europe was bom of Christian civiliza

say and do the right thing to that of receiv

tions. Furniture, paintings, and other heir

ing well. Alas, the book makes all too clear

looms recall a living family history and

tion. It was the Catholic Church that took

provide continuity. A distinctive family and regional style permeate the home, allowing

the decaying ruins of the Roman world and

one to feel the family presence and thereby

f\jsion. The action of the Church gave life

that the secret to bringing France home

lies not in carting back Louis XIV furni ture, but in bringing home the French spir

giving context and meaning to life.

drew order from chaos, harmony from conand order to institutions, laws, and cus

toms, which endure to our day. It was the

it—a quality readily admired yet not easi ly acquired. Nevertheless, the invitation is

joie de vivre. that exuberance for life that

irresistible. Behind the furnishings, anoth

seems to turn everything into an art. Signs

daughter, and raised her to the height of

er world beckons.

of life abound in French rooms, exhibit

civilization, where she became the delight

ing an almost haphazard disregard for

of the world.

convention. Creating an environment that

If France and Europe enchant us, it is because they retain remnants of a Christian

A key element of this world is the French ability to harmonize. Fabric, wall paper, pictures, lighting—many with con trasting styles—all find a way to mingle amiably. Rather than pre-matched furniture

The French home is filled with the

will stimulate the art of conversation

Church that took France, Her first-bom

becomes more important than staid cor rectness. Creating a setting for dinner,

tradition and order for which we yearn. If

haps it is because Holy Mother Church is

different things work together. The "harmo

I'art de la table, is a task that might take hours, but the result is a unique opportu

nious marriage" of texture, color, light, and

nity to share the fullness of life.

sets, the French tend to be eclectic, making

scale creates an ambience, and the results

are often both dazzling and original. Courtesy cf I^'O

we are impelled to bring Europe home, per actually calling us home. ■

Of course, one cannot really bring

Europe home. Centuries of living tradition

on Scccly



. -l-V.




'.-------r ..% ,| kS- mj'• U.hi-^1

.('f*' *

Innumerable travelers have brought

• f.

- ^•

Courtesy of The Preservetion Society of Newpon

back mementos of their trips to Europe. Americans, however, often

an inexplicable something that captivates the imagination.

This penchant for Europe is definitely

tend to go beyond mere souvenirs and look

worth discussing in our "Only in America"

for something more.

section. In our search for American para

Something about Europe impels us to

doxes, we find a country bom of a desire

acquire and imitate it. Traveling across the

for independence from the Old World, yet

country one finds countless restaurants,

still inextricably bound to it. We glory in

buildings, and churches inspired by

our modem industrialization, yet find solace

European models. Supermarkets advertise

in the medieval cathedrals and villages of

the "Old World" taste of their foods.

Europe. Indeed, such paradoxical desires

"European" is a marketing adjective evoking

are seen "only in America." (Continued on page 36)

November-December, 1i $5


An Act


Reparation Special Edition

The American Society for the|Defense of Tradition, Family and Property-TFP

An Act of Reparation This issue of Crusade is dedicated to the Most Holy Trinity and to Our Lady, Daughter of God the Father, Mother of

God the Son, and Spouse of God the Holy Ghost, as a token of reparation for the many

ed. It is clearly worse for a man to insult his father than his brother; worse yet that he insult a

priest. Is it not, then, far worse that he insult God Himself, since an infinite distance stands between the creature and the Creator?

Fortunately, if there is darkness at the clos

blasphemies and insults that have been hurled against Them during this year.

ing of this year, there is some brighmess as well.

It is truly lamentable that our country,just two centuries after its founding as a largely

In reaction to all these blasphemies there has been an outpouring of love for God that we

Christian nation—albeit not a Catholic one—has

would dare to call a continuation of that act of

amassed such a shameful record of blasphemies

reparation begun by Our Lady, Saint John, and

against the very One Who has so blessed us, the

the Holy Women at the foot of the Cross. Many have gone to the streets to protest; others have

Creator of all things, Whose name we are scarce

ly worthy to pronounce; against the Immaculate Virgin of virgins, who was intended to be "called blessed by all nations"; and against the One, Holy, Roman Catholic, and Apostolic Church


and all that it holds sacred.

Certainly our century has been one of great

gone to their churches to offer countless prayers and acts of reparation; some have made financial

sacrifices, even very substantial ones; some have

traveled great distances, and are disposed to go even farther if need be to pray and protest; all to

oppose and repair this awful and growing rash of

material progress, but at the same time it must be acknowledged as the most destructive of cen

public blasphemies.

turies. Its two world wars destroyed millions of

cannot be underestimated. There is a need to

Yet, another repair needs to be done, which

human lives; Communism has devastated whole

help rehabilitate it. Catholic minds the images of

nations, killing over a hundred million people in establishing and maintaining its totalitarian and inhuman regimes, some of which persist yet

the sacred and the sublime that have become so tarnished in face of today's blasphemies and moral relativism. This can and must be done

today; abortion, sanctioned nearly everywhere,

even if—especially if—the protests seem ineffec

takes an ever-increasing toll; suicide has become


a major cause of death among our youth; moral relativism, spawning amorality as well as the most shameful immoralities, threatens to over

It is with this in mind that Crusade dedi cates its November-December issue almost entirely to the Blessed Virgin Mary in the form

turn the very moral order—and the list goes on. No matter how terrible and offensive these

of a work by Fr. Raymond de Thomas de Saint-

murders and immoralities are, they nevertheless

special attention to his words, with the assurance

pale in comparison to sins of blasphemy. Qf course, every sin, no matter how minor, offends

that these words will stimulate their love and

God, but the offense is aggravated by the rela

Laurent. We encourage all our readers to give

admiration for the Mother of God and for God Himself.

tionship of the sinner to the one directly offend

The Author: Fr. Raymond de Thomas de Saint-Laurent Raymond de Thomas de Saint-Laurent, bom in Lyons on May 7, 1879, descended from an ancient and noble family of southern France. Ordained in 1909, he led a very fruitful priestly life, quickly distinguishing himself as a preacher and writer and carrying out prodigious apostolic activity.

Appointed to head the parish of Saint Perpetua in Nimes a year after his ordination, he was named honorary canon of the Cathedral of NTmes in 1920 and became chaplain of the Carmel of Uzes five years later. He served in the last two capacities for more than twenty years.

u i ■ i u

A doctor of theology and licentiate in letters, Father Saint-Laurent published over a dozen notable books on psychological themes. Outstanding among these are The Dominion of Oneself, On Timidity, and The Progressive and Complete Method of Psychological Learning. His numerous spiritual works include The Book of Confidence (one of the few to be translated), Suffering with Jesus, and Souls of the Saints. His Virgin Mary appears in English here for the first time. Father Saint-Laurent died in Uzes on November 11, 1949.

Contents November-December, 1999

Cover: An Act

Column and statue erected


by Pope Pius IX in honor of the Immaculate Conception.

The Virgin Mary


Piazza di Spagna, Rome

By Fr. Raymond de


rwBr Ml

Thomas de Saint-Laurent Introduction

Our Life and Our Sweetness Chapter 1

The Immaculate Conception Chapter 11

The Nativity of the Virgin Mary Chapter III


The Holy Name of Mary Chapter IV

i W-


Mary's Life in the Temple Chapter V



The Annunciation

Chapter VI The Divine Motherhood


Chapter VII


The Visitation

Chapter VIII



Mary's Sanctification

of il

opeless Chapter IX



The Finding of Our Lord in the Temple Chapter X


The Blessed Virgin's Compassion Chapter Xi




Mary's Death and the Assumption The American TFP in Action


Now See Dogma—The Protest

Crusade Magazine is a publication of the American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP)Subscriptions in the United States and Canada. $30.00. Foreign

subscriptions, $42.00. List of other TFP publications available upon request. Direct all subscription requests and inquiries to: P.O. Box 341, Hanover, PA 17331, Tel. 888-317-5571 Fax:(717) 225-1675. E-mail address: Copyright 1999 by The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, Inc.

This publication includes images from Corel, Art Today and Dynamic Graphics which are protected by Copyright laws of the U.S. and elsewhere.

ISSN 1096-3782 LCCN 98-641433 M-42

See coupons inside or call toll-free: 888-317-5571

Editor: C. Preston Noell III

Associatk Edhors: Ear! Appleby. Thomas Beckel. John Horvat, Eugenia Guzman. Orlando Lyra. Thomas J. McKenna PiiOTouRAPHv: Gary J. Isbell Circt;lation: Jack Burnham Forkion Corrksi'onuknts:

AUSTRALIA: Raymond de Souza—AUSTRIA: Charles E. Schaffer BRAZIL: Jose Carlos Sepiilveda—FRANCE: Benoil Bemelmans

GERMANY: Bono Hofschulte—PORTUGAL: Antonio de Azeredo

ITALY: Juan M. Montcs—SPAIN: Felipe Barandiaraii


Our Life and Our Sweetness by Father Raymond de Thomas de Saint-Laurent

Tranlsated from the original French

by Faustine HiUard

When the Blessed Virgin enters

into the life of a soul, she causes a radiant springtime to blossom there. She chases away gloomy

clouds of sadness, doubt, and discourage ment. Hearts that give themselve.s sincerely to her are flooded with clarity, peace, and happiness.

will recall the important role that the

Savior brings us is bestowed upon us only

Mother of Christ plays in each of our lives.

through Mary. The Messias could have

It is true that heretics are scandalized at the cult with which we honor the

come to earth as Adam did—in the fullness

Blessed Virgin. "How dare you call Mary

have been easier for the Almighty! Instead, He chose to be bom of a Virgin. Indeed. Mary formed His divine body in her

'your life'!'" they exclaim. "Jesus alone is

the life of souls. He declared this solemnly at the Last Supper: when He said 'I am the

of His strength and beauty. Nothing would

immaculate womb. It was she who fed and

way. the truth and the life: no one comes to

watched over Him during His first years,

the Father except through Me.'' The Savior

keeping Him near her for a long lime.

virtues God asks of you and yet seem so

did love His mother but never offered her

inaccessible? Would you like to know the indescribable joys that only the love of

such exaggerated praise..." Such is the great objection of the Protestants.

When the hour of her supreme immolation had arrived, she stood at the foot of the cross. With her wholly agonized soul, she

Would you like to transform your life. Would you like to practice easily those

Jesus can obtain, and which have caused

We answer by boldly proclaiming

offered to the Father His beloved Son for

the delight of saints? Would you like to

what Our Lord did for us. He took on a

the salvation of mankind. It is Mary who

experience these marvels yourself? If you sincerely desire this, do not hes

body like ours to win our heails and

gives Jesus to the world.

become our companion and friend. He led

The sublime role of the Virgin Mother continues. Our Lord is not merely content

itate a second: Go to Mary. There is no

a life of labor and obscurity for nearly thir

more direct route to Our Lord.

•Study the radiant figure of the Immaculate

ty years to encourage us by His divine example. He revealed eternal truths to enlighten our darkened minds. Undergoing

in each of our souls. When we receive

Mother. By following her through the main

the horrible tortures of the Passion, He suf

sanctifying grace, the life of Christ is bom

phases of her life, we can learn to know her

fered and died in expiation for our sins. Finally, He hid Himself under the

born in our hearts only to die soon after!

In these few pages, we propose to

better and thus love her with greater tender ness, invoke her with greater confidence,

Eucharisiic veil to render Himself as food

and serve her with greater fidelity. In so doing, we will have efficaciously pro

for our souls and the faithful companion of

gressed toward the salvation of our own

our exile here below.

Jesus certainly is the life of our

souls, for devotion to Our Lady is one of

wretched hearts. Remove from our Religion

the surest signs of predestination.

the Gospel that instructs us, the sacrament

Mary, as we chant in the Divine Office,

is our life and our sweetness— "Vim, dul-

of Penance that returns us to life, and the

Eucharist that feeds us, and nothing would

with coming into the world in the grotto of

Bethlehem. He actually desires to be born

within us. However. Our Lord is not to be

He wishes to grow and take form in our innermost being. This happens when we

progress in virtue. This mysterious birth and growth of Our Lord within us is the work of the Virgin Mary. No Catholic should have the slightest doubt about this.

Our Lady is she who bestows the graces the Savior merited for us by His precious

cedo et spes nostra, salveV These consoling

be left. Indeed, we would languish in des

blood. All favors from heaven come to us

and profound words will serve as a dogmat

peration in the shadow of death.

through her hands: Such is the unanimous

ic introduction to this modest volume and

Yet this abundant and divine life the

teaching of Catholic Tradition.

November-December 1999


yirgin Mary

Blessed is the day the Queen of Heaven was conceived! From the

Is your heart unsteady? Amid the vio lent temptations of the world, do you

our lives, for suffering is the great law of life. Mary obtains such an abundance of

endure great difficulty in safeguarding the

grace for all those who call upon her that they do not feel the burden that weighs

treasure of divine friendship within your heart? Despite good resolutions, do you repeatedly fail to follow God's graces? If

upon them. How can one even doubt that divine

so, do not hesitate. You are too far from the

consolations can alleviate the sting of suf

source of grace and have not called upon

fering? Read the story of the Japanese mar

solemn moment when Our

Mary's aid. Had you called upon her more readily, you would not have fallen.

tyrs who sang canticles while the flames of the pyre devoured them. They experienced ineffable Joy in the midst of torment; their

Lord created her soul and

which trouble you? What do you do at the hour of tribulation? Do you give in to despair? In times of difficulty, do you for

longed look of hope and love. Learn from

get to pray, or neglect your exercises of piety? You would be better off to throw

of Our Lady have so often felt. Yes, crosses

Is your heart discouraged by the trials

united it with her small

virginal body, He made it,

yourself instinctively into the arms of your heavenly Mother and to pray to her at all cost. When you feel that you no longer

by the work of His

have the strength to murmur a simple Hail

all white, all radiant, all pure. Not a single minute.

are often bitter, but as Saint Louis de

Montfort used to say, our divine Mother steeps them in the honey of divine charity.'

with her mantle, console, and comfort you.

She is also our sweetness. She is not

content merely with working efficaciously

not a single second, not a

make it easier. With the tenderness of a

single infm

Our Lord's final words addressed to her from the cross. While agonizing. He entrusted us to her care. Referring to each


this m^^hlfic^i'soul

one of us. He said to her: "Woman behold

thy son."- These words engraved them selves deeply in the Virgin's heart, so pure

and good. Ever since then, this most loving of mothers unceasingly fulfills her duties to

sullied by the stain of

Chapter I The Immaculate Conception

mother, she strews flowers on the difficult

path of virtue we walk. She did not forget

us, her children.

When Garcia-Moreno-' fell under the blows of the assassins who struck him down out of hatred for Religion, a last flicker of light shone in h's eyes as he murmured; "God does not die." This is an extremely magnificent declaration of faith and hope. Truly, the Almighty cannot be vanquished! Yet by choosing to manifest His abundant love through the work of Creation, it seems that the Lord suffered

In fact, the Mother of God is well

failure after failure. He created the angels

aware that she is somewhat indebted to us for the immense privileges she has received. Would she have known the joys

to be companions of His infinite delights, yet many of them preferred to indulge their pride rather than enjoy the beatific

of Divine Motherhood had we not sinned,

Joys of divine love.

had we not needed the Redemption,joys which by far surpass our weak minds? In

piness that far exceeds the most demanding

He created our first parents for a hap

this manner, it is with a kind of gratitude

expectations of the human heart. Yet they

that she stoops to help us in our suffering. How does the Holy Virgin .sweeten our

turned away from their Sovereign

lives? She intercedes with Our Lord to

ward off the pains and punishment we so

The Lord could not suffer what seemed to be a "double defeat." Rather, He

often merit. As at the wedding feast of

deserved a brilliant restitution. The incom

Benefactor out of ingratitude.

Cana, she is moved by our distress and

parable Artist returned to work, conceiving

compassionately intercedes for us to her

the idea of an admirable creature whose

divine Son. The tender heart of Christ is

beauty would far suipass man in the bril

often moved by her prayers.

liance of his original innocence, and whose

There are times when trials arise in


your own experience what the great servants

Mary is the life of our souls because she gives us Jesus, the Author of all life.

for our salvation; indeed she finds ways to


In your troubles, cast upon Mary a pro

Mary, call out to her by her blessed name. At that very moment, she will cover you

powerful hands, to emerge

Original Sip.

souls ascended to heaven rejoicing.

radiant perfection would outshine the light

The Immaculate Conception

of the most splendid angels. When the time was fulfilled, He completed this mas

terpiece of His intelligence and love: He created the Virgin Mary.

The first privilege accorded her was her Immaculate Conception.

We must fully understand what this unique privilege means.

With the conception of Mary, the

Most High did more than just condescend to obey the universal laws governing the coming of men into the world. He did not form Our Lady miraculously by virtue of

the Holy Ghost as was later done with her divine Son. Indeed, she had both a father and a mother. But the Lord, Who from all

eternity had chosen Joachim and Anne to give life to the Queen of Heaven, had

raised them to a great degree of holiness.

Their noble mission places them .so much higher than the other Saints that they undoubtedly deserve spe

cial homage. We are too often unmindful of this, yet we could

benefit by recognizing their sanctity, for these two great

souls enjoy a powerful influ ence over the heart of their beloved daughter.

The privilege of the Immaculate Conception consi.sts

in Mary's exemption from the latal inheritance we carry into the world at birth. The same moment that gives life to our bodies gives death to our soul.s. We are born children of wrath—"initiirafilH

irae.'"^ Throughout our fleeting lives, we endure the heavy burden resulting from the fall of Adam. Allowing ourselves to be

seduced by error, we lack the self-mastery to resist the temptations that challenge us.

Our corrupted flesh is seared by the abominable fire of concupiscence. Our hearts are rent by affliction, our bodies tortured by .sickness. Finally, hideous death overcomes us—and we must suffer

the supreme ignominy of the putrefaction that consumes our corpse and the worms that vie with one another for our remains! How the curse from heaven due to Adam's sin oppresses us! How understandable is

the cry of anguish uttered by Job in his misery: "Let the day perish wherein I was bom."^

On the contrary, many, many times

blessed was the day the Queen of Heaven

The Immaculate

Conception. Fresco in the

church of the Immaculate

was conceived! From the solemn moment


when Our Lord created her soul and unit-


•November-December 1999



Madonna del MIracolo. Painting in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome

Her incomparable beauty is such that the

Holy Ghost exclaims in

ed it with her small virginal body. He

dogma of the Immaculate Conception, the

made it, by the work of His powerful hands, to emerge all while, all radiant, all pure. Not a single minute, not a single

Catholic world cried out with joy. The can nons of Castel Sant'Angelo. where the

second, not a single infinitesimal fraction of a second was this magnificent soul sul

liant light, fired and announced the glad

lied by the stain of Original Sin. Not even

faithful proclaimed their joy. In many big

for an infinitesimal fraction of a second

cities, homes were spontaneously decked

all beautiful, 0 my love, and there is no blemish in thee."

news to the world. All over the world, the

could the serpent glare at Mary with a

with banners and illuminated with candles

look of hateful pride nor covet her as his prey. Seeing this, the serpent recognized

and lanterns.

with overwhelming anger that the woman

rejoiced in seeing another flower of glory

who had been promised had come, the

adorn the crown of their Mother. Does this

Christian hearts understandably

immaculate one who would crush his head

privilege of the Virgin Mary, however,

with her virginal heel.

communicate the same kind of moral well-

Since Mary was preserved from Original Sin, it logically follows that she

being to our souls? Does it not rather ele vate Our Lady to such great heights that

would not be subject to the consequences of that sin. Let us then contemplate how

she appears even farther removed from our

this is reflected in her virginal soul. No nar

consciences would be poorly schooled

row-mindedness limited her intelligence,

indeed if we did not find the Immaculate

for hers was the wise, penetrating, and

enlightened intellect after that of Our Lord.

Conception of Mary as the very basis for her virtually infinite goodness.

No weakness impaired her will, the most vigorous and ardent will ever created. No

mental generosity rendering them at certain

misery? Quite the contrary! Our Catholic

All men are endowed with a funda

selfishness restricted her heart, the most all-

times capable of the most admirable self-

encompassing, generous, and caring heart

sacrifice. Those who survived battles can

ever known after that of her Son.

This glory of her Immaculate

Conception was reflected in her body. She did not experience the concupiscence that wreaks such havoc within us.

admiration: "Thou art

pontifical flag still waved in Rome's bril

Sickness did not harm her. Finally, unlike the rest of men. Our Lady was subject to neither pain nor bodily death. Never theless, God willed that she experience both suffering and death that she might know the same torments we suffer. With

this store of shared experience, Our

Lady's compassion for us is all the more maternal and merciful.

We have so far studied only a small

part of this great mystery. The Almighty did much more than create Mary in a state

of grace like that of the angels and our first parents. He graced her soul with the sum of all virtues to such an imminent degree

that our minds cannot grasp its splendor. Theologians teach that from that first

moment, the Blessed Virgin surpassed in perfection not only the highest angel, but all angels and saints put together. Her incomparable beauty is such that

the Holy Ghost exclaims in admiration: "Thou art all beautiful. 0 my love, and there is no blemish in thee"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Tota pulchra es el macula nan esi in te.''

testify to the unfathomable heroism that can spring forth from the human soul. Indeed, how many young people have requested dangerous missions m the place of their older comrades? They knew the dangers involved yet proceeded to their deatlis with smiles on their lips. They believed their sacrifice would deliver a father whose small children were also smil ing in the distant purity of their cribs. Unfortunately, many obstacles prevent the full maturing of such natural generosi

ty, a magnificent vestige of our original state of beauty. We know these obstacles all too well from personal experience. Are our hearts not moved at the sight of anoth er's distress? Yet does not the bitter voice

of self-interest all too often cover up the instinctive response which springs from the heart? Are we not often insensitive to our

neighbor's suffering because of our love of comfort and pleasure? Our selfishness paralyses and often completely stifles the goodness of our hearts. The Queen of Heaven knows no such

pettiness! No selfishness can prevent her from merciful gestures of compassion and tenderness toward her children. There is more. God formed the soul of

Mary as the most faithful image of His adorable perfections. God's infinite good ness causes Him to fill us with more and

When Pope Pius IX defined the


more abundant blessings; indeed, this led

Pope Plus IX

When Cope Pius IX defined


j^ the dogmas)!the Immaculate i|


^ Conception, the Catholic world i;

;^^ied out with joy^ The cannons ^


?~®l:£®stelSant'Angela, where fhe^

1 flag s^ll wffe

brillipit light, fikd and announced

the glad news to the worl^All over the

ie faithful p^pcJajmM their joy In many b^^eities^homes were


Sj^ntaliedtisly decked with banners

'^$m illuminated with candles and lanterns

11 n

The Vliyih.

the Incarnate Word to the supreme folly of the cross. Like her Son, the Blessed Virgin carries within her heart a ceaselessly burn

Does it not seem that Our Lady herself wanted to explain to us the relationship between her original purity and her good

ing fire of love for us. She would gladly

ness? Recall the miraculous grotto at

sacrifice her life a thousand times over for

Lourdes on the banks of the Gave, where

our benefit. Since she is a mere creature,

she established the throne of her mercy.

her suffering on Calvary did not have infi nite value like that of Jesus, but it did

Prodigies occur without ceasing. How did the pure lady of the apparition answer

almost equal in Intensity that of the Savior.

when Bemadette asked her name? Joining

That she did not die of sorrow at the fool of

her hands, her countenance lit with a most

the cross is, in fact, a veritable miracle.

luminous smile, and lifting her eyes to heaven, she said with an expression of inef

of the Sea, invoke Mary!â&#x20AC;&#x201D;"'Respice stel-

luin, voca Mariam."^

Chapter II The Nativity of the Virgin Mary

fable gratitude, "1 am the Immaculate

Conception." Speaking thus, she implicitly told us: "Let us join together in thanking the Most High for having preserved me

from Original Sin. Since I am all pure, I am

Many days passed before God finally completed the masterpiece of His creation. For nine months, the soul of Mary had

given form to her virginal body, and the hour of her happy birth approached. As the

also all good."

suffocating Palestinian summer neared its end, the mellowing sun poured abundant

May these considerations

inspire you to a practical and unshakable faith in Mary's

goodness. With Saint Bernard, believe firmly that

you will never invoke our Heavenly Mother in vain. Confide the desires of

your soul to her. She will fortify you in your

temptations and give you

day. with nature adorned in radiant beauty, the most Holy Virgin came into the world in the white-walled city of Nazareth.

She was probably bom in the same house where the great mystery of the Incarnation later took place and where

Jesus spent most of His childhood and youth in work and prayer. The angels did

a small spark of her love

not acclaim the coming of the glorious

for Jesus. This spark will

Queen with hymns of joy as they later did

enkindle the sweet fire of divine charity in your soul. Confide the cares of

the birth of the Savior. Invisible to the eyes of mortal men, the angels considered it an honor to mount guard around the humble

your heart to her. Are you

crib over which Saints Joachim and Anne

hurt by moments of ingrati

lovingly watched. The prophecy of Isaias had come to pass. The root of Jesse, ten

tude or scorn, which can be

so especially cruel when coming from the persons

you love? Are you broken

by sorrows that suddenly extinguish the joy of your

meager existence? Tell Mary your troubles; she


torrents of golden light on the opulent plain of Samaria, ripening the rich orchards of autumn fruit. On a magnificent September

will console you, and your tears of grief will turn into tears of grati tude.

Confide your mate rial cares to her. She

will arrange every thing according to

centuries removed, had sprouted a new branch. On this same branch in but a few years more would blossom the etemal Flower, the Incarnate Word.

Her divine Son would soon appear representing a new dawn of hope upon a

world plunged for four thousand years into the darkness of pain and death.

The day the Queen of Heaven was bom ranks as one of the most beautiful in

history since it announced to condemned mankind the long-awaited time of libera tion. In commemorating this great event,

your true best inter

the Church bursts forth in its enthusiasm;

ests. In all of your

"Thy nativity, O Virgin Mother of God,"

difficulties, in every circumstance, at

sings the Church in its liturgy,"has announced joy to the whole world"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

every moment, look

Notivitas tiia. Dei Geniirix Virgo, goiidium

to the gentle Star

annimtiavit universo mundo.^

Saint Anne Teaching the Virgin Mary. Marble statue in the church of the Gesu, Rome

The Nativity of the Virgin Mary

Indeed, we seem to forget in what hor rible distress the world lay prostrate before the coming of Christ.

The sin of our first parents had borne the fruit of death. Until the coming of the

Savior, the curse of the Almighty lay heav

light. The quadrant of eternity marks the hour of its infinite mercy. The birth of

Mary begins the work of Redemption. In her crib, the mother of the Savior illumi nates the desolate earth with the grace of her first smiles. Jesus will soon appear and,

ily upon sinful humanity. Adam had eaten

with His precious blood, will erase the sen

of the forbidden fruit in the wild hope of

tence of our condemnation. The world

becoming like God. With terrible irony, God stripped him of his magnificent privi leges and reduced him to extreme misery.

which has suffered so, will finally delight

Thus, the ancient world was founded upon

in the joy of liberty and peace. Slavery will everywhere be abolished, and human dig nity will henceforth be respected. Like a

oppression of the weak and disregard for

flowing stream, graces will spring forth

human dignity. The greater part of mankind was subject to the torments of slavery. Even Rome, the proud bearer of

in abundance from the sacraments. We

themâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;without limitâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;pardon,

civilization, considered the multitude of its

courage, and life everlasting.

slaves as but an immense herd destined for

have but to approach and draw from

The God who hid in Paradise

slaughter. Indeed, masters had the power to

will descend to earth and never

send their slaves to their deaths solely to

abandon mankind. After His

amuse themselves. The refined patricians

Ascension, Our Lord will remain

of the Imperial City would sometimes use these poor souls as fodder for the salt water eels they raised. Nothing satisfied

among us under the Eucharistic

their gluttony more than these delicious marine eels, fattened on human blood. The distress of souls was even more

acute. Adam had supposed that he could do without God. He unappreciatively spumed

veil until the end of time, when the Real Presence will leave the

destroyed tabernacles. Christ will then visibly reign over the

glorious souls of the resurrect ed elect. Such are the great joys the birth of Mary announces.

his Sovereign Benefactor. God, in retum,

"Thy nativity,0 Virgin Mother

withdrew from His creature. He did not abandon mankind altogether, however, but spoke to him at rare intervals, announcing

whole world."

of God has announced joy to the

the future coming of a virgin who would crush the head of the serpent under her immaculate heel. He raised up prophets from among the people, yet He hid

most events of history. Let us now

Himself within His inaccessible light.

examine how the birth was received

Moreover, the Lord had not allowed

the source of grace to cease entirely. He did not refuse His pardon to the repentant

The birth of the Blessed

Virgin was, then, one of the fore

and draw lessons from this medita

tion that will benefit our interior lives.

The holy Fathers of the Church

sinner, granting it under the sole condition

express the impact of the birth of the

of a perfect contrition. Even so, amid the

Immaculate Virgin on the invisible world

temptations of the llesh and deprived of the

by describing the heavens overwhelmed

abundant spiritual help now available to us,

the weakest souls fell by the thousands into the infernal pit. Poor men of ancient times! They keen

ly sensed their weakness and vulnerability, and they searched in intense anguish for

with wondrous admiration. The angels were at a loss to find adequate praises for acclaiming the adorable Trinity for having

The Virgin Child at Prayer. Painting by Francisco de Zurbaran,

created her who was the beloved Daughter

Prado Museum, Madrid

of the Father, and who would become the Mother of the Word Incarnate and the

their necessity. God, a .spiritual Being,

Spouse of the Holy Ghost. Nor did they weary of admiring the beauties of their

escapes man's rude senses, so men made

queen. The blessed spirits, who rejoice at

idols in which to place their utmost hope. Alas, these statues were deaf and did not

the conversion of a single soul, rejoiced upon seeing the appearance of the sure

some way to gain supernatural assistance in

hear the heartrending cries arising from

Refuge of sinners. They knew that Mary

forty centuries of distress.

would one day be the Gate of Heaven who

Yet, this terrible nightmare wherein mankind struggles dissipates like a dense nocturnal fog before the sweet morning

kingdom to those who invoked her with

would never refuse entry into the eternal confidence.

November-December 1999


not immediately granted. Sometimes God

The Fathers also note the

immense sigh of relief of the just

waits until we are on the brink of the abyss

in limbo, those who had died

before extending His hand of mercy. So, let

since the beginnings of the

us not become discouraged and cease pray

world, as well as the furor of the demons in Hell, who saw the

ing! The Almighty will intervene at the very moment when we believe ourselves completely abandoned. If we have confi

approaching end of their tyranni

denceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;an unlimited supply of confi

cal reign.

denceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;we will be greatly rewarded!

How was the birth of Mary, which delighted heaven and terri fied the fallen angels, received on

Saint Thomas of Villanova

earth? The birth of Saint John the

explained in a sermon that Mary is the heavenly dawn, not only for the

Baptist several years later was accompanied by miracles that vividly impressed the popular imagination. The inhabitants of

world, but especially for each indi vidual soul. He recalled the great

Judea asked themselves with

truth taught by Catholic tradition

admiration: "What will become of

that a soul imbued with devotion to

the Blessed Virgin carries within it the sign of predestination. Do you

this child whose arrival in this

world is hailed by so many prodi

firmly desire to be saved from final

gies? What, then, will this child

damnation? Then faithfully honor

be?"'" The sublime mission of

Mary. Do you wish to guarantee the

Mary far surpassed that of the

salvation of those who are dear to you?

Precursor. Yet, nothing extraordi nary indicated to the multitudes that she who was promised to sin

Obtain from them the promise that they not fail to recite some prayer to Mary

ful man immediately after the fall

every day. Catholic Tradition states that a

and whom the prophets had

servant of Our Lady cannot perish: Servas

announced throughout the cen

Mariae non peribit. He will forever sing

turies was bom. In fact, the

the mercy of Je.sus and of His holy

Immaculate Virgin was bom amid uni versal indifference,

Saints Joachim and Anne with the Virgin Child. Painting In the church of


S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome

According to certain traditions, no one in the small town of Nazareth where Saints

Joachim and Anne lived paid heed to the

new arrival. Although the blood of David flowed in her veins, her family had fallen

from its ancient splendor. Who noticed these impoverished people? Anne and Joachim had been childless

for many years, but the Lord had at last

answered their prayers. They saw their daughter Mary as the measure of His celes

tial goodness to them. Little did they sus

Anne and Joachim - T

had been childlessfor

many years, but the Lord had at last answered

their prayers.

Chapter III The Holy Name of Mary Eight days after the birth of the

pect, however, the veritable treasures the

Immaculate Virgin, her father and mother

Most High had instilled in the soul of their child. They could not have imagined the

gathered their family and relatives into their

wonder of her Immaculate Conception.

make little of human greatness! Let us keep

They did not realize that the Mother of the Redeemer lay in their loving arms.

a Christian perspective of indifference toward the fleeting vanities that Christ

humble dwelling. According to Jewish cus tom, they were to name the child that Heaven had granted them.

discouragement. The voice of the prophets

Were these important, surely He would not

Although God chose to perform no external prodigies to mark the Blessed Virgin's entrance into the world. He had

had not been heard for years. Having lost

have refused them to His mother.

chosen, from all eternity, the noble name

The Jews of the time were plunged in

their political freedom, they believed

Himself shunned in His Mother's birth.

This great mystery also teaches us

the Mother of the Savior was to bear. Thus, while Joachim and Anne awaited the fulfill

Providence had abandoned them. It was

never to lose heart. The Immaculate Mother

then that the hidden work of infinite Mercy

came into the world at a time when the

ment of their hopes with joyful impatience,

began to be accomplished in their midst. These facts speak for themselves and

Jews had lost hope. Indeed, they thought all

the Archangel Gabriel, the great messenger

was lost. Let us reap the benefit of this les

teach us an obvious lesson. Would that the

son. We often become discouraged when,

obscurity of Our Lady's birth teach us to

calling on heaven to assist us, our request is



of infinite mercy, visited them, revealing

the bles.sed name the Most High Himself had reserved for their daughter.


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The Holy Name of Mary

Therefore, family deliberations around

placed the crown of thaumaturges upon the

the crib where the Queen of Heaven lay

heads of so many of His saints, undoubted

smiling, were not prolonged. Without hesi tation, the parents of the Blessed Virgin confirmed they would name their child "Mary." We shall now meditate upon the profound meanings God veiled under so

ly granted His Mother the gift of miracles

sweet a name.

to the highest degree.

Nevertheless, during Our Lord's life time until His triumphant ascension into Heaven, the Blessed Virgin performed

none of the prodigies that delight crowds.


Jesus traveled throughout Palestine healing the sick and raising the dead. The The most renowned commentators

Apostles, including Judas, expelled demons in the name of their Master. Yet

leach that the name Mary means, first of all, "sovereign one." Indeed, the Immaculate Virgin reigns gloriously over the earth by the homage we render her and in Heaven by the splendor of her power

the crowds to hear her Son's preaching, where she was scarcely noticed among the

and beauty. Her divine Son willed that all

attentive throngs. Thus we are witness to

creation be entirely subject to her scepter

how profoundly hidden the Queen of Angels was from the eyes of men. At the same time, Mary possesses the

of love.

Consider, however, what a strange contrast there is between her role as

incomparable Queen and that of her life on earth. Does she not seem to unite two dia

metrically opposed tendencies? To the most obscure humility, God joined the

most incomprehensible greatness.

Do not expect to find this sovereign in

a magnificent palace, where innumerable servants wait to fulfill her slightest desire. In.stead. she dwells in Nazareth in a small white house so lacking in amenities that

Mary remained quietly in her simple house, save when she occasionally joined

greatest authority ever over all the earth. During the days of Rome's empire, the Emperor commanded millions of men from the splendor of his palace. He scarce ly knew the awesome number of his sub jects: Europe obeyed his laws, and parts of Asia and Africa were subject to his scepter. On earth, Mary commanded but a single

man. but a man greater than all kings, more glorious than all angels. This man is

the God Who created the universe by the

today's poorest would disdain it. This nar

singular power of His infinite word.

row hovel, divided into two rooms of unequal dimensions, covered at the most a hundred and fifty .square fot. Theie the

fiesh, Jesus owes Mary—in strict justice—

Blessed Virgin dwelt with Joseph and Jesus—the eternal Son of God. and her son, the blessed fruit of her womb. While the Savior planes heavy boards

Because He is veritably her Son in the His respect, love, and obedience. We have already recognized the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin as the foundation of her nearly infi nite goodness. We now salute her divine

with His foster father, how does she who is

Motherhood as the foundation of her

blessed among all women spend her time?

.scarcely limited power.

She occupies herself with the care of her meager household, cooking, washing, and

consideration to certain favored souls in

We know that God grants immense

mending clothes. This is truly an unusual

heaven. Saint Thcrese of the Child Jesus,

sovereign—more like a humble servant

for example, announced on her deathbed

girl than a great queen. Yet, in this modest work she displays so much love that the

that she would a shower of roses to

perfume of her tremendous virtue inebri ates the heart of God. From on high, the

angels incline in admiration to contemplate

is marvclously fulfilled every day in aston ishing favors granted. If Our Lord accords such power to a simple nun. who died in

better the incomparable splendor before

the flower of her youth, what then would

which their own glory pales.

fall upon the earth. Her gracious prediction

He not do for the highest, the most virtu

what treasures God filled the soul of Mary

ous, the most beautiful of all His creatures, for the one who formed His divine body in

at the moment of her Immaculate

her virginal womb?

Conception. Thereafter, the virgin grew so greatly and cea.selessly in grace and virtue from the very first moment of the use of her reason that our limited minds are

hearts this teaching, supported by the great voice of our Tradition: Jesus fulfills the

least desire of His mother in Heaven as

awestruck. Moreover, Our Lord, who

promptly as He fulfilled her reque.sts upon

There is more. We have seen with


We must profoundly engrave in our

Statue of Our Lady, church of the immaculate Conception, London




earth. Our Lady wished to be represented on the miraculous medal with open hands, pouring out over the world, not a shower of roses, but torrents of grace, of light, of holy joy. If you want your prayer granted surely and rapidly, turn to the Immaculate Virgin.

same Son she had cared for with such

devotion now crowned with thorns, bathed in blood, and nailed to a cross. She saw

Him agonize and die, yet she was consoled by the conviction that His final victory would soon resound when He resurrected

on the third day in His glorious body. After her Son's Ascension, the Blessed

The Name of Mary also means "bit ter." Announcing the future Messias to the

was consoled when Our Lord revealed and

"man of sorrows," virum clolorum.^^ Our

gave Him.self to her in the Eucharist.

Lord, was the sorrowful Virgin, Mater


" â&#x20AC;˘ dL.

umphantly taken into Heaven, like her Son,

Suffering is the great element of redemption. By suffering, Mary united her

in her glorified body. The dreadful winter

foot of the cross, It is by accepting trials in

Our Lady of Hope of Macarena. Headquarters of the American TFP, Spring Grove, Pennsyivania

Finally, it is by suffering that we are able dear to us. Although this truth seems

must accept it with faith and humility. Faith lets us see that suffering is a gift from God that allows us to reap great bene

severe, it is less terrible than it first

fits when we make holy use of it. Humility

appears, While the infinitely merciful and

lets us see how weak we are and that we

good God sends us suffering. He always sends strength along with it and often

would succumb, were it not for grace,

as well. In our lives, suffering is the myste

rious messenger of true joy. The life of the Blessed Virgin strikingly illustrates this principle.

means "bitter."

During the childhood of Jesus, Mary suffered unspeakable anguish. She saw

Announcing the future Messias to the world, the

prophet Isaias called Him a "man ofsorrows," virum dolorum. Our

Lady, the most perfect

Him born in a wretched stable and gave

Mater doiorosa.

under the weight of the trial. When God sends us suffering, let us ask Him for both the strength to withstand it and the pro found consolations promised for all provi dential suffering.

Should we go still further? Should we desire trials? Should we seek them as for a

special favor? Let us speak candidly. Nowadays, there are certain pious

heed to the ominous prediction of the

works that lend themselves to a perilous

elderly Simeon. She was forced to flee to

exaggeration. These praise the advantages of suffering while forgetting that only the

Egypt to guard her precious treasure from the murderous rage of Herod. She lost her child in Jerusalem, finding Him only after

love of God is meritorious. They call upon souls to offer themselves as victims to the

three long days of tears and agony. The

Most High. I recognize with the Church

horrible prophecy of Isaias about the

that there are times when God chooses par

Messiah's tortures was continually present

ticular souls to be victims for His Justice,

to her mind. Yet. what inexpressible conso lations were hers! Her Son grew up shel tered by her motherly embrace. Sharing a profound intimacy, He illuminated her vir

but this is very rarely the case even among

ginal soul with His divine smile and cov

imitator of Our Lord, was the sorrowful Virgin,

What attitude should the Christian

soul take when faced with suffering? We

includes consolation and great sweetness

The Name of Mary also

had run its course, and for her the spring time of eternity began.

a Christ-like manner that we find salvation.

to obtain the grace of salvation for souls


Then came the time of her sweet

death.'- The Immaculate Virgin was tri


self to the work of our deliverance at the


affection she had shared with Him. She

world, the prophet Isaias called Him a Lady, the most perfect imitator of Our


Virgin felt a terrible longing for the daily

ered her with the most tender of His divine love,

the saints. Actually, as long as Our Lord has not clearly manifested His will for a considerable time, none should think him self called to such exceptional trials. To act

otherwise, spontaneously asking God for

suffering, would be insane pride and fool ish imprudence. Saint Frances de Sales,

Mary suffered still more when Jesus had to leave the small house they shared

certainly an inspired director of souls, did

for so many years to begin His public min istry. She was consoled to see Him often,

Therefore, let us sanctify ourselves in the

however, and at times to witness His tri

fulfillment of our daily duties and let the Good Master send what best suits us.

umphs. The Master's voice, captivating the

not profess any other teaching than this.

multitudes, also inspired the heart of the Virgin to blessed ecstasy.

On Calvary, Mary endured an

unspeakable martyrdom. She witnessed the



Let us often invoke the name of Mary. God imparted such power to this blessed

Mary's Life In the Temple

name that it works miracles, causing even

demons to flee since they cannot hear it

without being seized with alarm. The name of Mary dispels the most violent tempta

of three, her pious parents fulfilled their promise to the Lord. Despite the immense sorrow of losing their daughter, such a ten der, gracious, and gentle child, they took

tions and restores confidence and serenity to souls. In her revelation to Saint Bridget,

her to Jerusalem. The Immaculate Virgin,

Our Lady assured us that she herself would assist the faithful who frequently invoked

moment she was bom, understood the sig nificance of this act. On that day, she who

her name during their lifetime. When Saint John of God, who founded

Lord, gave herself fully to Him with all the

a religious order while yet in the flower of his youth, approached his end, he lay in his

who enjoyed use of her reason from the

had already been entirely consecrated to the elan of her will and love.

God, they become more loving and good. Indeed, the affectionate heart of Mary was

tom when she left her parents, but, even at such a young age, she ascended the long stairway to the Temple unhesitatingly and disappeared into the House of God.

For twelve years the Queen of Heaven

dwelled in the shadow of the sanctuary, leading a hidden and very ordinary life. Let

Her devotion, however, did not prevent her from acutely experiencing the bitterness

us bow respectfully before her and ask per

deathbed waiting to appear before the

Sovereign Judge. After receiving the last

of her sacrifice. As souls draw closer to

might study her virtues in the Temple,

sacraments, he hoped to be blessed with a visit of the Immaculate Virgin. When she

failed to appear, the saint seemed discour aged. Agony had taken its toll when, sud denly. the face of the dying man was trans formed. The Queen of Heaven appeared to him; "John," she said with a maternal

smile,"do you think me capable of aban

doning my devoted servants at such an hour?" Thus, in the embrace of the Virgin, he breathed his last.

Chapter IV Mary's Life in the Temple Saints Joachim and Anne proved their

gratitude to God Who, against all hope, had satisfied their innermost desire. They promised, probably with a vow, to conse crate their daughter to the service of the

Temple. Such a practice was nothing out of the ordinary for the cho.scn people of God.

For generations, a given number of young girls would devote their lives from child

hood until their wedding day in the House

of the Lord. There they received the educa

tion commonly given to women of Israel in their day. Several passages of Holy Scripture refer to them spending their days

praying and working. Indeed, they embroi dered the fine linen and the sumptuous pur ple ornaments bordered with gold used in the liturgy. They enhanced the magnifi cence of the liturgical celebration with their

singing. Finally, as the book of Kings tells

us, they formed an honor guard before the Tabernacle.

When the Virgin Mary attained the age

mission to draw near her soul that we

which made her the favorite garden of the

occurred to her to prefer herself over the

Most High.

least among them.

How did the Blessed Virgin consider

herself, she who was such an incomparable

This rare humility enchanted the

instead very candidly and sincerely think themselves superior to those who do not

cast sighing looks of longing towards the Blessed Sacrament.

masterpiece of the Lord and the most

adorable Trinity. Indeed, it merited a sub lime response, attracting the Incarnate

beautiful of all creatures aside from the

Word to reside within Our Lady's chaste

of the sublime mission God had reserved

holy humanity of our Savior? Assuredly, Mary knew she had received exceptional favors. She sensed the absence of any inte rior temptation, the fire of love burning within her heart, and the incomparable and frequent ecstasies, without ever calling

womb. If the Immaculate Virgin pleased the Most High by her spotless purity, said Saint

for her. Occasionally one finds pious souls

attention to herself. All this proved without a doubt the immensity of God's divine

Bernard, it was by her humility that she became the Mother of God: ''Virginilate

placiiil, humilitate concepti."^*

In the Temple, Mary had no suspicion

who think they have some special mission. They apply themselves to a thousand devo tional practices that God has not asked of them but neglect the most essential aspects of their state in life. The seventeenth centu

ry produced one of these false saints who This study should not be merely spec

believed herself called to finally make

ulative. It must have practical applications.

"pure love" known to the world. She

she was not aware of the grandeur that was

Let us then speak with frank brutality and merciless cruelty. I pray this humble and

unabashedly described herself as the most perfect image of the spouse from the

hers. It seems unlikely that she would have known of the unique privilege of her

gentle Virgin will deign to give me just and propitious words!

Canticle of Canticles. For a while, she led astray even the enlightened mind of

mercy for her.

In the Temple of Jerusalem, however,

Immaculate Conception. In any case, she was not cognizant that the Son of God had chosen from all eternity to take on flesh in her womb. She would have thought herself fortunate to have become the humble ser

vant of this glorious virgin who would one

Fenelon'^ by her dangerous delusions. Let us sincerely examine our con

sciences. If we find some complacency or

Mary accepted Joseph

fail to consider our complete nothingness,

as the guarantor of

miserably at the basest level of mediocrity. God cannot pour His gifts into a proud

day be the Mother of the Messias. Little

did she suspect the honor that awaited her. Give heed to what she revealed to

Saint Elizabeth of Hungary;"Be certain that I saw myself as the lowliest creature and most unworthy of God's graces."'^ Do not be astounded to hear such an affirma

tion! After Our Lord, only Mary under

stood more profoundly the immensity of

the Most High and the lowliness of

Divine Providence, while

Joseph received Mary as a precious treasure

entrusted to him by Heaven.

then we are undoubtedly dragging along

heart. When He discovers a soul that is full of itself, either He lets it stagnate or He

uses the only means of healing it, allowing it to fall prey to its own faults—at times considerable—in order for it to open its

eyes and recoenize its miserable state. In fact. Saint Peter preferred himself to the other apostles when he said; "Although all may abandon Thee, 1 will never leave

mankind. She knew that by her human

Thee.... Even though I should die with

nature she was nothing. She attributed the however, a pride that is more subtle, more

Thee..." In vain the Master reminds him of his weakness, but Peter stubbornly replies, "I will not deny you." Poor Saint Peter! How harshly he learned the le.sson so nec

immersed herself in an unfathomable abyss

dangerous, and more difficult to cure than

essary to humility.

of humility.

the way of perfection, beg the Queen of

humility. No other child showed herself

any other, that of pious souls. In the Temple, Mary did not cling complacently to the favors she received. Some devout ^

more docile to her tutors, She learned much

persons lose considerable lime scnitinizing

that she did not know through infused

their progress in virtue. If they experience

Recall the words of Our Lord Himself to

knowledge. She was taught to read the Scriptures, to sew and embroider, and made

some sweetness or consolation in prayer,

the Pharisees, so self-righteous with their

they become ecstatic and immediately see

exterior acts of justice. 1 would not dare

rapid progress. The priests also taught her about divine things, although she was

them.selves as favored by God. Yet, these

refer to such words had the Master not

insignificant feelings often come from purely natural sources. In the Temple, Mary preferred herself to no one. Certain pious .souls judge their

ful souls whom you despise," He declared to these proud men. "But because they rec

virtues adorning her heart to God alone,

taking no merit for them whatsoever. In the pre.sence of the Heavenly Father, she

Her exterior manner reflected this

incomparably more advanced than they! Yet, she listened to their lessons with

respectful attention and submitted in every

way to their opinions.

The Virgin Mary's humility made her

All men are naturally vain. There is,

neighbor with extreme severity. It is not that they occasionally let loose biting

attentive and helpful toward her little com

remarks about the exterior faults of others.

panions. She revealed to Saint Mechtilde that as she immersed herself in the consid

Indeed, their conscience forbids them to

eration of her nothingness, she liked to admire their youthful virtues. It never



utter such caustic remarks—regrettable without doubt—but which are not in them

selves grave sins. They do not do this, but

If you seriously want to progress in

Heaven to inspire you with true humility. Never think yourself better than others.

pronounced them Himself. "There are sin ognize the depth of their depravity. My grace will one day touch them. They will enter the Kingdom of Heaven before you."'^

1 would like to have continued study ing the other excellent virtues Mary prac-

liced during her childhood. I would like to

have shown Our Lady waiting with impa tience for the coming of the Messias. She knew that the time fixed by the Prophets approached. She meditated with particular fervor on the chapter of Scripture wherein

with admirable fecundity. To develop these topics would exceed the confines

Temple, she blossomed fully in physical beauty and especially in the radiant splen

of the present work. We have chosen the

dor of her incomparable virtue. She was

virtues of the Immaculate Virgin that we deemed most appropriate for souls desir

Lord's divine mercy. The luminous radi

ing to lead a profound interior life.

Isaias foretells the humiliation and suffer

were granted far beyond her expectations.

Let us ask the holy Virgin to be not When speaking of the Savior's child hood at Nazareth, the Gospel tells us that He grew in age, wisdom, and grace before

I would also like to have studied the

both God and men. Our Lady's childhood,

vow by which she consecrated her vir

like that of her Divine Son, was also a time

ginity to the Lord. Through such a radi

of growth. The Virgin quickly rose to peaks

ant example, we would have learned how

of holiness.

the Most High crowns Christian virginity

ance of divine maternity would soon engulf her.

ing of the Man-God. She ardently asked

Our Heavenly Father for the particular favor of serving the Lord. Her prayers

now ready for the great designs of the

During the years she lived in the

only our model but, even more, our guide along the way of perfection. Under her

guidance, we will have neither illusions nor

dangers to fear, as Saint Bernard assures us.'" She will lead us on the surest and

most direct route to God, and in hearts, shaped by her maternal hands, she will place her divine Infant

November-December 1999


iV O.






The Annunciation

ble understanding. Now, at this moment, the adorable Trinity wanted this already extra ordinary holiness to shine with even greater

brilliance: Our Lady would shelter in her womb the very Author of grace. •••'"■ ■'

Yet, the Archangel's salutation trou bled the Immaculate Virgin. By divine enlightenment she had long understood the

.r 1 \,.

Chapter V

immensity of God and the nothingness of

The Annunciation

creatures. In her prodigious humility, she considered herself the lowliest of creatures

Out of love for us, the Eternal Word was made flesh in the chaste womb of

and thus wondered at receiving such praise.

Mary. His plan was marvelously arranged.

be shrouded in such words.

She pondered what hidden meaning could Seeing this most incomparably perfect

From all eternity. He chose a man after His heart who would be the virginal spouse of

His divine Mother, His adopted father on

iVo longer did the Divine

earth, and the guardian of His childhood. While not granting Joseph the same privi leges He had granted our Blessed Mother,

Spouse wish to delay.

the Lord adorned his soul with the rarest

virtues and raised him to great holiness. When Our Lady had completed her education in the Temple, she was wed to this humble artisan. Like her. Saint Joseph

He resolved to send an

extraordinary messenger

belonged to the royal race of David, then fallen from its ancient splendor. Also like

her, he had consecrated his virginity to God and ardently desired to .see with his

own eyes the promised Messias, the salva tion of Israel.

The Most High had prepared this excellent union by revealing His will to these humble and obedient souls. Mary

accepted Joseph as the guarantor of Divine

to her whom He called

"My spouse."

of all creatures with such a humble opinion of herself, the celestial ambassador exulted with admiration. "Mary," he said to the trembling Virgin, "fear not, for thou hast found grace with God."-' Then slowly, majestically, in the name of the Eternal God, he communicated his

sublime message: "Behold, thou shall con

ceive in thy womb and shah bring forth a son, and thou shall call His name Jesus. He

shall be great and shall be called the Son of

the Most High, and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of David His father,

and He shall reign in the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end."-These words were far too clear to Our

He resolved to send an extraordinary mes

Lady for any hesitation in grasping them. She immediately understood the incompa rable honor reserved for her. It seems that

Providence, while Joseph received Mary

senger to her whom He called "My Spouse"

she experienced no hesitation on account of

as a precious treasure entrusted to him by

—Soror mea, sponsa.^'' God chose the Archangel Gabriel from

her virginity. Indeed, it would be a gratu

Heaven. Neither one nor the other suspect

ed what blessings the Lord would lavish

itous insult to her intelligence to suspect

her of such ignorance. She was aware of

on their modest dwelling. The young

among the princes of the celestial court who remained constantly before the throne

spouses had lived but a short time in the

of the Almighty. He entrusted to him the

little house of Nazareth when the scene of

angel, "for I know not man?"-'

the return of spring to the Galilean country

most important and glorious assignment ever confided to a creature, the mission of announcing to the Virgin the awesome mystery ol the Incarnation. All Heaven now looked upon that sim ple house of Nazareth, where a profound peace reigned. Joseph probably rested from

side. The fig trees had begun to unfold their

his hard labor. In the adjoining room, his

which shall be bom of thee shall be called

virgin spouse was praying. The angel

holy, the Son of God. And behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a

dotted the rejuvenated fields. Soon another

appeared and respectfully bowed before his Queen. His countenance resplendent with

flower, infinitely more precious, would

supernatural joy, he said to her. "Hail,

month with her who is called bairen; for

blossom from the root of Jesse.

Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee:

nothing shall be impossible with God."-^

In Heaven, the Holy Ghost acclaimed the spotless conception of the Immaculate Virgin with admiration and seemed impa

blessed art thou among women."-" truth. At the moment of Mary's conception,

wherein the world's destiny hangs in the

tient for the hour when the work of His

divine grace flooded her magnificent soul.

balance. The angel had ceased speaking

infinite charity would be fulfilled. No

Ever since then, this grace had grown cease

and Mary was quiet.

longer did the Divine Spouse wish to delay.

lessly in proportions far surpassing our fee

the Annunciation took place in all of its divine simplicity.

The last days of March had brought

ample leaves and the doves to build their nests in the hollows of the rocks. Flowers

Saint Gabriel uttered but the strictest

the prophecy of Isaias that the Emmanuel would be bom of a virgin. Rather, she sim

ply sought to know how God, so rich in miracles, would accomplish such a marvel. "How shall this be done," she asked the

"The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee. Therefore, the child

son in her old age; and this is the sixth

Profound silence fi lled that small room

in Nazareth, one of those dramatic silences

How many thoughts crowded in upon

November-December 1999


'gin Mary

her! In her mind's eye, she saw the

should inspire our Christian hearts to great

resplendent crown divine motherhood would place on her head, yet she remained too profoundly humble for any compla cency about this singular grandeur. She

respect, deep gratitude, limitless confi

saw the indescribable joys that would surely fill her heart when holding her dear

treasure against her bosom, her Jesus, both

Word utterly humbled Himself in the womb of the Virgin. At the same time, other events took place in her soul. When

God and infant. Yet again, her self-mortifi-

God entrusts a mission to one of His crea

cation would not allow that she be guided by the allure ofjoy alone, even the most holy of joys.

She also saw the awful martyrdom that would rend her soul. Through Holy Scripture she knew that the Messias would be delivered to His death like a tender

lamb to the slaughter. She foresaw and heard the mournful cry: "I am a worm, and no man; the reproach of men, and the out The Sacred Heart of Jesus. Painting in the Basiiica of Saint John Lateran, Rome

Souls today are powerfully

adorable Heart, the

sanctuary of the Divinity, morefully, we must go

through Mary. Let us ask Our Ladyfor the sovereign grace ofplacing us confidently in the arms

ofJesus and there, upon

tures, He also provides the grace to accom

plish it fully. Thus, the Most High, having granted a double motherhood to the Blessed Virgin Mary (to be mother of God and of men), conferred upon her a love

that was doubly maternal. Such was the splendor in this work of grace that we will never perfectly understand it. Never will we completely understand the ardor of

titude that she would not allow future sor row to dishearten her.

further reflect upon this mystery, we would

cast of the people."--'^ Yet, such was her for

Above everything, she saw the

pray to her with greater fer\'or, and serve

extremely lofty, fatherly, and holy will of

her with greater zeal. She, in turn, would lavish torrents of grace on us.

God. She owed obedience to Him; .she did The Immaculate Virgin at last broke

the solemn silence. The angel waited to receive her con.sent in the name of the

Jesus. To penetrate this

complete our meditation on this mystery. Through God's infinite love for us, the

Mary's love for Jesus or the merciful goodness by which the Virgin loves each one of us in particular. Indeed, were we to

not hesitate.

attracted to the heart of

dence, and filial devotion. But let us first

The Incarnation had just been com

pleted. Our Lady remained in ecstasy.

Every theologian agrees that during this thrice-holy moment God raised her to the

Holy Ghost. In accepting, she pronounced

most sublime contemplation a pure crea

one of those sublime expressions that only the genius of humility can find. It was the

ture can attain upon etu-th. Perhaps she was

most simple and modest formula of a soul

completely submis.sive to the will of God: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it done unto me according to thy word."" At that, the grandest of all miracles

even granted a momentary glimpse of the beatific vision.

The Archangel Gabriel had fulfilled his mission. Upon his arrival he had

respectfully bowed before the Queen of

took place. From the very flesh of the

heaven. Before departing, he prostrated himself, for Mary was no longer alone. In

Immaculate Virgin, the Holy Ghost formed a small human body. To this body He

true justice, the Child she bore in her

joined a human soul; to this body and soul

archangel, who adored the God-made-man

He united the Second Person of the Most

and then returned to Heaven.

Holy Trinity, the Word of God. Although it is necessary to explain three facts separately to make clear what took place, the three took place com pletely simultaneously as a single act. Not even for a second were this small body and soul separated from the Word. From that first instant the Child formed in the womb

of Our Lady was the Word Inctumatc. Without losing her virginity, Mary became the Mother of God, and in becoming the

womb merited the adoration of the

From this mystery, we must draw a stronger and deeper devotion to the Blessed

Virgin. The Church, which encourages us

to pay special honor to the Immaculate Mother, does not wish to place her on the

same level as the Most High. While Mary

reigns over all the angels and saints in Heaven, she is still but a simple creature and. accordingly, an infinite distance stands

Mother of Christ, our Head, she also became the Mother of menâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;our Mother.

between her and her adorable Son.

His heart, let us rest both

In this chapter I have simply followed the Gospel narrative step by step. We will

and Mary so intimately that we cannot sep arate Them. By consenting to the work of

later study the nearly infinite dignity the

in time and in eternity.

Immaculate Virgin confers on divine moth

the eternal God, Our Lady has become facto the moral cause of our salvation. She



erhood. We shall see how this privilege

Nevertheless, God has united Jesus

is morally necessary for us to go to Jesus.

The Divine Motherhood

Souls today are powerfully attracted to the Heart of Jesus. To penetrate this adorable Heart, the sanctuary of the

that our piety would gain much from knowing more about so moving a subject? The Fathers of the Church asked them

Divinity, more fully, we must go through

selves the reason for this strange silence.

Mary. Let us ask Our Lady for the sover

They unanimously responded that, in estab

eign grace of placing us confidently in the

lishing the Savior's genealogy. Saint

arms of Jesus and there, upon His heart, let

Matthew sums up Our Lady's greatness and glory in a single line. "Jacob," he

us rest both in time and in eternity.

writes, "begot Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was bom Jesus, who is called Christ."-^

Thus, if you desire a more profound

knowledge of Mary's role, study with pious ___

attention the most incomparable of her privileges, her divine Motherhood.

Chapter VI The Divine Motherhood The Gospels, which carefully recount the life of our Savior, provide few details on the Blessed Virgin. They tell us nothing

of her spotless conception, nothing of her

nativity, and nothing of her childhood in

the Temple of Jerusalem. Although the Evangelists develop at length the admirable scenes of the Annunciation and the Visitation, these are the only two mysteries in which Mary appears as a central figure.

I will not conceal from you the almost insurmountable difficulties presented by

such a sublime topic. Before broaching the subject, I reread several passages from the many discourses devoted to her by the Doctors of the Church. I was not surprised to see that in the presence of such great ness. they felt overwhelmed by great dis couragement. What words would be strong enough to convey their thoughts? What

comparisons true enough to communicate such a mystery? Saint Epiphanius, one of the most bril

Subsequently, we find only extremely brief

liant of the Eastern Church Fathers,

allusions in the Gospel as to her role. We

recounts one by one all the glories of

see her presenting her newborn Son to be adored by the poor shepherds and the three kings. Then we see her bearing the Child

and the different categories of saints. He then adds: "But the Mother of the Word far

Heaven. He examines the choirs of angels

Jesus to Egypt in hurried flight. Passing

surpasses them all. Save for God. she is

references alone indicate her long life of

superior to all. No human tongue can

intimacy with the divine Master in the little

worthily sing her praises."'"

house of Nazareth.

When Our Lord finally begins his pub

Saint Thomas Aquinas, the unconiestcd master of Catholic Tradition, tells us

lic ministry, the figure of Mary almost dis appears into discreet shadows. We see her

that divine Maternity confers an infinite

only for a moment at the wedding in Cana.

reaching the boundaries of the divinity in

Here and there the sacred writers mention

her ascent to God.''^

dignity upon Mary. He shows us Our Lady

her humbly listening to her Son teaching the crowds. We find her at last on Calvary,

An abyss .separates us from the Most High. While we are nothing. He lives in all

standing at the loot of the cross during the tragic hours of the Passion. That is all the

eternity in light inaccessible to our mortal eyes. Though we can do nothing of our-

Gospels tell us of Mary. Does it not .seem

.selves. He created the universe by the

Never will we completely understand the ardor of Mary's lovefor Jesus or the merciful goodness by which the Virgin loves each one of us in particular

Our Lady, Star of the Sea

Statue, in the church of Saint Sylvester, Rome

November-December 1999

power of a single word. Deserving our ado ration, He reminds us that our homage serves Him no purpose. "To what purpose do you offer Me the multitude of your vic

prayers if we present them in the name of the love which is and always will be due His mother.

tims? saith the Lord. 1 am full; I desire not

holocausts or rams, and fat of fallings, and blood of calves, and lambs, and goats."^"

What should we conclude about this

eignly independent from His creatures. He

privilege that elevates the Blessed Virgin so high above all other creatures? First of all, it should inspire us with gratitude. We live

chose to have recourse to the Immaculate

amid an abundance of supernatural bless

Virgin to accomplish the great designs of His Infinite Mercy. To solicit her consent in the work of the Incarnation, He sent the

ings that souls did not possess in ancient times. Right after our births, we were taken

Nevertheless, while this God is sover

to church, where the sacred water of

Archangel Gabriel.

Baptism made us children of God. When

This God, so distant from our small-

the weight of our sins burdens our con

ness, chose to establish such a profound relationship with Mary that I dare say she enters, as no other, into the very intimacy of the adorable Trinity.

science too heavily, we relieve the burden of our .scruples and remorse at the foot of the altar. We depart with lightened souls and the certitude of having received par don. When tempted, we can seek strength or consolation amid our labors by kneeling

The Holy Ghost miraculously fructi fied her incomparable virginity, becoming her Spouse. Secondly, the Eternal Word drew from her flesh His most holy body

Once again, Divine

and infinitely precious blood. After His birth in the grotto of Bethlehem, He was

in prayer before the altar. Jesus is truly pre sent, waiting to open His heart to us. In the Tabernacle He anxiously awaits the offer of

Motherhood should

the hospitality of our fragile and wretched souls. These graces, running in unceasing

inspire us to unlimited confidence. Mary is all

torrents upon the world, are at our disposi

nourished for many months by Our Lady. This truth so charms and delights us that we exclaim with Saint Augustine,"The flesh of Christ is the flesh of Mary!"â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Car Christi, car Mariae. Since children's traits are often similar to those of their

mothers, the Savior, the most beautiful of

children, most probably wanted to resem ble Mary.

Finally, the Queen of Heaven shares in the Father's glory. He, Who eternally begets the Son, says to Him at the moment

good and her prayers are "all-powerful" with God. Let usfrequently

but clothed His divinity with a mortal body similar to our own. Together with the

subject to them.""

Father, she can say of Jesus, the immortal

this fact. The Savior received from the

King of ages, the Word that fills the bles.sed in Heaven with awe: "Thou art

Most High a mission beyond the authority of Our Lady. Indeed, at the age of twelve

Nevertheless, we must not exaggerate

truly my Son. I gave Thee Thy human life

He remained in the Temple among the doc

and surrounded Thee with the entire strength of my tenderness, O Beloved of

tors without informing His parents. In so

my heart."

that while His mother could not command

doing. He wanted us to fully understand Him in all things, she had a great infiuence over His adorable will. Was it not also at

the Savior.

In the first place, she has rights over His will. The Child Jesus had to obey His

you ever thought to express your gratitude to her? One day Our Lord cured ten lep ers. These miraculously healed and

selves to the priests as prescribed by the Mosaic Law. Only one returned to thank his Benefactor. "Were not ten made clean? Where are the nine?" asked the

did not give Our Lord His divine nature,

Virgin possesses indisputable rights over

Have you ever supposed you might somehow be indebted to the divine Motherhood of the Virgin Mary? Have

blessed men immediately presented them

invoke her.

of His baptism: "Thou art My beloved Son; in Thee I am well pleased."^' Mary

By her divine Motherhood, the Blessed

tion. Wc need only take a step to be engulfed by them.

Savior sadly." Could not the Blessed

Virgin say the same? "I gave Jesus to souls and they forget that they received

Him through me." Therefore, let us thank Our Lady today. Indeed, let us thank her often for what she has done for us! This simple prac tice will call down upon us abundant bless ings.

Once again. Divine Motherhood should inspire us to unlimited confidence.

her request that He worked His first miracle

Mary is all good and her prayers are "all-

at Cana?

powerful" with God. Let us frequently

The Blessed Virgin also has rights over the heart of her Son, and these are inalien

mother. The Evangelists clearly call this to

able. On earth as in Heaven, Jesus pays His mother the entire respect and tenderness of

our attention by showing Him submissive

invoke her.

When Saint John the Apostle reached a

very old age he would have his disciples carry him among the faithful whose pastor

a .son. It is therefore impos,sible that He

he was. He often addressed them with the

to both His mother and adopted father:

would refuse to fulfill her wishes. It is like

same words: "My children," he pleaded,

"And He went down with them...and was

wise impossible that He would reject our



"love one another." His listeners eventually

The Visitation

worked within her.

grew weary of hearing the same teaching

Having learned of the expectant hope

and asked him: "Why do you always repeat these same words?" The beloved disciple,

of her cousin Elizabeth, Mary felt a strong

who had learned charity from the bosom of the Savior, responded: "to love one another

approved commentators, she spent a few

is the Master's command."

more days in Nazareth before departing.

If you are surprised that 1 should

desire to visit her. In the opinion of most

insist in telling you to pray without ceas

Chapter VII

ing to your Mother in Heaven, I shall

The Visitation

answer: "It is the great means of persever ance and salvation." God entrusted to us

After the salutation of the Archangel

this precious key which opens the Heart of

Gabriel, the Incarnate Word was conceived

Jesus, the richest of all treasures. We

in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In

would be remiss in not drawing from it the abundant consolation, illumination, and

strength we need for the journey.

March was drawing to a close and the solemn feast of Passover was quickly approaching. She probably wailed until the

holy days in order to travel to Jerusalem with Saint Joseph. When they had fulfilled

their religious duties, Mary set off for the city of Hebron where Zachary lived. It seems improbable thai Saint Joseph accompanied her in this second part of the journey. If he had, he would not have been ignorant several months later regarding the divine secret of his holy spouse. Meanwhile, the Immaculate Virgin

We hear much talk about efficacious

prayers. There are very efficacious

arrived at her cousin's house where the

prayers to Saint Expeditus, for example. There are efficacious novenas to other

Visitation, faithfully recorded by Saint Luke, took place. This mystery, so valu

saints who, with the Church, I profoundly

able for our piety, helps us understand Our

venerate. Yet, there is one saint who far

Lady's virtues and her role in the sanctifi-

surpasses the other elect in glory and

cation of our souls.

power. There is one prayer that is the most perfect of all after the one taught us by Our Lord Himself.

ty that is so pleasing to God, we ask for

The Evangelist shows Mary hurriedly climbing the mountain road toward Hebron."And Mary, rising up in those

the necessary graces for the present moment as well as for our final hour.

days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. And she entered into

"Pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death." The whole prayer is really

the house of Zachary and saluted Elizabeth."'-' Why did she so joyfully has

quite ingenious, for it includes the Blessed Virgin's magnificent privileges—her

to share her radiant secret with Elizabeth

Immaculate Conception and her sublime

as soon as possible, as though her soul

With this prayer and with the humili

ten to Juda ? Was she moved by the desire

Motherhood. It also contains within it an

were too tender to bear alone the over

act of praise addressed to the divine Son

whelming significance of such bliss? Did

she so dearly loves: "And blessed is the

she hope to pour out her heart entirely to

fruit of thy womb, Jesus." Our Lady can not help but hear this prayer and be

her cousin, whose perfect goodwill she had esteemed for so long a time? Certainly this thought did not occur to


the silent Virgin who always displayed

Saint Bernard habitually greeted a stat

great di.scrction. In fact, when arriving at

ue of the Madonna in his monastery. Each time he passed by he recited a Hail Mary.

Zachary's house, she did not initiate the

A legend says that one day the statue came to life and Our Lady's face lit up with a

exchange of secrets. Heavenly inspiration first prompted Elizabeth, the mother of the Precursor, to speak so that Mary

smile. She graciously inclined her head to the saint and said, "And I greet you.

The Visitation, by Karl Bloch

would allow the emotion flooding her soul to overflow into divine song. Reasons of a higher order had moved


Let us be devoted to the Hail Mary.

Let us often recite it with attention and

the prayerful silence that enshrouded the

piety. The Blessed Virgin may not mirac

humble dwelling when the angel departed, Mary gradually emerged from her ecstasy.

the Virgin to undertake this journey. Elizabeth and her husband enjoyed a higher social .status. They were highly regarded in

Bernard, but she will protect us during

ulously greet us as she did Saint

With the delightful simplicity which gives

the region, and Providence had abundantly

our lifetime. She will come to our aid at the hour of our need with maternal love and will lead our souls to the Paradise of

her perfect beauty such a poignant charm,

blessed them with the fruits of the earth. In

she returned to the routine of ordinary life. She told no one—not even Saint Joseph—

which .she is the Queen.

about the marvels the Holy Ghost had

their prosperily they had not forgoUen their poorer relatives. Saint Joachim and Saint Anne, who had done many favors for them.

November-December igw


The Virgin Mary

Many years earlier Zachary's influence had

undoubtedly contributed greatly to Mary's admission among the children raised in the Temple at Jerusalem. Hence, the fair-heart ed Virgin wished to manifest her affection

ate gratitude to her generous relatives. She wanted to pay Elizabeth the kindest and tenderest attention, for she to whom God

had miraculously granted a child was already advanced in age and had been bar

ren for many years. The Virgin's everattentive charity made her joyfully sacri fice her own rest and divine consolation.

Would it not have been belter, however, for

Our Lady to remain quietly within her peaceful retreat, her small room in

Nazareth, glowing still with the memory of the Annunciation? Would she not have

found there more sweetness in praying to the Incarnate Word, really present within her? Certainly, but she did not think self ishly of herself.

When Jesus enters a heart. He inspires it with love of neighbor."A new com mandment I give unto you: That you love one another," He said at the Last Supper, "as I have loved you. By this shall all men

know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another.... Greater love

than this no man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends."'^

The lessons of this mystery are legion. We must be attentive to the needs of those

around us and share generously with the

poor. Our souls must be moved at the sight of the suffering who cry out to us. We must let blossom the goodness planted in

our hearts by our Heavenly Father, the divine flower of the Christian life. Our

hearts must not harden. If we do not follow these lessons, we should tremble before the

Almighty! We are not the disciples of Him who gave His blood to the last drop, nor will the charitable Virgin of the Visitation regard us as her children!

Our Lady carries the eternal Son of the Father within her. She is not oblivious to

At last, then, Mary reached her desti

the great honor such sublime motherhood

nation. Consider the meeting of these two

confers on her. Con.scious of her glory,

women; one wealthy, yet the spouse of a merely mortal man: the other undoubtedly poor, yet the of the Holy Ghost and

does Mury expect to see her cousin render

the Mother of God.

What does the Immaculate Virgin do when she reaches her cousin Elizabeth's

her honors upon her arrival? Certainly not! Rather, she rushes forward to greet her cousin. With modest grace and delightful

spontaneity, she bows before her cousin, embracing her with effusive and tenderest

home? We are already familiar with the incredible humility of her youth. At the


Temple, she considered herself the lowliest

and greets her cousin by prostrating before her and crying out in admiration: "And

of all. Events have now changed entirely!



Elizabeth, however, is inspired by God

whence is this to me, that the mother of

my Lord should come to me?""' Mary can no longer conceal her secret, already revealed by Heaven. She bursts forth in her admirable canticle of acknowledgment, her

Mcigiiificai: "My soul doth magnify the Lord: and my spirit hath rejoiced in God

my Savior. Because He hath regarded the humility of His handmaid, for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. He that is mighty hath done great

things for me. and holy is His name. And His mercy is from generation unto genera tion to them that fear Him. He hath


f 1



'm 'i> ^Âť^

showed might in His arm. He hath scat tered the proud in the conceit of their

the blessed home of Elizabeth and Zachary. In first place, the prophecy of the angel

heart."" Indeed, the more she glorifies the Mo-st High, the more deeply does she engulf herself in the abyss of her nothing

was fulfilled. Saint Gabriel had appeared to Zachary as he offered incense in the Holy of Holies, announcing the birth of John the


This is an important lesson: God

Shepherds Adoring the Child Jesus. Painting in the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome

Baptist and adding that the child would be sanctified while still in his mother's womb!

grants us favors in the measure that we

In fact. Mary had only to embrace her

humble ourselves in His presence. The

Holy Ghost does not deposit His gifts in

cousin Elizabeth for the presence of the Lord within her to purify the soul of His

hearts full of self-love.


Our Lady's role consists in distribut

ing the graces merited by the precious The visit of the Blessed Virgin caused

an abundance of graces to descend upon

blood of her divine Son. She refuses them

to none, for the Savior died on the Cross

November-December 1999




The Presentation In the Temple. Painting in the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome

for all men. But she grants them with greater abundance to the souls who love her with special filial tenderness.

Perhaps you sense the fragility of our wretched human nature. Perhaps, despite your sincere desire to serve God, you com mit serious sins. Do not become disheart

ened in such painful moments; direct your

profound cry of distress to Mary and appeal for her help. Pray to her with all your faith and fervor. She will obtain for

to help you belter understand Christ's abundant love for us. In His infinite tender

ness, Our Lord never stops thinking of you, waiting for you at all hours of the day and night in His tabernacle. His adorable

heart loved you to the utmost folly of the Cross, and is burning with infinite charity

joy, grant our souls,'thirsting for happiness,

for you. He ardently desires to fill you with His most precious gifts. Jesus wishes the Savior better. Indeed, her special mis Finally, the visit of Mary brought trea

with perseverance to lift him from his mis

sures ofjoy. "For behold, as soon as the

erable state, his prayer would surely be

voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy." God created us for eternal bliss. That is

brought lights from on high, so that Elizabeth knew through revelation the

why we carry an unquenchable thirst for happiness within us. Alas! Many think they

mystery of the Incarnation.

have found happiness in forbidden plea sures. How far they have strayed! Sin bears the fruit of death, leaving only remorse and

You learned your catechism. You

know Our Lord, Yet this supernatural understanding has such little influence over

your life! Perhaps it even leaves you indif

ferent and cold! Beg the Immaculate Virgin



the inde.scribable joys of Divine Love.

you to approach Him with trustâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;complete sion is to lead souls to Jesus.

Mary's visit to Elizabeth, then,

O Immaculate Virgin, Mother of holy

trust. Ask Our Lady for the grace to know

you the strength to lead a pure life, If a


cannot satisfy the void in our souls. True joy is found in hearts that give themselves entirely to Christ.

habitual sinner who seems to have one foot

in Hell would but beg the Blessed Virgin

Human love can distract us for a moment, but in the end it makes us suffer because it

disgust in its wake.

Others seek legitimate, but purely human, satisfaction outside Our Lord,

Chapter VIII Mary's Sanctiflcation When Solomon wanted to raise a tem

ple for the Lord on Mount Moriah, it took him seven full years to build. He called

upon the talents of the East's most promi nent artisans and erected a masterpiece of beauty and magnificence. Large open

Mary's Sanctification

God had resolved to build another temple whose dignity would

far surpass that ofHis ancient dwelling.

cent and pure, and endowed with the rarest

ed by summer's heat. So many are her

spaces paved with stone slabs surrounded the holy edifice. The Levites maintained a perpetual fire on the bronze altar, a touch

of virtues. From that moment, the Virgin,

accumulated merits that we abstain from

resplendent with supernatural beauty, sur

calculating them even from afar.

ing symbol of the Divine charity unceas ingly burning for love of us without ever

passed in holiness not only the most glori ous angel, but all the angels and saints

exhausting the resources of His infinite

tenderness. The priests sacrificed the vic

together. Thus did the Holy Ghost deposit this first jewel in the crown of His future

tims offered to the Most High on this altar


while the faithful attended the religious

The admirable treasures of this first

Do not think such progress in virtue

was easy for the Blessed Virgin! She cer tainly experienced no inner temptations, since her Immaculate Conception sheltered her from concupiscence. Just like her divine Son, however, she was subject to the

Extraordinary richness adorned

"dowry" produced abundant fruit. Nothing is simpler than our heavenly Mother's sin

law of effort.

Yahweh's house. The inside walls disap

gular correspondence with grace, yet noth

whelmed by fatigue. The Gospel narrative

peared entirely under the cypress wainsco ting encrusted with precious metals.

ing is more inspiring for our piety. She seeks nothing extraordinary for ascending from virtue to virtue, nor is she ambitious for the exceptional missions that

shows Jesus exhausted and sleeping in a boat while the tempest rages and huge waves lash the bow. We see Him. yet again, forced by weariness to sit on the edge of Jacob's well. Since Mary was not given more privileges than Our Lord, we

ceremonies at a distance.

Golden seven-branched candelabras sur rounded the ten golden tables where the

loaves of proposition were placed. Behind

Providence sometimes entrusts to souls.

the purple veil concealing the Holy of

Indeed, before the angel's salutation, she did not even suspect that she was the

Holies, two Cherubim, made of the finest

gold, sheltered the Ark of the Covenant, the glory of Israel, with outstretched wings. Once a year, the high priest entered this awe-inspiring sanctuary where the chosen people of God kept the Tables of the Law and a few fragments of manna. God had resolved to build another

temple whose dignity would far surpass that of His ancient dwelling. From this tem

Virgin chosen from all eternity. She does not expect heroic sacrifices whereby she would shed her blood in profusion. Instead,

Jesus endured and was often over

can be certain she did not reach her incom

parable holiness without effort.

God did not preserve us from original sin as He did the Mother of the Incarnate

she completely surrenders her future to the

Word. Yet. on the day of our baptism. He

Heavenly Father.

erased its trace from our souls. When, hav

Her interior life can be entirely

summed up as a double movement of great simplicity and prodigious strength. She hastened, threw, and veritably engulfed

ple, the Eternal Word would take on flesh

herself in the abyss of her own nothing

like our own and form the body He would immolate on the Cross and give to us as

food in the Eucharist. From this living tem

ness, then soared to God with equal vigor in the fullness of her humility and love. Every one of her actions, even the

ple, the Most High fashioned the greatest of

most ordinary, is perfumed with the aroma

His marvels, thus elevating the Immaculate

of deliberate humility and abundant chari

ing had the misfortune of offending Him, we repent. He forgives our sins and, through the sacrament of Penance, we are reconciled to Him. Like Mary, we, too, must make these gifts from Heaven fruitful. If you want to progress in the interior life, imitate the double action we have

admired and observed in the heart of Our

Virgin to incomparable perfection.

ty. Not for a second in all her lifetime did

Lady. Begin by humbling yourself. Should God allow you to fall into grave sin, make use of this humiliation. Do not forget your

In this chapter, we will study Mary's sanctification. Although we will never fully

she remove her eyes from the Infinite

wretchedness, having fully experienced its

understand this sublime work of grace, we

Beauty, nor ever fail to remain lowly. Even while sleeping she remained virtuous, for

preserved you from mortal sin, all the

will find lessons helpful for our salvation

she did this also with an obedient heart.

more reason to be humble. Saint Frances

by meditating upon this work of God.

She can truthfully say, then, with the

Borgia deemed himself beneath Satan.

spouse of the Canticle of Canticles: "I sleep, and my heart watcheth."-'^

weight. Should the Heavenly Father have

tive stages in the sanctification of Our

interior life? Mary's soul grows in holiness

Indeed, he thought himself capable, with out the help of grace, of any crime! Finally, carry out your duties in life faithfully, because such is the adorable will

Lady. The first look place at the moment of her spotless conception. Mary's soul

at an ever-increasing rate. Her love

of God. This, briefly, is the secret of holi

expands with an evei-more-blazing ardor

ness. Should you stray from this path, you

emerged from the Creator's hand all inno

like the windswept fires in forests desiccat

will find only dangers and illusions!

Theologians distinguish two consecu

What is the result of such constant

November-December 1999


this sacrament is just as efficacious as His The second sanctification of Mary lasted nine months, from the Annunciation

to the birth of Our Lord in the manger at

Heaven. Why then do you draw such scant

Bethlehem. His intimate and prolonged

fruit from your Communions? It is because

union with His mother worked miracles of

you present obstacles to His divine action!

grace in her that were more indescribable than the previous ones! How could it have

are too faithful to receive Holy

been otherwise?

We know from the Gospels that Our

Lord's presence has a sovereign efficacy. A supernatural virtue emanated from His per son which both healed the sick and trans formed hearts. "And all the multitude

The Real Presence

sought to touch Him. for power went out from Him and healed all."-*"

A poor woman who had been sick for

of the Savior in this

sacrament is just as efficacious as His visible presence on

many years said to herself: "If I shall touch only His garment, I shall be healed."-" Carefully she slipped through the crowd surrounding Jesus. When she

finally reached Him,she silently and dis creetly touched the hem of His cloak with

Communion poorly disposed. Likewise, it is not sin which prevents the sacramental action of divine grace from taking place in you. No, the obstacle is a lack of trust. You

simply do not sufficiently esteem the inde scribable visit of the Body and Blood of Our Savior. You do not pray to Our Lord

with the burning faith and holy expectation that conquers Our Lord's heart. In those precious moments of actual grace, present to Him the litany of your woes. Mention them all without forgetting a single one.

Say to Him: "I believe firmly that from this heap of dung Thou canst cause virtues to flourish. 1 ask Thee this in the name of

Thy promises, and I go as far as to demand

ed herself at the Savior's feet, covering

and night will I cry out to Thee until TTiou dost accomplish this miracle of love.

them with her kisses and bathing them

with her tears. Through this divine contact,

that Thou dost transform my heart. Day

Without doubt. He will tell you what

the flood of her iniquities was over

He told others during His ministry. As ^

whelmed by the even greater flood of His

you have believed, so be it done to thee. If your trust is small, you will obtain little; if it is great, you will obtain much.

divine mercy.

none ofHis power

did not effect everyone equally. Many who knew him on this earth did not allow grace to touch their hardened hearts, nor did they

Yet, the power of Our Lord's presence

recognize the Master. They were devoid of

into Heaven.

"What obstacles?" you might ask. You

her hand. She was immediately healed. The sinner Mary Magdalene prostrat

earth. Jesus lost

or love by ascending

visible presence on earth. Jesus lost none

of His power or love by ascending into

Perhaps your faith is asleep. Perhaps you are gripped by secret anxieties. the Blessed Virgin to inspire you with an

faith. The healing power of Our Lord's divine presence acted upon others accord

unshakable trust in Jesus truly present in the

ing to the degree of their faith.

Euchimst. Ask her for this favor in the name

How completely did Our Lord's pres ence affect the soul of Our Lady! Her beau

of her maternal love and the name of the

final words of her agonizing Son to her on

tiful presented no obstacle to the

the Cross. Whatever your weakness or pain,

work of His mysterious action. Indeed, the heart of the Virgin remained pure and spot less. Her faith was unfailing, her confidence

surrender them with closed eyes to God

Who loves you to the point of concealing Himself for you under the veil of the Host.

unshakable, and her love seemed boundless. During the nine months of her pregnancy an ocean of grace flooded her.

To work the salvation of your soul, Jesus wi.shes to enter your heart. In the Holy Eucharist, He communicates His infi

nite life to increase the action of sanctify ing grace within you, He thus causes His

rays to shine in your heart, allowing super

natural virtues to blossom. He brings you His precious blood so that this beneficial

dew quench the fire of concupiscence in Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament. Church of St. Claudius, Rome



your body. The is the bread of angels and the wine that engenders virgins. The Real Presence of the Savior in

Chapter IX The Finding of Our Lord in the Temple When the heartless Herod died, the angel of the Lord immediately informed

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The Finding of Our Lord In the Temple

Joseph that the life of the divine Child was no longer in danger. The Holy Family left

Egypt and returned to Galilee. The sight of the houses of Nazareth on the horizon at

the end of that long and perilous journey filled Mary, carrying Jesus in her arms, with sweet consolation. Surely she would encounter precious memories upon return ing to her humble dwelling. It was there that she enjoyed thirty

years of incredible bliss, watching the ten der unfolding of the Incarnate Word. Indeed, Our Lord's human nature devel

oped according to natural law. His unbounded holiness and divine wisdom, on the other hand, could not increase, for

infinity, by the very fullness of its perfec tion, is immutable. Nevertheless, Jesus wanted to reveal the treasures of His eter

nal wisdom gradually. Mary exultantly observed the progress of her beloved Son

and entered more fully each day into His

'1^ y

inebriating beauty.

One shadow of sorrow darkened those

years of intimate joy. The mysterious sword foretold by Simeon pierced Our Lady's soul and plunged into the intimacy of her heart. Aside from the drama of Calvary, this was the most cruel martyr dom of her entire lifetime: She lost the Child Jesus.

^^la hastened, thremajj^jveritably engulfed

the abyss ofJh^jwn nothingness, then

Mary and Joseph journeyed to Jerusalem each year to celebrate the Passover feast. When the Savior reached the age of twelve. He accompanied His parents to the Holy City. At that age, young Israelites became sons of the law and had

to participate in liturgical ceremonies. The great solemnities took place with their usual splendor, and the hour of depar

ture sounded. The pilgrims of Galilee, sep arated from their homeland by a three-day

to God with emid vigor in thefullness of

^ > ,'l

her hwriim and love. she not seen Him hungry and tired like other children? Perhaps some accident had

journey, casually formed small groups as

throughout the camp and questioning

they walked. The groups, spread out along

each group, their fears mounted. Jesus

the road during the journey, would gather again in the evening at an inn where all

was nowhere to be found.

befallen Him. Had she not seen Him hunt

What agony overwhelmed Mary's heart! To understand the depth of her suf

ed by the murderous rage of men like Herod? Had yet another enemy attempted

fering, it is necessary to understand the

to harm Him?

breadth of her love for this One who was both her Son and her God. She had entire

Scripture passages in which Isaias prophe

that Jesus accompanied others of their traveling acquaintances. For an entire day

ly surrendered her virginal heart to Jesus.

sied the suffering of the Messias! She

He, her joy, her reason for living, her

knew not when and how this noble sacri

they continued their journey tranquilly.

entire life, was gone.

fice would take place. Had the time of His martyrdom already arrived? An ocean of anguish engulfed her soul.

would spend the night.

The Blessed Virgin and Saint Joseph, although not seeing the Child with them, were not concerned, for both assumed

When night fell and everyone assembled

Uncertainty inclined her heart to

at the first stop, they were surprised that

anguish. She had no doubt that Our Lord

How often had she meditated on the

Our Lady exercised the highest form

the Child Jesus did not return to them.

was the Word Incarnate, but that did not

Thus, they "sought Him among their kinfolks and acquaintances.""*-^ Looking

prevent her from fearing for His life. Had

of virtue during those fearful moments.

she not seen Him suffer from cold? Had

The holiest of God's creatures, preserved

November-December 1999


by an exceptional life-long privilege from

midst of the shadow of death. I will fear

even the slightest imperfection, examined

no evils, for thou art with me. Thy rod and

her conscience. Pious authors say she Imbued with the sense of her lowliness,

thy staff, they have comforted me,""'"' the psalmist sings. Even though I no longer feel Thy presence. Lord, I believe, I know,

she thought herself unworthy to care for

that Thou art with me.

feared being guilty of some negligence.

Our Lord.

To her feelings of unworthiness, Mary joined prayer and action. Nightfall rendered it almost impossible to continue

At times in our spiritual journey, we also lose

Jesus. I am not speaking here ofsin, which indeed vigorously chases the Divine

Friendfrom our souls. Rather, I speak of the moment when, without

our having gravely

the search, so she spent the entire night imploring the mercy of our Heavenly Father. At daybreak, she and Saint Joseph returned along the same road they had traveled the previous day. Together they

again, and that night was worse than the previous one for Our Savior's parents. Their hopes of finding the Child along the

walked, grief-stricken, seeking the Child

road to the Holy City had been dashed.

Jesus at every turn, hoping to see Him

On the morning of the third day. Mary and Joseph entered the Temple.

hastening to return to them. At times in our spiritual Journey, we

also lose Jesus. I am not speaking here of sin, which indeed vigorously chases the Divine Friend from our souls. Rather, I

removes Himselffrom our grasp. He seems to flee from us, even to abandon us.

Israel. There, among the teachers, was

Jesus, asking them questions and thought

removes Himself from our grasp. He

from His lips that the doctors, captivated, questioned Him in turn. Equally aston ished were Mary and Joseph. Seeing them,

seems to flee from us, even to abandon us.

At those moments, we no longer ful fill our duties easily. It is as if grace were

the Child rushed into His mother s arms

withdrawn from us. The Joy of our heart

and tenderly embraced her with charming

diminishes and we no longer feel anything


but suffering and self-contempt. Times of temptation become even more difficult and

holy fear; doubt, horrible doubt, cripples us. Has God forgiven our sins? Does He, far away in Heaven, even consider our

nothingness? Has He any compassion on

It is not without mystery that Our

Lord allowed Himself to be found in the

Temple. If you desire to live in deeper intimacy with Our Lord, seek Him where He speaks to souls: in meditation and prayer.

The Immaculate Virgin closely

our misery? What will become of us, so

embraced the Son over Whom she had

utterly deprived of all help and Joy? In such painful moments, let us imi

cried with such anguish and gently whis pered tenderly into His ear. "Son, why

tate Mary and humble ourselves all the

hast Thou done so to us? Behold, Thy

more profoundly before God. At these

father and I have sought Thee soiTOW-

times we must especially continue our

ing."-'s Let us admire with what tender con

in which our souls are plunged. Do you imagine that the Child Jesus had ceased loving Mary in the abyss of

fidence Mary speaks to her Savior. His

her suffering? No, His divine heart observed her with great compassion in her

ing day. Saint Teresa of Avila said to Our

immense distress. Indeed, invisibly present

to her. He remained close by, supporting

her with His all-powerful grace. Allowing her this suffering. He gave the world a

greatest servants speak to Him with simi

lar holy familiarity. One particularly try Lord: "If this is how Thou treatest Thy

friends, I am hardly surprised Thou hast so few of them!" We should speak to Our Lord with similar ease, laying our trou bles and fears before Him. We may even

great lesson in detachment and obedience

go so far sometimes as to complain to

to His holy will.

Himâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;-very respectfully, of course, like

Even when He seems withdrawn from


Under the archways, they saw an attentive crowd gathered around the learned men of

fully listening to their responses. Such profound and heavenly wisdom sprang

prayer despite the aridity or the darkness


Child, but to no avail. Darkness came

speak of the moment when, without our having gravely offended Him, Our Lord

painful. Eternal Justice inspires within us a

offended Him, Our Lord

At the first light of day. then, Mar>'

and Jo.seph had retraced their steps to Jerusalem, seeking all day for the Divine

Saint Teresaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;of the great demands of His

you, the Good Shepherd does not cease

love for us.

loving you. We have only to let ourselves be led, eyes closed and with profound trust. "For though I should walk in the

He will respond to you as He did to His mother: "Did you not know that I must be about my Father's business?"-*^ He

The Blessed Virgin's Compassion

might add; "While hidden, I was accom

plishing the work of My mercy in thy soul, showing how insignificant it is without Me and inspiring in it a greater desire for My presence. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for eternal justice, for they shall be satisfied."

In a preceding meditation we saw

how imprudent it would be to ask God for suffering. Let us humbly accept the trials Providence sends us. When the Master

places the heavy burden of the cross on our shoulders, let us cry out to Our Lady of Sorrows to aid us in our troubles. She will restore our serenity. We will see that

she is truly the Mother of sweet hope and holy joy.

The Finding of the Child Jesus in the Temple. Statuary group in the church of the Sacred Heart, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Chapter X The Blessed Virgin's Compassion

sweet echoes of the loving exchanges and indescribable daily bliss during Their thirty years together.

Then came the tragic hour the aged

Simeon had foreseen in his terrible prophe

Several days after the birth of her Son,

Mary went with Saint Jo.seph to Jerusalem to present her Newborn to God. Scarcely anyone in the milling crowd within the ponicos of the Temple paid any heed to

this poor couple. The Incarnate Word had come among His own people, but they

cause the feeble to languish, to become obsessed, or to lose their minds. But this is

not yet the worst sting one may experience

filled sky that appears to portend eternal

in a lifetime.

punishments. A dreadful silence resounds

Trials can strike us in the very depths

throughout that city liable for the murder

of our being. Great suffering springs from

of its God. Jesus is expiring.

the heart, caused by wounded love. If no

At the foot of the gibbet whereon the great Victim is nailed stands Mary, motion

less. silent, engulfed in untold grief, and

Only Simeon and Anna, moved by heavenly inspiration, had come to adore

gazing upon the dying God.

God into his arms and in the ecstasy of his gratitude he sang his mmc dimittis: "Now.

sometimes render it unbearable. These

cy. The cross stands out against a cloud-

knew Him not.

the Savior. The old man took the Child

doubts, discouragement,jealousy, and despondency cast shadows on life and

What created mind could fully under stand her suffering? Such mysteries are

unfathomable to our feeble minds. Nevertheless, we will attempt to study the

powerful reaction rescues us. the love that had made our dreams come true can take us to our very death. Mary suffered only through the love she bore her Son, so her martyrdom sur passes in agony the martyrdom of blood.

What was the intensity of her pain? To

comprehend it one would have to compre

Thou dost dismiss Thy servant. O Lord,

martyrdom of her who is both Mother of

hend the depth of her love. That intensity

according to Thy word in peace,

the Savior and our Mother.

cannot be compared to our pale sentiments. Our hearts are constricted, while her soul

my eyes have seen Thy salvation."^' Filled with prophetic light, he foresaw moments

is vast, the masterpiece of God's creation. Trials afflict us in thousands of ways during our lives. Perhaps they affect us in our material goods. These, surely, can be

The selfishness dwelling in our hearts taints even the purest movements of our

painful, but they do not touch our persons.

her Son, for Original Sin had not tarnished her immaculate heart.

At last, however, it was necessary for

"Want of money is not fatal." We may suffer bodily ills. These are

Them to part. Mary often listened atten

far greater sufferingsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;our flesh trembles,

tively to the teachings of her Son during His public ministry. The cries of admira

our sensitivity is overwhelmed. Yet our

son. She bore Him in her womb. She nour ished Him and heard His murmured first

minds can remain at peace. "A great soul

words. Her soul melted with tenderness

tion His supernatural wisdom evoked from

remains master of the body it occupies."

of great sorrow for Our Lady. Sadly shak ing his head, he said to her, "And thy own soul a sword shall pierce."''ÂŽ

In Nazareth Our Lady lived in delight ful intimacy with her Son for a long time.

the crowds stirred in her motherly heart

Again, trials may be psychological:

love. Mary gave herself uru-eservedly to

She loved Jesus because He was her

when He called her "Mother" for the first

time. She witnessed His development



through the years. As she watched in awe,

ically stepped over the body of her child.

the child became a youth with a profound gaze, then a man of riveting divine beauty.

Mary did nothing like this. Her love

This Son, clothed with every perfec tion, had given her nothing but the utmost joy. He had revealed to her the treasures of

His soul. At her request, He had worked

of God multiplied her motherly love, and this mysterious reckoning produced an almost infinite love.

Now, her so-beloved Son endures

compassionately follows the course of the agony on the Holy Face. Mary sees Jesus offended in His honor. He goes to His death in the compa ny of thieves. The henchmen of the high priests mock His goodness. His holiness.

His very divinity, while the soldiers jeer:

before her very eyes the most cruel, the most unjust, the most ignominious of tor

"Let Him now come down from the cross,


and we will believe Him.""'''

He was her God. Attaining a certain per fection, love of God is stronger than mater

She sees Him suffer in His very flesh. Step by step, she follows the somber pro cession wending its way up to Calvary.

She sees Him, Whose beatific joys she had known, suffer in the depths of His

nal love. When Saint Jane de Chantal left

She witnesses the horrible scene of the

home to become a religious, her son lay across the threshold to prevent her depar

crucifixion, hearing the heavy hammer dri

His first miracle. He had given her both His filial love and His obedience. Mary loved Jesus even more because

soul. Immense distress overwhelms her as

she hears His cry of agony:"My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?"^" Sacred Scripture says that when Agar,

ture. The poor woman, overcome with

ving sharp nails into the adorable hands and feet of her Child and seeing the tearing

grief at this sight, stopped momentarily. Then, with extraordinary courage, she gathered her faltering strength and hero

of His flesh and the shedding of His pre cious blood. When the infamous gibbet is

son's life ebbing away, she left him under

raised between Heaven and Earth, she

despair, "I will not see the boy die."''' Not for a moment does Mary abandon her ago

in the desert without resources, saw her a tree. She then fled and cried out in her

nizing Son, nor does she miss a single moment of His suffering. When Jesus dies, she is at His feet.

Love produces a phenomenon that the medieval philosophers called "ecstasy. They said that love takes the heart, so to

speak, of the one who loves and exchanges it with the heart of the beloved. This is

how Mary felt. All her Son's sufferings resonated in her. When the soldier s lance

pierced the Savior's heart, it simultaneous ly pierced the Virgin Mother s soul.

Simeon's prophecy had come to pass, and she could say with the author of Lamentations:"O all ye that pass by the way, attend and see if there be any .sorrow like to my sorrow."-''When temptation strikes us. we trem ble in our innermost being. We murmur a

complaint. We arc tempted to accuse God of unfairness while asking ourselves bitter

ly: "Why am I suffering like this?" When

the problem of evil perturbs us so inten.sely. let us rellect upon the great drama of Calvary. Did the Father not love His only Son.

begotten from all eternity as a luminous heailh generates light? Twice the Father's voice had resounded, at Our Lord's bap

tism and on Mount Tabor: "This is My beloved Son in Whom I am well

pleased."-^' Did God not love the purest Virgin

whom He had made the mother of her

Messias, preserving her from Original Sin and adorning her with the highest virtues? Yet. God found no more precious gift for both His Son and His mother than that

of suffering.

Through suffering the great work of





# "0 all ye that pass by


the way, attend and see if there be any sorrow


like to my sorrow." Lim.J:l2



redemption is accomplished. Through suf

find consolation in its very exacerbation:

My love."" To obtain this divine love to

fering the Master redeemed the world.

When suffering reaches a certain intensity, tears flow from our eyes. A crisis ensues, and the awareness of our unhappiness

enrich and strengthen our lives, she

Through suffering Mary became the sover

eign bestower of the grace merited by the blood of Jesus Christ. God sends us suffer ing to purify and save us. In His merciful

Indeed, closely examine the scene on

your tears. Rather, remember that these

even more, for those who are dear to us.

You poor souls who suffer, do not dry

her heroic will.


God did not grant this relief to the Queen of Martyrs on Calvary. Without cry ing, without fainting, without any weaken ing in body or mind, Mary remained stand ing at the foot of the cross for the duration of her Son's agony. What power sustained

goodness, He allows us to use this precious gift not only for our personal good but,

accepted her sorrow with the fullness of

Golgotha. Agonizing on the cross, Jesus leans towards you, His head crowned with thorns. With blood-filled eyes, from which

life is already ebbing, He points to the

Virgin shedding the blood of her immacu late heart for you, and with dying voice He says,''Ecce Mater tuo"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Behold thy moth

tears have great value and can be trans


formed into a dew of blessing. Do you not have sins to expiate? Do you not have

infinite price of the sacrifice that Divine

beloved family or friends whose eternal

Justice had awaited for centuries and of

Calvary. She was aware of the great plan

which she was also in some way a victim.

of Providence: After His humiliation

The Church depicts her looking at the Crucified with sorrowful eyes: "When

the resurrection. Jesus, expiring before her

destinies concern you? Do you not perhaps have deceased ones suffering in Purgatory? Accept your sufferings with resignation, gratitude, and love. Present your tears to the agonizing Heart of Jesus. He, from afar, will efficaciously unite you to His work of salvation.

Our Heavenly Father has compassion for our weakness. He desires that our pain

She believed with all her soul in the

thou didst gaze on Him with eyes filled

with love," sings the Church in the Divine


Another thought sustains Mary on would come His triumph; after His death, eyes, would once again hold her in His arms in the exultation of victory.

Office, "thou didst contemplate less the horror of His wounds than the triumphant

Following Good Friday, she would await

work of Redemption." She .saw the future

day be raised as a sign of glorious victory

fulfillment of the Savior's words: "When I

in the sight of men. At limes we curse suffering. Indeed,

will be lifted up on the altar of My cross, I will attract the world by the power of

Easter, knowing that the Cross would one

its hideous face terrifies us. We flee it in horror as one of the mysterious compan ions of death. Such is the great law that

governs the earth: Life is given here below through suffering alone. It is in suffering that we come into the world. It is in suffer

ing that sreat artists find creative inspira tion. It is^ in suffering that great works are born and come to fruition. Suffering tra

verses our poor existence as the messenger ofjoy.

When suffering comes, trust! Gaze toward Heaven filled with hope. Despite the sorrow that besets us, let us know how

to patiently await the abundant life it us. Suffering perfects our natural qualities. It tempers our character and

matures our intelligence. It increases our

ability to love and gives our hearts a gen erosity that can lead to sacrifice.

t di

May the great lessons the sorrowful

Virgin gives us engrave themselves in our minds and transform our lives. When trials befall us, let us no longer doubt, surrender

to discouragement, or complain. At the foot of the Cross we have learned the value of suffering. Let us then lovingly receive this gift of God. Let it bear fruit in Saint John Administering the Holy Eucharist to Our Lady. Fresco, in the Convent of St. Lucia, Rome



our lives by our resignation. From its seed will sprout a stem whereon the flower of life will serenely unfold.

At the hour of suffering, let us take

Mary's Death and Assumption

courage! We must firmly climb the steep hill of Calvary if we are to one day savor

the joys of eternal Easter.

Chapter XI Mary's Death and Assumption In His gloriously resurrected body. Jesus ascended the Mount of Olives where,

a few weeks earlier, He had prayed and

sweat blood in agony. He blessed His disci ples one last time, then ascended into

Heaven by His own power. A luminous cloud hid Him from the

eyes of His Mother and His disciples for some time. Still they tried to penetrate the translucent azure vastness, gazing toward

the enchanting eastern sky. The Master s triumph had filled their .souls with exulta tion. A peaceful melancholy blended with their joy, however, for in departing, Christ had taken their hearts.

Two white-robed angels came to recall them to the realities of life, The Virgin and

the disciples returned together to the upper room. Mary would spend several more years on earth, where she had savored inef fable joy in intimacy with her Son. His

The Assumption. Painting by DiazTavares

role of mother to the budding Church that

leges of this incomparable queen, we won der why the Most High made her die. The law condemning guilty humanity to the worst temporal punishments could not bind

Our Lord had confided to her.

her who had been conceived without sin.

death and resurrection deprived her of His

visible presence, but she was to fulfill the

Separation from her Son weighed

Furthermore, should not this virginal body,

heavily on her. Yet she relieved her sadnes.s in daily Communion. Tradition holds that she received the adorable Eucharist from

having borne Eternal Life for nine months, have drawn radiant immortality from that divine association? These thoughts so

the hands of Saint John the Apostle. With

vividly impressed Saint Epiphanius that he

lively faith she encountered, under the

wrote: "Did Mary really die, or was she but instantaneously transformed into the image

soul into the hands of the Father and offer

Him her last sigh. Our Heavenly Father also willed that by her example she soften our anxiety about this fearful passage. If the death of the Immaculate was

real, it was consoling and peaceful, resem

bling the quiet falling into sleep of an infant in its crib. It could not have been

otherwise. No fear could trouble Mary's radiant conscience. Her soul, all-pure from its first moments, had never been tarnished

appearance of bread, the Body she had formed and nourished, and which she had

of her resurrected Son? This is one of the

by the least imperfection. No earthly sepa ration could break her heart: Jesus, her only

seen suffer and die for us. Yet she longed to

problems I dare not solve by the light of

love, awaited her beyond the tomb. It was

see again face-to-face the Son she so loved.

my own intelligence."^''

The longer her exile, the more ardent

The traditional teaching of the Church

became her desire. At last, the happy hour

leaves us with no doubt on this point. Our

sounded when the Master Himself would

Lady truly died.^'

call her and crown her in Heaven.

It is fitting that it should be so. The Savior showed us the way we should fol

The Immaculate Virgin died. When carefully reflecting on the privi

her utmost joy to join Him at long last. No

suffering tortured her body as she lay dying; she had endured a cruel enough martyrdom at the foot of the Cross for her Son to spare her all further pain. It is worth noting that Our Lord

low Him. Mary, the most glorious of pure

delightfully soothed the last moments of

creatures was not greater than Jesus. It was

those who accompanied Him on Golgotha. Saint John, the only Apostle to follow Him

neces.sary that, like Him, she render her



10 Calvary, is also the only one not to close his life by a bloody martyrdom. The thought of death still terrifies us.

then beg the holy Virgin to enlighten you. She will make you understand a little less

The recollection of our sins horrifies us.

of life after death.

poorly the mercy of her Son and the hope

have gravely offended so frequently, greet

the bed where their Mother languished. She

us? The idea of the supreme separation of

many ties bind us.

If our faith were greater, we would

velous joy filled her soul. From that moment, her strength

declined rapidly. The Apostles, then provi dentially gathered in Jerusalem, surrounded

How will the awesome Judge, Whom we

death devastates us. It will force us to leave behind all the beloved souls to whom so

anew to announce her departure. A mar

What means did God use to call Our

blessed them all with her tenderness and

Lady back to Himself? Her Immaculate

promised always to grant the prayers of her

Conception sheltered her from the humili ating infirmities that overwhelm us in our

children on earth. Then she lifted her eyes

to Heaven. Jesus, radiant in His glory,

wretchedness; she could not experience the

leaned toward her and, in a filial embrace,

find precious consolation in the teachings

deterioration of old age, nor the physical

carried her soul into His eternal kingdom.

of our Religion. True, we have often

lesions of disease.

sinned, but did Our Lord not come to earth for sinners? "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."-'"*'

series of prodigies. By a miracle she had

Did He not receive guilty sinners with immense pity and infinite tendemes.s? Did

He not pardon Mary Magdalen of

her tears of repentance? Did He not protect and convert the unhappy woman whom the

Jews had surprised in the very act of her sin? Even more. Our Lord untiringly seeks after the lost sheep until He finds it and brings it back into the fold upon His shoul ders, its aching head warmly cradled upon His adorable heart.

Death separates us, but only for a

Her life had been an uninterrupted After Our Lady exhaled her last

escaped Original Sin. By a miracle she had

breath, the Apostles piously fulfilled the

conceived the Incarnate Word. By a miracle she had been able to sustain the joys of

final duties towards her. They buried her according to Jewish custom, laying her, it

Divine Motherhood. By a miracle she did not succumb to her martyrdom. To allow her to die, God had only to

is believed, in a tomb in the immediate

suspend the miracle that kept her on earth.

this body, sanctified by the true presence of

Love for her Son consumed her; the desire

the Incarnate Word. How could corruption

vicinity of Gethsemani.

Death's consequences would not touch

to join Him burned within her. These emo

dare attack the virginal flesh from which

tions depleted her strength. Only the most powerful virtue could sustain her. When

eternal and incorruptible Purity had deigned to be born? The God-Man did not

her hour came to receive her eternal

delay in resurrecting His Mother.

How long did Mary's body lay in the

reward, the Most High had only to suppress

moment. It never breaks the bonds estab

this mysterious virtue. Then the ardor of

tomb? We have no certainty. It

lished in the eyes of God. Do you not recite every day those words that sent Saint Therese into transports of gratitude:

her immense charity overcame her, and the royal soul of the most pure Virgin flew to

thought that Jesus raised her and carried

Heaven upon the wings of her great love.

her into Heaven at dawn of the third day after her death, thus further likening His

"1 the communion of

History records neither the circum stances nor the date of that blessed event.

Mother to Himself.

Saints,...the resurrection of the body, and

how can a Christian fear death? It these

Venerable traditions provide some details which, while not obliging our faith, do .stir our piety. The Archangel Gabriel, who had

truths do not Impress upon you great peace.

saluted her as "full of grace," vi.sited her

life everlasting?"

Possessing such absolute certitude,

Notes: 1. John 14:6.

2. John 19:26. 3. Cf. True Devolion to the

Blessed Virf;iii. "Fifth Motive for This Devotion." 4. Gabriel Garcia-Moreno, president of Ecuador in the

mid-nineteenth century, was martyred for the Faith by

Freemasons after receiving Holy Communion. He died in 1875.

5. Ephes. 2:3. 6. "Pereal dies in qua nalus

The Fathers of the Church have spo- ^ ken at length about the Immaculate Virgin s triumphant entrance into Heaven. They show her being raised above the angels and saints to heights of glory inaccessible to

15. Trans). Note: Fenclon

27. Matt 1:16 Jacob autem

9. Matins, Re.sponse after the

was a priest and writer ol the

genuir Joseph, virum Maria

sixth lesson.

seventeenth century. He is

was sent").

11. Isaias 53:.3â&#x20AC;&#x201D;"Despised,

known lor his crilicisiii ol the political regime of Louis

and the most abject of men, a

XIV. His Explanations of

10. Luke 1:66.

de qua natus est Jesus, qui

43. Luke 2:44. 44. Psalm 22:4. 45. Luke 2:48. 46. Luke 2:49.

47. Luke 2:29-30. 48. Luke 2:35.

man of sorrows, and

Maxims of the Saints was

condemned by the Church

pria operoiione altigii-

12. This work was written

for its quietism. He is

Sumimi Tlu'ologica, II-H, q.

prior to the 1950 dogmatic definition of the Assumption,

nonetheless considered one

103, art 4. ad. 2.

of France's great thinkers of

in which Pope Pius XII care

that time.

30. Isaias 1:11. 31. Luke 3:22.

fully avoided defining

16. Matt 26:33-35. 17. Cf. Matt 21:28-32.

32. Luke 2:51. 33. Luke 17:17. 34. Luke 1:39.

18. Homiiia 2 super Missus.

sum. ei nox in qua dictum est: conceplus esl homo."

13."Me reputabam vilissi-

19. Canticle of Canticles 4:9.


(Job 3:3).

mam et gratia Dei indignam." Quoted by Saint

20. Luke 1:28. 21. Luke 1:30. 22. Luke 1:31-33. 23. Luke 1:34. 24. Luke 1:35-37. 25. Psalm 21:7. 26. Luke 1:38.

36. Luke 1:43. 37. Luke 1:46-51. 38. Luke 1:44: "Exuitavit in

8. Saint Bernard. Second ser mon on the words of the

Gospel "Missus est angelus Gabriel"(The angel Gabriel



Alphonsus Liguori in The Glories of Mary in discussing her humility. 14. Saint Bernard, Homiiia...super Missus est.

didisii. fiat tihi."

28. Cf. .Saint Epiphanius, Hoinii 5a in Uiiul. S. M. V. 29. "All divinitatis pro-

experienced a true death or simply a dormition.

7. Canticle of Canticles, 4:7.

41. Matt 9:22. 42. Matt 8:13: "Siciit ere-

vai alur C/in.vfn.v.

acquainted with infirmity."

whether the Blessed Virgin

genera >

35. John 13:34-35 and

gaudio infans in utero meo." 39. Canticle of Canticles 5:2.

40. Luke 6:19: "Virtus de illo exibat et sanybat omnes â&#x2013; "

49. 50. 51. 52.

Matt. 27:42. Matt. 27:46. Gen. 21:16. Lam.1:12.

53. Matt. 3:17 and 17:5. 54. Cf. John 12:32.

55. John 19:27. 56. Saint Epiphanius, Contre les Hi'retiques. Book III. n. 78.

57. See note 12.

58. Luke 19:10.

Mary's Death and Assumption

other creatures. As she arrives before the

work a miracle to grant your requests if

laid her, they found only freshly bloom

immortal throne the Savior had prepared for her near His own, the adorable Trinity

such be necessary for your salvation. This

ing flowers, whose sweet fragrance

is the universal belief of the Church. If you

delighted and consoled them.

places upon her forehead the diadem of royalty and proclaims her Queen of the

want to be convinced of this, consult the innumerable volumes of the saints and the

entire universe. Mary receives the treasure

theologians on the matter.

least a double merit; It attests to the

of graces merited by her Son's redemptive

Church's unshakable belief in the

blood, and she draws abundantly from

these heavenly gifts and distributes them according to her incomparable goodness, mercy, and love.

We have often spoken in this work of

the power the Mother of Christ possesses in

Ancient tradition holds that several

days after Mary's death, the Apostles, grieving at having lost their Mother, wanted to contemplate her blessed remains one last time. They visited her

these meditations the absolute certitude that

tomb and drew back the great stone seal ing its entrance. Entering the sepulcher,

the Blessed Virgin will never refuse to hear

they did not find the body of the

your prayers. She will not hesitate even to

Immaculate. On the stone where they had

Heaven. Dear reader, you must draw from



This legend, dating from the first cen turies of Christianity, may not bear all the marks of authenticity. Yet it possesses at


Assumption of the Blessed Virgin and it gracefully shows the joys that devotion to our Mother in Heaven gives us.

Preciously safeguard the love of

Mary in your heart, and in this heart, at times so anguished, perhaps so guilty, Mary will cause flowers to blossom that will never die.


Catholics Rally Ajgainst Dogma

Now See Dogma—The Protest by John Horvat

Itis bad enough that Americans suffer

IS® li iH

the usual fare of sex, violence, and

profanity in today's movies. Still,

family entertainment giant "distanced

ter new barriers of decency and morality. It

itself from the film by selling it to

recently introduced a round of films featur

Miramax co-chairmen Bob and Harvey Wcinstein who, in turn, are distributing it through Lion's Gate. This distributor has promised a November 12 release date to

fies the vulgar, the obscene, and the dis

gusting. Hollywood is now taking this grotesque form of humor to greater depths by blending it with blasphemy. The resulting mixture is predictably repugnant. But the film industry is finding a reaction that is not so predictable. Victims too long. Catholics are reacting with surprising vigor to a blasphemy-laced

Vice-president and President, respectively, of the American TFP, stand at his right.

over 1,500 theaters nationwide.

A symbolic rally of reparation The rally opened with the solemn entrance of a statue of Our Lady of Fatima

where, amid Marian hymns and applause,

film called Dogma produced by Disney/Miramax.

she took her place of honor near the speak ers' platform. "This protest in New York represents a groundswell of reaction that shows Catholics are willing to rally around

Breaking the silence

the Blessed Mother," said TFP speaker

addresses the crowd of protesters (below). Mr.Thomas J. fUtcKenna and Mr. Raymond E. Drake

potato for Disney/Miramax. The former

Hollywood seems ever determined to shat

ing so-called bathroom humor, which glori

New York Auxiliary Bishop Francisco Garmendia

drugs, drunkenness and rebellion!" The film has proven a cultural hot

Nearly two thousand Catholics gath

Robert E. Ritchie, addressing the crowd

ered in front of New York City's Lincoln Center to express their outrage at the con

that stretched far down the street before

troversial film's October 4 debut at the

New York Film Festival. It was the first of

him. Banners, signs, and pictures made the rush-hour protest particularly visible off Broadway. Bishop Garmendia, representing

many such protests being organized by the

the Archdiocese of New York, spoke and

American Society for the Defense of

led a rosary. Also speaking were Father

Tradition, Family and Property (TFP). Director Kevin Smith and the film's

cast, who attended the premiere screening,

Groeschel and Father Andrew Apostoli, both Franciscan Friars of the Renewal; Fr. Peter West of Priests for Life; and Fr. John

may have expected cameras and rave

Trigilio, a program host on Eternal Word

reviews but not the crowd near the theater

Television; and Pennsylvania pro-life activist Mrs. Betty Caffrcy.

entrance. They seemed to be caught offguard by the speeches, prayers, and hymns that marked the two-and-a-half hour rally of reparation. Figures like the Most Rev. Francisco Garmendia, Auxiliary Bishop of New York, and Fr. Benedict Groeschel

addres.sed the crowd and applauded efforts to combat blasphemy. Indeed, Catholics all over the country

Raymond Drake, President of the

American TFP, offered the closing remarks. "We must protest," he said."We must tell God we have no part in this. We must tell

the world how much we disagree with it. We must tell our fellow Catholics that they, too, should take a public stand of peaceful and lawful opposition to it."

are protesting this Disney/Miramax pro



Letters and prayers

duction. The film's plot revolves around two fallen "angels" trying to get back into heaven. The TFP's protest flyer notes that the film's script mocks "everything we

Many from across the country who could not attend the rally promised their

hold sacred—God, the Church, the Mass

letters of support for the rally were

and Mary's virginity. It condones what we

received from Francis Cardinal George of

condemn—murder, obscenity, profanity.

Chicago, Archbishop Elden Curtiss of

prayers and sacrifices during it. Inspiring


Dear Mr. McKenna:

I am not personally acquainted with the movie Dogma and so 1 am not in a position to give a personal critique of it. I have heard criticism of it from those who have seen it, however. I think many of us are appalled at the number of blasphemous movies and television programs which are now being shown in our country. There has definitely been a deterio ration in the level of speech and values exhibited by some of these films and programs. Attacks on the church are only too common. It appears that there is open season on the Catholic

Church as one of the few organizadons that is still legitimate to hate and abuse.

I commend you in your campaign to raise the level of

expression in our country. Great art does not debase and degrade us. Great art elevates and inspires us. Some of the things that pass for art today can only be called "trash."

Most Reverend Thomas I. Dupri Bishop ofSpringfield

*Our Lady of Fatima presides over the rally of protest and reparation

Dear Mr. McKenna:

As you say, the Disney Company's latest effort to

as Father Andrew Apostoli speaks.

vilify the Church is beneath contempt. In reading over Omaha, Bishop Thomas Doran of Rockford, Bishop Thomas Dupre of Springfield (Mass.), Bishop James Timlin of Scranton, and others.

"I am grateful for all the faithful

gathered to protest this film," wrote Archbishop Curtiss. "Public acts of

reparation for blasphemy are appreci ated by everyone who loves Jesus and His Church."

Several letters also arrived from

against Dogma is "only beginning."

Anticipating the film's November 12

the materials you provided, it strikes me that the writers of the play are quite ignorant of our religion and its truths.

I hope that your efforts will bring forth a point by point

release, campaign members are

preparing to rally for their Catholic

refutation of some of the egregious errors about the faith which


would not even be made by an ill-instructed Catholic.

"We have mailed over 120,000

"Protester's Organizer Kits" to friends across the country," Mr. Ritchie explained."We are gearing up for protests in front of each and every one of the 1,500 theaters where

Capitol Hill. Senator Bob Smith (1-

Dogma promoters plan to screen the

NH), Senator James Inhofe (R-Okla.), and Congressmen John Hostettler(RInd.) all expressed their dismay over


the screening. "How sad that our artists feel

American TFP stands firm in the cul

I have often advised Catholics in this diocese that they would do a great work of religion if they were to forego using any Disney products or services and any Miramax Films. The dismal work of both companies since the inception of this antiAmerican type of activity leads me to suspect that the latest work is a product of their desperation and I do not blush to invoke St. Michael the Archangel to rebuke them with the other devils and to consign them to the same fate.

Amid the growing number of

Tlte Most Rev. Thomas G. Doran, D.D.J.C.D.,

blasphemies eroding the Faith, the

Bishop ofRockford Beloved Sisters and Brothers:

obliged to degrade our Savior and His

tural fray, calling on millions of Catholics to rise up in defense of the

Bles.sed Mother," wrote Senator Smith. "However, as Catholics and

honor of Jesus, Mary, and the Church, and to proclaim that enough is

Although God our Father is sacred. When God and His

Christians we must expect and will ingly accept the insults and abuse of this world, for before they hated us,

enough with a resolute "No!" to blas

Our existence is a mere breath compared to eternity.

they hated the Savior. I am glad to

infallible teaching are attacked and ridiculed, it is called dese cration and blasphemy. Therefore, as Christian families, we humbly pray for the sincere repentance and conversion of the authors of the film "Dogma". May Mary, our mother, be our advocate in this act of public reparation. Let's be consoled with

stand up against these instances of

the knowledge that, in God's time, the hearts of Jesus and Mary

phemy. â&#x2013;

sacrilege, even to the point of speak

will definitely triumph! And we, the faithful, will likewise tri

ing on the floor of the United Slate

umph! Amen! Amen! Amen! I bless you in Jesus and Mary, Bishop Nicholas D'Antonio


Enough is enough The TFP campaign against Dogma was launched last May with a

Dear Friends in Christ,

One of the clear signs that the Catholic Church was found ed by Christ is that, like Him, it has always been persecuted. That persecution, ridicule, and mockery continue in our

postcard protest addressed to Producer

Disney-owned Miramax Films, and owners Bob and Harvey Weinstein.


Nearly four million "Stop Blasphemy

Yet for every day that there has been persecution, there

Now!" protest postcards have circu lated nationwide, distributed by a net

have been faithful disciples standing up and speaking up for truth, and for the rights of all that is sacred.

work of 15,000 volunteers.

You are among those disciples today.

According to Mr. Ritchie, direc tor of the American TFP's America

I therefore encourage you in your faithful witness, and join

Needs Fatima campaign, the protest

A man prays the Rosary led by Bishop Garmendia.

you in prayer that each of you will be faithful in that witness all

the days of our life, and carry it out in a spirit of peace, confi dence, and joy. Fr. Frank Pavone

National Director, Priestsfor Life

Catholics Prole y •


CiihCJC fill



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A •'>■' j <'


Father Benedict Groeschel addressing protesters during American TFP/Amerlca Needs Fatima rally of protest and reparation for the Disney/Miramax film Dogma at Lincoln Center In New York on October 4.

Stop Blasphep^ng Catholic Fai


» t


Stop Blasphemi Catholic Faith


I Stop




Stop Busphewg tv


Catholics are tired of insults

against God, Our Lady and the Holy Catholic Church.

(Also see Inside p.36)


Profile for Nestor

Crusade Magazine - 1999  

Crusade Magazine - 1999 More information:

Crusade Magazine - 1999  

Crusade Magazine - 1999 More information:

Profile for nestor87

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