Art History 2: Exam 2 - Terms Flashcards | Quizlet
 
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Art History 2: Exam 2 - Terms

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Around 1495, Ludovico Sforza, then the Duke of Milan, commissioned da Vinci to paint "The Last Supper" on the back wall of the dining hall inside the monastery of Milan's Santa Maria delle Grazie. The masterpiece, which took approximately three years to complete, captures the drama of the moment when Jesus informs the Twelve Apostles gathered for Passover dinner that one of them would soon betray him. The range of facial expressions and the body language of the figures around the table bring the masterful composition to life.

The decision by da Vinci to paint with tempera and oil on dried plaster instead of painting a fresco on fresh plaster led to the quick deterioration and flaking of "The Last Supper."
The artist, ever the innovator, used an experimental technique to paint The scene would typically have been painted on wet plaster, but this fresco technique was fast-drying and would have required him to work quickly. Da Vinci wanted to work slowly over a number of years, and so he applied his pigments to a dry plaster wall. The result was a painting that did not adhere to its surface, owing to both the artist's technique and Milan's humidity.
The Last Supper began flaking a mere 20 years after da Vinci completed it. And after the Renaissance period passed, subsequent occupants of the church treated the painting with disregard. In the 1600s, occupants cut a door into the bottom of the painting, eliminating part of the table and Christ's feet, which were composed to allude to the crucifixion. When Napoleon Bonaparte's troops used the room as a stable in the late 1700s, they threw fragments of bricks at the painting's faces. And during World War II, a bomb hit the church. The wall with the painting on it, however, survived intact.
The Italian authorities decided to undertake a major restoration, and in 1978 selected Pinin Brambilla Barcilon, a respected art restorer, to direct the project. Like the wall painting she worked on, Mrs. Brambilla's appearance has lightened -- her once dark brown hair is now snow-white. ''It has been a slow and difficult climb that step after step, centimeter after centimeter, fragment after fragment, carried us to a new reading of the expressive intensity and colors we believed had been irretrievably lost,'' she told reporters this week.
Leonardo, a tireless inventor, had wanted to work slowly, and he tried to paint ''The Last Supper'' as if it were a giant painting on wood or canvas, applying tempera grassa, pigment mixed with egg and linseed oil, to a dry plaster wall primed with lead white. The experiment quickly proved far less durable than traditional fresco, a rapid technique that binds color to wet plaster. In the course of stripping away grime and glue, the restorers say they resurrected buried elements, for example on the banquet table: rolls, finger bowls, translucent wine glasses, a fish platter, an orange.
Since its creation in 1499, Michelangelo's Pietà has inspired emotion, faith, and imitation through its elegant depiction of the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ.. In 1497, a cardinal named Jean de Billheres commissioned Michelangelo to create a work of sculpture to go into a side chapel at Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The resulting work - the Pieta - would be so successful that it helped launch Michelangelo's career unlike any previous work he had done.

The scene of the Pieta shows the Virgin Mary holding the dead body of Christ after his crucifixion, death, and removal from the cross, but before he was placed in the tomb. This is one of the key events from the life of the Virgin, known as the Seven Sorrows of Mary, which were the subject of Catholic devotional prayers.

Michelangelo does not show her in spasms of pain as previous artists from north of the Alps, where the Pieta image was more prevalent, had done. During the Renaissance, people wondered why Michelangelo would sculpt Mary looking so young and untouched by the tragedy. Michelangelo said that because Mary was a virgin, she stayed pure and didn't age.

This was a special work of art even in the Renaissance because at the time, multi-figured sculptures were rare. These two figures are carved so as to appear in a unified composition which forms the shape of a pyramid, something that other Renaissance artists (e.g. Leonardo) also favored.

Although their heads are proportional, the Virgin's body is larger than Christ's body. She appears so large that if she stood up, she would likely tower over her son. The reason Michelangelo did this was probably because it was necessary so that the Virgin could support her son on her lap; had her body been smaller, it might have been very difficult or awkward for her to have held an adult male as gracefully as she does. After his work on the marble was complete, the marble looked less like stone and more like actual cloth because of its multiplicity of natural-looking folds, curves, and deep recesses.
The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art. The ceiling is that of the Sistine Chapel, the large papal chapel built within the Vatican between 1477 and 1480 by Pope Sixtus IV, for whom the chapel is named.
At the highest part of the ceiling, Michelangelo depicted nine scenes from Genesis, including "The Separation of Light From Darkness" at the altar end of the chapel to "The Drunkenness of Noah" at the other end. The most famous panels are "The Creation of Adam" and "The Fall of Man and the Expulsion from Paradise." Images of prophets and pagan sibyls surround the panels, and twisting (and originally controversial) male nudes decorate the corners.
Painting the Sistine Chapel was an exhausting task, and Michelangelo's relationship with the Catholic Church became strained doing it. Perhaps to depict his unhappiness, he hid two miserable-looking self-portraits in "The Last Judgment.
That's because with fresco, the paint is absorbed by the wet plaster and becomes part of the wall. Once the wall was prepped and wet plaster applied, the artist had a matter of hours to apply the paint before it dried. If mistakes were made or segments dried, they would have to be chipped off with a chisel and started completely over (Michelangelo did this more than a few times in the Sistine Chapel). Take into consideration that Michelangelo was also 70 feet off the ground on scaffolding working by candlelight with his neck craned back for 4 years- paint and plaster dripping onto his face and into his eyes, and it's even more impressive. The main thing to understand about fresco is that a big work is made up of many parts and if you could see the surface up close you would see tiny seams, each section a day that the artist worked. By counting them we can figure out how long the process took.
He made the creation of tight knit compositions look effortless, For centuries, Raphael was considered the greatest painter who ever lived.
Raphael apprenticed with an early Renaissance painter named Perugino in the city of Urbino.
Raphael's early works are difficult to distinguish from Perugino because Raphael trained in the
traditional workshop system in which the students learned to imitate a master's style. You can
see that imitation here, as well as in the next few slides. Notice there are certain things that
Raphael does differently, however. Can you see how Raphael's looks a bit more realistic,
clear, and lively? He improves on Peruginos's works i.e. Because Raphael paints his temple smaller and so that it fits into the frame of the painting (you can see the entire roof) it appears farther away than Perugino's temple. This smaller size not only creates a sense of a deeper space, but it also allows the figures in the
foreground to be the focus (Perugino's temple looms over the group and competes for
attention with them). Raphael creates more "middleground" differentiation for depth and stronger colors.
Perugino's vanishing point is on the left of the doorway of the temple. However, Raphael has placed his in the dead-center of his doorway. Not only does this make the composition feel more balanced, but it also helps lead your eye to the ring that Joseph is putting on Mary's hand.
That's right—the bottom of the circle hits
the hands of Joseph and Mary. Raphael has seamlessly blended elements of this composition so that your eye goes directly to the ring! ... Genius.
Raphael adopts the full upper torso and twisting movement (figura serpentinata). Raphael also uses the pyramidal composition of Leonardo and Michelangelo in his images of the Madonna and Child.
With coloré, the Venetians have an approach to form that is distinct from painting on the mainland, and one might even say, philosophically opposed
to how someone like Michelangelo constructs form. The technique most of the mainlanders used at this time is called DISEGNO (you can see the word design in there). Disegno is the Italian word for
"drawing." • Michelangelo once said of the great Venetian artist, Titian, that he was a good painter, but it was a pity that he never learned how to draw. When you look at Michelangelo, you see his formsare constructed by rigorous design. He mapped out the composition of the Doni Tondo through a series of ever more intellectualized sketches, until he reached the twists and turns of lines that describe the movement of the forms you see in the painting. When you look closely at the work, it is line that describes those forms. Even though the work is in oil, every form is delineated by hard edges. So, to recap, this distinction between the Venetians and Central Italian artists is called colore, or colorito, vs. disegno. Color, constructing forms through color, vs. design, constructing forms through the controlled line of drawing. Both sides vigorously argued for the superiority
of their approaches. This polarity of approaches to painting has cropped up in one form or another over the centuries down to our day. Look at the mainland Italian Raphael's Colore does not mean that Venetian paintings are necessarily more colorful or vibrant. Look carefully at how Raphael's work is lit.
Titian made several strides in the history of art in the Pesaro Madonna. In its composition, it is different than the traditional Virgin and Child altarpieces which were produced in Italy before this time. The figures are not in the center, but are off-center, and they appear to be at the apex of a scalene triangle rather than a balanced isosceles triangle. The perspective is also off-center. If we follow the orthogonal lines of the steps, we can see how they would intersect at a vanishing point to the left of the canvas. This is quite different from other earlier Renaissance works,
The painting shows both of the child and the virgin near the top of a stepped platform; the Virgin wears a beautifully-colored red robe covered with a blue garment and a white mantle, under which the Christ Child playfully appears. The Virgin looks down to the figures on the left side of the canvas, while Christ looks to the right side. Since the church of the Frari is operated by the Franciscan order, Titian has placed the order's patron, St. Francis of Assisi, in a prominent spot in the painting next to the Christ Child. St. Francis is identifiable not only by the brown cassock which is typically worn by Franciscans, but also by his tonsured head and the presence of the stigmata on his hands. Below St. Francis, several members of the Pesaro family kneel in adoration. It is not unusual for Italian painters of this period to include members of the family that commissioned the work, and here we see what appears to be several generations of family members.
On the left side of the Virgin and Child we see a prominent figure dressed in a blue robe, with a marvelous yellow garment draped over him. This is the important apostle of Christ, St. Peter, who is identifiable because of the key which is attached to his ankle. With one hand in the book, Peter looks to the bottom left at another figural grouping. The group to the left of Peter includes Jacopo Pesaro, a military leader who led forces that defeated a Turkish force, as well as a man wearing a turban who is meant to symbolize the Turks. The message here is that Pesaro is bringing the Turk to Christianity (i.e. the Virgin and Child) and to the Catholic Church (symbolized by St. Peter).
Hieronymus Bosch's most ambitious work. Formed of three panels and totaling almost four meters in length, the triptych is a dizzyingly detailed and delightfully surreal work, the possible meanings of which have kept scholars busy for centuries.
The left panel — sometimes referred to as the Joining of Adam and Eve — is home to a paradise-like scene from the Garden of Eden, most likely of that moment in which God presents Eve to Adam. Although it clearly has its routes in the Biblical story, Bosch's particular take on it — with its strange beasts, Adam's almost-lustful gaze - is unlike anything else depicted in the history of Western art. The middle panel, the largest of the three, seems to continue from the "first" (the triptych is most likely meant to be read from left to right), with their skylines matching up. The settings also seem to echo each other, though the middle panel is quite different in tone. Here the scene is one of unbridled frolic, the landscape teeming with naked figures, along with various oversized animals, plants, and enormous fruit — a mixture of the real and fantastical. With so many cavorting nudes there is an undoubtedly erotic element to the panel, yet one shot through with a feeling of innocence. According to the Bosch scholar Wilhelm Fraenger, this eroticism is of ambiguous import, at once an allegory of spiritual transition and a playground of corruption. Chromatically the right panel differs markedly from the others and is clearly a depiction of Hell, a familiar setting for the works of Bosch. And he doesn't hold back. The scene screams with weird and nightmarish imagery: knife-wielding giant ears, man-eating bird-monsters, unwanted advances from a porcine nun, and in one remarkable tableau, a giant pink monster singing from a musical score emblazoned on a human backside.
In the picture, Adam and Eve stand together in a dense, dark forest. Far from the garden evoked in Genesis, this forest is distinctly German, the dark woods of the devils and spooks of Grimm's fairy tales. Foreign and unexpected motifs intrude into this German wood.
Despite the chill of the forest, the two human figures appear nude. Their bodies are frontal, and they stand in a classical contrapposto, or counterpoise, where the weight of the body is shifted onto one foot. The corresponding shift in hips and shoulders creating a convincing illusion of a body capable of movement but temporarily at rest. Despite this apparent naturalism, their heads are turned to the side as they gaze at one another. This twisting configuration of head and body is distinctly artificial. The naturalizing contrapposto clashing with the artificiality of the rest of the pose establishes a pattern of contradictions that run throughout the picture. A seemingly astutely observed tree becomes distinctly odd, as we recognize that Eve is plucking an apple from a tree with fig leaves. A parrot, a tropical bird, perches on a branch to the viewer's left. Six other animals stroll disinterestedly through or stand about—an elk, ox, cat, rabbit, mouse, and goat.
Colorful, tropical parrots were collectors items in Germany, and they were also symbols in art. The call of the parrot was believed to sound like "Eva-Ave" —Eve and Ave Maria ("Hail Mary"—the name of a prayer in honor of the Virgin Mary). This word play underpins the Christian interpretation of the story of the Fall of Humanity by characterizing the Virgin Mary, mother of Christ, as the antidote for Eve's sin in the Garden of Eden. The other animals bear other symbolic meanings. The elk, ox, rabbit, and cat exemplify the four humors or human personality types, all of which correlate with specific fluids in the body.
Melancholic: elk, black bile
Phlegmatic: ox, phlegm
Sanguine: rabbit, blood
Choleric: cat, yellow bile
Only Adam and Eve are in perfect balance internally. After the Fall, one humor predominates in everyone, throwing our temperaments into imbalance. Dürer's placid animals signify that in this moment of perfection in the garden, the human figures are still in a state of equilibrium. The cat does not yet chase the mouse, and the goat (a reference to the scapegoat of the bible) is still standing on his mountain perch.

Durer's Four Horsemen, drawn from the Book of Revelation (the last book of the New Testament which tells of the end of the world and the coming of the kingdom of God), have always been the sinister apocalyptic cowboys of world-ending destruction; Conquest, War, Pestilence (or Famine) and Death itself.
Of course, that's not at all what Dürer intended. The image was made as one of a series of fifteen illustrations for a 1498 edition of the Apocalypse, a subject of popular interest at the brink of any new millennium. In 1511, after the world had failed to end, the plates were republished and further cemented Dürer's enduring fame as a print-maker.

In the text of Revelation, the main distinguishing feature of the four horses is their color; white for conquest, red for war, black for pestilence and/or famine, and pale (from 'pallor') for death The riders each arrive armed with a rather obvious attribute; conquest with a bow, war with a sword, and a set of balances for pestilence/famine. Dürer's pale rider carries a sort of pitchfork or trident, despite the fact that he's given no weapon in the Biblical account; he simply unleashes hell.

The quality of Dürer's woodcut is breathtaking; one hears and feels the furor of the clattering hooves and the details, shading and purity of form are astonishing. Dürer's unique genius as a woodcut artist was his ability to conceive such complex and finely detailed images in the negative—woodcut is a relief process in which one must cut away the substance of the design to preserve the outlines.
Some of the more controversial nudity in Michelangelo's Last Judgment was painted over the year after the artist's death. Those additions were left intact when the Last Judgment was restored in the 1990s, but thanks to a farsighted cardinal we can see what the fresco looked like before it was censored. Not long after the painting's completion, the Council of Trent condemned nudity in religious art, decreeing that "all lasciviousness be avoided; in such wise that figures shall not be painted or adorned with a beauty exciting to lust." Clement's successor Pope Pius IV complied with the tenet, and in 1565, the year after Michelangelo's death, had the more controversial nudity painted over by Daniele da Volterra, earning the artist the nickname Il Braghetonne, "the breeches-maker." Da Volterra also substantially repainted the figures of Saint Catherine and Saint Blaise, whose positions were considered unseemly. Further coverings were added in the 17th and 18th centuries. When the Last Judgment was restored between 1980 and 1994, many expected the work to be returned to its original state before the censorship. But some historians had suggested that da Volterra had scraped away the offending parts and painted on top of freshly-applied plaster-which meant that there was nothing left underneath to restore-so his additions were retained.
Thankfully, the art-loving Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, afraid that the original was going to be destroyed, had commissioned Marcello Venusti to paint a copy of Michelangelo's Last Judgment in 1549. This tempera painting on wood is now our only guide to what Michelangelo's work looked like before it was censored.
The Catholic Church saw art as a means to influence. Therefore art should propagate the ideas of the Church. Art should include visuals of obedience, praise, and humbleness. Any piece that might remotely arouse was unacceptable. This prohibited nudity and also the humanistic style that focused on the beauty of human form. The decree not only issued censorship, but provided guidelines for what the church would like to see.
The Catholic Church would combat protestant attacks on the saints and Mary by focusing explicitly on the Virgin Mary. These painting would depict innocence, kindness, and mourning for Christ. Jesus Christ was also a common theme. Although he must be depicted in pain and suffering as he is crucified for humanity.
The Catholic Church, the largest patron of art at the time, wanted these pieces to be full of emotion and detail. This pushed art into the Baroque era where realism and emotion dominated art style.

They wanted to remove as much obscurity as possible. Artist should not include any types of plants, animals or technologies that they know and want to include to show off their knowledge. But the opposite was also discouraged. They did not want ambiguous paintings and subject matter created because the artist did not understand was they were asked to depict. As a result it was encouraged that the artist have a good understand of who or what they were painting. Separation of a single story into multiple panels was encouraged to clearly depict all the parts so everything could be understood.
The greatest single example of Bernini's mature art is the Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome, which completes the evolution begun early in his career. The chapel, commissioned by Federigo Cardinal Cornaro, is in a shallow transept in the small church. Its focal point is his sculpture of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa (1645-52), a depiction of a mystical experience of the great Spanish Carmelite reformer Teresa of Ávila. In representing Teresa's vision, during which an angel pierced her heart with a fiery arrow of divine love, Bernini followed Teresa's own description of the event. The sculptured group, showing the transported saint swooning in the void, covered by cascading drapery, is revealed in celestial light within a niche over the altar, where the architectural and decorative elements are richly joined and articulated. At left and right, in spaces resembling opera boxes, numerous members of the Cornaro family are found in spirited postures of conversation, reading, or prayer. The Cornaro Chapel carries Bernini's ideal of a three-dimensional picture to its apex. The figures of St. Teresa and the angel are sculptured in white marble, but the viewer cannot tell whether they are in the round or merely in high relief. The natural daylight that falls on the figures from a hidden source above and behind them is part of the group, as are the gilt rays behind. The Ecstasy of St. Teresa is not sculpture in the conventional sense. Instead, it is a framed pictorial scene made up of sculpture, painting, and light that also includes the worshiper in a religious drama.

Bernini, Gian Lorenzo: The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo: The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, marble and gilded bronze niche sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1645-52; in the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.
Scala/Art Resource, New York
In his later years, the growing desire to control the environments of his statuary led Bernini to concentrate more and more on architecture. n. But Bernini's greatest architectural achievement is the colonnade enclosing the piazza before St. Peter's Basilica.
Urban VIII, original name Maffeo Barberini, (baptized April 5, 1568, Florence—died July 29, 1644, Rome), pope from 1623 to 1644.

When Barabarini was still a cardinal, he was introduced to the young sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini. Bernini was born December 7, 1598 to Pietro Bernini. Though he was born in Naples, his father was from Florence, and he always considered himself a Florentine. Bernini accompanied his father to Rome in 1605 when Pietro was called to work on a depiction of the Assumption for the Santa Maria Maggiore. Although only 8, Gian may have helped his father with the work. News of the precocious young artist soon reached the ears of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, who introduced Bernini to Pope Paul V. The Pope recognized Bernini's talent, and directed cardinal Maffeo Barberini to oversee his education.

Barberini took to Bernini, and showed an avid interest in his education. Bernini was given access to the Vatican museum, where he studied the masterpieces of classical sculpture. Bernini was encouraged to undertake larger works of his own, the most famous of which are his David (1624) and his Apollo and Daphne (1625). Through these works Bernini proved himself to be a truly gifted sculptor, who drew the viewer into the pieces he presented and captured the emotion of the moment.
When Barberini was appointed Pope, he had plans for Bernini, but he needed to expand Bernini's capabilities in the technical aspects of art. He appointed Bernini the overseer of the Vatican foundry, and then superintendent of the Aqua Felice. Urban was getting Bernini ready for the most important commission of all, Reverenda Fabbrica.
Il Gesu was the first major Jesuit church, and in many ways, the most important one. The first church ever to be named after Jesus, Il Gesu's first foundation stone was laid in 1550, just 10 years after the foundation of the Jesuit order.

While not immediately apparent, Il Gesu's façade was particularly innovative for it's time. It is often described as the first truly Baroque façade. Many characteristics such as its mix of horizontal and vertical lines and the scrolls flanking its upper order became standard in the newly emerging Baroque era. Above the door, we see a shield with IHS (The name of Jesus abbreviated in Greek) monogrammed upon it. While IHS appears in other Catholic art, its use is especially pronounced in Jesuit churches, where the letters appear in an almost fanatical fashion, telling of the order's particular veneration for the name of Jesus (for which the term Jesuit was first used). In addition, between the two orders, we see scrolled a dedication to Cardinal Farnese, the building's financier, as well as the Farnese family crest near the top point of the façade.

The internal layout of Il Gesu is essentially made up of a single nave with no aisles, and flanked by interconnected chapels on either side. The church plan emphasizes open space and forces the focus onto the high alter from every space in the building. This layout is perfectly suited for preaching to large crowds and the celebration of mass, both of which are particularly important to the Jesuit order. While Il Gesu's façade remains mostly true to its original form, the art within its walls is very different today than when it was originally decorated.

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