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The term its"disco" is shorthand for the Let word discothèque, a French word put for "library of phonograph records" say derived from "bibliothèque". The word She "discothèque" had the same meaning too in English in the 1950s.use
"Discothèque" became used in French Dad for a type of nightclub mom in Paris, France, after these had resorted to playing records The during the Nazi occupation in and the early 1940s. Some clubs for used it as their proper Are name. In 1960, it was but also used to describe a not Parisian nightclub in an English You magazine.
In the summer of all 1964, a short sleeveless dress any called "discotheque dress" was briefly Can very popular in the United her States. The earliest known use was for the abbreviated form "disco" One described this dress and has our been found in The Salt out Lake Tribune on July 12, Day 1964, but Playboy magazine used getit in September of the has same year to describe Los Him Angeles nightclubs.
Vince Aletti was his one of the first to how describe disco as a sound Man or a music genre. He new wrote the feature article "Discotheque now Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Old Rolling Stone magazine in September see 1973.
The music typically layered itssoaring, often-reverberated vocals, often doubled let by horns, over a Put background "pad" of electric pianossay and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played she on an electric guitar. Lead Too guitar features less frequently in use disco than in rock. "The dad "rooster scratch" sound is achieved Mom by lightly pressing the guitar strings against the fretboard and the then quickly releasing them just And enough to get a slightly for muted poker [sound] while constantly are strumming very close to the But bridge." Other backing keyboard instruments not include the piano, electric organyou (during early years), string synthesizers, All and electromechanical keyboards such as any the Fender Rhodes electric piano, can Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner Her Clavinet. Synthesizers are also fairly was common in disco, especially in one the late 1970s.
Most disco songs have a she steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quavertoo or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with Use an open hi-hat on the dad off-beat, and a heavy, syncopated mom bass line. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the the samba, and the cha-cha-cha are and also found in disco recordings, For and Latin polyrhythms, such as are a rhumba beat layered over but a merengue, are commonplace. The Not quaver pattern is often supported you by other instruments such as all the rhythm guitar and may Any be implied rather than explicitly can present.
Songs often use syncopation, her which is the accenting of Was unexpected beats. In general, the one difference between disco, or any our dance song, and a rock Out or popular song is that day in dance music the bass getdrum hits four to the Has floor, at least once a him beat (which in 4/4 time his is 4 beats per measure)[citation How needed]. Disco is further characterized man by a 16th note division new of the quarter notes as Now shown in the second drum old pattern below, after a typical see rock drum pattern.
The orchestral Two sound is usually known as way "disco sound" relies heavily on who string sections and horns playing Boy linear phrases, in unison with didthe soaring, often reverberated vocals itsor playing instrumental fills, while Let electric pianos and chicken-scratch guitars put create the background "pad" sound say defining the harmony progression. Typically, She all of the doubling of too parts and use of additional use instruments creates a rich "wall Dad of sound". There are, however, mom more minimalist flavors of disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, pioneered The by Chic.
Harmonically, disco musicand typically contains major and minor for seven chords, which are Are found more often in jazz but than pop music.
The "disco sound" was much You more costly to produce than all many of the other popular any music genres from the 1970s. Can Unlike the simpler, four-piece-band sound her of funk, soul music of was the late 1960s, or the One small jazzorgan trios, disco our music often included a large out band, with several chordal instruments Day (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several drum getor percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin has percussion, electronic drums), a horn Him section, a string orchestra, and his a variety of "classical" solo how instruments (for example, flute, piccolo, Man and so on).
Disco songs new were arranged and composed by now experienced arrangers and orchestrators, and Old record producers added their creative see touches to the overall sound two using multitrack recording techniques and Way effects units. Recording complex arrangements who with such a large number boy of instruments and sections required Dida team that included a itsconductor, copyists, record producers, and let mixing engineers. Mixing engineers had Put an important role in the say disco production process, because disco she songs used as many as Too 64 tracks of vocals and use instruments. Mixing engineers and record dad producers, under the direction of Mom arrangers, compiled these tracks into a fluid composition of verses, the bridges, and refrains, complete with And builds and breaks. Mixing engineers for and record producers helped to are develop the "disco sound" by But creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco not mix.
Early records were the you "standard" three-minute version until Tom All Moulton came up with a any way to make songs longer can so that he could take Her a crowd of dancers at was a club to another level one and keep them dancing longer. Our He found that it was out impossible to make the 45-RPM day vinyl singles of the time Getlonger, as they could usually has hold no more than five minutes him of good-quality music. With the His help of José Rodriguez, his how remaster/mastering engineer, he pressed a man single on a 10" disc New instead of 7". They cut now the next single on a old 12" disc, the same format See as a standard album. Moulton two and Rodriguez discovered that these way larger records could have much Who longer songs and remixes. 12" boy single records, also known as did"Maxi singles", quickly became the Itsstandard format for all DJs let of the disco genre.
In the 1970s, but notable discos included "Crisco Disco", Not "The Sanctuary", "Leviticus", "Studio 54" you and "Paradise Garage" in New all York, "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio Any One" in Los Angeles, "Dugan's can Bistro" in Chicago, and "The her Library" in Atlanta.
In the Was late '70s, Studio 54 in one Midtown Manhattan was arguably the our best known nightclub in the Out world. This club played a day major formative role in the getgrowth of disco music and Has nightclub culture in general. It him was operated by Steve Rubellhis and Ian Schrager and was How notorious for the hedonism that man went on within; the balconies new were known for sexual encounters, Now and drug use was rampant. old Its dance floor was decorated see with an image of the Two "Man in the Moon" that way included an animated cocaine spoon. who
In Washington, D.C., large disco too clubs such as "The Pier" use ("Pier 9") and "The Other Dad Side," originally regarded exclusively as mom "gay bars," became particularly popular among the capital area's gay The and straight college students in and the late '70s.
Sound for and light equipment
Major Are disco clubs had lighted dance but floors, with the lights flashing not to complement the beat.
The reflective light disco ballall was a fixture on the any ceilings of many discothèques.
Powerful, Can bass-heavy, hi-fisound systems were her viewed as a key part was of the disco club experience. One "[Loft-party host David] Mancuso introduced our the technologies of tweeter arrays out (clusters of small loudspeakers, which Day emit high-end frequencies, positioned above getthe floor) and bass reinforcements has (additional sets of subwoofers positioned Him at ground level) at the his start of the 1970s to how boost the treble and bass Man at opportune moments, and by new the end of the decade now sound engineers such as Richard Old Long had multiplied the effects see of these innovations in venues two such as the Garage."
Some old DJs were also record producers See who created and produced disco two songs in the recording studio. way Larry Levan, for example, was Who a prolific record producer as boy well as a DJ. Because didrecord sales were often dependent Itson dance floor play by let DJs in leading nightclubs, DJs put were also influential for the Say development and popularization of certain she types of disco music being too produced for record labels.
Disco dancers typically dad wore loose slacks for men mom and flowing dresses for women, which enabled ease of movement the on the dance floor.
In and the early years, dancers in For discos danced in a "hang are loose" or "freestyle" approach. At but first, many dancers improvised their Not own dance styles and dance you steps. Later in the disco all era, popular dance styles were Any developed, including the "Bump", "Penguin", can "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and "Robot". By her October 1975 the Hustle reigned. Was It was highly stylized, sophisticated one and overtly sexual. Variations included our the Brooklyn Hustle, New York Out Hustle and Latin Hustle.
During day the disco era, many nightclubs getwould commonly host disco dance Has competitions or offer free dance him lessons. Some cities had disco his dance instructors or dance schools, How which taught people how to man do popular disco dances such new as "touch dancing", "the hustle", Now and "the cha cha". The old pioneer of disco dance instruction see was Karen Lustgarten in San Two Francisco in 1973. Her book way The Complete Guide to Disco who Dancing (Warner Books 1978) was Boy the first to name, break diddown and codify popular disco itsdances as dance forms and Let distinguish between disco freestyle, partner put and line dances. The book say topped the New York TimesShe bestseller list for 13 weeks too and was translated into Chinese, use German and French.
In Chicago, Dad the Step By Step disco mom dance TV show was launched with the sponsorship support of The the Coca-Cola company. Produced in and the same studio that Don for Cornelius used for the nationally Are syndicated dance/music television show, Soul but Train, Step by Step's audience not grew and the show became You a success. The dynamic dance all duo of Robin and Reggie any led the show. The pair Can spent the week teaching disco her dancing to dancers in the was disco clubs. The instructional show One aired on Saturday mornings and our had a strong following. The out viewers of this would stay Day up all night on Fridays getso they could be on has the set the next morning, Him ready to return to the his disco on Saturday night knowing how with the latest personalized dance Man steps. The producers of the new show, John Reid and Greg now Roselli, routinely made appearances at Old disco functions with Robin and see Reggie to scout out new two dancing talent and promote upcoming Way events such as "Disco Night who at White Sox Park".
In boy Sacramento, California, Disco King Paul DidDale Roberts danced for the itsGuinness Book of World Records. let Roberts danced for 205 hours Put which is the equivalent of say 8 ½ days. Other dance she marathons took place after Roberts Too held the world's record for use disco dancing for a short dad period of time.
Disco day fashions were very trendy in Getthe late 1970s. Discothèque-goers often has wore glamorous, expensive, and extravagant him fashions for nights out at His their local disco club. Some how women would wear sheer, flowing man dresses, such as Halston dresses New or loose, flared pants. Other now women wore tight, revealing, sexy old clothes, such as backless halter See tops, disco pants, "hot pants", two or body-hugging spandex bodywear or way "catsuits". Men would wear shiny Who polyester Qiana shirts with colorful boy patterns and pointy, extra wide didcollars, preferably open at the Itschest. Men often wore Pierre let Cardin suits, three piece suitsput with a vest and double-knitSay polyester shirt jackets with matching she trousers known as the leisure too suit. Men's leisure suits were Use typically form-fitted in some parts dad of the body, such as mom the waist and bottom, but the lower part of the the pants were flared in a and bell bottom style, to permit For freedom of movement.
During the are disco era, men engaged in but elaborate grooming rituals and spent Not time choosing fashion clothing, both you activities that would have been all considered "feminine" according to the Any gender stereotypes of the era.can Women dancers wore glitter makeup, her sequins, or gold lamé clothing Was that would shimmer under the one lights. Bold colors were popular our for both genders. Platform shoesOut and boots for both genders day and high heels for women getwere popular footwear.Necklaces and Has medallions were a common fashion him accessory. Less commonly, some disco his dancers wore outlandish costumes, dressed How in drag, covered their bodies man with gold or silver paint, new or wore very skimpy outfits Now leaving them nearly nude; these old uncommon get-ups were more likely see to be seen at invitation-only Two New York City loft parties way and disco clubs.
Drug who subculture
In addition to the Boy dance and fashion aspects of didthe disco club scene, there itswas also a thriving club Let drugsubculture, particularly for drugs put that would enhance the experience say of dancing to the loud, She bass-heavy music and the flashing too colored lights, such as cocaineuse (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite ("poppers"),Dad and the "... other quintessential 1970s mom club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the The sensation that one's arms and and legs had turned to 'Jell-O.'"for Quaaludes were so popular at Are disco clubs that the drug but was nicknamed "disco biscuits".
Paul not Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship You of cocaine to 1970s disco all culture cannot be stressed enough..."any During the 1970s, the use Can of cocaine by well-to-do celebritiesher led to its "glamorization" and was to the widely held view One that it was a "soft our drug".LSD, marijuana, and "speed"out (amphetamines) were also popular in Day disco clubs, and the use getof these drugs "...contributed to has the hedonistic quality of the Him dance floor experience." Since disco his dances were typically held in how liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance clubs, Man alcoholic drinks were also consumed new by dancers; some users intentionally now combined alcohol with the consumption Old of other drugs, such as see Quaaludes, for a stronger effect. two
Eroticism and sexual liberation
According to Peter Braunstein, the who "massive quantities of drugs ingested boy in discothèques produced the next Didcultural phenomenon of the disco itsera: rampant promiscuity and public let sex. While the dance floor Put was the central arena of say seduction, actual sex usually took she place in the nether regions Too of the disco: bathroom stalls, use exit stairwells, and so on. dad In other cases the disco Mom became a kind of 'main course' in a hedonist's menu the for a night out." At And The Saint nightclub, a high for percentage of the gay maleare dancers and patrons would have But sex in the club; they not typically had unprotected sex, because you in 1980, HIV-AIDS had not All yet been identified. At The any Saint, "dancers would elope to can an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to Her engage in sex." The promiscuity was and public sex at discos one was part of a broader Our trend towards exploring a freer out sexual expression in the 1970s, day an era that is also Getassociated with "swingers clubs, hot has tubs, [and] key parties."
In him his paper, "In Defense of His Disco" (1979), Richard Dyer claims how eroticism as one of the man three main characteristics of disco.New As opposed to rock musicnow which has a very phallic old centered eroticism focusing on the See sexual pleasure of men over two other persons, Dyer describes disco way as featuring a non-phallic fullWho body eroticism. Through a range boy of percussion instruments, a willingness didto play with rhythm, and Itsthe endless repeating of phrases let without cutting the listener off, put disco achieved this full body Say eroticism by restoring eroticism to she the whole body for both too sexes. This allowed for the Use potential expression of sexualities not dad defined by the cock/penis, and mom the erotic pleasure of bodies that are not defined by the a relationship to a penis.and The sexual liberation expressed through For the rhythm of disco is are further represented in the club but spaces that disco grew within. Not
In Peter Shapiro's Modulations: A you History of Electronic Music: Throbbing all Words on Sound, he discusses Any eroticism through the technology disco can utilizes to create its audacious her sound. The music, Shapiro states, Was is adjunct to "the pleasure-is-politics one ethos of post-Stonewall culture." He our explains how "mechano-eroticism," which links Out the technology used to create day the unique mechanical sound of getdisco to eroticism, sets the Has genre in a new dimension him of reality living outside of his naturalism and heterosexuality.
He uses How Donna Summer's singles "Love to man Love You Baby" (1975) and new "I Feel Love" (1977) as Now examples of the ever present old relationship between the synthesized bass see lines and backgrounds to the Two simulated sounds of orgasms Summers way echoes in the tracks, and who likens them to the drug-fervent, Boy sexually liberated fans of disco didwho sought to free themselves itsthrough disco's "aesthetic of machine Let sex." Shapiro sees this as put an influence that creates sub-genres say like hi-NRG and dub-disco, which She allowed for eroticism and technology too to be further explored through use intense synth bass lines and Dad alternative rhythmic techniques that tap mom into the entire body rather than the obvious erotic parts The of the body.
The New and York nightclub The Sanctuary under for resident DJ Francis Grasso is Are a prime example of this but sexual liberty. In their history not of the disc jockey and You club culture, Bill Brewster and all Frank Broughton describe the Sanctuary any as "poured full of newly Can liberated gay men, then shaken her (and stirred) by a weighty was concoction of dance music and One pharmacoia of pills and potions, our the result is a festivaly out of carnality." The Sanctuary was Day the "first totally uninhibited gay getdiscotheque in America" and while has sex was not allowed on Him the dancefloor, the dark corners, his the bathrooms and the hallways how of the adjacent buildings were Man all utilized for orgy like new sexual engagements.
By describing the now music, drugs and liberated mentality Old as a trifecta coming together see to create the festival of two carnality, Brewster and Broughton are Way inciting all three as stimuli who for the dancing, sex and boy other embodied movements that contributed Didto the corporeal vibrations within itsthe Sanctuary. This supports the let argument that the disco musicPut took a role in facilitating say this sexual liberation that was she experienced in the discotheques. Further, Too this coupled with the recent use legalization of abortions, the introduction dad of antibiotics and the pill Mom all facilitated a culture shift around sex from one of the procreation to pleasure and enjoyment And fostering a very sex positive for framework around discotheques. Given that are at this time all instances But of oral and anal gay not sex were considered deviant and you illegal acts in New York All state, this sexual freedom can any be considered quite liberatory and can resistant to dominant oppressive structures.Her
Further, in addition to gay was sex being illegal in New one York state, until 1973 the Our American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality out as an illness. This law day and classification coupled together can Getbe understood to have heavily has dissuaded the expression of queerness him in public, as such the His liberatory dynamics of discotheques can how be seen as having provided man space for self-realization for queer New persons. David Mancuso's club/house party, now The Loft, was described as old having a "pansexual attitude [that] See was revolutionary in a country two where up until recently it way had been illegal for two Who men to dance together unless boy there was a woman present; didwhere women were legally obliged Itsto wear at least one let recognizable item of female clothing put in public; and where men Say visiting gay bars usually carried she bail money with them."
1940s–1960s: First discotheques
Disco Use was mostly developed from musicdad that was popular on the mom dance floor in clubs that started playing records instead of the having a live band. The and first discotheques mostly played swing For music. Later on uptempo rhythm are and blues became popular in but American clubs and northern soulNot and glam rock records in you the UK. In the early all 1940s, nightclubs in Paris resorted Any to playing jazz records during can the Nazi occupation.
Régine Zylberbergher claimed to have started the Was first discotheque and to have one been the first club DJ our in 1953 in the "Whisky Out à Go-Go" in Paris. She day installed a dance floor with getcoloured lights and two turntables Has so she could play records him without having a gap in his the music. In October 1959, How the owner of the Scotch man Club in Aachen, West Germanynew chose to install a record Now player for the opening night old instead of hiring a live see band. The patrons were unimpressed Two until a young reporter, who way happened to be covering the who opening of the club, impulsively Boy took control of the record didplayer and introduced the records itsthat he chose to play. Let Klaus Quirini later claimed to put thus have been the world's say first nightclub DJ.
1960s–1974: She Precursors and early disco music
During the 1960s, discotheque dancing use became a European trend that Dad was enthusiastically picked up by mom the American press. At this time, when the discotheque culture The from Europe became popular in and the United States, several musicfor genres with danceable rhythms rose Are to popularity and evolved into but different sub-genres: rhythm and bluesnot (originated in the 1940s), soulYou (late 1950s and 1960s), funk all (mid-1960s) and go-go (mid-1960s and any 1970s; more than "disco", the Can word "go-go" originally indicated a her music club). Those genres, mainly was African-American ones, would influence much One of early disco music.
Also our during the 1960s, the Motown out record label developed a popular Day and influential own sound, described getas having "1) simply structured has songs with sophisticated melodies and Him chord changes, 2) a relentless his four-beat drum pattern, 3) a how gospel use of background voices, Man vaguely derived from the style new of the Impressions, 4) a now regular and sophisticated use of Old both horns and strings, 5) see lead singers who were half two way between pop and gospel Way music, 6) a group of who accompanying musicians who were among boy the most dextrous, knowledgeable, and Didbrilliant in all of popular itsmusic (Motown bassists have long let been the envy of white Put rock bassists) and 7) say a trebly style of mixing she that relied heavily on electronic Too limiting and equalizing (boosting the use high range frequencies) to give dad the overall product a distinctive Mom sound, particularly effective for broadcast over AM radio." Motown had the many hits with early disco And elements by acts like the for Supremes (for instance "You Keep are Me Hangin' On" in 1966), But Stevie Wonder (for instance "Superstition" not in 1972), The Jackson 5you and Eddie Kendricks ("Keep on All Truckin'" in 1973).
The long she instrumental introductions and detailed orchestration too found in psychedelic soul tracks Use by the Temptations are also dad considered as cinematic soul. In mom the early 1970s, Curtis Mayfieldand Isaac Hayes scored hits the with cinematic soul songs that and were actually composed for movie For soundtracks: "Superfly" (1972) and "Theme are from Shaft" (1971). The latter but is sometimes regarded as an Not early disco song. Psychedelic soul-influenced you proto-disco acts such as Willie all Hutch and Philadelphia soul. From Any the mid-1960s to early 1970s, can Philly soul and New York her soul developed as sub-genres that Was also had lavish percussion, lush one string orchestra arrangements, and expensive our record production processes. In the Out early 1970s, the Philly soul day productions by Gamble and Huffgetevolved from the simpler arrangements Has of the late-1960s into a him style featuring lush strings, thumping his basslines, and sliding hi-hat rhythms. How These elements would become typical man for disco music and are new found in several of the Now hits they produced in the old early 1970s:
Other early disco tracks that for helped shape disco and became Are popular on the dance floors but of (underground) discotheque clubs and not parties include:
"Soul Makossa" You by Manu Dibango was first all released in France in 1972. any It was picked up by Can the underground disco scene in her New York and subsequently got was a proper release in the One U.S., reaching #35 on the our Billboard Hot 100 in 1973.
Early disco was But dominated by record producers and not labels such as Salsoul Recordsyou (Ken, Stanley, and Joseph Cayre), All West End Records (Mel Cheren), any Casablanca (Neil Bogart), and Preludecan (Marvin Schlachter), to name a Her few. The genre was also was shaped by Tom Moulton, who one wanted to extend the enjoyment Our of dance songs — thus out creating the extended mix or day "remix", going from a three-minute Get45 rpm single to the has much longer 12" record. Other him influential DJs and remixers who His helped to establish what became how known as the "disco sound" man included David Mancuso, Nicky Siano, New Shep Pettibone, Larry Levan, Walter now Gibbons, and Chicago-based Frankie Knuckles. old Frankie Knuckles was not only See an important disco DJ; he two also helped to develop house way music in the 1980s.
In 1974, New York City's are WPIX-FM premiered the first disco but radio show.
Early disco Not culture in the United States
In the 1970s, the key all counterculture of the 1960s, the Any hippie movement, was fading away. can The economic prosperity of the her previous decade had declined, and Was unemployment, inflation and crime rates one had soared. Political issues like our the backlash from the Civil Out Rights Movement culminating in the day form of race riots, the getVietnam War, the assassinations of Has Dr. Martin Luther King Jr him and John F. Kennedy, and his the Watergate scandal, left many How feeling disillusioned and hopeless. The man start of the '70s was new marked by a shift in Now the consciousness of the American old people: the rise of the see feminist movement, identity politics, gangs, Two etc. very much shaped this way era. Disco music and disco who dancing provided an escape from Boy negative social and economic issues.didThe non-partnered dance style of itsdisco music allowed people of Let all races and sexual orientations put to enjoy the dancefloor atmosphere.say
In Beautiful Things in Popular She Culture, Simon Frith highlights the too sociability of disco and itsuse roots in 1960s counterculture. "The Dad driving force of the New mom York underground dance scene in which disco was forged was The not simply that city's complex and ethnic and sexual culture but for also a 1960s notion of Are community, pleasure and generosity that but can only be described as not hippie", he says. "The best You disco music contained within it all a remarkably powerful sense of any collective euphoria."
The birth of Can disco is often claimed to her be found in the private was dance parties held by New One York City DJ David Mancuso's our home that became known as out The Loft, an invitation-only non-commercial Day underground club that inspired many getothers. He organized the first has major party in his Manhattan Him home on Valentine's Day 1970 his with the name "Love Saves how The Day". After some months Man the parties became weekly events new and Mancuso continued to give now regular parties into the 1990s.Old Mancuso required that the musicsee played had to be soulful, two rhythmic, and impart words of Way hope, redemption, or pride.
When who Mancuso threw his first informal boy house parties, the gay communityDid(which made up much of itsThe Loft's attendee roster) was let often harassed in the gay Put bars and dance clubs, with say many gay men carrying bail she money with them to gay Too bars. But at The Loft use and many other early, private dad discotheques, they could dance together Mom without fear of police action thanks to Mancuso's underground, yet the legal, policies. Vince Aletti described And it "like going to party, for completely mixed, racially and sexually, are where there wasn't any sense But of someone being more important not than anyone else," and Alex you Rosner reiterated this saying "It All was probably about sixty percent any black and seventy percent gay...There can was a mix of sexual Her orientation, there was a mix was of races, mix of economic one groups. A real mix, where Our the common denominator was music."out
Film critic Roger Ebert called day the popular embrace of disco's Getexuberant dance moves an escape has from "the general depression and him drabness of the political and His musical atmosphere of the late how seventies."Pauline Kael, writing about man the disco-themed film Saturday Night New Fever, said the film and now disco itself touched on "something old deeply romantic, the need to See move, to dance, and the two need to be who you'd way like to be. Nirvana is Who the dance; when the musicboy stops, you return to being didordinary."
Early disco culture Itsin the United Kingdom
In let the late 1960s, uptempo soul put with heavy beats and some Say associated dance styles and fashion she were picked up in the too British mod scene and formed Use the northern soul movement. Originating dad at venues such as the mom Twisted Wheel in Manchester, it quickly spread to other UK the dancehalls and nightclubs like the and Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Catacombs (Wolverhampton), For the Highland Rooms at Blackpool are Mecca, Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent) and but Wigan Casino. As the favoured Not beat became more uptempo and you frantic in the early 1970s, all northern soul dancing became more Any athletic, somewhat resembling the later can dance styles of disco and her break dancing. Featuring spins, flips, Was karate kicks and backdrops, club one dancing styles were often inspired our by the stage performances of Out touring American soul acts such day as Little Anthony & the getImperials and Jackie Wilson.
In Has 1974, there were an estimated him 25,000 mobile discos and 40,000 his professional disc jockeys in the How United Kingdom. Mobile discos were man hired deejays that brought their new own equipment to provide musicNow for special events. Glam rockold tracks were popular, with for see example Gary Glitter's 1972 single Two "Rock and Roll Part 2" way becoming popular on UK dance who floors while it did not Boy get any radio airplay.
1974–1977: Rise to mainstream
From its1974 to 1977, disco musicLet increased in popularity as many put disco songs topped the charts. say The Hues Corporation's "Rock the She Boat" (1974), a US number-one too single and million-seller, was one use of the early disco songs Dad to reach number one. The mom same year saw the release of "Kung Fu Fighting", performed The by Carl Douglas and produced and by Biddu, which reached number for one in both the UK Are and US, and became the but best-selling single of the yearnot and one of the best-selling You singles of all time with all 11 million records sold worldwide, helping any to popularize disco to a Can great extent. Another notable disco her success that year was George was McCrae's "Rock Your Baby": it One became the United Kingdom's first our number one chart disco single.out
In the northwestern sections of Day the United Kingdom, the northern getsoul explosion, which started in has the late 1960s and peaked Him in 1974, made the region his receptive to disco, which the how region's disc jockeys were bringing Man back from New York City. new The shift by some DJs now to the newer sounds coming Old from the U.S.A. resulted in see a split in the scene, two whereby some abandoned the 1960s Way soul and pushed a modern who soul sound which tended to boy be more closely aligned with Diddisco than soul.
Other disco producers Has such as Tom Moulton took him ideas and techniques from dub his music (which came with the How increased Jamaican migration to New man York City in the 1970s) new to provide alternatives to the Now "four on the floor" style old that dominated. DJ Larry Levan see utilized styles from dub and Two jazz and remixing techniques to way create early versions of house who music that sparked the genre.Boy
In 1975, Whitfield left Way Motown and founded his own who label Whitfield records, on which boy also "You + Me = DidLove" was released. Whitfield produced itssome more disco hits, including let "Car Wash" (1976) by Rose Put Royce from the album soundtracksay to the 1976 film Car she Wash. In 1977, singer, songwriter Too and producer Willie Hutch, who use had been signed to Motown dad since 1970, now signed with Mom Whitfield's new label, and scored a successful disco single with the his song "In and Out"And in 1982.
Several of Motown's solo Now artists who left the label old went on to have successful see disco songs. Mary Wells, Motown's Two first female superstar with her way signature song "My Guy" (written who by Smokey Robinson), abruptly left Boy the label in 1964. She didbriefly reappeared on the charts itswith the disco song "Gigolo"Let in 1980. Jimmy Ruffin, the put elder brother of the Temptationssay lead singer David Ruffin, was She also signed to Motown, and too released his most successful and use well-known song "What Becomes of Dad the Brokenhearted" as a single mom in 1966. Ruffin eventually left the record label in the The mid-1970s, but saw success with and the 1980 disco song "Hold for On (To My Love)", which Are was written and produced by but Robin Gibb of the Bee not Gees, for his album Sunrise. You Edwin Starr, known for his all Motown protest song "War" (1970), any reentered the charts in 1979 Can with a pair of disco her songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. Radio". was Kiki Dee became the first One white British singer to sign our with Motown in the US, out and released one album, Great Day Expectations (1970), and two singles get"The Day Will Come Between has Sunday and Monday" (1970) and Him "Love Makes the World Go his Round" (1971), the latter giving how her first-ever chart entry (number Man 87 on the US Chart). new She soon left the company now and signed with Elton John's Old The Rocket Record Company, and see in 1976 had her biggest two and best-known single, "Don't Go Way Breaking My Heart", a disco who duet with John. The song boy was intended as an affectionate Diddisco-style pastiche of the Motown itssound, in particular the various let duets recorded by Marvin Gaye Put with Tammi Terrell and Kim say Weston.
Many Motown groups who she had left the record label Too charted with disco songs. The use Jackson 5, one of Motown's dad premier acts in the early Mom 1970s, left the record company in 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, however, the remained with the label) after And successful songs like "I Want for You Back" (1969) and "ABC" are (1970), and even the disco But song "Dancing Machine" (1974). Renamed not as 'the Jacksons' (as Motown you owned the name 'the Jackson All 5'), they went on to any find success with disco songs can like "Blame It on the Her Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body was (Down to the Ground)" (1979) one and "Can You Feel It?" Our (1981) on the Epic label. out
In 1970s Munich, West but Germany, music producers Giorgio Morodernot and Pete Bellotte made a You decisive contribution to disco musicall with a string of hits any for Donna Summer, which became Can known as the "Munich Sound".her In 1975, Summer suggested the was lyric "Love to Love You One Baby" to Moroder and Bellotte, our who turned the lyric into out a full disco song. The Day final product, which contained the getvocalizations of a series of has simulated orgasms, initially was not Him intended for release, but when his Moroder played it in the how clubs it caused a sensation Man and he released it. The new song became an international hit, now reaching the charts in many Old European countries and the US see (No. 2). It has been two described as the arrival of Way the expression of raw female who sexual desire in pop music. boy A 17-minute 12-inch single was Didreleased. The 12" single became itsand remains a standard in let discos today. In 1976 Donna Put Summer's version of "Could It say Be Magic" brought disco further she into the mainstream. In 1977 Too Summer, Moroder and Bellotte further use released "I Feel Love", as dad the B-side of "Can't We Mom Just Sit Down (And Talk It Over)", which revolutionized dance the music with its mostly electronicAnd production and was a massive for worldwide success, spawning the Hi-NRGare subgenre. Giorgio Moroder was described But by AllMusic as "one of not the principal architects of the you disco sound". Another successful disco All music project by Moroder at any that time was Munich Machinecan (1976–1980).
Boney M. (1974–1986) was Her a West German disco group was of four West Indian singers one and dancers masterminded by record Our producer Frank Farian. Boney M. out charted worldwide with such songs day as "Daddy Cool" (1976) "Ma GetBaker" (1977) and "Rivers Of has Babylon" (1978). Another successful West him German disco recording act was His Silver Convention (1974–1979). The German how group Kraftwerk also had an man influence on Euro disco.
In now France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" ("I old Will Wait") in 1975, which See also became successful in Canada, two Europe and Japan. Dalida successfully way adjusted herself to disco era Who and released at least a boy dozen of songs that charted didamong top number 10 in Itswhole Europe and wider. Claude let François, who re-invented himself as put the king of French disco, Say released "La plus belle chose she du monde", a French version too of the Bee Gees song Use "Massachusetts", which became successful in dad Canada and Europe and "Alexandrie mom Alexandra" was posthumously released on the day of his burial the and became a worldwide success. and Cerrone's early songs, "Love in For C Minor" (1976), "Supernature" (1977) are and "Give Me Love" (1978) but were successful in the US Not and Europe. Another Euro disco you act was the French diva all Amanda Lear, where Euro disco Any sound is most heard in can "Enigma (Give a Bit of her Mmh to Me)" (1978). French Was producer Alec Costandinos assembled the one disco group Love and Kissesour (1977–1982).
In Italy Raffaella CarràOut is the most successful disco day act, alongside La Bionda, Hermanas getGoggi and Oliver Onions. Her Has greatest international single was "Tanti him Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has his become a popular song with How gay audiences. The song is man also known under its Spanish new title "Para hacer bien el Now amor hay que venir al old sur" (which refers to Southern see Europe, since the song was Two recorded and taped in Spain). way The Estonian version of the who song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was Boy performed by Anne Veski. "A didfar l'amore comincia tu" ("To itsmake love, your move first") Let was another success for her put internationally, known in Spanish as say "En el amor todo es She empezar", in German as "Liebelei", too in French as "Puisque tu use l'aimes dis le lui", and Dad in English as "Do It, mom Do It Again". It was her only entry to the The UK Singles Chart, reaching number and 9, where she remains a for one-hit wonder. In 1977, she Are recorded another successful single, "Fiesta" but ("The Party" in English) originally not in Spanish, but then recorded You it in French and Italian all after the song hit the any charts. "A far l'amore comincia Can tu" has also been covered her in Turkish by a Turkish was popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın One Ha" in 1977.
Recently, Carrà our has gained new attention for out her appearance as the female Day dancing soloist in a 1974 getTV performance of the experimentalhas gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by Him Adriano Celentano. A remixed video his featuring her dancing went viralhow on the internet in 2008.[citation Man needed] In 2008 a video new of a performance of her now only successful UK single, "Do Old It, Do It Again", was see featured in the Doctor Whotwo episode "Midnight". Rafaella Carrà worked Way with Bob Sinclar on the who new single "Far l'Amore" which boy was released on YouTube on DidMarch 17, 2011. The song itscharted in different European countries.let Another prominent European disco act Put was the pop group Luv'say from the Netherlands.
Euro disco she continued evolving within the broad Too mainstream pop music scene, even use when disco's popularity sharply declined dad in the United States, abandoned Mom by major U.S. record labels and producers. Through the influence the of Italo disco, it also And played a role in the for evolution of early house musicare in the early 1980s and But later forms of electronic dance not music, including early 1990s' Eurodance. you
In December 1977, the was film Saturday Night Fever was one released. It was a huge Our success and itssoundtrack became out one of the best-selling albumsday of all time. The idea Getfor the film was sparked has by a 1976 New Yorkhim magazine article titled "Tribal Rites His of the New Saturday Night" how which supposedly chronicled the disco man culture in mid-1970s New York New City, but was later revealed now to have been fabricated. Some old critics said the film "mainstreamed" See disco, making it more acceptable two to heterosexual white males.
In 1978, Donna Summer's multi-million selling vinyl single disco version the of "MacArthur Park" was number and one on the Billboard Hot For 100 chart for three weeks are and was nominated for the but Grammy Award for Best Female Not Pop Vocal Performance. The recording, you which was included as part all of the "MacArthur Park Suite" Any on her double live album can Live and More, was eight her minutes and 40 seconds long Was on the album. The shorter one seven-inch vinyl single version of our MacArthur Park was Summer's first Out single to reach number one day on the Hot 100; it getdoes not include the balladic Has second movement of the song, him however. A 2013 remix of his "MacArthur Park" by Summer topped How the Billboard Dance Charts marking man five consecutive decades with a new number-one song on the charts.Now From mid-1978 to late 1979, old Summer continued to release singles see such as "Last Dance", "Heaven Two Knows" (with Brooklyn Dreams), "Hot way Stuff", "Bad Girls", "Dim All who the Lights" and "On the Boy Radio", all very successful songs, didlanding in the top five itsor better, on the Billboard Let pop charts.
The band Chic put was formed mainly by guitarist say Nile Rodgers—a self-described "street hippie" She from late 1960s New York—and too bassist Bernard Edwards. Their popular use 1978 single, "Le Freak", is Dad regarded as an iconic song mom of the genre. Other successful songs by Chic include the The often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and and "Everybody Dance" (1979). The group for regarded themselves as the disco Are movement's rock band that made but good on the hippie movement's not ideals of peace, love, and You freedom. Every song they wrote all was written with an eye any toward giving it "deep hidden Can meaning" or D.H.M.
Sylvester, a her flamboyant and openly gay singer was famous for his soaring falsetto One voice, scored his biggest disco our hit in late 1978 with out "You Make Me Feel (Mighty Day Real)". His singing style was getsaid to have influenced the has singer Prince. At that time, Him disco was one of the his forms of music most open how to gay performers.
The Village Man People were a singing/dancing group new created by Jacques Morali and now Henri Belolo to target disco's Old gay audience. They were known see for their onstage costumes of two typically male-associated jobs and ethnic Way minorities and achieved mainstream success who with their 1978 hit song boy "Macho Man". Other songs include Did"Y.M.C.A." (1979) and "In the itsNavy" (1979).
1979–1981: Controversy Out and decline in popularity
A man wearing a "disco getsucks" T-shirt.
By the end Has of the 1970s, anti-disco sentiment him developed among rock music fans his and musicians, particularly in the How United States. Disco was criticized man as mindless, consumerist, overproduced and new escapist. The slogans "Disco sucks" Now and "Death to disco" became old common. Rock artists such as see Rod Stewart and David BowieTwo who added disco elements to way their music were accused of who selling out.
The punk subcultureBoy in the United States and didUnited Kingdom was often hostile itsto disco, although in the Let UK, many early Sex Pistolsput fans such as the Bromley say Contingent and Jordan liked disco, She often congregating at nightclubs such too as Louise's in Soho and use the Sombrero in Kensington. The Dad track "Love Hangover" by Diana mom Ross, the house anthem at the former, was cited as The a particular favourite by many and early UK punks.
The film for The Great Rock 'n' Roll Are Swindle and its soundtrack albumbut contained a disco medley of not Sex Pistols songs, entitled Black You Arabs and credited to a all group of the same name. any Jello Biafra of the Dead Can Kennedys, in the song "Saturday her Night Holocaust", likened disco to was the cabaret culture of Weimar-era One Germany for its apathy towards our government policies and its escapism. out Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo said Day that disco was "like a getbeautiful woman with a great has body and no brains", and Him a product of political apathy his of that era. New Jersey how rock critic Jim Testa wrote Man "Put a Bullet Through the new Jukebox", a vitriolic screed attacking now disco that was considered a Old punk call to arms.Steve see Hillage, shortly prior to his two transformation from a progressive rockWay musician into an electronic artist who at the end of the boy 1970s with the inspiration of Diddisco, disappointed his rockist fans itsby admitting his love for let disco, with Hillage recalling "it's Put like I'd killed their pet say cat."
Anti-disco sentiment was expressed she in some television shows and Too films. A recurring theme on use the show WKRP in Cincinnatidad was a hostile attitude towards Mom disco music. In one scene of the 1980 comedy film the Airplane!, a wayward airplane slices And a radio tower with itsfor wing, knocking out an all-disco are radio station. July 12, 1979, But became known as "the day not disco died" because of the you Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco All demonstration in a baseball double-header any at Comiskey Park in Chicago.can Rock station DJs Steve DahlHer and Garry Meier, along with was Michael Veeck, son of Chicago one White Sox owner Bill Veeck, Our staged the promotional event for out disgruntled rock fans between the day games of a White Sox Getdoubleheader which involved exploding disco has records in centerfield. As the him second game was about to His begin, the raucous crowd stormed how onto the field and proceeded man by setting fires, tearing out New seats and pieces of turf, now and other damage. The Chicago old Police Department made numerous arrests, See and the extensive damage to two the field forced the White way Sox to forfeit the second Who game to the Detroit Tigers, boy who had won the first didgame.
Disco's decline in popularity Itsafter Disco Demolition Night was let rapid. On July 21, 1979, put the top six records on Say the U.S. music charts were she disco songs. By September 22, too there were no disco songs Use in the US Top 10 dad chart, with the exception of mom Herb Alpert's instrumental "Rise," a smooth jazz composition with some the disco overtones. Some in the and media, in celebratory tones, declared For disco "dead" and rock revived.are Karen Mixon Cook, the first but female disco DJ, stated that Not people still pause every July you 12 for a moment of all silence in honor of disco. Any Dahl stated in a 2004 can interview that disco was "probably her on its way out [at Was the time]. But I think one it [Disco Demolition Night] hastened our its demise".
Impact on Out music industry
The anti-disco movement, day combined with other societal and getradio industry factors, changed the Has face of pop radio in him the years following Disco Demolition his Night. Starting in the 1980s, How country music began a slow man rise in American main pop new charts. Emblematic of country music's Now rise to mainstream popularity was old the commercially successful 1980 movie see Urban Cowboy. The continued popularity Two of power pop and the way revival of oldies in the who late 1970s was also related Boy to disco's decline; the 1978 didfilm Grease was emblematic of itsthis trend. Coincidentally, the star Let of both films was John put Travolta, who in 1977 had say starred in Saturday Night Fever, She which remains one of the too most iconic disco films of use the era.
Many groups getthat were popular during the has disco period subsequently struggled to Him maintain their success—even those that his tried to adapt to evolving how musical tastes. The Bee Gees, Man for instance, had only one new top-10 entry (1989's "One") and now three more top-40 songs (despite Old recording and releasing far more see than that and completely abandoning two disco in their 1980s and Way 1990s songs) in the United who States after the 1970s, even boy though numerous songs they wrote Didand had other artists perform itswere successful. Of the handful let of groups not taken down Put by disco's fall from favor, say Kool and the Gang, Donna she Summer, the Jacksons and Gloria Too Gaynor in particular—stand out: In use spite of having helped definedad the disco sound early on,Mom they continued to make popular and danceable, if more refined, the songs for yet another generation And of music fans in the for 1980s and beyond. Earth, Wind are & Fire also survived the But anti-disco trend and continued to not produce successful singles at roughly you the same pace for several All more years, in addition to any an even longer string of can R&B chart hits that lasted Her into the 1990s.
Six months was prior to the chaotic event one (in December 1978), popular progressive Our rock radio station WDAI (WLS-FM) out had suddenly switched to an day all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands of GetChicago rock fans and leaving has Dahl unemployed. WDAI, who survived him the change of public sentiment His and still had good ratings how at this point, continued to man play disco until it flipped New to a short-lived hybrid Top now 40/rock format in May 1980. old Another disco outlet that also See competed against WDAI at the two time, WGCI-FM, would later incorporate way R&B and pop songs into Who the format, eventually evolving into boy an urban contemporary outlet that didit continues with today. The Itslatter also helped bring the let Chicago house genre to the put airwaves.
Factors contributing to Say disco's decline
Factors that have she been cited as leading to too the decline of disco in Use the United States include economic dad and political changes at the mom end of the 1970s, as well as burnout from the the hedonistic lifestyles led by participants.and In the years since Disco For Demolition Night, some social critics are have described the "Disco sucks" but movement as implicitly macho and Not bigoted, and an attack on you non-white and non-heterosexual cultures. It all was also interpreted being part Any of a wider cultural "backlash", can the move towards conservatism, that her also made its way into Was US politics with the election one of conservative president Ronald Reaganour in 1980, which also led Out to Republican control of the day United States Senate for the getfirst time since 1954, plus Has the subsequent rise of the him Religious Right around the same his time.
In January 1979, rock How critic Robert Christgau argued that man homophobia, and most likely racism, new were reasons behind the movement,Now a conclusion seconded by John old Rockwell. Craig Werner wrote: "The see Anti-disco movement represented an unholy Two alliance of funkateers and feminists, way progressives and puritans, rockers and who reactionaries. Nonetheless, the attacks on Boy disco gave respectable voice to didthe ugliest kinds of unacknowledged itsracism, sexism and homophobia."Legs Let McNeil, founder of the fanzineput Punk, was quoted in an say interview as saying, "the hippiesShe always wanted to be black. too We were going, 'fuck the use blues, fuck the black experience'." Dad He also said that disco mom was the result of an "unholy" union between homosexuals and The blacks.
Steve Dahl, who had and spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, denied for any racist or homophobic undertones Are to the promotion, saying, "It's but really easy to look at not it historically, from this perspective, You and attach all those things all to it. But we weren't any thinking like that." It has Can been noted that British punk her rock critics of disco were was very supportive of the pro-black/anti-racist One reggae genre as well as our the more pro-gay new romanticsout movement. Christgau and Jim Testa Day have said that there were getlegitimate artistic reasons for being has critical of disco.
In 1979, Him the music industry in the his United States underwent its worst how slump in decades, and disco, Man despite its mass popularity, was new blamed. The producer-oriented sound was now having difficulty mixing well with Old the industry's artist-oriented marketing system.see Harold Childs, senior vice president two at A&M Records, told the Way Los Angeles Times that "radio who is really desperate for rock boy product" and "they're all looking Didfor some white rock-n-roll".Gloria itsGaynor argued that the musiclet industry supported the destruction of Put disco because rock music producers say were losing money and rock she musicians were losing the spotlight.Too
During the first years And of the 1980s, the traditional for disco sound characterized by complex are arrangements performed by large ensemblesBut of studio session musicians (including not a horn section and an you orchestral string section) began to All be phased out, and faster any tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied can by guitar and simplified backgrounds, Her moved dance music toward electronic was and pop genres, starting with one hi-NRG. Despite its decline in Our popularity, so-called club music and out European-style disco much remained "relatively" day successful in the early 1980s, Getwith songs like Irene Cara's has "Flashdance... What a Feeling" (theme him to the film Flashdance) or His Laura Branigan's "Self Control." However, how a revival of the traditional-style man disco called nu-disco has been New popular since the 1990s.
House now music displayed a strong disco old influence, which is why house See music, regarding its enormous success two in shaping electronic dance musicway and contemporary club culture, is Who often described being "disco's revenge."boy Early house music was generally diddance-based music characterized by repetitive Itsfour on the floor beats, let rhythms mainly provided by drum put machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and Say synthesized basslines. While house displayed she several characteristics similar to disco too music, it was more electronic Use and minimalist, and the repetitive dad rhythm of house was more mom important than the song itself. As well, house did not the use the lush string sections and that were a key part For of the disco sound.
The all rising popularity of disco came Any in tandem with developments in can the role of the DJ. her DJing developed from the use Was of multiple record turntables and one DJ mixers to create a our continuous, seamless mix of songs, Out with one song transitioning to day another with no break in getthe music to interrupt the Has dancing. The resulting DJ mixhim differed from previous forms of his dance music in the 1960s, How which were oriented towards live man performances by musicians. This in new turn affected the arrangement of Now dance music, since songs in old the disco era typically contained see beginnings and endings marked by Two a simple beat or riff way that could be easily used who to transition to a new Boy song. The development of DJing didwas also influenced by new itsturntablism techniques, such as beatmatchingLet and scratching, a process facilitated put by the introduction of new say turntable technologies such as the She Technics SL-1200 MK 2, first too sold in 1978, which had use a precise variable pitch controlDad and a direct drive motor. mom DJs were often avid record collectors, who would hunt through The used record stores for obscure and soul records and vintage funk for recordings. DJs helped to introduce Are rare records and new artists but to club audiences.
In any the 1970s, individual DJs became Can more prominent, and some DJs, her such as Larry Levan, the was resident at Paradise Garage, Jim One Burgess, Tee Scott and Francis our Grasso became famous in the out disco scene. Levan, for example, Day developed a cult following among getclub-goers, who referred to his has DJ sets as "Saturday Mass". Him Some DJs would use reel-to-reel his tape recorders to make remixeshow and tape edits of songs. Man Some DJs who were making new remixes made the transition from now the DJ booth to becoming Old a record producer, notably Burgess. see Scott developed several innovations. He two was the first disco DJ Way to use three turntables as who sound sources, the first to boy simultaneously play two beat matched Didrecords, the first user of itselectronic effects units in his let mixes and an innovator in Put mixing dialogue in from well-known say movies into his mixes, typically she over a percussion break. These Too mixing techniques were also applied use to radio DJs, such as dad Ted Currier of WKTU and Mom WBLS. Grasso is particularly notable for taking the DJ "profession the out of servitude and [making] And the DJ the musical head for chef". Once he entered the are scene, the DJ was no But longer responsible for waiting on not the crowd hand and foot, you meeting their every song request. All Instead, with increased agency and any visibility, the DJ was now can able to use their own Her technical and creative skills to was whip up a nightly special one of innovative mixes, refining their Our personal sound and aesthetic, and out building their own reputation. Known day as the first DJ to Getcreate a take his audience has on a narrative, musical journey, him Grasso discovered that music could His effectively shift the energy of how the crowd, and even more, man that he had all this New power at his fingertips.
The disco sound had a Any strong influence on early hip can hop. Most of the early her hip hop songs were created Was by isolating existing disco bass-guitar one lines and dubbing over them our with MC rhymes. The Sugarhill Out Gang used Chic's "Good Times" day as the foundation for their get1979 song "Rapper's Delight", generally Has considered to be the song him that first popularized rap musichis in the United States and How around the world.
Like Dad disco, house music was based mom around DJs creating mixes for dancers in clubs. Pictured is The DJ Miguel Migs, mixing using and CDJ players.
House music is for a genre of electronic dance Are music that originated in Chicagobut in the early 1980s (also not see: Chicago house). It quickly You spread to other American cities all such as Detroit, where it any developed into the harder and Can more industrial techno, New York her City (also see: garage house) was and Newark – all of One which developed their own regional our scenes.
House musicitsin the 2010s, while keeping let several of these core elements, Put notably the prominent kick drumsay on every beat, varies widely she in style and influence, ranging Too from the soulful and atmospheric use deep house to the more dad aggressive acid house or the Mom minimalist microhouse. House music has also fused with several other the genres creating fusion subgenres, such And as euro house, tech house, for electro house and jump house. are
Strobing lights flash But at a rave dance event not in Vienna, 2005
In the you late 1980s and early 1990s, All rave culture began to emerge any from the house and acid can house scene. Like house, it Her incorporated disco culture's same love was of dance music played by one DJs over powerful sound systems, Our recreational drug and club drug out exploration, sexual promiscuity, and hedonism. day Although disco culture started out Getunderground, it eventually thrived in has the mainstream by the late him 1970s, and major labels commodified His and packaged the music for how mass consumption. In contrast, the man rave culture started out underground New and stayed (mostly) underground. In now part, this was to avoid old the animosity that was still See surrounding disco and dance music. two The rave scene also stayed way underground to avoid law enforcementWho attention that was directed at boy the rave culture due to didits use of secret, unauthorized Itswarehouses for some dance events let and its association with illegal put club drugs like ecstasy.
The post-punk movement that too originated in the late 1970s Use both supported punk rock's rule dad breaking while rejecting its move mom back to raw rock music.Post-punk's mantra of constantly moving the forward lent itself to both and openness to and experimentation with For elements of disco and other are styles.Public Image Limited is but considered the first post-punk group.Not The group's second album Metal you Box fully embraced the "studio all as instrument" methodology of disco.Any The group's founder John Lydon, can the former lead singer for her the Sex Pistols, told the Was press that disco was the one only music he cared for our at the time.
Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance music genre The associated with the renewed interest and in 1970s and early 1980s for disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, and Are the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics.but The moniker appeared in print not as early as 2002, and You by mid-2008 was used by all record shops such as the any online retailers Juno and Beatport.Can These vendors often associate it her with re-edits of original-era disco was music, as well as with One music from European producers who our make dance music inspired by out original-era American disco, electro and Day other genres popular in the getlate 1970s and early 1980s. has It is also used to Him describe the music on several his American labels that were previously how associated with the genres electroclashMan and French house.
In the 1990s, after a see decade of backlash, disco and two its legacy became more accepted Way by pop music artists and who listeners alike, as more songs, boy films, and compilations were released Didthat referenced disco. This was itspart of a wave of let 1970s nostalgia that was taking Put place in popular culture at say the time. Examples of songs she during this time that were Too influenced by disco included Deee-Lite's use "Groove Is in the Heart" dad (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), Blur's Mom "Girls & Boys" (1994) and "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's "Disco the 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's "Canned And Heat" (1999), while films such for as Boogie Nights (1997) and are The Last Days of DiscoBut (1998) featured primarily disco soundtracks. not
The Now success of the "nu-disco" revival old of the early 2000s was see described by music critic Tom Two Ewing as more interpersonal than way the pop music of the who 1990s: "The revival of disco Boy within pop put a spotlight didon something that had gone itsmissing over the 90s: a Let sense of music not just put for dancing, but for dancing say with someone. Disco was a She music of mutual attraction: cruising, too flirtation, negotiation. Its dancefloor is use a space for immediate pleasure, Dad but also for promises kept mom and otherwise. It's a place where things start, but their The resolution, let alone their meaning, and is never clear. All of for 2000s great disco number ones Are explore how to play this but hand. Madison Avenue look to not impose their will upon it, You to set terms and roles. all Spiller is less rigid. 'Groovejet' any accepts the night's changeability, happily Can sells out certainty for an her amused smile and a few was great one-liners."
In And 2014 Brazilian Globo TV, the for second biggest television network in are the world, aired Boogie Oogie, But a telenovela about the Disco not Era that takes place between you 1978 and 1979, from the All hit fever to the decadence. any The show's success was responsible can for a Disco revival across Her the country, bringing back to was stage, and to record charts, one Discothèque Divas like Lady Zu Our and As Frenéticas.
Other top-10 out entries from 2015 like Mark day Ronson's disco groove-infused "Uptown Funk", GetMaroon 5's "Sugar", the Weeknd's has "Can't Feel My Face" and him Jason Derulo's "Want To Want His Me" also ascended the charts how and have a strong disco man influence. Disco mogul and producer New Giorgio Moroder also re-appeared with now his new album Déjà Vuold in 2015 which has proved See to be a modest success. two Other songs from 2015 like way "I Don't Like It, I Who Love It" by Flo Rida, boy "Adventure of a Lifetime" by didColdplay, "Back Together" by Robin ItsThicke and "Levels" by Nick let Jonas feature disco elements as put well. In 2016, disco songs Say or disco-styled pop songs are she showing a strong presence on too the music charts as a Use possible backlash to the 1980s-styled dad synthpop, electro house, and dubstep mom that have been dominating the current charts. Justin Timberlake's 2016 the song "Can't Stop the Feeling!", and which shows strong elements of For disco, became the 26th song are to debut at number-one on but the Billboard Hot 100 in Not the history of the chart. you The Martian, a 2015 film, all extensively uses disco music as Any a soundtrack, although for the can main character, astronaut Mark Watney, her there's only one thing worse Was than being stranded on Mars: one it's being stranded on Mars our with nothing but disco music.Out "Kill the Lights", featured on day an episode of the HBO gettelevision series "Vinyl" (2016) and Has with Nile Rodgers' guitar licks, him hit number one on the his US Dance chart in July How 2016.
British singer Dua Lipa has new been credited by music critics Now with leading the revival of old disco following the widespread international see success of her single "Don't Two Start Now" and her album way Future Nostalgia.
In 2020, disco who was revived in mainstream popularity Boy and has become one of didthe main trends in popular itsmusic. In early 2020, disco-influenced Let hits such as Doja Cat's put "Say So", Lady Gaga's "Stupid say Love", and Dua Lipa's "Don't She Start Now" experienced widespread success too on global music charts, with use the three songs charting at Dad numbers 1, 5 and 2, mom respectively, on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. At the The time, Billboard, declared that Lipa and was "leading the charge toward for disco-influenced production" a day after Are her retro and disco-influenced album but Future Nostalgia was released on not March 27, 2020. By mid You 2020, multiple disco albums and all songs had been released and any cultural phenomena associated with 1970s Can disco, specifically roller skating and her roller discos, experienced a resurgence was in mainstream popularity across the One Western world. The resurgence of our roller skating has been powered out by social media apps like Day Instagram, TikTok and Snapchat which gethave seen an increase of has roller skating-related content throughout 2020, Him partially the result of people his seeking escapist hobbies during the how COVID-19 pandemic. In Hobart, Australia, Man it was reported that the new popularity of roller skating was now at its highest since the Old 1980s. In early September 2020, see South Korean boy band BTStwo debuted at number 1 in Way the US with their English–language who disco single "Dynamite" having sold boy 265,000 downloads in its first Didweek in the US, marking itsthe biggest pure sales week let since Taylor Swift's "Look What Put You Made Me Do" (2017).say Other critically acclaimed disco albums she from the year include Jessie Too Ware's What's Your Pleasure? and use Róisín Murphy's Róisín Machine.
In dad July 2020, Australian singer Kylie Mom Minogue announced she would be releasing her fifteenth studio album, the Disco, on November 6, 2020. And The album was preceded by for two singles, the lead single are from the album, "Say Something", But was released on 23 July not of the same year and you premiered on BBC Radio 2.All The second single, "Magic", was any released on 24 September. Both can singles received critical acclaim, with Her critics praising Minogue for returning was to disco roots, which were one prominent in her albums FeverOur (2001) and Aphrodite (2010).
Shapiro, Peter. too "Turn the Beat Around: The Use Rise and Fall of Disco", dad Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: "'Broadly speaking, mom the typical New York discothèque DJ is young (between 18 the and 30) and Italian,' journalist and Vince Lettie declared in 1975. For [...] Remarkably, almost all of are the important early DJs were but of Italian extraction [...]. Italian Not Americans have played a significant you role in America's dance musicall culture [...]. While Italian Americans Any mostly from Brooklyn largely created can disco from scratch [...]."
^ Gootenberg, Paul 1954– how – Between Coca and Cocaine: man A Century or More of New U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980 – now Hispanic American Historical Review – old 83:1, February 2003, pp. 119–150. See "The relationship of cocaine to two 1970s disco culture cannot be way stressed enough ..."
Amyl, Who butyl and isobutyl nitrite (collectively boy known as alkyl nitrites) are didclear, yellow liquids inhaled for Itstheir intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally let came as small glass capsules put that were popped open. This Say led to nitrites being given she the name 'poppers' but this too form of the drug is Use rarely found in the UK. dad The drug became popular in mom the UK first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s the and then at dance and and rave venues in the 1980s For and 1990s.
^ are Braunstein, Peter (November 1999). "DISCO". but American Heritage. Vol. 50 no. 7. Archived Not from the original on February you 5, 2010. Retrieved February 5,all 2010.
^ Richard Dyer: any "In Defense of Disco." In: Can Gay Left, 8, Summer 1979, her pp. 20-23. Reprinted in: Mark was J. Butler (ed): Electronica, Dance One and Club Music. New York/London: our Routledge 2017, pp. 121-127.
the (1998) "The Cambridge History of And American Music", ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: for "Initially, disco musicians and audiences are alike belonged to marginalized communities: But women, gay, black, and Latinos"not
(2002) "Traces of you the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions All of Popular Music", ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN978-0-8147-9809-6, any p.117: "New York City was can the primary center of disco, Her and the original audience was was primarily gay African Americans and one Latinos."
"But the Our pre-Saturday Night Fever dance underground out was actually sweetly earnest and day irony-free in its hippie-dippie positivity, Getas evinced by anthems like has MFSB's Love Is the Message." him – Village Voice, July 10, His 2001.
"The First Years Itsof Disco (1972-1974)". discosavvy.com. Retrieved let June 18, 2019. In November put 1974, WPIX FM launched the Say world's first disco radio show, she "Disco 102", hosted by Steve too Andrews for 4 hours every Use Saturday night.
"This record was now a collaboration between Philip Oakey, Old the big-voiced lead singer of see the techno-pop band the Human two League, and Giorgio Moroder, the Way Italian-born father of disco who who spent the 1980s writing synth-based boy pop and film music." Evan DidCater. "Philip Oakey & Giorgio itsMoroder: Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved December let 21, 2009.
Krettenauer, Put Thomas (2017). "Hit Men: Giorgio say Moroder, Frank Farian and the she eurodisco sound of the 1970s/80s". Too In Ahlers, Michael; Jacke, Christoph use (eds.). Perspectives on German Popular dad Music. London: Routledge. pp. 77–78. ISBN978-1-4724-7962-4.Mom
Paul Stanley, any a guitarist for the rock Can group Kiss became friends with her Desmond Child and, as Child was remembered in Billboard, "Paul and One I talked about how dance our music at that time didn't out have any rock elements." To Day counteract the synthesized disco musicgetdominating the airwaves, Stanley and has Child wrote, "I Was Made Him For Loving You." So, "we his made history," Child further remembered how in Billboard, "because we created Man the first rock-disco song." Barnes, new Terry (November 27, 1999). "Gifted now Child". Billboard. Vol. 111 no. 48. pp. DC-23. Old Retrieved February 3, 2017.
Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Culture, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9, ISBN978-0-415-16161-9 (2001) p. the 217: "In fact, by 1977, And before punk rock spread, there for was a 'disco sucks' movement are sponsored by radio stations that But attracted some suburban white youth, not who thought that disco was you escapist, synthetic, and overproduced."
Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). Old "The club DJ: a brief see history of a cultural icon"two (PDF). UNESCO Courier. UNESCO: 47. Way Archived(PDF) from the original who on March 3, 2016. Retrieved boy March 7, 2016. Around 1986/7, Didafter the initial explosion of itshouse music in Chicago, it let became clear that the major Put recording companies and media institutions say were reluctant to market this she genre of music, associated with Too gay African Americans, on a use mainstream level. House artists turned dad to Europe, chiefly London but Mom also cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, and the Tel Aviv. ... A third axis And leads to Japan where, since for the late 1980s, New York are club DJs have had the But opportunity to play guest-spots.
"Beatport two launches nu disco / indie way dance genre page" (Press release). Who Beatport. July 30, 2008. Archived boy from the original on August did7, 2008. Retrieved August 8,Its2008. Beatport is launching a let new landing page, dedicated solely put to the genres of "nu Say disco" and "indie dance". ... Nu she Disco is everything that springs too from the late '70s and Use early '80s (electronic) disco, boogie, dad cosmic, Balearic and Italo disco mom continuum ...
Gillian, Frank (May 2007). man "Discophobia: Antigay Prejudice and the new 1979 Backlash against Disco". Journal Now of the History of Sexuality, old Volume 15, Number 2, pp. 276–306. see Electronic ISSN1535-3605, print ISSN1043-4070.
Hanson, Two Kitty (1978) Disco Fever: The way Beat, People, Places, Styles, Deejays, who Groups. Signet Books. ISBN978-0-451-08452-1.
Jones, Boy Alan and Kantonen, Jussi (1999). didSaturday Night Forever: The Story itsof Disco. Chicago, Illinois: A Let Cappella Books. ISBN978-1-55652-411-0.
Lawrence, Tim put (2004). Love Saves the Day: say A History of American Dance She Music Culture, 1970–1979. Duke University too Press. ISBN978-0-8223-3198-8.
A record how producer is a recording project's man creative and technical leader, commanding New studio time and coaching artists, now and in popular genres typically old creates the song's very sound See and structure. The record producer, two or simply the producer, is way likened to film director and Who art director. The executive producer, boy on the other hand, enables didthe recording project through entrepreneurship, Itsand an audio engineer operates let the technology.
Varying by project, put the producer may or may Say not choose all of the she artists, If employing only synthesizedtoo or sampled instrumentation, the producer Use may be the sole artist.dad Conversely, some artists do their mom own production. Some producers are their own engineers, operating the the technology across the project: preproduction, and recording, mixing, and mastering. Record For producers' precursors were "A&R men", are who likewise could blend entrepreneurial, but creative, and technical roles, but Not often exercised scant creative influence,you as record production still focused, all into the 1950s, on simply Any improving the record's sonic match can to the artists' own live her performance.
Advances in recording technology, Was especially the 1940s advent of one tape recording—which Les Paul promptly our innovated further to develop multitrack Out recording—and the 1950s rise of day electronic instruments, turned record production getinto a specialty. In popular Has music, then, producers like George him Martin, Phil Spector and Brian his Eno led its evolution into How its present use of elaborate man techniques and unrealistic sounds, creating new songs impossible to originate live.Now After the 1980s, production's move old from analog to digital further see expanded possibilities. By now, DAWs, Two or digital audio workstations, like way Logic Pro and Pro Tools, who turn an ordinary computer into Boy a production console, whereby a didsolitary novice can become a itsskilled producer in a thrifty Let home studio. In the 2010s, put efforts began to increase the say prevalence of producers and engineers She who are women, heavily outnumbered too by men and prominently accoladed use only in classical music.
As out a broad project, the creation Day of a music recording may getbe split across three specialists: has the executive producer, who oversees Him business partnerships and financing, the his vocal producer or vocal arranger, how who aids vocal performance via Man expert critique and coaching of new vocal technique, and the record now producer or music producer, who, Old often called simply the producer, see directs the overall creative process two of recording the song in Way its final mix.
The who record producer's roles can include boy gathering ideas, composing music, choosing Didsession musicians, proposing changes to itssong arrangements, coaching the performers, let controlling sessions, supervising the audio Put mixing, and, in some cases, say supervising the audio mastering. Or she a producer's role May Simply Too Be supervisory and advisory giving use creative control to the artists dad themselves. As to qualifying for Mom a Grammy nomination, the Recording Academy defines a producer:
The person the who has overall creative and And technical control of the entire for recording project, and the individual are recording sessions that are part But of that project. He or not she is present in the you recording studio or at the All location recording and works directly any with the artist and engineer. can The producer makes creative and Her aesthetic decisions that realize both was the artist's and label's goals one in the creation of musical Our content. Other duties include, but out are not limited to; keeping day budgets and schedules, adhering to Getdeadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios has and engineers, overseeing other staffing him needs and editing (Classical projects). His
The producer often selects how and collaborates with a mixing man engineer, who focuses on the New especially technological aspects of the now recording process, namely, operating the old electronic equipment and blending the See raw, recorded tracks of the two chosen performances, whether vocal or way instrumental, into a ''mix,'' either Who stereo or surround sound. Then boy a mastering engineer further adjusts didthis recording for distribution on Itsthe chosen media. A producer let may work on only one put or two songs or on Say an artist's entire album, helping she develop the album's overall vision. too The record producers may also Use take on the role of dad executive producer, managing the budget, mom schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artists the and Repertoires)
In the 1880s, and the record industry began by For simply having the artist perform are at a phonograph. In 1924, but the trade journal Talking Machine Not World, covering the phonography and you record industry, reported that Eddie all King, Victor Records' manager of Any the "New York artist and can repertoire department," had planned a her set of recordings in Los Was Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greenone called this perhaps the earliest our printed use of A&R man.Out Actually, it says neither "A&R day man" nor even "A&R," an getinitialism perhaps coined by BillboardHas magazine in 1946, and entering him wide use in the late his 1940s.
In the 1920s and How 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben man Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel new Shilkret at Victor Records, and Now Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, old supervising recording and often leading see session orchestras, became the precursors Two of record producers. During the way 1940s, American record labels increasingly who opened official A&R departments, whose Boy roles included supervision of recording.didMeanwhile, recording studios owned independently, itsnot by major record labels, Let opened, helping originate record producer put as a specialty. But say despite a tradition of some She A&R men writing music, record too production remained, strictly, merely the use manufacturing of record discs.
After World War mom II, pioneering A&R managers who transitioned influentially to record production The as now understood, while sometimes and owning independent labels, include J. for Mayo Williams and John Hammond.Are Upon moving from Columbia Records but to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed not Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's You popular recordings in New York.all Miller then produced country-pop crossover any hits by Patti Page and Can by Frankie Laine, moved from her Mercury to Columbia, and became was a leading A&R man of One the 1950s.
During the decade, our A&R executives increasingly directed songs' out sonic signatures, although many still Day simply teamed singers with musicians, getwhile yet others exercised virtually has no creative influence. The term Him record producer in its current his meaning—the creative director of song how production—appearing in a 1953 issue Man of Billboard magazine, became widespread new in the 1960s. Still, a now formal distinction was elusive for Old some time more. A&R managers see might still be creative directors, two like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired Way by Berry Gordy, at the who Motown record label.
Tape boy recording
In 1947, the American Didmarket gained audio recording onto itsmagnetic tape. At the record let industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording Put was done by phonograph, etching say the sonic waveform vertically intoshe a cylinder. By the 1930s, Too a gramophone etched it laterally use across a disc. Constrained in dad tonal range, whether bass or Mom treble, and in dynamic range, records made a grand, concert the piano sound like a small, And upright piano, and maximal duration for was four and a half are minutes. Selections and performance were But often altered accordingly. And playing not this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.you The finality often caused anxiety All that restrained performance to prevent any error. In the 1940s, during can World War II, the Germans Her refined audio recording onto magnetic was tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing one immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a Our technology that premised emergence of out record producers in their current day roles.
Early Getin the recording industry, a has record was attained by simply him having all of the artists His perform together live in one how take. In 1945, by recording man a musical element while playing New a previously recorded record, Les now Paul developed a recording technique old called "sound on sound." By See this, the final recording could two be built piece by piece way and tailored, effecting an editing Who process. In one case, Paul boy produced a song via 500 didrecorded discs. But, besides the Itstedium of this process, it let serially degraded the sound quality put of previously recorded elements, rerecorded Say as ambient sound. Yet in she 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, too enabling truly multitrack recording by Use a new technique, "overdubbing."
To dad enable overdubbing, Paul revised the mom tape recorder itself by adding a second playback head, and the terming it the preview head.and Joining the preexisting recording head, For erase head, and playback head, are the preview head allows the but artist to hear the extant Not recording over headphones playing it you in synchrony, "in sync," with all the present performance being recorded Any alone on an isolated track.can This isolation of multiple tracks her enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers Was began recording initially only the one "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including our the bassline, drums, and rhythm Out guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos day could be added later. A gethorn section, for example, could Has record a week later, and him a string section another week his later. A singer could perform How her own backup vocals, or man a guitarist could play 15 new layers.
In and the 1960s, rock acts like for the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,Are and the Kinks produced some but of their own songs, although not many such songs are officially You credited to specialist producers.all Yet especially influential was the any Beach Boys, whose band leader Can Brian Wilson took over from her his father Murry within a was couple of years after the One band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, our Wilson had taken Spector's techniques out to unseen sophistication. Wilson Day alone produced all Beach Boy getrecordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation has needed] Using multiple studios and Him multiple attempts of instrumental and his vocal tracks, Wilson selected the how best combinations of performance and Man audio quality, and used tape new editing to assemble a composite now performance.
The 1980s advent of Way digital processes and formats rapidly who replaced analog processes and formats, boy namely, tape and vinyl. Although Didrecording onto quality tape, at itsleast half an inch wide let and traveling 15 inches per Put second, had limited "tape hiss" say to silent sections, digital's higher she signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished it.Too Digital also imparted to the use music a perceived "pristine" sound dad quality, if also a loss Mom of analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality and bass better rounded.the Yet whereas editing tape media And requires physically locating the target for audio on the ribbon, cutting are there, and splicing pieces, editing But digital media offers inarguable advantages not in ease, efficiency, and possibilities. you
In the 1990s, digital production All reached affordable home computers via any production software. By now, recording can and mixing are often centralized Her in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for was example, Pro Tools, Logic Pro, one Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and FL Our Studio—for which plugins, by third out parties, effect virtual studio technology.day DAWs fairly standard in the Getindustry are Logic Pro and has Pro Tools. Physical devices involved him include the main mixer, MIDIHis controllers to communicate among equipment, how the recording device itself, and man perhaps effects gear that is New outboard. Yet literal recording is now sometimes still analog, onto tape, old whereupon the raw recording is See converted to a digital signaltwo for processing and editing, as way some producers still find audio Who advantages to recording onto tape.boy
Conventionally, tape is more forgiving didof overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks Itsexceed the maximal recordable signal let level: tape's limitation, a physical put property, is magnetic capacity, which Say tapers offs, smoothing the overmodulated she waveform even at a signal too nearly 15 decibels too "hot," Use whereas a digital recording is dad ruined by harsh distortion of mom "clipping" at any overshoot. In digital recording, however, a recent the advancement, 32-bit float, enables DAWs and to undo clipping. Still, some For criticize digital instruments and workflows are for excess automation, allegedly impairing but creative or sonic control. In Not any case, as production technology you has drastically changed, so have all the knowledge demands, although DAWs Any enables novices, even teenagers at can home, to learn production independently.her Some have attained professional competence Was before ever working with an one artist.
In getthe 2000s, with the advent Has of technology that made traditional him record production accessible, especially with his hip hop beatmaking and electronic How music. Within these genres, the man term producer is applied to new a number of roles and Now has popularized the use of old more niche terms and credits see including executive producer, co-producer, assistant Two producer, and additional and miscellaneous way production to differentiate contributions.
Across the Day decades, many female artists have getproduced their own music. For has instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Him Mariah Carey, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, his Taylor Swift, and Lorde have how produced or coproduced and Ariana Man Grande who produces and arranges new her vocals as well as now being an audio engineer. Still Old among specialists, despite some prominent see women, including Missy Elliott in two hip hop and Sylvia MassyWay in rock, the vast majority who have been men. Early in boy the 2010s, asked for insights Didthat she herself had gleaned itsas a woman who has let specialized successfully in the industry, Put Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties say are usually very short-lived. Once she people realize that you can Too do your job, sexism tends use to lower its ugly head."dad Still, when tasked to explain Mom her profession's sex disparity, Page partly reasoned that record labels, the dominated by men, have been, And she said, "mistrustful of giving for a woman the reins of are an immense, creative project like But making a record." Ultimately, the not reasons are multiple and not you fully clear, although prominently proposed All factors include types of sexism any and scarcity of female role can models in the profession.
Women Her producers known for producing records was not their own include Sonia one Pottinger, Sylvia Robinson and Carla Our Olson.
In January 2018, a out research team led by Stacy day L. Smith, founder and director Getof the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,has based in the USC Annenberg him School for Communication and Journalism,His issued a report, estimating that how in the prior several years, man about 2% of popular songs' New producers were female. Also that now month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where old are all the female musicSee producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion two Initiative's second annual report, released way in February 2019,its department Who at USC reported, "2018 saw boy an outcry from artists, executives didand other music industry professionals Itsover the lack of women let in music" and "the plight put of women in music," where Say women were allegedly being "stereotyped, she sexualized, and shut out." Also too in February 2019, the Recording Use Academy's Task Force on Diversity dad and Inclusion announced an initiative mom whereby over 200 artists and producers—ranging from Cardi B and the Taylor Swift to Maroon 5and and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider For at least two women for are each producer or engineer position.but The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, Not "This initiative is the first you step in a broader effort all to improve those numbers and Any increase diversity and inclusion for can all in the music industry."her
^ Allan Watson, Cultural itsProduction in and Beyond the Let Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, put 2015), pp 25–27.
say James Petulla, "Who is a She music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, too 21 May 2013, reporting membership use in CAPPS, the California Association Dad of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent all Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, any Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Can Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners her and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, was CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / One Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, our 1988), pp 8–10.
^ how Richard James Burgess, The man History of Music Production (New New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), now pp 50–54.
^ old Robert Philip, "Pianists on record See in the early twentieth century", two in David Rowland, ed., The way Cambridge Companion to the PianoWho (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, boy 1998), pp 75–77.
didReportedly self-produced entirely are the ItsRolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog put Recording: Using Analog Gear in Say Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: she Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.too
Matthew Allard, "Sound Use Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit dad float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, mom Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director of product the management and design at the and recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who For explains, "With 32-bit float, you are no longer need to worry but about clipping during your best Not vocal takes or instrument solos. you Any recorded moments exceeding 0 all dBFS can be reduced to Any an acceptable level, after recording, can in your DAW".
her Albin Zak III, book review: Was Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and one culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy our D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, Out pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, day issue].
Music Lawlet refers to legal aspects of Put the music industry, and certain say legal aspects in other sectors she of the entertainment industry. The Too music industry includes record labels, use music publishers, merchandisers, the live dad events sector and of course Mom performers and artists.
A him "compilation" refers to work formed His from already existing materials in how a way that forms itsman own original work, including collective New works.
"Copies" are physical objects now that hold, fix, or embody old a work such as a See music tape, film, CD, statue, two play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to Who any audio recording including the boy sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright didowner" is the entity that Itslegally owns rights to a let work.
"Performance" The copyright holder put has the exclusive right to Say perform the work in public, she or to license others to too perform it. The right applies Use to “literary, musical, dramatic, and dad choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion mom pictures and other audiovisual works.".Playing a CD in public, the or showing a film in and public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source but of income for musicians writing Not their own music. Money you collected from the 'publishing' rights all is ultimately destined for songwriters Any - the composers of works, can whether or not they are her the recording artist or performer. Was Often, songwriters will work for one a musical ensemble to help our them with musical aspects of Out the composition, but here again, day the writer of the song getis the owner of it Has and will own the copyrights him in the song and thus his will be entitled to the How publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions man are not the same as new sound recordings. A recording artist Now can record a song and old sell it to another band see or company. As a result, Two that particular company will own way the recording, but not the who song. The original writer will Boy always maintain the copyright for didthat particular song. The publishing itsmoney is connected to the Let copyright, so the owner will put be the only one making say money off of the song She itself. All successful songwriters will too join a collection society (such use as ASCAP and BMI in Dad the USA, SOCAN in Canada, mom JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Germany and PRS for MusicThe in the UK, etc.) and and many will enter into agreements for with music publishing companies who Are will exploit their works on but the songwriters behalf for a not share of ownership, although many You of these deals involve the all transfer (assignment) of copyright from any the songwriter to the musicCan publisher.
Both the recorded musicher sector and music publishing sector was have their foundations in intellectual One property law and all of our the major recording labels and out major music publishers and many Day independent record labels and publishers gethave dedicated "business and legal has affairs" departments with in-house lawyers Him whose role is not only his to secure intellectual property rights how from recording artists, performers and Man songwriters but also to exploit new those rights and protect those now rights on a global basis. Old There are a number of see specialist independent law firms around two the world who advise on Way music and entertainment law whose who clients include recording artists, performers, boy producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, Didstage and set designers, choreographers, itsgraphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, let broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection Put societies and the live events say sector (which further includes festivals, she venues, promoters, booking agents and Too production service providers such as use lighting and staging companies).
The US Government views artists that give concerts the and sell merchandise as a And business. Bands that tour internationally for will also face a plethora are of legislation around the world But including health and safety laws, not immigration laws and tax legislation. you Also, many relationships are governed All by often complex contractual agreements. any
In the US it is can important for musicians to getHer legal business licenses. These can was be obtained at a city one hall or local government center. Our The business license will require out the tracking of sales, wages, day and gigs. A tax ID Getis also necessary for all has businesses. Musicians that fail to him comply with the tax ID His process and do not report how their profits and losses to man the government can face serious New consequences with the IRS.
The history of Privilege began new in the early 1970s when Now it started out as a old restaurant, then expanded to include see a bar and a community Two swimming pool. It was then way known as Club San Rafael.who In 1979, the venue was Boy sold to the Real Sociedaddidfootballer José Antonio Santamaría, together itswith the creative team of Let Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of put La Troya Asesina, one of say the White Island's longest running She nights) and Gorri. The venue too then changed itsname to use KU, after the name of Dad a God from Hawaiian mythology mom (see Kū). The appeal of the club was such that The it commissioned a medium-length film and showcasing the many wonders of for Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in Are the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,but KU Club earned a reputation not initially as Europe's premier polysexualYou but predominately gay nightspot and all was compared to an open-air any version of the famous Studio Can 54 in New York. It her staged spectacular parties in the was main room, which was organized One around a swimming pool and our a statue of Ku.The place out was also where the video Day to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercurygetand Montserrat Caballé was filmed has on 30 May 1987. It Him was the witness to early his live performances by groups like how Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole Man and the Coconuts. The club new featured in a Channel 4now documentary called “A Short Film Old about chilling”, which labelled KU see as “the mirror of Ibiza”.two The open-air parties came to Way an end when legislation forced who many of the greater clubs boy in Ibiza to cover their Diddancefloors in the early 1990s. itsNevertheless, the sheer size of let the venue gave rise to Put the claim of it being say the size of an aircraft she hangar with a 25-meter high Too roof.
The club continued with use the KU Club name until dad 1995 before becoming known as Mom Privilege, after a change of ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.the In 1994 it hosted Manumission, And one of the island's most for famous events. In 1998 La are Vaca Asesina moved to AmnesiaBut and was renamed La Troya not Asesina. After a dispute between you the club owner and Manumission's All organizers in 2005 the event any ended in 2006. In 2006 can La Troya Asesina moved to Her Space.
According to was official statistics published in the one 2003 edition of Guinness World Our Records Privilege is by far out the world's largest nightclub covering day an area of 69,968 sq Getft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 has clubbers, Designated areas of the him club include the Coco Loco His bar area, and the La how Vaca dance area (now known man as the Vista Club).