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House of Luxembourg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The House of Luxembourg (Czech: Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

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Transcription

Contents

History

The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the ducal House of LimburgArlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg),[citation needed] which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV  Habsburg  Luxembourg  Wittelsbach
Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV
  Habsburg
  Luxembourg
  Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313.

The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until their extinction upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.

Notable members

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia

According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny. That branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, and was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France.[3]

Genealogy

Staufen dynasty.JPG

House of Limburg–Arlon

 

Waleran I
(† 1082)
Count of Limburg

Henry I
(1059 † 1119)
Count of Limburg

Waleran II
(1085 † 1139)
Duke of Limburg

Henry II
(1111 † 1167)
Duke of Limburg

Henry III
(1140 † 1221)

Limburg Old Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg

Waleran III
(1180 † 1226)
Armoiries Chypre.svg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Duke of Limburg



Henry IV
(† 1247)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg


Waleran
(† 1242)
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg

Lord of Fauquemont

Henry V
(1217 † 1281)
50px
Count of Luxembourg


Gerard
(† 1276)
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg

Count of Durbuy



Adolf IV
(1220 † 1259)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Berg

Waleran IV
(† 1279)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Duke of Limburg

Henry VI
(1250 † 1288)
50px
Count of Luxembourg

Waleran I
(1252 † 1288)
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg

Lord of Ligny


Adolf V
(† 1296)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Berg

William I
(† 1308)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Berg

Henry of Windeck
(† 1292)





Ermengarde
(† 1283)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

x Reginald I of Guelders

Henry VII
(1275 † 1313)
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg

Holy Roman Emperor

Waleran II
(1275 † 1354)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Ligny.png
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Lord of Ligny
Adolf VI
(† 1348)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Berg
John the Blind
(1296 † 1346)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg.svg

King of Bohemia
John I
(1300 † 1364)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Lord of Ligny


Charles IV
(1316 † 1378)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg

Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia

John Henry
(1322 † 1372)
Armoiries Jean-Henri de Luxembourg.svg

Margrave
of Moravia

Wenceslaus I
(1337 † 1383)
Armoiries Wenceslas de Luxembourg.png

Duke of
Luxembourg

Guy
(1340 † 1371)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol



Wenceslaus IV
(1361 † 1419)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg

King of the Romans
King of Bohemia

Sigismund
(1368 † 1437)
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.svg

Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia and Hungary

John
(1370 † 1396)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg

Duke of Görlitz




Jobst
(1351 † 1411)
Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg

margrave
of Moravia and
Brandenburg

Waleran III
(1356 † 1415)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Ligny
and of Saint-Pol

John
(1370 † 1397)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg

Lord of Beauvoir
Count of Brienne




Elizabeth of Luxembourg
(1409 † 1442)
X Albert II of Habsburg

Elisabeth
(1390 † 1453)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg

Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy


Peter
(1390 † 1433)

Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol




John II
(1392 † 1441)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg

Count of Ligny


Louis
(1418 † 1475)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Count of Saint-Pol



Peter II
(† 1482)

Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol


Thibaud
(† 1477)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Lord of Fiennes, Count of Brienne, Bishop of Le Mans


Jacques
(† 1487)

Blason Charles II de Ligny-Luxembourg (1576–1608).svg
Lord of Fiennes and Gavre

Early Luxembourg counts

The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be:

 
Cunigunda of Montjoie

Waleran III
Duke of Limburg
│ │
Ermesinde
Countess of Luxembourg



Henry IV
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg


Waleran
Lord of Fauquemont
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg

Henry V
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg


Gerard
Count of Durbuy
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg



Adolphe IV
Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Waleran IV
Duke of Limburg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Henry VI
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg

Waleran I
Lord of Ligny
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg

Ancestors

Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The Counts of Loon are also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

 
Conrad I
(1040 † 1086)
Count of Luxembourg


Henry III
(† 1086)
Count of Luxembourg

William
(1081 † 1131)
Count of Luxembourg
X 1105 Matilda of Northeim

Ermesinde
(1075 † 1143)
X 1) Albert II, Count of Dagsburg
X 2) Godfrey I, Count of Namur



Conrad II
(† 1136)
Count of Luxembourg
s.p.

Liutgarde
(1120 † 1170)
X Henri II
(1125 † 1211)
Counts of Grandpré
Loon Arms.svg

Hugh VII1
(† 1137)
Count of Dagsburg

three children
died without issue

Mathilde1
X Folmar V
(† 1145)
Count of Metz

Henri IV²
(1112 † 1196)
Count of Namur and of Luxembourg

Ermesinde
(1186 † 1247)
X 1) Theobald I, Count of Bar
X 2) Waleran III, Duke of Limburg

Henry V
(1216 † 1284)
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg


two sons
died without issue

Agnès
X Louis I, Count of Loon|Louis I
(1110 † 1171)
Counts of Loon
Loon Arms.svg

 
 
 
 

See also

References

  1. ^ http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Luxembourg-Saint-Pol.pdf
  2. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
  3. ^ Cave, Roy; Coulson, Herbert (1965). A Source Book for Medieval Economic History. New York: Biblo and Tannen. p. 336.
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