elizabeth of bosnia : definition of elizabeth of bosnia and synonyms of elizabeth of bosnia (English)

Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - elizabeth of bosnia

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼


Elizabeth of Bosnia

Elizabeth of Bosnia
Middle-aged woman holding a young woman in her arms
Elizabeth with her daughter Mary in captivity, painted by Soma Orlai Petrich in 1894
Queen consort of Hungary
Tenure 20 June 1353 – 10 September 1382
Queen consort of Poland
Tenure 5 November 1370 – 10 September 1382
Spouse Louis I, King of Hungary and Poland
Catherine, Heiress of Hungary and Poland
Mary I, Queen of Hungary
Saint Hedwig I, Queen of Poland
House House of Kotromanić
Father Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia
Mother Elizabeth of Kuyavia
Born c. 1339
Died January 1387
Novigrad Castle, Novigrad
Kingdom of Hungary (today's Croatia)
Burial Székesfehérvár Basilica
(previously St Chrysogonus's Church)

Elizabeth of Bosnia (c. 1339 – January 1387) became queen of Hungary upon her marriage to King Louis I in 1353, and was the daughter of Ban Stephen II of Bosnia. In 1370, Elizabeth gave birth to a long-anticipated heir, Catherine, and became queen of Poland when Louis succeeded to the Polish throne. The royal couple had two more daughters, Mary and Hedwig, but Catherine died in 1378. When Louis died in 1382, Mary ascended to the throne of Hungary with Elizabeth as regent. Unable to preserve the personal union of Hungary and Poland, the queen dowager secured the Polish throne for her youngest daughter, Hedwig.

During her regency in Hungary, Elizabeth faced several rebellions led by John Horvat and John of Palisna, who attempted to take advantage of Mary's insecure reign. In 1385, they invited King Charles III of Naples to depose Mary and assume the crown. Elizabeth responded by having Charles murdered two months after his coronation, in 1386. She had the crown restored to her daughter and established herself as regent once more, only to be captured, imprisoned and ultimately strangled by her enemies.


  Descent and early years

Born around 1339, Elizabeth was the daughter of Ban Stephen II of Bosnia, the head of the House of Kotromanić.[1] Her mother was Elizabeth of Kuyavia, a member of the House of Piast[2] and grandniece of King Vladislaus the Short of Poland.[3]

In 1349, the fourteen-year-old queen of Hungary, Margaret of Bohemia, died from the Black Death.[4] Elizabeth of Poland, the mother of the widowed and childless King Louis I of Hungary, insisted on immediately bringing the daughter of the ban of Bosnia to the Hungarian court for fostering. Stephen was reluctant at first, but he eventually dispatched Elizabeth,[5] whose mother had already died.[6]

In 1350, Tsar Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia attacked Bosnia in order to regain Zachlumia. The invasion was not successful, and the tsar tried to negotiate peace, which would be sealed by Elizabeth's marriage to his son and heir apparent, King Stephen Uroš V. The tsar expected Zachlumia to be ceded as Elizabeth's dowry, but her father refused to consider the proposal.[7] The same year, she moved to the queen mother's court in Visegrád and was formally betrothed to Louis in 1350.[8] The two were related in the fourth degree through a common ancestor, Duke Casimir I of Kuyavia, making Pope Innocent IV's consent necessary.[9]


Sarcophagus with an inscription between two relief compositions
  A replica of the Chest of Saint Simeon, commissioned by Elizabeth, with the queen and her daughters depicted on the left and the queen's father on his deathbed on the right
Woman handing a sarcophagus to a saint with her three daughters kneeling in front of her
  Queen Elizabeth presenting the chest to St. Simeon, with Catherine, Mary and Hedwig praying

Louis married Elizabeth in Buda on 20 June 1353,[9] hoping to defeat Tsar Dušan either with her father's help or as his eventual successor. He was dismayed when, upon his father-in-law's death later the same year, Elizabeth's young and ambitious cousin Tvrtko succeeded as ban.[10] In 1357, Louis summoned the young ban to Požega and compelled him to surrender most of western Zachlumia as Elizabeth's dowry.[1][11]

The new queen of Hungary subjected herself entirely to her controlling mother-in-law. She did not have her own court and her retinue included the same individuals who had served the queen mother. Elizabeth was completely powerless early in the marriage, with her mother-in-law's influence prevailing until 1370, when Louis succeeded his maternal uncle, Casimir III the Great, as king of Poland, and sent his mother to govern the kingdom as regent.[4] Elizabeth, though queen of Poland, was never crowned as such.[12] On his return from Poland, Louis brought Casimir's underage daughters, Anne and Hedwig, to be raised at her court.[13] Elizabeth's own maternal uncle, Vladislaus the White, was also a candidate for the throne of Poland. As the queen's uncle, he remained closely tied to the royal court despite failing to gain control of at least a small part of the kingdom.[14]

The problem of the succession marked Louis' reign. Elizabeth was long considered barren, and a succession crisis was expected after the childless king's death. Her brother-in-law Stephen was officially heir presumptive until his death, in 1354, when his son John replaced him. John's own death, in 1360, made the extinction of the dynasty a real possibility.[15] A daughter was born to the queen and king in 1365, but the child died the next year.[16] For a couple of years, John's sister, Elizabeth, was promoted to heiress presumptive and a suitable marriage for her was being negotiated. Things suddenly took a different course when the queen had three daughters in quick succession; Catherine was born in July 1370, Mary in 1371, and Hedwig in 1373 or 1374.[15] Elizabeth is known to have written a book for the education of her daughters, a copy of which was sent to France in 1374. However, all copies have been lost.[17][18]

Securing marriage to one of the princesses soon became a priority in European royal courts.[15] Mary was scarcely one year old when she was promised to Sigismund of Luxembourg.[19] In 1374, Catherine was betrothed to Louis of France,[15] but died towards the end of 1378, sometime after Hedwig's betrothal to William of Austria.[20]

The king, weakened by illness, became progressively less active in the last years of his reign, devoting an increasing amount of time to prayer, as did his aging mother, who had returned from Poland in 1374. These circumstances allowed Elizabeth to assume a more prominent role at court. Her influence had grown steadily since she had given her husband three possible heiresses. It appeared probable that the crowns would pass to one of Elizabeth's underage daughters and by 1374, it became certain.[21] Behind the scenes, Elizabeth began ensuring that the succession would be as smooth as possible by encouraging a slow but decisive change in the personnel of the government. Warlike and illiterate barons were gradually replaced by a small group of noblemen who excelled in their professional skills but were not distinguished by birth or military ability. Palatine Nicholas I Garay led the movement and enjoyed the full support of the queen, and their power eventually became virtually unrestricted.[21]

  Widowhood and regency

Young woman crying at a tomb with her mother standing above her
  Elizabeth and Mary mourning at the tomb of Louis I, by Sándor Liezen-Mayer, 1864

Louis died on 10 September 1382 and Mary succeeded to the throne of Hungary. Elizabeth, now queen dowager, acted as regent on behalf of the eleven-year-old sovereign. The queen mother's rule was not to be peaceful; the first to rise against her was John of Palisna, Ban of Croatia, who was mainly opposed to the centralizing policy which her husband had enforced. Her cousin Tvrtko also decided to take advantage of Louis' death and Elizabeth's unpopularity by trying to recover the lands he had lost to the king in 1357. John asked Tvrtko for help, but they were ultimately defeated by Elizabeth's army and John was forced to flee to Bosnia.[22]

  Hedwig's accession in Poland

Although Louis had designated Mary as his successor in both of his kingdoms, the Polish nobles, seeking an end to the personal union with Hungary, were not willing to recognize Mary and Sigismund as their sovereigns.[23] They would have accepted Mary if she had moved to Kraków and reigned over both kingdoms from there rather than from Hungary, ruling according to their advice rather than that of the Hungarian nobles and marrying a prince of their choosing. Their intentions, however, were not to Elizabeth's taste. She too would have been required to move to Kraków, where the lack of trusted men would render her unable to enforce her own will. Elizabeth was also aware of the difficulties her mother-in-law had faced during her regency in Poland, which had ended with the old queen fleeing her native kingdom in disgrace.[24]

Following two years of negotiations, Elizabeth, who had even considered taking up arms,[21] proposed her youngest daughter Hedwig as Louis' successor in Poland,[24] and absolved the nobles from their oaths to Mary and Sigismund. Hedwig thus unexpectedly ascended to the Polish throne and was crowned in October 1384.[25]

In 1385, Elizabeth received an official delegation from Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, who wished to marry Hedwig. In the Act of Kreva, Jogaila promised to pay compensation to William of Austria on Elizabeth's behalf and requested that Elizabeth, as widow of King Louis and heiress of Poland herself as great-grandniece of King Vladislaus (whose name Jogaila had purposely assumed on his baptism), legally adopt him as her son in order to give him the right to retain the Polish crown in the event of Hedwig's death.[26][27] The marriage was celebrated in 1386.[25]

  Mary's marriage issue

Map of Eastern and Southeast Europe
  Lands held by Louis the Great and inherited by Elizabeth's daughters

Sigismund and his brother Wenceslaus, King of Germany and Bohemia, were also opposed to Elizabeth and Garay. The Queen and the Palatine, on the other hand, were not enthuasiastic about Sigismund reigning together with Mary. Both Sigismund and Mary's relative, King Charles III of Naples, threatened to invade Hungary; the former intended to marry Mary and become her co-ruler, while the latter intended to depose her. Elizabeth was determined to allow neither and, in 1384, started negotiating Mary's marriage to Louis of France, notwithstanding her daughter's engagement to Sigismund. Had this proposal been made after Catherine's death in 1378, the Western Schism would have represented a problem, with France recognising Clement VII as pope and Hungary accepting Urban VI. However, Elizabeth was desperate in 1384 and unwilling to let the schism stand in the way of the negotiations. Clement VII issued a dispensation which annulled Mary's betrothal to Sigismund, and her proxy marriage to Louis was celebrated in April 1385, but it was not recognized by the Hungarian noblemen, who adhered to Urban VI.[28]

Elizabeth's plan to have Mary married to Louis of France divided the court. The House of Lacković, the master of the treasury Nicholas Zámbó and the judge royal Nicholas Szécsi openly opposed it and renounced their allegiance to the queen mother in August, which resulted in her depriving them of all their offices and replacing them with Garay's partisans. The kingdom was on the verge of a civil war when the king of Naples, invited by John Horvat and his brother Paul, Bishop of Zagreb, arrived to claim the throne for himself. His arrival forced Elizabeth to yield and abandon the idea of French marriage. While her envoys in Paris were preparing for Louis's journey, Elizabeth came to terms with her opponents and Szécsi was appointed palatine.[29] Four months after her proxy marriage to Louis, Sigismund entered Hungary and had himself married to Mary by Cardinal Demetrius, Archbishop of Esztergom, but the marriage turned out to be too late; he fled to his brother Wenceslaus' court in Prague in the autumn of 1385.[29]

  Deposition and restoration

People gathered around a tomb while a bishop places crown on the head of a man in the background
  Elizabeth and Mary attending Charles' coronation, by József Molnár, 1880's

Charles's arrival was well-prepared. He was accompanied by his Hungarian supporters and Elizabeth was unable to raise an army against him or prevent him from convoking a diet, in which he obtained an overwhelming support. Mary was forced to abdicate, opening the path for Charles to be crowned on 31 December 1385,[29] with Elizabeth and Mary compelled to attend the coronation[30] and swear allegiance to him.[31]

Deprived of authority, Elizabeth feigned friendly feelings for her husband's kinsman while his retinue was at the court, but after his supporters had returned to their homes, he was left defenseless.[32] She acted quickly and invited him to visit Mary at one of her palaces. Upon his arrival there on 7 February 1386, Elizabeth had Charles stabbed in her apartments and in her presence. He was taken to Visegrád, where he died on 24 February.[30][32]

Having had the crown restored to her daughter, the queen mother immediately proceeded to reward those who had helped her, giving Jelenec Castle to Blaise Forgach, the Master of the Cupbearers, whose blow had mortally wounded Charles. In April, Sigismund was brought to Hungary by his brother Wenceslaus and the queens were compelled to accept him as Mary's co-ruler by a treaty signed in Győr.[32] Having Charles murdered did not help Elizabeth as much as she hoped it would, however, as the Neapolitan party immediately recognized Charles' son Ladislaus as heir[33] and fled to Zagreb, where Bishop Paul pawned church estates in order to collect money for an army against Elizabeth.[34]

  Death and aftermath

Man defending a carriage containing two women from a group of armed men
  Palatine Garay defending Elizabeth and Mary from the attackers, painted by Mihály Kovács in c. 1895. Garay was slaughtered by the rebels and his head was sent to the queen of Naples.[32]

Elizabeth believed that her daughter's mere presence would help calm the opposition.[32] Accompanied by Garay and a modest following,[32] she and Mary set out for Đakovo.[33] However, Elizabeth had seriously misjudged the situation. On 25 July 1386, they were ambushed en route and attacked by John Horvat in Gorjani.[32][33] Their small entourage failed to fight off the attackers, and the queens were imprisoned in the Bishop of Zagreb's castle of Gomnec.[32] Elizabeth took all blame for the rebellion and begged the attackers to spare her daughter's life.[35]

The queens were then sent to Novigrad Castle, held by their new jailer, John of Palisna.[33] Charles's widow Margaret insisted that Elizabeth be killed.[36] She was tried and, after the Christmas adjournment of the proceedings, found guilty of inciting Charles' murder.[37] Sigismund marched into Slavonia in January 1387, with the intention to reach Novigrad and rescue the queens.[38] Towards the middle of January, when news of Sigismund's approach reached Novigrad, Elizabeth was strangled by guards before Mary's eyes.[33][37][38]

Mary was released from the captivity by Sigismund's troops on 4 June.[37] Having been secretly buried in the St Chrysogonus's Church in Zadar on 9 February 1387, Elizabeth's body was exhumed on 16 January 1390, transferred by sea to Obrovac and then carried overland to Székesfehérvár Basilica.[39]


A street sign
  "Street of Queen Elizabeth Kotromanić, donor of St. Simeon's casket" (Croatian: Ulica kraljice Elizabete Kotromanić, darovateljice rake sv. Šime) in Zadar

Modern historians tend to describe Elizabeth as a formidable woman, while her contemporaries regarded her as an efficient but ruthless politician who used political intrigues to protect her daughter's interests,[40] successfully defending her daughter's rights.[30]

Elizabeth was a caring parent, but was neither politically talented nor qualified to prepare Mary and Hedwig for their roles as monarchs. She failed to set a good example for her daughters, and her unbalanced character and questionable methods in politics would serve more as a warning to the young sovereigns. Hedwig was disappointed by her mother's procrastinations and inability to make clear decisions, while Mary was most distressed by her endless problems with Croatian nobles and failure to improve the relations with her native Bosnia.[41]

Queen Elizabeth is known to have commissioned the creation of Saint Simeon's casket in 1381. The casket, located in Zadar, is of great importance for the history of the city, as it depicts various historical events – such as the death of her father – and Elizabeth herself. According to legend, Elizabeth paid for the creation of the casket in order to atone for stealing the saint's finger.[42] The casket contains a scene which allegedly depicts the queen gone mad after stealing the saint's finger.[43]

  Family tree

Casimir I
c. 1211–1267
Duke of Kuyavia
Queen of Naples
c. 1245–1287
Duke of Kuyavia
Duke of Durazzo
Charles Martel
Prince of Salerno
Vladislaus I
King of Poland
Casimir II
Duke of Kuyavia
Baness of Bosnia
Stephen I
d. 1314
Ban of Bosnia
Count of Gravina
Charles I
King of Hungary
Queen of Hungary
c. 1330–1388
Duke of Kuyavia
c. 1318–c. 1345
Baness of Bosnia
Stephen II
d. 1353
Ban of Bosnia
Charles the Small
King of
Hungary and Naples
Louis the Great
King of
Hungary and Poland
c. 1339–1387
Queen of
Hungary and Poland
King of Bosnia
King[44] of Hungary
King of Hungary
King[44] of Poland
c. 1362–1434
King of Poland

  See also



  1. ^ a b Engel, 163.
  2. ^ Kellogg, 9.
  3. ^ Rudzki, 47.
  4. ^ a b Engel, 171.
  5. ^ Instytut Historii (Polska Akademia Nauk)
  6. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 88.
  7. ^ Van Antwerp Fine, 323.
  8. ^ Várdy, Grosschmid, Domonkos, 226.
  9. ^ a b Długosz, 303.
  10. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 40.
  11. ^ Van Antwerp Fine, 369.
  12. ^ Rożek, 49.
  13. ^ Jasienica, 6.
  14. ^ Várdy, Grosschmid, Domonkos, 147.
  15. ^ a b c d Engel, 169.
  16. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 49.
  17. ^ Jansen, 13.
  18. ^ Johnson & Wogan-Browne, 203.
  19. ^ Engel, 170.
  20. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 69.
  21. ^ a b c Engel, 188.
  22. ^ Van Antwerp Fine, 395.
  23. ^ Goodman & Gillespie, 208.
  24. ^ a b Varga, 41.
  25. ^ a b Goodman, 221.
  26. ^ McKitterick, 709–712.
  27. ^ Lithuanian historical studies, 10-11.
  28. ^ Goodman & Gillespie, 222–223.
  29. ^ a b c Engel, 196-197.
  30. ^ a b c Grierson & Travaini, 236.
  31. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 146.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Engel, 198.
  33. ^ a b c d e Van Antwerp Fine, 396–397.
  34. ^ Šišić, 50.
  35. ^ Duggan, 231.
  36. ^ Gaži, 61.
  37. ^ a b c Gromada & Halecki, 164.
  38. ^ a b Engel, 199.
  39. ^ Petricioli, 196.
  40. ^ Parsons, 16.
  41. ^ Gromada & Halecki, 85.
  42. ^ Stewart, 210.
  43. ^ Filozofski fakultet u Zadru, 455.
  44. ^ a b Mary and Hedwig assumed masculine titles because there were no precedents for a queen regnant in either Hungary or Poland. The title of queen had only been used to refer to wives of kings and it was necessary to emphasise that they were monarchs rather than consorts.


  • Długosz, Jan (1997). Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae, Part 1480. IM Publications. ISBN 1-901019-00-4. 
  • Duggan, Anne J. (2002). Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe: Proceedings of a Conference Held at King's College London, April 1995. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-881-1. 
  • Engel, Pal (1999). Ayton, Andrew. ed. The realm of St. Stephen: a history of medieval Hungary, 895–1526 Volume 19 of International Library of Historical Studies. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-01758-9. 
  • Radovi: Razdio filoloških znanosti. 9. Filozofski fakultet u Zadru. 1976. 
  • Gaži, Stephen (1973). A History of Croatia. Philosophical Library. 
  • Goodman, Anthony; Gillespie, James (2003). Richard II: The Art of Kingship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926220-9. 
  • Grierson, Philip; Travaini, Lucia (1998). Medieval European coinage: with a catalogue of the coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Volume 14. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ISBN 0-521-58231-8. 
  • Gromada, Tadeusz; Halecki, Oskar (1991). Jadwiga of Anjou and the rise of East Central Europe. Social Science Monographs. ISBN 0-88033-206-9. 
  • Instytut Historii (Polska Akademia Nauk) (2004). Acta Poloniae historica, Issues 89–90. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. 
  • Jansen, Sharon L. (2004). Anne of France : lessons for my daughter – Library of medieval women. DS Brewer. ISBN 1-84384-016-2. 
  • Jasienica, Paweł (1978). Jagiellonian Poland. American Institute of Polish Culture. ISBN 978-1-881284-01-7. 
  • Johnson, Ian Richard; Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn (1999). The idea of the vernacular: an anthology of Middle English literary theory, 1280–1520 Library of medieval women. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-01758-9. 
  • Kellogg, Charlotte (1936). Jadwiga, Queen of Poland. Anderson House. 
  • Lithuanian historical studies, Volume 1. The Institute. 1996. 
  • McKitterick, Rosamond (2000). Jones, Michael. ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1300–c. 1415. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36290-3. 
  • Parsons, John Carmi (1997). Medieval Queenship. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-17298-2. 
  • Petricioli, Ivo (1996) (in Croatian). Srednjovjekovnim graditeljima u spomen. Književni krug. 
  • Rożek, Michał (1987) (in Polish). Polskie koronacje i korony. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. ISBN 83-03-01913-9. 
  • Rudzki, Edward (1990) (in Polish). Polskie królowe. Instytut Prasy i Wydawnictw "Novum". 
  • Stewart, James (2006). Croatia. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-86011-319-2. 
  • Šišić, Ferdo (1902). Vojvoda Hrvoje Vukc̆ić Hrvatinić i njegovo doba (1350–1416). Zagreb: Matice hrvatske. 
  • Van Antwerp Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. 
  • Várdy, Steven Béla; Grosschmid, Géza; Domonkos, Leslie S. (1986). Louis the Great: King of Hungary and Poland. East European Monographs. ISBN 0-88033-087-2. 
  • Varga, Domonkos (1982). Hungary in greatness and decline: the 14th and 15th centuries. Hungarian Cultural Foundation. ISBN 0-914648-11-X. 

  External links

Elizabeth of Bosnia
Born: 1340 Died: January 1387
Royal titles
Title last held by
Margaret of Luxembourg
Queen consort of Hungary
20 June 1353 – 10 September 1382
Title next held by
Margaret of Durazzo
Preceded by
Hedwig of Sagan
Queen consort of Poland
5 November 1370 – 10 September 1382
Title next held by
Anne of Cilli


All translations of elizabeth of bosnia

sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

   Advertising ▼

Webmaster Solution


A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code


With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.


The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.


3559 online visitors

computed in 0.063s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
please precise:

My account



   Advertising ▼