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Auattnl^ ;i)ftaga^ne. 



" Whatsoever things ire tnie, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things 
are jnst, whatsoever things are pore, whatsoever things are lovelj, whatsoever 
things are of good report' 




LL.D. F.A.S. 



AND ^^ 


I r^ 


Prmi$d at th4 Ctuetom Pr§$s, fijf fiimry FUker, 


BT. Paul's church-tard; wauoh and innes, Edinburgh; wood, 




After making trial for a twelvemonth of the practicability 
of conducting their Journal on a reduced scale, without an 
undue interference with the rapid increase of their profes- 
sional and private engagements, the Editors of the Iiivesti- 
gator, at the close of the eighteenth number, and Eighth 
Volume of their work, are reluctantly, but imperatively, 
compelled to say, " Here our labours terminate/' Their 
wish would have been to proceed, but the great inconveni- 
ence of superintending a periodical work through the press, 
whilst hastily removing from place to place, at a distance of 
two hundred miles from home, and in tne midst of the bustle 
and complexity of the business which regularly calls him 
^ence, has rendered it impossible for the final Editor longer 
to continue at a post, from which his colleagues have as 
little leisure to relieve him. With sincere thanks, therefore, 
to their friends and contributors, for the support they have 
experienced for the last five years — and with the hope, that 
in a period in which splendid talents have been shamelessly 
prostituted to the cause of vice and irreligion, their efforts 
to counteract its pestilential influence have not been alto- 
gether in vain — in that editorial capacity, which has but 
more strongly cemented the ties of an early and most inti- 
mate friendship, they bid their readers an unwilling, yet a 
final adieu ; referring them for a continuation of several of 
the articles commenced in this work, to the Philomathic 
Journal, a' quarterly publication, edited at an institution, of 
which they are all honorary members, and over which one of 
them presides. Where their wishes or recommendation can 
have any weight, that journal will succeed, on the shelves of 
their suDscribers, the one they now abandon. 

September 24, 1824. 

"■"^*^J-*^,„._^^ , 

Zieiif- Governor of 3aici^olfn . ^c. 

^t ]Ettli«i»ttg:aliir« 

JAinr ART, 1824. 

Memoir qf Sm Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt, F.R. 
and A.S., Lieut.^Govemor qf Bencookn,S^c.lfc,S^c» 

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was born on board 
the ship Ann, at sea, off the harbour of puort Morant, in the 
island of Jamaica, on the 6th of July, 1781. His father, 
Benjamin Raffles, was one of the oldest captains in the 
West India trade, from the port of London. Sir Stamford 
received his educalioii principally under Dr. Anderson, 
who presided over a respectable academy at Hammersmith. 
At an early age he was admitted on the establishment at the 
East India House, where his talents and his industry 
obtained for him the esteem and confidence of the then 
secretary, the late Wm. Ramsfiy, Esq., through whose in- 
terest, in 1805, the directors gave him the handsome and 
flattering appoin.tment of assistant^secretary to the govern- 
ment in Prince of Walea's Island, together willi the rank of 
Snior mierchant, and an eventual succession to council, 
e had not been long in that settlement before he became 
chief secretary. 

While there, he diligently applied himself to the study of 
the Malay, and other languages of the Eastern Archipelago. 
To these studies he was incited in no small degree by the 
late lamented Dr. Leyden, with whom he formed a fnend- 
ship the most endearing, which was unhappily terminated 
by the death of that eminent scholar, who expired at Bata- 
via in the arms of his friend. Such was the success with 
which he cultivated the study of these languages, that he 
was appointed Malay translator to the government; and 
Lord Minto, then governor-general of India, honoured him 
with especial notice in one of his anniversary discourses to 
the college of Calcutta. Thus he became known to that 
truly enlightened nobleman, whose highest regard and con- 
fidence it was afterwards his happiness to enjoy> and in 
whose death he has had to deplore the loss of a most steady 
and inestimable friend. 

In 181 U Sir Stamford was induced to visit Calcutta, 
whence he accompanied Lord Minto in the expedition 
against Java, in the capacity of private secretary to his 
lordship, and his agent in the Malay states ; and in the 

VOL. Vlll.— NO. 1. B 

2 Memmr of Sir T. S. Raffles, Knt. 

month 6f October ib thftt year^ he was appointed to die high 
station of lieutenant-governor of that island, and its various 
important dependencies. How he disChdtged the trust 
reposed in him by this distinguished xmpointment is well 
known; while the mildness anaequity oi his administration . 
endeared him to the millions, amongst whom he then dis^ 
pensed the blessings of the British government^ to a degree 
almost unexamplea in our colonial history. 

During his residence in Java, b^ lost hit fiMt wife, to 
iHiom he was united previous to his leaving ikm G^mtsttj ; 
alid hi^ health having materially stdfered from the combiMcl 
kifiueAce <tf domestie affliction, tad the severe duties of his 
stiition, lie was induced to visit England^ He arrived at 
Falmotttfi in tlie autumn of 1816, bringing with him the 
R4den R4iia Dipiira, a Javanese prince, win his wait; ond 
a more sple&did and extensive edileetion of specioiens kX 
five piroduc^tionB, costMoe, &c. of the Eastern Artlnpeb^^ 
iSum had ever befine been received into a British port. The 
reception *witfa which he m^ in England, must have kfeetk 
highly gratifying io ktJtk. He had tihe pleasure to see tinvt 
his memoes were appreciated by tiie public, while from f>er* 
sons, of all ranks tiM dassee xK society, he received the 
Aiost flattering markfi of kind and respectful atteudoti. 

During his stay in this quarter of Ae glot)e, 
standing the numerous engagements by which he wa& 
oppressed, be found leisure to accotbplish a tour on the 
Contineirt;, the details of "whidi l^we beefti ^ven to the 
public by one of the party, — ^and to publii^h his History of 
Java in two large quurto tolumes, containi&g ub imtiieitiM 
mass of valuable information relative to that iateresting 
country. He also, while in En^and, bad the haippiness to 
tbtOk a matrimonial connexion tvith a most amiable lady, 
Sophia, the daughter of J. Watson Hull, Esq. late ^ (Sveait 
!baddo^, in Essex. 

As an acknowledgment <^ his services, and as the best 
appointment, after the remgnation of Java, nt their oommiind^ 
€he East India Company confirmed bis 'notmnation to 
Beticoolen, in Sumatra, which bad been held in ^resUfve for 
him, in the anticipation that such an ev«iil might ^possibly 
occur. With this appointment, the runk ttud title of li««i* 
tenant-governor was conferred upon him. <He ahoFeo^ived 
the honour of knighthood from his Mtijesty, tb^u {Prince 
Regent, who graciously permitted the dedkation of 'bis 
History of Java to himself. 

Sir StttlsoioTd left the shores of Engtatid for his new 

Memoir i^^if T- S. {Uiles, Knt 3 

etetioD. in ^or^vph^t, 1817, h^mg \m^ Ae^samA ^ fM- 
WPutb by contrwy wind^, loqig enough i,o r^oeiye tb^ n^plim- 
choly intelligence of the death pf the laweilted Piruic^jas 
Charloitt^, whqse friendship, tpgetbftr witfc tjiait pf hpr iUm- 
tn€>u$ cpnsort, he had the diAting^i^ed g^tiilc^pii to 
enjoy i ai»d hid first public act, pn his arrivp,! in hif ^^V 
governmeiit, Wft3 ti^e f(»niirardi.&g of an j^^d^f^s pf fiOf^olefkGe 
f/p hi9 m^eet^y on Ilie.t pioati^o^jiriUul m^t- 

Sinee \h^ cpfnii^nceineilt of his adminigU^ion ii^ Siuy^- 
tm, Sijr Stsup^ord ha^ been|xic^tl«bpriovBly and fii^epe^fiiUy 
eBq>loyed in re9i9ii9g the um^^^rraQt^Le iftg^reiisiow of th^ 
J)ut€h— te promotinjg; friesidily iQ^r^pur^e with the nativ^ pf 
that vast island — ^in improving the moral and social cppdi | iaii 
of the people — and advancing, by all the methods which a 
liberal aiid enlightened policy ooiud suggest, the cop.ipeirdjd 
jintere$tis of Britain in the Easter^ seas. Of all his ineasyres, 
that of establishing the fpree port pf Singapore, at the ex- 
tremity of ihe Malay peninsula, is perhaps the most impor- 
tant. This settlement has already prospered to an aston- 
jffhii^ degree, and promises, if continued lender ^ii|:ish 
patronage^ to become the eQipprwa and pride of t)^ C^^. 
There ^, perh^s. no place in the known worhl nip^e ?idva^- 
t9geousl¥ ^ituajted for the purposes of comiperce. Jt pppa- 
jjtands tae straits of Malacca, places our interco:M^8|& with 
China h^yond risk or annoyance, and may become the 
.(^qz^ecting l^nk and grand entrepot between Europe, A^l4, 
andX/hina — it is in factfa^ beconu^g fi|o, for me^rohants jGrqm 
^11 parts are resorting to it, a^ eatablishipg tii^i;D^v€\B 
^here, while yessels come from China to Singapp^^^ u^ fiy^ 
jdays, to pufchstse their goods. 

Amidst these important commercial affairs. Sir Sta^lford 
has not been unmindful of the claiins of sci^n^c^. ^fatural 
philosophy, in its various department^ of Botany, Zoology, 
^Entomology, &c. has been greatly enriched by hi^ ow|i 
le8learche^, and those of scientific individuals who l^^yp 
enjoyed his patronaff^. Considerable collections from thp 
interior of Sumatra have already reached this country, and 
description^ pf some of the loost carious and spi^xu}id 
articles have been presented to the public. 7>9^or should we 
omit to mention^ the decided protection which he has always 
e^teA^ed to the accredited Missionaries pf eyery deiH)nMna- 
tiou-^r-nrpipoting their views to th^ utmost possible ejKtent, 
apd affording them the most efficient aid in the prpeejcutioii 
of their sacred and benevolent desi^s. 

We lament, and every friend of we hun^an race and lover 
of his country must lament with us, that, in the midst of so 

4 V History of Ethics : 

inuch usefulness, the subject of this brief memoir htts been 
awfully warned by disease and death to quit the scene of his 
honourable labours. Three, out of four, of his children 
have been torn from him by a malignant climate; of his 
personal friends, scarcely one remains ; and he himself, with 
nis amiable lady, have been in a state of health the most 
alarming and critical. Under these distressing circum- 
stances,. Sir Stamford has deemed it an imperious duty to 
forward his resi^ation to the East India House ; and his 
last movement, or which we have received intelligence, was 
a voyage to Singapore, to make suitable arrai^ements 
there, prior to his final departure from the Eastern Archi- 

The History of Ethics: a Lecture delivered at the 'Surrey 
and Philomathic Institutions. By the Re»erejid William 
Bengo' Collyer, D.D.LL.D., PrcwVfen^ of the Philo- 
mathic Institution, S^c. Ifc.'Sfc. 

When i undertook to lecture on Ethics, I had not the 
presumption to hope that it would be in my power to pre- 
sent to my auditory any thing absolutely new ; but it Was 
my object, and it remains so, to produce, on a subject silwavs 
important, something which may be generally useful. Tne 
syllabus which has been submitted to your consideration is 
of so general a kind, as to preclude any very close discus- 
sion of those hypotheses which it will be necessary to 
examine : and the whole that can be attempted will be, to 
define principles as clearly as possible, and to trace their 
action, as well upon the various branches of society, as 
upon the individual himself influenced by them. If I shall 
he able to do this at all to your satisfaction — if, in beguiling 
a few wintry hours, I shall awaken the attention of any one 
individual to the great law of his nature, which associates 
him with his fellow-men, and with his God, and succeed in 
explaining the duties inseparable firom it — I shall be Inore 
than compensated; and your indulgent patience will not foe 
exercised in vain. Such are my humble pretensions, and I 
submit them to your candour. 

The term Etincs signifies manners — or rather, the refla- 
tion and cultivation of manners — which attention to conduct, 
deeply influencing both ourselves and others, is expressed 
better by the appellation of morals. Plato distinguishes 
them into three branches. Moral Philosophy, regarding 
man in his individual capacity, was called Ethics — when ft 

A Lecture, by the Rev- Dr. Collyer. 5 , 

related to him in his family-relations, it was denominated 
(Economics: but extending to the larger confederation of 
general society » it received the name of Politics. To the^ 
latter of these, Plato principally directed his attention, 
although he wrote upon the whole. These distinctions have 
been less respected in modern disquisitions ; and Ethics 
have been properly understood to comprehend morals in all 
their branches, emanating from the individual, diffusing 
themselves through his immediate connexions, and spread- 
ing over all the face of society. Nor does it appear possible 
to separate morals in their principle, from an operation as 
extensive as the relations of life, and the influence of the 
individual^— his duties being commensurate with his capa- 

In tracing the History of Morals, which is the subject of 
|iie present lecture, the mind naturally reposes upon So-, 
cntes, as the first philosopher who reduced morals to 
system, uncovered their source, and applied them practically 
to the duties of the individual, and his relations to others. 
The philosophy which preceded this illustrious man, related 
to nature, and might be called speculative ; but he directed 
knowledge to purposes of moral utility — ^renouncejl such 
sciences as appeared to him to conduce little or nothing to 
this great design — ^gathered the scattered precepts of ^ 
remote antiquity — ^reduced them to order — established their 
truth, or refuted their sophistry — ^inferred from them prac« 
tical results ; and, to use the language of Cicero, was the 
first who led the studies of mankind to the important 
inquiries after virtue and vice, and to the establishiment 
of the distinctions and the boundaries of good and evil.* 
As this unriyalled philosopher wrote nothing, we. muat 
be satisfied to learn the outline of his ^Ethics from Plato, 
by whom they were adopted and recorded. Morals ^them? 
selves are as old as man's existence, and have be^n ob- 
jects of inquiry and of speculation in all ages ; but the 
reduption of v^em to forpi, (if we except the sacred 
writings, the oldest of all, and from which there are strong 
reasons to conclude, they W0re all borrowed^) must be 
referred to Socrates amppg the Grecians. He becomes, 
therefore, a pentral point — equally removed from the scat- 
tered elements to be found among his predecessors, who 
borrowed thein from the eastern world, apd the modern 
writers on this interesting subject, who seem substantially 
ip hj^ve adopted his principles, with the advantages {wx* 

* pio. Acad. Quest. i(^ 

6 HiBtory of Ethics : 

nraH^d by the ilicreasin^ etperiencer of ages, and the mote 
poW^ftil ai>)si^t£ltlce^ tiot always acknowledged, sometiindd 
par^itij^toriiy deti)ed> btit tldt the less red and influential^ 
of th^ ^bliiiie code of Christianity. I take my stated upon 
the ^ifhple and beautiful system of Socrates — as apon an 
elevation from t^rhich J may myself dee^ and be able to point 
dut to you, iti every direction, the moral Isindscape stretched 
all around it — losing itself, on the one hand, among the 
shadoWt^ 6f the teinotest antiquity, and extending, on the 
dtheir, to thfe a^e iii which we live, to the coutitry in which 
it is dtrr privilege to dwell, and to the Very leeture-room in 
^Hlch #e )ire now asdembled* 

Pythagoras idtands nearest Socrat^s> as his preonrsor in 
this study ; and claims the highest attention and respecty 
iVhether i^e consider the extent of his scientific reseatobes, 
Olr th^ accuracy of his judgment^ or th^ yriue of bis preceptd^ 
6r the zeal \fhich ptompted him to ex][)lot'e the most distant 
latid^, find to bring home the i^Hsdotn collected with such 
tbil,{h)ih die most celebrated tend the most copious sotir<^es. 
^^yehii^ testiinony alsd to the 6tiperiority of this science 
&i^er Ml other researches; imd deemed that philosophy 
#hidh c'ottld hot cure, at lieast ftome of the human passions^ 
kA wbtij^tess ^s that theditiile tr hich has no effect npcm 
Bodily di^eafee/* He touched upon aH the branohes ©f 
MtiMM Virtually, although not inetiteodicaHy ; and his ttfdd« 
of I'ecommei^din^ moral duti'es, as irell al» 6t dining th%m>, 
Wks by figures— -by a symbolical and etoblemsitical metkord 
of in^&nction. To the individual who rei^s^d his advid^, 
Md ab^tidon^d his Acfaool Ibr ^enstial iiidtitgenees, h« ap- 
peticfd by addyefti^in^ tli*e sehseil ; and pfoeing m fmpty 
tdffih in the l^eat which h^ hd,d been accttstomed to occupy, 
as the ismbleni of that state 6t moral death to Which he con^ 
fiidered tlie mind of the unhaf)py j^rofligate 16 be reducedt 

He waib accnst6med to represent tihe friendship, and 
Mion, and harmony, which should prevail am^ng his scho- 
kai^, by siting ^idt befbre thcfta. He eji:pre6sed moral pre^ 
ceptHh tiie same parabolic mloliner. Sli^h, he liepmved by 
the admoiiition, '* Receive not a swallow into your hotme." 
The swallow sportft but for a seaison, soon disappears, and 
ift stipposed to oe torpid dtiring th^ grfeatet* part of th>e yeftr. 
He gtiarded ihem againist pramktftg the irrttable ernd the 
•potberflil, by advising, '* Stnr not the fire with a sword.*' 
He cautioned against corroding and tiselesft cares, by tn- 
1iorti%4 ** Eat not the heart.'' He recommended a firtricft 

A Lecture, iy th^ Rcy. Dr. CoUyer. 7 

regard to justice, by the oommand» '* Paat not over the 
fafliaAce.'- The " concord of sweet somuls/' the harmonies 
of ii^usic, were with him &TOurite images of moral excellen- 
cies. These symbols might be multiplied^ if it were njBces- 
sary to our present purpose ; ];)ut such as have been adduced 
are sufficient to establish and illustrate the emblematical 
and parabolic mode of instruction relative to morals em- 
ployed by Pythagoras.* 

Nor did Pythagoras stand alone in this appeal to tiie 
understanding through the medium of the senses. Plato 
•ealia virtue, uie iarmony (opfioifMr^) and mmic of the soul. 
{intx^ fjuMfunv,) Temperance, he describes as a certain sym- 
phony and concord of the affections* (wvfifittvianviy k^u of^fUivui.) 
Plato himself demands of those who read his allegories, 
that diey should not rest satisfied with the image, but pene- 
trate the hidden meaning of the truth so veiled.f And it 
was therefore justly observed, that ** He is no Platonist 
who thinks that Plato must not be understood allegorically, 
onlese he will, with Aristotle, triumph over Plato's words, 
and not regard his {Nrofoupd sense.'^: The philosophy of 
Socrates was plain and simple, and proceeded upon a mediod 
pecnliar to maaseif, of asking questions, until he obtained 
the induction which he desired, nrom the eoncessions of his 
opponents. That of Plato was more dogmatioal, more 
ORmmented, and often allegonoal. His symbols, indeed, 
were much less obscure than tiiose of Pythagotaa* But 
Aristotle was the first who udioUy laid allegory aside; and 
in icpiisidering Plato as the representative of die morals of 
Sfwmtes, we mast not for^t that he has added to his 
master's principles mnch of ms own manner. 

The sages who obtained the distingjuished title of Ae 
Seven Wise Men of Greece, diceeted their attention princi- 
pally to morals ; and coimyed th^ir precepts in the shape 
ctf shoet and pointed aphorisms. Quintilian esteema them 
certain rules of life. ** As yet,'' said that eloauent writer, 
^ dispiitation had not obtained — but couching tneir instroe- 
tiona in a few expvessiv^e terms, they were presented as so 
aaaur religious mysteries."^ One grand sentence may be 
mwmoed, ascribed by some to Tbales, and by others to 
Chilo, which while it explains this aphonatic mode of 
-tea<4iing, immoi'talizes the wisdom in which it originated-^ 
"** Know thyself r This was one of those precepts read in the 
temple of Delphos ; and which Ciqero so esteemed as to 

* Gale, b. ii. c. 7. vol. ii. p. 107. &c. t Plato. Phced. and Repab. 
t. and 10. X Coel. Redig. lib. 9. cap. 12. § Quint, tib. 5. c. 11. 

8 History of Ethics : 

call it the precept of Apollo ; and he remarks, with singular 
beauty» that it was given not exclusively to humble man by 
sendiog^him into his bosom to learn its^ weakness, but prin- 
cipally^ to urge him. to form an acquaintance with his own 
soul, m all the majesty of its powers, and all the importance 
of their application.* 

These characteristics of the earliest method of teaching 
morals, lead us still higher towards their , indisputable 
source. The parabolic mode of instruction is notoriously 
oriental : so also is the proverJ^ial form chosen by the seven 
Grecian Sages. The institutes of Menu may afford a suffi- 
cient evidence of the latter ; while the gorgeous imagery 
interwoven with the very texture of Eastern composition, 

E roves the former. The Grecian fioets, older than these 
istorians and philosophers, (for even Thales, Chilo, and 
his celebrated associates, lived more than than three cen- 
turies after Hesiod,) chose allegory, the very garb of 
poetry, as the grand vehicle of their moral sentiments. 
And while their mythological traditions may be distinctly 
traced to an oriental origin, their fables were regarded by 
the sases of Greece as containing philosophical truths, 
under we veil of fiction. Doubtless they -drew their ethics 
from the sources whence they derived their philosophy; and 
the very form in which Hesiod gives his moral precepts, 
combines both the characteristics of aphorism and poetry. 

Thales, althoi^h said to be bom at Miletus, is cont^tded 
to have been of Phenician extract ; and it is certain, that he 
travelled into .Asia to acquire oriental wisdom. PyUii^ras 
is known to have traversed various countries in that direc- 
tion, and to have extended his researches as far as India. 
I^ato visited Egypt, then the receptacle of the learning of 
the world — ^having received her knowledge from the latter — 
and confesses that the principles of his philosophy, as well 
as the use of symbols,^ were derived from older nations, 
whom, in conformity to the usage of the Greeks, relative to 
all people except themselves, he calls Barbarians. The 
Phenicians, as tne earliest navi^tors, carried the sciemces, 
and the symbols under which they were couched, from the 
oriental world, and from Egypt immediately to Greece, and 
even to Britain.; whose Druids, more ancient than those of 
Gaul, resembled in many striking points^ as well of philo- 
sophy, as of religious observances, the Hindus ; and shew 
in^e most obvious particulars, the oriental origin of their 

* Cic. Tuacab. I. 72, &c. 

A Lecture, by the Rev. Dr. CoUyer. 9 

; It is di£ELcalt to obtain ii^formation relative to the origi- 
nation of ancient science, from any records except those of 
sacred history. From whatever fountains the sages of 
India drew their theories, it is evident that those of Greece 
drank of the same wells of knowledge. The philosophical 
schools of the East comprise the metaphysics of the dif- 
ferent sects of Grecian philosophy ; and, as oriental systems 
afe unqaestionably older than those of Greece, if a real 
analogy subsists, it must have been imparted to the latter : 
it could not have been derived from them by the former. 
The grand and favourite doctrine of Py thagaras, relative to 
the transmigration of souls, adopted even in the purer and 
more simple philosophy of Plato, is so evidently of Eastern 
origin, thatitbeeoifes a powerful argument in suoport of 
4he hypothesis of the derivation of other parts of the same 
system^from the same quarter. And with the general prin* 
ciples of philosophy, came their Ethics, both as to substance 
and to the form . of communication. Coniecture and hypo- 
thesis may, however, be well spared, when we have the 
testimony of Diodorus Sicul us. direct to this point. ** All 
those,", he says, '' who were renowned among the Greeks for 
wisdom and learning, did in ancient time resort to Egypt, 
thence to deduce philosophy and laws.'' The peculiar dog- 
jnas of the Grecian philosophers are respectively acquired 
from Effypt, Phenicia, Chaldea, India, and Persia. The 
Bun of KJiowledge rose, like the orb of day, in the East. 
Certain terms, and even the names of their idols, are by the 
Grecians borrowed from the Egyptians, between whose 
language, and that of the Phenicians and Chaldeans, is such 
an affinity, that:they may, with little difficulty, be traced to 
an Hebrew oriffin. 

Having touoned upon this. point, I will. venture to remind 
you, that there ia a book, the most ancient of all existing 
records-*-{br even should its inspiration be denied^ none 
pretend .to question its antiquity — in which the purest 
moral.precepts, and the most sublime religious truths, are 
seen veiled in parables, couched under symbols, and commu- 
nicated in proverbs. To this book may be traced as well ther 
traditions of the East, as the systems of Greece; and as an 
important fact, it it is necessary to remark, that if we are 
desirous of following the history of morals up to its spring 
head, sound learning and diligent research have found, m 
this neglected volume, the grand and inexhanatible source 
after which the world has been so long lookii^g; and which, 
like the fountains of the Nile, lay concealed from ages and 

10 History of Ethic$ : 

Tbe EleuBmiaB and Bacohie mysteries^ those aotonkking 
and ckaniGtemtic parts of Grecian reli^on^ were syniboii«- 
cal representations of things moral and philosophical. They 
were an attempt to ^ound a sublime philosophy upon a 
mass of fabulous tradition ; and so far the attempt was cor** 
rect, in that those very fables originated in either scientific 
researches, natural phenomena^ or moral truths, symboli- 
cally expressed. Plato represents these mysteries as typi*- 
fyingthe external eyih associated with material existence-*- 
the rices and humiliation of the spirit in its corporeal 
anLon--'and the future transformations through whicn it is 
to pass. In the mecm time, while philosophical and moral 
tcoths were intended to be taught, the mind was corrupted, 
amd the passions inflamed, by tne indecencies and sensuali^ 
ties encouraged, as symbolizing the communication of divine 
energies to the various forms of intellectual being. The 
flame exposition has been already suggested of the fables of 
the poetSy and of the whole Grecian mythology — moral pre- 
cepts, philosophical truths, and natural sciences, are all 
conveyed by these parables. Such is precisely the reiigioii 
of t^ Hindus at this hour. It is philosophical in its cha- 
racter^ closely allied with aetvonomy, and moral in its pmp- 
Iposea. fiist to whom does it bear these features of virtue 
and snblimtty? To the Bramins, who, like the Brttidi 
Oruids, (evidemdy tif the same family,) are. at once the 
priests and tbe philoeopherB of tiheicoui]^; to the select 
number, who« like the initittted into the Elensiaian mys- 
teries, have the conoeeded physical and moral trudis es- 
phufied,; while these symbols am to the Eastern mttUitade, 
wdbat Gorrefiponding symbols were to the Grecian populaoe, 
the organs of gross idolatry and of irrational euperstitioB. 
Tlie coBformBty^ however, <n tbe eventer and lesser myste- 
lies «o ceU)rated in antiquity, with the eadsting practicea 'Of 
India» both covering morals with the veil 'Of fiction, belh 
aimBing the awititude witih fables, and degeneratiDg i|i 
ordinary mse inio itiie grossest Ucestiousness, sheiVB-agai^ 
the originatioQ of these moral symbols in the East. 

In omrfbtmi^ with this oriental method of representatioii, 
we find the propfaeta of the Odid Testament symbolinng in 
like manner, virtues and vices, judgments and deliverances, 
things spiritual and futore. it was the genius of <d>at 
oounArf, it lemaiu so, and it was evidently transplanted 
'tbenoeio'Gi«eoe and Rone; this luxwriant moral viegeiar 
tinmi spiangnig originally in a wanner chme, and from a 
richer aoil, tlmn Snope x^ould boast. The conquerora vA»^ 
have successively plundered the East, have brovght beoie 

A Lecture^ by tbeRer. Dr. CoUyer. 11 

mcMTe Yali]»ible spoili than het stlTef, and her gdld» sad her 
gema; and Greeee had the meaimead to atesJ her morabt 
and her philosc^y^ add then to brand her aa barbariav^ 
They did not even leave behind the beautiful and many- 
coloured rest in which she clothed her 8yBteiii£l> wrought in 
the loom of her own splendid imagination^ and nmigled bfce 
tiie radiant hues of her own dayspring; and when they had 
deootated themselves with her intellectual and BEMoral riohesy 
they put her out of the pale of their privileged society : for 
if the ienti batbarian did not mean with thom, as wtth Us, 
the absence of civilisation — ^it siraified emj^hatieally, a 
foreignet — and drew a broad line ofdistinction between. heir 
and her imperious elislavers. Nay, Aridtode justified tha 
pelicy whioh then pr&vailed^ by laying down as a fundament 
tal sLnd self-evident nuuiim^ that *' iCfatuxe intended barba** 
liahs to be slaves*^ 

I have sUready directed your attention to one signifioaiiil 
symbol employed by Pythagoras, which ykBM the use of Bali 
as the embleiti of the union aiid harmony which ought to 
subsist among the members of his phttolophical scfaooK 
'fhls is so truly oriental^ that it at once shews whence it was 
deiivedi Salt is still the symbol employed in the East to 
denote the confirmation of any engagement, and it remaina 
die pledge of inviolable friendship. Treachery woaid be 
stigmatised by this fieure : and as we sfaoteld sar* that he 
who ate of onr btead had forgotten us; they woi:dd(aiarii the 
iacratitude by sayings that the offender nad eaten of tha 
salt oi the iajuted pcnrty* No man, of whatever rank, who 
had any regard to his charaoter, to public opinion, ot to 
sacred obligatioas, nl^^uld ventnie to break a promise vsta*- 
biished by this significant sj^nboK It is one of the most 
solen^ foctes of mt oath-»^the persoa swearing inoeives into 
his month .a little salt^ placed for that purpose upon tkt 
blade af a seyiateter, imprecating his own deatii, if lie shall 
prove imiaitbfai to his ei^^emeat, or a violator of trtrtilu 
Sait stood in the moat BaGttedrelaAiotiB,a8 itwas inscoarabia 
from 8aeri£kse» land the symbol of covenaHts of the nighest 
Qffder> reHgioUs as well aa eivtl. If we coimeot <ihese uaafg^s 
With the tfistinet and important a»e of this symbol ia tha 
i^iimh durrch^ v^ith whicti Pythagoras and Plato were wiell 
aofuainted^ and to whieh they both «ttude^ sometimes oafting 
theih Giliddeansv and sometimes Syrians, because of tha 
abhorrtaos in which Ihey held the Jews> as separating 
Aeaisekes from all other pcjcpte by their atrici and singidat 
insititaiioriB^ and to oooceal tha focmtatatt ^hao^a they 

12 History of Ethics : 

drew their knowledge of' morals and religion, we shall dis- 
cover that it was indeed a most significant emblem. It 
implied confederation, as salt was the sealof a covenant-— 
communion, as it was a bond of friendship — sanctity, as it 
was inseparable from sacrifice — and perpetuity, from its pro- 
perties of preservation — a covenant of salt, si^ifying not 
only a confirmed agreement, but an indissoluble engage- 
ment — the use of the symbol in the sacred writings implying 

I have thus, taking my stand upon the Ethics of 
Socrates, looked back upon the history of morals, before his 
day, so far as it can be discerned. It is fairly traced to the 
East, and I should not fear, were this the time or the place, 
to enter into the discussion, to prove the origination of the 
general philosophy of all ages, in revelation, either oral or 
written — traditional indeed to these nations, but recorded 
upon the imperishable pages of inspiration ; and I advance 
this sentiment with the greater confidence, because it is not 
out of order, that distinguished philosopher himself, upon 
whose system of Ethics we have taken our stand, referring 
all illumination to the Deity, confessing the want of a 
divine teacher, and expressing his confident expectation that 
such an instructor would appear. 

When Socrates devoted the powers of his mighty mind to 
morals exclusively, it wzs not from any conscious deficiency 
in the other branches of science ana philosophy. It was 
not the effort of an uncultivated intellect, labouring to con-r 
ceal its literary poverty under the covering of an interest in 
moral attainments which left neither time, nor taste, for 
oth^ pursuits. Socrates was rich in all. He studied imder 
Anaxftgoras and Archelaus, the most distinguished physio- 
logists ; and we have the testimony of Plato and of Xeno- 
phon, rivals and opponents on all other questions, but agrees* 
ingin this, confirmed' long after by the judgment of Cicero, 
that this great inan was skilled in all sciences, eminent for 
all learning, distinguished as well for his literary acquire- 
ments as for his mental endowments, and that to whatever 
he applied himself, in that he was sure to excel. Such was 
his acknowledged jpre-eminence, that he was pronounced 
by the oracle, the wisest of men. It arose, then, from a noble 
dtfdain of those pursuits, which, however ingenious and 
applauded, terminated in speculation, or closed without 
producing a moral benefit. Socrates had one grand object^ 
which was to reduce philosophy to practice; therefore he 
cultivated exclusively the science of morals, and bent to it 

A Lecture, by the Rev. Dr. CoUyer. 13 

alike tbe sublime powers of his mind, and the extensive 
acquisitions which he had made. What was, with philo- 
sophers preceding him, wrapped up in dark sayings, he 
reduced to the plainest terms ; what was with them inciden- 
tal and occasional, was with him a study, and the work of 
a life; a work, moreover, to which. he finally sacrificed that 
life. He had one ^eat subject— I call it one, because 
although it divides jtself into two parts, these are insepa- 
rable ; and out of their relation all morals arise. This su6- 
ject was, the consideration of God, and of Man. The first 
was the object of his most intense contemplation ; the 
second, he became acquainted with by the most intimate 
and familiar conversation. The one formed the substance 
of his metaphysics ; the other, laid the basis of his morals. 

PkUo had the spirit of his master, but he covered it with 
his own magnificent mantle. The Cynics, acknowledging 
.Antisthenes as their head, imbibed the noble sentiment of 
Socrates, that all philosophy ou^ht to be resolved into 
•moral. Whatever coarseness might attach, itself to their 
contempt of present .things — and Diogenes justified fully 
the censure, that there was at least as much illrnature as 
•sincerity in. the sect — they deserve the praise of regarding 
science only in so far as it, can conduce to the moral benefit 
of man. ** Why," said this severe Cynic to an astronomer, 
" do you look after the moon and sUirs, and disregard the 
things which are under your feet ?" To another, speculatii^ 
upon. dreams, and seduced by astrology, (a study, moreover, 
which was .transplanted from Chaldea,) he observed with 
pointed indignation, *^ You are curious to define the import 
of ^our dreams, but you pay no regard to your waking 
actions/' ** To liye according to virtue," (to kut* apeniv (riv,) 
was their grand maxim, as the very end of our being.* 
.Such a philosophy deserved to be separated firom brutality; 
such attention to morals, from a disregard to manners, that 
-thus their science might merit the name of Ethics ; and such 
elevation of sentiment, from a contempt of literature. 
Neither morals nor religion require that the forms of polish- 
ed society should be laid ae^ide, or the common sympathies 
of our np.ture be renounced ; but both, the one as the prin- 
ciple, aud the other as its application, will, when rightly 
received and exercised, soften the manners, while they 
purify the heart. 

The /S^oa^ followed the Cynics, and formed a close.alliance 
with theipi, dismissing their contempt for literature. . Their 

* Gale, yoL ii. h. 4. c. ii. p 422. 

14 History (^EthkMi 

htsA muB Zeno; their title was taken bmd tiiie poroh im 
whiok they ^Mt» similar circumstancea giving the name nf 
iU^ademiofi to the school of Plato, and the distinctive appeL- 
latioo of other sects of Grecian philosopheni* Althoieh 
diserinriBttted by some pecuiiarities, the j^hdos of Ztauo wr 
themiost part resembled those of Socrates ; and Mrhile Cicena 
is ati iliuatrious disciple of the Ax^ademics, E^ictetas is as 
aplewlid a repveseBta^ve of the Stoics. 

We fldust not forget, in the history of morals, a most 
abused name, Epicurus ; a man whose life was al9 pm^e, ai| 
jsiis principle was sound, if it be taken in the sense in which 
he evidenliy proposed it, and of wi^icfa his whole character 
«!«s a viable mterpretation. He made the eod ^f life to he 
pleasure ; but he commanded it to be sought in the pedi of 
Tirtue^ There were who adopted his principle, and disre- 
garded its operation; who profossing enjoyment as the 
great object of being, sought it in the ^ssest aensttality^ 
and transasitted the name of Epieunis mth dishonour, to a 
fKNiterity that would otherwise have done justice to hispari»- 
ciples, and Tenerated his personal chanicter» A man who 
held, that ^ the principal happiness is in God,'*' thai the 
anblimest pleasuies are mental, and that these is aii insepan 
lahle connexion between enjoyment and virtue; however 
he ooay have been misconceived, misrepresented, tmd tmisap- 
|died, held no principles destructive of morels, nor indiich 
wdeed differed widely from ihe received bases of Ethics.; 
Audto these aentimen^, his irreproachable charaeter ga^e 
ihe most ample and decided testimony.* The blcmiw in 
jiis system was hit atheietic tenets, which, whenever they 
ase adopted, cannot fail to neutrcdise monils. Nothing 
-.coiuld be more demonstrative of this ^ct, than the sdmse <f£ 
im own Ethics, and the immorality of his own professed 
disciples. Those who adopted his atheism, soon fipsgot im 
jQQorau; and avowing pleasure to consist in sensuality, 
aaoiificed reason to the passions, and philosophy to licen- 

Among -die^secte of philosophers who arose a^ber Socrates, 
riKMie negleoted morals, nor failed to consider Sthics as a 
eoienoe, and to blend the study of it with their philosophy^ 
mih the exception of the Sceptics — properiy ^o oalled^ecaiise 
they doubted of every thing. The nune whidh has been 
preserved to an ignoble immortality, in this connexion, ip 
Tyrrho. They denied that truth could be discovered — 
denied that any thing was just, or Unjust, moral or the con- 

* Laertivs, aad Gale, vol. il. p. 444. 

A Lecture, bjf the Rev. Dr. CoUyer. IS 

travy-'i-denied any rule of action, and any end of bein^. 
Every thins wai denied, and nodiing establiahed^-every 
tking |idilra down, and nothing built up in its room. The 
sect, alas, has not confined itself to Greece, nor perished 
widn Pyrrho. And where tlus unfortunate perversion of 
powers, this obliquity of intellect, obtains, the happiMess of 
ike individnal, and the well-^bein^ of society, are alike endan** 
gcred. It is ako a punmit which requires neither genius 
nor «ttderstaiMiing. it is easy to unravel tibe web which has 
been wrought, with the greatest skill, into the most perfect 
beauty. iS is easier to demolish a temple, than to coswtruot 
a faoveL That whi<ch requires ao little knowledge, can con^ 
fier no xenown ; but unmrtunatdy, the damage to society 
bears no proportion to the facility of the operation : that 
which co^» «K) labour, does neverdidiess incaiculaible ison 

I h&Te purposely delayed naamng Ariiiotie until the {hs<« 
sent flMonent, although he preceded some of the last^mesH 
tioned sects in point of time^ because of the entire change 
whoi^ he vntKMUsced into his philosophy in sespect mifonu 
Under this distsngsaicdied leader, the Peripatetics ranged 
liieuiselves* His mighty and isomprehensive genius •em- 
bmced aH«iils3<ects« We find htm in all the walks ofscienccr*^ 
Physics, Metaphysics, Bthics, all oooupied his sttentMia* 
What profession does not tsace some of its dsments to has 
indactfy and talents ? luTespeot of the subjectinimedia^eljy 
voder loonsideration, his principles were «ubaitaBtiaUy those 
of Soorates ; but he changed tne whole -order of commusi* 
cation, and razed the usages of M. antiquity. The gfeai 
pnncijde which he established was, tibiat nolhtitg .should 'be 
taken from tradition, bat every thing demonstrated by 
reaiBon. The eatablvshment of this prtuoiple caused mem to 
lose^sightof tiie origination of llhat very philosophy which 
be hnd himself embraced. All Gseeoe feeeived her infoiana'c 
tion f«om trndifcion, or ratherfrom those who had tfaemsehnos 
so 'gattbered it. Her dependence upon the East, thei04Nin* 
tiy of (tradition, was evident from uie forms in which she 
clothed her precepts, and which she borrowed, with the 

Srino^ples tnemselvieB. With -perfect consistency, when 
iriistotle Defused tradition, he decried the symbolical <madb 
of instruction. With hdm originated those dogieal subtile 
ttesyand those metaphysioal disquisitions, which captivated 
and distinguished the schoolmen, so many centuries afifcer^p 
wavds^ andimpeded the progress of knowledge, while they 
assumed her name— -banished the substance, while Uiey 

16 History of Ethics : 

worshipped the shadow, until the immortal Lord Bacott 
arose, and once more appealing to nature and to truth, 
emancipated philosophy from the trammels of hypothesis,, 
and placed her upon the immoveable basis of experiment. 

Such were the principal Grecian philosophers, and such 
their modes of moral instruction, oocrates being still the 
central point. The Romans conquered Greece, and learned 
her philosophy* The illuutrious names of Cicero, Seneca^ 
Pliny, and others no less distinguished, (for who can enu*- 
merate the stars in that constellation, of every thing majes*- 
tic and imperishable, comprised in the eternal 'name of 
Rome ?) confessed these Grecian sages to be their masters, 
and manifested towards them all the warm affections of 
disciples. After the fall of the Roman empire, an awful 
blank occurs in the history of morals ; and it was not until 
ages elapsed, that the fountains of ancient philosophy were 
again broken up, and syllogistic wrangUngs yielded to the 
new impressions received from systems which had been long 
forgotten, but not one of whose immortal features time. had 
been able to injure, although he had succeeded for some 
centuries in obscuring them. The immediate effects of this 
restoration of the old philosophy to the light of day, I have 
already anticipated. The disciples of the Grove, of the 
Stoa, and of tne Lyceum, could not more eagerly .contend 
for the characteristic distinctions of their schools, than did 
these new Academics, Stoics, Peripatetics, for the respec- 
tive dogmas of antiquity. The results of Bacon's bold and 
steady investigation overthrew the whole system of physics, 
and opened the path of knowledge before the pupil of 
science, broad and unobstructed. In respect of Ethics, the 
event was far different. The very freedom of inquiry which 
demonstrated the physical absurdities of antiquity, displayed 
to the ^eatest advantage the general grandeur and truth of 
its Ethics. And it would be injustice to the greieit nances 
which have been produced, not to confess, that of all the 
modem systems ot Ethics, not one is to be found which 
does not, directly or indirectly, emanate from the principles 
of one or other of the schools. 

I grant all the advantages arising from our nearer approxi- 
mation to the eternal rountain of light and trutn — and 
this is a superiority for which I shall contend, before the 
present course of Lectures closes — ^but the general princi- 
ples were derived from tradition, approved and adopted by 
these illustrious minds, and have received, with the applause 
of ages, the sanctipn of modern mo^ltlists. I never read 

A Lecture, by the Rev. Dr. Colly er. 17 

the Offices of Cicero, without feeling that Grotius, Puffen- 
dorf, and some of our brightest luminaries, have borrowed 
no small portion of their splendour from this brilliant orb. 
And while some of our professed writers on Ethics have 
adopted the characteristic distinctions of the respective' 
schools, as their fancy, or their judgment, guided them: 
there have been found those, who nave not scrupled to 
patronize the principles of Pyrrho, and to attempt to bring' 
again the shadows of scepticism over the dayspring of 
revelation. They have imbibed the atheism of Epicurus 
witiiout his morals ; and employed the sophistry of Stilpo, to 
establish the laxities of Protagoras. Of this unhappy class 
is the theory of Hobbes, whose metaphysical atneism, 
exposed by various writers, has been combated by hone' 
more successfully than by the learned and distinguished 
Cndworth, supported by Dr.* Clarke and Dr. Price. Lord 
Shaftesbury and Hutcheson take other grounds, into the 
detail of which it does not comport with a simple histori^cal 
sketch, such as is the present Lecture, to enter. These 
were followed by Mr. Hume ; contemporary with him, &.nd 
since his day, we have had a Butler, a Paley^ a Priestley^ 
a Hartley, a Smith, a Cogan, a Stewart, a Ueid — some of 
whom are spared to the world of letters, while others have 
passed away with former generations. I have mentioned 
these slightly, and have omitted others, because they will 
come before us in their order hereafter, when their principles 
«hall demand investigation. Having conducted the history 
of morals dawn to modern times, I m^ close the outline 
which 1 have attempted, and not intrdde any further obser- 
vations upon facts which are generally known, and names 
aniversaUy familiar, whose merits, as morialists, will be the 
subjects of future discussion. 

ft was the ^reat object of Socrates to lead the coijten^- 
pkrions of his school to the Deity. From his Being, and 
our relation to him, he argued moral obligations ; and iin^ 
pelled by a sense of duty so arising, he reduced speculative 
philosophy to practice ; and renouncing those disputations^ 
whidi V^re merely . intelleptual, or related to science fis 
irrespective of any active result, he bent the whole force of 
his rigorous mincj to render men wiser, better, and therefore 
happier, than he found them. He referred them to the 
Deity as the fountain of good — to his will, as the grand rule 
of morals. He said expressly, that " virtue came by Divine 
inspiration ;*' and whatever we are to understand by that 
mysterious demon, which he affirmed constantly intimated 

VOL. Vill. — NO. 1, c 

18 History of Ethics: 

to him what he should or should not do, it is evident in 
generals that this professed and supernatural impulse was 
part of his adopted system, that referred all things excel- 
lent in man to the iJivine Being. It was this conviction 
that induced him to devote himself to the study of morals, in 
preference to any other branch of science ; and which im- 
parted that purity and sublimity to his Ethics, which dis- 
tinguished him above all other philosophers. 

I call Socrates the first who reduced morals to system^ 
only by courtesy, as he was the first among heathen philo- 
sapners who effected this; by that kind of courtesy too, 
which has, in my opinion, been carried too far, and deprived 
the Bible of its due rank in the world of science, its just 
share in the discussion of morals, not to say, the fair claim 
of having be^n the first, as well in point of antiquity as of 
success, m the field of Ethics. It has every way the supe- 
riority over the system of Socrates, as over every other ; and 
it is shameful cowardice in the friends of revelation to dismiss 
so lightly its pretensions in connexion with the great ques- 
tion of morals, when no pains are spared on the part of those 
writers on Ethics who deny its authority, to nullify its 
influence on the subject. The same delicacy is not 
pbswved on the part of those who would exclude it from 
the moral code, and they at least set us the example of 
boldly speaking out those sentiments which we hold in 
respect of its claims. If it shall hereafter appear, that this 
book stands closely allied with Ethics ; that it states clearer 
principles, furnishes more certain rules, and produces more 
extended and decided results, than any other system of morals 
which has yet appeared — ^to pass it over, as unworthy atten- 
tion — ^to yield its superiority, without investi^ting the 
ground on which it is assumed — to dismiss it, without 
observing the stand which it takes — is not merely treating 
the book without candour, but doing the subject itself 
irreparable injustice. 

Should its inspiration be disputed, or even denied, its 
system of Ethics lies before us for examination, in common 
with that of Socrates, or of any other philosopher, and has 
at least an eijual right to be heard, and equal claims to 
respect. It is abundantly more ancient than any other 
system. It is the code whence most of the principles of 
jurisprudence have been taken, and from which all law- 

fivers have borrowed the substance of their legislation, 
iven the moral system of Socrates proceeds upon princi- 
ples which may be distinctly traced to a scriptural origin^ 

A Lecture, by the Rev. Jit, Collyer. 19 

«nd the way in wbkh it was derived may be easily conceived, 
after what* has been said respecting tiie deduction of Gre- 
eian philosophy frooi Eastern nations, and by the confession 
of Plato from the Syrians. Socrated laid down four great 
principles, whi^h were obviously the same with those 
established in the Bible; and as he flourished a century 
and a half later than the destruction of the Jewish empire by 
Nebuchadnezzar, it is evident with whom the principles, 
ccsmmon to both, originated. These four leading sentiments 
were. First, the spiritual, infinite, and eternal nature of 
Deity, together with the doctrine of his unity, for whicll 
this distinguished man may be said to have died a martyr. 
This is the grand doctrine of t&e Scriptures. Secondly, the 
corruption of human nature, (kokov efttpvrov, &c.) a fundamen- 
tal foct* affirmed at the very con^encement of the Jewish 
records. Thirdly, a native blindness in which all men are 
enveloped ; the natural result of the former principle, if that 
be conceded, and constantly insisted upon in the HebreW 
writings. Fourthly, that virtue was not attainable by nature 
or art, but is the product of a Divine inspiration ; an opinion 
which has been eeneralljr considered peculiar to tlie volume 
of revelation. These things Socrates asserted as the basis 
of his philosophy; and they are so allied to the sentiments 
h^d by the Hebrews, that one can scarcely fail of the con- 
clifsion, that they were traditionally derived thence, through 
some of the channels opened by l^e Phenicians, or acquiml 
by the personal intercourse of ilh^ principarl sa?es of ureece 
themselv^, with the oriental nation^r. If, therefore, thd 
principles of the greatest of the Healfheh philosophers ap- 
pear to be borrowed from the Scriptures ; or if it be only 
evident, that there is a striking coincidence between the 
Ethics of Solvates and the doctrines and precepts of liie 
Bible, in giving the history of morak, it was impossible to 
overlook the latter; and if it be at dl noticed, its native 
grandeur will not fail to entitle it to rank first in the scale 
of moral disquisitions. 

These rematks will have tenfold weight, if they are applied 
to the New Testament, where the superiority of its moral 
system is so striking, that it is maintained with the most 
affecting eloquence by Rousseau himself, in the person of 
a Savoyard priest, and in a work in which it Was evidently 
intended that the imaginary speaker should convey the 
sentiments of the philosophical author. He states justly, 
that Socrates, who had been considered by some as the 
inventor of moralily, was in fact, which we have now 

20 On the Results of Artp 

represented him, only the first who reduced it to sysfem 
among the Greeks ] and he supports this remarkf by produ- 
cing some splendid examples of justice, patriotism, tempe-^ 
ranee, and the moral virtues, as practised long before he had 
framed his scheme of Ethics. He maintains a superiority 
80 great on the part of the Son of Mary, over the Son of 
Sophronisca, that it will not admit of a comparison between 
them : and, to use his own words, he confessed, that *' the 
majesty of the Scriptures filled him with admiration, and 
that the sanctity of tne gospel addressed itself tp his b^art/' 
f f Rousseau thus thought and spake of the moral system of 
the Bible; if he could add, that ** the works of philosophers, 
with all their affectation of greatness, appeared to him 
mean, when compared with that volume ;" I repeat, it would 
liave been inexcusable indeed, on my part, to have passed it 
by unnoticed, in professing to give a history of morals. 

If it be important to learn the crude elements, out of 
which mighty empires have been composed;, ifit be inte- 
resting to trace grand political results to their secret source, 
a source sometimes as obscure as the effects are tremendous 
and astonisliing; if nothing is indifferent which associates 
itself with the faculties of men,. and points out the march of 
intellect; if we caimot contemplate the sublime operations of 
human skill and industry, without being anxious to ascertain 
by what mind they were conceived, an5 Uy what hand they, 
were executed, that the immortality of the artist may be co- 
extended with that of his work — a nobler principle than 
curiosity impels us to learn the history of morala. When 
the pyramids of E^pt shall be covered with the siands of 
the desert which drift upon them, or, yielding at last to that 
influence of time which they have so long resisted, even 
these stupendous monuments of ancient science shall sink 
under the weight of accumulated ages, the structure of 
morals, whose S)undations are laid in eternity, shall rear it9' 
awful head in the heavens ; and, standing unmoved amidst 
the shock of elements, surviving the dissolution of nature,* 
remain alone, majestic, and uninjured, surrounded by the 
wrecks of the material universe. 

On the Results of Art, as connected with tine Happiness of the 

Human Race in general^ 

The progress of Invention and Discovery, the results of 
human Art^ and the transactions of mankind, have been 

as ca^mected with Human Happiness. 3^1- 

generally viewed through a medium, too partial and patti-^ 
cular, not sufficiently generalized, and either too sanginine, 
too despondent, or too disdainful. There have been som^ 
gloomy prophets, who, with melancholy broodings, have 
predicted the ruin and downfall of every thing terrestrial ; 
who are constantly pointing to the ages of excellence, 
ages long gone by, and moralizing; upon the degeneracy of 
recent times ; who pronounce every innovation pernicious, and 
every deviation from the past, an approximation to ruin ! 

On the other hand, we have dreams of human pterfectibi" 
lity ; of an indefinite and interminable advancement towards 
perfection, though never to be attained. Here every step 
18 an improvement, every change beneficial — all science is 
progressing^ every art advancing — ^virtue is triumphant, and 
vice abashed and diminished ! In a word, '' the world is 
grown honest.'' Again, we have had pictures drawn of the 
golden age ; yet the best authority has told us^ that the first 
man who was bom into the world slew the second, and it has 
rather provokingly been asked, when were the times of sim- 
plicity, of innocence, and of peace? 

Rousseau, in his first memorable production, contended, 
that the savage state was more happy than the civilized. 
This was undoubtedly a paradox, Ue reasoned from false? 
premises ; his description of savage nature was disguised 
and decorated in the flowing periods of his matchless elo-* 
quence, whilst the picture of cultivated man was distorted 
and caricatured by the pencil of exaggeration. His defini- 
tion of Happiness might, also, require some critical exami- 
nation, and probably very few would agree in its accuracy. 

It is not oy any means certain, that man ever did live in 
ti purely savage state. Either we must believe the account 
presented in the sacred writings, which describes man as 
created, and created perfect; or we must believe that he 
existed through all eternity — ^there is no choice, no medium 
between the two. If, then, man was created perfect, where 
is the evidence of his primitive ignorance? If he existed 
from all eternity, is it reasonable to conclude that it was 
reserved for the present, or any recent period, to discover 
the important knowledge of the means of happiness? 

There are, indeed, abundant statements to be found in the 
books of travellers, of men who live, even now, in a state 
very different to that which we term civilized. But the wh6le 
subject is one of the most vague and indefinite description/ 
It is, at the best, entirely comparative : we know of no me» 
who are absolutely and strictly uncivilized. Th|^ Romans used 

20 On the RestdtB of Art, 

to call all the rest of the world '' barbafiiep^/' anf] justified 
their wars under the pretence of introdpcing civilization in 
the train of conqueat* Those who compose a society, 
state^ or dan, and live nnder the dominion of aoci^l tiea, 
however limited in extent, are so far civilised. They are 
influenced by the wishes and approbation of each pther ; 
they learn from experience, however rude and confined, some 
principles of moral and social order, and some knowledge of 
the distinctions between right and wrong. In the very 
lowest state of human society; out of th^ common association 
in the cdms€;» or in the mean$ of pbtaij»ing subsistence, there 
would arise something resembling concert and order. But 
the number of those who have been found in this rude con* 
ditiop. is comparatively few, and unworthy of estimation v^ 
any general viqw of human society ; and it is obvious to 
femark> that the advantages of refinement being unknown 
in the ruder $^s, they would be und^8ired> and their 
absence consequently unregretted. Our present happiness 
ia never affected by any unascertained good, which may be 
discovered in the lapse of future time. But, leaving this 
point as a matter in dispute* the leading proposition intended 
to be maintained, is, that no arts, inventions, discoveries, 09 
attainments of mankind, ofwfnck we.can trace thej&rst em^t&ue, 
^ which can be claimed by any particular ag^, have ii^ 
cueased the general stock of human happii^ess, AH tlmt 
those, arts ai3 attainments have done, has been merely to 
chmgty not to intproye, the Sitate or condition of hunian 
existence, to vary it in seme particular features, to modify 
and refeshion old customs and habits, and by new combina* 
tions and manners, to alter the external aspect and mere 
surface of artificial life* — It will not be necessary to review 
the two extremes of human society, to contrast the supposed 
period when nature existed in all its wild)nese> and when art 
](» asserted to have been yet unborn* with that er«^ in which 
the latter had attained its greatest eminence. We may 
observe, however, in passing, that the advocates o£ the high 
benefits derived from human acquisitions^ very natumSy 
select the most favourable period and country upon which 
to found their argument. On the other hand, they would 
drive us to choose the opposite extreme of imputed barba- 
rity ; but the existence or both extremes, is questionahle. 
Let us, however, alk>w that some few indiTiduals, unfa- 
vourably circumstanced, may experience the misery arising 
firom a total ignorance of the arts of life. Allow that 
others, *' happily boirn," derive superior enjoyment from the 

as connected vyith Human Happiness. 23 

possession of all the refinements of poKshed society. These, 
surely, are not the results of human art, at tvhich there can 
be any canse, or reason, to rejoice — one person in a hundred 
thousand rendered happier than the rest of the species. 
This is a noble result, worthy of the exultation of the patriot 
and philanthropist ! 

It IS, however, no fair consideration of the general ques- 
tion, to contrast the two extremes. Let us vitew the ageft 
described in the pages of Homer and Ossian, or in the 
historians of the earliest times, and compare those periods 
with the supreme elevation of moderfi refinement. Look at 
the time when literature scarcely existed, when every thing 
mental Was centred in the songs of the bard, the mini^treC 
and the prophet ; when there was some splendour and maff- 
nificence, but little taste or elegance ; wnen there was evi- 
dent abundance, but little luxury — yet when there were 
the same distinctions amongst men ad in the present period^ 
the same gradations of rank, the same inequalities of wealth, 
and the same varied degrees of renown — when there were, 
also, the same kindred and social ties, and when the same 
passions, feelings, and faculties existed as at the presettt 
day.-^There was a period Which might be callefd the empire 
of the sword. In that age, valour was' the chief quality id 
estimation, and it consequently attained the highest reward. 
Comparatively speaking, there now exists over a large part 
of the habitable ^obe, the reign of mind. The mode by 
which it governs is opinion, and talent is now the chief 
quality in request ; yet infiuence, i^ot reason, is the ageilt 
by which its purposes are effected. 

In rude ages mankind obtained their objects by physical, 
not mental, force : hence it followed, that strength, activity; 
and bravery, were so highlv estimable. In polished times, 
wealth, public opinion, and influence, in general, bear sway; 
yet the object, at both periods, is the same — to enable the 
few to govern, perhaps, sometimes, to enslave, the many. 

The criterion by which we may try the value of human 
art, and of all that it has accomplished, is the degree of hap- 
piness which has resulted to mankind in general. There is 
no test, except this, by which we can ascertain the merit of 
any production. Every thing should be estimated by the 
quantum of innocent pleasure it affords to the human race. 
All art and science is encouraged in proportion as it admi- 
nisters to the real, or supposed, satisfaction and convenience 
of society. The encouragement is sometimes fastidious, 
and ill-placed, but it always assumes the existence of 

24 On the Results of Art, 

practical good. No one i» such a Bedlamite as to like what 
does not please bim. But it is just possible^, tbat be may 
affect to be pleased* when he is not really so — that he jnay 
be regulated in his choice^ and in the clamour of his ap*- 
plause* by the opinion of others* 

It has always been considered extremely difficult to define 
happiness. The difference of opinion has obviously arisen 
from the variety of' means whicn each person requires to 
constitute his own; but, by whatever meaus it may be pro* 
duced, all will allow that it consists in agreeable thoughts and 
sensations. In other words, we are happy when we are, 
thoroughly pleased. Now all the faculties and feelings, on 
the exercise of which happiness is dependent, were of the 
sanie nature and extent, in the earliest times, as they are at 
present. The objects by which they were aroused, may be. 
chianged or altered^ or differently modified, but the capacity 
for happiness remains the same. There is the same amount 
of pleasure and pain, the same amount of hope and fear, the 
same amount oi expectation and disappointment; and it 
would appear, therefore, that the elements being the same, 
and the general combination of those elements being similar^ 
there must, with the exception of some slight modincations, 
be a corresponding result. 

Leaving this general view of the subject, let us ask what 
portion 01 mankind is it, whose happiness has been improved 
by the progressive advances of art i Are those who possess 
great capacity and most exquisite feeling, in possession of higher 
or more numerous means of enjoyment ? They were equally 
gratified in the rudest times, as in the most refined. The 
heroes of Homer and Ossian were as much elated with their 
distinctions as the most gifted moderns : they possessed 
equal objects of ambition. The plumed warrior, who drag- 
ged his captives at his chariot wheels, received as loud and 
swelling a shout of human applause, as ever greeted the 
ear of a modern orator or a modern statesman. If refinement 
has increased the number offactitious gratifications to those 
who possess great sensibility, who have more softness of 
heart than energy of head; if it enables them 

" To fill the languid pause with finer joy,** 

the same refinement has created, with its gratifications* 
endless wants — with more numerous expectations, more 
numerous disappointments — with a greater variety of amuse* 
ments and pleasures, a correspondent share of languor, 
pain, andvexatipn. 

a$ connected, mth Human Happiness, 25 

Therq is certainly- a large portion of mankind who are not 
much visited with Uie delicate susceptibilities to which we 
lutve adverted. They are in the lowest class. They have 
been the most numerous and most oppressed in all ages and 
in all countries. It will not be contended that art or inven- 
tion has done much for them* Will any one say, that *' the 
lean unwashed artificer/' the pallid mechanic, or the squal- 
Hd manufacturer^ who crowd the great towns and cities of 
modem refinement — will any one assert that these are supe- 
rior in thought or sensation to even a wild manof thewoods^ 
to the intrepid and fiery savage, to him who depends on his 
bow and his arrow, or on t£e bounties of a fertile though 
uncultivated soil? — or will you analyze the gratifications of 
the vassal of a military cliieftain, or a feudal lord, and com- 
Mjre him either with the former or with the latter? If art 
ni^ .the convenience of its cities, nature bestows the flow- 
ing health of its fields, the inspiring brightness and sublunity 
of its. prospects, its endless grandeur, and its exhaustless 

Happiness, as we hiive seen, consists in agreeable thoughts 
and sensations. But these thoughts and sensations must 
have con^spondent n]^ans and causes. Many of our agree- 
able sensatipn^ may be vecy easily traced to the cornucopia 
of plenty. Famine is not so well adapted to afford plea- 
sure, nor is the prospect of it even in the very lap of ease an 
agreeaUe thought. The means of subsistence administer to 
the appetites and the gratification of the senses. Now, in all 
ages, the means of subsistence are nearly equal. The sup- 
ply is generally proportioned to tl^ demand. No one age 
can in this respect, boast much over another. There haa 
been occasional famine and disaster at all periods. 

But agreeable thoughts and sensations are produced, in a 
considerable degree, by the approbation and sympathy of our 
fellow-beings. The praise of the praiseworthy is a fit and 
meritorious object of ambition. We never act without 
motive, and the applause of the good and wise is a powerful 
incetntive to action; but the approbation of men is not 
always sufficiently discriminating. It sometimes adminis- 
ters to the petty follies of vanity, it sometimes arouses the 
malice of envy, it sometimes swells the selfishness of pride^ 
an4 it flpn^ietiines gratifies the ignoble ambition of possessing 
qualities in themselves utterly valueless, and often perni- 
cious, though admired because of rare and difficult attain* 
ment. But this approbation and sympathy of our fellow- 
beings is not the result of art, or a discovery that belongs 

26 On the Results of Art, 

to any particular age, much less to any recent one. Men 
have sought for applause^ and have been applauded, ina)!' 
ages, and the amount of this desirable object has been tbe* 
same throughout all time. The attainments which have 

Eroduced it have, indeed, been diflTerent. Circumstances 
ave changed the means by which it was obtained^ but 
have neither increased or diminished its value or ext^t. 
At one period superior skill in hunting, or in war, has beew 
the supposed perfection of the human character, — at another, 
excellence in the fine arts, in science, in literature, *' beariv 
the palm alone." The civilian then surpasses the wamor, 
and " the gown triumphs over the sword ;" yet this is ai 
mere change of the means — the end remains the same-^thef 
path of the race is altered, but the goal stands immutable. 

The accumulation of facts, the extension of what is €alle4 
knowledge, is esteemed by many as incontrovercibly advan^ 
tageous to the human race. It would be as unnecessary, ai^ 
laborious, to walk the extensive round of the sciences. la 
few words, however, we may advert to two of them^ and 

I)robably in the selection it will not be alleged, th^t the 
east important, or the most easily depreciat^, have beefi 
chosen. Astronomy and chemistry ate among the too^ 
eminent of the sciences. The one, as it were, grasping 
within its range the whole material universe, and me oihet 
analyzing the nature even of its minutest particle. The 
one calculated to fill the mind of the sublimest genius, and 
the other to occupy the attention of the most inquisitive and 
active observer. 

To some few persons it is doubtless satisfactory, that the 
solar system has been so well explained. It is undoubtedly 
true, that when the mind is contemplating the stupendous 
nature of that system, it derives a high and positive gratifi- 
cation. But this is a pleasure enjoyed cmly by a few, and 
if the thought which we are now examining had never 
existed, who is prepared to say, that the happiness of tbos^ 
few cultivated minds would nave been less ? The same 
mind that is occupied in the admiration of the system thus 
developed, would not have been vacant. It woura have been 
filled by some other thought, and it is the exertion cf She 
faculty that constitutes the pleasure. Besides, it is by no 
means clear that the explanation of tiie theory of the tm^ 
verse is, in itself, an object of much pleasure. The fyt 
greater part of the agreeable thought is made up of that t6 
which we are not indebted to art. It consists in the posi- 
tive pleasure we derive, first, from the exertion oft^ mental 

as cofineet^ with Human Haziness, 27 

power; and secondly^ of the corporeal organ; and the ein-> 
ploymeni of the latter depends on tliat 6ood of light which 
IS ev^ry. where poured on the visual sense. What satisfac* 
tion would a blind man have in contemplating the abstract 
theory of the univi^rse ? Independent of this^ too, our own 
sensations are, after all, the most important in the produc* 
tion of the agreeable idea. What does a man, amidst the 
writhiqgs of tortnre, care for the Newtonian system? When 
he is happy, when the train of his thoughts is agreeable, 
when he enioys '^ the sunshine of the soul," when ** his 
bosom's lord si^ lightly on his throne," there is no art, no 
invention, no discov^, nq acquisition that can by possibi- 
lity add to the amount of his happiness. 

The ancient chemists reduced, as they thought, the 
ibatafia) world into four elemental substances. The modern 
chymists have discovered a great many more ; but it does 
not ft>lIow, that the substantial interests of the human race 
are mvteh jaUTected by it. Whether there be four, or forty, oi 
fwr hundred primitive substances, does not appear to be of 
iftneh Qonsequenee. We cannot alter the substances them-* 
selves, nor can we prevent the combinations amongst those 
substsmces which take place in the general operations of the 
siatdrial worM. It is not the mere nomooclature that is 
so very important. The names by which they are called, 
whether few or many, can make no difference in the utility 
of their nature. Perhaps it will be said, that chemistry has 
been applied to the purposes of life, to cookery and medi- 
cine. Of the former, it may be sufficient to say, that the 
ages Qf]^pieum& and LucuUus were amply advanced in all 
ib^ %rts p£ ihe baiftquet, for any purposes^ either useful of 
ple^simable. Glui;tony and drunkenness are not of modem 
discoviery; neither is; sin^plicity of diet. Those who have 
been edifted by a recent jproduction, called ** Death t» the 
Poi" will not be very pcone to boast of modem excellence 
in the wis Qf the kitchen. But chemistry is useful in the 
matemi mMn^ti. One would wonder, indeed, amongst so 
m^^y discoreries, hio^ people can be so extremely foolish 
aato remam sick, or, under any circumstances, to give up 
tile ghoat ! Yet p/erbaps we snail, ailer all* arrive at the 
omclttsipn^ that tk^ ww» and wounded, and the deaths, have 
been very neariv equal at all periods of the known wovld. 

Thelimiits of an>lBssay do not allow of more than a very 
bri^f refereBce to the Arts. There are some which are 
useful to the few, and some which are useful to the many. 
liotbing ap{>eara more delightful than music, painting. 

28 0» the RemlH of Art, 

poetry, and rfietoric. One remark which' may b© made is^' 
that mankind are as well pleaded, if not more pleased, in the 
origin and rise of these arts, by the rudest efforts, as when 
they attain their utmost perfection. As th« arts advance, 
the knowledge of them advances — with superior artists, rise 
up superior critics. The blissful ignorance of wonder, the 
enthusiasm of unlettered novelty> is no more. Thepain/of 
the artist, in attaining perfection^ is as great a& thepieas^te^ 
of the amateur in beholding it. 

Architecture is an ornamental, as well as a nseilil aft; 
but is any one the better, or wiser, or happier, for the five 
orders of architecture? Suppose there had been only one-^— ' 
suppose the art had terminated with the invention of tiie 
Tuscan order, and we had heard nothing of the I>oric, or 
the rest ; is tiiere any person whose real advantages woul«|( 
have undergone the slightest reduction? 

But, then, there are happily others, the culinary and A/Xtt- 
rious arts* We have sumptuous fare, fine dresses, sjrfendid 
houses, and brilliant equipages. Unfortunately, however^ 
the possessors of these things think very little of them, and 
perhaps the most illustrious amongst them have no moi^ 
agreeable thoughts or sensations in entering the greart halk 
ot their ancestors, than we have in entering the humblest 

" Some are^ and must be, greater than the rest — . ., . 
More rich, more wise — but who infers from heBce, 
That such are happier, shocks all common sense.'^ 

The invention of the alphabetic and numeral characters 
has been generally considered as very important. Letters 
were a great improvement upon hieroglyphics, in- the facility 
of conducting business : yet so far as amusement- tod inge- 
nuity are concerned, we are not perhaps much the gainetsl 
It is more agreeable to look at a picture than at a great A. 
The Chinese are said to have 80i060 characters, and cer- 
tainly if novelty and variety be, as we generally suppdse, 
agreeable, the Chinese have the advantage. The aequi«i- 
tion of them would, it is true, be rather operose ; yet the 
number of arts and accomplishments, which some attaiti 
amongst us, do not demand a less consumption of time ahd 
trouble. But, apart from this, does any one suppose that 
the Egyptians, or the Chinese are less happy than we ire, 
because they are not blessed with the subbme invention o^ 
our A, B, c? ' 

There is another art, connected with the use of these 

as connected with Human Happiness. 2& 

A^B^c's, which it is still more dangerous to undervalue, the art 
of printing. Its utility, of course, can only consist in the 
difTusion of knowledge. Now, the facts and principles 
which ai'e really known, or discovered, are very easily 
difiiised — those facts and principles, so fax as they are 
important, are few in number, and capable of being easily 
disseminated. The necessity of printed books may there- 
fore at least be questioned. It may even be thought that 
their number is becoming an evil — that there is far more 
error, prejudice, and falsehood, now issued from the press, 
than accuracy, correct judgment, or truth. That which is 
good in moderation, is an evil in excess; and the extreme 
fondness for books, so far as it extends, is a diminution of 
the pleasures of social intercourse. The studious character 
in general either shuns society, or, when he enters it, is 
useless or unamiable. 

Amongst the discoveries of mankind, that of the continent' 
of America was undoubtedly the greatest. In reading its 
history, even as described by the admirable pen of Dr. 
Robertson, and in viewing its general effects on the old, as 
well as the new world, we are compelled to conclude, that it 
has hithertQ only carried war and devastation into the 
regions of the West, and opened the pernicious floodgates of 
new wealth and new luxuries, upon the nations of the East- 
em Hemisphere: Well might the Americans reject the 
European promise of bettering their condition. " They 
boast they come but to improve our state, enlarge our 
thought, and free us from tlie yoke of error. Yes! they 
will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are them- 
selves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride ! Tliey offer 
us their protection. Yes ! such protection as vultures give 
to lambs— covering and devounng them !" " If Europe," 
says Montesquieu, '* has benefited much by America, Spain 
must have derived still greater advantages. Yet Philip the 
Second was obliged to make the nation bankrupt. This 
is owing to an inherent and physical defect in the nature of 
riches, which renders them vam — a defect which increases 
every day. Gold and silver are either a fictitious or a repre- 
sentative wealth. The representative signs of wealth are 
durable. But the more they are multiplied, the more they 
lose dieir value, because the fewer are the things which they 
represent. Spain behaved like the foolish king, who desired 
that every thing he touched mi^ht be converted into gold, 
and who was obliged to beg of the gods to put an end to his 
misery." It may l;>e urged, that the productions of America 

30 On the ReiuUs of Art, 

are useful, because they increase the number df ou^ gtaiifi* 
cations. But, 'tis doubtful whether there be any thing im- 
ported from the new world that was not to be found in the 
old. Let us see what was the state of anciesbt commerce 
whilst it was limited to the Eastern hemisphere* Its pro- 
ductions appear to have been numerous enough to satisfy 
the most luxurious and voluptuous. Those prodoctions^ 
have scarcely been surpassed since the discovery of^Ame^ 
rica. The following is an abridged description of the traffic 
of the Eastern nations : " The Phoenicians, coasting the 
peninsula of Arabia^ bent their voyages to the Persian GvM, 
and imported from thence the pearls of Havila, the gold of 
Saba and Opfair, the aromatics and precious gems of Cey-^ 
Ion, the diamonds of Golconda, the silver, the gold dust of 
Africa. By the Black Sea» in ships of Egypt and.Syria^ 
were exported those commodities which constituted the 
opulence of Thebes, Memphis, and Jerusalem. Sometimes, 
ascending the course of the Tigris and Euphrates, they 
awaked the activity of the Assyrians, the Medes^ the Chsi- 
deans, and the Persians ; and, accordii^ as they were ubed 
or abused, cherished or overturned their wealth and pros- 
perity. Hence grew up the magnificence of Pjersepohs, of 
Ecbfl^AXML, of Babylon, of Nineveh, and of the melancholy and 
memorable Palmyra." It may be urged> that mtaAy of these 
sources are dried up or exhausted: an answer may be 

Suoted from the same author : " Do the mountains retain 
leir springs ? are the streams dried up ? and do the plants 
no more bear fruit and seed ? Has heaven denied to th<9 
earth, and the earth to its isihabitaiUs, the blessings thiat 
were formerly dispersed?" 

If it be still contended that America itself, or that 
Europe, has been benefited by the discovery, we should 
recollect some oi the evils that followed in its train. In 
order to work the mines of America, to cultivate its lands, 
and manufacture its productions, it has been considered 
necessary to depopulate the villages of Africa. The prac- 
tice has generally been to destroy, or drive into the woods 
and mountains, the natives of the nevflj fnvoured o6utitry, 
to take possession of their territories, and import the poor 
neg3X)es to cuUivute and work them. It is not essentaal'to 
sketch the picture of the horrors of the slave trade. It ^ 
may be necessary only to remind those, who, in the exul- 
tation of partial abolitirOn, have forgotten its former, and itis 
still existing, atrocities, that it was conducted by treaJohery, 
by fraud, rapine, and violence : — that the^ miserable beings 

as connected with Human H^finess. 31 

were torn from their native land, ** nor wife» nor children 
more did they behold, nor friends, nor happy home." They 
were driven, chained in herds, like cattle, to the sea-shore, 
and embarked, like cargoes of senseless logs, to a distant 
and uohealthful region. 

If our attention be pointed to the luxuries we derive from 
this extension of commerce, let us recollect that the same 
wave tibat bears to one man a new source of sensual gratiii-' 
cation, rolls over the ruined hopes and fortunes of another : 
that multitudes perish in attempting to reach those fatal 
shores : that multitudes die a sudden or lingering death in 
its heated and pestiferous or ungenial climates : that multi- 
tudes sink beneath the waters in the un^ratified wish to 
regain the land of their sires. Count togemer these human 
calamities, and add the loss of property, and of health, 
which others sustain in this boasted traffic, and then deter- 
min;e which should preponderate in the scales of good and 

'' In the savage state,'' it was said by Lord Kaims, '* that 
man is almost all body, with a very sinall portion of mind. 
In the maturity of civil society, he is complete both in mind 
and body. In a state of degeneracy, by luxury and volup- 
tuousness, he is neither mind nor body." — ^Now, the tendency 
of the intercourse with America, has merely been to increase 
the quantum of luxury, already sufficiently great. 

^^ HtiTB ve not seen rcmnd Britain's peopled shore, 
Her useful scms exchanged lor useless ors ? 
The wealth of climes, where savage nations roam, 
Pillag'd from slaves, to purchase slaves at home ? 
Ye friends to truth, ye statesmen who survey 
The rich man's joy increase, the poor's decay ; 
TTia your's to judge, how wide the limits stand 
Between a splendid and a happy land : — 
Proud swells the tide with loads of freighted ore, 
And shouting folly hails them from her shore — 
Yet count our gains — this wealth is but a name, 
That leaves our useftd products still the same." 

Let us, to complete the picture, view»the stability of this 
great comm^^al discovery* Look to the facts enregi»* 
tetedon.the pages of history. It has been well said, tnat 
*' commerce has wings." It fliew from Egypt, frotn PhcBni- 
cia, from Carthage. It fled from the Pisans, the Florentines, 
theGienoese, the Venetians, the Hanseatics. Do we expect 
it will now change its nature, or that its advantages will 
remain whesn it has changed its abode ? 

J2 On the Reitdts of Art, 

If the prodactipns of human art, in the courde of so many 
centuries, comprised even in authentic history, have been 
eo beneficial to mankind, and so progressive in their im- 
provement, probably some one will indulge us by saying 
what it is they have permanently effected in the mental or 
the moral condition of human nature. Is health increased^ 
or life prolonged, by the labours or the discoveries of the 
sons of Esculapius? They are not, however, to blame: 
Their chief occupation is to correct the evils of excessive 
luxury and refinement. They cannot add to sound health; 
or lengthen the allotted span of human existence. It would 
be unreasonable to expect it. The changes effected in the 
culture of the earth, in edifices, in furniture, in dresses, in 
equipages, in luxurious living, are enjoyed by a few only/ 
If there were no attendant and correspondent evil, such a 
result would be an advantage. To produce the unmixed 
happiness of one individual, unconnected with the misery or 
inconvenience of another, would be something gained. But 
the enjoyments of the few are unhappily obtained at the 
eevei^ labour and expense of the many. ' 

In the mental progress of the world, we take the .credit of 
being now more correct in our ideas than at a former 
period. Let us pass the egotism of judging upon our own 
merits ; let us look to the state of the facts, and we shaW 
find, that the age has not g6ne by in which one set of 
mental philosophers deny the exiistenoe of mind, and another 
the existence of matter. How far then are we superior to the 
ancients i Are our mental attainments more agreeable and 
pleasant than those of our ancestors ? Are they more numerous, 
are they more novel and intense, aat well as more numerous ? 
It is probable we may all recollect the time when we had 
fewer thoughts to occupy our minds, or, it might be said, 
fewer to distract them. I3ut we may doubt the memory, or 
the candour, of the person who asserts, that in the spring- 
time of life, when every thing appeared " new and strange,'* 
he was less pleased with the few bright and novel ideas 
with which tlie mind was filled and delighted, than at a 
later period, when, indeed, the number was increased, but 
certainly neither their intensity nor their pleasure. 

But this is contemplating the subject with respect to the 
individual. Our business is strictly of a more general 
nature. Has any new idea been added to the stock ? Has 
the genius of the present enlightened times suggested any 
single thought that was before unknown ? Have we not 
been going on, from age to age, borrowing of one another? 

as cofutecfed wUk Hitman Happiness. 33 

Have we done any thing more (even if we liaye dome that) 
than vary a littk the arrangement of our' mental stores'?' 
Can it be proved, that the most learned, or the most scien* 
tific, are the happiest? Select in your mind the most 
eminent man of the present age, in this or any other coun- 
try, and if he be really happy, you will find his felicity veiy 
little dependent upon his leanung, his science^ or his skill 
in any art whatever. ' 

We come next to the moral improvements which are sup*- 
posed to have been effected. The benefits of Christianity 
cannot be appealed to on the present occasion. That 
purest and best religion, that system of moral perfection; 
whose precepts, if made the universal rule of conduct; 
would humanize the world, and create another paradise in 
this vale of tears, was revealed, and never could have been 
discovered. It is not the production of imperfect man. It 
is no art, and no science ; but is above them all. Ind^pen^^ 
dent of this revealed system, what new truth in morals has 
been discovered? The earliest of all moralists suggested 
all that the latest enjoin. In all ages it has been taught, in 
all' ages it has been known, that our happiness depended 
on the practice of virtue. What new maxims have b^en 
discovered i What new motives of action ? At all periods of 
the world, recorded in profane history, there have been 
folly, vice, and crime. Religion has denounced- the wratil 
of eternity. All laws have iissued their thunders : yet fblly, 
vice, and crime, have still existed. They have varied only in 
mode and object. They have changed with the times; and 
been proportioned to the pressure of dis^iress, and- the itemp^ 
tationotrelief.'. ^ ..!.•• 

Advancing even to higher ground, what has the wildest 
system of legislation effected, what .have all the forms >of 
government accomplished ? Unequal and oppressive lawii, 
and despotic rule, are considered as tremendous evils*; Bat 
the general principles of justice-pervade alllaws> and thei^e 
** when best administered are beat." Liberty can. oply be 
esteemed as- a means of happiness. No one would admire 
it, if misery were its natural coxLsequence* It is the ikct, 
however, that in eVery age persons have called aloud for 
better laws and more. liberty; yet >^ 

*y How small, of all that human hearts endure^ , 

That part which kings, or laws, can cause' or cure/* 

If we consult the catalogue of complaints at the present 
period it would appear, that so far foorn our possessing more 


34 Oh tie MesuUi of Art, 

^»tic««iid liberty than any anteoedent age, ^^aince the 
great flood/' we are pOEatively fffoaning under the weiffht 
of the moet oppressive system or law and gOTeroment wai 
^Fer plagued the human species ! 

An argometuk of no small force is to be derived from the 
^Oi^eptioD we must have of the goodness of ** the great 
First Cause/' No one will dispute, that the end and object 
of our creation was evidently the production of happiness. 
To suppose otherwise, is to suppose an}r thing but good- 
neap, tiow, is it cooceivable, tnat mankind should be left 
%Q grope their way in the dark, in search of this staamum 
bmum ; that the very purpose of their being should be left to 
the uncertain cultivation and progress of countless ages ? 
Where w^uld be the justice of leaving all the early races of 
ipankind to struggle through comparative infelicity, and 
reserve the possession of happiness to some remote, genora^ 
tion ? We may thoroughly understand, why the happiness 
of eaeh iadividnal shotdd, in a great degree, depend on 
himself; but it is incomprehensible, to every natiuru feeling 
^pd notion of justice, that one race of men, as deserving as 
f^nother, should possess a less degree ottk^ reward of virtue. 

la fevonr of our position, we may refer to the argument 
pffered by the analogy in the appearance of the universe. 
Th^re every thing was created, at first, as perfectly as was 
moessejfy. The material world remains the same. It n^ 
ther imf>rQve0,nor retrogrades : it undergoes a partial diiange, 
but in its general features it is immutable. In the kmg 
jbips^ of time, mountains may be raised or leveUed, the 
^evation of a biU# or the depth of a valley, may be increaaed 
or diminished ; but these appearances of nature still exist. 
The species may change, but the genus continues the same. 
The great ocean may roll its mighty waves into new chanr 
nals. but its natnse, and its magnitude, are unchanged. 
The waters sometimes produce fertility, and sometimes 
dastructioa. The periods and the modes of operation 
i^ai^e, but the general result is the same. The earthquake, 
the tempest, .the toomado, the pestilence, visit di£Ebrent not- 
tiotis ofthe globe ; ^ey change the site and scone of tneir 
devastation, bat in no we has tiie*whole earth been exempt 
from their influence. Tnejian is not increased in briffhtnesi, 
nor are the stars diminished in lustre. They have illumined 
the world, they have shone on man's fitful life for many 
thdusimd years — they still shine in the same splendour. 
The vegetable kingdom, and all die tribes of lover animals, 
beire remained the same. It is reasonable, tb^[efere» ^ 

as connected with Human Happiness, 35 

infer that human nature^ its passions^ its thoughts, its feel- 
ings, and itd happtniBsb, baTe been, are no^, and will com-^ 
tinue to the end of time to be, as they were at the beginnifig. 

Yet, notwithstanding these views'^o^ ait and seienee, and 
human ao<)uisition6, it must be attowed that the w^rtd is 
greatly indebted to those ingenious, active*, and enterprising 
spirits, who,, in all ages, haire exerted flieir faculties to 
amuse or gratif]^ the human species* The strains of music 
charm and captivate the ear — the eye is delighted with the 
exlubitions of the pencil — the fancy is dazzlea and elevated 
by the " fiaaje- frenzy" of the poetic lay — the understanding 
is gratified by the skill of the rhetorician, and the heart by 
the eloquence of the orator. — Science has done much. It 
has amused, as well as been useful. literature in general 
is asource of gratification,, very important to an age of high 
refiniiement,, and it sometimes removes the leaden languor of 

But stiiU we must contend against the assumption^ that 
the welfiire of society, and o^f the human species m general,. 
can matexiaHy depend on the eminence or the extension 
either of art, science, or literature. The attainments and 
supposed advantages of the present age, are not superior 
to those of fpnaaer periods. Throughout all autnentic 
time^ the arts hare existed in all the extent and perfection 
that can be necessary or useful in the production of human 
enj<ranent, and the promotion of human happineGts. The 
w^Uue of mankind, the utmost nm^e of its felicity^ the 
trnestand most permanent interest orthe species^ eonsists^ 
not ia. the perfection of art. It depends on 

*^ What nothing eartfily gives, or c€l& destroy. 
The soul's caln^ sunshine, and the heartfelt jc^." 

It doei^ not depend upon the most boiHidlesa extend of 
ridi^8«-it d^^ not depend on the utmost sunnnit of worldly 
wisd(Hn. It is to be KMind in all clime# and all aituatioQfr-— 
in eireiy ^efi, and in every period of the world. It is the 
^t of Hewren itsalf It cannot either be destroyed, ot 
utipFoved, by the vicissitudes of human invention. It 
ve^^es only to. be rightly appreciated, and to be ^empe- 
M9My ei^oyed. In fijoe* 

" That virtue only m&kes our bliss below, 
And all our knowledge is mrsetves to know,* 

R. M. 


The Mischievous Effects of Gaming: a Charge delivered to 

. the Grand Jury of the County of Berks, in the State jof 

Pennsylvania. BytheHoif. Jacob Rush, President of the 

Third District of the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter 

Session for the State of Pennsylvania, 

[The lamentable instance of the effects of gaming, which 
has for many weeks past superseded all other topics of 
general conversation and public interest, has induced us to 
select the present moment for presenting to our readers the 
following excellent charge, by an American Judge whose 
name is well known in England, and highly respected there, 
as it deserves to be, for the boldness with whicn he has ever 
maintained from the seat of justice, the distinguishing, and 
what, in the estimation of the world, are deemed the oppro* 
brious doctrines of the gospel. His judicial charges were 
published at Philadelphia, at the particular recommendation 
of the Presbyterian clergy of that city, as " enforcing a 
number of moral and religious duties, in a manner that will 
appear to many at once new, just, and striking,'' as " parti- 
cularly and highly estimable, as they demonstrate the con- 
nexion between the principles of religion and those of 
social happiness, to be necessary and indispensable,'' and 
from their being " well calculated to render every person 
who seriously and candidly reads them, both a better Chris- 
tian and a better citizen;" and though they have since 
been reprinted at New- York, we are assured, that to most of 
our readers, if not to all, they will be perfectly new, as we 
from time to time commend the most striking and generally 
interesting of them, to their notice.] ;, > • . 

Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, 

The practice of gaming, with the long train of evils 

fenerally resulting from it, have been pointed out and 
eplored, not more frequently by the divine and the mora^ 
list, than by the statesman and the patriot.- Whether the 
love of this pernicious amusement be deeply implanted in 
human nature, as some have supposed, or be altogether the 
effect of habit, as others believe, it is certain, when once it 
gets (>ossession of the mind, there is no vice that tyrannizeB 
over its miserable votaries with more uncontrolled sway- 
Such is the infatuation which often attends it, that innume- 
rable instances might be mentioned, of persons, who, by ven- 
turing 'their all upon this ocean of chances, have been 
reduced from opulence to poverty and wretchedness, in the 

The Mkefiiewms Effects of Gaming. 37 

short space of a few minutes. And though such desperate 

-scenes of guilt and folly do AOt- often occur in our country, 

yet as all vice is in its natuf epro^essive, and We are making 

rapid advances in every kind of luxury, there is reason to 

fear we shall, lere long, rival our European brethren in this, 

-as well as in every other rbode of criminal dissipation. 

-There is, however, a species of ^gaming conducted on a 

lovger scale, which abounds estresiely' among us, is chiefly 

carried on at taverns, and is nractised by persons of all 

descriptions, high and ioiw, tick and poor, old and young. 

It is to this scandalous violation of tne laws of the land, 

this open insult upon govemm^it, I m^n at this time to 

• turn your attentioh, as to an evil of growing magnitude, 

which threatens our country with very calamitous effects. 

It would consume too much time, and is not my intention, 
to go into a full discussion of the innumerable evils flowing 
to society from the practice of gaming. They are so 
obvious, as to present themselves to the understanding of 
the most unreflecting person. Let it sufiice to observe, 
generally, that as it springs chiefly from idleness, the fruit- 
ful, the mexhaustible source of almost every vice, so it has 
a natural tendency to produce idleness. It operates as 
cause and efiect, and is at once both parent and offspring. 
When the heart is once thoroughly possessed of this passion, 
every thing is sacrificed to its gratification. In the mad 
pursuit, health wad constitution are gradually destroyed by 
irregular hours, and disorderly conduct. Sleepless nights, 
corroding passions, and a neglect of business, accompanied 
with the mtemperateuse of ardent spirits, soon plunge both 
the gamester and his family into one common ruin.* 

It would be a fortunate circumstance, if the detail of 

* The pernicious consequences of play, have been frequently 
described in the strongest terms, and illustrated by the most striking^ 
examples. Seldom, however, have* they been rq>resented on so 
large a scale, as in the account of the fate of a great body ofaame^ 
iters at Hamburgh, which an intelligent spectator has published 
io a Germau Gazette, as the result of his attentive examination, 

. during a period of two years. Of six hundred individuals , who were 
in the habit of frequenting gaming-houses, he states, that nearly one 
half not only lost considerable sums, but were finally stripped of all 
means of subsistence, and ended their days by self-mnrder. Of the 
rest, not less than an hundred finished their career by becoming 
swindlers or robbers on the highway. The remnant of this nnfortn- 

, nate group perished ; some by apoplexy ; but the greater part by 
chagru and despair. He mentions, that during the whole space of 
two years, to which his journal is confined, he did not see one of 
these six hundred gamesters with a single new dress. — See Relfs 
Gazette of February % l'S02. 

38 TM MkeUewm Effeeto^afGiamug. 

.ouscbUfe ^eiKled m the 4^trueikm ef iik% ctmstiiutiM end 
temporal <^onoems of the ramUe^ : bat the case is finr otbeis- 
wifie« The ftital effects c« ^aiping extend beyemd the grare. 
The «»in J i^ deeply coBtunmated, and eentimente, the most 
ho»tile to \X»fnal peace and happiness^ ate harboumd and 
indulged. The gambler is frequently tcHrtiured mth par 
roi:y mg of rage agaioat Heaven ; the effect of raaaed expecta- 
tion being suddenly dashnd ftt a dritieal moment : maam«hile 
his aountenanoe is aknoat as much distorted with agcmy, as 
that of a person snffering on the lack : from which we may 
form a [pretty got rect idea» what must be the sensations that 
are tearing his heart; aod how infinitely injurions their 
effect must be on the temper asd dispo3ition of the souL la 
sl^rt, I must be permitted to i«mark, however dispkasin^ the 
. observation may be, that a gaming-tsbie geeerally exhibits a 
scfone of great immoiaiity, where the most criminal passions 
rage um^ontroUed, sind dreadAil onlha and impreeations 
burst from almost erery tongne. That this is not a false, or 
exaggerated description, candomr itself must acknowledge-^ 
woAJi think, it must at the same time be as readily acknow- 
ledged tQ be the duty of eyery friend oi virtue and. his 
country, to abstain from an amasement pregnant with the 
stron^st temptations to avarice, firana, lying, cursing, 
swearing, contention, fretfalness, and every emotion that 
can disordler the heart* Even the stern jAilosopher, who is 
supposed to consult nothing so nioch as the tranqnillity of 
his own ^osoiTi, woukl do well to avoid it, as dangerous, if not 
destructive, to that serene and unruffled enjoyment of mind, 
which he affiscts snpremelv to puisoe. He who volontarily 
and unnecessarily places nimself in a situation ^isaare his 
Jntlocence may be lost, or his feelings become the sport of 
blind impierioui^ chance, acts a ps^rt neither compatible with 
the character of sound wisdom, or virtuous circmnspection* 
The ideas of the great philosopher, Mr. Locke, should not, 
therefore be hastily reprobated ; who, after examining this 
subject with his usual acuteness, declares it to be his 
opinioHf that in order to avoid all temptation, tbe best way is, 
never to learn to play a single card. 

Impressed, no doubt, by these, or other considerations 
still more forcible, the legislature of our state nave endea- 
_youred to abolish evenr species of earning. The ase has 
been laid to the root of the evil by ttie law of April, 1794, 
intitled, '* An Act for the Prevention of Vice and Immora- 
lity, and of unlawful Gaming, and to restrain disorderly 
Sports and Dissipations,'' which has rendered it ^ompleiely» 

TAe 3Bschieims EJflsa$ i^ Gmnklg, d$ 

and to aU inteato and purposes* ualtrarful in PMMylvoia. 
It will not be ioipn^er to Uj boibre you a brief Bketcbi of tb;^ 
kw <Hi this inibjeot. 

The fifth section forbids fighting cocks* for moneyr or 
(^her vahiafale coosideratmi» under the penalty of three dol* 
lars; and as it is notorious, that nothioj? so miich encouira^es 
this inhuman and bcutal diversion^ as laying bets« and that 
eock*figfating is often the result of a spqcakting, gambling 
temper, any wwgif on the evea^ is proliibite^ wider a like 
penalty. Flaying at cards, dice« btlliards, bowls, shuffle- 
board, bijdlets, and any ^ame of address or hazard for money, 
or other valuable coosiderationg is also forbidden, under a 
penalty of three dollars. With respeet to playing bullets 
on the h^dkway, the act forbids it under the like penalty, 
whether &ere be any bet laid or not* The remedy in thas 
case, is what the law calls cumulatiye or additional. Fori 
as piayine bullets in the highway obstructs die road, and 
ineommoms pasaeagers and trayellers, it is an ofience, inds^ 
pendent of the act, for which the parties are liable to indict<- 
nent a«d fine at common law> A penalty of twenty dollars 
IB also annexed to the offence of horse-racing, for money or 
other TaluaUe considerationtf 

* In England, this inhaman and bmtafislng sport is a fkvourft^ 
anasenient with many of our gentry ; nay, we ourselves oooM, with- 
oat diffieahy, naoM S nobleman, in whose veins flow the blood of as 
ittastrioaa aBoestij as oar peerage oan produce, — who is himself the 
lord-lieutenant of one of the most extensive and most important 
counties in the kingdom, and as such is placed at the head of, and 
has the virtual nomination of, its magistracy,^who it regularly to be 
seea at eveiy ooek«pit withm his leaeb, igfathig the most bretlsb and 
desperate maias, asd bettiag en their event, in the most hail^fellaw- 
well-met familiarity, with some of the gn^eatest blacklegs and black- 
guards in tbe kingdom. Some years ago, a legal friend of ours, in 
another part of the country than that tp which we have just alhided, 
happening to be attending a court of quarter session as an adnt)eaie^ 
doling the vase week^ ia the town wiere those sessions we^e held, 
dined at tjie ordinary^ where a magistrate of the county, who had not 
even shewn himself in court, asked him, if he had been at the cock- 
pit " No, indeed, 1 have not," replied our friend, ** for I have been 
very diflerently engaged, in drawing an indictment against some 
people ^r eock-ighting/' ** For eeeb-fig^tiag!" exelsi«e4 the ex- 
pounder of the law, with mingled astonishment and alarm,' (for his 
morning had been devoted to the cock-pit, rather than to tiie eomrt, 
where the biisiness was adjourned to the morrow for want of justices,) 
^atiddoyou mean to say that cock-fighting is IHegair' '*T<y be 
imre I do/' repUed the barrister, ** and if you will do us the honour 
to attend at the next quarter sessions, yea may assist In seatenoiim 
the people who have been guilty 6(f it, to fine and impriseament far 
their cfence/'-^EDiT. 

-f This, as our readers will perceive from sooftlier article » the 

40 The Mkchievimi Efftdit of Gamhig. 

' The sixth section, after declaring that the variouft detcrip- 
iions of gaming mentioned in the act, are frequently pro- 
moted and held at public-houses, or near them, imposes a 
penalty of fourteen dollars, and a loss of license for one 
year, upon every tayem-keeper, wh6 shall promote any thing 
bf the Kind, or 9haH fomish drink to persons so employed^ 
ot shall allow any sort of gaming for money, or other Tcduable 
(Consideration, in his dwelling-house, or in any out-bouse 
belonging tb him. In case of a second offence, he is subject 
to a fine of twenty-eight dollars, and is rendered for ever 
incapable of keeping a tavern in the state of Pennsylvania. 

The seventh section^ still keeping in view iaverm as the 
grand theatre of gaming, forbids bilTiard-tables, E O tables^ 
OT other devices being kept in public-houses, for the purpose 
of playing for money, on pain of forfeiting the instrument of 
such play, and the sum of twenty-six dollars. 
* By the subsequent provisions of this law, a person bsing 
money, or other valuable thing, at any of the games speci- 
fied in the act, shall not be obliged to pay, or make good 
the same, or to discharge any security given liierefore. And 
even if the loser has actually paid the money, or delivered 
the article to the winner, he may sue within ten days, and 
recover the same back again. 

This, gentlemen, is a brief, but correct summary of our laws 
upon the subject of gaming, made for the best purposes, and 
with the best intentions. And thus anxiously and benevolently 
have the legislature of our country endeavoured to extirpate 
the evil, root and branch. You will, however, perceive, 
they have not prohibited playing merely for amusement at 
any of the games specified ; not even horse-racing, where 
amusement is the only object. It is only when money, or 
any thing of value, is played for, that it is absolutely for- 

And now, gentlemen, let us pause a few moments, and 
seriously ask ourselves this single question — Is it our duty, 
ias good citizens, to yield obedience to this law of our coun- 
try, or is it not? 

Many persons, I well know, are ready at once to exclaim, 

present number of our work, is an offence panisbable by law in most 
of the United States. In England it is not so, save where the race is 
run for a less sum than £60, in which ease, the owner of every horse 
•lanniilg, is, by 13 Geo. II. c. 19. sabjeoted to a penaity of £200; and 
every person advertising snch race, to a penalty of half the amount. 
Newmarket and Blackhambleton courses are, however, expressly 
excepted from the operation of an act, which legalizes this specie^ af 
gaming upon a larger, by sapprBssing it on a smaller scale. — Edit. 

The Mischiewm EffeeU ^f Gaming. 41 

the htw ifi foolish and absurd, and we are resolved to treat 
it as sttoh a law deserves to be treated^ with coatempt and 

Waving for the present any inqairy into the merits or pro- 
priety of the law^ we proceed to observe, that' conduct of 
lAis sort strikes at the very root of government,. inasmuch 
%B it makes our obedience depend not upon the law itself, 
and its binding force upon constitutional principles, but on 
the opinion a man may form of its wisdom or expediency — 
which in effect is to assert, that private judgment shall 
defeat piiA/ic authority, should they happen to clash with 
each other. The legislature have decuied the pointy that 
gaming is injurious to the sooial and moral interests of our 
country :• aiid to tiiis decision, every citizen is bound re- 
spectfully to submit, unless he means to set himself up 
e^one the government in all those cases where they differ in 
opinion. Laws, in their vei^ nature, are intended to operate 
as restraints upon the will and inclination* But this can 
never happen, if certain propensities and attachments are 
admitted to be good reasons for not yielding obedience :to 
them. In jhct, this would set mankind free from all law 
whatever. The gainbler reprobates the law against gaming, 
because it interferes with his habits and his passions, and 
insists there is no harm in it. All he asks is, that he may 
be indulged in disobedience to the law in ihiS' single point, 
and he is willing to behave as a good citizea in every other 
respect. Why, gentlemen, this is the very language of the 
.thief and the highwayman. They, like tne ^mbler, only 
plead an exemption in behalf of tJiat vice to which they have 
the 8tr6ngest attachment, and which affords them the greatest 
pleasure. It is well known, the common swearer, the adul- 
terer, the slanderer, and the wicked of every other ^lass and 
description, shelter themselves behind the ^ame excuse, viz. 
that tneir vices are harmless, and they have a particular 
fondness for them. 

To reconcile us further to the obedience of this, law, it 
should be remembered, that it is not the imperious mandate 
of an arbitrary monarch, or an. edict of the dark age of igno>- 
rance and superstition, but the law of a free people, passed 
by one of the most enlightened governments upon earth' — 
a law flowing from the deliberate act of our own representor 
tives» selected from every part of the sti^e for the sole pu^- 
pose of legislation. In our republican governments, he only 
,is a good citi^n who obeys all the laws — ^those he dislikes, 
as well af those that meet his approbation. Upon the 

42 The Mkchii9»ui Effe^ of Gaming. 

gromid of obedience, he mietkea no disiinetioo* Obnviiiced 
that even the best government requires a eonsteat sacrifica 
of the will of one part of society to tiiat jof the other, he is 
ready on all occasions to take up his cross and fellow his 
country. Obedience indeed is a very easy thing when it 
fiaills in with our particular habits and views, and in sudi 
cases there is no danger the law will prove a '^stonle ot 
stumbling, and rock of offence*'' But what sort of a eitiaeM 
is that man, who obeys only those laws which please his 
humour or his taste, and deliberately violates those he dis* 
approves? I vrill venture boldly to assert, a person of <Mf 
description has not a single drop of federal or repubUoaa 
blood in his veins, or benevolence in his beart*^id he 
possess a particle of either, he would cheerfully acquiesoe 
in every law that has any tendency • to promote the geneial 
good. If I were asked, what is the^rs^ part of the du^ of 
a good citizen? I would BQ,y, obedience. If I were asked^ 
wlmt is the second part? I would say, obedience* If I were 
askedy what is the third part? I wonkl reply, obedience. In 
short, it is the very essence and consummation' of the chsK 
racter of a good citizen in a republiean goil^emment. We 
are told, that in the school of Pythagoras, bis eutes epbe, 
that is, his bare opinion, was deemed such decisive evidence 
of truth as to adjust every controversy that arose among his 
captious and disputing pupils. Such precisely shouki be 
the profound respect paid to the laws m our government. 
*' It is the law; the legislature have said so"-^shoukl 
silence every objection, stop every mouth, and restrain 
every hand and foot. Has the law, for example, said. 
Thou shalt not take the name of the Loan thy God in 
vain, or swear by any other name or thing? he that tnmsH 

S esses it, is neither a good HHten nor a good man* Has 
e LAW said. Thou shalt do no unnecessary work, n^ 
practise any eport or diversion on Sunday? He that offends 
in those instances, against both heaven smd earth, is a bad 
citizen, and a bad man* I speak plainly, gentlemen. In 
defendinff the laws of God, and my country, I am noil to be 
deterred by the censures of any map, or set of men, from 
using any language, or freedom of speech, not tnconsistent 
^ith truth and decency. I therefore repeat, that a perdoh 
who breaks the laws of God and man, can have no better 
pretensions to the character of a virtuous good ciHien, than 
Ae felonious robber on the highway. They both submit to 
the laws in general, and the hi^mayman, Kke the gambler, 
only breaks them where they oppose his^/immfife pursait. 

Museum H&un. 43 

which is just the case with erery other immoral man. Tb»j 
are both bad citizens, though there may be a difierence in 
the nature and degree of their crimes. 

[n estimating the character of a man as a citizen, it is his 
conduct only that is decisive eridence for or against him. 
Professions are of no sort of consequence. What would it 
si^ify for a person boldly to assert he was an honest man, 
while he was notoriously addicted to lying and stealing? 
or to take an oath of fidelity to goreniment, while be was 
in open arms against it? Equally absurd and ridicnloos is 
it to talk of patriots and good citizens^ where the life and 
practice are m any respect at war with the laws of our coun- 
try ; and they are treated with insolence and contempt, for no 
otner reason, but because they happen not to accord with 
the selfish riews of one man, or the mci&us and abandoMd 
inclinations of aiiother. 

Both in religion and patriotism^ obedience constitutes the 
unerring touchstone of sincerity. It is the principle thut 
tries the spirit of a man, and draws an infallible line of dis« 
tinction between the hypocritical pretender on the one 
hand, and tiie genuine fnend of virtue, religion, and his 
country, on the other. 

Upon the whole. Gentlemen, obedience was made for man 
by his Creator, and man was made for obedience. It is the 
influence of this principle, diffused through all the works of 
God, that supports tne universe, and maintains perfect 
harmony in his boundless dominions. It was disobedience 
hurled the apostate angels from heaven ; and disobedienoe 
to his law is, at this moment, the cause of all the vice, war, 
and confusion, that aeitate and convulse this unhappy globe, 
on which it is our lot to reside. Order is heaven's ^/i'rst 
law, and should be the first law of earth. Universal 
obedience to his inflnitely holy and unerring laws, is neces- 
sarily ptoductive of universal order — ^and nniversal order is 
necessarily productive of universal happiness. 


Beading Rooms of the British Museum — their Regulatiom 
and Attendants — History, Condition, and Contents of the 
Cottonian library of Manuscripts, 

Thb Reading-room of the British Museum is one of those 
scenes of quiet literary labour, into which the crowd of idly 
curious visitors, who flock there three timet a week to see 

44 ,Mfueum Hours. 

ihe curiosities and monstrosities of the other departments 
of this, national institution, are not permitted to intrude. 
On the public days, (that is, with the exception of holidays, 
^and the summer, or rather the autumnal vacation of two 
.months, on every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of the 
year,) the student in the gallery of antiquities, or half cellar 
and half barn-like buildings in which the Elgin marbles are 
deposited, is interrupted in his pursuits by those impertinent 
gazinss of idle saunterers through these, receptacles of clas- 
sical fragments and vestiges of all times, for which our coun- 
Smen and countrywomen are so universally distinguish- 
As we have occasionally escorted some of our country 
.friends to see, amongst the other lions of the metropolis, 
.these antiquities, which it is infinitely more disgraceful not 
..to have visited, than not to know a syllable more of their 
history, or that of the persons or scenes which they repre- 
:sent, than does each lifeless statue of its silent and senseless 
^neighbour, we have blushed for the rudeness of many of the 
.company, whose dress at least indicated that they ought to 
have known better, in staring over the shoulder of a modest 
and unassuming artist, at the copy he is engaged in making 
of some statues, at which it would have been at least as 
modedt in the female gazers not to have looked at all, either 
in the original or imitation. Once or twice, ii^deed, we have 
been seriously alarmed, lest a young student, perched upon 
two boards loosely placed one upon the other, and scarcely 
tall enough, with this assistance, (the best, it is to be pre- 
sumed, that the institution can afford him,) to reach the top 
of his outstretched canvass, should be tumbled to the ground 
by the rude jostling of some little curious urchin against 
his ticklish standing-place, whilst plucking the tail of his or 
her equally curious mamma, to ask, " what that little boy is 
abput with the long stick in his hand?" or to. exclaim, " La, 
Ma, what a funny face that man is painting, do but look at 
him ;*' and the mother, who ought to correct such imperti- 
nence, accordingly looks, wonders, and admires with equal 
rudeness as her hopeful ill-mannerly child. Thus much, 
by way of contrast, for the reading-rooms happily exhibit, in 
most respects, a striking contrast to this lamentable want of 
politeness, no where more strongly exhibited than in those 
public spectacles to which the English are indiscriminately 
admitted. To the reading-rooms, (for a second has lately 
been added, though as yet it scarcely has been used,) none 
are admitted but those who have tickets granted them, 
renewable every six months, on the recommendation of a 

Musewn Hour$. 45' 

trustee or officer of the institution ; a restriction, it is sLppre-^' 
handed, which can scarcely exclude from them any one to' 
whom the facilities to study and literary researcn which' 
they afford, can be a real benefit, as few such inen of any: 
respectability are without the means of obtaining an ihti'o- 
duction to at least one of these noblemen or gentlemen, 
from forty to fifty in number, and who evince the great- 
est readiness in forwarding the wished of proper applicants. 
In France, we know, and in many parts of the contmentalso, 
no such introduction is needled, but the public repositories; 
of literature are thrown open to every persoil who wishes to 
consult them ; and much popular clamour has been excited 
here, by complaints against the illiberality which prevents 
the adoption of a similar course in England. That clamoUr 
is, however, most unjust — the practice it would force upon 
the trustees of this national institution, most impracticable ; 
and that we hesitate not to say, because the difference of 
national character, or rather perhaps of the populace, in 
England and on the continent, renders that liberality safe ii^ 
the one instance, which would be destructive of the safety 
of the collection in the other. Yielding to none in genuine 
patriotism, we are yet sufficiently citizens of the world to 
avow our honest conviction, that the English ought not to b^ 
admitted indiscriminately, or even where respectability of 
appearance is the oiily passport, to the various monuments 
of their own national munificence. We appeal, in support 
of our assertion, to the names scratched, sometimes in ben- 
cil, sometimes with knives, over the monumente< in Westi^ 
minster Abbey and St. PauFs Cathedral, and tiie* books, 
which, with all the caution that can be exercised by officers' 
of societies where the admission is select, have either beeffi 
taken away altogether, or materially injured by the abstrac- 
tion of plates or leavea in the London/ the British, and 6ther 
of our literary institutions. Ko one can indeed have been 
lon^ a subscriber even to a circulating library, >nthout 
having had occasion to blush for the character oi his coun- 
trymen, in the necessity which exists for the prdpriietors'^to 
damage their property by stamping their names. See. upon 
the front of every plate, with which the books in their col- 
lection are illustrated or ornamented, thatbybein^ rehdei*^ 
thus useless to collectors, they may escape being vUftifn; 
as would otherwise be their inevitable fate. We iiideed 
ourseiyes recollect being exceedingly mortified at finding a 
volume of Pennant's works, belonging to a very' valuable 
sety in one of the first libraries in the metropolis/ des];ft)ile4 

40 Mmeam Houf$, 


of «v«ry plate« whieb the thief bad beea ^i qo much trcMible. 
Ui ciirtiiBg outj that a part of the paper oa whkb they were 
worked was left as a fraipe^ to prevent the book from appear-r 
uig thinner than when it was taken from the library,, or the 
librarian from diseoyering that any plate had been etoleaj, 
tunlefia he bad mijaiitely examined the volume for the very 
purpose* Nay. it is a matter of public notoriiety» that one of 
the librarians of this very institutieoiy now no more aa 
inhabitant of a world whicn his writii^s and learning con-* 
tribuled at onoe to instruct and adorn, was dismissed froo^ 
bis situation, in eonsequeSfCe of felonies and depredations 
committed by some persons, of no mean reputation in the 
Uterary cireles„upon valuable prints aiaKl manuscripts which 
he bad permitted them to nave access to at their own 
bouses. C^ontrary to the rules of the Museum. 

Thus far in. vindication of a restriction, the benefit of 
which is daily experienced by those who have occasionr 
to make researchea in the roonif^ in which you -will oou'-' 
s4antly find a great variety of characters labouring for 
the public, or for their own aauiaemeat and improvement* 
in tne different departments of literature, to which taster 
inclinntion, or circumstances may have directed them* 
Here you will (ee the asealoma and laborious antiquary 
twnma^ing amongst ebarteva and musty parchments, for the 
avthentibei^ont it may be, of & date, of as little inmortance^ 
but to bis bietbren^ as that of the day on which Kling John 
shewed the first epicucean attachment to laiiapceys> by 
whicti, it is said« Eufflaml waa^ eventually ridden at once of 
at|(nuit and a Ibol. There,.a second member of the same inde^ 
fiiitigiihle fin^tefnityAksea attentively engaged i«.a microscopic 
Mmpanaon of the sed of an old cWter vrith the copy 
wbioh be baa tskem of it, ^crupulQusly an&ioua that not a 
V^l^ aheuld be stcsiigbter or more evodied than the vene* 
nbU ofiginai of some mitred bigot, who fatt^ied, lived 
notQiialy»and ftif ed sumpteously every day, upon the revenues 
of a church, which he disgr^ed at once by his. ignorance 
and his pride^ The neatly' folded manuscript that lies 
beside bim, gives^ however, an importance to bis employ^ 
ment, m as' much as it autboriaea l^e hope that he may be 
^bout to add anotbei! effort to oempleite the seriea of our 
county histories^ which the tllnrequiited toil of such Hercu-' 
lewi labours sttti leatcs lamentabLy ^fioiant. For our own 
parts. We have not viewed with equal complacency, the 
numerous tribe of hemldie draftsmen and geaealogv hnn^ 
teiUi wbo are at work early and latcu-^y after day, and week 

Mmeum Hours. 47 

Meceecfiiig week, to aacertain whetker some thick-headed 
ancestor S[ m thick-headed a squire, bore for hit anas a 
Boa rampant, or deminrampant only; or whether at great a 
fool, though bearing a title which he disgraced, gave, acme 
ive hundred years ago, the name of John or Thomas to 
his first'bom booby and eldest son, or took a Mary or Catha- 
rine for his wife. GeaersUy speaking, the men engaged in 
these edifying pursuits are evidenUy labouring in their 
Tocation, and for hire ; thankful, therefore, that their lot ia 
not ours, we pity them, and let them pass. Now and then» 
however, dunng ihe sitting of Parliament, we have seen the 
room graced by the presence of some man of title and cf 
femily, determined to trust to no one but himself, the task 
of making out a pedigree, than which his manner plainly 
shews that nothing can in his estimation be of equal im-* 
portance, save perhaps it be that of his race^horses and his 

By the side of such a self-important idler, (for suck in 
truth he is, though busy as a bee,) will perhaps be seated 
BOOM toilsome laoourer in the field of literature, in which 
both his person and his coat evince that lie is well-nirii 
worn out, ere he has gained from its cultivation a reasonaue 
certainty of where he can get his next day's dinner, or how 
long he may hardly earn his daily bread. Every thing 
bespeaks in him his having at length sunk to that most 
hafdees condition into which a man of letters can fall; 
(perhwB, indeed, he never had talents or oppertunitr to rise 
above tt,)and we have hardly been able to supi^eea tiie wish, 
that he speedily might have applied to himself the epitaph 
of Goldsmith upon poor Ned Furdon, a wretdied member 
^f a tribe, upon whose miseries that oharmnig writer Ml 
ftelingly could speak,— «who 

.^ '. — , . " from misery freed. 

Was no longer a bookseller's hack; 

For he had sack a horrible Hfe in this world, 
That he never could wish to come back.'' 

He ia psobaUy a death-hunter, a chronicler of births and 
marriages for magazines and aimual registara— as the lady 
who baa takani^r seat4>ppo«te to bim« undau]fcted> m th^ 
msl of her pursuit of leanang, by being sunounded by forty 
or fifty gentlemen^ herself the only femals in the rqom, may 
pc^dventure be the concoctor of some new b|9tQrical ro- 
mance, fpr Uie incidents of which she is spoiling th^ pithy bat 

obsQl^te historian! of the oldm time. AdmivHig her literary 

48 Museum Hqutsk 

turn, we have sometimes wished that proper acconunodatiajB^ 
were afforded ia a separate room for female readers ; and we. 
doubt not» but that a portion of the leisure which so many of 
the sex enjoy, and waate in fashionable triflings, would, tben« 
at least for themselves, be more profitably devoted to the, 
improvement of their minds, in a place affording such faci- 
lities for the purpose. Biographers, historians, lawyers^ 
medical students, lexicographers, poets, translators^ and we 
know not what besides, make up the group of those who 
here quietly and. patiently collect the materials for works^ 
which may hereafter purchase for some of them a deathlesii 
immortality — to others, the vexation of neglect — for some 
again, the mortification of their vanity, in a merited expoisure 
of their incapacity for the task they undertook. But be-* 
sides these working-bees, this hive contains several who are 
but sipping the dew from every flower, to form their honey 
at a future day — young students in every profession, laudr 
ably preparing themselves for distinction in the discharge of 
their duties, by recondite researches not elsewhere U> he 
pursued, and which none but persons, bent, like themselves, 
on excellence, pursue at all. It has also here and there an 
idle :drone-^men evidently availing themselves of a gratui- 
tous admission to this ample storehouse of learning and of 
literature,, to pass away their time by turning over the pages 
of the last new pamphlet, or reauing through the most 
popular novel of the day. These are confessedly few. in 
number, imd w&y be known by their poring over the cata*- 
.logues as a gourmand ponders over his bill of fare, puzzled 
what to fix upon, because they have no. definite object of 
-pursuit. .Half their, time. IS occupied in obc^erving others 
jDOre busy. than themselves; ana we have e^en knoi^ti 
some of them evince so little regard to politeness, aB 
to take up the books lying by. the side of another gentle- 
man, evidently to ascertain what he was about. They 
occupy, tpo, the seats nearest the fire, in front of whicn 
they will sometimes sit and loiunge with so little considera- 
tion for the comfort of others, as to require a very broad hint 
from the librarian, who is in constant attendance in th^ 
room, that gentlemen at the lower end of the table may be 
cold as well as themselves. 'Several of these are dandiies and 
dandizets, animals who, some how or other, have intruded 
ihemselves into every circle; but some are older and graver 
men, firotn whom better manners might reasonably have been 
With the exception, however, of iheir rudenesses, and 

Museum Hours. 49 

the occasional bleach of decorum in some one or two men^ of 
gre«it importance in their own estimation^ talking to the 
servac^s of th6 itistitution, who bring tli^m the books for 
which" they v^rite, or to th^ir personal friends, in as loud k 
totie as they would in their own parlour, or to their footmen* 
if they have either, (^hich, by tne way, their gross want or 
common politeness would induce us to supp6se is not the' 
case,) every thing is usually conducted her6^ with tii6 
greatest regularity and decorum, in strict accordance with 
the rule of the institution, which requires silence in a place 
devofed to study. Once indeed, and once only, do we 
recollect to have witnessed any continued and unrepressedf 
breach of so essential a regulation; and in the midst of the 
interruption it occasioned us in our recondite pursuits, 
W^ could not repress a smile at its cause, which wad 
file pacing of the reading-room in its length and breadth, 
for some ten or- a dozen minutes, by a certain eccentric 
bkrd of the last generation, at least as distinguished for dirli 
as for genius, for the shabbiness of his dress and his singular 
otrfr^ appearance, as the extient of his attainments; — the 
poet's eye, in the meanwhile, in so fine a frenzy rolling, as to 
render him totally unobservant alike of the frowns and the 
smiles' Which every other countenance exhibited, during 
the continuance of his fervid locomotion. 

Enough, however, of sketches of men and manners, that 
miay induce our brother readers to suppose^ that we intend 
tb adopt the very appropriate motto of Maistef Jedediah 
Cleishbotham, schoolmaster and' parish-clerk of Gander- 
cleugh, to the inimitable tales which the master-genius of 
our tiines has done him the honour of fathering upon him^ 

'' A chiers amatig ye takin notes, 
Aq' faith he'li prent it." 

PasB we on now, therefore, to a Srifef account of the various! 
collections of manuscripts and printed books, to which the 
sinid^nt has, in these rooms, the freest and readiest access^ 
atid from which (as they come in our way, in the course of 
til'* more regular pursuits that have long led us here,) We 
punpose, eimer by extracts or otherwise, to give our readers, 
under thfe title of ''Museum Hours," some such occasional 
articles, as may enable them to pass away a feW of their own 
hours with pleasure, and we hope, at times, with profit also. 
The first of these, in point, perhaps at once ot antiquity 
^tid importance, is, the Cottonian Library, th6 ipanuscripti^ 
df whi<^ are deposited in twenty^'One presses, in the same 

VOL. VIII.— NO. 1. E 

50 Museum Hours. 

room with those of the Royal Library. It is on the second 
floor of the building, and the public have access to it, 
on account of the great curiosity it contains, in the 
original copy of Magna Charta, secured in a glazed frame, 
on a table m the centre, with the well-known fac-simile of 
Pine by its side. Here also, against one of the presses, i& 
exhibited to public inspection, the original of the articles 
agreed upon by the barons, preparatory to the signing of 
tne great charter, perfect botn in the instrument itself and 
its seaL This valuable document formed, however, no part 
of either of the collections of ms. deposited here, but was 
presented to the Museum in 1769> by Earl Stanhope. 

Few of our readers will need to be reminded, that the 
first of these collections was formed by the industry and 
perseverance of Sir Robert Cotton, the friend and fellow- 
traveller of the celebrated Camden, who, living shortly after 
the dissolution of monasteries, the visitation of our univer- 
sities, colleges, and schools, and surviving also such indefa- 
tigable collectors of antiquities, as Joceline, Noel, Lam- 
barde, Bowyer, Elsinge, and Camden, from whose libraries^ 
either by legacy or purchase, he selected their choicest 
treasures, had every opportunity his laudable curio- 
sity could desire, of forming a collection of chronicles, 
charterlaries, and other muniments of the dissolved houses, 
which have since proved an invaluable treasure to the 
historian and the antiquary, and been of little less utility 
in the ascertainment and settlement of private rights. 
This collection was so highly valued, even in the lifetime 
of its founder, that in the arbitrary times of the Stuarts and 
the star-chamber, its public-spirited collector had the morti- 
fication of being excluded from his own library, by an order 
of the privy council, for the locking of it up, on the ground 
that its contents were of too ^reat public importance to be 
exposed, as Sir Robert permitted it to be, to any one who 
wished to consult it; in consequence of which liberality, it 
was alleged, that in the time of James the. First, some valu- 
able state papers had been communicated to the Spanish 
ambassador, who had caused them to be translated into his 
native tongue. On this latter account. Sir Robert was 
himself imprisoned, though it would seem but for a. short 
time, and on his release, the interdict was taken off which 
mostunconstitutionallyprevented bis reading his own books, 
or entering his study. Fourteen years after, it was, however, 
renewed with increased severity, for a pamphlet having 
been circulated in ms. in 1629, under the title of " A 

Museum Hours. 61 

Project how a Prince may make himself an absolute 
Tyrant;" it was traced to the Cottonian library, into which 
it appeared to have found admission, without the knowledge 
of its owner, as a tract, written at Florence in 16 13, by the Duke 
of North umberland, under the less exceptionable title of 
** Propositions for his Majesty's Service, to bridle the Imper- 
tinency of Parliaments," and having been discovered there 
by some persons, to whom access to the collection had been 
granted, with its proprietor's accustomed liberality, (and there 
is room for suspicion that the celebrated Selden was one of 
them, for a copy seems to have been found upon him,) a bribe 
to a faithless librarian had procured permission to take two or 
three copies of it, which were handed about, under a title that 
never belonged to it. For this. Sir Robert was a second 
time taken into custody, but being able soon to establish 
his own innocence in the transaction, even to the satisfaction 
of the odious inquisition of the star-chamber, before which 
he was brought, he was released, although, under the old 
pretext of his library not being of a nature to be exposed to 
public inspection, it was a second time placed under seques- 
tration, being sealed up by some of the oflBcers of the royal 
household, under whose vigilant surveillance it remained 
until the death of its ill-used collector. That death hap- 
pened in 1631, nearly two years after he had been thus un- 
justly and tyrannically excluded from the use of those 
literary treasures which he had spent his life in amassiiig, 
and for which, though he could scarcely set a value upon , 
them beyond their mtrinsic worth, he felt all the attach- 
ment of a scholar to his books, and a collector to a 
collection, unique, as it was curious and extensive. Few 
things, indeed, can be more interesting or affecting to minds 
imbued with the love of letters, than the simple narrative 
given by his brother antiquary. Sir Symonds D Ewes, of the 
effect produced upon the mind and health of this distin- 
guished lover and friend of literature, by his being excluded 
from his wonted sources of enjoyment. " When," says the 
annalist of Elizabeth, in a ms. account of his own life, still 
preserved in the same national repository which contains 
the rich collection of the friend whom he wished to console, 
** I went several times to visit and comfort him in the year 
1630, he would tell me ' they had broken his heart, that had 
locked up his library from him.' I easily guessed the 
reason, because his honour and esteem were much impaired 
by this fatal accident; and his house, that Was' formerly 
frequented by great and honourable petsonages, as by 

S2 Museum Hours. 

learned men of all sorts, remained now upon the matter^ 
desolate and empty. He was so outworn within a few 
months^ with anguish and grief» as his face, which had been 
formerly ruddy and well-coloured, (such as the picture I 
have of him shews,) was wholly changed into a green- 
blackish paleness, near to the resemblance and hue of a 
dead visage." Thus he pined and wasted away, dying as 
clearly broken-hearted, for the loss of his books, as ever did 
the most devoted lover, or the fondest wife, for husband, or 
for mistress, however bitterly regretted or tenderly beloved. 
This, indeed, is not matter of inference, but of fact, for on 
his death-bed he directed his friend. Sir Henry Spelman» 
celebrated alike as an antiquary and a jurist, to inform the 
lords of the council, that " their so long detaining of his 
books from him, without rendering any reason for the same> 
had been the cause of his mental malady." This touching 
message was immediately delivered, ana wrought in those 
whose conduct had given occasion to it, an unavailing 
repentance ; for when the lord privy seal came to comfort 
tne dying man with a message from the king, he found that 
he was half an hour too late, as the victim of the tyranny 
of the council was no more ; and all he could do was, to 
assure his weeping son, that, as the king, had loved his 
father, so he would continue to love him. 

He gave not, however^ very early tokens of that love, of 
a less equivocal description than those which had brought 
the former object of its caprices in sorrow to the grave; 
for although its late possessor had entailed his library upon 
his heir, who also was his only son, the sequestration of it 
was still continued with unabated rigour, until, upon a 
petition being presented, statins, that liis study had long 
been, and yet was locked up, and he himself denied the us^ 
of the books it contained, though all of them were his 
undoubted property, it was restored to Sir Thomas Cotton, 
the collector's son, who continued in quiet possession of it 
to the day of his death, which happened in the year 1662. 
During the ccmvulsion of the civil wars, in which, after the 
success of the parliament, and the overthrow of the monar* 
chical, and the establishment of a republican government, all 
documents relative to the constitution and laws of the 
country were industriously sought after and destroyed, it 

was carefully removed, principally by the zeal .of-* * 

Bromsall, Esq. of Blunham, high-sheriff of the qounty of 
Bedford, in loSO, for the preservation of so inestin^ab/e. a 
treasure, to Stratton, in that county, whereJt was keg^ in a 

Mus&im Hmirs. 53 

-faoQBe of the eldest son of its possessor, (afterwards Sir John 
Ootton,) who had married Dorothy, daughter of" Edmund 
Anderson, Esa. of that place. 

By him, as nad previously been the case with his father. 
Sir Thomas also, this collection was greatly enlarged, 
«nd ten years before his death, its value was so duly esti- 
mated by the gbvernment and legislature, that, on his 
expressing a wish to carry into efiect tiie liberal and public- 
i^tited desire and intention of his father and his grand- 
fitther, to have it preserved for the use of the nation, under 
^e name of the tlottonian Library, an act of parliament 
(12 and 13 W. III. c. 7.) was passed in 1700, '' for the better 
settling and preserving of the library, (described in the 
preamble t<> the act, as ' of great use and service for the 
knowledge and preservation of our constitution both in 
church and state, ) kept in the house at Westminster, called 
Cotton House, in the name and family of the Cottons, for 
the benefit of the public/' Sir John Cotton> the donor of 
this spleiidid ^ift to the country, died in 1702, when, in 
pursuance df the provisions of this act, the Library was 
vested in trustees, namely, in the hotd Chancellor or Keeper, 
Hie Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench, and the 
Speakerof the House of Commons, for the time being, and four 
ot the Cotton family, named in the act, whose places were, 
from time to time, to be 'supplied by the heir male in posses- 
sion of the house in which the library was to be preserved, 
in the custody of a keeper, for the use of the public, who 
were to have convenient access to the room in which it was 
deposited. At Cotton House, situate at the back of the 
House of Commons, and still preserving its name, although 
long since converted into a residence for the chief-clerk of 
the House, the library remained in this state for between 
three and four years, when, in consequence of a report of 
Matthew Hutton, John Anstis, and Humphrey Wantey, the 
three most celebrated antiquaries of their day, who, on that 
account, were appointed to inspect the collection, which 
they certified to be ill arranged, partly in decay, and not 
kept in a place calculated for its preservation, another act 
6f p^liament was passed, (5 Anne, c. 30.) " for the better 
securiA^ of her Majesty's purchase of Cotton House in 
Westminster.'' That purchase had been previously effected 
for the sum of £4500, and provision was now made by the 
legislature for the erection of " a convenient library in the 
bouse," to ''the intent so great a treasure of books and 
manuscripts, so generously given for the public service. 

54 Museum Hours. 

might not remain any longer useless, and in danger of perish- 
ing for want of due care, and that it may be in her Majesty's 
power to make this most valuable collection usjeful to her 
own subjects, and to all learned strangers." 

Five years after the passing of this act, the library, 
whether whilst a new building was to be prepared for its 
reception, or with what other view is not now known, was 
removed to Essex House, in Essex-street, in the Strand, 
where it remained from the year 1712 to 1729, when it was 
deposited in Ashburnham House, in Little D<ean's-Yard, 
purchased by the Crown of Lord Ashburnham ; and here, 
shortly after its removal, namely, on the morning of the 23d 
of October, 1731, a fire broke out, which destroyed seve- 
ral, and damaged many of the manuscripts, and amongst 
the latter the celebrated original of Magna Charta, which 
bears evident marks of the injury it has sustained. The 
whole collection would, in all human probability, h^^ve 
perished, but for the great exertions made to save as much 
of it as possible from uie flames, especially by Mr. Speaker 
Onslow, who repaired immediately to the spot, and per- 
sonally assisted in rescuing from the fire, the manuscnpts, 
of which he was then an official trustee. Such of them 
as could be saved from the devouring element, (and not a 
quarter of the collection was materially injured by its rava- 
ges, 114 out of 958 volumes being destroyed, and 08 consi- 
derably damaged,) were immediately removed, at the solici- 
tation of the trustees, and by permission of the dean and 
chapter, into a room intended for the dormitory of Westmin- 
ster school. The former took also, without delay, the most 
efficient steps in their power, to repair, as far as it was repar- , 
able, the serious injury which this valua.ble national collec- 
tion had sustained ; and their laudable object was most 
cordially seconded by the House of Commons, to which, in 
little more than six months after the accident, namely, on the 
9th of May, 1732, a report was made by a committee of its 
members appointed for the purpose, on the damage done by 
the fire, and the remedies whicn had been proposed, giving, 
by way of appendix, an accurate account of the mss. 
wholly destroyed or materially injured, in order that persons 
possessed of copies of them might have an opportunity of 
contributing to the reparation of the loss by communicating 
their transcripts. 

The library does not appear to have been again removed, 
until the year 1763, when, on the formation of the British 
Museum, in consequence of the will of Sir Hans Sloane, 

Museum Hoursp 55 

it was» by direction of the act of parliament passed for its 
regulation, removed to the new national establishment, two 
trustees, nominated in succession by the representatives of 
the Cotton fatnily, being thereby for ever added to those 
appointed by the act for carrying its provisions into execu- 
tion. Of that family, the male line has long since been 
extinct, the elder branch in 1731, with Sir John Cotton, 
Bart., the great-great-srandson of Sir Robert, who then 
died without issue; the younger in 1762, with his first 
cousin. Sir John Cotton, Bart, (standing in the same degree 
of kindred to the founder with the other Sir John, through 
the second son of the donor of the library,) who left issue 
but a daughter, married to one of the respectable and 
literary family of the Bowdlers. The representative of the 
elder branch was, until lately, Francis Annesley, Esq. LL.D. 
M.P. for Reading, who, through his great-grandmother, the 
daughter of Sir George Downing, and wife of John the 
great-grandson of Sir Hobert Cotton, had also the singular 

food fortune to be the> representative of the founder of 
>owning College, Cambridge, of which he was the first 
master. He was himself one of the family trustees. Those 
now acting, are G. B. Tyndale. Esq. and the Rev. Arthur 

Of this collection, three catalogues have been printed; 
the first, in Latin, by Dr. Thomas Smith, in the year I696, 
eight years before Sir John Cotton had given it to the 
nation : this is a folio volume of 236 pages. The second 
was a neat 8vo. volume, printed by Samuel Hooper in 1777, 
from manuscripts furnished by the celebrated Astle, con- 
taining something like a systematic arrangement of Dr. 
Smith 8 catalogue, the corrections and additions of Mr. 
Casley, printed in 1734, with a list of the destroyed and 
damaged articles, as an appendix to his catalogue of the 
Royal Library of manuscripts; and an alphabetical list of 
the charters then first printed, from the original MS. of the 
Rev. Mr. Widmore, who had for many years the care of 
this inestimable collection. The third, and most ample, 
which has indeed entirely superseded the others, is that 
printed by command of his late Majei^ty, in conseauence of 
an address from the House of Commons, founded on a 
recommendation of the Commissioners of Public Records, 
from that prepared in 1793, and some following years, by 
Joseph Planta, Esq., the historian of Switzerland, to whose 
care the collection was confided, on its being deposited in the 
Museum, as keeper of the manuscripts ; an office from which 

66 Museum Hour$. 

})e was reiQpyed, }>^t to t}^e chief libiariansbip o^tiie insti* 
iution, which he still fills, with equal credit to himi^elf aad 
a4Tantage to thQ puj^lic §(|eryice and accommpdaibioD. For 
the priepaj^atioQ of that cataLpgue, be weQt mpst carefully 
oyer the cojilejction, reduced by the fir^ we have ar^ady notir 
ped, to 8.61 volumes, of.^i^hich 105 were damaged bundles 
pf*eseiTed in ca^es. Of tjbese, the public are most deeply 
fndebtied to bis sj&ill ancj perseverance, for the restoration 
of fifty-one, (even vphere, as is ^he cas^ with several*, parts 
haye peen coi^sumed or defaced by fire, so fat 9B to give 
puch useful infonqatiion,) whiph he directed to be bound up 
if^ fof ty-fpHr voluQies. The oihpr sixty-one appeared to bioi 
irretrievabk, al)ihough our regret for their loss 16 eonsir 
derably lightened by the assurance of so compet$^nt a judg^e^ 
that they consist for the most part of Qbspur(& tracts j and frag** 
ments of little or no importance. They are now coatatned 
in 62 cases. The articles enumerated in Dr. Smith's cata- 
logue yfexe about 6200, although Mr. Planta has es:tende4 
those of thp remnant pf a library then entire, to above four 
times that number, an improvement mainly owing to most 
of the 170 voli|mes pf state papers and small detached tracts* 
having been entered ])}it once as single articles, whereas, in 
point of fact, they consisted, on an average, of a hundred 
distinct pieces at the least. He has also corrected several 
errors of his predecessors, so grqss» that besides ascribing to 
Chancer a volume of poems by Hampole and others, and enter- 
ing I^ydgate's siege of Troy as an anonymous production* 
they give us Comestor's Bible Historiaux as a common French 
version of the Bible, and (worse and worse !) Marbod99ns de 
Gemmis as a work of Evax, king of Arabia. Some of these 
errors had not escaped the observation of other learned 
men, who bitterly deplored the existence pf such blunders, 
as greatly diminishing the utility of a catalogue, in which 
accuracy is every thing; but although honest Humphrey 
Wanley was so concerned at the misdescription of the 
valuably Saxon manuscripts contained in this collection, in 
the catalogues extant in h^s time, as to publish a more cor^- 
rect one m the second volume of the Thesaurus of Dr. 
Hicks, whilst pther antiquaries, from time to time, contri^ 
buted their additions to a list of errors as absuvd as they, 
were numeroue^, it was reserved for the learning aod indus^y 
of Mr. Planta^ to give to th^ world a reference to this spAeor 
did collection, which should make it really useful to those 
lyho wish to consuU it. By his direction, the volumes have 
^11 b^en accurately repaged; and of th^ 26,00Q articles. 

I^iEraM of lii« Rev. Edward Williams, D.D. 57 

which the library contains, he has given ns a catalogue occu- 
pying 708 large folio pages. In its compilation, he has 
taken great and laudable pains to discover the real authors 
ef anonymous and pseudo^-nonyniouB works, and to give 
references to the books in which any of the manuscripts 
have been printed. Dates of letters and state papers^ 
where, as was too often the case in the two last centuries, 
die writers have omitted them, have also, as fkr as possible, 
been inserted in the catalogue, in which even approxima- 
tions have been given, with notes of interrogation affixed, 
when the real date could not be discovered. The supposed 
age of Mss. previous to the I5th century, have also been 
noticed in the same manner, wherever it could be ascertained 
with any degree of probability. A full and accurate Index 
of seventy-five pages, of three columns each, completes thifei 
most useful catalogue of a library, richer than any other 
which England, or probably the world, can boast, in 
illustrations of the antiquities and early history of his coun- 
try, to which it is the noble memorial of the learning and 
munificence of its illustrious, but ill-requited founder. 


aggg a.i.i ;,i i M. gggg 

Account of the Death, and a List of the Works, of the Rev. 
Edward Williams, D.D., late Theological Tutor in the 
Independent College, Rotherham. The former contained in 
a Letter from a Friend, to a near relative of the deceased* 

' Yo u need not be informed, my dear — — , that Dr. Williams 
lived constantly as in the immediate view of eternity. 
There never appeared to be a time, when he might not have 
joylally hailed the approach of the angel of death. So prae- 
tioally and effectually was he convinced, that infinite wis- 
dom and boundless goodness superintend all things, that he 
had no other will but that of Ood. His life was one most 
active and undeviating aim to promote the divine glory. 
Of such a man, the testimonies of a death-bed, so earnestly 
sought after on other occasions, were not needed. His 
death, be it what it might, could not speak so loudly, nor so 
effectually, as his life. However, in this case, his d^eath was 
such as added a glorious emphasis to the language pro- 
claimed by his life. The activity of his mind continued 
unabated to the last day he was spared to his friends on 
earth. It even seemed to have increased in the liveliness 
of its conceptions, the rapidity of its movements, and the 
intensenesB of its ardour, during his last illness. He him- 


58 Bmh of the Rev. Edward Williams^ D.D. 

self was sensible^ that his feeble nature was sinking under 
the overpowering energy of the immortal part. '' One pre- 
itoription/' said be, ** which would be most of all effectual, 
none of you have thought of — to restrain the ardour of the 
mind." It was busily employed in devising plans for the 

food of the church. To the last day of his leaving his 
ed-room, he continued to employ his pen, as his strength 
allowed, for. its bienefit. On the Wednesday before his 
departure, I believe you know, the paroxysm of pain was 
long and dreadful. He told me, the following morning, he 
thought nature could not have sustained it. Ever after 
this period, it became indispensably necessary that he 
should be as still as possible. Few persons saw him, and 
all interrogatories were studiously avoided. However, to 
his dear wife he said, '^ I am happy in God, but I cannot 
talk:" and on a friend's coming iu, and asking him how he 
was, he said most cheerfully, " I am in the hands of a 
sovereign God, and he will perfect that which concerns 
HE, and MINE, and the church, and all His.'' On another 
occasion he observed — '* For some time, my mind has been 
engaged about personal concerns, now it is taken up with 
anxiety about God's public glory, and the affairs of his 
church ; and this leads me to conjecture, he may have some- 
thing more for me to do on earth." "Well," said that 
friend, " Paul would say, ' for me to live is Christ, and for 
me to die is gain.*" " Yes," rejoined he, " and for me too, 
as well as Paul, ' to live is Cnrist, and to die is gain.'" 
His physician. Dr. Youn^, observed the unabated vigour 
and intense activity of his mind, while his strength was 
momentarily sinking, and declared that this alarmed him 
most; this was the chief thing he had to contend i^ainst. 
To preach the necessity of suspending all mental effort, he 
said, was easy; but, in this case, the practice, he was afraid, 
was most difficult. Thus he continued till the Tuesday, 
when he remarked, " I know not how it is, but my mind, 
hitherto so much engaged, has now ceased to work. It is 
quite still." That, said his dear companion, is what we 
wished. If it rests, strength will again revive. But, alas ! 
this hope was fallacious. Its work on earth was done, and 
before the close of that day, its energies were destined to 
unfold under incs^lculable advantages, — unrestrained by a 
dying body, and amidst the light ofneavenly glory. 


Dr. WiUiams's Worki. 59 


1. .Social Religion ExempV^d; written originally by the 
Rev. Matthias Maurice. Revised, corrected^ and abridged^ 
with occasional Notes, a copious Index, and a Preface con- 
taining some account of the Author. 5th edit. 12mo. 

2. Antipadobaptism Examined: or a strict and impartial 
Inquiry into the Nature and Design, Subjects and Mode^ of 
Baptism. 2 vols. 12mo. 

3. An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews ; with the 
preliminary Exercitations. By John Owen, D.D. Revised 
and abridged, with a full and interesting Life of the Author, 
a copious Index, &c. Including two Letters, the one to 
Dr. Priestley, and the other to Mr. David Levi, respecting 
this work. 4 vols. 8vo. 

4. A Discourse on the Influence of Religious Practice upon 
our Inquiries after Truth. With an Appendix, addressed 
to the Rev. Mr. Belsham. 

5. A Discourse on the Christian's Reasons for glorying 
in the Cross of Christ. 

6. A Circular Letter, from the Independent Ministers 
assembled at Nuneaton, Aug. 6, 1793, to the Associated 
Churches in Warwickshire. With a Postscript, recom- 
mending the sending of Missionaries among the Heathen. .. 

7. An Introductory Discourse on the Nature of an Ordina- 
tion, delivered at the Ordination of the Rev. Daniel Fleming. 

8. A Charge addressed to the First Missionaries to the 
Islands of the South Seas. 

9. An Account of the Old Yorkshire Academy, and the 
New Rotherham Academy. 

10 A Charge at the Ordination of the Rev. Samuel 

11. The Christian Preacher; or, Discourses on Preaching, 
by several eminent Divines, revised and abridged, with an 
Appendix on the choice of Books. 2d edition. 12mo. 

12. The. Kingdom of Christ: or, the Certainty of the 
Resurrection argued from the Nature of Christ's Mediato- 
rial Kingdom; a Sermon preached at Nottingham. 

13. A Collection of above six hundred Hymns, designed ac^ 
a Supplement to Dr. Watts's Psalms and Hymns. 4tb. 

14. The Psalms and Hymns of Dr. Watts: containing, 
twenty additional Hymns by the same Author — a Table of 
the first line, not only of every Psalm and Hymn, but also 
oC every Stanza in uie Work ; a new Arrangement of tba 

60 Dr. WiltiainB*s Works. 

whole in a eonveni^nt Table prelGixed ; with i];Qpra¥ed bdiex^ 
of Subjects and of Scriptures. 2 vols. 

15. Musical Hints, designed to excite the lauclable curio- 
sity of Young People in reference to Sacred Musick ; with 
a Musical Index to above 250 tunes, (corresponding with 
Dr. Miller's two volumes of Tunes, original and collected,) 
adapted to all Dr. Watts' Psalms and Hymns, and the Sup- 

16. Predestination t6 Life ; a Sermon preached at Sheffield. 
With Explanatory Notes on iPredestination, the Origin of 
Moral Evil, 8cc. 2d edition. 

17. Apostolic Zeal Recommended; a Sermon preached in 
London, at the eleventh General Meeting of the Missionary 

18. Thoughts on a General and Explicit Union of Congre- 
gational Churches. 

19. The Works of Dr. Doddridge complete. With Notes 
Illustrative, Theological, and Philosophical, on the Preach* 
ing Lectures ; and an accurate, copious Index. lO vols; 

20. National Reform; a Sermon preached at Masborough 
on the Fast Day, 1809. 

21. Christian C/nantmiYyJSecomme^idedf; a Discourse preach- 
ed before the Annual Meeting of the General Congregational 
Union, London. 

22. An Essay on the Equity of Divine Govemmfetit, and 
the Sovereignty of Divine Grace. 

23. The Christian Minister's Main Study ; a Charge de- 
livered at the Ordination of the Re?. John Hawksley. 

24. Apostolic Benevolence towards the Jews, recomimended 
for imitation ; a Sermon at the Jews' Chapel, Spitalfields, 

25. The Works of President Edwards, complete. Includ- 
ing Memoirs of the Life, Experience;, land Character of the 
Author, by Dr. Hopkins, reviewed, corrected, and enlarged ; 
a Sketch of Mrs. Edwards's Life atid Character; a bi^ief 
Account of their Daiighter, Mrs. Burr ; the Life and Cha- 
racter of the Author's Son, Dr, Jonathan Edwards; with 
occasional Notes on controverted Subjects, and an accurate 
copious Index. 8 vols. 

26. The Parent's Help/ or the young Chfld's Krst Cate- 
chism, founded on familiar Scripture Characters. Seventh 

27. The Union Catechism ; First Part, the Church €ate-» 
ehism abridged, and adapted to the capacities of voung 
<ihildren; Second Part, the Assembly's Catechism abrni^d. 

Review.— State of New^ England and New^Yorh- 0) 

and adapted ta the capacities of young chiUin^n. Sixth 

28. The Older Child^s Catechism; founded on Scripture 
Characters and Important Facts. 

29. An Exposition of the Assemt)ly's Catechism^ compre- 
hending a concise Body of Divinitjr. 

30. JSeripture Questions; containing a familiar Introduc- 
tion to the Divine Dispensations^ from the beginning of 
Genesis to the end of Revelations ; accompanied with En- 
graved Charts^ chronological^ historical, and biographical, 
and an Explanation of the Charts. Second edition. 

31. A Defence of Modern Calvinism; containing an Exa- 
mination of the Bishop of Lincoln's Work, entitled, •' A Refu- 
tation of Calvinism.'' 

Dr. WilHams had prepared a New Edition of the " Essay 
on the Equity of Divine Government, and the Sovereignty 
of Divine Grace," corrected and improved ; and was prepar- 
ing for publication, a work, to have been entitled, " The 
Principles of Moral Science." 

J. B. W. 

i^...; ; m 


Travels in New -England and New -York. By Timothy 
D wight, S.T.D. LL.D., late President of Yale College, 
Author of Theology Explained and Defended. 4 vols. 
8vo. pp. 515, 615, 626^ 525. London, 182?. Baynes. 
and Son. 

Memorable Da^ in America: being a Journal rf a Tour to 
the Unit^ States, principally umertaken to ascertain by 
positive evidence the. Conxion and probable Pukspects of 
British. Emigrants; including an Account of Mr. Birkbeck's 
Settlement in the Illinois, and intended to shew Men and 
Things as they are, in America. By W. Faux, an English 
Farmer. 8vo. pp. 504. London, 1823. Simpkin and 

'^To she^ things as they really are in America," has, 
from itS' first establishment, been one of the particular 
objects of this journal ; and its editors trust, that they have' 
not altogether tailed in its attiaiilment. This also is the 
a^owedrobj,«ct of both the works before us; the one the' 
elaborate production of an American' divine, w^iose- tbeolo^ 
gi(^ .^itiUgs have kmg sincd made hisn advtotagebuslst' 

64 Review.-^tate of NenhEngJmid and New^York. 

stAftiMl, iOittt it is not to be fbtind 4fi AteiaHea. The ra- 
pidity df Uie . gicKwth of lihe jshoots fro^ old Wttimps of a 
cleared^ yet ei^er-living forest; erecuring on gbod gronn'd af 
iifoofated supply of fuel once in fourteen years, considerably 
lessens, however, the inconvenience from the want of coat 
which would otherwise be felt. • ' 

At Ridgfield, in Connecticut, there is a mine of iron so pnfei 
as to produce at the first forging 43teel of an excellent 
quality* Dr. Dwight saw indeed a very good and ser- 
viceable penknife made from the ore, as it came -from the 
mine. Forest trees are abundant, and many of theni-grow 
to that extraordinary size which is characteristic of the 
pf pductipns of the' new world. The whitie pine, the nbblest 
tree in New England, and probably in the world,. is 'fre-^ 
quently si:( feet in diameter, and two hundred and fifty feet 
in height. "The sound of the wind," says Dr.. Dwightj^ 
" in a grove of white pines, has all tlie magnificence which* 
attends, the disitant roar of the ocean." Besidefe the tr^es^ 
of Qrdinaiy growth in England, cedails and tulip trees there, 
flpurish in great abundance*. The. latter flowers n^o^t beau- 
tifully, the blossoms of its yellow species appearing ^t^a 
distance as^ of burnished gold. From the black mapTe, 
stigar is obtained, at times, to the extent of fourteen pounds^ 
a season, from a single tree. Most of our fruits are success* 
fully cultivated there ; the meadow-strawberty of the doun- 
tgffjsmngt foF instance, brought to sueh ti stdte of pei^dti6n[ 
a0 to (have inereosed to twice its originat s^z^,« Uotte bliib^ 
fiwii* inches and^ a h^df iii 'cifcnmfference, m^ny fou^, aha 
lyashels between three and four. Apples' also ate so abtiii^ 
dant, that although cider is the common beverage of thef 
country, rith and poor alike, in a fruitful year they are 
ofleo given' to those who. will gather them', ana form, bi^shel^ 
aft^r bushel,; a delicious though n^t uooonuuon food fek^. 
cat-tle and for awiae; and if dieiv flocks isofd henist^are 
feasted' with ^ome of those exqtiimte Newtown fipj^in^y^ on 
lyhioh'it^ has fsequedtly beeHn our good^fotlunis to legate 
oifti!8«iiv1eS! inc. £i^;knd,! w«^ tsoniiot but' abs^efve, eHf p^firiii 
tlMftl wendain^ ttem their desert; Ocmtdopes, 9eV6'raf iWrie^ 
iim' of? aietbnsv amongA; wMch'are watef-ittefoiis* "w^igKitg' 
fifty pounds, figs/ ahnoiids, butter-"nuts, prunes, vegetable 
^ggs> mandrakes, winter and stimm^Y^ squashes, and lover 
apples, seem to be tbe principal firuits growing -wild or cul-' 
tivat^d there, which we eitfaar have liot in England a,t all; 
or do not cultivate to any extent; 

Their vegetftblies are pretty mUcK thd gaVne as duN, and 

Travels igf Dn Bwight and Mr. Faux. 65 

witk the exeqition of the artichoke, grows laxuriantly, and 
in some cases, in the cauliflower parttcularlv, to greater 
perfection than with «. In the produce of nirms, we see 
not much difference between the countries, as to its species, 
except that a great quantity of maize is grown in New^ 
England, in most parts of which the Hessian fly has been so 
destmctive to the wheat, as to compel the discontinuance 
of its cnltiratton in districts so extensive as the greater 
part of Connecticut To peas also, the hugs are yery fatal 
enemies, and neither barley nor oats are very generally 
^own. But besides these formidable foes to agriculture, 
New-England has others, to whose ruinous inroads the 
readers of the former series of our work will recollect that 
the ancient Israelites were also subject. We allude to the 
pahner-worm and the canker-worm. Of the appearance of 
the former in 1770, its only visit in his recollection. 
Dr. Dwight gives the following particulars, which we the 
rather extract here, in that Uie ingenious essay of the 
▼duable correspondent to whom we are indebted for the 
treatise on the agriculture of the Israelites, which has 
enriched the former numbers of our work, gives but little 
information respecting them; and this would not, we are as-* 
sured, have been the case, had the various writers, whom he 
consulted for the composition of his elaborate article^ col- 
lected any thing important upon the subject. 

^* It spread over a great part of the country, and was stopped in 
its progress only by death, or by ploughing a trench before it, up 
the side of which it was unable to climb; the small particles of 
earth yielding to its feet, and falling with it into the trench. This 
worm was a caterpillar nearly two inches in length, striped longitu- 
dinally with a very deep brown and white ; its eyes very large, bright, 
and piercing, its movements very rapid, and its numbers infinite. 
Its march was from west to east. Walls and fences were no 
obstruction to its course, nor indeed was anything else, except the 
sides of trenches. It destroyed, rather than devoured, ascending 
a stalk of gprass, or grain, cutting it off in a moment, and, without 
staying; to eat any part of it, rapidly repeating the same process on 
all which stood in its way. The meadows, where it most abound- 


In some places, immense multitudes of these animals <fied in the 
trenches which were formed to stop their progress, and were left 
uaCbvered. The mass soon became fetid, and loathsome ; and was 
supposed, in several instances, to produce a fever, usually distress^ 
ing, and sometimes fatal.'^ [vol, i.p. 49.] 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 1. F 

G6 Review.-rSMe cf Hiw^Bnghud and New- York. 

Thes^ ravttges ^m an evU of the ^eater mmaitude, from 
the lamentable want of jagricuUvral skill which per^adeB 
the New-Englaud farmers^ with few, if any, Qxaeptioiia. 
The prodiiice of ti^ir farina is confesisedly inferior to that 
,o£ ouFs; a circumstaace which Dr. Dwight very justly 
^attributes rather to the inferiority of their husbandry, than 
ih^ poverty of their soil, which is ^aid (and there appears t» 
]t>e no reason for douhtiog the truth of the assertion) to be 
inatur^Ily as rich and prMUctive as that of Englaodi Their 
Thasbandry m«st be miserable indeed^ when a writer, evi- 
dently disposed to put the best face upon the condition of 
^8 country as is Dir. Dwight, admits that' its farmers are 
generally igaorant of what crops will best succeed each 
other, whilst their fields are ooveredwith a growth of weeds 
'SO r^nk and rapikl, a& that they often far exceed the crop in 

Of medictnal, and other plants, i:he ispecies ImowQ hefre 
are ^most innun^rable. 

On the subject of the quadrupeds of the "country, we 
^shall, in justice to America, allow Dr. Dwight to correct, in 
.hi9 own expressions, a gross mistatement to whibh Eiiro*- 
.pean ignoras^e and prejudice have given rise. 

^ It fs oommotily asserted by the zoologists a( Europe, thdt 
•Ameirina, by a mjisterioas anii 'malignant influewoe, deriv^ed ^rom 
I know not what, and ecaeited i icoDv not hpw> diminishes tike size 
and deteriorates the qualities- of all animals, both native, and jm- 
'poi'ted, I beg leave to assure you, that New-England comes in 
/fer no.i^are of diis charge. To an Ameriean it is amusing enough 
*to see how far your writers have imbibed an opinion, which in its 
'own na^ture Bets probability at defiance. In Guthrie's Geography, 
*^the fpllowing declarations have gone through fifteen editions : — 
'^'"Kie caribou is the largest native animal in America, and i§ np 
•bigger than a calf a year old.' * The elk is a nativ'e of America, 
^d is as'^big as a horse.' Now, whether a calf a year old is in 
^teat Britain as h\^ as a horse, or not, the editors of this work will 
'tindoubt^dly daim a right to dietermine, to which I can make no 
'pretensions, since I have never seen a feritish calf exacfly of this 
'a^e. In this country a horse is certainly much larger than such ia 
'c^alf ; und hence I vejiture to conctude, that the' caribou is not 
'the *l^rge^t native animal of America. Cert^iply he is not bo 
♦large Us the elk. 1 should judge from looking at Ais ianimaj, of 
• yhidh 1 have sefen several, that he would weigh from one thousand 
*:^o eifet^en hundred pounds. The moose, which is only a variety of 
^tbe same kind,. wilf prob^ly* Weigh fourteen hundred pounds. A 
'catalogire has beeh published bj^ the Rev. Dr. Williams, m his 
"Hisftory of Vermont, which very strongly illustrates the soundness 
of this philosophy. It is the following : — 

Tfmv0b by Dr. Dwlgbt an4 Mr- Fau«. 67 

lbs. oz. Ips. oz. 

Thebear., ...15S 7 45i6 d 

Wolf.... .69 9 92 

Deer... ........28S 8 3d8 

Fox,red ^. 13 6 30 

Porcupine U fl IQ 

Martiav f*. •.,../, } 9 ^4 

It oleoftt •*. ••««.9iif««j».«f.» o o 7 8 

Rabbit,.,. /...,.... 3 4 7 

Weasel 2 2 12 

Flyiiigaqittrn^U.*^..^.,.*., 2 % Ip Q 

BeaYer«.......,,.,.,t.^. l^ 5 63 8 

OU«r ..,««..,.,,,, 8 9 , 29 3 

'^ The weight of these aBin^is in Eiismte is givea br M. ,De 
Bttftm, and wHl therefore not be qiie.tlionea. That of the AinerL- 
can animals is giTen by Dr. Wtiliaips, and .^aayof oouf se bd i^ganUd 
as nndoi^btedlyjast. Yon see ikaX the oompanson is not a little 
vnftivourable to the eastern contiaeot. If any conclusion is to be 
drawn from it, America is much more favourable to the growth of 
animals than Europe. At the saoae time you will remember, that 
the white pine and the cypress 6f this country are giants, in compa- 
rison with the trees of the eastern continent. What if we shon)d 
tuni the tables on you, and insist that your continent is grows too 
old to yield the prodnetioAS of nature in thieir fuH size, whiie ounr, 
young, if yon please, certaifily vigorous, noarkhes thma to a stale 
of cpmparative perfection ? Besides, were you once to behold the 
skeleton of our laamfaoth, 3^ would be atradt with aatonisliiieaty 
«Bil regard tiie ammads oi Europe oa a ooBaction of pifn^ies. 

*' Tkere was last veaor raised in a town bord^ii^g Qt^ thia, ^ ox 
jcif the eommonfaroed, generally na9Qi^4 tb^ s^aU hr/^ed, ip. dis^oQ- 
tioo foni a }argftr bfsr^tpfoi^ cpqfiiQaon ^ tfiis coi^t^, ^timat^sd % 
,akiK9ljtt^^ to y^pi^ ajive tju*^ ^housan^ five hun4re4 ppwnij^. 
Thiere w^s fdso, a few weeks sinpe, ki^ed jin this tpwn^ fi ho^, 
wbicji weighf d more )h^ ^i^bt b^n^i^d an<) fifty pounds, 

" To jgive you ray opinion on this subject^ I readily believe; thit 
4)|i both cpptinepts, it you choose the proper clhnate, species, and 
food, you may raise any of thjese anim^iU to its Ml si2^. - In the 
view of a sober^ American, the contrary ppinion, ti\oi^ dip|iitfied by 
die name of philosophy, and maxje the subject of grave disciissioifs 
of gn^e men, ranks With the stories of Lflliput and Brobdingna;^, 
and would be readHy supposed 4o kavehad its ^rfgin is the' Maud 
oflaputa.*^ {vol. i. pp. 24—24.] 

We fear that this comparison of rtte growth of animals 
ivjU. ig&^^v^\ff (Npe^kiqg, }^ With te»» ^d^Wtefflepug^ to 

69 Review. -^Stait of VfeuhEngland and NevhYork* 

our American writet, when contrasted with the misrepresen- 
tation and illiberality which have lone pervaded most of our 
English accounts or that quarter of the globe. Of birds of 
prey, New-*England has several formidable ones, and amongst 
them, the bald eagle, measuring sometimes nine feet be- 
tween the extremities of its winss, and abundantly strongr 
and bold enough to attack and destroy lambs, sheep, and 
calves. But even this gigantic marauder has an opponent 
more than his equal, in a curious, little, but very gallant 
bird, of which our author gives us the following account : — 

** Birds of prey in this coantry are of mimy kinds; yet, if we 
Except the common or hen^hawk, they are few in mtmber. It is a 
remarkable fact, that the king^bit d, or bee-heater, is aft ovennatch 
for anv of them* This little animal^ possessed of ^a ahaip beak, 
furivalled activity, and a spirit eqiialiy unrivalled, boldly attacks 
every other bird,, and is always secure of victory^ . It is not a Uttle 
anmsniff to see an'enemy, so dispropoKtioned insise and strength, 
vatiquish the crow, the hawk, and tpe eagle. While oa the wiqg 
he always rises above them, and, at ^ short intervals, darting upon 
them with wonderful celerity, pierces them with bis bill on the back 
.and neck so painfully, that they make.no efforts but to , escape. 
Whenever, they alight, he alights immediately over them, and 
quietly waits until they again take win^. Then he repeats the ^ame 
sevcse discipline, until, satisfied with victory and revenge, he returns 
to his nest.. This bird is an excellent defence of a garden against 
«vefy enemy of the feathered kind." [voLi. p. 27.] 

There are a few odiier omitbological singularities of the 
country, which; on so respectable authoffity as thai' of Dr. 
•Bwfght^ we hesitate not to extract as facts, new and ex- 
traordinary as some of them appear. Thus we are told, that 
ih^ crow is'ther^ easily taught to epeak as wetland volubly 
as the parrot; and that a bird so difficult to be approached, 
as not to admit of a more accurate description than that it 
is of a browri colour, and in size scarcely so large as the 
rpbjn^ sings at once so exquisitively and so sweetly, as to 
excised in voice the tone of any instrument, save,. only the 
J^^.banp* .But this is not alC for it forms a concerjt with 
ipi^ apd sometip^aa with two of its companions ; U^e voice of 
9iie in tbe.forioerrinataiiH^. being elevated a Uiird greatcsr 
:above that of the. other,' and in the. trio the . same perfbriner 
raisins his voice a fifth above the first, and of course a third 
less above the second. . 

'' In this manner,'' says Dr< D wight, ''a given set of. notes is 
:rqpeated' altematriy by them -all at eqaal intervals^ and with iniiai- 

Trateh by Drl Dwigfat and Mr. Faux. 69 

t^te svnwttiest <>f 'jMwad» ^ fimtttng, it ii MGtted/ Ad' neatest 
t^ipioaoh to iKEABoay ibuod atocrngst tbe^dielted ettotkm. I have 
named diii bird the wn^iter qftke woods/* [Vol. i. p. 38;] 

And w^IIf we would add» if this account of its perforaumcea 
be s^ccurate, as we cannot doubt but that it is> does it merit 
a title so distinctive, as to induce us very earnestly td wish 
that we could be present at one of those extiraordinary 
concerts of birds, in comparison with whom we should 
hold the black swan of Horace very littie of a rara avis in 

Rattlesnakes are amongst the most formidable of the 
reptiles of which New-England has its full share, though 
Dr. Dwiffht, with somewhat more of nationality, we cannotbut 
think, man of justice, says that though *^ commonly,'^ it has 
beeft '' errorieoasly supuosed to be very dangerous to man.'' 
** His bite is, indeed,* he admits, ** a strong poison ;" yet 
h^ adds, for th^ consolation of those whb may be etposedf to 
it, that it is " both certainly and easily cured ;" besides the 
further assurance, that the animal ^'is so clumsy, as to be 
avoided without any difficulty." On these accounts, we 
find, that the rattlesnake has long ceased to be an object of 
curiosity in these states; notwithstanding which, from want 
perhaps of a familiarity with them, of which, while they are 
Iivin|r, we are by no means ambitious, we should place our 
chief security in their being rarely met with^ except in 
solitary places. 

Most of our readers must have heard or read of the nup- 
pobed power of snakes to Ceiscinate birds, and will not^ we 
are persuaded, be displeased widi us^ for extracting thfe 
following facts upon the subject, from the pages of Br. 
Dwi^ht, who gives unoualified credence to the statement, 
whida he had received trom a student of Yale College/ 

^ ** As this young gentleman, together with some companions, was 
walklngone morning through a grove, in the summer season, they 
beard a bird scream^ in an wiusual manner. Upon ezamination, 
diey fotmd a hlue jay flying in a horizontal direction, about fifteen 
feet from the fipround, from a certain tree; and, after having 
extended its flight about thirty rods, returning again to the same 
tree. Its excursions, however, became in every instance shorter, 
and its flight at eveiy return was directed to a particular part of 
the tree. This naturally led the yOung gendemen to search for 
the cause of ^o remarkable a phenomenon. They found in that 
part of the tree a lar|^ black snake, extended upon a limb, at the 
neight at whteh Uie bird flew. Curiosity induced them to continue 
obser^tttion, until the bird became nearly exbanstedi and 

i^peared to l?e on thd pdint of b^comln^ a prey to Its ttaaaw. OUa^ 
of the company then threw a cfab into the tiNse^ and tbvus dhrcfttd 
the attention of both the taake and the btrdb The ohtfnn^ Ifl may 
be permitted to use this langaage, was immediately dissolyedy and 
Ilia Hlt^nded ific^ esc^>e<f withbut any diffibaltf.'* [¥ol. i. p.-W.} 

irhe insects of these states are not remarkable either for 
variety, number* or mialigQity. Hornets and wasps existp 
tnit do not abound there ; and although we question not tho 
truth of the Doctor^B assertion, that there are fewer noxious 
insects of aiiy kind in New-England than in most countries 
in the Eastern continent, we cannot but think that it would 
be a more desirable place of residence, if freed from those 
sWarms of musquitos, not unreasonably dreaded and dis- 
liked by our countrymen, when their bitei.is occasionally so 
venomous as to renqet it neoessatV to cut tlie sleeve of a 
coaty before it can be taken oft the swollen arm which ii 
covered, Ix)tusts, too,, as far as comfort is concerned, 
might. We should think, be dispensed witb« although the 
injuries they do are confined to regular visitations every 
seventeenth year, prodi|ctive only^ we are told> of " a little 
mischief to tJbe forest trees.** 

*She fish in the waters of New-^Englaud are proverbially 
numerous, and many of them delicious. 

On the subject of climate and seasons, our author enters 
into details far too minute for us to follow; too minute 
also^ we should think, for the majority of those who are 
likely to be his readers. The results and prUicipal featnres 
ihay be stated in a few words. The heat of summer is 
admitted to be somewhat greater than in European climes, 
a circumstance which, as liar as England has been concerned 
for some >^edAs past, is in favour of America; although the 
advantage is morQ than, cpunterbfeilanced by ihe^ gr^at^r 
degree of cold whicli prevails there at times, and still more 
stroo^ly by the e^ttreme varia%l^€M of the ^tji&ia1e> which 
sometimes ^havigtel mote thii«itbirty'-4dlh& amouht even«)f 
*M*tyueight dfegrfees in fotit-atod-tt#teiM;yhOttr». During tbfetold 
winds, of freqtnent recnrreticfe, and wiilth, from the severity 
of tWtr eiJFefCts, atfe not 5tiapt)ropriatfely termed blasts, rapid 
streams ate sometimesso completely frozen ovfer in anight,^ 
to bie crossed upon ice tJie morning after they had been flow- 
ing uncoDigealed and uninterrupted in their wonted course. 
These winds Wve beeti known to blow for a continuance of 
one-and-twenty days; and whe9& Qfl ^^ fi>^queatly tibe «ase, 
thqy ftfe violtat, houses prdstrated> othiHrs UnMdfed^ ^elMfc- 
derafbh tracts -of forest ievdlled to ike ^round^ asd elctensiVe 

proofs.' of ibjeir ^eilUuctiy^ ravages* Bui with their ruioQiis 
mavch^.H i^ but justice to contrast Pir. Pwight*s very bea^r 
tiful de^riptioa o( tli^f . tbun4^<-stprins of his oouptry.} 
objects with u& not nasally prodticlfive of plaasufaWe^ sii^Q*- 
tionsy at least to the great majority of tnose who wit^^sa. 

** Tim thuader-atonos of Hkm oowtry, gei^emUy bo itykd ber 
cause ac«Hnidmtble number qI tbem are aQilivally storois, ace ia 
meet cssQs equally beneficial and deligktiuK Aj^l imniense grsa-. 
dear invests them during the time of their approach. They are 
so frequeni in qrdin&ry aeasoi^ as to Curni.sh an ample nupply of 
rain fof the dems^ids of vegetation. The wind which biripgs tbf np,; 
an4 which blows one or two days after they have passed over, is 
remarkably pure, refreshing, and healthy. The earth, particularly 
in the months of May and June, the richest season of vegetaitioo, 
IS beautiful beyond description. The verdure glows with new 
life — the flowers exult with additional beauty and fragrance — 

^ The hirds their notes renew ; and hleating heiids 
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings/' 

The sun, in the mean time, beams through the purified atmo- 
sphere with a peculiar splendour. One, and often two rainbows 
are finely painted on the reverse of the departing storm. The clouds 
in the western regions; wrought into the boldest figures, and 
tinged in different places with all the elegant hues of the prismatic 
image, present to the eye mountains with summits of gold, and 
precipices of fire. To these storms the people of this country owe 
^ir general exemption from drought, which seems so much more 
frequently to afflict those of the eastern continent." [vol. i. p. 48.] 

The seasons seem to be as variable as with us, March 
having been occasionally the pleasantest, and June the most 
unpleasant month of tne twelve. Notwithstanding this, 
however^ New-England is ^ very healthy country, and many 
of its inhabitants attiain to a great age, though not, it would 
seem, in a larger, if in qnite so large, a proportion as in 
our own country. To earthquakes and storms these states 
have not infrequently been exposed^— the former have, 
however, seldoi^ done very extensive mischief, though the 
ravages of the latter have often been considerable, but not 

greater than those of similar convulsions of the elements in 
urope. Nor are its tornadoes, the most formidable shocks 
of the atmosphere known in that country^ by any noiean^ 
equal in violence to those which have frequently aesQlate4 
large tracts of our own West Indian possessions. 

The history of the colonization of New-England is given 

72 Re^Oew^—Siait rf Nem^EnglMi aild i^gw-York. 

te^ tlMM6 tncreb witfcr mndi' wifrateness 4lf 'detail, in mhUk 

Ss6e& 18 done f6 the eibaraeterof Ihe' P^ritans^ Ikina wkoRi 
r. Dwighl.iEi n^t«0htfitied of diving hits deic^nt. Nor 
iteed be tb 1>e'80;'foi^'i}fet^l)6lmiracter oTtbe first Entfbp^il 
settlers ih Ms cotmtry^ is tmly giTen by bfan in this short 


. • .' . - ' , . ■ 

** Piety was indeed the common character, not itnsulfied by 
errors and faults, but nobly distinguished by that patient, regular, 
attd ooiisci^ntiOttS'cOntimiahce in welldoing; wbieb lii^tf'the -Mr 
iMmdadoD for fiitare glory, hoooitry aadimiii€itriiiiyl'*{?ol. i-.^* 1 19^} 

This Is not, however, the obaracter which tbeyhaTe? borae 
ui'thie world, end least of all in the country whence bigolty 
and tyranny drove them forth, to seek a refuge firom oppres*^ 
siop, and contumely, and wrong, in the wilds of Amesi^ica,. 
amidst the rude habitations of fierce and savage men. 

The New-Englanders have certainly, from their fimt 
settlement downwards, laboured under a heavy weight of 
obloquy, for the double crime of Puritanism andRepublican^ 
ism. So long ago as the latter end of the seventeenth and 
fhe beginning of the eighteenth century, the witty, but pre- 

i'udiced and bigoted Sputh, was in the habit of going out of 
lis way to abuse them in stroog^y vituperfitive termsiir ip 
soj^ of the most, eloquent discourses which. he delivered 
jftom the pulpit; and his vigorous fulminations. carry with 
them to many minda a perpetuity of repvoMb. Very diSth 
mat feelings wiU> however, be awakened in the minds of 
those who set a proper estimate on all tfaey did and awfei^ 
for liberty and conscience' sake. Of those s^ifierings, the 
fi^HovriDg animated sketch; in Dr. Dwighfd best lirtyle^ 
glances not at the half. 

ff The greatest of all the evils which they suifi^ed were detfVed 
from the savages. These people, of whom £ur<^ieaiis still -ibicm 
very imperfect concej^tions, kept the colonists, after the first 'hos- 
tilities commenced, in almost perpetual terror and alann. ..Tl^e 
first annunciation of an Indian war is its actual commencem^at* 
In the hour of security, silence, and sleep, when your en^mie^ are 
supposed to be friends, quietly employed in hunting and .fishing ; 
when they are believed to be at the distance of several hundrefl 
miles, and perfectly thoughtless of you or yours; when thus un- 
suspecting, thus at ease, slumbering on your pillow, yottr sle^b is 
broken up by the whar<-whoop, your bouse and village are set on nre, 
your family and Mends are butchered and scalped, yourself and'a 
few other wretched survivors are hurried! into captivity, to be 
roasted flive at the fltake>. or have your body stuck luIl ofakesstis 

TVmeb % Dt* iDwiglitaiMl Mr. Fauai; - 7& 

iM^d «( tr^ ID d>i^ hour flf vPflfef^t/fM^p^ 

p^^W , di^coy^ their half-cpnfuip^d \fqi^% >P»9gH^ ^^^ . 1*^ 
ashes ot your dwellings or your wife murclefed, and your little ones 
lying beside her, after having been dashed against a tree/' {vol. 

SQch vf&ce the men who plapted tbe^e colonies ; such the 
dangers they braved; such the difficuUlea they siinnoanfetL 
Of theeffects of their viev^s and principles upon tbeirdescend- 
attts^ Dr. Dw%1it grres th4e following represeniatio<i/feit the 
ell>8e of n very complete vihdiceLti6n df toe conduct and'^h^ 
nfcCDer of those original settlerd/ocenpyiiig the 10th«llth. 
12th) and 13th letters of the first volume of his journal^ to 
which we refer such of our readers aa miiy be »iixi^us fbr 
further information upon the subject. 

, << Of the piety or the New^EiiglaQd peoplei their accusers baire 
furnished abundant evidence. Change tne words siiperstitioxiy 
fanaticism^ enthusiasm/ and bigotry, into piety, (the thing aImo«kt 
invariably meant by them all,) and vqu will find from their enemieis 
themselves ample testimony, that the objects of their calumny wer^ 
distinguished tor this superior kind of excellence. The numerous 
icb<trchei^ in this eottntry, a great part of them good, and man^ df 
Iton handsome buildings, are a strong illustration of the spirit of 
^mhabkints cottceming the subject of religion. The number of 
idiese structures idready exceeds fourteen huMred, and \» atfnually 
jacKtMtng* In idmost every part of die oountrr, eieept where t&e 
sff^tl^rac^v^ are qvite new, they are found at the distance of five, 
ak^ and seven miiesi and with their hwcidsom^ spipes and eupolan, 
almost universally white, add an exquisite beauty to the landsoapey 
and peqietually refresh the eye of a traveller." [pp. 142, 143. j 

*' TowAwtetbe clbise of bia work, he gives also, in oiie-aLhd- 
fwenty iWers, occujjyin^ upwards' of 200 pages, (vol; iV, 

)>y 265-^^482,) a most elaborate dtsquisition on the language, 
learning, mbtals, reK^on, arid characteristic features, of tne 
iiifikl>itant8 of New-England, on which we of course can 
cast Ijutth^ merest glance, referring bur readers to the work 
;itseir£or a vindication of his countrymen, upon wlbichi the 
T)octor h^ beatowed a degree of labaur equal tQ thazeal 
w))ich be unilEbrmiy manifests in their cause. 
,; That. j^eal will readily b^ admitjbed to be as aetiye aa auv 
Ktw-finglander could wiidi, when the firat propostti<m which 
4i promptsrfaim to nudntaniia; tbe bcdd, and tans somewhat 
«tacti!i% bne, that- the Englirii ^* Isagua^ is j^rotiouaeed 

2* JRetietiNr-S^fjrts qf N^i^E^gfimia^JiimhXork. 

WKua i^OYrcteily .^AiTd Ibim^ia Kngboui ^^^ ajid ibia h« fwoiffm 
)jiy.«kri&fereooe to P«gge'a rotable oatalogUieof Cpcknttyiams^ 
■Kluding, bestdoflr the wom^oiit jokes^ of *' weal. Tine, and 
irine^ar, are wery good whittles I wow" and " Villiaaa,.! rant 
my r^^, the yite Tig in the voodea v4g-1bc»r» vich I yore 
last T^dnesday yas a yeek at the weatry,^ such ^ncied 
or obsolete yuigaiisms, as ** partender'' for partner^ ^* pee* 
aches" for piazzas, ''i?emon" foryenom, '' disgruntled for 
offended, *' nolus bolus^" for nolens , yoleps ^ expression^i 
\^bich we neyer heard during a residence of twenty, years in 
London, and which we will undertake to say, neyer were 
beard from the lips of any but the yery lowest of the ca- 
naille. Had we a similar list of the yutgarisms of Boston 
and Newbiaven (][uays and pot-houses, we doubt not that 
they would be <|uite as ridiculous. To thQ charge of coining- 
new words, giying new meanings to old ones, and retaining 
many that are obsolete. Dr. D wight pleads guilty ^ but puts 
upon record a justificatory plea in the necessity of the cajse, 
IcoiH the different circumBtaxicea of the twonations^ though, 
we apprehend^ that if he were now living, be would not do 
able to demonstrate the necessity for some of his own 
departures from the classical phraseology of our best English 
wnters, to which we shall refer before we close our notice 
of his work. 

The greatest attention appears to be paid throughout the 
atates of this division of America, to the important subject 
of education, much more so indeed than even in these aa^s 
of active exertion for the promotion pf this g^reat object^ is 
shown with n^, the country being every where divided into 
societies, for the establishment of parochial and district 
schools,, the districts having power to tax themselves for 
their mwtenanee, towards which, the state also contributes 
a small proportion of its funds. The result of this 
system is, that the children of New-England are universally 
taught to read and write^ pr at least educajtibn is as nearly 
universal as it is possible to be, without a law compelling the 
education of every jcbiM under a severe, penalty. The nu)n« 
ber of acadenodes, or public-schools resembling our endowed 
grammar-schools, in the di£[erent states, was, in 1812, be- 
tween ninet]^ and an hundred ; its uniyersities and colleges 
eigbt, of which Harvard College, in Cambridge, Massapbu* 
setts, is the principal, th$it ofVermont, at Burlington, the 
least considerable. The former hps seven academical* . and 
as many medical professors/ the number of students bejng 
near upon nine hundred. There is also a law-school at 

Iiiclifield; in Oonneetieni^ far blitket* condvet^ tfabB oiiy 
inwtif €<nirt, where the itad^nt iMied do neibine but eat a 
given rnkmber of dihnerft in a. given nmnber or yeare^ te 
qualify fatm ^t the bar; Wli^ir^as m the KeW^Engiaiid iB8ti<* 
ttttion, Hot only is la\v tengiit ne a well««onyptiicted eyetem 
and a ecience^ bht the students are initialed into its pmetice 
with its theory. For this purpose, cooits Un constituted, itt 
which iliotioisB aire bfde|(ht fmd eondncted th^pcKigh a re^lat 
prooese, andnic^ questions of judicial teobnicaKty aretaised^ 
(or, to usetbe phraseology applied to similar exercises inUie 
goodold tioaeeof our ownlaw societies,wben they were souie^ 
what more than mere eating-houses of state, are tMoted,) 
and thus they are regularly trained to the duties of the advo<» 
eate, the knowledge of which, as far as any steps taken to 
sidTancent fay the societies/ of one or other of which oar 
atudents are and mul^t be members, is conoemed, they gain 
by .intuition, er from the stars^ The mc|dieal promsion 
has also three societies, fbimed expressly for ite impnote- 
inent-^agriculture and philosophy, two^^istory, (a braneli 
of literature for whose encouragement no nrotision ^atever 
has been teade with us,) one« Social liDtaries, somewhat 
nnilar it would seem to our reading societies, exist in many 
of the towita and parishes, 16 whose inhabitants they have 
natumlly imparted a literary taste. That taste is, however, 
confessedly gratified, diieny by the productions of writers 
of our own country, the deaxth of native authors, arising, 
as Dr. Dwight' contends, (and we go along with him in the 
mgorpart of hie argument^) from the great mass of people in 
• New^fingtand being men of business, with little time for study 
or for much desultory readiag-^the want of Ideure from 
^&e very laborious duties of their cffice, and of libmries, in 
the dergy-M^of the lettered ease, which the rich endowments 
of «ur own uaivcrsiiiies so abundantly fismish to the man of 
study and teseescb, amd a ooueequent deficiency of patron- 
-i^e to the few iodividuehi who, in Amerka, have been 
authors by^ rofessioU) if indeed, wiA Ubie e^^eptieti of one 
epiendid genius, lately transplanted to our own more genial 
noil, amtiiom by profession ehe can be said to have produoed 
amy. • • 

A distinct letter is devoted to a contradiction of the bold 
.und not very libeiul aslertion of the Biinbwrgh Rchriewers, 
that though ^ all thst federal Atxierice hais wiitten were 
obHteralied ibem the re^onds df leering, there would ^e^:- 
cept the woxics oFPranklin) be no po^tive dwninution of the 
SMMilal or <Am SigreealUie/' whilst ^ tiie destruction of her 

T6 £€vtetd.^5^al^.#^w«£iig^ 

whpfe litemtiura woold.iHrt; oec&s^^^ ommIi T6gfetM w« 
feel for the loss of a few leaves firom an ancibiit dasetCb'' 
To this sweeping, anathema^ Dh Dwight opposes the worka 
of presidient Edwards^ (too well known in thiB'4^outttly to 
need more than th^ being named,) bat lie is the only 
author,-*— with die exceDtion of Franklin, whom tiie oeasora 
themselves except, ana the ingenions natural pbilosdiiiier 
Bittenhouse,^ — known on this side of Ae Atlantio, whom he 
does, or whom he probably pould adduce* ProfiisioTs Win*» 
tiiorp and Williams, of the univeiaity of Canibridge^ are 
also quoted as natural philosophers, who would have done 
honour to any country ; and we are referred to -a- certaaa 
poem of M^*Fingal, as not inferior in wit and humour to 
Hudibras, whilst in every other respect it is supetior. * This 
is certsinly no slight praise; but in the absence of all 
means of formiBg a judgment upon the merits of such a 
€u>nstellaiion of poelical excellence as Dr. B wight describes 
a po«n to he, never heard of, we believe, in England before', 
we caanot help suspecting his character of it to be tinctured 
with die same pardonable nationality, that induced the 
somewhat vaunting assertion, that ** President Edwards 
has more enlarged the science of theoiogy than any divine 
of whom either England or Scotland can boast/^ and that 
Marshall's . life of Wae^ington (tedious and hmvy as we 
have ever thought it) " will not su&r by a comparison widi 
any piece of biography written in Great ftitaiui-w^ the 
exception of those of Johnson." We wish not, ]u>wey(er^ to 
prplong an unpleasant, useless, and acrimonious discus- 
sion, and cannot better termbate it, iets far as we ai« con- 
cemedf than bv expressing a conviction, in whidh we are 
satisfied that all our readers who know any thine of Ameri- 
can literature will agree, that puttinj; this list of Americui 
literati altogether cmt of the question. Dr. Dwiglit's own 
woritingft* trose of Prs. Mason and Romeyn, ihe mtyvels of 
Browne, and the sprightly essays uid sketches of 'Washing^ 
ton Irvine, are in tnemselves sufficient to jpve a direeir eon- 
tradiction to the grossly illiberal and mounded dictum of 
our northern Zoiluses, that his country " has done neddng 
either to extend, diversify, or embellish the sphere of human 

But to confine ourselves more strictly to Kew^Eiigland. 
The jp^ople in general appear to be remarkably honeat^ia 
proor of which Dr. Dwignt adduces a practice, which we 
eoiik) not recommend to adoption in Old England, of two- 
tfahrds of the inhabitants sleeping the year round without 

^nm&Ay Dr.Dwie^ ami Mr. Fmut. 77 

locking: thtir dMfs> ttad ihattoo in Imttes eouti^ing hfget 
qiwMitiea of pvopfMriy easily rmnovable^ They iaust also 
be quiet, peftceeMe* end orderly, es, in joumeyiiig twdye 
tho^keeiid milet^ he ne;rer saw tm> men fighting, and indeed 
neTer witnessed such an exhibttioa^ of evevy day's occurs 
rence in oer. streets, more than onice in his Kfe; On this 
subject, it is but jnstioe to the New-£nglaiiders^ thongfa it 
is as disgraceful to the inhabitants of our own country, to 
giye.tbe ooojbrairt, whii^ our author dius briefly draws. 

"■** Now pstniit ihe taoaU yoiir eye to your own newspapers, and 
ebsttre how often their oetumns are omatmented ^th the feats of 
Ijhnnphrifls • and Msndosa, Orib and M(Aine«dt. What a grave 
aspeot is- given to the acoQunts which deaofibes the brutal contests 
of^t^ese, billies I Observe also, that not the mob only> not th^ 
laiddle ranks of life only, but gsntleinen, noblestes, and even 

Srinces of the blood,* have been present at these fsneouaters. I 
o hot believe that a gentleman of New*£pglaad.oouki be per* 
suaded tp be preient at such a scene by any ijKlucement whatever, 
unless to perform his duty, as a magistrate, in committiiig and 
punishing such disturbers of society." [vol. iv. pp. 324^ 326^} 

When we rsmember how often these prize-fights, thus 
aererely, though justly reprcfeated, have terminated in the 
death of dne/of the combatants, we cannot but hold it a dis- 
fsaoe to ouff law4 and our police, that such brutal exhibir* 
tionsate permitted, as is also the continuaxiee of such sportii 
as are thus aliuded to in another parallel, equally to our 

'^^ In New-fingland, horse-racing js almost, and. cock-fighting 
ejhselately, unknown. I need not remind vou to what a degree 
Hksse barbarous and profligate sports prevail in Great Britain. In 
ttsw^Bogtand there never was such a thing as a bull-haititig. 
H^Sap, mt. to rdesU to year. Remembrance the debates, n6t' loiik 
juoee held u> the British parliamest 6n this subject, the dedMon '<^ 
^at mgnkst Mjs and tbs speech deUvteedattiisilitimeby'lhe 
Hon, Mr. Win4ham." [vol. iv, p. 3a6»] ' ■ ••.'- I 

. . Aft withus, Ae poor are here effecthidly pit>vtdi6d for by htW, 
svhilsl ohafiitable iBstkntaotts are hua«raus, though cotifdsitf- 
edlr supported on a less Uberal scale than in Great BritaU. 

. for his ooantrymen. Dr. Dwight clainfs a marked supe- 
riority over ours, in affability, facility of acpess, sociality, 
andiiBacfiiiesa to oblige friends, points on which we hav^ per- 
annally had few op^rtnnities of fornring a^ndgmeflt by cod- 

* '^A horse-race^ a fox-cbase, or a boxlng-matoh, is never ...^ 
itk trahis jof reverend attendants."^— Xerter# to the RC Hon* Mr* 


- » - - 

IS Reviem^SMe of Nmt^BngUmi mkl N^m^York. 

tewl; bntMthese«Biabi)itief 6ffltfe«renot'stlea«t tbe moai 
cbtMracteristio virtual of <aii Englisbmoiii^ but tbo«e> on th0 
eoiktrary« in nUcli be it fturexcelled by Deighboniing Euro* 
pean aattcmsr^ vbo j><mhm6b not balf bi« storting wortb, we 
fthaU not contemd m precedence here ; mot do we doubt 
but that the desoendantt of our pious ferefiUhers^ recewtlv 
placed under new and popular forme of gofenunent, which 
Cf ery citizen faas a direct mtereet to preserve inviolate^ are 
at the present period more orderly, qaiet> and peaceful, and 
governed with i^9s difficulty^ and by milder meaeures* than 
f » the ^uparabui^ant populatiea of ihe parent state. What 
tj^y will be^ however, wnen their ggiv«ffnnttnt has, likie ouro, 
stood the test of a tbomsand years, aad only improved by 
the ttany fruitless atteeftpte made to subvert it, is a eeeret 
ia . the womb of futurity, to be revealed t0 'the present 
inhabitaiits of both eoutitr^, but when they shaU know alt 
things, and shall themselves be known of all. 

To -Us feir countrywomen, as in gallantry he wab bounds 
imr learned tourist attrH:mtes every excellence of the 
sex, save that he gently intimates an apprehension, that 
ij^lT domistic ecoscny .may be radier JLob aysteiaatical 
.f^ pearfeot tJiao o«n^ aad that ibeir actvrit^ may also 
Jbe sP9iewbttt le$e. ekdfuHy dioe^woU than with me-; bat 
ijti^He are peinis upmi nvjbieh we can asswie his cMtktKy^ 
^emh (fwuld* for their inteoeet, and tluit of t)ie 'Ohrua- 
tim iA^tf^ thomglb not fab Mmn, we icould assure haxtt) 
our fashionable mode of female education witt not leerrc 
them Jong behind ua,- unless indeed similar £itlse st^s '(of 
whxGh» by ttie way, in hU strictui^s> on the edwfttioa of 
'* yonag miiSAsSi" tbeDoctoi? eeems (to haare teraced the esa> 
U(9r Qum^i aheiald b» rapidly unfit ike daughter fior the 
mother sAdtlhe wife, iosd convert, a«, genevaHy speaking; it 
haadaae iwith ue^ laidiea' Jboardin^^eehooils (we beg par* 
•dony " «iilibli(diiseiitB' we* should have eaid«) to nittsanees, 
instead of benefits. It is hardly worth notice, but aa some 
,of4>ur]ieAdMi jaHkyffida Ibttfe oariosEfy BMa^besnUect, 
.we wtill ftat^ in awoed, Aat tbeiadies of NciwHEngland laie 
m^i, for the mioet part, iio be re^ariy &atiiittd,^q^ely, tnd 
iiieqiiepHly handsome; not so fiiir indeed. as Bntiahy Wt, to 
we tb0 veryjphsase of ^basc Americaa panegjfndst,^ ^ jsensibty 
JQiM^er tbM /frenoh woamn/^ It is. adiaittedi he«re«ier> ikmM, 
Jike due women of other Americaii atatei^ jdiey lose fthe baii^ 
liancv of their beauty and of youth at an earlier period of 
^Kfe tnw did thc»9e of Englj^d, m^ny of them sheddmg iibfiix 
teeth and growing old at thirty. IBxcessive abatettieni- 

Trateh ig Dr. Hwigfat ani lir. iPwjm. 99 

Hess, ttnd y^mit -i^ exercise, ' (weHcing bikng iNstf* U^tle pv»&4- 
tised, and riditig on toweback oextoAy known among them,) 
are judiciousiy spggested as Home of the -preVaiUng eaBttses 
of this national difference in the sex. 

But pass w^ now from beauty which fadeth as a flow6r^ 
to thq^l which shiheth as the brightness of the sun^ increase 
ii^ more and more unto the perfect day. The religious 
character of the<New-£i^laB4^<s is that in which, we jJoubt 
tkok, WT i*eade«s will feel most interested ; and o^ ihii 
fmnt ShTi. Dwight has eateted into a wiAute detail of near 
■% handred okwe)^ pvinted fukgaft, from whieh W(& mu hu/t 
iwrybvicAy (Mdraottfae revult* To tfae iii6ax of foMtgnesB 
during >lhe war i« Attierioa between the JPtfenoh and fii^ 
inh, 'from 1765 to 176:9, of- whom the diastpaled ami 'oftm 
«eeptical officers of onr own army wei^ Bot the least 4«ijh^ 
rions, Biid during that revdutyonary one also, -which temri- 
tiated in the independence of out colonies; — ^to the rapid 
spread of 4he irreligious and infidel tenets which were sp 
uniformly blended with the political ones of the French 
xe voluJbion,~-aDd in a degree at least not inferior to the poli- 
jtical 4i83^Q8ioqs and- party spirit which long jprevailed at 
home-^Br. Dwi^ht vecy sen^bly iujributes a aetexiori^tioa 
in the religious character of the Americans, affecting, how- 
ever, -as mi^t Tiaturatly be -expe^Jted; less mfiteritflly than 
•any otfecr state bf the Umon, 'the New-England 4e«ottKl«iitfe 
of tmr expatriated Punfeins. As a people, Ifcey ^H 'misfit 
*the characti^ristic 'distinclionof 'aTelt^ious biie, and one of 
4hdse extensive :revivals,'of whidh from Ateerioa wie'reid'«6 
•touch, -and* in lihfe eKperi'enceof oufr own couwtry, where«%h^ 
progress ofiiie gospel *as of late yeare^been slow and sure, 
ratiwr dmn mcmced by its rapidity aiid edat, we kiMm «o 
lTtt}e,-<4)appHy t^ouirterActcd ^e ^ngerona ^eibi^ <]^ lSie>s^ 
^powetM:a^tsdf IhfideHty; itttfd 1h^^ l^f^^he ebm«li 4lliFe^ 
moreiMmterous thanieT«r ft'was, aiM '(tx> ad^pt an Amor^ 
camsttf, *j)atdonafc^ T>erhapfi iiAien Mrritiag <m Ameri^^) 
irttft progremng in 'nhmbers, and- we%itt wouM hope, in ^ely 
ttivd'^eat; ■ Inflie^fcrstof these Christian ^aces> "WenevM*- 
"^less diisp^t)/ tfid¥iefer*attfltining%> the stature 'of thek 
fdrefiiiheni,'thotigh'tbey trare alseacly^^Bf^pasded them in tilie 
-pfroper direction of the hitter. What those ifrere, mnd- iheste 
tore, how far they rc^semble'^ach dtb^r, and in what'^fhejr 
•diflfiEor, let the fdflowing wdl^drawn paw«<9 of ©r. 'I^ighl, 
'iiiforms lis: . • , ' 


mi; pnpeiitifttate'of jodrmioad xndTdigion^icdMMBdar oaooott 

60 B4smem.^St^ of Hem^Enghad Mi N^ac- York. 

peiliiqpsy te more ftdvuitageously iQuttrated, thao by a conqparUoai 
of it with that of oar ancestors. The religion of former times was 
more zealous, rind, scrupulous, and uniform. At the same time 
it was less cathoTic, gentle, indulgent in lawful cases, graceful, and 
amiable. The strictness, the energy, the commanding character of 
their religion, we have in a great measure lost. Where they stood 
firmly against the blast, we bend to escape its force. Wh^ they 
watched, we are asleep. Where they Ibught manfully, we are 
employed in parleying. Where they triumphed, we are satisfied 
with a drawn battle. On the other hand, we have, in some 
respects, advantageously relaxed from their austerity and rigour. 
We live more kindly and evangelically with Christians of odier 
denominations. Our religious controversies are less violent^ mod 
we regard fewer things as fundamental pounds of difference. On 
the ouier hand, they educated their families more virtuously, r^^<- 
lated society with greater skill, executed laws with more exactness, 
and settled the affairs of men on a more solid foundation. They 
chiefly exhibited the magnanimous, we the gentler virtues. Ours 
are more amiable, but less firm. Theirs were rough and uninviting, 
but more to be relied on. In justice to these excellent men, it 
ought to be added, that to them we are indebted for almost every 
thing in our character which merits commendation. In some 
respects we have polished, but, upon the whole, instead of improv- 
ing, we have impaired their system.** [vol. iv. pp. 378, 379.] 

In one important points the due observance of the sab- 
bath, it is but justice to the present race of New-£ngland- 
ers to state, that^ like their forefathers, they stand honourably 
distinguished from most other people of the world. In 
the two principal states, of Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
travelling upon that day (with us.perhi^B, in South Britain, 
the greatest travelling da^ of the seven,) is peremptorily 
forbidden by the law ; and in every other respect its aacredf- 
ness is generally observed with so great sobriety and strict- 
nesBtthat — assembling in companies, as is done to so shameful 
.an extent in the dinner and musical parties of England — 

Soinff to taverns, or receiving guests there, are all of them 
name offences; parents and guardians being also required 
to correct their cnildren for breaches of the acts for the due 
observance of the sabbath, (from convictions upon which 
there is no appeal,) under the penalty of half a aollar. In 
•those states, provision is made oy law, for the erection of 
places of worship, and the support of a regular ministry 
amoqgst.every sect, for which purpose the states are divided 
into parishes, consisting of one or more religious societies 
of the same or different denominations, the majority of 
whose members, rated on a real estate of ninot or a personal 

oM* «f 19% dollM^per «imiiitt^ ijn ^itV^Mrettd to dk^os^ itbe 
mioiffters of tM tooieties to iivliieb thof fespeotiv^ly iH^o&gv 
and tty letjjr taxes i^ their support, fOid the re^t of dieir 
chmrch, (n>f adl are chorches here^) had &e mainteDan^Se oJT 
public' l^OrsMp/ there. Within a year aft^r attaimag tbo 
Bge^ .of ^wefitY-oQ,e, becoming a widow^ or sejttling in a parish^ 
aQ.pejrsoQB ^ve liberty to^ enroll their names m that religi«^ 
OjDta Mioietv of ithe pla^se which tl^y prefer ; or^ in default of 
ai^ycii eiiroM8i4te tte 90ii belongs to, {he religious .aebiety of 
ti^ fatbes4 ^ ;i¥iidow to that Qf her de^^aased husbi^id ; the 
aew; 9etdMiitOi Ihe lovteei^ oa itbe list;. and lA of covuraa 
taxable wilh Ihem by the vote of .the snajority.ahceadf 
eKidftinfid^ whose - ads, a«fr these atfaielies ^sdra for loarioua 
.|m|ioees> hodies/^orporste intheaoselires^are iMAditig moii 
their ''•fiiio0^sor8> Fev theooUeotioB^f what we, in Eof^ 
tttadf should eall their ehfurch^rato, taX'^atiierers are regi>^ 
lafly apbdinied; aad persOn$ refusing to take upon tbeilj^ 
aelves mis or any other ofSce in the ohureh, are as regit^ 
larly fined, as in our parishes are those who refuse to aerre 
as constables Or overseer^. . Negligent., eollpetors of the 
miiuaW^'/9 /sslpijcy mb liable to ba?e a distress taken out 
against th^^ by .the con\mittee for .ma^agin^ .the. ten^^prat 
lities of the church, and to make up the denoiencies occa« 
sieaed by ^eir Mgkrot o«tof tiieirown estate«4 aa^arethe 
connbiltae - tbeiailSt>es« ' shoold l&ey he .guilty of a fitoiikr 
i|egiigeaoe« fo ^sase of a •eoUeotor not b^ag obos^a^ the«oi vil 
aiaeistrate, in Ihe shape either of a eeleetman or a ^jupfeiek 
er&epeaoe^appoints oae^ Nor is this theioiily ittsftaaoeaf 
iheinterfereacoof the eecuhr- authority with vie eoneeras 
of the^ehMob* for where there is tot enie seeiety in a towtt, 
its aeleptiiieii *0r chief ci^l aiNibiMntiea^ am er i^io tiie 
xsemmitlee <if tiie ohupeh ; and a% iiat. all olfherjoa^efl^face* 
bounds %^ «tteh> cemmittee, to see the' tax for payifeig 4b» 
jaia^ftM;ev> 'saSary speedily oeUected^ and that salary duly 
j^ttiii "withia two-months after ithaa become due. Wherever 
also a» sKKsiety shall htffe voted* thie eteetioa of a plaoo.of 
^rship, the oi^il auth^E^ty Of the eoart of fsMamon pleas 
dl»|beHailiea its eite; aad hi oase of any attem|A ateiaotiag 
dtie. without its^approbatioa ferit had 'and Obtwsed^^ £ne'<SP 
6Be*h4liidred ami twenty-four dollars; (sonwwtett more than 
thtt^'P^undair) is levied <0Q the offendets;'whihit$ for emit- 
ting to biiild "after 4t8 aaaotion^has heea ffoeosed, the 
^a«t oeMifies iheiceatempt to the ^general asaeoiUky of tiie 
<}OBgregailbfoiai chiivdhes^ by whose authority a saffioie0t 
iaX'is wd ilpeiri'tiiesoci4ty,f«id-eiq[iettded uMer-the ditaei- 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 1. 6 

82 Review. — State of NeuhEngkmd and New^ York. 

iibn, or l^y the appomtmefit, of the assembly. That eccle- 
siastical body has power also to determine what salary shall be 
paid to their minister, by societies or churches, which have 
made no agreement wiu, or do not support their pastor; 
^ilst they further direct what tax shall be laid upon 
destitate churches, for the support of the ministry amongst 
tibem. On their certificate ot permission, churches unable 
to support a minister have leave to tax themselves for 
the preaching of the gospel, and other necessary purposes, 
«nd they have a concurrent jurisdiction with the separate 
churches, in allowing members to withdraw from the church 
to which they belong. 

It will be perceived at a glance, how essentially these 
legislative provisions, so singularly combining and con- 
founding lay and ecclesiastical authorities, church and 
state, differ — ^the Congre^ationalists of New-England, (for 
they form by far the majonty of the inhabitants, though fre- 
<][uently, and somewhat indiscriminately, termed Presbyte- 
rians,) from the Independents or Congregationalists of our 
own country, imiongst whom no parochial taxations — no 
connexion with a church or congregation but by your own 
ftct, when arrived at years of discretion, and nothing like a 
compulsory contribution either to support a place of wor- 
ship, or its minister, — are known. Much of this, we are 
aware, is fiiirly to be attributed to the different condition of 
the denomination in the two countries; in one, as the preva- 
lent, and formerly the established — in the other, but a 
merely tolerated sect — yet are we anxious to claim for our- 
selves the firmer adherence to the principles of the old 
Independents, who would, we are satisfied, have exhibited 
in their countenances other indications of astonishment, 
than the smile which relaxes ours, at the argument em- 
ployed by Dr. Dwi^ht in favour of the practice of his coun- 
try whicn we have just described, in a long and very elabo- 
rate letter in "vindication of the establishment of the public 
worship of God by law,** — that St. Paul, in his first epistle 
to the Corinthians, (c. xvi. v. 2.) in thus providing for '' the 
collection for the saints,*' ''upon the first day of the week, 
let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath 
prospered him, that there be no ^therings when I come,'* 
nas determined, '' that a tax is a right and proper measure" 
for providing tiie salaries of ministers, although, could we 
bring ourselves to believe that the text had any thing to do 
with the matter in hand, we should draw a diametrically 
opposite conclusicm in favour of voluntary contributions only. 

Ihm& iy Dr. Dwight oiuf Mr. Faux. 8ft 

The education of youngjnen for the minittry of the goff»el 
is CfHuiucted'in a Terj similarmaimer to that pursued m thei 
Dissenting academiies of England^ saye that their collets 
grant academical degrees, for which no extent of learning 
or infonnatioa is deemed with us sufficient to qualify any 
man, . unless he can conscientiously, or will unconsci^^- 
tiously, subscribe to his belief in eyery iota of the articles, 
lituTj^, and homilies, of the established faith ; clogs upon 
learning, which America happily has shaken o£f. In the comn 
mencement of their ministnitions, the. Scotch Presbyterian 
inode of licensing to preach for a giyen time is followed^ 
and the call of a. particular church to any such licentiate, 
(which call is determined upon, and given, in our English 
Congregational form,) is submitted to the decision of a 
standing committee of ministers of the district, called the 
Conao<»ation, by whom, if they approve his settlement, the 
candidate is exunined, and ultimately ordained. The aver* 
age salary of the minister, is four hundred dollars, (£90,) 
thomgh sometimes it does not amount to 250 dollars, (sixty- 
eight pounds fifteen shillings of our currency,) and in a few 
cases may reach 1100 dollars, or nearly £260. This at least 
is the general amount of their remuneration in (3onneoticut, 
and that state has, throughout the present description of the 
religion of ^ew«Ei^land, been referred to as a specimen 
of the whole, because, as it was the one with which 
Dr. Dwight was most familiarly acquainted, he himself 
has selected it foi the purpose; assuring us at the same 
tine, that, save where we nave followed him in paxticu* 
larly noticing it, the other states differ but immaterially 
from it. 

In doctrine, the Coxigregational churches of New-England 
adopt, in substance, the doctrinal articles of the Wesminster 
land Sienroy confessions ; but in discipline more nearly ap- 

Cximate the Presbyterian than the Independent form, 
iug consociations m lieu of synods, and a general asso* 
ciation in place of the general assembly. The ministers 
have also separate associations among themselves, meeting 
twice a year at least, to consult concerning the duties of 
their office, the common interest of the churdies, to examine 
and license candidates for the ministry, to superintend 
destitute churches, and recommend proper pastors, and to 
take cognizance of the accusations of any of their own body 
of heresy or scandal, and, if they see occasion, to direct the 
calling of the (X)nsociation, to proceed against them. This 
system of doctrine and discipline was, soon after its formar 

d4 RevieWi^Staie of New-Emgland and Nm^York. 

a^mmifOB, adopted^ Tecogiuzed, and established by latv; 
9^euxirLg, however, at the same time> to all churches soberly 
differing and dissenting from it, the full right of exercising 
worship and dtiicipline in their own wc^y, according to their 
eonscieoces. Formerly the churches of New-^Engnnd were 
divided, in opinion and practice, with respect to ruling 
elders, some of them admitting, others rejecting th^m ; but 
they' are now utterly discarded, to the great dissatisfaction 
of Dr. Dwigbt, who holds the office io be of apostolic in^ 
stitution. Tor our own parts, we, however, are much more 
disposed to join in his censures of th^ singular eeclesiastical 
eourt of appeal in the second instance, which, after an 
appeal from a single church to the association, permits ikt 
case to be reheard by the same consociation, and a neigh*- 
bourin^ one invited to assist their deliberations as assessors ; 
which IS, in fact, little better than an appeal from the Pope, 
to the Pope better advised. The general association is but 
a deliberative, or, as Dr. Dwight has it, advisary body; 
although their recommendations have great influence ;faiiid, 
by means of delegates, they are connected with the other 
states of New-England. 

. On the letter containing a *' comparison of the state ef 
religion in England with that in New-England,^' we shaU 
make no remarks; because that comparison is instituted 
between our established church ia its worst features, and 
the Congregationalists of New-England in tiidr best; and 
for the mode in which the chapels are attended in our uni*- 
versities, the profanation of the sacrament, in its compul- 
sory reception by every student there, the state of patronage, 
and neglect of ecclesiastical discipline in the church, and 
bon-residence, we are any thing but advocates; though we 
should be disponed to add, the numerous pluralities in Old 
as in New-England, to this catalogue of ecclesiasttcai 
grievances, which, if not reformed in time, will speedily 
refonn themselves. We give, however, from this letter, a 
single sentence of its account of the sermiops of New- 
£hgland preachers, because it contains a short, but jisst 
tsharacter of the compositions of two of our Own divines. 

. " None of them can boast the eloquence and sublimity of Robert 
fiall ; but some of them are eloquent smd sublime. At the same 
time, they are rarely trifling ; rarely are they merely attempts te 
display the preacher to advantage. We have no Sidney Smith 
sermons ; gewgaws intoided to be shewn hke a diamond-riag or 
snaff-box, to proTe that the preacher is the owner of sachtiidssts;'' 
£voL iv. p. 4m,] 

Trw»ls by Dr. Dwight and. Mc. Faux^ 801^ 

Ofthe other sects of New-Eogland, our zeaknis Preqbvr 
terian tourist eives a very brief eiccount, and we must nei^da - 
be still more brief. Several Arminiaus and Unitarians^ are . 
to be found in its eastern parts, especially in Massachusetts.. 
The Episcopalians principally inlmbit the northern districtn,. 
and are generally Armimans, or of our hish-church. party. 
The Baptists are as generally Calyinists, though severnl o£ 
tiiem are Armiaians, To the former especially, Sfr^ Dwight 
attributes an excessive spirit of proselytizing rather to their. 
party, than to the church of Ood. The latter have adopted, 
the creed of a sect recently sprung up in Vermont and New* 
Hampshire, who hold for their prominent tenet, ** that the 
iricked will be destroyed on the day of judgment/' This. 
MetiiiodiBts are principally Wesleyans, the followers q£ 
Whitfield bein^ very few. The leaven of Antinomianiam is. 
here but too. widely spread, amongst the churches, especially, 
of the Separatitis, as those who avail themselves of ths 
p^nnission of the law to avoid the support of a minister, 
are wnaUb^ termed. The Friends have several societies in. 
New^-Bndand ; the Roman Catholics and Independents one 
or tw:o^ we Moravians and Jews a single congregation each. 
These, iwith. the eweption of the ShaJ^ers^, of whom more 
bes^fif^T, lomi nearly aU the sects dispersed over itsdiffei- 
ent sjMes. 

Thus mueb for the civil and religious ipstitutionaof ^i^Wr 
England, and the general character of its inhajbritants, 
althooflji upon the latter point we wish .to add a particutaur. 
Qltttio before we quit the subieot, which we have reserved to. 
ijbie la$t» because they may oe important to those who aedb 
to mend their fortune bjr emigration to the United States^ 
Thj$ price of labour is high throughout the. states of New« 
Englaod, but the labourers are almost universally! iiiie,, 
diseased, or vicious. They mi^t work> but they will' 
not, saye for the attainment of a bare subsistence^ yetf 
ea^iIy obtained. The mechanics are, however, industriouir 
and prosperous. The tiJUers are, almost witbcHtit exception, 
the owners of the laild, which i^ universally held: in feen 
simple, and descends by law in equal shares among all die 
children. It: is not necessary for us to remark, hpw.very; 
little encouragement this statement affords to the emigm-. 
tion of English agriculturists. 

Few of our reMers need perhaps to be reminded, that 
New*>£ngland embraces the stages of Connecticutt, Rhode 
Island, Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, arid Ne^-Hamp- 
sbire» through each of which we shall accomgaiiy our 

86 Retief».— State ofNeto-Bngland and Jtew-Votk. 

reverend and ingenious tourist, for tlie purpose of extracting 
from his pages Mrhatever information may appear to ns' 
most interesting to an English reader^ beginning, as he 
does, with Connecticut, of -which Hartford and New-HaTcn 
are the capitals. Amongst the laws of this state which we 
deem worthy of notice, is one imposing upon the inhabiHints' 
of the different counties, the burden of defraying the ex- 

Sense incurred in consequence of prisoners confined for 
ebt escaping through the insufficiency of the gaol. On a 
similarly equitable principle, townships upon whom i« 1m-' 
posed, as (generally speaking, is the case also with us,) the 
duty of making and keeping in repair the bridges and 
hignways within /their limits, are compellable to pay to the 
surviving relations of every person whose life is lost in con- 
sequence of any defectiveness in either, 344dollarsi(e£77. 8s. 
sterling,) as a fine for their neglect; and where carriage, 
goods, or cattle, are lost fromUie same cause, they are to' 
pay double damages as a fine and compensation. : Its laws; 
with respect to me poor and strangers, are very strict, we 
should say, tyrannical ; as every person not an inhabitant of 
a town from oirth, the vote of tne inhabitants, consent of 
the selectmen and civil authorities in public meetmg dissem- 
bled, or by being chosen into some office, or having duritig 
his residence in it possessed an estate in fee of one hundred 
dollars value, or supported himself and family there for six 
years, is removable by the civil authority of the town, or the. 
selectmen; the latter of whom have also the power* to warn 
all persons, not inhabitants of the state, to depart out of thefts* 
town, under the penalty of forfeiting about seven shillinrgs 
of our currency per week, so long as they neglect to do so ;' 
or, possessing no property, yet refusing to depart, of bein^ 
publicly whipped. Those who hire or entertain any suck 
inhabitants ofother states, (apprentices and servants Dougint* 
for a time alone excepted,) and refusing to give security to 
the satisfaction of the civil authorities and selectmen, to 
save the town from expense on their account, are subjected 
to the like pecuniary penalty per week ; and for having en- 
tertained any such person for fourteen days without reporting 
him to the selectmen, shall themselves provide wnatever 
relief the stranger may afterwards require. For a free 
republican state, these, we cannot help thinking, are mea-^ 
sures for preventing vagrancy and parochial burdens, rather 
stronger than (even since the passing of the new vagrant 
act,) an English legislature would ventare to adopt, or our 
English population would patiently submit to. We apply 

Travels bjf Dr. Dwigjit and Mr. FauK. 97 

not, however, the same character to another IfgislatiTie 
provision of the state, which enables the selectmen to, 
apprentice out, or place in service, the children of poor 
inhabitants, who either cannot or will not bring them up to 
(Bome honest and profitable calling, and properly provide for 
them, or such as live idly, or are exposed to want and distress. 
This IS a very wholesome power entrusted to their hands, 
and we equally approve ot the eqidtable provision against 
the abuse of their office, by directing, that if they do not 
truly account for the town's money entrusted to their hands, 
and pay over the balance to their successors, they shall be 
committed to gaol at their own costs and charges, until they 
do 80. '* Their powers," says Dr. Dwight, '^ at first sight 
may seem enormous ;" to us, we confess, they do even upon 
a sober leyiew; and it requires all the high respect which we 
unfeijgnedly entertain for nis character, and the firm reliance 
which we place on his veracity, to believe that he never 
knew them abused, especially as their services, which mi^st 
be arduous, are generally gratuitous. A somewhat singu-r 
)ar, yet in our opinion a very judicious, regulation pervades 
this republican state, in the appointment of these and other 
officers of its various towns, in the prohibition of any debate 
at their election, save on the right of persons tendermg their 
votes, no discussion being consequently permitted on. the 
merits of the candidates, who are merely put in nomination. 
Undue influence in procuring votes for a representative in 
the state, legislature, or in congress, is very properly punishr 
ed by a fine of seven dollars. The latter are nominated 
seven months before the day of voting ; a precaution peculiar 
this state, and Judiciously preventmg elections from the 
popular fury of uie moment, or from the intrigues of factious 
clubs, which generally guide the choice of other states of 
the Union. . Strong efforts have, however, of late years been 
made to remove these obstacles to bribery and corruption, 
the almost inseparable .attendants on popular elections. 
Dr. Dwight, with the foresight natural to a superior mind 
like his, apprehended great evil from these attempts; and 
we. have reason to believe, that, since his death, the cause for 
supb apprehension has been very much augmented. The 
elections are, however^ still conducted with an order and 
decorum forming a striking contrast to those of our own 
coimtry, and even of other states of the Union. Dr. Dwight 
assures us, that he never saw an individual intoxicatea or 
quarrelling, or heard a profane or indecent word, or even a 
noisy conversation, at any of them. When will this be said 

Si Review4 — Siaie vfUe^BngUmd ^nd Niw* York. 

ef us i tix6 pow^M of iuAtioeft of tiie peace use neatly t Vkt 
same as in Eti^land^ mtb this alteratioot* howeres, (it maj 
perluEips also be an iiidpro^t^ementy) tbat i^ey bave eo^ttzapee 
6f all civil actions in wbicb land- is notconoerned> wbetethe 
demand does not exceed fifteen^ or^ on bopd or note, wbere 
it does not exceed tbirty-^^® dollars. 

Tbe criminal code of Connecticut was oriemall^ con- 
structed on tbat ne^ approximation tp the Ji^wisa law, 
which distinguished the legislative institutions of Pnritaii 
settlements : and worshipping false gods, witchcrafts blas«- 
pliemy, adulteiy, where one of the parties was a iiM|rried 
woman, cursing or smiting father or mother, save when they 
bad grossly neglected the offending child or his education^ 
provoked him bv cruelty, or forced him to strike in his own 
defence, — iemd filial stubbornness and rebellion/— were ac- 
cordingly puiiished with death. This, however, is no longer 
the case ; but at present the only crimes not puqished with 
deatii in Eneland, which are capital in Gonneoticiat> ar^ 
perjury, witn a desiCT to take away life, disabling tbe 
tongue^ and voluntarily depriving any one of bis- sight. 
Neither robbery, burglary, nor forge^, are there punishable 
with death, but with imprisonment ror a tenn not exceed^ 
ing three years for the first offence, and for life for a sec<md, 
Oriyberever violence is used or threatened ; forgers paying 
also double damages for the injury they have done, anabeing 
rendered incapable of giving evidence, or serving as jurori^ 
within the state* Simple thefi, and the receiving of stolen 
goods, are, on the same principles of penal jurisprudenee, 
punished by a fine not exceeding sev^n dollars, and the 
payment of treble damages. Where the offender is not able, 
6r refuses to pay tbe fine, he i& punished by whipping, not 
exceeding ten stripes ; and if unable to pay tbe damages, 
must msd^e satis&ction by personal service. • In lliese 
Vespepts^ it is obvious tbat the code of Connecticut is at 
once milder, more scriptural, and, we are indined also to 
think, more equitable and efficacious, than our own ; bat by 
it manslaughter is more severely and less justly pnnisked 
than it is with us, even now that a very wholesome statute, 
recently passed^ enables our j udges, in aggravated cases, to 
transport for it; tbe offender, in addition to the forfeiture of 
goods and lands, whipping and branding with tihe leltet Mb 
m the hand, being diere subject to a perpetual disability to 
give a verdict or evidence in any court of justice,r~a penidty 
itifihitely too severe, for a child being run over by a cart, 
through the negligent driving of a carter, although we will 

. Tfwkh^b^ Br» iHdgkt cmi^Mr. Faux. 89^- 

veadilyi admits that it is by no meanB Bereve enoagh for t^e 
duelist, who, in Sogfamd^ generally escapes, under a verdict 
of Bumslaushter, with a short impTisonment, the sentence ol 
death, to which as a murderer, m the eye of God andiinaa, 
those laws condemn him. In America, howe^er^ he rarely 
meets with any punishment whate^r, although in Conneo- 
tieut a^e law contains an express provision against an 
offence, which is a still more crying sin in the country of 
which she forms a constituent state, than it is in Bngland; 
fordueling is there pr6hibited miderafine of l^iree thc^tisuid 
dollars, by die person accepting, or^ven knowingly delivi^r- 
ing a cbwenge, as well as he who gave it> and are perpe-' 
toally disablra from holding aipy office of profit or honour in 
the state ; and where unable to pay the fbrfeiture, are sub- 
ject to close imprisonment for a year* Th^ princif^als in a 
challenge are also very properly requiped to give security 
for theiv good behaviour during hfe* 

Oilier kws of this state appear singular to us^ though we 
wish t)iat their principle, if not their details, were richer 
familiar than uwnown to our criminal code. Thus, adul*- 
tery with a married woman, here but a gvound for a ci^vil^ 
action, for damages, for an injury which no damages ea» 
eompensate, is there punished in both parties, by whipping, 
branding the letter A in the forehead, and weaving a halter 
round the neck during their abode in the state, which 
sprely cannot be long, when, if found s^road there 
withput the degrading and revy significant badge of theif" 
crime about their necks, they are liable to receive a public 
wUpj^i^g Qf tfeir^ sjtripesy Biganoff , with us a clergyable 
Gff. tramportable. felony, is^ puau^b^ m the saitte manner. 
Homeoia^ingy wfaeise any bet or wager, is laid, is an offence- 
praBeribed.l^ the laws,, under the effectual penalty of for-* 
£ri^g the horeesranning, and the stakes for which they 
run, tt^ether* with a fine of fifty dollars upon every person 
subscribing to s[bch stake^ and of thirty dollars each by 
erefry stake-holder, rider of the horses^ and prii^ter or.other 
advertiseir o^ the: race. These are puiiishments and prohib^- 
tionSji at which we are aware that the lovers, of this popular 
but most demoralizing national amusement will smile: in^ 
<}9iijtf;mp^ aixd ^corn,, branding them> as tU^y do sio> a^ pnri- 
t^i3u<5al ahd ioethpdistip^} Y^^ ^^ wo,v^d apk. eveft. the^,^ 
Wbetfeer.tl^y fp^noija pei^t.of a.n?A?e ^9nfti.i|t^nt sys^t^n^ qfi 
Cbisiatisyn legislfttion^. tb^^. doe^s. tb^ cQndi:Kit, qS o»r onKk 
royaL Defenders o£ the F^th, who issue; proclamations with 
one. breath for the suppression of all vice and immoraiky. 

90 Remew^^State of Nevh England and Neuh' York. 

especially 6f all gaining eo^nomine, and with the oCber, ^«•- 
oiously furnish from the royal purse, some twenty or thirty 
king's plates, to be run for at races, most notoriously 
andpre-^minenily the scenes of the very worst vices, in their 
very worst enormities, of which earning is the fruitful 
parent. One other singular law of this state we copy rather 
tor its curiosity, and to shew the minute attention paid by 
its legislators, the earlier ones especially, to every thing 
that regards morals and decorum, than from any wish to see 
U adopted here, although it might not be without its bene- 
fits in putting a stop to at least one of the violations of 
decency so common in our places of theatrical amusement. 
We allude to that which prohibits the appearance of one 
sex in the dress of the other, under penalty of a fine not 
exceeding seventeen dollars. 

In most other respects the laws of the state are very closely 
assimilated to those of England, of which the. common law 
is that also of Connecticut, wherever its own statutes are 
silent ; and where that also is silent, our statutes passed 
before the settlement of the American colonies, are some- 
times appealed to and admitted as law— a tribute to the 
merit oi our jurisprudence, mot by any means confined to 
this state of the Union. Whilst on this point, we cannot 
deny ourselves the gratification of quoting from Dr. 
Dwight's valuable pi^s, the following liberal, though 
stricuy just acknowledgment of the advantages derived by 
Americans from their former connexion with, and origina- 
tion from. Great Britain. 

'* The present race of Americans can never be sufficiently thank- 
ful, that their ancestors came jErom Great Britain, and not nom any 
other country in Europe. In Great ^Britain they fonned^most of 
their ideas of liberty and jurisprudence. There, also, tliey found 
their learning and their religion, their morals and their manners*. 
The very language which they learned in that country, opens to 
their descendants, as in a' great degree it^had opened to thero, 
more valuable literature, science, and sound wisdom, than could be, 
found in all the languac^es of Europe united. In some branches 
of learning, the British have been excelled ; in all Chey' have 
not been equalled. In science and sound wisdom they have no 

''It is with no small satisfaction, that I see this language planted in 
every quarter of the globe. Those who speak it, are almost abso- 
lutely ue only persons who appear solicitous to spread Christianity 
among nations to whom it is unknown. By this dispensation of 
Providence, a preparation is; I think, evidently making for the 
establishment of a. general vehicle of comn^unication for mankind^ 

Travels by Dr. D wight and Mr. Faux. 91 

by nteans of trhich the religion of the crops may, in its parity, be 
diffused over both contiBents." [vol. i. pp. 259, 260.] 

The same candour which dictated this general acknowledg- 
ment, induced the estimable and lamented author of these 
travels, to admit also in detail, that although the processes 
in the courts of Connecticut are often simpler than those of 
the country whence they are derived, they are so, in some 
cases, with manifest disadvantage, though in others, advan- 

** Generally,'* says he, '^ there i| kss regularity in them, and 
therefore less perfection. At the same time, they are usuidUy 
much less expensive. It ought to be observjsd, that they are 
gradually approximating towards the system of the British courts.'' 
{vol. i. p. 260.] 

• For our own parts. We should hold it an improvement in 
their laws, were that approximation to extend to the limita- 
tion of ajitstification of a libel by its truth to the remedy by 
action, although we are too well aware of the prevalence in 
this country of an opinion, that it should be extended also 
to indictments, to enter now into the grounds of the views 
which we take of the subject, though in support" of them an 
opportunity may, on some future occasion, be afforded us of 
saying a word or two. Other defects, however, are too obvious 
to require more than pointing them out as we pass on ; such, 
for instance, as the dependence of the judiciary on the execu- 
ciutive department of the govemnient, alike in the tenure, and 
the emoluments of the offices of its minister^-^the confine-' 
ment of criminals convicted of serious offences, in a dreary 
cavern uiider ground ; although we are free to admit, that 
the general systein of prison discipline of the state is very 
8t|p^rior'to our own, especially in the care which is taken 
effectually to separate the sexes by confining women in 
totally distinct gaols. But aldlefect producing more serious 
evilfir, is the law relative to divorces, which ever since the 
year 1667 have been granted not only for adultery, fraudu- 
fcnt contract of mama^e, or an absence of either party for 
seven years without bem^ heard of, but for a wilful deser- 
tion of husband or wife, tor tdree years, or the omission of 
that care and provision for each other and their family, 
wliiifeh is incumbent upon those who have contracted so near, 
and as, save for scriptural causes, it ought to be so indisso- 
luble a connexion, i^aiast the demoralizing tendency of 
this law. Dr. Dwight has entered a strong protest, equally 
creditable to him as a divine, a patriot, and « politician. 

92 Review.*-^ State of N&m-'jSmglani and New- York. 

Befote we quit the institations ofiliis^ state of t^e Union, 
we would just remark, as very important departures from 
our own legislation and policy^ (in England at least,)^ 
that marriages are celebrated by magistrates and ordained 
ministers indifferently, but that to render them valid, they 
must have been previously published before tji^ congregatipn . 
assembled in some plac^ of religious worship in the town oi 
parish in which each of the parties dweu, or have been, 
publicly notified in writing, in or near the door of some 
church or meeting-house there, for eight days previous to 
tib.e celebration of the rite^i Minors must also have obtained 
Hbe consent of their parents or guardians. And what more 
liiftn this, we would ask, can reaiionably or equitably be 
required from Dissenters here? Nothing, certainly, ^save 
perhaps a longer notice,) to guard against iitoproper mar- 
liages.; all th^ the state can be couLC^^rned tp- prevent, 
whatever influence pr emolument the church, ms^y. &a|* tOt 
lose. The last things we HPtioe ar^, the religjioii^ cha^^ei} 
of the inhabitants,, w^ch ha$. occasioned tlji^.^lectipn in mpE^t; 
ins|ta]pi,ces of m^iiL of probity to the hi^he^t offi<^e9 of, the^ 
statpj veyy frequently fiyed, alsp by persons^ eooi^^nt fpr; 
iheir piety; the ^^eadiine^^, of th^ir atte^c^un^nt tp. fyitkri 
fnl servants, evinced in tjie ofl^ce of secretary of sts^t^* ^h^ 
though, annually elective, ii^vi^gbe^Qi filled by 09/e fSsl^ily^ 
tharpugh ^hree g§p,€jriBbt^^]^p%-rtbat of op^ , iufdiFidwl having 
for mc^e tha^ fifty years bei^n ^W^en a meo4)er of the l^gi^n 
lature, ojid ajbriiori^ of ii^ j^4gfiB,i^ cbpiien» 

to their office, seldom hpl^i^g ^t office hut for UferHW^t 
fu^ally, of the very trilling sjsj^i^s p^id to the goy?n¥;>ir m^ 
chief-justice; tte. foi;nxer i:^Qeivi»g. b,ut 1200dolla|?9,.(£27Q) 
the latter but a thpusaad, p^ t^obupdj^ed a^it^^ely? ]ppui^a, 
of cxuif cui^eppy ; a re^iun^atipn .infinitely le^fii thaii iQ paid, 
for their services to i^anii of oiyr ns^rcantile. cl^rk^^ aD[d about 
hdJ^f as mnch as^ is m^ by th? h^lf'P^^?^ a°d h^lfnseryants^ 
of our leading barristers^.. waiting a9 th^y dp„ Qiea|iwhil% 
behind their master's phair a.t di^i^r, attending to thQ dpq^ 
of his chambers, sx^^ bra^h^ng the lOitid. off .^e U^ilpf h^M 
great coali. Of ii^i^ economy, ^onjy? Ai9y9i^<^Q^ ^t^ apt ta> 
boast, a£f,a striding m^i of tbie Bpn^AOrlike sijpftpUfiity w4t 
purity of tb^ir ]^i^li<^an gpyernpn^nfr. Not sq» baM^ereiu 
does so. candid an4 ^es^ibli^ ^ m^ a^ I^> Jimf^pMx U^ 
very judiciously observes^ t^ 

** Itc^uwoty however, be qtsstioiiedv that this system has beeni 
carried too; far* ThQ salaries of Ae priacipal. public offioers ought,. 
without a question^ be consid/erftbly iQcreased. The very leait 

vUeh wisdom or justice can admit is, that they shoald be sufficient 
to famish such a support for the incumbents as is decently suited 
to their respective stations." [p. 258.] 

Another glaring defect in the goyermnent of this «tate^ 
¥^hich iseems to have escaped our obBervance, though com- 
mon we believe to every state in America, is the resort to 
lotteries, for providing for public improvements, suchas thid 
building of piers, &c. Here also, as in some other states of 
New-England, a very mischievous practice has long ^pre- 
vailed, of dividing and subdividing counfties and parishes 
into diistriotSi too small to afford respectable representativeti 
in the legislature in the one instance, or adequately to pro^- 
vide for the building of churches and the liHaintenance of 
^tfieir ministers, in the other. 

The prevallerrt religious denominations in this state are the 
Presbyterian and Congregational. When Dr. Dwight wrote, 
in 1812, it contained 216 Congregational, 9 Independent> 
61 Episcopalian, and 67 Baptist churches, besides whioh, a 
few Methodists are scattered over the state, in which no 
material alteration in these numbers lias since been made. 
Though America is alike without the advantages and the 
disadvantages of an established faith and mode of worship, 
(whatever raiey severally may be,) she is not altogether free 
from what many in this country consider one of the greatest 
abuses of such a provision, the appointment of pastors to 
flocks which they cannot feed ; as, of the Episcopal churches 
of Connecticut, more than half, and of the Presbyterian iK>t 
^ few, are held by pluralists. Of the ministers of the 
Baptist churches. Dr. Dwight, who was a staunch and 
thorough-paced Presbyterian, speaks with more cont^x^ 
than libevatity, representing their preachers as ** farmeris 
«tnd mechanics, not a whit better qualified itx the tlesk, 
fmless hv superior volnbilitv, than their hearers, taken at an 
average,^' g^oferally unpaid for their services, and uneducated 
for their sacred office. We rejoice, however, to leiam from 
a note of the publisher, tbat ten years has wrought a very 
favourable revolution in a body of Christians, which in our 
own country can boast of a Hall, a Ryland, a Carey, and, 
alas ! that we must onlv add, could boast of a Fuller, and a 
IV^ard ; and that considerably more attention is now paid to 
the education of their teachers in holy things. Education 
generally is so well attended to, that there is scarcely a child 
u the stale who ia not taught reading, writing, aud arithme- 
•tic, in imC'Of the schools, which in nusubder amount to about 
2600^ oofttdiniBg about 78,000 scholars. . . > 

94 Beview.-^Siaie of New^Englmnd md Nm* York. 

Newhaven^ one of the capitals of this state, exhibits a 
scene no less delightful than it is singular, in the re-erectioQ» 
by mutual consent, of the places of worship of the different 
^ects on the same side of the same street, where the elegafkxce 
of their structure contributes greatly to the beauty of one . 
of the handsomest parts of the city. *' Rarely/' says our 
author^ and in fancy we realize the scene, ''is a more beauti- 
ful object presented to the eye, (I havQ never met with one^) 
than the multitudes crossing the green' in different direc- 
tions to the house of God/' Religion flourished extea- 
i»ively in Newhaven^ the place of his residence, and scene of 
his labours^ for many years^ in his time ; and we are happy to 
learn, that its friends have since considerably increased, 
both in number, in unanimity, and in zeal. ** Behold how 
^ood and pleasant a thing it is for brethren to dwell together 
in unity.'' In the spirit of this text, the Methodists were 
here enabled to erect their church by the liberal cpntribu- 
tion of their fellow-citizens of different and eten opposing 
sects; and as those sects live together in harmony, they 
are interred in one common cemetry, the description of which 
is too striking not to be extracted. 

'^ The Honourable James Hillhouse, one of the inhabitants, to 
whom the town, the state, and the country, owe more than to 
almost any of their citizens, in the year 1 796, purchased, near the 
north-western corner of the town, a Held of ten acres, which, 
aided by several respectable gentlemen, he levelled and enclosed. 
The field was then divided into parallelograms, handsomely railed, 
and separated by alleys of sufficient breadth to permit carriages to 
pass each other. The whole field, except four lots given to the 
several congregations and the college, and a lot destined for the 
reception of the poor, was distributed into family burying-places, 
purchased at the expense actually incurred, and secured by law 
from every civil process. Each parallelogram is sixty-four ree't in 
breadth, and thirty^five feet in length. Each family burying- 
ground is thirty-two feet in length, and eighteen in breadth ; and 
against each an opening is made to admit a funeral procession. At 
the divisions, between the lots, trees are set out in the alleys, and 
the name of each proprietor is marked on the railing. The monu- 
ments in this ground are almost universally of marble, in a few 
instances from Italy; in the rest, found in this and the neighbour- 
ing states. A considerable number are obelisks, others are tables, 
and others slabs placed at the head and foot of the grave. The 
obelisks are placed universally on the middle line of me lots, and 
thus stand in a line successively through the parallelograms. The 
top of each post, and the railing, are painted white; the remainder 
of the post black. After the lots were laid out, they were aU 

Traveh fy Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. 9S 

Arown into a ccmtaon stock. A meetiag was then summoned of 
such inhabitants as wished to become proprietors. Such as attend- 
ed drew for their lots, and located them at their pleasure. Others 
in great numbers have since purchased them, so that a great part 
of the field is now taken up. 

^^ It is believed, that this cemetery is altogether a singularity in 
the world. I have accompanied many Americans and many 
foreigners into it, not one of whom had ever seen or heard of any 
thing of a similar nature. It is incomparably more solemn and 
impressive than any spot of the same kind within my knowledge; 
and, if I am to credit the declarations of others> within theirs. An 
exquisite taste for propriety is discovered in every thiAg belonging 
to it, exhibiting a regard for the dead, reverential but not osteata*- 
tious, and happily fitted to influence the views and feelings of 
«ucceeding generations." [vol. i. pp. 160> 161.] 

To this singularly interesting spot, the monuments erected 
to the memory of the dead, in the church-yard, placed 
injudiciously, though in strict conformity with our £fng4ish 
ciivstom, as absurd as it is general, in one of the finest and 
most crowded parts of the city, were all removed about two 
years a^o. This town, like most of those of Connecticut, 
and indeed of New-England generally, is so thinly inhabit- 
ed, compared with the larger towns of our own country, 
that the houses are built at very considerable distances from 
each other, in streets, which in summer are as verdant as 
the fields. 

Near Montville, lived towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, Uncas, sahem or chief of the Pe^uod and Moha- 
gan Indians, a firm friend to the English, with whom he was 
too prudent to quarrel, but who had no occasion to be proud 
of their ally, on the score of superior civilization or huma- 
nitj ; for having defeated and taken prisoner a Narrhagansett 
chief, who attacked him with twice his numbers, he put 
him to death, and then, cutting a piece of fiesh from his 
shoulders, roasted jand ate it, declaring, after he had done 
so, in the true spirit of a savage, that it was the sweetest 
meat he had ever tasted. 

. The conflicting claims of two towns in this state, 
Ly*me and New-London, to certain lands, formerly belong- 
ing to the Indians, gave rise, it appears, to a species of 
settlement of title, which we apprehend to be new in the 
annals of civilized nations* 

" The land," says Dr. Dwight, '* though now of considerable 
value, was then regarded as a hifling object. The expense of 
appointing agents to manage the cause before the legislature, was 

96 Review.— State tf. Ht^-SngUmi and Hm^Xork. 

x^nsiderablet and tjbe haxcurd of the jottRMqr w«« QotAvHatU Spi 
this ftituatioa, theiuhabltaots of both townsbips agrieed to. settle 
their lespective titles to the lands in Coutrove^sjf, by It ooihbat 
between two champions, to be chosen by each for that purpose, 
New-London selected two men, of the ndmes of Picket alid 
Latimer: Lyme committed its oause to two others, named Oris- 
wold and Ely. On a day, mntually appointed, the ehftn^ioils 
appeared in the field, and fought with their, fidts, ItH yictory 
declared in favoar of each of the Lyme eoihbat«ats. I^yiBae then 
guietly took {tossession of the controverted tract, -and has hM it 
)indisputed to th^ {nresent day. This, it is pr^sumedl it; tfie onlgf 
instance in which a public controreeay ^as itfoi 4eeiikidift'!Newr 
England by pugilism." [yoI. ii. p. 498.] . t 

Gorton, a town on the bordejifs of Rhode I^landy a^e^ms to 
have su&red from its proxiinity to a state in which a re^* 
lar ^provision for a gospel ministry is held in abomina- 
tion ; for when Dr. Dwight was there^ it had been for a lon^ 
period without a minister, the last who ^had officiateci^ 
though a very worthy man, being obliged to leave his people 
ff^r want of support, although they could, without iBeonve*- 
nience.to themselves, have maintained three ministers at 
leai^t. It is but justice, however, to ad<l, that hi the state 
of Coimecticut, a similar diestitntioB of ther means of reli^- 
gious instruction, from a shmlliT cause, is of very tare 
occurTenoe ; and that before our ajudior died, it no longer 
existed here. In the adjoining township of Stontngtoii> 
reside, partly in small ragged and unhealthy wigwams, 
and partly on the farms of the white inhabitants, in nouses 
built purposely for them, the wretched remnant of the 
Pequod Indians, the original proprietors of the land, and 
for a series of years the most formidable enemies of the 
Ei^lish eettlers on the territory of their forefathers. Lazy, 
idishonest, prodigal, thieves, liars, and drunkards ; Irving 
together without marriage, or any tie but their own lost, 
hedf-naked and often half-starved, the former proud heroie 
spirit of their race, terrible even to the prouder and more 
heroic spirits around them, is sunk into the tameness and 
torpor of a half-reasoning brute ; all the vice of the original 
being left, ailber all its eneirgy has vanished. 

The township of Stamford, containing near dOOO inhabit* 
^ts, ^affords an instance of the inanner in which great part 
of America was obtained by the Europeans who peqpled 
it,. for it was purchased of the Indians by the agent of .the 
feoteny of Newhaven, for twelve coats, twelve hoes, twelve 
hatchets, twelve knives, two kettles, and four fathom oF 

Travek by Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. 97 

white wampum. The inhabitants of this state are« gene- 
rally speaking, industrious, moral, and religious, but in 
many of its districts, the prevalent practice oftheir inhabit- 
ants to lead the wandenng lives of hawkers and pedlars, 
has had a demoralizing effect upon their principles, conduct, 
and manners; 

Massachusetts, the largest and most populous of the 
New-England states, differs not in any material part of its 
constitution from that of Connecticut. Its representatives 
in the legislature are, however, far too numerous, equalling 
in number those of Great Britain, with a population at 
the least twenty times as large. Each town having, in the 
elegant language of America, 150 ratable polls, sends one 
member, and another for every 226 additional polls. Educa* 
tion is provided for by law, in a most exemplary and effectual 
manner ; every town or district in the state, containing fifty 
householders, being required to provide a schoolmaster to 
teach children reading, writing, and arithmetic, six months 
in every year. Those containingone hundred householders, 
are obliged to do the same for twelve months ; those which 
have 130, two such schools, one for six, and the other for 
twelve months ; and those having 200, an English school- 
master, and another well qualified to teach Latin, Greek, 
and English, in a grammar-school, each of them for twelve 
months. Failing in this, or negligently performing the 
duty, they are liable to penalties of from ten to thirty pounds. 
Persons keeping schools, either for boys or girls, on their 
own account, are required to be citizens of the state, and to 
be furnished with a certificate of competency for their 
office, from two ministers in the vicinity, and as to moral 
character, from the minister, or a selectman, of the place to 
which they belong. The academies already described, are 
more numerous and better endowed than in Connecticut. 
As to the provision for ministers, the laws respecting it are 
essentially the same in both states, as indeed are their 
legal institutions in general. Nor is there any very material 
difference in the character of their inhabitants, save that 
those of Massachusetts are somewhat more ardent, im- 
passioned, and sudden in their affections and actions, 
than those of Connecticut. 

Of Boston, the celebrated capital of this state. Dr. Dwight 
gives a minute description, for no part of which have we 
room in our pages, save for the following very creditable 
testimony to the detestation manifested by its inhabitants, 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 1. H 

9$ RevievQ^ — ^at^ of New^Enghnd and New-York. 

of a pmctiee which seems to be <m$ of the crying ^ias of 
their countrymen. 

^^ An honourable specimen of the Bofitonian character was lately 
eschibited. Two young gentlemen, natives, fought a duel : dne of 
tbem was killed, the. other fled. The inhabitants, with one voicey 
manifested an unequivocal wish to have the law executed upon the 
survivor. Even his own friends are said to have made no efforts 
l^ his favour. It is doubted, whether the same opposition to this 
crime, and the same respect for the decisions of law, would be 
found, in a similar case, in any other town of equal distinction. It 
di^ght to be remarked, that the survivor was intensely provoked, 
and had made numerous, unusual, and very patient exertions to 
prevent the unhappy catastrophe." [vol. i. p. 470.] 

Religion, pure and undefiled^ formerly flourished in a 
most remarkable degree in this great commercial city, but 
of late years Socinianism has made sad inroads and havoc 
^here; but vigorous efforts ha,ve> for some time past^ been 
making, to stem its progress and counteract its influence, 
and most ardently do we wish them every possible success. 
We regret, however, to have occasion to extract, from th^ 
inore recent tour of Mr, Faux, . the following account of a 
Bostonian sabbathi in the year 1819. 

• " I accompanied one gentleman to- ehurch, an ediflce inwardly 
and outwardly splendid, and the congregation fashionable ; but I 
thought the saryice and sermon vejry dull and insipid, and the 
worship altogether inanimate. As Sunday here vanishes, wdth the 
daylight, I went in the evening to the Town-hall, to Caucus, t 
grand political meeting of thousands of the mohocracyy met to 
deliberate upon the choice of a state- governor, &c. The orators^ 
on the present occasion, being principally well-educated federalists, 
seemed, some of them, eloquent and ingenious abusers of the 
democrats, who angrily retorted on their opponents. Thus I found 
two strong parties, which I am at present unable to de6ne,except as 
mutual haters of each other, like Whigs and Tories in England.'* 
[Faux, pp. 28, 29.] 


To the beauty^ elegance, and conveniencet of this great 
commeroi^l city, and its nqble harbour, our English tourist 
hears aiapk testimony ; but of its inhabitants, he says, that 
they are tbtual^ul for nothing, or, at least, they do not shew 
that they are grateful for any thing. " The poor," he adds, 
on the authonty of a domiciled Scotch landlord of an inn, 
** are not wanted th^e> nor any where in the state of Massa* 
dra^etts, where niany ^re unemployed, and nobody i& mtv^^ 
fied." He accordingly dissuades his countrymen from 

.Trai^c& 6jf Dr. Dwight awd Mr. Fausr. Qd 

^mightting tUitber, unless they cto bring Mrith tbem ftotd 
fiveliundred to a tbonsand pounds. 

To his account of the character and manners of the in- 
habitants of this city, with which, on the whole, they have 
every reason to be satisfied. Dr. Dwight has appended a 
letter on fashionable education, written in his very best 
style, and equally adapted to the meridian of London as of 
Boston. We therefore, very warmly commend it to the 
attentive perusal of our readers; to such of thenl, more 
especially, as sustain the weight of the parental charac-* 
ter; whilst it contains many hints which might be profitably 
perused by alU though we cannot but wish that less occa* 
sion had beeii afforded for the severity of its remarks. 

In this state, as in Connecticut, and indeed throughout 
America, lotteries seem to be the favourite mode of effect-^ 
ing public improvements, for by it the South Hadley canal 
was mainly constructed, or rather rendered an efficient navi- 
gation, it was at Hadley, one of the first townships in this 
state,, visited by our observing tourist, that the English 
regicides, Goffe and Whalley, found for many years a renige, 
in the house of the Rev. Mr. Russell, the then minister of 
the place; and during their close seclusion there, the follow- 
ing singular event is traditionally said to have occurred. 

" In the cburse' of Philip's war, which involved almost all the 
ladian tribes in New-England, and among others, those in the 
neighbourhood of this town, the inhabitants thought it proper to 
ob^rve the 1st of September, 1675, as a day of fasting and prayer. 
While they were in the church, and employed in their worship, they 
were surprised by a band of savages. The people instantly betook 
themselves to their arms^ which, according to the custom of the 
times, they had carried with them to the church, and, rushing out 
(^the house, attacked their invaders. The panic under which they 
began the confiict was however s6 great, and their number was s<y 
disproportioned to thatof their enemies, that they fought doubtfully 
at nrst, and in a short time began evidently to give way. At this 
moment, an ancient man with hoary locks, of a most venerable and 
dignified aspect, and in a dress widely differing from that of the 
inhabitants, appeared suddenly at their head, and with a firm 
voice, and an example of undoubted resolution, reanimated their 
spirits, led them again to the conflict, arid totally routed the 
savages. Wh^nthe battle was ended, the stranger disappeared, and 
no person knew whence he had come, or whither he had gone. 
The relief wfcis so timely, so sudden, so unexpected, and so provi- 
cfential; the appearance, and the retreat of him who furnished it, ' 
were sa unice6imta6le ; his person wad so dignified dnd command- 
ing, his resolution so superior, and his interference so decisive ; 

100 Remew.— State of New-England and New-York. 

that the inhabitants, without any uncommon exercise of credulity, 
readily believed him to be an angel sent by Heayen for their pre- 
servation. Nor was this opinion seriously controverted, until it 
was discovered several years afterward, that Gofie and Whalley 
had been lodged in the bouse of Mr. Russell. Then it was known 
that^their deliverer was GoffCyWhalley having become superannuated 
some time before the event took place.'' [vol. i. pp. 317, 318.] 

The bones of the former of these determined republicans, 
on the house in which Mr. Russell lived having been pulled 
down aboat thirty years a^o, were found buried just with- 
out the cellar wall, in a kind of tomb formed of mason's 
work, and covered with flags of hewn stone. It was said 
also, that Ooffe was interred near the spot, but— as he is 
reported to have gone into Connecticut after the death of 
his companion, thence to have removed to the neighbour- 
hood of New- York, where, thoagh, the better to disguise 
himself, he sometimes carri<ed vegetables to market, he was 
discovered, and on that discovery, to have retired secretly to 
Rhode Island, lived there with a son of Whalley during 
the remainder of his life — the traditions respecting him are 
too obscure and doubtful to be relied upon. But be this as 
it may, the place of their first retreat seems to have been 
well adapted to their concealment, though surrounded by 
bqautiful scenery, which the strictness of that concealment 
would not permit them to enjoy. 

Dr. Dwight expressly disclaims all attempts to render his 
tour interesting, by filling it with landscapes, a fault with 
which he charges, and we fear with but too much reason^ 
many of our European travellers, who would, he observes, 
and observes correctly, " have been more agreeable writers, 
had they been less liberal of their garnishing, and furnished 
us to a greater extent with more solid entertainment.'' It 
would, nowever, be an act of gross injustice, at once to his 
powers of observation and to the scenery of his country, not 
to direct the attention of our readers to his vfery glowing 
description of the view from Mount Hoylake, three miles to 
the southward of Hadley, with which, in richness and gran- 
deur, we apprehend that few scenes in England can com- 
fiete. It is too long, however, for extraction, we can there- 
ore only recommend its perusal, in a work firom which, but 
for a like reason, several others of equal beauty might be 
selected. Yet, to picturesque effect, the agriculture of the 
countrv, which is mat also of most of the other 'states of 
New-England, presents one very material obstacle, in the 
walls of stone rudely laid together, (as with us, in some of 

Traveh by Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. 101 

the mountainous regions of Cumberland, Westmoreland^ 
Lancashire, and Yorkshire, and even in the hilly districts of 
Oxfordshire, Worcestershire, and midland counties,) being 
substituted for die beautifiil hedges, so generally used as 
enclosures in England. In some of the districts of this 
state, these hedges are formed by the natural growth of the 
barberiT, often spreading itself an unwelcome visitant 
over a fifth, sixth, and even a fourth of the surface of fields, 
from which it is extirpated with difficulty, save from the 
stone enclosures, under which pass its bushes, and spring 
up so numerously, as to render it almost impossible to eradi- 
cate them.- Their blossoms are said to emit an effluvium so 
acrimonious, as to blast both wheat and rye, and even to 
prevent esculent roots and other vegetables from living. 

At Haverhill, the last town of this state, on the borders 
of New-Hampshire, a natural curiosity is presented, in a 
small island, situated in the midst of a lake, which has from 
time immemorial floated from shore to shore, whenever it 
was impelled by a violent wind. Trees and shrubs grow on 
it, and it is covered with fresh verdure, bo as, during its alter- 
nations, to exhibit a scene picturesque as it is extraordinary. 

Salem, the most ancient town in this extensive state, except 
Plymouth, and the next in size to Boston,was unce the scene 
of the ministerial labours of the celebrated Hugh Peters, the 
eccentric chaplain of Oliver Cromwell, who here originated 
many improvements in the affairs of his parishioners, di- 
recting tliem by his exhortation, and stUl more strong- 
ly by his own successful example, into new channels of in- 
dustry, and thereby laying the toundationof that commercial 
prosperity which has rendered Salem, for its size, one of 
the most industrious and thriving places in the Union. 
The neighbouring town of Danvers is remarkable for a 
supposed prevalence of witchcraft therein 1692, in conse- 
quence .of which, nineteen persons, the majority of them 
members of Christian churcnes, and people of unblemished 
character, were executed in the town or its neighbourhood, 
whilst one man, according to the humane practice of our 
then common law, was pressed to death, for refusing to plead 
to so absurd a charge. Yet although the absurdity of pre- 
ferring that charge was here carried so far as to lead to the 
imprisonment of a child of between four and five years old, 
as a witch, let not Europeans laugh at that instance of folly 
in Americans — let not, especially. Englishmen place them- 
selves on any superiority, in this respect, over their trans- 
atlantic descendants, when it is remembered, that the philo- 

102 Review. -^State qJ New^Englmd ami New York. 

»opher9, the legislators, the divines, of every i^xkntryi were 
at this period devout believers in the extensive diffusion of 
this singular crime, for which, in. our own country, and 
in the same age, so profound a scholar, so ilavQut a Chris- 
tian, and so humane a judge, as Sir Matthew Hale, con- 
demned to death, and delivered over to the exeeu^on^r, 
more than one of his innocent and persecuted fellow cr^- 
tures^ unlamented victims of a superstition, to whose deadly 
influence even his master mind willingly surrendered afl, 
its mighty powers. 

This state appears not to have adopted such severe 
measures for the suppression of horse-racipg,.as that of 
Connecticut, as, at liynn. Dr. Dwigbt passed one of the 
only two spots used as a race^course. 

In noticing the condition of Williams's college, on the 
borders of this state, occasion is given to our author to 
point out the defects of that and other collegiate institutions 
of. this country, in being all but utterly destitute of fellow- 
. ships, or any other endowments by which students may be 
enabled to pursue literary inquiries to any extent; the pro- 
.fessorships alone excepted, and even they are, generally 
speaking, but very moderately and inadequately supportecf, 
^and impose much active exertion upon thoso who enjoy 

On the side of Saddle mountain, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of this university. Dr. Dwight procured an »n- 
>teresting account of the ravages of a. singular deluge of 
rain, descending in a moment, to which the mountsin- 
ous parts of New-England are occasionally subject, and 
there called the bursting of a cloud ; nor, unpbilosophical 
.ss the term confessedly is, would it be easy to nnd one more 
characteristic of a phenomenon, of which we extract the 
iollowing description. 

** In the autumn of 1784, in the latter part of the night, a delage 
of water descended from this mountain. A family, which lived in 
a house at some distance from the foot of the mountain, not far 
from a brook, were suddenly awaked out of their sleep by the 
united roaring of the wind and the torrent. In their fright, th^y 
hastily dressed themselves, and escaped from the house, the g;rou])(£- 
floor of which was, by this time, six inches under water, and fled to 
that of a neighbouring inhabitant. When they returned in the 
];noming, they found their own dwelling so completely swept away, 
that no part of it was left. The brook, through the channel of 
which this flood discharged itself, had never before, not even in 
the highest freshets, approached the house by a considera()le 

/ Tfoveh by Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. ' 108 

'* Mr. C , in his excursion to ibis niountkin, on the day 

when we le£t Williamstown, followed the path (^6 this tatseat from 
its commencement, through the principtd part of the tract which U 
ravaged. He informed me^ that the channel worn hy these wafers, 
began instantaneously a little below the summit* and w(|s there^ 
and in various other places, as he judged, twenty feet deep, and^ 
where widest, at least twenty feet in breadth. A tract of about ten 
acres was entirely desolated of its trees, which the flood and the 
storm had thrown down, and which were lying on the lowest part 
of the tract in heaps of confusion. The face of this ground was 
now either bare, or covered with small shrubs, apparently Sprung 
up since the period of this devastation. Every appearance which 
met his eye, corresponded with the opinion and language of the 
people in the vicinity." [vol. iii. pp. 234, 235.] 

Maine, the next division of New- England in population 
and importance, but which in his time, and indeed until the 
year 1820, when it was admitted into the Union as an inde-^ 

Eendent state, formed a part of Massachusetts; seems not to 
are stood very high in our author's estimation, although 
we cannot help suspecting, that religious prejudices bad 
some effect upon his judgment^ as his complaints are prin* 
eipally directed against schism among the people, or, as we 
should term it, thehr exercising the undoubted right which 
they possess, of thinking and acting in religious matters as 
they please ; the influx of" ignorant, wandering, and unprin- 
cipled preachers, too lazy to labour, blown up with spiritual 
pride, and assuming to themselves the character and em- 
ployment of religious teachers, because they believe them- 
selves, as peculiar favourites, to receive immediate communi- 
cations from Heaven," and, above all, (a point on which we 
observe that the reverend Doctor is always peculiarly 
sore) the dependence of the clergy upon the precarious 
pittance furnished at the good pleasure of their bearers, 
rather than by the more sure mode of a compulsory payment 
by legislative enactments. In this latter predicament, 
however, the entire dissenting ministry of England (with the 
very few exceptions of endowments,) stand at this moment, 
and, we most ardently hope, will ever continue to stand. 

The inhabitants of many parts of this state are, it appears, 
very improvident with their wood ; a fault so general, indeed, 
in most districts of America^ that our author expresses con- 
siderable apprehension of its hereafter putting a final stop 
to the progress of population, before it will have reached 
to its natural height. The evil id, it appears, generally 
acknowledged, and yet not a siagle efficadous measure haa 

104 Review. — SttUe of New- England and New- York. 

hitherto been taken to stop its abamine progress. But few 
circumstances of the journeys of Dr»X) wight through this 
state, are particularly interesting. 

The town of Lichfield affords a singular instance of the 
manner in which settlements have been formed in this coun- 
try, as, of upwards of one thousand inhabitants, not one had 
a better title to house or land, than was derived from what, 
in the middle and northern states of America, is called 
squatting, that is, planting yourself in the wilderness on 
any piece of ground you may chuse, without purchase 
from, or even the consent of, the proprietor. To this pre- 
datory invasion of undisputed rights, the weakness of new 
governments compelled a submission at the time, which it 
would now be alike impolitic and unjust to attempt to 

Amongst the natural curiosities of the state of Vebmont, 
one of the most singular is Mount Toby, extending about 
thirty miles, and chiefly composed of breccia, or pudding* 
stone, with a cave in it, undoubtedly forkned by some violent 
shock, and reaching directly across one part of the moun- 
tain from east to west. At Bennington, another lusus na-^ 
tura presented itself, in the ravages of swarms of ^asshop- 
pers of a peculiar kind, whose operations are thus described 
Dy our tourist. 

** Bennington, and its neighbourhood, have for some time past 
been infested by grasshoppers, of a kind with which I had before 
been wholly unacquainted. At least, their history, given by 
respectable persons, is in a great measure novel. They appear at 
different periods, in different years, but the time of their con- 
tinuance seems to be the same. This year (1798) they came four 
weeks earlier than in 1797, and disappeared four weeks sooner. As 
I had no opportunity of examining them, I cannot describe their 
form or their size : their favourite food is clover and maize. Of 
the latter, tliey devour the part which is called the silk, the imme- 
diate means of fecundating the ear, and thus prevent the kernel 
from coming to perfection. But their voracity extends toalmost 
every vegetable, even to the tobacco plant and the burdock. 
Nor are they confined to vegetables alone. The garments of 
labourers, hung up in the field while they are at work, these insects 
destroy in a few hours, and with the same voracity they devour 
the loose particles which the saw leaves upon the surface of pine 
boards, and which, when separated, are termed sawdust. The 
appearance of a board fence, from which the particles had been 
eaten in this manner, and which I saw, was novel and singular, and 
seemed the result, not of the operations of the plane, but of attri* 
tion, the cause of which I was unaUe to conjecture. 

^ Traveb by Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. 106 

- ^* At timesy particularly a little before tlieir dieabpearance, they 
collect in cloatUy rise hign lathe atmoephere^ ana takeexleiisive 
flights, of which neither the cause nor the direction has .hitherto 
b^n discovered. I was authentically informed in Shaftesbury, 
that some persons, employed in raising the steeple of the church 
in Williamstown, were, while standing near the yane, covered by 
ihem ; and saw, at the same time, vast swarms of them fl3ring far 
above their heads. The customary flight of grasshoppers rarely 
exceeds four or five yards, and their wings are apparently so 
weak, as to forbid excursions extended much beyond these limits. 
It is to be observed, however, that they customarily return, and 
perish on the very grounds which they have ravaged.*' [vol. ii. 
pp. 384, 386.] 

SuAderlandi a town in this atate^ was formerly the resi- 
dence of Colonel Ethen Allen, who was taken priaoner by 
the British, on a mad attempt, which he made during the 
American war, at the head of but one hundred men, to get 
possession of Montreal. He was an avowed Deist, tand 
author of the first work published on the other side of tbe 
Atlantic, against the Cnristian religion. The foUowiiM^ 
ja£fecting anecdote evinces, however, the little faith which 
he reposed in his own tenets in the hour of danger and of 

" Dr. Elliot, who removed from Guildford in Connecticut, to 
Vermont, was well acquainted with Colonel Allen, and made him a 
visit at a time when his daughter was sick, and near to death. He 
was introduced to the library, where the Colonel read to him some 
of his writings with much self-complacency, and asked. Is not that 
well done? While they were thus employed, a messenger entered, 
and informed Colonel Allen, that his daughter was dying, and 
desired to speak with him. He immediately went to her chamber, 
accompanied by Dr. Elliot, who was desirous of witnessing the 
interview. The wife of Colonel Allen was a pious woman, and had 
instructed her daughter in the principles of Christianity. As soon 
^ her father appeared at her bedside, she said to him, ' I am 
about to die ; snail I believe in the principles you have taught me, 
or shall I believe in what my mother has taught me V He became 
extremely agitated; his chm quivered; his whole frame shook; 
and, after waiting a few moments, he replied, ' Believe what your 
mother has taught you.'" [vol. ii. pp. 389, 390.] 

. Of the legislature of this state, at least of the legislature 
as it existea some twelve or fourteen years ago, the follow- 
ing passage in Dr» Dwight's descnption of Vergennes, 
^ves. us no very exalted idea. It is, however, the repre* 
fientation of an American and a New-Eqglander, and there- 

lOj^ Review.^Sti^e of New-tlf^lmd And Afetn^ York. 

|qi9 we may quote it at leogtb, without any risk of sub- 
jecting ourselveft to the charge of libelling our republicaa 

'^ Itwasy ind^dy intended for. the seat of government^ and so 
are half a dozen other places. Whether any of them will ever 
•become what they so ardently covet> whether there will be a seat 
of government in the state, or whether the legislature will continue 
to roll upon wheels from town to town, as they have hitherto done, 
no human foresight can determine. The legislature itself has been 
at least equally freakish with the projector of this city, and seems 
at present little niore inclined to settle, than any other bird of pas- 
sage." [vol. ii. p. 401, 402.] 

Neither of the ^overument of Vermont, however, nor its 
inhabitants, does the Doctor, himself a devout believer in 
the superiority of his own state of Connecticut over every 
existing government, entertain any favourable opinion, for 
through at least a dozen pages he expostulates practically 
on the vices of all new settlements, from their being com^ 
posed of the very refuse of the older states, with so much 
severity, that although we could safely recommend the cen* 
sure to our aristoccatical readers, we would advise its being 
passed over by those, who expect from American writers, 
any thing like the sentiments termed radical and Jacobini- 
cal on this side the Atlantic. His portrait of a genuine 
democrat, and would-be patriot, dissatisfied vrith every 
thing, and to whom nothing can give pleasure, is at least as 
highly coloured as it could have been by the most violent 
antnacobin in this country. 

'the constitution of the state of Nbw-Hampshirb is 
altogether one of the best in the Union, the two branches 
of me legislature, the house of assembly, and the senate, 
having each of them a negative on the bills passed by the 
bther, and the jndges holding their offices dunug their good 
behaviour ; a provision Tery much needed in some of the 
larger states. In the limitation of seats in the senate to 
Protestants, we trace however a restrictive spirit, ill accor- 
dant witii the geperal liberality of the American states, and 
irreconcileable, as it appears to us,, with the declaration of 
its own constitution, that ** every denomination of Chris- 
tians, demeaning themselves as good subjects of the state, 
sbalt be equally under its protection, ana entitled to equal 
privileges^ and that no sect shalLeverbe legally subordi«- 
na^ed to another." In the same juat and equitable spMirit^ 
another article provides, that no persanr of any n" ' 

Tra^b by Ik. Dvig^t and Mr. FaitK* 107 

denoniiimti(m shall be eompdled fb pay towafdatbe support 
^f any minister, or place of worship, of a religions persiia^ 
sion to which he himself does not belong. 

Portsmouth, the principal town and seaport of the state 
of New-Hampshire, is, like most of the towns of BTew-Eng- 
land, built cniefly, if not entirely, of wood ; we need not 
therefore be surprised to learn, that conflagrations have 
ftecj^uently destroyed largQ portioils of this ill-constructed 

At Dover, a party of Indians once committed as gross an 
outrage as ever disgraced the most sa^vag^ horde of any tipa^ 
or region of the globe. Deing then professedly at peace 
with England, one of their sachems or chiefs, and two 
women, applied to Major Waldron, formerly governor of 
Ifew«^Hampshire, for a night's lodging; whion was granted 
with equal readiness and good will. In reward, however, for 
this kindness, these fiends in human shape, whilst the family 
were asleep, admitted a body of their warriors into his 
house, and having knocked down their gallant and venerable 
host, who was then in his eightieth year, by striking him on 
the head from behind, whilst he was valiantly but ineffec- 
tually resisting his numerous and brutal assailants, they 
seated him in an elbow-chair upon the table, cut him acrosp 
the breast and stomach whilst he was still alive« severed 
bis nose and ears, and forced them into his mouth, and 
finally, by placing his sword under him as he fell, teitqi^ 
nated his honourable and most useful life. To finish their 
work of destruction, they then killed or captured the rc^ 
mainder of the family, and set fire to their habitation. 

Early in the next year, the neighbouring town of Bruns*- 
wick was attacked by a body of French, powerfully sup- 
ported by these their fearful allies ; but they were driven 
back, after they had killed about thirty and captured fifty 
of the inhabitants. The treatment received by the latter 
from their savage captors, though acting as the coadjiitors 
of men professing to be Christians^ was horrible beyond 
conception, and would scarcely be credible, were it de« 
tailed Tbiy a writer of less unquestionably veracity than he 
who thus affectingly relates it. 

^' One of the prisoners, named Robert Rogers, a corpulent 
Bian, beinff loaded with a heavy pack, found it impossible to keep 
pace with nit captors. When he had fallen behind them, thtnkiisg 
himself out q^ their reach, he threw down his ktad, a]id attempted to 
Dft^k^ hi9 ^iiia|pe. The savages pursned him to a hoUow tree^ iif 
>l)^ he endeavoured U^ conceal himself, and^ forcing bum out. 

108 Review. — State of New^England and New- York. 

stripped him, beat him, and pricked him forward on the joamey, 
until the erening arrived. They then made a feast for themselves, 
and, tying the prisoner to a tree, (his hands being fastened behind 
is back,) sa&g» shouted, and danced around him* When they had 
sufficiently amused themselves in this manner, they made a great 
fire near me unfortunate man, bade him take leave of his friends, 
and allowed him a momentary respite to offer up his prayers to 
his God. After this, they moved the fire fovward, and roasted him 
by degrees; and when they found him failing, .withdrew the fire 
again to a greater distance. Then they danced around him ; cut, 
at each turn, pieces of flesh from his perishing frame ; laughed at 
his agonies, and added new pangs to this horrible death, by 
insults and mockeries. With a refinement in cruelty, not obvious 
to civilized man, they placed the rest of the prisoners just without 
the fire, that they might be witnesses of the catastrophe. With 
the same spirit, after his death, they seated his body, still bound to 
the tree, on the burning coals, tifa^t his friends might, at some 
future time, be racked by the sight. 

'' Such was one, among innumerable specimens of India^ cruelty. 
Such are the benefits of that state of savageness, which approxi- 
mates nearest to the state of nature. Let modern philosophers 
look on, and learn here how romantically innocent, gentle, and 
amiable, man becomes in this, which they have been pleased to 
extol as the state of human perfection. In the next panegyric, 
which is pronounced on the state of nature by one of these gentle- 
men, it is to be hoped, that he will recite, as a proof of its bene- 
ficent and delightful influence, the story of Robert Rogers:" [vol. i. 
pp. 387, 388.] 

' To such would-be philosophers, men who, in erecting 
their theories, overlook all fact, and contradict all experience, 
we very earnestly commend this wholesome advice, which 
has been our principal inducement to extract the passage 
containing it. 

At Somersworth,the next stage in his journey, our traveller 
was entertained, much to his satisfaction, at an inn kept by 
a Captain R. a circumstance which induces him to enter 
into an explanation and justification of the inns of this state, 
and indeed of most others in New-England, and even 
throughout the Union, being kept by persons whose titles 
indicate them to be men of some consequence. This he 
does with much zeal ; but although we are fully ready to 
admit with him, the propriety of houses of accommodation 
for travellers being kept by persons of respectable charac- 
ter, we are not convinced by any arguments which he has 
adduced, that there can be the least (necessity for their 
being kept by landlords, whose education and feelings as 
gentlemen, would in most other countries be an insuperable 

Traveh by Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux. 109 

bar to their following such a pureuit. Colonel A. of theT 
Bear and Billet, Captain B. of the Goose and Gridiron, and 
Mr. Justice C. of the Crown and Magpie, would, in any 
country in Europe, appear so absurd an anomaly, that our 
American friends must bear with our smiles at a combina- 
tion of which, we doubt not, but that when their middling 
classes shall have attained to the respectability of that grade 
in old established communities, they will themselves be 
ashamed, however they may affect to glory in it now. 

Near Hinsdale, a border town of this state, an irruption of 
the Indians, in 1775, issued, in the capture, amongst other 
persons, of a Mrs. Howe, whose subsequent sufferings and 
history are detailed in so interesting and affecting a man- 
ner, that we cannot but refer such of our readers to it as 
may wish to combine all the witching interest of a novel, 
witn a faithful detail of some of those extraordinary trans- 
actions which occasionally form the romance of real life. 
They will find it in the second volume of the work, pages 
70 to 76. 

Dartmouth college, near Lebanon, originally founded in 
1769, by the exertions of the Rev. Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, 
of Lebanon, in Connecticut, under the patronage of the good 
Earl of Dartmouth, for the purpose of educating Indians, and 
Missionaries to them, has faued of answering its purpose, 
two natives only having ever graduated here ; and it beii^ 
found difficult, and almost impossible, to get students from 
among them, whilst missionary education was necessarily 
interrupted by the breaking out of the American war, soon 
after the foundation of the college, the work has since been 
advantageously carried on by omer societies, and through 
other channels. By the education of from fourteen to fifteen 
hundred young men, of whom a fourth devoted themselves 
to the ministry, the college has, nevertheless, in another 
way, conferred, most important benefits upon the state in 
which it is erected, and the Union of whicn that state is a 
part* • 

In the neighbourhood of Bethlehem, a town not fai* dis- 
tant from the White Mountains, Dr. Dwight found the roads 
in a very bad condition, which leads to some observations 
that cannot, we think, be uninteresting to our readers, 
pointing out, as they very forcibly do, some of the difficul- 
ties which their forefathers, by whose perseverance those 
vast trans-atlantic regions were peopled, cultivated, and civi- 
lized, encountered and overcame. 

'^ A reflecting traveller, passing over these roadS; is naturally 

110 Review^-Staie of tiflo^Etigland ^Hid NeUSr York. 

induced to recollect fhe situation of the first coioaifl^d m Nevrt 
England, and to realize some of the hardships, which those intre*- 
pid people endured in settling this country. Among the di£Bcul- 
ties which they had to encounter, bad roads were no contemptible 
one. Almost all the roads in which they travelled, passed through 
deep forests, and over rough hills and mountains, often over trou- 
blesome and dangerous streams, and not unfreqXiently through 
swamps, miry and hazardous, where wolves, bears, and cata- 
mounts, haunted and alarmed their passage. The forests they could 
jiot cut down, the rocks they could not remove, the swamps they 
c6Uld not causey, and over the streams they could not erect 
bridges. Men, women, and children, ventured daily dirough thii 
combination of evils, penetrated the recesses of the wildetntss; 
climbed the hills, wound their way among the rocks, straggled 
dtfough the mire, and swam on horseback through deep and rapid 
jiv^rs, by which they were sometimes carried away. To all these 
evils was added, one more distressing than all. In the silence and 
solitude of the forest, the Indian often lurli;ed in ambush near their 
path, and from behind a neighbouring tree, took the fatal aim, 
while his victim, perhaps, was perfectly unconscious of danger^' 
[vol. ii- pp. 280, 281.] 

At Davis'^i Farm, a station in this thinly popnlaied dis- 
trict^ be met with another novel illustration of those bard^ 
ships, some of which are still entailed on the descendants of 
these bold, laborious, and nniGh^ndurnig men, in a tracts 
recently ravaged by one of those destroctive fires, which 
kindled originally by the bnntei^e to drive the prey from 
their coverts, often do incalculable and irreparable mischief 
to the neighbourhood, which they lay desolate and waste for 
many miles aronnd. 

"When," says Dr. Dwight, " we had reached Davis' farm, we 
were presented with an object entirely new, and not a little inte-^ 
resting. A fire, which had not long before been kindled in its 
skirts, had spread over an extensive Region Of mounteuns on the 
tiorth-east, destroyed in its progress all the vegetation, and con- 
sumed most of the soil, consisting chiefly of vegetable mould. The 
whole tract, from the base to the summit, was alternately white and 
dappled, while the melancholy remains of half-burnt trees, which 
hung here and there on- the sides of the immense steeps, finished 
the picture of barrenness and ^ath." [vol. ii. pw 282.] 

. The state of RBonE Island differs from most other states 
in Newf*£ngland, of which it is the most insignificanit aotict 
the leasts in that the sabbath is there neither noticed by ike 
law, nor sanctioned by any general religious observaneej 
hence, when Dr. Dwignt wrote, maay years had not ^lapsed 

Travels 6y Dr. Owiglit and Mr. Faux. 111. 

since the market^ the streets, and wharfs^ of Proridence^ 
its capital, were little less freqaented, as marts and scenes • 
of business, on the Sunday, than on any Ofther day. The 
general feeling of the inhabitants had, howeyer, so strongly 
manifested itself against this profieniatian of the day of rest, 
that but few carts were then seen entering the town, (which, 
contrary to the usual ixder of things, and to experience 
also, was more moral than the surrounding country,) and 
their numbers had been yearly decreasing. The Khode-* 
Islanders appear to be. great sticklers for liberty, and even 
carry their attachment to it to the het^t ot absurdity, 
having for many years gone without a most useful turnpikes- 
road, throuffh the very heart of their state, because turn-- 
pikes, and tne establishment of religions worship, had their 
origin in. Great Britain, the government of which was a mo* 
narchy, and the inhabitants were, as theyxonsidered, slaves f 
as were also tlKMse of the neighbouring states of Masacfausettsi 
and Connecticut, frombeing compelled by law to support mi-^ 
nisters, and pay turnpikes. These, argued they, if they chose 
to be slaves, undoubtedly had a right to their choice, but 
freefbom Khode-Islanders ought never submit to be priest* 
ridden, nor to pay for the privilege of riding on the high<« 
way. They aceordingly jogged on in mud and mire, and 
liberty, until 1805> when, the impassability of their roads 
compelled them to bow their free4iom necks to the horrid 
slavery of toavelUng on good, in preference to. bad ones* 
With a spirit so opposed to all improvement, and so inca*' 
pable of enjoying real, whilst it prompts to xmfounded 
clamour after fancied liberty, we are not at all surprised to 
find, that the general features of this state were mean houses, 
ill repaired miserable bams by the roadrside^ misnomered 
churches, chiefly of the Baptist denomination, and a culti*- 
vation of a piece with every thine else, rarely, if ever^ 
exhibiting to the eye proofs either of skill or of success. 

" Every thing,'^ says Dr. Dwight, in passing the boundary of 
his own state, to enter that of Rhode Island, " indicates a want of 
energy, a destitution of all views and efforts towards improvem<^Dt, 
a sluggish acquiescence in inconveniences and imperfections, which 
& more vigoroos disposition would easily remove, [vol. iii. p. 28.] 

Less attention is paid to education in this state than in 
any oilier of New-England, in consequenice . of wliichy iis 
inbabitantaare moare viciona, and its . tahurohes. worae snjp>* 
plied With Bunisteis, than its neigbhonrs. Hors^racing. la 
here a fovourite pursuit. '* Thoa gross amaseoient/' s^ya 

1 12 Review. — State of New-England and New^York. 

Qur author, aad we quote his words fot the benefit of such 
of our countrymen as are enamoured of the sport, ** turns 
polished men into clowns, and clowns into brutes." The 
sabbath was at this time, with very many of the people, but 
a day of visiting and sport, and, with others, regularly de- 
yoted to their customary labour. So little, indeed weve 
sacred tilings regarded there, that some of the mis«ionary 
societies of the, neighbouring states treated, and not, it 
would seem, without abundant reason, Rhode Island as 
missionary ground. Our readers will not, howevery be sur- 
prised at the wretchedness of its moral and religious condi-*' 
tipn, when we inform them, that a conaidembleiQumber of 
the inhabitants, of its trading towns viere ei^ged ill that 
bana to .ev^ thing that is jvirtuous or good, the sl«ve tmde. 
Yet we are assured, that they will rejoice with vus,. at^ 
a very, considerable amelioration in the oonditkii'of'this- 
state, in the twenty years which have transpired «tnAe'tli0' 
account of.it was given, increasing wealth harin^, as we 
kam from, a note of the American pubUsher of this work; 
imparted more liberal views to its inhabitants, piBttknlarly: 
of the large towns, with respect to the impoitance of ed^oa-- 
tion to the oommunity. Revivals of religion.hare also 4idcen 
place^ within these few years, in several parta of the state: ' 

Turn. we now from New-England to* ^Nbw-'Yosk, 
On the constitution of this state, we need not ta make many 
remarks, after the full account already given of tlmt of 
Connecticut, as a sample of the government of ihevsepa* 
rate states of the Union, which, di£Pering as they do from 
each other in minute particulars, have the . same general 
republican and elective features. New- York has a council 
of revision, composed of the governor, ehanoeUoi^ tmd 
judges of tilie supreme court, to which all bills^must be sent- 
before they, are passed into a law by the legidature, and if 
returned within ten days to the senate,or house of assembly, 
according as the bill ma)r have originated m the one or the 
other of those bodies, with their objections in writing, to 
its jpassing into a. law, these objections must be considered, 
and recorded, in the nature of iat protest, upon the minutes of 
the hquse ; but if tworthirds of the members still adhere 4o 
the bill, it passes. Of this, the nearest i^pproximkitil^n' to 
our .third B^ate, that a republican goveromMI can pet^lltfps' 
admit, we are inclined very cordially to approve ; though we 
join iWtth Dri .Dwight* iU sepvobaiting the fraotioe of 'keep- 
ing the jndges.depaadent upon the ^execvtive'for the tenure 
of their offices ; aiavlt common, we believe, to most of the 

Travek bjf Dr. Dwight andMt. Faiix/ 113 

United StaWs? and tw other wovisions of the constitiition 
oF this vety important one. iTiese are, the cotincil of ap- 
pointment, fbrmed of a senator fVoiti each of the four dis-\ 
tricts of Ae state, annually elected by th^ house of assetiibly^ 
in wbom, with the chief of the executive for the titnei beiYig, ' 
tlKmgh he has, as president, but a casting vote^ the sole 
patronage is vested of the ereat mijority of offices through- 
out the state; a^U, indeed, out such as are elective ia the 
people, or by the legislature. The consequence of this 
r^dfttion is, theiafiuencing of elections to the house of- 
assembly and the senatb, of persons likely to serve the 
ekctort ;Miid we have the respectable authority of : Dr. 
Dwtght^assetting, that to seizure this important Mtrt^nhage 
to men ttkely to promote the self-interested views of its 
members, '<3ie house of assembly ii^ itself rendered a scene 
of <^bal and intrigue, often issuing in measured openly, 
subversive of "law, principle, and decency/' The other 
ejrroris little less fatal to tne stability of the constitution^, 
with which the due and impartial administration pf just^CQ. 
is intimately and inseDarably connected; and ii^ a laige 
commercial p^tate like New- York, that ol^ect can liever bd 
acoomplished by a supreme court of errors, constituted 
of the. aenate^ihe chancellor, and the judges of the superior * 
court, in which the deliberate decisions df the ablest and 
wisest judicial tribunals are frequently reversed by a 
majority of farming, mercantile, speculating, an4 .6j9Sce- 
hunting senators, some of them without suifficient no^nesty,' 
and all of them wanting inlegal knowledge, for i|ie judgment 
of the last resort, which it is their duty to pronounce. These 
defects must be remedied, or they will remedy themselves 
in a way not very propitious to the safety of the go v^nimeiit, 
many of whose provisions exhibit great equi^ aitd wisdom; 
Such, in our judgment at l^t^t, is the ineligibitity of minis- 
ters of the gospel to any^ civil employment m the state, and 
the enjoym^t of perfectly equal rights and privileges by 
members of every religious sect, without disc^rimination or 
preference. 'T6 these every Englishman will be disposedji 
with OS, to add, the preservati6n of the great palladium of 
our liberties, tihe trialbyjury,inviola,te;aiidthe recognitiooA 
as par:t of .the la^s of the state, of such parts of our owii 
cqmmon and statute law as Were in fotce there in April. 
1775. ^ ' 

■ Pass Ve now to the ecclesiastical arrangementj? of the 
•tate» ?Evhiic;)i^ as they respect tlie maintenance of inihis-! 
ters of the gospel, differ very widely from those of New- 

VOi.VXU.Tr-NO. 1. 1 

114 Review.— SiaU of New-Ettgland and NeuhYork. 

RnglaiKl, uid have a much Dearer confonnity to the'Biode. 

of supportiag them, in use amoogst the Dissenters of our 
own country, though, if men of talent, piety, and probity, 
th^ here experience but in a very slight dc^ee ; evils, 
the most distant apprehension of which iQstinctiyely ezciten 
our reverend to^rist s wrath. Thus, for exi|u:i^>le,in describi<ig ; 
the town of Paris, he says, 

-'^ There are three PresbyteriaD congregations in this township, 
and two clergymen. These gentlemen, though held in high esti-^ 
iHatien, and deservedly loved by their parishioners, consider fhem- 
selves as holding their comiezion with their congregations by a: 
very precarious tenure. , The laws of this state conceming the sup^ 

Krt of clergymen are so loosely, and so unwisely fonned, as to 
ivetbem in a great measure dependent on the fluctuating feetiogs 
of parishioners, rendered much more fluctuating by the laws tben^ 
selves. 'A voluntary contribution, except in a large town, is aa 
uncertain as- the wind; and a chameleon only can. expect .to derive^ 
a' permanent support from this source. By several very respect-. 
adi>le gentlemen, with whom I conversed largely on this subject, I 
was informed, that the opposition to supporting clergymen by law 
had lately very much increased among tne New-England people of 
this region. My informants believed, that not more than one-tenth' 
of the principal inhabitants, and not more than a twentieth of the 
people at large, are in favour of this system. ^ This is a lamentable 
degeneracy.'^ [vol. iii. p. 177—178.] i ' 

' Nor is the reverend Doctor better satisfied with the legis*. 
lative provision, authorizing religious societies of everv de- 
nomination to appoint trustees of their property, which may 
be held to the amount of 30Q0. dollars, (nearly .£640) per 
annum, although such trystees are made corporati^ bodies, 
with a conimon seal, and empowered to regulate pewrreQts^ 
perquisites, and all matters connected with the temporal 
concerns of their respective churches. How infinitely less 
are the' legal rights with which the Congregation.alists and, 
Other dissenters in England are obliged to be content ! (qjc 
their places oif worship cannot be endowed with jands even 
to the value of a shilling by the year, and are moreover liaUei 
to vexatious assessments for the relief of the poor« and eve^ 
for the building and irepairs of the parochial places of wox- 
ship belonging to the Establishment. 
' "nie Sabbath is, however, directed by law to.be strictly 
observed ; and a proof that it is so in practice, more to the 
satisfaction of the tourist than this mode of proceeding 
for^the maintenance of the clergy, was aflforded on his jour-; 
: neying. with his companions from. Saratoga to CAmbndgei 

Travehby Dr. Dwiglitand Mr. Faux. 116 


on accouDst of the latter containing a place of Evan^ielical 
worship, which the former wanted. We give it in his own 

^' On our way, a decent Scotsman came np to ns on horsefaacky 
and very civilly, inquired why we trarell^d on the sabbath ; observ* 
ing^ to us at the same time, that such travelling was forbidden by 
the law of the state« and that the people of that vicinity had deter- 
mined to carry the law into execution. We easily satisfied him, 
and were not a little pleased to find, that there were people in this 
vicinity, who regardea the law of the land and the law of God with 
90 much respect." [voU iii. p. 222.] 

The most numerous denomination of Christians in this 
state, as in New-England, is the Congre^tionalist, although 
ill. the luimber of meir churches t£e Baptists far exceed 
them ; but then, those churches very frequently consisting 
only of three or four families, but occasionally visited by 
itinerant preachers, the number of members of course 
bears a less proportion to that of their congregations than 
in any other sect. As in New-England, the Baptist minis* 
ters are generally uneducated men. Episcopalians, Quakers, 
ana Methodists, are the next numerous sects, Br. Dwight*s 
catalogue of which is closed by *' a considerable number of 
Nibiiists,'^ a term, we presun^e, ingeniously invented to de^ 
scribe that most numerous of our English sects, those who 
have no creed, and make no profession, at all. 

Before we quit this subject, we cannot deny ourselves the 
gratification of extracting a short passage, exculpatory of a 
body of Christians, some of whose ministers we have the 
pleasure to number amongst our friends and correspondents, 
from the <^nsure which our author pronounces upon most 
other sects, for not making a proper provision for their 
ministers. ' 

^^ The Dutch congregations are to be regarded as a general ex- 
ception to these remarks. This sober, stedfast peopte, deriving 
their birth from the United Netherlands, where the wisest plan for 
supporting the ministry of the Gospel, which the world has ever 
known, had been long adopted, came to America with fixed habits 
coaceming this . subject, and have hitherto retained them. They 
pay the salary, which they have once engaged, so long as th^ 
minister lives, whether he be able or unable to officiate. In this 
honourable conduct,' it is believed, they stand alone, and exhibit 
an example worthy of being followed by those of every other reli- 
gious denomination.'* [vol. iii. p. 261. J 

No state- of the Union has discovered a more munificent 
Hpirit in the promotion of leamincr, than that of New-York, 

116 Reviett.-^State of New-England and NeunYork. 

ih which a corporation has lon^ e^tisted iipder the title of 
^' The tlegents of the Universitj of New- York/' invested 
with full power to establish colleges and academies in 
every part of the state, in which they may think tttem ne- 
cesftaty* It is also charged with the gMeral superintend* 
encie of literature, and ahntially reports the condition of its 
seminaries to the legislature of the state, whifeh has pro-" 
vided with a liberal hand for the three colleges and fifty 
academies already established, besides famishing very large 
funds for the support of the common schools. 

Murder and treason are the only two^ crimes now capi- 
tal here; felonies of all other descriptions being punished 
by confinement in the State Prison for life ; and most othet 
subordinate offences, by a similar confinement there for 
fiborter periods. 

Ih morals, it seems not, however, to be so e^templary aa 
New-England ; for at Weymouth, Dr. Dwight was surpnsed 
to. find a considerable number of men and women of the 
neighbourhood assembled round a table in the inn at which 
lie stopped, playing at cards, a thing he had never seen at 
^h^ of the numerous inns at which he had sojourned, in jour« 
heyings of at least fifteen thousand miles — a fact which we 
notice to the credit of the New-Englanders. 
' Near Stockbridge, he visited a village of Shakers, or 
Shaking Quakers^ to whose enthusiastic vagaries be de*- 
votes twenty pages of his work, where those . who are 
feurious in tracing the singular aberrations of the human 
itnnd, alike from sound reason and the plainest truths of the 
gospel, will find much that may at once both please and 
insti'udt them. Our limits compel us to be very brief in 
our notice of this singular combination of blasphemv and 
enthusiasm, which has happily confined itself, and win, we 
hopie, ever be confined, to the new world. The sect derives 
Us name, in which, unlike the epithets ^ven to most sectarian 
distinctions, they glory^froiA one of the leading tenets of its 
thembers. that ** the work which God promised to accom-^ 
^' plish in the latter day, was nnivetsally marked out by the 
** prophets to be a work of shaking;" in support of which 
opinion they quote Haggai ii. 7. " I will shake all nations, 
'" and the desire of all nations shall come,'' and in fact every 
text, indiscriminately, that happens to contain the word 
shaken, or any of its derivatives. Their great head was, 
and though she has.long since been dead, still is, with them, 
'Anne Lee, the daughter and wife of a blacksmith, at Man- 
chester; who, after having been imprisoned and confined in 

Traveh by Dr. Dwigbt and Mr. Faux, ; Vl;?! 

a mad-house in this country^ passed over to America in 1774« 
and became the Johanna oonthcott of another h«aiii9phere< 
She declared, and, wfaAt is more extraordinary, hnndit^dsr 
beliet^d^and still believe, her blai^faemons declaration, that 
she was the Word spoken of in scnptttre,-^that in her Ghrislx 
appeared a second tine, — that there are two petsoiis in tlsv 
Godhead; the Father and Wisdom, or the Holy Ofaost, who 
is a woman, and held the place of the mother of whon^ Christ 
was bom the Son of the Deity; as was also Anne Lee, the 
blacksmith's wife, and the mother of four children, the 
daughter, by whom the Holy Ghost or mother is revealed, as 
the Son is by theTather. But why pollute our pa^es with such 
blasphemous absurdities ? Suffice it to say, tnat after having; 
pretended to miraculous gifts, and proved her title to them;| 
by predicting the destruction of the world at a perjod long 
smce gone by, and with a claim- to perfection whicli li^if 
followers devoutly believe in having repeatedly got drunk 
with spirituous liquors, which she called one of God's g9od 
creature^, this woman, notwithstanding the confident expec-r 
tations of her disciples that she was immortal, went the 
way of all flesh in the year 1781, leaving her gifts to her 
successors, who still lay claim to perfection, the miraculous 
power of healing and speaking in unknown tongues. Some 
of their tenets and practices closely resemble the very 
worst features and dogmas of popery ; such, for instance; aa 
the infallibility of their leader — the denial of all right p^ 
private judgment — the lawfulness of doing that which 19 
wrong, to promote the good of the church — the eternal 
damnation of all without their pale — confession of siiis 
to the elders, (to whom they assert, that angels and de- 
parted spirits also make confession of their transgres- 
sions,) and penance in inflicting flagellations on their 
disciples, ana even making them scourge themselves^ In 
others, ihey resemble the New Jerusalem church, suohapi' 
hearing angels and departed spirits sing, and enjoying visions 
of the invisible world. In some points of discipline, and a 
few of doctrine also, the Quakers have evidently been their 
model, though they have pushed the constant influence . of 
the Spirit, even in Uie minutest concerns of life, to a pdint of 
absurdity to which the wildest fanatic in the early histoiy 
of the society of Friends never approached; as witness the 
following ludicrous tale, which we should not have vepturedf 
to extract from the pages of a writer whose veracity was not' 
so unquestionable as uiat of Dr. Dwight. 

* • • • 

** Among their other early peculiarities^ this was one, th^t they 

118 Review, — State of New^England and New-York, 

were always under the immediate and inspiring guidance of ^lie 
Spirit of Gk>d. The direction of this diyine agent was made known 
to them by an inrohmtary extension of the riffht arm, pointing 
always towards some object, or business, which, uioagh abaolately 
unknown to themselves, demanded, wkh a call from Heayen,. Abeir 
iaunediale attentioa. A vava, of my ae^aiatancey wh^se tsavi had 
alwi^s been wandering, who had gone from sect to. sect, to find. one 
sufficiently religious, and from doctrine to doctrine, to find a scheme 
sufficiently rigid for his own taste, ultimajtelv attached himself to thia 
fraternity. A gentleman, at whose house he was with aome other 
company, askea him to drink some punch. He declined, the pror 
posal, and said, that the Spirit did not move him to drink punch,. 
but to something else. In an instant his right arm was stretched 
out, and he arose and followed the direction. It led him out of the 
door, in a straight line, to a hog-trough, by the side of which he 
dropped upon his knees, and m&de a hearty draught of the swill, 
with a number of pigs, who were regaling themselves on the same 
beverage.** [vol. iii. pp. 144, 146c} 

They have, howlever, more successfally cdpied the neat 
and industrious habits of so highly respectable, if some- 
what enthusiastical body of Christians, as are the society of 
Friends, maintaining themselviesr in a comnion fund by con- 
stant labour, highly creditable to their own characters, and 
advatitageouB to the whole community.' Amongst thefnsdVeS, 
they live in great liannony, and their treatment of othefs is 
fitif, sincere, and obliging. If, on the one hand, they are so 
fanatical as to term a succession of unmeaning, half-^rt:- 
culated sounds gotten by heart, and jigged out to the tuiie 
of Nancy Dawson, singing by inspiration ill an unknown 
tongue ; it is but candid to state, on the other, that they h6ld 
more soberly, that a dirty, slovenly, careless, indolent person 
cannot be religious, and every member of their society* is 
accordingly required to be continually employed in hiode- 
rate labour. They have several establishments in New- 
England, Ohio, and other parts of the Union. * * * . 

in this respect, at least, theii' practice seems to t>e, far 
bettet than that of their neighbours, wbo bet\veeh theii' set- 
tlenieilt and Utica, a distance of mor^ than' one hundred 
miles, were generally in a low condition, both as to ihqrals 
and religion; fathers and sons being not infrequently seen 
at the same ga-ming table, swearing at^ ahd endeavouring to; 
win money froin each pthef, aiid aealiiVg out by whotesale 
mutual recriminations for cheating and lying, whilst remain- 
ing at the ale-house to a late hour of the night, in a state of 
bea;8tly intoxication. In close connexion with this spirit 
of low gambling, a taste foi* horse-racing very generally 

Traveb by Dr. Dwight d/irf Mr. Faiix, 1 19 

pervaded this district, and, as usual, caDs for a severe vi^- 
peratioA from the highly moral and religious tourist, whpHe 
indignant censures of $t diversion pre-emiJQ^^tly Ebglish, vfi^ 
shall extract, for the edi^cation of iovefs. of. tl|e Wr.La^t 
home* ■. .<•<••.••.;. . ,.i 

"Among the causes .which hcfreascfeinMe m«khndes with'h^fa 
pulsations of hope and pleasure, a horse-race is one of the most 
memorable.' This diversion, when least exceptionable, is a depl<)«- 
rabl^ dxhibitibi) of human debasement; The gentleman here dwin- 
dles at once into a jockey; imbibes his spirit; assUtnes his station; 
and, what is worse, sinks to the level of hit mor^Ht^. The (^ain 
jBatt, at the same, heoomes a mere brute; sweats, ^ewises^ climts, 
lies, and gets drank; extinguishing at once vtnue, reason^ and 
character. Horse-racing is the box of Pandora, frem w^ch moite 
and greater mischiefs flow than any man ever counted or mett- 
sured.'^ [vol. in, pp. 161— 162;] i 

, At BrothertowD, Dr. Dwight visited an. Indian settkmeM 
of forty families, in a considerable degree of comfort and 
civilization, and following the peaceful pursuits of agricul- 
ture. This interesting village, formed a part of the town- 
ship of Paris, whence a few hours' ride across and by the 
banks of. the Mohawk, brought them to Rome, a very hum- 
ble riviil of the eternal city, containing twenty houses at 
the niost. / 

In his visit to Long Island, which contains three of the 
southern counties of this state, our observant traveller had 
occasion to remark the ravages of the Hessian-fly j which 
by regularly depositing its eggs in the autumn, just above 
the first joint of the wheat, in the spring above the second, 
and in summer above the third, aepnves the ear of its 
jQutriment to such an alarming extent,' as well ni^h to have 
compelled the discontinuance of its cultivation in Connec7 
ticut, and materially to have diminished its produce in other 
parts of New-England and New-York; to the amount of a 
nundred thousand dollars a year. 

' The religious and moral conditio^ of the inhabitants of 
this Islana is very different tb'that of most other districts 
of the important state of which it forms a part. This the Dr. 
attributes to its insular si tiiati on— a strong attachment to 
horse-taicing— the attractive' influience of the city of New-;- 
Yorki separated fVom it but by a'narrow strait,, on person^ 
of intelligence a^d property — and, though Iast,not least, the 
splitting up^ ad he nas it, of the people into' sects, leaving 
the congrcigations small, and their ministers biit ill-siip-; 
ported. Et hinc ilia dolores. 

120 Meview. — SteUe of New-England and NetO'York. 

'<In various parts of th^se two counties iix^ sabbal^is /coofider^ 
by tnady of tbe hihabitdnts as scarcely ^listainiog a sacrea charac- 
ter. It is devoted ett^nsively to visiting, to ainusement, (inq, 
dttifffg the seasons of mowing and harvest, not unfrequehtly to 
labour. lb some places diere are, fbi^ long periods, no ministersi; 
in others the people are the prey of i^orant teachers, recommended 
by n9diiBg but ardour and vociferation* [vol. iii. p,'318«] 

^ Iq traversing Lalce George, Dr. D wi^ht had an opporio- 
tiity of witnessing a mode of stag-hunting, as new to us aA 
it was to bim. 


./<TbQ huntsmett wilii their hounds," he tellsuft, ^^roilte tiiem 
from Uieic retr^ts in the fii^rest: when they invaedbtely beiaihe 
tbeniselves to the waiter, ai^- tfwim towai>ds this eppoaike shore. 
Qther buntamett, jsngagedl in the business, plaoe themselfies ontthe 
points^ to watch their entrance iald the lake. Each: of thesis 
provided with a small, light batteau, which he is able to row.fasisr 
than the deer can swim. When he has overtaken, the deer, he 
despitches him with si stroke or two of his oar,' and then tbWs him 
back to the beach." [vol. in. pw 326.] 

Bears ar^ caught here in the same manner, except that, 
t)eing too dangerous to approach, they are shot. 

To the description, of iNew-York, the capital of this sllate, 
two letters are devoted^ iu. which the reader wUl fipd the 
lQ[iost minute statistical plarticulars of its condition, at the 

feriod of its beine visited l^y Di:. Bwight^ althpugli our «z- 
audted limits, will allow of our npticing but few. One of its 
jmdst attractjive objciC^ts to the curious visitor, is the Sta.^ 
Prison; but we have given so much more recent an account of 
its condition in our pages, that we rather notice here^ a 
sihgular provision or two of the city Bridewell, in the abo- 
lition of whipping offenders there> fron^ its heing found 
tevolting to th^ feelings of the community — the .punishmeut 
of idleness in the task-work which they are compelled to 
pettoTtii, by lessening their allowance, of fopd.; their emptoy- 
iment ih repairing th^ public roads ; and the entrance eveii 
jnto this place of punishment and disgrace of AioDericaii 
j)ride of colpuri in i)ot permitting a white, rogue and va- 
gabond, liM^Ie, &t the pleasure of .the municipality, to. be 
chained to a barrow, as he wheels it along theipubUcstieeta, 
to he subjected to the greater degradation of bcang locked 
u|^ in the same prison-room, or associated.in work, of othei^- 
Wise, with his fellow thief and vag^boqd the black* In tWe 
city alms (or, as in England wo should call it, poor) boue^, 
tt appears, that paupers are actually set to vforkj instead of 
living in a state of idleness and ins^ctiou/ f^ they do witli us ; 

Trateb hf Dr. Dwight and Mt. FimiX* \%\ 

in direct contradiction at once to the letter and ^he 8|^t 
of the statute which humanity provided for tl^eii; relief, .. 

The benevolent societies of this capital .aret v^ry nii^tr 
ou8» and many of them (esf^^ially thqse vpde^ ^e directjm 
of the ladies,) are productive pf great benefit to ih^ ofc^Wf 
of their bounty. We regret, however, to find«: that ^aimHiffst 
the other sex, societies professedly established for cbaritapl^ 
purposes ere inade most convement and effectual political 
et^i^iiies in influencing electrons. . 

The inhabitants of New- York are remarkable for their 
industry^ but not so for economy^ the magnificent a^d 
es^pensive style of Uvio^, which has of late years been so 
extensively ,i|itroduced into most of our laige commercial 
towns, (where they are also sea ports, especially,) haviirg 
induced many of them to live far above their means; though 
Dr; D wight gives to its mercbantSji a character for<&ir apd 
honourable trading, which we have every reason tq. believe 
to be their due. Tbey.are distinguished for hospitalit]^* 
and, generally speaking, by a virtue not always its associ- 
ate, sobriety. The clergy of all denomination^ are ^herf 
highly esteemed, a|id treated with very great respect^.as 
we should expect would be the case in a metropolis, a very 
large p]X)portion of whose inhabitants are on the best 
grounds believed to be religious; and where we are fejoiced 
to heax And know, that evangelical religion and vital godli- 
ness are nsakiog rapid progress. The vanities and ftmuse* 
ment&of this world are nevertheless pursued here, at least 
wiih as rnxkok avidity as in most other large towns ; theatric 
cal aitertainments, assemblies, balls, concerts, and other 
modes of killing time, being more favourite objects *of 
attachment and pursuit, than consists either with the pro- 
fession of religion, or the possession, with a due attentioil 
to its dictates, of common sense. 

** The general attachment to learning*' is said, by Dr. 
Dwight^ *' to be less vigorous in this city than in Boston ; 
commerce having originally taken a mone entire possessioo 
of the minds of its inhabitants/' He admits, however, that 
the character of those inhiabltants has for some tame past 
been> materially and advantageowsly changing in this respect; 
and, as far as we can judge by a very extensive coms^pofld* 
ence Wfth both cities, the love and the enltitatioki ofhlfefa* 
ture is now pretty equally diffused through the capitals of 
Massachusett and of mw-York. 

Columbia college, established in thi^ city, is attended by 
very manjf of the children of the m6i'0 opulent ihhabitants. 

i22 R^view.'^Siaie iff NeUhEngtand^id New* York. 

• • • 

lint it has the dis&dvantffges of having n6 other tutors 
than the professors, and of leaving the students to lodge 
Inhere they can in the city; a practice subversive of acade- 
lbi<^al discipline, diongh one, we ar^ fully aware/shared ttl 
tebmmon with our Scotch Universities, atid from whieii 
Cambridge itself is hot enth-ely free WiihUU the Paci- 
lities for instruction so abundantly furnished' her^, many 
|>6rsons can yet neither read nor write, though, to theii* 
shame be it added, most of them are Europeans. It can 
Scarcely be necessary 16^ remind our readers, ere we quit 
New- York, of the celebrity of its steam*boats, which afiord 
a ready and very convenient mode of conveyance thence 
to the most distant parts of the United States, and to 
Europe. . With the spirit of improvement and of enter- 
prise, which has prompted them thus extensively to avail 
thetnselves of this important invention, we are surprised to 
fihd that the inhabitants of this great city are still miser- 
ably supplied with water, one of the first objects, we should 
have thought, to which patriotic speculation would have 
been directed. 

In journeying throtlgh this state to the majestic falls of 
Niagara, Dr. Dwight experienced some of those inconveni- 
ences of meeting with inna but in names and signs, to 
which travellers through the less frequent^^d parts of out 
own country, are (as we have often painfully experienced) 
somewhat ihore thati occasionally exposed; and the contract 
which they exhibited to the inns of his native state, seems^ 
as we should guess from the fallowing vituperative philip- 
pic, father to have disturbed the wonted equanimity of hid 

"About four miles from the ferry, we came to an inn, kept by a 
Scotchmaii, tiam^d Hanna. Within this distance we called at 
several others; none of which could furnish us a dinner. I call 
them inns, because this name is given to them by the laws of the 
state; and because each of them hung out' a sign, challenging- this 
title; But the law has nicknamed. Uiem, and the signs are liars; 
It is said^ aad I suppose truly, that in this state aiiy aian, who' will 
pay for an innkeeper's license, obtains .'one of course. In conse- 
quence of this, practice, the numbec of bouses^ wbic^ bear the 
appellation, is already enoroiQus. Too m.an3( of. then^.fice.nieref 
dram-shpps; of no otl^er use thaii to deceive, disappoint, and. vejX^ 

S»vellers,4nd to spread little circles of drunkenness throughput 
e state: The government probably derives from thei;n a small 
pfsewiary benefit; but the purpose, for which the license is given,* 
18 frustrated, No inquiries, if I am correctly informed, are made 
Concerning the character of those, to whom ihey are distributed. 

Traveb by Dr. D wight and Mr. Faux. 123 

Not a quention is asked, whellier they are iable or unable to enter^ 
tain travellers; whetlier they are men of 'lair repataticMi, or of ttoae. 
No ay stem is formed, noreatrietioos are preaeribed^ The -ol^jefet vi 
leftta ohaiieey and the- licenses are offered forsaley as goods, waoes; 
md merchaiidise. llie affects of this oegHgence in the govero- 
ment of tha state wte^ daplp^^l^^ A traveller,ia£ter passrog from 
inn to inn in a tedious succession, finds that he can g^t nothing, for 
his horse, and nothing for Jiimself. At the same time he is po* 
lested, by jaight and by day, by a collection of dram-drinkers, who 
offend his eye by their drunkenness, and his ear with their profane- 
ness and obscenity ; while they prevent or disturb his sleep, by the 
noise and tiot of their intoxication.' In many parts of this state, 
whether the object of the traveller be food or lodg-iftg, he must dili- 
gently inquire, at a sufficient previous distatice, for a. comfortable 
place of entertainment; and must shorten or lengthen his jour- 
ney, so as to suit these indispensable purposes/' [vol. iv. p. 15.] 

, These, however, are some of the ordinary ijuisances of 
travellers in every country, even iti bur o^n, where travel- 
ling is confessedly more convenient thati in any other in 
ihe world : pass we therefore, to some not quite so common, 
in the treating of wolves around the path of* our tourist'i| 
party, as they *journ eyed tihfough the WesteiH* regi6ns of this 
state, where the^e animals often do much 'mischief to the 
flocks of sheep and 'other smaller cattle, and are sometimes 
ao bold as to attack men at day-light; wtiilst at night, com- 
panies of tb^m frequently compel individuals travelling 
alone, to betake themselves to tre^s for safety; and have 
confined them to their unpleasant lodging until the morning 
ddwned. Prom such an attack' by day, and such a lodging 
for the night, the present party was* sufficiently secured by 
its number^, and reached in safety the falls of Niagara, which 
have beeni too frequently described, to permit of pur taking 
any further notice of them in this extended article, (wit5 
the main objects of which they are also utterly uncon- 
nected,) thah earnisstly to recommend to our readers, the 
very minute ^yet; spirited sketch of them, drawn by Dr, 
Dwight, on whose well-sto'red mind, their siiblimiiy pro- 
duced an effect *6iiilila'r. to the disturbance^ of the mighty 
waters beneath, anU the ibnely gi"andeur of every tning 
around him. ' *' *^ .\. . \^[ 

The western states of NeW- York, through Which the tra- 
vellers retrafced their homeward steps, exhibit' frequent inr 
staniies of the lingular disease $b common in some of the 
mountainous districts df Switzerland, and there calle4 
goHres; and We learn, from information collected by Pr*. 
Dwight, that the same extraordinary and most unsightly 

124 Review.'-^State &f Nm-S^lcnd md N^uh. York. 

sweUjQg of the Qeckr eta exieiif ively pervadie»greftt purt of the 
regioiM9 lying north of tfie Ohio, and veil of the Alleghany 
loountaiiia. Womea are here mom severely afflieted with 
tbia disease ihaa meD, feeble than vigoroua persona, cbflv 
dren than adulta ; nor though in its later stages it increases 
to great personal deformity, not only as an ntinaturai pro- 
tuberance, but by imparting a diMigreeable cast or distor-: 
tion to the features of the face, does any method of 
cnre appear to have been discovered, save in the re- 
moval of the patient to a part of the country where the 
disease is unknown, when it not uncommonly docreasesj, 
and sometimes totally disappears. This ci^rciun^t^Qce shews^ 
that, as in Switzerland, the disorder depends upon some- 
thing peculiar in the soil ; and the fact, that ev^ry diatrict pf 
America, wherein this singular affaclion prevails, is calca^ 
reous, tends very strongly to confirm the ingenious sugges- 
tion of Mr. Coxe, that the' disorder is caused in Switzerland 
by matter of that description there called tuff. 

We are fully conscious of having far exceeded the litiaits 
of a Veview in this present article, and .therefoi'e bring it 
to a. close, by briefly stating our reasons for this departure 
from our usual course. Anxious to give our readers a correct 
notion of the state of things in America, we have e;itraeted 
from ^ work of upwards of two thousand very closely 
printed pages, the most interesting particulars of a native 
American's account of New-England and New-York, as im- 
portant as any of the states of the Union ; apd the singular 
character and arrangement of that work has compelled u^ 
to do this at unwonted length, or to leave our o4]ject in*** 
complete and unattained. The travels of Or. I) wight con^ 
tain a great mass of valuable information, and many very 
eloquent ftnd entertaining passages; but it is, withal so 
unusually rheavy a composition ; so full of minute and tedi- 
ous details of insignificant circumstances, that we fear few 
persons, unassured of their sterling merit, will have r,eaolu- 
tion to encounter the fatigue of wading through an accurate 
enumeration of the various traders in lumber, butchers'^ 
schools, inns, tallow chandlers, Windsor -chair makers^ 
tailors, barbers, clergymen, lawyers, physicians, and sur- 
geons — or, of (the number of horses, oxeju, aad cows, 
within the limits of a particular township. Nor will their 
tedium be very sensibly relieved by long biographical no-: 
tices of men, whose lives furnish not incidents, and whose 
names are not important enougb« for an obituary in a ma- 

Traveb by- Dr. Dwight and Mr. Faux . 126 

With somje of these notices of men who took an acttye 

{)art in the American Revolution, or who are otherwise 
amiliar to English ears, they will, however, we douht dot, be 
as pleased as we have been, especially with those of the 
Edwards, Bedell, Colonel Allen, Generals Am61d, Lyman, 
Patham, and Sir William Johnstone; nor will their author's 
very detailed, if somewhat national account of the prin* 
cipal battles and leading incidents of the Retolation, and 
the preceding wars with the French, be less amusing and 
instractive. Most Englishmen will also be delighted with 
the antigalican and antijaoobin spirit pervading a work, 
which, as the production of a zealous American, they would 
have ej^pected to exhibit other, and very opposite prejudices. 
It also abounds with sketches of the nistory, character^ 
manners, and habits of the Indian aborigines of the coun-^ 
try, as interesting as in most instances they are novel to* 
E^lish readers. 

Of the Americanisms, and other defects of its style, let the 
following ihstances suffice: — ^' sinuous ingenuity of the 
French,* *' with water round the year,*' instead or the year 
round ; " semi-annUal,'* *' semi-cfapital,*' " lives at a provi- 
dent disftance within his income,'' ** continually receiving 
benefits "for the efficacy of a moderate sum/' ** govermental 
measures," " rectilinear integrity," *Hhe prisoners are confined 
to hard labour, the avails of which go to their support/' 
" we 'arrived at sun-down," '* unwkrpin^ public spirit/' 
** the Iqdians killed and captiTated,'* (meaning, captured, •'a 
half-shire town,"* *' often they will not come together at 
all/' ** and wears the aspect of thrift," ** attest to the justice 
of these observations,*' " views and intentions wholly diverse 
from/* **anew bridge crosses the Connecticut against the 
city,** ''well-appearing houses," " the swamps they could 
not causey,"" the property designated in this bequest was 
loaned on interest, " with a snail-like progress, therefore 
we trembled through this part of our way," " any legal meet- 
in^ warned for that purpose," ^a good degree of pro- 
pnety,'**^* a good share of information," 8tc. ''a eountiitg- 
room," " a well-appearing man," '* aside from the change of 
hue/' "sparsely formed,' ''the usual powers attached ta the 
gabematorial chair," " the waters of Lake George are fine 
airf potable," "^ 206 killed outright," " the school-law hereto- 
fore recited," " scarcely at all inhabited," " a few other dis- 
eases are rife in this conntry/' ** its site -is a handsome 
plain, limited westward by hills/' "of this township We sair 
nothing but a skirt." 

126 Review^ — New Method (^acquiring the Reading of 

. To. th^sei i¥e may add the fbllonfiog entire sentences, or 
niateri^I parts of them: — " Sand appears, I think, evidently, 
to be a congeries of multifarious materials ;*' " in sufficient 
season for (Hvine service;'' " nor did I ever before mistrust 
how mach a human being can resemble a monkey ;" *' out 
travellers pursued their stag with entire decency;" *'bur com- 
panions were even uncensurs^le for their wishes ;" " the water 
IS of an elegit hue, and appearing as if a soft lustre un- 
dulated every where on its surface, with a continual and 
brilliant emanation;" "the beauties of the shore and of 
the islands are at least double, by being arranged in the 
fine expanse, below which they are seen in perpetual suc^ 
cession, depending, with additional exquisiteness of form, 
and firmness of colouring ;" ''those who. can get along 
with some aid, short of an entire subsistence, are left at 
home, and called out-door poor/' 

Of Mr. Faux's book, we can only say at present, that it 
is well worUiy the attention of Englishmen proposing to 
emigrate to America, though we intend to resume our notice 
of it on a future occasion, in connexion with some Ame- 
rican and English works, enabling us to give as complete 
a view of the other states of the American Union, as we 
have now done of its eastern ones, and the most impor- 
tant of its middle division. 

The length to which this has unexpectedly extended ^^ 
will, we are assured, excuse our substituting this review, 
for our usual American intelligence; or rather, for not 
adding, under that head, to the information collected here. 

LA New Method of acquiring the Readingof Hebrew ^itti 
the Vowel Points, accordingto the ancient Practice. By ui 
Experienced Teacher. On a Folio Sheet. London, 1822. 

. Ogle and Duncan. 

2. An Easy Method of acquiring the Reading of Syriac with 
. the Vowel Points, oy an Experienced Teacher of Oriental 
. Languages. On a Folio Sheet. London, 1822* Ogle 

and Duncan. 

3. An Easy Method of acquiring the Reading of Arabic with 
the Vowel Points. By an Experienced Teacher of Oriental 

. Languages. On a Folio Sneet. London, 1823. Ogle 
. and jDuncan. 

' We consider these modest and unassuming tables ad- 
mirably calculated to answer the purpose for which they 
seem mainly to have been constructed the ansistance of 

Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic^ ioUh Vowel Points. 127 

schools aad.pri]Kate families, id the insl^ietipn of.vo«ith of. 
both sexes^ (for we rejoice to know* tWit the study of the 
Hebrew laoguage at least is occupying sonue portion of that 
time which, in female tuition, was formerly wasted on mere 
accomplishments, and even on more frivolous pursuits.) in 
the acquisition of the three most inckportant of the Oriental, 
languages, with the vowel points ; a mode of reading them, 
the knowledge of which, to say the least of it, can do no 
harm. These tables are divided into three lessons, the 
second in each case containing the vowel points of the 
language, (in the Syriac,both the ancient and modern ones,) 
with the rules for their pronunciation, well illustrated 
in the third, by their annexation to every letter of the alpha* 
bet, the pronunciation of which is given in small Roman 
letters under it. The Hebrew table coijitains .for its first 
lesson, the different alphabets in use among the Jews, 
i.e. besides the one. commonly adopted, the Rabinical 
character, so called from its use by the Rabins, both in 
printing and in manuscript, though tne latter is now chiefly 
confined to the Portuguese and Eastern Jews ; and the Ger- 
man Hebrew, employed by the German and PoliiA Jews in 
works printed in their vernacular tongues. The other two 
contain for their first lessons, the forms final, (separate and 
joint) medial, and initial, of each letter, with its sound and 
pronunciation, in Roman letters, which are also given in 
the two laat columns of the firHt Hebrew lesson. 

From this brief account of their contents, and we cannot 
from their very ndture give more, the self-instructing student 
in these Oriental Languages, and even those who have made 
considerable advances in their acquisition, will be enabled 
to determine, whether the small sum of four shillings and 
sixpence, (for they are published at so low a price as eigh- 
teaa pence each,) would be thrown away in giving them a 
place upon the walls of their study. We thijy^ not; but on 
the contrary, very cordially commend them to. the notice of 
every one engaged in the acquisition of the Hebrew, Syriac, 
and Arabic languages. 

From the imprint, we conclude that their author is Mr. 
Borrentslein,m08t probably a German teacher of languages, 
in the metropolis; and though we never heard of his name 
before, we are so pleased with the design and execution of 
these cheap and very useful tables, as to.receive, with pecu 
liar satisfaction, the announcement of a concise Grammar 
of the three tongues to which those tables relate, divided 
into easy lessons, as a work which he is now pfeparing for 

res Pottty. 

the prefts. Several oriental grammars have, we are aware, 
been published within a few years, some of them books of 
great merit; but they are so critical, abstruse, dissertational, 
and witbal so expensive, that for the work of tuition, we cannot 
but consider, a cheap and practical grammar of the Hebrew^ 
Syriac, and Arabic, by a practical man, a desideratum. 




Ah, why, when I feel the soft hand of mv God^ 

Should I murmur because of the psun f 
Oh, no !— let me cheerfully bow to the rod, 

As I kiss it again and again. 
The hand of a Father, in mercy is laid, 

On the son whom he loves, to chastise; 
And though I go down the dark valley to tread, 

I've a rod, and a staff, and a prize. 

That prize is not gold, nor is it diamonds rare. 

Nor riches, nor honour, nor fame ; 
Nor garments made costly by silver so fair. 

The Mammon of earthly acclaim ! 
Tis a crown, starr'd with wonders of rickier arrays 

Than all this vain world can afford; 
More bright than the orient splendours of day, 

And sure as the oath of his word. ^ 

His bow in the cloud is his promise to man, 

I have seen it stretch'd over die sky, 
And gaz'd with ecstatic delight on the span. 

As the brilliant arch mounted on high. 
Its colours have faded, but not in my mind 

Has so faded the promise of rest; 
For traces are left on my bosom behind. 

Of the way to the land of die blest. 

The cross on the mountain, — when darkness was nigh. 
And Jehovah groan'd under the load ; 

When endless compassion gave Jesus to die, 
And Heaven spread weeping abroad I — 

PiK^ry. 129 

When blood was the sacrifice, — Christ was the L^mb, 

And all nature beheld him expire, 
An atonement for sin, — by the promise h/s came. 

As *^ with burning and fuel of fire/' 

And will not my God, with his Son, freely give. 

Whatsoever is needful for me ; 
When he bids me drink deep at the fountain, and live, 

Of his grace, and for ever be Iree? 
Peace, peace, doubting heart, and no longer complftin. 

Thy Father is loving and Idnd ; 
He bids thee look up, and give sorrow and pain. 

And thy sighs, to the wings of the wind. 

Then, on thy dear bosom, my Lord, 111 recline^ 

Till doubt shall distress me no more ; 
Already, by faith, the great promise is mine. 

And I long to behold and adore. 
There, there I shall dwell in inefiabl^ light. 

And range the wide palace abroad ; 
And ever be thine, and be blest with die sight, 

And the smiles, and the glory of God. 

ffistoih R* M* 


Soft was the slumVring dream, a gaudy train 
Of exhalations, from a youthful brain, 
Pass*d closely round my couch, and Hehk wove 
Her roseate gtoland, — Genius stood with Fame 
Painting a thousand rainbows, — that my name 
Would travel through the world, and hallow'd love. 
With silken toils and lambent wings, would move 
Elysian hopes. When, lo I they cruel fled 
Quick as the vanish'd spirits of the dead. 

I woke in tears, — ^I saw a heavenly ray, 
Not bright, but pure; the dawning of a day 
Free from illusion, and a gentle voice,— 
O ! 'twas the sweetest music^^whisper'd peace, 
And on my ravish'd senses still increas'd. 
And bade n^e look for everlasting joys. 
And antedate a bliss that never cloys. 
I gaze, and am not mock'd, — a light is g^ven, 
A stream of glory from the throne of Heaven, 


VOL. VIII. — NO, 1. K 

ISO P&^ttf. 



From the Boitan, or Garden of the Persian Poet Sadi. 

Hear, thou, my Son, the orphan's crie«> 

And wipe the widow's jteerful eyes ; 

Nor think the moDarfsh can be blest. 

Who lolls him on the couch of rest ; 

For, if the careless sheph^d sleep, 

Whe^ wolres are near.-^who guards the sheep ? 

Protect the people, — they alone 

Secure thine empire, :^d thy thronis ; 

Thou art t^e tree» a^ Aej Ijhe roots, 

FrofB which thy branch of grsmdeiir shoots* 



Frqa "Jlortl Pi«aM, in Pfoie ud Vene, by Lydu Homtlby," of Jbrf^brtf. 


Hast thou seen the Mimosa, within its soft cell^ 

AU lihrkikiiig<aiid ^iffifering stand, 
And draw in its tendrils, «nd fold its young leaves, 
, From the toueh of 4he keedfiMTcWt kMndl 

Hast tbou seen the jo»mf >A4pea ihal 'tiembks and sigh 

Qn the bi^th of the liaperjiiig wind ? 
Oh! these a«e but emblemed in^ocfeot and fiaint. 

Of the fil>riiikiiig dadsesisitiviedaitad. 

* ■ ' / I 



'I ' H i ii 

4>iie is iik&ia paidled dream, 
Like ^he^fapid maaaakBr-gtB 
i^kit ihe lisslBag meleorls otiy^ 
Like ^he 'shaHest^wiitter^s tdsf , 
LilB the 'fitful kscOs» Ifaat 
Iske (the 'wcwenug rflame tliat 
•Daitmg^-^vfazalitig oh tjhe^gya, 
Fading in Eternity. 


Om the Standard of Taste. " An Essay intended ta compete 
for a Prize, given by the University of Glasgow, By the 
late William Fhienp Dubant. Pabt I.* 

" It is with g^ood reason, sa^s Sancbo to the Squire with the great note, du^ 
t pretend to have a jadgraent in wine : this is a qaalitj bereditarj in oar fiiinil j* 
Two of vj kinsisan were once eailed to give Iheir opinion of a hogshead, which was 
supposed to be excellent, being old, and of a good Yintue. One of theqn tastes il^ 
considers it; and, after matare reflection, prononnces the wine to be good* were it 
ADt for a small taste of leather, which he perceived in it. The other, after asing 
the same precaation, gives his verdict in favoor of the wine; bat with the reserve St 
a taste of iron, which he coald easiljr distingaish. Yon cannot imagine how maoV 
the^ wore both ridicoled for their iodgment. But who laoghed in the end? Oli 
emptjiog the hogshead^ there was foimd at the bottosi an wd kej with a leatlieiy 
thong tied to it!" . 

What is the Standard of Taste ? Is it to be ascertained by 
attending to that constitution, in consequence of which the 
" common nature'* appears at once '' invariable" and '^yex^ 
fect?'*t Or, if "some particular forms or qualities nom 
the original structure of the internal fabric are calculated 
to please, and others to displease ;" and, *' if in the sound 
state of the organ there be an entire or considerable unifor- 
mity of sentiment among men"j: — ^in what way can we so 
aocuraiely determine the original constitution of the human 
mind, as to be justified, in considering decidedly erroneous 
every thing diot deviates from one standard ? Can we, from 

what we know of the human mind, safely deduce the prin-' 


* Our limits compel us to make a division which does not exist 
in the original Essay. Of that Essay, the father of its lamented 
author, gives the following account in his most interesting memoir 
<»f bis ffingularly gifted son: — ** Though the Essay could not he pre- 
sented for competition, hoth Dr. Wardlaw and I thought it not 
undesirahle, that a few of the professors, who knew and respected 
my son, should see it. In a letter, dated ' March 2, Dr. Wardlaw 
says, ' I have this morning sent the exercise on Taste to Mr. Mylne, 
accompained with an explanatory letter. It is one, I think, whioh 
Wll more th^u maintain (dear lamented youth I) the high reputation 
he had acquired. Alas ! that that reputation should now attach to 
the memory only, instead of attending, as we fondly hut vainly hoped, 
the living author, through an active, and brilliant, and (what is best of 
all) useful career ! The perusal of it has only served to awaken aU 
my hitter, and, I had almost said, and I fear I might say, with too 
much tmth, i$^del regret^. But, oh ! if all were as clear U> us, as it 
Is to the Supreme Disposer himseU^ where would be the trial of faith? 
where the room for the exercise of trust? * Be still, and know that 
I am God.' ^ f Elements of Cri^cism, f«ii. 36t. < 

I Hume's Essays and Treatises part i. ep^ ?9* . . 

VOL. Vlli. — NO. 2. L 

132 The Standard of Taste ; 

ciples of criticism ? Is it strictly true» that '' none of the 
rules of composition are fixed by reasonings aprioriV* Is 
" Taste a sort of compound power, in which the light of the 
understanding always mingles more or less with the feelings 
of sentiment? t Or, ought a line of distinction to be drawn 
between "Taste and the natural sensibility to beauty?'^:): so 
that the presence of the latter " does not necessarily imply" 
the existence of the former? Such are a few of the ques- 
tions, to which our attention is demanded. 

To avoid the perplexity which metaphysicians have intro- 
duced into this subject, I shall take the liberty of stating 
what I conceive to be the real object of our present inquiry. 
Thus throwing out the extraneous matter which disputants 
have so copiously introduced, — our labour will be consider- 
ably diminished. How can we, in any instance, ascertain 
the correctness of taste ? Here the subject naturally divides 
Itself into two branches; to each of which it will be neces- 
sary to devote a share of attention. Our first inquiry, then, 
^bail be. In what sense can Taste be denominated correct ? 
Our second. By what common standard is its correctness, in 
any particular instance, to be estimated? 

First.-— /n what sense can Taste be denominated correct. 

, Dependent as Mind is, for her first ideas, on those mate- 
rial organs which are, from their nature, solely couvertant 
with t^e phenomena of the material world, all our nations 
on the subjects of mental science have necessarily a very 
4itrong atfiaity to those tmins of thought by which the atten- 
tion 18 ?Jiore usually occupied. Few things, however, have 
E roved more injurious to the interests of knowledge, thian 
as analogical reasoning from the movements of matter, to 
the operations of the thinking principle. Any attempt to 
eiuciaate the latter by a reference to the former, is apt, un- 
less managed with extreme caution, to degenerate into, a 
mere series of affected and iinmeaning conceits. Never, I 
ithink, has the truth of this position been more fully db- 
played than by the writers who have discussed the question 
we are about to consider. These reasoners, not content 
with establishing a metaphysical doctrine on nothing better 
than the ambiguous meaning attached to a single werd — 
determined to push to its utmost extreme the fancied ana- 
logy betwefen the external senses and the internal. Finding 
themselves pressed by unconquerable difficulties, they have 

• Hume, ibitfem. f BlaiVs Rhetoric, lecture h*. 
X Suwart'f Phil.Eftsayg, Essay iii. on Taste, chap; 3. 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 135 

inecourse to reasonings as inconclusive as they are unneces- 
sary ; and« at last, are satisfied with evasion instead of reply. 
The analogy between the sensations of the palate^ and the 
ensotions <rf beauty — ^incomplete as it is — might, had it been 
steadily prosecuted, have conducted them to a correct result. 
But when met by objections, they attempt to account, on 
principles already admitted, for facts apparently irreconcile- 
able ; and never seem to have examined the foundation of 
their system, or to have suspected any defect in the premises, 
of which their whole argument presupposed the correctness. 
I ought, perhaps, to apologize for speaking so strongly with 
reference to men of such undoubted superiority, as were 
-some of those to whose sentiments I have alluded. If, 
therefore, I am occasionally compelled to express my decided 
convictions on so delicate a subject, let it be understood 
that my reflections are intended to dpply^ not to individuals^ 
but to opinions. 

No maxim seems to have been at once more offensive, 
and more perplexing, than the proverb, that '' there is no 
disputing about tastes." The analogy, which some writers 
have been at such pains to verify, seems here completely to 
fail. It may, however, throw no little light on the sub- 
ject, if, without entirely deserting an illustration which 


sensation can be, in strict philosophical accuracy, denomi- 
'tiated correct, or incorrect. ** If any one," (I quote from 
Dr. Blair) '' should assert that sugar was bitter, and tobacco 
was sweet, no reasoning could avail to prove it."* Nor, I 
would add, to disprove it; if the assertion mean no more 
than that the substances referred to, produce, in the parti- 
cular instance of the individual who makes that assertion, 
the effects here ascribed to them. If he be, however, para- 
doxical enough to assure us that tho taste of others resembles 
his own ; in what way do we answer him ? Not by appeal- 
ing to some common standard, of which he is so constituted 
as immediately to recognize the authority ; but by referring 
him to facts. The question, we should say, is one that 
must be decided by experience ; and, to reason about it, is 
foolish and unnecessary, beeanse the testimony of all man- 
kind is against you. 
' With tne emotions of Taste, the cause is exactly similar. 
Were any man to tell me that a Chinese temple, with its 

* Blair's Leeturss on Rbet; &e. lee. ii. 

134 The Standard of Taste: 

frippery ornaments^ appears to him more beautiful thao tlie 
simple and majestic elegance of the Parthenon; I would 
not attempt to disprove the asserted fact. The fact is, wi^ 
him, a matter of consciousness ; and, feeling as he doe8«-r- 
he can no more doubt that the Chinese temple is, as far as 
his sentiments are concerned, the more beautiful building of 
the two ; than, in the case above mentioned, he could quei^ 
tion the sweetness of tobacco, or the bitterness of sugar .-^ 
If he were^ however, to ^o any farther, and to assert, that 
the object of his admiration excited the same emotions in 
the breasts of others, I should again say, that this is a 
question of individual consciousness; and that his state- 
ment is opposed to the almost universal exp^ence of 

How then does it happen, it will be asked, that, in cases 
so strictly analogous, such different modes of treatment are 
adopted ? No argument will alter the taste of my friend, in 
the one case ; and, however convinced he may oe, that the 
peculiarity of his sensations arises from some malforroati<m 
of the organ, those sensations remain unaltered. In the 
other case, however, argument or thought may, and probably 
will, be effectual in removing the first impression, and in 
producii^ a relish for purer and simpler beauties : so far 
from despairing of my object, I exert myself with the hope 
of effecting it. I endeavour to shew him, that his present 
sentiments are inconsistent with his feelings under ana- 
logous circumstances ; and deduce the conclusion^ that his 
mistake arises from some unmarked association that has 
influenced his decision. I point out the proofs Qf wisdavi 
which he may previously have overlooked* I shew him 4be 
intended expression, to which his habits of thought may 
have rendered him hitherto insensible* I trace, m every 
portion of the edifice, the marks of supenor intelligence; 
and display, in the united whole, harmony of parts^ and 
uniformity of design* If I am able to convince ais untd^r^ 
standing, a new emotion succeeds to that which he before 
cherished; his bosom swells with sentiments of adakirationk; 
and his feelings undergo a change corresponding to that 
which has taken place in his intelkctual habits* 

The reason of this is sufficiently obvious : imf»!essioDS on 
the external organ are. uniformly succeeded by sentmlioli. 
Emotion, on the contrary, is never excited withcmt a pre- 
vious intellectual operatic^. The same imi^ession on the 
mat^ri^l organ, umformly produices the saaaei sensaiioii; 
and the same judgment, or conception of the mind, is as 

An Iksay, hy W. F. Dahmt. iB^ 

VBifermly followed by the same emotion* While, howoTer; 
the same material sobstance, in contact with the organ, 
generally produces the same effect on thai organ ; and while 
the same material effect is always followed by the same 
sensation; sensations themselres are not connected by so 
close a tie with the conceptions to whi<^ they give rise ; 
nor, of consequence, with the emotions by whicn tnese con- 
ceptions are sncceeded. By producing a change, therefore, 
kk the judgments which we form with regard to the objeota ' 
of any of our senses, we produce a correspondent change in: 
the emotions to which the perception or the recollection of 
diese objects gires rise. An alteration in the intellectual 
process affects the subsequent emotion as entirdy as the 
substitution of one body for another would affect the move-* 
aaents of the nervous system, and the sensation conse-^^ 
qnent. I should scarcely have deemed it worth my while 
to expend so much time on the establishment of a proposi« 
tion apparently so obvious, did it not appear that inatten- 
tion has often betrayed the best writers into a strange con- 
fasion of ideas, or, at least, into remarkable ambiguity of 

Lord Eaimes, ia his Elements of Criticism, commence* 
ffici essay, on the standard of Taste, with the following^ 
remarks : ** That theoe is no disputing about tas(tea-r*-meaib* 
iitg taste in its figurative as well as proper senoie-^is a si^-i 
in^ so generally reoeifved, as to haye beccHne a provetb. Ond 
thing, even at first view, is evident, that if the proverb hold 
true witJi respect to Taste in its proper meaning, it mqfwt 
hold true with respect to our other external senses : if the 
pleasures of the palate disdain a comparative trial, and 
reject all cidticism, the pleasures of toiuek, of smeU^ of 
sound, and .even of sight, must be equally privileged. At 
that rate, a man is not within the reach of censure, eiren) 
where be prefers the Saracen's heiad upon a sign-poet^' 
before the best taUature of Raphael; or a rude Gothic 
tower, before the finest Grecian building ; or where he pre-) 
fets the smell of a rotten .caix>ase .before that of the mpst 
odoriferous flower; or discords before the most eixquisite 
harmony."* Now, without at present iioticing <the general 
tendency of the reasonii^ heiie introduced — what a confu-* 
taxm is here of things tluit most essentiaUy differ-r-of the 
mere organic .pleasme, and the emotions of beauty and sub<>> 
limity ! The author evidently, gives us to understand,, that 
we approve of an exquisite painting-^are charmed with a 

^ Elements of Giit. ebap. 36. 

136 . The Standard of Tasie : 

saUime and expressive piece of musical composition — pre- 
fer the architecture of a polished and intellectual people, 
before th^t of military barbarians, in the infancy of civilisa- 
tion — enjoy the delightful sensations com>mumcated by .a 
fragrant nosegay, and shrink with disgust from die stench 
of a rotten carcase-^all on one and the same principle. For 
this inadvertence, I find it difficult to account, sinee^ how 
close soever might be the .supposed analogy between the 
senses and the refiex senses — between the '' conviction*' aiWIt 
admiration of what Lord Kaimes denominates '^ the common 
nature," and that adaptation by means of which physical 
gratifications are, through the external, organ, derived firom 
its appropriate objects ;r— no mau, surely, would confound 
the sensation with the emotion; the physical with the in- 
tdlectual pleasure. The distinction between internal and 
external senses (how obscure soever that distinctiod may be) 
is, at least, a proof that a difference between them is ac- 
knowledged to exist. Every argument adduced recognizes 
the distinction by impliedly allowing that, the subject is 
capable of elucidation. And it surely need not be repeated^ 
that sensation is not susceptible of analysis, or of any proof, 
illustration, or stand abd, beyond the feelings and testi- 
mony of the individual. It is^ therefore, certainly desirable 
to attend to the distinction which I have just attempted to 
lay down; because, although every author may not have 
been led into errors so remarkable as those to which I have 
just adverted, — scarcely any have, till of very late years, 
expressed themselves at all unobjectionably. When Mr. 
Hume, who was himself adverse to the notion of any new 
or peculiar sense— after, having come to the important, 
although imperfect, conclusion that " reason, if not an essen- 
tial part of Taste, is at least requisite to the operations of the 
latter iaculty"*-^soes on to speak of the organs of internal 
sensation, and of their labouring under some defect, or being 
^'vitiated by some disorder ;''. can we help regretting that he 
is encumbered with this technical phraseology. Does not 
even his penetration appear to have have suffered from the 
^influence of this forced analogy? 

In a word, nothing can be truer than an assertion of Dr. 
Blair's, of which, indeed, his own subsequent reasonings 
afford a practical illustration— >that ''there are few subjects 
on which men. talk more loosely and indistinctly than on 
Taste.^t This indistinctness is^ as I have before hinted, 

*' Ham^'s Essays and Treatises, p. 2. Essay xxiii. 
t Blair's Lectures on Rhet. lect. ii. 




An Essay, iy W. F. Dunmt. 137 

attributable to the strange confasion of emolion with tetME* 

tioD. That this obscuhty was the consequenoe less of in* 

advertence than of a mistake which lay at the root of the 

syatem^ may, I think, be gathered from the style of reason*. 

iQg by which these writers support the opinions of which 

they are the advocates. Dr. Blair has been pleased to give 

us, in the following passage, some insight into the meaning. 

which he attaches to the term thus frequently employed: 

" Taste," says he, ** may be defined, the power of receiving 

pleasure from the beauties of nature and of art. The first 

question that occurs concerning it, is, whether it is to be 

constidered as an internal sense, or as an exertion of reason ? 

KeasQn.is a very general term, but if we understand by it 

that power of the mind, which, in speculative matters, ais- 

covers truth, and, in practical matters, judges of the fitness 

of means to an end, I apprehend the question may be easily 

answered. For nothing is more clear than that Taste is not 

resolvable into any such operation of reason. It is not 

merely through a discovery of the understanding, or a de* 

duption of argument, that the mind receives pleasure from a 

beautiful prospect, or a fine poem. Such objects often 

strike us intuitively, and make a strong impression, when 

we are unable to assign the reasons of our being pleased. 

They sometimes strike, in the same manner, the philosopher 

and the peasant, the boy and the man. Hence, the faculty by 

which we relish such beauties, seems more nearly allied to a 

feeling of sense, thauto a process of the understanding."* / 

Now* this argument either proves an undisputed fact, or it 

proves > nothing whatever: If Dr. Blair merely mean, that 

the emotions of beauty and sublimity are essentially different 

from the intellectual process by which they: are preceded, he 

is a^uing for the admission oi a truth, so self^evidei^t as to 

be, I should conceive, wholly undeniable. If, on the odier 

hand, he intend to ass^^t that emotion, like sensation, imme*- 

diaitely follows ; the external impression, without the inter* 

veatiou of any intellectual operation — his argument is not 

merely, inconclusive, but wholly irrelevant. Nay, if his 

meaning be that the sensation itself,, without any subse* 

quent judgment of the mind, is followed by the emotion of 

pe4uty-r-hiB argument is equally irrelevant. The sophistry 

lies in. the sdectipnof terms calculated entirely to mislead 

the inquirer. If by "a. discovery of the understanding," 

and ''a deduction of argument," be meant those formal pro« 

cesses of thought; which.it is sometimes necessary to con^ 

* Qlair, lioe. ii.. 

IS& The Standard of Ta$U : 

dact« and those important conclusions to Which such* pro- 
cesses may occasionally lead,— I am ready to admit, that the 
emotions of Taste are rarely, if ever, consequences of these 
intellectual operations. If, on the other hand> we are, under 
the terms employed, to include those momentary judgments^ 
every trace of which vanishes with the consciousfieBS that 
accompanied their formation; — those habitual reasonings^ 
which take place with a rapidity the metaphysician alone 
can correctly estimate; and those trains of assodiat^d 
thought, which naturally present themselves in unbroken 
su^ccession— I must beg leave to dissent from the opinion. 
True it is, that the objects of taste sometimes strike, in the 
same manner, the philosopher and the peasant, the boy and 
the man ;"♦ but do no other objects *' strike, in the same 
manner, the philosopher and the peasant, the boy and ^e 
man?" Is there no combination of circumstances whicAi 
Universally produces alarm ? Would not a certain concur- 
rence of events inspire every human breast with the animat^^ 
ing emotions of hope, of gratitude^ or of joy ? And should 
we, therefore, be entitled to appropriate different internal 
senses to the emotions accompanymg these different pas^ 
sions, and to speak of the sepse of fear-^the sense of joy — the 
grateful sense? Yet, as far as this reasoning goes, the con- 
clusion would be as legitimate in the one case as in the 
other; and the analogy, on which the latter phntseology 
would rest, quite as little exposed to objection, as is that 
which has given occasion to the former. 

It is, I confess, not very easy to attach to the statement 
before us any definite meaning. This obscurity of expres* 
sion probably arises from indistinctness of thought. The 
author appears ta entertain one, of two notions. He con« 
ceives, either that the impression on the organ is followed 
by the sentiments of taste, simultaneously wil£ the sensaition 
which that impression produces : or, (and this is, I presume, 
his real meaning) — that the sensation is invariably and im*^ 
ICED! ATELY folTowcd by soms correspondent emotion. That 
certain sensations give rise to certain emotions, I am ex^ 
ceedingly willing to allow. I would, however, contend thai 
it so happens, not because there is in the sensation itself 
any thing necessarily productive of this consequence ; but 
because, constituted and circnmstiElnced as we are, oertain 
sensations suggest certain ideas, and excite, according to 
the fixed laws of mind, associated trains of thought. These 
intellectual operations are, as has been before stated, th^ 

* l^ee ahoie, pugs 137. 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 139 

ittMbeidi^te anteceileiitA of emotioii; and when these are 
exdiV^A, they naturally draw in their train thoee rapturous 
feeli»^8 which are produced by the perceptions of beauty or 
of sumimity* While on this part of the subject, it may not 
be iixifproper to remark, that the feelings of Taste are, accord* 
kig to fny ideas, restricted to emotion ; that is, to those 
feeliligs or sentiments which succeed an intellectual opera- 
tion. Taste is, of course, like every other word, an arbi- 
trary sign of thought; and its meaning must, therefore, be 
fixed by orditvary usage. But while ordinary usage appears 
to sanction the restriction which has been proposed, diffi*^ 
ctilties innumerable seem to attend its removal. All Out 
itierely organic pleasures may claim a place among the 
giatincations of taste ; and thus present a field of inquiry, 
including the varied phenomena of sensation, and nearly 
coextensive with the circle of human enjoymenits* I ieim 
awftre, that I have high authority against me. Speaking of 
the beauty of colour and form, Mr. Stewart obseryes, " WitJh 
the greater part of Mr. Alison's remarks on these qualities, 
I perfectly agree ; although in the case of the first, 1 am dis- 
pofited to ascribe more to the mere organic impression, inde- 
pendently of any association ot expressit^n whatever, than 
Be de«jms willing to allow :"* and again, "The circum- 
stances which please, in objects of Taste, are of twO Very 
differenft kinds* First, thoise which derive their effect from 
tiie organical adaptation of the human frame to the ex-^ 
temal universe.^t To differ firom Mr. Stewart, is, under 
any circumstances, perilous ; nor should I, perhaps, have 
ventured to make a single remark on the passages I have 
cited, had I not the consolation df knowing that if I err, 
it is after the example of Mr. Alison. Mr. Stewart has 
stated, not merely with his ustial temperance, but even with 
considerable reserve, the point on which he differs firom 
Mr, Alison. 

From the terms empldyed in one of the passages cited 
above, it would appear that Mr. Alison is himself disposed 
to attribute something to "the mere organic impression.*' 
That much of our pleasure is ascribed by him to tnis cause, 
I am quite ready to admit : the real question, however, is 
simply, whether he would choose to give the denomination 
of beauty to any of those qualities, from Which this imme- 
diate pleasure is derived. It is not ^ways easy to sele<5t 
from a considerable work, any <nie passage sufficiently deci- 

^ Stewart's Fhil. Biisays^ part ii. eSi^ay i. p. 1. cliap. ii. 
t Ibid. Essay ill. chap, ill. 

140 The Standard of Tasie : 

aive to s^rve for the foundation of au argument like the 
present. Under this difficulty, however, it does appear 
to me, that we do not at present labour ; and I will mere-* 
fore take the liberty of citing Mr. Alison's pwn words^ 
both because the auotation appears to me peculiarly appo- 
site to the immeaiate subject of inquiry, and because it, 
contains a luminous exposition of sentiments the most phi- 
losophical, and the most important to our subsequent rea- 
sonings. '' >yith the emotions of Taste, in. almost every 
instance," says this elegant and philosophical writer, "many 
other emotions of pleasure are united : the various simple plea- 
sures that arise from other qualities of the object; thepka" 
sure of agreeable conversation, in the case of material objects ; 
and in all that pleasure which, by the constitution of our 
naturie, is annexed to the exercise of our faculties. Unless, 
therefore, we have previously acquired a distinct and accu- 
rate conception of that peculiar effect which is produced 
in our minds when the emotions of Taste are felt, and can 
precisely distinguish it from the effects that ar« produced 
Dy these accidental qualities, we must necessarily include in 
the causes of such emotions, those qualities also which are 
the causes of the accidental pleasure with which this emo- 
tion is accompanied.""^ If tne passage^ just quoted should 
leave any doubt with regard to the writer's real opinions on 
the subject more immediately under consideration, that 
doubt will be removed by what I am about to adduce. The. 
emotion of beauty .'' involves, in all cases, 1st, The pro- 
duction of some simple emotion, or the exercise of some 
moral affection ; and, 2dly, The consequent excitement of 
a peculiar exercise of the imagination :"t and a liittie farther 
on, '^ I shall, endeavour to shew that all the phenomena are 
reducible to the same general principle, and that the qua^ 
lities of matter are not beautiful or sublime in themselves* 
but as they are by various means the signs or expressions 
of qualities capable of producing emotion." j: 

The question at issue, therefore, between these two 
writers, is not — in what proportion does the mere organic 
impression contribute to that complex feeling, whic£ we 
denominate die emotion of beauty ? But — Does the mere 
organic impression contribute any thing at all to this effect ? 
— llaving thus shielded myself under so considerable an 
example, I may venture humbly to state my reckons for dis-, 
senting'from the opinion of Mr. Stewart. 

* Alison's Essays on the Nature aod Principles of Taste ; intro- 
duction, t l^id. i Ibid. 

An Essai/, by W. F. Durtnt. 141 

The only notion I can attach to the (phrase, ''mere orga* 
uio hnfHiessioii," is, that it is intended to express the mental 
change which takes place, when an organ of sense has been, 
affected by someinaierial object. This change, whether ac- 
companied by pleasure or by pain, cannot, it appears to me, 
be in any respect different from sensation. I do not suppose 
that Mr. Stewart himself would give any other definition 
of it; or that the oi%aiiic gratification, which he reckons 
among the constituents of beauty, is intended, in his use of 
it, to signify any thing more t£ian an s^reeable 8ensali<m« 
My chief objection to the required conpession, is founded 
on the. difficulty of assigning any limit to the admissions 
which seem to be its natural consequences. If any class 
of sensations is to be considered one of the constituent: 
elements of beauty, no good reason can be giyen^ why. every 
other class of sensations may not be allowed to occupy a 
similar rank : and if sensations be indiscriminately admitted^ 
the pleasures of Taste must soon come to comprehend all 
the varieties of human enjoyment. The leading idea which, 
this snppb^ion is intended to confirm and illustrate, stands 
in .mo need of such corroborative evidence. This theory is, 
if I. fully comprehend the writer's intention, of the following 
kind: — , . 

"The epithet, beautiful," says Mr. Stewart, "literally 
denotes what, is .pleasing to the eye.^"* This last phrase is, 
I confess^ somewhat ambiguous, sittce it may refer to those 
pleasuresi which, although dependent on thought and emo* 
tion, are ultimately traceable td a sensation communicated 
throu^' the organ of sight, and sugg^ting a long train of 
associated thought. It may, however, mean — ^and this idea 
it is, I believe, intended here to convey — a pleasure strictly 
organic — ^in other words, an agreeable sensation imme- 
diately arising from. Boaie material effect on the visual 
organs. After this word, then, had been appropriated to 
a particular class of what are ordinarily termed physical 
gFatifications, its meaning was extended, in consequence of 
discovered resemblances, or analogies, between certain cha- 
racteristics of these peculiar sensations, or of their causes, 
and certain qualities found to exist in other objects of our 
attention. The name, once having been trcmsferred to 
objects . possessed of thefte . qualities~--other objects were 
discovered, having some one property in common, not with 
that class to which the appellation was originallv restricted, 
but with that second dass to which it nad oeen subse-r 
* Stewart's Phil. Ess. p. 2. . Essay i. p. 1. e. ii. 

142 The Standard of Taste : 

qnently applied : and hence arose another tramithn, and' a 
nirther extension of nieanin^. Havitig thus traced the term 
in question to this simple origin, Mr. Stewart seens to biTe 
retained an affection for the ''mere organic impressions;*' 
which induces him to give them a place among the eiements 
of beauty. 

Before I conclude, it will be my duty to offer sOme 
strictures on his theory of "trainsrtions;" or, rather^ 
on some inferences whicn are drawn from it, and which 
are most intimately connected with out present iBqoiry. 
Just now, faoweyer, my only object will be, to shew that 
tiie conclusion, to which 1 have already objected, does 
not naturally flow from the facts which have just been 
noticed. Allow me to illustrate my mearang by a quo- 
tation, on which I intend to found a few observations. 
" I shall begin by supposing," says Mr. Stewart, ''that A, 
B, c, B, E, denote a series of objects— ^that a possesses sone 
one quality in common with b ; b, a quality in common with 
c ; c, a quality in common with d ; d, a quality in common 
with B ; while at the same thne, no quality can be fonnd 
which belongs in common to any three c^jects in the series. 
Is it not conceivable that the affinity between a and b may 
produce a transference of the name of the first to the se- 
cond ; and that, in consequence of the other affinities which 
may connect the remaihii^ objects together, the same nam^ 
may pass in succession from b to c, from c to n, from d to e 1 
In this manner a common appellation will Arise between a 
and E, although the two objebts may, in their nature and 
properties, be so widely distant fVom each other, that no 
stretch of imagination can conc^rive how the thou^ts wme 
led from the former to the latter/** Now, then, let a istahd 
for the primary meaning of the word under oonsideratioii^ 
and B, or any of the intermediate letters, for that other idea 
to which the term beauty is transitively apphed. Is it not 
possible that the im^rtance of this lost idea may be so 
great, and the necessity of discrimffnating ^heen a and b be 
so apparent, as esEclusively to appropnate to the latter, tfaaA 
term by which the former was or^inally desigteted ? 

This subject we shajl soon have an opportunity of nmre 
fully considering : but does not even this snperncial view 
teach us, that allowing all Mr. Stewavt has demanded^ no 
prodf, nor indeed a»y presumptifon, exists in favour of this 
extern of application ? It is admrlted that Oe last appedl 
lies to ordifnary usage ; and, if that be against us, that ai^-* 
* Phtl. Bm. p. 2. Bssay i. p. I. ckap, i. 

An Emv, h ^vF- Doirant. 143 

meat, on the one ^ide^ is BYiperflttous and hypothetical ; or 
a priori reaaoaings, oa the other side, entirely futile. J 
feel convinced, however, that this usage is decidedly in our 
favour ; and unwilling as I am to speak dogmatically, espe^ 
cially on any point connected with philological inquiry, I 
shoidd not shrink from challenging our opponents to adduce 
a single instance in which the epithet ** oeautiful" is given 
to any ''organic impression," except where that impressiop 
is compounded with other element^. 

In this latter case, is it unnatural to conclude that the 
epithet is intended to designate, not the organic impression 
to which, in a simple state, it is never applied; but the 
union of those other elements, which enter into the compo- 
sitiop pf the complex feeling. 

That ordinary usage is as has been stated, observation 
teaches us. The phrase, a beautiful sensation, would be 
considered a solecism — yet what but sensation is the ''mere 
oiganic impression?" Those organic impressions which 
rarely:, if ever, awaken a subsequent train of thought and 
emotion, are never denominated oeautiful ; while this deaig- 
Dation is reserved for those sensations by which such trains 
are excited. The mere physipal pjes^sure attendant on 
the sensations of taste, or even of smell, is, I apprehend, 
much more considerable than any immediate sensual grati- 
Acation, which is derived from harmonious sounds^ or froqpi 
splendid colours: yet the term "beauty" is never correctly 
applied to the objects of the two former senses. These 
remarks on Mr. Stewart's <^inions, I have hazarded with 
considerable diffidence. These opinions have incidentally 
come under onr notice, in cons^uence of their bearings 
toward a distinction which lies at the root of our system.* 
The principles they are intended to uphold, and the conclu^ 
sions to the support of which they are rendered subservieckt, 
will, ere long, come again under copsideration. 

On the whole« then — the distinction which I have been 
labouring to establish^ is simply of the following kind. 
Writers om Taete seem generally to have considerea sensi* 
hility to beauty and sublimity, as a simple uncompounded 
act pf the WM. I hftve, on t^e contrary, endeavoured to 
aheiw« that wb^ver b^Mty ia».y be» some intellisctual.pro^ 
^S8 Atlfit n^ces^^ily tajke place, before the emotions of 
!(^te aie eo^perienced. To reiider this distinction the more 
iji^M^QUH, I have endieavoured. to dr^w a line between these 
^VQ^tion^, iM>d those pieasHr^ of Stefibsation by which they 
pay k^ apcid«B^y ^^QPpmpsw^ Itf {n^ceded ; and^ to 

144 The Standard of Taste : 

accomplish my object, have endeavoured to trace the ordi- 
nary indistinctness of ideas on this sabject, to what appears 
to have been at once a consequence and a source of con- 
fttsion-^I refer to the introduction of an internal, or reflex 

My great object in making this distinction, has been to 
justify the application of the epithet *'correci,** as used in 
connexion with the emotions ot Taste. This I have attempt- 
ed to effect, by considering emotions in general, and the 
emotions of Taste in particular, as consequences of <^ertain 
intellectual states to which they owe their existence ; and 
on which they depend for their distinctive characteristics. 
The epithet in question, then, is, in striotness, applicable, 
not to the emotions of beauty or of sublimity, but to those 
intellectual states, which are the immediate antecedents of 
these emotions. 

As these trains of thought are, however, so rapid, as in 
almost every case to elude ordinary observation, and some- 
times to defy metaphysical analysis; that tenn, which is, in 
philosophic strictness, applied to the process, is ultimately 
transferred to the result, or rather to that compound sentt- 
ment of taste, in which both process and result — both 
thought and emotion-— are included. The objections which 
may, perhaps, at first suggest themselves, will, I think, 
VMiish as we proceed in the inquiry, and apply to the 9nb- 
jeot which w« are to investigate the principles here laid 
down, as preliminary to further discussion. The great diffi- 
culty, however, still remains untouched — ^What is the nature 
of this intellectual process ? Wherein consists its correct- 
ness? With what objects is it conversant? I am aware 
that an answer to these inquiries seems to involve a discus- 
sion of that question which we have reserved for subsequent 
consideration. There are, however, some points more imme- 
diately connected with this part of our subject, which require 
immediate attention, and wnich must be disposed bf, before 
it will be possible to make any further progress. Suppos- 
ing our previous re^oning to have been admitted, the most 
obvious reply to this list of queries will immediately pre- 
sent itself to every mind. Beauty and sublimity, it will be 
said, are the objects of this intellectual operation ; and its 
correctness consists in forming an accurate estimate of the 
degree in which these qualities are found in different ob- 
jects. No thinking man, however, will suffer himself to 
be detained for one moment on the threshold, by an tinswer 
so vague and unsatisfactory. — What is beauty i What is 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 145 

soblimity? are questions naturally suggested by the very 
terms oi the reply ; and till these are set at rest» no pro- 
gress whatever has been effected. 

To enter fully into this subject, would not consist with 
the more limited plan of the present Essay; and I shall 
therefore restrict myself to such remarks as are absolutely 
necessary for the purposes of our argument. Philosophers 
seem at one time to nave imagined, that there is some one 
quality in the various objects of Taste ; and that of this 
quality, wherever it may be presented, certain emotions are 
the inseparable consequences. This theory was almost 
necessary to the uniformity of a system, which had ^ pro- 
vided reflex senses for almost every modification of feeling 
that was not directly traceablie to a material cause. A 
variety of mistakes w^re the result of this radical error ; 
and while this one quality was eagerly sought for, each 
theorist possessed his own secret, by means of which the 
great discovery was to be effected. 

Led astray by the same incorrect hypothesis, some phi- 
losophers resolve the emotion, or, as it should in that case 
be denominated, the sensation of beauty, into relaxation of 
the fibres ; and that of sublimity, into muscular tension or 
contraction. All such opinions iseem to me to have arisen 
from a defective analysis. Writers had created certain 
internal principles, for which it was necessary to find a 
specific field of action ; and phenomena were, therefore, 
tortured till they gave evidence in favour of the system 
which they were adduced to support. As particular exter- 
nal organs are appropriated to the perception of particular 
qualities of matter, so beauty and sublimity were conceived 
to be peculiar qualities, the appropriate objects of a certain 
internal sense — just as the quality of hardness is perceived 
by meims of touch, and that of colour by means of sight 

Mr. Burke, who has gone well nigh to complete what his 
predecessors had commenced — who substitutes for the 
internal, the external organ ^who concludes, " that beauty 
is, for the most part, some merely sensible quality, acting 
mechanically upon the human mind by the intervention of 
the senses ;''* yet, as if willing, as far as was consistent 
ynih his system, to adhere to the opinion of his predeces- 
sors, assures us, " that there is a chain in all our sensations ;" 
,tha.t " they are but different kinds of feeling, calculated to 
be affected by various sorts of objects, but all to be affected 

* Burke's Phil. Enquiry, &o, partiii. sect. 12. 

146 The Standard of Taste : 

after the same manner."* On this principle it is» that this 
distinguished writer so unwarrantably extends the applica* 
tion 01 the term beautifuL Findings or fancying, an ana- 
logy between the qualities by whicn impressions are made 
on the different external organs, he seems to conclude^ 
that where some one property of matter, acting on som^ 
one of our senses, is ordinarily followed by the emotions of 
beauty— this property will have the same effect, whenever 
it is so presented as to affect any of our other senses. 
Thus, in pursuit of this remarkable analogy of the senses^ 
he denominates sweetness, *' the beautiful of the Taste/'-f 
Nor is such a conclusion by any means unnatural, if the pre- 
mises be once admitted ; and if the opinion, to which we 
have so often alluded, be adhered to. For if beauty be a 
merely sensible quality, and if it be at the same time ^ 
distinct quality or the object abstractedly considered, there 
seems no good reason why each of the senses should not 
be capable of transmitting the sensation which this quality 
is fitted to produce ; unless, indeed, there be, as in the 
case of odours, colours, and of all our ordinary sensations^ 
some one or^an, of which, and of which alone, tliis quality is 
the appropriate object. Now, as it is impossible to point 
out any such organ, the conclusion to wnich Mr. Burke'^ 
reasonings seem to tend, appears to me the natural, not t9 
say the inevitable, consequence of the theory he has 
^yanced, when it is taken in coimexion with the preju- 
dice by which he appears to have been influenced. 

There is, hQwever, another, and, as far as I am able tp 
form a judgment, an equally erroneous extreme. It has 

{*ust been remarked, that the older metaphysicians seem to 
lave cojisidered beauty as a peculiar quality productive of 
certain effects on reflex senses, which were, by a strange 
sort of intellectual mechanism, adapted to the perception of 
their object. Another class of philosophers, not content 
with the analogy, in tracing which their predecessors had 
been so sedulousl]r employed — and living at a period, whea 
it had become fashionabl^e to look to physical discoveries, not 
as illustrative, but sts explanatory of mental phenomena — 
^eem to have altogether excluded emotion, in the sense 
which J h^ve,attacaed to it, from among the constituents 
of beauty, and to have considered the objects of Taste as 
little, if any thing, more th^n one class of sensual pleasures. 
Whether it arise from attachment to a peculiar theory, tp 
which we shall not at present advert, or from a dread pf 

« Burke, S|it>. a^ Beftut p, iii. sect 94. t Ibid. p. iv. sect S2. 

An Address, by W. F. Duraht. 147 

of that extreme toward which the speculations of- former 
writers had tended, I am unable to determine. It does, 
howerer, I confess, appear to me, that Mr« Stewart is at 
least equally remote trom truth on the other side of the 
question. It may be a mistaken view of his theory, which 
induces me to regard it with aversion ; but to me it ap- 
pears, that if carried out into all its consequences, it would 
destroy not only the precision, but the utility, of langimge. 
It will be unnecessary to trouble the reader, with many 
additional quotations, since I have already stated, in Mr« 
Stewart's own words, the substance, or at least the founda« 
tion, of his argument. He conceives, that where a com- 
mon name is ^ven to objects or qualities apparently dis- 
tinct from each other, there is not, as most philosophers 
have supposed, some common property to which that name 
is in fact appropriated. On the contrary, he imagines that 
an analogy, that is discovered between the object to which 
the name was originally given, and some other object, 
produces an extension, or transitioh, of the meaning, so M 
to include that second object which has some one point of 
coincidence with the first. In time, however, another idea 
is found to possess something in common with that second 
idea to which the application of the word has now been 
extended. The process of generalization is thus carried 
forward, and notions indiscriminately connected, but with- 
out any common bond of union, are denoted by one word 
which is indiscriminately applied to each of them* Thus 
far I am fully prepared to acquiesce in the decisions of this 
distinguished writer ; but we shall soon be called to notice 
tho&|^ points, in relation to which I am forced to dissent 
from his opinions. Unfortunately, the discussion of these 
questions is intimately connected with a subject the most 
mysterious in the whole of mental science. To go into the 
controversy regarding general terms and abstract ideas^ 
which has so long divided the literary world, and thus to 
enter on a field of inquiry which has employed the atten- 
tion of so many gifted individuals, and from which, after 
all this labour, the unintelligible paradoxes of the school^ 
men have been swept away, only to make room for modem 
paradoxes almost equally unintelligible, would be as muek 
opposed to my inclination, as it is placed beyond the reach 
of my abilities. Confining myself, therefore, to the exami- 
nation of that word which is the immediate obgect of our 
present inquiry, I shall carefully exclude the more genend 
▼iews' wUcn might otherwise attract a share of our attea- 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 2. M 

I4t On ^erimn 'tUgubiiions ik 

tioii; iind> without accommodating my cdncliisioiii 1^6 tiHf 
particular system^ shall seek only to render them iMrcofdaitt- 
with truth. I shall, therefore, proceed to offer a few 
retnark&« which may appear so obvious as to be unworthy 
of notice^ I know that I am suggesting nothing new^-^- 
nothing which is not anticipated in the reasonings, fo sofM 

Earts of which I am bold enough to object. It is n()4«^ 
owever, always unnecessary, nor uninteresting, to deve- 
lop and examine principles, which, although neither im^ 
kiiown nor misapplied, may have failed to attract a dM 
idiarcf of attention and regard. 

€hi certiain Regtdations in Dit. Williams's Librartfi iii 

Red Cross^street. 

Wb have been unfeignedly concerned to fittd, thal^ oirtr 
netioe of the death of Dr. Morgan, the late excellenf 
iibratian of the libra;ry founded by the late Dr. Williamsi and 
long since deposited in Red Cross-street, has been eoii* 
stlrued into at least an implied censure of the conduct -of 
the Rev. Mr. CoATEs, his saccessor; than which nothing 
oould be further from the intention of the author of Ae 
Becrological retrospect, of which that notice formed apart; 
Itie allusions to changes in the Institution, since the Doc* 
tbr^s death, were evidently meant for, and expressljr directed 
tb, the trustees ; and whilst we feel the most anxious wish 
tb remove every impression that could give pain to a ge^ 
ddman, for whom, from his uniform urbanity and attenttoa 
it the only pne of the editors of this work who has had 
the hisippiness of a personal acquaintance with him, we 
eitertain the bighest respect, we da not feel ourselveii 
called upon to modify in auffht, our admonitory protesl 
JKgiainst the changes of which he is not the author, but the 
ti&re official instrument of their execution. We have every 
reason to beliere, that the present librarian of the Instftu^ 
tkm willso conduct himself in the execution of bis office; ii 
to merit at our hands the same praise which we readiljf 
bestowed upon his predecessor, namely, that '' no man 
^uld fulfil the duties of that office with more care, ur^ 
banity, gentlemanly attention, and liberality, towards att 
men, whatever their sentiments, political or religious $'- 
thoughwe. hope it will -be very long l)efore we have td 
finish the sentence with, *' than he did.*' Th^^ he^daM0l 
ftH^iktn& so satisiactbrtiy, to^ thbse geat^meik mho kir% 

I>r. WilH imB% XOnify. 1« 

oeeasi^ti to ^onixit ihe most .TBloable p<^oii of An Ujbrarjr^ 
as did Im predecessor* is no fault of his, but*-4iF faisUt 
there be any--^f the trustees* by whom the regulations of 
the library are exclusively framed* Of those regulations 
ia tlie times of Dv. Morgan, when we ourselves have had 
fi^uent occasion to benefit by their liberality, the follow* 
ing is a copy : 

jKK/tff vj ihe Library* — I. The library shall be open from 
ten o*c]ock in the forenoon till three in the afternoon, on 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, in every week 
throughout the year, except Christmas and Whitsaalidei 
weeks, and the month of August; and the librarian (unless 
prevented by sickness) shall constantly attend the library 
^such times. Nevertheless, a trustee shall have access 
to the library whenever he thinks proper. 

II, All persons shall be admitted during the appointed 
h^urs, upon producing to the librarian a written oider from 
mie of the trustees ; but they shall not be permitted to «nter 
the back library, except in the presence of a trustee, or of 
the librarian. 

III. Persons who are admitted by a trustee's order U^ 
eonsult the books, shall be introduced into the fnmt library; 
which shall be uaed as a reading room. They shall deliver 
tothe librarian a paper, on which is written the title of ths^ 
work they wish to inspect, the date, their names, and placet 
of abode. The book shall then be brought to them to the 
front library, there to be consulted or perused. No papet 
shall be Isid on the book when any extracts are madi^* 
The written orders for books which may be thus delivered 
to the librarian^ shall be carefully preserved by him on a 
file, to he afterwards referred to in case any work named 
in them should be discovered to have been mutilated ps 

V ly. No book shall be taken out of the library, except by 
one pr the ^trustees, on his giving a receipt for it to m 
l^mriim i and such book shall be returned at or before the 
next qnarterly^ meeting, except the same be in the actoal 
possession of such -trustee. ' 

: V. The librsrian shall keep a correct account of aU bpokf 
taken oiit of the library, witn the time when taken, and thf 
lisme of die trustee taking the same ; and of applicationa 
for bookS: alr^dy taken out. Such accounts uul be laid 
before die libfary committee previoasliy to- every ^uaiteriy 
iw^ltiPftofrtbttruste^^^^^^ :: . . 

/irvVl.rAU bcNsks * given- or ^purchnsed £si the use of^ tfaf 

liO Off certain Begulaiion$ in 

Vixnry, shall be immediately, on sacb gift or parcbaae; 
inaertod by the librarian in the catalogue, in their proper 
tlaces, and atamped or marked ; and also entered in the 
Dook of benefactionB, in which shall be specified the tiaie 
when, and the name of the person by wfaom» given : and 
such book of benefaclions shall be laid, on the table at 
every meeting of the trustees, and of the book committee. 

VIL The hbrarian shall not receive any money, or other 
gnttnity, from any person, for the use of this library. 

Hie completion of the inquiries which led us to the 
library has prevented our personal observation of the 
the mlode in which these rules have been enforced, since the 
decease of Dr. Morgan* and indeed, from knowing how 
they were acted upon daring the latter period of his life; 
but we have heard from several of our ^ friends and fellow 
labourers there, that to the last day of his appearance in the 
discharge of his official duties, the late librarian ot the 
Institution continued to afford the same facility of access 
to every part of the collection under his care, which was 
most fiiUy, and even kindly, granteid during the period of 
onr acquaintance with it ana him. We have also great 
pleasure in adding, that all our inquiries and information 
(for we have had no personal experience upon the subject,) 
abundantly satisfies us, that the same urbane and liberal 
eoursp has been uniformly pursued by his successor; in as 
far aa the printed books in me library are concerned ; and 
if this has not been the case with the manmcripts, it is, we 
are as fully assured, because a new regulation of the trus- 
teeahas prevented him from rendering the same assistance, 
lor forwarding the reseftrches of those who wish to consult 
them,, as he appears ever most cheerfully to have afforded 
to such readers as confined their inquiries to the other 
department of this collection. 

On that regulation, we deem it a duty which we equally 
owe to the public, and to the trustees of the library, to 
oflSer a few remarks. Few of our readers need perhs^, 
to be informed, that the library in Red Cross*street, con-» 
tains several manuscripts of the older nonconformist divines^ 
at die most interesting period in the histoiy of Protestant 
dissent, and also seventi valuable statistical details of thtf 
condition of the same body in later times ; and these, until 
recently, every person woo had a regular admission to the 
library was permitted to consult, with as little difficulty as 
he could refer to a ^printed book upon the library shelves— ^ 
save that, where he wtas not so well Icnoif n to the librarian* 

Dr. Willtamis's LUrary^ HI 

as to be sftfely left to himself, the second of tha^ules 
which we have here reprinted was carried into strict exe- 
cution,' by the librarian contimiing with the reader in th^ 
back library the whole of the time that the manuscript was 
in use. The election of another librarian upon his death 
might not unnaturally lead the trustees to revise the regu*> 
lations upon which he had acted^ and then it was tnat^ 
the alterations were introduced, against which many per- 
sons are disposed, with us, to remonstrate. The formev 
rales contained, it will be observed, nothing like a distinc- 
tion between the printed books and manuscripts, and, witii 
the slight and prudent exception already stated, none waif 
observed in practice ; but it is widely different now. We^ 
have not been able to procure a copy of the new regulations, 
which are not yet printed ; but we are assured, nom goodf 
authority, that the changes introduced are very trifling; 
except m the requisition of a special order from a trustee^ 
for me inspection of any manuscript^ b]^ those who, on af 
similar order, have a general and unlimited access t6 th^' 
printed books. Now, this restriction we conceive to be^ 
.inconvenient, unnecessary, and unwarranted by the pre- 
cedent of any public library, with whose reguktions we aye 
acq^uainted. The library of manuscripts in the Britrshf 
Museum is, or we should rather say, the libraries are, of i^ 
thousand times the value and importance of that at Red 
Gross-street; yet every individual who has an admis- 
sion to the reading-room of that national and noble insti- 
tution, has precisely the same right to consult, and Ae 
same facility afforded him in consulting, the most valuable 
manuscript, in eillier of its magnificent collections, atf 
he has to refer to the commonest printed book, or pam^ 
phlet, upon ittf shelves. The manuscripts of the library of 
the Inner Temple are also as numerous, at the least, as 
diose placed under the care of Dr. Williams's trusteeii, and 
are to the full ^s valuable to a lawyer, as are the l&tter t& U 
divine or ecclesiastical historian, yet are they as eaiiy of 
accesa as those in the national library ; nor are we aware of 
any stricter rule for regulating the care of those in th^ 
libraries of the other law soeiieties, save perhaps, that the 

fiohibition of publishing toy of the manuscripts of Sir 
latdiew Hale, imposed by their donor, may render 
creater caution necessary witn respect to them, At lanoofe's 

With such examples 4ieforethem>'Wl|at reason, we catl^ 
act ibnt ask;. h«ve tha tni^tets of ihe Red CiOMHStitet 

/ in^rarfi fdr thci ftdditiofial restmints ivliidi • tli«)r kate im* 

posed upcm the^ use of the jnannAoripts by those for whose 

oenefit they are committed to their care. Is it the fear of 

tiieir being injured or abstracted ? Those who would do' 

either, are certainly most unfit persons to be admitted int<$ 

the library at all ; as, if they would pocket a manuscript, 

Ibey are just as likely to secrete a scarce and valuable 

pamphlet, or to abstract a plate from a printed book, and 

tbey'have moreover far better opportunitiles of doing so, as 

diey are often left alone for hours in the room whidi; 

toHtains the major part of the library, on open shelveSr 

''Whilst, unless very well known to him, they cohsiAt the 

ibaiiuscripts but m presence of thcf libi^rian. Ho th^f 

fear lest an improper use should be made of themt Why 

not adopts then, the very prudent and 'proper rules of the 

other public libraries to which we have referred, which;: 

jpirohibiting the transcription of any entire manuscript, of 

even a considerable portion of one, without express pe^^ 

mission of the trustees for the purpose, leaves open lo alt 

readers the right of consulting, and of making ejctfacts 

from, any and every part of tlie collection* This has long 

beieii found a sufficient control over the largest and most 

valuable collection of manuscripts in the kingdom ; and if 

those to. whose care one of the smallest and lesust important 

lis intrusted, go beyond it^ by^determioing whatindividuals, 

deemed by themselves- proper persons for admisftien ittto 

(he library, shall bepermitled to oonselt the mai^u^crietti 

Md "Which of those manuscriptii they may refer tOr ^e)r 

aisunie -to theitrselves a power which we believe to M 

unprecedented^ unnecessary, and ineompattble with Kbe 

droper dischargeof their duties, as mere trustees for th# 

eenefit of the public. Mor shall any false notions. of 

delicacy, or affectation^ of candour, induce us to witiihold 

the expression of our opinion, tlmt these remarks apniy 

with double fcmse, in that the manuscripts to wnich 

th^e, instructions apply, contain theological seiftiments 

diame^cally opposite to those avowed by tte majority of 

the tnisteea who imposed tbem, if indeed diere be amongtt 

them a single exception to the remark. 

; J)u Wilkama, the feodder of this library ;> was a Pre8«> 

byterian; but be was a Trinitarian^ - From ^ the designa^ 

ti^ of the trustees to carry into, execution; and perpetuate 

the "purposes of his will, by a distinction, foutfd^d ratheriOA 

theit mode ^ church discipline^ tfaan'thie natiirer'of^their 

4M»^iii«^<for UiUe^Mul^ be teMr« entiairMedt w t:iUde'«: 

•mamtion en di^oe potQta, as has ^sioce lod^i^ plaM 0|^ tluis 
Mde tiie Tweed,) tne major part, if not the ivhfAe o{ tha^ 
trustees, are n^w Unitarians, or at least, are not yeiy 
UttfaTourably inclined to that form of doctrine $ and,withf 
every possible respect for them as men, they cannot be 
surprised, that Trinitarians view with peculiar jealousy 
Iheir absolute control over manuscripts containing poiatci 
of &ith important to tlieir side of the controversy. 
: Some of their body have already been refused access to 
manuscripts, which they formerly consulted in the.compor 
sittott of works, illustrative of the peculiar yiew^ of th^ 
writers of them; and in days in which such extraprdinai^ 
efforts hare been made, and are making, to proves what they 
consider the heterodoxy of some of the most eminent of 
fbe old divines, it can surely be no matter of complaint j 
that they wish the unpublished records of their senti? 
ments to be readily accessible to every one ; especially as it 
does so hi^ppen, that in the case of the Henry family, some 
interesting documeqt« of this nature, which were in the 
libmrv a very few years ago, are not fortt^coin.inff f|ow» 
Wither they baye strayed unto th^ portfolios of somfai 
autograph colledtor, in this autograpfaical mania age, we 
know noti but this at least is certain, they are not to be 

BfXt we said also« that the restriction was inconvenient^ 
and every one engaged in literary researches will see in n 
minute that it is so« His wish to consult a manuscript 
nay suddenly arise (it has often done so with ourselves, ait 
baat, in th4^ British Museum,) in the course of bis examine* 
lion of printed books ; yet will he be prevented from gratir 
fyipg it by not being furnished with the order of a trustee^ 
for permission to refer to a deoui^ent deposited in the 
Utot room to that in which be is sitting, It is, we believe, 
hf persona from the country, thiit the manuscripts have 
ediefly been referred to, and to them, whose visits, to the 
metropolis are neither ver^ frequent, nor of a lopg cpnt 
tinuance, the reatriction is pecvliarly inconvenient; fojr 
though furmshed with tn gejieral order of admi^sipii. to |he 
library, they cannot now ^nfiiVll (b^ manuscripts which 
may alone be the object; of their visiting, it, until they have 
first been there to examine ^he caUlog^e^.tqascffrtftin if 
what they want be there; and tl>en they must set oi^ tin 
search of a trustee, to obtaiojt apeciat pi^mission to refier to 
iu Happily we lire mot in d%ya> when to the Trinitarian 
attdbUnitariten^ be awliedb t|M. «!iide^ Uae v^^ 

154 Unitariamsm and TrimUaHtmiink compared, 

existing in the ancient diurck, when '' the Jews had no 
dealings with the Samaritans;'* yet is it very probable* 
that a minister of the former sentiments, from a distant part 
of the country, wonld be put to considerable trouble, vexa- 
tion, and loss of time, in obtaining an introduction to a 
trustee of the latter denomination, and then in procuring 
from him the order, without which his general and standing 
admission to the library would be^to him of little use* 

Having thus freely stated our views of this restriction, 
for the consideration of those who imposed it, we have a 
more gratifying part of our duty to perform, in acknow- 
ledging the obligation conferred upon the public by the 
trustees and their present librarian, in the preparation and 
printing of a catalogue of the manuscripts ; tmis approxima- 
ting nearer to that facility of consulting them, so comj)let# 
at tile British Museum, that we earnestly wish to have it aa 
perfectly established in the library at Red Cross-street. 

Vnitarianism and Trinitarianism, compared in their Ten-- 
. dency to Convert Turks, Pagans, Jews, and Infidek, to 

The subject of this Essay, is the comparison of the two 
systems of Unitarianism and Trinitlirianism, in their ten- 
ancy to promote the conversion of professed nnbelievevs^ 
such as Jews, Turks, Pagans, and Inndels. 

At the outset of our remarks, we beg leave to premise^ 
that we should lay no stress upon the superior tendeney 
Of the latter system to proselyte, as a proof of its troth; 
except God had declared that " the knowledge. of the Lofd 
should cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea." 

Indeed, a Christian will be the last man in the world, that 
16 likely to do it; for^if such a principle were once admit- 
ted, it would go immediately to overthrow the end it was 
intended to subserve ; and prove as dangerous to our owa 
system, as to that to which it stands opposed. Cast your 
eyes upon the world, and you will find^ that many systems 
have been infinitely more successful, in proselyting, than 
the Christian. Look into the realms of Paganism, and ^ou 
will find it has converted infinitely more than Christtaiiity^ 
and Mahometanism has done the same. If, then, we were 
for a moment to proceed on the principle that a superior 
tendency to proselyte, is a proof of the truth of aay syBtem* 
we must pluck the pahn oat ef tiie hand of the ChiistifMii 

in}heir Tenden^ to Camm Turk$,Pagmu,^c. 165 

religion^ and put it mto that of the Pagan, or Mahometan ; 
for these sti^nd in the front rank of proselyting systemSt 
andf compared with their converts, those of Christianity are 
as a little handful, compared with a mighty army. 

That this principle is totally inadmissible,, will fi^rther 
appear, from the consideration, that every system must 
have some proofs to render it plausible, or confirm its truth, 
before it can hope to make any proselytes at all. It cannot 
have proselytes to start with ; it must have something else, 
some evidences on which it is built, and to which it appeals ; 
and by these, and Uiese only, it must either stand or fell. 
Again, a Christian, who believes in the necessity of an atone* 
meirt, is the most unlikely man in the world to adopt this 
mode of thinking, because the very fundamental principle 
of his religion, proceeds upon a fact, which precludes the 
possibility of his doing it, and that is, universal depravity. 
if he believes that the heart of man is deceitful above all 
things, and desperately wicked ; that the carnal mind is 
enmity against God — that every imaginaticm of his heart is 
oxAy evil, and that continually — and that there is none that 
doeth good, no, not one, (ana he is no Christian, who does 
not beueve these declarations,) he will be the last man in 
the world to think that religion the true one, which makes^ 
eif is calculated to make^ the most proselytes from amongst 
men of this description; for if they be so bad, they will be 
most likely to fall in wiUi a bad religion, such an one as ac<- 
eommodates itself to the gratification of their propensities; 
libat winks at their crimes, while it creeps into their favour; 
jfchat prcMnises them peace, while it permits theoi to sin; that 
passes iu^ eulogiums upon their dignity^ and says nothing 
dbout their degradatipn. And this, lets us at once into the 
Kason why Christianity ha3 made so few converts ; because 
kiisso unaccommodatmg^—its spirituality stands opposed 
to carnality— rits dogmatism to freethinking — its simplicity 
to refinement—its plainness to pomp-r-its holiness to immo- 
lality — its heavenly mindedness to worldly mindedness — ^and 
its humility to pride. We merely make these preliminary 
dbsenrations to shew, that although pur system has made, 
and in our humble opinion is calculated to make^ infinitely 
more converts th^ that of our opponents, yet that we lay 
no more stress upon this circumstance, than is warranted 
.by scrq>ture« God has said, yea,'he has sworuji that to him 
every knee shall bow, and every tongue confes>s, Thait 
a vatem, then, which has the greatest t^deney to promote 
this end, must of course be tlm spriptwnU^ and the true sys- 

186 UnUariamm and Truiitoriamim ca mpaind, 

tern. It ifl our iBtentioa to compare the two syvtemt under 
our taotice, in this point of lignt — ^which of them has the 
greatest persuasives to present to professed unbelievers^ to 
renounce their present delusions, and embrace Christianity. 
Not that by merely embracing Christianity, a man becomes 
converted to God, for in order to this, *' he is born again { 

Sutctened out of a death of trespasses and sins, by the 
pirit of God.'* Yet this Spirit always operates upon us 
as rational creatures^ and always addresses us» in his word» 
as such. 

We now proceed to examine these two systems, in this 
their tendency. These professed unbelievers, Turks, Pa*- 
gans, Jews, and Infidels, are destitute of the truths of Chris- 
tianity. No truths can act where they are not — these truths 
must, if they operate at all on their minds, be carried to 
them — ^we have then to place these systems side by side | 
in the first place, as they will operate on our minds, to cause 
1X8 to send them to these individuals ; and in the second, af 
they will operate on their minds, when they reach them. In 
the first place, then, we ask. How will they operate on our 
minds, in inducing us to send them to these poor deluded 
devotees? This will depend entirely upon another ques* 
tion, viz. the light in which they cause us to look upontheQ|i 
in their present moral condition ; for our exertions will be 
regulated by our feelings— our feelings by our views— our 
views by our creeds — and our creeds by our systems. Ex^ 
amine we then the systems, and first the Unitarian oo«l 
Let us gather our light from a sun in this system, Dr« Joseph 
Priestley—*' If," says the Doctor, " we could be so happy; 
is to beheve there are no errors, but what men aiay be S9 
circumstanced as to be innocently betrayed into ; ^at any 
mtstilke of the head is perfectly consistent with rectitnde of 
heart, and that all differences in modes of worship, may be 
only the different method Si which different men, who are 
equally the offspring of God, are endeavouring to honou? 
and obey their common parent ; our differences of opinion 
would have no tendency to lessen our natural love and ea* 
teem."* Now, it is certain it would not ; but then it would 
couch our minds, and make us perfectly easy about the 
conversion of the individuals in question ; for, according to 
this aentiment, all the false religions under heaven may be 
harmless, there being no errors into which men may not 
be so circumstanced, as to be innocently betrayed, Tb^ 
Began, Mflhometan, Popish, and every <^her rekgion, mi^y 

* Dif.orOpiaiea,seoct. 


im ikdr Tendency (6 ConwBri Tarki, Pn^Mh ifc. t67 

Iheii be perftetl^ Itsirmless. Harmtoi^g religion; the Pagaii; 
whose morality is suicide and murder — wnose worship ii 
druehy and debauchery — whose priests are baechi^naliaas^^ 
whose temples are brothels — ^whose annual festivities gorge 
Vultures and tigers with human flesh-^and whiten and 
btatich the surrounding soil with human bones! Harmless 
Religion, the Mahometan, which was originally establistted 
kmongst the nations With fire and sword, and propagated by 
a bigoted band of human butchers, guided by the bloody 
dictates of the impostor's koran! Harmless religion^tbe 
Popish, which established the itrfernal inijuisition; tor- 
tured its unhappy tictims, on instruments which had satamo" 
ingenuity displayed in their invention, and satanic maligmtjf 
%imibited in their design ; and which had overwhelined whole 
Mtibiis in promiscuous bloodslied, carnage, devastation, and 
inassacre ! Harmless religiohs the$e !— ^'' so many different 
Ittodee in which diiFerent men are honouring and obeying 
their common parent!** One stands perfectly astonished^ 
Chat atiy man could utter such a sentiment. While Untta^i 
li^ns can^ With such a philosophical composure as this; 
look upon the deluded devotees of these cruel superstitions^ 
if is not likely they will make any efforts towards their ccm^* 
Versidn-. Their creed and conduct are perfectly consistent 
#ith each other. What efforts liave they made for the 
icriptural illumination of these poor wretches, that are iptt* 
tfng in darkness, and in the valley of the shadow of deadi? 
What missionary society have they fonned ? Into whal 
teifguages have they translated the scriptures of tratk? 
Wbata^as have their missionaries navigated? What mooa«> 
fiiiis havHft tltey climbed f What rivers have they forded I 
.What Ibrests have they traversed f What deserts have they 
Hrdfrsed? ' With what sincerity mtist they pray, *' thy kiiig^ 

'' Turn to the other system, which teaches its disciples to 
\(Mk upon the heiathen, ks rebels against God^-transgressors 
dfthe^ first coimmandment of the law— an such, exposed to 
Gdd^s earliest curse— liable to perish everlastingly— and 
i^ist on the lyrink of hell. Such a belief as this, causes the 
fiearts of Trinitarians to bleed -^their eyes to weep— ^theif 
bowels to yearn-wtheir heads to plan, and hailds to exeoutei 
i(teasutes for their conversion. Hence they have fomwd^ 
ahd zealously support, their missionary societies, those 
frftiamentil bf i?he ag^— the glories of the country— the lights 
if^ef^nvch-^he b^heTaetors of the world. Their wih' 
sionaries havedimtedflOjOQiitai^ ttkeTWost rugged, crossed 

168 Umiariitnkm and Triniiariamsm campaml, 

deeerU the most inhogpitable, forded rivers the most dan* 

Krousy traversed forests the most pathless; their agents 
ve sent us home, as so many standajpds captured 
from the enemy, the idols that were formerly worshipped 3 
their missionaries have many of them laid down the shatter^ 
ed remai<is of a worn-out constitution in a distant land, and 
maliy at this moment are ''reclaiming another and another 
from the wastes of dark and fallen humanity; and are 
widening the domains of gospel light, and gospel principle, 
amongst them ; and are spreading a moral beauty around 
the very spot, where they pitch their lowly tabernacle ; and 
are, at length, compelling even the eye and testimony of 
giinsayers, by the success .pf their noble enterprise; and 
are forcing the exclamation of delighted surprise from the 
dumned and arrested traveller, as he looks at the softening 
tints they are now spreading over the wilderness, and as he 
hears the sound of the.chapel bell, and as in those haunts, 
liehere at the distance of half a generation a^, savages 
would have scowled upon his path, he resales himself witti 
^bte hum of missionary schools, and the lovely prospect of 
peaceful and Christian villages.'' 

. We are not boasting of what they have done, for there is 
no room to boast, but plenty for shame to ourselves that 
tUs was not done long ago; and to our shame be it spoken^ 
that these thinjgs are so novel amongst us. But has any 
thing of thi» kind been produced by Unitarianism i It cer- 
tainly has not yet. But is it likely to be? It is true, we 
<»innot tell what is yet to come, for we know no more what 
a system will bring forth, than an hour. But if there Im$ 
Miy thing to be done by it, it is certainly yet to come. Let 
W then grant the utmost they can require, and that we can 
bestow^ viz. .that efforts, equally as great as our own> will 
be made by Unitarians, for the conversion of the heathen ; 
which will bring us to the second thing to be noticed — the 
effect of these different systems upon Turks, Pagans, and 
so On : we will then contrast them in their tendency to lay 
hold of the attention, understandings, imaginaticms^ feel^ 
ings, and fears« of these individuals^ — all of which they toe 
in possession. And of the effect they would produce on 
ibeir understandings, imaginations, feelings, and fears, our 
readers may judge by the effect they produce upon their 

. Let tt^ look at their tendency to arrest the attentipn of 
these poor infatuated men. Attention is first created, in 
tbe oiainary c(^»ae of things^by ^ missionary teaebier} that 

in Mitr JWuZmcy to Concert TufkB, Pi^nm^Sfc. 169 

gtteilticm is now engrossed, wh<dly by their own idolatrous 
superstitions, their minds are bound in a thoasand invisible 
chains, and locked up, as it were in iron. Which of thescf 
two systems is the most calculated to arrest the attention 
of these men ? Both of them are equally destitute of exter«» 
nal pomp, and glitter, and dazzle, and parade. Which of 
them, then, will strike the minds of these men the most^ 
who hare beard neither of them before i That of course 
which is the most different from any they have erer heard 
before ; which of the two would that be ? That which says 
Christ was a mere man, his mission' that of a prophet, his 
holiness mere morality, his life that of an exemplar, his 
death that of a martyr, and that since he was raised ttom 
the dead, we do not know what is become of him; or that 
system, which says, this same Christ was God and maa^ 
united together in one person ; truly God who made us and 
all things else, and truly man, bone of our bone, and flesh 
of our flesh; that he had eyes like ours, and with them he 
shed the tears of affection, at the grave of friendship ; ears 
hke ours, and vrith them he listened to the tale of woe f 
bands like ours, and with them he staunched the bleeding 
wounds of dismembered relationship, and steadied the knees 
Aat were feeble ; feet like ours, and with them he went 
abont ameliorating human wretchedness, aiid lessening th0 
magnitude of human suffering ; a soul like ours, that found 
this world too poverty-stricken to satisfy its wants; and too 
navrow to give ample range -to its faculties : that his life was 
obedience, perfect obedience to the law we had broken ; 
his death, atonement for the sins we had committed ; his 
resurrection from the dead, the grand seal of his messiah«» 
ship ; has ascension to and reception in heaven, a proof that 
his work was accepted ; his intercession, the source of all 
blessings to his church ; and his second coming to adminis- 
ter justice, vindicate providence, fulfil prophecy, and sub* 
UmeW ccmsummate redemption, the last grand act that 
should be performed upon the moving theatre of life. 
Which of these would strike the attention the most power- 
ftdly ? To hear of a mere man, a prophet, a teacher, a mar- 
tyr, would not strike the minds of those so powerfully, who 
Kad heard of men, and prophets, and teachers, and martyrs, 
thousands of times before. But wh^n they hieard of a per- 
son who was God and Man together, and of his atonement 
and righteousness, and all that branches from his divinity, 
diey would have something they had never heard before ; 
they weuld see4n it something they had oiever seen before { 

tbejr would feel firom it wbut the; oerer felt befi>re; Ihiy 
wre in a system altogether new in a moioent* ci»d atlention 
is ioimediately put vtnder arrest. From the supreme divinity 
of Christ bfdiiff an integral part of the system^ it has a 
dbaracter pecmtarl]^ its own; nothing like it will be found 
in heaven above* or in the earth beneath* or in the waters, 
under the earth; it can never be incorporated with any other 
aystem; its difference from all other systems on earthjs so 
striking and so peculiar* that it can never be confounded 
wiUi them by sophistry* demolished by familiarity* or crum« 
Ued by time. 

Let us now look at the appeal these systems make .to the 
understandings of these men. ** There is a spirit in man* 
and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth him understand*: 
ilig/' It hath pleased Almighty God to erant these men 
an ordinary portion of human understandiog* whi<^ dia- 
plays.itself in every thing except their debasing supersti* 
tiops. These systems address themselves to tbisiwttky. 
Every system proceeds on the sround that man is a sinner^ 
and professes to find a remedy for the disorder* one in tbia 
way* another in that way* and another in the other wa^; 
fbr every system has its paradise and its perdition* in . a 
future world; its perdition recognizes him; as a sinner; iim 
paradise* as a beUever in, and participator : of* the remdj^ 
provided. Now* this sin, so universally recognised in. ei:ery: 
system of religion, necessarily supposes a law ; " for sin is 
a transgression of law**' that law cannot be. human* for meft 
would never make a law to condemn themselves.-— as it t» 
not heman* it must be divine; as it is divine, itmustbe*.]iiker: 
its author* holy, just* and good; as such* God* w1k>< is Uie: 
moral governor of the universe* must of necessity enforce it 
in every point, for if he could dispense with one point* 1^ 
could dispense with all. These men have broken this law, and. 
it cannot recede from any of its requirementa; the.4raiM-e 
gressors are therefore liable to the punishment it has, de» 
nounced, even eternal death. Now then for the remedy 
provided by Unitarianism in this distressing dilemma* within 
the bounds of which men seem irrecoverably Iwmul up* U^* 
tells us that repentance is a satisfaction to d^e law for trans* 
agressions ; repentance, of the intensity of which* of theduia?! 
tion of which* of the depth of which* of the, number of sig^ 
he must fetch* or of the number of tears he must slnd^tte 
of the number of groans he must heave* the.|>enit€»ct ia Ihra 
oidyjndge. Repentaoce* of whi<^ there: are different :dfrr 
grees# todvconsequently dtffeivnt degrees lofaatisfcotioA 

in ffajr IVMefeney to Omoert 3WJb, R^igtmi^ifc. UQ^ 

whidi it Bibsord, for sfttisfaction to a l«w miist be 
definite, epecific, and known; or else it it a. burleaque on 
le^siation : repentance a tatitfaction to a broken law i a^ 
tbing never admitted, or perhaps scarcely ever dreamt of; 
in hainan codes^ although they are imperfect like the man who 
nutkes them, and tlie man who breaas them.; while the law 
of Gpd is an absolutely pei/irc/ law* 

Let US nowlook at the remedy provided bytheTrinitariatt^ 
scheme. We have already observed* that satisfaction to' a; 
law must be something specific and defintte, and with such a 
satisfaction this system presents us, in the death of the man' 
Christ Jesusv who *' being without sin, and no guile found in 
his mouth," voluntarily became a substitute in the stead of 
die sinner; and who, by being God and man, not only madtf 
satisfaetion to the awakened justice of God, for the sins of 
oaeman^ which, had he been man only, he might have domsi 
but could do no more^-but made a satisfaction ta the lair, 
sufficient for the sins of all mankind. Thus his death )>re* 
seats the understanding with a definite satisfaction to tiWI 
awakened justice of Jehovah; the law is satisfied; sin 
punished; the difine government honoured; and the sinnef 
saved. Now all this commends itself to the understanding^ 
in every point as luminous, as light, and as clear as crystal, 
e^ept tm incarnation of Christ, which, it is confessed, is 
amystery ; but if the fact of that incarnation is established by 
the most indubitable evidence, as it easilj may be, the mode 
of the fact'will never render it objectionable to a hutnble 
rad consistent understanding, for the creation of God is 
full of mysteries equally incomprehensible with the incarna^ 
tioD, all of which are nevertheless believed ; for to disbe^ 
lieve them, would be an unnatural rebellion against thlT 
demonstrations of the senses. Every time a man sets hi¥ 
foot to the ground, he covers thousands of mysteries ; f^ 
ev^ry atom on which he treads, is a mystery equally incom* 
pnehensible with the incarnation of Jesus Christ* 

Thus we have examined these systems, in the appeal 
which they make to the understanding. Let us now took 
atthem in another point of view. 

■■ Nothing is plainer, or may more easily be made so, than 
diat if the laws of God were uniformly and universal^ 
dbeyed, all lying, swearing, stealing, murder, drunkenness, 
sabbath^brsakinff, blasphemy, infidelity, covetousness, war, 
fetisitiation, aduhery, swindling, treason, malice^ i>ppres* 
sion, and the whole long and black cat»dagae of faiiipan^ 
vices, wotdd iftishppear fVom the land of the Hfing^^^^at the^ 

102 VnkBTHtmsm and Trimiarianifm eomparedp 

golden age^ which has existed only in the dreams of poets, 
would be realized— our assizes would be all maiden as- 
sizes—our sessions mere forms — our judges and magistrates 
mere ciphers — our prisons empty and useless — our news- 
papers nothing but the undeformed and unvarying records * 
of human excellence ; that asylums for the distressed, and 
hospitals for the sick, and Sunday-schools for the gratai-* 
tons instruction of the ignorant, and benevolent societies 
for feeding the hungry and clothing the naked, and sano<* 
tuaries for the worship of the living God, would break out 
in all directions like stars on a winter's night, shedding 
round, about them the blessings of science, humanity, and 
religion, over Uie face of this well-peopled world. If all 
this delightful vision would be realized, then, by a perfect 
obedience to the law of God, of which we are as satisfied 
as of our own existence, nothing can be plainer, than that the 
system which honours this law the most, and inspires men 
with the greatest respect for it, and supplies the strongest 
motives to its observation, must commend itself the most to 
the understandings of Turks, Pagans, Jews, and Infidels, and 
to all who have any understanding. The Unitarian systeai 
inculcates, that the law of God, which, in the Bible, de* 
maads perfect obedience ; ** for cursed is every one that 
continuethnot in all things written in the book of the law 
to do them," will be satisfied with sincere obedience. 
Now, what is sincere obedience? We take it for granted, 
it is not perfect obedience, else it would have been called 
such. But if it is not perfect obedience; it must be im- 
perfect obedience; so then the law of God will be satisfied 
with imperfect obedience : but this proceeds on the CTound 
that the law is relaxed. But to what extent is it relaxed ? 
Every man must be judge for himself. Yet is it not highly 
paradoxical to suppose, that a system which recognizes an 
undefined relaxation of the law, can be favourable to ob^ 
dience? or that it can inspire men with respect for die 
law ? The law is sunk, by such a system, in the eye of the 
subject; for although, in the first place, it demandctdjiei/€«;^ 
obedience, yet, as it cannot get that, it will be satisfi^ 
with sincere^ which, mean what it may, cannot mean more 
than all it can get ; reminding us (pardon the comparison) 
of the itinerating pedlar who comes to your door, and, in the 
first place, asks a high price for his article, but whom you 
may neat down from price to price, till at length he takes 
what you please to give him. 

But we gladly turn from a system which thus sink« the 

in tkeir Temieueif to Cowoert Jew^ Pagma, Sfc. 163 

la;vry to one that migixifie» it, akid ttkakes it faotxmraUe ; that 
IB, the Tritiitainan system^ whieh goes upon the-'groundy 
tiiat the law iniitt have perfect obedience in every putic* 
tilioy from the swaddling band to the shroud ; that it is of 
no use what men say,— ^tbat they are good at the bottom,^ 
except they are good at the top, and good all the way from 
the bottom to the top; that perfect obedience was paid to 
it by Christ, and is imputed to every one that believes in 
him — and that the strongest motives to perfect obedience 
are supplied by the Redeemer's agony and sofferings. 


There strongest motives stiag. 

** There sacred violence assaults the soul/' Young. 

It will scarcely be necessary ta stop> and ask which of 
these two will commend itself most to the understandings of 
these poor deluded devotees of cruel superstitions. 

As we flatter ourselves that we hare thus laid the foandU'* 
tien deep and sound in the judgment, we may now appeal to 
another faculty, the imagination, for the possession of which 
oriental nnbdievers are celebrated. But here we are aware, 
that the soundness of this ground may be questioned by 
some, though we confess that we do not think it questionabie^ 
All the works of God are calculated, Arom their beingf 
awfully vast or elegantly Kttle, to fill the imagination wttn 
the most sublime, and kindling* and admiring conoeptioAS, 
and may be legitimately used for that purpose^r *'Tbe 
heavens that he hath meted out with a span, the waters 
that he hath measured in the hollow of his band, the 
mountains Uiat he hath weighed in scales, and the liifle 
that he has poised in a balance,'' All the imagination with 
the highest conceptions of his power, and wisdom, aih4 
goodness, and majesty, '*who hath the heaven fbr bia 
throne, and the earth for his footstool ; the cloud fof his 
chariot, and the winds for the wtn^s" on wbid^i be fltea 
through the univerae, ^* glorious m hoHness, fearft»l in 
praises, doing wondem." Why is it, then, that redemptioti 
— redemption of immortal soula from hell flameSp ie tbe 
only work of Ood that foils within the range of htmian 
knowiedge^-^be only work of God that may not be legi- 
timately employed to fill the imagination with the most 
sublime and exalted conceptions of him who accom^ 
pliehed it ? Is it the (tBT, that being so glorious a work, 
It should fill the imagination with too exalted ooneep* 
tions and sentiments of him who accompliahed itt Or id 
it the fear, that it should raise expectations in the rnsnd^ 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 2. N 

VS4 Vnitarianism and Trimtarianwn eomparedy 

which the next world will not satifify? Or what? &urely» 
if '* the wave of mighty forests, and the rush of soumUng 
water&Us/' and distant glimpses of human territory, and 
pinnacles of everlasting snow, and the sweep of that 
circling horizon, which folds in its ample emorace the 
whole of this noble amphitheatre, are employed, and 
legitimately too, to give birth to the most exalted and 
majestic conceptions of God ; then the incarnation of the 
Son of God, and his atonement -for sin, and his resurrec* 
tion from the dead, and his ascension to heaven — and his 
second coming to judge the world, and take his saints to a 
glory, of which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive, — may be 
employed to kindle it also. Yes, they will set the imagina- 
tion of the believer on fire, in spite of all the cold water 
that men of no imagination, who are philosophically hard, 
and scientifically insensibl^, may throw upon it. With 
which of these two systems would the imaginations of 
these deluded devotees be interested, elevated, delighted, 
^d kindledi Would it be with that which represents 
Christ a mere man— his mission that of a prophet — nis holir 
ness mere morality — his death a mere example of patience; 
and that, since his resurrection, we don't know where he is f 
Or with that which represents him as God, who, though he 
was rich, yet for our sakes became poor, in the assumption 
of. pur natures—that he first appeared amongst us in the 
form of a little child — that, from his. swaddling band to. hia 
shroud, he -buffeted with the billows of trouble, that be 
might know how to sympathize with us in our calamities — 
that he went about, God and man in one person, working 
miracles as benevolent as they were bright, and ddivering 

J arables as instructive as they were true — ^that he died in 
is human nature for our sins, and rose again from the 
dead on the third day for our j ustification — that he asoendedi 
to heaven, where, above that high ar4)h, under which we 
sleep in our cradles, and worship.in our sanctuaries, and rot 
in our graves, he intercedes at the right hand of God the 
Father Almighty — and that from thence . he will come to . 
judge the quick and the dead, separate the precious and 
the vile, and.raise his saints to heaven, where, in their own 
nature, he shall shine for ever the object of their adoration, 
the source of their joys, the ornament of creation, and the 
wonder of the universe; while. they shall sing, the song, 
f^Unto him that redeemed us, and washed us from our 
sins, in his oifvn blood, be honour and glory for ever and 4 

in their Tendency to Convert Jews, Pagans, Sfc. 165 

«Ter, in hallelujahs lofty as the them« they celelirate/' and 
countless as the ages through which they shall roll. 

We scarcely need stay to ask which system will (ill their 
imaginations with the most sublime^ ravishing, and rich 

Let us now look at them, in the appeal they make to the 
feeling of these individuals— that feeline which constitutes 
all the difference there is between fallen men and fallen 
angels ; feeUnff, the only surviving lineament of original 
excellence, which has escaped the catastrophe of the fall, 
like the solitary servant of Job, escaped from the destruc-' 
tion in which his fellows were overwhelmed, and which, 
like him, if it could speak, would finish its tale of woe, 
by saying, '* I, only I, am escaped alone to tell thee/' 
Upon this feeling, how would these different systems 
operate ? In order to judge, listen to the different state- 
ments they give of human ruin and human redemption. 
The Unitarian scheme represents man as being createa with 
the principal part of the appetites he possesses, except a 
few which he may have contracted by education and 
example — and that God is so easy on the subject of sin, 
that although it is the bitter cause of all our calamities, 
yet he will pardon it without any mark of his decisive hatred 
against it, on our repentance, although its first object is 
to de&rone God, ana its next to destroy man. The other 
system represents man as having fallen from original excel* 
lence and happiness into sin, which is the source, the proli- 
fic, the frightfully prolific source of all his sorrows ; but that 
God -SO loved the world, and so hated sin, as to give his 
only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him might 
not pensh, but have everlasting life. That " herein was 
love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and setit 
his Son to be the propitiation for all our sins/' Which of 
these two would operate most powerfully on the feelings of 
that poor Pagan, who stands with outstretched hands and 
horriole contortions, muttering his deadly incantations at 
the shrines of devils, hardening his heart with cruelty, 
and dyeing his hands with blood? or upon that poor TurK, 
who is paying a visit to Mecca, and, on his bended knees, 
is gabbling over a detached passage from the Koran, which 
is another rivet to his chain, another fetter to his delu- 
sion, another sin to his list? or upon the feelings of that 
Soor Jew, who is seeking for justification by tbe law of 
loses, although just when he seems to have arrived at the 
summit of his wishes, down all falls to the dust, owing to 

\6Q . Vniturianism and Trmitarianism ecmipared. 

tS^ eommiBsioii of some sin, the oinissibn of sotie cliity» 
like the wretch in the fabled Pagan mjrtbolo^y, who was 
doomed to roll a stone up to a certain eminence, and 
always, whenever it seemed just at the top, down it rolled 
to the bottom. We leave our readers to jud^e which will 
operate most powerfully on the feelings of unbelievers, by 
the mai^ner they operate upon their own. 

Lastly, let us look at them, as they are calculated to 
operate u{>on the fears of mankind, is there any thing in 
the Unitarian system to make men, who are naturally in 
love with sin, airaid of c<nnmitting it ? Will they be afraid 
of offending God by it? No; i^r he is ao easy and so 
kind, that li^ cannot at least be soon offended. Will they 
be qfraid of future punishment? No; for there is none, 
according to this scheme, or next to none, even for the finally 
impenitent. What is there th^n to alarm their fears, if they 
comniit sin I Nothing, comparatively speakins,— nothing. 

L^t us now look at the other system, ana see hew it 
alarms the sinner. It points us to the Saviour on tha 
cross ; and who, with that affecting spectacle before his 
eyes, can doubt for sk moment, whetber it is, or is not, God's 
intention severely to punish sin ? Who that sees the Saviour 
swelled viith strokes, pale with death, besmeared with 
spittlejt ftnd stained with blood, for sin, can doubt it for a 
moment? This determination severely to punish sin, is 
eminently calculated to work on the fears ot mankind, for 
it is got, not from our own speculations about the matter, 
but from a fact ; the same fact by which the feelings are 
op^rat^d upon, and that is, the crucifixion of Christ. It 
decides in a moment, in the mind of the man that believes 
Christ was cruqified for sin, that it is God's determination 
severely to punish it — and although this fact does not say, 
thai; tb!e punishment will be everlasting, yet still it c(m- 
vinces us, that it could not be from a punishment of short 
duration, that all this scale of continued miracles was con- 
structed, or else there would be such a huge disproportion be- 
tween the means and end. It must have been, nrom a punish-^ 
ment truly dreadful, and which is explained by the Saviour, 
the gentle Saviour, himself ; and it is remarkable, that his 
language is the mmt awful that is to be Sound any where on 
the subject; " there their worm dieth not, and their fire ia 
not quenched." Wbich of these systems then will operata 
most pow^fttUy on the fears of these men ; the Unitarian, 
which pr^mhesies smooth things, or the Trinitarian, which 
9lH6a Fire I fire! in the ears of the sinner? ^ . 

Hora Juridic4Ct 16? 

For the reasons thus t^tated at length, though we arc^ 
apprehensiine that they have been but too feebly enforced^ 
we think it abundantly plain, that the Trinitarian ficheiM 
will operate most nowerfully on the understandings, and 
imaginations, and reelings, and 6ear8>'of unconrerted men, 
to whom, be they Pagans, Mahometans, Roman Catho-^ 
lies, or mere nominal professors of a purer form of Chris^ 
tianity> we would say, that the gospel answer to the qnes^' 
tion, '* What must I do to be saved ?" i8> ** Believe on the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be savied !" 



0/1 the Origin and Principles of the Law of Libel; and the 
Punishment of Defamation amongst the Jews, Egyptians, 
ancient Persians, and Lydians. 

Thos£ persons can have formed but a very imperfect 
notion of the nature aad objects of Legislation, in a civilizecl 
state, who conceive that the pains and penalties of its vin-^ 
dictive sanction should be principally, if not exclusively, 
applied to those injuries which immediately alFect tiie lives^ 
the persons, or the property of individual members of the 
commiQiiity. True it is, indeed, Uiat in the earlier stages of 
society, the criminal code of every country was strictly 
confined within these limits ; and it was so confined, for a 
reason at once sufficient and obvious. Tliere were^ then, no 
other rights for the lawless to violate^ or which ilie peace- 
ful subject could wish to defend. The *^koneste vivere: 
aiteruni non ladere: sunm cuique tribuere*^ — ^three short 
maxims, to which the Justinian code has reduced the whole 
elements of jurisprudence, has a higher origin, and a more 
binding authority, than that of a system which weakened 
every principle of equity it contained — ^and they weie nei- 
ther few, nor difficult to be applied — by a mafk of tyranny 
in the sovereign, and of slavery in tfie people, which, con- 
ceived in but few words, was in itself capable of annihi- 
lating the liberty of the one, and establishing the despotism 
of the other : ** quod principi plaeuit, legis hahet vigorem,**f 
In fact, notwithstanding the various speculations of cer- 
tain writers, who have shrewdly suspected that theft is not 
prohibited by the law of nature, it might easily be shewn, 
were this the place to enter on the disquisition, tiliat these 
maxims constitute the elements, we had almost saidllie fouh- 
* Inst. i. 3. t Inst. 11. 6. 

168 Hori^ Juridtt^. 

dation, of those ^tenial, immutable principles of right 
and wrong, with which the revealed law of God accords, 
and every human law should harmonize^ or lose its hold 
upon the consciences of men. These principles of justice 
are adapted^ therefore, to every stage of society, and should, 
at all periods, form the basis of its laws. But the particu- 
lar duties which thev require to be performed \ the variety 
of injuries they may be made to prohibit; the incitements 
necessary to be held forth, the punishments to be denoun* 
ced, to secure the performance of the duty, and to prevent 
the commission ot the crime, are not so fixed, but must 
change with the chan^ng manners of a peo|>le advancing 
from oarbarism to civilization ; from civilization to refine- 
ment ; and from refinement but too often sinking into pre- 
mature decay. 

8ome considerable time would, for instance, elapse, ere 
the savage of the desert would be induced to admit the su- 

Jerior right of his brother savage to the skin of the beast he 
ad slain in die chase, for a moment longer than actual posses- 
sion demonstrated his intention of appropriatiDg it to him- 
self. His readiness and ability to maintain that possession^ 
against any one who should attempt to strip from his back 
the trophy of his skill, and the only shelter of his person 
from the inclemency of the weather, would perhaps, too, 
after all, be the best protection of a property, so transient, 
so ill-defined, and so ill-protected by laws, which can only 
derive a permanent and effectual sanction from mutual com- 
pact, which, originating in mutual danger, ascertains mu- 
tual rights, and establishes, on an equitable basis, the 
mutual relations of civil and of social life. The terms of 
that compact must have been pretty well understood ; the 
extent ot those rights accurately^ however disproportion- 
ately, ascertained ; and the duties of those relations defined 
with a considerable degree of precision, before the legis- 
lative code of any nation could have provided remedies 
for those ioiuries, or punishments for those crimes, which 
have not a direct and immediate, but an indirect and more 
remote, effect upon the happiness of individuals, and the 
peace of society. If we Iook, therefore, to the earlier pro- 
visions of our own, or of any other body of laws, we shall 
find them chiefly, if not solely, directed to the prevention, 

or rather to the punishment, of offences committed by the 
Btcong arm of open and lawless violence, the tendency of 
which to put in jeopardy the lives and property of the 

more honest and peaceable members of the community, is 

Hof^ Jtmdica. l(3$i 

neither Gonceakd, nor attempted to be coneealed^ rsUher thair 
to guard agaiost those more subtle devices which effectuate' 
the same purpose by art instead of force,, cloaking themi* 
selves the vrhiie with pretences sq specious, and having so 
little about them to awaken the caution of the most pru- 
dent, that their real object is not immediately discovered. 
It never has been, and in the nature of things it never could 
be, a characteristic of those provisions, that they embraced 
circumstances which never could arise, iniuries whicb could 
have no existence, until the manners and habits of the peo-- 
pie, for the regulation of whose conduct they were epacted«, 
VI the slow, but certain march of civilization,, of moral and 
intellectual refinement, and of commercial enterprise, hadi 
assumed very different features to those to which they 
could, and ought alone, to adapt themselves. 

Legislation is a progressive work;. and from its intimate 
connexion' with the changing manners and circumstances ^f 
mankind, its advancement to perfection, if even to the 
standard of human perfection it ever can attain, must 
inevitably be slow. In its earlier stages, the protection of 
the lives, the persons, and the properties of individuals 
from the effects of inunediate violation^ and the prevention 
of direct attempts to subvert the government established, or 
rather permitted to have an uncertain existence, (suspended 
as it were by a single thread, which the sword of any power- 
ful leader might cut, or the storm of popular ccMumotioti 
could in an instant tear asunder,) by pains and penalties 
the most effectual which the narrow capacities of tne legis'^ 
lators could devise^ or the imperfect subordination of the 
people would permit them to enact, — ^is all we must look for, 
and all that we shall ever find. But as civilisation advances, 
as the arts are cultivated, as commerce extends itself, a 
new order of things arises ; and it is discovered, that there 
are other and often more effectual means of gratifying a 
malicious, an envious, or a revengeful disposition, than by 
openly, or even secretly, though directly, attacking the peiw 
sons or property of those at whose prosperity the heart sick- 
ens, or whose interests a malevolent spirit would seek to under- 
mine. As the intercourse and connexion of men^witb each 
other, for the purposes of social life, or of commercial, traffic, 
strengthen and extend themselves, the necessity for mutual 
confidence attaches a value to individual reputation, which 
in a savage and uncommercial state of society must have 
been at its lowest ebb, if indeed it can be said to have had 
any existence at all. But as the value of thi& personal 

ITO iibrtf Juridica. 

leputation, and the great imparlance of edtablbhing aind 
maintaining a national character for the strict observance 
of public faitii, would increase in an exact ratio with the 
intercourse of indifidaals, of public bodies, of governments, 
and of nations, it most be selr-evident, that whatever coold 
contribute to extend this intercouse, would in an e^ual 
degree enlarge the means, and increase the opportunities, 
of injuring another, in a point which, under some circum- 
stances, may be dearer to him than life, and often of more 
value than all the property he may possess. Upon the 
character he maintains in the world, the future enjoyment 
of the one, and the increase or even the continuance of the 
other, may indeed frequently be feimd most essentially to 
depend. It might also be demonstrated with equal ease, 
for it is a fact equally obvious, that whatever gives genend 
&cility to an attack upon personal reputation, must open, to 
such as are inclined to avail themselves of it, a wider field 
for attempts to excite in the minds of the people sentiments 
of dissatisfaction with the government under which they live, 
and thus to weaken its authority : but the point is too clear 
to need illustration. 

In the combined operation of these two causes, the neees<» 
sity of protecting the character of individuals from unjust 
and unwarrantable attacks, and governments from being 
brought into contempt and jeopardy, originated those legis* 
lative provisions^ which are usually classed under the head 
of the Lnw of Scandal, and of Libel. Of that law it is the 
intention of the present article of our lucubrations, and of 
a (kw of its successors, to trace the history, wit^ a view, from 
the practices of other nations, to illustrate and to defend 
some supposed peculiarities in our own. Against these 
the voice of faction and of ignorance Ihls raised the clamour 
of innovation, when, in point of fact, the principles on which 
they Q(re founded — for it is principles, and not mere techni*: 
ealities, which we wish to discuss — are s^tfaered fVom the 
collective wisdom of ages, and sanctioned by the usage of 
every nation and kindred of the civilixed world. The asser- 
tion may be bold, but we hope to prove it to be true, to the 
satisfhction of every unprejudiced mind, and to an extent 
of which even our lawyers are not fully aware* 

That the subject which is thus proposed for consideration 
is an important one to every person who takes the smallest 
share in our public affiiirs, or in the poiitical discussions 
Which they engender, or who, in the daily intercourse and 
mere private relations of life, is called upon to enter into 

Horm Juridical* 171 

oominaniostions Upon the chafacter of another, it cannot 
surely be needfiil to demonstrate. Independent too of the 
.immediate and personal interest which we may all of us 
take in its inTestigation, there is attached to the subject, a 
question of deep public interest, and of very general im« 
portance, inyolring no less than the liberty of the press 
on the one hand, and the check of its licentiousness on the 

In discussing such a subject, it can scarcely be necessary 
to observe, that the term libel, which, to a modem ear, is 
apt as it were intuitively to convey the idea of a publica- 
tion of some criminal matter, is, in its literal meaning, 
perfectly harmless, being but a mere diminutive of the 
Latin word iiber, and signifying nothing more than a 
written composition, or litUe book.* And even on its firet 
adoption as a technical term by the Roman lawyers, its 
import was very different to that which we now attach to it, 
for they employed it as the distinctive apnellation of the 
roll delivered to the praetor in open court, oy the plaintiff 
or accuser, in every cause which was brought before him ;*t' 
answering in substance to the declarations, indictments, 
and infonnations ex officio of our modem law, and indeed^ 
when reduced to writing, to legal proceedings in general.;^ 
Bnt in the fonims, and the codes of the Roman emperors, 
the term thus engrafted on the law soon acquired a more 
exclusive application to those writings which reflected 
upon the conduct of persons in autborityy or on the cha^ 
racters of individ«als,§ though in its general application k 
was still variovsly, and, as it would seem, indifferently, 
employed to denote petitions and remonstrances to, and 
written answers or messages from, the emperors and other 
persons of rank ;||*--inforoiations, state papers, and writings 
of a publio nature in general ^ briefs or instructions of the 

* Enaius Fragm. Horace Carm. v. 8, 15 ; Epist. i. 13, 4. 9, 17, &g. 
Ovid, Fast, i, \M, ii. 549; ex Foot. iv. xxi. 25. et passim; Phae- 
drus t. ptol. 3.; Cicero pro Clement. 51; Ausonias, EpSg. ix. 1. 
xxiv. 3. &c. 

t Horace, Sat 1.4, 66. ; Plin. Epist. vii. 27. x. 6, 5. ; Javenal, 
Sat. vi. 143. ; Qaintiliaa, lost. vi. 2. xii. 8. ; Tacitus Add. ii. 44. 

X Plaotus Carculio i. 2, 6. ; Juvenal, Sat. xxxi. 107. ; Suetonius 
Nero, 15. ; Claud. 37. Cicero is Ycrr. i. 6. 

% Tacitus, Ann. i. 72.; Saet. Aug. 55. 

ft Quint Inst. vL 3.; Martial viii. 31, S2. xi. 1.; Cieero ad Attic. 
XYi. 16. ; Pliu. i. 10. Bpist iii. 18. v. 14. vii. 12. x. 297, ^. ; Juf enal. 
Sat xiv. 193» 

1[ Ovid. Ibis. 39.; Tacitus i. 11, 74 ; ii. 30. vi. 8.; Saetonias, 
Galb. 80. ; Florus, iv. 12. 

l7d Hora. Juridica, 

wlvocates;* written papers held in the bandit mere 
memoranda ; I a packet or parcel ;§ epigrams, and the 
little satirical effusions which have since oeen denomina- 
ted pasquinades ; II advertisements of spectacles,^ and 
public notifications in general;** booksellers' shops; ft 
the pro^mma of the meatres, and painted exhibitions of, 

every kind.jji 

The very derivation of the term, upon which, for a 
wonder, our legal antiquaries are perfectly agreed, and have 
no shrewd surmises to offer, makes it self-evident that libel- 
ling, according to the strict definition of the term adopted 
by our law from the later of the Roman jurists, could not 
prevail to any. very alarming extent, but with, a people, 
amount whom the art of writing was pretty genearally 
practised. In the earlier of the ancient codes, as well- as 
in those of more modern nations, before that art was in any 
very extensive use, we must not therefore be surpriseo, 
that we find, but very little upon the subject* Most of 
diem contain, however, provisions more or less severe, for 
the suppression of that disposition, which, by no means 
deficient in the will, wanted but. the means to -diffuse and 
perpetuate the slander, which, from pure necessity, was 
confined to a verbal publication, injurious and malicious 
in-a greater or a. less proportion, according.to the circum- 
stances of time and place under which it might be made. 
To those ruder enactments asrainst scandal and defama- 
tion, which may not inaptly oe termed the law of libels^ 
non scripti, we shall therefore direct some portion of the 
reader's attention, inasmuch as they were the foundation of 
the more finished system of laws for preventing the publi- 
cation of those libelli scripti, which, in modem days, have 
extended themselves, with the extension - of writing and 
printing, to a.degree that has alarmed some of the most 
zealous supporters of the liberty of the press, who wish not 
that its licentiousness should be pemutted to attack, with 
equal impunity, the throne and the altar; whilst it affords 
a secure protection to the vilifier of his prince, the insulter 

* Juvenal, Sat. vi. 243.; vii. 107.; Martial, v. 61. 1.; Quint. Inst, 
vi. 2. ; xii. 8. 

t Pliny, Epist. vi. 5. ; Quint. Inst. x. 7. J Suet. Aug. 84. 

§ Cicero, Attic, xi. I. 

II Juvenai, Sat. i. 92. ; Soetonius, Domit. 14. ; Quint. Inst. viiL 6. 

4 Gatulias, liii. 4. ^* Cicejro, Philipp. li. 38. 

tt Cicero pro Quint. 6, 15, 19. ; Senec. de Benef. iv. 12. ; Pctro» 
nius, Sat. 28. 

II Horace, Sat. i. 41. ; Suetonius, Tib. 306. 

Hora Juridica, 173 

of his country's laws* and the bold blasphemer of bis God. 
This course will, too, in some measure, prepare them for the 
remarks which we intend to offer, on what we cannot but con* 
sider one of the most glaring errors of our own law for the. 
punishment of defamation generally ; in the wide distinction 
which they make in the punishment of scandal spoken, and 
the same scandal when reduced to writing; a distinction 
which, as we shall then endeavour to prove, is not founded 
on any correct principles of reasoning, but which, on the 
contrary, in its practical application, is productive of the 
greatest evils, as well as pregnant with the grossest 

In all historical investigations, a believer in revelation> 
is naturally^ led to look, in the first place, to the Jewish 
records, as by far the most ancient in existence; and of the 
state of the law. of defamation amongst that extraordinary 
people, who for a long period had the Almighty at once 
for their lawgiver and King, the following account has been 
given by Mr. Holt, in the Introduction to his Treatise on 
the Law of libel.'*'' 

" Amongst the Jews, to whom a distinct revelation was 
made, one of the main purposes of which was to revive, 
the characters of the law of nature, and to retrace those 
laws which were defaced and almost obliterated by corrupt 
traditions, — to slander any one, particularly those in author 
rity, was expressly forbidden, and the suSject of a curse, 
by the law of Moses." 

We have, however, carefully examined the 22d and 25d 
chapters of Exodus, referred to in support of this statement; 
but neither there, nor in any other part of the Pentateuch, 
can we find any very express, provision against slandering 
another. '* Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the 
ruler of thy.people,"t is the only passage in the first, which 
has any relation to the subject; but surely, cursing the 
gods or rulers of the people, (fdr here, as in some other 
parts of the sacred writings, those terms are synonymous,) 
IS a very difierent thing from expressly prohibiting to 
slander any one, and rendering that prohibition the subject 
of a curse. In the earlier of the legislative codes, the 
first of these offences is raised into a species of lasa 
majestas, or high treason ; whilst of the latter — for they 
took much better care of kings, and those in authority under 
them, than of the people — tney scarcely make the slightest 
mention. Nor does the second chapter afford much better 
* Pa^e 3. t Bxodus, xxii. 26. 

174 Hora Juridicdd4 

gtontid for the assertion, since the first verse alone can at 
any rate be pressed into the service ; and it may reasonably 
be doubted whether the enactment contained in its former 
clause, " tbou shalt not raise a false report/' does not much 
more nearly approach to the^&a clamor, than to the scan- 
dal or defamation of our law ; whilst there can be no hesita- 
tion in identifying that of the latter, ** jmt not thy hand 
with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness,'' with the 
penary, and subornation of perjury, of modem times. 

The laws of the ancient Egyptians, as far as we are 
acquainted with their provisions, are equally silent upon the 
subject of simple, defamation. That aggravated specie^ 
of It, which was sought to be effected by rendering the 
courts of Justice the unconscious ministers of personal 
malice, or by calling in the sanction of an oath to support 
a charge falsely preferred arainst another, was visited with 
great, and, in so advanced a stage of society, with very 
unnecessary severity. Perjury, . partly from a religious, 
amd partly from a political motive, was m all cases punished 
by death, it being looked upon as a crime little less de- 
structive of the peace of the community, than it was 
insulting to the majesty of the gods. In the like vindic* 
tive spirit, false accusers were punished in the same manner 
as those whom they accused would have been, had they 
been convicted — an application of the lex talionis, by no 
means peculiar to this remote period of the history of the 
world, inasmuch as it still pervades the <iodes of several 
of the northern nations, and was once attempted in our 
own.'"' It may, however, be questioned, whether these laws 
for the punishment of perjury and false accusations, severe 
as they unquestionably are, would have been sufficient to 
prevent the evil resulting from individual reputation, being 
in other points left open to attack, amongst a people 
whose progress in the arts would abundantly furhish them 
with the m^ans, as the extent of their commerce would 
readily supply the inducement, to traduce and undermine 
the character of their neighbours. But here the precau- 
tions of their well-arranged, Ibough arbitrary system of 
police, aided the defective legislation of this singular 

* By 37 Edw. III. o. 18. which provided, that such as preferred any 
8ug;§^e9tioiis to the kinj^'s great council, should put in pledgos of 
taliation, to incur the same punishment as would have been iniicied 
upon the persons whom they accused , in case of 4beir conviction, 
should the char^i^ prove to foe untrue. But after the trial of a single 
year, this law was repealed. 

Hora Juridica. 175 

people, ihftsmuch a9 the strict injunction upon eTery indi* 
vidual to give in, to the gorernor of his ni ovince, a true and 
correct account of the manner in which ne gained his liveli- 
hood, under pain of death, if that account should in any 
lespect be false, would effectually prevent men of talent, 
witnout principle, from carrying on the trade of a common 
libeller, which, after all, is far more injurious to personal 
reputation, and to the safety of the state, than any attack 
that might be feared from the tongues of persons envious 
of individual prosperity, or who conceived themselves 
called upon to revenge their own real or imaginary wrongs, 
by bcrfdmg up to tike contempt of the people the govern- 
ment wbidb had inflicted them. In the one instance, you 
have, it is true, plenty of combustible matter, but it may 
remwi innoxious for ever, for want of the spark to explode 
it ; in the other, you have the torch and the train always 
ready to be applied to every inflammatory substance, 
which waited but the first touch of ignition, to spread 
abroad in every direction a destructive volume of smoke and 

*' The Persians," says the writer already referred to,* 
in the Introduction to his work, " had a law which declared 
it infamous to be detected in a lie. A people enacting a 
positive law in mere morals, could not be unprovided with 
a punishment for defamation." 

This certainly seems to be a very natural and legitimate 
conclusion : we would accompany it, however, by this obser- 
vation, that the extraordinary attention bestowed by the 
ancient Persians, in training up their children in the public 
seminaries, to an habitual direction of their views to the 
public good; the military spirit of their nation^ which 
appears for a long period to have been an utter stranger to 
commerce, and never tp have pursued it to any extent; 
and, above all, their blind obedience to everv indication of 
their monarch's will, and the awe with which they contem- 
plated its nnnisters, — would, in all probability, render the 
infamy attached to detection in a lie, sufficient to prevent 
an inclination to public or private defamation from gaining 
much ground amongst them. It was the character also of 
the laws of the ancient Persians, according to the repre- 
sentations of Xenophon, who had sufficient opportunities 
of making himself acquainted with them, that they tended 
more than those of any other nation to prevent, rather than 
to punish, crime; to deter men from the commission of 
* Holt's Treatise on the Law of Libel, p^ 3, 4. 

17G Hodge's Dissertation on the 

eiil, by iaspiring them with q, love of virtae and a hatred of 
yice^ rather than by a hope of reward, or fear of punish- 

In a very short note upon a case in his twelfth Report,+ 
my Lord Coke informs us, that the law of the Lydians 
was, " that he who slanders another shall be let blood in 
the tongue, and he who hears it, and assents to it, in the 
ear, &c.," but as he does not refer us to the authority upon 
which he makes this assertion, we have not been able to 
discover at what period of their history this law was 
enacted, though from its singular, and, if we may so apply 
the term, quaint infliction of punishment upon the very 
organs which were the immediate instruments in commit- 
ting the offence, we should be inclined to ascribe it to an 
early stage bf their legislation. There is every reason to 
conclude, that the Lydians were a far more commercial 
people than were their conquerors the Persians, and this 
circumstance may account for the pains taken by their 
lawgivers to prevent defamation, though the remedy they 
applied must have been somewhat more curious than effi* 


A Dissertation on the Importance of Biblical Literature. 
By Charles Hodge, A.M., Teacher of the Original Lan^ 
guages of Scripture; in the Theolosical Seminary of the 
Presbyterian Church, at Princeton, New-Jersey. 

Biblical Literature is usually divided into two great parts, 
denominated Criticism, and Interpretation, orHermeneutics. 
The object of the former, is to determine what is the 
genuine text of sacred scripture ; of the latter, to discover 
and exhibit its meaning. 

The series of books which compose the sacred volume 
were written at different times, during a period of sixteen 
hund: .d years. The latest of these productions, therefore, 
have come down to us through a series of more than seven* 
teen centuries ; and the earliest have been preserved for 
more than three thousand years. During this long period, 
they have undergone innumerable transcriptions in almost 
every part of the world, and by every description of per** 
sons. We find, from our own experience, that it is difficult 
to transcribe a single page without making some mistake ; 
and that to transcribe a volume without an error, would be 

* Anab. lib. i. f PaS* 36. 

Impafriance of Bihlicul Literature. 177 

almost impossible. That the sacred scriptaires, therefore, 
should have be^i exempted from all errors of this nature, 
would haye required a miraculous superintendence of every 
one who undertook to transcribe them. We hare the most 
convincing proof, that no such miraculous influence has 
ever been granted. It has been found, on the collation of 
the numerous maiiuscripts still extant, and on the exami- 
nation of other sources of information, that the number of 
discrepances is very great, and indeed at first view appal- 
ling. It becomes, therefore, a matter of great difficulty and 
impdrtance, to determine, amidst this vast multitude, which 
is the true reading, and to fix with certainty the text which' 
proceeded from the sacred penmen. The importance o£ 
this subject is such, that it early forced itself on the atten« 
tion of uxe friends of revelation. Even as early as the time 
of Origen, the discrepances between the several copies of 
the Septuagint were so numerous and serious, that he was 
induced to devote more than twenty-eight years of his life 
to a laborious attempt to restore its purity, and bring it to 
a nearer coincidence with the Hebrew, in this department 
of sacred criticism^ he was followed by Lucian of Antioch, 
and Hesychius of Egypt, whose revised editions became 
^e standard conies of their respective countries, and seem 
to have included the New Testament as well as the Sep- 

The same disagreement which Origen had found in the 
Greek scriptures, Jerome complains of in the Latin. As 
this ancient version had been made from the Septuagint, 
ivhich was then the standard both of the Eastern and Westv 
ern churches, Jerome at first had courage to attempt no- 
thing more than a correction of this translation, from the 
improved text of the Greek scriptures, fomished by the' 
labours of Origen. But his manuscripts being lost or 
destroyed, he embraced the bolder resolution of making a 
version from the Hebrew text itself. This translation, 
about the year six hundred, received the sanction of the 
Bishop of Rome^ and became the standard of the Roman- 

Previously to the time of Jerome, though at what pre- 
cise period is unknown, the Jews had begun to devote much 
attention to the cultivation of the Hebrew language, and 
the preservation of their sacred writings. The two prin- 
cipal, seats of their learning ^ere, Tiberias, for the western 
Jews^ and Babylon for the eastern. At the former of these 
places was composed the Jerusalem Talmud, at the latter 

17S Hodge^s Dissertation on the 

the Babylonish ; contaimng the traditionary law of tfae Jeirs, 
with the comments of their doctors. Bot what at present 
we are more interested in, is the incredible labour they 
devoted to fix the text of the Hebrew scriptures, and to pre* 
serre it immaculate. The Masora, which is one of the 
most surprising monuments of human industry, contains 
the result of their labours. It embraces the enticisms on 
the text, which had been handed down from their ances- 
tors ; the most minute details respecting the size, form, and 
position of the letters ; the number of letters in each book, 
and in the whole Bible ; how often each letter occurs ; and 
the rules to be observed in transcribing the sacred rolmne ; 
m shorty nothing seems to have been omitted, which inge- 
nuity and industry could devise and accomptish, to preserve 
the Hebrew scriptures from the slightest alteration. When 
these Jews were driven from the east, they carried with 
them to the southern parts of Spain, their fondness for Bib- 
lical criticism, and rendered the twelfth century famons, by 
the writings of Maimonides, Aben Etra, David Kimcfai, 8co« 
Such was the effect of the labours of the Masorites, that 
the Jews generally imbibed the belief of the perfect exemp-* 
tion o^the Hebrew Bible from all errors in letters, points, 
and accents. On* the revival of Hebrew literature among 
the. Christians, shortly befcHre the Reformation, the same 
belief of the immaculate purity of the sacred text was em- 
braced by them. It was not until the Samaritan Pentateuch 
was discovered, and brought into Europe, in sixteen hun- 
dred and twenty, that much diversity of opinion on thia 
subject seems to have existed. As this copy of the law of 
Moees was vnritten in the Hebrew language, but without 
the vowel points, and in the Samaritan charact^, critics 
were led to question the antiquity both of the Hebrew 
points and letters. As it was still farther observed, that 
the Samaritan and Hebrew Pentateuchs differed frequently 
in thrir readings, Morinus was led to infer from this fact, 
and from the diversity which existed between the Hebrew 
and the Septuagint, that the former was much corrupted. 
In the year sixteen hundred and fifty, Capellus published 
his Cntica Sacra, in which he took the more moderate 
ground of maintaining, that the Hebrew scriptures had de- 
scended to us with the usual inaccuracies attendant on all 
works frequently transcribed. The opposition made to 
these sentiments by Buxtorf and others, was of the most 
serious kind. The doctrines of Capellus, however, were 
soon adopted by Walton, and since that period have rapidly 

Imfm^hcmt^ 0/ lUhlkdt tAiefdinre. i7^ 

g&ifl«d pmtiti. The pr^irdeaee of the§e cpttthM nsHftffalfy 

SLW ri^e to thfe denire of ftnowiitg the am^ stsf^ df tih^ 
d^rew text, «ad the dt«o«in€ of ^e dfi^ersity trbich r^dlly 
esMted« Tbid led fo the {mbG^fltion of KetxtAt6tfn isde^ 
Wated editkm of the HebrefW BrUe; fofttied f^om* atl exten- 
sive colltttioM of mitawsttlpt^, both m ^ghmd ttid otr {frd 
eontiDeiif* Thwvwork wae^ fiflaUy cotfri|lefed m s^evenrt^eiiett 
huRd^ed and eighty, attefided wi^ an httmenif e tttimber of 
Varro w» readidgs, tbow^h fe^ of them are of Ae ItAtit ithpat- 
Umce. Tbie eoRecCtoiy has been etiftvsidtnSsfy intreMea bt 
the laboars of I>e Roam,, wbo has been fbHowed by J. s, 
M ighacfw , and ESehhom, in Ais departmeftf . 

Thfe* high fdev enfeitc^ived of iSve ptmty of the Hetffetr 
«Mi, WW to- a coMiderable exterd tmngfeired to- die recefted 
text ot the Vew Tefitaiiieat, idirch was supposi^d, by Chris- 
liams geneinA^, tb be as ftere from ail imperfet^4iotf, aa iSi6 
My Tefigvott it reeorded. This* tefxt became fixedF iiv fh^ 
BlzeTir edyiioir of shrteeti^ hundred audf twenty-lotnr. IPhti 
faiaCory of the f^miation of the reee«^df teid, ^ ^x&iftit^d 
i« thfe edition, ia tlHiB' briefly attmmed ttp- by Qriesbaob' oti 
fti^ kffty^w&of hfrPVolegomena. "The ©Ttevfr* editioii 
was fofiaed from filaf of tkta^ and tbe thitdf of l^pben^: 
Beza follofW* t!fie» thrttf of aStephen^, with^ very ffetr aite- 
ratiods. TtM edMott of Stephens wa^ tfte* fifth of l^s- 
iiiuB retrriated, wiA the exeepttovr of (lire few tn^tantei 
in- ^iAtifch be pt«ii%rfed the^ Cbmpfui^inrikn. Btcsmutf forttfed 
hh text froffi 8'few mocfertrmaimscript]^, nvith tbe assiinstnob 
of Ihe £a«ki: Tulgate, and the wrrting^ of d; few of tbe 
fathers iiSEiCCiirately edited."*' 

Shortly after tfie formation of \be receirerf text, i»r the 
Sfaevir editiorr in arxteerr hundred and twenty-fbttr, Bfbfi^ 
cal Literature received- a conardenlbre accessron, in the ptrb- 
Ifteatron of Wsitoi/a Folyglott, and sdbseqaently of Father 
Binvon's CVitical Histories' of die €9<f Testament and ffew 
Tesitoienlis. The attention bestowed on tbfsr snbject gra- 
dtaill^ increased, and tfre ntrmber of disctefpances was found 
to be more and more- conaitferable. The* received text waa 
gradually obtaining the sanctity of age; and die atLtht>rity 

. * CkitsbacKysry properly EMDarJupthat ao- edkien ft# eatided* t9 
aajr autBerity of Hseff^ bat iir to be- estimated by the value of the 
amt^alk from wMcb it wa^ formed tt has providentially happened, 
aecordin£to &e opinion of later critics, that the manugcripts whence 
ftraannn, and the other earfy edltonr, formeif their edi'fions, bisloog 
lb therery cfass, wHfbbrof alT others i^ of the most valde»and t&al 
therefore the rccervet^ text is* better enttned to' .our confidence, tfian 
any other which has yet been formed. 
VOL. VIII. — ^o. 2. o 

}80^ Hodge's Duseriatwn an iht 

of loDg jcootmued acceptance, when the Christian world 
was aroused by the appearance of the edition of Dr. MilU 
with its thirty thousand various readings. The subject now 
assumed so serious an aspect, that the enemies of the truth 
stood in wishful expectation to see the very foundation pf 
the church undermined, and the pious were turning them-* 
pelves to God as their last refuge. As this subject, for a 
•time, almost engrossed the attention of Christendom, it 
was pursued with the greatest ardour. The materials of 
this science have thus not only been greatly increased, but 
reduced to the order of a regular system, by the labours of 
Wetstein, Bengel, Semler, and especially of Griesbach. 
Although the various readings have been made to amount 
to no less than one hundred and fifty thousand, yet since 
it has been found, that rules or criteria could easily be de- 
termined upon, whose application would decide, in almost 
every important instance, which was the original reading, 
and that the vast majority of these discrepances were of 
no importance, relating to mere differences of orthography, 
arrangement of words^ or other trivial particulars, the hopes 
and fears of the enemies and the friends of the truth, have 
alike subsided, and the church with more confidence than 
ever can exclaim — Verbum Dei manet in atemumJ* 
. It surely will not be considered an unreasonable requi- 
sition, that we review the course of this investigation, and 
follow the steps which have led to this delightful result; 
that we carefully consider the evidence, that the Bible we 
now have, is essentially the Bible which proceeded from 
the sacred writers. To lead us over this course, and «xhi<- 
bit this evidence, is the 6ffice of sacred criticism. As this 
is a subject -of great interest and importance, it is also 
one of considerable extent, requiring, 
,. 1. As it regards the Old Testament, a history of the 
sacred text, through different periods, from its formation to 
the present day, including an account of the manner in 
whicn the several books were originally written, compiled, 
and preserved, and the various means devised for maintain- 
ing or restoring their purity. 

The first pomt of interest on this subject, is the consi- 
deration of the question respecting the purity of the Hebrew 
text; and having come to' the conclusion, now universally 

' * It should be stated, that these errors do not affect the integrity of 
the text. Because, to almost every instance, they are the mere mis- 
takes of transcribers ; and the true reading ^ though lost in one copy, 
is preserved in another. 

Importance of Biblical Lileraiure. 181 

admitted, that there is no such thing as a text immaculatdy 
pure, to inquire into the various sources of the errors found 
to exists and to arrange them in their proper classes. 

Our second object should be^ the consideration of the 
means by which the purity of the text may be restored* 
This requires a knowledge of the sources whence its origi* 
nal state is to^ be learnt, such as ancient manuscripts, yer* 
sions, and quotations. 

With regard to manuscripts, we must learn the circum- 
stances by which their comparative authority is to be deter- 
mined ; as, their antiquity, the care with wnich they have 
been written and preserved, and the particular family or 
class to which they belong. 

The consideration of the ancient versions leads us into 
die extensive history of the LXX. Whether this version 
derived its name from the belief^ that seventy-two persons * 
were engaged in the translation, or from its being made 
mider the sanction of the council of seventy elders, is un- 
certain. It is strongly recommended to our atttention, by- 
its hi^h antiquity ; by the authori^ it so long maintained, 
both in the Jewish and Christian church; by the influence 
it has had on the style of the New Testament; and its 
importance in ascertaining the ancient readings of the Old. 
The other versions of importance are, the Gredk translations 
of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion — the ancient Latin,, 
the Syriac, and the Chaldee Paraphrases, or Jewish Tar- 
g^ms. Each of these versions is considered as in s(nne 
measure exhibiting the text, at the period in which they 
were respectively made. In this connexion should be mea- 
tioaed tne Stfmaritan Pentateuchf which is the Hebrew, 
text in the Samaritan character, and, as is generally sup- 
posed, the ancient Hebrew character* As this Pentateuch 
nas come down through a channel entirely distinct from 
diat by which the Jewish scriptures have been received, 
and as it has had considerable influence in regulating the 
course of sacred criticism, it becomes one of the most 
interesting docundents connected with this subject. The 
principal quotations of importance from the Hebrew scrip- 
tures are to be found in the Jewish Talmuds. In addition 
to these sources of information, should be mentioned, the 
Masora, which contains the critical apparatus of the Jews^ 
for restoring and preserving the purity of the text* 

After attending to these various means of arriving at a 
knowledge of the original state of the Hebrew ScriptureSt 
we are next to consider their relative value, and the rule* 

Its. Hocige'a DisseKtatim m the 

to b^ adopted in s^keting fh>m tke varioua rttdinga they 
zSoxd. "" 

And, ftnaUy* wa are to review the history of the acliiai 
api^licdtioB of these means., to the restiajraition of the test, 
whioh inirohres an acoouat of the eafly critical laheim of 
the Jews, and the suhseqneat labouia of Chiistiiiii0f which, 
can obW be given in an aeoount of the YariouB orilaoal edi- 
tions of the Hebrew Bible. 

When we turn to the oriticiain of the New Testamonit we 
meet a subject of fkr greater extent and imiportatiee» aL^- 
thoagb'wa shall have the same g^aeral coucae' ta paraue : 
esaniinnigy fimt, the sources oC the eraora; eecooidly, the 
means of their correction ; and ^bordlyy the history of the> 
abdication of these means. 

' moait ot the souicea of ^ror, whiok affected the CUd Tea**; 
tamcnt^ have 9^ operated on the Kew, and mangt'of thoab 
to a iBUch ^eater extent ; because the New Teataoiettt wa» 
mote widely diffiued, mora firequeatly and leaa carelnUy; 
tiabsofibed. The attention the, Jewa detoted td the cor- 
reotnesa of th^v maaufeicMtsy was carried to. a pnparatiAoiis. 
extent. The rales which thejy preaenbed to thein travK. 
aiGAbevs^ embraced the most uiinuAev particulars^ sadb aat; 
the size and fcpm of the letters^ tbi^. numher to he ceaapBised; 
in each Uae, their distaoca fiEoaa ea^k oihuexi, be. Tbb lan' 
borlous^ attention jeinad wsdi the iaftaettea exerted by thsj 
pMidtictioiia of tha nbin^ aa to the^ sesidi ofi the. least misn 
take, i^dabed a decree of smpuioas care, aAicK wa^; 
n^ver extended te thel>ooka of the New TesHsateat. l^Ma 
ciiNiutnstaiMie^ logether with the great aMkiplkatififk of th* 
eopi» of the New Testatnen^ would lead va to expect, tliel: 
tfa0 dii^repanQea b^a^eeik these copiee wcMildi be more serin 
oiia than the various readiaga of tlie> QU Testament. The; 
means of correcting whatever esrors. reaHy> may exmk, and! 
of^arripwig at the knowledge^ of tho< original text^'may<agaUfe 
be referred t^ the sev^Bl heada off manuauip^ vessionsi; 
and ^uotatiitMis* 

In esttm^tiBg Ae vahia of maaAiacci|^, we momt^ m before^ 
atteikd ta their aatiqauty; the cafe< wiik which they^w^rq 
wpiitlea; their purity, or freedom from cotrecticlnai or iaieai 
polntioaa^ and the class to. whioh they beloagk. Thia hM 
subjiect rises iato iufcfdoalable' HDpeiitanee, ftom the tstot^ 
that critics, do not hesitatq to. inerge. odq hundaedb BMmiH 
fl^nf>ts into ona testimony, and tamake one counterb^ttce 
an bufiidred, aecording to the paitibuloi! elas&to. wbidi they 
belong* In other words, in judging of a»y pastkrohtE reao^ 

Imptf/ianct ofBitUddl Lit^ikre. liB^ 

ing» tte Aumbto cf individuU BiafciitBcHpili iti Ikrdlj^ tiAk^ 
into tb<e iLcioubt; the odiy qatetida is^ by bdWMWy dakil^ 
or recensions Is it wpportra ? ^ thds^ 6tklf im cicminddl^A 
luB indep^disnt witnesses. Foir thk,. there is deAHf impdi^- 
ianl reason^ sintb it wbnld bt «te tttipfober Ix) wdtioe ftk 
separate testiitiottyv the sevi^rd transcti^ of tbe skM^ 
mantistHpt, »l the several copies of ^k satue (^ditioii of 
any printed work. But the difficulty UeS in fltidibg sUffi^ 
eient eritefiia for sepajratiog tike lieteml tna^ttsdript^ infb 
iiieiir distitiofc classed. Thet« is certainly d^iiiger (^( eit^Iting 
to the rank of independent Witnessesi thoi^e wbid^ 'i&re iiot 
«ntitlidd to thill iuthorily. Bengel flfst prbbt»6«d t&is pHi^ 
cip}^ of classttScHtiiMu He was followed by Seliitet'^ yid 
aftarwairds by Oii^sbAch. These ori^^ii> obfeerv'mg aii^oh^ 
the attmeroas ^nnrioas raaditigs exhibited by ekteti^ toAnvL- 
scriptSi dittt in cbaracteristio #eadiligs tMAy d£ thsm Hgf e^, 
aad that ihk ooi«i4ide0oe Was so t^arkedj Ihat it fce^ald htfi 
hare been fortnitaue ; thi mimoseripts thus dgte^ibg^ they 
referred to the same clie^l^, ihtiiilyi or i^iietisioii^ And thisy 
still farther tetaark^^ that thds^ iaanttseiipts wlbibh k^t^b 
in thsir chlira^teristic readii&gS) tAtAe frofti the sam^ 6ottti- 
try« and coincide with the set^ml V»si&hs> khA with th^ 
writings of the fathers which belofig to tteir #^6)^d^i>^^ 
districts/ Hedoe diese r^censiotis 4re esJled the Weston ; 
the Al^andrine^ and the Byzahtii^e, kn pr^v&ili^g ih Hmk 
seretal lections of the ^huit^ha lliid is Grie^belt^h'i didtiibti^ 
tioHi The tnanasclipts belonging to the twd fettner ^( tltede 
olasees, are CxtreiixelV few, yet on the suppcdilioh th&t th^jr 
are separate and independent Witiiessei> these few^ i^ Case 
i0f tikcir coincidence, are made to oidtWei^ die Mtdtitnde 
#hioh belong to the B]i!zantihe ditision. It is on this CoiiW 
eidenee that the authoritjr of Griesbath's tel^t id fbiriidcd. 
It is plaitii tiiefefori9| thaf tbis authority may be destroys, 
aithef by shewing that there is no Miffi^ient gtoutid kk 
thus separating manuscripts into distinct classes, Whkh 
wtts tbe opinion of Matth«iy and odim* distitigtiished men^ 
ahd which is the tendenoy 'Of a ^eai part of Dr. Lattteiice'i^ 
Essaj on this sttbjeotfon admitting tbftt tbe/C is goCd tek- 
son for this classification, by shewifig that SOitie Cf these 
ndtnesites afe unwoithy of credit. ThiS/ Mf. Volkh has 
4tteiiptedj ia his work on the Integrity 6f the Greek Vul- 
gate. His objeot Was to prove^ that tb« BytHntiM text, 
which h that followed in the teeeiTSd tett of the N^w Tes^ 
tattenty i^ the only one which has oome d^Wn iincotr^pted, 
and supported by the uniform traditionary testimtmy 6f the 

:184 Hodge*e Dissertation vn tlte 

.church. Instead of calling the first two classes Western 
and Alexandrine^ he calls them Egyptian and Palestine, 
and gives (page 105) a satisfactory reason for the preva^ 
lence of the first in the Western church, and of the second 
in Alexandria. By thus changing the birth-place of these 
two recensions, he is enabled to give an historical account 
of their origin. The Egyptian text be ascribes to the revi^ 
sion of Hesychius, the ralestine to that of Eusebius. The 
Byzantine was edited by Lucianus. The last-mentioned 
eaitor, he supposes, published the then authorized text, 
without alteration ; whereas both the others corrected their 
copies a^eeably to their own views, and to the state of 
opinion m their respective countries^ with which he shews 
they very strikingly correspond. In thus assi^ing to 
Oriesbacn's two most important classes a recent origin, and 
endeavouring to fix on them the charge of systematic cor- 
ruption, he has attempted to undermine the authority of his 
principles for settling the text. How far he has succeeded 
m this attempt, must be left for others to decide : it may, 
however, be safely asserted, that enough has been accom* 

{>lished, to make the friends of truth nesitate to acknow- 
edge the exclusive authority of a text, which is the result 
of so questionable a system. 

After the manuscripts, the next source of information is 
the early versions, of which the most important are, the 
Syriac, the old Latin or Italick, the Sahidic, and the Latin 
Vulgate, Each of these is made to contribute an important 

fiart^in settling the sacred text. The history of each, there- 
ore, calls for our serious attention. 

Quotations from the New Testament in the early fathers, 
is the third source, and one which has given rise to much 
discussion, and exerted great influence on the theories of 
eminent critics. It is one, also, of peculiar difficulty, owing 
to the loose memoriter manner in which these quotations 
were frequently made. 

After consicfering these sources of information as to the 
original state of the sacred text ; we are next to attend to 
the rules by which we are to be governed in our choice of 
the various readings they afford. 

To learn what has been done in attempting to restore the 
purity of the text, we must study the principles on which 
the most important editions of the New Testament were 
conducted, and their respective histories, especially those 
of Ximenes, Erasmus, Stephens, Mill, Wetstein, and 

Imparitmce of Bibtiehl LUerature. 1^3 

Such is a very imperitBci 6tttline of the first division* of 
this subject. Before prooeeding to say any thing on inter-^ 
pretation, I would mention two or three subjects, on which 
our minds' should be previously made up, viz. the canonical 
authority, the genuineness, ana the inspiration, of the sacred 

With respect to the first, it is evidently proper that we 
know what books are to be recognized as scripture, before 
we proceed to consider the principles on which the sacred 
writings are to be explained. The consideration of the 
second subject, is little more than the extension of the appli^ 
cation of tne ]^rinciples of sacred criticism, ascending from 
the investigation oi the genuineness of particular passages 
to the genuineness of entire books. 

The reason for placing the inspiration of the sacred scrip>- 
tures in this part of our course, is two-fold : Ist, that we 
may study them under the deep impression that they are 
the word of God ; and 2dly, because it may be found that 
the divine origin of the scriptures should exert a consider- 
able influence on the principles by which they are to be in^ 
terpreted. It is one of the first principles of interpretation, 
thatin explaining any work, respect is to be had to the cha- 
racter of its autnor. But if the doctrine of the plenary 
inspiration be true, God is the real author of the sacred 
sonptures. It is readily admitted, that this fact does not 
interfere with their having been written according to the 
common principles of language, which the object they were 
intended to answer rendered absolutely necessary. • In 
translating the sacred writings, therefore, the principle inr 
question mav not exert any great influence ; but when we 
come to explain them, it will be found of esssential impor- 
tance. The rules of interpretation, which arise out of the 
divine origin of the Bible, are as clearly ascertained, and as- 
well founded, as those which arise from any other source, 
resting on the authority of the sacred writers themselves. 
It is from them we learn, that the old dispensation wa» 
preparatory to the new ; that the law was *' a shadow of 
good things to come," and is to be explained accordingly. 

Before entering, therefore, on the second department of 
this subject, we should be convinced of the canonical> 
authority, authenticity, and inspiration, of the sacred scrip*^ 
tures, thai we may be able to take their divine authority a& 

I am now to endeavour, briefly, to state the course to be 
pursued in the Interpretation: of the Bible. 

eq^fotvik <HP highly wpn^lmt in. tli^ ' JAtarpretft biowtlf ; 
iHj ifiBl^ » Jui9«4^g(» m t)ie >lMg;iMce» in Mtbieh the fiiUe 
WMi>fiJi^ifisUly.ff9iftePf ^y.oM wb^ netd^ a wonk in » 

and'phrases ot no two languages exactly correspond iimd Hm 

f^vii^T i^omhiwi'UQTmp it i« ]mp09f»liJo a ?eremi ishould 
ff^ny Witliattt <liv^Ui«>9 9» f bif wigectp it ie suffiomyt to 
appeiJl to Cli^^xMiie^QQ Qf eyi^ry OM acq«amted wiib ajqr 
ti^Q Im^ffmig^f^ Whitt^^tp How would tkb Itnomnt claamiem 
Wp .«f tim^tMi if j iMig^ by fi ifitaral tvanaJaAmi ? H« shoitki 
«W im Acftit^ivt^d wHb tbe «bArftcfe«r ftud bi«tory of tibe 
several sacred writers, wijdi ik^ «tfrte of q^ioQ in thfi a^ 
ii» wbi^ tbey lived* Tbii is <^ pioodiiar importance m 
ri^af d tK> tb^ ^^w Tei»ta«ieQt« and iocludea a knowl^dg^ of 
tb« «Q6ts m4 ppiiniaiM of tb^ Jewft, of tbe ««rly CbmiiMii 
io(^iTvsm» and of Ihe wdy hero^ies- He «bonld aiao bo 
a^ufOAt^d witb tbe mftnneni aiid ewitosns« tbft biw«# cba-* 
trnUf^ wd oivcwiPtAQoea of ib^ pmapi to iwbom (be aaef ed 
l¥riti»g0 v^sre «d4r9fi«ed« tb^if civil history, witb that of 
n§ig^bOufii)g n^iiQW^ ti^ther Intb whatever Ug^ gao^ 
gmihy^ ebroMU>gy* oatitrtd biotoiy, jmd pbilosopfay, can 

CHiM Q» tb^ SftCI^ T0lu«|i^ 

Th^ ii^berpret^r of iKsript^rQ ahould.be diicriminattng and 
ewtious; bo fbonld bo bumble nod teacbablci, atiwiUe of 
bia »ee4of diyii^ 4»obiag^ Md mxipu^ to obtain it» Of 
9)1 qu^JiSottioQ^^ tho moat in^portani are, piety, and a firm 
oonfi^tion pf tb^ divlm origin of tbe aonptwras : withcmt 
^so WO'CW MY^ «nter into the fedingo aaui Ticywa «f tho 
&4orod wntont. nor have any pooper imfwcssiona as to tbe 
4^gPA of tbo Biblo, and tbereforo «aimor be. praj)ared to 
Ol^p^^ iti Thu fintt duly of m intcirpreter ia to beacome 
a^u^ted with tba «Maniog of wmda> tiie •QTend dasaes 
iiip^V) which tb^ ara^ natvfally divided^ and to beeomo fami-» 
UftV wi^ the goooral prviGipiea of IttBgmige. 

We mwt nexiotteM to Ae oommoii acoeptaiion of worda 
aqd pbraao9»»iid tbe aonroea of infonnatioaonthia subject; 
wo «b»«14 inquira into the qiroumatfiiuwi hv wbioh the 
import of words and pbiaaea is st gnlated in all langua^a ; 
s^ob M tba optnionq^ laws* and cuatoma of the {>eople, the 
PfKHdif^r oireumituiQOS of thia natnra^ itbioh hav« inflnenoad 
the language and modes of expression characteristic of. tho 
"B&yli^. Esf^eoioJljr wa sboald aitend to the paisuliar phraae- 
ology of the T^ew l^Mammt, the soui»09 whence it Ma haaq 

dcfived/M Uk Hsbttmm olfigin <of die atered wrilen> Anit 
fcniiHaiity miih the Sepblagintv ^e mflneiifser of tiMur wtH^ 
gioas McHt; and their iBtemmoBe widi Jiefe^bomtig niitioiab 
We* slK>uld study the means by whteh the Jninguftge of the 
New Testament is to be iUustmted ; su6b aa» die wiibhge 
of e€KtcB»6nry aiithoiB, ihe phrmseoidgy of the (Md Teeta- 
Bosnt, boui ID die 'Greek and Hdnev^ and the general olm* 
racter of the eastern idiom. 

. Hairmg considered these subjects^ and ihced in ous rai&dt 
the geaeral principles of interpretatitm, whether appliiAble 
to all writings, or peculiar to the eaored ycdnme, we mxxst 
attend to tbe inteipretation of figuraim langnaf^, tiie am* 
aeatioti between the literal and figsoratiTe meanitig of words^ 
iSke ctrcmmstanoes in which tbe latter is to be rworted to^ 
Su3. This will lead to tbe consideration of the ptinoipail 
figures of epeecb, each as metaphor and allegory^ nnd em^ 
enlly the parables of onr Savionr, whioh hare been en often 
perrerted as any part of the saered Tolame. It is dsere«- 
fore neeeesary nint we ^Kmld h«we distinctly befbre us tbe 
tulee by whicn these figures are to be espfadned* 

These are only preuminary subjeels, which lead to tiba 
more oxteosiye pnnetplea of interpretation, i^pficslde tO 
whole departments of the word of Qod, as the ruka te 
historical, doctrinal, typical, and prophetieal intervietn^ 
tion. The two latter are peeufiarly ^portant;. . We flnouU 
0x in onr minds the precise definition of a type^ leom whoA 
persons, inatitations, and civeumstances of uie Old Testai^ 
inent are to be coasidei ed as typical; determiiie niSiethee 
we are to confine this character to the particular untanoes 
specified in the New Testament, or are at liberty to: extesol 
it, and how &r. Witb r^ard to prophecy, it is untaeoei^ 
saiy to say that it will require much laDorious study^ inchid«^ 
' ing two oi the most difficult sabjeets connected with this 
w€oie department, im.'«^the doctrine o£ double seane^nnd 
the modes of quotation adopted by tihe sacred writers of 
the New Testament; And, finally, we must consider l3ie 
systems of interpretation to which the whole Bible has 
been liiade to submit, as the cabbalistic ; the allegorical ; 
tiie mys^al, which either deserts entirely the grsoMnatical 
sense, er exalts some inward feeKng above the word; tba 
dogmatical, which makes any system of doctrine annadiohi 
ittative rule of interpretation; ae the RomMi churchy tbe 

Sstem which they believe to have been handed down m 
eior traditions ; and tbe philosopbi<$aI, which nudees omr 
preconceived opinions the rule of fiulh ; which incfa^dee 

Ids Hodge's DiaerMion, ifc. . 

the eonsidftration of the proper office of reason in the iater«« 
pfetetion of seriptuie. The histonry and olaims of diese 
several systems, and their respective influence on the church, 
open to us as instructiye a field of investigation, as any 
which ecclesiastical history affords. 

• We may conclude the general outline of this department, 
by stating the most important and interesting of me duties 
it enjoins, viz. the immediate study of the word of God. 
With this we are to be occupied from the commencement 
to the close of our course. The object of Biblical Litera* 
ture, is to enable us to do this with the best advantage. 
Not contented with prescribing rules of interpretation, and 
furnishing the various means for the illustration of the 
Bible, it IS a great part of her duty to oversee our actual 
application of them. It is, therefore, to the delightful 
eniployment of studying the scriptures that she invites us. 
i I have not forgotten, that, the professed object of thi» 
Dissertation is to exhibit the importance of Biblical Litera-* 
tuie. But I feel that 1 have already nearly completed the 
task assigned me, by shewing, as &r as my knowledge of 
the subject would permit, what Biblical Literature is; 
because I conceive tne feeblest statement of its nature is 
demonstrative of its importance. The importance of a 
ccmrse of study, whose object. is to fix with cei;tainty the 
sacred text, and exhibit the evidence that the Bible we 
now have, is the Bible which Ood delivered to hi s> church; 
to assist us in discovering and exhibiting its. meaning, by 
prescribing the principles by which it is to be explamra, 
and bringing within our reach the various means of illus** 
tration; and, above all, which leads us so much to the im« 
mediate study of the word itself :—7the importance of such 
a course, is surely a subject on which diversity of opinion 
is impossible. It is my intention, therefore, on a future 
occasion, to make some remarks, intended to impress on 
our minds the necessity of paying particular attention to 
this subject, the importance of which we must all admit. 

[The above essay, with that which we hope soon to sive 
in continuation of it, was delivered to a society, formed in 
the theological seminary in which its author is a tutor, for 
improvement in Biblical Literature, by dissertations on 
important subjects connected with it, and tmnslations and 
expositions of sacred scripture, performed by the members 
in alphabetical order! a plan well worthy of imitation in 
our.own country. — Enix.] 



1 • Characteristics, in the Manner of Rocfiefoucault's Maximsm 
F'cap. 8vo. pp. 156, Londfon, 1823, Simpkin and 

2. Outlines of Character: consisting of, the Great Charac-s 
ter — the English Character — Characteristic Classes m Rela^ 
iion to Happiness — the Gentleman — External Indications of 
Character — Craniology — the Poet — the Orator — Literary 
Characters — the Periodical Critic — the Man of GeniuSf 
By a Member of the PhilomathiQ Institution. 8vo* 
pp.320. London, 1823. Longman. , i. 

*' It is not easy to write Essays like Montaigne^ nor Maxims 
' in the manner of the Duke de la Rochefoucault ;'' so rttnii 
the three hundred and seventy-eighth of the four hundred 
and twenty-four Characteristics in this volume ; but it is 
strangely misplaced towards the close of the book^ when it 
should nave stood at the head, as a text, upon which we 
have a hundred and fifty pages of practical comment. Save, 
indeed, in a few particulars, better honoured in the breach 
.than in the observance, nothing can conveniently be less 
V in the manner of Hochefoucaulf s Maxims,'' than these 
professed imiitations of them. Of the style, and^ as far as 
execution is concerned, the spirit of those celebrated pro* 
ductious, wehave ever been as ardent admirers as the author 
before us can be, though despairing of seeing them equal- 
led in their beauties, whilst their defects were avoided.- To 
this rare excellence, he, however, ambitiously aspires, though 
confessedly aware of the difficulties of so bold a flight; 
f* A thought," says he in his preface, ^' must tell at once, or 
jiot at all;'« and he observes with as accurate a taste, that 
in the construction of maxims, whilst '* the style must be 
sententious and epigrammatic, it is equally necessary to 
avoid paradox or cdmmon-place." By these canons of 
criticism he cannot object to be tried, for they are hifr 
own ; yet strangely do we deceive ourselves, if, ere we 
have done with him, be is not most satisfactorily proved to 
have violated both. "Commencer par le commencement,*^ 
then, we can say little, either for the elegant or the epigram-' 
matic turn of such expressions, as " want of confidence in 
themselves, which is upset and kicks the beam, if the 
smallest particle of praise is thrown into another's scale ;'* 
nor does the following singular rope of metaphors, which 

190 Review. — GhltractemticB : 

immediately follow the words just qi;oted> strike us as very 
axiomatic, or particwltfly « la ftcMUidbucault. " They are 
poor feeble insects, tottering oa the road to fame, that are 
crushed by the shadow of opposition, or stopped 1^ a 
whisper of rivaUhi^/* To out vulgar ^ste, and dull ama* 
^nations also, the idea and the ^^pression deems equally 
unhappy, of a woman " throwing herself unblushingly at 
Otnr heads,*' though Bome heads, oy the way, would not be 
much injured by a far heavier concussion. Whether that 
might be the case with the authot's, our readers must deter- 
mine for. themselves, as they proceed with our remarks upon 
Ibis production. 

^ llie desire to say what he considers a smart thing, and 
to follow out a favourite thought through every possible 
ramifiottioii, fraqoently lebds him into amardity and para<- 
dox ; as wberej in the^tWeBtyHsaoMld mlixlm, to prove Aat 
envy i« tha moat umvdnial patsioii, he roandly a(SsertM» ikM 
V we envy IbUv and conoeitf tmj^ w« ^ lo ntir as to envy 
whatever eon^m distiiHftioa or iiotoriety, even Vice and 
infamy/^ If this be true, we e&ty the lounging fo^ in 
BoD4-stveei!4 whotn ^nr^rj tnaa of sense desptsos ; and oj^ 
sdmost willing to be huag ind anatomtEed^ to aecjiire the 
notoriety of the perpetrators of iJte htte horrid murdek?. 
In IiIls jcaat^iefj et^rv day'a ex|»erieii&e . ooniiradiets an 
lu^s^rtian, foundied eitber Upon this oonatatit liitnling flfier 
prettyisms and wUtkis!iDB^ or afi certaia rumours, heraSbr to 
be stated, lead us t<> stuspect, upon personal piqut^ ** that 
if a maa i^ didliked by otto Mroman, bie will Buceeed with 
none. The aex (one abd all) harve. die same secret ot 
Iree-oiaaoBfy in judging of meo." This is downright no^«- 
senstt* N<>r can ire oonoeive of dnv thin^ so v6ltttUe aad 
m^rcwal as our a«thor mtist b€f> if ae venfi^s^ in hia owtl 
versatility, the assertion of his oktielih oh&ratteristi^ 
tWt *' we often bestow the most opprobrious epithets oA our 
^st &iondo> and retract them twenty timei^ in. the course of 
a day# while the man hiiUself remaina the same/' Sorely he 
vntBt havo drawn soiae at least of the views of humui lifii 
and oharfieter fitom the interior of bediain, for witboutaide 
its walls, no one, who ought not to b^ within them^ dan act 
in thia and eeversi other respects* as he teipresents th^ 
whole biman lace to do. Other of hia aketehes satisfy ui^ 
indeed, that he uust have kept strange company, or we never 
ahould have had a grave denunciation of aasociating with 
footinen, thus happily ezpreSEred, " Livery servants (1 ooo^ 
|i(ea U) are the only people I do not like to sit in eompany 

in the Manuer 9f Roebcfimcwlt'fi. Maxims. 191* 

with« Tli«y oSmA not only by tlleir own meMoieBs^ bnt: 
by tb^ ofttfiotatiiQua display of the pxide of thor oww 
naa^ci.'* Wk^iul p«blic4ifiaMt the wrker may be in; 
the habit of £raqittotiiig, to amoke Ua pipe aai take hia. 
^aaa» we know not ; but it lautt have beoii in &e tap-rpooaa/^ 
or acme aach place of lorn tesar^ tkat he ccmld alone ho. 
sohjetted to tim affroaut; «iid if ho aou|;ht ittcheompattfr 
ha at leaat ought not to complaiii of their intrvaiqiw Wa 
should^ hovireTer^ be astonutied at vo> ineaagriii^ in the eon^ 
doct, ^tea» or aiaociatioaa of a man, who ^MilMimtely telk& 
i»« aa the result of hie. obaairTatioa. of hjaoiaiiL chamater^ 
" ao that wo excke a stion^ eimotioa ift the breasts of oAen,, 
we caie Uttie of what kiiad ifr ia^ or by vhatmeana we. pvodBCA 
k'y^ aa that it is a mattet of perfeet isikiflereiice, whetlwe 
we excite the waimest aivd beet, fomnded adasiation,. or 
the strongest and most merited disguat, by the auhlimast 
yirt»e% on. the one hajod^ or the. moBJt deteatable yicea ota thor 
Qtheir- The nhihuitjhropiat and. the mivderer-^-tbe pro- 
fymidteat scholar, ai^d the moet dejctere^ua thieif,7-4lQ]ilKacdi 
and C^olooi^l Qb^rtreai Milt<iM» and Bill S^eamesk are eqiaaUah 
e^vi^ible, heeauae equallor an^^ceaefid in attaiioa^ Ae ^dMofi 
object of human pursuit in life ; and, if there were any truth 
ia the following Beunago of nonsenae-, wosJd boi on tiiei sttne 
QOwmoD level at thai»d)eaths« 

*^ People, in th|^ grasp of death wish all tba evil they have d^ne 
(as wqU as aljt the good) to bq knowa, not to make atQivement h^ 
confession, but to excite one more strong sensatibiv before thej^ 
die, and to leave t^eftr ititerests and passiqns a legacy to posterity, 
when lliey themseKcs are exe;mpt from the consequences." [pp** 
66, 67.] . - ' 

CoQspared ««tk suchi wnetched aaaralkty, or ralher gvoail 
imflaQfaUty«r^BO oemplcte a nerveraioa o^ comnioii. sanso^ 
a^di caricaAafic of ii» prifioifuea o£ koflHia aoliaA^-«^-e« thiav 
MaodevoAle^ ItochdGouoault,. epd Chaatatfieldy winb alk the 
eynucism* settsbness, and laxity o£ their lyitsta of* etMoe^ 
ace^ ^ters. who caa da no haam. 

The) wifih of gensraliziag^ri^^na aiia afe cafiwnagittg aft tiMft 
can be said on any; subjeee^ into m uni^abeliL-^bas led all 
ataxiMHnakeis and axiainaidtti wiitBra, Rofthefimcanil by no 
aaeana excepted* ta lay down aalea aa^ universally) appnoaM 
ble^ aduuchareLbttiiveiy pai)tia%'80vaBdiGonMfmcAQd^ taqoinB 
aonds wttrlefyation aa|d qnahfyingv Thup, wb^n Hbm aMbat 
l^eiora ua tetta UB,Uiat ^' we ana q«i(he«aa«ipttO'beieae'Whal 
we dread, as whatwa bope^'^ everyone what thiaka^ai alt aiaHrt 

192. Reviiw.-^Cbaracteristm: 

see^ in a moment, that this mainly depends upon constttu-' 
tional temperament, some persons as habitually hoping even 
against hope, as others are sunk into the depth of despair 
by the slightest disappointment or uncertainty. The 
nerves, indeed, have often as much to do with our hopes 
and fears, as the character of the mind. We the rather 
wonder, too, at his overlooking this obvious fact, as in 
another part of his book, he accidentally gives to the nervous 
system a most fearfiil preponderance in the regulation of 
our conduct, where, in undertaking a new explanation of 
the classical confession of the obnoxious and unclassical 
doctrine of human depravity, ** video meliora probo^ue, 
deteriara sequar," he, in the following sublimely unintelligi-- 
ble rant, says, of the generally received opinion, that we do 
from passion the things of which our reason disapproves, — 

** Nothing like it. The course that persons in the situation of 
Medea pursue, has often as little to do with inclination as with 
judgment; but they are led astray by some object of a dhturbed 
imagination, that shocks their feelings and staggers their belief, 
and they grasp the phantom, to put an end to this state of tor--^ 
meating suspense, and to see whether it is human or not.'^ [p. 58.} 

A shaved head and a strait waistcoat would be the fittest 
regimen, at once for the author, and the subjects, of this new 
theory of morals. 

In this species of writing, especially, brevity is the soul of 
wit; and we have often thought, that some of the latter 
maxims of Rochefoucault have been very faulty, from their 
wide departure from this rule ; but a much larger proportion 
of those of his imitator are in the like dilemma, of losing 
most of whatever point and force they may possess, by their 
lenethiness. Of this, he would himself seem to be aware, 
for he has divided several of them into two, three, four, and 
even five separate maxims or characteristics, although they 
are so evidently consecutive parts of the same proposition, 
as to be commenced with an *' or it often arises," *' this 
negative system leads ;" " others make ;*' '* it doea not 
render the person less contemptible ;" ** are we to infer from 
thi^?" ** the foregoing maxim shews," &c. 

In those maxims we are furnished vnth abundance of 
truisms, some of them as novel and instructive, as that a 
man cannot produce a fine picture, or solve an abstruse 
problem, by giving himself airs of importance ; a discovery 
for which feiw, we ajpprehend, will hold themselves very 
deeply indebted to this new Rochefoucault. 

fit tlie Manner q/" Rochefoucault's Maxims. 193 

Others are at once trifling, little-minded, useless, an^' 
absurd ; e. s. ** The expression of a Frenchman's face is 
often as melancholy when he is by himself, as it is lively in 
conversation. The instant he ceases to talk, he becomes 
* quite chop-fallen/ " It would have been equally impor-^ 
taut and instructive to have recorded as an axiom, that 
** the appearance of an Hessian boot is often as dull, when 
it has been rained upon for an hour, as it is glossy when 
sent out of the maker's shop. The instant it has had ar 
thorough soaking, it becomes as duU as though it nevec 
had a brush upon it." 

Nor are we much more edified by the oracular assurance^ 
that Russel could play nothing but Jerry Sneak ; and that 
it was ridiculous to set up Mr. Kean as a rival to Mr. 
Kemble, a text, upon which we have a page of comment; or 
struck with astonishment, by the italic prodigious appended 
to the name of Listen, as an illustration of a character- 
istic, the burden of which is, that '* comic^ actors have 
generally attempted tragedy parts, and have a hankering 
after it to the last. 

Enough, however, of instances to prove, that this maker 
of maxims is no Rochefoucault, although he has succeeded 
in copying dome of the faults, without having ability to 
imitate the beauties, of that agreeable writer* Thus draw- 
ing sketches of human character from the worst features of 
its worst specimens, they have, though with different 
degrees of talent and success, formed rules for the conduct 
of mankind, admirably calculated to render them what 
they represent them naturally to be, self-interested hypor 
crites. Such, for instance, are principles of morality like 
the following : — " It signifies little what we say of our 
acquaintances, so that we do not tell them what others say 
against them ;" or in other words, it is unimportant whe- 
ther we speak truth or falsehood. On the same system, 
we are told, that " mankind are a herd of knaves ajid fools. 
It is necessary to join the crowd, or get out of their way, 
in order not to be trampled to death by them." After such 
a sweeping condemnation of* the whole race of which he is 
an individual, it can be no breach of charity to say, that the 
author of this characteristic must either be a fool or knave ; 
and our perusal of his work would induce us to ask him, as 
some wit of the last century asked one of its anti-social 
philosophers, who had pronounced a somewhat similar libel 
upon liis species, '' Pray, sir, may not a man be both ?" 
That he may, is indeed admitted, by another of these charac- 

{94 Mei9iew.'^Ciafa€tenstk$: 

iemticf^m wbich there 10 at once utoie truth a»i seMe ; *' I 
am always afraid of a fmir one cannot be sare that lie 
k^ not a knave as weB f and in compliance with this fnem&fy 
caiaiioD, we abaN take espedal caro ta keep out et idm 
aathov^s way. 

la atio^f respect be resembles Rochefaaeattii; sfad 
those satirists who know Kttle of women buA Ae teftise of 
Ate sex ; aod hence attribute to the most chaste and ^iv^ 
taous the inclinalioAfi and vioes of the most degradM--4iM 
necessity for disguising the one, aad refraining itceii^ psne 
other, constituting, according to their slanderous th^oryi 
the> enly^ diffareBce between the modest teoman and the 
shaaislesa pfostitate, the hitter of Whom has evidelitly thitf 
adfantiags, that she hr nO' hypocnte. " Women,** we are 
told, ^ never reason/^and thererare, addsenr astute k^icisB^ 
^they are comparatrrely seldom wrong/' Yet ether* of 
his fetches of tiie sex, represent themr as everlastingi^ 
talking about their dress; as neither consalHaRg the head 
mot heart; bet mere hvmoorand: fancy; in love, though with 
them it is '* the great business of life," in which they ccnin 
stanrify make mistakes, and ;^et, marvdh>u» ta say, only 
asfss^miarbingprofbuiid discoveries^ h«t ^' dsnotiavoilfethein^ 
selves in gcosi^ absurdities/* These are paradoxes beyond 
ear mean commen sense to reconcile, or to sdve i peraaps, 
however, tbatnamefesequalifioation of Ae* other sex, which 
is soperior to* reason, may enable them to^ d^ it more to 
Ibeis'satisftbction, thaU' we fear iiie fblfowing^ extracts ftom 
this work wiU he to- the anlhor^s, rf Iheir appmbatien is 
among the vavied objects e# his singular ambitkm; 

^Wbmen have as Gate AnaginatiDn as they hsnre reason. T^X 
arepare egotists. Tbey cannot go oat of themsefares. There is 
ngs* insCttRce of a woman haring done any thing great in poetry or 
{philosophy. They can act tragedy, because tnie depends r&j 
muohsB l^» physical expression or die* passions— 4liey' can- sing; 
te'they hsire ftsaiblk thooats. and aioe eam^— they can wnte vch- 
uumses. abDut loTK)-~and' talk foe ever afasufc notUng^^WamsB 
ares not phflosopham or poets». palnota^ nrarali]^, «r pilitisiaas^- 
thef age- simply womenJ' ^i. L14i]' 

** Womesuhave^ no speculative &cuUy or fiartitttde. of sudd, and 
wherevtc tbev exercise a aontinual and paiameunt swayv. all naial; 
be soon laughed out of. cauntenance, but the* immediatel]} inteUi/e 
ffbh^ and" agreeable — but tbe> sbewy incefig^bn,. the lax in morals, 
and the superficiaT in phirosopliy. The texture ofwomen'^s minds, 
as welY as of their boaies, is softer than« that of 'menu's ; but they 
have not f^e same strength of nerve, of uadeistandihg, or of move) 
purpose*.'** fp. ir5.J 

in the Maumr of Rockefoucault't Maxims. 19^ 

*^ Women do not become abandoned with the mere lots of 
character. They only discover the vicious propensities^ which 
they before were boiiDd to conceal. Thev do not (al) at onoe) part 
with their virtue, buit throw aside the veil of affectation and pru-^ 
dery.'' [p. 131.] 

Bat still, more strongly do we protest against the anti- 
Christian^ and worse tnan heathenish, cast of this work. 
Worse than heathenish, we deliberately repeat^ for the 
philosophers -of ancient Greece and Bome, unaided by the 
light of revelation which we enjoy, were too wi&e to hav-e 
written, as this would-be philosopher writes : ** Death is 
the greatest evil, because it cuts off hope." Now, if this 
means any thing — ^thoueh we have often suspected the 
wretched school to whioh this writer evidently belongs, of 
having no meaning ia a great part of what they say — it 
must mean, that death is annihilation ; and happy would it 
belbr them, 'COttld they prove it to be so ; and that, eonse- 
quently, death, whilst it cuts off hope, puts an end also 
to fear. Bnt it is not tiius Aat death acts either upon the 
wicked or the rt^teous; its approaches b^ng to the one 
a fearful looking-for of judgment and of fiery indignation^ 
to be revealed in the last day; to the other, a hope full of 
immortality. To the Christian, therefore, the arrival of 
death is not the greatest evil, but strongly as the ties of 
kindred, weeping friends, and beloved companions, may 
attach him to this life, it is yet the greatest gQod ; not the 
end of hope, but the connecting Idnk betwe^i Us ddiglitful^ 
though lingering promises^ and their full and rapturous fru- 
ition. To strive to believe a cootrary doctrine^ because the 
dUttciMisiiess of a mispent life indbces them to wish it 
weee true, ia a fearfal illustration of one of the scripture 
characteristics of the wicked, that '' tihey lay the flattering 
unction to their aouls,^' quoted, in tibese characteristics, with 
the levity which marks the writings of scoffers at die truths 
of the Bible, of whose sublime and happy phraseology 
they frequently avail themselves, ** to round a period, or 
adorn a tale.^' To the doctrines of that sacred volume^ the 
writer before us not only shews a marked neglecl^ but an 
open hostility* disposing in a very summary way> ijQ two oi 
bis characteristics, of origiaal sia, as a '' jiegaiiiFe sys- 
tem of virtue, leading to a rery low style of mtoral aenti- 
ment ;" wb^eas it is'One of the |)illar8 on wbich the sublime 
notraUty of the iscriptures rests. Burt of liis ^polemical at- 
tainments, our readers will be able to f^Mm a correct judg- 
^ient, from the following very satisfactory solution of all 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 2. P 

196 Review. — Characteristics : 

the difficolties attending some of the nicest questions, that 
in all ages of the church have perplexed and divided the 
wisest and the best of men, and formed a Gordian knot, 
which it was reserved for the superior illumination of this 
new philosopher thus dexterously to untie. 

/^ The theological doctrines of Original Sifiy of Grace, and 
Election^ adroit of a moral and natural solution. Outward acts 
or events hardly reach the inward disposition, or fitness for good 
or evil. Humanity is to be met with in a den of robbers, nay, 
modesty in a brothel. Nature prevails, and vindicates its rights 
to the last.'' [p. 131.] 

Was ever such arrant unintelligible fustian put in print, 
since poor Mat. Lee, in one of his fits of lunacy, exclaimed^ 


Arise, t) Jupiter, and snuff the moon?' 

If any of our readers can understand it, we do not envy 
them their understanding. 

To avoid the very suspicion of prejudice, we will now^ 
however, extract a few of the best of the maxims wlich 
this book contains. 

** Popularity disarms envy in well-disposed minds. Those are 
ever the most ready to do justice to others, who feel that the world 
has done them justice. When success has not this effect in open- 
ing the mind, it is a sign that it has been ill-deserved." [p. 4.] 

** What passes in the world for talent, or dexterity, or enterprise, 
is often only a want of moral principle. We may succeed where 
others fail, not from a greater share of invention, but from not 
being nice in the choice of expedients." [p. 42.] 

" The truly proud n^n knows neither superiors nor inferiors. 
The first he does not admit of: the last ne does not concern 
himself about." [p. 50.] 

'^ Animal spirits are continually taken for wit and fancy; and 
the want of them, for sense and judgment." [p. 59.] 

** In public speaking, we must appeal either to the prejudices of 
others, or to the love of truth and justice. If we think merely of 
displaying our own ability, we shallruineyery cause we underuJce.** 

** A man's reputation is not in his own keeping, but lies at the 
mercy on the profligacy of others. Calumny requires no proof. 
The throwing out mabcious imputations against any character 
leaves a stain, which no after-refutation can wipe out. To create 
an unfavourable impression, it is not necessary that certain things 
should be trusy but that they have been said* The imagination is 
of so delicate a texture, that even words wound it.'' [pp. 75, 77.} 

<< Nothing gives such a blow to friendship as the detecting 

in the Manner of Rochefoucault's Maxims. 107 

another in an tntruth. It strikes at the root of our confidence 
ever alter." Fp. 77.] 

^* People oo not persist in their vices because thev are not weary 
of them* but because they cannot leave them off. It is the nature of 
vice to leave us no resource but in itself." [p. 94.] 

'< Habitual liars invent falsehoods, not to gain any end^ or even 
to deceive their hearers, but to amuse themselves. It is partly 
practice and partly habit. It requires an effort m them to speak 
truth." [p. 96.] 

** Those only deserve a monument who do not need one ; that 
is, who have raised themselves a monument in the minds and 
memories of men." [p. 139.] 

** Those who can command themselves, command others*** 

There is also much good sense in the following refutation' 
of the leading principTe of Rochefoucault's selfish system^ 
although in form it is more like an essay than a maxim. 

" It is ridiculous to say, that compassion, friendship, &c. are at 
bottom only selfishness in disguise, because it is we who feel 
pleasure or pain in the good or evil of others ; for the meaning of 
self-love is not that it is I who love, but that I love myself. The 
motive is no more selfish because it is I who feel it, than the action 
is selfish, because it is I who perform it. To prove a man selfish, 
it is not surely enough to say^ that it -is he who feelsy (this is a 
mere quibble,) but to shew that he does not fttXjor another; that 
is, that the idea of the suffering or welfare of others does not excite 
any feeling whatever of pleasure or pain in his mind, except from 
some reference to, or reflection on, himself* Self-love, or the 
love of self, means, that I have an immediate interest in the con- 
templation of my own good, and that this is a motive to action ; 
and benevolence, or the love of others, means in like manner, that 
I have an immediate interest in the idea of the good or evil that 
may befal them, and a disposition to assist them, in consequence. 
Self-love, in a word, is symi>athy with myself, that is, it is I who 
feel it, and X who am the object of it : in oenevolence or compas- 
sion, it is X who still feel sympathy, but another (not myselt) is 
the object of it If I feel sym|^athy with otliers at all, it must be 
disinterested. The pleasure it may ^ve me is the consequence^ 
not the cause, of my feeling it. To msist that sympathy is self- 
love, because we cannot feel for others, without being ourselves 
affected pleasurably or painfully, is to make nonsense of the 
question : for it is to insist, that in order to feel for others properly 
and truly, we must in the first place feel nothing. Cest une 
mauvaise plakanterie. That the reeling exists in the mdividual 
must be granted, and never admitted of a question: the only 
question is, how that feeling is caused, and what is its object-^ 
and it is to express the two opinions that may be entertained on 

\96 Remew.'^CharacterhHcs : 

this subject, that tlie terms, sdf-Icve and beneisoiewx, have beett 
appropriated. Any other interpretation of them is an evident 
Bbuse of language, and a subtei^ge in tegament, which, driven 
'<hmi the ftiir field of faet and observation^ takes shelter in verbal 
sophistry/' [pp.45- 47*] 

Had the work contained many sentiments like these, we 
should have given a very different, character of it; but 
inasmuch as it only overturns one false system of morality 
to set up another, (if atiy thing like a system it contains,) 
we should not have said^ so much as we have done about a 
book of very little value, but that it is generally attributed 
to a writer who ' has obtained b very extensive reputation* 
and who certainly possesses considerable talents, although 
they have been miserably misapplied. We allude to Mr« 
Hazlitt ; and these characteristics contain internal evidence, 
'which, though circumstantial, is abundantly sufficient to 
prove the correctness of this appropriation. He is one of 
the many literary characters of the present day, who, from 
their merit having been excessively overrated at their first 
appearance, have now sunk perhaps as much beneath their 
proper level ; and he bears a degradation, for which he may 
in a ^reat measure thank himself, with a very ill grace, 
repaying with contempt and abuse the public neglect of 
hinxself and his productions. '* Nothing,'' he tells us, at 
the close of one of his characteristics, ** is more unjust 
and capricious than public opinion ;'' and the next is but 
a reiteration of the same complaint, in. the sweeping con- 
demnation, that ** the public have neither sense nor gra- 
titude." For our own parts, we think vary differently 
upon the subject; but if authors, on account of the real or 
supposed beauties of their compositions, because either with 
or without meri£ it was fashionable to admire them, haTe 
presumed upon this indulgence, and exacted undiminished 
admiration for whatever trash the^^ chose to publish, they 
must nor murmur at meeting with the fate which many 
a scornful beauty and coquettish flirt has bitterly but inef- 
fectually lamented that she provoked, when she, m her turn, 
is neglected and despised. 

. Lord Byron was the first of those miserably mistaken 
men, who, intoxicated by praises too extravagant and in- 
discriminating to last, imagined themselves sucn favourites 
with the public, that they might do what they pleased. 
After they had bome> therefore, with quietness, the irreli- 
gious ana misanthropic sentiments of Childe Harold, and 
others of his earlier productions,, he presumed on the^r tole- 

Outlines ff Charticier. " 199 

fating, with equal complaoency, the senBeless ribaldry of 
Don Jitan, and the grosa ixapiety and cold-blooded mali^-* 
nancy of his contributions to the Liberal. But this insult 
to public taste and feeling has deservedly recoiled upoa 
himself^ and, as an author, he has sunk — wnere, but for his 
own folly, no other man could have sunk him — beneath con-, 
tempt. Thither the writer, now more immediately under 
our notice, is rapidly following him ; and his only consola- 
tion in his merited degradation will be, that as he never 
rose so high, he cannot have so severe a fall, as the noble. 

Jet most Ignoble bard, who, in his animated, though vin- 
ictive satire on the colleagues of Mr. Hazlitt in the Edin- 
burgh Review, seems prophetically, though most uninten- 
tionally, to have anticipated his own fate, when he indig- 
nantly asks> 

^' Shall peers or princes tiead pollution's path. 
And 'scape alike the law's and mu8e*s wrath ? 
Nor blaze with guilty glare throngfa £iiture time, 
Eternal beacons of consumnate crime ?" 

But from Mr. Hazlitt, and his feeble imitation of the 
Characteristics of Rochefoucault, we gladly pass to anothei; 
work, formed more upon the model of Tbeophrastus and La 
Bruyere, under the very modest and unassuming title of 
" Outlines of Character, by a Member of the Philomathic 
Institution ;" though we are h^py to find that its author 
has met with sufficient encouragement, in what would 
appear to be his first appearance before the public, to 
avow himself, in a seoooa edition of his work, wnich bears 
upon its title-page the name of Mr. Robert Maugham, the 
secretary to tlie sooiety. His cmtlines are sketched with 
a bold and masterly hand, in a style nervous, yet graceful^ 
axiomatical, yet by no means devoid of eloquence, though 
sometimes verging on the bombastic. They are not indeed 
all cf equal merit, though none of them are so devoid of 
interest as not to repay the trouble of perusing .them, 
eiUier by ^ome new ideas which they. contain, or by the apt, 
and frequently also the very i^ovel and striking illustration 
of those which have no clainas to originality. In that upon 
the Eni^ish Character, (evidently drawn by.anEiB^lisbnum,} 
the opinion mainUuned by many writers of eminence, 
that the character and conditijon of nations chiefly depend 
upon the form of their government, is ccmtroyerted with 
ability and snccess. From the very ingenious essay which 
follows, intituled, '' Characteristic Classes in Relation to 
Happiness/' in which the man of talent and susceptibility^ 

200 Review^^CharacterUtics^: 

the man of talent without snsceptibilitv — ^the snaceptible 
without talent — the connnon-placeand the clods, — are suc- 
cessively passed in review before us^.we select the following 
very fair specimen of the author's style, forming a part of 
his estimate of the share of happiness enjoyra by the 
dangerously gifted individuals of his first class : — 

" Let no man envy the occasional exultations, the few fleeting 
moments of renown and honour, which are snatched by the fore- 
most few in the race of distinction. The purchase is made at the 
expense of a more solid, if a less brilliant satisfaction — of a more 
permanent, if a less elevated emotion. Could we witness the 
anxieties which precede and follow these * longings after fame,^ 
the possessors of the reward would deserve our pity^ rather than 
our admiration. We see only the beauty of the fabric. The 
scaffolding is removed — the labour is not seen — the consuming 
care that formed the design; the heahh, the comfort, the hilarity, 
the portion even of /t/f, that has been sacrificed to raise the 
wonder of a moment, is not the subject of human cognizance. We 
see the ^ndeur of Uie object, and may wish to have the merit of 
its creation; but will this idle envy, this ' momentary buz2 of vain 
renown,' repay the sacrifice by which it has been purchased t 
The happiness of these individuals will, in truth, be proportioned 
to the measure of their intellect. However strong the feelings, 
if the mind still maintain its preponderance, the equanimity of the 
character may be preserved. Strong feelings are the g;eneral 
attendants of great talent; but, though strong and impetuous, 
they do not always lead to despondency, still less to despair. 
Among beings, however, of diis order, the imaginative faculty is 
oftten predominant; and thoup^h it Uirows numberless charms 
around the dull realities of life, it increases the vividness of disap-> 
pointed feeling, and adds new acnteness to the intensity of Buf« 
f(ttping." [pp. 61—63,] 

From *' the Gentleman," we give another short passaffe, 
worthy alike of commendation, from the correctness of its 
conceptions, and the spirit of its execution. 

"It is worth inquiring, whether a character, adapted for the 
highest display of heroic virtue, might not be perverted, and 
perhaps destroyed, by aii attempt to graft upon it a stock of the 
graceful and ornamental qualities. There are also characters 
formed by nature or accident, or peihaps by the influence of both, 
which appear peculiarly adapted to acquire all that is brilliant in 
wit and fancy, and all that is fascinating in elegancy and acomn- 
plisfament Are not these beings, however produced, by nature^ 
accident, or habit, obviously of an opposite and uncongenial cha- 
racter, incapable of uniting in the same individual, without Ike 

Outlines of Chamcter. 201 

4e8tructioo of tjkc jnincipal quabUes of each? The rofinements of 
art destroy the di^ty of nature — ^they aspire to charm only^ not to 
oxalt. The poet, whose excellence consists in the elegance and 
liveliness of his imaginatian — ^the painter, whose characteristics 
are delicacj of touch, and brilliancy of coloiiring — the musician, 
whose strams are only meltrog and harmonious — can never mount 
to the regions of active heroism. The appropriate scenes of their 
exploits, are the enamelled lawn, the margin of the rippling stream, 
the shady bower, and the luxurious almes of wealth and indo- 
lence. Even the accomplished orator, from whose public exercise 
we might expect better things, is lost in the very refinement and 
polish of his art. ^tness the yain and cowardly Cicero — the 
bribed and fugitive Demosthenes 1 [pp.82, 83.] 

The essay on *' External Indications of Character,'' gives 
opportunity for the introduction of the author's belief in the 
system once denominated Craniology, but now endeayour- 
ing to establish itself under the newer term of Phrenology^ 
Of that system. Dr. Gall is well known to be the inyentor* 
Dn Spurzheim, the improver, and yery zealous propaga- 
tor» wnikt, amonest their warmest and naost deyoted dis-? 
ciples, they need not be afihamed to rank the ingenious 
author of this yolume, who closes a specious detence of 
their singular discoyery, by the following very intelligible^ 
though not peculiarly modest, statement of its high pre- 

** To sum up, — ^it will be observed, that the general proposition 
advanced by the theory is, — ^that the moral qualities and intellecr 
tiial powers of human beings can be ascertained by an inspection 
f^ the external form of the head. That the station of the percep- 
tive iacnteies « in the region of the eye-'^-of the superior ^ulties, 
on the summit of the brow — of the sentiments, on tne crown of the 
head — and the propensities behind. That, as the organs of sense 
UNdiy transmit impfessions to the interoal faculties*, Uie diAoovery 
of thoQ^ HKOulties is. a step farther in tracing the nature of tbiSt 
wonderful essence — the wind oj man. That the brain is the seat 
of all the powers, moral and intellectual. That the faculties are 
seated io peculiar portions of the brain, as the congeries of organs 
or instruments by which all mental phenomena are performed* 
That, on the state, and in proportion to the size and the activity of 
the brain, depend the pe^ection, the suspension, the derangement, 
or the annihilation of mind. That, the skull, being ductile till 
long after the brain is formed, becoming ossified by degrees, and 
oonstantly undergoing change and renovation, till a late stage of 
life, it is consequently modified and manifested in proportion 
to the degree of force, <^ energy, and of the continued action of 
the bndn; smd, in the reauk, ^ese operati<ms present a form of 

202 Meckm^^GImraUemiUs : 

head coMuiteiit with the me»Ul and numl dbracter of tte 

^* Such n the ftystem, softported, it wocdd seem, by Ae evidenee 
of indUpiitabl^ laicts, exbibited in nvmercms^ iastasces^ galiheved 
from all part» of the globe. The living have been scrutinised m 
aetioiiy and the dead have been dissected. Cblkctions have been 
formed of the skalls of all nations. The experience ci men of 
science has testified in fiiirour' of the theory, and She reasonings of 
Humy able anthors have siveeessfally supported it.'' [ppw Yt5y 12^.] 

Now all this is very satisfactory and conclusive, pro^vided 
it»! assertions were proofs, though Mr. Maugham, who, w« 
believe, is a lawyer^musl bei^well. aware o£ themae&I diis'* 
tinction, which gives to the weakest evidence a decided 
anp^oiity oTer the bold^t declaration, unsupported Iby 
testimony or erperienee. In the first place, it has beert 
rery properly objected to the new system of our iie%h-^ 
bours, that it has taken for granted, a pokit oo whic^ the 
ablest anatomists have been divided in c^piniofl ever since 
their science was cultivated', and will, in all probability, 
renwiia so, (for the theon^ is not capable of demonstration,) 
vutil it shall cease to be numbered with the oHects iA 
hiuman pursuit — namely, tiiat the organs of mtelleef 
reside in the brain, and not in the nervous system, or some 
other part of the wonderfully complicated machinery of 
man. That it does not, can no more oe proved, than that it 
ijloes ; and in the anatomical part of the theory, this diffi- 
culty stares those in the face» who bottom themselves en-, 
tirely upon having given to the mental faculties.an exGla<« 
aive local habitation in thei brain — that many persons have 
lost oousid^rable portioits of that organ, and, to use a fani-? 
liar, colloquial expcessfion, have bee» none the worse Car it^ 
eahibitiiig, aft» soch loss, no atteiation, either in their 
noPHitaf)/ or wh<tl is eqiiatty fatal to the phrenologist, in ttieir 
ttiQval powers. Say they^ that the common cofisent of 
mankind, with the exception of a few sceptical individuals, 
has established the seat of intellect for which they contend P 
If e should be tempted to meet so unphilosophical an^ 
argument with the objection, that for the establishing such! 
a superstructure sis you intend to raise upon this founda- 
tion, we caa have nothing to do with consents or admls- 
^ons, or hypotheses, or opinions, buvt with the most con- 
elusive and convincing deixu)BStration. With another view, 
we are wilUag^ however, to wave the objection, and to sajr 
tatbe Granicfelogist, (we be^ ten thousand pardons, we shonld? 
have said, the Phrenologist,) cooceding to yon, on iUe. 

giraDcl, l3i« dote of youv theory of tiie mhid, the vefy ee^ 
cearioB desteoyi^ tlie more BOTel wad more importaiil part of 
yonr system, umtlbe brain is ako tbe seat of all the moral 
powers, or, in the words of one of Mr. Maugham'ii expHma- 
tory notes, ''of thonght, of sensation, and Titality;'' for by 
tbe same common consent of all mankind, with still fewer 
exceptions of the sceptical or perrersely hypothetical, the 
latter are seated in the heart. To our author, who irery 
properly settles the dispute upon the origin and diversity 
of language with ''the scriptwes have deeid<ed,^* (pv S95,) 
we may not improperly make anther .am>ea1, and ask. With 
^s consent does not the revealed will of God accord? 
Is not its langaage, "The k^art of man is deceitful above 
all things, aind despemtely wicked,'' not the head. ** Out of 
the hemrt/* not, again, the head, "proceed all manner of evU 
speaking, lies^ muitier, tbefk, admkery,''^ Stc. " I will take 
away the keoH of stone ; a ftew heart will I give him,'^ not 
a new hraia^ " saith the Lord." Throughout the Bible, 
in fact, thovgh tbe understanding is to^ be enliehtened, it is 
the heart that is to be changed ; and whilst folly aware of 
Ae answer likely to be made to the remark, — ^that thiil 
language is uniformly fignrative. Or aeeommodating ifself 
to tbe imperfect knowledge of mankind, and Iherelbre et 
part is put for Ae whole ; we in our turn must ask, whether, 
as the scriptures were written under the inspiration of the 
Almighty, it is not probable that tbe right part would 
have been used, when it was as easy to use rt as the wrong, 
and no end could possibly have been answered by the mi»^ 
representation? Wo are not of the number of those whd 
appeal to the Bible as a book of minute scientific accuracy, 
for such it never pretended to be, as its object was more 
Oixalted than the suUimest speculations ol mere bmnan 
learning, when directed to the perishing interests and em^ 
pk^^inents, rather than the eternal delst»iiy> of sian;* btif 
w4iiht we refer not to> 4t, tihevefore, for ansltomieal or phy*^ 
siolog^I fkcts, nothing short of actual demonstration can 
convince us of the inaccuracy of its langui^e, when speak^-* 
iag figuratively and incidentally upon the structure of the 
creatures of His hand, by whose iaspiration all scripture was 
given for our instruotion. And even admitting that the 
mtiforin language of scripture, in speaking of the seat of the 
affections, uie passions, the vices, and the virtues of man* 
kind, is not to be prayed in aid of any argument tending to 
abew their real position in the human (Vame, we are but left 
where we were, in that unoertainty> as to the mysterious 

204 Bmi€»» — CharacUritiiu: 

imion of the body and the soul^ — ^diis ^'Titel apaik of hem* 
Tenly flame/' and the material dements which shall mingle 
into the dust from whence they sprung, when the sjpirit 
shall return to God who gave it— of materiality and imma- 
teriality, corruption and incorruption — ^in which we were 
left by our Creator, for this perhaps, amongst other reasons, 
that we might not bend the imperfect knowledge, the 
prejudices, and the pride, of finite and erring beings, to the 
formation of systems for judging our fellow<*creatures, in 
opposition to, and derogation from, that judgment which 
betongeth alone to our maker and our God. 

After these observations, our readers will not need to be 
informed, that we are no supporters of the new system of 
Craniology, or Phrenok)gy, call it which you will; nor, 
though some of them are infinitely less dbjectionable> and 
more plausible, were we ever the advocates of physio^omy^ 
palmistry, or that other ology^ or ixifjf, (whose oistinctive ap- 
pellation we have forgotten, if ever it had an^rO which pro*- 
fesses to determine the character of an individual hy that 
of his hand-writing ; a conclusion, by the way, which, if it 
could be established, would be highly gratifying to some 
of our very intimate friends, and indeed ot our literary 
associates in this journal, who would thai be fairly intitkd 
at least to this distinction, that they were chasacters staoidU 
ibg alone in the wide world, for as no one ever wrote, so 
no one could ever be, like them* To all of these ingenious 
speculations we have one objection, which, to our mindg^ 
has ever been conclusive as to the fallacy of their preten- 
sions, namely, that if well-founded, and reduced to nrao* 
tice, they mast be injurious to the happiness of man nere» 
and fatal to his prospects for hereafter. To this we know 
it will be rejoined, that in our search after tmth, we have 
nothing to do with its consequences, but are bound to fol- 
low wherever it may lead us ; nor do we deny the correelness 
of the assertion : — ^but life is, uiibrtunately, too short Ux the 
attainment of all truth, men must therefore be satisfied with 
directing their attention to that which is most essential to 
the welfare of themselves and of their species in this worlds 
and in the world to come. Those, therefore, who wish to 
make the best use of their time, which, with the loI^;est 
liver, is but too short for the acqmsition of knowledge 
really useful to its possessor, will do wisely to ask them- 
selves the cui bono of every invention or pursuit presented 
to their investigation jx adoption. To this we, for our 
own guidance, have long a^ed another rule, of looking lo 

OuiUnes of Character^ 206 

the consequences of the establishment of any new theory; 
and if we have found that these are detrimental to the 
best interests of our race^ we have made up our minds^ that 
it cannot be worth the pains of minutely examining its 
pretensions, as the time occupied in discovering and ex- 
posing its fallacies might be much better employed^ botli 
for ourselves and others. 

Now, in applying these principles to Phrenology, the 
obvious answer to its cut bono, is, that it enables us to form a 
correct notion of the characters of men from the formation 
of their skulls ; and were its pretensions well-founded, we 
should be furnished with a royal and easy road to the 
attainment of that grand arcanum of legislation, the pre* 
vention of crime ; for, as all writers en politicstl science 
and jurisprudence have agreed, that prevention, and not 
revenge, should be the object of human punishments, it 
would be at once a justifiable and beneficial course, to 
indict and convict men, not for murdering their fellow 
creatures, or despoiling them of their property, but for that 
they ** in and upon the several back parts of the several 
heads of them, the said a. b. c« d. ana £. f. severally had 
one bump, of the length of one inch, the breadth of half an 
inch, and the height of one*quaFter of an inch, by reason of 
which said bump, called the organ of destructiveness, they 
the said a.b. c.d. and b« f. upon any provocation to them 
inconsiderately offered, were severally likely to murder, or 
attempt to murder, kill, and slay, the liege subjects of our 
lord tne king, tibem so offending, to the great danger of 
all the lieges of our said lord the king, and also against his 
peace, his crown and dignity." Ludicrous as such a charge 
must now appear, could the new science for measuring and 
mapping out Dumps and lumps on the head, as the only dure 
indications of character, be once reduced to that matbema* 
tical certainty, witibout which it is worse than useless-^we 
should seriously recommend such a svtftem of legislation^ 
as the wisest and mildest that could be pursued. But 
startled perhaps at the absurdity which would result firom 
following out their own principles to all its consequences, 
we question much whether the ablest and most confident 
amongst them would venture to hire a servant upon the 
mere conformity of the craniimi with the gauge and gamut 
of his system, however uncharitably he might be disposed 
to exercise it upon those in whom he felt no other interest, 
than, at all risks to their characters and his own candour, 
to make them illustrations of its truth. Yet if they do not 


Biiieb mare than this, their boitfited disccyvery can be pio- 
dnetifne of no real adTantage to others or to tbenselves, 
and the time bestowed upon die study of it is time com- 
pletely thr&WD' away. 

But we hai^ charged it with Bomethiug infinitely worse^ 
a» a reason why it snould not be par saed, — i. e. a manifest 
tendency to injure the best interests of our race, for time, 
and for eternity. And this, if true, it must do, by barring 
the door to all repentance and change of heart, which is not 
evidenced by a corres]K)ndent change in the ossification oS 
the head. What Christian,, bnt from the records of the 
inspired volume — the exj)res6 declaration of our Saviour — 
ana his own observation in the world, but believes in that 
regeneration, or new formation of the character, (to avoid 
all disputation about tenns> we say not cbange of head or 
heart,) by which .the drunkard becomes sober — the lasci** 
vious chaste — the violent peaceable — the tibief honest-— the 
idle active — and even the miser benevolent, and the morose* 
kind. This change frequently takes place, if not instan-' 
taneously, very suddenly ; elBected, as it often is, by the 
agency of some unexpected incident or momentary im* 
pression. Is that change then, we ask Phrenologists, of 
which the altered conduct of the man compels every one to< 
take notice, accompanied by a correspondent change in the* 
surface and protuberance of his head ? if not, what be- 
comes of the truth or value of their system i Yet that it is, 
what mail in his senses can brieve, or how will they under-- 
take to demonstrate it? They will, therefore,. be compelled* 
to give tiie same charneter of the man tlms singularly 
changed, the year after his c6nyerfik>n, and even down tO) 
the period wketi he shall ctese the witness of a^ good ooom 
fi^dton, though it be of thd- chief of sinners saved b]rgi(a)ee/ 
by a triumpmnt deaths whi^htliey would have given ofi 
him the motae«it bsftoe' ttiat conversiiOBy ' when be wasiia*^ 
dutging every wicked and sinfol lust anid passion of « 
depraved a^d unregenerated nature.. Couldwe ieatronsitdv 
a subject, we would * ask them,; if> andongsl; their organs 
indicative of character, they have one iimicative of that 
great change which divides the liinner from the saint? If 
not, wherever the abandoned and open profligate is turned 
from the eiror of his ways, their system must oe worse than 
useless, for it is deceptive, mischievous, uncharitable, and 

We have been led so far beyond our original intentions 
in discussing the merits of this new theory, that wo shall 

(hiiiinesiff,ChMP€icier. 207 

not be able to devote mvck space to tlie remakiiiig coiileiiift 
of this interesting yolume, the penisal of which bro«giil 
that theory incidentally beneath o«t notice. in ** the 
Orator^^ we meet with several j udicious remarkson the oouh 
parative state of eloquence in ancient and modem times/ 
and a very satisfactory reason for its declension at the hwr, 
since the days in which Demosthenes and Cicero exhibited 
there the noblest triumphs of the art. We give the passage 
entire, as a specimen at once of the correctness of our 
author's reasonings and the neatness of his style :-r- 

" The style of oratory at the Bar is characteristic of the subjects 
on which it is exercised. It partakes of all the dryness ^ich 
belongs to an intricate science, and all the subtlety which attaches 
to an abstruse art. The causes of the dearth of forensic oratory^ 
are obvious on the surface. Unlike the pAeadeis of antiquity^ 
those who exercise it are bound in l^e letters df precedent* Instead 
of reason, they refer to authority; and the declMOns of an igno* 
rant agf , become a staadard for that which is enlightened. Wis- 
dom and virtue are supposed to be o^s^roc^, not relative, qualities; 
and what was wise and good yesterday, must, on legislative 
authority, be so to-day, and for ever. 

'^Though all admire the display of eloquence, the forensic 
orator, however brilliaiiit m speech, if ignorant of the subtleties of 
his profession^ would in general reonain neglected and unemployed. 
For, after all that the man of taste may say in favour of the oma* 
mental, even he, when self-interest is importantly concerned, 
would prefer the useful and efficient. No man would relish libe 
loss of his cause, and consequently of his pro|^erty, and peifcaps 
his life, for the sake of the most pathetic, Uie most brilliant, and 
ttke most sublime oration, that was ever pronounced by the genius 
of man. 

'^ We need not be surprised, therefore, that what is not required 
or encouraged, should cease to exist. The ancient pleaders soon 
acc(aired a sufficient knowledge of the few siaRile principles df 
their nmnicipal jurispmdenoe, and the rules oi law and prac- 
tice which eousted in their days. The rest of thek time was 
dev€^d to the study of eloquence^ and to all those arts with which 
it is connected, and by which it might be advanced and adorned, 
^otso the forensic student of modern times. The professional 
education of a barrister, is decidedly opposed to the acquisition of 
oratorical graces. A whole life is insufficient to master the exten- 
sive range of our complicate system oF jurisprudence : and, since 
it is more important to know the law, than to descant on it eloquent- 
ly, the student prefers his duty and interest, to his gratification. 

** The wide extent of legal controversy denies to the practitioner, 
'in general, the leisure of studying to embellish his speeches. The 
interest, also, of forensic avocations, is 'diminished, by their 

208 Rmew^^^Charaeimiiie^, S^c^ 

coiuitaiit recmrence* Tbey become mere matters of common- 
place; and a legal advocate perhaps thinks no more of tropes and 
figures, tones and gestures, than a mechanic does of the line of 
beauty, or the standard and the principles of taste." [pp. 

188— 191.1 

There is much severity of truth in Mr. Maugham's re-* 
marks on the literary character of the age, which he de- 
scribes, we fear, but too correctly, as one of book-making 
and of books, though we doubt whether he has been suffi- 
ciently behind the curtain to know how the system of pub- 
lishing and concocting is carried on in the Row, as, for 
brevity's sake, the street of bibliopolists, in which most of 
the leading houses in the trade have their establishments, 
is generally called. At least, it is not, as he suspects, by 
authors eiuer reviewing their own works^ or furnishing an 
outline of them, and selecting the passages which Uiey think 
most favourable for quotation ; though, of other modes of 
puffing, we doubt not there are enough in use. We are 
more inclined, however, to agree with him in the opinion 
which he thus gives, of the state and probable fate of litera- 
ture amongst us. 

** The inundation of books already exceeds all useful purposes; 
The supply will become too great for the demand; and tne result 
must be, that authors, less liberally remunerated, will cease to 
labour. Such must ever be the case, when the article produced is 
out of all proportion superabundant. Neither will the decline be 
confined to the decrease of new productions. Those already 
written will accelerate the decline iif value, and the fastidiousness 
of taste will fly from what is within the reach of the odious vulgar,** 
[pp. 225, 226.] 

He will hardly expect us, however, to extend our approba* 
tion to the next article, intitled, " the Periodical Critic," 
on whose labours he sets but very little store. We, however, 
naturally estimating them more highly, are determined not 
to devote to the defence of our fraternity, any portion of 
that time which misht be more usefully directed to the dis- 
charge of their unpleasant, but important functions. Our 
author is of opinion, that nothing could be more serviceable 
to the cause of literature, ''than the establishment of a 
work, which should annually review the reviewers, rejudge 
their decisions, and constitute, as it were, a court of literary 
appeal;" a suggestion which we cordially meet with a ''Try 
the experiment, good sir, and right heartily do we wish yon 
i;ood speed.-' Commending also the entire article to the atten- 

Letters on Earfy Rising, 209 

live perusal of those who may be disposed to treat the tribe 
to wiiich we belongs with as little reverence as our author, 
we in our turn take a very gentle vengeance upon him» for 
his presumptuous attack upon reviewers in general, by 
begging him to review his own composition, wim a view to 
correct some errors in it, which he ought to be grateful, 
even to critics by profession, for pointing out. The following 
sentence, for instance, requires pruning of much of its some- 
what inconeruous exuberance, ''Their cacdethes hquendi 
is latent, and the hidden spring must be effectually touched, 
ere its stream can flow to the surface, or the gathering tor* 
rent pour forth its exuberance in the waters of eloquence/' 
To ttie same judicious process, we would also commend 
" the stream of eloquence, which flowed and gathered in 
its progress the tears of the initiated ;'' — " touch but those 
springs of action, those master-chords by which the human 
lyre is moved and agitated, and we produce all those effects 
which are the outward and visible signs of energy and 
genius ;" — ** his soul is not attuned to the strings of sympa- 
fliy, and he knows but few, if any, of the notes within the 
compass of the heart's melody .'' 

On the whole, however, we have been so much pleased 
with these Outlines, that we dismiss them with our warm 
commendation, saying to our readers^ Legite, et nobiscum 

1. Letters on the Importance JDuttf and Advantages, of Early 
Rising. Addressed to Heads oj Families, the Man of Btist- 
fiess, the Lover of Nature, the . Student, and the Christian* 
Fourth Edition. F'cap. 8vo. pp. 210. London, 1822. 
Taylor and Hessey. 

2. Earbf Rising recommended; a Tract, written immediately on 
Returning from an agreeable Morning Walk, in the Neigh^ 
bourhood of London. By the Rev. Jacob Snelgar. F'cap. 
8vo. pp. 24. London, 1822. Westley. 

We regret to say, that these two publications have laid 
upon our table, until the author of one of them has changed 
the scene at once of his ministerial labours, and his matin 
lucubrations ; whilst the writer of the other has passed into 
that better world, where we doubt not that he is reaping 
some of the fruits of the due emplovment of the compara- 
tively short portion of time allottea to him in this the only 
scene of preparation for the blessedness or misery of an 

f^jbemsj -Btaie* Tlie delay kas^ ob <Mif parte, hetu uttayoid* 
able; but the dawBiagx>f spring after tbe comiaeDcemeali^ 
at ojqice >of « new year» a^d a new aeries af •pur joaraaJ^ baa 
been 'CpAftidei^d a |Mroper period for recoiaBieiidiag to om 
readers the adoption of what we apprebead will, to mangr 
of them, be aaew practice^ that of early rising. 

Tbefiistof the treatises enforcing so salutary and bene* 
ficial a habit, is the production of the late Mr. Alfred Cecil 
Bucklaindy a member of the inferior branch of the legal pro* 
fesBiQa^ who in early life, and in the midst of his nsefnlness, 
was taken from hisJabours to his rest^ though not» we tmat# 
before much good had been effected by the dispcHraion of 
foar editions of a work« from which, we candidly aonfess, 
that we ourselves have experienced considearaUe pvaotioal 
benefit; and therefore do we the more earnestly ^OBVuend 
it to the atteotive jierusal of oth^a. 

''^ Shoidd he,'* says the ingenious aaithot of letters, of which 
lie modestly and unafiectedly expresses his conviction, ** that his 
name is net of suffident importance to give celebrity to his woiic, 
an4 oonsoioas that ^s work ^iU erer be too obscure to reflect 
lustre upon his name,'* — *^ wheu smigltng hereafter in society, ever 
ha^e the happiness to bear one jtareut say, in aUnaioa to these 
pages, * By diem I was first iled to knproYe those boars wfaiok 
prer^ .fonpmy consum^ in :aleep, and thus. I have mot lonly been 
able to perform with ease the duties which before wese ^iftea 
neglectea, but I have also experienced the satisfaction of having 
set a good example to nify <5htldrenf — Should he ever hear one 
lover ofncUure observe, — * To them I am indebted for the con- 
templation of scenes more lovely 4han I bad ever beheld, and the 
pictfires which ereadoB now unfolds to my sight are more beauti- 
M "diaa those whic^ poetic imagery OBoe presented to my fancy:' 
•— ^SSiDuU he ever hear one shident jemark, * Theoe was a time 
when my health was impaired in the same^apoarfioaasmylaiow- 
ledge increased, but they taught me to promote at once, the 
vigour of my body, and the improvement of my mind :* — but ^espe- 
cially, shcuild he ever hear one Christian dedare, ' My devotions 
have never been so ardent, and my faith has never been so strong, 
as in those seasons which they persuaded me to snatch from obu- 
iBin,'-«4ie wiil hot coonder his time msspent, 'Or his iabiMir ift- 
boitowed.'' [pp. ix.xi, xii,] 

That he laboured not altogether in vsain^ we can testify ; 
and if iJie new series of our work should amell les)^ of l^e 
lamp than 4id the old one, to him wiU we gladly ottrilMite 
the chief merit of tbe change, altheijigb he is now fisr 
jbeyond tbe influence of our ansignificaat aduatowledgmeAts* 

Letters on. Early Rising. 2H 

We have too high an opinion of the good sense of our 
readers, to waste a moment of that time, for the improve- 
ment of which we are urgent advocates, by a statement of 
the evils of lying in bed to a late hour in the morning, 
Kriiere that habit is a mere indulgence. Scarcely need a 
child be told, that the hours wasted in needless sleep, are 
time lost, never to be recovered, yet, doubtless, to be ac- 
counted for hereafter, besides that the individual who so 
wastes them, is encouraging a habit that will steal imper- 
ceptibly upon him — is enervating his frame — enfeeblinjg 
the powers of his mind— diminishing his usefulness, and, 
from the consciousness of laziness wnich all idle persons 
feel, is souring his' temper; in fact is realiring the mischiefs 
eanmmrated by the author of the Letters on Early Rising, 
with a fidelity which even the pitiable victims o£ the indo- 
lence he deservedly reprobates must adcnowldge. 

** Each morning, instead of being commenced with sentiments 
of gratitude to that kind and paternal Being who has added another 
day to his former mercies, is accompanied with a bitter reflection 
on bis again becoming the slave of a habit which he detests, but 
is unwilling to relinquish. A softness is thrown over the disposi- 
tion, altogether inconsistent with the courage and strength which 
the daily ecfncems of business require. A dissatisfaction with 
srif » produced, which sours the temper, and which is opposed to 
/every thing amiable and pleasing. Every object that presents 
itselfis veiled in a gloom, which invests it in a peciuliar melan- 
choly hue, and deprives it of the power of bestowing the pleasures 
that it fnay be really calculated to afford. The mutual endear- 
ments of the social circle are suspended ; and very often the brows 
of the more aged are knit into a frown at the artless cheerfulness 
of the young, arising from an envy of their happiness, a near re- 
semblance to which might have been enjoyed by themselves. The 
day thus commenced, cannot be expected to be spent With satis- 
faction, or to be finished with self-approbation." [pp. 25, 26.] 

. That lying long in bed is injurfous to the constitution, 
«ve.ry medical man will tell us ; and we fully agree with our 
aaUior in-referring that lon^ train of indescribable maladies, 
80 prevalent sis wdl -as fftsfaaonable in the times in which we 
live,-— tfaovgh BC^cely known in th(9 good old days of our 
robuster forefathers, wad which, in the absence of a more 
«pecifi6 term, are ranked under the general aiid compas- 
sionating name of nervou8,-^to the inordinate portion of 
time spent in bed. On the effect of this habit oh the con- 
stitution, our author judiciously gives us the following 
high professional authority. 

VOL. VIII.— NO. 2. Q 

•" N6thittg/' 0Byft Dr. CHi^yiie, '< can he Aior^ prejudiciai tb feo^ 
der cooslitiitidnd, studious and contemplative fiierson^, than lyii^ 
lcn|»'in bed, lotting and soaking m v^eeis altar any one is dis^ 
tiactky awake, or has slel[^ a due and reflfsoaable time. U fiecei^ 
sarily thiekeos the juices^ enervates ihe solids, and weakens die 
constitution. A free open air is a kind x>f cold balb, especially 
af^r rising out of a warm bed, and cooseqitfenlly makes the circa* 
kttioQ brii^r and more aomidete,. and brsuoes up the .solids, whei> 

S^iag in bed dissolves mid soaks them in moisture. This is evw 
ent from the appetite and hunger those that rise early feeVbeyon^ 
that wliich they get by lying long in bed.*^ — Etsay on Heaiik ank 
long Hfe, b. iii. s.6. [p^ eU] 

Of the medical skiH dTMr.WeskjF, s^lelof Im Prnii«ir« 
Physic^ we enteftaiDilk Tfery low opuiioQ, yet are ivediiiduied 
to gifire maeh weight to the ei^petienee of so obactsvant • 
man, who from the nenfous weakneBS of 'his /sight in '^mtif 
life, and its great strength to the elose of a» existence as 
actively passed, perhs^ps, as'fhat of aay of the sons of Adam^ 
eoucTudes> that sleeping^ or lying too long iik bed,, ie injik- 
rious to the eye-si^ht Wpukl Uiat the advice of the doo: 
tor, and the es^penence of the divine, could iB^liftoe 8<mie 
of out nervoDs females, those especially whose sight ia 
afiected by theiv disease, to tvyhow much asoie^tbeir oODSti- 
tntioos would be 'strengthened by exertion than iaiiulgience,. 
tly^early vUtng, than late lying in bed* We catt<a8sase tbem^ 
that several instances have come to Our knowled^, of the 
incalculable benefits of this vcfry cheap Stfbstiltlte fbf afiti* 
nervous pitls,'hartshotn,. lavender,, valerian, and saWolatlle,. 
With the abundant use df which we have known headaches 
to be incessant, which a few breathings of pare moining 
air have speedily removed. To our own testimony, we 
add also a very striking one from the woik now under 

^ As aa lastance of the eoo^ effects of the habits of early rismg^ 
*«veti upon persons afl^cted with 'the malculies whkft'rha^ sup- 
'^sed' the neglect of It to produce,.! wiU relate toyea dke^etoe ef a 
^jKmkgladywhobaddiseplyMttbdifbtttiefolmflttsatoe. iShe^wasie- 
tdweed to saohextietne weeUoiessyaeitOirequtseassistaMein walk^ 
ing acrosathe^rbom; and 'imagining' 80 aafsebWbastaftaieqttifed a 
lasgev portion of steis. she generally higr etght <ir 'nine hMis».ibat 
in^e-monungfeHBd^nwif 801 relaxed aM ^'piglitt. 

>nd uaaHfS to di^ss without the leUef of sssliiiig two es^ three timfiMk 
On reading Wesley's serosa on early rising,, she was so perfectly 
.convinte^ of the propriety of the reasoniiig, that by risine ^gra- 
*iAually earlier every morning, she soon lessened the time of sleep 
la six hours ; htr strength daily increaseil, and by persevering in 

Letters on &$rfy Rising, 213' 

up oisorderK which had /id long afflietea h^ v^r^ reiftov^ ; mi 
deeply sensible of the great cental aod bodily advimtpig^ of e^Hy 
lisiag, oidy regrets that the habit had not been fo^qmaq^^t a ixmcft 
earlier period of her life." Jjpp. 63, 64.] 

Bat tli€ evils entailed by tkis erimiiMtl indulgence upon 
the body^ bear no proportion to the injury £)ne to the 
mind, iheJt epark of tminortal flame^ which ii| iUxe spirit shfl^ 
return to God who gavse it. Few persons^ ittmy, can snatch 
iitom the ordinary avooations of life, die time they j^ould 
wish to devote to its improvement; but every hour and every 
mimite consumed «MUieeessarily in ^ed^ is 4 portion of time 
which theynughteedeem for thismost important purpose^und 
for the ^waste of which they m«^t answer to Iheif own c<«- 
science here^ and he«e%fter most account at the bar of Ood. 
This responsibility every individual incurs^ ^vefi dioee (if 
any such there be) whose slumbering away their Jime> but 
inconvenicQces and affects themselves^ But to parents, 
mastevs, heads^ and mMnbers of Aimilies^ this inconveni- 
ence and jresponmlnlfity will be alike increased. Lazy self-in- 
dulging masters and mistresses will maSie, and should not 
eomtpkun of, lazy and 'Self^ndulgin^ servants ; nor can the 
eaok or bousemaid of die family, where the breaikfast things 
aee put<en*lhe table at iiine o clock, and wait there until 
ton, ^and ofiten to amidpii slater hoinr, be scolded with a very 
good grace, for not fretting up herself at six, or even foit 
aimultaaeouelijr opeuA^g iher own oyes and the window- 
ditttters of the house, sAer the clock has struck seven. 
Euamplr, thou^ a silent, is a most po wecfiil teacher of bad 
habiti^ as well as ctf good ones ; hence, wJiere the heads of 
a fimiily (are la$e risers, the servants fnrjil aeldom, if ever, be 
eaiiyones; and k wiU be as vein as it is ridiculous, to 
pseaeh Jto the -nurseryimaid the very admirable doctrine of 
the vgpeait iooportance ^ef «^y 'rising, and waiks -before breaic-' 
fiurt,'to^thie iieaith of bbildren, while- the sun has risen many 
haujw of ihe iakest sumn^er mornings, whilst papa andmaita- 
Hia^are «ioo»iig very jcomfontably hi bed, depeMlng altoge- 
ther ^npoaithe vjera^ftViof their seavants, for d|e ti^ne at whick 
tfre.ohildreaiwereitaken jto ^their morning's walk. Whilst 
tooytouBig .to dress ilhemselveSf.diese drildren, eontrarv to 
express orders, butin aecordaiioe to the practice o€|heir 
patents, AUay therefore, and t&e^ueiitly wiili, be deprived of 
ooeof AeimostjeiMieaitial requidtasto the formafion of a 
robttst And hardy oonstilMtion, fcom^the eniminal negKgence 
of their parents, in omittiiig, for tbdr own in4«1g^n<^i ^ 

214 Review. 

vigilant inspection of the execution of their orders. In 
ibwncy, when bracing of the frame is of the most impor- 
tance.-^and nothing contributes to it so essentially as the 
pure balm of the morning air, the sufferers, — from a decep- 
tion as injurious as it is ]^robable, cannot, and when they get 
older, will not, assist in its detection ; and the parents will, 
we fear, in many instances; be further answerable for temp- 
tations to lying, preirarication, arti6ce, and concealmerit» 
both in their servants and their children, whose slothful 
indulgence is, after all, very far from going the full length 
of their own mischievous example. As the former grow up 
into life, is it not also reasonable to expect that they will 
do as their parents do or did, rather tnan as they say or 
8Md,and neglect those precepts on improving time, on which 
the practical waste of it, constantly before their eyes, is 
hourly reading so mischievous a comment. These plain 
hinfts may sumce for. indolent lie-a-beds, but we are fully 
conficious of having a more difficult task to accomplish, in 
attempting to convince another class, who fancy they have 
a sufficient excuse, and who really have a ^ very plausible 
one, for taking in die rabmii^ the rest of yrhich they de- 
prive theipselves at night. We allude to studious and lite- 
rary men, whose first slumber often commences but as the 
ploughman and the industrious labourer, at the dawn of 
day, hie them to their work, whistling full cheerily as they 
go, and who, by their early toil, have added largely to their 
stock of health and strength, ere the pale votary of learning 
has with much effort roused himself from his leverish and 
unrefreshing sleep. Many such have we known,7->with 
several of them we are still living in habits of intimacy; — ^but 
recollections of a most painful nature crowd upon our minds, 
as we count the number of those who are not. Whilst lit 
up with the irradiations of fancy and genius, — whilst beam- 
ing with satisfaction at the conquest of difficulties long 
pamfuUy pursued, and at length laboriously overcome,«-^we 
saw on their countenances the aspect of. cheerfulness, we 
found from their conversation thsat their spirits were buoy- 
ant with hope, yet was diere a worm preying at the heart, 
whose unobserved yet deadly • gnawings were gradually 
undermining constitutions, the hardiest of which could 
struggle but for a few short years, with an ^nemy, the more 
dangerous, ia that itl» operations were slow, and were not 
seen. A continued and habitual indxdgence in nocturnal 
studies^ w.a8, we doubt not, the wonn which preyed upon— 
the worm which eventually destroyed tlieir existence. Thus, 

Letters on Early Rising. 215 

again> and again, and again> have we seen the fair yerndi 
bud, which promised a lovely flower to the aummeF, and as 
rich fruit to the autumn, cut off and withered, not by the 
cold frosts of winter, but by one of those deadlier bliehts 
which often destroy the richest blossoms of the sprmg* 
Would from what we have seen and known,* — would from 
what they themselves must at the least- have read of the 
baneful effects of this too prevalent practice, — the votaries 
of science, happily for themselves, and for die world, who 
no, sooner learn their worth, than they are called upon to 
deplore their loss, — ^would leam^^tbat tne avidity with which 
we pursue an object, frequently prevents the success^ 
which slower, but more regular advances, seldom fail in 
securing. Certe sed Sente, is too important a maxim, to be 
confined to the motto of an armorial bearing, op a seal, or a 
carriage ; it should be inscribed in letters of. gold, over the 
study door of every man of genius* For want of. attention 
to so useful a memento, many a.youn? ntan of talent, whilst 
catching at the laurel, to form a, wreath for bis brow, has but 
encircled in a.gra^p that cap never be unloosed, the. cypress 
bougl^. soon to be planted by his grave. 

We .are aware,., that amongst, the class of self-destroyers 
to whom we are addressing ourselves^ many? justify the 
means they, employ, by the end they are wishing to attain* 
We would, however,, remind them, that as the sacrifice was 
not the less sanguinary, because the victims were led to the 
altar bedecked with glands and flowers ; so their sel& 
destruction is not the less criminal in them, or less afflict- 
ihg to their friends, because it is made in the acquisition of 
knowledee, or the gaining to themselves an imperishable 
name. Many of them, again, we doubt not, will argue that^ 
provided you take a sufficient portion of rest, it signifies 
not at what part of the twenty-four hours it is taken; and 
«o once thought we : nature, however, has its propter season 
for every Uiing; apd seed-time, and Harvest- t;im^, .suppnior; 
and winter, cannot be. more appropriately confqunded wUh. 
each other, dian in the use maae of its hours, can night in- 
nocuously be turned into day. It is. the natural, season 
f(»r'rest; and during its darkness, its coolness, (for even 
during the heat of summer, it is infinitely cooler than the 
day,) and its quiet, sleep is more refreshing than it can be at 
any other time. We have known those who, at two or three 
and twenty, had for some years *been in the habit of sitting 
up every alternate night, at. the least to one, two, tiisee, 
four, five, and even six o'clock in the morning, and one 

216 RtvkuHi 

Who •v«n had sat at hUi desk for 9^ytoty-lwo h^wrs, with 
Ihe intenniasioa of six hours' repose ; but nt tbr^e-and'^ 
ibirty^ headftcbes^ swimminffs ia.Ihe bead^ myrefreshing 
sleeps disturbed by th^ Imu of countless noises in; theif ears^ 
had tftueht them wisdom ere it. was too Iate« and they nOw 
riee at the period when they not imfreqaently went to rest^ 
Other reasons ia fatrout. of moinins^ mth^ than of boo* 
ftumal stodies, are ably urged in Mn Buddand's invaluable 
iitde book>-^in the oheenidness of disposition. geoeraQy 
eKperiended then^ ere the temper has b^n raffled by th!s 
business and anxieties of the day> and the extruorcHhary 

Eower of the memory at that period^ which every schoot^ 
oy, Who htB conned <>ver his task soon after risieg frdari 
kis bedi can well attest* 

But example is j adioiously quoted, to enforce these whole- 
edme precepts, and we bhall ettract tb^m for the benefit of 
our readers^ ia the author's wordsu . . 

^'Bishop Gurnet} the autbor of *The History of his OwnlHmes/ 
Wad ati habitual eaHy dsen Whilst be was at coll^^ his father 
ttsed to atoase him to his studies every morning at four Vclcck, 
and he continued the practice during the reiuaiimer of his life. It 
Is to this halMt that we are iadebtea to Bn Deddridg^ for tieariv 
the whek of his vaiuaMs works, who, notwiUiiftaadiBg m 
^siieus kbeanit both as a minister sad a tutor, has left as many 
pffoo£i of his talents as an author** Bishop Jewell regaiarly rose 
to study at foar. Sir Thomas Mor^ usually rose at the ssme 
^arly heup", and yet he remitrkf, in his preface to the Utopia, that 
be had completed that work by stealing time from his sle^ and his 
lo^eals ; and he appeared to be so well satisfied of iht excellence o^ 
the habit, that he represents the Utopians as attending public teo- 
tures every morning before day-)>Teak. 

^ '' Dr. Parkhurst, the philologist, rose regularly at five in summer 
and winter, and in the latter season made bis owni fire. It is re- 
corded of John, Lotd Hertey, Ih^ Mn tho^e early bouts, wheh all 
airotmd were hushed in sleep, he seized the opportunity of that 
ilMikHy as the most fefbutame season tor stttdy> msA frequency 
^peiit an useful day, belbre •odi^M began to enjoy lt»H* 

** Do ^tt not rc«iiemi>er Paky's eeeouat of the early paft ethss 
ttoflege life? * I speat,' said he, when ^onveninfg wjtik seme of > his 
IHends, ' I ^pent the first two yeass bf my uttderrgrsdoateshqi hep- 
pdy, bufc uoprofitaHy^ I Was constantly ix^ society, whete we 
were not is^moraf , ba^ idle and rather e^peasiye. 4t the com- 
meneement of my third year, however, after haying left the usual 

• * Doddiidge's Family jfopesitor. Note to Reomrks, Rom. xiii. 19. 
t MMdMon^DedisationtolieJbifeof Cicere. 

LMen m SlV^ Rising. ^Ij 

pcrtf. a% mtber a late home i» ik^ aTening^^ I ^u diiffikv^ ^^ 6^ 
ii tn# mprniiig by one oG my cotapanipii^ w1^ 9too4 at^mj 
bad-side, and aaid, — * Paky, I bav^ bean ftinkwig wb^t a fipplyo^ 

4ke lift I lead: yoi) ootid do eyety tf^iag, aod ^i|Ono^ afford i^ 
I have bad no tleep dimdg A^ iirtaolo 1^^% oa ^qopiie^ «^ ^^^ 
feSeclaona, and aUR now coma volemnly to inform yojUj tbt^ iyf yp« 
fieraial in voor indolMce, I m«ilt Me^ovga^ yopc ^t^J^ ^ | wj^ 
ao atarock. Dr. Pabsy cpntiaiiod* ^ wi^ ibe viait an^' tb? X^^* 
tiuil I lay ki bed gwit part of ^a dt^y* ^4 formed my pljs^n. | 
ordered my faed-iaafci^ to>l4|r my fir« ^iret^rev^i^, ii^ ord^ tbai 
ilr mi^t be Ugbted by. my^oE J oroi^ afjiv^ rafi4 during thj^ 
wbole of ^ day^ tF^^ ^<^ bojurs %$ chape) and ball reqviirecl^ 
^Qttiu to eac^ portion of time its peculisMr branch of study ; and 
juat bdtQre the ck^g of the ^aties (nine oclock) \ went to a 
neighboaring coffee-house, where I constantly regaled upon a mut- 
ton chop, said t. dose of mSk punch, and then^ on tajung my bache- 
lor's deme, I became senior wran^en^ 

^^f might refer yo« to tha optntons and practice of the fttrnpua 
Franktia, and Priestley, and ma^r others ; but you wiH, perhaps^ 
prefer aa asampla talc^n from one in ^o^ orh professiod. Sir 
tiattbeir Hak, that great and learMd tawy<¥>¥y and pipti^ Qhrl^r 
tian, whilst at linoolnv loa, p^eipariiig bim^^lf for the bar, s^udj^ 
aistoeii. howt in tha day, T}m§l very ear^y ev^ momipgi'' [pp<. 

■ To these, the names of John Wesley, atid aeyeral other 
lif'hts of the world, and beaefhctors of mankind, nii^t be 
added ;bqt we sif all satisfy ourselves with ttie mention of 
Howard the philanthropist, who was seldom in bed alRfcer 
four in the piof ning. Bat grefl|4;er es^amples tlian that of even 
Hpward, fihougli h6 perhaps was tl^e most illustrious imita- 
tor of his divine Ma8ter,^ij going about doing good, that 
the records 9f the world eAibit since the apotitolrc ag:^, 
are thas enuineratad, for 1}ie imitation of the Chriatian, in 
the pi^es now under our feviow. 

'fAtefhafa^^at np aar4y in Jb^. i^P^lBS/t . ^!^^ 

tha moming.lf Job rose up early in the morning, 

k^ ppfftf^uf^J^ , qi(^n * TQfe^ up early in the lAorpi^e-'tf 

JofVtt? '»»« e yly ifi ikf mprnmg.'itt SM nuel 'rose earlj fp 

* Meadley^s Memoirs of Dr. Paley, p. l^f , 6. 

t Qe^ xix. ay. ; xxi. 14. ; xxii. 3. t Cfgn- ^Kxvi. n. 

i Heji. xxyiu. 18. 11 4ea. xxxL 66. IT BxQfi. xxiv. 4;; f xxir. 4. 

2» SAul ^ if Judgesyi. 28, 33. " ' 

U Jasbiia iii. 1. ; vi. 12. ; vu. 16. ; vili. 10. 

218 ' JteoiM. 

meet Saul kk the moraiiig.^ David ^ * roee-iip earlj in Ae mora*-' 
ing/f Jetemiah continued in the- habit of ^rising early and 
apealung' for twenty-three yean,}' Nehemiah and his fellow- 
labourers Maboured from* the rising of the morning till the stars 
appeared.'^ And our- blessed Saviour is represented as having^ 
risen early, affording a practical illustration of his own precept, 
' work whilst it is day/ It was ^ at the break of day that he call- 
ed to him his disciples, and chose of them tweWe, whom he call- 
ed appstles.1l It was * early in the mommg that the people came 
to him in the temple to hear him.'1F • It wa^ * e&rly m the munming 
that Jesus came into the temple^ and all the people came* unto 
him :*** and it was ^ in the morning, a gr<dat i^Ue before day; 
that he went out to a solitary |4ace to pray/ "t| [pp^ 168-9.] 

To the Christian, however, we surely need tiot say any 
thing on the sin of sloth, or the dub^ of improving to the 
utmost the short portion of time allotted for preparation 
for another, and an eternal state of existence, if, however, 
any arguments are necessary tp prove the impprtanc^ of 
early rising to those who profess '' to work, while it j« 
called day/' because *' the night cometh wherein no man 
can work,' they cannot be furnished with more cogent <tf 
convincing ones than aire contained in the four Jast 
of the letters of Mr. Buckland, and^inthe very sensible 
little pamphlet of Mr. Snelg^r, which, in the form of a 
tract, IS a short but very judicious sermon on Psalm lxiii« 1. 
** Early will I seek thee,' in which the author very satisfac- 
torily i^hews that there is a pleasure to be enjoyed in early 
rising, because it is refreshing to the body, cheering to 
the spirits, and an agreeable nreparation for every succeeds 
ing event of the day. The design of the practice recom- 
mended from the example of David, is then stated as. for 
purposes of piety; because of the serenity of the morning; 
and on account of the importance of religion : to which suc- 
ceeds a brief statement of the advants^es resulting from 
early rising — froni its improving our temporal prosperity— 
advancing our spiritual welitEtre — being our best preparation 
for the public worship of Qod — ^imlicative of pefsonal 
religion,*<^-and a good course, productive of the best ter- 

With such motives before them as have been stated in 
the course of this article, who that regards hiel best interests, 

* 1 Sam. ix. 26. ; xv. 12. 

t I Sam. xtU. 20. Psalms v. 3. ; Iv. 17.; Hx; 10.; Ixxxviii. 13.; 
xcii. 1,2.; cxix. 147. ; cxiiii. 8. I Jer. xxf . 3. ; vii. 13. 

§ Neh. iv. 21. 11 liake vi. 13. f Luke xxi. 38, 

♦• John viii. 2. tt Mark i. 36. 

The Modtm 'Pravdkr. 219 

for time'mri for i^tenitty/bttt would wi«h to put : the etraeit 
reeommendatioim ^of these two Tery useful writers ' into ita- 
mediate practice. But how is thiB to be done, we may be 
asked, wnere a long course of indulgence, either in noc- 
turnal studies or morning sluggishness, has engendered a 
habit of lying in bed, difficult, and, as those who have given 
way to it will think, impossible to overcome. The author 
of the Letters on Early Kising shall answer the question. 

** You must conauer by degrees* Rise fire minutes eariier ever^ 
morning, till you nave arrived at the hour which kppiears to you 
"Uiost ehgtble. You wfll thus accomplish the work wnieh you ' are 
soaiiztottsto effiict. The daily subtraction from Sleep witt be so 
trifling, that it will not occasion that drowsiness on the succeeding 
morning, which the, sudden change from rising at eight to fire 
must necessarily produce. You will thus reach the object of 
your wishes, in the sarest and easiest manner. You wiU be daily 
undermining a very injurious habit, and confirmme a very useful 
one. A short period will make such a sensible difference in the 
time you have gained, that you will beein to feel the pleasure of 
victory, before you are scarcely conscious oS having commenced 
the combat. Ihe last day in each week will be half an hour lon- 
ger than the first, and at the termination of a month you will 
.become an early riser, with the additional advantage of having 
formed the habit in sudi a manner that there is little danger of its 
being relinquhihed.'' [pp. 137*8.] 

On the merits of this plan, we simply add our probatum 
est, and, having done so, unequivocally commend the work 
whence this excellent recipe for the cure of laziness is 
extracted, together with its humble, but still very useful 
and cheap companion, to the attentive perusal and delibie- 
rate consideration of our readers. Ere we close our re- 
marks, we would just hint, however, to Mr. Snelgar, in the 
the hope that his very useful little tract will soon go into 
another edition, that the braying of the ass might, we 
should think, be omitted, without injury to the thousand 
pleasing associations which gave to his early morning 
walks Siat peculiar and inexpressible interest, which we 
hope he will long continue to enjoy himself, whilst, through 
the press, he is the very useful instrument in imparting it 
to others. 

The Modem Travelkr. Palestine. Parti. 18mo. Lon- 
don, 1824*. Duncan, pp.180. 

Few books are, perhaps, more generally interesting than 
voyages and- travels;, and no period of our .literature has 

92Q HtnkUt^ 

liMft moBt pM^iuctiM #t <liia i^ected <rf jM»«I9$1 m4 gQHenl 
rateYyammnl AtA tlie {Mwawt. Sciwtjifi^ entHpvMwg^ 
%ad uitdUgMii hm*, hnve yiditad erery qnwrter of ibfi 
globe; and the rMetrchos of meb weU-i^uilifi^ tQUi»$lii 
fts PaUM» Gierke^ J>odw«Il« Eusteee, m4 Hi:^)^9» i|k Sut 
rope} Moriet^ ElphiuiilQm, Biiohma^^ Fm^er, Poiitinger* 
€k»r« Oittely, KtiiMir» and Poster, m Awt,; BelzQUi, I^rd 
ValAntim^ nirckbiirdi Richardson, jQUfiV»» Dei^OEiH m4 
Chateaubriaadrmf^gypt and the adjjc^^eut cQiuit^ie^xI'^^is, 
Md Clsirke^ Pike, JcmeH. FrapkU«, apd Humboldt, in Aj^^t 
irioa^w^^ve Cumi«ibed the moat extensive %nd imBortaute ^4t 
ditioni to o«v geogmfihieiA knowledgQ, tQ n^hioV i^lsc^ thi» 
laboHin of our niasiiQttarieg, though devoted to mwk higher 
objects, have iBoideatally dontnhnted no small ^aie of 
curious and valuable intbrnHition* But^ alas^ the knowr 
ledge of foreign dimes, which most peoplo feel a great 
and laudable curiosity to obtain, is procurable but by very 
few ; as, of a}l books, (law-books perhaps alone excepted^) 
voyages and travels are the most costly, and conseqiientlv 
the most unattainable by the ordinary clas^ of readers. To 
remedy this inconvenience^ various plans have bee^ hit 
upon«1^i)t hitherto witho^i any very di9tinguishe4 succewj. 
Jin the year 1300| tir. MavQr published w abri4gi?aent cf 
the most popular voyages andj tr^^vels then ^^tant^in t^^PLtVi- 
4^ight volumeSf in 18mo. j but at least ^Cty others, upoi^ the 
same plan, would be requisite to bring down the collection 
to the present time. jPipkerton's more formic(able and 
very heavy wor]^, in sevei^teen £]^uartb voluinei^, is also 
very Qoqsiqerably in arrear; and tp make it compUt^, it 
would be placed stllJ further beyond the reach of tnoiie for 
whose use such cpUeptions ar^ pip^t rec^ui^ite^ and that is 
iJtogedier needless, 

But independent pf such well-foupd^d objections t^'the 
t)Ulk and e^peivse of iheffe epUectjoq^^ we hij^ve loqg b?en of 
opinion^ that something more than the mere work of ^bri^g- 
ment was necessjary to give those,, who hs^ve not the leii^ure 
pr th^ mesm of consiuting th^ mul^plicitr of ponderous 
and expensive 4parto vpyag^s^ travels^ aii^ toar$; which a^ 
constantly appearing in rapid succession, the means of 
knowing what disgxMEeiieg ux& msk]c\n^ in the wolrld. "WW 
had therefore fgnpedf in our Qw;if min^s, a plan for a con- 
densation of th^ most generally ipjteresting^and ValumYe 
intelligence, contained m these volumes, id the form of a 
rej^ular narrative, Choa^, as we a^e neyer likely to haw 
kisuffs for carrying it into execution, we are very happy lo 

jT&e Modem TiraveUer. SSI 

fifid, Attt M fliniiiir Befceme km ragmliid ilwlf to ««Imm; 
tad that it is now in prpgrfw in Mcb a style of esree^mse, 
titttrtt^y Md topogfttpfaidttf^ M to rtedev stny olhelr attemf»t 
Irorse than sup^rfliKyna. One prfnetpal ground of our 
objection to the etifttin|f collections of ro^ages and tmvels, 
h, that in mere abridgments of the narratiiredf of travellers, 
who have taken the same route, and described the same 
scenery, repetition is inevitable ; and conflicting accounts of 
the same tnings are repeatedly given^ without any directions 
to the reader as to which is worthy of preference^ or how 
fiur their discrepances ma^ be reconciled or accounted for* 
To obviate these difflcnltiesg the prssent work proposes to 
^ve 4 cinnplete description of the diffei^ilit countriesi fbras* 
iDg an accurate and sufficiency minute cosmovamic view of 
their present actual state. This object is effected partly 
ky adopting the details given by travellers, who have visited 
tne different places, in theii* own langnage, and very IVe- 
qtiently by a combination of their venous accoimts in the 
language Of the editor ; to whom, thodgh we have not the 
slightest conception of who or what he is, this commenda* 
tion at the least is due, that he has executed bis task with 
great accuracy and judgment. But of this^ we will enable 
our readers to form an opinion for themselves, b^ extracting 
a part of that account of Jerusalemi which^ with its envir 
ronsy occupies upwards of one hundred pages of the present 
portion of this most interesting work >^ 

** The Jerusalem of sacred history is, in fact, no more. Not 
a vestige remains of the calpital of David and SoTomon; not a 
monument of Jewish times is standing. The Very course of the 
Mis is chfmed, and Ike boundaries of the andent city are 
become doafatniL The monks pretend to shew the sites ol ^ 
uionA j^aces ; bat Asither Calvsiy, nor the Holy BepvlebBi, mlck 
less di# Dolorous Way, the house of CaiaDNis» &ci.» baive Ae 
slightest pretensions to even a probaUe identity w|tih the real 
places to which the tradition refers. Dr. Claijks has iha merit tf 
being the first modem tmveller, who ventured to speaifL of the pi^ 
posterous lejfends and clumsy forgeries of the prie$t8« with the 
Contempt which they merit. * To men interested m tracing^, vrithii^ 
the walls, antiquities referred to by the documents of sacred hj8|> 
tery, no/spectacle,* remarks the learned trateller, ^can be moie 
toortif]fhig than the dty in Its present state. Ihe mistaken piety 
of theeany<^kri8laans,in atteaipdng to preserve, has either con- 
Aised or amihikted the memorials it was anxious to render con-^ 
spiouoos. Viewing the havoc thus made, it nay now be rseretted 
tiiat the Hely Land was evcriesened from the dominien of Sara«- 
oenk, who were far ksf harioArmts thasi iUu ctmtfmnn^ fke 

3SI Remw. 

abnir&y,for«Kiaq)ie,of lMiriDg;thei«cbof.JiAea bto ibiiiw 

aod chapdt, and of diwniiiiig Ibe fttcc of Dstnre with painled 
domei, and gilded tnarbla coTeriog*, bj way of coiniiienu>ratiii|; 
the scenes of our Saviour's life and dew, is so evident and so 
lamentable, that eTeo Sandys, with all his creduUty, could not 
avoid a happy application of the reproof conveyed by the Ronnut 
satirist, against a similar violation of the Egerian fountain.' 

" Di. Clarke, however, thoughhe discovers his sound judgment 
in these remarks, has contributed very little to the illustratjon of 
Ibe topc^raphy of Jerusalem. His jjfan is extremely inaccurate, 
and hit hypothesis respecting the site of the ancient Zion alto- 
gether baselriss. It is quite evident that he trusted to' his recol- 
fectioB iodrawiit^ up the account of Jerusalem, and that his 
memory has misldd him. By far the best account which has 
been given o( the sacred oi^, is that furnished by Dr Richardson, 
who, by virtue of his professioiial (fancier as. a physician,— s 
character esteemed sacred all over the east,— was pennitted four 
times to enter, in company with soipe of Ibe principal Turks in Jeru- 
salem, the sacred encJosure of the Stoa Sakhara, the mosque of 
Omar. With the exception of Ali Bey, who pass^ for a Hoslemi 
though really a Spaniard, Dr. R. is the only Frank whose feet 
have trodden the coaseciated ground with unpunity, since the 
days of the Crusades. A Jev or a Christian entering within its 
precincts, must, if discovered, forfeit either his religion or his life. 
• Sir F. Henniker states, that a few days before he visited Jerusalem, 
a Greek Christian entered the tnosque. ' He was a Turkish sub- 
ject, and servant to a Turk : he was invited to chanee his religion^ 
but refused, and was immediately murderiid by the mob. - His 
body remained exposed in the street ', and a passiag Mossujman, 
kicking up the head, exclaimed, ' That is the way I would serve all 
ChrisUans.'" [pp. 75— 77.] 

DesiffDed) and Terr properly ao, rather fbr apopular and 
vaefdl, man a Botentific oompikation, it is intended to si^xat 
into tluB vroric anfhentic aatcdotes, serving ' to ilhiBtraM 
nationel cbuvcter; and oUier details of amusing,' whilst the^ 
are also of an instructive nature ; thoagh every attention is 
at the same'time to be paid to topi^aphTcal accuracy, and 
to an object, which we regret to say that there ib much rea- 
son for' never overlooking, — the rectifying those mistakes. 
Which are to be found in great abniidaiice, and sufficient 
grossnessB, in the most poptilar of our geographical works. 
Brief historical notices will also he prenxed to the descrip- 
tion of eveiy country, including its ancient geography, its 
supposed aborigines, and the principat revolutions of which 
it has b«eD the meatre, whilst, with respect to the unciyilixed 
portions of the habitaUe globe,- diis sketch will exhibit also 
the prepress of discotvery. In every case, the natoral faia* 

The Modem Traveller. 223 

tory, botany» geological features, volcanic pbenomena, and 
other natural curiosities ' of the country^ will, as far ad 
possible, be fully described; together with the costume, 
physiognomy, and domestic habits of the natives ; their 
traditions, religion, and literature ; their public buildings, 
arts, and ancient monuments : in fact, all the multifarious 
information for which we are indebted to the indefatigable 
researches of modem travellers. 

In the execution of this most judicious and comprehen- 
sive plan, biographical sketches of individuals who have, 
by remarkable actions, identified themselves with the his- 
tory of the portions of the globe described, should not of 
course be omitted ; and we doubt not, from the following 
brief, yet accurate notice of Djezzar Pasha, the remorseless 
tyrant of Acre, that this part of the work will receive a due 
portionof the editor's attention: — 

"Dr. E. D. Clarke, who visited Palestine in th6 summer of 
1801, landed at Acre, then under the dominion of the notorious 
Djezzar Pasha — an appellation explained by himself as si^ifying 
the butcher. This execrable tyrant, whose name carried terror 
with it over all the Holy Land, at one time, shut up in his fortress 
at Acre, defied the whole power of Turkey, deriding the menaces 
of the Capudan Pasha, though he affected to venerate the 
authority of the sultan. His real name was Achmed. He was 
a native of Bosnia, and spoke the Sclavonian language better than 
any other. At an early period of his life, he sold himself to a 
slave-merchant in Constantinople, and being purchased by Ali 
Bey in Egypt, rose from the humble situation of a Mameluke slave 
to be governor of Cairo. In this situation, according to his own 
account given to Dr. Clarke, he distinguished himself by the most 
rigorous administration of justice ; realizing the stories related of 
Omental caliphs, by minglmg in disguise with the inhabitants of 
the city, and thus making himself master of all that was said con- 
cerning himself, or transacted by his officers. So far back as 1784, 
when M. Volney visited the Holy Land, he was pasha of Siede 
(Sidon) and Acre.* At that time, his cavalry amounted to 900 
Bosnian and Anaut horsemen ; by sea, he had a frigate, two galiots, 
and a zebeck; and his revenue amounted to £400,000. At the 
time of Dr. Clarke's arrival, he was upwards of sixty years of age, 
and vain of the vigour which he still retained. Of forty-three 
pashas of three tails then living in the Turkish empire, he was, by 

* Dr. Clarke says : ** He has been improperly considered as pasha 
of Acre : Ms real pashalic was that of Seide, but at the time of oar 
arrival, he was also lord of Damascus, Berytus, Tyre, and Sidon.'' 
Borokhardt, however, represents the pashalic of Siede to be the 
same as that of Akka. . 

tSt Beviem. 

(O^vii BeeouDt^ the leBMr.. 'WefawiA hioa/ s«ys Or. Claike, 
^^ealed on a mat, io a little chamber •d«^tiiie of 4he meaA^st actt- 
cte.4»f Aisiiitiiiny ^locaptif^ a^Qoan^»»pciBOiig, eaHbeqiprai^ yestal for 
cooUaff tha water Jbe acci^OBally 4raak. |ie was sucrounded by 
persau auimed and di»%H«d.' Bome without a nc^ otheis with- 
out an arniy with one ear t)]:dj, or one eye ; marked men, j^ he. 
termed them — persons bearing signs of thek havin j^ been instructed 
to serve their master with fidelity. ' He scarcely loolced up to 
notice our entrance, bat x^ontinued his employment of drawing 
upon the floor, for one of his engineers, a plan of some works he 
was then constructing. His form was athtetic, and fats kmg white 
beaid ^ntiieW covered his hreast. Ifis habit was that f>f a com-* 
mon Arab, plain, iMit <llean, consisting of a w4nte capulet over a 
ooMen «assoek« liis tufbaa was also wUte. IKetther cnahion nor 
caqpet deceratad tbeaudced boatds of fab difaa. In fais givdle fae 
wore at fioniani set with, diawonds ; ihuA dus be apo)ogiaad for esU^ 
biting, saying it was fais badge-of ofBce m gpv^)iM>r of Aas^ ai^ 
therefore could not be laid aside. Having ended his .orders to 
fhe engineer, we wete directed to sit lipoh the end of the divan; 
find Signor Bertocino, his dragoman, kneeling by his side, he pr^ 
pared to hear the cause of our visit.* "•^ ^Qpp. 18— 2Cl] 

" Djezzar was the Herod of his (day. At one period, having 
reason to suspect the .fidelity of his wives, he put seven of them to 
death with his own hands. No .person in Acre knew the nuifiber 
of his women, but from the circumstanoe of a certain number of 
covers bein^ daily placed in a kind of wheel, or turning cylinder, 
so contrived. as to convey dishes totfae interior, without any pos- 
sibility of observing the person who received them. If aiiy of them 
died, ih^ event was kept as secret as when he massacred them 
with his own fasmds. In his public works he aimed at munificence. 
He built, the mosque, the bazai:, and and an elej^nt public fountain 
at Acre, using the ei^tensive remsdns of Cesarea as a quarry. In 
all these works he was himself both the engineer and tHe architect^ 
he formed the plans, drew the designs, and supermtended the 
execution. He was his own minister, chancellor, .treasurer, and 
isecretary ; often his own cook and gardener; and not unfrequently 
, both judge and executioner inthe same inst^t. ,Sudiis,thiBaccoui^t 
given of this extraordinary man by Baron de Tott,Tolney, and Dx. 
Clarke. Tet with the.short-si^hted and narrow-minded .policy o(f 
an Oriental despot, he sacrificed to his avarice ih^ permanent 
prosperity of ^he districts which he, governed. During the latter 
vears of his administratioi^, miQre especially, towi^s that »had once 
been flourishing, were reduced by his oppression to a few cottagesy 
and luxuriant plains were abanaoned to die wandering Arab3." 

*Si|iE|h is the lOuQi^e of , the uudect|tkil)g» .idth Mliioh .wp 
•re ao mmsh dielaghlfid* lh%t/w^ thMO .pot lo^t.^ 99^^11^ tkt 

* Travels in various Countries, part ii.^'i.-€liftp'8. ■ • 

The MoOem frmeller. &9S 

commending it to the notice aiid cordial support of our 

i^ale&tine has tcfry properly becfn selected as the first 
comitry to be noticed ; and i^faen vfe infbrm out readers^ 
that in the present part of the Modem Traveller, and that 
i¥hich will ne published on the same da^ with our journal^ 
— supposing it executed with equal spirit and fidelity as 
his spedmen, as we hare no teason to doubt that it will be, — 
they Nvill have an accotmt of die Holy Land, comprising all 
that is most durious, and generally interesting, m the tra- 
vels of Maundrell, Pococke, Sandys, Hasselqtriist, Vohtey» 
Srown, Dr. Clarke, the psetido AH Bey, Chateaubriand, 
Diirckhardt, Joliffe, Dr. Kichardson, Buckingham, Irby 
Mangles, l^ilr F. Hetmiker, and others, throtign this most 
attraetive region of the earth, at lelist in a Christian'^ eye^ 
in a neat pocSiet volume, of between three 'and four hundred 
closely printed pages, at the low "price Of five sArillings, we 
fbel assured, that tney will soon enable tliemselves to judge 
of the justice of our encomiums, which, though somewhat 
warmer perhaps than is our wont, have been excited by the 
uncommon merits of what we consider a fiyotur in the lite- 
tarv world. Tet warm as that commendation has 'been, 
and as We intended that it should be^ it would be a gross 
injustice to close this review wiibout noticing, in terms of 
the highest praise, the very superior merit of the typogra- 
phical department of this woric, ^hich is from the very 
accurate press of Mr. Moyes, a.nd iti a '^tyte Of neatness 
which we liave seldom seen surpassed, even in the most 
e^^pensive wofks. It is also illustrated i>y a rery well 
executed view of Jerusalem, and a small Irt^t accurate map 
of l^alestine, embellishments which we areliappy to learn 
that it is the intention of the publisher to continue through- 
out the series, at the rate of a plate Ht the least to every 
part, and occasionally of more. 

To the icontinuation of the series, we shall lierei^er 
direc^t the attention of our readers, ss^tisfied as we are, that 
if executed with the taste and spirit which ^hasmaifked its 
commencemeiit, it will be decidedly the best and most 
useful of those cabinet and nocket compilations, on which 
•so much attention has been oedtowed oi late years by the 
booksellers, and So large a portion of psitronage by the 

Jmblic. If, in that "patronage, the Modem Traveller, so 
ong as it is conducted as it is *begun, does not very 
largely participate, the feult wilVbe with the public, upon 
#hose taste we shall consider the negleot of its very supe- 
rior claims no light imputation. 

296 Review. 

A Letter to the Editor of the British Reoiew, occasioned by 
the Notice of " No Fiction/' and '' Martha/* in the last 
Number of that Work. By Andrew Reed. 8vo. Lon- - 
doa, 1824. Westley. pp. 80. 

In our early attention to this Pamphlet, it is by no means 
our purpose to enter into the merits of the case between 
the author and our brethren of the British Review, the 
latter: of whom we leave to fight their own battles, as we 
doubt not that they are quite able to do^ though we say not 
with what success against an antagonist like Mr. Keed# 
who has advanced very serious, charges of misrepresentt^- 
tion and prejudic0 against . them^ supjported by evidence^ 
which, to say the least of it, ixiakes put a very strong />rii?ia 
facie case on his behalf. Nor shall we . touch upon, that 
part of his address which relates to the second of his publi- 
cations, as we have not yet had leisure to notice '* Martha,? 
although .we hope it will not long lay amongst the heap of 
neglected books, which have for some time, thoiich un*^ 
avoidably, acciiqiulated on our table. But we do think ii 
du^,;in justice to Mr. Reed, to our readers, and to ourselves, 
not' to defer to a more convenient oppbrtuhity, an exami^ 
nation of the charges which have long been in general cir- 
culation against him, for the publication of ^* No Fiction,*' 
a work, which appearing anonymously at first, was very pro- 
perly avowed oy.its author, the ' moment that' avowal 
seemed likely to involve him in danger and difficulty. 
Those charges have been divided with sufficient accuracy 
for oiir purpose, into the following heads : — 1st. That the 
credulity ot the public has been imposed upon ; 2dly. That 
Mr. Bamett, (the hero of the tale) has been injured ; an<) 
SdljT. That the author has sought to eulogize himself and 

The first of the charges imputes to Mr. Reed, the imposi- 
tion upon the public, as a '' narrative founded on recent 
and interesting facts ;** of a collection of fictions, and gross 
distortions, and^ exaggerations^ for which there was but 
slender ^foundation in. the real occurrences, whence itd 
author professed to dra^w his materials. To this Mr. Reed 
opposfs the following statement, pn the correctness of 
which, as well from.our. knowledge of his character, as the 
acquaintance we have elsewhere obtained, with the princi- 
pal facts to which he appeals, we place the firmest reliance. 

** It is true, that the acquaintance between Lefevre and Douglaf 
began as is described. It is true, that their friendship, was car<!> 

Keed's Leiier to /Ar £AW oftht JBriikh Remew. 887 

iiedfi>Hiraid by meant and ikicidcfiil& afatiilar to Ifaote iiilioAaoed. 
It is tme» dial tbey mado m cxcoriioii to a diataat pa<|t ^ ^§ 
eaamtxfivk.ei Tiait to Mia« LtfeTi»».irho wa9 vliat»h^ s r«(»ra-r 
aaa ted to bcL k it tnia^ that Lefene faeUla place in an offioa in 
LoiidoB, and resided with Mr* and Mrs* Rnttell; and tbat he was 
happj wkile he conlinaed in the paths of usefnlnets and reUgion* 
It IB tfoe, diat he and Doiig;lat separaited; mi thai; aftenrards h9 
beg;a». to decline, firomi hit formtir purtuita tnd pleasures. It it 
txue, that iheRustells and Dcmglaits often remonstrated as they 
are represented; and that die correspondence frooa Plyokouth on 
an alleged ^ impropriety' really existed. It is true, that Lefevre 
contended with many resolves to fietrace his steps, but that 
he orercame them, forsook his religious comiexioaB, and was grin 
dutily drawn into the paths of woridly plauure. It is true, that 
he became entangled in debit the coBversation on this tmbjecft it 
sdmoflt fifarally given : and H is time, though he nevier knew iL 
that Donglat became boond, in word and honour^ for the largest 
amount he ever owed. It is true, that Lefewe left, the Russelit 
similarly to the way described, and very much for the reato^ 
given. It is true, that he formed, an ettaohment, that it had ^> 
beneficial influence on his mind and conduct, and that he sought 
his friend Douglas, and made him acquainted with his prospects. 
It is true, that when Douglas was expecting to hear of nis settle- 
men^ and to see its good effects, he was aroused at midnight to 
feceive Lefevre in the state described; that he voluntarily con- 
fessed, that w^at he had formerly dented was actually true ; that 
he had been subject to rebuke in one office, that his accbunts had 
been unexpectedly calked for ^elsewhere, and be >was not then 
|iM|»ared to vender them ; and that ihe connexion to which he had 
%eeB tooktng, was broken off fot ever* H Is tnt^ that Douglat 
dud every tinng to tranqaiUise him ; and in ihe morning awidcened 
himt and induced him to say he would return to hit duties; 
but that he went home, and remained in a similar state of mind 
fcr soma time. It is true, that he eloped from his friends; ram- 
bled in a state of mental desperation in the environs of llochester^ 
was advertised, and at last found, and brought home by Mr* 
perry. It is ti^ue, that his mother and Douglas found him as 
described^ that he remained in this state till he agaio forsook his 
home, and was not heard of, after the most>anxious inquiry. It 
is true, that he wandered far away, enjisted in the army, and went 
over to Canada; that he became the subject of reflection ; that he 
fcn in with an excellent missionary, who waH of great use to hitn; 
iibd Ibaa he wrote home to his niends penitential and pleasing 
letum. it b*true, that his relative piueured hit diaeharge, dttt 
ha iBtumed heme, mid though diierenlily received by his different 
friends, he was joyAiHy received by thorn alL It it true, that 
Wilton wiat Inflnenced by Lefevre's example, and that his state of 
mind, in his last affliction^ was similar to what is given. 
VOL. vlii. — NO. 2. R 

238 Itemw.-^Ueed*fi Letter totke 

/'^Mttdi^Yery^imidit bMii«» what tkialiftaly skeldi inoloAes, is 
eqetMy troe. The letters and conTenHttionsj though not literaUj 
rendered, are, with few^xoepti^nSy subUantiaIfy true} while the con- 
tents of a letter hate sometimes heen tfirown into a dialogue, and 
the body of manv conTers&tibnsre^uoed to a letter. The spirit is 
generally true, where the form of representation is most affected 
by variety. Even the sketches from nature are mostly from 
memory ; and those few parts of the work, which are of the nature 
of episode, are commonly real incidents, though first founded in 
union with other circumstances/' [pp. 1^ — 16,] 

To erery oandid i&ind> this statement must < present ad 
abundantly! suffieient refutation of the charge of ^nposi- 
ti(Hi.on the public credulity, though it doiea niot by any 
mesBB free its author irom the mcnretMiablevftDd more' im- 
|K>rtsiit ones, of improperly publishing, facto celaling to 
another, which he ovgnt not in prudence os delicacy to 
have 80 used ; and that is the. charge* to whidbi.in our nottoe 
of his work,^ we distinctly allnded, as a very serious on^, 
extending even to the hdtiout and honesty of the auth<»r, 
though in fitvour of them, we then decided, on the stren^h 
of the assurance contained in his advertisement to the tiburd 
edition o£ this work, that the true key to it '' W€^ thai in 
bis poBsession-rthat it had never been in th|» ppw^ of any 
other .person-^-and that it never should be, wbJle.di^ cciisti^g 
raupKHM continued for withholding it/'. A mori^ minute 
atatemoit. of. those foota^is. now pubUsbed* .and. we. are 
therefore anxious to review a judgment pronoiufieied upon 
partial - evidtioiee, whtoh we ar& nowfully in possessftDH of 
the means of ^onfirmingy modifying, or reversing,: as full 
and authentic admissions and testimony upon thef subject, 
may call upon us to do. 

It now stands admitted on all hands^ that Lefevre, the 
hero of '^ No Fiction,*' is Mr. Barnett, once an intimate friend 
of Mr. Reed, who performed towards him, in its general 
outline, the kind part attributed, in the narrativ^^'to Doug- 
las; — ^that between them the correspondence inserted in» or 
interwoven with, the work, substantially took place^ tbougb 
the letters are not ^cactly copied, or always used even m 
the epistolary form; — that the work was published without 
Mr. Batnett's consent, or any. application. to him for it, 
tfabugh subetantially oontaining.the chief incidodits. of his 
eventful history, and his correspondence with the author, 
who beiliev^d him at that time to be residing within ^wo 
hundred miles from him. Now, upon th^s plain statement of 

Vol. li. p. 359. 

of ike JMHsk Review. 229 

'«dniitlid JJMts^ we thmild aMndiettd, that not eyMi the 
most prejiidifoed iHeiid of Mr; Reed clui consoieiitiowily 
scqint hiiQ* of indelicacy uid imprtideiice. 

To these chaises he pleads, Ist, > that the AamiiT^, 
thoo^ an()iie8tionabIv founded on facts, and stfbsfantially 
true m all its principal details, was pnrpOjiely so altered ni 
dates, places, and minor connecting circumstances, as to 
secure nk design of concealing from the pubtic the real 
hero of the piece. That he intended this course to pro- 
duce the efEdct he states, we do not for a moment doubt; 
'7et,«^where some of the leading facts must have been known 
to nmay besides himself, being of public notoriety-in the cirde 
in which the then friendly, but now contending parlies, 
noTed,-^ow he eoidd so decdire himself as to beliefe he 
should succeed in his oUeot, is to us a niaittier of uafai^ed 
astomshment* Nor could he long retnain in so nnaccount- 
able a delusien, as the book hm scarcely issued from the 
press, ere tike. key. to -its interpretation wan Atrmshed 
to every one who associated with the religioas part of the 
poipidatio« of the metropolis, whence it spread in a very 
abort time to the wm» dass of pessdns in the larger towns 
of the kingdom. To this natural, yet, as the aiithor assures 
us, to him most untooked*-for events many circumstances, 
speedy 'to be noticed, contributed ; though the one just 
slated would, lb our estimatioii, have beett4{uite>eDoi^ to 
produce it; in a degrse sufficiently injurious alike io Ae 
author and'his hero* 

The second plea «pon ike record is, that befbf e he deter- 
mined «pon publishing, Jie sou^ a cooferenee witi^ die 
latter, but fiiiled in procuring it. How and why he so 
failed, he has not informed us, but we conclude it must have 
been merely from^Ms not beia^ able to meetwith- Mr. Bar- 
nett ; for, if any decree of coldness between lum and Mr. 
Reed prevented the interview, the publication of this narra- 
tive under such circumstances, was unjustifiable and un- 
pardonable in dbe extreme ; as, in our view of the subject, 
nothing can be ctfered in palliatien o£ the want, not only of 
caution, but of proper feeling, exhibited in giving to. the 
world the details of a cjonfidendal friendship of a peculiariy 
delicate nature, without the full consent of all paurties coti- 
cesned iu' it, than the honest conviction of the individual 
who so published it, that its appearance would not at least 
be dipagreeable to his friend; and that Mr. Reed himself 
must, atone time, have been of this latter opinion; his meref 
intention to apply for permission to print his narrative very 

Iflaiiily ,pmfe4. Why Ibw 4iA bajdot oMaii^ 0v,^.ttie 
)eaat, m4mt U? . " W hM Im 414 d«te«laim ^m tbo .publiM- 
tioD^ Mr. B." hQ telU 110^, !* ^»9^ to.the :b«9l of Us koow- 
.l^^K?* i^esi^^ng two hundred tx^ilM from Iion4(m/' . And 
'.wbut tbefi ? Wie a^k ;. ^%^ ill^TQ no. poM lo OKmiF«y m Vetter to 
^itPytwd iafotic or fire days to Vring back^bUiasidenil to^ or 
disQ^nt £vom,.,th0 profioscMl p^VU^tio|]L><>F, kU hvijfeory>? 
Uom^tigiai&bly tbere Hftust have l>f ^ ; find ht8;Mt baifdng 
fty^Uod bimself of tbift ordinary mode, of tCK)BGMl»imicati«li 
h^imten friends. «4pacated by ,di«fca«o^ toram upon -ptir 
ii^ndf the unwelcome and painful sabpieion^ tbat.at.tbts 
period Mr. Re^ aad Mr. Barn0U,co«(AAot bav^ bomi«n 
terma of oQsdiality, .or.erm pf infcuna«y;,ia wbiob case 
nplbing ooidd juiijUfy tb^ paMicatton.ctf '' IIoFicftion'! atameh 
a Ji«^. Slevp^eting Mr* Be§d» how«ytr» hl^y aB .Mra do, 
it will afiEpsd aa great ^satigfttetion to l^ni^ that oar aiiapi- 
cipat are. witbput foundation/ and t«i . ba fittcniabad.with a 
mora, siitisfaotory elucidation of a aayatfiry i^hi^b we aoe 
unable otherwise to «olv0« 

. His third plea ia, that bein^ disappointied in obtaiid^g « 
.conference with bia fiiend^ his determination to print was 
not formed till /'be. bad diatinctily taken the opjnion of 
friends of discreet and matured judgisent on the question^ 
Whether there was. any deUoaey i^ submitling ^a body < .of 
iacis so concealed, to the .public eye/' ''The aplnion/' 
bn s^dds, '' of.cQurse waa, in each eaee, aush. as.iaiKHiariaed 
the step I afterwards took.'' That it weaao».ite cannot Iw 
a momelit doubt* Vr^eti, Mr. Reed so unequitooaUy asa^rts 
the .fapt; but that it sboaid be, spj we can never. cease to 
mar^U :proy:ided (which* from . our uafeimaed Deapeot ftr 
Mrs Reed> M^e predicate, to have been the fi^) the cMe wan 
fairly, stated to them* . If it was, let them never se4 up for 
teachers in Israel* ''of discreet and matured Judgment^" 
who did not counsel him* that the publication be contem- 
plated wa$ in the highest degree ifidis<»reet and ittde" 
unleas he had Mr. Barne^^t's permission for it» wbiob 
and onsht to be applied for by the verjr next posti 

Mr. Reed concludes this branch of his defence^ by saying 
U> the Reviewer* to whom be addresees it, " Prudence* 
perhaps* Sir, cpuU do little more than this :" to whidi 
Vfit. answer* It oould do* and ought to have done* a gcest 
deal more* and we need not recapitulate in what^ satisfied, as 
we are* that most men of correct feeling will be o^ epinion 
with us* that the pablication oC information with reapeot to 
anathei;* obtained in the course of an iatimaAe " ' * ' ' 

EdUw of tie Briiish lUniew. 231 

without hi* express pernliftBion, even where the fieidts stated 
are preeminently and uoequiTocally honourable to hie dbu- 
racter, ie a breach of confidence altogether incautioitti, inju* 
dieioag^ and unwarrantable. We have spoken otronj^ly on 
ihin point, much more no indeed than our regard m Mr* 
Reed would have permitted us to do, but' in the ftdthAil 
discharge of a pubhc duty, in which we knew nei Aier friend^ 
nor foe. But that his error was a mere erro|r of judgment, we 
are as folly convinced^ as we are of that error baring beeii< 
oommitted ; and henee we as unreserredly acquit him of di» 
slightest intention of injuring any one, stiH less a friend 
for whom be has done so much. 

This naturally brings us to the second part of the charge ; 

th^ injury inflicted upon Mr. Bamett,and the blame aitach* 

ing itself to Mr. R^ed for that infliction. — And first, we 

would inquire what is the injury done? We admit, at the 

outset, that every person has a just ground of complaint^ 

whose private history is laid open to %e public, eidier by 

firiend or foe, without his permission first had and obtained 

for such a disclosure ; and afciiUm has he so, where tiial 

disclosure is made in violation of the confidence of friend*^ 

ship. That Mr. Bamett might, therefore, very reasonably 

complain of this publication, few unprejudiced persons 

can, we tfppr^eno^ be disposed to question ; but on the 

oHier hand, he alone can determine whetiier his fedings or 

interests have been so affected, as to give him anv ground 

of eomplaillt for a real injury sustained. Hie act done was, 

as we contend, unjustifiable by the individual who did it} 

iMit it does not, therefore, follow 4hat it was injurious to 

any one; whilst, by assenting to it afterwards, the party 

who might otherwise most justly have complained of 

it, in as fiir as be was conoemed, supplied the defidaicy! 

of a'ptevk>us application for his permission; and; as ajpinsi 

hivMelf^ put the thing upon precisely the same footing as 

l^ough he, by his consent, had originally been a |)ali;y tei 

liie publication ; leaving, however, the other party still open 

to tneehaqgeof indelicacy and precipitancy, in proceeding 

without that assent. This, then, we conceive to be prc^ 

cicely the situation in which Mr. Reed and Mr. Bamett 

sjt^d. The fonner bae precipitately and incautiously done 

that, which/ as a minister of the gospel, and a gentleijaan, 

be ongbt qotr to have done; but the latter has deprived 

himself of the right of complaining of this n^isco^duct, in 

that he ^deliberately ind advisedly sanctioned the jm^^tft 

the menaejliit he was aware of its adoption. That be did no/ 

232 12evtet&.— Reed*8 Letter to the 

KSj and tmreBerredly, admits not of a momeBt'ci doubt ; 
for ne notoriously introduced himself, and suffered himself 
tobe introdooed, into circles in which he had not previously 
moved, as the Lefevre of No Fiction; conceiving, and we. 
still tUnk« not erroneously. conceiving, diat the character 
was on the whole more^ honourable to, him than disadvan- 
tageouste Iiong» therefore, after .the appearance of the work, 
aira his. own ^option of the principal chars.cter in it,, be 
lived on terms of renewed intimacy with the friend by whom 
Aat character was sketched, and himself widely circulated 
tbe key. to it, which he and the author alone possessed, so 
completely, as to apply all its characters and events to the 
real nistory of their intercourse. During the whole of this 
period, and it was not a short one, it is self-evident, there^ 
fore, thkt he never dreamt of an injury having been done 
him by the publication, but, on the contrary, uniformly con* 
sidered it a benefit ; and even had he subsequently disco- 
vered that this impression upon the subject had been erro- 
neous, he could have no more right to complain of the 
publication, than he would have had in the event of his per- 
mission having been previously and properly obtained; for, 
as we have already intimated, bU subsequent, deliberate, 
aaid long-oont&nued assent, wfis, at the very least, fully tantar 
raR0unt> to a previous, free; consent ; an4: if the. latter^ be must 
necessaiily have taken, without murmuring^ all the come*. 
|)tt^ices. The evidence in this ease not only nq^tiyes the 
infliction of any injury upon Mr. Barnett byti^ publi^a^ 
tton, but proves that, on tne contrary, it was highly advan* 
tageous to him ; aHhough, we regret to add, that his own 
subsequent misconduct has rendered that advantage un- 
ftvailing. It is wdl known, we doubt not, to many of our 
readers, that subsequent to the publication in question, and 
hia own ready adoption of the .leading. character in it» thia 
gentleman obtained a situation in the Londoii Orphan Aay* 
lum, of which his friend Mr. Re,ed has long, been the very 
active secretary. How that situation was obtained* and 
lost, itis.but justice to the latter gentleman tg permit him 
to atale; at length. . 

^* Another head of injury to "which your reviewer refers, is con- 
nected with Mr. B/s introduction to the London Orphan Asylum, 
and which he thus expresses: — 

/''When he offered himself as a candidate for the office of 
assistant-secretary, it was objiected to him, that he was the hero of 
No Fiction; that he had so misconducted himself in the Post- 
office, that he was in danger of dismissal ; that he had embez- 

EdUar rf tke BriHsh Eiview. i&a 

iM the money of kis employers^ and that m idl respects he. was a 
most imniorai character.' 

*^ Now, it is.necessaxy for ,me to meet this statement with the 
plain and bold ai^sertion, that it is Jake, and, as I shiJl shew, most 
ungenerously false. 

*' When die situation in question becabie vacant; Mr. Bartiett 
applied for my advice in offering hhnself fbr tt.~^' It would/ he 
said, ' take him from his brother's, where he was exposed to temp* 
tation — ^it would restore him to his best oonneackms^l would be 
all he desired.V 

^* I apprized him, that the ground yas already occupied by a 
very eligible eandidate-^-rthat I had no doubt, if he ventured to 
emnpete with him, all his foniier life would be inqmred into^ and 
bs^ii^t forward«*-tbat I diought, with steadiness of conduct, he 
would be the more suitable of the two candidates — and that, with 
this conviction, waving my own feelings, I should rega]:d myself 
bound jto forward the object to the utmost, should he continue to 
think it so desirable. I begged him to take time to consider it; and 
having done so, he resolved to face whatever difficulties might 
arise, and become a candidate. I immediately did what I have 
liot done before or since, I wrote separately in his behalf to the 
members of the Board, and gave him every assistance in his owd 
personal canvass. 

** Tlie night of election came. A* gentleman who snpported'the 
o&er candidate, fromf his knowledge 4)f his exeelleAtckauniciiair,;lml 
who did not know that such a book as No Fiction-waa in eaaatimsa, 
stated he had heard, (it was the oommoR report when Mr. B» 
eloped,) that he had been very unsteady, that be hadUefk his duty 
ana hit country, and that he had even embedded moaeyto a large 
amomut belonging to the Post-K>ffice* . Another gentlevoan^ to whom 
Mr. B^ b^d imraduoed himseff indiscreetly as .the Lefevre oF No 
Fiction, took occaJaion to say, there might possibly be some grouiid 
for a pact of such reports, as he had been given to understand, 
from good authority, that there were some allusions to him in an 
ammymous worX he had lately seen. ' 

'' I was, of course, the only person who could meet tiiese charges; 
and vindicate his character. I maintstined; without knowing of 
Mr. B^'s admissions, thatno one was authoriEed in concluding any 
thing for or against a living individuail, ft«m the wofkref^rrra to^ 
and that, in relation to tl^ reports which had been named, they 
were paitly true, and partly false. I allowed that there had been 
some irregularities: but I insisted, that the report of dishonesty 
and embezzlement was wholly unfounded ; that I could prove this 
by testimonials, which I read ; that I was willing to be one of his 
sureties to any amount; and that I sincerely believed he deeply 
regretted whatever might have been amiss in nis past conduct. ' 
HThe effect of this statement was, that Mr. B. was allowed to eo 
to the\)allot immediatety 9xAunamimously\ and the issue of the 

234 JBfl«tM.^BMd's Letter to ike 

had no weak points of condact to be exposed, ana. kad vaAe eeiH 
aMerldile iotm^Bt belbine ^he began; and tlie sataadon to vliieh be 
wa9 thM appoiatedi w^yfot^neark^iowUf tteft af any ooa he 
had ever possessed ! 

** Nawi*iir, what is 4lhe fttate of tiia case heye? Mf. B» after 
fbfsakiag his coonenotia, se^s once more to be cowfortably set- 
tled; his reported irregulaiities are, as was expected, brovglit 
fotMidhy a petsoB who fand sot seen. No Factiooi, mned, as they 
are sure to be, with great exaggerations. His friend stands np 
aLofliey and oMeta all the .heat of feeing which an eieotion to a 
valuable place commolkly gcnerales, aad eamestiy mdkates ecfa^* 
dttot, whi(di4fc was difficah entirely to dweidale. This TmdaettCina 
is so sttdoessfU, that he b admitted, wUhaut even a meehn la Ifta 
0a»traryt to go to the ballot, and is elected to a sitaatiott better 
every «;b5fi, than any one he had possessed in his best days. More 
than this; this situation he would most certainly haye lost, had H 
Hot be^n for the fayoarable impressions produced on the minds of 
many who yo4ed, by his having amiounced hiaaself, or been an- 
noaaoed by others, as the Lefevre of No Fiction ! 

" Thta sitaaiion Mr. B. might hate held to the present hoar, with 
the gretitest comfort aad respetitafaility ; mnd patnfol as it may be^ 
I am perhaps bound to throw some light on the circumstaacea 
atftettdmg his removai from it^ as some atraage and heavy in- 
siauationa have been made respeetiag it^ and yoar renewsr seema 
anxious. to ceoetve them. The effort has been to cast the Uame of 
lolling an excellent appointoient on me; and that blame I oaghl 
not to endure. 

** For some montha after the election, Mr. B. performed the 
duties of his office admiraMy, and cheerAiUy rendered me ali the 
relief in his power ; aad so long as this was ihie case, he felt him- 
Idf useful aad ha]|Kpy. Afterwards he aMowed Inmself iadulgeooea 
linfkTOiiraUe to faedth, and uldmatdy fell into a state of anental 

I was the first person he eaBed for. I aaw him ; etary 
tioa, medical and otherwise, was given itt him; hsB state was 
tsealed with die greatest tenderness and delicacy; I attended in 
his place, end discharged all his duties till he rasovemd^ that no 
one asight complain ; end when he did rcoorer, and I was. made 
aware, by those Jtho lived with him, of the causeaof this distiesiung 
afflictton, I wrote an affiectioaate and foithful ietler to hinu He 
acknowledged it with tears of gratitude, and assured me, that he 
would do honour to whatever my friendship had led me to say inhia 

** For about three moa^s he kept to his resolutiofls, and 
assisted -greatly to promote die interests of the Charity. Then he 
relap^d into a similar' state ; and it became necessary for him to 
seaa in his resignation. That resignation was accepted widiont 

EdUor cfOie BHtkh Amae. 33ft 

r tad the Boaid vBUumbMlf iffvoied of tMrnouiaM 
iliU<&iM«Bdi8«ni^pib;i^my.owtiiim; «ttd which are th» latk# 
pMseMtti* I yr^Mf'md am still scasiU^f thai ijm dolfamte oopdnet 
OB thair |Murt waa obaerred very laiielii in respeel to my iBeltB^t 
and I shall always be grateful for it, exercised aa it was, mdef 
ciicnmstances wmch gare me so much concern aod mortification* 
^' During the whole term of his continuance, an unkind word 
was not addressed to him ; whatever was omitted, I did, and utter* 
ed no reproach ; and I hate his own acknowledgment in a casaal 
note, when leaving the situation — ' That he kad only himself to 
blame lor it;' and flie only feefing I had, or have on the subject, is 
l!iat of deep regret, that he so little fulfiHed te expectations i^ed 
concerning him, and frustrated no inconsiderable efforts made to 
he^ and bless him." [pp. 30 — 36.] 

On this statement, few of our readers will, we apprehend, 
come to any other, conclusion, thau that at which we hav^ 
ai^rived, — that the conduct of the author of No Ficttou 
towarda the hero of hi^^ work, was, in this transaction at 
the least, so far from injurious, that it was kind, friendly, 
and considerate^ in the extreme ; nor, through the whole of 
their connexion, doea there appear the slightest reason to 
suspect that it was ever intentionally otherwise* We be- 
lieve, as fully as the warmest friend of Mr« Reed, and even 
Mr; Reed himself, can do, that the character of Lefevre was 
never sketched, or published, with a malignant band or 
view, but, on the contrary, with a kind intention towards 
it^ original, for whom^ until he strangely thrust Umiself 
forward, under cirpumstances far less creditable to hin;i 
than those in wbic^ his friend had placed and left hin\, th^ 
general ipipression was decidedly, if not univ^sally, of tbe 
most favourable kind. By his n^4s* ^J the pnUi^jaad 
even by himself, he was considered an example of the power 
of religion in reclaiming the victim of those strong tempta- 
tions, to which he was not singularly exposed, from the 
error of his way« ; and an example so deltmated as to be 
beneficial to others, whilst it was not discreditable to 
him, at least in the estimation of those, whose judgment of 
human character and actions is formed upon, and guided 
by, the word of God. The misfortune of this well-meant 
attempt has been, not that it failed in the latter, but the 
former part of its object, by prematurely presenting a living 
instance of Qxe power of d^ne grace in changing the heart 
and life, ere the sincerity of that repentance, and amelioxa'^ 
tioo of conduct, which is the evidence of tlus regenaratiog 
change, had stood tha test of time ; a faiLare whiw viil, me 

296 Heview.—BjbeA'B iMUr to the 

hope, detor others from the dai^ioiut, end irery improper 
practice, of giving us exempies of the eovereign power of 
Godi in this his inightiest work, ftom men still expoeed, 
from the trials and temptations of life; at least to the 
liability of making shipwreck of their faith/ and bringing 
disgrace upon the Christian name* 

In this view of the subject, we are aware of having argued 
the case as between religious men, looking mainly, if not 
Solely, to the approbation of the religious public, aad the 
view which they are likely to take of their characters and 
conduct ; and inasmuch as both the litigant parties, either 
form, or profess to form, a part of this division of the 
public, we apprehend, that in doing, so, we have not done 
either of them wrong. But if Mr. Bamett, shifting 
the ground which he has long occupied, and which we sup- 
pose him anxious still to occupy, chooses now to say, 
— -I appeal from the judgment of the sanctuary, to that of 
the exchange, — from the people of God, to the men and 
the maxims of the. world— he then unquestionably may 
have been injured by the publication of his history; see- 
ing that by such a tribunal, and such judges, as he will 
thus have chosen, the vices of his character will alone be 
considered, whilst the regetieratin^ influence of the Spirit 
of God upon it, (a redeeming quality, in the estimation of 
the Christian, above all comparison or price) is treated as 
mere hypocrisy and cant. Ivor will he there be judged for 
mere follies and dissipations, on which little, if any, censure 
would be passed; for the work most undoubtedly con- 
tains some charges, which no man of honour, or of busi- 
ness, can look at, but with abhorrence; and it has been 
urged against Mr. Reed, that one of these amounts to 
felony. To this imputation, however^ he gives the following 
direct denial. 

** I distinctly assert, that there is no such charge in the wht^ 
work. Lefevre is mdeed said to have employed a small sum, 
which he held for other purposes, to meet some passing claim on 
him ; but he is stated to have done this, * in the integrity of his 
heart/ and with the full design and prospect of restoring it before 
he should have occasion to account fbr it. Now the object was 
not to shew that this was a dishonest practice, but to warn youth 
i^ainst it as a dangerous habit. To have called it neoessarily, 
and in every case dishonest, would have been absurd^ as multi- 
tudes act on the principle, whose uprightness of intention cannot 
be questioned ; and even the danger is not in the thing itself, but in 
the liability to an inconsiderate use of such monies, and, from the 

EdiOnr of thk British Remew. 337: 

posnUe. di^cnky of .returning the trifle ao b<»h>wed, ia the aki-' 
mate eiponiie df one's integrity to temptation. Tbis is all I den 
spgaed to convejr by the {Muragraph in question ; and if any word, 
or sentence of mine really imports more, (which I cannot perceive,) 
I freely acknowledge that it expresses more than I intendeds" 
[pp. 27, 28.] 

Of the intentions here expressed, we entertain not the 
shadow of a doubt ; but in exeentin^ them, Mr. Reed has- 
proved that he is at least a better divine than a lawyer ; for,> 
adding to his statement the trifling fact, which, according 
to our recollection of the history ofthe transaction given in 
No Fiction, is there stated,— that this money was intrusted 
to Mr. Barnett, as a confidential servant, .by, his employer, 
and we have such a felony made out, as we have ourselves 
known many a clerk convieted for,, under the embezzlement 

Having gone through the two first and more serious of 
the charges against Mr. Reed, and shewn, as we flatter 
ourselvesi that he is guilty but of imprudence, in the origi- 
nal publication of Mr. Bamett's history without his per- 
mission, we come now to the more venial one of vanity, in 
eulo^zing himself and his family; Neither with himself nor* 
his family has the writer of this article the slightest per- 
sonal acquaintance; he therefore is unable to form any 
judgment of the resemblance between them and certain 
characters in No Fiction; yet has he every reason to 
believe, from the information of others well qualified to 
determine the point, that, as far iets his parents are concerned^ 
this resemblance is striking and minute. On the same 
authority, we should say the same thing as to the general 
features of character in Douglas and Mr. Reed himself; 
and the general assent of his friends woqld.bear out the. 
appropriation of this twiurhero of his story. He, however, 
distinctiy disclaims all intention of having drawn .thia 
character from himself; we must therefore take the resem- 
blance to have been accidental, or rather unintentional. 
Yet surely it would be '' passing strange," that whilst 

fdving, in the guise of fiction,. the history of a most intimate" 
riendship of many years, he should draw the character of 
lus (riena so very faithfully that no one can mistake it, and 

!ret avoid all resemblance to his own. Throughout his] 
aboured repudiation of such resemblance, we observe,' 
indeed, that Mr. Reed carefully abstains from every thing 
like an' assertion, that, in as fistr as he knows himself, Doug- 
las is in every respect an opposite character to his own : 

288 JZemMOir^Aced'ft Leiti^ to iiei 

and doiag, as he imdodbtodly did, what he Mpraseiito 
Doughs to have done, some e«eh explieit deriafntwn — 
some strong points of difference, fikmiKar tft least to his 
fiuniliar friends, shonld be given, ere the world (and iVom 
them we wish not to be severed) can be chargeable with 
tmcharitableness, in ranking this unintentional resemblance 
with the unintentional improprieties and indecorums, with 
which alone we consider the author of No Fiction to be 

This is the result of our honest and o&biassed judgmmt 
upon the subject ; and regretting, as we unfeigpedly (uiould 
do, the mode in which we have expressed it giving any 
uneasiness to Mr. Reed, whom we believe to be a highly 
honowaUe man, we dose our notice of his pamphlet, by 
extracting from it, a d^enoe of fiction, as a mode of inca(* 
eating moral and religious truths, by far the most masterly 
that we ever read. 

** The hxjlt of a tale, in my view, n not that it is a tab, but that 
it is hnmorai or irreUgwu9* Let it be wisely devoted to the ifias-' 
tration of good habits, good opinions, and good pcineiples, and 1 
see in it BO evil, but much benefit. ladeed, most of those who are 
disposed, from limited reading or unexamined prejudices, to eom* 
plam of the dung, apart from its fidmiH^ abuses, ar0 not aware 
now far their objection reaches. You, yourself. Sir, from whatever 
cause, seem to have fdfku intp the same inconsistency. In thai 
i^umber of the Review where you sanctiou reiparks against ficti- 
tious works, you give your sanction and your praise to two con* 
siderable poems ! Is it to be said, that they are not exactly the 
same thing ? I reply, exactly so ; excepting only that they are in 
metre, l^e poem and the novel are precisely of the' same class, 
apd are to be approved or condemned, on the very same princi- 
ples ; and tiiere is quite as much to censure, under the sulnring 
dress of rhyme, as beneath the pkdner garb of prose. 

^ If this point be admitted, and I wilt venture to pronounce it 
incontestable, it will at once clear the way to the real questieify 
and enable us to look at it in all its magnitude. That, queatiob 
is*-whfltber works of fiction, of sucA, are, or are not, a laudable 
and hiqppy saedium of illuminating the public mind? By works 
of fiotbn, I unden^tand all such works as. profess to illustrate 
moral and natural truth by the aid of the imaginaiiou; and it is 
distinctly to be observed, that it is no part of the inquiry, whether 
they are in meiUie or out of it; whether they are historic, dramatic, 
descriptive, or allegorical ; whether &ej discover talent or not ; 
i^ether they have, or have not, individually, a good or evil ten- 
dency. We have nothing to do with the execution of any one 
work; but with the simple principle on which all works oJF Ais 
class necessarily depend. 

Ediior 9fike Brki$h Jtmww i9S9 

<< Jtk appMtnty 4ihtn^ duit bcfom drift ifneslion dm be ttitfliTtred 
10 the negaiW0, we cnvat be pi«(iared i» flacrifice tke very best 
§ixd leoil harmfeflfl ot prose fiotkne. ^6op, who hee eo hmg beflli 
oonaidered en umocent.iiaMte of oar- nuraerieei; ^The Villt^ 
Diekgiieft/ which «re weU adapted to those for whom they aiie 
designed ; ' Henrey's Meditatioas/ which, with whateTer faiills of 
style, are still a fiiie specimen of piety and talent; * Rasselas/ not 
the leait production of a mighty mind ; * Robinson Crusoe/ which 
is Ao true to nature, though not to particular fact, that we eati 
never think of it as a fiction; ^ The Pilgrim's Progress,' which fata 
gained to itself applause frdm the philosophical and imagiaative, 
the tlliteraie and the critical, the young and the old-^ which has 
estAbJiehed Hfeelf in almost every dwelling, and is second only in 
efaculation to the Bible, and Book of Common Prayer;— thesis 
moat all be saenficed, before works of fiction, as such, eaU be cow- 
denttied> for they are aU fictitious, they are all novelsk 

<<On the sane pnaciple it will be, as we have intimated, indis- 
pensable that wte should abandon at once, and for ever, all the 
walks of poetry. All poetry is fiction; and our finest poems are 
novels io verse, though, in most oases, resting on facts. Our 
Viigil, Homer, and Milton, therefore, must be shot, to be opened 
no mote ; and, we must cease to learn the lessons of wisdom or 

Siety firom Pope and Addison, Cowper and Montgomery, Young, 
lilaian, and Wordsworth. All, * firom the diverting story of John 
Gilpin,* to the most sublime productions of human genms, must 
pass under a common sentence of reprobation, before any one tide 
can^ beemt$e ku a tale, be condemned. 

^ More than this : — If this question is to be decided in the nepa- 
iwif I wodd ask, what is to become of the fine arts generally? 
Music, pamting, sculpture, what would these be widiout the ima- 
gination? They all vest on the sounds, aod figures, and scenes 
of nature; but they all depend essentially on the tmagmaiiony for 
those combinations which impart to them their interest and sub- 
limity. It is this power, that intuhiyely rejecting what is discord- 
ant, feeble, or deformed, and as quickly snggestmg what is 
beautiful, grand, or afiectinff, presents us wkh a hviag type, Qr 
that ideal perfection which it has conceived; and without it, these 
arts, and all their affinities, would be prostrated ill the dust — 
would be a mere mechanical exercise, in which there could be no 
place for the movements and inqNrations of a mind, dilated by its 
own divine inventions. Yet, so far as the imaeination is oon- 
oemed m tiiem, tliey are maaifesliy fictitious ; and if fiction nnst 
not be written^ it must not be itMneaied; and the finest works of 
iUphad, of Phidias, and of Handel, mast be proscribed ; and 
Hicrn arts whidi contribute so largely, and, tmder due restrainti^, 
-eo hmdcenily to eur intellectual «eB}oyment, and national dviliaa- 
tioB, itiiisi.be permitted to expire^ or be reduced to a state woiae 
thsfn eatinction. 

240 iieti»tff.— Reed*s Letter to the 

*'Ag«iB; IhafcmostserioinlytoMk^iftlieqoettUmbeibie us 
18 to reeeWe an unfavowable aDSwer, how we ase to ditpoae of 
.tiiOBeportioiiaof tiie holy Scriptures which mntl be afeelcd by 
it? lliey cootaiii tablet, poetry, and paiaUet; tfiefe,we hate 
•been incuned to think, add materially to the beauty aikl pathos 
of tbe difine word; bat this opinion must ne c essarily be inflo- 
enced by ^e way in which we determiiM on the principle— *that 
triith may be lawfidly presented to the mind by means of fiction— 
:for they axe evidently fictitious. Not to refer to the poetry* whidi 
'dwells on the idide face of scriptore like a sacred hdo ; 1»e^d»les 
of Jotham.and Nathan are beaatilul fictians, insinaating to the 
4nind important moral tnith; and the parables of our Loid ai^ 
exaietly o^ the same class. These adnurable parables may hate 
bem, in many cases, suggested by real oceurrtnces, hot who 
would think it necessaiy that diey should shnply stale isot. 
Mid desciibe living individuals? The affeeliBg jpavable of die 
prodigal, for instance, it is not unlikely, was fntnnated to the 
mind of the Saviour, by what he had Observed in human life, 
and without doubt it would describe the leading follies of many 
a youth, who lived in his time; yet, before this sketdi can be jus- 
tified, must it be shewn diat the representation applies to' a parti- 
cular individual, and a particular family? and must it be con- 
demned, on finding any discrepances between it and. the living 
example ? I reply, Certainly iiot; it was never meant thi^ these 
sacred compositions sboidd be brought to such a standard. It is 
not needful to shew that there was a Dives, a Lazarus, -and a Pro- 
d^al, to justify these parables; die characters were meemt to .be 
fictitious, while they were modelled after the finest and truest con- 
ceptions of human nature. Yet this can enfy be numitained by 
allowing that truik may be npneteKted by me&ns ofjietion; and 
those mo reject thispsoposition, must be prepared ^ as they can, 
to answer for a virtual, but undoubted^ rejection of no very incon- 
siderable portion, of revelation. 

*^ Finally, 1 desire to ask, if the imagination may not be em- 
ployed for these and similar purposes, why was the. imagination 
given? This noble focidty is possessed by us all; it is of its very 
nature to be employed in fictitious and mventive combinations'; 
and its creations are without end. All that the oraitor has ex- 
pressed, . or the artist delineated, or the au1h,or written of its 
cbncejptions, are as nodiing, con^iared with those countless forma- 
tions, which inhabit the deep- recesses of thought, and' which 
never see the light. But why should this pow^r, the most aetive 
and ethereal we know, be bestowed, if not for good? And how 
can it be for good, if its most natural exercises are evil? And 
. they must necessarily be evil, if fictitious combinations are to be 
condemned; tor the very elanent in whidiiiit lives is fiction, as 
much as reason, is the element of the understanding, and love of 
the afiectioDs. On the principle we are considering^ it is noques* 

Edkar of the British Btvkw. 241 

tiOOf wbeAer Aob power k Itable.to abiiae^ nor vJielher its copcep- 
tionB arebodied fortb ia descriptioii. If tbey are improper, to he 
eaqn'eitedf then tbej are irapmper.to be MOj^riiMd; and ibefacuU^^ 
fir it^oum gakCf must come under reprehenaion. 

** In aniyiiig at ike coacluBion, ^com tbese pre mises, I am nea% 
ashamed, sir, focmallj.tQ inquire^ to which tide of Uie questioi) 
you now determine. It sfaoidd seem an insult to.the understa&dr 
ing of any man, to ask, wheliier in contending against the law- 
fulness of fictitious productions, he is disposed to resist the use of 
the imagination altogether, and, of course, to implicate the utility 
and benefit of its very existence. Yet: I see no otlrar alternative* 
Thepliun and incontestable oonclusion isr-rThat, before. any one 
fiction can be censured, beoeaae H is a^itf«m,.all that is imagiaa- 
lire in our best writers and artists, all that is imaginative in the 
holy scriptures, and the yery nature of the imagiiiation in mam, 
must be sttbnutted to condemnation! Indeed, the cooclusioo, 
though so greatly resisted, is.so strong, and so much a part of 
^ principle for which I am pleading, that to gijre them a sepacate 
existence almost involres a paradox; — it is nearly saying, that fic- 
tion dannot be ornidemned while fiction is appnored. And if I have 
taken time to come to such a oondnsion, the blame must not be 
feferred tome, but to those who have attempted to divide things so 
essentiatlly united. • . 

** Many b^iievdlent and pious persons, in their jealousy {or the 
safety ana wel&re of yonth, have formed wrong opinions on this 
subject, under Uie impulse of fear. Anadous to save the unsuspect- 
ing from the sn»e of some fictitious writtngs> as well they miglit 
be, they have hastily exelaiolked against o^ productions of the same 
elass-; and sudi persons would now be disposed eagerly to in- 
quire — ^If we once admit, that wodks of fiction are lawful and good, 
what means have we of protecting, the reading cdmm«nityffroin 
that large mass of licentious novels, which wjould afiect the whole 
of it like contagion ? . I reply, Let them be oondemnedf severely 
condemned; yet let them be condemned not as fictions, baton 
their own separate offences. . If they are extravagant or silly ; if 
they encourage morbid feeliag or. false senttmei]^; if they apolo- 
gize for vice, while they compliment virtue ; if they spj^isticate the 
plain maxims of morality, or trifle with and. impugn: the sacred 
pinciples of reUgioh ; let the head of offending be shewn, and let 
thein snffisr.for the crimes of which they are guilty, 

"This, as it is the ji<s^ mode of procedure, is also the so/S^ one 
Let a parent tell a child, that he objects to all novels or. tales, 
because they are fictions, and therefore bad ; and he wiil at once 
hazard the success of his most anxious, desires. He will ask too 
much, iftnd be in danger of obtaining nothing. The child will soon 
fall in with some fiction, to which no reasonable, obiection can be 
vmade; or he will soon have sense, to know that his Virgil i^nd 
' Homer are as much fictions or novels.as.any writings can be ; and 

i/m Remm.'^BMii^B Letter to Ae 

thtHfriH dtstroy his reapeot (bran opmion winch he liwi^dfeiide^ 
Iwt has fooDd ineonsistait. From haTingire^;ftrded an mjiulieiotts 
Cfmon, he irill be templed unduly to despise k; and it b well, if 
he does not satisfy binsdf forwhat he connderB needlese restntiMk, 
by gtmtg \aB UMnrbed attention to works he woold nerer have 
ipeady fasd he not thought them unjustly censored. 

** As ^s is the safe mode of ptooeeaingy so it ia of moreezt8»- 
«!«« applieaition. He who adopts it^ will not be driven to make 
weaik and imtioaal distiaotioiis, where, if there aie great aecidental 
dMbtences, there can be no esseniUU ones. He wiil not eKense a 
, tale, and censure a no^el ; he wiH not justify a poem> nad arriagn 
n story, or withhold his imprimatur from a historical vomeace'. 
Admitliag the principle without iimitation, that no work of imagt- 
nation is to be condemned because it is iraAginatcve, we shali at 
^noe bring M works of imagination, whether of ^e pencS, thfe 
^isel, or tiie pen, to a higher standard, and try each of l^em bj 
its own peculiar daims and character. To do (ess dtan this, is to 
betray liie cause we would defend, by our fears and moonsifitency^ 
to attempt more, would be to reject a poem, a statue, ^it a tale, 
because it is such, and to expose our want of wisdom and of taste 
to those whom we would infln^iee by our opinion* 

^ And, surely, if works of imaguiation must be accepted as 
legitimate, it is most unwise in the friends of religion, to relinr 
quish this province of letters to the wcwldly and profeiMi They have 
been disposed to coiufemn it; and, in their harte to do so, lliey have 
not taken t^ most tenable position the swlNect aifords. It is 
Yeadtily admitted, that there is mudi, very miicn, as thd case now 
ii, to condemn; but may it not be fearly inquired, whether this 
«vil has aot greatly arieen from the line of conduct pursued by 
those who are «o earnest to censure ? They have nbandoned this 
department of literature : and, ihetefare^ statuary bait been too 
often indelicate, psMiting too often luscious, and fictitieiis writings, 
wheHiMr in ibyme or pvose, have 'produced, in rank and unchecked 
kixorianoe, afl die poisonous weeds of vice and lictetiouBaess. 
Their hope undoubtedly was, by withholding their inAucnoe from 
this braiK^h of letters, that it would wither and dKe; but the efieot 
bas been only to leave its fruits to grow wild and noisome. 

*' This eivor has remained the longer, and acted the more powei»- 
ftilly, because it, has been sustained by another; what heas been 
condemned has likewise been deqrised. Certainly no diapoaitien 
Is less adapted to the subject tban thoit of contempt. Corrupted 
as this portion of our literature unquestionably is, it still contaiiis 
mote of eenius, and of pfailosoi^y too, than any other ; nad, from 
libe^opaiar cbaraetor or ite productions^ it has exnited nnd will 
exert, heynnd any other, an influence on die general niind. It tis 
«tf ^ last tnpoitanoe, therefore, to a people, diatllm character of 
Ih^r poKto litemtoio should be salutary and ^eod. The nmss of 
n naltton wfll neiUher be moral nor nehgiona/tiU its Iftemmre bft- 

Editor of <Ae Briiish Review. 243 

QOIM ftoi VhA its litftlttlai« onn nkeymt be Mhttl^ CHr- ptoaii idlik 
iMoffoed ttiid atMBcloiied by f^e firttfodi ^teligidti ttjul fMktityi 

^ Let, tkeii) the toiBlakei wbieb have b^eft held otl Uie iiAgeist 
bt venottAeed. "Aey kave had a mdM ^ittaftlroiig t^ideiiisy^ Md 
thiy will woik iniidi more exte&si^e miMbief if jperftidlgd in* W4 
have #ii4tibigh ta the ecale of civiliEall0a) l^d potile arts haV^ 
mach more of popular notice and admiration than eftUtt ^tatttii 
aad imagiaaiMMi of the people ate ofcleasivdy eiidt^ ; lh«y are 
eagerly deiMiiding^ to be ibd, and woebe ta tia^ if ite give ik^tm 4 
aeoqHoa instead of bread I It HhiMt not be eaid at tlM# time of dayv 
Ikai tbeae atfe iitt#boleaome appetite, and that otlM fiaeulliea 
must be fosteled. No-^ey ttiaat all be teAi Poeti^ eaiitidt 
dies 6etiOtt cannot dies the imitative arts oannot die$ aalelit itt* 
teatiaa atid imagination sboald Ikat expire! 
. ^ Let then the friends of rdtgion and of mankiitd gthiti ifbat U 
dM t» this btfaa^ of knonledge. Let them tiot pot liteTttdiite atihi 
teligioa in tnoH dangei>ou8 and anitatitral opposttioft^ let ihetH 
Iftel the importande of bavwg polite learning on (heii^ skLi^, in Iheit 
«ft«y against lax morals and bad principles. Let tbeo^ more itt A 
laigef dtde than <hey harc' hitherto described ; let ih^tit Act be tod 
fiwtidioui about means; lettfiem employ every talent, and comnkend 
m^ effort, to vender irtMrks addressed to the idnaginatiett asb^tie- 
ficial as they are influential. Let.tbem not «xact conftmnity in 
every particular, before they will acknowledge. an auxitianr in -any. 
He tn&t in not against good nense and right feeling, is Lor themi 
inrtiatever the deld of his labour or the gifts of his mind. . 

''^Tet, if somewhat like complaiiit is raised against the 6oiM6 
^mtrtd by the serions aud the good, tt mustt be received witii cdn-^ 
liderMe qiialificatlon. There have always bei^il many of their 
tuimber, who have thought it neither Wiee liOr #aie to leave s<9 
impartant a f«pmr as die b&afiiiiatloa, Hi Iha baiMte xtf iii^deliq^ 
asndirioa; md by tbeir peAr &eir panoft, ^r thellr ttaiadoiw dtey 
bbve done what wf ooidd to neatraliae an evU wlich they wesd 
notable 10 Meveat^ Tbeit oaaalplo has been an aaefnl.as.lheit 
iabouia. Numbers weia induced lo fbllW ift- their «tQps ^ i^bd ae^ 
centiy those numbers have been happily aectanuiatiag* No maail 
division o( the more serious part of the community, have taken a 
decided interest in the cause of re6ped literature; t^y hava 
entered a protest against its monopoly by the frivolous vand licenr 
tious ; atia they have demanded, that its productions should be so 
amended as to become a medium of delight and iitiprovenient to 
the most innocent add unwary. 

' ^Already we have seen the good effe^t|{ of tbiii conduct, f^attiaf 
aaif has been. The public taste fa«s beea 'pitHfied; the't6fie of 
opiaioa has been strengthened ; and vice bae beei^ put out df 
countenance by the steady frown of virtue. Those autfaonf^ wbeiO' 
anly wish, perhaps, was to please, have been compelled to shift 
dieir ground, if they would afford pleasure. Painting has become 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 2. s 

244 Rmew. 

more chtuite ; poetry has been, in tome degree, restored to her 
native and dignified position ; and prose fiction has received a new, 
a better, if not an uneiEGeptioiiable, diaracter. And if any one 
has dared to pass the bounds of decorum, and has sought to wound 
the pubUc virtue, it has not been possible for him to ^cape, thoug^ 
the most gifted of mortals, without suffering a deeper wound in his 
own reputation. . 

" Besides — amongst the advocates of right sentiment and good 
principles themselves, a band of persons have sprung up* who, 
imbued with the importance of the undertaking, have determined to 
employ works of imagination in favour of just morals ^tnd devotional 
affections. They have had not only to labour, but to fight; and 
have been called not merely to contend with their enemies,'but with 
their allies. However, their efforts have not been in vain; and 
ultimately they shall be duly appreciated. It is by such efforts, 
sustained by irrepressible hope, that they shall become the censors 
of the literary republic, and shall purify and invigorate the streams 
of literature, till tliey shall carry refreshment, life, and healing, to 
the most distant parts of the land. And when this shall be accom- 
plished, we shall have little to desire ; the finer arts and deeper 
sciences shall follow in the illustrious train of piety and truth, and 

* every imagination,' as well as every thought, shall be brought 

• into captivity to Christ V " [pp. 60—76.] 

For an extract so very much longer than any we are 
in the habit of making, we should think an apology most 
justly due both to its author and our readers, but that, we 
entertain a well-grounded expectation, that both the one 
and the other will rather thank than blame us, for extiiacting 
a. passage so highly creditable to the taste and talent of its 
author, and so likely to interest all who peruse it, from a 
woriL, which, being altogether a matter o/personal alterca* 
tion, is not likely to get into general circulation. To divide 
it was impossible, without fdto^ether destroying its effect; 
and that, we apprehend, is so likely to be beneficial to the 
best interests ot religion and of literature, as abundantly to 
warrant a deviation nom our usual apportionment of quota- 
tions, of which we are persuaded tnat our readers will 
admit us to be rarely guilty. We intend also to make this 
defence of a species of writing, which no one is better 
calculated rightly to employ than its author, the basis 
of a notice of some half dozen works of Fiction, now piled 
upon our table; and therefore we insert it, an entire piece- 
in our pages, rather as a separate essay, than an extract io 
a review. 





AddrHsed to a Young Lady at ♦♦*♦•♦♦♦•*. 

Whek tbe business of life compels us to roam 
From the smile that we love in our own dear home,. 
From husband or wife, from brother or friend. 
More distancing still, as our footsteps bend ; 
Oh I is it not sweet, for the eye to trace 
That welcoming smile on a stranger's face, ' 
And, sweet to the heart the encouraging tone^ 
That assures us we are not quite alone ; 
For that friends, though formed but. of yesterday^,. 
Will try every art that can wile away 
The grief we must feel, when compelled to roam 
From the smile that we love in our own dear horoe^ 

Such welcoming smile^ such encouraging tone, 

'Twas mine to trace-*to feel — shall be mine to own i 

For when hither, from southern plains I came, 

A stranger — known only at least by name, — 

I found — ^how kindly found, from yours and yott^ ' 

Welcome warm-hearted, unaffected, true* 

And often since then, as the Queen of the Night 

Thrice waxes and wanes in her silvery lights 

My round returns — I return but to find 

A kindness, that well might dispel from the ttind 

The grief we must fSeel, when compelled to roam 

From the smile that we love in our own dear home^ * 

And for kindness like this, what thanks I pray,. 

Fair lady, can recreant minstrel pav ? 

A minstrely Oh yes I I must love tne name^ 

Though years have rolled by since the minstrel flame^ 

So dimly that burned in the morning of Ufe, 

Was quenched in the turmoils of legal strife. 

I can out try my rude hand to fliug 

Across my forsaken harp's breaking string, 

To wake for thee, fair one, a parting strain, . [ 

From chords that my finger may touch not again ; 

For sad would their notes be, while their master must roam. 

From the smile that he loves in his own dear home*. ? •* 

246 Pif^ry. 

And but faiBtly they wake, whilst endearoiiring to give 
Words to tiie wish, in kis kefurt tbat must live, 
Whilst vibrates its pulse — ^that for yours and for you. 
Kind sylphs (if there be sueh), or angels may strew 
A pathway of fl<^wera :-^as cloudless a sky, 
Twere vain that I wished ; ma^ the clouds swiftly pass by. 
And the sun shine in splendour, though tempered its ray. 
Bright — ^brightening still, to the perfection of day. 
Whilst for yours, and for you, Mid fcr all that you love, 
May the wish of the minstrel prophetical prove, 
For the kindest oi wdcomcs, whcEnever you voam 
Fron the sm^ tkatyoii love in yow own dear konse. 


Mouldering thy once honoured bard's fiyia|f finger, ' 
Cambriit I thy wild mountaon harp I woiUd vmke; 

If yet around thee one spsrit should lii^r. 
Blest be that spiiit-^bat harp for thy sake. 

Torrents of foam to the summer-sun ^leaminjf. 

Valleys of shads i» that kaip have rap lieiC 
When thy bold pmphets had burst from their dieamiag. 

And hurled the bold mqstc o'er tiiose that had died; 

Years hav« rolled by sle.ce the brealh of fedse glory. 
With war*s suUen tnimpet, has startled thy gkn ; 

Long may it be ere thy record of story 
Is hung with tl^e cypt^ss ef murder agidn. 

1 passed ^y tliy onee splendid easjlle,'^ lAere title 
And beafiity, and mirth held their ibstal-*-*but o'Jer 

Its gate kuag ^le faaeral scuteheon-^and idle. 
The echo that flung back the anthem of yore. 

I passed by thy Abbey ;t die cowl and the mkfe 
Had mingled Aielr dost vrttk tike haogkty onea tbera; 

But its time-ftetted ateh in the sunset grew bri|fkter. 
And the chiB weed of vai» swayed sweeth i» a^. 

I passed by thy pillar,t flrm^planted to wfi^ent 
Late memory ^flrleikdswfo in battlehad sunk) 

But its rooting the visjil of Sunders kad skakoB, 
And ai vmtS of the mountains kftd ahattered its tiraaki 

* Chirk^Mile* t Akkejr VallaC^i^ | F^te^Eliseg. 

Icrossfd in ito g)»dQQ«iitby Qee>^ai&,w«tof| ; 

AU fresh in the fulnessof yeimit flO«iF(Mloiij . . - 
But the hearts that oi^oe vomhipped' irore pemb«d m daughter^ 

The patriot — the chieftain-^lhe haspet irar« l^ooe* 

Too like the lone Golumm wQnif bl«iik» (md dagxaded, 
Which proudly to Heaven r^ik^ad itfl rich sc^pit«i«d bead ; 

Man blossoms to-da^,. and Uhmonam Ue9 feded^ 
All blasted, his triiiinpbs» his gl^ri«a a)) flod. 

Alone, in nnchangeable btoom o'er bin iuihaa» 

Wild nature bve^ oa»T.-*-«Nad!epi««t and t]9^t 
Tet the mountain still towers, — yet the broad river dashes. 

Unsullied by slofua, and ufiAloopiiig to hi^ 

But countless and puoe aa tbo nior^xof tKat guftera 
On thy hills, wlMra ^ ted ah^t (tf Ughtoingf is foiled. 

Thy sons shall iospira the lao^wn ol their falilMam^ 
And be all that their ftitbtra have becA to ^ v«rld« 




THE 9a ATS Qf A VSUBBAata f B|Elf|». 

From <' MoTAi Pieooi, in Ppn^ at4 Verte, liy JUyqu BQllT|.aY/' of Hart/ari^ 

Little plant of slender form, 
Fair, and shrinking from the stpnn, 
Lift thou here thine infknt head. 
Bloom in thi^ uncultured \>ed. 
Thou, of firmer spirit too. 
Stronger texture, deeper hue. 
Dreading not the vinds that cast 
Cold shows o*er the frozen waste^, 
Rise, and shield it fVoin the blast. 

I^hriftk BOt from die awfol shades 
Where the bones of men ave iatd : 
Short like tbiaa their ttaniiieBt dale» 
Keen has been the scythe of fate. 
Forth like pknta in glory dreit 
They came upovi the gteen eaitfa^s broa$t» 
Sent forth their roots to reach tba $tn$m, 
Their budste moat the riping be«ii> 
They drank the monuDg'a babiy WfatH^ 
And sunk at ^mi im iritbering dotA* 

348 Poetry: 

Rest here/ meek plants, for few intrude 
To trouble this deep solitude ; 
But should the giday footstep tread 
Upon the ashes of the dead, 
Stdl let the hand of rashness spare 
These little plants of love to tear, 
Since fond affection with a tear, 
Has placed them for an oflfeiing here. 
Adorn the grave of her who sleeps 
Unconscious, while remembrance weeps, 
Though ever, ever did the feel, 
And mourn those pangs she could not IimK 

Seven times tKe sun, with sWift career. 
Has marked the circle of the year, 
Since first she presised her lowly bieri 
. And seven times* sorrowing have I comcy* 
Alone^and wandering through the gloom. 
To pour my lays upon her tomb : 
And I have sighed to see her bed 
With brambles and with thorns o'erspread. 

For surely round her place of rest, 
I shoukl not let the coarse weed twine^ 

Who so the couch of pain has blest^ 

The path of want so freely drest. 
And scattered such perfumes on mine. 

It is not meet that she should be 

Forgotten or unblest by me. 

Ye plants, that in your hallowed beds. 
Like strangers, lift your trembling heads, 
Drink the pure dew that evening sheds, 
And meet the morning's earliest ray. 
And catch the sunbeams as they play; 
And when your buds are moist with rain, 
Oh shed those drops in tears again ; 
And if the blast that sweeps the heath. 
Too rudely o'er your leaves should breathe 
Then sigh for her; and when you bloom. 
Scatter your fragrance on her tomb. 

But should you, smit with terror, cast 
Your infant foliage on the blast, 
Or faint beneath the vertic heat. 
Or shrink when wintry tempests beat 
There is a plant of constant bloom, 
And it shall deck this lowly tomb, 

AnecdoU. 249 

Not blanched with frost, or drowned with rain, 

Or by the breath of winter slain ; 

Or by the sweeping gale annoyed. 

Or by the giddy hand destroyed. 

But every mom its buds renewed, 

Are by the dops of evening dewed. 

This IS the plant of Cfratitude. 



Not waokj years alter the connty of Litchfield began to be settled 
by the English, a stranger Indian came one day into an inn, in the 
dosk of the evening, and requested the hostess to furnish him with 
some drink and a sapper. - At the same time he observed, that he 
«onld pay for neither, as he had had no saceess in hunting $ but pro- 
nised payment as soon as he should meet with better fortune. The 
hostess refosed him both the drink and the supper ; called him a lasy, 
drunken, good-for-nothing fellow ; and told him, that she ^d not 
work so hard herself, to urow away her earnings upon such orea- 
tnres as he was. A man who sat by, and observed that the Indian, 
then turning about to leave ao inhospitable a place, shewed by his 
countenance that he was suffering very severely from 'want and 
weariness, directed the hostess to Supply hun with what he wished, 
and engaged to pay the bill himself. She did so. When the Indian 
had fimshed his supper, he turned to his benefactor, thanked him, 
and assured him that he should remember his kindness, and, when-^ 
ever he was able, would faithfully recompense it For the present, 
he observed, he could only reward him with a story, which, if the 
hostess would give him leave, he wished to tell. The hostess, whose 
complacency had been recaUed by the prospect of payment, con* 
sented. The Indian, then addressing himself to his beneftictor, said, 
" I supjpose you read the Bible.'^ The iban assented. ** Well,'' said 
the Indian, ** the Bible say,'€tod made the world, and then he took 
him, and looked on him, and say, * It's all yeiy good.' Then he 
made light, and took him, and looked on him, and say, Mt's all very 
good.' Then he made dry land and water, and sun and moon, and 
grass and trees, and took himi, and looked on him, and say, ^Ifs all 
very good.' Then he made beasts, and birds, and fishes, and took 
him, and looked on 1dm, and say, * It's all very good.' Then he made 
man, and took him, and looked on him, and say, * It's all very good.' 
Then he made woman, and took him, and looked on him, and he no 
dare say one such word." ,The Indian having told his story, with- 

A few years after, the man who had befriended him, had occasion 
to go some distance into the wilderness between Litchfield (then a 
frontier settlement) and Albany, where he was taken prisoner by an 
Indian scout, and carried to Canada. When he arrived at the prin- 
cipal setflement of the tribe, on the southern border of the St 
Lawrence, it was proposed by some of the captors that he should be 
putio death. During the consultation, an old woman. demanded 

eSO Ameriean LUerOtum ^md Intelligence. 

that he shooid be flvM op to bor» Hum likd mi|^ Ado^ liim in the 
place of a son, whom she had loat in the war. He was accordingly 
given to her, and lived throogh the soooeediag yialef in her family, 
experiencing the cnstomary effectf of savage hospitality. The fol- 
lowing sommer, as he was at work in the forest alone, an unknown 
Indian came up to him, and asked him to meiet him at a place which 
he pointed out, upon a given day. The prisoner agreed to the pro- 
posal, bat not without some apprehensions that ndsehief was in- 
tended him. During die interval, these apprehensions increased to 
such a degree, as to dissuade him effectually from fulfilling his en- 
gagement Soon after, the same person found him at his work 
again, and very gravely reproved him tor not performing his promise. 
The man apologized awkwar dly SBe ug h, but in the best manner in 
his power. The Indian toid hin^, that he shooJd be satisfied if he 
would meet him at the same place on a future day, which he named. 
The man pronueed to meet hfan^ and fulfilled his pioamse. When bo 
anived at the spet, he lonnd the Indian provided with taro maskets^ 
ammenitioe lor them, and tero knapaaeka* Tlie Uttan oideeed him 
ietakeoeeoCeaoh^andMlow him. The divectioB oi their laateh 
WMM la the •fMkk The ammi followed wMboat the least knowledge of 
what he was todo» 4ir «ffaitfaer he wai gnf ng; bat eendnded, thatt if 
his <pondaetor intended him bam, he woeid hsve despaldied hkn^l 
the beginiiing; end that at the worst, he was as safe where, he vms, 
as he eoeid be in any other plaee. Within a short time* Ihereforet 
lus feers inbsiided» aUheng^ the Indiaa observed a ipFrofodtfd And 
iaysterioM silenee eoneeiAing the ol^eet of the uipeditUin^ In the 
day-time iheir shot eveh gano ae oaeie in their way« and st ^gtit 
kindled a ire* by iHlieh Aey slept. Alter a teiioita joomi^ of miuiy 
dayst thef eame oneaseining to thie top off an emiaenee, preeentlitf a 
pffespeeteftftcnlliifnted4ionlitryf innMeb^air m wsmber of bodseSi 
The Indian aehedilds eOeipaeioM wihetther te knew tbe gooottd. He 
iKplied eagerly « that it was litefafield. Hie gdide, tbefi« after iMOlnd^ 
iof him that he bad ao alany yeata before Mlieired the wants of a 
liMBisbing Indian, Jit an ina in that town, enUjoined, ** I Unit Ittdlett I 
DOW I pay yom! go bonuu'' Baping said thta^be bade hiw e^en^ 
IMd the .man jogrf ally jeliBned to bis own botiie. 



Wb bnye received from Nefw-York oome panpMetB in 
defence of Bishop Hobart;^ but fte they ^te not compl^rte^ « 
tre defer noticing them nntil our next 1n umber^ especially 
as it would be impossible to do justice to the subject uow» 
foxDi the dUtance of tke final editor from London rendering 
it neoeseiuT to pablish the wotk with n eomewh&t smalWr 
quantity of matter than usual, rather than risk a delay in 
Us regular appearance^ by the transmission of prools nearly 

^$ $Hbt»titai0V, 

Memoir of the late Miss Jane Buky, c^' Stockport. 

[Though the subject of the following Memoir was unknown but in 
the circles of private life, the knowledge which some of the editors bf 
this work possessed of her talents, her virtues, and her piety, indu^ce 
them most readily to comply with the wishes of her friends, to give a 
plaice in their pages to a memorial of her worth, which will, they 
flatter themselves, be instructive to the rioting generation of the female 
sex, whilst it is not uninteresting to their readers of every age and 
class.— Bmt.] 

** The mind ^as well-hiformed, the passions held 
Sabordinate, and -diligence waa choice." Cowpbr. 

The biographer of Kirke White elegantly observes, that 
'* just at the age when the painter would have wished to fix 
his likeness, and the lover of poetry would delight to con- 
template hioiy — in the morning of his virtues, the full spring 
blossom of his hopes, — just at that age hath death set the 
seal of eternity upon him, and the beautiful hath been made' 

|)ermahent.^ Without asserting, that the excellent young 
kdy, whose moral and intellectual worth it is the object of 
the following record to exhibit, was equal to that celeorated 
youth, it may be affirmed, that the passage just (quoted is 
truly applicable to her, and that there was a striking simi- 
larity between both the individuals, insobriety of judgment, 
vigilant application, and substantial piety. 

Miss Jane Bury was born at Hopehill, near Stockport, 
in Cheshire, October 26, 1801. The days of childhood fur- 
nished none of those romantic events, aind marvellous occur- 
riences, which have been so frequently and injudiciously 
published to the world as facts. It may suffice to remark,, 
that she furnished occasion for rejoicing, not only in the! 
possession of considerable energy of character, but, more 
especially, as manifesting, with advancing maturity, those 
amiable features of disposition, which indicated, by their 
development, the principles of spiritual life. The natural 
reservedness of Miss Bury's temper, together with a nervous 
timidity, led to an habitual silence in company, and at the 
same time render it impossible to delineate, with desirable 
accuracy, the process of her mental improvement and reli- 
gious experience. This deficiency, though for some reasons 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 3. T 

262 Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 

to be deplored, clothes her memory with additional interest, 
by giving to her feminine excellency a polish, sacred in its 
cnaracter, and impressive in its effects. Instead of mani- 
festing a disposition to forwardness and tattling, or any 
thing approaching to Mrs. More's happy delineation of the 
*• Borderers," there was about Miss Bury a tact of delicacy 
which prevented obtrusion, and a devotion to intellectual 
pursuits, which gave to her faith a more vigorous exercise, 
while ii received illustration and daily increase, by the 
actings of a spirit eminently meek and quiet. 
. The memorial of her juvenile days, embracing a faithful 
sketch of her general character and attainments, will be 
best exhibited m the language of one who intimately knew 
her. " At a very early period," the narrative states, " she 
discovered a strong bias for mental culture. This taste was 
seconded by uncommon industry and perseverance. No 
pursuit undertaken by her, was relinquished on account of 
its difficulty. When a child, she took great pleasure in com- 
mitting to memory long extracts from various authors ; and. 
at the age of ten or eleven voluntarily learned, during her 
play hours, the whole of the third book of Milton's Paradise 
Lost. They who had the charge of instructing her at this 
period well know how solicitous she was that no lesson 
should be omitted, whether of a serious nature, or of lighter 
accomplishment. She seemed, . indeed, to act intuitively, 
upon the principle which so many learn only by experience, 
and which Butler, among others, has so beautifully illustra- 
ted in his * Analogy' — that the neglect and omission of one 
season of our lives, however trivial, will necessarily and in- 
^riably involve their respective consequences and regret 
in a succeeding. The solidity of her judgment was remark- 
able, and to her early conviction of the necessity of restrain- 
iiig the imagination in its undue exercise, may be attributed 
much of the useful and substantial knowledge she acquired. 
She did not, perhaps, possess much originality of thought, 
and of this she was aware, but her mind was constantly 
active, and her understanding was clear, comprehehsive,and 
uiiprejudiced. Works addressed specifically to the imagi- 
nation were by her rarely perused. Thus, though in dispo- 
sition afTectLOuate and susceptible, she gradually acquired a 
mascuUne vigour, free, on the one hand, from false senti- 
ment, and 6ii the other, from vain delusions." 

*• Previousi to going to school, she occasionally enjoyed 
the corn jiany of sensible arid intelligent ministers ; and the' 
interest which, though so young, she took in their* conver- 

''-•' .4'"'.' <i ■'. 

Memoir of Miss Jttne Bury. 253 

satioDi was evinced by an anira'ated countenance, and by 
frequent recurrence, even in the last year Of h^r life, to sen- 
timents ai^d facts which, at those seasons, had been «tated.^* 

•* At school her ambition lo excel, was universally re- 
marked; and such was her ardour in the pursuit of knoW*- 
ledge, as sometimes to double, and even treble the appointed 
lessons. The •biographical memoir of Mrs. Ramsay was now 
perused, and it appears to have -materially inftuenced her 
future habits. She frequently alluded with admiration l^ 
the^me'iital exertions of that excellent w6man, and to her 
peculiar jfelicity in being able to support health with only 
four hours sleep. It was Jane's ambition to imitate her, as 
fer as circumstances would aMow; and during one winter 
especially, she was usually engaged at her studies as early 
as four br five o'clock. 

** During the last four years and a half of her life, she 
was^ assiduously employed as an instructor; but the hours 
set apart for recreation, were still devoted to the increase 
of her own stores, and existing memorials shew how well 
they were occupied ^ Thes^ consist of voluminous extracts 
from various authors, of which the historical works of Gib- 
bon, Robertson, Rollin, &c. form a large proportion. Her 
ettracts froto Boswell's Life of Johnson, Missl Aitkin's 
Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, Southey's Life 
of Wesley, and other biographies, are occasionally inter- 
spersed with remarks, which shew how well the 'sentiments 
were weighed. Indeed, no hint calculated to facilitate im- 
provement was lost, and the earliest opportunity was seized 
for reducing it to practice. She was much attached to 
natural philosophy and botarty, and her papers testify 
steady exertionsfor impressing upon her memory every fact 
connected with those subjects. At the" agie of nineteen she 
was so much interested in an article in the EncyclopsedisL 
Britannica, on Intellectutil BdiicatioYi, as to abridge it for 
mor^ easy use. Nor were the numerous extracts^thus made^ 
treated as useless, but at stated periods were diligently re- 
viewed; and thus the impressions first made were strength- 
ened. Her very ready recollection of events has been attri- 
buted by those who were unacquainted with her habits, to a 
remarkably retentive memory; but those to whom she was 
best known, more justly assigned it principally to unwearied 
appUcs^ion.' Dlinng^ the last year of her life, she was en- 
^ged in reading Locke's Essay on the Human Understand-* 
log/the first volume of which she finished by devoting a 
short time .before bteakfast to its perusal : of this work she 

254 Memoir of Miss Jane Burg, 

wrote an analysis. Never satisfied with present e(M|iiijreo 
xaenta, she was continually looking forward, and she consi- 
dered that time as lost, which was not diligently and duly 
appropriated. Thus the moments of social intercourse were 
devoted to the needle ; and it has been remarked by visitors, 
that she was never unemployed. By the same habits she 
acquired a competent knowledge of the Italian language, and 
translated into the French several eissays, which remain spe«- 
cimens alike of taste and skill." 

" Her superior attainments in music will not be easily 
forgotten, especially by those who know how very little tiaie 
she thought \X right to devote to its charms. Her e?ieoutioR, 
though not rapid, was clear and pleasing, and her touch 
exquisitely light and graceful."* 

The reader's attention shall now be directed to MisA 
Bury*B MSS. 

It was in the ycior 1819^ that her propensities to self^eulti*- 
vation were more explicitly made known, as will be manifest 
from the following letters. They were addressed lo on^ of 
her relatives, ^.nd, while unfolding the writer's mind, will fur* 
nish no unintereating G^peqimen of her habits of thiUiking* 

" Jl% 13, 1819. 
. ** I can assure you» my diear — ^^ that I never s^ down to 
write with sq mi]^h satisfac^tion as at present; your ptopoaal 
gave me mudi pl^Siaure. I bad long -wished to bs^vesoiiie 
friendi to whom I could communicate my thoughts, attd 
whos^ advice I might be favoured wi4h. I soitketlaies. think 
I cou^d tell you every thing, but have aftervirai?ds bee9 de« 
teri!^ by the idea that it would have top mvkh t^he ^f^pear^ 
aia^e of egotism^, atid th,at love of sdf wbieh is inhetent in 
<lfi^ nature ; yet when reflecting that \ am writing to ^ — ^^— r^ 
Wikbo loves me /with ^1 my faults/ this dil3«uky pactly 
if^^^ishe&A though I cannot say it is entirely remov^^ 
( '' I should be glad if you wofuld reeommjeod to liie aome 
plM fpr iipaprovi^g the little time which may be called mf 
cNf^H I am sensible of great, difficulty in things whic^ an« of 
importance to my ststion> and often regret theil % d^ep sei^e 
oft|j^ vfidije of iB^ti:u<rtioo« c^nd of tha^t time w^ieb Was en-* 
tirely 4eto|ed;|Orit, hi^. not been, earlier impree^dJbli'an.yi 
mi^i.bvit ^w that se^fiQQ is pafit^itfeere is no ^n^ltt \demsx 

. " U; baSt freqi^ei^tly ecc^r^ ,to» noiei m «t bf^qliite 
tighti to incjcijpftt(^: 1*3 pflre^?^^^ is^por* yPiM^gi pwp^i> tii^^ 
Ihe (}««ii:^,t^^ot^^j^ fcnQirf^dg€|ii# WdsMf^ aiidiai^iU ev« 

Memair of Miss Jeffte Bury. '-iS5 

i^eet with encouragement. This opinion is seldom found 
suitable to those who are in the middle or lower ranks of 
society, for if they fulfil the various duties of their station 
in a conscientious manner^ the cultiViat^ion of their minds 
will, of course, be n^lected* apd that considered of leasts 
which was before maintained to be of the greatest import- 
ar^ce,. Would it not be better to give them an accurate view, 
of the subject, according to the situation they are to fill? 

** i should like to know how far it is wrong to indulge a- 
taste for soi^e particular studies which are not absolutely 
mecessary to jbe ^cqi^ired. 

'' I often wonder how it is thut sov^e people are so entirely 
engrossed in the trivial occurreqces wnich pass every day» 
as to think and talk of nothing else; for if it is ui^d, by 
w^y of excuse> th^t tribes become of copsequence when 
conpectpd with the concerns of life, yet surely a small por- 
tion of time might be spent profitably, in discoursing upon 
subjects that are worthy the attention^of a rational creature. 

** I hope you will excuse all defects, and write a few lines 
apon to Your ever affectionate, Janb." 

It is impossible not to be struck with the good sense and 
judicious observations embodied in the foregoing letter. 
IS^or G^q that part of it which regards education be impressed 
too forcibly upon persons so engaged, whether as instruct 
tprs or as parents. To the one class it furnishes a useful 
~ mt', to the other a safe guide. When will the manageys of 
lunday and day schools sufficiently comprehend it$ pro** 

" June 9, iSaO* 

'' My ^^y desJTi — I have just finished reading a veir inr 
t^iC^ting u'or^^ Sir W. Forbes' ' Life of J)t* Sc^tie^ and 
have w^de soig^ ext^fiots from.it^ which if you have not rend^ 
you will lik^i to see. They will give you some idea of t^ 
charaAlter of this great and good man. Perhaps you will 
ttMf k, ^s I do ^o^eti^peSi th^t I re^ top many books to 
derive ^ny liastivg he^s^^t frpn^ them; but really it is v^ry. 
4iffici^l^ tp r^ist the tei^^ptfktioni wbjep p. work of ^^iskipd 
Q9in9f^ ^^ the Wjsy' I hope it hf^^ fiot Wen perused Yfifiko^ti 
some profit. 

. '' I J^^v^er before beend of tl^ ' A^id^strel/ It i^ highly 
sppkf^ ofj sf^d I shoi^ild iikjB n^uob to compare the poifit #imI 
iSi^ phUosopher* Tbi^ il^ipPi conpiideripg ^ciir distingitiahing 
<^fpt^risl^x8e<8iaa#fl4i^Qsti9cp|pp<^ibl^ Thfit thss^iHhot 
ofjB^n^s^^iPn .!f rw*, ?|Bd qthp? philoso.p)MCfilwrC?t^s,^wW* 

256 Memoir of Miss Jane Bary. 

tioh which constitute sotne of the requisite qualities of a 
^►ocl po<it, is to Hie ft striking proof of the wonderful versa- 
xiiity of some tninds. 

>■'** It has often struck tne, that th^ 'frequent perusal of 
poetry (though of the best kind) must produce much the 
same effects as novels and romances, the larger portion 
being addressed to the imagination. Imagination is evi- 
dently an indispensable qualification in true poetry; for 
without it the most harmonious verse would soon lose its 
e0ect, and tlie ear be tired with the dull Uniformity of 
rhyming syllables. Those poets, tlierefore, whdse warm and 
lively firtictes can bring fortn abundant and diversified inia- 
gery, and paint, the beautiful or the sublime in the most 
glowing colours, will be the objects of most interest. This 
i^ my conjecture. Though I have read but little, and can- 
not attempt to argue on comparative merits, yet I think Dr. 
Beattie confirms the opinion when hesays^ ' the end of 
true poetry is to give pleasure rather than to convey in- 
struction/ and that ' a poet must do a great deal for the sake 
of pleasure only ; for if he fail to please, he may deserve 
praise* on other accounts, but as a poet he has done nothing.' 
He shews also that poetry exhibits a state of things some- 
\rtiat different from what they really are. If so, will it not 
oftt^b mislead the judgment, and produce a diisrelish for 
plaiin and sober realities? In this manner many erroneous 
ideas are formed, and the mind is perplexed, and often led 
astray, when searching after truth. 

" fiut I do not wish to depreciate the value of poetry, 
whidh has always been a source of gratification to me, only 
to suggest what I conceive to be the consequences of too 
great a love for it. My ideas upon this subject are but im- 
perfect, yet such as they are, I submit them to your inspec- 
tion, and remain your ever affectionate and sincere friend, 


•From ' this period more particularly, may be dated the 
visible expansion of Miss Bury's mind ; her character was, 
in fact, formed, and all her powers had received a direction 
susceptible of pleasure from that only which was suited to 
mental vigour, and to promote her best interests. 

The art of self-cultivation seems to have been now at- 
tempted with increased assiduity ; and her observations on 
every thing connected with personal improvement hence- 
forth testify alike the soundness of her judgment, and the 
accuracy of her* taste. She was taught too; we trust, by the 
h(Aj Spirit, " the vanity of man as mortal/' the insufficiency 

Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 257 

of even human learning to furnish happiness, and the fear- 
fill state of the heart by reason of transgression. Thus .th^ 
following extracts, instead of occasioning surprise! may 
serve the twofold purpose of confirming spripture testjmpny, 
and exhibiting, in a spirit of humility, the foundation of 
that beautiful superstructure which was gradually advancing 
to perfection. 

To a careful perusal of the memoirs of Miss Hamilton, 
and it is probable also of Miss Elizabeth Smith, may be 
traced many of the succeeding observations. 

" There appears to me," she writes, " to be very little 
difficulty in convincing ourselves of the poverty of our un- 
derstandings, and of the scanty supplies of knowledge with 
which our minds are furnished. If we reflect on the vast 
depths of knowledge, they will be found illimitable to our 
capacities ; if we endeavour to range through the world of 
science, they will appear immense and endless ; biit let us 
only take a survey of one little spot, and it will discover to 
our astonished view, stores apparently inexhaustible, and 
amply sufficient to employ all our faculties during the period 
of our earthly existence. But what are the effects which 
such a contemplation should produce? Should we be so 
overwhelmed with the boundless perspective, as to imagiuo 
every attempt futile ; and bo contented, because we cannot 
know every thing, to know nothing? Rather, let it excite in 
us proper sehtiments with respect to our own ignorance, and 
stimulate to fresh exertion." 

' Almost immediately afterwards it is added : " To the 
mind which is ever ready to receive instruction, innumerable 
sources are opened, which were once barren and neglected.; 
as in the world of nature every thing teems with life, and 
affords full scope for philosophical research, so we may 
derive instruction from the meanest object. This is well 
calculated to inspire sentinients of wonder and admiration 
at the wisdom, power, and goodness of our all-wise Creator. 
But if these are so fully displayed in the works of his hands, 
how much more so in the effects of his governing pow^r. 
It is impossible to read the history of a nation, without being. 
Convinced of this truth; and while we are often struck with 
the surprising and unforeseen events which take their rise 
from causes apparently remote and unconnected, we must 
admit Chat they only furnish new and striking proofs of a^ 
siiperintending Providence, while they form another linl^ in 
that grand* chain' of wonders which will one day be disclosed; 
tb our* astonished view ?" 

JJ$8 Memoir of Miss Jane Butjf* 

'* With these reflections," she proceeds, " we may advan- 
tageously open the pages of history, but ia no other way 
yin\ they afford any real satisfi^ction. We shall often be 
left in darkness and perplexity, unless we accept; willingly 
the light of revelation. The glare of human reason is an 
tgnisjatttus; it leads astray into labyrinths of error ; the more 
We follow it, the more we recede from the path of truth.'* 

In the preceding iremarks, we perceive a viable contra- 
riety to the natural course of mankind. Man, like the demo- 
niac who dwelt apriong the tombs, is prone to reverse tbiQ 
sentiments thus expressed. Instead of depreciating his 
own powers^ and subjecting his reason to the cpntrol of 
revelation, he calls his reason, which is very darkness, light; 
and the oracles of truth, the only illuminated path to heaven^ 
darkness. And it is only as the mind is influenced by divine 
grace, that a restoration to sanity and spiritual vigour is 
effected. Then only is it that divme effects are visible^ and 
that the happy recipient will sit " at the feet of Jesus" 
clothed, ana "in his right mind.'* How impressive is the 
inducement for all, in youth especially, to seeK transforming 
influence, and to the eternal renunciation of every deceitfm 
gleam, to, lift up the earnest supplication, — " Oh! that my 
ways were directed to keep thy statutes.** *' If,*' says Dr. 
Manton, *' men were more sensible of their obligation, we 
should have more prayers of the kind." 

Mrs. More*s Strictures on the Modern System of Female 
Education, particularly chap. vii. vol. i. seem to have been 
read with special attention, and no inconsiderable part was, 
with some yariations, transcribed. 

In 1820 Miss Bury commenced a series of memoranda, 
entitled, " Extracts and Observations.** The title sufficiently 
desi^ates their object, and a perusal of the whole amply dis- 
covers a combination of enviable qualities. The following 
selection is characteristic : it originated in the Life of Wes- 
ley, then recently published. Having freely commented on 
several particulars, both as to the author and his subject« 
she thus proceeds : — 

'*' Soutney says, that no conqueror or poet was ever mora 
ambitious than Mr. Wesley. This was certainly true, but. 
his ambition was very different to that which influences con- 
querors or poets. It was a true and laudable apibition, 
which made nim devote all his time and talents to the service 
of Gody and for the good of his fellow creatures, without ex* 
pecting or hoping for the applause of the world ; he looked 
to a higher recompense, buch ambition was worthy of 

Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 259 

an immortal creature ; and it would be well far mankiod^ if 
ipore were actuated by its powerful claims* They, likeliiai, 
would tbeu seek to promote God*s glory in the salvation of 

'* We should be particularly careful," she proceeds/' how 
W9 judge of the motires which influence those who are 
engaged in public life. Actions may be weighed and cen« 
sureo, but their secret springs ought to be held sacred^ aa 
known only to him who is acquainted with the heart." 

We now return to the journal, and select a few extracts 
almost at random. 

" May 14, 1821.— The author of Miss Hamilton's Me- 
moirs relates, that Miss H. considered herself as haying 
received an education superior to what is usually allotted to 
youn^ persons of her sex and station, since she had learned 
to thmk. The want of this appears to be one of the great 
defects in the modern system of education. Young persons 
are taught all necessary outward accomplishments, and 
many which are superfluous and useless, but very few there 
are who haye learned to employ their reasoning faculties so 
as to fulfil any of the great ends for which they wera 
designed ; few attain that knowledge which, as Miss More 
(;mpnatically expresses it, ' is burnt in/ " 

" Jum 18, 1821. — I have just begun to read Bennett on 
the Gospel Dispensation, and hope that, by prayer and 
meditation, the work may be of great benefit to me. The 
author shews, that the wnole of revelation is a moral plan 
for ei^ercising the natural powers. It is remarked, that in 
almost every view which can be taken of God's revealing bis 
will, unbridled vanity might conceive of great possible addi- 
tions to, and emendations of, what is actually found in tb^e 
inspired volume. It cannot be doubted, that if God had 
seen fit, he could easily have revealed divine truths, and 
haye exhibited the blessings of salyation in such a manner, 
as would irresistibly have instructed men to believe and 
embrace them. And in our self-flatterii^ imagination, bow 
ready are we to exclaim. What a complication of unpleasant 
and painful circumstances mi^ht thus have been preyented! 
What &cilities to the acquisition of knowledge, what sub- 
sidiary means to the full assurance of und^8:UiiKUng in the 
mysteries of the gospel, might thfus haye been a9Qrded> 
What hannony of yiews, what uniformity of systei^, what 
unison ol hearts in the possession of religious troth, loigjA 
baye been secured! But the Author of reyelation bfta £f^ 
posed otherwise i and it was evident)^ in the neftmn vi bi« 

260 Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 

wisdom that he adopted this mode of procedure towards' 
intelligent creatures, though sunk in ignorance, guilt, and 
wretchedness, because he saw it most consistent with their 
rational nature, and eventually best adapted to the wise ends 
of bis moral goyernment/' 

** In this view the gospel dispensation, which includes the 
whole revelation of God's will to sinful man, together with 
the outward means which he has appointed for them to wait 
upon him in, is a moral plan oi exercising their natural 
powers, and is closely connected with his moral govern- 
ment of intelligent, accountable creatures, the principles of 
which are equity and wisdom, and the subjects of which 
must be dealt with as moral agents, not impelled by neces- 
sity even to a right mode of acting, or rendered incapable of 
acting otherwise, but instructed and invited to a proper 
mode of acting by suitable means and motives, or moral 
considerations of duty and interest prescribed through the 
medium of the understanding. Thus arises a proper ground 
of responsibility." 

Again she writes: " Oc^ 26, 1821. — ^This day I enter 
upon my 21st year, and am, therefore, led to make some 
reflections. I cannot but notice, with serious consideration, 
the rapidity with which the different portions of my time 
[move on] and mark my progress to the end of my days. 

*' It seems as if the last two or three years of my life had 
rolled on with greater speed than any of the former; but 
this may perhaps be accounted for, from the uniform tenor 
of my life, and the nature of my employments, which leave 
not an hour unoccupied. 

" I am now arrived at a period which, some years ago, I 
should have thought the utmost boundary of my prospect' 
into futurity, and probably at that time anticipated that I 
should be hardly ^:he same being. But how vain are the 
speculations of childhood and youth ! Instead of finding 
myself arrived at that maturity ofjudgment which I expected, 
instead of having those fixed and steady principles which I 
hoped to attain, truth compels me to acknowledge that I 
am yet very ignorant of many things which I ought to know, 
relating to the affairs of the present life, and that my mind 
is' filled with doubts and fears concerning the important 
realities of a never-ending state of existence hereafter* 
Surely it becomes me to inquire how I have spent the past, 
since So large a portion of these fleeting shadows have dis- 
apipeared, and I know not how many remain. I fear I* have' 
not fulfilled 4;he end of my being, in living to the glory of 

Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 261 

God, and making preparation for an eternal state ; I desire, 
therefore, to enter upon this year with more solemn consi- 
dei-ations than 1 have ever yet had, and to make religion my 
chief concern. I have reason to be thankful, if I have, in 
soine degree, been made sensible of my danger, and of the 
etil of my heart, bat want to^ feel that deep humiliation on 
account of sin, which leads to sincere and genuine repent- 
ance, and that fear of falling into sin, which arises from a 
kno\*ledge of its dreadful nature. 

•' May the great searcher of hearts make me more and 
more acquainted with the wickedness of my heart; and that 
I may daily and hourly supplicate the direction and assist- 
ance of the holy Spirit, without which I can do nothing. 
May the Spirit of truth guide me into all truth, that I may 
no longer walk in darkness, ignorance, and error, but as I 
grow in years, grow in grace, and in the knowledge of my 
&od and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom I desire to commit 
all I have and hope for, through time and eternity. Amen/* 
The next extract may be read with profit, and its recogni- 
tion of principle furnishes a valuable clue to the writer's 
state of mind. 

** Feb. 7, 1822;-^— Having accidently overheard a question 
proposed. What is the distinction to be made between the 
amusements of the theatre and card -table, and those of 
drawing and music, I have been led to consider the answer 
that I should give to this question ; and how I would make 
it appear, that a professing Christian may be justified in 
pursuing the latter, and rejecting the former. I intend to 
confine myself entirely to what may arise in my own mind, 
without referring to the opinion of any author ; because I wish 
afterwards to ascertain if my own reasonings are sufficiently 
forcible to produce a conviction, or, at least, to silence the 
objections of those who would endeavour to bring against 
me the charge of inconsistency; — 

'* I shall begin with theatrical amusements, and consider 
their use, design, and evil tendency. To trace the progress 
of improvement in the stage, from the first actor, who, 
mounted on a cart, performed in the streets of Athens, would 
be foreign to the purpose ; and were it not so, would suffi- 
ciently attest my incompetency for the task. It is sufficient 
to consider the end that was originally intended by these' 
public exhibitions, and whether there is the same reason to 
justify their continuance. 

'' If we attentively observe the customs and manners of 
the ancients, as i^ecorded in history, it will be seen that tbei^ 

263 Memoir of' Miss Jane Bur^^ 

habits took a tincture from their national character, ao4 
even their amusements may be traced up to the same source. 
Were they a warlike people ? Their delight was in martial 
spectacles^ and in tho^e hardy and vigorous exercises wl^ich 
fit the body for trials and danger. Were they peafseful? 
Agriculture was their chief employment ; and rpral sporj^ 
tbeir chief amusements. Were they possessed of inventive 
genius ? The arts were cultivated with eagerness, and every 
tiding tending to promote their advancement was looked up 
to as of primary importance^ Thus the Athenians were 
particularly addicted to learning and sciencesi and became 
thereby the most polished state of Greece. 

'' In order to contribute to the advancement of les^ping, 
they justly paid particular attention to the improrement of 
their language, and oratory was held in high estimation. 

" To tnis cause may be ascribed the invention of theatii* 
cal amusements, which were, at first, mere exhibitions of 
oratorial power, accompanied by such a modulation of vo^ce 
aixd gesture as was calculated to impress the sentiments 
more forcibly upon the hearers. 

'' The subjects of such harangues were the more adapted 
to excite attention, being generally drawn from human life ; 
they were designed eloquently to set forth the ^dva^tage^ 
of virtue^ the duty of patriotism, and endeavouring to cpn- 
tribute to its welfare and happiness; while, on ^e con- 
traryj vice was painted in the most glowing coloi^*s, an4 
depraved habits and principles were so exposed^ as thajt by 
becoming just subjects of abhorrence, feelings pf disgust ap4 
detestation might be excited. 

'' If such were the causes and the design of theatrical 
representations, it is surely n^cessary^ before we adi^ocate 
i^em. on the same principles, to endeavour to prove how 
far they can Ji^e appl^d to the present time^. I nave h^ar4 
it alleged, that it is very useful to at;tend the thea^e, fyr the 
pujcpose of acqulri];ig a taste for good ^ra^ory^ of Ibriping 
tbe ear io a correct pronunciatiajii and a just delivery, anq 
that it IB a mean of preserving our language fyovfi jc^r^tipT 
tM^n^ and inoovaticau»* But this argm^eii^t lappeara fp w§afc 
as Wdly to require refutaf^ion. Were we defi&tuitf ^.f v^ry 
ojl*b«r jnean of prey«nti^g anch pa^fi^qju^ei;ice»« t)^ migl^t l^e 
respited to as an. e)cpedient ; but wh^e w^ (can brii^ d^w^'^A 
otter clauos of a f^j^^nor n24^T^, jv^ w^te»i tkf^i ^ .^i^ilii 
give place to them. 

,."tet ikkosn who de^sij^ to ^ht^ux a il;aste % fi^d ^^09y, 
lUtfii to 9^r UciHlaJtors iftoo^^g %fb a^ champion ^ 

Memoir of Miss June Bury. 363 

defence of their oountry, proolaiini»g her freedom, and coti- 
tending fot her rights; armed » not with martial ifeapong, 
but with the persuasive doqnenee of tnath, a plttri6tic Keal 
glowing in their hearts. Let them go and bear our advo- 
cates pleading the cause of the injured and defenceless; or 
let them direct their steps to the sanctuary, and hear thfe 
ministers of our holy religion engaged in a more glorious 
theme, and pleading a fer nobler cause, with all the eld»- 
qtieiioe which language can command, and all the force of 
the majesty of truth proclaiming to a ruined wofd> Jesttb 
Christ and him cnicifiedi 

** But supposing itjustifiable on the grounds above niett- 
tioned, to attend theatrical amus^ments^ a mind at all in^ 
flnenced by religions principka would find olnections suffi- 
cient to outweigh eveiy other GOndidel*dtion. The theatre ik 
one of the haums of vice and imntorality. This ought to 
iaflvence thoee who are instrnoied bv the volume of inspira^ 
tion> not ' to enter into the p»th of Ine wicked, nor to go in 
the way of evil tnen, but te avoid it, to pass by it, td tum 
ftom it and pass Away.* 

** It may be nrged^ that it is possible to attend the theatre 
without aesociating with the gay and thoughtless, tind utiA*- 
nut witnessing the licentious scenes which take place in thili 
abode of impiety. (Granting th^ possibility, is it not enough 
to know that all hinda6f wickedness are encouraged secretly, 
if not exhibit^ openly? And, kmming this, is it not sanc^ 
ttoning ivtA practices to frequent the place of their resbrt ; 
or at least, is it not declaring to the world that vice and inn- 
moraUty are not held in their just abhorrence ? But tot the 
sake M argument, let os concede all Uie olijeetioiis which 
bsrvi been Drought forward, and suppose that theatvea wei^e 
bendiicti^ on the best possible plan for the preservation of 
the fMiUic motials, and were even deemed nnexceptionab}^ 
with respect to devistion from nobtic virtue, they woidd ncriE 
then be fit places for ihe diecipie of Jesus^ Hm ttssipation 
and vanity the Cbrififtiun would there meet» but iit acooNI 
with that devotional spitit wM^ch he ahould chl$riish» He# 
wonld he afterwards to filAed fi)r relimment and ittIfHsasititi'>> 
niftkfn, wtteii the wothl and hs cc^ncerns shMld be shot 'otti^, 
snsd h^ must seek for satrnfttdltoii ahd ent^yaknit ki higher 
mmults ? Out bkssed Saviour exhorted his disutple^ne^M 
Imw eft# m^M^ fwt ike things^ sf ike Vfo^ld^ !» public fhaseA 
at tannsidiiiMt, everv thing il^ talMhited toi>ctoeriilif antf iu«^ 
eMaiie> thsftlove^ Ail tfaavosn pleaM the eye^ end timm, th« 
ear, all that can captivate the senseaatid |>n9>duue adttint'- 

264 Memoir of Miss Jane Buty, 

tioD and delight, is exhibited, and contributes to entrance 
the soul, and make itfcMrgetfal of its iooToortal nature, to 
cause the Christian to OTerlook his condition as a( pilgrim 
and a stranger upon earth, seeking, a better country. 

'' We would here draw a line of demarcation, and attempt 
to establish the opinion, that those amusements Biay be inr 
dulged in, which nave not a tendency to increase a lovef of 
the world, and conse(|uently to cause a disrelish for spiritoal 
engagements, but which are rather calculated to raise the 
afiectionsto the gracious Author. of all good, and to quicken 
and promote a spirit of devotion and praise; in short, those 
which do not stand opposed to the nighest interests: of an 
immortal creature, but elevate his mind to m^re noble pur* 
suits than the passing scenes of time, and can,<witibait 
regret, be exchanged for the awful realities of eternity. 

'' With respect to the card-table, little need be added, as 
many of the arguments before advanced may be applied to 
this amusement, and facts are not wanting to render the 
application forcible. But its votaries^ who will coBtend 
that dieir favourite pleasure is an inilocent one, I would ask, 
* Cvji'that be innocent, which wastes the most preeioub gift 
bestowed upon us ? And to those who have no better reascm 
to bring forward, than that they engage in it to fill up iheir 
time, .1 would appeal, ' Are there no regions in the world of 
nature yet unexplored, no wonders that reinain.to beMn* 
folded, no stores apparently inexhaustible, ; and iii^faichai^ 
well calculated to fill the mind with more exalted thp<ights 
of that incomprehensible Bein^ who made all things, and to 
awakepi.towards him feelings of adoration and reverence?'" 
. ''While such subjects as these claim attention, can any 
feel justified in spending a moment 'in shuffling about 
painted paper ? One! would almost imagine that the title of 
reasonable creature had been abandoned, before* such an 
outr^e could be committed — even against reason ! 
. " Snt it may be urged, that this amusement isionly re* 
sorted to in company where it would be impossible, to intror 
duce subjects of a literary nature, and where you must either 
join the party, or remain unemployed, and probably 'give 
offence, not to say induce ihe charge of singularity .-^Were 
this the case, it would be better to remain :unemployed^ than 
to sanction that which serves only to kill .time: no one^ 
however, has occasion so to plead, but those. ^ho are afraid 
to look into their own hearts, who never watch .their thoughtE^ 
and scrutinize their actions, in order to a^ertain the .motives 
which give rise to them. 

Memoir of Miss Jane Bury. 266 

" The fear of giving offence, or of being accounted singu- 
lar, is an argument which can only influence weak mindp, 
and if we allow it any force in one instance, the same may 
certainly be admitted in others, and it will at once justify 
conformity to all the maxims of the world. 

'' It now remains to consider, what distinction is to be 
made between these amusements, and those of drawing aikl 
music? . And here it may be observed, that the exception 
is only granted, provided the subjects of it are not carried 
to excess. 

" We know it may be objected, that too great a love of 
music has been attended with effects as pernicious as by 
those amusements which we have condemned ; and we per-r 
fectly agree with those who deem the oratorio as improper 
a place for the Christian as the theatre. 

" But why should it be inferred, that because a good 
thing is abused, it becomes criminal. It is the abme of it, 
from whence arises the criminality. Who will ai&rm, that 
what the great Creator has deigned to employ as a mean of 
imparting pleasure to bis rational creatures, and as tending 
to elevate their views of his infinite goodness and perfec- 
tion, has any thing improper in its nature? Yet however 
strong thje assertion may. appear, we must tacitly acquiesce 
in it, if we disallow of music and drawing on account of. the 
impropriety of the amusements objected to. If we see no 
beauty in the various appearances of nature, the rich colour- 
ing 01 the . sky, the exquisite tints and delicate shades of a 
flower, or the different objects combined in the finished 
landscape ;if we derive no pleasure in listeniilg to the music 
of some sweet songster, whose melodious notes seem to be 
the voice of gratitude and praise, let us be contented to 
resign the accomplishments of drawing and music, for they 
will then cease to afford us innocent gratification. If the 
pleasure derived from their pursuit, arise from no tiobler 
cause than ambition, or a vain desire to obtain the praise 
and approbation of men, it ought not to be cherished, bujt 
abandoned, as springing from a sensual and impure source. 
But if our ear is indeed tuned to the harmony of creation> 
and our sight is ever ready to contemplate the wonders it 
displays, we may, without injury to ourselves, . cultivate 
these source^ of rational enjoyment, so far as^ they interfere 
not with higher' duties and the great business of life. If on 
a review of. the feelings that, have been excited while indulg- 
ing in these amusements, we find that they have not dimiti- 
ished, but rather increased our love to Qod and to his %&cr 

366 Memoir ef Miss Jane Bury. 

rice, thAl tbey have awakened teal, and qaickened al spirit 
of devoliOB, we may affirm that the time occupied had not 
beea speitt in vain.'^ 

Not only do the pfeeediD| pages manifest the Superior' 
capacity and attainmenta of Miss Bury, but they also dis-> 
eavw, 88 we have just seen^ art habitual regard to higher 
principles than those of ambition, or literary feme. The 
tenov of her remarks, as already qnoted, shew a state of 
Iselin^, and a conviction, too refined, and too spiritual, to be 
conceived of apart from religious excellence. It is true, 
there is among her papers no distinctire narration of a 
** new birth unto righteousness '" but it mdtf be observed, 
that when an indiridual has been early inured to habits of 
fliental cultm^e, not to say, trained up in the nnrtore and 
admonition of the Lord, it is commonly no easy matter, and, 
indeed, frequently as impossible, to detail the all4mportant 
pvoceaSf as rt is to define the progress of natitral ligh](, or to 
ttariLi with aceuracy and distinctness, the exact boundary 
between night and day. However, there is safety and wis^ 
doai in ascending from effects to their causes, not only to 
sfttisiy the inquiriea of curiosity, but to jud^ correctly, 
especially in things pertaining to the heaveiuy kingdom. 
•• Df their fruits,'* said our Lord^ " shall ye know them."— 
•• Miss BwM^/' observes one who knew her well, " from in- 
fMiey was of a delicate constitution, possessing more than: 
commoti irascibility of tetnyer, arising, f)erhaps, principally 
from much nervous irritability ; but this, even oefore the 
ineam of childhood were past, was considerably overcome 
by her natural ^ood sense, seconding the restramts of edu- 
«sitifont And, it is remarked by her mother, were there no 
etfi^r evidence tfa^t in after years she became the subject 
<yf a iffaange of heart, than the ^frr^ svMiigaiion of this 
AtteMitg'flto, it would be quite satisfactory.^ 

Where a change of heart has been wrought, the mighty 
irvent represented in scripture, as a ** new creation," cannot, 
With<lhe appearance of rationality or piety, be ascribed to 
fl«y dther influence than that which is divine. Nor can a 
better 6t mdre infallible evidence be required, than '' the 
ftuitt' of righteousness." Instead, therefore, of pronouncing; 
t efefrtarti oourse of feeling, or a conformity to certain accre^ 
dtted modes of expression or experience, indispensable to 
ftirnkh ground for the hopes of charity, let the inspired 
standard be adhered to wttn unvarying stedfestness. Thnn 
will- be dib^eHed,. «s with a ray of brightness, all Ibe niii^, 
and eonfasidn, an\d error, whi^b aifee ftota elevating th^ 

rionfli 19 B«9t e^plaiMd, ftii itr M b^iSt d)8^6<9V^fdtmH-%' JM' 
operathni. ^ ITte «?tW ^ti^efA' tefke^& ii Ikteih, Af^ fkM^ 
hearest the sound fkereofi bttt eartsf net i^lftihtTiet H comeih^ 
and loMikeritgdtth: Jo-tV emtirontflmlU 6^k dftke i'/**.'*' 

Tfce Cftrhitiatlil^ of Misfl^1Scrfy< Will !h^ mi^^ «% mtttti^' 
rented, hx ftAKtion to tire JOtfAtorWt txceietn^t dF het dego¥!f-* 
meAt> Vjr gome ftrrfber artfectfewr ftomf He^ joiiiiiial^ Witfr' 
these, tlTei*efcrt, tire |)rbcee(f. 

^ HoMT mtK*,** Jilie write*', April 2&, *• have I rtttdto^ t^y 
dfepbfe the hardiiless and in^eiWioiBty ef my hearts I fcnow^ 
that Ao Aittg but dfyiue grace? can Enable' me to^ do Whaif i^ 
right;, yet bdw hackw^if d azt^ I fh eeelting a^sistatiee' Uf taf 
wtsak aiKd vtiiti eftdesbvoatd. The tt^ths' that 6<rilbeiiiy mihtf 
fbtt^iftfy; and' rbtrse iiiy attention, ai^, by^ ihe most Hi^hriaF 
decutrence, fotgottea; or, »t feaurtr, dtebrryied of thefts l^Mff 
weight ahtT importance. Sutrh irthe kaidenii^ naftui^ of 
sin. Conscience is sometimes awakened, but the eVflptO^^' 
pensities^ of ai cfortupt liature' prefv^a^P in liHKbg re into its 
fbmier state, and entfeaTOui^ to'Stiffe thb^ voiivregreta which' 
thehieart, when^ contetted, canndt suppijesfe.' If we^coidd^ 
become, for a time, abstracted -from EieMifbf^ e^eets*, therc^ 
would be some reasOtt^ to hope tlM g^dOd rmpressiwiis, wKen 
once received, would not! ht so ststoa efiaeed j we should he'' 
enabled tOCoHeet aH the^argrrtttent*' that nright be biotkg&ti 
forwteird in order tty strerigtlen^ and ^ottfiito the W*riemi^ 
rfesofuttent and then, jwerhaj^i we need-not edmj^ia ifcat eur^ 
goodnesa was^ a^ ibe mor^i^ efond sand il» the early diet^ 
that passelJr aw«y: But als ft Js^ hnipfoirsiWte^ to fie^mttSif 
diiiengaged ftoril- the- obj efett^ wfiich^afpe'cottti^iitffy sttrfdmsd-' 
ing- us^, Aere i1« gteafter occasion fet* eonstant'wfffcift/trf/i^; 
thut while our minds are engaged wJfli earAfy'cares, wetmky* 
not lose si^ht of Ijiose important concerns- which inVofve 
iJite eternal interests' of the soul !* M i*rtot' only the otttwrfrtf 
itetiOns that must be sei^ere!)! dCi^fnisBed, but the thoughts^' 
and dei^h'es of our heattis ; wHfcfr, tls they are only known to* 
Hktt wh(^ searchetrb the* hfeart, rami! b^ judged by *e Word 
of frtWh, in orderto asdertainwhethfet- they tt^' pui^ irihfs^ 
sight. Itk this difficult* taisk, we have more espeiJJaP ntetB 
for divine assistance^ than in the regulation of the outward 
conduct; for while the lattfer may be influenced by a dejsire, 
toappear- fair before men, the former can oalv. pr^oeed jfrontt 
the* roat of 3od^ and ar desire to>.(h> hia wiU in* aQr tlungs. 
Our prayer should be — ^ £et the womlb of itiy tf ovtt, and^ 

VOL. VIII, — NO. 3. u / 

2Q8 : Memoir of Mm Janefiurt/i 

the meditatioi^STof my hfiartf be<apcepl^ble in ttiy sight, , 
Lard;' and, if offered. up with sincerity, we might hppe for,, 
that delightful consolatioii which the psalmist experienced, 
when he said, ' In the multitude of my thoughts, &c.'."* 

Shortly afterwards she writes, — ^'^ Another awful provi- 
dence has occuired, which may well awaken serious reflec-: . 
tions. Am I prepared for death, should it come thus sud« 
den and unexpected ? Should I soon be called off the stage 
of life, can I hope for admission into the heavenly kingdom? 
Is not the fear of death an intimation that all is not right ?; 
But what can take away this fear; what can depriv^e, the 
enemy of his. deadly sting, and cause him to be viewed a^.a 
peaceful messenger? The apostle says, that the sting. oC 
death is sin. It is then sin which causes death to be looked, 
Ht as an objiBct of terror, and sin must be removed ^re it will . 
be: disarmed. We must have a living faith in the mente 
and atonement of our Saviour, placing our whole. dep^n^l^ 
ence on him who hatb loved u$, and toashed away, o^r mis m^ 
his bloodJ* . ' X - ■ 

The following record gives a still more especial ,promi- 
nence.to those sentiments which are dear to l^e>heart of a. 
Christian, and, when fully realized,, indicate no, unenviablie; 
state of religious attainment. 

" Surely there is no occasion to complain, that o.pportuni*. 
ties are wanting that may sefve to bresuc down the stubborn, 
pride of the heart, and to warn us of the importance of cul- 
tivating that first of Christian graces — humility. Yet how 
frequently have we to deplore that these opportunities affect 
us so little ; ov, if the impression be at first strong, it is only, 
momentary, and has.no abiding influence on. our future con- 
duct: we return insensibly to. the obdurs^te course v^hich, 
was so .lately condemned. This perhaps arises, from^ our. 
humility being only a conviction of the underst^p4iQg« ^'Qd 
not of the heart; and if it be so, it will avail us littl^.. For 
our minds, may be so. far enlightened by an acquaintance 
with scripture, 'and by the experience which, results from, 
observation, and a.comparjson made with others, as tp make 
us feel sensible of our many deficiencies, and rea^y enou^ 
to allow the existence of evil; yet if this knowledge be not. 
practically applied, if it. do not so influencie a^s to make us 

* Wss Bury has here recognized an important fact, worthy of the 
matuTcst consideration. The active exercise of Christian principles 
is adapted to the present state : these ill accord with mc^ltestic se- 
clnmov, and going oat of the iirorld^ It is the ovitfroOiiiing beKevar,- 
not the oowai^, wlio will feo^ve^the erowji« 

ahp Aft^r a gipwifig ooiffolttUytc^ tl^ ^dhitabKs^ 

in allithlngs-; it' tt' do not 'htimMe '^ts* before bui hedreetily 
Ffttber.'it will be* of AOt-ase/^^ttutTttifarey'Mti^^to <njfir xttm^ 
demnation. How inndi doiv^need tbeboiitibiialitiffueoe^ 
of divine grace, to subdue in ue'aUTainvbobiMke&^;afi!d'>td 
instnictns in the kaowledgerof ourselvesithktwe limy leant 
the vanity of trusting in our own endteavbnra :-^Hib the'Loni 
ulone u there either righteousness or strength. But sueh is^th^ 
conniption of our evil'nature, that we are oootimUtllT brittg^ 
ing'forward eome^ new claim to memitg^ and oar fboMeh hcHartH 
ace oootimialh^ a^ggestioj^ aohie ^s^erie ]if etenakm to )utMaae^ 
rited favours. These frail supports may snstain for a shbtt 
bne, bat they will be fomid insoffibiest m the hofa oft^p- 
tation/- ' - ;'.';.*.';' :'-•»{; :l 1 '.)t «>> 

. ^ Genuine humility will influence; our behaViiurtoWavdk 
our fellow*creatures> and teach us d»l we are nothing, can 
do nothiog»' and- have nothing to hope for, but through' thie 
free and sovereign grace of Qod> by Jeaua' GUrtirt iMir Lord 
and Saviour.V ; - » . [,'... :;,.-». ;:• -/^ m r-i i«^ i 

• How Imjpresaive too ieire the follolfing obseihralienBb^^:^. 
^' It is a tiMh admitted by. the wise and expeifeiiced^^biat 
«eldon|>pfaelised even bytbose who are most ibiwar4 to 
maintain its just claims, —that were persons, who ball tAimi- 
adves the diciciples of ChiHIst, more anxious to • become 
thoroughly acquainted with their own hearts, thaii toeon*^ 
dema others, there would kiot be so rmnV'wbo'wrmeneiy 
professing Christians, and who^es^mplirjr so little of iiSb 

Sower of religion in their daily conduct aad^sonveipatioMi. 
he reason of which is obvious: when .viewing the <estMioir 
conduct' of others with a severe and sdrutiniaingefye; we ^are 
apt to draw comparisons which are sure to terminate ib biir 
own advantage, and thus we become blind to ourselved^ or, 
as the emphatical language of our Saviour esqpiteBcies ib; 
we view the mote in our brother's eye. without cdsisidering tklt 
-beam that is in our own. In fact, it is the want of oar tifr|i- 
ing our thoughts within, that is the cause of bur. remaining 
80 ignorant and deceived with respect to our true ebarab^ 
ters. Were we to keep in constant review the vain 'add 
foolish thoughts which nave so frequently arisen/ and -lite 
temptations which we have so oflen suffeted ourselves tq ftdi 
into, we should be less liable to censure others for wh^^e 
ourselves are guilty of, and it would tend to break down 
that sinful vanity wnich will often persuade us that we are 
wiser or better than they. . So prone is the huinan heart to 
deceive itself, and ao unwilling toae^nowledge the decepticns^ 


ntmtgi. . Bat MMteitdL #f odbMrimg. otii^A tipitb.% d^ifin to 
forai iiieooipwiMn rilAA'iiiM;fitmaomBA^ 
tegt, if w^ onlijr deftertiutee to vtenr ounM^vvt liy tb« word df 
toiilliU:aiid iMMt torlJbe dt cwioH of tbfr h^ly sefbtoMii i« 
»:|Mrfadk steadtfd b]! ^n^bkh. we imuttbiirtfliftf^ be |wlg»cb 

inpftH imcf: ifatf cmtwmUig!^ Eb^pemnoe^ totifcifteB the Ivrth 

fioMhAlM chiorgt^ tl|o«gh {nride i» «tt»iljtee^ tof fldmn^ 

' Again flin cdnetrei^ ^ I lHiv>e. ifMk>B tti be tMdkMMd, tad 
to feel humbled at the consideration, that within tbtaer laifc 
ftv;da]rs thalFe aumy tisneiir ofcl Terjil brifiiiigr aeteadions^ 
nueiit wAjr to weong teiipers^ and ijKduIged m aiofel atigiuv 
ThottgK ptritiq!>9> imperceptible to oftb^^ it was ttotleM 
btddabe^ and ftened to aMraken tiie bad. pasaioBa of tfaft^sav^ 
and to create discord and tumnlt, instead of thattpHj^fe tod 
•eraaiijr whiob afe aa deiimbte* Wbien X waaa^ dbild» my 
M^kbd.temper ased to hveeft:. fortk on; eftery aaorifiae of my 
Hill^ aad iiemnied ma disobedieali to »y paKtaAs^. qaaMst 
aMM and akduad to c^iwtan^ and iHtaiaiablQ in aU my 
MndfacrL Nanr^ to all ott^ioard appearaai^> tli» finsy e^ lay 
tompat ia aebdmd^ my angcjr paMiaua bam tocrf; tbat aaf«il^ 
^faaaytwUchlbey oawabaflt Mrit tb^ettttlarkwotbinbi aaii 
ai^ taidjvithea otcasioat catt$ themfoitii^ to iMva Aaiti Ihcf 
hava^atdomiaaoii^ ovet mlr^ and can »areiiett ifo td die 
iflfttDy ^i iay peMie. If wa wotdd aadteaiTaat ta ^aaotiMiii 
tMr aapBA) winafa. leataaiM our e^il: tempem. fiod^bBaokiog 
dMm 'mible.aeta^ itmM meiHly ba foaod topvaaaedfom 
#MitiJ»^<'idmiaaiixc^t)f levaqr^ alnftj <pa8B)a»>-;aad Miifirom^a 
,direaik«fi tfaa laMM^ofaaesiwhfch mi^f aiiaii^ W^iui 
limMftuw^ tbat aftheik tba faMraiat is^a^taecmm^ -^-oor 
<ipimQii(p) todi-na/'oaii act:wiihoa£ fear of ii^airisg Qtar!afcM> 
ipKitnrfvitli thfisa wJMsa eateeak ^q wift.toobtabiwiiia not 
oAttt piaciiaed. But birar aeUom do Ire mflecA timt by 
iWMh ia bca piion» weannat aia againatbiir hoave^V.Fatbaa 
aidi gnc^TO Ua holy Spitit. (Mil tbailr i tseinU fcet atoo^ 
Atispl^. di^ dnadfol oanaaqiaMQa. of cvfetaUbg a Babig sa 
fjaeaik tod lioly. \ hw« ^qs4 caiiasa fi«r InHottbiitaii. wheai I 
canaidbrbtfiw tcontititally I am. trti^iipreeMtng bt a csfsaiom^ 
laaata, aad; daii^ what is eidi in hastdgh/^. Itfay fbia be my 
aoaatailtamLferYeatpatitifme to a thsdaa^tf giMe%4>' &eatei«a 

tlieveeiitdifirftfl!, ftdd^te MsMatkMltlith'llibiajp^roal^litg^ 

iii%m38tiflfgiMd %enefl«)itl t«Aecfi^ii^ > i ^ 

*' Owing/' she Writes, *^ te^ tbe taflde MOiilOMa lit ft 

lOfMvkl Qf^Hit habitation^ ttid a i^ttriety isf MiMr ^ib W^ 

•l8iic)M-lAi«li have tenifed lo didsiM^viy ttditdi andtttt^ 

Ihottghbr. 1%Hd' I wavd' Bttfl^Md att ks^^ftndt idntmi to pMi; 
Mid «btidl9]«r «tag^ 4>f my Mfcf to begins withoM tefcln| ttdftaM 
of it, tiiough so calculated to excite ^aiiisdilfeLtioft> ttM t^ «)iH 
fW Btiici and faklrfW wl^examilt&tfon. Itt wv ^ g w ii g 'the 
e^e^itft of the pafit year, I have teas<»n «d ^sdtaim^lilii g*^^ 
necm and nierejr hai^ followed me. ^^1^ t6 ^sMjr^havift 
been awftilty matched away hjr d«ath') wliiW so naum ffaMi^ 
Ke» teiTe been deptited tyf their ptteei{Mll «op^ott> it littVft 
bad to ttoum over the graves ^ ttiose 11^9 aim 4mt <iffitt 
eartyyon^, and by tSieir removal imW blighted ^Aee^MtiMA 
p^ts of their fond parents <]iro«igh li<fe> I xTeslve to rMWif 
wp&i ^Tftfitude, the preeervatton <of ttky Mdiids atid iMx^ 
ne!ticM, aAd«hecoii«imianGe of every "MtftUycotttfoit;^^: OM 
tliat ^ese tmdeserv^d tti«rciea may nofcbs tnyloagiM'-paiii^ 
m^ in f[>rj^etfalne0s asfd nnoottoem. 'Afoy tlMy aiwakMmhl 
fliy h^art f&elings of dewrat AeaMalittas ix» the <gi«atUi«H 
thor- sf Mevery ^>od and 'perfect «ifl| ttvd tta; I Jb» i^tiablsiil 
to lAiewforAfAs prsise by a Ufele^^ed 10 iipa servioet 

'^ But While I recount these meteies> I wotrhl ttot fb^^ 
(he ^Hioertain tenure on wUoh f hoM evety Uessin^* i£i^ 
other year jaay dieprhro ine <)f some eat<My ^tmSm^ or 1 119^ 
B«1f may be called into aa e«snMd utttte. Ot hxfm nnaak 
impoitanM i»ift,tlien^tbatIahoald'SO<lk atiiHteiiistinllMMii 
tiiinga which ^an siOM oMippon me ia th» hfa«ir of triatl 
Bow earaestly ^ottid I aeelL to f^Ml the <gveat end of my 
Mistenn^K, to live to the gfory of Ckidd OhJiaMyilbemy 
eMef eonceim, faenoeft)tth> fbr I have too ions nagkdDedH 
Mid Kved ^ter the flesh. May the Bpi#it tead ma to Hm 
ll^itte mid saving kncwledgeiof Him/wbose i am,«iii«rtiMii 
Ml Iboited lo servo/' 

^ Tlie tte!it effbrt of her pen WM^ to Mta tha ongsgomoiit* 
' of the Christian sabbath. Instead of pursuing winaly; 01* 
esleemittg lihe sacred hours ^ wekfinM,^ ishie wtitoa thus 
<yf Its oecupationa. 

^* liuilt «abbath day i enjoyed ft gMkI prrviie^i^' tvhkli i 
triiiit was not thrown away. I heard two exoelleifl ttsWMaf, 

pmn f>i» qf Hia ^faitlftd wiustem of the; gfwpd/of Jetus 
jChmt. A»:I tev« to peldoo^ of l«^i li^teoed to the truth 
ei(;i^i9 in i(eia8i4eU¥eTfidfroiii^ the palmt» they ivere epjoyed 
urith a 8«perior relish, a»d I sbaU endeavour (to recall Aowae 
iifthe:leadiBeeeii|iiiiMtBd0n^^3^ '. , . .. 

.^ft^Theintaiii^ diioo^pe was fomded 43iPon the Ifith 

Meieefaf^tileiitxth chapter pf the epistle to; t}ie EpheMiuEis^ 
S'Eefcet^e aword of the fipurit» which is the word of Go^/ 
d(r*'R* observed, that the Christian's warfare was a spiritual 
.oae*> . Hence the apostle exhorts the followers of Corist to 
M* on the whole artnbur of God, and closes his exhortation 
hf the words of the text/' 

. '♦* He. ceosideredr-Firsl; Why the word of Gpdia com- 
piased to it sword ?^^lBt. Because, as the sword of the warvior^ 
it serves to keep off the distant -attacks of the enemy. ^ The 
Christian will often find hunself engaged in this species of 
combat by those who dare not come to a closer engage^ 
inient, but who, by secret insinuations, or artful suspicions, 
seek tO' undermine his faith, and make him distrust the pror 
iDises-of God. But the word of God is a shield, and a s^re 
w^aponifof defence, by which he may put to flight these dis- 
tant foes/and , party eff the blo^s which are aiofied from alar. 
8dly* As a $word,;it ia a^o effectuajl in close icombat. 
When our j«uj^ineeiit8 are called in quej^tion, our £iith cour 
diPmned, and the hopie of the^ gospel, in whidi we trusty is 
the' subject of contempt and ri^ule, we must^not^nse veiar 
liatipn,: hut apply to the word of God for refuge ; ^ad with 
its blessed truths c^mibund and' disperse our most* daring 
cDeiniesv ; We: have^tbe fsxample.of our blessed Redeemer 
tOfteieourage us, iwho,!when he was te^ipted by the great 
Hdimsary of eouls/replied always ip the words of the scfip^ 
|urefi(.ri(3(}ly* > A3 a: siv^rd/ ^e wtord of Ge^ ,is not only a 
defeni|ive:lM«t aa'o^cinsi^e weapoii, and is found effectual in 
t^ttt^g^down aU our foes. The apostle says, f the word of 
Crod is <}«icik; and ipoweflul, and sharper than any twoi 
edged;awbnd/ Sec. With this: weapon in our hands, we 
mkistrwwr JE^;aii¥lt. all our carnal .and spiritufil enemies, omr 
luAts.and passiomt wluioh, rise up affai^st us to disturb our 
peace, and especially, when assailed by do.ubt8 and, templar 
jtions, which) tMgneati enemy of spula sugge^ti^d, ia order to 
•lead us iiirto sin»'r : ^ .. i t \ , 

'"**: Secondly-^ Consider why the. word of God is called the 
sword of the Spirit. — Ist. Because it is a spiritual weapon: it 
cssmefro^nGoa; or, to use themetaphor^itwassentfromthe 
.armonry of heaven, and is die workmanship of God. The 

Memoir of Miss Jane Bury* 278 

pfToplitfts and apostles were inspired* by thie boly Spiritt 
itrhen diey I^TOte, and 'went on their niis«ion^ or the former 
eonid not have predicted eyenta which occarred in aucceed- 
in^ ages, nor the latter have confirmed their divine corn-^ 
mission by the miracks which they wrought. The word of 
God IS the sword of the Spirit^ because without the influ- 
ente of -the divine Spirit, even this heavenly warfare will 
becbhie of no effect. * To establish this fact> a reference was 
made <o the first missionaries to Greenland; and the South 
Seail^tands, whose labours were for many years unsuccess- 
iol — ^ough they possessed this spiritual weapon — ^till it was 
wielded by the almighty arm of God ; when it became irre- 
sistible. It is the same with individuals who sit under the 
soimd of the eospel ; they derive no spiritual benefit firom it till 
it is blessed by the resistless energy of the holy Spirit. It is 
thai that the word of God is powerful, and sharper than 
any two-edged sword, for it pierces the conscience; it 
lays open &e inward parts; it pierces the stony heart, 
and britfgs it to the Saviour: it breaks down the strong 
holds of Satan, and brings every tiiought into captivit]^ 
onto* the obedience* of Christ. 3nd. What is meant by 
taking this sword? It implies that we have it in our pos* 
session. Christians of the preseiM; day ought to be sensi* 
bUs of die blessings they enioy^ in having the word of God 
so readily obtained, when they remember that their ances* 
tors only enjoyed this privilege by the payment of a very 
large sum ; yet so mucn was the Bible valued amon^ the 
primitive Christians, that they Would rather have partedwith 
the whole of their property, than have given up those per* 
tibns'ofth^ scriptures which they possessed. 3rd. To take 
tlust sword,' implies also that it i» in use. It will be of no 
avail if we have the Bible in our possession, and yet neglect 
to^stiidy Its contents. We must bring into constant and 
dait^ use, and • endeavomr to store our minds with select 
pH^rtiotts of it, which may be profitably applied when occa*- 
sion Tequires: for the holy scriptures contain all things 
necessary for doctrine, for reproof, fi)r correction, and f^* 
instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be 
perfiecit, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. But we 
itiust study theblessed word of God with humility and ear* 
nest prayer for the illumination of the holy Spirit, without 
which we 'Shall derive no real benefit from it* We must 
earnestly seek to be taught of God, that his word may be 
made c^ctual to our complete salvation.^' 
• The other discourse was from Romans, chap, i. 19.^ The 

f^f^^i^ip^^ ^ji^ f^v^\^\^^\ff, tih^ iw9^« 7b^ Jaw ¥^ 1^ iibtr 

t^f{X jde^fi^ri^, Xlu^ P^} w^» tbe^ sfivi^ jv^fermoa iq tbf 
fpff^e fifim W^^}^^ ^ i^%t' i# ♦^ke*» MHi^ W^*«4», ttte^jurt 

di^Wf^ l?|Vf P^ |thi9 few deivmds petr/dc« fi^<)jeQM« Md 
)b;e th^t i^ gMJUy i>f ppe ofience^ is li^blA to the pimUtgr 

w.aS'^Bc^ 0^3(99^ up-^^-^^u the J^fMi^iof <9o4» H^b^ mtIMI &biiii 
^cj^W^ the fp^d^tiaa qf t^ ^orldf . 

;2pd* CoiKi4«r |;he Ufe thput he liead^. »8ittMi» aip yaid to 
be ^9^ ia ^rei^p^sifQ^ aod fiips^ bujt ithe tfpte %eli#wer ia f^r 
ixew^d to a ipiMii^^J lili^ iql Gkmi ^sai9« H0 Uws » life of 
pci^^d, T)]H^ ,ia{)a«Ue^ k^ i^ fiftb obs^ipkr <»f ibi« (^i#lfei #ay«b 
JS&f^HSii^d ^Jaiiki ^m fiwe ,p«w W(A <fH^4Af(M4eft our 
f^4xrfL^Mm§ Chm^. The <7hn«twi ^^li^fr ^ojoya p^Me ^rf 
CQ^sciancQ, iimiog iram ^ a^d^b of tbfl p»rdw pf W «iM 
ti^r<M:i^l^ ^^ Uo0^ i^ hm^^f 9od k^ -£^9 eo uiwtird Mti AfM«* 
ii^ 4H ikying ^ibtai^i^ .tJ»e fipivot^r of <:^« and beiw 
s^dopW# lAto hi.^ f^milywwlMeh JA ibo peMe i)i«tt piuMtS 
fi^j^a4ftqd»>& wl)i4^ ^e vvc^U ifa^. Millar giye Mf dddt 

th^ b^^4» wd^orlMf hy4PTt9>^; Jtit 4biik fmA whi^b^aMM^ 
icm ib^lie^er; tooWi»d i«fiS<H>d wqrlps, t^ bMa^ne^e aMadbct 

i» l^g ^aTf^tetiiop, hut 'th^y f^f^ from a ij^iure yrincipki -of dam 
^ Qf)!4, ^pd ^ Mw ^^m >l9 !pii4AQt9 bis il^<»y m ik^ wot U» 
li ^ ihii« Ahioyt Al^f^h^4^.'Mra8. J4aU4^ J^y w^<i, wihw ht 
f)i;^ed uj^ Itis ^<^ lis^ii^- . I( i9< A^fMf^Ty to >0Wvftt^ Itei 
|b« feitJi of 4^h^ telifff^ '» n^ abfv%f&i 4^Q (mm^rr^fwm m 
^^ju^sr- cif <Qws^efih-ib^ tki«i doeis pot ^iu^^ his salvMliKio.kM 
sure* It is his owAK^owoJiaiioe whi^h jiialifies Ji<tain.luMi 


i»e0^» ««d 0i 9f>IM^«l»(P»» «tttob 6M Uiii &r ibe .mli«i»tfaioe 

^U .lifOi altocb9i4nt to4iiri«ie d»iiiBB» kindly faaiier totoiiti 
that charity which fiKtonJU io oib^vf 4fN4iA»to'Of tifceadvaaiiH 
iiig0«« Ja ft. AWT^raattoA b«ld ooljr a few w#ek« be&ne Jier 
4aatb» ph ^ 2)iopmtf of iduag meastti^s ioir "the bm^^tf 
4b^ nfiii^honyhoad into wbkh the fiuoiiy had r^oeiUljr w- 
iMv^ ^. WM Qby9oted» ihat, in prodteoof, -a mote k^ 
mate knowledge of the inbabitents ahwld bo pv^miniif 
^^bMinad.* ^Sb^ f?pU^ with i9ome /vf^annth* imA aa if under 
a prMMttQirat of e«irly dteao]iitjon» that -ah^ ''did Mit like 
iJi^ i(Mi of any tifm bewg loat/' *' Can we »ot/' aaid «bi» 
^'fi»dke a 'begwmia^ if it i^ only by the distribatioo of a 
f«iw ifaoto ?" ai>d added^ '' tbat ake bad tbougbt ao «aneh of 
A fdtti of TiaHing 4be poor, to eonveiaa mtb thmt ft)f ibeii' 
Mpd, tba^ £a^ ibo two or tbpoo laat nighte, U b^iA pravantod 
Aar firwi^^eapMig.'' 

tier diKgenoe. aa a iSiwclayHaobool toidM^r was mottt 
<eawiplafy I and io aid in iia ongafomaaia* aba a^y and 
sf|;i4ar)y . wfdkad^ iroeapaotiva of change ctf '«f atheje* ^a 
Ulilafl'on ihaaabbatb AoomiAg^ • <Sha ol4ai»ed the affealMma 
n^ 4lit fobildDen^ aind whan vamoyed froia 4ba aceno of tbote 
Jbboniw toaana disUmee, ona of ihiwiaaid aba ^wonld any day 
mkik Aina milai* *' if it ware only to look at ker^^ a firaa aad 
baarly MttBranaa of f aeUng alike <erediiaUa to both pnrtiae. 
Jfoi^oan 4to writer HHnii to iH;ate in ibia -oannanion^ tbat 4ita 
fytimx of. a iitrtle girlj wkoea efiployjttent fm$ tbat of a gu^ 
dwtn^ pmianted to Miaa .Bory "a ^Mm ptot^ of .cnrafnl 
f^nrii^ in 41 manner ^ffipreaiiYa of f^ituda and ^etoent* 

Hnr4retard to the bclyaoriptaae9iie»enpea*eep0eieJrliotu)ci^ 
Vit vMi oba^roB^n naarnelatiiPn, '' viaible, a«d strongly 
jnifkad^ : She wasiraiviaotlylannd readiogtba^bk/wian 
^ .wa9 aiq>pQsnd aba bad »&tirad to ratU <&ha alaa faam«> 
xaittodJaDgaporliQlMiof k to. nMsinoryt :Tba laat tinm oka 
walked to Grosvenoa-aliraet eb9»d»* d»a aoaMnadaed <a eon^ 
tanMiony by ^oomotanljng -an itboae intor^^twig wdfdfi^ '''If 
libaibrath <yf Ood bare move aboMdad tbfoagh my li^* unto 
}da ^ory. why yeiaaa I alsq :Me^d m aaiAner ?" She tbw 
ajno 9emarkna» *bai the a pistla to 4^Q Roin«M waa n. fa^M^ 

* MaacfaeHten ... 

276 Ifemoir of Miss Jane Bury. 

tite part of iiiBpiration^ lade^di %he vHholeof it Wasengra^ 
ven upon her memory^ and, in compliance "witb request, she 
proceeded to repeat several chapters. The manner in 
which she discoursed^ the' facility <with which she referred 
to Tarious branches of the apostle's argument^ and the clear 
view she seelned to hsLte of the wlme ammgenient, dis- 
cohered how much it ted been the object of study. She 
had proceeded' a considerable way in leaming die' Apoca* 
lypse, when death arrested her progress.'^ 

Miss Bury diligently and punctdaily traversed the neigh- 
bourhood of her residence several miles in circumference, 
as a collector, for the distribution of the book of Ood. The 
excellence of the last entry in her journal; will render any 
apology for its introduction needless. 

" Having heard it related of a young person, that there 
was little ground of hope for her on a dying bed, since she ^ 
«was not self-dedicated, I have been led to apply the siibr 

Sct to myself, and inquire. Am I self-dedicatea unto God? 
o I desire to devote my time and talents unto his service? 
Alas ! I fear I have too long substituted a form of godliness 
ioi its power, and neglected his reasonable service. What 
would De my condition, if I were called to give an accotint 
of itiy stewardship? Perhaps similar to that of the voting 
Yemaie^ whose awful state I heard related in such feeling 
ierms. I too, like her, have lived under the sound of the 
gofifpel, and, though I have been prevented from mixing in 
tho'gaietieis of the world, as she did, has not my heart con«- 
tinned in an unconverted state? Have I not remained ex- 
perimentally ignorant of the truths of the goSpel> and; ther^ 
-fore^ been incapable of applying them as a rule of laith and 
practice ? Does not my heart continue hard and insetisible 
to a iust view of the dreadful consequences of siA, with the 
^rath of an offended Ood ? I desire to be thankful that I 
am brought to see my need of an atoning sacrifice, and my 
«rtter inability to perform any good thing. But I want to 
feel more deeply such a hatred of sin, as will make iae abhoi^ 
that which is evil, and cleave to that which is good, and ren«> 
tier me more earnest in my entreaties at the thnme of grace, 
far the influence of the holy Spirit, which can alone sub- 
due the reigning corruptions of my heart." 

Of Miss JSury it may now be remarked; as of the patriarch 
Israel : " The time drew nigh that she must die.'- A <dboH 
illness only preceded the event. SUe was in usual health, 
and a lifeless corpse in five days ; thus furnishing a strik- 
ing illustration or the uncertainty and rapid flight of oppor- 

MeMah.i^lieMJvneBiiry. S77 

iaokiM4 •> topic wttht'vt'lriol^ iiL healthy berxmhod :lnd' been 
deeply impreaaed. : , 

' The. aoknmi pmcess of > dbsohition will be best detoribi^d 
bv. one of her most intinate aad beloved velatives^-^''' Cooa^ 
pieteljfv did diyiAe.gfnoe. triumph thsoughottt her last indis^ 
poeitioii; not ,a nwnrmuri nor an impatient expitestion; 
escaped. Though much in pain and weariness, from total 
depnratioii of reaf^<f^'waa peace aad tmnqiiiUity ; thankful- 
ness and calm serenity presided over her words and actions; 
her mind was superior to suffering, and while preacribed 
remedies were ineffectually applied, she read^. conversed, 
and repeated, with uninterrupted activity. 

** On the Saturday before her death, it. was observed to 
her, that pain and sickness 'are not joyous, but grievous/ 
yet if sanctified, they frequently 'yield the peaceable firuits 
of righteousness.' She replied, ' I have earnestly prayed 
that this affliction might be sanctified, that should I recover, 
I may more than ever devote myself to God. You know, 
mamma, I have not had much illness, never such an one as 
this.' * No, my dear^ Jane, you have not had those severe 
paiils and sufferings which many pass through^ and this 
calls for thankfulness.' * O yes, I know I ought to be thank- 
ful, aiid I hope I am very thankful.' 

. * ''On the same Saturday, speaking of the value of pure 
water, she remarked, ' what innumerable blessings are held 
out in' scripture under that emblem,' and proceeded to repeat 
inan^ texts to die. purpose. That night, to the sister who sat 
itp tvith her, siinilar observations were made, and she added, ' I 
do not t^ink I shall ever get better, but I am not fit to die.' 
' ''Being reminded that our fitiieds is of Christ, she quickly 
rejoined, ' O yes, I know that; but I mean, I want to have 
an assurance that my sins are forgiven me, and I do not 
think that without this, it is possible to get above the fear 
of death.' 

" From several allusions made as to the uncertainty of her 
teeov»ry, it shbuU seem she was moire fully aware of the 
ganger of her situation, than the too sai^uine friends aroimd 
heil*. These allusions did not discover auy. visible emotion, 
pfobdbly because, in a season of health,' she had not shrunk 
frbm: Ihe frequeniscontemplation of death.^ 
* >^' Obfiervittg her motfanr's afixiety to relieve her, sfaeiSadd^ 
wilih an earuestlook, imd peculiar . emphasis — * My dear 
mamma, don't; be abxious; put your trust in the Lord, and 
he will suppor.t you ; yes, he will.' 
. "Being, exljiorted. to look to Jesus for s^vation, her 

876 4fatetr.^<AfitfJ^Jfa#. 

under heaven by which we can be sared/. Bayfm htlti»m 
injr doHvtbatJieiBiaUe'tbinwTDtt? ^i;»o.btMWflBnt I 
«MKt) an aasnanoe ifast be k«i paidoaed Idimysins^ Praj^ 
rndLina.' Hdr reqaaal^wto oqinplitf d wttb,«M) ojbfnui rang^ 
fi&iogtenie^^iika wonldaay; ^it aoothei'intf/iaid liie hjniui 
bogtmring .'•....- 

: 'When jidneta and idmenieiaNnida "* 
. nriatranblnighoiaB^fcipiy/ ' 

«eemed mneh to please Iter. 

^Su;eeHD the confidienceof faitii 

To ti^t his firm decrees. , ^ /♦• 

I ' AS'tbe^ ttr Ke passive in his naaflSy "' - 

And kaowno will birt hrs/ * ' ' 

'*lt 18 conjectured, fwnn Jher intenee lobk?^ the. pect^Iiiur 
ixianner wliidi accomDanied some of her aotioia^f and thr9. 
fearue$tnesj8 with whicn she requested that every biie Jyoql^' 
hasten to leave the room* but the eister who wfi9 to. ^i)t up 
with }ier^ that she had intended to say something mor^ 
pointed on the subject of her ^pproacTiing c^iii^ge^ P^o- 
pably, tod, ber incneased iHness, and the extreme aefii^iwjy 
she had manifested duriiig her indisypjosition XXQ% jto ofiep^ 
^e feelings of other9» checked the expression pf her. own. 

"The tamily had retired to rest^-^out the restlessness o^ 
death was on ner« and every five minutes some cba^ge i^ 
her position was made* * Oh 1 that I could isleep ; but np moine 
aleep for me*^ I^o eooner was sh^ aware that every one had 
quitted the xpom* than she renewed ber xeque^tp^ 'Now 
repeat/ A line or two> Or a text, was repeated at intiarvals, 
accoi^pwied by entreaties that abe would endeavour to com- 
pose herself and cease to think* TCho following lities wer^ 
jthe^ xecitecU 

* There is a land of pure delight, 
, Wheiie saiats im^Dort^l ra^l^' 

^'In «. hm ttee, «lie •said^ * Wt&jf ftr Me;' I Ao- ffn^jt I 
have {prsjfiedi, and i jai0w <faatiny^raiyem.4iiieh«ard*«-*-¥ai^ 
Jsne,4faDttgh be fifaoidd lend youubraadi ibe :daik^vaUqr> 
bewtt be thaneuto pioleiBt yom.' TJie &d Patdm vmibm 
repeated ; soon after which iierinotiiier ma^ cal}ed> wbeaahe 
askad 9fitb«bflie amciely**^* Bitty mumna/ do fwi think toy 
miia ave forgivan ooelV Vim, :mv dear <diild, I koMv Aey 
am* . 'duMt oame into the wond to he fliada a aaorifiea 
for sin, that all who believe in him 0|igbt liave.f varlastiag 
ivk.' ^Yai, mammal but not for me. Ohyi. ap a poor 

Ifte wkti^ibeiwarUL &h^ ao* brokei oitt liM fti p)tH;fifr fbf 
Ikifeh^ IKT itnrQiir of iiriHokiiiDn^^itttb^dDwwiftv \mi iiMst «did 
can coTMBd V iinii|iii8( ^bm Mnftil MteikiM o£ mA an bMfC 
It wasinwigud! iMh aevetali tcxiB of wmyturr vttelifi^ to 
fekfe^Buch as^ 'I^idi ia tikm gift a€ Q^^* He^fbait b^e«u 
eth.oa him Aaik Haver :4ie'-^0Lar^ ^rrc^ia^ faiti^'^O 
Lord^. haste tuemyufOTL my fioor -s^aik^ and dG^bhtcMM 
^Laihia not bis aabaoieil ivhen I oomai ibto Ay* pmtxkwi 
Qhatj he td Ib^ Fathai^aod to« th& Sott^ and t^ the ]io^ 
Qhostl» A man* 

*' McDMMty fedis totaccdl mast ofi wimit paMttd, anly^ iii^lif 
Qspressiotia are eommitled to pa/pe^y aa oati ba^ vaHbaUt^ 
rasEieacibered. Th0« oomnibite ainiggle of di^ath aiNma^ea, 
daring "which the tnemy laaa permitted t(»< es^i^cMe hsa' laat 

Iiower^aadsararat doobtawace aagge&ted^ apebas^, ^ Ilia IM 
ate nov'-^* i hove neglectad it too long/ But m la«a^ tibaii 
tCB miniitea aH was agaui eahn, and ifr a lyaarOev of an bomr 
ake brealiied her. fidorit into, the haiida of ke» SAtiotBv M 
gently^ timtbcr fiimi«lo6ewpus.6caBccaly anaemti 

'^ She sfeepa in Jrcaua^ and vre sonrow ao^ aa thosif tvho' Hire 
na hope. Wd have planted her remains in die gmra^ in tha 
mire axpecAatioo that she sbalt^ thvou|^ the ntierils< of her 
Ilede«ncr, spring again: to bhNBilooi> in mmQiKal verdmre.^ > 

This event t^ place^ April 126, 1823, m the StMl year of 
her age. Its improvement from thepalBUi Aimi4he« addi^ 
iiaafil einAeixoe df Ae kfkathkBJb^ r egar&ef her aas*oeia^s, 
atod cdso of hidk estimalioa by those who, inilhe>achoot. bad 
hiceiveil.ha«lLtructians. . 

Maooiy obaervelaona^ in addition to Ifeoae tfeead^ notieed; 
ataod coinneoted with a lifiB like that befSi^ra us. Wetite 
tantght tlm- misatisftctbry natu^ bfi eve» the fDOSt admired 
tnH»ai|s«^t&e imponaaoaofi harmig th% alfeetiona re^ukited 
oy taehstial; ligkt^^tbat the gvelttev' tbe- degree of iHumi^ 
nation, the more wiUthey be elevatisd>«0'tbmgf9^BoV^^^«^Ad 
that ito proportion aii tbe> fleatifii^ eifcaMatattees'^ earthly 
<A9eQt8aoeffealized,:tha anote dfe^ot will be <Mrf^ce^ 
tion ofilJK glovieaef 'the Sfamoat><md< the attre(otiafiS'6f th(^ 
invisible state. • r . / 

But the remltffbsf mo9t.lBUubara)l^ aasdeiMed vrilli' the pre- 
ceding nfiM.li3ec». bear ! upiQn.the: valuie of thiie, add its neht 
improvement. It wmsi truly affirined ^f' Mi^df 33ury, that 
'Hbeae who knew beir moat intiviMltely, wonld ^d it diffi- 
cult to aay^ tln^ in dietctfuraitof ^e^ttuy sIm^ waa^ met seen 

290 JkGMWr i^MusJ^Bury. 

JA tHBe away, an kbtn"/' Bex -mdefiKfigdjfe ardottrlin. the 
pufBciitof kaolnrledge, dkeoverean instibctiTeicfbiiBnrKnee of 
Ihe apcwtoUc exhortation^ ^ Be aot cfailcbenmimdeiviand^ 
ing;" — and attention to thai, eanoonu^t onlviwithpctsBe- 
yeringindflfttiy.andatifaabitttaliwtemptien.ofl^^ * 

< An eniioent modern writer has snggeirted'hiots^in eonr- 
nexion with this subject^ which cannot be too matiunely 
weighed. ^'Very early rising*-«a . syatematic tdi^ision^-of 
time--«abatinence fVpm reading, writings onwenihinldn^^ on 
modem nolitics — and^aboTe, aiU ney^ peimxttiiig: a^.bit or 
scrap of .tine to.Ue nhemployedy .h^ye suppliedi aa abun- 
dance of literary hours. His literary acc^sitions/' con- 
tinues Mr. Butler^ referring as a reministentio his o:*ii'ac- 
quir^nents* '' whatever they are, may» perhapis^ be princi- 
pally owing to the rigid per fo rmance of four rulei^ :*^t6 direct 
nis attention to one literary object only at a:tifaieM:o read 
the best book upon it, consulting others. as f little* as possi'- 
ble— whi&re the stibject was contentions, to tead' the: best 
book on each, side — to 'find out men of informational and 
when in their sx>ciety, to listen,- not to talk/'f Such intinu^ 
tions, while peculiarly gratifying to an ardent student; ar^ 
capable of an^ easy adaptation to the varied eirctoistanc^s 
and pursuits of all mankind. Nor should it* bi^ forffotteitv 
that, to such a course as this. Bacon, and DoddrMj^c, Watts; 
and Miss Smith, with a host of the learned, while benefiting 
the public, gave a; zest- to their own existence, wbicU' is 
unknown to trifling indolence. . :i! 

A Course of activity and labour, it is true, wtll require 
vigilant constancy : but' the Christian will anxiously re6oU 
lect that for time — ^the most precious talent-^he .must acf 
count. He will observe the order of the most High.in crea- 
tion; six .days labour, and then rest: nor will it escape 
notice, that 'the season for repose,' as expressed in > the 
moral law, is deduced from preceding toil; '^ The presen|; 
life is designed for action ; the world to come, for the ^tran- 
quillity of perfect knowledge and everlasting bliss. : . ' u 

Nor has any thing, it may bendded, such a direct ten- 
dency to produce acourse like this, as an ever«abtdingopn- 
yiction of the uncertainty, as well' as brevity, of our: abode 
on earth. 

*^ Time is dealt out by partides, and each, 
Ere mingled with the streaming sands of life, 
By fate's inviolable oath is sworn . 

Deep silence, — ^where Eternity begins.'' youko. 

* Renuaboences, by C. Bailer;, Esq. Svo. 1822. p. 3. 

Horn Jutidke.. 281 

What a scene,, obserrea Mis. More» wiUri^|ica';upoii. vs,; 
wWd froiBQur eternal state we shall IooIl bji^ck ou.tfae use, 
we .have . made oi time ! What a reyolutipn will he wrought 
in qui: opiuioiis !, What a contrast will be exhibited, when 
we shall take a clear retraspect of all. we have done^.ajid all . 
we ought to. have done !* 

J. B. W . 

. ■ 


Oh the Punishfinent of Defamation amongst the Hindus and 


Havinq, in a former essay, travelled the route to which' 
Mr. Holt's introductory chapter may be considered a mere, 
road-book directory, — the whole of his observations upon, 
the.Jewish, Persian, and Lydian codes, being comprised, 
in about fourteen lines, — now we must^ for a while, part 
company, ^d strike into a new and unfrequented, path,, 
which we are not aware that the footsteps of any legal, 
antiquary has yet trodden, in his endeavours to trape the 
histoj^y of the Law of label and Defamation from remote, 
ages to the present time, and to point out the different fea-: 
tures which it has assumed, according to the circumstances 
of different ages and nations of the world. We allwle to 
the laws of some of the Oriental nations, with which, though' 
of far higher- antiquity than any whose provisions, are still 
extant, our acquaintance is comparatively of modern date. 

The first of these is the code of Menu, the great fountain 
of Hindu law, believed by the eastern pundits to have been 
immediately revealed by Brahma to his son, whose name it 
bears ; and which is beyond all doubt one of the most 
ancient of the writings that we possess. And amidst all the 
gross and ludicrous absurdity of the rites which it so mi- 
nutely prescribes, and the singular and most unequal punish* 
ments which it inflicts, that code contains many very sound 
principles of morality, and several provisions well calculated 
to promote the happiness of individuals, and to preserve the 
peace of society. Amongst these are various enactinents 
against defamation, but they are so strangely mingjed with 
precise directions, to shun with equal care, m oblations to 
the gods, a housebreaker — a giver of poison — a seller of the 
moon-plant — a navigator of the ocean — a political encomiast, 
an oilman, and a sul^omer of p^jury ;-Tto, avoid looking 
* ChristUui Moralf, Works, vol. ily* p..iai. . 

2Gfi^ Bow JutUScar. 

at ^o^Y Mfe'lHtfle i^e in etttiitg, sneezmg; 6rTttwt3i^-^mid( 
(MMr offeMeB of like prodigtotis enormity; Wnitli trraf titSg^ 
att' Hbidti ittto om^sma-^twenty mccessftre Hefts', or catfse his: 
i«-^pe«nizice' Mon* ettrib m the slmpe' of 6ae-^tid«-twetity 
Ji l T ef e ttt beoitsi m tnm to dterotir atntJ to be diftycrtirfecf-^that' 
it has g^ven us no small trouble to ascertfdirtheiftiattife ^flrd" 
extetit. ' . . 

One of the general directions of their legislator to the 
Brahmins for tbd gmerniiieiit off fbeit coiidiMll^ in the fourth 
section of this singular eode, bearing for its title " On 
EhonQVlkui %xA Pmata MflNrtiia^'' in^ (addieHifagi tbemvimdi- 
vidually) ''Let him keep in9ub|eetion his speech, his arm, 
apd Jiis appetite ;"-^whence we may infer, that the injuriesr 
occa»?onid liy a tregltect of either of these ditedSorts to fiJi 
creatures;, more especially to. hiB immediate prfe^ts; Wis^ 
contrd^red^ equaTIv culj^able in the eye of Brahma. But 
tfcat tboser wountls which might be inflicted upon the. 
happiness' of individuals and the peace of society: by not' 
attending to the first of these ptecepts, M'fere distinctly; 
dohtemprated by the compiler of this codfe, whoever he 
may hatia leien. Is' ertill more evident, from an express; 
direction in: a pteceding- part of tMk very chapter.* -^^^ tetf 
him say what is true, but let hnn* say what ib. plea^SirL 
fet hha speak no disagreeable trutihf, nor let him spe^ 
dfeagreeabPe falffehood.^ Arid would the Kbeflers of >iio-* 
dbm dtiys^but teep thts " primaf rufe of the Hitidii law*** 
in^ (heir constant' remembrance, they need nof ffear the ea?- 
o/ffwo iW&rmatibns of the attbmey-gfeneral; noractions upon 
me case fbr damages su^tainea m consequence of their 
dtftmfng any bf hi's majesty's Rege and peatefuj subj'ects,' 
of •• goocf name, feme, and ^eptitation.*^ '• let' him iiot,'* 
sayff 3ie code of Menu to every Bhihman, as 'the doinmon* 
and statute Ikw^ of England in fact say to cvety Kfceller, *' be 
flippant in his speech, nor ihtelKgent in doing mi&cfiief.' 
Let htm walk in the path of good men ; \vfiife he moves in 
that path, he can give no oflferice."^ fti diib* system of 
Hittdu law, the duty of brfdKnff the tongue,, and abstaining 
from dfefitmation; or speaking; ill of anothor, is gtrongfy in- 
^ntcuted upon all' classes and conditions of men.. To the^ 
jrnpfl ft says; *^ In whatever place, elthefr a ttrue but cetiso- 
rious'^, or false and defamatory discourse, is held' concerning 
Ms teatjher; let him there cover Ms ears, or remove to 
anollier place. By censuring his preceptor^ though j,ustly * 
lie wHl be born an ass ; by mUeFy defaming him, a dog.f^ 

* §. 138. ' ' fib, V. nr, a. X CBap. ii. %. 200, 201. 

Hora Juridica. 263^ 

To Ae king himself it addresses this admonition : *' Bat-< 
tery, defamation, and injury to property, let him alwaysf 
eonsider the three most heinous (vices) in the set which 
arises from wrath;"* whilst the very Brahmins, whom the 
code of the son of their supreme god ranks far above kinga 
and princes, are exhorted, when they have retired from its 
active scenes, to prepare for their final departure from this 
world, to ''bear a reproachful word with patience," and to 
*' speak reproachfully to no man."t ' 

Such are tiie precepts of Menu ; but as his laws havo 
declared pwmkment to be the perfection .of justice, in the 
opinion of the wise, we cannot but devote a few minutes o£ 
our titn^, to those punishoients which he has provided for 
the prevention of slander, which, coupled with assault, con- 
stitutes the eleventh and twelfth of the eighteen principal 
titles of the Hindu code of legislation. These pusiishments 
dtflfer, as in. the code of sucn a people we must naturally 
expect diey would do, accordmg to the rank or caste of the- 

Serson defaming, and of the person defamed. A soldlelr' 
e&ming a priest, is to be fined a hundted punas ; a priest 
slandering a soldier, five hundred; whilst the punishment 
of mutual abuse by men of these classes^ is td be at the 
discretion of this king, ** the lowest on the priest, and the* 
middlemost on the soldier;" A merchant abusing a priest, 
is to be fined an hundred and fifty, ot two hundred panas ; 
but being slandered in return, is to receive but twenty-five. 
For slandeHn^ a man of the servile class, a priest is con- 
demned to a mie of twelve panas ; but should ne, in his tum^ 
give a similar license to his tongue, ^' as a once bom man,' 
who insults th^ twice bom" with gross invectives, let 
him," says the righteous Menu, '* have his tongue slit; for 
he is sprang firom the lowest part of Brahma ;" a sufficient 
reason in his estimation for a punishment, which, unlike' 
most others, that may be commuted, is declared to be •• a- 
fixed rule." But this is not the worst. If he mentiona 
iheir naihes and classes with contumely, as if he say, ' Oh^ 
Devadatta, thou refuse of Brfaihmins, ' an iron style, ten fin- 
g€frs long, shall be thhist red-hot into his mouth. Shotild 
fie, through pride,* gjive instructions to priests, concerning 
their Juty,— *• let the king," says Menu, •* order sonkehotpu 
to be dlropped into his mouth and his ear." Defamation of a 
flither, a mother, a son, or a preceptor, is subiected to a fin^ 
of. an hxaidred panas : whilst A« is compelled to pay double 
that sum ''who falsely decries, through msolence, the saor^d 

* €hap. vu. § 51 . t Chap, viii* (332. 

VOL. VIII. — NO. &. X 

294. Hoia JuridiC0. 

knowledge^ the country; the cWt; or the corporeal tnv»8tr«» 
tare of a maa equal iii raak*' with himself. Fake and ma* 
lignaat imputations upon the chastity of an umnarried 
female^ are also fineable in an hundred panas, provided the 
person who makes them cannot prove the truth of hit asser*. 
tion.* In this case, the truth of the charge would seem to 
be a sufficient defence of the party accused of making it ; 
but it is the only one discoverable in the whole of the Hindu- 
code, and a subsequent part of the law of defamation, as> 
there laid down, clearly proves, that the contrary doctrine of 
truth itself being in some cases a libel, is by no means, 
peculiar to the age or country in which we live, ** If a man 
call another blind with one eye," say the laws of the son of 
Brahma, ** or lame, or defective in any similar way, he shall 
pay the small fine of one pana, even thousth he $peak truth.^\ 
And this provision is the more remarkable, in that these 
Uttmishes^ so far from being considered, as among us, mis- 
fortunes to be commiserated, are expressly declared in this 
very cod^, to be marks of Divine vengeance for crimes com-> 
mitted in that previous state of mortal existence^ from which 
tl^ose who bear them mast have transmigrated. 

'f Such iptthe law," declared by Menu, ''for the punish- 
ment of defamatory .i^eech."t *hat this was considered a. 
very serious offence,* the severity of its punishment, when 
compared with that of crimes which have generally been 
held to assume a much blacker dye, is in itself sufficient. to 
evince. But the rank which it held in the scale of offences 
proscribediby this singular code, is a matter not left to mere 
deduction, since we find it expressly classed with those 
which it is ihs Jirst duty of a sovereign to banish from his. 
empire. ** That kipg," s^ys the Hindu legislator, '' in whose^ 
realm, lives no thief« no adulterer, no <2e/*ai7ier, no man guilty, 
of atrocious violence, and no committer of assaults, attains- 
the miinsions oif Sacra. By suppressing these five in his- 
dominions, he gains royalty paramount oyer men of the same 
kingly .rank, and spreads his fame through the world.":^. 
*' In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, ofdefama* 
Abu. and assault^" th^ kiug^ says a previous. section of the. 
same. chapter of the institutes, § '' must not examine too 
minutely the competence of witnesses*" 

^ It cannot, we should imagine, but strike the mind of evecyr 
attentive reader of the preceding statement,.as a somewhs^ 
singular circumstance, that these legal provisions for the. 

* Chap. Tii. i »86. t Chap. viiL ^ 20i«-5»:8. I lb.. §380, 7v 
hV>' % 72. 

preyjeation and punisbin^nt of slander, which' h&ve niore o£ 
the characteristics of a systematic arrangement* than ihose. 
of any other of the ancient nations, should be found in the 
legiskitiTe enactments of a people, amongst whom we should 
be least disposed to lopk for them. Difficult, however, as 
it may at first sight appear, this problem may perhaps easily 
be solved ; at least, a few hints shall be offered for its solu* 
tion. 1% is self-evident, that this code of Indian law, what-* 
eyer xnuy have been the period of its composition, or the 
name of its author, must nave been the work of a priest, or, 
more probably, the joint production of a body of men of the 
sa^rdotal order. It was, thei^fore, their principal object to; 
secnre t^eir own aggmndiseiQjent,andtooDtainanunumited 
dcnmnioti over the coi\Sieieaces>aiid conduct of men,.by im** 
pressing their minds ^ with' blind.. veneration, for ihe com^ 
mandsof the superiondeity, whom they artfnlly represented 
as the immediate SAthof of the code which they promul- 

Sated in his qamew The unlettered. and superstitious Htur 
us were accordingly toldji in* the name of Menu, the son of 
Brahma, dieir god, that ^^ a Brahmin, whether learned or- 

S' pprant, is a powevfliiL divinity, even as fire is a pomrerful 
ivipil^, whether, aowecrated' or popular* Thus, although 
Brahmins empb^ themsekes in ill. sorts of mean occupa- 
tions^ they must myariably be honoured ; for they are some'- 
thing transeendentfy divine.*** Hence, the ecclesiastical im-. 
munity, that sure test for the discovery of unhallowed 
priestcraft in the composition of human laws : *' Never shall 
the king slay a Brahmin, though convicted of all possible 
crimes ; — let him banish him from his realm, but witn all hi» 
property secure and his body unhurt/'f It CQuId only have 
been in an age of gross siliperstition and ignorance, that 
claims like these cocdd have- oeen successfully advanced; — 
but then, the priests by whom they were advanced, as in the 
instance of the pop^and monks of the, dark ages of Europe^ 
must have.possessed a cunning and foresight perfectly cou"* 
sistent with a degree of learning and information very limited 
in its extent, though powerfi^l in its operation, from its ex- 
clusive and zealous demotion to one ^r^d object of personal 
and self-ittterjssted ambition^. Whilst therefore uiey en* 
deavaured, by .eyeiy possible means, to prevent the general 
difiusion of knowl^ge, which must, they knew, be destruc* 
tive of their influence, they sought in some measure to arm 
^mselves against its effects, by imposing, in anticipation, 
the severest penalties oi| those who snould presmne tOhapply 

f Chap. ix. S 317, 319. f CbM»« ^« ( 890. 

286 Hortt Juridiva. 

lit to expose' llie impudent of their pretensinns^ whiehr 
they would readily interpret into ft defumation of their sacred 
ohara<^ters, and» m their persons, a most outrageous insult 
to the majesty of heaven. Hence then were the iron style, 
the boiling oil, and the slitting of the tongue, prepared for 
those who spoke with contumely of a priest, or presumed to 
instruct him in any part of his duty, in other words, who 
should Tenture to say or wrtlte any thing either of him or 
Us office, which was not j^erfectly agreeable ta his own ftot- 
ings. They were, however, folly aware of the importance Of 
securing ihe* protection of that powerful class, who, by fol** 
lowinflT the profession of arms, would at al) times rendei^ 
their favour desirable, and t&eiY enmity much to be dreaded. 
Whilisi, therefore, thtey protected themselves as effeetoiG^ 
as they could agauist a power which they feared, by super- 
addti^ to the general terM>rs of a future punishment, most 
liberally denounced agiMotM; the oppressors and despisers of 
^e priests of Brahma, an express provision tiiat — ''of « 
military man, who raises his arm vtoieiitly on aHoccasionsr 
against the priestly class, tb& priest himstlf shall be the 
ehastteeff,^^-4bhe]r military pHde wa» flaltercKl by^eir bek^ 
nlai&ed, 4(hougb at « suflScfendy respectfur distftik^cf, the nex€ 
m rank to the superiors of kings, the divinities of this 
tovi^er world. Last of tiie'ilitee twice'-born classes, ih^ 
rights of the merehants received from thiB priestly code 
ihe- degree of protection necessary to enable* them to procure 
those riches, upon which the wtats of the- Brahmins would 
alwayahave the first* and the most sacred clakns. 'fhei^ 
ehamcters were, therefore, protected f^om defcmatioi> by the* 
inferior castes, by the same ptintshment as wa9 to protectthe 
seldiery from l^e license which the populace ttdght otherMifise 
gtveta their tongues, by way of revenging' themselves for that 
mfifepiority, which, in spite of Ih^ir systematic tilainibg to bear 
itmth patience, as^ an irr^ver^ble decree of heaveh, they 
could not but flBet to-be irksiottie and d^gi^ding. As they 
wei«'ffNr tfiftriot, bowel^r, boUi itl i^nk and impottm6e, to t^ 
nfiiitBlty^ they went smbjetted^toa dbtbl^fine tbt abusit^ tt 
ftmbd^il;^a^ ts t&e pi^e^ts Wei<e ittfiihvtely lesii litttibus t^ 
sedut# Aieir ^od win; tHey reserved to th^sm6el¥es a rigftf 
io abUAe^^emi whe^^tierth^ehotiM' imfL^tf, 'otipkymtot of 
)i«lM more^^thiati tWi^^ tUk* 4i^ in^l^bh ihey>%^^ by taW 
MUlre&d fbs d<lfMitegorf^^^A4i'lM¥^« dad^^Si but Which 

^a^P Uk ^\mi^fiT^'M% ^ tfi% litfitiiArf <iMI^. .TbtiA did &e 
precautiosaiBtakitn b;^ thf se ecclsHiBi$tiea) kgifiliitofs, to pre- 

Hora JMrkUcte, -267 


•^ent the exposure of their own sdf^interested views, their 
-vices,' their follies, and their embition, become Ae jaeuui of 
4iitrodueiiig into the code of laws which they premulgated, 
ftpfobibttionof defiunijtioQ.faraiore geneml in its objecte, 
«ttore precise in its definitions, and more severe in its panish-^ 
4nent8, than any of ancient date, whose provisions have sur- 
vived the wreck of aees, cutd veiy probabljr of any that ever 
^faad existence. As uie fire,. which was tiveir favourite sym*- 
bol, and in some measure an object of .their worship, if not 
property confined, will consume in its fiiry every tning op^ 
posed to its destructive ravages^ they knew that a ctisposi^- 
tion toecandal and defamatioa, if not checked on its very 
fivst appearance, would in time treat witii but little reve^ 
^nce the sanctum iandarum of ihe ]»iestly character. 
• The revolution of fifteen hundred years will introduce 
gBeat alterations into the habits, manners, and opinions, of a 
people, even as blindly attached to the tenets and cnstoma 
of their forefathers as are the natione of Hindostui. The 

{progress of improvement, by* the eecret extension of more 
iberal notions, must, with such a lace of beings, be too 
slow and eilent to be traced ; yet its (effects may be evident^ 
where Hscauses are enveloped iii uncertainty. That auch 
an improvement has taken place, we may easily satisfy our- 
selves, by Teforring to the code of Oentoo have, compiled 
firatn thsji of Menu- md nineteen other more modem t^reav 
tiee^ ef the Hinfdn lawycrrs, by the most celebrated pan*- 
dite of the Bast, by oMer of Warren Hastily, when govern 
aor^eneral'of India, ^nd tranalated into E^ish.imdir hie 
direetAO«,c by > that learned 'btfteceeatrtc writer, Jisufimnssey 
itttlhed>. . We ishalLtherefiiid, that the gmsaidieprc^rtioB 
tliU suffered to <ejcist in the ipunishmest^' of defamaiioo^ 4U> 
cording' to the .rank orcasie of the ^MBieons dctfamed and 
defaming, is eempairiitivetv >4nit littte iiiflu^noed by Hheir 
belonging to the saaerdotel e^derv provided tfiey areonem* 
bers of one of. the Uiree principal aii^' only tiieocTOnlda 
idMses^^lhe. priestly ,» the ttvimary , cind the mereaatile. For 
sewli is^the nlttunil tendeneyef cMiiaien^'taidlevate in tha 
futii^ «f 'secie^; thoi^e wSio,« by: aunoesefiilly eiigvgiiu^^ ih its 
pursuits, >ac(|uiite*iisbeB tend* ififliieoce, llmt % metonast is 
voifar4r<sm JMing plaoedi inthe ecaie of punidoia^for de* 
faming die cbavaoteref a piveat,' neady on «I letel with Ji 
«oodah,>or4nfm. of the servile eiAte; that llMittfcipIiaEe,ef 
csmirfi%'a'9ed^i9titoni«iiQtO' Ihe mmith'Of^ttfe defamenre* 
8emdbyMea«ilbrtbefei^r,iorp9^ instraetor 

bf: :4lNi JiraftauMts^^fS % the ^ter inet&iitf s of: the ; Hindu 

268 Hcr€R Juridke. 

law^ indifferently awarded to the aUnderer of either of the 
other aupeiior castes, with the further pumabmeat of the 
.entire loss of the tongae, where the <»limmy excites: a soa^ 
.picion of the persoii»of whom it is propagated^ hara^been 
guilty of either of the offences in the three. principal classes 
of scandalous crimes. Those crimes are specified with a 
dcj^ee of heterogeneous preciseness, which would force a 
-smile from the most rigid stoic, in the fit'st section of the 
chapter of the code, (or digest, for that would haye been a 
far more appropriate appellation) of the Gentoo laws, which 
bears for its title, ''Of scandalous and bitter expressions,'* 
f. e* such expressions as it is a crime to utter. Here we 
have three distinctions of the crinie of false accusation, 
strangely jumbling together in the same class of moral guilt. 
Incest, and robbins a Brahmin; murdering a friend, and 
eating the Victuals of a washerwoman's caste ; killing a woman, 
and uUing a cow ; injuring a Brahmin and striking a man 
where schoolboys, whilst flogging was in fashion, occasion- 
ally fdt the rod. For using any expression, in consequence 
of which a man beccmies suspected of either of these crimes, 
particular punishments are provided and apportioned with 
great nicety to the particular offence of which he may be sus* 
pected, and the caste and abilities of the accuser and the 
accused ; persons slandering their inferiors in both these 
respects, bein^ most righteously fined in but half the 
penalty in which a man abusing his equal is amerced, 
and only in one fourth of that levied upon those who 
falsely cause their superiors to be suspected of any of those 
enormous offences, it is a curiofus circumstance, however, 
and one we should least expect to meet with in an oriental 
code of laws, that the fine for falsely accusing a woman of 
any of these crimes, or causing her to be suspected of them, 
is visited .by the highest pecuniary punishment which the 
law inflicts in^ cases of di^unation. In this, as in all its 
enactments, the digest of the Hindu law of libel, or, more 
technically sneaking, of defeunation, [carries wil^ it evident 
ttarks of moaem arrangement, and reduction to a systema- 
tic form; which, however opposed to justice and tiie prin- 
ciples of sound reason, is perfectly consistent with itself, 
mid complefo in all its parts. Thus the fine originally 
directed ny Menu to be imposed upon those who should 
reproach persons disfigured, by being deficient in certain 
limbs, or in any of the sensual organs, or possessing them 
inl>ut an imperfect state, is expressly extended to these, 
who by ironical praise give additional keenness .to the wound 

Hora JuritUca. 269 

they seek to inflict. Thus, too» a fine is imposod u jpon those 
who malicioasly attempt to undervalue the skill of aaofJber 
ia.his urofession or calling* thougb measured by the singO)^ 
lar graoation of giiilt which we have already noticed. In 
the same spirit of a more regular jurisprudence, it is pro* 
yided, that "if a man speaks reproachfully of any country, 
the magistrates shall fine, him two hundred puns of cow* 
ries;" that where two persons mutually abuse or utter false 
accusations i^ainst each other, the magistrate shall take an 
equal fine from both parties ; and that if a man should have 
spoken reproachfully of another, or should hare abused him» 
and afterwards says, ** I spoke inconsiderately, or in a jest^ 
and I will not utter such expressions in future," themagistrats 
shall take from him half the fine that had been specified foe 
such fault. It is not, therefore, in the principle,. but in the 
mode of punishing the crime of defamation, that the Hindu 
law has experienced that change, which is always attendant 
upon a general improvement in the habits and manners of a 
nation, however slow may be its movements.. It does not 
appear to be less criminal in the modern digest, of the Gen- 
too laws, than it does in the more ancient code of Menu: 
but the punishment is more systematically apportioned, 
and adapted to the existin(f state of society, amongst the 
singular people whose conduct it is meant to regulate. In 
some respects that punishment is considerably aggravated, 
by the imposition of additional pains and inconYeuienoes on 
those who shall be found guilty, or even accused iof slandering 
another/ They are forbidden, for instance^. to appear. by 
vakeel, or attorney, but are compelled to make aMwer in 
person, and that trntatUer, to the accusation preferred against 
them; — being placed in this respect on a level with mur« 
derer8» robbers, adulterers, and some others, whose offencea 
we shall not name. If convicted, they are also rendered 
incapable of becoming witnesses, as much ajs arxnan who bad 
committed murder, Uieft, adultery^ and other crimes deemed 
infamous in the eye of the law. 

From the laws of Hindostan, we are naturally led to make 
a few remarks upon those of China. What were the ancient 
provisieos ,of this singular race, who seem .to be asitwiere 

Eerfect aborigines in all their habits and. institutiQniB, wis 
ave no means of ascertaining, though- there can be Utile 
doubt but that with a people holding in such profound reve- 
reikce' the opinions and customs, of their forefathers, -the 
spirit of ^those provisions is very de^ly infused into, tba 
more modem of their l^i^lative enactments* The " Tsing 

390 Horm^ Jikridka. 

Lea le^/' or pent! laoidd of China, for a trtirtltftioti of which 
we aie indeht^ to( the learning and ettraordifiiary perse* 
Yeratiee of Sir George Staunton, has a hook of one of ita 
divisions,"* entirely <kYOted \x> the laws against abaatTe lan-i* 
guage : and we are informed in one of the tmnsiator's notes^ 
tkat it is ohserved in the Chinese eommentaty, ** that aba- 
site and insalting lflttg«ia|e, having naturally a tendency 
to produce quarrels and afirays, this book of the laws is 
expressly provided for its prevention and puniabnient/' 
(p. 354.) And it is worthy of remark^ thatthe pij^ishinent 
so provided, being entirety of a corporal nature, can have 
beeQ awarded upon ho other ground than that of the injury 
which the indnlgence of that propensity is Ukely to occasion 
to the public peace ; the very principle upon which out own 
law proceeds, in authorising private individuals, when slan** 
dered by others^ to procera by way of indictment at the 
suit of the king, for the breach of the peace, of which hfe is 
the legal guardian, whenever they Uitnk proper to'wavii their 
claim for pecuniary compensation for the injtiry they them- 
selves may have sustained from the promulgation of the scan- 
dal complained ^f. ''In ordinary cases,- says the section 
of the uhiiiese laws ^hich bears for its title, 'On abusive 
language between equals,* '' all persons guUty of employing 
abusive language shall be Kabte to a pmiishment of ten 
bloivs; and persons abusing each other, shall be punished 
wil^ tenblowB respectively/' In the case of abuseaddressed 
to an officer of igovemment^ civil or military, ^r to a magis- 
trate> thQ punishment is increased to 6itty,'seventy> or one 
hundred fold, according to'tfae rankihe oeonpies ; whilst th^ 
officers of the tribunals themselves tr e subject lo a fiiae of 
from tiiiiiy'to sixty blows ^ for abasing each other, sud of 
from fifty to- eighty for abusing their president, when in 
the discharge of their reiip^ctive duties. Shiti^ aiJd faired 
servants addressing abusive language to their masters' rela- 
tions/ are liable to a ptmii^fament of frdta forty to <»ie'httti- 
dred blows, according to the degree <rf relaticnship. The 
piinisbiaent of the' 8lave-is,in all cases, heavier; however, by 
twenty blows than that of the servant; and to llie eighty 
wluoh he is to ^receive for abusing his master's rdalions in 
the first degree, is added two years' banishiaent,-^ pu- 
nishment inlioted upon tihe servant but in the Instance of 
his abusing his master; an ofibnce which the poor slave 
is condemned by law to expiate wiA - bis life, '' I^ being 
strangled at the usual period." The abaiie of one reltticii 

* Book iv. dir. 0. 


by;aiiother, is also prohibited trnder pemity of a gwritotfam 
of blows, regulated with the preetsion which diatniq^ttisbet 
%he Chinese punii^bineiits, by the degree of affinity iieiweeii 
the parties, provided the pei-son abused is himself jkhe cen- 
plainant. The child, gratidchlld^ or wife, w4io shall address 
abusive kingQage to a parent,--^ paternal ffitendiather or 
giundinother, or tolbose of the husband, — ** uiall," says- the 
Chinese code, '' in every case suffer death; provided always,'' 
adds> however, this singular law, ** that the persons abused 
themselves complain thereof to the magistrates, atid had 
themselves heanl the abusive language which has been 
addressed to* them/' It is, we should imagine, to this, 
and the other more severe enactments of the i^e, where, on 
account of the particular relation in whieb the o^QKnkleifimi^ 
stand to him, the mere verbal abuse of another is ravs^ into 
a capital offence, that Sir George Staunton refevsl in the'uote;, 
in wnich he says, ** It is not, however, to be supposed, that 
laws of this nature are often ver^ strictly enforced," (p. 356,) 
!Por the credit of humanity, it is to be hoped th^y are not; 
but in the laws of China, as, it is painful to add, is but too 
much the case in our own, the sentence of death is but a 
bugbear, which the yery offenders, upon whom itis-fchrmere 
form's sake pronounced, know may be commuted for a cer- 
tain number of blows with the bamboo, or by th6 payment 
of so many ounces, and decimals of an ounce, of silver ; 'as 
with us it is changed into a certain qttantum of imprisonment, 
and, in the more atrocious cases', into a given period of 
transportation. The requisition, that ihordertoMnViot'a 
person of defiim'ation,' it is netessary that thef individual 
defamed shotild himself hayfeli^ard the slander; ii^ not 'pecu*- 
liar to the section of the Chinese law on abusive languam, 
from which weliave a noted it; but applies equally ta^U tiie 
oth^s, excepting, as it would seem, (for even here' the pbint 
is somewhat doubtful,) to the ordinary cases. ' Tlis is an 
addttioncU confirmation of lihe position bcffore'tfdtanced, 
that the'Chinese consider deftim^tion to li& U; publib 'njury, 
from its tendency to produce quarrels, ill-wSll, and* i cohse- 
queftt breach 6( the peace. Whether,tbeir ci vilibtftitutions 
give any piecuniary comp^Mationf for the injury si^dlaSnedlby 
the individual whose reputation may* have he4n unwarirant- 
ably attacked; we have no means of satisfting outsehres ;— ^but 
eertairi it is, ihat the penal sanctions of their laws are no hx 
ftt)m acting upon this principle, that to wcyer nuita wbus the 
asaemblv in whos^ hes^ring the slander majr hliveleeii pro- 
Hdunctid/it is never visited by any puiliftbment> at' least in 

292 The, Standafd of Ta$U : 

tkose cases in whiefa it is aggravs^ted by the rank or relation 
of the person de&mod^ unless^ from having heard it himself> 
he mignty in the heat of passion, have been tempted to become 
the avenger of his own wrongs. The peculiar severity of these 
pooishments may be referred to the genius of the govern- 
menty and the people^ whose laws and manners were alike 
moulded on the patriarchal plan, with the. addition of su0h 
stretches of an arbitrary power, as a military government 
wo^ld impose upon an abiect people, — and which accord- 
ingly impreraed upon children Uie most submissive respect 
for their parents, — ^upon wives the most absolute obedience 
to their husbands, upon servants an entire dependence on 
the, will of their masters; and upon aU, an habitual reverence 
forthe emperofy as the gr^iat parent of the state. Still the 
object was the public goodrwithout any reference to a repa- 
ration for th(& private wrong. /8. 

" On the Standard of TasteJ" An Essay intended to compete 
for a Prize, given by the university of Glasgow. By the 
late William Friend Dueant. Part IL 

If the. procQS^ of generalization already described, wer^ 
wholly unchedked by any corrective influence, the conse- 
quences would certainly be inconvenient, and would, per- 
haps, be fiktal to the interests of our species. Objects so 
numerous, are connected by points of individual resemblance; 
and indeed, analogies so numberless are discovered by the 
ingenuity, or invented by the fancy, of mankind, that it th^ 
principle to which we have adverted were employed without 
restriction in the classification of objects, the vocabulary of 
man would soon be contracted within a very narrow com* 
pass, and yet each part of it would be filled with ambiguity 
and confusion. It seems, then, evident that some counter- 
acting power is in opeiatiop, to restrain, or rather to subdue^ 
that which is exerted in a contrary direction. "Nov need we 
go fas .to (discover the obstacle which serves, eptirely to 
prevent the progress of generalization. , When a word is^ im 
ordinary Ifinguage, eitlwr metaphorically, or transitively, 
applied to objects which have.no projperty in common, one 
of two resi4ts necessarily follows. If the inqonyenienpe of 
ambiguity be so apparent as. to preps itself on the attention 
of mankind, some attempt is immediittely made to remove 
it. The most, obvious, and the most ordinary remedy,. ii^ 
the inventioii .of a, new word to designate the one d^ (u 
objects i^ and the appropriation to the o^^er, qf ;that which 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 293 

was once indiscriminately applied to either. In otk»cases> 
however, little inconvenience arises from the double meaning 
of the word : those different ideas which are designated by 
the same* arbitrary sign, are so widely removed from each 
other, and so rarely found in a state of proximity, that the 
connexion of the term is almost always su£Bcient to indicate 
its real meaning, and to preclude the possibility of miscon^ 

Thus, no new term is invented, because the danger of 
ambiguity is not apoarent : the ends of language are, on the 
whole, answered, ana no great solicitude is experienced about 
the symmetry of its several parts. This one word, however, 
is not at any one time so used as to include objects essen- 
tially distinct from each other. It may here designate one 
class of ideas, and in another place it may be the sign of ideas 
totally different : but it cannot, in the same connexion, and 
at the same time, stand to denote things which have in 
common nothing but their name. To the substance of this 
statement, I should not have imagined that any objection 
could have been offered. 

Mr. Stewart has, however, noticed what he conceives to be 
a different procedure, and conducted on different principles. 
I shall quote his own words ; both because I do not feel my* 
self qualified to do justice to his reasonings, and because the 

Eassage I am about to cite, states, vrith great simplicity and 
eauty, some of the facts to which I have just alluded. ^' I shall 
only add at present on thispreliminary topic,'' says this elegant 
.and ingenious philosopher, " that according to the different 
degrees of intimacy and of strength, in the associations on 
which the transitions of language are founded, very different 
effects may be expected to arise. Where the association 
•is slight and casual, the several meaninss will remain dis- 
tinct from each other ; and will often, m process of time, 
assume the appearance of capricious varieties iti the use of 
the same arbitrary sign. Where the transition is so natural 
and habhual as to become virtually indissoluble, the transi- 
tive meanings will coalesce into one complex conception ; 
and every new transition will become a more comprehensive 
generalization of the t^rm in question.^'* The. reader will 
be good enough to .keep in mind that illustration whidi I 
quoted in the preceding, part.of this essay^ and by means- of 
which Mr. Stewart professes that he has been " attetnptihg 
to conyey'' his ideas on this subject. On referring to that 
iUuBtratidn, it does most evidently appear that the different 

* Stewart's Pliil, Esiaysi part ii. esf ay it cbap. 1. 

294 The Standard of Taste : 

objecti c( the series have no common property, and no 
miktuali relation. True it is, tliat a and c have a mutaal 
relation-to B««^B>and.D, to €*— c ands, to d : but it is equally 
true, that the extremes of the series are totally disoonisecled 
from each other, and from s(Mne of its intermediate portions. 
Jifot only have they no common property, but they have not 
-even that stenderor bond of nnion, which a mutual i^htion 
would supply; because the very force of the iUmtration 
depends 4!>n the eircrnnstance that the concatenation of the 
aeries ^oes not imply connedlion between any two of its 
parts, where they are sepamted by the intervention of a 
third. Mr. Stewart has in this very passage assured us, that 
^Vwhereithe asssociatioii is slight and casual, the several 
»eanitige!wiU^remiaia'distinctfrom each other ;'^ and, there- 
lore, may. w« not concladey^ybneiort, that the same effects 
wiU arise where there is no association at all ? Yet on what» 
let meask^^caa an association be founded, where there is no 
property in common between the objects associated, and 
mrhere they are not mutually related to any other object? 
I am fully aware of the answer which may be given to an 
ar^mmeBt like that which has just been urged. 
. Mr^ Stewcirt, it will be said, is enga^d in coipbatingt the 
supposition, that ^ common name implies a common qiwlity 
to the several objects to which that name is applied. To 
shew the incorrectness of this liypothesis, he professes his 
int^tioato '^select afew^of the cases in which the.pri«ci* 
plenow iuiqcrestion appreais most pbvloosly and ,cmnpletely 
to fikil :''* and^ in pursiaanoe ci the plan he has laid down, 
addnces as a sin^Jacty il|ustfattve of what iie concerns to 
bea^generaltruUi, the tsase to which you hawe^jtistislllttded. 
It iSy tbeur unfair to conclude tiMt, ibecause tb^ existenoe of 
en indissoluble a»^otatkNi isiBConsistejit with ithe ciroum-> 
stances of this partiitular fact, thereforei.it liamot^be con* 
distent with iaoiatialogauaJMPbqess, wbichmayinc^ertlMtlcas, 
berdiiBtiDffuifiheidbyisomei'msttute dif{ei?eBci» from that wiiich 
faaayust been' wkder^ lOohsideralaoB. To thfesa <thnlsiri«tioiis» 
I'Teply, in > the ^rst>niM)e>' that tUs Ulmtratkm, howevcir 
apparently '^^ualffied ,07 the 'sentence i whieh immediateljr 
precedes rt, is «viden4ily i^kftwaidf O0Bsideiiediiot.mm 
a speoimen «of one^out of nHmy* methods, by iarhidi' thecsMse 
lasaiha may' be prodsoefd, but ^ as , itself oonyo^pxig' the pe- 
oisev idea whioh-we are to attach to the* aprtfaet .ttancdttre. 
Ifloanedssilely rafter the*ase;of this itttistratson,'Mr>^S«ewait 

.*'Pldi-SMsy8|f>a(rt'HieMS5 Lekap. 1. 

Ah Essay, iy W. F. Durant. 295 

his analytical inqairy into the principles oF taste, between 
the transitive and metaphorical meanings of a word'/* ** The- 
distinction/* proceeds Mr. Stewart, *• seems to me equally 
just and important; and as the epithet fra/mfive expresses 
clearly and happily the idea which I have been attempting 
to convey by the preceding itittstration, I shall make no 
scruple to adopt it, &c/**^ A^ this clearly identifies ti^e idea 
attached to the epithet ^'tiiansitrre/'with that which is con« 
▼eyed hj the preceding illustration, I am surely justified 
when I take from that very illustration, the notion which 
I attach to the term it is intended to elucidate ; and in 
arguing against the possibility of an indissoluble as8o6iation 
between " transitive meanings," found my opinion on the 
circumstance that the very proceiiS, by which tjie transition 
is supposed to be eflbcted, is inconsistent with the supposir 
tion,. tnat such an association can take place between the 
different ideas which are said thu» to coalesce into '^ one 
complex conception/' Should we; however, even allow it 
to be possible for an indissoluble association to exist, its 
existence necessarily implies some assoQiatin? circumstance. 
Whatever that circumstance may be— whether a common 
prppetty, of a common relation— it must be, I apprehend, 
something iii which each c>f the associated^ object? partici- 
pated. Where this commotr circumstance exists, therefore, 
IS it not more than probable, that the common designation 
kf intended to point out that particular in which there is an. 
agreement between all the objects to which' this designation 
is given ; and that, whenever it is' employed, we are led to 
view the obj'ecf to which it is applied in relation to tfie cir- 
cumstance, in which^ that objebt participates with the other 
indtvi duals that the same term is used to denote ? 

My intention, however, as I have befbref remarked,.lB not 
to take those general views which present themselre* inr 
connexix>ri with our subject ; but to confine myself to such 
observations as are absolutely essential to tts^ ePucidation. 
Whatever, then, may be the decision of'tiie general question; 
I shall be perfectly cotitent« if I can make it appear, that 
flie word to which our attention is at present directed— haal 
a defiffite, i, precise; and an assignable meaning; Those 
iltustratibns which are intended to she^, that th& intimate 
association may take place tn cases where the appfioaitibn 
of the word has been thus trttnsitively exfended, and that, 
cbhsequentW'* **^ *« Hcveral transittvo meaiiiogi^ xoaj 
^Idttalesce inter one cbmptet* conception** — seem to me to 

* nip. Iissays, piirt if. essty ii. cliap. % 

296 The Standard vf Ta^ : 

point oat a circtimstaDce sufBeiently important of itself to 
justify the common appellation. This subject will deodand 
a rather len^hened discussion, because it is intimately 
connected with the conclusions at which we wish to arrive. 
Some observations of Mr. Stewart,-^and his observations are; 
invaluable^ even when we dissent from the opinion founded 
on them, — will be our best guides in the prosecution of the 
inquiry. The investigation may, perhaps, ultimately lead 
us to imagine, that, at least iujUiis particular instance, the 
common appellation is not bestowea on objects totally unr 
cpnnected by any circumstance of agreement. *' In this 
enlargement, too, of the signification of the word/' the tran- 
sitive application of the word beauty to forms and moti<m, 
'* it is pa^icularly worthy of remark, that it is not in conse-i 
quence of the discovery of any quality belonging in com-' 
mon to forms and to motion, considered abstractly, that the 
same word is now applied to them indiscriminately. They» 
all indeed agree in this^ that they give pleasure to the spec- 
tator; but there cannot, I think, be a; doubt that they please 
on principles essentially different; and that the transference 
of tne word 'beauty,' from the .first to the last^ arises solely 
from their undistinguishable co-operation in producing the 
same agreeable effect, in consequence of their bein^ perceivr 
ed by tne same organ, and. at tne same time/'"*^ JTam quite 
ready to admit, that the objects of taste have, considered 
abstractly, no common Quality. The theory before us, 
however, remains unprovea, should it be found that there is 
some one circumstance in which they all agree. • 

A natural, and probably a correct, inference will be, that 
in this agreement the common name originated ; and that 
whenever that name, is useid, we view the object, in con- 
nexion with that circumstanceby which the class is charac- 
terized, in the instance immediately before us, Mr. Stewart; 
admits, that " they all agree in this, that they give picture, 
to the spect;ator ;' and speaks of " their indistinguishable 
co-operation in producing the same agreeable effect." Here^ 
then, is a common effect ; and it is« J. should imagine, in,' 
consequence of this common effect, that the common name 
is applied to these different objects. Insteaci, therefore;, of 
saying l^at the term '* beauty is employed with r^g^rd tq 
eftcb of them in a different sense from that in which it ia 
applied to any of the Others, or that the several ideas; de- 
signated by the appellation, coalesce into one compliBX con- 
ception ; I should rather imagine tl^at one and the same 

* Phil, Eaaaysy part ii. essay i,. p. 1. chap, li* 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 297 

meaning is attached to the word in each of its several appli- 
cations. When I denominate a colour beautiful — ^^I mean, if> 
this opinion be correct— 'that it produces, or contributes to. 
produce, a peculiar state of mental feeling. If I apply the. 
same appellation to form, I do, in fact, only m^e, in rela-. 
tion to it, the same assertion which I formerly. made in rela- 
tion to colour. The same reasoning may be applied to mo- 
tion, and to all those other qualities of which these are, in 
the present instance, adduced as representEitiyes. In some:, 
cases, all these qualities co-operate in the production of 
one simultaneous effect; while they are> at other times,, 
presented, both separately, and in every state of varied 
combinfition. I am aware, that when united, they may be 
denominated beautiful, when, if disjoined, each would be 
excluded from any claim to the appellation; that in a dis- 
joined state, each may be beautiful, whep combination would 
produce positive ugliness ; an<d that, therefore, neither union, 
nor separation, is in every case necessary to the result. 
This admission, however, does not in the least affect thei 
argument, unless it can also be shewn that the emotiom. 
which each, when out of combination, produces, are essen- 
tially different from those which are in other cases pro-., 
diuced, when many simple elements are combined. . But 
''they please,'* it is said, ** on principles essentially differ- 
ent.'^ . J3e it so — I can have no objection to the concession. 
The word/' beauty" is, we assert, intended to denote, not. 
any c6mmon.|)roperty in the objects to which it is applied-^, 
not the identity in each several c^se, if tlie prinpiple on 
which the pleasure they pccasionis founded-^but the gene* 
ral similarity 6f result. .Perhaps I, cannot better explain, 
myself than by referring to thete^rms " phasing dxidpleasmU' 

7Ke««," as illiistrative of my meanjing. ..,..; . ' . r 

: .Although no man would talk oi the j^leasing in objects,; aa 
philosophers have talked of tlie beautiful, yet the cases are, 
sufficiently, analogous for .pur present purpose. , The ,word& 
lief^e us. are susceptible of application co-extensive wilii 
the range of our pleasurable feelings. ' Every thing in nature^ 
or in art, that is capable of ministering to our grati^cation--- 
whether it be the poetry of Milton — flie sculpture of Praxi-. 
telesrrror tfa^ Lowest object of mere animal appetite — is^^y 
be denominated pleasing. Now, though the. sources, of 
delight are infinitely varied— rthoush pleasures differ frpm 
each .other, i^ot on^ in the mode of their production, but la 
th^ir s^eral distinguishing: characteristica,rryetnp^z^^ 
would, I think, be %(M jeo^ngh to assert that there, is, nof 

298 The Standard of Tasle : 

sometliin^, however incapable we may be of defining it, which 
distinguiimes aereeable sensations or emotions' froiii ftnv 
other class of feelings. The word pleasing, when it is appliea, 
not to the feeling itself, but to the object by which feeling iel 
excited, has one simple and easily assignable sienifibation.' 
It stands to denote the connexion which sotiiehoW 'Exists' 
between the object to which it is applied, and a certain pecu- 
liar state of mind. Here there is no trahsitiVe application of 
the word. The propriety of its use depends indeed not ott 
any thing in the object *' considered abstractly,'* but on the 
connexion of that object with the state of mind produced 
by it. This word, therefore, has in evety si Ration a single'; 
and a simple meaning. Whether it \>e applied to eblouri^j' 
to sounds, to motion, to relishes, to odours, or t6 any'df 
those thousand objects which, gratify our seqses, or adxjiinis-; 
ter intellectual and moral enjoyments, the only meanih^ii 
conveys is, that which I have pointed out-— the bohhe^adti 
between these objects, and feelmgs of ri peci]iliar ordei*. If 
I wish to give a more accurate idea of the eflects which ahy 
df them produces, I add some wbrd§j of fimitatidh, — as,, that 
it is pleasii^ to the touch, to the ta&te, to the smel)!^ ibiiii 
affe(}tions, — and thus restrict the meaning of the more^efaersl 
term; but that general term^ wherever' and ho\h^ever ^m^^ 
ployed, conveys the same idea. In the same WBiy, then, do 
I conceive that objefets denominated beautiful, have all od^ 
cir^omstance in common, in consequence of their alf produ- 
cing emotions, which, however varied, yet pdssess some 
general chaiacteristic sufficient to distinguisn them frbin 
feeling of any other order. Any object may in an indivi- 
<faial instance be beautifal, jiist as any object may, perhaps^ 
under certain conceivable circumstances, be plea^rmg ; but 
those object? only are^ ordinarily denominated beautifut; 
which, in a majority of ca^es« produce that peculiar class pf 
di|sotions which we denominate the sentiment of beauty-^ 
jy^t as the epithet '* pleasing'' is usually applied to thos<^ 
objects alone which are calculated to administer jpleasure to 
the great mass of mankind. 

Before we proceed, it may not be improper to/review the 
ground over which we have already passed', 
y We are at .present attempting to ascerti^in the 'sense m 
hi which the epithet correct is applied to the emotionct. of 
tatte. . Our first object was distinctlv to marh the df0ierence 
between sensation and emotion, aha to shew that thelattcir 
dtpenjls for its existence on a pievious intellectual procesis. 
thence we deduced Ae inference, that correctnelBs is/ in 

A H Essay, .byW.T. Durant. 299 

•trictDess> Dredicable^ not of the emotion, but of the pre- 
ceding intellectual process. The inauii^ here presented 

. itself-— What i9 the nature of this inteUectual (Mrooess? and 

. what is meant by its correctness? Here there is a prelimi- 
nary discussion for the sake of ascertaining the object, or 

. rather, perhaps, the exciting cause of the intellectual ope- 
ration. Beauty and sublimity seem to afford a natural 
answer to our inquiries* A collateral investigation into the 
nature of sublimity and beauty was thus rendered necessary. 
We were, then, obliged to notice some reasonings and con- 
clusions, which would, if admitted, preclude fdl hope of .a 
successful tenodination to our labours. In the course of 
these speculations, we have been led to infer, that beauty in 

■objects is nothing more than the power of occasioning sen- 
timents of a peculiar nature. Similar reasoning may be 

. applied to sublimitv. It remains, therefore, that we ascer- 
tain the nature oi these sentiments; and, consequently, 
the nature of the peculiarity by which they are charac- 

We have already adverted to one great distinction, among 
the feelings of which we aoe susceptible* These feelings 
are either sensations — in other words, the immediate se- 
quences of an impression on some external organ — or they 
are emotions: in other words — the immediate sequences 
of a process strictly intellectual. Emotions again maybe 
subdivided according to the causes by which uiey are pro- 
duced, or rather by which the mental operation, in which 
their existence originated, is occasioned. This train of 
thought may be only the natural continuation of previous 
reflection ; and although it is probable, that every such tnia 
might be ultimately traced up to some sensation by which 
the commencement of llie series was suggested^ yet the ex- 
istence of this association, it is often not easy, and it is 
sometimes impossible* to ascertain. Frequently, howeveir, 
the connexion of the sensation with the thought productive 
of emotion, is so closely established — the suggestion so im- 

. inediate--the succession of ideas so obvious, — ^and the emo- 
tion so directly consequent on the organic impression^ tbal» 
neglecting the intermediate links, we learn to look on the 
sensation as the immediate antecedent,— on the Amotion, 

4is the immediate se^uencel,— oa Ae former^ as a caube-^n 
the latter, as oiie of its effects. 

On these remarks, then, we may, perhaps, found some de» 
finition of beauty, and be able to trace the meaning of the 
word from that attached to it in its simplest and primary 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 3. Y 

300 Tke Siandarii of TmU f 

«epept&tioii> to that «Mre estteoded tenee in ithidi it as at 
ipreaeat reocitted. 

•BetQty ai«d wttbHinf ty Aen, in their priniisry iigmficattofi, 
I oonceive to exists ivheA ^he inteUeetiial opertKtion intcir- 
•veaing hetWeen sensation felt or rememhersd, «ad p/ecmii^ 
cHAotion, ill so rapidly condtfcted,^^-^r is,'ataoy rate»«o inti- 
' CAately oonneeted with the organio idi|}re8$ion« or with ^tbe 
recalled idea of that imfveseion — that the assocktion be- 
tween perceptioiii preeeM or recalled, and emoCNm, is inme- 
diaitely ebvHMss to the individual by whom they both ate 

There is^ I am aware, some diiferenoein the plwaseology 
enEiployed ; but it will, I trust, on the whole be fo^nd' that 
the opvnfons here eKpressed ' are nearly> akbowh • not per* 
>ha0s 'ODttrely, ooinciident with the eonolusiods of Mn Alison. 
*-When I have marked the proevessive extension of ineaii- 
. ing, a^d hare airrived at the iilfcimarte accep^tion of ^ 
moid, this eoincidenoe will be, I trust, more ' apparent; I 
shall, however, endeavour, to assign my reasons lor dii^ii^ 
on aome ininoif points from^ i^ hi^ an aQthority,^bec&Ai8e, 
if to ^dissent from its decistoss wrder on presiiinption,<^«i4b 
assign no^ teasons for thai dissent, so ftr fhwi protteelingwjr 
fO^dnet fros» censure, would surely be lacircttmiytance^iof 
«^gvanralioB. I «in the more wiHiii^ to enter on the disotttf- 
aaoo, bocauee it will, at tbe same time, gi<ve us the fcireift 
-opi^osluaitv far marking ^tbs' progressively exIeniAed eppH* 
cation' of the words in question; Mr. Alison eonoeives the 
emetieh of beauty to be of a eemplex nsAnre; -Aocoiding to 
hrim, it, necessarily involves^ ^Mst. The production of aome 
simple 'em!ptfon,"or the exenctseiof some morel a^fe<^on. 
)2dly. The 'Consequent excntemebt 'Of a peeuliar esteroise of 
Hve imagiiiation*'!*^ Under the head ef simple emo^bns, >be 
«nuiteretesy^'^ eheerfelness,- tenderness, aaelarieh(dy, so- 
lemnity^ eleivation, terror, &)c. ;'M' atod, «n the same ohapter, 
^es what enay be oonsidered an exposition of the notion 
wkieh the attaches ito the '■ phrase- '' complex emolion.^^ Tb 
-*(Mitle ahe meaning ^f terms, eppavently so simple, mwf to 
tiome eppear unnecessary, or evenabantd. * Those, however, 
^oare oest acqfuaiated with the great importanee of fbiff|r 
.ascertakiing the pounds of {difference before we argue, will, 
4 tiihiir, agree wfidi me in deeming it desitable to taice the 
author's own statement of the meaning he attaohes to Mh 
-own fArraiseology. I quote, therefore, his words,-^* In the 
tsaseef Ibose trains of thought, on the contrary, wbieh atb 

* Alsron's Essays, fntrod. ' t Ihi^* essay i; dbap. ii. sec. ^. 

Afir EMy, byW, Vi Dur^nt. 301 

^ttgMftHNl by objeoUi either of bublitaity or b^aiity^ I efpH-- 
h^tm it will 06 found, that tbey kte'm all c/tkbeH oontpdised at 
ideaa eopuble of excitiiig some afiectidfi m* emottdti ; ami 
thkt not only the t^hole i^uccessidti is icemnpanied widi 
thftt'pedtiliflr emotion which we call the emottonf of beauty 
or sUbttmttY> but that every itidividutd rdeft of finch a sue*" 
oessidn is m itself productive of some simple ^motion of^ 
odier/'''^ Kow, if while ** the whole snccessioft * ie accoin-' 
pat»^d. with that peculiar emotton which we call the emutiom 
of beauty or sublimity/' ''every individual idea of sudh n 
>8Ue<ceSBion is in itself productive ^f some simple emotion or 
oth^?'-^we are naturally led to imagine that the C6mpte)t 
emotion can be nothing other than a 8uccessi<)n of tfa^^ 
iimf>le emotions. Indeed, Mr. Alison's own statetnents 
tfibrd abundant evidence of his belief that the emotion of 
beauty involves just such a succession. He first infdrmii 
tts, that the emotion of beauty involves '* a peculiar exercise 
of imaginfttion/'t which eJiiercise is consequent on the pr^ 
dttctidn of some simple' emotion. The second chapter in 
profmisedly devoted to the ^' Auftlysis of this etferoiM <if 
Imagination/'j: This exerctee of imagination^ w^ ilre in^ 
fonned^^ ''consists itt the indulgence of a train df thought/' 
Th* author whose professed objl^t it is to atiftlyate thiii 
•sercise of ianaginalion, selects tw^ points fbr particular 
csonsiderttiOQk After remarking, that tliere must be abo«rt 
tiiesd successioM of thou^ sometbing in which tb6y ditfi^ 
fti>tt the mind's more ordmary operations, K#^t»«rv«s; that 
^ this diffMrenee consists in two things: Ist. in thcf natut^ 
of the i4M» or- conceptions which ebmpose sudh trains ^ Md 
2diy. in the nature or lair of their successien/'{| He theil 
infetfiss: us, in the passage before cited, that '^ every indi^ 
^ridual idea of such aeucoessioh, isitsetf productive of sdiHii 
•impls emottoii or otber, aiid immediately after, th«s ei^ 
praases ' himself s*^^** In evetycase^ where the emotions 6f 
Taste are f^,' I conceive it wiU- be found thut the^ train of 
thought wki^h is> eiMxted is distinguishedf by some cbsirac^ 
ter> of etnotfoii abd that it is by this meahs disting\iishe<l 
Ami 4W eeiiMiefi OrordiMry succeasioAS of thought. T^ 
pmiiieht • m ' vi^y ' t<Jiio«s circuthlocution, <sucb * ade#,s ibsyi 
{Mrhaps, without any improprietyy bsi turmed idetfs iff tmtf- 
tipn."^ After having tb«s assigned a determined mfi^attiin;^ 
«a tins last pbrase, he: goes 00^ to ea^ ^ ''^ Ifbe firet tircimi- 

. ., * Alijjbn's fissay^s, essay i, chap. iL scet. 1. , , , .,, ^ 
f fbld.'Itiirod. t tbid. eiday 1. cli^p. ii. § tbid. cbap; u. sect! T. 

|»lbid. f " * 

302 The Stmtddrd p/Ta^te : . 

stance, then, which seemfi to distinguish those tndns of 
thought which are produced bjr objeots either of .sublimity 
or beauty, is, that the conceptions of which they are coofi- 
p^sed are ideas^ of emotion."* I ought, p^rhapit, to applo- 
gize for such copious extracts.. I feel, ho>irever, that Xam 
so exposed to the suspicion of that involuntary mistat^- 
ment which arises from a want of comprehension, that I do 
not venture to argue against the conclusions of so consi^ 
derable a writer, without giving, in his pwn words, those 
ptopositions of which I may have been led to question the 
actual correctness, or at least the philosophiqal accur^iay* 
It will not then be forgotten, that, according to Mr. Alison, 
the emotion of Taste involves, among its other elements«,a 
peculiar exercise of the imagination. A chapter is devoted 
to^ the '* analysis of this exercise of imi^ination/' That 
exercise is there asserted to consist ** in the indulgence of: a 
train of thought.'^ We are afterwards assured, that . tb^ 
ideas, or " conceptions of which'! th^se trains ^^ are com* 
posed, are ideas of emotion/' — and we are .preyiouslyiU'* 
formed, that " every , individual idea of such a auccession is, 
iQ itself, productive of some simple emotion or other.'' From 
this wegathei:, that an idea of emotion is an idea '* prodncr 
tive of some simple emotion ;'' and that the exercise of ima- 
giQation, beirig made up of ideas, each productive of some 
simple. emoti<m, involves a succession of simple emotioi^k 
Ab, tberefbre^ a succession of simple emotions must have had 
|i commencement in some one simple.emotion-— where is thi^ 
philosophical propriety of severing from the chain its first 
liqik^and of dissociating from a continuous series that w.]^ch 
forms an important psa^rt of it? On. this ground, therefore. 
1; ji]t^tify what might otherwise be considered i^n omission, 
and have no hesitation in looking upon this train of thought 
^nd emotion as an effect traceable, to one cause, without the 
intervention of any idea or feeling deserving separate consi- 
deration. There may be, and I believe are, reasons of con- 
.venience that have prompted the arrangement to. which I 
have ventured to object. With these, I have, however, 
nothing to do, since I have entered into the discussion, only 
for the purpose of shewing; that where I have deviated fr(mi 
the Irne marked out by this distinguished writer, it has: not 
been without at least imagined cause. . 
. Another, and a more important peculiarity of my state* 
ment is to be found in the rank which I have assigned to 
sensation, as the exciting cause of those trains of ti)0\ight 

* Alison's Bssays, essay i. chap. ii. sect. 1. 

An Essay, by W. F. Durant. 803 

by wbich the emotions of beauty and sublimity are occa^ 
sioned. I haVe already fainted, that while the principles that 
have been laid down, are, as I conceive, lundamentally cor«- 
rect» they are capable of an extension, of which they do not^ 
at first view, appear to be susceptible. Memory xs, as far 
it goes, the exact transcript of our past feelings. Of course, 
therefore, those ideas which are suggested by an actual im^ 
pression, will be suggested by the conception of that im<^ 
pression, when it is called up by the help pf memory. Th^ 
similarity of result will have an exact proportion to the ac^ 
curacy and vividness of the recollection ; in other words^ 
to the degree of resemblance wbich exists between the 
original impression, and the recalled id^a of that im« 
pression. If, therefore, any particular sensation be so as^ 
sociated with certain ideas of emotion, as to give rise to 
thought and feeling — ^that sensation will, when recalled bv 
memory, produce similar results. This similarity of botn 
cause and consequence, is obviously sufficient to justify tb^ 
application of the enilhets, beautiful and sublimey to those 
works of genius whicn are fitted to call up the conceptions 
of such sensations as are themselves associated with certain 
** ideas of emotion/' I, therefore, included the remembered 
as well as the present sensation. There, are, however, oer'i> 
tain kinds of oeauty to which I frankly confess that this 
statement will not in strictness apply. If, indeed, we re-^ 
member how dependent mind is on the information of the 
senses, and how much of our attention is necessarily en-» 
grossed by the impressions which we are so constituted as 
to receive from merely sensible qualities — we shall probably 
find, that the emotions of Taste are, in a majority of cases; 
traceable it some sensation either felt or recollected. I am 
not, however, prepared, for the sake of preserving symine*' 
trical uniformity of system, to push this theory beyond the 
bounds which fact prescribes to it. The statements which 
have been made, may account for the use of these terms in 
relation to the fervid imagery of an oration, or of a poem,^^ 
but I do not see how they can justify its application to the 
reasoning of the mathematician, to the heroism of the war* 
rior, or to the magnanimous self-devotion of the saint. Yet 
how often do we speak of the beauty of reasoning, and of 
the nioral sublimity of undaunted firmness and inflexible 
integrity? Some philosophers would, perhaps, denominate 
this a metaphorical use of the terms in question.^ I. am, 
however, rather unwilling to give such an answer tp the 
inquiry, — both because the. obscurity in which the subject 

304 . Tke Standard vf Taste : ' 

ii iQvolTed doea noft seem to be muoh cdieted by tliis 
r^ply ; Aod bcMsiuis^ . the ward metapimcal, although of 
rutther iodefinite m^iaiiaff, doaa not aeem to convdy the 
^xaot idea which the slight degree of atteatioQ I havb been 
nble tq pay this aubjeet has led me to form. 
. Itr beta already been olfsevfed> that beauty and auUiooity 
cttist in the object, not f^sirndtly considered/ b.ot tonau 
dei^ed in relation to the tilaina of thoqghi and feeling whiol| 
the sensible propertiea of that object are cal^lated indn 
rectly to excite^ All out sensations; whether ! aietually pret 
^ent or recoUected, do not gire birth to such traioa of 
thought ; and indeed^ aaoh trains of thought rarely^ if ever; 
originaite, except in impressions rtoeivod by mcfans of one or 
twO' particular organs. As. this then ia the ease,— tas/ amid 
the infinite variety, there is yet what Mr. Burke denoani-* 
liatto *' a chaiii in. our sensations ;'-^'*— and asHbis proposi-* 
tion; which may» perhaps, in its moat extensive sense be 
true^ is evidently correct with regard to the impresaiona of 
eviei^ir pai^ticidar organ*-4a it xiot probable^ that where there 
is a general yesemblanee, ^mid a vast variety of different 
yet simiibar eausea, there will be an analogoos resemblance in 
the sevecal results flowing fromthe^e similar causes? and 
that, if some one.geneml feature characterise the ibRser, 
there wiU he some oiiiegeiieritl feature cbaracteriatic of the 
latter also? A presumption in favour of this: suppositioni 
arises from the very e&istienee of the phrases-r^/^ ettOtaoiia 
4jf beauty, and the emdtmts ofmblifnit^^ This is the niU¥er-4 
sally received division of dsHJMie emotiona, which are denomi- 
^aied the emotions of Taste. For the present, it matters not 
what we conceive to be* the line of distinction between the 
aentimetita of beauty and those of sublimity. The: fact is; 
that sncha line has. been drawn; and. this fact seems to 
piK>ve, that aome. principle of .dassification has been difl« 
covered; for claasinoation haa aotnalty taken pkoe. Ooe 
former reasoning only went to prove, that the emotions of 
Taate are the appar«itly> immediate consequences of senaarr 
tion^ either felt, or rexneml^ered ; and we endeavoured to 
shew in what way, and* by mesAa of whafc intenaediate 
liiiks,.ihe preceding iaconnecled with the subsequentevent^ 
We ha\re how pioteeded a step farther, and, assaoiiliig the! 
correctness of onr former statements, find that the emotions 
thus produced are all redueiblie to two distinct clasaea. 
We. find, then, that emotions prodmced in the way that I hajve 
atlempted'te point out, are denominated emoiiom qf Ta^te: 

^ Bab. and Beaut, p. 3. ^ 24. 

An Em)f, iy. W\ H. Durint. 305; 

and ^v^fRdMeqmntljr iJiA, that att the enotioiiAoCTiiate arsr 
nidacible nnwr two general ^hcada. Now» aUhoa^ all the 
efliotUHis podilcad m the way* to wUdb we liaf e advatted^ 
iB^7 be emttLCtmaai fay cettam poculiaiities^ of which wa. 
may, periiapa, bafece we close-,, cliscoveit the caoae ; andi • 
akhotigh they fv^ evideatty au8«eptlUe af aa^lher.aad ia^ 
ferior diatrifaiation into the cleRsaea whioh hav^ b^e^it alreadyt 
noticed/ it. dioea' not foilow th^ emotions similar iarkin^t 
maj' net; opcaUonaklryi^qriginate in dissiaiiJav oauaes. > * ? r 

ideaffars'iso aMiboeiated»dia£atboaaafid ciirciuiiiata«ce8»iaay> 
sai^ast the verysamei tram of 'tboiighli»>nd 4^onaequeiidy^{ 
of emotion i wJliieh may be inother eaaes tuggeHed by- pte*\ 
aent aensatiott. If there be thleib an^y peculiar i4^y of emotioii» 
in the latter oasev there will be exaetiy the same peculiarity m 
the formev;' and theaentimeats will tbems^liBfea be:cbaracterw 
ixed by no fUati&etivecireamstance, whatever may be the^dia^ 
flkAManty of thfinreadoitiinff canaesk Theae objecta, therefcure^ 
wb idk exeite the farmer elaaB 4»f leeling^ Uke those which ocenT- 
aidn the laltePi are oaUed beauiifui, >or sukHme i^ and the nlea>f 
aure iain either oaae tanked amoagst^the^pleaaQreefef Taate. 

Here I « cannot but anAieipate aauiquiiry»*whi(4i certainly, 
liaaaprea: attentida:^— What, after all* do you m^an by thi^ 
mimspry aoceptfttion id the w^vda bemUy^ .9mA. sublimi^} 
Voa «oknofvledg^> that they have subaeqii^Uy obtained a 
mofe. extenaive ai^ni&eation ; and what propriety is tbeiei» 
reatricting that' ngnificatioai at aUr if it be thu9 awbeeptibla 
of enlargement 7-^ Perhaps .lA ou^tj, in fairness, t^bo 
acknowledgedv itbat tbia.Tiew 4xfi tbe'wbj^t appealed' tci 
pveaeiit «eat ft^ititiea for tho stateiiieiit oi my opioipoai 
and tbait i wlia lad to the anangeoaent by the «avrent of hnji 
own thoughtef wbieh, whenever it is tny wish to fojomisomfi 
distiiiGt ooneeplioa of the m^nre of. beauty» iievert lUiiiofit 
tmpercepttbly to that desorwtiQn of beauty which exietaia 
sensible objects. Ifdependentl]^, bow^rer* of thiis canine* 
nience, or of these impressions, it does, appear to me that 
there are yal^ philoeophical reasons for pursuing the course 
wUefa baa been adopted. In the eariie^r periods of society, 
the. analysis' and cfarasificatiotx of. oarfeeliogSi are nece^ismxily 
imperfect. • It happens, how^er^ that certaiiA sensations^ ii^ 
conse(|aence of the lawa of our tneutal constitution .co* 
operating with cirovmstanoefi prec which, we nuny haye no 
control) are associated with certain consequept einptioosy 
We, in an adtaaeed state of society, are €^ficmU)^^d. tQ oour 
duot lengthened traina of thought, and to eHCf)Uira£!e tboM 
senttmentid vereries which are, ultimately productive of 

306' Ttie Standard of TaUe: 

pleasitig emotion; — ^The sentimem? of bewljpiiteonte an db- > 
ject of attention. We place ourselves mdrottnuartwiKee iwfaich. 
ate likely to contribate to ito exoftement ; we not mifieqiient- . 
Ijr labour to obtain tbe information neOMsary to its leo^ 
tion ; and we even analyze its o6mposition» and discover its 
elements. All this mnst naturally, and, we wodd tkink» 
inevitably, lead ns to discern the dependence jof.feelii^ on 
thought, and tbe utter impropriety of conudenng the^mno- 
tions of Taste as immediately consequent on the^ierception 
of their appropriate objects. Yet suob is tbe foroe.of eatly 
association, that philosopbert^* even in modem times» seem 
to have overlooked diis mass of evidence; and» by the intce* 
duction of internal senses, eitber to have rejected the inter- 
vention of thought, or to have intrddneedit in* a. way altoge- 
ther unintelligible. But to our lengthenedtraisispf thought'— 
to our lientimental reveries— to tmr studiene seaush for tbe 
beauftifttl and sublime— the-men of «arlier>ages weveitolal 
strangers. The^ were not indeed stMmgers to Uieseati* 
ments of sublimity, or of beauty; for of these a«itiinents, 
human nature cannot, perhaps,*^ entirely divest ^ itself« If» 
however, we abstract aH those sout>ces of refined delight 
which are peculiar to civilized man, we shall sorcsvcmneonbe^ 
the range of these sendmenis, that their eoasteiiee will pwnre 
to be, in almost every instanee, aseribaUe ^to seiisation» 
either present or fecalled/ To the beanty ef language, fMri- 
mitive man must hafve been insensible ; becaoee langnage 

Eossessed no polish, and attracted; no regard. Where asan* 
jnd was conversant with fbe external worid aleoe^^muMed. 
to attend to tbe phenomena of consciousness, enddestitwie of 
any acquaintlmce with tbose abstract sciences by wbieh the 
human race is 'elevated in die scale of inteUeotunl being— « 
the beautr of thought must have endrely oensisted>in agsee- 
able combinations of recollected sensation. TlioseiseBU«< 
ments also which- are excited by the perception of design, 
contrivance, adaptation, and utility, wonld, although not 
entirely excludedf, arise with comparative inffequence^ . 

Few objects would present themselves, caleulated to.ex* 
cite the emotion ; and, wliepe the#e was aiiy thinff like eom* 
plexity of design, the undiscipliQed mind would be unable 
to comprehend,' and, thetefbre,' incapable ef feelittg* In 
such a state bf society, thought must nave been mneh more 
exclusively conversant 'With the sensible qosdities of things 
than it is at present. The sentitoolts ef beauty,' or of sub^ 
Itmity, theretore, must have been aknost uniformly traceable 
to some suggesting sensation ; and* the very cinsumstance. 

thAt it9«&ipoMiU)» to, U9tc»d]Bmm,. ioiplieB 'tbe.{^Midfp|lv (^ 
tli6/i#adifibTietiii sinter oiE miadp tuadtlie.iibMsiet of tbat long' 
iflAer^eiiflg |HDOfM o£abiltaot (hcMigfaV'^ich is but rarely 
eaepemiied by uncivilixecl mao. Caa we, tberefot«^ won- 
der» liftheijcmasioa of. tbeJeeliog.waa mistaken for its 
caMe-«-tfie'iMr« remote for tbeamaiediate antecedent i- At 
aaoh.% period^ 'iiiien tlie emoliou of beauty mnat dlmoet 
ahffaya baTie Ep|ieared la be ibe. immediate «eque&oes of 
aemeoigaittc* meliiig^ 4ibe maleriala for. comparisoa said ia- 
dmctioD mmM: hmw^ been tabsent^ could ^e: even euppoae 
melaplureical aM%^ to^ have aUfioted tho attoition vof man-' 
kind. Unacquainted withfthoaepi^oceaeaQfthoi;^ 
wbicb the mind of • oiviifised maaia.eometimea conduct^/ 
fop'thepmpoee of enabling bim toaeiaeitbiitassQciati/gn ,on 
wbinh is dependent 11 taig traija^oftideaa. and feelmgai fmd 
accttstemed to^expeiimiQe emotion >in..a Atate of «ppf|^iUl3f^ 
immediatatmnnexipn withaome impreasaon <ppa the^^tecnal 
eegani*t^it i8}diffiealt totooneei^e <baw mankind could atidl 
bnvtt diacoveaed the intervention of tbougbt; Thoee mho 
are aocmalomed to thia kind of investigation^ knovv^ how 
dificolt it aemetimea ia to detect an- intellectual process; 
irfasae, neveetheleaa^ no doolit. of ita. actual existence c.anf 
in the. present atate of i the sc ien ce, be entertained^ How 
ofitMrare^weredtteedto the. necessity of reasoning analogi- 
caU]r* andi of thus Sttppl3ping bj inference the deficiencieii. of 
nxperienael In the case which has beendeacribed, bow- 
ever,:tbe possibility of such reaaoniog would be-almost pre-* 
chided — iwleas> indeed^ we can atteibnte to. uuiostnicted 
aHm»'aiconiprehenaivenesa of intellect, and a patience of re-* 
aeasriiy with which even ]^losophera bave. not often shewn 
themsehrea^o be endowed. In cases, Uierefore^ where the 
aaaociatieii;iRas so intimate^ and the succesnon of ideas so 
inatantaneous, aa to eacape. detection^. what would bathe 
natural nrooedure of the human mind? Hereara sensa- 
tiooa ana emotione widely differing .from each other in. their 
nature (• but apparently ascribable to. the same' external 
cansfo Certain ampreaeiona on the organ; are. followed, if 
not aa inraciaUy, yet, to. all appesasnce, aa inunediately by 
feelings of the one class, as by those of .the jodier. ^ JSq, un- 
natural' conclttsion ceitainly wonld be, that they are.in each 
caae attributable to aome quality in the olgeci ;. and that tthe 
same admirable .mechanism, by means of which sensatione 
are received firom the . estmml i^orld, .ia^ emiiloyed in the 
tmnsmisaieii of feelings,: in kind diffeient, ^out similar iif 
their origin, and in the mode of their communication« . ^ 

Th0.«faae train xtflnasckBiag wmU, if pdnme^; eanty ^M' 
hjimw fftind ttill tatthet^ From .canaeii tubiah h&ie bean^ 
or iKibi^h mil be mentioaedi it does; so hiff eii, tbail ikk^tm 
twa$ of pfeaiing emotion, which ana tbua raptdhjr comie*' 
qiieiH 01) the.OHTgaaic impression, at« aU -ohaaactenzad .by^> 
Qortain circumetanees of similarity. TUs^. which wosw 
^d to ccdttfim the .ernmeous opinion ^already imbibed/ 
liquid also indace mankind to aSctibe. to^ the imagined- 
Canada of these <feeKnga,.8e9ae.cor0espoBideat' pecnbart^^ 
As» tbarefore^ aU'saiells^ however diff^rcRt, are prodtioed li^ 
eiftaiiiar^-raJl afmada by TihcatioBS'^^^aiid -as we iiina«ioii|abiyi 
atti!ibale similarity of sensatipo to simiiaarity iw the;q^iialhie8l 
by which it is QommnBieated^ all tiiese# emoAioM wouldi iir 
the aptrit of unphilosofihieaL ^eneealiation, be attpributiHl 
to aopie one property ^ixittiai^ m eadi aetieral obj>^ct, i^htab 
mighii ebajdce to be the ocoaaiaQ^ of .thenr;exaitcdnent. To^ 
the obj>ecta supposed tQ;pdsfl»8»thisiproparty^6oni^im»eno 
^ppeUatMm waa akaostiumiBoiidably^ai^ted; atidaaiabstiiaot 
texm was invented^ to sKureaa tbatqualityi m>whieh^ tbrjit 
wen^ ima^n^d to ageee.. * K tbesei emotiens weeeaa^ppsed 
tobeat onoedistinguiahable in their natanatfroittioavordi-' 
oacy senaatioas^i yet immediately attribiitable to the. saaitf 
oau^ in whieb' senaatkm origiriatea, the -most oi^dinafy 
Botii^ns.of QonYenienice mast have 'suggested the/neceaaitrf 
of some siieh elassificatioa as that/.w^eb aetttally»*emts« 
The universal jpropeasityitek consider beouS;^ iii lelatfawito 
the s^aisible qualittesv of.ohfei^ts, is generally obseinraUe? 
1^ is.alrongly eo8ifii!matory< of ihe opinions whieb IkaM 
just been, advipiced^ Onia celebsaled genim: of the pr esnni 
age resolvtea the aentlmcwt of beaaity^if^ Jndeedi, his .iikefQty 
ledufse it nqt at oooe to tha rank m «( aenssdonM*into^ ^fe<^ 
taxation, of the) fibres/'-^ Till -wry faUely; phitosopfaetasi hsrte 
been inclined to search for some; one <pntlily to wfciebidie 
emotions of beauty; ociof snblimitjfvmiightisnerery case be 
asoribedk All these eirroneatts opinions asaifciahe tproeeaa 
tbnoagh whiich the human mind bas paB8^49 ^^^ sieemio 
poj»t out-thait; pinmary significalioa with which 'our. fi«at 
assQCmtionstaiB eennectad ; andilo which .oat diowghts- ate 
always prepared to revert. . . » ..i >i >< 

'\lf, therefore^ ta the terms, in 4pfsation^' wb assilfn the 
meaning*; which» from, a cbasiderfition of the eaalv'sitaatien 
ofmaoiwe havie been fad to'vcbniBsderas' orij^WHuly bekmg* 
ing toi tbem-Hive oan« I . thinks easily trace^ thali progressifve 
extension, by means of which they baae now become aas^ 
ceptible of a liar leas t estricted application;.* If this pecubar 

An Eumy, Ay W. P/JDutant. 8M 

noftioii fiovtt to be jfoimdcicl in niti(tW«-<oitr ix>ticlii»ion 
may-'btr conecli^ thofld the -steps, by imaha of wlikli ox^ 
mogresa has ^•bten effeeladi, *n^^ ^^ ^ abjectianilblei 
While, tbtaefore,, I ami naitiralh' paftM to tbe* ipicmb Whieh 
have beep ber8>brou(2fht.fonrara, theadmeeactendM fiigmfi«> 
eation wbich we ultiflutely attack to tbe motAs, mufit he 
jiMlged^of by its apparent coinetdeaee^mth fadt. 

Before- conciiiding my remarks on thiaparl of tbe 8iib«« 
ject, I abalt beg leave.to' notice another point, wilhregatd 
to nrbiob there ia some 'apparent differenon betwten ih^ 
Btatemeats' haaasded nheVe,^ and the. aentimenta espieaseA 
by Mr: Aliaony On thiose aentimenta I hteve nif eady said^ 
that my own opimiona are fonned ; and I may,.pefhaps, now be 
allowed to premise, that the diflerenee is hem onl^ apparent. 
The writer, to whom we have jnat aHoded, aasntea ua, tiiat 
*^in thoae traiaa whieh are aoggealed by oljecta'of snbli«» 
■sity or <beattty, however' alight the connexion, off indiTidual 
theu^ts may bey it. will be found that there is alwaya aeme 
genteral prfi)|ciple. of eennetiai^ whieh perradea thewhc^^ 
and givea tluem some certain and definite character.*^ The 
queation will natoralfy present : itseHWwhy, ifthisibe the 
oaae,:ha]vre yc^nnot marked 'a fact, of so nuich> importance? 
Waa it that al^thB rensooing empldj^d to. establish it,- krft 

Jfop. nnoonvittced ? or did yon leeep it in tbe back gftand, 
est it ahould torn oat to be ineonaistent witkaenmarisitaapy 
definition of your asm ? Sy neither o£ these motives am 1 
conaoioua of having - been aotoated. I am ' convinced, that 
thefibct ia aa haa been atoted*; and that tie achniasion, ao 
fiu^ fiem impngning, ia ftivonndble to tho views wl^icb have 
now- beep onbred. Bnl, then, it appeara to me to have been 
less a part ofthe ideai wbich tiie epidwt beamiiful waa ori^ 
nally invented to exprees; dsan a peouliaritjp neoeaaiinly 
reaoltiDg ftom thie nature of those trains, whioni are excited 
by the objects of Tasto. I may he allowed once more to 
aovert to the primary nmanrng I have assigaed to the words 
bemuty 4md mibUmityt The original application of these 
words, I have veateieted to those ebjecte whioh ase'eapablq 
of giving risetoauchrtmina of pleasing emotion, aa obviH 
oasly> have, for Aeir exciting canse^ sensation dither 'iUt: oa 
recollected. Now, whenever thiais theoase^it ia evident 
that the emotiona produced must have some leading characHi 
tbristie T^'' some general prnviple of connexion which pev^ 
vadea the whole.'' All these emotiona must Imre feime 
points of rese^iblancQ, becwse correspondent as they are 
^ AUion's BissjFfy essay i* chap, u, seotv ^ 

310 The Standirdo/Tasle : . 

in their nature to the ideas ef whidi : di^ are tiie conse* 
qnence8> a siiiiilarity<^ill naturally prevail aaioDg them; 
while tiioae* ideae have all an obyions rehttton to the sensa* 
tion by which they are suggested. Trae it is, that trains of 
▼ariedand desultory thougnt may arise in consequence of 
tiiis suggestion'. In such a case, however^ there wiD soon 
cease to be any connexion between the suggesting sensation 
and the suggested idea. Where, with the same sennttiion, 
ideas . themselves essentially different, and productive of 
dissimilar emotions, are associated — ^where it suggests, at 
different times^ different trains of thfou^ht, which, although 
they are dissimilar, yet agree in giving rise to the senti- 
ments of' beauty— ^r where, in the same way^ a number of 
simpler elements are blended in one delightful 'complex 
fe^ng^-we conclude that tbe object from whioh the tmprea- 
sioti is received is possessed of beaxitieSj; ilariinis, or, as We not 
unfrequently express ourselves, unnumbered. Each apecies 
of beauty is, however, conceived of as distinct from the 
rest; and' although we may, in the moment of passion, tdk 
about ^'the provokin? charm of C»iia altogether,^'* -we 
never, I believe, soberfy and seriously think of this ''pro** 
Iroking charm" as an indivisible whole,iunsusoeptible:ofana^ 
lysis. I do not certainly intend to assert itbat th« case dT 
female beauty affords an exactly fiiir parallel to- that whidi 
16^ more immediately under consideralaoni I only mean to 
ikay, that where a sensati<m suggests .ettber distinct or com* 
plctx trains of thought, and m pleasiiigemotion-^^ack of 
these traineis chamot^rised :by-8ame predoanittant feature; 
and is pc^ularly ascribed t^ some pieouliar bewtiy posseftseA 
by tlMct object which occasioned i tke-original impretlsion. 
At any rate, where the suggested eteotions are totally dis^ 
similar in their general character, they will never constitute 
such a train of harmonious and delightful feelings, as at>^ 
treots and fixes our attention* 

" When," says Mri Stewart, ^ a train of thought takes its 
rise from an i<tea or conoeption; the first idea soon disap- 

Jears, and a series of others succeeds, wbick are jgraduaily 
rsa and less related to that with which the train- com^ 
mented; but, in the case of perception^ tlie existing cause 
remains steadily before us ; and all the thoughts and fed"* 
ings which have any relation to it, crowd into, the mind in 
rapid succession, strengthening eaeh other's^ effects, and all 
eonspimig in the same generaf imptiNfiiotk.''!t Thc^ would 

* PMT. Essays, ^art ii. essay i. part i. chap. 6, 

t PbUosopliy of the HamaD Mind, dttp.'6. part I. sect 1. 

An EsMdjf, hff W, F. Dttiant. 8U 

and "jiUeogthen.MclirOtber'a effects/' if tbty could atonot 
9te«d iu^ thiB common relation '' to , that with which Iht 
train commenced ;" and yet themselyes be entirely deatittttf 
of aimilarity or coincidence. This uniformity of character, 
therefore, being Aecesaarilv . inherent in thoae traina of 
thouffht and emotion, to the external exciting caaaea. of 
which the tenn bean^ waa at first applied — the signifi- 
cation of that term is subsequently extended to nothing 
which does not excite trains distinguished by similar um- 
formity, I have not, therefore, taken earlier notice of this 
circumstance, because I conceive it to be rather a necessary 
inference from what has been already stated, than a part of 
that idea which the term beauty was originally invented, to 
^press. I have thus stated my notions on this important 
suDJect. For the great leading principles, I am chiefly iur 
debted to Mr. Alison's elegant and philosophical writings ; 
and to those writings I must refer for the elucidation wd 
establishment of these principles. As I have little time to 
spare on the discussion of a question, which, although im- 
portant, is collateral, or, at best, preliminary — I have taken 
these principles for eranted ; a^oi have confined myself to 
the consideration of Aose poiiits which, not being defended 
by the authority or by the reasonings on which I have in 
other cases depended-Hitand in need of argument for their 
illustration and support. . 

Beauty, then, in its most extensive sense, I conceive to 
be nothing more than the power of occasioning ideas produc- 
tive of pleasing emotions— -all of which are possessed of a 
general uniformity of character. The word deauty is, how- 
ever, restricted to those cases in which these, emotions are 
of the less violent order ; and are not calculated to produce 
any considerable degree of mental agitation. 

Sublimity appears to differ from beauty, in the charac- 
ter of the emotions excited by a contemplation of the objects 
in which it exists. All these emotions are of a violent 
nature, and the train of thought which is accompanied by 
them, is of such a kind as to be productive of great mental 
agitation. This I prefer to that theory which consider^ the 
sublime as amodincation of the temble. That the emo- 
tions which accompany a sense of danger are the most .vio- 
lent of which the numan constitution is susceptible, I an 
ready to admit: but I do not see sufficient reason to b^eve 
that these emotions always enter into the feeling of subli- 
mity. It occasionally requires, at all events, great inganittity 

S13 CakndartfikeJ^ws. 

to riiiMfef thnt iwrediiiit; iiiid 'tbe^aom <k>iii|mlietisi^; 

I «ier«ly metitton 4n psBSing^^iAotit aUttdhhig to it ^ttiy 
gMtt degree of itiiportaiiee%* - 
After thiB kmg, but tiec^teaiy di^toeMioii/ we ^top^ose to 

Bt>eeed to the move itnmediiDte conetdemlioii of Our aubjeoti 
ur present object, it will be remembeted, is t^ asi^erteiti 
tiM9 eense in which' Ttete oaiv be jtMtly termed correct. 
After hftviti^ aitemfiled to shew t^at the emotioiis of Taste 
«re preooAed by an itttelleotual 0(>4ration, and that beauty 
mtd sttbliniity in objects are notning mora than the power 
of enggesttng partiOular trains of/ tiiongfat, which arepro^ 
ducti?e of oertain peenliar efflotions*^we shall proseonte, 
witli regard to these proTioue tn^m* of thonght, the inquiry 
that has nresented iteetf ; and nolico some of those difficuU 
ties which attend the ini!«fltiMation, . . 


t^mm^^tt^tm^mm. .. 


.1 . . . .. ■ J ! ; ' 

• ' I 
TO THS I . . 

• ■ J • ' I 

E$8affcm tbe iAgtiauiture f^ the. Jtr0^Iitm^ 

The first idea of the following Calendar was taJken. froi:^ one 
in Mr, Bickers telh's excellent Scripture' JSetp, in' whicB i^ 
occupies four duodecimo pages, or rather two kaves^ con- 
sisting of ^u?o cfppositepaJ^es each, Aiviiedinlo Seven columns, 
five being in the first page/and two in the second. The 
first five m Mr. B's. contain the same heads as the first five 
in the A>llowing, and the other tw5 are in the second page. 
But, as it was ah object with the compiler of the following^ 
to get as much space as possible for the subjects coiinected 
With hw Sssay on Agriculture, the weather, productions, &c. 
he thought that, by making the Hd, '3d, 4th and 6tii columns 
narrower, he might get the 6tfa into tUe. first page, leaving 


* In the followtiig passft|e, iKr/Biiile txtihiBti an opinion, ap- 
parently eoiii^dent'with m sendttelits wmeh ar«/ offered abere. 
^ Whsiever is fitM in asf sott to «Kflite tbs i^eat ef pain and dan- 
gar-Ltbat.is to sigr* whstoimr la» iaaagr 99^ tftrihle, coirrennal 
abesft tenible dlueeti, or (meratesin « mtomei! tuuh^mu Id terror, is a 
source of ihe ntolims-; {bait is, t^ isproduetiue afiho strongett efnotiom 
^l&fk the' mHd is eapvkk t^ffeiHnp.*' ' (Sde Sttb. and Beaat. part L 

Calendar aftkt Jews. 3ld 

.... , 

the whole of the second page to the agricultural matters ; 
and likewiae^ by pitting only three months inta a ^p^6^ x>r 
leafy instead of six^ it would again doable the space for 
tfaose^ and likewise allow more for -titefeitivab, &o. Another 
alteration has been made itt Ae second column, jyir. Bw 
has represented- onr moiAhs as correapotiding exactly with 
the Jewish months, as September to Tisri, marchesvan to 
OUober.^ and so/oa; whereas we ate informed, that it is the 
Itttter part of September and beginning of October which 
answer to Tisri. To point this out» therefore^ the horizontal 
lines of division in the second cohirnn do not correspond 
ytiSti those in the first, but the line in the second colttmin is 
placed against the middle of the month in the first column, 
and is only dotted, to distinguish it from the former. 
The notices of fesiivab, 8lc. are enlarged from a calendar 

SVen by Calmet atthe end of his Dictionary of tlis Bible; and 
>m one given by Mr. Home, taken from that, and Father 
Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, in the third volume of his very 
valuable introduction to the Study of the tloly Scriptures, 

ThtHaticesotthe weather, productions, 8tc. are enlarged 
from Buhle's Calendar of Falestine* in the Fragments 
added to Calmet's Dictionary, (the source whence Mr. 
Bickersteth professes to have taken his^)' Dr. Claxke's 
Travels, and other sources* 

Since, first drawing up the Calendar (in March, 1822,) the 
writer flfnds, froml^e Investigator, No» viii. vol. iv. p. 379, 
that Mr. Allen, in his book on Modem Judaism, has con- 
troverted the hitherto established botion, that the Jews kept 
two reckonings of the year, one of the citil, beginning m 
September* the other of the ecclesiastical year, beginning in 
March. This he has done with much force of ai]^ument. 
But, as the other is the usually received mode, he nas iK>t 
thought proper to alter it, but to make this Temark, thai the 
question may be borne in mind ; and the beginning .oi the 
year at Tisri, or. iuSkptm^^er, suits best with &e wrtcutiural 
year, which usually is considered as beginning with Michael- 
mas or sowing-time, aod ending with the ingathering or 


JHe Calendar ojTMe Jbw8» dmoing the Seasons of the Year, 

the Time of the Public Festivals, — 


TIsri, or 


van, or 
^ Bui. 


1 Kings 




vn. 1. 

Neh. i. 1. 


iy. 62^60. 


Moona of 








(i ;• 






Oea. viii. 


28. Last daj of the feast. 




Msrcr ALs, &c. 

•'» * " 4 # 

I m ».*■ 

1. New Moon, the bei^inoing of the 
Mvfl ye«. Thefeaet ef Trafflpett, 
l#iit.»iibS4,ai. Nnsib. juOk. 1. 

ISw P»j sf AtOMMwti lir VM ef 
Ash«ra» LtTilioiif yyi. 9B— SI. 

1^ Feaal of Taharaaei^s, or of IiMi- 
thorins. First-fraits of wine asd oil 
offoffoS, Levil.zsiii. 94^41. 

« , ' . ' 

. / 

19. Vast to fs|iiito' th« eiteit toai- 
«iitted «» 4aaoaiit of tfM Vosat «f Ta- 


r ' « 

\ i ' 

Ib this fliOBtb tho lowt^yod for the 
rahit whiak Iho^ call Jmrt, or- the a*- 

aUe for tBOir seed. 


86. The Feast of Dodioatioo, or jw^w- 
km of the Tenple, or Feaat of Lifhto, 
1 Maooab. it. 68, 59. 2 Maccah. i. 18. 
u. 16. X 6—8. Joha x. 88. Lasted 
eight dajs. 


The Slate of ike Weather, and some of the Productions of the 

Earth, in Palestine, 



tn September tbe mercary U about the same (according to RoMely 
at. Aleppo,) at at the .latter end of Aa^st, 8&<' or 86^, except that 
ill the afternoon it rises higher. In ram^ weather it falls 3^ or 4*, 
till it gets down to 65*.; bat the variation of one day does not 
exceed 3* or 4^ ; and, when it rains, l« or 2^* 

Great heat in the day, and nights cold. 

Eain frequently fklls at the latter end of this month. 

There are abundance of papes ripe, and citrons and oranges, pome- 
granates, pears, and plums. 

Cotton is gathered ripe. 
They begin to plow and sow. 

In October, the Mercury in the momiDg stands, for the most pavt« 

» (reiore the rainy days, at 7f, It does not rise in the afternoon 

^ aboi9e^''#re** After the rains, it descends gradually to 00^. The 

variation of one day s el d o m , on rainy days never, exceeds 3* or 4<^. 

Sometimes the rainy season, (called the earfy or farmer rain, Deut. 
xi. 14. Uosea vi. 3. Joel ii. 23. James v. 7.) 

TheieslMmo jMal is now abated. 

inM'dew«i#«or»pieifti(ul'thu& with qs. 

Wheat and barley are sown. 

The latter grapes are gathered. 


' ' ^. . ^ 

In November, as the month advances, the mercury gradually falls from 
W* to S0«. The variation of one day is not more than from ap 

If the rainy season has not begun, it certainly commences this month. 

The heat of the sun is considerable in the day, but the nights are very 

General sowing of corn in this month. 

VOL. Vlll, — NO. 3. 

316 The Culendar of the Jews:— 'Seasons, Festivals, 


Moon! of 
















15. The beginoinc ofrtaiFear of Tnu. 
Thar then begin to coDnl the fan 
year*, daring which the Ireea wan 
jadged onoleaa, frpm the tine of Ihwr 
plietiag, LevLt. lU. 33-25. San 
place the bepDniag ot Ibeaa Ctatjnn 
DD the Sral ila; of the monlli. 



'Ti. 16. 

Hi. 7. 





3. A Ful. 8.1b. iw. 10. 

t ud IS. Tba Faaitof Parhn, gr 

Lou. Bath.ix.lT-31. 

5. The eolleoten of lb* half AaU 
paid by evefj laraelita, Eiod. laS. 
a. reeaiTHl it on Adai U, is Iha 
citiei j ud OD the Uth in tha lenpU. 





WtMther, Broduetiomoftkt EtuHkt Ift, 317 



WUTBBR. P«0»VC(f lON^*. Ac- 

In DaoMiber, ibm merewry naiially stands all thto mpntiir at abqufi 40»«' 
Itt/reqvenUy i^ti up in ikt afternooni }l there is lia rainy 3*^ 

RainfaUi'in this toQuHtL 

Frost and snow. The col4 is sometimes ivery pierGingi^ so that per* 
SDBS,]ia3ra ju>m(itimes perished from it The snow, seldom reipaiiia • 
all day. upon the groapd. When the, son shines> and therf ia a 
calm, the atmosphere is hot. 

C«fnian4 pjdse aire so,wn^ Grass and herbs sp^ng up after the rm. 

Flocks brooght from the moontains into the plains. 

In January, at 9 a. m. the mercuiry between 40*^ and 46» does not rise 
aboye 3** or 4® in the afternoon. On rainy or cloudy days jt sqU 
dom exceeds 1® or 2f, and frequently does JU>t rise at all. 

nereis snow on^tbe^ mowntains# but neu Jericho tiie cold is hardly 
felt. The winter is, chiefly rfmarkable ror frequent showers, which 
fall mox^ B^ night thap in the day. By these the brooks, rivers, kc^ 
swell ; and especially the nTCf Jordan and the Dead Sea. 

The cold is neyer so severe as to preve|i$ thot farmers sowing their 
lands. All kinds of com sown. Towaijds fh^ middto df the month,| 
wlien the Jiky>/is clear^ itii«j:So hot, Hi^t travellers with difficulty 
proseeote- their Joomey. 

Most^ees are in l^af 'before those of th^ preceding jyear are [entirely 
fallen off. The winter fig is st^ll found pn ih^ treef , though ftiipped 
of leaves. The aJmond tree if blossoip« 

Beans in blossom. 

In February, for the first fourteen days^ the n^ercupry usually stands 
between 43° and 47^ ; afterwar^, except tiie weather should, become 

<5j)W* U rises gra4u4!y.tp. 6p«»4 

GUefly remark{LMe fev n^n. T|>wards th|e middle 'fii the mpnth the 
snows and winter colds cease^ 

• • • . t . 
Barley sometimes sown at Aleppo, till th^ begtnning of this month. 

The peach tree and early apple in blossom. 

Cauliflowers at Aleppo in great plenty. 

318 • The Calendar of the Jem :'^Seasons, Festivals, 




Moons of 


xui. 4. 


Esth. iii. 
. 7. 







1 Kings 
vi. !• 





J Cold. 









10. The Israelites passed orer Jordan* 
wbioh was then overflowed.^ 
On this day every one provided him- 
self a lamb or a kid for the fiatsover. 

14. In the eveniog, the Peaffhai Uamb 
Pot away all leavened bread. 

16. The Passover, Feast of ntileaveiiea 
bread. After snn-set they gathered a 
sheaf of Barley, whieh they breaght 
into the Temple. 

16. The Sheaf of Barley, as the first- 
firaits of the harvest, ofl^red* 
The beiciiining of Harvest- 
From this day they begin to covnt 60 
days, to the Feast of Pentecost. 

21. The end of the Passover and nelei- ; 
vened Bread. The Jews in this month 
prayed for the latter 

> vepl. 

0. They faated three days for exeesset ' 
oommitted during the FeMt of the 
Passover, that is, on Mondaj, Tbors- 
day, and the Monday followmg. 

14* The Second Passover (Nitikib. Ix. 
10, 11.) in fovonr of those who coald 
not, or were not snifeied to celebiat^ 
the Passover the last month. 

6. Penteoost, or the Feast of Weeks. 
The first-fruito of the Wheat Harvest 
werepieseeted iii two Loaves madft 

with one floor and leaven* 

Weather, Productions of the Earth, l^c. 319 


Id Marchy in the middle of the month, the mercary stands at 52^, 

towards the latter end, between 56^ and d^. In the be^ning of 

the month, it does not rise in the afternoon, above t^ ; towardd the 

end 8» or 9<^. 
Ewes yean their lambs. 
Rain, called the latter ram. Dent. xi. 14. Zeoh. x. I.) which prepwes 

for the harrest, and makes the c^rain swell. The rivers swell from 

the rain, and thawing of the snow. 
Great heat in the plains of Jericho; persons have died through the 

heat of the snn. 
Barley ripe at Jericho ; and the wheat is in the ear, and beginning to 

The fig-tree blossoms even while the winter fig is on the tree. 
The Tine produces the first clusters ; about Sidoo they have a triple 

produce in the year. 
Oranges ripe. 

In April the mercnry rises gradually from 60^ to 60b: In the aftej- 
noon, wh^n the sky is clear, rises ^ or 10^. 

Frequent rains. Heat excessive near Jericho. Orass very high. 

The harvest depends on the duration of the rainy season. 

Barley generally cut down this month. 

Wheat begins to ripen. 

Locusts appear. 

In May, at the beginning of the month, the mercnry reaches 70^, then 

it rises gradually from 76^ to 80." In the afternoon it rises 0" or 9". 
The snow on Libanus thaws rapidly. 
The grass and herbs have grown in some places above a yard high. 

Hay probably made now — and sheep-shearing. 
Barley sometimes not all cut down till this month. Wheat is cut. 

Dr. Clarke, fvol. ii. 4to. p. 464,) near Tiberias, says, " the harvest 

of wheat ana barley ended in June : but the oats were still stand- 

Early apples ripe. 
Excessive heat sometimes renders the earth barren, as a sharp winter 

does with us.---North and east winds increase heat. West wind 

decreases it at Aleppo. 

320 The Cakndar qf tie Jem i-Seasom, FeUivals, 





Ab, or 

••— N 























t7. A Fwt in 
of IIm Uw bfoki 
szzU. 10. 

1 hy M i w . Bio4. 

9. AFMiof th«»«baMlb,i 
of God'a deelaring to Motet on tkit 
daj that noBO of tho monaoriBs 1«- 
rtelitet tboold tonter the Laiia of 
Pronite. Komh. xit. 99--81. 
Ob the tMM day the Toanje wM 
takeo aad bont: SolonoB'tTeaqile 
iUtt, bT.the Chaldeaot; Herod'taf- 
terwardt, by tiie Roi 

14th. The XylophorT, or TettiTal of 
briogiBg Woodtp tlie Temple. 

17. AFattlbrthe Death oftheflpiet 
who 'faioBght .ao evil -report of the 
(MdofP^W^. N«inb«xiT.ie,aT. 

»!. Tlit i» the bti dp^r of tho ,B|Mlh 
OB whioh the J^wt reokoood ap loo 
beasts that had been bom, the tenths 
of whioh beloBged to €|^. They 
ohote diis day to do it in, heoaato 
the firtt day ofthonoothTMiiat a 
mtival, BBd thoNlMo thoy.oMiU «ot 
tilho a dooh 90 tliat.day. 

Weather, Productions of the Earth, Sfc. 321 


" ' \ —-----_—— — . : r-— ^ : 

In June, as the month advjmcear, the mereury gradoftUyiifleft in Ihe- 
morning from 76^ to 80^. In. the afternoon it stands between d4fi 
and 99^. 

Between Cana and Hatti, in the middle of the day, July 5, Dr. dladce 
says, " The mercary, in a gloomy recess under ground, perfectly 
shaded, while the scale was placed so as not to touch the roek, re- 
mained at 100« of Fahrenheit The same afternoon it was IQSi^'tn 
the shade/'^^Tbermometer same d$iy in London, 70o two p. m. 

Not cpld even at lugbt.: The inhabitants pass their nights on the 
roofs of their hoases. Silkworms on trees at night. 

Rain is now very rare. 

July 7t Dr. Clarke saw the richest pasture on the plain of Esdraelon, 
(vol. iL p. 4d7,) and on the 10th on the plain of Jericho, (683«) 

" We observed plantations of tobacco then in bloom; of Indian corn ; 
of millet, which was still green ; of melons, pumpkins, and cucum<r 
bers.'' — lb. p. 464. Rice and early figs ripen. 

In July, the mercary nsaally stands in the beginning of the month. at 
^ 8CP; towards the end at dd*' or 86^ It rises in the afternoon about 

. .t_ _ 

The heat is stUI more Intense. libanus is, for the most part, freed 
from snow, except in places not exposed to the sun. Anti-Libanus 
is always covered with snow. 

Tiie eactiM fieus-Indicus ripe. — Dr. Clarke, vol. ii. p. 401. 

Dates ripe at Jericho. 

In August, at Aleppo, according to Russel, the weather is the same; 
during th^ first twenty days as in the preceding month ; afterwards' 
white clouds, commonly called niliaca, larger than those which are 
observed in die early part of the summer, rise, for the most part, 
till the end of the month. Dew &Us now; but not in any griftat 

llbO mercury ^ untU thmie days when the clouds rise, continues the 
same as in the last month : afterwards it falls 4^ br 5*'. 

The heat is extreme. 

Ripe figs at Jerasalem^ — and ripe olives near Jericho. 

Pomegranates tipc* 

Grapes ripe, and the clusters very lilrge. 



An Authentic Copy of the Minutes of Evidence^ m the Trial 
of John Smith, a Missionary, in Demerara ; held at the 
Colony^ House, in George 2,own, Demerara, on Monday,, 
the \^th day of October, 1823, and 27 following days; on a 

. Charge of exciting the Negroes^ to Itebellion; copied verba-- 
tim,from a Report ordered to be printed by the House of 
Commons, 22d of March, 1824. With an Appendix, includ-' 
ing the Affidavit of Mrs, Jane Smith: the Petition-presented 
to the House of Commons, from the Directors ojthe Lon- 
don Missionary Society : Letters of Mr, John Smith: and 
other interesting Documents, London, 1824. Burton. 
8vo. pp. 179 

2. The London Missionary Society* s Report of the Proceed- 
ings against the late Kev, J. Smith, of Demerara, Minis^ 
ter of the Gospel, who was tried under the Martial Law, 
and condemned to Death, on a Charge <f aiding ^ml assist-* 
ing in a Rebellion of the Negro Staves: from n full and 
correct Copy, transmitted to England, by Mt. ' Smithes 
Counsel, and including the Documentary hvidence omitted 
in the Parliamentary Copy: with an Appendix, containing 
the Letters and Statements of Mr, and Mrs, Smith, Mrs, 
Elliot, Mr. Arrindell, Sfc: and, also, the Society*s Petition 
to the House of Commons, The whole Published under the 
Authority of the Directors of the said Society. London^ 
1824. Weslley. 8vo. p. 211. 

The interest excited by the trial and death of Mr. Smith, 
the late excellent and justly lamented missionary of the 
London Missionary Society^ to the island of Demerara, has 
been so deep and universal, that we are assured of standing 
more than excused with our readers, for devoting a consi- 
derable portion of our journal to an examination of the pro- 
ceedings against him. Those proceedings are so perfectly 
anomalous, and involve in them so many infractions of the 
very first principles of justice, that wishing, as we do, most 
fully to expose their illegality, we know not that we shall 
have space left for any remarks upon the atrocity of the 
conduct of those, whose narrow policy, short-sighted self- 
interest, and bitter hostility to real religion, has converted 
them into some of the most lawless persecutors — and their 
injured, yet innocent victim, into one of the most lamented 
martyrs, of modern times. At all events, these remarks, if 
we can find opportunity to make them, must be reserved for 

Trial of Mr. John Smith, Missionary. 323 

the close of an article which we rather wish to distinguish 
l^y legal investigation, ancl accurate examination of facts, 
than by the strong expressions of indignant feeling, which we 
doubt not that the heart of every reader will spontaneously 
and abundantly supply. 

The following, then, is a copy of the charges upon which 
those proceedings are founded ; extracted from the Minutes 
of Evidence, on the Trial, as laid before the House of Com- 

" First Charge* — For th|it be, the said John Smitl^ long previous 
to, and up to the time of a certain revolt and rebellion, which broke 
out in this colony, on or. about the 18th of Au^st now. last past, 
did promote, as far as in him lay, discontent and dissatisfaction 
in the minds of the negro slaves towards their lawful masters, 
managers, and overseers, he, the said John Smith, thereby intend^ 
ing to excite the said negroes to break out in such open revolt and 
rebellion against the authority of their lawful masters, managers, 
and overseers, contrary to his allegiance, and against the peace of 
our sovereign lord the king, his crown and dignity. 

'* Second Charge. — For that he, the said John Smith, havings 
about the 17th day of August last, and on divers othtr days and 
times theretofore preceding, advised, consulted, and conespondecl 
with a certain negro named Quamina, touching and concernifig ,a 
certain intended revolt and rebellion of, the. negro slaves, within 
these colonies of Demerara and Essequibo; and fur^er, after such 
revolt and rebellion bad actually commenced, arid was in a cpurse. 
of prosecution, he, the said John Smith, did further aid and assist 
in such rebellion, by advising, consulting, and corresponding, 
touching the same, with the said negro Quamina ; to wit, on the 
19th and 20th August last past, he, the said John Smith, then well 
knowing such revolt and rebellion to be in progress, and' the said 
negro Quamina to be an insurgent engaged therein. 

** Third Charge.^Fot that he, the isaid John Smfilh^ on the 17th 
August last past, and for a certain period of time hereto preced*' 
ing, having come to the knowledge' of a oertaiA revolt and rebel- 
lion, intended to take place within this colony, did not make known 
the same to the proper authorities, which revolt and rebellion did 
subsequently take place; to wit, on or about the 18th of August 
now last past. 

** Fourth Charge.—ToT that he, the said John Smith, after, such 
revolt and Rebellion had taken place, and during the existence 
thereof, to wit, on or about Tuesday and Wednesday,' the 19th and 
20th of August now last past, was at plantation Le Resouvenir in 
presence of and held communication with Quamina, a negro of 
plantation Success, he, the said John Smith, then well, knowing 
the said Quamina to be an insurgent engaged therein, and that he, 
the said John Smith, did not use his utmost endeavours to sup- 

5 -ess, the tame^ bjr seciKb)|r or dttmniiig the said insuxgent. 
Qamina,, as a, prisoner, or by giving informatioii to the ^oper 
autiioritiesy but, on the coiMxary, permitted the said insur- 
gent Quamina to go at large and depart, without attempting to 
seize and detain him, and without giving any information respect- 
ing him to the proper authorities, against the peace of our sovereign- 
Ibrd the king, his crown and dignity, and aeainstthe laws in force 
kk tys colony, and in defiance of me proclamation of martial-law. 
iMaed by his excellency, the lieutenantpgOTemon" [p* 6, 7.] 

To collect from a document so ill drawn, the precise legal 
description of the offences charged- against the prisons, is 
a task to which, we undertake to say, no lawyer in Westipin- 
ater-haU is equal. The first— -if it be any thing— is a mis- 
demeanonr ovlji for we have yet to learn that to excite negro 
slaves to. open revolt and rebellion agmnt the authority of their 
lavrful masters, managers^ and overseers, has any thit^g in it le- 
gally approximating to treason against the king, and against 
his government ; aa actual and ovort atltempt^ by force and 
violences toovertium whioh» alone constitutes. this specjLes of, 
the highest offence known to the English lavv, which haapvo- 
vided, with saofit rigorous and unwonted oautijOii, against 
the constfuetive esctension of that o^ence, to. QEimes of an- 
other character, and a less enormous > goilt. The second 
would certainly savour of a misprision of this great offenoe, 
were there any lliing like a definite description of the revolt 
and rebettion of the negro slaves referred to, which if not ex- 
pressly laid to be against the king, and to overthrow his 
government, is, as a charge of treason, to all intents, and 
purposes, void. Those rules of copstruction which must 
De tamiliar to every one who has learnt his grammar, nay, 
common sense itself indeed, would rather lead to a contrary 
co9clu8ion, that the revolt ^nd rebellion charged in the 
second count, is the same strange nondescript offence 
stated in the first » and that, as^ we nave already she]B^, can 
he but a misdemeanour, though, to this, upon we principles 
of our common law, it would, we apprehend, amount, as we 
are fiir fi*om eontending for the propriety or legality of such 
instigations^ where a state of slavery is by law permitted to 
exist. The third charge is, however, clearly a piece of 
waste paper, inasmuch as it merely imputes to the accused 
a knowledge of an intention in certain parties to commit a 
crime, without averring that he did any thing to promote 
that intention, or neglected to do every thing in his power 
to dissuade the conspirators from the execution of it. Jfoi 
to make known the intention of another* where no overt act 

Trial of Mr. Jolm Smith, Mutianary. 326 

in purauance of that intentioA, has been coaMmitted, hag 
not yet been held an oSiBnce within the cognizance of any 
of our courts, that most arbitrary, unconstitutional, and 

granaical one, the star^amber, not eKcepted* The last of 
ese notable charges is also an offence of a very equiyocal 
description 4 as the indictment of a private individual, not 
bound by his office, or under any coounand from a person 
so bound to assist him* for not doing his utmost to take au 
offender, would^ at least, be a proceeding in our English 
courts, not warranted by the practice of modem times, 
though we admit that cmr old text writers treat such a non** 
feasance as a misdemeanour at common law, punishable with 
fine and imprisonment. Beyond a misdemeanour, at al} 
events, no English lawyer could, at the very furthest, attempt 
to rank it. 

Making, therefore, every allowance for the difference in 
precision between charges preferred before a xu)urt*martial^ 
and an indictment in our ordinary courts of criminal jurisdic^ 
tion, it will be evident that by no stretch of ingenuity can 
any offence, cognizable in the latter, beyond a misdemear 
nour, be extracted from the two last charges ; whilst even 
the two former^ from the mode in which uiey are framed^ 
really amount to nothing more. We presume, nowever, that 
they were meant by the legal adviser who drew them, (and 
well is it for his jenutation as a laivyer, that his name is not 
attached to them) tor misprisions of treason; and as impute 
ing such a chaige, we are willing to examine them, and the 
proceedings of which they were the foundation. 

But we shall first inquire a little into tl^^ cppstitutipn 
and jurisdiction of the court. It was avowedly (i general 
court-martiaL which, in its ordinary jurisdiction, and in 
quie( tipies, has not, and caimot have, any authority ^p try 
others than soldiers ; nor them, but for offences relative to 
their conduct apd discipline as .such. True it is, indeed, 
that in times of actual revolt and rebell^op, the legis- 
lature has been in the habit of having recourse to insurrecr 
tion acts, *and other proceedings of extraordinary rjsour, 
always viewed with the extrem^t jealousy, and justin^ble but 
upon the emergency of the case, wherpby the ordinary 
course of justice has, for a while, been superseded, by the 
proclamation of martial ^aw iu the insu^ent districts. By 
this course, die whole population of those districts is, for 
the tin^e, treated as solaiers; subjected to the laws by wbiph 
they are governed, and, therefore, rendered amenahlp to 
what Blackstcme very properly describes, " as a vi^st and 

826 Review. — Minutes of Evidence on the 

most important trust, an unlimited power^ to create crimes, 
and annex to them any punishment not extending to life and 
death/ In capital cases* it must* however, be remembered* that 
the crown has no such power of creating offences which* even 
on an ex post facto law, might be visited by death. Those 
higher offences are thus specified in the mutiny act* annually 
passed for the regulation of the army, making, as we do, our 
quotation from uie 4th Geo. IV. c. xiii., t^e one passed 
on the 24th of March, 1823* and under the authority of 
which, this court must have been convened. *' If any per- 
son who is or shall be commissioned, or in pay as an officer, 
or who is or shall be commissioned, or in pay, as a non- 
commissioned officer or soldier* shall at any time, during 
the continuance of this act, be^n, create, cause, or join, in 
any mutiny, or sedition, in his majesty's land or marine 
forces, or shall not use his utmost endeavour to suppress the 
«ame, or, coming to the knowledge of any mutiny or intended 
mutiny, shall not without delay give information thereof to 
his commanding officer; or shall misbehave himself bef6re 
the enemy, or shall shamefully abandon, or deliver up any 
garrison, fortress, post, or guard, committed to his cnarge, 
or which he shall be commanded to defend, or shall compel 
the governor, or ccjmmanding officer, of any garrison, for- 
tress, or post, to deliver up to the enemy, or to abandon the 
«ame, or shall speak words, or use any other means, to in- 
duce such governor, or commanding officer, or others, to 
misbehave before the enemy, or shamefully to abandon or 
deliver up any garrison, fortress, post, or guard, committed 
to their respective charge, or which he or they shall be com- 
manded to defend ; or shall leave his post before relieved, or 
shall be found sleeping on his post ; or shall hold .corre- 
spondence with, or give advice or intelligence to, any rebel* 
or enemy of his majesty, either by letters* messages, signs, 
or tokens, in any manner or way whatever, or shall treat, or 
enter into any terms, with such rebel or enemy, without his 
majesty's license, or those of his general or chief com- 
mander; or shall strike or use any violence against his supe- 
rior officer, being in the execution of his office; or shall dis- 
obey any lawful command of his superior officer ; or shall 
desert his majesty's service : all and every person so offend- 
ing in any of the matters before mentioned, whether such 
onences shall be committed within this realm, or in any 
other of his majesty's dominions, or in foreign parts, or upon 
land or upon the sea, shall suffer death, or such other punish- 
ment as, by a court martial, shall be awarded." Supposing, 

Trial of Mr. John Smith, Misrionarif. 327 

therefore, that the prisoner had heen a soldier, instead of a^ 
missioniiry, it is evident, that, at least, on the second^ and, 
perhaps, on the fourth of these charges, he would be amen- 
able to capital punishment under the mutiny act,, as I^.. 
would also be upon the other two, provided the population 
of the island haa previously been duly called out as soldiers^, 
on account of the msurrection there, in the course of whicU 
martial law had duly been proclaimed. But the latter had^ 
aot been done in Demarara, nor could it be ; for if the gover- 
nor there seeks to justify himself, as he. is understood to do» 
by the provisions of the mutiny act, annually past by the 
British parliament, for the regulation of the land-forces of 
the empire, whether employed in the colonies or at home, 
he must shew a legislative authority for subjecting the civil 
population of the island to the severe operiation of the mili-^ 
tary code, as, what the king could not do by his own preror 
gative here, it is not to be supposed, that .his repi^esentative 
can do in a distant dependency of the empire* As a con- 
quered colony, Demarara may be, and, perhaps is, subject 
but to its own laws, under the immediatie direction of the. 
king in council, rather than of the British parliament in its 
three estates* If this be insisted upon, the mutiny bill is 
quite out of the question; and some act of the. colonial legis- 
lature — some proclamation of the king in. council here — oc 
some provision of the Dutch laws, still in force there, must) 
be adauced^ to justify the proceedings.of a court, which other- 
wise had no jurisdiction over the person whom, or the mat- 
ter, which, uiey tried. To neither of these, however, was 
the slightest allusion made during the course of the proceed- 
ings, which were.obviously founded upon the Bnglisn mutiny 
act alone ; but it was reserved for the learning and ingenuity 
of a member of the English bar, for whose opiniou we, in 
common with the rest of his friends, entertain the highest 
respect, to discover a justification, of which no one teforei 
haa ever dreamed. In his maiden speech in the House of 
Commons, Mr. Tindal, after admitting unequivocally, — as a 
lawyer, of attainments so rare, as ere long to place him at 
the head of his profession, could not fail to do, — that this 
court-martial had no jurisdiction by the English law — cited 
the authority of the institutes NovelliB and jPandects, with 
half a dozen heavy Batavian and German commentators upon 
them, to prove, that by the civil law, the mere conceahneht 
of an intended treasonable insurrection^ in which you were 
to take no part, was a capital offence ; and that therefore^ 
as the ciTif law was the oasis of the Dutch law> and the 

938 S/e^kuK-^MimiiieB of Embmce on tk€ 

Bttteh \kw the ban» of &e cukmial law oi Demtt^m^wtBh 
coDdeahnent must be a nispvision of treasea tkere> tluMigliL 
in England it would be bo offsnee at alU or if anyj, ooe: of 
tibe Tery lowest and ligkteii gradew UnfiDrtmafe^yw bow- 
ever, foe the mgennity and lesearehy wbkb wa baxe often 
aeen more eftctmUy oxerted by the same ittiurideal ia a 
deepeiate oaase, the code to which he appealed^ as a Tnstifi?- 
cation of those who professed ne4 to. act nndes iln antborify^ 
knows nothing^of martial«law;aivitherefoie^unlaas th» ac-* 
GHsed had been tried by the ordinary courts of til»o CQdk>ny* 
that code was as grossly outrwed and set at noiigbt*, as waa 
confissssedly the case with tao EngUsb Isffr*. froso^ the 
eqval and total want of jurisdiotion in either qim^ it necesr 
sarily follows thersfoxe, that had the. gOTorooi^ y/^ntw^d, to 
cuvy into execution, the sentence wlyeh^y pronounced^ 
he himself, and every member of tko court wnUJ^ he iUe- 
gally appoiiited, would, in tibe ^e of tholaw, have.beeiii a 
murderer, and, as such, hanre beea suln^eted to the pnmshr 
ment of deaths which ih&y ill^aUy prooouqcoi ^fO», Wr 
other. That this would have heea their sitaation, had 
their temerity carried l^em so feur, no lawyer caOi Wi& ari^i 
satisfiedi for a moment doubt, as it ia expressly hud down, 
by liord Coke, and other law writer of w tmU autbps^y, 
that the putting a men to death by mactieirlaw in tijoi^j of 
peace, is murder; and that tha o^ny waa perfectly tfanquil 
when Mr. Smith was tried and sealjenoei^ anul fo^ Wj^ka wA 
months before, has never been denied* 

In ordinary cases, theselore^ ibin wan4 of jw^4iotioii^ (V> 
whieh, by the way, Mr. Sa\iih was most imMdM% c^riyed 
of all opportunity of effectually objeetin^A oy- Ming re^uiredi 
to plead before oounsel waa assigned hww wA th^ei^y adr 
mitting Am authcurity of the court, and ixiadvert^s^j. 9|i4 ifk 
ignorance of the forms of law, waving all obje^bip^ t^, its, 
jurisdiction,) would nut an end to the in<][uii;]^.„ $ui yii% wiabi 
not so to get rid of the fullest investigation. vm(o. ^ g^iilioi^ 
innocence of Mr. Smith^rrryot ere we ptm m tQ th^ ^^^4^^^ 
addaced ag^nst him, and ti\6 manner in wbioh it w^9l nwC 
we must say a word or two ufon the defev^e pffi^ed by t^a 
advocates of his {lersecntora* for not SMdyp^ U^ \o t^ 
before the nvoper civil tribunal } namely, th^t % ^ot^m/^rtif^ 
wa§ the only conit befera which he ooujd t^^pe fo^ %^ 4W( 
trial. If this vna the qase, (and, alas. I thiure iil^. 99^ ^^^M. Mi 
doubt that hia ch^oe of a fair trinA «it ^iln i% £^4X)^r% 
waa abundantly small enough,) iqfhai a mel^gKo^^ PVCtufa 
does it e)Khibit of the adminiatsation of i^BUof ii^\ 1^l4 

TrM c/ Mr. John Smtlb^ Mi$»imaiy. 399 

still this cftniiot excuse the fieading hun befoie a military 
commission, to which he wa« not emenable, tnd tfuis 
depriving him of the advantages he <wonkl luMre been cn- 
itled to iTf the judicial prooeedings of the cml coivtt« 
The latter are notoriouifly more formal^ preciee^ and alow, 
in their operations, than are the former, which, in times ii 
insurrection especially, more nearly resemble the fiMroad 
narches with which its judges are fcmiliar,«r even 4he 
basty and disordei^ly ^retreats which diey maat at InuK 
lave witnessed, than the solemn and decosem ffoceedhiga 
>f those si^es of the law, who ait in judgment of life and 
imb upon their fellow-creatures. Eiefore the latter, sndh 
in ill*drawn, Ta^oe, and uncertain instrument, as die 
charges against Mr. Smiih» 'ceuld newr haive bccm mm* 
gained; as, could even a jury ^faave 4>een found thiok-headed 
3r prejudiced enough to have cMwieted him capitally 
jpon it, or one like unto it— *it would ^cleaIiqf haire been 
juashed upon^a^tnotion in arweat of judement: bnt mth the 
termer, any thine imputing guilt was held a ^suficient 4e^ 
scription of an offence, for which was awanded the lexteme 
3umshment of the law. This might have been expected 
'rom the Keutenanrt-colonel, six oiiptaias, fomr lieuteaante, 
ind three seeoud^ieiitenafits, the militaiiy mefi oompoMiir 
t ; but, for the credit of the prsiheaion, it is (to be ii«pM» 
hat it did not 'do «o without earnest remonstranae raom 
Mr. 'Wray,iibe chief-justice of the colony, clapt as a lien* 
;enant colonel upon the >militia staff, for no other puippae^ 
hat we can discover, 'but by making him, as such, ^a mem«> 
>'er'of Ae eourt4naftia], to deprive the prisooersftiaed faefera 
t, of the appeal, which, vby' the laws 01 Demarafa, it istsaid^ 
hat they would otherwise have had, to Mm, as ihe chief 
udicial officer of the ishiid. ^Should it be pretended that 
le was made a military man, )to rive the advantage of his 
egal knowledge to a court whiw «ould possess ^none, we 
lesitale not to say, that >never was a compaiatively good 
ntention so completely firustrated, by the iincapacity or ciir 
ninid inertoess of the agent sooted for its ^accomplash^ 
nezrt^^fi^ never did oornitrysquHe, just come (tf, age, and 
icting for the ft»t4ime>as a justice of itbe pea|Ce,^en Jm 
lis seal tO'Coaviot a poacher, adautisuch^prossiviolations joi 
he very a b c of the law of evidence^ M disgmces this 
nock trial of • Mr.' Smith. »Qf Mr. ilKray twie iknaw nothinff 
Mit'br report, yet, deducting ftom the etdogium nroooionQa) 
ipon4im (by 'Mr. Scarlett, we tpeBcentage Ao jroich irbatr 
nrerthatgentlsBMn aAfances lUpon IKast laim afisiirs m 

330 . Review*— Mimites of Evidence on the 

fmirly subjected; fiom his Jamaiea birtbi coQiiexions» and 
property, we fearlessly affirm» that it is impossible for Mr. 
Wray> as a lawyer, to bave sat upon this extraordinary com.- 
jmission, without being repeatedly left in. a minority^ whilst 
.vainly endeayouring to teach his military ^^Ueagnes a 
little respect for, and cooipliance with, the wholesome 
formSiOf law ; ot else he must have disgraced at once the 
poet he fills, and the gown he wears, by cood'Oct, which we 
will not- believe it possible for him, or any English biirrister, 
to. have pursued. 

Bat the coursei adopted towards Mr. Smith in this selec- 
tion of the tribunal before whidi he was to be brought* was 
productive of still greater injustice to him, than would have 
been this ousting of his right of appeal to the chief-justice of 
the colony, even had he Men the best, the ablest> and most 
impartial judge that ever sat upon, the bench; for it deprived 
him of his appeal to the king m. council, where it is not mat- 
ter of spectttation, but of certainty^ that siidh a sentence as 
was pronounced upon Urn, wouKl have been indignantly 
reversed. It is now matter of equal notoriety also, that had 
it not been for the indecorous precipitancy evinced in De- 
merara, to brisff that injiured indiFidual to ttiid where every 
possible prejucnce ^was in full operatiou against him» the 
order very properly despatd^d by our govermnenit fo? sending 
him home, might, have been obeyed; and the]a the diis- 
grace of these proceedings would have been aaryed».9iid he 
aught have been, alive, with every imputation upqn his con- 
duct satisfactorily removed, by the ready and unanimous 
verdict of a jury of his country, if, indeed, the law-officers 
of the crown oould here have discovered any offence for 
which he was amenable. 

From the constitution and jurisdiction of the comrt, pasa 
we onto a subject intimately connected with it, and form* 
ittg, indeed, a part of its former branch— ^he conduct of the 
judge-advocate, and the nature of his office* The character he 
sustains is a singular one ; for, half public prosecutor, and half 
judge, as his very official style and title obvioudy imports^ 
if there be one office more than another which requires the 
exercise of unusual oauticm, temper, and discretion, unqoea- 
tionably it is his. In our ordinary courts, the icoiinael 
for the prosecution, at least on all capital and serious cases» 
habitually refrains, — ond, if he did not do. so fcom a correct 
knowledge of his duty, the judge would take careto.oonr 
fine him within its strictest lines— ^from any thing which 
can have the sfightest tendency to prejudiice the aiHSHsedTrr 

Trial of Mr. John Smith, Missionary. 331 

ind, satisfying himselT with a condeiM^d %iit correct out- 
ine of what lie expects to prove by legal eridence, be 
jarefrtlly avoids every topic of aggravation against him — 
md is boand as invariably to give him the benefit of every- 
:he minutest circumstance that operates in his favour. 
Should he, however, fail in discharging his duty, the judge 
8 proverbially the prisoner's friend : to the side of mercy he 
B bound to lean, and in his charges to the jury, his decisions 
ipon points of evidence and of law, he must, and does, allow 
he slightest hesitation upon his mind, to turn the scale on 
he prisoner's side. As performing, therefore, in a manner^ 
he double duty of counsel for the prosecution, and of the 
udge charging the jury upon the evidence, it especially 
becomes a judge advocate to act upon tim twofold merciftil 
n'ovision of our English law, as administered in its ordinary 
courts; and such, we believe; is thig course uniformly ob- 
;erved atbome. But instead of it, what is the conduct of* 
he advocate-general, Victor Amadius Heliger, and his 
Lssistant, Mr. Smith, who, from the indisposition of bis 
)rincipal, discharged the more important and delicate part 
>f his functions, in the reply, or charge, for it may be char- 
acterized as either, and is, in fact, a combination of both?' 
The former, instead of giving in his opening speech a brief 
)ut accurate outline of the evidence he should adduce in- 
letail — inHtead of informing the court of the character of 
lis Witoesses, and cautioning them, as he was bound to do,' 
)f the strong suspicion to which the testimony of tiie prin- 
cipal of them was exposed, from their having been them- 
selves actors in the insurrection, which they now came for- 
vard to charge Mr. ^mith with excHting, and that tiierefore 
bey were, by law, unworthy of credit, unless they wefe 
confirmed, in l^ome important part 6f their story by other 
ind more credible witnesses, — instead of this, he merely 
itates to them in a speech, which it would take him, at the 
itmost, five minutes to deliver, the circumstances which he 
should prove, as indicative of the prisoner's guilt; one half 
3f which he should have known, if he has any thins about 
lim of a lawyer but the name, could be no legal, evidence in 
:he case. We give the speech entire, as well for the pur-. 
)08e of enabling our readers to compare the offences stated, 
ivith those attempted to be proved, and averred, by the court, 
to have been so, aa to shew how utterly deetitute it. was of 
that information^ as to the nature and character of the tea* 
timony and witnesses to be produced, which can alone ren- 
ier the address of a public prosecutor serviceable to a court- 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 3. 2 a 

332 Review. — MiHute$ of Evidence on the 

and jury on Iheoae haiid^ or the prisoner on. the other. By it 
the fofmer ought to be infonned of the point* to which their 
att^aAion should be particularly directed^ in eoonecting the 
chain of evidence by which the guilt of the accused is 
sought to be established, and in determining how far that 
evidence is credible or admissible in point of la^, (for what 
cannot legally be proved, according to the strictest rules of 
evidence, must never be adduced in statemeut;) whilst the 
ktter is so far aporised of who and what are to be sworn 
against bim^ aA that he may be the better able to manage 
his defence. But that which was wai^ting in statement at 
the beginning of the trial, was superabundantly made up 
for at the close, where nothing but what was strictly proved 
should haivie been sumined up ia the reply of the advocate, 
i^hilslaU that was doubtful or contiadlcled should have 
been laid aside. That this waa not done,, but that, on the 
contrary, every thing that could a^ravate the prisoner'a 
crime, all that could inflame, irritate, and mislead his judges, 
was dexterously^ but most unjustly and unprofes^ionaily, 
reserved for a stage oi the proceedings, at which the mouth< 
of Hbe siccused was closed, and he could have no opoortunity 
of expo$ing or commenting upon the falsehood of bis pro- 
Sieeutors' statements, his. imsrepresentations of the evidence, 
or the injustice and unfairness of his deductions from it, wie 
tindertake to prove, when the more convenient . period foir 
doing so< shall have arrived. At present we but traas^ibe 
the opening speech of the judge-advocatcj as given m th^ 
paitUam^ntary n^K^rt:-^ 

f^ * Itmf itplease the Court': 

" *• Kfcnrioua to mj ptocoodiag tothe psaof of the cfaasges ^Mck 
baaw beeu. preferred by ne agatnsi the priaonei^ I feel itiweessaiy 
t^ ifftake ft bsief statement of the case^. in ord^ to faciUtate thia 
proviBg^of the chfirg^s so preferred. I shall first adduce ia evi* 
deuce, that die prisoner, even from the beginning of his arrival in 
this colony, has begun to interfere with tlm complaints of the dif- 
ferent negroes upon the estates in the district where he has been 
admitted ai a regular missionary. I shall further adduce evidence, 
tnat this, interference has not only related to the negro population, 
and their management, bnt also wi^ regard to die acts and deeds 
of the consdtntOT airtfaorities of tins our country ; that this kind of 
interferenee has cfeated dfecontent and dissatisftietkm atnongst 
thsit pari, via^ fbe aegio popuiatieii of this eefany ; that even far» 
opiiiiott oi ^ke opipiMskm under whiob ihey Ittour bfonght him to 
thai pointy thai he. coisidBMd it neosssaEy to expound to. them Mtb 
pads of dia gospel eilirely robtbitt. to- the ap|»esaed state in vMsh 
ha consideMeAd^ ta be^ It dbntf, further ^peas to 70U in avi^ 

Trial qfSAw, John Smi^ Mismnar^. 

deAeei thai thi» ka» UA a4 laaC le the tearing asuiider the tiec vhich 
formevly uBited mttiter and slsnre; and that o^nsevolt was the 
consequenoe of tkia state of discoDt^nt in wtuch they had, been 
brought. It wiU also appear, that before the revolt broke out, the 
prisoner was aware, not only of the intendedrebellion to take place, 
not only several days before, hut also on the day Immediately pre- 
ceding the breaking out of l^e revolt. It shall be proved, that it 
was not only a bare knowledge of the intended revolt, but he even 
did consolt and advise a& to the difficulties they would have to 
encounter from* his majesty's' troops, and from the white inhabitants 
of the colony. It shall be proved, that, with this knowledjge upon: 
his mifiNl, he nevev arttemptedto give any information herec^ to the 
coMrtiSiited' asflborides ; that^ eveil on Ae day of the revolt^ whMt 
Utak plaoein tkeevennigfttie pruMMier iras itr town, but that be left 
towB willHMii having* made that disBloSure^ which, as a flothful and 
loy«iV subject, he was bpiind tO' do: not oii4y this, but it shall alao ; 
be provsidy that during thepros6si^nrof the vevok, ii0t only nSr 
attieinpt was made, of an^^ di#closuna on his side, but even^ Aot 
immediatfily after the beginning 0f the revolt, on the first and.ser 
cond day, the prisoner didcoirespoDd with one of the insurgents, at 
a time when he well knew thaif that insurgent was in open rebel- 
lion ; not only that he did correspond with him, but he even did not 
attempt to secure that insurgent, or to give such notice to the con- 
stituted authortd'es by which that insurgent could have been laid 
hold of; that Ihougfa, perhaj^s, the prisoner at the moment might 
havefimnd sene difficulty in eonteying this intelligence to the 
proffer anihority, that obttruetion or dimcidty was enlsrely taken 
away an the followtag day, when a detachment of nntilfa afrived at 
the dwelMog of the/pasQDev, and by wbkh he was enaUed to grve' 
such infennation as a loyal s^tb^ect he wcis <Miged to do. This, 
gentlemeAv is a baef statement of the case^ and acccndiag to thei 
course whieb, in calling of: the evidenoe, I intend to puisne/ " 
[Ibid. pp. 7« &} 

With respect to tlie first head of eviden<^, ibat whicli' 
went to prove the gen^nJ conduct of Mr. Smidi towards 
tbe negfo population, llrott tl|e day of hie cOn^meiicing his 
foDctionsF amongst them as a imasianar^ downward, ik> onef 
possessaag the slightest aoquftintaaee vrkh the Drbceedins^si 
of our courts, can surely need to be reminded, Uiat it conUE 
not be eridence aA all. By the. hm» of Eagfeod, a man 
must be bsovght to trial for a specific offence^ of which^ the 
indielnent or wriittn chavge agaibst him is to mform him, 
with all the acMimcy of time and plaee which the natrmre-of 
tbo case will admit' of ; but in is not td be» tedured, that he 
k to be caHed upon to answer for the conduct of his whole 
Kle, or even for any portion of it beyond that occupied in 
tiie diatinct offifrnoe with which he is definitely charged. 

334 • Review.-^Mmutes of Evidence on the - 

Biren oti an indictment for con8f>iracy, thut drag-net of the- 
law 80 often resorted to by skiiftil practitioners, where all 
other modes of securing a conviction fail, the evidence mttst 
be confined to acts done in prosecution of the individual 
purpose charged ; and in these proceedings all the legal re- 

Siuisites of a conspiracy are wanting alike in substance as in 
orm. Were it not thus, no man could be safe, for who 
amongst us, when suddenly called upon, and at a moment 
too which our accusers would have the opportunity of select- 
ing, because we were then the least prepared^ could adduce 
witnesses to speak to the whole course and conductof hiftlife 
— a responcfibility from which the best might sht ink— -a dif- 
ficulty which the wariest would be unable to surmount. 
Were it otherwise, the difficulty of bringing home a paitictt- 
lar felony or other crime to an individual, might readily be 
obviated by proving him habitually a thief, a libeller, 8ic. 
instead of which, such is the proper jealousy of our law of 
mixing up any thing prejudicial to a prisoner with the accu- 
sation for which he is upon trial, that no previous bad cha- 
racter or dishonest transaction, not even conviction after 
conviction, is allowed to be given in evidence against him. 
AH this, w^ need scarcely remark^ is put but by way of illus- 
tirating .the shameful inattention to the first principles of 

I'urisprudence displayed upon this trial, not from any appre- 
tensipn that the chairacter and conduct of Mr. Smim would 
not ^tand the severest scviitiny which his enemies miffht 
ohuse td*in^tute; yet such a scrutiny was, we repeat, highly 
improper and < illegal before snch a court, whilst sitting in 
jnctgatent upon such a charge. It was also subject to 
another objection, equally fatsu to its legality, namely, that 
it had relation entirely to circumstances occurring* previous 
to UiQ 'Proclamation of maijtial la^w, whilst the court; had kiot 
even the ; shadow of an authority to sit in judgment, but 
QUjofii^nc^s .committed sfij>seqtieajt' to Auch .prociamation, 
whenqe only . could its jurisdiction, isuch as it was;» by any: 
po^f^bility arisie, iBut. to this. point we bhall have occasion 
tO|];e£pii again..] *w . • , ■ . 

,, ThQ next point in ocdeir, ifi:tha exjbraosdinaiy jf^ieoe of evi- 
dence ^ditPedy to support this ^weepine condemnation of 
the genersl conduct of the aooduaed, m Sis. private jeoriidU 
i^ommenciag. in Afiirch«.1817, an exteaet from which, made 
oi^ the, last, day^ of' that mdniSh ahd year, iWAs received 
in evidence of an abetting a revolt of the negroes o^die 
island in Augufift> 1S23. This most bare&cea. sub veraion 
of every principle of justice, cdntains in if so. many .flagrant 

Trial of Mr. John Smithy MissioMtty. 335 

perversions of the very first prineiples of the Itw of evi- 
dence, that vte know not how to express our astonishment 
at its having been permitted in a court, in which men call- 
ing themselves lawyers conducted' the prosecution, and an 
English barrister, who, the leading member of his profes- 
sion in England, vouches to be a lawyer, and therefore, ^e 
believe, sat as a judge. Besides what, a» a lawyer, he 
must have known, had he even been the merest tjro, — the 
greatest booby, in iiis profession,-— that no man can- be an- 
swerable in law for the contents of any writing which he 
has not ia some way published to others, (for whilst in his 
own custody, and submitted tano eye but hia, it can do no 
more barm uian would have been done, had the record of his 
thoughts been impressed but (m his memory,) surely no 
member of the court, who had received the » educatioln of a 
gentleman, could be ignorant of the gross injustice done to 
Algernon Sidney, under the auspices of the blood-thirsty 
and tyrannical Jefferies, in producing as evidence agninat 
him, some manuscript discourses on government, taken,- as 
was Mr. Smith's journal, from among his private papers,*^ 
written, as was the greater part of ih^t book, for bis private 
amusemcint,—- and,'as was the case here, never having been 
communicated to a single person^ not even to his wife. 
" The execution of Sidney," says the hightprerogalive his- 
torian Hume, ''is regarded aa <me of the. greatest blemiiBheli 
of this reisn. The evwence against hina, it must/be confessed, 
was not legal, and the jury who condenined him wer^ lor 
that reason viety blameable." And what he has said of the 
reign of the second Charles, and those who illegally con- 
demned the gallant Sidney, will'iu far less measured terms 
of condemnation be applied by every one who knows aught 
of the legal institutions of his country, and the rights of its 
citiiens, to the island in which, and the judges by whom, 
the persecuted Smith was condenmed to as hard and; un^ 
merited a fate. 

They went, however, far beyond the hardihood of Jefferie% 
and the obedient mimisters of his diabolical purposes; foi, 
admitting, for the^sake of argument, the liegality of the evi- 
denceof this journal, it is not a clearer proposition in matbe- 
roatios, that two and two make. four, tnan it is an acknow- 
ledged principle of the law of evidence, that when a writte(0 
document is put in^ it mustbe read entire, and not in garbl,ed 
extracts, which, detached from each other, may, as every one 
knows, be: made to convey sentiments as* opposite to those 
of the writer, as is light to darkness. . By such a propedure. 

ZM ftevkw. — Mimutes tjf JEvidenfie ou Ihe 

tbe bible ttsdf tnay,nide«d,'be loottveriod into^be mosl bhis* 
|dieniou8 of books ; and tliat ** these is tne Qod" my he sent 
Jbrdi into tiie wodd u the dedaffiation of My mviii if you 
detiich it from its eonaexioci, as tfare mpioo^ declaiaticn of 
the bojasting fod. Why the vAiole jo«inial we» not read, i| 
is ivot difficilit to guess^ as^ from tbe tone of wbat lias bee9 
sdeoted, it must be evident, diat it contained si«c)i ofien<> 
uive isnth, oosoing ^mA too closely bome^ there is every 
ffeason to mqppose^ to tbe basiaess sad «tbe bosoms 9i ih^m 
who mfete Us anthor^s prosecutosa or bis judges* 

Brotestiog 4ihenifese» in .the sttongesA Uumu figfiinst 
Hhe strikine; pervvrsioii «f eireiy |MriBcif)le of jwst^c^ exr 
liibited in the production of idiese sneFe prtvAle mowa s n MMk 
against the indtridual wiu> jnade tbem^ we yei cbiiai^ 
ai<»t from tlie examinaitson of them as tpioeia, net ot what 
they were selected for, tiie gaak o( Mr. Saiii^^ bat cf his 
innocence^unlessy indeed, it be a icrime ta « saw to fee) 
lor title miseries of his fellow me?^, to hum wilh indig* 
nation when he sees then treated with w^ve eruel indignity 
than tbe brutes wUch pecish. and to long* itpd bope^ and 
fray for the arrival of l^at -happy period wbim ihe iiegro 
man be delivered from his fetters^ aad wtdk abroad in the 
iiiU and erect dignily of man. And if this ba a crinie«**Hratber 
-WKMiM we svicrforitlSieidaath.of Mr.SmitJkf than eadpre 
iMreafter llie seIf«<opbia]iliBg tevmeiita of tiiosa^ w^ase 
wishes and wbose liofies (for pay aMHUwdly they dara not) 
are breathed and formed but for ^£e oontiHttatloa of a system 
<>f tyranny, and coatnmely, and wrong, worthy bat of fiends 
instead of men. Tbe first offence wStfi whtdi he is icharged 
4a this strange record of his ains, b AaA of preventing jthe 
negro aciembers of his flock from living in a stat9 of 
uddtery, and reconciling them by the force of his christian 
^admonition to e^ch otbnr. Is thiJB, we ask» treason even 
againift iDia ataitevof Demarara? Assuredly it is not, but' 
rather the quiet and unostentatious performance of one of 
Ae moat <rtme«s xtaAes Df a minister of tbe gospel of Jesus 
«Cbrist Anotber accusation is, Aat when some of Ae ne- 
groes bad "complainedto himiof varyaevere treatm^t,be told 
otte of d^e^r overseeifB that ha thoagkt ha nrould work tbem 
to 4eaMi ( and the ^recovd of Us humane maaonslurajMe, §or 
fcis prilrat^ wse, is, at a distance of six yeam,^rtvaly adduced 
W the public prosecutor of die cdony, as a proof of treaaoAr 
a^le intentions against tiie king and govemmeoit* Never 
sure was such a perversion of justice and common sense ex- 
hibited in any court since the 4ays of Jeffiodas and the 

Trial of Mr. John South, Mimomuy. 337 

Popish plot. But in the pment case it is not singtilar in 
illegality or absurdity, as» among other of the judge advo- 
cate's notable proofs of treason, selected with great care from 
the private repository of the offender's Aoaghts, are the jfol- 
lowing opinions on tne state of slaverjr in the island, as daily 
exhibited before his eyes, and which, in spite of Mr. Fiscal 
Victor Amadius Heliger's denunciation of them, we hesi- 
tate not to pronounce alike honourable to their writer*s head 
and heart. 

*^ * September 13, 1817, page 17.--11iis evemng a negre belong- 
ing to ■ ■ ■ ■■ , came l» me, saying, the maatger was ao 
cruel to him Ihat he ooukl not bear it. AoeordiD|^ to the ttan*« 
acceoat, some time back, (two or throe yearn,) he, with a few otbws, 
made comfdaints of the sane thinff to the &wai, oa which aocaaoi 
the maaagtr has taken a great dialm to him, and scarcely ever aaeels 
him without caning him as he passes by : the puoishmeat which be 
inflicts npon him, dreadfully serere ; for every little thing he flogshim. 
I believe Ned to be a quiet harmless man ; I thiak he does his 
work very well. A manager told me himself, that he had punished 
many negroes, merely to spite Mr. Wray. I believe tfie laws of 
jusdoe, which relate to negroes, are <m\f known by name; Mr 
^ile I am writing ibis, the driver is floggmg the people, and net* 
ther manaeer nor overseer near/ '^ [Ibid. p. 9.] 

'^ ^Smi&y, 19th July, 1818=.— I felt my spirit m^ve widiin ma 
at the prayer meetiag, bv hearing we of the negroes pray most affiM*- 
tionaiely AaX Ckxi would overrule the opposition wmch the pl^MiitasS 
make to leligion, for his own glory; in such an unaffected strain 
he hreathed out his pious complamt, and descended to so mais^ 
particulars relative to the various arts which are employe^ to.V^ 
them from the house of God, and to punish them for th^ir firmness 
in religion, that I could not help diiuking that the time is not fa^ 
distant, when the Lord will make it manifest by some wipiA judg- 
meot, diathe hath heard die cry of the oppressed. Ex. in. 7,6/ ** 

"/March 2iAj 1619.— Vhflc writing fliis, my very temt flut- 
ters at hearing the almost incessant craclong of the whip. Haviaig 
JHSt fmished veading Mr. Walker's lietters on tiie West Indies/i 
have ihoaght much of the treataeaa of the negroes^ and iihewfae 
the state' of Viheir saiads. It flfipeavs te me wary pfobable^ that 
eee loa^ they will resent die ii^iries done to thtm. I sheipld^ai^ 
it my duty (|e elate my ofiioioa respeeting thiSi 4o some of thexule^js 
of the ^colooy^ Imt am fearfalyirom the conduct of the fiscal m thie 
late isffiiir^ of the negroes being worked on Sunday, that thejf 
would be ifore soliciiouB to silence me, by requiring me U> crimi- 
nate seme individual, than to redress the wrongs done to the slaves, 
by diligently watching the conduct of tTie planters themselves, and 
bringing them to justice (without the intervention of mission- 
aries,) when they detect such abuses of the law as so frequenrty 
take place.* 

.338 Revkw.^Mviuies of Evideoct oh the 

** ' 17tli November 1821. — Yesterday evening we bad not more 
than filly at the cbapel; indeed, 1 cannot expect many more till 
the coffee and cotton are gathered in; the people have scarcely any 
.time to eat their food ; they have none to cook it — eating, for the 
most party raw yellow plantains : this would be bearable for a time, 
but to work at that rate, and to be perpetually flogged, astonishes 
me that they submit to it.' " [Ibid. p. 10.] 

"'July 15. 1823. — Mrs. de Florimont and her two daughters 
called to take leave of us; they are going to Holland. Mrs. de F. 
says, she is uncertain as to her return to the colony. Hamilton, the 
manager, came in with them. His conversation immediately turned 
upon the new regulations which are expected to be in force; he 
dedared, that if he was prevented flogging the women, he woold 
keep them in solitary confinement without food, if they Were not 
panotual with their work; he, however, comforted himself in the 
belief, that the project of Mr. Camming will never be carried into effect ; 
and in this I certainly agree with him. The rigours of negro sla- 
very, I believe, can never be mitigated; the system must be 
aboUshed.' " [Ibid. p. 12.] 

Nove» bearing always in mind that this journal veas the 
mere private depository of his thoughts and reflections on 
v^hat he bkw, may we not safely ask, whether it were pds* 
Bible for any man of common humanity, whose feelings were 
vnbrutalized by a long residence in a land of slavery; to 
express himself with more moderation upon the cruelties 
which he daily saw, than does Mr. Smith'. Who could see 
negro' drivers flogging negro slaves (the women, perhaps, as 
is often the case, because they would not submit to their 
brutal lusts) in the absence both of manager and overseer, 
without being convinced, from these repeated infractions 
of the colonial law, that justice to the nesroes was here 
but a name? As to the opinion, that, if the West India 

i>lanter8 continue the system of tyranny, which they have 
ong adopted towards their wretched slaves ; if they deny 
them the opportunities of religious instruction, and have 
them flogged for attending church or reading the word of 
God, the period will arrive, when that God will take a fear- 
ful vengeance for the insults offered to his holy name, and 
the outrages committed on the intelligent creatures of his 
hand; — as to that opinion, we may also unhesitatingly ask. 
Is it peculiar to Mr. Smith? So fiir from its being so, the 
powerful eloquence of the advocates for the abolition of 
slavery, as well as of the slave-trade, has again and again 
thundered the sentiment and the denunciation in the ears 
of the assembled legislature of the land f and we ourselves 
are of the number of the thousands and millions of our 

Trial of Mr. John Smithy Missionarj/, 339 

countrymen, who entertain the same opinion as to the re- 
sult of an obstinate perseverance in the present system of 
We^t Indian slavery. It astonishes us/as it astonished him, 
that the negroes will submit to it; and if they are not re- 
strained by the operation of those very precepts which the 
planters madly take such pains to prevent their imbibing, 
we doubt not but the period will too speedily arrive, when 
they will become the avengers of their own accumulated 
wrongs. We believe, with Mr. Smith, we believe with 
every real Christian^ that the ** rigours of negro slavery can 
never be mitigated ; the system must be abolished.^' Yet 
the thinking dius-^for the recording of his thoughts in a 
journal never submitted to the inspection of a- single eye, 
was no more culpable towards the public, than had he only 
thought in the recesses of his mind>— is made an evidence 
of treasonable intentions in Mr. Smith ; whilst we, and all 
his countrymen at home, may publish in the streets and 
upon the house-tops,— may circulate through the medium of 
the press, to the utmost and most distant region of the earth, 
where the English language is known and read, — this, and 
a thousand bitterer trut^Si offensive to the feelings, ai^d 
therefore, according to this new version of our colonial law, - 
treasonable against the majesty, of the planters of Demerara. 
But if these records of his thoughts are indicative of that 
right feeling in Mr. Smith, which every man ought to 
cherish with respect to his fellow-man, aim we challenge a 
contradiction of^ their being so, we have quoted passages 
firom the journal, as given in evidence against him, which so 
clearly prove his innocence of all intention to instigate the 
negroes to revolt, that we are almost tempted to suspect, 
that Mr. Fiscal and judge-advocate Victor Amadius Heli- 
ger, must have been either mad or drunk when he selected 
tliem as evidences of his guilt. Of this nature is the extract 
of March 22, 1819, in which Mr. Smith records his wish to 
have intimated to ihe rulers of the colony, what he knew of 
the irritated state of the minds of the negroes near three 
years and a half before the revolt broke out, arising from 
that ^' almost incessant crackine of the whip," at which his 
heart well might flutter^ but that he was restrained from 
doing so from a fear, founded on past experience, that his 
information would be used in a manner necessarily de- 
structive of his influence as a missionary, in which charac- 
ter he had alike to conciliate the master and the slave ; and 
rendering also equally unserviceable to the government off 
the colony, any private information which his station might 

^40 Remew.--'MiiitUe$ of Evidence on the 

enable him to procure. A better reason could not therefore 
have been urged, for not havinggiven information of the in- 
tentions of the insurgents, even had he known diea), than 
his own joomal furnishes, especially when it is evident, 
from the whole case, that he exerted all his inflnence to 
suppress every feeling of hostility to the established govero- 
aaent, in the minds of his negro flock. The first of the ex- 
pression of his feelings upon this subject having been re- 
corded in a private journal more than three years before any 
linsurrectionafy movement was contemplated, must, in every 
candid mind, weigh infinitely more in his favour than any 
thing he could say in his defence ; and thus, as on other parts 
of the case, as we shall shew iinmediately,the avidity of his 
persecutors to procure the convictioo of thie injfired man 
at any rate, has had the contrary effect of establishing bis 
innocence, by more unquestionable evidence than it was in 
his power to have adduced* 

One of the charges of the advocate-seneralia Us opening 
speech, is, that Mr. Smith's opinion ofthe oppressuMi under 
which die negroes laboured, ** brought him to that point, 
Ithat he thought it necess^y to expound them such parts of 
the holy gospel entirely relative to the oppreeeed stfite in 
which he considered them to be.'' We cannot make good 
English of this Anglo-Dutch lawyer's foolish accusation, 
but the «ompletes(t reftttation to it is funushed by himself in 
Ihe ftdlowing eixtmct, read by him in evidenpey froas the 
loumal ofthe accuaed : — 

'^ *The next passage is of Friday, AsgusI the 84li, 1817, aid 
fuas as follows: 

*^^A great number of people at chapel. Fnam Genesis xv« 1. 
Kseing passed over the latter part of chapter 13» as eontainis^ a 
^tonM^<ii deUuerance fiwn [tbeae two words partly erased,, but 
perfeody legible] the land of CaDaao, I was apprebaasive ibe i)»- 
groes might put such a constraction upon it as I would not wish; 
for I lell them that some of the promises, &c which are made to 
Abraham and others, will apply to the Christian state^ It is easier 
to make a wrong impressiofi upon their minds^ than a r^ht one.* ^ 
[Ibid. p. 9.] 

He is acoused also cf bwvin^ so mtrnjercidintli Aeiacte 
anddeedsoftfae coonttlntedaatlMiities^asfta hare era 
negroee to rebeliion mgikntk tiiem ; and the inDef of at 
mkhicied, and relied npofi by the piosecQibr, is^ thmt uriieBi 
the gpovernor adntrardy and luumuumaibly t«<|iiired the 
negroes going te the mission chapels, lo be fiir&ijihed.'wkh 
Imaaea from their masters, which those mfstais nugPit gm 

Tml of Mr. J(^\\ Smilh, Mimnmry. 341 

or refuse at plioasiure, wd which were not required ibr ne* 
groes goiag eUewhere upon the aabbajdi« he was guilty of 
tlie treaaoaable act of thua ifvriting down in his private jour- 
aal his advice to tbeai» to submit, as Christians, even to these 
barsh and iU^al commands of their superiors. 

^* * While at breakfast this morning, I received a communication 
from the burgfaer-captaio, enclosing a printed circular from the 
governor, containing on one side an extract from a letter of Lord 
Liverpool, as secretary of state for the colonies, to governor Ben- 
tick, dated 16th of October, 181 1, and on the other side a com- 
ment written by the colonial secretary, in the name of governor 
ftiuiray, ej^aining it to their own taste. The substance of this 
comiaeDt is to persuade the plaatecs not to allow the shtvts to at- 
tend the chapel on Sundays wiU^^ut a pass, and in an iodiiiect asan* 
ner^ not to aUow them to come at all in the evening, and even on a 
Sunday to send an overseer with the 8lav9S, as judges of the doc- 
trine we pr«ach. The circular appears to sne designed to throw 
gm impediment m the way of the slaves rooeiving iDstruettOBy under 
colour of a desire to meet the wishes, or rather, ooraplying wkh the 
commaudsy of his majesty's government/ 

« < June 9\hf 1823, — Several whites were present, piofessedly 
jis spies.^ 

<< ' 2Sti June, 1823. — Isaac, of Tnumph, camera to ask whe^er 
the governor's new law, as he ccdled it, Ibnbad the slaves meeting to* 
geth^ on the estate to whiofa they ibelong, of an ^vmime, for the pur- 
pose of kanung th^ aateebi»si» Their manager, he said, had 
threatened to pMiab them if they heU any meetsig. I informed 
him, that the law gave ihe nianager oo such power, and that'k hmi 
nothing to do with that subject; siiU I advisied them to ghre it «q^ 
rather than give ofience and be punished, and to take cans to ask inr 
their passes eaifyon Supday morniqgs^and come lx> the duqpel to 
be catechised.' ^ [Ibid. p. 1 1.] 

And this, inDeina^ara,i8 inciting ^ vebellion, aadteadiiB^ 
diflohedience to constituted aul&oriities i We aay nothing 
on suchlaw and logic, but that in this geoerati<m, eiid in thai 
island, there ^e who caJli ligM d^kne^s (9ikd darbleas 
light. Could any injustice or abBui4ity surprise ua kk ihe 
proceedii^ of such men^ it would ussuredly be the Amuat 
foUy of cominittiag % flaginuat violation pf the iveiy fi«st prior 
cii>lea of the laiw cf ev^woe, to pipduoe^ 00 proeA of tlia 
guilty intentions of the ^^iiae4> ihwe vieqr pASSttes mim 
jouxnal which his ^^ounsel would most faAyewi3bed,ta be 
read as the strongest proofs of his iAttOceojey^ could they 
legaUy have been addtu^ed as ovidence in his bebajf*. Sunk 
precisely is the chapaoter of the quotatioiis lant mada» to 
which w# ft4d apirfj^r pa«aage firom die sme JMi^ud, 

342 Review. — MiNiUes of Evidence on the 

quoted by Mr. Smith in his defencip, and which ou^ht, in 
common fairnenB and honesty, to have been given in evi- 
dence by the prosecution, by whom indeed, as we have 
already intimated, the whole and every part of this private 
document ought to have been read. We give the passage 
of the prisoner's address, in which it is referred to eatirie, 
because to us it appears an unanswerable proof of his inno- 
cency of that intention, whose guilt was the principal ob- 
ject for which, in his own strong language, '* that journal 
has been dragged forth from the privacy inr which it was 

" It is not, however, necessary to have recourse to subtleties or 
specious arguments, to disprove that I have interfeted in the treat- 
ment of the negroes ; there has been no evidence adduced in sup- 
port of this assertion of the prosecutor: nay, my own journal, under 
date, 21 St March, 1819, ought to be suflicient evidence on my 
behalf: 'I wish the negroes would say nothing to me of their 
troubles, which arise from the severe usage of their managers, &e. 
as it is not my business to interfere in such concerns, and- only 
obliges me to treat such conduct with apparent indifference, and 
behave with coolness to those who relate it.' In corroboration, 
Bristol, one of the deacons, a constant attendant of the chapel, and 
continually present at the services, swears ' thait some people com- 
plained of being licked for not doing the work on a sabbath ; they 
might have complained to Mr. Smith for something else, but I do 
not know it The prisoner does not listen to the complaints of the 
negroes, only when they come to complain of what I have just 
spoken. He said, if there was any such thing, (t. e. flogging'the 
negroes, for coming to chapel,) he, the nq^, must go to the fiscal 
or governor.' Some of the planters have referred Sie qnarreb' of 
Uie negroes to me to be settled." [Ibid. pp. 58, 69.] 

But before we turn from this written evidence, so illegally 
produced, yet serving so very different a purpose to that for 
which the law was so grossly violated in its production, we 
will, in fairness, quote one passage, which would, we admit, 
under certain circumstances, have exposed the writer to 

J>rosecution and to punishment, even in an English conrt of 
ustice. We refer to the follovring remarks upon the gover- 
nor, who had thrown every possible impediment in the way 
of Mr. Smith's availing himself of a grant of land by a Kberal 
planter, for the erection of a chapel. 

" '.October 21st, 1822. — ^Just returned from another fruitless 
journey; have been for the answer to my petition, but was again 
told, by the governor's secretary, that nis excellency had not 
given any order upon it, but that I might expect it to-morrow. I 
imagine the governor knows not how to refuse wiUi any cokmr of 

Trial of Mr. John Smith, Missionary. 343 

lason^but ia determined to give me as much trouble as possible, 
; the hope that I shall weary of applying, and so let it drop; but 
s puny opposition shall not succeed in thai way, nor in any other 
timately, if I can help it Oh, that this colony should be eoyerned 
f a man who sets his face against the moral and religious improve- 
ent of the negro, slave ! but he himself is a party concerned, and 
) doubt solicitous to perpetuate the present cruel system, and to 
lat end, probably adopts the common, though not [most] false 
)tion, that the slaves must be kept in brutal ignorance. Were the 
aves generally enlightened, they must, and would, be better 
eated.* " [Ibid. p. 10.] 

We have said, that this might have been punishable in 
ir courts, bat it would not be as a private paper, indicative 
r treasonable conduct in the writer, tbongh if it had been 
tiblisbed, instead of being locked up in a desk for his own 
36, it might have been held to be a libel, and not the less so 
I that it appears to have been true. We much doubt, how- 
rer, whether his excellency would have ventured, in such a 
ise, to appeal to a jury of his countfy against a man, to 
horn, on his introduction to him ad missionary to the 
3groe8 under his government, he communicated, with far 
ore freedom than courtesy, his liberal and enlightened 
iews of ruling them, in the threat, worthy of a barbarian 
liief , " If ever 1 know you teach the slaves to read, I will 
Binish you from the colony/' The man who publicly acts 
lusy has no very great reason to be astonished, if, on break- 
ig open private depositories of the papers of those to whom 
is intentions have authoritatively been communicated, the 
imarks upon his conduct should not be quite so adulatory 
3 he might wish. 

This irrelevant and illegal chaise of general misconduct, 
as also attempted to be supported by the evidence of a 
irpenter named Bond, who deposed to a desultory conver- 
ition with respect to slavery, in which Mr. Smith took 
art, a year previoos to the time at Which the witness was 
died to speak to it. In the nature of things, therefore, his 
^collection of it must have been veiy imperfect ; and it 
roved so entively vague and uncertain, thdt ne remembered 
othing about the conversation, but ^at it was generally 
bout slavery. What Mr. Smith said, he kiiewnbt, except 
lat aenoes would do as well in the West Indies without 
le whites ; (aiid who doubts that they might readily dis- 
ense with such white people as are most of the flogging 
lanters of Demerara?) that he added something about St. 
Domingo, but what he had forgotten ; and something more 

944 Rehiew.-^Mikakt cf Eoidatce on the 

upoD Ibe subject^ of idriok ke tememhemA neMwr^fviriffiior 
subsUnoe^ aa;v6 that Mr. Smith appeared to be €M>ftfeoiid^d. 
Tki» loesm eridenee, which no covAsei at ^le English bar* 
would have vettturedto offer, andwhich^if he had offered it, 
no judge would have received, is then attempted to be patched 
«p by the recollections of Mr. Mc Wait, an overseer of a 
plantation, who seems to be but little more ax^curate in his 
memory than his friend Mr. Bond, thou^ be 4oea admit,, 
that the prisoner, in alluding to the bettering, of tlie (iondir 
tion of the slaves in the colony, by aometbing similar ta 
what had taken place in St. Domingo, expressly stated, that 
t^ influence of the missioniaaeies iS^ ot tlfef 90«p^ wMld 
prevent such scenes as wece aated dj^ne. Bnllettbe^oft^ 
versatioa have boeui what it mighl^^ it ift evidOkf tinit tiieie» 
waa nothing of an insurEeotionary sattD^iia it, n» ihe^e^wiMi 
heard it took no notice of it for a whole twelvemonih^ 
though evidently ill enough disposed towards the individual 
againat whom a few isolated senteaces of a ditddgueooeif 
Dying a considerable time^ were now adduced. Bat in the 
first place, they were not evidence at all* beeMse of Aeir 
irrelevancy, and the distance of tiioe at which they were 
spokeo ; secondly, if admissible, they were too looaely 
recollected to be relied on ; and, thirdly^ if acxnirately re- 
membered, they are no proof of any cnflie. 

We have also a long ^xaminatioit of a Mil. edr . Doctor 
Michael Mc Turk^^ — §ar he is a ge&tbsBftan fiUing ao xnany 
offices in the oology, tarn Mercmrio quam Mof^ti, that we 
know not what to cdl hifia—es to an alleged diaoibadienoB 
of an order of His Honor Mr. First Fiacat Haliger, <ihe 
jadge-advocate general on the present trial,) and* tke^said 
Mr. or DoGtorj, ia faia oooibiaed chamoter of ntedieal at- 
tendant to the plantation on which Mr. Smith waa a reai** 
dent missionary, a captwi of militia, and aber^her-captain, 
an officer whose duties, in hia own Ianguage,r it is diScoll la 
tell, — ^interdicting the att^adanoe of aayr of the nagioea off 
other estates at me missionrchapel, on account of the small- 
poa having broken out amongst the staves on Ibe plantatiMi 
on which it wsa situated. In as mueh» howeirer^ as thia di»* 
obedience,, if any was comaoitted^ oiscurrad in Decembec^ 
181d» we niight well be axcnsed tokine iratica of it BMomg 
the proo& givea of an excitement oa tika negooea of tiie 
island to rebellian in August 1823, with which it has no 
more to da than would a questiotting of cmptam Mc Tiak'a 
medical skilly ok 4octor Mc Tbxk's military tactics^ at muf 
period of b^ active and ctiequered lifi». Yet aa tbe 

I'rial of Mr. John Smithy Missionary* 345 

same lueUefift fatality attaches to this» as to hrerj oikaw 
part at the evidence adduced by bis fellow-sufferer, in 
the indignity offered to his authority* namely, that it proves 
every tning but what it was meant to prove, we wilt 
waste a word or two upon this most irrelevant and unimpor- 
tant investigation. Mr. Smith's defence is, that; conscious 
that this prohibition was a mere pretext for keeping the 
slaves from chapel, he was anxious to get it removed aa 
soon as. possible^ amd^ therefore, wrote to Dr. Mc Turk 
for his certificate of all danger of the infection having 
ceased. This was refused; on the ground, that though the 
negroes, who had aU addng been kept in a honae at the back, 
of the eataJbe, were sa completely recovered as to be sent 
back aKsin,— ttbe hoiMie itself, in which they had been scpa-' 
rated, from the rest^ having previously been burnt by Dr. Mc 
Turk huDsdlf— -he Aonght the disease might still be latent, 
from findiaff that two negroes, who had been infected wslih 
it, had not been reported to him« But Mr. Hamilton, the 
manager of the estate, swears that they wece duly reported, 
and also deposes to the truth of his repoesentations in a 
letter addressed to Df . Mc Turk himself^ on the 19th of 
Dec. )^19^ that there was no attendance by any negroes 
fron the neigbbomring. estates at the. chapel, uictil the smallf- 
pox was eottsideved by him, (the doctor,) by the manager, 
and by every pecson on the estate^ as demolished; and 
Ihongk Dr. Mc Turk denieA all this, in a letter as full of 
the i^f-importance of a man dressed in a liU^e brief antho'* 
rity, aa we ^ret recoUect to have met with, he must excuse 
us for giving at the least as much credit to the oath, of Mr. 
Humiiton^ as to his ; eapecialLy aa it appears, not only froat 
hkr own coHdnct^ and the way ia wlMh he gave bis evb" 
dence,» but from exptess tsstimoi^ upon the subject, that 
he and Mr. Sinith! had long Uuved upcoi the moat indiffeient 
terma.. Om a cross'CscafniBation by that eentleman, he was 
aaked,whetheT;iiftaconsrefsa(^^of^whicbMhadgijren every 
|fart that eontd operate i^ainst the pfiBeH3e(ir,dowato hishavu 
ing used all kinds of knguagetohnrt his (the doctor's) feet 
iQ^> he had ndtcided ani sneered at tilke idea ctf the negroes 
bong instructed in rdigion ; bnt that qaestioBL was moat 
impropeiiy,. iUe^ly,. and partially sg acted bjr thia court : 
yet ttO) nnps^ndiiced poison can for- a mament doubt that 
the Qsnslfuctinn put upon thin proksbitian, ia an extract 
frcnaa Mtv Smsdi's. jounial* giveai in^evidenca^by iS^ advoeate-i- 
gteneral^. ihat' il was pact o£ the system, of the phmtcri, 
cageriy .tai»y kohl of aay tfakig to prevent ^ir skvea at- 

346 Review.Siinutes of Hindence on the 

tending upon the ordinances of religion, ds the correct one^ 
That it was so, is, indeed, self-erident from the conduct of this 
military medicai practitioner himself, who, whilst strictly en- 
forcing the prohibition of slaves from other estates* tisiling 
the mission chapel, lest they should catch the infection there, 
left them at perfect liberty to visit, for any other purpose, tlie 
estate on which the slaves attending it were at large, and 
never prohibited any of the negroes of that estate from going 
to other plantations whenever they had occasion to do 'so. 
Either, tnerefore. Dr. Mo Turk is as ignorant or negligent 
a practitioner as was ever sent to a West India island • to 
jphysic slaves, or he lent himself at least to the hostility to 
missionary exertions in the instruction of slaves^ which the 
great body of planters there ayowedly ent^lain. That Mieh 
aversion is carried to an extent that would shock not merely 
every Christian, but every person of common hunianit^v 
Dr. Mc Turk cannot possibly deny, for he can scarcely foil 
to have heard of many proofs of it occurring in Demerara, of 
a nature little less conclusive than is afforded in an anecdote 
which has reached England, of a certain burgher-^aplain 
there, though what was the precise nature of the other 
offices which he sustained, is not so clearly ascertained. 
A negro slave was, whilst quite a lad, accused by this mili-^ 
tary hero of having stolen some trifling article; but he 
denied the charge, and, on its. being persisted in, said witli 

freat earnestness, ^^Indeed, massa, I did not tak^ it, God 
nows I did not." At this adjuration, the ordiodox Chris* 
tian captain, swearine a most tremendous oath, exclaimed, 
" God knows? what the d — ^1 do you know about God V* "O 
yes, massa," said the lad mildly, ** there is a God atop^ he 
know every thing : he know I did not steal it." The cap- 
tain, turning to one of his negroes, ordered him to spur the 
young rascal round the room ; adding, whilst he did so, ^* I'll 

teach you to talk to me about God, you , what business 

have you to know • any thing about God ?" When his 
humane commands had been obeyed with sufficient strict* 
ness, he completed his equitable punishment, by taking the 
soap from the sfaavin^-box which he was usins , and mak- 
ing the poor boy eat it before bis face« Whether this was 
one of tne instances of West Indian oppression recorded in 
Mr. Smith's journal, as making his flesh creep, and his 
blood boil within him, captain Mc Turk, and those who 
have had the inspection of his journal, alone can tell ; but if 
it is, or if it was known in the island . that its writer was 
cognizant of such fiendish cruelty, as we have every reason 

Trial o/* Mr. Jolm Smith/ Jftstumar^r 347 

to believe it was, it is easy to conceive what very impartial 
witnesses its burgher-captains, slave owners, doctors, and 
overseers were likely to make upon this trial* 

But from such testimony we pass to that of slaves them-' 
selves ; for whilst, in most of our West India islands, their 
evidence is so completely excluded from our courts, that, as 
we have shewn in a former number of our work, if a planter,' 
manager, or overseer, were to select an opiK>rtunity, when 
no white perwon was present, he might, witn impunity, whip 
to death, or o^erwise murder, as many blacks as he pleasea^ 
their testimony was fully admitted and mainly r^ed: 
upon in this court-martial, though, fit>m a passage m Mr* 
Smith's defence, which was doubtless prepared with the 
assistance of his counsel, we should be inclined to conclude^ 
in the absence of all knowledge upon the subject, that it ir 
not admissible in tho ordinary courts of Demerara. Far, 
irery far be it from us, to contend for the rejection of a^ 
man's testimonj, because his skin happens to be of a deepeir^ 
iye than ours ; for, on the contrary, we hold his incapacity 
by law to give evidence, one of the principal defects in our 
tvretched system of colonial jurisprudence, with regard to the 
greater part of which we now feel a stronger disposition thati' 
3ver to say, that justice is but its name. We are, neverthe- 
less, satisfied, that until the slaves are generally instructed 
in the truths of religion, and the sacred obligations of an 
lath, the greatest caution is necessary in probmg the truths 
)f what tney say. Gompetency to give evidence is, as every 
awyer knows, a very different thin^ from the credibility of 
^he evidence when given; and in their present state of degra- 
lation and ignorance, negroes in the West Indies must be 
seated as are children here, and not be allowed to swear t</ 
acts in court, unless it is evident that they fully under** 
stand Uie dbligationto speak the truth, the whole truths andr 
lothing but the truth, imposed upon them by^the oath they 
;ake« iVith us we examine not men and wcMuen of full age, 
)r even bo^s and giris of ten or twelve, upon this) point on- 
the voire ifire; but in the West Indies it should invariably 
je done .most stricUy, and not for form's sake only, as the 
iresomption there is as strong against the proffered witness 
snowing what he is about, as it is the otner way with us* 
\dmitting also, though this is conceding much, that they 
Lct under die known and understood obligation of an 
>ath, their narrow capacities, their limited knowledge, their 
mperfect acquaintance with our language, — all conspire- 
;o point out the necessity of placing less stress on what thiey 

VOL. vui.r— NO. 3. 2 b 

^•ff Rimem.^Hifaite$ (f SMdenU &n ike 

nky, than we «hoiiM do on simihr testimony from a well*' 
^ekuicated peirson^ be he black or white. This will obviouBly 
he the case too, in a stronger degree, where they uadertake^ 
to repeat xohversations, or give their impressions of what 
others may hare said to them. This latter obsei;vatio& 
applies wim peculiar force to the case before hs, and will 
be rery strongly illustrated by the accounts given of Mrv 
Smith^ conversations and sermons by the slaves produced 
against Inm, — the main, and well nigh the only thing they: 
were called to prove. We have thought it right to make- 
these remarks at the outset of our exanunition of their testi* 
mbny^ &ough at present we confine ourselves to that part of 
at which i^lateB to his general conduct as a missionary' 
•among iheau They prbved, then, that he {Mreaohed about 
Sattrs •driviog David into the bush, because, if he went into 
the houses he would get trouble; and about the children of 
Israel in the Red Sea ; and the Lord's making darkness and 
IJhttnd^ between the king of Israel and Moses ; Pharaoh's> 
being drowned in the sea, and Moses, when he had got over- 
it, buildinff a temple, and praying to the Lord: — and by 
doing this he was, forsooth, stirring up rebellion against the 
king and the constituted authmties, although the same wit- 
nesses positively swear, that he did not draw any compari- 
son between the persecuted Israelitea and the slaves of 
Demerara. The court, however, seemed to think the mere 
mention of this part of sacred history, in the hearing of 
a black, so enorriious an offence, that Aey examined particu- 
larly as to the number of occasions on which he had done so. 
Another crime, df like treasonable encvmity, was the teaching 
ihe danres that it wiLs wrong to work on the sabbaths-day. 
Wkfither it is so by the laws of God, no one acquainted with 
the Bible, which is part und parcel of th^ laws of his coun* 
try, can for a moment doubt* Mr. Smith was prepared to 
shew this s^n hia trial, by the quotation. of many pas<* 
sages of eenptiire; but tiiie moment he amionnoed his in* 
.tention of doing so, he was informed by the half-pay lieu- 
tenant«coIonel> who acted as president of the court, that this 
could not be allowed, as every member of the court could, if 
be pleased, read the scriptures at home ; and,«--monstrotts to 
relate of airv court pretending to be a court of justice, 
especially a British one ! — although witn«M after witness had 
been examined, as ta his perversions of scripture, as one of 
the strongest proofs of his traitorous intentions, he was not 
allowed to quote and comment on any portion of the sacred 
▼oluma in htg defence ! Of the foUowiog able» manly, and 

TrmlijfVkT. Jobq Smitfc, mf»mt». Ut 

ChmtMBummer ta ibe cbasgg, the wbole of the nmigieK 
Mdr^e^ vmk ima-ted coatmoi, from the MiesLonaty bociety'a 
copy of the trial, were omitted bj the arbitrary and illegal 
direction of the eotirt, asd were aftertrftrds struok oat by ita 
express order, by the jodge-adrocate-geDentl. 

" That I liaye taugtit the negroes that it was Binful to worlc en 
traffic on the labbath. 

"Every member of the court will, I am sure, allojf , thaj, in doipg 

BO, I taugbt ous of tbe Gut precepts inculcBted in that hoTv booid 

OQ which they have sworn to do justice. To set tfiis subjecf in' ihn 

clearett pQsable light, I will read a fev^ extracts from the sacred 

scriptures,' relative to the obl^atum qfmen, qf every condiOott of 

life, t<f abttaiitjronf labour on the sabbath, ana to keep it in a reSr 

gioiis vufuner : — £zodu«, di. xic. v. B, 1I> ''Rememherthesahbatji 

" day to keep itholy. Six days shiU thoi) labour, and do all'^y 

work: But the seveeth day is the sabbath of tbe Lord thy God; 

in it tbpi4 sbalt not do apy work, thou, nor thy son, nor tby 

" daughter, thy mag-BCryaat, nor thy maid-iervant, nor thy cst^e, 

" nor the stranger that is witUo thy gates : Foe in >ix days ^4 

" Lord ^ade heaven and earth, the sea, and ap that hi theni is, 

a^d reste^ the aeveath d^y : ffberefore tbe Lord blessed the qab- 

bath-day, and hallowed it." — Jerenuak, ch. xvii. v. 31 and 1^'. 

Thus saiXb the X^d, Take heed unto yovrs^lves, and bear no 

" burden qn the sabbath (layt nor bring it in by the gates of Jeru- 

" salem: neither carry forth a burden out of your bouses on the 

sabbalVd^y- Neitner do ye afiy Vork ; but hallow ye the sab- 

bath-d^y, a« I commanded your fathers* — Nehemiak, ch, xiii. 

v. 1$, 18. " ^n those days saw I in Judah, some treading ^ine- 

" preKiesofatbe sabbath, and fringing in sheaves, and lading asses: 

" as also i^iae,,^&pe3, and figs, and all manner of burdens. Which 

they brqugfat mto Jerusalem o;i the sabbath-^ay : and I testified 

against rfein on the day wherein they sold victuals. There dwelt 

men of Tyre alao therein, which brought fisb, and all manner of 

ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children uf Judah and 

Jermsaleia. Tben t .contended with the nobles of Judah, and 

said unto them, wl^at evil thing is this that y^ do, and profaiu) 

the SAbb^tJi-dayt Did not.yoi^ fatheu tbiis, s^nd did oot oiir 

God bring all this evil upon ub, and upon this city? fpi yfi 

bring ffqre wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbatb.**— £jief . 

ch. XX. V. 12 and 13. " Moreover also, I gave them my sab- 

• While reading this seatence, I was stopped by the presideat, 
wito said, it was quite nnueoessarr. Every member qf the coart 
could, ifihe eDoaei^ead the soriptur^s at home. I replied, i;bat I waa 
aoonsed of perverting, tlie scrip toras, and that I badnopU)«r,war <rf 
dispro nng.it, diap by shewing, from scriptore, (hat the doptrvtes I 
taught (Keite .plainly inculcated in, the. bible. The president aoswere^L 
' Yon have hnjrd.the determinaliM, and. nothing fiuther eau be said 
on the subject.' 

360 Bmew.--^Min^e$ of Eridenee on the 


** iMfthSylo be a sign between me and them, that th^ m^t know 
** that I am the Lord that sanctifieth them. But the houieof Israel 
^ rebelled against me in the wildeme9B: they walked not in, my 
'^ 8tatute99 find they despised my judgments, (which if a man do, 
** he shall live in them ;) and my sabbaths Uiey greatly polluted : 
" then I said, I woi^Id pour oat rov fun^ upon them in the wilder- 
*' ness, to consume them." — Isa.cb. Iviii. v. 13, 14. — ^' If thou turn 
'' away thy foot from the sabbath, from doine thy pleasure on my 
^* holy-day : and call the sabbath a delight, the hoi^ of the Lord, 
** honourable ; and shalt honour him, not doing thme own ways, 
** nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words ; 
** then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee 
** to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the 
** heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the Lord hath 
*^ spoken if — Lnkef ch. xxiii. v. 54 and 56. ** And that day was 
*^ the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. And the women also, 
** which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the 
^' sepulchre, and how his body was laid. And they returned, and 
*' prepared spices and ointments ; and rested the sabbath'-day, 
<< according to the commandment.^ 

<' From many passages^ which might be quoted,* it is obvious, 
that tlie violation of the sabbath by voluntary labour, which is not 
absolutely necessary, is regarded by our Maker as a heinous sin ; 
and, on the contrary, the keeping of it in a religious manner is con- 
sidered a virtue, and accepted as such, through Uie merits of the 
Redeemer. In the face of so many precepts, could / tell the 
segroes there was no harm in working tneir ground, or in going to 
market on the sabbath? was it for nt6 to dispense with the com- 
mandments of God ? Surely not. Voluntary and unnecessary labour 
on the sabbath, I disallowed. I considered it a sin, and told them 
so; and if they are properly provided, by their owners, with the 
, necessaries of life, as is asserted by all the planters, diey can have 
no absolute necessity for going to market on the sabbath. One of 
the witnesses has stated, that he heard me say, * If your master 
has any work for you to do on a Sunday, it is your duty to tell him 
that Sunday is God's day/ and that I said ii * often.' Even admit- 
ting this to be true,t which I by no means do, I would ask what 
crime have I committed? Are their masters greater than God? 
The very reverse is the case : Romeo and Bristol abundantly 
t>rove, that I taught the negroes to obey their masters, if they were 

y * The original was, ** From all these, and many more passages, 
which might be quoted,'' &o. ; bat upon the court's ordering aUthe qao- 
tations to be struck out, this passage was altered to its present state, 
t The laws of the colony secure to the slaves an exemption from 
Invotmitary labour on the ifabhath. If a planter makes his slaves 
woilc on a Sunday, he is liable to a penalty of 000 guilders for every 
slave so worked. I never heard of its being enforced, vnless the 
case of Mr. Benny, mentioned to me by the fiscal, is to be considered 
an instance. 

Trial of Mr. John Snvtth, MMma,¥y. « 351 

commanded to woik even oh a Sunday. Azbrhas sworn that Itold 
the negroes, that if half a row was left, it was not right to 6nt^ 
it on a Sunday ; and, upon cross-examination proved, Uiat I did not 
tell them not to finish the half row, but merely said it was not 
right: And who is there present that can truly say I was not justi- 
fied in this remark?" [Mis. Rep. pp. 72—74.} 

What such a set of judges would have said in answer to 
this challenge, we neither know nor care ; for really the 
opinion of men who could act upon the artant absurdity, to 
say nothing of the gross injustice, of this suppression of a 
most legitimate line of the prisoner's defence, is . beneath 
contempt. What Mr. Wray — a fellow of an English col- 
lege — a barrister — the chief-justice of a colony — can think 
oi^^or say for himself, in concurring in such a decision, (for, 
as he did not instantly and indignantly leave the court, as be 
ought long before to have done, he must be taken to have 
concurred,) we are utterly at a loss to guess. He at least 
must have been aware, it his coUeasues could be ignorant 
of it, which we doubt, that a judge is presumed to be 
acauainted with every act of parliament in the statute book ; 
ana yet would not every one coadmnn as the arrantest fool 
that ever walked the earth without a keeper, that one of their 
venerable body, who should forbid the quoting and com- 
menting upon any particular act, on account of this presum|i- 
tion, and that he might, if he chose, refresh his memory by 
looking at it at home. Yet such was the ridiculous and tyratf- 
nical conduct of the court-martial at Demerarfi before' whieill 
Mr. Smith was tried, though the chief-justice of the island 
was a member of it. But wat which is the law of the bible, 
is also the law of England, where every one knows that the 
profanation of the sabbath by secular employments is a 
statutable offence, not often punished, it is true, though that is 
not the feult of the law, but of those who ought to execute it. 
It is the law, moreover, of the colony, and where its provisions 
subject a planter, compelling his slaves to worlk a^nst 
their will on the sabbath, to a fine of six hundred guilders 
for every slave whom he so works, surely that man is., a 
meritorious supporter, instead of an incendiary breaker of 
the law, who teaches die slaves, that, as the colonial legisla- 
ture had itself taken care to protect them i^ainst being 
compelled to violate the sabbath, by punishing the master 
who should be guilty of such compulsion, it would be an 
offence in them, for which God will call them to account, 
voluntarily to deprive themselves of the benefit. of this 

m2 Hmew.-^Mma4$ of EvUente bri ike 

' Bdt ibe different tiantier in whidi thfe wifai^tstJes repeat 
W<€lAe*nstrtittiohs,t>rbves at Ctuce the fepirit in which thfey 
^re kt«i, and the i^nposaibiUiy of placing iny tdhmoe 
1it)0tt th'e 'correctn^ks bta niegro^s recbllectteh of <5otttebil- 
itiotis. Oiie and the same wltiiess, Aiot; (tijJon Whose testi- 
mony the prosecutor mainly rests this part Of his chafge,) 
fives the expression k^ " it was haird to work/' " it ^m not 
St to be worked/^ and "it wlis not right to work/' but no 
where proties any thibg like a ditetetion to them not to work, 
thoWb, if he did, we have already shewn that Mr. Smith 
was Mtfurtb«rilag th^ intentions of those v«ry colonial laws 
iwhich !he ife accused of seeking to Ovettum^ True it i8> that 
he represents him as saying, "Ihey were fools for work- 
ing on Sunday fot the sake of a few lashes/' That this 
€spre68ion'o6uld never have been us^ must, however, we 
think, be ippai^ent, from the following brief considerations. 
In the firit place, the language is not sikA as was likely to 
hwre been dsed by a per ton in Mr. Sm^ith's situation when 
donvelFsing with a slave. In the second place, the ve^y 
fiflave who represents it as haying been used to him, negatives 
ttee possibility of its haTingbeen«o,«s be expressly swears that 
;4he prisoner always advised the negroes, from the pulpit and 
otherwise, to do their ^ork,iaAd obey their mairters, and all 
in authority under them. Thirdly, the advice, not to mind 
ai few foshes, aM thB manner in whibh they are spoken of, 
is utfccriy at vritiantie with the very sti^ong expressions 
i'wiafich he constuitiy usea in his journal!, to 'denote bis 
I «ibhorrclnbe of thb ' cr ucd and degrading punishment. TlnAe 
^flttisci* w«re aeleoted by the fm)seGutor> to shew that 
(Mr. Smith Was exciting di^aatisfiaJctidti in the minds of 
the slaves, by «pekking iA ierihb of strctog and unmea- 
isurM reprehension 'of the discipline of flogging, to which 
theij^ were subjected", yet this t?itness charges him with 
'spieaking of that same punishment as a thing so Kght as to 
be scarcely worthy of a moment's consideration. Both 
these aecttMitidns ostnnot be true, aiud we have no doubt 
. a» to whi4th eiery candid reader will credit. We «J|iy 
remark fiilao, in the fcmrth and last place, and as applicable 
also to tbe tharge of forbidding the negi^oes to work on a 
sabbath in general, that had the prisoner been disposed to 
esccite dpposition to the masters on this account, a far more 

• effectual way was open to him than any he is alleged to 
have pursued, in inducing them to make a formal complaint 

• '6f an oJfence whi<5h the fiscal seems dispobed to have prose- 
cuted. A man wishing to annoy tne planters, would have 

Trial of Mm, John Smith, MAmaaiy. S8S 

takto a coarse not only destruetiiTe of their aatliarily h^ 

ErpviAff it lobe illegal, but ailnoying them to a further degree. 
y aiming at their pockets, ThU would have been at once 
a more treasonable, and a more reasonable attack upon tlie^ 
dignity, than advising their slaves quietly to be flogged, for 
what their masters were punishable for doinj^ :' an^d a^ hp 
could have done this with impunity, we may aa^ly conclude>> 
that he might have used the expressions 8W0171 tp by A^or, 
though we do not believe them, without 9(u]bjectif^gp jp^inself 
by law to any pumsh/^ept, noit eyj^n an bour^4» mpnuooment^ 
or a fine of 4 singje farthjing. 

But the whole evidence jof the other aegroes called by th& 
judge-advocate, and examined by him and his assistants, 
by the aid of every leading, and, therefore, iltegal qutestion,. 
that could be put, in onder to procure a confirmation of Ihis* 
evidence of Azor's, most completely proves, t^at all Mr. 
Smith said or did on die subject of the slaves working upo^ 
Sunday, was, in substance, that it was wrong in their mas- 
ters to compel them to dp so, but that it w^s a sin for i{irliic^ 
they must answer, not the negroes, who must dp jf^ ^hey 
told them; but would be answerable hereafter^;and ^e^du^e^ 
from the sacrament here, if 1|hey did ^ny W9^h for j^ififfi^ 
selves, or for their benefit, of tqeir own accord,, works of 
necessity alone excerpted. This is evident fromithe follow- 
ing testwpny of RomeO) Manuel, and BnstdL 


^* He said, if the water-dams break, to be sure yovr mt^t al^^p^ 
to your master's duty; or fire; if they force you to doit, yq^ iHQfi 
do it, and your roaster will answer for it: you must not gr^ye^orl|9' 
angpry, if your master forces you, but you must do.k. 

''What kind of work did the .prisoner say you .were to dp pf » 
Sunday, if your master forced you? — Any worlc: but^f ^dqes q^{|. 
give you work, you must attend to church regulady. 

" Tou have stated that yon were present when Mr. Smith ife- 
preached some of the members f(Mr absenting themselves from cna^ 
pel on a Sunday. Did you upon that occasion heat Mr. Smith say- 
that they were fools for working on a Sunday for the sake of a few 
lashes? — No, I did not hear that; buti heard him say, that if their 
masters gave them work, they must do it patiently, and if they 
punish you for a wrong cause, you must not grieve for it." ^|HottS» 
of Com. Rep. p. 15, 16.} ^ 


'^ The par90n ,said, if youir.master baS' aiiy work lor you 6ii4^n^ 
day, it is your duty to telLhim Sunday is God's day ; that il^ f^e 
w{|ter-4ain bfoke, on Sunday, it was our duty to go and stop it; 
that if .the l^^at was to ground.on the sand bank 00 a l^aday^ it 

Sfiil. Bmewr^Mmutts nf&admce on the 

iC.wM owdaty to »h^e it off; and-tliat if people fet drunk .^o 
Sunday, it was right of their maajtois to make theni vork^ to pre- 
vent them walking about, and doing mischief. 

^' l5id the prisoner say nothing else about working on a Sunday 
than what you have already stated ?^ — I cannot i^emembeir anything 
els^. I now recoHect the parson said, if any member of the 
churdh has work given to him by his master, he, the parson, won't 
say any thing; but if any member of the church did any work of 
his own accord on a Sunday, he should not be allowed to sit among 
ihem as a member for one month. 

' ''Did not many of the members go to work their o^rounds on 
a Sunday, and also go to market? — ^Yes, a number of uiem did so. 
' '< Were those that did so excluded from the chapel? — No, they 
weie not. 

«. "Were they suspended froin the communion? — They were not 
idlowed to take it tne same day, but they might the next. 

, f Who was present when the parson said, that if your master 
^ad any work for you to do on Sunday, to tell him that Sunday is 
God*s day?— Joseph was^ there. Jack of Docbfour, Bristol and 
them; also Bill, ana many others. 

* **( Question hy the Court,) — Was it once only, or often, you 
heard the parson say, that if your master gave you work on a Sun- 
^ay* you were to tell him it is God's day? — He told us this often." 
[House of Com. Rep. pp. 18, 19.] 


<'I have heard the prisoner speak about working on a Sunday. 
He said, that if .our master gave us work on a Sunday, we must do 
it, because we could not help it; and that we must not break the 
sabbath in doing our own work, because we . must keep holy, the 
«abbath day, which is a command of God. . Mr Smith said that 
God would pdnish us for working our own ground on a Sunday." 
[House of Com. Rep. pp. 21, 22. J 

'' Id the latter examination, the emphatic words ''that is 
all,** are tbserted after *'a command of God," in the report 
of the trial published by the Missionary Society, from the 
minutes qf Mr. ArrindelU the counsel for Mr. Smith, to 
which we may hereafter have occasion to refer, for supply* 
iDg several mpst important and disgraceful omissions in the 
omcial minutes. When called by the prisoner as his wit- 
ness, .this negro gave the following evidence upon the same 

** Did you, at any time; hear the prisoner say, ** if your master 
has any work for yon to do on a Sunday, it is your duty to tell 
lu«i Sunday is Goas day? — He did not tell us so; he told us if 
our master gave us any thing to do on a Subday, we must do it ; 
he n^v^jT told us not to do it." [House of Com. Rep. p. 99.] 

Triat of Mr. John Smidi, MtMrianary. 3SS 

To the nMke efliedt, also, id \hi eviidence of 9tooir> « ftee 
negro, caHtd 1]iy the 'prisoifer. ' 

<< What werQ the doctrines and duties which the prisoner taught 
tlie people that used to go to the chapel? — ^The catechism for ooe^ 
When we came to the chapel, the parson told us we were to believe 
in God, and that we were to obey our mctsters in all things; that we 
were not to steal, nor to lie, as it was a great evil; that whatever 
our masters commanded us to do, we were to do it without speaMn^f 
again,** [House of Com. Rep. pp. 103, 104.] 

" (Question by the Prosecutor,) — Can you recollect the time 
when the prisoner told you what you have stated about obeying 
your master? — He told me that at all times, and frequently .'' [lb. 
p. 105.] 

We should not have thought it necessary to have made 
these extracts or comments,liad our object merely b^en to 
shew Mr. Smith's innocence of any crime cognizable by the 
law ; but as we are satisfied that the martyred missionary 
was most exemplary in the discharge of his duty, as a minis- 
ter of the gospel to the heathen, we have adduced this evi- 
dence from the people of his flock, when called for the most 
part as witnesses against him, — that it was obedience, not 
anarchy — forbearance, not revenge — a patient enduruice 
of injury, not violent measures to redress it, which he 
uniformly taugbt in his ministrations amongst these the 
most degraded, suifering, and injured of the creatures of 
the same common race. Into the course of these ministra- 
tions a large portion of the time of the court was occupied, 
by inquiries so minute in their nature, and so extensive in 
the period which they covered, that we know not whether 
surprise at their absurdity, or indignation at their irrele- 
vancy, preponderates in our ^inds« At all events, we 
should assuredly have passed them by with the contempt 
they merit, did they not, like all the other gross irregulari- 
ties of this most irregular and illegal trial, issue in the com- 
plete exculpation of the persecuted missionary, whose giiilt 
they were meant to prove. 

One of the advocate-general's most extraordinary charges 
against Mr. Sipith, of selecting passages from scripture, 
applicable to the distressed state pf his negro auaitors^ 
has alre&dy ^eea partially examined. His answer to this 
charge is containea in the following plain unvarnished sta/le- 
ment of his defence : 

** With this view of the subject I commenced, about the middle of 
1820, a regular course of historical reading and expositions, taking 
the Old Testament for the morning service, and die New Testament 

3S6 RmaiPA—Jiiimiite$ qfJSmitkpee m tin 

for the evening. I begaa m the Old TesUw^nt with Geoetis, .and 
in the New Testament with the gospel of St. Matthew* The Old 
Testament I read in order» with the omission of such chapters a» 
appeared to me liable to be misinterpreted by the negroes. The 
passage which has been read from the journal, under date ' 8tb 
August, 1817/ says, that I omitted to redid ot to expound to the 
negroes a passage of scripture (latter part of Genesis xiii.) which I 
apprehended they might misconstrue. It contains a promise of the 
land of Canaan to Abraham's posterity. The journal addjs the rea- 
son why I omitted the passage ; viz. that I was fearful it might 
make a wrong impression on their minds, as I tell them some of the 
promises, &c. which were made to Abraham, &c, will apply to the 
Cbristian state. This proves that I was very cautious not to applf 
to the negroes those parts of scripture which relate to temporal 
possessions, a«d were peculiar to the patriarcbB. Tk^t some oi the 
promises and preempts made to them apply to the Christian 9tate, jp 
eFident from the New Testament : compare Romans c iv. vejc. 23, 
to the end. The apostle, speaking of Abraham's faith beins^ im- 
puted to him for righteousness, says, * Now it was not written for his 
sake alone, that it was imputed to him, but for us also,' &p. 

** Great stress has been laid on my reading of the deliverance of 
the Isradites from Egypt. Had that part of holy writ been omit- 
ted^ the history of the K^hurch of -God could not have been unden* 
stood. The mercy, the power, and the providenee of God are aig^ 
nally disf^ayed in>tliatf>art (tf eacred faistoiiy, and eeonotfail to im^ 
fyress wilu a -sense of lelagiQiis fear and ianwi .even Ae stu^Mld oaini 
0f a negro. For this reason, I suppose, Uie apostle Paul, in 1st 
jCor. ex. ver. 1 to 11. presses upon our particiilar.attentipn this very 
portion of the scriptures : ' Now all these things happc^aed iuit# 
ihem for ensan\ples ; and they are written for our admonition* vpop 
whom the ends of the world are come.' In reading the portions of 
scripture ipartially related by the witnesses, care was always taken 
to guard against perversion or misapplication; such reflections only 
being made at the end of the chapter, as were of a moral and reli- 
gious nature. Even those witnesses for the prosecution, whose 
memories were so very tenacious on the subject of Moses and Pha- 
raoh, and the children of Israel, though it is two years since I have 
read to them about these persons, have stated that they never heard 
me apply the history of the Israelites to the condition of the negroes. 
If they themselves read the bible, and so applied it, the fault imust 
Jbe chaxged upon their ignorance, and shews the necessity of their 
]having mono instruction* It is to the ignorance of men Uiat the 
apostle Peter imputes the perversion of the scriptuves. In .his 
second Epistle, c. iii. v. 16. where speaking of PauFs epistles, he 
says, ' In which are some things hard to be understood, which they 
that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other 
scriptures, to their own destruction.' '' [House of Com. Rep. p. 

Arid re^S'tkls Ispott hib statemdht tnefely ? By«x> meant; Hit 
abuMaivtly cojifirmed by the feefetimdnj of eatery one of his 
auditors, called, or by the prosecutor, ot hitttsetf, as ikt 
follo^ng extracts "will evinbe : 


'' When the prisoner talked or explained to von "about tbechil* 
dred of InraeL, did he say tfiat the sktatioii of the negroes was Hke 
that of the children lof Israel, ^r words to that eieet ?-^Na'' [Hoaai 
of Com. Rep. p. 14.] 


*' Divine service is perfomed at t!he «luipel ^Cwioe oa 4 Snidehr, 
at sevaiandeleveB o'cioek : the service at seven o'clock is» he reads 
in the Otdlbstaneat, 'and then hefnrays, then he begmsto teach ^ 
he begins from <ienesiS)ilin he goes through : he used to tead the 
2d KiDgs. The last time I heard him Win &d Kings, b«(t I esonot 
recollect Aeioha^ter/' [lb. p^ 15.] 


^'The priscmer reads a cha^r <3enoen)iiig Moses somethnaik 
When Moses was 'bom in Egypt, m that place whefre Pharaoh was a 
ktng, whenhe was bom, the king gave orders (hat if any bo^Mdnid 
was born,' they should pwt luin io death : if it was a glrl'-chtkl^ let 
her live. After that Moses was about three weeks old, they 4ddL 
him and put him in a small box, and they put him in a river where 
the kiugfs daughter was washing. God commanded Moses to take 
the chilaren orlsrael into the land of Canaan, because he did nol 
wish they should be made slaves. God gave Moscfs a painted roa 
to make the king afr«dd. *God commanded Moses thtit theking'k 
heart was hairdened ; and Moses said tt> theking, What is the reason 
that you cannot take God's advice? After that, the king gave tip 
Moses, ttid 'let them go-in ^ promised latid. Ai^rthat, 'me hibg 
wanted to follow fbem again and bring thtfm back, and tihten'tlie 
king 'was drowned in there, in the sea. He nread something fldftvr 
the death of Moses; he read Joshua; I cannot 'recoUect whaC 
chapter. He ;read about David. He read about God ^alline 
Samuel to make him rule the people ; after that, they w'antea 
Samuel to piit a king to rule them ; and Samuel told them to believe 
in the Lord, that ae was the king. God sent and put worch in 
Samuel's mouth, and said. Look at Saul, the son of Kish, put him 
to be ruler over the people of Israel. David ran away from Saul, 
and weiit into the cotintry Where Gdhath'was born ; and by David's 
discourse ^hey discovered that he was the man who killed OotiiCht 
and when 'iflieyailked David if be was not the «ian^ he feigaedito be 
mad, and ran ft^ey. David ran to the bush, and got into the*w9o4i 
because he ^as amid that he would put aaother man into trouble. 
I don't know how he was to put UnOther man intp trouble, herooly 
•told me that," [lb. p. 17.] 

'' (Qoesiion&by (he Court,) — You have said that theiprisonsr, at 

368 Bemem^^'^JdiMiiies vf HiMenct oniht 

moniiiig^ senrioe^ read abcmt Hoses, JosbiJa, aiid David: did he 
read of any one else 7 — ^Yes : I cannot remendier the names ^ any 
other : he read about Elisha. 

« Do ^ou mean to say, that he read only the Old Testament at 
the morning prayer? — Formerly he used to read the New Testa- 
ment; but for two years past he has only read the Old Tes- 

'' Did he read it straight through, or did he pass over any part Of 
it? — ^He read it regulariy through." . [lb. p. 19.] 

Bristol. < 

'* I have heard some of the boys who read the Bible, speak about 
the Israelites and the Jews, about the fighting of the Israelites when 
they go to war; when the pisoner read about the fighting of the 
Israelites, after they went home and read it again, I heard them 
speak about it : they said the people of Israel used to go warring 
against the enemies ; then I expkuned the meaning of * the enemy,' 
and told them it was the people who would not beuere the word of 
God when Moses used to preach to them; the people applied die 
story of the Israelites and the Jews, and put it on themselves; 
when they read it, then they b^a to discourse about it ; they said 
that this thing in the bible applied to us just as well as to the people 
of Israel ; I cannot tell what made the negroes apply it to them^ 
selves." [lb. p. 23.] 

From this latter evidence, as reported in the miiiutes 
printed by the House of Commons, the natural inference is^ 
that the witness had no idea why this application was 
n^ide, clearly negativing, therefore, every presumption of its 
arising from any parallel drawn by the prisoner in his dis- 
courses; but the Question and answer, as actually given and 
reported in the other copy of the minutes, is still more con- 
clusive in his favour, and the suppression of it in the official 
notes of the trial, is, therefore, aoubly disgraceftd in those 
who were guilty of it. 

** What made the people say, in readine the bible, that the 

history of the Jews applied to themselves? — f can't tell Because 

they read it, and their oum hearts make them say so ; and their 
ignorance, that made them not understand it/* [Missionary Society's 
Rep. p. 26.] 

We resume, however^ his examination, and that of other 
negroes, further confirmatory of Mr. Smith's defence. 

<< Do you know any thing about Peter, or the first epistle general 
of Peter? — I have heard it read, but I don't remember it. 

** How long ago is it since you heard the general epistle of Peter 
read? — I cannot remembef rightly. 

** How long is it since Mr. Smith read to you aboilt Moses and 
the children of Israel, and about Pharaoh and his soldiers ? — About 
two or three months before the rising took place, or longer. 

Trial of Mr, Jbliii Smilbt Mimomtry. 3fiO 

** Did Hf » Smitb, whai be was f eading the bible, begin die neit 
Ume at the p)ace he last left off at ? — Yes ; he explaias what he K«d 
the Sunday before, and then goes on to the next chapter. 

** How do you know that he began at the very next chapter to the 
one he last read ? — Because he named the chapter he read the last 
Sunday, and then named the one he was going to read. 

'* You have said you cannot read ; are you sure Mr. Smith never 
missed any chapters?-— Sometimes when he is going to read he 
tells us he passes over a chapter.'' [House of Commons' Report, 
p. 25.] 

*' Have you ever heard the prisoner apply the history of the Jews 
or Israelites to the negroes? — No. 

*^ Can you give no reason at all why the people, when they read 
about the history of the Jews or Israelites applied it to themselves ? 
—No." [lb. p. 26-] 

Mary Chisholx. 

** Did you hear the prisoner read about Moses delivering the 
children of Israel from Egypt? — I have heard Mr. Smith read it 
some time back, not long ago, but I cannot remember' the time. 

** Can you form any idea how long ago it is since you heard him 
read about Moses delivering the children of Israel from Pharaoh 
and Egypt ?— No, I cannot rightly say. 

*^ Is It a month, or two months, or a year, or longer or shorter 
than a year ? — I cannot rightly say how long it is. 

** What did you last hear the prisoner read about? — ^To my best 
knowledge, I think he iread Luke, the Sunday before the rebellion. 

" Did you hear the prisoner read the history of DaWd? — Yes. 

** Do you remember what he reaid about David ?~He read about 
when Saul pursued after David. One night Saul dropped asleep, 
and David came over to him with his men, and they took away 
his spear, and his water-cmse; and when Said rose up, David 
hallooed to the men of Sanl to come for the spear. Anomer time, 
David cut the skirt of Saul's coat; then the men of David said 
they must Slav Saul, and David said, God forbid that they should 
put their haods upon the Lord's anointed. 

** Were there any comments, remarks, or reflections made by 
the prisoner on what he read; if yea, what were they? — Yes; he 
remarked what t' good man David was, not to revenge upon Saul ; 
wh^i he had it in his power to take his life, he would not do it. 
On one of the members observing to the prisoner, why David did 
not slay him, the prisoner replied, ' it was better to leave him to 
God's merey, to do with him. as he pleased.' 

** How long is it ago since the prisoner read about David and 
Saul? — Not very long; I cannot say, exactly. 

'* Did you ever hear the prisoner read about any thing else^ if 
yea, what? — ^Yes; I remember a man had a piece of land, and 
the king wanted it ; he wanted to exchange the land, or buy it 
for money; ike man would not sell it; and the king's wife bor« 

808^ BemmiU'^ifin^i^. ofJEkidmct o» lii 

Mfped ihe king'li acai, tnd aent lo bit oficeifB^ stqntif » pot » j^rd 
Ofei such a man; and to tay that the man had bto^rfiemed GnA 
and cursed the king : aad then he waa stoned to death for so doing. 
And hit wife said, rise and take possession of the land» for the man 
who would not sell it was dead : and when the i>rQph6t met with 
the king going to take possession of the land, he ioquised of him^ 
< have you killed, and are you now going to take possession T and 
the king said unto the prophet, ^ mj enemy, have youlbuiid me out V 

** How did the prisoaer apply this story ?-r*-He read it, and then 
we asked for remarks upon it. Mr. Smith said, if we did any 
tfaiDg had, God wonld always £nd u& out; and that God sent 
this prophet to tell the king that he would punish him for ttdcing 
away the man's land: and that if we did any thing bad, if we did 
not suffer for it ourselves, our cbiklreay or our grand-cbildrea, would 
suffer.'* [lb. p. 105, 106.] 


^' Have you a Bible; and if yea^ do you use it in chapel? — I 
hajre^ and use it in chapel. 

** CaA you follow skhe parion as he reads the Bible from the pul* 
|iit ; if yea, were you in the habit of doing so ? — Yes, 1 0Gm» and am 
10 die hahk of doing so* 

** Do you remember the prisoner reading about Moses delivering 
ijait chtldreB of Isvael from Pharaoh, at the morning service? — I 
heard him, but very long ago, about two years. 

^^ What books of the Bible did he read last year, at flie momhig 
service? — He began with Leviticus,, until Numbers, and then Deo^ 

'* What books did he read this year ?*— He read Kings, Samuel, 
Judges ; he had AOt finished Kings. 

** Does Mr. Smith at the morning service read straight on, et, 
does he ever tnva back to read chi^iters over again which 1^ had 
read before ?p-He r^s it straight forward; he does not come 
iMck; he goes on before." [lb. p. 113.] 

*^ (QuetHans by the Prosecutor.) — Did not the prisoner i^ad 
Exodus to you a few Sandays before the revolt?— No. 

'< Did be read Joshua to you? — Yes, a little, long before the 
revolt-began, atitheraorning.sepvice. 

*< What.dld you 4]ear read in Joshua?-— <Wben Moses was dead, 
Joshua took his place, and God Almighty put himover these people. 

*< Look at the eighth chapter, and state if he read that? — i did 
not hear him readithe eighth chapter of Joshua. 

'' Now look at the seventh. qb^ter, and state if hctvead that? — 
No* I did not hear him. 

** Have you never read the eighth chapter of Joshua before to- 
day? — No, I did not, but! may have seen it, looking through Uie 
book." [lb. p. 113, 114.] 


'< In what order did Mr. Smith read the Bible at the Smiday 

Trial of Mt. John Ssiutb, Mmhrnary. 381 

wNrntni^ tervioes ?-^He teadt a ckaijpter, and tliett stops: vest 
$uodayi he reads another diapter: sometimesy iha suceeediag 
chapter, and sometines from another place. 

'* Did he keep going forward, or did he go backward? — For* 
»ard8."[Ib.p. 116.] 

With respect to this last evidence, the Missionary Socie- 
y's report contains a minute as to the form in which the 
{uestion respecting the order of reading should be put, which 
f the ignorance it displays, on the part of the president of 
)he court, was real, proves that he had not sufficient skill--^ 
f it was affected, that he was grossly deficient in impartiality 
br the office which he filled. Whichever alternative is 
idopted, his conduct amalgamated, however, so entirely with 
:hat of his colleagues, that it is not worth while sinking 
lim out Atmi a set of judges, to the like of whom we hope 
;he life and liberty of no man will hereafter be entrusted, 
tt least, till they are better instructed in their judicial 
luties, as they ought most assuredly to have been, by the 
udge in name and title, who so singularly, and worse than 
iselessly, took his seat upon their bench. We return, how- 
ever, to the evidence, and boldly challenge any one to disprove 
Prom it that Mr. Smith's mode of reading the scriptures, 
md of preaching from ihem, so far from being calculated to 
ead the negroes to misapply any portion of the word of 
Grod to their own demdea condition, was not studiously and 
scrupulously adapted to prevent the possibility of such a 
nistake. The seventh and eighth chapters of Joshua seem 
to have been peculiarly unpalatable to the legal authorities 
md planters of Demerara ; why, we know not^ as they merely 
relate the discomfiture of the Israelites before Ai, on 
iccount of the sin of Achan, and the subsequent capture 
md destruction of that city, and the slaughter of its inha- 
3itant8, for causes, and in the progress of a war, which 
lad no more to do with slaves, or slavery, than has the 
sirth of Adam, the death of Abel, the anointing of David, 
)r any other portion of the Old Testament, the whole of 
prhich, it appears, is of too dangerous a tendency for the 
atitude and longitude of Demerara. This, however, we have 
3een enabled to discover, by the aid of an almanack and 9, 
prayer-book,— that of the half of the twenty-four chapters df 
the book of Joshua, which the church of England nas di- 
rected to be used in the regular course of her daily lessons, 
the seventh and the eighth are two ; the former being ap- 
pointed for the first lesson at evening service on the 13tn, 
a.nd the latter as the first lesson at morning prayer on the 


302 .jRtfvieti?.-— ilfitiicfef af Ewdmce on thi 

foiirteeotli of March ; wliilst, moreoTer, it does so happeo, 
that in the very year of our Lord in which we live, the said 
fourteenth day of March happened on a Sunday, and tiiere* 
fore this most mischieTOUs and treasonable chapter must 
then have been read in the hearing of all the slaves of 
Demerara, who were sufficiently ortnodoz to attend diyine 
worship in the episcopal church of St. George, unless, in- 
deed, toe planters of that colony are so supreme in causes and 
matters ecclesiastical, as well as civil, as to have dispensed 
with it. If, then, Mr. Smith was guilty of treason or any 
minor offence against the peace or dignity of the white inba* 
bitants of Demarara, by reading this obnoxious chapter in 
its regular course, that very offence must have been more 
recenUy committed by the officiating minister of die esta- 
blis}iment there, under the sanction, and by the express 
direction, of the rubric of that church which is part and 
parcel of the state. 

V.Mr. Smith was accused in the written charges preferred 
a&^ainst him, of promoting, as far as in him lay, " discontent 
and dissatisfaction, in the minds of the negro slaves, to* 
wards fbeir lawful masters, managers, and overseers," and 
ii was to prove this charge, that tne extensive range of his 
whole ministerial conduct, to which we have already re* 
verted, was illegally inc][uired into by the prosecutor. The 
result of this examination, as far as the alleged charge of 
teaching the slaves to disobey the commands of their mas- 
ters by not working upon the sabbath-day is concerned, has 
already been stated, and the further examination of the ac- 
count given by the negroes, selected by those who had every 
opportunity and every disposition to make the most favour- 
able selection for their purpose, of the general conduct of 
their pastor, will still deepen the conviction of his entire 
innocence of every intention of the kind so falsely imputed 
to him, which we strangely deceive ourselves if the state- 
ment of the evidence on that point must not have made on 
every unprejudiced mind. The following witnesses incou- 
testably prove, that so far from unduly interfering between 
the master and the slaves, he always taught from the pulpit; 
and in his private conversations with them, that it was their 
duty to yield implicit obedience to their commands. 


** I never heard the prisoner say any thing about the treatment 

of slaves : sometimes, when the people come to complain, or whai 

they are hindered from coming to the chapel, and some of tbem get 

licked, then he tells them, ' Well; I cannot help that; but it is not 

ekqMjl oaly^:^ #hen tba' wMflB' ooniff nHth* saoh compMnfe^ for i 
bahne jlifll bov* flpbkei» 0% <ke priionep Kattiis tb thttm.^ 'Efae pi{4 
tonev ha» ndv^ed me' aad otmrtwhatto do, ^h&^ W^ faii49«th 
eoflit)laiiiis, to go' to the fiscal or tli'e governor: 8Dmeti«ae8 tkiS 
people run away^ or so, aiM} be ^ys, ^ when you run awa^^, yqk'muat 
not l^t them catcl^ you agaio, for they n^ill pmibh you. [House of 
Com. ftep. p. il.\ 

The lAt^t phT§ dt Mi e^i}i!^m§ il92l^ i&6t *^iV^6, it IHSKMA 
be reiMfk^, until l!h^ pri^btiei" Md inidhel hiH- atiH\(^ ta 
the queiffion ]^)<opbfired to him ^y tl^ jud^e-advt>ba1ie; '^BM 
ll« never ad^i^e^^df oi^ dtiMr^#fta/t tt>db in cad^g'ydii hMitti^ 
«6titi]^kihtT'|fa leading ()Hi<ssti6n, ^nougb, iti ifll <^oii8bi^M^'$ 
b^t hdiiiittg failed to g^t mit wh&t« the ^ttritMldt Wslfi^d, 
it Wa^^ follbWed by a retiteAtt of hi^ m^iHoty of '* ainy ibihw, 
efee ;*' to wbidk Ae ahb#(&i» giimi itti thiS Society's i^potC' 
dontafaing thie quetftiokis mbdt ittiprdi^eily biklKted' itf dltf 
offibidl <iopy <rf the proc^^dingB, i^, " That if thi6'p6brile*nitt> 
ii^ay« th^ mnB^ not lei) th^tti c£kteb< thieiti agdiil.^ Thii< M^ 

CesiiiotliMi<.Siiiiflrtfttei»wttVdii'a^ked th«'Ufi«b^^ib'e3Kf|^)tuhr^* 
it f(k^ tcfvtft, iritfa ifs'iroiiDea <Sdiiteifl)^l^, br igWblWOe^of ttlf 
i%te» of eirid^d; and^ ^Veryptfh^ipl^ 6f jitetibS, wbtM^tioi" ^ 

permit it/ to bcf done. Bdlf thaf it eittfef donldrhlltb bem> j 

^tttififiidt^rify explained/ dt^Wa^' Hot^ o^ed at ali; i» mauifesti' -^ 

xibt onlt froni tb(^ eVtd^ence WHibhiWill helr^aftt^ b^ addaced' 
of Mr. ^Mitb haViHg* eMbded^ negi^i^ from' the' coh^i«ili)NMi' 
fbf &i6 V^ry bfiende, buf fronitfai^ WHole^^feii^rbf thwnisln'tf 
t6m\m:6\i% frbM wbidh M^ ^t^oc^^^cl tO' raldce^ sbisM' ftiHtteif 

**' I* reiheifiber Wbdn thiBgoteniot'^ proelattattori' rti^^ii^ tHy 
n<^ete gblng to'chareli, Wste'read tb thb heitd'p^t^le on tite'dniftdii 

5r the- burg^rH)aptatn of the district, I heard the. prisoni^r sneak 
out that pioclaraatioD : he ^aid there was aipi order for ^ll^^^ 
people to- come to church, and nobody was to hinder them. Th^ 
owners were to give every one of them a pass ^to come to cKs^elpi 
aad the overseer with theo^ and when they, Had dope at ttie diap^l^ 
the overseer was to go back with them» ai^d take^n^m hbD^^spjfe^v 
Lheardt Mr* Smith said, this ^as a* good law. • Mri ^nfith f ai^.jn 
this eouatry' we eaiinet attend chapel aa we wish,.a8;they could in^ 
a free country, and in this we are slaves, and that wemiist'pray to* 
God to help us, that we may be enabled to attend as far as we" 

The former part of diia^alt«tenient inf bf conftid^rabl^ isH. 
portsmee, inosmach aa it ^ewe'i that' even while ^bebfid good' 
reasbn tO' suppoad tkait the niasteP9 were reteortingi to' everj^ 

VOL. VIII. — NO. 3. 2 c 

364 Remw.-^MinHt^ of Evidmee an the 

pofleible pretext and expedient^ to keep their elaTeg from 
chapel, he was >8o far from communicating to those slaves 
the unfaTOurable impression of their conduct, which the 
extracts from his pri?aie journal, given in evidence against 
him, prove him to have entertained, that he puts' the best 
possible const^action upon it, and does all in his power to 
induce a ready submission to a restriction, which, as a man, 
an Englishman, and a minister, he une^^uivocally con- 
demtfea. ' Yet this is a preacher of sedition, and a man per- 
petually going out of his way to create dissatisfaction in the 
minds of the slaves against their masters ! The latter intima- 
tion/ that they were slaves, and therefore could not do as 
could freemen, in attending on the means of erace, seema 
to have si?en great offence to the great men or: i)emerara ; 
y^t : purely it was but a work of supererogation, in telling 
them what they mu^t full well have known, a truth, indeed, 
e;shibited every day before their eyes, in the contrast, which 
^Jli^ted in this respept, between themselves an4 their blqck 
brethren who haa obtained their freedom^ to say not a 
syllable of tibe. whites. Accompanied also as it.wi^pi by a 
strong recommendation to pray to God to wable* th»m fto 
do their duty in the station in which they were .placed, we 
care ; little whether the expression was. used, or « whether- it 
was inaccurately reported, as other, evidence/ a&d even other 
parts of Bristol s own testimony, leaves abundant reason to 
conclude that it mast have been. And that this was the habi- 
tual lesson pf his ministrations amongst the degradedi and 
half-instructed objects of his labours of benevolence, cannot 
be more strongly evinced than by the following evidence of 
this same witness, upon whose testimony it is clear that the 
prosecutor mainly relied for the conviction of the accused. 

'' At our prayer-meetings we prayed to God to help us and 
to hless u^ all, that we may be enabled to seek after him more and 
more, and that he would bless our masters, and the governor and 
^e fiscal ; that we might make good servants unto them, and they 
might be good masters unto us ; and to give us health and strength 
to. do ^at which it might be our duty to do, and to bless all our 
brothers and sisters ; we pray about our master's heiirts, we pray to 
the Lord to bless and change our hearts, and change ou^ master's 
hearts likewise.'' [Tb. p. 23.] 

Whether the humane, virtuous, and most religious 
planters, managers, overseers, and slave-drivers of Deme- 
rara may think it a libellous, and even treasonable imputa- 
tion upon their characters, for a slave, or any one to pray 
for that change of h.eart, which a supplicant well may ask at 

Tridl o/Mf. Johw hmih, MM&Hai^. Q0o 

Hie tlmnie- of fAs-grtce; tjrhp^bai die6Wr6d tJm«''«« thft>h««rt''<;rf 
ttiaii i^ deceitful above aUthhtgs, and desperdtely witekW," 
and who has expressly commanded us to pray that '' a nhr 
heart" may be put within us^^we pause noli to' inqtiirc{, but 
satisfied that no real Christian cati agree with them iii their 
Pharisaical opinion, we pass on to extract other parts, of 
the evidence of this deacon of a churchy whose worsaipwas 

so evangelical, and truly catholic in its spirit. 

It • • . . 

'' When yoo ia«truct- tb^u^oes in the meaniog: of t^vOrdi- 
nance, what do you tell th^m? — I tqll ^em to consider \^|;iat they 
are gojng abpat» and that they must pray to God, and prepare 
their minds, and that they must not thereafter commit sin again; 
that we must look to Go(l to help us at any' time, and we must 
consider well what we hear read in the bible every day, because, 'if we 
do partake of the Ordinance, and commit sin a^ain; wi have* a 
greater account to give Vhen we die.'' [lb. p. 24.] '' 

" What did the people cdtiiplain they were 4ieke^TorT-^Sdme 6f 
Ihem complam^d of having been litJkedf^eeAiisetHey did ndt^Mtead 
to the wofk givtsn them M>the sabbath. * > 

■ '"'^Bid'dHey eompfohk to Mr.* Smkh/thiKl.tiMiy weiietlidosd Miaoy 
thingel«ei-4i1iay;might have^^na -so, bat 1 4Qr«9lt kmiw ^iU. t 

:Vl)td Mr.iSkiith ever enaour«^e.#^ymgro!^«;0]; .iiegK^^f^jtf^ 
away?--;-l4iever.heardhe.did.*' [lb..p«.^54 • • ,, . . ,. 

'' Didihe |n|is9oere%ier.puinit^tl)enttgcoe8^.w^ 
his congr^gatiq^^ for running away fjrojpi the^r i^a^^^rs ?-7^ i es ; ;if 
tl^^y happened to tie m^.mbers of th^ phurcl^^ they. woutd not' b^ 
allowed to come to the. table any niore. ' ' ' / 

\ '• Did the prisoner ever give you or the people irfj advic^ cdd- 
Cernini^ your spending money at funefalaf?— r6sr*he said if aiy 
body died, he told us that we must not buy hogs or fowls, butiather 
to use our money to buy mourning. 

^' Did the priso.i^er ever $ay any thing to yqu about gettii^ drunk 
at funerals T — Yes ; he said we must liot buy so much, rum and ot^e;r 
liquorsy.tomake people drunk when they CQipe^o funerals. . ' 

"Do youremen^ber the sn^all-pox being on Le Resouvenir ?— Ye/s. 
: *f What day was it tliat yoq first, heard, of its being tl^ere.^—I 
cannot remember the day rightly now. . ^ , V ..> . » 

" Was It on a Sunday?—:! cannot tell. . ,; ; , 

,. "Do you ever renumber being, tunned s^wajr from the dhVp^I^lafid 
not being, allowed tp, remain in the service? — Yes.. ' ^ | , 

" On what occasion did this happen, and what was told, yG|U p;(i 
that OGca^ioni» and by whom ?— On account of the small-pox : Mr. 
Smith, the prisoner, told us that the doctor said that the small*POX 
was there;, and that we must not come. m 

" Did yoii ever see any negro punished by the prisbnBr for,ru|ir 
ning away from his npaster? — Yes. . . ' 

" Who?—- 1 saw York, of Success, for one; he is the only member 

I l^v%fe«a pa9udl^d; the ivrt.arQ ChrittiaQi.; I pm*t vmt mhn 
theiv a«mat ;; aioijaQ CluiistiaQs fcopft M^liaic%78i4<s; . c^'t oemeiah^ 
tbeijr oamecL ^, 

'^ Hqw loBg 9go was this ? — It is almost a y^ar now. 

" (Question bu the Court:) — ^How are they punisbecl ? — York is 
a member, and ne would not allow him to come to the ordinance 
any mope ; the others, he said if thejr ran away tjiey must pot c6m6 
to cbapd.— pbid, p. 99.]. 

Such is the evidence of this negro^ adduced to criminate 
MhSlqritli; by" proving the seditious ' nature of his instruc- 
tions to the ni^groes, instead of which, it proves directly 
tiie reverse ; as we might safely defy any taan, placed in his 
circumstances^ to have acted with more prudence than he 
is, herq shewa to have ufuformly displayed. A few sea- 
tencei? i^ the last e^si^i fiuxai^bes akaa.piioof of his rea- 
diness to comp\y with the ordeca of gov^cno^nt, ev«a 
vihm^. comieyed by sueh i^eddling consequential jack» in 
offioQy M Mr. Bi»gheiHaaMter Doctor Mc TuAi, (the very 
counterpart of his gallant and mort c^BbciotttK awoMfiake^ 
iB>tke tate of St^'Bonan^a Well,) whoso invetnota pve^udrces 
i^ainsl? the accused tbi» testimony of firistal- serirea ' to 
e6tiitm: - Bui' we' here q«it his t^»»timony, for tMat of the 
negroes called by the pris6her, who have this advantaj^e 
over those produced' by the prosecutor, that liHey were for 
the moat part n6 longet slaves, and were altogether ffee 
from any participation in the insurrection which Mri, Smith 
was chatged. with exciting, We simply make our extracts 
in th^ or^ei: of the evidence, for coi^meiitary the]; c9,nnot 

Phili^^ (Foeex) 

'^'Biid ypa ever, on^ any occasion^ go to the prisoner for his 
advice f Tdldl 

" D9 you recoUectany particular itistance, and if yea, wiB you 
state what paaised. on tnat occasion ?— When I was at the iutty 
from a change of my owner, I' fbh. the treatment Veryseveref, and 
I went to complain to the prisoner, and when I went up tp htm^ 
I lai4 my. case before him;, after Mx. Smith had ^ven me Itjaow^ 
leifee, and'T returned home, I f6uod myself entitny itxtfae wrong; 
vna from Mr. Smith's advice to me, rbecame a mtthfiil servant 
uplSl I wa^ sold. 

** What was the advice Mr* Smith gave you T^— He toM'me a ser- 
vaat must be dutiful to his master, and all that are put over him. 

'^ Do you remember any of the doctrines and duties taughtyou and 
the peopt^ by the prisoner? — t db. He told me, if my.master sent 
me any where about his duty, that I inust be very parncii^Iar in see- 

* *9^ 1**1 ■ — ' 

ia^«l doile; mi if I had ncA got iUb adncs from Mr. fkaitb^ the' 
pnaoQf r, i sIidiiIiI vot i»fe been my own nan ttiM day. 

<< Do yM v«m«Bber the prisootr caUiog up all the oiembeil^ hud 
ai^g tbem where they btd beeo» .and when they scud their maatere 

Save th/em week, he told them they weoe fools £or werkiqg on a Sun- 
ay for the sake of a few lashes? — ^I do not know any thiag of that; 
it aid not happen .in my presence.^ [Ibid. p. 102.] 

Mart Chishox^^m, (Free.) 
. *^ Have yott a^y slaves of your own ; and did they #tte^ on Ihe 
prjaoner's chapel? — 1 have; and they did attend ihe pc^oper-a 
chapel. . , 4 . 

"Had you ever any fear that the pri8oneT*s instructions wottl4 
make your skves dissatisified with you as their mistress? — ^No^.Jl 
never had any fear of that. 

''Did you attend the Sunday morning services? — Sometimes. 

"Were yow, when you attended^ attentive to the prayers offered 
up Isy the deacons and members on those t>ceasions?*-'4S<Mn^tiineft 
I was. 

'^'When yo« w«re atosnthre, did jon lietr ttny Huag pavlict^r itf 
Aoee pf«}isr8t-i«"Yes, I heard Ihsm pray for the inmd ^t^lavgfei 
Iha kiag^ awl Aahr taaater, and for Aemsdves^ Uieir -children; wd 
eVii»rybod|i. . ^ 

^ " WffiB p^rfMas in tb6,hMHt of o^oiing in* during ;the.pi!iyaisiia( 
thedeac9<is?— Xes.'*{Ibid.p.l05.] . . . .. 


' ■ .^r MAn». ' 

'< Did yon «iwr gii^ any Money toihe prmiier fw <lie ,M 

SocieHy ?-nYe#» 

**J^ftl^yp^ hadgiven the money,, did^yflt^ exff r feel that ymi wanted 
it back; Of did you ever wish that you bad^neviar given it?r~No. 

^' Did you ever find that the prisoner's reading or preaching ma^^ 
you unhappy, or dissatisfied ? — ^It satisfied me. 

" Did it make you dissatisfied with your condition as a slave? — 
It did not; it made me satisfied.*' [Ibid. p. 112.] 

" Did you ever hear fhe prisoner tell the negroes, ** that if their 
masters had work for them, to say, that Sunday was God's day f * — 
No, I never heard him say that.*' [Ibid. p. 115.] 

• Wi4h Tespoct to the older and Conduct of the prisontr'a 
tiegro obiatch, we henntate not to eay^ that it would do 
honour to* the moat regalar of the congregational pastors and 
people of his native land ; for the evidence most satisfectorily 
proved, that ereat care was taken in the admission of mem- 
nere ; that eVerr vigilance was nsed in watdiing over th^ir 
behaviour ; and that those prompt and effectual meaeurea 
for correcting their faults were adopted, which the disci- 
plhle of our chtirches of the same denomination will ttDow. 

388: JBe«few.-^«9£iffti/es of.Ekidmce^on tka. 

Thcirt aiBilembhfts tvereipublic/andy eveii ^t iiie 
open to the in«peeti<moffmy^hite'penbn ^ho cbpfte'tcy at*, 
tksnA them/ either as auditors^ or as sdine^ occasionally did, ;&s 
spied. It was an accusation <again8t their pastor, gravely 
preferred by the advocate-general and first fiscal of the 
colony, filling conseqaently the oflSces both of its ordinary 
and extraordinary public prosecutor, that'he took money 
from the negroes ; and' it- is pvovifd by tb^ witnesses callea 
inlsttppott of fitich a charge (if charge it can- be for a mo- 
ment termed, without 'the most violent perversion of the 
very a b c of our judicial ph^seology,) is, that they con*"' 
tributed, according to their very limited means, and altoge- 
ther of their own free will, — at the sacrament a bitt or two 
apiece towards the bread and wine of which they partook, and 
the lighting 6f the chapel in which they wor8hipped,-^and 
at an annual collection in aid of the funds of the Missionary. 
Society, to whose benevolent exertions they were indebted 
fer a91 they kbew of a welt-fbunded hope of an .heceafter, 
whatever their gratitude promoted, and .their iadostry, bch 
briety, a^ frugality, <virttie» for whidi.theywwsre'iiftdebtcd 
to the Christianity which that Society had taught dien^) 
en&bl^th^m v<^luntarily>and cheerfully to give^^nnr^e par- 
pose of making others as wise and comparativety'iui'fascppy 
as themselves. The petty malice of his persecutors con- 
dMceifd^ ateo to stMp: tO' a minute inqmiy intofhow many 
fowls; and ducks, and geese might have been given to Mr. or 
rsftherVo Mrs. Smith, from the produce and stock, of those 
^rotmds, to the cultivation of which their exhortations had 
induced these! negroes diligditly to attend; aiid with the 
overwhelming factof her having; very occasionally accepted a 
few such triinng marks of gratitude, from those whose chil- 
dren she had taught to read, and endeavoured to t^in up in 
the nurture and admo