Black conservatism in the United States
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Black conservatism in the United States is a political and social movement rooted in communities of African descent that aligns largely with the American conservative movement, including the Christian right. Black conservatism emphasizes social conservatism, traditionalism, patriotism, capitalism, and free markets.
Influential Black conservatives in the early 21st century who held office include Senator Tim Scott, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, and Cabinet secretaries Ben Carson, Condoleezza Rice, and Colin Powell. Thomas Sowell, Shelby Steele, Armstrong Williams, Walter Williams and Candace Owens are among the most influential black conservative political commentators.
One of the main characteristics of black conservatism is its emphasis on personal choice and responsibilities above socioeconomic status and institutional racism. In the tradition of African American politics and intellectual life, black conservatives tend to side with Booker T. Washington as contrasted with W. E. B. Du Bois. For many black conservatives, the key mission is to bring repair and success to the black community by applying the following fundamental principles:
- The pursuit of educational and professional excellence as a means of advancement within the society;
- Policies that promote safety and security in the community beyond the typical casting of a criminal as a "victim" of societal racism;
- Not using the lens of race and the country's history of discrimination as justifications for not excelling to the best of your abilities;
- Local economic development through free enterprise rather than looking to the federal government for assistance;
- Empowerment of the individual via self-improvement (virtue), conscience, and supernatural grace.
Black conservatives typically oppose affirmative action and tend to argue that efforts to obtain reparations for slavery are either misguided or counter-productive. Black conservatives tend to be self-critical of aspects of African-American culture that they believe have created poverty and dependency.
Black conservatives—especially black Republicans—are often accused[by whom?] of being Uncle Toms. Ebony in their May 2001 "100+ Most Influential Black Americans" issue, did not include a number of influential African Americans such as Thomas Sowell, Shelby Steele, Armstrong Williams, Walter Williams and, most notably, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. The Economist described the exclusion of Justice Thomas from the list as spiteful.
Black conservatives favor integration of African Americans into mainstream America and, consequently, disagree with black nationalism and separatism. Black conservatives are more inclined to support economic policies promoting free trade and tax cuts.
According to a 2004 study[by whom?], 14% of blacks identified as "Conservative" or "Extremely Conservative"with another 14% identifying as slightly conservative. However, the same study indicated that less than ten percent identified as Republican or Republican-leaning. [dead link][original research?] Likewise, a 2007 Pew Research Center survey showed that 19% of blacks identified as Religious Right. In 2004, though, the Pew Research Center indicated only 7% of blacks identified as Republican.
A National Election Pool poll showed that support for California Proposition 8 (2008) (a state constitutional amendment defining marriage as an opposite-sex union) was strong among African-American voters; 70% of those interviewed in the exit poll—a higher percentage than any other racial group—stated that they voted in favor of Proposition 8. Polls by both the Associated Press and CNN mirrored this data, reporting support among black voters to be at 70% and 75%, respectively. African American support was considered crucial to the Proposition's passage because African Americans made up an unusually large percentage of voters in 2008; the presence of African American presidential candidate Barack Obama on the ballot was believed to have increased African American voter turnout.
From Reconstruction up until the New Deal, the black population tended to vote Republican. During that period, the Republican Party—particularly in the Southern United States—was seen as more racially liberal than the Democratic Party, primarily because of the role of the Southern wing of the Democratic Party as the party of racial segregation and the Republican Party's roots in the abolitionist movement (see Dixiecrats).
Blacks started to shift in significant numbers to the Democrats with the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt and continued with the election of John F. Kennedy. Among Truman Administration officials, the publication of Henry Lee Moon's Balance of Power spurred Democratic partisan support for African-American constituencies. This shift was also influenced by Herbert Hoover's practice of firing loyal African-Americans from positions within the Republican Party, in order to increase his appeal to Southern white voters. This can be considered an early example of a set of Republican Party methods that were later termed the Southern Strategy.[better source needed]
Timeline of events
This is a timeline of significant events in African-American history that have shaped the conservative movement in the United States.
- 1954 – President Dwight Eisenhower appoints the following:
- Archie Alexander as Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands
- J. Ernest Wilkins Sr. as Undersecretary of Labor for International Labor Affairs
- E. Frederic Morrow as Administrative Officer for Special Projects
- 1975 – President Gerald Ford appoints the following:
- 1978 – Melvin H. Evans is elected to US Congress (Virgin Islands)
- 1979 – Ethel D. Allen is appointed Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
- 1980 – NAACP President Benjamin Hooks is invited to address the Republican National Convention
- 1981 – President Ronald Reagan appoints the following:
- Clarence M. Pendleton Jr. as Chairman of the US Civil Rights Commission
- Samuel Pierce as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- 1982 – President Reagan appoints Clarence Thomas as Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
- 1985 – President Reagan appoints Alan Keyes the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs.
- 1987 – President Reagan appoints Colin L. Powell the National Security Advisor.
- 1989 – President George H. W. Bush appoints the following:
- Louis Wade Sullivan as United States Secretary of Health and Human Services
- General Colin L. Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
- Condoleezza Rice as Senior Director of the National Security Council for Soviet and East European Affairs
- Constance Berry Newman as Director of United States Office of Personnel Management
- Vernon Parker as Special Assistant to the President on the White House Staff
- 1990 – Arthur Fletcher is appointed as the Chairman of the United States Commission on Civil Rights
- 1990 – President George H. W. Bush appoints George W. Haley chairman of the Postal Rate Commission
- 1990 – Gary Franks (CT) is elected to US Congress
- 1991 – President George H. W. Bush appoints Clarence Thomas to U.S. Supreme Court
- 1993 – President George H. W. Bush appoints John W. Shannon as United States Under Secretary of the Army
- 1994 – Victoria Buckley elected as Secretary of State of Colorado
- 1994 – J. C. Watts (OK) elected to US Congress
- 1998 – U.S. House of Representatives elects J. C. Watts (R-OK) to be Chairman of the House Republican Conference.
- 1998 – Ken Blackwell elected as the Ohio Secretary of State
- 2001 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- General Colin Powell as the United States Secretary of State
- Roderick R. Paige as the United States Secretary of Education
- Condoleezza Rice as Advisor of the National Security Council
- Alphonso Jackson as the Deputy Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- Claude Allen as the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services
- Leo S. Mackay Jr. as the Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs
- Larry D. Thompson as the United States Deputy Attorney General
- Michael Powell as the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission
- Stephen A. Perry as Administrator of General Services Administration
- Kay Coles James as Director of United States Office of Personnel Management
- Charles E. James, Sr. as Director of Federal Contract Compliance
- Ruth A. Davis as Director General of the Foreign Service
- Reginald J. Brown as Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
- Brigadier General Francis X. Taylor as Coordinator for Counterterrorism
- Eric M. Bost as Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services
- Brian C. Roseboro as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Markets
- Dr. Eric Motley as Deputy Associate Director, Office of Presidential Personnel
- Pierre-Richard Prosper as United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues
- Andrea Barthwell as deputy director for Demand Reduction at the Office of National Drug Control Policy
- 2002 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- Major General Claude M. Bolton Jr. as United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology
- Lynn Swann as Chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
- Brigadier General Francis X. Taylor as Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security
- Ron Christie as Special Assistant to the President
- Michael Steele elected as Lieutenant Governor of Maryland
- Jennette Bradley elected as Lieutenant Governor of Ohio
- 2003 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- 2004 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- Alphonso Jackson as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- Gerald A. Reynolds as Chairman of the United States Commission on Civil Rights
- Constance Berry Newman as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs
- Brian C. Roseboro as Under Secretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance
- Randy Brock elected as Vermont Auditor of Accounts
- 2005 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- Condoleezza Rice as United States Secretary of State
- Claude Allen as Director of the Domestic Policy Council
- Admiral John O. Agwunobi as United States Assistant Secretary for Health
- Jendayi Frazer as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs
- B. J. Penn as Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installation and Environment)
- 2006 – President George W. Bush appoints the following:
- 2009 – Michael Steele elected Chairman of the Republican National Committee
- 2010 – Tim Scott (SC) and Lt Col. Allen West (FL) elected to US Congress
- 2011 – Herman Cain sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2012
- 2012 – Artur Davis, a former Democratic Party member of the United States House of Representatives joins the GOP.
- 2013 – Tim Scott (SC) is appointed to the US Senate.
- 2014 – Mia Love (UT) and Will Hurd (TX) elected to US Congress
- 2015 – Ben Carson sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2016
- 2016 – Curtis Hill is elected Indiana Attorney General
- 2017 – President Donald Trump appoints the following:
- Ben Carson as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- Omarosa Manigault as Director of Communications for the Office of Public Liaison
- Jerome Adams as Surgeon General of the United States
- Naomi C. Earp as Agriculture Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights
- Alveda King as a member of the Frederick Douglass Bicentennial Commission
- Johnny C. Taylor Jr. as Chairman of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities
- Ja'Ron Smith as Director of Urban Affairs and Revitalization
- Charles E. James, Sr as Director of the Transport Department Office of Civil Rights
- Cyril Sartor as Director for African Affairs
- James E. Williams as Chief Financial Officer of Labor
- Brigadier General L. Eric Patterson as Director of Homeland Security's Federal Protective Service
- Jacquelyn Hayes-Byrd as Assistant Secretary of Veterans Affairs for Human Resources and Administration
- Dana W. White as Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs
- Andrew F. Knaggs as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Combating Terrorism
- Gary Washington as Member of the Board of Directors of the Commodity Credit Corporation
- 2018 – President Donald Trump appoints the following:
- 2019 – President Donald Trump appoints the following:
- Tamara Bonzanto as Assistant Secretary of Veterans Affairs (Accountability and Whistleblower Protection)
- Hannibal Ware as Inspector General of the Small Business Administration
- Michael Kubayanda as Commissioner of the Postal Regulatory Commission
- Rodney Hood as a Member of the National Credit Union Administration
- Daniel Cameron elected Kentucky Attorney General
- 2020 – Burgess Owens (UT) and Byron Donalds (FL) elected to US Congress
- 2021 – Winsome Sears is elected Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
African American Conservative politicians
- Kenneth Paschal – Alabama State Representative (2021–present)
- Juan Chastang – Mobile County Commissioner (2005–2008)
- Sharon Jackson – Alaska State Assemblywoman (2018–2021)
- David S. Wilson – Alaska State Senator (2017–present)
- Walt Furnace – Alaska State Assemblyman (1983–1991)
- Selwyn Carrol – Alaska State Assemblyman (1973–1975)
- Jerone Davison – U.S. House candidate (2022) and Oakland Raiders football player
- Walter Blackman – Arizona State Representative (2019–present)
- Larry Elder – Governor of California nominee (2021)
- Rosey Grier – Governor of California candidate (2018) and New York Giants football player.
- Damon Dunn – California Secretary of State nominee (2010) and Dallas Cowboys football player
- H. Abram Wilson – Mayor of San Ramon, California (2002–2007)
- Ward Connerly – University of California Regent (1993–2005)
- Corey Simon – Florida State Senator (2023-present) and former Indianapolis Colts football player.
- Webster Barnaby – Florida State Representative (2021–present)
- Mike Hill – Florida State Representative (2013–2017 & 2019–2021)
- Berny Jacques - Florida State Representative (2023-present)
- Kiyan Michael - Florida State Representative (2023-present)
- Peter Boulware – Florida House of Representatives nominee (2008) and Baltimore Ravens football player
- Melvin Everson – Georgia State Representative (2005–2011)
- Willie Talton – Georgia State Representative (2005–2015)
- Vernon Jones – Georgia State Representative (1993–2001 and 2017–2021); previously a Democrat, he switched to Republican in January 2021
- Richard Irvin – Mayor of Aurora (2017–present)
- Erika Harold – Illinois Attorney General nominee (2018), U.S. House candidate (2012/2014) and Miss America (2003)
- John D. Anthony – Illinois State Representative (2013–2016)
- Patrick Penn – Kansas State Representative (2021-present)
- Tony Barton – Kansas State Representative (2015–2017)
- Willie Dove – Kansas State Representative (2013–2021)
- George W. Haley – Kansas State Senator (1964–1968)
- Elbert Guillory – Louisiana State Senator (2009–2015) and candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana (2015)
- Kimberly Klacik – U.S. House nominee (2020)
- Aris T. Allen – Maryland State Delegate (1991 & 1967–1974), Lieutenant Governor nominee (1978) and State Senator (1979–1982)
- Frank Cousins – Massachusetts State Representative (1993–1996) and Essex County Sheriff (1996–2018)
- Althea Garrison – Massachusetts State Representative (1993–1995)
- James Craig – Chief of the Detroit Police Department (2013-2021) and candidate in the 2022 Michigan gubernatorial election
- John E. James – Republican nominee for the United States Senate in 2018 and 2020
- Paul H. Scott – Michigan State Representative (2009–2011)
- Larry DeShazor – Michigan State Representative (2009–2011)
- Bill Hardiman – Michigan State Senator (2003–2011), Mayor of Kentwood, Michigan (1992–2002) and U.S. House candidate (2010)
- Keith Butler – Detroit Councilman (1989–1993) and U.S. Senate candidate (2006)
- William Lucas – Wayne County Sheriff (1969–1982) and Governor of Michigan nominee (1986)
- Ray Pleasant – Minnesota State Representative (1973–1981)
- Lisa Demuth – Minnesota State Representative (2019–present)
- Angela McGlowan – Miss District of Columbia USA (1994) and U.S. House candidate (2010)
- Nic Lott – chairman for the Mississippi Young Republicans
- Yvonne Brown – Mayor of Tchula, Mississippi (2001–2009) and U.S. House nominee (2006)
- Charles Evers – Mayor of Fayette, Mississippi (1969–1981 & 1985–1989)
- Shamed Dogan – Missouri State Representative (2015–present)
- Neal E. Boyd – 2008 Winner of America's Got Talent and nominee/candidate for the Missouri House of Representatives (2012/2014)
- Sherman Parker – Missouri State Representative (2002–2008)
- Carson Ross – Missouri State Representative (1989–2002) and Mayor of Blue Springs, Missouri (2008–present)
- Dinah Abrahamson – Nebraska State Central Committeewoman (2005–2013)
- Niger Innis – Director of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and U.S. House candidate (2014)
- Maurice Washington – Nevada State Senator (1994–2010)
- Lynette Boggs – Miss Oregon (1989), Las Vegas City Council (1999–2004), Clark County Commission (2004–2006) and U.S. House nominee (2002)
- Antwan McClellan – New Jersey State Assemblyman (2020–present)
- Garry Cobb – U.S. House nominee (2014) and Dallas Cowboys football player
- Bruce Harris – Mayor of Chatham Borough, New Jersey (2012–2019), member of the New Jersey State Planning Commission (2020–present)
- Martin G. Barnes – Mayor of Paterson, New Jersey (1997–2002)
- Jim Usry – Mayor of Atlantic City, New Jersey (1984–1990)
- Matthew G. Carter – Mayor of Montclair, New Jersey (1968–1972)
- Conrad James – New Mexico State Representative (2010–2012 & 2014–2016)
- Jane Powdrell-Culbert – New Mexico State Representative (2002–present)
- Keith Wofford – Attorney General of New York nominee (2018)
- Michel Faulkner – U.S. House nominee (2010) and New York Jets football player
- Randy Daniels – New York State Secretary of State (2001-2005)
- Roy Innis – Chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) & a member of the National Rifle Association's governing board.
- Richard E. Jackson – Commissioner of Motor Vehicles (1995–2000)
- Joseph Holland – New York State Commissioner of Communities and Urban Renewal (1995-1997)
- James Garner – Mayor of Hempstead (1988–2005) and U.S. House nominee (2004)
- Thomas Stith III – Governor of North Carolina Pat McCrory's Chief of Staff (2013–2016)
- Dr. Ada Fisher – NC Republican National Committeewoman (2008–present) and U.S. House nominee (2006 & 2008)
- Mark Robinson – Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina (2021–present)
- Ken Blackwell - Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio (1979–80), the Ohio State Treasurer (1994–99), and Ohio Secretary of State (1999–2007)
- Robert C. Henry – Mayor of Springfield, Ohio (1966–1968)
- T. W. Shannon – Oklahoma State Representative (2007–2015) and Speaker of the Oklahoma House of Representatives (2013–2014)
- Harry Lewis Jr. – Pennsylvania State Representative (2014–2018)
- Lynn Swann – Governor of Pennsylvania Nominee (2006) and Pittsburgh Steelers football player
- Renee Amoore – Pennsylvania's Republican State Committeewoman (1992–2000)
- Mike Reichenbach - South Carolina State Senator (2022-present)
- Samuel Rivers Jr. – South Carolina State Representative (2012–2018)
- Scott Turner – Texas State Representative (2013–2017) and Denver Broncos football player
- Stefani Carter – Texas State Representative (2011–2015)
- James White – Texas State Representative (2011–present)
- Michael L. Williams – Commissioner of the Texas Education Agency (2012–2015), Chairman of the Texas Railroad Commission (1999–2011) and U.S. House candidate (2012)
- Robin Armstrong – Vice Chairman of the Republican Party of Texas (2006–2010)
- Clay Smothers – Texas State Representative (1977–1981)
- Alvin B. Jackson – Utah State Senator (2013–2016)
- James Evans – Utah State Senator (2002–2004) and Chairman of the Utah Republican Party (2013–2017)
- A.C Cordoza - Virginia State Delegate (2022-present)
- E. W. Jackson – Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Nominee (2013)
- Paul Clinton Harris – Virginia State Delegate (1998–2002)
- Noel C. Taylor– Mayor of Roanoke, Virginia (1975–1992)
- Michael Ross – Washington State Representative (1971–1973)
- Charles Stokes– Washington State Representative (1951–1959)
- Caleb Hanna – West Virginia State Delegate (2018–present)
- Jill Upson – West Virginia State Delegate (2014–2018)
- Julian Bradley – Wisconsin State Senate (2021–present)
United States judges
- Angela Tucker – Texas District Court Judge (2012–present)
- Ada E. Brown – United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas.
- Clarence Thomas – Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1991–present)
- Dale Wainwright – Associate Justice of the Texas Supreme Court (2003–2012)
- David W. Williams – Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California (1969–2000)
- George C. Hanks Jr. – Justice on the Texas state First Court of Appeals (2010–2015) & Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas (2015–present)
- Janice Rogers Brown – Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California (1996–2005) & U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2005–2017)
- Jerome Holmes – United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
- Kevin A. Ross – Judge of the Los Angeles County Superior Court (1996–2005) & Judge on America's Court with Judge Ross (2010–present)
- Kurtis T. Wilder – Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court (2017–2018)
- Lynn Toler – Arbitrator on the court series Divorce Court (2001–present)
- Robert P. Young Jr. – Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court (1999–2017) & Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court (2011–2017)
- Sara J. Harper – Ohio Court of Appeals (1990–2003)
- Wallace Jefferson – Associate Justice of the Texas Supreme Court (2001–2004) & Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court (2004–2013)
- Barrington D. Parker – United States District Judge, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (1969–1985)
- Alan Keyes
- Edward J. Perkins – United States Ambassador to the United Nations (1992–1993)
- Eric M. Bost – United States Ambassador to South Africa (2006–2009)
- Amy Holmes – News anchor and political contributor on CNN
- Armond White – Film critic for National Review and Out Magazine
- Armstrong Williams – Author of Beyond Blame and TV host of On Point
- Brandon Tatum – Former police officer, commentator and professional speaker.
- Candace Owens – Writer and commentator
- Carol M. Swain – television personality and professor of political science and law at Vanderbilt University
- Charles Payne – Fox News and Fox Business journalist
- CJ Pearson – Journalist
- C.L. Bryant – TV host
- Deneen Borelli – Author, columnist, and Fox News contributor
- Diamond and Silk (Lynnette Hardaway and Rochelle Richardson) – Live-stream video bloggers, political activists and Newsmax TV hosts
- George Schuyler – Journalist
- Philippa Schuyler – Pianist, author, journalist
- Hallie Quinn Brown – Author
- Harris Faulkner – Television host for Fox News
- James Golden – Producer for The Rush Limbaugh Show (under the alias "Bo Snerdley")
- Reverend Jesse Lee Peterson – President of the Brotherhood Organization of a New Destiny
- Jason Riley – Journalist
- Katrina Pierson – Tea Party activist, communications consultant and a regular CNN contributor
- Larry Elder – Author of 10 Things You Can't Say in America and radio host
- Lawrence B. Jones – Radio host, contributor to Fox News, and author
- Lenny McAllister – Author of Diary of a Mad Black PYC (Proud Young Conservative) and radio talk-show host from WVON-AM Chicago
- Lester Holt – News anchor at NBC News, a registered Republican since 2003
- Michael King – Emmy Award-winning television producer
- Michelle Bernard – Journalist
- Nannie Helen Burroughs – Author
- Paris Dennard – Commentator on CNN and NPR, and the Senior Director of Strategic Communications for the Thurgood Marshall College Fund
- Raynard Jackson – Columnist and TV political analyst
- Shelby Steele – Author
- Samantha Marika – Political commentator
- Tommy Sotomayor – Radio and internet talk show host, YouTube personality, men's rights activist and film producer
- Tony Brown – Journalist and host of Tony Brown's Journal
- Zora Neale Hurston - Author, anthropologist and filmmaker
- Ben Kinchlow – Evangelist, television and radio personality
- Jason Whitlock – Sports Journalist, radio personality, commentator and writer.
- Lawrence Dennis – Mixed-race, diplomat, consultant, author
- Leo Terrell – civil rights attorney, talk radio host
- Tyrus (wrestler) – Professional wrestler, actor and Fox News commentator
- Lieutenant Colonel Frances Rice – Chairwoman of the National Black Republican Association
- Major General Mary J. Kight – Adjutant General of California (2010–2011)
- Lieutenant General Russel L. Honoré
- Percy A. Pierre – served as acting Secretary of the United States Army in January 1981.
- General Colin Powell – former U.S. Secretary of State, former chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, former National Security Adviser, changed political party affiliation from Republican to Independent in 2021.
- Deroy Murdock – National Review columnist
- Ken Hamblin – Denver Post columnist
- Robert A. George – Columnist for the New York Post
- Stephen L. Carter – Christianity Today columnist, author of The Culture of Disbelief
- Sophia A. Nelson – Chair of PoliticalIntersection.com and politicalintersection.blogspot.com
- Star Parker – President of the Coalition on Urban Renewal and Education, columnist & author
Athletes and entertainers
- Bryan Clay – Washington Times
- David Tyree – NFL Football player
- Don King – Boxing promoter
- Ernie Banks – MLB baseball player
- Greg Anthony – NBA Basketball player
- Herschel Walker – NFL Football player
- Kevin and Keith Hodge – Prominent YouTube commentators, comedians, and trainers.
- James Brown – Musician. Openly endorsed Richard Nixon at the 1972 presidential election and named Strom Thurmond as one of his heroes during a 1999 interview with Rolling Stone.
- Jimmie Walker – Actor
- Johnny Mathis – Singer
- Joseph C. Phillips – Actor
- Joy Villa – Singer. Promoted and supported Donald Trump's presidency in 2017.
- Kanye West – Rapper and record producer. Endorsed Donald Trump subsequently to the 2016 presidential election. Met President Trump in the Oval Office on 11 October 2018. Independent candidate for President of the United States in 2020.
- Karl Malone – Olympic Gold medallist and basketball player
- Mike Jones – WWF wrestler
- Nolan Carroll – NFL Football player and son of Jennifer Carroll, Lieutenant Governor of Florida
- Pearl Bailey – Actress and singer
- Ronnie Lott – NFL Football player
- Stacey Dash – Actress
- Thurman Thomas – NFL Football player
- Tony Dungy – NFL Football player and coach
- Wilt Chamberlain – NBA Basketball player
- Isaiah Washington – Actor
- Rosey Grier - Former football player, actor, singer, Protestant minister, he addressed the 1984 Republican National Convention and endorsed Ronald Reagan for reelection.
Education and business
- Alveda King – Niece of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and senior fellow at the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution
- Arthur Fletcher – Academic
- Booker T. Washington – Educator, author, orator, and adviser to several presidents of the United States
- Chris Darden – Attorney
- George Washington Carver – Agricultural scientist and inventor who promoted alternative crops to cotton and methods to prevent soil depletion
- Glenn Loury – Academic, economist and podcast host
- Herman Cain – Former CEO of Godfather's Pizza, talk show host and one-time presidential candidate
- Jessie De Priest – Music teacher, wife of Congressman Oscar Stanton De Priest. Her presence at a White House tea given by Lou Henry Hoover on June 12, 1929, caused a scandal
- Joshua I. Smith – Businessman
- Marvin Scott – Academic
- Michael Powell - Former Republican member of the Federal Communications Commission, current president National Cable and Telecommunications Association.
- Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson – First African American to graduate from Harvard Medical School
- Samuel B. Fuller – Businessman
- Stephen N. Lackey – Businessman
- Thomas Sowell – American economist, social theorist, and senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
- Vern S. Williams – Member of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel
- Walter Edward Williams – American economist, commentator, and academic
Civil rights, abolitionists and activists
- Eldridge Cleaver – Leader of the Black Panther Party who later became a Republican
- James Meredith – Civil rights campaigner, who served as domestic adviser to Jesse Helms
- James Weldon Johnson – Activist, served as treasurer of Colored Republican Club
- Scipio Africanus Jones – Activist
- Dr. T. R. M. Howard – Founder of Regional Council of Negro Leadership, surgeon, supporter of right to abortion, ally of Dwight Eisenhower
- Bayard Rustin – Civil rights activist who became neoconservative in later life
- Michael the Black Man – Maurice Woodside, activist
- James David Manning – Pastor, ATLAH World Missionary Church, activist
- Bishop Eddie Long – Pastor, New Birth Missionary Baptist Church, activist
- Enrique Tarrio – Henry "Enrique" Tarrio, identifies as Afro-Cuban, activist
- Manning Johnson – Former Communist who became an anti-communist activist
- Darrell C. Scott – Pastor, activist
- Ali Alexander – Social media personality and activist, of African-American and Arab ancestry
- Archibald Grimke – Civil rights activist
- Ezola Foster – Teacher, writer, political activist, and unsuccessful candidate for public office on the Republican and Reform Party tickets
- Roscoe Simmons – Orator, journalist, political activist, he was part of the "Old Guard" of Black Republicans in Tennessee. He attended three Republican National Conventions and seconded the nomination of Herbert Hoover in 1932.
- Congress of Racial Equality
- American Civil Rights Institute
- Project 21
- Coalition on Urban Renewal and Education
- National Black Republican Association
- Blexit
- Lincoln League
- Conservative Democrat
- Hip Hop Republican
- African Americans in the United States Congress
- List of minority governors and lieutenant governors in the United States
- Hispanic and Latino Conservatism in the United States
- The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution
- Asian American and Pacific Islands American conservatism in the United States
- Black Lies, White Lies
- List of African-American Republicans
- Black-owned businesses
- Diamond, Sara (1996). Facing the Wrath: Confronting the Right in Dangerous Times. Common Courage Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-56751-078-2.
Christian Right activists allied with black conservatives to make their causes appear more mainstream across racial and class lines. In this vein, the Family Research Council (the lobbying affiliate of Focus on the Family) recently named as vice-president Kay Cole James, a black anti-abortion activist.
- "Lexington: The school of very hard knocks". The Economist. 2007-10-04. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- Wright Rigueur, Leah (15 February 2015). "The Forgotten History of Black Republicans". The Daily Beast. New York City. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- For an overview of these themes, see Stan Faryna, Brad Stetson, and Joseph G. Conti, Eds., Black and Right: The Bold New Voice of Black Conservatives in America, (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997)
- Brian Greenberg; Linda S. Watts; Richard A. Greenwald; Gordon Reavley; Alice L. George; Scott Beekman; Cecelia Bucki; Mark Ciabattari; John C. Stoner; Troy D. Paino; Laurie Mercier; Andrew Hunt; Peter C. Holloran; Nancy Cohen (2008). Social History of the United States [10 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-59884-128-2.
- "Lexington: The school of very hard knocks". The Economist. 2007-10-04. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- "Quick Tables". Sda.berkeley.edu:8080. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- Pew Forum: Many Americans Uneasy with Mix of Religion and Politics Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Part 1: Party Affiliation: The 2004 Political Landscape Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Exit Poll Shows Blacks, Hispanics Overwhelmingly Backed Prop. 8". KTVU. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on September 17, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "70% of African Americans backed Prop. 8, exit poll finds". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- "Local Exit Polls – Election Center 2008 – Elections & Politics from". CNN.com. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- Morain, Dan; Garrison, Jessica (2008-11-06). "Focused beyond marriage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- "American President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The American Franchine". Millercenter.org. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth (2016). These United States: A Nation in the Making, 1890-Present (First ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 24. ISBN 9780393283075.
- Dawson, Michael C. (1995). Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton University Press. p. 102. ISBN 0691025436.
herbert hoover fired black republicans.
- "How the party of Lincoln won over the once democratic south". History.com. September 3, 2021.
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