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Bohemia

Index Bohemia

Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. [1]

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Expand index (4033 more) »

A Choice of Magic

A Choice of Magic is a 1971 anthology of 32 fairy tales from around the world that have been collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders.

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A Hero's Song

A Hero's Song (Píseň bohatýrská), Op.

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Aaron Karfunkel

Aaron Karfunkel (also known as Aaron ben Judah; in Hebrew, Aharon ben Yehudah ha-Kohen; in Yiddish, Aaron Löb (died 1816) was a Bohemian rabbi of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After having successively filled the rabbinates of Gawartschew, Łask, Dasparschi, and Widowa, he was called in 1801 to Náchod, where he remained until 1806. From 1807–1816 he was chief rabbi of Silesia. Karfunkel was the author of She'eltot Abiyah, containing dissertations on Talmudic subjects, and divided into twelve parts, having for their respective titles the names of the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate. Of these parts only two have been published (Berlin, 1806). They are divided into "kelalim", subdivided into paragraphs, with glosses entitled Millu'at Eben and dissertations called Meshuah Milhamah. Karfunkel was the author also of Tzanif Tahor, a commentary on Ecclesiastes, a manuscript of which is in the British Museum.

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Aš (Asch) is a town of Cheb District in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.

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Abba Hushi

Abba Hushi (Also: Aba Khoushy; אבא חושי; born Abba Schneller; 1898 – 24 March 1969) was an Israeli politician who served as mayor of Haifa for eighteen years between 1951 and 1969.

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Abbé de La Marre

The abbé de La Marre (or La Mare) (Quimper, 1708 – Bavaria, 1742) was an 18th-century French homme de lettres.

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Abellio (transport company)

Abellio operates public transport services in Europe, with both bus and rail networks.

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Abertam cheese

Abertam is a traditional Czech farmhouse hard cheese made from sheep milk.

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Abortion in the Czech Republic

Abortion in the Czech Republic is legally allowed up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, with medical indications up to 24 weeks of pregnancy, in case of grave problems with the fetus at any time.

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Abraham Benisch

Abraham Benisch (1811, Drosau, Bohemia-1878, London) was a Hebraist and journalist.

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Abraham Buschke

Abraham Buschke (27 September 1868 – 23 February 1943) was a Jewish German dermatologist who was a native of Nakel in the Province of Posen.

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Abraham Kohn

Abraham Kohn (June 13, 1806 in Zalužany, Bohemia – September 7, 1848 at Lemberg, Galicia) was the liberal Chief Rabbi of Lemberg, and was poisoned to death.

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Abraham Samuel Bacharach

Abraham Samuel Bacharach was a Rabbi, born about 1575; died in Gernsheim, Grand Duchy of Hesse, May 26, 1615.

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Abrahamites

The Abrahamites (also Nový Bydžov-Israelites) were a sect of deists in Bohemia in the 18th century, who professed to be followers of the pre-circumcised Abraham.

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Absinthe

Absinthe is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage.

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Acanthite

Acanthite is a form of silver sulfide with the chemical formula Ag2S.

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Accretionary wedge

An accretionary wedge or accretionary prism forms from sediments accreted onto the non-subducting tectonic plate at a convergent plate boundary.

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Acutiramus

Acutiramus is a genus of giant predatory eurypterid, an extinct group of aquatic arthropods.

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Adalbert Gyrowetz

Vojtěch Matyáš Jírovec (Adalbert Gyrowetz) (20 February 1763 – 19 March 1850) was a Bohemian composer.

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Adalbert of Prague

Adalbert of Prague (Adalbertus / Wojciech Sławnikowic); 95623 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch (Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but the authorship has not confirmed. St. Adalbert (or St.

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Adalbert Theodor Michel

Adalbert Theodor Michel (Vojtěch Theodor Michl, April 15, 1821 – September 30, 1877) was an Austrian lawyer, law professor and rector of Universities in Olomouc (1854) and in Graz (1867).

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Adalbert, Margrave of Austria

Adalbert (Albrecht, c. 985 – 26 May 1055), known as Adalbert the Victorious (Albrecht der Siegreiche), was the Margrave of Austria from 1018 until his death in 1055.

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Adam & Eve (band)

Adam & Eve was the name of a German schlager music duo who have several hit records in Germany in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Adam Adamandy Kochański

Adam Adamandy Kochański (5 August 1631 – 17 May 1700) was a Polish mathematician.

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Adam Erdmann Trčka von Lípa

Adam Erdmann Trčka von Lípa (1599 – 23 February 1634) was a Bohemian nobleman and lieutenant field marshal, who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' War.

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Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic

Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic – literally Adam Václav Michna of Otradovice – (1600 – 2 November 1676, Jindřichův Hradec) was a Czech Catholic poet, composer, hymn writer, organist and choir leader of the early Baroque era.

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Adamites

The Adamites, or Adamians, were adherents of an Early Christian sect that gathered in North Africa in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries.

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Adelaide of Hungary

Adelaide of Hungary (– 27 January 1062) was the only daughter of King Andrew I of Hungary of the Árpád dynasty and Anastasia of Kiev.

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Adiva

Adiva was the first wife of Boleslaus II of Bohemia.

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Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany

The Gaue (Singular: Gau) were the de facto administrative sub-divisions of Nazi Germany, eclipsing the de jure Länder (states) of Weimar Germany in 1934.

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Adolf Born

Adolf Born (12 June 1930 – 22 May 2016) was a Czech painter, illustrator, caricaturist, and filmmaker.

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Adolf Gottlieb Fiedler

Adolf Gottlieb (also: Gottlob) Fiedler (1771 – 12 August 1850) was a German entrepreneur in Saxony and Poland.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adolf Kraus

Adolf Kraus (February 26, 1850 – October 22, 1928) was a lawyer and Jewish leader.

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Adolf Martin Pleischl

Adolf Martin Pleischl (born 10 October 1787, in Hossenreith, Bohemia; died 31 July 1867, in Dorf an der Enns) was a chemist and medical doctor.

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Adolf Merckle

Adolf Merckle (18 March 1934 – 5 January 2009) was an entrepreneur and one of the richest people in Germany.

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Adolf Rosenzweig

Rabbi Dr.

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Adolf Scherbaum

Adolf Scherbaum (23 August 1909 – 2 August 2000) was a trumpet player who specialised in the piccolo trumpet.

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Adolf Zinkl

Adolf Julius Zinkl (10 June 1871, Neuhaus – 3 June 1944, Vienna) was an Austrian chess master.

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Adonism

Adonism is a Neopagan religion founded in 1925 by the German esotericist Franz Sättler (1884-c.1942), who often went by the pseudonym of Dr.

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Adršpach-Teplice Rocks

The Adršpach-Teplice Rocks (Adršpašsko-teplické skály, German: Adersbach-Weckelsdorfer Felsenstadt) are an unusual set of sandstone formations covering 17 km2 in northeastern Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Adrian Carton de Wiart

Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Paul Ghislain Carton de Wiart (5 May 1880 – 5 June 1963) was a British Army officer born of Belgian and Irish parents.

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Adrian von Enkevort

Adrian von Enkevort (1603 – 1663) was a Brabantine nobleman and Generalfeldmarschall who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' War and the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59).

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Aegidius Sadeler

Aegidius Sadeler or Aegidius Sadeler II (1570–1629) was a Flemish engraver who was principally active at the Prague court of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor and his successors.

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Afrikaans exonyms

Below is list of Afrikaans exonyms.

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Aftermath of World War I

The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.

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Age of Empires II

Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings is a real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft.

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Agnatic seniority

Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.

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Agnes de Launcekrona

Agnes de Launcekrona was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen consort Anne of Bohemia (1366 – 1394).

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Agnes of Austria (1322–1392)

Agnes of Austria (Agnieszka Habsburska, Agnes von Habsburg) (1322 – 2 February 1392) was a German princess member of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Duchess of Świdnica.

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Agnes of Babenberg

Not to be confused with Agnes of Brandenburg Agnes of Babenberg (Agnes von Babenberg, Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.

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Agnes of Bohemia

Agnes of Bohemia, O.S.C., (Svatá Anežka Česká, 20 June 1211 – 2 March 1282), also known as Agnes of Prague, was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity, mortification of the flesh and piety over a life of luxury and comfort.

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Agnes, daughter of Ottokar II

Agnes (before 1260 – after 1279) was a natural daughter of Bohemian king Ottokar II with his mistress Agnes of Kuenring.

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Akademisches Gymnasium (Vienna)

Founded in 1553, the Akademisches Gymnasium is the oldest secondary school in Vienna.

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Alén Diviš

Alén Diviš (26 April 1900 – 15 November 1956) was a Czech painter known for his melancholic art.

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Albatrellus subrubescens

Albatrellus subrubescens is a species of polypore fungus in the family Albatrellaceae.

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Albert II of Belgium

Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the sixth King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.

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Albert II of Germany

Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 139727 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg.

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Albert III, Duke of Saxony

Albert III (Albrecht) (27 January 144312 September 1500) was a Duke of Saxony.

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Albert of Koldice

Albert of Koldice (died 1448) was a Bohemian nobleman.

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Albert of Saxony

Albert (Frederick Augustus Albert Anton Ferdinand Joseph Karl Maria Baptist Nepomuk Wilhelm Xaver Georg Fidelis; 23 April 1828 – 19 June 1902) was a German King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.

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Albert of Schwarzburg

Albert of Schwarzburg (died 15 March 1327), in contemporary sources also Albertus Alamanus ("Albert the German") or Albertus de Nigro Castro, was a member of the Saxon–Thuringian House of Schwarzburg who became a member of the Knights Hospitaller, rising to be marshal and grand preceptor of the Order, and fighting with success against the Turks.

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Albert the Bear

Albert the Bear (Albrecht der Bär; Adelbertus, Adalbertus, Albertus; 1100 – 18 November 1170) was the first Margrave of Brandenburg (as Albert I) from 1157 to his death and was briefly Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142.

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Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg

Albert III (Albrecht III.) (9 November 141411 March 1486) was Elector of Brandenburg from 1471 until his death, the third from the House of Hohenzollern.

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Albrecht von Wallenstein

Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.

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Aleardo Aleardi

Aleardo Aleardi (14 November 181217 July 1878), born Gaetano Maria, was an Italian poet who belonged to the so-called Neo-romanticists.

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Aleš Hrdlička

Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička, after 1918 changed to Aleš Hrdlička (March 29, 1869 – September 5, 1943), was an Austro-Hungarian anthropologist who lived in the United States after his family had moved there in 1881.

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Alekhine's Defence

Alekhine's Defence is a chess opening which begins with the moves: Black tempts White's pawns forward to form a broad pawn centre, with plans to undermine and attack the white structure later in the spirit of hypermodern defence.

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Alessandro Poglietti

Alessandro Poglietti (early 17th century – July 1683) was a Baroque organist and composer of unknown origin.

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Alexander Dreyschock

Alexander Dreyschock (15 October 1818 – 1 April 1869) was a Czech pianist and composer.

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Alexander Kolowrat

Count Alexander "Sascha" Joseph von Kolowrat-Krakowsky (29 January 1886 – December 4, 1927), was an Austrian film producer of Bohemian-Czech descent from the House of Kolowrat.

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Alexander Korsakov

Alexander Mikhailovich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков) (August 24, 1753May 25, 1840) was a Russian general remembered as an unlucky assistant to Alexander Suvorov during his Swiss expedition of 1799–1800.

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Alexander Moody Stuart

Alexander Moody Stuart (15 June 1809 – 31 July 1898) was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland.

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Alexander Utendal

Alexander Utendal (1543/45 – 7 May 1581) was a Flemish composer.

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Alfons Dopsch

Alfons Dopsch (14 June 1868 in Lobositz, Bohemia - 1 September 1953 in Vienna) was an Austrian social and economic historian who specialised in the history of medieval Europe.

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Alfons von Czibulka

Alfons Freiherr von Czibulka, or Alfons Cibulka (born 28 June 1888, Ratboř Castle (Schloss Radborsch) near Kolín, Bohemia – died 22 October 1969, Munich) was a Czech-Austrian writer and painter.

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Alfred Gürtler

Alfred Gürtler (30 October 1875 – 15 March 1933) was an Austrian statistician, economist and politician who served as Austrian Finance Minister from 1921 to 1922.

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Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz

General Alfred Candidus Ferdinand, Prince of Windisch-Grätz (Alfred Candidus Ferdinand Fürst zu Windisch-Grätz; 11 May 178721 March 1862), a member of the Bohemian noble Windisch-Graetz family, was a Field Marshal in the Austrian army.

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Alfred III, Prince of Windisch-Grätz

Alfred III, Prince of Windisch-Grätz (Alfred August Karl Maria Wolfgang Erwin Fürst zu Windisch-Grätz; 31 October 1851, Prague – 23 November 1927, Tachov) was a Bohemian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian statesman.

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Alfred Meissner

Alfred Meissner (15 October 1822, Teplitz – 29 May 1885, Bregenz) was an Austrian poet.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Alfred Pribram

Alfred Pribram (11 May 1841 – 14 April 1912) was a Bohemian internist born in Prague.

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Alfred Seifert

Alfred Seifert (September 6, 1850 Praskolesy, Bohemia – February 6, 1901, Munich, Germany), born in present-day Czech Republic.

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Alfred Walter

Alfred Walter (May 8, 1929 in Volary – March 7, 2004 in Brussels) was a Bohemian-Austrian conductor.

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Algoma, Wisconsin

Algoma is a city in Kewaunee County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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All-time Olympic Games medal table

The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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Alois Ander

Alois Ander (also Aloys; August 24, 1821 – December 11, 1864) was a German operatic tenor, active in Vienna in the middle of the nineteenth century.

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Alois Bubák

Alois Bubák (August 20, 1824, Kosmonosy – March 6, 1870, Prague) was a Czech painter of landscapes and an illustrator.

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Alois Hába

Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.

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Alois Kříž

Alois Kříž (26 February 1911 – 26 March 1947) was a Czechoslovak journalist and Nazi collaborator.

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Alois Rašín

Alois Rašín (18 October 1867 in Nechanice, Bohemia – 18 February 1923 in Prague) was a Czech economist and politician.

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Alois Vašátko

Alois Vašátko DFC (25 August 1908 – 23 June 1942) was a Czechoslovak artillery officer who became an air force pilot.

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Alois Vojtěch Šembera

Alois Vojtěch Šembera, also Alois Adalbert Sembera or Alois Adalbert Schembera (March 21, 1807 in Vysoké Mýto, Bohemia, Austrian Empire – March 23, 1882 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary) was a Czech linguist, historian of literature, writer, journalist and patriot.

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Alois Wachsman

Alois Wachsman (14 May 1898, in Prague – 16 May 1942, in Jičín) was a Czech painter, stage designer and architect.

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Aloisia Kirschner

Aloisia Kirschner (June 17, 1854 – February 10, 1934) was an Austrian novelist, born in Prague and favorably known under her pseudonym Ossip Schubin, which she borrowed from the novel Helena by Ivan Turgenev.

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Alonso de Ercilla

Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (August 7, 1533November 29, 1594) was a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

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Altar Wings of Roudníky

Altar Wings of Roudníky are two surviving wings of late Gothic retable, which probably originated in one of Prague's contemporary workshops for village (Utraquist) parish church.

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Altenburg

Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located south of Leipzig, west of Dresden and east of Erfurt.

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Alton Barnes White Horse

Alton Barnes White Horse is a chalk hill figure of a white horse located on Milk Hill some 1,000 metres north of the village of Alton, Wiltshire, England.

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Altorf

Altorf is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France.

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Aluminium sulfate

Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.

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Amadeus Aba

Amadeus Aba or Amade Aba (Aba Amadé; ? – 5 September 1311) was a Hungarian oligarch in the Kingdom of Hungary who ruled de facto independently the northern and north-eastern counties of the kingdom (today parts of Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine).

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Ameesha Patel

Ameesha Patel (born Amisha Amit Patel) also simply known as "Ameesha" is an Indian actress and model who predominantly appears in Bollywood films.

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An Cléireach

An Cléireach (Gaelic: The Clerk) is a novel by the Irish writer Darach Ó Scolaí, published in 2007 and winner of the 2007 Oireachtas Prize for Literature.

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Anabaptism

Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.

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Ancient Bohemian Legends

Ancient Bohemian legends (Staré pověsti české in Czech) is a book by Alois Jirásek written in 1894.

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André Mattoni

André Mattoni (24 February 1900, Karlsbad 11 January 1985, Vienna) was an Austrian actor.

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Andrea Pozzo

Andrea Pozzo (Latinized version: Andreas Puteus; 30 November 1642 – 31 August 1709) was an Italian Jesuit brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.

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Andreas Leonhardt

Andreas Leonhardt (19 April 1800, Asch, Bohemia (now Aš, Czech Republic) – 3 October 1866, Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire) was an Austrian musician, composer and conductor.

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Andrew Frank Schoeppel

Andrew Frank Schoeppel (November 23, 1894 – January 21, 1962) was an American politician and a member of the Republican Party.

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Andrew Garbarino

Andrew R. Garbarino is the Assembly member for the 7th District of the New York Assembly.

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Andrew I of Hungary

Andrew I the White or the Catholic (I.; c. 1015 – Zirc, before 6 December 1060) was King of Hungary from 1046 to 1060.

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Andrychów

Andrychów (list, list, hist. also Andrychau) is the largest town in Wadowice County in southern Poland, in Little Beskids, in historical region Lesser Poland, with 22,257 inhabitants.

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Angel Kanchev

Angel Kanchev Angelov (Ангел Кънчев Ангелов) (1850 – 5 March 1872) was a Bulgarian revolutionary from Tryavna.

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Anglo-Prussian alliance (1756)

The Anglo-Prussian Alliance was a military alliance created by the Westminster Convention between Great Britain and Prussia which lasted formally between 1756 and 1762 during the Seven Years' War.

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Ankarcrona

Ankarcrona is a Swedish noble family originating from Christoffer Jakobsson, a German Protestant convert who immigrated to Sweden from Bohemia in the 17th century, and resided in Ronneby in Sweden.

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Ann Carr-Boyd

Ann Kirsten Carr-Boyd (born 13 July 1938) is an Australian classical composer and musicologist.

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Anna Chromý

Anna Chromý is a Czech painter and sculptor.

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Anna Letenská

Anna Čalounová-Letenská (née Anna Svobodová) (29 August 1904 – 24 October 1942) was a Czech theatre and film actress.

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Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg

Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg (13 June 1672 – 15 October 1741) was the legal Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg in the eyes of the Holy Roman Emperor, the overlord of Saxe-Lauenburg, from 1689 until 1728; however, because her distant cousin George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, conquered the duchy by force in 1689, she exercised no control over the territory, instead living in her manors in Bohemia.

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Anna Maria von Eggenberg, née Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Anna Maria Princess of Eggenberg, née Brandenburg-Bayreuth (born 30 December 1609 in Bayreuth; died 8 May 1680 in Ödenburg) was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and, by marriage Johann Anton I von Eggenberg, a Fürstin (princess) of Eggenberg.

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Anna of Hungary, Duchess of Macsó

Anna of Hungary (born 1226) was a daughter of Béla IV of Hungary and his wife, Maria Laskarina.

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Anna of Saxony, Electress of Brandenburg

Anna of Saxony (7 March 1437 – 31 October 1512) was a princess of Saxony by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.

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Anna Skoda

Anna Skoda was a Bohemian luger who competed in the early 1910s.

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Anna von Schweidnitz

Anna of Schweidnitz (Świdnica) (also known as Anne or Anna of Świdnica, Anna Svídnická, Anna Świdnicka, Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer) (Świdnica, 1339 – 11 July 1362 in Prague) was Queen of Bohemia, German Queen, and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313)

Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313) was the eldest surviving daughter of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Poland and his first wife Judith of Habsburg.

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Anne of Bohemia and Hungary

Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (Buda, Hungary, 23 July 1503 – Prague, Bohemia, 27 January 1547), sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica, Queen of the Romans (Germany), Bohemia and Hungary as the wife of King Ferdinand I, later Holy Roman Emperor.

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Anne of Bohemia, Duchess of Austria

Anne of Bohemia (27 March 1323 – 3 September 1338), also known as Anna of Luxembourg, was a daughter of John of Bohemia and his first wife, Elizabeth of Bohemia.

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Anni Frind

Anni Frind (2 February 1900 - 8 April 1987) was one of the most highly recorded lyric sopranos in Germany during the 1920s and 30s.

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Annie Sadilek Pavelka

Anna (Annie) Sadilek Pavelka is most well known as the real life inspiration for the character Antonia Shimerda in Willa Cather's 1918 novel, My Ántonia.

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Anselmus de Boodt

Anselmus de Boodt or Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt (Bruges, 1550 - Bruges, 21 June 1632) was a Flemish humanist, mineralogist, physician and naturalist.

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António Gomes Leal

António Gomes Leal was a Portuguese poet.

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Anthony Bruodin

Anthony Bruodin (Antóin Mac Bruideadha; 1625 — 7 May 1680), also known as Antonius Bruodinus or Bruodine was an Irish Franciscan friar, philosopher, theologian and historian.

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Anthony Heinrich

Anthony Philip Heinrich (March 11, 1781 – May 3, 1861) was the first "full-time" American composer, and the most prominent before the American Civil War.

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Anthony J. Stastny

Anthony John Stastny (June 3, 1885 – April 17, 1923) was an American composer and founder of one of the largest music publishing firms in North America during the 1920s — A. J. Stasny Music Co. Sometime after 1910, he modified the original Bohemian spelling of his surname to Stasny.

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Anthony Michalek

Anthony Michalek (January 16, 1878 – December 21, 1916; original surname Michálek) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.

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Anthony Wilding

Anthony Frederick Wilding (often called Tony Wilding) (31 October 1883 – 9 May 1915) was a New Zealand world No. 1 tennis player and soldier who was killed in action during World War I. Wilding was the son of wealthy English immigrants to Christchurch, New Zealand and enjoyed the use of private tennis courts at their home.

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Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany

After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history.

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Antiques Roadshow (series 28)

Antiques Roadshow is a British television series produced by the BBC since 1979.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Antoine Bullant

Antoine Bullant, also Anton Bullandt (Антон Булландт or Антуан Бюлан, 9 February 1751 in Mělník, Bohemia – 25 June 1821 St Petersburg) was a Czech musician (bassoon player) and opera composer that worked first in France but primarily in Imperial Russia.

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Antoine Marini

Antoine Marini was a 15th-century theologian and political thinker who, among other things, contemplated the establishing of a European Court of Justice and a pan-European parliament.

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Anton Altmann

Anton Altmann (1808–1871) was an Austrian landscape painter.

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Anton Breinl

Anton Breinl (2 July 1880 – 28 June 1944) was a medical practitioner and medical researcher, who established the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine in Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

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Anton Depauly

Anton Felix Depauly, (30 April June 1801 in Mies – 27 April 1866), was a Bohemian painter acting in Austria.

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Anton Ehrenzweig

Anton Ehrenzweig (27 November 1908 – 5 December 1966) was an Austrian-born British theorist on modern art and modern music.

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Anton Günther

Anton Günther (17 November 1783, Lindenau, Bohemia (now part of Cvikov, Czech Republic) – 24 February 1863, Vienna) was an Austrian Roman Catholic philosopher whose work was condemned by the church as heretical tritheism.

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Anton Gindely

Anton Gindely (Antonín Gindely, 3 September 1829, Prague24 October 1892) was a Bohemian historian, a son of an Hungarian German father and a Czech mother, born in Prague.

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Anton Heinrich Springer

Anton Heinrich Springer (13 July 182531 May 1891) was a German art historian and writer.

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Anton Kliegl

Anton Tiberius Kliegl (September 15, 1872 – May 19, 1927) was a German–American businessman and inventor.

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Anton Leo Hickmann

Anton Leo Hickmann (23 March 1834 – 18 July 1906) was a geographer and statistician.

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Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita

Anton (or Antonius) Maria Schyrleus (also Schyrl, Schyrle) of Rheita (1604–1660) (Antonín Maria Šírek z Reity) was an astronomer and optician.

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Anton Ortmann

Anton Ortmann (19 March 1801, in Plan – 21 November 1861, in Elbogen) was a Bohemian-Austrian pharmacist and botanist, known for his investigations of flora native to Bohemia, notably in the environs of Karlsbad and Elbogen.

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Anton Profes

Anton Profes (1896–1976) was an Austrian composer.

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Anton Tausche

Anton Tausche (July 27, 1838 – November 20, 1898) was a Bohemian teacher, author, and politician.

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Anton Tomaž Linhart

Anton Tomaž Linhart (11 December 1756 – 14/15 July 1795) was a Carniolan playwright and historian, best known as the author of the first comedy and theatrical play in general in Slovene, Županova Micka (Micka, the Mayor's Daughter).

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Anton von Jaksch

Anton Ritter Jaksch von Wartenhorst (10 April 1810, in Stráž pod Ralskem – 2 September 1887, in Luhov (Líšťany) was an Austrian and Czech physician born in Stráž pod Ralskem, Bohemia. He was the father of internist Rudolf von Jaksch (1855–1947). He studied medicine at the University of Prague under Julius Vincenz von Krombholz, and at the University of Vienna, where he had as instructors Joseph Škoda, Jakob Kolletschka and Carl von Rokitansky. He earned his doctorate in 1835, afterwards working as an assistant at the second medical clinic in Prague. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 50, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1905, S. 627. In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Band 3, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1965, S. 65 f. From 1842 to 1846 he was a lecturer at the newly established thoracic department at Prague, and in 1846 became director at the second medical clinic. In 1849 he was appointed rector of the university. From 1850 to 1881 he was in charge of the first medical clinic.

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Anton Wölfler

Anton Wölfler (January 12, 1850 – January 31, 1917) was an Austrian surgeon born in Kopezten, a village near Kladrau, Bohemia.

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Antonín Bartoň

Antonín Bartoň (December 12, 1908, Vysoké nad Jizerou, Bohemia – September 9, 1982) was a Czechoslovakian Nordic skier who competed in the 1930s.

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Antonín Bennewitz

Antonín Bennewitz (born Antonín Benevic; 26 March 1833 – 29 May 1926) was a Czech violinist, conductor and teacher.

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Antonín Brus z Mohelnice

Antonín Brus (Anton) (13 February 1518 – 28 August 1580) was a Moravian Archbishop of Prague.

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Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.

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Antonín Heveroch

Antonín Heveroch (19 January 1869 – 2 March 1927) was a Czech psychiatrist and neurologist.

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Antonín Kraft

Antonín Kraft (December 30, 1749, Rokycany – 28 August 1820, Vienna) was a Czech cellist and composer.

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Antonín Novotný

Antonín Josef Novotný (10 December 1904 – 28 January 1975) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1968, and also held the post of President of Czechoslovakia from 1957 to 1968.

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Antonín Zápotocký

Antonín Zápotocký (19 December 1884 – 13 November 1957) was communist Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953 and President of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1957.

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Antonia Bruha

Antonia "Toni" Bruha (born Antonia Spath: 1 March 1915 - 27 December 2006) was an Austrian resistance fighter.

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Antonie Nedošinská

Antonie Nedošinská (26 June 1885 – 17 July 1950) was a Czechoslovak film actress.

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Antonin Nechodoma

Antonin Nechodoma (1877–1928), was a Czech architect who practiced in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic from 1905 to 1928.

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Antonin Raymond

Antonin Raymond (or Antonín Raymond), born as Antonín Reimann (10 May 1888, Kladno, Kingdom of Bohemia – 21 November 1976 Langhorne, Pennsylvania), was a Czech American architect.

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Antonio della Porta

Antonio della Porta (c. 1631, Manno, Lugano - 3 August 1702, Bayreuth) was a Swiss Baroque architect and master builder, mainly active in Bohemia, Silesia and northern Bavaria.

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Antonio Denzio

Antonio Denzio (23 September 1689 – after 1763) was an Italian impresario, tenor, and librettist.

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Antonio Rosetti

Francesco Antonio Rosetti (c. 1750 – 30 June 1792, born Franz Anton Rösler, changed to Italianate form by 1773) was a classical era composer and double bass player, and was a contemporary of Haydn and Mozart.

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Antwerp Bible

This article is about a 15th-century illuminated manuscript Bible.

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Apollinaris of Ravenna

Apollinaris of Ravenna (Apollinare) is a Syrian saint, whom the Roman Martyrology describes as "a bishop who, according to tradition, while spreading among the nations the unsearchable riches of Christ, led his flock as a good shepherd and honoured the Church of Classis near Ravenna by a glorious martyrdom."Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001).

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Apollo Soucek

Apollo Soucek (February 24, 1897 – July 22, 1955) was a vice admiral in the United States Navy, who was a record-breaking test pilot during 1929-1930, served in World War II, and was commander of Carrier Division Three during the Korean War, ending his career as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics.

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Appeasement

Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.

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Appropriation (music)

In music, appropriation is the use of borrowed elements (aspects or techniques) in the creation of a new piece.

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April 14

No description.

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Archduchess Louise of Austria

Louise of Tuscany (2 September 1870 in Salzburg – 23 March 1947 in Brussels), was by marriage Crown Princess of Saxony as the wife of the future King Frederick Augustus III.

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Archduchy of Austria

The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Archduke Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen

Albert Franz Josef Karl Friedrich Georg Hubert Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Teschen (In German: Erzherzog Albrecht Franz Josef Karl Friedrich Georg Hubert Maria von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen) – (24 July 1897 – 23 July 1955) was a member of the House of Habsburg and titular pretender to the Duchy of Teschen.

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Archduke Ernest of Austria (1824–1899)

Archduke Ernst of Austria (Ernst Karl Felix Maria Rainer Gottfried Cyriak), Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (August 8, 1824, Milan – April 4, 1899, Arco) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

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Archduke Eugen of Austria

Archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria of Austria-Teschen (21 May 1863 – 30 December 1954) was an Archduke of Austria and a Prince of Hungary and Bohemia.

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Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (25 April 1781 – 5 November 1850) was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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Archduke Johann Salvator of Austria

Archduke Johann Salvator of Austria (Johann Salvator, Giovanni Salvatore; 25 November 1852 – declared dead in absentia 2 February 1911) was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

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Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria

Josef Franz Leopold Anton Ignatius Maria Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary (28 March 1895 – 25 September 1957) was the eldest son of Archduke Joseph August of Austria and Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria.

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Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria

Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, in Italian Carlo Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Filippo Jacopo Gennaro Lodovico Gonzaga Raniero, in German Karl Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Philipp Jakob Januarius Ludwig Gonzaga Ranier (Florence, 30 April 1839 – Vienna, 18 January 1892), was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg.

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Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria

Archduke Leopold Salvator, Prince of Tuscany (Leopold Salvator Maria Joseph Ferdinand Franz von Assisi Karl Anton von Padua Johann Baptist Januarius Aloys Gonzaga Rainer Wenzel Galius von Österreich-Toskana) (15 October 1863 – 4 September 1931), was the son of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria and Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

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Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria

Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, in Italian Luigi Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Dominico Raineri Ferdinando Carlo Zenobio Antonino, in German Ludwig Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Dominicus Rainerius Ferdinand Carl Zenobius Antonin (Florence, 4 August 1847 - Schloss Brandeis, Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav, Bohemia, 12 October 1915), is known as a champion for Majorca's wildlife, in an era when the term "conservation" meant nothing.

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Archegosaurus

Archegosaurus is a genus of temnospondyl amphibian which lived during the Asselian to Wuchiapingian stages of the Permian, around 299-253 million years ago.

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Archibald Warden

Archibald Adam Warden (11 May 1869 – 7 October 1943) was a British tennis player who competed in the 1900 Summer Olympics.

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Architectural theory

Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture.

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Areas annexed by Nazi Germany

There were many areas annexed by Nazi Germany both immediately before and throughout the course of World War II.

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Arieh Handler

Arieh Handler (May 27, 1915 – May 20, 2011) was a Zionist leader.

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Ariovistus

Ariovistus was a leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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ARMA 2

ARMA 2 is an open world, military simulation video game developed and published by Bohemia Interactive for Microsoft Windows.

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Armand Philippon

Armand Philippon (27 August 1761 – 4 May 1836), sometimes called Phillipon, and are examples of the use of "Phillipon", although both historians use both spellings (see and). was a French soldier during the French Revolution and the subsequent First French Empire.

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Arminius

Arminius (German: Hermann; 18/17 BC – AD 21) was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who famously led an allied coalition of Germanic tribes to a decisive victory against three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.

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Armistice of Znaim

The Armistice of Znaim was a ceasefire agreed between Archduke Charles and Napoleon I on 12 July 1809 following the Battle of Znaim, effectively ending hostilities between Austria and France in the War of the Fifth Coalition.

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Armoured fighting vehicle

An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.

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Army of Sambre and Meuse

The Army of Sambre and Meuse (Armée de Sambre-et-Meuse) was one of the armies of the French Revolution.

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Arne Novák

Arne Novák, born as Arnošt Novák, (2 March 1880, Litomyšl, Bohemia – 26 November 1939, Polička) was a Czech literary historian and critic, specialist in German and Czech studies.

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Arnold Johan Messenius

Arnold Johan Messenius (Gdańsk, 1607 – Stockholm, 1651) was a Swedish enfant terrible and Rikshistoriograf who was condemned to death and executed under the reign of Christina, Queen of Sweden.

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Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation

The Protestant Reformation during the 16th century in Europe almost entirely rejected the existing tradition of Catholic art, and very often destroyed as much of it as it could reach.

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Art Kores

Arthur Emil "Art" Kores (July 22, 1886 – March 26, 1974) was a professional baseball player whose career spanned nine seasons, one of which was spent in Major League Baseball (MLB) with the St. Louis Terriers (1915).

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Arthur Beer

Arthur Beer - (28 June 1900 – 20 October 1980) was a German astronomer who worked at Cambridge University.

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Arthur Dee

Arthur Dee (13 July 1579 – September or October 1651) was a physician and alchemist.

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Arthur Foxton Ferguson

Arthur Foxton Ferguson (3 January 1866 – 2 November 1920) an early-20th-century English baritone, lecturer, and German translator who founded The Folk-Song Quartet.

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Arthur Kahn

Arthur Kahn (November 1875 - ?) was a baker, trade union activist and organizer from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who served one term as a Socialist member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.

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Arthur Klamt

Arthur Klamt was an Austrian luger who competed in the early 1910s.

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Arthur von Briesen

Arthur von Briesen (26 September 1891 – 15 May 1981) was a Generalmajor in the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Artistic gymnastics

Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which athletes perform short routines (ranging from approximately 30 to 90 seconds) on different apparatuses, with less time for vaulting.

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Asam brothers

The Asam brothers (Cosmas Damian Asam and Egid Quirin Asam) were sculptors, workers in stucco, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany.

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Aschberg

The Aschberg (Czech Kamenáč) is a mountain on border of Saxony, southeastern Germany and Bohemia, the Czech Republic.

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Ashkenaz

Ashkenaz in the Hebrew Bible is one of the descendants of Noah.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Association football club names

Association Football club names are a part of the sport's culture, reflecting century-old traditions.

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Aufgeklärtes Glück Mine

The Aufgeklärtes Glück Mine (Bergwerk Aufgeklärtes Glück) is an old mine, now closed, in the valley of Thumkuhlental in the Harz Mountains of Germany.

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Augarten

The Augarten is a public park of 52.2 hectares (129 acres) situated in the Leopoldstadt, the second district of Vienna, Austria.

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August Baron de Cetto

August Baron de Cetto, born 6 September 1794;, died 7 August 1879, was a Kingdom of Bavaria diplomat, state councillor and chamberlain.

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August Breisky

Professor August Breisky (25 March 1832, Klattau (Klatovy), Bohemia (now Czech Republic) – 25 May 1889) was an Austrian gynecologist and obstetrician.

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August Emanuel von Reuss

August Emanuel Rudolph von Reuss (8 July 1811 in Bílina, Bohemia26 November 1873 in Vienna), Austrian geologist and palaeontologist, was the son of Franz Ambrosius Reuss (1761–1830) and the father of ophthalmologist August Leopold von Reuss (1841–1924).

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August Ritter von Kral

August Ritter von Kral (June 20, 1869 in Braunau, Bohemia - 12 June 1953 in Vienna, Austria) was an Austrian diplomat.

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August Sedláček

August Sedláček (28 August 1843 – 15 January 1926) was a distinguished Czech historian and archivist.

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August Stradal

August Stradal (17 May 1860, Teplice, Bohemia – 13 March 1930, Krásná Lípa) was a Bohemian virtuoso pianist, arranger and music teacher.

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August von Jilek

August von Jilek (28 August 1819 – 8 November 1898), otherwise August Jilek or Jileck, was a Czech naval doctor, lecturer and administrator.

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August Wilhelm Ambros

August Wilhelm Ambros (17 November 181628 June 1876)Blom, Eric (2005) Everyman's Dictionary of Music, Kessinger Publishing.

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Auguste Auspitz-Kolar

Auguste Auspitz-Kolár (1843 or March 19, 1844 – December 23, 1878) was a Bohemian-born Austrian pianist and composer.

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Auguste Laugel

Antoine-Auguste Laugel (20 January 1830 – 1914) was a French historian and engineer born in Strasbourg.

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Auguste von Harrach

Countess Auguste von Harrach (30 August 1800 – 5 June 1873), was the second spouse of King Frederick William III of Prussia.

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Augustin Barruel

Augustin Barruel (October 2, 1741 – October 5, 1820) was a French publicist and Jesuit priest.

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Augustinus Olomucensis

Augustinus Olomucensis (March 1467, Olomouc – 3 November 1513, Olomouc) was a Moravian humanist and theologian.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria in the time of National Socialism

Austria in the time of National Socialism describes the period of Austrian history from March 12, 1938 when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany (the event is commonly known as Anschluss) until the end of World War II in 1945.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austria–Czech Republic relations

Austria – Czech Republic relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and the Czech Republic, two member states of the European Union.

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Austria–Hungary football rivalry

The Austria–Hungary rivalry is a highly competitive sports rivalry that exists between the national football teams of the two countries, as well as their respective sets of fans.

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Austria–Hungary relations

Austria–Hungary relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union.

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Austria–Prussia rivalry

Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.

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Austrian Crown Jewels

The Austrian Crown Jewels (Insignien und Kleinodien) is a term denoting the regalia and vestments worn by the Holy Roman Emperor, and later by the Emperor of Austria, during the coronation ceremony and other state functions.

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Austrian Northwestern Railway

The Austrian Northwestern Railway (German: Österreichische Nordwestbahn, ÖNWB, Czech: Rakouská severozápadní dráha) was the name of a former railway company during the time of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

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Austrian Parliament Building

The Austrian Parliament Building (Parlamentsgebäude, colloquially das Parlament) in Vienna is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament conduct their sessions.

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Austrian walled towns

Walled towns in Austria started to appear in the 11th century.

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Austrians

Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

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Autochrome Lumière

The Autochrome Lumière is an early color photography process patented in 1903 by the Lumière brothers in France and first marketed in 1907.

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Automotive industry in Slovakia

Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in 2016 alone in a country with 5 million people.

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Avignon Exchange

The Avignon Exchange was one of the first foreign exchange markets in history, established in the Comtat Venaissin during the Avignon Papacy.

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Axioupoli

Axioupoli (Αξιούπολη), known until 1927 as Boymitsa (Боймица, Μποέμιτσα), is a small town and a former municipality in the former Paionia Province of Kilkis regional unit, Greek Macedonia.

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Ábrahám Lederer

Abraham Lederer (Lederer Ábrahám, Léderer Ábrahám; January 9, 1827, Libochovice, Bohemia – September 17, 1916, Budapest) was a Czech-Hungarian educator and writer.

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Árpád dynasty

The Árpáds or Arpads (Árpádok, Arpadovići, translit, Arpádovci, Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301.

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Étienne François, duc de Choiseul

Étienne-François, Marquis de Stainville, 1er Duc de Choiseul (28 June 1719 – 8 May 1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman.

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Étienne Hirsch

Étienne Hirsch (20 January 1901 – 17 May 1994) was a French civil engineer and a member of the French Resistance during World War II.

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Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux de Bordesoulle

Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux, comte de Bordesoulle (4 April 1771, Luzeret – 3 October 1837, Fontaine-Chaalis, Oise) was a French nobleman and soldier, who fought in the Napoleonic Wars and the Spanish expedition.

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Úpice

Úpice (Eipel) is a town in the Czech Republic.

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Ústí nad Labem Region

Ústí nad Labem Region or Ústecký Region (Ústecký kraj), also known as Region Aussig (after the German name of the capital), is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of the historical land of Bohemia and the whole country, and named after the capital, Ústí nad Labem.

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Ústí nad Orlicí

Ústí nad Orlicí (Wildenschwert) is a city in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region in Eastern Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

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Čech

Čech (feminine Čechová) is a Czech surname meaning Czech.

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Čechy

Čechy may refer to.

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Čechy pod Kosířem

Čechy pod Kosířem is a village and municipality (obec) in Prostějov District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

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Čeněk Šlégl

Čeněk Šlégl (30 September 1893 – 17 February 1970) was a Czech film actor.

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Čeněk of Wartenberg

Čeněk of Wartenberg (Čeněk z Vartemberka;; c. 137917 September 1425) was a commander of the Royalist Bohemian forces at the start of the Hussite Wars.

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Červená Lhota Castle

Červená Lhota is a château about north-west of Jindřichův Hradec in south Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Červená Voda (Ústí nad Orlicí District)

Červená Voda (Mährisch Rothwasser) is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 3,264 (2006), is situated in a valley 19 km north-west from the city of Šumperk and belongs to the Okres Ústí nad Orlicí district.

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Česká Lípa

Česká Lípa (Böhmisch-Leipa, לאיפא Laypa) is a city in the Czech Republic.

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Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod

Česká zbrojovka a.s. Uherský Brod (ČZUB) (English: Czech Arms Factory) is a Czech firearms manufacturer.

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České Budějovice

České Budějovice (Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Budovicium) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic.

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České Středohoří

The České středohoří, Central Bohemian Uplands or Central Bohemian Highlands is a mountain range located in northern Bohemia, the Czech Republic.

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České Velenice

České Velenice (Unterwielands, Gmünd-Wielands, Gmünd-Bahnhof, 1938–45: Gmünd III)) is a town in the Jindřichův Hradec District of South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, just on the border with neighbouring Gmünd, Austria.

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Český Brod

Český Brod (Böhmisch Brod) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Českomoravská

Českomoravská is a Prague Metro station on Line B opened in 1990.

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Đorđe Branković (count)

Đorđe Branković (Ђорђе Бранковић, Georgius Brankovich, Gheorghe Brancovici; 1645 – 19 December 1711) was a Transylvanian Serb diplomat, writer, and self-proclaimed descendant of the medieval Serbian Branković dynasty.

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Ľudovít Štúr

Ľudovít Velislav Štúr (Stur Lajos; 28 October 1815, Uhrovec (Zayugróc), near Bánovce nad Bebravou (Bán) – 12 January 1856, Modra (Modor)), known in his era as Ludevít Štúr, was the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, and the author of the Slovak language standard, eventually leading to the contemporary Slovak literary language.

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Łódź

Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.

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Łęczyca

Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca; Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca; לונטשיץ) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland.

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Říp Mountain

Říp Mountain (hora Říp,; Georgsberg or Raudnitzer Berg), also known as Říp Hill, is a 459 m solitary hill rising up from the central Bohemian flatland where, according to legend, the first Czechs settled.

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Ślepowron coat of arms

A: Adziewicz, Andziewicz, Audziewicz, Auxtul, Awdziewicz.

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Świętosława of Poland

Świętosława of Poland (Svatava Polská (c. 1046-1048 – 1 September 1126)) was the third wife of Duke (later King) Vratislaus II of Bohemia and the first Queen of Bohemia as of 1085.

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Świeradów-Zdrój

Świeradów-Zdrój (Bad Flinsberg) is a spa town in Lubań County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland near the border with the Czech Republic.

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Šaunštejn Castle

Šaunštejn Castle (German: Schauenstein, also Hohenleipaer Raubschloss) is a rock castle near Vysoká Lípa (Hohenleipa) in the Bohemian Switzerland in the Czech Republic.

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Šechtl and Voseček

The photographic studio Šechtl and Voseček was founded in Tábor (Bohemia) in 1888 by Ignác Šechtl, who accepted his assistant Jan Voseček as co-member of his photographic studio.

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Šluknov

Šluknov (Schluckenau) is the northernmost town of the Czech Republic in its Ústí nad Labem Region.

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Špacírka

The Špacírka is a moderately fast Bohemian dance in 2/4 time.

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Špindlerův Mlýn

Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle, formerly also Spindelmühle) is a town in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.

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Šumperk

Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg) is a district town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

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Żagań

Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).

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Železný Brod

Železný Brod (Eisenbrod) is a town in Liberec Region of the Czech Republic.

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Žižkov

Žižkov is a cadastral district of Prague, Czech Republic.

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Živnostenská banka

Živnostenská banka (also known under acronyms ŽB or ZIBA) was a major commercial bank operating in the Czech Republic.

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Baalberge group

The Baalberge Group (German: Baalberge Kultur, also Baalberger Kultur) was a late neolithic culture whose remains are found in central Germany.

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Babelsberg

Babelsberg is the largest district of Potsdam, the capital city of the German state of Brandenburg.

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Baby Bash discography

This is the discography of rapper Baby Bash.

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Bacău

Bacău (Barchau, Bákó) is the main city in Bacău County, Romania.

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Bachmann

Bachmann is a surname of Switzerland and Germany.

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Bad Gottleuba-Berggießhübel

Bad Gottleuba-Berggießhübel is a spa town in the district Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

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Bad Kreuznach

Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Baemi

The Baemi, (Bæmi) or Baimoi, were a Germanic tribe who are only known by their mention in Ptolemy's Geography.

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Baidar

Baidar was the second son of Chagatai Khan.

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Bakonybél Abbey

The Bakonybél Abbey is a Benedictine monastery established at Bakonybél in the Kingdom of Hungary in the first decades of the 11th century.

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Baladine Klossowska

Baladine Klossowska or Kłossowska (born in 1886 as Elisabeth Dorothea Spiro, died in 1969) was a European painter.

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Baltasar de Zúñiga

Baltasar de Zúñiga (1561 – October 1622) was a Spanish royal favourite of Philip III, his son Philip IV and a key minister in two Spanish governments.

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Baltasar Marradas

Don Baltasar de Marradas et Vique or Maradas (born 28 November 1560 in Valencia, died 12 August 1638 in Prague) was a Spanish nobleman, imperial field marshal during the Thirty Years War and governor of Bohemia.

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Balthasar of Żagań

Balthasar, Duke of Żagań (Baltazar żagański; – Przewóz, 15 July 1472), was a Duke of Żagań-Przewóz since 1439 (with his brothers as co-rulers until 1449), from 1449 Duke of Żagań.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Banochaemae

The Banochaemae, Baenochaemae, Bainochaimai or Bonochamae were a Germanic tribe recorded only in the Geography of Claudius Ptolemy.

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Barbora Rezlerová-Švarcová

Barbora Rezlerová-Švarcová, née Rezlerová (7 July 1890 – 2 September 1941), was a Slovak feminist and communist journalist.

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Bardo (bishop)

Bardo (c. 980 – 10/11 June 1051) was the Archbishop of Mainz from 1031 until 1051, the Abbot of Werden from 1030 until 1031, and the Abbot of Hersfeld in 1031.

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Bardo, Poland

Bardo (Wartha) is a town in Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Barnabites

The Barnabites are Catholic priests and Religious Brothers belonging to the Roman Catholic religious order of the Clerics Regular of St.

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Barnim III, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim III (14 August 1368) was a Pomeranian duke from the Griffin dynasty.

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Barony of Schwarzenberg

The Barony of Schwarzenberg (Herrschaft Schwarzenberg) was a domain that emerged in the middle of the 12th century in the Saxon Ore Mountains in central Europe.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Barrington Hills, Illinois

Barrington Hills is a village located about northwest of Chicago in the U.S. state of Illinois.

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Barthold Douma van Burmania

Barthold Douma van Burmania (bapt. 17 November 1695 in Hallum – 24 March 1766 in Vienna) was a Dutch statesman and ambassador to the court of Vienna in the eighteenth century.

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Bartholomeus Anglicus

Bartholomeus Anglicus (before 1203 – 1272), also known as Bartholomew the Englishman and Berthelet, was an early 13th-century scholastic of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.

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Bartleby, the Scrivener

"Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street" is a short story by the American writer Herman Melville, first serialized anonymously in two parts in the November and December 1853 issues of Putnam's Magazine, and reprinted with minor textual alterations in his The Piazza Tales in 1856.

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Barto Township, Roseau County, Minnesota

Barto Township is a township in Roseau County, Minnesota, United States.

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Bartosz Paprocki

Bartosz Paprocki (also Bartholomeus Paprocky or Bartholomew Paprocki, Bartłomiej (Bartosz) Paprocki, Bartoloměj Paprocký z Hlahol a Paprocké Vůle; ca. 1540/43 in Paprocka Wola near Sierpc – 27 December 1614 in Lviv, Poland, today Ukraine) was a Polish and Czech writer, historiographer, translator, poet, heraldist and pioneer in Polish and Bohemian-Czech genealogy (often referred to as the "father of Polish and Bohemian-Czech genealogy").

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Bast shoe

Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast — fiber taken from the bark of trees such as linden or birch.

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Battle of Aspern-Essling

In the Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809), Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles.

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Battle of Bar-sur-Aube

The Battle of Bar-sur-Aube was fought on 27 February 1814, between the First French Empire and the Austrian Empire.

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Battle of Bergen (1759)

The Battle of Bergen on 13 April 1759 saw the French army under de Broglie withstand an allied British, Hanoverian, Hessian, Brunswick army under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick near Frankfurt-am-Main during the Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Brüx

The Battle of Brüx was fought on 5 August 1421 in North Bohemia during the Hussite Wars.

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Battle of Breslau (1757)

The Battle of Breslau (also known as the Battle on the Lohe) was a battle fought on 22 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).

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Battle of Burkersdorf (1866)

The Battle of Burkersdorf was fought on June 28, 1866, during the Austro-Prussian War.

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Battle of Chemnitz

The Battle of Chemnitz (14 April 1639) took place near the town of Chemnitz, in what is now eastern Germany, during the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Chotusitz

The Battle of Chotusitz, or Chotusice, sometimes called the Battle of Czaslau, was fought on May 17, 1742, in Bohemia between the Austrians under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and the Prussians under Frederick the Great.

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Battle of Domažlice

The Battle of Domažlice (Bitva u Domažlic) or Battle of Taus (Schlacht bei Taus) or Battle of Tausch was fought on 14 August 1431 as the part of the 5th crusade against Hussites.

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Battle of Domstadtl

The Battle of Domstadtl, also spelled Domstadt, Czech Domašov, was a battle between Habsburg Monarchy and Kingdom of Prussia at a Moravian village Domašov nad Bystřicí during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War) on 30 June 1758, preceded by a minor clash at Guntramovice (Gundersdorf) on 28 June.

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Battle of Ebelsberg

The Battle of Ebelsberg, known in French accounts as the Battle of Ebersberg, was fought on 3 May 1809 during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Battle of Eisenach (908)

The Battle of Eisenach in 908, was a crushing victory by a Hungarian army over a German army composed of troops from Franconia, Saxony and Thuringia.

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Battle of Elchingen

The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch.

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Battle of Fürth

The Battle of Fürth was fought on September 3, 1632 between the Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant forces of King Gustavus II (Gustav Adolph) of Sweden during the period of Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years War.

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Battle of Feistritz

The Battle of Feistritz (6 September 1813) saw an Imperial French corps led by Paul Grenier attack an Austrian brigade under August von Vécsey.

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Battle of Flarchheim

The Battle of Flarcheim was fought between German king Henry IV and the German anti-king Rudolf of Swabia on January 27, 1080 near Flarchheim.

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Battle of Fontenoy

The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745,This article uses the Gregorian calendar (unless otherwise stated).

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Battle of Głogów

The Battle of Głogów or Defense of Głogów (Schlacht bei Glogau, Obrona Głogowa) was fought on 24 August 1109 at the Silesian town of Głogów, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire.

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Battle of Gefrees

The Battle of Gefrees was fought on 8 July 1809 during the War of the Fifth Coalition between a joint force of Austrians and Brunswickers under the command of General Kienmayer and a French force under the command of General Junot, Duke of Abrantès.

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Battle of Gitschin

The Battle of Gitschin or Jičín (Schlacht bei Gitschin) was a battle of the Austro-Prussian War on 29 June 1866, ending with a Prussian victory over the Austrian forces.

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Battle of Gorjani

The Battle of Gorjani (Bitka kod Gorjana, Schlacht bei Gorjani) or Battle of Đakovo (Diakovári csata) was a battle fought on 9 October 1537 at Gorjani, a place in Slavonia (present-day eastern Croatia), between the towns of Đakovo and Valpovo, as part of the Little War in Hungary as well as the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War.

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Battle of Grunwald

The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.

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Battle of Halberstadt

The Battle of Halberstadt took place on 29 and 30 July 1809 at Halberstadt in the Kingdom of Westphalia, during the War of the Fifth Coalition.

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Battle of Hollabrunn (1809)

The Battle of Hollabrunn was a rearguard action fought on 9 July 1809 by Austrian VI Korps of the ''Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee Hauptarmee'' under Johann von Klenau against elements of the French IV Corps of the ''Grande Armée d'Allemagne'', under the command of André Masséna.

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Battle of Humenné

The Battle of Humenné (Hungarian: Homonnai csata, Polish: bitwa pod Humiennem or pierwsza odsiecz wiedeńska) took place on 22–23 November 1619 near Humenné (eastern Slovakia) during the first period of the Thirty Years' War between the Transylvanian army and the joined loyalist Hungarian and Polish forces of Lisowczycy.

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Battle of Ilava

The Battle of Ilava was a battle in the Hussite Wars between the Hussites and the Hungarian-Royalists army near Ilava (hist. Lewa) in Upper Hungary (today mostly Slovakia) on November 11, 1431.

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Battle of Jankau

The Battle of Jankau (also written as "Jankov", "Jankow", or "Jankowitz"), one of the bloodiest of the Thirty Years' War, was fought on 6 March 1645 in southern Bohemia, some southeast of Prague, between the armies of Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire.

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Battle of Jüterbog

The Battle of Jüterbog was fought in Jüterbog on 23 November 1644 between Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire, resulting in a Swedish victory.

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Battle of Kay

The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów, Battle of Züllichau, or Battle of Paltzig, was an engagement fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Königgrätz

The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.

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Battle of Kissingen

The Battle of Kissingen was a battle between Bavarian and Prussian troops on 10 July 1866 during the Austrian-Prussian War in and around the town Kissingen (today: Bad Kissingen) in Bavaria.

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Battle of Klingenthal

The Battle of Klingenthal was a battle fought between Swedish troops and forces of the Holy Roman Empire on November 11, 1642, during the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Kratzau

The Battle of Kratzau occurred on 11 November 1428 between an Imperial Silesian army and the Sirotci Hussites in Kratzau, Bohemia.

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Battle of Kulm

The Battle of Kulm was a battle near the town Kulm (Chlumec) and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia.

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Battle of Kunersdorf

The decisive Battle of Kunersdorf occurred on 12 August 1759 near Kunersdorf (Kunowice), immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder (the second largest city in Prussia).

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Battle of Kutná Hora

The Battle of Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg), an early battle and subsequent campaign in the Hussite Wars, was fought on 21–2 December 1421 between German and Hungarian troops of the Holy Roman Empire and the Hussites, an early ecclesiastical reformist group that was founded in what is now the Czech Republic.

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Battle of Legnano

The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.

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Battle of Legnica

The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.

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Battle of Lena

The Battle of Lena occurred on January 31, 1208, and probably took place near Kungslena, which is located in the Tidaholm Municipality in Västergötland, Sweden.

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Battle of Leuthen

The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun.

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Battle of Linz-Urfahr

The Battle of Linz-Urfahr on 17 May 1809 saw soldiers from the Austrian Empire fighting against troops from two of Emperor Napoleon's allies, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Saxony.

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Battle of Lobositz

The Battle of Lobositz or Lovosice also Lowositz on 1 October 1756 was the opening land battle of the Third Silesian War and the wider Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Lomnice

The Battle of Lomnice or Lomnice nad Lužnicí occurred on 9 November 1618, during the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Mailberg

The Battle of Mailberg took place on 12 May 1082.

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Battle of Münchengrätz

The Battle of Münchengrätz (Schlacht bei Münchengrätz) or Battle of Mnichovo Hradiště (Bitva u Mnichova Hradiště) was fought near Mnichovo Hradiště, modern day Czech Republic, on 28 June 1866 during the Austro-Prussian War.

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Battle of Mohács

The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.

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Battle of Mollwitz

The Battle of Mollwitz was fought by Prussia and Austria on 10 April 1741, during the First Silesian War (in the early stages of the War of the Austrian Succession).

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Battle of Motta (1412)

The Battle of Motta was fought in late August 1412, when an invading Hungarian army led by Pippo Spano and Voivode Miklós Marczali attacked the Venetian positions at Motta and suffered a heavy defeat.

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Battle of Moys

The Battle of Moys was a battle fought on 7 September 1757 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).

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Battle of Nachod

The Battle of Nachod (or Náchod) on 27 June 1866 was the first major action of the Austro-Prussian War.

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Battle of Nagysalló

The Battle of Nagysalló was fought on 19 April 1849, was one of the battles of the Spring Campaign in the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848–1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.

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Battle of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.

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Battle of Oldendorf

The Battle of Oldendorf (Schlacht bei Hessisch-Oldendorf Schattkowsky (2003), p.241) on 8 July 1633 was fought as part of the Thirty Years' War between the Swedish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire near Hessisch-Oldendorf, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Battle of Orsha

The Battle of Orsha was fought on 8 September 1514, between the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, under the command of Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski; and the army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin.

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Battle of Prague (1648)

The Battle of Prague, which occurred between 25 July and 1 November 1648 was the last action of the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Prague (1757)

In the Battle of Prague or Battle of Štěrboholy, fought on 6 May 1757 during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War), Frederick the Great's 67,000 Prussians forced 60,000 Austrians to retreat, but having lost 14,300 men, decided he was not strong enough to attack Prague.

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Battle of Preßnitz

The Battle of Preßnitz (Schlacht bei Preßnitz) was a military engagement fought on during the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Pressburg

The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces.

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Battle of Ratisbon

The Battle of Ratisbon, also called the Battle of Regensburg, was fought on the 23 April 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars, between the army of the First French Empire, led by Napoleon I, and that of the Austrian Empire, led by Archduke Charles.

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Battle of Reichenberg

The Battle of Reichenberg was a battle of the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War), fought on 21 April 1757 near the town of Reichenberg (Czech: Liberec) in Bohemia.

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Battle of Rossbach

The Battle of Rossbach took place on 5 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (1756–1763, part of the Seven Years' War) near the village of Rossbach (Roßbach), in the Electorate of Saxony.

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Battle of Sablat

The Battle of Sablat or Záblatí occurred on 10 June 1619, during the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Sahay

The Battle of Sahay or Zahájí was fought on May 24, 1742 near village of Zahájí, about NW of České Budějovice (in German Budweis) in southern Bohemia, between the French under the Duc de Broglie and the Austrians under Lobkowitz.

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Battle of Schleiz

The Battle of Schleiz took place on October 9, 1806 in Schleiz, Germany between a Prussian-Saxon division under Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien and a part of Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's I Corps under the command of Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon.

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Battle of Schweinschädel

The Battle of Schweinschädel was a minor engagement of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, during the Königgrätz/Sadowa campaign in Bohemia on 29 June.

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Battle of Skalitz

Battle of Skalitz was a minor engagement in the Königgratz/Sadowa campaign of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 in Bohemia on June 28.

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Battle of Slivice

The Battle of Slivice was the last large World War II battle in the area of the Czech lands.

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Battle of Soor

The Battle of Soor (30 September 1745) was a battle between Frederick the Great's Prussian army and an Austro-Saxon army led by Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine during the Second Silesian War (part of the War of the Austrian Succession).

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Battle of Stockach (1800)

The Battle of Stockach and Engen was fought on 3 May 1800 between the army of the First French Republic under Jean Victor Marie Moreau and the army of Habsburg Austria led by Pál Kray.

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Battle of Sudoměř

The Battle of Sudomĕř was fought on 25 March 1420, between Catholic and Hussite forces.

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Battle of Tachov

The Battle of Tachov (Schlacht bei Tachau) or Battle of Mies (Schlacht bei Mies) was a battle fought on 4 August 1427 near the Bohemian towns of Tachov (Tachau) and Stříbro (Mies).

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Battle of Teugen-Hausen

The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Battle of Trautenau

The Battle of Trautenau (Schlacht bei Trautenau) or Battle of Trutnov was fought on 27 June 1866, during the Austro-Prussian War.

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Battle of Vauchamps

The Battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) was the final major engagement of the Six Days Campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Battle of Vittorio Veneto

The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later.

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Battle of Vyšehrad

The Battle of Vyšehrad was a series of engagements at the start of the Hussite War between Hussite forces and Catholic crusaders sent by Emperor Sigismund.

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Battle of Wagram

The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.

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Battle of White Mountain

The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.

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Battle of Wimpfen

The Battle of Wimpfen was a battle in the Bohemian Revolt period of the Thirty Years' War on 6 May 1622 near Wimpfen.

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Battle of Wogastisburg

According to the contemporary Chronicle of Fredegar, the Battle of Wogastisburg was a battle between Slavs (Sclav, cognomento Winidi) under King Samo and Franks under King Dagobert I in 631.

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Battle of Zorndorf

The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming victory.Franz A.J. Szabo. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge. 2013. P. 167 The site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf (now Sarbinowo, Poland).

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Bautzen (district)

The district of Bautzen ('Landkreis Bautzen', 'Wokrjes Budyšin') is a district in the state of Saxony in Germany.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bavarian Eastern Railway Company

The Royal Bavarian Eastern Railway Company (Königlich privilegirte Actiengesellschaft der bayerischen Ostbahnen) or Bavarian Ostbahn was founded in 1856.

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Bavarian Forest Railway

The Bavarian Forest Railway (Bayerische Waldbahn often just called the Waldbahn) links the heart of the Bavarian Forest around Regen and Zwiesel to Plattling and the Danube valley on one side, and the Czech Republic through Bayerisch Eisenstein on the other.

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Bavarian Localbahn Society

The Bavarian Localbahn Society (Bayerischer Localbahnverein e.V. or BLV), with its headquarters in Tegernsee, is a society that is concerned with the history of the railways in Bavaria.

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Bavarian War (1459–63)

The Bavarian War from 1459 to 1463, also known as the Princes War, was a result of the expansionist ambitions of the two warring Principalities, pitting Margrave, later Elector, Albert Achilles from the House of Hohenzollern, which by this time had already annexed the principalities of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Brandenburg-Ansbach, against Duke Louis "the Rich" of Bavaria-Landshut from the House of Wittelsbach.

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Bavarians

Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.

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Bavor II

Bavor II, known as Bavor the Great (Bavor Veliký), was the feudal ruler of Strakonice, Bohemia (ca. 1260-1279) and Castellan of royal castle Zvíkov, was the son of Bavor I, of the noble House of Strakonice.

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Bavors of Strakonice

Bavorové ze Strakonic (Bavors of Strakonice) were a Bohemian noble family, rulers of Strakonice town and surrounding area.

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Bay of Kotor

The Bay of Kotor (Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska); Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.

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Bayerisch Eisenstein railway station

Bayerisch Eisenstein/Železná Ruda-Alžbětín station (Bahnhof Bayerisch Eisenstein, Nádraží Železná Ruda-Alžbětín) is a railway station on the border of southeast Germany and the Czech Republic.

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Bayreuth Altstadt–Kulmbach railway

The Bayreuth Altstadt–Kulmbach railway was a branch line in the Bavarian province of Upper Franconia in southern Germany.

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Bácsalmás

Bácsalmás (Croatian: Aljmaš and Bačaljmaš, Serbian: Aljmaš or Аљмаш, German: Almasch) is a small town in southern Hungary in the region of Bácska (Bács-Kiskun County) close to the border with the Vojvodina region of Serbia, with a population of 7,694 people.

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Béla I of Hungary

Béla I the Champion or the Wisent (I., Belo I.; before 1020 – 11 September 1063) was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death.

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Bóbr

Bóbr (Bobr, Bober) is a river which runs through the north of the Czech Republic and the southwest of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.

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Böhm

Böhm may refer to.

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Böhme

Böhme (transliterated Boehme) may refer to.

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Będzin Castle

The Będzin Castle is a castle in Będzin (pronounced) in southern Poland.

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Břasy

Břasy (German "Bschas") is a village in western Bohemia, Rokycany District, Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic.

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Březina (Rokycany District)

Březina (German: "Bschesina"), village in western Bohemia, Rokycany District, Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic, situated 7 km north of Rokycany.

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Březová nad Svitavou

Březová nad Svitavou (Brüsau) is a small town in Svitavy District in the Czech Republic.

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Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).

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Beaufort-Spontin

Beaufort-Spontin is a noble family which held prominent posts under the Holy Roman Emperors in the Austrian Netherlands, their family seat having originally been in Namur.

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Bedřich Diviš Weber

Bedřich Diviš Weber (9 October 1766, Velichov, nr. Karlovy Vary25 December 1842, Prague), also known by the German form of his name, Friedrich Dionys (or Dionysius) Weber, was a Bohemian composer and musicologist primarily remembered as the first Director of the Prague Conservatory, in whose foundation he played a leading role.

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Bedřich Hrozný

Bedřich (Friedrich) Hrozný (May 6, 1879 – December 12, 1952) was a Czech orientalist and linguist.

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Bedřich Schejbal

Bedřich Schejbal (born 1874, date of death unknown) was a Bohemian fencer.

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Bedřich Smetana

Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.

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Bedřich Vygoda

Bedřich Vygoda (born 29 May 1894, date of death unknown) was a Czech sprinter.

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Bedřich Wachsmann

Bedřich Wachsmann (May 24, 1820 – February 27, 1897) was a German-speaking Czech painter, decorator and architect.

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Beer in Costa Rica

Costa Rica has a very strong beer industry centered on mass-produced Lagers.

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Beer in Mexico

Beer in Mexico has a long history.

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Beer in the United States

Beer in the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries, which range in size from industry giants to brew pubs and microbreweries.

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Benátky nad Jizerou

Benátky nad Jizerou (Benatek) is a town on the Jizera river which is also known as Kbelačka in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, between the cities Stará Boleslav and Mladá Boleslav.

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Beneš decrees

The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.

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Benedikt Rejt

Benedikt Rejt (often spelled Benedikt Ried), also known as Benedikt Rieth, Benedikt Reyd, or Benedict Reijt.

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Benedikt Schack

Benedikt Emanuel Schack (Benedikt Žák) (7 February 175810 December 1826) was a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute.

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Benet Academy

Benet Academy (often shortened to Benet) is a co-educational, college-preparatory, Benedictine high school in Lisle, Illinois, United States, overseen by the Diocese of Joliet.

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Benjamin Wolf Löw

Benjamin Wolf Löw (1775 – March 6, 1851) was a Polish–Hungarian rabbi.

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Benno Straucher

Benno or Beno Straucher (August 11, 1854 – November 5, 1940) was a Bukovina-born Austro-Hungarian lawyer, politician and Jewish community representative, who spent the final part of his career in Romania.

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Bergordnung

The Bergordnung were the mining regulations or law enacted in order to exercise the royal mining rights or Bergregal in central Europe in medieval times.

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Berka z Dubé

Berka z Dubé was a cadet branch of a Bohemian noble family of Lords of Dubá established by Hynek Berka z Dubé (1249-1306).

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin Bohème

Berlin Bohème is a German television series (soap opera), produced in 53 episodes from 1999 to 2005.

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Berlin Cathedral

Berlin Cathedral (Berliner Dom) is the short name for the Evangelical Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church (Oberpfarr- und Domkirche zu Berlin) in Berlin, Germany.

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Bernard Illowy

Rabbi Dr.

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Bernd Posselt

Bernd Posselt (born June 4, 1956) is a German politician, who served as a Member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 2014, representing the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) and the European People's Party (EPP).

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Bernhard Seyfert

Bernhard Seyfert (19 April 1817, Drum, a town in northern Bohemia – 7 May 1870) was an Austrian obstetrician and gynecologist.

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Berousek family

The Berousek family is a Czech family, originally from Vilémov, with members who have been circus performers for two centuries.

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Bertha von Suttner

Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky, Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 9 June 184321 June 1914) was an Austrian-Bohemian pacifist and novelist.

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Berthelsdorf

Berthelsdorf (Batromjecy) is a former municipality in the district of Görlitz, in the southeastern part of the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

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Berthold Bartosch

Berthold Bartosch (29 December 1893 – 13 November 1968) was a film-maker, born in Polaun, in the Bohemia region of Austria-Hungary (now part of the Czech Republic).

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Berthold of Pietengau

Bistumswappen of Passau.Berthold of Pietengau, also known as Berthold Count von Pietengau in Sigmaringen (- 1254) was Prince-Bishop of Passau from 1250 to 1254.

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Berthold of Ratisbon

Berthold of Ratisbon was a Franciscan of the monastery of Ratisbon and the most powerful preacher of repentance in the thirteenth century.

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Berthold of Schweinfurt

Berthold of Schweinfurt (died 15 January 980) was a German nobleman.

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Bertold of Regensburg

Bertold of Regensburg (c. 1220 – 13 December 1272) was a German preacher during the high Middle Ages.

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Bertold Posselt

Bertold Posselt was an Austrian luger who competed in the early 1910s.

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Bethel Henry Strousberg

Bethel Henry Strousberg (20 November 1823 – 31 May 1884) was a German Jewish industrialist and railway entrepreneur during Germany's rapid industrial expansion in the 19th century.

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Bethlehem Chapel

The Bethlehem Chapel (Betlémská kaple) is a medieval religious building in the Old Town of Prague, Czech Republic, notable for its connection with the origins of the Bohemian Reformation, especially with the Czech reformer Jan Hus.

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Bethlehemites

Bethlehemites, or Bethlemites, is a name that has many different meanings.

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Betty May

Betty May (born Betty Marlow Golding 1893, died after 1955) was a British singer, dancer, and model, who worked primarily in London's West End.

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Bezděkov (Rokycany District)

Bězděkov, (German "Besdiekau"), village in western Bohemia, Rokycany District, Plzeň Region of the Czech republic.

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Bezděz Castle

Bezděz Castle (Hrad Bezděz) is a Gothic castle located some southeast of Česká Lípa, in the Liberec Region, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Bezprym

Bezprym (c. 986 – 1032) was a Duke of Poland during 1031–1032.

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Biała Prudnicka

Biała, or Biała Prudnicka (Zülz) is a town in Poland, in Opole Voivodeship, in Prudnik County, with 2,687 inhabitants (2004).

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Białystok Ghetto

The Białystok Ghetto (getto w Białymstoku) was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany between July 26 and early August 1941 in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district within Nazi occupied Poland.

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Biblical Songs

Biblical Songs (Biblické písně) is a song cycle which consists of musical settings by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák of ten texts, selected by him, from the Book of Psalms.

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Bibra family

The Bibra family was one of the leading Uradel (ancient noble) families in Franconia (northern part of Bavaria) and present day Thuringia from the mid-15th century to about 1600.

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Biederman's Cabin

Biederman's Cabin, also called Biederman's Fish Camp, is a privately owned cabin on the Yukon River in Alaska.

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Bimal Mukherjee

Bimal Mukherjee (বিমল মুখার্জী) (1903–1996) was the first Indian globe trotter who travelled the entire world on a bicycle from the year 1926 to 1937.

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Biserica Neagră

Biserica Neagră or Black Church (Schwarze Kirche; Biserica Neagră; Fekete templom) is a church in Brașov, a city in south-eastern Transylvania, Romania.

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Black Forest clockmakers

Craftsmanship of Black Forest clockmakers dates back to mid of the 17th century.

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Black Triangle (region)

The Black Triangle (German Schwarzes Dreieck) is a border region shared by Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, long characterized by extremely high levels of pollution.

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Blanche Yurka

Blanche Yurka (born Blanch Jurka, June 19, 1887 – June 6, 1974) was an American stage and film actress and director.

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Blankenheim Castle

Blankenheim Castle (Burg Blankenheim) is a schloss above the village of Blankenheim in the Eifel mountains of Germany.

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Blas Roca Calderio

Blas Roca Calderio (24 July 1908 – 25 April 1987) was a Cuban politician and Marxist theorist who served as President of the National Assembly of People's Power in Cuba from 1976 to 1981.

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Blšanka

Blšanka is a river, a right tributary of the Ohře, of the Ústí nad Labem Region in northwest Bohemia, in the Czech Republic.

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Blessed sword and hat

The blessed sword (ensis benedictus, stocco benedetto or stocco pontificio) and the blessed hat (also: ducal hat, pileus or capellus, berrettone pontificio or berrettone ducale) were a gift offered by popes to Catholic monarchs or other secular recipients in recognition of their defence of Christendom.

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Bloch Publishing Company

Bloch Publishing Company is the oldest Jewish publishing company,Robert Singerman,, Jewish Book Annual, Vol.

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Bludov Castle

Bludov Castle (Bludovský hrad) is now ruined former mediaeval fortification, one of the oldest in northern Moravia.

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Blue colour works

A blue colour works (Blaufarbenwerke) is a paintworks where blue pigment for use in glassmaking is produced.

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Blumentritt railway station

Blumentritt station is a station on the South Main Line ("Southrail") of the Philippine National Railways.

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Blumentritt Road

Blumentritt Road is a road in Manila, Philippines.

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Blumentritt station (Line 1)

Blumentritt LRT station is a station on the Manila LRT (LRT-1).

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Boars in heraldry

The wild boar and boar's head are common charges in heraldry.

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Boček I of Poděbrady

Boček I of Poděbrady (also: Boček I of Kunštát and Poděbrady, Botschek I. of Podiebrad, Boček I. z Kunštátu a Poděbrad; died: 1373) was founder of the Poděbrady line of the House of Kunštát.

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Boček II of Poděbrady

Boček II of Poděbrady (also: Boček II of Kunštát and Poděbrady; Boček II. or Botschek von Podiebrad or Botschek der Ältere von Podiebrad; Boček II. or Boček II. or Boček starší z Poděbrad; died: 1417) may have been treasurer or even chief treasurer of Bohemia between 1377 and 1387.

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Boňkov

Boňkov is a small village near Herálec in the Havlíčkův Brod District, Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic.

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Bořeň

Bořeň (539 m) (also known as Biliner-stein, Borschen), is a phonolite hill two kilometres south of Bílina in northwest Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Boży bojownicy

Boży bojownicy (Warriors of God) is a historical novel with fantasy elements, written by Andrzej Sapkowski.

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Boží Dar

Boží Dar (Gottesgab) is a town in Karlovy Vary District, part of Karlovy Vary Region in the Czech Republic.

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Bochov

Bochov (Buchau) is a small town (1226 inhabitants in 2011) in the Karlovy Vary Region, Czech Republic.

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Bock (bagpipe)

Variants of the bock, a type of bagpipe, were played in Central Europe in what are the modern states of Austria, Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic.

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Boehm

Boehm is a German surname, transliterated from Böhm (literally: Bohemian, from Bohemia) or reflective of a spelling adopted by a given family before the introduction of the umlaut diacritic.

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Bogomer Ludány

Bogomer from the kindred Ludány (Ludány nembeli Bogomér; died around 1245/54) was a Hungarian military leader and nobleman in the first half of the 13th century, who was the first known Count of the Székelys, serving in this capacity around 1228.

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Boguszyn, Lower Silesian Voivodeship

Boguszyn (Friedrichswartha) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kłodzko, within Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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BOH

BOH or Boh may refer to.

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Bohemia (disambiguation)

Bohemia is a region consisting of the western two-thirds of the contemporary Czech Republic.

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Bohemia at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Bohemia competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece.

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Bohemia at the 1912 Summer Olympics

Bohemia competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, for the last time.

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Bohemia at the Olympics

Kingdom of Bohemia, an autonomous part of Austria-Hungary until 1918, competed at some of the early modern Olympic Games.

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Bohemia mining district

The Bohemia mining district is an area of about in the Cascade Range of the U.S. state of Oregon.

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Bohemia Township, Knox County, Nebraska

Bohemia Township is one of thirty townships in Knox County, Nebraska, United States.

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Bohemia, New York

Bohemia is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York, United States.

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Bohemian

A Bohemian is a resident of Bohemia, a region of the Czech Republic or the former Kingdom of Bohemia, a region of the former Crown of Bohemia (lands of the Bohemian Crown).

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Bohemian (disambiguation)

A Bohemian is a resident of Bohemia.

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Bohemian Crown Jewels

The Bohemian Crown Jewels, sometimes called the Czech Crown Jewels (české korunovační klenoty), include the Crown of Saint Wenceslas (Svatováclavská koruna), the royal orb and sceptre, the coronation vestments of the Kings of Bohemia, the gold reliquary cross, and St. Wenceslas' sword.

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Bohemian Discount Bank

The Bohemian Discount Bank (Bebca, Böhmische Escompte-Bank) was a Prague-based bank with branches in most major towns of Bohemia and, later, Czechoslovakia.

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Bohemian Football League

Bohemian Football League (ČFL) is one of the third level football leagues of the Czech Republic (the other is the Moravian–Silesian Football League).

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Bohemian Forest

The Bohemian Forest, known in Czech as Šumava and in German as Böhmerwald, is a low mountain range in Central Europe.

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Bohemian Forest Region

The Bohemian Forest Region is a historical region in the Czech Republic.

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Bohemian glass

Bohemian glass, chiefly referred to as Bohemia crystal, is glass produced in the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now parts of the Czech Republic.

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Bohemian Hockey League

The Bohemian Hockey League was the national ice hockey championship in Bohemia from 1909-1912.

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Bohemian Palatinate

The Bohemian Palatinate (Česká Falc, Böhmische Oberpfalz), since the 19th century also called New Bohemia (Nové Čechy, Neuböhmen), is a historical area in the northeast of present-day Bavaria (Germany), which from 1353 onwards was incorporated into the Crown of Bohemia by Emperor Charles IV.

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Bohemian Reformation

The Bohemian Reformation (also known as the Czech Reformation or Hussite Reformation), preceding the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, was a Christian movement in the late medieval and early modern Kingdom and Crown of Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) striving for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Bohemian Revolt

The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.

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Bohemian Romani

Bohemian Romani or Bohemian Romany is a dialect of Romani (a European Indo-Aryan language) formerly spoken by the Romani people of Bohemia, the western part of today's Czech Republic.

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Bohemian Schneider

Bohemian Schneider (Böhmischer Schneider) is a card game for two people, which is played with a German or French deck of 32 cards (Skat deck).

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Bohemian Shepherd

The Bohemian Shepherd is a breed of dog also known as the Chodský pes or the Chodenhund.

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Bohemian Society of Sciences

Bohemian Society of Sciences is the first official scientific organization within Bohemia.

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Bohemian Switzerland

Bohemian Switzerland (České Švýcarsko; Böhmische Schweiz), also known as Czech Switzerland, is a picturesque region in the north-western Czech Republic.

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Bohemian track

A Bohemian track (Böhmischer Steig, Česká stezka) or Bohemian way (Böhmweg) refers to various communication routes over the ridges of the Vogtland, the Ore Mountains, the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and the Lusatian Mountains, which linked the region of the March of Meissen and Upper Lusatia with Bohemia from the late 11th century.

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Bohemian waxwing

The Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) is a starling-sized passerine bird that breeds in the northern forests of Eurasia and North America.

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Bohemian wind

The Bohemian wind or böhm (Böhmwind or Böhmischer Wind) is a katabatic downslope wind, which occurs in East Bavaria, eastern Upper Franconia, the Vogtland, the Ore Mountains, Upper Lusatia, the Sudetes and the Austrian Granite and Gneiss Highland.

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Bohemian-Moravian Highlands

The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (Českomoravská vrchovina or Vysočina; Böhmisch-Mährische Höhe) is an extensive and long range of hills and low mountains over long, which runs in a northeasterly direction across the Czech Republic and forms the border between Bohemia and Moravia.

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Bohemianism

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

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Bohemians (tribe)

The Bohemians (Behemanni) or Bohemian Slavs (Bohemos Slavos, Boemanos Sclavos), were an early Slavic tribe in Bohemia (modern Czech Republic).

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Bohemiatupus

Bohemiatupus is an extinct genus of griffenfly in the family Meganeuridae and containing a single species Bohemiatupus elegans.

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Bohemism

Bohemisms or Czechisms' are words and expressions borrowed or derived from the Czech language.

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Bohemium

Bohemium was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium, when its discovery was first incorrectly alleged.

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Bohumil Honzátko

Bohumil Honzátko (30 December 1875 – 12 December 1950) was a Czech gymnast and long-distance runner.

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Bohumil Kafka

Bohumil Kafka was a Czech sculptor and pedagogue, born February 14, 1878 in Nová Paka, Bohemia and died on November 24, 1942.

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Bohumil Kubišta

Bohumil Kubišta (1884, Vlčkovice, Bohemia – 1918)Chilvers, Ian, and John Glaves-Smith.

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Bohumil Kubrycht

Bohumil Kubrycht (born 27 July 1886, date of death unknown) was a Czech cyclist.

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Bohumil Makovsky

Bohumil (Boh) Makovsky (September 23, 1878 – June 12, 1950) was a band director and head of the Department of Music at Oklahoma A&M College (now known as Oklahoma State University) from 1915 to 1945.

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Bohumil Müller

Bohumil Müller (30 June 1915–7 November 1987) was a religious leader of Jehovah's Witnesses in Czechoslovakia during World War II and the communist period, when their activities were banned by the Nazis and later by the communists.

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Bohumil Rameš

Bohumil Rameš (4 March 1895 – 1974) was a Czech cyclist.

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Bohumir Kryl

Bohumir Kryl (1875–1961) was a Czech-American financial executive and art collector who is most famous as a cornetist, bandleader, and pioneer recording artist, for both his solo work and as a leader of popular and Bohemian bands.

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Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic

Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic (1461 – 11 November 1510) was a Czech nobleman, writer and humanist of old Bohemian family (later the princes) of Lobkovic.

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Bohuslav Hykš

Bohuslav Hykš (born 7 May 1889, date of death unknown) was a Czech tennis player.

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Bohuslav Matěj Černohorský

Bohuslav Matěj Černohorský (Christened 16 February 1684, Nymburk, Bohemia – 1 July 1742, Graz, Austria) was a Czech composer, organist and teacher of the baroque era.

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Bohuslav Reynek

Bohuslav Reynek (born 31 May 1892 at Petrkov Manor, Vysočina Region, Bohemia; died 28 October 1971, at Petrkov Manor) was one of the most important Czech poets, writers, painters and translators of the 20th century.

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Boii

The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.

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Boii (genus)

Boii is an extinct genus of microsaur within the family Tuditanidae.

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Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.

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Bolesław II, Duke of Cieszyn

Bolesław II of Cieszyn (Bolesław II cieszyński, Boleslav II., Boleslaus II.; c. 1425/28 – 4 October 1452), was a Duke of Cieszyn since 1431 (until 1442 with his brothers as co-rulers), ruler over half of Bielsko and Frysztat (from 1442), and during 1452 sole ruler over one half of Bytom.

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Bolesław III the Generous

Boleslaw III the Wasteful (Bolesław III Rozrzutny; 23 September 1291 – Brieg, 21 April 1352), was a Duke of Legnica, Brzeg (Brieg) from 1296 until 1342, and Duke of Wrocław from 1296 until 1311.

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Bolesław III Wrymouth

Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.

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Bolesław IV the Curly

Bolesław IV the Curly (ca. 1125 – 5 January 1173) of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.

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Bolesław of Kuyavia

Bolesław of Kuyavia (also known as Mieszkowic) (Bolesław kujawski (Mieszkowic)) (1159 – 13 September 1195) was a Duke of Kuyavia from 1186 until his death.

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Bolesław the Elder

Bolesław the Elder (Bolesław Pierworodny; &ndash), was a Silesian Duke.

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Bolesław the Pious

Bolesław the Pious (Bolesław Pobożny) (1224/27 – 14 April 1279) was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247 (according to some historians during 1239–1241 sole Duke of Ujście), Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.

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Bolko II of Ziębice

Bolko II of Ziębice (Bolko II Ziębicki) (1 February 1300 – 11 June 1341) was a Duke of Jawor-Lwówek-Świdnica-Ziębice in Poland from 1301 to 1312 (with his brothers as co-rulers), of Świdnica-Ziębice from 1312 to 1322 (with his brother as co-ruler), and sole Duke of Ziębice from 1322 until his death.

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Bolko II the Small

Bolko II the Small (Bolko II Mały (Świdnicki), Bolko II (Schweidnitz); c. 1312 – 28 July 1368), was the last independent Duke of the Piast dynasty in Silesia.

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Bombus trophonius

Bombus trophonius is an extinct species of bumble bee known from a Miocene fossil found in Europe.

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Bonnier family

The Bonnier family is a Swedish family of Jewish origin, who since the beginning of the 19th century has been active in the book industry and later also in the mass media industry.

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Boppard

Boppard, formerly also spelled Boppart, is a town and municipality (since the 1976 inclusion of 9 neighbouring villages, Ortsbezirken) in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, lying in the Rhine Gorge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Boresch III of Ossegg and Riesenburg

Boresch III of Ossegg and Riesenburg (died before 1312) was a Bohemian aristocrat of the House of Riesenburg.

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Bornite

Bornite, also known as peacock ore, is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).

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Borovno

Borovno is a village in the Plzeň Region (Plzeňský kraj), western Bohemia, the Czech Republic.

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Bostonite

Bostonite, in petrology, is a fine-grained, pale-colored, grey or pinkish intrusive rock, which consists essentially of alkali-feldspar (orthoclase, perthite, anorthoclase, and albite).

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Boyan (given name)

Boyan (Боян) is a Slavic male given name.

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Braidwood, Illinois

Braidwood is a city in Will County, Illinois, United States, approximately southwest of Chicago and south of Joliet.

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Branda da Castiglione

Branda da Castiglione (Castiglione Olona, 4 February 1350 – Castiglione Olona, February 1443) was an early Italian humanist, a papal diplomat and a Roman Catholic cardinal, or pseudo-Cardinal, as he was raised to the cardinalate by John XXIII, later declared an anti-pope.

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Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav

Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav (Brandeis-Altbunzlau) is an administratively united pair of towns in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, in the heart of the agricultural region of Polabí, about 25 km northeast from Prague.

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Brandon Maxwell (ice hockey)

Brandon Maxwell (born March 22, 1991 in Winter Park, Florida) is an American professional ice hockey goaltender who currently played for the BK Mladá Boleslav of the Czech Extraliga.

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Braniewo

Braniewo, (Braunsberg in Ostpreußen, Brunsberga, Old Prussian: Brus, Prūsa), is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004).

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Brassite

Brassite is a rare arsenate mineral with the chemical formula Mg(AsO3OH)·4(H2O).

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Bratislava Castle

Bratislava Castle (Bratislavský hrad,, Pressburger Schloss, Pozsonyi Vár) is the main castle of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.

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Breiteberg

The Breiteberg is a mountain in the Lausitzer Bergland in Free State of Saxony, Federal Republic of Germany, with an altitude of above mean sea level.

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Bretislav II

Bretislaus II (c. 1060 – 22 December 1100) was the Duke of Bohemia from 14 September 1092 until his death.

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British currency in the Middle East

British involvement in the Middle East began with the Aden Settlement in 1839.

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Brněnec

Brněnec (Brünnlitz) is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic.

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Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God

The Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God (officially the Hospitaller Order of the Brothers of Saint John of God; abbreviated as O.H.) are a Roman Catholic order founded in 1572.

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Broumov

Broumov (Braunau) is a town in the Czech Republic, in the Náchod District of the Hradec Králové Region, near the border with Poland.

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Bruno Adler

Bruno Maria Adler (14 October 1888 – 27 December 1968) was a German art historian and writer.

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Bruno Angoletta

Bruno Angoletta (7 September 1889 - 7 January 1954) was an Italian illustrator, cartoonist and painter.

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Bruno Vogel

Bruno Vogel (1898–1987) was a German pacifist and writer.

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Brzeg

Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.

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Bublava

Bublava (Schwaderbach) is a village and municipality in the Sokolov District of the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.

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Bubna of Litic

Bubna of Litic (Bubnové z Litic, also written as Bubna von Lititz) is a Czech noble family dating back to the 14th century.

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Bucentaur

The bucentaur (bucintoro in Italian and Venetian) was the state barge of the doges of Venice.

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Buchkamm

The Buchkamm, wrongly also called the Buchkamp, is a forested ridge south of Oberwildenthal in the western Saxon Ore Mountains of Germany.

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Buchteln

Buchteln (pl., sing. Buchtel; also Ofennudel(n), Rohrnudel(n)), are sweet rolls made of yeast dough, filled with jam, ground poppy seeds or curd and baked in a large pan so that they stick together.

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Budapest String Quartet

The Budapest String Quartet was a string quartet in existence from 1917 to 1967.

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Budweiser Bier Bürgerbräu

Budweiser Bier or Budweiser Bürgerbräu was (since 1802 and as trademark officially since 1899) the name for the beer and the administration of the "Bürgerliches Brauhaus Budweis" (German for "Civic Brewhouse Budweis"), which in 1795 was founded by the German-speaking burghers of the Bohemian city of Budweis in the Kingdom of Bohemia). In 1894, the official company name was "Die Budweiser Bräuberechtigten - Bürgerliches Bräuhaus-Gegründet 1795 - Budweis". As early as 1875, beer was being exported to the United States where Budweiser (like Pilsner) was already being copied by local brewers like Anheuser-Busch. In 1895, when Budweiser Bürgerbräu became official court supplier to the King of Württemberg, the growing Czech population founded local competition as a joint stock company, today called Budějovický Budvar. In the Budweiser trademark dispute, the three companies divided the rights to use the name, with the Europe-based companies giving up the Northern American rights to Budweiser. Bohemia constituted part of the new Republic of Czechoslovakia founded following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I in 1918. In 1945, all Germans were expelled and both breweries expropriated. The German-sounding names of the Bürgerbräu company and its products were not welcome, and all rights had to be dropped or were otherwise lost, with beer being sold as "Crystal" or "Samson". Accordingly in 1960 and 1989 the company was renamed "První budějovický pivovar Samson" (First Budweiser brewery Samson). After the fall of communism, the company owned rights to "Crystal", "Czech Beer Crystal", "Biere Tcheque Crystal" and "Samson", but soon reacquired national naming rights and international Protected Geographical Indication, in 1991 to "Budějovický měšťanský pivovar" and "Budweiser Bürgerbräu", and in 1993 to "Budějovické pivo", "Budweiser Bier", "Biere de Budweis" and "Budweis Beer". Since July 2001, the company is called Budějovický měšťanský pivovar a.s. (Budweiser citizens brewery), which corresponds to the original German name. The company uses German naming like "Budweiser Bier" also in Czech and English context, also stating that the hops comes from the "Czech city of Saaz (Žatec)" despite this city also has an old Czech name (Žatec). Since 2005, due to the legal situation, the brewery offers its beer in the USA as "B.B. Burgerbräu", described as "Budweis City Bier" rather than "Budweiser beer".

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Bujesily

Bujesily, (German "Bujesil"), village in western Bohemia, Rokycany District, Plzeň Region of the Czech republic.

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Bukovskyite

Bukovskyite (also known as "clay of Kutná Hora") is an iron arsenate sulfate mineral with formula: Fe2(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)·7H2O which forms nodules with a reniform (kidney-shaped) surface.

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Bulgarica nitidosa

Bulgarica nitidosa is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Clausiliidae, the door snails.

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Bulova

Bulova is an American watch brand founded in in 1875 and currently owned by Japanese conglomerate Citizen Watch Co.

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Bundesstraße 15

The Bundesstraße 15 is a federal highway in Germany.

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Burebista

Burebista (Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/81BC to 45/44BC.

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Buri tribe

The Buri were a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they initially "close the back" of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia.

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Buschgroßmutter

The Buschgroßmutter ("shrub grandmother",H. Naumann: Buschgroßmutter, Buschweibchen. In: Hanns Bächtold-Stäubli, Eduard Hoffmann-Krayer: Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens: Band 1 Aal-Butzemann. Berlin/New York 2000 p. 1714. in older orthography also BuschgrossmutterJacob Grimm: Deutsche Mythologie. Wiesbaden 2014, p. 375.), Pusch-Grohla ("shrub granny") or Buschweibchen ("shrub woman", with Weibchen being the diminutive of Weib, "woman") is a legendary creature from German folklore, especially found in folktales from the regions Thuringia, Saxony, former Silesia and the former German speaking parts of Bohemia.

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Buxton Historic Townsite

The Buxton Historic Townsite is a historical site located east of Lovilia, Iowa, United States in rural Monroe County.

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Bylany (archaeological site)

Bylany is a Danubian Neolithic settlement located around east of Prague in the Czech region of Bohemia.

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Cacoxenite

Cacoxenite is an iron aluminium phosphate mineral with formula: Fe3+24Al(PO4)17O6(OH)12·17(H2O).

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Cadmoindite

Cadmoindite (CdIn2S4) is a rare cadmium indium sulfide mineral discovered in Siberia around the vent of a high-temperature (450–600 °C) fumarole at the Kudriavy volcano, Iturup Island in the Kuril Islands.

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Cadomian Orogeny

The Cadomian Orogeny was a tectonic event or series of events in the late Neoproterozoic, about 650–550 Ma, which probably included the formation of mountains.

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Calocedrus

Calocedrus (common name incense cedar, alternatively spelled incense-cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae first described as a genus in 1873.

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Camill Heller

Camill Heller (26 September 1823 – 25 February 1917) was a zoologist and anatomist.

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Camino de Santiago (route descriptions)

The Camino de Santiago (Also known as the Way of St. James) extends from different countries of Europe, and even North Africa, on its way to Santiago de Compostela and Finisterre.

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Campaign of the Main

The Campaign of the Main (in German: Mainfeldzug) was a campaign of the Prussian army in the area of the river Main against the allies of Austria in Southern Germany during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

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Campylite

Campylite is a variety of the lead arsenate mineral mimetite which received the name from the Greek 'kampylos'- bent, on account of the barrel-shaped bend of its crystals.

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Canaan

Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years

During the World wars and Interwar Years Canada experienced economic gain, more freedom for women and new technological advancements.

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Canburg

In 805 Charlemagne issued a fourth ban on the export of weapons to the Slavs.

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Capitonym

A capitonym is a word that changes its meaning (and sometimes pronunciation) when it is capitalized; the capitalization usually applies due to one form being a proper noun or eponym.

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Capitulation of Dornbirn

The Capitulation of Dornbirn (13 November 1805) saw the French VII Corps under Marshal Pierre Augereau face an Austrian force led by Franz Jellacic.

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Carl August Stetefeldt

Carl August Stetefeldt (born in Holzhausen, near Gotha, Germany, 28 September 1838; died in Oakland, California, 17 March 1896) was a United States mining engineer.

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Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf

Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (2 November 1739 – 24 October 1799) was an Austrian composer, violinist and silvologist.

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Carl Ferdinand von Arlt

Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt (April 18, 1812 – March 7, 1887) was an Austrian ophthalmologist born in Ober-Graupen, a village near Teplitz (Teplice) in Bohemia.

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Carl Heinrich Hertwig

Carl Heinrich Hertwig (10 January 1798 in Ohlau – 19 July 1881 in Berlin) was a German veterinarian.

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Carl Holzmann

Carl Holzmann (22 February 1849, Šitboř, Bohemia, Austrian Empire – 14 September 1914, Baden bei Wien, Lower Austria, Austria-Hungary) was an Austrian architect who designed several apartment buildings in the centre of Vienna, mostly in the Historicist style.

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Carl Patsch

Carl Ludwig Patsch, also Karl Ludwig Patsch, Карл Пач (14 September 1865 in Kowatsch (Kovač) bei Jitschin 21 February 1945 in Vienna) was an Austrian Slavist, Albanologist, archaeologist and historian.

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Carl Thiemann

Carl Thiemann (November 10, 1881 – December 3, 1966) was a Bohemian artist and member of the Vienna Secession, best known for his color woodcuts.

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Carl von Rabenhaupt

Carl von Rabenhaupt (Bohemia, 6 January 1602 - Coevorden, 12 August 1675) was a Bohemian Hussite nobleman who fought in Saxon, Dutch and Hessian service during the Thirty Years War and came out of retirement to command a Dutch regiment in the Franco-Dutch War.

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Carl von Rokitansky

Baron Carl von Rokitansky (Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Karel Rokytanský) (19 February 1804 – 23 July 1878), was a Bohemian Physician, Pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician.

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Carlo Lurago

Carlo Lurago (also spelled Luraghi) (1615 – 22 October 1684) was an Italian architect, who was most active in Prague.

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Carlsbad 1907 chess tournament

The Carlsbad 1907 chess tournament was one of four well-known international chess tournaments held in the spa city of Carlsbad (Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary Empire).

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Carlsbad 1911 chess tournament

The Carlsbad 1911 chess tournament was one of four well-known international chess tournaments held in the spa city of Carlsbad (Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary Empire).

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Carlsbad 1929 chess tournament

The Carlsbad 1929 chess tournament was one of four well-known international chess tournaments held in the spa city of Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia).

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Carlsbad Decrees

The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.

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Carlsbad, California

Carlsbad is an affluent seaside resort city occupying a stretch of Pacific coastline in northern San Diego County, California.

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Carlsbad, Texas

Carlsbad is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in northwest Tom Green County, Texas, United States.

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Carnival

Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.

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Carolus Magnus Hutschenreuther

Carolus Magnus Hutschenreuther (9 April 1794 – 10 November 1845) was a German industrialist and the founder of the C.M. Hutschenreuther Porcelain Factory in Hohenberg an der Eger, Bavaria.

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Carpathian German Party

The Carpathian German Party (Karpatendeutsche Partei, abbreviated KdP) was a political party in Czechoslovakia, active amongst the Carpathian German minority of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'.

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Carpathian Ruthenia

Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.

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Carpatho-Ukraine

Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.

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Carpholite

Carpholite is a manganese silicate mineral with formula Mn2+Al2Si2O6(OH)4.

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Cartellverband

The Union of Catholic German Student Fraternities (Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen or Cartellverband (CV)) is a German umbrella organization of Catholic male student fraternities (Studentenverbindung).

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Carthusian Martyrs

The Carthusian martyrs are those members of the Carthusian monastic order who have been persecuted and killed because of their Christian faith and their adherence to the Catholic religion.

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Casimir I the Restorer

Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.

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Casimir II the Just

Casimir II the Just (Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy; 1138 – 5 May 1194) was a Lesser Polish Duke at Wiślica during 1166–1173, and at Sandomierz after 1173.

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Casimir II, Duke of Cieszyn

Casimir II of Cieszyn (Kazimierz II cieszyński, Kazimír II., Kasimir II.) (– 13 December 1528) was a Duke of Cieszyn since 1477, ruler over Koźle during 1479–1509, since 1493 ruler over Wołów, over Pszczyna during 1498–1517, from 1506 over Opava, Duke of Głogów since 1506 (for life).

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Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.

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Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.

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Caspar Buberl

Caspar Buberl (1834 – August 22, 1899) was an American sculptor.

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Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.

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Caspar Weinberger

Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.

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Cassation (music)

Cassation is a minor musical genre related to the serenade and divertimento.

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Castle Risk

Castle Risk is a version of the board game Risk that is played on a map of Europe.

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Castro of Vila Nova de São Pedro

The Castro of Vila Nova de São Pedro is a Chalcolithic archaeological site in the civil parish of Vila Nova de São Pedro, municipality of Azambuja, in the Portuguese Estremadura area of Lezíria do Tejo.

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Catacombs of Tábor

Catacombs of Tábor – a complex of underground tunnels represent Tabor’s turist highlight.

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Catharina Freymann

Catharina Freymann (16 September 1708 – 12 December 1791) was a Norwegian educator and pietist leader.

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Catherine of Bohemia

Catherine of Bohemia (Kateřina Lucemburská, Katharina von Böhmen; 19 August 1342 – 26 April 1395) was Electress of Brandenburg, the second daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV and Blanche of Valois.

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Catholic Church and Nazi Germany during World War II

Several Catholic countries and populations fell under Nazi domination during the period of the Second World War (1939–1945), and ordinary Catholics fought on both sides of the conflict.

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Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany

The Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany is the German member body of the Union of Utrecht of Old Catholic Churches, which follow Ultrajectine theology.

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Catholic League (German)

The Catholic League (Liga Catholica, Katholische Liga) was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609.

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Catholic resistance to Nazi Germany

Catholic resistance to Nazism was a component of German resistance to Nazism and of Resistance during World War II.

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Catholic Slavs

Catholic Slavs and Slavic Catholic are terms used for the historically and/or predominantly Catholic Slavic nations and the history of Catholicism among the Slavic peoples; especially amongst the Western Slavs.

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Catholic-National Conservative Party in Bohemia

The Creating Catholic-National Conservative Party in Bohemia, was a Czech catholic political party in Bohemia.

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Catholicity

Catholicity (from Greek καθολικότητα της εκκλησίας, "catholicity of the church"), or catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, "universal doctrine") is a concept that encompasses the beliefs and practices of numerous Christian denominations, most notably those that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church, as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: " in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." While catholicism is most commonly associated with the faith and practices of the Catholic Church led by the Pope in Rome, the traits of catholicity, and thus the term catholic, are also claimed and possessed by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East.

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Causes of the Holodomor

The Holodomor (Голодомор) is the name of the famine that ravaged Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Bohemian Region

The Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central Sudetes

The Central Sudetes (Orlická oblast or Střední Sudety, Sudety Środkowe, Mittelsudeten) are the central part of the Sudetes mountain range on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland.

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Central Synagogue

The Central Synagogue (Congregation Ahawath Chesed Shaar Hashomayim) is located at 652 Lexington Avenue on the corner of East 55th Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Cesky Terrier

The Cesky Terrier (Český teriér, 'Bohemian Terrier' or 'Czech Terrier') is a small terrier type dog originating in Czechoslovakia.

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Ceslaus

Blessed Ceslaus, O.P., (Czesław) (c. 1184 – c. 1242) was born in Kamień Śląski in Silesia, Poland, of the noble family of Odrowąż, and was a relative, possibly the brother, of Saint Hyacinth.

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Chabazite

ChabaziteThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) - p.300 "chabazite /'kabəzʌɪt/ noun "A colourless, pink or yellow zeolite mineral, typically occurring as rhombohedral crystals.". is a tectosilicate mineral of the zeolite group, closely related to gmelinite, with formula (Ca,Na2,K2,Mg)Al2Si4O12·6H2O.

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Chain boat navigation

Chain-boat navigation or chain-ship navigation is a little-known chapter in the history of shipping on European rivers.

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Cham, Germany

Cham is the capital of the district of Cham in the Upper Palatinate in Bavaria in Germany.

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Cham-Furth Depression

The Cham-Furth Depression (Cham-Further Senke, Všerubská vrchovina) is a lowland in the Upper Palatine-Bavarian Forest that separates the Upper Palatinate Forest from the Bavarian Forest.

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Chammünster Abbey

Chammünster Abbey (in German Kloster Chammünster) was a house of the Benedictine Order formerly located at Chammünster, now part of the town of Cham, in Bavaria in Germany.

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Chanov housing estate

The Chanov housing projects on the outskirts of Most, north-west Bohemia, were built by the Czechoslovak Communist authorities in the late 1970s as a means of housing much of the Romany population that resided in the old royal city of Most.

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Characters of Carnivàle

There are several main characters in Carnivàle, an American television serial drama set in the United States Depression-era Dust Bowl between 1934 and 1935.

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Chariot

A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles Albert de Longueval, 3rd Count of Bucquoy

Charles II Albert de Longueval, 3rd count of Bucquoy (1607 – 29 March 1663) was a military commander, holder of high office, and nobleman in the Habsburg realms of the Low Countries and Bohemia.

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Charles Hofmann

Franz Karl Hofmann, later Charles Hofmann (176324 May 1823) was a Dutch musician and composer.

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Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk

Charles Henry George Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk, 13th Earl of Berkshire, (2 March 1906 – 12 May 1941) was an English bomb disposal expert who was also an earl in the Peerage of England, belonging to the ancient Howard family.

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Charles I of Austria

Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Charles I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels

Charles I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (also: Charles I of Podebrady, Karel z Minstrberka, Karl I. von Münsterberg.; 2 or 4 May 1476, in Kladsko – 31 May 1536, in Frankenstein) was a member of the House of Poděbrady.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles Jonas (Wisconsin politician)

Charles Jonas (born Karel Jonáš - October 30, 1840 – January 15, 1896) was a Czech journalist, linguist and political activist, who became a Wisconsin journalist and politician.

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Charles Pergler

Karel Pergler, known also by Anglicized Charles Pergler (Liblín, March 6, 1882 – Washington, D.C., August 14, 1954) was a Czech-American lawyer, journalist, diplomat and politician.

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Charles University

Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).

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Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745.

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Charlie Biederman

Charlie Biederman (November 11, 1918February 22, 1995) was a musher in Alaska best known for being the last surviving dog sled mail carrier in the United States.

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Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe

Princess Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe (10 October 1864–16 July 1946) was the daughter of Prince Wilhelm Karl August of Schaumburg-Lippe, and his wife, Princess Bathildis of Anhalt-Dessau.

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Charlotte of the Palatinate (1628–1631)

Charlotte of the Palatinate (Princess Palatine Charlotte, 19 December 1628 – 14 January 1631), was the fourth daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (of the House of Wittelsbach), the "Winter King" of Bohemia, by his consort, the English princess Elizabeth Stuart.

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Charlotte von Ahlefeld

Charlotte Sophie Luise Wilhelmine von Ahlefeld (December 6, 1781 – July 27, 1849) was a German novelist.

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Chřibská

Chřibská (Kreibitz) is a town in the Okres Děčín in Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.

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Chřibský hrádek

Chřibský hrádek, also Karlštejn (German Unterer Karlstein or Wüstes Schloss) is a ruined rock castle near Chřibská (Kreibitz) in the Bohemian Switzerland in the Czech Republic.

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Cheapside Hoard

The Cheapside Hoard is a hoard of jewellery from the late 16th and early 17th centuries, discovered in 1912 by workmen using a pickaxe to excavate in a cellar at 30–32 Cheapside in London, on the corner with Friday Street.

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Chełmno extermination camp

Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).

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Cheb

Cheb (Eger) is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 33,000 inhabitants.

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Cheb–Oberkotzau railway

The Cheb–Oberkotzau railway is a railway line in Bavaria, Germany, and the Czech Republic which was built as a main line.

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Cheliderpeton

Cheliderpeton (often misspelled Chelyderpeton) is an extinct genus of temnospondyl amphibian.

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Cherven Cities

In the turn of 10th and 11th century the territory of Cherven Cities or Cherven Towns Червенські городи, Grody Czerwieńskie) was a point of dispute between the Kingdom of Poland and Kievan Rus', each claiming its own rights to the land. Finally it became a part of Ruthenia. In English texts these often literally translated as Red Cities/Red Towns.

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Chicago Lawn, Chicago

Chicago Lawn is one of the 77 community areas of Chicago, Illinois.

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Children's literature

Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.

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Chinese people in the Czech Republic

Chinese people in the Czech Republic form one of the country's smaller migrant communities.

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Chod dialect

The Chod dialect (Czech: chodské nářečí) is a dialect of the Czech language.

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Chodov (Sokolov District)

Chodov (Chodau) is a town in the Sokolov District of the Czech Republic, on the border with the Karlovy Vary District (both districts lie within the Karlovy Vary Region).

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Chodové

The Chodové (Chods, "Walkers", "Patrollers" or "Rangers") are an ethnic group living in western Bohemia.

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Chotěboř

Chotěboř (Chotieborsch) is a town in the Havlíčkův Brod District, Vysočina Region, Czech Republic.

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Chrastava

Chrastava (Kratzau) is a town in northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic about 10 kilometre (6 mi) northwest of the regional capital Liberec.

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Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party

The Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party (Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová, KDU–ČSL, often shortened to lidovci ('the populars') is a Christian-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. The party took part in almost every Czech Government since 1990. In the June 2006 election, the party won 7.2% of the vote and 13 out of 200 seats; but in the 2010 election, this dropped to 4.4% and they lost all their seats. The party regained its parliamentary standing in the 2013 legislative election, winning 14 seats in the new parliament, thereby becoming the first party ever to return to the Chamber of Deputies after dropping out.

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Christian August, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Christian August, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (Christian August Prinz zu Waldeck; 6 December 1744, Arolsen – 24 September 1798, Palácio Nacional de Sintra, Sintra, near Lisbon) was a general in the Austrian service, and last commander and Field Marshal of the Portuguese land army.

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Christian Cannabich

Johann Christian Innocenz Bonaventura Cannabich (bapt. 28 December 1731 in Mannheim – 20 January 1798 in Frankfurt am Main), was a German violinist, composer, and Kapellmeister of the Classical era.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian Friedrich Baz

Christian Friedrich Baz (28 October 1762 - 26 May 1808) was a German legal scholar, a representative at Württemberg's state convention or 'Landtag' and from 1796 to 1805 mayor of Ludwigsburg.

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Christian Heinrich Erndel

Christian Heinrich Erndel (born 1676 in Dresden; died 17 March 1734 Dresden), was a Royal Polish and Electoral Saxon Personal Physician of August the Strong.

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Christian Heinrich Spiess

Christian Heinrich Spiess (4 April 1755 – 17 August 1799) was a German writer of romances.

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Christian IV of Denmark

Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.

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Christian Keymann

Christian Keymann (also Christian Keimann; 27 February 1607 – 13 January 1662) was a German hymnwriter.

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Christian of Prachatice

Christian of Prachatice (Křišťan z Prachatice) (1360–1368, Prachatice, Kingdom of Bohemia – 4 September 1439, Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia) was a medieval Bohemian astronomer, mathematician and former Catholic priest who converted to the Hussite movement.

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Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann

Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann (December 7, 1770 in Brunswick – December 31, 1840 in Kiel), was a German physician, historian, naturalist and entomologist.

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Christianity in the 15th century

Bibliothèque Nationale de France --> The 15th century in Christianity is part of the High Middle Ages, the period from the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the close of the 15th century, which saw the fall of Constantinople (1453), the end of the Hundred Years War (1453), the discovery of the New World (1492), and thereafter the Protestant Reformation (1515).

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Christianization of Bohemia

The Christianization of Bohemia refers to the spread of the Christian religion in the lands of medieval Bohemia.

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Christmas cantata

A Christmas cantata or Nativity cantata is a cantata, music for voice or voices in several movements, for Christmas.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Christoph Dientzenhofer

Christoph Dientzenhofer (Kryštof Dientzenhofer) (born 7 July 1655 in St. Margarethen near Brannenburg, Landkreis Rosenheim - 20 June 1722 in Prague), retrieved 23 September 2012 (in German) was a prominent Bavarian architect of South-German, Austrian and Bohemian Baroque.

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Christoph Haizmann

Johann Christoph Haizmann (1651/52 – 14 March 1700) was a Bavarian-born Austrian painter who is known for his autobiographically depicted demonical neurosis.

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Christoph Schönborn

Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Count of Schönborn, O.P. (German: Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Graf von Schönborn; born 22 January 1945), is a Bohemian-born Austrian Dominican friar and theologian, who is a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Christoph Theodor Aeby

Christoph Theodor Aeby (25 February 1835 – 7 July 1885) was a Swiss anatomist and anthropologist, born in Phalsbourg, Lorraine, France.

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Christoph Willibald Gluck

Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

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Chromophotography

Chromophotography is a technique, somewhere between painting and photography, which evolved in the second half of the 19th century.

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Chronogram

A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged.

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Chrudim

Chrudim is a town in eastern Bohemia, in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic.

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Church of Our Lady on the Lawn

The Gothic Church of Our Lady on the Lawn (Na Slupi) is located in the valley of the Prague Botič Stream below Vyšehrad in the New Town.

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Church of Saint Procopius, Žižkov

St.

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Church of St. Apollinaire, Prague

The Church of St.

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Church of St. Dorothea, Wrocław

The Church of Sts.

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Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Most)

The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Czech: kostel Nanebevzetí Panny Marie) is a late Gothic church building in Most, a city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.

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Church of the Virgin Mary (Prague Castle)

The Church of the Virgin Mary was the first known church built in the current area of the Prague Castle.

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Chvaleticeite

Chvaleticeite is a monoclinic hexahydrite manganese magnesium sulfate mineral with formula: (Mn2+, Mg)·6(H2O).

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Chwarszczany

Chwarszczany (Quartschen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Boleszkowice, within Myślibórz County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Cigar Makers' International Union

The Journeymen Cigar Makers' International Union of America (CMIU) was a labor union established in 1864 that represented workers in the cigar industry.

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Cinema of Austria

Cinema of Austria refers to the film industry based in Austria.

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Cisleithania

Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

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City Tower (Prague)

City Tower is the tallest skyscraper in Prague (Pankrác district) and in Bohemia, and the second tallest one in the Czech Republic standing at a height of 109 meters.

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Claiborne Cary

Claiborne Cary (February 17, 1932 – March 20, 2010) was an American actress and cabaret performer.

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Clan Ostoja

Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.

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Clary und Aldringen

Clary und Aldringen, also known as Clary-Aldringen, is one of the most prominent Austro-Hungarian princely families.

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Claus Josef Riedel

Claus Josef Riedel (19 February 1925 – 17 March 2004) was an Austrian glassmaker, businessman, professor of chemistry, and chemical engineer.

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Clausilia bidentata

Clausilia bidentata, the 'Two Toothed Door Snail' is a species of door snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the genus Clausilia belonging to the family Clausiliidae, all of which have a clausilium.

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Cloris Leachman

Cloris Leachman (born April 30, 1926) is an American actress and comedian.

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Coat of arms of Czechoslovakia

The coat of arms of Czechoslovakia were changed many times during Czechoslovakia’s history, some alongside each other.

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Coat of arms of the Czech Republic

The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation.

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Coats of arms of Europe

This is a list of the national coats of arms or equivalent emblems used by countries and dependent territories in Europe.

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Coats of arms of the Holy Roman Empire

Over its long history, the Holy Roman Empire used many different heraldic forms, representing its numerous internal divisions.

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Cobalt glass

Cobalt glass—known as "smalt" when ground as a pigment—is a deep blue colored glass prepared by including a cobalt compound, typically cobalt oxide or cobalt carbonate, in a glass melt.

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Cobblestone

Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.

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Coddies

Coddies are a snack food of disputed origin which are largely popular in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, particularly in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Codex Gigas

The Codex Gigas (Giant Book) is the largest extant medieval illuminated manuscript in the world, at long.

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Codex Vyssegradensis

The Vyšehrad Codex (Latin Codex Vyssegradensis), also known as the Coronation Gospels of King Vratislaus, is a late 11th-century illuminated Romanesque Gospel Book, which is considered the most important and most valuable manuscript kept in Bohemia (Czech Republic).

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Coffee Hag albums

The Coffee Hag albums were published in the early 20th century by the Kaffee Handelsgesellschaft AG (Kaffee HAG, Coffee Hag) in Bremen, Germany, starting with heraldic stamps and collector's albums.

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Collectivization in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Collectivization in Ukraine, officially the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was part of the policy of Collectivization in the USSR and dekulakization that was pursued between 1928 and 1933 with the purpose to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms called kolkhoz and to eliminate enemies of the working class.

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Collegium 419

Collegium 419 is a vocal ensemble specializing in music of the 16th to 18th century, aiming at historical performance praxis of high Renaissance as well as early and high Baroque vocal music with or without instrumental accompaniment.

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Coloman of Stockerau

Saint Coloman of Stockerau (Colmán; Colomannus; died 18 October 1012) was an Irish saint.

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Coloman, King of Hungary

Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.

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Colony Township, Adams County, Iowa

Colony Township is one of twelve townships in Adams County, Iowa, USA.

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Combat of Korneuburg

The Combat of Korneuburg was a relatively minor rearguard action fought by Austrian VI Korps of the ''Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee'' under Johann von Klenau against elements of the French IV Corps of the ''Grande Armée d'Allemagne'', under the command of Claude Legrand.

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Combat of Stockerau

The Combat of Stockerau was a minor rearguard cavalry skirmish fought by elements of the cavalry of Austrian VI Korps of the ''Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee'' under Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn against a single Hessian Guard Chevauleger regiment, under the command of French General Jacob François Marulaz.

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Commanders of World War II

The Commanders of World War II were for the most part career officers.

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Communalism

Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities.

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Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM) is a communist party in the Czech Republic.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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Concavodonta

Concavodonta is an extinct genus of early bivalve in the extinct family Praenuculidae.

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Coneconam

Coneconam was an early 17th-century Wampanoag slave, and later, it is suspected, sachem of Manomet.

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Congress of Gniezno

The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.

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Congress of Lutsk

The Congress of Lutsk was a diplomatic gathering held in Lubart's Castle in Lutsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania over a 13-week period beginning on January 6, 1429.

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Conrad III of Dhaun

Conrad of Dhaun (1434) was a German nobleman.

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Conrad III of Germany

Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

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Constitution of Czechoslovakia

The constitutions of Czechoslovakia were in use from 1918 to the dissolution of the state in 1992.

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Coronini

Coronini (until 1996 Pescari; Lászlóvára or Koronini; occasionally referred to as Peskari in German) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, western Romania, with a population of 1,674.

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Corps Austria Frankfurt am Main

Corps Austria is a member Corps of the Kösener Senioren-Convents-Verband, the association of the oldest student fraternities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

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Cosmas of Prague

Cosmas of Prague (Kosmas Pražský; Cosmas Decanus; – October 21, 1125) was a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia.

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Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster)

The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.

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Cottbus

Cottbus is a university city and the second-largest city in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Coudenhove-Kalergi

The Coudenhove-Kalergi family is a noble Bohemian family of mixed European descent, which was formed after Count Franz Karl von Coudenhove (1825–1893) married Marie Kalergi (1840–1877).

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Council of Pisa

The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409.

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Count Dracula

Count Dracula is the title character of Bram Stoker's 1897 gothic horror novel Dracula.

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Count Francis Lützow

Franz Heinrich Hieronymus Valentin Graf von Lützow or Hrabe František Lützow or Count Francis Lützow (21 Mar 1849 Hamburg – 13 Jan 1916 Territet, Vaud, Switzerland) was a Bohemian (Czech) author, historian, critic and revivalist.

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Count Karl Sigmund von Hohenwart

Count Karl Sigmund von Hohenwart (Karl Graf von Hohenwart) (February 12, 1824 in Vienna – April 26, 1899) was an Austrian politician who served as Minister-President of Austria in 1871.

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Count Walter Butler

Count Walter Butler was a member of the Butler family of Ormond who emigrated to Germany early in the 1600s with his brother, James.

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Count Wenzel Chotek of Chotkow and Wognin

Václav Antonín Chotek of Chotkov and Vojnín (Wenzel Anton Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin) (February 26, 1674 – May 2, 1754) was a Bohemian nobleman and royal Stadtholder in the Kingdom of Bohemia.

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Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz

Countess Elisabeth Maria Dobržensky de Dobrženicz (hraběnka Alžběta Dobřenská z Dobřenic; 7 December 1875 – 11 June 1951) was a Bohemian noblewoman whose marriage to the son of the former heiress to the throne of Brazil prompted renunciation of his claim to the abolished monarchy's throne.

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Countess Ferdinande Henriette of Stolberg-Gedern

Countess Ferdinande Henriette of Stolberg-Gedern, born 2 October 1699 at Gedern, Oberhessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, then in the Holy Roman Empire, was a daughter of Louis Christian, Count of Stolberg-Gedern, and Duchess Christine of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.

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Countess Palatine Maria Anna of Neuburg

Maria Anna of Neuburg (Marie Anna Karoline; 30 January 1693 – 12 September 1751) was a daughter of Anna Maria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany's first marriage to Philip William August of Neuburg.

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Counts of Clermont-Tonnerre

Clermont-Tonnerre is the name of a French noble family, members of which played some part in the history of France, especially in Dauphiné, from about 1100 to the French Revolution (1789–99).

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County of Kladsko

The County of Kladsko (Kladské hrabství, Grafschaft Glatz, Hrabstwo kłodzkie) was a historical administrative unit within Bohemia as a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia and later in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko (Kladsko) on the Nysa river.

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County of Manderscheid

The Manderscheid family was the most powerful family in the Eifel region of Germany for a considerable period of time in the 15th century.

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Court Jew

In the early modern period, a court Jew, or court factor (Hofjude, Hoffaktor), was a Jewish banker who handled the finances of, or lent money to, European royalty and nobility.

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Crakow (shoe)

Crakows or crackowes were a style of shoes with extremely long toes very popular in the 15th century.

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Cretornis

Cretornis is a pterosaur genus from the late Cretaceous period (Turonian) of the Czech Republic, dating to about 92 million years ago.

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Cristóbal de Sandoval, Duke of Uceda

Cristóbal Gómez de Sandoval-Rojas y de la Cerda, known as the duque de Uceda (Duke of Uceda), but also titled second marquis of Cea, fifth marquis of Denia, and knight of the order of Santiago (1581 – 31 May 1624 in Alcalá de Henares) was the official minister of state, also known as the valido or valued one, for King Philip III of Spain.

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Croatian Air Force Legion

The Croatian Air Force Legion (Hrvatska Zrakoplovna Legija), or HZL, also known as the Croatian Legion, was a foreign volunteer unit of the Luftwaffe raised from volunteers drawn from the Independent State of Croatia which fought on the Eastern Front between 1941–1943 in the Second World War.

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Croatian literature

Croatian literature refers to literary works attributed to the medieval and modern culture of the Croats, Croatia and the Croatian language.

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Cronstedtite

Cronstedtite is a complex iron silicate mineral belonging to the serpentine group of minerals.

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Cross in the Mountains

Cross in the Mountains, also known as the Tetschen Altar, is an oil painting by the German artist Caspar David Friedrich designed as an altarpiece.

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Crown jewels

Crown Jewels are the objects of metalwork and jewellery in the regalia of a current or former monarchy.

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Crown of Princess Blanche

The Crown of Princess Blanche, also called the Palatine Crown or Bohemian Crown, is the oldest surviving royal crown known to have been in England, and probably dates to 1370–80.

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Crown of Saint Wenceslas

The Crown of Saint Wenceslas is a crown forming part of the Bohemian Crown Jewels, made in 1347.

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Crutched Friars

The Fratres Cruciferi (cross-bearing brethren) are a Roman Catholic religious order.

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Cuba, Kansas

Cuba is a city in Republic County, Kansas, United States.

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Cubism

Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.

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Cuckoo clock

A cuckoo clock is a typically pendulum-regulated clock that strikes the hours with a sound like a common cuckoo's call and has an automated cuckoo bird that moves with each note.

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Culture of Austria

Austrian culture has largely been influenced by its past and present neighbours: Italy, Poland, Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia.

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Culture of medieval Poland

The culture of medieval Poland was closely linked to the Catholic Church and its involvement in the country's affairs, especially during the first centuries of the Polish state's history.

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Cyprián Karásek Lvovický

Cyprián Karásek Lvovický (of Lvovice) (Czech: Cyprián Karásek Lvovický ze Lvovic, German: Cyprian von Leowitz, Latin: Cyprianus Leovitius) (July 8, 1514? in Hradec Králové – 1574 in Lauingen) was a Bohemian astronomer, mathematician and astrologer.

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Cyril Toumanoff

Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.

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Cystomatochilina

Cystomatochilina is an extinct genus of ostracods in the order Palaeocopida.

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Czech Americans

Czech Americans (Čechoameričané), known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent.

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Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church

The Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia is a self-governing body of the Eastern Orthodox Church that territorially covers the countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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Czech Baroque architecture

Czech Baroque architecture refers to the architectural period of the 17th and 18th century in Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia, which comprised the Crown of Bohemia and today constitute the Czech Republic.

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Czech Boys Choir

The Czech Boys Choir from the town of Hradec Králové in East Bohemia, maintains the famous traditions of boychoir singing in the Czech territory as it began in the 13th century with the first boys’ choir at the St.

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Czech branch of the House of Thurn and Taxis

The Czech branch of the House of Thurn and Taxis (Thurn und Taxis) is a dynastic cadet branch of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis, a German noble family that was a key player in the postal services in Europe in the 16th century and became well known as the owner of breweries and builder of many castles.

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Czech Canadians

Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada.

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Czech Chess Championship

The Czech National Chess Championship is the chess competition that is held to determine the best chess player from the Czech Republic.

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Czech Corner

The Czech Corner (Český koutek, Czeski kątek, Böhmischer Winkel) is a territory found in the western end of Klodzko land, close to the current Czech-Polish border.

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Czech diaspora

The Czech diaspora refers to both historical and present emigration from the Czech Republic, as well as from the former Czechoslovakia and the Czech lands (including Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia).

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Czech folklore

Czech folklore is the folk tradition which has developed among the Czech people over a number of centuries.

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Czech Gold Brindled Hen

The Czech Gold Brindled Hen, 'Česká slepice zlatě kropenatá', is an old breed of chicken originating in Bohemia.

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Czech Gothic architecture

Czech Gothic architecture refers to the architectural period primarily of the Late Middle Ages in the area of the present-day Czech Republic (former Crown of Bohemia, primarily consisting of the Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia).

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Czech heraldry

Czech heraldry is greatly influenced by Austrian heraldry since the country used to be a part of the Habsburg monarchy, and by German heraldry, but also shows Hungarian and Slavic influences.

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Czech hip hop

The hip hop subculture in the Czech Republic emerged after the Velvet Revolution in 1989.

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Czech Hockey Games

Carlson Hockey Games, previously Kajotbet Hockey Games and Česká Pojišťovna Cup, is an annual ice hockey event held in Czech Republic.

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Czech immigration to Mexico

Czech Mexicans (accessdate) are citizens of Mexico who are of Czech descent.

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Czech lands

The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech presidential election, 2013

The first direct presidential election in the Czech Republic was held on 11–12 January 2013.

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Czech Renaissance architecture

Czech Renaissance architecture refers to the architectural period of the early modern era in Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia, which then comprised the Crown of Bohemia and today constitute the Czech Republic.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Czech Republic national bandy team

Czech Republic national bandy team is competing for the Czech Republic in the international bandy and rink bandy tournaments.

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Czech Sign Language

Czech Sign Language is the sign language of the deaf community in the Czech Republic.

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Czech Silesia

Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.

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Czech Texans

Czech Texans are residents of the state of Texas who are of Czech ancestry.

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Czech traditional clothing

Czech traditional clothing expresses Czech history relative to Czech culture and behaviour.

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Czech tramping

Tramping (in Czech and Slovak language) is a movement incorporating woodcraft, hiking/backpacking/camping and scouting, with a characteristic flavour of and styled on American culture, especially the Wild West.

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Czech units of measurement

A number of locally-specific units of measurement were used in the territory of what is now the Czech Republic to measure length, area, capacity and so on.

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Czech wine

Wine in the Czech Republic is produced mainly in southern Moravia, although a few vineyards are located in Bohemia.

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Czechia (disambiguation)

Czechia may refer to.

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Czechization

Czechization (čechizace, počeštění; Tschechisierung) is a cultural change in which something ethnically non-Czech is made to become Czech.

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Czechoslovak Basketball League

The Czechoslovak Basketball League (abbreviation CSBL) was the highest level professional club basketball competition for men in Czechoslovakia.

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Czechoslovak Hussite Church

The Czechoslovak Hussite Church (Církev československá husitská, CČSH or CČH) is a Christian church that separated from the Catholic Church after World War I in former Czechoslovakia.

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Czechoslovak National Council

Czechoslovak National Council (or Czecho-Slovak National Council) was an organization founded by Czech and Slovak émigrés during World War I to liberate their homeland from Austria-Hungary.

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Czechoslovak National Democracy

The Czechoslovak National Democracy, called also Czechoslovak National Democratic Party, was a First Republic right-wing political party in Czechoslovakia.

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Czechoslovak parliamentary election, 1929

Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 27 October 1929.

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Czechoslovak parliamentary election, 1946

Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 26 May 1946.

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Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.

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Czechoslovak War Cross 1918

The Czechoslovak War Cross 1918 (Československý válečný kříž 1918 in Czech, Československý vojnový kríž 1918 in Slovak) is a military decoration of the former state of Czechoslovakia which was issued for acts of military valour during the years of the First World War.

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Czechoslovak War Cross 1939–1945

The Czechoslovak War Cross 1939–1945 (Československý válečný kříž 1939–1945 in Czech, Československý vojnový kríž 1939–1945 in Slovak) is a military decoration of the former state of Czechoslovakia which was issued for those who had provided great service to the Czechoslovak state (in exile) during the years of World War II.

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Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Czechoslovakia at the 1920 Summer Olympics

Czechoslovakia competed at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.

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Czechoslovakism

Czechoslovakism (Čechoslovakismus, Čechoslovakizmus) is the nationalism of Czechoslovaks and Czechoslovak culture either for which Czechs and Slovaks embrace a Pan-Slavic state in which they function as constituent nations (political form), or for which the two nations form a single West Slavic ethnic group (ethnic form of Czechoslovakism).

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Czechs

The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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Czechs in Omaha, Nebraska

Czechs in Omaha, Nebraska have made significant contributions to the political, social and cultural development of the city since the first immigrants arrived in 1868.

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Dacia

In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.

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Dacian bracelets

The Dacian bracelets are bracelets associated with the ancient people known as the Dacians, a distinct branch of the Thracians.

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Dacian warfare

The history of Dacian warfare spans from c. 10th century BC up to the 2nd century AD in the region defined by Ancient Greek and Latin historians as Dacia, populated by a collection of Thracian, Ionian, and Dorian tribes.

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Dagmar of Bohemia

Dagmar of Bohemia (also known as Margaret of Bohemia; 1186 – 24 May 1212 in Ribe) was queen consort of Denmark as the first spouse of King Valdemar II of Denmark.

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Daina (Lithuania)

Daina is the traditional name of vocal folk music in the Baltic languages, and is preserved in Lithuania and Latvia.

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Dalberg

Dalberg is the name of an ancient and distinguished German noble family, derived from the hamlet and castle (now in ruins) of Dalberg or Dalburg near Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate.

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Daniel Block

Daniel Block (1802–1853) was a Jewish leader who founded the B'nai B'rith synagogue in St. Louis, Missouri.

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Daniel E. Freeman

Daniel Evan Freeman (born 27 April 1959) is an American musicologist who specializes in European art music of the eighteenth century, in particular the musical culture of eighteenth-century Prague and the Bohemian lands.

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Daniel Stolz von Stolzenberg

Daniel Stolz von Stolzenberg (Daniel Stolcius) (1600–1660) was a Bohemian physician and writer on alchemy, a pupil of Michael Maier in Prague.

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Daniel Swarovski

Daniel Swarovski (24 October 1862 – 23 January 1956) was a Czech-Austrian glass cutter, jeweler, and founder of the Swarovski crystal dynasty.

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Danish exonyms

Bilingual town sign of Flensburg, Germany Danish language exonyms for non-Danish speaking locations exist, primarily in Europe, but many of these are no longer commonly used, with a few notable exceptions.

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Danubian culture

The term Danubian culture was coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe to describe the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe.

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David Flusser

David Flusser (Hebrew: דוד פלוסר) (born 1917; died 2000) was a professor of Early Christianity and Judaism of the Second Temple Period at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

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David Kaufmann

David Kaufmann (7 June 1852 – 6 July 1899) (Hebrew: דוד קויפמן) was a Jewish-Austrian scholar born at Kojetín, Moravia (now in the Czech Republic).

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David Köler

David Köler, also Koler, Colerus (c.1532 –1565) was a German composer.

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David Origanus

David Origanus or David Tost (9 July 1558 – 11 July 1628/29) was a German astronomer and professor for Greek language and Mathematics at the Viadrina University in Frankfurt (Oder), where he had also studied.

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David Popper

David Popper (June 16, 1843 – August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and composer.

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David Slíva

David Slíva was a Czech tennis player.

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Davle

Davle is a market town in Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic.

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Döllersheim

Döllersheim is an abandoned village in the Austrian state of Lower Austria, located in the rural Waldviertel region about northwest of Vienna.

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Dünamünde Action

The Dünamünde Action (Aktion Dünamünde) was an operation launched by the Nazi German occupying force and local collaborationists in Biķernieki forest, near Riga, Latvia.

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Dąb coat of arms

Dąb (Polish for "Oak") is a Polish coat of arms of Czech origin.

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Děčín

Děčín (Tetschen, 1942–45: Tetschen–Bodenbach) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region in the north of the Czech Republic.

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Děčín District

Děčín District (Okres Děčín in Czech) is one of seven districts (okres) located within the Ústí nad Labem Region (Ústecký kraj) in the Czech Republic.

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Děčín Weir

The Děčín Weir (Staustufe Děčín, Plavební stupeň Děčín) is a planned weir and lock complex near the town of Děčín in Bohemia on the Czech section of the River Elbe.

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Děpolt II

Děpolt II (1150s – 21 November 1190), also known as Diepold II (modern English Theobald), was a Bohemian nobleman from the cadet branch of the Přemyslid dynasty and the leader of the Bohemian troop in the Third Crusade.

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Dětřichov (Svitavy District)

Dětřichov (German: Dittersdorf) is a small village and municipality on the Bohemia-Moravia borderline in the Svitavy District of the Pardubice Region, Czech Republic.

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Dětmar

Dětmar, Thietmar or Dietmar; died 2 January 982 in Prague) was the first Bishop of Prague. He came from Saxony and learned to speak Czech. The diocese of Prague was assigned to the archbishopric of Mainz, when Thietmar was elected as the first bishop in 973 at the time of government by Boleslaus II of Bohemia. The creation of the diocese gave Bohemia religious independence from the Empire. Thietmar was known to be a wise and pious man, who ordered the building of many churches and the first cathedral. He died in 982. Adalbert of Prague was elected as his successor. Category:10th-century births Category:982 deaths Category:10th-century German people Category:10th-century Bohemian people Category:10th-century bishops Category:German Roman Catholic bishops Category:Bishops of Prague Category:Czech people of German descent.

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Džbánov (Ústí nad Orlicí District)

Džbánov is a small village in the Pardubice Region in the northeast of Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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De re metallica

De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.

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Death of the Virgin Mary of Košátky

The Death of the Virgin Mary of Košátky is a Bohemian panel painting from the period around 1340-1350.

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Debashish Chaudhuri

Debashish Chaudhuri (born October 14, 1975) is an Indian symphonic conductor of Western classical music.

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Decimation (Roman army)

Decimation (decimatio; decem.

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Defenestration

Defenestration is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window.

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Defenestrations of Prague

The Defenestrations of Prague (Pražská defenestrace, Prager Fenstersturz, Defenestratio Pragensis) were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated (that is, thrown out of a window).

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Deidesheim

Deidesheim is a town in the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany with some 3,700 inhabitants.

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Deiphon

Deiphon is a distinctive genus of Silurian phacopid trilobites of the family Cheiruridae found in Western and Central Europe, and in Central and Eastern United States.

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Demographics of Czechoslovakia

Population (1991): 15.6 millions, of which Czechs 62.8%, Slovaks 31%, Hungarians 3.8%, Romani people 0.7%, Silesians 0.3%.

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Demographics of North Carolina

Demographics of North Carolina covers the varieties of ethnic groups who reside in North Carolina and relevant trends.

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Demographics of the Czech Republic

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Czech Republic, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, and religious affiliations.

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Demolirer

Demolirer-Polka (Demolition Men's Polka) op.

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Demonstration of 20 June 1792

The Demonstration of 20 June 1792 (Journée du 20 juin 1792) was the last peaceful attempt made by the people of Paris to persuade King Louis XVI of France to abandon his current policy and attempt to follow what they believed to be a more empathetic approach to governing.

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Demonym

A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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Der Ackermann aus Böhmen

Der Ackermann aus Böhmen (German for "The Ploughman from Bohemia"), also known as Der Ackermann und der Tod ("The Ploughman and Death"), is a work of poetry in Early New High German by Johannes von Tepl, written around 1401.

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Der Freischütz

, Op. 77, J. 277, (usually translated as The Marksman or The Freeshooter) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber with a libretto by Friedrich Kind.

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Descendants of James VI and I

James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625), the only child of Mary, Queen of Scots, was King of Scots from 1567 and King of England and Ireland from 1603, being the first monarch of the House of Stuart to rule all three countries.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Desfours

Desfours is a noble family of French descent that originated in the Lorraine but became prominent in Bohemia during the 16th century.

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Desi hip hop

Desi hip hop is a term for music and culture which combines the influences of hip hop and the Indian subcontinent; the term desi referring to the South Asian diaspora.

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Deutsche Babcock

Deutsche Babcock AG (full name: Deutsche Babcock & Wilcox Dampfkessel Werke Aktien-Gesellschaft) was a German manufacturing company based in Oberhausen in the Ruhr District, the center of the German economy.

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DFC Germania Prag

DFC Germania Prag was a German association football club from the city of Prague in what is today the Czech Republic, consisting of ethnic Germans At the time of the club's founding in 1899, Prague was part of Bohemia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Didymodon mamillosus

Didymodon mamillosus, commonly known as Perthshire beardmoss, is a species of moss endemic to Europe.

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Dientzenhofer

Dientzenhofer is the name of a family of German architects, who were among the leading builders in Bohemian and German Baroque.

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Diepold III, Margrave of Vohburg

Diepold III, Margrave of Vohburg (c. 1079 – 1146), also known as Diepold von Vohburg and Diepold III von Giengen, was a Bavarian noble in the 12th century.

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Dionysio Miseroni

Dionysio Miseroni (1607, Prague – 1661, Vienna) was a Bohemian jeweler and stonecutter.

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Diplomacy (game)

Diplomacy is a strategic board game created by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released commercially in 1959.

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Discus throw

The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors.

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Dismas Hataš

Dismas Hataš (Hattasch; 1 December 1724 - 13 October 1777) was a Bohemian composer and violinist of the early classical period.

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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

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Diszel

Diszel (Tapolica Diszel) is an outer suburb of Tapolca in Veszprém county, Hungary.

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Diviš Bořek of Miletínek

Diviš Bořek z Miletínka (Diwisch Borek von Miletin) (died 8 January 1438) was a captain of the Hussites in eastern and central Bohemia.

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Divišov

Divišov (Diwischow) is the market town in the Czech Republic, lying near the Sázava River and Blanice River, southeast of Prague.

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Dobrujan Germans

The Dobrujan Germans (Dobrudschadeutsche) were an ethnic German group, within the larger category of Black Sea Germans, for over one hundred years.

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Dohna

Dohna is a town in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district, Saxony, Germany.

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Dohna Castle

Dohna Castle (Burg Dohna, Donin) on the road from German Saxony to Bohemia was the seat of the burgraves of Dohna.

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Dohna Feud

The Dohna Feud (Dohnaische Fehde) was a 14th-century dispute between the burgraves of Dohna, who resided in the Eastern Ore Mountains of Central Europe, on the one hand and Saxon nobleman, John of Körbitz (Hans von Körbitz) and the Meißen Margrave William I on the other.

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Doksy

Doksy (Hirschberg am See) is a town in the Czech Republic.

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Dolní Přím

Dolní Přím is a village in the Czech Republic located about 10 km west of Hradec Králové.

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Dolní Podluží

Dolní Podluží (German Niedergrund) is a village and municipality (obec) in Děčín District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic (not to be confused with Niedergrund an der Elbe).

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Dolynivka

Dolynivka (Долинівка, Felizienthal, Dolnówka) is a village (selo) in Skole Raion, Lviv Oblast, of Western Ukraine.

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Domažlice

Domažlice (Taus) is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic.

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Dome

Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Domenico Martinelli

Domenico Martinelli (November 30, 1650 – September 11, 1718) was an Italian architect who worked for Carlo Fontana during 1678.

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Dominic Marquard, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort

Dominic Marquard, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (7 November 1690 – 11 March 1738) was the second Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort.

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Dominik Auliczek

Dominik Auliczek (or Dominikus, Dominic, Aulizek, 1 August 1734 – 15 April 1804) was a sculptor and porcelain designer born in Bohemia who was employed for many years by the porcelain factory at the Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Bavaria.

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Dominik Duka

Dominik Jaroslav Duka (born 26 April 1943, Hradec Králové, Bohemia and Moravia (now Czech Republic)) is the 36th Archbishop of Prague and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Dominik Feri

Dominik Feri (born 11 July 1996) is a Czech politician, member of the liberal conservative TOP 09 party and an adviser of Karel Schwarzenberg.

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Dominik Hašek

Dominik Hašek (born January 29, 1965) is a retired Czech ice hockey goaltender.

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Donatas Malinauskas

Donatas Malinauskas (1877 in Latvia – November 30, 1942 in Altai Krai, Russia) was a Lithuanian politician and diplomat, and one of twenty signatories to the Act of Independence of Lithuania.

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Donor portrait

A donor portrait or votive portrait is a portrait in a larger painting or other work showing the person who commissioned and paid for the image, or a member of his, or (much more rarely) her, family.

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Doosan Škoda Power

Doosan Škoda Power, a part of global company Doosan, is a manufacturer and supplier of equipment for power stations, machine rooms especially equipped for steam turbines.

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Doris Zinkeisen

Doris Clare Zinkeisen (31 July 1898 – 3 January 1991) was a Scottish theatrical stage and costume designer, painter, commercial artist and writer.

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Double summit

A double summit, double peak, twin summit or twin peak refers to a mountain or hill that has two summits, separated by a col or saddle.

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Doubravka of Bohemia

Doubravka of Bohemia or Dobrawa, Dąbrówka (Doubravka Přemyslovna, Dobrava Přemyslovna, Dobrawa Przemyślidka, Dąbrówka Przemyślidka) (ca. 940/45 – 977) was a Bohemian princess of the Přemyslid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of the Polans.

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Dowry town

Dowry town (Věnné město in Czech) is the name for a town that has been devoted by Bohemian king to his wife - the queen consort.

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Draga Matković

Draga Matković (also known as Draga Matković-von Auerhann; 4 November 1907 – 29 July 2013) was a contemporary German classical pianist of Croatian descent.

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Dreiherrenstein

A Dreiherrenstein or Dreiherrnstein is the topographic name of a historical tripoint, especially in the German-speaking lands of central Europe, i.e. a place where the border of three princely territories met, together with any enclosures or border fortifications.

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Dresden Hauptbahnhof

Dresden Hauptbahnhof (“main station”, abbreviated Dresden Hbf) is the largest passenger station in the Saxon capital of Dresden.

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Dresden to Teplitz Post Road

The Old and New Dresden to Teplitz Post Roads (Alte und Neue Dresden-Teplitzer Poststraße) are passes over the Ore Mountains and form part of the well-known ancient road system known as the Kulmer Steig, which ran from the Elbe Valley near Dresden over the Eastern Ore Mountains to Teplitz (now Teplice), Bohemia.

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Dry stone

Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.

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Dušan Jurkovič

Dušan Jurkovič (August 23, 1868 – December 21, 1947) was a Slovak architect, ethnographer and artist.

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Dubá

Dubá (Dauba) is a town in the Czech Republic.

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Dubove, Tiachiv Raion

Oblast Raion |subdivision_name.

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Duchcov

Duchcov (Dux) is a town in the Teplice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.

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Duchcov Chateau

Duchcov (Dux) is the name of a grand house in the town of Duchcov, located about 8 km from Litvínov, in northern Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Duchess Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg

Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg (Franziska Sibylle Auguste; 21 January 1675 – 10 July 1733) was Margravine of Baden-Baden.

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Duchy of Bielsko

The Duchy of Bielsko (freie Standesherrschaft Bielitz, Fürstentum Bielitz, Herzogtum Bielitz, status minores Bilicensis, status maiores Bilicensis, ducatus Bilicensis, księstwo bielskie,Bílské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia.

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Duchy of Bohemia

The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.

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Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Duchy of Friedland

Duchy of Friedland (Czech: Frýdlantské vévodství, German: Herzogtum Friedland) was a de facto sovereign duchy in Bohemia.

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Duchy of Luxemburg

The Duchy of Luxemburg (Luxembourg, Lëtzebuerg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, the ancestral homeland of the noble House of Luxembourg.

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Duchy of Münsterberg

The Duchy of Münsterberg (Herzogtum Münsterberg) or Duchy of Ziębice (Księstwo Ziębickie, Minstrberské knížectví) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, with a capital in Münsterberg (Ziębice).

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Duchy of Opole

Duchy of Opole (Herzogtum Oppeln; Opolské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Piast dynasty.

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Duchy of Silesia

The Duchy of Silesia (Księstwo śląskie, Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland.

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Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester

Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester (10 March 1573 – 15 February 1632) was an English art collector, diplomat and Secretary of State.

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Duino Castle

Duino Castle (Castello di Duino, Schloss Duino, Grad Devin) is a fourteenth-century fortification located in Duino (municipality of Duino-Aurisina), near Trieste, Italy, on the cliffs overlooking the Gulf of Trieste.

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Duino Elegies

The Duino Elegies (Duineser Elegien) are a collection of ten elegies written by the Bohemian-Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke (1875–1926).

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Duke (Lombard)

Among the Lombards, the duke or dux was the man who acted as political and military commander of a set of "military families" (the Fara), irrespective of any territorial appropriation.

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Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (12 January 1721, Wolfenbüttel – 3 July 1792, Vechelde), was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War.

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Duke of Opole

The following is a list of monarchs who used the title Duke of Opole and controlled the city and the surrounding area either directly or indirectly (see also Duchy of Opole).

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Duke of Silesia

The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.

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Duxit

Duxit is a mostly black brown fossil resin from Miocenes lignite layers in the northern Bohemia.

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Dvůr Králové nad Labem

Dvůr Králové nad Labem (German: Königinhof an der Elbe) is a town in the Czech Republic in Hradec Králové Region, in the Labe (Elbe) river valley.

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Dyleň

Dyleň (Tillenberg) is a mountain in the Karlovy Vary Region of western Bohemia, located roughly from the Czech Republic–Germany border.

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Dzhalindite

Dzhalindite is a rare indium hydroxide mineral discovered in Siberia.

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Early modern Europe

Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century.

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Early Netherlandish painting

Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai and Brussels, all in contemporary Belgium.

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Early Slavs

The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.

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East Central German

East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.

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East Room

The East Room is an event and reception room in the White House, the home of the President of the United States.

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Eberhard I, Count of Württemberg

Eberhard I (13 March 1265, Stuttgart - 5 June 1325, Stuttgart) was Count of Württemberg from 1279 until his death.

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Economy of the Habsburg Monarchy

With the abolition of serfdom in the 18th century, the Habsburg Monarchy, with the major industrial, mining areas and forestry of regions Moravia and Bohemia leading the way, began to experience unprecedented economic growth.

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Ecumenism

Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.

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Edict of Potsdam

The Edict of Potsdam (Edikt von Potsdam) was a proclamation issued by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, in Potsdam on October 29, 1685, as a response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau.

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Edict of Wieluń

The Edict of Wieluń was a 1424 law issued in Wieluń by King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło under pressure from the Catholic Church.

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Edith Ballantyne

Edith Ballantyne (born 1922) is a Czech-born, Canadian citizen, who has been a prominent member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) since 1969.

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Edith Templeton

Edith Templeton (7 April 1916 in Prague – 12 June 2006 in Bordighera, Italy) was a Bohemian novelist, who also wrote under the pseudonym Louise Walbrook.

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Eduard Albert

Eduard Albert (20 January 1841, Žamberk, Bohemia – 26 September 1900, Žamberk), was a Czech surgeon, professor and historian.

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Eduard Štorch

Eduard Štorch (10 April 1878, Ostroměř – 25 June 1956, Prague) was a Czech pedagogue, archaeologist and writer, known for novels set in prehistoric Bohemia during Stone and Bronze Age.

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Eduard Clam-Gallas

Count Eduard Clam-Gallas (in Prague –, in Vienna) was an Austrian General.

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Eduard Ingris

Eduard Ingriš (February 11, 1905 – January 11, 1991) was a Czech-American composer, photographer, conductor and adventurer.

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Eduard Kohout

Eduard Kohout (6 March 1889 – 25 October 1976) was a Czech stage, film actor and television actor.

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Eduard Lill

Eduard Lill (1830–1900) was an Austrian engineer and officer.

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Eduard Meijers

Eduard Maurits Meijers (January 10, 1880, Den Helder – June 25, 1954 in Leiden) was a Dutch jurist of Jewish background, who was the founding father of the current Dutch civil code, the Nieuw Burgerlijk Wetboek.

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Eduard Pospichal

Eduard Ludvik Pospichal (13 June 1838 – 24 April 1905) was an Austrian botanist of Czech parentage born in Litomyšl in Bohemia (today in the Czech Republic).

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Eduard Prokosch

Eduard Prokosch (15 May 1876 – 11 August 1938) was an Austrian historical linguist who specialized in Indo-European and, specifically, Proto-Germanic studies.

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Eduard Schütt

Eduard Schütt (Эдуард Шютт; 22 October 1856 – 26 July 1933) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe

Eduard Franz Joseph Graf von Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe (24 February 1833 – 29 November 1895) was an Austrian statesman, who served for two terms as Minister-President of Cisleithania, leading cabinets from 1868 to 1870 and 1879 to 1893.

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Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein

Eduard Ernst Friedrich Hannibal Vogel von Fal(c)kenstein (5 January 1797 – 6 April 1885) was a Prussian General der Infanterie.

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Edvard Beneš

Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.

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Edvard Grieg

Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.

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Edward Chamberlayne

Edward Chamberlayne (13 December 1616 – May 1703) was an English writer, known as the author of The Present State of England.

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Edward Floyd

Edward Floyd, Floud or Lloyd (died 1648) was an Englishman impeached and sentenced by the House of Commons in 1621 for speaking disparagingly of Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

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Edward Goll

Edward Goll (4 February 188411 January 1949) was a Bohemian pianist who settled in Australia in his late 20s and became a noted piano teacher at the Melbourne University Conservatorium of Music.

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Edward Kelley

Sir Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (1 August 1555 – 1 November 1597), was an English Renaissance occultist and self-declared spirit medium.

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Edward Löwe

Edward Löwe (also Eduard Loewe; 23 September 1794 – 24 February 1880) was a Bohemian-born, after 1830 naturalized English chess master.

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Edward Racek

Edward Racek (October 11, 1846 – January 23, 1912) was an American businessman and politician.

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Edward Rosewater

Edward Rosewater, born Edward Rosenwasser, (January 21, 1841 – August 30, 1906) was a Republican Party politician and newspaper editor in Omaha, Nebraska.

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Edward Rydz-Śmigły

Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet.

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Edward Villiers (Master of the Mint)

Sir Edward Villiers (c.1585 – 7 September 1626) was an English nobleman, diplomat, office-holder, knight, and politician from the Villiers family who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1625.

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Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern

Edward, prince palatine of the Rhine (Eduard, Prinz von der Pfalz) 5 October 1625 – 10 March 1663, was the sixth son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (of the House of Wittelsbach), the "Winter King" of Bohemia, by his consort, the English princess Elizabeth Stuart.

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Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel

Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (24 February 1809 – 17 June 1885) was a German Generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War.

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Effects on the environment in Czechoslovakia from Soviet influence during the Cold War

After World War II, the Soviet Union put in place five-year plans in the East European countries imitating their own five-year plans in order to recover from the war.

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Egerland

The Egerland (Chebsko; Egerland; Egerland German dialect: Eghalånd) is a historical region in the far north west of Bohemia in the Czech Republic at the border with Germany.

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Eggenberg family

Eggenberg was the name of an Austrian noble family from Styria, who achieved princely rank in the 17th century.

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Egon Schiele

Egon Schiele (12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter.

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Egon von Jordan

Egon von Jordan (19 March 1902 – 27 December 1978) was an Austrian film actor.

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Eighty Years' War

The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Eisenhammer Dorfchemnitz

Eisenhammer Dorfchemnitz is an historic hammer mill in Dorfchemnitz in the Ore Mountains of Germany.

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Eissen

Eissen is a Westphalian village with 718 inhabitants in North Rhine-Westphalia and part of the town of Willebadessen, district Höxter in the administrative region of Detmold.

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Elbe

The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Elbe Germanic peoples

The Elbe Germanii (Elbgermanen) or Elbe Germanic peoples were Germanic tribes whose settlement area, based on archaeological finds, lay either side of the Elbe estuary on both sides of the river and which extended as far as Bohemia and Moravia, clearly the result of a migration up the Elbe river from the northwest in advance of the main Migration Period until the individual groups ran into the Roman Danube Limes around 200 AD.

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Elbe Sandstone Mountains

The Elbe Sandstone Mountains, also called the Elbe sandstone highlands (Elbsandsteingebirge; Labské pískovce) is a mountain range straddling the border between the state of Saxony in southeastern Germany and the North Bohemian region of the Czech Republic, with about three-quarters of the area lying on the German side.

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Elections in the First Czechoslovak Republic

Parliamentary elections in the First Czechoslovak Republic were held in 1920, 1925, 1929 and 1935.

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Eleonora Vera Sipos

Eleonora Vera Sipos (7 September 1900– 5 August 1988) was a notable New Zealand businesswoman, humanitarian and welfare worker.

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Elfriede Kuzmany

Elfriede Kuzmany (1915–2006) was an Austrian film and television actress.

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Eliezer ben Elijah Ashkenazi

Eliezer (Lazer) ben Elijah Ashkenazi (1512–December 13, 1585) (אליעזר בן אליהו אשכנזי) was a Talmudist, rabbi, physician, and many-sided scholar.

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Elisabeth, daughter of Ottokar II

Elisabeth (b. before 1260; d. after 1281) was a natural daughter of Bohemian king Ottokar II with his mistress Agnes of Kuenring.

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Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Electress of Brandenburg

Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (19 November 1597 – 26 April 1660) was an Electress consort of Brandenburg as the wife of George William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, and the mother of Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector".

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Elizabeth Jane Weston

Elizabeth Jane Weston (Elisabetha Ioanna Westonia; Alžběta Johana Vestonie) (November 2, 1582 in London – November 23, 1612 in Prague) was an English-Czech poet, mostly known for her Neo-Latin poetry.

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Elizabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330)

Elizabeth of Bohemia (Eliška Přemyslovna) (20 January 1292 – 28 September 1330) was a princess of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty who became queen consort of Bohemia as the first wife of King John the Blind (John of Luxembourg).

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Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Greater Poland

Elizabeth of Hungary (Erzsébet magyar hercegnő, Elżbieta węgierska; – 21 July 1154), was a Hungarian princess member of the House of Árpád and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland.

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Elizabeth of Pomerania

Elizabeth of Pomerania (– 15 April 1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia.

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Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.

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Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth

Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth is an oil painting by John Singer Sargent.

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Elsie Paroubek

Eliška "Elsie" Paroubek (1906–1911) was a Czech American girl who was a victim of kidnapping and murder in the spring of 1911.

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Elvetham air crash

The Elvetham air crash occurred on 5 October 1945 when a Consolidated Liberator GR.VI aircraft, serial number KG867, of 311 Squadron Royal Air Force crashed at Elvetham, east of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire, following a fire in one of its engines and fuel starvation to another.

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Emanuel Viktor Voska

Emanuel Viktor Voska, born 1875 in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, died April 1, 1960 in Ruzyně prison in Prague, Czechoslovakia, U.S. intelligence agency officer (World War I and World War II) who died in Czechoslovak prison.

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Emanuel Wirth

Emanuel Wirth (18 October 18425 January 1923) was a German violinist and violist.

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Emanuele d'Astorga

Emanuele d'Astorga (20 March 16801757, by one report) was an Italian composer known mainly for his Stabat Mater.

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Emil Hácha

Emil Dominik Josef Hácha (12 July 1872 – 27 June 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia from 1938 to 1939.

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Emil Kolben

Emil Kolben (November 1, 1862 in Strančice - September 3, 1943 in Terezín) was an engineer and entrepreneur from Bohemia.

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Emil Pollert

Emil Pollert, born Emil Popper (20 January 1877, Liblice at Mělník – 23 October 1935, Prague) was a Czech opera singer at the National Theatre in Prague, in his time the main representative of bass roles.

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Emilie Bach

Emilie Bach (born Neuschloss, Bohemia, July 2, 1840; died Vienna, Austria April 29, 1890) was an artist and journalist.

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Emma Riedl

Emma Riedl was the editor of the Konsumgenossenschaftliches Familienblatt (English: Consumer Cooperative Family Newsletter), a newsletter published by the German consumer cooperatives of Bohemia (known later as the Sudetenland) between 1921 and 1938.

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Emmanuel Boleslaus Ledvina

Emmanuel Boleslaus Ledvina (October 28, 1868 – December 15, 1952) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Emmanuel von Mensdorff-Pouilly

Emmanuel, count of Mensdorff-Pouilly (24 January 1777 – 28 June 1852) was an army officer in the Imperial and Royal Army of the Austrian Empire, and vice-governor of Mainz.

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Emmi Dölling

Emmi Dölling (born Emmi Effenberger: 25 February 1906 - 25 January 1990) was a Czechoslovak/German political activist (KPD/SED) and journalist.

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Emperor of Austria

The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

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England national football team results (1900–29)

This is a list of the England national football team results from 1900 to 1929.

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English exonyms

An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).

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English invasion of Scotland (1385)

The English invasion of Scotland took place in July 1385 when King Richard II led an English army into Scotland.

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Enrique Gómez Carrillo

Enrique Gómez Carrillo (February 27, 1873 in Guatemala City – November 29, 1927 in Paris) was a Guatemalan literary critic, writer, journalist and diplomat, and the second husband of the Salvadoran-French writer and artist Consuelo Suncin de Sandoval-Cardenas, later Consuelo Suncin, comtesse de Saint Exupéry, who in turn was his third wife; he had been previously married to intellectual Aurora Caceres and Spanish actress Raquel Meller.

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Enstatite

Enstatite is a mineral; the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite (MgSiO3) - ferrosilite (FeSiO3).

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Epenow

Epenow (also spelled Epanow) was a Nauset from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts who became an early symbol of resistance to English explorers and slavers in the early 17th century.

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Episcopal Conference of Czech Republic

Czech Bishops' Conference (CBC) is constant chorus of Catholic bishops of the Czech Republic.

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Erhard Etzlaub

Erhard Etzlaub (born ca. 1455-1465 in Erfurt; died 1532 in Nuremberg), was an astronomer, geodesist, cartographer, instrument maker and physician.

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Erich Grützner

Erich Grützner (born Pirna 30 July 1910: died Leipzig 21 November 2001) was an East German Trades unionist and a senior official in the country's ruling SED (party).

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Erla Ironworks

The Erla Ironworks (Eisenwerk Erla) has its origins in one of the oldest hammer mills in the Upper Ore Mountains, which was first recorded in 1380 as the Hammer in der Erl, making the ironworks the oldest existing business in the German state of Saxony.

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Erna von Abendroth

Erna von Abendroth (4 February 1887 - 26 February 1959) was a pioneering German nurse and trainer/teacher.

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Ernest Denis

Ernest Denis (January 3, 1849 – January 4, 1921) was a French historian.

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Ernest Gellner

Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".

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Ernest I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau

Ernest I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (died Dessau, 12 June 1516), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau.

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Ernest, Margrave of Austria

Ernest (Ernst, 1027 – 10 June 1075), known as Ernest the Brave (Ernst der Tapfere), was the Margrave of Austria from 1055 to his death in 1075.

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Ernestine Schumann-Heink

Hans A. Schumann-Heink (1910-?) is her grandson, he was born out of wedlock and she raised him.

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Ernst Adalbert von Harrach

Count Ernst Adalbert von Harrach (4 November 1598 – 25 October 1667) was an Austrian Catholic Cardinal who was appointed Archbishop of Prague and Prince-Bishop of Trento.

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Ernst Bach

Ernst Bach (1876-1929) was a German actor and playwright.

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Ernst Christoph von Nassau

Ernst Christoph von Nassau, sometimes called Christoph Ernst, (1686 in Hartmannsdorf (Jaczków) near Glogau–19 November 1755 in Sagan) was a Prussian general lieutenant and knight of the Black Eagle Order.

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Ernst Deutsch

Ernst Deutsch, also known as Ernest Dorian (16 September 1890, Prague – 22 March 1969, Berlin), was an Austrian actor.

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Ernst Gideon von Laudon

Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.

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Ernst Gottlieb Baron

Ernst Gottlieb Baron or Ernst Theofil Baron (17 February 1696 – 12 April 1760), was a German lutenist, composer and writer on music.

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Ernst Paul

Ernst Paul (1897–1978) was a Sudeten German Social Democratic politician and journalist.

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Ernst Roth

Ernst Roth (1 June 1896 – 17 July 1971) was a music publisher for Universal Edition in Vienna and Boosey & Hawkes in London, and became the company's director in 1968.

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Ernst Schmutzer

Ernst Schmutzer (born 26 February 1930) is a German theoretical physicist.

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Ernst von Mansfeld

Ernst Graf von Mansfeld (c. 158029 November 1626), was a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years' War.

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Ernst von Plener

Ernst Baron von Plener (18 October 1841 in Eger, Bohemia – 29 April 1923 in Vienna, Austria) was an Austrian statesman, son of Ignaz von Plener.

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Ernst von Prittwitz und Gaffron

Ernst Karl Ferdinand von Prittwitz und Gaffron (20 January 1833 – 24 February 1904) was a Royal Prussian Lieutenant General and Knight of Justice of the Order of Saint John.

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Ernst Wilhelm Wolf

Ernst Wilhelm Wolf (baptised 25 February 1735 – 29 or 30 November 1792) was a German composer.

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Erromintxela language

Erromintxela is the distinctive language of a group of Romani living in the Basque Country, who also go by the name Erromintxela.

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Ervine Metzl

Ervine Metzl (1899–1963) was an American graphic artist and illustrator best known for his posters and postage stamp designs.

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Erwin Posselt

Erwin Posselt was an ethnic German luger who competed in the early 1910s.

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Erwin Schulhoff

Erwin Schulhoff (Ervín Šulhov; 8 June 189418 August 1942) was a Czech composer and pianist.

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Erwin Strittmatter

Erwin Strittmatter (14 August 1912 in Spremberg – 31 January 1994 in Schulzenhof near Dollgow/Stechlin) was a German writer.

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Ethelbert Watts

Ethelbert Watts (February 25, 1846 – July 13, 1919) a United States diplomat for over twenty-four years, played important roles in the Spanish–American War, Russo-Japanese War, and World War I.

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Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary

The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows.

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Ethnic groups in Omaha, Nebraska

Various ethnic groups in Omaha, Nebraska have lived in the city since its organization by Anglo-Americans in 1854.

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Ethnic minorities in Czechoslovakia

This article describes ethnic minorities in Czechoslovakia from 1918 until 1992.

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Ettore Roesler Franz

Ettore Roesler Franz (11 May 1845 – 26 March 1907) was an Italian painter and photographer.

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Eucharistic miracle

In Christianity, a Eucharistic miracle is any miracle involving the Eucharist.

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Euchites

The Euchites or Messalians were a Christian sect from Mesopotamia that spread to Asia Minor and Thrace.

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Eudoxia of Kiev

Eudoxia Iziaslavna of Kiev (Евдоксия Изяславна, italic; c. 1131 – c. 1187), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the Rurikid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland and since 1173 High Duchess of Poland.

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Eugen Gura

Eugen Gura (8 November 1842 – 26 August 1906) was a German operatic baritone.

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Eugen Sänger

Eugen Sänger (22 September 1905 – 10 February 1964) was an Austrian aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology.

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Eugen Wratislaw von Mitrowitz

Eugen Count Wratislaw von Mittrowitz-Nettolitzky (8 July 1786, in Wischopol (Dolní Bousov), Bohemia – 14 February 1867, in Vienna) was an Austrian and Czech Field marshal from House Wratislaw of Mitrovic.

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Eugene Wason

Eugene Wason (26 January 1846 – 19 April 1927) was a Scottish lawyer and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons in three periods between 1885 and 1918.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Europa regina

Europa regina, Latin for Queen Europe, is the map-like depiction of the European continent as a queen.

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Europa Universalis III

Europa Universalis III is a grand strategy video game developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive.

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European Geoparks Network

The European Geoparks Network, also known as the EGN, is a trans-national partnership of Geoparks across Europe formed in 2000 to provide mutual support to established and prospective Geoparks across the continent.

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European Green Belt

The European Green Belt initiative is a grassroots movement for nature conservation and sustainable development along the corridor of the former Iron Curtain.

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European Route of Historic Theatres

The European Route of Historic Theatres is a holiday route and European Cultural Route, that runs through many European countries.

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European wars of religion

The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged mainly in central and western, but also northern Europe (especially Ireland) in the 16th and 17th century.

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European watershed

The main European watershed is the drainage divide ("watershed") which separates the basins of the rivers that empty into the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea from those that feed the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea.

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Eurosia

Eurosia (or Orosia) is the patron saint of Jaca, a city in the province of Huesca of northeastern Spain, in the Pyrenees, the center of her cult.

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Eurypterina

Eurypterina is one of two suborders of eurypterids, an extinct group of merostomatan arthropods commonly known as "sea scorpions".

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Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren

The Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren (ECCB) (Českobratrská církev evangelická; ČCE) is the largest Czech Protestant church and the second largest church in general after the Catholic Church.

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Evelyn Faltis

Evelyn Faltis (20 February 1887 – 19 May 1937) was a Bohemian composer.

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Evenburg

Castle in neugothic style: The Evenburg 2007. The Evenburg is a water castle in the village of Loga in north Germany, not far from the River Leda.

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Events preceding World War II in Europe

The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany.

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Ewingite

Ewingite is a mineral discovered by Jakub Plášil of the Institute of Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in the Plavno mine, Czech Republic.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia

The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.

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Factions in the Frankfurt Assembly

The factions in the Frankfurt Assembly were the groups or political factions (Fraktionen) that developed among delegates to the Frankfurt Parliament that met from 18 May 1848 to 31 May 1849 in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main.

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Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague

The Faculty of Arts, Charles University, is one of the original four faculties of Charles University in Prague.

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Famines in Czech lands

This article discusses historical famines that have occurred in the area of today's Czech Republic.

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Fédération Internationale d'Escrime

The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime (International Fencing Federation), commonly known by the acronym FIE, is the international governing body of Olympic fencing.

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Fürstenberg-Pürglitz

Fürstenberg-Pürglitz was a noble family hailing from southwestern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which was seated at Křivoklát Castle in Bohemia.

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Fürstenfeld Abbey

Fürstenfeld Abbey (Kloster Fürstenfeld) is a former Cistercian monastery in Fürstenfeldbruck (formerly known simply as Bruck) in Bavaria, Germany.

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February 1914

The following events occurred in February 1914.

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February 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

February 7 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - February 9 All fixed commemorations below are observed on February 21 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.

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Felix Benda

Felix Benda (25 February 1708 – 1768) was a Bohemian composer and organist.

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Felix Kadlinský

Felix Kadlinský (16131675) was a Baroque author, translator, and Jesuit from Bohemia.

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Felix Weltsch

Felix Weltsch, Dr. jur et phil. (6 October 1884, Prague – 9 November 1964, Jerusalem), was a German-speaking Jewish librarian, philosopher, author, editor, publisher and journalist.

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Feodor Ostrogski

Prince Feodor Ostrogski (1360–1446) was a powerful magnate in Volhynia of Rurikid stock, son of Daniil Ostrogski.

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Ferdinand Albin Pax

Ferdinand Albin Pax (26 July 1858 – 1 March 1942) a German botanist and entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera, Diptera, and spermatophytes.

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Ferdinand Brokoff

Ferdinand Maxmilian Brokoff (Czech: Ferdinand Maxmilián Brokoff, 12 September 1688 - 8 March 1731) was a sculptor and carver of the Baroque era.

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Ferdinand Cohen-Blind

Ferdinand Cohen-Blind (March 25, 1844 – May 8, 1866) was a Jewish German student who attempted to assassinate Otto von Bismarck, then the Minister President of Prussia.

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Ferdinand Ernst Karl Herberstein

Ferdinand Ernst Karl count of Herberstein (died 1720) was a German mathematician and a military officer.

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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.

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Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria (Linz, 14 June 1529 – 24 January 1595, Innsbruck) was ruler of Further Austria including Tirol.

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Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.

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Ferdinand Mannlicher

Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher (January 30, 1848 – January 20, 1904) was an Austrian engineer and small arms designer.

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Ferdinand Pfohl

Ferdinand Pfohl (12 October 1862, Elbogen, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, now Loket n.O., Czech Republic – 16 December 1949, Hamburg-Bergedorf), was a German music critic, music writer and composer.

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Ferdinand Porsche

Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.

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Ferdinand Raimund

Ferdinand Raimund (born Ferdinand Jakob Raimann; 1 June 1790 – 5 September 1836, Pottenstein, Lower Austria) was an Austrian actor and dramatist.

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Ferdinand Runk

Ferdinand Runk, also Franz Ferdinand Runk, (October 14, 1764 – December 3, 1834) was a German-Austrian landscape painter, draftsman and etcher.

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Ferdinand Stamm

Ferdinand Stamm (pseudonym Fernand) (11 May 1813 – 29 July 1880), was a Bohemian-Austrian writer, industrialist and politician.

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Ferdinand Steiner

Ferdinand Steiner was a gymnast from Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.

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Ferdinand von Hochstetter

Christian Gottlieb Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter (30 April 1829 – 18 July 1884) was a German-Austrian geologist.

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Ferdinand von Schill

Ferdinand Baptista von Schill (6 January 1776 – 31 May 1809) was a Prussian Major who revolted unsuccessfully against French domination of Prussia in May 1809.

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Festival book

Festival books (feestboeken, libros de festivos) are books, often illustrated, that commemorate a notable event such as a royal entry, coronation or wedding.

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Fibroporia bohemica

Fibroporia bohemica is a species of poroid crust fungus in the family Fomitopsidaceae.

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Field system

The study of field systems (collections of fields) in landscape history is concerned with the size, shape and orientation of a number of fields.

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Fife Opera

Fife Opera is a semi-professional grand opera company dating back to 1975, and based in Kirkcaldy, Scotland.

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FIL European Luge Championships

The FIL European Luge Championships, part of the International Luge Federation (FIL) have taken place since 1914.

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FIL European Luge Championships 1914

The FIL European Luge Championships 1914 took place in Reichenberg, Bohemia (then under Austria-Hungary, now Liberec, Czech Republic) under the auspices of the Internationaler Schlittensportsverband (ISSV - International Sled Sports Federation in), a forerunner to the International Luge Federation.

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Filip Fabricius

Filip Fabricius, later of Rosenfeld and Hohenfall (ca 1570 – 1632) was a Bohemian Catholic officer best known for being thrown out of the Prague Castle window during the Second Defenestration of Prague with two Catholic noblemen, Count Jaroslav Bořita of Martinice and Count Vilém Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk.

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First Battle of Komárom (1849)

The First battle of Komárom was one of the most important battles of the Hungarian War of Independence, fought on 26 April 1849, between the Hungarian and the Austrian Imperial main armies, which ended, in some opinions with a Hungarian victory, while others say that actually it was undecided.

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First Battle of Vác (1849)

The Battle of Vác, fought on 10April 1849, was one of two important battles which took place in Vác during the Spring Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian revolutionary army.

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First Congress of Vienna

The First Congress of Vienna was held in 1515, attended by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, and the Jagiellonian brothers, Vladislaus II, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia, and Sigismund I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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First Czechoslovak Republic

The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.

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First Silesian War

The First Silesian War was a theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession.

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Fiumans

Fiumans or Fiuman people are the citizens of the city of Rijeka and the former city-state of Fiume - a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural micro-region of today's Republic of Croatia with ethnic Croats, Venetians, Italians, Hungarians, Slovenes and Austrians making up the vast majority of the city's population through the centuries, hailing from various regions of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and today's Alpe-Adria region, like: Hungary, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Slovenia, Istria, Carinthia, Croatia, Bohemia, etc.

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FK Jaroměř

The beginnings of Jaroměř football date from the year 1903, when in work English installers at the former textile company Bondy, present Race Miletus.

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FK Litoměřicko

FK Litoměřicko is a Czech football club located in Litoměřice, Bohemia.

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Flag of Bohemia

The Flag of Bohemia is a historic flag, which now forms part of the design in the modern flag of the Czech Republic.

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Flag of Poland

The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red.

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Flags of Europe

This is a list of international, national and subnational flags used in Europe.

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Flatonia, Texas

Flatonia is a town in southwestern Fayette County, Texas, United States.

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Flüchtlingspolitik (German Refugee Policies)

The term Flüchtlingspolitik, refers to the legal provisions and the handling of refugees and asylum seekers wanting to enter a country, and/or subsequently staying there for a long period of time.

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Fleißenbach

The Fleißenbach (Plesná) is a river of Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary Region) and Germany (Saxony).

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Flensburg Government

The Flensburg Government (Flensburger Regierung), also known as the Flensburg Cabinet (Flensburger Kabinett), the Dönitz Government (Regierung Dönitz), or the Schwerin von Krosigk Cabinet (Kabinett Schwerin von Krosigk), was the short-lived government of Nazi Germany during a period of three weeks around the end of World War II in Europe.

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Florence Annie Conybeare

Florence Annie Conybeare (13 September 1872 – 29 February 1916) was a British campaigner for the Women's Suffrage movement.

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Florian Baucke

Florian Baucke, also Florian Paucke, Florian Pauke, Florián Baucke (24 September 1719, Winzig (Wińsko), Silesia/Bohemian Royal Lands, (15261742) Habsburg Monarchy (Austria) 14 July 1779, Neuhaus (Jindřichův Hradec), Bohemia, Austria) was a Silesian and Bohemian Jesuit missionary, who recorded the native traditions of South America.

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Florian Leopold Gassmann

Florian Leopold Gassmann (3 May 1729 – 21 January 1774) was a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras.

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Floridsdorf

Floridsdorf is the 21st district of Vienna, Austria (21.). Floridsdorf is located in the northern part of Vienna.

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Florizel (The Winter's Tale)

Florizel is a fictional character in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale.

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Flying Bulls Aerobatics Team

The Flying Bulls Aerobatics Team is a Czech aerobatic team.

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Foie gras

Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.

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Folk and Fairy Tales

Folk and Fairy Tales is a 1978 anthology of 25 fairy tales from around the world that have been collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Fomes fomentarius

Fomes fomentarius (commonly known as the tinder fungus, false tinder fungus, hoof fungus, tinder conk, tinder polypore or ice man fungus) is a species of fungal plant pathogen found in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. The species produces very large polypore fruit bodies which are shaped like a horse's hoof and vary in colour from a silvery grey to almost black, though they are normally brown. It grows on the side of various species of tree, which it infects through broken bark, causing rot. The species typically continues to live on trees long after they have died, changing from a parasite to a decomposer. Though inedible, F. fomentarius has traditionally seen use as the main ingredient of amadou, a material used primarily as tinder, but also used to make clothing and other items. The 5,000-year-old Ötzi the Iceman carried four pieces of F. fomentarius, concluded to be for use as tinder. It also has medicinal and other uses. The species is both a pest and useful in timber production.

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Fool (stock character)

There are several distinct, although overlapping categories of fool as a stock character in creative works (literature, film, etc.) and folklore: simpleton fool, clever fool, and serendipitous fool.

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Forchheim Castle

The castle in Forchheim (Burg in Forchheim), also referred to as a royal palace or Kaiserpfalz, was an important urban castle under the bishops of Bamberg in the town of Forchheim in the south German state of Bavaria.

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Foreign relations of Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein's foreign economic policy has been dominated by its customs union with Switzerland (and with Austria-Hungary until World War I).

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Foreign relations of the Axis powers

Foreign relations of the Axis powers includes states which were not officially members of the Axis but had relations with one or more Axis members.

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Forest glass

Forest glass (Waldglas in German) is late medieval glass produced in northwestern and central Europe from approximately 1000–1700 AD using wood ash and sand as the main raw materials and made in factories known as glasshouses in forest areas.

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Former eastern territories of Germany

The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.

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Fort Srebrna Góra

Fort Srebrna Góra or Srebrnogórska Fortress (Festung Silberberg, lit. Silver Mountain Fort) is a former military fort, now a monument and a museum, located in the town of Srebrna Góra (lit. Silver Mountain), Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

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Fortified Area of Silesia

The Fortified Area of Silesia (Obszar Warowny Śląsk) was a set of Polish fortifications, constructed along the interbellum border of Poland and Germany in the area of then-divided Upper Silesia.

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Fran Lhotka

Fran Lhotka (25 December 1883 – 26 January 1962) was a Czech-born Croatian composer of classical music.

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Francis Grund

Francis Joseph Grund (September 19, 1805 – September 29, 1863) was a Bohemian-born American journalist and author who wrote such works as The Americans in Their Moral, Social, and Political Relations (1837).

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Francis IV, Duke of Modena

Francis IV Joseph Charles Ambrose Stanislaus (Italian: Francesco IV Giuseppe Carlo Ambrogio Stanislao d'Asburgo-Este; 6 October 1779 – 21 January 1846) was Duke of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola (from 1815), Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara (from 1829), Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

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Francis Lederer

Francis Lederer (November 6, 1899 – May 25, 2000) was a Czech-born film and stage actor with a successful career, first in Europe, then in the United States.

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Francis Nethersole

Sir Francis Nethersole (1587–1659) was an English diplomat, secretary to the Electress Elizabeth, Member of Parliament for Corfe Castle, Dorset, and a Civil War political pamphleteer.

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Francis V, Duke of Modena

Francis V, Duke of Modena, Reggio and Guastalla, Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Mirandola and of Massa, Prince of Carrara (Francesco Ferdinando Geminiano d'Asburgo-Lorena; 1 June 1819 – 20 November 1875) was a reigning aristocrat.

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Franciscan Monastery in Kadaň

The Franciscan Monastery lies on the edge of the town of Kadaň, Czech Republic and near the river Ohře.

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Franciszek Krajowski

Franciszek Krajowski (born František Králíček; September 30, 1861 in Velešín, south Bohemia (then in Austrian Empire) – November 22, 1932 in Brest) was a Czech-Poles military officer and a General of the Polish Army.

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Franco-Austrian Alliance

The Franco-Austrian Alliance was a diplomatic and military alliance between France and Austria that was first established in 1756 following the First Treaty of Versailles which lasted for much of the remainder of the century until it was abandoned during the French Revolution.

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Franconian War

The Franconian War (Fränkische Krieg) broke out in 1523 when the Swabian League attacked several robber baron castles in Franconia, whose nobles were supporters of Hans Thomas of Absberg in the Absberg Feud.

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Franjo Jelačić

Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski (English: Franz Jellacic, also Francis Yellachich of Buzhim or German: Franz Jellačić von Buzim, Hungarian: Ferenc Jellacsics de Buzim) (14 April 1746 – 4 February 1810) was a Croatian nobleman, a member of the House of Jelačić.

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Frank Malina

Frank Joseph Malina (October 2, 1912 – November 9, 1981) was an American aeronautical engineer and painter, especially known for becoming both a pioneer in the art world and the realm of scientific engineering.

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Frank Pisar Farmstead

The Frank Pisar Farmstead, also known as Joseph Kastanek Farm, is a house and a group of farm buildings in Dorchester, Nebraska, United States.

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Frank Raubicheck

Frank Raubicheck (1857–1952) was an American painter and etcher who arrived in the United States from Bohemia in the 1870s.

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Frank Richter Sr.

Franz Xavier Richter, commonly known as Frank Richter (1837 –1910), was a pioneer settler, miner and rancher in 19th century Washington and British Columbia.

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Frank Simon Hofmann

Frank Simon Hofmann (27 December 1916 in Prague, Bohemia – 13 April 1989), was a Jew from Austro-Hungary fleeing Nazi Europe.

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Frankfurt Parliament

The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).

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František Adam Míča

Jan Adam František Míča (born 11 January 1746 in Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou, Bohemia - died 19 March 1811 in Vienna) was a Bohemian composer, jurist, and nephew of the kapellmeister František Václav Míča.

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František Čáp

František Čáp (7 December 1913 – 12 January 1972), also known as "Franz Cap" in Germany, was a Czech film director and screenwriter.

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František Šourek-Tuček

František Šourek-Tuček was a Bohemian fencer.

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František Brixi

František Xaver Brixi (2 January 1732 – 14 October 1771) was a Czech classical composer of the 18th century.

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František Bubák

František Bubák (22 July 1866, Rovensko pod Troskami – 19 September 1925, Prague) was a Czech mycologist and phytopathologist.

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František Emmert

František Emmert (born 1974) is Czech author of books about modern history.

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František Erben

František Erben (born 27 November 1874 in Prague, died 9 June 1942 in the same city) was a gymnast from Bohemia, in what is now the Czech Republic.

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František Fajtl

Lieutenant General František Fajtl (20 August 1912 – 4 October 2006) was a Czech fighter pilot of World War II.

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František Filipovský

František Filipovský (23 September 1907 – 26 October 1993) was a Czech actor.

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František Gellner

František Gellner (19 June 1881 – disappeared September 1914) was a Czech poet, short story writer, artist and anarchist.

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František Gregor Emmert

František Gregor Emmert (19 May 1940 – 17 April 2015) was a Czech composer of classical and incidental music.

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František Hirsch

František Hirsch was a Bohemian cyclist.

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František Jakub Prokyš

František Jakub Prokyš (1713–1791) was a Bohemian Rococo painter.

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František Janda-Suk

František Janda-Suk (March 25, 1878 – June 23, 1955) was a Czech athlete who competed for Bohemia in the 1900 Summer Olympics and in the 1912 Summer Olympics and Czechoslovakia at the 1920 Summer Olympics.

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František Janeček

František Janeček was the founder of Jawa motorcycles and an important figure in the development of the Czech motorcycle industry.

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František Jiránek

František Jiránek (24 July 1698 – 1778) was a Czech (Bohemian) Baroque composer, musician and very likely a student of Antonio Vivaldi.

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František Josef Gerstner

František Josef Gerstner (Franz Josef von Gerstner, František Josef Gerstner; 23 February 1756 – 25 July 1832) was a Bohemian physicist and engineer.

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František Kardaus

František Kardaus (March 25, 1908, Hořesedly, Bohemia – February 20, 1986, Velká Chuchle near Prague) was a renowned Czech industrial designer and graphic artist.

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František Křižík

František Křižík (July 8, 1847 – January 22, 1941) was a Czech inventor, electrical engineer, and entrepreneur.

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František Klácel

František Matouš Klácel (April 8, 1808, Česká Třebová - March 17, 1882, Belle Plaine, Iowa, US) was a Czech author, philosopher, pedagogue, and journalist from Bohemia.

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František Kmoch

František Kmoch (1 August 1848 – 30 April 1912) was a Czech composer and conductor.

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František Kopřiva

František Kopřiva (born 30 July 1892, date of death unknown) was a Czech wrestler.

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František Kreuzmann

František Kreuzmann (11 October 1895 – 28 December 1960) was a Czech actor.

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František Kundert

František Kundert (28 July 1891 – 27 February 1957) was a Czech cyclist.

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František Ladislav Rieger

František Ladislav Rieger (10 December 1818 – 3 March 1903) was a Czech politician and publicist made famous for his leadership of the early Czech nationalist movement.

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František Martin Pecháček

František Martin Pecháček, also Francis Martin Pechatschek, Pechaczek, Behatschek (10 November 1763 in Ústí nad Orlicí - 26 September 1816 in Vienna) was a Bohemian violinist, pedagog, arranger and diligent composer.

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František Palacký

František Palacký (14 June 1798 – 26 May 1876) was a Czech historian and politician, the most influential person of the Czech National Revival, called "Father of the Nation".

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František R. Kraus

František R. Kraus (גדעון בן יצחק קראוס Gideon ben Yitzhak with his Hebrew name) (October 14, 1903, Prague - May 19, 1967, Prague) was a Czechoslovak Jewish anti-fascist writer, journalist and editor, member of the resistance movement and a sportsman.

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František Slavík (athlete)

František Slavík (25 September 1888 – 2 October 1926) was a Czech long-distance runner.

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František Sláma (politician)

Dr.

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František Souček

František Souček (born 1878, date of death unknown) was a Czech athlete.

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František Tůma

František Ignác Antonín Tůma (Kostelec nad Orlicí, Bohemia, 2 October 1704 – Vienna, 30 January 1774) was an important Czech composer of the Baroque era.

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František Tomášek

František Tomášek (30 June 1899, Studénka, Moravia – 4 August 1992, Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in Bohemia, the 34th Archbishop of Prague, and a Roman Catholic theologian.

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František Vladislav Hek

František Vladislav Hek (April 11, 1769 in Dobruška, Bohemia – September 4, 1847 in Kyšperk) was a Czech writer, composer, and patriot active in the early phases of the Czech National Revival.

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František Vyskočil

František Vyskočil (September 3, 1941) is a Czech neuroscientist and a Professor of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neurobiology at Charles University.

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Františkovy Lázně

Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad) is a spa town in Cheb District of Karlovy Vary Region, in the Czech Republic.

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Frantisek Kotzwara

František Kočvara, known later in England as Frantisek Kotzwara (1730 – September 2, 1791), was a Czech violist, virtuoso double bassist and composer.

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Franz Ambrosius Reuss

Franz Ambrosius Reuss (3 October 1761, Prague – 9 September 1830, Bilin) was a Czech geologist, mineralogist and balneologist.

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Franz Anton Schiefner

Franz Anton Schiefner (June 18, 1817 – November 16, 1879) was a Baltic German linguist and tibetologist.

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Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky

Count Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky (František Antonín Kolovrat-Libštejnský; 31 January 1778 – 4 April 1861) was Bohemian noble and Austrian statesman from the House of Kolowrat.

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Franz Anton von Sporck

Franz Anton von Sporck, Count (Franz Anton Reichsgraf von Sporck in German, František Antonín hrabě Špork in Czech) (born 9 March 1662 in Lysá nad Labem or Heřmanův Městec; died 30 March 1738 in Lysá nad Labem) was a German-speaking literatus and patron of the arts who lived in the province of Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic.

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Franz Baermann Steiner

Franz Baermann Steiner (born 12 October 1909 in the town of Karlín (the later suburb of Karolinethal), just outside Prague, Bohemia, died 27 November 1952, in Oxford) was an ethnologist, polymath, essayist, aphorist, and poet.

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Franz Benda

Franz Benda or František Benda (baptised 22 November 1709, Benátky nad Jizerou – 7 March 1786, Potsdam) was a Bohemian violinist and composer, who worked for much of his life at the court of Frederick the Great.

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Franz Bendel

Franz Bendel (March 23, 1833July 3, 1874) was a German Bohemian pianist and composer.

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Franz Christoph Neubauer

Franz Christoph Neubauer (c. 1760 - 11 October 1795) was a German composer and violinist of Bohemian origins, possibly born in Hořín near Mělník.

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Franz Cižek

Franz Cižek (12 June 1865 – 17 December 1946) was an Austrian genre and portrait painter, who was best known as a teacher and reformer of art education.

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Franz de Paula Ulrich, 3rd Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau

Franz de Paula Ulrich, 3rd Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz und Tettau, was a Bohemian noble and general in service of the House of Habsburg. He was born in Zlonice, Bohemia, 23 June 1726, and died in Prague, Bohemia (present day Czech Republic) 19 December 1792. Originally a career bureaucrat in Habsburg state service, he inherited the family properties and title following the deaths of his father and his uncle in 1749, and the childless death of his cousin in 1752. Upon his succession, he left state service and joined the Habsburg military. He distinguished himself in several battles of the Seven Years' War, particularly at the battles of Lobositz and Kolin. He retired from the military in 1778, just prior to the War of the Bavarian Succession, to care for his widespread estates in Moravia, Bohemia, and Vienna. He died in 1792.

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Franz Dittrich

Franz Dittrich (16 October 1815 – 29 August 1859) was an Austrian pathologist born in Nixdorf, Bohemia (today Mikulášovice, Czech Republic).

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Franz Ergert

Franz Ergert (also Ergerth) was an Austrian textile manufacturer and a pioneer of industrialisation.

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Franz Hedrich

Franz Hedrich (1823-1895) was a German-Bohemian author and ghostwriter to Alfred Meissner.

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Franz Hruska

Franz Hruska (21 November 1888 – 29 April 1977) was a German politician from the Social Democratic Party of Germany.

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Franz Ignatz Cassian Hallaschka

Franz Ignatz Cassian Hallaschka; Czech: František Ignác Kassián Halaška (10 July 1780, Bautsch – 12 July 1847, Prague) was a Moravian physicist.

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Franz Isidor Proschko

Franz Isidor Proschko (April 2, 1816 in Hohenfurth, Bohemia - February 6, 1891 in Vienna) was a Nineteenth Century Austrian author.

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Franz Joseph Glæser

Franz Joseph Glæser (April 19, 1798 Horní Jiřetín, Bohemia - August 29, 1861 Copenhagen Denmark) was a Czech/Danish composer.

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Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.

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Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.

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Franz Kiwisch von Rotterau

Franz Kiwisch von Rotterau (30 April 1814 – 24 October 1852) was Professor of Obstetrics at the University of Würzburg and later at the University of Prague.

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Franz Kohaut

Franz Kohaut (died 1822) was a Czech botanical collector and gardener from Neuhaus, Bohemia.

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Franz Lefler

Franz Lefler (1831, Langenbruck (now Dlouhý Most), Bohemia - 19 June 1898, Weißenbach an der Triesting) was an Austrian painter.

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Franz Moritz von Lacy

Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy (English: Francis Maurice de Lacy, Russian: Boris Petrovich Lassi; 21 October 1725 – 24 November 1801), was the son of Count Peter von Lacy and was a famous Austrian field marshal.

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Franz Pecháček

Franz Xaver Pecháček (4 July 1793 in Vienna – 15 September 1840 in Karlsruhe) was an Austrian-German violin virtuoso and composer of Bohemian origin.

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Franz Retz

Very Rev.

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Franz Steinfeld

Franz Steinfeld (26 March 1787, Mariahilf — 5 November 1868, Pisek, Bohemia) was an Austrian painter.

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Franz Suchomel

Franz Suchomel (3 December 1907 – 18 December 1979)Samuel Willenberg: Treblinka Lager.

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Franz von Dietrichstein

Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein (František Serafín z Ditrichštejna, 22 August 1570 – 19 September 1636), of the Austrian and Moravian House of Dietrichstein, was Prince of Dietrichstein, Archbishop of Olomouc, Governor (Landeshauptmann) of Moravia and a Cardinal.

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Franz von Dingelstedt

Franz von Dingelstedt (June 30, 1814 – May 15, 1881) was a German poet, dramatist and theatre administrator.

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Franz von Werneck

Franz Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars.

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Franz Xaver Chwatal

Franz Xaver Chwatal (19 June 1808 – 24 June 1879) was a Bohemian pianist, composer and music teacher.

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Franz Xaver Fieber

Franz Xaver Fieber (Prague, 1 March 1807 – Chrudim, 22 February 1872) was a German botanist and entomologist.

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Franz Xaver Richter

Franz (Czech: František) Xaver Richter, known as François Xavier Richter in France (December 1, 1709 – September 12, 1789) was an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral.

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Franz Xaver von Gietl

Franz Xaver Ritter von Gietl (27 August 1803 – 19 March 1888) was a German physician.

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Franz Xaver Zippe

Franz Xaver Maximilian Zippe (František Xaver Zippe) (15 January 1791 in Nieder Falkenau (now Kytlice) – 22 February 1863 in Vienna), was a Bohemian natural philosopher, scientist and mineralogist.

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Franz Zavadil Farmstead

The Franz Zavadil Farmstead, also known as the Zavadil Farmstead, is a house and a group of farm building in Menominee, Nebraska, United States.

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Franz, Prince of Thun and Hohenstein

Prince Franz Anton von Thun und Hohenstein, kníže František Antonín z Thunu a Hohensteina (2 September 1847, Děčín, Bohemia – 1 November 1916, Děčín, Bohemia) was an Austro-Hungarian noble and statesman.

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Fraticelli

The Fraticelli ("Little Brethren") or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status.

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Frauenstein Castle (Ore Mountains)

The ruins of Frauenstein Castle (Burg Frauenstein) are located on a high granite rock on the crest of the Eastern Ore Mountains near the town of Frauenstein in the district of Mittelsachsen.

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Frýdlant

Frýdlant, sometimes cited also as Frýdlant v Čechách (Friedland in Böhmen) is a town in the Liberec District of the Liberec Region in the Czech Republic.

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Freddy Quinn

Freddy Quinn (born Franz Eugen Helmut Manfred Nidl, 27 September 1931, Niederfladnitz, Austria) is an Austrian singer and actor whose popularity within the German-speaking world soared in the late 1950s and 1960s.

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Frederick Augustus de Zeng

Baron Frederick Augustus de Zeng (1756 in Dresden, Saxony – 26 April 1838 in Clyde, New York) was a Hessian mercenary who served in one of the regiments in the British service in the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution.

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Frederick Augustus Rutowsky

Frederick Augustus, Count Rutowsky (also written Rutowski) (Warsaw/Dresden, 19 June 1702 – Pillnitz, 16 March 1764), was a Saxon Field Marshal who commanded Saxon forces in the Siege of Pirna during the Seven Years' War.

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Frederick Ferdinand, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen

Frederick Ferdinand of Anhalt-Köthen (25 June 1769, Pless – 23 August 1830, Köthen) was a German prince, Ascanian ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Pless and, from 1818, of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen.

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Frederick I of Liegnitz

Frederick I of Liegnitz (3 May 1446 – 9 May 1488), was a Duke of Chojnów and Strzelin from 1453, of Oława and Legnica from 1454, of Brzeg from 1481 and of Lubin from 1482.

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Frederick I, Elector of Saxony

Frederick I, the Belligerent or the Warlike (Friedrich der Streitbare; 11 April 1370 – 4 January 1428), a member of the House of Wettin, ruled as Margrave of Meissen from 1407 and Elector of Saxony (as Frederick I) from 1423 until his death.

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Frederick II of Legnica

Frederick II, Duke of Legnica (Fryderyk II Legnicki) (12 February 1480 – 17 September 1547), also known as the Great of Legnica (Legnicki Wielki), was a Duke of Legnica from 1488 (until 1495 and 1505 with his brothers), of Brzeg from 1521.

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Frederick II, Elector of Saxony

Frederick II, The Gentle (Friedrich, der Sanftmütige; Frederick the Gentle) (22 August 1412 in Leipzig – 7 September 1464 in Leipzig) was Elector of Saxony (1428–1464) and was Landgrave of Thuringia (1440–1445).

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Frederick III, Burgrave of Nuremberg

Frederick III of Nuremberg (1220 – 14 August 1297 in Cadolzburg), Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern, was the eldest son of Conrad I of Nuremberg and Adelheid of Frontenhausen.

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Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.

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Frederick the Great

Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.

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Frederick Turnovsky

Frederick Turnovsky (28 December 1916 – 12 December 1994) was a notable New Zealand manufacturer, entrepreneur, advocate for the arts and community leader.

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Frederick V of the Palatinate

Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.

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Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Friedrich Wilhelm; 9 October 1771 – 16 June 1815) was a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels.

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Frederick, Burgrave of Dohna

Frederick, Burgrave of Dohna (4 February 1621 in Küstrin – 27 March 1688 in Lutry, near Lausanne) was a German nobleman, an officer in Dutch service and a governor of the Principality of Orange.

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Frederik Thorkildsen Wexschall

Frederick Thorkildsen Wexschall (born 9 April 1798 in Copenhagen, died 25 October 1845) was a Danish classical composer, violinist, and concertmaster of the Copenhagen Royal Orchestra.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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French architecture

French architecture ranks high among France's many accomplishments.

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French exonyms

Below is a list of French language exonyms for places in non-French-speaking areas.

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French–Habsburg relations

The term France–Habsburg rivalry describes the rivalry between the House of Habsburg and the Kingdom of France.

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Friedrich Adler (writer)

Friedrich Adler (February 13, 1857, Amschelberg, Bohemia, Austrian Empire now Kosova Hora, Czech Republic – February 2, 1938, Prague) was an Austrian jurist, translator and writer of Bohemian origin.

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Friedrich Buxbaum

Friedrich Siegfried Buxbaum (23 September 1869, Vienna 2 October 1948, London) was an Austrian cellist and long-serving member (and principal cello) of the Vienna Philharmonic and Vienna State Opera, and member of the Rosé Quartet.

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Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann

Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (13 May 1785, Wismar5 December 1860, Bonn) was a German historian and politician.

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Friedrich Eisenkolb

Friedrich Eisenkolb (5 January 1901 – 29 September 1967) was a German metallurgist.

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Friedrich family

The Friedrich are the most ancient German-Bohemian glass-maker family.

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Friedrich Gustav Piffl

Friedrich Gustav Piffl (15 October 1864 – 21 April 1932) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Vienna.

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Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff

Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff Friedrich Heinrich Reichsgraf von Seckendorff (5 July 1673 – 23 November 1763) was a Franconian field marshal and diplomat, in the service of the imperial Habsburg monarchy of Austria.

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Friedrich Hopfner

Friedrich Hopfner (28 October 1881 – 5 September 1949) was an Austrian geodesist, geophysicist and planetary scientist.

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Friedrich Joseph, Count of Nauendorf

Friedrich Joseph of Nauendorf, a general in Habsburg service during the French Revolutionary Wars, was noted for his intrepid and daring raids.

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Friedrich Karl Ginzel

Friedrich Karl Ginzel (26 February 1850, Reichenberg, Bohemia - 29 June 1926, Berlin) was an Austrian astronomer.

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Friedrich Karl Wilhelm, Fürst zu Hohenlohe

Friedrich Karl Wilhelm, Fürst (prince) zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a general in the military service of the House of Habsburg during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

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Friedrich Katzer

Friedrich Katzer (Bedřich Katzer; 5 June 1861, Rokitzan – 3 February 1925) was an Austrian geologist and mineralogist.

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Friedrich Reinitzer

Friedrich Richard Reinitzer (25 February 1857 in Prague – 16 February 1927 in Graz) was an Austrian botanist and chemist.

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Friedrich Sebastian Wunibald Truchsess zu Waldburg

Frederick Sebastian Wunibald Truchsess von Waldburg, born 1677 – 4 July 1745, was a Prussian lieutenant general and diplomat for Frederick II of Prussia.

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Friedrich von Gentz

Friedrich von Gentz (2 May 1764 – 9 June 1832) was a German diplomat and writer.

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Friedrich von Georgi

Friedrich Freiherr von Georgi (January 27, 1852 – 1926) was a General of the Austro-Hungarian Imperial Army.

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Friedrich Weleminsky

Dr Joseph Friedrich ("Fritz") Weleminsky (20 January 1868, Golčův Jeníkov1 January 1945, London), was a physician, a scientist and a privatdozent in Hygiene (now called Microbiology) at the German University, Prague From 1882 to 1939, Charles University in Prague was divided into two institutions, one German-speaking and the other Czech-speaking.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl

Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl (6 April 1806 – 9 November 1876) was a German scholar best known for his studies of Plautus.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz

Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz (Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz), Fridrich Vilém Haugwitz; 11 December 1702, Saxony – 30 August 1765, Deutsch Knönitz (Miroslavské Knínice), Habsburg Moravia) was Supreme Chancellor of the United Court Chancery and the head of Directorium in publicis et cameralibus under Maria Theresa of Austria. He also served as one of the key advisors in instituting Maria Theresa's reforms. Haugwitz attempted to bring both centralization and economic reform to the Habsburg lands.

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Friedrich Wilhelm, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg

Friedrich William, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg was born in Kirchberg, Hohenlohe, (now part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) on 2 December 1732.

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Fritz Freisler

Fritz Freisler (1881–1955) was an Austrian screenwriter and film director of the silent era.

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Fritz Löhner-Beda

Fritz Löhner-Beda (24 June 1883 – 4 December 1942), born Bedřich Löwy, was an Austrian librettist, lyricist and writer.

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Fritz Rieger

Friedrich Edmund "Fritz" Rieger (28 June 1910 – 30 September 1978), was a German conductor.

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Fritz Wotruba

Fritz Wotruba (23 April 1907, Vienna – 28 August 1975, Vienna) was an Austrian sculptor of Czecho-Hungarian descent.

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Frymburk (Český Krumlov District)

Frymburk (Friedberg) is a market town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Fundamental Articles of 1871

The Fundamental Articles of 1871 (Fundamentalartikel, Fundamentálky) were a set of proposed changes to the Austro-Hungarian constitution regarding the status of the Bohemian Crownlands.

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Funnelbeaker culture

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.

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Furca (genus)

Furca (Latin for "fork") is an extinct genus of Marrellomorph arthropod known from the Sandbian stage (upper Ordovician period) of the Czech Republic.

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Furiant

A furiant is a rapid and fiery Bohemian dance in alternating 2/4 and 3/4 time, with frequently shifting accents; or, in "art music", in 3/4 time "with strong accents forming pairs of beats".

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Gabreta Forest

The Gabreta Forest is an ancient forest mentioned by the Greek geographers, Strabo and Ptolemy.

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Gabriel de Vallseca

Gabriel de Vallseca, also referred to as Gabriel de Valseca and Gabriel de Valsequa (before 1408 - after 1467) was a Catalan cartographer of Jewish descent connected to the Majorcan cartographic school.

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Gakovo

Gakovo is a village in Serbia.

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Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis

The Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis (German: k.k.priv. Galizische Carl Ludwig-Bahn (CLB), Polish: Kolej galicyjska im. Karola Ludwika) was a railway system, named after Archduke Charles Louis of Austria.

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Gambrinus Brewing Co.

The Gambrinus Brewing Co. was a brewery located in Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

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Garibald I of Bavaria

Garibald I (also Garivald; Garibaldus; born 540) was Duke (or King) of Bavaria from 555 until 591.

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Gary Lucas

Gary Lucas is an American guitarist who was a member of Captain Beefheart's band.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gavrilo Princip

Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Gazela Pipeline

Gazela is a natural gas pipeline in the Czech Republic.

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Gödöllő

Gödöllő (Getterle; Jedľovo) is a town in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, about northeast from the outskirts of Budapest.

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Görlitz (district)

Görlitz (Landkreis Görlitz; Upper Sorbian: Wokrjes Zhorjelc; Zemský okres Zhorelec) is a district (Kreis) in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

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Günther Landgraf

Günther Landgraf (14 September 1928 - 12 January 2006 in Dresden) was a German physicist and, from 1990 till 1994, President of Technische Universität Dresden.

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Głogówek

Głogówek, German Oberglogau (earlier Klein Glogau or Kraut Glogau, Czech: Horní Hlohov) is a city in Poland located in Opole Voivodeship in Upper Silesia.

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Gediminas

Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.

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Gedvydas

Gedvydas (or Edivid) (believed to have died ca. 1253) was one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas.

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Geiser Grand Hotel

The Geiser Grand Hotel is a historic hotel in Baker City, Oregon, that opened in 1889.

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Gelnhausen Codex

The Gelnhausen Codex (Czech Kodex Gelnhausenův) is an early-15th-century manuscript compiled by John of Gelnhausen, city scribe of Iglau (Jihlava).

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Genocides in history

Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group.

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Geographical midpoint of Europe

The location of the geographical centre of Europe depends on the definition of the borders of Europe, mainly whether remote islands are included to define the extreme points of Europe, and on the method of calculating the final result.

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Geography of the Czech Republic

The geography of the Czech Republic is quite varied.

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Geology of the Western Carpathians

The Western Carpathians are an arc-shaped mountain range, the northern branch of the Alpine-Himalayan fold and thrust system called the Alpide belt, which evolved during the Alpine orogeny.

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Georg Bartisch

Georg Bartisch (1535–1607) was a German physician who was a native of Königsbrück, Saxonia.

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Georg Bochmann

Georg Bochmann (18 September 1913 – 8 June 1973) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS who commanded the SS Division Götz von Berlichingen and the SS Division Horst Wessel.

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Georg Christian, Fürst von Lobkowitz

Johann Georg Christian, Prince von Lobkowitz (or Lobkowicz), (Prague August 10, 1686 – Vienna October 4, 1755) was an Austrian Generalfeldmarschall.

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Georg Christian, Prince of Lobkowicz

Georg Christian, Prince of Lobkowicz (Jiří Kristián z Lobkovic) (May 14, 1835 - December 22, 1908) was a member of the old Bohemian aristocratic family of Lobkowicz and an influential politician of late 19th century Bohemia and Austria-Hungary.

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Georg Friedrich Puchta

Georg Friedrich Puchta (31 August 17988 January 1846) was a German jurist.

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Georg Magnus Sprengtporten

Count Georg Magnus Sprengtporten (Георг Магнус Спренгтпортен), or Göran Magnus Sprengtporten, as he preferred to call himself (16 December 1740 – 13 October 1819), was a Swedish, Finnish and Russian politician, younger brother of Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten.

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Georg Ritter von Schönerer

Georg Ritter von Schönerer (17 July 1842 – 14 August 1921) was an Austrian landowner and politician of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Georg von Derfflinger

Georg von Derfflinger (20 March 1606 – 14 February 1695) was a field marshal in the army of Brandenburg-Prussia during and after the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).

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Georg Witzel

Georg Witzel (Wicelius) (b. at Vacha, Province of Hesse, 1501; d. at Mainz, 16 February 1573) was a German theologian.

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George A. Taylor

George Arthur Taylor (February 14, 1899 — December 3, 1969) was an officer of the United States Army.

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George Brady (Holocaust survivor)

George Brady, O.Ont (born February 9, 1928) is a Holocaust survivor of both Theresienstadt (Terezin) and Auschwitz (Oswiecim, Poland), who became a Canadian businessman and was awarded the Order of Ontario.

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George Charles Dyhern

The Rt. Hon. George Charles, Baron de Dyhern (10 April 1710 – 25 April 1759), was a Saxon general, war minister under the regency of Augustus III. of Saxony, king of Poland and a close friend of Field Marshal Count Frederick Augustus Rutowsky.

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George I of Brieg

George I, Duke of Brieg (Brzeg) (Jerzy I brzeski; 1481/83 – 30 May 1521), was a Duke of Legnica during 1488-1505 (with his brother as co-ruler) and of Brzeg (Brieg) since 1505 until his death.

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George III of Brieg

George III of Brieg (Jerzy III Brzeski; Brzeg, 4 September 1611 – Brzeg, 4 July 1664), was a Duke of Brzeg since 1633 (as administrator; in 1639 he took formally the title, together with his brothers until 1654) and Legnica-Wołów during 1653-1654 (with his brothers).

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George III, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau

George III, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (Dessau, 15 August 1507 – Dessau, 17 October 1553), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau, and also a Protestant Reformer.

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George of Poděbrady

George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (23 April 1420 – 22 March 1471), also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad (Jiří z Poděbrad; Georg von Podiebrad), was King of Bohemia (1458–1471).

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George Olivier, count of Wallis

George Olivier, Count of Wallis (Carrighmain; 1671 in Vienna – 19 December 1743 in Vienna) was a field marshal of Irish descent in the service of the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and last regent of the Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (1738–1739).

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George Platt Waller

George Platt Waller Jr. (September 7, 1889 – February 26, 1962) was an American diplomat and the United States Chargé d'Affaires in Luxembourg during World War II.

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George Voskovec

Jiří Voskovec, born Jiří Wachsmann and known in the United States as George Voskovec (June 19, 1905 – July 1, 1981) was a Czech actor, writer, dramatist, and director who became an American citizen in 1955.

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Gerald Heaney

Gerald William Heaney (January 29, 1918 – June 22, 2010) served for nearly forty years as a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, from his appointment by President Lyndon B. Johnson in November 1966 until his full retirement in August 2006.

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Geraldine Sherman

Geraldine Sherman (born Geraldine Judith Schoenmann on 20 October 1940, Staines, Middlesex, England) is a British actress and writer, now known as theatre producer Dena Hammerstein since becoming the third wife of James Hammerstein then after his death becoming President/CEO of James Hammerstein Productions Ltd.

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Gerhard Dietrich (pedagogue)

Gerhard Dietrich (26 November 1927, in Aue – 8 October 1986, in Berlin) was a leading German pedagogue and a Trades Union Official.

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Gerhard Flesch

Gerhard Friedrich Ernst Flesch (8 October 1909 – 28 February 1948) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.

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Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Gerhoh of Reichersberg (Latin: Gerhohus Reicherspergensis. b. at Polling 1093; d. at Reichersberg, 27 June 1169) was one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany in the twelfth century.

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German art

German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

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German Brazilians

German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.

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German Campaign of 1813

The German Campaign (lit) was fought in 1813.

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German Christian Social People's Party

German Christian Social People's Party (Deutsche Christlich-Soziale Volkspartei, DCVP, Německá křesťansko sociální strana lidová) was an ethnic German political party in Czechoslovakia, formed as a continuation from the Austrian Christian Social Party.

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German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.

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German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe

The German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe ahead of the Red Army advance in World War II was delayed until the last moment.

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German exonyms (Karlovy Vary Region)

This is a list of German language place names in Bohemia, now exonyms for towns and villages in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.

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German Football Association

The German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund; DFB) is the governing body of football in Germany.

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German name

Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (Vorname, plural Vornamen) and a surname (Nachname, Familienname).

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German occupation of Czechoslovakia

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

Approximately three million German prisoners of war were captured by the Soviet Union during World War II, most of them during the great advances of the Red Army in the last year of the war.

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German school of fencing

The German school of fencing (Deutsche Schule; Kunst des Fechtens) is a system of combat taught in the Holy Roman Empire during the Late Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern periods, as described in the contemporary Fechtbücher ("combat manuals") written at the time.

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German South Moravia

German South Moravia was a historical region of Czechoslovakia.

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German town law

The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.

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German Workers' Party (Austria-Hungary)

The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) in Austria-Hungary was the predecessor of the Austrian and Czechoslovak Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei (DNSAP), founded on 14 November 1903, in Aussig (Ústí nad Labem), Bohemia.

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German–Polish customs war

The German–Polish customs war was a political and economic conflict between the Second Polish Republic and the Weimar Republic, which began in June 1925 (shortly after the death of German president Friedrich Ebert from SPD) and ended officially in March 1934.

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German–Polish War (1002–18)

The German–Polish War which took place from 1002 to 1018 consisted of a series of struggles between the Ottonian king Henry II of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor from 1014) and the Polish Piast ruler Bolesław I the Brave.

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Germanic toponymy

Germanic toponyms are the names given to places by Germanic peoples and tribes.

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Germanisation

Germanisation (also spelle