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The Social Revolution. 


Professor of History at Canislus College, Buffalo, N. Y. 


ST. LOUIS, MO., 19tf. 

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fltbtl 9bem. 


Buffalo, If. r.. Ttb. 11, 18W. 



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Copyrighted 1899 by 
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A. C. Q. 9. sb American Catholic Quarterly. Vol. 9. 

I>. R. '79; 1, 2, 3, 4. = Dublin Review. 1879. January, April, July, October* 

M. '78: 1, 2, 8. = Month. 1878. Jan.-April, May-Aug., Sept.-Dec. 

St. 40. = Stlmmen aus ^aria Lancn. Vgl.«4p % . 

• •* ' ** • 

I. Th. Z. '79. = Innsbruck Theologieche Zeitschrift. 1879. 

E. H. Q. 10; 1, 2, 3, 4. = Engllsfi Historical Quarterly. Vol. 10. Jan., 
April, July, Oct. • • *" ' • 

E. R. '68; 1, 2, 8, 4. = Edinburgh Review.' 1868. Jan., April, July, Oct. 

Q. R. '91; 1, 2, 8, 4. = Quarterly Review (London). 1891. Jan., April, 
July, Oct. 


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§ i. 


1. Union of England and Scotland. — The Act of Settle- 
ment, by which the crown of England was forever conferred on Sophia, 
Electress of Hanover, the granddaughter of James I., and her issue, 
had been passed in 1701. Three years later Scotland passed the 
Act of Security which declared that, unless certain securities were 
given for the religion, freedom and trade of Scotland, the Scotch 
Parliament should, on the demise of Queen Anne, choose a king of 
her own from among the Protestant descendants of the Stuarts. To 
prevent this act from being carried into effect, a Parliamentary Union 
of England and Scotland was effected in the second Parliament of 
Qqeen Anne, 1707, though this union met with a strong opposition 
in Scotland. The measure provided that Sophia and her Protestant 
heirs should succeed to the crown of the united kingdom. Scotland 
was to send sixteen elective Peers and forty-five Commoners to the 
one Parliament of Great Britain. The Act of Union left the laws, 
the legal administration and the Presbyterian kirk of Scotland un- 
touched. The Union Jack, a combination of the crosses of St. 
George and of St. Andrew, was adopted as the national flag of Great 


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a. Succession of George I., 1714-1727. —After the Peace of Utrecht, 
the question of the English succession rose into greater prominence. The 
health of Queen Anne was failing. The House of Commons was strongly 
Tory, the House of Lords about equally divided between the two parties. 
A large proportion of the Tories were Jacobites. In Scotland the dominant 
sentiment of the Highlanders and the Episcopalians was Jacobite; but even 
the Presbyterians of the Lowlands hated the union with England more than 
the Catholic " Pretender." Nearly every leading statesman in England was 
in correspondence with James III. Bolingbroke regarded the succession of 
James as the only hope to save himself and the Tories from being ousted by 
the Whigs, who all belonged to the Hanover party. Many civil and military 
offices were consequently filled by the leading ministers with Jacobites; the 
government of Scotland was given to the Jacobite Earl of Mar. Queen 
Anne had no sympathy for Sophia and the Elector of Hanover. Troubled in 
conscience by the part she had taken in dethroning her father, she secretly 
favored the succession of her exiled brother. The hesitation which the 
Earl of Oxford betrayed In furthering the cause of James III. led to his 
dismissal from office. 

The succession to the throne of his fathers would surely have 
fallen to James III. had he but complied with the one essential con- 
dition demanded by all his Protestant adherents: his consent to 
change or at least dissemble his Catholic faith. But with a mag- 
nanimity that may be called heroic, he steadily refused this consent, 
though he was ready to grant toleration to Protestants. His invari- 
able answer was: "I neither want counsel nor advice to remain 
unalterable in my fixed resolution of never dissembling my religion ; 
but rather shall I abandon all than act against my conscience and 
honor, cost what it will." 

Such was the state of things when, on the day following Oxford's 
dismissal, the queen's disease suddenly took a fatal turn. The Privy 
Council was at once summoned, Argyle, Somerset and Shrewsbury, 
three champions of the Protestant succession, took the management 
of affairs into their hands, before the Jacobites could recover from 
their bewilderment at the sudden change. The queen died August 1 , 
1714, and the Elector of Hanover was proclaimed as George I. 
without opposition. 

3. Whig Policy. — George I. dismissed nearly all the Tories 
from office and appointed a Whig ministry. The cabinet now 
became still more independent of the sovereign than in the former 



of Utrecht reign, as George, who could not speak English, absented himself 

ience. Ik from its meetings, an example which was followed by all subsequent 

nopufo English kings. In the new Parliament, chosen 1715, the Whigs had 

domioiot tne majority in both houses. And indeed, Whig government was 

; bate?ea indispensable for securing the stability of the Hanoverian succession. 

noretiM All the measures adopted by the Whigs tended to make their success 

' ,afld ™ permanent, 
ess/oo oi 

QStedbF 4. The Rising of the Earl of Mar, 1715-16.— The first 
measure passed by the Whigs was the impeachment of the Tory 

Q oeen leaders as traitors on account of the secret agreements which they 

Media had made with Louis XIV. during the peace negotiations. Oxford 

cretlj was sentenced to two years imprisonment. Bolingbroke and Ormond 

" m fled to France and were attainted in England. These proceedings 

° iu§ again swelled the ranks of the Jacobites. Everywhere the people 

were ready to rise against George who had managed to make himself 
aTe unpopular in a very short time. The Earl of Mar rose in Scotland. 

M " He was met by Argyle at Sheriff muir. Each commander-in-chief led 

to the right wing of his own army. The result was, that each right 

g' wing was victorious, each left wing defeated. Argyle, however, main- 

t f tained the field. At the same time the English Jacobites surrendered 

at Preston without a battle. The landing of James III. in December, 
* 1715, and his entry in Dundee could not save the lost cause, as the 

death of Louis XIV. in the same year had deprived the pretender of 
foreign aid, and the Whigs had all the resources of the government 
at their disposal. In 1716 James Edward sailed back to France. 

5. Change of Foreign Policy. — The second means adopted 
by the Whigs to secure permanent power was a reversal of their 
foreign policy. In France Philip, Duke of Orleans (1715-1723), 
who set the boy king and the country an example of the most shame- 
less debauchery, was Regent for the sickly Louis XV. In case of 
Louis' death the crown, according to the Peace of Utrecht, was to 
devolve upon the Regent. The only menace to his succession was 
the intention, with which Philip V. of Spain was credited, of claim- 
ing the French crown in spite of the Peace of Utrecht. This would 
have led to another European war. Consequently the Regent con- 
cluded a treaty with England and Holland which guaranteed the 

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order of succession in France and England, and banished James III. 
from French soil. Thus it happened, that in the new order of things 
the Whigs and not the Tories, were the advocates of peace, and that 
France upheld the Protestant succession which Louis XIV. had so 
strenuously opposed. 

6. The .Septennial Act, 1716. — A third measure favorable 
to the Whigs was the Septennial Act, under which future Parliaments 
were to sit seven instead of three years. The present Parliament 
thus prolonged its own duration for four years. 

7. Administration of Walpole, 1721-1742. — The Whigs were further 
strengthened by Robert Walpole's financial ability. The period of war had 
been followed by a period of commercial speculation. Joint-stock com- 
panies sprang up on every side. The most prominent among them, the 
South Sea Company, was founded by Harley in 1711 for trading with 
Spanish America. Swindlers, politicians, ministers of State, vied with each 
other to raise the value of shares which were worthless in themselves. 
The same popular infatuation raged in France (1718-20), where a Scotch- 
man, John Law, founded the Royal Bank in connection with the Louisiana 
Company, and issued notes to the amount of 3,000,000,000 francs. The 
sudden collapse of the bank and the company in France led to the bursting 
of the South 8ea bubble in England, an event which beggared thousands 
of families among all classes. Amidst the general crash Walpole was 
appointed First Lord of the Treasury aud Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
By his clever devices the shareholders were saved at least a portion of their 
property. What with the credit he obtained for allaying the financial panic, 
and what with the uublushlng bribery resorted to in electing Whig members 
and in managing them after election, Walpole maintained himself in office 
for twenty-one years. His administration (1721-1742) nearly ran parallel 
with that of Cardinal Fleury in France (1726-1743). Walpole was the first 
who had the power, if not the name, of Prime Minister in an English cab- 
inet. Both under George I. and George II. every minister was dismissed 
who questioned Walpole's authority. Henceforth it was the rule that the 
First Lord of the Treasury, who had to find the revenues expended by the 
other ministers, should be Prime Mluister. Walpole's policy of " peace 
abroad and doing nothing at home " was successful. He chose his meas- 
ures, not for their wisdom or justice, but for their expediency. He was 
convinced that every man has his price, and acted upon this conviction. 
Since the Revolution of 1G88, public morality had sunk lower and lower. 
Walpole's administration fell in with a time of religious indifferent Ism and 
skepticism, of unconcealed vice from the court downward, of drunkenness 
among the higher classes, of general venality and unscrupulous money- 



8. Death of George I. — George II., 1727-1760. — 

George I. squandered his income on Hanoverian favorites. In 1727 
he went over sea to enjoy himself in Hanover. On his way to Osna- 
brueck he got a stroke of apoplexy and died in his carriage. His 
son and successor, George II., had the advantage over his father of 
speaking the English tongue. In difficulties he allowed himself to 
be guided by the sound judgment of his wife, Queen Caroline, the 
steady friend and protectress of Walpole. 

The Electress Sophia on the Hanov. Succession. E. H. R. 1, 3. — Lord Mahon : Hist, 
of Eng. 1701-13. — E. E. Morris : The Age of Anne. — Macklnon : The Union of England 
and Scotland. — Const. Histories of Engl. —MacCarthy and Thackeray: The Four 
Georges. — Live* of Walpole by: Dobson; Haywood (Emln. Statesmen); Scott (Biog- 
raphies) ; Macanlay (Essays) ; Seeley ; Morley. — W. E. H. Lecky: A Hist, of Engl, in 
the 18th Century, v. 1. ch. 1-3. Settlement of the Hanov. Succ. in Onno Klopp (House of 
Stuart), toI. 14. 


9. The Penal Code. — The penal code, which began under 
William III., received its worst features under Anne and was largely 
extended under the first two Georges. It was entirely unprovoked 
by any active disloyalty on the part of the Catholics, either in Eng- 
land or in Ireland. Its statutes poisoned all official, social, com- 
mercial and private relations between Catholics and Protestants, even 
the most sacred domestic relations in Catholic families. It aimed 
at nothing less than the complete extirpation of the Catholic faith 
in Ireland. 

10. Laws About Religious Worship. — A 11 Catholic archbishops, bishops, 
deans, vicars-general, all Jesuits, friars and unregistered priests were 
ordered to leave the country, under penalty of being imprisoned on the 
first offense, banished on the second, and hung, disemboweled and quar- 
tered on the third. Under the law of 1703 a parish priest who had registered 
his name, his parish and other particulars, and had taken the oath of allegi- 
ance, could celebrate Mass, but only in his parish. He was not allowed to 
have a curate. No steeple, bell or cross was to Indicate the place and time 
of worship. Pilgrimages were punished with fines and lashes. A Catholic 
who induced a Protestant to join his faith, suffered the penalties of Prae- 
munire. Under the law of 1709, every registered priest had to take, in addi- 
tion to the oath of allegiance, the oath of abjuration, declaring that James 



III. had no right and title whatever to the crown, and approving " heartily, 
freely and willingly," the justice of the Revolution and of an exclusively 
Protestant succession. No self-respecting Catholic could take this oath. 
The authorities of the church declared it sinful. Only thirty-three registered 
priests, it is said, took this oath. A reward of 50/. was offered for the 
detection of a Catholic dignitary, 20/. for a priest, and 10/. for a teacher. 
Two justices of the peace might compel any Catholic above 18 years of age 
to disclose any particular which had come to his knowledge about priests, 
the celebration of Mass, or Catholic schools; if he refused to answer he 
was to be imprisoned for a year. Neglect in executing the provisions of 
this law on the part of the magistrates entailed a fine of 100/., one half to 
go to the informer. Thus in a purely Catholic country, Catholic Bishops 
and priests were obliged to live in obscure hovels, under feigned names, 
moving continually from place to place, and meeting their flock under the 
shadow of night, in caverns or among the mountains. 

11. Laws as to Civil Rights. — Irish Catholics were forbidden to sit in 
the Irish Parliament, to vote at elections or to serve on grand juries. They 
were excluded from the army, from the navy, from the town corporations, 
from the magistracies, from the bench, from the bar, from every government 
office, high or low. Their houses might be ransacked at any time in search 
of arms. Except in the linen trade, no Catholic could have more than two 
apprentices. No Catholic could possess a horse worth more than 51. Any 
Protestant offering that sum, could appropriate the horse of his Catholic 
neighbor. Popish horses could be attached and seized for the militia. 

12. Laws Prohibiting Catholic Education. — The laws on Catholic edu- 
cation amounted to universal, unlimited, unqualified proscription. A Cath- 
olic could not attend a University, nor be the guardian of a child, nor a 
schoolmaster, nor a private tutor. Catholic parents could not send their 
children to be educated abroad. Since 1738 the only schools supported by 
public funds for Catholics were Protestant proselytizing schools. 

13. Laws Affecting Property. — No Catholic was allowed to buy or 
inherit, or will land or receive it as a gift from Protestants. No Catholic 
could hold life annuities, or leases for more than 81 years. If by skill or 
industry he increased his profits so as to exceed a certain rate fixed by law, 
and at the same time failed to increase his rent, the farm was to belong to the 
first Protestant who made the discovery. If a Catholic secretly purchased 
his own forfeited estates, or any other land in the possession of a Protest- 
ant, the first Protestant informer against him became the proprietor. 

14. Laws Affecting Domestic Life. — Still worse were the laws intended 
to sow discord and insubordination in Catholic families. The eldest son of 
a Catholic who would turn Protestant, was to succeed to the family estate, 
which from that moment could no longer be sold or charged with debt or 


legacy. If a child, however young, declared himself a Protestant, he was 
to be immediately taken from his Catholic parents, and delivered to the 
custody of a Protestant relative. The Court of Chancery could make out 
an allowance for the maintenance of the son from the father's property at 
the court's discretion. In like manner a wife who apostatized, was imme- 
diately freed from the husband's control and assigned a certain portion of 
her husband's property. No Protestant could marry a Catholic without 
incurring all the disabilities of the penal code; any priest who blessed such 
a marriage was to be hanged. Some of the most outrageous acts, however, 
of the Irish Parliament were shelved by Walpole. 

15. Walpole's Power Waning. — Walpole's power began to 
wane when, for a bitter quarrel with his father, Frederic Prince of 
Wales had been banished from court. He placed himself at the 
head of the opposition against Walpole. Still more disastrous for 
the latter was the death of Queen Caroline, his steadfast friend. 
Public opinion, roused by Spain's resistance to English smuggling in 
America, forced Walpole against his inclination into a naval war with 
Spain. The opposition charged Walpole with the poor success of 
his desultory warfare. He resigned in 1742 and was transferred to 
the House of Lords as Earl of Orford. 

Lecky : v. 1, ch. 2, pp. 289-324. — H. Parnell: Penal Laws ag. the Irish Catholics from 
the Treaty of Limerick to the Union, — Penal Laws, B. R. f 1803. 4. Th. Boike: EnglUh 
Misrule in Ireland. — Th6band, 8. J. : The Irish Race. — Madden . Hist. Notice of Penal 
Jmxcs ag. Rom. Cath. — A. Perraud : Ireland and English Rule. — W. Cunningham : 
Repression of Woolen Manufact. in Ireland: E. H. B. 1, 2. 


§ l. 


16. The House of Romanow, 1613-1762. — Whilst the 
western nations of Europe were fighting over the Spanish succes- 
sion, a new power in the East began to make itself felt in the coun- 
cils of the West. Muscovy, as Russia was still called, was more 
Asiatic than European. The invasion and supremacy of the Tar- 
tars had withdrawn Russia from Western influences. Gradually, 
however, one State after the other was freed from the Mongol yoke 
and annexed by the Grand Dukes of Moscow, the descendants of 
Ruric. By breaking up the ancient nobility for a time, Ivan the 
Terrible, 1535-84, created the Russian state, an equal people under 
an absolute Czar. In spite of his excessive cruelties against the 
boyars or nobles, Ivan was popular among the masses of the people. 
With Feodor, the son of Ivan the Terrible, the House of Ruric 
became extinct in 1598, A new dynasty, the House of Romanow, 
related to the House of Ruric, emerged from the frightful anarchy 
and civil war, the " Troublous Time/' which followed the death of 

17. Changes of Government. — During the reign of Feodor, the 
son of Alexis, 1676-82, his accomplished and ambitious sister Sophia 
was the soul of the government. After Feodor' s death the nobles 
proclaimed Peter, a boy of healthy and vigorous frame, Czar over his 
elder half brother, the sickly and weak-minded Ivan. But after a 
series of bloody riots, the Strelitzes, the hereditary national guard 
organized by Ivan the Terrible, proclaimed Ivan as the Czar first in 
rank, and Sophia as regent, during the minority of the two princes. 
Ruling at first in the name of the Czars, Sophia finally assumed not 
only the power, but also ihe name of u autocrat/ * or self-ruler. 


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A plot gotten up presumably by Sophia against Peter's life, induced 
him to surround his person by an army or body guard, to execute 
some and banish others of her adherents, and to send her into a 
monastery. At the death of Ivan, 1696, Peter became the sole ruler 
of all Russia. 

18. Education of Czar Peter and His First Undertakings. — Peter spent 
his boyhood at a village near Moscow with fifty companions in military exer- 
cises under the direction of General Gordon, a Catholic Scotchman. He 
studied some modern languages, and learned fourteen trades, his favorite 
occupation being boat-building. In 1 690 he entered into closer friendship with 
Gordon, Lefort of Geneva, and many other foreigners, who aided him in his 
far-reaching reforms. His Russian advisers he chose from the companions 
of his boyhood. In 1695 he launched his first vessel at Archangel, in the 
White Sea, the only Russian harbor of those days. For the siege of Azow, 
1696, he built the first flotilla with which he drove the Turkish fleet to sea. 
After the reduction of Azow he began the building of a merchant fleet for 
the Black Sea. From Azow his generals extended their conquests along the 
shores of the Sea of Azow. 

19. First Journey to Western Europe, 1697-98. — In 1697 and 98 Czar 
Peter made his first journey through western Europe. He traveled in dis- 
guise as an attendant to a numerous embassy, to conclude commercial treaties, 
to seek allies against Turkey, to study western customs, laws and religious 
affairs, and to become an accomplished shipwright. In Holland he worked 
in the ship yards like any other mechanic. From England he sent a large 
number of artists and artisans to Russia. A new rising of the Strclitzes 
hastened his return. He at once inflicted bloody punishment on the Strelitzes 
and dissolved their organization. 

20. Reforms, 1700-1711. — In his steady aim to make Russia European, 
Czar Peter began to make his reforms with externals. Beards had to be 
shaved under penalty of heavy fines. A government pattern was prescribed 
for articles of clothing. Young Russians. were sent to foreign parts for 
their education. The women were drawn from their oriental seclusion to 
mingle more freely with society. The unwieldy Russian money was 
replaced by copper, silver and gold coin. An official nobility divided into 
fourteen grades, took the place of the ancient hereditary nobility. All per- 
sons of noble birth had to enter military or naval service for twenty-five 
years. Distinction in the Empire could be obtained by service only. No 
one could be granted a higher grade without previously passing through the 
lower ones. Czar Peter himself voluntarily began his service in the ranks. 
In his war with Charles XII. he served as captain. At Pultowa he acted as 
colonel; after that victory he was installed as marshal by his commander- 
in-chief. The army was reorganized after the European pattern, and in the 
earlier years of his reign, was almost exclusively officered by foreigners. 

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To encourage immigration, foreigners were granted freedom of worship 
(except the Jews), and placed under the jurisdiction of special courts of 
foreigners, who conducted their proceedings according to the Common Law. 

21. Administration, 1700-1718. — Czar Peter divided Russia into ten 
governments and forty-three provinces. 

The inland governors had limited, those of frontier governments general 
powers, both civil and military. The provinces were ruled by Woiwods 
who were also the supreme judges of the province. Appeals from them 
could be taken to the Departments or Colleges at St. Petersburg or to the 
Imperial courts in the larger cities. The Secret Chancery was a kind of 
Police Department intrusted with the trial of criminals and delinquents. 
In this department vast numbers of men and women were continually on 
the rack for real or imaginary crimes, frequently for some chance word or 
misinterpreted expression, or upon the denunciation of some personal 
enemy; for even anonymous denunciations were followed by rigid investi- 
gation, and every investigation, whether it showed guilt or innocence, was 
attended by inhuman tortures. An official called •« revenue-flnder " raised 
taxes on all conceivable objects; the mining industry was alone exempt. 
Spies and informers, popularly called " flscals," were kept busy in every 
department by the reward which they received of one half the penalties. 
The condition of the common people was and remained that of serfdom. 
The Departments as reorganized in 1717, consisted of the following Col- 
leges: Foreign Affairs, Revenues, Expenditure, Control, Justice (including 
internal/affairs) , War, Admiralty, Commerce, Mines, and Manufactures. 

A Senate composed of nine boyars was the highest administrative author- 
ity. It exercised jurisdiction over the nobility, nominated candidates for 
offices, supervised the work of the lower officials, and accepted and disposed 
of petitions. 

In spite of the elaborate machinery of administration and supervision, 
Peter was unable to eradicate the national sin of stealing. His reign is filled 
with investigations of officials, from the lowest to the highest, for bribery, 
peculation and dishonesty. 

22. Ecclesiastical Reforms.— There existed in Russia 557 (schismatical) 
monasteries and convents. The monastic clergy in 1 700 owned as many as 
130,000 peasants' houses. In 1725 it was ascertained that 151 monasteries 
possessed 242,198 male serfs. The new Department of Monasteries took 
charge, f. confiscated all this monastic property, and in return paid an 
annual pension of 10 rubles (20 dollars, later 5 rubles), and a certain amount 
of grain and wood to each inmate of a monastery. 

The Patriarchate of Moscow was abolished in 1721. When the last 
Patriarch died, Peter left the see vacant. To the appeals of the clergy he 
answered: 41 1 will be your Patriarch." In its place he founded the Holy 
Synod, whose members were appointed by the Czar himself. A secular 
official, usually an officer of the army, presided over the synod. 



Czar Peter was Indefatigable in promoting commerce, industry and secu- 
lar education. He founded numerous schools and educational institutes, 
especially military and naval schools and colleges for engineers. His great- 
est foundation is the Russian Academy of Sciences. Very little was done 
for the education of the clergy. 

23. Discontent and Popular Uprisings, 1700-1710. — The Reforms of 
Czar Peter, the new taxes, the endless conscriptions and the cruelties of his 
government caused wide-spread discontent. The simple and uneducated 
people looked on Peter as a monster, a tyrant, an apostate to the " German 
faith." as bewitched by foreigners. Popular stories circulated that Teter 
was not the son of Czar Alexis, but a German changeling; that the Germans 
had nailed up the real Czar, when a child, in a cask, and thrown him into 
the sea. The religious minded beheld in him the veritable antichrist. 
Popular risings took place in different parts of the Empire, especially in the 
southern and middle provinces ; after an uprising in Astrachan 865 men were 
executed. A rising on the Volga cost the Russians over 800 villages burnt, 
and 1 5,000 persons killed or dragged i nto captivity. The disaffected naturally 
looked to the Czarewitch Alexis, the son of his imprisoned wife Eudoxia, 
for relief. Never loved by his father, Alexis had been criminally neglected 
in his youth. Fear of his father made him flee to Austria. But Peter's 
agents discovered his places of concealment in the Tyrol and in Naples, and 
took him back to Petersburg. His father tried him for treason. Though it 
was impossible to convict him of conspiracy he was thrown into prison, 
where he died, probably in consequence of the torture to which he had been 
subjected. A few bishops, many nobles and other persons, were cruelly 
executed or banished to Siberia. 

24. Character and life of Czar Peter. — Peter had two wives, the one in 
prison, the other on the throne. The reigning consort was a Livonian 
captive who had assumed the name of Catharine. With all his reforms 
Peter remained an educated barbarian, grossly immoral, coarse in his habits 
and given to violent outbursts of anger when under the influence of liquor. 
These faults were, in part, due to the corrupting influence to which his 
youth was purposely exposed by those who wished to destroy him. Ex- 
tremes were united in him. He possessed great energy and capacity for 
work and a passionate desire to raise the Russian people to a higher state. 
He put himself at -the bead of the Greek church which he found in existence, 
because it would not lend itself to his great reforms. If serfdom was not 
abolished, if no concession of popular liberty softened his autocracy, it must 
be conceded that the Russian people were not ripe for such concessions. 

Books for Consultation: — Pember : Ivan the Terrible.— Peter the Great, Lives by : 
Abbott; Browning; BrUckner, (Peter der Grosse) ; Motley ; Schuyler; WaMszewtki; 
Wight.— Segnr: Hist, of Russia and Peter the Gr.— Bain: Pupils of Peter the Or. — The 
Russian Church, its Hist, and Present Organization : D. R. '81. 2. — Arndt : Die Buss. Kirche 
durch Peter den Grossen. I. Th. Z. 1894. —Peter the Great: E. R. '98. 2. Gen. Patrick 
Gordon: S. R. '66. 3. — Obolenski Posselt: Diary of Gen. Gordon. 




25. Causes. — The making of Russia was intimately connected 
with the Northern War. John Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian noble- 
man, whose hatred of Sweden dated from the time when Charles XI. 
abolished the privileges of the nobility, made it the object of his 
life to stir up enemies against Sweden. In 1698 he proposed to 
Augustus II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, a coalition of 
Poland, Denmark and Russia against Sweden. In 1699 Peter 
signed a secret treaty with Augustus II. for a general war of con- 
quest at the expense of Sweden. The Czar was to obtain a por- 
tion of the Baltic sefe-board, Augustus was to annex Livonia to 
Poland. Frederick IV. of Denmark, who had a quarrel with the 
Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, the friend and brother-in-law of Charles 
XII., joined the Northern League. The allies presumed on the 
youth and inexperience of Charles XII. 

26. Charles m, Kin? of Sweden, 1697-1718. — Charles XII. was in 
his sixteenth year, when the four estates of Sweden (nobles, clergy, bur- 
ghers aud peasants), asked him to assume the government. The first years 
of his reign were years of riotous pranks aud hair-breadth escapes in the 
wildest sports. But the moment he was faced by a real euemy, he mani- 
fested the fully-developed character of a man. He had a high sense of 
honor and justice, was religious in his own way, rigidly moral and abste- 
mious, and possessed of indomitable courage. He loved war not for the 
sake of gain, but for the excitement of battle. But he was headstrong 
almost to madness, and implacable in his hate. When he received news 
that Livonia was invaded, he declared to his council : " I have resolved 
never to begin an unjust war, but also never to end a just war before I have 
conquered my foes." 

27. Danish War, 1700. — In 1700 a Danish force entered Hol- 
stein, a Saxon army invaded Livonia, without a declaration of war, 
and Czar Peter proceeded to besiege the Esthonian fortress of Narva 
with 40,000 Russians. Charles XII. coolly remarked : " I will first 
finish with one, then talk with the other." Charles began with Den- 
mark. On July 24 he landed on Zealand and marched to Copen- 
hagen ; on August 18 the King of Denmark was compelled to sign 
the Peace of Travendal, to quit the Northern Alliance, to pay an 
indemnity and to acknowledge the rights of the Duke of Holstein. . 

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28. The Battle of Narva, 1700. — Czar Peter's turn came next. 
In spite of the stormy season Charles XII. crossed, in October, to the 
Gulf of Riga, and landed an army of 8,000 Swedes. The sudden 
appearance of the enemy and the rapid attack on the fortified camp of 
Narva threw the Russians into the greatest confusion and panic. In a 
quarter of an hour the trenches were taken, in three hours the Rus- 
sians were hopelessly routed. The fame of Charles XII. soon rang 
all over Europe. 

29. - The War in Poland, 1701-1705. — The contempt for the 
Russians which the easy victory of Narva bred in Charles' mind, and 
his personal feeling of hostility for Augustus II. as the primary mover 
of the hostile alliance, induced Charles XII. to turn against his third 
foe. By this move he gave time and opportunity to his most dan- 
gerous enemy, Czar Peter, to reorganize his army and to build his 
new capital on Swedish soil. The battle of Riga, the expulsion of 
the Saxons from Livonia, and the invasion of Poland in 1701 ; the 
occupation of Warsaw, the battle of Clissow and the taking of Cracow 
in 1702 ; the battle of Pultusk in 1703, the taking of Lemberg iu 
1704; the Saxon rout at Fraustadt in 1705 and other successes 
mark the triumphant progress of Charles' armies. 

The Republic of Poland had taken no part in the war. Augustus fought 
with the men and resources of his own hereditary Saxony. Charles XII. 
wanted no war but friendship with Poland, but he refused to listen to any 
proposition of treating with Augustus; he would be satisfied with nothing 
less than his dethronement. This demand as coming from a foreign sov- 
ereign, split Poland into two portions or Associations. The Association of 
Warsaw (Shrod) deposed Augustus and chose Stanislaus Lesczinskl, King of 
Poland, at the bidding of Charles XII. He was crowned at Warsaw, not by 
the Primate of Poland, but by the Archbishop of Lemberg, 1705. The 
Association of Sandomlr, comprising the majority of the Polish nobles, 
rejected the validity of the coronation and supported Augustus II. 

30. The Invasion of Saxony and the Peace of Alt-Ran - 
stadt, 1706. — By the end of 1705 Charles XII. had thoroughly 
beared Poland of the Saxons and their Russian auxiliaries. He now 
i«,/aded and overran all Saxony, leaving Poland to become the 
camping ground of the Russians. Augustus II. found himself finally 
compelled to conclude the Peace of AhVRanstadt, in which he re- 


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signed the crown of Poland, recognized King Stanislaus, and re- 
nounced his alliance with Czar Peter. Saxony had to house, feed 
and pay the Swedish army for an indefinite time. Augustus was 
allowed to retain the simple title of King, but had personally to con- 
gratulate Stanislaus on his elevation. Patkul was given up to Charles 
XII. and, by his command, broken on the wheel. Charles was now 
at the height of his power without having demanded from his con- 
quered enemies a foot of land for himself. 

31. Foundation of St. Petersburg, 1703-1718. — Whilst 
Charles was pushing his campaign of revenge in Poland and Saxony, 
Czar Peter with an increased and reorganized army conquered the 
Swedish province of Ingria (Ingermanland), and thus reached the 
Baltic shore. Here on one of the marshy islands formed by the 
branches of the Neva, he laid the foundation of his new capital, St. 
Petersburg, at a reckless sacrifice of life and labor. To protect his 
new city he built the fortress of Cronstadt on an island which faces 
the mouth of the Neva. It was not before 1718, however, when 
Petersburg numbered 40,000 buildings, that the last government 
offices were removed from Moscow to the new capital. — In 1704 the 
Russians took Narva, and overran Ksthonia, Livonia and Curland in 
1705, and Poland in 1706. 

32. Pultowa and its Consequences, 1708-1709. — Late in 
1707 Charles set out from Saxony, drove his enemies from Lithuania, 
and entered Russia at Mohelew. His idea was to dethrone the Czar, 
whom his reforms had made very unpopular among the conservative 
Russians. But instead of marching directly upon Moscow as he was 
strongly advised to do, he entered into negotiations with Mazeppa, 
the Hetman of the Cossacks, with a view of marching southward to the 

The Cossacks were originally free military colonies for the defense of 
the frontiers against Tartar invasions. The Cossacks of Ukraine, the 
borderland of Little or Southern Russia, lived in towns, and recognized 
the Polish, and since 1G54 the Russian authority. They enjoyed special 
privileges over the inland inhabitants. They were ruled by a chief called 
Hetman. The Zaporovian Cossacks (za por6ghi — oeyond the cataracts, 
sc. of the Dnieper) were a kind of military brotherhood. Their system of 
life made adherence to the Greek schism, celibacy and a martial spirit, 

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obligatory. Many Cossacks of the towns joined the Zaporovians only for 
a number of years. By the end of the sixteenth century the Zaporovians 
numbered 20-30,000 braves. Owing a nominal allegiance to the Hetman, 
they were practically independent. 

Charles marched to the Ukraine without waiting for a second 
Swedish army of 14,000 men who were ordered to join him with 
provisions; But this army of relief never reached him. It was 
routed by the Russians, the provisions were captured, and thus the 
main army suffered fearfully from the difficulties of the march and 
the terrible winter of 1708-1709. On arriving in the Ukraine, 
Charles found, Mazeppa deposed for treason and deserted by the 
town Cossacks, whilst the Zaporovians had been beaten and scattered 
by a Russian army. Only 1500 Cossacks under Mazeppa joined 
him. With these and his own reduced army he began the siege of 
Pultowa in May, 1709. The siege gave Czar Peter time to concen- 
trate his troops near Pultowa. Though short of ammunition, and 
with an army but one fourth that of the enemy, Charles resolved to 
give battle. ' Suffering from a wound he was carried in a litter into 
the thick of the fight ; but notwithstanding the desperate bravery of his 
troops, nearly the whole Swedish army was destroyed or captured, 
and subsequently distributed through the Russian provinces. With a 
mere handful of followers Charles escaped to Bender on Turkish soil. 
The battle of Pultowa broke Sweden's supremacy in the north, and 
enabled Russia to extend her boundaries from Finland and the Polar 
Sea to the Caspian and Black Seas. 

Ckarle$ XII, Lives by Alberg; Bain, (Heroes of the Nations); Treyxell; Wilson, 
(III as trio as Soldiers). — Bain : Charles XII. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire. — 
Crlchton : 8candinavia, Ancient and Modern. — Sir E. 8. Creasy : Hist, of the Ottoman 
Turks. — Onno Klopp in : Fall des Mouses Stuart, Vol. 11-14. 

§ 3. 


33. Russian War with Turkey, 1710. — Unwilling to return 
home by way of Hungary and Germany, Charles remained at Bender 
as the guest of the Sultan, and ruled his northern kingdom by corre- 
spondence from the most southern country of Europe. During his 
absence Stanislaus and the Swedish troops withdrew to Pomerania, and 

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Augustus re-entered Poland as King. The alliance between Russia, 
Saxony and Denmark was renewed. Czar Peter, 1710, attacked Fin- 
land, conquered Riga and the whole of Livonia and Esthonia for him- 
self and occupied Curland. Jealousy of Peter's growing power in- 
duced the Sultan to listen to the passionate appeals of his lively guest, 
Charles XII., and to declare war against Russia, 1710. Czar Peter 
secretly allied himself with the Hospadars or governors of Moldavia 
and Wallachia, and marched with 40,000 men to the river Pruth. 
Here he was betrayed by the Wallachian hospadar and, surrounded 
by 200,000 Turks and Tartars, he was on the eve of falling with his 
whole army into Turkish captivity. But bribery saved him. With the 
jewels and moneys hastily gathered in the camp, he purchased a peace 
from the Grand Vizier by which he restored Azow and all his con- 
quests on the Sea of Azow to Turkey, and granted to Charles XII. 
free passage through Russia or Poland. The King of Sweden indig- 
nantly rejected this concession. But as his presence in Turkey be- 
came, in course of time, a menace to the peace of the Pruth, Charles 
in 1713 was invite^ to leave the country. 

84. Return of Charles XII., 1714. — On his return to the north Czar 
Peter suppressed the last opposition to Augustus II. in Poland and then 
joined his allies in Pomerania, where the last Swedish army, after winning 
two victories over the Panes, was disarmed by the Russians and Saxons. 
To save her possessions in Germany, Sweden confided them to the safe- 
keeping of Prussia as a neutral power, until peace should be made. This 
arrangement met with the approval of the allies, but was rejected witty indig- 
nation by Charles, who was still at Bender. Thereupon Frederic William 
I. of Prussia, the successor of Frederic I., joined the Northern Alliance, 
1714. George I. of England, as Elector of Hanover, did the same to get 
Bremen and Verden as his share from Sweden's dismemberment. Such was 
the development of affairs when suddenly Charles stood before Stralsund. 
It had taken 10,000 Turkish soldiers and a hand-to-hand fight through all the 
rooms to dislodge him with his 400 foUowers from his dwellings in Bender. 
Prussia asked him to refund the expenses for keeping his Pomeranian for- 
tresses, lie refused, and Prussia now actively co-operated in the cam- 
paign. In 1715 Sweden lost Stralsund, and in 1716 the rest of her German 

35. Last Years' of Charles XII. — Charles now made new 
efforts to punish his enemies. His plan included the conquest of 
Norway, which belonged to Denmark, the reoccupation of Pomerania 

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and Poland, the invasion of England, and the restoration of the 
Stuarts to chastise George I., for joining the hostile alliance. For 
this purpose Baron Goertz, his new minister, who was as heartily 
hated by the Swedish nobles as he was favored by the King, nego- 
tiated not only a peace but an alliance between Charles XII. and 
Czar Peter. From 1716-18, Charles undertook three expeditions 
into Norway. At the siege of Fredericshall the bullet, probably of 
a conspirator, put an end to his far-reaching plans. The Swedish 
nobles at once reasserted all the privileges which Charles XI. had 
abolished. In raising Charles' sister, Ulrica Eleonora, to the throne, 
the Council of State left her but a shadow of the former power, which 
was still further restricted, when in 1720 she transferred the govern- 
ment to her husband, Frederic of Hesse-Cassel. 

36. Treaties of Peace, 1719-1721. — The Council of State 
broke off the negotiations with Czar Peter, and condemned Baron 
Goertz to death. It then made peace with George I., as Elector of 
Hanover, who retained Bremen and Verden by paying 1,000,000 
thalers to Sweden, 1719. Prussia received Stettin and western 
Pomerania with a few islands, and paid 2,000,000 thalers (1720). 
Denmark restored all her conquests except Schleswig, and received 
commercial advantages and an indemnity of 600,000 rix-dollars. 
With Poland a truce concluded 1719 was prolonged indefinitely. 
Augustus was recognized as King of Poland. Stanislaus retained 
the royal title and received an indemnification in money. With Czar 
Peter, who meanwhile, had harassed the Swedish coasts, Sweden con- 
cluded the Peace of Nystadt, 1721. Sweden ceded Livonia, Esthonia, 
Ingria, part of Carelia and a number of islands to Russia, while 
Russia restored Finland to Sweden and paid 2,000,000 rix-dollars. 
Having thus made Russia the leading power of the north at the 
expense of Sweden, Czar Peter assumed the title of Emperor, and 
was henceforth called Peter the Great. 

Other Books for Consultation : — Morflll : Russia; Story of Russia. — M. 
Eroalewskl: Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia. — Leroy-Beaulleu : The 
Empire of the Tsars and the Russians (t ran si. by Eagozin;. — Histories of Russia, by 
Ustrlalow; Kelly; Rambaud. — H. 8. Edwards: The Romanoffs. — K. E. Morris: Age of 
Queen Anne. — Burton: Hist, of Anne's Reign. — Crlchton : Scandinavia, Ancient and 
Modern. — Hermann : Geschichte des russ. Staates. — Sarauw, Feldzuge Karls XII.— 
Gfrcerer: Geschichte des 18ten Jahrh. 

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37. Russian Affairs. — A law of Peter the Great issued in 1722 empow- 
ered the reigning Czar to appoint his own successor. As Peter died with- 
out naming a successor, his consort, Catharine, aided by Peter's favorite, 
Mentchicow, ascended the imperial throne, 1725-27. She was followed 
uuder her will by the boy Czar, Peter II., 1727-80. His instructor, Oster- 
mann, and Prince Dolgoruky sent Mentchicow, the regent, to Siberia. At 
Peter's early death Anna Ivanorna was proclaimed Empress. She banished 
Dolgoruky and appointed Ostermann minister of foreign affairs and M'un- 
nich minister of war. These two eminent foreigners were the souls of the 
administration. Unfortunately her incapable favorite Biron (Buhren of 
Curland) obtained a great Influence in the government. Anna's reign, 
1730-40, was marked by two wars, that of the Polish Succession and a 
Turkish war in alliance with Austria. Under the child, Ivan IV., 1740-41, 
Munnich removed Biron to Siberia. But his days of power were also num- 
bered. In a single night a bloodless palace revolution overthrew the gov- 
ernment and the German Influence. Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of 
Peter the Great, appealed to the anti-German feeling of the Russian party. 
With her own hands she lifted the little Czar from his cradle and sent him, 
his mother, Munnicji, Ostermann and their German adherents, into prison 
or exile. With Elizabeth began a rule of shameless favoritism which cost 
millions to the country, and vied in debauchery with the scandals of Ver- 
sailles under Louis XV. 

38. War of the Turks with Venice, 1714-18, and with 
Austria, 1716-18. — In 1714 the Turks broke the Peace of Car- 
lowitz on the most frivolous pretence and declared war against the 
Venetians. The following year they conquered Morea and besieged 
Corfu. They were, however, repelled with a loss of 17,000 men 
and of all their cannon, magazines and tents. In 1716, the Emperor 
took up the cause of his Venetian ally, and dispatched Eugene of 
Savoy, on what proved another brilliant campaign , to Hungary. Again 
the Pope summoned the Christian nations against the infidels. Again 
princes and nobles of every country flocked to the standard of the 
great general. At Peterwardein Eugene attacked and routed a three- 
fold more numerous foe and expelled him from Hungary. He next 
laid siege to Belgrade and wrested this important stronghold from 
the Turks after defeating under its very walls a new and formidable 

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Turkish army. Peace was made at Passarowitz, in which Austria 
obtained Belgrade, the Banatof Temeswar, the only part of Hungary 
yet under the Turks, and pushed her frontiers far into Servia and 
Wallachia. Venice retained her Dalmatian conquests but ceded 
Morea to the Porte. The Peace of Passarowitz marks the greatest 
extension of the Austrian dominion. 

The brilliant conquests of this campaign were, however, lost to a great 
part, when eighteen years later a new war (1736-39), broke out with Tur- 
key and ended disastrously for Charles VI. Austria had entered an alliance 
with Russia against the Turks. Under her spirited general Munnich, Russia 
won great advantages in the field. But owing to the blundering interfer- 
ence of Anne's favorite Biron, she had finally to relinquish all claims to naviga- 
tion on the Black Sea, and to content herself with Azow and its dismantled 
forts. Austria sent out an expedition from Vienna. But no Eugene led the 
brave soldiers to victory. He had died in 1736. The expedition proved a 
complete failure. In the Peace of Belgrade this important fortress together 
with Servia and Little Wallachia were restored to the Turks. 

39. Spain and the Quadruple Alliance, 1717-20. — Anew 
war broke out between Spain and Austria. The Emperor still clung 
to his Spanish policy, and foolishly hoped to change the results of 
the War of the Spanish Succession. On the other hand, Elizabeth 
Farnese, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Philip V., energetic 
and ambitious as she was, planned with her still more ambitious prime 
minister, Cardinal Alberoni, the reconquest of the Italian countries 
awarded to Austria in the Peace of Utrecht. Elizabeth Farnese, 
allied with Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy and King of Sicily, 
gave Europe a great deal of trouble for the next thirty years. The 
wars in which Spain became implicated did not benefit Spain, but 
the sons of the Queen. The Cardinal's genius for organization had 
raised Spain in a few years from a state of prostration to the position 
of a European power. In 1717 the Cardinal sent out a fleet, osten- 
sibly against the Turks, but in reality to land in Sardinia. The 
island was wrested from Austria in two months. Thence he intended 
to pass over to Naples. But as the capture of Belgrade enabled 
Charles VI. to reinforce Naples, and as Victor Amadeus played false 
and was courting favor with Austria, Alberoni directed all his forces 
to Sicily and occupied the island with 30,000 men. This new aggres- 

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sion called forth the Quadruple Alliance between France, England, 
the Emperor and Holland for the maintenance of the Peace of 
Utrecht. The British fleet commanded by Admiral Byng almost 
annihilated the Spanish navy in a desperate battle off Cape Passaro 
near Syracuse and thus blighted the reviving greatness of Spain. At 
the same time a French army of 40,000 men crossed the Pyrenees, 
while an Austrian force expelled the Spaniards from Sicily. Private 
jealousies and public clamor drove Alberoni into exile. In 1720, 
the agreements of the Quadruple Alliance were executed. Spain 
evacuated Sardinia and Sicily, and renounced her claims to the Neth- 
erlands, the two Sicilies and the Duchy of Milan. In return the 
Emperor recognized the Spanish Bourbons. Victor Amadeus was 
obliged to exchange Sicily for Sardinia. Henceforth the Dukes of 
Savoy styled themselves Kings of Sardinia. 

40. The Pragmatic Sanction. — The chief aim of Charles VI. who had no 
son was to secure the government of the Austrian dominions to his eldest 
daughter Maria Theresa. For this purpose he established an order of suc- 
cession; the so-catted Pragmatic Sanction, which decreed : (1) that the lands 
belonging to the House of Austria should be indivisible, (2) that their gov- 
ernment should devolve upon Charles' daughters according to the law of 
primogeniture, (3) that If this line should become extinct, the daughters of 
Joseph I. and their descendants should succeed. 

Leopold I. 

/ ■ . * ■ . — \ 

Joseph L Charles VI. 

Maria Josepha Maria Amalia Maria Theresa, 

m. Augustus III., m. Charles Albert, claims guaranteed by the 

of Saxony-Poland. Prince Elector of Bavaria. Pragmatic Sanction. 
Both renounced their claims. 

The Electresses of Bavaria and Saxony were barred by their own renun- 
ciations. All the Austrian countries accepted the Pragmatic Sanction, and 
at the sacrifice of valuable concessions the Emperor gradually obtained the 
consent of most of the Powers. Thus Spain guaranteed the Pragmatic 
Sanction in 1725, England in 1731. France still held aloof. 

41. War of the Polish Succession, 1733-1735. — The 

selfish policy of the leading Powers started at the death of Augus- 

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tua II. a war of succession in Poland. The great majority of the 
Polish nobles chose Stanislaus King of Poland for the second time. 
Stanislaus was supported by Louis XV. who had married his daugh- 
ter Maria Lesczinska. Spain and Sardinia joined France in the hope 
of extending their possessions in Italy. A small minority elected 
Augustus III. Elector of Saxony, the son of Augustus II. Russia 
and Prussia, desirous of increasing their territories by a division of 
Poland, combined to give effect to this election. Partly frightened 
by the attitude of France, Spain and Sardinia, partly induced by 
the promise of Augustus III. to guarantee the Pragmatic Sanction, 
Charles VI. joined the northern allies. In Poland itself a Russian 
army at once settled the question of the succession in favor of 
Augustus. Stanislaus was again a fugitive. The war speedily 
changed its character and its objects. In Italy the southern allies 
conquered Milan, Naples and Sicily. On the Upper Rhine the 
French carried their arms successfully into Germany. The aged 
Prince Eugene was powerless for want of means. The occupa- 
tion of Lorraine and the seizure of Kehl by the French led to 
negotiations which lasted till 1738 and resulted in the Peace of 

42. Peace of Vienna, 1738, — Naples and Sicily passed to 
Don Carlos, the first son of Queen Elizabeth of Spain, as a secondo- 
geniture, so that these lands could never be united with the crown 
of Spain. Thus a third Bourbon throne was established. In 
exchange, Don Carlos ceded to Austria Parma and Piacenza, which 
he had inherited in 1731 by the extinction of the House of Farnese. 
Stanislaus, while retaining the title of King, was indemnified for 
the loss of Poland by the Duchies of Lorraine and Bar, to revert at 
his death to the crown of France. Stanislaus reigned till 1766, and 
won in a high degree the affection of his subjects. Francis Stephen, 
the Duke of Lorraine, received in exchange for his duchy the Grand 
Duchy of Tuscany, which fell vacant in 1739 by the extinction of 
the House of Medici. France insisted the more on this exchange, 
as Francis Stephen, the husband of Maria Theresa, had reasonable 
hopes X>i being chosen Emperor one day. But Lorraine, in the hands 
of the Emperor, would have laid France open to Germany. In con- 

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sideration of this exchange Louis XV. guaranteed the Pragmatic 
Sanction in the strongest possible terms. 

Lecky: I. 3. pp. 342-414. — Morris: Early Hanoverians.— Armstrong : Elizabeth Far- 
nese — Cardinal Alberoni: James (Em. Foreign Statesmen); Lanth: Half Hours with 
Ambassadors; Moore: Card. Alberoni and the Duke of Hipperda. — y. Arnelb: Prince 
Eugene, Otber books for oonsaltation abont present and sabseq. periods. Lord Mabon 
(Earl Stanhope): Hist, of EngL, 1718-1788, — Martin ; Daruy: Hist, of France.— Wm. 
Coxe: Hist, of the House of Austria. — A. Rabhe; J. Duncan : Hist, of Russia — Hammer: 
Oeschichte dee Osm ann i s eh en Jleiehee. — 6. Flnlay : Hist, of Greece under Othoman and 
Turkish Domination. 

James I. of England, 1603-1625. 

Elisabeth, m. PalsgraTe Frederic V. 

I (The Winter King.) 

Sophia, m. Ernett August of Hanover. 


I. 9 1714- 




H. f 1727- 





Louis, d. 



GEORGE III., 1760-1820. 

GEORGE IT., WILLIAM IV., Edward August, 
1820-1830. 1830-1837. Duke of Kent. 


VICTORIA, 1837 -X. 

Ernest August, 
Duke of Cumberland, 
King of Hanover, 

George, K. of Han. 

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43. Youth of Frederic II. — The deaths of Frederic William 
of Prussia and of the Emperor Charles VI. in 1740, gave rise to 
new constellations which plunged not only Europe but the whole 
civilized world into a series of sanguinary wars. 

Frederic William of Prussia bad been a passionate, coarse and despotic 
character, a narrow Calvinist, harsh and even brutal to his family, but 
frugal, simple and moral in his private life. The tyrannical rule of the 
father estranged his son Frederic, who tried to escape from a galling sub- 
jection by flight. Being arrested he and officer Katte, the companion of his 
flight, were peremptorily court-martialed and sentenced to death. Katte 
was executed before the prison window of the crown prince. Frederic was 
saved from a like fate only by the interposition of Charles VI 's imperial 
authority. Henceforth Frederic complied with every wish of his father, 
with all the pliancy and dissimulation of a slave, even so far as to marry an 
unfortunate princess of Brunswick, chosen for him by his father, but whom 
he utteily despised. In his new establishments at Rheinsberg and Ruppin, 
he corresponded with Voltaire, the French freethinker, cultivated literature 
and art, and studied statesmanship in all its branches. His father te<ft him 
a well- filled treasury and a splendid army of 84,000 men. 

44. Character of Frederic H. — Frederic was a man of extraordinary 
mental resources, his intellect shrewd and calculating, his judgment rapid 
and clear. He was bold in danger, strong in adversity, indefatigable in the 
detail work of civil and military organization. He intensely loved power 
and money, but despised their pomp and display. Hard, selfish and cynical, 
entirely void of any religious principles or moral scruple he was in political 
dealings callous to every sentiment of generosity or honor. In his internal 
government he introduced many beneficial measures. The very first days of 
his reign he granted general toleration, and abolished trial by torture. His 
rule was based on the maxim: all for the people; nothing through the 

3 (33) 

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45. Maria Theresa, 1740-1780. — With the death of Charles 
VI., 1740, the male line of the Hapsburgs became extinct. Maria 
Theresa as Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduchess of 
Austria succeeded her father in the government of the Austrian mon- 
archy. In the beginning of her reign no visible opposition was raised 
against her succession, except by the protest of Charles Albert, 
Elector of Bavaria. 

To breadth of intellect and firmness of purpose and to royal loftiness of 
thought and action the young queen added great accomplishments and per- 
sonal charms. Her character was earnest, generous, chivalrous. She had 
at heart the good of her people. The principles of the Catholic faith were 
the mainsprings of her private life, but she was frequently deceived by 
Kaunitz and other advisers as to the real interests of the church. The 
centralization of power in Church and State which characterized the reign 
of her son Joseph II. began in the latter part of her own reign. Her court 
was the most virtuous of Europe. Whilst in the main she kept the reins of 
government in her own hands, she associated her husband, Francis Stephen 
of Lorraine, as co-regent with herself. 

48. The Opponents of Maria Theresa. — Charles Albert grounded his 
protest on his descent from Anne, the oldest daughter of Emperor Ferdinand 
I. He claimed that Ferdinand had willed the Austrian possessions to Anne's 
descendants, in case the male issue of her brother should fail. The court 
of Vienna refuted this claim by exhibiting the original document which read: 
in case the legitimate descendants of her brother should fail. Augustus 
III., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, claimed the succession in the 
name of his wife, the eldest daughter of Joseph I. The Kings of Spain and 
Sardinia put in claims as descendants of Philip II. Elizabeth Farnese, the 
Queen of Spain, who had obtained the two Sicilies for her son Don Carlos, 
now wanted to obtain an equal portion In northern Italy for her second son, 
Don Philip. All these powers, except Charles Albert, had recognized the 
Pragmatic Sanction. 

47. Invasion of Silesia — Frederic II. acted in his own characteristic 
way. The very day on which the death of Charles VI. was announced at 
Berlin, he confided to his minister his intention of annexing Silesia, whilst 
with the same breath he warmly protested his friendship to the young 
queen and her prince -consort. Publicly he recognized her royal title, but 
not until he had matured his plans for the actual invasion of her territory. 
Rights to Silesia he had none. Some shady claims to Liegnitz and Jagern- 
dorf were raised to satisfy public opinion. He himself based his claims on 
" his ready army and his well-filled exchequer." 

Without any declaration of war or intimation of his design, at a 
time when the province was enjoying perfect peace and was unpre- 



pared for defense, Frederic crossed the frontier of Silesia at the 
head of 30,000 men, December, 1740. Then and not till then he 
offered Maria Theresa his aid in defense of her throne, if she would 
cede to him Lower Silesia. The offer, of course, was rejected. 
Thereupon the whole province was overrun by Prussian soldiers, and 
Breslau, the capital of Silesia, and other places were taken. In 
April, 1741, Marshal Schwerin won the battle of Mollwitz for the 
King of Prussia, after Frederic himself and his division had fled from 
the field. 

48. Secret Alliance of Nymphenburg. — The battle of Moll- 
witz encouraged the greedy opponents of Maria Theresa to come for- 
ward. Foremost of all was Fleury, minister of France. Setting at 
naught the solemn engagements of the Peace of Vienna he pledged 
himself, in a secret entente with Prussia which was to last for four- 
teen years, to guarantee to Frederic the possession of Silesia, and 
to invade Germany with an army of 40,000 men. In return Frederic 
was to cast his electoral vote for Charles Albert, the imperial candi- 
date of France. Bavaria, Saxony and Spain joined the convention at 
Nymphenburg near Munich. Austria was thus to lose the imperial 
dignity for the first time since Albrecht II. 

Fleury was driven iuto the Prussian Alliance by the clamor of the young 
and dissipated nobles who panted for a chance of winning glory and emolu- 
ments in a war against Austria, France's hereditary rival. They found a 
spokesman in the Count of Bellelsle at a time when, under the sway of mis- 
tresses, Louis XV. began to emancipate himself openly from his duties to 
God, to his family, and to public morality. Belleisle was made embassador 
to Germany and Marshal of France. On his way to Frankfort he bribed the 
spiritual electors to vote for Charles Albert. 

49. The Fall of Prague and the Imperial Election. — The 

Prussians now advanced into Moravia. The allied French and 
Bavarian armies invaded Upper Austria, took Linz, where Charles 
Albert was proclaimed Archduke of Austria, menaced Vienna, 
but turned off into Bohemia. Marshal de Saxe, half-brother to 
Augustus III., but in the service of France, surprised Prague by a 
stroke of adventurous boldness, and before the end of the year 
Charles Albert was crowned King of Bohemia. The capture of 
Prague decided the imperial election at Frankfort. It threw out the 


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vote of Bohemia. The rest of the votes were cast for the Elector of 
Bavaria. Seeing Hanover threatened on one side by a French, on 
the other by a Prussian army, George II. had promised his vote for 
the French candidate upon a guarantee of neutrality for Hauover. 
Charles Albert assumed the title of Charles VII., 1742-1745. 

60. Maria Theresa In Hungary. — Meanwhile Maria Theresa in her dire 
straits had gone to Pressburg iu Hungary. By his mild rule her father had 
succeeded in gaining the confidence of that people. In a dignified Latin 
speech she depicted the dangers threatening her person and her children, 
and showed the confidence which she placed in the Hungarians, by authoriz- 
ing, against the advice of her counsellors, a so-called insurrection, or general 
arming of the nation, whereupon she was greeted with the exclamation: 
vitam ct sauguiuein cousecramus. A levy of 30,000 infantry was voted at 
once; the nobles bound themselves to serve in the cavalry. With the levies 
of Croatia, Trausilvaniaand the Bauat of Temeswar, it was estimated that 
little less than 100,000 men might be raised. Maria Theresa then granted 
a number of concessions which were a compromise between the strict royal 
claims aud the extreme demands of the nationalists, and which for more 
than a century formed the charter of the Hungarian Kingdom. 

51. Austrian Victories, 1741-42. — The levy of the Hun- 
garians and the fall of Walpole completely changed the desperate 
position of Maria Theresa. Walpole was forced to retire before a 
hostile Parliamentary majority. They charged him with betraying 
the interests of Maria Theresa, for whose succession England stood 
pledged, and with conniving at the vote cast by George II. at 
Frankfort. Lord Carteret, the new minister of foreign affairs, at 
once placed a large parliamentary subsidy and 12,000 men at the 
Queen's disposal. A secret truce arranged between Frederic II. 
and Maria Theresa as a preliminary for peace, enabled the Austrians 
to attack the rest of the allies in two brilliant campaigns. The Duke 
of Lorraine recovered the greater part of Bohemia and hemmed in 
the French within the walls of Prague. Marshal Khevenhiiller 
entered Upper Austria, seized Linz on the very day when Charles 
VII. was elected, and compelled the French army to surrender. He 
then overran Bavaria and entered Munich in triumph on the corona- 
tion day of the now landless Emperor. 

52. The Peace of Breslau and Berlin, 1742. — Awaiting 
the course of events before deciding which of the Powers to betray, 



Frederic now offered a separate peace to Maria Theresa ou the 
condition of retaining Silesia. Maria Theresa was willing to cede 
an equivalent but not Silesia. Thereupon the Prussian monarch 
broke the truce and with unexpected rapidity attacked and defeated 
Prince Charles of Lorraiue, the brother of Francis Stephen, in the 
hotly contested battle at Czaslau-Chotusitz, 1742. But instead of 
pursuing the enemy and relieving Prague, he renewed his offers of 
peace, which were now accepted. The peace was concluded at 
Breslau in June, and signed at Berlin in July, 1742. Austria 
yielded to Prussia Lower and the greater part of Upper Silesia and 
the Bohemian county of Glatz. Prussia on her part withdrew her 
troops without making the slightest provision for the safe retreat of 
the allies, assumed the payment of the debt raised on the Silesian 
revenues, and acknowledged the Pragmatic Sanction. The Elector 
of Saxony acceded to the peace and recalled his troops from the 

53 Retreat of the French. — Beleaguered in Prague and deserted by 
Frederic, Belleisle eluded the Austrians by a masterly move. On a dark 
winter night he left Prague with the main army, and after a desperate 
twelve days' march over snow and ice through the enemy's country he 
reached Eger, where an "army of redemption " waited for him. The gar- 
rison of 6,000 men remaining at Prague was allowed to capitulate with all 
the honors of war. Of Bclleisle's original 40,000 men, only 8,000 were left 
when he recrossed the Rhine. In May, 1743, Maria Theresa was crowned 
Queen of Bohemia. She concluded an alliance with the Elector of Saxony 
and the King of Sardinia. Bavaria, temporarily reoccupied by Charles 
VII., once more passed into the possession of Austria, whilst the Emptror 
was little more than a fugitive at Frankfort. 

54. England and the War — The Battle of Dettingen. — 

Under the auspices of England a new confederate army of 44,000 
men, the so-called Pragmatic Army, headed by the Earl of Stair, 
had been formed in Flanders for the campaign in 1743. It was 
composed chiefly of English and Hanoverian troops with some 
Austrian, Dutch and Hessian auxiliaries. Whilst encamped in the 
neighborhood of Frankfort, it was surrounded by a superior French 
army under Noailles. But the gross blundering of the French lead- 
ers, and the bravery of the allies enabled the latter to extricate them- 
selves from their dangerous situation. George II., the last English 

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King to take part in a battle, fought with due valor. The victory of 
Dettingen led to no result beyond the seizure of a few fortresses. 

This inefficiency of the Pragmatic army was caused by the many divisions 
among the allies aud especially by the bitter jealousy and deadly hatred 
between the English and the Hanoverian troops. These sentiments of the 
soldiers were but an echo of the public feeling in England which protested 
against the subordination of English to Hanoverian interests. This popular 
resentment was fanned, no doubt, by scheming politicians, but it is also true 
that the King unduly favored his own countrymen, and diverted England's 
resources to the interests of Hanover. The consequence was, that Carteret, 
the English representative of the King's " German policy," had to resign 
office and give way to the Pelhams. Carteret was created Lord Granville. 

RUter v. Arneth : Maria Theresa (10 vol. chief authority for the period). — M. Theresa : 
Hewitt (111. Women); Jameson (Celebrated Fern. Sovereigns); Jenkins (Heroines sf 
Hist.). — Broglle : Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa. — Lives of Frederic II: Brack- 
en burg; Lord Dover; Morris (Great Commanders); Onno Klopp (Germ.) ; Raumer: 
Fred. II. and His Times. — Hist, of My Own Time; Posthumous Works, Correspondence 
by Frederic himself. Broglle: Louis XV. (The King's Secret, etc.). Youth of Fr. II. 
E. R. '59, 4.- Cardwell : Fred. II: M. »77, 2.— B. U. 42, 2. 

§ 2. 

1744-45 (48). 

55. Beginning of the War in the West. — Heretofore France 
and England had been engaged in the war only as auxiliaries. With 
the death of Fleury the war party got the upper hand, and France 
formally declared war against England and Austria; 80,000 men 
under Marshal Saxe, accompanied by the King, invaded the Nether- 
lands and conquered a number of Austrian fortresses. Meanwhile 
Maria Theresa was not idle. She thirsted for the opportunity to re- 
conquer the provinces Austria had lost in the treaties of Utrecht and 
Vienna, and her generals, Charles of Lorraine and Marshal Traun, had 
already crossed the Rhine, secured" a foothold in Alsace, and were 
advancing upon Lorraine, when a new enemy appeared in the field. 
Frederic II. grew alarmed at the victorious progress of the Austrian 
arms on the Rhine and began to fear for Silesia, though Maria Theresa 
scrupulously avoided any act of hostility against Prussia. Accord- 
ingly Frederic again allied himself with the two Powers whom he had 
betrayed in the Peace of Breslau, with the Emperor and a few other 

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German princes and with France. He did not declare war, but 
notified the court of Vienna that he was acting on behalf of the 
Emperor and Empire. 

56. The War in the East. — Early in September, 1744, at the 
head of 80,000 men of " Imperial Reinforcements " Frederic pushed 
his way through Saxony, invaded Bohemia and took Prague. From 
Prague he made for Vienna. Again the Hungarians responded to the 
Queen's appeal with enthusiastic loyalty. Frederic was completely 
out-manoeuvered by the two armies which had hastened to Bohemia : 
the Hungarians who met with the hearty support of the whole popu- 
lation, and the Austrians who under the splendid leadership of 
Marshal Traun had just effected a masterly retreat from the Rhine in 
the face of a superior French army. Without risking a battle, Traun 
forced Frederic to evacuate Prague and to retire with great hardship 
and loss into Silesia, as the Saxons had cut off his retreat through 
their own country. Frederic henceforth regarded Traun as his 
teacher in the art of war. The gainers, however, at the end of 1744, 
were France and the Emperor. Alsace was freed of the invaders, 
Marshal Saxe maintained his position in the Netherlands, and 
Charles VII. had in the meantime reconquered the greater part of 

57. Death of Charles VII. — Francis I., 1745-1765. — 

Frederic's position became still more critical by the death of Charles 
VII., for it removed the pretense on which he had commenced the 
war. Maria Theresa, however, refused to listen to his offers of 
peace. Shortly before the Emperor's death Augustus III. had joined 
the league of Austria, England and Holland. Bavaria now sued for 
peace. By the treaty of Fiissen the young Elector, Maximilian 
Joseph, abandoned his pretensions to the Austrian succession, and 
pledged his electoral vote to the husband of Maria Theresa, who 
restored to him all his hereditary dominions. In Sept. the imperial 
dignity again reverted to the House of Austria in the person of 
Francis Stephen. He was elected as Francis I. by seven out of the 
nine electoral votes, Frederic II. and the Palatine Elector, his ally, 
voting in the negative. Maria Theresa was henceforth styled 

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58. The Battle of Fontenoy, 1746. — In the Netherlands English, Hano- 
verian and Dutch troops with some Austrian auxiliaries, commanded by the 
Duke of Cumberland, the second son of George II., stood opposed to 80,000 
men under Marshal Saxe. 

The decisive battle of the year was fought at Fontenoy. The allies 
under Cumberland were marching to the relief of Tournay. Marshal 
Saxe turned from the siege to meet him. The Dutch gave way early 
in the struggle. But the English and Hanoverians forming a solid 
column of 16,000 men carried everything before them. The battle 
was all but lost for Louis, when Marshal Saxe ordered the Irish 
Brigade, supported by four cannon and Louis' household troops, to 
the front. The Irish Brigade consisted of several regiments of Irish 
Catholics whom the violation of the Treaty of Limerick and the Penal 
Laws had driven into French service. With the cry: "Remember 
Limerick and Saxon treachery " they dashed forward, and by their 
gallant charge decided the day. The British column was completely 
broken up and scattered, and victory perched on the banners of 
France. The next result was the fall of Tournay and of seven other 
fortresses in the Austrian Netherlands. 

Upon hearing of the bravery of the Irish, King George is said to have 
exclaimed: " Cursed be the law that deprives me of such subjects." 

59. The Peace of Dresden, 1745. — Undismayed by his 
reverses Frederic II. continued the contest single-handed, defeated 
the Austrians and Saxons under Prince Charles at Hohenfriedberg 
in Silesia, and followed the retreating armies into Bohemia. England 
strongly urged Maria Theresa to make peace. But failing in this, 
England separately settled preliminaries with Frederic guaranteeing 
him the possession of Silesia. Between Austria and Prussia the 
war went on, and a fresh victory at Sohr in Bohemia won by Fred- 
eric's genius over the stronger army of Prince Charles (Sept.) 
and another sanguinary success obtained by Leopold of Dessau over 
the Saxons at Kesseisdorf in Saxony (Dec.) led to the desired Peace 
of Dresden. Maria Theresa guaranteed to Frederic the territorial 
possessions accorded to him in the Peace of Breslau, whilst Fred- 
eric acknowledged the disputed vote of Bohemia and recognized 
Francis I. as Emperor. 

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CO. Charles Edward in Scotland, 1745-40. — Charles 
Edward, James III.'s son, styled Prince of Wales by the Jacobites, 
the Young Pretender by the Hanoverians, landed in the western 
Highlands, July, 1745, with only seven followers. In August he 
raised the royal standard at Glenfinnan at the head of 1,600 men, 
proclaimed his father as James VIII. of Scotland and James III. of 
England, and marched straight to Edinburgh where he was royally 
welcomed. With 2,500 Highlanders he stampeded in seven minutes 
the English forces under Sir John Cope at Preston Pans. With 
6,000 men he crossed the border, took Carlisle, and without rousing 
either great sympathy or serious opposition marched as far as Derby, 
where a stronger English army awaited him. The Prince was for 
boldly marching upon London, but could not prevail on the chiefs 
to follow, and had to turn back. At Falkirk he scattered another 
English troop, but was then forced to encounter the Duke of Cum- 
berland, who had been recalled from the Netherlands, and who had 
now entered Scotland at the head of 8,000 men trained in the con- 
tinental war. The decisive battle was fought at Culloden, the last 
battle on Scotch territory. The first line of the enemy was broken 
by the vigorous charge of the Highlanders, but the second stood 
firm and overwhelmed the Scots by their superior numbers and train- 
ing. By slaughtering or burning to death the wounded Higlanders, 
Cumberland has deservedly earned and retained the nickname of 
"The Butcher." Charles Edward was a fugitive. He owed his 
life to the courage and touching fidelity of the Highlanders. 
Though hundreds knew of his hiding-places, though £30,000 were 
set on his head, yet not one was found to betray his fallen chief, 
and after many hair-breadth escapes he again reached the shores of 
France. As the Scotch Episcopalians were Jacobites, English leg- 
islation in 1746 and later, though opposed by the bishops, nearly 
crushed out the Episcopalian system in Scotland, and unfrocked 
most of the Episcopalian clergy. 

The Stuarts withdrew. James III. died 1766, his son 1788. His brother, 
Cardinal Henry, who died in 1807, was the last Stuart of the male 
line. The female line, descending from Henrietta, the youngest daughter 
of Charles I , was continued in the Dukes of Savoy and Kings of Sardinia 
and Italy. 

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61. End of the Succession War. — In Italy, where the King of Sardinia 
fought on the side of Austria, and Spain on the side of France, the war 
had been waged with varying fortune, until 1746 Austria recovered almost 
everything she had lost in the preceding years, and completely defeated the 
Franco- Spanish army at Piacenza. 

In the Netherlands success was uniformly on the side of France. They 
not only held all the Austrian Netherlands but conquered a considerable por- 
tion of the Dutch Republic. On the other hand, after the death of Philip V., 
174G, France was practically deserted by his successor, Ferdinand II., while 
some of her American and Indian possessions Were taken, others threatened, 
and her navy almost destroyed by the English fleets. As Austria and Sar- 
dinia were the only powers that desired to continue the war, they were 
. offered the alternative by the other allies of either joining the preliminaries 
drawn up at Aachen or fighting alone. 

62. The Peace of Aachen, 1748. — The Peace of Aachen which 
ended the war of the Austrian succession was concluded on the 
basis of a mutual restoration of all conquests made in Europe and 
beyond the seas. The only exception was the cession by Austria of 
the Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Don Philip, second 
son of Elizabeth of Spain. Thus the second secundo-geniture of 
the Spanish Bourbons was established in Italy, and the fourth Bour- 
bon court in Europe. Austria confirmed the cession of Silesia to 
Frederic II. and obtained the recognition of the imperial election 
and of the Pragmatic Sanction. The succession of the House of 
Hanover, both in England and in Hanover, was guaranteed. Two 
points which contained the germs of a future war were left unde- 
cided : The right claimed by Spain of searching English vessels, 
which had originally led to the naval war between the two powers, 
and the disputed boundaries between the French and the English 
possessions in North America. It is therefore time to turn .our 
attention to the American colonies. 

Lecky, I, 3, 415-470. — Tx>rd Mahon; Coxe; Morris; Martin; Duruy (see prey, 
chap.). — Guizot: Pop. Hist, of France. — W 11 son: Marshal Saxe (111. Soldiers).— 
Chambers: Hist, of the Pebell. of 7746. — Chev. de Johnstone: Memoirs of the Reb. of 
1746. — Jesse: Memoirs of the Pretenders. — A. 8hleld: The Cardinal of York (the last 
Stuarts). D.R. '96, 3. 




63. North America. — At the time of colonization there may 
have been some 200,000 or 300,000 Indians scattered over the vast 
expanse of the North American continent. Mexico aud Florida were 
Spanish possessions. The Atlantic seaboard from Florida to Canada 
was settled by the English with a sprinkling of colonists from 
Holland, Sweden and other European countries. French settlers 
occupied the country north of the English colonies, the St. Lawrence 
valley, sending out spurs of Catholic missions and commercial posts 
along the great lakes and the water-course of the Mississippi, all 
subject to France. In the Spanish and English colonies a strong 
negro population was living in servitude. 

64. Florida. — Ponce de Leon, a companion of Columbus, dis- 
covered Florida in 1512 for Spain. The name Florida then signified 
not only the peninsula but the country stretching northward and 
eastward to an indefinite extent. For a time Huguenot settlers, sent 
out by Admiral Coligny, disputed a portion of Florida, but after a 
sanguinary struggle, disgraceful for both parties, the Spaniards finally 
maintained their ground and founded St. Augustine, the oldest town 
in the United States, 1565. 

In 1696 Pensacola, founded by Spaniards from Mexico, became 
the border town of Western Florida. 

65. New France. — Pier de Gast, Sieur de Monts, effected the 
first permanent settlement for France at Port Royal in Acadia, 1604. 
Acadia originally comprised all the country from Pennsylvania to 
^New Brunswick. In course of time the term Acadia was restricted 


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to what is now Nova Scotia ; the valley of the St. Lawrence became 
known as Canada and the French possessions in America as New 
France. A colony sent out by de Monts under Champlain founded 
Quebec, 1608. Following earlier Recollect (Franciscan) mission- 
aries, the Jesuits undertook in 1632 the conversion of the Hurons, 
the Abnakis, the Chippewas and other northern tribes, and founded 
at Quebec a flourishing center for far-stretching missions. Among 
the savage and warlike Iroquois they had at first little success. 
Martyrdom, accompanied by all the excesses of Indian cruelty, 
frequently ended a life of constant hardship. Martyrs, like FF. 
Brebeuf, Lallemant, Jogues, Brcssani, Daniel, Gamier, inspired 
increasing numbers of their brethren to follow in their footsteps. 
When in 1679 the Huron missions were destroyed by the Mohawks, 
the hereditary foes of the Hurons, the missionaries followed the 
fugitives along the great lakes, and carried the gospel and the 
French name to what are now Ohio, Michigan, Illinois and Wis- 
consin. Father .Marquette discovered the Mississippi in 1673, and 
floated down the great river a distance of over 1,000 miles. Cav- 
alier de la Salle in 1682 descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and named the vast territories along the river Louisiana, in 
honor of Louis XIV. From the south the Canadian d'Iberville, 
entered the river at the mouth and began to settle what are now the 
States of Mississippi and Alabama. New Orleans was founded by 
Law's famous Louisiana Company in 1718. Yet in all their settle- 
ments the number of French was in no period more than one-tenth 
of the population that occupied the English colonies. Unlike their 
English neighbors they cared little for agriculture, if we except the 
simple Norman peasants of Acadia; the adventurous Frenchmen 
preferred to be hunters, trappers, travelers or explorers. 

66. English Colonies — Southern Group. — The thirteen 
English colonies on the Atlantic coast may be divided into three 
groups: the southern group centering in Virginia, the northern 
group centering in Massachusetts, and the middle group with New 
York for its center. The southern group comprises besides Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, the two Carolinas and Georgia, all carved out of 
the original territory of Virginia. 

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67. Virginia. — Virginia received its name from Walter Raleigh, who 
made an unsuccessful attempt at colonization, in honor of Queen Elizabeth. 
The first permanent settlement of Virginia was effected at Jamestown, 1607, 
by a colony of Euglish gentlemen aud criminals sent out by the London 
Company. Saved from being hopelessly scattered at the very start by 
Captain John Smith, " the Father of Virginia," the struggling colony went 
through all the stages of disappointment, misery, discouragement, anarchy, 
martial law and despotism (under Argall), until with the arrival of Sir 
George Yeardley, the u Honse of Burgesses," the first representative body 
in America, was organized in 1019. In 1C24, when the London Company 
was dissolved, Virginia became a royal province and remained so, with a 
short interruption, until the War of Independence. Virginia became the 
most populous as well as the richest of the English colonies. Tobacco, cul- 
tivated by negro and white slaves, was both the staple and the currency of 

68. Maryland. — Under a charter of 163J, a portion of the Virginia terri- 
tory was transferred to George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore. Sir George 
had resigned the secretaryship of State to embrace the Catholic faith, when 
Catholicity was bitterly opposed in England. Cecil, the second Lord Balti- 
more, now Proprietary Governor, intrusted the execution of the charter to 
his younger brother, Leonard Calvert, and named the colony Maryland in 
honor of Queen Maria Henrietta. The chief object of the colony was to 
provide an asylum for the persecuted Catholics of England. John Leonard 
Calvert and some two or three hundred colonists, mostly Catholic gentlemen, 
with their dependents, accompanied by Father White aud three other Jesuits, 
arrived on two vessels, the Ark and the Dove. They sailed up the Potomac, 
planted the cross in the heart of America, and paying the Indians for the 
land, they founded the town of St. Mary's. The rapidly increasing pros- 
perity of the colony was due (a) to the religious guidance by which the 
settlers profited from the beginning, (b) to the mutual acts of kindness and 
charity exchanged between the settlers and the Indians, (c) to the religious 
toleration granted by the Catholic government and enacted as law by the 
colonial legislature. The conversion of the Indians progressed rapidly. 
Maryland had never any serious Indian troubles within her frontiers. A 
boundary "dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania was settled by the 
establishment of Mason and Dixon's Line " drawn by two surveyors 
according to au agreement between the Maryland proprietor and Penn's 
heirs in 1732. 

69 The Carol In as —Carolina was another parcel of the Virginia grant. 
A charter was issued by Charles II. in 1663 to seven proprietors of whom 
the most prominent were the Lords Clarendon and Albemarle (Hyde and 
Monk). The Grand Model, the most absurd constitution ever devised for a 
new colony, was drawn up by the freethinkers Shaftesbury and Locke. The 
settlers began their political life by dividing the one province of Carolina 

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Into two governments, and by overthrowing the Grand Model. The only 
provision retained was the clause that every freeman should have absolute 
power over his negro slaves. Turbulence, lawlessness and a double slave 
trade, one of importation from Africa, the other of exportation to the West 
Indies, were the characteristics of these colonies. 

70. Georgia. — Georgia was carved out of Carolina as Carolina was carved 
out of Virginia. James Oglethorpe, an English philanthropist, for a time 
a volunteer in the army of Prince Eugene, established Georgia under a 
charter of George II. and chose the site of Savannah for his capital. Insolv- 
ent debtors from England, Moravians aud Lutherans from Germany, Scottish 
Highlanders, the needy and the persecuted of many countries sought a home 
here. Oglethorpe absolutely excluded slavery from his colony. 

71. The Northern or New England Group. — The northern 
group comprises Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island. The name of New England was given to 
this territory by John Smith of Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt 
at colonization, 1G15. In 1620 James I. incorporated forty of his 
subjects as " the Council established at Plymouth in the County of 
Devon, for the planting, ruliug, ordering and governing of New 
England." The territorial grant extended from 40° to 48° N. L. and 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

72 Plymouth — The first permanent settlement was founded by 102 
Puritan Separatists or Independents, who had first emigrated from England 
to Holland, where they were known as the "Pilgrims." They sailed to 
New England on the Mayflower and landed at Cape Cod. After the neces- 
sary explorations the nineteen families of the Mayflower settled at Ply- 
mouth, 1 C20. Plymouth iucreased hut slowly, and as a separate colony never 
prospered. It was absorbed by Massachusetts in 1692. 

73. Massachusetts. — Other English Puritans led by John Endicott, 
founded Salem, 1028, and obtained from Charles I. the Charter of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, by which the government was transferred to 
America and vested in the colonists. Upon the arrival of John Winthrop 
with 1,500 settlers and the Massachusetts Charter, Boston and a number of 
other towns were fouuded, 1G30. The colouy prospered rapidly and soon 
became the most influential and the most domineering of the New England 

74. Maine and New Hampshire. — In 1622 a portion of the domain of 
New England was carved out as the province of Maine and granted to 
Fernando Gorges and John Mason. In 1029 the two colonizers divided the 



province, and Mason called his part New Hampshire. Both Maine and New 
Hampshire were at times united with Massachusetts, and again returned to 
the proprietary government of Gorges and Mason or their heirs. 

75. Connecticut. — The first settlement on the Connecticut river was 
the military post of some Plymouth men at Windsor on territory also claimed 
by the Dutch. Saybrooke, at the mouth of the Connecticut, was founded 
by Massachusetts' emigrants under a charter granted by the Couucil for 
New England to Viscount Say and Seal and Lord Brooke, 1635. The same 
year the Council surrendered its charter to the crown. At once a strong 
Immigration of Massachusetts people who looked with disfavor on the 
theocratic policy of the Bay Colony, settled in and around Hartford, Wether- 
field and Wludsor, and established the separate colony or commonwealth 
of Connecticut, 1636-37. In 1638 the three towns drew up the first Ameri- 
can constitution independently of King, Parliament, Charter or mother 

Another independent colony, New Haven, was founded in 1638 by a com- 
pany of London traders. The only title which they had to their land, was 
that of a fictitious purchase (nine coats for many miles of land) from the 
Indians. They formed the first and only known government by a mere 
social contract signed by every member of the commonwealth, a century 
before Rousseau elaborated his system of the Social Contract. Saybrooke 
was merged in the colony of Connecticut in 1644, New Haven in 1665. 

76. Rhode Island. — Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams, a 
young preacher of Salem, a champion of freedom of conscience for all 
except Catholics, and a talker for the rights of the Indians. His denuncia- 
tions, that the magistrates had no power In religion, that the King had no 
right to take away their lands from the Indians without paying for them, 
that the English charters were of doubtful legality, turned the Massa- 
chusetts authorities into his enemies. Like many others, he was prosecuted 
and banished for his opinions. In 1636 be founded Providence Plantation 
In the territory of the Narragansetts from whom he purchased the land. 
Another party of exiles from Massachusetts bought the Island of Aquiday 
from the Narragansetts, 'and called it Rhode Island. In 1647 the four towns 
of Providence and Rhode Island united under a royal charter, and estab- 
lished a purely democratic government without auy state religion. Rhode 
Island had to contend with the hostility both of the Dutch Colony and of 
Massachusetts. The United Colonies of New England, the first union of 
American colonies (1643-66) comprising Massachusetts, Plymouth, Con- 
necticut and New Haven, formed for the purpose of defense against the 
Dutch and the Indians, was also hostile to Rhode Island. 

77. The Middle Group. — The middle group of colonies, com- 
prising New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, was 



originally settled by the Dutch and the Swedes, and with the excep- 
tion of Pennsylvania, came to England by conquest. 

78. New York and New Jersey. — After the discovery of the Delaware 
Bay and the Hudson river, 1609, by Henry Hudson, an Englishman in Dutch 
service, the lively fur trade springing up between Holland and the natives, 
led to the erection of some trading posts and military forts, aud the explora- 
tion of the Connecticut, New Jersey and Delaware shores. The whole 
region claimed by the Dutch was called New Netherlands, and ruled by 
governors on behalf of the Dutch West I udia Company, established 1C21. 
The claims of the Dutch gave rise to frequent conflicts with the English on 
the Connecticut and the Swedes on the Delaware. Peter Minuit, the first 
of the four Dutch governors, founded New Amsterdam on Manhattan 
Island, 1626. Further up the river was Fort Orange, the second place of 
Importance. The success of the colony was due to its favorable situation 
on one of the best harbors of the world, to the influx of settlers from 
every quarter, as the colony was soon thrown open to free immigration, to 
religious toleration in the absence of wrangling parsons, and to the treaty 
of peace concluded with the Five Nations, the most powerful Indian con- 
federacy of the Iroquois. When the New Netherlands were conquered by 
the English and New Amsterdam became New York, New Jersey received 
its present name aud was granted by the Duke of York to Lords Berkeley 
and Carteret. Under William III. New Jersey became a royal province. 
Thomas Dougan, governor of New York, " a man of hitegrity, moderation 
and genteel manners/ 1 but " a professed papist/ 1 called the first assembly 
of New York, 1083, settled finally the boundary dispute between New York 
and Connecticut, and gave a city charter to New York, which was one of 
the most liberal ever bestowed upou a colonial city. The Dougan charter 
was, till lately, the fundamental law of the city of New York. 

79. Delaware. — In 1638, when Sweden was ruled by Queen Christina, a 
colony of Swedes made its appearance on the Delaware Bay and founded 
Christiana. The settlement prospering for a time, extended into what later . 
became Pennsylvania, and was called New Sweden. Peter Stuyvesant, the 
last Dutch governor, annexed New Sweden to the New Netherlands. With 
the fall of the Dutch possessions Delaware passed under English rule. 

80. Pennsylvania. — In 1681 Charles II. granted William Penn, the son 
of Admiral Penn aud the leader of the English Quakers, a large tract west 
of the Delaware, 26,000,000 acres of the best land in the world, in exchange 
for a debt due to his father, and called it Pennsylvania. The Duke of York 
subsequently added Delaware to the grant. In 1682 Penn founded Phil- 
adelphia and concluded a treaty of peace and friendship with the Indians. 
The richness of the soil, PemTs peaceful, just and beneficent disposition, 
and the religious toleration and political franchise which he granted to 



all who believed in God and abstained from work on Sunday, made the 
settlement successful from the beginniug. During Penn's absence from 
America, Delaware was granted a separate assembly. The Quaker's friend- 
ship for James II. brought upon him the persecution of William and Mary 
and the forfeiture of his charter, which was, however, restored, when he 
had proved his innocence of treason. 

Charlevolx-Shea: Hi$t. of New France. — Parkman : Pioneers of France; La Salle 
and Discovery of the Great West. — M. Lam mis: Spanish Pioneers. — Histories of the U. S. 
(see Ch. IX.).— Winsor: Narrative and Critical Hist, of the U. S. —Doyle: English 
Colonies; Puritan Col. — Lodge : Engl. Colonies.— J. Flake: Old Virginia and Her 
Neighbors; The Beginnings of New England. — Trcacy: Old Cath. Maryland. — Scharf : 
Hist, of Maryland. — The French in North America; K. R. '85, 3. — Martin: Life of F, 
Isaac Jogues. — Maryland : Macleod, M. '78, 2. ; J. G. Shea, A. C. Q , 9. 10. 


81. Population. — The free immigrants during colonial times were, as a 
rule, men of strong character who had abandoned their country for religious 
or political convictions. They were nearly all agriculturists and freehold- 
ers, thinly scattered over a large territory. Another class of immigrants 
were the white slaves. Such were the cargoes of Irish Catholics who at 
frequent intervals since Cromwell's invasion were deported for no other 
crime than patriotism and religion — with atrocities scarcely inferior to 
those of the African slave trade. Such were the insurgeuts in the civil 
wars of Eng'and taken in the field and auctioned off to the colonies. In 
Virginia they were resold to the .highest bidder. The Scotch and Irish 
coasts were lurking-places of pirates, who kidnaped unwary inhabitants 
and sold them to American plauters. In the early days of Virginia women 
were sold as wives for 100-150 pounds of tobacco. Besides the honest and 
the persecuted, the refuse of Europe also found its way to America. The 
government deported criminals, debtors, "jail-birds; " the Mayor of Lon- 
don sent over homeless children picked up from the streets of the city. 
After serving out their terms of forced labor, from five to seven years and 
upward, the " indented servants " acquired the rights of freemen and, in 
Virginia, the share allotted to all immigrants — fifty acres of laud, but in 
the outskirts of the cultivated country. 

82. Government. — In general the English legislators of the seventeenth 
century conceded to the colonies charters which secured to them almost 
absolute self-government. In the Proprietary Colonies such as Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, Carolina, Delaware, etc., the proprietors appointed the gov- 
ernors, and since 1696 authorized them to summon legislative assemblies. 
In the Crown Colonies, the governors, the councils and the judges were 
appointed by the crown, but the assembly was a representative body elected 
by the colonies. 

§ 2. 




The home government in the New England colonies was more or less 
Democratic. The u towns" were a reproduction of the Anglo-Saxon 
townships. Their resident inhabitants or freemen constituted the electoral 
body, the Anglo Saxon " town moot" which admitted new members, chose 
all local town officers, regulated all local taxation, and sent deputies to the 
General Courts, as the representative bodies were called in New England. 
The towns were responsible for their own roads, bridges, police, poor 
relief and education. They had their grand and petty juries, their militia 
regiments, their train -bands and even their whipping posts and stocks as in 
England under the rule of Cromwell. Thus all the political power in New 
England was concentrated in the town ; the county was only a geographical 
and later a judicial designation. The southern colonies were aristocratic 
in their government. The important political unit was the county, invested 
with all the political powers which in New England resided in the town. 
The county was responsible to the colonial legislature for its share of 
taxation. The townships were laid out by the officers of the county; they 
had, however, the right of electing their own officers, and of determining, 
in the township meeting, the amount of taxes to be raised for local purposes. 
The township submitted an estimate of the sums required to the county 
authorities for approval, and were subject to county supervision in the 
exercise of their local rights. 

83. Special Forms of Government. — In Massachusetts the g •vernment 
was theocratic. All the freemen enjoyed the franchise only under a religi- 
ous test of narrow Puritanism, so that not one fourth of the adult males 
were entitled to vote. Thus instead of a landed aristocracy, Massachusetts 
set up an ecclesiastical aristocracy. Rhode Island was a pure democracy, 
practically independent of King and Parliament, and without any State 
religion. Connecticut became notorious for its Blue Laws, regulating not 
only the opinions, but the minutest actions of the people. In New Haven the 
Mosaic Law was declared the fundamental law of the colouy. New York 
and Pennsylvania in their political institutions ranged with the other 
colonies In an Inverted order of geographical position : New York with the 
aristocratic South, Pennsylvania with the democratic North. In Virginia 
large landed estates were entailed upon the oldest male heir. Each planter 
claimed supremacy on his own estate. The rich planters formed an aristoc- 
racy, that controlled the selection of the local magistrates nominally 
appointed by the governor. The Grand Model of Carolina devised by 
Shaftesbury and Locke, was an attempt to transfer a feudal system of nob'es, 
palatines, landgraves, sarosts, caziques. leitmen, borrowed from the Ger- 
mau, Polish, English, Anglo-Saxon and Indian systems, to the wild woods 
of the Western continent. 

84. Political Changes. — The uumerous disputes between the settlers 
and the proprietors, between the colonies and the home government, gener- 
ally ended to the advautage of the crown. Again, the favors shown to 



regicides of Charles I. in some New England colonies, the maintenance of 
religious proscription and the violation of the navigation acts led to the 
annulment of charters under Charles II., and to the appointment of irre- 
sponsible governors under James 1 1. This King published the Declaration of 
Indulgence in the colonies and appointed oue governor (Andros) for New 
England, New York and New Jersey. William III. renewed the charters in 
a form favorable to the crown, and granted religious toleration to all except 
Catholics. Since 1696 the government in England could reject a governor 
appointed by a proprietor aud annul any colonial legislation conflicting with 
Acts of Parliament on the same subjects. Henceforth it became a funda- 
mental maxim of the British Parliament, to maintain aud increase its 
ascendency over all colonial authorities, and to restrict American commerce 
for the profit of the mother country. 

85. The Church In the Colonies. — The colonies were the seats of the 
fiercest religious fanaticism, foremost the New England colonies. The 
religion of Virginia was lutolerant and proscriptive Episcopalianism. The 
careful exclusion of Catholics was originally avowed as the special object of 
Virginia's colonization. In New England, especially Massachusetts, Church 
and State were most intimately blended. The General Courts exercised 
supreme control in spiritual as well as in temporal matters. Marriage was 
considered a mere civil contract, to be sanctioned by a magistrate. The 
magistrates, too, granted divorces. Baptism was limited as a privilege to 
church members. Furious contentions about doctrinal matters, condemna- 
tions of " heretical " opinions, banishments of u heretics," especially Bap- 
tists, the burning of witches, fill the annals of New England. 

In 1688 a poor Irish woman was executed for witchcraft. In 1092 
nineteen persons were hanged and oue pressed to death for witchcraft at 
Salem; 150 were detained in prison and 200 more awaited their trials, before 
reason and remonstrance broke the fatal spell. 

To bring a Quaker into a New England colony was punishable by a flue 
of £100. To entertain a Quaker for one hour, was fined with forty shillings. 
Quakers themselves, besides being whipped and forced to hard labor in a 
house of correction, were to lose their ears, to have their tongues bored 
with a red hot iron, and on returniug after deportation, to be executed. 
Since 1701 any Jesuit or Popish priest was liable, as an incendiary and dis- 
turber of the public peace, to perpetual imprisonment, aud if an escape were 
attempted, to death. 

86. Maryland. — Founded as an asylum for the persecuted Catholics of 
England, Maryland accorded perfect freedom to all Protestant sects, and 
welcomed alike the persecuted Puritans of Virginia and the persecuted 
Episcopalians of Massachusetts. With perfect impartiality the Protestauts 
were granted all the privileges which were possessed by the Catholics. The 
law of 1649 enacted, that 41 no person within this province, professing to 
believe in Jesus Christ, shall be in any way troubled, molested or discounte- 

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nanced for his or her religion or in any free exercise thereof; " and by the 
Catholics at least, the promise of this law was never broken. A shameful 
sequel followed this almost solitary example of toleration. " The Protest- 
ants," says Mr. Lecky, multiplied in the province. They outnumbered the 
Catholics and then enslaved them. The democratic opposition to Lord Bal- 
timore assisted them, and the Revolution (of 1C88) gave the signal for the 
complete destruction of reiigious liberty in Maryland. The Catholics were 
excluded from all prominent offices in the State which a Catholic had 
founded for Catholics." Anglicanism was made the established church in 
1704. The Mass was forbidden. The priest and the Catholic tutor or leader 
were alike proscribed. 

87. The Penal Laws. — Pennsylvania was the only other colony that 
granted honest toleration. The toleratiou law of Rhode Island expressly- 
excluded Catholics. In 1734 the German Catholics were permitted to build 
a church in Philadelphia in which Mass was openly celebrated, the only 
instance of this kind previous to the War of Independence. Most of the 
Irish immigrants in those days were Presbyterians. 

With the Revolution which placed William of Orange ou the English 
throne, came the completion of that system of peual laws against Catholics 
which remained for a century and more the opprobrium of the colonial 

See Works to § 1. — Lccky: II., 5. -J. G. Shea: The Boston of Winthrop, A.C. Q. 12.— 
Blue Laics of Conn.: A. C Q. 2. — James J I. and the U. S.: A. C. Q. — Scudder : Mm and 
Manners One Hundred Tears Ago. — Lower : New England Tico Centuries Ago. — Lunt: 
Old New England Traits. — A. Morse : Customs and Fashions in Old Ntw England. — 
Coffin: Old Times in the Colonies — Ch. W. Upham: Salem Witchcraft. — Qi. Goerres: 
Myttik, v. 4, pp. 634-41. — Cotton Mather: Remarkable Providences. 

88. The Indians and Their Federations. — When the Europeans arrived 
in America, the Indians had settled abodes, towns and villages. Their chief 
occupations were hunting, fishing and war. South of the St. Lawrence the 
women cultivated the land to a limited extent, chiefly by raising maize or 
Indian corn. 

To judge by their languages, the North American Indians formed large 
nations or confederacies of kindred tribes. Their different dialects are 
reduced to five general heads. The harsh Algonquin was spoken from the 
Hudson Bay southeast to the Chesapeake and southwest to the Mississippi 
and Ohio. Within the limits of the tribes of the Algouquiu speech and al- 
most surrounded by them, several powerful confederacies along the great 
lakes, such as the Hurons, the Iroquois, the Eries, spoke the softer Wyandot 
languages. The Cherokee is peculiar to a confederacy of the same name who 

§ 3. 




occupied the southern valleys of the Alleghanies. The common name of 
the Mobilian, rich in vowels and indicating the influence of the southern 
climate, included the dialects of the Choctaws, the Chickasas, the Creeks 
and other inhabitants of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Savannah. 
The Dacotah or Sioux is still spoken in many dialects by the tribes west of 
the Mississippi. Apart from these principal language groups there existed 
tribes in different parts of the continent that spoke in tongues peculiar to 

89. Government. — The government was of the simplest. It comprised 
the tribal chieftainship and the tribal council. The chieftainship was 
usually hereditary. The chief was the guide rather than the ruler of his 
tribe or village, having neither guard, nor prisons, nor officers of justice. 
In the council all grown men had the right of speech. It decided on peace, 
war and alliances and had jurisdiction in criminal matters of national or 
tribal importance. Private crimes were either punished by private ven- 
geance, or compromised between the parties concerned. 

90. Character. — The North Americau Indians are grave aud gloomy, 
cool and deliberate, respectful aud atteutive in couucil, hospitable to 
friends, implacable to enemies. They are trained from infancy to endure 
with stolid composure taunts and blows and every sort of ill treatment. 
But their passions once roused, they are sullen, treacherous, iuappeasable, 
and unspeakably cruel, especially in torturing their captives. The intro- 
duction of ardent spirits has completely demoralized the ludiau. On 
account of intemperance whole tribes have " died in their tracks." 

91. Religion. — The Indiaus believe in the " Great Spirit," the immortality 
of the soul, and a future reward of the brave in the happy hunting grounds. 
They .believe in a great number of subordinate spirits or manitous, that are 
either superior types of animal life (the manitou of the buffalo, the boar), 
or imaginary beings dwelling in the forests, rivers, mountains, in all nature 
(manitou of the Mississippi). They chiefly worship manitous that inspire 
fear. The manitou of war was worshiped with human sacrifices. The one 
Great Spirit ruling above all is too high for worship. Their priests, sor- 
cerers or medicine men, are credited with knowing the secrets of nature 
and the meaning of dreams which play a great part in the gross super- 
stitions of the Indians. Polygamy was not frequeut though not dishonor- 
able among them. 

92. The French and the Indians. — As to the treatment of the Indians 
by the three principal European nations that occupied America, it may be 
broadly stated that the Spanish method was conversion and amalgamation 
with or without enslavement of the natives; the French method, conversion 
and amalgamation without enslavement ; the English method extermination 
or enslavement without conversion or amalgamation. The French always 
recognized an immortal soul redeemed by Christ in the Indians. They 

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called them '* brothers " aud " children." Their missionaries sacrificed 
everything for the couversiou of the red man aud were largely successful. 
The French method of colonization aud of dealing with the Indians did not 
necessarily involve exterminating warfare, or oppression aud injury, or 
expulsion of the natives from their soil. Their objects were occupancy of a 
portion of the soil, small in comparison with the territory left to the 
Indians, peace, commerce and trade, and the christianizing of the natives. 
Their sway over the Indlaus, based on justice and mutual consent, was 
unquestioned, although the French never numbered more than one-tenth of 
the English population. Individual cases of aggression and violence 
undoubtedly occurred, especially in southern Louisiana, but they were 
foreign to the policy of the noble Champlain and his successors. The 
French and Indian wars with the Five Nations were provoked by the exter- 
minating raids of the fierce Iroquois. u There is nothing similar," says a 
modern historian (M. Ludlow), "to the wholesale christianizing of the 
Indians in the Spanish colonies or to the vast network of French missions 
in Northern America, aud to their wldespreading Influence over the 

93. Puritan Principles as to the Treatment of the Indians. — In the 

early colonial enterprises of the English, feeble and attended by disaster as 
they were, the Indians were invariably the supporters and benefactors of the 
white man. In every case the kindly actions of the savages were ill requited. 
The New Englaud Puritans looked upon the natives as " a doomed race of 
Adam " under a curse, whose existence had no value even to the Indian 
himself. Although a number of very loose contracts were made with the 
Indians, in which valuable districts were bought for trinkets, wampum strings, 
tools, arms, kitchen utensils or small sums of money, yet the real principles 
upon which the settlers acted, were clearly expressed by Dr. Increase 
Mather: That the heathen people, amongst whom we live, and whose 
lands the Lord God of our fathers has giveu to us for a rightful posses- 
sion/ 1 etc. Cotton Mather calls Satan " the old landlord " of the Indian 
couutry. Governor Bradford writes of the colonies as "vast and unpeopled 
countries, which are fruitful aud fit for habitation, being devoid of all civil 
inhabitants, where there are only savage and brutish men which range up 
aud down little otherwise than the wild beasts of the same." The general 
opinion of the Puritans and Dutch Calvinists was, that the Indians were a 
part of the vermin and wild beasts such as wolves aud wild cats, which the 
whites have a right to exterminate in order to render the territory habitable 
to civilized men. The few meagre attempts to convert the Indians to Puri 
tauism were ridiculed aud strenuously opposed by the mass of the settlers. 
Of course, the Indians themselves contributed their part to this antagonism. 
Their fierce retaliations, the night attacks, the tomahawk, the scalping knife, 
the massacre and the torture, used by them unsparingly when they had the 
upper hand, bred a savage spirit iu the hearts of the magistrates, preachers 
and people, without one redeeming trait of pity. They forgot, that the 



weight of condemnation for ruthless measures and unchristian wrongs must 
fall on the first aggressors, because they were the strouger and more intelli- 
gent party, and bound by their profession of Chrjftianity to justice, mercy 
aud righteousness. 

94 Specimens of Indian Wars. — The early settlers of Virginia had been 
continuously indebted to the generosity of the natives for rescuing them 
from starvation. In return the English insulted and despoiled their bene- 
factors and drove them into a conspiracy. Three massacres of white men 
resulted in a long war of extermination (from 1G22), duriug which it was 
enacted by law that no terms of peace should be entertained with the 
natives. — In the war of the Dutch with the Iudiaus wholesale massacres 
were attended by terror, devastation and barbarous tortures which rivaled 
iu horror the savagery of the natives. — The Pequods in Connecticut had 
slain two Englishmen, one for killing an Indian chief. A body of eighty 
English and 100 Mohicans surprised the chief village of the Pequods, set 
it on Are, u formed a circle around the burning huts, and slew their eueraies 
without mercy as the Are drove them into sight; 600 Pequods, men, women 
and children, perished in an hour while but two of the English were lost; of 
the rest of the tribe, 200 who surrendered, were sold into slavery, all the 
others hunted down and exterminated" (1637).— The Narragansetts came 
next. Miantonomo, their noble chief, had been falsely accused before the 
magistrates of Massachusetts of dark plots. Forthwith his person was 
seized by the Mohicans and surrendered to the commissioners pf the United 
Colonies. Although he and his uncle, Canonicus, had been the best friends 
and benefactors <>f the colony, yet he was doomed to death by four Puritan 
ministers. Not long after, a party of Wampauoags had killed eight or uine 
Englishmen in revenge for some private offense. Philip, their chief, who 
was the son of the famous Massosoit, the earliest frieud of the colonists, is 
said to have wept when he heard that a white man's blood had been shed. 
The English prepared for war Within a week the Wampanoags, 700 strong, 
were driven from their palisades. Philip fled to the Indiaus of the interior 
and roused all the tribes, save the Mohicans, from Maine to Connecticut. In 
their first onslaught they destroyed twelve or thirteen towns, burnt some 600 
houses, and killed in battle or cut off unawares between j>00 and 600 settlers. 
But retaliation came swift and unsparing. The Wampanoags were extermi- 
nated by the butcheries of Captaiu Church, the Narragansetts by Captain 
Winslow. Philip was shot iu a swamp, his wife and his son were sold as 
slaves to Bermuda. Such is the short story of " King Philip's War," 1675-76. 

Reuben G. Ttawraites: The Jesuit Relations antl Allied Documents. — J. G. Shea: Catho- 
lic Missions, 1629-1854 — G. E Ellis: The Red Man and the White M an* — Bancroft: 
Indian Races of the Pacific States. — Moore ; Trumbull: Indian Wars. — Edm. Burke: 
European Settlements in Am. — Schoolcraft: Historical and Statistical Information, etc.— 
Cat] In: On the Manners, Customs and Conditions of the Indians. — J. G. Shea: The Jesuits, 
Recollects and the Indiam (Narrat. and Crlt. Hlet.). — Dc Smet: Letters and Sketches — 
LUken : Die Traditionen des Menschengeschlechtes. — Parkman : Conspiracy of Pontiac. 

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06. Origin of Negro Slavery. — Negro slavery owed its origin to the 
Moorish wars in the Spanish Peninsula. The Moors dragged thousands of 
Christians into slavery, and the Spaniards and Portuguese retaliated. 
Moorish captives aud prisoners of war then purchased freedom with " black 
Moors " or negroes. Alexander III. had, however, reasserted the principle 
already proclaimed by St. Gregory the Great, that " nature having made no 
slaves, all men have a natural right to liberty." Slavery was accordingly 
treated as a punishment for crime, such as war or rebellion against Chris- 
tians, felony, relapse into idolatry or cannibalism. At first, the severity of 
bondage was mitigated by benevolent legislation. Commercial slave trade 
with its barbarous slave hunts appeared in the middle of the fifteenth century. 
The Holy See never sanctioned the slave trade, but since Eugene IV. repeat- 
edly condemned the iniquitous' traffic. Paul III. twice passed sentence of 
excommunication against Europeans who would enslave negroes or any 
other class of men. Cardinal Xlmenes opposed the introduction of negroes 
into Hispaniola though authorized by the Spanish law. Las Casas, who in 
his charity for the weaker Indians had advised the employment of the 
stronger negroes in the colonies, lived to regret his counsel. 

96. England and the Slave Trade. — England became interested in the 
slave trade through the pirate John Hawkins. Elizabeth herself was allured 
by the gain so easl y gotten and engaged in the smuggling and selling of 
negro slaves. Her example was followed by all the Stuarts and the earlier 
Hanover kings who each iu his turn founded one or more slave trading com- 
panies. In 1749 the slave trade, until then monopolized by these'eompanies, 
was thrown open to all British subjects free from taxes. By the Assiento 
contract, which Bollngbroke secured in the Peace of Utrecht, England 
obtained the monopoly of importing iuto the Spanish West Indies 144,000 
negroes at the rate of 4,800 a year, at a fixed duty, with the right of import- 
ing any further number at a lower duty. Thus the Southern States of the 
future Union were all peopled with negro slaves. Before the Peace of 
Utrecht the colonies were equally responsible with the home government 
for the slave trade. But after the peace the encouragement of this traffic 
became the principal object of England's colonial policy, " the pillar and 
support" of her trade in America. All Africa was convulsed with civil 
wars and infested by bands of native slave hunters after victims for the 
English trade. Bancroft in a careful computation estimates the number of 
negroes imported by the English alone, between 1676 aud 1776 — the century 
preceding the prohibition of the slave trade by the American Congress — at 
8,000,000, without counting the untold numbers that perished on the voyage. 
The attempts of some of the colonies to prohibit or restrict the importation 
of negroes was invariably defeated by England. 

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97. 81a very In the Colonies. — The first slaves were conveyed to Vir- 
ginia in a Dutch vessel, 1619. New England saw the first importation, 1637. 
Henceforth slavery existed in all the colonies, both Dutch and English; 
but it speedily gravitated to the South. Although the importation of slaves 
in New England was never considerable, yet the slave trade was mainly 
carried on by ships from Massachusetts and Rhode Island, which carried 
rum to Africa and brought back slaves to the southern colonies and to the 
West Indies. By 1763 there were about 800,000 negroes in North America. 
The treatment of slaves depended to a great extent on the character of 
those who owned them. In the North they dwelt under the same roof with 
their masters and were employed in agriculture and domestic services. 
Public opinion protected them against cruelty. In Maryland, Virginia, the 
Carolinas and Georgia, they dwelt in detached huts and worked on the 
tobacco, rice and cotton plantations. In families imbued with the spirit of 
Christianity, they were treated like members of the household. This was 
especially the case in the old Catholic families of Maryland. In general, 
however, their lot was that of hopeless, abject aud crushing servitude. 
Ag the supply of slaves was abundant, bad masters found it to their iuterest 
to work them to death, and to get new hands. When Georgia adopted 
slavery with the approval of Methodist ministers, including Whitefield aud 
the two Wesleys, it added a clause for the religious instruction of the 
negroes. But outside of Georgia, and parts of Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
little heed was given to the conversion of the slaves. Many thought that 
baptism would Invalidate their titles of owuership. Others feared that 
even primary aud religious education would turn the slaves against their 
oppressors. The Protestant Society for the Propagation of the Gospel sent 
missionaries to the western coast of Africa, but absolutely refused to con- 
vert their own slaves in Barbadoes. 

98. Legislation. — Virginia in her first slave law (1663) enacted the 
clause, that mulatto children should be bond or free according to the condi- 
tion of the mother, thus declaring the greatest number of mulatto children 
slaves. Maryland reversed the law aud thereby freed the greatest number 
of such children. Successive legislation discouraged enfranchisement and 
made the master absolute lord over the negro. The law did not account as 
felony the killing of a slave resulting from extreme correction. Abscoudiug 
or fugitive slaves who resisted apprehension could be lawfully wounded or 
killed. 8lave legislation reached its climax early in the eighteenth century 
when slaves were declared, by the English law, legal merchandize, and by 
the colonial law real estate, being a fixture of the soil. Thus in the long 
lapse of years the institution of slavery created a landed aristocracy 
Infinitely worse than the feudal nobility of the middle ages. 

Ifecky II. 5 —Histories of the U. S. esp. Hildreth and Bancroft. — Ludlow : War oj 
Amer. Independence . — G . VV. Williams: History of the Negro Race in Am. — See Works 
to i*. III. Ch. i on the Slavery Question. 

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§ 5. 


99. Codflsheries. — The codttsheries on the coast and banks of New- 
foundland, discovered in the days of Henry VII. by the Cabots.and utilized 
from that day to the present, formed the first link between Europe and 
North America. 

100. Treaty of St. Germain, 1632, — The last of the Hugue- 
not wars in which Charles I. and Buckingham took part, was the 
first European' war that reached over to North America. In 1629 
Kirk took Quebec under a commission of Charles I. The seizure 
happened two months after the termination of the Anglo-French 
war. Cardinal Richelieu as Protector of Canada insisted on resti- 
tution. Diplomatic negotiations accompanied by some desultory 
fighting in New France finally led to the Peace of St. Germain, 1632, 
in which England recognized New France, Canada and Acadia as 
French possessions. 

101. Acadia Taken and Restored by England. — When 
the Anglo-Dut^h war about the Navigation Act broke out between 
Cromwell and Holland (1652-54), Cromwell ordered a New England 
expedition under Sedgwick to attack the New Netherlands. The 
Peace of London, however, was concluded before the expedition 
sailed. By secret orders from Cromwell, Sedgwick attacked and 
conquered Acadia, 1655. Acadia remained an English province 
under the name of Nova Scotia, till the Peace of Breda, 1668. 

102 Acquisition of New York by England. — The open disregard of the 
Navigation Act in the dealiugs of the Euglish colonies with the New Nether- 
lands deprived England of a considerable revenue, whilst the self-govern- 
ment of the English settlers was considered by the Stuarts as injurious to 
the sovereignty of the mother country. Clarendon, then Chancellor, saw in 
the conquest of the Dutch possessions the means of bringing the English 
subjects into closer dependence on the King. Accordingly he purchased a 
forgotten claim, contained in the New England Patent, covering the terri- 
tory from the Connecticut to the Delaware, part of Maine, and some islands 
Charles II. vested this claim in his brother, the Duke of York. James 
being the presumptive heir, this claim was expected to be merged in the 
crown at his accession. 


In 1664 a small English fleet, reinforced by colonial forces, 
appeared before New Amsterdam, and demanded and obtained the 
surrender of the city and the country wjthout bloodshed. The capit- 
ulation conflrmed the inhabitants in the possession of their property, 
the exercise of their religion, and their freedom as citizens. The 
names of New Amsterdam and New Netherlands were changed into 
New York, that of Fort Orange into Albany, in honor of James 
Duke of York and Albany. This seizure was one of several acts of 
hostility which led to the first Anglo-Dutch war under Charles II. 
(1665-67). France entered the contest as England's ally in 1666. 
In the Peace of Breda between Holland, England and France, En- 
gland retained New York and Delaware, restored Acadia to France 
in exchange for some islands in South America, and left Surinam to 

In the second Anglo-Dutch war (1672-74), a Dutch squadron 
reconquered the New Netherlands. But the Peace of Westminster 
gave New York and Delaware to England on the principle of a 
mutual restoration of conquests. Thus every mile of the American 
coast from Maine to South Carolina was at length under the flag of 

103, King Williams' War, 1689-90 and 1696-97 The 

War of the Palatine Succession (1689-97) was called in the colonies 
King William's war. The question of the English succession was 
uppermost in America ; that of the Palatine succession in Europe. 
As William III. had sent no instructions, the colonies acted for them- 
selves. They rejected the offer of neutrality which Louis XIV. had 
made in order to prevent Indian warfare. The Indians of Canada 
and Maine sided with the French, the Five Nations of the Iroquois 
with the English colonies. 

Hostilities opened at Dover, New Hampshire, where Major Richard Wald- 
ron, who had betrayed 850 Abenakis into slavery, was surprised by the 
Penacook Indians of Maine and killed with 23 others. Next followed the 
massacre of 200 Cauadians at Lachine and the temporary occupation of 
Montreal by a band of English and 1500 Iroquois. But Frontenac, Gover- 
nor of Canada, avenged his losses by the capture of three colonial forts 
(Schenectady, N. Y. ; Salmon Falls, N. H.; Casco Bay, Maine), 1689. 

In the meantime, the flr9t Colonial Congress representing New York, 
Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, met at New York, and resolved to 

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conquer Canada. Sir William Phips, who had taken Port Royal and effected 
the submission of Acadia, sailed with 3i vessels and 2,000 troops to Quebec. 
This undertaking, however, proved a signal failure as well as the march upon 
Montreal of the New York contingent under Governor Leisler. This double 
disaster and the retaking of Port Royal by the French put an end to the first 
period of the war. In 1696 the Canadians captured Fort Pemaquid In Maine, 
harassed the five Nations, and were on the point of attacking Newfound- 
laud, when the Peace of Ryswick terminated hostilities in Europe and 

The Peace of Ryswick imposed on the American combatants a 
reciprocal restitution of all conquests and intrusted the regulation of 
the American frontiers to an international boundary commission, 
which never met. 

The Five Nations were not included in the Peace of Ryswick. Both 
France and England contended for an alliance with the Iroquois. But 
whilst William III. tried by all means to make them recognize his sov- 
ereignty, France promised not to touch their national existence. Besides, 
many Iroquois had become earnest Catholics. A law passed in New York, 
17C0, prohibiting any Catholic missionary under penalty of death to enter 
the territory of the Iroquois, induced them to side with France. A treaty 
of peace with the Indians and the authorities of Canada was signed in a 
general assembly before the walls of Montreal, 1701. 

104. Queen Anne's War, 1701-1713. — The War of the 

Spanish Succession is called in America Queen Anne's War. In 
King William's War, France alone was fighting the colonies ; in the 
present war France and Spain were united. The colonies that 
entered the contest were New England, because of its neighborhood 
to the French, and South Carolina, because of its neighborhood to 
the Spaniards. The Five Nations, in accordance with the Peace of 
Montreal, refused to attack the Indians of Canada. Schuyler, of 
New York, negotiated a treaty of neutrality with Canada, thus New 
York was not engaged in the struggle until 1709 and 1711, when the 
failure and disgrace of its two expeditions had the only result of 
burdening the colony with a heavy debt. 

106. The War in the South. — The object of the Indian wars in South 
Carolina was not so much to punish or destroy the natives as to capture 
slaves for the West Indies. Therefore a bounty was offered for every 
Indian prisoner. This style of warfare with Its accompanying atrocities 
roused the Indians to deeds of retaliation, and finally drove the Tuscaroras 

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northward, where they joined the confederacy of the Five Nations as the 
sixth. The Yemassees were driven into Florida. 

James Moore, the governor of South Carolina, organized a force 
of 1,200 men, took command of the fleet, and made Colonel Daniel 
commander of the land forces. The first deeds of these heroes were 
an attack on the peaceful missions of the Franciscans on the coast 
of what later became Georgia, the homes of converted and civilized 
Indians. Their villages were destroyed, their churches burnt, the 
converts killed or sold into slavery, and the surviving missionaries 
carried away as prisoners. Moore then advanced upon St. Augus- 
tine, and destroyed the town and the Franciscan mission. But the 
vigorous defense of the citadel by Don Joseph de la Cerda, and the 
appearance in the offing of two Spanish men of war, forced the 
governor to a hasty and undignified retreat, 1702. At the head of 
fifty whites and 1,000 heathen savages Moore then attacked the 
numerous towns of the Indians living on the Bay of Apalache, who 
had been converted and partly civilized by the Spanish missionaries. 
The indiscriminate massacre of the missionaries and of 800 converts, 
the tortures inflicted by the heathen tribesmen on their Catholic 
victims and the sale of 1,400 captives into slavery fill a page in the 
history of religious persecution rather than of civilized warfare. 

IOC, The War in the North. — A New England raid into the 
Canadian and Indian territory brought the northern natives down 
upon Maine and New Hampshire and into the very heart of Mas- 
sachusetts, 1704. A first attempt of Massachusetts in 1707 to 
reduce Port Royal failed. After a preparation of two years, an 
English and American fleet took Port Royal, which received the 
name of Annapolis in honor of Queen Anne. Acadia was reduced 
and became Nova Scotia, 1710. In the following year a far more 
powerful armament was equipped to conquer Canada. Sir Walker 
with a fleet of 15 men-of-war and 40 transports was to take Quebec, 
and Nicholson, governor of New York, to march upon Montreal. 
Incompetency and a severe storm on the St. Lawrence frustrated the 
attempt on Quebec, and discouragement that on Montreal. The 
Peace of Utrecht, 1713, secured Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay and 
Straits, and the fisheries of Newfoundland, to Great'Britain. 

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The boundary question between the French and the English territories 
was as little decided by the Peace of Utrecht as on former occasions, and 
remained a bone of contention for the future. After the Peace of Utrecht 
the English government promised the Catholic Acadians freedom of wor- 
ship and released them from the obligation of fighting against their French 
countrymen. From this period to-the War of the Austrian Succession there 
was only border warfare with the Indians during which Massachusetts 
obtained cessions of territory from the Indians by fair and foul means, 
ami ruthlessly destroyed the Catholic missions of the Abenakis in Maine. 

107. King George's War, 1740-48. — King George's War 
is known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession. The 
only important event of this war in America was the capture of 
Louisburg on Cape Breton Island at the principal entrance of the 
gulf and river of St. Lawrence. Louisburg, attacked from the sea 
by the English Commodore Warren, and from the land by 4,000 
colonial troops under William Pepperell, capitulated after a siege of 
fifty days. But the Peace of Aachen compelled England to restore 
Louisburg and Cape Breton Island to France. 

Parkman: A Half Century of Conflict; C. Frontenac, New France and Louis XIV.; 
Montcalm and Wolfe. 


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108. Conflicting Claims of France and England. — The 

Seven Years' War in Europe had its remote cause in an outbreak of 
hostilities between France and England in North America. It was 
this hostility which, for the first time, determined the rearrangement 
of European alliances, England and Prussia against Austria and 
France. The claims of England and France to the interior of the 
continent were irreconcilable. France based her claims (a) on dis- 
covery and exploration made under the patronage and at the expense 
of the kings, the nobility and the Church of France, (b) On actual, 
though thinly scattered settlements and the possession of the inner 
strongholds of the continent. The French had numerous fortresses, 
more than sixty military trading and missionary posts from the 
great lakes to New Orleans in a country wholly uninhabited by the 
English, (c) On the expressed consent of the Indians whom the 
French did not dispossess of their lands, and on the conversion of 
many tribes. Against such claims the English, apart from the occu- 
pation of the Atlantic colonies, had only paper charters, contradic- 
tory grants of soil reaching across America to the Pacific, often 
issued with absolute disregard of established rights, and valueless 
without occupation. Owing to the unsettled state of the boundary 
question, France still claimed the St. Lawrence basin connecting 
Canada with the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, called Louisiana. 
The English were thus on all sides surrounded and hemmed in by 
the territories of their rivals. The question became a contest for 
colonial supremacy in America between France and England. 

109. Ohio Valley Dispute. — To resist what the English 
authorities considered French encroachments, Virginia founded the 
Ohio Company, and obtained from George II. a grant of 500,000 


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acres, 1749. The governor of Canada at once sent a force of 300 
men to trace and mark the Ohio Valley for France. After failing in 
a diplomatic mission to Canada, 1753, George Washington, a young 
Virginian of Westmoreland County on the Potomac, was sent as sec- 
ond in command, under Colonel Fry, to the Ohio where the company 
had built a fort. This fort had meanwhile been taken and strength- 
ened by the French and named, after the governor of Canada, Fort 
Duquesne. The Virginia party, too late to save the fort, defeated a 
Canadian detachment at Great Meadows, 1754. By the death of 
Fry, Washington became commander, but had to capitulate to a 
superior French force, being accorded all the honors of war, 1754. 
Thus war had actually broken out between France and England 
before it was declared. Early in 1755, General Braddock with 2,000 
men arrived from England as commander-in-chief of all the colonial 

HO. The Expulsion of the Acadians, 1755. — Four expedi- 
tions were planned. The expedition to Niagara, a point which com- 
manded the fur trade of the great lakes, resulted in the rebuilding of 
Fort Oswego. The expedition to the Lakes Champlain and George 
commanding the inland route of New York, New England and Mon- 
treal resulted in the erection of Fort William Henry by the English, 
whilst the French, though defeated in the field, maintained Crown 
Point, and seized Ticonderoga. A third expedition, landing near 
the Bay of Fundy, subdued New Brunswick and accomplished the 
barbarous deportation of the Acadians. 

The Acadians were Catholic peasants, immigrants from Normandy, a most 
innocent and virtuous people, protected by their very situation iu an out- 
of the way place. They lived in a state of perfect equality without dis- 
tinction of rank, without ambition or avarice. They demanded no interest 
for loans of money or other property, and anticipated one another's wants 
with kindly liberality. They were humane and hospitable to strangers. They 
were very remarkable for the Inviolate purity of their morals. Joyful and 
gay at heart they were almost always of one mind. Simplicity and candor 
were their distinctive traits. Never at any time did the people dwelling iu 
the Acadian peniusula take up or even threaten to take up arms against the 
English or for the French, since they became subjects of England. The 
only points, guaranteed to them by England, on which they insisted with 
unalterable firmness, were the free exercise of the Catholic religion, and 
the privilege of not bearing arms against their French countrymen iu Canada. 

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The refusal of the Acadians to take the oath of allegiance shorn of this 
privilege was the ostensible cause of their deportation. Greed was the real 
cause. Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia, and his council, falsely invok- 
ing the King's name, who had condemned the project, determined to disperse 
the whole people, 18,000 souls, among the British colonies. The Acadians 
were kept entirely ignorant of their destiny and allured to gather in their 
harvest which was secretly allotted to the use of their conquerors. They 
were then summoned to their churches (Colonel Winslow at Grand Pr6), 
where the proclamation of their fate was read to them. At the point of the 
bayonet they were driven on board an English fleet, and irrespective of 
family ties — parents separated from children, wives from husbands, sisters 
from brothers — scattered all along the coast among the Protestant colonists 
of the sea board from New Hampshire to Georgia. Before leaving the road- 
stead of Nova Scotia they saw their cattle driven off, their property removed, 
and their villages burnt to prevent them from returning. Seven thousand 
were deported in 1755, the rest in the following years. This deportation of 
peaceful and innocent folk, of which Bancroft says: "I know not if the 
annals of the human race keep the record of sorrows so wantonly inflicted, 
so bitter, and so perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acadia/ 1 
was not only unauthorized by the British government but prompted solely 
by the basest motives of pecuniary greed on the part of the provincial 
authorities. Governor Lawrence got the live stock and personal property, 
his accomplices the lauds of the deported Acadians.* 

111. Braddock's Defeat, 1755. — Of the four expeditions 
planned, the principal one, commanded by General Braddock him- 
self, with George Washington as his aid-de-camp, marched against 
the French in the Ohio Valley. Despising Washington's sugges- 
tions, and irritating the friendly Iroquois, Braddock blundered into 
a French and Indian ambuscade, was defeated with terrible slaughter, 
and mortally wounded in the battle of Fort Duquesne. He died 
four days after the battle. Washington saved the scattered remnants 
of his army. The defeat of Braddock caused widespread consterna- 
tion in the English colonies, and hastened the rupture between 
England and France in Europe. 

Lecky : II., 8, p. 482. — A. It. Ropes: Causes of the Seven Tears' War (Royal Hist. Soc. 
Transaction, new Series, v. 4).— Chapman: The French in the Allegheny V. — J. G. 
Shea: The Mississippi Valley . — Parkman: Montcalm and Wolfe. — Sargeant: Hist, of 
Braddock's Defeat; Lives of Washington (see Ch. IX. $ 2) - Ph. H. Smith : Acadia, a Lost 
Chapter in Am. History. — Edouard Richard: Missing Links of a Lost Chapter in Am. 
Hist, - Acadian Confessors of the Faith: C. A. Q. t 9, 12. 

* Mr. Edonard Richard {Miuing Links of a Lost Chapter in American History) has 
tnoonlestlbly established the true meaning of this historical episode against Atkins, 
Purkiunu and other mallgners of tho Acadians. 




112. The Naval War in Europe — Treaty of Westminster, 
1756. — The defeat of Braddock did not nerve the incapable Duke 
of Newcastle, Pelham's brother, now prime minister, to an open 
war with France, but only to piratical seizures of French ships. 
Three hundred French merchantmen and 8,000 sailors brought into 
English ports, were the fruit of this lawless warfare. In his fear of 
French retaliation George II. grew anxious for the safety of 
Hanover. After groping about for alliances at Vienna and else- 
where, the ministry finally concluded a treaty of neutrality with 
Frederic II., who thereby abandoned his alliance with France. By 
this treaty of Westminster the two Powers bound themselves to pre- 
vent all foreign troops from entering Germany during the expected 
war between France and England (January, 1756). The following 
year this treaty became a subsidy treaty. France, meanwhile, had 
quietly armed a powerful fleet at Toulon, which in April 1756 
sailed to Minorca, and conquered the island with its important 
harbor of Mahon from the English. Admiral Byng had retreated 
to Gibraltar before the somewhat larger French fleet, and subse- 
quently paid for his timidity with his head. War was now formally 
declared between England and France. 

113. Treaty of Versailles, 175G. — The alliance of England 
and Prussia led to an alliance of Austria and France by a treaty of 
neutrality and defense signed near Versailles May 1, 1756, in which 
each Power guaranteed the territory of the other. 

Count Kaunitz, one of the most clever diplomats of the period, since 
1753 Chancellor of State at Vienna, and for the next forty years director of 
the Austrian foreign policy, was the first statesman to establish an alliance 
with France, Austria's hereditary foe. The reconquest of Silesia with the 
aid of France was the object of his policy. 

114. Austria and Russia. — A similar treaty of mutual defense in case of 
anew Prussian aggression existed between Austria and Russia since 1746. 
The coarse jests of the philosophical King on the scandals at the court of 
St. Petersburg had exasperated Elizabeth of Russia into a deadly enmity. 

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Her policy was to support Austria in the most effective way. On the other 
hand, Grand Duke Peter, the heir apparent, admired Frederic II. with 
almost idolatrous hero worship. Hence throughout the Seven Years' War, 
whenever the Russian Empress fell sick, her ministers and generals, in 
deference to Peter, either withdrew the armies from the field, or kept them 

115. Maria Theresa and Frederic II. — In the interval of peace Frederic 
built strong fortresses, increased and perfected his army and pressed into his 
service whomsoever he could lay his hands upon. For this purpose he in- 
vaded the homes of his subjects, his recruiting officers snatching young and 
strong men from their beds at midnight, and enticed or kidnaped foreigners 
into his army by the most outrageous devices. His bad conscience made 
him fretful of any symptoms of danger and suspicion. Menzel, a corrupted 
government clerk at Dresden, supplied him with copies of a number of 
State papers preserved in the Saxon archives. A secretary of the Austrian 
embassy at Berlin was also in his pay. From Petersburg Grand Duke Peter 
furnished him information. When he perceived that the American quarrel 
of England and France would be fought out in Europe, he determined to 
anticipate his enemies. The aims of the Empress and Queen during the same 
period — the peace and welfare of her subjects and the defense of the Em- 
pire — gradually assumed a more aggressive character. Since the treaty ol 
Versailles Maria Theresa resolved to attempt the humiliation of Prussia and 
the recovery of Silesia. 

116. Invasion of Saxony, 1756. — Aware of the intention of 
the Empress, Frederic II. sent a summons to Maria Theresa to dis- 
arm. The answer not being satisfactory, Frederic at the head of 
60,000 men swooped down upon Saxony without a declaration of 
war, and, dismantling its forts, "lifting'' the money he found in 
the public treasuries, and exacting enormous war contributions, 
marched to Dresden, which he entered "without opposition. The 
intention was to enter Bohemia at once and crush the Austrians 
before they had time to concentrate their forces. But Augustus III. 
took up a strong position on the river Pirna, appealed to Austria for 
aid, and brought Frederic's advance to a stop. 

Public opinion outside of Prussia regarded the invasion of Saxony as a 
breach of the Law of Nations. To defend himself, Frederic obtained the 
keys of the archives and the originals of Menzel's copies, not without the 
personal humiliation of the Electress of Saxony. The famous defense 
which he published to Europe, ostensibly based on these papers, was a 
tissue of half truths and whole fabrications. 


117. The Battle of Xobositz, 1756. — An Austrian army 
under Marshal Browne was sent to the relief of the Saxons. 
Frederic met the Austrians just within the borders of Bohemia, and 
fought the drawn battle of Lobositz, after which Marshal Browne 
continued his march as if nothing had happened. But he could not 
save the Saxons. They had failed to effect the junction agreed 
upon and were forced to capitulate. Augustus III. was allowed to 
retire to Poland. The officers were left the option of service under 
Frederic or dismissal under parole. The rank and file was forcibly 
enrolled under the Prussian flag and compelled to swear fidelity to 

Frederic's gain in troops was small, for most of the Saxons deserted 
before the beginning of the next campaign. Saxony had suffered terribly, 
but her resistance had saved Austria. Frederic's intended campaign had 
proved a failure; he was compelled to winter in Dresden. Meanwhile 
Austria, France and Russia could perfect their coalition. A treaty for the 
partition of some of Prussia's provinces was signed by the three Powers in 
the spriug of 1757. Sweden joined the league as the ally of France, but her 
part in the war was unimportant. The Empire declared the invasion of 
Saxony as a breach of the imperial peace and formally declared war. 
Besides Hanover and Brunswick only a few minor priuces continued in 
alliance with Frederic. Thus the Seven Years 1 War meant for Germany a 
civil war. 

118. Campaign of 1757 in the East — Prague and Kolin. — 

To get the start of the enemy, Frederic early in 1757, leaving the 
defense of Germany to the Duke of Cumberland, entered Bohemia. 
Before Prague Frederic defeated the Austrians in the most bloody 
battle since Malplaquet. The Austrians lost their best general, 
Marshal Browne, and 13,000 men. The Prussians lost 12,500 men 
and their old hero, Marshal Schwerin. The siege and bombardment 
of Prague by 50,000 Prussians gave Marshal Daun time to 
march to its relief. Frederic went to meet him and found him 
encamped on the heights of Kolin. After seven unsuccessful 
attacks the king was obliged to retreat in disorder. The retreat 
turned into a rout, when, to avenge their country, three Saxon cavalry 
regiments charged through the broken ranks of the Prussian infantry. 
The loss of the battle meant the loss of the campaign. Frederic 
was compelled to raise the siege of Prague and to evacuate 

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Bohemia. He returned to Saxony with 70,000 of the 117,000 with 
which he had commenced the campaign. 

The Russians had entered East Prussia nnder Apraxin and won a victory 
(at Grossjagerndorf ) . Bat hearing that Elizabeth was sick, Apraxin 
returned home and was dismissed by the angry Empress. Whilst the 
Austrians in slow advances conquered part of Silesia and took Breslau, 
General Hadik made a dashing raid into the heart of Prussia, entered Berlin, 
and raised contributions in city and country. 

119. Campaign in the West — Haste nbeck and Kloster- 
seven. — Before the end of March 100,000 French in two divisions 
crossed the Rhine, occupied Cleve, and marched upon Hanover 
plundering and destroying the property of friend and foe alike. 
Eight days after the Battle of Kolin Marshal D'Estrees defeated the 
Duke of Cumberland at Hastenbeck on the Weser. Cumberland 
abandoned Hanover and Brunswick to the invaders, never stopping 
in his retreat till he had reached the fortress of Stade near the mouth 
of the Elbe. The entire army was soon at the mercy of the French. 
Through the mediation of the King of Denmark, the Convention of 
Klosterseven was concluded between Richelieu, D'Estrees' successor, 
and Cumberland, which yielded Hanover, Brunswick and Hesse to 
the French. Cumberland was allowed to dismiss his German 
auxiliaries, whilst the Hanoverian army might winter around Stade. 

Richelieu lost the fruit of his triumph. The transaction was really a 
capitulation. But Cumberland begged so hard that the term might be 
avoided, that Richelieu good-naturedly allowed it to be called a convention, 
forgetting that a convention, unlike a capitulation, was subject to ratification 
by the respective governments. Public indignation in England forced the 
Duke of Cumberland out of actual service. Pitt, then minister of war, 
repudiated the Convention of Klosterseven. . The Hanoverian army was 
reorganized, and Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, the brother of the reign- 
ing Duke, called to the chief command. 

120. Rossbach and Leuthen. — The position of Frederic was now pre- 
carious. The French were masters in North Germany west of the Elbe. 
The Russians stood In East Prussia. The Swedes threatened Pomerania. 
The Austrians advanced in Silesia. In Central Germany 40,000 French 
under Soublse joined the 20,000 Imperial troops for the purpose of liberat- 
ing Saxony. Frederic never lost his presence of mind or relaxed his efforts 
to conquer the Increasing difficulties. For a last extremity he always car- 


ried poison about his person. His immediate plan was first to beat Soubise- 
and then to hasten to Silesia. 

The French and Imperialists had advanced to the neighborhood of 
Leipsic. At Rossbach, a few miles west of the battlefield of Liitzen, 
Frederic with only 22,000 men encountered the enemy about 50,000 
strong. He masked his movements behind two low hills. The cavalry 
of the allies were just mounting the lower hill, when Seidlitz with 
his hussars suddenly appeared on the crest, and swept down on the 
unsuspecting columns. In half an hour they were scattered ; in 
another half hour the infantry was routed broadcast over the land. 
The allies lost 8,000 dead, wounded and prisoners ; Frederic's loss 
was 500. He was soon free to turn to Silesia, which he did with his 
usual rapidity. The decisive battle was fought at Leuthen. The 
Austrian battle array of nearly 80,000 men had the unreasonable 
extension of six miles. Frederic's excellent tactics misled the 
Austrian leaders. The result was the complete rout of the Austrians. 
They lost 10,000 killed and wounded, 12,000 prisoners, thousands 
more on their retreat to Bohemia, and 17,000 prisoners by the capi- 
tulation of Breslau. By the spring of 1758, all Silesia was again in 
Frederic's possession. 

The battles of Rossbach and Leuthen did not restore the prestige which 
Frederic enjoyed after the battle of Prague; yet they saved him from 
destruction and gave him another fighting chance. 

121. Pitt — Battle of Crefeld. — Pitt was now firmly established in power 
and inspired England so completely with his own fiery spirit, that his ad- 
ministration became one of the strongest in her history. He organized 
numerous descents upon the coasts of France to divert her attention from 
more important points, especially from the colonies. He obtained from 
Parliament an annual subsidy of 670,000*. for Frederic. He reinforced the 
Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick with 12,000 English troops. 
After sharing the glories of Rossbach, Ferdinand drove the French behind 
the Aller, and the following year across the Rhine, and defeated Prince 
Clermont, Richelieu's successor, in the battle of Crefeld. 

Books to Cta. III., $ 1 and 2 — Lecky: II. 8, 487-537. — F. W. Longman: Fred, the Or. 
and the S. T'e War. — Live* of Pitt, Earl of Chatham: Brougham (Statesmen of the 
Time of Geo. III.); Earle (Engl. Premiere); Macanlay (E*tay$). — Schafer, Geech. dee 
Siebenj Krleges. 

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§ 3. 


122. Frederic's Campaign of 1758 — Zorndorf . — Frederic 
opened the campaign with the invasion of Moravia and with the siege 
of Olmutz, its most important fortress. His operations were greatly 
hampered by the army of Daun who hovered about the besiegers, and 
by the loyal devotion to Austria of the Moravian inhabitants. The 
rising general Laudon, as quick and impetuous in his movements as 
Daun was slow and cautious, surprised and partly captured, partly 
destroyed, an immense Prussian convoy, and thus brought the siege 
to a sudden close. Constantly harassed by the Austrians, Frederic 
retreated through Bohemia into Silesia, but saw himself compelled to 
face a new enemy. Again the Russians under Fermor had cut a way 
through East Prussia with fire and sword and were approaching the 
Oder. Frederic met them at Zorndorf. Though badly officered, the 
Russians stood their ground with dogged courage for ten hours. 
Seidlitz' hussars saved the day for Frederic. Zorndorf was the 
bloodiest battle of the war, 11,500 Prussians and 21,000 Russians 
covered the field. Fermor withdrew into Poland. Frederic hastened 
to Saxony, where his brother, Prince Henry, was confronting Marshal 
Daun and the army of the Empire. It took the wary Daun a month 
before deciding on a battle. At Hochkirch he espied his chance. He 
assailed Frederic's camp in a night attack. The excellent discipline 
of the Prussians prevented a panic ; but they had to retreat with a loss 
of three generals, 9,000 men and 100 cannon. 

Marshal Daun failed to reap the fruit of his victory. He allowed Fred* 
eric to reinforce himself, to evade the Austrian army, and to clear Silesia 
of the enemy. Returning with bis army reorganized, the King finally com- 
pelled Daun to evacuate Saxony. Thus at the end of the year Frederic 
was still in the undisputed possession of Silesia and Saxony. 

123. Campaign of 1769 — Battle of Kuneradorf. — The campaign of 
1759 did not begin before summer. Frederic was straitened for money. 
Whatever the country raised or England contributed went to the army. 
Civil officers remained unpaid. Most of the. veterans were dead and had 
to be replaced by raw levies. Towards the middle of July the Russians 

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under Solticow advanced from Poland, and after defeating a Prussian 
army (at Zullichau) took possession of Frankfort on the Oder. 

Daun took up a strongly fortified position on the river Neisse. 
Laudou and Hadik with 12,000 horse and 8,000 foot effected a 
junction with the 78,000 Russians who occupied the heights of 
Kunersdorf near Frankfort. Frederic resolved to attack them with 
only 50,000 men. The onslaught was irresistible ; the left wing 
of the Russians gave way. Flushed with this first success Fred- 
eric resolved, against the advice of his generals, to destroy the Rus- 
sian army by seizing the Frankfort bridge and cutting off their 
retreat. But assisted by six Austrian regiments, the Russians 
turned the Prussian victory into a defeat. When Frederic was in 
full retreat, General Laudon swept down on him and inflicted the 
most bloody and disorderly rout of the war on the Prussian army. 

For once in his life, Frederic was stupefied by this disaster, in which he 
lost most of his generals, nearly 20,000 men and 200 cannon, barely saving 
his own life. He resigned the command into the hands of his brother 
Ilenry. When the news of Kunersdorf arrived, Dresden capitulated to the 
Austrians, and was henceforth lost to Frederic. The King, however, 
shook off his despair when he saw the allies neglecting to use their victory, 
the Russians and Austrians quarreling amongst themselves, Marshal Daun 
remaining in stolid inactivity, and the Russians, in expectation of the death 
of Elizabeth, marching back into Poland. 

124. Maxen. — Desirous of concluding the campaign with a 
victory, Frederic sent an army into Saxony to reinforce his brother 
Henry and to reconquer Dresden. The result was, that Marshal 
Daun surrounded a Prussian corps at Maxen, and captured nine 
generals, five hundred officers and 12,000 of the line. The capitu- 
lation of Maxen destroyed Frederic's plans for the year and left the 
Saxon capital in the hands of the Austrians. 

125. Campaign of 17GO. — Whilst Frederic was facing the 
army of Daun in Saxony, Laudon destroyed another Prussian army 
corps at Landeshut, captured Glatz, and thereby opened Upper 
Silesia to the Austrians. Fredcrio tried to indemnify himself by 
the recapture of Dresden. But General Maguire, who commanded 
at Dresden, vigorously defended the city till the approach of an 

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Austrian army obliged Frederic to retire. Baffled in his design, he 
bombarded the city with red hot balls, taking the churches and the 
palaces for his aim, needlessly slaughtering multitudes of peaceful 
inhabitants and laying whole quarters in ashes. Meanwhile the 
Russians had again marched to the Oder, To prevent the union 
of the Austrians and Russians, Frederic, who was tracked by two 
Austrian armies under Daun and Lacy, marched from Saxony into 
Silesia, where Laudon awaited him, while the Russians crossed the 
Oder. With his usual rapidity he attacked Laudon, and inflicted 
the first defeat on the brave general at Liegnitz, before the two other 
armies came up to join him. Frederic thereupon sent an exagger- 
ated report of the victory to Prince Henry, intended to be inter- 
cepted by the Russians. The latter took the bait and recrossed the 
Oder. Frederic closed the campaign of the year with the victory of 
Torgau over Daun. 

126. Campaign of 1761. — In western Germany, the war dragged on its 
weary length without decisive action. Prince Ferdinand kept on the 
defensive, as he had only 80,000 men against the 140,000 French troops. 
On the other hand, the rottenness of the French administration, ruled by 
favorites and women, pervaded every department of the army, and robbed 
It of all its effectiveness. Austria and Prussia were equally exhausted. Thus 
the campaign of 1761 was one of marches and maneuvers without a single 
pitched battle. The only event of importance was the brilliant seizure 
of the Silesian fortress of Schwcidnitz by Laudon which enabled the 
Austrians and Russians to winter in Silesia and Glatz, whilst another 
Russian army after taking Kolberg wintered in Pomerania and Brandenburg. 

Works already quoted. Lccky II. 8, pp. 661-565. Malleson : Military Life of Gen, 
Laudon, — Maavlllon : Duke of Brunswick. — Duke of Brunswick: E. R. *97, S, '98, 1. 



127. Akbar the Great. — Whilst great battles were fought in 
Europe, the war was simultaneously carried on in Asia and in 
America. In India various Mohammedan dynasties were, in the 
sixteenth century, subdued by the descendants of Tamerlane, who 
founded a new Mongol Empire, 1526-1761. Its capital was first at 
Agra, afterward at Delhi. Akbar the Great, whose reign was a long 

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series of conquests, was the most prominent Emperor of the line, 
1556—1605. His policy was to unite the Hindoo and Mohammedan 
populations by a religious toleration which would enable him to 
obtain military support from both. He even conceived the idea of 
founding a new universal religion made up of what he considered the 
best elements of Islamism, Hindooism and Christianity. To study 
the Christian doctrine he called the Jesuits to his court (Rodolfo 
Aquaviva), and for several years treated them with great distinction. 
His rationalizing temper, however, lack of moral courage and the influ- 
ence of his surroundings prevented his conversion. His successors 
abandoned his policy of toleration. 

128. The Mahrattas. — Under the rule of Emperor Aurangzeb 
(1658-1707), a Hindoo Kingdom of Mahrattas rose in the Deccan, 
and after crippling the Mongol Empire became independent in 
1726. Within the Empire the Indian Nabobs (vice-roys), whilst 
still owing a nominal allegiance to the court of Delhi, made 
themselves practically independent. By a similar process of dis- 
integration, the Mahratta Kingdom, too, became a confederacy of 
independent chiefs. The disputes of the Mohammedan rulers among 
themselves and with the Mahrattas offered advantages to the Euro- 
pean settlers to strengthen their own position by taking part in the 
quarrels of the natives. 

120. Rivalry between France and England in India. — 

Since the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, the Portuguese occu- 
pied Goa and Malacca, and for a century enjoyed the monopoly of 
the trade with India. At the close of the sixteenth century the Dutch 
and the English appeared as their rivals. The Dutch obtained a 
foothold in the Indian archipelago. The English East India Com- 
pany, chartered by Elizabeth in 1600, built Madras in the Carnatic 
(1639), obtained Bombay from Charles II. (1668), who had acquired 
it from Portugal by his marriage with Catharine of Braganza ; and set- 
tled Calcutta on the river Hoogly ( 1696). The French had a strong 
settlement at Poudicherry in the Carnatic, south of Madras. Since 
the Peace of Aachen, 1748, a rivalry existed between the English and 
the French colonists in India. Dupleix, the governor of Pondicherry, 
was the first to organize the sepoys, native soldiers drilled after the 

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European fashion. In the succession disputes of the native princes, 
Dupleix selected his own candidates and supported them with his 
sepoys, and thus made himself the most powerful potentate in the 
Camatic and in the whole of the Deccan. Dupleix next threatened 
Madras. Robert Clive, a young officer of the East India Company, 
took up the contest, conquered Arcot at the head of a force of sepoys, 
won a number of victories over the French and their Indian allies, 
and established English supremacy in southeastern India, 1752-53. 

130. The Black Hole of Calcutta and the Battle of 
Plassey. — In 1756 the viceroy of Bengal (Surajah Dowlah), cap- 
tured Calcutta, seized all the property of the English, and thrust 146 
Englishmen into the Black Hole of Calcutta, a room measuring only 
18 feet by 14. During that day and the following night all but 23 
were suffocated. The tragedy was followed by the complete expul- 
sion of the English from Bengal. Clive, now governor of Fort St. 
David, near Madras, proceeded with an English fleet to Bengal at the 
head of 900 Europeans and about 2,000 sepoys, and retook Calcutta. 
By the valor of the army, and by a treacherous understanding with 
the viceroy's chief officer (Meer Jaffier), Clive won a great victory 
at Plassey over 60,000 men commanded by Surajah Dowlah. The 
defeated viceroy was murdered by traitors, and Clive raised Meer 
Jaffier, his creature, to the position of nominal Nabob. Under Clive 
as governor-general of all the English possessions in Bengal, the 
English virtually exercised an absolute rule over a country containing 
80,000,000 inhabitants. 

131. The French Lose India. — While these events were 
happening in Bengal, the struggle for empire in India was decided 
in the Carnatic, where it had begun. When the Seven Years' war 
broke out in 1756, France selected Count Lally Tolendal to restore 
the French power in India. Lally was descended from an Irish 
Jacobite family, and had distinguished himself at Fontenoy and 
elsewhere. After two years lost by delays, Lally arrived, 1758, 
with an army in the Carnatic. Within five weeks he took Fort St. 
David, the second in importance of the English strongholds, and 
razed it to the ground. The fall of Madras would have been a 
matter of certainty if Lally had been properly supported. Bat his 

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impetuous temper, his sharp tongue, and the energy with which he 
fought the frightful corruption prevalent among the officials at Pon- 
dicherry, alienated the local authorities, whilst he made enemies of 
the natives by his ignorance and disregard of their most cherished 
customs. The French admiral refused to convey his troops to 
Madras, and the governor failed to furnish him the necessary funds. 
By sheer energy and the sacrifice of his private fortune, he finally 
succeeded in reaching Madras, but it was too late. Upon the 
approach of the English squadron with reinforcements and stores 
from Bombay he had to raise the siege, 1759. In 17G0 the French 
were defeated by Colonel Coote at Wandewash with a loss of about 
2,000 Europeans. Having to contend with mutiny in his ill-pro- 
visioned army, and with the opposition of the civil officials, Lally 
was unable to prevent the French minor forts from falling one by 
one into the hands of the English. In January, 1761, Pondicherry 
surrendered at discretion, and with the surrender French dominion 
in India ceased. 

Lally was condemned by the Parliament of Paris for having betrayed the 
interests of the King. The judicial murder was accompanied by Outrageous 
indignities. It was not till 1778 that his son by his filial devotion and great 
eloquence succeeded in reversing the sentence and vindicating the honor of 
his father. 

132, The War in Canada. — When William Pitt acceded to 
power he resolved to fight out his quarrel with France in the 
colonies, especially in North America, and to drive the French from 
the continent. For this purpose he sent a powerful fleet to America 
and raised the number of the English and colonial forces to 50,000, 
of whom 22,000 were regular troops. The entire French population 
capable of bearing arms amounted to 20,000, of whom only 5,000 
were regulars. Canada, abandoned by the worthless Louis XV., 
was suffering from famine, for the inhabitants had alternately to 
fight and to till the ground. 

133. The Marquis of Montcalm. — But in the Marquis of 
Montcalm the Canadians had a governor and commander of restless 
energy, dauntless courage and high-souled chivalry, who was adored 
by the army and by the people. For a long time he held his own 

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against superior forces by skillful strategy and strong positions, by 
concentrating his slender resources on some one point and by the 
employment of Indian allies. Montcalm in 1756 captured and 
destroyed Fort Oswego and Fort George, and seized in the latter 
place part of the English war treasury. The following year he con- 
structed a system of forts in the region of Illinois, and captured 
Fort William Henry. In 1758 Abercrombie, the British commander- 
in-chief, marched upon Ticonderoga with 16,000 men. Before 
reaching the fortress the vanguard under General Howe was defeated, 
and Lord Howe himself killed. Montcalm directed the defense of 
the place in his shirt-sleeves, everywhere encouraging his men, who 
numbered less than 4,000. Charge after charge was repulsed, until 
the English were obliged to retreat with a loss of 2,000 men. But 
disasters now began to overtake the French on every side. 

134. The Conquest of Canada. — Even before the action of 
Ticonderoga, Louisburg and Cape Breton Island, the French 
Gibraltar at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, had been taken by Gen- 
eral Amherst. General Forbes seized Fort du Quesne, which in 
honor of William Pitt was named Pittsburg. In 1759 Sir William 
Johnston took Fort Niagara and Amherst Ticonderoga. The 
decisive battle was fought near Quebec. Major-General James 
Wolfe, a young and gallant officer, fought his way up the St. 
Lawrence, and besieged Quebec. Though manoeuvering with ad- 
mirable skill around the defenses, Wolfe had almost given up all 
hope of succeeding, when he resolved on a last, desperate feat. 
He scaled with his men a steep cliff to the Plains of Abraham, an 
elevated plateau behind Quebec, and forced Montcalm to accept open 
battle. Both generals fell gallantly. Montcalm had still time to 
receive the last sacraments. Wolfe, informed of the victory, expired 
with the words : " God be praised, I die in peace.' ' A last French 
victory in the neighborhood of Quebec, 1760, could not save Canada, 
betrayed, as she was, by her wretched King and his ministers. 
Montreal, the second important town in the St. Lawrence Valley, 
surrendered in the same year, and with Montreal, Canada. 

"No other conquest of the war excited a greater enthusiasm in England. 
Englishmen did not foresee the consequences of their victory. The destruc- 

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tlon of the French power In America removed the one ever-pressing danger 
which secured the dependence of the English colonies on the mother country. 
The great colonial forces raised and successfully employed during the war 
gave tne colonies for the first time a consciousness of their strength, and 
furnished them with leaders for the War of Independence, while the burden 
of the debt due to the lavish expenditure of Pitt revived the scheme for the 
taxation of America, which led in a few years to the dismemberment of the 
Empire.*' (Lecky.; 

(India) Leeky: II. 8.49&-96; 541-49. — Stewart: Hist, of Bengal. — Orme: Hist, of the 
Military Operations in Hindostan. — J. G. Duff: Hist, of the Mahrattas. — J. Mill: Hist, 
of Brit. India. — E. Thornlow: Hist, of the British Emp. in India. — Lord Justice James: 
The British in India. — Malleson : Hist, of the French in India; Founders of the Indian 
Empire; Decisive Battles of India. — Duplet* (Literature In Martin's Hist of France) ; 
B. H. R. 9. 1, 4. — Count Lolly: B. fl. R. 6, Lives of Lord CUve; Glelg; Macaulay 
{Essays); Malcolm; Wilson. 

(Canada) Lecky : II. 8, p. 539. — Hart : The Fall of New France. — Parkham : Montcalm 
and Wolfs. — Warburton : Conquest of Canada. 

§ 5. 


135. The Family Compact. — The successive deaths of three 
sovereigns wrought political changes that disturbed existing alliances 
and created new combinations. The death of Ferdinand VI. in 
Spain and the succession of Charles III. reunited France and Spain 
by the Family Compact. The death of George II. led to the fall of 
Pitt and the reversal of his war policy. The death of Elizabeth of 
Russia freed Frederic II. from one of bis most formidable enemies, 
and saved his kingdom 

Ferdinand VI. of Spain died in 1759. His half-brother Don 
Carlos, King of Naples, leaving his Italian Kingdom to his sou, 
ascended the throne of Spain as Charles III. Choiseul, the minister 
of Louis XV., negotiated a Family Compact between the four Bour- 
bon courts of France, of Spain, of Naples, and of Parma, by which 
each promised to make common cause against any enemy, and to 
guarantee each other's possessions. The Compact was signed August 
15, 1761. By a secret clause attached to it Spain pledged herself 
to declare war against England on May 1, 1762, if England by 
that time should not have concluded peace with France. Choiseul 
promised Spain the restoration of Minorca as soon as war should be 


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Several other disputed points, such as the possession of Gibraltar and 
the rights of trade in the Indies were pending between Spain and England. 
Charles III. was the more willing to go to war with England as he had 
been insulted when still King of Naples by an English Admiral. 

136. Fall of Pitt. — George II. died in 1760, and was suc- 
ceeded by his grandson, George III., who had early lost his father, 
Frederic, Prince of Wales. Prince George had been instructed by 
the Earl of Bute in an extravagant view of the royal prerogative. 
As the favorite of George III. Bute formed a new party, whose aim 
it was to reassert the King's prerogatives by breaking up the Whig 
nobility and by weakening the influence of Parliament. But as Pitt, 
had his strength in the Parliament and in his brilliant war record 
the new party was hostile to the war, because it was hostile to Pitt. 
The Tories who resented their long exclusion from power, supported 
the new party in a body. The dissensions and personal jealousies 
within the ministry, and Pitt's arrogant treatment of his colleagues 
weakened his own position. The Family Compact, of which Pitt 
had received secret intelligence, brought the contest of the parties 
to an issue. Pitt demanded an immediate declaration of war, 
before Spain should be ready. The majority of the Cabinet voted 
against him. Thereupon Pitt resigned and his resignation was 
accepted by the King. 

Three months later the attitude of Spain became so threatening, that 
Bute himself was compelled to dec'are war. The English successes in 
Martinique, Havana, and Manila in the Philippine islands were still due to 
the arrangement of Pitt and the enthusiastic spirit which he had infused 
into the English service. 

137. The Treaties of Petersburg and Hamburg, 1762. — The fall of 
Pitt deprived Frederic of the alliance and the magnificent subsidies of 
England. His own army was reduced to 60,000 men, most of them demoral- 
ized, its gaps filled with vagabonds, thieves and deserters, all ripe for 
mutiny. One half of his territories was in the hands of the enemy. But 
the death of Elizabeth of Russia saved him and his kingdom. 

Elizabeth died January 5, 1762, the day England declared war 
against Spain. Her successor, Peter III., in his admiration of 
Frederic, concluded with him not only the Peace of Petersburg 
(March, 1762), but also an offensive and defensive alliance. By 

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the former he restored all the conquered territories to Prussia ; by 
the latter he recalled the troops from the Austrian camp and ordered 
them to join the Prussian army. The change of Russia induced 
Sweden to come to terms with Frederic by the -Peace of Hamburg 
(May, 1762), which restored the condition existing before the war. 
Peter's reign was of short duration. In less than six months he 
exhausted the patience of his subjects by his unpopular introduction 
of Prussian reforms. One morning he was arrested, in the evening 
he was murdered. His wife, Catharine, reaped all the fruit of the 
crime by proclaiming herself not regent for her son, but Empress of 
Russia in her own authority. Catharine kept the peace with Prussia, 
but recalled her troops. 

138. The Last Campaign of the Seven Years' War, 1702. — 

Under the altered circumstances Austria gave up the idea of recon- 
quering the whole of Silesia, and restricted her efforts to the preser- 
vation of the actual conquests. Her resources were exhausted, her 
people taxed to the utmost. Frederic for the first time since 1 758 
took the initiative in the campaign of 17G2. He marched against 
Daun who was encamped in the neighborhood of Schweidnitz . Czerne- 
chew had just received Catharine's order to return to Russia. 
Frederic prevailed on the Russian general to remain with him f6r 
three days to deceive the Austrians about the strength of the attacking 
army. Czernechew remained but took no part in the battle. 
Frederic concentrated his efforts to storm the heights of Burkersdorf 
and succeeded, (July). The Austrian army retreated towards the 
Silesian frontiers, and Frederic reconquered Schweidnitz after a 
lengthy siege. He then concluded a truce first with Marshal Daun 
and afterwards with the Austrians in Saxony, who had been defeated 
by Prince Henry at Freiberg. The preliminaries of the peace 
between France and England, agreed to at Fontainebleau, made it 
certain that the French troops would be withdrawn from Germany. 

139. Peace of Paris, February 16, 1763. —The definite 
peace between Great Britain, France and Spain was concluded at 
Paris. France ceded to England in Europe, the island of Minorca ; 
in Africa, her possessions on the Senegal ; in America, Canada, 

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Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island with all other possessions and 
claims east of the Mississippi except New Orleans ; besides Grenada 
in the West Indies. The navigation of the Mississippi was declared 

England restored to France Goree in Africa ; in Asia, all her con- 
quests in India, but under restrictions which rendered the restoration 
of little value. The French were to build no fortifications and to 
maintain no troops in Bengal. They had to recognize the Nabobs 
whom England set up as nominal rulers. In America England 
granted to France the right of fishing on the coast of Newfoundland 
and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the distance of three leagues from 
the shore and the use of two small and open islands as a shelter for 
their fishermen. 

England restored to Spain in Oceania Manila and the Philippine 
Islands ; in America, Havana and the rest of the Cuban conquests in 
exchange for Florida. Outside of the treaty of Paris, France indem- 
nified Spain for the loss of Florida by the cession of New Orleans 
and of ail Louisiana west of the Mississippi. Both France and 
England had to withdraw their troops from Germany. 

140. Peace of Hubertsburg, February 15, 1763. — The 

Peace of Paris left Austria to face Prussia alone, and led to a treaty 
of peace signed in the Saxon castle of Hubertsburg. The Peace 
established the status quo ante beilum, i. e. Frederic retained Silesia 
and Glatz and evacuated Saxony. In addition Prussia promised to 
cast her vote in the imperial election for Archduke Joseph, the son of 
Maria Theresa. Saxony, restored to the state before the war, was 
included in the peace. The Seven Years' War raised England to 
the summit of her territorial extent and power, made Prussia a rival 
of Austria in Germany about equal in strength and one of the Great 
Powers of Europe, and destroyed the colonial, naval, and commercial 
greatness of France. 

141. Pontiac War. — The English encountered great difficulties in taking 
actual possession of the fortresses scattered here and there along the great 
lakes. The Indians, under the celebrated Pontiac, the patriotic chief of the 
Ottowas, offered determined resistance, partly on account of their friend- 
liness to the French, their benefactors, partly on account of the insults and 

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cruel treatment they received at the hands of the English. The Indians got 
possession of all the minor forts between Canada and the Mississippi. 
But failing in the siege of Detroit and of some other places and ascertaining 
the conclusion of a general peace, they dispersed. 

Lecky : IV. 10, pp. 1-67. The Family Compact of the House of Bourbon: 8cely, E. H. R. 
1,1. — Hist, of the Reign of Peter III. and Cath. II. — Lives of Cattiarine II. : — Brilckner 
(Germ.); Jenkins (Heroines of Hist.); K. R. '93, 3. — Text of the Treaty of Paris in 
En tick: Hist, of the Late War. — The Treaty of Paris, 1763 1 and the Catholics of Am* 
O'Sulllyan, C. A. Q. 10. 

Other Works for Consultation: Sir E. Cast: Wars of the 18th Century. — Ran- 
som: Battles of Fred, the Great (from Carlyle's Fr. II.). — Green: Hist, of the Engl. 
People, — Gfroerer: Gesch. des 18ten Jahrh. — Weiss: Weltgeschischte v. XI. and XII. — 
Anderson : Hist, of George III.'s Reign. 





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§ 1. 


142. 8tate of Poland In the 18th Century. — The elective kingdom or 
rather republic of Poland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was 
groaning under the most anarchical constitution of Europe : 1,500,000 nobles 
held the entire population attached to the soil in servitude. All the mem- 
bers of this democratic nobility stood on a footing of legal equality. No 
decree proposed in the diet could become a law except by the unanimous 
consent of the nuncios or deputies. The Liberum Veto of a single member 
could frustrate the votes of all the rest. The Liberum Veto had destroyed 
the work of forty-eight out of fifty-five diets within the space of 110 years. 
In any dissension of votes the minority claimed the right of resisting by a 
private confederation in arras. The kingship was not only elective, but 
was conditioned at tjie commencement of each reign, by a special agree- 
ment called the Pacta Conventa. These three institutions — Liberum Veto, 
Private Confederations, and Pacta Conventa were a continual source of 
political disturbance. The king was served by a vast crowd of undisci- 
plined cavaliers. The u starosties " or certain administrative and judicial 
privileges in the gift of the crown, were the only ties which bound the 
king to the nobles and the soldiers. Ardent though misguided patriotism, 
inborn attachment to the liberties of the country, fervent religious senti- 
ment and respect for the authority of the Church were the elements that 
supplied the absence of political union, and in spite of frequent civil strife, 
retarded the final dissolution. 

148. Encroachments of Neighboring States. — It is said that Peter the 
Great In his testament pointed out to his successors, how Poland could be 
brought under Russian supremacy by the encouragement of internal dissen- 
sions. In the war of the Polish Succession Poland herself had very little to 
say, while Austrian and especially Russian troops lorded it in the kingdom. 
In the war of the Austrian Succession Poland was little more than a 
campiug ground for the Muscovite forces. The frequent marches through 
and prolonged sojourns of the Russians in Poland, the levying of war con- 
tributions and the pressing of Polish recruits into Russian service may be 




called the beginning of Poland's downfall. True, Stanislas Lesczinski had, 
by his appeals to the national sentiment, formed a party of patriots willing 
to reform the constitutional abuses. But Elizabeth of Russia thwarted such 
efforts by the threat to resist with force of arms any change in the Polish 

144. Election of Poniatowski. — At the accession of Catharine, 
Augustus III. of Saxony, king of Poland, was already sick ; he 
died in October, 1763. The death of his son in the same year 
destroyed all hope of the House of Saxony to retain the Polish 
crown. To control the election of the new king, Catharine of 
Russia and Frederic II. concluded a treaty, in which they pledged 
themselves to secure the crown to Stanislas Augustus Poniatowski 
and to prevent any change in the Polish government and constitu- 
tion. Still more treacherous was another clause of the treaty, by 
which they bound themselves to protect the Greek and Protestant 
"Dissidents" against the "oppression" of the Catholic Church. 
Accordingly, the Russian party of Polish nobles designated Ponia- 
towski as crown candidate. 

Poniatowski ; one of Catharine's former lovers, a polished courtier and 
a shallow freethinker, had given assurances to the Empress that he would 
treat the interests of Russia as his own. 

In order to make the election of Poniatowski doubly sure, Cath- 
arine surrounded the Polish territories with her troops, sent 10,000 
men into Poland, furnished her ambassador with immense sums to 
bribe the electors, and instructed him to intimidate them with threats 
of her dire vengeance if they should fail to elect her candidate. 
The patriots in the diet of Warsaw were divided and despondent. 
Their candidates, General Branicki and Prince Radziwill, protested 
against the coercion of the Diet already invaded by foreign soldiers. 
A rising in their favor failed, and they had to flee as proscribed 
exiles and rebels. Sept. 7, 1764, the Diet -proclaimed Poniatowski 
King of Poland under the name of Stanislas Augustus. 

145. The Religious Question. — Catharine, who persecuted 
both Catholics and Protestants in Russia, proclaimed herself in the 
name of the sacred rights of mankind the protectress of the Polish 

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The Greek and Protestant Dissidents in Poland were not numerous. 
They enjoyed freedom from persecution. They enjoyed the greatest free- 
dom and security for their persons and property. Their political disabilities 
were fewer than in any other country in Europe. Many dissenting noble- 
men acknowledged their satisfaction with the existing state, and urged their 
Catholic countrymen not to grant the demands of the two Powers, because 
this religious agitation would ultimately subject Poland to foreign domi- 

The first diets under Stanislas Augustus refused to alter the 
religious state of the country. In 1766 Catharine and Frederic II. 
instructed Stanislas to put all religions on the same footing. They 
expected a refusal, for the Poles clung to religious unity as to the 
last bond of their political unity. Stanislas pleaded in vain for 
time, he was finally obliged to summon a diet in October, 1766, to 
listen to the demands of Russia. Whilst the efforts of the patriots 
to limit the Liberum Veto were defeated, the diet granted only 
slight concessions to the Dissidents. So great was the excitement 
that the king himself was obliged to issue a declaration in support 
of the Catholic cause. This declaration furnished Catharine a pre- 
text for withdrawing her protection from him. 

146. Diet of 1767. — A number of patriots, the exiled Radziwill among 
them, conceived the fatal idea of approaching Russia in their turn. The 
Empress received them graciously. An association of all the opponents of 
Stanislas was formed at Radom under the direction of the Russian embassa- 
dor Repnin. Confronted by this new combination the king sued for mercy 
and declared himself willing to carry out Catharine's orders. 

At the Diet of Warsaw, 1767, Repnin carried things with a high 
hand; 120,000 Russians were at his disposal; a Prussian army 
stood in Polish Prussia under pretext of a " sanitary 99 cordon. 
Every deputy in the Diet had to sign a promise in no way to oppose 
the Russian demands. The soldiers charged with obtaining the 
signatures, had orders to fire the palaces or devastate the estates of 
the recusants. The bishop of Cracow and others who remonstrated 
in open diet against such violence, were seized at night by a squadron 
of Cossacks and hurried off to Siberia. In such way was carried 
the measure which destroyed the ecclesiastical unity of Poland. 

De Broglle: The King's Secret (chiefly about the Partition of Poland). — J. Janssen: 
Zw Genesis d. ersten TheUung Polens. — Dumouriez: Memoires. — Wolakl : Poland, 

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147. The Confederation of Bar. — To destroy the Catholic 
religion and to substitute a schismatical synod was now Catharine's 
aim. Repnin had already expelled the Catholic priests from 300 
villages. Clement XIII. solemnly protested, and ordered public 
processions in Rome for the protection of Poland. The Poles rose 
in defense of their faith. Eight gentlemen unknown to fame formed 
a Confederation at the small town of Bar in Podolia, February, 1768. 
Their motto was: aut vincere aut mori pro religione et libertate. 
Their banner bore a crucifix and the image of the Blessed Virgin. 
The movement spread with incredible rapidity, and in a few days 
numbered many thousands of adherents. Envoys were sent to Ver- 
sailles, Vienna, Constantinople, and other courts. The civil war 
between the Confederation and Stanislas, who had the support of 
Russia, was raging with the utmost bitterness, when Turkey declared 
war against Russia. Her territory had been trespassed by Russian 
troops in pursuit of Polish fugitives. But unfortunately the Turks 
were as slow to mobilize as they were quick in declaring war, and the 
brunt of the unequal contest fell upon the Confederates. The Zap- 
oregian Cossacks let loose upon the plain of the Ukraine, " in honor 
of the holy orthodox church" (of Russia) spread terror far and 
wide by their horrible outrages. 

Men, women, and children were massacred ; 16,000 defenseless people were 
slaughtered alone at the town of Unman. Several hundred Catholics were 
buried in the ground up to their necks and their heads mowed off. Persons 
whose faith was suspected were compelled to clear themselves by murder- 
ing Catholic nobles and priests. Not less outrageous was the treatment of 
the Confederates by the Russian regulars, who tied their prisoners of war to 
trees to serve as marks for the sharpshooters, or bound them with chains into 
groups to be killed with pikes, or lopped off their hands and then chased 
them across the fields until they sank bleeding to death. 

Before the spring of 1769 the remnants of the Confederates were 
driven to take refuge on Ottoman or Austrian territory. 

148. Catharine's First War with the Turks, 1768- 
1774. — When at length the Turkish troops took the field they 

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were routed in almost every encounter. The loss of Azow, Bender, 
and .other fortresses, the complete reduction of Moldavia and Wal- 
lachia, and the destruction of the Turkish fleet in the watery of 
Tschesme, off the island of Chios, destroyed the prestige of Turkey, 
gave to Russia the political and military greatness she still enjoys, 
and crushed the last hopes of Polish liberty. 

149. Position of Austria — Joseph II. , 1765-1790, had, by the death of his 
father, become Emperor and coregent with Maria Theresa in the Austrian 
monarchy. Since 1770 Joseph's influence in the affairs of government began 
to rise, his mother's to wane. Inch by inch she yielded, though with con- 
stant misgivings, to the restless ambition of her son. In her sincere religious 
faith she warmly sympathized with the Catholic Poles, and her conscience 
revolted from the idea of deriving a personal advantage from Poland. But 
her son, Joseph II., Infected with the false philosophy of the eighteenth 
century, looked up to Frederic II., and copied his policy and methods. 
Kaunitz temporized between the mother and the son, but usually ended with 
adopting Joseph's views. 

The victorious advance of Russia, especially the occupation of 
Moldavia and Wallachia caused great anxiety at the court of 
Vienna, and induced Austria to place a military cordon along the 
frontiers of Hungary and Transilvania, and temporarily to occupy a 
strip of Polish territory, to which, however, Hungary had an undis- 
puted claim. Frederic II. also, pledged as he was to subsidize 
Russia during the war's duration, was anxious to see it ended. 
Hence in a meeting at Neustadt between Frederic II., Joseph II., 
and Kaunitz, 1770, an agreement was reached to mediate a peace 
between Russia and Turkey on the basis of a restoration of Moldavia 
and Wallachia by Russia. No mention, as yet, was made of a par- 
tition of Poland. After the meeting the Austrian cordon was 
pushed a few miles further into Polish territory. 

160. First Division of Poland. — Frederic II., in paying subsidies and 
offering to mediate a peace, was steadily pursuing his own advantage. 
Now that he saw Poland In a state of anarchy, the Confederates quarreling 
among themselves, and Stanislas barely escaped from the hands of the in- 
surgents, he moved his «• sanitary " cordon twenty miles nearer to Warsaw. 
He now came forward with his own plau of pacification. 

Frederic proposed that Austria, Russia, and Prussia should give 
their services to Stanislas and take their pay in the partial dismem- 

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bermentof Poland. Russia should restore the Danube Principalities 
(Moldavia and Wallachia) to the Porte for an equivalent to be carved 
out of the kingdom of Poland. Prussia should recompense herself 
for the subsidies paid by the annexation of Polish Prussia. To 
keep up the equilibrium between the three Powers, Austria should 
take a share equal in value to those of Russia and Prussia.. It was 
a plan of barefaced robbery. When first broached in Vienna, in 
1771," Austria answered that rather than consent to such injustice, 
they would withdraw their troops from the Polish districts — less than 
twenty square miles — whilst the proposed annexations comprised 
4,000 square miles. Accordingly, the Partition Treaty was con- 
cluded by Russia and Prussia alone, February, 1772. In view of 
the great increase of territory and the consequent preponderance 
of power thus obtained by the two states, Joseph II. and Kaunitz 
resolved to become accomplices in the deal, and to take their share 
in the partition, August, 1772. It was with intense reluctance that 
Maria Theresa consented. Russia obtained a great part of Lithuania 
and other Polish districts ; Austria the provinces of Gallicia and 
Lodomeria, and Frederic II. Polish Prussia (without Dantzig and 
Thorn), smaller in extent than the other shares, but possessing for 
Prussia a value out of all proportion to its area, because it united 
the detached province of East Prussia with the main body of the 
kingdom into a compact state. The three Powers guaranteed to each 
other these new possessions. They then put down the Confederation 
of Bar, and procured by bribery and intimidation the election of a 
diet, which joined King Stanislas in signing away the integrity of 
Poland. After this enforced ratification, both Frederic II. and 
Joseph II. overstepped the stipulated bounds so far that Poland lost 
an additional number of 64,000 inhabitants. 

161. Peace of Kutchouc-Kainardji, 1774.— The war between Russia and 
Turkey had been lagging since the conquest of the Crimea In 1771. Whilst 
Prussia and Austria urged Catharine to make peace, a last success of the 
Russians, who surrounded the Grand Vizier at Shumla, forced Turkey to 
accept the terms proposed by the Powers. 

In the Peace of Kainardji Russia restored the Danube Principalities 
and some other conquests to Turkey, but retained part of the Crimea 
and of the northern coast of the Black Sea. The Tartars of Crimea 


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and elsewhere were released from their allegiance to the Porte, and 
brought under Russian influence. The Russians secured the right 
of free navigation in all Turkish waters for their merchant fleet, and 
a strong diplomatic position at Constantinople including the right of 
representing the interests of the Danube Principalities, of remonstrat- 
ing against Turkish misrule in Christian provinces and of protecting 
the Christians in Turkey. 

162. Revolution in Sweden. — The government in Sweden, where the 
House of Holstein-Gottorp succeeded in 1751, was, since the death of 
Charles XII., in the hands of a diet composed of four Chambers, and divided 
Into hostile factions. By a clause of the secret treaty, which had brought 
about the dissolution of Poland, Frederic II. and Catharine had bound them- 
selves to maintain this constitution and to encourage the frequent disturb- 
ances caused by the quarreling factions. The young king, Gustavus III., saw 
the danger. Immediately after the partition of Poland he took his course. 
Mounting his horse early one morning, he called out his devoted officers 
and his guard, and so sudden and so spirited was his action, that without 
violence or bloodshed he arrested the senators and deputies in the palace 
of the States, dissolved their assemblies, aud substituted a moderate con- 
stitution for the state of anarchy which had hitherto prevailed. He spoiled, 
however, a reign, whfch promised well in the beginning, by his adherence 
to the Impious principles of the new philosophy. 

Lecky, v. ch. 21. pp. 539-42. v. Sybel: First Partition of Poland; Fortnightly Review, 
74, 3. — Broglle : The King's Secret. — Weiss, v. 18. — Wolskl : Poland. 

163. Second Turkish War of Catharine II., 1787-92. — Amid all the ex- 
cesses of an abandoned and shameless life, Catharine II. did more for the 
material improvement of her subjects than any of her predecessors, whilst she 
continued her unscrupulous policy of external aggrandizement. In 1787, she 
gained possession of the whole of the Crimea by a treaty with the Khan of the 
Tartars. Joseph II., too, had a restless craving for new territory. After the 
Peace of Kainardji he annexed that part of Moldavia which is now called 
the Bukowina, 1775. His attempt to seize the greater part of Bavaria, when 
the reigning House died out in 1778 was frustrated by the armed Interference 
and diplomatic resistance of Frederic II. (Bloodless War of the Bavarian 
Succession). The death of Maria Theresa in 1780, and Joseph's accession 
to full power, completely changed the friendly policy which the Empress- 
queen had observed towards Turkey. Joseph II. became an admirer and 
ally of Catharine II. and assisted her in grasping the Crimea. The death 





of Frederic II. in 1786 strengthened this alliance, which was cemented by a 
personal meeting of the two monarchs during Catharine's triumphal prog- 
ress through the Crimea. Catharine now resolved to drive the Turks from 
Europe and to found a Greek Empire in Constantinople. Joseph agreed to 
support the plan. But whilst the Russians stormed Oczacow amidst scenes 
of appalling carnage, took Bender and other cities, and defeated the Turks in 
several battles by land and sea, the Austrians with 200,000 men in the 
field were for a long time wholly unsuccessful. The taking of Belgrade 
(1789) by Land on, the hero of the Seven Years* War, was almost the only 
brilliant feat in the Austrian campaign. Joseph II., though personally 
brave, was no commander. At Slatina he had to leave his camp to the 
enemy. Discouraged he returned to Vienna carrying with him the germs 
of the disease to which he succumbed in 1790. His brother and successor, 
Leopold II. (1790-92) withdrew from the war, restored Belgrade, and made 
peace with Turkey. The only gain of Austria was the small district of old 
Orsova. The following year Catharine concluded the peace of Jassy, which 
added Oczacow and its region as far as the Dniester in full sovereignty to 
the Russian Empire. 

154. Poland After the First Partition. — Whilst Russia 
was thus occupied with Turkey, the Poles attempted to shake off 
the fetters of Russian enslavement and to establish their domestic 
affairs on a sounder basis by a revision of the Constitution. They 
were urged on in this patriotic enterprise by the seemingly friendly 
attitude of Prussia which sought in an alliance with Poland a coun- 
terpoise against Russia's growing power, and, at the same time, 
hoped to gain possession of Dantzig and Thorn by peaceful cession. 
Frederic William I. (1786-1797) who had succeeded his uncle, 
Frederic II., concluded a formal alliance with Poland, solemnly 
guaranteed the integrity of her country, and promised protection in 
case any foreign Power should interfere with her internal concerns, 
1790. The new Constitution adopted by the patriotic party abol- 
ished the elective character of the kingdom, named the Elector of 
Saxony hereditary king after Stanislas' death, created a diet of two 
houses, swept away the Liberum Veto, and made concessions to the 
middle classes and the peasants. National feeling, however, was 
opposed to a cession of Dantzig and Thorn, and Prussia gracefully 
withdrew the demand. 

155. Second Division of Poland, 1703. — Nothing was more 
against Catharine's aims than to see Poland consolidated by a new 

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Constitution. Under her auspices the Russian party in Poland 
formed the Confederation of Targowitz. In May, 1792, 60,000 
Russians crossed the Polish frontiers. Prince Poniatowski and 
Thaddaeus Kosciusko, who had served in America under Washing- 
ton, placed themselves at the head of the patriotic armies, and 
fought - bravely but in vain. They were crushed by threefold 
superior numbers at Dubienka. In August the Russians entered 
Warsaw. Catharine had compelled the helpless King of Poland to 
repudiate the new Constitution and to join the Confederation of 
Targowitz. Meanwhile the Poles had appealed to their sworn ally, 
the King of Prussia. But this sovereign who in two treaties had 
solemnly sworn to defend the integrity and independence of Poland, 
had already perjured himself by an alliance with Catharine for a 
second spoliation of that unhappy country. His army crossed the 
western frontier of Poland and occupied the territory assigned to 
him by Russia. In a joint proclamation the two monarchs formally 
announced to the Polish nation the accomplished fact. Besides 
Thorn and Dantzig Prussia took Great Poland or that part of the 
kingdom which is now called South Prussia and South Silesia. 
Russia took Volhynia, Podolia, and all that remained of Lithuania, 
and enforced a treaty of union with the rest of Poland which gave 
free entrance to her troops, the conduct of all future wars, and the 
right of confirming all treaties made by Poland with foreign powers. 
A Polish diet at Grodno had to ratify the robbery under the cannons 
of the invaders. The two powers then guaranteed the integrity 
of the remnants of Poland for all coming times. Two years later 
they took the rest. 

156. The Fall of Poland, 1704-95, — The national rising 
of 1794 brought on the third and last partition and the disappear- 
ance of Poland as a State from the map of Europe. After the dis- 
aster of Dubienka, Kosciusko had been traveling in Europe to rouse 
the sympathy of the western courts for Poland. At the call of the 
patriots he returned to his country and was at once recognized as 
the leader in the national movement. Peasants armed with scythes, 
and drilled regiments from every part of old Poland flocked to his 
standard. At Raslowitz he won the first victory. The Russian 
garrison in Warsaw was in part cut down, in part driven from 

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the city by the patriots. In the two days' battle at Szczekoziny 
(pron. Shtehekoziny) he had all but defeated the Russians when 
during the night 24,000 Prussians joined their allies and forced 
Kosciusko to retreat upon Warsaw. For three months he defended 
the city against 50,000 Prussians under the command of Frederic 
William himself and 9,000 Russians. The Prussians meanwhile had 
taken Cracow. A rising of the Poles in South Prussia induced 
Frederic William to raise the siege. At this juncture, Austria, too, 
sent an army against Poland. The decisive battle was fought at 
Maciejowice (pr. Matchewitz) on the Vistula where the Russians 
had concentrated all their available forces. The national hero per- 
formed wonders of valor ; for five hours the Polish infantry sustained 
the murderous fire of the Russian artillery till at last they had to 
give way before overwhelming numbers. Kosciusko, dangerously 
wounded, was found unconscious by a Cossack, and delivered into 
Russian captivity. In the last partition Prussia obtained Masowia 
with the capital of Warsaw, New East Prussia and part of the dis- 
trict of Cracow ; Austria, West Gallicia with the capital of Cracow ; 
Russia, Curland and the rest of Poland with the capital of Wilna. 
By the three partitions : — 

Russia obtained 181,000 square miles with 6,000,000 inhabitants. 
Prussia " 57,000 " 3,700,000 44 

Austria 44 45,000 44 2,500,000 44 

Stanislas Ponlatowski, the deposed king, spent his last years at the court 
of 8t. Petersburg, humbled and despised. Kosciusko recovered his freedom 
after the death of Catharine II., went back to America and was sent as envoy 
of the United States to Paris, where he labored unto the end for his cherished 
project, a new Poland. 

Lecky: v. ch. 19, pp. 210-24; 232-64; 442-46; 596-99. v. ?2, p. 83-92. — Bain : The Second 
Part, of Poland, E. H. R. »91, 2. — A Glelgnd : The Centenary of the Polish Constitution of 
1791. Westminster Rev. v. 136, p. 547. — T. J. Mackintosh: Account of the Partition of 
Poland; E. R. '22, 4. — Saxton : Fall of Poland. — Raumcr : Poltns Untergang. — Out row - 
ski : Let trois demembrcments de la Pologne. — Weiss, v. 19. 

Other Works for Consultation : Adams : Kosciusko (Wrecked Lives) ; v. Sybel : 
Hist, of the French Revolution. — Fletcher: Hist, of Poland — Cath. II. and Russia. Q. R. 
'78, 3 — Schlosser: Hist, of the 18th Cent. — See also general works for the period. 

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1. MICHAEL III., Romanow, . 
1615- I 1645. 


Czarina Maria. 1645- | 1676. Czarina Natalia. 

3. FEODOR, 4. IVAN, Sophia, regent for 5 PETER 1., THE GREAT, 

1676-1682. 1682-96. the minor princess Czar with Ivan 1682, sole 

(retired 1689.) deposed by Peter, ruler 1C89 (1696)-1725. 

I 1689. m. 

' 1 » 6. CATHARINE I.. 1725-1727. 

8. ANNA IVANOVNA, vaihajhh* , 


Alexei. Anna, Duchess of 9. ELISABETH, 

| HOLSTEIN | GOTTORP. 1740-1762. 

7. PETER II., , I , 

1727-1780. 1. PETER III., 1762. 


2. CATHARINE II. (Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst), 
1762- I 1796. 

8. PAUL I., 1796-1801. 

4. ALEXANDER I., 1801-1825. 

5. NICHOLAS I., 1825-1855. 

6. ALEXANDER II., 1855-1881. 

7. ALEXANDER III., 1881-1894. 

8. NICHOLAS II., 1894-X. 

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The causes of the great Revolution which terminated the eight- 
eenth century, were internal and external. The internal causes 
were partly religious and doctrinal, partly political and social. The 
chief external cause, as far as the French Revolution is concerned, was 
the successful War of American Independence. 

§ 1. 


157. The Protestant Reformation. — The political and social Revolution 
in Europe which culminated in the French Revolution, was the last deduction 
from the principles of the Reformation. The denial of the divine authority 
of the Church naturally led to the denial of all human authority in the 
State. In France the spirit of rebellion against the Church had been 
nurtured by the Huguenots, and after their defeat, by the Jansenists. The 
Jansenists, so-called after Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres, were Calvinists in 
disguise who maintained that they owed external acquiescence in, but not in- 
ternal submission to, the decisions of the Church. Their heretical tenets 
were condemned by Clement XI. In the bull u Unigenitus " (1713) and by 
succeeding Popes. Among the French Catholics, opposition to the rights 
of the Holy See was always fostered by the Galilean party. Gallicanism 
and Jansenism had their strength in the Parliaments, especially that of Paris, 
and in the legal profession, the judges and jurists of France. Their idea 
was a State church after the pattern of the Anglican or Russian systems. 

158. Parliamentary Opposition to the Church. — The 

Parliament of Paris and the twelve provincial Parliaments had 
regained their old position after the death of Louis XIV. Being 
mostly composed of Gallieans and Jansenists, they carried on a 
bitter warfare against the Holy See and the Bull 44 Unigenitus." 
The pastorals of bishops who denied to the Parliaments the right of 
interfering in dogmatical matters were rudely suppressed. The Par- 

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liament of Paris prosecuted, imprisoned and exiled priests for deny- 
ing absolution to heretics. Louis XV., at first an opponent, later a 
protector of these tribunals, banished archbishops and bishops and 
gave full rein to the Parliament of Paris to condemn faithful priests 
to perpetual exile or to the galleys. This aggressive body went so 
far as to declare that the dogmatical decree of the Bull " Unigeni- 
tus," was not a rule of faith, and to prohibit to any ecclesiastic 
" of whatever order, quality or dignity he might be," to attribute 
to it such character. The instruction of the Archbishop of Paris 
supported by sixty bishops, excommunicating priests who would 
allow themselves to be ruled in the administration of the sacraments 
by any secular tribunal, was publicly burnt. When Benedict XIV. 
confirmed the Bull " Unigenitus," a parliamentary decree suppressed 
the Papal Brief. Again the Archbishop of Paris was exiled. Thus 
the Parliaments contributed their full share to shake and destroy 
that authority of the Church, which might have saved France, 
already tottering to its fall. 

159. Infidel Literature. — The so-called 44 philosophy of the 
eighteenth century," an outgrowth of the skeptical literature of 
England, was a powerful agency in bringing about the Revolution. 

Since the days dt Cromwell it was the leading object of the English skep- 
tics, to reject the Bible, miracles, revelation and Christianity, and to assert 
the sufficiency of natural religion. Men like John Locke, Mathew Tindal, 
Thomas Woolston, and hosts of others, were at first called Deists or Ration- 
alists. Anthony Collins introduced the name of Freethinkers for those who 
like himself denied Christianity. Thomas Hobbes declared all religion a 
mere human invention ; Charles Blount, a crafty device of the priesthood. 
John Locke by bis speculations about 44 thinking matter " became the fore- 
runner of materialism which denied all spiritual existences from the human 
soul upward. Whilst some of these writers wrote in a serious strain, 
others like John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, and Shaftesbury, mocked with 
unblushing cynicism at religion and morality. Bolingbroke as author, sur- 
passed in diabolical hatred of Christianity the freethinkers, whom he per- 
secuted as Minister of State. Dean Swift was not an infidel, but his blas- 
phemies were equaled only by those of his teacher, Giordano Bruno. 
Science was restricted by these men to the exclusive and one-sided investi- 
gation of natural phenomena. The rejection of every higher truth that could 
not be found with the dissecting knife, was called " enlightenment.*' The 
substitution of Deism, Pantheism and Atheism for Christianity went by the 

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name of " philosophy." About 1740 a reaction set in in England against 
this skeptical literature, and henceforth most of the freethinkers retired 
into the secrecy of Masonic lodges. 

160. Freemasonry. — The first grand lodge of Freemasonry was opened 
In London, 1717. Between 1725 aod 1750, the secret society spread to every 
State of Europe, to North America and to East India. Princes like Francis 
Stephen, the husband of Maria Theresa, Frederic II., the Prince of Wales, 
statesmen and ministers, deists and freethinkers, members of the educated 
and professional classes, whatever their denomination, joined the secret 
order. The Freemasons borrowed their ritual from the masonic guilds of 
the Middle Ages, perverting its meaning. Their real aim, surrounded with 
impenetrable secrecy and guarded by terrible oaths, was to replace the 
existing religious, political and social order based on Christianity by a 
merely humanitarian, a ne 3- pagan state of society. They formed an organ- 
ized conspiracy against Church and State. Neither the decrees of the Holy 
See nor the prohibitions of the courts of Madrid, Vienna and Naples were 
able to stay the spread of Freemasonry. 

161. Free thinking on the Continent. — From England, the principles of 
free thinking and the secret work of the lodges passed over to France and 
the continent. Bollngbroke and other English Infidels were familiarly 
known in Paris. Nearly all the French " philosophers " traveled and 
studied in England. Voltaire, who spent three years in England, and his 
coadjutors fully acknowledged their obligations to the writings of English 
infidels. Voltaire and his friends became the teachers of Frederic II. The 
Irish skeptic, John Toland, spread infidelity and Freemasonry in Great 
Britain and at the German courts. Freethinking princes and statesmen 
became a power not only In Protestant countries, as Gustavus III. In 
Sweden (assassinated in 1792), Struensee in Denmark, but still more so at 
Catholic courts. Kaunitz In Austria, Pombal in Portugal, A ran da in Spain, 
Choiseul in France, Tanucci in Naples, were all more or less outspoken 
freethinkers and conspirators against the Holy See and the rights of the 
Catholic Church. 

162. French Philosophers. — But in no country did the new 
philosophy assume a more virulent form and destructive influence 
than in France. The French philosophers formed two groups, the 
Encylcopedists to whom belonged the skeptical scientist D'Alem- 
bert, the coarse atheists Diderot and Holbach, Damilaville "the 
hater of God," the materialists Condillac, Helvetius, de la Mettrie, 
and many others, who were indefatigable in propagating the gospel 
of open impiety, unblushing immorality, and deadly hatred against 
the Church by innumerable pamphlets, lampoons, dialogues, paro- 



dies, letters, novels, and scientific treatises among the higher and 
middle classes of French and European society. For half a century 
Voltaire, their leader, turned his brilliant gifts of poetry and wit 
into weapons of invective, slander, ridicule, buffoonery and malice, 
to wage war to the knife against the Catholic Church. 4 4 ficrasez 
Tinfame " 14 crush the infamous thing," was the motto of his life. 
Under Diderot's supervision the philosophical sect began in 1751, 
the publication of the Encyclopedia, a dictionary ostensibly devoted 
to the sciences, but in reality a vehicle for their pernicious teach- 
ings. They boasted that it would be an easy thing for twelve phi- 
losophers to destroy what twelve fishermen had built up. Diderot 
declared they would not rest till the last king had been strangled 
with the entrails of the last priest. The extreme fanatics of this 
school proclaimed atheism as the supreme duty of mankind. — The 
second group was that of Rousseau, author of the 44 Social Con- 
tract,' * and the Socialists who aimed their attacks directly against 
the government and the rights of private ownership. The dominant 
philosophy of both schools undermined every existing institution 
and denied all authority to custom, historical right, religion and the 
State. The reading and discussion of such works became the 
fashion, the rage in the salons, the clubs, the social and scientific 
circles, at the royal court, and even among a portion of the higher 

On the Jansenists: A. G. Knight: M. '80, 8 (Oct. p. 198; Nov. p. 870) ; *81. 1. (Jan. p. 86; 
Febr. p. 878): An Archbish. of Paris, (Beaumont). — Ft. X. Moll: A. 0. Q. 10.— J. 
Rickaby: M. *91, 1. (Jan. p. 69; Febr. p. 346): Clement XI. and the Jansenists. — 
Bauer. St. 18, 17. — Freemasonry: Dechamps; Thebeaud: A. C. Q. 6. — M. '75. 
Sept. p. 90; M. '84. June, p. 163; July, p. 805. — F. X. Gautrelet: La Franc-Magon- 
nerie et la Revolution. — Krelten : Voltaire. — NourUson : Voltaire et le Voltairianism. — 
Reuben Parsons: Studies in Church Hist., v. IV.; The Bull Unigenitus; Freemasonry; 
Voltaire. — Bain: Gustavus III.; also E. R. 81,8. Assassination: E. H.Q.I, p. 548.— 
Weiss, v. 11. Catherine II. and the Philosophers In Wallszewski: The Story of a 
Throne; part II. 

§ 2. 


163. Joseph in ism. — The anti-ecclesiastical spirit and the 
infidel philosophy of the age found a representative in Joseph II. 
Joseph, like Frederic II. and Catharine II., was a philosophical king. 

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Shallow by nature and education though meaning well and desiring 
the good of his people, he became an easy prey to the enemies of 
the Church. Already before his accession a policy of innovation and 
opposition to the Holy See, fostered by Kaunitz, cast a shadow over 
the latter years of Maria Theresa's rule. But when Joseph II. 
assumed full power he proceeded with headlong haste to introduce 
the sweeping reforms suggested by his disordered imagination and 
urged by his evil advisers. His " reforms " dealt with matters over 
which the Church alone has jurisdiction, viz., with divine service, 
communication with the Holy See, theological instruction and the 
religious orders. 

164. Divine Service. — By Imperial ordinances, he assumed to regulate 
the forms of divine worship, religious processions and pilgrimages, the 
number of feasts to be observed, even the number of candles to be used at 
Mass. u To save the forests," coffins were prohibited, and the bodies of 
the common people were to be buried in large trenches, or sewed into sacks. 
Such decrees naturally roused the anger of the people. He arrogated to the 
State the inalienable right of the Church to legislate about the sacrament of 
matrimony, and abolished ecclesiastical impediments. 

166. Communication with the Holy See. — The free communications of 
the bishops both with the Holy See and with their dioceses was either cut 
off or placed under the supervision of the State. Pastoral letters were sub- 
jected to the royal Placet. 

166. Religious Instruction. — The episcopal seminaries were changed 
into State schools (General Seminaries) in which freethinkers and religious 
scoffers were not unfrequently appointed as professors. A new catechism, 
more in harmony with the spirit of the age, was issued under Imperial 
authority. Priests were ordered not to preach on dogmatical truths but on 
moral subjects and national economy. 

167. Religious Orders . — Joseph II. suppressed all the monasteries that 
did not serve " a practical purpose," ejected 86,000 members from their 
religious homes and confiscated their property. The remaining communities 
were severed from their ecclesiastical superiors in Rome. The admission 
of novices was made as difficult as possible. These " reforms," though 
they exasperated the greater portion of the clergy and the mass of the 
people, were encouraged by weak and time-serving bishops, freethinklng 
professors, and priests infected with Febronianism and Freemasonry. 

168. Febronianism; Plus VI. Insulted. — Febronlus (Hontheim) auxiliary 
bishop of Trier, had published a book which gained widespread Influence. His 

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work denied the divine institution and universal jurisdiction of the Primacy, 
derived all jurisdiction from the people as its source, and degraded the Pope 
to the position of a Parliamentary president, and made the validity of his 
decrees dependent on the consent of all the bishops. It advocated the 
formation of national churches with independent national heads, and called 
on the princes to block intercourse with Rome and to take the introduction 
of these changes into their own hands. 

Joseph II. was so imbued with these principles that he fettered his 
own church whilst granting freedom to the sects. The liberty of the 
press introduced by him gave unscrupulous infidels and immoral 
writers full scope to attack the Church with every sort of indignity and 
calumny. In the hope of being able to stem the tide of irreligion by 
a personal meeting with the Emperor, Pius VI. came in 1782 to 
Vienna. But whilst he was everywhere greeted by the people with 
the spontaneous enthusiasm of unfeigned love and respect, he was 
treated with coldness and positive insults by the Catholic Emperor 
and his minister Kaunitz. 

169. Joseph's Political Innovations — Defection of Bel- 
gium. — With equal disregard to political and historical rights 
Joseph undertook to reduce the administration of the different prov- 
inces, so varied in race, character, and customs, to a dead level of 
uniformity. To avoid taking an oath on the Hungarian Constitution 
which he intended to change, he refused coronation, and conveyed the 
crown of St. Stephen to Vienna. He still more exasperated the 
national feelings of the Hungarians by making German the official 
language of the kingdom, abolishing at the same time the local gov- 
ernments and annulling the privileges of nobles and free cities. By 
a stroke of the pen he destroyed the Constitution of the Austrian 
Netherlands which had been in force since the time of Maximilian I. 
and replaced it by a centrab'zed bureaucracy. When Joseph II. 
approached his end, his dominions were in a state of utter confu- 
sion. Hungary was in the throes of a furious rebellion. The 
Tyrol, Bohemia, Moravia, were threatening open resistance. The 
patience of the Belgian people had been stretched to the utmost 
tension by Joseph's repeated attempts to secularize the episcopal 
seminaries. When the newConstitution was produced, the provinces 
rose, expelled the Austrian troops from their cities (1789), declared 


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their independence and constituted themselves the United States of 
Belgium. Thus the inheritance of Maximilian I. was practically lost 
to the House of Hapsburg. On his deathbed Joseph II. owned, 
himself defeated. He sent back the crown to Hungary, annulled the 
greater part of his reforms and made his peace with God and the 
Church. Almost his only measures that survived him, were a modified 
toleration and the abolition of serfdom. 

R. Parsons : Studies, v. IV.: Jouphism; FebronianUm. — Jaeger: I. Th. Z. '79; '80; 
(Loop. II.). — 8eb. B runner: Jot. //.; v. WelM v. 13. — W. 0. Robinson: Cardinal <te 
Frankenberg. M. '78, 8, Nov. p. 806. 

i 3. 


170. In Portugal. — In their warfare against the Church, the Encyclo- 
pedists and Socialists found a vigorous opponent in the Society of Jesus. 
•< Once we have destroyed the Jesuits," wrote Voltaire to Helvetius, u we 
shall have it all our own way with the infamous thing." To destroy the 
order, they made common cause with the Galileans and Jansenists, with 
Choiseul and the Parliaments, with Pombal in Portugal and the f reethinking 
ministers of the Bourbon courts. No calumny, scurrility or intrigue was 
spared to blacken the Jesuits in the eyes of the rulers and the people. 

In Portugal the upstart Carvalho, created Minister and Marquis of 
Pombal by the weak Joseph I. Emmanuel (1750-1777), pursued with 
despotic cruelty the aim of the philosophers : to crush the nobility 
and the clergy, and to wean the Portuguese people from its obedience 
to the Holy See. He prepared the minds of the king and of the 
nation for his violent measures by a series of absurd charges against 
the Jesuits. 

He accused them of exciting the Indians in Paraguay to rebellion, of 
having founded an Empire in Maranhao, of amassing fabulous riches in the 
colonies, of having roused the people against his government during the 
Bufferings which followed the terrible earthquake of Lisbon (80,000 killed) 
In 1755. 

A feigned attempt on the life of the king, skillfully plotted and 
deftly exploited by Pombal, secured him the royal ear and signet. 
With the autocracy of a tyrant he sent the most powerful families 
(tlu* Avwiros and Tavoras) to the block, imprisoned the flower of 

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the Portuguese nobility and clergy and expelled the Jesuits. From 
all the dominions of Portugal the Jesuits were closely packed in 
ships and landed on the coast of the Papal States (1759). The 
most influential members of the order were immured in the horrible 
dungeons of the Tajo. When Pombal fell in 1777, the survivors 
with 700 other innocent prisoners emerged, after a frightful captivity 
of seventeen years, like specters from these keeps. 

The released nobles, judges and ecclesiastics were restored to all their 
rights and dignities. A commission appointed by the new Queen Mary 
declared Pombal's moat incriminated victims innocent of the plot on the 
king's life. The sentence was tantamount to an official declaration that 
the whole story of the conspiracy was false. Pombal was disgraced, exiled 
and sentenced to death, but was spared the execution on account of his 
decrepit age. His body remained neglected and unburied, till the Jesuits, 
recalled to Portugal in 1880, had celebrated mass over the corpse. 

171. In France. — In France the open war against the Jesuits began in 
the literary world. The Janseuists had founded the so-called " Merchants' 
Bank " for the purpose of disseminating slanderous books and pamphlets 
against the order. The " Extracts," a book containing 758 text falsifica- 
tions, charged the Jesuits with immoral and treasonable doctrines, while 
the Philosophers in their writings lauded Pombal to the skies. The attempt 
to charge them with complicity in Damien's attempt on the king's life, 
recoiled on the accusers, as the investigation pointed to the complicity of 
the Jansenists. The trial of Father La Valette furnished the Parliament of 
Paris a pretext of publicly prosecuting the Jesuits, though he was no longer 
a member of the Society. La Valette, whilst superior on the island of Mar- 
tinique, had in defiance of rules and positive orders engaged in commercial 
transactions and failed. Though he was dismissed for breach of rule, yet 
the whole order was blamed for the transgression of one. 

The Parliament of Paris in 1761 sentenced the Society to pay the 
debts of La Valette, closed the Jesuit schools and colleges, sup- 
pressed the sodalities as impious, and prohibited Frenchmen from 
entering the order. In 1762 the Parliament suppressed the Society 
itself, and denounced as godless, sacrilegious and treasonable 
their Institute, which had been approved by so many Popes. Nearly 
the whole Episcopate of France protested against this decree. 
Clement XIII. declared it null and void. In 1764 the Parliament 
left the Jesuits the alternative either to forswear their Institute and 
their vows as impious and dangerous to the State, or to go into 

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exile. They went into exile. Of 4,000 French Jesuits only five 
blenched. Clement XIII. issued in 1765 a bull in which he 
declared the Society innocent and confirmed its Institute. Its pub- 
lication, however, in France, was thwarted by Choiseul. 

172. In Spain. — la Spain Araoda charged the Jesuits, who had done 
their best to pacify the people, with causing bread riots. The Duke of Alva 
even stooped to the forging of letters aspersing the legitimacy of the king, 
in order to convict the Jesuits of high treason. The letters were written as 
if coming from Father General. Alva himself confessed the forgery on his 
deathbed. Pius VI. subsequently proved that they were written on Spanish, 
not on Roman paper. These letters Alva secretly introduced into the Col- 
lege of Madrid, and ordered them to be seized before they were opened. 
By this gross deception Alva roused the resentment of King Charles III. to 
the highest degree. 

Charles III. signed the decree of banishment in 1766. By a pre- 
arranged plan all the houses and colleges of the. Society throughout 
the Spanish possessions were invaded on the same day, their papers 
sealed, their property confiscated. Without a hearing, without even 
a semblance of a trial, 6,000 members provided only with the clothes 
they wore and a breviary, were crowded into ships and thrown on 
the shores of the Papal States and the island of Corsica, 1767. 
The same year, and by the same methods, Tanucci, the minister of 
Ferdinand IV., expelled the Jesuits from Naples. Parma, the 
youngest of the Bourbon courts, followed suit in 1768. 

173* Ecclesiastical Suppression. — The next step of the 
Bourbon Courts was to bring about the suppression of the Society 
by ecclesiastical authority. To exercise pressure on the Holy See, 
France occupied the papal territory of Avignon, and Naples, the 
duchies of Benevento and Montecorvo with their troops. The 
saintly Clement XIII. withstood till death, 1769. In the conclave 
which followed, Cardinal Ganganelli was chosen as Clement XIV. 
As early as 1767 he had secretly expressed himself to the French 
ambassador, D'Aubeterre, as favoring the suppression. After his 
election, being constantly harassed by the courts, he made some 
concessions, the consequence of which he hoped to escape by delays. 
Before the end of the year he promised the suppression to Louis 
XV. and Charles III. of Spain. Still he sought delay. But the 

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Spanish ambassador, the crafty and violent Monino (afterwards Count 
Florida Blanca) by his repeated threats of suppressing all religious 
orders and of a Bourbon schism, finally overcame the reluctance of 
the timid Pope. July 21, 1773, Clement XIV. signed the brief of 
suppression for the sake of peace. It was not a judicial but an 
administrative measure ; no investigation preceded the sentence. At 
the time of suppression the Society numbered 39 provinces, 176 
seminaries, 669 colleges, 359 smaller residences, and 223 flourishing 
missions, most of them among heathen nations. The Jesuits, over 
22,000 all over the world, submitted without a protest. 

The Pope had a right to suppress the Society in an administrative way. 
The order, bo highly praised by Clement XIII. and his predecessors, could 
not fall so low in three years as to deserve & judicial suppression. Although 
the Jesuit houses were everywhere searched, and in many instances plun- 
dered by the enemies of the Society, no trace of guilt, or of their pretended 
wealth, was ever found. Lorenzo Ricci, the General of the Society, died in 
the castle of St. Angelo solemnly attesting the innocence of the Order. 
Their innocence was acknowledged by Maria Theresa, who bowed with 
great sorrow to the decision of the Pope; by Frederic II. and Catharine II., 
who, with the permission of the Pope, retained their services In Silesia and 
Russia; by the great majority of the bishops, the clergy and the people of 
the Catholic world. The suppression did not bring the hoped for peace. 
The persecution of the Church and the Holy See waxed in fierceness. The 
revolutionary party alone was strengthened, for they had overcome one of 
their boldest foes. The charge that Clement XIV. was poisoned byex- 
Jesuits is a groundless Invention of hostile pamphleteers. Responsible 
historians, both Catholic and Protestant, mention the calumny only to 
reject it. The testimony of the Papal physicians and of all the attendants 
shows that the sickness of the Pope took a perfectly natural course. At the 
autopsy not a trace of poison was discovered. 

Suppression of the Jesuits: R. Parsons, Studies IV . — Suppression by Clement XIV. 
A. C. Q. 18. — A. Weld: Suppression in the Portuguese Dominions. — PombcU and the 
Jesuits: M '77, 8, Sept p. 86; A. C. Q. 2, p. 51. — A. C. Q. 2, p. 51 — Duhr: Pombal 
(Jesalten Fabeln). — Ellis Schretber: Father Malagrida M. '89, 1. Feb. p. 214. — The 
Jesuits, Their Foundation and History. — v. Weiss, v. 13.— Cesare Cantd: Hist, of a 
Hundred Years. 


174. The Reigns In France from Louis XIV.-Louis XVI. —The long 
wars of Louis XIV. had exhausted the resources of France. He left a 


public debt of 2,000,000,000 livres which steadily grew under his successors. 
The regency of Philip of Orleans was a further step towards dissolution. 
The debauchery of his shameless court found its way to the lower classes 
of the people, whilst the swindling operations of Law undermined the credit 
of the state and the prosperity of the country. The fruits of Fleury's wiser 
administration were destroyed by the reverses and the enormous expendi- 
ture In the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. The 
acquisition of Corsica from Genoa in 1768 was no compensation for the loss 
of the colonies. The prestige of royalty sank lower from day to day under 
a king like Louis XV. 

175. Royal Establishment. — Under the late Bourbon kings, the per- 
sonal household of the king and the princes royal employed 15,000 persons 
at an annual expense of 40 to 50 million livres, one -tenth of the public 
revenue. The princes of the blood had a revenue of 24 or 25 million livres, 
the Duke of Orleans (Egalltf) alone 11,400,000. The main duty of the 
first persons of the kingdom was at every place where the court might 
happen to reside, to be at all hours at the beck of the king's pleasure. The 
occupations at court were an interminable round of feasting, hunting, plays 
and receptions, pomp and parade. A corresponding extravagance was prac- 
ticed in most of the great houses; so that public affairs, private business, 
the seclusion of family life, the education of children, and the precepts of 
morality were sacrificed by the higher classes to frivolity and pleasure- 

170. Social Distinctions. — The nobility by birth numbered in France 
about 140,000 persons or 60,000 families. To this estate was added a 
great number of families of administrative officers, members of the Parlia- 
ments, judges, etc., who since the time of Louis XIV. had purchased titles 
of nobility to escape paying certain taxes. The old nobility which alone 
had access to the court, rigorously maintained Its social ascendency over 
the so-called bourgeois, the middle class of merchants, traders, lawyers, etc. 
This distinction was kept up in every profession, the army, the navy, the 
bench. Only noblemeu could hold officer's rank in the army aud navy, 
and they were overpaid. The soldiers recruited from the lowest classes of 
the people, were wretchedly underpaid, aud fed worse than prison convicts. 
Hence when the Revolution broke out, they beaded instead of suppressing 
the revolts. The resident nobility, though stiff against the bourgeois were 
as a rule kindhearted aud neighborly with their subjects. For this reason 
there was still much cheer and light-hearted enjoyment among the simple 
people living in villages and smaller towns. The sufferings of the peasants 
came directly from the agents and middlemen of absentee nobles and clergy- 
men of high position who resided in Paris. The same social distinction was 
found in the clergy. The clergy of France numbered 181 archbishops and 
bishops, 60,000 secular priests, 28,000 monks in 2,500 monasteries, and 



37,000 nuns in 1,500 convents. The monasteries continued to be the 
benefactors of the people, and were most generous in the support of the 
poor in times of need. The church revenues from the soil amounted to 80 
ox 100 million livres to which were added another 100 million of tithes. A 
great part of the revenues went to titular abbots ad commendam. The 
bishops and abbots were usually nobles, and had incomes ranging from 
25,000 to 100,000 livres or more. The abuse of pluralities still more swelled 
the incomes of some of the great ecclesiastics. Thus Cardinal Rohan's 
revenues amounted to 600,000 livres. The parish priests and vicars were 
taken from among the bourgeois and peasants and had barely enough for 
subsistence. Besides, their scanty salaries of from 250-700 francs were 
heavily taxed. The wealth of the higher and the poverty of the lower 
clergy were a source of innumerable abuses and created a bitter antagonism 
between the two classes. 

177. Feudal Dues. — At the period preceding the Revolution a fifth of 
the soil of France was crown or communal lands, a fifth belonged to the 
third estate, a fifth to the rural population, and two-fifths to the privileged 
classes, the nobility and the clergy. There were still three kinds of feudal 
rights and burdens connected with the soil: (a). The lord of the fief 
enjoyed the right of administering justice which he often sold to the highest 
bidder; the right of levying tolls at fairs and bridges, and the right of fish- 
ing and hunting on the feudal estate. The farmer could not kill the deer 
and rabbits roaming in his field nor bar the hunters from galloping over 
them. He had to pay a tax for the right of guarding his crops, and another 
tax for the permission of selling them. (b). The farmer had to grind his 
corn and to press his grapes at the seigneur's mill or press, and to work 
for him a certain number of days, (c.) About a fifth of the soil was censive 
land, i. e. t though the holder had all the rights of a proprietor, and could not 
be removed as long as he paid his dues, and could sell or sublet the land, 
be was subject to two restrictions : he had to pay an annual fee to the lord, 
and he had to plant the crops which his lord prescribed. The feudal rights 
were separable from the proprietorship of the fiefs, and as a marketable 
property were frequently bought up by the townsmen, and passed from 
hand to haud. This state of affairs caused interminable vexations and law- 
suits, as sometimes half a dozen different persons claimed dues from the 
same piece of land. 

178. Administration. — Since Louis XIV. the administration was abso- 
lute, arbitrary, and centralized. The smallest parish matter had to be 
reported to Paris. Suspected and guilty persons of every class could be 
sent to State prisons without a hearing, upon the sole warrant of sealed 
letters (lettres de cachet). If the Parliament of Paris refused to register 
royal edicts, the royal court had recourse to " beds of justice " (lit de jus- 
tice), a despotic enforcement of registration, and banished the recalcitrant 


members of the Parliament. The sale of offices, began by Louis XIV. , 
gradually extended to every administrative department. Pensions, sine- 
cures, offices with enormous salaries, were created for the sole purpose of 
being sold. 

179. Taxation. — The system of taxation was oppressive in its nature, 
unjust in its distribution, and arbitrary in its collection. Excise duties 
were laid on the most common necessaries of life. The entrance fee or 
octroi was a toll which peasants had to pay at the c*ty gate of market 
towns. Two-thirds of the hated gabelle or salt tax were levied on one-third 
of the kingdom. The same measure of salt which in the favored provinces 
cost a few cents might cost as many francs in another province. Every 
person over seven years of age had to buy annually seven pounds of salt for 
kitchen and table use. For salting pork the farmer had to buy another 
certified amount. If a villager economized his table salt for curing pork, 
his pork was confiscated and he was fined 300 livres. It was forbidden 
under a fine of 40 or 60 livres to evaporate ocean water. Violations of the 
salt tax led annually to 4,000 seizures of dwellings, 3,400 imprisonments, 
and 500 sentences of flogging, exile or the galleys. The salt tax, excise and 
custom dues were sold in advance to revenue farmers, who besides the tax 
sought their own profit. The taille, a personal property tax, was in two- 
thirds of France laid on land, houses and industries in proportion to the 
presumed capacity of the tax -payer. At the first sign of increasing pros- 
perity the tax was raised. In ten provinces the rich paid 1 ,600,000 livres, 
the poor 11,636,000 livres taille. The poll tax was general. The poorest 
rag-picker who earned ten or fifteen cents a day, had to pay his eight or 
ten livres poll tax. Internal custom houses and tolls were so numerous, 
that it took over three months instead of three weeks to carry goods from 
the south to the north of France. A boat load of wine from Languedoc 
had to pay over forty kinds of duties before reaching Paris. Laborers who 
crossed the Rhone to their daily work, were taxed for their victuals. 
Whilst the privileged classes paid few taxes, the common people bore the 
heaviest part of the burden. Oyer a great portion of France a farmer of 
the better sort had to pay 81 francs out of every hundred of his net revenue 
in taxes and feudal dues, retaining less than a fifth for the support of 
his family. Small farmers fared still worse. 

180. Condition of the People. — Under such a system of administration 
and taxation, the gap between the rich and the poor constantly widened. 
Vast numbers of peasants deserted their lands and sought refuge beyond 
the frontiers. Part of the French soil became a waste. The price of corn 
and bread had to be fixed by the police. A slight rise in the price of bread 
meant starvation for the poor. A fall in the price of corn impoverished 
the producer. Famines and bread riots became periodic in the eighteenth 
century. In 1715, immediately after the war of the Spanish succession, 



one-third of the population, 6,000,000, are said to have perished of hunger 
and destitution. The years 1725, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1747, 1750, 1752, 1764-68, 
1770, 1773, by no means exhaust the number of famine years. In 1740 
Bishop Massillon wrote to Cardinal Fleury that the majority of the rural 
inhabitants have, for half the year, to deprive themselves and their chil- 
dren of their sole bread food made of barley and oats, to pay the taxes. In 
1755, 800 persons died of misery within one month in a single quarter of 
Paris. Private charity, though in many cases practiced on a grand scale, 
was hopelessly inadequate to meet the evil. The country swarmed with 
beggars, smugglers, poachers, and brigands; thousands of them were 
imprisoned, sent to the galleys, hanged, or broken on the wheel. Into such 
soil fell the revolutionary teaching of Jean Jaques Rousseau. 

181. The Social Contract. — Not one of the " philosophers " obtained 
an influence in shaping future events which could be compared with that 
of Rousseau. The others appealed to the educated and official classes to 
carry out the revolutionary changes; Rousseau appealed to the common 
people. His " Social Contrat" and similar writings had a hundred times 
more readers among the bourgeois and the lower classes than Voltaire's 
works. Rousseau's " Contract Social," published iu 1762, became the 
model of the revolutionary State. The liberty, the equality, the sovereignty 
of the people was the foundation of the social contract. The State, with 
Rousseau, is nothing but a collection of individuals freely associating 
together, and forming a contract for the recognition of their rights. Every 
one surrenders himself with all his rights to the community. This com- 
munity excludes all other associations, especially the Church. A Christian 
community, in which the Church has special rights not delegated by the 
State, is, in his view, a contradiction. Whatever opposes an obstacle to 
the equality of the citizens, possession of private property, a government, 
an aristocracy, a church, must be overthrown. The first man who asserted 
a property right, was a robber to the community. The people have the 
inalienable right, to determine the form of government, and at any time to 
change it, to accept or reject any proposed law by universal suffrage. It is 
evident that such a theory, carried out in practice, must lead to anarchy 
and mob rule. 

182. Beginning of the Reign of Louis XVI. — Louis XVI., 
the grandson of Louis XV., succeeded to the throne in 1774. His 
piety, moral purity, simplicity of tastes, and sincere good will were 
neutralized by his lack of energy. He was married to Marie 
Antoinette, the unfortunate daughter of Maria Theresa. Marie 
Antoinette was of a vivacious temper, fond of enjoyment, but not 
extravagant. She was not opposed to reforms, but meddled little 


in politics until the danger of her family roused her inborn energy. 
Long before the outbreak of the Revolution the court party nick- 
named her a u Democrat " on account of her broad-minded views. 
It was systematic misrepresentation which undermined her pop- 
ularity. The ministers chosen by the king were all freethinkers. 
Turgot introduced a number of reforms in the regulation of trade 
and labor, but his further plans were cut short by the opposition of 
the privileged classes. It was a misfortune for the queen that his 
dismissal was, in part, her work. After his dismissal a reaction set 
in, and the attention of the nation was, for a time, diverted to the 
events which took place in North America, events in which France 
soon took an active part. 

Causes of the Fr. Rcvol. : Lecky, v. ch. 20, p. 800-441 . — Taine : The Ancient Regime. — 
Reeve: France Before the Revol. of '89.— De Tocqueville: The Old Regime and the 
JievoL — The 18th Century; D. R.'79, 4 ;'S0, 1 ;'81. 4. — H. Q. Mivart : The Ancient Regime, 
A. C. Q. 18, 19.— The Last Days of the Old Regime; M. 80, 8. — Lilly: Questions of 
History. — J. Murray: French Finances Under Louis XV. — v. Weiss, v. 11. — See also 
the Histories of the French Bey. to Ch. IX. 




183. Conquest of Canada. — The submission of the colonies to the 
mother country, before the Peace of Paris, was mainly due to the presence 
of the French in Canada. The colouists depended for their security on the 
armed support of England. Once the French had been driven from Amer- 
ica, the colonies stood no longer in need of England's protection. 

184. Conflicting Claims. — The conflicting claims of the colonies and 
the British Parliament lay at the root of the controversy. The colonists 
maintained that as Englishmen by birth or descent they were entitled to the 
same degree of liberty as Englishmen enjoyed at home. Not being repre- 
sented in Parliament they opposed Parliamentary taxation as an invasion of 
their rights upon the principle. that taxation without representation is 
tyranny. Substantially, it was the same principle that had been adopted by 
the bishops and barons of England in the first perfect Parliament of 1295, 
and had been inserted in the Magna Charta, that* no tax should be imposed 
without consent of Parliament. On the other hand, Parliament claimed the 
unrestricted right of legislating for, and of taxing the colonies, not merely 
to defray the expenses of protecting them, but as a mark of colonial subor • 
di nation and dependence. The claims of the colonies were ably defended 
in America by the writings and speeches of James Otis, George Washington, 
Patrick Henry, Samuel and John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin, their 
colonial agent in London ; and in the Parliament itself by Lord Chatham, 
Edmund Burke., and other friends of the Americans. 

185. Navigation and Trade Acts. — The English claims were practically 
embodied in a number of Parliamentary Acts which the colonists considered 
as prejudicial to their commerce, their manufactures and their rights of 
self government. The Navigation Acts were designed to restrict colonial 
commerce for the benefit of the English merchants. The colonies could 
trade only with the mother country and its dependencies. All imports had 
to pass through England. All exports, tobacco, cotton, and other products, 
had to sell in British markets. Every sort of competition with English 
manufacture was deliberately crushed. It was forbidden to ship woolens, 


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hats, etc , from one colony to another, or to set np mills and steel furnaces 
in America. This selfish legislation led to wholesale smuggling. Nine- 
tenths of all the tea and other articles of consumption were smuggled. To 
put down this practice, so-called Writs of Assistance were Issued for the 
search and seizure of smuggled goods. Snch a writ empowered the king's 
officers to enter even private homes. The colonies protested In vain against 
these writs. It must be confessed, however, that during the last French 
war the colonists in their money-making spirit had carried on a vast con- 
traband business with the enemy, and furnished them nearly all their 

186. The Stamp Act. — The policy of Grenvillc, Bute's suc- 
cessor, brought the dissatisfaction of the colonies to a crisis. He 
determined to enforce strictly the trade laws which were constantly 
violated with the connivance of the royal officers, permanently to estab- 
lish a British army of 10,000 men or more in America, and to raise by 
parliamentary taxation first a part, later the whole, of the money 
necessary for its support. For this purpose he proposed in 1*764, the 
Stamp Act, to obtain 100,000/. of revenue. It levied a tax ranging 
from a half -penny to 6/. on pamphlets, periodicals, legal documents, 
etc. Revenue taxes had been heretofore imposed only by the colo- 
nial assemblies. It was the first act which provoked a general out- 
cry against the power and a denial of the right of Parliament to tax 

The Stamp Art was passed in 17o. r >, despite the collective petitions 
of the colonial assemblies. 

Patrick Henry carried a resolution in the Virginia House of Burgesses, 
denying the authority of Parliament to tax the colouies. A Congress at 
i\Yw York representing nine colonies declared it the undoubted right of 
Englishmen, that no taxes should be imposed on them but with their own 
consent given personally or by thrir representatives; that the colonists are 
not and from their local cireumstances cannot be represented in the House 
of Commons; hence only tneir representatives in the colonial assemblies 
wore competent to tax them. This position was ardently maintained in 
Parliament by Chatham, Burke, and the friends of the colonies in general. 

is; Repeal of the Stamp Act. — Meanwhile the 44 Sons of 
LttottYt" :m American association against the Stamp Act, seized 
, • a»-uo\nl nil the M:mip> they could lay their hands on, and 
tatawJ or forced the stamp masters to resign. In the frequent 

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stamp riots both custom houses and private dwellings of unpopular 
officials were plundered. Merchants refused to pay their debts in 
England unless the act was repealed. No jury could be found to 
punish mob violence. A non-importation agreement so far affected 
the trade, that English merchants themselves petitioned Parliament 
to repeal the Stamp Act. The new Rockingham ministry wished to 
retire from an untenable position. Thus the act was repealed, but 
with a declaration, affirming the right of Parliament to tax the British 
colonies and to pass laws binding them " in all cases whatsoever." 
The repeal restored peace and confidence in America, the declaration 
was ignored. 

188. The Tax on Tea. — In 1767 Charles Townshend, the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, again tried to tax America by imposing 
a duty on tea and four other articles. The tax was not compulsory 
as nobody was obliged to buy tea. But the Sons of Liberty would 
brook parliamentary taxation in no form, and by their agitation kept 
the revenue down to a minimum. In consequence Lord North, suc- 
cessor to Townshend, urged Parliament to remove the duties from 
four articles and to lower the tax on tea. This repeal, however, was 
accompanied by two measures, which only aggravated the already 
excited feeling in America. The one was the revival of a law of Henry 
VIII. by which traitors were to be tried in England. The other was 
the Mutiny Act, which ordered the colonies to maintain British 
troops sent over for the enforcement of these obnoxious laws. 

189. Conflicts between the British and Colonial Au- 
thorities. — The New York Assembly refused to furnish supplies 
for the troops, and was suspended. Assemblies met to protest against 
English legislation, were dissolved by the governors, and met again 
on their own authority. The troops pouring into the northern colo- 
nies from England caused bitter feelings to grow up between the 
soldiers and the citizens. In Boston a party of soldiers fired upon 
a small mob that taunted them. Five men fell dead or dying, six 
others were wounded. This so-called massacre of Boston added fuel 
to the flame (1770). In North Carolina a regular battle was fought 
between the governor commanding the militia, and the 44 Regulators, " 
a secret society pledged to pay no taxes until their grievances were 

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redressed. Two hundred of the insurgents fell and six were hanged 
by the governor (1771). In the teeth of an act just passed, which 
made it a capital offense to destroy ships or military and naval 
stores, unknown parties of Rhode Island destroyed and burnt the 
royal revenue cutter Gaspee, whose commander had made himself 
obnoxious by a zeal for England that went far beyond the law (1772).- 
The Sons of Liberty prevented the landing or the sale of tea. From 
New York and Philadelphia the ships went back to England un- 
loaded. At Charleston the tea was stored away in damp cellars. 
In Boston, fifty persons disguised as Indians emptied 342 chests of 
tea into the bay in the presence of a vast multitude (Boston Tea 
Party, 1773). 

In spite of the numerous riots and the general excitement the Americans 
were singularly free from the thirst of blood. After the " Boston Massa- 
cre " two patriots, bitterly opposed to England, John Adams and Josiah 
Quincy, undertook the defense of Captain Preston, who had commanded the 
firing party. He himself and all the soldiers were acquitted except two, 
who were found guilty of manslaughter, and even these received only a 
slight punishment. The American Revolution, unlike the French, was never 
disgraced by political assassinations. 

190. Repressive Measures of the English Government. — 

Parliament expressed its indignation at the proceedings in America 
by five Acts in 1774. It closed the port of Boston to all vessels 
(Boston Port Act). It remodeled by its own authority the Charter 
of Massachusetts, and placed its government into the hands of the 
king's officers. General Gage, commander-in-chief of the British 
troops, was appointed governor of Massachusetts. It authorized the 
removal to another colony or to England for trial of persons indicted 
for murder or other capital offenses, if the offense had been com- 
mitted in aiding the magistrates. It legalized the quartering of 
troops in the American colonies. It incorporated the country north 
of the Ohio river between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi with 
the province of Quebec (Quebec Act). 

The Quebec Act allowed all civil causes to be tried by the French law, to 
which the Canadians were accustomed, admitted CathoUcs to the legislative 
council, established complete liberty of public worship for the Catholic 
Church, and granted the Catholic clergy a full parliamentary title to their 
old ecclesiastical estates. 

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101. First Continental Congress, September 5, 1774. — Lord North 
flattered himsell that his measures would restore peace. The reverse hap- 
pened. Provisions poured into Boston for the support of those whom the 
Port Act had thrown out of employment. As soon as a colonial assembly 
was dissolved by a governor, the representatives of the people met in their 
own name. Juries refused to take the oath. Judges were prevented from 
sitting. Riots were the order of the day. 

The Virginia House resolved that an attack on one colony was an 
attack on all and that it was expedient to call a General Congress. 
Massachusetts took a similar course. Delegates from all the colonies 
except Georgia met in Carpenter's Hall at Philadelphia, and organized 
the Continental Congress. George Washington, Samuel Adams, 
and Patrick Henry were the most prominent delegates. In a Declara- 
tion of Rights Congress claimed for America the power of legislation, 
denied to Parliament the right of taxing the colonies, restricted par- 
liamentary authority to the mere regulation of trade, and nominally 
rejected all of the acts, — eleven in number — from the Stamp Act 
to the Quebec Act, passed since 1764. In separate addresses they 
appealed to the king, to the people of England, and to the people of 
Canada against Parliament. They finally voted to suspend all trade 
with England, till justice should be done to the colonies. 

In the address to the people of Great Britain drawn up by the bigoted John 
Jay, they skillfully appealed to the strong anti-Catholic feeling of the nation 
by denying the competence of the legislature to establish (in Canada) a 
religion fraught with u sanguinary and impious tenets; " a religion that 
has deluged your island in blood, and dispersed impiety, bigotry, persecu- 
tion, murder, and rebellion through every part of the world." At the same 
time they addressed the Catholic Canadians in the following terms: u We 
are too well acquainted with the liberality of sentiment distinguishing your 
nation to imagine, that difference of religion will prejudice you against a 
hearty amity with us." The intolerance of New England Puritanism in 
which happily Washington had no part, lost Canada to the cause of 

192. New Measures of Parliament. — Parliament after re- 
jecting the last motions for reconciliation made by Chatham and 
Burke pronounced Massachusetts in a state of rebellion, restrained 
the colonies from all trade with England, and raised the British force 
in Boston to 10,000 men. The adherents upon whom the govern- 
ment could count in the colonies, were its own officers, the Episco- 



palians both in the North and the South, a large section of the 
mercantile class that detested all measures interfering with their 
trade, and a rich and powerful party of sympathizers especially in 
New York, Boston, and Philadelphia known as the American Tories. 
The Tories of New York succeeded in inducing their assembly to 
withhold assent to the proceedings of the Continental Congress. 

Lecky (Cause* of Am. Rev.) : III. pp. 290-499 ; 569-591. — Sparks : Life of B. FranJtUn. — 
W. W. Henry: Lift of Patrick Henry. — T. K. Hosmer: Lives of 8. Adams (Whig Ylews) 
and of Th. Hutchison (Tory views).— J. T. Morse, Jr. : J. Adams. — Channlng: U. 8. 
of Am., 1765-1865.— Kidder: The Boston Massacre. — Froth Ingham : Rise of the Rep. of 
the U. S. - 0'8allWan : The Quebec Act and the Church in Canada, A. C. Q. 10. — Speeches 
of Chatham and Edm. Burke in Parliament. 

§ 2. 


193. Campaign of 1776 — Lexingrton and Concord. — The War of Inde- 
pendence comprises two periods. In the first, 1776-1778, the fighting was 
done in America, between the mother country and the colonies. In the 
second, 1778-83, France, Spain, and Holland joined the United States, and 
the war spread to all parts of the world. 

The first blood was shed at Lexington. General Gage sent a 
detachment to seize or destroy the military stores which the patriots 
had collected at Concord, Mass. Sixty or seventy " minute men," 
volunteers who were to be ready at a moment's notice, had gathered 
at Lexington, but were easily dispersed with a loss oi> sixteen killed 
or wounded. The British troops proceeded to Concord and 
destroyed the stores. On the return march to Boston the volunteers, 
who had meanwhile gathered in larger numbers, constantly assailed 
and finally routed the English who lost 273 men as against 88 on 
the American side. The engagement dispelled the prestige of the 
British regulars. 

194. Banker HiU, Jane. — All New England now fled to 
arms. In May, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised forts 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, a feat which gave the Americans the 
command of Lake George, Lake Champlain, and the road to Canada. 
Boston, with its 10,000 regulars, was gradually surrounded on the 
land side' by 15-20,000 volunteers. Entrenched on Breed's Hill 

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1,500 provincials repulsed two attacks of 3,000 regulars and 
retreated in good order only when their ammunition had been 
exhausted. The effect of this defeat was equivalent to a victory, 
because the firmness of the volunteers in the face of twice their 
number of English regulars encouraged the colonial leaders. 

In the South the governors of Virginia (Lord Dnnmore) and of the two 
Carol in as sought refuge on board the English frigates. Dunmore prom- 
ised freedom to negro slaves who should fight for England, and burnt the 
town of Norfolk. These two measures excited deep resentment through- 
out America. 

' 106. Expedition to Canada. — Though it publicly disavowed the action, 
Congress sent an expedition under Montgomery into Canada which took 
Montreal. Arnold, reinforced by Montgomery, made a fruitless effort to 
take Quebec. The Catholics of Canada, who had no sympathy for New 
England Puritans, refused to support the movement. The Americans hav- 
ing lost 6,000 men by desertion or death, fell back within the American 
frontiers. By next spring all Canada was again in the hands of the English. 

196. Second Meeting of the Continental Congress. — 
Meanwhile Congress had met. New York now rallied to the cause. 
By the accession of Georgia, before the close of the sessions, Congress 
represented the whole of the thirteen colonies. Its two most import- 
ant measures were the appointment of George Washington as com- 
mander-in-chief of the American forces (1775) and the Declaration of 
Independence (1776). Other veterans of the French war were given 
subordinate commands. Congress took measures to provide military 
supplies and to build up a navy, authorized privateers to cruise 
against the ships of England, but not against those of Ireland, pro- 
hibited the further importation of slaves into any colony, and 
engaged the commercial interests of the world by throwing open the 
trade of the colonies to all nations except the British. 

One of the greatest difficulties with which Congress had to contend was 
the state of the colonial finances. Having no revenue but that irregularly 
supplied by the States, Congress resorted to all kinds of devices to borrow 
money. Paper money was issued until it became almost worthless ; lottery 
loans were authorized; subsidies were begged from France, and bonds 
issued on the joint guarantees of all the colonies. In this financial distress 
speculators gleaned a rich harvest. The soldiers were poorly and irregularly 
paid, and were often driven to mutiny or desertion by delay of payment. 


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197. Washington's Character. — 41 To the appointment of Washington, far 
more than to any other single circumstance, Is due the ultimate success of 
the American Revolution. For several years, and usually in the neighbor- 
hood of superior forces, he commanded a perpetually fluctuating army 
almost wholly destitute of discipline, torn by personal and provincial 
jealousies, wretchedly armed, wretchedly clothed, and sometimes in immi- 
nent danger of starvation." Washington was often " unsupported by the 
population among which he was quartered, thwarted by the jealousy of 
rivals in the army and in Congress; " but he kept his forces together u by a 
combination of skill, firmness, patience, and judgment, which has rarely 
been surpassed, and he led them at last to a signal triumph. " Though pos- 
sessed of keen sensibilities and strong passions, his power of self -command 
never failed him. In civil, as in military life, he was always the same calm, 
wise, just, and single-minded man, pursuing the course which he believed to 
be right without fear or favor. He was in the highest sense a man of honor, 
and he carried into public life the severest standard of private morals. It 
was soon acknowledged by the nation, and by the English themselves, that 
in Washington America had found a leader, who could be induced by no 
earthly motive to tell a falsehood, or to break an engagement, or to commit 
any dishonorable act." (Lecky). 

108. Fall of Boston and Attack on Charleston, 1776. — 

When Washington arrived before Boston (July, 1775) he had to mould 
two raw levies into effective troops, as the term of the earlier levy 
expired in winter. In March, 1 7 76 , he succeeded at length in occupy- 
ing the Dorchester Heights which commanded the city and harbor of 
Boston. General Howe, who, in November, 17 75, had relieved General 
Gage of his command, was compelled to evacuate Boston and Wash- 
ington entered the capital of Massachusetts in triumph. Besides the 
troops the English fleet carried 1,000 American Tories to Halifax. 
New England was henceforth substantially free. Washington trans- 
ferred his headquarters to New York, leaving Genera Ward in 

Early in 1776 Sir Henry Clinton had sailed from Boston on a secret ex- 
pedition. Foiled by General Lee in his attack on New York, Clinton made 
a descent upon Charleston but was repulsed by Colonel Moultrie, and by 
Lee who had followed him by land. After cruising about for a while 
Clinton returned to New York. 

199. Declaration of Independence. — Heretofore the majority of the 
colonists had hoped for a peaceful settlement with England without a 
formal separation from the mother country. But the war which was now 



ablaze could end only in independence or in complete subjection. A strong 
public sentiment for independence showed itself first in resolutions passed 
by the separate colonial assemblies. When Congress contemplated an 
appeal for aid to France, the first preliminary step seemed to call for inde- 
pendence. Finally when England hired German mercenaries to fight against 
her own subjects, the declaration of independence became inevitable. 

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia offered, and 
John Adams of Massachusetts seconded, a resolution, declaring the 
independence of the United Colonies, the expediency of foreign 
alliances and of a plan of confederation. Action on the independ- 
ence clause was postponed for three weeks, the other two clauses 
were passed at once. On July 2, the Independence clause of the 
Lee resolution was passed and a committee appointed to draw up a 
formal declaration. The Declaration was adopted July 4th, by 
twelve States (New York alone still abstaining), and signed August 
2d, by every member of Congress. It declared, that these United 
Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent States, 
that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and 
that all political connection between them and the State of Great 
Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved. 

The Declaration of Independence was drawn up by Jefferson, an adherent 
of the new philosophy. The Declaration was far more justified by a 
series of historical facts proving that England had become unfit to rule the 
colonies, that her policy had become destructive of the ends of government, 
than by the theoretical and somewhat declamatory principles laid down in 
the preamble. Some of the phrases about equality and liberty of all men, 
like the declaration of the rights of man issued by the first Continental 
Congress, were a concession to the new philosophy. If the signers had 
taken these assertions seriously, their first duty would have been the Imme- 
diate abolition of slavery. The charge that the king endeavored to bring 
on the Inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, was 
unfair, because the Americans were willing enough to employ the Indians 
in their warfare against England, and actually employed them in the expe- 
dition to Canada and elsewhere. The resoluteness of the independent 
colonies was in the immediate future to be tested by a series of disasters. 

200. The Long Island Campaign. — In the beginning of July, 
General Howe landed from Halifax in Staten Island, where he was 
joined by Clinton arriving from Charleston, and by his brother, 
Admiral Lord Howe, arriving from England. These reinforcements 

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raised Howe's army to 30,000 men. With 15 ,000 men Howe attacked 
.and routed 8,000 Americans in the battle of Long Island. A few 
thousand Americans hemmed in at Brooklyn retreated unobserved 
across the river to the New York shore. The masterly retreat was 
due to the skill of Washington, who had come to their rescue. 

Howe now opened negotiations with Washington and with Congress. 
The American general refused to adopt communications addressed to 
" George Washington, Esq." or " George Washington, Esq., etc , etc.," and 
denied that Howe had any power but to offer pardon, and pardon the Ameri- 
cans would not accept. Congress answered they would listen to no terms 
save indepeudencc. Thus the war went on. 

Washington had to evacuate New York, and was leisurely pur- 
sued by General Howe. Fort Washington and Fort Lee, on the 
Hudson, fell into the hands of the English and opened the whole 
province to the enemy. After a few skirmishes Howe returned to 
New York whence he sent plundering raids into the country. An 
expedition from New York towards the end of the year captured 
Rhode Island which remained for three years in English possession. 

201. Trenton and Princeton, 1776-1777. — Washington, 
well-nigh deserted by his men and closely pursued by Cornwallis, 
retreated through New Jersey across the Delaware into Pennsylvania. 
The population was everywhere lukewarm. The leaders were dis- 
couraged. Washington perceived that only some brilliant stroke 
could save the cause. With consummate skill and courage he 
crossed on Christmas night the Delaware to Trenton, and with the 
loss of only four men captured 1,000 Hessians, 1,000 stands of 
anus and six field pieces, and recrossed the river in safety. A few 
days Miter he once more crossed the Delaware, evaded an overwhelm- 
ing English force, pounced upon Princeton, and wholly defeated 
three English regiments. The courage of the patriots immediately 
cevived. Washington, who had meanwhile received from Congress 
almost supreme power in war, raised sixteen battalions of regular 
troops and cleared New Jersey of the enemy. 

909. Negotiations with France. — Negotiations for a French alliance 
xvviv Mvivtly earned on at Versailles since 1775. As yet, the government 
rse to an open rupture with England, though popular opinion was 

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wholly on the side of America. Meanwhile the hatred of England which domi- 
nated the highest circles of the administration, procured to the struggling 
colonies large loans of money, arms, ammunition, exceptional facilities for 
the new American trade in French harbors, and the services of Lafayette and 
a number of other experienced officers. The presence of Benjamin Franklin 
In Paris created a general enthusiasm for America. Marie Antoinette pro- 
moted the cause with all her influence. Military talents of other nations 
joined the American army and aided its organization. Foremost among 
them were Count Pulaski, who had greatly distinguished himself in resist- 
ing the first division of Poland; Kosciusko, the hero of Poland's later 
national rising; Baron Steuben, a veteran of the Seven Years 1 War and late 
aid-de-camp of Frederic II., who became the real organizer of the American 
forces, and Baron Kalb, who had served under Marshal Saxe. 

203. Southern Campaign of 1777. — The British planned 
two campaigns for the year, one to transfer the seat of war to 
southern Pennsylvania, the other to subdue the north from Canada. 
Howe embarked 18,000 men in the ships of his brother and entered 
the Chesapeake to obtain possession of Philadelphia. Washington 
with 13,000, of whom only 8,000 were fit for service, met him on the 
Brandywine, but was routed in spite of the valor of his troops under 
Sullivan, Lafayette, and Pulaski. On September 26, Philadelphia 
was occupied by Howe. Washington's attempt to storm his forti- 
fied camp at Germantown failed for lack of ammunition. Before 
the end of the year the two forts Mifflin and Mercer on the Delaware 
which commanded communication with the sea fell after a stubborn 
defense into the hands of the English. 

The Americans wintered amid the most terrible sufferings at Valley 
Forge, some twenty miles from Philadelphia, where they had to contend 
with extreme poverty, with disease, famine, and desertions. Here Wash- 
ington spent the darkest days of his life, unbrokeu and undismayed, trust- 
ing in God, to whom he would appeal with bended knees aud tearful eyes. 
Still a goodly number of brave and faithful men shared with him all the 
privations of that frightful winter. 

204. Surrender of Burgoyne, Oct. 17, 1777. — The plan 
pursued in the northern campaign was to cut the colonies in two by 
a simultaneous advance from Canada southward aud New York 
northward. General Burgoyne with an army of 10,000 men, com- 
posed of Englishmen, Canadians, Germans, American Tories and 
Indians, took Crown Point, Ticonderoga and Fort Edward. Pro- 



ceeding southward he sent a detachment of his army to Bennington, 
Vt., to destroy a rich depot of American stores. This detachment 
was defeated by the State militia. The American General Gates 
stopped the advance of Burgoyne in the first undecided battle of 
Stillwater or Bernis' Heights, crowned with the fortifications which 
Kosciusko had erected. In the second battle of Stillwater or Bemis* 
Heights, Gates defeated Burgoyne, who fell back upon Saratoga, 
only to find it in the hands, of the enemy. He was surrounded by 
the Americans and had to surrender his entire army of about 6,000 
men and all his arms and artillery. 

206. Organization and Treaties. — In November, 1777, Congress, which 
had retreated to Lancaster, voted the Articles of Union and Confederation, 
which, for the time being, settled its constitution and powers, and denned the 
respective limits of both the Central and the State Governments of the United 
States of America, and adopted the Stars and Stripes as the national flag. 
The Articles were successively ratified by the State Assemblies between 1778 
and 1781, 

The surrender of Burgoyne put an end to the hesitation of the 
French ministers. December 17, 1777, they informed the Ameri- 
can commissioners that they were ready to couclude a treaty with 
the United States, and February 6, 1778, the treaty was signed. 
Each party agreed not to lay down their arms till the absolute inde- 
pendence of the Uuited States should be secured by treaty. Spain 
joined the alliance in 1779 and stipulated that no peace should be 
made with England till Gibraltar was restored to Spain. The 
Dutch Netherlands acceded to the league in 1780. 

The French alliance, though of the utmost importance to America, was 
not an uumixed blessing. The appointment of French officers in the army 
roused the jealousy aud resentment of the Americans. The late despond- 
ency gave way to a feeling of security and overweening confidence. The 
States neglected to send in their quota of men and money, shifting the 
burdens of the war as much as possible on the French ally. Congress was 
helpless and at times almost penniless, and the army was as fluctuating, 
ill-paid, and ill-cared for in the second as it had been in the first period of 
the war. 

Lecky, IV. 14, p. 1-06. — Lives of Washington: W. Irving; Lodge ; Marshall ; Scadder ; 
J. Sparks; Uphara, etc.; R. H. Clarke; A. O. Q., 21. — Ludlow: The War of Am* Indep.— 
Phlnney : Battle of Lexington. — Howe : Campaign of Burgoyne. — Histories of the U. St, 

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§ 3. 



206. The King's War. — The panic which the French alliance caused in 
England was so great, that Lord North found no difficulty in* carrying 
through Parliament acts which conceded every American demand made 
since 1763 save independence. On the other hand Congress rejected every 
offer of reconciliation not based on the recognition of independence. In 
this crisis the whole English nation clamored for Lord Chatham, whose 
name would have been a power against France, to take the management of 
affairs into his hands. But the King repeatedly affirmed, that no considera- 
tion in life would bring him to treat personally with Chatham. The " great 
commoner," however, soon after died of a stroke of apoplexy received in 
his last American speech in Parliament. George III. insisted that the war 
should be carried on in a more hostile spirit. No means of " distressing " 
the Americans should be neglected. Lord North continued the war in 
direct opposition to his own judgment at the sole entreaty of the king. 
Hence the war was popularly called " the king's war." The spirit of 
fiercer hostility in the English army soon manifested itself in numerous 
burning raids and depredations, in a frightful destruction of property and 
in the cruel treatment of American prisoners of war. Frauce declared war 
against England towards the end of July, 1778. 

207. Campaign of 1778. — The French alliance made itself 
felt at once in America. Henry Clinton, the successor in command 
of Howe, evacuated Philadelphia with his troops accompanied by 
3,000 Tories, before the Americans took any active measure. 
Emerging from Valley Forge, Washington overtook the British at 
Monmouth Courthouse in New Jersey, and in spite of the blundering 
insubordination of General Lee inflicted a defeat on the English 
rear. Clinton with the main army retreated to New York. Wash- 
ington took up his position in the Hudson river valley near Tarry- 
town. The British, who now held only two posts in the North, New 
York and Newport, R. I., removed their principal forces to the 
South, captured Savannah and overran Georgia. 

The Iroquois, stirred up, led, and aided by American Tories, invaded the 
Susquehannah and Cherry valleys, and massacred the peaceful settlers with 
all the horrors of Indian warfare. These incursions were a crime com- 
mitted without any military excuse, and could only embitter the strife and 
prove fatal to the Indians. Accordingly Congress, the following year, sent 

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General Sullivan into the Indian Territory to kill, burn and destroy till the 
country became a desert. The remnants of the hostile tribes took refuge in 
Canada. Similar race wars disgraced the campaign in the South. 

208. Campaign of 1779. — In the North both parties were 
too weak to venture on a decisive action. In the South General 
Lincoln, assisted from the sea side by the French fleet, made an un- 
successful attempt to recapture Savannah. The rest of the campaign 
consisted in guerilla warfare, the capture and recapture of a few forts 
in New York, and plundering expeditions of the British in New York, 
Georgia, and South Carolina. But whilst the Americans lost ground 
in the South, they spread to the West. The " county " of Ken- 
tucky had been incorporated with Virginia since 1778 and 1779. The 
Americans advanced to the Northwest, drove out the English posts, 
surprised Kaskaskia, occupied the whole Illinois region, dislodged 
the Cherokees and other tribes south of the Ohio, took hold of Ten- 
nessee, fortified Natchez, and thus possessed themselves of the eastern 
half of the Mississippi valley. 

200. Campaign of 1780. — In 1780 the 'English invaded 
South Carolina, captured Charleston, where they made 5,000 
prisoners of war, including General Lincoln, and seized 400 cannon. 
Thence they overran the whole State. After signally defeating 
General Gates in the battle of Camden, where Baron Kalb was mor- 
tally wounded, they held for a short time undisputed sway from 
South Carolina to the Gulf. Their own severities, however, soon 
embittered the inhabitants and gave an opportunity to guerilla leaders 
like Marion, Sumpter, James Williams, to break forth from their 
hiding-places and swamps, and to keep up a war of surprises against 
the English. A British raiding expedition of 1,000 men into North 
Carolina was cut down or captured by the Americans. 

210. Campaign of 1781. — In 1781 General Morgan utterly 
defeated the British cavalry under Tarleton in the battle of the 
Cowpens, S. C. He then joined General Greene, who had been 
appointed to succeed Gates. But both were obliged to fall back 
before Cornwallis, who defeated General Greene at Guilford Court- 
house, N. C. Cornwallis * victory was a Pyrrhus victory, for his ranks 

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were so thinned that he was compelled to flee before Greene and his 
defeated Americans, till he reached Wilmington. From Wilmington, 
not suspecting that he was running into a trap, Cornwallis entered 
Virginia, where Benedict Arnold, now a British general, was plun- 
dering and laying waste the country. 

Benedict Arnold, who Jiad been disciplined by Congress for some financial 
irregularities, had treasonably bargained with Clinton to give up the fortress 
of West Point which he commanded. The treason was discovered by the 
capture of Major Andr£, an English officer, who acted as Clinton's messen- 
ger. Major Andr6 was convicted as a spy by the unanimous sentence 
of a court-martial consisting of fourteen generals, two of them Lafayette 
and Baron Steuben, and executed. The justice of the sentence cannot be 
reasonably impugned; Washington, always eminently humane, acted with- 
out passion and from a conviction of duty in the case. Arnold escaped to 
New York and was made a brigadier-general. 

In South Carolina General Greene, though defeated at Hobskirk 
Hill and Eutaw Springs, inflicted a far greater loss on the enemy 
than he suffered himself. He forced the English to seek shelter in 
Charleston and kept them there to the end of the war. Savannah 
and Charleston were now the only places held by the British south 
of Virginia. 

211. Movements of the First Frenchf Fleet. — Admiral D'Estaing 
arrived in 1778 with 16 ships and 4,000 men at the mouth of the Delaware. 
Finding that Howe's fleet bad already left, he sailed to New York, which he 
blockaded for a time. Unable to cross the bar at Sandy Hook, he pro- 
ceeded to Newport, Rhode Island, and entered the harbor. The land army 
which was to co-operate with him, was a week behind time. When it 
appeared at last, Admiral Howe hove in sight, and D'Estaing went out to 
meet him. A terrible storm separated the fleets, and forced the French 
Admiral to refit in Boston. In November he sailed to the West Indies. 

212. The General War. — The war which bad begun in the colonies, 
spread in 1778 to all parts of the world. There was a drawn battle off 
Brest between the French and the English fleets. Paul Jones, a Scotch- 
man in American service, harried the western coast of England, burnt the 
shipping at Whitehaven, and captured two English men-of-war in the 
North Sea; twice the French fleet, assisted by Spanish ships, ruled the Chan- 
nel and forced the English vessels to seek shelter. In the West Indies 
towns and islands were taken and retaken by the English and the French. 
In Africa Senegal was conquered by the French, and Goree by the English. 



In East India the British land and sea forces captured all the French settle- 
ments and got embroiled in a war with Hyder All, ruler of Mysore, one of 
the most formidable foes ever encountered by the English in India, and in 
another war with the Mahrattas. The Spaniards concentrated their chief 
efforts on the unsuccessful attempt of reconquering Gibraltar which was 
twice relieved by an English fleet with great loss to the Spanish navy. The 
Spanish conquered in Europe the island of Minorca, and in America Pensa- 
cola and all western Florida. The Dutch fleet fought a drawn battle 
with the English in the North sea. They were the greatest losers in the 
war, for they lost all their East and West India possessions, and barely 
saved with French aid their South American and African colonies. 

213. Armed Neutrality at Sea. — The frequent captures 
and searches of neutral ships in the American war led to the inter- 
national agreement called 44 Armed Neutrality." It was directed 
against the English pretensions to interfere in time of war with the 
commerce of neutral nations. Catharine II. of Russia took the 
lead in the negotiations which resulted in the acceptance by a major- 
ity of European Powers of the following principles : Neutral vessels 
may navigate from harbor to harbor along the coasts of belligerent 
powers. All goods of belligerents which are not declared contra- 
band by treaty, may be lawfully carried by neutral vessels. A 
harbor is not lawfully blockaded except when the ships of the enemy 
are in control of the entrance. The principles of the armed neu- 
trality were accepted by France, Spain, Denmark, Sweden (1780), 
the Emperor, Prussia (1782), and Portugal (1783). Without 
formally accepting them England submitted to them for the time. 

214. Final Campaign at York town. — In March, 1781, 
Admiral De Grasse embarked at Brest with 29 men of war, 6,000 
men and a convoy of over 100 ships, sailed for the West Indies, 
where the French had already a complete naval ascendency, con- 
quered the rich island of Tobago, and, reinforced in San Domingo, 
made for the North American waters. Meanwhile Cornwallis was 
devastating Virginia, ruthlessly destroying property to the amount of 
15,000,000 dollars. He gradually concentrated his forces at York- 
town, situated at the mouths of the St. James and York rivers. 
Washington was planning an attack on New York. For this purpose 
he called from Rhode Island the French forces of Rochambeau, who 
had landed the year before at Newport after its evacuation by the 

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English. Meanwhile Lafayette strongly urged Washington to march 
upon Yorktown. Keeping Clinton in feverish excitement by dis- 
patches intended to fall into his hands about an attack on New York, 
Washington and Rochambeau succeeded in withdrawing their princi- 
pal forces to the south, whilst Clinton was busy fortifying against 
an imaginary foe. At the same time the powerful fleet of DeGrasse 
appeared in the Chesapeake and was still further reinforced by the 
French squadron of Rhode Island. When Washington and Rocham- 
beau joined Lafayette in the investment of Yorktown, the position 
of Cornwallis became absolutely untenable. • After a siege of twenty 
days he was obliged to capitulate and his 7,000 men became prison- 
ers of war. The surrender of Cornwallis virtually terminated the 
War of Independence. The British evacuated Savannah in July, 
and Charleston in December, 1782. 

Lecky : IV., 14, p. 97-220 ; 16, p. 221-288. — Brougham : Statesmen during the Reign of G. 
III. — Pattern : Yorktown. — Carrlngton : Battles of the Revol. — Ramsay ; J. Flake : Am. 
RevoL — IAfe of Gen. Greene, by bis Grandson. — Mackenzie : Life of Paul Jones. — J. N. 
Arnold: L. of B. Arnold. — Clarke: France's Aid to Am. A. C. Q., 22. — George III. 
and Lord North: E. B. '67, 8. — Day is: Employment of Indian Auxiliaries in the Am. W.: 
B. H.R.,2.4. 




215. Peace of Paris and Versailles, 1783. — The surrender 
of Cornwallis brought about the resignation of the ministry of Lord 

An armistice was declared and commissioners appointed to negotiate a 
peace. The negotiations were retarded on the part of Spain, by her desire 
to regain Gibraltar, and hastened forward, on the part of France, by a great 
victory of Rodney over DeGrasse in the West Indies. The American com- 
missioners, not without some treachery toward France, concluded with the 
Sherborneministry a separate preliminary peace, 1782. 

The final treaty, the Peace of Paris and Versailles, was signed 
September 3, 1783. The principal stipulations were : 1. The inde- 
pendence of the United States. The vast territory between the 
Alleghanies and the Mississippi was acknowledged as part of the 
United States, England ceding a large tract of what had been joined 

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to Canada by the Quebec Act. The Mississippi was made the 
boundary between the American and the Spanish territories, England 
retaining the right of free navigation. The Americans obtained the 
right of fishing on all the banks of Newfoundland and in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence without granting a similar right to British subjects 
along the coast of the United States. 

2. France secured the right of fishing off Newfoundland and of 
fortifying two small islands in the neighborhood ; the possession of 
Tobago in the West Indies, Senegal and Goree in Africa, and the 
restitution of her East Indian possessions. 

3. Spain's efforts to obtain Gibraltar either by arms or by nego- 
tiations failed. England, however, ceded to Spain the island of 
Minorca, and East and West Florida. 

4. England concluded a peace with Holland (1783) and with 
Tipoo of Singalore (1784) on the basis of mutual restoration, 
except that Holland lost Negapatam. 

216. The Federation. 1781-1788. — The Articles of Federation proved 
insufficient to bring order out of the political chaos which accompanied 
and followed the War of Independence. The only bond of union was Con- 
gress, composed of the delegates of the different States. No provision ex- 
isted for a chief magistracy or a national judiciary. Foreign affairs, tin- 
defense of the country in time of war, coinage, the post-office, were in- 
trusted to Congress, but it had no power to force the payment of its owv 
expenses, of the salaries due the army, or of its foreign debt. Public con- 
fidence was shaken; the unpaid army was more than once in a state oi 
mutiny. An insurrection of farmers in Massachusetts, whose ultimate 
object was the repudiation of public and private debts and a redistribution 
of property, had to be put down by General Lincoln. Congress was power- 
less to defend the Tories from mob violence and from legal persecution by 
the States, so that 100,000 persons were driven out of the country. England 
distributed $1G,000,000 among 4,000 destitute refugees, and continued to 
hold her military posts in the ceded territory by way of indemnity. Dis- 
putes arose between different States, some on account of commercial 
jealousies, others from conflicting territorial claims. Each State en- 
deavored to secure the lion's share in the acquisitions of the war. The 
credit of the United States rapidly sank in Europe. Under these circum- 
stances the best men of the country prevailed on the States to send 
delegates to a Constitutional Convention . 

217. The Constitution. — The Convention met in Philadelphia, 
May, 1787, and chose George Washington its president. It was only 



after long and heated debates between the Federalists, who favored 
a single government for the entire Union, and the Anti-federalists, 
who advocated the existing league of independent sovereignties, that 
the Convention was able to draft and sign the Constitution of the 
United States to be submitted to the people for ratification. 

The Constitution v as a compromise, both between the two parties and 
between the large and the small States. It was, however, on the whole, a 
victory of the Federalists. The government of the United States was 
divided into three departments, the legislative, the judiciary, and the exec- 
utive. The Federal Congress was to consist of two houses, the House of 
Representatives elected by the people, and the Senate elected by the State 
legislatures. The popular election of the representatives satisfied the 
laxge States by giving them representation according to population. The 
election of an equal number of Senators from all States preserved the politi- 
cal equality of the small States. The executive power was vested in the 
President, chosen by electors for a term of four years, the electors to be 
chosen by the people. As to the judlc arv department, a Federal Supreme 
Court was provided by the Constitution, and the creation of lower Federal 
Courts was left to Congress. 

Before August, 1788, all the States except Rhode Island and 
North Carolina adopted the Constitution. The two States being 
treated as foreign nations came to terms in 1789 and 1790 respec- 
tively. The Continental Congress dispersed without the formality 
of an adjournment. George Washington was duly elected first 
President of the United States and inaugurated April 30, 1789. 

C. Elite Stevens: Sources of the Constitution of the U. St. — Dr. O. Brownson: The 
Amer. Republic. -McMaatcr: Hist, of the People of the U. St. , v . I. — J. Flake: Critical 
Period of Am. Hist.; Civil Government in the U. St. — Bancroft : Hist, of the Formation 
of the Const. — Do Tocqnevllle- Reeve: Democracy in America. — The Framers and the 
Framing of the Const.: Century Mag., f 77 (Sept ). — Madison's and Yates 1 Notes of Pro- 
ceedings in the Convention, in Elliot's Debates, v. IV. 

Other Works for Consultation: Histories of the U. St., especially by: Bancroft; 
Doyle ; HUdretb ; Labouiaye ; Newmnnn ; Schouler, etc. Short Histories, by : Cbannlng; 
Hassaxd ; Jobnston ; McM aster ; Scudder. — v. Weiss, v. 14. 





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218. The States General Summoned. — Louis XVI. had meanwhile 
sanctioned many reforms and restored the Parliament of Paris, which, how- 
ever, soon became a thorn in his side. Advised by his ministers, he had 
granted civil rights to the Protestants, abolished the torture preliminary 
to trials, abolished the unpaid labor of tenants for their lords, emancipated 
his own serfs, diminished the expenses of his household, introduced re- 
forms in hospitals and prisons, and in 1784, the year of inundations and 
epidemics, had aided the suffering people to the amount of 3,000,000 llvres. 
But the building up of the marine, and the American war, had notwith- 
standing Necker's economical administration (1776-81), increased the 
deficit to nearly half of the yearly income. An Assembly of Notables in 
1787 brought no relief. The King was sincere in his desire to abolish 
privileges of taxation. But the Parliament of Paris uncompromisingly 
resisted additional taxation to be levied on privileged property, though it 
was absolutely necessary and would have lightened the burden of the 

The King finally resolved to summon the States General, which had not 
met since 1C14, and, in 1788, recalled Keeker to office. Before the meet- 
ing of the States, the King collected statements of grievances (cahiers) 
from every part of the kingdom, granted a double representation to the 
Third Estate, and admitted to the Assembly of the Clergy a majority of 
parish priests as more familiar with the sufferings of the people. In 
March, 1789, at the opening of the primaries, nearly all the nobility and 
the entire clergy declared themselves willing to renounce their immunities 
from taxation. 

219. The National Assembly. — The States General were 
opened by the King at Versailles May 5, 1789. There were about 




1200 deputies present, 300 of the nobility, 300 of the clergy, and 
600 of the Third Estate, or Commoners. The great majority were 
determined that reforms should be made, but convinced at the same 
time that the government would never make the necessary reforms. 
Whilst the powers of the members were being verified, a dispute 
arose as to whether the Assembly should sit and vote in separate 
chambers or in one chamber. Historically the States General had 
always acted in three houses. The Third Estate, reinforced by 
Lafayette, the Duke of Orleans, 45 .other nobles, and 114 of the 
clergy, voted for one chamber. The deadlock caused by their vote 
lasted over a month. Upon the motion of Abbe Sieyes, who in a 
widely-spread pamphlet had boldly declared the supremacy of the 
Third Estate, the 600 commoners finally assumed the title of the 
Constituent Assembly and invited the clergy and the nobles to join 
them (June 17). Thereupon the hall was closed by the court, and 
the meetings suspended for three days. On June 20, the members 
resorted to a neighboring tennis court, chose the mathematician Bailly 
president, and took an oath not to separate until they had given a 
new Constitution to the realm. Five Archbishops and Bishops, 143 
parish priests, and a few nobles joined the Assembly. June 23 the 
King appeared in the Assembly. Louis XVI. invited the deputies 
to meet in three houses, and proposed a series of reforms, which 
would have made France a constitutional monarchy and have swept 
away nearly all the abuses in its government. When after the King's 
departure the master of ceremonies asked the president, whether he 
had heard the royal order, Count Mirabeau, who had entered the 
States General as a representative of the Third Estate, rose and 
answered that the deputies would quit their seats only at the point 
of the bayonet. Subsequently the King himself requested the 
nobility aud the clergy to join the Third Estate. The King thus 
accepted the principle that changes should be made without regard 
to historic precedents and vested rights, i. e., the principle of 

220. The Storming of the Bastille, July 14. — The gardens 
adjoining the Palais Royal, the residence of the Duke of Orleans, were 
the center of the revolutionary agitation. Here Camille Desmoulins 

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and other leaders expounded the 4 4 Social Contract, ' ' inveighed against 
the royal troops, and stirred up the masses to revolt. 

The dismissal of Necker (.July 11), was the signal for an outbreak of 
riots and pillage. Stores and arsenals were plundered for arms, and 
20,000 guns and 20 cannon were soon in the hands of the populace. 
Most of the soldiers abandoned the King and fraternized with the 
mob. .The 120 electors of the 60 districts of Paris, who had chosen 
the city deputies to the Assembly, established themselves in the city- 
hall (Hotel de Ville), usurped the municipal government, and 
organized a national guard of 40,000 men. On July 14, the people 
attacked the Bastille or State prison for five hours. It could not be 
taken by force, but, compelled by his men, De Lauuey, the com- 
mander, surrendered on condition that no harm should be done. 
Only seven prisoners, who all deserved their fate, were found in 
this " stronghold of tyranny." On rushing in the populace 
instantly killed five officers and three men. De Launey was mur- 
dered in the street and his head stuck on a pike. The mob tri- 
umphed. Necker was recalled. Bailly was chosen mayor of Paris, 
Lafayette, commander of the National Guard. The feeble and 
pacific King accepted the situation. 

Other scenes of horrible murder followed, such as the massacre of the 
Invalids or disabled veterans. Proscription lists of the most prominent 
men of France, beginning with the Count of Artols, the king's second 
brother, were made up at the Palais Royal, and a price set on the head of 
the victims. Foulon, the old minister of war, and Berthler, both benefac- 
tors of the people on a large scale, vere ruthlessly murdered in the streets; 
and Foulon's head aud Berthicr's heart carried on poles to the Palais 
Royal. With the fall of the Bastille ancient royalty and all regular govern- 
ment were destroyed. Power passed from the Klug and the National 
Assembly to the mob. In all France began that career of anarchy, the 
reign of terror, which was crushed out only by the despotism of Napoleon. 

221. Composition of the National Assembly. — Of the COO deputies 
belonging to the Third Estate about 3C0 were jurists, the rest authors, 
merchants, farmers (38), and men of inferior positions. All were novices 
In legislation, luexperienced in parliamentary rules, and most of them 
intoxicated with the doctrines of Rousseau. The Assembly was divided 
into four parties: (1) The Right comprised the members sitting to the right 
of the president in the hall, which had the form of an amphitheater; they 
were royalists and aristocrats; most of the nobles aud the upper clergy 

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belonged to this party (Cazales, the Abbe" Maury, Esprcmenil, etc.). (2) 
The small minority of the Right Center comprised deputies of all the three 
orders, and favored a constitution like that of the English Parliament with 
two houses dominated by the landed proprietors (Mounier, Malouet, Lally 
Tolendal). (3) The Center and Left numbered 7-800 members, parish 
priests, and the great number of the commoners, and aimed at government 
by the middle classes under a constitutional monarchy (Mirabeau, Abbd 
Sieves, Barnave). (4) The Extreme Left, about thirty advocates of a demo- 
cratic republic formed the only compact party voting in a body (Robes- 
pierre, Petion). The three other parties constantly voted on opposite sides 
and without preconcerted action. This assembly of 1,200 men, too unwieldy 
for practical purposes and abounding in violent declaimers, was naturally 
exposed to paroxysms of enthusiasm or of terror, easily swayed by the 
frequent street riots, or carried away by the boldness of the revolutionary 
extremists. The deputies became the slaves of the galleries, and of its 
unruly crowd of 750 clubmen from the Talais Royal, all hired and 
effective shouters. The leaders of this crowd received their orders from 
the club, and gave the signal to their men when to cheer and when to hoot. 
They circulated in the city and in the provinces lists of unpopular members, 
thus exposing them and their families to the fury of the revolutionary 
mobs. Obnoxious deputies or unpopular officials were insulted and mal- 
treated wherever they appeared in public; some were murdered by the 
rabble. The result was, that before the completion of the Constitution th't 
whole of the moderate and constitutional opposition was reduced either to 
flight or to silence. 

222. The October Days ; Louis XVI. in Paris. — Whilst the 
Assembly was engaged in tearing down the ancient regime, hunger 
and agitation drove the populace of Paris to new excesses. An 
imprudent demonstration of army officers who in presence of the King 
and the Queen had replaced the tricolor, the emblem of the revolution, 
by the royal white cockade, exasperated both the people and the 
National Guards. On October 4th, according to a preconcerted 
plan favored by the Duke of Orleans, 15,000 National Guards in 
mutiny, preceded by 800 hungry and dissolute women, and followed 
by 10,000 ruffians, marched to Versailles. The first bands reaching 
Versailles broke into the Assembly hall and shouted in reply to tbe 
speeches : * 4 Bread ! bread I not so many words ! ' ' Lafayette who had 
been forced to join the National Guards, arrived before midnight. 
At daybreak (October 5), the mob forced the door of the palace, 
killed some royal guards and wounded others, and swarmed into the 

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rooms, even to the private apartments of the Queen and the King, where 
they insulted the royal family, while the immense crowd before the 
palace shouted : "To Paris with the King ! 99 With great difficulty 
Lafayette succeeded in saving the Queen from personal violence. 
The King who always shrank from the shedding of blood consented 
to transfer his residence and the seat of the Assembly to Paris, thus 
handing over himself, his family and the dynasty to the tender 
mercy of the sanguinary rabble of the city. 

The King, a virtual prisoner, resided henceforth in the palace of the 
Tuileries, protected by Lafayette's men. The Assembly established itself in 
a neighboring riding school. Two hundred conservative deputies resigned 
their seats and still more weakened the party of order. Again, mauy 
noblemen and courtiers fled the country. 

223. Anarchy in France. — The state of the country was a reflex 
of the state of the capital. The people of France were made desperate 
by the famine which followed the bad harvest and the severe winter of 
1788. Mobs ranging from 5,000 to 25,000 hungry men and women 
went in quest of food wherever it could be found. Convoys of wTieat 
were captured on the roads. Towus raided rural districts, and rural 
districts cut off the supplies of the towns. In the four months preced- 
ing the fall of the Bastille over 300 popular outbreaks and bread riots 
occurred all over France. In the city and in the provinces, vaga- 
bonds, escaped convicts, deserters, and smugglers took the lead in 
these riots. A general war against public and private property broke 
out. The people recognized no creditor, least of all, the State. 
Debts and taxes were no longer paid. Tax collectors were assailed, 
maltreated, killed. Forests were devastated ; castles, monasteries, 
convents demolished ; tax rolls, records, registers, titles to property 
or to rentals and charters of privileges delivered to the flames. 
When the National Guards were introduced all over France, 400,000 
guns were transferred from the military authorities to the people. 
Citadels were captured from the. regular troops, or surrendered to 
the National Guards. Outbreaks in the army and in the navy be- 
came of daily occurrence. On one occasion the whole squadron 
lying at Brest numbering 20,000 men mutinied against the Admiral 
and the National Assembly. Insubordination compelled thousands of 

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officers to emigrate. This state of anarchy waxed worse, year by 
year, as the revolution progressed. 

Lecky, V. 21, p. 44 1-469.— Louis X VI. Political and Confidential Correspondence.— M ignet : 
Hist, of the Fr. Rev. % Introduction. — W. Smyth : Lectures on the Hist, of the Fr. Rev. I. 
LecL 6. 8. etc — Croker: Early Period of the Fr. Rev. - France 1783-99, K. R. '83, 1.— 
Yoang: Travels in France 1787-89.— Mirabeau: WiUert {Foreign Statesmen)', Hoist 
{French Rev. tested by M s Career) ; E. U.' 97. 4 ; {Family of) PfUlf (St. v. 44) ; E. Damont, 
{Recollections of). — B. Tackerman : Life of Lafayette. 8oo also Histories of the Revol. to 
§| 5, 6 and 7. The Fall of the Ancient Regime, Q. B. '93, 3. - The Bastille, Q. U. *97, 4. 

224. The Work of Three Months. — As early as August 4, 
the Assembly with the full and voluntary concurrence of the clergy 
and the nobles declared the feudal order destroyed, nulliGed all ex- 
emptions not only of the privileged classes, but also the privileges of 
provinces, towns, corporations and guilds, and opened civil, military, 
and ecclesiastical preferments to all citizens without regard to birth. 

The declaration of the " Rights of Man," Aug. 27, proclaimed the sover- 
eignty of the people, freedom of religious opinions, freedom of the press, 
the right of resisting oppression (right of revolution), the natural and civil 
equality of all men, as taught by the new philosophy. Whilst the rights of 
men* were thus theoretically asserted, they were practically trampled under 
foot by the Revolution. 

By other decrees the Assembly abrogated without indemnity all 
the dues payable to Pope, bishop and clergy, and to nobles as local 
lords. Dues payable to nobles as landed proprietors were made 
redeemable at a fixed rate, but were discarded by the people already 
in general revolt. The clergy consented to the entire abolition of the 
tithes. Subsequently the nobility itself with its territorial names and 
armorial bearings was abolished. 

Thus in the short space of three months the Revolution had covered an 
immense field. (1) It had changed the States General into the Constituent 
Assembly. (2) It had forced the King to recognize its supremacy. (3) It 
had cleared the ground for a new Constitution by destroying the whole frame- 
work of institutions based on the public law of a thousaud years. 

225. Legislative Assembly. — The new Constitution, as it grad- 
ually emerged from the interminable speech-making of the deputies, 





was based on these principles : The person of the King as the high- 
est executive officer, is inviolable ; the crown is hereditary with the 
male-line ; the King has to proclaim the laws ; the legislative power 
resides in the nation to which all officers are responsible ; private 
property and personal liberty are inviolable. The future Legislative 
Assembly was made absolute and independent. It was to consist 
of one Chamber with the sole right of initiating laws. A second 
chamber was rejected as too aristocratic. The legislative term was 
to be two years. The 745 representatives of the nation were chosen 
by electors, the electors by the active citizens or voters assembled 
at the primaries. An active citizen was to be 25 years of age, a 
tax-payer to the amount of at least three days' wages, and had to 
serve in the National Guard. The tax qualification divided the 
inhabitants of France into 4,300,000 active and 1,700,000 passive 

• 220. The King, — The Constitution deprived the King of all real 
power. He lacked the right to propose any law or to dissolve the 
Legislative Assembly. His veto could suspend the adoption of a 
measure only for two legislative terms. He could not declare war 
or conclude peace or foreign treaties without the consent of the As- 
sembly. He had no command over the army or the National Guard, 
and was deprived of the right of pardon. His ministers had no ap- 
pointive powers. The King became the mere executive servant of 
the Assembly. 

227. Administration. — The old historical provinces, govern- 
ments, parliaments and courts were all abolished. France was 
divided, on a plea of perfect uniformity, into 83 departments, named 
after rivers and mountains. The departments were subdivided into 
374 districts and the districts into cantons. 

The 44,000 communes or municipalities of France were left un- 
changed. Each department and each district had a local assembly 
composed of a general council, and an executive directory. There 
was a civil court to each district and a criminal court to each canton, 
chosen by the respective political body. Petty causes were decided 
by justices of the peace elected by the cantons. Every appointment 
in the civil, military and naval administration was made by a corn- 

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plicated system of elections. The only real power resided in the 
lowest political unit, the commune. The municipal officers alone 
could order about the military forces of the country. France was 
now a conglomeration of 44,000 republics. 

A number of the measures, such as the judicial reforms, the admission 
of competeut men to offices, the better distribution of taxes, the removal 
of the custom houses to the frontiers, were good and necessary. But they 
could have been obtained without rebellion, irreligion, bloodshed, and 
wholesale destruction of all the landmarks of human society, and their 
operation throughout the Revolution was frustrated by mob law. 

228. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy. — The war 

against the Church began with the abolition of Religious Orders and 
the prohibition of monastic vows (February, 1790). Next came 
the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July), passed by the irreligious 
Left, and under the terrorism of the galleries against the dignified 
protest of the Archbishop of Aix, Abbe Maury, Cazales, of 200 
deputies of the Right, and of 30 bishops in the Assembly and 105 
outside. The bishops were henceforth to be elected by the citizens 
of the departments, and the parish priests by the citizens of the dis- 
tricts, including Caivinist, Lutheran, Jewish, and infidel voters. The 
appointed bishop was forbidden to apply to the Pope for confirma- 
tion. As the diocese was made coextensive with the department, 
48 bishoprics with their seminaries were suppressed. Upon the 
motion of Talleyrand, the apostate bishop of Autun, the ecclesiastical 
estates were declared national property, the State paying the salaries 
of the clergy. Thus was the Catholic Church in France separated 
from the center of unity, shorn of its divine constitution, and estab- 
lished on a democratic and Presbyterian basis . Out of 1 30 archbishops , 
bishops, and coadjutors only four, three of whom were skeptics and 
profligates, took the required oath on the Civil Constitution. Out 
of 70,000 priests nearly 50,000 refused to take the oath. There was 
henceforth a schism in the Church and in the nation between the 
sworn and unsworn or refractory priests and their adherents. 

The non-juring priests were expelled from their cures. The 
majority of the faithful were on the side of the non-juring priests 
and shared in their persecutions. 

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229. Effect of the New Legislation. — In conformity with this legisla- 
tion the apostate Gobel, sacrilegiously consecrated by Talleyrand, in his turn 
consecrated other constitutional bishops and was chosen Archbishop of 
Paris by 500 voters. Talleyrand and others returned to the state of laymen • 
Loyal Catholics refused to receive the sacraments from constitutional 
priests. Non juring priests were not only ejected, but against all laws de- 
ported and tortured even to death; 37,000 nuns were deprived of their peace- 
ful retreats, among them 14,000 sisters of charity driven from the hospitals 
and thousands of teachers expelled from the ouly schools for girls then in 
France. The abolition of the tithes did not benefit the poor, but made a 
present of 60,000,000 to landholders who alone had paid the tithes since the 
days of Charles the Great. An investment of four billions of Church prop- 
erty, piled up through generations for the benefit of the childreu, the poor, 
the infirm, the sick, was deviated from its purposes and pocketed by the 
revolutionary State. All associations for pious, charitable, missionary, and 
educational purposes were dissolved, the seminaries and colleges confis- 
cated, the crown lands divided, aud the way was opened for further rob- 
beries by the Legislative Assembly and the Convention, and for the despotic 
socialism of the Reign of Terror, which swept away all academies of science, 
all literary and mercantile societies with their libraries, museums, botani- 
cal gardens, banks, aud investments. The confiscation of the Church and 
the crown lands from which the State was wont to pay its salaries and 
expenses, forced the revolutionary governments to issue paper money, the 
so-called asslgnats, aud drove the couutry into baukruptcy. 

Pius VI., in 1791, condemned the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 
suspended all sworn priests, and declared the new ecclesiastical 
elections invalid and sacrilegious. Thereupon the revolutionists 
marched into the Papal territories of Avignon and Venaissin and 
annexed them to France. Hundreds of inhabitants were murdered 
with barbarous atrocity for their loyalty to the Pope, and their prop- 
erty was plundered by the Jacobins. 

230. The National Federation, July 14, 1700. — During 
the spring of 1790, federations, or feasts of union in honor of the 
Constitution, were held all over France. At the Federation of Paris 
in which deputations of the National Guards from every department 
took part, Louis XVI. took the oath to maintain the Constitution, 
and the people swore fealty to the King. This sentiment of the 
union of classes was but a phantastic illusion. The clergy were 
bound in conscience to reject the Civil Constitution. The nobility 
could not love an instrument which deprived them of all their rights 

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without compensation. On the other hand, Desmoulins, Brissot, 
Dan ton, Marat, Robespierre, in fact all the radicals hated the Con- 
stitution because they hated the King, the royal veto, the restriction 
of the franchise, and the measures of Lafayette to preserve at least 
a semblance of order. The radicals soon became the chief power in 
the State on account of their club organizations. The Revolution 
had one of its most powerful aids in the political " Clubs.' 1 

231. Clubs. — The Club of Cordeliers, numbering Desmoulins, Hubert, 
Marat, and other terrorists among its members, met under the presidency of 
Danton in a monastery of Franciscans, whose name they adopted. The 
Jacobin Club was originally founded at Marseilles by a number of deputies 
in 1789 (Club Breton). In Paris the Club moved into the library of the 
Jacobins, a suppressed monastery of the Dominicans. The numerous off- 
shoots of this Club overspread the whole territory of France. After the 
fall of the throne there were 26,000 Jacobin Clubs in the country, keeping 
up constant correspondence with the Central Club and obeying orders from 
Paris. The Jacobin Club owed its rising power to the apathy of the law- 
abiding citizens and to the unscrupulous energy of its members. Peace- 
loving citizens stayed at home rather than spend one-sixth of all their time 
in primaries, the elections and guard service, and thus left the elections to 
the Jacobins. Besides, decent people were kept away from the polls by the 
threats, domiciliary visits, ill-treatment, riots, and murders perpetrated by 
the faction. Thus at the Paris primary elections for the Legislative As- 
sembly in 1791, 74,000 out of 81,000 registered voters failed to respond. The 
same proportion held good in the departments. Owing to these abstentions 
the Jacobins secured in 1791 oue-third, in 1792 the whole of the elective 
offices. Still the number of Jacobins compared with that of the inhabitants 
of France was always small. In Paris at the time of the greatest disturbances, 
the Jacobins including the paid bandits and cut-throats, did not number 
more than 10,000 in a population of 7-800,000 souls. In the departments there 
was on an average but one Jacobin to 15 electors. All the Jacobins of France 
did not amount to 500,000. 

232. Flight of the Royal' Family, June 20, 1791. — The position of the 
King and Queen meanwhile became intolerable. The Queen in whom suffer- 
ing had brought out the traits of a noble and courageous character, devoted 
all her thoughts to save France to her husband and son. The King, already 
deeply wounded in his religious feelings by the Civil Constitution of the 
Clergy, saw himself moreover deprived of his body guard and frequently 
exposed to the menaces and insults of the Jacobins. Flight was their only 
hope. The Queen had made some arrangements for the emergency with her 
brother, Emperor Leopold, who promised to place a force on the frontiers 
of Luxemburg. 

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On June 20, the King, disguised as a valet, the Queen with her two 
children, and Madame Elizabeth, the King's sister, secretly left Paris 
for the army of the North under the loyal Bouille. The fugitives 
were recognized at Varennes and taken back to Paris as prisoners. 
On hearing of the King's flight the Assembly forthwith suspended 
him from all royal functions. Louis had left behind him a memorial 
in which he protested that he had signed the lawless proceedings of 
the Assembly only because he had no power to resist them and ex- 
plained his intention of withdrawing for a time from the capital in 
order to appeal in freedom to his people. The Radicals declared 
the memorial of the King to be treason to the nation and clamored 
for his deposition and for the proclamation of the Republic. The 
Constitutionalists felt themselves in honor bound to stand by the 
King and the Constitution ; moreover they feared an attack of the 
Jacobins on themselves if they yielded. Accordingly the majority 
of the Assembly resolved to restore executive power to the King if 
he would accept the Constitution as a whole in the completed form. 
For the first and only time the National Assembly nerved itself to 
maintain order by force, and Lafayette suppressed with some blood- 
shed a Republican rising. 

This so-called Massacre of the Champ de Mars disrupted the Jacobins. 
The Constitutionalists fouuded a new club, the Feuillants, so called from a 
monastery of that name, but they were unable to introduce those conserva- 
tive features Into the Constitution which would have given the King some 
real power. 

233. Dissolution of the National Assembly. — When, after 
a few changes, the Constitution was finally adopted as a whole, the 
King accepted it in the hope that its defects would be revealed in 
its practical operation. In the meantime be kept his oath to the 
letter. Some time before its dissolution, the Constituent Assembly, 
urged by Robespierre and the Jacobins, had carried a resolution 
which excluded its members from the coming Legislative Assembly. 
By this act it handed France over to the fanatics and the criminal 
classes. The 3,000 decrees of the National Assembly remained a 
dead letter. 

Lecky V. 21 p. 496-534. - Talne: The French Rev., v. 2-Clcrke: The Principle* of 
'69 D. R. '89. 3. - B. Parsons: The Constitutional Clergy of France: 8todiei IV. — Die 

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RevoL u. d. christliche Frtiheit, St 87. — Ludovlc Sclout: Hist, de la Const. Civile du 
Clerge". — Edm. Burke : Reflection* on the Fr. RevoL — Imbert de St. Amand : Marie 
Antoinette and the End of the Old Rtgime. — The Flight to Varenncs and other Hist. 
Essays; Oscar Browning; A. B. Cochrane ; also Q. R. '86. 3.— Henry Reeve: Royal and 
Republican France. — Taint on Jacobinism: Q. R/85. 4. — The Spirit of % 89: Lilly: Hist. 
Questions. — Mgr. Ricard: VAbb4 Maury. — M. Sept: La Chute de Vancienne France 
La Federation (178&-91).— K. O'Meara: The Church of France and the Revol: A. C. Q. 8. 

234. Declaration of Pillnitz, Aug., 1791. — Meanwhile 
Emperor Leopold II., desirous of aiding his sister, and Frederick 
William II. of Prussia, had, in a meeting at Pillnitz, August, 1791, 
signed a declaration expressing their readiness to intervene in French 
affairs, if other Powers would unite with them. But mutual rivalry 
and the struggles of expiring Poland engaged their attention else- 
where and the declaration remained a mere threat. A step in ad- 
vance was taken in February, 1792, w T hen the two Powers concluded 
an alliance. 

235. Legislative Assembly, Oct., 1791- Sept., 1792. — - The Legislative 
Assembly was of a far lower standard than the National Assembly. Out of 
its 745 deputies about 400 were unknown provincial lawyers, besides a 
great many writers without fame, and twenty constitutional priests; the 
majority of members were under 30 years, 60 members under 26 years of 
age. Nearly all were outgrowths of revolutionary Clubs. The Right, about 
100 members, constitutional royalists, belonged to the Club of the Feuillants. 
Of the 400 members of the 11 Plain " or '* Marsh " as.it was contemptuously 
called (center), 160 belonged to the Feuillants. The rest were independents 
and favored a Federal Republic. Their most important group were the 
Girondists, auti-catholics, anti -christians, destructionists and levellers. 
The Left and the Mountain (so called from their high seats) were made up 
of 236 radicals, adherents of a" United and Indivisible Republic," men like 
Chabot and other leading Jacobins and Cordeliers. The radical Potion was 
chosen Mayor of Paris. 

230. Work of the Legislative Assembly. — Terrorized by 
the galleries, the Legislative Assembly sentenced to death and con- 
fiscation of property all Emigrants who should not return before the 
end of the year (1791), exiled the 50,000 non-juring priests, and 
ordered the erection of a camp around Paris to overawe the capital. 
These decrees were vetoed by the King. On April 20, 1792, the 




Assembly declared war against Francis II., the successor of Leo- 
pold II., and against his Prussian ally. 

Two grievances were alleged by the Assembly. The 'Emperor tolerated 
the gathering of French Emigrants on the frontiers of Germany and Belgium, 
and the German princes who had estates in Alsace, refused to part with the 
feudal rights abolished by the National Assembly. The first grievance had 
been removed by the Emperor, who dispersed the armed Emigrants; the sec- 
ond might have been settled by negotiation. The real object of the war was 
to establish the Republic at home, and to carry the priDciples of the Revolu- 
tion to foreign countries. .The fact that King and Queen had sought foreign 
intervention, gave rise to exaggerated rumors of court conspiracies, and 
the report was freely circulated that the King contemplated a return to the 
feudal burdens aud the unjust taxation of the Ancient Regime. 

237. Invasion of the Tuilcrics by the Mob, June 20, 
1702. — France sent three armies into the field, the northern corps, 
48,000 men, under Rocharabeau, the middle corps, 52,000, under 
Lafaj f ette, and the southern, 42,000 strong, under Luckner, the 
whole line forming a semi-circle from Dunkirk to Basle. The in- 
subordination of the rank and file, and the ignominious flight of two 
divisions before the foe, one murdering its own general, increased the 
revolutionary excitement in Paris. The King dismissed the Girondist 
ministry (Roland, etc.) which had been forced on him after the 
declaration of Pillnitz, and which was pressing him to sign the vetoed 
decrees. Thereupon the Jacobins arranged an outbreak and organized 
battalions of pikemen. To give zest to the popular appetite for 
violence, the lie was published on June 15, that the Queen was at 
the head of an Austrian Committee in the Tuileries. On June 20, 
the mob, men, women, and children, under the leadership of Santerre 
the brewer, and Legendre the butcher, defiled through the Chamber 
of Deputies with shouts of " Down with the veto! " They next in- 
vaded the Tuileries bent upon forcing the King to sign the vetoed 
decrees and to recall the Girondist ministry. For four hours Louis 
XVI. and his family were besieged in his apartment by a dense 
crowd of ruffians and threatened with murder, whilst a mob of 
15,000 persons swarmed over the palace and its grounds. But Louis 
for once remained firm, spoke calmly to the people and to please 
them donned the red bonnet. Some officers of the municipality and 
of the National Guards finally persuaded the crowd to leave the 

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palace. Lafayette iucurred the wrath of the Jacobins by demanding 
the punishment of the ring leaders. 

238. Tenth of August. — The concentration of 80,000 Austrian tioops on 
the Rhine induced the Legislative Asssembly to pronounce the country in 
danger. Sixty thousand volunteers answered the call. Both the Duke of 
Brunswick, commander in chief of the allied forces, aud the Girondist? 
played unwittingly into the hands, of the Jacobins: the Duke by issuing 
an imprudent and threatening manifesto, the Girondists by a series of dc 
crees which removed the regular troops from Paris, deposed the better ele- 
ments in the National Guard from command, and drew band after band of 
ferocious characters from Marseilles and Brest into Paris. The immediate 
demands of the Jacobins were the indictment of Lafayette and the dethrone- 
ment of the King. The acquittal of Lafayette August 8, gave the signal for 
a new outbreak of all the radical forces gathered in Paris. 

A band of Jacobin conspirators who called themselves Commis- 
sioners collected at the Hotel de Ville August 9, arrested the Mu- 
nicipal Council, murdered Mandat, the commander of the National 
Guard, and took the reins of the municipal government into their 
hands. Early on the morning of August 10, the -first bands of 
rioters appeared before the Tuileries. There were 950 Swiss and 
more than 4,000 National Guards at the palace, but the latter were 
not reliable. The King and the royal family took refuge in the 
Legislative Assembly, The Swiss made no attack on the populace, 
they only refused to give up their arms to the rabble, until a chance 
shot put them on their mettle. Then with a dash they cleared the 
grounds. But upon an order sent by the King to cease firing they 
promptly obeyed. One Swiss detachment on passing through the 
gardens of the Tuileries, suffered itself to be cut down to a man, 
rather than disobey orders. The wounded on the ground, the 
surgeons who attended them and the palace domestics were all indis- 
criminately murdered. The other detachment marched to the Legis- 
lative Assembly and laid down their arms. They were part massacred , 
part imprisoned for a later slaughter. The streets of the city were 
reeking with murder. In the Legislative Assembly attended by 284 
out of 745 deputies, the King was deprived of his functions and im- 
prisoned with his family in the Temple. As the Assembly had no 
power to make constitutional changes, a National Convention was • 
summoned to be elected by universal suffrage, and to draw up a new 
Constitution for the State. The Commune raised its membership to 

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288 members, among them the most fanatical adherents of the 
socialistic and atheistic Republic, such as Robespierre, Collot 
d'Herbois, Hebert, Chaumette, Billaud-Varennes. Danton became 
minister of justice. 

Lafayette, declared traitor by the Assembly and abandoned by his troops, 
fled and fell into the hands of the Austrians, who kept him prisoner at 
Olmtttz till 179C. 

239. The September Murders. — To consolidate their power, the Jacob- 
ins resolved upon a massacre on a grand scale. Marat was the proposer 
and agitator, Danton the executive head of the scheme. His maxim was: 
« 4 We can rule only by fear." As minister of justice he obtained from the 
Assembly the authorization to invade private homes, and thus filled the 
prisons of Paris with many hundreds of suspected royalists. He also sent 
out a circular calling upou the Departments to follow the example of Paris. 

On September 2, the slaughter began and lasted six days and five 
nights without interruption. The victims selected by the Commis- 
sioners of the Commune were marched out of their prisons and 
slaughtered by the twenty or more murderers assigned to each of the 
eight prisons of Paris. The butchers received G francs a day besides 
their meals and wine as much as they wanted. 

The most conservative estimate of the number thus murdered in Paris is 
about 1,400. 

Among the victims were the Archbishop of Aries, two bishops, 
Princess Lamballe, 250 priests, a great number of nobles belonging 
to the best families of France, many former magistrates and officials, 
the surviving Swiss guards and some criminals who were of no 
service to the Jacobins. The September tragedy was repeated in 
Versailles, Lyons, Rheims, Meaux, Orleans, aud other cities. The 
most infuriated members of the Commune w r ere sent as Commis- 
sioners into the departments, to encourage the work of pillage and 

Scenes of cannibalism accompanied this orgy of blood. The heart of 
Princess Lamballe was devoured by a wretch ; her head was carried about 
on a pike, and the royal family in the Temple was compelled to gaze on it. 
The prison delivery was followed by an extensive spoliation of homes, by 
the sack of the Tuileries, and by assault and robbery iu the streets openly 
committed by men decked iu the tricolor. The spoils thus gathered in a 
few days by the Jacobin bauds amounted to many millions of francs. 



240. The War. — Meanwhile the allies under the Duke of 
Brunswick were advancing into France with extreme hesitation. 
They captured Longwy and Verdun, besieged Thionville and held one 
of the fire roads leading to Paris. Duraouriez took a strong position 
at Menehould. At Valiny the allies retreated for the first time be- 
fore the intrepid stand of the new French recruits under Kellermann. 
From all sides French reinforcements arrived. Multitudes sought 
relief on the battlefield from the horrors enacted at Paris and in the 
departments. The siege of Thionville was raised, Verdun and 
Longwy were retaken and the invading army saw itself compelled to 
recross the Rhine. Sept. 10 France declared war against the King 
of Sardinia who had identified himself with the Coalition. Before 
the end of the month the French conquered Savoy and Nice, and 
drove the Piedmontese beyond the Alps. General Custine conquered 
Speyer, Worms, Mainz, and Frankfort. The rapid conquest was 
facilitated by the co-operation of the numerous freemasons in the 
Rhenish cities. With still greater rapidity Dumouriez took the Bel- 
gian fortresses dismantled by the folly of Joseph II., defeated the 
Austrians at Jemappes, and before the end of the year conquered 
all the Austrian Netherlands save Luxemburg. Wherever the 
French came they confiscated ecclesiastical and communal property, 
plundered churches and monasteries, imposed crushing taxes and 
contributions on the rich, and flattered the poor by proclaiming war 
to the palaces and peace to the cottages. 

241. The National Convention, Sept. 21, 1792-Oct. 1796. — The elec- 
tions for the Convention were held amidst the excesses perpetrated by the 
Jacobins against the " aristocrats,' 1 now no longer the nobles, but proprie- 
tors, traders, bourgeois, wealthy farmers, and peaceable citizens. Absten- 
tions were numerous. In the municipal elections at Paris only 7,000 out of 
160,000 votes were cast. In all the primaries of France 6,300,000 out of 
7,000,000 voters abstained. By such an election the Jacobins obtained con- 
trol of the Convention and of nearly all elective offices. Of the 749 mem- 
bers of the Convention, 486 were new men. All the deputies were decided 
Republicans and disciples of Rousseau, many of them advocates of an atheistic 
Republic. The parties were the Right, 180 Girondists led by Vergniaud aud 
Brlssot, the Plain, 600 members who were sure to go with the rising faction, 
and the Mountain, all the members from Paris, Robespierre, the Duke of 
Orleans,who assumed the name of Philip Egalite, Danton,Collot, d'Herbois, 
etc., and terrorists from the departments. 


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At its opening session, September 21, the Convention unanimously 
voted the abolition of royalty and declared France a Republic. In 
December, the deposed King, henceforth called citizen Louis Capet, 
was summoned before the Convention which for the purpose of try- 
ing and condemning the King constituted itself into a bar of justice. 
The charges were that Louis Capet had conspired against the liberty 
of the nation and arrested the general welfare of the State. The trial 
was a cruel travesty of justice. The accusation consisted of inflamma- 
tory invective. The arguments of the defenders remained unanswered . 
A vote of guilty was urged and it went heavily against the King (685 
votes). Then came the sentence. The Girondists though they had 
voted him guilty, yet shrank from the sentence of death. To shift 
their responsibility they moved an appeal to the people, but it was 
rejected by the Convention. Thereupon a majority of one (360 
votes) including the vote of Philip Egalite, condemned the King to 
death. The other votes were cast for delay, imprisonment, or ban- 
ishment. Upon a new motion for delay, the majority for the King's 
execution rose to 60. 

242. Murder of Louis XVI., Jan. 21, 1793. — During his 
confinement, galled as it was by brutal treatment, Louis prepared 
himself for death like a Christian. He heard his sentence with dig- 
nity and resignation, forgave his enemies, received the sacraments 
from the Irish Father Edgeworth, a non-juring priest, took a heart- 
rending leave from his family and mounted the scaffold amid the 
sorrowful silence of the city bristling with the guns of the National 
Guard. Louis XVI. was guillotined on the Place de la Revolution. 

243. The First Coalition. — The opening of the Scheldt, 
which the Peace of Westphalia had closed to protect Dutch com- 
merce, the order sent to all French generals everywhere to intro- 
duce the revolutionary system of France, and the designs of the 
Convention to invade Holland, would have driven England sooner 
or later into war with France, though the younger Pitt, England's 
leading statesman, did his utmost to maintain a strict neutrality. 
The execution of the King and the decree to annex Belgium, whose 
plunder was to relieve the desperate state of finances in France, 

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brought matters to an issue. Pitt withdrew the English envoy from 
Paris. The Convention at once unanimously declared war against 
England and Holland. The Coalition against France soon com- 
prised the Empire, Prussia, Sardinia, England, Holland, Spain, 
and Portugal. The Emigrants under Prince Conde proclaimed the 
Dauphin imprisoned in the Temple as Louis XVII. 

244 The War. — In December Frankfort had been recaptured by the 
Prussians and Custine had been driven back to the Rhine. Whilst the Duke 
of Brunswick was operating against the latter, Dutnouriez was defeated by 
the Austrians under the Duke of Coburg at Neerwinden (March 18, 1793). 
Dutnouriez entered into negotiations with Coburg. He strongly condemned 
the auarchical violence of the Jacobins and the execution of the King 
whom he had in vain attempted to save, and longed to preserve the lives of 
the Queen and the Dauphin by a march upon Paris. But, abandoned by his 
troops, he went over to the Austrians accompanied by the Duke of Chartres, 
the son of Philip Egalite*. 

245. May 31st and June 2nd. — After the death of Louis 
XVI. nearly all the deputies came armed to the sessions. A strug- 
gle for life and death was waged between the Girondists and the 
Mountain, each party hurling charges of treason against the other. 
Under the triple pressure of the Mountain, the September murderers 
in the galleries, and the Jacobins of the street, the Convention estab- 
lished the Revolutionary Tribunal (March 9), outlawed the Emi- 
grants whether they bore arms or not and their families living in 
France, put their property in the market, extorted a forced loan of 
a billion from the rich, and formed the Committee of Public Safety 
(April 6). Marat was the first deputy who was cited before the 
Revolutionary Tribunal charged with inciting insurrections. He 
was acquitted and triumphantly restored to his seat. In May the 
Convention arrested Hebert and other agitators to be tried by a 
Commission of Twelve. The Convention was cowed into submission 
by a street rising of the Jacobins (May 31), and dissolved the Com- 
mission, but refused to proscribe its members. Thereupon the Com- 
mune organized a rising of its adherents commanded by Henriot. The 
armed mob surrounded the Tuileries where the Convention sat, and 
compelled it to arrest thirty-one Girondists, including Verguiaud, 
Brissot, Guadet, and other leaders. June 2 the new ultra-demo- 
cratic Constitution, wholly based on the Social Contrast of Rousseau, 

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was passed with as much rapidity as levity. It contained a clause 
demanding the immediate dissolution of the Convention and the call 
for new primaries. But by a masquerade of gigantic size and phan- 
tastic arrangement, in which 8,000 delegates from the departments 
were artfully managed by Danton and Robespierre, the people were 
made to declare the present Convention permanent, purged as it was 
from all conservative elements, and Danton, in an impassioned 
speech, proclaimed a Reign of Terror against all the foes of the 
Paris Commune. 

Lecky V. 21, pp. 535-595, 59&-601 ; VI. 22, pp. 1-135. B. de Moleville, Private Memoirs : 
Last Year of the Reign of Louis X VI. — Clery : Journal of Occurrences at the Temple dur- 
ing the Confinement of L. XVI. — Laraartloe: History of the Girondists. — The September 
Massacres. A. C Q. 8. — Moore: Journal in France. — M. H. Wallon: Histoire du tri- 
bunal Rrvolutionaire de Paris. — Pierce L. Nolan : Irishmen in the French Revolution: 
D. It. *90 2.— Concerning the external war, v. 8ybel — Perry: Hist. oftheFr. Rev. — K. 
Balnea: Hist, of the Wars of the French Rev. — Griffith 8: French Revolutionary Generals. 
On Sorel's Europe and the Fr. Rev. : E. B. 87, 8. 



246. The Jacobin Machinery. — The chief bodies which drove France 
into a career of crime, terror, aiid suffering such as the world had never seen 
before, were: (1) The Committee of Public Safety. Its prominent managers 
were Danton, a real leader of men, clear-sighted and powerful in speech, 
but brutal, who murdered for power, though he was less sanguinary than 
his colleagues; the blood-thirsty Marat, who murdered for pleasure; and 
the vainglorious and hypocritical Robespierre who murdered for the gratifi- 
cation of jealousy and revenge. Other leaders were St. Just, Couthon, 
Collot, and Carnot,— the latter confined himself with eminent success to the 
management of the war. The Committee deliberated in secret, overawed 
the ministers, and took whatever measures were deemed requisite for the 
national defense. It had its representatives in the departments and in the 
army, chosen from the members of the Convention, the so-called 41 Deputies 
in mission. " Marat's days, however, were numbered. On July 13th he 
was murdered in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a young woman of Normandy, 
who had come to Paris to rid the world of the monster. Two days after 
the deed she calmly mounted the scaffold. (2) The Committee of General 
Security, a sub-con. .nittee of the Committee of Public Safety. It was com- 
posed of twelve Mountaineers ( Montagnards) charged with the detection of 
political crimes and with the arrest of the *' suspects " and proscribed. (3) 
The Revolutionary Tribunal. Its 16 judges and 60 jurymen, the latter at 18 
francs a day, were appointed by the Committee of Public Safety. Their 

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a a ties consisted in promptly condemning the victims brought in by the 
Committee of General Security without a hearing in batches of twenty, fifty, 
or more. (4) The Commune of Paris, in reality the greatest power in the 
State, acting through Hs committee of twenty at the Hotel de Vllle under 
the guidance of the atheists Chaumette and Hubert whose maxim was : To 
be safe you must kill all. (5) The 21,500 Revolutionary Committees in the 
Departments, chiefly composed of ruffians and criminals at an expense to the 
Republic of 591,000,000 francs a year or 100,000,000 more than the entire 
taxation of the Ancient Regime. Their duties consisted in imprisoning, 
despoiling and guillotining Frenchmen without trial. (6) The Bevolution- 
ary Army, organized September 5, 1793, 6,000 men with 1 ,200 cannoneers in 
Paris and proportionate numbers in the cities of France. The revolutionary 
army was, according to the decree of the Convention, Intended " to guard 
those who are shut up, arrest suspects, demolish castles, pull down belf reys, 
ransack vestries for gold and silver objects, and to strike every anti-Jacobin 
with physical terror." 

247. Foreign and Civil War. — In July Mainz was captured 
by the Prussians after a siege of three months, and the fortresses of 
Conde and Valenciennes fell into the hands of the allies ; the defeated 
General Custine was sent to the guillotine. The English laid siege 
to Toulon, occupied it for a time, and drove back the republican 
troops at almost all points. At the same time civil war threatened 
the Republic. On learning the events of May 31 and June 2, all 
the towns in the West, the South, the East, the center of France, de- 
clared that the Convention was no longer free, and that its decrees 
had no force of law. The citizens of Marseilles, Lyons, Caen, 
Toulon, Bordeaux, took up arms, and tried, and in a few cases 
executed, the Jacobin murderers. The fugitive Girondists stirred up 
insurrections in the departments. The risings against the men that 
managed the new Republic became the chief cause of the executions 
en masse which characterized the Terror. Yet these protests and 
risings, being local, led to no united effort of resistance, and were 
easily overcome in detail by the 4fc Deputies in mission." By July 
9th forty-nine departments had sent in their submission to the Con- 
vention. Only the sturdy Catholics of La Vendee and a few western 
departments displayed energy. Twenty thousand royalists organized 
in Lozere. A great Vendean army took Saumur, crossed the Loire, 
entered Angers and besieged Nantes. Carnot took ene getic meas- 
ures to establish the power of the Jacobins at home and abroad. A 

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levy of the whole male population was decreed, to besiege Lyons and 
Toulon, and to fight the Spaniards in the Pyrenees, the Piedmontese 
in the Alps, and the English, Austrians, and Prussians in the 
Netherlands and on the Rhine. Fourteen armies were soon placed 
in the field. Caen, Bordeaux, Marseilles, were conquered by the 
Republicans. Lyons was captured after a two months' siege. The 
Vendeans were defeated at Chollet (October) and again at Le Mans 

On the Rhine the fortunes of war varied. The Austrians and Prussians 
btorined the French lines at Weissenburg (October) and the Duke of Bruns- 
wick defeated the Republican General Hoche at Kaisersiautern (November) . 
On the other hand, General Pichegru defeated in December the Austrians 
under Wurmser. The allies had to retreat across the Rhine, and Worms and 
Speyer were once more taken by the French. About the same time the 
Republicans rescued Toulon from the English. 

248. Punishment of the Risings. — In Bordeaux, where not an arm was 

raised in self-defense, Tallien sent the Mayor and 881 others to the guillo- 
tine, imprisoned 1,500 citizens, and levied a fine of 9,000,000 francs on the 
wealthy. At Marseilles 12,000 persons were proscribed and their property 
sold. At Toulon people were slaughtered in heaps. Four hundred work- 
iugmen of the navy yard who marched out to receive Freron, were put to 
death on the spot, for having worked during the English occupation. 
FreYon then summoned the populace to the Marsh* eld on penalty of death. 
There he told the local Jacobins to single out their enemies. The victims 
thus designated were ranged along a wail and shot. The operation was for 
some time repeated day after day. During three months the guillotine dis- 
patched 1,800 more. Twelve thousand laborers were employed to pull down 
the buildings. A population of 28,000 was reduced to 6-7,000.— In Lyons 
thousands were murdered by the guillotine, or mowed down with grape- 
shot or drowned in the Rhone. A tax of 6,000,000 was Imposed on the city, 
and the confiscation of private property continued for ten mouths. The 
Republic at a cost of 15,000,000 francs employed 14,000 working men to 
destroy the finest buildings of the city, valued at 3,400,000,000. The popu- 
lation was reduced from 130,000 to 80,000. 

249. La Vendee. — When the Catholics of the Vendee and the neighbor- 
ing provinces saw their King guillotined, their archbishop driven to the 
mountains, their priests hunted down, their churches plundered and dese- 
crated, handed over to an apostate priesthood, and themselves compelled to 
travel for miles and miles to hear mass in the recesses of forests and caves, 
they flocked to the standards of their brave leaders, the nobles Charette and 
La Rochejaquelein, and the peasants Stofllet and Cathelineau, in defense of 


their faith and the royal house of France. When the fortune of war turned 
against them, La Vendee became the scene of brutalities, the most horrible 
committed during the Revolution. Carrier at the head of the Revolutionary 
Tribunal of Nautes put to death 15,000 men, women and children during the 
last three months of 1793. Prisoners were shot down in general fusillades, 
4-5,000 were drowned (noyades). They were tied together two by two 
- * and driven Into the Loire, or placed Id large crowds on rafts and lighters, 
and sunk. Penard made it his specialty to scour the rural districts for the 
purpose of killiug women and children. Other parties went forth to pick 
up the Vendeans aloug the high roads r shooting them in batches of twenty- 
five. In 1794 after the disastrous battle and massacre at Le Mans, Tur- 
reau, sent by the Commune of Paris at the head of twelve 44 columns of 
hell," entered La Vendee from different points. His orders were to exter- 
minate the Inhabitants and confiscate their lands. Accordingly he killed all 
living things that came in his way, and burnt crops, mills and villages; 5G0 
square leagues were devastated, 20 towns and 1,800 villages destroyed- 
Among the 90,000 slain were 15,000 women and 22,000 children. The remain- 
ing population fled to the woods, whence they carried on a desultory but 
destructive warfare against the republican hordes. 

Iu the autumn of the same year the smouldering insurrection broke out 
anew and rapidly spread north of the Loire into Brittany, Maine, Anjou, 
and Normandy. The Chouans, as the insurrectionists north of the Loire 
were called, composed of fugitive Vendeans, returned Emigrants, and de- 
serters from the regular army, fought under independent leaders and 
received everywhere the support of the peasants, who resented the suppres- 
sion of their religion and priesthood. After the fail of Robespierre the 
Committee of Public Safety sent General Hoche into the affected depart- 
ments. He allowed the churches to be reopened, left the clergy uuharassed 
and concluded a number of armed truces with Charette and other Vendean 
and Chouan leaders. Cessation of hostilities and recognition of the exist- 
ing authorities on the one hand, freedom of worship and the command of 
the National Guard by the Vendean and Chouan leaders on the other were 
the terms of agreement. 

250. Revolutionary Taxation. — Famine was an everpresent 
cause of terror and violence. To obtain provisions for the army 
and food for the inhabitants of Paris and other cities, the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety constructed a vast system of public and 
private robbery authorized by decrees of the Convention. The 
State established an income tax, an extraordinary revolutionary tax, 
maximum price for commodities and labor, and a system of forced 
requisitions. (1) The decrees on taxation distinguished in incomes 
between the essential and the surplus. The essential was fixed at 


1,000 francs per head. According to the excess, a quarter, a third, 
a half, was levied as an income tax. When the income exceeded 
9,000 francs, the whole excess was taken. (2) The revolutionary 
tax, imposed on the capital of the rich, ranged from 300 francs all 
the way up to 1,200,000 francs on a single person. Thus in Stras- 
burg, v. g. 11)3 merchants and professional men were taxed in graded 
amounts from 6,000 to 300,000 livres each, in all 9,000,000 payable 
in twenty-four hours. (3) A third means of obtaining provisions 
and labor was the maximum price, established September, 1793, for 
a vast number of commodities and also for wages, payable in as- 
signats. These assignats were printed by the billion. As early as 
July, 1793, 100 francs in assignats were worth 33 francs in coin. 
The grocers and shopkeepers had to display a list of all their pro- 
visions and goods, sell them at the maximum price, and take 
assignats at their face value as payment, i. e., they had to sell their 
goods at one-half or one-third of cost. But as the State needed coin 
to obtain war materials from foreign countries, those who had coin, 
had to deliver it against assignats at par, and those who had none, 
had to deliver their plate and jewels. The Catholic churches were 
simply ransacked for their sacred vessels which were melted into 
revolutionary coin. (4) By forced requisitions farmers had to 
bring their crops to public granaries to be paid in assignats at their 
face value. Tens of thousands of working men had to labor for the 
State at the maximum price in assignats. In all these cases the 
alternative was to pay, to deliver, to work, or to face the 
guillotine. Whilst this ruinous system increased the chronic state 
of famine, it enabled the government to raise the sums which the 
war swallowed up, amounting in the first six months of 1793 to 
490,000,000 francs, in the second half of the year to 300,000,000 
francs a month. The insolvent Commune of Paris alone borrowed 
110,000,000 from the State to feed the starving population. 

Histories of the Revolution. - The Reign of Terror; a Collection of Authentic 
Narratives. — Edw. Healy Thompson: The Sufferings of the Church in Brittany during 
the Great RevoL — also M. '78, 1. Memoirs of Henri Larochejaquelein and the War in the 
Vendue (Chambers' Miscell., v. 2) ; Memoirs of the Marchioness Larochejaquelein— Rising 
in the Vendie: Q. I?. '16, 1. — L. Gronlnnd: po-tra; or, Danton in the Fr. Rev.— Lewie: 
L\fe of Robespierre. — Van Olstlne: Charlotte Corday. — The War: see above ; also His- 
tories, by Schlosser; Fyffe (Hist, of Mod. Europe); Massey: Hist, of Engl, during the 
R. of George J II.— Capt. A. T. Mahan: Influence of Sea Power upon the F. Revol. and 

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251. Law of Suspects. — Whilst cities and provinces were 
devastated by the revolutionary despots, Paris became the scene of 
crimes equally horrible. The Revolutionary Tribunal with Fouquier- 
Tinville as public prosecutor reigned supreme. By the Law of 
Suspects, passed September 5, 1793, the tribunal obtained unlimited 
power over life and liberty. Ten classes of people could be tried on 
suspicion of unfriendliness to the Republic ; the last class comprised 
persons whom the tribunals had declared innocent. This law created 
600,000 suspects in France. 

252. Execution of Marie Antoinette, Oct. 16. — Since the 
execution of her husband the Queen had been shut off from all com- 
munication with the outer world, separated from her son, and ex- 
posed to the brutal insults of her keepers. Amidst the indignity of 
her imprisonment and the diabolical malice of her trial — they 
attempted to destroy the mother by the testimony of her little inno- 
cent son — she was ever dignified and queenly, and above all imbued 
with Christian resignation. Seated in a common cart, her arms tied 
behind her, she was conveyed to the Place de la Revolution, and 
guillotined, October 16. The King's sister, the saintly Madame 
Elizabeth, who had shared the capitivity of the royal family, followed 
the Queen to the scaffold. 

Loo is XVII., a pious and intelligent child of eight years, was placed 
under the absolute power of Simon, 44 governor of the Temple," a foul- 
mouthed cobbler, who took fiendish delight in beating and torturing the 
delicately nurtured Prince, cruelly depriving him of sleep, forcing him to 
inebriety and degrading his body and mind to a complete wreck. Thus 
perished in the Temple, June, 1794, at the age of ten, the last direct heir of 
St. Louis. His sister, Marie Therese, the last prisoner in the Temple, was 
delivered to the Austrians in 1795, in exchange for some captured deputies 
of the Convention. The Emigrants henceforth acknowledged the Duke of 
Provence, the King's eldest brother, as Louis XVIII. Soon after the execu- 
tion of the Queen, the royal tombs at St. Denys were desecrated, the bones 
of the kings of France thrown into a common ditch, and their skulls tossed 
about like balls in the Jacobin club. 

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253. Other Executions. — On October 3d, two proscription lists 
of the Mountain, dictated by Robespierre, had been read in the Con- 
vention with closed doors, .no debate being allowed ; 73 Girondists 
arraigned before the bar were doomed to imprisonment, 21 others to 
the guillotine. They were guillotined October 31st. Vergniaud, 
Guadet, Brissot, ex-Mayor Bailly, Barnave, Madame Roland, who in 
her writings had inspired and glorified the Girondists, Philip 
Egalite, the traitor of the royal house, all reaped the fruit of their 
own teachings and doings on the scaffold. The Girondists who had 
escaped to the departments, were hunted down and guillotined. 
Roland, Condorcet, and a number of others stabbed, drowned or 
shot themselves. Of the 180 Girondists who had led the Convention 
140 were executed, imprisoned, or in hiding. The Mountain ruled 
without a rival. 

254. The War against Religion. — No article of the Jacobin 
programme was carried out with more cruelty and perseverance than 
the war against religion, especially Catholicism. A very large 
majority of the Catholic clergy, including many converts from the 
Civil Constitution, rather than abandon their flocks, preferred the 
risk of being stripped of everything, of being exiled, imprisoned, 
transported to Cayenne, tortured, guillotined 24 hours after seizure, 
and made martyrs of like the primitive Christians ; 18,000 priests 
emigrated or were transported before, 18,000 after, the Septem- 
ber murders. The persecution now menaced also Constitutional 
priests, Protestant ministers and Jewish rabbis. The atheistic 
Republic had no use for them. No baptism, confession, extreme unc- 
tion, marriage rite, or Christian burial was tolerated by the Commune. 
Decrees of the Convention broke up the Christian family by sup- 
pressing the marital and parental authority of its head and the dis- 
tinction between legitimate and illegitimate children. To destroy 
Catholic civilization to the roots, the Convention* replaced the 
Christian era by the revolutionary era of the year I., (beginning Sept. 
22, 1792), the week of seven days by a week of ten days, the 
Sunday by the decade, and all the ecclesiastical by revolutionary 
festivals and anniversaries. 

The months were called Vendemiaire (Vintage month) , Brumaire (the 
foggy)* Frimaire (the frosty), Nivose (the snowy), Pluviose (the rainy), 

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Ventose (the windy), Germinal (the sprouting), Floreal (the flowery), 
Prairial (the hay-making), Messidor (the harvesting), Thermidor (the heat- 
giving), Fructidor (the fruit-giving). Each month had thirty days; the Ave 
intercalary days were called sansculottes. Christmas day was dishonored 
by the name of dog's day (le chien). 

Day after day during the last months of 1793, scenes of religious 
mockery disgraced the sittings of the Convention. In one of them 
Gobel, the constitutional Archbishop of Paris, threw off the insignia 
of his office, and publicly rejected Christianity. The Convention 
finally abolished the worship of God and the belief in the immor- 
tality of the soul, and set up the cult of reason in Paris and in the 
departments. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was made the 
scene of an unspeakable desecration. Similar outrages were com- 
mitted in the departments, where the Jacobins closed, confiscated, 
and desecrated the churches. 

255. Internecine Strife. — This delirium of infidelity called 
forth, first, a religious, then a political reaction. Danton carried a 
decree excluding religious masquerades from the Convention. The 
terrorists split into three hostile factions. The Dantonists repre- 
sented the more moderate section of the Mountain. The Hebertists 
represented the ultra-revolutionary and atheistic Commune. Robes- 
pierre, supported by CoUthon, St. Just, Billaud-Varennes and Collot 
controlled the Committee of Public Safety. By intrigues worthy of 
his treacherous character, Robespierre used one party against the 
other and crushed them both. The first attack was directed against 
the Commune, by the Mountaineers who desired to make the Conven- 
tion independent, by the Dantonists, who wished to stay the action 
of the guillotine, and by Robespierre who sought the extension of 
his own authority. An attempt headed by the Cordeliers to get up 
an insurrection against the Convention failed. March 15, 1794, the 
leading Hebertists were arrested and condemned without hearing. 
March the 24th, Hebert, Chaumette, Anacharsis Clootz, who had ar- 
ranged the feast of reason, Gobel, and others, were guillotined. Some 
days later came the turn of the Dantonists. The heads of Danton, 
Desmoulins, Herault de Sechelles and others fell April 5th. 

Danton, forewarned, made no effort to save himself. When the Mow fell, 
on March 29, he said : " On such a day I organized the Revolutionary Court. 
I ask pardon of God and man." 

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256. Increase of the Terror — Condition of Paris Pris- 
ons. — Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety were now 
undisputed masters of the guillotine. Robespierre abolished the 
worship of reason and bade the Convention to decree the existence of 
a Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul. At the fan- 
tastic feast of the Supreme Being on the Marsfield, June 8, the 
man of blood acted as the high priest. By a decree of the 
Convention passed two days later the calling of witnesses and the 
hearing of evidence, generally ignored heretofore in state trials, were 
formally abolished. A simple list of names sufficed for executions en 
masse. The executions on the Place de la Revolution now ran up to 
fifty, sixty, and more a day. Outside of Paris every Revolutionary 
Committee had its guillotine. There were stationary, traveling, and 
elegant house guillotines ; the latter for the execution of sick persons 
who could not be moved from their homes. 

The Reign of Terror did not materially change the gaiety and usual tenor of 
Paris life; People contiuued their wonted pursuits of gain and pleasure. 
All the average Parisian cared for was his dinner, his paper, and his even- 
ing amusement. The clubs, theaters, cafes, and other public resorts were 
patronized by their usual customers. Under the system of general espion- 
age and denunciation inaugurated by the Committee minor criminals such 
as thieves, pick-pockets, and the like, disappeared. No riots disturbed the 
streets, as men did not venture even to express their opinions much less to 
fight for them. Everybody strove to comply in dress, language, and manner 
with the craze of " equality." '* Citizen " and 11 citizeness," " thou " and 
"thee," replaced the old and more polite forms of address. The turbulent 
market women, who had played an important part in the street riots 
of Paris and Versailles, were subdued into quiet by the Terrorist authori- 
ties. They were now sitting in the Place de la Revolution as " tricoteuses," 
or knitting women, watching the guillotine whilst they plied their needles. 
The guillotine itself became au object of popular worship or pleasantry. 
The women of the time wore tiny guillotines as earrings and clasps; children 
amused themselves with toy guillotines; at dinner parties human figures 
were guillotined from which wine or syrup flowed Instead of blood. Hymns 
were sung to "The Guillotine," and many a joke cracked on the " national 
razor." A similar frivolity reigned in the overcrowded prisons, where 
scenes of heroic devotion were enacted in the midst of much love and 
merry making and orgies of revolting immorality. 

The Reign of Terror raised the number of Emigrants to 200,000. The 
prisons were everywhere filled. The thirty-six regular prisons and the 
ninety-six temporary jails of Paris, constantly contained 7-9,000 prisoners; 

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the 1,200 regular and 40,000 privisional jails in the departments contained 
each more than 200 inmates. In Nantes, 3,000 prisoners died of typhoid 
in two months. The lists of the Committee of Public 8afety, before the 
end of the Terror, show nearly 400,000 prisoners. For Robespierre every 
person who was not a sans-culotte (breechless, surname of the low born 
Republicans, to whose condition all had to accommodate themselves), was 
"a suspect." Generals who failed, or who were too successful, were 
accused of treason and guillotined. University regents, professors, heads 
of schools, scientists and educated men, were sent to the guillotine for their 
superior knowledge, though they were provided with certificates of civism. 
Expressions of grief or pity, looks of disapprobation, even silence, became 
state crimes. It was a crime to be rich. Purchasers of ecclesiastical and 
communal lands were guillotined by the scores, that their lands might be 
brought into the market a second time. " We coin money on the Place de 
la Revolution," is the cynical saying ascribed to Barere. Nor were the 
lowly spared. Numbers of farmers, mechanics, domestics, women, filled 
the prisons or were shot, drowned or guillotined, because they had harbored 
an innocent outlaw or a hunted priest or had secretly attended the mass of 
■an unsworn priest. Out of 12,000 persons sentenced to death, whose pro- 
fessions have been ascertained, 7,640 were farmers, artisans, soldiers, sailors, 
and servants of both sexes. At Angers 800 were guillotined merely to clear 
the prison for new victims. In Anjou, apart from those who, being taken 
with arms in their hands, were shot or sabred down on the spot, 10,000 were 
murdered without trial. In eleven western departments including La 
Vendee, the dead of both sexes and all ages exceeded 400,000. Thus the 
lives of 1,200,000 Frenchmen were sacrificed to the revolutionary fury during 
the Reign of Terror. 

257. The Fall of Robespierre, Thermidor 9. — The fear 
which everybody, even the members of the Committee, felt for their 
own lives under the bloody dictatorship of Maximilian Robespierre, 
encouraged his enemies, Tallien, Freron, Fouch6, Vadier, Collot, 
and Billaud-Varennes, to devise his fall. Dantonists, Hebertists, 
Mountaineers conspired with members of the two Committees. July 
26, Robespierre hurled threats at his enemies in the Convention, but 
without naming any one. The following day, July 27, the 9th of 
Thermidor, he was greeted with shouts of " Down with the tyrant! 99 
For hours he struggled in vain against his fate. He was arrested 
with his brother, Augustin Robespierre, Couthon and St. Just. The 
four were released by an insurrection of their adherents. Upon the 
Convention outlawing them, they were abandoned by the Sections, 
or districts of Paris, surprised in the Hotel de Ville, and taken to 



the Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre, lying on a table, his 
jaw fractured by a pistol shot (in attempted suicide), was exposed 
to the taunts of his foes. Next morning the two Robespierres, 
Couthon and St. Just, with eighteen others, were guillotined without 
trial. Within two days eighty Terrorists were executed. The 
Commune was nearly extinct. 

Abbe* Dnmesnil: Recollection* of the Reign of Terror. — Reign of Terror Episodes: M. 
•75, 2, p. 90; '90, 1, pp. 213, 374. — J. Wilson: The R. of T. and Us Secret Police; also Q. 
R. 72, 3. — Wallon : Hist of the Revol. Tribunal (French). — Dacbesse de Daras: Prison 
Journals during the Reign of Terror, — G. Evcritt: Guillotine the Great. — L. Scion t: 
VEgXise sous la Terreur. — K. O'Meara: The Church of France and the Rev. — A. C. Q. 
8. — La Rochcterle : Life of Marie Antoinette; Lcttres de Marie Antoinette — Memoirs of 
Mad. Campan. — Imbcrt de St. Amand : Marie Antoinette and the Downfall of Royalty, — 
French Blogr. vindicating Marie Antoinette's character: La Rocbeterie; Virt; OU de 
Reiaet.— M. Ant: D. R. »59, 3. ; E. R. '69, 8. — M. O. Bishop: The Prison Life of M. A.— 
Lord Glower : Last Days of M. A. — A. de Beauchesne : The Life, the Sufferings, and the 
Death of Louis X VII. — Lives of Max. Robespierre by Adams ; Ballard ; Lewis. — The 
Conciergerie Q. R. *98 2. — E. de Pressencl : Religion and the Reign of Terror. 

258. The Reaction. — A change of policy at once made itself 
felt iu the Convention, where the Thermidorians held the balance 
of power among quarreling factions. Revolutionary authorities 
and laws fell into contempt. The Jacobin Club was closed (Novem- 
ber 12) and the Committees shorn of their power. Thousands of 
prisoners were set free and officials were changed all over the country. 
Carrier, the tyrant of Nantes, and Fouquier Tmville were condemned 
for their crimes at the bar of the Convention, and executed. The 
73 Girondists who had been imprisoned on June 2, 1793, and others 
who had survived, returned to their seats in the Convention. 

259. Misery. — The result of the maximum price, of the boundless issue 
of asslgnats and of the forced requisitions in use during the Reign of Terror 
was widespread misery and famine. In Paris and all the larger cities the 
government had to distribute rations of bread, often amounting to only a few 
ounces a day. Long rows of people had to wait their turn from midnight 
till late in the day to obtain their scanty allowance, or, as the case might 
be, to leave empty-handed after ten hours' waiting. In many districts people 
had to dig up roots for their subsistence, or to live on worms, bran, grass, 
or other unhealthy food. Entire communes were without bread for two or 


THE REACTION — 1794-1795. 




three months. In a place of 6,000 inhabitants, 1,200 received for a long 
time, each eight ounces and then three ounces of wheat every eight days. 
In their downward course theassignats had sunk in May, 1795, to seven per 
cent. Still later an assign at of 100 francs sank to five sons. A pound of 
bread, in 1796, cost fifty francs, a pound of meat sixty francs. Later a bag 
of flour rose to 13,000 francs in assignats. Over one million died of hunger 
and misery, and several millions of inhabitants were ruined by the revolu- 
tionary famine. And all this while the leading Terrorists amassed enormous 
fortunes by plunder and speculation. In the fare of this misery the recon- 
structed Convention abolished the maximum price, but continued the use 
of the assignats. 

260. The Third Constitution and the 13th Yendeni- 
iaire. — The remaining Terrorists of the Mountain used the misery 
of the people to excite bread riots and insurrections against the Con- 
vention on April 1st (12 Germinal) and on May 20th (1 Prairial), 
which, however, were suppressed by the reorganized National Guards 
and the young men of the better classes. The revolutionary quarters 
of Paris were disarmed ; 10,000 Jacobins, among them 60 Moun- 
taineers, were arrested. Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varennes, Barere 
and many others were transported, others condemned to death. 
Two of them killed themselves before sentence. Five stabbed them- 
selves on the stairs of the tribunal ; of these two who survived were car- 
ried still bleeding to the guillotine, and executed with the rest. In 
the departments acts of violence were committed by returned Emi- 
grants against imprisoned Terrorists in retaliation for their former 
crimes. This violent reaction received the name of White Terror. 
Still the reactionary members of the Convention, as they had been 
accomplices in the crimes of the Terrorists, earned only the con- 
tempt of the country. In the fear for their own lives they added to 
the new (3d) Constitution a clause according to which two-thirds of 
the actual members of the Convention had to be re-elected to the new 
Legislature, the Corps Legislatif . The clause met with general dis- 
approval. In Paris the National Guards and the better class of the 
Sections rose against the decree. On the motion of Barras, a young 
general, Napoleon Bonaparte, who had won his first laurels at the siege 
of Toulon, was placed in command of the troops of the Convention. 
At the head of 9,000 regulars, Bonaparte raked with his cannon the 
Rue St. Honore and the Quay Voltaire, and mowed down 600 men 

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©f the Sections in the bloody victory of the 13th Vendemiaire, Octo- 
ber 5, 1795. 

261. The War. — Whilst the clash of opinions, interests, 
and ambitions was still driving France from one revolution to an- 
other, the army in a school of danger, discipline and subordination 
had become strong and successful beyond the frontiers. The 
Prussians after two other battles at Kaiserslautern were compelled 
to recross the Rhine. The Austro-Sardinians in the western Alps 
and the Spaniards in the Pyrenees had to retreat before the advanc- 
ing Republicans. The Duke of Coburg, defeated at Fleurus by 
General Jourdan (June 26, 1794), resigned his command. The 
allies evacuated Belgium. Pichegru invaded Holland in the winter 
of 1794-95, and drove the hereditary Stadtholder to England. Hol- 
land, now transformed into the Batavian Republic, surrendered 
Dutch Flanders to France. The Coalition gradually broke up. 
Tuscany was the first Power to make peace. Prussia betrayed the 
integrity of the Empire to make terms with France in the Peace 
of Basle (April 5, 1795). Openly it left its territories on the left 
bank of the Rhine to France untif peace should be made with the 
Empire, but secretly it absolutely ceded the left bank of the Rhine 
to France, to be indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical 
territory (the bishopric of Miinster). The Princes of northern Ger- 
many withdrew their contingents from the army of the Empire, and 
received for this service the recognition by France of a line of de- 
markation from the Rhine to Silesia which secured neutrality to the 
northern States. The Empire was henceforth torn in twain. In 
July Spain, also at Basle, ceded Spanish San Domingo to France, 
whilst all other conquests were restored by the Republic. Of all 
the allies only England was successful throughout in her naval war, 
and conquered most of the remaining French possessions in East and 
West India. 

In the west of France an English force and 5,000 Emigrants landed at 
Qniberon in Brittany, and joined the Chouans, bat .were defeated by 12,000 
republicans under Hoche, and slain or made prisoners amid scenes of utter 
confusion and distress. Whilst the lives of the Chouans were spared, over 
a thousand Emigrants were shot by order of the Convention. In the Vendue 
too the war was terminated by the victorious arms of Hoche, who had been 

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THE DIRECTORY 1795-1799. 


reinforced after the peace with Spain. The heroic leaders of the Vendeans, 
Stofflet and Charette, were executed, the former iu 1795, the latter in March, 

Histories of the French Bevol.— By Taine ; H. M. Stephens ; Thiers (laudatory) ; 
Gardiner; W. Hohoff (Germ.); Bertrand de Molcvtlle: Annals of the Fr. It. — Adams: 
Growth of the Fr. Nation,— Gen. Jomlni: L. of Napoleon Bonaparte. — Segur: Hist, of 
Fred. Wm. II. — Europe and the Fr. Rtv , E. R. '87, 3. 


THE DIRECTORY — 1795-1799. 

262. The New Constitution, — The Constitution of the year 
III., or 1795, broke up both the largest and the smallest municipali- 
ties. Only communes with a population of 5,000 inhabitants had 
their own municipality. Communes of over 100,000 inhabitants 
were divided into several municipalities ; thus Paris into twelve. 
The Corps Legislatif had two houses. A Council of Five Hundred 
who introduced the laws, and a Council of 250 Ancients (forty 
years of age) who approved or rejected the laws. The executive 
power was intrusted to a Directory of five members elected by the 
Ancients from a list put up by the Five Hundred. The Corps 
Legislatif was to be renewed by a third of its number, the Directory 
by one member every year. By the special law of the 5th Fruc- 
tidor (August 22), binding the electoral assemblies to return two- 
thirds of the Convention members, the revolutionists had a secure 
majority in both houses, and chose a Directory of five regicides : 
Barras, La-Re velliere-Lepoux, Rewbel, Camot, and Letourneur. 

263. Wars of the Directory. — To force the Empire to a 
peace, the Directory sent Jourdan into Franconia, Moreau into 
Suabia and Bavaria, Napoleon Bonaparte into Italy with orders to 
join his colleagues in southern Germany after subduing Italy. To 
face England, the Directory concluded an offensive and defensive 
alliance with Spain, where Minister Godoy, the peacemaker of Basle, 
was all deference and subserviency to the Republic. Jourdan's forces 
were so completely defeated and scattered by the Emperor's brother, 
Archduke Charles, at Amberg and Wiirzburg, that Jourdan laid 
down his command. Moreau was compelled by the Archduke to 
retreat through the Black Forest to the Upper Rhine. But the cam- 


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paign of Bonaparte in Italy was a series of brilliant victories. Start- 
ing from Nice and following the coast he defeated the Austrians at 
Millesimo, and the Piedmontese at Mondovi, and forced Victor 
Amadeus, King of Sardinia, to cede Savoy and Nice to France, and 
to admit French garrisons into the fortresses of Piedmont. Then 
pursuing the Austrians, Napoleon stormed the bridge over the Adda 
at Lodi, entered Milan, and subdued all Lombardy as far as Man- 
tua. The Dukes of Modena and Parma were compelled to pur- 
chase a truce with enormous sacrifices of money and art treasures. 
The King of Naples was compelled to withdraw his troops from the 
Austrian army and his ships from the English fleet. Four strenuous 
attempts of the Austrians to save Mantua, their last stronghold, were 
frustrated by five victories of the conqueror (at Castiglione, Rove- 
redo, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli). After a long .siege (July, 1796 
Feb. 1707) Mantua surrendered under honorable terms. 

264. Pius VI. and Napoleon. — It was now the turn of Pius 
VI. to treat with Napoleon, who had crossed the Po, occupied 
Ferrara and Bologna, arrested the Cardinal Legates, and imposed an 
oppressive truce on the Pope. The French Republic honored Pius 
VI. with its special hatred, because he had condemned the Civil 
Constitution of the Clergy, praised the non-juring priesthood, sus- 
pended the constitutional priests, received many fugitives, celebrated 
solemn obsequies for Louis XVI., protested against the occupation 
of Avignon, and, most of all, because he was the successor of St. 
Peter. The Directory demanded the revocation of the dogmatical 
and canonical decrees of Pius VI. regarding the Church in France. 
But the Pope refused to make the slightest concession in matters of 
faith and morals and, ready to die at his post, declined the asylum 
offered him by England and Naples. Napoleon was more foresighted 
than the Directory. He was looking forward to the favor of the 
French Catholics. Accordingly, whilst he forced Pius VI. to 
conclude the Treaty of Tolentino, by which the Pope had to cede 
Avignon already annexed to France, as well as Bologna and the 
Romagna, he waived the religious question. 

Napoleon is said to have sent a secret message to Pius VI., reading: I am 
no Attila, and if I were, remember you are the successor of Leo I. 

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THE DIRECTORY — 1795-1799. 


265. Italian Republics, — Napoleon now crossed the eastern 
Alps into Carinthia and Styria to fight Archduke Charles at home. 
But the patriotic rising of the people in Venice, the Tyrol and 
Bohemia, threatening to cut off his retreat to Italy induced him to 
conclude a preliminary peace at Leoben in Styria. Whilst negotia- 
tions for a definite peace were pending, French troops invited by 
the republicans of Venice, occupied the Republic and aided them in 
overthrowing the aristocratic and organizing a revolutionary govern- 
ment. The States of northern and central Italy were transformed 
into the Cisalpine and Genoa into the Ligurian Republics under 
French control, and administered after the pattern of the Direc- 

266. The Coup d'Etat of Fructidor 18, 1797, at Paris. — 

The Jacobin power, cowed for a time by the White Terror, again 
raised its head in the Corps Legislatif . The regicide Directory ap- 
pointed agents of its own stamp. The trials of the Terrorists were 
quashed. Appointive offices in the departments were again filled 
with Jacobins. The most odious laws of the Reign of Terror were 
still in force only locally mitigated by the personal character of the 
officials. On the other hand the elections by the people everywhere 
returned moderate and conservative men to the new third of the Corps 
Legislatif and to the elective offices in the departments. It was 
calculated, that by the year VI., the last Jacobins would have to 
depart. The moderates in the Corps Legislatif demanded regular 
trials, removal of Jacobins from office, suppression or reform of the 
penal laws against religion, nobles, and Emigrants. On the arrival 
of the second third of the moderates the leading Jacobins became 
alarmed at the prospect of losing their accumulated spoils, perhaps 
their heads. This fear led to the Coup d'Etat of September 4 
(Fructidor 18). Again a small Terrorist minority defeated a waver- 
ing majority. The three directors Barras, Rewbel and Revelliere 
overthrew their more moderate colleagues, Barthelemy and Carnot. 
Five thousand roughs and 8-10,000 troops under Agereau sur- 
rounded the Tuileries, arrested the constitutionalist members of 
both houses 44 by the Law of the Sabre." The Councils thus purged, 
canceled the election of their colleagues in forty-nine departments, 
passed decrees of transportation by fifteen votes against seven, all the 

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rest being motionless from terror, and through forced or voluntary 
resignation of about 300 members became a radical Rump. The 
Coup was in all respects equal to the overthrow of the Girondists, 
save that the soldiers were the actors instead of the populace. 

267. The Second Terror. — Thus the an ti -christian and despotic system 
of 1793 was again introduced under a dictatorship of three Directors. 
The irresponsible tribunals of former days were now managed by military 
divisions. Barth61emy, Pichegru and other prominent men were transported. 
Carnot escaped by flight. Transportations en masse took the place of 
the guillotine. The imprisonment on the marshes of Rochefort, the over- 
crowded ships and the deadly climate of Cayenne did the work just as 
effectually. Ninety per cent of the victims transported without trial, died 
on the voyage or in the colony. The process of extirpating the Catholic 
Church by the laws of 1793 and 94 was pursued with the old virulence. In 
Belgium alone 7,300 ecclesiastics were hunted down for deportation. Three- 
fourths of them died within a few mouths. Forty-five departments were 
declared to be in a state of disturbance. Former nobles, returned Emigrants, 
property holders with all their relatives, in all 200,000 persons, were excluded 
from the franchise, made personally responsible for all acts of violence, not 
only committed, but suspected in their neighborhood, banished from the 
cities, and burdened with a forced loan of 100,000,000 francs. 

268. Peace of Gampo Formio October 17, 1797. —After 
lengthy parleys France and Austria concluded the Peace of Campo 
Formio. Austria ceded Belgium to France, recognized the Cisalpine 
Republic, indemnified the Prince of Modena with Breisgau, agreed 
in a secret clause to the cession of the left bank of the Rhine, and 
received in return the territories of Venice, Istria and Dalmatia. 
France retained the Ionian Islands which had belonged to Venice. 
The navigation of the Rhine was left open to France and Germany. 
Austria and the princes who suffered by the cession of German ter- 
ritories were to be indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical 
territory (archbishopric of Salzburg). The conclusion of a peace 
between France and the Empire was entrusted to the Congress of 
Rastadt. But the formation of the Second Coalition put an end to 
its labors, and the Congress terminated with the assassination of two 
French plenipotentiaries, by Austrian hussars. It is certain that 
the attack was not authorized by the Austrian government. It 
seems to have been privately planned by French emigre officers serv- 
ing in the Austrian army to possess themselves of the dispatches. 

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TIIE DIRECTORY 1705-1799. 


260. The Roman and the Helvetian Republics, 1798. — 

Alter the Peace of Tolentino, Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, 
was sent to Rome as ambassador of the French Republic. His house 
became the resort of domestic and foreign revolutionists, who set 
on foot the usual agitation against the Papal government. In a 
street mob purposely incited, a French general lost his life. This 
event gave the Directory the long desired pretext to occupy Rome. 
General Berthier marched into the city, February 10, 1799, and five 
days later overthrew the pontifical government, and proclaimed, 
against the protest of the people, the Roman Republic. Its 
symbol was the statue of liberty with the tiara under her feet ; the 
city of the Popes was desecrated with the abominations of the 
atheistic revolution. 

Shortly after the French entered Switzerland uuder pretense of settling a 
local discussion, changed the Swiss Confederacy into the one Helvetian 
Republic, and annexed Geneva. 

The fear lest the presence of the Pope might foster the disaffection 
of the Romans against the French, determined the Directory to 
remove the aged Pontiff to Valence in southern France. The order 
was carried out with studied brutality by Berthier's successor, Gen- 
eral Massena, and the commissioners of the Directory. Pius VI. 
surrounded by the touching homage of the Catholic people, closed 
the days of his troubled life at Valence, August, 1799. 

270. Spoils of War. — Like the Committee of Public Safety the Directory 
waged a war of conquest, pillage, and propagandists Authentic lists of 
Jacobin exactions imposed on Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Italy, apart 
from private plundering, furnish the following figures up to 1798: Exac- 
tions in coin, 655 millions; removal of gold and silver objects aud works of 
art, 305 millions; provisions, 361 millions; confiscation of church, govern- 
ment, and corporation property, 700 millions, or two billion livres in five 
years. The churches alone contributed 146 millions. The spoils of Home 
and of the Vatican amounted to 43 millions, including even the pastoral ring 
which a commissary of the Directory wrested from the finger of Pius VI. 
The forced conscription of 1798 sent 800,000 Frenchmen to the field. The 
waste of lives in the field amounted to 900,000 in eight years. 

271. Napoleon in Egypt, 1798-00. —The Peace of Cainpo 
Forraio being concluded, Napoleon returned to Paris and received a 
most enthusiastic ovation from the people, whilst the Directory re- 

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garded his successes with jealous eyes. To remove the popular hero 
from Paris and France, the Directory gave him the chief command 
over an army ostensibly formed for an invasion of England, but 
really destined for Egypt. The subjugation of Egypt was intended 
as a preliminary step toward the conquest of the British possessions 
in India and the destruction of English commerce. Having sailed 
from Toulon with 35,000 men and a large number of scientists, 
Napoleon took Malta, landed in Egypt, stormed Alexandria, de- 
feated the Mamelukes in the Battle of the Pyramids and captured 
Cairo. Meanwhile Admiral Nelson had annihilated the French 
fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir, and the Porte had declared 
war against France and mobilized the forces of Syria. To anticipate 
an attack Napoleon threw himself into Syria and gained several suc- 
cesses (storming of Jaffa; battle at Mount Tabor), but Acre, 
defended by the English, resisted his assaults. Pursued by the 
plague, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and quickly routed a Turkish 
army which had landed at Aboukir. Advised of the state of affairs 
in France, he appointed Generals Kleber and Desaix as his suc- 
cessors in Egypt, escaped the vigilance of the English fleet, and 
arrived unannounced and unexpected in France. 

272. War of the Second Coalition, 1799-1801. — Paul I., Emperor of 
Russia, had succeeded his mother, Catherine II., 1796-1801. The Knights 
of Malta, just deprived of their island, chose him for Grand- Master. He 
succeeded in forming a new Coalition, consisting of Russia, Austria, Eng. 
land, Portugal, Turkey, and Naples, where King Ferdinand's wife, Caroline, 
a 6ister of Marie Antoinette, was the soul of the government. The war 
began in 171)8, before the Coalition treaty was signed, by a Neapolitan inva- 
sion of the Roman Republic. It was repulsed by the French, who in their 
turn invaded Naples. Nelson conveyed the king to Palermo. The higher 
classes, infected with revolutionary ideas, admitted the French into Naples, 
while the common people still fought for days in the streets of the capital 
for their king and their religion. The French changed the kingdom of 
Naples into the Partheuopean Republic. In the north of Italy the Duke of 
Tuscany, the Emperor's brother, was driven from his domain. The King 
of Sardinia fled to Cagliarl on the island of Sardinia. His fortresses on the 
mainland were occupied by French troops. 

According to the plan of the Coalition, Austria was to fight in 
Germany, Austria and Russia in Italy, Russia and England in the 
Netherlands. The attack on the Netherlands failed. Although Arch- 

TIIE DIRECTORY 1795-1799. 


duke Charles, in the German campaign, drove Jourdan and Berna- 
dotte across the Rhine, the allies were unable to dislodge the French 
from Switzerland and trans-Rhenish Germany owing to Massena's 
victory over Korsakow at Zurich, and to the divided councils of the 
allied leaders. But the campaign in Italy was a brilliant success. 
The Austrians under Kray and Melas, and the Russians under 
Suwarow, defeated in a series of victories the French under Scherer 
and Moreau in northern Italy. Macdonald, who hastened from 
Naples to assist the vanquished armies of France, was beaten on the 
Trebbia. General Joubert, whom the Directory seut with a new 
army to Italy, lost life and victory in the bloody battle of Novi. 
Suwarow now crossed the St. Gothard to join Korsakow in Switzer- 
land, but instead of his colleague he found the victorious Massena 
and had to fight his way out of the mountains under great hardships 
and losses. Dissatisfied with the allies, Paul I. recalled his generals 
to Russia (1800). Meanwhile the Austrians completed the expul- 
sion of the French from Italy. The fortresses, badly provisioned by 
the rapacious commissaries of the Directory, fell rapidly. The result 
of the campaign was the overthrow of the Cisalpine, Parthenopean, 
and Roman Republics. A Russo-Turkish fleet had wrested the 
Ionian islands from French control in May, 1709. 

At the death of Pius VI. the enemies of the Church boasted that 
they had buried the last Pope. But the reconquest of Italy by the allies 
enabled sixty-five Cardinals to go into Conclave at Venice, where they 
elected Cardinal Chiaramouti as Pius VII., May 4, 1800. 

273. Coup d'Btat of Brumaire 18 and 19. — The loss of Italy and a 
new revolution in Paris were the causes of Napoleon's suddeu return. The 
reverses of the war had created a profound exciteraeut iu Paris. The 
Directory was loudly charged with criminal mismanagement by the party of 
order. On the other hand the remaining Jacobins prepared for a revival of 
the Terror. But by the coup d'etat of June 18th, the Directory of Three 
was replaced by a Directory of Five, and the Terrorist Kewbel had to make 
room for the more moderate Sieves. In the general conviction that the gov- 
ernment by the Directory was no longer tenable, Napoleon's journey from 
his landing place, Frejus, to Paris, became a triumphal procession. In the 
Directory, Barras had secretly come to an understanding with Louis XVIII. 
Sieyfes and Roger-Duclos with the same secrecy surrendered to Napoleon. 

On November 9th, 1799 (Brumaire LS, of the year VIII.) the 
Council of Ancients transferred the sessions of the Corps Legislatif to 

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St. Cloud, and appointed Napoleon commander of the troops in Paris. 
Siey&s and Roger-Duclos overthrew the Directory ; the two resigned 
according to a previous agreement ; Ban-as was compelled to sign his 
resignation in his bath ; the other two were arrested. On Novem- 
ber 10, Napoleon's grenadiers entered the chamber of the Five Hun- 
dred with fixed bayonets and drums beating, whilst the deputies 
precipitately icrambled out of the windows. The Council of 
Ancients approved the measure, named Napoleon, Sieves and Roger- 
Duclos provisional Consuls and adopted a new Constitution inspired 
by Napoleon and drawn up by Sieves. December 15, 1799, the 
Fourth Constitution was proclaimed. France was now a military 
monarchy under the guise of a Republic. 

Under the new Constitution Napoleon Bonaparte was inaugurated as First 
Consul for ten years with practically supreme power (December 24). The 
other two Consuls, Cambac4res and Le Brun had ouly consultative votes. 
A Senate of 80 members with good pay and little work were elected for life. 
The people voted for Notables of the Communes. These elected a tenth of 
their number as Notables of the Departments, these again a tenth as Notables 
of France. From this last list the Senate appointed the members of the 
Legislative Department, the higher officials and the judges. The Legislative 
Department had two branches, a Tribunate of 100, and a Legislative 
Chamber of 300 members. The Tribunate discussed the proposals of the 
government without voting. The Legislative Chamber accepted or rejected 
these proposals without debate. The executive power was in the hands of 
the First Consul aided by a Council of State. The establishment of Prefec- 
tures or administrations of departments and of Sub-prefectures or admin- 
istrations of arondissements created the centralization of power which still 
prevails in France. 

Hi«toriesj (continued).— Alison: Hist, of Europe, 1 7 89-1 816.-V7 .0*0. Morris: The 
French Rev. and the First Empire. — Mlgnet: Hist, of the Fr. Rev 17*9-1814. — J. K. 
Darras: Hist, of the Cath. Church. — Eon ben Parsons: The Pontificate of Pius I'/. (Stu- 
dies 4). — Chov.O'Clcry : The Italian Revolution. Oh. II. — U. M. Stephens: The Principal 
Speeches of the Revolution. — Lock wood : Constitutional Hist, of France. — Adams : Great 
Campaigns, 1796-1870.— Lanfrey; Lockhart: Lives of Nap. / — s-outhey: L. of Nelson.— 
Victor Pierre: ' Fructidor. — John Alger: Englishmen in the French Revolution, — Lo 
Vicomte de Broc: La France pendant la Revolution. — Mgr. Freppel, EvSque d* Angers: 
La Revolution Francaise a propo* du Centenaire de 1789. — Ch. D'Herlcault: La France 
Revolutionaire, 1789-1889. — Lord Ormathwalte: Lessons of the French Revol. — 
L'Abbe* 8icard : VAncien Clergi de France; Les Evlques pendant la Revolution. — T. B. 
Scannel : The Internuncio at Paris during the Revol. — L'Abbe' de Broglle: Le Present et 
PAvenir du Catholicisme en France (n corrective to Talne's views on the Church).— 
Taine's French Revol., I). U. '82. 4.— Lives of Suwarow by Spalding; de Laverne. 



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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. —1800-1815. 


274. Preparations for the Campaign. — Napoleon had securely estab- 
lished his power at home as First Consul. He appointed as ministers the 
ex -Bishop Talleyrand for foreign affairs, and Carnot for war; Fouche* re- 
mained at the head of the police. Napoleon now turned his attention to 
foreign affairs. He made overtures of peace, by personal letters, to George 
III. and Francis II. The Powers rejected them, but by doing so they played 
into the hands of Napoleon; for in the eyes of the French people he gained 
credit lor his moderation, and threw the responsibilities of a war which he 
secretly coveted, upon the allies. In view of the approachiug campaign he 
secured the peaceful submission of La Vendue by a general amnesty, full 
liberty of Catholic w T orship, and public funeral honors awarded to Pius VI. 
The remnants of the Chouan insurrection in Normandy and Brittany were 
crushed by force. Russia was detached from the Coalition. Paul I. thought 
himself badly treated by Austria and quarreled with England about the pos- 
session of Malta. On the other hand he greatly admired Napoleon's ex- 
ploits, and answered his flatteries by withdrawing from the alliance. He 
did more. The neutral Powers were angered by England's forcible search of 
neutral vessels in violation of the Armed Neutrality of 1780. At the instance 
of Paul I. the League of Armed Neutrality against England was renewed 
before the end of the year by Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia. The 
United States also signed its articles. 

275. Campaign in Italy, Marengo, 1800. — Melas, the 
Austrian commander in Italy, had defeated Massena at Voltri, and 
taken Nice. Massena was shut up in Genoa, besieged by the Aus- 
trians and blockaded by the English. So stubborn was his defense, 
that only after 15,000 persons had perished by famine, did Massena 
capitulate under the most honorable terms. Melas meanwhile ex- 
pected Napoleon to come upon him by the passes of Mont Cenis. 
But Napoleon sent only smaller detachments through those passes, 
whilst he himself led the main army across the Great St. Bernard 

13 (193) 

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THE ERA OF > T APOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

into the plains of Lombardy, and occupied Milan and other cities. 
By this daring march he took the Austriaus in the rear. Though 
caught between two fires, Melas resolved to fight. On the plaiu of 
Marengo, outside the gates of Alessandria, Melas had already won 
the field and left the command to a subordinate general when Na- 
poleon, unexpectedly reinforced by Desaix, rushed upon the unwary 
Austrians and turned defeat into victory. Crushed by the disaster, 
the octogenarian Melas consented, in the Truce of Alessandria, to 
abandon the greater part of northern Italy and to withdraw behind 
the Mincio. Thus in one battle the French regained nearly all they 
lost in 1799. Marengo gave to Napoleon an unrivaled preponder- 
ance in Europe and undisputed sway in France. 

Desaix had shortly before arrived from Egypt, where Kle"ber had sup« 
pressed a revolt, won the battle of Hierapolis with 12,000 Frenchmen against 
80,000 Turks, and conquered Egypt a second time. On the same day that 
Desaix fell at Marengo, Kllber was assassinated by a fanatical Moslem. 

276. The Campaign in Germany, 1800 — Hohenlinden. — 

Meanwhile Moreau had carried on a successful campaign in Upper 
Germany against the Austrians under Kray, and the troops of Ger- 
man princes in the pay of England. After conquering Suabia and 
Bavaria, he reached Munich in July. His campaign was interrupted 
by the Truce of Alessandria. The peace negotiations that ensued 
proved unsuccessful, because Austria refused to conclude without 
England, and England refused to extend the truce to the sea. 
Hostilities were resumed, and Moreau won in December the de- 
cisive victory of Hohenlinden over Archduke John, the Emperor's 
brother, and advanced within twelve miles of Vienna. Francis II., 
overtaken by these disasters, was compelled to conclude the separate 
peace of Luneville on the basis of the Treaty of Campo Formio. 

277. Peace of Luneville, February 9, 1801. — The Empe- 
ror recognized the Batavian, Helvetian, Cisalpine, and Ligurian 
Republics. The Rhine was established as the boundary between 
France and Germany, and the Adige as the Austrian boundary in" 
Italy. The Emperor yielded Tuscany, which Napoleon transferred 
as kingdom of Etruria to the hereditary prince of Parma, the hus- 
band of the Infanta of Spain, in reward for Spain's good offices 

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during the war. Spain in return ceded Louisiana to France. Tus- 
cany and Modena, the German princes who were losers by the treaty, 
and the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic were to be indemnified 
by German territories. 

278. Dismemberment of the Empire. — The special proposals for indem- 
nifications were drawn up by a Deputation of Delegates of the Empire. The 
actual work of its dismemberment was done by Napoleon, Alexander of 
Russia, and the king of Prussia. The shameful negotiations lasted more 
than two years, during which the ambassadors of German princes and 
princelings haunted the antechamber of the First Consul and bribed French 
ambassadors and secretaries to obtain additional slices of land. It was 
chiefly ecclesiastical territory and free cities that were sacrificed to the 
greed of both Catholic aud Protestant princes. The Catholic estates were 
robbed of 1/295 square miles and over 2,300,000 inhabitants. Of forty-eight 
free imperial cities only six were spared As a rule the indemnified princes 
gained more than they had lost in the two Coalition wars. These transac- 
tions practically put an end to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. 

279. Peace of Florence, 1801. — Soon after the Peace of 
Luneville, Napoleon, in deference to the wishes of Paul I., concluded 
the Peace of Florence with the King of Naples. The independence 
of Naples was acknowledged, but the King had to close his ports to 
English ships, to surrender his Tuscan coast line and islands to the 
kingdom of Etruria, and to maintain a division of 15,000 French in 
the gulf of Tarento. 

280. The Peace of Amiens, 1802. — In March, 1801, Paul I. was assas- 
sinated in a palace revolution, and his son Alexander I. accepted the crown 
from the hands of the murderers. In the same month an English expedi- 
tion conquered Egypt, whilst Nelson by a naval swoop upon Copenhagen 
forced Denmark to sign a truce. Alexander made up with England. The 
League of Neutrals collapsed. These events disposed Napoleon to peace. 
On the other hand the military and diplomatic successes of Marengo, 
Hohenlinden, and Luneville, the occupation by French and Spanish 
troops Of Portugal, England's last continental ally, and Napoleon's vast 
armaments for an invasion of Britain, inclined the English cabinet to come 
to terms with her formidable neighbor. The result of long negotiations, 
daring which Pitt withdrew from the cabinet, was the Peace of Amiens. 

England restored to the French Republic and her allies all the 
colonies conquered during the war except the Spanish island of 
Trinidad and the Batavian Island of Ceylon. Egypt was restored to 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

Turkey, Malta to the Order of St. John. The integrity' of Portugal 
was acknowledged. 

Books covering the whole Period, see § 1 8.— Lanfrey : History of Napoleon I. v. 1. 
Lock hart: Life of Nap. I. —0. Botta: Italy during the Consulate and the Empire of Na- 
/*>!.— C. Joyneville: Life and Time* of Alexander Glelg: Sir A. Abercromby (Em. 
Brit. Mlllt. Commanders). — Brilck : Geschichte der Kathol Eirche in Deutsckl. im 19Un 
Jahrh.-PiU*$ War Policy Q. R., '92,3. Talne: The Modern Regime, 



281. Napoleon and Pius VII. — The cessation of hostilities 
agreed upon at Alessandria enabled Pius VII., just elected at Venice, 
to repair to Rome. Against all expectations Napoleon acknowledged 
the independence of the Papal States, shorn, however, of Ferrara, 
Bologna, and the Romagna. The year 1801 witnessed the opening of 
the churches and the restoration of the Catholic worship in France. 
Knowing full well the impossibility of re-establishing civil order in 
France without the Catholic religion, and above all anxious to recon- 
cile the clergy to the new order of things and to break the last bond 
by which the ancient dynasty was still connected with the country, 
Napoleon opened negotiations with the Holy See for the restoration 
of the Church. Cardinal Consalvi was the Papal negotiator. The 
agreement, secured in 1801 only by extensive concessions on the 
part of the Pope, was embodied in the famous Concordat. 

282. The Concordat.— The free and public worship of the Catholic relig- 
ion was guaranteed, subject, however, to such police regulations, " as public 
safety might demand iu the judgment of the government." (Art. 1.) The 
136 bishoprics of France were reduced to sixty. (Art. 2.) The Pope under- 
took to induce the surviving bishops to resign their sees. (Art. 8 ) The 
First Consul exercises the right to nominate the bishops; the Pope to give 
them the canonical institution. The parish priests were to be appointed by 
the bishops with the approbation of the government; the holders of confis- 
cated church property were to remain in undisturbed possession; in com- 
pensation the government pledged itself to make suitable provision for the 
maintenance of the clergy. The Concordat met with considerable opposi- 
tion. Of the surviving bishops, forty- five immediately complied with the 
Papal request. Others remonstrated against their dispossession. In some 
places resistance led to temporary schisms. The fifty-nine constitutional 
bishops were ordered by the First Consul to give up their sees. A fierce 

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opposition arose also in the republican party chiefly in the army. Napoleon 
himself, in defiance of all treaty rights, annulled important provisions by 
publishing together with the Concordat seventy seven organic articles which 
revived Gallicanism, and forged new fetters for the Church. Rome's 
often repeated protests were ignored. 

283. The March to the Throne. — The First Consulship could never 
satisfy Napoleon's ambition. All his measures during the Consulate were 
taken with a view to prepare the way to a monarchical throne. He allowed 
the Emigres, who were willing to pledge their allegiance to him, to return 
to France. He changed the Cisalpine Republic into the Italian Republic and 
had himself elected its president. He purged the Legislative Department 
and the Tribunate of his opponents, and transferred the powers of these 
bodies to a subservient Senate. (The Tribunate was abolished in 1807.) 
A plebiscite adroitly managed elected him Consul for life by three 
and a half million votes against a few thousand, whilst a senatorial 
decree gave him the right of appointing a successor (1802). Other 
senatorial decrees abolished the Constitution of the year VIII., and 
substituted a new one (the fifth), according to which electors for life 
presented candidates for the assemblies, from among whom the gov- 
ernment chose the members, the First Consul took an active part in 
the compilation of a uniform code of civil law, the Code Napoleon. From 
this code, excellent in many regards for its legal clearness and systematic 
arrangement, the revolutionary and anti- christian doctrine of civil marriage 
and civil divorce has passed into many modern legislations. The reorgani- 
zation of the University (completed in 1808) with its State examinations, 
the official position of the teachers, the 6,400 scholarships exclusively in the 
gift of the First Consul, placed the entire system of higher education under 
the control of the State. The improvement of finance, the encouragement 
of commerce and industry, the foundations of schools of arts and of trades, 
the building of roads and cauals, all under the supervision of the First Con- 
sul, who displayed an astonishing capacity for work, revived the material 
prosperity and the national wealth of France. 

In 1803 Napoleon approached the Bourbon princes to effect a resignation 
of their rights to the throne. But Louis XVIII., then at Warsaw, spurned 
every offer. 

284. Removal of Opponents.— As early as 1800 Napoleon had seized the 
occasion of an unsuccessful Chouan conspiracy against his life to deport 130 
surviving Terrorists, not for complicity in this plot, but for their previous 
conduct. When the Concordat, and the introduction of a new decoration called 
* The Legion of Honor" roused the ire of Moreau's republican soldiers, Napo- 
leon sent 35,000 of them to San Domingo, where the negroes during the Revo- 
lution had shaken off French supremacy, to reconquer the islaud. Ouly a few 
thousand returned from the disastrous expedition. The following year the 
French royalists in England who clustered around theCouut of Artois, began to 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

pull wires with the disaffected republicans. Their plan was to strike down 
the First Consul in the midst of his guards and then to appeal to the people. 
Their chief agents were the Chouan leader, George Cadoudal and General 
IMchegru, who had escaped from Cayenne. Moreau's complicity could not 
be proved. Aware of the plot, Napoleon ordered the police to encourage 
the intriguers with a view of getting the Count of Artois iuto his power 
(1803). When all hope of seiziug the Count on French soil vanished, the 
plot was published in 1804, aud proceedings were beguu. Pichegru was 
found mysteriously strangled in his prison. Cadoudal, with eleven others, 
was executed. Moreau was banished to America for two years. To strike 
the Bourbons personally, the innocent Duke of Enghien, last heir of the 
House of Conde\ was forcibly arrested in the territory of Baden, conveyed 
to Vincenues, subjected to a mock trial at midnight, and shot before morn- 
ing. These tragedies filled Europe with consternation , reduced' the royalists 
to siience and inaction, and deprived the Republicans of their only formid- 
able leader. 

285. Napoleon I. Hereditary Emperor, 1804-1815. — 

Everything was prepared. On May 8th, 1804, the Tribunate and 
the Senate conferred the imperial title on Napoleon Bonaparte and 
his descendants. In default of a present heir the succession was 
settled on his brothers Joseph and Louis. His elevation was ratified 
by a plebiscite of over 3,500,000 votes against 2,569. He now sur- 
rounded himself with a brilliant court, in which not only the new 
nobility — revolutionists, former terrorists, regicides, dubbed with 
courtly titles — but also members of the ancient nobility, figured 
conspicuously. Eighteen generals were named Marshals of the 
Empire, and received, in the course of new campaigns, conquered 
cities as principalities and dukedoms. Napoleon invited Pius VII. 
to Paris to crown him Emperor. After long and anxious delibera- 
tions Pius VII. consented in the sole hope of promoting the interests 
of religion in France. At the coronation in Notre Dame, December 2d, 
Pius VII. anointed Napoleon I., but when he approached to crown 
him, the Emperor snatched the diadem from his hands and placed 
it on his head himself. Napoleon then crowned his wife Josephine. 

The Pope was disappointed. The organic articles remained unrepealed. 
It was even proposed to Pius VII. to fix his seat in Paris with a hint that the 
Emperor had the power to enforce his wish. The Pope calmly replied, 
" that for such an emergency his resignation was already in the hands of 
Cardinal Pignatelli; the moment he was deprived of his liberty, he would 
cease to be Pope and become once more the Benedictine monk, Barnabo 



Chiaramonti." No further obstacles were placed in the way of his de- 

The following year Napoleon crowned himself King of Italy with 
the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He then appointed Eugene Beau- 
harnais, Josephine's son of her first marriage, Viceroy of Italy, and 
annexed the Ligurian Republic, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to 

r.riick; Alzog; Darraa: Hist, of the Cath. Church.— L6on S>6c\\6: Les Origin** du 
Concordat.— C. O. Faurlel: The Last Dags of the Consulate. — M. II. Alios: Life of Pope 
Pius VII , also M.»80. 2. — R Parsons: Pius VII. Studies V. — Mad. do Rdraasat: 
Memoirs: M. *80. 8. -Letters of Mad. do Rlmasat: M. '81. 2. — About the Duke d* 
Enghien: Lanfrey, V. ch. £-10; Kd. Rev. f 89, 2. 

§ 3. 


286. The Third Coalition. — Wlrlst Paris was revelling in the festivities 
of the new order of things, another war cloud had already begun to over- 
shadow Europe. As early as 1803. a colonial war had broken out between 
England and France iu consequence of England's refusal to surreuder Malta 
to the Knights of St. Johu. This war between two neighbors soou became 
a European conflict between 1803 and 1805. England seized San Domingo 
and various colonics ceded iu the Peace of Amiens, called 300,f 00 volunteers 
to arms, and added 40,000 to the 80,000 marines already serving in the navy. 
Napoleon established a strong military encampment at Boulogue, threw an 
array into Hanover, the patrimony of George III., occupied Naples for 
refusing au alliance with him, and garrisoned the Papal cities of Ancona 
and Civita Vecchia as if they were his own. Pitt, who returned to office, 
negotiated the Third Coalition agaiust France, comprising England, Russia, 
Austria aud Sweden for the purpose of restoring the Europeau balance of 
power disturbed by Napoleou's recent aggressions in Germany and Italy. 
Prussia did not openly join the Coalition, but concluded a secret treaty with 
Russia. Napoleon had the active support of Spain, Bavaria, Wiirtembcrg, 
Baden, and some other States that had been gainers in the breaking up of 
the German Empire. 

287. Ulm and Trafalgar. — Deceived by Napoleon's feint 
against England at Boulogne, Austria began hostilities by invading 
Bavaria and dispatching Arcbduke Charles to Italy. This precipi- 
tate action was just what Napoleon most desired. Confiding in 
Masseua to cope with the Archduke, Napoleon himself directed the 
campaign in Germany. With astonishing rapidity he hurried his 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

various army corps from Boulogne, from Hanover, from the allied 
German States to the Danube, and before his designs were guessed, 
he had completely enveloped the Austrian army in Ulm, and cut off 
retreat. After several sharp encounters in which the Austrians lost 
20,000 men, General Mack was forced to surrender in his strong- 
hold with 30,000 stands of arms. The French loss did not exceed 
8,000. — The day after the evacuation of Ulm the combined navies of 
France and Spain were destroyed by the English off Trafalgar. 
Nelson fell early in the action. 

288. Austerlitz — Undeterred by this disaster, Napoleon, by 
skillfully concerting his operations with those Of his generals, pushed 
into the very heart of Austria. He entered Vienna without resist- 
ance, advanced into Moravia and established his headquarters at 
Briinn. It was here that Francis II. and Alexander I. had at last 
joined their forces. In the pitched battle fought at Austerlitz Decem- 
ber 2, " The Battle of the Three Emperors," Napoleon completely 
defeated the armies of Austria and Russia. Francis II. sued for 
peace. In a personal interview with Napoleon he concluded a truce 
which compelled him to dismiss his Russian allies. 

289. Napoleon and Prussia — To join Napoleon before Ulm, Bernadotte 
had violated the neutral territory of Anspach belonging to Prussia. Frederic 
William III. at first swallowed the affront In the fond hope held out to him 
by Napoleon of obtaining the imperial crown in case Austria were effectually 
humbled. But when the Czar joined Francis II., the King of Prussia sent 
Count Haugnitz to Napoleon with a declaration of war. The count arrived 
in the French camp on the eve of the great couflict, but was told by Napoleon 
to deliver his message after the battle. The day being wou, Haugnitz was 
among the first to congratulate the victor. Napoleon then offered Hanover, 
the heritage of George III., to Prussia. With some hesitation the King ac* 
ccpted the bribe, concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with Napo- 
leon, and ceded Anspach and Baireuth to Bavaria, and Neufchatel to Frauce. 

290. The Peace of Prcssburg, 1806. — The definite Treaty 
of Peace with Francis II. was signed atPressburg. Austria yielded 
Venice, Istria and Dalmatia to the Kingdom of Italy, the Tyrol and 
other contiguous provinces and the free city of Augsburg to Bavaria, 
her Suabian possessions to Wiirtemberg and Baden, and received the 
territory of Salzburg as a small indemnification. Bavaria and Wur- 

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temberg were made kingdoms. The peace entailed on the House of 
Austria the loss of one-fifth of its territory and of nearly all the out- 
lets to the sea. No peace was concluded by Napoleon with England 
and Russia. 

291. Additional Results of the Battle of Austerlitz. — 

(a.) Immediately after the battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon issued a 
decree from the palace of Schoenbrunn at Vienna that 44 the Royal 
House of Naples had ceased to reign." A Russo-English expedition 
which had landed at Naples, withdrew. Joseph, Napoleon's eldest 
brother, was proclaimed King of Naples, whilst the Bourbons retired 
to the island of Sicily. 

(b.) The Batavian Republic was changed into a kingdom, and 
Louis, Napoleon's third brother, proclaimed King of Holland. 

(c.) Cleve and Berg (the latter ceded by Bavaria), were joined 
into the Grand Duchy of Berg, and given to Murat, Napoleon's 

(d.) In Germany Napoleon organized the Confederacy of the 
Rhine which gradually came to include all the German States except 
Austria, Prussia, Brunswick, and electoral Hesse. It was an alliance 
under the protectorate of Napoleon, offensive and defensive in per- 
petuity. The Confederation had to furnish .the Emperor an array 
of 63,000 men. Francis I. of Austria (1806-1835) now formally 
abdicated the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. 

Napoleon at once began to arrange a number of family alliances in order 
to consolidate his power by the intermarriage of his relatives with older 
dynasties. Thus Eugene the Viceroy married a daughter of the King of 
Bavaria; J-ouis of Holland was compelled by his brother to marry Hor- 
tense, daughter of Josephine; the Emperor's brother Jerome had to 
dismiss his American wife (Miss Patterson), and marry a princess of Wiir- 

Lanfrey, 2.— Lockbart. — W. CO. Morris: Napoleon.- Lives of Pitt. - W. C. Rus- 
sell: Nelson and the Naval Supremacy of England — Capt. Mahan: Life of Nelson. — 
James-Cbamler: Naval Hist, of Great Brit. 1793-1820. — Robert A. O' Byrne: James* 
Naval Hist, epitomized in one Vol. — J. R. Becley: Lift and Times of Stein. — Bryoe : 
The Holy Roman Empire. — Oscar Browning; Queen Caroline of Naples, 1803-1806; E, 
H. R. 2. 4.— Memoirs de General Baron de Marbot, I. (Gfines, Austerlitz, Eylau.) 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. i800-1815. 



292. Causes.— " To conquer England on the Continent " was henceforth 
Napoleon's settled policy. To this end he bid Prussia close her rivers 
against England. He garrisoned half of Germany with French troops and 
allowed Mnrat to seize additional towns. He secretly prevented the forma- 
tion of the northern Confederacy under Prussia's leadership which he himself 
had proposed to Frederic William. He added the galling indignity of offer- 
ing the restitution of Hanover to England, without even consulting Prussia, 
If England would abandon the defense of Sicily. Whilst he thus treated the 
government of Prussia with unfeigned contempt, he roused the hatred of the 
Prussian people by an act of international violence, Uie seizure and execu- 
tion of a peaceful citizeu, Palm, at Nuremberg, for publishing an attack 
against him. Prussia's King, with his habitual indecisio^ was still nego- 
tiating in Paris and arming at home, when Napoleon appeared in Germany. 
Prussia had only two allies, distant Russia, which voluntarily offered her 
aid, and Saxony, which was coerced into cooperation by a Prussian invasion. 
The Cabinet was undecided. England, angered at the annexation of Han- 
over, kept aloof. 

293. Jena and Auerstadt, 1806. — Tbe Prussian array con- 
centrated on the Saale in Thuringia under the Duke of Bruns- 
wick. The commander had grown old ; the army was badly drilled ; 
the officers, arrogant and insubordinate, overrated their own 
strength and underrated that of the French. They were quickly 
undeceived. The Prussian advance under Prince Ludwig Ferdinand 
was defeated by the French at Saalfeld (October 10), the Prince 
himself killed. Napoleon now crossed the Saale, and by blowing up 
the magazines of Naumburg announced to the King of Prussia that 
he was in his rear. The decisive battle — the double battle at Jena and 
Auerstadt — was fought October 13. Napoleon's heavy artillery being . 
yet thirty-six hours in the rear, he planted his light guns on a rock 
which the Prussians had deemed inaccessible, and which commanded 
the battle field. Tl\e impetuosity of Murat's cavalry broke up the 
main army of the Prussians after a brave resistance. On the road 
to Weimar the routed Prussians met their comrades fleeing from 
Auerstadt; 20,000 Prussians were killed or taken, 800 guns, 
seventy generals and sixty standards captured. The Duke of 
Brunswick received a wound in the face of which he died the fol- 
lowing month. 


The routed divisions fell an easy prey to the French pursuers. Whole 
regiments were captured by the way. Prince Eugene of Wurtenberg sur- 
rendered with 16,000 men at Halle; the Prince of Hohenlohe with 20,000 
men at l*reuzlau. The brave General Bliicher lost 4,000 prisoners at Lii- 
beck, and had to surrender on the Danish frontiers. The Prussian fortresses 
with few exceptions fell with incredible rapidity The king fled to Koenigs- 
berg followt d by the remnants of his army. 

294. The Berlin Decrees 1807. — In the flush of victory and power 
Napoleon issued his famous 44 Berlin Decrees/' by which he intended to deal 
a deadly blow to English commerce All European ports were closed to 
British trade, all English goods were confiscated wherever fouud; all 
Englishmen that could be seized were made prisoners of war. This u Con- 
tinental System," could not, however, be well maintained. It affected the 
personal comforts of millions Smuggling, bribery, evasions of every sort, 
practiced or connived at by officials high and low, not excepting Napoleon's 
brothers, frustrated its efficiency 

295. The Russian Campaign — Eylau and Friedlancl, 

1807. — In the meantime the Russians were collecting on the banks 
of the Vistula. By way of preparation for the impending struggle, 
Napoleon levied heavy contributions of men and money in the con- 
quered provinces. He concluded an alliance with the Elector of 
Saxony, who joined the Rhenish Confederacy as King of Saxony. 
By appeals to their patriotism and by numerous proclamations he 
called the Poles to arms, and was received by them with indescribable 
enthusiasm, though he gave them no formal promise of liberation. 
Leaving Murat at Warsaw, Napoleon crossed the Vistula and pursued 
the Russians who retreated to Pultusk. Here several bloody engage- 
ments were fought. The severity of the season, however, soon 
forced the parties to seek winter quarters. Early in February, Napo- 
leon was stirred out of his winter quarters by Russians under Ben- 
ingsen, marching from Koenigsberg to the relief of Danzig and other 
forts still held by the Prussians. Napoleon met the united Russians 
and Prussians on the frozen plains of Eylau in a murderous two days' 
battle (October 7 and 8). The Prussians defeated the right wing of 
the French under Davoust, but Napoleon remained master of the 
battlefield and stayed long enough to see the enemy withdraw 
toward Koenigsberg, whereupon he returned into winter quarters. 
Operations being resumed in May, Danzig, in spite of its brave 
resistance, was captured by the French. After various maneuvers the 


THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

decisive blow was struck at Friedland on the Aller, June 14. By bis 
masterly movements Napoleon drew the whole Russian army from 
their sheltered position on the eastern bank to the western, where 
they were at his mercy. In broken columns the Russians retreated 
to the Niemen. 

296 The Meeting of Tilsit. — On June 21st Beningseu demanded and 
obtaiued a truce. Ou the 25th the Emperors of Frauce and Russia met on a 
raft moored in the Niemen near Tilsit. The two sovereigns seemed to pass 
in a moment from open war to the most friendly relations. The import of 
their long private interview has never been revealed, but there is little 
doubt that they virtually divided Europe between themselves; Alexander 
leaving a free hand to Napoleon as to Spalu, Portugal and England, whilst 
he was to count on equal forbearance in the North aud in Turkey. To save 
appearances King Frederic William was then invited to an interview and 
also to the Treaty of Peace, but was treated with cold civility. 

297. Peace of Tilsit between France and Russia, July 7 ; 
between France and Prussia, July 9, 1807. — (a.) The eastern 
cessions of Prussia, Including whatever Frederic II. had annexed in 
the second and third Partitions of Poland, were erected into the Grand 
Duchy of Warsaw and bestowed on the King of Saxony, except 
Danzig which became a free city, and a part of West Prussia which 
was ceded to Russia. 

(b.) Russia recognized the Napoleonic kings and the Confederacy 
of the Rhine, which now included all Germany save the Austrian, 
Prussian, and Danish lauds. In a secret treaty Alexander ceded the 
Ionian islands to France, and concluded a defensive and offensive 
alliance with Napoleon against England in case the latter should 
reject the proffered peace. 

(c.) The western cessions of Prussia, the lands between the Elbe 
and the Rhine were placed at Napoleon's disposal, and were, with a 
few exceptions, united into the kingdom of Westphalia and given to 
Jerome Bonaparte, Napoleon's youngest brother, the seventh king 
created by the conqueror. Prussia had to reduce its army to 
42,000 men and to join the Continental System until the conclusion 
of a peace with England 

By a supplementary treaty at Kocnigsberg it was settled that the French 
would continue to occupy the Prussian provinces and fortresses until Prussia 
should have paid her war indemnities in full. Prussia placed the arrears at 

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19,000,000; the French demanded 120,000,000, and in 180S, 140,000,000. 
Until evacuation occurred, Prussia, reduced to one half of her size, had to 
support 140,000 French troops. Prussia employed the time of her weakness 
and humiliation to reform her administration and army. The patriotic 
Baron von Stein freed industry, abolished serfdom, aud reformed the man- 
agement of public finances. Bcharnhorst quietly reorganized the army on 
the basis of universal military service without iucreasiug the active strength 
of the army beyond the number allowed by Napoleon. For as soon as a batch 
of recruits were sufficiently drilled, they were quietly sent home aud replaced 
by others. 

Lanfrey, v. 3-4. — Lockhart. — Marbot: Memoirs. — Seelcy'8 Stein. — Minister v. Stein, 
E. K„ '56, 1. — Seelcy : Prussian History; Macmillan's Mag. v. 36, p 342.— Rambaud: Hist, 
of Rtusia.— Rose : Nap. and Engl. Commerce, E. U. '3, 4.— Text of English Orders in Council 
and Decrees, In Levi : Hist of British Commerce — Nap. and Alex Q. R. '93, 4. — Albert 
Vandal: Napoleon and Alexandre J., vol. 1. V Alliance Russe. 



298. Napoleon and the Smaller States. — Denmark had been summoned 
by Napoleon to join the Continental System. In retaliation England sent a 
powerful squadron to Copenhagen and without a declaration of war bom- 
barded the city for three days, and carried off tiie Danish fleet. This un- 
warranted action had the result of driving Denmark into Napoleon's arms, 
whilst it furnished Russia with a plea to declare war against England 
according to the secret understanding at Tilsit, aud to occupy Finland. 

In Italy the Kingdom of Etruria was taken possession of by Eugene the 
Viceroy, because English merchandise had been allowed to enter Leghorn. 

299. Spain and Portugal. — Portugal had refused to sub- 
mit to the Berlin Decrees. To coerce it Napoleon desired the co- 
operation of Spain. Spanish affairs at this junction were in a most 
deplorable condition. Charles IV., the King, was a weakling; bis 
dissolute Queen was swayed by her favorite, the upstart Godoy, 
" the Prince of Peace." The Infante Ferdinand, the heir to the 
throne, was leagued with the malcontents against his parents and 
their hated minister. The distracted state of things afforded Napo- 
leon an easy means of subduing not only Portugal, but Spain as 
well. He lured Godoy into his toils by making him party to a 
scheme of dividing Portugal between themselves and the Queen of 
Etruria, whom he had just deprived of her kingdom in Italy. Ac- 
cordingly in November, 1800, a French anny. under Junot, reinforced 

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TOE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

by a Spanish contingent, entered Portugal.. A few hours before 
Junot appeared before Lisbon, John of Braganza, regent for his in- 
sane mother, Maria, sought safety on English ships, and with the 
royal family and treasures embarked for Brazil. Disgusted with 
the cowardice of the royal house, the people suffered Junot to 
take capital and kingdom almost without protest. Napoleon now 
ignored his stipulated partition with Godoy, and simply decreed that 
the House of Braganza had ceased to reign. 

300. The Acquisition of Spain. — Soon after 100,000 French- 
men under pretext of guarding the coasts against England, entered 
Spain, seized, in a friendly country, all the strong places within their 
reach, and by a concentric movement pushed their way towards 
Madrid. A suspicion that the King and Queen were preparing to 
leave the country caused an insurrection at Aranjuez. Godoy was 
captured by the infuriated populace, but succeeded in effecting his 
escape. In his fright, Charles IV. abdicated in favor of his son, 
Ferdinand VII. While this home revolution was going on, the 
French under Murat entered Madrid. Through his agents Napoleon 
now persuaded Charles IV. to retract his abdication as obtained by 
force. He next succeeded in enticing the royal pair, their sons, 
Ferdinand and Don Carlos, and the Prince of Peace, to Bayonne, 
where amid disgraceful scenes of family rancor he compelled them to 
resign in his favor the throne of Spain. Only Don Carlos absolutely 
refused to surrender his rights. The royal heads received in compen- 
sation a few castles and a yearly pension of 10,000,000 francs to be 
paid out of the Spanish taxes. Joseph Bonaparte was proclaimed 
King of Spain, whilst Murat took his place as King of Naples. 
By rousing the mortal resistance of a patriotic nation Napoleon 
embarked in an enterprise which ultimately led to his downfall. 

301. The Rising of the Spaniards and Portuguese. — The 

Spaniards everywhere rose almost simultaneously, nobles, peasants, 
citizens, monks, priests, soldiers, vied with each other in patriotic 
zeal. All partisans of Napoleon and Godoy, French residents and 
soldiers, single or in detachments, were cut down without mercy. 
Self-organized bodies or juntas assumed the conduct df affairs in 
most cities and provinces, seized arsenals, armed the population and 

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decreed levies en masse. The array before Valencia was forced to 
retreat. At Baylon Dupont was beaten and capitulated with 20,000 
men. This defeat necessitated the evacuation of Madrid and the 
flight of King Joseph. The siege of Saragossa, heroically defended 
by the citizens under Jose Palafox, had to be raised. The French 
armies retreated to the Ebro. Portugal had followed the example 
of Spain. English aid was sought and obtained. 

302. The English in the Peninsula. —In August, 1808, 
14,000 English under Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wel- 
lington, landed at Oporto in Portugal. Junot advanced as far as 
the Torres Vedras to drive him back into the sea, but was defeated 
at Vimiero. By the Convention of Cintra the French army had to 
evacuate the whole of Portugal. English ships conveyed them with 
arms and baggage to French harbors. 

303. The Meeting at Erfurt — Napoleon hearing of the reverses in 
Spain and Portugal perceived that his own presence there was necessary. 
The disasters sustained by his armies had produced an indescribable sensa- 
tion throughout Europe. Austria openly refused to acknowledge Joseph as 
King of Spain and was arming secretly. All over Germany secret societies 
(the " Tugendbund >\) were forming for the purpose of driving out one day 
their foreign oppressors. Napoleon arranged a meeting with Alexander I. 
at Erfurt to show Europe the strength of his influence and to iutimidate 
Austria. The Emperor of Russia, four kings, and thirty-four ruling princes 
paid homage to the conqueror. In the Treaty of Erfurt Alexander engaged 
to co-operate with Napoleon against England and Austria, while Napoleon 
undertook to support Alexander should Austria oppose the Russian occupa- 
tion of the Danube Principalities. 

304. Napoleon's Spanish Campaign. — Having detailed two 
fresh levies of 80,000 men each to serve in Germany and Italy, 
Napoleon crossed into Spain, whither he had already dispatched over 
200,000 veterans. At Vittoria, disdaining the palace prepared for 
him, he alighted at the first roadside inn, called for maps and re- 
ports, and within two hours drew up his plan of attack. Three 
Spanish armies of 100,000 men had formed a wide crescent resting 
on the French frontiers. First the Spanish left was broken after a 
few fierce onslaughts. Next the combined armies of the center at 
Tudela were scattered to the winds. Then detailing Marshal Soult 
to keep the English in check, Napoleon made for Madrid. In pass- 

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THE BRA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

ing through the almost inaccessible defiles of Somosierra he was 
stopped by a corps of 12,000 men. Napoleon himself rode up into 
the mouth of the pass to scan the situation ; seeing that his infantry 
would be useless, he directed his Polish lancers to storm the batteries 
and to clear the way. Madrid had prepared for a vigorous defense, 
but was reduced after a siege of twenty-four hours. The victor 
proclaimed a general amnesty with but a few exceptions, and by a 
number of decrees suppressed the feudal rights, the Inquisition, the 
custom house duties between the provinces, and one-third of the 
monasteries. He then turned against Sir John Moore, who had 
landed with 33,000 men in Portugal and crossed into Spain. But 
seeing the English in retreat, he left them to Soult; Moore's retreat 
to Corunna became an undisciplined rout. But at Corunna the En- 
glish stood at bay and gave battle to Soult with the result that they 
secured their embarkment for England . Moore fell mortally wounded 
in the action which repelled the French attack on all hands. 
Napoleon, meanwhile, returned to Paris before he had obtained a 
lasting victory. The Emperor of Austria in distrust of Napoleon's 
promises was preparing for war to prevent being swallowed up by 
the Conqueror. 

Saragossa fell in the second siege, February, 1809, after losing 50, 000 men 
in the two sieges. Palafox, its heroic defender, was retained a prisoner till 
the Emperor's fall. The sonth of Spain remained practically un conquered. 

Lanfrey v. S.— Lockhart. — B. Sonthoy: Hist, of the Peninsular War. — H. R. Clinton ; 
Gen. Foy ; Napier: Hist, of the War in the Peninsula. — F. Hamilton : Annals of the Penins. 
Campaign.— Wellington in the Peninsula; Q. E. '67, 2 — Lives of the D. of Wellington, by 
Brlalmont-Gleig; Hooper; Maxwell; Morris (Oreat Commanders); Roberts: (Rise of 
W.)\ 8tacqueler; Williams; Wilson: (Illustr. Soldiers). — Rose: Channing and Den- 
mark in 1807: E. H. B. 11. 1. - Wellington's Milit. Career: E. R. 38, 4; 39, 8; »59, 3. 
62, 3. — Gen. Marbot. E. B. 92. 1. 



305. Declaration of War. — Austria declared war April 6, 1809. The 
rising of the Spaniards had encouraged Francis I. to attempt the recovery 
of his lost possessions and to extricate himself from his perilous position 
between two powerful foes, France and Russia. The country answered his 
appeal with patriotic eagerness. Hundreds of thousands flocked to the 
Ilapsburg standard. The linn garianS; roused to enthusiasm by the Empress, 

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sent 12,000 horsemen aud 50,000 infantry. The people brought their cash 
and their gold and silverware to cover the expenses. Archduke Charles, 
who had reorganized the army, headed the main corps and invaded Bavaria. 
A second army, under Archduke John, entered Italy and reckoned on the 
support of the Tlrolese. A third army under Archduke Ferdinand operated 
against Russia by invading Poland and taking Warsaw. 

306. The Campaign on the Upper Danube. — Napoleon 
assumed the conduct of the war in Germany at the head of 800- 
000 men. His military genius never appeared more fertile in 
resources than during the five days' battles in which, whilst rej)eat- 
edly rectifying the blunders of his generals, he first defeated then 
utterly routed the advance corps of Archduke Ludwig at Thaun, 
Abensberg, Eckmuhl and Landshut, broke through the Austrian 
center held by 100,000 under Archduke Charles, drove the fugitive 
troops out of Ratisbon, and pushed the broken corps of the enemy 
across the Danube and into Bohemia. Massena defeated the last 
Austrian army that obstructed the way to Vienna, and Napoleon 
appeared before the walls of the capital May 9, and received its 
capitulation May 10th, after Archduke Maximilian had evacuated 

• the city. For the second time the Emperor of the French established 
his headquarters at the Imperial palace of Schoenbrunn. 

307. Napoleon's First Defeat at Aspern and Essling, May 
21 and 22. — In Bohemia Archduke Charles promptly reunited 
and recruited his armies, and recalled Ferdinand from Poland, and 
John from Italy. Thus reinforced he advanced again to the Danube 
opposite Vienna. To give him battle Napoleon transferred his men 
to the island of Lobau and thence by a bridge of boats to the left 
bank, and occupied the villages of Aspern and Essling. Confident 
of victory the Austrians rushed to the attack. For two days the 
battle raged with unabated fury and gallantry on both sides ; 
50,000 dead strewed the field. In the second night Napoleon deemed 
it prudent to recross to Lobau to save his communication with 
Vienna. It was his first defeat. Archduke Charles had won the 
field, but his heavy losses prevented him from pursuing his advan- 

308. Wagram, July 5th and 6th. — Napoleon's situation had 
become critical. His absence and his defeat were animating the 


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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

risings of the subjugated peoples. Only a decisive victory at Vienna 
could restore his prestige in the distance. Hence with indefatigable 
activity he fortified his position at Lobau, accumulated forces from 
all quarters and constructed a series of open bridges and hidden 
floats, whereby to cross the Danube en masse. On July 4th, Napo- 
leon made a great feint to cross on the open bridges. While the 
Austrians in their strong redoubts were alert to dispute the passage, 
Napoleon under cover of the following night threw his floats and rafts 
across the river lower down and before dawn had flanked the enemy 
and rendered their entrenchments useless. On July 6th, the two 
greatest hosts of modern times, 350,000 disciplined soldiers, met on 
the plain of Wagram in murderous strife. Napoleon won the day. 
The Austrians retreated to Moravia ; at Znaim a truce was signed 
with a view to a definite peace. 

309. English Enterprises In Spain and Holland. — The peace negotia- 
tions were retarded because both parties waited for the outcome of two 
English expeditions, one to Spain, aud one to Holland. Marshal Soult had 
meanwhile conquered Portugal as far as Oporto. Here he was surprised 
by Wellesley and forced to evacuate the kingdom. Wellesley advanced 
toward Madrid with 50,000 English and Spanish soldiers, and defeated King 
Joseph at Talavera. The victory made him Viscount Wellington. The 
massing of French troops in his rear, however, caused his precipitate retreat 
Into Portugal. The second English expedition of Learly 1 ,000 vessels carry- 
ing 40,000 men landed in the island of Walcheren. The capture of Flushing 
was the only exploit of the armament which ended in complete failure. 
The retreat of Wellington and the failure of the Walcheren expedition 
brought the peace negotiations to an Issue. 

310. The Peace of Vienna. — The Peace of Vienna was con- 
cluded on the basis of population. Austria ceded a population of 
1,500,000 on the frontiers of Italy and Dalmatia to Napoleon ; a 
population of 2,000,000 souls in Galicia to be divided between 
Saxony and Russia. Saxony received the lion's share, the Duchy 
of Warsaw and all West Galicia, whilst only one district of East 
Galicia went to Russia. This division, suggesting a possible revival 
of Poland, roused the suspicions of Alexander I. The territory 
ceded by Austria amounted to 32,000 square miles. The lands ad- 
jacent to Illyria together with the Ionian Islands were formed by 
Napoleon into the new State of the Illyrian Provinces, under Mar- 

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shal Marmont as Duke of Ragusa. Napoleon thus completed the 
connection of Italy with his Illyrian possessions, obtained the entire 
coast of the Adriatic and stripped Austria of her last seaport. The 
Emperor was now at the summit of his power (1810-12). Holland 
was annexed to France after the abdication and flight of King Louis, 
who had refused to ruin his country by the Continental System. The 
annexation to France of the Hansa towns, a part of Germany and 
Switzerland, swelled the number of the French departments to 130. 

311. The Rising of the Tyrolese 1809-10 — When opening the campaign, 
Archdnke Charles had summoned the German people to take part in the 
struggle against French supremacy. The Tyrol alone under the patriotic 
leadership of A ndrcas Hofer answered the summons by a general rising. The 
mountaineers seized the passes of the Alps. In a few days they cleared the 
country of every French and Bavarian soldier. They repelled a French 
invasion under General Lefevre and in their turn iuvaded Bavaria, all with- 
out the aid of any regular troops. Left to the mercy of Napoleon in the 
Peace of Vienna they continued the war with heroic courage, but were in 
the end subdued by superior numbers. Andreas Hofer was captured, and 
shot by the French at Mantua. The Tyrol was divided between Bavaria, the 
kingdom of Italy and the Illyrian provinces. 

312. The War in the Peninsula. — From the victorious field of the 
Danube, Massena, now Priuce of Essling, was sent to Portugal, where at 
the head of 100,000 men he operated agaiust the 50,000 English and Por- 
tuguese under Wellington. The English commander retreated to the Torres 
Vedras where he entrenched himself in an unassailable position, and secured 
Lisbon and the adjacent territory agaiust all attacks. The next spring 
(1811) Wellington defeated Massena, and once more drove the French out 
of Portugal. In Spain the guerrilla war continued, all the principal for- 
tresses save Cadiz and Valencia were in the hands of the French, but they 
could not count an inch of soil their own beyond the outposts of the forts. 
The nation was unsubdued. After the deliverance of Portugal, Wellington 
in 1812 captured the cities of Ciudad Roderigo and Badajoz, won the battle 
of Salamanca, and entered Madrid. The superior strength of the French 
forces, however, compelled him to fall back upon Ciudad Roderigo. 

313. The Spanish Constitution of 1812 The French 

Revolution, the rotten administration of Godoy, and the demoraliza- 
tion caused by the civil war, greatly changed the political views of 
large sections of the Spanish people. When the Cortes were sum- 
moned to Cadiz in 1810 to replace the incapable Central Juuta, the 
majority of its members were enthusiastic adherents of popular 

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— 1800-1815. 

sovereignty. In endless deliberations they worked out the misshapen 
Constitution of 18 12. In it the Cortes declared themselves independent 
of the King who could neither summon, prorogue nor dissolve them. 
A law passed in three successive sessions did not require royal 
assent. If the King married or left the country without the consent 
of the Cortes, he was considered as having abdicated. A Council of 
State chosen from candidates presented by the Cortes had the 
appointment of the judges and the ecclesiastical dignitaries. The 
ministers were in the minutest details of their departments subject 
to the supervision of the Cortes. The only clause which connected 
Spain with its historical past, was the recognition of the Catholic 
religion as the religion of the State. This Constitution was the work 
of revolutionary doctrinaires. It did not represent the conviction of 
the people. It plunged Spain into endless civil wars. By refusing 
active and passive representation to the Spaniards living in the 
colonies it contributed to the subsequent separation of the American 
colonies from the Spanish crown. 

Lanf rey, v. 3-4. — Kelly : Jlitt. of the House of Austria (Continuation of Coxe). — J. 
O. Rope's Lectures (4) on the First Nap. — Seeley's Stein, — 0. K. Hall: Life of Andrew 
Hofer. — Memoirs of A. Hofer. — Hi»t. of A. Hofer, Quarterly Rev., July, 1S17. — Ike 
Tyrolese in 1809, E. E. '27.- About Spain, see § 5, also. Gen. Vane: Story of the 
Penins. War. —Gen. Jones : Journal of the Sieges in Spain, — Marbot's Memoirs, vol. II. 
Madrid Essling Torres Vedras. 

314. The Prisoner of the Quirinal. — The grasping ambition of Napoleon 
brought him iufo early couflict with the Sovereign Porftiff . Where he could, 
Pius VII. yielded for the sake of peace, but on questions of right and prin- 
ciple, he was inflexible. The common Father of Christendom, the guardian 
of Christian morality and of the Patrimony of St. Peter could not join 
the Continental System, nor sanction the spoliation of Naples, nor regard 
Napoleon's foes as his own; he could not resign the papal right to Ancona; 
above all he could not give his sanction to the civil marriage and divorce 
laws of the Code Napoleon, aud to the Galilean liberties, nor could he com- 
ply with Napoleon's demand to solve the bonds of matrimony between 
Jerome Bonaparte and his lawful American wife. To intimidate Pius VII. 
Napoleon in 1808 ordered General Miollis to occupy Rome. In dignified 
reply the Pontiff declared that pending the occupation he would consider 
himself a prisoner in the Quirinal and decline all negotiations. During this 



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fli>t year of his captivity, Pius VII. had to witness unheard of violences 
iu his dom'nions Napoleon as " successor of Charles the Great" revoked 
the donations of Pipin and Charles, and annexed the Duchies (Ancona, 
Urbino, Macerato and Camerino) to the kingdom of Italy. Cardinals an I 
bishops were banished, papal officials arrested, papal subjects sentenced to 
death. Napoleon demanded the suppression of the religious orders, the 
abolition of celibacy and the erection of a French Patriarchate. Nothing 
was left the Pontiff but to address an Encyclical of protest and remonstrance 
to the Catholic world. 

315. Destruction of the Papal States, 1809. — May 17, 

1800, Napoleon issued his decree from the palace of Schoenbrunn 
which transformed the Papal States into French Departments, made 
Rome the second city of the Empire, and assigned to the Pope a 
salary of 2,000,000 francs and the possession of his palaces. On 
June 10, whilst the cannon of St. Angelo announced the end of the 
Papal government, Pius VII. signed a Bull of excommunication 
against Napoleon and his agents without mentioning names. Na- 
]>oleon made light of it. Even before tbe Bull was issued he wrote 
to tbe Viceroy: 44 What does Pius VII. expect from denouncing me 
to Christendom? Does he imagine that their arms will fall from the 
hands of my soldiers? " On the night of July 5, General Radet in 
pursuance of his orders, surrounded the Quirinal, scaled the walls, 
forced the doors and disarmed the Swiss guard. Axe in hand he 
entered the room where Pius VII. with Cardinals Consalvi and Pacca 
awaited him, and demanded the immediate abdication of the Pope as 
temporal ruler. The Pope firmly refused. Thereupon Pius VII. 
accompanied only by his secretary Pacca, was conducted to a travel- 
ing carriage, and removed from his capital. The same night, in 
spite of the watchfulness of the French soldiery, the Bull of excom- 
munication and the farewell address of Pius VII. to the Roman 
people were affixed to the doors of the chief basilicas. The captive 
Pope was conveyed under a military escort to Florence, to Turin, 
thence to Grenoble in France and back to Savona. Here Cardinal 
Pacca was separated from the Pontiff and confined in the Alpine 
fortress of Fenestrella. 

316. Napoleon's Divorce. — As early as 1706 Napoleon had 
contracted a civil marriage with the widowed Josephine de Beau- 
harnais. The marriage was most probably a valid union because in 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

1796 the recourse to a legitimate parish priest prescribed by the 
Council of Trent was morally impossible. At the urgent solicitation 
of Josephine, Cardinal Fesch performed a secret ecclesiastical cere- 
mony on the eve of Napoleon's coronation (Dec. 1, 1804) to which the 
Emperor assented for the sole purpose of appeasing the scruples of 
his wife. This ceremony had no influence on the original marriage, 
for in spite of this outward consent Napoleon was resolved not to 
bind himself by the new ceremony. As Emperor of the French he 
desired above all to have a lineal descendant, and Joseplune was 
childless. Having now, in 1809, reached the pinnacle of his power, 
he considered the time arrived to sacrifice Josephine and to seek the 
hand of Maria Louisa, daughter of Emperor Francis I. The Senate 
granted the civil divorce without difficulty Dec. 10, 1809. But the 
court of Vienna demanded an ecclesiastical decision about the 
former marriage. The only competent authority to give the decision 
in the case was the Pope. But Napoleon did not dare to submit the 
question to his prisoner. Accordingly he laid the case before a 
church court called the Officiality of Paris. But as this court was 
incompetent and its decision dictated not by canon law but by abject 
servility to the Emperor, the divorce thus obtained was void of legal 
force. It served, however, its purpose of calming the consciences 
of the court of Vienna and its compliant Archbishop. 

Napoleon invited the bishops and ordered the Cardinals to repair to Paris 
in order to adorn by their presence the celebration of bis victories and of 
his marriage with the Habsburg princess. Consaivl and twelve other Car- 
dinals absented themselves from the marriage festivities; in revenge 
Napoleon confiscated their property, sent them into exile, and forbade them 
to wear the insignia of their office. Hence the distinction between Black 
and Red Cardinals. 

317. The Prisoner of Savona, 1800-1812. — Napoleon found iu the 
patience and gentleness of Pius VII. an insurmountable obstacle to 
his plans. Though he cut down the number of bishoprics, suppressed 
the. monasteries, seized the property of the prelates who rejected the 
Organic Articles, filled the dungeons of Fenestrella with churchmen, put 
the Pope himself on a prisoner's allowance and compelled him to live 
three years almost entirely on alms, Plus VII. could not be induced to 
infringe the laws of the Church. He refused to install the bishops unlaw- 
fully appointed by the Emperor. Napoleon next tried to work his will 
through a National Council, 41 My Council." This Council, dragooned into 



obedience, empowered the Metropolitan to install the newly appointed 
bishops, if the Pope would not do it within six mouths. Tius VII. con- 
sented to this decree, provided the installation be performed in the name 
of the Pope alone* Thereupon Napoleou declared in high dudgeon that he 
would henceforward institute bishops without any papal interference, and 
dissolved the Council without ceremony. 

318. The Prisoner of Fontalnebleau. — In 1812 Napoleon ordered Pius 
VII., though he was dangerously sick, to be conveyed iu disguise to Fon- 
taiucbleau. Here Pius VII. encountered the last storm of persecution, face 
to face with the persecutor, and after some paluful wavering energetically 
condemned the aggressions of Napoleon. Before long, however, the ruling 
of a Higher Power decided the contest. Whilst Napoleon was on the way 
to his Urst exile, Plus VII. made his triumphal progress through Italy to 

Chev. O'Clery: Hint, of the Italian Revol. ch. 2. — M. H. Allies: Life of Pope Pius 
VII — R Parsons: The Pontificate of Pius VII ; The Pretended Divorcee of Nap. 
and Jerome B >naparte, Studies v 5. — Memoirs of Card. Pacca, Consalvi, Talleyrand (v. 
2).— H. W. WilberfArco: The Church and Napoleon I.; Pius VII. at Savona and Fan- 
tainebleau {the Church and the Empires). — II. Cbotard: Le Pape Pie VII. a Savonc. — 
On Nap. Divorce also Henri Wclchlnger. — Scannel: Pius VII. at Savona, D. R. '87. 3.— 
Dnbr, S. J : Ehescheidung u. Zweite Ehe Nap , I. Th. Z , '8S. — Napoleons Ehescheidung \ 
M. 33 — Imbert de 8t. Amand: {Josephine) Wife of the Firtt Consul; Court of the 
Emprts*; Happy Dayn of Maria Louisa. — Memoirs of M. Louisa. — Albert Vandal: 
Napolion rt Alexandre I. Vol. II. V Alliance Russe. Le Second Mariage de Nap. 
Declin de rAlhance. 

319. Causes. — Alexander I. saw in Napoleon's family alliance 
with Austria a menace to his sovereignty in the North. The ex- 
tension of the territory of Warsaw with an independent Poland 
looming in the distance deeply rankled in his mind. Besides the 
Continental System weighed heavily on Russia's commerce. Then 
the annexation of the coast of Gennany together with the Duchy of 
Oldenburg increased his disaffection, for Oldenburg had been guaran- 
teed in the Peace of Tilsit to Alexander's brother-in-law. In this 
frame of mind he demanded the evacuation of Prussia by the French 
armies. This demand was interpreted by Napoleon as a declaration 
of war. Forthwith he summoned his royal vassals, among them the 
Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia, to Dresden, to make 
sure of their support. 

This undertaking indicates an ambition bordering on madness. Alexan- 
der's grievances were easy of settlement by diplomacy. The distauce and 




THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

climatic rigor of the seat of war, the difficulties of provisioning the army, 
the necessity of carrying on two wars at the same time, and the restlessness 
and hatred of the subdued nations whom he wonld have in his rear, were 
strong reasons to induce him to find a peaceful solution of the difficulties. 
But his mind was fixed. As if driven by a pursuing fatality he rushed into 
his destruction. 

3 20. Armaments and Preparation. — France, Italy, Germany, Switzer- 
land, Holland, and Poland had to yield their levies in the aggregate of about 
550,000 men; 20,000 Prussians under York and 80,000 Austrlans under 
Schwarzenberg formed separate corps but displayed little activity through- 
out the campaign. On the other hand, Sweden broke loose from France, 
concluded an aggressive treaty with Russia and made peace with England 
with which it had been at war at Napoleon* s dictation. Through England's 
mediation Alexander settled his dispute with Turkey and established the 
Pruth and the Danube as southern boundaries. Thus disengaged from all 
other entanglements, the whole armed power of Russia — about 260,000 
men — was pitched against the power of Napoleon. 

321. Invasion of Russia, Battle of Borodino, 1812. — In 

June, 1812, u The Grand Army " crossed the Niemeu, and Napo- 
leon occupied Wilna in Lithuania. The Russian army accompanied 
by the peasantry constantly retreated destroying whatever they could 
not remove. The ensuing scarcity of provisions was still increased 
by the failure of the Polish Jews to fulfill their array contracts, and 
told terribly on man and beast. Still Napoleon hurried on. 
August 17 he reached Smolensk and stormed the city. But the 
retreating Russians delivered it to the flames. At last the Russians 
began to clamor for a fight. Kutusow, the new commander, took his 
stand at Borodino on the Moskwa. The shock was the most des- 
perate that Napoleon had yet encountered. On Sept. 7, over 
70,000 corpses covered the battle field. The defeated Russians 
withdrew, Napoleon pursuing them to the very walls of Moscow. 

322. The Burning of Moscow, September 16-20. — The 

city was at once deserted by all but the rabble and the convicts that 
had been restored to Uberty by the Governor, Rostopchin, before he 
departed. Napoleon took up his residence in the ancient palace of 
the Kremlin. For a short time his soldiers reveled in luxuries and 
made immense booty. But in the night of the 16th, a series of con- 
flagrations, laid by Rostopchin's agents, broke out, and raging for 
four days reduced the city with its magnificent palaces, temples, 

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and monuments of art, to a heap of smoking ruins. Napoleon's 
position became hourly more critical. His proposals for a truce 
were ignored. The Russian hosts constantly reinforced by enthu- 
siastic recruits, were thickening around him, and threatened to cut 
him off from his magazines in Poland. A reverse suffered by Murat 
finally induced Napoteon to retreat. His Grand Army had melted 
down to little over 100,000. 

323. The Retreat from Moscow. — The retreating French were followed 
and Incessantly harassed by Kutusow. Countless swarms of Kof sacks 
hung around them by day and night. The roads were everywhere incum- 
bered with abandoned artillery and booty and with the dying and the dead. 
At several places the separate corps had to engage in desperate struggles to 
check their pursuers. With November C began a season of unusually cold 
weather which increased the hardships to the Grand Army beyond descrip- 
tion The arms literally fell from the hands of the soldiers. Of those who 
had left Moscow, 40,000 effective men reached Smolensk. By his valor 
against overwhelming numbers at Krasnoy Marshal Ney earned the title of 
the "bravest of the brave " In the tragic crossing of the Berezina, Ney 
and Oudiuot with 8,500 men forced a passage against 25,000 Russians. 
From this point the flight of the French became a disorganized rout. Soon 
after the crossing of the Berezina Napoleon, hearing of a republican 
rising in France, issued his last bulletin (No. 29) and hurried post- haste 
to Paris, where he arrived unexpected December 18. The remnants of 
the army continued their precipitous retreat. Of the old Imperial Guard 
only 500 marched into Koenigsberg. According to official accounts 240,000 
bodies of the French and their allies were interred in Russia. The Russians 
claimed besides 100,000 prisoners. Schwarzeuberg, after Napoleon's de- 
parture, concluded a truce with the Russians, and General York, on his own 
responsibility, a treaty of neutrality. 

324. New Armaments. — Upon his arrival at home Napoleon 
found the republican rising suppressed and its leaders executed. Jn 
a short time he re-established his prestige, shaken by the reverses of 
his Russian campaign. By drawing regiments from Spain and Italy 
and by new levies in France he obtained an available force of 350,000 
men with which he contemplated dealing a blow to his enemies that 
would at once replace him on the pinnacle of his former power. 

E. Lebaume: Circumstantial Narrative of the Campaign in Russia. — Joynevillc : 
Alexander I. — Ram baud's Russia. — Ct. de Segur: Hist, of the Expedition to Russia.— 
J. Philippart: Northern Campaigns, 1 712-18. — Earl Stanhope : The French Retreat 
from Moscow; Hist. Essays. — K. It., *C7, 4. — Imb. de 8t. Amand: Marie Louise; De- 
cadence of the Empire. — Albert Vandal: Napolionet Alexandre /., vol. III.; La Rup- 
ture. — Henri Welch inger: Le Mare" thai Ney, 


THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 



325. New Alliances. — The year 1813 brought a great shifting of European 
alliances. The treaty of Kalish, February 3, reunited Russia and Prussia in 
a defensive and offensive alliance, which later in the year was subsidized 
by England. England and Sweden concluded a subsidy treaty, England 
pledging herself to pay 1,000,000 rix dollars, and Bernadotte, to take the 
field against his former chief with 30,000 men. Marshal Bernadotte bad 
been adopted by Sweden as crown prince, in the absence of an heir to 
Charles XIII. Frederic William III. appealed to his army and people. In 
response two armies sprang into existence; the regular army quietly re- 
organized by Scharnhorst, aud the u £andwchr ,f or volunteer corps. 
Hamburg for a short time threw off the yoke of the foreigner, but was fear- 
fully punished by Davoust for her defection. Part of the Russian forces 
entered Silesia. Many Prussiau fortresses, however, were still in French 

326. Opening of the Campaign; Bautzen. — In March, the 
Russians under Wittgenstein (Kutusow had lately died), and the 
Prussians under Bliicher occupied Dresden. The French army and 
the confederate forces concentrated in Franconia, Thuringia, and on 
the Elbe. Unexpectedly attacked by the allies at Liitzen, Napoleon 
with his old skill rearranged the position of his troops and forced 
the enemy to withdraw upon Leipsic and Dresden, and thence to 
Bautzen. After a short stay in Dresden the Emperor followed up 
the allies, stormed them out of their strong position at Bautzen, 
though with fearful loss to himself, and drove them into Silesia. 

327. The Congress of Prague and Its Consequences. — 

Austria now stepped forward as mediator. Upon her proposal, 
Napoleon granted a truce and consented to a diplomatic Congress 
at Prague, whilst military preparations continued on both sides. 
Against the advice of his ministers and generals, the Emperor of the 
French rejected all overtures of the Powers until it was too late. 
The truce ended August 10. Austria at length signed an offensive 
and defensive alliance with Russia and Prussia fop the restoration 
of the Austrian and Prussian monarchies to the condition of 1805. 
(Treaty of Teplitz, ratified September 9.) The allies supported 
by English subsidies placed three armies in the field : the Bohemian 
army, Austrians, Russians, and Prussians, commanded by Schwarzen- 

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berg, and accompanied by the three monarchs, Alexander I., Francis 
I., and Frederic William III. ; the Silesian army, Russians and 
Prussians under Bliicher ; and the Northern army, Swedes, Russians 
and Prussians under Bernadotte. These armies were grouped in a 
wide circle around Napoleon's center at Dresden. The military 
talents of General Moreau, who had returned from his American 
exile, were engaged by Alexander I. 

328. Battle of Dresden, August 26-27. — Hostilities were 
reopened at once. At Grossbeeren, Oudinot and Regnier were 
defeated by Biilow who, in consequence, saved Berlin. Bliicher de- 
feated Macdonald on the river Katzbach near Wahlstadt, and there- 
by earned a marshal's staff and the title of Prince of Wahlstadt. By 
the soldiers he was dubbed " Marshal Forward." These French 
reverses were somewhat retrieved by Napoleon's last great victory 
in Germany, at Dresden. The whole army of Bohemia, 200,000 
men, had swooped down upon Dresden. But Napoleon on the first 
day checked them with smaller numbers, and concentrating mean- 
while 200,000 men, completely defeated them on the second day, 
and drove them back into Bohemia. The allies left 8,000 dead on 
the field, and 20,000 prisoners in Napoleon's hand, and lost their 
best general, Moreau. But fortune shifted again. Vendome 
while too hot in pursuit was captured with 8 or 10,000 men. A 
week later Marshal Ney in his attempt to capture Berlin was 
defeated at Dennewitz. 

320. Battle of Leipsic, October 16-19. — The next movements 
of the armies were maneuvers for position. Bavaria being guar- 
anteed its possessions, withdrew from the Confederacy of the Rhine 
and joined the allies. The allies then endeavored to unite in 
Napoleon's rear and thus cut off his retreat. To frustrate such a 
junction Napoleon concentrated his forces for a crushing blow at 
Leipsic. But he himself was crushecj beneath the overwhelming 
numbers of his enraged enemies and his power broken in this great 
battle of nations struggling for liberation. 

On the first day of the battle the allies outnumbered the French by nearly. 
100,000. To the south of the city Napoleon and his generals held their 
ground against Schwarzenberg. In the north, Marmont was driven by 

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THE EKA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

Bluchcr closer to walls of Leipsic. The second day was a day of rest. 
Napoleon offered peace to Francis I. with great sacrifices. He received 
no answer from his father- iu- law. In the evening all the allied armies, 
increased by the arrival of Heruadotte and the Russian reserves, united. 
They now stood 300,000 against 130,000 French. On the third day the 
battle raged from morning to night without iutcrmissiou. Where Xapo'eon 
commanded, the Freuch held their grouud to the end. But in the north 
Marmont and Ney who had to couteud agalust the superior forces of Bluchcr 
and Bernadotte, were suddenly crippled by the defection of 10,000 Saxons 
who in the thick of the tight turned their cannon against their comrades. 
With the wane of day Napoleon saw his last hopes vauish, and at midnight 
began his retreat. On the last day when the French were flliug through 
Leipsic the allies stormed the city. The King of Saxouy was sent a prisoner 
to Berlin. The premature blowiug up. by mistake, of the Elster bridge, 
hurled several thousand Frenchmen to a watery grave, among them the 
gallant Prince Pouiatowski, and cut off the retreat of 25^000 men who 
became prisoners of war. Napoleon, beating back his pursuers on bis 
retreat, crossed the Khiue at Mainz w ith 70,000 men, the remnants of his 
great army. He arrived in Paris November 9. 

330. Immediate Consequences. — The Illyrian Provinces 
were conquered and Italy was invaded by Austria. The kingdom 
of Westphalia and other Napoleonic creations in Germany collapsed, 
except iu a few places where the French garrisons maintained them- 
selves. The Confederacy of the Rhine was dissolved, and its mem- 
bers joined the allies. The Dutch expelled the French officials, 
Biilow conquered Holland and the House of Orange returned from 
England. Norway was separated from Denmark, which had preserved 
its alliance with France, and united with Sweden. This union was 
the price paid to Bernadotte for joining the Alliance. Mn rat, King 
of Naples, surrendered his fleet to England, and promised Austria 
his co-operation in Italy against Napoleon. 

331. The Loss of Spain, 1813. — The withdrawal of a large 
number of troops, under Marshal Soult, from Spain, in February 
1813, had considerably weakened Napoleon's hold on the Peninsula. 
In June Wellington defeated King Joseph and Jourdan, Soult's 
successor, in the battle of Vittoria. Joseph fled to France. In July 
Soult, who had returned with reinforcements, was repulsed by 
Wellington at the foot of the Pyrenees. After the Spaniards had 
taken Pampeluna in October, Wellington crossed the frontiers, 



defeated Soult on French ground and forced him to retreat to 
Bayonne. To secure himself against Spain, Napoleon released 
Ferdinand VII. from his confinement at Valencay, and acknowl- 
edged him as King of Spain and the Indies. But the Cortes refused 
to accept a peace which did not include England. Still pursuing 
Soult, Wellington, in March, 1814, occupied Bordeaux, the lirst city 
that again unfurled the standard of the Bourbons. 

Seeley'a Stein. — J. Mitchell: The Fall of Naiwleon. — Glei*: The Leipsic Campaign; 
Mem. of Prince Metternich. — J . Phillppart: Campaign in Germany and France, in 13; 
Marshal Davouet: E. It. '66, 3. — Camillc Roasset: Souvenirs du Marshal Macdonald. — 
L. de I<anzac de L&bouric: La Domination Fran<;aixc in Belgique, 1795-1814. 

§ io. 


332. Campaign in France. — The allies offered Napoleon a 
peace which would have secured the Alps and the Rhine as the 
boundaries of France. Napoleon rejected the offer and obtained 
from the Senate a new levy of 300,000 men. Under these circum- 
stances the allies invaded France with 200,000 men. Schwarzenberg 
and Bliieher defeated Napoleon at La Rothier. But when the victors 
separated to facilitate provisioning, Napoleon with astonishing bold- 
ness hurled himself on the forces of Bliieher and defeated him in 
four battles. Then turning like a flash upon the main army under 
Schwarzenberg he won the two victories of Nangis and Montereaii. 
Again the allies offered peace at Chatillon, but emboldened by his 
successes Napoleon raised his demands beyond the endurance of the 

333. The Fall of Paris, March. — In the progress of the 
war, Oudinot and Macdonald were defeated at Bar-sur-Aube, and 
Napoleon himself at Laon by Bliieher, and at Arcis by Schwarzen- 
berg. Whilst the Emperor conceived the plan of throwing himself 
in the rear of the enemy and raising the populace, the allies inarched 
directly upon Pans. Maria Louisa, the regent, with the Imperial 
Prince, " the King of Rome," fled to Blois. Marmont and Mortiers, 
defeated in the neighborhood of the city, threw themselves into the 
capital which they bravely defended for a few days. But the storm- 

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222 THK KRA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

ing of Montmnrtre, the southern outworks of Paris, by the allies, de- 
cided the fate of the capital. The marshals capitulated against free 
departure, and on March 31, the allied inonarchs and their armies 
entered the capital of France. 

334. Napoleon's Abdication. — Upon the motion of Talley- 
rand, who, in the course of a long life, betrayed every cause he had 
espoused, the Senate decreed that Napoleon and his family had for- 
feited the throne of France. The fallen Emperor was abandoned 
by his marshals at Fontainebleau, the last prison of Pius VII. 
He finally abdicated for himself and his heirs, and received 
the island of Elba as a sovereign principality and an annual 
pension of 2,000,000 francs to be paid by France. Maria Louisa, 
who was never again to see her husband, received the Duchy of 
Parma. Roth retained the Imperial title. Louis XVIII., the 
brother of Louis XVI., was placed on the throne of France. By 
his title he recognized the rights of the unfortunate son of 
his murdered brother. Louis XVIII. concluded with the allies 
the first Peace of Paris, in which France retained, on the whole, the 
boundaries of 1702. He then published a Charter which called for 
a Chamber of Peers appointed by the king, and a Chamber of Deputies 
chosen by limited suffrage, and which made of France a constitu- 
tional monarchy. 

335. Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815 — To rearrange European relations, 
the Congress of Vicuna met in September, 1814. The Emperors of Austria 
aucl Russia, the Kings of Deumark, Prussia, Bavaria, and Wurtembcrg, and 
numerous Germau princes were preseut in person. Austria, France, Great 
Britain, Prussia, and Russia, the Powers who had coucluded the Peace of 
Paris, formed a closer uuiou amoug themselves uudcr the uame: Pentarchy 
of the Great Powers. For special cases Spain, Portugal, Sweden, etc., were 
also admitted. Distinguished amoug the representatives were Metternich, 
of Austria, who presided over the deliberations, Cardinal Consalvi, the repre- 
sentative of the Holy See, Talleyrand, Wellington. But the deliberations 
were hampered by eudless dissensions among the contracting Powers. For a 
time it looked as if the peacemakers were going to war among themselves 
over the distribution of the spoils. Kussia demanded all Poland, Prussia 
all Saxony. Against these demauds Austria, France, and England concluded 
a secret alliance. The news of these quarrels and the growiug dissatisfac- 
tion in France over the new order of things inspired Napoleon with the bold 
attempt to reclaim his forfeited throne. 

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336. Napoleon's Return and the Hundred Days. — After 
a stay of ten months Napoleon left his exile at Elba on the approach 
of spring, 1815, and landed at Cannes with about 1,000 veterans. 
His advance towards Paris, unpromising at the start, soon became 
a triumphal progress. One general after the other sent against him, 
chief among them Marshal Ney, joined his standard. Louis XVIII. 
fled to Ghent. Napoleou having regained his empire without 
shedding a drop of blood re-entered the Tuileries amid the rapturous 
applause of his adherents. 

At once he applied himself to re-establish his power at home and abroad. 
He sent 17,000 men into the Vendee to check a general insurrection against 
him led by the Marquis de la Rochcjaquelein. In two months lie raised 80,000,- 
000 francs. Setting all the foundries at work he filled the arsenals and fort- 
resses, which had been stripped by the allies of 12,000 pieces of cannon, with 
complete equipments for 220,000 men. His actual force in June numbered 
200,000. In the civil organization of the country he only partly succeeded. 
Substantial citizens declined to take office or seats in the Chamber; factional 
strife ran high; the new deputies had a will of their own and evinced a 
strong determination to overrule the Emperor. In one poiut he failed 
completely, in his efforts to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Powers. 
Their representatives at Vienna on March 13 issued a declaration of out- 
lawry against hiin. The allies still retained nearly a million of men in the 
field, 700,000 of whom were at once detailed for a secoud invasion of France. 
Before the decisive campaign began, Murat, who had again declared for 
Napoleon, was defeated by the Austrians at Tolentiuo aud fled to France. 
Ferdinand was reinstated as Kiug of Naples. Appointing his brother 
Joseph as regent, Napoleou left Paris, June 12, for the Belgiau frontier, where 
he was expected by Bluchcr and Wellington. 

337. Campaign of Waterloo, June 14-18. — The plan of campaign drawn 
tip by Napoleon is universally conceded to be" the work of a military genius. 
But during these four days he was suffering from the recurrence of a 
malady which at times incapacitated him for physical and mental exertion. 
Thus several lengthy fits of drowsiness caused a series of delays in the 
operations of the army which in their aggregate ruined the campaign. 

On June 14 , Napoleon forced back the Prussians under Zietben in the 
engagement of Charleroi. On the 15 th Napoleon defeated Blucher at 
Ligny. It was Napoleon's last victory. Blucher retreated to Wavre. 
On the 16th Marshal Ney was defeated by the Prince of Orange at 
Quatre-Bras. Napoleon meanwhile sent Grouchy to engage Blucher at 
Wavre. There Grouchy fell in with a corps of Thieleman, which, by 


THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

a singular mistake, he mistook for the whole Prussian army, whilst 
Blucher was on his way to join Wellington. Under the impression 
that he had prevented the union of Wellington and Blucher, Nai>oleon 
hurled himself upon Wellington's British and German forces at 
Waterloo. By the afternoon of the 18th Wellington's troops, though 
still holding their ground, had suffered so heavily that the day was 
saved only by Blucher's arrival. The two armies uniting completely 
defeated, routed, and scattered the army of Napoleon, who withdrew 
from the battle field in a dazed condition surrounded by a square of 
his faithful guards. 

838. Napoleon* 8 Last Years — His Character — Second Restoration. — 
Napoleon reached Paris June 21st. The Chamber was in an nproar. For 
the second time Napoleon abdicated, in favor of his son. Wellington and 
Blucher entered Paris July 7, Napoleon fled to Rochefort and failing in his 
attempt to embark for America surrendered to the British admiral Hotham. 
An English man-of-war, in pursuance of the unanimous resolve of the 
allies, conveyed him to the island rock of St. Helena. Here lie lived, on 
the whole, in diguified seclusion, writing his memoirs, receiving stray 
visitors, and returning to the religious practices of his earliest youth. He 
died after receiving the last sacraments May 5th, 1821. 

Napoleou was small in stature and somewhat corpulent, his face square, 
and his smile uncommonly winning. In spite of his carelessness in dress 
and a certain awkwardness of bearing, he had a rare power of fascinating 
those with whom he came into closer contact. The greatness of his fame 
rests on his military career, his administrative genius, his providence iu 
council and untiring euergy in execution, and his almost incredible capacity 
for work. He was the idol of the army both for his personal intrepidity, 
which was of the highest order, aud for his readiness to reward merit 
wherever he saw it. In fact, the facility with which he opened splendid 
careers to talents of every kind, was a chief element of his power. This 
readiness, however, had its root in the leading trait of his character, 
Intense selfishness. Untruthfulness, duplicity, sovereign contempt for the 
most solemn obligations, public and private, became habitual with him. 
His bulletins from the seats of war were filled with exaggerations and 
falsehoods. " To lie like a bulletin," became a popular proverb. He could 
be petty, mean, fawning, or haughty, cruel, ferocious, as his self-interest 
required it. Whilst sensitive to individual misery, he was careless of 
human suffering at large and reckless of slaughter. This selfishness made 
him a despot at home and a conqueror abroad whose aim was universal 
domination. All the world, including his royal brothers, were to be the 
slaves of military France, and France, the slave of her Emperor. 

The same unbounded selfishness guided him in his dealings with the 


Church, her dignitaries and laws; they had to bend to his will, to serve his 
interests or to break in his grip. It was only whe n an overruling Provi- 
dence had sent hiiu to a solitary rock in inid-ocean, that ho was once more 
drawn to the religion which lie had so bitterly persecuted. 

Louis XVI II. wds restored to the throue. lu the second Peace of Paris 
(Nov. 20), France was reduced to the boundaries of 171)0, had to pay a war 
iudeinuity of 700,000,000 fraucs and to restore the art treasures amassed in 
Paris from almost every country of Europe. Murat, who made a reckless 
attempt to recover his kingdom by lauding in Calabria, was court-martialed 
aud shot. The fugitive Marshal Ney was captured in the south of France 
and executed December 7. 

Campbell: Nap. at Fontainebleatt and Elba. — Lamartine . Hist, of the Restoration. — 
G. Hooper: Watei loo. — Gardner : Quatre- Bras, Ligny, and Waterloo. — W. 8iborne: 
Hist, of the War in France and Belgium, 1815. — Glclg: Story of the B of Waterloo.— 
W. O'C. Morris: Tlie Campaign of 75/5 — Also E II. R ,10, 1.— Ropes: The Campaign 
of Waterloo. — Wolseley : Decline and Fall of N. — Guizot: Memoirs of My Time. — Mem. 
of Prince Talleyrand. — Licet of Talleyrand by Blennerhussct; Clarke; BicIIarg. — 
CL de las Casas: Life, Exile, and Conversations of Nap. — Montholon ; W. Forsyth: 
Hist, of the Captivity of Nap.— Nap. Memoirs, dictated at St. Helena.— It. C. Seaton: 
Sir Hudson Lowe and Napoleon. — E B O'Mcara : Nap. in Exile. — I mbcrt de St. A ma nd : 
Marie Louise; The Invasion of 1814; The Island of Elba ; The Hundred Days. — Henri 
Welchloger: Le Roi de Rome, 1811-1832. 



339. Washington and the Revolution. — The French Revolu- 
tion was at first hailed with delight by all parties in the United States. 
When, however, the anarchical elements in France grew daily bolder, 
the Federalists began to turn away. The Republicans (Democrats), 
on - the contrary, the successors of the Anti-Federalists under the 
leadership of Jefferson, clung more closely to the French Revolution 
and revived the old calumny as to the 44 monarchical " tend- 
encies of the Federalists. Washington with a firm hand prevented 
the young Republic becoming entangled with the French Terrorists, 
and issued April 22, 1793, his celebrated Proclamation of Neutrality, 
notwithstanding the violent rage of the Republican press against the 
measure. About the same time 44 citizen Genet/' the representative 
of the French Convention, appeared on our shores. From the first, 
Genet assumed the character of a master. The United States was 
to be an ally of France. He formally called upon the Republicans 
to oppose the administration under his leadership even though Wash- 


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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

ington was tit the head of it. He made use of American harbors to 
fit out privateers against England. He declared tliat the United 
States were bound by the former treaties with Franco* The ad min- 
istration answered that it was not bound by an agreement with a gov- 
ernment which the Revolution had overthrown, and maintained its 
neutrality. Washington demanded the recall of Genet and concluded 
a treaty with England in 1705 which secured to America the long 
desired evacuation of the Northwestern posts by the English. But 
these two measures increased the tension between France and 
America. Whilst the difficulty was still pending, Washington's 
second term approached its close and he established a precedent for 
the future by refusing a third term though it was offered him by all 
parties. It is one of the great merits of his administration that he 
saved the United States from complicity in the French Revolution. 
The difficulty with France came to a head under the administration 
of the Federalist, John Adams (1797-1801). During the latter 
half of 17D8, a state of war without a declaration of war existed 
between the United States and the French Directory. Whilst the Di- 
rectory ordered the seizure of American cargoes, Congress formally 
abolished the treaties with France, formed an army and increased 
the navy. Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, restored in 1790 
the friendly relations between the two countries. 

340. The Louisiana Purchase. — Spain in 1800 ceded the 
whole of Louisiana to France. Jefferson well understood the dan- 
gers threatening the Union if the mouth of the Mississippi were to 
remain in the hands of a foreign Power. His negotiations with 
Napoleon, begun in 1801, came the following year to a successful 
issue. Napoleon ceded the whole of Louisiana to the United States 
for $15,000,000. 

841. Causes of the War of 1812. — Owing to the war between Napoleon 
and England, the merchant flag of almost every belligerent save England 
disappeared from the sea, and since 1803 the carrying trade of Europe was, 
for a time, in American hands. The products of the French colonies were 
conveyed in American vessels to the United States, and then shipped to 
France as American property. England grew jealous of this thriving trade. 
She had not yet recognized the principles of the Armed Neutrality of 1780. 
Accordingly American ships were seized on the high seas aud condemned 
for carrying enemy's goods. Moreover the growth of American shipping 

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had stimulated desertions from the British service, aud these desertions led 
to the vigorous exercise of the right of search and imprisonment which was 
extended even to American waters. Although almost every deserter carried 
papers of American citizenship, yet England held that the allegiance of her 
subjects could not be transferred, aud that American naturalization was 
worthless. Thus grievances accumulated on either side. 

342. Embargo and Non-intervention. — By his Berlin Decree, in No- 
vember, 1806, Napoleon prohibited the introduction into France and her 
dependencies of British goods whether in her own ships or those of other 
nations. England retorted by an Order in Council, forbidding any trade In 
neutral vessels, unless they had first paid duties on their cargoes in some 
British port. Thereupon Napoleon, in his Milan Decree, declared every 
vessel a lawful prize that submitted to the English demands. These pro- 
ceedings placed America between two fires and well-nigh destroyed her trade. 
Unwilling to go to war, Jefferson experimented with retaliatory measures. 
First he gave his sanction to a law which proposed to defeud our harbors 
with some worthless guuboats. Then in 1807 he signed the Embargo Act 
which forbade all American vessels to U ave American ports. He had hoped 
the act would bring the European Powers to terms, but it resulted only in 
offending England and France without doing them any perceptible harm. 
The chief sufferers were the Americans themselves. Accordingly the act 
was repealed in 1809, and replaced by the Nou intercourse Act, which 
simply forbade trade with England and France. The law authorized the 
President to suspend this prohibition in favor of Great Britain or of France, 
as soon as the one or the other should desist from violatiug neutral rights. 

343. Outbreak of the War, — The whole situation was 
changed when Napoleon in August, 1810, announced his intention 
to revoke on November 1 the Decrees of Berlin and Milan, if either 
England rescinded her Orders in Councilor 4 -The United States 
caused their rights to be respected by England." The announce- 
ment was a farce from the beginning, but the Americans took it in 
all seriousness. " To cause American rights to be respected/' 
the government of Madison (1809-1817) withdrew the name of 
France from the Non-intercourse Act, and permanently broke off all 
trade with England. This measure barred the door against any 
peaceful settlement with England. Popular agitation kept alive by 
Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun and others, a new school of young 
Republican leaders, called for war with England. It was declared 
by Congress June 18, although the United States had not more than 
eighteen ships to send against England's magnificent fleet of 1,000 

228 THE ERA OP NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

344. The Lake Erie Campaign. — The ^ war opened dis- 
astrously for the United States, by the surrender of Detroit 
and Michigan, 1812. To relieve this disaster, General Harrison, 
who had ended an Indian war in the Northwest by his victory 
on the Tippecanoe river (1811) was appointed commander-in-chief 
of the Western army. The splendid co-oj>eration of an American 
flotilla on Lake Erie under Captain Oliver H. Perry opened Detroit 
to General Harrison. Perry defeated Barclay's English squadron 
off Put-in-Bay island, and, reinforced by the captured ships, con- 
veyed Harrison's troops from the American to the Canada side. In 
a number of successful engagements the Americans regained posses- 
sion of Detroit and the whole of Michigan and added to it a portion 
of Western Canada. 

An attempt to invade Canada in 1812 — two abortive invasions (burning 
of Toronto and temporary capture of Fort George; which caused the Cana- 
dians to retaliate by the devastation of the Niagara frontier aud the burn- 
ing of Buffalo in 1813 — the successful defense of Fort Erie, held by the 
Americans, and young Macdonough's naval victory on Lake Champlain in 
1814, constitute the history of the campaign on the New York borders. 

345. At Sea. — While the army on the frontier was accomplish- 
ing little, the warships were winning victory after victory at sea. 
The ships built for the American navy were the best of tjicir class. 
Most of the officers, carefully selected, had received an excellent 
training in Preble's squadron before Tripoli, when the United States 
waged war with the pirates of the Barbary coast, and gained the 
freedom of the Mediterranean (1801-1805). The losses which the 
navy suffered were caused by superior forces ; only three ships were 
lost in an equal fight. But the unprecedented number of American 
victories at sea in 1812 and 13 caused a great excitement in En- 
gland, and in Europe generally. The British began to be cautious ; 
instead of seeking open conflicts, they reinforced their blockading 
squadron on the Chesapeake, and in 1814 declared a blockade of the 
whole Atlantic coast. Regular squadrons were detailed to keep a 
single American frigate cooped up in some port, whilst others landed 
raiding parties and captured a few coast towns. 

340. Destruction of Washington. — In July, 1814, an ex- 
pedition carrying 4,000 veterans of Wellington's army under Ross 
arrived from Bermuda in the Chesapeake Bay. They landed in 

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Maryland and having routed 5,000 hastily collected militia and volun- 
teers they marched upon Washington, which was then a straggling 
village of about 2,000 inhabitants, and since 1800 the national 
eapital. They burnt the capitol with its documents and congres- 
sional library as well as other buildings, public and private, and then 
withdrew to their ships. On a second landing they sacked Alexan- 
dria. General Ross fell shortly after in an unsuccessful attempt to 
capture Baltimore. 

347. Battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815. — When 
the allies had compelled Napoleon to retire to the island of Elba, 
England sent fresh forces to America. An army of 12,000 of Wel- 
lington's veterans was secretly dispatched to New Orleans. The 
defense was intrusted to General Jackson, fresh from his first cam- 
paign against the Indians of the Mississippi valley (Creek War, 
1813-14). Pakenham's English army crept up almost unopposed 
but not unobserved to Jackson's lines in the neighborhood of New 
Orleans. The Americans stood 5,000, of whom less than 1,000 were 
regulars, against 10, 000» assailants. Pakenham's attempt to storm 
Jackson's entrenchment resulted in a bloody defeat. Pakenham, 
two other generals, 2, GOO men fell on the British side, while the 
Americans had only eight killed and thirteen wounded. Lambert, 
the only remaining general, retreated hastily and abandoned the ex- 
pedition. A few days later the news arrived that peace had been 
signed at Ghent, December 24, 1814. 

348. The Peace of Ghent. — The Treaty of Ghent provided 
for Commissions to run the boundaries as determined by previous 
treaties. . The treaty ignored the causes of the war. But Great 
Britain tacitly withdrew from her opposition to the principles 
of maritime neutrality, allowed her Orders in Council to lapse and 
never again advanced the claim of search and impressment against 
the United States. 

Histories of the U. 8. - Lives of Washington. Cfc. 8, § 2 —Mc Master's History 
of the Peopleo/the V. St , v.IL-1 V.— Von Hoist: Constit. and Polit. Hist of the U. St., v. I — 
L. Rosenthal: America and France.— H. Adams: Hist, of the U. St. (Adm. of Jefferson 
and Adams). — Maclay: Hist, of the U. St. Navy. — Roosevelt: Naval War of 1812. — 
R. Johnson: Hist, of the War of 1812-15. — Soley : The Wars of the U. S. (Narrat. and 
Ciitic. Olst.) — Williams: Invasion and Capture of Washington. — Walker: Jackson and 
New Orleans. — Glelg: Campaigns of the Brit. Army at Wash, and N. Or/.— Stanley 
Lane-Poole: The Barbary Corsairs (Story of Nations Series). 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

§ 12. 


349. Spirit of the Congress — The principles which guided the delibera- 
tions at Vienna did not differ much from the policy of the Revolution or 
of Napoleon. The governments that prided themselves in their legitimacy 
respected neither historical rights, nor the just demauds of the patriotic 
people, who had voluntarily taken up arms to free the fatherland. The 
Catholic Church In Germany obtained no justice or restitution for the 
gigantic robbery committed in 1803. All that Cardinal Consalvi in the 
uamcof Pius VII. could do was to enter before Congress a solemn protest 
against this injustice. 

350. The German Confederacy. — The Holy Roman Empire 
was replaced by a loose Confederacy which secured the semblance 
of unity, but allowed, almost complete independence to the separate 
States. It numbered thirty-eight members, among them the Em- 
peror of Austria for his German provinces, the Kings of Prussia, of 
Hanover, of Saxony, who retained Dresden and about half of his 
dominions, of Bavaria, of WUrtemberg; a number of minor sov- 
ereign princes, and the free cities of Frankfort, Liibeck, Hamburg, 
and Bremen. Denmark voted in the Diet for Holstein, etc., and 
the Netherlands for Limburg and Luxemburg. The leadership natu- 
rally fell to Austria. 

351. Austria. — Austria recovered her Italian possessions, the 
kingdoms of Dalmatia and Illyria, Salzburg, the Tyrol, and Galicia. 

352. Russia. — Russia obtained the greater part of the Grand 
Duchy of Warsaw as the Kingdom of Poland, of which Alexander 
became the King, giving it a Constitution. Cracow was made a free 
State under the protection of the three conterminous Powers, Russia, 
Austria, and Prussia. 

353. Prussia. — Prussia received its former possessions in West- 
phalia and new territories on the left bank of the Rhine, the greater 
part of Saxony and the smaller part of Warsaw with the city of 
Danzig. Adding to these larger tracts a number of minor territories 
obtained in the way of exchange, Prussia was restored to a some- 
what smaller area but a larger population than it had possessed in 
1805, whilst its influence increased by the new possessions beyond 
the Rhine which brought her in contact with France. 

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354. England. — England retained Malta, Heligoland, which it 
had taken from the Danes, a portion of the French and Dutch colonies, 
and the protectorate over the seven Ionian islands. 

355. Other States. — In Spain the Bourbon dynasty was re- 
stored in the person of Ferdinand VII. The former Republic of 
Holland (minus East Friesland, which went to Hanover), and the 
Austrian Netherlands, though conflicting in religion, language, char- 
acter and material interests, were united into the one kingdom of 
the Netherlands under the Stadtholder of the House of Orange as 
King William I. Sweden retained Norway with a constitution of its 
own. By the accession of Geneva, Wallis, and Neufchatel (the 
latter under Prussian suzerainty), Switzerland was increased to 22 
Cantons, each enjoying home rule, and was declared permanently 

350. The Arrangements in Italy. — The arrangements made 
concerning Italy (with the exception of Rome and Genoa) were more 
in accordance with justice and long-standing treaties than those in 
the northern countries. The States of the Church were restored 
with two exceptions. The river Po was made the boundary between 
the States of the Church and Austria, which gave a few square miles 
of Papal territory to Austria; the territories of Avignon and 
Venaissin were assigned to France. Austria was also allowed the 
right of garrison in Ferrara and Commachio on the plea of self- 
defense. Victor Emmanuel I., king of Sardinia, was restored to his 
kingdom of Savoy and Piedmont, to which was added — much to 
the disgust of the Genoese — the Republic of Genoa as a Duchy. 
Ferdinand IV. of Naples, after the defeat of Murat and the close of 
the Congress, was placed over his former possessions under the title 
of Ferdinand I., King of the two Sicilies. 

The Duchy of Parma was conferred for life on the ex-Empress 
Maria Louisa. No State was assigned to the Imperial Prince, but he 
received private estates in Bohemia and the title of Duke of Reich- 
stadt. Tuscany was restored to its Grand Duke Ferdinand of Aus- 
tria, and Modena to Archduke Francis, the heir of the House of 

357. The Position of Austria in Italy. — Austria obtained in 
the Congress Lombardy and Venetia under the title of the Lombardo- 

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THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 

Venetian Kingdom. Independently of the Congress Metternich 
concluded private treaties with the members of the younger side- 
lines of Austria in Tuscany and Modena for mutual defense, and an 
engagement of very questionable wisdom with the Kings of Sardinia 
and Naples, by which Victor Emmanuel and Ferdinand I. pledged 
themselves to do nothing in their respective kingdoms contrary to 
the political system adopted by Austria in the Lombardo- Venetian 
Kingdom. These arrangements gave Austria a pre-eminence in 

The arrangements of the Congress of Vienna were approved at the 
time by the vast majority of the Italians themselves. When Mnrat in 
March, 1815, unfurled his flag against Austria and invaded central Italy with 
40,000 men to form a kingdom of United Italy, he found no aid or encour- 
agement among the inhabitants. The restored sovereigns were hailed with 
joy and pleasure by the people. Later, however, the preponderance of 
Austria gave rise and color to the war cry of the Italian Revolutionists : 
War to the Foreigners! 

358. The Holy Alliance. — Upon the suggestion of Alexander 
I., the Holy Alliance was founded in September, 1815. It was 
theoretically an intimate union on a basis of Christian morality and 
religion, inspired by the tremendous events of the late years, and 
comprising at first Russia, Austria, Prussia, later also France. The 
Holy See and England refused to join this alliance. Pius VII. ex- 
pected nothing from a semi-religious league whose members were so 
widely apart in their religious principles, and in fact, the non-Catholic 
members continued to persecute and oppress the Church, as they had 
done before. The union very soon degenerated into a military ma- 
chine for the protection of dynastic interests and monarchical abso- 
lutism. The Decrees of Vienna regulated for the next forty years 
the relations of the European States. 

E. Hertslet: The Map of Europe by Treaty. — Corratp of Prince Talleyrand with 
Louis XVIIL during the Congress of Vienna. — Metternich* a Memoirs — Arrangements for 
Italy: - Cbev. O'Clery, ch. 2, pp. W-109. 

General Works for the Period. — Alison : History of Europe, 1789-1816. — Epi- 
tome of Alison* s Hist — Walter Scott: Lift of Napoleon. — Thiers : Hist, of the Consulate 
and Empire. — Morris: The French RevoL and the First Empire. — H . Martin: Popular 
Hist, of France fr. the First Revol.— Scelry: Short Hist, of Nap. — W. O' Morns: Na- 
poleon.— J. C. Ropes: The First Napoleon. — Hcadly: Napoleon and His Marshals. — 
Other Lives by Home , Jomlni ; Maseon (N. at Home); Sloane. — H. Morse Stephens: 
Europe, 1789-1816. — J. H. Roae: The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 1789-1816. 
(Cambridge Hist. Series). — Captain A. T. Mahan: Influence of Sea Power upon the 
French Revol. and Empire. 

THE ERA OF NAPOLEON I. 1800-1815. 




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§ l. 


359. First Irish Relief Acts. — - The ferocious penal laws of England 
and Ireland reached their full maturity in the first fourteen years of George 
III. Catholics had neither social nor legal standing in Great Britain. The 
Irish Parliament itself, Protestant though it was, had become subject to the 
English Parliament and the Privy Council. But the impending conflict with 
America (1774) made it a matter of policy to conciliate the Irish Catholics. 
Accordingly the government procured the passing of an act of crndescen- 
sion in the Irish Parliament enabling the Irish Catholics to testify their 
allegiance to his Majesty. 

The first real Relief Act was passed in 1778, when the Franco- 
American alliance frightened Lord North's ministry into new con- 
cessions. Under the leadership of the great orator G rattan, the 
Irish Parliament passed an act which abolished the penal laws as far 
as they disabled Catholics from purchasing, holding, and transferring 
landed property, 1778. The withdrawal of all regular troops from 
Ireland necessitated by the American war, gave the Irish Parliament 
a welcome opportunity of creating an army of volunteers under Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald, for the defense of the couutry against a French 
invasion. With this army to back him, Grattan, the Parliamentary 
leader, demanded and obtained from England an independent Irish 

360. English Relief Act — Lord Gordon Riots. — The 

year 1778 brought also the first Relief Act to the Catholics of Eng- 
land. The English Act declared it expedient to repeal the clauses 
of William III. against the prelates, clergymen, aud school teachers, 
and to restore to Catholics the right of acquiring property by pur- 
chase and will. But when an extension of the English Relief Act 


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to Scotland was proposed, a violent storm of Protestant intolerance 
burst over the country. The Scotch Presbyterians rose against the 
very notion of relief to Catholics. In Glasgow and Edinburgh the 
mob destroyed Catholic chapels in 1778. In England, a Protestant 
Association was formed on the model of the Solemn League and 
Covenant, to prevent further concessions to Catholics and to bring 
about the repeal of the Relief Act. The agitation, led by Lord 
George Gordon, the narrow-minded president of the Association, 
and fed by the inflammatory speeches of John Wesley and other 
Methodist firebrands in 1779, led to the Gordon riots of 1780. For 
five days London was at the mercy of an infuriated mob. 

The chapels of the foreign ambassadors and other places of Catholic 
worship, with their altars, sacred vestments, libraries, documents, and fur- 
niture, piled up in the streets, were delivered to the flames. The houses 
of Catholics or their Protestant friends were burned down or looted, among 
them the residences of Lord North, of Sir Geo/ge Savilc who had carried 
the Relief Act, of Lord Mansfield, who, as Lord Chief Justice, had put every 
available obstacle in the way of the conviction of priests. Edmund Burke, 
the defender of Catholics in Parliamant, had to flee for his life The chief 
prisons of London were broken into and the prisoners released. Drunk- 
enness added to the horror. On January 7, 200 persons were shot dead in 
the streets and 250 more were lying in the hospitals. All this time the 
authorities were supinely inactive. Only when the King himself ordered 
the troops to act without waiting for directions from the civil magistrates, 
did the riots cease, January 8. As Lord Gordon had lost coutrol owr his 
adherents from the outset of the riots, he was acquitted of high treason. 

361. The Relief Act of 1791. — The alarm which the French 
Revolution roused in England again quickened the desire of the 
government to promote as far as possible peace and union in the 
realm, and led to the substantial Relief Act of 1791, which abolished 
for Catholics the oath of supremacy, and the declaration against 
Transubstantiation ; it legalized the public worship of the Catholic 
Church, opened Catholic schools, admitted Catholics to the bar, and 
removed a number of other disabilities. Similar relief was extended 
to Scotland. 

A better feeling between Catholics and Protestants than had ever existed 
since the days of the Reformation, was brought about by the emigrant priests 
who crowded to the English shores to escape the persecution of revolution- 
IT) France. English society from the court downward, including the Angli- 

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can clergy, contributed to the support of these Confessors of the Faith, whose 
modest bearing and good example under extreme privations helped to re- 
move anti-Catholic prejudices. 

362. Causes of the Irish Insurrection of 1798. — In spite 
of the independence achieved in 1782, the Irish Parliament was 
still a most anomalous body. Of its 300 members 200 were borough 
members, whose election was controlled by less than 100 men. The 
Catholics — three-fourths of the population — could neither vote for 
nor sit in Parliament. The Lord- Lieu tenant was responsible only to 
the English government. The army of volunteers withered away under 
the intrigues of the Viceroys and the inactivity of Grattan. To 
remedy these evils, Wolfe Tone, a Presbyterian, founded the Society 
of United Irishmen. 

Their object was originally a peaceful one : to bring about a Par- 
liamentary reform by a union of Catholics and Protestants. It was 
Pitt who drove them into rebellion. To battle their aims, he first 
granted to the Irish Catholics the illusory right of voting for mem- 
bers but not of sitting in Parliament. The victories of the French 
armies at Toulon and along the whole line over the English called 
a temporary halt to this policy. The result was the appointment of 
Fitzwilliams, who had freely identified himself with the hopes of the 
Catholics and Reformers, as Lord-Lieutenant. But his high sense of 
justice and impartiality to all alike did not please the government, 
and he was speedily recalled to make room for the Party of the 4 4 Prot- 
estant Ascendency " and the murderous Orange Society, which had 
been founded for setting Catholic and Protestant at daggers drawn. 
The recall of Fitzwilliams, amidst the consternation of the country, 
induced the United Irishmen to meet in secret, bind themselves by 
oath, arm and fix their eyes on France. After the recall of Fitz- 
williams Wolfe Tone appealed to France for aid. The French ex- 
pedition under Hoche to Ban try Bay was prevented from landing 
by stress of weather. 

363. The Insurrection of 1798. — The measures resorted to 
by Castlereagh, Fitzwilliams' successor, to goad the Irish people into 
insurrection, w T ere plenary powers given to the country gentlemen 
and the Orange lodges to flog, torture, kill, violate, burn at their 

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heart's content. Neither age nor sex nor acknowledged innocence 
afforded protection. The only crime which the objects of this 
ruthless persecution were charged with, was a profession of the 
Catholic faith, or, in the case of Protestants, political sympathy with 
the Catholics. Priests who had sternly opposed the United Irish 
Society, had to suffer similar outrages. The insurrection which was 
called forth by these measures was confined almost wholly to the 
provinces of Leinster and Connaught. Wexford was the chief seat 
of resistance, and held for four weeks army after army at bay. The 
cowardice of the instigators was as great as their cruelty ; again and 
again large bodies of them fled before a small number of ill-armed 
Irish peasants. It took 150,000 men under Cornwall^, and cost 
30,000 lives to suppress the civil war so wantonly provoked ; but it 
served its purpose, for it hastened Pitt's favorite measure, the Par- 
liamentary Union of England .and Ireland. Most of the Irish lead- 
ers who survived the contest died on the gallows, in prison, or in 

364. The Union. — Pitt at once took up the question of the 
Union. The insurrection had removed the national leaders. By a 
system of wholesale bribery Pitt strove to gain over the Irish Parlia- 
ment to his measure. More than 1,000,000/. was spent by the gov- 
ernment to carry the act. Places, offices, and peerages were lavishly 
distributed. Owners of Irish boroughs were compensated at the rate 
of 15,000/. a Beat. To obtain the moral support of the Catholics, 
Pitt entered into a pledge promulgated all over Ireland in the form 
of a printed speech in which Catholics were promised admission to 
Parliament. The Irish Parliament of 1799 was not yet sufficiently 
corrupted to pass the measure. But in the last Irish Parliament of 
1800 the union with England was carried by a majority of sixty. 
The Act of Union took effect January 1, 1801. 

The attempt of Robert Emmet in 1803 to surprise the Castle, rouse Dub- 
lin and destroy the Union, had the only result of sending Emmet to the 
gallows, and causing a new reign of terror to be inflicted on Ireland. 

305. The Catholics Deceived. — It was now the time for Pitt 

bO fulfill his pledge. But George III. had been made to consider 
the admission of Catholics to Parliament as incompatible with his 


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coronation oath. The idea of Catholic Emancipation so preyed on 
George's mind as to cause a return of the "king's illness " — insanity. 
Pitt availed himself of the occasion to hand in his resignation, a step 
by which he escaped the disagreeable duty of making peace with 
Napoleon. When, however, the reopening of the war between En- 
gland and France brought Pitt back to office, he simply ignored his 
former promises to the Irish Catholics. 

After the failure of the G rattan Relief Bill of 1813, the emancipation 
question began to lose ground. England's fears were calmed by ttie fall of 
Napoleon. It was not till 1821 that the successful fight began which after 
eight years of hard campaigning resulted in the victory of 1829. 

W. J. Amherst, 8. J.: Hist, of Cath. Emancipation, 1771-1820 — J. Morris: Cath. 
Engl, in Modem Time*, M. '91. 3; »92, 1, 2. — Irish Hist., 1761-81, M. »82, 1.- Lilly: 
Resurr. of Ireland, D. R. '82, 4. — W. J. O'Neill Daunt: Essays on Ireland; Ireland and 
the Legist. Union; D. R. '83. 1. — Alex. J. F. Mills: The Gordon Riots — Lecky, III, 13, 
pp. 533-567. — L. Johnson: Gordon Riots; Cath. Truth Soc.; M. '93, 2 — John Wesley 
a. the Rise of Methodism; D. R '74, 3 — BriUgett: The Story of the French Exiles, D. 
U. '87, 1; M. '87. 1. — Ireland 1760 1782, Lecky, IV.. 16-17, pp. 520-606; 1782-1793, VI., 
24-25, pp. 301-610. — F. X. Plasse: Le Clergf. Francis r4fugU en Angleterre.— The Irish 
Rebellion, 1793-1801, Lecky, vol. VII. and VIII (chlet work on the period).— McCarthy : 
Grattan — Th. Moore: L. of Sir Ed. Fitzgerald; also K. It 8i, 3. — Barry O'Brien: 
Wolfe* s Autobiography. — Dr. Carry: Review of the Irish Civil War. — W. T. Fitz- 
patrlck • Secret Service under Pitt. — Thos. Reynolds : The Life of Thos. Reynolds (9en.) : 
Hist, of an Irish Informer in 1798.— On Irish Life, 1746-1833 see: Mrs. M. J. O'Con- 
nel: The Lost Colonel of the Irish Brigade. — Lilly: Irish Const it. of 1782: D. R. '89, 4; 
The Jacobin Movement in Ireland, l>. R. '91, 1. — Irish A fairs, 1793; D. R. '91, 1. — J. 
Benner: Rise and Fall of Irish Legist. Independence; M. '83, 1. — A. Bnshnell Hart: 
Formation of the Union, 1760-1829,— Ingram : History of the Legist. Union, (English 
view;.— Thompson: The French Exped. to Ireland, 1798; D. R. '91,8. — Lives of Pitt. 


366. Daniel O'Connell. — Daniel O'Connell, a devout son of 
his Church as well as an ardent patriot, fought as much for the freedom 
of his country as of religion, but it was his strong religious convictions 
that gave perseverance and success to his patriotism. His path was 
strewn with difficulties. He had to overcome both the hostility of 
the Protestants and the apathy of Catholics. Orangeism as a secret 
society founded in 1795 was all-powerful. Its aim was to maintain 
the ascendency of Protestantism in Ireland. It dominated the courts 
of justice. The Catholics as a class were disheartened. But by 




his eloquence, bis absolute disinterestedness and his defiant aggres- 
siveness, which, however, always kept within the limits of law-abiding 
agitation, O'Connell aroused, united and swayed the vast body of 
Irish Catholics in the pursuit of a common purpose, as no other 
leader before or after him has done. In 1823 he organized the wide- 
spread Catholic Association which soon struck the government with 
alarm. It was condemned by Parliament in 1825 as illegal. To 
prevent English interference, IVConnell himself dissolved the organ- 
ization. Still he continued to stir up Catholic public sentiment in 
favor of his enterprise by restless activity and various forms of 
public meetings. 

367. The Clare Election. — In England there was a division 
of sentiment concerning the Irish movement for freedom and justice. 
Already in 1825, shortly after the dissolution of the Catholic Asso- 
ciation, an Act of Emancipation had been discussed and passed in 
the House of Commons, but was thrown out by the Lords. After 
the formation of the Wellington ministry in 1828, Lord John Russell, 
against the wish of the ministry, succeeded in repealing the Test and 
Corporation Acts, as far as they compelled applicants for office and for 
seats in Parliament to receive the communion in the Church of Eng- 
land. In consequence Parliament was opened to all dissenters, but 
remained barred to Catholics by the oath still in force against 
Transubstantiation, which Russell did not propose to repeal. Taking 
advantage of his right of election, O' Council came before the people 
of Clare as candidate for the House of Commons. He openly 
declared that if elected he would present himself before Parliament 
and claim his seat though he would decline and denounce the 
infamous oath against the Holy Eucharist. The government strained 
every nerve to elect its candidate, but O'Connell won by a tremendous 

368. Catholic Emancipation, 1820. — Wellington now stood 
before the alternative of granting Catholic Emancipation or risking 
a civil war. It was in consequence of this dread and not for any 
principle of truth and justice that Wellington and Mr. Peel decided 
to bring in an act abolishing the civil and political disabilities of the 
Catholics, To guard against treachery on the part of George IV. 

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(1820-30) who was no friend of the Catholic cause, the ministers 
secured a written authorization from him. Thus Catholic Eman- 
cipation was carried in consequence of the Clare election, a few 
days before O'Connell presented liimself before the House. With 
characteristic spite Robert Peel had inserted a clause by which only 
those who had been elected after the passage of the act should be 
benefited by it. The offensive oath was consequently tendered to 
O'Connell, but sternly refused. A new writ had to be issued for 
the county of Clare. But Peel's petty ingenuity only furnished 
O'Connell the triumph of a second election. 

The Emancipation Act opened Parliament and all offices, except those of 
Regent, Lord Chancellor of England and Ireland, and Viceroy of Ireland, to 
the Roman Catholics. An accompanying act disfranchised f<.rty shilling 
freeholders who hai been allowed to vote as long as their votes werj given 
to the landlords. 

369. The Tithe War, 1830-38. — The Catholic Church was no 
longer directly persecuted, but the Episcopal State Church of Ireland 
was still supported by the tithes exacted at the point of the bayonet 
from the impoverished Catholic peasantry. Whilst thousands of 
Catholics were huddled together in miserable hovels to attend mass, 
they had to pay their tithes to the Episcopalian clergyman whose 
whole congregation often consisted of a solitary clerk. O'Connell's 
dreaded eloquence in Parliament never rose to loftier flights than 
when he branded this iniquitous system. He was strongly sup- 
ported by public opinion in Ireland. As political meetings were 
prohibited under successive Insurrection Acts, opposition to the 
tithe system was organized at hurling matches. The opposition 
produced a state of unrest close to civil strife. Down to the year 
1833 the military force necessitated by the tithe war cost over a 
million. ' The loss of life in exacting the tribute was enor- 
mous. Parliamentary commission reports and temporary measures 
followed in rapid succession, but the unjust principle was not touched 
until the Irish tithe agitation crossed over into England, where the 
same grievance existed. This brought matters to an issue. In 1836 
Lord John Russell's tithe bill settled the question for England, that 
of 1838 for Ireland. The payment of tithes was transferred from the 
tenants to the landlords, and Parliament voted a quarter of a million 

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for the extinction of arrears. The tithe war struck a blow at the 
Established Church in Ireland from which it never recovered. Its 
consequence, at a later period, was the disestablishment of the Irish 
Protestant Church. 

370. The Repeal Agitation. — O'Counell was less fortunate and suc- 
cessful iu his agitation for the repeal of the Union. True, he received the 
warm support of Father Mathew's temperance movement. His own Sun- 
day assemblies gradually swelled into monster meetiugs. It is said that 
at Tara, 250,000 persons listened to the bitter invectives of his impassioned 
oratory. But when the government in 1843 proclaimed one of his meetings, 
and massed large bodies of police and soldiery for the occasion, O'Conuell 
issued a proclamation of his own commanding obedience to authority, and 
was obeyed. From the moment it became clear that O Connell was firmly 
set against methods of violence, the movement lost its force. Hotter heads, 
the members of the " Young Ireland " party, became infected with the spirit 
of the international revolution, and embittered the last years of the great 
leader. Gradually secret societies took the place of open agitation. O'Con- 
nell died in Genoa, May 15, 1847, on his way to Rome, where his heart is 
enshrined in the chapel of the Irish College. The very failure of his repeal 
agitation is an honor to his character. His renown as one of the greatest 
figures in Irish history rests securely op his achievement of Catholic 

Lives of O'Oonnell. — J. Cannon O'Roarke-Gladstone: Century Life. — McGee: 
{0*C. and his Friends). - Locky: {Leaders of Public Op.). — Hamilton: {Statesmen 
Series). — Phillips: (O'C. the Patriot). — Banmatark ; (Germ.): McCarthy: A. C. Q. 
v. 14.— Fitzpatrlck: Correspondence of O* Connell; The Liberator; Ireland and O' Connell; 
D. R. '75, 4.— Young Ireland and O'C: M. •81. 1. — Perry Fitzgerald: When George 
IV. was King: M. '60. 2-3 (Aug., p. 12, Sept., p. 80; Oct., p. 153; Nov., p. 305; Dec , p. 
453) »81. 1. (Jan., p. 1 ; Feb., p. 153). — McCarthy : Ireland since the Union; Hist, of Our 
Own Times; An Outline of Irish Hist.- F.J. Mathew: Father Mathew. — Sir Ch. Gavan 
Duflcy: Bird's- Eye View of Irish Hist.; Young Ireland (1840-1850;. — O'Grady: Hist, 
of Ireland, The Survival of Ireland, A. C. Q. 8. — R. Barry O'Brien: The Irish Agra 
rian War, 1788-1830; M, '82.1. 


§ 1. 


371. The Carbonari. — Notwithstanding the victories of the combined 
royal Powers, the revolutionary spirit continued to smoulder in the under- 
ground plottings of secret societies, which, bursting forth into frequent 
eruptions, characterize the coming period of history in Europe. Foremost 
among the plotters were the Carbonari. This society had originated among 
the mountaineers of Calabria and the Abbruzzi, who resented the rule of 
Murat and rallied for the nstoration of Ferdinand. To disguise their ob- 
ject they assumed the name of Carbonari or charcoal burners, and designated 
their meetings as Vendite or Vente, i. e., sales. Their meetings were dis 
persed by Murat. After the restoration the more turbulent of these Car 
bonari, disaffected or disappointed under the reigning government, formed 
a new association which, owing to its efficient management, soon spread its 
ramifications into every part of Italy and Sicily. Its local Vendite obeyed 
a central committee established in each State and called the Alta Vendita. 
The members of each local society, divided into several grades, were for the 
most part unknown to each other, and known only to the heads of the 
Vendita. All communications, as a rule delivered orally, were carried on 
through the Alta Vendita. The candidates had to take an oath of secrecy 
and blind obedience, and to give themselves up, body and soul, to the 
organization and its leaders. Disloyalty was punished with assassination. 
Political murder was a recognized method of action of this society. The 
object which the Carbonari strove to realize was the regeneration of a 
united Italy on the basis of the anti-Christian Revolution. 

372. First Outbreak in Spain and Portugal, 182C — It 

was not in Italy, however, but in Spain, that the first rising against 


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the restored order of things occurred. On his return from French 
captivity Ferdinand VII. of Spain had first accepted then abolished 
the revolutionary Constitution of 1812. But being a worthless and 
despotic king he lost in a short time the esteem of his people by 
arbitrary imprisonments, irresponsible rule, and private scandals. A 
military insurrection at Cadiz spread with incredible rapidity through 
Spain and forced the king in March, 1820, to establish a Parliament 
elected by universal suffrage and once more to grant the Constitution 
of 1812. 

Portugal at the same time overthrew the English rule under the 
unpopular Lord Beresford and adopted a similar Constitution. John 

VI. who had fled to Brazil was recalled and ratified the Constitution. 

Dom Pedro, the eldest son of John VI., remained in Brazil. Brazil had 
been declared an Empire when the royal family in 1808 had fled from Lisbon. 
In 1821 the Portuguese Chambers resolved to reduce Brazil again to the state 
of a colony. Thereupon Dom Pedro placed himself at the head of the peo- 
ple, declared Brazil independent of Portugal, and assumed the imperial title 
as Dom Pedro I. 

373. The Rising in Italy. — After the Congress of Vienna, Pius 

VII. and the governments of Sardinia and Sicily had entered upon a 
course of reconstruction. Cardinal Consalvi retained many of the 
useful reforms introduced by the French administration and added new 
ones. But the proceedings of the governments were too slow to 
satisfy the revolutionary party. The news of the Spanish Revolution 
was the signal for the first outbreak of the Carbonari in 1820. The 
rising began in the Kingdom of Naples, where the insurgents were 
joined by the regular troops commanded by Carbonari officers, and 
took possession of Naples. The King resigned in favor of his son, 
the Duke of Calabria who, as Ferdinand II., swore to a Constitution 
which had been borrowed from Spain. During the convulsion on the 
mainland the Sicilian Carbonari made an attempt to effect the inde- 
pendence of their island, but the new government of Naples brought 
them to submission by the bombardment of Palermo. The only ris- 
ing in the Papal States, at Civita Vecchia, was quashed by the papal 
troops and the loyalty of the people. 

374. Suppression of the Italian Revolt, 1821. — Meanwhile 
the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 

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made preparations to counteract the disturbances of the South. In the 
Congress of Troppau, 1820, and of Laybaeh, 1821, they placed an 
Austrian arm\* at the disposal of Ferdinand II. of Naples, whilst the 
Congress of Verona, 1822, took steps to suppress the risings in Spain 
and Greece. In southern Italy the revolutionary army vanished 
before the approach of the Austrians, who occupied Naples ; the 
old form of government was restored. Whilst Naples was being 
pacified, a revolution broke out in Piedmont. The center of revolt 
was the Vendita of Alessandria. Through the treachery of a portion 
of the army the Carbonari obtained possession of the citadels of 
Alessandria and Turin, and demanded the Spanish Constitution. 
Victor Emmanuel I. abdicated in favor of his brother Charles Felix, 
who assembled an army of loyal regiments and with the aid of the 
Austrians routed the revolutionists at No vara. The King entered 
Turin and the Austrians occupied the fortresses to prevent a repeti- 
tion of the treachery which had given Alessandria and Turin into the 
hands of the Carbonari. 

375. Results. — The rising of the Carbonari put a stop to the useful 
reforms inaugurated by the Italian governments, as these were now forced 
to light for their very existence in the face of a secret society which had 
undermined the army and the administration. It had strengthened, how- 
ever, the Austriau influence which it had sought to destroy. Their defeat 
in Italy drove them to France where they established their headquarters 
and became an international society with the fixed purpose to revolutionize 
France and make her the base of operation against other governments. 

In the period of tranquillity which followed the revolution of 1820 and 
1821, the government of Pius VII. was followed by the energetic Pontificate 
of Leo XII. (1823-1829) and the short rule of Pius VIII. (1829-1830). 

376. Defection of the Spanish Colonies in America. — 

The restrictions on commerce, navigation and industry and on the 
tenure of office which Spain had imposed on its colonies for its own 
selfish interests, had reared a growing opposition to the mother 
country. The expulsion of the Jesuits and the spread of Free- 
masonry served only to loosen the ties of allegiance. The example 
and growing prosperity of the United States further encouraged the 
spirit of republicanism. Finally the French conquest of Spain gave 
the signal to unfurl the standard of independence. Since 1810 
colony after colony severed its connection with Spain. It was in 

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vain that Spain endeavored to recover her colonies. The very troops 
she had levied to send to America turned against the home govern- 
ment and started the revolution of 1820 at Cadiz. The death blow 
to Spanish dominion was, however, dealt in the decisive battle of 
Aayacucho, 1824, by the Liberator, Bolivar. This South American 
hero became Dictator of Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, the republics he 
had founded, and by the energetic use of his power provoked fresh 
insurrections. From these revolutions and counter-revolutions 
emerged the following republics of South and Central America : 
Buenos Ayres which formed the Argentine Republic; La Plata, 
Uruguay, Paraguay, Chili, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, which in 1821 
split into the separate States of Venezuela, New Granada (now 
Columbia in the narrow sense), and Ecuador. Cuba and Porto Rico 
alone remained to Spain. 

Mexico was severed from Spain in 1821 by General Iturbide who 
in the following year proclaimed himself Emperor. But rival 
generals deposed him and changed Mexico into a Republic. Itur- 
bide was executed in 1824. 

The history of these States forms a long succession of civil wars, pro- 
nunclameutos, military insurrections, alternate persecutions of or recon- 
ciliations with the Church, all resulting iu social demoralization and financial 

377. The Revolution Suppressed in Spain. — The Con- 
gress of Verona had decreed to aid the royal cause in Spain. In 
pursuance of this decree the Duke of Angouleme entered Spain in 
1823. So disgusted were the people with the misgovernment of the 
radicals and their warfare against religion, that the French were 
hailed as liberators. In Madrid the people destroyed every vestige 
of the revolutionary government. The Cortes, who had fled with 
Ferdinand VII. to Cadiz, were seized and dispersed, whereupon the 
King, freed from their influence, revoked the Constitution of 1812 
and the decrees against the Church which had been extorted from 
him. The French occupation lasted till 1827. 

378. Portugal. — In Portugal the revolutionary Chamber de- 
prived the King of nearly all his powers, expelled the Queen, the 
Patriarch of Lisbon, the Archbishop of Praga, and made numerous 

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confiscations of ecclesiastical and private property. Dom Miguel, 
the younger son of John VI., a higk-souled Catholic in principles 
and life, at the head of his loyal regiments opposed the anarchical 
doings of the revolutionists, restored order, and thereby earned the 
implacable hatred of the Freemasons. Traitors in collusion with 
Dom Pedro I. of Brazil, prevailed upon the weak King to send the 
Infante Dom Miguel on foreign travels. In 1824, John VI. returned 
to Brazil, where he died two years later — probably by violence — 
after appointing a regency controlled by Dom Pedro. It was Dom 
Pedro's aim to secure the succession in Portugal to his daughter, 
Maria da Gloria. But the people, exasperated by the crimes of the 
secret societies, clamored for Dora Miguel. The Cortes in 1828 
proclaimed him King in conformity with the Portuguese hereditary 
right. The Church was then restored to her rights and possessions. 

379. War of Grecian Independence, 1821-29. — In 1821, 
an insurrection broke out in the East among the Christian subjects 
of the Ottoman Porte. The secret societies of the Hetaries had 
since 1814 prepared the ground and furnished the fighters. The 
rising started in Moldavia and Wallachia under the Grecian leader 
Ypsilanti. He was defeated, fled across the Austrian frontiers, and 
was for six years detained in an Austrian prison. For whilst 
the popular sympathy of all Europe was for the Greeks, the 
members of the Holy Alliance, for the sake of consistency and 
from mutual jealousy, opposed the movement although it was 
essentially different from the revolutionary risings in Italy and 
Spain. The uprising of the Greeks caused Moslem attacks upon 
the Christians in Constantinople and other Turkish cities and 
horrible barbarities in the island of Chios, where 20,000 Chris- 
tians were massacred, 47,000 sold into slavery, and a population 
of 100,000 reduced to 20,000. The Greek leader Canares retaliated 
in kind and burnt a part of the Turkish fleet. Thanks to the 
assistance of the Philo-hellenists of England, France, Germany, and 
America, the Greek patriots were enabled not only to maintain 
themselves in Morea, but to extendi the insurrection to Middle 
Greece, Thessaly, and most of the islands. The movement, however, 
became seriously endangered, when Mehemet Ali of Egypt sent his 
(adopted) son Ibrahim Pasha with an army to Morea to conquer it 


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for the Sultan. Morea was frightfully devastated. The strong 
fortress of Missolonghi fell in 1826 after a most heroic resistance. 
Public opinion in western Europe at length compelled France and 
England to take interest in the struggling nation. The aggressive 
Nicholas I. of Russia, who had succeeded his brother Alexander I. 
in 1825, concluded an alliance with the two western Powers. To 
put an end to the atrocities committed by the Moslem in Greece, the 
allied admirals upon their own responsibility attacked and nearly 
annihilated the Turkish fleet at Navarino, 1827. Nicholas continued 
the war alone, until Turkey, in 1829, conceded the independence of 
Greece in the Peace of Adrianople. In 1830 the London Conference 
of the Guardian Powers declared Greece an independent kingdom. 
A Bavarian Prince was settled on the throne as Otto I., 1832-1867. 

Chev. CClery: Hist, of the Italian Revol., ch. IT I. -VI. pp. 109-144. — Reuben Par- 
eons: The Carbonari, Studies V.— Chateaubriand: The Congress of Vienna (Memoirs). — 
J. Mooney: The Revol. in the Sicilies: A. O. Q. v. 16. — J. Butt: Hist, of Italy — 
Wrlghtson: Hist, of Mod. Italy, -Gallenga: Hist, of Piedmont. — Memoirs of Mettemick. 
Vol. UI. 1816-1829. — Loughnan: Prince MeUernich: M. »81, 2 (Aug.,p 556); 8 (p. 17); 
Ed. R. 81, 1 ; Q. R., 80, 1— For Spain: Alison : Hist, of Europe, 1816-62.— Walpole: Hist, 
of Engl. — Baumatark : Zur Spanischen Frage. — Balmee: PoUtische Schrtftcn.— 
Gam a: Kirchengesch. Spaniens. — Brilck : Die Geheim.GestUsch. in Spanien. — Gen. B. 
Wltre: The Emanc. of South Am. — Browne) 1: North and South America. Mexico: see 
works to Ch. XI F. — J. G. Macleod; Lord: The Greek Revol.— Altaon Phillips: War 
of Greek Independence. — Sergeant: Greece in the 19th Cent , 1821-27. — Macleod: The 
Greek Revolution, M. 77, 1 (pp.86, 303, 850, 435). Stephens: The Story of Portugal 

§ 2. 


880. Louis XVIII., 1814-1824. — At his first restoration Louis XVIII. had 
issued the " Charte," which made France a constitutional, hereditary king- 
dom. The Legislature consisted of two Chambers, the Peers being nomi- 
nated by the King, the Deputies elected by the people. A portion of the lower 
Chamber was to be annually renewed. A free press, responsible ministers 
and irremovable judges were guaranteed by the Charte. Whilst Catholicism 
was acknowledged as the religion of the State, dissenting denominations 
enjoyed freedom of worship. The first years of the restoration were 
marked by party strife between royalists of different grades, doctrinaires 
who took the English Constitution for their model (Gulzot), independents, 
Bonapartists, and Republicans. The King, personally moderate, fond of 
rest, accustomed to constitutional forms from his stay in England, exercised 
little influence on the wrangling factions. His younger brother, the Count 

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of Artois, was a strong Catholic and a staunch royalist, who wisely sought 
the regeneration of France in the revival of Catholic faith and practice, but 
less wisely in the restoration of the ancient regime. The first Chamber 
elected by this party, decreed the exile of the regicides and other repressive 
measures. Gradually the- constitutional party, representing the wealthy 
middle class, gained the ascendency in the Chamber, and successive minis- 
tries worked in their interest. But behind this party and allied to it stood 
the Revolution. 

381. Murder of the Duke of Berry, 1820. — The secret 
aims of the revolutionists transpired in the murder of the Duke of 
Berry, son of the Count of Artois, by Louvel, a revolutionary fan- 
atic. Berry was the hope of the Bourbon succession. LouveFs 
crime, however, not only failed of its purpose, as a posthumous son 
was born to the Duke a few months after his assassination, but it 
turned public opinion in favor of royalism. The young Duke of 
Bordeaux was everywhere hailed as the representative of legitimacy, 
the child of Europe, the future Henry V. The next elections in 
1823 returned an overwhelming royalist majority. The new Cham- 
ber passed a septennial election law by which instead of the annual 
renewal the entire Chamber of ^Deputies was to be chosen every 
seventh year. 

382. Succession of Charles X., 1824-1830. — Louis 
XV11I. died in 1824, and was succeeded by his brother, the Count 
of Artois. He was a popular King, and on his visits through the 
country was everywhere received by the people with unfeigned 
enthusiasm. His policy was characterized by his efforts to strengthen 
the Church and the Crown. The vote of the Chamber of 1825, 
appropriating 200,000,000 to indemnify the returned Emigrants for 
their confiscated estates was a further step in the policy of the 

Whilst royalism ruled in the Chamber, iu the administration and a great 
part of the people, the Liberals, as the different factions opposed to the 
Church and . to the throne called themselves, were busy at work iu the city, 
the provinces, and the army. The Alta Vendita (Haute Vente) of the 
Carbonari, which had its seat in Paris, numbered amongst its members 
Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, the son of Egalite, old Lafayette, Guizot, 
arid other liberal leaders. Thiers glorified in his history not only the 
Revolution but even the Terror. Professional conspirators were spreading 



among the people cheap editions of Voltaire and Rousseau in hundred 
thousands of copies. The public press was hired to serve the cause of 
impiety and anarchy, so that Leo XII. found it necessary to brand its 
antl- religious propaganda. The splendid revival of Catholicism in France 
had exasperated the secret societies. "Down with the Jesuits" became 
the political war cry of the Liberals. Pius VII. had restored the Society 
of Jesus in the whole Church (1814). Now not only the members of the 
order, but every practical Catholic in France was decried as a Jesuit. 

383. The Approach of the Storm. — In 1827 two legions of 
the National Guards publicly insulted the royal family. The act led to 
the dissolution of the guards, which in its turn increased the activity 
of the Liberals. The elections of 1828 returned a Liberal majority. 
The ministry of Villele, the first of Charles X., fell. The succeeding 
ministry of Martignac was too liberal for the Royalists and too con- 
servative for the Liberals. Aware that further concessions would 
not be conducive to the welfare of Frauce, Charles X. directed 
Polignac, a stanch Catholic and Royalist, to form a new ministry. 
Polignae's motto was : No more concessions. When the King in 
1830 opened the session of the lower Chamber, 221 members sent in 
a vote of want of confidence. Charles X. took up the gauntlet, and 
dissolved the Chamber. At the time France was carrying on a desul- 
tory war in Algiers. In the hope of quieting the agitation at home 
by a military success abroad the King ordered a vigorous attack upon 
Algiers. The pirate fortress fell, and with it fell forever Moslem 
piracy and the enslavement of Christians in Algiers and along the 
whole Barbary coast. But before the news arrived, the new elections 
had returned an increased Liberal majority. As a last resource 
Charles resolved upon a coup d'etat. It cost him his crown. 

384. The Ordinances. — Basing his action on Art. 14 of the 
Charte : 44 The King makes the regulations and ordinances necessary 
for the maintenance of the laws and the safety of the State 99 Charles, 
July 26, issued five ordinances, the principal of which abolished the 
freedom of the press, dissolved the Chambers, and restricted the 
right of suffrage to the landed proprietors. 

385. The July Revolution, July 27-29, 1830. — The great 
mass of the people remained indifferent. The protest of the jour- 

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nalists fell flat. The few barricades that were attempted were easily 
scattered. All the occurrences of July 27 did not ruffle the even 
tenor of the city's life. But the experienced conspirators of the 
Carbonari advised by Lafayette were feverishly active, and formed 
revolutionary committees in every district. July 28 barricades rose 
all over the city. As the troops were not in readiness or were badly 
led, the insurgents invaded the city hall. On the following day the 
street fights continued with increased violence. Two regiments of 
the line joined the insurrectionists. But when the Republican mob, 
soldiers, students, laborers, and foreigners had stormed the Louvre, 
the Archbishop's palace, and other public buildings, and forced the 
regulars to retreat, then the bourgeoisie which favored a constitutional 
monarchy of its own making, promptly organized a Provisional 
Government, consisting of Lafitte, Casimir Perier, and Odillon 
Barrot, and thus snatched the victory from the hands of the Repub- 
licans. Lafayette was given the command of the National Guards. 
Louis Philip, whom duty and honor in this hour of danger called 
# to the King's side, accepted the revolutionary appointment of 
Lieu tenant-General of France. 

386, The July Monarchy. — During these days, the King, 
who was staying in the palace of St. Cloud, could not be made to 
believe the reality of the danger. When at last it dawned upon him, 
he revoked the ordinances, but it was too late. Seeing the throne 
was lost, he abdicated in favor of the Duke of Bordeaux and 
recommended the boy to Louis Philip. Having promised Charles 
X. and the foreign ambassadors to respect the rights of the legitimate 
heir, Louis Philip went before the Chamber and, disregarding the 
claim of the Prince and his own sacred pledges, simply announced 
the King's unqualified abdication. This perfidy earned him the 
crown. France entered upon a new phase, the J uly Monarchy under 
a citizen King, who was allowed to reign but not to rule. In recog- 
nition of the revolutionary origin of this elevation, Louis Philip 
called himself King of the French. The Chamber of Deputies 
abolished Article III. and changed the Charte in the direction of 
popular sovereignty. The Chamber, the army and the administra- 
tion were purged of legitimist members. Four ministers of 
Charles X. were sentenced to life imprisonment. 

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The courts of western Europe regarded the revolution as an internal 
affair of France, and acknowledged Louis Philip, whilst Nicholas of Russia 
withheld his recognition. Charles X. went first to England, then to Austria. 
He died at Gorz in Styria, 1836. The Duke of Bordeaux subsequently 
assumed the title of Count of Chambord. 

Lamartlne : The Restoration of Monarchy in France. — E. E. Grow : Hist, of the Reign* 
of Louie J VIII. and Charles X. — I rabert de St. Amand : The Duchess of AngouUwne and 
the Two Restorations; Duchess of Berry > etc.; The RevoL of 1830. — Turnbull: Revci. of 
1830.- Hone: Full Annals of the RevoL (July 25-Augnst 9, 1830).— J. Maodonncl: 
France since the First Empire. — B. Mackenzie: The Nineteenth Century. — Marquis de 
ViUeneuve: La Congregation (1801-1830). 



887. Causes of the Belgian Revolution. — The July Revolution found 
the Belgian people ripe for a change. The ill-assorted union of Belgium 
and Holland effected by the Congress of Vienna had worked only harm on 
the Belgians. Both Catholics and Liberals resented the imposition of the 
language, the law and the national debt of the Dutch minority. The Catho- 
lics, besides, had a grievance of their own; they resented the persecution of , 
the Church and the suppression of Catholic education by their Dutch rulers, 
and joyfully hailed the idea of a separation from Holland. 

388. The Outbreak and its Results, 1830. — The insurrec- 
tion, which had been fostered by French emissaries, broke out in 
September at Brussels, and after the failure of the Prince of Orange 
to reconquer the capital, spread over the whole country except Ant- 
werp, which was kept in check by the fire of the citadel. A Pro- 
visional Government proclaimed the separation of Belgium and 
Holland. A National Congress passed the second Declaration of 
Independence (November 8), the establishment of Belgium as a 
Constitutional Kingdom (November 22), and the perpetual exclusion 
of the House of Orange from the throne (November 24). The rep- 
resentatives of the Five Great Powers assembled in the Conference 
of London took up the Belgian question. France and England 
demanded the recognition of the independence of Belgium. The 
simultaneous outbreak of the Revolution at Warsaw induced the 
Eastern Powers to acquiesce in the proposal. The Belgians in 
1831 chose for their King Leopold of Saxe-Coburg who had refused 
the crown of Greece. Though the King was a Protestant, the Catho- 

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lies did not oppose his election, as the new Constitution forbade all 
interference of the State in ecclesiastical affairs. The subsequent 
history of Belgium proved that the independence of the Church does 
in no way hamper the order, prosperity and strength of the State. 

389. Settlement. — In spite of the recognition of Leopold I. of Belgium 
and the regulation of the respective frontiers by the Conference of London, 
William I. of Holland ventured to support his claims by an appeal to arms. 
Twice he defeated Leopold, at Hasselt and at Lou vain, but upon the 
approach of a French army and an English fleet he rapidly withdrew. A 
later attempt to annul the decrees of the London Conference had no better 
result. An Anglo-French fleet blockaded the Dutch fleet in the Tezel, 
and a French army captured the citadel of Antwerp. In 1838 William 
accepted the settlement of the Conference. 

390. The Outbreak in the Russian Kingdom of Poland. — The despo- 
tism of Prince Constantine, governor of War-aw, made Poland a prolific 
hot-bed of widespread conspiracies for separation from Russia and for 
the restoration of the ancient Kingdom- Republic. Poland was cut off 
from foreign aid. Austria and Prussia guarded their own portions of the 
dismembered State. Louis Philip cared more for the recognition of Nicho- 
las I. hitherto withheld than for the aspirations of a subjected nation. 
Lord Palraerston, meddlesome enough in other countries, would have noth- 
ing to do with Polish affairs. The insurrection broke out at Warsaw in an 
attempt on Constantine's life. His flight left the capital, two fortresses, a 
well equipped army and an organized government in the hands of the insur- 
gents. But unfortunate divisions split their ranks from the beginning. The 
Whites or aristocratic party desired the old government of the nobles under 
a personal union with Russia; the Reds or Democrats, an independent 
republic Clopicki was named dictator, and brought some order out of the 
general confusion, but lost valuable time by negotiations with Russia, and 
was finally compelled to make room for the Republicans. The Diet, in 
January, 1831, declared the House of Romanow deposed in Poland. Prince 
Chartoryski was chosen president, and Prince Radziwill appointed com- 

391. The War. — The Russians advanced under General Die- 
bitch. Around Wavre and Grochow the Poles for seven continuous 
days offered a fierce and destructive resistance to twice their number 
of foes, but were at last forced to retreat to Praga. Several subse- 
quent victories, however, enabled them to carry the insurrection into 
Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia. In the bloody battle of Ostro- 
lenka they received their first heavy blow, and retreated again to 

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Praga unpursued, as the Russian army had to separate in order to 
face the enemy in Lithuania. The cholera which for the first time 
swept from Russia across Europe, seemed for a while to aid the 
Polish cause; Diebitch and Prince Constantine were among its 
victims. But General Paske witch, the new commander-in-chief, 
marched upon Warsaw. Though the Poles fought with the courage 
of despair, they disgraced their cause by factional massacres, and 
brought about their own downfall. The capture of Warsaw in Sep- 
tember, 1831, sealed the fate of Poland. The remaining Polish 
armies saved themselves by crossing into Austria and Prussia, where 
they were disarmed. 

Europe was profoundly moved by the fall of Warsaw and the new Rus- 
sian despotism. The Constitution granted by Alexander I. In 1815 was 
annulled, and the kingdom of Poland changed into a Russian province. 
The children of the fallen, imprisoned, or fugitive nobles captured by the 
Cossacks, were transported to Russia, to be brought up as soldiers of the 
Czar. Russia's settled policy henceforth tended to stamp out the national 
spirit of the Poles by a steady system of Russlficatlon and a remorseless 
persecution of the Catholic Church. 

392. The Rising in Central Italy. — The wave of the July 
Revolution struck Italy in February, 1831. The day after the 
accession of Gregory XVI. the revolt broke out in Modena, under 
Menotti, the head of the Modenese Vendita. From Modena it 
spread to Bologna, where the Republican Federation established its 
Giunta, thence to Parma, Romagna, and the Umbrian Marches. 
During the conclave the Roman Vendita had organized a conspiracy 
for the overthrow of the Pontifical government, but it failed, 
owing to the enthusiastic devotion of the citizens of Rome for the 
new Pontiff. The popularity of Ferdinand II., 44 the darling of 
Naples," likewise frustrated any hope of revolutionizing that king- 
dom. An Austrian army marching into the affected districts made 
short work of the insurrection. New outbreaks in 1832 led to the 
temporary occupation of Bologna by the Austrians and of Ancona 
by the French. 

Araoug the conspirators of 1831 was Prince Louis Bonaparte, the son of 
Louis of Holland and Hortensc, who thus began as an initiated Carbouaro 
the war against the Temporal Power, which he afterwards prosecuted as 
Emperor of the French. 

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393. Young Italy. — Mazzini now founded a new secret society, " Young 
Italy," with headquarters at Marseilles. No one was admitted who had 
passed the age of forty. Its aim was the establishment of an indivisible 
Italian Republic. Its religion, like that of Mazziui, consisted of a vague 
belief In the existence of God, a strong faith in the power of humanity and 
fierce hatred of the Catholic Church. Its political means were " thought 
and action,' 9 i. e. t the literary propaganda of Mazzinianism, and incessant 
attempts at insurrection. The movement was joined by Joseph Garibaldi, 
the young captain of a Genoese brig. Hatched at the close of 1831, " Young 
Italy" was in 1833 as strong as the old Carbonari. 

Having secured the co-operation of the secret societies in Italy, 
Germany and France, Mazzini planned a simultaneous outbreak in 
these countries for 1833 and 1834. But the plot to invade Savoy. 
Piedmont, and Lombardy and thence to spread the insurrection 
southward, was discovered and frustrated by the government of 
Sardinia. The uprising in Germany (Frankfort) was a farce ; two 
military posts were overpowered for a few hours. Only in Lyons, 
which swarmed with socialistic laborers, the rising assumed formid- 
able proportions. It took General Aymor live days of hard fighting 
to get the city under control. Undaunted by these failures Mazzini 
transferred his headquarters to Geneva and reorganized his forces, 
composed of political fugitives from many countries. From Geneva 
he detailed a young Corsican, Antonio Gallenga, to assassinate King 
Charles Albert, but the plot miscarried. With a new failure to 
invade Savoy, the first epoch of Young Italy ended in defeat. Its 
only result was to multiply repressive measures in Italy, Austria, and 

The two principal leaders separated. Mazzini continued, first in Switzer- 
land, since 1839 in London, to " weave the dark web of conspiracy and 
assassination." Garibaldi launched into the revolutions of South America 
and gathered around him the legion of Italian adventurers who formed 
the nucleus of the later Garibaldiaus. In Italy the Moderates, like Gioberti 
confined themselves to a literary crusade, advocating a confederation of 
Italian States, while the men of action were waiting for a more favorable 
opportunity. Gregory XVI. died in 1816, leaving the Papal States in a 
flourishing condition of material prosperity. 

For Belgium and Poland. — Alison, Fyffe, Walpole, Ramband, Rose: A Cen- 
tury of Continental HM. 1780-1880.— Morfill: The Story of Poland. — M'Swincy : The 
Cath. Church in Poland Under the Buss. Govemm. M. 76, 2-3. — R. Parsons : The 

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Struggle of Polish Catholicity with Russian Orthodoxy, ACQ. 9; 22. — Nordynskl: Hist, 
of the Late Polish Revol 

For Italy.— Ohev. O'Clery: The It. Rev., ch. IV.-V. pp. 144-187. — R. Parsons: 
Mazzini and Young Italy, Pontificate of Gregory XVI.; Studies V. — Card. Wiseman: 
Recollections of the Last Four Popes. — Garibaldi : Autobiogr. — Joseph Mazzini: His 
Life, Writings and Political Principles: Parkinson: M. *75, 3. 

§ 4. 


394. Portugal. — The July Revolution produced a rich crop of 
revolutionary movements in the Pyrenean peninsula. The legitimate 
kingdom of Charles X. had lent its support to Dom Miguel and the 
Catholics ; the citizen kingdom of Louis Philip transferred its support 
to the Liberals and Freemasons. Dom Pedro I. had been forced in 
Brazil to abdicate in favor of his son, Dom Pedro II., 1831. He 
came to Europe to promote the claims of his daughter Maria da 
Gloria, to the throne of Portugal, and succeeded in winning over 
France and England to his cause. Having collected in the island of 
Terceira a sufficient number of adherents, especially from the ranks 
of Dom Miguel's enemies, he landed in Oporto which he was able to 
hold for his daughter, 1832. The next year Dom Miguel's fleet was 
defeated by the English under Napier, and Lisbon opened the gates 
to Dom Pedro. The subjection of the country was completed in 
1834. Dom Miguel abandoned his claims, and died in Germany 
(Henbach) 1868. 

Dom Pedro died in 1834. The accession of his daughter brought no 
peace to the country. Revolutions aud counter-revolutions followed each 
other in quick succession. Neither the Queen nor the nobility nor the 
people possessed any knowledge of constitutional government The party 
in power proscribed its opponents, whilst the party in opposition invari- 
ably appealed to arms. Each successive government repudiated the finan- 
cial arrangements of its predecessor, and Portuguese credit fell to the 
lowest ebb. The era of civil wars came to a close in 1852. Maria da 
Gloria was succeeded by her son Pedro. His brother Luis followed in 1861, 
and Luis' son Charles I. in 1889. 

In Brazil Dom Pedro IT. was dethroned in 1889 and the South American 
Empire changed into a republic. 

395. Civil War in Spain, 1833-39. —In Spain the revolu- 
tionary movement became mixed up with a civil war of succession. 

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The Bourbon succession in Spain was regulated by the Salic law. 
According to this law Don Carlos was the legitimate heir. But 
under the influence of his second wife, the ambitious Christina of 
Naples, Ferdinand VII. abolished the Salic law in favor of Chris- 
tina's daughter Isabella without even informing his brother Don 
Carlos. The dying Ferdinand appointed Christina regent for Isa- 
bella, 1833. Don Carlos, who had withdrawn to Portugal, assumed 
the title of Charles V. As the Catholics, 44 the apostolic party," 
supported the claims of Don Carlos, Christina sought the support 
of the Liberals and Freemasons. Her minister Martinez de la Rosa 
gave the country a constitutional government, the Estatuto Real or 
Royal Ordinance of 1834. He concluded a quadruple alliance com- 
prising Spain, D/>m Pedro of Portugal, Palmerston and Louis 
Philip, for the expulsion of Dom Miguel and Don Carlos from 
Portugal. The Carlist general Zumalacarregui displayed extra- 
ordinary power and genius in organizing the mountaineers of Biscaya 
into a disciplined army of 28,000 men, which for seven years held its 
ground against the Christinos, whilst Cabrera fought in Catalonia 
and Merino in Castile. Middle and Southern Spain held aloof. 
Zumalacarregui fell in 1835. Don Carlos though high-minded and 
virtuous, possessed little capacity for ruling. Without military 
talent, but an adept in the art of burning and devastating, the Chris- 
tino General Espartero imparted to the war a character of vandalism. 
In 1839 Espartero became master of the rising, not by any feat of 
arms, but by intrigues and the treachery of General Maroto, who 
came over to his camp with twenty-one battalions. The Treaty of 
Bergera, 1839, guaranteed to the Basque provinces their Fueros or 
ancient liberties. Don Carlos and Cabrera passed into France. In 
1845 Don Carlos abdicated in favor of his son Don Carlos. He died 
in Trieste, 1855. 

396. Further Revolutions in Spain. — Meanwhile the Christinos them- 
selves had split into two parties, the Moderates and the Radicals (Progres- 
sistoe). The latter came to power in 1835. Whilst the Radical mob stormed 
and burned monasteries and convents, massacred its inmates, and com- 
mitted other brutalities worthy of the Reign of Terror, the ministers sup- 
pressed the religious orders and declared all the monastic estates national 
property. In Andalusia the guards revolted iu 1836, arrested the Queen 
Regent in her sleeping apartments, and forced upon her the Constitution of 

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1812, which was exchanged for a moderate one in 1837. In the progress of 
the revolution Christina, whose private life was a public scandal, was com- 
pelled to abdicate, and Espartero made himself regent, 1840. With him 
came pronunciamentos and insurrections of rival generals after the style 
of the South American republics. In 1843 a fusion of Moderates and Re- 
publicans overthrew him, and the Cortes declared Isabella II. of age. In 
Spain as in Portugal the Liberal government carried out the first article of 
the revolutionary creed: the oppression of the Church. It was only the 
deep-rooted faith of the Spanish people which saved the nation from a 
schism. With General Narvaez at the head of affairs, better days dawned 
upon the distracted country. In 1845 he issued the third and the best Con- 
stitution which Spain had seen within the last ten years. To his energetic 
administration are due the few years of peace and prosperity which, though 
not without many interruptions, Spain enjoyed from 1845 to 1868. 

See Books to § 1. — Henntngsen : A Twelve Months* Campaign with ZumalacarregtU. — 
M. Burke Honan : The Court and Camp of Don Carlo*, 



397. Parliamentary Reform. — George IV. died in 1830. 
His eldest surviving brother succeeded him as William IV.' The 
July Revolution gave a fresh impulse to the Parliamentary reform 
which had been brewing for some time in the minds of the people. 
The movement proceeded from the middle classes against the aris- 
tocratic land owners who filled the two Houses of Parliament. As 
an instance, there were fifty-six "rotten boroughs " with either no 
inhabitants (Old Sarum, Gatton), or with only a few, holding 143 
seats in Parliament, whilst large cities of recent growth like Bir- 
mingham, Manchester, and Leeds, were unrepresented. The reform 
movement induced Wellington to resign. Lord John Russell's 
Reform Bill of 1831, repeatedly thrown out by the Lords, but backed 
by a violent agitation in the country, by threats of physical force, and 
by fierce riots in Bristol, finally passed the Upper House in 1832. 
By this first Reform Act 143 boroughs lost one or both members, 
and the seats thus obtained were given to large towns, counties, or 
new boroughs. A similar reform was extended to Ireland and Scot- 
land. About this time the Whigs began to call themselves Liberals, 
the Tories, Conservatives. 

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398. Abolition of Slavery, 1833. — The year 1833 saw the 
abolition of slavery in the British colonies. The slave trade had 
been abolished by England in 1807, condemned by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815, and declared illegal by France in 1819. Philan- 
thropists like Wilberforce, Clarkson, Buxton and others extended 
the agitation from the question of slave trade to that of slavery itself 
and brought it to a successful issue in 1833 ; 20,000,000/. were 
voted to indemnify the slaveholders. 

399. Accession of Queen Victoria, 1837-1901.— William IV. 
died in 1837 and was succeeded by his niece, Princess Victoria, the 
daughter of the Duke of Kent. Her dignity and grace won her 
general popularity. In 1844 she married Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Coburg, who enjoyed the title of Prince Consort but obtained no 
official position. Yet by his personal accomplishments he proved 
the wisest counsellor of his Queen and largely promoted education 
and industrial science in England. The succession of Victoria 
brought about the separation of Hanover from England. As the 
Salic law excluded female succession in Hanover, the last surviving 
brother of William IV., Ernest August, Duke of Cumberland, became 
King of Hanover. 

400. The Rebellion in Canada, 1837-39. — The first Par- 
liament of Queen Victoria had to deal with a rebellion in Lower or 
Western Canada. The government of the Canadas was in the hands 
of a few powerful families. Each of the two Canadas had a separate 
system of government consisting of a Governor or executive, a Legis- 
lative Council whose members were appointed for life by the Crown, 
and a representative Assembly chosen by the people. As it was, the 
majority of the Legislative Council, 44 the British party " was con- 
stantly thwarting the resolutions of the Assembly representing the 
vast majority of the French population. Race and religion also 
sharpened the opposition. The colonies, therefore, demanded that 
the Legislative Council should be made elective and have a voice in 
the disposal of the public money. To proclaim and remedy the 
grievances of the colony, Mr. Louis Joseph Papineau, the highly 
respected leader of the French inhabitants, held numerous meetings 
and conventions. Thereupon the Governor issued warrants for the 

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apprehension of many members of the popular Assembly on the 
charge of high treason. The resistance offered to these arrests 
finally burst into open rebellion, which was put down by the mili- 
tary with considerable shedding of blood in Lower Canada. In 
Upper Canada the rising was insignificant. 

401. The Union. — The English Parliament, meanwhile, sus- 
pended the Constitution of Lower Canada, and sent Lord Durham 
to the colony to restore order. Lord Durham acted as dictator, 
issuing amnesties, decrees of exile to Bermuda, threats of execution, 
all with magnificent disregard of laws and precedents. His meas- 
ures roused a storm of opposition in Parliament, and led to his 
recall. Parliament, however, acted upon his report, and decreed 
the union of the two provinces. The French inhabitants, at the 
time prostrated by the rebellion, were unable to prevent the meas- 
ure. The union gave to all Canada one Governor and one Legisla- 
ture, the Upper House to be nominated by the Crown, the Lower 
House elected by the people. French was abolished as the official 
language. But the compact reorganization of the French voters 
enabled them to bring about the repeal of the statute proscribing 
the French language, to obtain their full share in the government, 
and to maintain their separate Catholic schools and their splendid 
Catholic establishment. French Canada, so lately in revolt, became 
the basis of the Conservative party, whilst British Canada became 
the stronghold of the Liberals. 

402. The Chartist Movement. — The reformed Parliament labored in 
the interests of the middle classes to whom it owed its origin. The poor and 
laboring classes derived little or no benefit from Its legislation. The new 
poor-law, passed in 1834, by its regulations for the work-houses branded the 
poor as outcasts. These places were commonly hotbeds of corruption and 
immorality. Too frequently the religious treatment of poor Catholics, both 
adults and children, in these establishments was infamous in practice, 
though not sanctioned by law. The misery of the workingmen and their 
families in the large industrial cities *was frightful. Thousands of them 
were forced to live in wretched quarters and damp cellars. In a great 
meeting near Birmingham the workingmen sought redress in the form of a 
petition. This People's Charter, as it was called, demanded annual Parlia- 
ments, manhood suffrage, vote by ballot, abolition of the property qualifica- 
tion in members of Parliament, salaries for members of the Commons, and 
equal electoral districts. It was in many points the American system. 

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The petition was presented to Parliament In 1839. But the changes pro- 
posed were too sadden and radical to be practical. Parliament refused to 
even take the petition into consideration. The local riots which followed 
its rejection, especially at Birmingham and Newport, were easily sup- 
pressed, and the leaders after being sentenced to death were transported 
for life, 1840. 

403. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846. — One source of 
suffering to the poor, however, was removed because it also injured 
the trade of the middle classes : the exorbitant price of corn caused 
by the high import duties. In 1838 an Anti-corn League was formed 
under the able leadership ot Richard Cobden and John Bright. 
Daniel O'Connell also joined the movement and became one of its 
principal orators. The House of Lords, exclusively composed of 
landowners, was the chief obstacle in the way of reform. Gradually, 
however, all classes became convinced that without the repeal of the 
corn laws the population, which was rapidly increasing by immigra- 
tion, would be exposed to famine. This fear received a terrible 
illustration by the Irish famine of 1845-47, caused by the failure of 
the potato crop, the chief food of the poorer classes. The famine 
strewed the high roads of Ireland with the dead and the dying, and 
reduced its population from 8,000,000 to 5,000,000. Robert Peel 
who had come into office in 1840 to maintain the corn laws, was the 
very man who, convinced of the necessity of the measure, won 
over a sufficient number of lords, to secure, after several fruitless 
efforts, the repeal of the corn laws in 1846. But the Conservatives 
did not forgive Robert Peel his change of front. Already during 
the debate D'Israeli, afterwards Lord Beaconsfield, had launched a 
personal attack full of the fiercest invective, at the " traitor." This 
philippic at once pushed the young statesman into prominence. On 
the very day of Peel's triumph, June 25, a coercion bill, one of 
those characteristic measures of the English Parliament which were 
intended to legislate the starving Irishmen into submissive silence, 
came up for the third reading. For once the most bitter Conserva- 
tives joined their votes to those of O'Connell's party, to have their 
revenge by overwhelming Robert Peel and his ministry. Lord John 
Russell took his place with Palmerston for foreign affairs. 

404. The Irish Famine. — In Ireland the famine lasted till 1847. There 
were districts in which the people died by hundreds daily from famine-fever, 

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the revolution of the barricades. 

dysentery and sheer starvation. The poor-houses were overcrowded. 
Very many lay down on the pavement and died there. Girls and women 
flocked to towns and broke the windows of shops merely to obtain prison- 
food for a few days. The government oscillated between relief, experiments, 
and coercion bills. The English people, however, made np for the failings 
of their law -makers. In every larger city and town subscription lists were 
opened and the most liberal contributions received. National relief associa- 
tions were formed, all denominations taking part in the work of charity. 
Relief gradually poured in from all countries. The United States detailed 
war vessels to carry grain and other food to the starving people. The Irish 
famine, in its consequences, led to the abolition of some of the worst 
features of landlordism and turned a mighty stream of Irish immigration 
towards North America. 

Wright: Life and Reign of William IV. - On Reform Bill: Earl Grey'* Corresp. with 
William IV. — J. McCarthy: The Epoch of Reform, K. R. 67, 2, — Lives of Queen Vic- 
toria by: Johnston (1892),Fawcett (1895), Arnold, (1896) .Holmes (189;). — Martin: Life of 
the Prince Contort. — Gonner: The Early Hist, of Chartism 1836-39. — Bryce: Short 
Hiet. of the Canadian People. — J. C. Dent: The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion, — 
Bonrinot: Manual of the Conetit. Hist, of Canada. — Sir Rob. Peel by J. McCarthy ; M. 
L. Taylor; WalpoTe. — Morley: Life of Rich. Cobden. — 0. A. Vinoe: John Bright, R. R. 
•82, 1.— B. B. O'Brien: Fifty Years of Concessions to Ireland, 1881-81.— 8. Garan Dnfly : 
Four Tears of Irish Hist. 1846-49; Young Ireland, 1840-60. — O'Brien: Great Famine in 
Ireland and Reiroepect (1815-95). — A. M. Sullivan: New Ireland. — B. Barry O'Brien: 
The Iriih Agrarian War, 1830-1880, M. '82, 1. — Rk Rev. Spalding: Mission of the Irish 
People. — Theband, S. J. : The Irish Race. 


405. Catholic Revival in France. — The Catholic revival in 
France began in the reign of Louis XVIII., when Chateaubriand, 
de Maistre, de Bonald fearlessly proclaimed the Catholic religion 
and the Holy See as the only secure foundation on which to restore 
civil society. In 1833 the learned Ozanam founded the Society of 
St. Vincent of Paul. His idea was to oppose the reigning Voltair- 
ianism by the service of God in the service of the poor, and to 
create a means of reconciliation in the struggle between the classes 
and the masses. His appeals found a mighty response among the 
educated classes. In the course of time 7,000 members were per- 
sonally visiting and aiding 20,000 poor in the city of Paris. Before 
1848, 500 conferences or local organizations were working in 
France, whilst the Society was firmly established in England, 
Belgium, Spain, North America, and other countries. The Society 
of the Propagation of the Faith founded at Lyons in 1822 counted 



700,000 members in 1841. The number of religious more than 
doubled over what it had been before the outbreak of the Revolution. 
Dominican and Jesuit and other orators like Fray ssinous, Lacordaire, 
Berry er, and Ravignan, filled the Cathedral of Notre Dame with 
the elite of Parisian society. No country sent so many mission- 
aries and martyrs into the heathen missions as France. Catholic 
literature and journalism had their eminent representatives in Mon- 
talembert, de Falloux, Ozanam, Louis Veuillot, and others. The 
Catholic Circle under the patronage of Mgr. d'Aif re, Archbishop of 
Paris, and of many distinguished laymen, formed a center for Cath- 
olic young men who came to Paris in search of higher education. 
A brilliant array of Catholic deputies under the leadership of Mon- 
talembert, defended the rights of the Church in the Chamber, whilst 
the firmness of the bishops, foremost among them Cardinal de 
Bonald, Archbishop of Lyons, resisted, on the whole successfully, 
repeated attempts to revive Gallicauism in the seminaries. 

406. Political and Religious State of Germany. — The political his- 
tory of Germany almost down to the year 1848, is the history of monar- 
chical reaction not only against revolutionary excesses but against the just 
demands and rights of the people. The men who had roused the enthu- 
siasm of the nation in the war of liberation had to make room for a tribe 
of narrow-minded bureaucrats. Prominent patriots, like Joseph Goerres, 
the greatest publicist of Germany, whom Napoleon had called the Fifth 
Power of Europe, were subjected to the most contemptible forms of perse- 
cution. The territorial assemblies established in the Congress of Vienna 
were allowed no power or influence. The Diet of Frankfort became a 
political machine in the hands of Austria and Prussia for the promotion of 
their dynastic interests. The Catholic Church well-nigh banished from 
public life, deprived of her freedom of action, her property, her monas- 
teries and schools, betrayed by some of her own prelates and priests, and 
paralyzed by the indiflerentism of the masses, was allowed a precarious 
existence as the handmaid of the State, a sort of higher police institution. 
Especially in Prussia, the ministers of the crown in their aim of protestant- 
izing Its Catholic subjects, carried into every branch of the administration 
the pernicious principle, that the King is the source of all rights, political 
and religious, for Protestants and Catholics alike. 

407. Beginning of the Revival. — Whilst the oppression of the Church 
issued from the high places, the revival started from the very heart of the 
people. In 1800 Count Leopold of Stolberg embraced the Catholic faith. 
Ills sterling character and his great work, "The History of Religion/' 




attracted widespread attention to his conversion. Protestants of the high- 
est standing in literature and art (Overbeck, Cornelius, later Frederic von 
Schlegel, Gfrorer, etc.) followed his example. The unmeasured attacks 
made on the Catholic Church and her new converts during the jubilee of 
the Reformation, 1817, roused the Catholics from their torpor, and called 
forth energetic refutations in books, pamphlets, and periodicals. Joseph 
Goerres, with his powerful style and cutting irony, stood in the front ranks 
of the defenders of the faith. The followers of the Romantic school in 
Germany, like Ozanam in France, and Walter Scott in England, produced a 
fairer aud truer appreciation of the Catholic Middle Ages. But no event 
had a greater influence on the Catholic yvival of Germany than the " Koeln 
affair " of 1837. 

408. The Koeln Affair. — A cabinet order in force in Silesia 
under which children of mixed marriages were to be educated in the 
religion of their father, was extended in 1825 to the Rhine provinces 
and to Westphalia. The Catholic, clergy refused to comply with 
the order. At the request of the government the bishops asked for 
instructions from the Holy See. Pius VIII., in an Apostolic Brief, 
gave the only possible decision, that children of mixed marriages 
were to be educated in th^ Catholic religion, a decision which 
Gregory XVI. confirmed. Thereupon Ferdinand of Spiegel, Arch- 
bishop of Koeln, and three of his suffragans without any knowledge 
on the part of the Holy See, entered into a secret conspiracy with 
the Prussian government practically to ignore the Papal Brief. 
The Bishop of Trier, one of the signers of the secret Convention, 
repented on his death-bed and informed the Pope of the plot. 
Minister Bunsen who had represented the government in this dis- 
honest transaction, liad the effrontery to deny the fact as an impos- 
sibility. Archbishop Spiegel was succeeded by Clement Droste of 
Vischering, a prelate of unimpeachable loyalty to his duty and his 
Church. As soon as he discovered the secret Convention, he sent a 
declaration to Berlin, that he would strictly carry out the Brief of 
Pius VIII. The government now dropped the mask, and on Novem- 
ber 20, 1837, arrested the fearless Archbishop with a great display 
of military force and conveyed him to the fortress of Minden. He 
was charged with violating his engagements with the government, 
undermining the laws, and maintaining connections with two revolu- 
tionary parties. The follow ing year Archbishop Dunin of Gnesen 
was arrested for the same fidelity to the laws of the Church, and 
confined in the fortress of Colberg. 



409. The Triumph of Right. — The intense excitement caused 
in Germany and in the entire Catholic world by the arrest of the 
Archbishop was in itself a clear indication, how much public 
Catholic sentiment had grown since the days of Napoleon. Greg- 
ory XVI. in December, 1837, held a powerful allocution which was 
received with enthusiasm by the Catholics of Europe and America. 
The remaining two bishops who had signed the secret Convention, 
withdrew their signatures. The Prussian government tried to justify 
its measures, but the Holy See published documents which allowed 
of no contradiction. The National Council of Baltimore sent words 
of admiration and encouragement to the 44 new Confessors of the 
Faith." Joseph Goerres in his 44 Athanasius " and his 44 Triarier 99 
triumphantly refuted the arguments of the government and of the 
anti-Catholic press. The government was defeated on the whole line. 
The Catholic practice as outlined in the Brief of Leo XII. was every- 
where restored. 

When the large-minded Frederic William IV. succeeded his father in 
1840, the Archbishop of Gnesen, previously released, was at once allowed 
to return to his see. The Archbishop of Koeln was restored to full lib- 
erty and by a public letter of the King acquitted of all charges which 
the former government had raised against him. To facilitate the work of 
peace Gregory XVI. persuaded the Archbishop to accept the bishop of 
Speier, afterwards Cardinal Geissel, as coadjutor and administrator of the 
diocese with the right of succession, whilst Mgr. Droste remained Arch- 
bishop in right and fact. The venerable prelate by his work on " Peace 
between Church and 8tate," and Frederic William IV. by his generous gifts 
for the restoration of the Cathedral of Koeln sealed the reconciliation. A 
pilgrimage of 1,500,000 persons to the Holy Robe of Christ in the city of 
Trier, 1844, was a splendid proof of the growing devotion of the people. 
Fresh troubles arose, such as, Ronge's German -Catholic revolt, small in 
numbers but strong in malice, the Protestant Alliance, new encroachments 
on the rights of the Church by the officialdom of Prussia ; but the Catholics 
were now prepared for effective resistance, and the revival of 18S7 bore its 
fruit throughout the century. 

O'Meara : Life and Works of Ozanam. — R. Parsons : Ozanam; Montalembert and the 
Struggle for Freedom of Education in France, Studies V. — B. F. C, Cobtello, M. A : 
Fr. Ozanam (Cath. Troth Soc Publications) ; An Anniversary 1833-»83 (Soc. of St. 
Vincent oi Paul), M. '88,2. — Wllstach: Montalembert, —Religious Revival in Germany: 
W. Ward: Life of Card. Wiseman, v. I. — PfUlf: Card. Geissel. — Jos. Goerres: Athana- 
sius; Die Triarier.— Church Histories, by Card. Hergenroether, Brilck, Alzog. (Engl.).— 
Br lick: Germ. Eccl. Hist, in the 19th Century (Germ.). 




410. The Oxford Movement. — The Church of England in the first three 
decades of the century presented a picture of utter worldiiness and corrup- 
tion. Rationalism was undermining its teaching. The Liberal government 
made its sees an object of political barter. This state of affairs induced a 
number of Oxford professors, all learned men of high intellectual attain- 
ments, to start a reform movement within the established church. They 
hoped to be able by prayer, frequent communion, sermons and writings and 
by the power of a good example to infuse a new life into the decaying estab- 
lishment. The movement began under the leadership of Edward B. Pusey 
iu 1833, when John Newman issued the first " Tracts for the Times." (Pusey- 
ites, Tractarians.) The Tractarians drew their inspiration from the works 
of the ancient Fathers aud the Lives of Catholic Saints. The move- 
ment soon spread beyond the limits of the University aud attracted the 
attention of the whole country. Newman's lectures on the Via Media, begun 
in 1835, sought a middle ground between the Papacy and Protestanism. By 
1838 the leading Tractarians publicly condemned the Protestant Reformation. 

411. The Homeward Movement, 1839-45. — In 1839 
Newman abandoned the anti-Roman basis of the Via Media and 
began to look towards Rome. The more advanced Tractarians 
sought for a corporate reunion with Rome on the basis of mutual 
concessions. In this state of mind Newman in 1841 published his 
celebrated Tract No. 90, in which he endeavored to show that the 
thirty-nine articles were capable of being reconciled with the 
decrees of the Council of Trent. The Tract caused a tremendous 
excitement throughout the country. A storm of protests and cen- 
sures poured in from university authorities, Anglican bishops, and 
political writers. At the request of the bishop of Oxford, Newman 
discontinued the Tracts. He withdrew from the University and 
retired to his living, St. Mary's, Littlemore. Two years later he 
published a formal retraction of all the hard things which he had 
said of the Church of Rome and resigned his living. With a num- 
ber of friends he established at Littlemore a sort of religious com- 
munity engaged in exercises of piety and literary labors. 

The opposition to Tract No. 90 disrupted the Oxford movement into 
two camps. Pusey and his adherents deprecated any union with the Cath- 
olic Church. Qeorge W. Ward became the acknowledged leader of the 

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Romeward movement during Newman's voluntary seclusion. In this camp 
the conviction daily grew that the idea of corporate reunion must give way 
to that of simple submission to Rome. 

412. The Crisis, 1845. — In 1844 Ward published " the Ideal 
of a Christian Church, 1 ' in which Rome was practically acknowl- 
edged as the divinely appointed guardian of religious truth. The 
animus of the work was clearly outlined in the author's expressed 
desire to see the English Church 44 repenting in sorrow and bitter- 
ness of heart her great sin of the sixteenth century, and suing at 
the feet of Rome for pardon and restoration." The " Ideal 
Church " raised a second and still fiercer storm of opposition than 
Tract No. 90. A convocation of over 1,100 university men, held 
at the Sheldonian Theater on February 13, 1845, condemned select 
passages of the 44 Ideal," and degraded Mr. Ward from his Uni- 
versity degrees. The condemnation of Tract No. 90 w T as prevented 
only by the veto of the Proctors. 

413. Exodus of Tractarians. — The events just described 
led to the first exodus of Tractarians from the Anglican Church in 
1845. Ward, Newman, Frederic William Faber, Oakely, and 
many more, made their submission to the Catholic Church, and were 
confirmed by Bishop Wiseman. Newman's reception proved the 
signal for large numbers to follow. Gradually 900 Tractarians 
made their profession of the Catholic faith, and the stream of indi- 
vidual conversions steadily increased. A number of neophytes 
joined the various religious orders. In 1850 a decision of the Privy 
Council, in opposition to the decision of the bishops, forced upon 
the Anglican Church a clergyman (Mr. Gordon), who denied 
baptismal regeneration. This measure and a powerful Pastoral of 
Bishop Wiseman, led to a new accession of Tractarians to the Cath- 
olic Church, including Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) Manning. 
Later on the number of converts swelled to many thousands. 

414. Establishment of the English Hierarchy. — There had 
been, from the start, a marked coldness founded on differences of edu- 
cation and traditions, between the old English Catholics and the Neo- 
phytes. Many Catholics with whom the penal laws were yet a vivid 
reminiscence, suspected the sincerity of the converts. But events 

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soon happened which helped to draw together all who bore the Catho- 
lic name. In September, 1850, Pius IX. created Nicholas Wise- 
man, Cardinal and Archbishop of Westminster, erected eight suffragan 
bishoprics with English titles and thus restored the Catholic hierar- 
chy in England. The Vicars Apostolic who had since the Reforma- 
tion received episcopal consecration, had borne foreign titles (in 
partibus infidelium). As soon as the news arrived that the Pope 
had distributed " English titles," the country began to resound with 
angry protests against the " Papal aggression." Lord John Russell 
in an inflammatory letter addressed to the bishop of Durham gave 
point and direction to the agitation. The day after the letter ap- 
peared, noisy demonstrations and " Guy Fawkes " processions were 
held throughout the country. For a time effigies of the Pope and 
of the Cardinal were carried about every day and burnt somewhere 
and tumultuous meetings held to denounce the action of the Pope. 
The Cardinal himself was hooted and stoned in the streets. Some- 
thing like 7,000 of such meetings were held before the end of the 
year. It showed, however, a distinct advance in public feeling since 
the Gordon riots, that in all these noisy meetings no blood was shed 
and no outrage committed against the Catholics. An appeal of 
Cardinal Wiseman to the English people did much by its calm and 
powerful reasoning to allay the storm and to obtain a hearing for the 
other side. The ministers, however, thought it necessary to satisfy 
the public clamor by some piece of legislation. Accordingly the 
44 Ecclesiastical Titles Bill 99 was introduced in Parliament in 1851. 
It inflicted a penalty of 100/. on persons assuming English titles and 
invalidated their deeds. The bill considerably trimmed down be- 
came a law after a six months' 'debate. The clause invalidating 
deeds had been dropped. The penalty of 100/. was retained but 
never inflicted. The law was from the beginning to the end a dead 
letter, and was quietly removed from the statute book twenty years 
later under Gladstone's ministry. 

415. Results. — The numerical increase of English Catholics was not the 
only nor the chief result of the Catholic revival. The Oxford movement had 
done much to dispel deep seated prejudices. The Catholic name, hitherto 
hated or despised, began to be respected in all classes of society. When the 
number of converts included men like Cardinals Newman and Manning, seven 
members of the Privy Council, thirty -three Peers, eighty- two Commoners, 

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1,051 members of the nobility, 154 representatives of the army and the 
ministry of war, among them a field marshal, six generals and several 
major-generals, twenty- nine representatives of the navy, among them seven 
admirals, besides numerous clergymen, judges, barristers, doctors, authors, 
etc., the Catholic Church secured a social standiug in England as she had 
never enjoyed since the days of Mary Tudor. Of greater importance was 
the foundation of colleges, seminaries, schools, hospitals, and other charita- 
ble or missionary institutions, the multiplication of religious orders, the 
complete ecclesiastical organization of the country and the new and hearty 
adherence of the Church in England to the Holy See under three successive 
Cardinals, Wiseman. Manning, and Vaughan. This Catholic pulsation is 
still attracting the attention of multitudes outside the Church to the highest 
troths and instilling into whole masses of Englishmen religious beliefs, 
devotions, and Catholic ideals which had been expelled from England by the 
Protestant Revolution. 

W. Ward: W. G. Ward and the Oxford Movement; W. Q. Ward and the Cath. Revival; 
Life of Card. Wiseman. — Wilfrid Wllberforce : W. Q. Ward, D. R , '04, 8. — Cardinal 
Newman: Apologia pro vita sua; Hist, of My Religious Opinions; Letters and Corre- 
spondence (7890). — H. J. Jennings: Card. Newman, The Story of His Z</fe. — R. 
Parsons: The Oxford Movement, Studies V. — Heuser: Card. Newman, A. 0. Q. 15. 
Pnrcell: Life of Card. Manning. — K. Paul: Dr Pusey, M. '94, 3. — W. G. Gorman: 
Converts to Rome.— Robert Ornsby, M. A. : Memoirs of James Hope- Scott of Abbotsford, 

416. Internal State of the July Monarchy. — Louis Philip lacked the his- 
torical right of the Bourbons, the plebiscite of the revolutionary govern- 
ment, and the military glory of the Empire, elements which had strengthened 
former governments. The Chamber was unpopular, because elected by a 
small minority. The property qualification of the franchise was so high 
that little more than 200,000 persons enjoyed the right of voting. The use 
which the government made of 130,000 places at Its disposal led to corrup- 
tion. Accordingly the Chamber was constantly exposed to the outside 
attacks of the different factions. Repeated revolts of Bonapartists and 
Republicans, insurrections of 200,000 socialists and laborers in Lyons, a 
rising of the Legitimists In the Vendue stirred up by the Duchess of Berry 
indicated the precarious tenure of the crown. In 1832 a shot was fired at 
the King, the first of the many unsuccessful attempts upon his life. The 
worst of them was the explosion of an infernal machine in 1834 which killed 
eighteen persons and wounded forty one, whilst the King and his sous were 
saved only as by miracle. In 1842 the dynasty suffered a great loss in the 
death, by a violent fall from his horse, of the Duke of Orleans, the King's 
eldest son. Besides, Prince Louis Napoleon made two adventurous attempts 

§ 8. 




to get himself proclaimed Emperor, the first at Strassburg (1836), which 
led to his banishment to America; the second at Boulogne which made him 
prisoner at Ham. In 1846 he contrived to escape from his prison in the 
disguise of a mason. These attempts served to cousolidate the Bon apart ists 
who had hitherto cooperated with the Republicans, iuto a distinct political 

Meanwhile the Socialists and Communists, Saint Simon, Constant, Louis 
Blanc, Fourier, Proudhou, were carrying on their own pernicious propa- 
ganda. They preached a science without religion, a family without mar- 
riage, a State without government, a community of goods in which private 
ownership was declared theft, and the complete overthrow of the existing 

417. Conquest of Algeria. — Algeria had been taken in the 
last days of Charles X. Between 1830 and 1836 the occupation of 
the province was alternately restricted and enlarged according to the 
changing fortunes of the desultory warfare between the army of 
occupation and Abd-el-Kader, the great chief of the Kabyles. The 
Kabyles were a powerful Barbary tribe which, though Christian in 
earlier times, had been forced by the conquering Arabs to accept the 
Islam. General Bugeaud after the battle of Sikkab, 1836, infused 
greater energy into the contest. In the campaign of 1841-42 Gen- 
eral La Moriciere secured two-thirds of Oran, while General 
Changarnier had equal success in Algeria. Marshal Bugeaud 
accomplished the definite conquest of Algeria. Under his successor, 
the Duke d'Aumale, Lamorkiere captured Abd-el-Kader in 1847, 
and Marshal Randon organized the Grand Kabyly as a province of 

Unfortunately the policy of the French governments erected an insur- 
mountable barrier between the French colonists and the native tribesmen 
which made their conversion and civilization impossible. It was left to 
• Cardinal Lavig6rie, at a later period, to break down this barrier and to open 
Algeria and Northern and Central Africa to evangelization and civilization. 
Abd el-Kader was released by Napoleon ili. in 1852 and sent to Asia Minor. 

418, Foreign Complications — The Eastern Question. — 

Mehemet Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, the most powerful of the Sultan's 
vassals, aided by the warlike qualities of his son, Ibrahim Pasha, 
wrested Syria, from Turkey, 1831-33. After a declaration of war by 
Sultan Mahmoud, Ibrahim Pasha again won an overwhelming victory 
at Nisibis on the Euphrates over the Turkish army, 1839. The 

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death of Sultan Mahmoud in the same year was followed by the 
treacherous surrender of the Turkish fleet to Egypt by its admiral. 
The Viceroy of Egypt, relying on France, where he had a strong sup- 
port in M. Thiers and his war party, demanded from the young 
Sultan Abdul Medjid (1839-61), the hereditary investiture with all 
the lands actually in his power. Without foreign aid Turkey was 
lost. Under these circumstances, England, Austria, Russia, and 
Prussia formed a Quadruple Alliance, excluding France from this 
concert of Powers. The land and sea forces of the allies compelled 
Mehemet AH to give up his claims and to confine himself to Egypt, 
whose possession, however, was made hereditary. A Convention to 
this effect was signed in London. Thiers, the minister of Louis 
Philip, suspected that England was bent upon driving Mehemet Ali 
out of Egypt and keeping the country herself. His opposition to 
the arrangement of the Quadruple Alliance threatened for a time a 
European war. But the King of France and M. Guizot were in 
favor of peace. Accordingly Thiers had to resign, Guizot fonned a 
new ministry and France signed the treaty of London, 1841. 
Guizot remained at the head of affairs till the fall of Louis Philip. 

419. The Revolution in Switzerland, — In 1846 the leaders 
of the international Revolution were preparing for a new united effort 
throughout Europe. It first broke out in Switzerland. This coun- 
try, like England, was an asylum for revolutionary fugitives from 
every land. Their secret plottings still more increased the radicalism 
of a number of Swiss Cantons. The suppression of monastic orders 
in Aargau and other high-handed measures against the Catholic 
Church induced the Catholic Cantons to think of defensive measures. 
Four Cantons, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and Zug had maintained 
their Catholic governments. The votes of three other Cantons, 
Luzern, Freiburg, and Upper Wallis ousted their radical governments 
and elected Catholic magistrates. The excitement caused by these 
steps in the radical Cantons increased when the government of 
Luzern called the Jesuits into the country to conduct the higher 
education. With the silent approval of the radical Cantons armed 
bands of volunteers invaded Luzern to overthrow the Catholic 
government. After two attacks had been successfully repulsed the 
seven strictly Catholic Cantons formed the " Sonderbund " a 

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separate confederation for the defense of their constitutional rights, 
1846. The great Powers were fully aware that a victory over the 
Sonderbund would be a victory over the cause of right and order. 
But England's anti-Catholic policy prevented any interference in 
favor of the Sonderbund. Thus violence prevailed over right. The 
Catholic Cantons were defeated, and forced to accept anti-Catholic 
magistrates. A Federative Council in 1848 at Bern greatly curtailed 
the self-government of all the Swiss Cantons. 

Other signs of an impending Revolution were not wanting. The secret 
societies had never ceased to undermine the existing order of things, 
though in France they had received a check in 1838. The Freemasons pub- 
lished their " Orders of the Day " at Brussels, whence they were secretly 
spread through France. In 1846 a general reorganization was effected and 
preparatory steps for a general European outbreak were taken. In the 
autumn of 1847, Germany witnessed a great Congress of European Free- 
masonry, many of whose leaders took part in the events of 1848. Garibaldi 
started from South America for Europe, Mazzini made ready to leave 
London. Disturbances in Milan, outbreaks in Messiua and Palermo, an 
attempted insurrection in Calabria were but the preliminary rumblings of the 
general European upheaval which began in Paris in the February days of 

Gnlzot: Memoirs to Illustrate the Hist, of My Own Time; Last Days of the Reign of 
Louis Philip: — Walpole; Fyffe. — Abbott: Louis Philip. — The Monarchy of July, Q. R. 
'88, 2.— The Conquest of Algiers, E. R. »89, 4.— Marshal Bugeaud, Duke of Isly, E. R. '83, 
4,97,1. — Paton: Hist, of the Egypt. Revol. — CreUneau Joly: Hist, de Sonderbund. — 
Ulrich: Der B'urgerkrieg in d. Schwdz. — Sir F. P. Adams and 0. D. Cunningham: The 
Swiss Confederation. 



420. The February Days, February 22-24, 1848. — The efforts of the 
Liberals were ostensibly directed towards a reform of popular representa- 
tion by a lowering of the property qualifications of the voters. Leaders of 
different shades, Thiers, Laraartine, Arago, Louis Blanc, and others, had, to 
all appearances, borrowed the English methods of political agitation, reform 
banquets, speeches, processions, etc. But behind these demonstrations 
stood the organized Revolution, the secret societies, the men of the 
faubourgs, and the Socialists. A prohibition issued by the government 
against a reform banquet led to a revolt, which became a revolution, and 
ended In the flight of the King, and the proclamation of the Democratic 





February 22 the people gathered in large numbers to take part in 
the prohibited demonstration. No collision occurred because the 
military remained quiet. The concentration of regulars and national 
guards in the strategical points of the city on the morning of the 
23d. told the people that the government had caught the alarm. 
The secret committees made their arrangements. Towards the 
evening barricades were thrown up, gunshops plundered, and — a 
worse sign of disintegration — the national guards began to fraternize 
with the people. Guizot resigned and made room for Thiers and 
Odillon Barrot. Before the close of the day a collision occurred be- 
tween the crowd and the military in which fifty of the people fell. 
The bodies of the victims were put in wagons and drawn through the 
streets to inflame the populace; but Marshal Bugeaud assuming 
command, quietly took the barricades and checked the riots. Next 
morning, February 24, the new ministers ordered him to withdraw 
the troops. Thereupon dense masses of insurgents, national guards, 
armed workingmen and troops of the line fraternizing with the mob 
rolled from all sides towards the Tuileries, captured on their way the 
Palais Royal, massacred the guards, and destroyed all the property 
belonging to the royal family. At the approach of the insurgent 
people the King was persuaded to abdicate in favor of his grandson, 
the Count of Paris. Louis Philip and his wife fled to England in 
disguise as Mr. and Mrs. Smith ; other members of the family escaped 
to Belgium. 

421. The Democratic Republic. — A provisional government 
was formed at the Hotel de Ville. Lamartine and others, who came 
from the Chamber, never dreamt of a republic. In their mind a 
future assembly was to determine the form of the government. But 
the Republicans and Socialists supported by the people in arms 
carried everything before them. Great and disagreeable was the 
surprise of the bourgeoisie of Paris when the provisional government 
proclaimed the Democratic Republic and summoned a Constituent 
National Assembly to Paris, February 25. To satisfy the Socialists 
the provisional government engaged to procure work for all citizens, 
guaranteed the right of association to the workingmen, and decreed 
that a permanent commission be established for the special purpose 
of providing for the wants of the working classes. The Socialist 

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Louis Blanc, a member of government, was appointed president, and 
Mr. Albert, a workingman, vice-president of this Commission. The 
provisional government also empowered the minister of public works 
to open national workshops. 

These national workshops were a semi-military organization with graded 
ranks of salaried officers. Every workman enrolled received thirty sous of 
daily wages from the public funds whether work was to be had or not. Ou 
a single day (May 19), 87,000 persons were enrolled. A month later the 
enrollment rose to 125,000 men, many of them idlers and agitators. The 
enrolled men with their families represented 600,000 persons. 

422. The "Days of June 99 23-26. — The elections by man- 
hood suffrage to the Constituent National Assembly resulted in a 
conservative majority largely composed of Legitimists, Orleanists, 
and Bonapartists, among them Prince Louis Napoleon himself. The 
Republican watchword was Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ; the vic- 
torious opponents rallied for Order, Family, Property. The first 
important step of the Assembly was the dissolution of the national 
workshops. This measure led to a most sanguinary insurrection of 
the socialistic workingmen, which for four days filled the streets of 
Paris with carnage. The Assembly appointed the Republican General 
Cavaignac Dictator. Under him fought General Lamorieiere. The 
insurgents were marshaled by leaders of military skill though no 
one knew who they were. Over 16,000 fell dead or wounded, or 
were driven into the Seine. Nearly 14,000 prisoners were taken, of 
whom several thousand died by prison fever. Among the murdered 
victims was Mgr. d'Affre, the venerable Archbishop of Paris, who 
was shot by an insurgent from a window whilst mounting a barricade 
to address the insurgents. The victorious Assembly declared Paris 
in a state of siege, disarmed the workingmen, closed the 300 revo- 
lutionary clubs and passed a law of deportation. 

423. Louis Napoleon, President of the Republic. — In 

the Assembly the debates on the Constitution were protracted for 
months. They could not agree on the mode of electing the Presi- 
dent of the Republic. It was finally determined that the presidential 
term should be four years and that if no candidate should obtain a 
majority of votes, the election should devolve to the Assembly. The 

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Constitution of 1848 was proclaimed November 10. The general 
elections returned Louis Napoleon by over 5,500,000 votes. 

Napoleon owed his election to the peasantry of France, and to the fact 
that the Legitimists and Orleanists had proposed no candidate of their own 
for fear of weakening Napoleon's chances and thus throwing the election 
into the Assembly. For the Assembly would have elected Cavaignac 
in spite of his Republicanism on account of his services in quelling the 
socialistic rebellion. 

424. The Coup d'Etat of December 2, 1861. — The Constitution of 1848 
never struck root in France. The feeling was general that the country had 
been tricked into accepting a republic; that only a monarchical government 
could save France from new revolutions. Napoleon adroitly turned this 
feeling to his account. In complicity with a number of close adherents, St. 
Arnaud, Persigny, Major Fleury, de Maupas, Moray, he gradually concen- 
trated the most reliable troops in aud around Paris. On the night of De- 
cember 1-2, 1851, there issued forth from the State printing office, guarded 
by a military cordon, proclamations which dissolved the Assembly, pro- 
posed a new Constitution, placed Paris and twelve surrounding depart- 
ments under martial law, and appealed to the army. On the following 
morning letters of dismissal were handed to the members of government 
who were not in the plot. The foremost generals of France, Cavaignac, 
Bugeaud, Lamoriciere, Changarnier , etc., several leading statesmen, 
among them Thiers, eighteen members of the Assembly, and a number of 
leading Democrats, altogether seventy eight persons of distinction, were 
seized at a quarter past six and placed in confinement. Later iu the day 
the members of the Assembly, 220 deputies, upon their refusal to clear the 
hall were carried off by the military to different fortresses. Another 
armed force drove the judges of the Supreme Court from the bench because 
they had impeached the President. The revolts which broke out in the 
streets of Paris, December 2 and 4, were crushed with some shedding of 

A Plebiscite of over 6,000,000 votes, according to reports, elected 
Louis Napoleon president for ten years with almost monarchical 
power and conferred upon him the right to issue a new Constitution. 

425. The Second Empire, December 2, 1852. — Napoleon 
lost no time in diverting his increase of power towards the accom- 
plishment of his real aim, the restoration of the Napoleonic Empire. 
He banished his principal opponents, revived the Constitution of the 
First Empire, confiscated the appanages of the House of Orleans and 
issued a decree compelling the members of the royal family to sell 

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their landed estates in France. The Senate submitted the restora- 
tion of the hereditary empire to the acceptance of the people, and 
the people ratified the restoration with over 7,500,000 votes against 
some 253,000. Napoleon III. was enthroned on the anniversary of 
the coronation of Napoleon I., December 2, 1852. All the European 
Powers acknowledged the Second Empire which Napoleon pro- 
claimed as an empire of peace. As he was desirous of gathering all 
the conservative elements around his throne, the Church iu France 
entered upon a period of great prosperity and religious zeal. In 
1853 Napoleon married Eugenie Montijo, the Spanish Countess of 

Gnlzot: France under Louis Philip. — Lamartlne : Hist of the Iievol. of 1848. — Caasl- 
dlfcre : Secret Hist, of the Iievol. of 1848. — Hodde : Secret Societies. — Marquis ot Kor- 
manby: A Year of Iievol — L. Blanc: Hist. Revelations. — Oorkran : Hist, of the Constit. 
Nat. Assembly from May, 1848. — Tenot: Paris in December, 1861. — Manpas: The 
Story of the Coup d*Etat. — JeTTo\& : Life of Napoleon III. 

§ 10. 


426. Pius IX. — In 1846 Maria Mastai Feretti came forth from 
a conclave of forty -eight hours' duration as Pius IX. Troubled as 
his Pontificate was destined to become, it was at the same time the 
longest and one of the most glorious since the 44 years of St. Peter." 
A month after his elevation a general amnesty opened Rome and the 
Pontifical States to the political exiles. Pius IX. inaugurated a 
series of reforms which were received with enthusiasm. He gave 
the press greater freedom, constituted a Council of State composed 
of one representative of each province, admitted laymen into the 
ministry, and reorganized the old Civic Guards. The people were 
given a voice in every department of the government. He finally 
appointed a commission to draw up a Constitution for the Papal 

A great many of those who availed themselves of the amnesty, requited 
the Pope's clemency with base ingratitude and treason. They at once 
reorganized the secret societies and carried on a revolutionary propaganda 
under the direction of Mazzini. Whilst noisily applauding every new 
reform, they constantly excited the people for new and more radical con- 
cessions. Ciceruacchio, a burly demagogue, stirred up the masses to dis- 

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orderly demonstrations. The Italian revolutionists at home and abroad 
were in close relation not only with the democratic conspirators of other 
countries, but also with Lord Palmerston who had his agents in Rome, 
Turin, and Naples. Lord Minto, accredited to the Holy See, with a sublime 
disdain of diplomatic formalities, made his residence the gathering place of 
the Italian radicals. Metternich, viewing the Papal reforms with marked 
displeasure, forcibly occupied the city of Ferrara. By thus increasing 
Italian exasperation against Austria, the most conservative statesman of 
Europe worked into the hands of Mazzinl and of the Revolution. 

427. The Rising in Milan. — The February Revolution in 
Paris was the signal for the long-prepared insurrection in Milan 
(March 18), where Radetzki, the commander-in-chief of the Austrian 
provinces, had his headquarters. For five days a desperate conflict 
was maintained between the garrison and the population in the 
streets. The insurgents were reinforced by the defection of the 
purely Italian regiments of the garrison. Radetzki was finally 
compelled to evacuate Milan and to withdraw to Verona. Milan 
established a provisional government. Venice at once followed the 
example of Milan and constituted herself a Republic. 

428. War Between Austria and Italy. — The proceedings of 
Milan and Venice induced Charles Albert to declare war against 
Austria in order to prevent the establishment of a Republic in 
revolted Lombardy and to ward off a risiug in his own Kingdom. 
His regular army amounted to 40,000 men. Volunteers flocked to 
his standard from the different Italian States. Garibaldi joined 
him with his Italian Legion gathered in South America, and Mazzini 
arrived from London. Tuscany and Naples declared war jointly with 
Piedmont. The Roman radicals clamored for the same measure. 
But Pius IX., as the common father of Christendom, steadfastly re- 
fused to go to war. His troops that were sent under General Durando, 
to guard the frontiers, were strictly forbidden to cross the line, but 
they disregarded the order of their sovereign. As the whole country 
was in revolt, it was easy for the Italians to take the Austrian fortress 
of Peschiera and to follow Radetzki to the walls of Verona. But here 
the tide turned. A reinforcement under General Nugent, a gallant 
Irish veteran, swelled the Austrian army to 70,000 men. With 
these Radetzki first recovered his communication with the rest of 
Austria by conquering the Venetian mainland. He then crossed the 

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Adige and advanced to Custozza where be inflicted a crushing defeat 
on Charles Albert. Custozza decided the fate of Lombardy. Ra- 
detzki pursued the retreating Piedmontese whose volunteer battalions 
were fast melting away to the very walls of Milan. To save his 
army, Charles Albert evacuated the city, accompanied by the male- 
dictions of the Milanese, while Radetzki entered through the oppo- 
site gate. The King of Sardinia obtained an armistice and was glad 
to retire behind the Ticino. 

Notwithstanding these events, Garibaldi with his 4,000 volunteers of 
Young Italy, loudly declared a u war of the people " against Austria, but in 
a few days his 4,000 Redshirts dwindled down to 800. The Italian situation 
towards the end of 1848 may be summed up as follows : An armed truce 
between Austria and Sardinia kept the regular armies in check In Northern 
Italy; the Republic of Venice was confined to the city; Austria occupied 
Modena and Paima; secret societies, street murders, and brigandage were 
reducing Tuscany and the Roraagna to a state of anarchy; the island of 
Sicily, assisted by heavy cargoes of arms from England, was in successful 
revolt against Naples and its King. England and France protected the 
Sicilian insurgents against Ferdinand II. who had subdued a revolt in his 
capital ; Borne, the center of the Catholic world, was in the throes of a 
democratic Revolution. 

429. The Revolution in Rome. — The Roman Parliament as 
granted in the new Constitution was opened June 5. It contained 
a strong party of radicals led by Sterbini and Lucien Bonaparte, 
Prince of Canino. Its proceedings consisted of pompous harangues, 
angry discussions, and little work, as it was domineered over by 
the populace in the galleries under the engineering of the anarchical 
Ciceruacchio. Rome was meanwhile fast filling with conspirators 
from every State. Two weak ministries (Mamiani and Fabbri) suc- 
cessively resigned. In September, Pius IX. called upon the ener- 
getic Signor Rossi, former minister of Louis Philip at the Papal 
court, to form a ministry. Rossi was resolved to carry out and 
develop the policy of reform inaugurated by Pius IX., but above 
all things to maintain the authority of the Pontifical government. 
For this loyalty to Pius IX. the secret societies condemned him to 
death. When Parliament reopened November 15, Rossi, whilst 
mounting the steps to the Chamber, was assassinated in the midst 
of a howling mob. 

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430. Flight of Pius IX. — On November 16, 20,000 people 
gathered before the Papal residence at the Quirinal. They demanded 
the promulgation of the Italian nationality, war against Austria and 
a radical ministry. Pius IX. refused to give any answer before being 
allowed to deliberate in entire freedom. Then the crowd began to 
fire into the Quirinal and to storm the palace. The Pope's private 
secretary, Mgr. Palma dropped dead, shot in the forehead. But the 
Pope's Swiss guard stood firm and the mob failed to enter the 
palace. Having drawn up artillery before the gates, the conspira- 
tors sent in their ultimatum : if the Pope does not yield within an 
hour, they will blow in the gates and massacre every one in the 
palace except the Pope himself. Thereupon Pius IX. declared to 
the foreign ambassadors that to avoid useless bloodshed he would 
cede to force. " So we protest ; let your governments know it ; we 
give way to violence only. All we concede is invalid, null, and 
void." On the night of the 24th Pius IX., dressed as a simple 
priest and accompanied by Count Spaur, the Bavarian ambassador 
and his family, succeeded in escaping from revolutionary Rome. 
Without mishap he arrived at Gaeta, in the territory of Naples, 
where King Ferdinand and his Queen waited upon the august fugitive 
to offer him their hospitality and the protection of the Kingdom. 

431. Pius IX. in Gaeta — And here bis fortitude and the ingratitude of his 
enemies, most of whom were his beneficiaries, aroused universal sympathy. 
From the rock of Gaeta Pius IX. issued three great appeals to the Christian 
world. One the excommunication of the spoilers of the patrimony of the 
Church ; another a protest to all Christian princes against the wrong that 
had been done; a third to the Episcopate and the faithful throughout the 
world on the proposed definition of the Immaculate Conception. His 
appeal to the Catholic Episcopate met with a response testifying to a unan- 
imity of devotion which struck friend and foe alike. The Catholic rowers, 
too, promptly responded to his appeal, and the plenipotentiaries of France, 
Austria, Spain, and Naples met at Gaeta, March 20, 1849, and took up the 
cause of the exiled Pontiff. 

432. The Roman Republic. — Meanwhile the He volution 
spread rapidly through the Pontifical States, under the usual ter- 
rorism of an unscrupulous minority. In Rome Galetti formed the 
radical ministry demanded by the conspirators. The functions 
of the sovereign power were intrusted by the Chamber to a Giunta 


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of Three. The Giunta dissolved the Parliament and summoned a 
Constituent Assembly. From Gaeta the Pope forbade his subjects 
to vote for this body, and so effective was his prohibition, that of 
the 12,000 voters inscribed in Rome only 300 voted. The Assembly 
thus chosen proclaimed the deposition of Pius IX. and the establish- 
ment of a " pure democracy uuder the glorious appellation of the 
Republic of Rome," February 5, 1849. Upon the news of Charles 
Albert's defeat at Novara the Triumvirate handed over its powers to 
Mazzini, who for a time ruled the city with almost unlimited 

The Roman Republic adopted the methods- of the first French Revo- 
lution: war against the Church, massacres of priests, the substitution of 
abandoned women for the Sisters of Charity in the hospitals melting of 
bells Into cannon, seizure of the gold and silver plate from churches and 
palaces, issues of unlimited quantities of paper money. Most of the stolen 
millions disappeared in the vortex of the Revolution without leaving a 
trace. The blasphemous character of the Roman Revolution was sufficiently 
indicated by the addresses of Armellini calling the people the only sov- 
ereign, the tnte God; by placards affixed to churches: *• Down with Christ, 
eviva Barabbas! " ; by the sacrilegious fest vities in which Mazzini with the 
aid of excommunicated priests celebrated the triumph of the Republic of 
Rome in St. Peter's Church, Mazzini himself occupying tlie Papal throne. 

Chev O'Clery: Hist, of the Jtal. Revol. t Ch. XL, pp. 193-286; Lives of Pius IX. (see 
oh. XIII., $ 8). — Maurice: The Itevol. Movement in Italy, etc. — Marq. Blddlo-Cope: 
The Holy See and the Jtal. Liberals: M. 87. 1-2. — II. O'Reilly: Cesare Cantu and the 
Neo Guetphs of Italy: A. C. Q. v. 7. — The Italian Revolution, M. *75. 2. 

§ 11. 


433. In Northern Italy — Battle of Novara, 1849. — 

During the time of the armistice between Austria and Piedmont, the 
radical party overthrew the more moderate ministry of Gioberti in 
Piedmont. The revolutionary party now in power and considerably 
strengthened by thousands of Italian, Polish, and French fugitives, 
again clamored for war with Austria. Charles Albert had to choose 
between war or the loss of his crown. He preferred war. It lasted 
only five days. On the resumption of hostilities, March 20, 
Radetzki first baffled the enemy by his skillful movements, then 
crossing the Ticino at Pavia, dealt the Piedmontese a severe blow at 


Mortara, and hopelessly defeated them in the brilliant action of 
Novara. Charles Albert abdicated in favor of his son, Victor 
Emmanuel II. On the 24th Victor Emmanuel concluded an armis- 
tice with Radetzki, and then peace. Piedmont had to pay the 
expenses of the war, disband her foreign troops, and withdraw her 
fleet from the Adriatic. Charles Albert, one of the best rulers of 
Piedmont, but too weak to cope with the international Revolution, 
died four months after the disaster of Novara. 

434. Genoa, Venice, and Sicily. — The humiliation of Piedmont encour- 
aged Genoa to snap the bonds with which the Congress of Vienna had tied 
it to the Kingdom of Sardinia, and to proclaim the Ligurlan Republic. 
General La Marmora put down the revolt ^ April) In Sicily the insurgents 
were offered Parliamentary independence by Ferdinand II. and urged, even 
by the English and French ambassadors, to accept the generous proposals. 
Rejecting the offer, they were forcibly reduced to submission by General 
Filangieri who captured Catauia and forced Palermo to capitulate (May). 
The Florentines recalled Archduke Leopold. Venice, the last of the 
revolted States in northern Italy, was reduced by the Austriaus. Radetzki 
was made Governor-General of the Austriau provinces in Italy. The meas- 
ures of pacification adopted by the old hero — he was eighty-four years of 
age when he conquered at Novara — were as mild and prudent as his cam- 
paigns had been skillful and bold. 

435. France and the Roman Republic — Meanwhile the 
hearts of Catholic Europe were burning with indignation at the out- 
rages committed against the Holy Father. Louis Napoleon thought 
it wise to yield to the growing Catholic sentiment of France, and 
sent General Oudinot to the relief of the exiled Pontiff. Oudinot 
landed at Civitik Vecchia, gradually disarmed the Republican guards, 
and issued a proclamation in support of Pius IX. A first attack 
upon Rome with an insufficient force was repelled. Naples, Austria, 
and Spain also responded to the appeal of the Pope. The Spanish 
troops landed at Terracina. The Austrians occupied Bologna and 
Ancona. But Oudinot* s jealousy prevented any co-operation be- 
tween the different nations. It was this fact and not any mythical 
victories of Garibaldi which induced the Neapolitans to recross the 

Napoleon's duplicity began to crop out when he sent M. de Lesseps to 
Borne to negotiate with the Republicans. The result was a conventiou 

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with Mazzini according to which the French troops, without entering 
Rome, were to encamp in the neighborhood and a plebiscite was to decide 
whether the Pope should be called back or not. Oudinot indignantly 
rejected the disgraceful convention as an insult to France, and gave notice 
that he would begiu the attack of Rome, Juue 4th. 

436. The Taking of Rome. — The siege of Rome began June 
3. Mazzini relied less on Garibaldi and the Republican corps than 
on a change of government in France. According to his secret 
plottings a communistic outbreak in Paris, prearranged for June 13, 
was to place Ledru Rollin at the head of affairs. Ledru Rollin 
then would have ordered Oudinot to make common cause with the 
Republicans instead of fighting them. The miserable failure of the 
plot and the flight of Ledru Rollin destroyed Mazzini's hopes, and 
at the approach of danger he packed up the stolen treasures of 
Rome and lied to London. On the 21st of June, the coronation day 
of Pius IX., the French occupied the Janiculum. On June 20, St. 
Peter's day, Oudinot stormed the high ground of Trastevere, which 
gave him the command of the city of Rome. Garibaldi, accompanied 
by Ciceruaechio, 4,000 foot and 500 horse, retreated into the 
Appenines, where many of his followers turned banditti. At San 
Marino he disbanded the remnants of his force. Oudinot sent 
Colonel Neal to Gaeta to present the keys of Rome to Pius IX. 
The Sovereign Pontiff returned in April the following year, and was 
received by the people with great enthusiasm. With the aid of 
Cardinal Antonelli, his Secretary of State for the rest of his Ponti- 
ficate, Pius IX. began to heal the wounds which the international 
Revolution had inflicted on the Papal States. 

Chev. O'Clcry: Ch. VII. pp. 287-370. - M a rshal Radeizki: Caldwell: M., 1876, 2; 
PfUif: St. 42. 

§ 12. 


437. Extent of the Revolution. — The extent of the international con- 
spiracy was indicated by the rapidity with which upon hearing of the Paris 
revolution iusurrectious broke out in almost every European country. In 
Belgium the King disarmed the Republican movement by openly declaring 
his readiness to abdicate if the nation would demand it. There were 
Republican risings in Southern Spain and street fights in Madrid. In 

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London a Chartist demonstration en masse was nipped in the bud. The 
insurrection preached by Mitchel in Ireland and planned by " Young Ire- 
land " and other secret societies was quelled before fairly matured, and the 
leaders, O'Brien and Meagher, were transported. There were disturbances 
in Sweden, and even in the Danube principalities. But in Austria and in 
Germany the Revolution assumed most formidable proportions and prepared 
the way for permanent changes. 

438. Outbreak in Germany In March. — The pent-up indig- 
nation of the people in Germany of being deprived of all political 
liberty was quickened by Republican agitators and emissaries of the 
lodges. The people assembled iu mass meetings, demanded freedom 
of the press, trial by jury, right of organization, a national guard, 
and a German Parliament. A Liberal Chamber in Baden took the 
lead in this reform movement. From Mannheim the movement 
spread over Germany. Some governments granted these demands ; 
the greater number, especially Prussia, denied them. King Ludwig 
of Bavaria abdicated in favor of his son Maximilian. In many 
States the people armed without asking leave, forced unpopular 
ministers to resign and improvised a preliminary Parliament at 
Frankfort. A minority of Liberal statesmen and leaders urged the 
King of Prussia to head a movement for national union. But 
Frederic William IV. did not favor the idea, and rather entertained 
the hope of mastering the Revolution by co-operation with Austria. 
But Austria herself was soon to be shaken to her very foundations. 

439. Outbreak in Austria, March. — The February Revolu- 
tion had brought on a financial panic in Austria. Upon the motion 
of Kossuth the estates of Hungary voted an address to Austria, 
declaring the system of the Austrian government as the real 
cause of the panic, and demanding a responsible ministry for 
Hungary and a Constitution for every crown land of Austria. 
Similar demands came from other provinces. In Vienna the 
rabble stormed and demolished the House of Deputies. When 
the soldiers fired on the crowds the citizens and students 
armed and threw up barricades. Metternich, forced to resign, 
escaped with difficulty ' from the fury of the populace (March 13- 
15). On March 15 the Emperor consented to summon a Constituent 
Assembly. The national guards and the Students' Legion formed a 


central committee for the defeuse of the rights of the people. The 
demand of the ministers to dissolve the committee led to the second 
insurrection, May 15. The Emperor fled to Innsbruck. As all the 
available troops had been sent to Italy which was in full revolt, the 
entire civil and military government of Vienna fell into the hands of 
the University students, the National Guards and the laboring 
classes, who organized a Committee of Public Safety. 

440. The March Days in Berlin, 15-19. — The first outbreak 
at Vienna reacted on Berlin. Disturbances began on March 15. On 
the 18th the King promised to work for a regeneration of Germany 
by popular representation. An immense mass of people surged 
towards the palace ostensibly to thank the King. Provoked by the 
outcries and insults hurled against them the soldiers fired two 
shots. With the cry of treason the people scattered in every direc- 
tion. In an incredibly short time the city was covered with bar- 
ricades. A murderous fight ensued from street to street. The 
incensed military, 14,000 strong with 36 cannon, gradually succeeded 
though with great efforts in dispersing the barricades. Yet on the 
morning of the 19th the troops upon an order of the King evac- 
uated the city. The people were now masters of the situation. 
Frederic William IV. was forced to stand bareheaded on the balcony 
of his palace as the funeral procession of the men whom his soldiers 
had killed at the barricades marched by. His brother William, who 
later became Emperor, had to fly to England, the common refuge of 
Louis Philip and Metternich and other statesmen. The King 
granted all the popular demands. The prisons were opened. A 
national guard was organized. For a time liberal ministries changed 
in quick succession amidst scenes of growing anarchy. 

441. The Frankfort Parliament. — From helpless Prussia 
the German people turned their eyes to the National Assembly, which 
had meanwhile convened at Fraukfort. Its aim was to devise a 
National Constitution which would harmonize the demands of the 
people with the interests of the varrious governments. The Assembly 
at Frankfort elected Archduke John of Austria Administrator of the 
Empire with a responsible ministry of his own. The old Confederate 
Diet recognized this provisional government and then dissolved. 

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The majority of the members of the Assembly were Monarchists of 
widely diverging opinions. The minority advocated a Republican 
Confederation based on the sovereignty of the people. The 
Assembly frittered away its time and talents in needless speech- 
making because it could define its relations neither to the different 
governments nor to the two Constituent Assemblies sitting at the same 
time in Vienna and in Berlin. 

The helplessness of the new National Administration at home and 
abroad became apparent in the affair of Schleswig-Holstein. The two 
duchies had risen against Denmark, March, 1848, formed a provisional 
government, and sent deputies to Frankfort. Prussian troops under Gen- 
eral Wrangel were sent to their aid aud gained some successes against the 
Danes. But the losses inflicted on German commerce by the Danish 
blockade aud the remonstrances of Russia and Kugland induced Prussia to 
conclude a rather humiliating truce. The provisional government and the 
Assembly of Frankfort iu spite of their angry protests had to bow to the 
accomplished fact. The truce created wide -spread dissatisfaction in Ger- 
many. In Frankfort the people excited by democratic agitators made an 
attempt to overthrow the Parliament and proclaim the Republic. Prince 
Lichuowski and General Auerwald were murdered by the mob. St. Paul's 
Church, where the sessions were held, was saved only by the arrival of troops 
from Mainz. Thus both the Admiuistrator aud the Assembly gradually 
lost their authority. 

Alison ; Fyffc— Rose: A Ctntury of Continental Hist.— Count Hartlng: Genesis of the 
Revol in Austria.— W. II . Slllea: Austria, 1848-49 — Leger: Hist, of Austria- Hungary. - 
Austria, 1648-49 , E. K., '91, 4. - Maurice: Revol. Movement of 1818 49 — Miiller: 
Political JIU't. of Recent Times.- v. Sybel: The Founding of the German Empire. — 
Gosch : Denmark and Germany since 1816. — MacLeod : The Various Nationalities of 
the Austrian Dcmains: M. '78. 2. 


442. Outbreak in Hungary. — The separate ministry which 
the Emperor had granted to Hungary in the first crash of the 
Revolution now organized with Count Bathyany as president. Kos- 
suth became minister of finances. Assembled in the Diet of Pesth 
and presided over by Archduke Stephen, the Hungarians began to 
sever one after the other the bonds of union with Austria. On the 
other hand they endeavored to tighten their hold on the Slavonic 

§ 13, 



dependencies. But the Slavs of the Hungarian erown lands, 
Dalmatia, Croatia, and Transilvania were unwilling to bear the Mag- 
yar yoke. The court of Vienna could not but encourage the Sla- 
vonian movement which looked upon the Magyars as rebels. Jella- 
chich, Ban or governor of Croatia, marched against Pesth. 
Archduke Stephen resigned. The Emperor who had returned to 
Vienna sent Count Lemberg as Imperial Governor to Hungary. 
But the mob murdered the Count as he was crossing the bridge to 
Pesth. Thereupon the Emperor dissolved the Hungarian Diet and 
appointed Jellachich commander-in-chief for Hungary. But the 
Revolutionists got the upper hand. Jellachich was defeated by the 
Honveds or national troops whom Kossuth had raised, and passed 
into Austria. 

443. Third Insurrection in Vienna — Ferdinand's Abdi- 
cation — Francis Joseph I. — To prevent the imperial troops from 
going to Hungary the revolutionary party broke out in most furious 
riots in the streets of Vienna. Latour, the minister of war, was foully 
murdered. The Emperor fled to Olmtitz. The garrison moved 
outside the city, but held it in siege. At this juncture Windisch- 
gratz, who had quelled the insurrection of Prague, marched upon 
Vienna and was joined by Jellachich. During the bombardment of 
the city an army of Honveds hastened to the relief, but was repulsed. 
The following day, October 31, Vienna surrendered. The city was 
placed under military control, and a number of democratic leaders 
were shot (Robert Blum). In December Ferdinand abdicated in 
favor of his nephew, Francis Joseph I. The Assembly was dis- 
solved and a general Constitution, drawn up by the government, 
was given to the monarchy. The only measure of permanent im- 
portance passed by the Constituent Assembly was the abolition of 
the remaining feudal burdens and the freedom of the soil granted in 
return for a partial indemnification of the landed aristocracy. After 
the peasants had obtained this point, they withdrew from the 
revolutionary agitation. 

444. Defeat of the Hungarian Revolution. — The Hun- 
garian Diet refused to acknowledge Ferdinand's abdication. Win- 

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dischgratz led an Austrian array into Hungary and occupied Pesth, 
January, 1849. The Magyar government retired behind the Raab. 
Under the dictatorship of Kossuth and the generalship of the Hun- 
garians Gorgey and Klapka and the Poles Dembinski and Bern the 
country displayed a surprising power of resistance, which con- 
trasted strikingly with the blundering inability of Windischgratz. 

Beaten in five important engagements, the Austrian s had to evacu- 
ate Hungary with the exception of Ofen. On March 4, the General 
Constitution for Austria was proclaimed at Olmiitz. It merged 
Hungary completely with Austria and obliterated its ancient institu- 
tions. Thereupon Kossuth issued a Declaration of Independence 
and declared the Austrian dynasty deposed in Hungary. But whilst 
political divisions and personal jealousies more and more divided the 
Hungarian leaders, the Emperors of Austria and Russia agreed upon 
a Russian intervention and a common plan of operation. The Rus- 
sians under Rudiger and Paskewitch appeared in the field with over- 
whelming numbers. Henceforth all the battles, with one exception, 
were Hungarian defeats. General Haynau accomplished wonders of 
daring and leadership, and alone won nearly all the Austrian victories. 
In the confusion and discord heightened by these disasters Kossuth 
laid down the chief power, and Gorgey, his successor, two days 
later, surrendered to Rudiger with 25,000 men and 120 cannon on 
the field of Vilagos (August 15, 1849). Other corps surrendered 
unconditionally. Only Klapka, in the defense of Komorn, obtained 
an honorable capitulation. Haynau held sanguinary and merciless 
judgments at Pesth and Arad. The long roll of Hungarian leaders 
condemned to death was headed by Count Bathyany. Andrassy, 
later Prime Minister of Austria, escaped under sentence of death. 
Kossuth and other fugitives found refuge, first in Turkey, afterwards 
in England and America. The Hungarian Constitution of 1848 
was abolished and Daimatia, Croatia, and Transilvania separated 
from the crown of St. Stephen. The galling memories of 1848 
and 1849 were not obliterated until 1867. 

445. Pacification in Prussia. — Au iusurrection in Prussian Poland 
(Posen) was suppressed by force of arras as early as May 4, 1848. In 
Berlin order was restored when General Wrangel, returning from Sehleswii; 
entered the capital at the head of 25,000 men. The city was placed under 

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military law. The Prussian Constituent Assembly, dispersed by troops in 
Berlin, was ordered to reconvene at Brandenberg fifty miles from Berlin and 
there dissolved. The Constitution of December 5, 1848, drawn up by the 
government and issued by the King, gave Prussia a Parliament of two 
Chambers. The stringent election law of 1849 silenced the turbulent 

446. End of the Frankfort Parliament. — The Assembly 
of Frankfort finished the Constitution of the German Empire in 
1849. But only smaller States were willing to accept it. The ques- 
tion as to who should be elected Emperor rent the Parliament into 
an Austrian and a Prussian faction. A delegation representing a 
bare majority offered the imperial crown to the King of Prussia. 
Frederic William publicly declared he would accept the crown only 
with the free consent of all the German States, privately, however, 
he held the Frankfort Assembly and its new crown in the utmost 
contempt. Thereupon so many deputies left Frankfort or were 
called off that the Parliament became a rump of radicals. The 
seceders transferred their meetings to Stuttgart, where they had to 
submit to a forcible dissolution. This failure of the new Constitu- 
tion was seized upon by the agitators of the international Revolution 
as a pretext for new insurrections in favor of a German Republic. 
The May days of 1849 saw Republican insurrections in Saxony, the 
Palatinate and Baden where the regulars went over to the revolu- 
tionists. The revolt in Dresden was suppressed chiefly by Prussian 
troops. At the head of 33,000 men, the Prince of Prussia vigorously 
crushed the insurrection in the Rhine provinces by the capture of 
Rastadt. Many of the leaders were shot, others escaped to Switzer- 
land and North America (General Siegel, Karl Schurz). 

447. Failure of a German Union. — Prussian statesmen now tried 
another way of arriving at a German Union, this time to the exclusion of 
Austria. Prussia concluded an alliance with Saxony and Hanover, and 
some minor States. Austria, on the other hand, supported by the Kings of 
Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, and backed by the Emperor of Russia, demanded 
the ' restoration of the German Confederacy of 1815. For a moment it 
appeared as if the question of the German Union would lead to war between 
Austria and Prussia (1849). But in a conference of the representatives of 
the two Powers at Olmtitz (1850) Prussia yielded to all the demands of 
Austria. Schleswig-Holsteiu which had, unaided, continued its hopeless 

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war for independence, was handed back to Denmark. The Conference of 
Dresden, 1851, re established the German Confederation of 1815. 

448. The Catholic Church in Prussia. — The Catholic 
Church in Germany and Austria emerged from the Revolution with 
more power and freedom than she had enjoyed for a century. In 
October, 1848, the German Episcopate for the first time in the 
nineteenth century united for common action in the Conference of 
Wiirzburg under the presidency of Archbishop Geissel. The gov- 
ernments could not help recognizing in the Church a bulwark of law 
and order. The absolute state as it had existed before 1848 was no 
more. The fundamental laws which survived the Assemblies of 
Frankfort and Berlin, guaranteed to the Catholic Church as to all 
other denominations, the free management of her own ecclesiastical 
affairs, and the independent possession and administration of the 
funds destined for religious, educational, and charitable purposes. 
Ecclesiastical elections and communication with Rome were freed 
from the placet and the supervision of the State. In the manage- 
ment of the schools a tolerable modus vivendi between the Church 
and the State was found. The Right of Association called forth 
numerous religious societies and opened Germany to the religious 
orders. Driven from Switzerland the Jesuits founded a province in 
Germany, and began their career of popular missions throughout 
the country, which, while reviving the zeal of the Catholic masses, 
prepared them for fresh attacks, that twenty years later culminated 
in the Culturkampf . 

440. The Austrian Concordat, 1855. — In 1850 Emperor 
Francis Joseph completed the abrogation of the persecuting code of 
Joseph II. and sealed the abrogation five years later by a Con- 
cordat, in which the rights of the Holy See were fully recognized. 
It provided for free communication between the Austrian hierarchy 
and the Holy See, between bishops and people, and between religious 
Orders and their superiors. The clergy obtained the necessary 
facility for inspecting the schools and superintending religious in r 
struction. The Church secured the right of condemning bad books, 
while the government pledged itself to prohibit their publication. 
The seminaries were placed solely under the bishops. The right of 

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the Church to hold ecclesiastical property was asserted, and some 
of the property of which the Josephine system had deprived the 
Church was restored. 

Gorgey: My Life and Actt in Hungary, 1848-49. — Elapka: War of Indep. in Hun- 
gary. — Pragny : Hungarian Revol. — Vam be>y : Story of Hungary. — Wegg-Prosser; 
Kossuth: M. *82, 3. — Hogan: The Hung. Struggle for National Independence: M. '86,1. 
J. McCarthy : American Influence on the Democratic Movement in Europe, A. C. Q. v. 5. — 
W. 8. Lilly: A Century of Revolution. — See preceding section. 



John IV., 

Alphouso VI., Pedro II., 

deposed 1668. 1668-1706. 

John V., 

Joseph Emanuel, 

Pedro III., 

Maria Francisca, 
1786-1806 (demented; 
regent John VI ). 

John VI., 
In Brazil 

Pedro IV., 
In Brazil: 
Pedro I., 
1822 I -31. 

In Brazil: 
Pedro II., 


Dom Miguel, 

In Spain: 
Maria da Gloria, 

Pedro V., 


Charles I., 

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460. Change of Policy In Italy. — The accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 
marked a new era in the history of Piedmont. It brought about the tri- 
umph of the whole liberal programme of Church persecution ; the passage 
of an anti-Catholic education law, the expulsion of the Jesuits, the violation 
of the property rights and immunities of the clergy, attacks upon the Papal 
jurisdiction, and the imprisonment and exile of archbishops and bishops. 
The policy received its finishing touch when Count Camillo de Cavour in 
November, 1852, began his eventful career as Prime Minister of Piedmont. 
He accepted the office after Victor Emmanuel had pledged himself to allow 
him a free hand in dealing with the Holy See. A wholesale suppression of 
monasteries and the reductiou of the Episcopate to one-fourth of its former 
standing, completed the transformation of Catholic Piedmont. 

The aim which Cavour pursued was the expulsion of Austria from 
Italy, the dethronement of the Italian sovereigns, and the destruc- 
tion of the temporal power of the Holy See for the purpose of creat- 
ing a united kingdom of Italy under the liberal rule of the House 
of Savoy. In order to realize this plan, he had to win for the little 
Kingdom of Sardinia admittance to the Councils of the great Powers 
of Europe. He gained his point by taking part in the Crimean war. 

451. Causes of the Crimean War. — In France Napoleon 
andertook to strengthen his imperial position by gradually curtail- 
ing popular liberties and replacing the representative by a personal 
government. In order to divert the attention of the French people 
from home affairs he thought it best to occupy them with the glory 
and the advantages of a foreign war. He picked his first quarrel 
with Emperor Nicholas who had refused to address him as 
44 brother." The protectorate of France over the Latin Church in 


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Palestine afforded an opportunity to attack the Russian protectorate 
over the Greeks. Napoleon obtained a decree from the Sultan 
which restricted the power of the Greeks at the Holy Places. On 
the other hand Nicholas was dreaming of a partition of Turkey, and 
made proposals to this effect first to England then to France. 
Both Powers refused to consider the plan whilst Austria checked his 
advance into Turkey through Montenegro. Nicholas then demanded 
at Constantinople that the protection of all the Greek subjects of 
the Sultan should be given over to him, and this being also refused 
he marched his troops into Moldavia and Wallachia. This move- 
ment brought the lleets of England and France to the Hellespont. 
Turkey declared war in 1853. Whilst the Turkish troops under 
Osman Pasha won a victory over the Russians, the Russian fleet 
sailed forth from Sebastopol, the stronghold of the Crimea, and 
destroyed the Turkish fleet at Sinope. Thereupon France and 
England, closely allied, declared war against Russia, 1854. 

• 452. The Campaign in the Crimea, 1854. — Russia being 
unable to hold the Danube Principalities they were with Turkish 
permission occupied by Austria. The allies made Sebastopol, 
Russia's naval arsenal in the Black Sea, the object of their attack ; 
30,000 French commanded by Marshal St. Arnaud (later by Canrobert 
and Pellissier), 27,000 English led by Lord Raglan (later by 
General Simpson), and 7,000 Turks, disembarked in the Crimea 
about twenty miles north of Sebastopol. The allies forded the 
river Alma in the face of a Russian army awaiting them. But mis- 
management and cholera delayed the actual siege. Sebastopol was 
defended by 25,000 marines under the resourceful command of 
General Todleben, an engineer of great genius. The voluntary 
sinking of seven men-of-war by the Russians barred any approach 
from the sea side and General Mentchicow with the regular army 
occupied a plateau outside the city. Two battles were fought, at 
Balaclava, where the Russians inflicted great loss on the English 
(charge of the Light Brigade) and at Inkermann, where the English 
were saved and the Russians defeated by the timely arrival of the 
French. The slow progress of the siege compelled the allies to 
winter in the Crimea. Unprepared as they were they suffered 
extreme hardship. 

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463. Sardinia Joins the Allies. — Negotiations were carried on during 
winter and spring. But the proposals for peace made by Austria and 
Prussia were rejected by Russia. Thereupon Austria joined the allies, but 
receiving no support from Prussia abstained from actual interference. To 
obtain voice and standing in the deliberations of the Great Powers, Cavour 
now joined the alliance of France and England, and sent 15,000 men under 
General La Marmora to the Crimea 

454. The Fall of Sebastopol, 1855. — During tbe summer 
of 1855 the siege of Sebastopol was pushed on. The French did 
nearly all the effective fighting. In August they defeated the Rus- 
sians who had crossed, the Tcheraaya. In October they stormed 
the Malacoff Tower. The English took the Radan but lost it again. 
The retreat of the Russians to the northern part of the fortress 
opened the city of Sebastopol to the allies. All parties desired 
peace. The success, such as it was, saved the honor of the allies. 
Russia was consoled for her loss by the capture of Kars in Armenia. 
The representatives of Russia, Turkey,- France, England, Austria, 
and Sardinia, met in Paris, 1856. Prussia was admitted at the last 
hour. Cavour succeeded, notwithstanding Austria's protest, in 
entering the Congress of Paris on the same level as the representa- 
tives of the Great Powers. 

455, Peace of Paris, 1856. — Russia had to draw back her 
frontier a few miles from the lower Danube, to restore Kars, and to 
renounce her protectorate over the Christians of Turkey and the 
Danube Principalities. She had also to promise to build no arsenals 
and not to keep more ships in the Black Sea than Turkey. The 
Porte pledged herself to treat the Christians within her dominions 
on a level with the Mohammedan population. The Western Powers 
restored to Russia Sebastopol minus its docks and fortifications and 
a few other places on the Black Sea captured by the allies. 

The Congress also issued the following " Declaration of Paris": 1. 
Privateering i< aud remains abolished. 2. The neutral flag covers enemies' 
goods with the exception of contraband of war. 3. Neutral goods, except 
contraband of war, are not liable to capture under an enemy's flag. 4. 
Blockades, to be binding, must be effective — that is to say, maintained by 
a force really sufficient to prevent access to the coast of the enemy. All the 
Powers, except the United States, Spain, and Mexico, subsequently signed 
the Declaration. 

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After peace had been secured, Cavour succeeded iu his object of bring- 
ing before the Congress his own views upon the States of Italy. With 
utter disregard of international law and right the internal affairs of the 
Papal States and the Italian sovereignties were discussed, although no rep- 
resentative of these States was present, with a view of clearing the way for 
subsequent schemes of aggression. In public discussions and private con- 
versations, in notes aud memorandums, Cavour urged the grantiug of a sep- 
arate administration for Lombardy aud Venctia and of liberal Constitutions 
for Modena, Parma, and Tuscany, by their respective sovereigns. He 
charged the Pontifical government witl incapacity and oppression, and 
demanded that the Romagna aud the Legations be at least administratively 
'separated from the Papal States. As to Naples be demanded an immediate 
and full amnesty to the exiles who were plotting against Ferdinand II. in 
London, Paris, and Turin. Cavour was sufficiently assured, when he left 
Paris, that in provoking a war with Austria he would have the support of 
Frauce and England. 

Chev. O'Clcry: The Making of Italy , Ch. I. — Tee 11 or: The House of Savoy: M. *98. 3.— 
Kinglake: The Invasion of the Crimea. — Dr. Russell: British Exj>edUion to the Crimea. — 
8. Walpolc: Foreign Relations, — Mazade: Life of Cavour. — l>e la Rive: Le Comte de 


456. Napoleon and Cavour Against Austria. — After the 
Congress of Paris war with Austria became the subject of long nego- 
tiations between Napoleon and Cavour. The independence of Italy 
was a cherished idea of the Emperor of the French. " The Con- 
spirator of Forli," as Pius IX. called Napoleon, had fought for it 
in the Revolution of 1831. Cavour's pleadings with Napoleon were 
materially advanced by an unexpected event. On the evening of 
January 14, 1858, a daring though unsuccessful attempt was made 
to assassinate the Emperor and the Empress as they entered the 
opera house. The murderous plot carried out by Italian hands was 
prepared in England under the control of Felice Orsini, a fugitive of 
the Roman Revolution. The Orsini bombs served as a reminder 
to Napoleon that by his oath to the Carbonari he had foresworn 
himself to the Italian Revolution. Accordingly, during the summer 
of the same year, in a hurried interview at Plombieres, Napoleon and 
Cavour came to an agreement on the following points : War with 
Austria, the formation of an Italian Kingdom of about 11.000,000 
souls and the cession of Savoy and Nice to France. 




457. War Declared. — On New Year's day, 1859, a few sharp words ad- 
dressed by Napoleon to the Austrian ambassador gave Europe the first iuti- 
mation of the coming storm. Cavour had pushed forward his armaments, 
fortified Alessandria and created a marine arsenal at Spezzia. His embassies 
at the Italian courts were as many centers of conspiracy. In March the 
National Italian Society through its Vice-President, Garibaldi, issued in- 
structions to the secret societies of Lorabardy and Venetia for an insurrec- 
tion to take place upon the outbreak of the war. In April Victor Emmanuel 
personally bestowed on Garibaldi the command of the Italian free corps. 
This act induced Austria to send an ultimatum to Turin demanding the 
disarmament of Piedmont within three days. The Chambers, hastily sum- 
moned for the purpose, conferred dictatorial powers ou the King, and sus- 
pended the Constitution and the liberty of the press for the time of the war, 
while French troops poured into the country by laud and sea. The con- 
servative ministry of Derby in England, then in power, refused co-operation 
with Napoleon, it being too apparent that the affair was but a wanton provo- 
cation of Cavour. 

458. Battle of Magenta. — The incapacity of the counsellors 
at Vienna and the vacillating conduct of Gyulay, the Austrian com- 
mander, made the campaign a failure from the outset. Gyulay 
crossed the Ticino. The battle of Montebello was but an Austrian 
reconnoissance in force to obtain information. After an obstinate 
resistance the Austrians were driven back. Garibaldi entered Lom- 
bardy and kept throughout the campaign on the left, and a little in 
advance of the allies, along the spurs of the Alps. The two days 
fighting at Palestro was the only engagement in which the Italians, 
five to one, did most of the fighting. When the allies assumed the 
offensive, Gyulay recrossed the Ticino and joined the forces of Clam 
Gallas, near Magenta. The French crossed almost at the same time. 
The chief fighting was done by Canrobert and MacMahon according 
to a plan drawn up by Napoleon. Victor Emmanuel and his army, 
who had been assigned the somewhat subordinate task of supporting 
MacMahon, were not even near the field. The possession of the 
village at Magenta was disputed with desperate courage ; its final 
storming by the French decided the battle which gave Lombardy to 
the allies. 

459. Battle of Solferino, June 24. — To insure the posses- 
sion of Milan it was necessary to take Malignano. In the struggle 
for this place 8,000 Austrians offered 3fj,000 French the most 

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hotly contested resistance of the war. Numbers won, however, and 
the entire Austrian army withdrew behind the Adda. The Emperor 
of Austria now assumed the supreme command of his armies in Italy 
and massed his troops around Solferino. One hundred' and fifty 
thousand men on either side were engaged in this very sanguinary 
battle. From the outset all the unity of plan and action was upon 
the side of the French. On the Austrian side only Benedeck held his 
ground throughout the battle against the twofold superior army of Vic- 
tor Emmanuel. With tears of vexation he received the Emperor's 
command to join the general retreat, after the Austrian center had 
been broken by MacMahon's corps and the Imperial Guards. The 
total loss of the Austrians in dead, wounded, and prisoners, was 
21,900, that of the allies 16,300 men. The loss of the battle was 
due not to the Austrian soldiers but to the blunders of the Imperial 

Napoleon and Victor Emmanuel entered Milan. Here Napoleon addressed 
a proclamation to the Italians to rally round Victor Emmanuel and to free 
Italy from the Po to the Adriatic. And indeed Florence bad already 
accomplished her revolution. The Grand Duke had sought an asylum in the 
camp of the Austrians. The government of Modena had melted away. The 
Duchess of Parma had released ber subjects from their allegiance. The 
Court of Turin sent its representatives to the revolted States to prepare them 
for anuexatiou. The Austriaus, after Magenta, evacuated Bologna which 
they had occupied for ten years, and immediately the Romagna joiued the 
revolutionary movement. 

46(h The Peace of Yillafranea and Zurich, July 11; 
November lO. — After these terrible losses Austria was anxious 
for Peace, Napoleon equally so. His success had been dearly 
bought. His position on the Mincio, in the face of the Quadri- 
lateral — the strong Austrian fortresses of Peschiera, Verona, Mantua 
and Legnano — was by no means impregnable. Germany began to 
be alarmed at the progress of the French arms. Public opinion in 
Catholic France loudly condemned a policy which threatened the 
extinction of the Papal States. Besides, both Emperors seem to 
have been appalled by the frightful carnage of Solferino. Napoleon 
III. accordingly arranged a meeting with Francis Joseph I. in 
the village of Villafranca, in which the latter was completely duped 
by Napoleon III. who boasted of an alliance with Prussia that 

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did not exist. Thus without consulting Victor Emmanuel or 
Cavour, Napoleon settled the preliminaries of peace: Cession of 
Lombardy (save Mantua and Peschiera) to the King of Sardinia ; 
Venetia to remain under the crown of Austria ; return of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany and the Duke of Modena to their principalities ; 
creation of an Italian Confederacy under the presidency of the Pope. 
On this basis the definite treaty was signed by the plenipotentiaries 
at Zurich. As the event proved, the peace of Zurich settled nothing 
but the boundary line between Austria and Piedmont. 

Having stopped midway in the execution of the plans arranged at Plom- 
bieres and proclaimed at Milan, Napoleon for the time refrained from 
claiming Savoy and Nice. Cavour resigned in apparent disgust to save his 
popularity with the Liberals who were furious at the Peace of Villafranca; 
but he remained, as before, the soul of the Italian agitation. 

Chev. CClery: The Making of Italy, ch. II.-VIL, pp. 20-117. — Arivabene: Italy under 
Victor Emmanuel. — Bossoli : The War in Italy. — Hunt: Unit, of Italy. — Adams : Great 
Campaigns. — Kossuth : Memoirs of My Exile.— Lives of t Cavour. — Count Orsl : Recol- 
lections of the Last Half Century (to Napoleon III ). — Garibaldi and the Revol. in Italy: 
A. C. Q. v. 7. — Pachtler: Secret Warfare of Freemasonry ag. Church and State. — A. J. 
Tbebaud : Freemasonry, A. O. Q ?. 6. 

§ 3. 


461. State of the Papal Government. — The discontent manifested 
during the Italian war in the Papal provinces sprang from the agitation of 
the Carbonari, Young Italy, and Cavour's agents, not from a defective ad- 
ministration. The charges of Papal mal- ad ministration made by Cavour, 
and spread by the Liberal press of Europe, were refuted by M. de Raynoval 
In an official report written solely for the information of the French 
government. The taxes In the Papal States were lighter than in most 
European countries. A Roman paid on the average 22 francs tthere a 
Frenchman paid 45. The government was not in the hands of the priests, 
as charged. In all the 18 provinces of the Papal territory there were but 
fifteen priests holding office in the government. Among the 5 000 admin- 
istrative officials in Rome, there were only ninety-five ecclesiastics. The 
provinces that were placed entirely under lay administration complained 
of discrimination practiced against them by the exclusion of ecclesiastics 
The codes of procedure in civil, criminal, and commercial cases were found 
upon investigation by French jurists to be above criticism. Numerous 
public works had been executed by Plus IX., such as the drainage of the 
marshes, the building of railways, telegraphs, steamers on the Tiber. 
Agriculture was encouraged. The Papal States were prosperous and had 

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more resources for relieving unavoidable misery than any other European 
State. When Pius IX. in 1857 made a progress of four months through his 
dominions he was everywhere received with genuine enthusiasm. 

462. State of the Revolted Provinces. — The revolutionary 
party in the revolted provinces went on organizing provisional gov- 
ernments and appointing dictators, as if no Peace of Zurich existed* 
Farini extended his dictatorship from Modena to Parma and the Papal 
territory of Bologna, forming a provisional State under the old Latin 
name of Emilia. The new governments sent envoys to Turin, Paris, 
and London to work for annexation to Piedmont. After her reverses 
Austria could only protest against these proceedings. Prussia was 
beginning to think of her own aggrandizement. England, where 
Russell and Palmerston replaced the Conservative ministry of Derby, 
went straight over to the Italian camp. Lord John Russell had 
formally pledged the English Liberals to the support of the Italian 
Revolution. His cabinet, in its sectarian hatred of the Papacy, sus- 
pended the laws of England and the international laws of Europe to 
place money and men at the disposal of Cavour and Garibaldi and 
to hold direct communications- with the enemy's headquarters against 
the Kiug of Naples with whom England was at peace. 

463. Pius IX. and Napoleon III. — Napoleon meanwhile 
kept his eyes on Savoy and.Niee. In the place of Venetia the central 
States of Italy including part of the Papal territory were to satisfy 
for the present the aspirations of the Italian party. On December 
31, 1859, Napoleon personally wrote to Pius IX. asking him to cede 
the Romagna to Victor Emmanuel. The Pope's answer, published 
to the Catholic world in the Encyclical of January 19, 1860, was 
the celebrated non posstirnus. " We declared to the Emperor, we 
could not yield up that which was not ours. We could not abdicate 
the said provinces without violating the solemn oaths by which we 
are bound." Thereupon Napoleon opened his direct campaign 
against the Holy See by suppressing the " Univers " of Louis Veuil- 
lot for publishing the Papal letter and by putting an end to the 
liberty of the Catholic press. 

464. The Annexations. — Two days after the Encyclical, 
Cavour became again Prime Minister. In March he signed the ces- 

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sion of Savoy and Nice, the cradle of the Savoy Dynasty, to France. 
He then at once proceeded to the annexation of Central Italy by 
inaugurating the farce of a plebiscite in Tuscany and Emilia. The 
first so-called National Parliament meeting at Turin put the seal to 
the " accomplished fact." 

" The annexation of the Romagna was the first definite accomplished act 
in the spoliation of the Holy See. On March 29 Pius IX. promulgated the 
bull which, without naming any individual, excommunicated all who had 
borne a part in the annexation of the Legations. The new Kingdom of 
Italy began its career under the ban of the highest censures of the Church." 

465. The Invasion of Sicily. — Meanwhile Garibaldi gath- 
ered a band of 1,000 followers, sailed from Genoa for Sicily, and 
landed at Marsala. Persano, the admiral of t}ie Sardinian fleet, 
received orders from Cavour to furnish supplies and afford protec- 
tion to Garibaldi's expedition, but also to prevent any Republican 
scheme on the part of the freebooter. Numbers of Sicilian rebels 
joined the leader of the Redshirts. By the battles of Cataiafimi, 
Milazzo, Palermo, and Messina, Garibaldi became master and dic- 
tator of Sicily. 

466. Invasion of the Kingdom of Naples. — In August 
Garibaldi landed on the southern coast of Calabria. The army, the 
navy, and the administration of the Kingdom of Naples was under- 
mined by secret societies, or won over to Italian unity by Cavour's 
agents. The Sardinian fleet secretly supplied the revolutionary com- 
mittees with arms and men. Under these circumstances Garibaldi's 
campaign was a mere military promenade. General Briganti at the 
head of 10,000 troops, allowed him to occupy Reggio. His own 
ranks shot the treacherous general as a villain. General Ghio, his 
successor, led the Neapolitan army into a trap and surrendered, 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery, to a handful of Calabrese. After 
protesting against the lawless invasion, the betrayed King, Francis 
II., son and successor to Ferdinand II., left the capital September 
6, accompanied by his family and the foreign ambassadors, to join 
the main anny which had concentrated on the river Volturno. 
Naples being thus abandoned was readily entered by Garibaldi. 
Elated by his easy success he thought of nothing less than to con- 

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quer the Papal States and Venetia, and to summon Victor Emmanuel 
to Rome to be crowned King of Italy. But Cavour had already 
taken measures to carry out his own plan without the aid of his 
Republican ally and tool. 

467. Invasion of the Papal States. — As early as August 
31, Cavour wrote toPersano: 44 An insurrectionary movement will 
break out in the (Papal) provinces from the 8th to the 12th of 
September. Whether it is suppressed or not, we shall intervene.* ' 
Napoleon, on a visit to his new Italian provinces, gave his approval 
to the plan at Chamber}-. The 44 insurrection," so confidently pre- 
dicted by Cavour, consisting in an invasion by Garibaldian bands 
who had a few skirmishes with the Papal police, was magnified by 
the liberal press of Europe into a spontaneous rising of the people, 
and furnished Cavour the desired pretext of curtly summoning Car- 
dinal Antonelli 44 to disarm those corps, the existence of which is a 
continual menace to Italian tranquillity." Before he received an 
answer from the Papal court, the Sardinian troops, 70,000 men 
under Fanti and Cialdini, crossed the frontiers of the Papal States 
without a declaration of war. 

The 44 menace to Italian tranquUlity " was a small Papal army of 15,000 men 
as against 120,000 Italian veterans backed by the power of Napoleon III. 
General Lamoriciere, the hero of Algeria, had responded to the call of 
Pins IX. to organize an army of volunteers for the defense of the Patrimony 
of St. Peter. The best names of Austria, France, Belgium, Irelaud and 
Canada, were represented in this Catholic army. Lamoriciere's plan of 
resistance wa* to concentrate a force at Ancona and hold out there as long 
as possible In the hope of some Catholic power coming to his assistance. 
He was confirmed In this hope by a treacherous dispatch which Napoleon, 
September 10, sent to the French ambassador at Rome, announcing that he 
would oppose by force an invasion of Papal territory by Piedmont. As a 
matter of fact the Catholic Powers protested and withdrew their represent- 
atives from Turin, but did no more. Palmerston attempted a positive 
apology for the outrage. 

468. The Campaign of Castclfidardo. — The capture of 
Perugia and the fall of Spoleto ended the campaign in Umbria. 
Cialdini established himself with 28,000 men on the hills of Castel- 
fidardo, to the southwest of Ancona, barring the one road by which 

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Lamoriciere and Pimodan were endeavoring to reach Ancona. The 
battle of Castelfidardo, September 18, was a most heroic effort 
in which the chivalrous sons of almost every Catholic country laid 
down their lives for Pius IX. They were not vanquished but over- 
whelmed by numbers. Pimodan fell fighting after receiving the 
fourth bullet in his body. Of the 5,000 men who had marched out 
of Loretto in the morning, hardly 2,000 returned, the enemy not 
daring to pursue them. The following day they capitulated on 
honorable terms. Lamoriciere with a small escort had succeeded 
in reaching Ancona where he assumed command. 

469. The Fall of Ancona. — The Sardinian fleet arrived before 
Ancona on the very day of Castelfidardo, and forthwith began the 
bombardment. For nine days the garrison defended with undimin- 
ished vigor harbor and city against the united land and naval forces 
of the kingdom of Sardinia. But the blowing up of the light-house 
fort by a stray shell sank the great chain which barred the harbor, 
and left the city at the mercy of Persano's fleet. Lamoriciere 
ordered the white flag of truce to be hoisted on walls and citadel, 
and opened negotiations for surrender with Persano. Yet the brutal 
Cialdini in the face of Persano's indignant protest, kept up for 
twelve hours a murderous and senseless bombardment. The capitu- 
lation was signed September 29. Lamoriciere returned to France 
where he died in 1865. The annexation of Urabria and the Marches 
was completed by the usual farce of a plebiscite. 

470. Naples Invaded from the North. — Victor Emmanuel 
assumed the command of the army in October and invaded the 
kingdom of Naples to deprive Francis I. of his kingdom and to put 
an end to the dictatorship of Garibaldi, who had just won a victory 
over the Neapolitan troops on the Volturno. Capua fell into the hands 
of the invaders. Francis II. and his army retired to the strong 
fortress of Gaeta. Annexation in the usual form — votes cast in 
the gleam of fixed bayonets — followed of course. At Teano Gari- 
baldi greeted Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy. The meeting 
ended the campaign of Garibaldi, for a few days afterwards the King 
with studied contempt disbanded the followers of Garibaldi who had 
done his work in the South. 


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471. The Fall of Gaeta, 1861. — The siege of Gaeta began 
November 4. From the first day of the siege to the last the young 
King was the soul of the defense, whilst the Queen was indefatigable 
in the care of the sick and the wounded. The ingenuity and resource 
which Col. Afanto di Rivera displayed during the siege earned him 
a European reputation. For over three months the besiegers made 
little impression on the fortress. But on February 5, the great 
magazine at Gaeta exploded, probably by a treasonable act. The 
wide-spread destruction caused by the disaster made the fortress 
untenable. The capitulation, negotiated under a murderous fire 
from the Piedmontese batteries, was signed February 13, 1861. On 
the 14th the King and Queen of Naples departed in a French cor- 
vette for Rome where Pius IX. repaid the hospitality which he him- 
self had received at Gaeta in the days of his exile. The fall of 
Messina, March 13, and of Civitella, March 20, completed the con- 
quest of Southern Italy. On the day after the fall of Gaeta the 
Chamber of Deputies at Turin voted the law which made Victor 
Emmanuel King of Italy by the grace of the Revolution. 

Ohev. O'Clery: ch. VI.-XIII , pp. 87-270.— Captain Forbes: Campaign of Garibaldi 
in the Two Sicilies. - George Goldie: The Papal Volunteers, D. R. 57 (vol. 47 Old 
8erles). — Persano's Diary. — Ch. Gamier: Md moire sur le Royaume dee deux Sidles, 
Paris, 1866. — AbW Pageols: Le Oen. La Moriciere. — Dicey : Memoirs of Car our. — 
McCarthy: Garibaldi and the Rev. in Italy, A. C. Q., 7. — Loughnan: Garibaldi, M. '82, 
2.— Lives of Cavour, Garibaldi, Lord J. Russell. — Pierre do la Gorce: VBistoire dm 
Second Empire. 



4722. " Brigandage " in Naples. — As early as October, I860, a patriotic 
movement began in favor of Francis II. in the Abbruzzi mountains and 
spread rapidly through the kingdom. After the fall of Gaeta it remained 
dormant for a few months, but again burst forth in the autumn not as a 
local struggle but as a national movement. The name " Brigandage M was 
attached to It by the invaders in order to throw odium on the rising of the 
royalists. For over four years sixty battalions amounting to 120,000 men 
were required to hold the kiugdom subject to Victor Emmanuel. Sixteen 
towns numbering 50,000 inhabitants situated m seven provinces were sacked 
and burned within fourteen months by the Piedmontese. From May, 1861, 
to February, 1868, over 7,000 persons were shot, killed in battle, or made 
prisoners. The draconic measures adopted for the suppression of the rising 

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were: shooting with or without trial all persons taken with arms; impris- 
onment without trial of suspects, death or imprisonment for working in 
the fields without a passport, for carrying to the field work more food than 
required for one meal — in some places for storing food in one's house for 
more than one day. The Neapolitan prisons contained in 1863, according to 
the lowest estimate, about 20,000 untried political prisoners. Prisons able 
to accommodate COO persons were crammed with 1,200 and 1,800 persons. 
Catholic bishops and priests were insultingly confined with the lowest 
criminals. Lord Henry Lennox declared in the English Parliament from 
personal observation, that the condition of the tortured in Dante's Inferno 
alone could give an idea of what he had seen in one of these prisons. 
The political movement died out in the summer of 1864, but to this day 
the South of Italy is held in check by the northern regiments of the Italian 
army. Thus the sham plebiscite of 1860 brought only misery and anarchy 
to Southern Italy. 

473. The Roman Question. — Cavour' s next move was 
towards obtaining the rest of the Patrimony of St. Peter with the 
city of Rome by negotiations with the Holy Father himself. These 
negotiations were hopeless, for Pius IX. was inflexible in questions 
of right and justice. The Roman Question was formally raised in 
the Parliament at Turin, March 25, 1862, by the motion that the 
Chamber of Deputies should declare Rome the capital of Italy. In 
his speech Cavour based this demand on * ' the absolute neces- 
sity for Italy of possessing Rome as her capital." The spirit- 
ual independence and dignity of the Pope would find its guarantee 
in the principles of liberty to be made an integral part of the Con- 
stitution of the new Italian Kingdom. " A free Church in a free 
State " should be henceforth Italy's policy. The resolution declaring 
Rome the capital of Italy was carried March 27. In less than 
three months after making the final spoliation of the Church a law 
of Italy, Cavour was no more. He died June 6, leaving it to 
Ricasoli to carry out his policy. 

474. The Church and the Spoliation. — Since 1859 Pius 
IX. never ceased to inculcate in his Apostolical Letters and 
public allocutions the necessity of the temporal sovereignty of 
the Holy See for the freedom and independence of the supreme 
spiritual authority. The bishops of the Catholic world taught 
the same truth in their Councils and Pastoral letters. The 

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most solemn manifestation of this kind took place in 1862, 
when 800 Cardinals, Archbishops and Bishops — 265 of them 
present at Rome — solemnly voiced the necessity of the Pope's 
temporal sovereignty. " We acknowledge," said the prelates in 
their address to the Pope, " the civil principality of the Holy See as 
necessary in the present order of human society for the good 
and free government of the Church and of souls." The Catholic 
laity responded by national conventions, numerous protests against 
the usurpation of the Papal provinces and by generous contribu- 
tions of money and men for the defense of the remaining Pontifical 

475 The Affair of Aspramonte, 1862. —Whilst the Cabinet of Turin 
was urgiug Napoleon to withdraw his troops, which had occupied Rome 
aud a few other places since 1849, Garibaldi established a drilling camp in 
Sicily and then crossed over to Calabria. The government, after some 
hesitation, thought it prudent to stop the enterprise. Troops of the line, in 
a short but hot skirmish, disarmed the volunteers and wounded and captured 
Garibaldi. Although Ratazzi, then prime minister, amnestied the captive 
leader, his miuistry fell under the furious outcries of the Mazzinians. 

476. The September Convention of 1864. — The Kingdom 
of Italy received a new provisional capital in consequence of the 
September Convention. On the one hand Victor Emmanuel desired 
the French troops of occupation withdrawn from Rome. On the 
other hand the French Catholics by their energetic protests compelled 
the Emperor to desist from open persecution of the Holy See. The 
result was a compromise arranged without consulting the Pope. 
France was to withdraw her troops from the Papal territory within 
two years. Italy pledged herself hot to attack the Papal territory, 
nor to allow an attack from without, and to permit the organization 
of a small Papal army. A secret clause made the execution of the 
Convention dependent on the transfer within six months of its date 
of the Italian capital to a place to be determined by Victor 
Emmanuel. When it became known in Turin, that Florence was to 
be the capital of Italy, the indignation of the people knew no bounds. 
The crowded streets resounded with cries of: "Down with the 
ministers! Turin or Rome! " The interference of the armed 
police and the military resulted in the massacre of over 150 unarmed 

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men, women, and children. The King was compelled to dismiss the 
ministry of Minghetti who had concluded the treaty. Thus began 
the ministry of General La Marmora, the most important since 
Cavour's. The Radicals began to perceive that Florence would be 
but a station on the way to Rome, and the Parliament, meeting in 
October, approved the Convention and the transfer of the capital to 

477. A New Ally. — La Marmora's political aim was to extri- 
cate the cabinet of Florence from its dependence on the court of 
Paris, and to substitute Prussia for France as the chief ally of 
Italy. The increasing tension between Prussia and Austria gave 
him the desired opportunity. 

In Prussia Frederic William IV. had died in 1861. His brother, since 
1867 Prince-Regent, ascended the throne as King William I., and at once 
began a reform of the Prussian army. Being strongly opposed by two 
successive Prussian Chambers, the King called in von Bismarck, the man 
of " blood and iron " as president of the ministry. His first care was the 
army. With the aid of a reorganized army Prussia was to be made supreme 
in Germany. To galu this eud he needed a war with Austria. But the 
new Kiug and his whole family were opposed to thU project. Bismarck 
calculated that the best means of embroiling the two monarchs in mutual 
disputes would be ah alliance between them for the purpose of interfering 
in the affairs of Schleswig- Holstein. He fully avowed all these aims and 
ideas in his secret dispatches to La Marmora. The Schleswig-Ilolsteiu 
affair had the following origin. 

478. Schleswig-Holstein Affair. — When Christian IX. suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Denmark in 18G3, he accepted a Constitution 
which incorporated Schleswig with Denmark. An incorporation of 
Schlcswig was clearly excluded by the agreement of 1852 between 
Austria, Prussia, and Denmark. Bismarck induced King William 
to conclude an alliance with Austria against Denmarl . The allied 
Powers demanded a repeal of the new Constitution. Upon Den- 
mark's refusal an Austro-Prussian army advanced into Schleswig, 
1864, whilst the troops of the German Confederation occupied Hol- 
stein. In a few months the allies accomplished the conquest of 
Schleswig, the greater part of Jutland, and the island of Alsen. 
These misfortunes induced Christian IX. to sue for the Peace of 
Vienna, in which he got back the province of Jutland, but agreed 

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to recognize whatever disposition the monarchs would make of the 
Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg. 

479. The Treaty of Ga stein. — Bismarck's foresight began 
soon to be verified. The joint administration of the Duchies by 
Austria and Prussia led to endless bickerings and wretched quarrels 
between the two Powers, which were only temporarily settled by the 
Treaty of Gastein. By this treaty the sovereignty over the Duchies 
remained vested in the two Powers jointly, but Austria was to 
administer Holstein, and Prussia Schleswig. As to Lauenburg, 
Austria ceded her claims such as they were to Prussia for a money 
indemnification, and Prussia joined the Duchy to the crown. The 
Treaty of Gastein was to last until a final settlement of the state of 
the Duchies should be reached. 

480. The Alliance of Prussia and Italy The Treaty of 

Gastein could not avert the war which Bismarck was resolved to 
bring about at any cost. The two Powers could not come to a final 
settlement. Austria desired to strengthen the German Confederacy 
of which she was still the virtual head, by uniting Schleswig-Hol- 
stein with the Confederacy as a sovereign State under a native 
prince. She therefore supported the popular movement in favor of 
the Duke of Augustenburg. Bismarck, on the other hand, wanted 
Sehles wig-Hols tein for Prussia, and vigorously suppressed the move- 
ment. To intensify the friction, Prussia came forward with a pro- 
posal to reorganize the German Confederacy in such a manner as to 
destroy Austria's preponderance in Germany. It was under these 
circumstances that Bismarck and La Marmora arranged a secret 
offensive and defensive treaty of alliance. Italy bound herself to 
declare war against Austria immediately after Prussia should have 
taken the initiative. In the peace to be made by both parties jointly, 
Austria was to cede Venetia to Italy and an equivalent to Prussia. 

481. The Rupture. — Napoleon III., who was friendly to both 
Italy and Prussia, proj>osed a European Congress to avert the 
impending war. It failed in consequence of Austria's refusal to 
have any change of boundaries submitted to the Congress. Austria 
then convoked the estates of Holstein. Prussia declared this convo- 

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THE WAR OF 1866. 


cation a breach of the Treaty of Gastein, and her troops invaded 
Holstein. Thereupon the Diet of the German Confederation, upon 
the motion of Austria, decreed the mobilization of the Confederate 
Army, with the exclusion, of course, of the Prussian contingents. 
The consequence of these measures was the secession of Prussia 
from the Confederation, and war in Germany, Austria, and Italy. 

Cher. O'Clery, Ch. XIV.- XIX., pp. 271-380. — Melena: Garibaldi, Autobiography. — 
Colonel Chambers: Garibaldi and Italian Unity. — Ch. Garnlcr: Le Jioyaume dcs deux 
Sidles; Official Documents During the War of the Brigandage. — Card. Manning: 
The Temporal Sovereignty of the Holy See. — Ming, 8. J: The same, — Mgr. Besson: 
Life of de Merode, Minister of Pius IX. — Rev. L. Maglionc: The Vatican and the King- 
dom of Italy. — Powell: Two Tears in the Pontifical Zouaves. — Lady Herbert Lea: 
Home the Capital of Italy. M. '82, 1.— Lives of Pius IX. (see § 8). — Memoirs of La 
Marmora (Un po piu di luce; Ein wenig mehr Licht — A Little More Light). — Gosch : 
Denmark and Germany since 1815. — Forbes : William of Germany. — C. Law: Prince 

482. Opening 1 of the War. — Austria's army concentrated at Olraiitz 
numbered 240,000 men under General Benedeck. The Prussian forces di- 
vided into five armies amounted to 320,000 under the chief command of 
William I., with General von Moltke as chief of staff. The Crown Prince 
Frederic William commanded the Silcsiau army (115,000 men) and Pr'nce 
Frederic Charles the army of Lusatia (93,000 men). When the Diet mobi- 
lized the Confederate army under the command of Prince Charles of 
Bavaria, Prussia called upon the Kings of Saxony and Hanover and the 
Elector of Hesse to form a new confederation under. the leadership of 
Prussia. Upon their refusal the Prussians occupied the whole of Saxony 
and invaded Hanover and Hesse. The Elector of Hesse was conveyed as a 
prisoner to the fortress of Stettin. King George of Hanover retreated 
southward to join the Bavarians. But the Prussians prevented the junction 
of the Confederate armies and forced the Hanoverians to capitulate at Lan- 
gensalza. They then defeated the rest of the Confederate troops in a series 
of successful engagements, and occupied the principal cities of middle and 
southern Germany. 

483. Campaign of Custozza. — Victor Emmanuel had an army 
of 200,000 men in the field against the 70,000 under Archduke 
Albert. This was all that Austria could spare for Italy. Garibaldi 
commanded 3G,000 volunteers but was easily kept in check at the foot 
of the Alps by a few Austrian battalions and the volunteer corps of 
Tyrolese riflemen. The Austrians concentrated their main army 

THE WAR OF 1866. 



behind Verona. La Marmora crossed the Mincio, June. 23, and 
occupied the plain of Villafranca. The following day his army 
advanced with little order or method towards the heights near Pes- 
chiera, without knowing that they were in front of the Archduke's 
main army. La Marmora, utterly unprepared for a battle, and 
unable to communicate with several of his divisions, suffered the 
great defeat of Custozza. Though still doubly outnumbering the 
victors, the Italian army, demoralized by the hopeless inefficiency at 
headquarters, recrossed the Mincio during the night. On the morn- 
ing of June 25, there was not an Italian soldier on Austrian ground. 
Italy's salvation came from the Prussian victories in Bohemia. 

. 484. The Battle of Sadowa, July 3. — The occupation of 
Saxony had opened the way for the invasion of Bohemia, the chief 
seat of the war. The armies of the two Prussian Princes entered 
Bohemia without resistance. A third army followed the Saxons 
retreating from their own country to join the Austrians. Before the 
decisive battle was fought several Austrian corps had been defeated 
in detail. Numbers, arms, and organization were against Benedeck. 
The muzzle-loaders could not compete with the new Prussian needle- 
guns. Only Trautenau was an Austrian victory. The die was cast 
at Sadowa, nine days after Custozza. The Austrians in their strong 
position, with the fortress of Koenigsgratz and the Elbe in their 
rear, successfully withstood the Prussian assaults in the fore- 
noon ; but in the afternoon the Silesian army arrived, gained the 
flank and the rear of the Austrians and secured to Prussia a com- 
plete* victory. The Austrians retreated towards Olmutz. The Prus- 
sians occupied Prague and Briinn and advanced to the neighbor- 
hood of Vienna. An army corps was detailed for Hungary where 
Bismarck's agents had prepared a revolutionary outbreak. At this 
juncture a truce was affected through the mediation of Napoleon 
and preliminaries of peace were signed July 22. Francis Joseph 
ceded Venetia to Napoleon to be handed over to Italy. 

485. Naval Battle of Lissa. — Admiral Persano, meanwhile, 
had lain quietly at Anoona with his large fleet. Public indignation 
and a sharp command of the King's Council 4 * to do something 99 
induced him to sail with twenty-nine battle-ships — eleven of them 

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THE WAR OF 1866. 


ironclads — to the coast of Dalmatia, and take possession of the 
island of Lissa, on July 20. The Austrian squadron under Teg- 
ethoff sent to the relief of Lissa was far inferior in numbers and 
armament, and consisted chiefly of old wooden vessels. Tegethoff's 
short order to his captains was to ram away at everything they 
saw painted " gray." True to his command the Austrians rushed 
in among the Italian ironclads. Tegethoff himself sunk the iron- 
clad " King of Italy " with 400 men in a minute's time. The other 
ironclads in trying to avoid the Austrian bows broke their ranks and 
were driven hither and thither at the enemy's will. When the fleets 
separated, Tegethoff, followed by his squadron in well ordered line, 
passed through the heart of the Italian fleet and took up his posi- 
tion in front of Lissa, whose rescue he had accomplished. Persano 
sailed back to Ancona. He was subsequently deprived of his rank 
and decorations and dismissed with dishonor from the service. 

486. Peace of Pragne and of Vienna. — In the Peace of 
Prague with Prussia, the Emperor of Austria consented to the 
reorganization of Germany without Austria, to the annexations made 
by Prussia, and to the cession of Venetia to Italy. Austria had to pay 
$15,000,000 for the cost of the war. In the Peace of Vienna with 
Italy Austria acknowledged the Kingdom of Italy with which Venetia 
was united. The Iron Crown of Lombardy was delivered to the 
representative of Victor Emmanuel. The annexations by Prussia of 
Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and the free city of 
Frankfort increased the territory of the monarchy from 110,000 to 
140,000 square miles, and its population from 19,000,000 to 
23,500,000 inhabitants. 

487. North German Confederation. — The federative union of North* 
Germany arranged by treaties between Prussia, Saxony, and the other States 
north of the Main was a new creation, independent of the old Confedera- 
tion. The Federative Government consisted of the Federative Council 
(Bundesrath) and the Diet (Reichstag). The members of the Bundesrath 
represent the federated States and their ruling princes, and deliberate under 
the presidency of the Chaucellor. The King of Prussia, as President of 
the Federation, represents the League in its international relations, declares 
war, concludes peace, accredits its ambassadors and controls the army and 
navy with the consent of the Bundesrath. As member of the Bundesrath 
he can be outvoted like any other prince. The people are represented in 
the Reichstag, and elect its members by direct manhood suffrage. The 

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Bundesrath and the Reichstag do not form an upper and a lower house, but 
are independent bodies. Proposals which receive a majority of votes in 
the Council and in the Diet, become laws without ratification by the King 
President, who signs the law but has no veto power. The relation of the 
southern States to the North German Confederation was that of an offensive 
and defensive alliance, a tariff union, and, in case >f war, of military sub* 
ordination to the King of Prussia. 

488. Results of the War in Austria. — The general dissatisfaction in 
Austria caused by the military defeat in Bohemia lifted the Liberal Party 
into power. The reorganization of the Empire was intrusted to a foreigner, 
Count Ferdinand of Beust, who had been minister of foreign affairs in 
Saxony. He undertook the transformation of the Habsburg monarchy into 
a modern constitutional State, and the reconciliation of Hungary with 
Austria and the Habsburg dynasty. Since 1849 Hungary had been ruled by 
German and Czech officials. Beust came to an understanding with the 
liberal Hungarian leaders, Frauds Deak and Count Andrassy, which 
acknowledged the separate national existence of Hungary. Centralized 
Austria gave way to the dual A ustro- Hungarian monarchy. The federation 
of the two equal States (Cisleithania and Transleithanla, from the river 
Leitha below Vienna) was to be renewed every ten years. The two States 
were united in personal union, the Emperor of Austria being at the same 
time the King of Hungary. Each of the States received its own Constitu- 
tion, government, Parliament, and ministry. The two Parliaments annually 
choose a delegation of sixty members each, to legislate in matters of foreign 
policy, military administration, and imperial finance. The delegations 
meet alternately in Vienna and Pesth in separate houses. The three im- 
perial ministers of the Chancelary, War, Finance, are responsible only to 
the Delegations, not to the Parliaments. 

489. The New Policy. — Beust' s reorganization of Cisleithan'a was 
unfortunate for the Internal peace and prosperity of Austria. The Protest- 
ant minister of a Catholic country destroyed the influence of the clergy 
on education, especially iu the elementary schools, and introduced the 
system of " neutral" or unsectarian instruction in the whole country. 
He tore up the Concordat with the Holy See, and joined the euemies of the 
Temporal Power. He still more increased the already numerous army of 
officials, and obliged every servant of the State to become a promoter of 
religious, political, and capitalistic liberalism. He finally disgusted every 
Austrian patriot by his servility to Prussia which he left as a legacy to his 
liberal successors. 

Chev. O'Clery: ch. XX., pp. 381-403. Campaign of 1866 in Germany t 8tnff edition, 
tranel. by Wright and Hozler. — Capt. Hozler: The Seven Week*? War. — Sir A. Malet: 
The Overthrow of the German Confederation. — Dice y: Battlefields of 1866. — Simon : 
William I. and his Reign; The Treaties of 1 866 and 1867 % K. It. 71, 1. — Alheridge: CL 
von Beust, D. R. 87, 3.— Baron II. de Worms: Memoirs of Ferd. Count von Beust. 





490. The Garibaldian Raid of 1867. — The cession of Venice completed 
another stage in the making of Italy. In accordance with the September 
Convention Mgr. Merodc and General Kanzlcr, successive ministers of war 
to Pius IX., organized a small but well-equipped and ably officered army of 
13,000 men, partly Italians, partly Papal Zouaves or volunteers from every 
Catholic country. The sole object of this force was to protect the Papal 
States against Garibaldlan attacks. Plus IX. had nothing to fear from his 
subjects, they were thoroughly loyal both in the country and in Rome; and 
to provide for an army able to cope with an Italian invasion, his resources 
were inadequate. The French army of occupation evacuated Rome Decem- 
ber 12, 1866. At once Ratazzi, La Marmora's successor, concocted a new 
scheme to get possession of Rome. Garibaldi was to enter the Papal terri- 
tory. A pretext thus being furnished, the Italian army was to march upon 
Rome "to restore order and protect the Sovereign Pontiff." The revolu- 
tionary machine was set in motion, committees were formed, arms collected, 
volunteers enrolled throughout Italy. The government furnished 181,000 
cartridges, free passes on the railroads, and troops of the line disguised as 
Garibaldians. At the same time it publicly condemned in terms of righteous 
indignation a movement which it superintended in secret. Thus was 
brought about the invasion of the Papal States by 10-12,000 Garibaldians in 

491. The Roman Insurrection and its Effects. — The 
Roman insurrection, the chief hope of Ratazzi, proved an utter 
failure. The cowardly blowing up of a portion of the Serristori 
barracks and a number of local fights which lasted less than half an 
hour and failed at all points, were the only incidents of this insur- 
rection of October 22. On the morning of October 23 Ratazzi 
resigned. Menabrea took his place October 27, just after Napoleon, 
in consequence of the violation of the September Convention, had 
sent a fleet from Toulon to the Papal States. Acting on Mena- 
brea's advice, Victor Emmanuel issued a proclamation in which he 
condemned the Garibaldian invasion in the name of the laws of 
honor and of international treaties. The proclamation was hardly 
issued, when a turbulent demonstration of the Party of Action 
before the royal palace extorted a promise from the King to throw 
laws, honor and international treaties to the winds and to march upon 
Rome if the French would occupy the city. The humiliation of 
Victor Emmanuel was complete. 

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492. The Battle of Mentana. — When Garibaldi heard that 
the insurrection in Rome had failed he concentrated his troops in 
the neighborhood of the Eternal City. The day after his arrival 
before the walls, the French landed at Civita Vecchia. The landing 
had two effects. Fifty thousand Italian troops of the line crossed 
the Papal frontiers, and annexed four towns to the Kingdom of 
Italy. Garibaldi withdrew from Rome and took position at Men- 
tana. General Kanzler with 3,000 men followed by 2,000 French 
under Polhes, marched against Garibaldi. From the morning of 
November 3, till 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the 3,000 Papal vol- 
unteers advanced step by step against 10,000 Garibaldian veterans ; 
after 3 they were assisted by the French. The Revolutionists suf- 
fered a crushing defeat. Garibaldi fled before the battle was over. 
He lost 2,600, killed, wounded, and prisoners. The rest of his 
army hurried across the borders. The regular army of Italy immedi- 
ately withdrew from the four " annexed " towns and from the Papal 

The news of Mentana was received with au outburst of joy throughout 
the Catholic world. Catholic sentiment in France showed so united a 
front that Napoleon thought it wise to declare through his minister, Rbu- 
her: "That Italy shall not get possession of Rome and of the actual pon- 
tifical territory. Never will France endure such an outrage upon hir honor 
and upon Catholicity." In less than three years Napoleon 111. broke his 
pledges and completed the betrayal of the Holy See. 

493. Pontificate of Plus IX , 1846-78. — The Pontificate of Pius IX. 
was the longest on record, and one of the most memorable in history. 
This great Pontiff re-established the Catholic Hierarchies in England and 
Holland, and the Latiu Patriarchate in Palestine, erected nearly 200 new sees, 
concluded concordats with nearly all the Christian States of the two hemi- 
spheres, and iu numerous allocutions and encyclicals defended the rights of 
the Church. The three greatest acts of his Pontificate are the definition of 
the Immaculate Conception, December 8, 1854, the Syllabus of 1864, a col- 
lection of propositions which condemn the errors of the age, and the 
Vatican Council, December 8, 1869 — July, 1870. 

494. The Vatican Council. — Iu 1867 Pius IX. indicated his intention 
of summoning a General Council. The announcement at once excited the 
animosity of the so-called liberal Catholics who had protested agaiust the 
Syllabus. They feared lest the Council might define Papal Infallibility as a 
dogma, though it was not summoned for that purpose. The denial of Papal 

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infallibility, an heirloom of Gallicanism and Janseuisra, was the chief doc- 
triual error in our times, because it struck at the validity of the Pontifical 
acts of the last 300 years, weakened the effects of Papal decisions in the 
present, and endangered the very root of faith. An organized opposition 
agaiust the Council, headed by Mgr. Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleans, sprang 
up with'u the Church and was loudly applauded by the entire anti-Catholic 
press. But iu spite of this opposition and the obstacles which secular gov- 
ernments threw in its way, the Vatican Council was solemnly opened by 
Pius IX. in the first public session, December 8, 18C9, made its profession 
of the Trideutine faith In the second session, January 6, 1870, and, in the 
first dogmatic Constitution, defined the Supernatural Order and condemned 
the opposing errors in the third, April 24. 

495. Papal Infallibility. — The hopes of liberal Catholics, 
Protestants and unbelievers received the first check when some 500 
Bishops petitioned the Holy See to permit the proposal and definition 
of Papal Infallibility. The Fathers of the Council were practically 
a unit as to the doctrine itself. But a minority comprising one- 
sixth of the Council was opposed to the opportuneness of the 
definition. It was a mere question of expediency. After full and 
fair deliberation the dogma was defined in the fourth public session 
July 18, 1870, by 533 votes against 2. Fifty-five bishops of the 
opposition had previously left Rome with Papal permission ; 200 
bishops who had not been present at the Council at once sent in 
their adhesion. All the bishops of the opposition accepted the 
definition as an article of faith. Heretical opposition remained con- 
fined to a small number of Professors (Dr. Dollinger, etc.) and 
laymen. The breaking out of the Franco-German war led to a sus- 
pension of the Vatican Council. With the Definition, the principle 
of authority was reasserted in the most solemn way. The Syllabus 
and the Vatican Council pointed out the only safe way to a regenera- 
tion of society. 

Chev. O'Clery : ch. XXI-XXIL, pp. 401-463. Mooney: Pius IX. and the Revol., A. C. 
Q , 17. — Margottl: Victories of the Church in the first Decade of Pius IX. (Ital.).— R. 
Parsons: The Pontificate of Pius IX.; Rationalism; The Vatican Council; Studies, V.— 
Card. Manning: The Vatican Council and its Definitions.— Collectio Lacensis.— Bean- 
clerk: The Vatican Council, M. '91, 1. — Fessler: Das Vatic. Condi. — Lives of Pius IX. 
by: Brennan; Graziam {Sketches of Life and Times), Hassard; Dawson (Pius IX. and 
his Times); Magulre; Wills; O'Reilly; II Ul scam p. — G. F. Dillon: The War of Anti- 
christ with the Church and Christian Civilization. 



§ 7. 


406. The Luxemburg Question. — Napoleon III. committed his greatest 
political mistake when he sacrificed Austria to Prussia in 18C6, and he was 
soon to rue it. After the battle of Sadowa a war party sprang up in France 
that clamored for a restoration of the left bank of the Rhine. The idea 
that the Rhine was the natural boundary of France had been kept alive by 
statesmen, historians, poets, and the daily press since the fall of Napoleon I. 
Napoleon III. negotiated with the court of Berlin for a change of frontiers 
on the Rhine which would restore the balance of power rudely disturbed by 
the increase of Prussian territory. But by his usual policy of promises, 
deceits, reckless denials, and bold assertions Bismarck simply dallied with 
Napoleon and his diplomatic agents. The Emperor's demands finally 
dwindled down to the desire of purchasing the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg 
from Holland. But Luxemburg was garrisoned at the time by Prussian 
troops. The London Conference of 1867 prevented the outbreak of hostili- 
ties by a compromise. Luxemburg was declared neutral, Prussia withdrew 
her troops and the fortifications were razed. 

497. Internal Troubles In France. — The general elections of 1869 fore- 
shadowed the approach of a new revolution. Whilst the rural population 
gave the government a good majority, the large cities, especially Paris and 
Lyons elected radical men who were violently opposed both to Napoleon's 
personal government and to his dynasty. The Emperor tortured by disease 
and in consequence inert of mind wavered between the system of personal 
rule represented by Rouher and the moderate liberalism represented by 
Ollivier. Rouher finally resigned and Ollivier formed a ministry of his own 
party. The license of the press brought into play the most slanderous and 
blasphemous pens of the atheistic and communistic Revolution. The govern- 
ment took reprisals and filled the prisons with journalists and declaimers. 
A new liberal Constitution submitted by Ollivier and ratified by over 
7,000,000 votes had no effect upon the fermentation of the revolutionary 
parties. It was an ominous sign that even in the army 50,000 had voted 
with the cities in the negative. To divert attention from internal troubles 
the Emperor's advisers urged him to involve the country in a dispute with 
Prussia. Napoleon was strongly averse to a war; Bismarck, on the contrary, 
hailed with joy the opportunity for a new conquest. 

498. Revolution in Spain, 1868-70. — In 1868 a revolution 
broke out in Spain. The defeat of the royal troops at Aleolea 
drove Queen Isabella to France. The whole country declared in 
favor of the Revolution, thanks to the arbitrary measures of the 

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ministers and the ill-repute of the Queen. A provisional govern- 
ment deposed the Bourbons from the throne and summoned a con- 
stituent meeting of the Cartes. The majority of the Cortes decided 
against a strong Republican minority for a constitutional monarchy. 
Marshal Serrano was appointed Governor-Regent, while General 
Prim cast about for a new King at the different courts of Europe. 
After many failures Prim offered the Spanish crown to Prince Leopold 
of Hohenzoilem, a relative of the King of Prussia. As the Prince 
soon after withdrew from the candidacy, the crown of Spain was 
finally accepted by Amadeo I., the second son of Victor Emmanuel. 

499. The Hohenzollern Incident. — The acceptance of the 
Spanish crown by the Prince of Hohenzollern created intense sur- 
prise and anger in Paris because the negotiations between Spain and 
Prussia had been kept secret from the French ambassadors. To 
have the Hohenzollern north and south was too much for the French 
people. Public opinion and the press declared the scheme with one 
voice a challenge of Bismarck to France. It was such in fact, for 
Bismarck was resolved to force a war upon France, while her military 
state was, as he well knew, weak and disorganized. By his hasty, 
undiplomatic proceedings the Duke of Grammont played into the 
hands of his wary enemy. He informed the Prussian ambassador in 
Paris that France u would not tolerate any Prussian Prince upon the 
Spanish throne." The Republicans and Socialists fanned the war- 
like excitement to bring about the fall of Napoleon. Benedetti, 
the French ambassador to Prussia, was instructed to obtain from the 
King a declaration that ' ' the royal government does not approve the 
candidacy of the Prince of Hohenzollern, and orders him to with- 
draw his determination taken ivithout the King's permission." The 
King could not truthfully make this statement and would not issue 
an order. The Prince of Hohenzollern, however, voluntarily and 
formally renounced his candidature. Thereupon Benedetti was 
ordered to demand an assurance from the King that he would never 
sanction a revival of the candidature. The answer was, the King 
approves the withdrawal of the Prince ; he can do no more. A new 
audience to Benedetti was courteously denied by the King, but the 
denial insultingly telegraphed to foreign courts by Bismarck. The 
French declaration of war followed at once (July 19). Napoleon's 

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declaration that France was not making war upon Germany but only 
upon Prussia, was met by King William's declaration that Germany 
was waging war not against the French people, but against their 
Emperor, and by the general mobilization of the northern and 
southern armies. 

600. The Armies. — The Prussian army was splendidly organized, and 
its officers were provided with all the topographical details necessary for a 
campaign in France. The total strength of the North German army in- 
clusive of some 190,000 Land we hr, was 750,000, that of the southern army 
100,000 men. The right wing commanded by Stelnmetz stood at Coblenz, 
the center under Prince Frederic Charles at Mainz, the left wing under 
Crown Prince Frederic William at Mannheim. King William I. was com- 
mander-in-chief and the great strategist, General von Moltke, chief of the 
general staff. 

France was practically unprepared, the military administration in con- 
fusion, the fortresses ill-provisioned. Of the 350,000 troops of the line and 
the 100,000 gardes mobiles on paper, the eight army corps sent to the front 
numbered only 220,000, and these were not fully equipped. A reserve army 
of 300,000 was In course of formation. Napoleon was commander-in-chief, 
Marshal Leboeuf chief of the general staff. Marshal MacMahon stood at 
Strassburg, Marshal Bazaine at Metz. Napoleon committed the regency to 
the Empress before taking command. 

501. State of Italy. — The earlier months of 1870 had been 
signalized in Italy by the appearance of Garibaldian bands and the 
violent language of the radical press. The Vatican Council then in 
session was exciting the resentment of the Liberals all over Europe. 
Even Austria turned against the Holy See, and Beust betrayed his 
anger by advocating a change in the September Convention which 
would allow Italian troops to occupy Rome with the consent of 
Austria and France. The Hohenzollern incident stimulated the zeal 
of the Party of Action. On July 17, the streets of Florence re- 
sounded to the cries of the Revolutionists : 41 To Rome ! Down with 
France! Hurrah for neutrality! " On the 18th the infallibility of 
the Pope was proclaimed in the Council; on the 19th war was 
declared in Paris. With the declaration came Napoleon's resolve to 
sacrifice Rome and to withdraw his troops from the Papal States in 
order thereby to secure the support of Italy and Austria. 

502. Evacuation of Italy and First French Disasters. — 

The evacuation of Italy began July 31. The greater part of the 

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infantry and artillery left on August 4th, the day on which France 
was losing her first battle at Weissenburg. General Duraont and 
the rest of the infantry left Civita Vecchia on August 6, the day of 
Woerth and Forbach. At Woerth MacMahon with only 45,000 
men against the Crown Prince's 130,000, made a most gallant 
defense, but was forced to fall back upon Chalons. The battle of 
Forbach drove the main imperial army in full retreat upon Metz. 
Three, days later the ministry of Ollivier and Grammont fell. 
Napoleon transferred the chief command from himself to Bazaine, 
and Leboeuf withdrew from the head of the staff. All hope for 
Italian and Austrian assistance was now gone. 

Chev. O'Clery, ch. XXIII., pp. 464-479. — Napoleon III., Lives by: Forbes (1898); 
Fruzer (1897) ; Imbert de St. Amand (Louis Napol. and Mile, de Alontijo; Nap. Ill, 
and Hit Court); Jerrold; Lano (1895); E. R. '96. 4. — Loughnan: Reminiscences of the 
Second Empire {on Maupas' Papers), M. '83. 2, 84, 2. — Secret Papers of the Sec. Empire, 
E. tt. '86, 1. 



503. The Campaign of Gravelotte. — Bazaine's plan was 
to join the remnants of MacMahon* s command and the new army 
which was being formed in the strongly fortified camp of Chalons. 
To prevent this junction the Prussians fought the next three battles 
in the neighborhood of Metz, at Neuilly, Yionville, and Gravelotte 
(August 14, 16, 18). At Gravelotte, King William at the head of 
180,000 and 822 cannon, won, after eight hours hard fighting, a 
decisive victory over 140,000 French, supported by 550 cannon ; 
13,000 Frenchmen, and 19,000 Prussians fell in this bloody 
encounter. These battles cut the French forces in two and enabled 
the Prussians to surround the main army in and about Metz, which 
lacked sufficient provisions for so great an army. 

504. Sedan, September 1. — On the morrow of Gravelotte 
the King of Prusssia and General Moltke made for Paris, leaving a 
formidable army under the Prince Frederick Charles to invest Metz. 
MacMahon, misled by reckless orders from Palikao, the new minister 
of war, instead of falling back upon Paris attempted to reach Metz, 
whilst Bazaine tried to break through the German lines and join 


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MacMahon. Seeing the impossibility of reaching Metz, MacMahon, 
accompanied by Napoleon III., concentrated his troops at Sedan. 
Having no idea of the nearness of the enemy, they camped in a 
valley surrounded by hills, a veritable death-trap. The Germans 
meanwhile, outnumbering the 140,000 French by fully 110,000 
men, approached from different sides, and planted their batteries 
upon all the surrounding hills without rousing the suspicion of the 
French. The battle became one of artillery, a simple massacre. 
The French army fought with heroic, but unavailing bravery. 
Three times on that fatal day it changed its commander. Mac- 
Mahon wounded in the morning gave up the command to Ducrot ; 
Ducrot, also disabled, transferred it to Wimpffen. At three o'clock 
French resistance was exhausted. Napoleon ordered the white flag 
to be hoisted, and placed his sword into the hands of William I. 

605. Pall of the Second Empire — The following morning Napoleon 
drove to the Prussian lines. The capitulation of the French army was 
signed by Moltke and Wimpffen. As prisoner of war Napoleon referred the 
question of peace to the regent. In a personal interview William I. 
assigned Wilhelmshohe near Cassel as residence to the fallen Emperor. 

On September 4, the Chambers overthrew the Empire and pro- 
claimed the Third Republic. The new government of the National 
Defense was a pure creation of the mob. General Trochu accepted 
the presidency and the governorship of Paris, Jules Favre became 
minister of Foreign Affairs and Gambetta of the Interior. The 
Empress and the Prince Imperial fled to England. Of the French 
army 10,000 men, who had crossed the frontiers were disarmed in 
Belgium ; 84,000 men were marched into Germany as prisoners of 
war. The German armies not needed for the siege of Metz con- 
verged towards Paris. Henceforth all the German military opera- 
tions had the object of preventing any attempt to raise the siege of 
Paris, whilst the object of all the French operations outside of Metz 
was the raising of the siege of Paris. 

606. Waiting 1 for Rome. — As long as the fortune of France was hang- 
ing in the balance, the Italian cabinet negotiated with lx>th France aud 
Prussia. Napoleon gave up all opposition to the taking of Rome. Prussia, 
too, gave a formal permission to the cabinet of Florence to march upon 
Borne, as the price for Italian neutrality. In public the government pre- 

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served its apparent policy of strictly adhering to the September Convention. 
Visconii Venosta declared in the name of Victor Emmanuel; " The obliga- 
tion which Italy has undertaken neither to attack the Pontifical frontiers nor 
to permit it to be attacked, even if it were not enforced by treaties, would 
still be enforced by other sanctions, provided by the ordinary law of nations, 
and the general political relations of States/* But in proportion as the 
hopes of France vanished the real intentions of the government were 
revealed by the massing of troops along the northern and southern bound- 
aries of the Papal States. To the European cabinets the Italian govern- 
ment spoke of a march to Rome to preserve order and prevent a revolution. 
To the Catholic Italians it proclaimed its intention of preserving the f ee- 
dora and authority of the Pope. Pius IX. himself was plied with arguments 
to allow a peaceful occupation of his territory. After the battle of Sedan 
Victor Emmanuel wrote a brazen-faced letter to the Pope in which he asked 
the Head of Christendom to surrender those States. Pius' refusal to com- 
mit perjury and injustice, coupled with a dignified and pathetic rebuke of 
the royal aggressor, extorted the admiration even of the enemies of the 
Temporal Power. 

507. The Sacrilege of 1870. — On September 11, Cadorna 
with 80,000 men invaded the Papal States. The 13,000 volunteers 
of General Kanzler were the only defense which Pius could oppose. 
They had orders to hold their ground against Garibaldian bands but 
to fall back upon Rome before the regular army. The Italians 
marched in five divisions by different routes from the North and 
the South until they united under the walls of Rome. Wherever 
they left a garrison they gathered together the few Liberals they 
found in the town, organized Giuntas and voted 44 loyal addresses " 
to Victor Emmanuel. On September 19, 60,000 Italians with 100 
guns encircled Rome. There were skirmishes around the city, and 
a few shots exchanged from the walls. Rome within was perfectly 
quiet ; not a single attempt was made to show sympathy with the 
invaders. Immense crowds flocked around Pius IX. wherever he 
appeared in public. The three summonses to surrender, sent by 
General Cadorna, were respectfully but firmly declined. Early in 
the morning of September 20 the Papal officers and soldiers received 
Holy Communion. At 5 o'clock a furious bombardment began, 
first mainly directed against the walls. Later the Garibaldians 
under Bixio sent their shells into the city, fired houses and hospitals, 
and aimed at the Vatican. The attacks were everywhere met by 
stubborn resistance. After four hours fighting the wall at the 



Porta Pia began to crumble. And when at 10 o'clock the Italian 
columns advanced upon the open breach, a Pontifical dragoon 
brought the order to display the white flag. The evening before 
Pius IX. to prevent unnecessary shedding of blood, had ordered 
General Kanzler to open negotiations for surrender, as soon as a 
breach should have been made. 

508. The Capitulation. — As soon as the white flag was dis- 
played not another shot was fired by the defenders, whilst the 
Italians at the Porta Pia violated the truce by firing upon and 
brutally assailing the heroes of Montana, who stood with grounded 
arms defenseless before them, and Bixio continued for another half 
hour to throw his shells into the city. By the capitulation the 
Papal army agreeing to leave Rome on September 21 was awarded 
the honors of war. The subsequent brutal treatment of the gallant 
volunteers, and the long and cruel imprisonment of Italians and 
foreigners who had served the Holy See, was a most dishonorable 
breach of the agreements made at the capitulation of Rome. 

609. The Plebiscite of October 2. — The occupation of Rome was fol- 
lowed by days of frightful disorder, caused by the hordes of Revolutionists 
which invaded the city. On the 27th the Italians took possession of the 
Castle of St. Angelo, and from that day the Pope was confined within the 
bounds of the Vatican. Preparations for the plebiscite were made by daily 
arrests of Papal officials and sympathizers, and by striking out great nam • 
bers of respectable names from the voting lists. The latter measure was 
quite unnecessary as Pius IX. had forbidden Catholics to take part in the 
plebiscite. The number of votes for annexation was swelled by convicts 
released from prison, boys under legal age, foreigners of every country of 
Europe, " patriots " of Italy shipped to Rome at government expense, and 
by allowing everybody to vote as often as he liked. A Belgian sculptor to 
test the working of the plebiscite, voted twenty- two times without once 
being challenged. By such means 40,831 votes were rolled up for annexation 
against forty-six cast against it. The same methods were a iopted in the 
provinces. Monte San Giovanni, e. g., which counted fifty-six voters, 
recorded 900 votes for annexation. 

510. The Italians In Rome, 1870. — On the day of the 

Plebiscite, Pius IX. published his solemn protest against the law- 
less occupation of Rome which deprived him of the freedom neces- 
sary for the proper government of the Church. Since that day the 

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Vicar of Christ is practically a prisoner in his own palace. The 
Italian government after the conquest faithfully carried out the pro- 
gramme of the anti-Catholic Revolution. Religious orders sup- 
pressed, the Roman College seized, churches turned into cavalry 
stables, priests drafted into the army, the patrimonies of ecclesi- 
astical institutions squandered, episcopal sees left vacant, citizens 
and peasants weighed down with impossible taxes, national bank- 
ruptcy imminent in spite of gigantic robberies ; a military and naval 
establishment far beyond the capacity of the country saddled on the 
nation, and the impoverished people crying for bread — these are 
the natural fruits of the crime of 1870. 

Pius IX. outlived Victor Emmanuel as he had outlived Napoleon 
III. (d. 1873, at Chiselhurst in England). Victor Emmanuel died 
January 9, 1878, and was succeeded by his son Humbert. A saintly 
death closed the great Pontiff's life of trials, sufferings and 
triumphs, February, 1878. Before the enemies of the Church had 
time to concert any hostile plans of action, the Cardinals had 
assembled at the Vatican and had chosen as Supreme Pontiff Cardi- 
nal Pecci, the Archbishop of Perugia. He assumed the name of 
Leo XIII. ; a name now honored not only within the Catholic Church, 
but throughout the civilized world. 

Chev. OCIery. ch. XXIII.-XXV., pp. 480-541. — Count Henry d'ldevllle - Wcgg- 
Prosser: Rome and Her Captors; The Piedmontcse in Rome. — Henry Form by: The 
Italian Occupation of t\e City of Rome, A. C. Q. f v. 1. — Browne: The Italian Occu- 
pation of Rome, 1870-01, M. '91, 3. — Michael: Zusammenhang zwischen d. 18 July and 
20 September, 1870 ; I. Th. Z. f 1892. — W. O'O. Morris: The Campaign of Sedan; Moltke — 
Hooper: Campaign of Sedan. — Ruach : Bismarck in the Franco German War.— Hogun: 
Marshal MacMahon, A. C. Q., 19. - Marshal Canrobert, K. It, 96, 1, 

§ 9- 


511. Fall of Metz. — The investment of Paris was completed 
on September li). After a futile attempt to obtain peace without 
territorial sacrifice the government of the National Defense estab- 
lished a delegation or branch government at Tours. Gambetta who 
escaped from Paris in a balloon, was placed at its head as dictator. 
With indefatigable energy the delegation undertook to organize two 
provincial armies, the army of the Loire aud the army of the North. 

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The Prussians, meanwhile, had continued to advance. Toul and 
Strassburg fell in September, Orleans and other cities in October. 
But all those disasters palled before the decisive catastrophe, the 
fall of Metz, where provisions had given out October 21. October 
27, Marshal Bazaine surrendered the town and its forts, 1,300 guns 
and all the material of war, 173,000 French soldiers became prisoners 
of war; 3,000 officers were liberated on parole, and 20,000 sick 
remained in the conquered town ; 200,000 German soldiers were thus 
set free to attack the untried levies of the provinces. 

512 Attempts to Relieve Paris. — A part of the army of Metz was sent 
to assist in the siege of Paris. Another part nnder Manteaffel defeated the 
French levies of the North at Amiens (November 27). The defeated army 
recovered itself and made several attempts to gain the road to Paris, but 
was finally defeated at St. Quentin (January 19). 

Frederic Charles with the main force released at Metz marched against the 
array of the Loire. This army had defeated the Germans under Gen. von der 
Tann and recovered Orleans, the first real French success in the war. It was 
now advancing upon Paris to co-operate with a great sortie which had been 
planned for November 30. Frederic Charles first stopped its advance upon 
Paris, then by a series of victorious engagements around Orleans (December 
2-4) he cut the army of the Loire In two, recaptured Orleans, and finally 
almost annihilated the southern army near Mans (January 12). 

As a last desperate means of saving Paris Gambetta resolved to throw 
140,000 men under Bourbakl across Alsace into Germany. The Germans 
under Werder took up a very strong position near Belfort. Bourbaki's 
forces, though superior in numbers and unquestionably brave, but young, 
untried, badly fed, and imperfectly armed, stormed for three days the German 
entrenchments ; but they were finally repelled and driven to seek refuge in 
the neutral territory of Switzerland. 

513. Capitulation of Paris, January 28, 1871. — Mean- 
while the deadly embrace of the Prussian siege had drawn closer and 
closer around Paris. The army of the capital exhausted its strength 
in unavailing sorties. The great sortie of November 30 in which 
Trochu and Ducrot won two important positions from the Germans, 
failed in the end through the non-appearance of the army of the Loire. 
The last great sortie with 100,000 men (January) was repulsed with 
heavy losses. With the defeat of Bourbaki all hope of relief 
vanished. Paris was in a state of famine ; over 40,000 persons had 
already succumbed to the privations of the siege. Nothing remained 



but to capitulate. The terms were signed January 28. All the 
forts with their munitions of war were surrendered. The artillery on 
the city walls was dismounted. The troops in Paris as prisoners of 
war were disarmed, save 12,000 men necessary to maintain public 
order. At the request of Jules Favre the national guards also were 
kept under arms to counteract imperialist designs. The city had to 
pay a war contribution of 200,000,000 francs. A truce afforded 
the time for the election and the meeting of a National Assembly 
which was to decide the question of peace or war. The new 
Assembly met at Bordeaux September 12, and elected Thiers head 
of the Executive Department. It became his painful task to arrange 
the preliminaries of peace with the inexorable chancellor of the Ger- 
man Empire. The terms provided the cession of Alsace with the 
exception of Belfort, and German Lorraine with Metz and Thionville, 
in all 4,700 square miles with one and a half million inhabitants, 
and the payment by France of a war indemnity of five milliards of 
francs in three' years, to be secured in the meantime by a German 
occupation of French territorty. The preliminaries were ratified in 
the definitive Peace of Frankfort, May 10, 1871. 

514. The German Empire, January 8,1871. — The German 
Empire was the outcome of the victories in the French war. The 
initiative was taken by Crown Prince Frederic. After the battle of 
Woerth he advised the Kings of Southern Germany, that a sufficient 
force was in the field 44 to coerce those who might resist the proposal 
of a German Empire." The next step was an agreement at Ver- 
sailles by which the four Southern States of Germany formally 
joined the North German Confederacy. Thereupon Prince Bismarck 
asked the King of Bavaria to propose a revival of the imperial title 
to the rest of the German princes, with a hint that in his default 
others might be found to advance the proposal ; the Diet too would 
be willing to put the motion. The King of Bavaria in his letter of 
November 30 to King William at Versailles expressed his confidence, 
that the President of the German Confederacy in his new dignity 
would exercise his rights in the name of the whole German Union 
and its princes, and formally proposed that the President of the 
Confederacy should assume the title of German Emperor. After 
all the sovereign States and the three free cities had signified their 

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approval, the title of German Emperor was conferred on William I. 
and his successors in the palace of Louis XIV. at Versailles, January 
18, 1871. 

The new German Empire has no legal connection with the old Roman 
Empire of the German Nation. Hence the time from 1806-1871 was not an 
interregnum. The Empire is merely a continual ion of the North German 
Confederacy extended, under a new name, to the southern States. The 
Constitution of the Empire is essentially that of the Confederacy adopted 
in 1867 and confers no power on the Emperor which he had not already as 
President of the Confederation. William I., in his unassuming way, re- 
peatedly declared that he had no other wish than to be the commander-in- 
chief of the Confederation and the first among equals. The assumption by 
the Emperor of powers not contained in the Constitution belongs to a later 

W. O'O. Morris: The War of 1870-71 after Sedan. — Franco- German War, Staff edi- 
tion. — Moltke; llozier: Franco- German War. Also: E. R. »86, 4; '90, 1. — Broglle: An 
Ambassador of the Vanquished. — Malleson: The Refounding of the German Empire, 
1848-71. — v. 8ybel: Founding of the Germ. Emp. by William H. Clarke: The 
Government of the National Defense.— 8. Denis : Histoire Contemporaine: La Chute de 
V Empire, he Government de la Defense Nationals. VAsumbUe Nationals Federal 
Constitution of Germany, trans! and ed. by Jones. 

§ 10. 


515. Outlook in Paris — The suicidal policy of Jules Favre 
in keeping the natioual guard under arms for party purposes began 
to bear its fruit as soon as Paris was evacuated by the German 
troops. These guards whose ranks were swelled by Socialists and 
Communists of all nations, amounted to nearly 100,000 men. They 
had concealed and appropriated a powerf ul artillery under pretext 
of saving it from the Prussians. The attempt of the government to 
repossess themselves of the cannon led to a general uprising of the 
Red Republicans and Communists. What was worse, a great num- 
ber of regular troops joined the insurgents and murdered the two 
generals, LeCompte and Thomas. The government which had its 
seat at Versailles, withdrew the loyal regiments from the capital. 
They were accompanied and followed by crowds of respectable 
inhabitants. In the city the Central Committee of the National 
Guards summoned the people to elect members to a socialistic 

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Commune into whose hands they intended to resign their self- 
assumed powexs. The Commune was proclaimed March 28. It 
declared the authority of Thiers' government and of the National 
Assembly at Versailles " null and void." Tiien began a reign of 
terror inaugurated by a section of the Commune called the 44 Inter- 
nationale; " churches and banks were plundered all over the city. 
Mgr. Darboy, the Archbishop of Paris, and 200 other ecclesiastics 
and prominent citizens, were thrown into prison as 44 hostages." 
The German authorities still holding Versailles, allowed the prison- 
ers of Sedan and Metz to reinforce MacMahon's army to the number 
of 150,000 men. In all other regards they maintained strict 

516. Second Siege of Paris. — The second siege of Paris, this 
time Frenchmen against Frenchmen, began April 8. A sortie of 
the insurgents was repulsed, and the prompt execution of two lead- 
ers of the Commune (Duval and Flourens) added fuel to the revo- 
lutionary violence in Paris. The bombardment of the forts and of 
the city was directed from the parallels which the Germans had con- 
structed. By May 8th all the outworks of the Communards were 
taken. On May 21 the assailants drove the defenders from the 
walls at the gate of St. Cloud, and MacMahon, apprized by a 
Parisian of the unguarded condition of the gate, entered the city. 
For the next seven days pandemonium reigned in Paris. The Com- 
munards, mad with despair, were resolved that if the Commune was 
to perish the city must share its fate. 

Bands of men and women armed with petroleum cans ran hither and 
thither, firing public buildings or private houses, or seized batches of 
victims to be hurried off to death. The Tuileries, the Palais Royal, the 
buildings of the ministry and other palaces were delivered to the flames by 
these " Petroleurs and Petroleuses." The Versailles troops pressed on 
from street to street, across barricades and burning squares, eager to save 
the hostages. But they were too late. Archbishop Darboy, President 
Bonjean, and four companions were shot by the Communards on May 24, 
and forty- three hostages, priests. Jesuits, and soldiers on May 26. 

The Cemetery of Pere la Chaise was the scene of the final struggle. 
No quarter was given. Of the leaders of the Commune many had 
fallen in the strife, as many as were caught were shot on the spot. 

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Some 40-50,000 Socialists were captured. Of these 10,000 were 
set free without trial ; others were shot en masse ; the- rest were 
reserved for trial, and later on sentenced to imprisonment, trans- 
portation, or death. 

517. The Third Republic. — The Assembly which had been 
elected to decide the question of peace or war stood two-thirds for a 
monarchy ; but they were divided into Legitimists, Orleanists, and 
Bonapartists. By combining their votes, however, they succeeded 
in bringing about the resignation of Thiers and the election of the 
monarchist MacMahon in 1873. The Count of Paris; the heir of the 
Orleans family, offered to relinquish his claim to the throne, if the 
Count of Chambord, who represented the direct Bourbon line, would 
accept the tricolor, the emblem of the revolutionary monarchy. But 
the fusion of Orleanists and Legitimists was frustrated by Chambord 's 
life-long refusal to enter into any compact with the Revolution, and 
France fell back upon the Republic with MacMahon as President. 
The Constitution of 1875 gave France a Chamber of Deputies elected 
by manhood suffrage and a Senate of 300 members. Seventy-five life- 
Senators were elected by the National Assembly, and after its dis- 
solution by the Seuate itself, the rest of the Senate by electoral 
colleges. The executive power was placed in the hands of the Pres- 
ident to be chosen by the Senate and the Chamber for seven years 
and re-eligible. lie was to be surrounded by a responsible ministry, 
and wielded almost all the powers of a constitutional monarch, but 
could be impeached by the Chamber at the bar of the Senate for high 
treason. The division of the monarchical party and the alertness 
of the Republicans increased, in every new election, the Republican 
majority, which gradually glided down to the radicalism of late 

Laraazon: The Paris Commune; Hist. Document*. — G. Veslnlcr: Hist, of the Com- 
mune of Paris. — G. O. Llssagaray : Hist, of the Commune 0/1871. — Bertha! : Communists 
pf Paris — Lcighton : Paris Under the Commune. — Knight: Days Before the Commune, 
M. '79, 2, 3. — The Commune of Paris, E. R. 71, 4. — A. G. Knight: The Prisons of Paris 
Under the Commune; Distinguished Incendiaries of the Commune, M. '79. 3. — Marshal 
MacMahon' s Government of France: D. R. '73, 4.— Ch. ChcHnelong: La Campagne Mo 
narchique d' October, 1873, see also D. R. '96, 2. — The Fall -of the Due de Broglie and the 
Crisis in France: D. It '74, H.—A Modem Cath. Prince (Count of Chambord): M. '85, 2. 

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Emmanuel Philibert, d. 1580. 

Charles Emmanuel I., 
d I 1680. 

Victor Amadeus I., 


Francis Hyacinth, 
d. 1638. 

Charles ] 


Emmanuel II., 

Victor Amadeus II., 
King of Sicily, 1713. 
King of Sardinia, 1720-30. 

Charles Emmanuel III., 
1730 I -1773. 

Victor Amadeus III , 
1773 I -1796. 

ancestor of the side- 
line of CARIGNAtt. 

Emmanuel Philibert, 

Charles Emmanuel I V. , Victor Emmanuel I. , Charles Felix, 
abdicated 1802. restored 1815, 1821-1831. 

abdicated 1821. 

Charles Albert, 1831, 



victor Emmanuel ii., 

since 1861 King of ltalv, 
1849 -1878. 


1878- 1900 



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518. Slave Laws, — The slavery question was the pivot on 
which the fate of the Union turned for decades. The system as it 
legally existed in the Southern States, was opposed to the first 
principles of the natural law. A slave was only 44 a chattel per- 
sonal, to all intents and purposes whatsoever." (Laws of S. C.) 
44 Personal property consists of specific articles, such as slaves, 
working beasts, animals of any kind etc." (Md.) Not only were 
human beings bought and sold like cattle, leased, seized for debt, 
bequeathed by will, but a harmless negro could be forcibly seized at 
the will of his master or by process of law, and mercilessly separated 
from wife and children for the rest of his life. Only in Louisiana 
the slave was fixed to the soil. The innocence and virtue of younger 
slaves had no legal protection . A white father could sell his colored 
children at pleasure. 

519. Treatment Allowed by Law. — The coarsest food, 
clothing and lodgings was all that the owner was bound to provide 
for his slaves. He could hold them to labor for fifteen hours a day 
in summer and fourteen in winter, whilst convicted felons in the 
same States could be held to work only for nine and eight hours 
respectively. A convention of slave holders held in South Carolina, 
came to the conclusion that it was more profitable in cotton-raising 
States to use up the slaves in seven years, than to care for their 
health, as the supply could be cheaply replenished from slave- 
breeding States. For offenses committed slaves could with impunity 
be loaded with .iron, confined in dungeons, whipped till the blood 
streamed from their wounds, beaten to any extent short of death or 


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dismemberment, by the sole authority of the master. Fugitive slaves 
were pursued with blood hounds, starved whilst hiding in swamps, 
and most cruelly abused when captured. In Tennessee and Georgia 
a master was not prosecuted if a slave died under correction. In 
South Carolina the murder of a slave was punishable by a fine of 
700/. or seven years imprisonment. If a slave was killed in the heat 
of passion or by undue correction the penalty was $500 or imprison T 
ment not exceeding six months. Cutting out the tongue, or pulling 
out the eyes of a slave, or burning him or depriving him of a limb 
was punishable by a fine of 100/. Although these and a few other 
similar laws were passed to afford some protection to a slave's life, 
they were practically illusory, because it was universal slave law, 
that the testimony of a colored person, bond or free, could not be 
admitted in any court. 

520. Education and Social Position of the Negro. — The 

education of the negro, free or slave, was strictly forbidden under 
legal penalties. White persons, others than the masters, who taught 
slaves to spell, read and write, were fined from $100 to $500, or 
imprisoned for six months and upward at the discretion of the 
court. Free colored teachers, male or female, were visited with 
whippings from 26 to 59 stripes on the bare back, or fines, or both. 
Free negroes were liable to be reduced to slavery at any moment by 
the legal presumption that every black man is a slave. The free 
negro could not testify in his own behalf. Manumitted negroes and 
their free children were often kidnaped in the North. They could 
be rescued only at great expense, by sending white witnesses a jour- 
ney of 500 or 1,000 miles. This presumption worked so wickedly 
in several slave States that manumitted and free persons of color 
could be arrested at any time and advertised as runaway slaves. No 
owner appearing, the jailer was directed to sell them at public 
auction to cover the expenses of imprisonment. The capital itself 
was constantly the scene of slave auctions and chain gangs of negroes 
being conveyed to the South. Some of the worst slave laws were 
passed in colonial days, others after the establishment of the Union, 

The brighter side of slavery is thus described by H. E. Scudder: "There 
were good masters who cared for their slaves. They gave them clothing 

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and houses, and gardens in which to raise vegetables. They amused them- 
selves with the little children in play with their own families. They took 
care of them when they grew sick and old. They encouraged the slaves 
also in going to church and frequently gave them religious instruction. 
But they carefully kept books and papers out of the hands of the blacks. 
They did not think it wise to give them schools. For the most part the 
slaves were an idle, easy -going people. They were affectionate and warmly 
attached to their masters and mistresses if these were kind to them. They 
had their holidays, and when Christmas came, they flocked to the great 
house to receive their presents." The slaves of humane and Christian 
families, of Catholic households, of clergymen, and religious communities 
enjoyed a better lot thau after emancipation. But the kindness with which 
good masters treated their slaves could not palliate the iniquity of the 
system as based on the public laws. 

621. Effects of Slavery. — Slavery was the real reason of the backward- 
ness of the South in population and wealth as compared with the North. 
The prosperity of the North was based on free and intelligent labor. The 
farmer and workingman labored for a purpose, for his children for the 
future. In the South the rich man did not need to work; he gave his time 
to politics, to literature, to social eojoyment. Slaves worked only under 
compulsion, slowly, carelessly, and stupidly. They had nothing to gain by 
industry and economy. The poor whites, the great majority of the white 
populat on. did not wish to work. They grew up In the l>elief that work was 
a disgrace, a sign of slavery. Thus they became a shiftless and thriftless 
portion of the community. 

522. Slavery in the Constitution. — Negro slavery had been 
a part of the colonial policy of Great Britain. The first Continental 
Congress, 1774, in its opposition to the mother country, declared that 
no more slaves should be imported. This law remained unchallenged 
for two years. But when the original draft of the Declaration of 
Independence was presented to Congress in 1776, Jefferson's arraign- 
ment of George III. for having forbidden to restrain 44 the execrable 
commerce," was stricken out at the request of the slave States. 
This was the first concession of independent America to the slave 
interest. In the Articles of Confederation, 1778, the topic of 
slavery was carefully evaded. The foremost statesmen of Virginia, 
Washington, Lee, Henry, Madison, as well as many of the largest 
planters, were opposed to the continuance of slavery, but saw no 
practical way for effecting an immediate change. The Convention 
of 1787, whilst excluding the name of slavery from the Constitution, 
admitted nevertheless three important provisions in its favor. 

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Art. I., Sec. 2: Representatives shall be apportioned by adding to the 
whole number of free persons, three -fifths of " all other persons " (slaves 
The result of this clause was not that the rights and interests of the slaves 
were represented in Congress, but that the vote of one slaveholder owning 
fifty slaves became of as much weight in Congress as the votes of thirty 
freemen. For this reason the free states wanted the Importation of slaves 
stopped. This demand led to the compromise of Art. I., Sec. 9. The Im- 
portation of " such persons as any of the States now existing shall think 
proper to admit " (slaves) shall not be prohibited by Congress prior to the 
year 1808. The third compromise was contained in Art. IV., Sec 2: No 
" person held to service or labor " (slaves) In one State under the laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered np 
on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due." This 
clause led to the passage of two cruel fugitive -slave laws. 

By these clauses the Constitution of the United States fully 
acknowledged slavery as an institution to be dealt with by the indi- 
vidual States themselves. In the South, slave labor was deemed 
profitable and was retained and jealously guarded by legislation. 
In the North, where slavery was unpopular, the work of abolition 
had begun immediately after the War of Independence and was now 
gradually brought to completion. In the Northwestern Territory, 
i. e., the vast tract west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio river, 
not yet organized into States, slavery was forever inhibited by the 
great Congressional Ordinance of 1787. 

Von Hoist: Constitutional Hut. of the U. S., vol. I. — Wilson : Rise and Fall of the 8lesv€ 
Power. — Hildreth : Despotism in America. — Stroud : Sketch of Laws Relating to Slavery. — 
Calrncs : The Slave Power. — Clarke : Anti slavery Days. — McDong&U : Fugitive Slaves. — 
Douglas: Life and Times by Himself. — 8noedc: Memorials of a Southern Planter. — 
McMaeter; Scudder; Johnston: Histories of the U. 8. 



523. Proslavery Feeling Increasing in the South. — The 

institution of slavery in the Southern States received a powerful 
impulse by the cotton gin (gin engine), which Ely Whitney invented 
in 1793 for the separation of the seed from the cotton. This con- 
trivance quadrupled the efficiency of slave labor, gave a mighty 
stimulus to the raising and exportation of cotton, filled New England 
with spinning mills, and did more than anything else to fasten 
slavery on the United States for the next seventy years. In the 

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twenty years following the invention the growing demand of slave 
labor in the Gulf States trebled the price of slaves, and made slave 
breeding a profitable business in Virginia. Up to December 31, 
1807, slave labor could still be procured by importation. But in 
1808 the law prohibiting the importation of slavery from abroad 
went into effect. Again the spirit of compromise destroyed the 
beneficent action of the law, as far as negroes smuggled into the 
States under foreign flags were concerned. For whilst the importers 
forfeited the right of buying and selling slaves illegally imported, 
and were heavily punished — on paper — the States and territorial 
courts were allowed to sell such negroes as slaves for the benefit of 
the public treasury. The slave hunt on the African coast went on as 
before and from 13,000 to 15,000 negroes were annually imported into 
the Southern States with scarcely any forfeitures under the law of 
1807. The law of 1819 which declared the foreign slave trade to 
be piracy was hardly more effective. The internal slave trade with 
its center in Washington constantly assumed greater dimensions and 
more shocking forms. 

624. Admission of New States. — The slavery question had an important 
bearing on the admission of new States into the Union. The Northern 
States with their growing population steadily increased the number of con- 
gressional votes. To maintain a balance of power, at least in the Senate, 
the South required the same number of States as the North. Hence it 
became the policy of the Senate to couple the admission of a white State 
with that of a black State and vice versa. When Kentucky applied for 
admission into the Union as a slave State, the Senate insisted on the 
simultaneous admission of Vermont. Accordingly Vermont was admitted 
as a free State in 1791, Kentucky which had still to make its Constitution in 
1792. Tennessee followed in 1796, Louisiana in 1810, Mississippi in 1817 
and Alabama in 1819, as slave States, whilst Ohio, admitted in 1802, Indiana, 
1817, and Illinois 1818, adhered to the fundamental Ordinance of 1787, and 
adopted free State Constitutions. Thus in 1819 there were eleven free 
States and eleven slave States in the Union. The petition of Missouri for 
admission in 1819 raised the question what should be done with the Louisi- 
ana purchase, the vast country beyond the Mississippi. The North main- 
tained that slavery should not be further extended because it was wrong. 
The South maintained that slavery was right and that the further extension 
of slavery was for the South a question of self-preservation. 

525. The Missouri Question, 1817-23. — The angry and 
stubborn contest about the admission took place in the 44 era of good 

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feeling " as Monroe's administration is termed. The collapse of 
the Federal party had left the political field to the Republicans who 
now began to be called Democrats. The petition of Missouri came 
up in 1818. The slave-holders of Missouri demanded a slave State 
Constitution. A Northern member (N. Y.) moved an amendment 
that the further introduction of slavery should be prohibited in the 
new State, and that all colored children born in Missouri should 
become free at the age of twenty-five. Though the proposition was 
fiercely resisted by the South, it passed the House of Representatives, 
1819. But the bill was sent back by the Senate with the anti-slavery 
amendment struck out. Neither of the Houses gave way and no 
decision was reached. 

526. The Missouri Compromise, 1820. — In the new Con- 
gress which met in 1819 the opponents of the Missouri 44 limitation " 
were aided by Maine's application for statehood. The majority of 
the Senate coupled the admission of Maine as a free State with the 
admission of Missouri without any limitation as to slavery. In the 
lower House a new amendment was brought in to make the prohibi- 
tion of slavery 44 absolute and irrevocable ; 99 but it failed to 
receive a majority of votes. The whole country was in a state of 
feverish excitement. The close of the session drew near with little 
hope for an agreement. At the last moment the North weakened, 
and agreed to a compromise proposed by Henry Clay of Kentucky. 
This Missouri Compromise (1) admitted Maine as a free, and Mis- 
souri as a slave State. (2) Decreed that a prolongation of the 
Southern boundary line of Missouri, i. e., the parallel of 36° 30' 
should divide the Louisiana Purchase into two parts, and that all 
the territory north of this line except Missouri, should be free soil. 
It was silently implied that all the territory south of this line, in- 
cluding Florida, which had just been acquired from Spain (1819), 
might become slave soil. The next sixteen years no more States 
were admitted. The Missouri Compromise divided, by a fixed law 
and a geographical line, the North and the South into two rival sec- 
tions. The party history of the United States since 1520 became 
the history of the slavery question. 

627. The Slave Power. — The number of slave-holders was only about 
400,000 as against the 5,000,000 of free whites in the South. Yet as only 

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slave-holders had a chance of election to State legislatures, governorships, 
and to Congress, the slave power, by its compact unity, its threats of 
secession and the support which it received for party reasons from the 
Northern Democrats, won the victory in all the Congressional battles con- 
nected with the interests of slavery. 

HcMaster: Hist, of the People of the United States, v. IV. oh. 89; School Hist, of the 
U. S.— Historical Significance of the Missouri Compromise (Report American Hist. Assoc , 
1838, pp. 251-297).— Qalncy : Life ofjosiah Quincy. — O. Schurz : Henry Clay.— 0. Colton : 
Mfe t Corresp. and Speeches of H. Clay. — H. Greeley: American Conflict, v. 1. 

§ 3. 


528. The National View of the Constitution. — Besides 
slavery a second question of principle lay at the bottom of the diffi- 
culties which led to the great Civil War. After the adoption of the 
Constitution in 1787 both parties, Federalists and Republicans, pro- 
fessed their attachment to the Union and the Constitution. But 
gradually two conflicting schools of interpretation began to divide 
Northern and Southern politicians. The Union school always held, 
that the United States is a Commonwealth and its Constitution the 
organic and fundamental law of the land, adopted not by the States, 
but by the people of the whole country in its aggregate capacity. 
This view had its strongest support in the wording of the Constitution 
itself : 44 We, the people of the United States, do ordain and establish 
this Constitution." The government has the power to act directly 
by its own legislative, judicial, and executive machinery upon every 
individual of the country. The States are directly denied the great 
attributes of sovereignty. 44 No State shall coin money or pass laws 
impairing the obligations of contracts, or maintain armies and navies 
or grant letters of marque, or titles of nobility or make treaties with 
foreign powers," etc. The only act of high treason recognized in the 
Constitution is the taking up of arms against the Union. 44 This 
Constitution and the laws made in pursuance thereof shall be the 
supreme law of the land, anything in the Constitution or laws of a 
State to the contrary notwithstanding/ ' The Constitution was rati- 
fied not by the States as such but by conventions of delegates, 
convened especially for this purpose within each State. 

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529. State Sovereignty. — According to the theory of State 
Sovereignty developed by the Democrats, especially by Jefferson and 
Madison, the United States are a Confederation of sovereign States, 
a copartnership of commonwealths, which, by a mutual contract, 
whilst retaining the exclusive guardianship of their domestic affairs, 
have ceded to the Federal Government the exclusive control of their 
international and interstate relations. In this theory the Constitu- 
tion was not an organic law but a contract. The Federal Govern- 
ment was the creature of the States. The powers were delegated and 
could be withdrawn, the Union could be dissolved *by the States or 
even by one State. 

530. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. — This 
theory was for the first time publicly asserted in the Virginia and 
Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799. They were drawn up in the 
respective State legislatures against two temporary laws of Congress 
passed during the troubles with France, and were sent to the differ- 
ent States. The Alien Act restricted the naturalization of foreigners 
and empowered the President for two years to send aliens out of the 
country. As a matter of fact he never did so. The Sedition Act 
decreed fines and imprisonment for all persons found guilty of hav- 
ing spoken, written, or acted seditiously against the Union Govern- 
ment, and was smartly enforced. The Virginia Resolutions drawn 
up by Jefferson, and the Kentucky Resolutions drawn up by Madi- 
son, agree in declaring that the Constitution of the United States is a 
contract to which each State is a party, and that the two laws were 
unconstitutional. They disagree in the means to be adopted against 
alleged encroachments of the central government. The Virginia 
Resolutions asserted in rather vague language, that the States had, 
within their limits, the right of interposing, if Congress exercised 
powers not granted by the said compact. The Kentucky Resolu- 
tions declared, that whenever the general government assumed undele- 
gated powers, its acts are 44 unauthoritative, void, and of no force," 
and asserted for each State the right of deciding, whether a law of 
Congress is constitutional or not, and of applying remedies against it. 
The Resolutions were received with disfavor by the public. Seven 
States declared that the Alien and Sedition Acts were constitutional. 
The rest ignored the- Resolutions. The following year (1799) Ken- 

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tucky declared that a State had the right of nullifying a United 
States law which it thought to be illegal. Thus the adherents of 
State Sovereignty claimed rights for the States, which the Constitu- 
tion had reserved to the Supreme Court. The great significance of 
the Resolutions lay in the fact, that they were never officially chal- 
lenged, withdrawn or recalled, but were left on record ready for 
future use. 

531. Split of the Democratic Party. — The unity of the Democratic 
party which prevailed in the election of Monroe, broke up with his refusal 
to accept a third term. In 1824 five presidential candidates were in the 
field : Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, 
Henry Clay of Kentucky, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina were 
nominated by various assemblies; W. H. Crawford by a congressional 
caucus. Jackson received the greatest number of votes, but no majority. 
Accordingly the election was thrown into Congress, which chose the states- 
man John Quincy Adams (1825-29). The adherents of Jackson were greatly 
disappointed, and the Democratic party split into three factions: (a) The 
National Republicans, also called " Adams or administration men." They 
advocated a protective tariff and internal improvements (roads, canals, etc.) 
at national expense, (b) The Democratic Republicans or " Jackson mtn " 
cared little for protection and improvements, (c) A third, the anti- 
Masonic party, owed its origin to the murder of Mr. Morgan, a Freemason, 
who had threatened to publish the secrets of the order. In 1828, Jackson, 
the bluff and irritable Indian fighter, the idol of the people, was trium- 
phantly elected (1829-1837). lie was the most original figure in the line of 
presidents. With Jackson the politician presidents entered the White 
House. He introduced and vigorously applied the principle: "To the 
victor belong the spoils." 

532. New Differences Between the North and the 
South* — The great industrial development which followed the 
second war with England widened the gap between the free and the 
slave States. In the North cities grew up, canals were dug, rail- 
road and steamboat lines opened and industries of every sort estab- 
lished. Naturally these rising industries clamored for the protection 
of a high tariff. In the South the planters cared nothing for cities, 
industries and public improvements, worked their rice, tobacco and 
cotton plantations with slave labor, and being only consumers, con- 
sidered the high tariff policy of the North as injurious to their inter- 
ests. Disregarding the opposition of the Southern members, the 

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representatives of the Middle and Western States, under the leader- 
ship of Henry Clay, passed the tariff of 1824. Loud and bitter 
were the protests of the South, when this tariff was raised still 
higher in 1828. 

533. Nullification. — Calhoun, the able and eloquent leader of 
the South, urged the meeting of a State convention in South Carolina 
to decide in what manner the tariff acts should be declared " null 
and void 99 within the limits of the State. The agitation in the 
South assumed so menacing a tone that Congress thought it expe- 
dient to lower the tariff in 1832. The measure, however, was far 
from pacifying South Carolina, which opposed the principle of tariff 
protection in any shape. Accordingly a State convention was called 
which declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void in South 
Carolina, and forbade the people to pay the duties. This Act of 
South Carolina " nullifying " a general law of Congress, was a 
direct attack upon the Constitution of the United States. Calhoun 
resigned his position as vice-president, and was at once returned by 
his State to the Senate. When Congress met in December, 1832, 
Jackson asked for powers to collect the tariff duties by force of 
arms. Harris, the Governor of South Carolina, declared that if this 
force bill would become a law, his State would leave the Union. It 
was on this question that the famous oratorical duel took place in the 
Senate between Calhoun, who asserted, and Webster, who denied, the 
right of nullification and secession. Henry Clay, alarmed at the 
prospect of a civil war, slipped in as mediator between the wrangling 
parties. He proposed an aunual reduction in the tariff until in 1842 
the duty on imported goods should be equal to twenty per cent of 
their value. This compromise tariff satisfied the parties, and South 
Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification. The danger of a 
civil war was adjourned to a future period. 

Virginia and Kentucky Resolution; Alien, Sedition, and other Act* (1894). — McMaster 
Hist., etc., v. II— Motley: Comes of the Civil War. — Von Hoist, v. I.— Wilson: Division 
and Reunion {Epochs of Am. Hist.) 1829-89. — Houston: A Critical Study of Nullification 
in South Carolina. — Rhodes : Hist of the U. 8.— Randall ; Schouler : Life of Jefferson. — 
Morse; Seward: Life of John Quincy Adams. — Madison*s Works, v. 4. — Riyes: Hist, of 
the Life and Times of Madison; Lives of Jackson (Parton), Clay, Calhoun (Von Hoist), 
Webster (Lodge). 

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§ *. 


634. Jackson — Harrison — Tyler. — Political animosity and the clamor 
of the people and of the State banks prompted Jackson to destroy the United 
States Bank by vetoing a new charter (1832) and by withdrawing the gov- 
ernment deposits from its vaults (1833). The consequences were the estab- 
lishment of a great number of State banks — sound and unsound (wild cat 
banks) — a period of furious speculation especially in land, and the financial 
panic of 1837 with its countless failures and widespread misery. The con- 
tinuation of the panic cast a shadow on the Democratic administration of 
Martin Van Buren (1837-41), and contributed to his defeat for re-election in 
1840. He was opposed by the Whigs, as the National Republicans called 
themselves since 1834, and by the Anti-slavery Party, who for the first time 
put a candidate in the field. A wave of popular enthusiasm carried William 
N. Harrison the Whig candidate into the White House. Harrison, however, 
died a month after his inauguration, and Vice-President John Tyler, a 
Democrat at heart, took his place (1841-45). 

535. Annexation of Texas. — Since the admission of Missouri 
two other States had joined the Union, the slave State, Arkansas, and 
the free State, Michigan. The balance of power in the Senate was 
still intact but could not long remain so. For south of the line 
36° 30' Florida was the only territory left which could be turned into 
a slave State, whilst north of the line a vast country was ready for 
increasing the free State system. Under these circumstances the 
Southern statesmen cast their eyes on the immense territory of Texas 
which lay south of the line and was suitable for slavery. Texas, 
however, belonged to the Republic of Mexico. Like other Spanish 
States in America, Mexico, in 1827, had abolished slavery in all its 
dominions. The American slaveholders who had entered Texas, 
defied the law of the land which they occupied, and finally rebelled 
against the government of Mexico in 1853. The rebels, amply sup- 
ported by the United States, defeated Santa Anna, the President of 
Mexico, in 1836 (at San Jacinto) and set up the independent 
Republic of Texas. Whilst the United States, England, France, and 
Belgium recognized the new State, Mexico refused to acknowledge 
its independence. Texas now applied for admission into the Union. 
The Free Soil parties opposed the annexation because slavery existed 

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in Texas. Thereupon Tyler surprised the Senate in 1844 with a 
treaty of annexation secretly concluded with the authorities of 
Texas. The Senate rejected the treaty, but the Democrats at once 
adopted the annexation of Texas as a party measure. To disarm 
the opposition of the growing anti-slavery parties, they coupled the 
annexation of Texas with the acquisition of Oregon which was free 
soil territory. On this platform they elected their candidate, James 
V. Polk, 1845-49. The annexation of Texas was accomplished in 
1845 by a joint resolution of Congress. Two slave States were now 
admitted into the Union, Florida in March, and the organized portion 
of Texas in December, 1845. Four other States were to be carved 
out of the remaining territory of Texas. The line of the Missouri 
Compromise was to regulate the admission or exclusion of slavery. 
The admission of Iowa in 1846 and of Wisconsin in 1848 restored 
the senatorial equilibrium. 

Oregon was then the territory comprising all the country from the Rocky 
mountains to the Pacific. The coast line stretched as far north as Russian 
Alaska. The northern part, however, was an object of dispute between the 
United States and England. The American claims were exploration and 
settlement. Pending the dispute Oregon was jointly occupied by both 
Powers. The Democratic platform called for the acquisition of all Oregon, 
but England refused to be excluded from the Pacific seaboard. A treaty 
with England finally established the present boundary line in 1846. The 
American part of Oregon was organized as a free territory in 1848. 

536. The War with Mexico. — The annexation of Texas led 
to war between Mexico and the United States. Texas claimed that 
the Rio Grande formed its western boundary line, and President 
Polk adopted the claim. Mexico maintained that the river Nueces 
marked the boundary. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to 
cross the Nueces and to advance to the Rio Grande. The Mexicans 
crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the Americans. Thereupon 
Congress decreed that war existed by the act of Mexico. Polk 
called for 50,000 volunteers and appointed General Winfield Scott 
commander-in-chief. Taylor after a number of successful engage- 
ments reached Saltillo and defeated Santa Anna in the bloody battle 
of Buena Vista (February, 1847). Whilst Taylor was winning 
victories in northeastern Mexico Colonel Stephen W. Kearney con- 

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quered New Mexico and proclaimed it to be United States property. 
From Santa Fe he started to seize California but on arriving found 
the work already accomplished. Commodore Stockton and his fleet, 
and Fremont, 44 the Pathfinder," of the United States army, had 
combined their forces when the news of the war reached them and 
now held California for the United States. 

Meanwhile General Scott, reinforced by 10,000 of Taylor's men, 
had landed in Vera Cruz in March, and began his memorable march 
to Mexico over the road first traversed by Cortez. Whilst he took 
town after town and won an uninterrupted series of small victories, 
his army by losses in the field and by disease dwindled down to 
6,000 men with whom he triumphantly entered Mexico, September, 

537. The Peace of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, 1848. — In the 

Peace of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, Mexico gave up to the United States 
522,568 square miles comprising Texas, New Mexico, and California, 
and received $15,000,000 in return. By a supplementary treaty the 
United States obtained in 1853 an additional tract of 45,535 square 
miles from the Rio Grande to the Gulf of California, for which it 
paid $10,000,000. 

538. The Wilmot Proviso. — The acquisition of this immense 
territory raised the slavery question anew. The opponents of 
slavery demanded that it should remain free soil. As early as 1846 
David Wilmot of Pennsylvania had moved that the money necessary 
to indemnify Mexico should be granted, provided that all the Mex- 
ican acquisitions should be free soil (Wilmot Proviso). The slave 
power insisted that the entire territory should be open to slavery. 
The refusal of both Whigs and Democrats to speak out on the ques- 
tion led to the formation of the Free Soil party. It was joined by 
many Democrats and Whigs who favored the Wilmot Proviso. 
Their motto was: free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men. 

689. Development of the Abolition Party. — The different parties, 
ranged either against the extension or the existence of slavery, grew 
out of the opposition to the Missouri Compromise. Tho original Aboli- 
tion party was founded by William Lloyd Garrison in 1881. It numbered 
among its members Wendell Phillips, the friend of Daniel O'Connell. 

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The Qarrisonians refused to vote under the Constitution which wa* to 
them "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," because it per- 
mitted slavery at all. They worked for a dissolution of the Union and 
other extreme revolutionary measures. Other leaders 1 ke John Quincy 
Adams, John P. Hale, Salmon P. Chase, Charles Sumner, W. N. Seward, 
opposed the extension of slavery by constitutional means. In 1833 the 
American Anti-Slavery Society was organized and entered the field of 
national politics. Whilst they allowed each State the exclusive right of 
regulating slavery within its borders, they petitioned Congress to abolish 
slavery in all the Territories and in the District of Columbia, to admit no 
new slave States, and to suppress interstate slave trade. The means they 
employed were organization, meetings and a literary propaganda. 

640. Pro-slavery Parties and their Tactics. — The anti slavery agita- 
tion was opposed, apart from the Southern slave power, by professional 
politicians of the Democratic and Whig parties in the North, office-seekers, 
men like Webster and Everett who dreaded a Southern secession and the 
di solution of the Union, preachers who feared a d sruptlon of the churches, 
merchants who were alarmed over their business interests, conservative 
men of all pa ties who were shocked at t e extravagance of language 
employed by the Abolitionists, and who rightly opposed the revolutionary 
radicalism of the Garrlsonians in other questions. The contest was 
embittered by extreme measures resorted to by the advocates of slavery. 
Antl- slavery literature was taken from the mails and burned with the 
approval of the Postmaster- General. Congress suppressed the Right of 
Petition by the " gag rule " (1836-44). Partisans of the lower class broke 
up public meetings, destroyed schools for free negro children, smashed the 
presses of the anti- slavery societies, and resorted even to political murder. 

The formation of the Free Soil party sufficienty weakened the 
Democrats to play the election into the hands of the Whigs, who 
elected Z. Taylor, President, and Millard Fillmore, Vice-President, 
1848. Slavery extension henceforth became the burning question 
in American politics. » 

Von Hoist: Const. Hist., v. IL — Benton- Thirty Years' View. — Greeley: History of 
the Struggle for Slavery Extension. — Bancroft : Hist, of the Pacific States, — Williams : 
Sam Houston and the War of Independence in Texas. — I>add : Hist, of the War with 
Mexico. — Mansfield : Hist, of the Mex. War. — Howard : Gen. Taylor. — Scott: Memoirs, 
by himself. — Curtis: Life ofD. Webster. — Somner: A. Jackson as a Public Man.— Lire* 
of J. Q. Adams, H. Clay, Calhoun.— 8 hepird: M. Van Buren. — Johnson : Garrison and 
His Times.— W. Lloyd Garrison, by his children. — Lives of Wendell Phillips: Austin 
i Lift and Times) ; Martyn {Am. Reformers). — James G. Birney and His Times. 





541. The Compromises of 1850. — Taylor was hardly inaug- 
urated when Calhoun issued a manifesto signed by all the Southern 
members of Congress. This document, supplemented by several 
State resolutions (Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), demanded 
a more stringent fugitive slave law, cessation of the anti-slavery agi- 
tation, the retention of both slavery and the slave trade in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and the opening of all the Territories to slavery. 
In South Carolina the demands were accompanied by threats of a 
" Southern Confederacy," All the Northern State legislatures, 
save Iowa, asserted the right of Congress to exclude slavery from 
the Territories, and instructed their Congressmen to vote for the 
abolition of slavery and of the slave trade in the District of Colum- 
bia. An unforeseen event precipitated the struggle. The discovery 
of gold in California, 1848, caused a rush of immigrants from the 
East in 1849. To establish a government, the " forty-niners " drew 
up a free state Constitution and applied for admission into the Union. 
So bitter was the feeb'ng on both sides that in 1850 a breaking up 
of the Union seemed imminent. But Henry Clay, " the great Com- 
promiser,' ' succeeded in postponing the crisis for ten years longer 
by bis " Compromises of 1850." To appease the North, California 
was admitted as a free State, and the slave trade was abolished in 
the District of Columbia. To appease the South, slavery was 
retained in the District, territorial governments were organized for 
New Mexico and Utah without any restriction on slavery, and a 
stringent fugitive slave law was enacted, which exposed both escaped 
slaves and free negroes to capture without trial by anyone who 
claimed them. 

Whilst the Compromises of 1850 strengthened the slave power in the 
South, they increased the opposition to slavery in the North. The invasion 
of tbe Northern States by €t slave-catchers " and " man-hunters " did more 
than anything else to turn the opponents of slavery extension into open 
enemies of slavery itself. Popular feeling found its expression in " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin." 


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542. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill. — During the next ten years 
the slave power won new victories. It elected Franklin Pierce in 
1852 and James Buchanan in 1856. Though Northerners, they were 
more submissive to the slaveholders than Southern men like Zachary 
Taylor. Before Pierce was many months in office the " irrepressible 
conflict" broke out anew. The proposed organization of two new 
Territories, Kansas and Nebraska, furnished the occasion. Both Ter- 
ritories were free soil under the Missouri Compromise. But Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill, added a clause expressly repealing the Missouri Compromise and 
opening the country north of 36° 30' to slavery. The people of 
these Territories were to be left free to adopt a free soil or slave soil 
Constitution, when the time of a State organization should arrive. 
This scheme of Douglas was called Popular Sovereignty. The bill 
passed and was signed by President Pierce, 1854. 

643. The Kansas Fight. — This law led to the formation of a new and 
exclusively Northern party, the present Republican party, wh ch m ited all 
the anti-slavery elements, and mas joined by disaffected Democrats and 
Whigs Kansas became the battle-ground of the two parties. As soon as 
the Territory was opened for settlement, slaveholders of Missouri rus' ed 
into Kansas, located claims, founded I ecomptou, Atchison, and other pro- 
slavery towns, and held t e region along the Missouri river. Whenever an 
election was to be helct the Missouriaus crossed into Kansas, took posses- 
sion of the polls, voted down the free state men and returned triumphantly. 
By these illegal elections they obtained a delegate for Congress in 1854, a 
pro-slavery government in 1855, and the Lecompton slavery Constitution in 
1857. On the other hand the New England Emigrant Society, founded in 
1855 to plant a free State in Kansas, sent its settlers into the Territory. 
They occupied the region south of the Kansas river, founded Topeka and 
other free towns, established an anti- slavery government, and passed the 
Topeka Free So l Constitution of 1857. For a time anarchy and civil war was 
the order of the day. The constant influx of settlers from the North and 
Northwest gave the Free toilers an overwhelming majority, and they applied 
to Washington for recognition. Buchanan ignored them, recognized the Le- 
compton government, and urged Congress to admit Kansas as a slave State. 
The project was defeated by the opposition of .Douglas and the Northern 
Democrats. In 1858 the slaveholders of Kansas gave up the fight as lost. 
Kansas remained a Territory till 18G1 . 

544. Dred Scott Decision, 1857. — Meanwhile the slave 
power had scored another point by the celebrated Dred Scott Deeis- 



ion of the Supreme Court. A slave by the name of Dred Scott had 
been taken by his master to Illinois and Minnesota, and thenoe back 
to Missouri. Here he applied for his freedom on the plea that his 
residence on free soil entitled him to emancipation, and obtained a 
favorable' decision. Upon appeal of his master, Justice Taney 
handed down the decision, that Dred Scott could not sue in the 
United States court, because an African by descent could not be a 
citizen ; as slave he was mere chattel, a black man had no rights 
which white men were bound to respect ; Congress could as little shut 
out slave property from the Territories as it could shut out horses and 
cows ; finally, that the Missouri Compromise, being unconstitutional , 
was null and void. This was Taney's judicial pronouncement and 
it expressed the legal views of the grea't majority of slaveholders. 
His personal feelings Taney had shown before by emancipating his 
own slaves. The decision opened the free Territories of Oregon, 
Washington and Minnesota to slavery, increased the recklessness of 
the slave power, rent the Democratic party in two, and prepared the 
victory of the Republicans who were more than ever determined to 
stop the extension of slavery into the Territories. 

The excitement was Increased by the Lincoln-Douglas debates in 1£58, 
and John Brown's raid into Virginia, 1859. Stephen A. Douglas and Abra- 
ham Lincoln were the Illinois candidates for the United States Senatorship. 
The questions publicly discussed by them were Popular Sovereignty, the 
Dred Scott decision, and slavery extension to the Territories. Lincoln was 
defeated in the election, but his great speeches won for him a natioual 

John Brown, who had been a fighting Abolitionist in the Kansas struggle, 
conceived the plan of stirring up a slave insurrection. He invaded Virginia 
with about twenty followers and seized and held for a few hours the United 
States Arsenal at Harper's Ferry. But no slaves flocked to his standard and 
the daring adventurer was captured and executed by the State of Virginia. 
The money for Brown's undertaking had been furnished by a small secret 
committee of ardent Abolitionists at Boston. But public opinion in the 
South held the Republican party responsible for Brown's invasion. 

545. The Election of Abraham Lincoln, 1860. — The dis- 
ruption of the Democratic party took place at the national conven- 
tion at Charleston and its adjourned session in Baltimore. The 
majority in Baltimore nominated Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois on 
his platform of Popular Sovereignty modified by concessions to the 

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slave power. For the Vice-presidency H. V. Johnson of Georgia, 
a violent advocate of secession, was nominated to secure the Southern 
vote. This double-dealing policy was far from appeasing the slave 
power, and the seceders of Charleston and Baltimore nominated 
John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky on a platform fully indorsing the 
Dred Scott decision aud calling for further rulings in the same 
spirit. The Republicans met at Chicago and nominated Abraham 
Lincoln. Their platform repudiated the Dred Scott decision against 
the Southern Democrats, insisted on the free soil character of the 
Territories against the Northern Democrats, but denied all sympathy 
with any kind of interference with slavery in the States where it 
lawfully existed. 

Nothing shows better the growth of Northern sentiment against the 
extension of slavery than the number of votes cast for anti-slavery candi- 
dates. The Liberty party formed in 1 840 was the first to set up a presidential 
candidate, J. G. Birney. He received first 7,000, four years later 60,000 
votes. The Free Soil party in 1848 registered 270,000 votes. The Repub- 
licans raised the number of votes in 1856 to 1,340,000 votes, and elected 
their candidate iu 1860 by a popular vote of 1,800,000. 

Von Hoist: Const. Hist., v. III. IV. — Rhodes' Hist. U. 8, from the Compromise of 
1860. — Wilson : Rise and Fall — McMaater : With the Fathers. — Schorr's Clay. — Morse, 
Mcolay, and Hay: Life of Lincoln. — Tarbell : Early Life of A. Lincoln (1896).— 
Tretnaln : Slavery in the District of Columbia. — Howard : Rept. of Decision and Opinions 
in the Drtd Scott Cast; Extracts from Decision, etc (1896). — Edwards, Hart and 
Arm ling: Chief Justice Taney. 

§ 6. 


546« The Catholic Hierarchy. — Whilst the slavery question 
with its kindred interests was (he chief issue which divided the peo- 
ple of the United States, the religious question which originated in 
the opposition of a fanatical section of the people against the Church, 
made itself felt throughout the period. From small beginnings the 
Catholic Church had gradually developed into a great power in the 
land. In colonial times the Catholic Missions of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, where Catholics enjoyed some measure of toleration, 
had been administered by Fathers of the Society of Jesus under the 
jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of London. This jurisdiction 

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ended by an official act of Pius VI. Upon the urgent representa- 
tion of Benjamin Franklin, then minister to France, the Pope 
appointed the most prominent of the former Jesuits, Rev. John 
Carroll, 44 Superior of the Mission and Vicar Apostolic in the thirteen 
United States of North America," 1774. There were then 15,000 
Catholics in Maryland, among them 3,000 negro slaves, 7,000 in 
Pennsj'lvania and perhaps a few thousand scattered in the rest of 
the States who were utterly deprived of all religious ministry. The 
Peace of Paris, 1783, and the free exercise of religion guaranteed in 
the Constitution of the United States, drew increasing numbers of 
Catholics to the Republic. Hence Pius VI. formally established the 
American Hierarch}' in 1789 by appointing John Carroll first bishop 
of Baltimore. Hij diocese comprised the whole of the United States. 
After the cession of Louisiana by France (1803), Right Rev. John 
Carroll became, moreover, administrator of Louisiana. In 1808 
the diocese of Baltimore was divided and John Carroll made Arch- 
bishop of the See of Baltimore, with the bishops of Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, and Bardstown as suffragans. With this event 
began the rapid development of the Catholic Church in the United 

One archbishop and five bishops (three being absent) represented the 
Church in the first Provincial Council of Baltimore (1829), ihe first held in 
the nineteenth century, and the first in any English-speaking country since 
the Reformation. The first Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1852, was com- 
posed of six archbishops and twenty-seven bishops. Forty-nine prelates 
sat among the Fathers of the Vatican Council, whilst the third Plenary 
Council, 1884, saw thirteen archbishops, sixty bishops, seven mitred abbots, 
and the superiors of twenty-three religious orders within the walls of the 
Baltimore Cathedral. 

547. Nativisni. — From the beginning of the Catholic establish- 
ment throughout the history of the Union there existed a party, 
which, under the pretext of defending American institutions, carried 
on a warfare, sometimes open, sometimes secret, against the Catholic 
Church. The French Revolution and the Irish Insurrection drove 
thousands upon thousands of Irishmen and Frenchmen — among 
them a number of eminent priests — to the United States. Unneces- 
sarily alarmed at this immigration the native Americans succeeded, 
1798, in changing the term of residence preceding naturalization to 

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fourteen years. When the Republicans (Democrats) came into 
power, they reduced the term to five years. The fact that immi- 
grants and Catholics found fairer treatment at the hands of the 
Democratic party than of any other, explains the affiliation of Cath- 
olics with this party before the Civil War, and their advocacy of 
slavery as a party measure. 

548. Causes of the First Outbreaks in the Thirties. — Whilst there 
was no sign of hostility towards Catholics for nearly a generation, a scries 
of European events revived the anti-Catholic and anti -foreign feeling in 

(a) The formation of the Holy Alliance, its suppression of the revo- 
lutionary movements iu Italy and Spain, its desire to reduce the revolted 
Spanish colonies in America which led to the proclamation of the Monroe 
doctrine, the Vienna lectures of the great German scholar and convert 
Frederic von Schlegel, in which he pictured America as the revolutionary 
school for Europe, and the foundation of the St. Leopold Society in 
Austria, Hungary, Italy, and France, for the purpose of establishing mis- 
sions in the United States, were persistently misinterpreted as so many 
attempts of the Catholic Powers to destroy the free institutions of America. 

(b; The decade was the period, when bishops, cathedrals, sisters of 
charity, sisters of mercy, convents, Catholic seminaries, colleges and 
schools, orphan asylums, and newspapers devoted to the faith, made their 
appearance in every great city, where within the memory of men all such 
institutions had been proscribed. 

(c) This growth of the Catholic Church coincided with a period in which 
political agitation, turbulence, and riots, were the order of the day. 
Bigots of the worst type incited the imagination of the Protestants with 
tales of horror fathered upon the Catholics. In these days of excitement 
the Church of Rome was everywhere assailed from pulpit and platform. 
In New York St. Mary's Church was plundered and burned by incendiaries, 
and the Ursuiinc convent of Charlestown, Mass., given to the flames by 
the mob. 

549. The Native American Party. — In the decade of 1830- 
40 more than 500,000 Europeans landed in New York alone. The 
number, though small in comparison with later arrivals, was very 
large for that time. Unfortunately, many immigrants aired their 
old-world antipathies in the new. Irishmen and Scotchmen, Cath- 
olics and Orangemen, paraded and fought in the large cities of the 
United States and Canada. Moreover, the Catholics had two real 
grievances connected with the public school system, which they 
endeavored to remedy at the polls. Conscience obliged them to 



maintain their own parochial schools, whilst for the maintenance of 
the public schools the State forced tljem to pay a second tax. 
Accordingly they demanded that a share in the educational funds 
should be granted to them, and that in public schools the Protestant 
bible should not be forced on Catholic children. The latter demand 
was complied with in the course of time ; but Catholics never 
obtained justice in the matter of double taxation. Whilst these 
questions were agitated the cry again rose : Twenty-one years of 
residence before citizenship. As the Democrats and the Whigs in 
their party platforms indorsed the cause of the immigrants, the 
Nativists and bigots, in a State convention of Louisiana, 1841, 
formed a new party, the Native American party. Its principles 
were : Twenty-one years of residence ; no officials but native Amer- 
icans ; no union of Church and State ; keep the bible in the schools ; 
oppose the encroachments of Popery. The successes of the party 
were only local in New Orleans, St. Louis, Philadelphia, New York, 
New Jersey, etc. ; but the party caused the dreadful riots of May 
and July in Philadelphia, where many lives were lost, and the semi- 
nary, churches, convents, and dwellings inhabited by Catholics were 
looted and burned. The authorities on the whole sided with the 
rioters, whilst many fair-minded Americans, here and elsewhere, 
boldly stepped forward in defense of the Catholics. A repetition of 
similar scenes in New York was prevented by the firmness of Bishop 
Hughes, the champion of Catholic education, and the Catholics of 
New York, who publicly declared that if the laws of the State would 
not protect their lives and property, they would know how to defend 
themselves. The declaration cowed the bigots into submission. 

The collapse of the party was as rapid as its rise. Whilst the Native 
Americans elected six representatives to the Twenty ninth Congress, not 
one of them found a t>eat in the Thirty- first. Before the end of the decade 
there was a complete lull in the anti-Catholic excitement. 

550. New Attacks Upon Catholics. — The Natlvist and anti-Catholic 
elements again joined forces in 1852, and allied themselves with the fugitive 
German and Italian revolutionists of 1848 and 1849. The ex-Carmelite 
'* Father " Gavazzi, the Mazzinian apostate of the defeated Italian revolu- 
tion, transferred his crusade of hatred and s rife to the United States. When 
the Tapal Nuncio, Mgr. Gaetano Bedini, landed in New York (1852) Gavazzi 
put himself at the head of the movement against Bedini, traveled over the 

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country, and made charges u which no rational man ever for a moment 
believed and which were soon proved to be utterly false." In his progress 
through the country the Nuncio was insulted, abused, burned in effigy, 
mobbed, and threatened with assassination. The government at Washington 
which had an accredited minister at the court of Plus IX. showed utter indif- 
ference to the acts of violence committed toward a diplomatic representa- 
tive of the Holy See. In New England the auti -Catholic agitation was 
started at Boston by a street preacher who styled himself the Angel Gabriel. 
Wherever he went he raised the mob against the Catholic churches and 
people. In May the crowd attacked the Irish settlement at Chelsea and 
the Bellingham Catholic church. In June the Catholic church at Coburg 
was burned; July 3, an armed mob expelled a peaceful Catholic population 
from their homes at Manchester; July 4, the Catholic church at Dorchester 
was blown up with gunpowder; July 5, the Angel Gabriel led in the sacking 
and destruction of the church at Bath, etc., etc. 

551. Know-Nothingisin. — During this excitement the Supreme 
Order of the Star Spangled Banner, a net work of secret societies 
founded in 1852 somewhere in New York, began its insidious career. 
Owing to their extreme reticence, its members were called Know- 
nothings. It was greatly strengthened by European revolutionists 
and certain elements of the Whig party disrupte4 by the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill. The cardinal principles of the order were: 1. That 
no foreigners should be naturalized under twenty-one years of resi- 
dence. 2. That the Catholic religion was a danger to the country. 
3. That the Protestant bible should be the foundation of all common 
school education. The power of the order consisted in its secret 
management of the elections baffling all the calculations of the poli- 
ticians. In 1854 the Know-nothings carried the elections in Massa- 
chusetts, Delaware, and partly New York. In 1855 it secured the 
legislature of Maryland and all but carried the States of Virginia, 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. In the North 
the uprising against the .Catholics was sweeping ; the governors and 
legislatures of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, New York, Kentucky, and California were Know-nothings. 
This success encouraged the Grand Council of the order to enter 
the presidential campaign, and to nominate Millard Fillmore. But 
internal dissensions disrupted the many-colored party, and the new 
Republicanism swept Know-nothingism out of the North. Of 296 
presidential electors the anti-Catholic party secured only eight and 

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sent twenty Representatives and five Senators to Congress. Two 
years later not one Native American came from any State north of 
the Potomac, save Maryland, where the anti-Catholic party existed 
three years longer, drew to itself all the ruffians in and around Balti- 
more, attacked and mobbed the first Northern regiment marching 
to the front and made the city the most lawless of the Union. 

552. Change of Feeling. — A remarkable change in the attitude of the 
government took place under Lincoln's administration. The one man who 
was most bitterly hated by the Know-nothings, Archbishop Hughes of New 
York, not ouly enjoyed the full confidence of the President and the admin- 
istration, but was sent to Europe on an extraordinary diplomatic mission to 
explain the state of affairs In America to the governments of France, 
Spain, and the Holy See. With the civil war the allegiance of Catholics to 
one political party ceased. After the war a trace of Know-nothiugiMn 
showed itself in the Ku-klux klan and the Whitecap organizations which 
terror zed the South since reconstruction days, whilst in the North the 
methods of Know-nothings have been revived by the A. P. A. or American 
Protective Association of 1894. 

McMaster. The Riotous Career of the Know-nothing*: Forum, July, 1894, p. 613.— 
Th. A. Becker, D. D.r Secret Societies in the U. S. — J. G. 8hea: Hist, of the Cath. 
Church in the U. 5., 4 volumes (including Colonial Times.— Other Histories by O'Gor- 
man; John O'Rnne Murray; Macieod (Rom. Cath. in NortnAm.); Conry, etc.— Know- 
nothingism in Kentucky. Cath World '57.— Hon. IS. J. Webb: Century of Catholicity in 
Kentucky. — Ilassard ; Drown; J Hughes, Archb. of N. Y. — J. L. Spalding: Life of the 
Most Rev. Ml. J. Spalding, D. />., Archbishop of Baltimore. — Harper: The Church and 
the Constitution of the U. S. t A. C. Q , v. 9. — J. G. Shea: The Cath. Church in American 
Hist . Cath. World, A. C. Q , 1. - Progress of the C. Ch. in the U. S. from the First Pro- 
vinical to the Third Plen. Council, A. C Q., v. 9. 

553. Secession. — The election of Lincoln led to tbe secession 
of the Southern States from the Union. The South believed that the 
election of Lincoln meant the abolition of slavery, though neither 
Lincoln nor the Republican party save a small minority of extreme 
Abolitionists, harbored such an intention. South Carolina was the 
first to declare herself a 44 sovereign, free, and independent 99 State. 
Before February, 1861, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, 
Louisiana, and Texas joined South Carolina, established at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., 44 The Confederate States of America " and elected Jef- 
ferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens provisional President and 





Vice-president. The Constitution adopted was, on the whole, that of 
the United States except that it carefully guarded slavery and forbade 
a protective tariff. Many Southerners hoped that the act of secession 
would force their slavery views on the North and thus enable them 
to rejoin the Union. These seven cotton States formed the first area 
of secession. They were divided from the free States by a belt of 
wavering border States. Compromises were attempted but failed. 
Buchanan did nothing to stop the secession. Secession was wrong, 
he said, but he had no power to coerce seceded States. The sece- 
ders made good use of this inactivity. The United States soldiers 
who refused to join the movement were disarmed, and the forts, 
arsenals, dock yards, custom houses, mints, and other property of 
the United States, seized by the authorities in revolt. Southern 
officers of the army and navy resigned and offered their swords and 
services to the Confederacy. The South stood united, the North 
was divided and full of sympathizers with the South. Department 
officials reported every step of the government to the Confederate 
authorities. It was under these circumstances that President 
Lincoln was inaugurated March 4, 1861. 

564. Abraham Lincoln. — Abraham Lincoln came from a poor family. 
He worked hard with his hands when a young man, but he was a passionate 
reader and took no interest in money-making. At twenty- eight he began to 
practice law, threw himself with keen zest into the political contests of the 
day, and was elected to the legislature of Illinois aud to Congress. In pri- 
vate life he was a man of roost kindly feeling and full of quaint humor. In 
his inauguration speech from the steps of the Capitol he clearly announced 
his policy: u I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the 
Institution of slavery where it exists. I consider the Union is unbroken 9 
and to the extent of my ability I shall take care that the laws of the Union 
shall be faithfully executed in all the States. In doing this — there shall be 
no bloodshed unless it shall be forced upon the national authority." lie 
finally announced his Intention to occupy the property and places belonging 
to the government. In conformity with this announcement he ordered men 
and supplies to be sent to Fort Sumter at Charleston. Thereupon General 
Beauregard, under the authority of the Governor of South Carolina, bom- 
barded Fort Sumter for thirty-five hours. When food and powder were 
exhausted and the fort stood in flames, Major Anderson surrendered April 
14, 1861, and was allowed to embark for New York with all the honors of 
war. Soon after the Confederacy formally declared war against the United 
States. The European Powers, on the whole, sympathized with the South, 
and recognized the Confederacy as a belligerent, but not as an independent 



Power. Hence while slavery was at the root of the trouble, the civil war 
was really waged on the one hand to maintain, on the other to prevent, the 
Act of Secession. It was a war for the preservation of the Union. 

555. War Preparations. — The bombardment of Fort Sumter 
united the loyal States to common action and put an end to the hesi- 
tation of the border States. Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, 
and Virginia joined the Confederacy. Forty-eight western counties 
of Virginia, however, remained loyal and formed the new State of 
West Virginia (admitted in 1863). The northern border States, 
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri remained in the Union, 
though many secessionists from these States joined the Confederate 
army. The Southern government transferred its capitol to Rich- 
mond. President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to serve for 
three months. Many more instantly responded to the call. New 
summonses for a three years' service raised the effective strength of 
the Union army to 183,500 men under the general command of Win- 
field Scott. The Union army was distributed along a line of 2,000 
miles passing through northern Virginia along the Potomac, across 
Kentucky, Missouri, the Indian Territory, to New Mexico. Jeffer- 
son Davis called upon the Confederate States for volunteers and 
soon regiments were hurried to the Potomac from the North and the 

656. Character of the War — The war that followed exhibited three 
groups of military operations, (a) The great conflicts were waged in the 
States bordering East and West on the Alleghany mountains, especially in 
the narrow territory lying between the two rival capitals, Washington and 
Richmond, (b) In the West the possession of the Mississippi river was a 
primary object with the North, partly to cut off Western supplies from the 
South, partly to have a basis of operation into the interior of the Confed- 
eracy, (c) Most of the minor hostilities were waged on the outskirts of 
the Confederacy, and consisted in lodgments on the coast to enforce the 
blockade of the Southern ports. With a few exceptions, the offensive was 
the Northern share of the struggle, the defensive the Southern. 

King: Turning on the Light; Buchanan's Administration (1893). — Herndon ; Scburz: 
Lincoln. — Chittenden : Recollections of Pres. Lincoln and His Administration, — Con fed- 
erate States: Ordinances of Secession, etc. (1893). — Nlcolay : Outbreak of the Rebellion, — 
Davis: Rise and FaUofthe Confederate Government. — Dodge U. S. A. : A Bird's- Eye View 
of Our Civil War (compact and unpartlsan). — Crawford: Genesis of the Civil War; 
Story of Sumter. - Pollard: Life of Jeff. Davit; Memoirs, by his Wife (1890). — Scharf : 
Hist, of the Confederate States, 



§ 8. 


557. Bull Run and Wilson's Creek, 1861. — In Northern 
Virginia the Union General McDowell faced General Beauregard. 
The, popular cry of the North : " On to Richmond ! 99 induced Scott 
to order an attack. This first great battle of Bull Run (July 21), 
ended with the defeat and headlong rout of the Union army. The 
battle taught the North Americans the necessity of discipline. 
General McClellan, a splendid organizer, but slow and cautious in 
the field, was appointed to replace Scott. He was put in personal 
command on the Potomac, and spent the rest of the year and the 
following spring in drilling his army. In the West, too, the first 
hard-fought battle at Wilson's Creek, Missouri (August), was a 
Union defeat. A new call for 500,000 volunteers was issued. 

558. The Opening of the Mississippi, 1862-63. — (a.) The 
Western forces were commanded by General Halleck, Union com- 
mander, and General Albert Sidney Johnston, Confederate. Under 
Halleck General Thomas drove the Confederates out of Eastern Ken- 
tucky (January, 1862). In February Commodore Foote captured 
Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and Ulysses S. Grant Fort Donelson 
on the Cumberland. These victories broke the line of the Confed- 
erates, who withdrew to Corinth, Mississippi. Grant encountered 
them in the bloody battle of Pittsburg Landing or Shiloh (April 
6-7). The fall of General Johnston and the timely arrival of Buell 
turned the Confederate victory into a defeat. Halleck now took 
personal command, and Corinth fell towards the end of May. 
Halleck then went to Washington to assume the chief command as 
McClellan' s successor. 

(b.) Two other divisions had meanwhile descended the Mis- 
sissippi. The one under Curtis on the western bank of the river 
first drove the Confederates under Van Dora and Price out of Mis- 
souri, and then defeated them in the desperate battle at Pea 
Ridge, Arkansas (March 6-8). Before the end of the year the 
entire western bank was in the hands of the Union forces. 

(c.) The third division under Pope came down the great river with 

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Foote's gunboats and joined Grant's forces. The result was the 
fall of Memphis (June 6). These successes pushed the Union front 
eastward to a line passing through Memphis and Corinth to Chatta- 

(d.) Whilst Grant and Foote opened the upper course of the Mis- 
sissippi, Farragut entered the Mississippi from below, passed the 
forts of New Orleans under a dreadful fire, destroyed the Confed- 
erate fleet, and took the city (April 24-25). General Benjamin 
Butler then entered and held it with 15,000 men. 

(e.) To break the Northern line stretching from Memphis to Chat- 
tanooga, General Bragg rushed across Tennessee and raided Kentucky, 
whilst Price and Van Dorn prepared to attack Corinth from Iuka 
and Holly Springs. Grant detailed General Rosecrans to deal with 
the enemy. Rosecrans first drove Price into the camp of Van Dorn 
(September 19), and subsequently routed both at Corinth (October 
4). Four days later Bragg was defeated by Buell at Perryville in 
Kentucky and driven South. Grant now marched down the eastern 
bank of the Mississippi against Vicksburg. Once more Bragg 
undertook a raiding expedition to the North. But Rosecrans, who 
had been raised to the command of the Army of the Tennessee, 
defeated him Li the battle of Murfreesboro, one of the most mur- 
derous in the whole war (December 31-January 2, 1863). No 
further attempt was made to recover Kentucky. Rosecrans 
remained at Murfreesboro till summer. 

The situation in the West at the end of 1862 was this. The entire west- 
ern bank of the Mississippi was in the hands of the Uuited States. To the 
east of the river the Confederate line crossed Northern Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, touched the river at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the ouly fortified 
places of the Confederacy on the eastern bank, and thence deviated east- 
ward to the Gulf. 

(f.) In April, 1863, Grant set about to reduce Vicksburg. Its 
position on a steep bluff 200 feet above the river made it well- 
nigh unassailable. After crossing and recrossing the river and 
defeating the Confederate Generals Joe Johnston and Pemberton in 
three battles, Grant laid siege to Vicksburg for seven weeks and 
starved it into surrender (July 4). The fall of Vicksburg and, five 
days later, of Fort Hudson, opened the Mississippi from source to 
mouth and cut the Confederacy in two. 

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550. McClellan's Peninsular Campaign against Rich- 
mond. — In the East the real campaign began in spring, 1862. 
The government desired the army of the Potomac to operate between 
Washington and Richmond. But the ground was intersected with 
rivers and numerous other obstacles. McClellan insisted on moving 
up the peninsula formed by the York and the James rivers. A 
compromise led to a threefold disposition of the troops. Fremont 
and Banks with a small army were to guard Washington against an 
attack from the Shenandoah Valley. McDowell was to march from 
Washington to Richmond. McClellan was to move up the Peninsula 
and join McDowell. But three brilliant Confederate Generals, Joe 
Johnston, Stonewall Jackson, and Robert Lee, spoiled the plan. 

(a.) Johnston met McClellan at the lower end of the Peninsula, 
forced him to besiege Yorktown and Williamsburg, and to fight his 
way to White House Landing, whence McClellan turned in a south- 
westerly direction to the Chickahominy river to wait for McDowell. 

(b.) Meanwhile Stonewall Jackson had come down the Shenandoah 
Valley and defeated the Union troops in five battles within thirty-four 
days, whereupon he joined the army at Richmond. The government, 
alarmed at these reverses, recalled McDowell to protect the capital. 

(c.) McClellan, instead of being able to join McDowell, found 
Richmond reinforced by Stonewall Jackson, and Johnston still lying in 
his path. Johnston, however, wounded in the fighting before Rich- 
mond, had to be replaced by Lee. Lee in the seven days' battles in 
front of Richmond (June 25, July 1), stood his ground and com- 
pelled McClellan to retreat to Harrison's Landing. In August the 
Union army returned to the Potomac. It was during McClellan's 
stay at Harrison Landing, that Halleck was called to the chief com- 
mand, and a new army, the Army of Virginia, was organized under 
General Pope. This army took up its position along the Rappa- 
hannock and Rapidan rivers and beyond to the Shenandoah Valley. 

560. Lee's Raid into Maryland. — McClellan's retreat to the 
Potomac opened a way to Lee to invade Maryland. Lee first 
defeated Banks at Cedar Creek, then routed Pope on the old field 
of Bull Run, crossed the Potomac and entered Maryland. Pope 
had meanwhile joined McClellan near Washington. Both overtook 
Lee at Antietam Creek, where a great battle was fought September 

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14. It was so far a Northern victory as Lee found it, necessary to 
recross the Potomac. The cautious McClellan was now superseded 
by the fiery Burnside in the command of the Army of the Potomac. 
Burnside met Lee and Jackson at Fredericksburg but was defeated 
with dreadful slaughter December 13. Thus at the end of 1862 the 
two hostile armies stood again in the old position, the Union army 
in front of Washington, the Confederate anny in front of Richmond. 
Burnside made place for Hooker. 

561. Chancellor s ville and Gettysburg. — Hooker took the 
initiative in 1863 and moved against Lee only to be defeated with 
heavy loss at Chancellorsville (May 2-3) and to lose his command. 
The Confederates suffered perhaps a greater loss by the fall of Stone- 
wall Jackson, Lee's right arm. Lee once more hurried across the 
Potomac, past Washington, through Maryland into Pennsylvania. 
He was hotly pursued by the Union army, now commanded by 
George G. Meade, and brought to a stand at Gettysburg. Here 
the greatest battle in the war was fought July 1-3. Lee, in the 
advantage for two days, was beaten on the third, and returned to 
Virginia, where he remained unmolested for the rest of the year. 
Gettysburg was the turning-point in the Eastern campaign. 

Dodge : Bird's- Eye View. — Force : Fort Henry to Corinth. — Green : The Mississippi. — 
Mfthan: Farragut. — Webb : The Peninsula; McClelland Oien Story . — Ropes : The 
Army under Pope. — Palfrey : Antietam and Fredericksburg. — Cist: Army of the Cum- 
berland. — Blckham : Bosecrans' Campaign, 1 863. — Doabloday: Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg; Gettysburg Made Plain. — Hamlin: B. of Chancellorsville (1€96). — Drake: 
B.oJ Gettysburg (ISUJ) ; Vicksburg and Gettysburg, E. R., 83, 4.— (Southern View). — 
Pollard: First Year of the War; The Lost Cause. — Johnbton : Life of A. S. Johnston — 
J. K. Johnston: Military Operations. — Hughes: Gen. Johnston (1893). — Randolph: Life 
of Stonewall Jackson. — Gen. Jackson, Life and Letters, by his Wife (1892). — Lives of Let. 

§ 9. 


562. Movements in the West, 1803, Chickamauga and 
Chattanooga. — (a.) The feeling of relief caused in the North by 
the victory of Gettysburg was yet increased the following day by the 
news of the fall of Vicksburg, July 4 (cf. p. 381, f.). Whilst Grant 
was still besieging Vicksburg, Rosecrans left his headquarters at 
Murfreesboro, and by a series of skillful strategic movements pushed 
Bragg out of his important position at Chattanooga across the 

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Chickamauga Creek, where Bragg received reinforcements from Lee. 
Here a murderous two days' battle took place September 19-20, in 
which the army of Rosecrans was defeated. Rosecrans fled back to 
Chattanooga, whilst General Thomas stood his ground, covered the 
retreat, and earned the title of 4 4 The Rock of Chickamauga. ' ' Bragg 
then strongly fortified the heights around Chattanooga, especially 
the high Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, besieged the city 
for close upon two months, and nearly reduced it to starvation. 

(b.) Grant, now one of the most prominent generals of the North, 
was sent to relieve Chattanooga, and to take command in place of 
Rosecrans retired. He was reinforced by Sherman, Sheridan, 
Thomas, Hooker, and a number of other generals in whom he con- 
fided. The sudden and irresistible assaults of the Union troops, No- 
vember 23-25, swept the enemy from Lookout Mountain, Missionary 
Ridge, etc., and saved Chattanooga. Braggs' army retreated to 
Dal ton, where he was relieved by Joe Johnston. The result of the 
year's Western campaign was, that the Confederates were driven 
back from '.he Mississippi into the mountains of Georgia. Dalton 
and Richmond were now the only Confederate centers of resistance. 

563. Marching through Georgia. — The campaign of 1864 
opened with Grant holding the chief command of the Union forces as 
4i Lieutenant-General " and in personal command of the army of the 
Potomac, whilst Sherman commanded the army of the Cumberland 
at Chattanooga. The two leaders agreed on a plan. Grant was to 
deal with Lee, Sherman to march to the Atlantic, and to cut the 
Confederacy in two from Northwest to Southeast, both operations to 
begin on May 4. Sherman having united the armies of the Cumber- 
land, the Mississippi, the Tennessee, and the Ohio, started on the 
appointed day on his march against Jolinston, drove him out of Dal- 
ton, and painfully worked his way through the mountains of Georgia 
towards Atlanta, constantly faced by the Confederates in Johnston's 
masterly retreat. As Sherman had everywhere to detail guards for 
the protection of the only railroad that brought him supplies, John- 
ston by his adroit maneuvering had so far weakened Sherman's 
army as to be ready to meet him with equal forces, when he was 
recalled by Jefferson Davis and replaced by Hood. This blunder of 
the Southern President at once altered the character of the campaign. 

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Hood made three furious attacks upon Sherman, but was each time 
defeated and finally abandoned Atlanta in order to draw Sherman 
northward. But Sherman sent General Pope after Hood into Tennes- 
see, burned Atlanta, and proceeded on his march to the sea. In four 
parallel columns covering a belt of sixty miles, Sherman cut, raided, 
and burned a wide swath through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah. 
He stormed Savannah in the middle of December, about the same 
time when Pope annihilated Hood's army at Nashville. Great was 
the surprise of Lincoln and the whole North, when Christmas eve 
brought news of Sherman, who for months had completely disap- 
peared from view. After a stay of two mouths Sherman began his 
northward march through South Carolina into North Carolina. 
Again he was preceded by Johnston whom Jefferson Davis after the 
disaster of Nashville had placed in command of a new army. Sher- 
man, however, safely reached Goklsboro, N. C, in March, 1865. 

&64. Grant's Campaign at Richmond and Petersburg. — 

Meanwhile Grant, too, had opened the campaign May 4, 18G4. He 
crossed the Rapidan, entered the Wilderness, a vast tract of densely 
wooded country, and, constantly hammering away at Lee, shifted 
his ground to Spottsylvania Courthouse, to Cold Harbor, around 
the forts of Richmond, losing 60,000 men in four weeks without 
inflicting corresponding loss on the enemy, and finally sat down 
before Petersburg which was connected with Richmond by field 
works., The siege of Petersburg cost Grant 40,000 more. The 
siege lasted till spring, 1865, and prevented Lee from interfering in 
the West and the South. 

In July, Lee sent General Early to make a diversion towards Wash- 
ington with 20,000 cavalry. Twice Early dashed down the Shenaudoah 
Valley; the first time he came within six miles of Washington; the second 
time he entered Pennsylvania and burned Charabersburg. These raids led 
to Grant's order to lay waste the Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan carried out 
the task and defeated Early at Winchester (September 19) a mouth later. 
During Sheridan's absence, Early attacked the camp at Cedar Creek and 
defeated the Union army. Sheridan heard the booming of the cannon 
at Winchester, started with forty followers for the camp, rallied the fugi- 
tives and turned the victory of the enemy into a rout (Sheridan's Ride). 

565. Lee's Surrender, April 9, 1805. — In 1865 Lee's 
situation became desperate. Every seaport of the Confederacy was 


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in Union hands. Through Sherman's return Grant could dispose of 
125,000 men against Lee's 60,000. The Union lines were drawn 
closer and closer around Richmond and Petersburg. Lee's last 
plan was to forsake Richmond, to join Johnston and to rush to the 
Alleghany Mountains in order to obtain better terms for the Con- 
federacy. On April 2 and 3 he evacuated Richmond and Peters- 
burg which were occupied by detachments of United States troops. 
Mismanagement on -the part of the Confederate authorities left Lee 
without provisions. He was followed by Grant's main army and sur- 
rounded at Appomattox Courthouse, seventy-five miles west of 
Richmond. Here the greatest soldier of America surrendered to 
U. S. Grant April 6. Grant treated the Confederate army with 
due generosity. Neither Lee nor his officers were required, to give 
up their swords. Each officer had to give his parole for himself 
and his respective command not to take up arms against the United 
States until properly exchanged. The men in the ranks were allowed 
to keep their horses for farm work. Johnston surrendered to Sher- 
man April 16. The other Confederate Generals followed. Their 
soldiers were dismissed with free rations and conveyance . under sub- 
stantially the same parole. The fugitive Jefferson Davis, was made 
prisoner by the Union cavalry in Georgia. He was confined in For- 
tress Monroe for two years and then discharged on bail without 
further trial (d. 1889). Not one soldier of the Confederacy was im- 
prisoned ; not one political leader executed. Their punishment con- 
sisted in temporary political disabilities. In an incredibly short time, 
the two vast armies of the North and of the South quietly dispersed to 
their homes and resumed the pacific occupations of private life. No 
act of lawlessness is on record to stain the repute of either army 
after the surrender. It was left to a small band of Southern con- 
spirators headed by John Wilkes Booth to cut off, by foul assassina- 
tion, the life of President Lincoln, who had well deserved of his 
country (April 14, 1865). 

666. Naval Warfare, 1861-66. — (a.) The American navy, which at the 
outbreak of the war numbered thirteen available vessels out of ninety laid 
up or scattered abroad, grew in the course of the conflict into a fleet of 700 
vessels, among them sixty ironclads, manned by 50,000 sailors. ' The task 
accomplished by this fleet was the blockade of 1,900 miles of sea-coast, the 
capture of every seaport and fort scattered along this estuary, the* opening 
of the Mississippi and other rivers, and the destruction of the Confederate 

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cruisers. In the earlier period of the war blockade -running became a 
lucrative business. English goods first shipped to the West Indies, were 
run into Wilmington, N. C, and cotton run out; 1,504 blockade runners were 
captured or destroyed during the war. 

(b.) The use of ironclads in this war (Merrimac, Monitor, etc.) revolu- 
tionized naval warfare, as no wooden vessel could resist them. It forced all 
the maritime nations to build new navies. 

(c.) Whilst the blockade destroyed Southern trade, the Confederacy em- 
ployed "Commerce Destroyers" like the "Sumter," the "Florida" the 
" Alabama," and the " Shenandoah " — the latter three built In England, — 
to destroy American commerce on the high seas. " The Sum' er " was run into 
Gibraltar, and sold to escape capture. The " Florida " was captured in the 
Brazilian port of Bahia, by a violation of neutral waters, and when re- 
claimed, sunk by an " unforeseen accident " at Hampton Roads. The u Ala- 
bama" was sunk in the English Channel by the Kearsarge (1864), Only 
the "Shenandoah" escaped to England at the end of the war. An inter- 
national arbitration board sitting at Geneva, 1872, obliged England to pay 
#15,500,000 for the damage inflicted by these cruisers. 

667. Statistic*. — The actual enlistments in the North, during the war, 
were 2,780,000 men, among them 80,000 negro soldiers. The regular army, 
however, never exceeded 67,000 men; the rest were volunteers. The South 
enlisted about 1,300,000 men. The forces in the field were about equal, for 
the North had to detail one-half of its men to garrison duty. The propor- 
tion to the military population was, in the North, four men out of nine; in 
the South, nine men out of ten. The losses from all causes amounted to 
half a million in the North, and nearly as many in the South. The cost of 
the war to the Union as far as ascertainable, was $3,400,000,000. In addition 
to the regular pay, the nation paid to the soldiers $800,000,000 in bounties, 
and will have paid, when the last veteran dies, $3,700,000,000 in pensions, 
making about $8,000 for every man who died in the war or survived. This 
sum, however, represents enormous frauds in obtaining and distributing 
the pensions, of which large sums never reached the soldiers, or reached 
undeserving subjects. 

Cox : Atlanta; The March to the Sea, — Pond : The Shenandoah in 1864. — Humphrey : 
Virginia Campaign; Camp, of 1864-66. — Grant : Pergonal Memoirs. — Porter : Campaigns 
with Orani (1887) ; Lives by Brooks (1897) ; Church (»97) ; Wilson, ('97), E. R., »69, 1. - 
F. Lee: Zee.— Pollard: Lee and Hie Lieutenants. — White : Lee and the Southern Confed- 
eracy. — R.Lee and the Civil War, E. R., 73, 2.— Coppee: Gen. Thomas Sherman; Letters, 
Memoirs (1891). — Bowman and Irwin: Sherman and his Campaigns.— Headly: Facing the 
Enemy. — Davis : Gen. Sheridan; Sheridan: Personal Memoirs — Lincoln, by Schurc; 
Dana (L. and his Cabinet) ; Coffin (1892); Morse (1893); Brooks (1896); Rutherford: 
{Ploughboy, Statesman, and Patriot); Harris: Assassination. — D. M. do Wilt: Judicial 
Murder of Mary E. Surrat. 

General Histories of the War. — Dodge ; Comte de Paris; Ropes (1894) ; Maban 
{Critical Hist.); Seward (Diplom. Hist.); Porter- Naval History. — Pollard's Works; 
Southern Hist, of the War. — Scharf : Hist, of the Confederate States Navy; Johnson and 
Buell : Battles and Leaders in the Civil War. 



§ 10. 


568. Thirteenth Amendment. — As early as January 1, 1863, 
President Lincoln as commander-in-chief of the army issued a 
proclamation setting free the slaves of all those persons who were 
engaged in war with the government of the United States. This 
partial, emancipation, which was a mere war measure, did not 
apply either to the loyal slave States nor the. Territories reconquered 
by the Union army. To complete the work of emancipation, a 
measure now plainly necessary for the peace of the United States, 
Congress in February, 1865, sent out the Thirteenth Amendment to 
the Constitution, which abolished slavery forever in the United States. 
The constitutional three-fourths of all the States — twenty-seven of 
the thirty-six States then in the Union — ratified the amendment. 
Sixteen of the ratifying States were free and eleven slave States. 
The amendment was formally proclaimed December 18, 1865. 

560. Presidential Reconstruction. — With the collapse of 
the Confederacy all civil government in the South came to an end. 
To re-establish the laws of the United States was therefore the first 
duty of President and Congress. Lincoln's death left the question 
unsolved in the hands of. Andrew Johnson, who, as Vice-president, 
followed Lincoln in office. Johnson at once set about to solve the 
problem without consulting Congress. He appointed provisional 
governors for the seceded States. The governors summoned State 
conventions which in their turn annulled the ordinances of secession, 
repudiated the Confederate debts, abolished slavery in their 
respective States, and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. Before 
the end of 1865 all the seceded States had their organized govern- 
ments and were recognized by the President. 

570. Congressional Reconstruction — The Fourteenth 
Amendment. — If the new legislatures of the South had stopped 
with these measures, difficulties might have been avoided. But ten 
out of eleven legislatures deemed it necessary for the protection of 
the landowners to enact laws which were considered by the North 
as introducing a new form of involuntary servitude, if not actual 

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slavery. Colored persona who could not be forced to work as 
slaves, were to be forced as vagrants, apprentices, or paupers. Ten- 
nessee alone had respected the liberty of the freedmen. Accordingly 
when Congress met in December, 1865, it ignored the President's 
work and refused seats to the senators and representatives of the 
seceded States. Only Tennessee was admitted in March, 1866. 
The following June Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment by 
which the colored freedmen were made citizens both of their respect- 
ive States and of the United States. The ratification of this amend- 
ment by the Southern States was made a condition of their read- 
mittance to Congress. Meanwhile the ten unreconstructed States 
were placed under military government. North and South Carolina, 
Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas submitted and were 
readmitted to the Union, 1868. By their accession the Fourteenth 
Amendment became part of the Constitution. 

All the measures connected with Congressional Reconstruction were 
passed over the veto of President Johnson, who was credited witjj the in- 
tention of impeding the work by the removal of officials favoring it. 
Acco dingly Congress in 1867 passed the Tenure of Office Act which 
reduced the President's power < f removal to a power of suspension depend- 
ent in its operation on the Senate's approval. Johnson's disregard of this 
law led to his impeachment for " high crimes and misdemeanors." He 
was, however, acquitted in the Senate by a majority of one vote. 

571. End of Reconstruction. — Many of the Southern whites 
were still unpardoned, and therefore deprived of the right of voting. 
Others, and among them the most influential men, had either left, or 
took no part in a reconstruction under military rule. The colored 
freedmen had been given the ballot before they were educated in the 
duties of citizenship. They were ignorant, timid, and easily influ- 
enced. This state of affairs induced a swarm of " carpet-baggers," 
political adventurers without conscience and patriotism from the 
North, to invade the Southern States. They filled the minds of the 
negroes with suspicions against their former masters and alarm at 
the possible revival of slavery, obtained the control of the negro 
vote, and got themselves elected governors, State legislators, and 
congressmen. These powers they abused in passing bad laws and 
high taxes, and in plundering the States for their personal benefit. 
The Southern property owners, on the other hand, tried all manners 

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of bribery and intimidation to prevent the negroes from voting. 
They finally organized a secret society, the Ku-klux-klan, whose 
members rode out at night, and whipped, maimed, and even mur- 
dered negroes, carpet-baggers, and " scalawags," as Southern whites 
were called who voted with the negroes. Hence the Fifteenth 
Amendment which forbade the United States or any State, to pre- 
vent any person from voting because of his race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude, 1870. The same year the last of the South- 
ern States, Georgia, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia, were read- 
mitted into the Union. 

Whilst Reconstruction succeeded in making free men of the negroes, it 
failed in making them voters. Gradually the original white population 
wrested political power from the hands of Northern adventurers. Since 
1877 all the Southern States had control of their State governments. Nor 
has B' construction succeeded in wiping out the social ostracism maintained 
by the whites against the colored population of the South. 

Wilson: Rise and Fall of the Slave Power. — Blaine: Twenty Yean in Congress. — 
Barnes : Hist, of the 89th Congress. — Bryce : American Commonwealth, 

General Works for Consultation on the Period — Narrative and Critical Hist, 
of America (by different authors). — Andrew: Manual of the Constitution, — Wbeeler: 
Hist, of Congress. — Van Santvoord: Chief Justices of the U. St. — A, Johnston: HisL of 
Am. Politics. — M'Kee: National riatforms of all Parties —Stan wood: Hist, of Presi- 
dential Elections — W. G. Dice: American State and Am. Statesmen. — Johnston: Amer- 
ican Orations. — American Commonwealth Series (Hist, of the Single States, by dlff. 
authors). — G. du Dois: Suppression of the Slave Trade in the U. St., 1638-1870.— 
Soley: The Wars of the V. St., 1789-1860; Treaties and Conventions between the United 
States and Other Countries (ed. 1889). 

§ 11. 


572. Mexico Invaded. — Whilst the United States were in the 
throes of a civil war, great changes took place in the neighboring 
Republic of Mexico. In the quick succession of revolutions and 
counter-revolutions — the chronic evil of Mexico since its defection 
from Spain — the liberal leader, Benito Juarez, in 1861, obtained 
possession of the capital. In addition to the usual measures of 
Masonic governments, suppression of the monasteries, spoliation of 
the Church, expulsion of prominent bishops, he also repudiated the 
treaty obligations with foreign Powers contracted by his predecessors. 
This brought him in conflict with England, France, and Spain. 

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The three Powers concluded the Treaty of London, 1861, which 
contemplated the seizure of Mexican custom houses to make good 
foreign claims, but no interference in the internal affairs of Mexico. 
Accordingly, the allied Powers sent an armed expedition to Mexico 
which occupied Vera Cruz and the fort of Juan de Ulloa, December, 
1861, and January, 1862. Shortly after reinforcements arrived from 
France, accompanied by the exiled Mexican General Almonte, who 
had concerted plans with Napoleon III. for changing Mexico into 
an Empire, and securing the throne to Archduke Maximilian of 
Austria. Juarez demanded the re-embarkation of Almonte and his 
companions. On this demand the representatives of the allied 
Powers disagreed. The Count of Saligny, Napoleon's representa- 
tive, proposed an immediate advance upon Mexico. The English 
and Spanish representatives adhered to the clause of non-inter- 
ference, and withdrew from the undertaking. Saligny thereupon 
declared war against the government of Juarez. . 

573. Napoleon III. and the United States. — The aim of Napoleon 
was clearly expressed in his Instructions of July 3, 1862, to General Forey: 
" It Is our interest that the Republic of the United States may be powerful 
and prosperous, but by no means that she should take all the Gulf of Mexico, 
and hence command the West Indies as well as South America, and be the 
sole dispenser of the products of the New World " ' 1 If, on the contrary, 
a stable government be constituted in Mexico with the assistance of France, 
we shall have restored to the Latin race, on the other side of the ocean, its 
strength and Its prestige; we shall have guaranteed security to our colonics 
of the West Indies and those of Spain ; we shall have established our benefi- 
cent influence in the center oNAmerica." On the other hand, the United 
States appealed to the Monroe Doctrine, and from time to time protested 
against the French undertaking. The Monroe Doctrine was a Declaration 
Issued by President Monroe In 1823 against a new Russian settlement in the 
North, and against the suspected interference of the Holy Alliance in the 
affairs of South America. It declared that, whilst the United States would 
not meddle In the political affairs of Europe, the Americau continents were 
no longer open to colonization by European powers, and that European gov- 
ernments must not extend their system to any part of North or South 
America. Napoleon, however, cared little for the Monroe Doctrine, being 
satisfied that the United States were going to pieces, and that the Southern 
Confederacy would be his friend and ally. 

574. The Empire of Mexico. — The first attack of the French 
upon Puebla, 1862, failed, and postponed the campaign for a year. 

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The arrival of 25,000 reinforcement enabled General Forey to de- 
stroy the Republican forces, to take Puebla, and to enter the city of 
Mexico, 1863. A Junta was formed which established a regency 
composed of three excellent men, Archbishop La Bastida, and the 
Generals Almonte and Salas. An assembly of 250 notables voted 
for a hereditary Empire under a Catholic prince, and offered the 
crown to Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, the Emperor's 
brother. Maximilian, then staying at the castle of Miramar, 
refused to accept the throne on that vote alone, and answered the 
envoys that he would only do so when the vote of the Notables 
would be confirmed by the nation. To bring about this result, 
Napoleon placed the reins of power in Mexico into the stronger 
hands of Bazaine. Within six weeks, Bazaine defeated by rapid 
and well concerted blows four Mexican generals, who had rallied 
the scattered Republican forces, and added the greater part of the 
country to the projected Empire. The people within the radius of 
the French occupation ratified the vote of the Notables with the 
same resignation with which they had voted through forty years of 
civil war for any of the victorious presidential candidates. These 
ratifications of the Mexican municipalities were placed before Maxi- 
milian aud judged by European jurists to be the expression of the 
national will. Thereupon Maximilian accepted the proffered crown, 
and arrived with Empress Carlotte in Mexico, June, 1864. 

575. Maximilian's Policy. — The Emperor and Empress in a tour 
through the country were everywhere received with sincere enthusiasm, 
especially by the Catholic population. Ttiey regarded him as the savior of 
the country from interminable revolutions. But the fond illusion was soon 
dispelled. As Marshal Bazaine had done before him, Maximilian, too, 
undertook to reconcile the Liberals at the expense of the Church. He re- 
tained the spoliation laws of Juarez, introduced the Placet, banished religion 
from the schools, and carrying out the Masonic programme, forced the Papal 
Nuncio to leave Mexico. Jealousies between Mexicans and foreigners at 
the court, in the army and 4n the administration added to the dissatisfaction. 
In setting aside the leaders of the party to whom he owed the throne, he 
estranged his strongest adherents without winning over any important 
adhesions from the Liberals. Under the erroneous impression that the 
government of Juarez had left the territory, he issued the famous law of 
October 3, 18G5, which ordered the court-martialing of all bands of guer- 
rilleros taken in arms. The law was executed in very few cases as Maxi- 
milian never refused a pardon ; and it was subsequently repealed. But it 

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greatly increased the number of his Mexican enemies, and estranged General 
Bazaine, whose court-martials were regularly canceled. 

576. Napoleon III. and the United States. — The surren- 
der of Lee and the collapse of the Confederacy brought new dangers 
to the Empire. A number of Southern generals and large and small 
bands of armed Confederates with men and artillery passed over the 
frontiers, became naturalized under the Empire and established 
colonies. On the other hand many ex-soldiers of the Union army 
enlisted in the ranks of Juarez, whose position was daily growing 
stronger. Under these circumstances, the United States sent a per- 
emptory note to Napoleon to withdraw the French troops from 
Mexico. In view of Austria's intention to replace the French by 
Austrian troops, Secretary Seward declared that the intervention of 
any European power in the affairs of Mexico would henceforth be 
considered by the government as a casus belli (April 28, 1865). 
To give emphasis to these demands, General Sheridan was sent to 
the Rio Grande with 60,000 veterans. Napoleon finally gave way to 
the pressure. May 31, 1866, he forced a new treaty on Maximilian 
by which the Mexican Empire lost one-half of its revenues, and the 
support of the French army promised for six years was to cease 
November 1, 1867. A journey of Empress Carlotte to the Tuileries 
brought no relief. Maximilian, who ere this had made preparations 
to leave Mexico, now changed his mind. He obtained evidence 
that Napoleon ILL. was in accord with the United States government, 
and with the Liberal leaders. He withdrew to Orizaba, threw him- 
self into the arms of the Conservative party, and pledged himself to 
reinstate the persecuted clergy and to return to the Church its con- 
fiscated property. In a proclamation he announced his intention of 
returning to the capital and convoking a Congress to ascertain the 
feelings of the nation at large. On the very day when the proclama- 
tion was issued, General Sherman with three American commission- 
ers arrived at Vera Cruz. Their mission was to restore in concert 
with the Tuileries the Mexican Republic and President Juarez. At 
the same time Napoleon,* in violation of his latest treaty, ordered the 
immediate departure of the foreign troops. 

577. The Fall of Maximilian, 1867. — The evacuation took 
place early in 1867. The retreat of the French army was closely 

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followed by the advance of the Liberals, who in a short time reduced 
the Empire to the Peninsula of Yucatan and the cities of Vera Cruz, 
Puebla, Queretaro, and Mexico. The Mexican army and the few 
Austrian and Belgian regiments still at Maximilian's disposal were 
outnumbered by the enemy and thinned by desertion. Whilst Por- 
firio Diaz, later Juarez' successor in the presidency, stormed Puebla 
and proceeded to the siege of Mexico, Maximilian made his last stand 
in Queretaro. The siege lasted sixty-eight days. On May 15, 
Colonel Lopez, in whom Maximilian implicitly confided, and on whom 
he had bestowed unlimited favors, secretly introduced the enemy 
into the forts, and sold the Emperor, his generals and his army into 
captivity for 2,000 doubloons. With Juarez Maximilian's execution 
was a foregone conclusion, which no appeals of foreign diplomacy 
could change. 

The trial was a mockery of justice. It was held under the sanguinary 
and unconstitutional " law " of January 25, 1862, a mere manifesto of 
Juar z against the interventionists. The charges of usurpation, filibus- 
ter ng, complicity with the French, and the laws of October 3, 1865, were 
absurd in the case of a ruler who had come into the country unarmed and 
invited by, the nation. Three days were granted to prepare the defense, and 
twenty-four hours for the trial. The court-martial, composed of young 
subaltern officers, was held on the stage of a theater where Maximilian re- 
fused to appear. During the few days intervening between the sentence 
and the execution, Maximilian twice received the sacraments. He was 
executed July 19, 1867, the anniversary of the day on which Iturbide, the 
first Emperor of Mexico, had been executed in 1824. Vice Admiral Teget- 
hoff, the victor of Lissa, conveyed the remains of Maximilian to Austria. 
Before the catastrophe Empress Carlotte had been stricken with insanity. 
From the moment Maximilian had resolved to stand for better or worse by 
those who had remained faithful to his fallen fortunes, his words and acts 
were noble, his death worthy of his ancestors. 

Bancroft: Hist, of Mexico. — Hale: Story of Mexico. — Histories of Napoleon III. — 
Taylor: Maximilian and Carlotta. — Gaulot: Hive d* Empire: La veriU sur V Expedi- 
tion du Mexique. — Chynoweth : Fall of Maximilian. — Klratry : Rise and Fall of Max. — 
Salm-Salm : My Diary in Mexico. — Schroeder : Fall of Maximilian* * Empire. — Lummie: 
Awakening of a Nation: Mexico of To-day. {1898.) 


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§ 1. 


578. Great Britain. — In the second half of the century England 
continued the work of political reform begun in the first. Various 
acts of Parliament abolished abuses in the civil service, in army 
appointments, in popular elections, introduced the ballot and gave 
greater protection to sailors, employees, workingmen and debtors. 
Popular representation in Parliament was vastly extended in favor 
of the working classes by Disraeli's Reform Act of 1867 (second R. 
A.) which added 1,000,000 to the number of voters, and in favor 
of the agricultural classes, by Gladstone's Reform Act of 1885 
(third R. A.) which increased the voting population by 2,000,000. 

679. The Irish Question. —In his first Prime Ministry (1868-74) Mr. 
Gladstone conferred two important benefits on Ireland. By the disestab- 
lishment and dlsendowment of the Irish Church (1868), he freed the Catho- 
lics from the burden of Anglicanism and by the Irish Land Act (1870), he 
liberated the tenants from the worst features of landlord tyranny. Towards 
the end of his administration and during the ministry of Lord Beaconsfield 
two movements were set on foot in Ireland, the Home Rule agitation which 
sought self-government for Ireland by lawful means, and the Land League 
which, allied with secret societies, resorted to questionable and even violent 
measures to replace landlordism with its barbarous evictions by a system 
of peasant proprietorship. Mr. Parnell led in both movements. When Mr. 
Gladstone entered upon his second Premiership (1880-85), his strong 
coercive measures, the imprisonment of Parnell and other Irish leaders and 
the suppression of the Land League made matters worse. In 1882 England 
was startled by the murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary 
of Ireland, and Mr. Burke, permanent Under-secretary, in Phoenix Park, 
Dubliu. By voting with the Conservatives the Irish members forced Glad- 
stone's resignation. He was succeeded by Lord Salisbury, June, 1885. — 
February, 1886. When Gladstone again took office the same year (February- 
August), he completely reversed his policy of coercion, became reconciled 

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with the Irish Nationalists and introduced the Irish Home Rule Bill 
inclusive of an Irish Parliament. It was defeated by a split in the 
Liberal Party. Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. Bright, and other English leaders, 
who assumed the name of Liberal Unionists, resented any attempt to 
interfere with the supremacy of the British Parliament. The result was a 
Parliament of Conservatives and Liberal Unionists and the second Premier- 
ship of Lord Salisbury (1886-92). The elections of 1892 once more placed 
Gladstone at the helm. The Irish Home Rule Bill passed the House of 
Commons, but was thrown out In the House of Lords by a vote of more 
than ten to one. Thereupon Gladstone at the age of eighty-four resigned, 
and the Liberal party, deprived of his splendid leadership and weakened by 
internal dissensions, had to retire from the field, 1895. Mr. Gladstone died 
May 19, 1898. An Irish Local Government Bill, drawn up by the Conserva- 
tive Ministry in 1898, was approved by the House of Lords. 

The England of to-day is the foremost Power of the world. Its 
sway extends over a territory of 12,000,000 square miles, almost a 
quarter of the surface of the globe ; 390,000,000 inhabitants, more 
than a fourth of all mankind, are subject to the nominal rule of 
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, and since 1877 Empress of India. 
Her reign of sixty-two years is the longest in the history of England. 
Great Britain's power was put to a severe test by the second Boer 
war in South Africa (see § 3). 

580. Germany. — Imperial Germany has steadily maintained a 
policy of peace under its three first Emperors. Till 1877 William I. 
was supported in his peace policy by Francis Joseph I. of Austria 
and Alexander II. of Russia (albance of the Three Emperors). But 
the Turco-Russian war of 1877 which gave Bosnia and Herzogowina 
to Austria caused an estrangement between Austria and Russia. To 
secure herself on her Russian frontiers, Austria concluded an 
alliance with Prussia for peace and mutual defense in case either 
Power should be attacked by Russia (1879). This league became 
the Triple Alliance by the accession of the Kingdom of Italy, 
(1882). Germany relies for her protection against external foes on 
her military organization, which enables her at the approach of any 
danger to put 2,000,000 drilled, disciplined, and well-equipped men 
into the field, and by calling out all the reserves to raise this number 
to 5,000,000. During this long period of peace and armed security 
Germany has turned her attention to the development of her internal 


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resources. By her policy of protection and of industrial, commer- 
cial and colonial expansion, by her African possessions and the new 
trade in the East, she has become a rival of England. But behind 
all this industrial and military greatness looms up the specter of 
widespread, organized Socialism. There were but two Socialists in 
the Reichstag of 1872 ; there were fifty-four in 1898. The 340,000 
socialistic votes of 1874 have swelled to 2,120,000 in 1898, out- 
numbering the adherents of any other political party. This growth 
of Socialism in the German Empire with the tendency of its ad- 
herents to co-operate with the socialists of other countries, is one 
of the problems now confronting Europe. 

The Baltic Canal which joins the Bay of Kiel with the Elbe river was 
opened in 1891. The great work enables the German navy to pass from the 
Baltic to the North Sea through exclusively German territory. 

581. Austria. — Externally at peace Austria is internally con- 
vulsed by the race and language question of her rival nationalities. 
The predominance of the German method of government and cen- 
tralization was broken in Hungary by the establishment of the Dual 
Monarchy. The perplexing problem in Cisleithania is whether it is to 
be German or Slav ; is it to be a centralized State in which the German 
law, language and government have the ascendency; or is it to 
break up into a number of semi-independent provinces ruled by the 
nationality predominating in each? Practically the Poles have 
obtained home rule in Galioia whilst the Czechs are incessantly agi- 
tating for home rule in Bohemia. The Poles and Czechs present a 
united front in Parliament, whilst the Germans are split up into 
numerous factions. Hence the extraordinary scenes of disorder and 
turbulence of late years, which disgraced the Parliaments at Vienna 
and Pesth. 

The new Pan- German Party agitates for a union of German Austria with 
Prussia. Its most radical wing, however, whose war cry is: Away from 
Rome — is too small and irreligious to gain the sympathy of any consider- 
able number of Austrians. 

The general popularity of the kindly Emperor and the sympathy of all 
classes for his personal afflictions — the loss of the Crown Prince and the 
assassination of the Empress — has preserved the loyalty of the people, but 

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troubled days may await the successor of Francis Joseph I. A anion of all 
the Catholic parties for placing the higher interests of religion and country 
above mere national questions seems to be the best, if not the only means 
for Austria's regeneration. 

582. Russia. — Alexander II. inaugurated a new era in Russia by 
the memorable decree of 1861, which emancipated 24,700,000 serfs 
of the crown, and 22,500,000 serfs of the nobility. The former 
previously enjoyed a considerable measure of personal liberty, the 
latter fared little better than slaves. This decree which detached 
the serfs from the soil and raised them to the ranks of citizens, did 
not produce the desired contentment. It was bitterly resented by 
the nobility, it fell short of the desires of the new freemen, and its 
application in some places met with resistance and bloodshed. The 
universities and new colleges which another imperial decree threw 
open to the humbler classes became, in the course of time, hotbeds 
of political agitation, because hosts of graduates found themselves 
shut out from official or civil employment by the privileged classes. 
The opposition which the Czar encountered cooled his ardor for new 
reforms ; he even withdrew some of those previously granted. This 
policy of reaction called forth 44 Nihilism/' one of the most ferocious 
movements of the nineteenth century. The Nihilists, a secret 
society chiefly recruited from the unemployed, educated classes 
without faith or religion, men and women who had an absolute con- 
tempt for death, made political murder a tenet of their creed. 
They engaged in a war to the knife with the officialdom of Russia 
and the secret police which tracked and hunted them like wild 
beasts. Assassinations of prominent men followed in quick succes- 
sion. In 1879 the Nihilist Executive Committee served upon the 
Czar his sentence of death. The dynamite explosion in the Winter 
Palace, 1880, which killed or mangled a hundred soldiers, was 
destined for the imperial family. In 1881 the assassins at length 
succeeded in striking down Alexander II. by a bomb on the very 
day (March 13) he had chosen for the publication of a Con- 

Alexander III. (1881-94) withdrew the Constitution and returned 
to the traditional policy of absolutism. The terrorism exercised by 
the Nihilists delayed his coronation for nearly two years. Their 

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incessant attempts upon his life sapped his health. He died at the 
age 'of hardly fifty years, a victim of nervous anxiety and fear. 

His reign was marked by a persecution, both official and popular, of the 
Jews, which drove 800>000 into foreign countries. 

Nicholas IL made himself popular by discarding all armed protection and 
freely mingling with the people at his marriage feast with Princess Alix of 
Hesse (1894). Nihilism became silent for the t'me. The abolition of one- 
half of the land tax, a comprehensive amnesty to political offenders, a 
number of administrative reforms and above all the general Peace Congress, 
which he succeeded in gathering at the Hague, are to be considered as the 
Czar's personal acts, whilst the recent decrees for the Russiflcation of Fin- 
land rather go to the account of the Old Russian clique, which is still power.'ul 
at the court of Petersburg. The influence of Russia both In Europe and in 
the East is greater than at any previous period, and Is likely to increase in 
the future. 

583. Franoe. — The history of the Third Republic is one of external 
impotence and internal scandals. The Franco -Prussian War left France 
politically effaced. The only relief from complete isolation is the Franco- 
Russian alliance, presumed to have been arranged between Nicholas 
II. and President Faure. The internal scandals are faithfully reflected in 
the presidential changes and the rapid succession of the cabinets since 
1873. President Grevy (1878-79), the successor of Marshal MacMahon, 
was forced by the Chamber to resign, because he tried tp shield against the 
action of the courts, his son-in-law, Mr. Wilson, and his corrupt associates, 
who had enriched themselves by the sale of decorations and army appoint- 

During the administration of Sadi Carnot (1879-94), who was a grandson 
of the Minister of War iu the Reign of Terror, General Boulanger convulsed 
French politics by uniting the disaffected parties in a bold attempt to revise 
the Constitution and dissolve the Chamber. His flight to England, when sum- 
moned before the High Court of Justice, and his subsequent suicide in Bel- 
gium, put an end to the agitation. The Panama scandal caused still greater 
commotion. The Panama Canal Company, under the presidency of M. de 
Lesseps, failed in 1892 after spending 280,000,000 francs to little purpose. 
Tens of thousands of subscribers especially among the laboring classes were 
ruined. Ministers of State, high officials, Deputies of the Chamber, leading 
newspapers, were involved in the enormous peculations unearthed by the 
courts. The renown of de Lesseps as builder of the Suez Canal could not 
save him from being condemned on his death-bed to five years' imprison- 
ment. In the elections of 1893, Socialism and Anarchy unfurled their flag. 
A reign of terror, an " epidemic of bombs," broke out in the spring of 1894, 
both in the capital and in the departments. A bomb was thrown at the 
President of the Chamber in open session. The sanguinary movement 



culminated in the assassination of Sadi Carnot, who was stabbed by an 

The next President, Casimir Perier (1894), had to step down after a few 
months on account of his connection with well-known corruptionists. 
Under him and his successor M. Faure (1894-99) the latest national scandal, 
the Dreyf us case, involving the judicial reputation of the military tribunals, 
came to the surface. In 1894 Captain Dreyfus, a Jewish staff officer, was 
sentenced by a secret court-martial to degradation and transportation for life 
on the charge of selling military secrets to foreigners. 

The "affair" has rent France into a Jewish and anti-Jewish camp, into 
partisans of the army and partisans of the civil power, into Revisionists 
and anti-Revisionists. The last court martial in the case, held at Rennes, 
1899, declared Dreyfus guilty "with extenuating circumstances " and sen- 
tenced him to imprisonment for 10 years. The sentence was, however, re- 
mitted by President Loubet. 

584. Italy. — The state of Italy was never darker and the outlook 
upon the future more discouraging than at the present time. The 
Kingdom of Italy, hardly emerged from her wars of aggression and 
sacrilege, and ambitious to play the role of a great Power, was, like 
stronger States, seized with the fever of colonial expansion. She 
first reached out for Tunis, but was forestalled in the seizure by 
France, 1881. This snub drove Italy into the Triple Alliance. She 
next attempted to seize the western shore of the Red Sea with Mas- 
sowah as the outlet of the entire Abyssinian trade, and forthwith 
Abyssinia was declared an Italian Protectorate. South Somali 
(1889), Eritrea (1890), the Somali coast (1893) and Tigre (1895) 
were conquered in costly wars. Gradually the invaders encountered 
the slow but desperate resistance of Menelek, the Negus (ruler) of 
Abyssinia. In 1895 General Baratieri suffered a terrible check at 
Amba Alaghi, and March 1, 1896, his forces were crushed by the 
Negus at Adowa. In the humiliating peace of Adis Adeba, 1896, 
Italy recognized the absolute independence of Abyssinia, and restored 
nearly all her conquests. 

From the year 1892, when Crispi and Bismarck joined hands in the Triple 
Alliance, the new kingdom saw her deficit growing larger every year, her 
foreign trade and agriculture ruined, and bankruptcy and famine at her 
door. Italy's public debt of 3,000 millions in 1861 had risen in 1890, 
to 18,000 millions, and with the debts of communes and individuals to 
22,000 million francs. In 1890 Italy spent 520,000,000 francs on her army 
alone, or 86,000,000 more than Parliament voted for the entire military 
budget of the British Empire. 

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1 he annual deflci t amounted to 260-800 millions and more. Such expenses 
have to be covered by the taxes. Accordingly a respectable artisan family 
which would have to pay eighty-seven francs of taxes in England, bas to 
pay 563 francs in Itily. The decrease in the foreign trade is best illustrated 
by the article of wine. In 1888 Italy still exported wine to the value of 
1,030,471 francs, in 1890 only for 278,363 francs; 1879 registered 700 bank- 
ruptcies; 1860, 4,400. Public credit is shaken by bank scandals in wh en 
Masonic ministers and deputies are deeply involved. Agriculture as well as 
commerce has withered under the blighting pressure of the tax-gatherer. 
On a revenue of one -thousand millions agricultural Italy pays 300,000,000 
in direct taxation, without taking into account taxes on salt, cattle, and 
indirect duties. The result is widespread misery and impoverishment. In 
4,774 communes (towns and villages), only the well-to-do families can 
afford to eat meat. In 3 650 communes, beef is never used. In Sardinia, 
where aa epidemic of brigandage has broken out, people eat a hard bread 
made of ground acorns, for want of wheat. Thousands upon thousands of 
beggared Italians leave their homes for foreign parts, especially North and 
South America. In 1898 bread and tax riots broke out from Milan to 
Naples and Falerrao. In Milan alone several hundred persons were killed 
in the street fights and over 1,000 wounded. If the fact is added, that the 
new Kingdom is made up of provinces antagonistic in ideas, customs, his- 
tory, local traditions and idioms it is not too much to say that the survival of 
the Kingdom of Italy is a problem yet to be solved. 

686. Spain and the United States. — In Spain, Prince Amadeo, Duke of 
Aosta, who had accepted the crown of Spain after the retirement of Leopold 
of Hohenzollern, was unable to conciliate the warring factions, and to rule the 
couutry. Whilst the North was disturbed by Carlist hostilities and the 
South by Republican risings, Amadeo abdicated in 1873. Then followed the 
Republican dictatorship of Sefior Castelar (1873), the military dictatorship 
of Marshal Serrano (1874), and the Proclamation of Marshal Campos which 
recalled the Bourbons to the throne in the person of Alphonso XII., the 
sou of Queen Isabella (1875-85). The new and latest Constitution gave to 
Spain a Congress of 432 deputies chosen by manhood suffrage and a Senate 
of 860 members divided into three classes: (a) Senators in their own right 
(members of the royal family, archbishops, highest State officials), (b) 
Senators named by the Sovereign for life, (c) Senators chosen by elec- 
toral bodies. Whilst grantiug liberty of conscience and of private worship, 
the Constitution maintains Catholicism as the religion of the State. The 
Carlist risings were suppressed under the new King aud with them the 
fueros or privileges of the Basque provinces. During Alphouso's reign 
grew up the two chief parties of the present time, the Conservatives led by 
Canovas del Castillo unt 1 his assassination by an Anarchist (1897), and the 
Liberals, led by Sefior Sagasta. 

686. Cuba. — Under the regency of the Queen-Mother Christina for 
Alphonso XIII , Spain's difficulties with the United States about Cuba came 

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to a head and led to the Spanish- American war of 1898. Cuba and Porto 
Rico were the only Spanish possessions left in America after the defection 
of the Spanish colonies. At the time of the emancipation of Texas 
Cuba became an object of vehement desire to the Southern slave power. 
President Polk offered $100,000,000 to Spain for the possession of Cuba. 
Spain promptly declined the offer <4 What, however, could not be bought, 
it was determined to steal," and filibustering movements and expeditions 
became the order of the day. 

In 1854 President Pierce ordered the United States ministers at the courts 
of London, Paris, and Madrid to meet in some European city and confer on 
the acquisition of Cuba. The result was the Ostend Manifesto, declaring 
that the United States would never enjoy repose and security " as long as 
Cuba is not embraced within its boundaries." The Manifesto received the 
indorsement of President Pierce and his administration, and the approval 
of the National Democratic Convention of 1856 and 1860. The Civil War 
called the attention of the nation to weightier matters. 

From 1868 an organized revolt, fostered by the professional agitators of 
the Spanish -American Republics, devastated Cuba for ten years. The 
smoldering embers broke out anew in 1895, at a period when riots, rebel- 
lious, and hideous anarchist outrages were distracting Spain, and the Phil- 
ippine islands were in a state of revolt. Three successive governor-gen- 
erals, Marshal Campos, General Weyler and General Blanco, were unable 
to suppress the Insurrection iu Cuba, secretly assisted by American money 
and Cuban filibustering expeditions equipped in American harbors. In 
1896 the revenue officers captured seven filibusters and intercepted two 
expeditions. Others escaped their attention. Resolutions to recognize the 
Cubans as belligerents passed by both Houses, failed to obtain the assent 
of the executive. Upon diplomatic representations by the United States, 
Spain at length granted autonomy to Cuba and Porto Rico. The autono- 
mous government under the new Constitution was installed January 1, 
1898. Then came the blowing up of the Maine in the harbor of Havana, 
February 15, 1898. The event was pounced upon by sensationalists in the 
press and the tribune to inflame the minds of the peo'ple agaiust Spain, 
though Spanish complicity has never been officially asserted or proved. 
The later offer of Spain to submit the question to an international tribunal 
of arbitration was declined by the administration. The mediation of Leo 
XIII. and the joint note of the six European Powers in the interests of 
peace were of no avail in the then existing state of public opinion. 

587. The Spanish-American War, Peace of Paris, 1808. — 

The immediate cause of the war was the declaration of the two 
Houses of Congress, April 18, 1898, that the people of the island of 
Cuba are and of a right ought to be free and independent ; especially 
the second and third clauses, demanding that the government of 

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Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the island of 
Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban 
waters, and empowering the President to use the entire land and 
naval forces of the United States to cany these resolutions into 
effect. The fourth clause promises to leave the government and con- 
trol of the island, after its pacification, to its people. The battle of 
Manila Bay and the destruction of the Spanish fleet by Commodore 
(now Admiral) Dewey, May 1 ; the capture of El Caney and the 
storming of San Juan hills, July 1 ; the destruction of Cervera's fleet 
by Commodore Schley, July 3; the surrender of Santiago and 
Eastern Cuba, July 14 ; the signing of the Peace Protocol, August 
12, and the storming of Manila the day after the signing are matters 
of recent memory. In the Peace of Paris (ratified 1899), Art. I., 
Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. 
Art. II. Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico 
(and other West India islands), and the island of Guam in the 
Marianas or Ladrones ; Art. III. Spain cedes to the United States 
the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands. The United States 
will pay Spain the sum of $20,000,000. 

The occupation of the Philippines led, in the beginning of February, 1899, 
to a new war between the United States troops and their former allies 
against Spain, the Philippino army of Aguinaldo, partly armed and equipped 
by the Americans themselves. The Philippinosare fighting for independence. 
They base their claims on former promises made by the United States agents 
and on the actual possession of the greater part of the Archipelago outside 
of Manila, before the conclusion of peace. The Americans fight for sover- 
eignty acquired, they say, by the treaty with Spain and the payment of 
$20,000,000. Their strongest plea is the necessity of preserving the islands 
from a state of spoliation and anarchy on the part of the natives. 

The problem which confronts the United States to-day is the 
existence of the Republic of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln, its 
future adherence to the Declaration of Independence and the Ameri- 
can Constitution. In this view both the Imperialists and anti- 
Imperialists substantially agree. The Imperialists repudiate the 
limitations which the Declaration of Independence, the Constitu- 
tion, and Washington's Farewell Address placed on American 
policy. Their contention is that the Union has outgrown the Declar- 

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ation of Independence and the Constitution. The anti-Imperialists 
maintain, to use the words of a scholar and a Churchman, that: 
" We stand at the parting of the ways. It is not yet too late to 
turn from the way which leads through war and conquest to impe- 
rialism, to standing armies, to alliances with foreign powers, and 
finally to the disruption of the Union itself." (Bishop Spalding at 

Duruy-Grosvenor : A General History of the World, pp. 678-00 (Great Britain); 
600-607 (German Empire) ; 616-623 (Austria- Hungary) ; 623-685 (Buaeia) ; 687-690 (France) ; 
612-615 (Italy), 660-677 and 707-716 (Spain and the U. 8.) — Dr. R. Gneiat: The English 
Parliament in Us Transformations. — J. Murdoch: History of Const. Reform in Great 
Britain and Ireland. — G. B. Smith: The Prime Ministers of Queen Victoria. — A. AL 
Sullivan: New Ireland. — Chae. Law: The German Emperor, William I. — A. Leroy- 
Beaulieu: The Empire of the Czars. — E. Noble: The Russian Revolt. — Stepniak: 
Underground Russia. — A . de G. : The Internal Condition of Russia; A. C. Q . ▼. 4.— Assas- 
sination of Alexander II.; A. C. Q. v. 6. — G. Got die: The French Republic under Dyna- 
mite, M. '83, 1. — Duncombe- Jewell : The Present State of Politics in France; SI. 96, 6. — 
A. Gallenga: Italy, Present and Future.— J. A. C. Colclough: The Financial Situation 
in Italy, M. '91, 1.— Wenl worth Webster: Spain. — Meyrlck : Church in Spain (1892); 
Congressional and Other U. St. Documents; Text of the Treaty of Peace. — Hon. William 
Henry Fleming: A Question of National Honor; Conservative Review, May, 1899. 

588. Three Phases of the Eastern Question. — The 

Eastern Question has three distiuct phases : the Eastern Question in 
Europe, Asia Minor, and Egypt ; the Eastern Question in Central 
Asia where England and Russia confront each other, and the Eastern 
Question in the Pacific. The general causes underlying the Eastern 
Question are the political jealousies of the Great Powers and the 
feverish craving of all the exporting nations for colonial and com- 
mercial expansion. 

589. The Eastern Question at the Head of the Mediterranean. — The pe- 
culiar creed, institutions, intellectual stagnation and moral corruption, which 
condemn Turkey to inevitable decay aud briug her in constant friction with 
the Western Christian civilization ; the many promises, as often broken as 
made, of the Porte to afford fair treatment to its Christian subjects; Russia's 
hereditary policy to extend its conquests to the Golden Horn aud found a 
Panslavistic state; the policy of England, the traditional ciiampion of 
Turkey, to baffle the designs of Russia; and the inability of the European 





"Concert of Powers" to agree upon the distribution of the Turkish in- 
heritance : these are the principal facts which underlie the Eastern Question 
in the countries surrounding the eastern Mediterranean. 

690. Causes of the War, 1877-1878.— In the Congress of Paris ( 1856) the 
Powers had restrained Russia from constructing fortifications and maintain- 
ing a navy in the Black Sea. They had also exacted pledges of the Sultan 
to grant equal rights to his Christian and Turkish subjects, but had waived 
the question of interfering in Turkish internal affairs and seeing the prom- 
mises fulfilled. In 1871 Alexander II. announced to Europe that he no longer 
held himself bound by the Treaty of Paris. The Porte, on the other hand, 
relying on the dissensions of the Powers, had continued to harass the 
Christians. In 1858 a massacre of Christians, including the consuls of 
France and England, at Djeddah in Arabia, was stopped only by the bom- 
bardment of the city. In 1860 the Druses of the mountains and the Bedouins 
of the deserts, assisted by thousands of Turkish regulars, fell upon the 
Christians of Syria. The streets of Damascus flowed with Christian blood. 
Hundreds of Christian villages were destroyed and mauy thousand Chris- 
tians murdered. A French army of occupation had to restore the peace, and 
a Christian governor of the Libanon to maintain it. While general 
massacres ceased for a time, the domestic oppression of the Christians con- 
tinued. In 1875 an insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzogowina. 
Bulgaria followed suit. Turkish fanaticism retaliated by murdering the 
consuls of Germany and France at Salon ica. Then came the " Bulgarian 
Horrors " in which more than 20,000 Christians were massacred with grew- 
some barbarity. In self protection Servia under Prince Milan and Monte- 
negro under Prince Nikita took up arms. In the struggle that ensued 
Montenegro came forth victorious, but Servia was defeated. All the while 
European diplomacy was busy in deliberating and sending notes and mem- 
orandums to the Sultan. But Turkey, backed by England, remained defiant. 
It did, indeed, renew its promises, in a conference of all the Ambassadors 
of the Powers, to treat Christian and Turk alike, but would give no guarautee 
of fulfillment. 

Finally Alexander II., unable to find an ally, and strongly urged on by 
popular sentiment, declared war against Turkey, 1877. In the course of 
these troubles Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz (1861-7G), a spendthrift ruler who squan- 
dered colossal sums on buildings and pleasures, was dethroned and mur- 
dered by conspirators. His nephew and successor, Mourad, lost his reason 
after a short reign, and his brother, Abdul Hamld, the present Sultan, 
succeeded him (1876-X). 

591. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. — The war was 

carried on in the Turkish dominion of both Asia and Europe. After 
a failure to hold Kars which had been taken in a first invasion of 



Turkish Asia, the Russians routed the Moslem forces under Mukhtar 
in the second invasion, stormed Kars, advanced to Erzerum and 
opened the road to Constantinople through Asia Minor. 

In Europe the campaign began with the Russian occupation of the 
Dobrudsha, i. e., the peninsulas formed by the Danube at its mouths. 
In June Alexander II. crossed the Danube at Shistova. In July, 
Nicopolis fell, surrendering 7,000 prisoners. General Gourko 
seized the important Shipka Pass in the Balkans. All the Turk- 
ish efforts to regain the pass were fruitless. Plevna, the next 
point of attack, was defended with unexpected bravery. The siege, 
conducted by General Todleben, the defender of Sebastopol, lasted 
four months. December 10th Osman Pasha surrendered with 
44,000 men. In a brilliant winter campaign the Russians forced 
the Balkans in three places, defeated the Turks wherever they met 
them, took Sofia and effected a junction at Adrianople, whence they 
advanced to the sea of Marmora, January 31, 1878. Whilst Great 
Britain was chafing at the Russian successes and preparing for war, 
Grand Duke Nicholas advanced to San Stefano within seven miles 
of Constantinople, and forced Turkey to sign the Peace of San 
Stefano. With consternation Austria beheld her own Slavonic 
frontiers bounded by other Slav States under Russian influence, and 
England foreboded in the treaty the virtual extinction of Turkey. 
To avoid greater complications, Russia consented to submit the 
treaty to a Congress in Berlin. 

592. The Congress of Berlin, 1878. — The Congress opened 
June 13th. The three most prominent statesmen of this diplomatic 
assembly were Prince Bismarck, the presiding officer, Prince Gortcha- 
cow, Chancellor of Russia, and Lord Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of 
England. The modification of the Treaty of San Stefano as 
affected by the Congress was a diplomatic defeat of Russia. 

(1.) Montenegro retained, whilst Servia and Roumania obtained 
their independence from Turkey, but their new acquisitions, as by 
Treaty of San Stefano, were considerably diminished (Roumania, 
formerly Moldavia and Wallachia). > 

(2.) The great State of Bulgaria as mapped out at San Stefano 
was reduced in size and divided into two States : (a) the autono- 

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mous Principality of Bulgaria between the Danube and the Balkans 
including Sophia, tributary to the Sultan, but ruled by her own 
Prince (Alexander of Buttenberg, 1879 ; Prince Ferdinand of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha, 1886). (b) The province of " Eastern Rouinelia" 
depending directly on the Sultan, but administered by a Christian 

(3) The military and civil administration of Bosnia and Herzogo- 
wina was assigned to Austria, which thereby gained direct influence 
over Montenegro and Servia. 

(4) Russia retained Kars, Batoum and Ardaghan. 

(5) Turkey was advised but not bound by treaty obligation to 
cede a part of Thessaly and Epirus to Greece, which she never did. 

In consequence of a secret alliance between England and Turkey, 
concluded a few days before the opening of the Congress, the Sultan 
handed over the island of Cyprus to England. To quiet the sus- 
ceptibility of the French nation aroused by this transfer, England 
allowed France a free haud in Tunis. 

698. The Rising 1 in Crete and the Greco-Turkish War, 1897. — The 
Congress of Berlin did not soive the Eastern question. The years 1894-96 
saw the Armenian massacres which, in their horrors and the appalling num- 
ber of victims, far exceeded the atrocities committed iu the Arabian, Syrian, 
and Bulgarian massacres. No Power stirred to hinder this war of extermi- 
nation of a Christian people. In the island of Crete Turkish misrule had 
produced seven insurrections since 1868, which were so far successful that 
in 1897 the Christian Cretans held the greater part of the island and made 
bold to proclaim their voluntary annexation to Greece. Prince George, the 
younger son of George I., second king of Greece (1863-X), came with a tor- 
pedo flotilla, and Colonel Vassos with 1,500 men to aid the islanders. But 
the Concert of Christian Powers, Austria, France, Germany, Great Britaiu, 
Italy, and even Russia, hastened with their ironclads to bombard their 
Christian brethren, both Greek aud Cretan, into subjection to Turkey, whilst 
the Ottoman Porte declared war against Greece. The overwhelming num- 
ber of Turkish regulars under Edhem Pasha easily defeated Prince 
Constantino's small aud poorly equipped army. 

In their fear of a general conflagration the Powers held down 
the Balkan States, which sympathized with Greece, and lent their 
moral support to the Turk. Greece had to cede a portion of her 
northern territory and to pay $20,000,000 to Turkey. To guarantee 

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payment the Powers assumed the international control of the Greek 
finances. Induced by fresh Turkish insolences in Crete, the Powers 
finally compelled the Sultan to withdraw the Turkish troops from the 
island and to recognize Prince George as Governor-General of Crete. 
He landed and assumed office in 1899. 

694. Egypt. — Egypt had become practically independent of the Sultan 
under Meheinejt All (see pp. 280-81). But the financial extravagance of his 
successors, the Khedives, and the opening of the Suez Canal, had brought the 
country first under the joint financial control of France and England, and 
subsequently under the exclusive political control of England. Smarting 
under this foreign domination, Colonel Arab! Pasha raised the cry of 44 Egypt 
for the Egyptians " and gathered a strong following around him. An English 
fleet bombarded Alexandria whilst the infuriated Mohammedans massacred 
2,000 Europeans lu the city (July 12-14, 1882). The capture of Alexandria 
and the defeat of Arabi Pasha ended in the permaueut British occupation of 

Two years before this occupation another enemy had risen against Egypt 
in the South. Mohammed Achinet had raised the standard of the Prophet lu 
the Soudan and proclaimed himself the Mahdl or Savior who was to reunite 
Islam, lie defeated army after army of Egyptian or Anglo -Egyptian troops, 
took Khartoum and slew the adventurous Major-General Gordon who had 
been sent to extricate the Egyptian garrisons in the Soudan. No further 
attempt against the Soudan was made till 1898, when Great Britain sent a 
new expedition up the Nile under Gen. Kitchener. He succeeded, 1899, in 
inflicting the crushing defeat of Omdurman on the latest Mahdl and in secur- 
ing to all appearance the conquest of the Soudan. As a French expedition 
under Captain Marchand had reached Fashoda about the same time, the two 
Powers concluded a treaty which regulated the boundaries of England and 
France in the region of the Nile sources. 

595. The Eastern Question in Central Asia. — The Eastern 
Question in Central Asia grows out of the steady and irresistible 
approach both of Russia from Siberia, and Great Britain from East 
India, so that these two mightiest Powers must soon face each other 
in Central Asia. The Russian advance began under Catharine II. 
Russian arms gradually penetrated into and beyond the Caucasus, 
annexed the kingdom of Georgia, subdued the Circassians, and 
formed, south of the Caucasus, a military government of eight 
provinces of which Tiflis is the center. And as both the Black and 
Caspian Seas belong to Russia, her forces can easily take the road 

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either to Constantinople or to Teheran, the capital of Persia. And 
Persia is the way to India. Whilst Russia was thus pushing on- 
ward, Great Britain, through her East India Company, was com- 
pleting the subjection of the 200,000,000 inhabitants of India. 
From Deccan and the Valley of the Ganges they conquered the sea 
coast of Burmah, made Assam tributary, seized Singapore and Mal- 
acca and converted the Bay of Bengal into an English Sea (1793- 

Two great Afghan cities, Herat and Cabul, command the com- 
munication between Persia and India. To gain a pass to the valley 
of the Ganges, Czar Nicholas I., engaged the forces of the Shah of 
Persia, his ally, to besiege Herat. But before the arrival of the 
Persian army, the English had gained entrance into the city and 
forced the Persians to abandon the enterprise ( 1838). The following 
year a Russian army perished in an expedition against Khiva, another 
mountain highway to India. But Great Britain likewise failed in 
gaining a foothold in Afghanistan. Her troops had hardly taken 
possession of Candahar when a general insurrection of the natives 
annihilated her army of 15,000 English soldiers (1839-40). After 
inflicting a severe punishment on the Afghans, the English voluntarily 
withdrew from the dangerous country to pursue their conquests in 
other directions. They ascended the Indus, annexed the Punjaub 
or country of the Five Rivers, inhabited by the warlike Sikhs, took 
Cashmere and Lahore, and by 1848 had full control of the whole 
course of the Indus. 

When the Shah of Persia made a new attempt to seize Herat, England, 
by the war of 1857-60, forced him to evacuate the Afghan stronghold. In 
consequence of a great Indian mutiny which broke out at the same time 
(1857-1858), and in which the revolting Sepoys and the English victors dis- 
played equal ferocity, the government of East India was transferred from 
the Company to the Crown (1858;. 

As Russia later conquered Bokhara, Khokan and Khiva (1873- 
75) Afghanistan alone with its precarious independence separates the 
English and the Russian possessions in Central Asia. 

506. The Eastern Question in the Far East and the 
Pacific. — Whilst the causes of the Eastern question in Europe 

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and Central Asia date back to previous centuries, the question of 
the Far East is peculiar to contemporary history. It is based on the 
colonial or expansion policy of the Great Powers, by which countries 
not yet " occupied 99 by Europeans or Americans are divided among 
them either by international agreement or by force of arms, in most 
cases without the knowledge or consent of the peoples annexed. 
During the last fifty years Great Britain has taken possession of 
3,600,000 square miles, France 3,200,000 and Russia and Germany 
over 1,200,000 square miles each of territory outside of Europe. 
The greatest bone of contention is China with its 400,000,000 

607. China. — China, originally governed by a succession of obscure 
dynasties, was conquered in the thirteenth Century by the Mongols under 
Jeughis Khan. His grandson Kublai Khan founded the Yen Dynasty and 
adopted Chinese customs, but introduced Indian Buddhism into China, 
1279. A national revolution overthrew the foreign rule and enthroued the 
Chinese Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. The Ming dynasty in its turn was 
ousted by the Mautchu Tartars who gave to the Celestial Empire the present 
Tsin Dynasty. 

Christianity was introduced into China, if not by the Apostle St. Thomas, 
unquestionably by Nestorian missionaries six centuries later. In the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries monks and friars made their way to Cathay 
(China; on the track of Marco Polo who lived seventeen years at the court of 
Kublai Khan In the sixteenth century the Jesuits acquired great influence 
by their scientific and astronomical services. Several members of the Ming 
Dynasty were baptized (Empress Helena, etc.). The Emperor Kanghi by 
an edict issued in 1692 permitted the introduction of Christianity in the 
whole Empire and greatly favored the work of the missionaries of all 
orders, who founded Christian communities in all parts of the land. On 
the other hand frequent persecutions produced a rich harvest of Christian 

598. China in the Nineteenth Century, — The Opium War of 
1840-42 may be considered as the first serious attack upon the integ- 
rity of China. It was waged by England on behalf of the Bengalese 
opium planters who smuggled their deleterious drug into China at a 
yearly profit of several million dollars. The Chinese authorities act- 
ing upon their undoubted right ordered $10,000,000 worth of opium 
to be thrown into the sea. England declared war and easily de- 
feated the Chinese forces. The Treaty of Nanking ceded Hong- 

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Kong to England and opened five Chinese ports to British commerce 
and to the smuggling of opium, though both treaty Powers had 
declared the trade illicit. 

A second war of England in alliance with France, 1857-1860, pro- 
voked by the overbearing policy of Lord Palmerston, resulted in the 
capture of Canton, the Chinese defeat at Palikao, and the storming of 
Pekin. The Treaty signed in the Chinese capital granted access to 
the interior under certain restrictions to French and English sub- 
jects, toleration of Christianity, and resident embassadors at Pekin. 
England also acquired the Peninsula of Kan-Lung opposite Hong- 

599. Contemporary Developments. — The advance in Tur- 
kestan, Siberia, and Manchuria (1860), and the completion of the 
Transiberian Railroad have brought the West, the North, and the 
Northwest of China within the easy grasp of Russia, and its newly 
projected railway to Pekin will lead it into the heart of the Celestial 
Empire. In the South 383,000 square miles of territory have become 
French by the annexation of Cochin-China ( 1861), Cambodia ( 1862), 
Tonking (1884), and part of Siam (1893-96). Japan, which since 
1853 has gradually adopted the material progress, the grasping 
policy, and the commercial liberalism of modern Europe and Amer- 
ica, forced upon China the war of 1,894. Victorious by land and 
sea, it annexed the large island of Formosa and refrained from the 
annexation of northeastern China only on the protest of Russia, 
Germany, and France. In 1897 the Russians obtained Port Arthur 
and Talien Wan, the British Wei-Hai-Wei and the Germans, Kiao- 
chau, whilst in 1899 even bankrupt Italy stretched forth its hands 
for the Bay of San-Mun and surrounding territory. 

China herself is helpless. Inhabited by millions who look upon all Euro- 
peans as devils and blindly ready to furnish them numerous pretexts or 
causes for interference; internally undermined by dynastic factions and 
secret societies, constantly scoured by large bands of rebels and bandits; 
many provinces administered by incapable or corrupt mandarins; the impe- 
rial court divided against itself and incessantly worried by the clashing 
demands of Russia, Great Britain, and France, — the Celestial Empire is 
likely to fall a prey to the Western Powers as soon as they can agree among 
themselves about the division of the spoils. (See § 4. The War in China.) 

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600. Oceania. — The fate which is threatening China has already over- 
taken the tens of thousands of islands scattered in the Pacific and South 
Seas. With the exception of the Tonga Islands, still independent but cov- 
eted by both England and Germany, and the Samoan group under the tripar- 
tite protectorate of Germany, England, and United States, all the rest worth 
having are held by England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. Spaiu 
lately ceded her colonial possessions in the Pacific to other Powers, the 
Philippines to the United States in the Peace of Paris (1898), and the Caro- 
lines, the Marianas or Ladroues (save Guam), and the Palaos or Peleus to 
Germany by diplomatic agreement (1899). 

601. Africa. — In 1848 less than 400,000 square miles of the African coast 
were occupied by straggling European colonies. The interior of Africa was 
almost unknown before the explorations of Livingstone and Stanley. * In 
1900 only four minor independent States were left : Morocco, Abyssinia, the 
Orange Free State of the Boers or descendants of the original Dutch settlers 
of South Africa, and the impecunious Negro Republic of Liberia under 
American protection. To these may be added the Boers' Republic of South 
Africa in the Transvaal, though England claims over it a sort of suzerainty 
in foreign affairs. All the rest of Africa has been divided among the great 
nations in an incredibly short time — practically between the Berlin Confer- 
ence of 1884 and the Anglo-French Convention of 1889, by which the respect- 
ive boundaries on the Upper Nile were defined. Two-fifths of Africa are in 
British hands and comprise Egypt, the eastern Soudan, the Niger territory 
to the westward, East and South Africa separated only by a small stretch 
of German territory — an area of about 3,400,000 square miles with 45,000,- 
000 inhabitants. France and Germany combined hold about a third of 
Afriea. France possesses Algiers, Tunis, the western Soudan, the French 
Congo region and Madagascar, altogether about 1,800,000 square miles and 
10,000,000 inhabitants. The German possessions in eastern, western and 
southwestern Africa with the Cameroon region, 1,200,000 square miles with 
10,000,000 inhabitants, are widely scattered but serve to block the progress 
of England and France. The Congo Free State, 900,000 square miles, with 
32,000,000 Inhabitants, was placed by the Berlin Conference under the sover- 
eignty of the King of Belgium. Portugal is on the point of selling its pos- 
sessions to England and Germany; Spain still maintains a protectorate over 
the gold coast south of Morocco and a few islands, Turkey its sovereignty 
over Tripoli, and Italy a slight foothold on the Red Sea. 

The growing concentration of capital in the hands of a few and 
the threatening attitude of the laboring classes has of late intensified 
the race for colonial possessions. The governments of manufactur- 
ing and exporting countries are everywhere on the lookout for 




markets, i. e., consumers, to procure work and wages for their own 

I. (Russia and Turkey, eto ). — Duruy-Grosvenor: General Hist, of the World, pp. 
15, 618-581, 627-661, 691-700. — Archibald J. Dunn: The Rue and Decay of the Rule of 
Islam ( Part IV., The Eastern Question). — L. de la Garde de Dion : Historic de VIslamisme 
(Last Chapter: Present Policy of Turkey). — W. Denton : The Christians of Turkey; see 
also M. "77,1; D. B. '79, 2. 

(The Eastern Question).— Duke of Argyll: The Eastern Question; St. Claire — 
Brophy ( Twelve Years' Study of) ; M, '80, 2, p. 126. — B. Archdekan-Cody: The Koran 
'and the E. Q., M. '87, 1. 

(The War, etc.). — E. Oilier: CasseWs III. Hist, of the Russo- Turkish War. — V. Baker: 
The War in Bulgaria. — F. V. Greene : The Russian Army and its Campaign in Turkey. — 
Claczko-Talt: The Two Chancellors, Prince Gortchacoff and Prince Bismarck, — Sir E. 
Hertslet: The Map of Europe by Treaty. 

(The Principalities). — Wm. Miller: The Balkans (Story of Nations' Series) . — B. L» 
Clark: The Races of European Turkey. — A. J. Evans: Through Bosnia and Herzogo- 
wina.— W. Denton, M. A.; Servia and the Servians. — E. M. Clerke: The Slav States of 
the Balkans: D. B. '86, 1. 

(Greece).— Sergeant: Greece in the Nineteenth Century 1821-1897. — Bikelae- Bute: 
Seven Essays on Christian Greece (Last four on Modern Greece). 

(Egypt). — Cameron : Egypt in the 19th Century (1898). — Lives of Gordon by: Forbes; 
Bonlger; Gordon; E. M. Clerke, D. R. '97,4.— Why Gordon Perished (by a war corre- 
spondent). — Logard : England and France in the Nile Valley (1895). — Father Ohr- 
walder: Ten Years' Captivity in the MahdVs Camp (1893). — Slatln: Fire and Sword in 
the Soudan, 1879-96. 

II. (Central Asia). — Vambery : The Coming Struggle for India,— F. von Hellwald* 
The Russians in Central Asia. — J. Hntton: Central Asia, — Marvin : The Russians of 
the Gates of Herat. — J. W. Kayo: Hist, of the War in Afghanistan; A Hist, of the 
Sepoy War in India; also D. B. '79. — Afghanistan: D. R. '79, 4. — T. K. E. Holmes: 
Hist, of the Ind. Mutiny. — 8ir Arthur T. Phayre: Hist, of Burma. — The Punjaub and 
Northwest Frontier of India, by an old Punjaubee. — Fr. Drew: The Northern Barrier 
of India. 

III. Problem of the Par Bast. — Oureon (1894); FenoUosa (1896); Chlrol (1896); 
Brandt {Ostasiatische Fragen; 1897).- Histories of China; Boulger (1881-84); Short Hist. 
(1893) ; Wells (1897) ; E. M. Clerke, D. K. '88, 4. — Histories of Japan: Dept. of Educa- 
tion (1898); Knapp (1897) (Feudal and Modern); Murray: Story of the Nat. Series, 
1894; Van Bergen {Story of 1897). - The China- Japan War; Vladimir (1896) ; Du 
Boulay, (Epitome).— Landor: Corea (1895). 

602. Causes — Early History. — South Africa was discovered by the 
Portuguese. Vasco da Garaa seems to have been the first to land at the Cape 
of Good Hope. In the progress of his journey he gave the name to Natal, 
because he landed there on the day of our Lord's nativity. Down to 1652 
the Cape was a place of call for vessels of all nationalities in their voyages 
to or from the East Indies. In 1652 it was taken possession of by Dutch 
pioneers under the authority of the Dutch East India Company. For a cen- 

* 3. 




tury and a half the Dutch colony, sometimes warring, sometimes treating 
with the native Hottentots, made a slow bat steady progress, until the 
English took possession in 1796. They were authorized to do so by the 
Prince of Orange, then a fugitive in England before the republican troops of 
France. For a time the Dutch and English settlers lived in peace. But when 
the British government in 1833 emancipated all the slaves of the colony, the 
Dutch settlers or Boers, exasperated by the measure, struck out with all their 
household goods into the interior (the Great Trek) and founded an inde- 
pendent colony in Natal. The British forces followed them to Natal, fought 
them, and made their young republic an English possession. Again the 
Boers " trekked " northward and founded the Orange Free State. In 1848 
British troops took possession of the Orange Free State whilst the leading 
Boers fled across the Vaal river and began to organize the Transvaal Repub- 
lic. The British rule over the Orange Free State was, however, relinquished 
after a few years as too costly and ineffective. 

60S. The First Boer War. — When in 1877 the Transvaal Republic was 
beset with internal and external difficulties, the English flag was hoisted 
In the Transvaal and the republic annexed to the English crown. But 1880 
the Boers rose, established a government of their own, defeated the troops 
sent against them from Cape Colony in several engagements, and won the 
victory of Majuba Hill. The negotiations carried on by Paul Kruger, the 
clever diplomatist of the Transvaal, with the British government, led to the 
re-establishment of the Boer republic, now called South African Republic, 
under the suzerainty of Her Majesty. (Treaty of Pretoria, 188 1 . ) Diftlcult- 
ies and frictions between the two nationalities, however, continued to keep 
the country in a state of dissatisfaction. Accordingly in 1884 at the request 
of the Boers the Treaty of London was substituted for the Treaty of Pre- 
toria. In this convention the word suzerainty, though not formally with- 
drawn, was dropped. The only clause bearing on the relation between the 
Boer government and that of Great Britain was Article 4 : The South 
African Republic will conclude no treaty or engagement with any State or 
nation other than the Orange Free State, until the same has been approved 
by Her Majesty the Queen. 

604. Industrial and Political Causes. — The gold discoveries on the Rand 
(Witwatersrand — White' Waters Ridge), 1884, brought an army of adven- 
turers from almost every country of the two hemispheres to the South Afri- 
can Republic. The government in 1886 organized for these foreigners or 
Uitlanders the county and town of Johannesburg. The rapid increase of 
this foreign, chiefly British, population, which in 1890 already outnumbered 
the Boer population, induced the Transvaal government to place stringent 
conditions, fifteen years of residence, on their naturalization, in order not to 
be outvoted by a floating foreign population. The taxes were high but not 



unfair under the circumstances. The Uitianders complained that they were 
not receiving an equivalent for the taxes paid, in the way of protection and 
improvements, clamored for the immediate franchise and representation in 
the Volksraad or legislature of the Republic, and kept the Rand in a state 
of continual political agitation. The gold industry was entirely In their 
hands, whilst the Boers continued to follow their agricultural pursuits out- 
side the Rand. 

Meanwhile the powerful British South Africa Company was called into 
existence by Cecil Rhodes, Premier of Cape Colony, to serve as an instru- 
ment of his far-reaching ambition. A royal charter gave it imperial powers. 
Its vast territory, comprising Mashonaland, Matabeleland, and northern 
Zambesia, received the name Rhodesia. Cecil Rhodes made himself the 
imperialist leader of South Africa, and marshaled behind him all the capital- 
istic interests of the British South Africa Company, the De Beers Consoli- 
dated Mines, and the gold fields of South Africa. The Boer republics stood 
in the way of his dream of a' confederation of British South Africa. Under 
these circumstances the Uitianders of Johannesburg appealed to the sym- 
pathy of the Rhodesians. 

605. The Jameson Raid. — A number of prominent Uitianders 
entered into a conspiracy with Cecil Rhodes and his right hand, Dr. 
Jameson, to obtain by force what could not be obtained by petition. 
The result was the Jameson raid. It failed because preparations 
were not complete, and because at the last hour the councils of the 
conspirators were divided. Jameson wanted the rising to be made 
in favor of the British flag ; the Uitianders in favor of a republic 
comprising all the elements of the population. Nevertheless Jame- 
son with 500 officers and troops of the Chartered Company en- 
tered the Transvaal territory, December 29. But hasty Boer 
levies intercepted their march, defeated them with heavy losses, 
and forced them to surrender on New Year's Day, 1896. Fifty 
leaders of Johannesburg were placed under arrest. President 
Kruger handed over Jameson and his officers to the British govern- 
ment. Four conspirators of Johannesburg were sentenced to death 
in Pretoria, but the sentence was soon after commuted into heavy 
fines. Jameson and four of his confederates were found guilty in 
London and punished with imprisonment from five to fifteen months. 
Cecil Rhodes, under the weight of his responsibility, resigned the 
Premiership of Cape Colony, and his directorship of the British 
South Africa Company. 

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600. Parliament and the Jameson Raid. — The Boer authorities were 
naturally impatient for some action on the part of the British government. 
Accordingly a committee of the House of Commons was appointed to in- 
quire into the origin and circumstances of the raid. The proceedings of 
this committee were -either an open confession of unwillingness to go to the 
bottom of the business, or a suggestion that somebody had to be shielded. 
Mr. Rhodes was kept under examination for four days, contradicted himself 
in his principal statement, and was unaccountably permitted at once to depart 
with impunity to South Africa, though his full responsibility was amply proved 
by Sir Graham Bower, secretary to the High Commissioner at the Cape. 
The High Commissioner himself was not examined, though in possession of 
valuable information. The colonial office succeeded in concealing its own 
documents. Mr. Rhodes' solicitor, called upon to produce the telegrams 
which had passed between Cecil Rhodes and himself, was allowed to treat 
the committee with defiance and to pass unchecked. Those who were in- 
terested in keeping secret the true history of the raid were entirely suc- 

007. Contentions of the Parties to Justify the War. — The extreme British 
view, advanced after the outbreak of the war, has been that a Boer con- 
spiracy had been forming for a number of years to drive the English out of 
South Africa, and to form an independent State including Natal and . Cape 
Colony. That no such conspiracy existed before the Jameson Raid, is plain 
from the fact that in January, 1896, the strength of the State artillery was 
only nine officers and 100 men with a reserve of fifty men. The later enor- 
mous armament was acquired from England, France, Germany and Belgium 
after and on account of the Jameson Raid.* The theory of an organized con- 
spiracy at the opening of the war is amply refuted by the attitude of the 
South African Dutch. For when the Boot successes were at their highest, 
the Dutch could have swept the whole colony from end to end, had they 
risen in Cape Colony and Natal. But with the exception of a few hundred 
rebels on the frontier, the Dutch population of Cape Colony and Natal 
remained passive and peaceful. 

The extreme Boer view is that the war was the result of a deliberate plot 
of Joseph Chamberlain, Cecil Rhodes, and their financial allies to conquer 
the country and to make all southern Africa a British dependency. The 
Boers were firmly convinced of it, and it was this conviction which in- 
duced the Orange Free State under President Steyn to ally itself with the 
Transvaal though it had no direct interest in the nominal quarrel. 

608. Negotiations, 1890-1899. — The elements of the nominal quarrel 
were the grievances of franchise, the revived claim of British suzerainty and 
the proposal of arbitration. The negotiations were carried on by Chamber- 

* Report of the British Intelligence Office in Jane, 1899. 

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lain and Sir Alfred Mllner, the new High Commissioner at the Cape, on the one 
hand, and the Boer government on the other. The Boer government pro- 
posed international arbitration concerning the pending difficulties under the 
auspices of the President of the Swiss Republic. Chamberlain thus defined 
his position: " Her Majesty holds towards the South African Republic the 
relation of a suzerain — and It would be Incompatible with that position to 
submit to arbitration." The Boers answered that the bilateral treaty of 
1884, In which they had been recognized as a free contracting party, had 
made an end to British suzerainty. As to the more liberal franchise to be 
granted to the Ultlanders, the demand was coupled with the Impossible con- 
dition, that British subjects should enjoy It without giving up their allegiance 
to the crown. The Boers were willing to make reasonable concessions, but 
Sir Alfred Mllner cabled a demand for extreme measures, and the press 
urged that the concessions should be rejected. At the end of the negotia- 
tion In 1899 the question stood thus : The British government was offered, 
on the part of the Ultlanders, a five years franchise (a reduction of 10 years 
of residence) on condition of withdrawing the claim of suzerainty, or a 
seven year franchise with suzerainty, all other questions to be submitted to 
arbitration. England's refusal to accept either one or the other of these 
propositions gave the Boers strong grounds for believing that It was deter- 
mined upon conquest. Certain it is that from the moment war was begun, the 
British government never admitted a suggestion that the conflict could be 
settled In any other way than by the annexation of both States. As early as 
June, 1899, a definite plan of campaign was laid before the English ministry 
by which the subjugation of the two republics was to be effected by Novem- 
ber of that year. This belief of the Boers was strengthened by the concen- 
tration of the available English forces on the Natal border, and the knowledge 
that an army corps was ready to sail from England. 

600. The Campaign in Natal, October, 1800 -Febru- 
ary, 1000. — The war began October 11, the date set in the Boer 
ultimatum. The troops of the Transvaal and of the Orange Free 
State invaded Natal and northern Cape Colony. Another Boer army 
under General Cronje passed the western border, laid siege to Mafe- 
king, and soon after to Kimberley and its diamond mines, where 
Cecil Rhodes was among the besieged citizens. The English suffered 
their first defeat at Talana Hill (near Glencoe and Dundee) ; the 
Boers at Landslaagte. Further fighting resulted in the siege of 
Ladysmith where General White with 9-10,000 troops was penned up 
from October 30 to February 28 by the forces of Joubert, Christian 
de Wet and Botha. The first regular operations of the British cam- 
paign were conducted on three lines : from Durban in Natal towards 

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Ladysmith, from Cape Town toward Kimberley under General Lord 
Methuen, and from Port Elizabeth towards the northern Cape dis- 
tricts occupied by the Boers. General Buller, commander-in-chief, 
personally led the British forces in Natal. In attempting to cross 
the Tugela and to relieve Ladysmith he suffered successive defeats 
and severe losses at Colenso (Dec. 15), Spion Kop (Feb. 23-24) 
and other points. The withdrawal of reinforcements for Cronje 
weakened the Boer commanders to such an extent that Joubert with- 
drew the rest across the border. The British entered Ladysmith 
February 28. 

Joubert, who had been injured during the siege, died March 27 and was 
succeeded by Botha as commander-in-chief. 

610. The Campaign in the West. — General Methuen 
marching to the relief of Kimberley was successful in his first two 
battles, at Belmont and Enslin, where the comparatively small force 
of the Boers under Delarey had to give way to overwhelming num- 
bers. But the withering fire of the Boers retarded bis advance on the 
Modder river November 27 and put a halt to his further progress at 
Magersfontein. At Magersfontein 700 Highlanders of the Black 
Watch (Dec. 9) were mowed down in a few minutes. The British 
losses in these two actions approached 2,000 men, whilst the Boers 
lost 336 in killed and wounded. 

The central column, 3,000 men, under General Gatacre, dispatched toward 
northern Cape Colony, suffered another disaster at Stromberg (Dec. 10). 
Gatacre Intended to surprise the Boers but was himself surprised and lost 
728 men of whom 632 were prisoners. The whole Boer force under Olivier 
amounted to 750 men. 

611. The Decisive Campaign. — With the victory of Spion Kop 
the tide of Boer success reached its highest point. The ebb began 
when Field Marshal Lord Roberts, the new commander-in-chief, with 
Lord Kitchener as chief of staff, took the field. They had an army 
of 200,000 men at their disposal. On February 9th the commander- 
in-chief arrived at the Modder River, On February 15 General 
French raised the siege of Kimberley, whilst General Cronje hastily 
retreated in the direction of Bloemfontein. He was overtaken by 

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the British, 40,000 strong, in a bend of the Modder River near 
Paardeburg, and sustained for a full week the terrible bombardment 
of the British batteries, his wounded uncared for and his dead 
lying unburied under the tropical sun. When his ammunition gave 
out Cronje with less than 4,000 men and five cannon surrendered, 
February 27. The heroic general with his family and the prisoners 
of war were removed to St. Helena. Cronje's surrender and the 
withdrawal from Ladysmith decided the fate of the Boer republics, 

612. Guerrilla Warfare. — After some more fighting Lord Roberts entered 
Bloemfontein March 13, where he allowed a necessary rest to his exhausted 
troops. He then continued his northward advance, and entered Kroonstadt, 
whither the Free State government had retreated, May 12. Johannesburg 
surrendered May 31, and Pretoria Jane 5. The siege of Maf eking, for seven 
months heroically defended by Col. Baden-Powell, had been raised on May 17. 
The Orange Free State was annexed to the Crown by proclamation May 21, 
and the Transvaal October 25. President Kruger retired to Holland. The 
spirit of the Boers remained unbroken, and small, mobile commandos scat- 
tered over the vast area of their country, made the task of the British gen- 
erals one of extreme difficulty to the end of the war. The Boer resistance 
centered chiefly in Louis Botha in the eastern Transvaal, Delarey in the 
western, and De Wet in the eastern Free State, whilst Kritzinger, before his 
capture and execution, was the principal leader south of the Orange river. 

The English had about 270,000 men in the field. The dead from all causes 
amounted to 22,069. About 80,000 were sent home invalided, butrthe great 
majority of these were able to return to their regiments either in South 
Africa or elsewhere. The English estimates of the Boer forces in the field 
vary between 62,000 (Conan Doyle) and 80,000 men, the latter estimate 
accounting for 10,000 casualties, 42,000 prisoners, and 18,000 surrenders at 
the conclusion of peace. 

613. The Peace of Pretoria, 1002. — During February, 
1901, negotiations for peace were opened between Lord Kitchener 
and General Botha. They failed because the Boers refused to sac- 
rifice their allies, the Cape rebels. The successful negotiations were 
opened in the spring of 1902, and led to the Peace of Pretoria, 
signed May 31. The principal terms were : (a) That the Boers sur- 
render their independence, acknowledge the sovereignty of Edward 
VII., and deliver all their arms and munitions of war ; (b) that all 
prisoners be brought back as soon as possible to South Africa with- 
out loss of liberty or property ; that no action be taken against 

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them, except where they were guilty of breaches of the rules of war ; 
(c) that Dutch be taught in the schools if desired by the parents, 
and used in the courts if necessary ; (d) that military occupation be 
withdrawn as soon as possible and self-government substituted ; (e) 
that no tax be levied on the Transvaal to pay the cost of the war, and 
the sum of $15,000,000 be provided for restocking the Boer farms. 
In a separate statement made by Mr. Balfour in the House of Com- 
mons it was announced that the Cape rebels will be subject to trial 
under the laws of the respective colonies, but no death penalty will 
be inflicted and the punishment of the rank and file will be limited 
to disfranchisement for life. 

614. Northern Africa. — In the Soudan the nineteen years* war with the 
Mahdists or Dervishes was finished by the Egyptian troops under Sir Fran- 
cis Wingate in the the battle of £1 Duem on the White Nile (Novembjr, 1899). 
It gave to the vlctorv the camp and stores of the enemy, nearly 10,000 
prisoners, and the deati body of the Khalifa Abdullah, his son, and most of 
his Emirs. The capture of Osman Digna a few weeks later removed the last 
dangerous chief from the field, (See No. 594, this vol.) 

616. Famine and Plague in Bant India. — Whilst South Africa was being 
devastated by the Boer War, a large portion of East India was in the grip of 
famine and pestilence. The famine of 1900, greater In its intensity than any 
previous visitation of the kind, resulted from the absolute failure of two 
successive harvests; 417,000 square miles, with a population of 54,000,000 
persons, were affected. In the v ie sidency of Bombay people were dying 
right and left. Cattle were perishing by the millions. Similar conditions 
prevailed in the central provinces and in the Punjaub. About six million 
persons were provided for by being placed on relief work. 

Books for Consultation: An Important Source: Great Britain, Papers by 
Command, — J, N. Larned: /list, of Ready Reference, vol. 6; South Africa. — Conan 
Doyle: The Cause and Conduct [of the War (1902) . — Baron [von HUbner : Through the 
British Empire (1886).— Brown: Story of South Africa (1895). — Bryce: Impressions of 
South Africa (1898) . — Fitzpatrick : Transvaal From Within (1899).— Younghusband : 
South Africa of To Day (1899).— Cloete: Great Boer Trek (1899). — Keltie: Partition of 
Africa (1898) . —Garret and Edward : Story of an African Crisis (1897) . — Britain and the 
Boers; Both Sides of the African Question. — Sydney — Brooks : England and the Trans- 
vaal.— A Diplomat: A Vindication of the Boers.— Dr. F. V. Engelenburg: A Transvaal 
View of the South African Question. — Wilmot : Story of the Expansion of South Africa 
(1895) . — O. P. Lucas : History of South Africa to the Jameson Raid (1899) . — W. T. 8tead : 
Scandal of the South African Committee (1899). — F. It. Statham: Paul Kruger and His 
Times. — Numerous other references to Works and Periodicals are found in Cotgreave : 
The Transvaal and South Africa; Contents Subject- Index to General and Periodical 
Literature. (The latter contains 280 references to the History of South Africa.) 

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S 4. 


616. Dynastic and Other Changes. — In Italy King Humbert 
on the point of returning home from a public distribution of athletic 
prizes at Monza, was shot dead by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci 
July 29, 1900. He was succeeded by his son Victor Emmanuel III. , 
who from the outset declared his intention of continuing the sacrileg- 
ious policy of his father and grandfather. On January 22, 1901, 
England lost her venerable queen, Victoria, who for 64 years had 
occupied the English throne, and had given their rulers to Great 
Britain, Germany, Prussia, Greece and Roumania. 

The Prince of Wales succeeded her as Edward VII. He was the last king 
of England who, much against his will, had to declare that: "The in- 
vocation or adoration of the Virgin Mary, or any other saint, and the 
Sacrifice of the Mass, as they are now used in the Church of Borne, 
are superstitious and idolat