Calaméo - The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 12
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 12

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 12

by Cappelli

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 12. Author: Edward Gibbon (Lime Grove, Putney, 8 May 1737 [OS: 27 April] – 16 January 1794, 12:45 PM, at the house of Peter Elmsley, 76 St. James Street, corner of Little St. James Street,... More

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CONTENTS OF THE TWELFTH VOLUME PAGK LISTS OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix NoTz . x CHAPTER IDCVIII Reign and Charactero] Mahometthe Second- Siege, Assault, and l_nal Conquesto]Constantinoplebythe Turks -- Deatho] ConstantinePal_ologus--Sertritudeo]the Greeks--Extilw. tlono]the Roman Empire in the Eaa--Conslernationo]Europe-- Conquestsand Deatho] Mahomet the Second A. D° x45o--x452Characterof MahometII. x x45x-x48xHis Reign • • 4 x45xHostileIntentionsof Mahomet . 5 t452 He buildsa Fortresson the Bosphorus 9 The TurkishWar xo I452,I453Preparationsforthe Siege ofC_nstantinople x2 The greatcannonof Mahomet. x4 x453MahometII. formsthe Siegeof Co_tantinople" x6 Forcesof the Turks . x7 Greeks . 19 x452FalseUnionof the Two Cl_urches 2z ObstinacyandFanaticismof the Greeks 2r x453Siegeof Constantinopleby MahometH. 24 Attackand Defence . 26 Succourand Victoryof fourShips . 28 Mahomettransportshis NavyOverland 3a Distressof theCity . 35 Preparationsof the Turks fortl_eGeneralAssault 36 LastFarewellof the Emperorandthe Greeks. 38 The GeneralAssault. - 39 Death of the EmperorConstautmePal_eologns 44 Lossof the City andEmpire . 45 The Turks enterandpillageConsta_tinopie 45 Captivityof the Greeks . . . . . 46 Amountof the Spoil . 49 M__hometILl. visitsthe City,St. Soplfia,tl_ePaia¢_,etc. 5I His Behaviourto theGreeks . . . . . 5a He _-peoplesand adornsConstantinople. . . . 54 x453Extinctionof the ImperialFamiliesof ComneunsandPala_ologus 58 x46oLossof the Morea 58 T

vi CONTENTS A. D, PAGX I461Loss ot Trebizond I453 Griefand Terror of ]_urope 6x59 t48I Death of Mahomet 11. 68 CHAPTER LXIX S_le o]Rome]romthe TwelfthCentury-- TemporalDominionof thePopes -- Seditionao/the City- PoliticalHeresyo]Arnoldo]Brescia-- Restorationo] the Republic--The Senators--Pride o] the Romans-Their Wars--They aredeprivedo] the Electionand Presenceo] the Popes, who retire to A_ignon--The Jubilee--Noble Familieso] Rome-- Feudo_the ColonnaandUrsini iroo--i5ooStateand Revolutionsof Rome 65 zooo-LtooThe Frenchand GermanEmperorsof Rome 66 Authorityof thePopesin Rome 69 From Affection. 69 Right 7° -- Virtue 70 Benefits. . . 7r Inconstancyof Superstition 7_ Seditionsof Rome againstthe Popes 73 io86--i3o5Successorsof GregoryVII. 74 zo9o--zxx8Paschal11. 75 zzx8, Izz9 Gelasius1I. 75 xr44,1I45 LuciusII. 76 xz8x-zz85 LuciusIIL 76 zxz9-rI24 CalixtusII. 77 i18o-ii48 Innocent1"1. 77 Characterof the RomansI_ySt. Bernard 77 II4o PoliticalHeresyof Arnoldof Bresci_ 78 ii44-ix54 He exhortsthe Romansto restorethe Re )ublic 81 [InnocentII. ,AnastasiusIV. , Adrian IV. 82 1t55 His Execution . . 83 Restorationo1the Senate . 84 The Capitol 87 The Coin . 88 The Prefect of tlaeCity . . 88 Number and Choiceof the Senate 90 The Officeof Senator 9r x252-I258Brancaleone . 92 lr265--I278 Charlesof Anjou 94 128r PopeMartin IV. . . . 94 1328The Emperor Lewisof Bavaria 95 Addressesof Rome to the Emperors 95 xz44 ConradIIL 95 xr55 FredericI. . . . . 96 Wars of the Romansagainstthe neighbouringCities 1oo zx67 Battle of Tusculum . io2 1234 . of Viterbo lto2 The E,/ectionof the Popes" 1o3 z179 Right of the Cardinalsestablishedby"AlexanderIII. " 1o4

CONTENTS vii _D. PAGZ ,274 Institutionof the Condaveby GregoryX. xo4 Absenceof the Popesfrom Rome xo6 x294-x3o3 BonifaceVIII. . . xo8 x3o9Translationof the HolySe_to Avignon io9 x3ooInstitutionof the Jubilee,or HolyYear ix1 z35o The SecondJubilee . . . xi3 The Nobles orBaronsof Rome zx4 Familyof Leo the Jew xx6 The Colonna Ix7 And Ursini xz7 Their hereditary Feucis x2x CHAPTER LXX Ctmracterand Coronationo] Petrarch--Restorationo] the Freedomand Governmento]Rome bythe TribuneRienzi- His Virtuesand Vices, his Expulsionand Death--Re_urn o]the Popes/tom A_ignon--Great Schismo]theWest-- Re-Uniono]theLatin Church-- LastStruggleso] RomanLiberty- Statuteso]Rome-- Final Sett_nen_o]the F_. c. clesia_ticalS_ x3o4-x374Petrarch . . . . x23 x34xHisPoetic Coronationat Rome 126 Birth, Character,and PatrioticDesignsof Rienz. i x29 x344BecomesNotaryof the CivicCamera x3o x347He assumesthe Governmentof Rome x32 Withthe Title and Officeof Tribune x33 Lawsof the Good Estate . . . x33 Freedomand Prosperityof the RomanRe)ublic x36 The Tribune is respectedin Italy,etc. x37 AndcelebratedbyPetrarch I39 His Vicesand Foilies x39 The Pompof his Knighth°°d . x4x AndCoronation . I43 Fearand Hatredof tl_eNobles of Rome 144 They opposeRienziin Arms . x46 Defeatand Death of the Colonna . I46 Felland Flightof theTribune Rienzi x48 i347-I354 Revolutionsof Rome x49 Adventuresof Rienzi xSO x351A Prisonerat Avignon I5x z354 Rienzi,Senatorof Rome . z52 HisDeath . x54 x355Petrarchinvitesand upbraidsthe EmperorCharlesIV. I54 He solicitsthe Popesof Avignonto fix theirResidenceat Rome x55 z367-x37oReturnof UrbanV. . x57 x377Final Returnof GregoryXI. x57 x378"HisDeath . I59 Electionof UrlmnVI" x59 Electionof ClementVII. . . i6o 1378-x4x8GreatSchismof the West x6a Calamitiesof Rome . x62

viii CONTENTS _D. PAGE x39_-z4o7. Negotiationsfor Peaceand Union . i63 _4o9Councilof Pisa . . x6S x4x4-x4x8Councilof Constance x6S Electionof MartinV. x67 x4I7 MartinV. x67 x43_EugeniusIV. I67 x447NicholasV. . . i68 x434Last Revolt of Rome 168 x452Last Coronationof a GernlanEmperor,F redencH/. x69 The Statutesand Governmentof Rome x69 :453 Conspiracyof Porcam x72 LastDisordersof theNoblesof Rome x74 x5oo The Popesacquirethe absoluteDominion ofRome_ x75 The EcclesiasticalGovernment x78 I585-z59o SixtusV. . x78 CHAPTER LXXI Prospecto]the Ruin_ o]Rome in the FifleenlhCcnlury_ Four Causeso] Decayand Destruction_ F_ample o/the Coliseum_ _ion o/the City-- Conclusiono! thewholeWork x43o Viewand Discourseof Poggiusfromthe CapitolineHill i8e His Descriptionof theRuins x83 Gradual Decayof Rome . z86 Four Causesof Destruction _87 I. The Injuriesof Nature . x87 Hurricanesand Earthquakes x88 Fires . x88 Inundations z89 II. The HostileAttacksof the Barbariansand Chris:ians x9x III. The Useand Abuseof the Materials x94 IV. The DomesticQuarrelsof the Romans z98 The ColiseumorAmphitheatreof Titus "o2 Gamesof Rome 204 z332A Bull-feastin the Coli_um 204 Injuries . . 206 And Consecrationof the Coliseum 207 IgnoranceandBarbarismof the Romans 2o8 I420 RestorationandOrnamentsof the City _io FinalConclusion 2_3 Ar_. m>zx . . _x5 I_EX I. , to Text . . . a19 L,coEx II. , to Appendices. . 387

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS THEBum_mcoF ROME. Frontispiece FromadrawingbyJanStyka. YAGE AVIGNON FromapaintingbyT. Allom. PETRARCH. . 124 FromaportraitbyTofanelli. POPECLEMENTVII. . 16o FromaportraitbyFraSebastianode]Piombo. PLANOF ANCIENTROME . 18o THE COLISEUM. . 202 Fromaphotograph. ix

NOTE I HAVEagainthe pleasureof thankingProfessorStanley Lane-Poole for his assistance. He has helped me to revise chapters of the last two volumesdealing with oriental history. j. B. B.

THEHISTORYOF THEDECLINEAND FALLOF THEROMANEMPIRE CHAPTER LXVIII ReignandCharactero]MahomettheSecond--Siege,Assault, andfinal Conquesto]Constantinopleby the Turks Deatho] ConstantinePala_ologus--Servitudeo] the Greeks-Extinctiono]theRomanEmpirein theEast Consternationo]Europe_ ConquestsandDeatho] MahomettheSecond Tm_siegeofConstantinoplebytheTurksattractsourfirst attentiontothepersonandcharacterofthegreatdestroyer. MahomettheSecondI wasthesonofthesecondAmurath; . and,thoughhismotherhasbeendecoratedwiththetitlesof Christianandprincess,sheismoreprobablyconfoundedwith thenumerousconcubineswhopeopledfromeveryclimatethe haremofthesultan. Hisfirsteducationandsentimentswere thoseofa devoutMusulman;and,as oftenashe conversed withan infidel,he purifiedhishandsandfacebythelegal ritesof ablution. Ageand empireappeartohaverelaxed this narrowbigotry;his aspiringgeniusdisdainedto acknowledgea powerabovehisown;andin hislooserhours 1Forthe characterof MahometII. it is dangerousto trusteithertheTurks or the Christians. The most moderatepicture appears to be drawn by Phranza (1. i. c. 33),whoseresentmenthad cooledin age and solitude; see likewiseSpondanus (A. D. x45x, No. xx), and the continuatorof Fleury (tom. xxii. p. 552),the F_. /og/aof PaulusJovlus (1. iii. p. x64-x66),and the Dictionnairede Bayle(tom. iii. p. 27a-a79). [Cp. Critobulus,i. 5,inMinUet, Frag. Hist. Gr. ,v. part _; Zinkeisen,Gesch. d¢8o+rnp-ni_c. henRciches,ii. 468 sqq. ] VOL. XlI. _ I |

2 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXVIII he presumed(itissaid)tobrandtheprophetofMeccaasa robberandimpostor. Yetthesultanperseveredina decent reverenceforthedoctrineanddisciplineofthe Koran;_his privateindiscretionmusthavebeensacredfromthevulgar ear; andweshouldsuspectthe credulityofstrangersand sectaries,sopronetobelievethata mindwhichishardened againsttruthmust be armedwithsuperiorcontemptfor absurdityand error. Underthetuitionof themostskil/ul masters,Mahometadvancedwithanearlyandrapidprogress inthepathsofknowledge;and,besideshisnativetongue,it is affirmedthathe spokeor understoodfivelanguages/the Arabic,the Persian,the Chalda_anor Hebrew,the Latin, andthe Greek. The Persianmight,indeed,contributeto hisamusement,andtheArabictohisedification;andsuch studiesarefamiliartotheOrientalyouth. In theintercourse oftheGreeksandTurks,a conquerormightwishtoconverse withthe peopleoverwhomhe wasambitiousto reign;his ownpraisesinLatinpoetry orprose5mightfinda passage Cantem/r(p,ix5), andthemoschswhichhe founded,attesthispublic regardforreligion. MahometfreelydisputedwiththepatriarchGennadius onthetworeligions(Spond. A. D. 1453,No. 22). sQuinquelinguasprintersuamnoverat;Gmecam,Latinam,Chaldalcam, Persicam. TheLatintranslatorofPhranzahasdropttheArabic,whichthe KoranmustrecommendtoeveryMusulman. [TheGreektextofPhranze. _ i. 32(p. 95ed. Bonn)has Aaa. #uc_p. ThehistorianCritobulus(forwhom seevol. ix. Appendixz)givesus themeansof criticisingth/sstatement ofPhrantzes. Hesays(i. 5,2)thatMohnmmadwasthoroughlyconversant withArabicandPersianandhadstudiedGreekphilosophicalworks(AristotelianandStoic)thatweretranslatedintothoselanguages. Herepeats thisstatement,v. Io,4,anddescribesthesultanstudyingthe cosmographical diagramsof Ptolemy. Villoison(Noticeset extraitsdesMannscrits,voL viii. partii. p. 22)quotesfromadescriptionofMobammadgivenbyNicolaus Sagund/nustoKingAlfonsoofAragon,inJan. _453,thestatementthatthe sultankeptbyhimtwophysicians,oneversedinLatin,theotherin Greek; andtheyinstructedhiminancienthistory. ] •Philelphns,bya Latinode,requestedandobtainedthelibertyof his wife smotherandsistersfromthe conquerorof Constantinople. It was deliveredintothesultan shandsbytheenvoysofthedukeofMilan. Philelphushimselfwassuspectedofadesigno!retiringtoConstantinople;yetthe oratoroftensoundedthetrumpetofholywar(seehisLifebyM. Lancelot,

A. D-I450--I4SIJOF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 3 to theroyalear; but whatuse ormeritcouldrecommendto the statesmanor the scholar the uncouth dialect of his Hebrewslaves? The historyand geographyof the world werefamiliarto his memory; the livesof the heroesof the East, perhapsof the West,6excitedhis emulation; his skill in astrologyisexcusedbythefollyofthe times,andsupposes some rudimentsof mathematicalscience; and a profane taste forthe artsis betrayedin his liberalinvitationandrewardof the paintersof Italy. v But the influenceof religion and learningwereemployedwithouteffectonhis savageand licentiousnature. I will not transcribe,nor do I firmly believe,the storiesof his fourteenpages,whosebellieswere rippedopen insearchof a stolenmelon; or of thebeauteous slave,whoseheadhe severedfromher body,to convincethe Janizariesthattheirmasterwasnot the votaryof love. *His sobrietyis attestedby the silenceof the Turkish annals, in the Mdmoiresde l Acaddmiedes Inscriptions,tom. x. p. 718,724, &c. ). [The Letterof Philelphnsto Mohammad,xzthMarch,x454,is publishedin hisbiographyby Rosmini(18o5), vol. ii. p. 305. ] 6RobertValturiopublishedat Verona,in 1483,his twelvebooks,de Re Militari,in whichhe firstmentionsthe use of bombs. Byhis patronSigismond Malatesta, princeof Rimini, it had been addressedwith a Latin epistleto MahometII. eAccordingto Phran_a,he assiduouslystudiedthe livesand actionsof Alexander,Augustus,Constantine,andTheodosius. Ihavereadsomewhere thatPlutarch sLivesweretranslatedbyhisordersintothe Turkishlanguage. If the sultanhimseLfunderstoodGreek,it musthave beenforthe benefitof his subjects. Yet these Livesarea schoolof freedomaswellas of valour. [Crltobulus(i. 5, x) says that Mohammed s exampleswere Alexander, Pompey,and Cmsar-- lr#t AX_/_av_v_p_ K,,IIIo_lr_tovtKalKz/capas_al "roOtxal; _x_l_ovtflao *Xe_s"r,=MO Tptx rYj_ O_. ] vThe famousGentileBellino,whomhehadinvitedfromVenice,wasdismigo. edwith a chainand collar of gold, and a purseof 30ooducats. With VoltaireI laughatthe foolishstoryof aslavepurposelybeheaded,toinstruct the painterin the action of the muscles. [Bellini painteda portraitof Mohammad,whichis extant. It passed intothe possessionof Sir Henry Layard. For Bellini at the Sultan s court (i479-8o) see L. Thuasne, GentileBelliniet SultanMohammedII. ] [The storyis aninvention,and is likewiserejectedby Thuasne(op. cil. P. 53 sqq-),whopoints outthat a similarstorywastold aboutParrhasius (see the elderSeneca sControversiae,x. 5)-]

4 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_LXVm whichaccusethree,and threeonly,ofthe Ottomanlineof the viceof drunkenness,g But it cannotbe deniedthat his passionswereat oncefuriousandinexorable;that in thepalace, as in the field,a torrentof bloodwas spilt on the slightest provocation;andthat the noblestof the captiveyouthwere often dishonouredby his _mnaturallust. In the Albanian war,he studiedthe lessons,andsoonsurpassedtheexample, of hisfather; and the conquestof twoempires,twelvekingdoms,andtwohundreddries,a vain and flatteringaccount, is ascribed to his invinciblesword. He was doubtlessa soldier,and possiblya general; Constantinoplehas sealed his glory; but, if we comparethe means,the obstacles,and theachievements,MahomettheSecondmustblushtosustain a parallelwithAlexanderorTimour. Underhis command, the Ottomanforceswere alwaysmore numerousthan their enemies; yettheir progresswas boundedby the Euphrates and the Adriatic; and his arms werecheckedby Huniades and Scanderbeg,bythe Rhodianknights,andby thePersian king. In the reign of Amurath,he twicetasted of royalty,and twicedescendedfromthe throne; his tender age was incapableofopposinghis father s restoration,but nevercouldhe forgivethe vizirs who had recommendedthat salutary measure. Hisnuptialswerecelebratedwiththe daughterof a Turkman emir; and, after a festivalof two months,he departedfrom Hadfianoplewith his bride to reside in the governmentof Magnesia. Beforethe end of six weeks,he was recalledby a sudden messagefrom the divan, which announcedthe deceaseof Amurathand the mutinousspirit of the Janizaries. His speedand vigourcommandedtheir obedience;he passedthe Hellespontwith a chosenguard; 0These Imperial d_mk*rdswereSollm_nI. , SelimII. , and AmurathIV. (Cantemir,p. 6I). The sophisof Persiacan producea moreregularsuccession;and in thelastageourEuropeantravellerswerethe witnessesand thecompanionsoftheirrevels.

_. _4so-_] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 5 and,at thedistanceofa milefrom_anople, thevizlrs andemirs,theimamsandcaAhis,thesoldiersandthepeople, fellprostratebeforethenewsultan. Theyaffectedtoweep, theyaffectedtorejoice;he ascendedthe throneat the age oftwenty-oneyears,andremovedthe causeof seditionby thedeath,theinevitabledeath,ofhisinfantbrothers#° The ambassadorsofEuropeandAsiasoonappearedtocongratulatehisaccession,andsolicithisfriendship;and to allhe spokethe languageof moderationand peace. The confidenceoftheGreekemperorwasrevivedbythesolemnoaths and fairassuranceswithwhichhe sealedthe ratificationof thetreaty;anda richdomainonthebanksoftheStrymon wasassignedfortheannualpaymentofthreehundredthousandaspers,thepensionofan Ottomanprincewhowasdeminedat hisrequestintheByzantinecourt. YettheneighboutsofMahometmighttrembleat theseveritywithwhich a youtb/ulmonarchreformedthepompofhisfather shousehold;theexpensesofluxurywereappliedtothoseofambition, andanuselesstrainofseventhousandfalconerswaseither dismissedfromhisserviceorenlistedinhistroops. In the firstsummerofhisreign,hevisitedwithan armytheAsiatic provinces;but,afterhumblingthepride,Mahometaccepted the submission,of the Caramauian,that he mightnot be divertedbythe smallestobstaclefromthe executionof his greatdesign,u TheMahometan,andmoreespeciallytheTurkish,casuists havepronouncedthatnopromisecanbindthefaithfulagainst theinterestanddutyof theirreligion;and that the sultan 10Calapin,oneof theseroyalinfants,wassavedfromhiscruelbrother,and baptisedat Romeunderthenameof CallistusOthomannus. The emperor FredericHI. presentedhim with an estatein Austria,whereheendedhis life; and Cuspinian,who in his youthconversedwith the aged princeat Vienna,applaudshis pietyand wisdom(de CAesaxibus,p. 67_, 673). zlSeethe accessionof MahometII. in Ducas(c. 33),Phranza(1. i. c. 33, L ii. c. 2), Chalcondyles(1. vii. p. I99 [P. 376,ed. Bonn]),andCantem/r (p. 96).

6 THE DECLINE AND FALL [cmLXVm mayabrogatehisowntreatiesandthoseof hispredecessors. ThejusticeandmagnanimityofAmurathhad scornedthis immoralprivilege; buthisson,thoughtheproudestofmen, couldstoopfromambitionto thebasestartsofdissimulation and deceit. Peacewason his lips,whilewarwas in his heart: heincessantlysighedforthepossessionof Constantinople;and the Greeks,bytheirownindiscretion,afforded thefirstpretenceofthefatalrupture. = Insteadoflabouring tobe forgotten,theirambassadorspursuedhiscamp,todemandthe paymentand eventhe increaseof their annual stipend:thedivanwasimportunedbytheircomplaints,and the vizir,a secretfriendof the Christians,wasconstrained todeliverthesenseofhisbrethren. "YefoolishandmiserableRomans,"saidCalil,"weknowyourdevices,and ye areignorantof yourowndanger!the scrupulousAmurath isno more; histhroneisoccupiedby a youngconqueror, whomnolawscanbindandnoobstaclescanresist;and,if youescapefromhishands,givepraisetothedivineclemency, _zBeforeI enteronthe siegeofConstantinople,I shallobservethat,except theshorthintsof CantemirandLeunclavius,I havenotbeen_ble to obtain any Turkishaccountof thisconquest; suchan accountas wepossessof the siegeof RhodesbySollmanII. (M_moiresde l Acaddmiedes Inscriptions, tom. xxvi. p. 723-769). I must thereforedependon the Greeks,whose prejudices,in somedegree,axe subduedby theirdistress. Ourstandard textsarc thoseof Ducas (c. 34-42), Phranza(1. iii. c. 7-2o), Chalcondyles (I. viii. p. 2oz-214[p. 380s_q. ,ed. Bonn]),andLeonardusChiensis(HistoHa C. P. aTurco expugnat_e,Norimberghav,I544, in 4to,2oleaves[moreaccessiblein Reusner sEpistolzeTurcic_e,i. p. II3 sflq. ,orintheChronicaTurdca of Lonicerus,i. p. 315sq9. ]). The lastof these narrativesis the earliestin date,sinceit wascomposedin the isle of Chios,the i6th of AugustI453, onlyseventy-ninedaysafterthe loss of the city,andin thefirstconfusionof ideasand passions. Somehintsmaybe addedfroman epistleof Cardinal Isidore (inFarragineReturnTurcicarum,ad calcemChalcondyl. Clauseri, Basil,_556[andin Reusner sEpistoL_Turdc,_,i. Io4])toPopeNicholasV. , and a tractof TheodosiusZygomaL%whichhe addressec_in theyearx58_, to Martin Crusius(Turco-Gn_a, I. i. p. 74-98, Basil,xS84). The vaxions facts and materialsare brieflythoughcriticallyreviewedby Spondarius(A. D. z453,No. 1-27). The hearsay-relationsof Monstreletand the d/stantLatins,I shall take leaveto disregard. [See for otherauthorities Appcndlm]

,. . o. x4so-x48x]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 7 whichyetdelaysthechastisementofyoursins. Whydoye seekto affrightusbyvainand indirectmenaces? Release thefugitiveOrchan,crownhimsultan ofRomania;callthe Hungariansfrombeyondthe Danube;armagainstusthe nationsoftheWest;andbeassuredthatyouwillonlyprovokeand precipitateyourruin. " But,if the fearsof the ambassadorswerealarmedbythesternlanguageofthevizir, theyweresoothedby the courteousaudienceand friendly speechesoftheOttomanprince;andMahometassuredthem that on his returnto Hadrianoplehe wouldredressthe grievances,andconsultthetrueinterests,oftheGreeks. No soonerhad he repassedthe Hellespontthan he issueda mandatetosuppresstheirpensionandtoexpeltheirofficers fromthebanksoftheStrymon: inthismeasurehebetrayed an hostilemind; and the secondorderannounced,and in somedegreecommenced,the siegeof Constantinople. In the narrowpassof the Bosphorus,an Asiaticfortresshad formerlybeenraisedby hisgrandfather:in the opposite situation,ontheEuropeanside,he resolvedtoerecta more formidablecastle;anda thousandmasonswerecommanded toassembleinthespring,ona spotnamedAsomaton,about fivemilesfromthe Greekmetropolis. TM Persuasionis the resourceofthefeeble;andthefeeblecanseldompersuade: theambassadorsof theemperorattempted,withoutsuccess, to divertMahometfromtheexecutionof hisdesign. They represented,thathisgrandfatherhadsolicitedthepermission IsThe situationof the fortress,andthe topographyof the Bosphorus,are bestlearnedfromPeterGyllius(de BosphoroThracio,1. il. c. 13[cp. p. x3-I4]), Leunclavius(Pandect. p. 445),andTournefort(Voyagedans leLevant,tom. if. lettrexv. p. 443,444); butI must regretthe mapor planwhichTournefort sent to the French ministerof the marine. The reader may turn back to chap. xvii. [vol. iii. ] of this history. [The buildingof the fortressis well describedby Critobuhis,i. Io madxx(p. 59-62). The placeis nowcalled P. umiliHissari,Castleof Rumella. The villageof Asomatonisthe modern Arnautkiol,a littleto thenorthof Bebek. CompareMordtmann,Belagerung und EroberungConstantinopels,p. x7, x8; Paspates,HoMoprl_r. gl _tX_,__-_K_o_"r. ,p. 78 sqq. ]

8 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXWU of Manuelto build a castleon his ownterritories;but that this double fortification,whichwouldcommandthe strait, couldonlytendtoviolatethe allianceof thenations,to intercepttheLatins whotradedin the BlackSea,and perhapsto annihilatethe subsistenceof the city. "I formno enterprise," repliedthe perfidioussultan,"against the city; but theempireof Constantinopleismeasuredbyher walls. Have youforgotthedistresstowhichmyfatherwasreduced,when you formeda leaguewith the Hungarians; when they invadedourcountrybyland,and theHeLlespontwasoccupied by the French galleys? Amurathwas compelledto force the passageof the Bosphorus; and yourstrengthwas not equalto yourmalevolence. I wasthena childatHadrianople; the Moslemstrembled; and for a whilethe Gabours1_in_ sultedourdisgrace. But,whenmyfatherhad triumphedin the fieldof Warna,he vowedto erecta forton the western shore,and that vowit is my duty to accomplish. Haveye the right,haveye the power,to controlmy actionson my own ground? For that ground is my own: as far as the shoresof the Bosphorus,Asiais inhabitedby the Turks,and Europeis deserted by the Romans. Return,and inform yourking that the presentOttomanisfardifferentfromhis predecessors;that his resolutionssurpasstheirwishes; and that he performsmorethan they couldresolve. Return in safety; but the next who deliversa similarmessagemay expectto be flayedalive. " Afterthis declaration,Constantine,the firstof the Greeksin spirit as in rank,15had detert, The opprobriousnamewhichthe Turks bestowon the Infidelsis expressedK,,flotJpby Ducas, andG4az_rby Leunclaviusand the moderns. The formerterm is derivedbyDucange(Gloss. Grmc. tom. i. p. 53o) from x,,flovpoy,in vulgar Greek a tortoise,as denoting a retrogrademotion from thefaith. But, alasI Gabouris no morethan Gheber,whichwas transferred from the Persianto the Turkishlanguage,from the worshippersof fire to thoseof the crucifix(d Herbelot,Bibliot. Orient. p. 375)_6Phranzadoes justice to his master s senseand courage: CaUiditatem hominis non ignoraus Imperator prior anna movereconstituit, and stigmatisesthe follyof the curesacriturn profanlproceres,whichhe hadheard, amcntesspe van_pasci. Ducas was nota privycounsellor.

A. D. 4SO-- 4SX]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 9 minedto unsheathethesword,andtoresisttheapproachand establishmentof the Turks ontheBosphorus. He wasdisarmed by the adviceof his civiland ecclesiasticalministers, who recommendeda systemless generous,and even less prudent,than his own,to approvetheir patienceand longsuffering,to brand the Ottomanwiththe nameand guilt of an aggressor,and to depend on chanceand time for their own safetyand thedestructionof a fort whichcouldnot be longmaintainedin the neighbourhoodof a greatand populous city. Amidsthope and fear, the fears of the wiseand the hopes of the credulous,the winter rolled away; the properbusinessof eachman,andeachhour,waspostponed; and the Greeksshuttheireyesagainsttheimpendingdanger, till the arrival of the springand the sultan decidedthe assuranceof their ruin. Of a masterwhoneverforgives,the ordersare seldomdisobeyed. On the twenty-sixthof March,the appointedspot of Asomatonwascoveredwithan activeswarmof Turkish artificers; and the materialsby sea and land werediligently transportedfrom Europe and Asia. le The lime had been burnt inCataphrygia;thetimberwascut downinthe woods of Heracleaand Nicomedia;and the stonesweredug from the Anatolianquarries. Each of the thousandmasonswas assistedby two workmen;and a measureof twocubitswas markedfor their dailytask. The fortress17was built in a triangularform; each angle was flankedby a strong and ,t Insteadof thisclearandconsistentaccount,the TurkishAnnals(Cantemir, p. 97)revivedthe foolishtale of the ox shide, andDido sstratagem in the foundationof Carthage. These annals (unless we are swayedby an antichrisfianprejudice)are farless valuablethan the Greekhistorians. I_In thedimensionsof thisfortress,the oldcastleof Europe,Phranzadoes not exactlyagreewithChalcondyles,whosedescriptionhas beenverifiedon the spotbyhiseditorLeunclavius. [Phrantzes(p. 234) givesthe breadthof thetowersa_25feet,andthisnearlyagreeswith Critobnlus(i. it, 4) whosays "x2. cubits,"i. e. ,24feet. Chalcondylessays22feet, andDucas"30 spans," i. e. , 22½feet. Cfitobulnsalonegivesthe heightof the wall, ioo feet, and addsthat insizethefortressresemblednotafortressbuta litretown(_roMx_).

Io THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXVm massytower;oneonthedeclivityofthehill,twoalongthe sea-shore;a thicknessoftwenty-twofeetwasassignedfor thewalls,thirtyforthetowers;andthewholebuildingwas coveredwitha solidplatformof lead. Mahomethimself pressedanddirectedtheworkwithindefatigableardour;his threevizirsclaimedthehonouroffinishingtheirrespective towers;thezealofthecadhisemulatedthatoftheJanizaries; themeanestlabourwasennobledbytheserviceof Godand thesultan;andthediligenceofthemultitudewasquickened bytheeyeofa despot,whosesmilewasthehopeoffortune, andwhosefrownwasthemessengerof death. The Greek emperorbeheldwithterrorthe irresistibleprogressof the work;andvainlystrove,byflatteryandgifts,toassuagean implacablefoe,who sought,and secretlyfomented,the slightestoccasionof a quarrel. Suchoccasionsmustsoon andinevitablybefound. Theruinsofstatelychurches,and eventhemarblecolumnswhichhadbeenconsecratedtoSt. Michaelthe archangel,wereemployedwithoutscrupleby theprofaneand rapaciousMoslems;and someChristians, whopresumedtoopposetheremoval,receivedfromtheirhands thecrownofmartyrdom. ConstantinehadsolicitedaTurkish guardtoprotectthefieldsandharvestsofhissubjects:the guardwasfixed; but their firstorderwasto allowfree pasturetothemulesandhorsesofthecamp,andtodefend theirbrethrenif theyshouldbe molestedby the natives. TheretinueofanOttomanchiefhadlefttheirhorsestopass the nightamongthe ripecorn: the damagewasfelt; the insultwasresented;andseveralof bothnationswereslain ina tumultuousconflict. Mahometlistenedwithjoytothe complaint;and a detachmentwascommandedto exterminatethe guiltyvillage:the guiltyhad fled; but forty innocentand unsuspectingreapersweremassacredby the soldiers. Till this provocation,Constantinoplehad been opento the visitsof commerceand curiosity:on the first alarm,the gateswereshut; but the emperor,stillanxious

,. D. ,4so-t4s,]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE IX forpeace,releasedon the thirdday his Turkishcaptives,t* and expressed,in a last message,the firm resignationof a Christianand a soldier. "Sinceneitheroaths,nor treaty, norsubmission,can securepeace,pursue,"said he to Mahomet,"your impiouswarfare. My trust is in God alone: if it shouldpleasehim to mollifyyourheart,I shallrejoice in the happychange; if he deliversthe cityintoyourhands, I submitwithouta murmurto his holywill. But,until the Judgeof the earthshallpronouncebetweenus,it ismy duty to liveand die in the defenceof my people. " The sultan s answerwashostileand decisive;his fortificationswerecompleted; andbeforehisdepartureforHadrianoplehe stationed a vigilantAgaandfour hundredJanizariesto levya tribute of theshipsof everynationthat shouldpasswithinthereach of their c_nnon. A Venetianvessel,refusingobedienceto thenewlordsof theBosphorus,wassunkwitha singlebullet. The masterand thirtysailorsescapedin the boat; but they weredraggedin chainsto the Porte;the chiefwasimpaled; his companionswere beheaded; and the historianDucas1, beheld,at Demotica,their bodiesexposedto the wildbeasts. The siegeof Constantinoplewas deferredtill the ensuing spring; but an Ottomanarmy marchedintothe Moreato diverttheforce of the brothersof Constantine. At this era of calamity,one of these princes,the despotThomas, was blessedor afflictedwiththe birth of a son, "the last heir," saysthe plaintivePhranza,"of the last sparkof the Roman empire. "2o The Greeksand the Turks passedan anxiousand sleep:8AmongtheseweresomepagesofMahomet,soconsciousofhisinexorable rigourthat theybeggedto losetheir heads inthe cityunlesstheycouldreturn beforesunset. :DDucas,c. 3S- Phranza (1. iii. c. 3), whohad sailedin his vessel,commemoratesthe Venetianpilotas a martyr. [Cp. NiccolbBarbaro,p. 2 (ed. Cornet). OtherVenetianvesselsweremoresuccessfnl. ] :0Auctum est Palmologorumgenus, et Imperii successor,parvmque Romanorumscintillmheres natus,Andreas,&c. (Phranza,1. iii. c. 7). The strongexpressionwasinspiredbyhis feelings.

I2 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CmLXVm lesswinter: the formerwerekept awakeby their fears,the latter by their hopes; both by the preparationsof defence and attack; andthe twoemperors,whohadthe mostto lose or to gain, were the most deeplyaffectedby the national sentiment. In Mahomet,that sentimentwas inflamedby the ardour of his youth and temper: he amusedhis leisure with buildingat Hadrianople,i the lofty palace of Jehan Numa (the watch-towerof the world); but his serious thoughtswere irrevocablybent on the conquestof the city of C_esar. At thedead ofnight,aboutthesecondwatch,he startedfrom his bed,andcommandedtheinstantattendance of his primevizir. The message,the hour,the prince,and his own situation alarmed the guilty conscienceof Calil Basha,who had possessedthe confidence,and advisedthe restoration,of Amurath. On the accessionof the son, the vizirwasconfirmedinhisofficeandtheappearancesoffavour; but theveteranstatesmanwasnot insensiblethat he trodeon a thinand slipperyice,whichmightbreakunderhisfootsteps and plungehim in the abyss. His friendshipfor the Christians,whichmight be innocent under the late reign,had stigmatisedhimwiththe nameof GabourOrtachi,or foster brotherofthe infidels;= andhis avariceentertaineda venal and treasonablecorrespondence,which was detectedand punishedafter the conclusionof the war. On receivingthe royalmandate,he embraced,perhapsfor the last time,his wifeandchildren;filledupacupwithpiecesofgold,hastened tothepalace,adoredthe sultan,and offered,accordingto the Orientalcustom,theslighttributeofhis dutyandgratitude?s )zCantemir,p. 97, 98. The sultanwas either doubtfulof his conquest or ignorantof the superiormeritsof Constantinople. Acity ora kingdom may sometimesbe ruinedbythe Imperialfortuneof their sovereign. "__g_rrpo_t_o_,by thepresidentCousin,is translatedpbr¢nourricier,most correctlyindeedfromtheLatinversion; but in hishastehehasoverlooked the noteby which IsmaelBoillaud(ad Ducam,c. 35) acknowledgesand rectifieshis ownerror. The Orientalcustomof neverappearingwithoutgiftsbeforea sovereign or a superioris of high antiquity,and seemsanalogouswith the ideaof

A. -. _45o-t48qOF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 13 "It isnotmywish,"saidMahomet,"to resumemygifts, butrathertoheapandmultiplythemonthyhead. In my turn,I ask a presentfar morevaluableand important,Constantinople. "Assoonas thevizirhadrecoveredfrom hissurprise,"The sarneGod,"saidhe,"whohasalready giventheesolargea portionoftheRomanempire,willnot denythe remnant,and the capital. His providenceand thypowerassurethysuccess;and myself,withtherestof thy faithfulslaves,willsacrificeour livesand fortunes. " "Lala"_ (orpreceptor),continuedthe sultan,"doyousee thispillow? allthenight,inmyagitation,I havepulledit ononesideandtheother;I haverisenfrommybed,again haveI laindown; yetsleephasnotvisitedthesewearyeyes. Bewareof the goldandsilverof theRomans;in armswe are superior;andwiththeaid ofGod,andtheprayersof theprophet,weshallspeedilybecomemastersof Constantinople. " To soundthe dispositionof hissoldiers,he often wanderedthroughthestreetsaloneandin disguise;andit wasfataltodiscoverthesultan,whenhe wishedto escape fromthe vulgareye. Hishourswerespentin delineating the planof thehostilecity; in debatingwithhisgenerals and engineers,onwhatspothe shoulderecthisbatteries; onwhichsidehe shouldassaultthewalls;wherehe should springhismines;towhatplaceheshouldapplyhisscalingladders;andtheexercisesofthedayrepeatedandprovedthe lucubrationsofthenight. Amongthe implementsof destruction,he studiedwith peculiarcarethe recentand tremendousdiscoveryof the sacrifice,stillmoreancientand universal. Seethe examplesof suchPersian gifts,,__,lian,Hist. Var. I. i. c. 3x-33. . _ The La/a of the Turks (Cantemir,p. 34) and the Taraof theGreeks (Ducas,c. 35) are derivedfromthe naturallanguageof children; and it maybe observedthat all such primitivewordswhichdenotetheir parents are the simple repetitionof one syllable,composedof a labial or dental consonantandanopenvowel(desBro,3__s,M6ch_niqmedesLangues,tom. i. p. 23x-- a47).

x4 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C_LXWn Latins; andhisartillerysurpassedwhateverhadyetappeared in the world. A founderof cannon,a Daneor Hungarian,25 whohadbeenalmoststarvedin theGreekservice,desertedto the Moslems,and was liberallyentertainedby the Turkish sultan. Mahometwassatisfiedwiththe answerto his first question,whichhe eagerlypressedon the artist. "Am I able to casta c_nnoncapableof throwinga ball or stoneof sufficientsizeto batter the wallsof Constantinople? I am not ignorantof their strength,but,weretheymoresolidthan thoseof Babylon,I couldopposean engineof superiorpower; the positionand managementof that enginemust be leftto your engineers. " On this assurance,a foundrywas establishedat Hadrianople:the metalwasprepared;and,at the end of three months,Urban produceda pieceof brassordnance of stupendousand almostincrediblemagnitude; a measureof twelvepalms is assignedto the bore; and the stonebulletweighedabovesixhundredpounds. _ A vacant placebeforethe new palacewaschosenfor the firstexperiment; but, to preventthe sudden and mischievouseffects of astonishmentand fear,a proclamationwasissuedthat the cannonwouldbe dischargedtheensuingday. Theexplosion wasfelt or heardin the circuitof an hundredfurlongs: the ball,by the force of gunpowder,was drivenabovea mile; and onthespotwhereit fell,it burieditselfa fathomdeepin theground. For theconveyanceof thisdestructiveengine,_7 "_[Orhan( 0pfla_) was a Hungarian;no authoritysaysthat hewas a Dane. Gibbonhasmistakenthephraseof Chalcondyles,whopedantically describeshim as a "Dacian" (Ad_,p. 385,ed. Bonn. _flo_ _ is the wordChalcondylesusesfora"gunner. " StrictlyOrhanwasa_ _flokovotS_. ] x The Attictalentweighedaboutsixtymin_, or avoirdupoispounds(see HooperonAncientWeights,Measures,&c. );butamongthemodemGreeks thatclassicappellationwas extendedto a weightof one hundredor one hundredand twenty-fivepounds(Ducange,Tdkarro_). LeonardusChiensis measuredthehallorstoneof thesecondcannon:Lapidem,qui palmisundecim ex meisambihatin gyro. [Thepa/ma,or span, beingreckonedat 8 inches,it is calculatedthat the ballwouldhaveweighedx456lbs. avoirdupois. Mordtmann,op. c/t. p. 36. ] [Accordingto ZorzoDolfin,Assedioe presadl Cpli§ i6 (Paspates,op. c/_. p. x2on. ) the cannonwasconveyedin pieces. ]

A. v. x4so--_4sx]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 15 aframeor carriageof thirtywaggonswaslinkedtogetherand drawnalongby a team of sixtyoxen; two hundredmenon both sideswere stationedto poiseand support theroiling weight; twohundredandfiftyworkmenmarchedbeforeto smooththewayandrepairthebridges; andneartwomonths were employedin a laboriousjourneyof one hundredand fiftymiles. A lively2sphilosopherderides,on thisoccasion, thecredulityofthe Greeks,andobserves,withmuchreason, that we shouldalwaysdistrustthe exaggerationsof a vanquished people. He calculatesthat a ball, even of two hundredpounds,wouldrequirea chargeof onehundredand fiftypoundsof powder; andthat the strokewouldbe feeble andimpotent,sincenot a fifteenthpart of the masscouldbe inflamedat thesamemoment. A strangerasI amto theart of destruction,I candiscernthat themodemimprovementsof artillerypreferthe numberof piecestothe weightof metal; thequicknessofthefiretothesound,or eventheconsequence, of a singleexplosion. YetI dare not rejectthepositiveand unanimousevidenceof contemporarywriters; nor can it seemimprobablethat the first artists,in theirrude andambitious efforts,should have transgressedthe standardof moderation. ATurkishcannon,moreenormousthan thatof Mahomet,stillguardstheentranceof the Dardanelles;and, if the usebe inconvenient,it hasbeenfoundon a latetrial that the effectwas far from contemptible. A stone bullet of elevenhundredpounds weightwasoncedischargedwith threehundredandthirty poundsof powder; at the distance of sixhundredyards,it shiveredintothreerockyfragments, traversedthe strait,and, leavingthe watersin a foam,again roseandboundedagainsttheoppositehill. _° 2sSeeVoltaire(Hist. G_n_rale,c. xci. p. 294,295). He was ambitious of universalmonarchy;and the poet frequentlyaspiresto the name and style of an astronomer,a chemist,&c. [Mordtmann(/oc. ¢/t. ) saysthat stoneballs,measuringfrom72to 88inchesround,have beenfoundin the Arsenal,in the wallsof Galata,and elsewhere. ] The BarondeTort(tom. iii. p. 85--89),whofortifiedthe Dardanelles

x6 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Cu. LXVm WhileMahometthreatenedthe capitalof the East,the Greekemperorimploredwithferventprayerstheassistance ofearthandheaven. Buttheinvisiblepowersweredeafto hissupplications;andChristendombeheldwithindifference the fallof Constantinople,whileshederivedat leastsome promiseof supplyfromthejeaJousand temporalpolicyof thesultanofEgypt. Somestatesweretooweak,andothers tooremote;bysomethedangerwasconsideredasimaginary, byothersas inevitable:theWesternprinceswereinvolved in theirendlessand domesticquarrels;and the Roman pontiffwasexasperatedbythefalsehoodorobstinacyof the Greeks. Insteadofemployingintheirfavourthearmsand treasuresof Italy,NicholastheFifthhadforetoldtheirapproachingruin; andhishonourwasengagedintheaccomplishmentof his prophecy. Perhapshe wassoftenedby thelastextremityof theirdistress;buthiscompassionwas tardy; his effortswerefaint and unavailing;and Constantinoplehadfallen,beforethe squadronsof Genoaand Venicecouldsailfromtheirharbours,s° Eventheprincesof theMoreaandoftheGreekislandsaffectedacoldneutrality: the Genoesecolonyof Galatanegotiateda privatetreaty; andthesultanindulgedthemin thedelusivehopethat by his clemencythey mightsurvivethe ruin of the empire. Aplebeiancrowd,andsomeByzantinenobles,baselywithdrewfromthedangeroftheircountry;andtheavariceofthe richdeniedthe emperor,and reservedfor the Turks,the secrettreasureswhichmighthaveraisedin theirdefence wholearmiesof mercenaries,st Theindigentand solitary againstthe Russians,descn besin a lively,and even comic,strainhis own prowessand the consternationof the Turks. But thatadventuroustraveller doesnot possesstheart ofgainingourconfidence. l0Nonaudivit,indignumducens,saysthe honestAntoninus; but, as the Romancourtwas afterwardsgrievedand ashamed,wefindthe morecourtly expressionof Platina,in snimo fuissepontificijuvareGr_cos,andthe positive assertionof . ,EneasSylvius,structamdassem, &c. (Spond. A. D. x453, No. 3)stAntonin. inProw. re. _ Epist. _. Isidor. apud Spondanum;and

A. D. ;X4SO--I48I]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 17 princeprepared,however,to sustainhisformidableadversary; but,ifhiscouragewereequaltotheperil,hisstrength wasinadequatetothecontest. In thebeginningofthespring, the Turkishvanguardsweptthetownsandvillagesas far as thegatesof Constantinople:submissionwassparedand protected;whateverpresumedto resistwasexterminated withfireandsword. TheGreekplacesonthe BlackSea, Mesembria,Acheloum,and Bizon,surrenderedonthefirst summons;Selybriaalone_ deservedthehonoursof a siege or blockade;and the boldinhabitants,whilethey were investedbyland,launchedtheirboats,pillagedtheopposite coastofCyzicus,andsoldtheircaptivesinthepublicmarket. ButontheapproachofMahomethimselfallwassilentand prostrate;he firsthaltedat thedistanceoffivemiles;and fromthenceadvancinginbattle-arrayplantedbeforethegate ofSt. RomanustheImperialstandard;and,onthesixthday ofApril,formedthememorablesiegeofConstantinople. ThetroopsofAsiaandEuropeextendedontherightand leftfromthePropontistotheharbour;theJanizariesinthe frontwerestationedbeforethe sultan stent; theOttoman linewascoveredbya deepentrenchment;anda subordinate armyenclosedthesuburbofGalata,andwatchedthedoubtful faith of the Genoese. The inquisitivePhilelphus,who residedin Greeceaboutthirtyyearsbeforethe siege,is confidentthatalltheTurkishforces,ofanynameor value, Dr. Johnson, in the tragedyof Irene, has happilyseizedthis characteristic circumstance: The groaningGreeksdig up the goldencaverns, The accumulatedwealthof hoarding ages; That wealthwhich, grantedto their weepingprince, Hadrang d embattlednationsat their gates. _[TheTowerof St. Stephen,onthe sea of Marmora,twohoursfromthe city,was alsostormedand the garrisonbeheaded. Critobulns(i. 32)mendonsthatMohammadhimself,afterhisarrival,stormedthefortsof Studion andTherapeion;itis unknownwheretheywere. He alsosenthisadmiral Paltoglesto capturethe fortof thePrince sisland(/b. 33). Thesefactsare recordedby Critobulnsalone. ] VOL. Ill. -- 2

x8 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXWn couldnotexceedthenumberof sixtythousandhorseand twentythousandfoot;andheupbraidsthepusillanimityof the nationswhohadtamelyyieldedto a handfulof Barbarians. Such,indeed,mightbethe regularestablishmentof the Capiculi,_ the troopsof the Portewhomarchedwith theprinceandwerepaidfromhisroyaltreasury. Butthe bashaws,in their respectivegovernments,maintainedor levieda provincialmilitia;manylandswereheldbyamilitary tenure;manyvolunteerswereattractedbythehopeofspoil; andthesoundoftheholytrumpetinviteda swarmofhungry andfearlessfanatics,whomightcontributeat leasttomultiply theterrors,and ina firstattacktoblunttheswords,of the Christians. The wholemassof the Turkishpowersis magnifiedby Ducas,Chalcondyles,and Leonardof Chios, totheamountof threeof fourhundredthousandmen; but Phranzawasa lessremoteandmoreaccuratejudge;and ThepalatinetroopsarestyledCa/rlculi,theprovincials,Seratculi:and mostofthenamesandinstitutionsoftheTurkishmilitiaexistedbeforethe CanonNamehof SolimanII. , fromwhich,and hisownexperience,Count Marsiglihas composedhisMilitaryStateof the Ottomanempire. [Mohammadpitchedhisheadquarterson thehillof Maltepe,a shortdistance fromthemiddlepartofthelandwall,oppositetothegateof St. Romanus (TopKapussi)andthepartofthe wallknownas MyriandHon(cp. Mordtmann,Esquissetopographiquede Constantinople,p. 24). The Anatolic army(underIsaac)wasonhisright,stretchingtothe seaofMarmora,the Rumeliot(underKaratzas)onhisleft,towardstheGoldenHorn. A special forcewascommittedto ZaganPasha,and postedbehindGalata,on the groundwhichis nowPera,to watchthe Genoese;and Zaganwasalsoto surveythebuildingofa bridgeacrossthe GoldenHornto thenorthpoint of Constantinople(PortaCynegii,AiwanKapnssi). SeeCritobulus,i. 27 (P. 75); N. Barbaro,p. 3o. -- Thenumbersofthebesiegingarmyaregiven as follows:Phrantzes,258,ooo;Critobulus,over3oo,ooo(notcounting campfollowers,&c. ); Chalcondyles,400,000;Ducas,over400,0o0(p. 267), buthisparticularitems(p. 283)amountto26o,ooo;Leonardus,over300,000; N. Barbaro,z6o,ooo;theThrSnosofConstantinople,217,ooo. Tedardi,a Florentinewitness(forwhoseworksee Appendix),nearlyagreeswith Barharo; countingx4o,ooofightingmenand6o,oootraders,tailors,&c. , whofollowedthearmyinhopeofgain(Informaciun,p. 2x). Mordtmannis inclinedtoacceptthe numberofBarbaro;Hammer,thatofPhrantzes. It istobeobservedthattherewerea largenumberof ChristiansintheTurkish armyaccordingtoTedardi(theThr_nosgivesthenumberat30,000;1. 752). ]

A. ,. ,4so-,_q OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 19 his precisedefinitionof twohundredand fifty-eightthousand doesnot exceedthemeasureof experienceand probability. _ The navyof the besiegerswaslessformidable: thePropontis wasoverspreadwith threehundredand twentysail; but of theseno morethan eighteencouldbe ratedas galleysof war; andthe fargreaterpart mustbe degradedto the conditionof storeshipsand transports,whichpouredinto the campfresh suppliesof men, ammunition,and provisions. In her last decay,Constantinoplewas still peopledwith more than an hundredthousandinhabitants; but thesenumbersarefound intheaccounts,notof war,but of captivity;and theymostly consistedof mechanics,of priests,of women,and of men devoid of that spirit which even women have sometimes exertedforthecommonsafety. I cansuppose,I couldalmost excuse,thereluctanceofsubjectstoserveonadistantfrontier, at thewillofa tyrant; but themanwhodaresnot exposehis lifein thedefenceof hischildrenand his propertyhas lostin societythe firstand most activeenergiesof nature. By the emperor scommand,a particular inquiry had been made throughthe streetsand houses,howmanyof the citizens,or evenof the monks,were able and willingto bear arms for their country. The listswereentrustedto Phranza;_ and, after a diligentaddition,he informedhis master,withgrief and surprise,that the nationaldefencewasreducedto four thousand nine hundred and seventy Romans. Between Constantineandhis faithfulminister,thiscomfortlesssecret s,The observationof PhilelphusisapprovedbyCuspinianinthe yearx5o8 (de Cmsaribus,in Epilog. de Militi_Turcic_,p. 697). Marsigliprovesthat the effectivearmiesof the Turks are much lessnumerousthan theyappear. In the army that besiegedConstantinople,LeonardusChiensisreckonsno morethan zS,OOOJanizaries. [The usualstrengthof the Ottomanarmyon animportantexpeditionwas aboutxoo,ooo. ] ssEgo eidem (Imp. ) tabeUasextribui non absque doloreet m(_stiti_, mansitqueapudnosduosaliisoccultushumerus(Phranza,1. ill c. 3)- With someindulgencefornationalprejudices,wecannotdesirea moreauthentic witness,notonlyof publicfacts,but of privatecounsels. [Thestatementof Phrantzesas to thenumbersis confirmedbyTedardi. ]

2o THE DECLINEAND FALL [CH. LXVm waspreserved; and a sufficientproportionof shields,crossbows,and musketswas distributedfrom the arsenalto the city-bands. Theyderivedsomeaccessionfroma bodyoftwo thousandstrangers,underthe commandof John Justiniani,a noble Genoese;_ a liberaldonativewas advancedto these auxiliaries; and a princelyrecompense,the isleof Lemnos, was promisedto the valour and victoryof their chief. A strong chainwasdrawn acrossthe mouthof the harbour;8, it wassupportedbysomeGreekand Italianvesselsofwarand merchandise;and the ships of everyChristiannation,that successivelyarrived from Candia and the BlackSea,were detained for the publicservice. Againstthe powersof the Ottomanempire,a cityof theextentof thirteen,perhapsof sixteen,mileswasdefendedby a scantygarrisonof sevenor eightthousandsoldiers. Europeand Asiawereopen to the besiegers;but thestrengthandprovisionsof theGreeksmust sustaina dailydecrease; norcouldthey indulgetheexpectationof any foreignsuccouror supply,s8 The primitiveRomanswouldhavedrawn theirswordsin [Allthese strangershad not come with Giustiniani;he brought7oo (Barbaro,p. i3) orperhapsonly4oo(Critobulus,i. 25; Leonardus,p. 319). ] s_[Forthechainseeabove,vol. iii. p,94. Apartof thechainis preserved in the courtof the churchof St. Irene,and maybe seenfiguredin Mordtmann s EsquisseTopographique,p. 49. Cp. above,vol. x. p. 363-4. ] 88[Sincethe fourthcentury,variousemperorshadimprovedthe fortifications of the city. Ilerac/ius had strengthenedthe Palace of BIachernon the west(at the time of the Avarsiege)by a new wail,betweenthe Tower of Anemasand the Xyloporta; and Leo V. had built anotherwalloutside the wall of Hemclins. In the twelfth centuryManuel Comnennsbuilt a wallenclosingthe quartercalled Caligaria,fromthe Tower of Anemasto the gateof Xylokerkos(orKerkoporta). The GateofCaligaria(EgriKapu) was in thisnewwallof Manuel. The ineffectivesiegeof Constantinopleby _Muradin 1432movedJohnPalaeologusto repairand strengthenthe whole outer line of wail, and inscriptionsrecordingthis are foundon the towers. The fortificationson the seaside,the wailsalong the GoldenHorn and the Propontis, weremainly the work o][Theophilusin the 9th century. It is interestingtofindan inscriptiononatower(nearthePortaContoscali)stating that it was repairedby GeorgeBrankovi[, Despot of Servia,in 1448. In _453Georgecontributedtroopsto the armyof Mobammad. ]

/-D. 1450"-148 ]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 2I theresolutionofdeathorconquest. TheprimitiveChristians mighthaveembracedeachother,andawaitedinpatienceand charitythestrokeofmartyrdom. Butthe Greeksof Constantinoplewereanimatedonlybythespiritofreligion,and that spiritwasproductiveonlyof animosityand discord. Beforehisdeath,theemperorJohnPala_ologushadrenounced theunpopularmeasureofanunionwiththeLatins;norwas theidearevived,tillthedistressof hisbrotherConstantine imposeda last trialof flatteryand dissimulation?9 With thedemandoftemporalaid,hisambassadorswereinstructed to mingle the assuranceof spiritualobedience:hisneglect of thechurchwasexcusedbytheurgentcaresof thestate; andhisorthodoxwishessolicitedthe presenceof a Roman legate. TheVaticanhad beentoooftendeluded;yet the signsof repentancecouldnotdecentlybe overlooked;a legatewasmoreeasilygrantedthan an army; and,about sixmonthsbeforethefinaldestruction,thecardinalIsidoreof Russiaappearedinthatcharacterwitharetinueofpriestsand soldiers. Theemperorsalutedhimasafriendandfather;respectfuUylistenedtohispublicandprivatesermons;andwith themostobsequiousoftheclergyandlaymensubscribedthe actofunion,asithadbeenratifiedinthecouncilofFlorence. OnthetwelfthofDecember,thetwonations,inthechurchof St. Sophia,joinedinthecommunionofsacrificeand prayer; andthenamesofthetwopontiffsweresolemnlycommemorated: thenamesof NicholastheFifth,thevicarofChrist, and of the patriarchGregory,whohad beendriveninto exilebya rebelliouspeople. ButthedressandlanguageoftheLatinpriestwhoofficiated atthealtarwereanobjectofscandal;anditwasobservedwith horrorthat he consecrateda cakeor waferof unleavened breadandpouredcoldwaterintothecupofthesacrament. nInSpondanus,thenarrativeoftheunionisnotonlypartialbutimperfect. ThebishopofPamiersdiedin164a,andthehistoryofDucas, whichrepresentsthesescenes(c. 36,37)withsuchtruthandspirit,wasnot printedtilltheyeari649.

22 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c. . x. xvm A nationalhistorianacknowledgeswitha blushthat noneof his countrymen,not theemperorhimself,weresincereinthis occasionalconformity. *° Their hasty and unconditional submissionwaspalliatedby a promiseof futurerevisal; but the best or the worstof their excuseswasthe confessionof theirownperjury. Whentheywerepressedbythereproaches of their honestbrethren,"Have patience,"they whispered, "havepatiencetill Godshallhavedeliveredthecityfromthe greatdragonwho seeksto devourus. Youshallthen perceivewhetherwe aretruly reconciledwith the Azymites. " Butpatienceisnottheattributeofzeal; norcanthe artsof a courtbe adaptedto the freedomand violenceof popular enthusiasm. Fromthe domeof St. Sophia,the inhabitants of eithersexandof everydegreerushedin crowdstothe cell of themonkGennadius, _to consulttheoracleof the church. Theholyman wasinvisible;entranced,asit shouldseem,in deepmeditationordivinerapture;buthehadexposedonthe doorof his cell a speakingtablet; and they successively withdrew,after reading these tremendouswords: "0 miserableRomans] whywillyeabandonthetruth?andwhy, insteadofconfidingin God,willyeput yourtrustin theItalians? In losingyourfaith,you willloseyourcity. Have mercyon me,O Lord! I protest,in thypresence,thatI am innocentof the crime. O miserableRomans! consider, *0Phranza,oneoftheconformingGreeks,acknowledgesthatthe measure wasadoptedonlypropterspemauxilii; he aifixmswithpleasurethat those who refusedto performtheirdevotionsin St. Sophia,extraculpamet in paceessent (1. iii. c. 2o). HisprimitiveandsecularnamewasGeorgeScholarius,whichhe changed for thatof Gennadius,eitherwhenhe becamea monk[inthemonasteryof the Pantokrator]or a patriarch. His defence,at Florence,of the same unionwhichhe so furiouslyattackedat Constantinople,has temptedLeo Allatius(Diatrib. deGeorgiis,in Fabric. Bibliot. Gra_c. tom. x. p. 76o-786) to dividehiminto two men; but Renaudot(p. 343-383)hasrestoredthe identityof his person,andthe duplicityof his character. [Monographby C. Sathas,I _d_p rLo__XoXdp_o_,x865. On "the identityof this person" cp. Dr_seke,Byzant. Zeitsch. iv. p. 3 0:895)• The writingsof Gennadius arecollectedin Migne,P. G. t6o. ]

*. D. 450-_4SX]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 23 pause,and repent. Atthe samemomentthat yourenounce the religionof your fathers, by embracingimpiety,you submitto a foreignservitude. " Accordingto the adviceof Geanadius,thereligiousvirgins,aspureasangelsandasproud as demons,rejectedthe act of union and abjuredall communionwiththe presentand futureassociatesof theLatins; and theirexamplewasapplaudedand imitatedbythe greatest part of the clergyand people. From the monastery,the devout Greeksdispersedthemselvesin the taverns; drank confusiontotheslavesof the pope;_ emptiedtheirglassesin honourof the imageofthe holyVirgin; andbesoughther to defend against Mahometthe city whichshe had formerly saved from Chosroes and the Chagan. In the double intoxicationof zeal and wine, they valiantly exclaimed, "What occasionhave we for succour,or union,or Latins? far from us be the worshipof the AzymitesI" During the winterthat precededthe Turkish conquest,the nation was distractedbythisepidemicalfrenzy; and theseasonof Lent, theapproachofEaster,insteadof breathingcharityandlove, served only to fortify the obstinacyand influenceof the zealots. The confessorsscrutinisedand alarmedthe conscienceof theirvotaries,madarigorouspenancewasimposed onthosewhohad receivedthe communionfroma priestwho had given an expressor tacit consentto the union. His serviceat the altar propagatedtheinfectionto the muteand simplespectatorsof the ceremony; they forfeited,by the impurespectacle,thevirtueof theirsacerdotalcharacter; nor wasit lawful,evenin dangerof suddendeath,to invokethe assistanceof their prayersor absolution. Nosoonerhadthe churchof St. SophiabeenpollutedbytheLatinsacrificethan it wasdesertedas a Jewishsynagogue,or an heathentemple, by the clergyand people; and a vast and gloomysilence a [UbertinusPusc_us (ii. 1. 498 $_. , ed. F_ll_n, p. 36--,/)narratesthat Gennadiussuborned a Bohemianheretic, whohappenedto bein the city, to stir up the peopleagainstthe Unionand inveighagainstthe Pope. ]

=4 THE DECLINEAND FALL CC_. LXVm prevailedinthat venerabledome,whichhadsooftensmoked witha cloudof incense,blazedwithinnumerablelights,and resoundedwith the voiceof prayerand thanksgiving. The Latinswerethemostodiousof hereticsand infidels;andthe first ministerof the empire,the great duke, was heard to declarethat he had rather behold,in Constantinople,the turbanof Mahometthanthepope stiara or a cardinal shat. " A sentiment so unworthyof Christiansand patriots was familiarandfataltotheGreeks: theemperorwasdeprivedof the affectionand supportof his subjects; and their native cowardicewas sanctifiedby resignationto thedivinedecree or thevisionaryhopeof a miraculousdeliverance. Of the triangle whichcomposesthe figureof Constantinople,the twosidesalongthe sea weremade inaccessibleto an enemy: the Propontisbynature,and theharbourby art. Betweenthe twowaters,the basisof the triangle,the landsidewas protectedby a doublewalland a deepditchof the depthofonehundredfeet. " Againstthislineoffortification, whichPhranza,an eye-witness,prolongsto the measureof sixmiles,_ the Ottomansdirectedtheirprincipalattack; and the emperor,after distributingthe serviceand commandof the mostperilousstations,undertookthe defenceof theexternalwall. In thefirstdaysof the siege,theGreeksoldiers descendedintothe ditch,or salliedintothe field; butthey soondiscoveredthat,in theproportionof their numbers,one u_a_L6_mv,xttX6"r_r/m,maybefairlytranslateda cardinal shat. The differenceoftheGreekandLatinhabitsembitteredtheschism. [NiccolbBarharo,p. x4,I5,mentionsthatduringthelasttwoweeksof March,aVenetiansea-captainnamedDiedo,withthecrewsofhisvessels, wasemployedbytheemperortodiga ditchinfrontofaportionofthewall nearthePortaCa. ligaria(EgriKapu). Thiswasaweakspot. ] _sWeareobligedtoreducetheGreekmilestothesmallestmeasurewhich ispre_rvedinthewerstsofRussia,of547Frenchtoi_es,andofxo4]toa degree. ThesixmilesofPhranzadonotexceedfourEnglishmiles(D Anville, MesuresItin6raires,p. 6x,z23,&c. ). [Cp. Critobulus,i. 28;hegivesxa6 stadia(xS_miles)asthecircuitofthecity,allowing48forthelandwall, 35forthesideoftheGoldenHorn. Forthewallscp. above,vol. iii. p. xoo, n. 33-]

4 _-D. _4SO-X4S_]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 25 Christianwasof more valuethan twentyTurks; and,after theseboldpreludes,theywereprudentlycontentto maintain the rampart with their missileweapons. Nor shouldthis prudencebe accused of pusillanimity. The nation was indeedpusillanimousand base; but the last Constantine deservesthe nameof an hero; his nobleband of volunteers wasinspiredwithRomanvirtue; and theforeignauxiliaries supportedthe honourof the Westernchivalry. The incessant volleysof lances and arrowswere accompaniedwith the smoke,the sound,and the fire of their musketryand cannon. Theirsmallarmsdischargedat the sametimeeither fiveor eventen balls of leadof the sizeof a walnut; and, accordingto the closenessof the ranksand the forceof the powder,severalbreastplatesand bodiesweretranspiercedby thesameshot. Butthe Turkishapproachesweresoonslml_ in trenchesor coveredwithruins. Each day addedto the scienceofthe Christians;but their inadequatestockof gunpowderwas wasted in the operationsof eachday. Their ordnancewasnot powerfuleitherin sizeor number; and, if theypossessedsomeheavycannon,theyfearedto plantthem on the walls,lest the aged structureshouldbe shakenand overthrownby the explosionN The samedestructivesecret had been revealedto the Moslems; by whomit was era,6Atindiesdoctioresnostrifactlparaverecontrahostesmachlnamenta, qtuetamenavaredabantur. Pulviseratnitrimodica,exigua;telamodica; bombarda_,siademntincommoditatelociprimumhostesoffenderemaceriebusalveisquetectosnonpoterant. N amsiqu_emagn_eemnt,nemurusconcutereturnoster,quiescebant. ThispassageofLeonardusChiensisiscurious andimportant. [TheTurkshaddirectedtwelvelargecannons(apartfrom thefourteenbatteries)againstthelandwall:threeagainsttheTekfour SemiPalace,fouragainsttheGateofRomanus,threeagainsttheGateof Selymbria,andtwoagainsttheGoldenGate. TheGateof Romanns, againstwhichthegreatcannon(whichwasnamedtheB_ilica)wasset,is hencecalledTopKapussi,"CannonGate. "Thereadershouldobserve thatbetweentheGoldenGateandBlachernaetherewerefourchiefgates inthisorder:PortaSelymbriae(orPegana),PortaRusii(orR. hegiJ),Porta S. Romani,andPortaChaHsii(orCharseae:thesameastheGateofHadrianople). ThemostdangerousandimportantpostattheS. Romanus

j. l. , 26 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXVlU ployedwiththesuperiorenergyof zeal,riches,anddespotism. The greatc_nnonof Mahomethasbeenseparatelynoticed: an importantand visibleobjectin the historyof the times; but that enormousenginewasflankedbytwo fellowsn]rnost of equalmagnitude;_7the longorderof theTurkishartillery waspointedagainstthewalls; fourteenbatteriesthunderedat once on the most accessibleplaces; and of one of theseit is ambiguouslyexpressedthat it was mounted with one hundred and thirty guns,or that it dischargedonehundred and thirty bullets. Yet, in the power and activityof the sultan,wemaydiscerntheinfancyofthenewscience. Under a masterwhocountedthemoments,thegreat cannoncould be loadedand firedno more than seventimesin oneday?8 The heated metal unfortunatelyburst; several workmen weredestroyed; andthe skillof an artist wasadmired,who bethoughthimselfof preventingthedangerandtheaccident, by pouringoil, after each explosion,into the mouthof the CSnnon. Thefirstrandomshotswereproductiveofmoresound than effect; and it wasby theadviceof a Christianthatthe engineerswere taught to level their aim against the two oppositesidesof the salientanglesof a bastion. ** However imperfect,the weightand repetitionof the firemade some impressionon the walls; and the Turks, pushingtheir approachesto the edgeof the ditch,attemptedto filltheenorGatewasdefendedby3ooomen(including50oGenoese),underthecommandof theEmperorand Giustiniani,whoweresupportedbyDonFrancisco of Toledo,a relativeof theEmperor. l a Accordingto Chalcondylesand Phranza, the greatcannonburst: an accidentwhich,accordingto Ducas,was preventedbythe artist sskill. It is evidentthat theydonot speak of the same gun. 48Near an hundredyears afterthe siegeof Constantinople,the French and Englishfleetsin the Channelwereproudof firing30oshotinanengagement of two hours(Mdmoiresde Martindu Bellay,I. x. in the Collection Gdndrale,tom. xxi. p. 239). o [The Christianwhogavethe advicewas an envoyof John tiunyady. HecouldnotresistcriticisingtheshootingoftheinexperiencedTurkish gunners. ]

,. v. ,4so-x48q OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 27 mouschasmand to build a roadto the assault,s° Innumerablefascinesand hogsheadsand trunksof treeswereheaped on each other; and such wasthe impetuosityof the throng thattheforemostandtheweakestwerepushedheadlongdown the precipiceand instantlyburied under the accumulated mass. To fill the ditch was the toil of the besiegers;to clearawaythe rubbishwasthe safetyof the besieged;and, afteralongandbloodyconflict,thewebthat hadbeenwoven in the day wasstill unravelledin the night. The next resourceof Mahometwasthepracticeofmines; butthesoilwas rocky; in everyattempthe wasstoppedand underminedby the Christianengineers;norhad the art beenyet invented of replenishingthosesubterraneouspassageswithgunpowder and blowingwholetowersand citiesinto the air. 5_ A circumstancethat distinguishesthe siegeof Constantinopleis thereunionoftheancientandmodernartillery. The cannon wereintermingledwith the mechanicalenginesfor casting stones and darts;u the bullet and the battering-ramwere directedagainst the same walls; nor had the discoveryof gunpowdersupersededtheuseof theliquidandunextinguishablefire. A woodenturretof the largestsizewasadvanced onrollers; thisportablemagazineofammunitionandfascines wasprotectedby a threefoldcoveringof bulls hides; incessant volleysweresecurelydischargedfromthe loop-holes; in thefront,threedoorswerecontrivedforthe alternatesally ssIhaveselectedsomecuriousfacts,withoutstrivingtoemulatethebloody andobstinateeloquenceoftheAbb6deVertot,inhisprolixdescriptionsof thesiegesofRhodes,Malta,&c. Butthatagreeablehistorianhada turn forromance,and,ashewrotetopleasetheOrder,hehasadoptedthesame spiritofenthusiasmandchivalry. stThefirsttheoryofmineswithgunpowderappearsinx48o,inaMS. of GeorgeofSienna(Tkaboschi,tom. vi. p. i. p. 324). Theywerefirstpractised atSarzanella,inx487;butthehonourandimprovementinI5o3isascribed toPeterofNavarre,whousedthemwithsuccessinthewarsofItaly(Hist. delaLiguedeCambray,tom. ii. p. 93-97)st[Cp. BlanchinandTedardi,Informacion,p. 22(forthisworksee Appendix). ]

28 THE DECLINEAND FALL [CH. LXVIII andretreatofthesoldiersandworkmen. Theyascendedby astaircasetotheupperplatform,and,ashighasthelevelof thatplatform,ascaling-laddercouldberaisedbypulleysto forma bridgeandgrapplewiththeadverserampart. By thesevariousartsofannoyance,someasnewastheywere perniciousto the Greeks,the towerof St. Romanuswasat lengthoverturned; after a severe struggle,the Turks were repulsedfrom the breachand interruptedby darkness; but theytrusted that with the return of light they shouldrenew the attack with freshvigour and decisivesuccess. Of this pause of action, this interval of hope, each momentwas improvedby the activityof the emperorand Justiniani,who passedthe night on the spot, and urgedthe labourswhich involvedthe safetyof the church and city. At thedawn of day, the impatientsultan perceived,with astonishmentand grief,that his woodenturret had beenreducedto ashes: the ditch was clearedand restored; and the tower of St. Romanuswasagainstrongandentire. He deploredthefailure of his design; and uttered a profaneexclamationthat the wordof the thirty-seventhousandprophetsshouldnot have compelledhim to believethat such a work,in so shorta time, shouldhave been accomplishedby the infidels. The generosityof the Christianprinceswas cold and tardy; but, in the firstapprehensionof a siege,Constantine had negotiated,in the islesof the Archipelago,the Morea, andSicily,the mostindispensablesupplies. Asearlyas the beginningof April,five_ greatships,equippedformerchan*"It is singularthat the Greeksshouldnotagreein thenumberof these illustriousvessels; the five of Ducas,the/our of Phranzaand Leonarflus [andBarbaroand Pusculus],and the avoof Chalcondyles[andSad ad-Din, ii. p. x37],mustbe extendedto the smaller,or confinedto the larger,size. Voltaire,in givingoneoftheseshipstoFredericHI. , confoundstheemperors of the East and West. [Critobulusdoes notmentionthe Imperialship but only the threeItalian ships, which,he says, were sent by the Pope with provisionalhelp till he should preparea largearmament,i. 39- Ducas describesthem as Genoesemerchantvessels. The date of the engagement isknownfromBarbaro(p. 23,24),whosuppliesthechronologyof the siege. ]

A. D. X+SO- 4S ]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 29 dise andwar,wouldhavesailedfromtheharbourof Chios, had not the windblownobstinatelyfrom the north,r_ One of these ships borethe Imperial flag; the remainingfour belongedto the Genoese; and they wereladen withwheat and barley,with wine,oil, and vegetables,and, aboveall, with soldiersand mariners,for the serviceof the capital. Mtera tediousdelay,agentlebreeze,and,onthesecondday, a strong gale from the south, carried them through the Hellespontand the Propontis; but the citywasalreadyinvestedby seaandland; andtheTurkishfleet,at theentrance of the Bosphorus,was stretchedfromshoreto shore,in the formof a crescent,tointercept,or at leasttorepel,thesebold auxiliaries. _ The readerwhohas presentto his mind the geographicalpictureof Constantinople,will conceiveand admirethe greatnessof the spectacle. The fiveChristian ships continuedto advancewith joyfulshouts, and a full pressbothof sailsandoars, againstan hostilefleetof three hundredvessels;m and the rampart,the camp,thecoastsof Europeand Asia were lined with innumerablespectators, whoanxiouslyawaitedtheeventof thismomentoussuccour. At thefirstview,that eventcouldnot appeardoubtful: the superiorityof the Moslemswas beyondall measureor account; and, in a calm, their numbersand valour must inevitablyhave prevailed. But their hasty and imperfect navyhad beencreated,not bythe geniusof the people,but r_In bold defiance,or rather in grossignorance,of languageand geography,the presidentCousindetainsthemat Chioswith a south,and wafts themto Constantinoplewith a north, wind. s5[ThefleethadarrivedonAprilt2 (a smallpartof it had arrivedearlier, on the same dayas Mohammad,April 2, accordingto Phrantzes,p. 237). It weighedanchor,andmadeits headquarters,at Diplokionion,nowBeshik Tash, on the Thraciansideof the Bosphorusat a short distancenorth of the mouthof the GoldenHorn. ] _e[Ourauthoritiesgiveveryvariousstatementsas to the strengthof the Turkish fleet. Critobulus(i. _2) says350(not countingshipsof freight); Phrantzes,48o (comparingp. _37with p. 239ed. Bonn); Marino Sanuto (Muratori,S. R. I. xxii. H48),375;Leonardus, . 250;Chalcondyles,230; lhas_tts(4,33_),tTo;Barbaro,x45. ]

3° THE DECLINE AND FALL [C,. LXWU by the willof the sultan. In theheightof theirprosperity, the Turks haveacknowledgedthat, if God had giventhem the earth,he had leftthe seato theinfidels;sTanda seriesof defeats,a rapid progressof decay,has establishedthe truth of their modestconfession. Excepteighteengalleysof some force,the rest of their fleetconsistedof open boats, rudely constructedand awkwardlymanaged,crowdedwithtroops anddestituteof cannon; and,sincecouragearisesin a great measurefrom the consciousnessof strength,the bravestof the Janizaries might tremble on a new element. In the Christiansquadron,fivestout and loftyships were guided by skilfulpilots,and mannedwiththe veteransof Italy and Greece,long practised in the arts and perils of the sea. Their weightwas directedto sink or scatter the weakobstaclesthat impededtheir passage; their artillerysweptthe waters;their liquidfirewaspouredontheheadsoftheadversaries who,with the designof boarding,presumedto approach them; and the winds and wavesare alwayson the sideof the ablestnavigators. In this conflict,the Imperial vessel,whichhad beenalmostoverpowered,wasrescuedby the Genoese;but the Turks, in a distantand closerattack, were twice repulsed with considerable loss. Mahomet himselfsat on horsebackon the beach, to encouragetheir valourby his voiceand presence,by the promiseof reward, and by fearmore potent than the fear of the enemy. The passionsof his soul, and eventhe gestures of his body,ss s7The perpetualdecay and weaknessof the Turkish navymay be observed in Rycaut (State of the Ottoman Empire,p. 372-378),Th_venot (Voyages,p. i. p. 229"-_42),and Tott (M6moires,tom. iii. ); the last of whomis alwayssolicitousto amuseand amaze hisreader. ssI must confessthat I have before my eyes the living picturewhich Thucydides(1. vii. c. 7x) has drawn of the passionsand gestures of the Atheniansin a navalengagementin the greatharbourof Syracuse. [Mordtrn_nn,Belagerung,p. x38, n. x7, thlnk. qthatthe spot where Motmmm_d lookedon at the conflictwasZeitin Burnou,at a quarterof an hour sdistancefromthe SevenTowers(at the GoldenGate); at this pointthesea neartheshoreisvery_h_ow. ]

A. v. _45o-x48_]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 3I seemedtoimitatethe actionsofthecombatants;and,as if hehadbeenthelordofnature,he spurredhishorsewitha fearlessand impotenteffortintothe sea. His loudreproaches,andtheclamoursofthecamp,urgedtheOttomans toa thirdattack,morefatalandbloodythanthetwoformer; andI mustrepeat,thoughI cannotcredit,theevidenceof Phranza,whoaffirms,fromtheirownmouth,thattheylost abovetwelvethousandmenin the slaughterof the day. 59 TheyfledindisordertotheshoresofEuropeandAsia,while the Christiansquadron,triumphantand unhurt,steered alongtheBosphorusandsecurelyanchoredwithinthechain of theharbour. In theconfidenceofvictory,theyboasted that the wholeTurkishpowermusthaveyieldedto their arms; buttheadmiral,or captain-bashaw,foundsomeconsolationfora painfulwoundinhiseye,byrepresentingthat accidentas the causeof his defeat. BalthaOgliwasa renegadeof theraceofthe Bulgarianprinces;hismilitary characterwastaintedwiththe unpopularviceof avarice; and,underthedespotismoftheprinceorpeople,misfortune isa sut_cientevidenceofguilt. Hisrankandserviceswere annihilatedbythe displeasureof Mahomet. In theroyal presence,thecaptain-bashawwasextendedonthe ground byfourslaves,andreceivedonehundredstrokeswitha golden rod;6°hisdeathhadbeenpronounced;andhe adoredthe clemencyof the sultan,whowassatisfiedwiththe milder punishmentof confiscationandexile. Theintroductionof thissupplyrevivedthehopesoftheGreeks,andaccusedthe supinenessof their Westernallies. Amidstthe desertsof u[Leonardussaysxo,ooo. Critobulusgivesmorereasonablenumbers, buthe,writingfromtheTurkishpointofview,mayhavebeeninclinedto understatetheTurkl-qhlosses. Hesaysthatalittlemo_ethanxoowere killed,andmorethan3oowounded. ] eoAccordingtotheexaggerationorcorrupttextofDucas(e. 38),this goldenbarwasoftheenormousandincred_leweightof500librm,orpounds. Bouflland sreadingof5oodrachms,orfivepounds,issut_cienttoexercise thearmofMahometandbruisethehackofhisadmiral.

32 THE DECLINEANDFALL[C_LXVm Anatolia and the rocks of Palestine,the m_llionsof the crusadeshad buffedthemselvesin a voluntaryandinevitable grave; but the situation of the Imperial city was strong against her enemies,and accessibleto her friends; and a rational and moderate armament of the maritime states might havesavedthe relicsof the Romanname and maintaineda Christianfortressin the heart of the Ottomanempire. Yetthiswasthesoleandfeebleattemptfor thedeliverance of Constantinople; the more distant powers were insensibleof its danger; and the ambassadorof Hungary, or at least of Htmiades,residedin the Turkish camp,to removethefears,andto directtheoperations,of thesultan. *t It wasdifficultfor the Greekstopenetratethesecretof the divan; yet the Greeksare persuadedthat a resistance,so obstinateand surprising,had fatiguedthe perseveranceof Mahomet. He began to meditatea retreat, and the siege wouldhavebeenspeedilyraised,if theambitionandjealousy of thesecondvizir had not opposedthe perfidiousadviceof Calil Bashaw,who still maintaineda secretcorrespondence with the Byzantinecourt. The reductionof the city appearedtobe hopeless,unlessa doubleattack couldbe made fromthe harbouras wellas from theland; but the harbour wasinaccessible:an impenetrablechain wasnow defended byeightlargeships,morethan twentyof asmallersize,with several galleys and sloops; and, instead of forcingthis barrier, the Turks might apprehenda naval sally and a secondencounterin the open sea. In this perplexity,the geniusof Mahometconceivedand executeda plan of a bold Ducas, whoconfesseshimselfill informedof the affairsof Hungary, assignsa motiveof superstition,a fatal beliefthat Constantinoplewouldbe the termofthe Turkishconquests. SeePhranza(I. ill. c. 20)and Spondanus. [The Hungarianenvoyhad cometo announcethat Hunyadyhad resigned the governmentto Ladislaus,the youngking,and to returnthe document, in which a trucebetweenTurkeyand Hungaryhad beensignedin r45x, andaskforthecounterpartwhichhadbeensignedbyHunyady. Theembassywasthusa moveintendedtosuggesttoMohammadthatHungary raightcometo the rescueof the Emperor. ]

A. D. I450"I48I] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 33 and marvellouscast,s3of transportingby landhislighter vesselsand militarystoresfromthe Bosphorusintothe higherpartoftheharbour. Thedistanceisabouttenmiles; the groundis uneven,and wasoverspreadwiththickets; : and,as the roadmust be openedbehindthe suburbof Galata,theirfreepassageor totaldestructionmustdepend ontheoptionof theGenoese. a Buttheseselfishmerchants wereambitiousof the favourof beingthe lastdevoured; and the deficiencyof art wassuppliedby the strengthof obedientmyriads. A levelwaywascoveredwitha broad platformof strongandsolidplanks; andto renderthem moreslipperyandsmooth,theywereanointedwiththefatof sheepand oxen. Fourscore_ lightgalleysandbrigantines offiftyandthirtyoarsweredisembarkedontheBosphorus shore;arrangedsuccessivelyonrollers; anddrawnforwards bythepowerofmenandpulleys. Twoguidesorpilotswere stationedat thehelmandtheprowofeachvessel;thesails wereunfurledtothewinds;andthelabourwascheeredby songandacclamation. In thecourseofa singlenight,this Turkishfleetpainfullyclimbedthehill,steeredovertheplain, andwaslaunchedfromthedeclivityintotheshallowwaters of theharbour,farabovethemolestationofthedeepervesselsof theGreeks. The realimportanceof thisoperation wasmagnifiedbytheconsternationandconfidencewhichit inspired;butthe notorious,unquestionablefact wasdis _[N. Barbarosaysthat theideawassuggestedto the Sultanbya Chrisfinn(p. 27). ] la[Starting fromDiplokionion(BeshaTktash)the ship sailedup theh_ of Staurodromion,anddescendedto the littlebayof Kasimpashain the Golden Horn. See Paspates,op. dr. x36. Wedo not know howlongbeforeits executionthe plan had beenprepared. The distancewas betweentwoand three miles. The bestdescriptionof the transport of the vesselsis given by Cdtohulus,i. 42. Accordingto Michaelthe Janissary(for his Memoirs see Appendix)"the batterieskept up an incessantcannonadethat night," to distractattention (Mijatovich,Constantine,Last Emperorof the Greeks, p. I63). ] o,[Thenumberof shipsis givenbyBarbaroas 72,byTedardias between 70and80, by Critobulusas 67 (Chalcondyles7o, Ducas80). ] VOLX_I. --3

34- THE DECLINEAND FALL [CH. LXVm playedbeforethe eyes,and is recordedby the pens,of the two nations. _ A similar stratagem had been repeatedly practised by the ancients;_ the Ottoman galleys(I must again repeat)should be consideredas large boats; and, if we comparethe magnitudeand the distance,the obstacles and the means, the boasted miracle67has perhaps been equalledby the industry of our own times,es As soon as Mahomethad occupiedthe upper harbourwith a fleetand army, he constructed,in the narrowestpart, a bridge,or rather mole,of fiftycubits in breadthand one hundredin length; it wasformedof casksand hogsheads,joined with rafters linked with iron, and covered with a solid floor. On thisfloatingbatteryheplantedoneof hislargestcannon, whilethe fourscoregalleys,withtroopsand scaling-ladders, approachedthe most accessibleside, whichhad formerly been stormedby the Latin conquerors. The indolenceof the Christianshas been accused for not destroyingthese ,mfinlshedworks; but their fire, by a superiorfire, was controlledandsilenced; norweretheywantingina nocturnal attempt to burn the vesselsas well as the bridgee_of the The unanimoustestimonyof the fourGreeksis confirmedby Cantem/r (p. 96)fromthe Turkishannals; butI couldwish to contractthe distance of ten miles,and to prolongthe termof onenight. **Phranzarelatestwo examplesof a similartransportationoverthe six m_esof the isthmusof Corinth: the one fabulous,of Augustusafter the hattie of Actium; the othertrue, of Nicetas, a Greek general,in the xth century. To these he might haveaddeda boldenterpriseof Hannibal, to introducehisvesselsinto the harbourof Tarentum (Polybius,1. viii. p. 749, edit. Gronov[c. 36]). [Cp. also Thucydides,iii. xS; 8z; iv. 8; and the draggingof the Syracusanfleetof DionysiusI. , overthe isthmusof Motya, a distanceof 2½miles, on a woodenroad (Diodorus,xiv. 5o; Polyaenus, v. 3). ] e7A Greekof Candia,whohad servedthe Venefiansin a similar undertaking (Spond. A. v. x438,No. 37),mightpossiblyhe the adviserand agent of Mahomet. esI particularlyalludetoour ownembarkationsonthe lakesof Canada,in the yearsx776and I777, so greatin the labour,sofruitlessin the event. e0[Barbarostatesthatthe bridgewasnotcompletedtillMayx9; andhe placesthisattemptto burnthe vesselson April28. GibbonfollowsPhrant

^. D. ,4so-_q OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 35 sultan. Hisvigilancepreventedtheirapproach;theirforemostgalliotsweresunkor taken;fortyyouths,thebravest ofItalyand Greece,wereinhumanlymassacredat hiscommand; norcouldtheemperor sgriefbeassuagedbythejust thoughcruelretaliationofexposingfromthewailstheheads of twohundredandsixtyMusulmancaptives. Aftera siege offortydays,thefateof Constantinoplecouldnolongerbe averted. The diminutivegarrisonwas exhaustedby a doubleattack; thefortifications,whichhad stoodforages againsthostileviolence,weredismantledonallsidesbythe Ottomancannon;manybreacheswereopened;andnear thegateofSt. Romanusfourtowershadbeenlevelledwith theground. 7° Forthe paymentofhisfeebleandmutinous troops,Constantinewascompelledto despoilthechurches, withthepromiseof a fourfoldrestitution;andhissacrilege offereda newreproachtotheenemiesoftheunion. Aspirit ofdiscordimpairedthe remnantof theChristianstrength; the Genoeseand Venetianauxiliariesassertedthe preeminenceof theirrespectiveservice;and Justinianiandthe GreatDuke,whoseambitionwasnotextinguishedby the commondanger,accusedeachotherof treacheryandcowardice. DuringthesiegeofConstantinople,thewordsofpeaceand capitulationhad beensometimespronounced;and several zes. Ducasalsomentions(p. 277ed. Bonn)anattempttoburntheTurkhh ships,andattributesitsfailureto the treacheryof the Genoeseof Galata,who revealedit to Mohammad. Due. asmentionsthe constructionof the bridge aper this unluckyenterprise. CritobulnsrelateshowMohammadfoileda planof the Greeksto confinehisshipsto the little harbour(KasimPasha); and he placesthisepisodeafterthe buildingof the bridge(i. 44). It seems fromthis that:Ducashas mixedtogetherthe incidentrecordedbyPhrantzes withthat recorded by Critobulus. ] 70[The Turks alsoessayedminingoperationsagainstthe Caligariaregion (southof Blachernae),wherethe groundwasmost favourable. Butalltheir mines(the firstwasdiscoveredon Mayi6,see Barbaro,p. 4x)werefoiledby the skillof a German engineer,Johannes Grant,who wasentrustedwith the defence of this part of the wall. Cp. Phrantzes,p. 254, and Tedardi, Informacion,p. 25. ]

36 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_LXVm embassieshadpassedbetweenthecampandthecity. " The Greekemperorwashumbledbyadversity;andwouldhave yieldedtoanytermscompatiblewithreligionandroyalty. 7_ TheTurkishsultanwasdesirousofsparingthebloodofhis soldiers;stillmoredesirousof securingforhisownusethe Byzantinetreasures;andheaccomplisheda sacreddutyin presentingtotheGaboursthechoiceofcircumcision,oftribute, orof death. 7s Theavariceof Mahometmighthavebeen satisfiedwithanannualsumofonehundredthousandducats; buthisambitiongraspedthecapitaloftheEast;totheprince heofferedarichequivalent,tothepeoplea freetolerationora safedeparture;but,aftersomefruitlesstreaty,hedeclared hisresolutionoffindingeithera throneora graveunderthe wallsofConstantinople. Asenseofhonourandthefearof universalreproachforbadePal_eologustoresignthecityinto thehandsoftheOttomans;andhedetermiuedtoabidethe lastextremitiesofwar. Severaldayswereemployedbythe sultanin thepreparationsof theassault;anda respitewas Chalcondylesand Ducas differ in the timeand circumstancesof the negotiation;and,asit wasneithergloriousnor salutary,the faithfulPhranz_ spareshis princeeven the thought of a surrender. n [Theauthorof the Slavonicrelationof thesiege(seeAppendix)states that a councilwas held on May 3, and that all the militaryofficers,the senators,andthe patriarchadvisedthe emperorto leave the city, andattemptto createa diversion. "The emperor"(the passageis thus translated by!M. Ch. Mijatovich,op. c/2. p. i73) "listenedto allthisquietlyand patiently. At last, after havingbeen for some timein deep thought,he beganto speak: I thankall for the advicewhichyou havegivenme. I knowthatmy goingoutof thecitymightbeofsomebenefittome,inasmuch as allthatyouforeseemightreallyhappen. Butit isimpossibleforme togo awayl Bow couldI leavethe churchesof our Lordand his servantsthe clergy,and the throne,and my peoplein sucha plight? Whatwouldthe worldsay aboutme? I prayyou, my friends,in futuredo notsay tome anythingelse but: "Nay, sire, do notleaveusl" Never,neverwill I leave youf I am resolvedto die here withyout Andsayingthis,theemperor turnedhisheadaside, becausetearsfilledhis eyes; and with hlmweptthe patriarchand all who were there. "] 7s[OnthismissionMobnmm_dsenthisbrother-in-lawIsmailHam_ lordofSinopeandCastamboly,whowasonfriendlytermswithConstantine. TheincidentisentirelyomittedbyBarbaro,Phrantzcs,andCritobulus. ]

A. D. 4SO- 4S ]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 37 grantedbyhis favouritescienceof astrology,whichhadfixed on the twenty-ninthof May as thefortunateandfatalhour. On the eveningof the twenty-seventh,he issued his final orders; assembledin his presencethemilitarychiefs; and dispersedhis heraldsthroughthe campto proclaimtheduty andthe motivesof the perilousenterprise. Fear is thefirst principleof a despoticgovernment;and his menaceswere expressedintheOrientalstyle,that thefugitivesanddeserters, hadtheythe wingsof abird,7 shouldnot escapefromhis inexorablejustice. The greatestpart of hisbashawsandJanizarieswerethe offspringof Christianparents; buttheglories oftheTurkishnamewereperpetuatedbysuccessiveadoption; and,inthegradualchangeofindividuals,thespiritofalegion, aregiment,or an odaiskeptalivebyimitationanddiscipline. In this holy warfare,the Moslemswere exhortedto purify theirmindswithprayer,theirbodieswithsevenabsolutions; and to abstain from food till the closeof the ensuingday. A crowdof dervishesvisitedthe tents,to instilthe desireof martyrdom,andtheassuranceofspendingan immortalyouth _m;dstthe riversandgardensofparadiseandintheembraces 7*Thesewings(Chalcondyles,I. viii. p. 2o8)arenomorethananOriental figure; but,in the tragedyof Irene, Mahomet spassionsoarsabovesense andl cason:-Shouldthe fierceNorth,uponhisfrozenwings, Bearhimaloftabovethewonderingclouds, AndseathiminthePleiads goldenchariot-Thenceshouldmyfurydraghimdowntotortures. Besidestheextravaganceof therant,I mustobserve,L Thattheoperationofthewindsmustbeconfinedtothelowerregionoftheair. 2. That thename,etymology,andfableoftheP1eiadsarepurelyGreek(Scholiast adHomer,• 686;EudociainIoniA,p. 399;Apollodore,1. iii. c. xo;Heine, p. 229,Not. 682),andhadnoaffinitywiththeastronomyoftheEast(Hyde adUlugbeg,Tabul. inSyntagmaDissert. tom. i. p. 40,42; Goguet,Origine desArts,&c. tom. vi. p. 73-78;Gebelln,Hist. duCalendrier,p. 73),which Mahomethadstudied. 3- Thegoldenchariotdoesnotexisteitherin scienceorfiction;butI muchfearthatDr. Johnsonhasconfoundedthe Pleiads with the great bear or waggon,the zodiac with a northernconstellafion:-

38 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. Lxvm oftheblack-eyedvirgins. YetMahometprincipallytrusted to theefficacyof temporaland visiblerewards. A double paywaspromisedtothevictorioustroops: "Thecityandthe buildings,"saidMahomet,"are mine;butI resignto your valourthe captivesand thespoil,the treasuresofgoldand beauty;be richandbe happy. Manyaretheprovincesof myempire:theintrepidsoldierwhofirstascendsthewalls of Constantinopleshallberewardedwiththegovernmentof the fairestandmostwealthy;andmygratitudeshallaccumulatehishonoursandfortunesabovethemeasureofhisown hopes. " Suchvariousand potentmotivesdiffusedamong theTurksa generalardour,regardlessof lifeandimpatient foraction;thecampre-echoedwiththe Moslemshoutsof "GodisGod,thereisbutoneGod,andMahometistheapostle of God";75andtheseaandland,fromGalatatotheseven towers,wereilluminatedbythe blazeoftheirnocturnalfires. Far differentwasthestateof the Christians;who,with loudandimpotentcomplaints,deploredtheguilt,orthepunishment,oftheirsins. ThecelestialimageoftheVirginhad beenexposedinsolemnprocession;buttheirdivinepatroness wasdeaftotheirentreaties:theyaccusedtheobstinacyofthe emperorforrefusinga timelysurrender;anticipatedthe horrorsoftheirfate; andsighedforthereposeandsecurityof Turkishservitude. ThenoblestoftheGreeks,andthebravestof theallies,weresummonedto the palace,to prepare them,ontheeveningofthetwenty-eighth,forthedutiesand dangersofthegeneralassault. ThelastspeechofPal,_eologus wasthefuneralorationof theRomanempire:7,hepromised, n Phranzaquarrels withtheseMoslemacdamatious,notforthe nameof God, but forthat of the Prophet: the piouszealof Voltaireis excessive,and even ridiculous. [There was a greatilluminationin the Turkish campon the nightof the 24thMay, when the Sultanfirst proclaimedhis plan for a generalassault(Barbaro,p. 46; it is mentionedalsoby"the Slavonicchronicle). Gibbonrefers to the illuminationon May 27. ] n I am afraid that this discoursewas composedbyPhranzahimself; and it smellssogrosslyof thesermonandthe conventthatI almostdoubtwhether

_. D. t45o-x4sz3OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 39 heconjured,andhewlnlyattemptedtoinfusethehopewhich wasextinguishedinhisownmind. Inthisworldallwascomfortlessandgloomy;andneitherthegospelnorthechurch haveproposedanyconspicuousrecompensetotheheroeswho fallintheserviceoftheircountry. Buttheexampleoftheir princeand theconfinementof a siegehadarmedthesewarriorswiththecourageofdespair;andthepatheticsceneis describedbythefeelingsofthehistorianPhranza,whowas himselfpresentatthismournfulassembly. Theywept,they embraced;regardlessof theirfamiliesand fortunes,they devotedtheirlives;andeachcommander,departingto his station,maintainedallnighta vigilantandanxiouswatchon therampart. Theemperor,andsomefaithfulcompanions, enteredthedomeofSt. Sophia,whichinafewhourswastobe convertedintoa mosch;and devoutlyreceived,withtears and prayers,the sacramentof the holycommunion. He reposedsomemomentsinthepalace,whichresoundedwith criesandlamentations;solicitedthepardonofallwhomhe mighthaveinjured;77andmountedonhorsebacktovisitthe guardsandexplorethemotionsoftheenemy. Thedistress andfall ofthe lastConstantinearemoregloriousthanthe longprosperityofthe ByzantineC_esars. In the confusionofdarknessan assailantmaysometimes succeed;but, inthisgreatandgeneralattack,themilitary judgmentand astrologicalknowledgeof Mahometadvised himto expectthemorning,_sthememorabletwenty-ninthof May,in the fourteenhundredand fifty-thirdyearof the Christianera. Theprecedingnighthad beenstrenuously itwaspronouncedbyConstantine. Leonardusassignshimanotherspeech, inwhichheaddresseshimseLfmorerespectfullytotheLatinauxiliaries. 7_Thisabasement,whichdevotionhassometimesextortedfromdying princes,isanimprovementofthegospeldoctrineoftheforgivenessofinjuries;itismoreeasytoforgive499timesthanoncetoaskpardonofan inferior. 7a[Sotheeye-witnesses,PhrantzesandBarbaro. ButCritobulnsand Ducassetthebeginningofthefinalassaultonthe28th,andmakethefightinggoonallnight. ]

40 THE DECLINEAND FALL [c_. Lxvm employed:thetroops,thecannon,andthefascineswere advancedto the edgeof the ditch, which, in many parts, presenteda smoothand levelpassageto thebreach; andhis fourscoregalleysalmosttouched,with the prowsand their scaling-ladders,the less defensiblewalls of the harbour. Underpain of death,silencewasenjoined; but the physical lawsof motionand sound are not obedientto disciplineor fear; each individualmightsuppresshis voiceand measure hisfootsteps; but themarchandlabourof thousandsmustinevitablyproducea strangeconfusionof dissonantclamours, whichreachedthe ears of the watchmenof the towers. At daybreak,withoutthe customarysignalof the morning-gun, the Turksassaultedthecity byseaand land; andthe similitude of a twinedor twistedthread has been appliedto the closenessand continuityof their lineof attack. 79 The foremost ranks consistedof the refuseof the host, a voluntary crowd,whofoughtwithoutorderor command; ofthefeeblenessof ageor childhood,of peasantsand vagrants,and of all who had joinedthe camp in the blind hope of plunderand martyrdom. The commonimpulsedrovethem onwardsto thewall; themostaudacioustoclimbwereinstantlyprecipitated; andnot a dart, not a bullet,of theChristianswasidly wastedon the accumulatedthrong. But their strengthand ammunitionwcre exhaustedin this laboriousdefence; the ditchwasfilledwiththe bodiesof the slain; they supported the footstepsof their companions; andof thisdevotedvanguard the death wasmore serviceablethan the life. Under their respectivebashawsand sanjaks,the troopsof Anatolia andRomaniawcresuccessivelyledto thecharge: theirprogresswas variousand doubtful; but, after a conflictof two hours, the Greeks still maintainedand improvedtheir advantage; and the voiceofthe emperorwasheard, encouraging his soldiersto achieve,by a last effort,the deliveranceof Besides the zo,ooo guards,and the sailorsand the marines,Ducas numbersin this generalassault 250,000Turks, both horse and foot.

A. D. 14_O-I48I]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 4I their country. In that fatal moment,the Janizariesarose, fresh,vigorous,andinvincible. Thesultanhimselfonhorseback, withan ironmacein his hand, wasthe spectatorand judgeoftheirvalour; he wassurroundedbyten thousandof his domestictroops,whomhe reservedfor the decisiveoccasion; and the tide of battle wasdirectedand impelledby his voiceand eye. His numerousministersof justicewere postedbehind the line,to urge, to restrain,and to punish; and, if dangerwasin the front,shameand inevitabledeath wereintherearofthefugitives. The criesoffearandofpain weredrownedin the martial musicof drums,trumpets,and attabaUs; and experiencehas proved that the mechanical operationof sounds, by quickening the circulationof the bloodand spirits,willact on the human machinemoreforciblythan the eloquenceof reason and honour. From the lines, the galleys,and the bridge, the Ottoman artillery thunderedonallsides; andthecampandcity,theGreeksand theTurks,wereinvolvedina cloudofsmoke,whichcouldonly be dispelledby the final deliveranceor destructionof the Romanempire. The singlecombatsof theheroesof history or fableamuseourfancyandengageouraffections; theskilful evolutionsof war may informthe mind,and improvea necessarythoughperniciousscience. But,intheuniformand odiouspicturesof a generalassault,all isblood,andhorror, andconfusion; norshallI strive,at thedistanceofthreecenturiesand a thousand miles,to delineatea sceneof which therecouldbe no spectators,and of whichthe actorsthemselveswere incapableof formingany just or adequateidea, The immediatelossof Constantinoplemay be ascribedto the bullet, or arrow, which piercedthe gauntlet of John Jusfiniani. *° The sightof his blood,and theexquisitepain, s0[At3o clockinthemorningabreachintheouterwallneartheGateof St. Romanushadbeenmadebya cannon,andtheTurkspressedintothe spacebetweentheouterandinnerwalls. Theywererepelledatlast,mainly throughtheeffortsoftheVenetians(accordingtoBarbaro); butitwassoon necessarytobringupthereserveswhich(underTheodorePalaeologusand

42 THE DECLINE AND FALL CCa. Lxvm appalledthe courageof thechief,whosearmsand counsel werethefirmestrampartofthecity. Ashewithdrewfrom hisstationinquestofa surgeon,hisflightwasperceivedand stoppedbytheindefatigableemperor. "Yourwound,"exclaimedPalmologus,"is slight;thedangerispressing;your presenceis necessary;and whitherwillyouretire?" "I willretire,"saidthetremblingGenoese,"bythesameroad whichGodhasopenedtotheTurks;" andat thesewordshe hastilypassedthroughoneofthebreachesoftheinnerwall. Bythispusillanimousact,hestainedthehonoursofamilitary life; andthefewdayswhichhe survivedinGalata,or the isleof Chios,wereembitteredby hisownand the public reproach21Hisexamplewasimitatedbythe greatestpart oftheLatinauxiliaries,andthedefencebegantoslackenwhen theattackwaspressedwithredoubledvigour. Thenumber oftheOttomanswasfifty,perhapsanhundred,timessuperior tothatof theChristians;thedoublewallswerereducedby thecannontoanheapofruins;ina circuitofseveralmiles, someplacesmustbe foundmoreeasyof accessor more feeblyguarded;and,if the besiegerscouldpenetratein a DemetriusCantacuzenus)were postedat the Churchof theHolyAposties. It was at this moment, whenthese reservetroopswere drivingback the Turks, that Giustinianiwas wounded (in the leg, Phrantz_; in the hand, ChalcondylesandDucas; underthe armpit,ZorzoDolfmand Leonardus; in the arm, Pusculus; in the chest, Critobulus). ] alIn the severecensureof the flightof Justiniaul,Phranza expresseshis ownfeelingsand thoseof the public. Forsomeprivatereasons,heistreated withmorelenityandrespectbyDucas; but thewordsof LeonardnsChiensis expresshisstrongandrecentindignation,giorimsalutlssulqueoblitus. In thewholeseriesof theirEasternpolicy,hiscountrymen,the Genoese,were alwayssuspected,andoftenguilty. ["ThedialoguebetweenConstantineand Ginstinianigivenin the pagesof Gibbonisevidentlyarhetoricalinvention. Noneof thehistorianswerepresent,and whoof thosepresentcouldreport any conversationwith accuracyat such a moment?" Fiulay,History of Greece,iii. p. 52onote. Barbaro,whois throughoutsevereonthe Genoese, ismarkedlyhostileto Giustiulaul. Thefactsthatthewoundactuallyproved mortal,andthatGiustiniaul svalouranddistinguishedservicesare extolled byallthe Greekwriters,areasufficientanswerto theaccusationsof cowardice andfailurein duty. ]

_D. t4SO-_48X]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 43 single point, the whole city was irrecoverablylost. The first who deserved the sultan s reward was Hassan, the Janizary, of gigantic stature and strength. With his scymetar in one hand and his buckler in the other, he ascended the outward fortification ; of the thirty Janizaries, who wereemulous of his valour, eighteen perished in the bold adventure. Hassan and his twelvecompanions had reached the summit : the giant was precipitated from the rampart ; he roseon one knee, and was again oppressed by a shower of darts and stones: But his success had proved that the achievement was possible: the walls and towers were instantly covered with a swarm of Turks ; and the Greeks, now drivenfrom the vantage-ground, wereoverwhelmed by increasing multitudes. 82 Amidst these multitudes, the emperor,_ who accomplished all the duties [In thisaccountof thelastconflictGibbonhas omitteda highlyimportantfactwhichhastenedthe captureofthe city. Thisfactis notmentionedbyPhrantzes;it restsontheauthorityof Ducas(p. 28o-5)andis confirmedbya shortstatementof Critobulus(i. 6oadfin. ). Northofthe PortaCharseae,southofthePortaCaligaria,ina transversewailwhichconneetstheinnerandouterTheodosianwalis,thereisa smaUpostern(foundby M. Paspates)whichis calledtheKerkoportabyDucas(wrongly?),andwas alwayskeptshut,buthadbeenopenedbyGiustiniani sordersforthepurpose of a possiblesortie. Someof the Greekswhowerefightingin thespace betweentheinnerandtheouterwall,pressedbytheenemy,retreatedthrough theKerkoporta,andfiftyTurksfoUowedthem,astheyneglectedtoshutthe gate. MoreTurkssoonpressedin,andothersmountedthewalis,captured thetowerclosetothegate,andsetupthe Ottomanstandardsonthewalls. Theretreatofthe Greeks,whowereoutsidethe innerwall,bythe Kerkoportawasnowcutoff,andseeingthe flagsof the foeonthe battlements theythrongedbackthroughthePortaCharseae,whichwasthenleft undefended,sothattheTurkscouldenterbythisgatetoo. TheTurkswho thuspenetratedseemtohavebetakenthemselvesat firstto theharbourside ofthecity,andsometimeelapsedbeforethecombatantsat theGateofSt. Romanus,wherethe fightwasragingmosthotly,learnedwhathadhappened. Phrantzes(withoutexplaining)describesthe arrivalofthe tidings (p. 285). A crywasheardon theharbourside:"The fortis taken,the standardsof thefoeareon the towersl"ThenConstantinespurredhis horseintothe thickof the fray. ] atDucaskillshim withtwoblowsof Turkishsoldiers;Chalcondyles woundshimin theshoulder,andthentrampleshiminthegate. Thegrief ofPhranzacarryinghimamongthe enemyescapesfromthepreciseimage

THE DECLINE AND FALL [c_. uxvm of a general and a soldier,was longseen, and finallylost. The nobleswhofoughtroundhis personsustained,till their last breath,the honourablenamesof Pala_ologusand Cantacuzene: his mournfulexclamationwasheard,"Cannotthere be founda Christianto cutoffmyhead?" _ andhislast fear wasthat of fallingaliveintothehandsof theinfidels. _ The prudentdespairof Constantinecastawaythe purple; amidst the tumult,he fell by an unknownhand,and his bodywas buried under a mountain of the slain. After his death, resistanceand orderwereno more; the Grecksfledtowards the city; and many werepressedand stifledin the narrow pass of thc gate of St. Romanus. The victoriousTurks rushedthroughthe breachesof the inner wall; and, as they advancedinto the streets, they were soon joined by their brethren, whohad forcedthe gatePhenaron the sideof the harbour. " In the firstheat of the pursuit,abouttwo thousand Christianswereput tothe sword; but avaricesoonpreof hisdeath; but we may,withoutflattery,applythese noblelinesof Dryden:m Asto Sebastian,letthemsearchthefield; And,wheretheyfinda mountainof theslain, Sendone to climb,andlookingdownbeneath, Theretheywill findhimat hismanlylength, Withhisface upto heaven,in thatredmonument Whichhisgoodswordhaddigg d. Spondanus(A. D. I453,No. zo),whohas hopesof hissalvation,wishes to absolvethis demandfromthe guilt of suicide. LeonardusChiensisveryproperlyobservesthatthe Turks,hadthey knowntheemperor,wouldhavelabouredto save and securea captiveso acceptableto the sultan. [It appearsthat Constantinefell in the space betweenthe inner and outerwails(Ducas, p. 283), nearthe Gate of St. Romanus(Phrantzes,p. 287). Critobulusis mistakenin sayingthatit was near the Kerkoporta(i. 6o). TheodoreSpanduginoCantacusinoin his work"Della originede principiTurchi" (ed. z564,p. z9S) describesConstantineas rejectingthe proposalswhichweremadeto him to fleeto the harbour,and crying,"God forbidthat I shouldlive an Emperorwithout enjoyingthe EmpireI I will die with my cityl"] s Cantemir,p. 96. The Christianshipsin themouthof the harbourhad flankedand retardedthis navalattack. [Cp. Barbara,p. 56; Critobulus, i. 65. ]

A. v. ,4so-,_,]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 45 vailedovercruelty;andthevictorsacknowledgedthatthey shouldimmediatelyhavegivenquarter,if the valourofthe emperorandhischosenbandshad notpreparedthemfora similaroppositionineverypartof thecapital. It wasthus, afterasiegeoffifty-threedays,thatConstantinople,whichhad defiedthe powerof Chosroes,the Chagan,andthe caliphs, wasirretrievablysubduedby the armsof Mahometthe Second. HerempireonlyhadbeensubvertedbytheLatins; herreligionwastrampledin the dustby theMoslemconquerors,s7 Thetidingsofmisfortuneflywitha rapidwing;yetsuch wastheextentof Constantinoplethatthemoredistantquarters mightprolong,somemoments,the happyignoranceof theirruin. s8Butinthegeneralconsternation,inthefeelings of selfishor socialanxiety,inthetumultandthunderofthe assault,a sleeplessnightandmorningmusthaveelapsed; nor canI believethatmanyGrecianladieswereawakenedbythe Janizariesfroma soundandtranquilslumber. Onthe assuranceofthepubliccalamity,thehousesandconventswere instantlydeserted;andthetremblinginhabitantsflockedtogetherin the streets,likean herdof timidanimals,as if accumulatedweaknesscouldbeproductiveofstrength,orin thevainhopethatamidthecrowdeachindividualmightbe safe and invisible. Fromeverypart of the capital,they flowedintothechurchofSt. Sophia:inthespaceofanhour, thesanctuary,thechoir,thenave,theupperandlowergalleries,werefailedwiththemultitudesoffathersandhusbands, of womenand children,of priests,monks,andreligious s7ChalcondylesmostabsurdlysupposesthatConstantinoplewassacked bytheAsiaticsin revengefortheancientcalamitiesofTroy;andthegrammariansofthexvthcenturyarehappytomeltdowntheuncouthappellation of Turksintothe moreclassicalnameof Teucri. 88WhenCyrussurprisedBabylonduringthecelebrationofa festival,so vastwasthe city,andso carelesswerethe inhabitants,that muchtime elapsedbeforethe distantquartersknewthattheywerecaptives. Herodotu_(I. i. c. x9I),andUsher(Annal. p. 78),whohasquotedfromthe prophetJeremiaha passageof _imilarimport.

46 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXWn virgins; the doorswerebarredonthe inside,andtheysought protectionfromthe sacreddomewhichthey hadsolatelyabhorred as a profaneand pollutededifice. Their confidence wasfoundedon the prophecyof an enthusiastor impostor, that onedaytheTurks wouldenterConstantinople,andpursuethe Romansas far as the columnof Constantinein the squarebeforeSt. Sophia; but that this wouldbe the termof their calamities;that an angelwoulddescendfrom heaven, with a swordin his hand,andwoulddelivertheempire,with that celestialweapon,to a poormanseatedat thefootof the column. "Take thissword,"wouldhe say,"and avengethe peopleof the Lord. " At these animatingwords,the Turks wouldinstantlyfly,and the victoriousRomanswoulddrive them from the West,and from all Anatolia,as far as the frontiersof Persia. It is on this occasionthat Ducas,with somefancy and much truth, upbraidsthe discordand obstinacy of the Greeks. "Had that angel appeared," exclaimsthehistorian,"had he offeredto exterminateyourfoes if youwouldconsenttothe unionofthechurch,eventhen,in that fatal moment,you wouldhave rejectedyour safetyor have deceivedyour God. " sg Whilethey expectedthe descentof the tardy angel,the doorswerebrokenwithaxes; and, as the Turksencountered noresistance,theirbloodlesshandswereemployedinselecting and securing the multitude of their prisoners. Youth, beauty,and the appearanceof wealthattractedtheir choice; and therightof propertywasdecidedamongthemselvesbya n This lively descriptionis extractedfromDucas (c. 39),who twoyears afterwaxdswas sentambassadorfrom the prince of Lesbos to the sultan (c. 44)- Till Lesbos was subdued in i463 (Phranza,1. iii. c. 27), that islandmust havebeenfullof thefugitivesof Constantinople,whodelighted to repeat,perhapsto adorn,the tale of theirmisery. [The terrible descriptionof thewastingof ConstantinoplegivenbyCritobulus(i. 61-63), who wrote as a friend of the Turks, provesthat the otherhistorianshave not exaggeratedthefrightfulscenes. He has an interestingnoticeof the destruction of bookssacredand profane(c. 62,3) ; someweredestroyed,but "the greaternumber of them" were soldfor small sums, cp. Ducas, p. 312. ]

,. D. ,45o-,48,] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 47 prior seizure,by personalstrength, and by the authorityof command. In the spaceof an hour,the malecaptiveswere bound with cords,the femaleswith their veilsand girdles. The senatorswerelinkedwiththeirslaves; the prelateswith the portersof thechurch;and youngmenof a plebeianclass withnoblemaids,whosefaceshad beeninvisibleto the sun and their nearestkindred. In this commoncaptivity,the rznk. _of societywereconfounded; theties ofnaturewerecut asunder; and the inexorable soldierwas carelessof the father sgroans,thetearsof the mother,andthelamentations of thechildren. The loudestintheir wailingswerethenuns, whoweretornfromthealtarwithnakedbosoms,outstretched hands, and dishevelledhair; and we shouldpiouslybelieve that fewcouldbe temptedtopreferthe vigilsof theharemto thoseofthemonastery. OftheseunfortunateGreeks,ofthese domesticanimals,whole stringswererudelydriventhrough the streets; and, as the conquerorswere eagertoreturnfor moreprey,their tremblingpacewasquickenedwithmenaces andblows. At thesamehour,asimilarrapinewasexercised in all the churchesand monasteries,in all the palaces and habitationsof the capital; nor could any palace, however sacredor sequestered,protectthe personsor the propertyof the Greeks. Abovesixtythousand90of this devotedpeople were transportedfrom the city to the camp and fleet; exchangedor soldaccordingto the capriceor interest of their masters,and dispersedin remoteservitudethroughtheprovincesof the Ottomanempire. Amongthesewe may notice someremarkablecharacters. The historian Phranza, first chamberlainand principalsecretary,was involvedwith his family in the common lot. After sufferingfour months the hardshipsof slavery,he recoveredhis freedom; in the ensuingwinterhe venturedto Hadrianople,andransomedhis *0[SoLeonardus,p. 334;accordingtoCritobulus,5o,ooo,andthesame authoritygivesthenumberofslainamongthedefenders,throughoutthesiege andinthefinalcapture,as4000. ]

48 THE DECLINE AND FALL [cH. LXVln wifefromthemirbashi,ormasterofhorse;buthistwochildren,in theflowerof youthandbeauty,hadbeenseizedfor theuseofMahomethimself. ThedaughterofPhranzadied intheseraglio,perhapsa virgin; hisson,inthefifteenthyear of hisage,preferreddeathto infamy,andwasstabbedby thehandoftheroyallover. 8t A deedthusinhumanc_nnot surelybe expiatedbythetasteandliberalitywithwhichhe releaseda Grecianmatronandhertwodaughters,onreceiving aLatinodefromPhilelphus,whohadchosena wifeinthat noblefamily. _ TheprideorcrueltyofMahometwouldhave beenmostsensiblygratifiedbythecaptureofaRomanlegate; butthedexterityofCardinalIsidoreeludedthesearch,andhe escapedfromGalatain a plebeianhabit. _ Thechainandentranceoftheoutwardharbourwasstill occupiedbytheItalianshipsofmerchandiseandwar. They hadsignalisedtheirvalourinthesiege;theyembracedthe momentofretreat,whiletheTurkishmarinersweredissipated inthepillageof thecity. Whentheyhoistedsail,thebeach wascoveredwitha suppliantandlamentablecrowd; butthe meansof transportationwerescanty; the Venetiansand Genoeseselectedtheircountrymen;and,notwithstandingthe fairestpromisesofthesultan,theinhabitantsofGalataevacuatedtheirhousesand embarkedwiththeirmostprecious effects. *lSee Phranza,1. iii. c. 20, 2x. His expressionsare positive: Ameras su_ manu jugulavit. . . volebatenlm eo turpiteret nefarieabuti. Me miserumet infelicem. Yet he couldonly learnfrom reportthe bloodyor impurescenesthat wereactedin the darkrecessesof the semgllo. 02SeeTiraboschi(tom. vi. p. i. p. 29o), andLancelot(M_m. de l Acad_mie desInscriptions,tom. x. p. 7x8). I shouldbecuriousto learnhowhe couldpraisethe publicenemy,whomhesooftenrevilesas themostcorrupt andinhumanof tyrants. u The Commentariesof Pins II. supposethathecraftilyplacedhis cardinal shatontheheadof acorpse,whichwas cutoffandexposedintriumph, whilethe legatehimseffwas boughtand delivered,as a captiveof novalue. The great BelglcChronicleadornshisescapewithnewadventures,which hesuppressed(saysSpondanns,A. D. I453,No. _5)in hisownletters,lesthe shouldlose the merit and rewardof sufferingfor Christ.

A. D. z4so-t4sx]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 49 In the falland the sackof greatcities,an historianis condenmedto repeat the tale of uniformcalamity; the same effectsmust be producedby the same passions; and, when thosepassionsmaybe indulgedwithoutcontrol,small,alast is the differencebetweencivilisedand savageman. Amidst the vagueexclamationsof bigotryandhatred,the Turks are not accusedof a wantonor immoderateeffusionof Christian blood; but, accordingto their maxims(themaximsof antiquity),the livesof the vanquishedwereforfeited; and the legitimaterewardof the conquerorwasderivedfromtheservice,the sale,or the ransom of his captivesof both sexes. ** The wealthof Constantinoplehadbeengrantedby thesultan to his victorioustroops; and the rapine of an hour is more productivethan the industryof years. But, as no regular divisionwasattemptedof thespoil,therespectiveshareswere not determinedby merit; and the rewards of valourwere stolenawayby the followersof the camp,whohad declined thetoilanddangerof the battle. Thenarrativeof theirdepredationscould not affordeitheramusementor instruction; the total amount,in the last povertyof the empire,hasbeen valuedat four millionsof ducats; . 5and of this sum a small partwasthe propertyoftheVenetians,theGenoese,theFlorentines,andthe merchantsof Ancona. Of these foreigners, the stockwas improvedin quick and perpetualcirculation; but the richesof the Greeksweredisplayedinthe idleostentation ofpalacesand wardrobes,or deeplyburiedin treasures of ingotsand old coin,lest it shouldbe demandedat their handsfor thedefenceof theircountry. Theprofanationand Busbequlusexpatiateswithpleasureand applauseonthe fights of war and the useof slaveryamongthe ancientsand the Turks (de Legat. Turdc_, epist, iii. p. x61). 0sThis sumis specifiedin a marginalnoteof Leunclavius(Chalcondyles, I. viii. p. _xx),but in the distributionto Venice,Genoa,Florence,andAncona, of 5o, 20, so, and x5,oooducats, I suspectthat a figurehas been dropt. Even with the restitution,the foreignproperty wouldscarcelyexoeedone fourth. VOL. XIL_4

50 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXWn plunderof the monasteriesandchurchesexcitedthe most tragiccomplaints. ThedomeofSt. Sophiaitself,theearthly heaven,the secondfirmament,the vehicleof thecherubim, thethroneof the gloryof God,_ wasdespoiledoftheoblationsofages;andthegoldandsilver,thepearlsandjewels, thevasesandsacerdotalornaments,weremostwickedlyconvettedtotheserviceofmankind. Afterthedivineimageshad beenstrippedofallthatcouldbevaluabletoaprofaneeye,the canvas,or thewood,wastorn,or broken,or burnt,ortrod underfoot,or applied,in thestablesorthe kitchen,to the vilestuses. Theexampleofsacrilegewasimitated,however, fromtheLatinconquerorsofConstantinople;andthetreatmentwhichChrist,theVirgin,and thesaintshad sustained from theguiltyCatholicmightbe inflictedby thezealous Musulmanonthemonumentsof idolatry. Perhaps,insteadof joiningthepublicclamour,a philosopherwillobservethatin thedeclineoftheartsthe workmanshipcouldnotbemore valuablethanthework,andthata freshsupplyofvisionsand miracleswouldspeedilyberenewedbythecraftofthepriest andthecredulityofthepeople. Hewillmoreseriouslydeplore thelossoftheByzantinelibraries,whichweredestroyedor scatteredin thegeneralconfusion:onehundredandtwenty thousandmanuscriptsare saidto havedisappeared;°_ten volumesmightbepurchasedforasingleducat; andthesame ignominiousprice,toohighperhapsfora shelfoftheology, includedthewholeworksofAristotleandHomer,thenoblest productionsof thescienceandliteratureof ancientGreece. Wemayreflectwithpleasurethatan inestimableportionof ourclassictreasureswassafelydepositedin Italy; andthat themechanicsofa Germantownhadinventedan artwhich deridesthe havocof timeandbarbarism. NSeetheenthusiasticpraisesandlamentationsofPhranza(1. iii. c. _7). 07SeeDucas(c. 43),andanepistle,xsthJ uly,x453,fromLaurusQuidnustoPopeNicholasV. (HodydeGr_cis,_. p. x92,fromaMS. intheCotton Library). [Cp. above,p. 86,note89. ]

A. D. 1450-I48I]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 5I Fromthefirsthour08of thememorabletwenty-ninthof May,disorderandrapineprevailedin Constantinopletill the eighthhourof the sameday; whenthesultanhimself passedin triumphthroughthegateof St. Romanus. He wasattendedbyhis vizirs,bashaws,andguards,eachof whom(saysa Byzantinehistorian)wasrobustasHercules, dexterousasApollo,andequalinbattletoanytenoftherace of ordinarymortals. Theconqueroro9gazedwithsatisfactionandwonderonthestrangethoughsplendidappearanceofthedomesandpalaces,sodissimilarfromthestyle of Orientalarchitecture. In the hippodrome,or atmeidan, hiseyewasattractedbythetwistedcolumnofthethreeserpents;and,asatrialofhisstrength,heshatteredwithhisiron maceorbattle-axetheunder-jawofoneofthesemonsters,1°° whichintheeyeoftheTurksweretheidolsortalismansof thecity. Attheprincipaldoorof St. Sophia,he alighted fromhishorseand enteredthe dome;1°_andsuchwashis jealousregardforthatmonumentof hisglorythat,onobservinga zealousMusulmanintheactofbreakingthemarble pavement,he admonishedhimwithhis scymetarthat,if thespoilandcaptivesweregrantedtothesoldiers,thepublic andprivatebuildingshadbeenreservedfortheprince. By hiscommandthemetropolisoftheEasternchurchwastransformedintoa mosch:therichand portableinstruments of superstitionhadbeenremoved;the crosseswerethrown 0sTheJuliancalendar,whichreckonsthedaysandhoursfrommidnight, wasusedat Constantinople. ButDucasseemsto understandthe natural hoursfromsunrise. stSeetheTurkishAnnals,p. 3_9,andthe Pandectsof Leunclavius, p. 448. 10oI havehadoccasion(vol. ill. p. xo4-5)to mentionthiscuriousrelic of Gredanantiquity. tot[Accordingto the SlavonicRelation,hestoopeddownatthethresholdof thechurch,tooksomeearth,andscattereditonhishead,in token ofhumiliationto God. Inthesamesourceitis statedthat,attheprayers ofthepriestswhom_thiminSt. Sophia,heissuedaproclamationtostaythe pillage,c. _x --_". ]

52 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c_. mxvm down;andthewalls,whichwerecoveredwithimagesand mosaics,werewashedandpurifiedandrestoredto a state ofnakedsimplicity. 1°2Onthesameday,orontheensuing Friday,themuezinorcrierascendedthemostloftyturret, andproclaimedtheezan,or publicinvitation,in thename ofGodandhisprophet;theimampreached;andMahomet the Secondperformedthe namesof prayerandthanksgivingonthegreataltar,wherethe Christianmysterieshad so latelybeencelebratedbeforethelast of theC_esars. lm FromSt. Sophiahe proceededto theaugustbutdesolate mansionof anhundredsuccessorsofthegreatConstantine; butwhich,in a fewhours,hadbeenstrippedof thepomp of royalty. A melancholyreflectiononthe vicissitudesof humangreatnessforceditselfonhismind;andherepeated an elegantdistichofPersianpoetry,"Thespiderhaswove hiswebin theimperialpalace;andtheowlhathsungher watch-songonthetowersofMrasiab. "10_ Yethismindwasnotsatisfied,nordidthevictoryseem complete,tillhewasinformedof thefateof Constantine; whetherhehadescaped,orbeenmadeprisoner,orhadfallen inthebattle. TwoJanizarieschimedthehonourandreward ofhisdeath: thebody,undera heapofslain,wasdiscovered bythegoldeneaglesembroideredonhisshoes;theGreeks acknowledgedwithtearstheheadoftheirlateemperor;and, afterexposingthebloodytrophy,1°6Mahometbestowedon Jm[Coveredwithwhitewash. ] 10sWeareobligedto Cantemir(p. xo_)fortheTurkishaccountof the conversionof St. Sophia,sobitterlydeploredbyPhranzaandDucas. It is amusingenoughtoobserveinwhatoppositelightsthesameobjectappears to a Musulmananda Christianeye. 10_Thisdistich,whichCantemirgivesintheoriginal,derivesnewbeauties fromthe application,It wasthus thatSdpiorepeated,in the sackof Carthage,thefamousprophecyofHomer. Thesamegenerousfeelingcarfledthemindoftheconquerortothepastorthefuture. z_I cannotbelieve,withDucas(seeSpondanus,A. D. I453,No. z3),that MahometsentroundPersia,Arabia,&c. the headof theGreekemperor; he wouldsurelycontenthimselfwitha trophylessinhuman.

_ 1t_ "_ _ _ A-D. I450- I4SI]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 53 hisrivalthehonoursofa decentfuneral. Afterhisdecease, LucasNotaras,greatduke,a°6andfirstministeroftheempire, wasthe most importantprisoner. Whenhe offeredhis personandhistreasuresatthefootofthethrone,"Andwhy," saidtheindignantsultan,"didyounotemploythesetreasures inthe defenceof yourprinceand country?" "Theywere yours,"answeredthe slave; "God had reservedthemfor yourhands. " "If he reservedthemfor me,"repliedthe despot,"howhaveyoupresumedtowithholdthemsolong bya fruitlessandfatalresistance?"Thegreatdukealleged theobstinacyofthestrangers,andsomesecretencouragement fromthe Turkishvizir; and fromthis perilousinterview hewasat lengthdismissedwiththeassuranceof pardonand protection. Mahometcondescendedto visit his wife,a venerableprincess,oppressedwithsicknessand grief;and hisconsolationfor hermisfortuneswasin themosttender strainof humanityandfilialreverence. Asimilarclemency wasextendedto the principalofficersof state,of whom severalwereransomedat hisexpense;andduringsomedays he declaredhimselfthefriendandfatherofthevanquished people. But the scenewassoonchanged;and beforehis departurethe hippodromestreamedwiththe bloodof his noblestcaptives. Hisperfidiouscrueltyisexecratedbythe Christians. Theyadornwiththe coloursof heroicmartyrdomtheexecutionofthegreatdukeandhistwosons;and hisdeathis ascribedto the generousrefusalof delivering hischildrentothetyrant slust. 1°7Yeta Byzantinehistorian has dropt an unguardedwordof conspiracy,deliverance, INPhranzawasthepersonalenemyofthegreatduke;norcouldtime,or death,or hisownretreattoa monasteryextorta feelingof sympathyor forgiveness[iii. 9]. Ducasisinclinedtopraiseandpitythemartyr; Chalcondylesis neuter;butweareindebtedtohimforthehintofthe Greekconspiraey. 107[SoDucas,p. 303sqq. Chalcondylea,p. 4o_. Pusculus,iv. xo7n CritobulussaysgenerallythatNotarasandhissonswereputtodeathbythe adviceof the Sultan scouncillors(i. 73,9). ]

_*_ _-- ,,4 _ _ • _ 54 THE DECLINEAND FALL [c-_LXVm and Ital_ansuccour: such treasonmay be glorious; but the rebelwho bravelyventureshas justlyforfeitedhis life; nor should we blame a conquerorfor destroyingthe enemies whomhe can no longertrust. On the eighteenthof June, the victorioussultan returned to Hadrianople; and smiled at the base and hollowembassiesof the Christianprinces, whoviewedtheir approachingruin in the fallof the Eastern empire. Constantinoplehad beenleft naked and desolate,without a princeor a people. But shecouldnot be despoiledof the incomparablesituationwhichmarks her for the metropolis of a great empire; and the genius of the place will ever triumph over the accidents of time and fortune. Boursa and Hadrianople,the ancientseats of the Ottomans,sunk intoprovincialtowns; and Mahometthe Secondestablished his own residence,and that of his successors,on the same commandingspotwhichhad beenchosenby Constantine. l°s The fortificationsof Galata, which might afford a shelter to the Latins, were prudentlydestroyed; but the damage of the Turkish cannonwas soonrepaired; and bcforethe monthof Augustgreatquantitiesof limehad beenburntfor the restorationof the walls of the capital. As the entire propertyof the soiland buildings,whetherpublicor private, or profaneor sacred,was nowtransferredto the conqueror, he first separated a space of eight furlongsfrom the point of thetrianglefor the establishmentof hisseraglio,or palace. It is here,in the bosomof luxury,that the grand Signor (as he has beenemphaticallynamedbythe Italians)appears to reignoverEuropeand Asia; but his persononthe shores z0BFortherestitutionofConstantinopleandtheTurkishfoundations, seeCantemix(p. xo2-xo9), Ducas(c. 42),withTh_venot,Tournefort,and therestofourmoderntravellers. [Cp. Zinkeisen,op. c/z. ii. p. 5-8. ] From a giganticpictureofthegreatness,population,&c. ofConstantinopleand theOttomanempire(Abr_g$del HistoireOttomane,tom. i. p. x6--2x),we maylearnthatin theyearx586theMoslemswerelessDnm_ronsinthe capitalth_ntheChristiansoreventheJews.

A. o. ,45o--x4s,]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 55 of the t_osphoru_may not alw_y_he securefromthe ingultg of an hostile navy. In the new character of a mosch, the cathedral of St. Sophia was endowedwith an ample revenue,crownedwith loftyminarets,and surroundedwith grovesand fountains,for the devotionand refreshmentof the Moslems. The same modelwas imitated in the ]ami, orroyalmoschs;and thefirstof thesewasbuiltbyMahomet himself,on the ruinsof the churchof the HolyApostlesand the tombs of the Greekemperors. On the third day after the conquest, the grave of Abu Ayub, or Job, who had fallenin thefirstsiegeof theArabs,wasrevealedin a vision; and it is before the sepulchreof the martyrthat the new sultansare girdedwith the swordof empire. ° Constantinoplenolongerappertainsto theRomanhistorian; norshall I enumeratethe civil and religiousedificesthat were profanedor erectedbyits Turkish masters: the populationwas speedilyrenewed; and beforethe end of Septemberfive thousand familiesof Anatolia and Romania had obeyed theroyalmandate,whichenjoinedthem,underpainofdeath, tooccupytheir newhabitationsinthe capital,n° The throne of Mahomet was guarded by the numbers and fidelityof hisMoslemsubjects; but hisrationalpolicyaspiredtocollect the remnant of the Greeks; and they returnedin crowds, as soon as they were assuredof their lives,their liberties, andthe freeexerciseof their religion,m In the electionand investitureof a patriarch, the ceremonialof the Byzantine *0mThe TurM, or sepulchralmonumentof Abu Ayub,is describedand engravedin the TableauG_n_raldel EmpireOttoman(Paris,i787,in large folio),a workof lessuse, perhaps,thanmagnificence(tom. i. p. 305,306). u0[Subsequently4000 Serviansweresettled in Constantinople;2000 Peloponnesianfamiliesafterthe reductionof the Peloponnesus;twothirds of thepopulationof Amastris,the Genoesecolonyon the BlackSea; also Trapezus,Sinope,Caffa,Euboea,Samothrace,&c. wereforced,whentheywere conquered,to augmentthepopulationof the capital. SeeZinkeisen,loc. cit. ] m [The firstvolumeof a historyof the GreekChurchunderTurkishrule byProf. Lebedevappearedin z896. It is entitled:Istoriiagreko-vostochnoi tserkvipodvlastiiuTurok, ot padeniiaKonstantinopoliado nastoiaschago vremeni. ]

56 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c_Lxv111 courtwasrevivedandimitated. Witha mixtureofsatisfactionand horror,theybeheldthe sultanonhisthrone,who deliveredintothehandsofGennadiusthecrosier,or pastoral staff,thesymbolofhisecclesiasticaloffice;whoconducted the patriarchto thegateof theseraglio,presentedhimwith an horserichlycaparisoned,anddirectedthevizirsandbashawstoleadhimtothepalacewhichhad beenallottedfor his residence,m The churchesof Constantinoplewere sharedbetweenthetworeligions:theirlimitsweremarked; and,tillitwasinfringedbySelim,thegrandsonofMahomet, the Greeksm enjoyedabovesixtyyearsthe benefitof this equalpartition. Encouragedbytheministersof the divan, whowishedtoeludethefanaticismofthesultan,theChristianadvocatespresumedtoallegethatthisdivisionhadbeen an act,not of generositybutof justice;nota concession, buta compact;andthat,ifonehalfofthecityhadbeentaken bystorm,theothermoietyhad surrenderedonthefaithof a sacredcapitulation. Theoriginalgranthad indeedbeen consumedbyfire;butthelosswassuppliedbythetestimony of threeagedJanizarieswhorememberedthe transaction; andtheirvenaloathsareof moreweightinthe opinionof Cantemirthanthe positiveand unanimousconsentof the historyof thetimes. TM m Phranza(I. iii. c. I9) relatesthe ceremony,which has possiblybeen adornedin the Greekreportsto each other, and to the Latins. The fact is confirmedby EmanuelMalaxus,whowrote,in vulgar Greek, the historyof the Patriarchs after the taking of Constantinople,insertedin the TurcoGrmciaof Crusins(l. v. p. io6-i84). [C. Sathashas shownthat the l:Iistoria Patriarchicawas not the work of Malaxns but of DamascenusStudites,to whom he also ascribes the Historia Politica, whichis likewiseprinted in Turco-Graecia. ] But the most paticnt reader will not believe that Mahomet adopted the Catholic form, "Sancta Trinitas quse mihi donavit imperiumte in patriaxrh_mnovaeRommdeligit. " m From the Turco-Gr_ciaof Crusius, &c. , Spondanns(A. D. I453, No. 2z; I458, No. x6) describesthe slaveryand domesticquarrels of the Greek Church. The patriarchwhosucceededGennadinsthrewhlm_e[fin despair into a well. 1,_Cantemir(p. xo_-io5)insistsonthe unanimousconsentof the Turkish historians,ancientas wellas modem,and arguesthat theywould nothave

_D. _45o-_48_]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 57 The remainingfragmentsof the GreekkingdominEurope and AsiaI shallabandonto the Turkisharms; but thefinal extinctionof the two last dynasties-,5whichhavereignedin Constantinopleshouldterminatethedeclineand fall of the Roman empire in the East. The despots of the Morea, Demetriusand Thomas,n6the twosurvivingbrothersof the nameof PAI_OLOCUS,wereastonishedby the death of the emperorConstantineand the ruin of the monarchy. Hopeless of defence,they prepared,with the noble Greekswho adheredto theirfortune,to seeka refugein Italy,beyondthe reach of the Ottoman thunder. Their first apprehensions weredispelledby the victorioussultan,who contentedhimself with a tribute of twelvethousand ducats; and, while his ambitionexploredthecontinentand theislandsin search of prey,he indulgedthe Morea in a respiteof sevenyears. But this respitewas a periodof grief,discord,and misery. The hexamilion,the rampartof the Isthmus,sooftenraised and sooften subverted,couldnot longbe defendedby three hundred Italian archers: the keys of Corinthwere seized violatedthe truth to diminishtheir nationalglory,sinceit is esteemedmore honourabletotake a citybyforcethan bycomposition. But x. I doubt this consent,sincehe quotesno particularhistorian,and the Turkish Annalsof Leunclaviusaffirm,without exception,that Mahomet took Constantinople perv/m (p. 329). _. The same argumentmay be turned in favour of the Greeks of the times, who would not have forgotten this honourable and salutary treaty. Voltaire, as usual, prefers the Turks to the Christians. [This fable,recordedin the Hist. Patriarch. p. i56, is connectedwith the reignof Sulayman, not with that of hisfather Selim. Finlay has pointed out that it involvesa chronologicalmistake. The date givenis 1537andthe vizir named, as interestinghimselfin the cause of the Greeks, is Tulphi. Butthe Luffi- whois meant- was vizirin i539--x54I. See History of Greece,v. p. x42. ] 1,1For the genealogyand fallof the Comneniof Trebizond,seeDucange (Faro. Byzant. p. i95); for the last Pahz ologi,the same accurateantiquarian (p. 244,247,248). The Pal,_eolngiof Monfferratwere not extinct fill the nextcentury; but they hadforgottentheir Greekorigin andkindred. ImIn the worthless story of the disputes and misfortunesof the two brothers,Phranza 0- iii. c. 2i-3o) is too partialon the side of Thomas, Ducas(c. 44, 45) is toobrief,and Chalcondyles(l. viii. ix. x. ) too diffuse anddigressive.

58 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c-. nxwn bytheTurks;theyreturnedfromtheirsummerexcursions witha trainofcaptivesandspoil;andthecomplaintsof theinjuredGreekswereheardwithindifferenceanddisdain. 1_ The Albanians,a vagrant tribe of shepherdsand robbers, filledthepeninsulawithrapine andmurder; the twodespots imploredthe dangerousand humiliatingaid of a neighbouringbashaw; and,whenhe had quelledthe revolt,his lessons inculcatedthe ruleof their future conduct. Neitherthe ties of blood,northe oathswhichtheyrepeatedlypledgedin the communionand beforethe altar, nor the strongerpressure of necessity,couldreconcileor suspendtheir domesticquarrels. They ravaged each other s patrimonywith fire and sword; the almsand succoursof the Westwere consumed in civilhostility; and theirpowerwasonlyexertedin savage and arbitrary executions. The distressand revengeof the weakerrival invokedtheir supremelord; and, in the season of maturity and revenge,Mahomet declared hlm_elfthe friend of Demetrius,and marchedinto the Moreawith an irresistibleforce. Whenhe had taken possessionof Sparta, "You are too weak,"said the sultan,"to controlthisturbulent province. I will take your daughterto my bed; and you shall pass the remainder of your life in security and honour. " Demetriussighed,and obeyed; surrenderedhis daughter and his castles; followedto Hadrianople his sovereignand son; and received,for his ownmaintenance, andthat of his followers,a cityin Thrace, and the adjacent islesof Imbros, Lemnos,and Samothrace. He was joined the next year by a companionof misfortune,the last of the COmeEm_ANrace, who,after the taking of Constantinople by theLatins,had foundeda newempireon thecoastof the it7[The misgovernmentof the Peloponnesusin the ISth centuryis illustrated by the discoursesof Gemistus PIethonaddressedto the Emperor Manuelandhissonthe despotTheodore,proposingpoliticalreforms. They werepublishedby Canter in his editionof the Eclogaeof Stobaeus(x575), and havebeenedited (with Germantranslation)by Ellissen. Seeabove, vol. xi. p. _86,note xxL]

A. D. I4SO- *_]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 59 Black Sea. 1t8 In the progressof his Anatolianconquests, Mahometinvested,withafleetandarmy,thecapitalofDavid, who presumedto style himselfEmperor of Trebizond;m and the negotiationwascomprisedin a short and peremptory question,"Will you secureyour life and treasuresby resigningyour kingdom? or had you rather forfeit your kingdom, your treasures, and your life?" The feeble Comnenuswas subduedby his own fears,and the example of a Musulmanneighbour,the princeof Sinope,_2°who,on a similarsummons,had yieldeda fortifiedcity with four hundredcannonand ten or twelvethousandsoldiers. The capitulationof Trebizondwasfaithfullyperformed; andthe emperor,withhis family,wastransportedto a castle in Romania; but on a slightsuspicionof correspondingwiththe Persian king, David and the wholeComnenianrace were sacrificedto the jealousyor avariceof the conqueror. Nor couldthe name of father longprotect the unfortunate Demetriusfrom exile and confiscation:his abject submission movedthe pity and contemptof the sultan; his followers weretransplantedto Constantinople;and his povertywas alleviatedbya pensionof fiftythousandaspers,till a monastic habit and a tardy death released PMmologusfrom an 1_8SeethelossorconquestofTrebizondinChalcondyles0. ixp. 263--266 [P. 494sqq. ed. Bonn]),Ducas(c. 45),Phranza(1. iii. c. 27),andCantemir (p. XOT). [ThelastdaysoftheEmpireof Trebizondaredescribedby FinlayinHistoryofGreece,iv. p. 4oosqq. ] ** ThoughTournefort(tom. iii. lettrexvii. p. x79) speaksofTrebizond asrealpeupl_e,Peyssonel,thelatestandmostaccurateobserver,canfind Ioo,oooinhabitants(Commercedela MerNoire,tom. ii. p. 72,andfor theprovince,p. 53-9o). Itsprosperityandtradeareperpetuallydisturbed bythefactiousquarrelsoftwoodasofJanizaries,inoneofwhich3o,ooo Laziarecommonlyenrolled(M6moiresdeTott,tom. iii. p. i6,i7). 1,0IsmaelBeg,princeofSinopeorSinople,waspossessed(chieflyfrom hiscoppermines)ofa revenueof2oo,oooducats(Chalcond. I. ix. p. 258, 259). Peyssonel(CommercedelaMerNoire,tom. ii. p. coo)ascribesto themoderncity6o,oooinhabitants. Thisaccountseemsenormous;yetit isbytradingwithapeoplethatwebecomeacquaintedwiththeirwealthand numbers.

60 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXVm earthlymaster. It is not easyto pronouncewhetherthe servitudeofDemetriusortheexileofhisbrotherThomasm be themostinglorious. OntheconquestoftheMorea,the despotescapedtoCorfu,andfromthencetoItaly,withsome nakedadherents;hisname,hissufferings,andtheheadof theapostleSt. Andrewentitledhimtothehospitalityofthe Vatican;andhismiserywasprolongedbya pensionofsix thousandducatsfromthepopeandcardinals. Histwosons, AndrewandManuel,wereeducatedinItaly; butthe eldest, contemptibletohisenemiesand burdensometohisfriends, wasdegradedbythe basenessof hislifeand marriage. A titlewashissoleinheritance;andthatinheritancehesuccessivelysoldto the kingsof FranceandArragon. m During thistransientprosperity,CharlestheEighthwasambitious ofjoiningtheempireoftheEastwiththekingdomofNaples: ina publicfestival,heassumedtheappellationandthepurple ofAugustus:the Greeksrejoiced,andtheOttomanalready trembled,at theapproachoftheFrenchchivalry,m Manuel Pal_eologus,thesecondson,wastemptedtorevisithisnative country:hisreturnmightbegrateful,andcouldnotbedangerous,tothe Porte; he wasmaintainedat Constantinople in safetyandease; and an honourabletrainof Christians andMoslemsattendedhimto thegrave. If therebe some animalsofsogenerousa naturethattheyrefusetopropagate in a domesticstate,the lastof the Imperialracemustbe m Spondanus(fromGobelin,Comment. Pii II. I. v. ) relatesthearrival andreceptionof thedespotThomasat Rome(A. D. I46X,No. 3)!- By an act dated A. V. I494, 6th Sept. ,andlatelytransmittedfrom the archivesof the Capitolto the royal libraryof Paris, the despot Andrew Palmolngns,reservingthe Morea,andstipulatingsomeprivateadvantages, conveysto CharlesVIII. Kingof France,theempiresof Constantinopleand Trebizond (Spondanus,A. D. x495,No. _). M. de Foncemagne(M_a. de l Acad6miedesInscriptions,tom. xvii. p. 539-$78)has bestoweda dissertationon thisnationaltitle,of whichhehad obtaineda copyfromRome. m SeePhilippede Comines0. viL c. x4),whoreckonswith pleasurethe numberof Greeks whowere preparedto rise, sixtymilesof an easynavigation, eighteen days journeyfrom Valonato Constantinople,&c. Or, this occasionthe Turkishempirewas saved by the policyof Vcnlce.

o A. D. _450-x4SX]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 6I ascribedtoan inferiorkind: he acceptedfromthesultan s liberalitytwobeautifulfemales;and hissurvivingsonwas lostinthehabitandreligionofa Turkishslave. Theimportanceof Constantinoplewasfeltandmagnified initsloss:thepontificateofNicholastheFifth,howeverpeacefulandprosperous,wasdishonouredbythefalloftheEastera empire;andthe griefandterrorofthe Latinsrevived, or seemedto revive,the oldenthusiasmof the crusades. In oneofthemostdistantcountriesoftheWest,Philip,duke ofBurgundy,entertained,at Lislein Flanders,an assembly ofhisnobles;andthe pompouspageantsof thefeastwere skilfullyadaptedtotheirfancyandfeelings. TM In themidst of thebanquet,a giganticSaracenenteredthehall,leading a fictitiouselephantwitha castleonhisback;a matronin a mourningrobe,thesymbolof religion,wasseento issue fromthe castle;shedeploredher oppressionand accused the slownessof herchampions;the principalheraldofthe goldenfleeceadvanced,bearingonhisfista livepheasant, which,accordingto the ritesof chivalry,he presentedto the duke. At this extraordinarysummons,Philip,a wise andagedprince,engagedhispersonandpowersintheholy waragainstthe Turks; hisexamplewasimitatedby the baronsandknightsoftheassembly;theysworeto God,the Virgin,theladies,andthepheasant;andtheirparticularvows werenotlessextravagantthanthegeneralsanctionof their oath. But the performancewasmadeto dependon some futureand foreigncontingency;and,duringtwelveyears, tillthelasthourofhislife,thedukeofBurgundymightbe scrupulously,andperhapssincerely,ontheeveofhisdeparture. Hadeverybreastglowedwiththesameardour;had theunionoftheChristianscorrespondedwiththeirbravery; mSeetheoriginalfeastinOlivierdelaMarche(!VI_aoires,p. Lc. 29,3o), withtheabstractandobservationsofM. deSt. Palaye(M&noiressur la Chevalerie,tom. i. p. iii. p. x82-xS5). Thepeacockandthepheasantwere distingui_edasroyalbirds.

62 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c_Lxwu hadeverycountry,fromSwedenusto Naples,supplieda just proportionofcavalryandinfantry,ofmenandmoney, it isindeedprobablethat Constantinoplewouldhavebeen delivered,and thatthe Turksmighthavebeenchasedbeyondthe Hellespontor the Euphrates. But the secretary of the emperor,whocomposedeveryepistleand attended everymeeting,N_,neasSylvius,m a statesmanand orator, describesfromhisownexperiencethe repugnantstateand spiritofChristendom. "It isa body,"sayshe,"withoutan head; a republicwithoutlawsor magistrates. Thepope andtheemperormayshineasloftytitles,assplendidimages; buttheyareunabletocommand,andnonearewillingtoobey; everystatehas a separateprince,and everyprincehas a separateinterest. What eloquencecouldunite so many discordantand hostilepowersunderthe samestandard? Couldtheybeassembledinarms,whowoulddaretoassume the officeof general?Whatordercouldbe maintained? whatmilitarydiscipline? Whowouldundcrtaketo feed suchan enormousmultitude? Whowouldunderstandtheir variouslanguages,or directtheft:strangerand incompatible manners?Whatmortalcouldreconcilethe Englishwith the French,GenoawithArragon,the Germanswiththe nativesof Hungaryand Bohemia?If a smallnumberenlistedinthe holywar,theymustbe overthrownbythe infidels;if many,bytheirownweightand confusion. "Yet the sameN. meas,whenhe wasraisedto the papalthrone, It was found by an actual enumerationthat Sweden,Gothland, and F_nlandcontainedz,8oo,ooo fighting men, and consequentlywere far morepopulousthan at present. _2eIn the yearx454,Spondanushasgiven,from. _EneasSylvius,a viewof the state of Europe,enrichedwith his own observations. That valuable annalist,and the ItalianMuratori,wallcontinuethe seriesof eventsfrom the yearx453to z48x,theendof Mahomet slife,andof thischapter. [The chiefworkontEneasSylvinsisthatof G. Voigt: EneaSilviode Piccolomini alsPapstPiusII. undseinZeitalter(in3vols. ),x857--63. There isa special monographbyO. yonHeinemannonhis agitationagainsttheTurks: _Eneas SylviusalsPredigereinesaUgemeinenKreuzzugesgegendie Ttixken,x855. l

A. D*X450"148I] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 63 underthenameof PlustheSecond,devotedhislifeto the prosecutionoftheTurkishwar. In thecouncilofMantua, heexcitedsomesparksof afalseorfeebleenthusiasm;but, whenthepontiffappearedat Ancona,to embarkin person withthetroops,engagementsvanishedinexcuses;a precise daywasadjournedto an indefiniteterm;andhiseffective armyconsistedof someGermanpilgrims,whomhe was obligedtodisbandwithindulgencesand_lms. Regardless offuturity,hissuccessorsandthepowersofItalywereinvolvedin theschemesof presentanddomesticambition; andthedistanceor proximityof eachobjectdetermined, in theireyes,its apparentmagnitude. A moreenlarged viewof theirinterestwouldhavetaughtthemtomaintain a defensiveand navalwaragainstthe commonenemy; andthesupportofScanderbegandhisbraveAlbaniansmight havepreventedthesubsequentinvasionof thekingdomof Naples. The siegeand sack of Otrantoby the Turks diffuseda generalconsternation;and PopeSixtuswaspreparingto flybeyondtheAlps,whenthestormwasinstantly dispelledbythedeathof MahomettheSecond,in thefiftyfirstyearof hisage. 2_ Hisloftygeniusaspiredto theconm Besidesthe two annalists,the readermay consult Glarmone(Istoria Civile,tom. iii. p. 449-455) for the Turkish invasion of the kingdom of Naples. [See the Dlarium Parmense(p. 35o sqq. ) in the xxiid volumeof Muratori; the Relazionedella presa di Otranto (by a commissarioof the Duke of BaH) in the Archiviostoricoper le provinceNapolitane,vi. L 74x62, 169-x76(x88o); Joannis Albini Lucani de gestis regum Neap. ab Aragonia qui extant libri iv. , x689; Antonio de Ferrariis,Successidell armata turchescanella citt_ d Otranto nell anno MCCCLXXX,16x2. ] For the reignand conquestsof Mahomet If. , I have occasionallyused the MemorieIstorichede Monarchi Ottomannidi GiovanniSag redo(Venezia, x677,in 4to). In peaceand war,the Turks haveeverengagedthe attention of the republicof Venice. All herdespatchesand archiveswere open to a procuratorof St. Mark, and Sagredois not contemptibleeither in senseor style. Yethe toobitterlyhatesthe infidels; he is ignorantof theirlanguage andmanners; andhisnarrative,whichallowsonlyseventypagestoMahomet LI. (p. 69-x4o), becomesmore copiousand authenticas he approachesthe years x64oand x644,the term of the historiclabours of John Sagredo. [MohAmm,ddiedon 3rdMay, cp. Ziakeisen,ii. p. 468. ]

64 THE DECLINEAND FALL [CH. LXVm questof Italy: he waspossessedof a strongcityand a capaciousharbour; and the same reignmight havebeen decoratedwiththe trophiesof theNEwandtheANCmlVrROME. m m AsI am nowtaking an everlastingfarewellofthe Greekempire,I sbaT! brieflymentionthe great collectionof Byzantinewriters,whosenames and testimonieshavebeensuccessivelyrepeatedin thiswork. The Greekpresses of Aldusand the Italianswere confinedto the classicsof a better age; and the first rude editionsof Procopius,Agathias,Cedrenus,Zonaras,&c. were publishedbythe learned diligenceof the Germans. The wholeByzantine series(36volumesin folio)has graduallyissued(A. D. I648, &c. ) fromthe royalpressof the Louvre,with somecollateralaid from Romeand Leipsic; but the Venetianedition (A. D. 1729),thoughcheaper and more copious,is notless inferiorin correctnessthan in magnificenceto that of Paris. The meritsof the French editorsare various; but the valueof Anna Comnena, Cinnarnus, Vlllehardouin, &C. is enhancedbythe historicalnotesof Charles du Fresne du Cange. His supplementalworks, the Greek Glossary,the ConstantinopolisChristiana,the Famil_ Byzantine, diffusea steadylight over the darkness of the lower Empire.

,_. . oo--x35o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 65 CHAPTER LXIX . Stateo]RomefromtheTwellthCentury- TemporalDominion o] the Popes_--Seditionso] the City--Political Heresyo]Arnoldo]Brescia-- Restorationo]theRepublic--The Senators_Prideo] the Romans--Their Wars- Theyaredeprivedo]theElectionandPresence of thePopes,whoretiretoAvignon--TheJubilee-NobleFamilieso] Rome_ Feudo]the Colonnaand Ursini. INthefirstagesofthedeclineandfalloftheRomanempire oureyeisinvariablyfixedontheroyalcitywhichhadgiven lawsto the fairestportionof the globe. Wecontemplate herfortunes,at firstwithadmiration,at lengthwithpity, alwayswithattention;and,whenthatattentionisdiverted fromthecapitalto theprovinces,theyareconsideredas so manybrancheswhichhavebeensuccessivelyseveredfrom the Imperialtrunk. Thefoundationof a secondRomeon the shoresof the Bosphorushascompelledthehistorianto followthe successorsofConstantine;andourcuriosityhas beentemptedto visitthemostremotecountriesofEurope andAsia,to explorethe causesandtheauthorsof thelong decayoftheByzantinemonarchy. BytheconquestofJustinianwehavebeefirecalledto thebnnksof the Tiber,to the deliveranceofthe ancientmetropolis;butthatdeliverancewasa change,orperhapsan aggravation,ofservitude. Romehad beenalreadystrippedof hertrophies,hergods, andherC_esars;norwasthe Gothicdominionmoreingloriousand oppressivethan the tyrannyof the Greeks. In theeighthcenturyof the Christianera,a religiousquarrel, theworshipof images,provokedtheRomanstoasserttheir voLx_. --5

66 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LX_X independence;their bishopbecamethetemporalaswellas thespiritualfatherofafreepeople; andoftheWesternempire, whichwasrestoredbyCharlemagne,thetitleandimagestill decoratethe singularconstitutionof modernGermany? Thenameof Romemustyetcommandourinvoluntaryrespect; the climate(whatsoevermaybe its influence)was nolongerthesame;2thepurityof bloodhad beencont,minated througha thousandchannels;but the venerable aspectof herruins,andthe memoryof pastgreatness,rekindleda sparkofthenationalcharacter. Thedarknessof the middleagesexhibitssomescenesnot unworthyof our notice. NorshallI dismissthepresentworktillI haverev/ewedthestateand revolutionsofthe Ro_ CITY,which acquiescedundertheabsolutedominionof thepopesabout the sametimethat Constantinoplewasenslavedby the Turkisharms. In thebeginningofthetwelfthcentury,stheeraofthefirst crusade,RomewasreveredbytheLatins,as themetropolis oftheworld,asthethroneofthepopeandtheemperor,who, fromtheeternalcity,derivedtheirtitle,theirhonours,and the rightor exerciseof temporaldominion. Aftersolong an interruption,itmaynotbeuselesstorepeatthatthesuccessorsof Charlemagneandthe Othoswerechosenbeyond z[But no longer,as the Roman empireceased to existin i8o6 (August) whenFrancisII. resignedthe ImperialCrown. Hehad taken the newtitle of Emperor of Austria in x8o4. ] 2The Abb_Dubos,who,withlessgeniusthan hissuccessorMontesquieu, has asserted and magnifiedthe influenceof climate, objects to himselfthe degeneracyof the Romansand Batavians. To the first of these examples he replies,I. That the changeis lessrealthan apparent, andthat the modern Romans prudently conceal in themselvesthe virtues of their ancestors. 2. That the air, the soil, and the climateof Rome havesuffcreda greatand visiblealteration (Rg. flexionssurla Po6sieetsur laPeinture,part ii. sect. x6). [The chiefwork nowon the subjectof this andthe twofollowingchaptersis Gmgorovins,Geschichteder Stadt Rom in Mittelalter, which has been excellentlytranslated into Englishby Mrs. Hamilton. ] s The readerhas beensolongabsent fromRome,that I wouldadvisehim to recollector reviewthe 49th chapter,in the viiithvolumeof this history.

_-D. tXOO-X3SO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 67 theRhinein a nationaldiet; but that theseprinceswere contentwiththehumblenamesofkingsofGermanyandItaly, tilltheyhadpassedthe/kipsandtheApelmine,toseektheir ImperialcrownonthebanksoftheTiber. _ Atsomedistance fromthecity,theirapproachwassalutedbya longprocession of theclergyand peoplewithpalmsand crosses;andthe terrificemblemsofwolvesandlions,ofdragonsandeagles, thatfloatedinthemilitarybanners,representedthedeparted legionsand cohortsof the republic. The royaloath to maintainthelibertiesofRomewasthricereiterated,at the bridge,s thegate,andonthestairsoftheVatican;andthe distributionof a customarydonativefeeblyimitatedthe magnificenceofthefirstC,esars. In thechurchofSt. Peter,t thecoronationwasperformedbyhissuccessor;_ thevoice Thecoronationof the GermanEmperorsatRome,moreespeciallyin thexithcentury,isbestrepresentedfromtheoriginalmonumentsbyMuratori (Antiquitat. Ital_ medii_Evi,tom. i. dissertat,ii. p. 99, &c. )andCenni (Monument. Domin. Pontif. ,tom. ii. diss. vi. p. _6x),thelatterofwhomI onlyknowfromthecopiousextractofSehm_dt(Hist. desAllemands,tom. ill p. 255466). [CenniquotestheOrdocoronationisgivenbyCencinsCameraflus,whichcriticsvariouslyrefertoHenryIII. andHenryVI. SeeWaltz, DieFormelnderdeutschenKSnigs-undderrrmischenKaiserkr_nungyore xotenbisi2tenJahthundert(intheAbhandlungenoftheGrttingenGesellschaftderWiss,i873,No. xS);andSchwarzer,Die OrdinesderKaiserkrrnung(inForschungenzurdeutschenGesehichte,xxii. i6x sqq. ,x882). Thecoronationsof the9thcenturyhavebeentreatedbyW. Sickelin his articleonDieKaiserk. rOnungenyonKarlbisBerengar,in theHistorisc_ Zeitschrift,N. F. xlvi. i sqq. ] s[Theemperor"firsttookanoathto theRomansatthelittlebridgeon theNeronianfieldfaithfullyto observetherightsandusagesof the city. OnthedayofthecoronationhemadehisentrancethroughthePortsCasteUa closetoSt. Angeloandhererepeatedtheoath. Theclergyandthecorporationsof Romegreetedhimatthe churchof St. MariaTraspontinaona legendarysitecalledtheTerebinthusofNero"(Gregorovius,op. cir. ,Eng. Tr. ,iv. 59). ] [ItmaybenotedthatHenryV. ,crownedatSt. Peter sa. v. _xtI, I3th April,wasthefirstemperorcrownedat Romewhowasnotcrownedinthe city. ] [TheinterestingceremonyatSt. Peter s- as itwasperformedinthe i2thcenturyat allevents-deservesmoreparticularnotice. Gregorovins thusdescribesit(/b. p. $9,6o): Havingarrivedat thesteps,thekingdis

68 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXIX of God was confoundedwith that of the people; and the public consentwas declaredin the acclamationsof "Long lifeand victoryto our lord the pope! Long lifeand victory toour lordtheemperor! Longlifeand victorytotheRoman andTeutonicarmies!" 8 Thenamesof CmsarandAugustus, thelawsof ConstantineandJustinian,theexampleof Charlemagneand Otho, establishedthe supremedominionof the emperors; their title and imagewasengravedon the papal coins;9 and their jurisdictionwasmarkedby the swordof mountedand "stoopedto kiss the pope s foot,tenderedthe oath to be an uprightprotectorof the Church,and was adoptedby himas the son of the Church. Withsolemnsongboth king and pope enteredthe Churchof St. MariainTutti besidethe stepsofSt. Peter s,and herethe kingwasformally madeCanonofthe Cathedral. Hethenad_ anced,conductedbytheLateran Countof the Palaceand by the Primiceriusof the Judgesto the silverdoor of the cathedral,wherehe prayedand the Bishop of Albanodeliveredthe firstoration. Innumerablemysticceremoniesawaitedthe kingin St. Peter s itself. Herea short way fromthe entrance wasthe lZotaPorphyretica,a roundporphyrystoneinsertedin the pavement,onwhichthe kingand pope knelt. The Imperial candidate here made his Confessionof Faith, the Cardinal-bishopof Portus placed himselfin the middle of the Rota and pronouncedthe secondoration. The king was then draped in new vestments, wasmade a clericin thesacristybythe pope,was cladwith a tunic, rlalmatica,pluviale,mitreand sandals,and was then led to the altarof St. Maurice,whitherhiswife,aftersimilarbutlessfatiguingceremonies,accompanied him. The Bishopof Ostia hereanointedthe king onthe rightarm and the neckand deliveredthe third oration. " Afterthis followedthe chief ceremony. The pope placed a ring on the king s finger,girt him with a sword,and placedthe crownon hishead. Then the emperor,havingtaken offthesesymbols,"ministeredtothepopeas subdeaconatmass. The Count Palatineafterwardsremovedthe sandals and put the red Imperial boots with the spursof St. Maurice uponhim. "] sExercituiRomano et TeutonicoI The latter was both seen and felt; but the formerwas nomorethan magninominisumbra. gMuratorihas giventhe series of the papal coins (Antiquitat. tom. ii. diss. xxvll,p. 548-554). Fiefindsonly two moreearlythan the year 80o; fiftyaxestill extantfromLeo nI. to Leo IX. with the additionof the reigning emperor; noneremainof GregoryVII. or UrbanII. ; but in thoseof PaschalII. he seemsto have renouncedthis badgeof dependence. [There are no Papal denarii betweenBenedictVII. (ob. A. D. 984) and Leo IX. But, as Gregorovinsobserves(op. cir. iv. p. 78 note), this is an accident, for coinsmust havebeen struck. In the Ixth centurywe haveone coinof leo IX. and oneofPaschal II. The intervalbetweenPaschalandBenedict

x. D. ,zoo-,35o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 69 justice,whichtheydeliveredtotheprefectofthecity. But everyRomanprejudicewasawakenedbythename,thelanguage,andthemannersofa Barbarianlord. TheC_esarsof SaxonyorFranconiawerethe chiefsof a feudalaristocracy; nor couldtheyexercisethe disciplineof civilandmilitary power,whichalonesecurestheobedienceofa distantpeople, impatientofservitude,thoughperhapsincapableoffreedom. Once,andonceonly,inhislife,eachemperor,withanarmy of Teutonicvassals,descendedfromthe Alps. I havedescribedthepeacefulorderof hisentryandcoronation;but thatorderwascommonlydisturbedbytheclamourandseditionof the Romans,whoencounteredtheir sovereign asa foreigninvader:hisdeparturewasalwaysspeedy,and oftenshameful;and, in the absenceof a longreign,his authoritywasinsulted,and hisnamewasforgotten. The progressofindependenceinGermanyandItalyundermined thefoundationsoftheImperialsovereignty,andthetriumph ofthepopeswasthedeliveranceofRome. Ofhertwosovereigns,theemperorhadprecariouslyreigned bytherightofconquest;buttheauthorityofthepopewas foundedonthesoft,thoughmoresolid,basisofopinionand habit. The removalof a foreigninfluencerestoredand endearedtheshepherdtohisflock. Insteadofthearbitrary orvenalnominationof a Germancourt,the vicarofChrist wasfreelychosenbythecollegeofcardinals,mostofwhom wereeithernativesorinhabitantsofthecity. Theapplause ofthe magistratesand peopleconfirmedhis election;and the ecclesiasticalpowerthat wasobeyedin Swedenand Britainhad beenultimatelyderivedfromthe suffrageof theRomans. Thesamesuffragegavea prince,as wellas a pontiff,to the capital. It wasuniversallybelievedthat Constantinehad investedthe popeswiththe temporaldominionofRome;andtheboldestcivilians,themostprofane XI. (ob. A. D. I3o4)isfailedbythecoinageoftheSenate;but,afterthe installationoftheSenate,"solidiPapae"(sousofthePope)arestillspoken of. SeeGregorovius,/b. p. 498-]

7° THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXLX sceptics,weresatisfiedwithdisputingtherightof theemperor and the validityof his gift. The truth of the fact, the authenticityofhis donation,wasdeeplyrootedin theignorance and traditionof fourcenturies; and thefabulousoriginwas lostin therealandpermanenteffects. The nameofDominus, or Lord, wasinscribedon the coinof thebishops; their title was acknowledgedby acclamationsand oathsof allegiance; and,withthefreeor reluctantconsentof theGermanCmsars, they had longexerciseda supremeor subordinatejurisdiction overthe city and patrimonyof St. Peter. The reignof the popes, whichgratifiedthe prejudices,was not incompatible with the libertiesof Rome; and a more critical inquiry wouldhave revealeda still nobler sourceof their power: the gratitudeof a nation,whom they had rescued fromthe heresyand oppressionof the Greektyrant. In an ageof superstition,it shouldseemthat the unionof theroyal and sacerdotalcharacterswouldmutuallyfortifyeach other, and that the keys of paradisewouldbe the surestpledgeof earthlyobedience. The sanctityof the officemightindeed be degradedbythe personalvicesof the man; but the scandais of the tenthcenturywereobliteratedby the austereand more dangerousvirtues of Gregory the Seventh and his successors;and,in the ambitiouscontestswhichthey mainrained for the rights of the church,their sufferingsor their successmustequallytend to increasethepopular veneration. They sometimeswanderedin povertyand exile,the victims of persecution;and theapostoliczealwithwhichtheyoffered themselvesto martyrdommust engagethe favour and sympathy of everyCatholicbreast. And sometimes,thundering from the Vatican, they created, judged,and deposed the kings of the world; nor couldthe proudestRomanbe disgracedby submittingto a priestwhosefeetwerekissed,and whosestirrup washeld,by the successorsof Charlemagne. t° t0SeeDucange,Gloss. medimet infim_eLatinitat. tom. vi. p. 364,365, STA,v_ A. This homagewas paid by kingsto archbishops,and by vassalsto their lords (Schmidt,tom. lii. p. 262); and it wasthe nicestpolicyof Rome to confoundthe marks of filialand of feudal subjection.

_. D. XXOO-XaSO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 7x Eventhetemporalinterestof thecityshouldhaveprotected inpeaceandhonourtheresidenceofthepopes;fromwhence a vainandlazypeoplederivedthegreatestpartoftheirsubsistenceandriches. Thefixedrevenueof the popeswas probablyimpaired: manyoftheoldpatrimonialestates,both inItalyandtheprovinces,hadbeeninvadedbysacrilegious hands;norcouldthelossbecompensatedbytheclaimrather thanthepossessionof themoreamplegiftsofPepinandhis descendants. But theVaticanand Capitolwerenourished bytheincessantandincreasingswarmsofpilgrimsandsuppliants; thepaleofChristianitywasenlarged,andthepope and cardinalswereoverwhelmedbythejudgmentof ecclesiasticaland secularcauses. A newjurisprudencehad establishedin the Latin churchthe right and practiceof appeals;u and, fromthe North and West,the bishops andabbotswereinvitedorsummonedto solicit,tocomplain, toaccuse,or tojustifybeforethe thresholdof theapostles. A rareprodigyisoncerecorded,that twohorses,belonging totheArchbishopsofMentzandCologne,repassedtheAlps, yetladenwithgoldandsilver;_ butitwassoonunderstood thatthesuccess,bothofthe pilgrimsandclients,depended muchlessonthejusticeoftheircausethanonthevalueof theiroffering. Thewealthandpietyofthesestrangerswere ostentatiouslydisplayed;and their expenses,sacredor profane,circulatedin various¢hnnnelsfortheemolumentof theRomans. n The appealsfromall the churchesto the RomanPontiff aredeplored by the zealof St. Bernard(de Consideratione,1. iii. tom. iLp. 43x-442,edit. Mabillon,Venet. x75o),and the judgmentof Floury(I)iscourssurl Hist. Eccl(:sinstique,iv. andvii. ). Butthe saint,whobelievedin thefalsedecretals, condemnsonly the abuse of these appeals; the more enlightenedhistorianinvestigatesthe origin,and rejectsthe principles,of this newjurisprudence. Germanici. . . summariinon levatissarcinisonustinihileminnsrepatriantinviti. Nova resl quandoh_ctenusaurumRoma refudit? Et nuncRomanorumconsilioid usurpatumnoncredimus(Bernard,de Consideratione,1. iiLc. 3, P. 437). The firstwordsof thepassageareobscure, andprobablycorrupt.

72 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXaX Suchpowerfulmotivesshouldhavefirmlyattachedthe voluntaryandpiousobedienceof theRomanpeopletotheir spiritualandtemporalfather. Buttheoperationofprejudiceand interestis oftendisturbedbythe salliesof ungovernablepassion. TheIndianwhofellsthetreethathemay gatherthefruit, s andthe Arabwhoplundersthecaravans of commerce,are actuatedby thesameimpulseof savage nature,whichoverlooksthefuturein the present,andrelinquishesformomentaryrapinethelong_ndsecurepossessionofthemostimportantblessings. Anditwasthusthatthe shrineofSt. PeterwasprofanedbythethoughtlessRomans, whopillagedtheofferings,andwoundedthepilgrims,without computingthe numberand valueof similarvisits,which they preventedby their inhospitablesacrilege. Eventhe influenceof superstitionis fluctuatingandprecarious;and the slave,whosereasonis subdued,willoftenbe delivered byhisavariceor pride. A credulousdevotionforthefables and oraclesof the priesthoodmostpowerfullyactson the mindofa Barbarian; yetsucha mindistheleastcapableof preferringimaginationto sense,of sacrificingto a distant motive,toan invisible,perhapsanideal,object,theappetites and interestsof thepresentworld. In the vigourof health andyouth,hispracticewillperpetuallycontradicthisbelief; tillthepressureof age,orsickness,or calamityawakenshis terrorsandcompelshim to satisfy thedoubledebtof piety and remorse. I havealreadyobservedthat the modern timesof religiousindifferenceare the most favourable to thepeaceand securityoftheclergy. Underthereignof superstitiontheyhadmuchtohopefromtheignorance,and muchto fearfromthe violence,of mankind. Thewealth, whoseconstantincreasemust have renderedthem the soleproprietorsof the earth,wasalternatelybestowedby QuandlessauvagesdelaLouisianeveulentavoirdufruit,ilscoupent Farbreau piedet cueillentle fruit. Voil_le gouvernementdespotique (EspritdesLoix,1. v. c. x3);andpassionandignorancearealwaysdespotic.

,_v. ,,oo-,3so]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 73 the repentantfatherand plunderedby the rapaciousson; theirpersonswereadoredor violated;andthe sameidol, bythehandsof thesamevotaries,wasplacedonthealtar or trampledin the dust. In thefeudalsystemofEurope, armswerethe tire of distinctionandthe measureof allegiance;and amidsttheirtumultthe stillvoiceoflawand reasonwasseldomheardorobeyed. TheturbulentRomans disdainedthe yoke,and insultedthe impotence,of their bishop;1_nor wouldhiseducationor characterallowhim to exercise,withdecencyor effect,thepowerof thesword. Themotivesof hiselectionandthefrailtiesofhislifewere exposedto theirfamiliarobservation;and proximitymust diminishthe reverencewhichhisnameand hisdecreesimpressedon a Barbarousworld. This differencehas not escapedthe noticeof our philosophichistorian:"Though thenameandauthorityofthecourtofRomeweresoterrible intheremotecountriesof Europe,whichweresunkinprofoundignorance,and wereentirelyunacquaintedwithits characterandconduct,thepopewassolittlereveredat home thathisinveterateenemiessurroundedthe gatesof Rome itselfandevencontrolledhisgovernmentin thatcity; and the ambassadors,who,froma distantextremityof Europe, carriedtohimthehumble,or ratherabject,submissionsof thegreatestpotentateoftheage,foundtheutmostdifficultyto maketheirwaytohimandtothrowthemselvesathisfeet. "1, 1. In a freeconversationwith his countrymanAdrianIV. , Johnof Salisbury accusesthe avariceof the pope and clergy: Provinciarumderipinnt spolia, ac si thesauros Crcesistudeant reparare. Sed recte cum eis agit Altissimus,quoniam et ipsialtis et s_pe vilissimishominibusdati sunt in direptionem(de NugisCurialium,1. vi. c. 24,p. 387). In the nextpage,he blamesthe rashnessand infidelityof the Romans,whomtheirbishopsvainly strovetoconciliatebygiftsinsteadofvirtues. It ispity thatthismiscellaneous writer has not given us less morality and erudition,and more picturesof himselfand the times. isHume sHistoryof England,vol. i. p. 4i9. The samewriter hasgiven us, fromFitz Stephen,a singularact of crueltyperpetratedonthe clergyby Geoffrey,the father of HenryII. "When he was masterof Normandy,the chapterof Seezpresumed,withouthiscontent,to proceedto the electionof

74 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. LXIX Sincethe primitivetimes,the wealthof the popeswas exposedtoenvy,theirpowertoopposition,andtheirpersons toviolence. Butthelonghostilityofthemitreandthecrown increasedthe numbers,and inflamedthe passions,of their cnemies. ThedeadlyfactionsoftheGuelphsandGhibelines, sofataltoItaly,couldneverbeembracedwithtruthor constancybytheRomans,thesubjectsandadversariesbothof thebishopandemperor;buttheirsupportwassolicitedby bothparties;andtheyalternatelydisplayedintheirbanners the keysofSt. Peterandthe Germaneagle. Gregorythe Seventh,whomaybe adoredor detestedas thefounderof the papalmonarchy,wasdrivenfromRome,and diedin exileat Salerno. Six-and-thirtyof hissuccessors,16tilltheir retreatto Avignon,maintainedan unequalcontestwiththe Romans;theirageanddignitywereoftenviolated;andthe churches,in the solemnrites of religion,werepollutedwith seditionand murder. A repetitiont7of such capricious a bishop; uponwhich, he ordered allof them, with the bishopelect,to be castrated, and madealltheir testiclesbe broughthim in a platter. " Of the pain and danger they might justly complain; yet, since they had vowed chastity, he deprivedthemof a superfluoustreasure. ,0From Leo IX. and GregoryVII. an authentic and contemporaryseries of the livesof the Popes, by the Cardinal of Arragon[Nicol5Roselli(oh. A. D. I36_)_ PandulphusPisanus,BernardGuido, &c. is insertedin the Italian historiansof Muratori(tom. iii. p. i. p. 277-. 685), and has been alwaysbefore my eyes. [This collectionof Lives, printedby Muratorl underthe falsetitle of the Cardinalof Aragon,is containedin the Liber CcnsuumsanctaeRomanaeEcelesiae(whichis noticedabove,vol. x. p. too, note54)- The Liveswerealso published,as ActaVaticana,byBaroniusin his Annalesecclesiastici(scatteredaboutunderthevariousyears); andhis textis saidto be betterthanthatof Muratori. There is a neweditionof the LiberCensuum(puttogetherA. D. Ix9a byCenciusCamerarius)byP. Fabre. On the wholesubjectcp. Fabre sEtude sur le Libercensuumde I _glise romaine,x892. ] t7The dates of years . . . may, throughoutthis chapter,be understood astacitreferencesto the Annalsof Muratori,myordinaryandexcellent guide. Heuses,andindeedquotes,withthefreedomof a master,his great Collectionof the ItalianHistorians,in xxviii,volumes;and,as thattreasure is in my h brary,I havethoughtit an amusement,ff not a duty,to consult theo"ngin_

A. D. t_OO-XSSO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 75 brutality,withoutconnectionor design,wouldbe tedious anddisgusting;andI shallcontentmyselfwithsomeevents •ofthetwelfthcentury,whichrepresentthestateofthepopes andthecity. On HolyThursday,whilePaschalofficiated beforethealtar,he wasinterruptedby theclamoursof the multitude,whoimperiouslydemandedtheconfirmationofa favouritemagistrate,is His silenceexasperatedtheirfury; hispiousrefusalto minglethe affairsof earthand heaven wasencounteredwithmenacesandoaths,thathe shouldbe thecauseand the witnessof the publicruin. Duringthe festivalof Easter,whilethebishopandtheclergy,barefoot andinprocession,visitedthetombsofthemartyrs,theywere twiceassaulted,at thebridgeofSt. Angeloandbeforethe Capitol,withvolleysof stonesand darts. Thehousesof hisadherentswerelevelledwith the ground; Paschalescapedwithdifficultyanddanger;heleviedan armyinthe patrimonyof St. Peter; and hislastdayswereembittered bysufferingand inflictingthecalamitiesofcivilwar. The scenesthat followedthe electionof hissuccessorGelasius the Secondwerestillmorescandalousto the churchand city. CencioFrangipani,1°a potentand factiousbaron, burstintothe assemblyfurious,and inarms: thecardinals werestripped,beaten,andtrampledunderfoot;andheseized, withoutpityor respect,the vicarof Christby the throat. Gdasiuswasdraggedbyhishairalongtheground,buffeted 18[The magistrate meant is the Prefectof the City (cp. below,p. 89), the criminal judge of Rome. His electionoften caused party conflicts. Paschalwisheda son of Pierieoneto be chosen,and the riot wasmarkedby anattack onthe fortressof the Pierleoninear thetheatre of Marcellus. ] I_I cannotrefrain fromtranscribingthe high-colouredwordsof PandulphusPisanus(p. 384): Hocaudiensinimicuspacisatqueturbatorjamfatus CentiusFrajapane,moredraconisimmanissimisibilans,et ab imispectoribustmhenslonga suspiria,accinctusretrogladiosinemorecucurrit,valvas acforesconfregit. Ecclesiamfuribundusintroiit,indecustoderemotopapam pergulamaccepit,distraxit,pugniscalcibusquepercussit,ettanquambrutum animalintra limen ecclesimacriter calcaribuscruentavit;et latro tantum dominumper cap_ioset brachia,Jesu bonointerimdormiente,detraxit,ad domumusquededuxit,inibicatenavitet indusit.

76 THE DECLINE AND FALL [cH. LXIX with blows,woundedwith spurs, and bound with an iron chain in the houseof his brutal tyrant. An insurrectionof the peopledeliveredtheir bishop; the rivalfamiliesopposed the violenceof the Frangipani; and Cencio,who sued for pardon, repented of the failure rather than of the guilt of his enterprise. Not manydays had elapsedwhen the pope was again assaulted at the altar. Whilehis friends and enemies were engagedin a bloodycontest,he escapedin his sacerdotal garments. In this unworthy flight, which excitedthe compassionof theRomanmatrons,his attendants were scatteredor unhorsed; and, in the fieldsbehind the churchof St. Peter,his successorwasfound aloneand half dead with fear and fatigue. Shaking the dust from his feet,the apostlewithdrewfrom a city in whichhis dignity wasinsultedand his personwasendangered; and the vanity of sacerdotalambitionis revealedin the involuntaryconfession that one emperor was more tolerable than twenty. 2° Theseexamplesmightsuffice; but I cannotforgetthesufferingsof twopontiffsof the sameage,thesecondand third of thename of Lucius. The former,as he ascendedin battlearray to assault the Capitol,was struck on the temple by a stone,and expiredin a fewdays;_ the latter wasseverely woundedin the persons of his servants. _ In a civil commotionseveralof his priests had beenmade prisoners; and theinhumanRomans,reservingoneas a guidefor his brethren,put out their eyes,crownedthemwith ludicrousmitres, 2oEgo coram Deo et Ecclesiadico, si unquam possibileesset, maUem unum imperatoremquam totdominos(Vit. GeMs. II. p. 398). [HenryV. , calledinbythe Frangipanl,appearedin Romeon i ith March, 1II9. Gelasius escapedto Gaeta. Gregoroviusappropriatelyobservesthat "the flightto Gaeta was repeated729yearslaterin the historyof Plus IX" (iv. 383). ] 21[Godfreyof Viterbo,in MuratoHvii. p. 46I. ] " [The sourcesfor this outrage on Lucius III. (whofinally soughtthe emperor s protectionat Verona,where he died) are: Sigebertus Gemblacensis,AuctariumAquicinense,ad ann. 1184(Bethmann sed. of Sigibert inthe Monum. Germ. Hist. vi. p. 3o0sqq. hassupersededallothers); Albertus Stadensis(= AmmlesStadenses,in Mort. Germ. Hist. xvi. )ad zz83. ]

^. D. . oo-,3so]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 77 mountedthemon asses,withtheirfacesto thetail,andextortedan oaththat in thiswretchedconditiontheyshould offerthemselvesasa lessontotheheadofthechurch. Hope or fear,lassitudeor remorse,thecharactersofthemenand the circumstancesof the times,mightsometimesobtainan intervalofpeaceandobedience;andthepopewasrestored withjoyfulacclamationsto the Lateranor Vatican,from whencehe hadbeendrivenwiththreatsandviolence. But the rootof mischiefwasdeepandperennial;z3anda momentarycalmwasprecededand followedby suchtempests ashadalmostsunkthebarkofSt. Peter. Romecontinually presentedthe aspectof waranddiscord;thechurchesand palaceswerefortifiedand assaultedby the factionsand families;and,after givingpeaceto Europe,Calixtusthe Secondalonehad resolutionand powerto prohibittheuse ofprivatearmsinthemetropolis. 2 Amongthenationswho reveredtheapostolicthrone,the tumultsof Romeprovoked a generalindignation;and,in a lettertohisdiscipleEugeniusthe Third,St. Bernard,withthe sharpnessof hiswit andzeal,hasstigmatisedthevicesoftherebeUiouspeople. = "Whoisignorant,"saysthemonkofClairvaux,"ofthevanityandarroganceof theRomans? a nationnursedin sedition,cruel,untractable,and scorningto obey,unlessthey aretoofeebleto resist. Whentheypromiseto serve,they aspireto reign; if theyswearallegiance,theywatchthe opportunityofrevolt;yettheyventtheirdiscontentin loud clamours,if yourdoorsor yourcouncilsare shutagainst 2,[AsGregoroviusputsit (iv. 609): "The spirit of Arnold stillsurvived in Rome,and each Popewas obligedto win toleratioaforhimselfor elseto livein exile. "] [Calixtusalso forbadethe fortificationof churches. See /_fansi,Conciliaxxi. 285. He restoredtheLateran. ] _sQuidtam notumseculisquamproterviaet cervicositasRomanorum? Gensinsuetapaci,tumultuiassueta,gensimmitisetintractabilisusqueadhuc, subdinescia,nisicurenon valetresistere(de Considerat. 1. iv. c. 2, p. 441). The sainttakes breath,and then beginsagain: Hi) invisi terrmet c_elo, utriqueinjeceremanus, &c. (p. 443)

78 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. LXtX them. Dexterousin mischief,theyhaveneverlearnedthe scienceofdoinggood. Odioustoearthandheaven,impious to God,seditiousamongthemselves,jealousoftheirneighbours,inhumantostrangers,theylovenoone,bynooneare theybeloved;and,whiletheywishto inspirefear,theylive in baseandcontinualapprehension. Theywillnotsubmit; theyknowhowtogovern;faithlesstotheirsuperiors,intolerableto theirequals,ungratefulto theirbenefactors,and nllkeimprudentin theirdemandsandtheirrefusals. Lofty inpromise,poorinexecution:adulationandcalumny,perfidy andtreason,arethefamiliarartsof theirpolicy. " Surely thisdarkportraitisnotcolouredbythepencilofChristian charity;_ yetthefeatures,howeverharshandugly,express a livelyresemblanceoftheRomansof thetwelfthcentury. _7 TheJewshadrejectedtheChristwhenheappearedamong themina plebeiancharacter;andtheRomansmightplead theirignoranceofhisvicarwhenheassumedthepompand prideofa temporalsovereign. In thebusyageof thecrusades,somesparksof curiosityandreasonwererekindled in theWesternworld;theheresyofBulgaria,thePanlician sect,wassuccessfullytransplantedintothesoilofItalyand France;theGnosticvisionsweremingledwiththesimplicity oftheGospel;andtheenemiesoftheclergyreconciledtheir passionswiththeirconscience,thedesireof frg_clomwith the professionof piety. "_8Thetrumpetof Romanliberty " AsaRomancitizen,PetrarchtakesleavetoobservethatBernard,though amint,wasaman; thathemightbeprovokedbyresentment,andpossibly repentofhishastypassion,&c. (M_moiressurlaViedeP_trarque,tom. i. p. 33o). Baronius,in hisindexto thexiithvolumeof hisAnnals,hasfounda fairandeasyexcuse. Hemakestwoheads,ofRomaniCalholiciandSchlsma//c/;totheformer,heappliesallthegood,tothelatteralltheevil,thatis toldof thecity. Theheresiesof thexiithcenturymaybefoundinMosheim(Insfitut. Hist. Eccles. p. 419-427),whoentertainsa favourableopinionofArnoldof Brescia. Inthe6thvolume,IhavedescribedthesectofthePaulicians,and followedtheirmigrationfromArmeniato ThraceandBulgaria,Italyand France,

,_. ,,,x,-x35o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 79 wasfirstsoundedbyArnoldofBrescia,2_whosepromotionin thechurchwasconfinedto thelowestrank,andwhowore themonastichabitratheras a garbof povertythanas an uniformof obedience. Hisadversariescouldnotdenythe wit andeloquencewhichtheyseverelyfelt; theyconfess withreluctancethespeciouspurityof hismorals;andhis errorswererecommendedtothepublicbya mixtureofimportantandbeneficialtruths. In his theologicalstudies, he hadbeenthe discipleof thefamousand unfortunate Abelaxd,s°whowaslikewiseinvolvedin thesuspicionof heresy;buttheloverof Eloisawasof a softandflexible nature;and his ecclesiasticjudgeswereedifiedanddisarmedbythehumilityofhisrepentkuce. Fromthismaster ArnoldmostprobablyimbibedsomemetaphysicaldefinitionsoftheTrinity,repugnanttothetasteofthetimes;his ideasof baptismand theeucharistareloosdycensured; buta politicalheresywasthesourceofhisfameandmisfortunes. HepresumedtoquotethedeclarationofChristthat hiskingdomisnotof thisworld: he boldlymaintainedthat theswordandthesceptrewereentrustedtothe civilmagisTheoriginalpicturesofArnoldofBresciaaredrawnbyOthobishopof Frisingen(Chron. 1. vii. c. 3x,deGestisFredericiI. 1. i. c. 27,1. ii. c. 2x),and in1. iii. oftheLigurinus[composedinA. D. xi86-7],a poemofGunther,who flourishedA. D. 12oo,inthemonasteryofParis[notParis,butP_ris,inEisass], nearBasil(Fabric. Bibliot. Latin. reed. etinfima:,,Etati&tom. iii. p _74,175)Thelongpassagethatrelatesto Arnold,isproducedbyGuilliman(deRebus Helveticis,1. iii. c. 5,P-Io8). [Gibbondoesnotseemtoknowoftheattack madeonthegenuinenessofthepoem"Ligurinus"bySenckenberginhis ParergaGottingensia,i. (x737). Upto theyeari87t, theorthodoxviewof criticswasthattheworkwasaforgery. ButtheauthorshipofGuntherwas provedbyPannenborgin theForschungenzurdeutschenGeschichte,xi. p. I63 sqq. (i871). Cp. his Programm"DerVerfasserdesLigurinus," 1883. Thereis a Germantranslationof thepoembyT. Vulpinus,I889. OnArnoldofBrescia,seeGiesebrecht smonograph,ArnoldyonBrescia. ] ThewickedwitofBaylewasmusedin composing,withmuchlevity andlearning,thearticlesofAB_LAt_. D,For-,_. s, HV-Z. OmE,in hisDictionnaireCritique. Thedisputeof AbelardandSt. Bernard,ofscholasticand positivedivinity,is wellunderstoodby Mosheim(Insfitut. Hist. Eccles. p. 412"415).

80 THE DECLINE AND FALL [cm_mlx trate; thattemporalhonoursand possessionswerelawfully vestedinsecularpersons;thattheabbots,thebishops,and the popehimselfmustrenounceeithertheirstateor their salvation;andthat,afterthelossoftheirrevenues,thevoluntarytithesand oblationsof the faithfulwouldsuffice,not indeedforluxuryandavarice,butfora frugallifeintheexerciseofspirituallabours. Duringa shorttimethepreacher wasreveredas a patriot;and thediscontent,or revolt,of Bresciaagainstherbishopwasthefirst-fruitsofhisdangerous lessons. Butthefavourofthepeopleislesspermanentthan theresentmentofthepriest;and,aftertheheresyofArnold had beencondemnedby InnocenttheSecondslin thegeneralcouncilofthe Lateranthe magistratesthemselveswere urgedby prejudiceandfearto executethesentenceof the church. Italycouldnolongerafforda refuge;andthediscipleofAbelardescapedbeyondtheAlps,tillhefounda safe and hospitableshelterin Zurich,nowthefirstof the Swiss cantons. Froma Romanstation,= a royalvilla,a chapter of noblevirgins,Zurichhad graduallyincreasedto a free andflourishingcity,wheretheappealsof theMilanesewere sometimestried by the Imperialcommlssaries. _a Ill an m_ Damnatusab illo Prmsule,quinumerosvefitumconfingerenostros Nomenabinnocu_ducitlaudabilevit3. . Wemayapplaudthedexterityandcorrectnessof Ligurinus,whoturns theunpoeticalnameofInnocentII. intoa compliment. [Fortheactsofthv LateranCouncilseeMansi,Concil. xxi. p. 5_3sqg. ] " A Romaninscriptionof StatioTurioensishas beenfoundat Zurich (d Anville,Noticede l andenneGaule,p. 642-644);but it is without suffidentwarrantthatthecityandcantonhaveusurpedandevenmonopolisedthenamesofTigurumandPagusTigurinus. [SeeOttoof Fr_islngen, Gest_Frederici,ft. 29. ] " GuiUiman(deRebusHelveticls"I. iii. c. 5,P-xo6)recapitulatesthe donation(A. D. 833) of the emperorLewisthe Piousto hisdaughterthe abbessl:l. ildegardis. CurtimnostramTuregumin ducamAlamanni_ein pagoDurgaugensi,withvillages,woods,meadows,waters,slaves,churches, &c. ,a noblegift. Charlesthe Boldgavethe jus monetm,the citywas walledunderOthoI. , andthe lineof the bishopofFrisingen, NobileTuregummultarumcopiareturn, is repeatedwithpleasureby theantiquariesof Zurich.

_D. HOo--xSSO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 8X agelessripeforreformation,theprecursorofZuingliuswas heardwithapplause;a braveandsimplepeopleimbibed, andlongretained,thecolourof hisopinions;andhisart, or merit,seducedthe bishopof Constance,andeventhe pope slegate,whoforgot,forhissake,theinterestoftheir masterand theirorder. Theirtardyzealwasquickenedby thefierceexhortationsof St. Bernard;_ and theenemy of thechurchwasdrivenbypersecutionto thedesperate measureoferectinghisstandardin Romeitself,intheface ofthesuccessorof St. Peter. Yetthecourageof Arnoldwasnotdevoidof discretion: hewasprotected,andhadperhapsbeeninvited,bythenobles andpeople;andin the serviceof freedomhis eloquence thunderedoverthesevenhills. Blendingin thesamediscoursethetextsofLivyandSt. Paul,unitingthemotivesof gospelandofclassicenthusiasm,headmonishedtheRomans howstrangelytheirpatienceandthevicesoftheclergyhad degeneratedfromtheprimitivetimesof thechurchandthe city. Heexhortedthemto asserttheinalienablerightsof menand Christians;to restorethe lawsandmagistrates oftherepublic;torespectthenameof theemperor;butto confinetheirshepherdto the spiritualgovernmentof his flock. _ Norcouldhisspiritualgovernmentescapethecensureandcontrolofthereformer;andtheinferiorclergywere u Bernard,epistol,cxcv. cxcvi,tom. i. p. I87-I9o. Amidsthisinvectives, hedropsapreciousacknowledgment,quiutinamquamsan_essetdoctrinm quamdistHctaeestvitae. He ownsthatArnoldwouldbeavaluableacquisition forthe church. [Bernardhimself-- thoughheopposedArnoldasa heretic stronglycondemnedthe temporaldominionof the Pope,in hisDe Consideratione. He observes,for instance: nemo militausDeo implicetse negotiissecularihus. Cp. Gregorovius,op. cir. iv. p. 483-4. ] He advisedthe Romans, Consiliisarmisquesuamoderaminasumma Arbitriotractaresuo: nil jurisin h_cre Pontificisummo,modicumconcedereregi Suadebatpopulo. SicIms_stultusutr_que Majestate,reumgemimese faceratauhv. Nor is the poetryof Guntherdifferentfrom the proseof Otho. VOL. XIL_6

$2 THE DECLINEANDFALL [c_. LXIX taughtbyhis lessonstoresistthe cardinals,whohadusurped a despoticcommandoverthe twenty-eightregionsorparishes of Rome. TM The revolutionwas not accomplishedwithout rapineand violence,the effusionof blood,and the demolition of houses; the victoriousfactionwasenrichedwith the spoils of the clergy and the adversenobles. Arnold of Bresciaenjoyedor deploredthe effectsof his mission; his reigncontinuedaboveten years, whiletwo popes,Innocent the Secondand Anastasiusthe Fourth, eithertrembledin theVaticanorwanderedas exilesintheadjacentcities. They were succeededby a more vigorousand fortunatepontiff, Adrianthe Fourth,s7the onlyEnglishmanwhohasascended the throneof St. Peter; and whosemeritemergedfrom the meanconditionofamonk,andalmosta beggar,inthemonastery of St. Albans. On the first provocation,of a cardinal killedor woundedin the streets,he cast an interdicton the guilty people; and, from Christmasto Easter, Rome was deprivedof the real or imaginarycomfortsof religiousworship. The Romans had despisedtheir temporal prince: they submittedwithgriefand terror to the censuresof their spiritualfather; their guilt was expiatedby penance,and thebanishmentof theseditiouspreacherwasthepriceoftheir absolution. But the revengeof Adrianwas yet un_tisfied, and the approachingcoronationof FredericBarbarossawas fatal to thebold reformer,who had offended,thoughnot in an equaldegree,theheadsof the churchand state. In their interviewat Viterbo,ssthe pope representedto theemperor the furiousungovernablespirit of the Romans; the insults, the injuries,the fears, to whichhis personand his clergy ttSeeBaronius(A. D. xx48,No. 35,39)fromtheVaticanMSS. He loudlycondemnsArnold(A. D,xz41,No. 3)asthefatherofthepolitical hereticswhoseinfluencethenhurthiminFrance. s_TheEnglishreadermayconsulttheBiographiaBritannica,ADRIANIV. , butourownwritershaveaddednothingtothefameormeritsoftheircountryst[ThemeetingwasclosetoNepLSeeMuratori,Antiq. Ital. L rxT. J

A. D. X_OO-X3SO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 83 werecontinuallyexposed;andthe pernicioustendencyof theheresyofArnold,whichmustsubverttheprinciplesof civilas wellas ecclesiasticalsubordination. Fredericwas convincedbythesearguments,or temptedbythe desireof theImperialcrown;inthebalanceofambition,theinnocence orlifeofan individualisofsmallaccount;andtheircommon enemywassacrificedtoa momentofpoliticalconcord. Mter hisretreatfromRome,Arnoldhad beenprotectedbythe viscountsof Campania,fromwhomhe wasextortedby the powerof Ceesar:theprefectofthecitypronouncedhissentence;themartyr offreedomwasburntaliveinthepresence ofa carelessandungratefulpeople;andhisasheswerecast intothe Tiber,lestthe hereticsshouldcollectand worship the relicsof theirmaster? The clergytriumphedin his death; withhisashes,hissectwasdispersed;hismemory stilllivedinthemindsoftheRomans. Fromhisschoolthey hadprobablyderiveda newarticleoffaith,thatthemetropolis oftheCatholicchurchisexemptfromthepenaltiesofexcommunicationand interdict. Theirbishopsmightarguethat the supremejurisdiction,whichtheyexercisedoverkings andnations,morespeciallyembracedthecityanddioceseof theprinceoftheapostles. Buttheypreachedtothewinds, andthesameprinciplethatweakenedtheeffect,musttemper theabuse,ofthethundersoftheVatican. Theloveof ancientfreedomhasencourageda beliefthat s, Besidesthe historianand poet alreadyquoted,the last adventuresof Arnoldare related by the biographerof Adrian IV. (Muratori,Script. RerumItal. tom. iii. p. i. p. 44x,442). [The circumstancesof the death of Arnoldof Bresciaaredark; it happenednearSoracte,not in the city. Cp. Gregorovius,op. ¢/t. p. 544. Anew and importantsourcewas discovered not many years ago- an anonymousLatin poem entitledGesta Friderid imperatorisin Italia,describingthe Lombardwars of FrederickBarbarossa up to the battleof Carcanoin A. D. xx6o. (It has beenproposedto ascribe the authorshipto Thadeus de Roma. ) It waspublishedin x887(Cestadi FedericoI. in Italia)byE. Monad, as vol. Lof the Fontiperla storiad Italisu ]_utthe passagerelatingto Arnoldof Bresdawas printedin x878in vol. i. ot the Archiviodella Societ_Romana di storia patria. ]

84 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. LXLX as earlyas the tenthcentury,in theirfirststrugglesagainst the SaxonOthos,the commonwealthwasvindicatedand restoredbythesenateandpeopleofRome;thattwoconsuls wereannuallyelectedamongthe nobles;and that ten or twelveplebeianmagistratesrevivedthe nameand officeof thetribunesofthecommons. 4° Butthisvenerablestructure disappearsbeforethe lightof criticism. In the darkness of themiddleages,the appellationsofsenators,of consuls, ofthesonsofconsuls,maysometimesbediscovered21They werebestowedby the emperors,or assumedby the most powerfulcitizens,to denotetheirrank,theirhonours,_ and 6sDucange(Gloss. Latinitatismedi_eet infimm_Etatis,DEC_C_Ot_ms, tom. ii. p. 726)givesme a quotationfromBlondus(decad. ii. 1. ii. ):Duo consulesex nobilitatequotannisfiebant,qul ad vetustumconsulumexemplarsllmrn_rermnpr_eessent. Andin Sigonius(deRegnoItalia_,I. vi. Opp. tom. ii. p. 4oo)I readoftheconsulsandtribunesofthexthcentury. BothBlondus,andevenSigonius,toofreelycopiedtheclassicmethodof supplyingfromreasonor fancythedeficiencyof records. *JIn thepanegyricof Berengarius(Muratori,Script. Rer. Ital. tom. ii. p. i. p. 408),aRomanismentionedasconsulisnatusinthebeginningofthe xth century. Muratori(dlssert. v. ) discovers,in the years952and956, GratianusinDeinomineconsuletdux,Georgiusconsuletdux;andinIox5, Romanus,brotherof GregoryVIII. , proudly,butvaguely,styleshimself consulet duxet omniumRomanorumsenator. [Nosuchbodyasa SenateexistedatRomefromthe8thtothe z2thcentury;andthewordSenatus frequentlyoccurringnotonlyinchroniclesbutevenin Actsof Councils signifiesmerelytheRomannobility. ForexampleBemmdescribesameetingoftheadherentsoftheImperialpartyinA. D. xo62asan"assemblyof theSenate. "ThussenahTrmeantanoble. Butitwassometimesassumed asatitlein amorepregnantsense,implyingmunicipalauthority,as when AlbericstyledhimselfomniumRornanorumSenator;andhisfather-in-law TheophylactushadalreadybornethetitleConsulorSenatoroftheRomans, andthesonofTheophylactuswascalledSonof the Consul,andhis wife TheodoratheSenatrix. CompareGregoroviusop. c/t. ill p. _93-5. Though thereis noreasontosupposethattheRomanselectedconsulsannuallyin thisage(zothcentury),it seemsthat"a Consulof theRomanswaselected asPrincepsof thenobilityfromits midst;confirmedbythe Pope;and placedasa Patricinsattheheadofthejurisdictionandadministrationofthe city. " Gregorovius,ib. p. 253oTheCountsof Tnsculumusedto style themselvesConsulsandSenatorsoftheRomans. Gregorovius,iv. p. I38. ] e Aslateas the xth century,the Greekemperorsconferredon the dukesof Venice,Naples,2,malfi,&c. the title of _ arot, or consuls

_-D. HOO-t350]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 85 perhapstheclaimofa pureandpatriciandescent;butthey floatonthesurface,withouta seriesora substance,thetitles ofmen,nottheordersof government;_ anditisonlyfrom theyearofChristonethousandonehundredandforty-four, that the establishmentof thesenateis datedas a glorious era,intheactsofthecity. 4_ Anewconstitutionwashastily framedby privateambitionor popularenthusiasm;nor couldRome,in the twelfthcentury,producean antiquary toexplain,ora legislatortorestore,the harmonyand proportionsof the ancientmodel. Theassemblyof a free,of anarmedpeoplewilleverspeakinloudandweightyacclamations. Butthe regulardistributionofthe thirty-fivetribes, thenicebalanceofthewealthandnumbersofthecenturies, thedebatesof the adverseorators,and the slowoperation ofvotesandballotscouldnoteasilybe adaptedby a blind (seeChron. Sagornini,passim); and the successorsof Charlemagnewould not abdicate any of their prerogatives. But, in general, the names of consuland senator,whichmayhe found amongthe French and Germans, signifyno more than count or lord (Signeur, Ducange, Glossar. ). The monkishwritersare oftenambitiousof finedassic words. [The title consul wasborne in the x2thcentury,denotingthe judiciaryandruling magistracy. Cp. Gregorovius,op. c/t. iv. 459-] _aThe most constitutionalform is a diploma of Otho III. (,_. D. 998), Consulibussenatus populiqueRomani; but the act is probably spurious. Atthe coronationof Henry I. A. D. xor4,the historianDithmnr (apud Muratori,Dissert. xxiii. )describeshim, asenatoribusduodecimvallatum,quorum sexrasi barlx_talii prolixRmysticeincedebant curebaculis. The senate is mentionedin the panegyricof Berengarius(p. 4o6). [Just before thisrevolutionthe Romanshad beeninvolvedin a war for the possessionof Tivoli. The placehad surrenderedto the Pope, and they had demandedit from him. The revolutionfollowed. "In II43," says Gregorovius,"Rome made an attempt to form such an associationof the differentcl___esas had beenformedin Milan, Pisa,Genoa,andothercities" (iv. p. 449). The lessernobilityjoined the burghers,seizedthe Capitoline, declaredthemselvesthe Senate. Thus a free burgher classwasestablished, and the despotismof the nobilitywho werethe supportersof the Popewas overthrown: this is the significanceof the revolutionof Ix43. The first civicconstitution(Ix44)wasframedunder the influenceof JordanPiefleone. PopeLuciusII. turnedto ConradIFI. ,but gotnohelp. ThentheSenate invited Conradto come and rule in Rome (xx49or xI5o). See Otto of Freisingen,i. 28. ]

86 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. t. xtx multitude,ignorantof thearts,andinsensibleof thebenefits,of legalgovernment. It wasproposedbyArnoldto reviveanddiscriminatetheequestrianorder;butwhatcould be the motiveor measureof such distinction? 5 The pecuniaryqualificationoftheknightsmusthavebeenreduced tothepovertyofthetimes:thosetimesno longerrequired theircivilfunctionsof judgesandfarmersof therevenue; andtheirprimitiveduty,theirmilitaryserviceonhorseback, wasmorenoblysuppliedbyfeudaltenuresandthespirit of chivalry. Thejurisprudenceofthe republicwasuseless andunknown;thenationsandfamiliesof Italy,wholived undertheRomanandBarbariclaws,wereinsensiblymingled inacommonmass;andsomefainttradition,someimperfect fragments,preservedthememoryof theCodeandPandects of Justinian. Withtheirliberty,theRomansmightdoubtlesshaverestoredtheappellationandofficeof consuls,had theynotdisdaineda titlesopromiscuouslyadoptedin the Italiancitiesthatithasfinallysettledonthehumblestation oftheagentsof commerceinaforeignland. Buttherights of thetribunes,theformidablewordthatarrestedthepublic counsels,suppose,ormustproduce,alegitimatedemocracy. Theoldpatricianswerethesubjects,themodembaronsthe tyrants,ofthestate;norwouldtheenemiesofpeaceandorder, whoinsultedthevicarof Christ,havelongrespectedthe unarmedsanctityof aplebeianmagistrate. _ a In ancientRome,theequestrianorderwasnotrankedwiththesenate andpeopleasathirdbranchof therepublictilltheconsulshipof Cicero,who assumesthemeritof the establishment(Plin. Hist. Natur. rn-lll. 3; Beaufort,R_publiqueRomaine,tom. i. p. i44-x55). Therepublicanplanof Arnoldof Bresciais thusstated byGunther: Quinetiamtitulosurblsrenovarevetnstos; Nomineplebeiosecernerenomenequestre, Juratribunorum,sanctumreperaresenatum, Etseniofessasmutasquereponereleges. Lapsaruinosis,etadhucpendentiamuffs Reddereprim, evoCapitoliapriscanitori. But of thesereformations,some were no morethanideas,othersnomore thanwords.

A. v. zxoo-x3so]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 87 In therevolutionof the twelfthcentury,whichgavea new existenceand era to Rome,we mayobservethe real and importantevents that marked or confirmedher political independence. I. The Capitolinehil]_oneof herseveneminences/7isaboutfourhundredyardsinlengthandtwohundred in breadth. A flight of an hundred steps led to the summitoftheTaxpeianrock; andfaxsteeperwastheascent beforethe declivitieshad beensmoothedand the precipices filledbythe ruinsof fallenedifices. From the earliestages, theCapitolhad beenusedasa templein peace,afortressin war: after the lossof the city,it maintaineda siegeagainst the victoriousGauls; andthe sanctuaryof empirewasoccupied,assaulted,and burnt in the civilwarsof ViteUiusand Vespasian. _s The templesof Jupiterandhis kindreddeities hadcrumbledintodust; their placewassuppliedby monasteriesand houses;and the solidwalls,the longand shelving porticoes,weredecayedor ruinedby the lapseof time. It was the firstact of the Romans,an act of freedom,to restorethe strength,thoughnotthebeauty,of the Capitol;* tofortifytheseatof their armsand counsels;and,as oftenas a Aftermanydisputesamongthe antiquaries of Rome,it seemsdeterminedthat the summitofthe Capitolinehillnextthe riverisstrictlythe Mons Tarpeius,the Arx; and that, onthe other summit,the churchand convent of Araceli,the barefootfriars of St. Francisoccupythe templeof Jupiter (Nardini, Roma Antica, 1. v. c. xx-x6). [This conclusionis incorrect. Both the Tarpeian Rock and the Templeof Jupiter were on the western height; the Arxwas onthe eastern,whichis nowcrownedbythe Churchof St. Mafiain Aracceli. For the determinationof the site of the temple, a passagein the Graphla(a collectionof ceremonialformularieswhichwas perhapsdrawnupfor Otto III. , in imitationof theByzantineceremonials) was of greatimportance:"On thesummit of theforh essoverthe Porficus Crinorumwas the Templeof Jupiterand Moneta. " Thisportico belonged to the Forumolitorium;as was shownby excavationsin the CaffarelIi gardens. PopeAnacleteII. ratifiedto the Abbotof St. M_riathepossessionof the Capitolinehill. ] Tacit. Hist. iiL 69, 7o. **[The old Tabularium,in the saddle betweenthe two _lmmit. _becamethe Senate-house. Cp. Gregoroviu,%op. _. iv. 477. ]

88 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c_LX_X they ascendedthe hill, the coldestmindsmusthave glowed with the remembranceof their ancestors. II. The first C_esarshad beeninvestedwiththe exclusivecoinageof the gold and silver; to the senate they abandonedthe baser metalof bronzeor copper;50theemblemsand legendswere inscribedon a more amplefield by the geniusof flattery; and the princewasrelievedfromthe careof celebratinghis own virtues. The successorsof Diocletiandespisedeven the flatteryof the senate: theirroyaloflficersat Rome,and in the provinces,assumedthe sole directionof the mint; and the sameprerogativewasinheritedby the Gothickings of Italy,andthelongseriesoftheGreek,theFrench,and the Germandynasties. Afteran abdicationof eight hundred years,the Romansenateassertedthis honourableand lucrativeprivilege;whichwastacitlyrenouncedby the popes, from Paschalthe Secondto the establishmentof their residence beyond the Alps. Someof these republicancoins of the twelfthand thirteenthcenturiesareshewninthe cabinets of the curious. On oneof these,a goldmedal,Christ is depictured,holdingin his left hand a bookwith this inscription,"THEVOWoFTHEROMANSENATEANDPEOPLE: ROME,THECAPITALOFTHEWORLD";onthereverse,St. Peterdeliveringa bannerto a kneelingsenatorin hiscap and gown,withthename and armsof his familyimpressedon a shield)* III. With the empire,the prefectof the cityhad This partitionof the noblerandthe basermetalsbetweenthe emperor and senatemust, however,be adopted, not as a podtivefact, but as the probableopinionof the bestantiquaries(seethe SciencedesM&laillesofthe P_re_oubert,tom. ii. p. zoS-_xi,in the improvedandscarceeditiond the Baron de la Bastie). In his xxviithdissertationon the Antiquitiesof Italy (tom. ii. p. 559569), Muratoriexhibitsaseriesof thesenatoriancoins,whichboretheobscure namesofAl_orHatl[=of stronggoldI Infortlatl,Provisini[fromProvins,in Champagne],Paparini. [Throewhich are perhapsearliesthaveRo_. N. pmC_v-roundthe imageof St. Peter,andSF-_AT. POPVL. Q. R. roundSt. Paul. ] Duringthisperiod,allthe popes,withoutexceptingBonifaceVIII. , abstainedfromthe right of coining,whichwas resumedbyhis successor BenedictXI. and regularlyexercisedin the courtof Avignon.

•. D. ,xoo-_35o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 89 declinedto a municipalofficer; yethe still exercisedin the last appealthe civilandcriminaljurisdiction;and a drown sword,whichhe receivedfrom the successorsof Otho, was themodeof his investitureand theemblemofhisfunctions. _ The dignitywas confinedto the noble familiesof Rome; thechoiceof thepeoplewasratifiedbythe pope; but a triple oath of fidelitymust haveoftenembarrassedthe prefectin the conflictof adverseduties. _ A servant,in whomthey possessedbut a thirdshare,wasdismissedbytheindependent Romans; in his place they electeda patrician; but this title,whichCharlemagnehad not disdained,was too lofty fora citizenor a subject; and,afterthe first fervourof rebellion,theyconsentedwithoutreluctanceto the restoration of the prefect. Aboutfifty yearsafterthis event,Innocent theThird, themostambitious,or atleastthemostfortunate, of the pontiffs,deliveredthe Romans and himselffrom thisbadgeofforeigndominion;he investedthe prefectwith a bannerinstead of a sword,and absolvedhim fromall dependenceof oaths or serviceto the Germanemperors. _ In his place an ecclesiastic,a present or future cardinal, wasnamedby the popeto the civilgovernmentof Rome; but his jurisdictionhas beenreducedto a narrowcompass; s,AGermanhistorian,GerardofReicherspeg(inBaluz. Miscell. tom. v. p. 64,apudSchm;dt,Hist. desAllemands,tore. iii. p. 265), thusdescribes theconstitutionofRomein thexithcentury:Grandioraurbiset orbis negotiaspectantad Romanurepontificereiterequead RoreanureImperatorem;sireilliusvicariureurbispr-,efecture,quidesu_dignitate respicitutmreque,videlicetdominumpapamcuifacitdominum,etdominum ireperatorureaquoaccipitsua_potestatisinsigne,scilicetgladiumexertum. [Contelorius,Depr-_fectoUrbis. ] Thewordsofacontemporarywriter(Pandulph. Pisan. inVit. Paschal. ILp. 357,358)describetheelectionandoathoftheprefectinxx18,inconsultispatribus. . ,locaprmfectoria. . . laudespr_vfectoria_. . . comitiorumapplausum. . . juratururepopuloin ambonemsublevant. . . confirmarieureinurbepr_efecturepetunt. Urbisprmfectureadliglamfidelitatererecepit,etpermantum quod ilUdonavitdeprmfectur_eurepubliceinvestivit,quiusqueadid tempus juramentofidelitatisimperatorifuitobligatus,etabeoprmfecturmtenult honorem(GestaInnocent. III. in Muratori,tom. lii. p. i. p. 487).

9° THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. LXlX and in the daysof freedomthe rightor exercisewasderived from the senate and people. IV. Mter the revivalof the senate,_ the conscriptfathers (if I may use the expression) wereinvestedwith the legislativeandexecutivepower; but theirviewsseldomreachedbeyondthepresentday; andthat day wasmost frequentlydisturbedby violenceand tumult. In its utmost plenitude,the order or assemblyconsistedof fifty-sixsenators,_ the most eminentof whomwere distinguishedby the title of counsellors; they were nominated, perhapsannually,by the people; and a previouschoiceof theirelectors,tenpersonsineachregionorparish,mightafford a basisfor a free and permanentconstitution. The popes, whoin thistempestsubmittedratherto bend than to break, confirmedby treaty the establishmentand privilegesof the senate,and expectedfrom time, peace,and religionthe restorationof their government. The motivesof publicand privateinterestmightsometimesdraw fromthe Romansan occasionaland temporarysacrificeof their claims; and they renewedtheir oath of allegianceto the successorof St. Peter and Constantine,the lawful head of the church and the republic,s7 is SeeOthoFrising. Chron. vii. 3x, deGest. Frederic. I. 1. i. c. _7. u Ourcountryman,RogerHoveden,speaksof the singlesenators,of the Capv. _i family, &c. quorumtemporibusmeliusregebaturRoma quam nunc(A. D. x:94)est temporibuslvi. senatorum(Ducange,Gloss. tom. vi. p. x9t. S_AZOR. _S). 67Muratorl (dissert. xlii. tom. iii. p. 785-788)has publishedan original treaty: Concordiainter D. nostrum papam ClementemIII. et senatores populiRomanisuper regalibnset al]i_dignitatibnsurbis, &c. 44° senatns. The senatespeaks,and speakswith authority: Reddimusad prmsens. . . habebimus . . . dabitis preshyteria. . . jurabimus pacem et fidelitatem, &c. AchartulaDetenimentisTnsculani,datedinthe 47thyearof the same era, andconfirmeddecreto amplissimiordiaissenatns,acclamationeP. R. publiceCapitolioconsistentis. It is therewefindthe differenceof senatores eonsiliariiand simplesenators (Muratori,dissert,xlii. tom. iii. p. 787-789). [The transactionshere touchedon belongto the revolutionof A. D. H88, whichdeserveda more particularnotice. PopeClementIII. (xxgT-9X)was forced to make a formal treaty,which implied a newconstitution. The Popewasrecognisedas overlord; he had the rightof investingthe Senate;

_. D. xx_-_35o]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 9I The unionandvigourofa publiccouncilwasdissolvedina lawlesscity; andtheRomanssoonadopteda morestrongand simplemodeof administration. They condensedthe name and authorityof the senatein a single magistrateor two colleagues;and, as they werechangedat the end of a year or of sixmonths,thegreatnessof the trustwascompensated bythe shortnessof the term. Butin thistransientreign,the senatorsof Romeindulgedtheir avariceandambition; their justicewaspervertedby the interestof their familyandfaction; and, as they punishedonlytheir enemies,they were obeyedonly by their adherents. Anarchy,no longertemperedby the pastoralcare of their bishop,admonishedthe Romansthat theywere incapableof governingthemselves; and they soughtabroad those blessingswhichthey were hopelessof findingat home. In the same age, and from thesamemotives,mostoftheItalianrepublicswereprompted to embracea measure,which,howeverstrangeit mayseem, wasadaptedto their situation,and productiveof the most salutaryeffects,ss They chose,in someforeignbut friendly city,an impartialmagistrate,ofnoblebirthand unblemished character,a soldierand a statesman,recommendedby the voiceof fameand his country,to whomthey delegatedfor a timethe supremeadministrationof peaceand war. The compactbetweenthe governorand the governedwassealed withoathsandsubscriptions;and thedurationofhis power, themeasureof hisstipend,thenatureof theirmutualobligatheSenatorstookanoathofloyaltytohim;hehadtherightofcoining,and enjoyedtheoldrevenuesofthesee;hewasboundtosupply£xooayearfor thewallsofthecityandtopaythemilitia;heabandonedTusculumtothe Romanstodestroy,thoughitwasunderhisprotection. ThePope,bythis agreement,gaveupalllegislativeauthorityandrightsofgovernment;his powerdependedonhislandsandestates. It istobenotedthatthisconstitutioncompletelyignoredtheImperialauthority. SeeGregorovius,iv. p. 62o. ] ssMuratori(dissert. xlv. tom. iv. p. 64--92)hasfullyexplainedthismode ofgovernment;andtheOcu/usPastoraJ/s,whichhehasgivenattheend,isa treatiseorsermononthedutiesoftheseforeignmagistrates.

92 THE DECLINE AND FALL [c-. Lxm tions,weredefinedwithscrupulousprecision. Theyswore toobeyhimas theirlawfulsuperior;hepledgedhisfaithto unitetheindifferenceofa strangerwiththezealofa patriot. Athischoice,fourorsixknightsandcivilians,hisassessors inarmsandjustice,attendedthePodest_,s*whomaintained at hisownexpensea decentretinueofservantsandhorses; hiswife,hisson,hisbrother,whomightbiastheaffections of the judge,wereleft behind;duringtheexerciseof his office,he wasnotpermittedto purchaseland,to contract an alliance,or evento acceptan invitationin thehouseof a citizen;norcouldhe honourablydeparttillhe hadsatisfiedthecomplaintsthatmightbe urgedagainsthisgovernment. It wasthus,aboutthe middleof thethirteenthcentury, that the RomanscalledfromBolognathe senatorBrancaleone,_°whoseameandmerithavebeenrescuedfromoblivionbythepenof an Englishhistorian. Ajust anxietyfor hisreputation,a clearforesightofthedifficultiesofthetask, had engagedhimto refusethe honourof theirchoice;the statutesofRomeweresuspended,andhisofficeprolonged to the termof threeyears. Bythe guiltyand licentious 8_In the Latin writers,at leastof the silverage, the title of Potesta$ wastransferredfrom the ofl3ceto the magistrate:-Hujus quitrahiturpr_textamsumeremavis; An FidenarumGabiorumqueessePotestas. (Juvenal. Satir. x. 99-) e0Seethelife anddeathof Brancaleone,in the HistoriaMajorof MatthewParis,p. 74I,757,792,797,799,8xo,823,833,836,840. The multitude of pilgrimsandsuitorsconnectedRomeand St. Albans;andthe resentment of the Englishclergypromptedthem to rejoicewheneverthepopeswere humbledand oppressed. [Therehadbeenanotherrevolutionin A. D. II9I. Since I143the majorityof theSenatehad beenplebeian; the noblesgained admissionbydegrees,and afterthetime of ClementIII. andCelestlneIII. it numberedmorepatriciansof ancientlineagethanburghersorknights. Hence discontentand revolution. In 1i9i the populaceoverthrewtheConstitution andmade BenedictCarnshomothe summussenator. Underhim the first municipalstatuteseemsto havebeenissued. Epp. Innocentliiii. lib. ii. n. 239. SeeGregorovius,op. cir. iv. 632. ]

_. noo-135o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 93 hewasaccusedas cruel;bytheclergyhewassuspectedas partial;but thefriendsof peaceandorderapplaudedthe firmand uprightmagistratebywhomthoseblessingswere restored. No criminals were so powerfulas to brave,so obscureas toelude,thejusticeofthesenator. Byhissentence,twonoblesof theAnnibaldifamilywereexecutedon agibbet;andheinexorablydemolished,inthecityandneighbourhood,onehundredandfortytowers,thestrongshelters ofrapineandmischief. Thebishop,asa simplebishop,was compelledtoresideinhisdiocese;andthestandardofBrancaleonewasdisplayedinthefieldwithterrorandeffect. His serviceswererepaidbytheingratitudeofa peopleunworthy ofthehappinesswhichtheyenjoyed. Bythepublicrobbers, whomhe had provokedfortheir sake,the Romanswere excitedtodeposeandimprisontheirbenefactor;norwould hislifehavebeenspared,if Bolognahad notpossesseda pledgeforhissafety. Beforehisdeparture,theprudentsenatorhadrequiredtheexchangeofthirtyhostagesofthenoblest familiesofRome:onthenewsofhisdanger,andattheprayer ofhiswife,theyweremorestrictlyguarded;andBologna, in thecauseof honour,sustainedthe thundersof a papal interdict. This generousresistanceallowedthe Romans tocomparethepresentwiththepast; andBrancaleonewas conductedfromtheprisontothe Capitolamidsttheacclamationsofa repentantpeople. Theremainderofhisgovernmentwasfirmand fortunate;and,as soonas envywas appeasedby death,hishead,enclosedina preciousvase, wasdepositedonaloftycolumnofmarble21 TheimpotenceofreasonandvirtuerecommendedinItaly elMatthew Paris ,thus endshisaccount:Caput veroipslusBraucaleonis in vase pretiososuper marmoreamcolumneamcoUocatum,in signumsui valorisetprobitatis,quasireliquiassuperstitiosenlmi_etpomposesustulerunt. Fuerat enim superborumpotentum et malefactorumurbis malleuset exstirpator,et populi protectoret defensor, veritafiset justiti_eimitator et amator(p. 840). A biographerof InnocentIV. (Muratori,Script. tom. iii. p. i. p. 59x,592)draws a lessfavourableportraitof this Ghibellinesenator.

94 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LX_X a moreeffectualchoice:insteadofa privatecitizen,towhom theyyieldeda voluntaryand precariousobedience,the Romanselectedfortheirsenatorsomeprinceofindependent power,whocoulddefendthemfromtheirenemiesandthemselves. CharlesofAnjouandProvence,themostambitious andwarlikemonarchof theage,acceptedatthesametime thekingdomofNaplesfromthepopeandtheotficeofsenatorfromthe Romanpeople. " Ashe passedthroughthe city,inhisroadtovictory,hereceivedtheiroathofalegiance, lodgedin the Lateranpalace,and smoothed,in a short visit,theharshfeaturesofhisdespoticcharacter. Yeteven Charleswasexposedtotheinconstancyof thepeople,who salutedwiththesameacclamationsthepassageofhisrival, the unfortunateConradin;anda powerfulavenger,who reignedintheCapitol,alarmedthefearsandjealousyofthe popes. Theabsolutetermofhislifewassupersededbya renewaleverythirdyear;andtheenmityof Nicholasthe Thirdoblgedthe Siciliankingtoabdicatethegovernment ofRome. In hisbull,a perpetuallaw,theimperiouspontiff assertsthetruth,validity,anduseofthedonationof Constantine,notlessessentialtothepeaceofthecitythantothe independenceof thechurch;establishestheannualelection ofthesenator;andformallydisqualifiesallemperors,kings, princes,andpersonsofan eminentandconspicuousrank. _ Thisprohibitoryclausewasrepealedin hisownbehalfby MartintheFourth,whohumblysolicitedthesuffrageofthe Romans. Inthepresence,andbytheauthority,ofthepeople, twoelectorsconferred,notonthepope,butonthenobleand _ _TheelectionofCharlesof Anjoutotheofficeof perpetualsenatorof RomeismentionedbythehistoriansintheviiithvolumeoftheCollectionof Muratori,byNicholasde_lameilla(p. 59:0,the monkof Padua(p. 724), SabasMal_Lqpina0. ii. c. 9,P"8o8),andRicordanoMalespini(c. x77,p. 999). a Thehigh-soundingbullof NicholasILLwhichfoundshistemporal sovereigntyonthedonationofConstantine,isstillextant;and,asit hasbeen insertedbyBonifaceVIII. intheSe. _ oftheDecretals,it mustbereceived bythe Catholics,oratlea. stbythePapists,asa sacredandperpetuallaw.

A. ,. HOO- 3SO]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 95 faithfulMartin,the dignityof senatorand the supreme administrationof therepublic,s toholdduringhisnatural life,and toexerciseat pleasurebyhimselfor hisdeputies. Aboutfiftyyearsafterwards,thesametitlewasgrantedto theemperorLewisofBavaria;andthelibertyofRomewas acknowledgedbyhertwosovereigns,whoacceptedamunicipal officeinthegovernmentoftheirownmetropolis. In thefirstmomentsofrebellion,whenArnoldof Brescia hadinflamedtheirmindsagainstthe church,the Romans artfullylabouredtoconciliatethefavourof theempire,and torecommendtheirmeritandservicesinthecauseofCaesar. Thestyleof their ambassadorsto Conradthe Thirdand FrederictheFirstisa mixtureofflatteryandpride,thetraditionandignoranceoftheirownhistory. _ Mtersomecomplaintofhissilenceandneglect,theyexhorttheformerof theseprincestopasstheAlpsandassumefromtheirhands theImperialcrown. "WebeseechyourMajestynottodisdainthehumilityofyoursonsand vassals,nottolistento theaccusationsofourcommonenemies;whocalumniatethe 6,I amindebtedto Fleury(Hist. Eccles. tom. xviiLp. 3o6)foranextractof thisRomanactwhichhehastakenfromthe EcclesiasticalAnn_l_ofOdeficns Raynaldus,A. D. x28I,No. 14,I5. mTheselettersandspeechesarepreservedby Otho[Otto],Bishopof Frisingen(Fabric. Bibliot. Lat. reed. etinfim,tom. v. p. 186,x87),perhaps thenoblestofhistorians;hewassonofLeopold,marquisofAustria;his mother,Agnes,wasdaughteroftheemperorHenryIV. ;andhewashalfbrotheranduncletoConradIII. andFredericI. He hasleft,inseven [eight]books,aChronideoftheTimes;intwo,theGestaFrederidI. ,the lastofwhichisinsertedinthevithvolumeofMuratori shistorians. [The chronicleiseditedbyWilmansinMon. Germ. Hist. xx. p. xx6sqq. ,and separatelyintheScript. rer. Germ. x867. (GermantranslationbyKolfl, x88L)TheGestaisalsoeditedbyWiimansinthesamevolumeofthe Monumenta;andbyWaltz(x884)intheseriesoftheScript. mr. Germ. (Germantranslationby Kohl,x883). The nameoftheChronidewas originallyDe duabusdvitatibus. Itisa HistoryoftheWorld,andits objectistoprovethat,whiletheseculardvitasorkingdomisephemeral andtransitory,theChurch,orthekingdomofGod,iseternM. Cp. thebrief characteristicof Ottoin Giesebrecht sGeschichtederdeutschenKaiserzeit, P. 394sqq. ]

96 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. L. ,ax senateashostiletoyourthrone,whosowtheseedsofdiscord, thattheymayreaptheharvestofdestruction. Thepopeand theSicilianareunitedin an impiousleagueto opposeour fibertyandyourcoronation. WiththeblessingofGod,our zealand couragehashithertodefeatedtheirattempts. Of theirpowerfuland factiousadherents,moreespeciallythe Frangipani,wehavetakenbyassaultthehousesandturrets; someoftheseareoccupiedbyourtroops,andsomearelevelledwiththe ground. The Milvianbridge,whichthey hadbroken,isrestoredandfortifiedforyoursafepassage; and yourarmymayenterthecitywithoutbeingannoyed fromthecastleof St. Angelo. All thatwehavedone,and allthatwedesign,isforyourhonourandservice,intheloyal hopethat youwillspeedilyappearin personto vindicate thoserightswhichhavebeeninvadedbytheclergy,torevive thedignityoftheempire,andtosurpassthefameandglory ofyourpredecessors. MayyoufixyourresidenceinRome, thecapitaloftheworld; givelawstoItalyandtheTeutonic kingdom;andimitatetheexampleof Constantineand Justinian,_ who,bythevigourofthesenateandpeople,obtained the sceptreof the earth. ",7 Butthesesplendidand fallaciouswisheswerenotcherishedbyConradtheFranconian, whoseeyeswerefixedontheHolyLand,andwhodiedwithout visitingRomesoonafterhisreturnfromtheHolyLand. Hisnephewandsuccessor,FredericBarbarossa,wasmore ambitiousof the Imperialcrown;nor hadanyof thesuccessorsofOthoacquiredsuchabsoluteswayoverthekingdom ofItaly. Surroundedbyhisecclesiasticalandsecularprinces, hegaveaudienceinhiscampat Sutri6stotheambassadorsof Rome,whothusaddressedhimina freeandfloridoration: We desire (said theignorantRomans)to restorethe empirein eum stature,quo fuit temporeConstantiniet Justiniani,qui totumorbem vignre senatuset popull Romanisuis tenueremanibus. 0,Otho Frising. de Gestis FrederlciI. 1. i. e. 28, p. 662-664. 68[For the meetingwith Pope Hadrian at Sutri, and the following events,see Giesebrecht sGeschichteder deutschenK. aiserzeit,v. p. 60sgq. ]

_. D. HOO-t3SO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 97 "Inclineyour ear to the queenof cities; approachwitha peacefulandfriendlymindtheprecinctsof Rome,whichhas cast awaythe yoke of the clergyand is impatientto crown her legitimateemperor. Under your auspiciousinfluence, maytheprimitivetimesbe restored. Asserttheprerogatives of the eternalcity,and reduceunder her monarchythe insolenceof the world. You arenot ignorantthat, in former ages,bythewisdomofthesenate,bythevalouranddiscipline oftheequestrianorder,sheextendedhervictoriousarmstothe East and West,beyondthe/kips,andoverthe islandsof the ocean. Byour sins,in the absenceof ourprinces,thenoble institutionof the senatehas sunkin oblivion; and,withour prudence,our strength has likewisedecreased. We have revivedthe senateandthe equestrianorder; thecounselsof theone,thearmsof theother,willbe devotedto yourperson andthe serviceof theempire. Doyounothearthelanguage oftheRomanmatron? Youwereaguest,I haveadoptedyou asacitizen; aTransalpinestranger,I haveelectedyouformy sovereign;60and givenyou myself,and all that is mine. Your first and most sacredduty is,to swearand subscribe that you willshed your blood for the republic; that you willmaintainin peaceand justicethe lawsof the city and the chartersof yourpredecessors;and that youwillreward withfivethousandpoundsof silverthe faithfulsenatorswho shallproclaimyour tides in the Capitol. Withthe name, assumethe character,of Augustus. " The flowersof Latin rhetoricwerenot yet exhausted;but Frederic,impatientof their vanity,interrupted the orators in the high tone of royalty and conquest. "Famous, indeed, have been the fortitudeand wisdomof the ancient Romans; but your speechis not seasonedwithwisdom,and I couldwishthat fortitudewereconspicuousin your actions. Like all sublunary things,Rome has felt the vicissitudesof time and HHospeseras, civem feel Advena fuisti ex Transalpinispartibus; principemconstitul. voL. ml. --7

98 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXlX fortune. YournoblestfamiliesweretranslatedtotheEast, to theroyalcityof Constantine;andtheremainsof your strengthandfreedomhavelongsincebeenexhaustedbythe GreeksandFranks. Areyoudesirousof beholdingthe ancientgloryofRome,thegravityofthesenate,thespiritof theknights,thedisciplineof thecamp,thevalourof the legions?youwillfindthemin theGermanrepublic. It is notempire,nakedandalone,theornamentsandvirtuesof empirehavelikewisemigratedbeyondtheAlpsto a more deservingpeople;70theywillbeemployedin yourdefence, buttheyclaimyourobedience. Youpretendthatmyself ormypredecessorshavebeeninvitedbytheRomans:you mistaketheword; theywerenotinvited,theywereimplored. Fromitsforeignanddomestictyrants,thecitywasrescued byCharlemagneandOtho,whoseashesreposeinourcountry; andtheirdominionwasthepriceofyourdeliverance. Under thatdominionyourancestorslivedanddied. I claimby therightofinheritanceandpossession,andwhoshalldareto extortyoufrommyhands? Is thehandof theFranksn andGermansenfeebledbyage? AmI vanquished? AmI a captive?AmI not encompassedwiththe bannersof a potentandinvinciblearmy? Youimposeconditionsonyour master;yourequireoaths: iftheconditionsarejust,anoath issuperfluous; if unjust,itiscriminal. Canyoudoubtmy equity? It isextendedtothemeanestofmysubjects. Will notmyswordbeunsheathedin thedefenceof theCapitol? BythatswordtheNorthernkingdomofDenmarkhasbeen restoredtotheRomanempire. Youprescribethemeasure andtheobjectsofmybounty,whichflowsina copiousbuta 70Noncessitnoblsnudumimpcrium,virtutesuitamictumvenit,ornamentasuasecuretraxit. Penesnossuntconsulestui,&c. CiceroorLivy wouldnothaverejectedtheseimages,theeloquenceofaBarbarianborn andeducatedintheHercynianforest. nOthoofFrisingen,whosurelyunderstoodthelanguageofthecourt anddietofGermany,speaksoftheFranksinthexiithcenturyasthereigningnation(TroceresFranci,equitesFranci,manasFrancorum);headds, however,theepithetofTeu/on/d.

A. D. X,OO-X3SO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 99 voluntarystream. Allwillbe givento patientmerit;all willbedeniedtorudeimportunity. "r_ Neithertheemperor northesenatecouldmaintaintheseloftypretensionsof dominionandliberty. Unitedwiththepope,andsuspiciousof theRomans,FredericcontinuedhismarchtotheVatican: hiscoronationwasdisturbedbya sally7sfromtheCapitol; and,ifthenumbersandvalouroftheGermansprevailedin thebloodyconflict,hecouldnotsafelyencampinthepresence of a cityof whichhestyledhimselfthesovereign. About twelveyearsafterwardshebesiegedRome,toseatanantipopeinthechairofSt. Peter;andtwelvePisangalleyswere introducedintotheTiber;butthesenateandpeoplewere savedbytheartsofnegotiationandtheprogressofdisease; nordidFredericorhissuccessorsreiteratethehostileattempt. Theirlaboriousreignswereexercisedbythepopes,thecrusades,andtheindependenceof LombardyandGermany; theycourtedtheallianceof theRomans;andFredericthe SecondofferedintheCapitolthegreatstandard,theCaroccio ofMilan. _+AftertheextinctionofthehouseofSwabia,they werebanishedbeyondtheAlps; andtheirlastcoronations betrayedtheimpotenceandpovertyoftheTeutonicCmsars. 7 Otho Frising. de Gestis FrederlciI. 1. ii. c. 22, p. 72o--723. These originaland authenticactsI havetranslatedwithfreedom,yetwithfidelity. [The coronationceremonywasover,whenthesallywas made. ] * Fromthe Chroniclesof RicobaldoandFrancisPipin,Muratori(di_rt. xxvi. tom. ii. p. 492)has transcribedthiscuriousfact,withthe doggrelverses that accompaniedthe gift. Avedecusorbisavei victustibi destinor,ave[ Currusab AugustoFredericoCmsarejusto. VmMediolanumI jam sentisspernerevanum Imperilvires,propriastibi tollerevires. Ergotriumphorumurbs potesmemoressepriorum Quost_i mittebantregesqui beLlagerebant. Nesi deetacere(I nowusethe Italian Dissertations,tom. i. p. 444)chenell anno x727,tma copiadessoCaroccioin marmo dianziignotosi scoprl,nd Campidoglio,pressoalle carceredi quel luogo,dove SistoV. l avea falto rinchiudere. Stava esso posto sopraquatrocolonnedi marmofirmcolla sequenteinscrizione,&c. to the same purposeas the old inscription. 76The declineof theImperialarmsand authorityin Italy isrelatedwith

zoo THE DECLINE AND FALL [cH. LaX UnderthereignofHadrian,whentheempireextendedfrom the Euphratesto the ocean,fromMountAriasto theGrampian Hills,afancifulhistorian7eamusedtheRomanswiththe picture of their infant wars. "There was a time," says Florus, "when Tibur and Prameste,our summer-retreats, were the objectsof hostilevowsin the Capitol,when we dreaded the shades of the Ariciangroves,whenwe could triumph withouta blush overthe namelessvillagesof the SabinesandLatins,and evenCoriol/couldafforda titlenot unworthyofa victoriousgeneral. " Theprideofhis contemporarieswas gratifiedby the contrast of the past and the present: they wouldhavebeenhumbledby the prospectof futurity; bythepredictionthat aftera thousandyearsRome, despoiledof empireand contractedto her primevallimits, wouldrenewthe samehostilitiesonthe samegroundwhich was then decorated with her villas and gardens. The adjacentterritory on either side of the Tiber was always claimed,and sometimespossessed,as the patrimonyof St. Peter; but the baronsassumeda lawlessindependence,and the cities too faithfully copiedthe revolt and discord of the metropolis. In the twelfthand thirteenthcenturiesthe Romansincessantlylabouredto reduceor destroy the contumaciousvassalsof the church and senate; and, if their headstrong and selfish ambition was moderated by the pope,he often encouragedtheir zeal by the allianceof his spiritualarms. Their warfarewasthat of the first consuls and dictators, who were taken from the plough. They assembledin armsat thefootofthe Capitol; salliedfromthe gates,plunderedor burnt the harvestsof their neighbours, impartiallearningintheAnnalsofMumtori(tom. x. -xii. );andthereader maycomparehisnarrativewiththeHistoiredesAllemands(tom. ifi. iv. ) bySchmidt,whohasdeservedtheesteemofhiscountrymen. 7sTiburnuncsuburhanumetmstiv_vPrmncstedelici_vnuncupatisin Capitoliovotispetehantur. ThewholepassageofFlorus(1. i. c. xi)maybe readwithpleasure,andhasdeservedthepraiseofamanofgenius(Oeuvzcs deMontesqnieu,tom. iii. p. 634,635,quartoedition).

. . D. HOO-USO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IoI engagedin tumultuaryconflict,andreturnedhomeafteran expeditionof fifteenor twentydays. Theirsiegeswere tediousandunskilful:in theuseof victory,theyindulged themeanerpassionsofjealousyand revenge;and,instead ofadoptingthevalour,theytrampledonthemisfortunes,of theiradversaries. Thecaptives,intheirshirts,witha rope roundtheirnecks,solicitedtheirpardon. Thefortifications andeventhebuildingsoftherivalcitiesweredemolished,and theinhabitantswerescatteredin theadjacentvillages. It wasthusthattheseatsofthecardinalbishops,Porto,Ostia, Albanum,Tusculum,Pr_eneste,and Tibur,or Tivoli,were successivelyoverthrownby the ferocioushostilityof the Romans. " Ofthese,75Portoand Ostia,the twokeysof theTiber,are stillvacantanddesolate:the marshyand unwholesomebanksarepeopledwithherdsofbuffaloes,and theriveris lostto everypurposeof navigationandtrade. Thehills,whichaffordashadyretirementfromtheautumnal heats,haveagainsmiledwiththeblessingsofpeace;Frascati hasarisennearthe ruinsof Tusculum;Tibur,or Tivoli, hasresumedthehonoursofacity;7gandthemeanertownsof AlbanoandPalestrinaaredecoratedwiththe villasof the cardinalsandprincesofRome. In theworkofdestruction, theambitionoftheRomanswasoftencheckedandrepulsed bytheneighbouringcitiesandtheirallies;inthefirstsiege ofTibur,theyweredrivenfromtheircamp; andthebattles v7Ne a feritateRomanorum,sicutfuerantHostienses,Portuenses,Tusculanenses,Albanenses,I. abicenses,et nupcr Tiburtini destruerentur (MatthewParis,p. 757)- Theseeventsare markedin theAnnalsand Index (thexvifithvolume)of Muratori. 7BForthe stateorruinofthesesuburbancities,the banksof theTiber,&c. seethe livelypictureof the P. Labat (Voyageen Espagneeten Italie), who had long residedin the neighbourhoodof Rome; and the more accurate descriptionof whichP. Eschinard(Roma,i75o, in octavo)has added to the topographicalmap of Cingolani. _tLabat (tom. iii. p. 233) mentionsa recentdecreeofthe Romangovernment,which has severelymortifiedthe prideand poverty of Tivoli: in civitateTiburti_ non viviturdvfliter.

IOZ THE DECLINE AND FALL [c,. Lx_ of Tusculum. 0and Viterbo. 1might be compared,in their relativestate, to the memorablefieldsof Thrasymeneand Cnnn_e. In the first of these petty wars, thirty thousand Romans were overthrownby a thousand German horse, whomFredericBarbarossahaddetachedtothe reliefof Tusculum; and,if wenumberthe slainat three,theprisonersat two, thousand,we shall embracethe most authenticand moderateaccount. Sixty-eightyearsafterward,theymarched against Viterbo,in the ecclesiasticalstate, with the whole forceof the city; bya rarecoalition,the Teutoniceaglewas blended,in the adversebanners,withthe keysof St. Peter; and the pope s auxiliarieswere commandedby a countof Toulouseand a bishopof Winchester22The Romanswere discomfitedwith shame and slaughter; but the English prelatemusthaveindulgedthevanityofapilgrim,if hemultipliedtheirnumbersto onehundred,andtheirlossin thefield tothirty,thousandmen. Had thepolicyofthesenateandthe disciplineof the legionsbeen restoredwith the Capitol,the dividedconditionof Italy would have offeredthe fairest opportunityof a secondconquest. But in armsthe modem Romans werenot above,and in arts they were far bdaw, the commonlevelof the neighbouringrepublics. Nor was their warlike spirit of any long continuance; after some irregularsallies,theysubsidedin the nationalapathy,in the soI depart frommy usualmethodof quotingonlyby the datethe Annals of Muratori,in considerationof the criticalbalancein whichhe hasweighed ninecontemporarywriterswho mentionthe battleof Tusculum (tom. x. p. 42-44). Matthew Paris, p. 345. This bishop of Winchester was Peter de Rupibus,whooccupiedthe see thirty-twoyears (A. D. i2o6--1238),and is described,by the English historian,as a soldierand a state_raau(p. _78, 399). m[LucasSaveUi,whobecameSenatorin x$34, passedan edict claiming Tuscanyandthe Campagnaas the propertyof the Romanpeople. Pope GregoryIX. fledfromRome,andViterbowashischiefsupport. "What," asks Gregorovius,"wouldhavebeenthe fateof the Papacy,had the city succeededin becominga civicpowersuch as MilanorPisa?" (v. p. I72). FredericII. sawhimselfunwillinglyforcedto assistthe Pope. ]

_. Hoo--,35o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IO3 neglectof militaryinstitutions,andin thedisgracefuland dangeroususeof foreignmercenaries. AmbitionisaweedofquickandearlyvegetationinthevineyardofChrist. UnderthefirstChristianprinces,thechairof St. Peterwasdisputedbythevotes,thevenality,theviolence, ofa popularelection;thesanctuariesofRomewerepolluted withblood;and,fromthethirdtothetwelfthcentury,the churchwasdistractedbythe mischiefof frequentschisms. Aslongasthefinalappealwasdeterminedbythecivilmagistrate,thesemischiefsweretransientandlocal;themeritswere triedby equityor favour;norcouldthe unsuccessfulcompetitorlongdisturbthetriumphofhisrival. But,afterthe emperorshad beendivestedof theirprerogatives,aftera maximhadbeenestablishedthatthevicarofChristisamenableto no earthlytribunal,eachvacancyof theholysee mightinvolveChristendomin controversyand war. The claimsofthecardinalsandinferiorclergy,ofthenoblesand people,werevagueandlitigious;thefreedomofchoicewas over-ruledbythetumultsofa citythatnolongerownedor obeyeda superior. Onthedeceaseof a pope,twofactions proceeded,in differentchurches,to a doubleelection:the numberandweightofvotes,thepriorityof time,themerit of thecandidates:mightbalanceeachother; the mostrespectableoftheclergyweredivided;andthedistantprinces whobowedbeforethe spiritualthronecouldnot distinguishthe spuriousfromthelegitimateidol. Theemperors wereoftentheauthorsoftheschism,fromthepoliticalmotive ofopposinga friendlytoanhostilepontiff;andeachofthe competitorswasreducedtosuffertheinsultsofhisenemies, whowerenotawedbyconscience,andtopurchasethesupport of his adherents,whowereinstigatedby avariceor ambition. A peacefuland perpetualsuccessionwas ascertainedby Alexanderthe Third,_ whofinallyabolished u See Mosheim,Institut. Histor. Ecdesiast. p. 4oI, 403. Alexander himselfhad nearlybeenthevictimof a contestedelection;andthedoubtful

xo4 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXlX the tumultuaryvotesof the clergyand people,and defined the rightof electionin the solecollegeof cardinals,ta The threeordersof bishops,priests,anddeaconswereassimilated to each other by this important privilege; the parochial clergyofRomeobtainedthe firstrank inthehierarchy:they wereindifferentlychosenamongthenationsof Christendom; and the possessionof the richestbenefices,of the most important bishoprics,was not incompatiblewith their title and office. The senatorsof the Catholicchurch,the coadjutors and legatesof the supreme pontiff,were robed in purple,the symbolof martyrdomor royalty; they claimed a proudequalitywithkings; andtheir dignitywasenhanced bythe smallnessof their number,which,tillthe reignof Leo the Tenth, seldomexceededtwentyor twenty-fivepersons. By thiswiseregulationalldoubt and scandalwereremoved, and theroot of schismwassoeffectuallydestroyedthat in a periodof six hundredyears a doublechoicehas onlyonce dividedthe unity of the sacredcollege. But, as theconcurrenceof two thirdsof the voteshad been made necessary, the electionwas often delayedby the privateinterestand passionsof the cardinals; and, whilethey prolongedtheir independentreign,the Christianworldwasleftdestituteofan head. A vacancyof almostthree yearshad preceded the elevationof Gregorythe Tenth, whoresolvedto preventthe futureabuse; and his bull, after someopposition,hasbeen consecratedin the codeof the canonlaw. 85 Nine daysare merits of Innocenthad only preponderatedby the weightof geniusand learningwhichSt. Bernard cast into the scale(seehis lifeand writings). a The origin, titles, importance,dress, precedency,&c. of the Roman cardinals,are very ably discussedby Thomassin (Disciplinede l Eglise, tom. i. p. x26_-i287); but their purple is nowmuch faded. The sacred collegewas raisedto the definitenumberof seventy-two,to represent,under hisvicar, the disciplesof Christ. a8Seethe bull of GregoryX. [issuedat Lyons,at the Great Council]approbantesacroconcilio,in the Sext¢of the CanonLaw (1. i. tit. 6, c. 3), a supplementto the Decretals,which BonifaceVIII. promulgatedat Rome in xa98,and addressedto allthe universitiesof Europe.

A. D. X_ _- 350]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE xo5 allowedfortheobsequiesofthedeceasedpopeandthearrival oftheabsentcardinals. On thetenth,they are imprisoned, eachwithonedomestic,ina commonapartment,orconclave, withoutanyseparationofwallsor curtains; asmallwindowis reservedfor the introductionof necessaries;but the dooris lockedonboth sides,and guardedby the magistratesof the city,to secludethemfromallcorrespondencewiththeworld. Iftheelectionbenotconsummatedin threedays,theluxuryof theirtablesiscontractedtoa singledishatdinnerandsupper; andafter theeighthdaythey werereducedto a scantyallowanceof bread, water,and wine. Duringthe vacancyof the holy see, the cardinals are prohibitedfrom touchingthe revenues,or assuming,unless in somerare emergency,the governmentof the church; all agreementsand promises amongtheelectorsareformallyannulled; andtheirintegrity isfortifiedbytheirsolemnoathsandtheprayersoftheCatholics. Some articles of inconvenientor superfluousrigour havebeengraduallyrelaxed,but the principleofconfinement is vigorousand entire: they are still urgedby the personal motivesof healthand freedomto acceleratethe momentof their deliverance;and the improvementof ballot,or secret votes,has wrapt the strugglesof the conclave_ in the silky veil of charity and politeness. 8_ By these institutionsthe Thegeniusof CardinaldeRetzhadarighttopaintaconclave(ofi665), in whichhe was a spectatorand an actor (M_aoires, tom. iv. p. x5-57); but I amat a lossto appreciatethe knowledgeor authorityof an anonymous Italian,whosehistory(Conclavide PontificiRomani,in 4to,x667)has been continuedsincethe reign of AlexanderVII. The accidentalform of the work furnishesa lesson,though not an antidote,to ambition. From a labyrinthof intrigues,weemergeto the adorationof the successfulcandidate; but the nextpageopenswith hisfuneral. s7The expressionsofCardinalde Retzare positiveandp[cturesclue: Ony v_cuttoujoursensembleaveclem_merespectetla m6mecivilitdquel on observeclansle cabinetdes rois,avecla m_mepolitessequ on avoit clans la courde HenriHI. ) aveelam_-nefamillaritdcluel onvoit clansles coll_ges; avecla m_memodestiequi se remarquedans les noviciats;et avecla m_me charlt_,du molnsen apparence)qui pourroit_tre entredes frbresparfaitementunis.

io6 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LmX Romanswereexcludedfromthe electionof theirprinceand bishop; and in thefeverof wildand precariouslibertythey seemedinsensibleof the loss of this inestimableprivilege. The emperorLewisof Bavaria revivedthe exampleof the great Otho. Mter somenegotiationwith the magistrates, the Romanpeoplewasassembled88in thesquare beforeSt. Peter s; the popeof Avignon,John theTwenty-second,was deposed; the choiceof his successorwas ratifiedby their consentandapplause. Theyfreelyvotedfor anewlaw,that theirbishopshouldneverbe absentmorethan threemonths in the year andtwodays journeyfromthecity; andthat,if he neglectedto return on the third s*_rnmons,the public servant shouldbe degradedand dismissed. 8. But Lewis forgothisowndebilityandtheprejudicesofthetimes: beyond the precinctsof a Germancamp,his uselessphantomwas rejected; the Romans despisedtheir own workmanship; the anti-popeimploredthe mercyof his lawfulsovereign;o0 u Richiestiper bando (says John ViUani)senatoridi Roma, e 52 del popolo,et capitanide _5, e consoli(consolig),et 13buone huomini,uno perrione. Our knowledgeis too imperfectto pronouncehowmuchof this constitutionwastemporary,andhow muchordinaryandpermanent. Yetit is faintlyillustratedbythe ancientstatutesof Rome. gViUani(1. x. c. 68-7I, in Muratori,Script. tom. xiii. p. 64t-645)relates this law, and the wholetransaction,with much less abhorrencethan the prudent Muratori. Any one conversantwith the darkerages musthave observedhowmuchthe sense(I meanthe nonsense)of superstitionis fluctuating and inconsistent. [Gregoroviusobserves(vi. 16o): "This important revolutionwasthe consequenceof thesojournof the Popesat Avignon,the effectof the quarrelwhichJohnXXII. sofoolishlyinvokedwiththeempire, and of the reformingprinciplesof themonarchy,withwhichwasassociated the Franciscanschism. The high-handeddoingsof Johnand Lewis,their tediousactionsat law,the extensiveresearchesintotheimperialandpapal authority,formedthe dose of this mediaevalstruggle,whichnow passed into more intellectualregions. The age of the reformationbegan; the ecclesiasticalseveranceof Germanyand Italywas perceptiblein the distanceand becameinevitableas soonas the politicalseverancewas accomplished. "] MIn the firstvolumeof thePopesof Avignon,seethe secondoriginalLife of JohnXXII. p. x4_-x45,the confessionofthe anti-pope,p. x45-xsa; and the laboriousnotesof Baluze,p. 7x4,7z5.

A. D. _O-X350]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Io7 andthe exclusiverightof the cardinalswasmorefirmly establishedbythisunseasonableattack. HadtheelectionbeenalwaysheldintheVatican,therights ofthesenateandpeoplewouldnothavebeenviolatedwith impunity. ButtheRomansforgot,andwereforgotten,inthe absenceofthesuccessorsofGregorytheSeventh,whodidnot keep,asa divineprecept,theirordinaryresidenceinthecity anddiocese. Thecareofthatdiocesewaslessimportantthan thegovernmentoftheuniversalchurch; norcouldthepopes delightina cityinwhichtheirauthoritywasalwaysopposed and theirpersonwasoftenendangered. Fromthe persecutionof the emperorsandthewarsof Italy,theyescaped beyondtheAlpsintothehospitablebosomofFrance; fromthe tumultsofRometheyprudentlywithdrewtoliveanddiein themoretranquilstationsofAnagni,Pemgia,Viterbo,and theadjacentcities. Whentheflockwasoffendedorimpoverishedbytheabsenceoftheshepherd,theywererecalledbya stemadmonitionthatSt. Peterhadfixedhischair,notinan obscurevillage,butinthecapitaloftheworld; byaferocious menacethattheRomanswouldmarchinarmstodestroythe placeand peoplethat shoulddareto affordthema retreat. Theyreturnedwithtimorousobedience;andweresaluted withtheaccountofanheavydebt,ofallthelosseswhichtheir desertionhad occasioned,thehireof lodgings,the saleof provisions,andthevariousexpensesofservantsandstrangers whoattendedthecourt21 Aftera shortintervalofpeace, andperhapsof authority,theywereagainbanishedbynew tumults,andagainsummonedbytheimperiousorrespectful s,Romaniautemnonvalentesneevolentesultra suam celarecupiditatem gravissimamcontra papammoverecoeperuntquestionem,exigentesab eo urgentissimeomnia qumsubierantper ejus absentiaradamna et jacturas, videlicetin hospitiislocandis,in mercimoniis,in usuris,in redditibus,in provislonibus,et in aliismodisinnumcrabilibus. Quodcttmaudissetpapa, pr_ecordialiteringemuitet se comperiensmuscipulatum,&c. ,Matt. Paris, P. 757. For the ordlnaryhistoryof the popes,their llfeand death,their residenceandabsence,it is enoughto referto the ecdesiasficalannalists, Spondanusand Fleury.

io8 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXIX invitationof the senate. In theseoccasionalretreats,the exilesand fugitivesof theVaticanwereseldomlongor far distantfromthemetropolis; butinthebeginningofthefourteenthcentury,the apostolicthronewastransported,as it mightseem,forever,fromtheTibertotheRh6ne;andthe causeofthetransmigrationmaybededucedfromthefurious contestbetweenBonifacetheEighthandthekingofFrance22 Thespiritualarmsof excommunicationand interdictwere repulsedbytheunionofthethreeestatesandtheprivileges oftheGaUicanchurch; butthepopewasnotpreparedagainst thecarnalweaponswhichPhiliptheFair had courageto employ. Asthepoperesidedat Anagni,withoutthe suspicionofdanger,hispalaceandpersonwereassaultedbythree hundredhorse,whohadbeensecretlyleviedbyWilliamof Nogaret,a Frenchminister,andSciarraColonna,of a noble buthostilefamilyofRome. Thecardinalsfled; theinhabitantsofAnagniwereseducedfromtheirallegianceandgratitude; butthedauntlessBoniface,unarmedandalone,seated himselfinhischair,andawaited,liketheconscriptfathersof old,theswordsoftheGauls. Nogaret,a foreignadversary, wascontentto executethe ordersof hismaster:by the domesticenmityofColonna,hewasinsultedwithwordsand blows;and duringa confinementof threedays his life wasthreatenedbythehardshipswhichtheyinflictedonthe obstinacywhichtheyprovoked. Theirstrangedelaygave timeand courageto the adherentsof thechurch,whorescuedhimfromsacrilegiousviolence;but hisimperioussoul waswoundedina vitalpart; andBonifaceexpiredat Rome inafrenzyofrageandrevenge. Hismemoryisstainedwith mBesidesthe generalhistoriansof the churchof Italyand of France,we possessa valuabletreatise,composedbya learnedfriendof Thuanus,which hislastandbesteditorshavepublishedinthe appendix(PAstoireparticulate du grandDiff_rendentre BonifaceVIII. et Philippele Bel, parPierredu Puis,tom. vii. p. xi. p. 6x-8_). [Tosti,Storiadl BonifaeioVIII. The bulls of BonifacehavebeeneditedfromtheVaticanarchivesbyDegon,Faucon and Th_a% I884-9o. ]

,,. D. xioo-xs5o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE xo9 theglaringvicesofavariceandpride;norhasthecourageofa martyrpromotedthisecclesiasticalchampiontothehonours ofa saint:a magnanimoussinner(saythechroniclesofthe times),whoenteredlikea fox,reignedlikealion,anddied likea dog. HewassucceededbyBenedicttheEleventh,the mildestof mankind. Yet he excommunicatedthe impious emissariesofPhilip,anddevotedthecityandpeopleofAnagni bya tremendouscurse,whoseeffectsarestiUvisibletothe eyesofsuperstition. _ Afterhisdecease,the tediousandequalsuspenseof the conclavewasfixedby thedexterityof theFrenchfaction. Aspeciousofferwasmadeandaccepted,that,inthetermof fortydays,theywouldelectoneofthethreecandidateswho shouldbe namedby theiropponents. Thearchbishopof Bordeaux,a furiousenemyofhiskingandcountry,wasthe firstonthe list; but hisambitionwasknown;andhis conscienceobeyedthecallsoffortuneandthecommandsof a benefactor,whohadbeeninformedbya swiftmessenger thatthechoiceofa popewasnowinhishands. Theterms wereregulatedina privateinterview;andwithsuchspeed andsecrecywasthebusinesstransactedthattheunanimous conclaveapplaudedthe elevationof Clementthe Fifth. _ Thecardinalsof bothpartiesweresoonastonishedby a summonstoattendhimbeyondthe Alps;fromwhence,as theysoondiscovered,theymustneverhopetoreturn. He wasengaged,by promiseand affection,to preferthe residenceof France;and, afterdragginghis courtthrough Poitouand Gascony,and devouring,by his expense,the citiesandconventsontheroad,hefinaUyreposedatAvignon, _ u It isdifficultto knowwhetherLabs/(tom. iv. p. 53-57)be in jestorin earnestwhenhe supposesthat Anagnistillfeelstheweightof thiscurse,and that the corn-fields,or vineyards,or olive treesare annuallyblasted by Nature,the obsequioushandmaidof the popes. Seeinthe Chronicleof GiovanniVillani(1. viii. c. 63,64,8o,inMuratori, tom. _i. ) theimprisonmentofBonifaceVIII. andtheelectionof ClementV. , the lastof which,likemostanecdotes,is embarrassedwith somedifficulties. 8_Theoriginallivesof theeightpopesofAvignon,ClementV. JohnXXII.

x_o THE DECLINEAND FALL [c_extx whichflourishedaboveseventyyearsm theseatoftheRoman pontiffandthemetropolisof Christendom. Byland,by sea,bytheRh6ne,thepositionofAvignonwasonallsides accessible;thesouthernprovincesofFrancedonotyieldto Italyitself;newpalacesarosefortheaccommodationofthe popeandcardinals;andtheartsofluxuryweresoonattractedbythetreasuresofthechurch. Theywerealready possessedoftheadjacentterritory,theVenaissincounty, 7 apopulousandfertilespot;andthesovereigntyofAvignon wasafterwardspurchasedfromtheyouthanddistressof Jane,thefirstqueenofNaples,andcountessof Provence, fortheinadequatepriceof fourscorethousandflorins)8 UndertheshadowoftheFrenchmonarchy,amidstanobedient people,thepopesenjoyedanhonourableandtranquilstate, BenedictXII. ClementVI. InnocentVI. UrbanV. GregoryXI. and Clement VII. , are publishedby StephenBaluze (Vit,_ PaparumAvenionensium; Paris, x693,2 vols. in 4to),withcopiousandelaboratenotes,anda second volumeof acts and documents. Withthe true zeal of an editorand a patriot,hedevoutlyjustifiesorexcusesthe charactersof his countrymen. mThe exileof Avignonis comparedbytheItalianswithBabylonandthe Babylonishcaptivity. Suchfuriousmetaphors,moresuitableto theardour of Petrarchthanto thejudgmentofMuratori,aregravelyrefutedin Baluze s preface. The AbbddeSadeis distractedbetweentheloveof Petrarchand of hiscountry. Yethemodestlypleadsthatmanyof thelocalinconveniences of Avignonare nowremoved;andmanyof thevicesagainstwhichthe poet declaimshadbeenimportedwiththeRomancourtbythestrangersofItaly (tom. i. p. 23--a8). . 7The comtatVena;_n was cededto the popes,in :273, byPhilipIII. , kingof France,afterhehadinheritedthedominionsof thecountofToulouse. Fortyyearsbeforethe heresyof CountRaymondhad giventhema pretence of seizure,andthey derivedsome obscureclaim fromthe xithcenturyto some landscitraRhodanum(ValesiiNotitiaGalliarum,p. 459,6xo; Longuerue, Descriptionde la France,tom. i. p. 376-38I). ,s If a possessionof fourcenturieswerenot itselfa title,such objections mightannul thebargain; but the purchase-moneymust be refunded,for indeedit waspaid. CivitatemAveulonernemit. . . perejusmodivenditionem pecuni_redundantes,&c. (2daVitaClement. VI. in Baluz. tom. i. p. 272; Muratori,Script. tom. iii. p. ii. p. 565). [Recherchcshistoriques concernantles droitsdu Papesuxla villeet l _tatd Avignon,x768. ] The only temptationfor Janeand her secondhusbandwas readymoney,and withoutit theycould not havereturnedto the throneof Naples.

r-_--! _. D. HCO-_3SO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE III to whichthey longhad beenstrangers; but Italy deplored their absence; and Rome, in solitudeand poverty,might repentof the ungovernablefreedomwhichhad drivenfrom theVaticanthe successorof St. Peter. Her repentancewas tardyand fruitless;after the death of the old members,the sacredcollegewasfilledwithFrenchcardinals,°°who beheld Romeand Italy with abhorrenceand contempt,and perpetuateda series of national and even provincialpopes, attachedbythemostindissolubleties totheirnativecountry. The progressof industryhad producedand enrichedthe Italianrepublics: theera oftheir libertyisthemostflourisbing periodof populationand agriculture,of manufactures and commerce;and their mechaniclaboursweregradually refined into the arts of eleganceand genius. But the positionof Rome was less favourable,the territory less fruitful; the characterof the inhabitantswas debasedby indolence,and elated by pride; and they fondlyconceived that the tribute of subjectsmust for ever nourishthe metropolis of the church and empire. This prejudicewas encouragedin somedegreeby the resort of pilgrimsto the shrinesof theapostles; and thelast legacyof thepopes,the institutionof the HOLYYEAR,1°°was not less beneficialto thepeoplethan to theclergy. Sincethelossof Palestine,the gift of plenaryindulgences,whichhad beenappliedto the crusades,remainedwithoutan object;andthe mostvaluable )0ClementV. immediatelypromotedtencardinals,nine Frenchand one English(Vita4ta, p. 63,et Baluz. p. 625, &e. ). In x33i, the pope refused two candidatesrecommendedby the king of France,quod xx. Cardinales, de quibusxviLde regnoFrancimoriginemtraxissenoscuntur,in memorato collegioexistant(Thomassin,Disciplinede l Eglisc,tom. L p. x281). [In the yearA. D. x378the collegeconsistedof 23 cardlna!s,I6 of themwere at Romeand included7 Limousins,4 French,x Spaniard,and 4 Italians. SeeGregorovins,vi. 49i. ] lO°Ourprimitiveaccount is from Cardinal James Caietan [=Jacopo Stefaneschi,cardinalisS. Georgiiad Velum aureum] (Maxima Bibliot. Patrum,tom. xxv. ); andI am ata loss todeterminewhetherthe nephewof BonifaceVIII. be a foolora knave; the undeis a much dearer character.

ii2 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_rOCLX treasureof the churchwassequesteredaboveeightyears frompubliccirculation. A newchannelwasopenedbythe diligenceofBonifacetheEighth,whoreconciledthevicesof ambitionandavarice;andthepopehadsufficientlearning to recollectandrevivetheseculargames,whichwerecelebratedin Romeat the conclusionof everycentury. To sound,withoutdanger,the depthof popularcredulity,a sermonwasseasonablypronounced,a reportwasartfully scattered,someagedwitnesseswereproduced;and onthe firstof Januaryofthe yearthirteenhundredthechurchof St. Peterwascrowdedwiththefaithful,whodemandedthe customaryindulgenceof the holytime. Thepontiff,who watchedand irritatedtheirdevoutimpatience,wassoon persuaded,by ancienttestimony,of the justiceof their claim;andheproclaimedaplenaryabsolutiontoallCatholics who,inthecourseofthatyear,andat everysimilarperiod, shouldrespectfullyvisittheapostolicchurchesof St. Peter andSt. Paul. Thewelcomesoundwaspropagatedthrough Christendom;andat firstfromthenearestprovincesofItaly, and at lengthfromthe remotekingdomsof Hungaryand Britain,the highwayswerethrongedwitha swarmof pilgrimswhosoughttoexpiatetheirsinsina journey,however costlyor laborious,whichwasexemptfromthe perilsof militaryservice. Allexceptionsof rankor sex,of ageor infirmity,wereforgotteninthe commontransport;andin the streetsand churchesmanypersonsweretrampledto deathby the eagernessof devotion. 1°1Thecalculationof 101["The way that led from the city acrossthe Bridgeof St. Angeloto St. Peter s wastoo narrow; a newstreetwas thereforeopenedin the walls along the river,not far from the ancienttombknownas the Meta RomulL [Gregoroviusreads pontemforpartumin the passagein Stefaneschiwhich describesthis. ] The bridgewas coveredwith boothswhichdividedit in two,and in orderto preventaccidentsit was enactedthat thosegoingto St. Peter s shouldkeep toonesideof the bridge,those returning to the other. " This arrangementis referredto by Dante, Inferno,xviii,v. 28sqq. : Comei Roman,per l esercitomolto, L annodel Giubbileo,su perlo ponte

[ A. D. HOO-XSSO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE xI3 theirnumberscouldnotbeeasynoraccurate;andtheyhave probablybeenmagnifiedby a dexterousclergy,weUapprisedofthecontagionofexample;yetweareassuredbya judicioushistorian,whoassistedat theceremony,thatRome wasneverreplenishedwithlessthantwohundredthousand strangers;andanotherspectatorhasfixedattwomillionsthe totalconcourseof the year. A triflingoblationfromeach individualwouldaccumulatea royaltreasure; and two priestsstoodnightandday,withrakesin theirhands,to collect,withoutcounting,the heapsof goldand silverthat werepouredonthealtarofSt. Paul. I°2 It wasfortunatelya seasonof peaceandplenty; and,if foragewasscarce,if inn_ and lodgingswere extravagantlydear, an inexhaustible supplyof breadandwine,ofmeat andfish,wasprovidedby thepolicyofBonifaceandthevenalhospitalityoftheRomans. Froma citywithouttrade or industry,all casualricheswill speedilyevaporate; but the avariceand envy of the next generationsolicitedClementthe Sixth10sto anticipatethe distant period of the century. The graciouspontiffcompliedwiththeirwishes; affordedRomethispoorconsolation for his loss; and justified the change by the name and practiceoftheMosaicJubilee. _°4Hissummonswasobeyed; Hanno a passarla gentemodotolto: Che dalI un lato tutti hannola [ronte Verso Icastello,e vannoa Santo Pietro; DaU altra spondavannoverso I Monte. SeeGregorovius,v. p. 56o--I. ] m SeeJohnVillani(1. viii. c. 36)in the xilth,and the ChroniconAsten. m inthe =fit. h,volume(p. x9x,x9_)of Muratori sCollection. Papa innumerabilempecnnlamabeisdemaccepit,hamduoclerici,curerastris, &c. _mThe two bullsof BonifaceVIII. and ClementVI. areinsertedin the CorpusJuris Canonici(Extravagant. Commun. 1. v. tit. ix. c. x,_). 104The sabbaticyears and jubileesof the Mosaiclaw (Car. Sigma. de Republi_ Hebm orum,Opp. tom. iv. 1. ill c. z4, xS,p. x5x,xsa), the suspensionofallcamandlabour,theperiodicalreleaseoflands,debts,servitude, &c. ,mayseema nobleidea,but theexecutionwouldbeimpracticablein a /ffo]anerepublic;andI shouldbe glad to learnthatthis ruinousfestival wasobservedbytheJewishpeople. VOL XlI. -

xx¢ THE DECLINEAND FALL [_. Imx and the number,zeal,and liberalityof the pilgrimsdid not yield to the primitivefestival. But they encounteredthe triplescourgeof war,pestilence,and famine;10,manywives and virginswereviolatedin the castlesof Italy; and many strangerswerepillagedor murderedby the savageRomans, no longermoderatedbythe presenceof theirbishop,l°e To the impatienceof the popeswe may ascribethe successive reductionto fifty, thirty-three,and twenty-fiveyears; althoughthe secondof thesetermsis commensuratewiththe life of Christ. The profusionof indulgences,the revoltof the Protestants,and the declineof superstitionhavemuch diminishedthe valueof thejubilee; yeteventhenineteenth and last festivalwas a year of pleasureand profitto the Romans;anda philosophicsmilewillnotdisturbthetriumph of the priestor the happinessof the people. 1°7 In thebeginningofthe eleventhcentury,Italy wasexposed to the feudaltyranny,alikeoppressiveto the sovereignand the people. The rightsofhumannaturewerevindicatedby hernumerousrepublics,whosoonextendedtheirlibertyand dominionfromthecity tothe adjacentcountry. The sword of the nobleswas broken; their slaveswereenfranchised; theircastleswere demolished;they assumedthe habits of society and obedience; their ambition was confined to municipalhonours,and inthe proudestaristocracyofVenice or Genoaeachpatricianwassubjectto the laws. 1°8 Butthe feebleand disorderlygovernmentof Rome was unequalto to#[It wasshortlyafterthe abdicationof Rienzi (x347)andthe devastationsof the Black Death. l tmSeethe Chronicleof MatteoVillani0. i. c. 56),in the xivthvolumeof Muratori,and the M6moiressurla V mde Pdtrarque,tom. iii. p. 75-89. 1o7The subjectis exhaustedbyM. Chais,a Frenchministeratthe Hague, in his LettresHistoriquesetDogmatiquessu. rles Jubil_set les Indulgences; In Haye,ITSI, 25vols. in i2mo: an elaborateand pleasingwork,had not the authorpreferredthe characterof a polemicto thatof a philosopher. a0sMuratori(Dissert. xlvii. )allegesthe Annalsof Florence,Padua,Genoa, &c. , theanalogyof the rest, the evidenceof Otho of Frislngen(de Gest. " Fred. I. L ii. c. x3),and the submissionof the marquisof Este.

Am. lloo"135o]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 115 the taskof curbingher rebeUioussons,whoscornedthe authorityofthemagistratewithinandwithoutthewall_,It wasnolongeracivilcontentionbetweenthenoblesandthe plebeiansforthegovernmentofthestate;thebaronsasserted in armstheirpersonalindependence;theirpalac_and castleswerefortifiedagainsta siege; and theirprivate quarrelsweremaintainedbythenumbersof theirvassals andretainers. In originandaffection,theywerealiensto theircountry;a0,and a genuineRoman,couldsuchhave beenproduced,mighthaverenouncedthesehaughtystrangers, whodisdainedtheappellationof citizensandproudlystyled themselvesthe princesof Rome. tt° Mtera darkseriesof revolutions,all recordsof pedigreewerelost; the distinctionofsumarneswasabolished;thebloodofthenationswas mingledin a thousandchannels;andtheGothsandLorebards,theGreeksandFranks,theGermansandNormans, hadobtainedthefairestpossessionsbyroyalbountyorthe prerogativeof valour. Theseexamplesmightbe readily presumed;buttheelevationofan Hebrewracetotherank ofsenatorsandconsulsisan eventwithouta parallelinthe longcaptivityof thesemiserableexiles,ttt In the timeof LeotheNinth,a wealthyandlearnedJewwasconvertedto Christianity,andhonouredat hisbaptismwiththenameof hisgodfather,the reigningpope. Thezealand courageof 1_As earlyas theyear8_4,theemperorLothaireI. founditexpedientto interrogatetheRomanpeople,tolearnfromeachindividualbywhatnational law hechoseto begoverned(Muratod,Dissert. xxii. ). noPetrarchattackstheseforeigners,the tyrantsof Rome,in a de-hmationor epistle,full of boldtruthsandabsurdpedantry,in whichheapplies themaxims,andevenprejudices,of the oldrepublic,to thestateof thexivth century(Mdmoires,tom. iLLp. x57-x69). m The originand adventuresof this Jewishfamilyare noticedby Pagi (Critiea,tom. iv. p. 435,A. v. xx24,No. 3, 4), whodrawshis information fromthe ChronographusMaurigniacensis[in Migne,Patr. Lat. i8o, p. I3x sqq. ],andAmulphusSagiensisdeSchismate(in MuratorlScript. Ital. tom. iii. p. L p. 423-43a). . Thefact must in somedegreebetrue; yet I couldwish thatit had beencoollyrelated,beforeit wasturnedintoa reproachagainst theamipope.

_x6 THE DECLINEAND FALL [c_. t,xix Peter,the sonofLeo,weresignalisedinthecauseof Gregory the Seventh,who entrustedhis faithful adherentwith the governmentof Hadrian s mole,the towerof Crescentius, or, as it is now called,the castle of St. Angelo. Both the father andthe son werethe parentsof a numerousprogeny; their riches,the fruits of usury,were sharcdwith the noblestfamiliesof the city; and soextensivewastheiralliance that the grandsonof the proselytewasexalted,bythe weight of his kindred,to the throneof St. Peter. A majorityof the clergyand peoplesupportedhis cause; he reignedseveral years in the Vatican; and it is onlythe eloquenceof St. Bernard,and thefinaltriumphof Innocentthe Second,that has brandedAnacletuswith the epithetof antipope. After his defeatand death, the posterityof Leo is no longerconspicuous; and none will be found of the modem nobles ambitiousof descendingfroma Jewishstock. It is not my designto enumeratethe Romanfamilieswhichhavefailed at differentperiods,or thosewhicharecontinuedin different degreesof splendourtothepresenttime. "" The oldconsular line of the Frangipanidiscovertheir name in the generous act ofbreakingordividingbreadinatimeoffamine;andsuch benevolenceismoretrulygloriousthan tohaveenclosed,with their alliesthe Corsi,a spaciousquarter of the city in the chainsof their fortifications;theSavelli,as it shouldseema Sabinerace, have maintainedtheir originaldignity;its the obsoletesurnameof the Capizucchiis inscribedon the coins of the firstsenators; theContipreservethe honour,without theestate,of thecountsof Signia;n4and theAnnibaldimust m Muratorihasgiventwo dissertations(xli. and xlii. )to thenames,surnames,and familiesof Italy. Somenobles,who glory in their domestic fables, may beoffendedwithhis firmand temperatecriticism;yet surely someouncesofpuregoldareofmorevaluethan manypoundsof basemetal. _ ["The foundationof the house of the SaveUi,which was probably German,was due to thenepotismof theirmemberPope I-Ionorius[III. ], and theyonly roseto powerafterhis time. " Gregorovius,v. p. xx8. l lz_[Seethereferencesin Gregorovius,v. p. 6. ]

_o. ,xoo-xaso]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE Ix7 havebeen very ignorant,or very modest,if they had not descendedfrom the Carthaginianhero. m Butamong,perhapsabove, the peersand princesof the city,I distinguishthe rival housesof COLOmqAand URSLm, whoseprivatestory is an essentialpart of the annals of modemRome. I. The nameand armsof Colonnamhave beeDthe themeof muchdoubtfuletymology;nor havethe oratorsand antiquariansoverlookedeither Trajan s pillar, or thecolumnsof Hercules,or the pillarof Christ sflagellation,or theluminouscolumnthat guidedtheIsraelitesinthe desert. Their first historicalappearancein the yeareleven hundredand four attests the powerand antiquity,whileit explainsthe simplemeaning,of thename. Bythe usurpationofCava_,theColonnaprovokedthe armsof Paschalthe Second;but they lawfullyheld in the Campagnaof Rome thehereditaryfiefsof Zagarolaand Colonna;and the latter of thesetownswasprobablyadornedwithsomeloftypillar, 115The ¢ard{n_Iof St. George,in his poetical,or rathermetrical,history of theelectionand coronationof BonifaceVIII. (Muratori,Script. Ital. tom. iii. p. i. p. 64I, &c. ),describesthe stateandfamiliesof Romeat the coronationof BonifaceVIII. (A. D,i295):-Intereatitulisrcdimitisanguiniet armis Illustresqueviri Roman_a stirpctrahentes Nomenin emeritostant_ virtutishonores Intulerantsesemediosfestumquecolebant Aurat_fulgentestog_ sociantecaterv_. Exipsis devotadomuspr_. staotisab Ursa Ecclesia,vultumquegerensdemissiusaltum FestaColumnajocis,necnonSabelliamiffs; Stephanidessenior,Comiles,Annibalicaproles, Prmfectusqueurbismagnumsineviribusnomen. (1. ii. c. 5, ioo, p. 647,648. ) The ancientstatutesof Rome0- iii. c. 59, P-x74, x75)distinguisheleven familiesof barons,who are obligedZoswear-2aconciliocommuni,before the senator,that theywouldnotharbouror protectanymalefactors,outlaws, &c. - a feebleseeurityl [The Anibaldifami2yrose to prominencec. A. D. I23o. SeeGregorovius,v. x58. ] noIt is pitythat the Colonnatheam_lve_have not favoured the world with a completeand criticalhistoryof their illustn ottshouse. I adhereto Muratori (Dissert. xlii. tom. iii. p. 647,648).

118 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. Lxix therelicofavillaortemple,m Theylikewisepossessedone moietyof the neighbouringcityof Tusculum:a strong presumptionoftheirdescentfromthecountsofTusculum, whointhetenthcenturywerethetyrantsoftheapostolicsee. Accordingtotheirownandthepublicopinion,theprimitive andremotesourcewasderivedfromthebanksoftheRhine;as andthesovereignsofGermanywerenotashamedofarealor fabulousaffinitywithanoblerace,whichintherevolutions of sevenhundredyearshasbeenoftenillustratedbymerit and alwaysbyfortune,m Aboutthe endof thethirteenth century,themostpowerfulbranchwascomposedofanuncle andsixbrothers,allconspicuousinarmsorinthehonoursof thechurch. Ofthese,PeterwaselectedsenatorofRome, introducedtotheCapitolina triumphantcar,andhailedin somevainacclamationswiththe titleof C_esar,whileJohn andStephenweredeclaredMarquisofAnconaandCountof Romagna,byNicholastheFourth,apatronsopartialtotheir familythathe hasbeendelineatedin satiricalportraitsimprisonedas itwereina hollowpillar,m Afterhisdecease, their haughtybehaviourprovokedthe displeasureof the mostimplacableofmankind. Thetwocardinals,theuncle _17Pandulph. Pisan. inVit. Paschal. II. in Muratori,Script. Ital. tom. iii. p. i. p. 335. The family hasstill greatpossessionsin the Campagnaof Rome; buttheyhavealienatedtotheRospigliosithisoriginalfiefofCol_ (Eschinard,p. 258, 259). _sTe longinquadedittellusetpascuaR. heni, saysPetrarch;and,in x417,a dukeof GueldersandJuliers acknowledges (Lenfant,Hist. du Concilede Constance,tom. ii. p. 539)his descentfrom the ancestorsof MartinV. (Otho Colonna): but the royal authorof the Memoirsof Brandenburgobservesthat the sceptrein his armshas been confoundedwiththecolumn. To maintaintheRomanoriginof theColonna, it was ingeniouslysupposed(Diariodi Monaldeschi,in the Script. ItaL tom. xii. p. 533)thata cousinof the emperorNeroescapedfromthe city and foundedMentzin Germany. nJI cannotoverlookthe Romantriumphor ovationof MarcoAntonio Colonna,who had commandedthe pope sgalleysat the navalvictoryof Lepanto (Thuan. Hist. 1,vii. tom. ill. p. 55, 56; Muter. Orafiox. Opp. tom. i. p. x8o-I9o). Muratori,Annalid Italia,tom. x. p. 2x6,22o.

_D. x_eo--x3so]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE xx9 andthenephew,deniedthe electionof BonifacetheEighth; andtheColonnawereoppressedfora momentbyhistemporalandspiritualarms. m Heproclaimeda crusadeagainst hispersonalenemies:theirestateswereconfiscated;their fortressesoneithersideof the Tiberwerebesiegedbythe troopsof St. Peterandthoseof therivalnobles;andafter theruinof Palestrinaor Prameste,theirprincipalseat,the groundwas markedwitha ploughshare,the emblemof perpetualdesolation. Degraded,banished,proscribed,the sixbrothers,indisguiseanddanger,wanderedoverEurope withoutrenouncingthe hopeof deliveranceand revenge. In this doublehope,the Frenchcourtwas their surest asylum: theypromptedanddirectedtheenterpriseofPhilip; andI shouldpraisetheirmagnanimity,hadtheyrespected the fortuneand courageof the captivetyrant. His civil actswere,nnulledbythe Romanpeople,whorestoredthe honoursandpossessionsof the Colonna;andsomeestimate maybeformedoftheirwealthbytheirlosses,oftheirlosses bythedamagesofonehundredthousandgoldflorins,which weregrantedthemagainsttheaccomplicesandheirsofthe deceasedpope. Allthespiritualcensuresanddisqualificationswereabolishedmby hisprudentsuccessors;andthe fortuneof the housewasmorefirmlyestablishedby this transienthurricane. Theboldnessof SciarraColonnawas signalisedinthecaptivityofBoniface,andlongafterwardsin mPetrarch sattachmentto the Colonnahas authorisedthe Abb_deSade to expatiateon the stateof the familyin the fourteenthcentury,the persecutionof BonifaceVIII. ,the characterof Stephenandhissons,theirquarrels with the Ursini, &c. (Mdmolressur P_trarque,tom. i. p. 98--xxo,x46--x48, x74-z76, 222-230, 275--280 ). His criticismoftenrectifiesthehearsaystories of ViUani,andthe errorsof the less diligentmoderns. I understandthe branchof Stephento be nowextinct. m AlexanderIII. haddeclaredthe Colonnawhoadheredto theemperor FredericI. incapableof holdinganyecclesiasticalbenefice(V fllani,1. v. c. x); and the last stainsof annualexcommunicationwerepurifiedby SixtusV. (Vitadi SistoV. tom. iii. p. 416). Treason,sacrilege,andproscriptionare oftenthe besttitleso£ancientnobility.

izo THE DECLINEAND FALL [Cn. LXIX the coronationof Lewisof Bavaria; andby thegratitudeof the emperorthe pillar in their arms was encircledwitha royal crown. But the firstof the familyin fameand merit wasthe elderStephen,whomPetrarchlovedandesteemedas an hero superior to his own times and not unworthyof ancient Rome. Persecution and exile displayed to the nationshisabilitiesinpeace andwar; inhis distresshe was an object,notof pity,but ofreverence;the aspectof danger provokedhimto avowhis nameand country; and whenhe wasasked,"Whereis nowyour fortress?"he laid his hand onhis heart,andanswered,"Here. " He supportedwiththe samevirtuethe returnof prosperity;and, tillthe ruin ofhis decliningage,the ancestors,the character,and the children of StephenColonna,exaltedhis dignity in the Roman republic,and at the court of Avignon. II. The Ursini migratedfrom Spoleto:m the sonsof Ursus,as theyare styled in thetwelfthcentury,fromsomeeminentpersonwhois only knownas thefather of their race. But they weresoondistinguishedamongthe noblesof Rome,by the numberand braveryof their kinsmen,the strengthof their towers,the honoursof thesenateand sacredcollege,andtheelevationof two popes, Celestinthe Third and Nicholasthe Third, of theirnameandlineage. TM Theirrichesmaybe accusedas an 1,, V_]i_te proximamisit Appenninigen_qu_ prata virenfiasylv _ SpoletanametuntarmentagregesqueprotervL Monaldeschi(tom. xii. Script. Ital. p. 533) givesthe Ursinia Frenchorigin, whichmaybe remotelytrue. [Cp. Gregorovius,v. p. 39sqq. ] *_In the metrical life of Celestin V. by the Cardinalof St. George (Muratori,tom. ill. p. i. p. 6x3, &c. ),wefinda luminousand notinelegant passage(Li. c. iii. p. ao3, &c. ):-genuitquem nobilisUrs_e(Ursi?) Progenies,Romanadomus,veterataquemagnis Fascibusin dero,pompasqueexpertasenatus, Bellorumquemanugrandistipataparentum Cardineosapices necnonfastigiadudum Papatus/teratatenens. MuratoH(Dissert. xlii. tom. iii. ) observesthat the firstUrsinipontificateof CelestinHI. was unknown;he is inclinedto readUr* iprogenies.

•. . . x_oo-xsso]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE I2I earlyabuseofnepotism;theestatesof St. Peterwerealienated in their favourby the liberalCelestin;m and Nicholaswas ambitiousfor their saketo solicitthe allianceof monarchs; to foundnewkingdomsin Lombardyand Tuscany; andto investthem withthe perpetualofficeof senatorsof Rome. Allthat has been observedof the greatnessof the Colonna willlikewiseredoundtothegloryoftheUrsini,their constant andequal antagonistsin thelonghereditaryfeudwhichdist_actedabovetwo hundredand fiftyyearsthe ecclesiastical state. Thejealousyof pre-eminenceandpowerwasthe true groundof theirquarrel; but, as a speciousbadgeof distinction,the Colonnaembracedthe nameof Ghibelinesandthe partyoftheempire; theUrsiniespousedthetitleof Guelphs and the causeof the church. The eagleand the keyswere displayedin their adversebanners; and the two factionsof Italy mostfuriouslyragedwhenthe originand natureof the disputewerelongsinceforgotten,t_* Aftertheretreatof the popesto Avignon,theydisputedinarmsthe vacantrepublic; andthemischiefsofdiscordwereperpetuatedbythewretched compromiseof electingeach year two rival senators. By their privatehostilities,the cityand countryweredesolated, and the fluctuatingbalance inclined with their alternate success. Butnone of eitherfamilyhad fallenby thesword, tillthe mostrenownedchampionof theUrsiniwassurprised and slainby the youngerStephenColonnaY7 His triumph mF diiUrsi,quondamCoflesfinlpapEenepotes,debonisecdesizeRomar_ ditati(Vit. Innocent. III. inMuratofi,Script. tom. iii. p. i. ). Thepartial prodigalityofNicholasIYI. ismoreconspicuousinVillanlandMuratori. YettheUrsiniwoulddisdainthenephewsofamodernPope. [FraSalimhene ofParmasaidofNicholasIll. thathebuiltSioninhiskinsfolk(a_lificavit Sioninsanguinibus). TheexpressionisquotedbyGregorovius,v. 49o. CompareDante,Inferno,xix. v. 70-2,whereheisalludedtoas "figliuol dell orsa. "] mInhisfifty-firstDissertationontheItalianAntiquities,MuratoHexplainsthefactionsoftheGuelphsandGhihelines. mPetrarch(tom. i. p. 222-23o)hascelebratedthisvictoryaccordingto theColonna;buttwocontemporaries,aFlorentine(GiovanniVillani,I. x.

:t22 THE DECLINE AND FALL Cca. t. xxx is stainedwiththereproachof violatingthetruce;their defeatwasbaselyavengedby theassassination,beforethe church-door, of an innocent boy and his two servants. Yet the victorious Colonna, with an annual coUeague,was dedared senator of Rome during the term of five years. And the muse of Petrarch inspired a wish, a hope, a prediction, that the generous youth, the son of his venerable hero, would restore Rome and Italy to their pristine glory; that his justice would extirpate the wolves and lions, the serpents and bears, who laboured to subvert the eternal basis of the marble COLUMN. t2s c. 220)anda RomanCLudovicoMonaldeschiIS. R. I. xii. ],p. 533,534),are lessfavourabletotheirarms. usTheAbb$deSade(tom. i. notes,p. 6x--66)hasappliedthevithCanzone ofPetrarch,SpirtoC_nlil,&c. ,to StephenColonnatheYounger. Orsl,lupi,leoni,aquilee scrpi Adunagranmarmorea_olonna Faanonojasoventee _se damao.

_. ,_z-,5oo] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE ,23 CHAPTER LXX CharacterandCoronationo]Petrarch--Restorationo]the FreedomandGovernmento]RomebytheTribuneRienzi --His VirtuesandVices,hisExpulsionandDeathReturno]thePopes]romAvignon--GreatSchismo] the West--Re-uniono] the Latin Church--Last Struggleso]RomanLiberty-- Statuteso]Rome-- Final Settlemento]theEcclesiasticalState INthe apprehensionof modemtimes,Petrarch is the ItaliansongsterofLauraandlove. In theharmonyofhis Tuscanrhymes,Italyapplauds,or ratheradores,thefather of herlyricpoetry;andhisverse,or at leasthisname,is repeatedbythe enthusiasmor affectationof amoroussensibility. Whatevermaybe the privatetasteof a stranger, hisslightandsuperficialknowledgeshouldhumblyacquiesce inthetasteofa learnednation;yetI mayhopeorpresume thattheItaliansdonotcomparethe tediousuniformityof sonnetsand elegieswiththe sublimecompositionsof their epicmuse,theoriginalwildnessofDante,theregularbeauties of Tasso,and the boundlessvarietyof the incomparable Ariosto. ThemeritsoftheloverI amstilllessqualifiedto appreciate;nor am I deeplyinterestedin a metaphysical aThe M_maoiressurlaViedeFran_:oisP_trarque(Amsterdam,x764,*767, 3 vols. in 4to) forma copious,original,and entertalnlugwork,a labourof love,composedfromtheaccuratestudyof Petrarchandhis contemporaries; buttheherois toooftenlostin thegeneralhistoryof theage,and theauthor too oftenlanguishesin the affectationof politenessandgallantry. In the prefaceto his firstvolume,heenumeratesand weighstwentyItalianbiographers,who have professedlytreatedof the same subject. [K6rting, Petraxca sLebenund Werke,x878; Geiger,Petraxca,,874. Cp. above, "colxi. p. _77,note92. ]

124 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_LXX passionfora nymphsoshadowythatherexistencehasbeen questioned;2 foramatronsoprolificsthatshewasdelivered of elevenlegitimatechildren4whileheramorousswainsighed and sung at the fountainof Vaucluse3 But in the eyesof Petrarch,andthoseofhisgravercontemporaries,hislovewas a sin,and Italian versea frivolousamusement. His Latin worksof philosophy,poetry,and eloquenceestablishedhis seriousreputation,which wassoon diffusedfrom Avignon overFranceand Italy; his friendsand disciplesweremultiplied in everycity; and, if the ponderousvolumeof his writings_be nowabandonedto a longrepose,ourgratitude mustapplaud theman who bypreceptand examplerevived thespiritandstudyoftheAugustanage. Fromhisearliest : The allegoricalinterpretationprevailedin the xvth century; but the wise commentatorswere not agreedwhetherthey shouldunderstandby Laura,religion,or virtue,or the blessedVirgin,or . Seetheprefaces to the firstandsecondvolumes. s LauredeNoves,bornaboutthe yeari3o7,wasmarriedin_anuaryx325 to HuguesdeSade,a noblecitizenof Avignon,whosejealousywas not the effectof love, sincehe marrieda second wifewithin seven months of her death,whichhappenedthe 6th of Aprili348, preciselyoneandtwentyyears afterPetrarchhad seenand lovedher. 4Corpuscrebrispartubusexhaustum; fromoneof theseis issued,in the tenthdegree,the Abb_de Sade,the fondandgratefulbiographerof Petrarch; and this domesticmotivemostprobablysuggestedthe ideaof hiswork,and urgedhim to inquire into everycircumstancethat couldaffectthe history andcharacterof his grandmother(seeparticularlytom. i. p. I22-i33, notes, p. 7-58; tom. il. p. 455-49S,notes,p. 76--82). Vaucluse,so familiarto ourEnglish travellers,is describedfrom the writingsof Petrarch,and the local knowledgeof hisbiographer(M6moires, tom. i. p. 340-359). It was,in truth,theretreatofan hermit; andthemoderns aremuch mistakenif they placeLaura and an happyloverin the grotto. eOf 125opages,in a closeprint,at Basil,in the xvlthcentury,but without the date of the year. The Abb_de Sadecalls aloud fora newedition of Petrarch sLatin works; but I much doubtwhetheritwouldredoundto the profitof the bookseller,or the amusementof the public. [Petrarch s Epistolaede rebusfamiliaribuset variaehave beeneditedin3 vols. x859--63 byG. Fracassettiandtranslated(withcommentary)intoItalianbythe same scholar(in 5 vols. i863-7), who has also translatedand annotatedthe Epistolaeseniles(Letteresenili,2 vols. z869). The De ,,,irisillustribusvitae has been edited by A. Razzolini,x874, whohas added in a and vol. the Itagan translationthereofbyDonatodegliAlbanzani. ]

_. D. ,34,-,soo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE z25 youth,Petrarchaspiredtothepoeticcrown. The academical honoursof the three facultieshad introduceda royaldegree of masteror doctorin the art of poetry;7 and the title of poet-laureat,whichcustom,rather than vanity,perpetuates in the English court,8 was first inventedby the Cmsarsof Germany. In the musicalgamesof antiquity,a prizewas bestowedon the victor; the beliefthat Virgiland Horace hadbeencrownedin the Capitolinflamedtheemulationofa Latin bard;10and thelaureln was endearedto the loverby a verbal resemblancewiththe name of his mistress. The valueof eitherobjectwasenhancedbythe difficultiesof the ConsultSelden sTitles of Honour,in his works(vol. iii. p. 457-466). An hundred years beforePetrarch, St. Francisreceivedthe visit of a poet, qui ab imperatorefuerat coronatusetexinderex versuumdictus. BFrom Augustusto Louis, the muse has too often beenfalseand venal; hut I much doubt whetheranyage or courtcan producea similarestablishmentof a stipendiarypoet, whoineveryreign,andat allevents,is boundto furnish twicea year a measureof praiseand verse,such as may be sungin the chapel,and, I believe,in the presenceof the sovereign. I speak the morefreely,as the best time for abolishingthisridiculouscustomis while the prince is a man of virtueand the poeta manof genius. DIsocrates(in Panegyrico,tom. i. p. H6, H7, edit. Battle,Cantab. x729) claimsforhisnativeAthensthegloryof firstinstitutingandrecommendingthe^ *r • • The exampleof the Panathen- _awas imitated at Delphi; but the Olympic gameswereignorantof amusicalcrown,till it wasextortedbythevaintyranny of Nero (Sueton. in Nerone,c. 23; Philostrat. apud Casaubonad locum; DionCassiusor Xiphilin,1. lxiii,p. zo32[c. 9], Io4z [e. 2o]. Potter s Greek Antiquities,vol. i. p. 445,450)• soThe Capitolinegames (eertamen qninquennale,m_/cum, equestre, gymnlcum)wereinstitutedbyDomitian(Sueton. e. 4) inthe yearof Christ86 (Censorin. de DieNatali, e. xviii,p. zoo, edit. Havercamp),andwere not abolished in the ivth century (Ausonlusde ProfessoribusBurdegal. V. ). If the crownwere givento superiormerit, theexclusionof Statius(Capitolia nos tr_inficiatalyre, Sylv. 1. iii. v. 3I) may do honourto the gamesof the Capitol; but the Latin poetswholivedbeforeDomitianwerecrownedonly in the public opinion. n Petrarch and the senators of Rome were ignorantthat the laurel was not the Capitoline,but the Delphiccrown(Plin. Hist. Natur. xv. 39; Hist. Critiquede la R_publiquedes Lettres,tom. i. p. z5o-22o). The victorsin the Capitolwere crownedwith a garlandof oak-leaves(Martial,1. iv. epigram 54).

126 THE DECLINEAND FALL . [cmexx pursuit;and,ifthevirtueorprudenceofLaurawasinexorable,t he enjoyed,and might boast of enjoying,the nymph of poetry. His vanitywasnot of the most delicate kind, sincehe applaudsthe successof his own labours;Iris name was popular; his friends were active; the open or secretoppositionof envy and prejudicewassurmountedby the dexterityof patient merit. In the thirty-sixthyear of his age,he wassolicitedto acceptthe objectof his wishes; andon thesameday,inthe solitudeof Vaucluse,he received a similar and solemninvitation from the senate of Rome and the universityof Paris. The learning of a theological school,and the ignoranceof a lawlesscity, werealike unqualifiedto bestowthe ideal,thoughimmortal,wreathwhich geniusmayobtainfromthefreeapplauseofthe publicandof posterity;but the candidatedismissedthis troublesomereflection,and, after somemomentsof complacencyand suspense,preferredthe summonsof themetropolisof the world. The ceremonyof his coronationt, was performedin the Capitol,by his friendand patronthe suprememagistrateof the republic. Twelve patrician youths were arrayed in scarlet; six representativesof the mostillustriousfamilies, in greenrobes, with garlandsof flowers,accompaniedthe procession; in the midst of the princes and nobles,the senator, count of AnguiUara,a kinsmanof the Colonna, assumedhisthrone; and, at thevoiceof an herald,Petrarch arose. After discoursingon a text of Virgil,. 4 and thrice ThepiousgrandsonofLaurahaslaboured,andnotwithoutsuccess,to vindicateherimmaculatechastityagainstthecensuresofthegraveandthe sneersoftheprofane(tom. ii. notes,p. 76--82). ThewholeprocessofPetrarch scoronation/saccuratelydescribedby theAbb_deSade(tom. i. p. 425-435;tom. ii. p. x-6,notes,p. z-x3),from hisownwritings[seeEp. Poet. ii. I],andtheRomanDiaryofLudovico Monaldeschi,withoutmix/nginthisauthenticnarrativethemorerecent fablesofSannuccioDelbene. I*[SedmeParnassidesertaperarduadulcis Raptatamor. m Georgics3,29L ThisaddresshasbeenpublishedbyAttilioHortlsinScrittiineditidiFt. Petrarca,x874,p. 3xIsqq. ]

A. D. X34 - SOO]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE I27 repeatinghisvowsfortheprosperityofRome,he kneltbefore thethrone,andreceivedfromthesenatora laurelcrown,with a more preciousdeclaration,"This is the rewardof merit. " Thepeopleshouted,"Longlifeto theCapitolandthepoet!" A sonnetin praiseof Rome wasacceptedas the effusionof geniusand gratitude; and, afterthe wholeprocessionhad visitedtheVatican,the profanewreathwassuspendedbefore the shrineof St. Peter. In the act ordiploma15whichwas presentedto Petrarch,the title and prerogativesof poetlaureatarerevivedin the Capitol,afterthe lapseof thirteen hundredyears; and he receivesthe perpetualprivilegeof wearing,at his choice,a crownof laurel,ivy,or myrtle,of assumingthe poetichabit, and of teaching,disputing,interpreting,and composingin all placeswhatsoeverand on all subjectsofliterature. The grantwasratifiedbytheauthority ofthesenateandpeople; andthecharacterof citizenwasthe recompenseof his affectionforthe Romanname. Theydid himhonour,buttheydidhimjustice. In thefamiliarsociety of Ciceroand Livy,he had imbibedthe ideas of an ancient patriot; and his ardentfancykindledeveryideato a sentimentand everysentimentto a passion. The aspectof the sevenhillsandtheirmajesticruinsconfirmedtheselivelyimpressions;and he loveda countryby whoseliberalspirithe had been crownedand adopted. The povertyand debasementofRomeexcitedtheindignationandpityofher grateful son: he dissembledthe faults of his fellow-citizens;applauded with partial fondnessthe last of their heroesand matrons; and in the remembranceof the past, in the hope ofthefuture,waspleasedto forgetthemiseriesofthe present time. Romewasstill the lawfulmistressof the world; the popeandthe emperor,herbishopandgeneral,hadabdicated theirstationby an ingloriousretreatto the Rh6ne and the Danube; but, if she couldresumeher virtue,the republic tsThe originalact is printedamongthePi_cesJustificativesin theM& moiressurP_trarque,tom. iii. p. 50--53.

I28 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXX mightagainvindicateherlibertyanddominion. Amidstthe indulgenceof enthusiasmand eloquence,lePetrarch,Italy, andEuropewereastonishedby a revolutionwhichrealised, fora moment,hismostsplendidvisions. Theriseandfall of the tribune,Rienzi,willoccupythe followingpages. 17 Thesubjectis interesting,the materialsarerich,and the glanceof a patriot-bard18willsometimesvivifythecopious butsimplenarrativeoftheFlorentine,/_andmoreespecially oftheRoman/°historian. leTo findthe proofsof hisenthusiasmforRome,I needonly requestthat the readerwouldopen,by chance,either Petrarchor hisFrenchbiographer. The latter has describedthe poet s firstvisit to Rome [A. D. x337](tom. i. p. 323-335). But, in the placeof much idlerhetoric andmorality,Petrarch mighthave amusedthe presentand future age with an originalaccountof the city and his coronation. 1_It has been treated bythe pen of a Jesuit, the P. du Cercean,whose posthumouswork (Conjurationde NicholasGabrini,dit de Rienzi,Tyran de Rome,en i347) was publishedat Paris, I748, x2mo. I amindebted to him for some facts and documentsin John Hocsemius,canon of Litge, a contemporaryhistorian(Fabricius,Bibliot. Lat. reed. A_vi,tom. ill. p. 273; tom. iv. p. 85). isThe Abb_de Sade,whoso freelyexpatiateson the historyof the xivth century,mighttreat, as his propersubject,a revolutionin whichthe heartof Petrarch was so deeply engaged (M6moires,tom. ii. p. 5o, 5i, 32o-4x7, notes, p. 7o-76; tom. iii. p. 221-243,366-375). Not an idea or a fact in the writings of Petrarchhas probablyescapedhim. 1_GiovanniVillani, 1. xii. c. 89, Io4, in Mu. ratori,Rerum Itaiicarum Scriptores,tom. xiii. p. 969,97o,981-983. 20In his third volumeof Italian Antiquities(p. 249-548),Muratori has insertedthe Fragmenta Histori_ Romanceab Annox327usquead Annum i354,in the original dialectof Rome or Naplesin the xivthcentury,and a Latin version forthe benefitof strangem. It containsthe most particular and authenticlife of Cola(Nicholas)eliRienzi,whichhad beenprinted at Braeciano,i627,in 4to, under the nameof TomasoFortifiocca,whois only mentionedin this workas havingbeen punishedby the tribune forforgery, [This Life has been editedby ZeferinoRe, 2nd ed. I854. ] Human nature is scarcelycapable . " such sublime or stupid impartiality; but whosoever is the author of thes Fragments,he wroteon the spot andat the time,and paints,withoutdesignor art, the mannersof Rome andthe characterof the tribune. [Rienzi slettershave beenpublishedby A. Gabrielli,Epistolario di Coladi Rienzo, 189o. Monographs: Papencordt,Coladi Rienziund seineZeit, i84i (and Frenchtransl,by Bord,x845); Rodoc_n_chi,Cola di Rienzo: histoiredeRomede I342 _. x354,1888. ]

_. t,. ,34_-,5oo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 129 In a quarterof the citywhichwasinhabitedonlyby mechanicsand Jews,themarriageof an innkeeperand a washerwomanproducedthefuturedelivererofRome?t From suchparentsNicholasRienziGabrinicouldinheritneither dignitynor fortune; and the giftof a liberaleducation, whichtheypainfullybestowed,wasthe causeof hisglory anduntimelyend. Thestudyofhistoryandeloquence,the writingsofCicero,Seneca,Livy,C_esar,andValeriusMaximus,elevatedabovehisequalsandcontemporariesthegenius oftheyoungplebeian;heperusedwithindefatigablediligence themanuscriptsandmarblesof antiquity;lovedtodispense hisknowledgeinfamiliarlanguage;andwasoftenprovoked toexclaim,"Whereare nowtheseRomans?theirvirtue, theirjustice,theirpower?whywasI notborn in those happytimes? = Whenthe republicaddressedto the throneofAvignonan embassyofthethreeorders,thespirit andeloquenceofRienzirecommendedhimtoa placeamong thethirteendeputiesofthecommons. Theoratorhadthe honourofharanguingPopeClementtheSixth,andthesatisfactionof conversingwithPetrarch,a congenialmind; but hisaspiringhopeswerechilledbydisgraceandpoverty;and thepatriotwasreducedto a singlegarmentandthecharity of the hospital. Fromthismiseryhe wasrelievedbythe 2,The firstand splendidperiod of Riend, his tribtmifiangovernment,is containedinthe xviiithchapterofthe Fragments(p. 399-479),which,in the newdivision,formsthe iid bookof the historyin xxxviii,smallerchaptersor sections. [The more correct form of his nameis Rienzo, from Lorenzo. In Latin documentshe is called NicolausLaurentii. ] The readermaybe pleasedwitha specimenof the originalidiom: Fb da soajuventutinenutricatodi lattede eloquentia,bonogramatico,megliore rettuorico,autoristabravo. Deh comoet quantoera veloceleitore1 moito usava Tito Livio, Seneca,et TuUlo,et BalerioMassil o, moltoUdilettava lemagnificentiedi Julio Cesareraccontare. Tutta la ¢ tese speculavanegl intagli di marmolequaliiacciointornoRoma. Non era altri cheesso, che sapesse lejere li antichi pataffai. Tutte scritture antiche vulgarizzava; quessefiuredi marmo justamenteinterpretava. Oh comespessodiceva, "DovesuonoquellibuoniRomani?doveenelorosommajustitia?poleramm_ trovarein tempoche quessifiurianol" VOL,tax. --9

i3o THE DECLINE AND FALL CC_LXX senseofmeritorthesmileoffavour;andtheemploymentof apostolicnotaryaffordedhima daily= stipendof fivegold florins,a morehonourableandextensiveconnection,andthe rightofcontrasting,bothin wordsandactions,hisownintegritywiththevicesofthestate. Theeloquenceof Rienzi waspromptandpersuasive;themultitudeisalwaysprone to em_and censure:he wasstimulatedby the lossof a brotherandtheimpunityof theassassins;nor wasit possibleto excuseor exaggeratethepubliccalamities. The blessingsofpeaceandjustice,forwhichcivilsocietyhasbeen instituted,werebanishedfromRome:thejealouscitizens, whomighthaveenduredeverypersonalor pecuniaryinjury, weremostdeeplywoundedin thedishonourof theirwives anddaughters;_ theywereequallyoppressedbythe arroganceofthenoblesandthecorruptionofthemagistrates;and theabuseofarmsor oflawswastheonlycircumstancethat distinguishedthe lionsfromthedogsand serpentsof the Capitol. Theseallegoricalemblemswerevariouslyrepeated in the pictureswhichRienziexhibitedin the streetsand churches;and, whilethe spectatorsgazedwith curious wonder,the boldand readyoratorunfoldedthemeaning, appliedthesatire,inflamedtheirpassions,and_nnonnceda distanthopeofcomfortanddeliverance. Theprivilegesof Rome,hereternalsovereigntyoverherprincesandprovinces, wasthe themeof hispublicandprivatediscourse;and a monumentof servitudebecameinhishandsa titleand incentiveofliberty. Thedecreeof thesenate,whichgranted the mostampleprerogativesto theemperorVespasian,had beeninscribedon a copper-platestillextantinthechoirof thechurchofSt. JohnLateran. = Anumerousassemblyof = [Monthly,notdaily. SeeCola spetitionfortheoffice,whichwasgranted to himbythe Pope. SeeGregorovius,vi. p. 23x, note. ] Petrarchcomparesthe jealousyof the Romanswiththe easytemperof the husbandsof Avignon(M_moires,tom. i. p. 33o). )sThe fragmentsof the Lex Reglamay be foundin the inscriptionsof Gruter,tom. i. p. 242,and at the endof theTacitusof Emesti,withsome

^. v. xz_t-_5oo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I3I noblesandplebeianswasinvitedtothispoliticallecture,and a convenienttheatrewaserectedfortheirreception. The notaryappearedin a magnificentand mysterioushabit,explainedtheinscriptionbya versionandcommentary,_ and descantedwitheloquenceandzealonthe ancientgloriesof the senateandpeople,fromwhomall legalauthoritywas derived. Thesupineignoranceofthenobleswasincapable of discerningtheserioustendencyof suchrepresentations: theymightsometimeschastisewithwordsand blowsthe plebeianreformer;buthewasoftensufferedintheColonna palaceto amusethecompanywithhisthreatsandpredictions; and the modernBrutus27wasconcealedunderthe maskof follyand thecharacterof a buffoon. Whilethey indulgedtheircontempt,the restorationofthe goodestate, hisfavouriteexpression,wasentertainedamongthepeopleas adesirable,apossible,andatlengthasanapproaching,event; and,whileallhadthedispositiontoapplaud,somehadthe couragetoassist,theirpromiseddeliverer. Aprophecy,or rathera summons,affixedonthechurchlearnednotesof the editor,tom. ii. [SeeC. I. L. vi. 93o. Cp. abovevol. i. p. 84, n. 19. "Cola had discoveredthisbronzetabletin the Lateran,where it had beenemployedin the constructionof an altar in the timeof Boniface VIII. The inscriptionhad then beenturned inwards,but it was restored to lighteitherbythe fallof the churchin consequenceof the fareor in process of rebuilding. The use to whichColaturned this monumentof imperial despotismwas singularand ingenious. He causedthe tabletto be built into thewallbehindthe choirof the Lateran,androundit had theSenatepainted in the actof conferringthe imperialauthorityon Vespasian. "] I cannotoverlooka stupendousandlaughableblunderof Rienzi. The LexRegiaempowersVespasianto enlargethe Pom_rium, a wordfamiliar to every antiquary. It was not so to the tribune; he confoundsit with pomafium,an orchard,translateslo Jardino de Roma cioeneItalia, andis copiedby the lessexcusableignoranceof the Latin translator (p. 406) and the Frenchhistorian(p. 33)- Eventhe learningof Muratori has slumbered over the passage. [Gregoroviuscompares Dante s (Furgatorio,vi. xos) chhil giardin dell Imperio sia deserto. ] 2_Priori(Bruto)tamensimillor,juvenisuterque,longeingenioquamcujns simulationeminduerat,ut sub hoc obtentuliberator ille P. R. aperiretur tempore suo . . . ille regibus,hic tyranniscontemptns(Opp. p. 536).

132 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C_. LXX doorofSt. George,wasthefirstpublicevidenceofhisdesigns; anocturnalassemblyofan hundredcitizensonMount Aventine,the first stepto their execution. Afteran oath of secrecyand aid, he representedto the conspiratorsthe importance and facilityof their enterprise; that the nobles, withoutunion or resources,were strongonlyin the fear of their imaginarystrength; that all power,as wellas right, was in the hands of the people; that the revenuesof the apostolicalchambermightrelievethe public distress; and that the pope himselfwouldapprovetheir victoryoverthe commonenemiesof governmentand freedom. Aftersecuring a faithfulband to protecthis first declaration,he proclaimedthroughthe city,by sound of trumpet, that on the eveningof thefollowingdayallpersonsshouldassemblewithout arms beforethe churchof St. Angelo,to providefor the re-establishmentof the goodestate. The wholenight was employedin the celebrationof thirty massesof the Holy Ghost; and in the morning,Rienzi,bare-headed,but in completearmour, issuedfrom the church,encompassedby the hundred conspirators. The pope s vicar, the simple bishopof Orvieto,whohadbeenpersuadedto sustaina part in this singularceremony,marchedon his fighthand; and three great standardswere borne aloft as the emblemsof their design. In the first,the banner of liberty,Romewas seatedon twolions,witha palmin onehand and a globein the other; St. Paul, with a drawn sword,wasdelineatedin thebnnnerofjustice; andinthethird, St. Peter heldthekeys of concordandpeace. Rienziwasencouragedbythepresence andapplauseofan innumerablecrowd,whounderstoodlitre and hopedmuch; andthe processionslowlyroiledforwards fromthecastleofSt. AngelototheCapitol. Histriumphwas disturbedbysomesecretemotion,whichhe labouredto suppress: he ascendedwithout opposition,and with seeming confidence,thecitadelofthe republic; haranguedthepeople fromthe balcony;and receivedthe mostflatteringconfirma

^. o. ,3¢x-zsoo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE x33 tionof his actsand laws. Thenobles,as if destituteof arms and counsels,beheld in silent consternationthis strange revolution; and the moment had been prudentlychosen, when the most formidable,StephenColonna,was absent fromthecity. Onthefirstrumourhe returnedtohispalace, affectedto despisethis plebeiantumult,and declaredtothe messengerof Rienzithat at hisleisurehe wouldcastthemadman fromthe windowsof the Capitol. The greatbell instantlyrang an alarm,and sorapid wasthe tide,so urgent wasthe danger,that Colormaescapedwithprecipitationto the suburbof St. Lawrence;fromthence,aftera moment s refreshment,he continuedthe same speedycareer, till he reachedin safetyhis castleof Palestrina,lamentinghis own imprudence,whichhadnot trampledthespark ofthismighty conflagration. A generaland peremptoryorderwas issued fromtheCapitolto allthenobles,that theyshouldpeaceably retire to their estates: they obeyed; and their departure securedthe tranquillityof the free and obedientcitizensof Rome. But such voluntaryobedienceevaporateswith the first transportsof zeal; and Rienzifelt theimportanceofjustifyinghisusurpationbya regularformanda legaltitle. Athis ownchoice,the Romanpeoplewouldhave displayedtheir attachmentandauthority,bylavishingonhisheadthenames of senatoror consul,of king or emperor: he preferredthe ancientand modestappellationof tribune;28the protection of the commonswasthe essenceof that sacredoffice; and theywereig norantthat it had neverbeeninvestedwithany sharein the legislativeor executivepowersof the republic. In this character,and withthe consentof the Romans,the tribuneenactedthemostsalutarylawsfortherestorationand maintenanceof the goodestate. By the firsthe f,lfils the u [This was his style: Nicholaus,Severuset Clemens,LibertafisPads _usfifiaequeTribunus,et sacreRomaneReipubliceLiberator. (Gregorc_ vius, vi. 249. )]

I34 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C. . LXX wishof honestyand inexperience,that nocivilsuitshouldbe protractedbeyondtheterm of fifteendays. The dangerof frequent perjury might justify the pronouncingagainst a false accuser the same penalty whichhis evidencewould have inflicted; the disordersof the timesmightcompelthe legislatorto punish every homicidewith death and every injury with equal retaliation. But the executionof justice washopelesstill he had previouslyabolishedthe tyrannyof the nobles. It wasformerlyprovidedthat none,exceptthe suprememagistrate,should possessor commandthe gates, bridges,or towersof the state; that no privategarrisons shouldbe introducedinto thetownsor castlesof the Roman tcrritory; that noneshouldbcar arms or presumeto fortify thcir housesin the city or country; that the baronsshould be responsiblefor the safetyof the highwaysand the free passageofprovisions; and that the protectionof malefactors and robbersshouldbe expiatedbya fineofa thousandmarks of silver. But theseregulationswouldhave beenimpotent and nugatory,had not the licentiousnobles beenawed by theswordof the civilpower. A suddenalarmfromthe bell of the Capitol could still summonto the standardabove twentythousandvolunteers;the supportof the tribune and the lawsrequireda moreregular and permanentforce. In each harbourof the coast,a vesselwasstationedfor theassuranceof commerce;a standingmilitia of three hundred andsixtyhorseand thirteenhundrcdfootwaslevied,clothed, andpaid inthethirteenquartersofthe city; and thespiritof a commonwealthmay be tracedin the gratefulallowanceof onehundred florins,or pounds,to the heirsof everysoldier wholosthislifein theserviceof his country. For themaintenanceof the publicdefence,for the establishmentof granaries, for the reliefof widows,orphans,and indigentconvents,Rienziapplied,withoutfearof sacrilege,therevenues of the apostolicchamber; the three branchesof hearthmoney,the salt-duty,and the customs,were each of the

^. D. t34I--XSOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I35 annualproduceof one hundredthousandflorins;**and scandalousweretheabuses,if in fouror fivemonthsthe amountof thesalt-dutycouldbetrebledbyhisjudicious economy. Mterthusrestoringthe forcesandfinancesof therepublic,thetribunerecalledthenoblesfromtheirsolitaryindependence;requiredtheirpersonalappearancein theCapitol;andimposedanoathofallegiancetoothenew governmentandofsubmissiontothelawsofthegoodestate. Apprehensivefortheirsafety,butstillmoreapprehensiveof thedangerofa refusal,the princesandbaronsreturnedto theirhousesat Rome,in thegarbof simpleandpeaceful citizens; theColonnaandUrsini,theSavelliandFrangipani, wereconfoundedbeforethetribunalofa plebeian,ofthevile buffoonwhomtheyhadsooftenderided,andtheirdisgrace wasaggravatedbytheindignationwhichtheyvainlystruggled todisguise. Thesameoathwassuccessivelypronouncedby theseveralordersofsociety,theclergyandgentlemen,the judgesandnotaries,the merchantsandartisans,andthe gradualdescentwasmarkedbytheincreaseofsincerityand zeal. Theysworetoliveanddiewiththerepublicandthe church,whoseinterestwasartfullyunitedbythenominal associationofthebishopof Orvieto,thepope svicar,tothe officeof tribune. It wastheboastof Rienzithathehad deliveredthethroneandpatrimonyof St. Peterfroma rebelliousaristocracy;andClementtheSixth,whorejoicedin itsfall,affectedto believetheprofessions,toapplaudthe merits,andto confirmthetitleofhis trustyservant. The speech,perhapsthemind,ofthetribunewasinspiredwitha livelyregardforthe purityof thefaith:heinsinuatedhis 20In oneMS. I read(1. ii. c. 4,P-409)perfumantequatrosolli,inanother quatroflorini: an importantvariety,sincethe florinwas worthten Roman solidi(Muratori,dissert,m-rviii. ). Theformerreadingwouldgiveusa populationof 25,000, the latterof 25o,ooo,families; andI muchfear thatthe former is moreconsistentwiththe decayof Romeandher territory. [Thepopulationwas probablynot morethan 50,0o0in all, at this period. Cp. Gregorovius,vi. x52note. The hearthtax (]ocaticum)is said to have been 26 denari(_. 256). ]

I36 THE DECLINE AND FALL Ec. . Lxx claimtoa supernaturalmissionfromtheHolyGhost,"enforcedbyan heavyforfeituretheannualdutyof confession andcommunion;andstrictlyguardedthespiritualas well as temporalwelfareofhisfaithfulpeople,s° Never,perhaps,hastheenergyandeffectofa singlemind beenmoreremarkablyfeltthanin thesudden,thoughtransient,reformationofRomebythetribuneRienzi. Adenof robberswasconvertedtothedisciplineofa camporconvent: patientto hear,swiftto redress,inexorableto punish,his tribunalwasalwaysaccessibletothepoorandstranger;nor couldbirthordignityortheimmunitiesofthechurchprotect theoffenderorhisaccomplices. Theprivilegedhouses,the privatesanctuariesin Rome,on whichno otSccrofjustice wouldpresumetotrespass,wereabolished;andhe applied thetimberandironoftheirbarricadesinthefortificationsof theCapitol. Thevenerablefatherofthe Colonnawasexposedinhisownpalacetothedoubleshameofbeingdesirous, and ofbeingunable,toprotecta criminal. A mule,witha jar ofoil,had beenstolennearCapranica;andthelordof theUrsinifamilywascondemnedtorestorethedamage,and to dischargea fineoffourhundredflorinsforhisnegligence inguardingthehighways. Norwerethepersonsofthebarons moreinviolatethantheirlandsor houses;and,eitherfrom accidentor design,thesameimpartialrigourwasexercised againstthe headsof the adversefactions. PeterAgapct Colonna,whohadhimselfbeensenatorofRome,wasarrested inthestreetforinjuryordebt;andjusticewasappeasedby thetardyexecutionofMartinUrsini,who,amonghisvarious actsofviolenceandrapine,hadpillageda shipwreckedvessel at themouthofthe Tiber. sx Hisname,the purpleoftwo s0Hocsemius,p. 398, alouddu Cerceau,Hist. de Rienzi, p. 794. The fifteentribunidan laws may be found in the Romanhistorian(whomfor brevity I shallname) 1; ortifiocca_I. ii. c. 4. si Fortifiocca,1. ii. c. xi. Fromthe accountof this shipwreckwe learn somecircumstancesof the tradeandnavigationofthe age. 7. Theshipwas builtandfreightedatNaplesforthe portsof MarseillesandAvignon. a. The

_-D. U4x- 5OOlOF THE ROMAN EMPIRE i37 cardinalshis uncles,a recentmarriage,anda mortal disease weredisregardedby the inflexibletribune,who had chosen his victim. The publicofficersdraggedhimfromhis palace and nuptial bed: his trial was short and satisfactory. ;the bellof theCapitolconvenedthepeople; striptof hismantle, onhisknees,withhishandsboundbehindhisback,heheard the sentenceof death; and, after a brief confession,Ursini wasled awayto the gallows. Aftersuch an example,none whowereconsciousofguilt couldhopefor impunity,and the flightof thewicked,thelicentious,andthe idlesoonpurified the city and territoryof Rome. In this time (saysthe historian)the woodsbeganto rejoicethat they wereno longer infestedwithrobbers; the oxenbeganto plough; the pilgrimsvisitedthe sanctuaries; the roads and inns werereplenishedwithtravellers; trade,plenty,andgoodfaith were restoredin the markets; and a purse of goldmightbe exposedwithoutdangerin the midstofthe highway. Assoon asthe lifeandpropertyof the subjectare secure,thelabours and rewards of industry spontaneouslyrevive: Rome was stillthemetropolisofthe Christianworld; and thefameand fortunesof the tribunewerediffusedin everycountryby the strangerswhohad enjoyedthe blessingsof his government. Thedeliveranceof his countryinspiredRienziwitha vast, andperhapsvisionary,ideaof unitingItaly ina greatfederativerepublic,ofwhichRomeshouldbe the ancientandlawful head, and the free citiesand princesthe membersand associates. His pen wasnot less eloquentthan his tongue; and hisnumerousepistlesweredeliveredto swiftand trusty messengers. On foot,witha whitewandin theirhand,they traversedthe forestsand mountains; enjoyed,in the most sailorswereof Naplesandthe Isleof Oenaria,lesssldffulthanthoseof Sicily andGenoa. 3- The navigationfromMarseilleswasa coastingvoyageto themouthof theTiber,wheretheytookshelterin a storm,but, insteadof findingthe current,unfortunatelyranona shoal; the vesselwasstranded, themarinersescaped. 4. The cargo,whichwas pillaged,consistedof the revenueof Provencefor theroyaltreasury,manybagsof pepperandcinnamon,andbalesofFrenchcloth,to the valueof 2o,oooflorins:a richprize.

,38 THE DECLINEAND FALL [CH. LXX hostilestates, the sacredsecurityof ambassadors;and reported,in the styleof flatteryor truth, that the highways along their passagewere lined with kneelingmultitudes, who imploredHeavenfor the successof their undertaking. Couldpassionhavelistenedto reason,couldprivateinterest haveyieldedtothe publicwelfare,thesupremetribunaland confederateunionof the Italian republicmighthavehealed their intestinediscordand closedthe Alpsagainstthe BarbariansoftheNorth. _ Butthepropitiousseasonhadelapsed; and, if Venice,Florence,Sienna,Perugia,and manyinferior citiesofferedtheir livesand fortunesto the goodestate,the tyrantsof Lombardyand Tuscanymust despise,or hate,the plebeianauthorofa freeconstitution. Fromthem,however, and from everypart of Italy, the tribune receivedthe most friendlyand respectfulanswers; they werefollowedby the ambassadorsof theprincesandrepublics; andinthisforeign conflux,on all theoccasionsof pleasureor business,the lowborn notarycouldassumethe familiaror majesticcourtesy of a sovereign. _ The most gloriouscircumstanceof his reign wasan appealto his justicefrom Lewiskingof Hun[It is strangethatGibbonshould havemade no mentionof Dante s workDe Monarchia,which,though it expressedthe Ghibeliineideal and lookedforsalvationto Germany,wasneverthelessanimatedwiththesame ideawhichinspiredRienzi,in sofaras itrecognisedthattheruleof theworld belongedto Rome. The De Monarchiais an importantindicationof the mediaevalideals whichmoved Italiansin the fourteenthcentury,and the reactionagainstthe Popes. Mr. Brycegivesanaccountof itsargumentin his HolyRomanEmpire,p. 265sqq. (ed. 7)- As the workappearedafter theItalianexpeditionof HenryVII. -- thelastepisodeinthe historyof the Empirein Italy-- Mr. Brycedescribesthebookas"an epitaphinsteadof a prophecy. " Seealsothe observationsof Gregorovius,vi. p. 19-24. It is patheticto see howmenlike Petrarchlookedfor the regenerationof Italy to the degeneraterabbleof Rome. ] _ It was thus that Oliver Cromwell sold acquaintance,whoremembered his vulgarand ungraciousentranceinto the Houseof Commons,were astonished at the easeand majestyof the Protectoronhis throne (seeHarris s Lifeof Cromwell,p. 27-34, from Clarendon,Warwick,Whitelocke,Waller, &c. ). The consciousnessof meritand powerwill sometimeselevatethe mannemto the station.

A. D. a41-- 5OO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 139 gary,whocomplainedthat hisbrother,and herhusband, hadbeenperfidiouslystrangledbyJanequeenofNaples:_ herguiltorinnocencewaspleadedinasolemntrialat Rome; but,afterhearingtheadvocates,_ thetribuneadjournedthis weightyandinvidiouscause,whichwassoondeterminedby theswordof the Hungarian. BeyondtheAlps,moreespeciaUyatAvignon,therevolutionwasthethemeofcuriosity, wonder,andapplause. Petrarchhadbeentheprivatefriend, perhapsthesecretcounsellor,ofRienzi: hiswritingsbreathe themostardentspiritofpatriotismandjoy; andallrespect forthe pope,allgratitudeforthe Colonna,waslostinthe superiordutiesofa Romancitizen. Thepoet-laureatofthe Capitolmaintainsthe act,applaudsthe hero,andmingles withsomeapprehensionand advicethemostloftyhopesof thepermanentandrisinggreatnessof therepublic?6 WhilePetrarchindulgedthesepropheticvisions,theRoman herowasfastdecliningfromthemeridianoffameandpower; andthe people,whohad gazedwithastonishmenton the ascendingmeteor,beganto mark the irregularityof its courseand the vicissitudesof fightand obscurity. More eloquentthanjudicious,moreenterprisingthanresolute,the facultiesofRienziwerenotbalancedbycoolandcommandingreason;hemagnifiedina tenfoldproportiontheobjects ofhopeandfear;andprudence,whichcouldnothaveerected, didnotpresumetofortify,histhrone. In theblazeofprosSeethe causes,circumstances,and effectsof the death of Andrew,in Giannone(tom. iii. 1. xxiii,p. 22o-229), andthe Life of Petrarch(M6moires, tom. ii. p. i43-x48,245-250, 375-379,notes,p. 21-37). The Abb_de Sade wishesto extenuateher guilt. The advocatewhopleadedagainstJeancouldaddnothingto the logical forceand brevityof his master sepistle. Johannal inordinatavita princedens, retentiopotestatisin regno,neglectavindicta,vir alter snsceptns,et excnsatiosubsequens,necisviritui teprobantfuisseparticipemetconsortem. Jane of Naples and Maryof Scotlandhavea singularconformity. See the EpistolaHortatoriade Capessend_tRepublic&,fromPetrarch to NicholasRienzi (Opp. p. S35-54o),and the fiftheclogueor pastoral,a perpetualand obscureallegory.

z4o THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXX perity,his virtueswereinsensiblytincturedwiththe adjacent vices: justicewithcruelty,liberalitywithprofusion,and the desire of fame with puerileand ostentatiousvanity. He mighthavelearnedthat the ancienttribunes,so strongand sacredin the publicopinion,werenot distinguishedin style, habit,or appearancefroman ordinaryplebeian; _ and that, as often as they visitedthe city on foot,a singleviator,or beadle,attended the exerciseof their office. The Gracchi would have frownedor smiled, could they have read the sonoroustitles and epithetsof their successor,"NICHOLAS, SEVEREAND MERCIFUL; DELIVEREROF ROME ;DEFENDER OF ITALY;3s FRIENDOF MANKIND, AND OF LIBERTY,PEACE,AND JUSTICE;TRIBUNE. AUGUST":his theatricalpageantshadpreparc_ltherevolution; but Rienziabused,inluxuryandpride, the politicalmaxim of speakingto the eyesas well as the understandingofthemultitude. Fromnaturehehadreceived thegiftof anhandsomeperson,s°tillit wasswelledanddisfigured by intemperance;and his propensityto laughterwas correctedin themagistrateby the affectationof gravityand sternness. He wasclothed,at leaston publicoccasions,in a paTti-colouredrobe of velvetor satin,linedwith fur and embroideredwithgold; the rodof justice whichhe carried t7In his Roman questions,Plutarch(Opuscul. tom. i. p. 505,506,edit. Graec. Hen. Steph. )states,on the mostconstitutionalprinciples,the simple greatnessof the tribunes, whowerenot properlymagistrates,but a check onmagistracy. It wastheirduty and interestb/2. o,o_oOa_¢X_,t_are,xalo roX_ rat6,a/r_7ro;_i _rtT"vTXCiVoucr,r_v lroX,r_l,. . . xara_rar¢?o Oat_t £(a saying vo_=, _. _ crd,var=, "rocro_o/_XXov=6_t-ra=r_ _vvci/_*,,&c. Rienzi, andPetrarchhimself,wereincapableperhapsofreadinga Greekphilosopher; but theymighthaveimbibedthe samemodestdoctrinesfromtheirfavourite Lafins,Livyand ValeriusMaximus. " Zcould not expressin Englishthe forciblethough barbarous rifle of Zela/arItaliae,whichRienziassumed. sgEra bell homo (1. ii. c. I, p. 399). It is remarkable,thatthe risosarcasticoof the Bracdanoedition is wanting in the RomanMS. fromwhich Muratorihas giventhe text. In hissecondreign,whenhe is paintedalmost as a monster, Rienzi traveauna ventrescatonna trionfale,a modo de uno AbbateAsiano,orAsinino(1. iii. c. zS,p. 5"3).

_. D. x34_-_5oo3OF THEROMANEMPIRE x¢I in his hand wasa sceptreof polishedsteel,crownedwitha globeand crossof gold,and enclosinga smallfragmentof the true and holywood. In his civiland religiousprocessionsthroughthe city,he rodeon a whitesteed,the symbol of royalty; the great bannerof the republic,a sun witha circleof stars,a dove with an olive-branch,wasdisplayed overhishead; a showerof goldandsilverwasscatteredamong the populace; fifty guardswith halberds encompassedhis person; a troop of horse precededhis march; and their tvmbalsand trumpetswere of massysilver. The ambitionof the honoursof chivalry40betrayedthe meannessof his birth and degradedthe importanceof his office;and theequestriantribunewasnotlessodioustothe nobleswhomhe adopted than to the plebeianswhom he deserted. All that yetremainedof treasureor luxuryor art wasexhaustedon that solemnday. Rienziled the processionfrom the Capitolto theLateran; the tediousnessof the waywasrelievedwithdecorationsand games; the ecclesiastical,civil,andmilitaryordersmarchedundertheirvarious banners; the Romanladiesattendedhis wife; andthe ambassadorsof Italy mightloudlyapplaud,or secredyderide, the noveltyof the pomp. In the evening,when theyhad reachedthe churchand palaceof Constantine,he thanked anddismissedthe numerousassembly,withan invitationto thefestivalof theensuingday. Fromthe handsof a venerable knighthe receivedthe orderof the Holy Ghost; the t0Strangeasit mayseem,thisfestivalwas notwithouta precedent. In theyear 1327,two barons,a Colonnaand an Ursini,the usual balance,were createdknightsby the Romanpeople: theirbath was of rose-water,their bedsweredeckedwithroyalmagnificence,andtheywereservedatSt. Maria of Araceliin the Capitolby the twenty-eightbuani hv. oraini. They afterwardsreceivedfromRobert,king of Naples,the swordof chivalry(Hist. Rom. 1. i. c. 2,p. 259). [On26thJulyofthisyeax,x347,Rienziissuedanedict, declaringthe majestyand supremacyof the Romanpeople,andabolishing all the privilegesassumedby the Popes. This edictwas submittedto a councilof jurists,and was issuedin the name of the Italian nation. See Grcgorovius,vi. p. 267. ]

I4Z THE DECLINE AND FALL [c,,. Lxx purificationofthebathwasa previousceremony;butinno stepofhislifedidR/enziexcitesuchscandalandcensureas bythe profaneuseof theporphyryvaseinwhichConstantine(afoolishlegend)hadbeenhealedofhisleprosybyPope Sylvester. 4 Withequalpresumptionthetribunewatchedor reposedwithinthe consecratedprecinctsof the baptistery; and thefailureof hisstate-bedwasinterpretedas an omen of hisapproachingdownfall. At the hourof worshiphe showedhimselftothereturningcrowdsina majesticattitude, witha robeofpurple,hissword,andgiltspurs; buttheholy riteswassooninterruptedbyhislevityandinsolence. Rising fromhisthrone,and advancingtowardsthe congregation, heproclaimedina loudvoice,"Wesummontoourtribunal PopeClement,andcommandhimtoresideinhisdioceseof Rome;wealsosummonthe sacredcollegeof Cardinals. _ Weagainsummonthe twopretenders,CharlesofBohemia and Lewisof Bavaria,whostylethemselvesemperors;we likewisesummonall theelectorsof Germany,to informus onwhatpretencetheyhaveusurpedtheunalienablerightof theRomanpeople,theancientand lawfulsovereignsof the empire. _ Unsheathinghis maiden sword, he thrice ttAllpartiesbelievedinthe leprosyandbathof Constantine(Petrarch, Epist. Famil. vi. 2),andRienzijustifiedhisownconductbyobservingtothe courtofAvignonthatavasewhichhadbeenusedbya pagancouldnotbe profanedbya piousChristian. Yet thiscrimeis specifiedin the bullof excommunication(Hocsemius,apuddu Cerceau,p. I89, I9o). aThisverba2summonsofPopeClementVI. ,whichrestsontheauthority ofthe Romanhistoriananda VaticanMS. ,isdisputedbythebiographerof Petrarch(tom. ii. not. p. 70-76),withargumentsratherofdecencythanof weight. Thecourtof Avignonmightnotchooseto agitatethisdelicate question. Thesummonsofthetworivalemperors,a monumentof freedomand folly,is extantin Hocsemius(Cerceau,p. 163-i66). [Gregorovius(vi. p. _76)wellobserves:"The Romans,accustomedto allthe spectaclesof history,bluntedtothedistinctionsbetweenthesublimeandtheridiculous . . . neitherlaughedatthisedictnoratthe figureofthecrazytribune. . . . Theyloudlyshoutedtheirapproval. Theabsurdproclamationappearedas theultimateconsequenceoftheclaimsofthecityto theImperialmajesty, withwhichshe hadformallyconfrontedConradthe firstof the Hohen

*. D-Xa* --_SOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I43 brandishedit to the three parts of the world,and thrice repeatedtheextravagantdeclaration,"Andthistooismine!" The pope svicar,the bishopof Orvieto,attemptedtocheck this careerof folly; but his feebleprotest was silencedby martialmusic; and,insteadofwithdrawingfromtheassembly, heconsentedtodinewithhis brothertribune,at atablewhich had hithertobeen reservedfor the supremepontiff. A banquet, such as the Caesarshad given,was preparedfor the Romans. The apartments,porticoes, and courts of the Lateran werespread with innumerabletablesfor either sex and everycondition; a stream of wine flowedfrom the nostrilsof Constantine sbrazenhorse; nocomplaint,except of the scarcityof water,couldbe heard; and the licentiousness of the multitudewas curbed by disciplineand fear. 4 A subsequentday was appointed for the coronationof Rienzi;4_seven crownsof differentleaves or metals were successivelyplacedon his headby the most eminentof the Roman clergy;46 they representedthe seven gifts of the HolyGhost; and he stillprofessedto imitatetheexampleof the ancienttribunes. These extraordinaryspectaclesmight deceiveor flatter the people; and their own vanity was gratifiedin the vanity of their leader. But in his private life he soon deviatedfrom the strict rule of frugalityand abstinence; and the plebeians, who were awed by the staufens. . . . The errorsand theoriesof Dante and Petrarchin their theologicalageexplainorexcusethe insanedreamsof the Tribune. "] [On the nextday,2ndAugust,a festivalof theUnityof Italywasheld. Cola assignedthe bannerof Italy to the Florentines,the bannerof Constantineto Perugia,the bannerof freedomto Siena. ] 4_It is singularthat the Romanhistorianshouldhaveoverlookedthis sevenfoldcoronation,whichis sufficientlyprovedby internalevidence,and thetestimonyof Hocsemius,andevenof Rienzi(Cerceau,p. I67-x7o,229). [Not exactlysevencrowns,butsix crowns(of oak,ivy, myrtle,laurel, olive,silver)anda globe,emblemof the world. Rienzibelievedthatthe ancienttribuneswerecrownedwith thesesixcrowns,andthushecharacteristicallycombinedclassicalantiquity with Christianity. He was at once (Gregorovins,vi. p. 284) "Tribunus Augustusand Candidateof the Holy Ghost. "]

I44 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX splendourof thenobles,wereprovokedby theluxuryof their equal. His wife,his son,his uncle(a barberin name and profession),exposedthe contrast of vulgar manners and princelyexpense;and, withoutacquiringthemajesty,Rienzi degeneratedintothe vices,of a king. A simplecitizendescribeswithpity,or perhapswithpleasure,the humiliationof the baronsof Rome. "Bare-headed, their hands crossedon their breast, they stood withdowncastlooksin the presenceof the tribune; andtheytrembled, goodGod,how they trembled!"4, Aslongas the yoke of Rienziwasthat ofjusticeand theircountry,theirconscience forcedthemto esteemthe manwhompride andinterestproyokedthem to hate: his extravagantconductsoonfortified their hatred by contempt; and they conceivedthe hopeof subvertinga powerwhichwasno longersodeeplyrootedin the public confidence. The old animosityof the Colonna and Ursini was suspendedfor a momentby their common disgrace: they associatedtheir wishes,and perhapstheir designs; an assassinwasseizedandtortured; heaccusedthe nobles; and, as soonas Rienzideservedthe fate,he adopted the suspicionsand maxims,of a tyrant. On the sameday, undervariouspretences,he invitedto theCapitolhisprincipal enemies,amongwhomwerefivemembersof the Ursini,and threeof the Colonna,name. But, insteadof a councilor a banquet,they foundthemselvesprisonersunderthe swordof despotismor justice; andthe consciousnessof innocenceor guiltmightinspirethemwithequalapprehensionsofdanger. At the soundof the greatbell the peopleassembled:they were arraignedfor a conspiracyagainst the tribune s life; and, thoughsomemightsympathisein their distress,not a hand nor a voicewasraisedto rescuethefirstof the nobility from their impendingdoom. Their apparentboldnesswas 47Puoise facevastaredenantease, mentresedeva,li baronituttiin piedi ritficole vracdapiecate,e coli capuccitratti. Deh comostavanopaurosi1 (Hist. Rom. 1. ii. c. 2o,p. 439)- He saw them,and we see them.

A. D. ,_-_SOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I45 promptedby despair;theypassedin separatechambersa sleeplessandpainfulnight; andthevenerablehero,Stephen Colonna,strikingagainstthe doorofhisprison,repeatedly urgedhisguardstodeliverhimbya speedydeathfromsuch ignominiousservitude. In themorningtheyunderstoodtheir sentencefromthevisitofa confessorand thetollingof the bell. ThegreathalloftheCapitolhadbeendecoratedforthe bloodyscenewithredandwhitehangings;thecountenance ofthetribunewasdarkandsevere;theswordsoftheexecutionerswereunsheathed;andthe baronswereinterrupted intheirdyingspeechesbythe soundof trumpets. But in thisdecisivemomentRienziwasnotlessanxiousor apprehensivethanhiscaptives:he dreadedthesplendouroftheir names,theirsurviving"kinsmen,theinconstancyofthepeople, thereproachesoftheworld; and,afterrashlyofferingamortal injury,hevainlypresumedthat,ifhecouldforgive,hemight himseffbe forgiven. His elaborateorationwasthatof a Christiananda suppliant;and,as thehumbleministerof thecommons,heentreatedhismasterstopardonthesenoble criminals,forwhoserepentanceandfutureservicehepledged hisfaithand authority. "If youarespared,"saidthetribune,"bythemercyoftheRomans,willyounotpromiseto supportthe goodestatewithyour livesand fortunes?" Astonishedby thismarvellousclemency,the baronsbowed theirheads;and,whiletheydevoutlyrepeatedthe oathof allegiance,mightwhisperasecret,andmoresincere,assurance ofrevenge. Apriest,inthenameofthepeople,pronounced theirabsolution. Theyreceivedthe communionwiththe tribune,assistedat the banquet,followedthe procession; and,aftereveryspiritualandtemporalsignofreconciliation, weredismissedin safetytotheirrespectivehomes,withthe newhonoursandtitlesofgenerals,consuls,andpatricians. $ 4sThe originalletter,inwhichRienzljustifieshistreatmentof theColonna (Hocsemius,spud du Cerceau,p. a22-229),displays, in genuine colours, the mixtureof the knaveandthe madman. VOL. XII. _ IO

i46 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX Duringsomeweeksthey werecheckedby the memoryof their danger rather than of their deliverance,till the more powerfulof theUrsini,escapingwiththe Colonnafrom the city,erectedat Marinothestandardof rebellion. The fortificationsof the castle wereinstantly restored; the vassals attendedtheir lord; the outlawsarmed againstthe magistrate; theflocksandhcrds,the harvestsandvineyards,from Marinotothe gatesof Rome,weresweptawayor destroyed; andthepeoplearraignedRienzias theauthorof thecalamities whichhis governmenthad taught them to forget. In the campRienziappearedto lessadvantagethan in therostrum; and he neglectedthe progressof the rebelbaronstill their numberswerestrong and theircastlesimpregnable. From the pagesof Livy he had not imbibedthe art, or eventhe courage,ofa general. Anarmyof twentythousandRomans returned,withouthonouror effect,fromtheattackofMarino; and hisvengeancewasamusedby paintinghis enemies,their heads downwards,and drowningtwo dogs (at least they shouldhavebeenbears)as the representativesof theUrsini. Thebeliefofhisincapacityencouragedtheiroperations: they wereinvitedby theirsecretadherents; and the baronsattempted,withfourthousandfootand sixteenhundredhorse, to enterRomebyforceor surprise. The citywasprepared for their reception;the alarmbell rungallnight; the gates werestrictlyguarded,or insolentlyopen; and after some hesitationtheysoundedaretreat. Thetwofirstdivisionshad passedalongthe walls,but the prospectof a freeentrance temptedtheheadstrongvalourof thenoblesin therear; and, after a successfulskirmish,theywereoverthrownand massacredwithoutquarterby the crowdsof the Romanpeople. Stephen Colonna the younger,the noble spirit to whom Petrarchascribedthe restorationof Italy,wasprecededor accompaniedin death by his son John, a gallant youth,by his brotherPeter,whomightregrettheease andhonoursof the church,by a nephewof legitimatebirth, and by two bastardsof the Colonnarace; and thenumberof seven,the

A. D. Xa4 -ZSOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I47 sevencrowns,asRienzistyledthem,oftheHolyGhost,was completedbytheagonyofthedeplorableparent,oftheveteranchief,whohad survivedthe hopeandfortuneof his house. Thevisionandpropheciesof St. MartinandPope Bonifacehadbeenusedbythetribunetoanimatehistroops;_ hedisplayed,atleastinthepursuit,thespiritofanhero; but heforgotthemaximsoftheancientRomans,whoabhorredthe triumphsofcivilwar. TheconquerorascendedtheCapitol; depositedhiscrownand sceptreon thealtar; andboasted withsometruththathehadcutoffan earwhichneitherpope noremperorhad beenableto amputate,s° His baseand implacablerevengedeniedthehonoursof burial; andthe bodiesof theColonna,whichhe threatenedtoexposewith thoseofthevilestmalefactors,weresecretlyinterredbythe holyvirginsof theirnameandfamily. 5t Thepeoplesympathisedin their grief,repentedof their ownfury, and detestedtheindecentjoyofRienzi,whovisitedthespotwhere theseillustriousvictimshadfallen. It wasonthatfatalspot thatheconferredonhissonthehonourofknighthood;and theceremonywasaccomplishedbya slightblowfromeach " Rienzi,in the above-mentionedletter,ascribesto St. Martinthetribune, BonifaceVIII. the enemyof Colonna,himself,and the Roman people,the gloryof the day, whichViUanilikewise(1. xii. c. xo4)describesas a regular battle. The disorderlyskirmish,the flightofthe Romans,andthe cowardice of Rienziare painted in the simpleand minutenarrative of Fort[fiocca,or the anonymouscitizen(1. ii. c. 34-37). 60In describingthe fall of the Colonna,I speak only of the familyof Stephenthe Elder, whois often confoundedbythe P. du Cerceauwith his son. That family was extinguished,but the house has been perpetuated in the collateralbranches,of whichI havenot a very accurate knowledge. Circumspice(says Petrarch) famili_etu_estatum, Columniensiumdomos: solito pauciores habeat columnas. Quid ad rein? modo fundamentum stabilesolidumquepermaneat. _The conventofSt. Silvesterwasfounded,endowed,andprotectedbythe Colonnacardinals,forthe daughtersof thefamilywhoembraceda monastic life,and who, in the year I318, weretwelvein number. The otherswere allowedto marrywith their kinsmenin the fourthdegree,and the dispensationwas justifiedbythe smallnumberand closealliancesof the noblefamilies of Rome (M6moiressur P6trazque,tom. i. p. xIo,tom. ii. p. 4oI).

_48 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXX of the horsemenof theguard,andby a ridiculousandinhuman ablutionfrom a poolof water,whichwasyetpolluted withpatricianbloody A shortdelaywouldhavesavedtheColonna,thedelayof a singlemonth, whichelapsedbetweenthe triumph and the exileof Rienzi. In theprideof victory,he forfeitedwhatyet remainedof his civilvirtues,withoutacquiringthe fameof militaryprowess. Afreeandvigorousoppositionwasformed in the city; and, whenthe tribune proposedin the public council_ toimposea newtaxand toregulatethegovernment of Perugia,thirty-ninemembersvotedagainsthis measures; repelledtheinjuriouschargeoftreacheryandcorruption; and urged him to prove,by their forcibleexclusion,that, if the populaceadheredto his cause,it wasalreadydisclaimedby the most respectablecitizens. The pope and the sacred collegehad never beendazzledbyhis speciousprofessions; they werejustlyoffendedby theinsolenceof his conduct; a cardinal legatewas sent to Italy, and, after somefruitless treaty and two personalinterviews,he fulminateda bullof excommunication,in whichthe tribuneis degradedfromhis officeand brandedwiththe guilt of rebellion,sacrilege,and heresy34 The survivingbarons of Rome were now humbled to a sense of allegiance; their interest and revenge engagedtheminthe serviceofthechurch; but,as thefateof theColonnawasbeforetheireyes,theyabandonedtoaprivate 6_Petrarchwrotea stiffand pedanticletterof consolation(Faro. I. vii. epist,x3,p. 682,683). The friendwas lostin the patriot. Nullatoto orbe principumfamilla carior; cariortamen respublica,cariorRoma, carior Italia. Je rendsgracesauxDieuxde n _trepasRomain. ssThis council and oppositionis obscurelymentionedby Pollistore,a contemporarywriter, whohas preservedsome curiousand originalfacts (Rer. Italicarum,tom. xxv. c. 3I, p. 798-8o4). The briefsandbullsof ClementVI. againstRienziaretranslatedbythe P. du Cerceau(p. _96,232), fromthe EcclesiasticalAnnals of Rodericus Raynaldus(A. D. I347,No. I5, IT,2x, &c. ),whofoundthemin the archives of the Vatican.

_D. ts,x-asoo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 149 adventurertheperilandgloryoftherevolution. JohnPepin, countofMinorbino,_ inthekingdomofNaples,hadbeencondenmedfor his crimes,or his riches,to perpetualimprisonment; andPetrarch,bysolicitinghis release,indirectlycontributedtotheruinof hisfriend. Atthe headofonehundred andfiftysoldiers,the countof Minorbinointroducedhimself into Rome; barricadedthe quarter of the Colonna; and foundthe enterpriseas easy as it had seemedimpossible. Fromthefirstalarm,thebelloftheCapitolincessantlytolled; but,insteadof repairingto thewell-knownsound,the people wassilent and inactive; and the pusillanimousRienzi,deploringtheir ingratitudewithsighsandtears, abdicatedthe governmentand palaceof the republic. Withoutdrawinghissword,CountPepinrestoredthe aristocracyand the church;threesenatorswerechosen,and the legate,assumingthe first rank, acceptedhis two colleagues fromthe rivalfamiliesof Colonnaand Ursini. The actsof the tribune were abolished,his head was proscribed; yet suchwastheterrorof hisnamethat thebaronshesitatedthree days beforethey wouldtrust themselvesin the city, and Rienziwasleft above a monthin the castle of St. Angelo, fromwhencehe peaceablywithdrew,afterlabouring,without effect,to revivethe affectionand courageof the Romans. Thevisionof freedomandempirehadvanished; theirfallen spirit would have acquiescedin servitude,had it been smoothedby tranquillityand order; and it wasscarcelyobservedthat the newsenatorsderivedtheir authorityfromthe ApostolicSee; that fourcardinalswereappointedto reform, withdictatorialpower,the state of the republic. _ Rome 6tMatteoVillanidescribesthe origin,character,anddeathof thiscountof Minorbino,a manda natura inconstantee senzasede,whosegrandfather,a craftynotary, was enrichedand ennobledby the spoilsof the Saracensof Nocera(1. vii. c. xo2,io3). Seehisimprisonment,andthe effortsofPetrarch, tom. ii. p. x49-x51. [One of these cardinalsasked Petrarch his opinionon the question. Petrarch sadvicewas: "Snatch allthis pestilentialtyrannyfromthe hands

_5o THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXX wasagainagitatedby the bloodyfeudsof the barons,who detestedeachother anddespisedthe commons;their hostile fortresses,bothintownandcountry,againroseandwereagain demolished; andthe peacefulcitizcns,a flockof sheep,were devoured,says the Florcntinehistorian,by these rapacious wolves. But, whentheir pride and avaricehad exhausted the patienceof the Romans, a confraternityof the Virgin Maryprotectedor avengedtherepublic; thebellof theCapitolwasagaintolled,thenoblesin armstrembledin thepresence of an unarmed multitude; and of the two senators, Colonnaescapedfromthe windowof thepalace,andUrsini wasstonedat thefoot of the altar. The dangerousofficeof tribunewassuccessivelyoccupiedby two plebeians,Cerroni andBaroncclli. The mildnessof Cerroniwasunequaltothe times;and,aftera faintstruggle,he retiredwitha fair reputation and a dccentfortuneto the comfortsof rural life. Devoidof eloquenceor genius,Baroncelliwasdistinguished bya resolutespirit: he spokethe languageof a patriot,and trod inthc footstepsof tyrants; hissuspicionwasa sentence of death,andhis owndeath wasthe rewardof hiscruelties. Amidstthe publicmisfortunes,the faultsof Rienziwcreforgotten; and theRomanssighedfor the peaceand prosperity of the good estate. 57 Afteran exileof sevenyears,the first delivererwasagain restoredto his country. In thedisguiseof a monkor a pilgrim,he escapedfrom thecastleof St. Angelo,imploredthe friendshipofthekingof Hungaryat Naples,temptedtheambitionof everybold adventurer,mingledat Rome with the pilgrimsofthejubilee,layconcealedamongthehermitsofthe of the nobles; notonly givethe PlebsRomanaa share of thepublic dignities,butdeprivethe unworthySenatorsof the officewhichthey haveso badlyadministered"(Gregorovius,vi. p. 33o). l s7The troublesof Rome,fromthedepartureto the returnof Rienzi,are relatedbyMatteoVillani(1. ii. c. 47; 1. iii. c. 33, 57,78)andThomasFortifiocca(l. iii. c. I-4). I haveslightlypassedoverthesesecondarycharacters, who imitatedthe originaltribune.

A. D. t_ -XSOO]OF THEROMANEMPIRE ISz Apennine,"and wanderedthroughthe citiesof Italy,Germany,andBohemia. His personwasinvisible,hisnamewas yetformidable;and theanxietyof thecourtofAvignonsupposes,andevenmagnifies,his personalmerit. The emperor Charlesthe Fourthgaveaudienceto a stranger,whofrankly revealedhimselfas the tribuneof therepublicandastonished an assemblyofambassadorsandprincesbytheeloquenceofa patriotand the visionsof a prophet,the downfallof tyranny andthe "kingdomof the Holy Ghost)9 Whateverhad been hishopes,Rienzifoundhimselfa captive; but he supported a characterof independenceand dignity,andobeyed,as his ownchoice,the irresistiblesummonsof the supremepontiff. Thezealof Petrarch,whichhadbeencooledbytheunworthy conduct,wasrekindledbythe sufferingsand thepresence,of hisfriend; and heboldlycomplainsof thetimesin whichthe saviourof Romewasdeliveredbyher emperorintothehands of her bishop. Rienziwas transportedslowly,but in safe custody,fromPraguetoAvignon; his entranceintothecity wasthat ofa malefactor;inhis prisonhe waschainedbythe leg; andfourcardinalswerenamedto inquireintothecrimes of heresy and rebellion. But his trial and condemnation wouldhaveinvolvedsomequestionswhichit wasmorepru5,[TheFraticeUiof MonteMajellain the Abruzzi. Rienzi stayedthere abovetwo years,doing penancefor his sins. ] "These visions,of whichthe friendsandenemiesof Rienziseem alike ignorant,aresurelymagnifiedbythe zealofPollistore,a Dominicaninquisitor(Rer. Ital. tom. xxv. c. 36,p. 8x9). HadthetribunetaughtthatChristwas succeededbytheHolyGhost,thatthe tyrannyofthepopewouldbe abolished, he mighthave beenconvictedof heresyandtreasonwithoutoffendingthe Romanpeople. [The lettersof Pdenziat thistime(givenin Papencordt s workcitedabove,p. x28,note 20)are veryimportant. Theyportraythe stateof Rome; indictthe Pope; and are thoroughlyGhibeilinein spirit, expressingthe needof keepingthe secularandecclesiasticalpowersapart. Gregoroviussays (vi. 346):"The tribunein chains at Prague was more dangerousto thePapacythan hehadbeenwhenat theheightof his power inthe Capitol. Henowexpressed,liketheMonarchists,thenecessityformankind of a reformation;and this constitutesthe seriousimportanceof this extraordinaryRoman,and secureshima placein history. "]

*52 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C,,. LXX denttoleaveunderthe veilofmystery: thetemporalsupremacyof thepopes; the dutyof residence; thecivil and ecclesiasticalprivilegesof the clergyand peopleof Rome. The reigningpontiffwell deservedthe appellationof Clement; the strangevicissitudesand magnanimousspirit of the capfiveexcitedhis pityand esteem; and Petrarchbelievesthat he respectedin the herothename and sacredcharacterof a poet. e° Rienziwas indulgedwithan easyconfinementand the useof books; andin theassiduousstudyof Livyand the Biblehe soughtthe causeand the consolationof his misfortunes. The succeedingpontificateof Innocentthe Sixthopeneda ncw prospectof his deliveranceand restoration; and the court of Avignonwas persuadedthat the successfulrebel couldaloneappeaseandreformtheanarchyofthemetropolis. Aftera solemnprofessionof fidelity,theRomantribunewas sent into Italy with the title of senator; but the death of Baroncelliappearedtosupersedethe useof hismission; and the legate, CardinalAlbernozf1 a consummatestatesman, allowedhim,withreluctance,and withoutaid, to undertake the perilousexperiment. Hisfirstreceptionwasequalto his wishes: thedayof his entrancewasa publicfestival,and his eloquenceand authorityrevivedthe lawsof the goodestate. But thismomentarysunshinewassooncloudedby his own vicesand thoseof the people: in the Capitol,he mightoften regretthe prison of Avignon;and, after a secondadminise0Theastonishment,theenvyalmost,ofPetrarchisaproof,ifnotofthe truthofthisincrediblefact,atleastofhisownveracity. TheAbb_deSade (M&noires,tom. iii. p. 242)quotesthevithepistleofthexiiithbookof Petrarch,butitisoftheroyalMS. whichheconsulted,andnotoftheordinaryBasiledition(p. 920). el3EgidiusorGilesAlbornoz,a nobleSpaniard,archbishopofToledo, andcardinallegateinItaly(A. D. I353-x367), restored,byhisarmsand counsels,thetemporaldominionofthepopes. Hislifehasbeenseparately writtenbySepulveda;butDrydencouldnotreasonablysupposethathis name,orthatofWolsey,hadreachedtheearsoftheMuftiinDonSebastian.

A. v. ,34,-,5oo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE i53 tration of four months,Rienzi was massacredin a tumult whichhad been fomentedby the Roman barons. In the societyof the Germansand Bohemians,he is said to have contractedthe habitsof intemperanceand cruelty; adversityhad chilledhis enthusiasm,withoutfortifyinghis reason or virtue; and that youthful hope, that lively assurance, whichisthe pledgeofsuccess,wasnowsucceededbythecold impotenceof distrustand despair. Thetribunehad reigned withabsolutedominion,bythechoiceandintheheartsof the Romans; the senatorwasthe servileministerof a foreign court; and, whilehe was suspectedby the people,he was abandonedbytheprince. ThelegateAlbornoz,whoseemed desirousof his ruin,inflexiblyrefusedallsuppliesofmen and money; a faithfulsubjectcouldno longerpresumeto touch the revenuesof the apostolicalchamber; and the firstidea of a tax wasthe signalof clamourand sedition. Evenhis justicewastaintedwiththeguiltorreproachofselfishcruelty; the most virtuouscitizenof Romewassacrificedto his jealousy; and in the executionof a publicrobber,fromwhose pursehe had beenassisted,themagistratetoo muchforgot, or too much remembered,the obligationsof the debtor,e2 A civilwar exhaustedhis treasures,and the patienceof the city; the Colonnamaintainedtheir hostilestationat Palestrina; and his mercenariessoondespiseda leaderwhoseignorance and fear were enviousof all subordinatemerit. In thedeath asin thelifeof Rienzi,theheroandthecoward werestrangelymingled. Whenthe Capitolwasinvestedby a furiousmultitude,whenhe wasbaselydesertedby hiscivil andmilitaryservant,theintrepidsenator,wavingthebanner of liberty,presentedhimselfon the balcony,addressedhis eloquencetothevariouspassionsoftheRomans,andlaboured mFromMatteoVillaniand Fortifiocea,the P. du Cerceau(p. 344-394) hasextractedthelifeanddeathofthe ChevalierMontreal,the lifeof arobber, and the death of an hero. At the head of a free company,the firstthat desolatedItaly, he becamerich and formidable;he had moneyin all the banks, 60,000ducats in Padua alone.

i54 THE DECLINEAND FALL [ca. t,xx to persuadethemthat in the samecausehimselfand the republicmust eitherstandor fall. Hisorationwasinterrupted by a volleyof imprecationsand stones; and, after an arrow had transpiercedhis hand, he sunk into abject despair, and fledweepingto theinnerchambers,fromwhencehe was let downbya sheetbeforethe windowsof the prison. Destitute of aid or hope,he wasbesiegedtill the evening: the doorsof the Capitolweredestroyedwithaxesand fire; and, whilethesenatorattemptedto escapein a plebeianhabit,he wasdiscoveredanddraggedtotheplatformofthepalace,the fatalsceneof hisjudgmentsand executions. A wholehour, withoutvoiceor motion,he stoodamidstthe multitude,half nakedandhalfdead; theirragewashushedintocuriosityand wonder; the last feelingsof reverenceand compassionyet struggledin his favour; and they mighthaveprevailed,if a boldassassinhadnot plungeda daggerin hisbreast. He fell senselesswith the first stroke; the impotentrevengeof his enemiesinflicteda thousandwounds; andthesenator sbody wasabandonedto the dogs,to the Jews,and to the flames. Posteritywill comparethe virtuesand the failingsof this extraordinaryman; but in a longperiodof anarchyand servitude the name of Rienzi has oftenbeen celebratedas the delivererof hiscountryand thelast of the Romanpatriots. _ Thefirstandmostgenerouswishof Petrarchwasthe restorationof a freerepublic; but, afterthe exileanddeathofhis plebeianhero,he turnedhiseyesfromthetribuneto theking of the Romans. The Capitolwasyetstainedwiththe blood ofRienzi,whenCharlestheFourthdescendedfromtheAlps to obtain the Italian and Imperial crowns. In his passage throughMilan he receivedthe visit,and repaid theflattery, of the poet-laureat; accepteda medal of Augustus; and promised,withoutasmile,toimitatethefounderoftheRoman a Theexile,secondgovernment,and deathof Rienziare minutelyrelated by the anonymousRomanwhoappearsneitherhis friendnor his enemy (1. iii. c. I_--a5). Petrarch,wholovedthe tr/bune,was indifferentto the fate of the senator.

^. o. ,vt_-_soo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE I55 monarchy. A falseapplicationof thenamesandmaximsof antiquitywasthesourceof thehopesanddisappointmentsof Petrarch; yet he couldnot overlookthe differenceof times andcharacters: theimmeasurabledistancebetweenthe first C_esarsand a Bohemianprince,who by the favour of the clergyhad beenclcctcdthe titular headof the Germanaristocracy. Instead of restoringto Rome her gloryand her provinces,he had bound himself,by a secrettreatywith the pope,to evacuatethecity onthe dayof his coronation;and his shamefulretreat was pursuedby the reproachesof the patriotbard. _ After the loss of libertyand empire,his third and more humblewishwasto reconcilethe shepherdwithhisflock; to recallthe Romanbishopto his ancientand peculiardiocese. In thc fervourof youth,withthe authorityof age,Petrarch addressedhis exhortationsto fivesuccessivepopes,and his eloquenccwas alwaysinspiredby the enthusiasmof sentimentand the freedomof language25 The son of a citizen of Florcnceinvariablypreferredthe countryof his birth to that of his education; and Italy,in his cycs,wasthe queen and gardenof the world. Amidsther domesticfactions,she wasdoubtlesssuperiorto Franceboth in art and science,in wealthand politeness;but thedifferencecouldscarcelysupporttheepithetofbarbarous,whichhc promiscuouslybestows on the countriesbeyond the Alps. Avignon,the mystic Babylon,thesinkofviceandcorruption,wastheobjectofhis hatredandcontcmpt; buthe forgetsthat herscandalousvices Thehopesandthedisappointmentof Petrarchare agreeablydescribed in hisownwordsbytheFrenchbiographer(M6moires,tom. iii. p. 575-613); but the deepthoughsecretwoundwasthecoronationof Zanubi,thepoetlaurcat, by CharlesIV. u See,inhisaccurateandmusing biographer,theapplicationof Petrarch andRometo BenedictXII. in theyeari334(Mamoires,tom. i. p. 261-_65), to ClementVI. in x342(tom. ii. p. 45-47),andto UrbanV. in 1366(tom. iii. p. 677-690 ; hispraise (p. 71x-715)andexcuse(p. 77l) of thelastof these pontiffs. His angrycontroversyontherespectivemeritsof FranceandItaly may be found(Opp. p. lO68-1o85).

x56 THE DECLINEAND FALL [CmLXX werenot the growthof thesoil, and that in everyresidence theywouldadheretothepowerandluxuryof thepapalcourt. lie confessesthat thesuccessorofSt. Peteristhebishopofthe universalchurch; yet it wasnot onthe banksof theRh6ne, but of the Tiber, that the apostlehad fixedhis everlasting throne; and, whileeverycity in the Christianworld was blessedwitha bishop,the metropolisalonewasdesolateand forlorn. Sincetheremovalof theHolySee,thesacredbuildingsof the Lateran and the Vatican,their altars and their saints,wereleft in a state of povertyanddecay; andRome wasoftenpaintedunder theimageof a disconsolatematron, asifthewanderinghusbandcouldbereclaimedbythehomely portrait of the age and infirmitiesof his weepingspouse. _ Butthe cloudwhichhungoverthe sevenhills wouldbe dispelledbythepresenceoftheirlawfulsovereign: eternalfame, theprosperityof Rome,andthe peaceof Italy wouldbe the recompenseof thepopewhoshoulddareto embracethisgenerousresolution. Of the fivewhomPetrarchexhorted,the three first,John the Twenty-second,Benedictthe Twelfth, and Clementthe Sixth, wereimportunedor amusedby the boldnessof theorator; but thememorablechangewhichhad beenattemptedby Urbanthe Fifth wasfinallyaccomplished by Gregorythe Eleventh. The executionof their design was opposedby weightyand almost insuperableobstacles. A kingof France,whohasdeservedthe epithetof Wise,was unwillingto releasethemfroma localdependence:the cardinals,for the most part his subjects,wereattachedto the language,manners,and climateof Avignon;to their stately palaces; above all, to the winesof Burgundy. . 7 In their " Squalidasedquoniamfacies,neglectaquecultu Cmsaries;multisquemallslassatasenectus Eripuitsolitamefl_giem: vetusaccipenomen; Roma vocor. (Carm. 1. il. p. 77. ) lie spins this allegory beyondall measure 9r patience. The epistlesto Urban V. in proseare moresimpleand persuasive(SenJlium_I. vii. p. 8xi827; 1. ix. epist, i. p. 844-854). a7[Vinum Be-anenae,"Beatme. "]

*. D. ,34,-,soo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 157 eyes,Italy wasforeignor hostile; and they reluctantlyembarkedat Marseilles,asif theyhadbeensoldor banishedinto the land of the Saracens. Urban the Fifth residedthree yearsin the Vaticanwith safety and honour; his sanctity wasprotectedbya guardoftwothousandhorse; andtheking ofCyprus,thequeenof Naples,andthe emperorsof theEast andWestdevoutlysalutedtheir commonfatherin the chair of St. Peter. But the joy of Petrarchand the Italianswas soon turned into grief and indignation. Somereasonsof publicor privatemoment,hisownimpatienceor the prayers ofthecardinals,recalledUrbantoFrance; andtheapproaching electionwassaved from the tyrannic patriotismof the Romans. The powersof Heaven were interestedin their cause: Bridgetof Sweden,a saintand pilgrim,disapproved the return,and foretoldthe death, of Urban the Fifth; the migrationof Gregorythe Eleventhwas encouragedby St. CatherineofSienna,thespouseof Christand ambassadressof theFIorentines;andthe popesthemselves,thegreatmasters ofhumancredulity,appeartohavelistenedtothesevisionary females. _8 Yet those celestialadmonitionsweresupported ssI have not leisure to expatiateon the legendsof St. Bridgetor St. Catherine,the last of whichmight furnishsome amusing stories. Their effectonthe mind of GregoryXI. is attestedbythe last solemnwordsof the dyingpope, whoadmonishedthe assistants,ut caverentab hominibus,sive viris,siremulieribus,sub specierelig/onisloquentibnsvisionessuicapitis,quia per tales ipseseductus,&c. (Baluz. Not. ad Vit. Pap. Avenioaensinm,tom. i. p. 1223). [St. Bridgetwasthe wifeof a greatSwedishnoble, UlfGudmaro son. Her Lifeby Bartholdusde Romais publishedin the ActaSanctorum, 8th October,iv. p. 495 _qq- Her Revelationshavebeen frequentlyedited, most recently(Revel. Selects)byA. Heuser,_851. There isalsoan English translation: "Certayne revelacyonsof St. Bri_tte," byTh. Godfrey(London, no date). The most importantmonographis by a Swede,F. Hammerich,and has beendone into German byA. Michelsen: St. Birgittadie n6rdischeProphetin und OrdensstifteHn,x872. There is also a Danish monographby A. Brinkmann (x893); and a French by the Comtessede Flavigny:SainteBrlgittede Su;hle,1892. - There is an immenseliterature onCatherineof Siena. Chavinde MaIan s Histoirede SainteCatherinede Sienne, 2 vols. ,x846,and AugustaT. Drane s Historyof St. Catherineof Siena with her companions(with a translationof her treatiseon Consum

158 THE DECLINE AND FALL tCH. LXX by someargumentsof temporalpolicy. Theresidenceof Avignonhadbeeninvadedbyhostileviolence:attheheadof thirtythousandrobbers,an herohad extortedransomand absolutionfromthevicarofChristandthe sacredcollege; andthe maximof theFrenchwarriors,to sparethe people andplunderthechurch,wasa newheresyofthemostdangerousimport. "WhilethepopewasdrivenfromAvignon, he wasstrenuouslyinvitedto Rome. The senateand people acknowledgedhimas their lawfulsovereign,and laid at his feet the keys of the gates,the bridges,and the fortresses; of the quarter at least beyondthe Tiber. 7° But this loyal offerwasaccompaniedby a declarationthat they couldno longersufferthe scandaland calamityof his absence; and that his obstinacywouldfinallyprovokethem to reviveand assert the primitiveright of election. The abbotof Mount Cassin had been consulted whetherhe would acceptthe triplecrown71fromtheclergyandpeople:"I ama citizen matePerfection),2 vols. ,x887,maybe mentioned. The lettersof the saint have beeneditedby N. Tommaseoin 4 vols. , x86o. ] eJThis predatoryexpeditionis relatedby Froissart(Chronique,tom. i. p. 230),and in the lifeof du Guesclin(CollectionG_n_raledes Mdrnoires Historiques,tom. iv. c. I6, p. Io7-x_3). As earlyas the year I36i, the courtof Avignonhad beenmolestedbysimilarfreebooters,whoafterwards passedthe Alps (M_oires sur P&rarque,tom. iii. p. 563-569). T0Fleuryalleges,from the annalsof OdericusRaynaldus,the original treatywhichwassignedthe 2xstof Decemberx376betweenGregoryXI. and the Romans(Hist. Ecclds. tom. xx. p. 275). n The firstcrownor regnum(Ducange,Gloss. Latin. tom. v. p. 702)on the Episcopalmitre of the popesis ascribedto thc gift of Constantine[to ]PopeSylvester]orClovis. The secondwasaddedbyBonifaceVIII. asthe emblem,not onlyof a spiritual,butof a temporal,kingdom. The three statesofthe churcharerepresentedbythetriplecrownwhichwasintroduced by JohnXXII. or BenedictXII. (M_moiressurP_trarque,tom. i. p. 258, _59). [Theregnumorpointedtiara "originallyconsistedofwhitepeacock s feathers,and waslaterornamentedwithpreciousstones,encircledbya gold rim,and afterwardsby threediadems; the wholewassurmountedby a carbuncle. " Gregorovius,v. p. 8 (wherethereis a descriptionof the papal coronation). Thethreediademsare saidto havebeenaddedbyNicholasI. , BonifaceVIII. , and UrbanV. Monograph:Z6pffel,Die Papstwahienund diemitihnenirantichstenZ-_ammenhangstehendenCeremonienvomzxbis x4 Jahrhundert,x87L]

A. D. t34_-_5OO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I59 ofRome,"n repliedthatvenerableecclesiastic,"andmyfirst lawis thevoiceofmycountry. "7s If superstitionwillinterpretan untimelydeath,7. if the meritofcouncilsbejudgedfromtheevent,theheavensmay seemtofrownona measureofsuchapparentreasonandpropriety. GregorytheEleventhdidnotsurviveabovefourteen monthshisreturntothe Vatican;andhisdeceasewasfollowedbythegreatschismoftheWest,whichdistractedthe Latinchurchabovefortyyears. Thesacredcollegewasthen composedoftwenty-twocardinals: sixofthesehadremained at Avignon;elevenFrenchmen,one Spaniard,and four Italiansenteredtheconclaveintheusualform. Theirchoice wasnotyetlimitedtothepurple;andtheirunanimousvotes acquiescedin the archbishopof Bari,a subjectof Naples, conspicuousforhiszeal and learning,whoascendedthe throneofSt. PeterunderthenameofUrbantheSixth. The epistleofthesacredcollegeaffirmshisfreeandregulardecn Baluze(Not. ad Pap. Avenion. tom. i. p. xi94, xx95)producesthe originalevidence,whichattests the threatsof the Romanambassadors,and theresignationof the abbot of MountCassin,qui ultrose offerensrespondit sc civemRomanurnesse,et illud vellequod ipsi vellent. Thereturnof the popesfromAvignonto Rome,and their receptionby thepeople,are relatedin the originalLivesof UrbanV. and GregoryXI. in Baluze(Vit. Paparum Avenionensium,tom. i. p. 363-486)and Muratori (Script. Rer. Italicarum,tom. ill. p. i. p. 6Io-712). In the disputesof the schism,every circumstancewas severelythoughpartially scrutinised,more especiallyin the greatinquestwhichdecidedthe obedienceof Castile,and to whichBaluze,in his notes, so often and so largely appeals,from a MS. volumeinthe Harleylibrary(p. x28x, &c. ). [Seethe worksofTheodoricus de Niem: De scismate(ed. Erler, I89o); VitaePontificumRomanorttma NicolaoIV. usquead UrbanumV. with an anonymouscontinuationto A. D. x418(in Eccard,Corpushist. medii aevi (i. p. r46I sqq. ); Nemus Unionis (collectionof documentsfor GregoryXII. and BenedictXIII. ) ed. Schard (with the De scismate), x566. Monograph: G. Erie. r, Dietrich yon Nieheim; sein Lebenund seineSchriften,x887. ] 74Canthedeathof a goodman be esteemeda punishmentbythose who believein the immortalityof the soul? Theybetraythe instabilityof their faith. Yet,as a merephilosopher,I cannotagree with theGreeks,8_ol &ol _,ko_o-_z,d,ro#lq_0"ge,s,to_ (Brunck, Poet. reGnomici, p. 231). See in Herodotus(1. i. c. 3x) the moral and pleasingtaleof the Argiveyouths.

i6o THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXX tion,whichhadbeeninspired,as usual,bytheHolyGhost; he wasadored,invested,andcrownedwiththe customary rites;histemporalauthoritywasobeyedat RomeandAvig non,andhisecclesiasticalsupremacywasacknowledgedinthe Latinworld. Duringseveralweeks,thecardinalsattended theirnewmasterwiththefairestprofessionsof attachment andloyalty,tillthesummer-heatspermitteda decentescape fromthecity. But,as soonas theywereunitedat Anagni andFundi,ina placeof security,theycastasidethemask, accusedtheirownfalsehoodandhypocrisy,excommunicated theapostateandantichristofRome,andproceededtoa new electionof Robertof Geneva,Clementthe Seventh,whom theyannouncedtothenationsasthetrueandrightfulvicar of Christ. Theirfirstchoice,an involuntaryandillegalact, wasannulledby thefearof deathandthe menacesof the Romans;andtheircomplaintisjustifiedbythestrongevidenceofprobabilityandfact. ThetwelveFrenchcardinals, abovetwo-thirdsof thevotes,weremastersoftheelection; and,whatevermightbetheirprovincialjealousies,itca_uot fairlybepresumedthattheywouldhavesacrificedtheirright andinteresttoa foreigncandidate,whowouldneverrestore themto theirnativecountry. In the variousandofteninconsistentnarratives,75theshadesof popularviolenceare moredarklyorfaintlycoloured; butthelicentiousnessofthe seditiousRomanswasinflamedbya senseoftheirprivileges, and the dangerof a secondemigration. The conclave wasintimidatedby the shouts,and encompassedby the arms,ofthirtythousandrebels;thebellsoftheCapitoland St. Peter srangan alarm: "Death,or an Italianpope!" wastheuniversalcry; thesamethreatwasrepeatedbythe 7sIn the firstbook of the Histoiredu Concilede Pise,M. Lenfant has abridgedand comparedtheoriginalnarrativesof theadherentsof Urbanand Clement,of the Italiansand Germans,the Frenchand Spaniards. The latterappearto bethemostactiveand loquacious,andeveryfactandwordin theoriginalLivesof GregoryXI. andClementVII. aresupportedinthe notes of theireditorBaluz,e.

A. D. _341-X5OO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I6t twelvebnnneretsorchiefsofthequarters,intheformofcharitableadvice;somepreparationsweremadeforburningthe obstinatecardinals;and,hadtheychosena Transalpine subject,it isprobablethattheywouldneverhavedeparted alivefromtheVatican. Thesameconstraintimposedthe necessityofdissemblingintheeyesofRomeandoftheworld; theprideandcrueltyofUrbanpresenteda moreinevitable danger;andtheysoondiscoveredthefeaturesofthetyrant, whocouldwalkinhisgardenandrecitehisbreviary,whilehe heardfroman adjacentchambersixcardinalsgro_nlngon therack. His inflexiblezeal,whichloudlycensuredtheir luxuryandvice,wouldhaveattachedthemtothestationsand dutiesof theirparishesat Rome;and,hadhenotfatally delayeda newpromotion,theFrenchcardinalswouldhave beenreducedto anhelplessminorityin thesacredcollege. Forthesereasons,andinthehopeofrepassingtheAlps,they rashlyviolatedthepeaceandunityofthechurch;andthe meritsoftheirdoublechoiceareyetagitatedintheCatholic schools. 7. Thevanity,ratherthantheinterest,ofthenation determinedthecourtandclergyofFrance. 77 Thestatesof Savoy,Sicily,Cyprus,Arragon,Castille,Navarre,andScotlandwereinclinedbytheirexampleandauthorityto the obedienceof ClementtheSeventh,and,afterhisdecease,of BenedicttheThirteenth. Romeandtheprincipalstatesof Italy,Germany,Portugal,England,78the LowCountries, 7eThe ordinalnumbersof the popesseemto decidethequestionagainst ClementVII. andBenedictXIII. whoareboldlystigmatisedasanti-popesby the Italians,while theFrench are contentwithauthoritiesand reasonsto pleadthe causeof doubtandtoleration(Baluz. in Pr_efat. ). Itis singular, or ratherit is notsingular,thatsaints,visions,andmiraclesshouldbe common to both parties. 77Baluzestrenuouslylabours(Not. p. x271-x28o)to justifythepureand piousmotivesof CharlesV. , kingof France:herefusedto hearthearguments of Urban;butwerenottheUrbaaistsequallydeafto thereasonsof Clement, &c. ? 78An epistle,or declamation,in the name of EdwardIII. (Baluz. Vit. Pap. Avenion. tom. i. p. 553)displaysthezealof the Englishnationagainst the Clementlnes. Nor wastheirzealconfinedto words;the bishopofNorVOL. XII. m I l

x62 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXX andthekingdomsof the North,adheredtothe prior election ofUrbantheSixth,whowassucceededbyBonifacetheNinth, Innocentthe Seventh,and Gregorythe Twelfth. From the banks of the Tiber and the Rh6ne,the hostile pontiffsencounteredeachotherwiththe penand thesword; the civil and ecclesiasticalorder of societywas disturbed; andtheRomanshadtheirfullshareof themischiefs,of which theymay be arraignedas the primaryauthors. 7g They had vainlyflatteredthemselveswiththe hopeofrestoringtheseat of the ecclesiasticalmonarchy,and of relievingtheirpoverty withthetributesandofferingsofthenations; but theseparation of France and Spain divertedthe stream of lucrative devotion; nor could the loss be compensatedby the two jubileeswhichwerecrowdedintothespaceof tenyears. By the avocationsof the schism,by foreignarms and popular tumults,Urbanthe Sixthand his threesuccessorswereoften compelledto interrupttheir residencein the Vatican. The Colonnaand Ursinistill exercisedtheir deadlyfeuds; the bunneretsof Romeassertedand abusedthe privilegesof a republic; the vicarsof Christ,whohadleviedamilitaryforce, chastisedtheir rebellionwiththe gibbet,the sword,and the dagger; and, in a friendlyconference,elevendeputiesof the peoplewereperfidiouslymurderedand castinto the street. Sincethe invasionof Robert the Norman,the Romanshad pursuedtheir domesticquarrelswithoutthe dangerousinterpositionof astranger. But,in thedisordersoftheschism,an aspiringneighbour,Ladislaus king of Naples, alternately supportedand betrayedthe pope and the people; by the formerhe wasdeclaredgon]alonier,or generalof thechurch, whilethelattersubmittedtohischoicethenominationoftheir magistrates. BesiegingRome by land and water,he thrice wichled a crusadeof 60,ooobigots beyondsea (Hume sHistory,vol. ill. p. sT,ss). 7. Besidesthe generalhistorians,theDiariesof DelphinusGentilis,Peter Antonius,and Stephen Infessura, in the great Collectionof Muratori, representthe state and misfortunesof Rome.

A. D. I34I--ISOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE i63 enteredthe gatesas a Barbarianconqueror;profanedthe altars,violatedthevirgins,pillagedthemerchants,performed hisdevotionsat St. Peter s,andleftagarrisoninthecastleof St. Angelo. Hisarmsweresometimesunfortunate,andtoa delayofthreedayshewasindebtedforhislifeandcrown; butLadislanstriumphedinhisturn,anditwasonlyhisprematuredeaththat couldsavethe metropolisand the ecclesiasticalstatefrom the ambitiousconqueror,whohad assumedthetitle,orat leastthepowers,of kingofRome. s° I havenot undertakenthe ecclesiasticalhistoryof the schism; butRome,theobjectoftheselastchapters,isdeeply interestedinthedisputedsuccessionofhersovereigns. The firstcounselsforthe peaceandunionof Christendomarose fromtheuniversityofParis,fromthefacultyoftheSorbonne, whosedoctorswereesteemed,at leastintheGaUicanchurch, as the mostconsummatemastersof theologicalscience. _a Prudentlywaivingallinvidiousinquiryintothe originand meritsofthedispute,theyproposed,as an healingmeasure, thatthetwopretendersofRomeandAvignonshouldabdicate atthesametime,afterqualifyingthecardinalsoftheadverse factionstojoinina legitimateelection; andthatthenations shouldsubtracts2theirobedience,if eitherofthecompetitors *0It is supposedbyGiannone(tom. iii. p. 292) that he styledhimselfRex Rom*e,a titleunknownto the worldsincethe expulsionof Tarquin. But a nearerinspectionhas justifiedthe readingof Rex Ramm,of Rama, an obscurekingdomannexedto the crown of Hungary. 81The leadingand decisivepart whichFranceassumedin the schismis stated by Peter du Puis, in a separate history,extractedfromauthentic records,andinsertedinthe seventhvolumeofthe last and besteditionof his friendThuanus (tom. xi. p. xxo---i84). Of thismeasure,John Gerson,a stout doctor,was the author or the champion. The proceedingsof the universityof Paris [of whichhe was chancellor]and the Gallicanchurchwereoftenpromptedbyhisadvice,and arecopiouslydisplayedinhistheologicalwritings,of whichLe Clerc(Biblioth_queChoisie,tom. x. p. x-78) has givena valuableextract. John Gerson acted an important part in the councilsof Pisa and Constance. [The collectiveworksof Gersonwere issuedseveral timesin the x5thcentury. The besteditionisthat of ElliesDu Pin, t7o6. Monographs:J. B. Schwab,

I64 THE DECLINE AND FALL [ca. LXX preferredhisowninterestto thatof thepublic. At each vacancy,thesephysiciansofthechurchdeprecatedthemischiefsofanhastychoice;butthepolicyoftheconclaveand theambitionofitsmembersweredeafto reasonandentreaties; and,whatsoeverpromisesweremade,thepopecould neverbeboundbytheoathsofthecardinal. Duringfifteen years,thepacificdesignsoftheuniversitywereeludedbythe artsof therivalpontiffs,thescruplesorpassionsof their adherents,andthevicissitudesof Frenchfactionsthatruled theinsanityofCharlestheSixth. Atlengtha vigorousresolutionwasembraced;anda solemnembassy,ofthetitular patriarchof Alexandria,twoarchbishops,fivebishops,five abbots,threeknights,andtwentydoctors,wassentto the courtsofAvignonandRome,torequire,inthenameofthe churchandking,theabdicationof thetwopretenders,of PeterdeLuna,whostyledhimselfBenedicttheThirteenth, andofAngeloCorrario,whoassumedthenameof Gregory theTwelfth. FortheancienthonourofRomeandthesuccessoftheircommission,theambassadorssoliciteda conferencewiththemagistratesofthecity,whomtheygratifiedby a positivedeclarationthatthemostChristiankingdidnot entertaina wishoftransportingtheholyseefromtheVatican, whichheconsideredasthegenuineandproperseatofthe successorofSt. Peter. In thenameofthesenateandpeople, aneloquentRomanassertedtheirdesiretoco-operateinthe unionof the church,deploredthetemporalandspiritual calamitiesofthelongschism,andrequestedtheprotectionof FranceagainstthearmsofthekingofNaples. Theanswers of BenedictandGregorywerealikeedifyingand alike deceitful;and,in evadingthedemandof theirabdication, thetworivalswereanimatedbya commonspirit. They agreedonthenecessityofa previousinterview,butthetime, the place,and themannercouldneverbeascertainedby JohannesGerson,z858;A. L. Masson,JeanGerson,sa vie,sontemps,ses oeuvres,z894. ]

_. x34x-xsoo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE x65 mutualconsent. "If theoneadvances,"saysa servantof Gregory,"the otherretreats;theoneappearsananimal fearfuloftheland,theothera creatureapprehensiveof the water. Andthus,fora shortremnantoflifeandpower,will theseagedpriestsendangerthepeaceandsalvationof the Christianworld. "_ TheChristianworldwasat lengthprovokedby their obstinacyandfraud:theyweredesertedbytheircardinals, whoembracedeachotherasfriendsandcolleagues;andtheir revoltwassupportedbya numerousassemblyof prelates andambassadors. Withequaljustice,the councilofPisa deposedthepopesofRomeandAvignon;theconclavewas unanimousin thechoiceof AlexandertheFifth,u andhis vacantseatwassoonfilledbya similarelectionof Johnthe Twenty-third,the mostprofligateof mankind. _ But,insteadofextinguishingtheschism,therashnessoftheFrench andItalianshadgivena thirdpretenderto thechairof St. Peter. Suchnewclaimsof thesynodandconclavewere disputed;threekings,of Germany,Hungary,andNaples, adheredto thecauseof GregorytheTwelfth;andBenedicttheThirteenth,himselfaSpaniard,wasacknowledgedby thedevotionandpatriotismofthatpowerfulnation. The rashproceedingsof Pisawerecorrectedbythecouncilof Constance;theemperorSigismondacteda conspicuouspart astheadvocateorprotectoroftheCatholicchurch;andthe numberandweightofcivilandecclesiasticalmembersmight t_LeonardusBrunusAretinus,oneof the reviversof classiclearningin Italy,who,afterservingmanyyearsas secretaryinthe]Romancourt,retired to thehonourableofficeof chancellorof the republicof Florence(Fabric. Bibliot. medii,,Evi,tom. i. p. 29o). Lenfanthasgiventhe versionof this curiousepistle(ConciledePise,tom. i. p. t92-x95). [TheLetters of Leonarduswereeditedin eight booksby L. Mehns,i74i. ] s_[PietroFilargowas a nativeof Candia. The last GreekPope was JohnVII. (electedA. D. 7o5). ] ts[Theodoricof Niem,Historiade vimJohannisxXIII. , in Meibomius, Ser. rer. Germ. i. p. 5 sq_t. C. Hunger,ZurGeschichtePapstJohanns,xxiii. I876. 1

i66 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXX seemtoconstitutethestates-generalofEurope. Ofthethree popes,John the Twenty-thirdwas the firstvictim: he fled, and was brought back a prisoner; the most scandalous chargeswere suppressed; the vicar of Christwas onlyaccusedofpiracy,murder,rape,sodomy,andincest; and,after subscribinghis own condemnation,he expiated in prison the imprudenceoftrustinghispersontoa freecitybeyondthe Alps. Gregorythe Twelfth,whoseobediencewasreduced to the narrow precinctsof Rimini, descendedwith more honourfrom the throne,and his ambassadorconvenedthe sessioninwhichhe renouncedthe titleandauthorityoflawful pope. TovanquishtheobstinacyofBenedicttheThirteenth, or his adherents,the emperorin personundertooka journey from Constance to Perpignan. The kings of Castille, Arragon,Navarre, and Scotland obtained an equal and honourabletreaty; with the concurrenceof the Spaniards, Benedictwasdeposedby the council; but the harmlessold man wasleftin a solitarycastletoexcommunicatetwiceeach daythe rebelkingdomswhichhaddesertedhiscause. After thus eradicatingthe remainsof the schism,the synod of Constanceproceeded,withslowand cautioussteps,to elect the sovereignof Romeand theheadof the church. Onthis momentousoccasion,the collegeof twenty-threecardinals wasfortifiedwiththirty deputies; sixof whomwerechosen in each of thefivegreatnationsof Christendom,the Italian, the German,the French, the Spanish,and the English:86 mI cannotoverlookthisgreatnationalcause,whichwas vigorouslymainrainedbythe Englishambassadorsagainstthoseof France. The lattercontended that Christendomwas essentiallydistributed into the four great nationsandvotesof Italy, Germany,France,and Spain; and that the lesser kingdoms(suchas England,Denmark, Portugal,&c. ) werecomprehended under oneor otherof thesegreatdivisions. The Englishassertedthat the Britishislands,of whichtheywerethe head,shouldbe consideredas a fifth and co-ordinatenation with an equalvote;andeveryargument of truth or /able was introducedto exalt the dignityof theircountry. Including England,Scotland,Wales,the four kingdomsol Ireland,and the Orkneys,the Britishislandsaredecoratedwith eightroyalcrowns,and discriminatedby

A. D. 34t-_SOO]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE x67 the interferenceof strangerswassoftenedby their generous preferenceof an Italian and a Roman; and the hereditary as wellas personalmeritof OthoColonnarecommendedhim to theconclave. Romeacceptedwithjoy and obediencethe noblestof her sons,the ecclesiasticalstate wasdefendedby hispowerfulfamily,and the elevationof Martinthe Fifthis the era of the restorationand establishmentof the popesin the Vatican. s7 The royal prerogativeof coiningmoney,whichhad been exercisednear three hundred yearsby the senate,wasfirst resumedby Martin the Fifth,88and his imageand superscriptionintroducethe seriesof the papal medals. Of his twoimmediatesuccessors,Eugeniusthe Fourthwasthelast fouror five languages,English,Welsh, Cornish,Scotch,Irish, &c. The greaterisland,fromnorthto south,measures80omiles,or 4° days journey; and Englandalone contains32 counties,and 52,oooparishchurches(a bold account1),besides cathedrals,colleges,priories,and hospitals. They celebratethe missionof St. Josephof Arlmathea,the birthof Constantine, and the legatinepowersof the two primates,without forgettingthe testimonyof Bartholemyde Glanville(A. D. I36o),whoreckonsonlyfourChristian kingdoms,I. of Rome,2. of Constantinople,3- of Ireland,which had been transferredto the Englishmonarchs,and 4. of Spain. Our countrymen prevailedin the council,but the victoriesof HenryV. added muchweightto theirarguments. The adversepleadingswerefoundat Constanceby Sir Robert Wingfield,ambassadorfrom Henry VIII. to the emperor MaximilianI. and by him printedin i517,at Louvain. Froma LeipsicMS. theyaremorecorrectlypublishedin theCollectionof VonderI:Iardt,tom. v. ; butI haveonlyseenLenfant sabstractof theseacts(Concilede Constance, tom. ii. p. 447,453, &c. ). The historiesof the three successivecouncils,Pisa, Constance,and Basil,havebeen writtenwitha tolerabledegreeof candour,industry,and elegance,bya Protestantminister,M. Lenfant, who retiredfrom France to Berlin. They form sixvolumesin quarto; and, as Basilis the worst, so Constanceis thebest,partofthe Collection. [Seeabove,vol. xi. p. 253, note40. ] st Seethe xxviithDissertationof the Antiquitiesof Muratori,and the ist Instructionof the SciencedesM6daillesof the P_re Joubertand the Baron delaBastie. The MetallicHistoryof MartinV. andhis successorshasbeen composedbytwo monks,Moulineta Frenchman,and Bonannian Italian; but I understandthatthe firstpart of the seriesis restoredfrommorerecent coin. _

x68 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C. ,LXX pope expelledby the tumults of the Romanpeople,8. and Nicholasthe Fifth, the last who was importunedby the presenceof aRomanemperor2° I. The conflictofEugenius withthe fathersof Basil,andtheweightor apprehensionofa newexcise,emboldenedandprovokedtheRomansto usurp thetemporalgovernmentof the city. They rose in arms, selectedseven governorsof the republicand a constableof the Capitol; imprisonedthe pope snephews; besiegedhis personin the palace; and shot volleysof arrowsinto his barkas he escapeddownthe Tiber in the habitof a monk. But he still possessedin the castle of St. Angeloa faithful garrisonand a trainof artillery: their batteriesincessantly thunderedonthe city,and a bulletmoredexterouslypointed brokedownthebarricadeof thebridgeandscattered,witha singleshot,the heroesof the republic. Theirconstancywas exhaustedbya rebellionof fivemonths. Underthetyranny of the Ghibelinenobles,the wisestpatriots regretted the dominionofthechurch; andtheirrepentancewasunanimous and effectual. The troops of St. Peter again occupiedthe Capitol; themagistratesdepartedto theirhomes; the most guiltywereexecutedorexiled; and thelegate,at theheadof twothousandfoot and four thousandhorse,wassaluted as thefatherof the city. The synodsof Ferrara and Florence, the fearor resentmentof Eugenius,prolongedhis absence: hewasreceivedbyasubmissivepeople; butthepontiffunderstoodfrom the acclamationsof his triumphalentry that, to securetheirloyMtyand his ownrepose,he must grant,without delay,the abolitionof the odiousexcise. II. Romewas n Besidesthe Livesof EugeniusIV. CRerumItalic. tom. iii. p. i. p. 869, and [theLife by VespasianusFlorentinus]tom. xxv. p. 256),the Diariesof Paul Petroniand Stephen Infessuraare the best originalevidencefor the revoltof the Romans againstEugeniusIV. The former,wholivedat the time and on the spot, speaks the language of a citizenequally afraidof priestlyand popular tyranny. 00The coronationof FredericIII. is describedby 1. enfant(Concilede Basle,tom. ii. p. 276--_88)fromZEneasSylvius,a spectatorandactorin that splendidscene.

_. D. ,_,,-isoo] OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I69 restored,adorned,and enlightenedby the peacefulreignof Nicholasthe Fifth. In the midstof theselaudableoccupations,the popewasalarmedby theapproachof Fredericthe Thirdof Austria; thoughhis fearscouldnot be justifiedby thecharacteror thepowerof theImperialcandidate. After drawinghismilitaryforceto themetropolisandimposingthe best securityof oaths_1and treaties,Nicholasreceived,with a smilingcountenance,thefaithfuladvocateandvassalof the church. So tamewerethe times,sofeeblewastheAustrian, that thepomp of his coronationwasaccomplishedwithorder andharmony; but thesuperfluoushonourwassodisgraceful to an independentnation that his successorshave excused themselvesfromthe toilsomepilgrimagetothe Vatican,and resttheirImperialtitle on the choiceof the electorsof Germany. A citizenhasremarked,withprideand pleasure,that the kingof the Romans,after passingwith a slightsalutethe cardinalsand prelateswhomethimat thegate,distinguished the dress and personof the senatorof Rome; and, in this last farewell,the pageants of the empire and the republic wereclaspedin a friendlyembraceY Accordingto thelaws ofRome,_ her firstmagistratewasrequiredto be a doctorof laws,an alien,of a placeat least fortymilesfromthe city; withwhoseinhabitantshemust notbe connectedin thethird 0_The oathof fidelityimposedontheemperorbythe popeisrecordedand sanctifiedin the Clementines(1. ii. tit. ix. ); and/Eneas Sylvius,whoobjects to thisnew demand,couldnot foreseethat in a fewyearshe shouldascend the throne and imbibethe maximsof BonifaceVIII. 02Lo senatorediRoma,vestitodibrocartoconquellaberetta,econquelle maniche,et ornamentidi pelle,co qualiva allefestedi Testaccioe Nagone, mightescapethe eyeof 3EneasSylvius,but he is viewedwithadmirationand complacencybythe Romancitizen(I)iario di StephanoInfessura,p. xi33). [SeeGregorovius,v. p. 289 sqq. ] See,inthe statutesofRome,thescna_ andthreeiudges(I. i. c. 3--_4),the ¢,onservators(1. i. c. xS-rT; 1. iii. c. 4), the caporioni(1. i. c. x8; 1. iii. c. 8), the secretcount//0, ii/. c. 2), the commoncount//(1,iii. c. 3). The title of ]cuds,defiances,actsoJ_iolcne,e, &c. is spreadthroughmany a chapter(c. r,4-4o)d the secondbook.

i7o THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXX canonical degreeof blood or alliance. The electionwas annual; a severescrutinywasinstitutedinto theconductof the departingsenator; nor couldhe be recalledto the same officetillafter theexpirationof two years. A liberalsalary of three thousandflorins was assignedfor his expenseand reward; and hispublicappearancerepresentedthe majesty of the republic. His robeswereof goldbrocadeor crimson velvet,or in the summerseasonof a lightersilk; he borein his hand anivorysceptre; the soundoftrumpetsannounced his approach; and his solemnstepswcreprecededat least byfourlictorsor attendants,whosered wandswcreenveloped withbandsor streamersof the goldencolouror livcryof the city. Hisoath inthe Capitolproclaimshis rightanddutyto observeand assertthe laws,to controlthe proud,to protect the poor,and to exercisejusticeandmercywithintheextent of his jurisdiction. In theseusefulfunctionshe wasassisted by three learned strangcrs, the two cdlaWrals,and the judge of criminal appeals: their frequent trials of robberies, rapes, and murders are attestcd bythe laws; and the weaknessof theselaws connivesat the licentiousnessof private feuds and armed associationsfor mutual defence. Butthe senatorwasconfinedto the administrationof justice; the Capitol,the treasury,and the governmentof thecityand its territory wereentrustedto the thrce conservators,_ who were changedfour times in each year; the militia of the thirteenregionsassembledunderthe bannersof their respective chiefs,or caparioni; and the first of these was distinguishedby thename and dignityof the prior. The popular [ UrbanV. introducedthe three Conservatorsof the CivicCamera "a civiccouncilwithjudicialand administrativepowerwhoseofficeendures to the present day," Gregorovius,v. p. 439- At the same time, Urban abolishedthe CouncilofSevenReformatores,whohadbeenelectedin z358to advisethe Senators,and suppressedthe "Banderesi,"the heads of military companieswhichhad been organisedin I3_;6. These Banderesiexecuted justice(likethe Gonfalonieriin Florence),andtheir powerhadbecomevery tyrannical. See Gregorovius,Sb. p. 4o3. ]

, ,_D. ,_,-xS,*,]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I7I legislatureconsistedof the secretand the commoncouncils of the Romans. The formerwas composedof the magistrates andtheir immediatepredecessors,withsomefiscaland legalofficers,and three classesof thirteen,twenty-six,and forty counsellors,amountingin the whole to about one hundredand twenty persons. In the commoncouncil,all male citizenshad a right to vote; and the value of their privilegewasenhancedby thecarewithwhichanyforeigners were preventedfrom usurping the title and characterof Romans. The tumultof a democracywascheckedby wise and jealousprecautions: exceptthe magistrates,nonecould proposea question; none were permittedto speak,except froman openpulpitor tribunal; alldisorderlyacclamations weresuppressed; the senseof themajoritywasdecidedbya secret ballot; and their decreeswere promulgatedin the venerablenameof the Romansenateand people. It would not be easyto assigna periodin whichthistheoryofgovernment has been reducedto accurateand constantpractice, since the establishmentof order has been graduallyconnectedwiththe decayof liberty. Butin the year onethousand five hundred and eighty the ancient statutes were collected,methodisedinthreebooks,and adaptedtopresent use, under the pontificate,and with the approbation,of GregorytheThirteenth:95this civilandcriminalcodeisthe modernlawof the city; and, if the popularassemblieshave been abolished,a foreignsenator,with the three conservators,still residesin the palaceof the CapitolY The policy u Stalula alm_ Urbi_RotateAuctori2al¢S. D. N. Gregorii. . 7(111. Pont. Max. a SenaguPopuloqueRom. rejorraatael edita. Ronur,x58o, in ]olio. Theobsolete,repugnantstatutesof antiquitywereconfoundedin fivebooks, and Lucas P_etus,a lawyerand antiquarian,was appointedto act as the modernTribonian. Yet I regretthe old code,with the ruggedcrust of freedomand barbarism. NInmy time(x765),and inM. Grosley s(Observationssur l Italie,tom. ii. p. 36x),the senatorof Romewas M. Bielke,a nobleSwede,anda proselyte to the Catholicfaith. The pope s rightto appointthe senatorandthe conservatoris impliedrather than affumedin the statutes.

x72 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX of the C_esarshas been repeated by the popes; and the bishopof Romeaffectedtomaintainthe formof a republic, whilehe reignedwiththe absolutepowersof a temporalas wellas spiritualmonarch. It is an obvioustruth that the times must be suited to extraordinarycharacters,and that the geniusof Cromwell or Retzmightnowexpirein obscurity. The politicalenthusiasmof Rienzihad exaltedhim to a throne; the samecnthusiasm,in thc nextcentury,conductedhis imitatorto the gallows. The birth of Stephen Porcaro was noblc, his reputation spotless; his tonguewasarmed with eloquence, his mind was enlightcnedwith learning; and he aspired, beyondthe aim of vulgarambition,to freehis countryand immortalisehis name. The dominion of priests is most odiousto a liberalspirit: everyscruplewasremovedbythe recentknowledgcof the fableand forgeryof Constantine s donation; Petrarchwasnowthe oracleof theItalians; and, as often as Porcaro revolvedthc ode whichdescribesthe patriot and heroof Romc,he appliedto himselfthe visions of the propheticbard. His first trial of thepopularfeelings wasat the funeral of Eugeniusthe Fourth: in an elaborate speech,he calledthe Romansto libertyandarms; and they listenedwithapparentpleasure,till Porcarowasinterrupted and answeredby a grave advocate,who pleaded for the church and state. By every law the seditiousorator was guiltyof treason; but the bencvolenceof the new pontiff, who vicwedhis characterwithpity and esteem,attempted, by an honourableoffice,to convertthe patriot intoa fricnd. The inflexibleRoman returned from Anagniwith an increaseof reputationandzeal; and on the first opportunity, thegamesofthe placeNavona,he triedtoinflamethe casual disputeof someboysand mechanicsinto a generalrisingof the people. Yet the humane Nicholaswas still averseto acceptthe forfeitof his life; and the traitor wasremoved from the sceneof temptation to Bologna,with a liberal

A. _,. _34_-_5oo3OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I73 allowancefor his support, and the easy obligationof presentinghimselfeachdaybeforethegovernorofthecity. But Porcaro had learned from the youngerBrutus that with tyrantsno faith or gratitudeshouldbe observed: the exile declaimedagainstthe arbitrarysentence; a partyand a conspiracyweregraduallyformed; his nephew,a daringyouth, assembleda band of volunteers; and on the appointed eveninga feastwaspreparedat his housefor the friendsof : the republic. Their leader, who had escaped from Bologna,appearedamongthemin a robeof purple and gold: his voice,his countenance,his gestures,bespokethe man whohad devotedhis hfe or death tothe gloriouscause. In astudiedoration,he expatiatedonthemotivesandthemeans of their enterprise; the name and libertiesof Rome;the slothand pride of their ecclesiasticaltyrants; the activeor passive consent of their fellow-citizens;three hundred soldiersand fourhundredexiles,longexercisedinarmsor in wrongs; the licenceof revengeto edgetheir swords,and a millionof ducatsto rewardtheir victory. It wouldbe easy (hesaid) on the next day, the festivalof the Epiphany,to seizethe pope and his cardinalsbeforethe doors,or at the altar,of St. Peter s; to leadthemin chainsunderthe walls ofSt. Angelo; to extortbythethreat of their instant death a surrenderof the castle; to ascendthevacantCapitol; to ringthe alarm-bell; and torestoreina popularassemblythe ancientrepublic of Rome. Whilehe triumphed, he was alreadybetrayed. The senator, with a strong guard, investedthehouse; thenephewof Porcarocuthis waythrough the crowd; but the unfortunateStephenwas drawnfrom a chest,lamentingthat his enemieshad anticipatedbythree hoursthe executionof his design. Aftersuchmanifestand repeatedguilt,eventhe mercyof Nicholaswassilent. Porcaro,and nine of his accomplices,werehangedwithoutthe benefitof the sacraments; and, amidstthe fears and invectivesof the papal court,the Romanspitied,and almost

z74 THE DECLINE AND FALL rCa. LXX applauded, these martyrs of their country27 But their applausewas mute, their pity ineffectual,their liberty for everextinct; and,if theyhavesincerisenina vacancyofthe throne or a scarcityof bread, such accidentaltumults may be foundin the bosomof the most abject servitude. Buttheindependenceofthenobles,whichwasfomentedby discord,survivedthefreedomofthecommons,whichmustbe foundedin union. A privilegeof rapineand oppressionwas longmaintainedbythe baronsof Rome; their houseswerea fortressand a sanctuary; and the ferocioustrain of banditti and criminalswhomthey protectedfromthe lawrepaid the hospitalitywiththeserviceoftheir swordsanddaggers. The privateinterestof the pontiffs,or their nephews,sometimes involvedthemin thesedomesticfeuds. Under the reignof Sixtusthe Fourth, Rome wasdistractedby the battles and siegesoftherivalhouses; aftertheconflagrationofhispalace, the proto-notaryColonnawastortured and beheaded; and SaveUi,his captivefriend,was murdered on the spot, for refusingto joinin theacclamationsofthe victoriousUrsini2s But the popesno longertrembledin the Vatican: they had strengthto command,if they had resolutionto claim,the obedienceof theirsubjects; andthe strangers,whoobserved 17Besides the curiousthough condscnarrative of Machiavel(Istoria Florenfina,1. vi. Opere,tom. i. p. zxo, 2tx, edit. Londra, x747,in 4to),the Porcarian conspiracyis relatedin the Diary of StephenInfessura(Rer. Ital. tom. iii. p. u. p. xx34, xt35), and in aseparate tract byLeo BapfistaAlberti (Rer. Ital. tom. xxv. p. 6o9-6x4). It is amusing to comparethe styleand sentiments of the courtier and citizen. Facinus profectoquo . . . neque periculo horribilius,neque audaci_tdetestabilius,neque crudelitate tetrius, a quoquamperditissimouspiamexcogitatumsit. . . . Perdette la vitaquell huomo da bene,e amatore dellobenee llbert_tdi Roma. Anothersource: Petrus de Godis,Dyalogonde conjurationePorcaria,was firstpublishedby M. Perlbachin x879. See alsoTommasint,Documenfirelafivia Stefano Porcari, in the Arch. della Soc. tom. di storia patria, iii. p. 63sqq. x879; Sanesi,StefanoPorcari e la sua congiura,I887. ] *sThe disordersof Rome,whichweremuchinflamedbythe partialityof SixtusIV. , are exposedin the diariesof two spectators,StephenInfessura and an anonymouscitizen. Seethe troublesof the year1484,and the death of the proto-notaryColonna,in tom. iii. p. ii. p. xo83,xx58.

. . D. ,_,-,soo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE I75 these partial disorders, admired the easy taxes and wise administrationof the ecclesiasticalstate. °* ThespiritualthundersoftheVaticandependontheforceof opinion; and, if that opinionbe supplantedby reasonor passion,the soundmay idlywasteitselfin the air; andthe helplesspriestisexposedtothebrutalviolenceof anobleor a plebeianadversary. Butafter theirreturnfromAvignonthe keysof St. Peter were guardedby the swordof St. Paul. Romewascommandedbyan impregnablecitadel; theuseof cannon is a powerfulengine against popular seditions;a regularforceof cavalryand infantrywasenlistedunder the bannersof the pope; his amplerevenuessuppliedthe resourcesof war; and,fromtheextentof hisdomain,hecould bringdownona rebelliouscityan armyof hostileneighbours and loyal subjects,t°° Since the union of the duchiesof Ferraraand Urbino,the ecclesiasticalstateextendsfromthe Mediterraneanto the Adriatic,and from the confinesof Naplesto thebanksof thePo; and, as earlyas the sixteenth century,thegreaterpart of that spaciousand fruitfulcountry acknowledgedthe lawfulclaims and temporal sovereignty of the Romanpontiffs. Their claimswerereadilydeduced fromthe genuineor fabulousdonationsof the darker ages; the successivestepsof their final settlementwouldengage us teo far in the transactionsof Italy, and evenof Europe: **F. sttoutelaterm del 6glisetroublfepourcettepartialit6(des Colonnes etdes Ursins),comenousdirionsLuceet Grammont,ou enHoUandeHouc et CabaUan;et quandce ne seroitce diff6rendla terredel 6gliseseroitla plusheureusehabitationpourles sujets,quisoitdanstout lemonde(carils nepayentni tailesni gu_resautreschoses),et seroienttoujoursbienconduits (cartoujoursles papessontsageset bienconseill_s);maistr_ssouventen advientde grandset cruelsmeurtreset pilleries. 100Bytheeconomyof SixtusV. the revenueof theecclesiasticalstatewas raisedto twomillionsandahalfof Romancrowns(Vita,tom. ii. p. 297-296) ; and so regularwasthe militaryestablishmentthat in onemonthClement VIII. couldinvade the duchy of Ferraxawith threethousandhorseand twentythousandfoot(tom. iii. p. 64). Sincethattime(A. I). i597), thepapal armsare happilyrusted; but the revenuemusthavegainedsomenominal increase.

i76 THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX the crimesof Alexanderthe Sixth,the martial operationsof Juliusthe Second,and the liberalpolicyof Leo the Tenth, a themewhichhas beenadornedby the pens of the noblest historiansofthetimes,m In thefirstperiodoftheirconquests, till the expeditionof Charlesthe Eighth, the popesmight successfullywrestlewith the adjacent princesand states, whosemilitaryforce was equal, or inferior, to their own. But,as soonas themonarchsof France,Germany,andSpain contendedwithgiganticarmsfor the dominionof Italy,they suppliedwithart the deficiencyof strength,and concealed,in a labyrinthof warsand treaties,their aspiringviewsandthe immortalhopeof chasingthe Barbariansbeyondthe Alps. The nicebalanceof the Vaticanwasoftensubvertedbythe soldiersof the North and West,whowere unitedunder the standard of Charlesthe Fifth; the feebleand fluctuating policyof Clementthe Seventhexposedhis personand dominionsto theconqueror; and Romewasabandonedseven monthstoa lawlessarmy,morecrueland rapaciousthan the Goths and VandalsY2 After this severelesson,the popes contractedtheir ambition,which was almost satisfied,resumedthecharacterof acommonparent,andabstainedfrom all offensivehostilities,exceptin an hastyquarrel,whenthe vicarof ChristandtheTurkishsultanwerearmedat thesame time against the kingdomof Naples)a The French and Germansat lengthwithdrewfromthe fieldof battle: Milan, x01MoreespeciallybyGuicciardiniand Machiavel: in thegeneralhistory of the former,in the Florentinehistory,the Prince, and the politicaldiscoursesof the latter. These, with theirworthysuccessors,Fra Paolo and Davila, werejustly esteemedthe firsthistoriansof modernlanguages,till, in the presentage, Scotlandaroseto disputethe prizewith Italy herself. 102In the historyofthe Gothicsiege,I havecomparedthe Barbarianswith the subjectsof CharlesV. (vol. v. p. 25o-250: an anticipationwhich,like that of the Tartar conquests,I indulgedwith the lessscruple,as I could scarcelyhope to reachthe conclusionof my work. ,0_The ambitiousandfeeblehostilitiesof the CamEapope,Paul IV. ,may be seen in Thuanus (1. xvi. -xviii. ) and Giannone (tom. iv. p. x49--x63). ThoseCatholicbigots,Philip II. andthe dukeof Alva,presumedto separate the Romanprincefromthe vicar of Christ; yet the holycharacter,which

A. D. ,_ - 5OO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I77 Naples,Sicily,Sardinia,and thesea-coastof Tuscanywere firmly possessedby the Spaniards; and it becametheir interestto maintainthepeaceanddependenceofItaly,which continuedalmostwithoutdisturbancefromthemiddleofthe sixteenthto the openingof the eighteenthcentury. The Vaticanwasswayedand protectedbythe reli_ouspolicyof theCatholicking; his prejudiceand interestdisposedhimin everydisputeto supportthe princeagainstthe people; and, insteadof theencouragement,the aid,and theasylumwhich theyobtainedfromthe adjacentstates,the friendsof liberty ortheenemiesoflawwereenclosedonallsideswithintheiron circleofdespotism. The longhabitsofobedienceandeducationsubduedthe turbulentspiritof thenoblesand commons of Rome. The baronsforgotthe arms andfactionsof their ancestors,and insensiblybecamethe servantsof luxuryand government. Insteadofmaintaininga crowdoftenantsand followers,the produceof their estateswasconsumedin the privateexpenses,whichmultiplythepleasures,anddiminish the power,of the lord. t°* The Colonnaand Ursini vied witheachotherinthedecorationoftheirpalacesandchapels; andtheirantiquesplendourwasrivalledor surpassedby the suddenopulenceof the papal families. In Romethe voice of freedomand discord isno longerheard; and, insteadof i the foamingtorrent, a smooth and stagnant lake reflects ! theimageof idlenessandservitude. A Christian,a philosopher, °sanda patriotwillbe equally wouldhavesanctifiedhis victory,was decentlyappliedto protecthisdefeat. [Forthe Popes of the x6th century,see Ranke, Historyof the Popes,their ChurchandState (Eng. tr. by Kelly),1843. ] so,This gradualchangeof mannersand expenseis admirablyexplained by Dr. AdamSmith (Wealthof Nations, vol. i. p. 495-504),whoproves, perhapstoo severely,that the most salutaryeffectshave flowedfrom the meanestand mostselfishcauses. 1_Mr. Hume(Hist. of England,vol. i. p. 389)too hastilyconcludesthat, ifthe civilandecclesiasticalpowersbe unitedin the sameperson,it isof little momentwhetherhe be styledprinceor prelate,sincethetemporalcharacter willalwayspredominate. VOL. xn. _ i "J,

178 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C_. LXX scandalisedby the temporalkingdomof theclergy; and the localmajestyof Rome,the remembranceof her consulsand triumphs,mayseemto embitterthesense,andaggravatethe shame,of her slavery. If we calmlyweighthe merits and defectsof theecclesiasticalgovernment,it maybe praisedin its present state as a mild, decent, and tranquil system, exemptfrom thedangersof a minority,the salliesof youth, theexpensesof luxury,and thecalamitiesof war. Butthese advantagesareoverbalancedbya frequent,perhapsa septennial,electionof a sovereign,who is seldoma nativeof the country; the reign of a youngstatesmanof threescore,in thedeclineofhislifeandabilities,withouthopetoaccomplish, and withoutchildrento inherit,thelabours of Iristransitory reign. The successfulcandidateis drawn from thechurch, andeventheconvent; fromthemodeofeducationandlifethe most adverse to reason,humanity, and freedom. In the trammelsof servilefaith,he haslearnedto believebecauseit is absurd,to revereall that is contemptible,and to despise whatevermightdeservethe esteemof a rationalbeing; to punisherror as a crime,to rewardmortificationandcelibacy as the firstof virtues; to placethe saints of the calendar _* abovethe heroesof Romeand the sagesof Athens; and to considerthemissalor the crucifixas moreusefulinstruments than the ploughor the loom. In the officeof nuncio,or the rank of cardinal, he may acquire some knowledgeof the world,but the primitivestain will adhereto his mind and m_nners: from study and experiencehe may suspectthe mysteryof his profession; but the sacerdotalartist will imbibe some portion of the bigotrywhich he inculcates. The geniusof Sixtusthe FifthIo,burstfrom the gloomof a I_ A Protestantmay disdain theunworthypreferenceof St. Francisor St. Dominic,buthe willnotrashlycondemnthe zealor judgmentof SixtusV. whoplacedthe statuesof the apostlesSt. Peterand St. Paul on the vacant columnsof Trajan and Antonine. lelAwanderingItalian,GregorioLeft,hasgiventheVitadl Sisto-Quinto (Amstel. i721, 3 vols. in x2mo),a copiousand amusingwork,but which

*-D. _S4 -XS_O]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I79 Franciscancloister. In a reignof fiveyears,he exterminated the outlawsand banditti,abolishedthe pro]amsanctuaries of Rome,1°8formeda naval andmilitaryforce,restoredand emulatedthe monumentsof antiquity,and, after a liberal use and largeincreaseof the revenue,left fivemillionsof crownsinthecastleof St. Angelo. Buthisjusticewassullied withcruelty,his activitywas promptedby the ambitionof conquest: afterhis decease,the abusesrevived; thetreasure wasdissipated; he entailedonposteritythirty-fivenewtaxes, andthevenalityofoffices;and,afterhis death,hisstatuewas demolishedby an ungratefulor an injured people. 1°_ The wildandoriginalcharacterof SixtustheFifth standsalonein the seriesof the pontiffs: the maximsand effectsof their temporalgovernmentmaybe collectedfromthe positiveand comparativeviewof the arts and philosophy,the agriculture doesnot commandourabsoluteconfidence. Yetthe characterof the man, and the principalfacts, are supportedby the annalsof Spondanusand Mm atori(A. D. x585--159o),and the contemporaryhistoryof the great Thuanus (1. lxxxii,c. x,2; I. lxxxiv,c. io; 1. c. c. 8). [The sourceof Left was a collectionof anecdotes,of apocryphalcharacter,entitledDetti e fatfi di papa SistoV. , of whichthe MS. is in the Corsinilibraryat Rome. This discoverywasmadeby Ranke. SeehisSgmmtlicheWerke,vol. 39,PP-5965(in Appendixto hisLivesof the Popes). ] _0*These privilegedplaces,the quavtierlor]ranchises,wereadoptedfrom the Romannoblesby the foreignministers. Julius II. had onceabolished the abominandumet detestandumfranchitiarumhujusmodinomen; and after SixtusV. they againrevived. I cannotdiscerneither the justice or magnanimityof LouisXIV. who,in x687,senthis ambassador,the marquis deLavaxdin,to Rome, withan armedforceof a thousandofficers,guards, anddomestics,tomaintainthisiniquitousclaim,andinsultPopeInnocentXI. in the heart of his capital (Vita di SistoV. tom. Hi. p. 26o-278; Muratori, Annalid Itatia, tom. xv. p. 494-496; and Voltaire,Si_clede Louis XIV. tom. ii. c. z4, p. 58, 59). ,oDThis outrageproduceda decree,whichwasinscribedon marbleand placedin the Capitol. It is expressedin a style of manlysimplicityand freedom: Si quis,siveprivatus,sivemagistratumgerensde coUocand__vo pontificistatu,_,menfionemfacereansit, legitimoS. P. Q. R. decretoin perpetuuminfami*et publicorummunerumexpersesto. MDXC. menseAugusto (Vitadi SistoV. tom. Hi. p. 469). I believethatthisdecreeis stillobserved, andI knowthateverymonarchwhodeservesa statueshouldhlm_q_lfimpose the prohibition.

I8o THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX and trade,the wealthandpopulation,of the ecclesiastical state. Formyself,itismywishtodepartincharitywithall mankind;noramI willing,intheselastmoments,tooffend eventhepopeand clergyof Rome. u° _1oThe historiesof the church,Italy, and Christendomhave contributed to thechapterwhichI nowconclude. In the original Livesof the Popes, weoftendiscoverthecityandrepublicof Rome; andthe eventsof the xivth and xvthcenturiesarepreservedin therude anddomesticchronicleswhich I havecarefullyinspected,andshallrecapitulatein theorderof time. z. Monaldeschi(LudoviciBoncomitis)FragmentaAnnaliumRoman. A. D. x328,in the ScriptoresReturn Italicarumof Muratori,tom. xii. p. 525. N. B. The creditof thisfragmentis somewhathurt by a singularinterpolation,in whichthe authorrelateshis owndeathat the ageof 115years. [Theworkseemsto bea forgery;andLabruzzi (Arch. dellaSociet_Romanadi storiapatrla,ii. p. 281 sqg. x879) ascribesit to AlfonsoCeccaxeali(whowasexecutedin I583). ] 2. FragmentaHistoriaeRoman_ (vulgoThomas. Fortifiocc,_),inRomano Dialectovulgari(A. D. I327-I354), in Muratori,Anfiqu/tat. medii . _EviItalla_,tom. iii. p. 247-548; the authenticground-workof the historyof Rienzi. [Seeabove,p. z28,note 20. ] 3. Delphini(Gentilis)DiaxiumRomanum(A. D. x37o--r4io),in theReturn Itallcarum,tom. iii. p. ii. p. 846. 4. Antonii(Petri) Diariura Rom. (A. D. i4o4-I4x7), tom. xxiv. p. 969. [SeeSavignoni,Giornaled Antoniodi PietrodelloSchiavo,in the Arch. dellaSoclethRom. di. stor. patr. xlii. p. 295sqq. ] 5. Petroni (Paull) Miscellanea HistoricaRomana (A. D. X433-I446), tom. xxiv. p. xIoi. 6. Volaterrani(Jacob. )DiariumRom. (A. D. I472-x484),tom. xxiii,p. 8I. 7- AnonymiDiariumUrbisRomae(A. D. I48I-I492),tom. ill. p. ii. p. io69. 8. Ingessurze(Stephani)DiariumRomanum(A. D. I294, or i378--r494), tom. iii. p. ii. p. iio9. [Neweditionby O. Tommasini,189o. ] 9. HistoriaArcanaAlexandriVI. sire ExcerptaexDiaxio. ] oh. Burcaxdi, (A. D. x492-i5o3),editaa Godefr. Guilelm. Leibnizio,Hanover,i697, in 4to. The largeandvaluableJournalof Burcardmightbe completedfromthe MS. in differentlibrariesof Italy andFrance(M. de Foneemagne,in the Mdmolresde l Acad,des Inscrip. tom. xvii. p. 597-606). [Best, and only complete,edition by L. Thuasne, 3 vols. i883-5. ] Exceptthe last, allthesefragmentsanddiariesaxeinsertedin the Collectionsof Muratori,my guideandmasterin the historyof Italy. Hiscountry and the publicare indebtedto himforthe followingworksonthat subject: I. Rerumlle2ice. rumScriptores(A. D. 5oo-ISoo),qt_Trumpolis$_fnaparsnunc primum in lucernprodi$,&c. xxvill,vols. in folio,Milan, I723-I738, 175I. Avolumeof chronologicaland alphabeticaltablesis still wantingas a key

--_ _7. TemplumJovl5Victoras -_• ,-_,-_ Porta t8. TemplumApol[inis _/arm 19. TemplamPortum ao, TemplumVenerisetRomae 2L TherrnaeConstantin[ a2. BasilicaConstantini =3. BaeilicaUipia Circu_ a,l. BasilicaAemtlia 25. BasilicaJulia ]tadriani O-_ Castra a6. DomusCaligulae e _"_" Praetorla _7. DomusTiberiana •_ a, % 9 o natt Ia o T. Soils 28. DomusLivia¢ C a _ P _ "_" zg. DomusAuguataaa30. DomusSeptimliSeved _o * . _ 3x. DomasAureaNeronla 3:_. ArcusConstantiai C. cu_ 33-ArcusTiti Th. t. 9 0 x. Fortm_"l r,_jani 2. l orums",ugu_ti -: 3- ForumNe_ ae :-" 4. Forum\ t. H_a_. iani "___ 5. FoIt:lll lZ. omanum "": • 6. l emplumSpcl ;_" "_,," . . . . ROME_""l cmldumJur,onisMoactae (_. J abulartunl "_ ; lo. Tclllp|umVencri zGcnetrici_ _:_ _. : UN_E p-,-TH_ EMPERORS tz. TemplumPacis _-_-,_ . - _-_. -. " . _. ". l. " BImGI. . I. N) 13 TempIumAntonmietFaustinae ": _" z4. TemplumSacraeUrbis SCALE _5- / ¢mplumCastorisctPollucls _ PedesR_ _ i ] I_ a_ t6. AtriumVestac "!". ,. _ _lppta Vardt o . . . . mr mL_ _v.

+-D. _3c,-,soo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE ISI to thisgreatwork,whichis yet in a disorderlyand defectivestate. [After thelapseof nearlya centuryandahalf thisgreatCollectionhasbeensupplied with ChronologicalIndices by J. CaUigarisand others: Indices Chronologlciad Script. Rer. Ital. i885. ] 2. An_iquP. atesIta2i_mediiAg_,vi. vols. in folio,Milan, 1738-x743,in lxxv. curiousdissertationson the manners, government,religion,&c. of the Italians of the darkerages,with a large supplementof charters,chronicles, &c. [Also published in x7 quarto volumesat Arezzo,x777-8o. ChronologicalIndexeshave beenpreparedto this worktoo by BattagIinoand Calligaris,x889, &c. ] 3- Diasertazioni sopraleAnllqui_ Italiane,iii. vols. in 4to,Milano,x75x, a free versionby theauthor,whichmaybe quotedwiththe sameconfidenceas the Latintext of the Antiquities. 4. Annali d ltalia, xviii,vols. in octavo,Milan, I753x756,a dry,thoughaccurateand useful,abridgmentof the historyof Italy, fromthe birth of Christto the middle of the xviiith century. 5. DeW An21¢hil&EstenseedIta//ane,ii. vols. in folio,Modena,z7z7,x74o. In the historyof thisillustriousrace,the parentof ourBrunswickkings,the critic is not seducedbythe loyaltyor gratitudeof the subject. In all his works, Muratoriproveshimselfa diligentand laboriouswriter,whoaspiresabove theprejudicesof a Catholicpriest. Hewas born in the year1672, and died inthe year I75o, afterpassingnearsixtyyearsin the librariesof Milanand Modena(Vitadel PropostoLudovicoAntonioMuratori,byhis nephewand successor,Gian. Fmcesco SoliMuratori,Venezia,1756,in 4to). [Several biographiesof Muratorihave appearedsince; e. g. by Reina in xSx9; by Brigidiin x87x. In x872, the centenaryof his birth, werepublished: Belviglieri,La vita, leoperc,i tempi di L. A. Muratori; and Roncaglia,Vita di L. A. Mur. ]

x8z THE DECLINE AND FALL [c. _. LXm CHAPTERLXXI Prospecto]theRuinso]Romein theFi]teenthCentury-Four Causeso] Decayand Destruction--Exampleo] the Coliseum_ Renovationo] theCity- Conclusiono] the wholeWork I1_thelastdaysof PopeEugeniustheFourth,twoof his servants,the learnedPoggius1 and a friend,ascendedthe CapitolineHill; reposed themselvesamong the ruins of colurnn. _and temples; and viewed,from that commanding spot,thewideandvariousprospectof desolation? Theplace and theobjectgaveamplescopeformoralisingonthevicissitudesof fortune,whichsparesneithermannortheproudest of his works,whichburiesempiresand citiesin a common grave; and it was agreedthat in proportionto her former greatnessthefallofRomewasthemoreawfulanddeplorable. "Her primevalstate,such as she mightappearin a remote age,whenEvanderentertainedthestrangerof Troy,s has 11havealready(not. 58, 59,on chap. lxv. )mentionedthe age,character, andwritingsof Poggius; and particularlynoticedthe date of this elegant morallectureon the varietiesof fortune. [On the subjectof this chapter the followingworksmay be consulted: Gregorovins,Romein the Middle Ages(noticesofthefortunesoftheancientmonumentsarescatteredthroughout the work; consultIndex); Jordan sTopographicder StadtRom im Alterthum, i87z; O. Richter sarticleon the Topographyof Romein ]$aumeister sDenkmliler,iii. p. _436$99. ; J- H. Middleton,The Remains of AncientRome,2vols. ,i89_; aboveall,theworksof R. Lanciani: Pagan and ChristianRome, i892; The Ruinsand Excavationof AncientRome, _s97. ] Consedimusin ipsisTarpei_earcisruinis,poneingensporUecujnsdam, utputo,templi,marmoreumlimen,plurimasquepassimconfractascolurnn_% mademagn_ex parteprospectusurbispatet(p. S)m/Eneid,viii. 97-369. Thisandent picture,soartfullyintroducedandso exquisitelyfinished,must have beenhighlyinterestingto an inhabitantof

A. D. 14OO-ISOO ]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE x83 beendelineatedby the fancyof Virgil. This Tarpeianrock wasthena savageandsolitarythicket: inthetimeofthepoet, it wascrownedwiththe goldenroofsof atemple: the temple isoverthrown,thegoldhasbeenpillaged,thewheeloffortune has accomplishedher revolution,and the sacredgroundis againdisfiguredwiththorns andbrambles. The hill of the Capitol,onwhichwesit,wasformerlytheheadof theRoman empire,the citadelof the earth, the terror of kings; illustratedbythefootstepsof somanytriumphs,enrichedwiththe spoils and tributes of so many nations. This spectacle of theworld,howis it fallen! howchanged! howdefacedl Thepath ofvictoryisobliteratedbyvines,andthebenchesof the senatorsare concealedby adunghill. Castyour eyeson the PalatineHill,and seek,among the shapelessand enormousfragments,themarbletheatre,the obelisks,thecolossal statues,theporticoesof Nero spalace: surveytheotherhills of the city,the vacant spaceis interruptedonlybyruinsand gardens. The forum of the Roman people, where they assembledto enact their laws and elect their magistrates, is nowenclosedfor the cultivationof pot-herbsor thrown openfor the receptionof swineand buffaloes. The public andprivateedifices,that werefoundedfor eternity,lieprostrate,naked,and broken,likethe limbsof a mightygiant; and the ruin is the more visible,from the stupendousrelics thathavesurvivedtheinjuriesof timeandfortune. "4 Theserelicsareminutelydescribedby Poggius,oneof the firstwhoraisedhis eyesfromthemonumentsoflegendary,to thoseofclassic,superstition3 I. Besidesa bridge,an arch,a Rome; and our early studies allow us to sympathL_ in the feelings of a ROman, Capitolium adeo. . , immutatum ut vine--in senatorum subsellia successerint, stercorum ac purgamentorum receptaculum factum. Respice ad Palatinum montem . . . vasta rudera . . . c,_teros colles perlustra omnla vacua _lificiis, ruinis vineisque oppleta conspides (Poggius de Varietat. Fortune,p. 22). 6SeePoggius,p. 8--2_.

x84 THE DECLINEAND FALL CCa. LXXI sepulchre,andthepyramidof Cestius,hecoulddiscern,ofthe ageof the republic,a doublerowof vaultsin thesalt-officeof the Capitol,whichwereinscribedwith the name and munificenceofCatulus. 2. Eleventempleswerevisibleinsome degree,fromthe perfectformof the Pantheon,to thethree archesand a marblecolumn of the templeof Peace,which Vespasianerected after the civil wars and the Jewish triumph. 3. Of the number,which he rashlydefines,of seventherm¢,orpublicbaths,noneweresufficientlyentireto representthe use and distributionof the severalparts; but thoseof Diocletianand AntoninusCaracallastillretainedthe titlesof the founders,and astonishedthe curiousspectator, who,in observingtheir solidityand extent,the varietyof marbles,thesizeandmultitudeofthecolumns,comparedthe labourand expensewiththe use and importance. Of the bathsof Constantine,of Alexander,Tof Domitian,or rather ofTitus,8somevestigemightyetbefound. 4. The triumphal archesof Titus,Severus,_and Constantinewereentire,both the structure and the inscriptions; a fallingfragment was honouredwiththenameofTrajan; andtwoarches,thenextant in theFlaminianWay,havebeenascribedtothebasermemory of Faustina and GallienusY 5. After the wonderof the *[Thecolumnwas movedbyPaulV. tothe churchof S. MariaMaggiore. ] 7[ThermmNeronlanveet Alexandrinm,bathsbuilt byNeroandenlarged byAlexanderSeverus,werecloseto the Stadium(discoveredin 1869),south of the PiazzaNavona-- south-westof the Pantheon. ] s [Ithas beenprovedonlyquiterecently(byexcavationsin I895)that the Bathsof Titus andTrajanweredistinct; it was nota caseof bathsbuilt by Titus and restoredorimprovedby Trajan. The Propylmaof the Therma_ of Titus have beenfound on thenorthsideof the Coliseum;the Baths of Trajan were to the north-east,almostadjoining. See Lancianl,Ancient Rome,p. 365-6. On theAventinetherewereotherlargeBaths,the Thermm Declanm, SeeLanciani,lb. p. 544-6. ] o[Aninterestingsketchofthe historyofthisarchwillbefoundinLanciaai, op. ¢/Lp. 284-6. ] _0[He alsomentionsthe Archof Claudius(in the PiazzaSciarra)and the Arch of Lentnlus (on the Avenfine). Landani has shown that an old Churchof St. Stephen, whichwas excavatedin the Piazzadi Pietra, was built of spoils takenfrom the triumphalArch of Claudiusand from the

_D. x4oo-xsoo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I85 Coliseum,Poggiusmighthaveoverlookeda smallamphitheatreof brick,mostprobablyfortheuseof theprmtorian camp. Thetheatresof Marcellusu and Pompeywereoccupied,ina greatmeasure,bypublicandprivatebuildings; andinthecircus,AgonalisandMaximus,littlemorethanthe situationandtheformcouldbeinvestigated. 6. Thecolumn_ ofTrajanandAntonine12werestillerect; buttheEgyptian obeliskswerebrokenor buried?s A peopleof godsand heroes,theworkmanshipofart,wasreducedtooneequestrian figureofgiltbrass,andto fivemarblestatues,ofwhichthe mostconspicuouswerethetwohorsesof PhidiasandPraxiteles. 7. Thetwomausoleumsor sepulchresof Augustustd andHadriancouldnottotallybelost; buttheformerwasonly visibleasa moundofearth;andthelatter,thecastleofSt. Angelo,hadacquiredthenameandappearanceofa modern fortress. Withtheadditionof someseparateandnameless TempleofNeptune (in the Piazzadi Pietra). Cp. his Paganand Christian Rome,p. 99. Fragmentsofthe ArchofTiberiusat thefootofthe Capitoline havebeendiscovered. Foundationsof the Arch of Augustuswerefoundin 1888. Lanciani had shown in i882 that "this arch had been found and destroyedbythe workmenof thefabbrica diS. PietrobetweenI54oandx546 exactlyin that place, andthat the inscriptionCorpus,vol. vii. no. 872, belongedto it. " AncientRome,p. 27x. ] al[Seebelow,p. zoo, note 54. ] az[It is interestingto observethat in the Middle Ages it was usual to ascendthe ColumnofMarcusAureliusforthe sakeof the view,bythe spiral staircasewithin,and a fee of _lmi_-_onwas charged. SeeGregorovins,lii. P. 549-] [Poggiosaw on the Capitola small obeliskwhichis nowin the Villa Mattei. And therewas the obeliskin the VaticanCircus,whichSixtnsV. removedto the Piazza dl S. Pietro,whereit nowstands. Sincethenseveral obeli_k_have been set up again, e. g. , the great red granite obeliskin the Piazzaof St. John in the Lateran; the obeH_k_in the Piazza del Popolo, and the Piazzadi MonteCitorio. SeeParker sTwelveEgyptianObelisks. Andcp. above,vol. iii. p. 245, note48. ] a4[TheMausoleumofAugustuswastakenasa strongholdbythe Colonnas anddestroyedin i x67whentheywerebanished. It was refortifiedin x24x, anditwasused as a pyrefor the bodyof Rienzi. SeeLanciani,Paganand ChristianRome,p. x77-8o. The Soderinifamilyconvertedit intoa hanghaggardenin x55o. The ancientustrinum or cremationenclosure,and a numberof monument. %werefoundin excavationsin i777. ]

x86 THE DECLINEAND FALL [czt. LXXI columns,suchwerethe remainsof the ancientcity; for the marks of a more recentstructuremight be detectedin the walls,whichformeda circumferenceof ten miles,included threehundredand seventy-nineturrets,and openedinto the countryby thirteengates. This melancholypicturewas drawn abovenine hundred years after the fall of the Westernempire,and evenof the GothickingdomofItaly. A longperiodofdistressandanarchy,inwhichempire,and arts,and richeshadmigratedfrom the banksof the Tiber,wasincapableof restoringor adorning the city; and,as all that is humanmust retrogradeif it donot advance,everysuccessiveagemust havehastenedthe ruin of the worksof antiquity. To measuretheprogressof decay,andto ascertain,at eachera, thestateof each edifice, wouldbe an endlessand a uselesslabour; andI shallcontent myselfwith two observations,whichwillintroducea short inquiryintothegeneralcausesandeffects, i. Twohundred years beforethe eloquentcomplaintof Poggius,an anonymous writer composeda descriptionof Rome. _ His ignorance may repeat the same objects under strange and fabulousnames. Yet this Barbaroustopographerhad eyes and ears: he couldobservethe visibleremains; he could * Liber de MirabilibusRom_, ex RegistroNicolal CardinalisdeArmgozxiA,in Bibliothec_St. IsidoriArmazioIV. No. 69. This treatise,with someshortbut pertinentnotes,hasbeenpublishedbyMonffaucon(Diarium Italicum,p. 283-3oi), whothus delivershisowncritical opinion: Scriptor xiiimicirciters_culi, ut ibidem notatur; antiquari_rei imperitus,et, ut ab ilio mvo,nugiset anilibnsfabeUisrefertus: sed quia monumentaqu_ ils temporibusRommsupererant promodulorecenset, non parum inde lucis mutuabiturqui Romanisantiqultatibnsindagandisoperamnavabit(p. 283). [MirabiliaRomm,ed. Parthey, x867; The Marvelsof Rome or pictureof the GoldenCity, Eng. tr. byF. M. Nicholls,x889. The Mirabiliais a z2th centuryrecensionof an older guide-book,probablyof the Ioth century, of whichthe Graphiaaure_urbisRom_(publ. in Ozanam sDocumentsin6dits, p. I55sqq. )is anotherrecension. Wehavea stillolderdescription,of about A. D. 9o0,in the Collectionof inscriptionsby the Anonymousof Einsiedeln. It is publishedinIordan s TopographiederStadtRomim Alterthum,vol. iL Cp. the accountsof this topographicalliterature in Jordan, op. cir. , and Gregorovius,ill. p. 5z6 sqq. ] ,I

A. D. ,4OO-_5OO]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE I87 listento thetradition of the people; and he distinctlyenumeratesseventheatres,elevenbaths,twelvearches,andeighteenpalaces,of whichmanyhad disappearedbeforethetime of Poggius. It is apparentthat many statelymonuments of antiquitysurvivedtill a late period,t*and that the principlesof destructionacted with vigorousand increasing energyin the thirteenth and fourteenthcenturies. 2. The samereflectionmust be appliedto the threelast ages; and weshouldvainlyseekthe Septizoniumof Severus,t7whichis celebratedby Petrarchand the antiquariansof the sixteenth century. Whilethe Roman edificeswere still entire,the firstblows,howeverweightyand impetuous,wereresistedby thesolidityof themassand theharmonyoftheparts; but the slightesttouchwouldprecipitatethefragmentsofarchesand columnsthat alreadynoddedto their fall. Afteradiligentinquiry,I candiscernfourprincipalcauses ofthe ruin of Rome,whichcontinuedto operatein a period ofmorethan a thousandyears. I. The injuriesof timeand nature. II. The hostile attacks of the Barbarians and Christians. III. The useandabuseof thematerials. And, IV. ThedomesticquarrelsoftheRomans. I. Theart of manisabletoconstructmonumentsfar more permanentthan the narrowspan of his ownexistence;yet thesemonuments,likehimself,areperishableandfrail; and, in theboundlessannalsof time,his lifeand hislaboursmust 10The P_reMabillon(Analecta,tom. iv. p. 502) haspublishedananonymonspilgrimof theixth century,who,in his visitroundthechurchesand holyplacesofRome,touchesonseveralbuildings,especiallyporticoes,which had disappearedbeforethe xiiithcentury. [The Anonymousof Einsiedeln, see last note. ] z7On theSeptizonium,see the M_moiressurP_trarque(tom. i. p. 325), Donatus(p. 338),and Nardini (p. ix7, 4x4). [Theexistingremainsof the Palaceof Severusonthe Palatine are aboutsixtyyardshigh. In the eighth century,two fifthsof the buildingin the centre collapsed. The siegeof HenryIV. in xo84(seebelow, p. 2oo-x) destroyedmanypillars,and in x_57Brancaleonedestroyedthe largerextremity. Forits usebySixtusV. seebelow,p. I97. ]

x88 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. l. XXI equallybemeasuredasa fleetingmoment. Ofa simpleand solidedifice,itisnoteasy,however,tocircumscribetheduration. As thewondersof ancientdays,thepyramidsisattractedthecuriosityoftheancients: anhundredgenerations, theleavesofautumrl,t9havedroppedintothegrave;and,after thefallofthePharaohsandPtolemies,theCaesarsandCaliphs, the samepyramidsstanderect and unshakenabovethe floodsof theNile. A complexfigureofvar/ousandminute partsismoreaccessibleto injuryanddecay;andthesilent lapseof timeis oftenacceleratedbyhurricanesandearthquakes,byfiresandinundations. Theairandearthhave doubtlessbeenshaken;andtheloftyturretsof Romehave totteredfromtheirfoundations;butthesevenhillsdonot appearto beplacedonthegreatcavitiesof theglobe;nor hasthecity,in anyage,beenexposedtotheconvulsionsof naturewhich,in theclimateof Antioch,Lisbon,or Lima, havecrumbledina fewmomentstheworksofagesintodust. Fireisthemostpowerfulagentoflifeanddeath:therapid mischiefmaybekindledandpropagatedbytheindustry ornegligenceof mankind;andeveryperiodoftheRoman annalsismarkedbytherepetitionof similarcalamities. A memorableconflagration,theguiltormisfortuneof Nero s reign,continued,thoughwithunequalfury,eithersixor ninedays. 2° Innumerablebuildings,crowdedin closeand " Theageof thepyramidsisremoteand unknown,sinceDiodorusSiculus (tom. i. 1. i. c. 44, p. 72)is unabletodecidewhethertheywereconstructed zoo0or 34o0years beforethe clxxxthOlympiad. Sir John Marshman s contractedscaleof the Egyptiandynastieswouldfix themabout3o0oyears beforeChrist(Canon. Chronicus,p. 47). [ Mostof the pyram/dsbelongto the 4th millenniumB. c. The GreatPyramidof Gizehwas the tombof K. hufu(Cheops),the secondkingof the4th dynastysaidto haveflourished in B. c. 3969-39o8. See Petrie,Historyof Egypt, i. p. 38 sqq. For the earlierpyramidof Sneferu,/b. p. 32-3; andforthepyramidsof thesuccessors of Khufu,andthefollowingdynasties,thesamevolumepassim. ] 19See the speechof Glaucusin the Iliad (Z, z46). This naturalbut melancholyimageis familiarto Homer. 20The learningandcriticismof M. des Vignoles(lqJstoireCritiquedeIs R_publiquedes Lettres,tom. vii/. p. 74-zx8; ix. p. ZT_-Z87)datesthefire

A. D. 14OO"ISOO] OF THE ROMANEMPIRE x89 crookedstreets,suppliedperpetualfuelforthe times; and, whentheyceased,fouronlyof thefourteenregionswereleft entire; threeweretotallydestroyed,andsevenweredeformed bythe relicsof smokingand laceratededifices3t In thefull meridianof empire,the metropolisarosewith freshbeauty fromher ashes; yet the memoryof the old deploredtheir irreparablelosses,the arts of Greece,the trophiesof victory, the monumentsof primitiveor fabulousantiquity. In the daysof distressand anarchy,everywoundis mortal,every fallirretrievable;norcan the damagebe restoredeitherby thepubliccareofgovernmentor theactivityofprivateinterest. Yettwocausesmay be alleged,whichrenderthecalamityof fire moredestructiveto a flourishingthan a decayedcity. I. The more combustiblematerialsof brick, timber,and metalsare firstmeltedor consumed; but the flamesmay playwithoutinjuryor effecton the naked wallsand massy archesthat have beendespoiledof theirornaments. 2. It is amongthe commonand plebeianhabitationsthat a mischievousspark is mosteasilyblownto a conflagration; but, as soonas theyare devoured,the greateredificeswhichhave resistedor escapedareleft as so manyislandsin a stateof solitudeand safety. From her situation,Rome is exposed to the dangerof frequentinundations. Withoutexcepting the Tiber,the riversthat descendfrom either side of the Apenninehavea shortandirregularcourse;a shallowstream inthesummerheats; an impetuoustorrent,whenit isswelled of Rome fromA. D. 64, x9th July, and the subsequentpersecutionof the Christiansfromisth Novemberof the sameyear. 2_Quippe in re#ones quatuordecimRoma dividitur,quarum quatuor integr_,-manebant,tressolo tenusdejectm;septemreliquispauca tectorum vestigiasupererant,lacera et semiusta. Amongthe old relicsthat were irreparablylost, Tacitus enumeratesthe temple of the Moon of Servius Tallius; the lane and altar consecratedby EvanderprmsentiHerculi; the templeof Jupiter Stator, a vowof Romulus; the palace of Numa; the templeof Vesta,curePenatibuspopuliRomani. He thendeploresthe opes totvictoriisqumsitmet Grmcanunartium decora . . . multa qumseniores meminerant,qumrepararinequibant(Annal. x v. 4o_4x).

i9o THE DECLINE AND FALL [O,. LXXZ inthespringor winterbythefallofrainandthemeltingof thesnows. Whenthecurrentisrepelledfromtheseaby adversewinds,whentheordinarybedis inadequatetothe weightofwaters,theyriseabovethebanks,andoverspread, withoutlimitsorcontrol,theplainsandcitiesoftheadjacent country. Soonafterthetriumphof thefirstPunicwar,the Tiberwasincreasedbyunusualrains;andtheinundation, surpassingallformermeasureof timeandplace,destroyed allthebuildingsthatweresituatebelowthehillsofRome. Accordingtothevarietyofground,thesamemischiefwas producedbydifferentmeans; andtheedificeswereeither sweptawaybythesuddenimpulse,ordissolvedandunderminedbythelongcontinuance,of thefloodY Underthe reignofAugustus,thesamecalamitywasrenewed: thelawlessriveroverturnedthepalacesandtemplesonitsbanks;_* and,afterthelaboursoftheemperorincleansingandv_deningthebedthatwasencumberedwithruins,_ thevigilance of hissuccessorswasexercisedbysimilardangersanddesigns. TheprojectofdivertingintonewchannelstheTiber itself,orsomeofthedependentstreams,waslongopposedby "A. U. C. 507,repentinasubversioipsiusRorn_ prmvenittriumphum Romanorum. . . diversmigniumaquarumquedadespeneabsumsereurbem. NamTiberisinsolitisauctusimbribuset ultraopinionem,vel diurnitatevel magnitudineredundans,omnia Roma_mdificiain plana posita delevit. Diversa_qualltateslocorumadunamconvenerepernicem:quoniamet qu_e segniorinundatiotenuitmadefactadissolvit,et qua_cursustorrentisinvenit impulsadejedt (Orosins,Hist. 1. iv. c. ii, p. 244,edit. Havercamp). Yet we mayobservethat it is the plan and studyof the Christianapologistto magnifythe calamitiesof the paganworld. VidimusflavumTiberimretortis Lit-toreEtrnscoviolenterundis Ire dejectummouumentaRegis TemplaqueVestae. (Horat. Carm. i. 2. ) If the palaceof Numaandtempleof Vestawerethrowndownin Horace s time,what was consumedof those buildingsbyNero sfirecould hardly deservethe epithetsof vetnstissimaor incorrupta. Ad coercendasinundationesalveumTiberislaxavitac repurgavit,completumolimruderibus,et mdificiorumprolapsionibuscoarctatum(Suetonins in Augusto,c. 3o).

A. ,. x4oo-_soo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I9x superstitionandlocalinterests;"_nordidtheusecompensate thetoilandcostofthetardyandimperfectexecution. The servitudeofriversisthenoblestandmostimportantvictory whichmanhasobtainedoverthelicentiousnessofnature;_ and,ifsuchweretheravagesoftheTiberundera firmand activegovernment,whatcouldoppose,orwhocanenumerate, theinjuriesofthecityafterthefallof theWesternempire? A remedywasat lengthproducedbytheevilitself:theaccumulationof rubbishandthe earththathadbeenwashed downfromthehiUsissupposedtohaveelevatedtheplainof Romefourteenor fifteenfeet,perhaps,abovethe ancient level;27andthemodemcityislessaccessibletotheattacks oftheriver. 2s 1-1. Thecrowdof writersof everynation,whoimputethe destructionoftheRomanmonumentstotheGothsandthe Christians,haveneglectedtoinquirehowfartheywereanimatedby anhostileprincipleandhowfartheypossessedthe meansandthe leisureto satiatetheirenmity. In the precedingvolumesofthisHistory,I havedescribedthetriumph ofBarbarismandreligion; andI canonlyresume,ina few words,theirrealor imaginaryconnectionwiththe ruinof ancientRome. Ourfancymaycreate,oradopt,a pleasing Tacitus(Annal. i. 79)reportsthe petitionsof the differenttownsofItaly to the senate against the measure; and we may applaudthe progress of reason. On a similar occasionlocal interestswouldundoubtedlybe consuited; but an EnglishHouseof Commonswouldreject withcontemptthe argumentsof superstition,"that nature had assignedto the rivers their propercourse," &c. Seethe Epoquesde la Natureof the eloquentand philosophicBuffon, Hispictureof Guyanain SouthAmericais that of a new andsavageland. in whichthe waters are abandonedto themselves,withoutbeing regulated by humanindustry (p. 212,56z, quarto edition). In hisTravelsin Italy, Mr. Addison(hisworks, vol. il. p. 98, Bask_ rville sedition) has observedthiscuriousand unquestionablefact. 2aYet, in modern times, the Tiber has sometimes damagedthe city; and in the years x53o, i557, x598, the Annals of Muratori record three mischievousand memorableinundations,tom. xiv. p. a68, 429; tom. xv. P. 99, &c.

I92 THE DECLINE AND FALL [cmI2cxi romance,that the Goths and Vandalssalliedfrom Scandinavia, ardent to avengethe flight of Odin,2Qto break the chains,andto chastisetheoppressors,of mankind; that they wishedto bum the recordsof classicliteratureand to found theirnational architectureon the brokenmembersof the Tuscan and Corinthianorders. But, in simpletruth, the Northern conquerorswere neither sufficientlysavage nor sufficientlyrefinedto entertain such aspiringideas of destructionand revenge. The shepherdsof Scythiaand Germanyhad beeneducatedin the armiesof the empire,whose disciplinethey acquired,and whoseweaknessthey invaded; withthefamiliaruseof the Latin tongue,they had learned to reverencethe name and titles of Rome; and, thoughincapable of emulating,they were more inclinedto aclmlre than toabolish,thearts andstudiesof a brighterperiod. In the transientpossessionof a richand unresistingcapital,the soldiersof Alaricand Gensericwerestimulatedby the passionsof a victoriousarmy; amidstthe wantonindulgenceof lustor cruelty,portableweathwastheobjectof theirsearch; nor could they deriveeither pride or pleasurefromthe unprofitablereflectionthat theyhad batteredto the groundthe worksof the consulsand Caesars. Their momentswereindeed precious: the Goths evacuatedRome on the sixth,s° the Vandalson the fifteenth,day; sl and, thoughit be far moredifficulttobuildthan todestroy,theirhastylassaultwould havemade a slightimpressiononthe solidpilesof antiquity. Wemay rememberthat bothAlaricand Gensericaffectedto sparethebuildingsof thecity; that theysubsistedinstrength and beautyundertheauspiciousgovernmentof Theodoric;"_ zDI takethis opportunityof declaringthat in the courseof twelveyearsI have forgotten, or renounced,the flightof Odin from Azophto Sweden, whichI neververy seriouslybelieved(vol. ii. p. 6--7). The Gothsareapparently Germans;but all beyond Cmsarand Tacitusis darknessor fable in the antiquitiesof Germany. ,0Historyof the Decline, &c. vol. v. p. 2S_. s,Ib/d. vol. v. p. xS8. " lb/d. vol. viii. p. 24x- _.

A. D. X4OO-ZSOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I93 and that the momentaryresentmentof Totilan was disarmedbyhisowntemperandtheadviceofhisfriendsand enemies. FromtheseinnocentBarbariansthereproachmay betransferredtotheCatholicsof Rome. Thestatues,altars, andhousesof the demonswerean abominationin their eyes;and inthe absolutecommandofthecitytheymight labourwithzealandperseveranceto erasetheidolatryof theirancestors. ThedemolitionofthetemplesintheEast_ affordstotheman exampleof conduct,andto us an argumentof belief; and it is probablethat a portionof guiltor meritmay be imputedwithjusticeto the Romanproselytes. Yet their abhorrencewas confinedto the monumentsof heathen superstition; and the civil structuresthat were dedicatedto the businessor pleasureof societymightbe preservedwithoutinjuryorscandal. Thechangeof religion wasaccomplished,not by a populartumult,but by the decreesof the emperor,of the senate,madof time. Of the Christianhierarchy,the bishops of Rome were commonly the most prudent and least fanatic; nor can any positive chargebe opposedto the meritoriousact of savingand convertingthe majesticstructureof the Pantheon. *" III. The valueof any object that suppliesthe wantsor pleasuresof mankind is compoundedof its substanceand tsIbid. vol. vii. p. 255. Ibid. vol. v. c. x. xviii,p. 80--84. u Eodemtemporepetiit a Phocate principetemplum, quod appellant Pantheon,in quo fecitecclesiamSanctmMaximsemperVirginis,et omnium martyrum; in qu_ ecclesimprinceps multa bona obtulit (Anastasiusvel potiusLiberPontificalisin BonlfacloIV. in Muratori,Script. Rerum Italicarum,tom. iii. p. i. p. x35). Accordingto the anonymouswriterin Montfaucon,the Pantheonhad been vowedby Agrippato Cybeleand Neptune, and was dedicated by BonifaceIV. on the kalends of November to the Virgin,qumest materomniumsanctorum(p. 297, 298). [Itis nowestablished that theexistingPantheonwas notthe workof Agrippabut of Hadrian(A. D. 12o-5). The originalbuildingof Agrippa was rectangular. SeeLanciani, AncientRome,p. 476-88. Urban VIII. removedthe bronze rooffrom the porticoof the Pantheon. RaphaePscoffanand boneswerediscoveredhere in I833. ] VOL. XII. _ I3

x94 THE DECLINEAND FALL [c_. Lxx_ its form, of the materialsand the manufacture. Its price must dependon the numberof personsbywhomit may be acquiredand used; on the extentof the market; and consequentlyon the ease or difficultyof remoteexportation,accordingto the nature of the commodity,its local situation, and the temporarycircumstancesof theworld. The Barbarian conquerorsof Rome usurped in a momentthe toil and treasureof successiveages; but, exceptthe luxuriesof immediateconsumption,they must viewwithout desireall that couldnot be removedfromthe city in the Gothicwaggonsor the fleetof the Vandals. _ Goldandsilverwerethe first objectsof their avarice; as in everycountry,and inthe smallestcompass,theyrepresentthemostamplecommandof the industryandpossessionsof mankind. A vaseor a statue ofthosepreciousmetalsmighttemptthe vanityof someBarbarian chief; but the grossermultitude,regardlessof the form,was tenaciousonlyof the substance; and the melted ingotsmightbe readilydividedandstampedintothecurrent coinof the empire. Thelessactiveor lessfortunaterobbers werereducedto the baser plunderof brass,lead, iron, and copper; whateverhad escapedthe Goths and Vandalswas pillagedbythe Greektyrants; andtheemperorConstans,in his rapaciousvisit,strippedthebronzetilesfromthe roofof the Pantheon?7 The edificesof Romemightbe considered as a vast and variousmine: thefirstlabourof extractingthe materialswasalready performed;the metals were purified seFlaminlusVacca(apudMonffaucon,p. i55, x56;hisMemoirislikewiseprinted,p. 2x,attheendoftheRomaAnticaofNardini),andseveral Romans,doctrin_graves,werepersuadedthattheGothsburiedtheirtreasures atRome,andbequeathedthesecretmarksfiliisnepofibusque. Herelates someanecdotestoprovethat,inhisowntime,theseplaceswerevisitedand rifledbytheTransalpinepilgrims,theheirsoftheGothicconquerors. t70mniaqua_erantinrareadornatumcivitatisdeposuit:sedetecclesiam B. Marineadmartyresqutedetegulis_ereiscoopertadiscooperuit(Anast. in Vitalian. p. I4x). ThebaseandsacrilegiousGreekhadnoteventhepoor pretenceofplunderinganheathentemple;thePantheonwasalreadya Catholicchurch.

^. D. _4oo-,5oo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I95 and cast; the marbleswerehewn and polished;and, after foreignand domesticrapine had beensatiated,the remains of the city, coulda purchaserhave been found, werestill venal. The monumentsof antiquityhad beenleftnakedof their preciousornaments,but the Romanswoulddemolish withtheir own handsthe archesand walls,if the hopeof profitcouldsurpassthe cost of the labourand exportation. If Charlemagnehad fixedin Italy the seat of the Western empire,hisgeniuswouldhaveaspiredto restore,ratherthan toviolate,the worksof the C_esars;but policyconfinedthe Frenchmonarchto theforestsof Germany; his taste could be gratifiedonlyby destruction; andthe newpalaceof Aix la Chapdle wasdecoratedwiththe marblesof Ravennaa8 andRome3° FivehundredyearsafterCharlemagne,a king ofSicily,Robert,thewisestand mostliberalsovereignof the age,wassuppliedwiththe samematerialsby the easynavigation of the Tiber and the sea; and Petrarchsighs an indignantcomplaintthat the ancientcapital of the world shouldadorn,from her own bowels,the slothfulluxuryof Naples. ° But these examplesof plunderor purchasewere s*Forthe spoilsofRavenna(musivaatquemarmora)seetheoriginalgrant of PopeHadrianI. to Charlemagne(CodexCarolin. epist,lxvii,in Muratori, Script. Ital. tom. iil. p. ii. p. 223). agI shallquotethe authentictestimonyof the Saxonpoet(A. D. 887-899), de Rebus gestis Caroli Magni,1. v. 437-440,in the Historiansof France, tom. v. p. xSo: Adqum marmorea. _pramtabatRo_ columnas, QuasdamprmdpuaspulchraRavenna dedit. De tam longinqu_poteritregionevetustas IUiusornatum Franciaferre fibi. And I shalladd, fromthe Chronicleof Sigebert(Historiansof Prance,tom. v. p. 378),extruxitefiam Aquisgranibasilicamplurimoepulchritudinis,ad cujus structuram a Ro_ et Ravenn_columnaset marmora devehifecit. [Seeabove,vol. viii. p. 346. ] ,01 cannotrefuseto transcribea longpassageof Petrarch (Opp. p. 536, 537,in EpistoL_hortatoriAad NicolaumLaurentittm),it is so strongand full to the point: Nec pudor aut pietas continult quominusimpii spoliata I)el templa, occupatasaxces,opespublicas,re#ones urbis, atque honores magistratuuminterse divisos; (hab_ant?) quam un_Lin re, turbulentiae

196 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXXI rareinthedarkerages; andtheRomans,aloneandunenvied, mighthaveappliedtotheirprivateorpublicusetheremaining structuresof antiquity,if in theirpresentform andsituation theyhad not beenuselessin a greatmeasureto the cityand its inhabitants. The wallsstill describedtheold circumference,but thecityhaddescendedfromthesevenhillsintothe CampusMartins; andsomeof thenoblestmonumentswhich had bravedthe injuriesof timewereleft in a desert,far remotefrom the habitationsof mankind. The palacesof the senatorswereno longeradaptedto the mannersor fortunes oftheir indigentsuccessors;theuseof baths,Iand porticoes wasforgotten; inthe sixthcentury,thegamesof thetheatre, amphitheatre,andcircushadbeeninterrupted; sometemples weredevotedto the prevailingworship; but the Christian churchespreferredthe holyfigureof the cross; and fashion or reasonhad distributed,after a peculiarmodel,the cells and officesof the cloister. Under the ecclesiasticalreign, the number of these pious foundations was enormously multiplied; andthe citywascrowdedwithfortymonasteries of men,twentyof women,and sixtychaptersand collegesof canonsand priests,**who aggravated,instead of relieving, the depopulationof the tenth century. But, if the forms sedifiosihomines et tofius rellqum vitroconsililset rafionibus discordes, inhumanifcederisstupend_societateconvenirent,in ponteset mceniaatque immeritoslapides desmvirent. Denique post vi vel senlo collapsa palatia, qumquondamingentestenuerunt viri,postdiruptosarcus triumphales(unde majoreshorumforsitancorrueruat),de ipsiusvetustatisacpropria_impietatis fragminibusvilemqu_stum turpi mercimoniocaptarenon puduit. Itaque nunc, heu dolor! heuscelusindignuml de vestrismarmoreiscolumnis,de liminibus templorum(ad qu,e nuper ex orbe toto concursusdevotissimus fiebat),de imaginibussepulchrorumsubquibuspatrumvestrorumvenerabilis civis(cinis?) erat, ut reliquassileam,desidiosaNeapolis adornatur. Sic paullatimruimeipsmdeflciunt. YetKingRobertwasthe friendof Petrarch. *_YetCharlemagnewashedandswamatAixlaChapellewith anhundred of his courtiers(Eginhart,c. 22, p. xoS, io9); and Muratoridescribes,as late as the year 814,the publicbaths whichwere built at Spoletoin Italy (Annali,tom. vi. p. 4x6). See the Annals of Italy, A. D. 988. For this and the precedingfact, Muratori hlm_II is indebtedto the Benedictinehistoryof P_re MabiUon.

A. D. X4OO-XSOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE x97 of ancientarchitectureweredisregardedby a peopleinsensible of their use and beauty, the plentifulmaterialswere appliedtoeverycallofnecessityor superstition,tillthefairest columnsof the Ionic and Corinthian orders, the richest marblesof Paros and Numidia,were degraded,perhaps,to the supportof aconventor a stable. Thedailyhavocwhich is perpetratedby the Turks in the citiesof GreeceandAsia may afforda melancholyexample; and, in the gradualdestructionof the monumentsof Rome,Sixtusthe Fifth may alonebe excusedfor employingthestonesof theSeptizonium in the gloriousedificeof St. Peter s. a A fragment,a ruin, howsoevermangledorprofaned,maybe viewedwithpleasure andregret; but the greaterpart of the marblewas deprived of substance,as wellas ofplaceand proportion; itwasburnt tolimefor thepurposeof cement. Sincethe arrivalof Poggius,the temple of Concord4,and manycapital structures hadvanishedfromhis eyes; andan epigramof thesameage expressesa just and piousfear that the continuanceof this practice would finallyannihilateall the monumentsof antiquity. 45 ThesmMlnessoftheir numberswasthe solecheck onthedemandsanddepredationsoftheRomans. TheimagiVita di SistoQuinto,da GregorioLeft, tom. iii. p. 5o. Porticuss-disConcordim,quamcumprimumadurbemaccessividifere integram opere marmoreoadmodum specioso: Romani post modum ad calcem _dem totam et porticus partem disjectis columnissunt demoliti (p. 12). The templeof Concordwas thereforenot destroyedby a sedition in the xiiith century,asI havereadin aMS. treatisedel Governocivilede Rome, lent me formerlyat Rome, and ascribed(I believefalsely)to the celebratedGravina. Poggiuslikewise_ that the sepulchreof Cmcilia Metellawasburnt forlime (p. xg,30). Composedby . ,EneasSylvius,afterwardsPope Pius II. and published byMabiUonfroma MS. of the QueenofSweden(Mus_eumItalJcum,tom. i. P. 97): Oblectatme, Roma,tuasspectareruinas: Ex eujuslapsugloriapffscapater. Sedtuus hic populusmuffsdefossavetustis Calcisin obsequiummarmoraduracoquit. Impia tercentumsi sic gens egefftannos, Nullumhincindiciumnobilitatiserit.

_98 THE DECLINE AND FALL [C_. LXX_ nationof Petrarchmightcreatethe presenceof a mighty people;_6andI hestitatetobelievethateveninthefourteenth centurytheycouldbereducedtoa contemptiblelistofthirtythreethousandinhabitants. Fromthatperiodto thereign ofLeotheTenth,iftheymultipliedtotheamountofeightyfivethousand,47theincreaseof citizenswasin somedegree pernicioustotheancientcity. IV. I havereservedforthelastthemostpotentandforciblecauseof destruction,the domestichostilitiesof the Romansthemselves. UnderthedominionoftheGreekand Frenchemperors,thepeaceofthecitywasdisturbedbyaccidentalthoughfrequentseditions:it isfromthedeclineof thelatter,fromthebeginningof thetenthcentury,thatwe maydatethelicentiousnessofprivatewar,whichviolatedwith impunitythelawsof theCodeandthe Gospel,withoutrespectingthemajestyoftheabsentsovereignor thepresence andpersonof thevicarofChrist. In a darkperiodoffive hundredyears,Romewasperpetuallyafflictedbythe sanguinaryquarrelsof thenoblesandthe people,theGuelphs andGhibelines,theColonnaandUrsini;and,ifmuchhas escapedtheknowledge,andmuchisunworthyofthenotice, ofhistory,I haveexposedin thetwoprecedingchaptersthe causesand effectsofthe publicdisorders. Atsucha time, wheneveryquarrelwasdecidedbytheswordandnonecould trusttheirlivesor propertiesto the impotenceof law,the powerfulcitizenswerearmedforsafetyor offenceagainst thedomesticenemieswhomtheyfearedor hated. Except Venicealone,thesamedangersand designswerecommon dtVagabamurpariterin ill urbetam magn_; quae,curepropterspatinm vacuavideretur,populumhabetimmeasum(Opp. p. 6o5; Epist. Farniliares, ii. i4). 47Thesestatesof the populationof Rome,at differentperiods,arederived froman ingenioustreatiseof the physicianLancisi,de RomaniCceliQualitatibus Co. zzz). [Cp. above,p. z35, note 29. The population at beginning of the x6_centurywas 85,ooo; in i663, it was xo5,433. Gregorovius_op. c/t. vi. p. 73_-]

_. v. ,4_-xsoo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE I99 toallthefreerepublicsofItaly; andthenoblesusurpedthe prerogativeof fortifyingtheir houses,and erectingstrong towers_ that werecapableof resistinga suddenattack. Thecitieswerefilledwiththesehostileedifices;andthe exampleof Lucca,whichcontainedthreehundredtowers, herlaw,whichconfinedtheirheightto themeasureoffourscorefeet,maybe extended,withsuitablelatitude,to the moreopulentand populousstates. The firststepof the senatorBrancaleoneintheestablishmentofpeaceandjustice wastodemolish(aswehavealreadyseen)onehundredand fortyofthetowersofRome; andinthelastdaysofanarchy anddiscord,as lateas thereignof MartintheFifth,fortyfourstillstoodin oneofthethirteenor fourteenregionsof the cityJ9 To this mischievouspurpose,the remainsof antiquityweremost readilyadapted: the templesand archesaffordeda broadandsolidbasisforthenewstructures of brickand stone;and wecannamethe modernturrets that wereraisedon the triumphalmonumentsof Julius Cmsar,Titus,andtheAntonines. 5° Withsomeslightalterations,a theatre,an amphitheatre,a mausoleum,wastransformedintoa strongand spaciouscitadel. I neednotrepeatthatthemoleofHadrianhasassumedthetitleandform ofthecastleofSt. Angelo;sltheSeptizoniumofSeveruswas ,s Allthe factsthat relatetothe towematRome,andin otherfree citiesof Italy,maybe foundinthe laboriousandentertainingcompilationofMuratori, AntiquitatesItalia_medii . JEvi,dissertat,xxvi. (tom. ii. p. 493-496,of the Latin,tom. i. p. 446,of the Italian,work). 4,[Thirteenregionsinthe I4th century. Their namesandarmorialbearingsin Gregorovius,vi. p. 727-8. ] soAsforinstance,TemplumJani nuncdicitur,tuttis CentiiFrangapanis; etsane Janoimpositmturris lateriti_econspicuahodiequevestigiasupersunt (Montfaucon,DlariumItalicum,p. i86). The anonymouswriter (p. 285) enumerates,arcusTiff, turris Cartularia; arcusJulii Ca_is et Senatorum, tunes de Bratis; arcusAntonini,tuttis de Cosectis, &c. [There is an accountof thesetowersandfortressesin Gregorovius,v. p. 657sqq. ] m_Hadrianimolem . . . magn_ex parte Romanoruminjuria . . . disturbavit: quodcertefunditusevertissent,sieorummanibuspervia,abeumptis grandibus_s_ reliquamoles exsfiffsset(Poggiusde VarietateFortune,

zoo THE DECLINE AND FALL [Ca. LXX_ capableof standingagainsta royalarmy;_ thesepulchreof MeteUahassunkunderits outworks;u thetheatresof Pompey and Marcellus were occupiedby the Savelli_ and Ursinifamilies; and the rough fortresshas beengradually softenedto the splendourand eleganceof an Italian palace. Even the churcheswere encompassedwith arms and bulwarks,and the militaryengineson the roof of St. Peter s weretheterror of the Vaticanand the scandalof theChristian world. Whateveris fortifiedwill be attacked; and whateverisattackedmaybe destroyed. Couldthe Romans havewrestedfromthepopesthe castleofSt. Angelo,theyhad resolved,by a public decree,to annihilatethat monument of servitude. Everybuildingof defencewas exposedto a p. x2). [In A. D. _379,the mausoleumof Hadrian,whichheldout for Pope Clement,wasdestroyedbythe Romans. It was "pulled downto the central part whichenclosesthe vault" (Gregorovius,vi. 516). The ruins lay for about twentyyears till it was restoredby BonifaceIX. A. D. 1398, with a tower. In the x4th century there was a covered passage connectingSt. Angelowith the Vatican. ] Against the emperorHenry IV. (Muratofi, Annali d Itaiia, tom. ix. p. x47). [Seeabove,p. i87, note i7. ] I must copy an important passage of Montfaucon: Tuttis ingens rotunda . . . Ca_cili_MeteUa_. . . sepulchrumerat, cujus muritamsolidi, ut spafiumper quamminimumintus vacuumsupersit: et Tortedi l_ow[or Capo di Bore] dicitur, a bourn capifibus muroinscriptis, ttuic sequiori _evo,tempore intestinorum bellorurn,ceu urbecula adjuncta fuit, cujus moeniaet turres etiamnumvisuntur; ita ut sepulchrumMetell_cquasi arx oppidulifuerit. Ferventibusin urbepartibus,cureUrsiniatqueColumnenses mutulscladlbuspernicieminferrentclvitati,in utriusvepartisdifionemcederet magni momenti erat (p. x42). [The sepulchre of Caecilia MeteUastill stands, a conspicuousobject onthe AppianWay. ] See the testimoniesof Donatus, Nardini, and Montfaucon. In the Savellipalace,the remainsof the theatre of Marcellusa_restill great and conspicuous. [Thetheatre of Marcellus,towardsend of xxthcentury-,was convertedinto a fortressby the Pierleoni. In _7x2it passed into the hands of the Orsini. "The sectionofthe outsideshellvisibleat present,a magnificentruinin outlineand colour,is buried 15feet inmodernsoiland supports the Orsini palaceerecteduponItsstage and rangesof seats. What stands aboveground of the loweror Doric arcadesis rented bythe Prince forthe mostsqualidand ignobleclassof shops. " Lanciani, AncientRome,p. 4ox. The Theatre of Balbnsbecamethe fortressof the Cenci. ]

AV. _400-ZSOO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 2ox siege; and in everysiegethe artsandenginesof destruction werelaboriouslyemployed. Afterthe deathof Nicholasthe Fourth,Rome,withouta sovereignor a senate,was abandonedsix monthsto the furyof civilwar. "The houses," saysa cardinaland poetof the times,_ "werecrushedbythe weightand velocityof enormousstones;m the wallswere perforatedby the strokesof the battering-ram;the towers wereinvolvedin fire and smoke; and the assailantswere stimulatedby rapine and revenge. " The work was consummatei:!by the tyrannyof the laws; and the factionsof Italyalternatelyexerciseda blind andthoughtlessvengeance ontheiradversaries,whosehousesand castlesthey rasedto the ground37 In comparingthe days of foreign,with the agesofdomestic,hostility,wemust pronouncethatthe latter havebeenfar moreruinousto the city; andour opinionis confirmedbythe evidenceof Petrarch. "Behold," saysthe laureat,"the relicsof Rome,the imageof her pristinegreathess! neither time nor the Barbarian can boast the merit of this stupendousdestruction: it was perpetratedby her owncitizens,by the most illustriousof her sons; and your ancestors(hewritestoa nobleAnnibaldi)havedonewiththe u ] ames,cardinalof St. George,ad velumaureum,in his metricallifeof PopeCelestinV. (Muratori,Script. Ital. tom. i. p. iii. p. 62x; 1. i. c. x,ver. I32, &c. ). Hoc dixissesatest, RomamcaruisseSenatu Mensibusexactisheu sex; belloquevocatum(wo,ato$) In scelns,in sociosfraternaquevulnerapatres: Tormenfisjecissevirosimmardasaxa; Perfodissedomustrabibus, fedsse ruinas Ignibus; incensasturres, obscuraquefumo Lumina vidno, quo sit spoliatasupellex. Mttratori (DissertazionesopraleAntiquitkItaliane, tom. i. p. 427-43x) findsthat stone bullets,of two or three hundred pounds weight,were not uncommon; andtheyaresometimescomputedatxii. or xviii,atntariofGenoa, each cantaroweighingx5opounds. 67The vith law of the Visconfiprohibits this commonand mischievous practice; and strictlyenjoinsthat the housesof banishedcitizensshouldbe preservedpro eommuniutilitate(Gualvaneusde la F]amrna,in Muratori, Script. R. erumItalicarum,tom. xii. p. xo4x).

202 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C_LXXX battering-ram,whatthe Punicherocouldnot accomplish withthesword. "68 Theinfluenceofthetwolastprinciples ofdecaymust,insomedegree,bemultipliedbyeachother; sincethehousesandtowers,whichweresubvertedbycivil war,requireda newand perpetualsupplyfromthemonumentsofantiquity. Thesegeneralobservationsmaybe separatelyappliedto the amphitheatreofTitus,whichhasobtainedthenameof theCOLISEUM,st eitherfromits magnitudeor fromNero s colossalstatue: anedifice,haditbeenlefttotimeandnature, whichmight,perhaps,haveclaimedan eternalduration. Thecuriousantiquaries,whohavecomputedthenumbers andseats,aredisposedtobelievethat,abovetheupperrow ofstonesteps,theamphitheatrewasencircledandelevated withseveralstagesofwoodengalleries,whichwererepeatedly consumedbyfireandrestoredbytheemperors. Whatevcr wasprecious,orportable,or profane,thestatuesofgodsand heroes,and the costlyornamentsof sculpture,whichwere castin brass,or overspreadwithleavesof silverandgold, becamethefirstpreyofconquestorfanaticism,oftheavarice oftheBarbariansor theChristians. In themassystonesof ssPetrarchthusaddresseshis friend,who,withshameandtears,had shownhimthemcenla,lacenespecimenmiserabileRomm. ,anddeclaxedhis ownintentionofrestoringthem(CarminaLatina,1. ii. epist. PauloAnnlbadensi,xii. p. 97,98):_ Necteparvamanetscrvafisfamaminis Quantaquodintegnefu/tolimgloriaRomm Reliquisetestanturadhuc;quaslongior$ctas Frangerenonvaluit;nonvisautiracruenti Hostis,abegregiisfrangunturcivibus,heul heu! . . . Quod///¢nequivit(Hannibal) Pertidthicaries. . . . s,ThefourthpartoItheVeronaIUustrataof the MarquisMaffeiprofessedlytreatsofamphitheatres,particularlythoseofRomeandVerona,of theirdimensions,woodengalleries,&c. It is frommagnitudethathe derivesthenameofColosseum,orColiseum:sincethesameappellationwas appliedto theamphitheatreofCapua,withoutthe aidofa colossalstatue; sincethatof Nerowaserectedin thecourt(inatria)ofhispalace,andnot intheColiseum(p. iv. p. xS-z9;1. i. c. 4).

,. D. x4oo-tsoo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 203 the Coliseummanyholesare discerned;and the two most probableconjecturesrepresentthe variousaccidentsof its decay. Thesestoneswereconnectedby solidlinks ofbrass oriron,norhad theeyeof rapineoverlookedthe valueofthe basermetals:6° the vacant spacewasconvertedintoa fair or market; the artisansof the Coliseumarementionedinan ancientsurvey; andthe chasmswereperforatedor enlarged, to receivethe polesthat supportedtheshopsor tentsof the mechanictrades,st Reduced to its naked majesty, the Flavianamphitheatrewas contemplatedwith awe and admirationby the pilgrimsof the North; and their rude enthusiasmbroke forth in a sublime proverbialexpression, whichis recordedin the eighthcentury,in the fragmentsof thevenerableBede: "Aslongas the Coliseumstands,Rome shallstand; whenthe Coliseumfalls,Romewillfall; when Romefalls,theworldwillfall. "_ In themodernsystemof war,asituationcommandedbythreehillswouldnotbe chosen for a fortress; but the strengthof thewallsand archescould resistthe enginesof assault; a numerousgarrisonmightbe lodgedin theenclosure; and,whileonefactionoccupiedthe Vaticanand the Capitol, the otherwas intrenchedin the Lateranand the Coliseum. _ l0JosephMaria Suar_s,a learnedbishop,and the authorof an historyof Prmneste,hascomposeda separatedissertationonthesevenoreightprobable causesof theseholes,whichhasbeensincereprintedinthe RomanThesaurus of Sallengre. MonLfaucon(Diarium,p. 233) pronouncesthe rapine of the Barbariansto be theunamgermanamquecausamforaminum. [Thetravertineblockswereconnectedbyironclamps,run withlead; andthe holes,as the authorsays,are clueto theremovalof theseclampsin the MiddleAges. Cp. Middleton,Remainsof AncientRome,ii. 87note. ] stDonatus,Roma Vetuset Nova, p. 285. t_QuamdiustabitColyseus,stabitetRoma; quandocadetColyseus,cadet Roma; quandocadet Roma,cadetet mundus (Bedain Excerpfisseu Collectaneisapud DucangeGlossar. reed. et infimmLatinitatis,tom. ii. p. 407, edit. Basil). This sayingmustbe ascribedto the Anglo-Saxonpilgrimswho visitedRome beforethe year 735,the era of Bede sdeath; for I do not believethat our venerablemonk ever passed the sea. t,I cannot recover,in Muratori soriginal Lives of the Popes(Script. l_erumItalicarum,tom. iii. p. i. ), the passagethat attests thishostileparti

2o4 THE DECLINEAND FALL [C_. LXXl The abolition at Rome of the ancient games must be understood with some latitude ; and the carnival sports of the Testacean Mount and the Circus Agonalis _ were regulated by the law _ or custom of the city. The senator presided with dignity and pomp to adjudge and distribute the prizes, the gold ring, or the pallium, _ as it was styled, of cloth or silk. A tribute on the Jews supplied the annual expense ; 67 and the races, on foot, on horseback, or in chariots, were ennobled by a tilt and tournament of seventy-two of the Roman youth. In the year one thousand three hundred and thirty-two, a bull-feast, after the fashion of the Moors and Spaniards, was celebrated in the Coliseum itself; and the living manners are painted in adiaryof the times3 s Aconvenient order of benches was restored; and a general] proclamation, as far as Rimini and Ravenna, invited the nobles to exercise their skill and courage in this perilous adventure. The Roman ladies were t ion,whichmustbeappliedtothe endofthe xithor thebeginningof the_dith century. 6 Althoughthe structureof the CircusAgonallsbe destroyed,it still retains itsform and name (Agona,[in Agona]Nagona,Navona): and the interiorspaceaffordsa sutficientlevel for the purposeof racing. But the MonteTestaceo,that strangepileof brokenpottery,seemsonlyadaptedfor the annualpracticeof hurlingfromtop to bottomsomewaggon-loadsof livehogsfor thediversionof the populace(StatutaUrbisRomm,p. i86). e_Seethe StatutaUrbisRotate,1. iii. c. 87, 88, 89, p. 185,i86. I have alreadygivenan idea of this municipalcode. The racesof Nagonaand MonteTestaceoare likewisementionedin the Diary of Peter Antonius, from 14o4 to i4i 7 (Muratori,Script. RerumItallcarum,tom. xxiv. p. II24). e6The Pallium,whichMenagesofoolishlyderivesfromPalmarium,is an extensionof the idea and the wordsfromthe robeorcloakto the materials, andfrom thenceto theirapplicationas a prize(Muratori,dissert,xxxiii. ). e7For these expenses,the Jews of Rome paid each year i13o florius,of whichthe odd thirty representedthe piecesof silverfor whichJudas had betrayedhismasterto theirancestors. Therewas a foot-raceof Jewishas wellas of Christianyouths(StatutaUrbis,ibidem). e8This extraordinarybull-feastin the Coliseumis described,fromtradition rather than memory,byLudovicoBuonconteMonaldesco,in the most ancientfragmentsof Romanannals (Muratori,Script. Rerum Italicarum, tom. xii. p. 535,536); and, howeverfancifultheymayseem,theyaredeeply markedwith the coloursof truthand nature.

A. _,. ,4oo-,soo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 205 marshalledin threesquadrons,and seatedinthreebalconies, whichon this day, the third of September,werelinedwith scarletcloth. ThefairJacovadiRovereledthematronsfrom beyondthe Tiber,a pureand nativerace,whostillrepresent thefeaturesand characterof antiquity. The remainderof ! the city was divided, as usual, betweenthe Colonnaand Ursini; the two factionswereproud of the number and beautyof their femalebands: the charmsof SaveUaUrsini arementionedwith praise; and the Colonnaregrettedthe absenceof theyoungestof theirhouse,whohadsprainedher anklein thegardenof Nero stower. The lotsof thechampionsweredrawnby anold andrespectablecitizen; andthey descendedinto the arena,or pit, to encounterthewildbulls on foot,as it shouldseem,with a singlespear. Amidstthe crowd,our annalisthas selectedthenames,colours,anddevicesof twentyof the most conspicuousknights. Several of thenamesare themost illustriousof Romeand the ecclesiasticalstate; Malatesta,Polenta, della Valle, Cafarello, Savelli,Capoccio,Conti,Annibaldi,Altieri,Corsi; thecolours wereadapted to their taste and situation; the devicesare expressiveof hope or despair,and breathethe spirit of gallantryandarms. "I am alonelikethe youngestoftheHoratii," the confidenceof an intrepidstranger; "I livedisconsolate," a weepingwidower; "I burn under the ashes," adiscreetlover; "I adoreLavinia,or Lucretia,"theambiguousdeclarationof a modempassion; "My faithisas pure," themottoofa whitelivery; "Who isstrongerthanmyself?" ofa lion shide; "If I amdrownedinblood,whata pleasant death!" the wishof ferociouscourage. The pride or prudenceof theUrsinirestrainedthemfromthefield,whichwas occupiedby three of their hereditaryrivals,whoseinscriptions denoted the lofty greatness of the Colonnaname: "Thoughsad, I am strong;" "Strongas I amgreat;" "If I fall," addressinghimselfto the spectators,"you fallwith me;" -- intimating (says the contemporarywriter) that, whiletheotherfamilieswerethesubjectsoftheVatican,they

2o6 THE DECLINE AND FALL CCmnXXa alone werethe supportersof the Capitol. The combatsof the amphitheatre were dangerous and bloody. Every champion successivelyencountereda wild bull; and the victorymay be ascribedto the quadrupeds,since no more thanelevenwereleftonthefield,withthelossofninewounded, and eighteenkilled,on the side of their adversaries. Some of the noblestfamiliesmight mourn,but the pomp of the funerals,in thechurchesofSt. JohnLateranand Sta. Maria Maggiore,affordeda secondholidaytothepeople. Doubtless it wasnot insuchconflictsthat thebloodof theRomansshould havebeenshed; yet, in blamingtheir rashness,weare compeUedto applaudtheir gallantry; and the noblevolunteers, whodisplaytheirmagnificenceand risk theirlivesunderthe balconiesof the fair, excitea moregeneroussympathythan the thousandsof captivesand malefactorswho werereluctantly draggedto thesceneof slaughter. B_ This use of the amphitheatrewasa rare, perhapsa singular, festival: the demand for the materialswasa dailyand continualwant,whichthe citizenscouldgratifywithoutrestraint or remorse. In the fourteenthcentury,a scandalous act of concordsecuredto both factionsthe privilegeof extracting stones from the free and commonquarry of the Coliseum;70and Poggiuslamentsthat the greaterpart of thesestoneshad beenburnt to limeby thefollyof the Romans. n To checkthis abuse,and to preventthenocturnal Muratorihas givena separatedissertation(the x_rth) to the gamesof the Italians in the middleages. _0In a concisebut instructivememoir,the Abb_Barthe]emy(lVl_moires de PAcad_miedesInscriptions,tom. xxviii,p. 585)has mentionedthisagreementofthefactionsofthexivthcenturydeTiburtinofaciendointheColiseum, froman originalact in the archivesof Rome. _xColiseum. . . ob stultitiam Romanorumma]oriex parte ad calcem deletum,saysthe ind/gnantPoggius(p. 17): but his expression,too strong for the presentage, must be verytenderly appliedto the xvth century. [It maybe inferredwithtolerablecertaintythat the chiefinjurywhichthe shell of the Coliseumsustained,the fairingof the wholewesternhaLftowardsthe C_e]ianHill,happened in the greatearthquakeof A. D. _348. These ruins were then freelyused as a quarry. Cp. Landani,op. c/_. p. 395-6. In

,. . . ,4oo-,5oo]OF THEROMANEMPIRE 207 crimesthat might be perpetratedin the vast and gloomy recess,EugeniustheFourthsurroundedit witha wall; and, i by a charterlongextant,grantedboththe groundand edi-ficeto themonksof an adjacentconvent,r* Afterhisdeath, thewallwasoverthrownin a tumultof thepeople; and,had they themselvesrespectedthe noblest monumentof their fathers,they mighthavejustifiedthe resolvethat it should "_ never be degraded to private property. The inside was :_ damaged; but, in the middleof the sixteenthcentury,an eraof taste and learning,the exteriorcircumferenceof one _ thousandsix hundredandtwelvefeetwasstillentireand inviolate; a tripleelevationof fourscorearches,whichroseto the heightof one hundred and eightfeet. Of the present ruin the nephewsof Paul the Third are the guiltyagents; . _ andeverytravellerwhoviewsthe Farnesepalacemay curse thesacrilegeandluxuryoftheseupstartprinces,n Asimilar ; reproachis appliedto the Barberini; and the repetitionof _ injurymight be dreadedfromeveryreign,tillthe Coliseum was placed under the safeguardof religionby the most , liberalof the pontiffs,Benedictthe Fourteenth,whoconsecrateda spotwhichpersecutionand fablehad stainedwith thebloodof somanyChristianmartyrs,u A. I). i386 the senateand peoplegaveonethird of the Coliseumtothe Compagnia del Salvatoread SanctaSanctorum. ] 7,Of the Olivetanmonks. Monffaucon(p. x42)afllrmsthisfactfrom the memorialsof FlaminiusVacca(No. 72). They stillhoped, onsomefuture occasion,to reviveandvindicatetheir grant. 7sMter measuringthe priscus amphitheatrigyrns,Monffaucon(p. x42) only adds that it was entire under Paul III. ; tacendoclamat. Muratori (Annalid Italia, tom. xiv. p. 37x)morefreelyreportsthe guiltof the Farnese Pope and the indignationof the Roman people. Against the nephewsof Urban VIII. I have noother evidencethan the vulgar saying,"Quod non feceruntBarbari, fecere Barbarini," whichwas perhaps suggestedby the resemblanceof the words. [ThespellingBarbarini hereis intentionaland shouldnot be changed. ] ;4Asan antiquarianand a priest,Montfauconthus deprecatesthe ruinof the Coliseum: Quodsi nonsuoptemeritoatquepulchritudinedignumfulsset quod improhasaxceretmantis,indigna res utique in Iocumtot martyrum cruoresacrumtantoperesa_vitumesse.

208 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CH. LXXI WhenPetrarchfirstgratifiedhis eyeswitha viewof those monumentswhose scatteredfragmentsso far surpass the most eloquentdescriptions,he wasastonishedat the supine indifference75of theRomansthemselves;7ehe washumbled rather than elated by the discoverythat, excepthis friend Rienziandoneof the Colonna,a strangerof theRh6newas more conversantwiththese antiquitiesthan the noblesand nativesof the metropolisW The ignoranceand credulityof the Romansare elaboratelydisplayedin the old surveyof the city, whichwascomposedabout the beginningof the thirteenthcentury; and, withoutdwellingon the manifold errorsof name and place,the legendof the Capitol7smay provokea smileof contemptand indignation. "The Capitol," saysthe anonymouswriter,"is so namedas beingthe headof theworld; wheretheconsulsand senatorsformerly residedfor the governmentof the city and the globe. The strongandloftywallswerecoveredwithglassand gold,and crownedwitha roofof therichestand mostcuriouscarving. __Yetthe Statutesof Rome(1. iii. c. 8i, p. i8_) imposea fineof 5ooaurei onwhosoevershalldemolishanyancientedifice,ne ruirdscivitasdeformetur, et ut anfiquaa_dificladecoremurbis perpetuorepresentent. In hisfirstvisitto Rome(A. D. x337; seeM_moiressur Pdtrarque,tom. i. p. 322, &c. ),Petrarchis struckmutemiraculoreturn tantarum,et stuporis mole obrutus. . . . Pra_sentiaveto, mirum dictu, nihil imminuit: vere major fait Roma majoresquesunt reliqui_ quam rebar. Jam non orbem abh_curbedomitum,sedtamserodomitura,miror(Opp. p. 6o5; Familiares, ii. I4; Joanni Columna:). 77HeexceptsandpraisestherareknowledgeofJohn Colonna. Qui enim hodiemagisignarireturnRomanarum,quam Romanicives? Invitus dico, nusquamminusRomaeognosciturquam Rome. 7sAfter the descriptionof the Capitol, he adds, statu_eerant quot sunt mundi provincim;et habebat quw. libetfinfinnabulumad collum. Et erant ita per magicamartem dispositm,ut quando aliquaregio RomanoImperio rebeUlserat, stafimimago illiusprovincimvertebat se contra illam; unde tinfinnabulumresonabatquodpendebatad collum; tuncquerates Capitolii qui erantcustodessenatui, &c. Hementionsan exampleof the Saxonsand Suevi,who, after they had beensubdued byAgrippa, againrebelled; finfinnabulumsonuit; sacerdosqui erat in speculoin hebdomad_senatoribus nunfiavlt; Agrippa marchedbackand reducedthe Persians(Anonym. in Montfaucon,p. 297, 298).

A. . . _4oo-_soo]OF THE ROMANEMPIRE 209 Belowthecitadelstooda palace,ofgoldforthegreatestpart, decoratedwith preciousstones,and whosevaluemightbe estimatedat onethird of theworlditself. The statuesof all theprovinceswerearrangedin order,eachwitha smallbell suspendedfrom its neck; and such wasthe contrivanceof art-magic79that, if the provincerebelledagainstRome,the " statueturnedroundto that quarter of the heavens,thebell : rang, the prophet of the Capitolreportedthe prodigy,and the senatewas admonishedof the impendingdanger. " A secondexampleoflessimportance,thoughof equalabsurdity, maybe drawnfromthe twomarblehorses,led bytwonaked youths,whichhavesincebeentransportedfromthe bathsof Constantineto the QuirinalHill. The groundlessapplicationof the namesof Phidiasand Praxitelesmay perhapsbe excused;but theseGreciansculptorsshouldnot have been removedabovefourhundredyearsfrom the age of Pericles tothat of Tiberius; they shouldnot havebeentransformed intotwophilosophersor magicians,whosenakednesswasthe symboloftruth and -knowledge,whorevealedto the emperor his most secret actions,and, after refusingall pecuniary recompense,solicitedthehonourof leavingthiseternalmonumentof themselves. 8° Thus awaketo the powerof magic, theRomanswereinsensibleto the beautiesof art: no more than fivestatueswerevisibleto the eyesof Poggius; and,of themultitudeswhichchanceor designhad buriedunderthe ruins, the resurrectionwasfortunatelydelayedtill a safer and more enlightenedage. 81 The Nile,whichnow adorns v*The samewriteraffirmsthat Virgilcaptusa Romanisinvlsibillterexiit ivitqueNeapolem. ARomanmagician,inthe xithcentury,is introducedby Williamof Malmesbury(de GestisRegumAnglorum,1. ii. p. 86); andin the timeofFlaminiusVacca(No. 8t, io3)itwasthevulgarbeliefthatthestrangers (theGoths)invokedthedemonsforthediscoveryofhiddentreasures. 80Anonym. p. _89. Montfaucon(p. t9I)justlyobservesthat,ifAlexander be represented,these statuescannotbe the workof Phidias(Olympiad lxxxiii. ),or Praxiteles(Olympiadcir. ), who lived beforethat conqueror (Plin. Hist. Natur. xxxiv, i9). 8tWilliamof Malmesbury(1. li. p. 86, 87)relatesa marvellousdiscovery _ OL. Xll. -- 14

2Io THEDECLINEANDFALL [Cn. LXXa theVatican,had beenexploredby somelabourersin digging a vineyardnearthe temple,or convent,ofthe Minerva; but the impatientproprietor,whowastormentedby somevisits of curiosity,restoredthe unprofitablemarble to its former grave. _ The discoveryof a statue of Pompey,ten feet in length,was the occasionof a law-suit. It had beenfound undera partition-wall:the equitablejudgehad pronounced that the headshouldbe separatedfrom the body,to satisfy theclaimsof thecontiguousowners; andthe sentencewould havebeenexecuted,if theintercessionof a cardinaland the liberalityof a pope had not rescuedthe Roman herofrom i thehandsof his Barbarouscountrymen. _ Butthe cloudsof Barbarismweregraduallydispelled; and thepeacefulauthorityof Martin theFifth andhis successors restoredthe ornamentsof the city as wellas theorderof the ecclesiasticalstate. The improvementsof Rome,sincethe fifteenthcentury,havenot beenthe spontaneousproduceof freedomand industry. The firstand mostnaturalroot of a greatcityisthelabourandpopulousnessoftheadjacentcountry, whichsuppliesthe materialsof subsistence,of manufactures,and of foreigntrade. But the greaterpart of the Campagnaof Rome is reducedto a dreary and desolate wilderness;the overgrownestatesof the princesand the clergyare cultivatedby thelazy handsof indigentand hopeless vassals; and the scanty harvests are confinedor ex(. *_. IXxo46)of Pallas, the son of Evander,whohad been slainby Turnus: the perpetuallight in his sepulchre,a Latin epitaph,the corpse,yet entire, of ayounggiant, theenormouswoundin his breast(pectusperforatingens), &c. If thisfablerests onthe slightestfoundation,weimaypity the bodies, as wellas the statues,that wereexposedto the air in a Barbarousage. s2Prope porficumMinerva,,statua est rccubantis,cujus caput integr,l effigietanta_magnitudinis,ut signaomniaexcedat. Quidamad plantandas arboresscrobesfaciensdetexit. Adhocvisendumcurepluresin diesmagis concurrerent,strepitumadeunfium fastidiurnquepert_sus, horti patronus congestS,humotexit(PoggiusdeVarietateFortuna_,p. 12). mSeethe Memorialsof FlaminiusVacca,No. 57, P-Ix, i2, at the endof the Roma Anticaof Nardini(z7o4,in 4to).

^. v. ,4oo-,5oo]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 2Ix portedfor the benefitof a monopoly. A secondand more artificialcauseof thegrowthof a metropolisisthe residence of a monarch,the expenseof a luxuriouscourt, and the tributesof dependentprovinces. Thoseprovincesandtributes had beenlostin the fall of the empire; and, if some streamsof thesilverof Peruand thegoldofBrazilhavebeen attractedby the Vatican,the revenuesof the cardinals,the feesof office,the oblationsof pilgrimsand clients,and the remnantof ecclesiasticaltaxesafforda poorand precarious supply,whichmaintains,however,the idlenessof the court andcity. The populationof Rome,far belowthe measure of thegreatcapitalsof Europe,doesnot exceedonehundred andseventythousandinhabitants;_ and,withinthespacious enclosureof the walls,the largest portionof thesevenhills is overspreadwith vineyardsand ruins. The beauty and splendourof the modemcitymay be ascribedto the abuses of the government,to the influenceof superstition. Each reign(theexceptionsarerare)has beenmarkedbythe rapid elevationof a new family,enrichedby the childlesspontiff at the expenseof the churchand country. The palacesof thesefortunatenephewsare the most costlymonumentsof eleganceand servitude; the perfect arts of architecture, painting,andsculpturehavebeenprostitutedintheirservice; and theirgalleriesand gardensare decoratedwiththe most preciousworksofantiquity,whichtasteorvanityhasprompted them to collect. The ecclesiasticalrevenueswere more decentlyemployedby the popesthemselvesin the pompof the Catholicworship; but it is superfluousto enumerate theirpiousfoundationsofaltars,chapels,andchurches,since theselesserstarsareeclipsedbythesunoftheVatican,bythe domeof St. Peter,the mostgloriousstructurethat everhas kInthe year_7o9,the inhabitantsof Rome(withoutincludingeightor ten thousandJews)amountedto x38,568souls(Labat,Voyagesen Espagne et en Italie,tom. iii. p. 2x7,218). In x74othey hadincreasedto x46,o8o; andin x765,I leftthem,withoutthe Jews, x6x,899. I am ignorantwhether theyhavesincecontinuedin a progressivestate.

2x2 THE DECLINE AND FALL [CIt. LXXI beenappliedto the useof religion. The fameof Juliusthe Second,Leothe Tenth, and Sixtusthe Fifth is accompanied by the superiormeritof BramanteandFontana,of Raphael and Michael-Angelo;and the samemunificencewhichhad been displayed in palaces and templeswas directedwith equal zeal to reviveand emulatethe labours of antiquity. Prostrateobeliskswereraised fromthe groundand erected in the most conspicuousplaces; of the elevenaqueductsof the Caesarsand Consuls,three were restored; the artificial rivers wereconductedover a long seriesof old or of new arches,todischargeintomarblebasonsa floodof salubrious andrefreshingwaters; andthespectator,impatienttoascend the stepsof St. Peter s,is detainedby a columnof Egyptian granite, whichrises betweentwo lofty and perpetualfountains to the height of one hundred and twentyfeet. The map,the description,the monumentsof ancientRomehave beenelucidatedby the diligenceof the antiquarianand the student;_ and the footstepsof heroes,the relics,not of superstition,but of empire,are devoutlyvisitedby a new s The P_re Montfaucondistributeshisownobservationsinto twentydays, he should have styledthem weeks,or months,of his visitsto the different parts of the city (Diarium Italicum,c. 8--2o,p. io4-3oi). That learned Benedictinereviewsthe topographersof ancientRome; the firsteffortsof Blondus,Fulvius,Martianus,and Faunns,the superiorlabours of Pyrrhus Ligorins,had hislearning beenequal to his labours; the writingsof OnuphrinsPanvinius,qui omnesobscuravit,and the recentbut imperfectbooks of Donatus and Nardini Yet Monffauconstill sighsfor a more complete plan and descriptionof the old city, whichmust be attained by the three followingmethods: i. The measurementof the spaceand intervalsof the ruins. 2. The studyof inscriptionsand the placeswheretheywere found. 3. The investigationof all the acts, charters, diaries of the middle ages, whichnameany spot or buildingof Rome. The laboriouswork,such as Monffaucondesired,must be promotedby princelyor public munificence; but the great modernplan of Nolli(A. D. 1748)would furnish a solid and accuratebasisfortheancienttopographyofRome. [WehavenowLanciani s greatplaninforty-sixsheets: FormaUrbisRomm(publishedbytheAcademy of the Lincei). For excavationsin recenttimessee espedallythe seriesof the Bullettinodella Commissionearcheologicacomunale di Roma, 1872 e_sqq. ; Notizledegli Scavi, 1876e$sqq. ; Mittheilungenof the German arch_ol. Institute, R6mischeAbtheilung,1886¢tsqg. ]

^. D. ,4_-- 5OO]OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 2I3 raceof pilgrimsfrom theremote,and oncesavage,countries of theNorth. Ofthesepilgrims,andof everyreader,theattentionwillbe excitedbyan Historyof the DeclineandFall of the Roman Empire:the greatest,perhaps,and most awfulscenein the historyof mankind. The various causes and progressive effectsare connectedwith manyof the eventsmostinteresting in human znnals: the artful policyof the C_esars,who longmaintainedthename and imageof a freerepublic;the disorderof militarydespotism;the rise,establishment,and sectsof Christianity;the foundationof Constantinople;the divisionof the monarchy; the invasionand settlementsof theBarbariansof Germanyand Scythia; the institutionsof thecivillaw; the characterand religionof Mahomet; the temporalsovereigntyofthe popes; therestorationanddecay of theWesternempireof Charlemagne;the crusadesof the LatinsintheEast ; theconquestsoftheSaracensandTurks; theruin of the Greekempire; the state and revolutionsof Romein the middleage. The historianmay applaudthe importanceand varietyof his subject; but, whilehe is consciousof his own imperfections,he must often accusethe deficiencyof his materials. It wasamongthe ruins of the Capitolthat I firstconceivedthe ideaof a workwhichhas amusedandexercisedneartwentyyearsofmylife,andwhich, howeverinadequatetomy ownwishes,I finallydeliverto the curiosityand candourof thepublic. LAUSANh E, June27, x787.

APPENDIX ADDITIONAL NOTES BY THE EDITOR SOURCES FOR THE SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE, A. D. x453--(CHAP. LXVIII) ForthesiegeofConstantinople,Gibbonhad onlythreeaccountsby eye-witnesses,thatofPhrantzes,thatofLeonardusofChios,andthatof CardinalIsidore(seeabove,p. 6,notei=). Severalotherrelationsbypersonswhowereinthecityduringthesiegehavebeenpublishedduringthe presentcentury. ChiefamongtheseistheJournalofaVenetian,NicolbBarbaro:Giornale dell assediodiConstantinopoli1453,editedbyE. Cornet,1856. I Itis invaluablefordeterminingthediaryofthesiege;butitismarkedbyhostility andspitetowardstheGenoese,especiallyGiustiniani,andbycontemptfor theGreeks. An"Informacion"sentby Francescode Tresvesto the Cardinald Avignon,and also by Jehan Blanchinand JacquesTedardi(or Tedaldi)of Florence,onthecaptureof Constantinople. EditedinMarteneand Durand, Thesaurus,i. p. x8x9 sqq. (x7x7)andin Chartier sChrordquesde Charles VII. ,iii. p. 20 sqq. ,i858. Tedardiwas an eye-witness. He escapedby throwinghimselfintothe water,and was rescuedby a Venetianboat. UbertinoPusculoof Brescia,whowasalsofortunateenoughtoescape,has leftanaccountofthelastepi_de ofthehistoryofthe Empirein fourBooksof Latinhexameters. It contributeslittleenoughto our "knowledgeof facts. Thedescriptionof the siegedoesnotbegintillthemiddleofthe Thirdbook. IntheFirstbookthereis anaccountof thebattleof Varna,andmuchabout theecclesiasticalantagonismof the GreeksandLatins. The Secondbegins withthedeathof. John Paiaeologusandthe accessionof Constantine,and containsa virulentdescriptionof the moraldegenerationof the peopleof Constantinople(v. Ii 7 sqq. ):-obscaenasanctaepietatisin urbe necspeciesnecformafuit,necgratiarecti, necvirtutisamor(v. x4I). Theworkispublishedin Ellissen sAnalekten,vol. iii. ,asanappendix,i857. AnanonymousGreekpoem,in politicalverses,underthe titleof Capture of Constantinople( A_. _0",_K_vo rct) r,_otrtr&k_o_),is misnamed, for it touchesonlyincidentallyonthefactsof thesiegeand isin thisrespectoflittle historicalimportance. It is reallyan appealto the powersof the WestThere is a goodanalysisof the contentsin Ellissen sAnalekten,vol. iii. , Appendix,p. 84s_q. 2I 5

216 APPENDIX FrenchandEnglish,Spanishand Germans _ _ ow _al A /_i_ ,#es,XlravMXow,"AXat_tPovt to combineandrecoverConstantinoplefromtheunbelievers. The Venetians areespeciallyencouragedand urgedto setthe example-"_ BevvrDdvoL_,p_vq_o_,_rpa_aio__ t+ru_t_Lo+. The Hungarians,Servians,and Walachiansare incitedto avengethe defeat of Varna: -"g2BX,*xla_ o_68Mfl71,Y. _pfllcL_ ovelzt_, Ovlze_ac_-ai scdX_aX_,ct?_,O_),gplaXvr_M_. The author,thoughorthodox,wasnotextremein hisecclesiasticalviews. He probablylivedwithinreachof Mohammad sarm, forhe willnot disclosehis name :-T_p_cKew_ ravog,,K_tZ_p6BcaT_JVomi/aou, V&/_+7Tb _dJpouvo_z 0Xk0lrt_b ro,z_r++"t p_i_a_, but gives hisfriendsthe means of knowinghis identitybymentioningtwo bodilymarks-- a blackmoleonthe littlefingerofhisfighthand,andanother of the samesizeonhislefthand (vv. zo,2osqq. ). The workwas firstedited by F_Jlissenin vol. iii. of hisAnalekten(i857), with introduction,translation, andanalysi%underthetifleDirgeof Constantinople(Op_vo_K+av*+ +tvr+vo_r6X_o+ -- a misnomer,for it is nota dirgebut a tearfulappeal. Legrandpublished an improvedtext in _88oin vol. i. of his Bibl. grecquevuJgalre,p. z69sqq. A Slavonicaccount, writtenprobablyby a Slavof some of the Balkan countries,is alsopreserved,and has beenpublishedby Sreznevsk. iunder the title: SkazaniiaovziatiiTsargradabezbozhnymturetskymsultanom,in the Zapiskiof the 2nd Di_Ssionof the St. Petersburg Academyof Science,vol. i. p. 99sqq. ,z854. We have another Slavonleaccount,written in a mixture of Polishand Servian,bya Janissary+of Mohammad,namedMichael,whotookpart in the siege. Hewasa Servianof Ostrovi_,and inhislateryearshe wentto Poland and wrote his Memoirs,whichwere edited,as "PamiemikiJaniczara," by Galezowskyin i828, in voI. v. of his collectionof Polish writers (Zbior Pisarzow Polskieh). This relation is especiallyvaluableas writtenfrom outside,byonewhoknewwhat was goingon in the campof the besiegers. It hasbeenutilisedbyM. Mijatovlchin hisaccountof the siege(seebelow). A report by the Father Superiorof the Franciscanswho wasat Galata duringthe siegewasprinted by Muratori in vol. z8(p. 7o_)of the Scr. Rer. It. : Rapporto del Superioredei Franciscanipresente all am+edioet alla presa di Constantinopoli. It seemsto haveescapedthe noticeof Gibbon. An account by ChristoforoRiccherio (La presa di Constantinopoll)is insertedin Sansovino sDell HistoriaUniversaledell origineet imperiode Turchi (z564), p. 343sqq. Abraham,an Armenianmonk, who was presentat the siege,wrotea "Meflodie_Mgiaque,"which was translatedinto Frenchby Brossetand printedin St. Martin s ed. of Lebeau sHistoiredu Bas-Empire(m d. p. 307 ,qq. ) whichBrossetcompleted. AdamdeMontaldo,of Genoa: DeConstantinopolitanoexcidioad nobilissimum juvenem MelleducamCicalam,amicum optimum; edited by C. Desimoni,in the AttideliaSocietkLiguredi stoHapatHa,x. p. 325sqq. ,1874. Besidestheserelationsof eye-witnesseswehavesomeadditionalcontem

APPENDIX 2i7 poraryaccountswhichwerenot accessibleto Gibbon. The mostimportant of thesesources,Critobulus,has been ,s_. kcnof in Appendixx of vol. xi. ZorziDolphinwroteanaccountofthe siegeandcaptureof Constantinople in z453,"whichwas publishedby G. M. Thomasin the Sitzungsberichteof the BavarianAcademy,i868. His sourceswerethe reportsof Leonardoof Chios,Philip da Rimano, and anon)maouseye-witnesses. He adds little to the story. A letter of the Genoese"Podest_. of Per-a,"written on June 23, x853, givinga briefaccountof the cap. ture,waspublishedby Sylvestrede Sacyin Noticeset extraits desmanuscriptsde la biblioth_quedu Roi, xl. x, p. 74, x827. Documentsthrowinglight on the policyof the Genoesein the fatal year will be found in Vigna s Codicc diplomaticodelle ColonicTauro-Liguri, durantcla Signoriadell uficiode S. Georgio(x453-I475),x868. Of little importancefor the siegeis the Amyris of Filelfo--on the life and deeds of Mohammad in 4 Books- publishedin Hopf s Chroniques : grdco-romanes. The Avti_X_/garfisKwrarav rtt,6=oXn_(the anonymous writer of these verses was possibly a Cretan) published by Legrand, Collectionde monuments,Nouv. s&. _v. p. 85 sqq. , and the Oafiro_on the _apture,published byLampmsin "Eo rla,z886,p. 821sqq. ,tell us nothing. AMonodyof AndronicusCallistus,in Migne sPatr. Gr. , i6I, p. i124, teachesus,as Paspateshaspointedout, that therewas waterinthe ditchoutsidethewesternwall. The finalsceneofthe siegeisbrieflydescribedinSpanduginoCantacusino s Deliaoriginede principiTurchi (whichis includedin Bk. ii. of Sansovino s Dell Historia Universale,p. x87sqq. ),p. x95-6. There are a number of other documentsextant whichhave not yet been printed. C. Hopf and A. Dethierhad designedand preparedthe publicationofthesein theMonumentaHungar. Hist. ,alongwithmanysourceswhich hadbeenalreadypublished. Fourvolumesliein MS. ; a descriptionof their contentsisgivenbyKrumbacherinhisGesch. der byzantinischcnLittcratura, p. 311-12. Brossetgatheredsome material from Armenianand Georgiansources; see thelast vol. of St. Martin sedit. of Lebeau sHistoiredu Bas-Empire. The Turkish authoritiesare of verylittle valuefor the siege; they were utilisedbyHammer. The earliestOttomanhistoriansbelongto the end of the z5thcentury,viz. the Historyof the great-grandsonof Ashik-Pasha(who livedunder Murad I. ); the anonymouschronicle,Tarikhi Ali Osman; the Worid-viewof Neshri. SeeHammer sIntroductionto hisHistory. These earlierworkswere usedby the mostfamousof Ottomanhistorians,Sad adDin,inhisCrownof Histories(writtenunderMurad lII. , endof I6th cent. ). The followingis a listof the chiefmodernaccountsof the siegethat have appearedsinceGibbonwrote:Hammer,Geschichtedes osmanischenReiches,i. p. 398 sqq. ,I834. Zinkeisen,GeschichtcdesosmanischenReiches,i. p. 8ix sqq. ,184o. Stassulevlch(J. ), Osada i VziatieVizantiiTurkami, I854. Sreznevski,Poviesto Tsargradic,x855. Mordtmann(A. D. ), BelagernngundEroberungConstantinopelsdutchdie Tlirkenim Jahre x453; 1858. (This had two advantagesover previous accounts. Mordtmannknewthe ground; and he madeuseof the diaryof Baxbaro. ) Finlay,Historyof Greece,vol. ilL,,p. 5_e3"sqq. Broadribband Besant, Consta t" op , a sketch of its historyfrom foundationto its conquestbythe Turks, x879.

2x8 APPENDIX Vlasto(E. H. ), Lesderniersjoursde Constantinople,_883. Paspat_s(A. G. ), lloXLoprl_rct_ltk_oo. Lt"r_lsKoavo"ram _voo a 6X_tIrtrb_ _, "O0_la. av_v_,_r_, r453; x89o. Mijatovich(Ch. )Constantine,Last Emperorof the Ot_eks,i892. The sourceshave been dealt with in an article by P. Pogodinin the ghurnal rain. narod, prosy. ,vol. 283,August,z889. A. vanMillingen sByzantineConstantinople(x899),whichappearedtoo lateto be used in the preparationof thisvolume,containsmuchmaterialfor the studyof the siege,andmany difficultiesin theepisodeare discussed. It may be observedthat the author argueswith considerableforce from the viewthat the route of the Turkish shipsacrossthe hillswasbythe valleyof DolmaBagtch_,a distanceof threemiles. This isthe viewadoptedabove, P. 83, note63.

INDEX BY MP,s. J. B. BxmY PART I. TO TEXT AND NOTES AASl(Asi),fatherofAmmu,ix. , x7_. Abd-al-Rahman,governorof Africa Aazaz,castleof,ix. , x65. [A. D. 749],ix. , 230_tote. Abac_, vii. ,378note. Abd-al-RahmanIII. , Caliphof Spain, Aban,Arabiansoldier,deathof,ix. ,x45- ix. , 262 s_. ; magnificenceof, Abates,Scythiancolonyof,inHungary, 265--7. vi. , 2 note; destroythe IllyrianAbd-al-Rahman,orAbderame,victories frontierfortresses,x2note. of,ix. ,252sg. ; defeatedbyCharles AbbasShah,vii. , 222andnote. Martel,256s_. ; death,256. Abbas,son of Motassem,at Amorium,Abdas,bishop,destroysthefiretemple ix. ,292-3. at Susa,v. ,329andnote. Abbas,uncleofMahomet,at thebattle Abderame,seeAbd-al-l_-bman. of Honain,ix. , 76; posterityof, Abdication,Diocletian s,ii. , x89sq. 233; rewardedbyOmax,xx5. Abdullah,s_ Abdallah Abbasides,elevationof the, ix. , 258; Ab6lard,xii. , 79andnote. dynastyof,established,262; expira- Abgarus,last Kingof Edessa,i. , 266. fionof familyof, 295; fall of the, AbgarusV. , King of Edessa,ii. , 34t 3o5sq. note; correspondenceof with Abd-al-Aziz,son of Musa, treatyof, Christ,viii. ,3x3andnote. with Theodemir,ix. , 191 sg. ; Abibas,sonof Gamaliel,bodyof, exvalourof,x92; death,222. humed,v. ,ioo. Abd-al-Balddes,Abyssinianhistoryof, Ablavius(Ablabius),iii. ,x8onote,x92; ix. , r72note. deathof, x94; PraetorianPrefect, Abdallahdefeatsthe CaliphMervan, 378note,iv. , z2o. ix. , 26xsq. AborasorAraxes,i. , 245; ii. , x?5and AbdMlabibn Maimum al-Kaddah, note. founderof the Caxmathianmove- Abrahah,King of the Homerites,vii. , ment,ix. ,297note. 233; viii. , 63 and note; besieges AbdMlah,sonof Abbas,ix. ,2x. Mecca,3onote. Abdall_h,son of Abd-al-Motalleb,ix. , Abraham,nephewof JohnMaron,viii. , 3z; deathof,at Mum,78. x99. Abdallah,sonof Jaafar,ix. , x52. Abraham,opposesidolatry,ix. , 37; Abdallab. sonof Musa,ix. , 22x. placeof,in theKoran,39Abdall_b_sonof Said,invadesAfrica,Abu-Ayubor Job,companionof Maix. ,x92; valourof,x92. hornet,deathof,ix. ,239; hisgrave Abdallah,sonofZobeir,ix. ,202. (tv. rb_),xii. ,55andnote. Abd-al-Malek,caliph,conquestsof, in Abu-Bekx,publishesKoran,ix. , 42and Africa,ix. , 2o2. _tote; at battle of Bedr, 66-7; Abd-al-Motalleb,grandfatherof Ma- spreadsreligionof Mahomet,54; hornet,ix. ,29. flightof, fromMecca,58; chosen Abd-al-1_ahman,generalofCaliphMoa- byMahomet,8z-2; electedCaliph, wiyah,ix. ,238ttote. 92 s_l. ; death,93; conquerSthe 2x9

22o INDEX Arabs, zx2; virtuesof, Ix5; in- hornet,73;rewardedbyMahomet, variesSyria,I34s_. 76. Abu-Caab, emir of the AndalusianAbu-Taher,the Carmathian,ix. ,298sq. Arabs,ix. , 238. Abu-Taleb,uncleof Mahomet,ix. , 3x; Abu-Hafs,leaderof Sicilianrebels,x. , histestimonyto Mahomet,32note. 87nOte. Abu-Taleb,readAbuLahab,uncleof Abu-Hafs,seeAbu Caab. Mahomet,ix. , 56and no_e;death Abu-Horaira, on Mahomet,ix. , 32 of,57note. Abydus,iii. ,95. Abulfeda,ix. ,8; eraof,31note; Arabic Abyla,fairof,ix. , I51s_r. text of, edited by Gagnier, 53Abyssinia,Churchof,ii. ,273note;viii. , note; on burialof All, xoonote; 2o9 sqq. ; chrisfianised,iii. , 3Ix; on the Fatimites,xo6 note; his tradeof, vii. ,36sg. ; describedby Annales Moslemici,xt8 note;his Cosmas,23I _wte;Greekspeech account of Caliph l_,lervan,ix. , in,viii. ,x83; Portuguesein,2xosq_. u6o;of CaliphMuktadir,266;on Abyssinians,conquered,vii. , 230s_. ; the Bedoween,298; familyof, x. , their alliancewithJustinian,232; 294note,396note;spectatorofthe artArabrace,viii. ,208. warinSyria,326;onthecrusaders,Acacius,BishopofAmida,redeemsthe xi. , 38 note; fights againstthe: PersiancaptiveS,v. ,33o. Moguls,z34note. Acacius, leaderof the Homoeans,iii. , AhulghaziBahadur,History of the 363note. Tartarsby,iv. ,a63note,272note; Acacius,masterofthe bears,vii. , xo. on ZingisK. han,xi. , t3o note,and Acacius,Patriarchof Constantinople, x32notes, vi. ,3o3. note; drawsuptheHenotiAbulpharagius,or GregoryBar He- con,van. ,x63note. brmus,primateoftheEast,viii. ,89 Academics,i. , 38. note,x97andnote; onthe Arabs, Academyof the Platonistsat Athens, ix. , 5note;compendiousHistoryof: vii. , 76. xi8 note; DynastieSof, x83; on Acatzixes,vi. , 78;ruled overbyEllac, CaliphAlmamun,27o; on the sonof Attila,vi. , 76. Mongols,xi. , _54note. Accaloli,Italianfamilyof, in Greece, Abu-l-Waled,KingofGrenada,ix. ,232 xi. , 9a. note. Accarias,onRomanlaw,vii. , 3o2nOte; Abu-Moslem,rebellionof,ix. , 259sq. 3x9note. Abuna,headof the Abyssinianpriest- Accents,Greek,xi. , 286. hood,viii. ,2o9 andnote. i Acclamations,addressedto GreekEmAbundantiusexiledto Pityusby Eu-_ perors,ix. ,344. tropius,v. , 204andnote. i Acephali,Egyptiansectof,viii. ,x64and Abu-Obeidah,commandsArabianarmy: note. in Syria,ix. ,x37; attakingofDa-i Acesins,Novatianbishop,ilL,334and mascus,x481at battleof Yermuk, note. t58; besiegesJerusalem,x6o,An- Achaia,provinceof,i. , 3o. tiochandAleppo,t63; death,x69. Acheloum,takenbythe Turks,xJi. ,x7Abu-Rafe,servantof Mahomet,ix. , 7x Achelbns,battleof,x. ,33andnote. note. Achilles,the,oftheVandals,vii. ,86and Abfi-Sa id,sultan,deathof,xi. , x86,date note. of,/b,note. Achilleus,tyrant,ii. , x6xandnote. Ab0-S id,the Carrnathian,ix. , _98. Achin,promontoryof,vii. , 35. Abu Sophian[Abu-SofyAnibn Harb], Acholius,Bishopof Thessaloniea,bal>princeofMecca,ix. ,57-8;defeated tisesTheodosius,v. , xx andnote. byMahomet68; commandsexpe- Achrida,seeLychnidus. ditionof the nations,69; besiegeSAcolyth,officeof,ix. , 340. Medina,/b. ;adoptsreligionofMa- Acra,Mount,iv. , 75.

INDEX 22i Acreor Ptolemals,ii. , xi6; Emirof, note; Maximus,of Con. qtantius, treats with crusaders,x. , _54; iii. ,x99note. ConradIII. at, 28Inote; siegeof Adfi_dicaLio,vii. ,358note. (H89 ^. v. ), 305sqq. ; RichardI. Admiral,etymologyof that name, xi. , at, 3o9-1o; Louis IX. at, 322; 340-xandnote. metropolisof Latin Christians Adolius,v. ,359. 324; takenby Sultan Khalil,326 Adolphus,reinforcesAlaric,v. , 230 note. andnote;countofdomestics,237; AeropolitaGeorge,xi. , 26 note, 32 succeedsAlaric,256 sgq. ; allies note;Ministerof Vataces,54note; himselfwithJovinus,269;assassipunishedbyTheodoreLascaris11. notedat Barcelona,274; hisdeath 58; collectsletters of Theodore celebratedat Constantinople,275 Lascarls,/b. note. note. ActaDiurna,vii. ,312no/¢. Adoption,ceremonyof,x. , aa9 note. ActaSanctorum,v. ,36onote. Adorationof theemperor,ii. ,x83;eereActiacgames,restoredbyJulian,iv. ,4_ monyof,ix. ,34t. note. Adorno,Genoesegovernor,aecompaActions,rightof judicial,vii. , 366s_. niesAmttrathII. to Europe,xi. , Ad,tribeof,ix. , 56. 222. AdamandCl_risseau,workonSpalatro,Adrian,seeHadrian. ii. , i96 note. Adrumetum,cityof,surrenderstoBell Adam,placeof, in the Koran,ix. , 39; sarius,vii. ,98; destroyedbyAnapocryphalbooksof,lb. note. talas,vii. , a4o. Adarman,generalofNushirvan,reduces Adulis,seaport,vii. ,37andnote,_32. Syria,viii. ,52. Adultery,Germanpunishmentof, i. , Adarne,passesof,iii. ,215. 291 and note; Romanlaws conAdauctus,martyr,iii. ,76. cerning,vii. ,376sqq. ; declaredto Addamationesgraves,i. , I_5 note. be a capitaloffence,381. Addttus(Adda*)Doarineo1,viii. , 3_3 Adventus,Praetorianprefect,i. , r76. note. Advocatus,iii. ,r33note. Addison,Mr. ,bigotryof,viii. ,3x3note, zEdesius,the Platomst, iv. , 52; at xi. , 271note,xii. , x9xnote. Pergamns,56. Addua,riverof Lombardy,crossedby zEdui,Gallictribe,iii. ,x62andnote. Alaric,v. , 152; battle of the, vi. , AEgze,cityin Cilicia,v. ,358. 3xo. /Egidius,master-generalof Gaul,revolt Add or Saphadin,brotherof Sultan of,vi. , 116; death,ib. ; character, Saladin,x. , 3xx. x15note; defeatsRicimerat OrAdela,wifeof Raymondof Toulouse, leans,13x; electedKing by the x. ,=_7note. Franks,=x2note. Adenulf[De Excidia urbis Acamis], Aegilus,stationof, viii. , 254note. x. ,326note. , EllaCapitolina,ii. , 27x; iv. , 75; ix. , Aderbijanor Media,conqueredbythe 16oandnote. Moslems,ix. , _6note; conquered. _Aianus,leaderof the Bagandae,ii. , byTogrul,x. , x58. x52andnote. AdhadelDowlat,tyrantof Persia,ix. , _Elianusor Laelianus,seeLollianus. xoonote. _. lius Gallus,invadesArabia, ix. , z2 Adharbij_n,seeAderbijan. note. Adhed {Adid],last Fatimitecaliphof /EliusPaetus,tripartiteof,vii. , 3_o. Egypt,x. ,_93andnote. 2Emilianus,emperor,ii. , 5o. Adh6mar,Bishopof Puy,x. , r99,2x8, /Emilianus,governorof Pannonia,re250;death,259- volt of,ii. ,2o, 21. Adiabene,marchof Julianthrough,iv. , ,_mooa,ii. ,246andno/_;resistsMaxi12o; nameof Assyria,r27note. mus, v. , 38; siegeof, by TheoAdiabenicus,titleof Diocletian,ii. , x78 dosius,4t; Alaricat, x83andnote.

222 INDEX AEneas,galleyof,preservedatRome, persecutionoftheChristiansin,by vii. ,u62note. Maximin,Hi. ,75;religiousdiscord . _. . neasof Gaza,his descriptionof the in,4o5sgq. ;CountRomanusin,iv. , Africanconfessors,vi. , z99 and 33I sqq. ; rebellionof Firmusin, note. u33sqq. ;Theodosiusin, 234sq. ; Sylvius(PlusII. ), foundsUs,i- Africadescribed,237sq. andnotes; versityof Basil, xi. , 254 note; Gildo srevoltin,v. , x26sqq. ; reeffortsagainsttheTurks,xii. ,62; voltof Bonifacein,34usqg. ;Vanat coronationof FredericIII. , x58 dalinvasionof, 344;Donatistpernote,z69note;epigramof,x97and secutionin, 346and notes; desonote. lated by Vandals,349 and 350; zEolus,tragedyof Euripides,v. , 267 Va_dalpersecutionin,vi. ,x9o_qq. ; note. reducedbyBel/saxius,vii. ,97_qq. ; zF_wnor2_mano_/onoftheDeity,Gnustic date of conquestof, 88 note; conceptionof,iii. , 343andnote. CatholicChurchre-establishedin, Aerialtribute,vii. ,43. to9; taxedbyJustinian,_35; re. _schines,vii. , 74; onAlexander,ix. , voltof Stozain, _38sg. ; rebellion xu7note. of the Moorsin, u4osqq. ; desola_,sculapius,i. , 4r; islandof, vi. , t35; lion of, u4u; Saraceninvasionof, templeof,at Lambesa,vii. ,xuo. ix. ,x9xs_g. ; finalreductiono[,uo4 AEslii,inhabitantsof the Balticcoast, sg. ; Christianityextinctin,23osq. ; iv. , u46andnote; bringamberto revoltsfromthe Caliph,ix. , 3ox; Theodoric,vi. , 3x7aadnote. Normanconquestsin,x. . *3osg. /Eteriarch,o/fleeof,ix. ,340andnote. Agapae,ii. ,3u3. /Ethiopia,i. , u; ii. ,_74note; tribesof, Agathaxclddes,geographer,ix. , u note, joinGildotheMoor,v. ,z32;saved 4 note; date of his Historica,u3 bythe Portuguese,viii. ,uxx. note. AEthiopians,vii. ,286note;threethou- Agathias,ontestamentof Arcadius,v. , sand at battle of Ascalon,x. , 3,9andnote; describestheFranks, 259. vi. ,237andnote;continueshistory Ae. tins,hostagein campof Alaxic,v. , ofProcopius,vii. ,7note;editionof *97; generalof Plac/dia,340and Leyden,8 note;onAnthemius,50; note; supportsJohn, the usurper, onPersia,2oxand note;onLazic 34_;battlewithBonifa_e,353; his wax,2x3note,227 nolo,28o and fl/ght,/3. ; hisrestoration,vi. , 4_ note. hisgovernment,/3,sqq. ;allieshim- Agathocles,iv. , I45noteselfwiththeHurtsand Alan/,42; Agathyrsi,tribesof,iv. , 285. portraitof, by Renatus,ib. note; AgannumorSt. Maurice,monasteryof, subduestheFranksandSuevi,/3. ; foundedbySigismund,vi. , _28and defeatsClodion,5o; his son sbe- note. trothal,78;hisdeath,/3. Agentesin rebus,Hi. ,rSt andnote. Aetius,surnamedthe Atheist,Hi. ,35I Agiamoglans,Turkishclassof,xi. , 228. andnote;favouredbyGallns,37o. Agilo,general,iv. ,35z_tolia,recoveredbyJohnCantacuzeneAglab,lieutenantof Haxuo,ix. , 3oL xi. , ro$. Aglabites,usurptheprovincesofAfrica, Afghan/stan,GhOriddynastyof,xi. , x37 ix. , 286. note. Aglae,a Romanlady,Hi. ,77. Afrasiab,Emperorof Touraa,x. , z57 Agnats,in Romanlaw,vii. ,854,$60. note;"towersof," xfi. ,x52. Agnellus,viii. ,33x note. Afrasiabs,iv. ,273. AgnesorIrene,daughterof Henryof Africa,provinceof, i. ,32,and33;trib- Brunswick,wifeofAndroaicus1II. , ute,204,sos; revoltsfromMaxi- xi. , ro3and note. rain,223; fromDiocletian,ii. ,i6o, Agnes,wifeofHenry,Emperorof Con16i; Ch. r_tlunlgyinj338andno/c/ _ople, Zi. I8.

INDEX 223 Agobard,BishopofLyons,vi. ,247_wte. _, seeA]emannl. Agria,vi. , 28andnote. A1-Amin,Caliphoi Bagdad,ix. , 264 Agricola,i. , 4 note,5 andnote; origin note. of,iii. ,x2onote. Alani,ii. , xo; invadeAsia,xxo; conAgriculture,i. , 65,66, 67; encouraged queredby the Hurts,iv. , 285; bythe Magi,258; ruinedby land inthe serviceofGratian,v. ,4; intax,iii. ,x58;oftheeasternempire, vadeSpain,27_; jointheVandals, vii. , 28s¢. ; in AsiaMinorunder a76; colonyof,at Orleans,vi. ,43 Romaaus,viii. ,a65note. andnote; alliesof/Etins,/b. ; inAgrippa,buildsthePantheonatRome, vadeItaly,xz7 note; alliesof the i. , 55 note, and xii. , x93 note; Avars,vii. , x9oandnote. aqueductsof, v. ,_x9. Alankavak,virginmother,Seljukides, Agrippina,i. , x92andnote. derivedfrom,x. ,r57note. AgroCalvenfiano,Boethiusexecutedat, Alaon,monasteryof,viii. , 364note. vi. , 340note. Alaric,Kingof the Visigoths,vi. , 67; Abroad,BenJoseph,ix. , 6xnote. slainbyClovisat Vonill6,vi. , 232. Abroadibn Arabshah,xi. , x8x note, Alaric,the Goth, familyof, v. , _39 x87note;onBajazet,2o7. and note; revoltof, /3. _qq. ; in Abroad,sonofAbdAllah,ix. ,297note. Greece,x4osqq. ; entersAthens, Abroad,sonof Tfdfin,ix. ,303note. x4x; destroysEleusis,x43; retreats AhnafibnKaJs,subduesKhux_s_. n,ix. , to Elis, x43; escapesto Epixus, x26note. z44; allieshimselfwiththe EmAhriman,i. , _55,256andnote; nature perorof the East, x45; masterof,x. ,8. generalof EasternIllyrieum,/b. ; Aibak,husbandofa Mamelukequeen, King of the Visigoths,x47; in x. , 32znote. Italy,z48$q_. ;defeatedbyStilicho Aidin,Tuxkishchief,xi. , x6o;princenf, atPollenfia,x55; demandsaprovsubmitsto Murad,/b. note; sub- incejx83;demandshostages,x97; duedbyBajazetI. , x69. beforeRome,225; raisesthesiege, Aikaterina,Bulgarianprince. _,viii. ,aSx a28; negotiationsfor peace,231; note. takesOstia,235; declaresAttalus Aimoin,a Frenchmonk,hisaccountof emperor,_37; degradeshim,24o; Belisaxius,vii. ,x65note. sackofRome,a4Isflq. ;hismoderaAixlaChapelle,memorableduelat, vi. , tion,242; evacuatesRome,a52; 247 note; palaceand churchof hisprojects,254,255; deathand Charlemagneat, viii. , 346 note; funeral,256. xii. , x95. Alatheusand Saphrax,chiefsof the Ajax,sepulchxeof,iii. ,96. Ostrogoths,iv. ,288;sendambassaAjnadin,battleof,ix. , x2x*q. dorstoAntioch,294; atthe battle Akbah,lieutenantof Moawiyah,ix. , of Hadrianople,3x3; crossthe x97-8; Africanexpeditionof, x99 Danube,334; deathof Alatheus, sq. ; death,200. /b. AkhalEmir,x. ,87note. Alauda,Romanlegion,i. , x2note. Akindynos,Gregory,xi. , 3x9note. Alavivnsand Fritigern,judgesof the Akshehr,deathof Bajazetat,xi. , 2o5. Visigoths,iv. ,289andnote;leadthe Ala, lieutenantof the Abbasides,ix. , revoltof the Goths,297; at the 263. battleof Salices,303note. AIRad-DinMohaxamad,Shahof Ca- Alba,vii. , _3o note; interviewat, berizme,xi. , 137note. tweenambassadorsof Theodatus Alk-ad-Din,vizirofOrcha. n,reformsof, andJustinian,z3x; takenbyBellaft. ,x58andnote. sarius,x52. Aladin(I/til_h_0 defendsJerusalem,AlbaPompeiain Piedmont,i. , x24note. x. ,255. Alba,fiver,ii. ,H8 note. Aladin,Sultanof Iconlum,zi. , 156. AI-Bak. , i,ix. , x91note.

zz¢ INDEX Albania(Caucasian),L,8; Heradlusin,] name,28note;in GaulandItaly, viii. ,zo5andnote,xo6. [ 28note; alJtianeeofthe,withGalliAlbania(Illyrian),princeof, opposesI enus,ag;opposeClaudius,65note; Ottomans,zi. , x68note. [ invadeItaly,77; defeatedbyAureAlbanians(Caucasian),in the armyof[ lian,78;destroythewallofProbus, Sapor,iii. ,254 andnote. ] x:z; defeatedbyConstantius,z59; Albanians(IIlyrian),theirinvasionof in Alsace,iii. , a6o; defeatedby Greece,xi. ,xz5note;revoltof,3z8 Julian,_67; in Gaul,iv. , 2_3 st. , st. ; colonyof, in Calabria,32z 306 sq. ; defeatedby Majorian, and note; in the Peloponnesus, vi. , _o3 and note; derivationof xii. ,58. theirname,ax7; defeatedby(21oAlbano,Romanvillasat,x//. , roL vis, /b. and ax8; theirinstitutions, Albara,capturedby crusaders,x. ,a53 240; protectedbyTheodoric,320 note. and note; invadeItaly,vii. , 275; Al-Beithar,Arabianbotanist,ix. , 275 defeatof, by Narses,277; invade note. ItalyandaredefeatedbytheLomAlbengue,ii. ,x25note. bards,viii. ,27; theircouatryunder Alberic,revoltof,viii. ,38o-z; histitle Charlemagne,366;nameof,given senator,xii. ,84note. bytheGreeksto the Germans,x. , Albigeois,persecutionof, x. , x9 sq. ; 277note. etymologyofname,x9note. Alembic,275note,276. AlbinusClodius,governorofBritain,i. , Aleppo,churchof, ii. ,272; Julianat, x39,z4o; waxwith Severus,x49 iv. , zi7; besiegedbyNashirvan, sqq. ; death,z54. vii. , 208; resists]]alan, viii. , 72; Albinus,Prefectof Rome,v. 262. siegeof,bytheSaracens,ix. ,x63sq. ; Albinus,senator,accusedoftreason,vi. , castle of, D. and note; taken by 338. Nicephorus,3Io-lz; princesof, Albinus,the Pontiff,conversionof, v. , expelledbythe Syriandynastyof 79note. Seljuks,x. ,x77; undertheAtabegs, Al-Bocchari,editstheKoran,ix. ,43and 288; attackedby Saladin, 395; note. pillagedby the Moguls,xi. , z44; Albofleda,sister of Clovis,marries sackof,byTimour,x97. Theodoric,vi. , 2x8. Alexanderthe Great,Indianconquests Alboln,Kingof the Lombards,aasistsl of, i. , 35 and note; in Julian s Justinian, vii. , 266 note; early Cmsaxs,iv. , io8, zo9 note;hisfort prowess,viii. , 5; allies himself near the CaspianGates, vii. , 72; with the Avars, lb. ; destroysthe comparedto Be/is_. "us,I4o. kingdomof the Gepid_e,7 st. ; in- Alexander,Archbishopof Alexandria, vadesItalY,9sgq. ;Arianismof,to; iii. ,35° andnote. subduesgreatpartofItaly, _3sqq. ; Alexander,emperor,colleagueof ConbesiegesPavia,x3; murderedby stantineVII. , viii. ,264. his wifeRosamund,I5 sq. Alexander,generalof Justhdan,vii. , Albornoz,Cardinal,xii. , _52andnote. 244note. Alcantara,bridgeof,L,56. Alexanderof Diospolls,disgraceof,vii,, Alchymy,if. , x64,275note. 276. 382. A/ciat, on the Pandects,vii. , 33a AlexanderIII. , pope,assiststheLorenote. bards,viii. ,385; receivesembassy AldusManutius,printsGreekauthorsat fromConstantinople,x. , z37; proVenice,xi. , 20onote. nouucesseparationof Latinand Alemanni,Nicholas,quotesthe ] usti- GreekChurches,z38; definesthe nianiVita) vii. , 2 note; publishes rightof Papalelection,xii. , xo3-4 the SecretHistoryof Procopius,8 andnote;disqualifiesthe Colonna, note. z2oandno_. Alemanni,origin,ii. , 27; etymologyof AlexanderSeverus,sc¢Scverus.

INDEX 225 Alexander,sonofBasilI. , emperor,viii. , crowned,367; visitsEuropewith 25x. Montferrat,369;accusedofaposAlexandertheScribe(Logothete),viL,tasy,369-70;conducttowardthe 246andnote;calledPsalliction,ib. Lafins,37x;deathof,372-3. AlexanderV. ,pope,xii. ,x65andnote. AlexinsMourzoufle,seeMourzoufle. AlexanderVI. {Borgia],xii. ,x76. Alexius,son-in-lawofTheophilus,putAlexandria,i. , 63; massacreat, x74; chasesthepalaceofAnthemius,vi. , described,ii. ,55; tumultsat, under xa4 note. Gallienus,ib. and 56; seizedby Alexius,son of ManuelComnenus,x. , Firmns,93; taken by Diocletian, 335; governorof Trebizond,xi. , x6x;cornat, x63note;churchof to; foundsstate of Trapezusin 335; school of, iii. , 34o; Jews I2o4, ix note; succeededby his at, lb. ;Trinitariancontroversyat, stepson,H note. 344sq. ; siegeof,bySyrianns,390; Alexius Strategopoulos,general of tumultsat, underJulian,iv. , 99; MichmlPakcologus,xL,35; made earthquakeat, _59; temple of Cmsar,65-6. Serapisat, v. , 84sqq. ; libraryof AlfredtheGreat,translatesthe writings the Ptolemies,85note; libraryof ofBoethius,vi. ,34zandnote;sends Serapeum,87; museumof,vii. ,75; ambassadorsto Madras,viii. ,_9x. taken by Chosroes,viii. , 9I; Algardi,relid by,representingthe appatriarchof,lendsmoneyto Hera- pearanceof SS. PeterandPaul to clius,99note;siegeof, byAmrou, Attila,vi. , 74andnote. r79sq. ; dateof Saracenconquest Algebra,discoveryof,ix. , 274andnote. of, _Sx note; destructionof!Algezirein Spain,townof Julian,ix. , library at, x82 sqq. ; churchof 2_aandnote. St. John at, x8o; povertyof, re- Algiers,aristocracyof,i. , 245andnote; lievedby Charlemagne,x. , x83; Christianityrevivesat, ix. , 23a. takenbyShiracouh,a92. ALHurrinvadesGaul, A. I). 7x8, ix. , Alexandrians,characterof the, ii. , 55, 252note. 56. All, sonof AbuTaleb,sixty-ninesenAlexiadofAnnaComnena,x. ,x6note. tencesof,ix. , _9-2o,54, 55; aids AlexisdeMenezes,Archbishopof Goa, Mahomettoescape,58; valourof, viii. ,x93. 7x; marriesFatima,9o; characAlexiusI. ,sonof JohnComnenus,viii. , ter, 9x sq. ; renouncescaliphate, 285;character,287;takesConstan- 93; reign, 97 s_. ; defeat and tinople,/b. ; persecutesthe Pauli- death,zoo; tombof, at Cufa,/b. cians,x. ,XT;requestshelpfromthe note; one of the twelveImams, Latins,xx4;defeatedby Guiscard xos; posterityof,ib. at Durazzo,xx6;epistleof,to the AllPasha,vizirof Bajazet,xi. ,x7onote. Countof Flanders,xSr-aandnote; Alicantsurrenderedby Theodemirto ambassadorsof, at Placentia,x95; the Saracens,ix. , 2x9-2o. divertsthecrusadersintoAsia,2_2; AliceorAgnes,wifeof AndronicnsI. , policyof, towardscrusaders,227, viii. ,3o5. 2a9;failstoassistthematAntioch,iAligeru,brotherofTeias,vii. ,273; de248 and note; comparedto the l fendsCumin,274jackal,. OTx;successesagainstthe Aliquaca,Gothicchief,ii. , 258note. Turks,/b. sqq. iAliturus,a Jewishactor,iii. ,23. AlexiusII. ,Comnenus,EmperorofCon- AI-Jannabi,Arabianphysician,ix. , 53 stantinople,reign,viii. , 294sqq. ; note. newtidesintroducedby,ix. , 336. AI-Kaim,seeCayem. AlexiusIII. , Angelus,x. ,34o. Al-I_ta [AI-LAt],worshipof,x. ,56and AlexiusIV. , son of IsaacAngelus,his note. alliancewiththe crusaders,x. ,354 AUectns,ii. ,x56. sg. ; flightof, 366; restoredand Allier,fiver,vi. , 256. voL x_x. _ z5

226 INDEX Allis,battleof,ix. , xx9. Al-Sama,invadesGaul,ix. , aSanole. AUobich,barbariancommanderof the AltaiMountains,seeCal. guardsof Honorins,v. ,234- Alticri,Italianfamilyof,xfi. ,ao5. Allodiallandsin Gaul,vi. , aSZ. Altinum,city of, pillagedby Alaric" Alma,Mount,ii. , xa6. v. ,x98;destroyedbyAttila,vi. ,68. AI-Makkari,ix. , azonote. Alum,minesof,in Me. los,xi. , a2zna¢. Almamon,caliph,besiegesBagdad,ix. , AI-Uzzah(Uzzg),worshipof,ix. ,56and 264 note; wealthof, 265-6; en- note. courageslearning,269,_78 note; Alva,Dukeof,xii. ,_76note. subduesCrete,282sq. ; revoltof Alvare. z,Portuguesetraveller,vii. , 232 theprovincesunder,3o0sq. note. Al-Mamfan,seeAlmamon. Alypius,ministerof Julian,iv. , 79sq. Al-Mansor,caliph,encourageslearning,Al-ZfihirSayf-M-DinBarkflk,founds ix. , 26o,269; foundsBagdad,264 Burji dynasty(CircassianMarneandnote. lukes),xi. , x96note. Almeria,learningat, underthe caliphs,Amain,Kingofthe Goths,ii. ,9ix. , 27I; manufactureof silk at, Amalafrida,sisterofTheodoric,marries 326"-7. Thrasimond,vii. , x2aandnote. A1-Modain(the cities),winterresidenceAmalaric,grandsonof Theodoric,reofthe Persiankings,iv. , t37. storedto the throneof Spain,vi. , Al-Mohadesor PHncesof Morocco,ix. , 342. io5; fanaticismof, 232; x. , x3z. Amalasontha,daughterof Theodoric, Almondar,SaracenPrince,vii. ,205and vi. , 3i5 note; erectsmonumentof note,2o6. Theodoric,343; character,vii. ,I24 Almns,Kingof theHungarians,x. ,37 andnote;regentofItaly,/b. ;reigns note,38. with Theodahad,_26; exile and AI-Nagjar,meaningof, ix. , 6x note. death,_27. Al-NLsirNtis/x-M-DinFaraj,CircassianAmalasontha,granddaughterof TheodMameluke,xi. , x96note. j oric,marriesGermanus,vii. , 264. Alodes,tribeof,conversionof the,viii. ,IAmali,royallineof, v. ,274note. 208note IAmalphi,discoveryofthePandectsat, Alogians,ii. ,33anote. vii. , 335and note;Romancolony Alor,townof, takenbytheMoslems, at,viii. , 29; independenceof, £b. ; ix. , I32note. joinsLeagueof thesoutherncities, AlpArslan,sultanoftheTurkmans,x. , ix. , 288; dukesof, x. , 78-9 note; _6x;conquestsof, x62;defeatedby subduedbyRobertGniscard,xo2; Diogenes,x64; winsthe battleof tradeof, xo4-5,184;siegeof,ax9; Manzikert,x66;treatyof,withthe foundsthehospitalof St. Johnat empexor,tTO;dcath,XTX; tombof, Jenasalem,263 note; declineof, x7a. 334. Alphabet,Phoenician,i. , 3znote; My- AmairicorAmaury,KingofJenasMern, cenmansyllabary,_. x. ,265note;invadesEgypt,aga-3; AlphonsoIII. , Kingof Leon,ix. , _o8 wars of, 299. note. Amandns,Gallicianbishop,viii. , x79 AlphonsoMendez,CatholicPatriarciaof note. . ;Ethiopia,viii. ,axxandnote. Amandus,leaderof revoltin Gaul,ii. , Alphonsoof Castile,viii. ,389no/. _, x52andnote,257. Alphonsothe Chaste,Kingdomof,viii. , Amantins,eunuch,vii. , 2; death,4. 368. Amara,fortifiedbythe Paulicians,x. , Alps,passagesof the,ii. , 229andnote, to note. 23o; MaritimeAlps,oneof the Amari,on Saracensin Sicily,ix. , 284 sevenprovinces,v. ,286note;pas- note. sageof,byMajorian,vi. , xxoand Amastris,Genoesecolony,xii. ,55note. noU. Amaury,seeta,malric.

INDEX 227 Amazons,ii. . 94andnote. Romanmanners,v. , 208sqq. and Amber,i. , 69 and note; broughtto notes. Theodoric,vi. , 3z7and note. Ammon,themathematidan,his measAmblada,Aetiusat, iii. ,388note. urementof the wailsof Rome,v. , Amboise,conierenceof Clovis and 223. Alaricnear,vi. ,229. AI_aaoniLts, neo-Platonist,ii. ,198;John Ambrose,St. , iil. ,323note; epistleof, Philoponns,his last disciple,ix. , toTheodosius,iv. ,81andnote;his 183. treatiseonthe Trinity,v. , 3 note; Ammonius,the monk,viii. ,138. tolerationof, 28; early history,Amnesty,general,publishedbyHono3o, 3z; disputeswithJustina,3_ rius,v. , 262. sqq. ; friendshipwithTheodosius,Amogavares,xi. , 85 note; namefor 52; dealingswithTheodosius,55 SpaniardsandCatalans. sqq. andnotes;withEugenius,65; Amoror Hamalaod,codeof, vi. , 24o opposesSymmachus,77;onthc note. stateofItaly,vi. ,r54andnote;vii. ,Amorianwar,ix. ,28sqq. 317note;cathedralof,atMilan,Amorium,birthplaceofLeotheArviii. ,39L mcnian,viii. ,246no/e;destruction AmbrosiusAureliantheRoman,vi. ,276 of,25o;takenbytheSaracens,ix. , andnotes. 23; siegeof,by theSaracens, Amed_ctheGreat,ofSavoy,xi. ,1o4 292-3;siteof,292note. note. Amphilochius,BishopofIconium,v. 0 Amelius,neo-Platonist,ii. ,198. 12. Amelotdela Houssaie,vi. , 7t note. Amphipolis,undertheServians,xi. ,xt3 Amer,apostateArabian,ix. , 168. note. Amelia,rebuiltbyLeo,ix. ,_9o. Amphissa,taken by Boniface,xi. , 7 America,vi. , 295note. note. Amida,cityof,iii. ,254andnote;modernAmphitheatreof Titusat Rome,ii. ,t37 nameof, 254andnote; takenby andnotes,i38 andnote. s. Sapor,256 and note; capitalof Ampoulle,Sainte,vi. , 220note. Mesopotamia,iv. , 168; strength-Ampsaga,river,v. ,354. ened by the sieges of, vii. , 69 Amrou(Amr),ix. , 73; attemptonhis note,7o; destroyedby Chosroes, life, 99; acknowledgesMoaviii. ,88;takenbytheSaraceus,ix. , wiyah,1oo; at Damascus,x44; 17o; recoveredFby Nicephorus, birth,172; in Egypt, I73 sqq. ; 312; SeeDiaxbekir. interviewwith the prefect,t8o; Amiens,ii. ,159. administrationof,inEgypt,186sq. ; Amiaa,the Zahrite,ix. , 3I. canal of, betweenNile and Red Amir,Turkishprinceof Ionia,rescues Sea,187andnote;correspondence the EmpressIrenefromthe BUt- withOmar,x88note. garians,xi. , 162; deathof, _63. Amrou,brotherof Jacobthe Soilorite, Ammates,brotherof GeHmer,slainby ix. , 3o3. the Romans,vii. ,too. Amselfeld,battleof the,xi. , 168note. AmmianusMarcellinns,i. ,252note;ili. , AmurathI. , Sultan[Murad],reignand ZTXnote; onEusebius,225; as a conquestsof,xi. ,166sqq. ;iustituteS writer,225note,228note;attended the Janizaries,i68; death, 169; Ursieinus,242note;at Amida,258 punishesSauzes,x76. no/e; on ConstantiusII. , iv. , 26 AmurathII. , Sultan,marriesServian note; onthe Christians,iil. , 4o8; princess,xi. , 207note; reignof, onJulian s clemency,iv. , 63; on 221;takes Hadrianople,222; bethe templeat Jenxsalem,81; in siegesConstantinople,224-5;eraPersia,14i inote;on the Church bassyof, to JohnPalmologus,258 ofRome,21o;atSallces,3o4;ira. andnote;characterandreign,3oo partialityof, 326 and _; on sflq. ; pardonsScanderbeg,302;

228 INDEX abdication,302 sq. ; in battleof Anastasins,St. ,actsof,viii. ,92note. Warna, 309 sq. ; entersAlbania,Anatho,iv. , x26andnote. 3x9; retiresfromCroya,/b. ; re-_Anatolia,invadedbyMonguls,xi. , x45; ceivesPhranza,322; death,324. dividedamongtheEmirs,759; inAmycns,iii. ,92andnote. vadedby Timoux,200; givento Anachorets,vi. , 157,J75sq. Mousa,ao5. Anacletus,pope, consecratesRoger, Anatolius,heretic,vii. , 46 note. firstKing of Sicily,x. , x3o; xii. , Anatolius,master-generalof thearmies 87note; "antipope,"x_6. of the East,ambassadorto Attila, Anagni,xii. , _o7; BonifaceVIII. at, vi. , 36. io8; thecurseof, 5o9note;collegeAnatolius,masteroftheoffices,iv. , x52, of cardinalsat, 759; Porcaroat, z54. 172. Anatomy,studyof,amongtheSaracens, Anaitis,goldenstatueof, v. ,89note. ix. , 275andnote. Anas,river,v. ,344- Anazarbus,valleyof,viii. ,297. Anastasia,daughterof Heracllus,viii. , Anbar,city of, reducedbyCaled,ix. , 22x_wte. 7x9. Anastasia,daughterof the EmperorAnbasa,invadesGaul,ix. , 252note. Maurice,viii. , 83note. Anchialus,ii. , 39; warmbathsat, vii. , Anastasia,Empress,wifeof Tiberius, 6x; EmperorMaur/ceat, viii. ,73; viii. ,2xandnote. Andronicusat, 297; battleof, x. , Anastasia,Gregory sconventicle,v. ,76, 33note. 17andnote. Anc///a, or sacred shields,i. , x86; Anastasia,sisterofConstantine,ii. ,209 iv. , 52note; v. ,227note. nole,245; ill. ,573. Ancona,takenbyBelisarius,vii. , 755; Anastasia,sisterof the Empre_Theo- resistsTotiIa,264; siegeof, by dora,vii. ,xo. FredericBaxbarossa,x. ,537; tradAnastasius,authorof theLiberPontiff- ersof, at Constantinople,xii. , 49; calls,vii. ,254note. PlusII. at,6. 3. Anastasius,grandsonof the Empress Ancyra,MonumentumAneyranum,i. , Theodora,vii. , 36oand note. a note; ii. , 87; councilof, 326; Ana. stasiusI. , Emperor,heresyof,vi. , Jovianat,iv. , z78;takenbyChos222;makesTheodor/cconsul,235; toes, viii. , 9x; pillagedby the marriesAriadne,303; war with Paulicians,x. , x3; takenbyMuTheodoric, 3x8 sq. ; religious rad V. ,xi. , 760note. troubles in the circus,vii. , 35; AndagestheOstrogoth,killsTheodoric economyof, 40and _wle; remits at ChMons,vi. , 62. taxation,39 and note; exemptedAndalusia,ix. , 207note. variouscities from taxation,42; AndalusianArabsin Egyptand Crete, long wallof, 62; suppressedthe ix. , 283. pensionsof the Isaurians, 64; Anderida(AndredesCeaster),vi. , 378 Persianwar,69sq. ; in the circus andnote. as a suppliant,viii. , x67; signs Andernach,fortifiedbyJulian,lii. , 373 treatyof orthodoxy,lb. note. AnastasiusII. , Emperor,viii. , 333; Anderson sHistoryof Commerceonthe preparationsagainstSaracens,ix. , Hanseaticleague,x. , 55note. 243-3andnote. Andragathius,generalto Maximus,v. , AnastasiusI. , Pope,epistleof,to Clovis, 43note. _. , 222 note. AndreasdeReduslisdeQuero,hisdeAnastasiusIV. ,Pope,xii. ,83. scriptionof thesackof Az. oph,xi. , Anastasius,librarian of the Roman 790note; Chancellorof Trevigi, Church,ix. , 256note,29xnote. . ,o7 note. Anastasius,Patriarch, supportsArta- Andrew, eunuch,protectsthe Chrisv_dus, viii. ,256note. tians,iii. ,59

INDEX 229 Andrew,King of Hungary,refuses the Ani, capturedby Alp Arslan, :064 A. D. , empire,xi. , 2a. X. ,x62 . n. ote. Andrewof Naples, strangled, xii. , :39 Anianus, Bishop of Orleans, vi. , 56; note. Life of, 56 note. Andrew,St. , body of, removedto Con- Anician family, conversion of, v. , 79, stantinople,v. 98; spiritual founder 202 and note; consulships of, 202 of Constantinople, ib. note; head note. of, removed to Vatican, xii. , 60; Anicius GaUus,see Gallus. family portrait of Gregory I. at Anicius,Julian, senator,v. ,203 and note. monastery of, viii. , 42; shrine of,at Anicius, Q. (Prmnestinus), tribune, v. , Patras,ix. , 3a4. 2o2note. AndronicusAngelus, viii. , 3o6. Aniush, Castle of, in Susiana, iv. , 239 AndronicusDucas, brother of Constan- note. fine X. , x. , a4o and note. Anna Comnena, Life of her father, viii. , AndroaicusI. , surnamed Gidos, second 287, 288; conspires against her Emperor of Trebizond, xi. , xi brother, 289; her property confisnote. i cated, 290; on Greek fire, ix. , 248 AndronlcusI. , viii. , 282; character and i note; learning of, 37x; on Malek adventures of, 294 sqq. ; reign, 303 Shah, x. , :77 note,227 and note;on sqq. ; death, x. , x39; massacre of crusaders, 234; on the Latin Latins, 336. Church, 332 note. Andronicus II. , or Eider, Palmologus, Annah, city of, see Anatho. restoresJustinian s statue, vii. , 290; Annal_ Bare_e_, x. , 92 nole. crowned, xi. , 72; pays the Cata- Anne, daughter of the Emperor Rolans, 87; defeated by them, 89; manus II. , viii. , 268; ix. , 348; reign, 94 sq_ -; associates i_ichael, marries Woladomir, 349; x. , x:4; 97; abdicates, io:; death, 1o2; her account of battle of Durazzo, preservescolossusof Justinian and i :8. St. Sophia,xi. , 296. Anne of Savoy, Empress, xi. , Io4 and Andronicus III. , or Younger, xi. , 97; note; opposes John Cantacuzene, coronation, xoo; character, aoo; Io7 sqq. ; makes a treatywith Canreign, xo2 sqq. ; dea_, xo6; dt. _ tacuzene, i14; her mediation at feated by Orchan, xi. , x59; em- Thessalonica, i16; treaty with bass3, to Benedict XlI. , 233 and Orchan, xi. , x65. note. Anne, or Constance, daughter of FredAndronicus,President of Libya, excom- eric1I. , xi. , 56. municated, iii. , 326 and note. Annibaldi, Italian, family of, xii. , xi6, Andros,islandof, taken by Venice,xi. , 5 i 17 note, 205. note. _nnibalianns, brother of Constantine, Anecdoton Holderi, vi. , 335 note. ii. , 2o9 note. Anema. s, tower of, xi. , I76; xii. , 2o Annibalianus, general of Probus, ii. , note. i: 7. Angamala or Cranganor, Jesuits invade Annii, family of the, consulships of, v. , the seeof, viii. , x93; Bishopof, x92. 203 note. Angelo,St. , fortressof, viii. , 382. Annona, tax under Justinian, vii. , 42 sq. Angels, bishops so called, ii. , 312 note. Anomoeans,sect of, ii. , 35x. Angles, in Britain, vi. , 27x. Ansars, or auxiliaries of Medina, ix. , Anglo-Saxons, conversion of, by Greg- 6x; [ai-Ansar],239. ory, viii. , 46. Anseau de Cayeux, corresponded with Angora,battle of, xi. , ",oxs_. Michael Palmologus, xi. , 35 and Angora, see Ancyra. note. Angoultme, siege of, vi. , 234 and note. Auses, Gothic demigods, ii. , 9. Anguillara, the Count of, at Petrarch s Antala, Gothic prince, vi. , 67. coronation,xii. , x26. Antalus the Moor, vii. , 86 note; assists

230 INDEX Art=banagainst Gontharls,=39Antioch-Chosrou,vii. , azo note. note; defeatsSolomonat Tebeste Antioch(P/sidia),crusadersat,x. ,24o. 24osg. Antiochus,King,eraof,i. , z5xnote. AnteportamCyperon,nameforSopronAntiochus,monk,homiliesof, viii. ,89or Poson_ x. , 21i note. note. Antes,Slavonlanla ibe,i/. , zonote;vii. , Antiochus,officerof thehousehold,iii. , 183andnote. 199. Anthemius,EmperoroftheWest,zs,ooo Antiochus,proconsulof Greece,v. ,139. menleviedforhisserviceinBritain, AntiochusSidetes,v. , 333note. v. , 282 note; familyof, vi. , xsz; Anti-Tribonians,vii. , 302note. marriesthe daughterof Marcian, Antivad,anonymouswriterof, xi. , 3r6 z=2; religioustolerationof, 124; note. quarrels with Ricimer,136 sq. ; Antonina,wifeof Bells=z-ins,vii. , 47; bornin Galatia,_b. note; death character, 91 sg. ; accompanies 14°. Belisarinsto Africa,96; deathof Anthemius,grandfatheroftheemperor Constantineattributedto, z56and 1 consul and praetor/anprelect note;secrethistoryandadventures governsthe easternempire,v. ,3no of, z67sqq. ; accusedof exileof andnote. Sylverius,246note;solicitsreturn Anthemius,thearchitect_vii. ,,_8,5o,5L, of Belisaxius,=58; foundsa conAnthimus, Bishop of Nicomedia,i vent,=87note. iii. ,i69 note. Antonines,the, found a school at Anthimus,sonof ConstantineCoprony- Athens,i. , x=note; reign,97; en- , mus,viii. ,239. dowtheschoolsof philosophy,vii. , Anthropomorphism,viii. , z_9 andnote. 77. Anticus,titleadoptedbyJustinianand AntoninusArrius,i. , zz5. his successors,vii. , 183note. Antoninus,fugitiveatthecourtofSapor, Antigonus,lii. ,a98note. ili. ,=5rand note. Aotinomies,vii. ,333note. Antoninns,M. Aur. ,wars,i. , xz; levies Antinopolis,inUpperEgypt,vii. ,48. troopsfromtheQuadiandMarcoAntin6us,i. , 96. manni,z9 note,93note,3oznote; Antioch,i. , 63; capturedbySapor,/i. , characterand reign,97, 98 and 44; battleof, 87, 88; arsenalsat, note; campaignson the Danube, z57; Diocletianat, 169; Church 99; indulgenceof, xo6,zo7, 134 of,334;Chr/stianChurcherectedbyl note; Maxcomannicwarsof, 300, Constantineat, IiL,3=x;Council 3oz; ii. , zz5 nole; in Julian s of, 379andnote; Olympicgames Cmsars,iv. , zo6. at, iv. , 90; cathedralof, shutby Antoninus,name of Gem and CaraJulian, 93; Julian at, xo9 sqg. ; calla,i. , 163no/e,164, Churchof, xxz; Jovian at, I77; Antoninus,nameof Hel/ogabalus,i. , persecutionat,for magic,192sg. ; zS_. seditionat,v. ,47sqq. ; dateof,49 AntoninusPins,wallof,i. , 5,6; cornnote;restoredbyJustinian,vii. ,57 paredwith Hadrian,9, _o; wars and note; burnt by Nushirvan, withtheMoors,madBrigantesof =o9;earthquakeat,a94;takenb_ Britain,xo note; characterand Chosroes,viii. ,88; bytheSaracens reign,98; edictof,infavourof the ix. , _63sg. ; date of, z65note;re Jews,iii. ,3. coveredby NicephorasPhocas,Antoninus,Proconsulof Asia, iiJ. ,44 31o; loyaltyof, to the empire,x. , andnote. z81;takenbySultanSol/man,lb. ; AntoniodeFerrari/s,xii. ,63note. bythecrusaders,24asqq. ; historyAntonius,L. ,i. , 93note. of, =6_note; principalityof, a66 AntoniusPetrus,xii. ,z8o;Diaryof,=o4 note; princesof, =73; taken by note. SultanBondocdar,334. Antony,Mark,v. , 85note. iii _ |

INDEX 23x Antony,St. , monasteryof,at Kauleas,! purple,viii. ,229;executedbyJusill. , xoonote; on MountColzim, tinian11. ,230. vi. , _58sq. ; foundscoloniesof Apuleius,i. , 47 note; his metamormonksin Egypt,ib. sg. phnses,ii. , 3_8note. Antrustion,rankof,amongtheFrank_,Apulia,stateof, in tenthcentury,x. , vi. ,243andnob. _. 80; conqueredby the Normans, Anulinus,masterof Diocletian,ii. , x44. 89; countof, 90; reducedby Anulinns,praetorianprefect,ii. ,ax2. Manuel,x35. Anushtigin,Governorof Caxizme,xi. , Apulians,i. , _7. x37note. Apulus,William,onthe Normans,x. , ApameaorComa,ii. ,35; iv. , xa7note; 83note,87note. besiegedby Nu. sbirvan,vii. , so8 Aqueducts,Roman,vii. , x47and note. destroyedby Adarman,viii. , 52; Aquileia,siegeof, i. , 235; besiegedby massacreof monks at, x94 and Jovinus,iv. , 25; takenby Theonote;taken by the Saracens,ix. dosius,v. , 42; siegeof, by the x68; recoveredby Nicephorus Goths, x48; pillagedby Alaric, 3xx. x98; usurperJohn,beheadedat, Aper,Arrius,prmtorianprefect,ii. ,x4o, 338; besiegedby Attila,vi. , 66; _4_note;death,x42andnote. destroyedby him,67 and note. Apharban,ii. , x72. Aquitaln,provinceof, i. , 25; ii. , 82; Aphdal,Sultan,restoresFatimiterulein Gothssettlein, v. , 277sqq. ; first Palestine,x. , 252, andsecond,twoofthe sevenpro_Apocalypse,the, rejectedbyCouncilof inces,286note; unitedby Clovis Laodicea,ii. , 29xnote,332note. to France,vi. , 234; under CharApocaucus,Duke, attacksregencyof lemagne,viii. , 364; recoveredby John Cantacuzene,xi. , xo6,xo7 Eudes,ix. , 257. note; defeats Cantacuzene,xo9; Aquyrion,palace of Constantine,iii. , death,xx_. x9x. Apodemius,iv. , 35. Arabah,blindArab,ix. , 2x. Apollinaris,Bishopof Laodicea,his Arabia,attemptedreductionof,i. ,2and theory of the incarnation,viii. note; descriptionof, ix. , x sqq. ; _33s_/. geographersof, 2 note; European Apollinaris,Patriarch of Alexandri_ travellersin, ib. note; threediviviii. ,2o3 sq. sionsof,4; horsesof,6; camel,7; Apollinaris,sonof Sidonius,vi. , 233. cities, 8 sq. ; trade, 9; Roman Apollinaris,worksof, iv. , 85note. languageof, i8; provinceof, z1 Apollo,statueof,at Constantinople,iii. , note; Sabiansin, 26; Magians, xo4. Jews,and Christiansin, 27sqq. ; Apollodorus,Trajan sarchitect,vii. ,59 Turksin, ix note; religioussects note. of, 24; subduedby Mahomet,74 Apollonia,cityof Assyria,iv. , i27 note. sqq. ; provinceofSyriacalledAraApelloniates. Lake,ii. ,36. bia,i37; languagesin,235note. Apolionius,ambassadorof Martian,vi. , Arabia,daughterof JustinIL,viii. ,19. 39. ArabianNights,ix. , 227note. Apolloniusof Perga,ix. , 272andnote. Arabiclanguage,diffusionof, ix. , 235 Apolloniusof Tyana,ii. , 87and note; andnote. iii. ,16i note. Arabissus,in LesserArmenia,v. , 3x6; Apologists,earlyChristian,ii. , 346. in Cappadocia,viii. ,24. Apostates,Christian,iii. ,47. Arabs,undertheRomanEmpire,i. ,3I; Apostles,ii. ,31o; iii. ,x6andnote. assisttheRomans,iii. ,200; prophApotheosis,seeDeificationofEmperors. ecy of independence,ix. , xoand Apparitors,iii. ,I27. note; descriptionof, 5 sqq. , xo; Apsarus,fortificationsof,vii. , 2x9. civilwarsof, z6; social lifeof, Al_imar(TiberiusHi. ), assumesthe xS; annualtruce,/b,note; poetry

232 INDEX of, x9 and note; generosityof, Archers,in Homer,iv. , 276andnote; 2o; ancient idolatry of, 2I; Roman,defendedbyProcopius,/b. theirritesand sacrifices,24 sq. ; Archimagns,i. , 259. unionof, txxsq. ; militarytactics,Archimedes,vii. , 49x2x; seeSaracens;in Persia,z27 Archipelago,etymologyof name,ix. , sqq. ; inTransoxiana,x3asqq. ; in 32xnote. Syria,x34sqq. ; furtherconquests,Architecture,Roman,i. , 55sq. ; oldest x69 sq. ; navalexploits,XTx; in modelofGothic,vii. ,3a7andnote; Egypt,_72;in Africa,x9xsqq. ;in Saracen,ix. ,267. Spain,207sqq. ; atConstantinople,Ardaburins,opposesthe usurperJohn, 237 s_lq. ; in France, 250 s_tq. ; v. 337learning among, 269 sflq. ; in Ardalio,battle of, betweenGildo and Sicily,284; in Italy, 286; see Macezel,v. _32. Saracens. Ardaric,Kingof theGepid_e,councillor Aradus,ix. , XTO. of Attila, vi. , 8; at the battleof Aram_ean,Syriac dialect, viii. , 183 ChSJons,6x; victoryonthe Netad, note. 76; establisheda newkingdom,77Araric,King of the Goths,crossesthe ArdeshirI. and 1I. , see ArtaxerxesI. Danube,iii. ,x87. andII. Aratus,commandsHeruliagainstTo-, Arduin,Greekinterpreter,x. , 88, 89 tila,vii. ,266. note. Araxes,river,Heracliusat,viii. ,xo4and Arelate,ii. ,28note; marriageof Connote. stanfineat, 2x4; Maximinianat, Araxes,river,seeAboras. 22o; councilof, iii. ,33o,336,384; Arba,river,Heraclinsreachesthe,viii. assemblyofthe sevenprovincesat, i xS,xx6. v. ,286; besiegedbythe Visigoths, Arbalist,crossbow,x. , 239. vi. , 44; takenbyEuric,2zx; beArbela,i. , 268note. longedto Burgundyin year 499 Arbetio,generalof Constantine,iv. , 35, A. D. ,254note;Clovisraisessiegeof, z9t. 235;resignedto the Franks,236; Arbetio,generalof Julian,iv. ,35- conqueredby Theodoric, 320; Arbogastesthe Frank, opposesMaxi- siegeof, byAbderame,ix. , 252. vans,v. ,40; putsFlavinsVictorto Arenula,battleof, x. ,85note. death, 42; dismissedby Theodo- Areobindns,the Goth,v. ,330;marries sifts,59andnote;makesEugenius nieceof Justinian,vi. , x4x note; emperor,6x; defeatsTheodosius, Mag. Mil. in Africa, 238 and 64; death,66. note. ArboruchiorArmorici,vi. ,2z6note,223 Arethas,Arabianchief,vii. , 205,2ir. note. Arethas,St. , Princeof Negra,martyrArcadia,daughterof Arcadius,v. ,322. doraof, vii. ,232note. ArcadiusCharisins,iii. , x53note. ArethusaorRestan,iv. , 88note. Arcadins,sonof Theodosius,Augustus,: Aretinus,LeonardusBrunus,stealsthe v. , x2; Emperorof the East, v. ,i Gothichistoryof Procopius,vii. ,7 67, to7; marriesEudoxia,xx6, note; lifeof, xi. , 282and notes; reign,288sgq. ; his cruellawof xii. , x65note. treason,297; signscondemnationArg_eus,Mount,viii. ,254note. of Eutropius,302; deathandtesta- Argans,churchof the Panlicians,x. ,4 ment,z86,3x9sq. ; columnof,xi. , note, z2note. 9 note. Argentaria(Colmar),battleof, iv. , 3o8 Arcaph,lii. ,376note. andnote. Archof Constantine,ii. , 238. Argos,iv. , 4x; destroyedbyAlaric,v. , Arch_eopolis,siegeof, vii. ,225. 14:. Archefais,Asia Minor,Crusadersat, Argyropulus,John,xi. , 284. x. ,240. Argyrus,officerof ConstantineMono

INDEX 233 machus,x. , 92; cruelty of, 93; sia,ib. ; againRoman,x76;ChrishisflighttoBari,94. tianised, 34o and nOte, _98; Ariadne,daughterof Leo and Verina, recoveredbyPersia,lb. ; Christians vi. ,3o2;cha. ractcrof,3o3;marries of, iii. , 3xx; relinquishedby the Anastasins,lb. Romans,iv. , x6x; invadedbySaArianism,iii. ,35x; creedsof,356sq9. ; por, 239 sqq. ; dividedbetween underValens,iv. , 2o3sq. ; inCon- AspaeurnsandPap,24x; indepenstantinople,v. , x3 sq. ; ruinof, at dent,242sq. ;dRidedbetweenPerConstantinople,_8 sq. ; ruin of, siaand Rome,v. ,331sq. ; further amongthe Barharians,vi. , aoo revolutions,ib. sq. andnOtes;lancompleteruin of, 2o7. guageof, 332nOte;Countof ArArians,crueltyofthe,iii. ,4o2sq. ; per- menian frontier,ib. ; townsof, secutionof, byTheodosius,v. , 19 fortified by Justinian,vii. , 68; sqq. ; edictsagainst,a4 sqq. ; tol- Greekspeechin,viii. ,x83;Fourth erationof, vi. , x87; crueltyofthe Armenialostto the Saracens,23x Arian clergy,x95; law against,i note; incorporatedin the empire, under Justin,334; Arian clergy, 278 note; Pauliciansof, x. , xx; expelledfromRome,vii. , 253and conqueredby Alp Arslan, _62; note; of Italy and Spain, recon- Mogulsin,xi. , x45. ciledunderGregoryI. totheCatho- h. rraenians,schismofthe,viii. ,:oosg. ; ticChurch,viii. ,45; wealthof the patriarchofthe,2oz; commerceof, Arian Churchat Con_t_utinople, lb. ; settlementof Armeniansin 17o-L Thrace,:56 note; attitudeof, to Aricia,i. , 89. images,3x8andnote. Arii,tribeof, ii. ,xx8. Armentarius,surnameof Galerins,ii. , Ariminum,seeRimini. x49. Arinth_eus,Julian sgeneralofhorse,iv. , Arminians,v. ,352note. 124,156; his embassyto Sapor, Armorica,independenceof, v. ,28xand 16o; generalof Valens,x9xand note; revoltof, lb. andnote; disnote; defendsthe Euphrates,241. turbed by the Bagaud:e,vi. . 82; Axiolica,vi. , 73note. federation of, 214note;description Ariovistus,crossestheRhine,vi. , 248. of the Armoricanrepublic,:43; Aristides,philosopherand Christian, subdued by Clovis,ib. ; British apologyof, ii. , 343and note. settlementin, a75andnote; BritAristoof Pella,ii. , 271note. ] onsof,lb. andnote;cavalr3"of,283; Aristobulus,prmtorianprefect,ii. , 146 struggleagainstClovis,223 and note. note. Aristotle,vii. , 74; philosophyof, ix. , Armorieans,Gallictribe,vi. , 58 and 272,273; studyof,revivedbythe note,216note,223note. Caliphs,273; in westernuniversi-Armour,useof,v. ,69. ties, xi. , 4I; studyof, by Theo- Arms,of the Romansoldiers,i. , 16. doreGaza,286. Army,Roman,underHadrian,i. , 2t; Arius,characterof, iii. , 349andnote; stationsof,/b. ; underAugnstus,92 heresyof, 35i; his Thalia, ib. sqq. ,157; payof, x75and note; note; banishment,365; recallof, attemptedreformationof, byMa366; death,ib. and note. crinus,x8o;recruitedfromtheBaxArka,besiegedby Crusaders,x. , 254 bariansbyProbns,ii. , xsx; under note. Constantine,iii. ,x39sgq. ; stateof, Arles,seeArelate. under Maurice. viii. , 75sq. ; disArmatins,widowof, marriesAttila s contentof,76. seCretary,vi. , 24. Arnold,Matthew,on PersianPassion Armenia,Romanprovince,i. , 8, 9; Play,ix. , xo4note. underPersia,ii. ,4:; stateof, x65, Arnoldof Brescia,histheories,xii. ,79; z66andnote; revoltof, fromPer- at Ziirich,80; at Rome,8xsqq. ;

234- INDEX his death,83 and note,86; plan Artabazus,Persianin serviceof Jusof,/b. note. tin/an,vii. ,244and nose. Arnulph,Dukeof Moravia,x. ,43. Artasires,oneof the assassinsof GoaAmulph,Patriarch of Jerusalem,x. , tharis,vii. , 239nole. a6ohate. Artasires,successorof Chosroes,v. ,33a; Aromatics,useof,i. , 69,7oandnote. deposed,333. Arpad,King of theHungarians,x. , 37 Artavasdes,commanderof Armenian note,38; reignof, 44no/e. army,ii. ,i66. Arragon,etymologyof the name,i. , 24 Artavasdes,King of Armenia,ii. , 42 note; houseof, acknowledgedin note,47 note. Greece,xi. , 9x; kingsof,buy title Artavasdus,Count of the Opsikian of Emperorof Constantinople,aii. , theme,viii. , 236 note; supports 6o. images,322. Arrastakenbythe Germans,v. ,175. Artaxata,Archbishopof, iii. ,i99; palArrechis,Duke of Beaeventum,sub- aceat,v. , 332. duedbyCharlemagne,viii. ,365. ArtaxerxesI. (Ardeshir)restoresPersian Arrian,i. , 3° note; Periplusof, vii. , monarchy,i. , 55x; reign,253sgq. ; ax5note; visitof,to Colchos,5an. declareswarwithRome,567;charArriusAntoninus,i. , xz5. acter, 570; laws of, revivedby Arsaces,reigns in WesternArmenia, Nnshirvan,vii. , aoo. underArcadius,v. , 332; royal ArtaxerxesII. , succeedsSaporin Perhouseof, 333note. sia,iv. , 545note. Arsaces,satrap,iv. , xsr note. Artemita,residenceof ChosroesII. , ArsacesTiranus, King of Armenia, viii. ,93and note; palaceof, x_5 Lcharacter,iv. , xao; treacheryof, andnote. x41; death,239. Artemius,Duke of Egypt,death, iv. , . Arsacides,of Armenia,i. , 253,a6z; iv. , 36,37and note. XSL Artemius,martyr,Actsof,iii. ,3oxno_e i Arsadus, Archbishopof Constanti-Artemins,see Ana. staziusII. [ nople, v. , 3z5; crownsMichael Axtemon,followersof, ii. , 343. Palmologus,65; excommunicatesArthur, King, vi. , 276and note,277. Michael,7o; banishmentof, 7L Artillery,Roman,i. , r9. Arsenites,schismof,x/. , 7osq. Artogerassa,siegeof, iv. ,a4oandnote. Arsenius,bishop, iiL,375 and note; Artois,Countof, stormsMassoura,x. , accompaniedAthanasius,376. 320. Arsenius,Patriarchof Nice,x/. , 59, Arnspices,edictofConstantineconcern65; Patriarchof Constantinople, ing,iiL,a8xandnote. excommunicatesMichaelVIII. ,7oArvandus,prmtoHanprefect,trial of, sg. vi. , x33sgq. ; exile,i35 sq. Arsenins,tutorof Arcadins,v. ,xx5 and Arzanene,provinceof,cededto theemnole. pire,ii. , z76andnote. Arshak,Kingof Armenia,iv. ,239and ArzanSu, tributaryof the Tigris,iv. , note. x6anote. Ars_f,battleof,x. , 3o8. Arzema(Azacmidocht),Queenof PerArt,attitudeof the Christianstowards, sla,ix. ,i2o andnote. ii. ,582. Arzingan,cityof,takenbyTimour,xi. , Artaban,Armenianprince,in Africa, z95. vii. ,239andnote;conspiresagainst As,Roman,valueof,vii. ,309nole. Justinian,a6oandnote; replaces Asan,Bulgarianchief, revolt of, x. , Liberiusincommand,263; reduces 338aq. andnote. Sicily,264. AsbadtheGepid,vii. ,aTL A. , taban,Kingof Parthia,i. , 255. Asburg,seeAsgard. Artabanus,Armenianprince,at court Ascalon,ix. , x67note; taken by the of LeoI. , viii. ,256. Saracens,x68;battleof(A. D. z099),

INDEX 235 x. ,25x; conquestof,261andnote; Assembliesofthepeople,i. ,g5andnote; dismantledby Saladin,309; de- legislativeoftheVisigothsinSpain, stroyed,3x2. vi. ,265s_/. Ascausar (Aksunkur), governor of Assessors,vii. ,385. Aleppo,x. ,288. AssiseofJerusalem,x. ,_64sqq. ;introAscellinus,traveller,hisjourneyamong ducedinto the Peloponnesus,xi. , theMongols,xi. , x34note. 4 note. Ascetics,Christian,ii. , 306,307; vi. , Assyria,Roman provinceof, i. , 8; x56sq. described,iv. , x27andnotes;reveAsclepiades,philosopher,iv. , 9xnote. ! nue, x29 and note; invasionof Asclepiodatus,general of Probus,ii. , Julian, x29 sqq. ; Persian prov117,x56, x57. ince,vii. ,x99;conqueredbyOmar, Ascoli,conqueredbythe Normans,x. , ix. ,x25. 89note. Asta, in Liguria,retreatof Honorins, AsconiusPedianus,vii. ,385note. v. , I53andnote. Asena,seeBerte. zena. Astarte,imageof, broughtto Rome,i. , Asfendiar,Persianhero,iv. , 273. 187. Asfoeld,plainof, viii. ,6. Asterius,St. ,ofAmasea,onexecutionof As-gaxd,residenceof Odin,ii. , 6 and Tatian, v. , 1x1note; on exileof note. Abundantius,_94 note; Count Ashik-pasha-zadi,Ottomanhistorian,I Asteriusmarchesagainstthe Vanxi. , 203note. I dals,343Asia Minor, descriptionof, i. , 30;]Asti,citizensof,defeatedbythe Maxgiven to Theodosius,iv. , 353; quis of Montferrat,xi. , 35: note; settlementof the Goths in, 335; seeAsta. desolatedby Tribi/_-ild,v. , 299; Astingi,iii. ,x87. securityof,vii. , 62sq. ; campaignAstolphus,Kingofthe Lombards,takes of Chosroesin, viii. , 91sq. ; con- Ravenna,viii. ,336;besiegesRome, queredbytheTurks,xi. ,t6o s_. 338;defeatof,329. Asia,tribute,i. , 2o4; alicientrevolu- Astorga,sackedbyTheodoric,vi. ,98. tionsof, _SX;sevenchurchesof, Astracan,Kingdom of, invaded by ii. ,332; xi. ,x6o. Mongols,xi. , x46; city of, deAsiarch,ii. ,328note. stroyedbyTimour,2x6. AsiniusQuadratus,ii. ,27note. Astrology,belief in, amongthe RoAs-of,cityof,seeAs-gard. roans,v. ,2x6. Asomaton,fortressat, xii. , 7 andnote; AstronomicalTables of Samarcand descriptionand dimensionsof for- [Gurganian],xi. , x82note. tress,9 andnotesq. Astronomy,science of, cultivatedat Aspacuras,Kingofthelberians,iv. ,24o. Babylon,ix. , 22; bythe Saracens, Aspalathus,ii. , x96. a74sq. Aspar,Princeof _r Scythia,vii. ,4 Asturians,i. ,24. note. Asturias,goldof, i. , 2o5; survivalof Aspar,son ofArdaburius,v. ,337; op- Gothickingdomin,ix. ,2xTandnote. posesthe Vandalsin Africa,352; Astytzion,castleof,onthe banksof the _arcian in the serviceof, vi. , 38; Scamander,xi. , 63note. heresyof, t2oand note; deathof, Atabeks,x. , x77; atabegs,ib. note; of 3o2. Syria,288andnote. Asper,Turkishcoin,=6. ,224andnote. Atelkuzu,Patzinaksdrivenout of, x. , ASprudus,river,ii. , x74. x65nole. Assassinsor Ismaelians,Sheikof, x. , Athalarie,grandsonof Theodoric,in3o8and note; extirpationof, xi. , heritsItaly,vi. ,342; educationof, 143s_,. andnotes, vii. , x24; death, :26. Assemannus,JosephSimon,accountof, Athanagild,Kingof the Visigoths,vi. , viii. ,x84note;_5. ,27znote. 2oInote.

236 INDEX Athanaric,judgeof the Visigoths,iv. , takenbyTurks,9a; eircumnaviga245andnote;warwithValens,249 tionof, 294andnote. sqq. ; peacewithValens,250; de- Athos,Mount,Gothicfleetat, if. , 66; rented by Huns, 289; at Con- Great Laura founded by Athastantinople,33x and note; death, nasiuson, viii. ,269note;opinion 332; his persecutionof the Chris- andpracticeof the monksof, xi. , tianGoths,vi. , x8i. xxSs¢. ;manuscriptsinmonasteries Athanasiusof MountAthos,viii. ,269 of,294note. note. Athribis,bishopricof, viii. ,164note. Athanasius, Patriarch of Coustanti-Arias,Mount,i. ,33andnote. nople,xi. , 94st. Atmeidan,seeHippodrome. Athanasius,PraetorianPrefectof Africa, Atropatene,province,if. , x77;iii. ,x99; vii. ,239note. x. ,x58,andseeAderbijan. Athanasius, St. , iii. , 326; supports Atsiz,Shahof Carizme,xi. , z37note. Nicene doctrine, 355; opposes Atsiz, the Carizmian, lieutenant of Arianism,356; banishedbyCon- Malek Shah, x. , t88 sqq. ; takes stantine,366; characterand ad- Jerusalem,A. D. zo7o, x89note. ventures, 372 sq_. ; ArchbishopAttacotti,Caledon/antribeof, iv. , 2a8 of Alexandria,373; banishment, andnote. 379; restoredbyConstantineII. , Attalus,Countof Autun,vi. , a58note, lb. ; secondexile,ib. ; restoration 259. by Constans,382; third expul- Attalus,Prefect of Rome,madeerosion,389; retreat,393; returnsto peror,v. ,237; reign,lb. st. ; Arian Alexandria,iv. , 99; persecutedby baptismof,238note;deposed,24o; Julian, _oo, 1ox; restored by at weddingofAdolphus,26o; amJovian,x75and no/e;death, 2o5; bassador,270; banishment,27L introducedmonasticismat Rome, Attica,territoryof,wastedbyAlaric,v. , vi. , _6o, z6x and note; Festal x4L Letters of, lb. note; Life of Atticus, successor of Chrysostom, St. Antony,x62 note; creed of, v. ,3z7note;rift. ,z4onote. x96, x97andnote. Attila (Etzel),Kingof the Huns, deAthaulf,seeAdolfus. script. ionof, vi. , 3 sqq. ; putshis Atheism, Christians accused of, brother Bleda to death, 6; aciii. , 9- I quiresScythiaandGermany,7st. ; Athelstan,conquersCornwall,vi. , 275I invades Persia,9; invades the note. EasternEmpire,zi sqq. ; defeatS Athenais,seeEudoeia. the Romans,onthe Utns,at MarAthens,resortofstudents,i. , 38; popu- cianopolisand in the Thracian lationof,4x,42andnote;schoolof Chersonese,z3; ravagesEurope, the Antoninesat, 72note;sackof,i lb. , sg. ; peace with Theodosius, bytheGoths,if. ,37; wailsrestored, _9sq. ; hisembassiestoCnustanti/. b. no/e,38note,4x; fleetof, 255 nople,_2s9. ; hisvillageand nenote;Churchof, 332note; Julian gotiationswith the Romans deat, ilL,236;favouredbyJulian,iv. , scribed,28sgq. ; receivesMrL timin, 4x; taken by Alaric,v. ,x4o s_?. ; 3o; royalfeast of, 31sq. ; conwails of, restoredby Justinian, spiracyof theRomansagainst,34; vii. , 6x; schoolsof, 73; library sendsambassadorsto Theodosius, of Hadrianat, 77; supposedvisit 36; threatensboth empires,39; of Roman deputiesto, 3o3 and alliancewiththesonofClodion,5_; note; marriagelawsof, 852; law invades Gaul, 53; croSsesthe of inheritanceat, 359-6onote;law Rhine,54; besiegesOrleans,55; of testamentsat, 362; revolution defeatedonthe Catalaunianfields, of, underthe Franks,xi. , 89s_. ; 59 sqg. ; invadesItaly, 66; ctedukesof, 9o-z; state of, 92sg. ; stroysAquileia,67; makespeace

INDEX 237 withValentinian,7t sq; marriage!Aurasius,Mount,citadelof, vii. , xx9 anddeath,74; funeral,75; em- andnote,236. pireof,dismembered,76sq. Aurelian,consul,sentencesEutropius, Attitianus,ii. ,8xnote. v. ,304. Attok,ontheIndus,xi. , x9i. Aurelian,Emperor,succeeds,ii. , 69; Attuarii,tribeof Franks,iv. ,13. origin and reign,70 sqq. ; cedes Atyras,Hver,vii. ,283; fortressof, ib. Dacia to the Goths, defeatsthe note. Alemanni,77,78; superstitionof, AtysandCybele,storyof,iv. , 53- 79; fortifiesRome, /b. ; defeats Auchenii,familyof,v. ,202note. Tetricus, 82; capturesPalmyra Auctions,taxon,i. , 2o8. and Zenobia,9x; defeatsFirmus, Audax,friendof Sidonius,vi. , x42note. 93; triumphof, 93, 94; magnifiAudefleda,sister of Clovis,vii. , x24 cenceandsuperstition,96; cruelty, note. 99; death,_o_; worethediadem, Audians,sectof the,v. ,26; viii. ,x4x. x85note; conductto the ChrisAudoin,KingoftheLombards,vii. ,266. tians,iii. ,58. andnote;viii. ,6. AureliusLitua,ll. ,x6xnote. Augsburg,battleof,x. ,43. Aurelius,seeAntoninus,Marcus. Augurs,v. ,72andnote. Aureolus,emperor,ii. , 50; invades AugustalPrefectofEgypt,iii. ,x27. Italy,59, 6o; death, 63andnots. Augustin,St. , a Manich_ean,ii. , 278 Aureus(coin),iii. ,16onore. note; teacherof rhetoricinMilan, AuriOblatio,iii. ,x66note. v. ,36; DeCivitateDeiof,xoznote, Aurungzebe,GreatMogul,campof,vi. , 243and note; on the defeatof 28note;yd. ,2x7. Radagaisus,x69sq. ; approvesthe Auruss(Urus)Khan,xi. ,_88. persecutionof the Donatists,347 Ausonius,iii. , ix6 note,xI7 note; iv. , andnote,348_totes;lettertoCount 2x7note; tutor of Gratian,v. , 2 Boniface,lb. note; death, 35r; note; consul,lb. note; lettersto writings,ib. and note; his igno- Paulinus,_53note. ranceofGreek,lb. note;canonisa-Auspices,i. , 80note. tion,352note; relicsof,carriedto Autenti,battleof,vii. ,237note. Sardinia,vii. ,xo8note. Autharis,son of Clepho,viii. , xS. Augustina,daughterof Heradius,viii. , Autonomus0St. , churchof, Emperor 22xnote. Mauriceat, viii. ,79andnote. Augustulus(Romulus),emperorof the Autun, vineyardsof,i. , 67note;siege West, vi. , J44; banishedto the of,ii. ,83andnote;rebuiltbyConLucullanvilla,x49. stantine, x6o note; collegeof Augustus,moderatiohof, i. , 2; testa- rhetoricat, x98note;visitof Conmentof, 3; policy,xo; buildings stantineto,223andnote; capital of, 55and note; after the battle of the A_dui,iii. , z62and note; ofActium,75; reformsthesenate, schoolof, vi. , 2xo. 76; madeemperor,78; administra-Auvergne,provinceof, opposesEurie, tion and policy,78 sqq. ,92 and vi. ,x32;cededtotheVisigothS,x42; note;breviariumor register,2o4 oppressedby Euric, 2xx; conand note; taxes,206; at Jerusa- queredbyTheodoric,sonofClovis, lem,ii. , 264; in Julian sC_. sars, 255; descriptionof,ib. sq. ; counts iv. , lo6; temperance,v. , _x9and of,x. ,x97andnote. note;makestheharbouratClassis,Au. xentius,Mount,viii. ,254notex63; underminesthe powerof the Auxiliaries,i. , xS,I9; Barbarianauxpopular assemblies,vii. , 31o; iliariesunderConstantine,iii. ,x4I; modestyof, viii. ,293. Nervian,v. , x3o; BarbarianauxAugustus,title,i. , 89and note; three ilia. tiesemployedbyMajorian,vi. , August. i,ii. ,237andnote. _o9; British,leviedbyAnthemius Auranitis,vii. , 2o6note. todefendGaul,x32s_/.

238 INDEX AnTimum,$eeOsimo. and Zobelr,97; present at the Avars,subduedbythe Turks,vii. ,x9o battleof Bassora,98. a_. ; embassyto Jnstinian,zgr; Ayoubites(Kurds),x. , 293note. conquestsof,x92; embassytoJus- Ayub,fatherofSaladin,x. ,294. tin II. , vii/. , 3; alliancewiththe Azan, Kingof Bulgaria,x/. , 26 and Lombards,5, 6; defeatthe Gepi- note; peacewithEasternempire, d_, 7 st. ; dominionsof, 68sgq. ; 28note. wars of,withMaurice,73sgg. ;Azimus,orAzimuntinm,city of,opattackHeraclius,96; Heraclins posesthe Huns, vi. , 2x sq. ; its treats with, 99; attack Con- positionin Thrace,ib. note;privistaatinople,_o8sqq. ; defeat,xto; legesof,viii. ,74subduedbyCharlemagne,367. Azoph,seeTana. Avernus,lake,v. ,2_znote. Azymites,sectof,xi. ,297. Averroes,Arabian philosopher,ix. , Azyms,debateconcerningthe,x. ,3_9. 278note. Azzadin(Izz-ad-Din),Sultan of IcoAversa,townof,foundationof, x. ,86; nium,fliesto Constantinople,xi. , countyof, ib. note. I45; takenbytheTartars,x53. Avicenna,Arabianphysician,ix. , 275- Azzo,Marquisof Lombardy,x. , zo9 Av/enus,Rufus,translatorofDionysius, note. ix. , z54note. Avlenus,senator,hisembassytoAttila, B. *. M_EC,seeHeliopolis. vi. , 72; portraitof,lb. note. Baanes,Paulicianteacher,x. ,4 note. Avignon,flightof Gundobaldto, vi. , B_bag,PrinceofPersis,i. , 2_2note. 226; translationof HolySee to, Babain,battleof,x. ,29i. xii. , Jo9 aqq. ; Petrarchat, x55; B_bar,introducesgunsin UpperIndia, the "Mystic Babylon,"Petrarch x. , _49note; descentof, xi. , 2x7 on,x55-6;UrbanV. returnsfrom, note. x56. Babec,fatherof A. rtaxerxes,i. , 252note. Avitns,Bishopof Vienna,epistlesof, Babegan,surnameof Artaxerxes,i. , vi. , x87_wte;letterto Clovis_220 252note. note; at couferenceof Lyons,226 Babolinns,lifeof St. ,ii. , x52note. andnote. Babylas,St. ,Bishopof Antioch,iv. , 9° Avitus,senator,ministerof Aetins,vi. , andnote,92. 46 note; preceptorof TheodoricBabylon,nameappliedto Rome,ii. , II. ,47note;amba_sadurtoTheod- 29r; cixcumferenceof, iii. , to2 oric,57; commandsin Gaul,9_; note; madeintoa royalpark,iv. , characterand reign,/b. sqq. ; es- x28; licentiousnessat, x33 note. tareof,in Gaul,/b. ; visitsTheod-Bacchanals,ii. ,336andnote. oHc,93; madeemperor,94; con- Bacchus,St. , accountof,viii. , 66note. sentof Marciandoubtful,/b. note; Bacon,Friar,on Greekfire,ix. , 250 panegyricof, by Sidonius,99; note. deposedbyRidmer,xoo;Bishop Bacon,publicdistributionof,at Rome, ofPlacentia,xox; flightanddeath, v. ,2i9. ib. andnote; burialat Brivas,lb. Bactriana,Greekkingsof,iv. , 282note; Awsites,Arabiantribeo[, adopttell- Greeksof,vii. , x93note;vizierof, gionof Mahomet,ix. , 59- appointedbyChosroes,z99. Axuch,a Turkishslave,viii. ,29o. Ba_:urius,Iberianprince,iii. ,3io note; Axum,inscriptionof a kingof,vii. , 37 at the battleof Hadrianople,iv. , note;villageof,232andnote; de- 3z3; fightsforTheodosius,v. ,64. serted,viii. ,2xo. Badaverd,rharnberof Chosroes,Viii. i Axumites,aceAbyssin/ans. 93. [ Ayesha,wife of Mahomet,ix. , 82; Bader,villageof,vii. ,60note. tdaughterof Abu-bekr,88;enemy Badoeri,Dukes of Venice,viii. , x8 of AI/, 92; flightof, withTalha _w_. [

INDEX 239 Baduarius,superintendentofthepalace,Baiash,vii. ,69 note. viii. ,19;familyof,_. note. Baibatus,seeValebathus. Baduila,nameofTotila,q. v. Balbinus[13. CmliusCaivins],i. , 23r Bzetica,provinceof Spain,i. , 24; Si- and note; reignswith Maximus, lingiin,v. ,273; sea-coastof, sub- ib. sqq. ; death,lb. 24i. duedbythe Saracens,ix. , ",x5. Balbus,Cornelius,i. , 231note. Bagai,battleof,iii. ,407. Balch,in Khorasan,i. , =52; missionBagaudze,ii. , 151and note; v. , 179 ariesof,viii. ,r89;subduedbythe _ note; in Spainand Gaul,vi. , 83 Moslems,ix. ,1=8;takenbyZingis note;alliesof Majorian,xxo. Khan,xi. , 138. Bagavan,Mount,ii. , 166. Baldusontreason,v. ,208note. Bagdad,founded,ix. ,264;etymologyof Baldwin[I. ],Countof Flanders,x. ,334 thename,lb. note;collegeat, 271 note;infourthcrusade,344;chardisordersof Turkish guards at, acter of, xi. , 3; Emperorof the 295; Greeks retreat from, 312; East ¢b. ; capture,zS; death, 17 TogrulBeg at, x. , 16o; Malek andnote. Shahat, 176; takenby Mongols BaldwinIf. , Emperorof ConstantiXJ. , I44 ; _-lolagou at, 154; pyra- nople,xi. , =3-=5; marriage,26; midofTimourat, 199. sellsholyrelicsof Constantinople, Baghisian,commanderof Antioch 3r,38. x. ,242. Baldwin,hermit,pretenderto the emBagr L%towerof, nearAntioch,x. ,a43 pire of Constantinople,xi. , 17. note. BaldwinI. , brotherofGodfreyofBouilBaharites,Mama. lukedynasty,x. , 323 Ion, x. , 2t6; reprovesRobertof note,=91note. Paris,=31-2; foundsprincipality Bahrain,seeVa_h_ranes. of Edessa,24I andnote; Kingof Bahrein,districtof, ix. , 5; Carma- Jerusalem,298. thiansin,=98. BaldwinII. , King of Jerusalem,x. , Baize,springsof,vi. , 328. 298. Baian,chaganof theAvars,accountof, BaldwinIII. , Kingof Jerusalem,x. , viii. ,68; warsof,69sqq. ; empire 298_9. of,72; warwithMaurice,73sg_. ; BaldwinIV. , King of Jerusalem,x. , threatensConstantinople,75. 299. Baik. ,d,Lake,iv. ,276. BaldwinV. ,Kingof Jerusalem,x. ,=99. Bailly,M. ,systemof,vi. , 318note. BalearicIslands,i. ,33. Bain,Mr. R. N. ,onsiegeof Belgrade,Ballots,originof the,x. , 165note. xi. ,314note. Balista,Emperor,ii. ,50. BajazetI. , Sultan (Ilderim),xi. , 169 Baiistaor crossbow,vii. , 142. sqq. ;surname,ib. note;conquests,Ballot,secret,at Rome,vii. ,309. lb. sqq. ; moralsand mannersat BaithaOgli,admiralof MahometII. , courtof,_7onote; winsthebattle! xii. ,31sq. ofNicopolis,17x; takestheFrench Baltior Baitha,familyofAlaric,v. ,138 princesprisoner,173-4;threatens andnote. Constantinople,177; receivestail>-BalticSea,i. , 274note;how"knownto ute,178; buildsmosqueat Con- theRomans,iv. , 221note. stantinople,ib. ; sendsembassyto Baluze,Stephen,hiseditionof Livesof Timour,193;lettersof,toTimour, theAvignonPopes,xii. , to9 note; 194;their genuinenessquestioned, defendsCharlesV. of France,t6x ib. note;defeatedat Angora,2oz note. sg. ; hiscaptivity,202sqq. ;death, Banchor,Monasteryof, vi. , x6=. 2°9. Bandalariosor standard-bearer,vii. , BajazetII. , Sultan,xi. ,289note. 139note. Bajazet,vizirof MahometI. , Sultan, Banderesi,heads of militarycompaxi. , 220. n/es,xii. ,17onote.

240 INDEX Baptism,ancientpracticeandtheoryof, takenbytheEmperorLewisII. ,77; iii. , 306 and note; opinion of wonby the Greeks,78; blockade Fathersconcerningdeathbedbap- of, byRobertGuiseard,ioz; betism,307note. siegedbyPal_eologus,i36. Baradeus,James,monk,founderof the Barid,horseof Cbosroes,viii. ,93. Jacobites,viii. ,195; historyof, lb. Barkok,Circassian(Mamaluke),xi. , note. z96note. Baratier,histranslationof theItineraryBarlaamand Josaphat,storyof, viii. , of Benjaminof Tudela,ix. , 33o 376note. note. Barlaam,Calabrianmonk,xi. ,xr9and Barbalissus,PersianhostcroSsthe Eu- notesq. ; embassy,233; learning, phratesat, vii. ,2_o. 277sg. ; Bishopof Calabria,278 Barbarians,conversionof, vi. ,x79sqq. ; and note. motivesfor their faith, x82 sq. ; Barlazs,familyof Timfir,xL,z82note. effectsof conversion,784sqq. ; in- BarletiusMarinus,Albanianhistoryof, volvedin Arian heresy,x86 sq. ; xi. , 3z6note. laws of the, 241sqq. ; divisionof Barmecides,extirpationof, ix. ,280and landsby,248sq. andnote. note. Barbaro,Nicol6,xii. ,24note. Barnabas, Epistle of, ii. , 289 note; Barbary,suppressionof Christianityin, Gospelof,ix. ,40note. ix. , 232. Baroncelli,tribune,xii. , 75o,r52. Barbatio,general,iii. , 233; marchesBaronius,iii. , 326note; onthe Donaagainstthe Alamanni,265. fists,v. ,348note;onsecrethistory Barbyses,river,x. ,228note, o! Procopius,vii. , 9 title; Annals Barca, Saracenconquesto[, ix. , x92 o[,viii. ,4znote,46note;ontheexnote. communicationof Leo III. , 325; BarcelonatakenbyAdolphus,v. ,274; his divisiono[ the Romans,xii. , residenceof the Frenchgovernor, 78note; onArnoldof Brescia,82 viii. ,365; Saracensat, ix. , 219. note. Barchochebas,iii. ,4 andnote. Barsumasat the secondcouncil of Barclay,apologistof the Quakers,ii. , Ephesus,viii. ,_54sq. 307note. Barthfilemy,Abb6,xii. ,2o6note. Bardanes,rebel,prophecy,of,viii. ,245. Bartbius,commentatorof Claudiart, Bardanes,surnamedPhilippicus,made v. ,290note. emperor,viii. ,232; restoresMono-Bartholdusde Roma,xli. , x57note. theletism,233. Bartholemy,a NeocastroSicilianhisBardas Phocas,supports Constantine torian,xi. , 84note. Porphyrogenitus,viii. , 267 note; Bartholemy,Peter, see Peter Bartholcampaignin Asia,273, 274 and emy. note. Baxtolus,the civilian,on treason,v. , BaxdasSclerus,general,campaignof, 298note; pensionerof Charlesthe in Asia, viii. ,273, 274and note; Fourth,viii. ,393x. ,66note. BasicandCursic,seeBasich. Bardas, uncle of Michael III. , viii. ,!Basich and Cursich,commandersof 258; patronofPhotius,x. ,33xandI Hunsin Persia,vi. , zo andnote. note. !Basil I. , the Macedomanreign,viii. , Bardesanes,ii. , 34t note; cozaverts 256sqfl. ;familyof,256"avariceof, Edessa,viii. ,313note. ix. , 330; defeatedChrysocheir,x. , Bards,Welsh,vi. ,276note,282sq. x3-x4; alLancewith LewisII. , Barg_eus,dissertationonthe edificesof 76; restoresthepatriarchIgnatius, Rome,v. ,247note. 33z. Baxgus,favouriteof Timasius,v. ,295. BasilII. , Emperorof Constantinople, Bar-Hebrmus,seeAbulpharagius. viii. , 268; reign, 273; conquers Bad, colonyof Saracensat, x. , 76; Bulgarians,275; death,_. ; called

INDEX 24x the"Bulgar-slayer,"/b. ,x. ,35and Basina,QueenoftheThuringians,marnote. tiesChilderic,vi. , 2z2andnote. Basil,Archbishopof C_esarea,iv. , xo3 Basnage,hisEcclesiasticMtlistory,viii. , note;canonicalepistlesof,iii. ,326 x42note,x44note;onimages,312 note; onArintheus,iv. , *9rnote; note. transact onswith Valens,206and Basra,iv. , x27and note;see Bassora note;accountof,v. , 14sq. ;founds andBussorah. monasteryof Pontus,vi. , z6xand Bassi,familyofthe,v. ,79note; opposesApoUinaris,viii. , Bassianns(Cmsar),ii. ,209note,245. t34;canonsof,concerningsoldiers,Bassianus,nameof Caracalla,i. , x63 ix. ,357. note. BasilBojannes(Catepan),x. ,85note. Bassianns,nameof Elagabalus,i. , _82. Basil,Chamberlain,assaultedby The- Baasora,Christiansof St. Johnat, ix. , ophano,viii. ,27x_wte;accountof, 27; Arabianinsurgentsat, 96; 272note; banished,275note. rebelsdefeatedbyAliat, 98;battle BasilMesardonites(Catepan),x. , 85! calledDayoftheCamel,lb. ;founnote. dafionof, t23and note; pillaged Basil,St. ,Calabrianmonksof, xi. ,276 by the Carmathians,299; see andnote. Basraand Bnssorah. Basilthe monk, burnt at Constanfi-Bastarnae,ii. ,9, xoandnote;inThrace, nople,x. ,x7andnote. x22; coloniesof, in Gaul, x6o; Basil,cityof,xi. , 254note. massacredbyStilirho,v. ,12o. Basilacius,Romangenera. l,rebellionof, Bat. avianhorseguards,i. , x3xnote. viii. ,286,304. Batavians,i. ,298; defeatedbyProbus, Basileopator,title of, firstintroduced it. , xz7;islandofthe,iii. ,260;vi. , viii. ,26i note;x. ,338note. 2t2. Basileus,titleof Asiaticsovereigns,it. , Batavians,legion,iv. ,3 andnote;mux84; imperiMtitle used by Ge- tinyof,t78; degradationof, ax4; limer,vii. ,87note;titleof Charle- in Britain,229. magne,viii. ,374. Bath (AqumSuits). Romancolony,i. , Basilies,code,viii. , 26x; ix. , 3x5and 45note. note,369. Baths,public,at Rome,v. ,2x9sq. Basilides,AbyssinianEmperor,expels Batnae,nearHierapolis,JuLianat,iv. , the Jesuits,viii. ,2i3. ix8 andnote. BasilidestheGnostic,viii. , t3o. Batnir,fortressof, taken by Timour, Basilidians,gnosticsect,it. ,277. xi. , i9I. BasilikeTherma,battleof,viii. ,274note. Butte,trial by,xi. , 64note. Basilina,motherofJulian,iii. ,226note; BA_,Khanof Kipchak,xi. , z4onote; iv. , x86note. expeditionandvictoriesof,_45sq. ; Basiliscus,brotherof the EmpressVe- retreatsfromthe Danubeto Serai, rena,commandsexpeditionagainst r49andnote;deathof, x53;col_Vandals,vi. , x28; vii. , 87; de- querstribesof the WesternKipfeatedbyGenseric,vi. , x3o;flight chak,x87note. to Constantinople,/b. ; Emperor,BanorPabau,monasteryof,vi. , _59sq. 302. note. Basiliu%consul,vi. , x52note;vii. , 82 Bauto,generalof the Franks,fatherof note. the EmpressEudoxia,v. ,x_5and Basilius,delatorof Boetkins,vL, 339 note. note. Baux,de, James, titularEmperorof Basilius,a Senator,amba_ssadorto Constantinoplein *373-I383,xi. , Alaric,v. ,228; vi. ,72; portraitof, 82note. ib. note; friendof Sidonius,i52 Baux(nearAries),lordsof,v. ,x38note. and note; condemnedby Pope Bavaxes,ii. , x6onote. Symmachus,r53note. Bavaria,dukesof,viii. ,366. VOL. Xll. _ 16

242 INDEX Bavarians,revoltof, fromthe Huns, Bel/sarius,quellsN ikariot,vii. ,28;birth, vi. , 3; institutionsof, adoptedby education,campaignsinAfrica,89; theMerovingians,_39s_l. ;under Persiancampaigns,/. b. and note; Charlemagne,viii. ,366. inAfrica,97sqq. ; takesCarthage, Bayer,TheophilusSiegfried,ontheRns- Io2; fortifiesit, xo4; atHippeResians,x. ,49note. gius,xo7; invadesItaly, J3asg. ; Bayle,iii. , 288note; on comets,vii. , entersRome,137; valourof, x4o; 993andnote; onGregoryI. ,viii. , defendsRome,14_sq. ; epistlesto 41note;his "wickedwit,"adj. ,79 emperor,_5o; receivesembassyof note;onAbelard,/b. Vitiges,152; besiegesRavenna, Beacons,extinguishedbyMichw. 1III. , i61; enters Ravenna,164; reviii. , 254andnote; ix. , 354 and turnandgloryof, /b. sqq. ; expenote;stationsofthe, lb. ditionagainstthe Persians,172; Bearsof Valentinian,iv. , 198. disgraceandsubmissionof,/b,sq. ; Beatrice,daughterof CharlesofAnjou, recallof,21z; returnto Syria,ib. ; xi. , 8o. repulsesthe Persians, ax_ sq. ; Beaufort,onRomanlaw, vii. ,383note. tranquillisesAfrica,238; second Beanne,wineof,xii. , 56note. commandof, in Italy, a48 sgq. ; Beauplande,Frenchengineer,x. ,56note, epistleto Totila, o49; lastvictory Be. ausobre,ft. , 277note; on Christian of, a84; disgrace and death, idolatry. ,v. , io4 note; Viii. , In2 287; fable concerning,287 and note; onimages,3_5note. note. Beanvais,ii. , i59. Belins,Matthew,Prodromusand NoBecket,Thomas,iii. ,41note. titiaof, vi. ,2 note. Bede,the Venerable,iv. ,226; vi. ,_68, Bellof Antermony,Travelsof,in Per•72note; dateof his death,xii. , sia,ix. ,266note. 2o3 note. Bellarmine,Cardinal,on the excomBeder[Bedr],battleof,ix. , 66andnote. municationof LeoIII. , viii. ,325. Bederiana,districtof,vii. , i note. Bellini,Gentile,visits court of MaBedoweens,descriptionof, ix. , 5 sq_. ; hornetII. , xii. ,3 note. incorrectformof name,/b. note. Bellona,templeof,x. , 9 andnote. Beehives,constructioaof,ix. ,27oandnote. Bellonoti,tribeof,vi. , 54note. Beg, Turkishwordmeaninglord or Bells,amongthe Moslems,ix. , 138and prince,xi. , 18_note. note. Beglerbe_,nameof Ottomangenerals,Belus,towerof,atBabylon,ix. 125and xi. ,31o. nole. Beta (Alexius),Hungarianprince,viii. , Benacus,lake,vi. , 73and note; v_. , 294. 277-8. BelaiV. , Kingof Hungary,notaryof, Bender,i. , 7writesChronicle,x. , 37 note;de- BenedictAnianinus,CodexRcgularum featedbytheMongols,xi. , 147. of,vi. ,i66note. Bclenus,tutelarydeity,i. , 235,a36note. BenedictXI. , Pope,resumesrightof Beles(Balls),on the Euphrates,ix. , 2 coining,xiL, 88 note; his bull andnote. Flagiliosum,zo9. Belfry(Belfridus),war engine,x. , 237 BenedictXII. , Pope, receivesamba-candnote. sadors of Andronicus,xi. , 233; Belga:,i. , 26. character,235andnote;addressed BelgicGaul,i. , 25. by Petrarch,xii. , _55 and note, Belgradeor Singidunum,vi. . 3al and i56; saidto haveintroducedtriple note;destroyedbytheAvars,viii. , crown,_58note. 7xandnote; besiegedbyCharles BenedictXIII. , Pope(PeterdeLuna), of Anjou, _fi. , 8x; withstands xii. ,x64,x65;deposed,i66. Amurath,300; besiegedby Ma- BenedictXIV. ,Pope,consecratesthe hornetIf. ,3_4. Coliseum,xii. ,ao7.

INDEX 243 Benefice,ofthe Merovingians,vi. , 25x. Bernard,St. , opposesRogerof Sicily, Beneficium,meaningof,viii. ,379note. x. ,x3o; preachescrusade,284sqq. ; Benefits,vii. ,367. onappealsto Rome,xii. , 7xnote; Beneventum,tusks of the Calydonian onthecharacterof theRomans,77 boarat, vii. ,x35andnote; princes sq. ; on the temporaldominionof of,viii. ,3o; dukesof, 3a; duchy the Popes,8xand note;supports of. 365; princesof,x. , 76; duchy PopeInnocentII. , xo4note,-xx6. of,/b. note; subjectto the Greek BernardusThesaurarius,x. , x99note. emperor,78andnote;littleChron- Bernice,seeBerenice. icleof, 79note; besiegedbythe Bernier,i. , a64note. Saracens,8x; underRomanPort- Bernoulli,oncomets,vii. ,a93andnote. tiff,ioa; battleof,xi. , 79. Bercea,inThrace,Liberiusat, iii. ,387; Benfey,Theodore,histranslationof the vi. ,3ornote;besiegedbytheAvars, Panchatantra,vii. ,2o3note. viii. ,72. Bengal,kingdomof, conqueredbythe Bercea,see. Meppo. Mongols,xi. , 14a. Berry,cityof, opposesEuric,vi. , x3a; Benjaminof Tudela,ix. , 33° andnote; givento Childebert,255note. onthe Jews,x. ,2io note. Bertezena(Berte-scheno),leaderof the ! Benjamin,PatriarchoftheCopts,flight Turks,vii. , 387andnote. of, viii. , 2o6; ix. , x78; life of, Bertha,motherof Hugo,KingofItaly, x79note. ix. ,347. BenSchounah,Arabichistoryof, xi. , Bertha,daughterof lq ugo,ix. , 346sq. 17xnote;seeEbnSchounah. Bertha, wife of ManuelComnenus, Bentivoglio,nuncio,iii. ,29xnote. viii. ,294. Bentley,Dr. , on Romanmoney,vii. , Bertram,sonofRaymondofToulouse, 305note; xi. ,_9o. x. ,26xnote. Beran-birig(Marlborough),battle of, Bertrandondela Brocqui6re,describes vi. ,274andnote. Amurath,xi. , 3oonote; onConBerbers,Barbarsor Barbarians,sub- stantinople,3a6note. due NorthAfrica,ix. , 2o2 note; Berytus,law-schoolat, iii. , x3z and historyof the wordBarbars,2o5 note;manufacturesof,vii. ,32,75, note. 79note; destroyedby an earthBerengarius,Panegyricon,viii. , 382 quake,295sq. ; date of, ib. note; note. Andronicusbecomeslordof, viii. , Berenice,concubineof Titus,vii. , 353 299;takenbythe Saracens,x68; andnote;ix. , 345andnote. lost bvthe Franks,x. ,324. Berenice,in Cyrene,march of Cato Berzem,governorof, opposesAlpArsfrom,vi. , z26note. I lan,x. , tTX. Berelti,Father, professorat Pavia, Besangon, Julianat, iv. : x3 and note; viii. , x4 note; on stateof Italy, takenbythe Saracen. s,ix. , 253. 30note. Bessarion,Bishopof Nice,xi. ,259; at Bergamoad PedemMontis,Alanire- thecouncilofFlorence,265; made pulsedbyRicimerat,vi. , _x7 note. cardinal,266-7and note;literary Bergamo,cityof, destroyedby Attila, meritof,283-4. vi. ,68. iBessas,generalof Justinian,vii. , 224, Bergerde Xivrey,onEmperorManual, 244note;defendsRome. 250sq_. ; xi. ,249note. i avariceof,ib. andnote,255Bergier,I-IistoiredesGrandsChemins,Bessi, or minorGoths,iv. , 3oxnote; i. ,34note. vii. ,4note. Befit,chieftainat Attila sfeast,vi. , 32. BEthArmgye,provinceof, viii. , zo6 Berimund,descendantof Hermanric, note. vi-,343note. Bethlem,residenceof St. Jerome,v. , Bernard,monk, Itineraryof the, x. , 250; monkof,a85note;crusaders x84note. at,x. ,254.

244 INDEX Bezabde,takenbySapor,iii. ,257;be- entertainstheRomanambassadors, siegedby Constantine,259. 27. Beza, Theodore,errorin the GreekBlemmyes,ii. , 93, _x6and note,x6i, Testament,vi. . x98note. 162; religionsprivilegesof, viii. , BiancaLanciaof Piedmont,x. ,56note, 2o8note. Bibars,Sultanof Egypt,seeBondocdar. B16terie,Abb6dela, i. , 3oonote. Bible,text of the Latin, vi. , x98and Blinding,modesof,xi. , 69andnote. note; translatedinto Arabic,ix. , IBlols,Countof,receivesDuchyofNice, a8. xi. , 8. Bidpai,seeBilpay. BlueHorde,tribessubjectto B_t_,xi. , Bielasica,battleof,x. ,35note. x87note. Bielkc,M. , senatorof Rome,xii. , x7_ Blues,ororthodoxfactionin Constanfinote. I nople,vii. ,2xsq. Biemmi,Giammaria,on Scanderbeg,iBlum,Richard,fatherofRogerdeFlog xJi. ,XT_note. ! xi. , 86note. Biet,M. , onthe kingdomof Syagrius, Boadicea,i. , 4vi. ,214note. ,Boccaccio,xi. , 279; entertainsLeo Bigerra(Bejar),surrenderedtotheSara- Pilatus,/b. s_. ; his"Homer,"280 censbyTheodemir,ix. , 220. andnote. Bigleniza,nameof motherof Justinian, Bocha. ra(Buk_rh), vii. ,x88; reduced vii. , xnote;seeVigilantia. by MalekShah,244; subjugated BilfidhurI,ix. , J9xnote. bythe Saracens,ix. , _33andnote; Bilbeys,seePelusium. subduedbyZingisKhan, xi. , x38. Bilimer,seeGilimer. Bodonitza,near Thermopyl0e,xi. , ? Bindoes,a SassanianPrince,dethrones] note. Hormouz,viii. ,60; murdershim,_Boethius,ministerofTheodoric,vi. ,323, 62. { 332; accountof, 335and notes; Bineses,Persianambassador,iv. , r67. ] worksof,336s_. ; accusedoftreaBingen,fortifiedbyJulian,lii. ,273note. son,338; imprisonment,339; his Bir,passageof the Euphratesat, iv. , De Consolatione,ib. sq. ; death, xz9 note. 34o; tombof, /b. andnote; chilBiserta,Arabiansquadronat, ix. , 286. drenof, restoredto their ialaefiBishops,originand authorityof, ii. , tance,vii. ,x24. 3tl-3r3; at courtof AlexanderBoethius,praetorianprefect,deathof, Severns,iii. , 53; underChristian vi. , 79. emperom,3x4s_/. ,seederg3 ;ruralBogislav,Stephen,revolto[, viii. , 277 bishops,seeChorepiscopi;income note. of,322andnote;thirteen,of LydiaBogomiles,Gnosticsect,x. , z7 note. andPhrygiadeposedby Chryso_-Bohadin(Bchh-ad-Din),lifeoISaladin tom,v. , 3x2; banishmentof the by, x. , 294note. African,vi. , i9z andnote. Bohemia,Marcomanniin, i. , 3oxnote; Bisinus,Thuringianking,vi. , 2x2note. subduedby Charlemagne,viii. , Bisseni,Turkishtribe,in Hungary,x. , 366; kingof,elector,389note. 40note. Bohemond,sonofRobertGuiscard,x. , B_ex_le, iv. , 183andnote. xo9; commandsat Durazz_,xxz Bithynia,ii. , 87; subduedby Proco- sq. ; againstthe Greeks,xx9 sqq. ; pius,iv. , x89; Theodorain, vii. , in the firstcrusade,2_9; at Coni8; conqueredbyOrchan,xi. , 159 Stantinople,225; Anna Comnena sq. on, 227 note; at Constantinople, Bizon,takenbytheTurks,xii. ,xT. 229; takes Antioch,244-5; his Blandina,martyrof Lyons,iii. ,35note. reputationwiththeSaracenS,252; Bleda,brotherof Attila,interviewwith becomesPrinceof Antioch,258; ambassadorsof Theodosius,vi. , 3; : captivityof,272. puttodeathbyAttila,6; hiswidow!Boillaud,Ismael,xii. ,12note.

INDEX 245 Bolanus,iv. , 23° note. Bonifatius,Romancharioteer,medals Bolgary,villageof,x. ,27note. inhonourof,v. ,353note. Bolingbroke,Lord,on the Popes,xi. , Bonn,fortifiedbyJulian,iii. ,273note. _88note. Bononia,on the Danube, ii. , _52; BoUandists,ActaSanctorumof the,v. , Julianat, iv. , 2x. 360note. Bononia,seeBologna. Bologna,cityof,resistsAttalus,v. ,238;:Bononia,seeGessoriacum. Stilichoat, I87; numberof stu-Bonosus, generalof Aurelian,ii. , 73 dentsinuniversityof,_d. ,274note;i note;revoltof,in Gaul,x25. under Papal interdict,:di. , 93; Bonzes,vii. , i88. Porcaroat, x72-3. Borak,horseof Mahomet,ix. ,44. Bolsena,lake,vii. , x27andnote. Bor_m,Persianqueen,ix. , x2onote. Bona,CapeBasiliscnsat,vii. , I28. Borani,ii. ,zo. Bona,seeHippoRegius. Bordeaux,descriptionof, v. , 277; ; Bonamy,M. , onthe Frenchlanguage, schoolat, vi. , 21o; Clovisat,234; vi. ,262note. takenbythe Saracens,ix. , 25a. Bonanni,metallichistoryof, xfi. ,x67 Borderers,iii. ,I36. note. Borga,Khan,in Russia,xi. , 153. _: Bondari,historyof the Seljukidesby, Borgites(Bftrji),Mamaluke,dynastyof, x. ,x6onote. x. ,29xnote,323note. Bondocdar,or Bibars,Sultanof Egypt, Boris, Bulgarianprince,x. , 32 note; takes Antioch,x. , 324 and note/ 64note. buildsmosquein Crimea,xi. , x22 Borjigen,familyof ZingisKhan,xii. ,2 note. note. Bonfinius,historyof Hungaryby, xi. , Borysthenes,ii. ,9, 3°. x7xnote; on Ladislans,307 note, Bosnia,i. , 28; Kingof, opposesthe 3xznote. Ottomans,xi. , z68note. Boniface,Count, repulses AdolphusBoso of Vienne,foundskingdomof fromMarseilles,v. ,257;character, LowerBurgundy,viii. ,372note. 34onote,34z; revoltof, 342sqq. ; Bosphorus,city of, siegeof, by the invitestheVandals,lb. / repentance Turks,vii. ,x89andnote. of,348;besiegedinIIippoRegius,Bosphorus,"kingdomof, subduedby 350; defeat, 352; death, 353; Trajan,i. , 8; Gothsin,ii. ,31sqq. medalsstruckinhonourof,/b,note. Bosphorus,Straitof, iii. ,92. Boniface,Marquisof Montferrat,leadsBossuet,UniversalHistoryof, i. , 36 fourthcrusade,x. , 35x; adopts note. causeof Alexius,/b. note,356and Bostra or Bosra,Julian sepistleto note;clemency,377; sellsCandia, peopleof, iv. ,62; fairsof, ix. , _o xi. , 6 andnote; acquiresMace- andxznote;siegeof,133"theSaradonia,/b. and7; defendsThessa- cens,x37sq. ; fortificationsof, lb. lonica,x8; death,lb. note. BonifaceIV. , Pope, comsecratesthe Botaniates,see NicephorusBotaniates. Pantheon,v. ,84note;xii. ,x93_ote. Botany,ancientknowledgeof,ix. , 276. BonifaceVIII. , Pope,i. , 247note;his Botheric,commandantofThessalonica, Se_teof theDecretals,xii. ,94note, v. ,5xsqq. xo4note; hisquarrelwithPhilip, Botrys,vii. , 295andnote. xo8sq. ; institutesjubilee,xxrsq. ; Boucher,silversmith,atCaracorum,xi. , metricalhistoryof hiscoronation, x5o note. Ix7 note; adds a diademto the Boucicault,Marshal, commandsan papalmitre,x58note. armyagainstBajazet,xi. , _72and BonifaceIX. , Pope,xii. , x62; restores note/ memoirsof, /b. note; ranmausoleumof Hadrian,x99note. somed, I74; relievesConstantiBoniface,St. ,vi. , x83note; apostleof nople,x78-9; returnsto France, Germany,vii. ,axz. x79; Memoirsof,_o6note.

246 INDEX Bouillonin the Ardennes,x. , 2x5. viii. ,252ttote;heldforLeoVI. ,_. Boulainvilliers,Countde, Lifeof Ma- note. hornet,viii. ,94note;ix. , 53note. Bridges,Roman,i. , 64andnote. Boulogne,seeGessoriacum,iv. , 227. Bridget,St. , of Sweden,xii. , r57 and Boursa(Brusa),residenceof Bajazet, note. xi. , x74; pillagedby MehemmedBrienne,Waiterde,DukeofAthens,see Sultan, 202-3; royal schoolsat, Walterde Brienne. 228; decline of, _di. , $4. See Brigantes,i. ,26. Frusa. Britain,conquestof,i. , 4; provinceof, Bova,territoryof,Greekdialectspoken described,a5 sq. ; coloniesof, 45 in the,xi. , 276note. and note; Vandalsin, i/. , x22; Bowden,J. W. , Lifeof GregoryVII. , importanceof, I54 *q. ; revoltof x. , i22 note. Carausius,I54 sqg. ; Christianity Bowides,Persiandynastyof, ix. , 229 in, 339, invadedby Picts and hate,304 and note; warwiththe Scots, iv. , 5; howpeopled,223, Sultanof Gazna,x. , 152. 227sq. ; Theodosiusin, 229sq. ; Boyardo,Count, forgeryof, x. , 220 Maxlmusin, v. , 5 sq. ; Stilicho note; OrlandoInamoratoof, xi. ,, recallslegionsfrom,x5i; invaded 292note. by Scotsfrom Ireland, x77and Brabant,Franksin,iii. ,a6o; duchyof, note; variousemperors, x78sg. x. ,215note. and note; revoltof, 280sq. and Bracarain fourthcentury,v. ,27I. note; independenceof, confirmed, Bracc_,ii. , 94andnote. ib. ; stateof,282sg. ; citiesof, 283 Brachophagos,battleof,betweenGreeks andnote;Churchandbishops,285 andGenoese,xi. , x26. and note; revolutionof, vi. , 268 Braga,metropolisoftheSueviin Spain, sqq. ; Saxon invasion,269 sqq. ; pillagedbyTheodoric,vi. , 96. LesserBritain,275; desolationof, Brahman_. bad,town of, taken by the 278; fabulousaccountsof,284sq. ; Arabs,ix. , z32note. ChristianityintroducedbyGregory, Brahmapootra,river,xi. , 592note. , viii. ,45; mentiouedbyAnnaComBramante,architect,xii. , 2r2. , nena[Thule],x. ,273note;revenue Brancaleone,podestaof Rome,_di. ,92i of, in thirteenthcentury,379and and note; death, 93; destroys note; herringfisheryof, xi. , 148 palace of Severus,i87 note; de-i note; descriptionof, by Chalconmolishestowersof Rome,199. dyles,247sg. ; feelingsof English Brandenburg,Vandalsof,vii. ,xI7note. clergytowardsthe Popes,xii. , 92 Braniseba,duchyof, viii. ,296. note; eight kingdomsin British Bread,distributionof,v. ,_x8. Islands,x66note. Breakspear,Nicholas (HadrianIV. ), Britonsof France,subduedby Charlexii. ,82. magne,viii. ,36,1. Bregetio,on the Danube,ValentinianBritons,stateof,vi. ,272sqq. ; flightof, at, iv. , 255. intoWales,275;in Gaul,ib. note; Bremen,bishopricof, viii. ,366; town servitudeof,280; mannersof,282; of,destroyedbyHungarians,x. ,44. in Chmamus,x. ,277note. Brenckmann,hisHistoriaPandeetarum,Brittia,Islandof,mentionedbyProcovii. ,335note. pins,vi. , 285andnote. Brenta,Hungariancamponthe,x. ,44. Brittii,mentionedbyCinnamus,x. ,277 Breones,Gallictribe,vi. , 58 andnote. note. Brequigny,M. de, his life of Posthu* Brivasor Brioude,burialof Avitusat, mus,ii. , 25note. vi. , iox; takenbyTheodoric,257. :Brescia,ii. ,23i ; dukesof,viii. ,3a; re- Brosses,Presidentde, vii. , 213 note; voltsagainstherbishop,xii. , 80. xii. ,r3note. Bretagne,seeArmorica. Brotomagus(Brumath),battleof, i/i. , Bride-show,at themarriageoftheCzar, a63,264.

INDEX 247 Bruchionin Alexandria,ii. , 56. 338-9andnote;invadedbyTheoBructeri,i. ,299. doreLascaris,xi. , 58; wastedby Bran,on Palaceof Seral,xi. , x49note. theMongoLs,z49andnote. Brundusium,portof, fleetof GuiscardBulgarians,firstmentionof, vi. , 304 at,x. ,x25and note. note;ethnology,vii. , x8oandnote Brunechild,motherof Ingundis,vi. , sq. ; threatenConstantinople,x83 2orand note. sq. ; pillageGreece,lb. ; threaten Bruno,St. ,brotherof Ottothe Great, Constantinople,282 sq. ; retire, viii. ,37xnote. a85; besiegeConstantinoplewith ! Brunswick,houseof, originof, x. ,lO9 JustinianII. , viii. ,23o; approach : note. Constantinoplein reignof PhilJpBrusa,seeBoursaand Prusa. picus,23anote; besiegeComstan! Bruttium,goldminesat,vi. ,328; name tinoplein reignof Leo V. , 246 changedto Calabria,viii. , 3° note. note; kingdomof, overthrownby Brutus,i. , 9° note; foundsconsulship, Basil, a75 sg. ; assist the Emvii. 8x; judgmentof, 376. perorLeoagainsttheSaracens,ix. , Brutus,the Trojan romance,iv. , aa3 246; name of, x. , x9 and note; note. emigrationof, 27-8; war of,with Bryce,Mr. , on CharlesIV. , viii. ,392 Nicephorus,3I; defeatedbyBasil note;on the De Monaxchia,xii. , II. , 35; coloniesof, in Hungary, x38note. 49note; war with the empireof Bryennius,seeNicephorus. Romania,xi. , x8sqq. Bunt,Comtede,onGermaninvasionof BullfightintheColosseum,xii. ,204and Gaul,v. , x73note; ondestruction note. ofMetz,vi. ,55andnote;ondefeat Bulla,nearCarthage,vii. , xo5,237. of Attila,63 note; on the Slavo- Bullets,stone,useof,atRome,xii. ,aox nians,vii. ,xSxnote. andnote. Bubafiain Pannonia, birthplaceof Bundicia,deathof R. Guiscardat, x. , Decius,ii. ,2 note. x26note. Bucelin,Duke of the Alamanni,in- Buonaccorsi,Philip(Callimachus),on vadesItaly,vii. ,275andnote; de- Varnacampaign,xi. , 31xnote. featedby Narses,278; death of, Burcard,J. ,hisDiary,xii. ,t8o. 279. Burekhardt,on the Renaissance,xi. , Bucentaur,shipof JohnPalmologusII. , ag*note. xi. ,260. Burdigala,ii. , 82note; seeBordeaux. Buchanan,iii. ,288note; iv. , 226note. Burgesses,courtofthe,atJerusalem,x. , Bucharia,provinceof, iv. , 263 note; 269. Magianworshipin,ix. , x3L Burgundians,iL, 8, 9 note; conquered Buda,city of, iii. , 248; Ladislausat, by Probus, XrT; on the Elbe, xi. ,3o6. iv. ,ax8andnote;feudwiththeAlaBudaeus,xi. ,290. manni,az9; invadeItaiy,v. , x66; Buff doesintroducedinto Italy by the invadeGauland settlethere, 278 Lombaxds,viii. , 33and note. and note; subduedby Attila on Buff on,vii. , 49 note; descriptionof the Rhine,vi. ,7; invadeBelgium, Guyanaby, xii. ,x9tnote. 44; invadeBelgieprovincesand Bugia,city of, takenbythe Saraceus settlein Savoy,45; joinTheodoix. , 198. tic againstthe Huns,58; betray Bukulithos,battleof, viii. ,274note. Rometo Genseric,89 note; conBulgaria,kingdomof, positionof, x. , versionof, x82; on LakeLeman, a7andnote;firstkingdomof, 3t; 2x7; boundaries,224; conquered Greekprefectof, in firstcrusade by theFranks,a27s_lq. ;lawsof, 2tx; relationswith NicholasI. , 24r and note; judicialcombats 33x;joinstheGreekChurch,332; among,247; assistOdoacer,3Io. foundationof secondkingdomof, Burgundy,Duke of, opposesBajazet

248 INDEX Sultan, xi. , _7_-3; pays ransom ByzantinewriterS,collectionsof, xii. , to Bajazet,:75- 64hate. Burgundy,Duke of, uncleof CharlesByzantium,besiegedbySeverns,i. , x53; VI. ,=i_a43; atCouncilofFerrara,[ fortificationsdemolished,x54note; a6a. [ taken by Maxim:n,ii. , 240; by Burgundy,i. , 67; twoprovincesof,v. ,[ Constantine,257; situation,iii. , 278; kingdomof, vi. , 2x4note; 90; fisheries,98andnole(seeConwarsof Clovisin, 225sqq. ; final stantinople). conquestof, by the Franks,227 Byzas,iii. , 9: note. sqq. ; threeRomanscommandin, 26x; Kingdomof LowerBur- CAAB,Arab,ix. , 2xnote. grundy,viii. , 372note; of Upper Caaba,templeof Mecca,ix. , 23; plan Burgundy,ib. ; vassalsof, called of,lb. note;360idolsof,broken,74. "provincials,"x. , 2x8; winesof, Cabadesor Kobad, King of Persia, xii. , x56andnote. wars with the Romans, vii. , 69; Buri,i. , 3oInote. restorationanddeath,x96, _97B_trji(Mamlfi"ks),x. ,29i note,323note. Cabul,subduedbyNusliirvan,vii. ,23o. Burnet ssacredtheoryof the earth,ii. , [Cadaxigan,Persian officer,secondin 293note. command,viii. ,xx2. Burningglasses,vii. , 49,5° andnote. Cadesia,battleof, ix. , x2o,and note; Bnsbequius,ambassadorat court of situationof, ib. note; periodsof Soliman,xi. , 207; on slaveryand the battleof, zuxand note. rightsofwaramongTurks,xii. ,49 Cadhi,orificeof,xi. , :7o andnote. note. !Cadijah,wifeof Mahomet,ix. , 3x; acBusiris in Egypt, /i. , :6_; camp of ceptsthe religionof Mahomet,54; CaliphMerwanat, ix. , 26:; four affectionof Mahometfor, 9o. placesof samenamein Egypt,lb. Cadiz,seeGades. note. Cadmus,Mount,battle of (xx47A. D. ), Bussorah,Nazaxenesat, ii. , 27: note; x. ,28_note. seeBassora. Caecilian,BishopofAfrica,iii. ,335and Bflst,conqueredby Subuktiginin 978 note. A. D. ,x. ,:48 note. CmcSlins(seeLactantins),onthe dream BustaGallorum,vii. ,268andnote. of Constantine,iii. ,296andnote. Buffer,author of Lives of the Saints, Cmlestian,senatorof Carthage,v. ,357. viii. ,43note. ICmlius,Mons,ii. , 79note. Buwayh,ix. , 304note. Cmrmaxth_en,vi. ,282. Buwayhids,seeBow:des. Cmrwys,vi. , 283note. Buzentinns(Bazentinus),river,course CmsarandAugustus,i. , 89; titles of, of, divertedforburialof Alaxic,v. , under Greekemperors,x. , 336-7• 256. Cw. _ax,Julius, i. , 75 note; iv. , xo7; Buzes, colleagueof Belisarins, vii. , Commentariesof, 3x8 note; era i72. of, ix. , 2ix note. Buzurg Mihur, Persian philosopher,Ca:sarea,capitalof Cappadocia,siege viii. ,55; accountof,lb. note. of,ii. , 45; residenceof HannibaliByxlkershoek,on Romanlaw,vii. , 374 anus,iii. , x83; templeof Fortune note. at, iv. , :o3; Hospitalat, 206and Byrrhus,senator,i. , :z5. note; sacked by Chosroes,viii. , Byssus,cloth madefromp/nna s_ua- 89; Togrulat, x. , :62; occupied mosa,vii. , 33andnote. byTimour,xi. , 200. Byzacena,seeByzacium. Cmsaxeain Mauretania,iv. , 233; vi. , Byzacium,i. , 223 note; ceded to the :o8; dukeof, xxo. Vandals,v. , _54 note; Moorsin, Cmsarea,in Syria,surrendersto the vii. , xx8. Saracens,ix. , x67; date of, /b. Byzantineempire,sexRomanempire, note; crusadersat, x. , _54 and

INDEX 249 note;fiefof Sidon,266**ate;re- takesDamascus,t46-7; defeats coveredby crusaders,308. the Gassanites,x57; death,i69. Czesarius,Bishopof Aries,vi. , 330and Caledonia,descriptionof, iv. , 224sq. note. and notes. Caesarius,consul,v. ,323note. CaledonianwarofSeverus,i. ,x65,166. Cmsarius,imperialphysician,iv. , 7x Caledonians,i. , x66. and note. Calendar,reformedbyMalekShah,x. , Cmsarius,masterof theoffices,v. ,48sq. x74; Julian, at Constantinople, Cmsarius,Roman magistrate,i. , 65 xii. , 5xnote. note. Caligula,i. , 92; statueof,atJerusalem, Cmsadus,sonof Dukeof Naples,his ii. , 264. conquestsoverthe Saracens,ix. , Call1Basha, vizier of MahometII. 288. (K. halilPasha),xii. , 6-7; treasonC_arsof Julian,iv. , 3x, xo6,xo7and ablecorrespondenceof, x2-I3,32. notes. Caliph,title of, ix. , 9o-x; firstfour car, mountain,vii. , x86and note,x94 caliphs,9x sqq. ; characters,xx4 andnote. sq. Cafarelio,Italianfamily,xii. , 205. Caliphate,divisionof the,ix. ,263note; Calia,Genoesecolonyof, xi. , x23and extinctionof Abbaside,xi. , x¢4sq. note; inhabitantsof, transportedCalisia,ii. , xx7note. to Constantinople,xii. , 55note. CMixtusII. , Pope,onromanceofTurCagan,seeKhan. pin, x. , x96note; his pontificate, Cagliari,Vandalfleetat, vii. , xo5. xii. ,77andnote. Cahina,QueenoftheMoors,ix. ,2o5sq. Calligraphes,epithetof Theodosiusthe Caietan,Cardinal (of St. George) younger,v. ,325. Jacopo,xii. , xH note,x2o note, Callimachus,seePhilipBuonaccorsi. 2oxnote. Callinicum,religiousriots at, v. , 53 Cairo,ix. , x76; NewandOld,/b. note; andnote. inhabitantsof, repulsethe Turks, Callinicusof Ileliopolis,inventorof x. ,x89;attackedbyAmalrig,292; Greekfire,ix. , 247andnote. fortifiedbyS . dadin,297. Callixene,priestessof Ceres,iv. , 68 Calroan,foundationof,bytheSaracens, note. ix. , 2orand note; attemptto re- Calmucks,black,iv. , 284andnote;vii. , viveChristianreligionat, 23t. 293. Caius,Romanpresbyter,v. , 97note. Calocerus,iii. , z84note. Caius,the civilian,authority of, in Calocyres,ambassadorof Nicephorus, jurisprudence,vii. ,326; Institutes x. ,64; assumesthe purple,65. of, 337and note. Calo-John,King of Bulgaria,correCalabria,lossof, viii. ,3° note; name spondenceof,with PopeInnocent appliedto Bruttium,/b. ; province III. , x. ,338note,339; assiststhe of,madebyConstansII. , 225note; Greeksagainstthe Latins,xi. , x3 taken by the Iconoclastsfrom sqq. ;Scythianarmyof, _4; defeats Rome, 355and note; towns of, Baldwinandimprisonshim,15. pillagedbythe Saracens,ix. , 286; Caloman,Hungarianking,x. ,21xnote; state of, in tenthcentury,x. , 80; treaty with Godfreyof Bouillon, reducedbyManuel,x35-6. 224. Calapin(CallistusAthomannus),xii. , Calpurnius,date of, ii. , 95note; first 5note. eclogueof, x3onote,135note,x37 Calchas,the soothsayer,x. ,85note. note,x38note. Caled[KhMid],vii. ,23_note;at Ohud, Caltabellotta,takenbytheSaracens,ix. , ix. , 68; conversionof, 73; mas- 285note. sacres,lb. ; at battleof Muta, 78; Calvary,Mount,fair at, x. ,t84. victoriesof, xx3; in Persia,xx9; Calvincomparedto Augustine,v. , 352 Syrianwarof, /b. sq. , x37 sqq. ; note;doctrineof,ix. , ",x-2.

250 INDEX Calycadnusriver,x. , a83note. Candidian,ministerof Theodosius,inCalydonianboar,vii. , x35and note. sultedbythe Councilof Ephesus, Camar_,ii. , 32andnote. viii. , x46; receivedby John of Cama_,-ina,takenby the Saraceas,ix. , Antioch,x47. 285note. Candidianus,iJ. ,242. Cambrai,ii. , t59; taken by Clodion,Candioli,Avarambassador,vii. , x9x. Kingof the Franks, vi. , 49; resi- CanJdiaof Horace,iv. , 793note. denceof Charade. h,_x3 note. CanJghul,gardensof,xi. , 2xt. Camden,iv. , 2:3 note; vi. ,274note. Caninianlaw,ii. , xo8note. Camel,Arabian,ii. ,97note;ix. , 7; of Canine,battle of, x. , 76; Normans Chosrocs,93and note;useof,in- defeatthe Saracens,89; date of, troducedintoSicilybythe Arabs, /b. note. x. , 707note. Cannibalismof the Crusaders,x. , _j6 Camelopardalis,i. , x2onote; presented andnote. toTimour,xi. , 2io. Cannonof MahometII. , xii. ,73sg. Camenday,inthe mountainsof Cilicia,Canobin,Monasteryof, residenceof x. , 762note. thepatriarchof theMaronites,viii. , Cameniates,John,viii. ,267note. 799. Camillus,Romangeneral,vii. ,268note. Canoes of the Goths, iv. , 293, 334 Cnmi_ardsof Languedoc,iii. ,407note. note. C,trnp,Roman,i. , 79,20. CanonNamehof SolimanII. , xii. , t8 Campania,i. , 27; desolationof, iii. , note. 758; towns of, pillagedby the Canonsofthechurch,ii. ,314; fifteenth, Saracens,ix. , 286. of Nic:ea,v. ,23. Campania,or Champagne,vi. , 59and Cantabrians,i. , 24. note. Cantacusino,T. Spandugino,xii. , 44 Camphire,inPersia,ix. , t24; inChina note. andJapan,ib. note. Cantacuzene,Demetrius,defendsCoaCampiCanini,or ValleyofBellingzone, stantinople,xii. , 47note. AlamannidefeatedbyMajorianin, Cantacuzene,John,Historyof, xi. , 96 vi. , 703andnote. and note; supportsthe younger Campona,Ii. , 252. Androaicus,99; great domestic, Campsa,fortressof, defendedby the xo6; regencyof, /3. ; despatches Goths,vii. ,279. letters to the provinces,ib. ; asCamus,a liquordistilledfrombarley, sumesthe purple, zo8; fliesto vi. , 27. Thessalonica,io9; alliancewith Canabus,Nicholas,phantomemperor, theServians,_. ; victoryof, zzo; x. , 372. reignof, z74s_. ; continueshis Canada,i. , 276. history,/b. note; ServianexpediCanals, in Europe,begunby Charle- lion of, zz5 sq. ; defeatsJohn magne,viii. ,267andnote;between Pal_eologus,x77; abdicationof, NileandRedSea,x87andnote. lb. ; death, 718 note; four disCananns,John,hisaccountof siegeof coursesof,lb. note; hiswarwith Constantinople,xi. , 225. the Genoese,x23 sq_. ; his ta-eaty CanaryIslands,i. , 33note. withthe Venetians,725; solidts Cancellarius,ii. , I34note. help fromthe Turks, x62; his Candahar,takenbyMongols,_. , 738. friendshipwith Am. Jr,lb. note; Candaules,storyof, viii. ,x0note. negotiationsof,with ClementVI. , Candax,campoftheSaracensinCrete, 235-6. ix. , 283. Cantacuzene,Manuel,governorof MisCanddapti,officeof the,ix. , 338note. ithra,x. ,xx3note. Candia,in Crete,besiegedby Niceph- Cantacuzene,Matthew,abdicationof, orosPhocas,ix. , 308. x. , 7x4 note;assodatedin theemCandia,orCrete,ix. , 283; seeCrete. pire, xx7.

INDEX 251 Cantelorius,Felix,iii. ,x26note. Capuzzl,Romanfamilyof,xii. ,9onote. Cantemir,Demetrius,onMahomet,ix. ,Caracalla,i. ,157note;namesof,163 zn7note; Historyofthe Othman note;reign,z67sq_l. ;titlesof,168 Empire,xi. , x57note; accountof note; edict concerningfreemen, Moldavia,x7o note; of Bajazet, 202andnote; taxationo[ Roman 2o8; onconversionof Churchof citizensby,2ix; bathsof,v. ,22o St. Sophia,xii. , 52 note; on the sq. ; lawsof,vii. ,3x5note;edictof, treatmentof the GreekChurchby concerningthe nameof Romans, the Ottomans,56andnote. ix. , 364• Canterbury,EmperorManuelat, xi. , CaracorumorHolin,residenceof Zingis 244. Khan,xi. , t5o and notesq. Capelianus,i. , 229. Caractacus,i. , 4. Capernaum,Latinpilgrimsbesiegedin, Caracullusfor Caracalla,i. , 164note; x. ,188. in the poemsof Ossian,166note. Caphargamala,villagenearJerusalem,Caramania,Emirof, militaryforceof v. ,zoz. the,xi. , 159-6o;stateof, rivalsthe Capiculi,Turkishtroops,xii. , 18and Ottomansin Asia,z6onote; SUlnote. tan of, defeatedby Murad,/b. ; Capistran(John Capistrano),xi. , 314 conqueredby Bajazet,I69; war note. withthe OttomanTurks,306,3o7. Capitationtax in Gaul,ii. , 223; levied Carausius,ii. ,I53 sqq. onthe Jews,lii. , 24; underCon- CarasharNevian,ancestorof Timour, stantine,158andnote; leviedby xi. , 182. LeoIII. , viii. ,33o andnote. Caravans,Sogdian,vii. ,34Capito,Ateius,vii. , 32o,3_4and note. Carbeaz,the Panlician,x. ,12sq. Capitolof Rome,iii. ,24andnotes;see Carbonaxianforest,vi. ,49andnote. Rome. Carca. ssonne,vi. , 233note; Churchof Capitolinegames,seeGames. St. Maryat, ix. ,219; takenbyAnCapitolineMount,ii. , 79note. basa,x. , 252note. CapitoHnus,i. , 124note, x29note. Caxche,iv. , 158andnote. Capizucchi,the, familyof, xii. , 116. Cardinals,titlesof, viii. ,376andnote; Capoccia,Italianfamilyof,xii. , ,o6. their fightto electa Pope, xii. , Caporioni,chiefsof militia,xii. , 17o. xo3-4;sacredcollegeof, xo4note; Cappadocia,invadedbyAlacic,li. ,xzo; conclaveof, 1o4 andnote; predomainsof,iii. ,x48,149andnote; dominanceof French,Ixx and proconsulof, vii. , 65; Paulidans note. of,x. ,8. Cardonne,De,hisHistoryofAfrica,ix. , Capranica,xii. , I36. 19x note; on Aglabitesand EdriCapraxa,vii. ,27I. sites,3oL Capraxia,Islandof, monksin the, v. , Caxduchians,subduedbyTrajan,i. ,8; 13o sq. li. , 176. Capreolus,Bishopof Carthage,ondes- Carduene(Corduene),ii. , 175andnote. olationof Africa,v. , 35o note. Carette,M. , on assemblyof the Seven Capsia,takenbyRogerofSicily,x. ,x32. Provine=s,v. , 287note. Captain,titleof,inRome,viii. ,384and Caribert,Kingof Paris,vi. ,286note. note. Carinus(M. Aurelius),ii. ,I29; Czesar, Capua,i. , 27; amphitheatreat, 56,62; 13o, 13z note; emperor,132; xJi. ,2o2note;destroyedbyAlaxic, character,z34andnote;celebrates v. ,252andnote;Belisariusat,vii. , theRomangames,I35; death,143 137; Lombardprincesof,x. , 78-9; andnote. besiegedbytheSaracens,8z; taken Carizme[Khw_rizm],cityof,takenby byRoger,I29. -- the Saracens,ix. , 133 and note; CaputVada,Be. lisarinsat,vii. , 96and reducedby /_alekShah, x. , z73; note. provinceof, invadedby MongolS,

z52 INDEX xi. , z37;andcityof,takenbyMon- of, in eleventh century, a3_; gols,_38; byTimour,ax6. poverty of, relievedby CharleCarizmians,invadeSyria,x. , 3t8. magne,x. , z88. Caxloman,brother of Charlemagne,Carthagena,silverminesat, i. , 205; viii. ,360. taken by the Vandals,v. , 343; Carlovingiandynasty,viii. , 340s_. fleet of Majoriandestroyedby Caxmath,anArabianpreacher,ix. , 297 Gensericat,vi. , xi2. andnote. Carthagin/ensis,provinceof, Alan/in, Carmathians,Arabiansect, rise and v. ,273. progressof,ix. , 298sqq. ,300note. Carun,i. , x66. Carmel,Mount,battlesnear,x. ,305. Carus,generalof Probus,ii. ,Ix7; eraCarmelites,vi. , 158vole. peror,i28 andvote;reign,ib. s_. ; Carnuntum,on the Danube,Severus easternexpedition,x3o;death,z32. declaredemperorat, i. , z43note; Carushomo,Benedict,xii. , 92vote. Congressof,ii. , 2_4note. Ca. saubon,i. , z_anote,zx6nole. Carocium,standardof the Lombards,Casbin,cityof, Heracliusat,viii. , zo7 viii. ,384_ote;placedin Capitolby andnote. FredericII. , xii. ,99. Cascellius,Romanlawyer,vii. ,334note. Carpi,ii. ,zo, z6oandnote,25a_wte. ICashgar,underMalekShah,x. , i73; Caxpilio,sonofAetius,educatedinthe I KhedarKhanat, x74note. campof Attila,vi. , 4a and note,Casia,seeIcasia. 78note. :Casilinumbattleof,vii. ,a77andnote. Carpini,John de Piano,friar, visitsICasiri,ix. , 224note,225note. courtof the greatKhan,xL, z35 Caspianor Albaniangatesof Mount note. Caucasus,vii. , 72and note. Carpocrates,viii. ,x3o. CaspianSea, explored,viii. , 54; two Carpocratians,iii. , x3. navieson, lb. note. Carrago,circleofwaggons,iv. ,303note. Cassano,battleof,ii. , 60note. Carrh_e,templeoftheMoonat,i. , x77, Cassian,dukeof Mesopotamia,iii. ,249. _44note;iv. _zz9andno/e;Roman Cassian,on monasticinstitutions,vi. , colonyat, i. , 266vole; taken by i65 note; on anthropomorphism, Sapor,i/. , 42; Paganismat, 48 viii. ,_3ovote. note. Cassians,legalsect,vii. , 325. Carrierpigeons,introducedinto SicilyCassianusBassus,Geopon/caof, ix. , bytheArabs,x. , zo7 note. 3x6note. Carsamatius,meaningofthe word,ix. , Cassin/oncomets,vii. ,293. 335note. _Cassiodorus,Gothichistoryof, ii. , 4; Carthage,i. , 32,62; takenbyCapeli- accountof embassyto Attila,vi. , anus,229; buildingsof Maximian 43andnote; of battleof ChMons, at,ii. , x8onote;wastedbyMaxen- 6zsq. ; historyof,abridgedbyJortius, a24; Councilat, 3x4 note; nandes,54and vote; epistlesof, templeof Venusat, v. , 84; con- 3x3; ministerof Theodoric,3_3 ferenceat, 346andnote; deserip- and note; at Squillace,324; his tion of, 355 sqq. and notes;con- accountofthe tolerationof Theodference of bishopsat, vi. , z9x; oric, 33° note;announcesto the cathedralat, restoredbyHunnerlc, senatetheaccessionof Theodatus _95;buildingsof Justinianat,vii. , and Amalasontha,vii. ,x26. 57; Belisarinsat,zozsqq. ; neigh-Cassius,Avidius,i. , 93 note,zo6,a64 bourhoodof, zo3 note; fortifica- note. *. ionsof, xo4; synodof, xo9 sq. ; CassiusDion,seeDionCassius. saved byBelisarius,za9 andnote; Cassius,Romangeneral,iv. , 9z note. conspiracyagainstSolomonat,237;ICastalianfountainof Daphne,iv. , 9z. patricianof, ix. , x97; taken by Castamona,estateoftheComnen/,vi/i. , Hassan,no2; burnt,no4; bishop a79.

INDEX 253 Castell_e,explanationof name,ix. , 225 maximsof,onfamilylaw,36t and note. note. Castile,s_ Castell,_. Catothe Younger,marchof, to CarCastinns, master-general, marches thage,vi. , i26sq. andnote. againstthe Vandals,v. , 343- Catti,if. ,24, x2xnote. CastlesinAfrica,vii. ,59note;in Bat- Cattle,horned,in the Vosges,vii. , x6o kanPeninsula,6oandnote. note. Castorand Pollux,apparitionsof, ili. , Catullus,poemof,onAtys,iv. ,53note. 299note. Catulus,gildstheroofoftheCapitol,vi. , Castoria,duchyof,viii. ,296. 9° note. CastraHerculis(Heraclea),fortifiedby Catus,see_EliusP_etus. Julian,iii. ,273note. Cancaland(Hauha-land),iv. , 33x and Castricia,persecutesChrysostom,v. , note. 3tonote. Caucanain Sicily,vii. ,96andnote. Castriotes,George,see Scanderbeg. Caucasus,Mount,vii. ,72. Castriotes,John, xi. , 3x5-16. Caucha(orCoca),Theodosiusat, iv. , CastrucdoCasticani,Life of, ix. , 329 331andnote. _wte. Cava,daughterof CountJulian,ix. ,209 Catacalon,veteran,viii. ,280. andnote. Catalafimiin Sicily,ix. , 284note. Cavalry,Roman,i. , 17; armsof, 18; Catalans,serviceand war of, in the of the Crusaders,x. , 232-3. Greekempire, xi. , 85 sqq. and Caviar,exportationof, xi. , 12_ and note;annualpensionof, 87; con- note. questsof,in Greece,91sqq. ; ally Cayem(Kaim),Caliph,deliveredby themselveswith the Venetians Togrul,x. ,159. againstGenoa,126. Cazan,KhanofPersia,collectsMongol CatalaunianPlains,iv. ,215; vi. ,5° and traditions,xi. , 132note; deathand note. character,155and note. CatanainSicily,Belisariusat, vii. , 128; Cazan,"kingdomof, invadedbyMootaken by the Saracen. s,x. , 285 gols, xi. , i4 6. note. Cea,islandof, takenbythe Venetians, Cataneo,on Capistrano,xi. , 314note. xi. , 5 note. Ca_apan,governorof Themeof Lore- Ceaulin,grandsonof Cerdic,vi. , 274. hardy,x. , 79andnote. Cecaumenos,Strategiconof,x. ,51note, Catechumen,iii. ,aSonote. 338note. Cathay,nameof NorthernChina,xi. , Ceecarclli,Alphonso,xii. ,18o. 141andnote. Cecrops(Ceeropius),li. ,6o. Catherine,grand-daughterof BaldwinCedars,of MountLibanuS,viii. , x99 I1. ,marriesCharlesof Valois,x. , andnote. 38andnote. Cedrennsthehistorian,lii. ,xo3;x. ,I6i Catherine,St. ,of Sienna,xli. , 157and note. note. Celer,consul(5o8^. D. ),viii. ,162. Catholic,primateofthePersianChurch, CelestineI. , Pope, receivesembassy viii. , I85; applied to Seleucia, from the EgyptianChurch,viii. , CtesiphonandBagdad,19I. 143-4. Catholics,Roman,criteriaof martyr-CelestineIII. , Pope,x. ,145;richesand dora,iii. , 35note; Catholics,iv. , nepotismof,xii. , x2osq. ao3sq. Celsius,i. ,279note. Catibah(Kutaiba),lieutenantofWalid,Celsus,Emperor,ii. ,48note,5o. viii. , I3a andnote; conquestsof, Celsus,friendof Lucian,ii. , 344note, lb. ; conquersTransoxiana,133 346note;iii. ,x9 note. note. Celtae,legion,iv. ,3Cato,the censor,legalstudiesof, vii. , Celtiberiaus,i. ,24. 320; onthe Oppianlaw,347note; CelticGaul,i. , 25.

254 INDEX Celticlanguage,i. , 47and note. [ x4x; founded,iii. ,93; tribunalof_ CenciusCamerarius,:di. , 67 note,741 iv. , 36; churchof St. PeterandSt. note. Paul at, v. , Hx; of the martyr Cenni,onimperialcoronations,xii. ,67 Euphemia,304;takenbyChosroes, note. ! viii. ,9x. Censors,last,ii. , x4note. [ Chalcis,inSyria,granariesof,iv. , I12; CensorshipofAugustus,i. , 83; revived[ Julian ssettlementnear,ia6; bebyDedus, ii. ,x4, zS. siegedby Nushirvan,vii. , 2o8; Censusof theRomanpeople,v. , x99 tributeof, to Saxacens,ix. , x56; note. takenby theSaracens,x63nae; Centumcella_,vii. , 15a,26_; resistsTo- deathof Solimanat, 244. tila, 264; inhabitantsof, trans- Chalcondyles,Demetrius,xi. , 29onote. portedto Leopolis,ix. , 29o. Chalcondyles,Laonicns,ix. , 366note; Centuries,assemblyof, at Rome,vii. , xi. ,207;GreekandTurkishhistory 309. of,245note;descriptionof EuroCeos,isleof,manufactureofsilkat,vii. , peancountries,ib. ,284; onschism 31andnote. of Constantinople,296note; on CephMlonia,takenby the Venetians Varna campaign,3zx note; on xi. , 5note. sack of Constantinople,xi/. , 45 Cephisus,river,battleofthe,xi. , 9x. note. Ceramio,battleof, x. ,XOT;fortressof, Chaled,seeCaled. ib. note. Chfdons,battleof,ii. , 82; iii. ,x63and Cercaor Creca,wifeof Attila,vi. ,29. note; descriptionof, vi. , 6x and Cerceau,P_redu, on Rienzi,xii. , x28 noteand s99. ;iv. , 2i5. note. Chalybians,or Chald_eans,vii. ,66and CerdictheSaxon,vi. , 273. _ note. Ceremonies,pagan, attitude of the Chamavians,Franldsh tribe (pagus Christianstowaxds,ii. ,28o;adopted Chamavorum),ii. , x59note; subbyChristians,v. ,xo4sg. duedbyJulian,iii. ,27o,27x; code Cerinthusof Asia,his theory of the of (lcx Charnavorum),vi. , 24o doublenatureof Christ,viii. , _3o note. and note, 13i; adopted by the Chameleon,surnameofLeo V. ,9. v. Catholics,x34. CharnpagneSt. Hilaile,villageof, vi. , Cerroni,tribune,xii. , xSo. 233note. Cerularius,Michael,Patriarchof Con- Chancellor,seeCancellarius. stantinople,viii. , 28o-i and note; Chang-Tsong,Emperorof China,death lettersof, ix. , 203 note; cxcom- of,xi. , _35noLe. municatedbythe Pope,x. , 332. Chanse,provinceof,iv. , 28x. Cesena,cityof, vii. , 276. Chansond Antioche,x. , 192note. Cethegus,thePatrician,appearstoJus- Chao. wu,the great Khan, invades tinianin a dream,vii. ,a63. Persia,viii. ,57. Ceuta,seeSeptem. ChapterS,the Three,controversyof, Ceylon,seeTaprobana. viii. ,x74s{. Chaborus,river,iv. ,t22note. Chararich,dominionsof,vi. ,2x3note. Chagan,titleofthe,KingoftheAvars,Chardin,SirJohn,onIslam,ix. ,46 vii. , 192; alliancewiththe Lore- note; on Hosein,_o4 note; on bards, viii. ,7; Dacianempireof Persia,23onote. the,9; policyandpowerof,68sq. Charegites,orKh, Xrejites,revoltof,ix. , Chaibar(Khaibar),townof, viii. ,7o;[ 96. submitsto Mahomet,71; tribe Charigites,orKhazrajites,Arabiantribe, of, *_. ; Jews of, transplantedto I adoptIslam,ix. ,59. Syria,_. Chariotraces, iii. , 30, 3z and note; Chais,M. ,xii. , ix4 note. vii. ,x9sqq. Chalcedon,ii. , 35; Romanlegionsat, Charito,wifeof Jovian,iv. , t79.

INDEX 255 Charlemagne,studied laws of the to empiresof Constantinopleand Franks,vi. , 240;falconersof,viii. ,! Trebizond,and assumestitle Au34note;rusticcodeof,vi. ,25onote; gustus,xii. ,60 andnote. conquersthe Lombards,viii. ,339; CharlesXII. of Sweden,i. , i77. alliancewithHadrianI. , 344; at Charrnoy,M. , accountof Timour s Rome,lb. ; donationof, 346and campaigns,xi. , x89note. note; holdssynodat Frankfort,Charon,nameof a patrician,viii. ,28o. 354; assembliesof, /b. note; Charondas,lawsof, vii. ,3o6andnote. churchof,atAachen,/b. note;book ChAteaubriand,onthe assemblyof the of,354andnote;pilgrimagestothe sevenprovinces,v. , 287andnote. Vatican,356;coronationof,356-7; Chauci,ii. ,24. rdgn, soq. ; character, 359; Chazars,tribeof in Hungary,x. , 49 nameof,lb. note;crueltyof,tothe note;seeChozars. Saxons,36o; lawsof, /b. ; Span- Chazrajites,seeCharigites. ish expeditionof, 36_; literary Chelebi,Turkishtitle,viii. ,294. meritsof,362-3; extentof hisem- Chemistry,scienceof, revivedby the pirein France,/b. s_. ; instituted Arabs,ix. , 275andnote. theSpanisl_March,365; foundedChemnis,in Upper Egypt, Nestorius eightbishoprics,/b. ; protectsthe buriedat, viii. ,x53; descriptionof, Latinpilgrims,x. ,x83. ib. note. Charles_lartcl, receivesembassyof CherefeddinAll,panegyristof TamerPopeGregoryI. , viii. ,337; made lane,vi. , x6note. patricianof Rome,342and notes;Cherson,cityof, iii. , x88note; Wolodefeatsthe Saracens,ix. , 254sqq. ; domirat, x. , 7o; captureof, lb. onthe fi2/oquequestion,328 and note. note;palaceof,at Aixla Chapclle,ChcrsonesusTaurica, ii. , 3z; Justinxii. ,t95, x96note. inn II. banishedto, viii. , 228-_). Charlesof Anjouin Sicily,x. , 78sqq. ; Chersonesus,Thracian,defeatof the ddeat alxddeath,84; senatorof Romans by Attila in, vi. , x3; Rome,xii. , 93and note. fortifications,a longwallof, vii. , Charlesthe Bald, grants charterto 62. monasteryof Alaon,viii. ,364note. Chersonites,allies of Constantine Charlesthe Bold,givesright of coin- againstthe Goths,iii. , x88,x89; agetoZurich,xii. ,8onote. exemptionof, from duties,x89. Charlesthe Fat,viii. ,37xsq. Chernsci,ii. ,24. CharlesIV. of Germany,weaknessof, Chesney,General,his surveyof the viii. ,39° sgq. ; foundsUniversity EuphratesandTigris,ix. , x25note. ofPrague,39° note;ostentationof, Chess,vii. , 2o4andnote;improvedby 39xs_. ; contrastbetweenCharles Timour,xJ. ,2x4and note. and Augustus, 393; receivesChester,Romancolony,i. ,45note. Rienzi,xii. , x5_ and note; ira- Chianss,officeof, x. ,339andnote. perialcoronationof,x54. Chtldebert,laws of, vi. , 245note; atCharlesV. , emperor,ii. , x89; sack of tempt to conquerAuvergne,255 Romeby, v. , 25x; in Northern sq. ; invadesItaly,viii. ,27sq. Africa,ix. , 232; struggleof, with Childeric,exileof, vi. , xx6and note; thepopes,xii. ,x76sff. marriesBasina,2z2andnote. CharlesV. of France, defendedby Childeric,last Merovingianking,deBaluz_xii. ,16znote. posed,viii. ,340andnote. CharlesVI. , I-Iistoirede CharlesVI. , Chiliarchs,of Vandalarmy,v. ,345. xi. , x72note; his giftsto Sultan China,in the thirdcenturyA. D. ,ii. ,x67 Bajazet, x74; assists Emperor and note;iv. , 274sqq. andnotes; Manuel,x78; receivesEmperor invadedbythe Topa,v. , x64;silk Manuel,243; xii. , x64. in,vii. ,3x; earlyChinesechronicle, CharlesVIII. , of France,receivestitles D. note;tradein,35sq. ; Turksin,

256 INDEX vii. ,_88sg. ; Christianityin,viii. , Chostoes,sonof Tiridates,Hi. ,x99. x9o sg. ; friendshipof, with the Chosroes,vassalof Pemia,rulesover Arabs,x33; papermanufacturein, EasternArmenia,v. ,33_. x34;invadedbyZinghisKhan,xi. , Chosroiduchta,sisterof Otas, ii. , z66 x35sqq. ; northernand southern andnote. empiresof,x4o--xsg. Chozars,orKhazars,relationsof, with Chingiz,seeZingis. Heraclius,viii. ,xix andnote;JusChionites,in thearmyof Sapor,ilL,254 tirdanII. seeksrefugewith the, andnote. 229. Chiorli,townof, xL,29. Chrabr,monk,x. ,32note. Chios,Islandof, Turksdrivenfrom, Christ,dateof birthandcrucifixionof, x. , 27I; Ginstinianiin, xli. , 4x- ili. ,18note;miraculousimageof, 42. viii. ,57andnote,85note;sepulchre Chiozza,Isleof,vi. , 70. of,bul nt,9o; opinionsconcerning ChishuI,traveller,v. , 307note. thenatureof, z23sqq. ; statueof, Chivalry,x. ,220. 312andnote;correspondencewith Chlienes,Armenianprince,viii. , 256. Abgarus,3x3; pictureof, /b. sq. ; Cklodwig,see Clovis. how regardedby Mahomet,ix. , Chlorus,seeConstantius. 30sq. Chlum,princeof,_d. ,x68note. Christian,Archbishopof Mcntz, x. , Chnodomar,King of the Alamanni, 137note. iii. , 266andnote; takenprisonerChristianity,inquiryinto its progress byJulian,269. andestablishment,ll. , 26x sg_. ; Chodai-namaor bookofLords,vii. ,aox Jewishconvertsto,268;causesof, and note. andhistoricalviewof its progress, Chorasan,seeKhur_sgtn. 327sgq. ; in the East,332; in Chorasmia,provinceof,iv. , 282note. Egypt,334; in Rome, 336; in Chorepiseopi,or rural bishops, iii. , Africa,337; beyondthe empire, 3r5note. 341; attitudeof Hadrianto, lii. , Chosroe_I. , Nushirvan,Kingof Persia, 3o, 3X; underConstantine,284 i. , 27onote; sevenphilosophersat aqg. ,308sqq. ; under Jovian,iv. , hiscourt,vii. ,8_; accessionof,/b, z74; in Rome,v. , 75sgq. ; Panote; dateof accession,_98note; ganceremoniesin,xo4sq. ; a cause proposedadoptionbyJustin,197; of thefallof the westernempire, meaningof"NnshLrvan,"z98note; vi. ,29Isq. ; propagationof,inAsia, characterof, x98 sqq. ; appoints viii. ,x88s_g. ; in the northof Eufour viziers,x99; endlesspeace rope,x. , 7xsq_. with Rome, 205; makes war Christians,pecul/acopinionsof primiagainstthe Romans,/b. ; invades five,ll. , _78sqq. ; their beliefin Syria, 208 sqq. ; ruinsAntioch, miracles,295sqq. ;virtuesandcns2o9; negotiationswith Justinian, tomsof primitive,300sq_. ; com228sqq. ;empireof,23o;palaceof, munityof goodsamong,3z9sqq. ; ix. , x24sq. tithes,3t9,320; underNero,336; ChosroesII. ,sonofHormouz,accession proportionto Pagans,34x; povof, viii. ,6x; fliesto the Romans, ertyof, 344; confoundedwiththe 62-3; restored by Narses, 65; Jews,lii. , x5andnote; favourably lettersof,67note;invadestheRo- regardedby Constantine,285; manEmpire,86-7sqg. ; conquers descriptionof, underConstantine, Syria, 88; threatensConstant/- _85 sqg. ; loyaltyof, 29o, 29x; nople,_o0; retreatsbeforeHera- yearlysynods,329; respectfor elias,xos; flight,xx6; murderof, Plato,344andnote; doctrinesof, _z8and note. 35x $_q. ; Ariancontroversy,354 Chosrnes,KingofArmenia,i. , a69and sq9. ; their sects, 356 sqq. ; Jutw/¢;ii. , 42. lian stxeatmentof, iv. , 84 *gg. ;

INDEX 257 . ¢ i influenceof, on the l_fahometans, and note; on monasticlife, vi. , ix. , 28; of the seventhcentury x63note;opposesApollinaris,viii. , ": relapseintosemblanceof pagan- x34. : ism,36; mannersof,attimeoffirst Chundo,chamberlainofGontxan,King crusade,x. ,no2; theirdisciplineof of Burgundy,vi. , 25_note. penance,lb. sq. Church,Christian,governmentofprimiChristiansof St. John,in Bassora,ix. , five,ii. , 3o9sq9. ; wealthof,3x9; 27. revenues of, 322; excommunlca o Christmasday,originof, iv. ,I6 hole. fionin, 323,3a4; propertyof,seChristopher,son of ConstantineCo- curedby edictof Milan,iii. , 320 pronymus,viii. ,a39. andnote; authorityof, 348; disChristopher,sonof RomanusI. , made endowedbyJulian,iv. ,84; Eastemperor,viii. ,265. ern Church torn with discord, Christopolis,passof, x. , zzo note; on viii. , x6zs_q. ; unionof the Latin theGreekfrontier,zx3 note. a6dGreek,x82; corruptionofthe Chrobatians,seeCroats. Latin,xi. , 25_sq. ; unionof the ChroniconFarfense,viii. , 348note. Latin and Greek,concludedat ChroniquedureligieuxdeSaintDenys, Ferraraand Florence,264sgq. ; xi. ,x72note, treaty betweenthe Greek and Chrysanthiusthe philosopher,iv. , 56, Latin,268sq. 69; highpriestof Lydia,7onote. Churches,Christian,underConstanChxysaphius,favouriteof Theodosius fine,iii. , 322; privilegeof sanetheyounger,vi. , 34andnote; par- tuarytransferredto,325andnote. donedby Attila, 36; supportsChuYuenChang,revoltof, xi. , x52; causeof Eutychius,viii. , x54; foundsMingdynasty,lb. note. death,_57- Cibalis,battlenear,ii. , a46and note. Chrysocheirthe Paulician,viii. , 26o; Cibossa,churchof Pauliciansat, x. , victoriesof, x. , x3 s_/. ; death,i 4 note. x4. Cicero,De natu. raDeorum,i. , 37and Chrysologus,St. Peter,commendspiety note; attitudeto religion,39note, ofPlacidia,vi. , 78note. xoS,2xo; ontheimmortalityofthe Chrysoloras,Manuel,professorofGreek soul,ii. , 284andnote; onPlato s at Florence,xi. , 28x; death,283; Tim_eus,iii. ,346note; aspiredto his pupils, ib. note; compares the Augurate,v. , 73note;on the RomeandConstantinople,293sg. ; TwelveTables, vii. , 308, 318; epistleof,to JohnPal_eologus,293 accountof De Legibus,322 note. hole;death,/b. Cilicia,province,war in, betweenSevChrysopolis,battleof,ii. , 258; iii. ,93; erusandPescenninsNiger,i. , TSI; HarunalRashidat,ix. , 279; Sul- Persianconquestof, ii. , 45; intan Solimanentertainedat, x. ,x79. vadedbyAlani,:zo; Ciliciangates, Chrysostom,John,onthechurchatAnti- viii. ,xooandnote;conquestof,by och,ii. ,334sq. ; eloquenceof,iii. , Nicephorus,ix. , 3o9. 329;onearthquakeat Jerusalem,Cillium,or ColoniaCiUitana,vii. , 24t iv. , 8%8z; on the luxuryof Con- note;subduedbytheSaracens,ix. , stanfinople,v. , 288and note;pro- xTo;warsof Alexiusin,x-, 272tectaEutropins,3o2; homiliesin Cimbri,iv. ,22onote. defenceof Eutropius,3o3 note; Cineas,councillorof Pyrrhus,v. , x99 electionand merit of, 308 sq. ; note. administrafion,3xo sq. ; extendsCingolani,his mapof the Campagna, thejurisdictionof Constantinople, xii. ,xoznote. 3xa; persecutionof, by Eudoxia,Cinnamus,historian,prejudiceof, x, 3x3s_l_. ;exile,3z6; death,3z7; 278nole. epistlesof, 3z6 note; his relics Cixcassians,dynastyof, xi. , x96 and broughtto Constantinople,3x7! note. VOL,x_L-- z7

258 INDEX Circesium,siteof, i. , a45 note; forti- Claudian,portraitof Serena,v. , xx9 fled by Diocletian,ii. , x75; Ju- note;ondeathof Ruflnus,xa3 and lian at, iv. , x2x, x23; vii. , 66; note; epithalamium,_35 note; Chosroesat, viii. ,63. poemon Geticwar,x47note;epiCircumcellions,sect of, iii. , 4o5 sgq. ; gram onold manat Verona,z49 tunnelsof, in Africa,v. ,347. note; on battleof Pollentia,_56 Circumcision,ii. , 267,273note; prac- and note; account of, J9x sqq. ; tisedbyMahometansonthe Eux- onEutropius,29xnotes;onauction ine, vii. , 2x7; condemnedin of the state,293. Abyssiniabythe Jesuits,viii. ,2x3 Claudiopolls,bathsat, i. , 56note. andnote. ClaudiusI. , electedemperor,i. , 9x,96 Circus,Roman,v. ,22oand note;fac- note,x34note. tions of the, at Rome and Con- ClaudiusII. ,atThermopyl-_,ii. ,x3note; stantinople,vii. ,z9sq. ; factionsof, origin,6xandnote; reign,/b,sqq. ; abandon the Emperor Maurice, letter of, 66; victoriesover the viii. ,78. Goths,/b. and68; death,ib. Cirencester,Richardof,i. , 45note;iv. , Claudius,a freedman,iii. , xo8note. 226note; on citiesof Britain, v. , ClaudiusQuadrigariustheannalist,vii. , 283note. : 342note. Cirta, ii. , 224; iii. ,x86note; opposes!Cleander,ministerof Commodus,i. , Gaiseric,v. , 355; duke of, vii. , xx4sqq. x_o. Cleaveland,Ezra,HistoryoftheCourteCitadelsofthe Alps,ii. ,229andnote. nays,xi. ,43note. Citeaux,monasteryof,x. , 28,1. Clematiusof Alexandria,iii. , 228and Cities,in the Romanempire,i. , 6x; in note. ancientItaly,ib. ; in Britain,Gaul, Clemens,Flavius,ii. , 3xanote; execuandSpain,/b. ; inAfricaandAsia, tionof, iiL,26. 62; of Britain, v. , 282 and note, CIemensofAlexandria,li. ,3o4not_,343. 283and note; decayof the cities ClementILL, Pope, x. , x23; xii. ,9o of the WesternEmpire,ix. , 322; note. wealthof the Easterncities,lb. sq. ClementV. ,Pope,atAvignon,xii. ,xogCitizenshipunderCaracalla,i. , _xxand _o and note; appointscardinals, note. x__note. Citron wood,valued by the Romans, ClementVI. , Pope, his negotiations viii. ,z99andnote. withCantacuzene,xi. ,235-6;Lives City o] God,work of St. Augustine, of, 236 note; celebratessecond v. ,243. jubilee,xii. , xx4 and note; adCius,ii. , 35- dressedby Rienzi,an9; confirms Civetot,crusadersat, x. , 2x2note. histitle,x35;summonedbyRienzi, Civilians,Roman,vi. , x52sqq. x42 and note; his Bulls against Civiiisthe Batavian,i. , 208. Rienzi,x48note; his death, x52; Civitate,battleof,x. ,94-5. Petrarch sexhortationto, _54-5 Civit, lVecchia,seeCentumveU_e. andnote,156. Clairvaux,monasteryof, x. , a84 and ClementVII. , Pope (Robert of Genote. nero),hiselection,xii. ,x6o. Clmissimi,Roman senators,iii. , jo9 ClementVIH. , invadesFerrara,xii. , note. x75 note. Classics,Greek and Latin, x. , 277; Clementines,the, ili. ,342note. losses,andpartialpreservation,of, Cleodamns,fortifiesPir_eus,ii. ,37xli. , 5o. Cleopatra,daughterof EmperorMauCla__d_,harbourof Ravenna,v. , z63 rice,viii. ,83note. note; pillagedbyDukeof Spoleto,Cleopatra,queen,libraryof,v. ,86note; viii. ,26. concubineof Mark Antony,vii. , Claudia,miracleof,iv. ,$x,5am_e. 353.

INDEX 259 Clepho,Kingof theLombards,viii. ,x8. CodexArgentetts,Gothic,vi. , x8tnote. Clergy,distinctionof,fromlaity,li. ,3x8 CodexCaroliuus,viii. ,337note. st. ; orderof, iii. , 3x3; underthe Codex,theGregorianandtheHermo-: emperors,/b,sqq. ; celibacyof,3x7 genian,vii. , 3x6. andnote;ordainedbythebishops,Codexof Justinian,vii. ,329s_/. ;sec/b. ; exemptionsof, 3x9and note; ond editionof,336. "" numberof,ib. ; wealthof, 320${. ; CodexNasiraens,seeNnsiraeus. civiljurisdiction,323sq. ;spiritualCodexof Theodosius,v. ,24note;laws censorshipof,325andnote;public againstthe Donatistsin, 347note. preachingof, 328andnote; legis- Codicils,Romanlawon, vii. ,364sq. lative assembliesof, 329 sqq. ; Codinns,iii. ,xxonote,x78note; vii. , avariceof, restrainedby Valen- u88note; hisaccountof honoars tinian,iv. , ",o7 andnote;in Gaul andoffices,x. ,34rnote. -_ vi. ,26aandnote;clergyand bish- Codrus,Romanpoet,v. ,2_4. opsexiledandimprisonedbyJus- Coemption,vii. ,345,346note. tin,viii. ,x94-5andnote;underthe Coenobites,originof,vi. , z57note;acCarlovingians,. 387. countof, x75andnote. Clermont,estateofAvitnsat, vi. ,92and CcenumGalllcanum,iii. ,232note. note; besiegedby the Visigoths,Cogende(Khojend),cityof, takenby _32sq. ; councilof, x. ,x96s_. the Mongols,xi. , 138. Cleves,Julianat, iv. , r3. Cognats,vii. ,36o. Clodion,Kingof the Franks,occupiesCogni,seeIconium. Tournay and Cambray,vi. , 49; Cohorts,city,i. , 22, xI6note. death,5o. Coil,Britishking,ii. . ao4note. Clotaire,sonof Clovis,constitutionof, Coimbra,treatywithSaracens,ix. , aao vi. ,24anote. note. Clotilda,wife of Clovis,convertsher Coinage,depreciationof, underGalhushand,vi. , 2t9; promoteshis lienns,ii. , 58note,97; of Constanexpeditionagainstthe Goths,230. tine the Great,iii. , _6oandnote; Clovis,Kingof theFranks,vi. ,2x2sq. ; withheadofBoniface,v. ,353and birthof, lb. note; character,2x4; note; underthePal_eologi,xi. ,87 defeatsSyagrius,lb. sq. ; addsTon- andnote;papal,xii. ,68and note; grestohisdominions,2x6; defeats Roman republican,in twelfthand theAlemanniat Tolbiac,ax? sq. ; thirteenthcenturies,88 and note; conversionof, 219sq. ; baptismof, of thepopes,x67andnote. 220sq. andnote;subduesArmor-Colchester,Romancolony,i. , 45note. ica, 223; war with the Burgun- Colchians,braveryof,vii. , 218. dians,235sqq. ;victoryof, nearDi- Colchos,conqueredby Trajan, i. , 8; jon,226; warwiththe Goths,229 alsocalledLazicaorMingrelia,vii. , sqq. ;conferencewith Alaric,lb. ; ax4; descriptionof,ib. sqq. ;manconsulshipof, 235andnote. netsofthenatives,2x6;Christians Cluveriuson the Lombaxds,vii. , x78 of, aXT;revolutionsof, 2x8; renote. voltsof, 221s_q. Cniva,Kingofthe Goths,ii. , t2. Colias,Gothicleader,iv. , 3oo. Coaches,Roman (carruc_e),v. , 209 Coliseum,seeRome. note. Collaterals,or assessors,xii. , xTo. Cocaba,villageof, iil. ,a5. Collatioepiscoporumproveda forgery CoeheontheTigris,Julianat,iv. , i36 byHayer,vi. ,2a6note. sqq. College,electoral,of Germany,viii. ,389 CochinChina,conqueredby the Mon- andnote. gols,xi. ,i42. Collyridianheresy,ix. ,36andnote. Cochin,Kingof,grantsprivilegesto the Cologne(Colonia),i. , 28xnote; PostChristiansof St. Thomas, viii. , humusat, ii. , 54note; destroyed x9a" byGermanz,iii. ,260; pillaged by

260 INDEX CIodion,vi. , 50; archbishopsof, !Commodus,sharedthe imperialpower, their relationtoRome,xii. , 7t. i. , xo7; reign,/b. Sqtl. ;PorphyroColonalus,i. ,3o_note. genitus, io8 note; death, lb. ; Colonia,Sultanateof, viii. ,299. accusesSeverus,143 note; proColonies,Roman,i. , 44, 45; in Britain tectedthe Christians,iii. , 50. andSpain,lb. note;honorarycolo- Comneni,familyof,viii. ,279;genealogy nies,/b. note. of, 280 sqq. ; extinctionof, xii. , Colonna,John, _[arquis of Ancona, . 59. xii. , :i8; learningof, 208note. Comnenus,see Alexius,David,Isaac, Colonna,John, son of Stephen the John,Manuel(emperors). Younger,xii. , x46. Comnenus,Hadrian,viii. ,285. Colonna,MarcoAntonio,xii. , zr8 note. Comnenus,John, refusesthe empire, Colonna,Otho,seeMartinV. viii. ,28z; C_. . sar,283;childrenof, Colonna,Peter,senatorof Rome,xii. , 285. xx8; arrested,_36; death,x46. Comparetti,on SouthItaliandialects, Colonna,Protonotary,xii. ,I74. xi. , 276note. Colonna,Romanfamily,xii. , ix7sqq. ; Compi_gne,Palaceof theMerovingians splendourof,r77; quarrelsof,with at,ix. , 25randnote. theUrsini,2o5. Compostella,shrineof, ii. ,339Colonna,Sciarra,xii. , _o8,Hg. Compurgators,vi. , 246. Colonna,Stephen,theElder,xli. , xx8-9 Comum,townofAttilaat,vi. , 68;lake andnote,x2o,133sq. ,x45. of, 328. Colonna,Stephen,the Younger,xii. , Conception,doctrineoflmmaculate,/x. , I2I,_22"_deathof, z46. 4° andnote. Cahrvion,tunicwornbytheGreekera- Conclave,institutionof the,xii. ,1o5. perors,ix. , 336_wte. Concord,altarof, in Elephantine,vii. , Columba,St. , Monasteryof, vi. , r63 65note. andnote. Concordia,pillagedbyAlaric,v. ,r98; Columban,St. ,vii. ,277note. destroyedbyAttila,vi. , 68. Columbanus,ruleof,vi. , x66note,z69 Concubines,Romanlaws respecting, note. vii. ,353sq. Colume. . Lla,v. ,206note. Con/arreation,marriagerite,vii. , 345, ColumnaRegina,at Rhegium,viii. ,28 346note. note. Confederates,Barbarianarmyof, subColzim,Mount,Monasteryof, at, vi. , vertedthe WesternEmpire,vi. , I59; Anthonyat,lb. andnote. x42and note; newlegionof TiComana,templeof, iii. ,z49andnote; beriusso called,viii. ,24andnote. Chrysostomat, v. ,3z7. Confessors,iii. ,43note. Comans,Turl_shtribeof, serveunder CONOB, inscription of Byzantine Bulgarianking,xi. , x4 and note; coins,viii. ,335note. under AlexiusStrategopulus,35 Conon,nameof Leothe/saurian,viii. , and note,36-7; 40,000familiesof I 23S. Conon, churchand monasteryof,the, adoptedby King Bela IV. ,I St. ,xi. , z47. vii. ,24andnote. Coates,seeCount. I Conrad,Dukeof Franconia,deathof, Comets,vii. ,29xsq. andnotes, x. , 48. Comitia,seeAssembly. !Conrad,Dukeof theFranconiaas,x. , Comito,sisteroftheEmpressTheodora,J 48. vii. ,zoandnote. ConradI. , viii. ,373nole. Commachio,morassof, viii. ,28note. ConradII. , Emperor,annexedkingCommentiolus,generalof the Emperor dom of Ariesto empire,viii. ,37= Maurice,viii. , 74and note. note; in SouthernItaly, z. , 86 Commerce,despisedbytheplebeiansof note. Rome,v. ,2t6. ConradIll. , Emperor,x. , 194; joins

INDEX 26x secondcrusade,274; dealingswith Constantia,wifeofGratian,iv. ,x9oand theGreekemperor,279; hismarch note;escapesto Sirmium,252. inAsiaMinor,280; illnessof, 28z Constantian,generalof Justinian,vii. , note;invitedto Romebythe sen- xz7note. i ate,xii. ,85note,95. Constantina,daughterof ConstantineConradof Montferrat,takes partin the Great, crownsVetranio,iii. , : thirdcrusade,x. ,304; death,308; 209 and notes; marriesGallus, "*: husband of Theodora Angela, 227; character,228; death,232. 355note; defendsTyre,lb. Constantina,sister of Eusebia,iv. , z5 Conradinof Swabia,invadesFrance, note. x. ,79,81-2; in Rome,xii. , 94. Constantina,widowof the Emperorz Consentia(Consenza),lsthmusof,land- Maurice,viii. ,83; death,_b. markof Autharis,viii. , 29; sub- Constantina,town,besiegedbyCobad, duedbyR. Guiscard,x. , xoo. vii. ,69note. Conservators,instituted,xii. , x7o. ConstantineI. , theGreat,ii. , 75; birth : ConsdiumSpecialeand Generale,xii. , andfamilyof, 204andnote; edu-¢ 171. cation, /b. ; escapeof,andjourney Consistorium,iii. , I46note;at Treves, toBritain,207;elevation,208sqq. ; _. condemnsPriscillian,v. , 27; se- marriesFausta,214; namedAucretsof,disclosedto Attila,vi. , 26. gustus,ib. ; besiegesAries,220;in ;_ Constable,officeof, ix. , 34° andnote; Gaul, 224; war with Maxentius, ofFrenchmercenariesat Constan- 226 sqq. ; passesthe Alps,230; tinople,xi. ,6x. battlesof Turinand Verona,ib. - Constance,heiressof Antioch,x. , 300 sqq. ; victorynearRome,235;renote. ceptionof, at Rome,237; estabConstance,treatyof, viii. ,385; Coun- lishedsenatoria. Itax, 239; alliance cilof,392note;synodof. xo95A. D. , withLicinius,240; civilwarwith x. ,x94note;xJ. ,253;xii. ,x66. Licinius,246sq_. ;treat)"ofPeace, ConstansI. , son of Constantine,iii. , 249;lawsof,249sqq. ;clemencTto x73; governsItaly and Africa, the Christians,iii. , 75; chooses x83; Augustus,x96; reigns,lb. ; Byzantiumas siteforConstantinowarwithConstantineII. , 205sq. ; pie, 9o, 9r; plansConstantinople, slain at Helena, 208; protects ib. ; prodigalityof, Io9; character, Athanasius,38x; toleratespagan- x68sqg. ;familyof,x72;edictof,enism,4xI; visitsBritain,iv. ,227. couraginginformers,z75,r76;visits ; ConstansII. , son of ConstantineIII. , Rome, ib. ; puts Crispus to typeof,viii. ,179;emperor,224sq. ; death, x77;punishesFausta,t79; nameof,ib. note;putshisbrother elevateshis sons and nephews, Theodosiusto death, 224; in x8x; Gothicwar, x87; alliance GreeceandItaly, ib. ; murderof, withthe Chersonites,z88; death, in Sicily,225; checkedadvance 19t; conversionof,279sqq. ;conoftheSaraeens,/b. note;deathof, ducttowardstheChurchandChris328;dreamof, ix. , xTxandnote; tians,280,28x;pagansuperstition sends armyto Africa,x97 note; of, 282and notes;protectsChrisvisitto Rome,364;takesrooffrom tiansofGaul,283; publishesEdict thePantheon,xii. , x94. of Milan,284;divinerightof,289; Constans,sonof the usurperConstan- religious war against Licinius, tine,put to death at Vienna,v. , 292and note;dreamof, 296;his 265. conversion,3Olsqq. ; hisdevotion, Constantia,sister of Constantinethe 305;his baptism,306;at Council Great,ii. , 209note,240,258;iii. , of Nice,33x; opposesthe Arians, C 173" 365; andthe Orthodox,lb. , 366;onstantia,daughterofRogerofSicily, hisreligiousvacillation,370;tolerat. ,x42,x46. atespaganism,409sg. ;in Julian s

262 INDEX _, iv. ,45; donationof,viii. , ConstantineXlI. . viii. ,283. 349 and note; imaginarylawof, ConstantineXIII. [XI. ], Palmologns, ix. , 346,347 and note; curedof last Greek emperor, xi. , 32x; leprosy,xii. , x4aandnote. crownedat Sparta,322; message Constantine11. , ii. , 249 and note; to MahometII. , xii. ,zz; signs iii. , x73; elevationof, x8x,x83; act of unionof Greekand Latin Augustus,x96; warwithConstans, Churches,2z; defendsConstanti205; death,206. nople,24sg_. ; L_tspeechof, 28; ConstantineIII. , generalof Honorius, death,44. receivesthe fortuneof Heraclian,Constantine,AfricanChristian,learnv. , 264; character,267sq. ; raised ing of, x. , to4; translatesHippoto the Empireof the West, 336; crates,xo4note. marriesPlacidia,335; death,336. ConstantineAngelus,viii. , 306. Constantine[IIl. ], son of Heraelius,Constantine,brotherof Michael,x. , madeAugustus,viii. ,22xandnote; xo9note;lettersof,to R. Guiscard, at Cmsarea,ix. , z66-7, lb. ; commandsin Greece,xi. , 72. ConstantineIV. ,Pogonatus,defeatsthe ConstantineDraga. ses,Prince of Serusurper, Mizizios,viii. , a26; re- via,xi. ,3at note. voltofhisbrothers,/b. ,227;reign, Constantine,governorof Spoleto,vii. , ix. , 238sq. z55; death,z56andnote. Const. mtineV. Copronymus,reign,viii. , ConstantinePMeokappa,authorof the 236sq9. ; militaryprowessof, 237 Ionia,ix. , 37rnote. note;abolishesthemonks,/. b. ;Ix:s-Constantine,privatesoldier,tyrant, tilenceintheempire,lb. ; bonesof, electedin Britain,v. , x78 and burned, 255; settledArmenian note; besiegedin Vienna,x79; familiesin Thrace,256note;mar- claimsratified,265; besiegedin tiesdaughterof Kingof theCho- Aries,266; death,268. zars, ix. , 346; introducesthe Constantine,son of Bardas Phoca3, PauliciansintoThrace,x. ,x5sg. viii. , 267. ConstantineVI. , crowned,viii. , 238; Constantine,son of BasilI. , deathof, marries Theodote, 24z note; viii. ,26L blindedbyorderof Irene,242and Constantine,sonof MichaelVII. , x. , note. xo9. Const, mtineVII. ,Porphyrogenitns,on ConstantineSylvanns,x. , 4 and note; the Chersonites,iii. , x88 note; laboursof,8; death,9birth of, viii. ,263; title of, 264; Constantinople:-deputes governmentto his wife Augusteum,iii. ,ro4 note. Helena,267; death,ib. ; onGreek] Bathsof: Zeuxippns,iii. ,4or; burnt fire,ix. , 249; worksof, 282note, duringthe Nika riots, vii. , 25. 314 sqq. and notes; Ceremonies, Anastasia,iv. ,x88. Themes,Administrationof Empire, Blachcrnm,iii. , roz note; bridgeof Geoponics,Encyclopmdia,Tactics, the,x. , 328note;palaceof, occuHippiatrica,lb. ; on the Franks, piedby Franks,376; fortifiedby 362s_. ; onthe Selavonians,x. ,30 Heraclins,xii. ,2onote. note; onRussia,53note; hisac- Caligaria,quarter,xii. ,2onote;raincountof baptismof Olga,69. ing operationsoI theTurks at, 35 ConstantineVIII. , sonof RomannsI. , note. viii. ,266. Chainof l:tarbour,iii. ,94and note; ConstantineIX. [VIII. I,viii. ,27S. . xii. ,2oandnote. ConstantineX. [IX. I, Monomachtts, Churchesof: Acacius,St. ,iii. , 402. viii. ,278and note. Anastasia,St. , v. , x6 and note. ConstantineXI. IX. ],Ducas,viii. ,282; Holy Apostles,x8note; vii. , 56; policyof, ib. note; sonsof, banish rifledbytheFranks,x. ,38z. Lauthe motherof the Comnenl,285. fence, St. , vii. , 24. Conons SL_

INDEX 263 _>. ,note. Sophia,St. ,burntdur-I 24noLe;repeopledandadornedby ingthe Nikariots,25; foundation,[ Mahomet,54sqq. 52; descriptionof, 52 sqq. ; au-] Forumof Constantine,iii. , ,o4 and thorit/es concerning, lb. not_;[ note. ; marblesof, 55;richesof, lb. sq. ;[ Gates of: Caligaria,xii. , ao note. " eastern hemisphereof, falls,xi. ,[ Contoscali,_. Xylokerkos(Ker296andnote; inhabitantsof Con-[ koporta),aonote,43note,44note. -t stantinopleseek refuge in, Am. [ Selymbri_e(or Pegana),25 note. 1453,xii. , 45; MahometII. in, Rusii(orRhegii),lb. Charisii(or 5xsq. ; convenedinto a mosch, Charse_)or Hadrianople,:5 note, 52andnote. John,St. , vii. , x7o. 43note. Romanus,25note;tower Virgin,the, xTt. Diomede,St. , of, 28, 44 note,5L Phenar,44. viii. ,257. Irene,St. ,harbourchain Hebdomon,orfieldof Mars,iv. , _84 preservedin,xii. ,20note. note; seebelowunderPalaces. College,Royal,at,ix. , 367. Hippodrome(Atmeidan),iii. ,_o4and Column:of Arcadius,xi. , 9 note;of note; condemnedto silenceafter Justinian,295 and note; (and Nikariot,vii. , 28; MahometII. . Colossus)Constantine,xii. , 46. in,xii. ,5 . . Descriptionof, iii. ,9_ sqq. ; advan- MonasteryontheBosphorus,founded tageoussituationof, 97; fonnda- byTheodora,vii. ,x7; ofSt. Conon, tion of,98; extent,zoo; edifices, 24. _. *o3; population,*06,io7; dedi- MoschofMahometII. ,xii. ,55. . . cation,*H; newformof govern- Palacesof: Imperial,iii. , zoo, ,05 e mentat, x*_;churchof, 400sgq; andnote;v. ,288; restoredbyJusimperialcourtof,anditsreforma- tinian,vii. , 57; x. , 331sqq. and ; fionby Julian, iv. , 3 , 32 sgq. ; notes. Hebdomon,Arabiantroops Senate,4_; revoltof Procopiusin, disembarknear,v. ,_23; viii. ,80; _80; schoolfoundedby Valen- ix. , 238. Her_eum,and gardens, finianI. at, :oo; Athanaric sira- vii. ,58andnote. Lausus,287note. pressionsof, 33,; its Arianism, Daphne,ix. ,33znote. Magnaura, v. , x3 sqq. ;interestof its inhabit- lb. ; schoolat, 368. Blachernae, ants in theologicalquestions,lb. ; _eeabove,Blachernae. Boucoleoa, firstcouncilof,20sqq. ;massacreof x. ,376. Gothsat, 305sq. ; religiousriots, Phiale,ix. ,333. 3*3sq. ; wallsof,rebuiltbyAthe- Sieges and threatened attacks: nilus, 32,; earthquake,vi. , *3; ThreatenedbyGoths,iv. , 3t7;by Circusfactionsat, vii. , 2, sqq. ; GothsunderAlaric,v. , *39; by Nikariots,23sqq. ;riots(A. D. 560, BulgariansunderZabergan,vii. , 285 sq. ; revoltagainstMaurice, 283; besiegedbyAvars,viii. ,96; viii. ,78sqq. ; famineat, 95; reli- threatenedby Persians,,oo; begionswar,x65sqq. ; secondcourt- siegedby ThomastheSlavonian, Cilof, *75; thirdcouncilof, ,8o; 248; by Arabs,ix. , 237; dateof iconoclastcouncilof,320;manners siege,/b. note; secondsiege,_42 of, reformedby John Comnenus, sqq. ; threatenedby FIarun ala9o-t; first Crusaders at, x. , Rashnid, 278-9; besiegedby 229_qq. ; fireat, 37o; pillageof, Krum,x. , 32note; threatenedby 376sqq. ;statuesof,destroyed,382 Hungarians,45; fourtimesbyRusrqq. ; librariesof, destroyed,384; sians,57sqq. ;byGeorgeofSicily, bronzehorsesof, takento Venice, ,33-4; siegeand conquestof, by ib. note;wallsof, restoredby Mi- the Latins,363sq. ; siegeof, by ehael,xi. ,78; stateofthelanguage Asanand Vataces,xi. , 26sq. ;reat, 27t _qq. ; seclusionof the coveredby MichaelPaheologus, Womenof,273sq. ; comparedwith 35sgq. ; escapeof,fromtheMonRome,293s_q. ; circuitof, xii. , gols, z53; threatenedby Hola

264 INDEX gou, x54; by Bajazet,x77; re- Constantius,secretaryof Attila,vi. , 23 lieved by Boucicanlt,_78; be- andnote. siegedbyAmurathII. , 235sq. ;by Constitutions,of the emperors,vii. , MahometII. , xii. , 24sqq. ; cap- xi2 sq. ture of,4zsqq. Consularis,iii. , x28. Sigma,semi-circularportico,x. ,385. Consuls,i. ,82,84note;underConstanSkyla,a vestibule,ix. , 38xnote. fine,iii,, xx6s_. ; in the middle Triclinos:of JustinianII. , ix. , 351 ages,xii. ,84andnote. note;Chrysotriklinos,ib. 334and Consulship,underthe empire,i. ,84and note;Lausiac,53xnote. note; assumed by emperorsin Trikonchon,buildingof Theophilus, fourthandfifthcenturies,ii. , x87 ix. , 33:note,333nole. note; Julian s reverencefor the, Turb6(grave)of Abu Ayub,xii. ,55 iv. , 40; restoredby Odoacer,vi. , and note. x52andnote; suppressedbyJusConstantiusI. , Chlorus,general of tinian,vii. ,8xs_. ; resumedbyJusProbus,ii. ,xz7; adoptedbyCarus, finII. , viii. ,5. x35; madeC_esar,x49and note; Conti,Romanfamilyof, xii. , xx6,ao5. in Britain,_56,x57; in Gaul,x59; Contracts,vii. , 366s_. character and reign, 2oz sqq. ; Convertlsseur,iv. , 7xnote. death, no6; epitaphon, /b. note; Conybeare,Mr. , defendsPhilo s treaaverseto persecution,iii. , 74. tise on the Therapeuta. ,ii,, 335 ConstanfiusII. , son of Constantine, note. iii. ,x73; C- esarandrulerof Gaul, Co/dat_,or grave-diggers,iii. ,32o. x75; inthe East,zSS;receivesthe Copticdialect,viii. ,_85. testament of Constantine,x94; Coptos,ii. , H6, _62. seizes Constantinople,_93; Au- Copts,orEgypfians,heresyof,viii. ,x86, gustus,z96; Persianwarsof, x99 2o2;declineof,207;submittothe sqq. ; refusesto treat with Mag- Saracens,ix. , xo,xL nentius,2zo;deposesVetranio,2xz; Corbnio,i. , 4 note. makes war against Magnentius,Corcyra,Totilaat, vii. ,262; Procopius 213,214; defeatshim at Mursa, at, ib. note;siegeof,byManuelI. , 2x6; elevatesJulian, _39; visits viii. , 292; Crusadersat, x. , 358; Rome, 242 sqq. ; war with the takenbyVenice,xi. , 5note. Quadi,246sqq. ; Persiannegotia-Cordovain fourth century,v. , 27I; tionsof, 249sq_. ; Easternexpe- siegeof,vi. ,2o2;governorof,inthe ditionof, 258; besiegesBezabde, hands of the Saracens,ix. , 216; 259; apotheosisof, 282; adopts legionof Damascusat, 224;seatof Arianheresy,367,368; reconciled theCaliphs,225;Christiansof,anwithAthanasius,58z, 582; edicts der Arabs, 232and note;martyrs againsttheCatholics,403;tolerates of, 234and note;seatof learning, paganism,4x2; visits templesof 27x. Rome,_. ; his fear of Julianand Corduene,iv. , z47. waragainsthim, iv. , x sgq. ; re- Corea,kingdomof, conqueredbythe ceivesJulian sembassy,x4;death, Mongols,xi. , x42. a6. Corfu,se_Corcyra. ConstantlnsIII. , generalof Honorius,Corinth,i. , 62;churchat, vi. , 3xo;dereceivesthe fortuneof Heraclian, stroyedbyAlaric,v. ,x41; wallsof, v. ,264; character267sq. ; raised restored by Justinian,vii. , 6I; to the Empireof the West,336; besiegedby Georgeof Sicily,x. , marries Placidia, 335; death, x53;takenbyTurks,xii. ,57. 336. Corippus,Johannisof,vii. ,235note;on Constantius,Julius, the Patrician, Justinian,viii. , xnote. brotherof Constantine,ii. ,ao9note;:Corn,at Alexandria,ii. , _65note;at iii,,173. Constantinople,iii. , _o8 sq. and

INDEX 265 note;export of, fromEgypt,vii. , held, z56; faithof the, x59sg. ; 29. ratifiedby Justinian,x73. Corneille,"Attila" of, vi. , 8 note Clermont,x. , x96sq. "Heraclius"of,viii. , 8z note. Constance,viii. , 392note;xi. , 253; -" Cornwallconqueredby Athelstan,vi. xii. ,x65sq. 275note. Constantinople,firstof,v. ,2osq. and Coronarygold (AurumCoronarium) note; ratifiedby Justinian,viii. , iii. ,x65,x66note. x73. "3 Coronations,imperial,at Rome, ac- Constantinople,second of (fifth countof,xii. ,67andnote,68. generalcouncil),viii. ,x75. -_ Corporations,municipal,lawsof Majo- Constantinople,third of (sixthgenrianconcerning,vi. , xo6sq. eral council),viii. , x8o. Correctors,iii. ,x28. Constantinople(eighthgeneralcounCorruptiblesandIncorruptibles,heresy cil),x. ,33xandnote. : of,viii. ,202. Constantinople,iconoclastof, viii. , d Corsi,Roman family of, xii. , zt6 3x9. 205. Ephesus,firstof, viii. , x44-5; conCorsica,i. ,33; bishopsbanishedto,vi. , demnedNestorius,x46;ratifiedby 39x; stateof,/b. and note. Justinian,x73 Cones,iv. , x45note. Ephesus,secondof, viii. , x54; perCor_Snus,Matthew,King of Hungary, secutesFlavian,x55s_. ; character xi. ,335andnote. ; of, x56. "_ Corvinus,surnameof JohnHuniades,i Ferrara,A. D. x438,xi. , 262sqq. -_ q. v. Florence,A. D. x438-39,xi. ,262sqg. ; Cos,Isleof,silkmadein, vii. ,3x and actsofunionofthe Councilof,269 note. note. Cosa(KussaJ),ancestorof Mahomet, Frankfort,viii. ,354andnote,36anote. Usurpsthe Caaba,ix. ,24note. Illiberis,ii. ,326. Cosdar,townof,takenbytheMoslems, Lateran(A. D. 649),viii. ,x79; (A. D. " ix. , z32note;seeKnsd_r. xx79),_di. ,304. *_ CosmasIndicopleustes,vii. , 36note,39 Lyons,generalCouncilof, xi. , 28; note;accountof theAxumites,23t Greekclergyat, 75note;Christimatopographyof,vlii. , Mantua(A. D. x459),xi. , 63. " 388note. Milan,iii. ,385note. Cosmoof Medicis,seeMedic. is. Nice,firstof, iii. ,333,353andnote; Cossova,battleof, xi. , x68s_. ; John ratifiedby Justinian,viii. , 373. # Huniadesdefeatedat,334. Nice,secondof,viii. ,35x. Cotini,i. , 277note. Pisa, A. D. x4o9,xi. , 253 and note, Cotrigurs,seeBulgarians. x65. Cotymum,battleof, vii. , 64; Turkish Placentia,x. , x97. campat, x. , _78. Rimini,seeAriminum. Coucy,Sirede,joinsincrusadeagainst Rome,anti-Iconoclastic,convenedby theTurks,xi. ,372andnote;death, GregoryII. , viii. ,332. 374. Sardica,iii. ,380note,38xandnot*. Council,general,authorityof, xi. , 254. Seleucia,iii. ,360. Councilsof: Ancyra,ii,, 526. Sophia,St. (fictitious),xi. , 298note. Antioch,iii. ,379and note. Toledo,vi. ,267andnote. Ariminum,iii. ,360. Tyre,iiJ. ,376. Aries,iii. ,384. --. ouncils,provincial,instituted,ii. ,333. Basil,A. D. x43x-43,xi. , 253andnotes,Count,Latintitle,vi. , 245andnote. andsq. Count:of the East,iii. , x27note,x29 Chalcedon,acts of the Councilof, note; militarytitleof, 335;of the viii. , x46 and note; summoned household(castrensis),t¢3 and Nestoriusto appear,xSa; council note; of theSacredLargesses,z47

266 INDEX sq. andno/e;of the privateestate Phocas,85; condemnedtomonast48 sq. andno/e;ofthe domestics tic life,86. xSOsq. Crltobttlus,historian,xi. ,3a6note;xii. , Coupele,rockof,xi. , z9anote. 46note. Couroultai,or Dietof the Tartars,iv. , Croatia,i. , 28; kingdomof, x. , 3o; 27xandnote;vi. , 66note. princeof, opposesthe Ottoman Courtenay,lordshipof,xi. ,29andnote; Turks,xi. , i68 note. digressiononthefamilyof,43-53, Croats,of Dalmatia,x. , 3o. see Tableof Contents. Crocodiles,ii. , x36note. Courtesy,termof chivalry,x. , 22z. Crocus,or Erocus,ii. , 207andnote. Cousin, President,his translationof CromwellOliver,xli. , x38note. Procopius,vii. , 85note; mistrans-Cross,symbolof,adoptedbyConstanlationin, 300note; histranslation tine, iii. , a94; inventionof the, of Cantacuzene,xi. , xo5note;mis- iv. , 76 and note; true crossretranslationof a passagein Ducas, movedto Persia,viii. ,9o; recov_di. ,I2 note. eredbyHeraclius,12o; exaltation Cracow,cityof,destroyedbythe Mon- of the, /b. ; sign adoptedby the gols,xi. , x46. Crusaders,x. , 209; cross-bearers Craiova,Turkishforcesdefeatedbythe of St. Sophia,xi. , _68. Princeof Wallachiaat, xi. , xT_ Crossbow,used by Crusaders,x. ,239 note. andnote. Cral[Kral],ordespotof Ser_a,deriva-Crotona,Belisariusat,vii. ,258; resists tionof name,xi. , zo9 _ote. Totila,264; battleof, x. , 79Cranmer,x. ,24and note. Crownofthorns,soldbyBaldwinII. to CrasSus,ii. ,x69. the Kingof France,xi. , 3z. Cremera"ii. ,235note. Crowns,obsidional,givenbyJulian,iv. , Crcmona,pillagedbyKlaxic,v. ,x98. x34,:35; of GreekEmperors,ix. , Crescentius,Consulof Rome,viii. ,382. 336andnote. Crestona"city of, vii. ,3o4note. Croya"takenby Scanderbeg,xi. , 3z8; Crete,i. , 34; archersof,atThermopyla. _, siegeof, 3x9. ii. ,_3note;conqueredby Niceph- Crucifixion,date of,ii. , 333orus, viii. ,a69; bythe Arabs,ix. , Cruitnich,or wheateaters,iv. , 225. •8_sq. ; Saracensof, puttodeath, Crum,BulgarianKing,viii. , 8 nae; 294andnote;recoveredbyNiceph- death. 246note. orusPhocas,3o8; taken by the Crusades:first crusade,x. , x9zsqq. ; Venetians,xi. , 5 note;boughtby justiceof,200sq. ; motive _for,202 Venice,6. sq9. ; secondand third,_74sqq. ; Creyghton,Robert,his historyof the fourth and fifth, 3z4 and note; union of the Greek and Latin sixth,3_8sqq. ; seventh,322sq. ; Churches,xi. , 259note. accountoffourth,34_sq¢. ;conseCrimTartary,ii. , 3L quencesof the,xi. ,38sgq. Crimea,fortificationsof Justinianin, Crusius,his Turco-Grzecia"xii. , 56 vii. ,65; tradeof, xi. , x23. note. CrinitusUlpius,ii. , 70. Ctesiphon,or Madayn,i. ,265;besieged Crispinus,i. , 235. bySeverus,/b. , ii. ,84, 85; taken Crispius¥ibius, i. , Io3 note. by Caxus,i3I ; Julianat, iv. , :36 Crispus,sonof Constantine,Cmsar,li. , sq¢. ; palaceof, Nushirvanat, vii. , 249and note; defeatsthe Franks 230; Heracliusnear, viii. , xzS; andAlemanni,25aandno/e; naval Chosroesenters,xx6; sackof, by victoryof,257; character,iii. ,x74; the Saracens,ix. , x23and notesq. ; Cmsar,/b. ; disgraceand death, palaceofChosroesat, I24; decay, x77. x25; ruinsof the hallof ChosroeS Crispusthe Patrician,son-in-lawof at, ib. note. Phocas,viii. ,84andnote;betraysCubitof the Arabians,ix. , a74note.

INDEX 267 Cublai,grandsonof ZingisKhan,xi. , the accountof, iii. ,36sqq. ;letters x4oandnote;conquestsof,i4xsq. ; lb. ; flight,/b. ; at Curubis,38; prosperityunder, xSx; residesat martyrdom,39; festival,of, vii. , Pekin, i53. 1o2. Cucusus,in LesserArmenia,iii. , 4oI Cyprus, i. , 34; insurrectionagainst note; retreat of Chrysostom,v. , Constantine,iii. , I84; Hyrcanian 316. captivessentto,viii. ,54; ravaged Cudworth,iii. , 339note,34_note. by the Saracens,ix. , 171, 28x; Cufa, insurgent Arabs of, ix. , 96; recovered by Nicephorus,313; tombof Aliat, xoo;foundationof Assisein theLatinkingdomof,x. , *a5;pillagedbythe Carmathians, 266,270 note; conquestof, by 299. RichardPlantagenet,338andnote. Curieletters,ix. , J9. Cyrene,i. , 3a; ruinedstateof,iii. ,326 Cumze,reducedby Totila, vii. , 245; andnote; Greekcoloniesof,extirdefendedbyAligern,273; Sibyn s paredby Chosroes,viii. ,91; concaveat, =74and note. foundedwithCairoano[theArabs, Ctmaans,Turkishtribein Hungary,x. , ix. , ao*note. 49note;sameas the Uzes,/b. ,x65 Cyriacus,of Ancona,iii. ,a4 note. note; glossaryof the Cuma_ian Cyriades,Emperor,ii. ,44,50. language,/b. Cyrilof Alexandria,answersJulian,iv. , Cunimund,viii. ,6; slainbythe Lom- 6o and note; account of, viii. , bards,7; skullof,usedasdrinking x35-6; made patriarch, i37; cupbyAlboin,x5. tyrannyof,/b. ; allowsHypatiato Curator,officeof,in Rome,vii. , 355. bemurdered,i39andnote;at the Curds,ii. , x76; dynastyof Curds or firstCouncilof Ephesus,145sqq. ; Ayoubites,ix. , xonote; x. ,_94sq. degradedby the Orientalbishops, andnotes, x47; is reconciledto Johnof AnCurland,holygrovesof,x. ,55andnote. tioch,x48. Curopalata_officeof,ix. , 338andnote. Cyrilof Jerusalem,iii. , 368,369and Cursuspublicus,seePost; cursusclavu- note;characterof,iv. ,77andnote. /ar_,iv. , 6 note. Cyrila,Arianbishop,at conferenceo£ Curubis,townof,Cyprianbanishedto, Carthage,vi. , x81; hisignoranceof iii. ,38. Latin,105note. Cusina,Moorishchief,vii. ,241note. Cyrizus,stationof,viii. ,-_54note. Cuspinian,xii. , 5 note. Cyrrhus,Bishopof, v. , 325note; vi. , Customs(imposts),i. , _o7andnote. 3oi note; dioceseof,x. , 3 note. Cutturgurians,tribesof, vii. , x8onote. Cyrusthe Great,eunuchsof, iii. , 2a4 Cutulmish,grandsonof Seljuk,x. ,177. note; captureof Babylonby, xii. , Cybele,i. , 4x,xI4andnote; orationof 45note. Julian in honourof, iii. , 5I and Cyrus,nephewofSolomon,vii. ,240. note. Cyrus,praetorianprefect,disgraceof, Cyclades,islands,Saracensin,ix. , xT_. v. ,328. Cydnus,river,iv. , x7_andnote. Cyrus,patriarchof Alexandria,ix. , x78 Cydonia,in Crete,ix. , 284. note. Cynegius,praetorianprefect,closesthe Cyrus,river,vii. ,2x4. pagantemples,v. , 8x. Cyta,or Cotatis,townof,vii. ,2t6. Cynochorita_,churchof the Paulicians, Cyzicus,ii. , 35; buildingsof, iii. ,xo_ x. ,4 note. note;massacreofhereticsat,4o4; Cyprian,Bishopof Carthage[Thallus subdued by Procopius,iv. , x8; CceciliusCyprianns],ii. , 315 and Johnof Cappadociaat,vii. ,47sq. ; note; opposesBishop of Rome, Arabianfleetat, ix. ,239. 317; deLapsis,32aandnote; on Episcopalgovernment,326,327; DACt. %conqueredby Trajan,i. , 6, 7; teacherof rhetoric,343; opposes descriptionof, 29; inroadsof the

268 INDEX Gothsinto,ii. , 8, xz; lostto the x39sqg. ; fallof, x46-7andnote; Goths,30note; givenbyAurelian exilesof,pursuedandslain,x49sq. ; to theGoths,73; invadedbyCris- GateKeisanat,x49;capitalofthe pus, 253; given to the Eastern Saracens,x87; takenbyZiraisces, Empire,iv. , 323; subduedby Ar- 3ix; princesof, expelledby the daric,Kingof theGepid_,vi. , 77; Seljuks,x. , z77;reducedbyAtsiz, desolationof, 309; two provinces x88; siegeof, by ConradIII. , of, vii. ,59note. 282; joinedto Aleppo,288; atDacians,drivenfromUpperHungary tackedby Saladin,395and note; bytheSarmatians,iii. ,x86. Saladinretreatsto, 804; Timour Dadastana,iv. , r78 andnole. at, xi. , x98. Dagalaiphus,officerof Julian,iv. , a_; Damasus,Bishopof Rome,iv. , ao8; in Persia,r24; at Maogamalcha, accountof,209sflq. ;v. ,x2. 33x; factionof,at deathof Julian, Dames,a Saracen,ix. , x64. x56; addressto ValenfinianI. , iv. , Damghan,battleof,x. ,156. 384; consulateof,2t4 note. Damianus,Peter,vi/i. , 376 note; x. , Daghestan,vii. , 73. 45note; friendandbiographerof Dagisteus,gener ,dof Justinian,corn- St. DominicLoricatus,2o4note. roundson the Euxineagainstthe Damietta,takenby the Crusaders,x. , Persians,vii. ,224; commandsthe 314. HunsagainstTotila,266. Damocles,storyof,vi. , 87andnot_. Dagobert,foundedthe Churchof St. Damophilus,Archbishopof Constant/Denys,v. ,26xnote; viii. ,364. nople,exileof, v. ,z8 andnote. Daher,Indianckief,conqueredbythe Dandolo,Andrew,x. , 367 note. Moslems,ix. , 332note. Dandolo, Henry, Doge of Venice, DahesandGabrah,warof,ix. , 37nob;. chronicleof, x. , 3x note; account Daihal,captureof,by Mohammadibn of,348andnote; at siegeof ConKgsim,ix. ,132note. stantinople,365sqg. ; refusesthe Daimbert,Archbishopof Pisa, made Latinempire,xi. ,2; despotofRoPatriarchofJerusalem,x. ,260and mania,5; death,38. hole. Danes,iv. , 220; vi. , _7z. Dakiki,Persianwriter,vii. ,2oi note. Daniel, first bishop of Winchester, Dalmatia,descriptionof, i. , 28; sub- epistleof, to St. Boniface,vi. , 383 duedbytheRomans,x42;wonby note. Constanfius,iii. ,2_9; cededto the Daniel,P6re,onChilderic,vi. , rx6not_. EasternEmpire,v. ,339; occupiedDaniel,prophecyof, vi. , 289note. by MarceUinus,vi. , 3x5; iron DanieliS,Matronof Patras, viii. , 257; minesof,328; Crusadersin,x. ,225. giftstotheEmperorBasil,ix. ,326; Dalmatianlegionaries,destroyedbythe wealthof, 334sq. Got/as,v. ,232. Dante, his De Monarchio,xii. , r38 Dalmatinus,JuvencusC_eliusCalanus, note. lifeofAttila,vi. , 3note. Danube,victoriesof M. Antoninuson, Dalmatius,nephewof Constantine,lii. , i. , r3; provinceson, 27; frozen, x73; madeC_esar,_8z; character 275; bridgeof boatson,iv. , 249; of, x93note; murderof, z94. conferenceofValensandAthanaric Dalmafiosthe abbot,viii. ,x49andnote. on, 25o; Gothstransportedover Dalmatiusthe censor,ii. , 2o9 note; the, 292 sq. ; frozenunderJusii/. , 373. tinian,vii. , 282; canalof CharleDamascenusStudites,xii. ,56note. magne,viii. ,367. Damascius,his Lifeof Isidore,vii. , 79 D Anvilie,M. , planof Romeby,vii. , note. 340note;easterngeographyof,ix. , Damascus,Andronicusfliesto, viii. , x39 note; descriptionof Alexan299; faiz sof, ix. , zo; caliphsat, dria,x79note; on the ORoman zxo; besiegedby the Saracens, dynasty,xi. , z55note.

INDEX 269 Daphne,grove and templeof, iv. , 89 Decemvirs,twelveTablesof, vii. ,3o$ andnote; templeof, burnt,93sq. sqq. ,308. Daphnusia,townof,xi. , 36andnote. Decennovium,vii. ,x35androle. Dora,siegeof,vii. ,2x3; byNushirvan Decentius, brother of Magnentius, viii. ,$2; Bahrainat, 57; restored, madeC_esax,iii. ,220andnote,2az. 66; destroyedby Chosroes,88. Decimus,battleof (AdDecimum),vii. , Dardania,provinceof, vi/. , 59 note; zoo. acquiredbythe Bulgarians,x. , 28 Decius,consul,vii. , 269note. androte. Decius,emperor,defeatsPhilip,ii. ,=; Dardanians,ii. , x3 note,x49and rote. reign,lb. ; birth,/b,rote; marche$ Dardauusof Troy,ii. ,6znote. againstthe Goths, 3, 4; Gothic Dardanus,prmtorianprefectin Gaul warof, z3 sgq. ; death,x7; perseopposesJovinus,v. , 269andnote; cutesthe Christians,fii. , 55 and ! inscriptionerectedby, 284 note. note; v. ,359androle. : Dargham,Egyptianvizir,x. , 29oand Deeius,the Younger,death, ii. , t6. role,29L Decius,Romanpatrician,vii. , 254. Darius,constructscanal in Egypt,ix. , Deeoratus,delatorofBoethius,vi. ,339 x87note;comparedtoVataces,xi. , note. 57note. Decretals,theForged,viii. ,347. Darius,oflqcerof VaientinianIII. , in-IDecumates,ii. , x2oand note. terviewwith Count Bonifaceat Decurions,or Curiales,iii. ,x56. Carthage,v. ,348sq. DeJensores,iv. , 200; officerevivedby Dastagerd,seeArtemita. Majorian,vi. , xor. Datianus,governorof Spain, iii. , 74 Deificationof emperors,i. , 8o,88. andnote. Dejal,ortheAntichrist,ix. , xo5. Datiaausthe Patrician,iv. , x8o and Dejoces,Kingof the Medes,vi. , ,x5 note. note. Darius,Bishop of Milan, vii. , x5u; DelaMalle,Dureau,on populationof retiresto Constantinople,x58and the Romanempire,i. , 53rote. note. Delators,i. , xx_,_u8. Cp. iii. , x75-6. D Aubign6,onearlyChristianfaith,v. , Delbene,Sannuccio,zSi. ,x26note. xo4note. Delhi,conqueredbytheSultanof GazDaur,townof, takenbythe Modems na,x. ,I5o; Timourat,xi. , xgx-2. ix. ,x32note. Delian,Peter,revoltof,ia Macedonia, Dausara,takenbyAvidiusCassius,i. , viii. ,277note. 264rote. Delphi,iv. ,42. DavidComnenus,lastEmperorofTreb- De2phicum,royal banquetinghall at izond,xii. , 59sq. Rome, Constantinople,and CarDavid,grandsonof Andronieus,seizes thage,vii. , to3 note. Paphlagonia,xi. ,xxrote; death,/b. Delphidius,inGaul,iii. ,275;widowof, David, lberian prince,aids Phocas v. ,27. againstSclerus,viii. ,274note. Delphinus,Gentilis,xii. , 18o. David,Sonof Heraclius,viii. ,22xnote. Dema. ratus,vii. , x74note. David,Sonof Shishman,x. ,64note. Demetrias,granddaughterof Proba,v. , Davila,Fra, historian,xii. , x76note. 249note. Davy, Major,his Institutionsof Ti- Demetrius,brotherof JohnII. , x. , 33 mour,xi. , xgxnote. androte; voyageof,toVenice,xi. , Dawldnsand Wood, descriptionof 26o,268. PalmyraandBaalbee,ix. , x55note. Demetrius,despotof Epirus,siegeof Debt,lawof,vii. ,374sq. Rhodesby,ix. , XTXandnote. Decapolis,plain of, ix. , x57. Demetrius,Egyptianprelate,ii. ,335Decebalus,Dacianking,i. , 6, 7. DemetriusPoliorcetes,ix. , 35anote. Decempagi,Dieuzein Lothringen,iii. , Demetrius,son of Marquisof Moata64note. ferrat,ai. , 24.

270 INDEX Democedesof Crotona,vii. ,_o_note. Diamper,synodof, viii. , x93. Democritus,philosopher,xi. , 69note. Diarbekir(or Amida),despoiledby = Demons,ii. , 279, 28o. Saladin,x. , 395. 7 Demosthenes,vii. ,74. DiariumParmense,xii. ,63note. Demoticagivento CountofSt. PoI,xi. ,8 Diarium,UrbisRomae,xii. , x80. and note; massacreof the Latins Dibra,twoprovincesof,xi. ,3x9note. at, x4; Cantacuzeneassumesthe Dic*earchus,iv. , 260note. purpleat, _o8; EmpressAnne Dicanice,Greeknameforthe imperial besiegedin,bytheBulgarians,z62. sceptre,xi. , 66note. Denarius(coin),iii. ,x6onote. Didot,A. F. , on AldusManutius,xi. , Dengisich,son of Attila, onthe banks 290note. of theDanube,vi. , 76; invadesthe Didymus,prince of the Theodosian EasternEmpire,77;death,ib. house, opposes Constantinethe Denmark,Crusadersfrom, x. , 304; Tyrant,v. , 18oandnote. kingdomof,restoredtotheempire, Diedo, Venetiansea captain,xii. , 24 xii. ,98. note. Deogratias,Bishopof Carthage,assists DieM,C. ,onAfricanforts,vii. ,58note. theprisonersofGaiseric,vi. ,9xand Dietof theTartars,seeCouroultai;of note. the Hurts,iv. , 27_note;German, Depopulation,in th/rdcentury,ii. , 57, viii. ,389,392,39358. DietrichofBern,vi. , 327note. Derax[Dhir_r],Arab warrior,iv. , 3x7 Diffarreatio,vii. ,348. note;atsiegeofDamascus,ix. ,x4o Digest,seePandectS. sq. ; valourof, x42andatty. Dijon,fortressof, vi. , 226and note. Derbend,vii. , 72and note; gatesof, Dilemites,ii. , x68note; alliesof the penetratedbytheMongols,xi. , x4o. , PersiansintheLazicwar,vii. ,2a5. Dervishes,xi. , 3o3andnote; in Turk-_Dimitriu,articleof, on Russia,x. , 57 ishcampat Constantinople,xii. ,37-i note. Desiderius,brother of Magnentius,; Dinar,ix. ,24L madeC_r. sar,iii. ,220note;death, Dinarchus,vii. , 93note. _2_note. Dioceses(civil),lii. , x26sq. Desiderius,daughterof, repudiatedby Diocletian(C. AureliusValeriusDioCharlemagne,viii. ,339note;con- cletianns),ii. , xzT; election,142 queredbyCharlemagne,/b. and notes;reign,I44 sgq. ; assoDeslisle,William,geographer,ix. , 3x4 dates Maximian,x45; Galerius note. and Constantine,x49; defenceof Despina(?), queen,restoredby Ti- the frontiers, r57; policy, lb. ; mourto Bajazet,xi. , 204-5. settlementof the Germans,SarDespot,tide bestowedby the Greek motions,etc. , x6oandnote; wars emperors,ix. , 337- in Egyptand Africa,x6xsgq. and Deuterius,chamberlain,v. ,_89note. note; suppressesalchemy, x63; Develtus,townof, capturedbyKrum, Persianwarsof, z64sqq. ; at Anx. , 32note. tioch,i69; receivesTiridates,x7o; Devonshire,earlsof, see Courtenay. negotiateswith Persia, x72; his Dexippus,ii. , 38andnote. moderation,x73; triumph, x77; D Herbelot,hisBiblioth_queOrientate, titlesof, x78note; edictof maxiix. , xx8andnote. mum prices, /b. ; at Nicomedia, Dhoulacnaf,Arab title of Sapor,iii. , xSo;systemof ImperialGovernx97" i meat, x8_ s_q. ; assumes the Diadem,imperial,introducedbyAure-I diadem,z85; administration,x86 1/anand Diocletian,ii. , z85and] sqq. ; increaseof taxationunder, note;ix. , 336andnote. 4 x88; abdication,x89,19o; at SaDiadumenianus,i. , x78; death,z84. ] lona,z92sqq. ;bathsatRome,2o9 Diamonds,i. , 69andnote. i and note; treatmentof the Chris

INDEX 27i tians,Hi. ,58sqq. ; firstedict,66; D/ ue/es_, long tunic wornby the secondedict,73; thirdandfourth Byzantineemperors,ix. , 336note. edicts,/b. Divination,iii. ,41o. Diodetianopolis,besiegedbytheAvars, Divinity,titlesof, assumedby Dioviii. ,72. cletianand Maximian,ii. , 184. DiodoruS,Count,iv. ,96. Divorce,vii. ,348sqq. ;limitationsofthe Diodorus,heretic,viii. , x34. libertyof,349sq. DiodorusSiculus,on the priesthood,Dlugossius,Johannes,his historyof lii. ,318note;vi. ,296note;onthe Poland,xi. , x34note. Caaba,ix. , 23andnote. Dniester,Gothicfleeton, ii. ,65; VisiDiogenes,leaderoftheChersonites,iii. , gothiccampon,iv. , 288. _88. Docetes,gnosticsect,iii. ,343andnote; Diogenes,officerof Justinianin Rome, their opinionon the nature of vii. ,26x. Christ,viii. ,i26 sq. DionCassius,i. , 42note,86note; his Docles,no. meof Diocletian,ii. ,x44note. father,95note; enemyof Didius Doclia,ii. , 144note. Julianns,x37note,x53,x6o; con- Dodona,Gothsat, vi. ,262andnote. sulunderAlexanderSeverus,x99. Dogeof Venice,institutionof, x. ,347Dionysius,Bishopof Milan, banish- Dogs,sentfromEuropeto Bajazet,xi. , mentof,ili. ,387. _75note. DionysiusI. of S)aracuse,viii. ,33note; Dolfino,Giovanni,Dogeof Venice,xi. , xii. ,34note. 5_wte. Dionysiusof Alexandria,iii. ,36. Dollinger,onthepopes,viii. ,377note. Dionysiusof Byzantium,vi. , 9xnote. Domestic,Great,officeof,ix. , 340and Dionysiusof Corinth,ii. ,323note. note. Dionysiusof Halicarnassus,onRoman Domestics,revoltof, againstCommoconstitutionalhistory,vii. ,303note. dns,i. , x23; schoolsof,lii. ,xso. Dionysiusof Telmahr_,Patriarchof Dominic,St. ,hermit,x. ,204; Life of, Antioch,ix. , i7o _wte. lb. note. Dionysius,poeticalgeographer,ix. , x54 Dominus,title of the emperor,i. , I83 note. andnote;refusedbyJulian,iv. ,39 Diophantusof Alexandria,ix. , 274note. and note; adoptedbythe popes, Dioscorus,Patriarch of Alexandria, viii. , 3. 34-5and note; on papal supportsEutyches,viii. , 154; dis- coins,xii. ,7o. graceof, r57; deposedand ban- Domitian,emperor,i. , 5, 92; lifecenished,x59. sorshipof, ii. , x4note; gildsthe Dioscurias,town,ii. ,33note;vii, 216; capitol,vi. , 9° note; bustof,vii. , fortificationsof, 2I9. 289 and note;lawof, concerning Diospolis,image at, viii. , 3_5-6 and suicides,387; foundsCapitoline note. games,xii. ,x25note. Diplokionion,orBeshikTash,_di. ,u9 Domitian,Orientalprefect,iii. , 229, note. 230note. Dir,Slavking,x. ,52note. Domitilla,nieceof Domitian,iii. , u6 Dirhem(drachma),ix. , 24xnote. andnote. Dlsabul,Khanof the Turks,vii. , x93 DomitiusDomitianus,ii. , r6xnote. andnote;receivestheRomanam- Domninusof Syria, ambassadorof bassadors,195sq. Valentinian,v. ,37Sg. Dispargum,residenceof Clodion,King Domtts,classof Romanhouse,v. , 224. ofthe Franks,vi. , 49; site of,/b. Donationof Constantine,iii. ,28onote; no/e. forgeryof, viii. , 347; of CharleDitch,battleof the,viii. ,369. magne,/b. ; of Constantine,348 Dithmar,chronicleof,x. , 5a note. andnote. Dius,vi. 3oxnote. Donafists,schismof,iii. ,336sqq. ;reDiva,or Male,iii. ,3H note. voltof,405sqq. ; religioussuicides

27z INDEX of,407sq. ; persecutionof,v. ,346, ria,v. , x63note; quotationfrom, 347andnotes, xii. ,43no/e,x52note. Donatus,Africanbishop,iii. , 335- Dubis,Persiancampat,vii. , az3. Donatus,on topographyof Rome,xii. , Dubos,Abbd,i. , 44note; onthestate = 2x2note. of Gaul,vi. , 4° note;on influence Dongola,ruinsof,viii. ,ao9. of climatein relationto the Ro- Dorcon,horseof Heraciius,viii. , xI4 roans,xii. ,66note. F note. Ducange,C. du Fresne,ix. , :_47note;" Doria,Genoeseadmiral,xi. , x26. onthe Catalans,89note; hisedi. Dorothens,eunuch,protectsthe Chris- tionsof Byzantinewriters,xli. ,64 la finns,iii. ,59. noteDorotheus,religious enthusiast, x. , Ducas,Greekhistorianof theTurks, 334- _d. ,2z8note,220note;onschismof Dorotheus,selectstheInstitutesof Jus- Constantinople,46note; account tiuian,vii. ,338. of the destructionof Venetianship Dorylzeum,Theophilusat, ix. , a93; by the Turks, xii. , zx and note; battleof, x. , 238; nowEskishehr, historyof, printed,axnote; am. a#o; ConradIII. at,280note. bassadorto sultan,46note. Dositheus,Patriarchof Jerusalem,xi. , Ducas,seeConstantineXI. 98note. Ducat,derivationof the name,xi. ,a56 Doutremens,Jesuit, his History of note. FourthCrusade,x. , 344note. Ducenorius,imperialprocurator,iii. , Dovin,destroyedby He. radius,viii. , 56note. Io3note. Duels,judicial,see Judicialcombat. Doxology,iii. ,397. Duke,Latintitle,vi. ,245andnote. Draco,nameof visitor-generalof Leo Dukesof the frontier,ii. , 7oandnote; III. , viii. ,323and_wte. ix. , 34o-z. Draco,river,seeSarnus. Dukes,military,iii. , x35; established Draco,statutesof, vii. ,37a; ageof,/b, by Namesin Italy, vii. , a8oand note. note. Dracon,river,x. , 2x2note. Dumatians,tribe of,ix. , 25. Dracontius,masterof the mint,iv. ,96. Dunaan,Princeof the Homerites,vii. , Dragoman,officeof,ix. , 339-40- _3x and note. Dragon,city,iv. , 27xnote. Duraon the Tigris,iv. , x59andnote; Drcnco,river,Attilareceivestheera- treatyof, :62 andnote; takenby bassyofTheodosiusonthebanksof Nushirvan,vii. , 2o7. the,vi. , 36. Dura. zzo,siegeof, x. , xxz s£f. ;battle Drepanum,ii. ,204note;Crusadersat, of,xx6; takenbyRobertGuiscaxd, x. ,_x2note. xz8--9;nameof, xx9note;BoheDristra or Durostolus,x. , 66 note; mondat,273; Latinslandat,358; Swatosiausat, 67. MichaelAngelusat,xi. , z2. Drogo,brotherof Williamof Apulia, Durham,bishopricof, vi. ,28o. x. , 90note; deathof, 94. Durostolus,seeDristra. Dromedary,viii. ,93andnote; in Ara- Dyeingindustries,vii. , 3° s_?. andnote. bia,ix. , 7- Dyrrachium,fortificationsof, v. , xT. O; Dromones,or Byzantinegalleys,ix. , 352 treasureof Amalasonthaat, vu. , andnote. xa6; takenbytheLombards,x79; Druidsof Gaul,i. ,4o. Belisariusat,25o; seeD_. Drungarius,Great,officeof,ix. ,34o. Druses,of MountLibanus,x. , x86and EAOr. E,Roman,i. , x3andnote. note. . Earthquakes,at Jerusalem,iv. , 80; Drusus,German conquestof, lost by A. D. 365,259sq. ; underJustinian, Vacus,i. , 25note; iv. , a2I note. i vii. , 294sg. Dryden,fableof Theodoreand Hono-Easter,viii. ,_Tx--aandnote.

INDEX 273 Eba,the elder,ix. , 323- Edicts,oftheprmtors,vii. ,3xxandnote; Ebermor,desertsto the Romancamp, perpetualedict,3x2andnot,. vii. , x32. Edificesof Justinian,vii. ,48sqq. Ebionites,ii. ,a72andnote;opinionsof, Edobie,generalof Constantine,defeat iii. ,342and_tot¢;opiniononthe anddeath,v. ,267. incarnation,viii. , xa3-4; their Edom,"kingdomof, iii. , 5gospel,xa5note. Edris (Idrls),founderof the Edrisite Ebn [Ibn]Schounah,his accountof caliphate,ix. , 3onnote. Timour,xi. ,r96;se*BenSchounah. Edrisi,on the Christianityof the NuEbredunum. or Iverdun,Romanfleetat, blahs,viii. ,2o9note;ongeography vi. ,45note. ofArabia,ix. , 2note. Ecbatana,i. , 265; ii. , 177; iv. , x47 Edrisitesof Mauritania,caliphsof the, note;Towerof Oblivionat, 239 ix. , 263; foundingof the, /b. and andnote;useofthe name,ix. , 3x2 note. andnote. Edward,Countof Savoy,xi. , xo4note. Ecclesiastes,Bookof, authenticityof, EdwardI. , of England,inthe East,x. , vii. ,IX5note. 3a4Ecclesiasticalorder, iii. , 3x5; govern- Edward III. , of England,letterof, meut,discussionofits harm-e,_di. , against ClementVII. , xii. , 16z x77-8, note. Eedicius,prefectof Egypt,iv. , io2. Egbert, his intercoursewith CharleEcdicius,sonof Avitus,defendedAu- marne, viii. ,368 note. vergne,vi. , xoi note, x32; family Egica,Kingof the Goths,in Spain,vi. , of,_. note. 267. Ecebolns,vii. , t2. Egilona,widowof Roderic,ix. , 222. Eclectus,conspiracyof, i. , x22. Eginhard,marriesdaughterof CharleEclipses,ii. ,348. marne,viii. ,360note. Ectliesis,ofHeraclius,viii. , x79- Egregius,rankof, iii. ,xx5note. Edda,ii. ,6. Egypt,provinceof, described,i. , 32; Edeco,lieutenantof Rodericthe Got. h, languageof, 48 and note; popuix. ,2x2. lation, 63 note; revenue, 204; Edecon,fatherof Odoacer,ambassador rebellionof Firmns in, ii. , 93; of Attila,vi. , 24; his interviews worksof Probus, x26; revolts with Chrysaphius,34; his con- from Diocletian,x6xsqq. ; Chrisfessionand repentance,/b. ; de- tianity in, 335; Augnstalprefeatsthe Scyrri,x45. fectof,iii. ,i27; kingsof,3t4note; F. ,dessa,described,i. , 266 and note; monksin,394; givento Theodobattle of, ii. , 43; Christianized, Mns,iv. , 323; wheat exported 34xandnote;Sabinianat, iii. ,258; from,vii. , 29and note; marriage churchof,oppressedbyJulian,iv. , lawsin,352; conqueredbyChos98; shrineof St. Thomasat, v. , roes,viii. ,90; dateof,Sb. note,206; t54note;tributepaidby,vii. , 39; invadedbySaracens,ix. , x73sqq. ; Strengthenedby Justinian, 67; descriptionof, x88sqq. ; populaSiegeof,69, 7° andnote,2t3; de- tion,x89sq. andnotes;revenues stroyed by Chosroes,viii. , 88; of,x9onote;churchof, underthe Hcracliusat, it2 andnote;school Saracens,232 sq. ; vineyardsof, at, x86and note; conversionof, destroyedby Hakem,x. , x86;in3x3note; imageof Christat, 3x4 vadedbySeljuks,x88;conquered sq. ; capturedby Arabs,ix. , t7o by Turks, 289sqq. ; invadedby andnote;takenbyZimisces,3ix; the Mongols,xi. , x44-5; Sultan principalityof, x. , 24x and note; of, submitsto Timour,2xo. retakenbySultanZenghi,ib. note, Egyptianlanguage,i. ,48andnote. 288; countyof,266note; Timour Egyptianworship,prohibited,i. , 4o. at,xi. , x87. Egyptians,disabilitiesofthe,i. ,48,49; VOL. xtl. -- z8

274 INDEX disputetheelectionof Gregory,v. , Emb/ema/a,vii. , 333note. 23- Emeralds,vii. ,68andnote; largeemEhrhard,A. , onSimeonMetaphraztes, eraldat Cairo,x. ,290note. ix. , 3x7note. [Emerita,orMerida,v. ,27i,seeMerida Elnsiedeln,Anonymousof, xii. , xS6 Emesa, Elagabalusdeclaredemperor note,x87note. at, i. , x82; worshipof the sun at, Eisenach,in Thuringia,vi. , 66note. 186;defiesSapor,ii. ,45; residence Ekmia. sin(Etchmiazin),Monasteryof, of Odenathusof Palmyra,84,85; viii. , 2oz. battle of, 87; arsea ,dat, z57; Ektag,Mount,probablyMountAltai, Heraclinsat, ix. , 77; armyof vii. , t93 note. Heracliusat, *42; capturedby Elagabalus, i. , x82; bravery, x84; the Saracens,,54 sq. ; recovered, reign,/b. sqq. ; death, z9x; wears 3ii; acknowledgesthe Sultan,x. , silk,vii. ,32. z88. Elburz,Mount,AIagiansat,ix. , 229-3o. Emiral-Omra,ix. ,306 andnote. Eleanora,wife of EdwardI. , x. , 324Emir(Amir),oradmiral,titleof,ix. ,34o. note. Emirs,Arabian,in Spain,ix. , _63note. Eleans,exemptfrom war,v. , I43 and Emma,motherofTancred,_. ,2x9note, note. 238note. Electionof bishops,iii. ,3*5andnote. EmperoroftheRomans,titleof,ix. ,364. Electorsof Germany,viii. , 389. Emperors,Roman,electionanddesigElect,is,chamberlainof Commodus,i. , nationof the,i. , 93; theirjurisdic•23. fion over the Church, iii. , 3:2; Elephant,eraof the,seeEras. officeof pontifexmaximus,3*3and Elephantine,island,ii. , *63; altar of note;publicspeechesof,iv. ,69sq. ; ConcorddestroyedbyJust/manat, legislativepowerof, vii. , 3*4s¢. ; vii. , 65note. rescriptsof,315sq. ; of theWest, Elephantsat Rome,ii. , *37- viii. , 37osqq. ;jurisdictionof emEleusinianmysteries,Julian initiated perorsof the Westin Rome,379; into the,iv. , 57andnote; put an weaknessof the German,390;of endto,v. ,I43. Constantinople,ix. ,33*sqg. ; adoEleusis,desla oyedbyAlaric,v. ,I43. rationof, 34I and ,rote;revival Eleuthero-(orFree)Laconiarrs,ix. ,325 of learningunder,367-8. sq. Empire,seeRomanempire. Eleutherus,river,iii. ,*99. Empire,Greek,ix. , 320sq_. ; seeRoElias,NestorianBishopof Damascus, manempire. viii. , *35note. Engaddi,townneartheDeadSea,menElijahs,patriarchsof Mosul,viii. , ,9I. tionedbyPliny,vi. , i58 note. Ells,citiesof, iv. ,42. EngebertsendsLibri Carolinito HaEllac,son of Attila,deathof, in the drianI. , viii. ,354_wte. battleof Nctad,vi. , 76; Kingof Enginesof war,x. ,231andnote. theAcatzires,lb. England,seeBritain. Elmacin[Ibnal Amidal-Makin],His- EnguerrandVII. , seeSirede Coucy. toryof theSaracens,viii. ,89note; Ennodius,accountof embassyof Epiix. ,**8note;onvictoriesof Caled, phanius,vi. , i38 note; panegyric x*9; onEgo pt,19onote; onAra- of, 3 * note; orationof, 3x3note; biancoinage,24i note. Bishopof Pavia,lb. ; libellof,33* Elpidius,physicianof Theodoric,vi. , note. 342. Enoch,bookof,ix. ,39note. Elpidius,PrmtorianPrefectof theEast, Epagathus,Prefectof Egypt,L,*09. iv. ,x5 note. Ephemerisof Ausonius,v. ,2 note. Elusa, birthplaceof Rufinus,v. , ao8 Ephesus,templeof, i. , 63; ii. , 40; note. Churchof St. John at, vii. , 56; Emaus, Crusadersat, x. , 354. MichaelVII. ,Archbishopof, viii. ,

INDEX 275 285; pillagedby the Paulicians,Erd_ly,Hungarianname of Transylx. , z3; recoveredby AlexinsI. , vania,x. , 49note. 27i; Louis VII. at, 28_ note; E_egli,Heraclea,x. ,240note. takenbythe Turks,xi. , z6o. Erichtho,of Lucan,iv. , x93. Ephrem,St. , on monks,vi. , z76note. Erivan,caravanstation,viii. ,202. Epictetus,Arianbishop,iv. , z5. Erixo,vii. , 343andnote. EpicureanS,i. , 38. ErosandAnterosofthe Platonists,iv. , Epicurus,religionsdevotionof, i. , 39 56note. note;bequeathshisgaxden,vii. ,77; Erzeroum,Timourat, xi. , 195. birthof,78note. EscanderDulc_rnein,Arabiclegendof, Epidaurus,iv. , 260_ . ote. x. ,x62note. Epigenes,quaestor,vi. , 3- Eschinard,P. , descriptionof the CamEpiphania,see Eudocia, daughterof pagna,xii. ,zoxnote. Heraclius. Esimonton,seeAzimns. Epiphania,takenbythe Saracen. %ix. , Eskishehr,seeDoryl_eum. x63note. Eslam,daughterof, vi. ,31andnote. Epiphanins,Bishopof Pavia,ambassa- Esiaw, ambassadorof Attila,vi. , 3; dorof R. icimer,to Anthemins,vi. , pronouncesbeforeTheodosiusthe i37 and note; intercedesfor the reproofofAttila,35peopleofPavia,xS_note,3a8note, Esquiline,Mount,ii. , 79note. 33° andnote. Essenians,ii. ,3x9. Epiphanins,Bishopof Salamis,v. ,3t3 EsserifEssachalli,Arabianphilosopher, note. x. _io8 * tote. Epiphany,ChristianFestivalof,iv. , x6 Estachar[Istakhr],or Persepolis,ix. , andnote. z26note;valleyof, Arabsin the, Epirus,subduedby Alaric,v. , x44; z27. provinceof,cededto Bulgaria,x. , Este,houseof,originof,x. ,zo9 note. 28 and note; islandsand towns Esthonia,provinceof, iv. , 246. of, subduedby RobertGuiscard, Estius,iii. ,350,360note. x_2;despotsof,xi. , x2sqq. Etruscans,i. , 26; vicesof the,vii. ,380 Episcopalauthority,seeBishops. andnote. Eponina,i. , io* note. Eubcea,derivationof name NegroEpzdoneLv. ,73andnote. ponte,x. , 357 note; inhabitants Equestrianorder,i. , x8and note;pro- transportedto Constantinople,xii. , posedrevivalof,xii. , 86andnote. 55note. Eq_itius,M_ter-Generalof Illyricum, Eucharist,diversopinionscon_g, iv. ,25x, X. ,2x. Eraric,theRugian,vii. ,243note. Eucherins,son of Stilicho,v. , z86; Eras,GreekandLatin,vii. ,83; Chris- reli#onof,x9o. tianera,ib. note;of the elephant, Euchrocia,matronof Bordeaux,execuix. ,3° andnote. tionof,v. ,27. Er_mus,onHilary,iii. , 357note;ac- Eud_emon,of Carthage,v. , 357countniChrysostom,v. ,308note; Eud_emonis,a virgin,Hi. ,395note. lifeof St. Jerome,vi. , x66note; Eudamidas,of Corinth,vii. ,45note. publishesthe Greek Testament, Eudes,Dukeof Aquitain,repelsthe ]22 note; religiousopinionsof, Saracens,ix. , 252; marrieshis x. , 24note; systemof Greekpro- daughterto Munuza,253; seeks nunciation,xi. , 285note,290;Life aidfromCharlesMartel,255; letof,lb. note. tersof,to the pope,256note. Erbe,or Lambesa,metropolisof Nu- Eudocia,Athena. is,consortof Theomidia,ix. , z98. dosiusII. ,characterandadventures Erchempert,chronicler,x. , 80note. of, v. , 326 $qq. ; accountof, by Erdaviraph,oneof the sevenMagi,i. , JohnMalalasand bySocrates,ib. 254- note; her paraphraseof the Old

276 INDEX Testament,327; pilgrimageto Eugenins,the rhetorician,made eraJerusalem,328;disgraceandexile, perorby Arbogastes,v. , 6i ; pa3a9 andnotes;death,ib. ganismof, lb. note; death,65_q. Eudoda,daughterof ValentinianIII. , Eugippius,Lifeof St. Severinusby, marriesHunnericthe Vandal,vi. , vi. , _5xnote,x53note. xx8. Eugraphia,widowat Constantinople, Eudocia,wifeof Heraclius,viii. ,xx2note. persecutesChrysostom,v. ,3xonote. Eudocia,or Epiphania, daughter of EugubineTables,vii. ,304andnoge. Heraclius,viii. , ax2and note,22x Eulalia,St. ,of Merida,vi. ,98. note. Eulalius,countof the domestics,testaEudociaIngerina,motherof LeoVI. , mentof, vii. ,44. viii. ,258note. Eulalius,philosopher,vii. ,80. EudociaBaian6,wifeof Leo VI. , viii. , Eulogia,sisterof MichaelPalaeologus, 263note. yd. , 66; conspiresagainst her Eudocia,daughterof ConstantineIX. brother,77(VIII. ),_4ii. ,276. Eulogiesandbenediction. _at ConstantiEudoda, widowof ConstantineX. , nople,viii. ,i5o. viii. , 282and note; philosophicalEulogius,Patriarchof Alexandria,acstudiesof, 284; learningof, ix. ,I countof,viii. ,204andnote. 37x and note; attackedby Alp Eulogius,St. ,of Cordova,ix. , _34note. Arslan,x. , x64;marriesRomanns]Eumenius,the orator,i. , 67note;ii. , Diogenes,lb. x54note; Professorof Rhetoricat Eudocia,nieceof ManuelComnenus Autun,x98note; panegyricof,iii. , viii. ,295. 283note. Eudociaof Damascus,ix. , z5L Eunapius,historyof the Sophists,iv. , Eudoxia,wifeof Arcadius,daughterof 52note,l i6 nole; on the Gothic ]3auto,v. ,rx5,xx6; accusesEutro- war, 248note; on theravagesof pius,302and note. theGoths,320note;fanaticismof, Eudoxia,daughterof Theodosiusthe v. ,95. Younger,marriesValentinianIII. Eunomians,disabilitiesof the, under v. , 339;vi. , 8o; obligedto marry Theodosius,iv. ,26. Pet_onius_,(aydmus,87; imploresF. unomius,iil. ,359and note; shelters the aid of Genseric,88; carried Proeopius,iv. , x87note;v. ,x2. captiveto Carthage,9I; restoredEunuchs,ii. , 185; powerof, iii. , 223 byGenseric,xi8. sq. ; characterof, 224; powerof, Eudoyda(Eudocia),wifeof EIeraelins, underArcadius,v. ,29xandnote. viii. ,86. Eupheraia,daughterof JohnofCappaEudoxus,ArianBishopof Coustanti- docia,vii. , 47nople,iv. , 203and note. Euphemia,daughterof Marcian,marEudoxus(Eudocimus),sonofConstan- riesAnthemius,vi. , x22. tineCopronymus,viii. ,239. Euphemia,St. ,churchof,councilheld Euelthon,KingofCyprianSalamis,viii. , in,vii/. ,x57a2 note. Euphernins,expeditionof,to Sicily,ix. , Eugenins,chamberlain,vi. , 53. 284andnote; death,285. EugeninsIlL, Pope,xii. ,77- Euphrates,victoriesof M. Antonlnuson EugeniusIV. ,Pope,yd. ,254;opposedby the,i. , :i ; navigationof,iv. , x45, the Councilof Constance,254-5; I46 note; sourceof, vii. , 67and deposedat Councilof Basil,269; note. receivesOrientalembassies,27o-i; Euphrosyne,daughterof Constantine formsleagueagainst the Turks, VI. , marriesMichaelthe Second, 303sq. ; spuriousepistleof,toKing viii. ,242,249, of Ethiopia, 32x note; expelled,Euphrosyne,wifeof AlexiusAngelus, ydi. ,_67-8;funeralof, x7=;builds x. ,34L wallroundtheColiseum,_o7. Euric,Kingof theVisigoths,assassi

INDEX 277 nateshisbrotherTheodorlc,vi. ,x3x; Eustathiusof Eplphanla,vii. ,64note. persecutesthe Orthodox party, Eustochium,daughterof l_aula,vi. ,164. x88; dominionsof, 2xxsq. ; first Euthalites, or Nephthalites(White Gothicprincewhowrotelaws,24L Huns), iv. ,282andnote,283; conEuripides,ii. ,3L questsof,vii. , 68; defeatPerozes, Europe,populationof, i. , 53, 54and Kingof Persia,69; conqueredby note; changein climateof, 275; the Turks, x88; by Nushirvan, presentstate of, vii. , 292sq. ;pc>- 230;in Transoxiana,ix. , x33note. liticalsystemof, in fifteenthcen- EuthaliusatTerracina,vii. ,x5z. tury,xii. ,x66note. Eutharie,grandsonof Berimund,vi. , Europus,i. , 264note; vi. , 3oxnot_; 343note;vii. ,x24note. Belisariusat, vii. ,axi. Eutherius,chamberlainofJulian,iv. ,x2. Eusebia,wifeofConstantiusII. , friend- Euthymins,PatriarchofConstantinople, ship of, to Julian, iii. , 235,237; viii. ,263note. friendlyreceptionof Julian, 238; Eutropia,sisterof Constantine,ii. , 2o9 her supposedjealousyof Julian, note;iii. ,x73; death,2x9. 240and note; death, iv. , I5 and Eutropius,father of Constantius,ii. , note. 149. Eusebius,Bishopof Vereellm,lii. ,387. Eutropiusthe eunuch,v. ,62; opposes Eusebius,chamberlainof Honorius,his Rufinus,_x5 sq. ; magistrateand death,v. ,234. general,29x; powerover ArcaEusebius,Count of Ticinum, orders dius, ib. ; consul,292 and note; executionof Boethius,vi. ,34° note. venalityandinjustice,293andnote; Eusebius,neo-Platonlst,iv. , 56. degradesAbundantius,295; exiles EusebiusofCmsarea,as ahistorian,ii. , Timasius,296; calls councilof 253and note; iii. , 60 and note; war,300andnote;fallof, 3oasq. onPalestinemartyrs,85note;re- Eutropiusthehistorian,iii. , XTOnote; markon hisstyle,_b. ; silenceon dateof hisHistory,228note;iv. , deathofCrispus,x78note;account x6onote. of Constantine sconversion,300 Eutyches,heresiarch,vi. , 34 note. andnote;friendshipwithConstan-Eutyches,abbot,viii. ,x49note;heresy tine,3o4;descriptionoftheChurch of, x54sqq. at Jerusalem,32i note; supports Eutychianheresy,suppressedby PulArius,350; acceptsthe Homoou- cheria,v. , 323; controversyin the sion,365; characterof,lb. note;at East,vi. ,207. the Councilof Tyre,376. Eutychius,exarch,formsa leaguewith Eusebitmof Nicomedia,supportsArius, Liutprand,viii. ,335note. iii. , 350; exile,365; recall,366; Eutychius,historian,viii. ,89note;AneducatesJulian,iv. , 48and note; nalsof,ix. , ix8 note,x73note;on Bishopof Constantinople,v. , x3 takingof Alexandriaby theSaranote. CCns, I80, I81 _lOle. EusebiusScholasticus,poem on the Euxine,Romannavalstationonthe,i. , Gothicwar,v. ,308note. 23; circumnavigationof,vii. , 214 Eusebiusthe eunuch,chamberlainof andnote. Constantius,iii. , 225; questionsEvagrius,descriptionof the Churchof Gallus,234;fallof,iv. , 26;death, St. Euphemiaat Chalcedon,v. ,304 35. note;on theIsanrianwar,vii. ,64 Eustace,the elderbrotherof Godfrey note; on EmperorMauriee,viii. , ofBouillon,x. ,ax6. 25note. Eustathius,ArchbishopofThessalonica Evanderthe Arcadian,vi. , x25. ix. ,370;x. , x4onote. Evans,A. J. , Cretandiscoveriesof, i. , Eustathius,BishopofAntioch,iii. ,366; 31note; researchesin Illyricum, death,397- vii. ,60note. EustathiusofCappadocia,iii. ,25*note. Evodius,Bishopof Uzalis,v. ,tot note,

278 INDEX Exarchate,givento thepopes,viii. ,345 Farmah,seePelusium. andnote. FErs,subduedby the Arabs,ix. , xati Exarchs,titleof,inAfrica,vii. ,xxo; of note; Bowidesat, aa9 note; dyRavenna,28oandnote;extinction nastyof,3o5note. of, viii. ,336;governorof ScptemFarsistan,mountainsof(Yezdegerdflies receivedtitleof, ix. , ao8note. to the),ix. , i26. Excise,i. ,_o8andnote. Fasti,Consular,vi. , 235andnote. Excommunication,ii. , 324; iii. , 326, Fathersof the Church,visionsin the 327. Apostolic,ii. ,295_wle;moralityof, Exereitus,i. , x4andnote. 3o_sq_. ; on marriage,305aqq. ; Exeter,colonyplantedat,byAthelstan, onwarandpolitics,3o7 sq. ;belief vi. , _75note. of, in pagangods,iii. , 62 note; Exorcismofdemons,ii. ,295sq. wor"ksillustratingtheirsuperstition, t_xpositiototiusMundi, v. , 355 note, v. , 98note; Greektranslationsof 356note. Latin,xi. , 39Ezra,adoredasthesonof Godbythe F_. tirna,daughterof Ali,ix. , ro3. Jewsofl_[ecca,ix. , 36andnote. F/ttima,daughterof Mahomet,v. ,336 Ezzerites,in Greece,ix. , 324. note; marriedAll, ix. , 90; death, 93" Fa. BxIcrtrs,hisBibliothecaGr_eca,ix. , F_. timids,ix. , 9x; in Egyptand Syria, 37° note. to6andnote;caliphsof the,reign Facciolati,Dukeof Constantinople,xi. , at Cairo,263; usurpthe provxx3. incesof Africa,286; succeedthe Factions,of the circus,vii. , x9 sq. Ikhzhidids,3o3 note,307; in the Fadella,daughterof theEmperorMar- HolyLand, x. , x85; lose Egypt, cus,i. , xx7; deathof, x72. 289sq. Fadl-allb. h,vizir,hisPersianhistoryof Faun,theBarberini,discoveryof, vii. , theMongols,xi. , I32note. _42note. Faenza,van-guardof Theodoricbe- Faunus,ii. , x29. trayedat, vi. , 3xo; battleat,vii. : Fausta,daughterof Maximian,ii. ,2x4; 284. receivesMaximian,at9; children F_esul_e,v. , x7o andnote; takenby of, iii. , x73; disgraceand death, Belisarius,vii. , _57- x79,x8o. Falcandus,Hugh,onPalermo,ix. , 327 Faustina,daugbterofAntonlnusPius,i. , not,e; onSicily,x. , x4sq. ;hisIlLs- 97,Io6. toriaSicula,x4xnote. Faustina, widowof CortstantiusIL, Falcidianportion,termin Romanlaw supportsProcopius,iv. , x9o. of inheritance,vii. ,364. Faustinus,Romannoble,v. , 2o6note. Falconry,introducedbythe Lombards Faustus,accountof Armenianwar,iv. , into Italy,viii. ,34andnote; price 239note. of falconsinPalestine,x. ,a7°; see Fava,orFeletheus,KingoftheRugians, Hawking. conqueredby Odoacer,vi. , x53. FalcoSosius,i. , z3oandnote. Faventia,secFaenza. Fallraerayer,onthereignof AndronicusFelicissimns,ii. ,97. I. , viii. , 303note; his historyof Felix,anAfricanbishop,executionof, Trebizond,xi. , H note. iii. ,7o,335note. Famine,rareunderthe empire,i. , 67. Felix,Archbishopof Ravenna,blinded Fano,ii. , 78. byJustinianII. , viii. ,232note. Farage(Faraj),Circassianruler,xi. ,x96. Felix II. , anti-pope,electionof (n. y. Faro. s,familiesor generations,term in 356),iii. ,396note; expulsion,399 Lombardlaw,viii. ,32note. FelixIV. ,Pope,grandfatherofGregory Faxghb. aa,territoryof, ii. , i67 note; theGreat,viii. ,42. ix. , x3oand note;subduedbythe Felix V. , xi. , 264; retiresto Ripaille, SaracegS,x33note. 27_. andnote.

INDEX 279 Felix,St. ,tombof,at Nola,v. , a53. Fir_, sonof Yezdegerd,ix. , x3z and Ferdusi,the Persianpoet,vii. ,not note; note. linesof, quotedby MahometII. , Fiscus or publicmoneypaid to the xii. ,52. imperator,i. ,i26note. Fergana,seeFargh_na. Fisheries,of thePropontis,iii. ,98. Fergus,cousin of Ossian, iv. , 226 FlacciUa,consortof Theodosiusthe note. Great,v. ,12. Ferishta,Persianwriter,x. , x49note. Flaccina,daughterof Arcadius,v. ,322 F_. rramentaSamiata,ii. , 72note. note. Ferrara,JohnPal_eologusat,xi. ,262-3; Flaccus,Granius,vii. ,304note. councilat,/b. ; duchyof, unitedto Flagellation,practiceof,bythemonks, Urbino,xii. ,r75. x. ,204andnote. Ferreolus,Bishopof Ufez,monasticrule Flamens,Roman,v. , 73and note. of,vi. ,x68note. Flarninianway,stationsof,vii. ,268. Festivals,attitudeof the Christiansto Flamininus,iii. , x39note. pagan, ii. , 28a and notes; pro- Flamstced,oncomets,v. ,293. hihited,v. ,9xandnote;fourgreat, Flavianfamily,i. ,94andnote. of the Latin Church,viii. ,47and Flavian,Bishopof Antioch,v. ,47note. Flavian,ecclesiastic,v. ,22note. FeuGrrgeois,seeGreekfire. Flavian,Patriarchof Constantinople, Fez,Edrisitekingdomof,founded,ix. , opposesEutyches,viii. ,154;perse302andnote. cuted by the second Councilof Fidei-commissa,vii. , 364note,365. Ephesus,155; death,x56. Fihl(Pella),battleo[,ix. , x5t note. Flavianusand Diodorus,iii. ,397. Filio_uecontroversy,x. , 328sq. Flavianus,pagansenator,v. ,76note. Finances,of the Romanempire,i. , _o2 FlaviusAsellus,count of the sacred s_q. ;administrationof,underCon- largesses,vi. , i34. stantine,iii. ,x47sqq. ,r54sqq. ;laws Flax,i. ,67. of /qajorian concerning,vi. , Io4 Fl_Sier,Bishopof Nismes,his lifeof : Theodosius,iv. , 322note. sg. ;329insq. ninthtotwelfthcenturies,ix. ,i Fleury,Abb6de,Inst. of CanonLaw, Fines,inthearmy,iii. ,x4o; forschism, iii. ,323note;EcclesiasticalHistory v. ,347- of, xi. , 233note; continuatorof, Fingal,i. , 165. onschismof Constantinople,27x Finlay,Mr. ,viii. ,24note; onEmperor note,a96note;onappealstoRome, Maurice,25 note; on _ichael xii. ,7znote. VIII. , xi. , 78note; on the Otto- Flor,Rogerde,seeRogerde Flor. roans,x6xnote;onConstantinople,Florence,siegeof, by Radagaisus,v. , 326note. T68;originof, /b. note;Pandects Finns,languageof,alliedtoHungarian, at, vii. , 335; councilof, xi. , a64; x. ,38andnote. revival of Greek learning at. , Fioretto,G. , on revivalof learningin 283. fifteenthcentury,xi. , 275note. Florentius,PrmtorianPrefectof Gaul, Firdusi,seeFerdusi. iii. ,275; characterof,iv. ,5; flight, Fire,Greek,seeGreekfire. xa,22; disgrace,36. Firesignals,seeBeacons. Florianus,ii. , xo8,xxxnote;usurpation Fireworship,i. ,256andnote. anddeath,fla. Firmicus,Julius,ii. , 205note. Florin, xi. , a56note. Firmum(Fermo)Councilof Warbe- Florus,Prince,xi. ,49. tweeaBelisarinsand Narsesat, Florus,Romanhistorian,xfi. ,1oo. vii. ,x55note. Fo, Indiangod,worshippedbyKublal Firmus,rebellionof, ii. ,93" Khan,xi. . x52and note. FirmustheMoor,revoltof,iv. ,_33s_I_. ;Fcederati,orallies,v. ,336. death,a36. Folard,Chev. ,on Romanmilitaryen

280 INDEX gines,i. , t9 note,z53note;ii. , 60 andAfrica,@. ,25,_6; drivenfrom note;vii. , 278note. GaulbyProbns,zx7;intheMediFollis,or purse,tax,iii. , x66note. terranean,xa3; powerof, under Foncemagne,M. de, onMerovingians, sonsof Constantine,iii. , x42; invi. , 5xnote; onthetitleofFrench vade Gaul,259; in Bataviaand kingsto the Romanempire,_di. , Toxandria,260andnote,26xand 60note. note;subduedbyJulian,270;ally Fontana. architect,xii. ,2x2. themselveswith Stilicho,v. , i73; Fontanini,viii. , 28note. subduethe Vandals,x74; in SecFonteneUe,comedyof, vii. , 45 note, ondor LowerGermany,278; in 328note. Gaul,undertheMerovingians,vi. , Foot,Roman,i. , 238no/e; Greek,iii. , 48; defeatedby Aetius,50; elect xoxnote. /Egidius king, vi. , ii6; ChrisFortifiocca,T. , xii. , x28no/e,x47no/e, tianityof, x92; in Germany,2x8; xSo. inBurgundy,228sqfl. ;inAquitain, Fortunatus,poet,vi. , 258note. 233; politicalcontroversyconcernForumJulii,capitalof Venetia,vi. , 67 ing the, 238 and note; laws,239 note;Lombardsat, viii. ,_3; first s_l_. ;finesfor homicide,243sq. ; dukeof, 3x. judgmentsof God,245; judicial ForumTrebonii,ii. ,x6andnote. combats,247sqq. ;theirdivisionof Fostat,Saracensettlementof,ix. , x76; Gaul,248; anarchyof, 263; in x. ,292. Italy,vii. , x58sgq. ; retire,x60; Frakn6i,W. ,onMatthiasCorvinus,xi. , invadeItaly,276sq_l. ;defeatof, 315note. byNarses,_77; invadeItalyand Frame_,i. , 297. aredefeatedbyAutharis,viii. ,27; France,New,xi. , 24. empire of, under Charlemagne, France, population compared with 368; militaryforceof,ix. ,35xsqq. ; Gaul, iii. , x6xsqq. ;nameof, vi. ,I nameof,appliedto allWesternna255; under Charlemagne,viii. ,[ tions,360; theircharacterandtac364; invadedby the Arabs, ix. ,I tics,ib. sq. 25osqq. ; Hungariansin, x. , 44;/Frascati, xii. , IoI; seeTnsculum. positionof kingsof, in eleventhFravitta,Gothicleader,v. , 338; concentury,x97s(/. ;descriptionof,by sul,339note;defeatsGainas,306; Chalcondyles,xi. , 246sq. ;titleof consul,307. kingsof, to empireof Constanti-Freculphus,v. , xoxnote. nople,xii. ,60andnote. Fredegarius,viii. ,x2note. FrancisII. , Emperor,resignsthe era-Fredegundis,Queenof France,vi. , 246 pire,xii. ,66note. and note,262no/e. Francis,St. ,visitedbya"rexversuum," FredericI. , Barbarossa,inItaly,viii. ,385 xii. , z25note. sq. ; Italiancitiesoppose,x. ,x37; Francisca,or Franklqhbattleaxe, vi. , undertakesthirdcrusade,274sqq. ; 230andnote. numberof his host,276; in AnaFranciscoof Toledo,at siegeof Con- tolia,282; deathof, 283; crowned stantinople,_di. ,25note. emperor,xii. , 83; embassyof the Franconia,viii. ,366;duchyof,389note. Romansto,96sq9. ; winsbattleof Frangipani(Frangipane),Cencio,xii. , Tusculum,xo_-2. 75;. Cp. 76note. FredericII. , reignof,viii. ,386; founds Frangipani,nameand familyof, xii. , universitiesof SalernoandNaples, zx6. 39° note; x. , xo3 no/e; in PalesFrangipani,Odo,x. , x37. tiue,3r5 sq. ; obtainsJerusalem Frankfort,synodof, seeCouncils. fromthe Sultan,3x7sq. ; marries FrankincenseofArabia,ix. ,4 andnote. daughterof Johnof Brienne,xi. , Franks,orFreemen,originof,ii. ,_3,24 26; deposedat Councilof LyonS, and notes; invade Gaul,Spain, _8;TheodoreLascaxison,/b. na*;

INDEX 28I urgesEuropeto opposetheTar- Funerals,Roman,iv. , x?x. tars,x48; placesstandardin the Vurtwnlancelicioqu¢con_ptura,vii. , Capitol,xii. , 99; assiststhepope, 3x7andnote. 1oanote. Fust,orFaustus,firstprintedBiblesof, FredericIII. , of Austda,xi. , 304; let- vii. ,333note. tersofthe Hungariansto,3o7note; coronationof, xfi. ,x68note,x69. GABALA,towninSyria,Saracensat,ix. , Freebooters,Turkish soldiersin the xSOand note;takenbythe Saraserviceof Orchan,xi. , x59. cens,x68; lostbythe Franks,x. , Freedmen,i. , 5x; vii. ,339- 324. Freegifts,ii. ,a25; Hi. ,x6S. Gahinius,Kingofthe Quadi,murdered Freeman,Mr. , on the Bagaud_c,v. , byorderof Marcellinus,iv. , 25a. x79note;onRadiger,Kingofthe GabourOrtachi,namegivento Khalil Varni,vi. , 285; ontheHeptarchy, vizir,xii. ,xu. 286note. Gaboursor Giaours,Tur!dsh name, Freinshemius,i. , 286note. etymologyof,xii. ,8 note. Fr_jns,navalstation,i. , 23. Gabriel,Roman,son of Samuel,BUIFremona,in Aby_-qinla_JesuitmiSSion garianrule,x. ,35note. viii. ,2xx. Gades,honorarycolony,t. , 46note,2o5 Frexenses,Moorishtribe,vii. , 86not_ note. Frigeridus,duxofValeria,iv. ,253note; Gaeta,subjectto theGreekemperor, defeatsthe Taifal_e,309andnote. x. ,78note; PopeGelasiusII. at, Frigeridns,RenatusProfuturus,frag- xii. ,76nole. meritof,v. , x74note. G,etulia,tribesof,join Gildo,theMoor, Frigidus,river,battle at, v. , 64 and v. ,x32. note. Gagnier,M. ,Lifeof Mahomet,ix. ,53 Frisians,ii. ,H7; in Britain,vi. ,27xand note. note. Gaian,Patriarchof Alexandria,viii. , Fritigern,judge of the Visigoths,iv. , 302sq. 245note; at the butte at Salices, Galliard,M. , Historyof Charlemagne, 3o4; negotiationwithValens,3xz viii. ,359note. sq. ; at the battleof Hadrianople,Gaina. s,theGoth,commandsthetroops 3x2; death, 329; convertedby againstRufinus,v. , i22; against Ulphalis,vi. , x8x. Trebigild,3oz; allieshimselfwith Friuli,seeForumJulii. Trebigild,/b. note;entersConstanFroissard,chronicleof,xi. , xTanote. tinople,305andnote;defeatedby Fronto,Count,ambassadorof Avitus Fravitta,306; by Uldin, 307; to Rechiarins,vi. , 97- death,308note. Fruit,introductionof, intoEurope,i. , Gaiseric,Kingof the Vandals,defeats 66. Hermanric,v. , 344; hisname,/b. Fromentins,iii. , 3xt. note; befriendsthe Donatists,347 Fulcaris,the Herulian,vii. , 276. and note;treatywithValentinian Fulcherins,historian,x. ,233andnote, III. , 354andnote; surprisesCar24xnote. thage,355; crueltreatmentofTheFulgentins,St. , Life of, vi. , t9o note; odoric sdaughterby,vi. , 47; title controversialbooksof, t92 note; of,KingsofVandalsandAlani,84; familyand educationof, ,96 note. buildsa fleet,85; conquersSicily, Fulgentius,the qumstor,friendof the /b; castsanchorin theTiber,/b. ; EmperorMaximns,vi. ,87. destroysthe navyof Majorianat Fulk,Countof Anjou,Lifeof,vii. , 85 Carthagena,xiu; ravagesthecoast note. of the Mediterranean,xx7; deFulkof Neuilly,x. ,34x. stroysthe fleetof BnsiliscuS,xu9; Fundi,pillagedbytheSaracens,ix. ,287; allieshhnseUwiththe Visigothsin CollegeofCardinalsat,xii. , x6o. Gaul,x3x; persecutestheCatho

282 INDEX Hcs,x89;poaceof,withthe Catho- Galliena,if. , 48note. licChurch,/b. note. GaUienns,associatedintheempirewith Gaita[Sigelgaita],wifeofRobertGuis- Valerian,if. , 23 note; reignof, card,x. ,xo9,zx7. 47sqq. ; death,6xand note;conGains,commentariesof, vii. ,334note, spiracyagainst,favouredtheChris340note. fians,iii. ,56. Ca/a,etymologyof the word,ix. , 343 Gallipoli,fortificationsof, vii. , 62; note. taken by the Catalans,xi. , 88; Galazaus,Historyof Galanns,viii. ,2oo takenby theOttomans,x6Snote; note. rebuiltbySoliman,x65. Galata,iii. , zox and note; towerof, Gallo-GreciansofGalatia,vi. ,x37note. stormedbythe Lafins,x. ,362and Gallns,electedemperor,if. , x8; peace note;suburbof,quarterofFrench withtheGoths,lb. ; death,st. andVenetians,367; siegeof, by Gallus,M. Anicius,tribune,v. , no2 MichaelPala_ologns,xi. ,35 note; note. given to the Genoese,68, I_o; Gallus, nephew of Constantine,iii. , destroyed,_2x; Genoeseof,make x73; educationof, 225; iv. , 49; a treaty with MahometII. , xii. , governorof the East, iii. , 2_7; :6; abandonedby Genoeseafter crueltyof, ib. sqq. ; disgraceand captureof Constantinople,48; death, 232sqq. ; removesbodyof fortificationsof, demolished,54. St. Babylas,iv. , 93G:datia,Alaniin, if. ,xIo. Gamalielappearsto Lucianthe preSGalatians,paternalpowerof the, vii. , byter,v. , xoo. 340note. ]Games,secular,i. , 246,247andnote; Galba, i. , 94; capital punishment Capitoline,xii. ,x25note,seeLu&. under,vii. ,378, Ganges,river,xi. , z93Galeazzo,John, firstduke of Milan, Gannys,eunuch,i. , I84. xi. , 242note. Ganzaca, Temple of, destroyedby Galerins,generalof Probus,if. , x:7; Herachus,viii. , xo3 note,xo5and associatedintheempirebyDioele- note. finn, x49,xSOand note; Persian Gapt,oneof theArisesor Demi-gods, wars, x69 sqq. ; character and vi. , 299note. reign, 2oxsqq. ; makes Constan- Garda,Lake,if. ,65note. tineCaesax,2o8;invadesItaly,2x5, Gardenof the Epicureansat AthenS, 216; elevatesLicinius,2x7, 218 vii. , 76. note; death, 22x; persecutionof Garganus,Mount,vii. , 256and note; theChristians,iii. ,39; inthe East x. , 84. 78; edictof toleration,79- Garibald,Kingof Bavaria,allieshimGalfridns,Malaterra,history of, x. , selfwithAutharis,viii. ,35. 83note. Garizim,mountainof blessing,viii. , Galila:ans,sectof, underNero, iii. ,23 x72andnote. andnote;useofnameenjoinedby Gascony,subduedbytheArabs,ix. ,252. Julian,iv. ,83andnote. Gassan, Arabiantribe, iv. , x26 and Galilee,principalityof, x. , 266 and note;vii. ,205;in Syrianterritory, note. ix. ,x3; defeatedbyCaled,x57sq. Gall,St. ,vii. , 277note. Gass,W. , on Gennadiusand Pletho, Galla,motherofGallns,Hi. ,226note. xi. ,286note. Galla,sisterof ValentiuianII. , marries Gaubil,P_re,histranslationofAnnals Theodosius,v. , 40; death, 6x of the Mongols,xi. , x4xnote. note. Gaudentius,Count,doses the pagan Gallicanus,consularsenator,i. , 239. temple,v. ,8z. Gallicia,goldof, i. , 205; dividedbe- Gaudentius,fatherof Aefius,v. , 34° tweenthe Sueviand the Vandals, note;vi. , 4_; his betrothalto Euv. ,273; heldbytheSuevi,vi. , x3x. doxia,78.

INDEX 283 Gaudentius,thenotary,iv. , _4; death, v. ,r25andnote;deploresthestate 36. of Italy,x54sq. Gaul,provincesof, i. , 24, 25; dividedGelasiusIf. , Pope,xii. , 75. byAugustus,ib. ; Celtic,ib. ;limited Gelimer,KingoftheVandals,inMriea, tolerationin, 40; tribute, 204; vi. , i9o; deposesHilderic,vii. ,86 usurpersin,ii. ,8o,gt ; invadedby sq. ;defeatedbyBelisarius,xoos_q. ; Lygians,xxS; peasantrevoltin, furtheradventures,to4 sqq. ;flight x5x, 152; Christianityin, 337 of, io7; captivityof, xxos_g. ;inandnote; capitationtax,iii. , 159 terviewwith Belisurius,xx3; at s_q. and notes;invadedby Ger- Constantinople,ix5; retire. stoGamarts,259s_q. ; bythe Alamanni, latia,H6. 266; Julianin,iv. , 2sqq. ;outlaws Gelli,ii. ,168note. in, x3 andnote; invadedby the Geloni,iv. , 285. Saxons,222and note; by Suevi, Gelzer,H. , vii. , 79note; estimateof VandalsandBurgundians,v. ,x74; Theophilus,viii. ,249note. sgq. ;Alan]in,vi. ,43;Visigothsin, Gemonim,i. ,103note. 44; 13I sq. ; Barbariansin Gaul Generals,Roman(Imperatores),i. , 78, convertedfromArianism,2oo;rev- 79. olutionof, 2o9;aUodiallandsof, Genesius,ix. , 282note;worksof, 314 25z; Britonsin,275note. note. Gauls,in Lombardy,i. , 26; in Ger- Genevieve,St. , of Paris,vi. , 55; life many,277 note; religionof, li. , of, 54note,216note. 287note;relationof,totheFranks, Gennadius,monkandPatriarchofConvi. ,239. stantinople,xii. ,22s_/. ,56[George Gayangos,M. , ix. , 225note. Scholarius]. Gayeta,besiegedbythe Saracens,ix. , Gennadius,Patriarchof Constanti287; siegeraised,288; maritime nople,onthe creedof Athanasius, stateof,lb. vi. , 197note. Gayuk(Kuyuk),Khan,xi. ,14o. GenneridMaster-GeneralofDalmatia, Gaza,templesat, iv. , 78note; taken strengthensthe IUyrianfrontier, bytheSaraeens,ix. , 168;battleof, v. , 233andnote. x. ,3_8. Genoa,cityof,destroyedbytheFranks, Gaza,Theodore,seeTheodore. vii. , 16o. Gazi,holywaxof theTurks,xi. , 156; GenoeSe,engineers,x. , 256; assistthe carriedon byTimour,187. Greeksagainstthe Latins,xi. , 35 Gazi(GhSM),title of SultanSoliman, andnote; settlein suburbof Galx. ,179. ata, 68,12o;attackedbythcVeneGazna,city and provinceof, x. , 148 tians, x2x; privilegesconferred and_wte. upon the, by ]_chael VIII. and Gaznerides,dynasty,of, x. , 148 note. Andronicusthe Elder, xa2note; Geber,Arabianphysician,ix. , 275. tradeof, _b. ;warof, withCantaGeberic,KingoftheGoths,iii. , 89. cuzene,i23 sqq. ;theydestroythe Gedda,Arabianseaport,ix. , 9- Greekfleet,124; defeattheVeneGedrosia,districtof,i. , 262note. tians and Greeks,i25 sq. ; their Gegnesius,Paulicianleader,x. ,4 note; treaty with the empire,127; of dateof,xonote. Galata,givefree passageto the Geiza,Hungarian"king,x. ,49. Turks, xii. , 33; policyof, susGelalmanera of theTurks,x. ,x75and pected,42note. me. Gem,Roman,vii. ,360sg. Gelaieddin,defeatedby ZingisKhan, Genseric,seeGaiseric. xi. , 139; activity of, 155; Genso,sonof Genserie,vi. ,x3o. death,/b. Gentiles,terminRomanlaw,vii. ,361. GelasiusI. , Pope,iii. , 322note;abol- Gentoo,sovereign,acknowledgedbythe ishesthefestivalof theLupercalia, ChristiansofSt. Thomas,viii. ,192.

z84 INDEX Gcntoosof]:llndostan,warwithMah-[Germanlda,wonbackfromtheSaramild,x. , x49. [ censby ConstantineV. , viii. ,235 Geoffrey,fatherof HenryII. of Eng-[ note; Crusadersat, x. ,a4o, land,xli. ,73note. [Germanicus,i. , 4 note; at Thebes,ill. , Geographerof Ravenna,ii. , 23note. [ a44note; belicfof, in magic,iv. , Geography,earlyChristian,vii. ,38and[ z94note. note. ]Germans,ancient,in Belgium,i. , 25; Geometry,studiedat Alexandria,viii. , originof, 277; mannersof, 279 z39. $_q. ; politicalinstitutionsof, 287 Geoponicsof ConstantinePorphyro- sqq. ; religion,u93; invadeGaul, genitus,ix. , 3z6andnote. ii. , HT; iii. , a59; defeatedby GeorgeBrancovi_,Despotof Servia, Julian,267sqq. ; drivenfromthe sendstroopsto Mohammed,xii. , Rhine,274; religiousindifference 20note. O[,292 and rwte; emigrationof, GeorgeBrankovi_,xi. , 3o5. intoItaly,v. ,I65sq. ; invadeGaul, Georgeof Cappadocia,iii. , 39r; iv. , rTz; characterof,insixteenthcen96and note,sq¢. ; worshippedas tury, aSz, 353; cross the Rhine saintandmartyr,97andnote. under Ariovistus,vi. , 348; join Georgeof Pisidia,viii. , zo3 note; de fourthcrusade,x. ,35z-3. BelloAvaxico,xix; Heracliad,xx8 Germaaus, elder and younger,vii. , note. x65note. Georgeof Sienna,xii. ,27note. Germanus,father-in-l_wofTheodosius, Georgeof Trebizond,writingsof, xi. , vi/i. ,78s9¢. 356note,_84. Germanus,nephew of Justinian, in GeorgePhranza,ambassadorto Ainu- Africa,vii. , 338and note,lb. and rath II. , xi. , 207-8; hisaccountof note; commandsthe army, _63; Bajazet,3o7andnote. familyof, /b. note; marriageand GeorgeScholarius,seeGennadius. death,_64. George,Sicilianadmiral,besiegesMoo Germanns,sonof a patrician,punished hadia,x. ,r33. byConstantineIV. ,viii. ,336. Georgia,beautyof theinhabitants,vii. , Germany,Upperand Lower,Roman 2z7; Christiansof, /b. ; conquest provinces,i. , 25; descriptionof, of, byAip Arslan,x. , x63; under 273s9¢. ; its population,285;iv. , Malek Shah, x73; visited by 2x3sq. ; Goths,Burgundians,and Phranza,xi. , 323. FrankssettleinFixstorUpper,v,, Georgians,religionof the, x. , x62sq. ; 378; Burgundiansin Secondor nameof the,x63note;theysubmit Lower, D. ; Sclavoniancolonists toTimour,xi. , _93. in, viii. , 72; united by CharleGeorgiiias,Rhodianpoet,vii. ,287note. magne,366; princesof, mdepenGeougen,Scyt_antribe,v. , z64; sub- dent,386sq. ;GermanicconfederduedbyAttila,vi. ,8 andnote,77; at/on, 388 sq_. ; counts of, 389; enslavetheTurks,vii. ,z86; extir- descriptionof, by Chalcondyles, paredbytheTurks,x87. xi. , 345sq. ;armiesof,in fifteenth Gepid_e,ii. , 8 and note; subduedby century,304note. Attila,vi. , 8; seizeBelgrade,vii. ,IGerontius,commander/n Greece,v. , x77 and note; conqueredby thei z39. Avarsand Lombards,x89; viii. ,i Gerontius,generalof the usurperCon7 sq. I stantine, makes Maximus eraGerardof Reicherspeg,xii. , 89note. ] peror, v. , 265; death, 266 and Gerasa,fortress,ix. , r37 andnote. ] note. Gergovia,siegeof, byCa_. r, vi. , 2551Gerrha,or Katif,builtby Chald_eans, and note. , ix. , 30. Germane,nearSardica,vii. ,89note. Gerson,John,doctorof the Sorbonne, Germania,in Thrace,vii. ,89no/¢. i xii. ,x63note.

INDEX 285 GervasiusandProtasius,martyrs,v. ,Gladiators,revoltof,underProbus,ii. , 35andnote. x25,z26. Gcssoriacum(Boulogne),ii. ,x53,x54. Glanvillc,Bartholemyde,xii. ,x66note. G_taFra_:orum,vi. ,233_ote,234Glasgow,iv. ,228. note;x. , x99note. Glycerius,Emperorof the West,vi. , GestaFridericiimperatoris,xii. ,83note. x4_; BishopofSalona,x42;assasGestaLudovid VII. , x. , a82note. sinatesNepos,x43;Archbishopof GetaandCaracalla,i. , x63,x64; reign Milan,/. b. and note. of, x67sqq. ; titles of, /b. note; Gnapheus,Peter,Monophysitebishop, deathof Geta,x7o; apotheosisof, viii. ,x66and note. i68 andnote. Gnelus(Knel),sonof Paxa(Pap),iv. , Getes,Jits, or Calmucks,confounded 245note. withthe Germ(Dacians),xi. , 383 Gnosticism,authoritieson,ii. , 274note. note; invade Transoxiana,/b. ; Gnost. ics,ii. , 274sgq. drivenfromTransoxiana,384-5. Goal Kingofthe Alanl,v. ,_69. Getulia,iv. , 23I. Godas,governorof Sardinia,vii. , 88. Gezi,magicstone,vi. , 8 note. Godegesil,brotherofGundobald,reigns Ghebers,or Magians,ix. , 227sq. in Geneva,vi. , 225; joins Clovis, Ghermian(Karmiy_. n),Emirof, mili- 226; killedby Gundobald,227. tary forceof, xi. , i59--6oand note; Godescal,monk,x. ,2o9. subduedbyBajazet,x69. Godfreyof Bouillon,leads the first Ghibelines,factionof, viii. , 386; see crusade,x. ,235; characterof,_36 Guelfs. note; in Hungary,224; menaces Giannone,hishistoryof Naples,iii. ,323 Constantinople,228; adoptedby note;iv. , x99note;xii. ,63note. Alexins,229;tornbya bear,24o--x; Giaour,seeGabour. at Antioch,243; pietyof, 247; at Gibamund,nephewof Gellmer,de- siegeof Jerusalem,256sq_. ; defeatedbythe Mu¢_agetm,vii. , xoo. fenderand baronof HolySepulGibraltar,ix. ,2x2. chre,/b. ; deathof, 260; assizeof Gijon,townof,termof theconquestof Jerusalemascribedto, 264. Musa,ix. , 2x6. !Godfreyof Viterbo,Pantheonof, viii. , Gildas,vi. ,268; accountofBritainby, 38xnote. 272sq. Godsigidus,King of the Vandals,v. , Gildo,the Moor,independenceof, v. , x74. 22x; revoltof, 326andnote; con- Gogand Magog,imaginax7 wall of, demnedby the senate,x28; war vii. ,73_vote. withhisbrother,3a9; defeatand Goguet,authorof OriginesdesLoixet death,x32, x33. desArts,vii. ,3° note. Gilimer,Gothicleader, death of, vi. , Goisvintha,wifeof Leovegild,vi. , 2ox x4o; nameof, /b. note. andnote. Gilles,St. ,x. ,2x8note. Goldandsilver,proportionbetween,i. , GiomOmortag,Bulgarianprince,viii. , 69,7° madnote; in Arabia,ix. , 4 _46note; x. ,32note. and note. Giraffe,seeCamelopardalis. Goldof affliction,tributeleviedonthe Gisulf,nephewof Alboin,Duke of poor,vii. , 39andnote. Friuli,viii. ,3x. GoldenBull,viii. ,39x-2andnote. Giubin,surnameof Bahrain,viii. ,58. Golden-footedDame,leaderof female Giustcndil,seeKtistendil. Crusaders,x. ,277. Giustiniani,Glambattista,ii. , x94note. GoldenHorde,kingdomof,xi. ,x87and Giustirfiani,John, bringscompanyof, note. Genoeseto Constantinople,xii. ,GoldenHorn,iii. ,9320; quarrelswith the Duke of GoldenMountains,seeCal. Venice,35; flightof, and death, Goldenspears,armyof ChosroeaII. , 4z-2andnote. viii. ,to9.

286 INDEX Goletta,entranceto lakeofTunis,vii. , iv. , 287sg. ; defeatof,byGratian, 202; Spaniardsin the fortressof, 333sqq. ;desolateAsiaMinorunder ix. , 204. Tribigild,v. , 299; conqueredby Gore,vii. ,2z5. Attila,vi. ,8; revoltagainstHuns, Gonderic,PrinceoftheVandals,v. ,343. 76; settle in Paanonia,77; emGondi Sapor,academyof physicat, braceChristianity,x82sq. ; invade vii. , 2ox andnote. IUyricumand Thrace,30I sqq. ; Gonfalonier,xii. , 162. stateof,infirstyeatsofTheodoric, Goafanon,Imperial,x. , 374and note. 3oxnote;marchto Italy, 3o8sqq. ; Gongylus,General,ix. , 3o8note. conditionof, in Italy, 314 nq. ; Gontharis,vii. , 239and note. threatenedbyBelisarius,vii. , xa2; Gontran,King of Burgundy,invades dissensionsof,underAmaiasontha, Sepfimania,vi. , 263sq. x24sqq. ; besiegeRome,x38sqq. ; Gordian,fatherof Gregorythe Great, raisethesiege,x53; evacuatePanviii. , 42. nonia,x77; revoltof,in Italy,242 GordianI. , Proconsulof Africa,i. , 223; sqq. ; besiegeRome, 25o sqq. ; elevation and character, 2_4; enterRome,254; loseRome,256; reignswithhisson, 225sqq. ; de- retake Rome, 261; kingdomof, featanddeathof, 229and note. destroyedby Narses,279. GordianII. , i. , 225Sq_. Visigotl_[Thervingi],nameof, ii. ,8 GordianIII. , declaredC_esar,i. , 232; and note; conqueredby Hermanemperor,242 and note; Persian ric, iv. , 245; warof, with Huns, war,243; death,245. 286; revoltof,in Mcesia,297; win Gorgo,orCarizme. iv. ,283. battleof Hadrianople,313; siege Gorgona,isleof, v. ,x3znote. of Hadrianoplebythe, 3x6sq. ; at Gorgonlus,eunuch,protectsthe Chris- Constantinople,317; ravagethe tians,iii. , 59- provinces,3x8sqq. ; massacreof, G6rres,onthe miracleof Tipasa,vi. , in Asia,320sq. ;division,defeat, 200note. andsubmissionof, 329sqq. ; revolt Gorski,his Historyof theCouncilof of, afterdeathof TheodosiusI. , Florence,xi. , 27xnote. v. , x37sqq. ; ravageGreece,139 Gospels,ii. , 331sq. andnote. sqq. ; invadeItaly,148sqq. ; join Goths,earliestmentionof, i. ,287note; Radagaisns,x66; besiegeRome, wax of, with Decins,ii. , 3, z2; 225sqq. ;secondsiegeof, by, 235 origin,religion,andinstitutionsof, sq. ;thirdsiegeandsackby,241sq. ; 4 sqq. ; emigrationsof, 7 sqq. ; characterof, 242; occupyItaly, invadeRomanprovinces,xx; oh- 254; marchintoGaul,256sq. ; in taintributefromGallus,x8; con- Spain,274 sqq. ; win permar. cnt questsof,in thirdcentury,3xsqq. ; dominionin Gaul,278; modernattemptThessaloniea,38note,66; tionof,28osq. ; besiegeNarbonne, invade Illyricum,252; invade vi. ,44sq. ;conqueredbyMajorian, Moesia, iii. , x87 sqq. ; assist xxo notes; conversionof, from revoltof Procopius,iv. , 247scl. ; Arianism,2o0; TheodoricprotectS, waxwithValens,248sqq. ; driven in Spain,_34; codeof, 24x note, by the Huns intoWesternprov- _67sq. , 268note; historyof, in inces,26x; imploreprotectionof Spain, 265 note; of Gaul, assist Valens,29x; settledinThrace,292 Theodoric, 3xo; expeditionto sgq. ; convertedto Christianity,vi. , AfricaunderTheudes,vii. , z21; x8nsq9. ; settlementof,inCrimea, lose part of Spainto Justinian, vii. ,65 andnote; said tohavein- /3. ; join Johnthe Prefectagainst yokeddemonstofindtreasure,xii. , theArabs,ix. , 203andnote. -,o9 note. Gotones,seeGoths. Oateogolhs[Gruthungi],nameof,ii. , Governolo,vi. , 73note. 8 and note; warof, with/=Inns,Gozelo,Duke,x. , 2I5 note.

INDEX 287 Gozz,Orientalname for the Uzi,q. v. of Florence, 262 sg. ; acts of Gracchi,family of the, conversionof, union, 268 sq. and note; new v. , 79- schism, 296 _q. ; under Turkish Grado,Isle of, vi. , 70; viii. , x3 andnote. rule, xii. , 56 and notes. Grammar,teaching of, in the empire, Greek Empire, see Roman Empire. iv. , 200. Greek fire, ix. , 247 and note, 248 and GrampianHills, i. , 5 and not*. note, 355. Gran,German colony at, attacked by Greeklanguage,i. , 48; sdentificidiom, Tartars, xi. , _47. 49; modern pronunciation,x. , 234 Granaries,public, i. , _56 note. note; xi. , 286 and note; state of GrandSignor,nameof TurkishSultans, the, in fourteenthcentury,272 3q. ; xli. , 54- loanwordsin, ib. note. Grant,see Johannes Grant. Greek learning, revivalof,ix. , 368 sqg. ; Graphia aurea urbis Romm, xii. , 87 in Italy, xi. , 275 sqq. note, I86 note. Greeks, return of, from Troy, vii. , 95 Grass6,palaceof Vandal kings,vii. , 98. and note; flight of, from Egypt, Grasses,artificial,i. , 67. ix. , x79; navy of, 355 sq. ; their Gratian,Count, father of Valentinian, hatred of the Latins, x. , 327 s_/. , iv. , 1St. 333 sqq. ; massacre the Latins, Gratian,declaredemperor by the Brit- 335-6; xi. , x4; quarrel of, with ish legions,v. , x78. Latins in Constantinople,x. , 369; Gratian,son of ValentinianI. , Emperor, revolt of, x2o4 n. 9. , xi. , 8 sgq. ; passes the Rhine, iv. , 2x6; reign, knowledge of the, 245. See _57sq. ; madeAugustus, lb. ; mar- Greece. tiesConstantia,/b. ; acceptsValen- Green faction of the Hippodrome,vii. , tinian II. as colleague,258; victory x9 sq_I. over the Alemanni, 307 sq. ; asso- Gregorian chant, seeGregorythe Great. datesTheodosius, 32a; character, Gregorian code, vii. , 316 and note. v. , t sqq. ; flightand death, 7 *q. , 8 Gregorins Catinensis, Chronicou Faxnote; friendship with Ambrose, fense of, viii. , 348 note. 3o, abolished pagan ceremonies,74. Gregorovius,Athenais of, v. , 326 note; Gratianopolis,in regionof Chalkidike, on schools of Athens,vii. , 79 note; xi. , H3 note. his Historyof 5Iedia_valRome, xii. , Gratianns,magister militum, ix. , 287 66 note; and in the notes of chaps. note. bdx-ixad,passim. Gratus,Bishop of Carthage,iii. , 4o6 Gregory,of Agrigentum,Life of, ix. , note. 208 note. Gray,poet,on the Nile, ix. , t89 twte. Gregory,Archbishopof Alexandria,iii. , Greaves,on Roman coinage, vi. , xo6 379. note. Gregory, Bar Hebr*eus,set AbulphaGreaves,traveller,on the Seraglio,xi. , ragius. 228 note. Gregory, Bishop of Hadrianople, xi. , Greece,Christianityin, ii. , 333; cities 7x. of, restoredby Julian, iv. , 4r sg. ; Gregory, Bishop of Langres, vi. , 258 invadedby Goths, 33° note; plun- and note. dered by Alaxic, v. , x4o sqq. ; Gregory I. , the Great,Pope, on miracle coast of, attacked by Totila, vii. , of Tipasa, vi. , x99, 200 and note; 262; Albanian invasion of, xi. , consulted by Recared, 204; papal H5 note; conquestsof Bajazet in, nuncio, viii. , 26; his aversion to _7o. See Greeks. classical monumentS,40and note; Greek Church, union with the Latin birth and history, 42 sqq. ; Lives Church, viii. , x82; discordwith the of, /b. note; founds monasteries, Latin, x. , 327 s_q. ; reunion, xJ. , 43andnot*; pontificateof, 44sqq. ; 73; dissolution of, 78; Council Gregorian chant, 45 and note; his

288 INDEX missionariesin Britain, 45-6; no_; death, 24; opposesApollltemporalgovernmentof, 46 sq. ; naxis,viii. ,z34. almsof, 47; savesRome,48. Gregory,nephewof HeracLius,ix. ,x96 GregoryII. ,Pope,vii/. ,3axno_;chum- note. pionofimageworship,324;letters GregoryofNyssa,ii. ,333note. of,326and note; convenessynod Gregory,Patriarchof Constantinople, at Rome,332. A. D. x452,XU. ,2x. GregoryIII. , Pope,championsimage Gregory,prefectof Air/ca,ix. , x93; worship,viii. ,324. revoltsagainstConstans,/b. not_; GregoryIV. , Pope, demolishesthe daughterof,_94; death,z95;fate episcopalcityof Ostia,v. ,236. Ofhisdaughter,z96note. GregoryVII. [Hildebrand],reformsthe GregoryThaumaturgus,ii. , 34 no/e; papacy,viii. , 379; lettersof, ix. , miraclesof,x. ,9andnote. 23i and note; Livesof, x. , xa2 GregoryofTours,translatesthelegend note; besiegedby the Emperor of the SevenSleepers,v. ,36o; his HenryHI. , zaa; his designfor a accountof Julianthe Martyr,vi. , crusade,z93sq. ; virtuesof,xii. ,70; xoznote;on deathof Apolllnar/s, foundsthe papal monarchy,74; 233; onsiegeof Angoulgme,a34 death,lb. note;familyof, a6onote. GregoryIX. , Pope, excommunicatesGrenada,giventotenthousandSyrians, FredericII. , x. ,3t6. ix. , a24; suppressionof Christians GregoryX. , Pope,urgesunionof Greek in, 232and note. and Latin Churches,xi. , 74-5; Grenoble(Gratianopolis),vi. , 45no_, mediationof, betweenCharlesof Grethungi,oppose Claudius,ii. , 65 AnjouandMichae. 1VIII. , 80; in- note. Sez Gruthungi. stitutesthe conclave,xii. , xo4and Gretser,onimages,viii. ,3x5note. note,xos. Gr/gor ev,onthe pMarPat Serai,x4. , Gregory XI. , Pope, supportedby x49note. Viterbo,xii. , xoanote; his return Gr/gor/Presbyter,x. , 3a note. fromAvignon,x57note; deathof, Grimoald,Dukeof Beneventum,viii. , x59. 365. GregoryXII. , Pope,documentscon- Grocyn,xi. , 290note. cerning,xii. , x59note; accessionGronovius,James,iii. ,259note. of, z62, x64 sqq. ; abdicates,Grotius,iii. ,87; on politicalsystemof _66. the Christians,a87note; onroyal GregoryXIII. , Pope,xii. , _7x. succe. _ion,v. , 338note; on kingGregoryof Cyprus,xi. , 76note. doraoftheVisigoths,vi. , 2zJnote; Gregory,Illuminator,i/. , 340 note; De Jure Belli,vii. , x6anote; on apostleof Armenia,v. , 333no_- originof the Lombards,,78 note. Gregory, lieutenant of the exarch Grubenhagen,principalityof, xi. , zo3 Heraclius,viii. ,85. note; silverminesof,/b, note. GregoryNazianzen,li. , x84 note; at Grumbates,Kingof theChionites,ii/. , AthenswithJulian,ii/. ,23note;elo- _5_. quenceof,329;supportsNicenedoc- Gruter sInscriptions,i. , 84note. trine,355; onreligioussects,4o8; Gruthungi,or Ostrogoths,defeatof,by on Julian selevation,iv. , 9 note; Gratian,iv. , 333sqg. ; subjectto calumniatesJulian,a6 note; op- Attila,vi. , 8. See under GothS posesJulian,47andnote; account andcp. Grethungi. ofearthquakeatJerusalem,8x; ac- Gualter/nsCancellar/us,his Historyof countof,v. ,x4sgg. ;bitth,_. note;- PHndpalityof Antioch,x. , a6z his missionto Constantinople,x6 note. sq. ; poemon his life, _5 note; Guardiansand wards,Romanlawof, Archbishopof Constantinople,x8 vii. , 354s_/. s_. ; retreatof,a3; orationsof,/b. Gubazes,Kingof I. ,agic_vii. ,aaz;

INDEX 289 alliedhimselfwithNushirvan,aa2; GfirKhans,xi. , _37note. his war againstPersia, 224sq. ; Gustavsburg,or Lupudunum,fortress religionof, 227;hisdeath,_h. repairedby Julian, iii. , 272and Gudmarson,Ulf, xii. , x57note. note. GuelfsandGhibelines,factionsof,viii. , GustavusAdolphus,attemptsto form 386; xii. , 74,x2xandnote. regimentof Laplanders,x. , 40 Gu_nde,Abb_,on Palestine,v. , 3_9 note. note. Guy I. , firstDukeof Athens,xi. , 9o Gudrard,onCapistrano,xi. , 3x4note. note. Guibert,historianof thecrusades,x. , GuyII. , Dukeof Athens,xi. ,9° note. 199note,233and note. Guy of Lusignan,Kingof Jerusalem, Guicciardini,historyof, v. , _5znote; x. , 299; imprisoned,300; rexfi. ,x76note. leased,305; receivesCyprus,338. Guido,Bernard,authorof Lives of Guyof Spoleto,relievesRome,ix. ,a87 Popes,xii. , 74note. note. Guidobonus,Antonius,on Scander- GuyPaUavicini,grantedlandbyBonibeg,xi. , 3nonot_. faceof Monfferrat,xi. , 7note. Guignes,de, Historyof the Hurls,iv. , Guyana,descriptionof,byBuffon,xii. , a67note; ontheEdrisites,ix. ,3o_ x9i note. note;onZingLsK. han,xi. ,J35note; Guzarat,kingdomof, conqueredby on theOttomandynasty,x55note. Mahmud,x. ,xso. Guiscard,Robert,defeatsLeoIX. , x. , Gwent,spearraenof,vi. , 283. 95; birthandcharacter,96-7sqq. ; Gyarus,Isleof,i. , 2o6. Dukeof Apulia,xoz; invadesthe Gyllius,iii. , 9z note; on equestrian EasternEmpire,xo8sq. ; at Or- statueof Justinian,xi. , 295note. ranto,xix; victoryat Durazzo, xx6; deliversPopeGregoryVII. , H_. IAS I. , Pope, condemnsIconox23;secondexpeditionintoGreece, clasts,viii. ,355;pontificateof,356 xa4;death,xa6. sq. ; allowsCharlemagnetodespoil Guizot,onthe Assemblyof the Seven Ravenna,xii. , x95note. Provinces,v. , a87note. HadrianIV. , Pope,xfi. ,8a andnote. Gundamund,Kingofthe AfricanVan- Hadrian,Pra_toriauprefect,v. , x9a dais,persecutestheOrthodoxpaxty, andnote. vi. , _89. Hadrian,Emperor,resignsEasternconGundelinda,wifeofTheodatus,epistles questsofTrajan,i. ,9; characterof, of, vii. , xa8note. to; pacificsystemof,/b. ;rebellion Gundobald,Burgundianprince and of Jewsunder,lb. _ote; encournephewof Ricimer,vi. , x4x; ac- aged militaryexercises,xS, x6; quiredkingdomof Burgundy,x4_ monumentsof, 55;adoptionof,95 note; convenesan _sembly of and note; character,/b. ; adopts bishopsat Lyons,a25; defeated Verns,lb. , 97, I34 note; makes by Clovis,226; murdersGode- Trebizonda port,li. ,33; letterof, g_[, 227; establishesjudidal 55note; at Daphne,iv. , 9° note; combat,247note. his Athenian library,vii. , 77; Gunpowder,usedby the Chinese,vi. , mausoleumof, z42andnote; es66note;xi. , x4x; inventionof, a3o tablishesPerpetualEdict,3z2and s_. note; buildsPantheonat Rome, Guns,introductionof, into India, x. , xii. , x93note. x49note. Hadrianople,battleof, ii. , 255,"56; Gunther,prior,hishistoryof the Ger- Gallusat, iii. ,233andnote;siege man crusade,x. , 352 note; his of, bythe Goths,iv. , 300; Valens Ligurinus,xli. , 79note. defeatedat, 3z3sq. ; siegeof,3x6 Guntiarius,Kingof the Burgundians, sq. ; siegeof,bytheAvars,viii. ,72; v. ,269. by the Latins,xi. , xS; younger VOL. lit. -- x9

29° INDEX Andronicuserectshisstandardat, mus,/b. ; borethetitleof King,lb. ; 99; siegeof, raisedby the Bul-] livedat C_esarea,x83; his kinggarians,xo8; residenceof Murad dora,ib. ; death,x94. Sultan, _66 and note; taken by HanseaticLeague,vi. , 293; viii. ,389. AmurathII. , 222; royalschoolat, Hapsburg,counts of, succeedto the aaS; savedby Amurath1I. , 3o3; empire,viii. ,39o. palaceof MahometII. at, xii. ,x2; HaraldHardrada,in Sicily,x. , 88note. Phrantzesat, 47; Mahometat, Ha. ran,Templeof theMoonat, ix. , a7. A. D. x453,54; becomesa provin-Harbii,proscribedsects of, ix. , an6 cialtown,ib. note. Hadrumetum,seeAdrumetum. Hardouin,P&e,onthe 2Eneid,ii. ,3x7 H_emimontus,provinceof,iv. ,3x2note. note. Iimmus,Mount,retreatofthe Gothsto, Hardt,historian,on the Councilof ii. ,68. Constance,xJ. ,253note. I-I_nel,hiseditionof the CodexTheo- FIarmatius,vi. ,302. dosianus,vii. , 3z6note. !Harmozan,satrapof AhwazandSum, Hafsa,daughterof Omarandwifeof surrendersto Othman,ix. , t28. Mahomet,ix. ,89. Harpies,iii. ,92note. Hahn,M. , xi. , xI5note. Harris,James,Commentaryon ArisHainault,provinceof,iii. ,x6xnote. ! totle,ix. ,273note. Haiton,theArmenian,TartarHistoryHarris,Mr. ,hisPhilologicalArrangeof,x. , x8onote; _. , i33 note. ments,ix. ,37° note. Hahem (H_. kim),F_. timid,Caliphof Harris,Mr. ,of Salisbury,x. ,382note, Egypt,x. ,i85; sacrilegeof,t86-7; 383note. dateof,I85 note. i Hart,fordof the,crossedbyClovis,vi. , Halberstadt,bishopricof,viii. ,366. 232. Halicz,Andronicusat, viii. ,297. Harte,Mr. , Essayson Agriculture,i. , Halys,river,HeracHuson, viii. ,to3. 67note;Historyof GustavusAdolH_ nadanites(Hamd_. nids),Saracen phns, v. ,3x8note. dynastyof, ix. , 304andnote,3xx. Harunal-Rashid,hispresentsto Charle14"_madh_n,subduedby theMoslems, magne,viii. ,368 and no_e;wars ix. , 727note;Bowidesat,229note; withtheRomans,ix. , 278sg. ;ally x. , i6o. of Charlemagne,/b. ;x. , x83. I4"_m_cheu,Chineseroyalresidence,xi. , tiaruspices,Tuscan,v. ,8i. x42. Hasan,Governorof Egypt,ix. , 2on; Hamyarites,Arabiantribeof, viii. ,158 defeatedbythe Moors,205. note. Ha. san,Hamd_nid,ix. , 3o4. Hamza,uncleof Mahomet,conver_onHa. san,son of Ali, ix. , 97; retiresto of,ix. , 56;death,68. asceticlife,xox;oneof thetwelve Hart,dynastyof,iv. , 279. Imams, xos; marriesdaughterof Hanbal,sectof,ix. , 3o5. Yezdegerd,i3i note. Hanbal,AhmadIbn,ix. ,305note. Hasan,the Janizary,at siegeof Conl[-lan/fs,religiousmovementof, ix. , 35 stantinople,xii. , 43. note; followMosailama,xx2. Hashem(H. ish_u-n),Caliph,ix. ,223,_5_Hannibal,ii. , x26note;passageof,over Hashemites,familyof Mahomet,ix. , the Alp. s,229 and note; before . 24; refuseto acknowledgeAbuRome,v. , x99 sq. ; camp of, at bekr,92. Mount Garganus,vii. , 256 and Harem(Hatim),Arab,ix. ,2L note; introduceShisshipsintothe Hatfield,synodof, heldby Theodore, harbourof Tarentum,xii. ,34note. Bishopof Britain,viii. , x8anote. H_nn;balianus,brotherof Constantine,Hatra,orAtra(AlBach ),i. , _44note; iii. ,x73andnote. siteof,iv. ,x65note. Hannibalianus,nephewof ConstantineHauteville,Castleof,seatof Tancred, iii. , x73; C_sar,xSx;Nobili. ssi-x. ,97.

INDEX 29I Hauteville,Johnde,monkofSt. Albans, of FravittaoverGainas,v. , 306; iv. ,8note. dateof navalvictory,307note. Haverfidd,Mr. F. , v. ,285note. Helmichis,loverofRosamund,viii. ,x5, Hayer,J. ,ontheCollatioEpiscoporum, z7 vi. ,226note. Helvetii,i. , 285note. Hawkingamongthe Normans,x. , 9x HelvidiusPriscu£,i. , xoxnote,_o2,17_ andnote. andnote. Hawks,inpossessionofBajazet,Sultan, HdvittsPertinax,seePertinax. xi. ,x75note. Helyot,on Monasticism,vi. , x56note. Hawkwood,John, Englishmercenary,Hems,seeEmesa. xi. , 24osq. ; his name,/b. note. Henda,wifeof AbuSofyan,ix. , 67-8. Hayton,on theMongols,xi. , x54note. Hendinos,title of generalor Kingof Hebal,statueof, ix. , 24. the Burgundians,iv. , 2x8. Hebdomon,or fieldof Mars,see Con- Hengistand Horsa,vi. , 269sq. stantinople;palaceof,s_ Constan-Henna,townof,takenbytheSaracens, tinople, ix. ,285note. Hebron,principalityof,x. , 266note. Henoticon,of Zeno, viii. , x62 and Hebrus,ii. ,256. note. Hegira[Hijra],eraof, ix. ,59andnote. Henry,brotherof BaldwinI. , takesthe Heineccius,on civillaw, v. ,298note; cross,x. , 344; conquersMourvii. ,3o2note,3x2note. zoufle,373; assumesthe regency, Hcinemann,O. yon, monographon xi. , x6; reignandcharacterof, z8 _neas Sylvius,xii. ,62note. sqq. ; death,2x. Heinz,provinceof,ix. , 5- Henry I. , King of France,marries Helena,cityof,iii. ,ao8andnote. granddaughterof Anne,daughter Helena,consortof ConstantinePor- of RomanusII. , viii. ,268andnote; phyrogenitus,viii. , 266; assumes ix. , 349. administration,267. Hem3"It. , Emperor,coronationof,. _i. , Hdena,daughterof Eudda,v. , 6 note. 85 note; besiegesRome, xo84 Helena,daughterof Licinius,iii. , x77 A. D. ,x87note. note. HenryIII. , Emperor,visitof,to SouthHelena,daughterof RobertGuiscard, ern Italy, xo47A. D. ,x. ,91 note; X. ,zo9. invitedbythe Greeks,x2z; beHelena,motherof Constantinethe siegesRome,x22;fliesbeforeGuisGreat,ii. ,2o4;iii. ,x79;herChris- card,x23. tianity, 282 note; at Jerusalem,HenryIII. , Kingof Castile,sendsemir. , 75. bassyto Timour,xi. ,2x2note. Helena,sisterof Constantius1I. , mar- Henry. IV. , of England,receivesthe riesJulian,iii. ,238;death,iv. ,14. EmperorManuel,xi. , a43-4. Helenopolis,seeDrepanum. Henry. IV. , of France,comparedwith Helepolis,iv. , x3o; usedbythe Avars, Clovis,vi. , 224; with Belisarius, viii. ,72note. vii. ,x4o. Heliodorus,Bishopof Altinum,v. , x38 HenryV. ,Emperor,coronationof,xii. , note. 67 note; called to Romeby the Helion,Patrician,investsValentinian Frangipani,76note. Ill. withthe purple,v. , 339- HenryVI. ,Emperor,unitedNaplesand Heliopolis,capturedby the Saracens, Sicilytotheempire,viii. ,386;marix. ,x54sq. ; ruinsof, z56andnote; ties daughterof Roger, x. , x42; pillagedbythe Carmathians,299. conquersSicily,x44. Helleblcus,general of Theodosius,HenrytheFowler,viii. ,372;tifleof,373 v. ,48,49. note;defeatstheHungarians,x. ,46 Hellespont,battleat, betweenPescen- sqq. niusNigerandSeverus,i. , x5x;de- Henry,the Greek,of Brunswick,xi. , script. ionof,iii. ,94; navalvictory xo3note.

292 INDEX HenrytheWonderful,Dukeof Bruns-Hercules,columnsof, i. , 26, 33; Rowick,xi. , xo3note_, man,titleof Commodns,zx9. Heptarchy,Saxon,vi. , 272and note. Herculians,guards of Diocletian,ii. , Hera, Caveof, Mahometretreatsto, z82 and note; of Julian, iv. , ix. , 35; situationof, /b. note. I4z. Heraclas,Egyptianbishop,ii. , 335. Herculius,titleof Ma_mjan,ii. , x48. HeracleaPontica,siegeof, bythe Sara- I-IercynianForest,ii. , 75. cens,ix. ,"_8xand_wte. Hereditarysuccession,i. , 2x4sq. Heraclea(Thracian),ii. ,36,x4z;taken Hcredium,of the first Romans,vii. , by Maximin,240,24X;Julian at, 357. iv. , 27; Genoesecolonyin, xi. , Heresy,beginningof,ii. , 274;persecu68. lion of, fli. , 33a sq_. ; disabilities Heracleonas,viii. ,222; reign,223; ex- attachedto,vi. , x2onote. fieof,/b. ; ix. , x67note. Hermw. anpromontory,Romanfleetat, Heraclian,Count,slaysStilicho,v. ,z89; vii. , zo2. oppressesthe familyof Proba,250; Hermann,onCapistrano,xi. , 3x4note. revoltof,inAfrica,263; death,264. Hermanric,King of the Ostrogoths, I. ieradianns,Praetorianprefect,ii. , 6o, conquestsof,iv. , 245s_. ; warswith 6xnote. the Huns,286sqq. Heraclitus,spuriousepistlesof,vii. ,305 Herman-tic,Kingof theSuevi,in Spain, note. v. , 344. Herachus,ExarchofAfrica,viii. ,85. Hermapion,iii. , 245note. Heraclius,favouriteofValentinianHI. , Hermechionites,vii. , z92note. vi. , 78; death,8x. Hermenegild,sonofLeovegild,Kingof HeracliusI. , Emperor,rebelsagainst Spain,revoltof,vi. , 2ozsq. ;death, Phocas,viii. , 85; madeemperor, 202andnote. 86; distreSsof, 94 sq. ; his cam- Hermes,Christianforgery,ii. , 347paignsagainstPersia,zoo s_q. ; Hermias,the philosopher,vii. , 8o. ¢cthesisof, z79sq. ; a Maronite,Herminlanus,Claudius,ii. , 86 note; _98; marriesMaxtina,22z;date severitytowardstheChristianS,iii. , of hisdeath,222; childrenof,221 33note. note; receivesMahomet sambas-Hermits,vi. , z75sq. andnote. sador,ix. , 77; warwith,78 s9. ; Hermodorus,theEphesian,vii. ,3osand fortifiesPalaceof Blachern_e,xii. , note. 2onote; daughterof,capturedby Hermagenes,generalofthecavalry,iii. , Saracens,ix. , z5i; flightof, x66; 4oz. death,x82;dateof,/b, note. Hermogeniancode,vii. , 3z6andnote. HeracliusII. , or Heracleonas,son of Hermunduri,i. , 3oznote. Heradius,viii. ,222,223; ix. , x67 HeroandLeander,taleof, iii. ,95and note. note. Heraclius,sonof ConstansII. , rebelsHerod,sonofOdenathus,ii. , 85. againsthis brother,ConstantineHerodesAtticus,familyof,i. , 57; his IV. , viii. ,226sq. education,ib. ; publicmonuments, Heraclius,son of ConstantineIV. , 58. viii. ,_27. Herodian,officerof Justinian,at SpoHeraclius,the prefect,campaignof, leto,vii. ,259. againstthe Vandalsin Africa,vi. , Herodian,the historian,descriptionof x26Sqfl. ;his defeat,x3o. ImperialPalace,i. , _68note. Her_eum,Palaceof,seeConstantinople. Herodians,sectof,ii. , 263note. Herat,dry of Khorasan,destroyedby Herodotus,on polytheism,i. , 36 note; Zingis,vi. , z5; subduedby the on the Persianreligion,256; on Moslems,ix. , x28; Magiausin, the Syrians,ii. , 263note;descrip228; taken by the Mongols,xi. , tionof Assyria,iv. , za7 nott; on z38. the S. cythians,263note.

INDEX 293 Hertzberg,Countde,ontheLombards, tolerationof Anthemius,vi. , xa4 vii. ,x77note. andnote. Hertzberg,G. ,vii. , 79note- Hildegardis,daughterof Lewisthe Heruli,ii. , 8, 9 nole; bodyof,in Ro- Pious,xi;. ,8onote. manservice,38,39andnote;legionHilderic,Kingofthe AfricanVandals, of, in Gaul,iv. , 3 and note; in religioustolerationof, vi. ,x9o sq. ; Britain,229;subduedbytheGoths, daughtersof, educatedby Justinz46; slavesof the, vi. , x8 note; inn,vii. , x16. at the battleof Chglous,6x; al- Hilderic,Vandalprince,religioustoleralies of Theodoric,3x6, 3x7 and -ionof, vii. , 85; deposedby Gelnote; at Constantinople,in the liner,86. Nikariots,vii. , 25; jointheexpe- Hildesheim,bishopricof,viii. ,366. ditionof Bclisaxiusto Africa,92; Hildibald,commanderof the Gothsof defeatedby the Lombaxds,x79; Italy,vii. ,243;death,/b. serveunderNarses,266. IHiUeh,villageof,iii. ,2oo. Herzegovina,Princeof, opposesthe[Himerius,general,expeditionagainst Ottomans,xi. , x68note. Crete,ix. ,8o8. Hesnus,Arab,ix. , 2xnote. I:lincmarof Rheims,v. ,286note;Life Hesseis,J. H. , editionof theSaliclaw, of Remigius,vi. , 22o note; on vi. ,242note. baptismof Clovis,lb. note; pasHesychasts,or Quietists,xi. , xx8. totallettercomposedby,ix. , 258 H_-amilion(wa. Uof Manuel),xJ. ,25z note. andnote;xii. ,57. Hindoos,religionof, ix. , 227note. Heyne,editionof Virgilby, vii. , 274 Hindostan,conquestof,bytheMongols, note. xi. , z43,x9osq. Hia,landof the,conqueredbyZingis,Hiong-nou,iv. , 267note,275note,282 xJ. ,x35note. note. Hierapolis,in Syria,Constantiusat,iv. , Hipparchus,astronomer,ix. ,a6 note. 24; granariesof, xx2; Julianat, Hippocrates,aphorismsof, translated xx8 and note, xx9; besiegedby byConstantine,x. , xo4note. Nushlrvan,vii. ,208; Chosroesat, Hippodrome,see Constantinople. viii. ,63; takenby the SaracensHippolytus,Bishop,worksof,viii. ,127 ix. ,x68; recovered,3zi. note. Hierarchy,imperial,iii. ,xx3 sg. HippoRegius,colonyof, v. ,35o; city Hierodes,i. , x88note. of,/b. no,e; siegeof,35zsq. ;BeliHierocles,wrotereviewof the Eastern sariusat, vii. , xo7; conqueredby provinces,vii. ,29note. Rogerof Sicily,x. , x32. Hieroglyphics,iii. , 244sq. andnote. Hira"vii. , 2o5; ix. , x3; reducedby Hieromax,or Yermuk,q. v. Caled,xI9; foundationof,/b,note. Hil2xl,an Arab,slaysRustum,x. , x22 Hirth,F. , vii. ,32note. note. Hismahelitm,Slavonians,x. ,49note. ]3. ilarion,St. ,iv. , 26onote. Hittin,battleof, x. ,3oo. Hilaxion,theSyriananachoret,vi. , x6x; Hobal,deityof the Caaba,ix. ,68. life of, lb. note; voyageof, x62 Hocsemius,John,xii. , x28note. note. Hodaibiya,treatyof,betweenMahomet Hilarius,senatorof Antioch,v. , 47; andtheKoreish,ix. ,72. made governorof Palestine,5o. Hodgkin,Mr. , on Ambrose,v. , 35 Hilary,:Bishopof Poitiers,iii. , 357, note; on Alaric,x47 notes; on 358and note; on the i-fomoiou- journeyof Stilicho,I74 note,xSx s/on,36x,362andnote; accountof note; on Claudian,x93 note;on Councilof Antioch,379 note; Alaric sarmy,23xnote,24_note; baninhment,387; tomb of, de- on p_ge of the Vandals, stroyedby the Saxacens,ix. , a54. 345note;onHunsat TroyeS,vi. , Hilm-y,Pope, censuresthe religious 54 note;referencesto, 3oo note,

294 INDEX 3oxnote;308notes,32xnote,322 third Councilof Constantinople, note,343 note;vii. , 93 note, r43 viii. ,xSonote. note, x56note,268note. HonoriusI11. , Pope,crownsPeterof Hody,Humphry,Dr. , on revivalof Courtenay,xi. , 22; his nepotism, Greeklearning,xi. , 275note,28_ xii. , x_6note. note. Honorius,succeedsto Empireof the Hoensbroech,Count Paul von, on West, v. , 67, *o7; marriage, miracleof Tipasa,vi. , 200note. ! _34; character, *35; flight Hoeschliusof Augsburg,printsGreek fromMilan,x5° s_. ; triumphof, textof Procopius,vii. ,8 note. at Rome, J59; abolishesgladiaHolagou(Hfil_gfi)Khan,grandsonof torial shows,x6o and notes;at Zingis,xi. , *43andnote. Ravenna,x6zsqg. ; associatesConHolin,seeCaracorum. stantiasinthe empire,335; death, Holstenins,Lucas,monasticrule, vi. , 336; persecutedthe Donatists, x66note. 346. Holw_m,hill fortressof, Yezdegerdat, Horace,descriptionof MountGarganus, ix. , i26note;takenbytheMoslem_ vii. ,256note. ib. note. Hormisdas,Pope,iv. , x89note. Holy Island,at mouthof the Tibe: Hormisdas,Princeof Persia,iii. , 244 v. , 236note. note;generalof Julian,iv. , x¢4sq. HolyLance,legendof,x. , 248sff. and note;adviceof, refused,,3o; HolyYear,seeJubilee. receivesmessagesfromSapor,143; Homer,m:_q_hologyof, i. , 37andnote sonof, x89andnote. Lmstrygonsin Italy,vi. , 298and Hormuzcontends with Narses for note;vii. ,x9 note,29note,92note; throneofPersia,ii. ,i68. Syriae versionof, ix. , 277 note; Hormuz,son of Nushirvan,vicesof, Florenceeditionof, *488,xi. , 29o viii. ,54-5; authoritiesfor account note. of, 56 note; acceptshelp of the Homerites,vii. ,23,sq_. ; monumentSof Turks,57; treatmentof Bahrain, the,ix. , x9. 59; deposedand imprisoned,60; Homicide,pecuniaryfluesfor, vi. , 243 death,62. sq. and notes. Hormuz,seeRamHormuz. Homocans,sectof,iii. ,359. tIorologoi,officeof the, ix. , 338note. Homoiousians,Ariansect of, iii. , 358. Horses,Romancavalry,i. , x8; AraHomoousians,iii. ,358;iv. , 2o3;perse- bian, ix. , 6 sq_. ; price of war cutedunderValens,v. , I4. horsesin "kingdomof Jerusalem,x. , Homoousion,term, iii. , 354,355 and 27oandnote. note. Horta,rebuiltbyLeoIV. ,ix. ,29o. Honain[IbnIsh_. k],Arabianphysician,Hortaire,KingoftheAlamanni,iii. ,272. ix. , 272note. Hosein,sonofAli,atsiegeofConsta_tiHonain,war of, ix. , 75; battle oI nople,ix. ,zo2; insurrectionof,/b. ; 75-6. flightanddeath,Jo3-4; oneofthe Hongvou,founderof dynastyof Min twelveImams,or pontiffs,xo5. xi. , 2*x. Hosein,seeHoussein. Honoratus,Bishopof Milan,viii. , x4. Hospitallers,knights,at Rhodes,xi. , Honorians,troopscalled,v. , x8o and ,61. note; betraySpainto the Goths Hostilianns,sonof Dedus, madeem272andnote. perorbythesenate,ii. ,,8. Honoria, sister of ValentinianILL Hottoman,Francis,lawyerof the sixeducation, vi. , 5I; exile, /b. ; teenthcentury,vii. , 302note. negotiationswithAttila,lb. ; medal Houses,Roman,rent of,v. ,224;numstruckwith portraitof, /b. note; herof,andtwoclassesof,lb. imprisonment,53- Houssaie,Amelotdela, his Historyof HonoriusI. , Pope, condemnedby the Venice,vi. , 7xnote.

INDEX 295 Houssein,Emir,xi. , i85; deathof,/b. 3r5; ambassadorof, at siegeof Hoveden,Roger,xii. ,9° note. Constantinople,xfi. ,32and note. Howell,Historyof theWorld,iii. , x37 Hunneric,sonof Genseric,Kingofthe note. Vandals,v. ,354; marriesEudocia, Howorth,SirH. , ontheAvars,viii. ,68 vi. , xt8; persecutestheCatholics, nol¢; on the lZaxaits,xi. , x3o 789; callsa conferenceof bishops note. at Carthage,x9x; deliversRoman HughCapet,founderof Capetianrace, citizensto the Moors,x93; rex. ,x96andnote. storesthe cathedralat Carthage, Hugh,Countof Vermandois,leaderin 195. the firstcrusade,x. ,2x6,2a6; cap- Huns,origin,iv. , 275andnote; contuxedby AlexinsComnenus,226, questsand wars,ib. sq¢. ; decline 229; returnsto France,247. of,279;emigrationsof,28t; white, HughdeReiteste,vii. , 68note. 282andnote;of the Volga,283; Hugh,Dukeof Burgundy,at the third subduethe Alani,285s¢. ; viecrusade,x. ,3o7,3o9note. toriesoverthe Goths,286 sq. ; Hugh,Kingof Burgundy,introduced conqueredbyShelun,v. ,i65; join intoRomebyMaxozia,viii. , 38o. Alaric,230; on thelllyrianfronHugh,sonof Azzoof Lombaxdy,x. , tier,233;underAttila,vi. , x rqg. ; xo9 note. in Hungary,2 note; intercourse Hughes,Mr. ,authorofSiegeof Damas- with the Goths, x7; religious cns,ix. , x49 note. opinionsof, _6andnote;mechanic Hugo,Kingof Italy,marriageof, x. , artsencouragedby, x7; language 346,347. of, ib. andnote; invadeGaul,53 Huldin,chiefoftheHuns,joinsSfilicho, sqq. ; invadeItaly,66 sqq. ; said v. , x68. to haveinvadedBritain,27xand Hume,Historyof Religion,i. , 36note, note. I43note,286; ontheismandpoly- Huntingdon,Henryof,vi. , 274note. theism,v. , xo4note; on ancientHyader,river,ii. , i95 note. population,223 note; on crime,Hycsos,orshepherdkings,ix. , 76note. vii. , 373 note; on ecclesiasticalHymettus,Mount,honeyof, xi. , 92 government,xfi. ,x77. andnote. Humphrey,son of Tancredof Haute- Hypa:pe,cityofAsia,i. ,62note. vine,x. ,97; death,99- Hypatia,daughterofTheon,teachesat Hungarians,wax of, with Manuel Alexandria,viii. ,x39;death,ib. Comnenus,viii. , 292; establish-Hypatius,nephewoftheEmperorAnasmentand inroadsof, x. , 42 sqq. tasins,crownedat Constantinople, SeeMngyaxs. vii. , 26; death, 28; besieges Hungary,Great,onthe Volga,iv. , 283 Amida,69note. andnote. Hyperides,ix. , 37x. Hungary,Hunsin,vi. , 2 sq. ; ScythianHyphasis,Alexanderthe Greatat, i. , coloniesin, 2 note; conversionof, 35. x. , x87; devastatedbythe Cru- Hyrcania,subduedby Nushirvan,vii. , saders,2_x; opposesGodfreyof 23o. Bouillon,224; invadedby the Hyssus,fortificationsof, vii. , 2r9. Mongols,xi. , 147 -*_/. ;by the Ottomans,x7r s_. ; truce with IAMBIJCBUS,neo-PlatoniSt,iv. , 52, 56 Turkey,r45I A. D. ,xii. , 37note. note. Huniades,John,campaignagainstthe lamblichus,oneof the sevensleepers, Turks,xi. , 3o6 sqg. ; defeatedat v. ,359. Waxna,31o-xx; birthand familyIazygia,settlementof the Gepid,_,vii. , of, 3_3 andnote; seconddefeat x77note. andflight,3x4; defendsBelgradeIbasofEdema,viii. ,x75. againstMahometII. , /b. ; death, Ibelin,s¢¢Johnd Ibelin.

296 INDEX Iberia,i. , 8; conversionof,ii. ,340and Igmazen,Kingof theIsaflenses,iv. ,235 _; attackedbySapor,iv. , 239. sg. IberianandCaspiangates,vii. , 72and Ignatius,Patriarchof Constantinople, _7/e. restored,x. ,33: andnote. Ibn Abdal-Hakam,historian,ix. , z84 Ignatius,St. , ii. , 3:2 note; Actsand note,x85no/e,i9: note. Epistlesof,iii. ,34twte;onmartyrIbn Alwaxdi,authorof chart,ix. , 235 dora,43; epistleof, to the Smyr_W/e. n_eans,vi_, x27note. Ibn Ish_k,on _fion of Abrahah,Igor,sonof Ruric,x. ,6o. ix. , 3o note. Igours,Vigours,orOnigors,Tartarrace Ibn Khaldfin,ix. , x9z note. of, iv. , 276and note;destroythe IbnKhateb,ix. , 224note. kingdomof the Huns,vi. , 77; art Ibn Kutaiba,ix. , 3° note. of writingamongthe,xi. , z3aand Ibn Shuna. seeEbn Schounah. note. Ibr_him:Ibrahim. Ikshidids,Saracendynastyof, ix. , 303 Ibrahim,chiefof the Abbassides,ix. , andnote. 259; death,26o. I1 Khans,dynastyof the, xi. , :43note. Ibrahim,grandsonofEbatheEider,ix. , llderim,surnameof Bajazet,xi. , z69 223. andnote. Ibrahlrn,infantsonofMahomet,ix. , 9o. Ildico,wifeof Attila,vi. , 74. Ibrahim,Princeof Shirwanor Albania, Ilerda,orLerida,ii. , 26note. submitsto Timour,xi. , i86. Ilium,ii. , _79note. Ibrahim,son of Aglab,ix. , 3oz. Illiberis,Councilof, ii. , 326; ill. , x3 Ibrahim,sonof Sharokh,xi. , _o5 note. note; decreeconcerningmartyrs, Ibrahim,vizirof Mur_dII. , xi. , 22x 44 note; concerningimages,viii. , andnote. 3_oandnote. Icasia,viii. ,252andnote. IUnstres,rankof, if/. ,xx4. Iceni,Britishtribe,i. , 26. Illyricum,i. ,27andnote; Julianin,iv. , Ichoglans,Turkishclassof,xi. , 228. x9; prefectureof, dismembered, Ichthyophagiof Gedxosia,i. , 262note; 333; divided betweenArcadius onthe shoresof the PersianGulf, and Honorius,v. , xoT;Western ix. , $and note. IUyricumcededto Constantinople, Iconium,or Cogni,Crusadersat, x. , 339andno/e; sevenprovincesof, 24z; Seljukcapital,273and 274 vii. ,59; dioceseof,separatedfrom note; taken by FrederickBar- Rome,viii. ,355andnote. baxussa,282; battleof, xi. , xeo Im_d-ad-dawla,his principality,ix. , note. 305note. Iconoclasts,extirpationof, viii. , 253; Images,worshipof, viii. , 3o9 sqq. ; riseof,3:esq,. "made withouthands,"3:5 and Idatins,onpassageof theVandals,v. , no/e; condemnedby Councilof 344 note; spuriousFragmentof Constantinople,320; restoredby Chronicleof,vi. , 54note; Bishop secondCouncilof Nice,350. of Ida Flavia,¢_9no/e; accountof Imams,twelvePersian,ix. , xo5 and the Suevicwar,/b. ; in Gallicia, note. _x2note. Imaus,Mount(or Ca. f),iv. , 273; see Idolatry,ii. ,280andno/e;iii. ,4x4and Ca/. note. Imbros,DemetriusPala_logus,Lord Idrtsids,seeEdrisites. of, xii. ,58. Ieroslaus[Yarnslav],of Halicz (notof Imma, daughter of Charlemagne, Kiev),viii. ,297. marriesEginhard,viii. , 36onote. Iftikhar,see Aladin. Imm_,battleof,i. ,:83note;ii. ,87note. Igilgilis,or Gigeri,iv. , 234. Immortalityofthesoul,doctrineoftbe, Igilium,Isleof, resiststhe Goths,v. , ii. , 284sqq. 248,249and note. Immortals,royalPersiancavalry,iv. ,

INDEX 297 J58andnote;v. ,330; puttoflight claims fourth crusade,/b. ; acby Belisaxius,vii. , 9o; of John countof pillageof Constantinople, Zimisces,x. , 66. 377; lettersof, xi. , 4 andnote; Imperator,i. , 78andnote; latermean- reformsthe officeof prefect,xii. , ingof, ii. ,183. 89. Ina,King of Wessex,viii. ,329note. Innocent VI. , Pope,his treaty with Incarnation,historyof the doctrineof, John Palmologus,xi. , 238; his viii. ,122sqq. pontificate,xii. , 152. Incendiarism,lawconcerning,vii. , 373 InnocentVII. ,Pope,xii. ,162. sq. InnocentXI. , Pope,xii. ,179note. Incest,Romanlawof,vii. , 352sq. Inquisitors,religious,under TheodoIndia,Romantradewith,i. ,69, 7oand sius,v. ,26. holes; ambassadorsto Constan- InstitutesofJustinian,vii. ,329s_q. ,337 tinefrom,iii. ,x9xandnote; Chris- sqq. ; of Caius,337andnote. tiansof St. Thomasin, viii. ,x91 Insu/a, or Roman lodging-house,v. , andnote. 224andnote. Indiancommoditiestaxed by Alex. Interamaia,SeptimiusSeverusat, i. , Severus,i. , 208andnote. 146. Indians,vii. ,286note. Interest,Romanlawof, vii. ,369sq. IndiCtiOus,iii. , 154Sqq. axldnotes. Interregnum,A. D. 275,ii. , xo3,xo4. Indo-Scythm,vii. ,69 note. Intiline,provinceof, cededto the emindulgences,to the emperors,vii. , 313 pine,ii. , i76 and note. andnote; practiceof,x. ,204. Inveges,Augustinemonkof Palermo, Infanticide(byexposing),Constantine s x. , 97note. lawagainst,ii. , 250;Christianstry Iona, Isle of, monasteryat, vi. , 162; to prevent,323; vii. , 344 and libraryandtombsof, r63note. note. Ionia, work azcribedto an Empress Infantry,Roman,lay asidetheir at- Eudocia,v. , 327note. mour,v. ,69. Iphieles,deputyof Epirus,iv. ,254and Infessura,Stephen,xii. , 174note,18o. note. Ingenuus,citizenof Narbonne,v. ,259. Irkk,conqueredby the Saracens,ix. , lngenuus,Emperor,ii. , 5o, 53. 122; extentof,_. note;Bowides Ingo,KingofSweden,ii. ,5note. at, 229note. Iagulphus,secretaryof Williamthe Iran,or Persia,vii. , 196. Conqueror,x. ,x88. Ireland,iv. , 225. Ingundis,consortof Hermenegild,per- Irenmus,ii. ,29oandnote; preachesin securedby Goisvintha,vi. , 2o1. Gaul,295; worksof, viii. , _27 Inheritance,Romanlawof,vii. ,359sq. note. Inigo,orIgnatius,founderoftheJesnits Irene,daughterof TheodoreLascaxis, w. , 174note. xi. ,56. In _re cessio,processof,vii. , 357note. Irene,orPansophia,viii. ,158andnote. Injuries,Romanlaw concerning,vii. , Irene,wifeof JohnCantacuzene,xi. , In 370sq. 1o8; defendsConstantinople,x24;aOcentI. , Bishopof Rome,suplxlsed besiegedin Demotica,163; insuperstitionof, v. , 228. vitesAmirtoConstantinople,/b. InnocentII. , Pope,electionof,x. ,13o; Irene,wifeofLeoIV. ,Emperorof Conxii. ,77; condemnsArnold,8oand stantinople,crownedwithherson, note,82; his triumphover Aria- viii. , 238; her connectionwith clete,i16. Charlemagne,373; letterof NiInnocentILL,Pope,persecutesthe AI- cephorusconcerning,ix. ,28o;reign, bigeois,x. , 20; promotesfourth viii. ,24osqq. ;restoredimages,/. b. ; andfifthcrusades,312sqq. ; nego- canonised,/b. ; banishedby her tiatiouswithBulgarians,338note, son,/b. ;restored,242-3;dethroned 339;biographyof,342note;pro- andbanishedtoLesbosbyNiceph

298 INDEX orus, _43; Life of, 252 note; Isldoreof Seville,i/i. ,x87note; v. ,xTo restorationofimagesby, 350s_l. note; on passageof the Vandals, Irene,wifeof Philipof Swabia,x. ,34L v. , 344note; monasticrule of,vi. , Irgana-kon,Mountainof,vii. ,186note. x68note,x69note;onSisebut,206 Irnac,youngestson of Attila,vi. , 33; note; Historyofthe Visigot. _,265 retiresto LesserScythia,77; king- note. dora of, destroyedbythe Igours, Isidore,pupilof Proclus,vii. , 79; Life /b. of,lb. note;leavesAthens,80. Iron,Siberian,vii. , 186andnote. Isidore,the Milesian,architect,vii. ,5x. Isa,sonof Bajazet,xi. , 2x8. Isisand Serapis,Templeof,i. ,4xand Isaac,anArmenianarchbishop,v. ,332. note; v. ,85. Isaac,grandsonof Eba the Elder,ix. , IMam,faithof,ix. ,35sq. ; derivationof 223. name,/b. note; descriptionof, 46 IsaacI. ,Comnenus,viii. ,280sq. ; inthe sqq. ; beliefconcerningthe ResurAbbeyof Studion,282. rection,49; HellandParadiseof, IsaacLI. ,Angelus,accession,viii. ,304 50; tolerantspiritof,226; propasq. ; reign,306 sq. ; defeatsthe gationof,ib. Normans,x. , x4o; policy of, Ismael= IsmS. il. towardsCrusaders,277, 280;char- Ismael,ancestoroftheArabs,ix. , xo. acter and reign, 336 sq_. ; de- IsmaelBeg,Princeof Sinope,xii. , 59 posedby Alexius,340; restored, andnote. 366-7sq. ; death,373. Ismael,son of Jafar ai-Sadik,ix. , 297 Isaac,lieutenantof Belisarius,vii. ,253. note. Isaac,sonof AlexiusComnenus,made Ismael,theSeljuk,x. ,i54. SebasWcrator,viii. , 289; sortsof, IsmaeliansofPersia,seeAssassins. 294. Ismail Hamza,brother-in-lawof MaIsaac,sonofJohnComnenus,imprison- hornetII. , xii. ,36note. mentof, viii. ,292; restorationof, Isocrates,iv. , z3 note; vii. ,74, 76; on x. ,366sq. musicalcontests,xii. , x25note. Isaiahof Rhodes,disgraceof,vii. ,382. Isonzo,battleof the, vi. , 309. Isamus,stationof,viii. ,254note. Ispahan,Heracliusat, viii. ,to7; taken Isar,Atiz,expeditionof,x. , x89note. by the Moslems,ix. , x27 note; Isaurians,rebellionof,ii. , 56st. ; de- Magianreligionat, 229; Bowide feated by Probus, xx6; besiege dynastyin, 230note; MalekShah Seleucia,iii. , 237; iv. , 290; in- at, x. , x76; Timourat, xi. , z93; vade Palestine,v. , 3x8; armyof, destroyedbyTimour,2x6. leviedby Leo, vi. , x2x; destruc- Israelite,a club,lii. ,406. tionof,ib. note;invadedAsia,vii. , Issns,cityof,campofEleracliusat,viii. , 63; defeatedin Phrygiaby the xoxand note. Goths, 64; betrayRome to the Ister,LowerDanube,i. , 29andnote. Gotlis,253,254; betrayRome a Isthmusof Corinth,wall of the, ft. , secondtime,26i. 37note;gamesof,iv. 42; tran_ Iseander,seeEscander. portationoffleetover,xii. ,34note; Isdigune,ambassadorof Chosroes,vii. , Turksat, 57-8. 228. Istria, i. , 27; campaniaof,vi. , 3_8. Isidore, Archbishopof Russia,made Italian language(modem),formation cardinal,xi. , 299 and note; ira- of,viii. ,3Zandnote. prisoned,/b. ; epistleof,to Nicho- Italians,separationof, fromthe Goths, las V. , xJi. ,6 note; Papal legate, underTheodoric,vi. , 3:52x; hisescape,48andnote. Italica,honorarycolony,i. , 46 note; Isidoreof Badajoz,ix. ,208note. iv. , 323note. Isidoreof Pelusium,v. ,87note;friendItaly,described,i. ,26,27;distinctfrom of Cyrilof Alexandria,viii. , x36 theprovinces,43andnote; Gothic andnote. invasionof, v. ,x67sg_/. ;portsof,

INDEX 299 dosedbyStiHcho,19onote; laws Jalalad-DInHasan,Ismaelianprince, forthereliefof,262; WesternEra- m. ,x43note. pireconsistsofthekingdomof, vi. , JalMad-DinMangbarti,seeGelaleddin. 116; under Odoacer,x53 sqq. ; Jalola,battleof,ix. , i26. partitionof, underTheodoricthe JamesdeDelayto,xi. , 2o7note. Ostrogoth,3z3sq. ; civilgovern-Jamesof Sarug,Syrianbishop,v. ,360 mentof,3=xsqq. ;stateof,3=7sqq. ; and note; homilyon the Seven invasionofBelisarius,vii. ,x32sqq. ; Sleepers,by,viii. ,3x4note. invasionof Fr_nl_%x6o; subdued James,St. ,Bishopof Edessa,miracles byNarses,277sgq. ; settlementof, _ of, iii. ,203note. 28o;theLombardsin,viii. ,r3sqq. ; James,St. ,Legendof,in Spain,ii. ,339 distressof,26a_. ;revoltsfromLeo andnote. the Isanrian,329sqq. ; ByzantineJami(mosques),_di. ,55dominioncontinuesin,filltimeof lane, daughterof EmperorBaldwin, Charlemagne,332andnote;Char- xi. , z7. lemagne sempirein, 365; riseof Jane, Queenof Naples,sellsAvignon, driesin,384sg. ; Hungarianinva- xii. , zlo and note; stranglesher sion,x. ,44sqq. ; Saracens,Lafins, husband,x39. andGreeksin, 75sqq. ; Themeof, Jane,sisterof the Countof Savoy,see 79not. e;Normansin, 83; revival Anneof Savoy. of Greeklearningin, xi. , 275sgq. ; Janiculum,seeRome. Rienzi sideaofa confederationof, Janizaries,institutedbyAlA-ad-Din,xi. , xG. ,x37sg. ;comparedwithFrance 58 note, x67-8and note; at the byPetrarch,J55andnote. Byzantine Court, 263 and note; lthacius,CatholicPresbyter,v. ,29and adoptionamong,xii. , 37. note. Jansenists,ii. ,293_ote;v. ,352twte. lthobai,Kingof Tyre,vii. ,=95note. Januarins,St. ,bloodof,x. , x85note. Itineraries,i. , 64note;of theBordeauxJanus,Templeof,vii. , x43. pilgrim,iv. , 75note;of Antoninns,Jaroslaus,Yaxoslav,ix. , 349andnote; x78note,303note,v. ,x5 note,x53 x. , 6x; collegeof,73. note. Jason,hostageinAlaric scamp,v. ,_97ItinerariumregisRicardl,x. , 3to note. Jaxaxtes,river,ix. , x29andnote. Jazberin,vi. , 28andnote. JA_. cR,kinsmanof Mahomet,death Jazyges,Sarmatiantribe,i. , 3ornote; of,ix. , 78. ii. ,xo; iii. ,x86. Ja,x[ar,sixthImam,ix. , co6note. Jefferyof Monmouth,vi. , 277Jabalan,chiefoftheChristianArabians,JehanNuma,palaceof MahometII. , ix. , x57; exileof, in Byzantium, xii. ,x2. _59andnote. Jexom,St. , onthe Councilof Rimini, Jablonski,viii. ,x44note,x53note. iii. ,363note; dialogueof,iv. , xoo Jabril,generalofHarunal-Rashid,ix. , note; ontheclergy,iv. , 2o9note; =8xnote. on the ravagesof the Goths,iv. , Jacob,sonofLeith,ix. , 3o=andnote. 3x9• Jacobitesor Monophysites,viii. , t77; Jeroslaus,seeJaroslans. submissionof, in Egypt,to the Jerusalem,"kingdomof, x. , 26o sqg. ; Saracens,ix. , x77; friendlyto the declineof,298; femalesuccession Saracens,233andnote. in,/b, note;conqueredbySaladin, Jadera,seeZara. 3oosq. Jaen,legionof Kinnisrinor Chaletsat, Jerusalem,templeof,destroyedbyfire, ix. ,=24. iii. , =4; Christianchurchat,32x Jaffa,countyof (WithAscalon),x. ,266 andnote;Julian sdesigntorebuild note;townof,takenbyCrusaders, it,iv. , 77,78sq!t. ; Churchof the 3o8; surprisedby Saladin,309; HolyVirginat, vii. , 56; city of, lostbythe Frank%3=4. described,iv. , 74, 75; spoilsof

300 INDEX templeat, taken from Rometo Joannites,or followersof Chrysostom, Carthage,vi. , 90; takenby Chos- v. ,3x7note. toes, viii. , 89; Monophysitetu- Joasaph,monkof MountAthos,xi. , mults at, x6i; taken by the H7. Saracens,ix. , x6osg_. ; Omar s Job,bookof,ix. ,43andnote. mosqueat, x6u and note; con- Jodelle,xi. , _9xnote. queredbythe Turks,x. , r74, r82 JohannesGrant,Germanengineer,at s_. ; sacrilegeoftheHolySepulchre siege of Constantinople,xii. , 35 at, x87; miraculousflamein the note. Holy Sepulchre,z84 and note; JohnAngelus,Emperorof Salonica,xi. , besiegedby Afdal,252; by the 33note. Crusaders,:54sqq. ; populationof, John AsenH. , see Calo-Johnof Bul255note;watersupplyof,lb. note; garia. St. Stephen sGateat, 256; tower JohnAsenIV. of Bulgaria,xi. ,86note. of Psephinaincitadelof,257note; John Bermudez,viii. , 2ix note. Assiseof, a64sqq. ; principalityof, John, Bishop of Antioch,important a66note; Christiansof. despoiled authorityon deathsof Aetiusand bySaladin,295; takenbySaladin, Valenfinian,vi. , 8x note; sum3oxs¢. ; mosqueof Omar at, 3o3; moned to the first Councilof RichardI. near,3o9andnote. Ephesus,vii/. , z46; reconciledto Jesuits,missionof, in Abyssinia,viii. , Cyril,x48-9. 2I_sgq. ; expulsionof, 233-4. John, Bishop of Asia, see John of Jews,rebellionof,underHadrian,i. , to Ephesus. note;characterof,ii. ,263sq. ;zeal ] ohnBoivin,xi. , 32note. of,264sqq. ; underthe AsmonaeanJohn,brotherof Pappus,magistermiliprinces,288; crueltiesof, iii. , 3; turn of Africa,heroof Cor/ppus, underNero, 22; of Alexandria, vi/. ,238note. 340; Julian s letterto, iv. , 73and John,brotherof Paulof Samosata,x. , note; synagogueof, destroyedat 4note. Calliuicum,v. , 53and note;con- John Comnenus,or Calo-Johannes, versionof, at Minorca,xo3note; Emperorof Constantinople,viii. , exemption of, from municipal 289s_. ofl _Ces,340note;pex_cutJonof,in John, Count, lover of Eudoxia, v. , Spain,vi. , 205s_. ; persecutedby 3x8. the Italians,333; by Heracllus,John, Countof Nevers,his crusade viii. , x2o; theirbeliefin immor- againstthe Turks, xi. , x72 sq. ; tality, t_6; persecutionof, by taken prisoner, x73; ransomed, Cyrilof Alexandria,I37-8; perse- x74,243. cuted by Justinian, zTx Sfl. ; in John Damascenus,worksof, on iraArabia,ix. ,27 SOl. ;assistthe Sara- ages,viii. , 319note,322; l_feOf, censinSpain,2x5; massacreof,by ib. note. first Crusaders,x. , 2to-xt; pay Johnd Ibelin,compilesAssiseof JerutributeatRomein fourteenthcon- salem,x. , 265and note,266note. tury,xii. ,204note. lohnDueas,Caesar,x. ,x67note. JeaAegexd,seeYezdegerd. John,Dukeof Trebizond,xi. , xxnote. Jirjir[PrefectGregoryJ,ix. , 193note. John Eladas,regentfor Constantine Joan, Pope, vii/. , 377 note, 378 VII. ,viii. ,264note. note. John,Emperorofthe East,Iberia,and Joan,sisterof RichardI. of England, Peratea,xi. , xt note. x. ,3H. JohnGeometres,x. ,35note. Joannlna,daughterof Belisaxiosand John,grandsonof John Vataces,xi. , Antonina,vii. ,a6o. 33(Lascaris),minorityof, 59;not Joannina,fortifiedbyStephenDushan, crowned,65; blinded and banxi. , xto no_e. ished,68$_.

INDEX 3oi JohnI. , Pope,sent by Theodoricto 26t; residesat Ferrara,263;marConstantinople,vi. , 334. ties Princessof Trebizond,252; JohnVII. ,GreekPope,xii. ,,65 note. dateof his association,293note; JohnXI. ,Pope,viii. ,378andno/e,38,. wallof,xii. ,20note. JohnXII. ,Pope,viii. ,378; disgraceof, John,PatriarchofAlexandria(theM,_38t. giver),receivesfugitivesfromPalesJohnXXII. ,Pope,wealthof, xi. , 253 fine, viii. , 9o; Life of, /b. note; note; depositionof, xii. , _o6; ex- givesmoneyto Heraclius,99and hortedby Petrarch,x56; said to note;accountof,204andnote. haveintroducedtriple crown,:58 JohnPhiloponus,his intercoursewith note. Amrou,viii. , x83; worksof, _. JohnXXIII. ,Pope,xii. , x65; impris- note. oned,*66. [ohn,St. ,Christiansof,at Bassora,ix. , Johnof Apri,Patriarchof Constanti- 27andnote. nople,xi. , xoT; deposed,x2o. John,St. ,of Jerusalem,hospitalof,x. , Johnof Biclar,historianof the Visi- *84; knightsof, see Hospitallers. goths,vi. ,265note. [ohn,St. ,theEvangelist,iii. ,34z and JohnofBrienne,KingofJerusalem,xi. , note;gospelof,342*tote;appear25; Emperorof Constantinople, anceof,toTheodosius,v. ,64trlote. 26; defendsConstantinoplefrom John,son of Isaac the Sebastocrator, Vataces,/b. ;becomesamonk,28. apostacyof,viii. ,294. Johnof Cappadocia,ministerof Ju. _: John,sonof Sisiniolus,vii. ,238note. tinian,vii. , 26; disgraceandexile John,son of Vitalian,generalof Jusof,48; opposesthe Africanexpe- tinian, vii. , 284 note; marries dition,87; suppliesbad foodfor daughterof Gcrmanus,25onote. thearmy,95; povertyof,287note. i Johnthe Armenian,generalof BelisaJohnof Ephesus,onTheodora,vii. , x61 flus,vii. ,99. note;onspeechof JustinII. ,via. ,John,theDeacon,onGregoryI. , viii. , 20note. 42note. John,officerof Basiliscus,vi. , *29. John,theeunuch,brotherof Michael Johnof Gorz,embassyof,to Cordova, IV. , viii. ,277. ix. , 232note. John,the Exarch,x. ,32note. JohnofLycopolis,v. ,62andnote. JohntheFaster,PatriarchofConstantiJohnofNikiu,chronicleof,ix. ,ix7note, nople,viii. ,44. x85no/e. John, the prefect,expeditionagainst JohnofProcida,accountof,xi. , 8t sq. theArabs,ix. , 203. JohnofRavenna,pupilofPetrarch,xi. , John, the pflmicerius,embassyto 282. Alaric,v. ,228; usurpedthethrone Johnof Salisbury,on slavery,vi. , 252 ofHonorius,337; death,338. note;onpapalavaflce,xii. ,73note. John the Sanguinary,vii. , *52; beJohnPala_logusI. , emperor,reign,xi. , siegesRimini,x54; takes Viti_ges xo4; marriesdaughterof Canta- prisoner,x64note. cuzene,xx4;takesuparmsagainst JohnTzimisces,seeZimisces. Cantacuzene,xx6; enters Con-IJohnVlaxtislav,Bulgarianruler,x. ,35 staminople,ix7; weaknessof,t75 note. sq. ;imprisonmentandescape,x76; Johnson,Dr. , his Irene,xii. , ,6 note, death of, x77; pays tribute to 37note. AmurathII. , 225; treatywithIn- oinville,the historian,descriptionof nocentVI. , 238 ; hisvisitto Ur- Greekfire,ix. , 250; in the East, banV. ,239;in Venice,24I. ]L,3x9andnote. JohnPMmologusII. ,associatedin the Jonas,Bishopof Orleans,vi. ,252note. empire,xi. , 250; reign,252sqq. ; Jonasof Damascus,ix. , x49. embarksinthePope sgalleys,256; Jones,Sir William,vii. , 37° note;his entersVenice,26o; entersFerrara, sevenpoemsof the Caaba,ix. ,

302 INDEX 2o note; on Asiaticpoetry,277IJovius,titleof Diocletian,ii. , 148. note. [Jubilee,or HolyYear,institutionof, Jordan,John Christopherde, on the] Jdi. ,xxx; descriptionof first,zz2 Sclavonians,x. , 29note. _ andnote;second,113-4. Jordan,onRome,xii. , 182note. ]JudastheGaulonite,iii. ,23andnote. Jornandes,ii. , 4 and note, 2t note;| Jude,St. ,grandsonsof,iii. ,25andnote. accountof Alaric,v. , I47 note;]Judex,Visigothicrifle,iv. ,24Sandnote. accountof Placidia,258,259and| Judgmentsof God,amongthe Franks, note; descriptionof CatalaunianI vi. , 245st. andnotes. fields,vi. , 59; suppressesthe de- Judicialcombats,vi. , 246 sq. ; cstabfeatof the VkqigothsbyMajorian, lishedbyGundobaid,247note;in xro. kingdomof Jerusalem,x. ,266sq. ; Jortin,Dr. ,iii. ,355note. prohibitedby MichaelVIII. , xi. Joseph, ancestorof the Zeifldes,x. , 63; inFranceandEngland,64and z3z. notes. Josephof Arimathea,St. , missionof Judicialprocedure,vii. ,383s_. xii. , 166note. Jfljl,seeToushi. Joseph, Patriarch of Constantinople,JuliaDomna,i. , zSx, 163,x69; death, pardonsEmperorMichael,xi. , 7I; 181. withdrawstoa monastery,75. JuliaM_qa,i. , 82. Joseph,Paulicianleader,x. , 4 note. Julian,anteces. _rof Constantinople, Josephthe Caxizmian,opposesMalek ix. ,365note. Shah,x. , xTz. Julian,Cardinal,at Councilof FlorJoseph, the patriarch,accompanies enee,xi. ,265; legate,3o5; account JohnPalmologusto Italy,xi. , 258; of, 312;deathof,atVarna,313. death,266. Julian,Count,generalofthe Goths,in Josephs,the,of Amida,Nestoriansect, Africa,ix. , 208; invitestheMoors viii. ,191. and ArabsintoSpain,21o; castle Josephus,i. , 9z note;ii. , 264note;on andtownof,212andnole;advises Christ,iii. ,2onote. the Saracens, 214; entertains Josephus,thefalse,iii. ,5note. Musa,217; death,223. JoshuaStylites,vii. ,64note,69note. Julian,Emperor,hisCvesars,i. , 9° note, Joubert,POre,xii. , 88note. to7 note,124note;ii. , 63note,127 Jovian,iv. , 14I note; madeemperor, note,129note,i5o note; sparedby 155sq. ; campaignin Persia,158 Constantius,iii. , 226; education, sflfl. ; reign,173 sqq. ; universal ib. s_. note; sentto Milan,234; tolerationproclaimedby, 176; to Athens, 236; recalled,238; death,x79s_. madeCaesar,240; in Gaul, 261 Jovians,guardsof Diocletian,ii. , 182: Sqfl. ;defeatstheAnemanni,a66s9. ; of Julian,iv. ,x4z; in Britain,229. subduesthe Franks,269; crosses Jovinian,v. , 149note. the Rhinethree rimes,27I sq. ; Jovinus,generalof Julian, iv. , x9; civil administrationof, 275 sq. ; besiegesAquileia,25, 27; defeats wintersat Paris, 277; Galliclethe Alamanni,2z4 $_. ; consul, gionsorderedto the East, iv. , 3 215. sq. ; proclaimedemperor,7 sqq. ; Jovlnus, tyrant, dec. lv. redemperor dreamsof, 1o and note;embassy atMentz,v. , 269;death,27o, to Constanrius,z2; crossesthe Jovius,quaestorof Julian,iv. , z9. Rhine,z3; preparationsfor war, Jovins,Pr_torianprefectunderHono- 17; marches into Inyricum,I9 flus, made emperorby the eu- agq. ;entersSirmium,21;epistles nuchs,v. , 232; his treatywith of,23andnote;besiegesAquileia, AlarJc,234; desertsHonorius,239. 25; enters Constantinople,27; Jovins,sent by Theodosiusto close civilgovernmentof, 28sqq. ;date pagantemples,v. ,8z. of his birth,D. note; worksd,

INDEX 303 3x; reformsthe palace,/b. ; and Jurisprudence,Roman,vii. , 3oxsqq. ; thechamberof justice,34; clem- abusesofcivil,387st. encyof, 38; protectsthe GrecianJurj_. n,territoryof, subduedby the cities,4x; as an oratorandjudge, Saracens,ix. , i32 note. 42 sq. ; characterof, 44, 45; Jus,Latinum,i. ,46andnote;relationis, paganismof, 46 sqq. ; education, ii. ,xx5 note;Italicum,iii. ,lxoand 48 sq. ; fanaticismof, 58; uni- note;Papirianum,vii. ,304note. versa1tolerationof, 6o; writes Justin,generalof Justinian,vii. , 245 againsttheChristians,/b. andnote; note. restorespaganism,63; edictagainst Justin1. ,elevationof, vii. ,3; crowns the Christians,84 andnote; con-i hisnephewJustinian,7; death,lb. demustheChristianstorestorethe Justin II. , nephewof Justinian,repagantemples, 87; Misopogon, ceivesTurkish embassy,vii. , x92 xx4and notes; marchof, to the note; elevationof, to the empire, Euphrates,xx7sqq. ; Persiancam- viii. ,2; consulshipof,3; receives paign,xa9 sgq. ; invasionof As- embassyoftheAvars,ib. sq. ;abansyria, x29; takes Perisabor,/b. , donstheGepid_e,9; weaknessof, and Maogamalcha,x3r; crosses x8sq. ; associatesTiberius,19-2o; the Tigris, x37; refusesto treat speeehof,2oandnote;reign,a. -zx; withSapor,I4x; burnshis fleet, death,2x; warwithPersia,52. x44; retreatof, x48; death, xSa; Justin Martyr,ii. , 274; dialogueof, funeral,xTx;accountof Da. nla. s- 274note,290;onspreadof Chriscus,ix. , z4onote. tianity,340note; studiedGreek Julian,firstofthenotaries,inthe Gothic philosophy,343; ontheEbionites, camp,v. ,238. 342andnote. Julianof Halicarnassus,viii. ,x77note; Justina,Aviana,wifeofValentinianI. , convertedthe Armenians,200and iv. , 256andnote;Arianismof,v. , note. 3x; summonsAmbrosetothecounJulian,Salvius,Roman lawyer, vii. , cil, 32; causesan edictin favour 3_2,326. oftheArians,34; flighttoAqnileia, Julian,tutelarsaintof Auvergne,sane- 38; death,57. tuaryof, vi. , xox; accountof, by JustinianI. , Emperor,onthemiracleof Gregoryof Tours,ib. note; sepul- Tipasa,vi. , 2oo note;ratifiesthe chreof,atBrioude,257. establishmentof the FrenchmonJulian,tyrant,ii. , x6x,x62andnote. archy,236; birthand education, Julianus,Claudius,consul,i. , 238. vii. , i st. andnote; namesof, lb. Julianus,Didius,purchasesthe empire, note; becomesemperor,3; mari. ,x36;reign,_37sg_l. ;distressof, riesTheodora,x3sq. ; favoursthe x44andnote,x45; death,x46. bluefaction,2o;celebratestheides Julianus,M. Aurelius,tyrantof Pan- of January,23; Nikariotanddisnonia,ii. , _42note. tressof Justinian,25; state ofthe Julin,cityof,x. ,55- revenueunder,40; avariceof,ib. ; JuliusAfricanus,ii. , 343; vii. ,83note. remittancesand taxes under, 42 JuliusC_. sar,ii. , x79note. sqq. ; coinageof, 44and note;veJuliusII. , Pope,xii. ,x76; munificence nalityatthe courtof,/b. ;ministers of,2iu. of, 46; edificesof, and architects, Julius,master-general,massacreof the 48sqq. ; restoresSt. Sophia,52; Gothsin Asiaby, iv. , 32o. builds churches and palaces JuliusSolon,i. , xx5 note. throughoutthe empire,56sqq. ; Jumelpur,diamondmineat,i. , 7onote. his fortificationsin Europeand Junghans,Historyof Childericand Asia, 58 sqg. ; suppressesthe Chlodovech,vi. , 2x2note. schoolsofAthens,73;andconSUlJupiter,Urius,templeof,iii. ,92. shipof Rome,8x; resolvesto inJuriscousults,iii. ,_33note; vii. , 3x9. vadeAfrica,84; peacewithPersia, I I

3o4 INDEX 85; fleetof, 94andnote; invadesKaifong,residenceof the ChineseeraAfrica,95sq. ; hisgeneralsinItaly, peror,xi. , I4x. x32sqq. ;makespeacewithVitiges,Kainoka,Jewishtribe of the, ix. , 69 _62; weaknessof his empire,I74 andnote. s_q. ; alliancewiththe Avaxs,x9x Kairawgn,seeCairoan. sg. ; Lazicwar,225sqg. ; negotia-K_kwayhids,dynastyof the, ix. , 305 tions with Nushirvan,_28 sqft. ; note. his jurisprudencein the West, KaliiahandDimnah,vii. ,203note. 28z; deathand characterof, 288 Kalligas,on Councilof Florence,a£, sqq. ; statueof, 290; Code,Pan- 27xnote. dects,and Institutesof, 3oi and Knmhl, Emperor,iv. , 269note. note,3a9sqq. ;legalinconstancyof, K$. mil(Mohammad),Sultan,x. , 3x7 336sq. ; lawof,oninheritanceof, andnote. 363andnote;generalcriticismon Kamtchatka,vii. , 388. legislationof, 387sq. ; death of, Kandah_r,taken by the Moslems, viii. ,x;Persianwaxof,54;theolog- ix. , x32note. icalcharacterandgovernmentof, Kaoti,Emperorof China,iv. , 277and z68sqq. ; persecuteshereticsand note. pagans,x7o;the JewsandSamari-Kaxacorum,residenceof the succestans, XTZ-2; his orthodoxy,x73 sorsofZingis,vi. , 28note. sqq. ; heresyof, x76sq. ; eques-Karg-Khitay,tribeof Turks, xi. , x35 trianstatueof, at Constantinople, note; kingdomof, conqueredby xi. , 295and note. Zingis,i37 note. JustinianII. , Emperor,viii. ,227; mu- Karfisi,ancientMysia,conqueredby tilationandexileof, 228-9; takes Orchan,xi. , x59note. refugewiththeChozars,229;allies Kaz-s,cededto the empire,x. , x62 himselfwith the Bulgarians,a3o; note. besiegesConstantinople,ib. ; resto- KS. shgar,Chinesegarrisonat, ii. , i67 rationand death,lb. s¢g. ; his note; khansof, invadeTransoxtreatmentof Ravenna,232 note; iana, xi. , x83; peopleof, called persecutesthe Paulicians,x. , xi; Uzbegs,/b. note;kingdomof,subhistreatmentof Leonfiusand As- duedbyTimour,x87. pimar,i68 note. Kfisimpasha,Bayof, xii. , 33note. Justinian,generalof Honorins,v. , Kastamuniy_. ,principalityof,coaquered x79. bythe Turks,xi. , x6onote. Justinian,Romanadvocate,v. , x86. Kastoria,fortifiedby StephenDnqhan, Justinian,sonof Oermanus,commands xi. , Honote. the Easternarmy,viii. ,22sq. KataXankatad, Moses, Armenian JustinianaPrima,seeTauresium. writer,viii. , zo6note. JustinianaSecunda,see Ulpiana. Katona,Stephen,x. ,36note. Jgstiniani Vita of Theophilns,vii. , x Kazgan,Emirof Traasoxiana,xi. , i82 note. note. Jnstiniani,John,seeGiustinianL Keating,Dr. ,Historyof Ireland,i. , 278 Jnstus,theapostatePaulician,x. ,xo. note. Jutes,in Kent,vi. ,27L Keblaof prayer,ix. , 69. Juthungi,ii. ,75note,76note,77note. Kekaumenos,Strategikonof, x. , 35 Juvenal,i. , 39note,67note; hissatires rote. readby theRomans,v. , 214; on Kendc,conquestsof,vL,274. thehardshipsofthe Ixmrin Rome, Keraites,khansofthe,xJ. ,x3oandnote; 224andnote. accountof, /b. Juventins,prefect,iv. ,2to. Kerak,lordshipof, x. , 266note; fortressof, a99. K. _gRS,a Khazaxpeople,x. , 49note. Kerbela,pL=dnof, Hoseinsurrounded KaMna,seeCahina. in,ix. , zoa.

INDEX 3o5 Kerboga,Princeof Mosul,x. , 245sq. ; note;Seljuldandynastyof,x. ,r76 twenty-eightemirsof, 252-3. andnote. Kerman,seeKirm_n. KialarAga,protectsthe Athenians,xi. , Kermiyan(WesternPhrygia),seeGher- 93. mian. Kiss,on JohnHuniades,rd. ,3x4note. Khalllpasha,seeCaliL Kiuperli,grandvizier,xi. , 2_6note. Khaiil,Sultan,takesAcre,x. ,325. Klette,T. , on Philelphus,xi. , 272 Khan,or Cagan,iv. ,270andnote;title note. of Shelun,v. , x65andnote;great Klokotnitza,battleof, xi. ,26note. KhanoftheTurks,invadesPersia, Knez,titleof Bulgarianrulers,x. , 34 viii. ,57. note. Khazars,seeChozars. Knight,Dr. ,his Lifeof Erasmus,xi. , Khedar(Khidr) Khan, x. , x74 and 290note. note. Knighthood,x. ,220s_q. Khitans,revoltof,onChinesefrontier,Knolles,historian,hisHistoryofthe xi. ,_36. Turks,xi. , x57note. Khondemir,abridgesHistoryof Mir- Koba,townnearMedina,Mahometat, chond,ix. ,228note. ix. , 60. Khoten,Chinesegarrison,ix. , z3o. Kobad,grandsonof the Persianking, Khubil_y,seeCublai. commandsthe Persiansagainst Khur_azAn,conquestof, by Ahnafibn Totila,vii. ,266; origin,lb. note. Kais,ix. , _26note; Magiansin, Koraidha,Jewishtribeot,ix. , 69note, 228; conqueredby Mongols,xi. , 70. x38. Koran,the,viii. ,3t6; chapterof,called Kh0zis_n,conquestof,bytheMoslems the Elephant,ix. , 3° note; chapofKufa,ix. , x26note, ters of, cailed Suras, 33 note, Kiealong,poet,iv. , 269no/_. origin of, 4x; editionsof, 42sq. Kiev,seeKiow. andnote;versionsof the,53note; Kilidjc(Kilij),A_mlkn,II. , hisdealings tenetsof predestinationin,65. withthe Crusaders,x. , 283note. Koreishites,Arabian tribe of, ix. , 9; Kilidje(Kilij),ArsOn,SultanofRoum, sceptretransferredto, 35; acquire seeSoliman,sonof Cutulmish. custodyof the Caaba,a4; MahoKin,dynastyin China,xi. , x35note. met sprungfromthe, 29; deliver Kinnisrin,seeChalcis. Meccafromthe Abyssinians,30; Kinnoge,cityof, Mob. mildat, x. , I49 persecuteMahomet,56sqq. ; inandnote. terdictof, 57; defeatedbyMahoKiotahia,Timourplantshis standard met at Bedr,66-7; defeatMahoat,xi. ,202. metat Ohud,68. Kiow(Kiev),Andronicusat, viii. ,297; Kosho-Tsaidam,Lake,TurkishinscripOleg at, x. , 52 note; capitalof tion foundnear, ix. , 333note. Russia,54and note; Churchof Kosovo-polje,battle of, betweenthe St. Sophiaat, 73andnote; crypt Slavsand Ottomans,xi. , x68note. monasteryat, /b. nole; destroyedKrumbacher,onIcasia,viii. , 252note. bytheTartars,xi. , x46. KudatkerBilik,or Artof Government, Kipzak,Plain of, B_x_defeats the x. ,x75note. Cossacksin the,xi. , x46andnote; Kul,Turk,inscriptionto, ix. ,x33note. Conqueredby Timour, x87-8; Kunoviza,battleof,xi. , 306. Western Kipzak,conqueredby Kurikan,Turkishclan,xi. , x82note. B_tfi,x87note. Kusdgr,conqueredbySubuktigin,x. , KirghizKazaks,Siberian tribe, xi. , x48note. See Cosdar. z87note. Kuseila,Berberchief,ix. , ao2note. Kirm_m,in Persia,conqueredby the Kussai,seeCosa. Arabs,ix. , x26note;survivalofthe Khstendil,vii. ,6onote. religionof the Magiin, 229emd Kutaieh,seeCoty_eum. VOL. XII. -- 20

3o6 INDEX Kutritzakes,one of the _olunletrsof I,and-tax,underConstantine,iii. , x58 Alexius Strategopoulus,xi. , 36 andnote. note. Lane-Poole,S. , Studiesin a Mosque, Kuyuk,seeGayuk. ix. , Io4sg. note,x38note;Lifeof Saladin,x. , 294note. L,_/flitY_,orstandardof theCross,iiL, La_rane,Archbishopof Canterbury, 294sqq. andnotes;nameof Christ correctstextof theBible,vi. , x98 exudedfrom,byJulian,iv. ,72;dis- nole. playedbyJovian,x74. Langl6s,M. , his Lifeof Timour,xi. , Labat, P_re,his descriptionof towns z8i note. nearRome,xii. ,xoxnote; onthe Langres,battleof,ii. , x59; bishopsof, curseof Anagni,io9 note. vi. , 226note. Labeo,Antistius,vii. ,320,324,andnote, Languantan,Moorishtribe, vii. , 240 325. note. I_beo, Q. ,commentariesof theTwelveLanguedoe,seeSeptimania. Tables,vii. ,37xnote. Laod/cea,inAsiaMinor,i. ,63; council Laconians,Free,ix. ,325_g. of, ii. , 29t note; FredericBarbaLa Croze,viii. ,144note. l os. _aat,x. ,279. Lactantius,iL, _45note,x9onote,29o Laodiceain Syria,Antiochsubjectto, and note; his Institutes,iii. , 279 v. ,48 and note; Saracensat,ix. , andnotes;vii. ,337note;hisChris- z$oandnote,x63note; takenby tianity,iii. , 303 note; on images, theSaracens,J68; bySultanSoliviii. ,3xonote. man,x. , tSi; lostby theFranks, Lactarius,Mount,vii. , 273andnote. 324. Ladislaus,KingofNaples,xii. ,162,x64. Laplanders,x. ,39sq. Larli_]aLL_, King OfPolandandHun- Lardnex,Dr. ,Credibility,v. , 26 twte. gary,x. i. ,305 andnote; marches La_,-issa,capturedbythe Bulgarians,x. , againsttheTurks,306; concludes 35 note; besiegedby Bohemond, peaceof Szegedin,307; deathof, x2o. at Varna,3zz. Lascaris,Constantine,Greekgrammar l. _ta, daughterofProba,v. ,249. of,xi. ,290note. Lmta,widowof the EmperorGratian, Lascaris,James, Greek grammarian, generosityof,tothe poorin Rome,i xi. ,. ,85sg. andnote; foundsGreek v. ,226and*wte, collegesof Romeand Paris,ib. , Lmti,Gallictribe,vi. ,58andnote. note;bringsMSS. fromthe East L_etus,Mmcius,i. , 159note. forLorenzode Medicio,289. lmetus,Praetorianprefectof Commo- Lascaris,John,grandsonof Vataces, dus,i. , x22ag. ,i35. seeJohn. Iaigodius,opposesthe usurperCon- Lascaris,TheodoreI. , seeTheodore. stantine,v. , x8oandnote. Lascaris,TheodoreII. , see Theodore. Lahore,city of, takenby Sultanof Latifundia,viii. ,265note. Gazna,x. ,zSo. Latimer,xi. ,29onote. Laity,orderof,iii. ,3r3. Latin Christians,indifferenceof, iii. , Lambesa,ruinsof,vii. , 120. 36x,362; influencedbyVaiensand Lampadius,Romansenator,v. , x8 Uma_ius,362andnote;Churchof, andnote. distractedbyschism,xi. , 244. Lamus,river,ix. , 294note. LatinlanguageintheRomanprovinces, Lancearii,iv. , 3x3. i. , 46,47andnote; officialuseof, Landani,R. , on Rome,xii. ,x82note; 49; oblivionofthe,ix. ,364sq. planof Rome,2x2note. Latins,nameof the Franks,ix. , 360. Lancisi,Romanphysician,on popula-Latium,rightof,i. ,46andnote. tionof Rome,x//. ,x98note. Latronian, thepoet,executionof,v. ,27Land questionin tenth century,vii/. , Langier,Abb_,Historyof Venice,x. , 263note;273note. 347_te.

INDEX 307 Laura,of Easternmonasteries,vi. , 158 vertsHermenegild,vi. , 202; goes note,176. to Byzantium,/b. Laurede Noves,xii. ,124andnote,126 Lebanon,cedarsof,builtthechurchat andnote. Jerusalem,vii. , 57. Laurence,competitorfor bishopricof Le Beau,onimages,viii. ,35° note. Rome,vi. ,33I. Lebedev,Professor,Historyof Greek Laurence,deacon,ii. ,320. ChurchunderTurks,xii. , 55note. Lavardin,Marquisde, xii. ,179note. Lebedias,refusesHungariansceptre, Law,studyof,iii. ,13os_g. ; Romanor x. , 38. civil law, vii. , 8o1 sgq. ;Twelve Lechfeld,battleof the,x. ,47. Tablesof, 305sqq. ; of the pew Lechi(=Poles),mentionedbyCinnaple,309sq_. ; of the Senate,31o; mus,x. ,277note. edictsof the emperors,313 sqq. ; Leclerc, ecclesiasticalhistorian, ii. , royallaw,314andnote; formsof, 272note,277note;viii. ,122note; 316sq. ; threeperiodsofcivillaw, ix. , 183note. 318sqq. ;legalsectsin Rome,324 Legacyduty,i. , 2o8,2o9; reducedby _qq. ; reformof Roman law by Tiberius,209note;by Macrinus, Justinian,326; loss of ancient 2x2note. Romanlaw, 333 sg. ; statutesof Legacyhunters,i. , 2xo; viii. ,2r3. Draco,372; criminallaws,/b,sqq. ;;Legibussolu:us,vii. , 313andnote. abolitionof penallaws,375. Legion,Roman,description,i. , x3 sqq. ; Laws:-- stipend increasedby Domitian, Aquilian,vii. ,371andnote. x3 note; revoltof, under Alex. Caninian,ii. , 1o8note. Severus,199;underMaximin,233 Cornelian,vii. , 31o,344 note, 345, andnote;reductionof,byConstan377. tine,iii. ,138; degenerationof, v. , Julian,vii. ,3Io,377,379note. 69; Jovian,Herculian,andAugusOf Citations,vii. , 326. tan,i3o; twentieth,recalledfrom Pompeian,vii. , 31o,344 note, 377- Britain,15I. Porcian,vii. ,375. Legrand,hisBiographieHell_ique,xL, Scatinian,vii. ,380andnote. 275note. See I. e_xde imperioVespasiani(= Leibnitz,xi. ,41note. regia). Leman,Lake,Alemanniat, vi. ,_17. Valerian,vii. ,375. Lemberg,or Leopold,Seeof, xi. , 299 Voconian,vii. ,36i andnote,365. note. Lawyers,Roman,series of, vii. , 318 Lemnos,Isleof,takenbytheVenetians, sqq. ; their philosophy,321 sq. ; xi. , 5 note; DemetriusPal_eoloauthorityof,322. gus,lordof,xii. , 58. Laymen,ii. , 314note,318sq. Lenfant,M. ,historianof thecouncils, Lazarus,Kralof Servia,conqueredthe xi. ,253note,167note. Ottomans,xi. , 168note. Lentienses,tribeof,iv. , 307. Lazarus,the painter,persecuted,viii. , Lentz,E. , onrelationsof Venicewith 353note. theempire,x. ,345note. Lazi,tribeof,vii. ,2noandnote;solicit Leo Africanus,geographyof, ix. , x93 friendshipof Chosroes,22i sq. ;re- note; on tribesof Barbary,207 newalliancewith Justinian,223; note. their war with Persia,225 sqq. ; Leo,Allatlus,xi. , 32note. deathofthe Lazicking,227; serve Leo,Archbishopof Ravenna,uzurpaasJanizaries,xii. ,59note. tionsof, viii. ,347note. Lazica,war forthe possessionof, vii. , Leo,Archbishopof The_alonica,ix. , 25,2x3 note; descriptionof, see 368. Colchos. Leo,brotherof John Zimisces,viii. , LeanderandHero,seeHero. 271. Leander,Archbishopof Seville,con- LeoDiaconus,historian,ix. ,313note.

308 INDEX Leo Gabalas,takesIsland of Rhodes, Leo X. , Pope,xii. , x76; munificence ix. ,290note. of,ai2. Leo, generalof Eutropius,opposesLeo of Tripolis,attacksThessaloaica, Tribigild,v. , 3oo. viii. ,25znote. Leo I. , of Thrace,Emperor,vi. , x2o; Leo Pilatns,firstprofessorof Greekat opposesA. spar,x2x; electsAnthe- Florence,xi. , 279s_. ; histranslamitts Emperorof the West, /b. ; tiouof Homer,28xnote. sendsnavalarmamentagainstthe LeoSguros,of Nauplia,xi. ,7 note. Vandals,z27 sq. ; cost of arma- Leo,slaveof the Bishopof Langres, merit,/b,andnote; connivesat the vi. , 258sq. electionof Olybrius,x39andnote; Leo,son of BardasPhocas,viii. ,a67 murdersAspar,302. note. Leo III. , the Isaurian,Emperor,viii. LeotheJew,foundsfamilyofthe Pier234; originandbirthplaceof, 235 leoni,xii. ,ix5sq. note; valour of, /-b. ; abolishesLeoTornikios,revoltof,viii. ,278note. images,3x8 sg_. ; quarrelswith LeonardAretin,see Aretinns. PopeGregory,329-3o; revoltof LeonardusChiensis,on siegeof ConItaly from,33o sq. ; defendsCon- stantinople,xii. ,6 note;oncannon stantinopleagainst the Saracens, of Mahomet,I4 note,x9 note;on ix. , 43sqq. Giustiniani,4xnote,42note. Leo IV. , Emperor,viii. ,238; religiousLeonas,the quaestor,iv. , x6. opinionsof, 35o. Leontia,wifeofPhocas,viii. ,8x. LeoV. ,theArmenian,Emperor,proph- Leoatini,taken by the Saracens,ix. . ecy concerning,viii. , 245; reign, 285note. a46; death, 248; opposesimage Leontius,Athenian sophist,fatherof worship,352; persecutesthePauli- Eudocia,v. ,326. cians, x. , H; defeats the Bul- Leontius,BishopofNeapolisinCyprus, gariansat Mesembria,32andnote. Life of John the Almsgiver,viii. , LeoVI. ,thephilosopher,Emperor,viii. 2o4note. 26xsqq. ; marriages,263andnote; Leontius,Romangeneral,madegovTacticsof,ix. ,3x5andnote,355-6; ernor of Greeceby JustinianII. , absolutismof,35osq. ; date of his viii. ,228; assumesthepurple,/b. ; death,363note; encouragedlearn- death,23o. ing,369sq. Leopards,in possessionof BajazetSulLeoI. ,the Great,BishopofRome,era- tan,xi. , x75note. bassytoAttila,vi. , 72; character, Leopolis,foundationof, ix. , 29oand lb. note; mediateswithGenseric,i note. 89andnote;callsCouncilof Chal- Leovigild,GothicKing of Spain,recedon,viii. , i56; his epistle,lb. ; ligioustolerationof,vi. ,2ox. approvedbythe council,16o. Leptis,cityof, iv. , 23xsq. ; surrenders LeoIII. , Pope, electionof, viii. , 357; toBelisarius,vii. ,98; dukeof,no; assaulted and imprisoned,/b. ; massacreof Moorishdeputiesat, crownsCharlemagneinSt. Peter s, 24o. 358; on the fdioqu_question,x. , I-_bos, islandof,takenbyJohnVata329andnote. ces,xi. , 24and note;recoveredby Leo IV. , Pope, electionof, ix. , 287; John Cantacuzene,xo5; reduced victory and reign of, 288 sqg. ; byTurks,xii. ,46note. foundsLeoninecityin Rome,a9o. Lethe,castlesontheBosphorus,iii. ,93 LeoIX. ,Pope,hisleaguewiththe two note. empires,x. , 93; Lifeof,/b. note; Leti,Gregorio,his Lifeof SixtusV. , expeditionof, against the Nor- xii. , z78note. roans, 94; detained by them at Leucadia,Bishopof, ix. , 326. Beneventum,96note; death, /b. ; Leucothoe,or St. Cyprian,fair at, vi. , extantcoinof, aft. , 68note. 328note.

INDEX 309 Leuderis,Gothiccommanderin Rome, LiberCensuum,VaticanMS. ,x. , xoo vii. ,_37. note;:di. ,74note. LeunclaviusontheTurks,xi. ,x57note, LiberPontificalis,vii. , 254note; con208; his editionof Chalcondyles, tinuationof,x. ,x93note. 245note. Liberiaxta,Basilica,iv. ,axonote. Leutetia,ancientnameof Paris,see Liberius,Bishopof Rome,banishment Lutetia. of, iii. ,387sq. ; retracts,388; exLew/s,derivationof thename,vi. , 2xa puisionandrecall,398sq. note. Liberins,officerof Justinian,vii. , a63. LewisI. ,thePious,emperor,duelatAIX Liberins,Praetorianprefect,vi. ,323. la Chapellebefore,vi. , 247 note; Libertines,orfreedmen,i. , 50,5x;vii. , lawson falconry,viii. , 34 note; 339. donationof, 346note; associatedLibraxiesof Constantinopledestroyed, in the empire,370; receivesera- xii. , 5o. bassyfromCharlemagne,x. , 50; LibriCarolini,viii. ,354note. his donationto Hildegarde,xii. , Lihurniangalleys,i. , 23; mentionedby 80note. Zosimus,v. ,3o6note. LewisII. , son of Lewisthe Pious, Licinius, claimed relationshipwith associationof,viii. ,37o; reignedin Philip,i. , 245note; benefactorof Italy,37x; called"rex,"375;letter Tiridates,if. , x65;birth,/b. note; of, toBasilI. , x. , 78note; death, raised to the purple, 2x4 note, 78. 2t8; dividestheempire,223,249; LewisVII. ,seeLouisVII. alliancewith Constantine,240; LewisIX. ,seeLouisIX. warwithMaximin,/b. ;crueltyof, LewisofBavaria,emperor,excommuni- 247; warswith Constantine,246 cationof, viii. , 390; Senatorof sqq. ,a53,a54;defeatedatHadrianRome,xii. ,95; interferesin papal ople,255; death,259; persecutes election,xo6andnote;coronation the Christians,iii. ,29oandnote. of,xao. Licininsthe Younger,Czesax,ii. , 249 Lewisof Hungary,appealsto Rieazi, and note; deathof, iii. , 177and xii. ,738--9. note. LewistheChild,x. ,43. ,Liegnitz,battleof,betweenTartarsand Lex,seeLaws. Russians,xi. , 747andnote. Le. x de Imperio Vespasiani(Lex Lieutenants,imperial,i. ,8o. Regia),i. , 84note; vii. , 3z4note; Lightning,if. , x33andnote. discoveryof, xii. , 73o and Lignitz,battleof,seeLiegnitz. note. LigorinsPyrrhus,topographer,xii. ,2xa Libaninsthe Sophist,account of Ju- note. lian,iii. ,236note,iv. , x5 note;on Ligurians,i. , 26andnote. Julianas anorator,43; onhisre- Ligurinus,the poem,authorshipof, tiglon,59; on the restorationof xii. ,79note. paganism,65; account of, and Lilius,ambassadorof Phocas,viii. ,87. literaxycharacterof, :75 sq. and Lilybmum,fortressof, cededto the notes;remarksonJovian streat)-, Vandals,vii. ,x23; claimedbyBelix6aandnote,x66note;funeralora- satins,/. b. ;destroyedbytheSarationonValens,iv. ,375sq. ; praises cens,ix. , a84note. the moderationof Theodosius,v. , Limagne,plainof,vi. ,256. 94. Limborch,if. . 269note. Libanus,vii_a94andnote;topography Limigantes,Sarmatianslaves,iii. ,79o; of, ix. , x54and note; colonyof, treachery of, 248; exterminatedby aS. ,x43. Constantins,249. Libel,lawof,vii. ,374. Linacer,xi. ,29onote. Libellatici,iii. ,46note,54l_ot_. Lincoln,Romancolony,i. , 45note. Libdli,iii. ,54note. Lintax,nameforLeith,x. ,2xxnote.

3io INDEX Lions,African,L, xI9 note. v_. ,x7;,;originof,/$, note;subLipari,Isleof, Attalusbanishedto, v. , duethe Gepida_,x79;destroytheir 27i ; volcanoof,vi. , 344andnote. kingdomunderAlboin,viii. ,7sq. ; ]Lifts,or Garigliano,river,fleetof Van- relinquishtheirlandsto theAvars, daisandMoorsat, vi. , Io9. xz; conquerItaly,13sqq. ; kingLisbon,Saracensat,ix. ,224;silkmanu- domof the,30; descriptionof,3x factureat, ix. , 327. sqq. ;dressandmarriageof,34sq. ; IAssa,cityin Silesia,viii. ,73. introducethe chaseintoItaly,_. Lissus(Alessio),assemblyat, xi. , 3x8; andnote;governmentandlawsof, deathof Scanderbegat, 32o. 37sg. ; attackRome,335sq. ; deLitarbe,iv. , xI7note. featof, underAstolphus,338--9. Literature,intheRomanEmpire,i. , x2, Lombardy,viii. ,z3; ravagedbyAttila, T3; declineof,ib. ; Byzantine,ix. , vi. , 68; kingdomof,underAlboin, 314sgg. ; 369sqq. viii. ,5 sqg. ; destroyedby CharleLithuania,conversionof,x. ,7=. magne,365; Greekprovinceof, Liticiani,Gallictribe,vi. , 58note. x. ,79. Litorius,Count,relievesNarbonne,vi. , London,Roman colony,i. , 45 note; 46; attacksToulouse,/b. AUectusat,ii. ,z57. Liturgy,Roman,of GregoryL, viii. , Long/nns,Exarchof Ravenna,viii. ,ii 44andnote. andnote; loverof Rosamund,z7. Liturnum,countryhouseof the elder Long/nus,tutorof Zenobia,i. , 73and Sdpioat, vi. , x49and note. note; ii. , 84; death,92. Liutprand,Bishopof Cremona,viii. , Lonicerus,ChronicaTurdca o[, xii. , 334; on NicephorusPhocas,ix. , 6 note. 3o7note;embassyof,3z9andnote, Lopaxlium,LouisVII. at,x. , 28onote. 34aand note,348note. Lorca,surrenderedbyTheodemirtothe IAutprand,King of the Lombards, Saxacens,ix. , 2uo. conveysrelicsof St. Augustineto Loria,Rogerde,seeRoger. Pavia,vi/. , io8 note;viii. ,335and Lothaire,Dukeof the Alamanni,innote. vadesItaly,vii. ,275sq. ; deathof, Livy,onconstitutionalhistoryof Rome, 277and note. vii. , 3o3note;on libraryat Alex- LothaireI. , Emperor,constitutionof, andria,ix. , z84note. vi. , 24u note; associatedin the Lizios (M_-_os),Greekformfor liege-- empire, viii. , 370; kingdomof, man, xi. , zaoand note. 37o-z; ]_i. j II5 nole. Locri, or Santa Cyriaca,Barla_m,LothaireII. ,ix. ,247;opposesRogerof Bishopof, xi. , 278 note. Sicily,z. , z3o. Loerians,republicof,vii. ,3o6andnote. Lotharingia,or Lorraine,kingdomof, Logos,thePlatonic,iii. ,339; opinionof x. ,2x5note. Athanasiuson, 345and note; of Loughborough,Lord,z. , ¢68note. the Christians,34zsq. ; of Arius, Louis,Countof BloisandChartres,x. , 35Iandnote;oftheGregories,35x 343. _ole; representedby the sun, iv. , Louisle Gros,x. , a69note. 55andnote;opinionoftheDocetes Louis VII. , viii. , 3o5; rescuedby on, viii. ,x27; of Apollinaris,x33. Georgeof Sicily,x. ,x34; conducts Logothete,officeof, vii. ,246note; ix. , second crusade, 274 sqq. ; his 339andnote;of themilitarychest, maxchthroughAnatolia,_8osq. 339note; of the Dromos,i3. ; of andnote. theflocks,/b. LouisIX. ,ix. , 18xnote;refusesknightLollianus(Laelianus),tyrant,ii. ,5o,8z hoodto infidels,x. ,295nole;cr,_andnote. sades of, 318sqg. ; takesDamiLoll/usUrbicus,wallof,i. , a6no/e. etta, 319-ao;captivity,320; ranLombards,/i. , 8; adoptNicenefaith, sore of, 32x note; deathof, 322; vi. ,2o5; inNoricumandPannonia,[ generosityof, to Baldwin,xi. , 29

INDEX 311 and note; buysholy relicsfrom Ludi,Sarmatici,ii. , fix note;Gothici, Baldwin,31; lastcrusadeof,79. /b. SeeGames. LouisXIV. ,iv. ,7I note;sendsambas- Ludolph,Dukeof Saxony,viii. , 37x sadorto Rome,xii. , z79note. note. Lublin,cityof, destroyedbythe Mon- Ludolphns,_EthiopianHistoryof,vii. , g01S,xi. , 146. 23xnote. Lucan,i. , x48note; Pompeyof, viii. , LudovicusVires,vii. , 3x_note. 6_note. LugdunensisGailia,province,i. , _5. Lucania,ii. ,96; forestsof,v. , 2x8and Lugdunumor Lyons,i. , 25. note;Totilain,vii. ,256sqq. ; Bell- Lugo,campof Musaat,ix. ,2ai. sariusin,258. Luke,St. , bodyof, removedto ConLucanians,i. , 27. stantinople,v. ,98. Lucanus,Joh. Albinus,_i. , 63note. Lulon,fortressof,viii. ,254note. Lucar,Cyril, Protestantpatriarchof Lupereal, situationof the, vi. , z35 Constantinople,viii. , 2o7 note. note. LucasNotaras,DukeofConstantinople,Luperealia,festivalof,celebratedunder seeNotarns. Anthemius,vi. , x24sq. ; abolished LucasTudensis,Galliciandeacon,ix. , byPopeGelnsius,z25,x26note. 2o9note. Lupercals,confraternityof, v. ,73Lucca,siegeof,vii. ,275sq. ; monopolyLupicina,Empress(Euphemia),vii. ,I3. ofsilktradeat, ix. ,328;threehun- Lupicinus,general,iv. , 5 and note; dredtowersat, xii. , x99. imprisoned,x2; fightsforVaiens, Luccari,M. , vii. ,2 note. iv. , 19i; governorofThrace,295; Lucerne,artificialgrass,i. , 67. oppressestheGoths,ib. ; defeated Lucian,CountoftheEast,puttodeath bythem,299. byRufinus,v. , 1x4. Lupicinus,St. ,vi. ,217note. Lucian,eunuch,protectstheChristians,Lupus,Protospata,authorofChronicles iii. ,59- of Bari,x. ,92note. Lucian,martyr,iv. , 2o3 note. Lupus,St. ,of Troyes,vi. , 55; Lifeof, Lucian,Presbyterof Jerusalem,ex- ib. note. humesthe bodiesof the saints,v. , Lusatia,Wendsof,vii. , H7s_ . note. xooand note,xox. Lusignan,de,seeGuydeLusignan. Lucian,satirist,i. , 72note;PhilopatrisLusignanof Cyprus,hisgiftstoBajazet, ascribedto,ii. ,x3xnote;onChris- "Jr;. ,x74. tianityin Pontus,333- Lusitania,provinceof Spain,i. , 24; Luciferof Cagliari,iii. ,382note;exile, goldof, 2o5;Alaniin,v. , 273387; libelsof, 396note; iv. , ioo L_stai,officeof the,ix. , 338note. note. Lustralcontribution[lustraliscollatioor Lucilla,purchasesthe Bishopricof chrysargyron],iii. , I64. Carthage,lii. , 57note. Lutetia,ancientnameof Paris,fii. ,278 Lucilla,sisterof Commodus,i. , IH. note. Lucillianns,Count,iii. ,2o_; generalof Luther,doctrineof,x. ,2r. cavalryinIllyricum,iv. , 21; taken Luxuryof the Greekemperors,ix. , 33x prisoner,lb. ; death,r78. sqq. Lucius,Bishopof Alexandria,iv. , 205. Lycandus,battleof,viii. ,274note. LuciusII. , Pope,xii. , 76; appliesto Lycaonia,prmtorof, vii. , 65; people ConradIII. , 85note. of, /b. note. LuciusIIl. , Pope,xii. , 76and_wte. Lyceumof the Peripatetics,atAthenS, LucrineLake,v. ,2xxand note. vii. , 76. Lucullus,L,268note; villaof,vi. ,x49; Lychnidus,or Achrida,x, 28 and Augustulusbanishedto castleof, note;flightofAlexiusto,xi8. xsonote;othervillasof, rSxnote. Lycia,provinceof,degradedbyRuiinus, Ludewig,Lifeof Justimaa,vii. , _89 v. ,111. note,3oxnote. Lycophron,vii. ,306note.

312 INDEX Lycopolis,city of, v. , 62 and _t_; Macrianus,PHnceoftheAl_m_nni,iv. , Johnof,/b. _x9. Lycus,river,iii. , 93note; TheodosiusMacriniusDecianns,ii. , x6onote. fallsintothe,vi. ,36. MacrinusOpilius,i. , x76; reign,z77 Lydda,Crusadersat, x. , 254. sqq. ; death,x84; peacewiththe Lydius,theIsaurianrobber,i/. ,xx6note. Parthians,_63. Lydus,John,vii. , 28note. Macrobius,ii. ,282note;Saturnaliaof, Lygians,ii. ,xx8andnote. v. ,2I5 note;hisbeliefinthestars, Lyons,battle of, SevernsdefeatsAI- "_x6note. binus,i. , xSi; takenbyAurelian, Madayn,see CtesiphonandModain. ft. ,83; Magnentinsat,iii. ,2ao;as- Madras, Churchof St. Thomasnear, semblyofbishopsat, vi. ,a25; real- viii. ,x9xandnote. dence of Gtmdobald,ib. note; Mmcenas,i. , 4a note. takenbyClovis,226; bytheSara- Ma_cenas,a Praetoriansenator,i. , 239. cens,ix. , 253. M_onius,ti. , 85. Lysias,speechof, vii. ,376no/e. M_eotis,lake,v. ,289 note. Mw. sia,seeMc_sia. M. _RRA,capturedby Raymondand Ma. ffei,i. ,44note;ii. ,x37note,23znote, Bohemond,x. , 253note. 233note; historyof Venetia,vi. , Mabillononmonasticism,vi. , 166note. 69note,7onote; interviewbetween Macarius,commissionerin Africa,iii. , St. Leo and Attila, 73note; on 405andnote. dukesin Italy, vii. , 28onote; on Macarius,Patriarchof Antioch,con- amphitheatreS,xii. , 2o2 note. demnedby the third Councilof Magdeburg,sackof, iv. , 3x8note. Constantinople,viii. ,I8o. Magi,religionof,i. , 253sqq. ; council Macedonia,i. , 29; invaded by the of, 254; powerof, 258sq. ; spirit Goths, iL, 68; given to Eastern of persecutionof, 26o; predict Empire,iv. , 323; ravagedbythe birthof Sapor,ifi. ,196; restrained Hun. s, vi. , x3; Macedoniaso- by Constant/ne,3H; numberof, ¢unda,vii. ,59note. 3x8note;persecutethe Christians, l_acedonia,maidofAntonina,vii. ,x68. v. , 330; persecutethe churchesof Macedonians,sectof,iv. , 2o3; tenetsof Persarmenia,viii. , 52; persecute the,condemned,v. ,148andnote. in Persia,92; flyto Arabia,ix. ,27 MacedoniusI. , semi-ArianBishopof and note;astronomyofthe,introConstantinople,iii. ,400;entersthe ducedinto China,ix. , _3o;fallof, cathedralat Constantinople,4o2; in Persia,227sqq. oppressesthe Orthodoxparty in Magic,practisedby Julianus,i. , I46; ThraceandMacedonia,4o3; and by Severus,x6z; bythe Persian in Paphlagonia,4o4. priests,a6o;underValentinianand MacedoniusII. , Bishopof Constant/- Valens,iv. , x92 s_q. and noles; nople(^. D. 496--5IZ),exileof,viii. , ancientbeliefin, z93; persecution 165. of, in RomeandAntioch,x95s_. ; Macellum,castleof,iii. , 226. Romanlawagainst,vii. , 374. Macepracta,townof,iv. , t27. Magistermilitum,peditumet equitum, Machiavelli,i. , 286 andnote; on the iii. , i34 and note; utriusque popes,xii. , 176note. milithe,/b. ; in prsesenti,/b. ; per Macon,lii. ,x63andnote. orientem,vii. , 89note; in ArmeMacoraba,GreeknameforMecca,ff. v. nia, /b. Macpherson,Dr. John,iv. , 224note. Magisterofl_ciorum,iii. ,x44. Macpherson,James,iv. , a24note. Magistracies,civil,laid asideby DioMacpherson sOssian,i. , x66note. detian, ii. , x8aandnote. Macriaaus,Emperor,ii. , 5o. Magistrates,Roman,i. ,84,85andnoU. Macrianus,Praetorianprefectunder Magnaura,Palaceof, se_ CoastanfiValerian,ii. , 43. nople.

INDEX 313 Magnentius,salutedemperorin Gaul, Sleepers,36onot. ;dateofhisbirth, iii. ,206andnote,_qq. ;campaign viii. ,Sxnote;rejectionof hissumagainstConstantiusII. ,213_q{. ;! monsbyChosroes,94andnote;anbatfleof Mursa,2x6s_. ; defeat cestorsof, ix. , 24andnote;birth anddeath,22o,22i. andeducation,29sqq. ;appearance Magnesia,or GuzelH. issar,i. , 62note; and characterof, 32; journeys TheodoreLascarisdiedat, xi. , 6x to Syria,34; his knowledgeof andnote; AmurathII. retiresto, writing,33note; assumestitleof xi. ,3o2andnote. Prophet,35,37; creedof,37$qq. ; MagniaUrbica,ii. , x34note. composes the Koran, 4x sg. ; Magnusof Carrh_e,iii. ,I5I note. prophecyof the Paracleteapplied Magnus,senator,i. , 22i. to, 4z and note; miraclesof, 43 Magyarsor Hungarians,vi. , 2 note; sq. ; visionof, 45and note; innameof,x. ,37sq. stitutesa fast, 48; preachesat Mahadi(Mahdi),caliph, son of K1- Mecca,53s_. ; Livesof, 53note; Mansfir,wealthof,ix. , 265. hisdisciplesemigrateto/Ethiopia, Mahadi(Mahdi),last of the Persian 57; his flight,58 sq. ; Princeof ImP. ms,ix. , xo5. Medina,59; regalandsacerdotal Mahadia,in Africa,x. , z32. officeof,6_; militarylawsof, 63; Mahmfld,Sultan,of DeLhi,defeatof, warsof,65sqq. ;subduestheJews, byTimour,xi. , x92. 69; submissionof Mecca,7zsq. ; Mahm0dII. , Sultan, massacresthe ten years trucewiththe Koreish, Janizaries,xi. , x68note. 72;submissionofAxahia,77;emMahm0d,Princeof Gazna,viii. ,4 note. bassyof, toHexaclius,lb. ; expediMahm0d,the Gaznevide,x. , x47sq. ; tionofTabuc,79sq. ; death,8xsq. ; assumestitle of Sultan,x48; in epilepsyof, 80note;tomb,83and Hindostan,149sq. ; chaxacterof, note; character,ib. sqq. ; private 1St;death,_55. lifeof, 86sq. ; wives,88; andchilMahomet=Mohammad,g. v. dren,9o; choiceof a successor, MahometI. (OttomanSultan),son of 92;successofb_isreligion,zo7sq. ; Bajazet,xi. ,220;obtainsAnatolia, Lifeof, inModernUniversalHislb. ; defeatsM0s3. ,lb. tory,x_onote;embassytoMokawMahomet1I. ,restorescastlesof Europe kas, x77and note. andAsia,iii. ,92; hisdescentfrom Mahometanism,see Islam. the Comneni,viii. , 294; putslast Maillet,M. ,Consul,hisdescriptionof . Dukeof Athensto death,xi. , 92; Egypt,ix. , z89notes,i9_ not. . marriesAsiaticprincess,207note; Maimbourg,Historyof Iconoclasm, besiegesBelgrade,3x4; character viii. , 3t8 nole; on AlexiusCornof,xii. ,xandnotesq. ;reign,4sqfl. ; nenus,X. ,227nole. marriage,ib. ; hostileintentionsof, Maimonides,ii. , 263_wte. 5sq. ; buildsfortresson the Bos- Maine,SirHeaD,,AncientLawof,vii. , phorus,9; preparesfor the siege, 3xxnot. . xo;greatcannonof, x3-4; forcesMaJnfroy,Kingof NaplesandSicily, of,z7sq. ;headquartersof, ib. note; x. , x45; proscribedbythe Popes, besiegesConstantinople,24 sqq. ; xi. , 78. employs mines, 27; punishesMainotesor Eleuthero-Laconians,ix. , Baltha Ogli, 3x; transportshis 325. v_ ten miles,33; constructsMninz,seeMentz. abridge,34; his treatmentofthe Maiuma, port of Gaza, iv. , xo4 Greeks,52 sq. ; repeoplesCon- note. StantJnople,54sqg. ; his mosque, MajeUa,seeMonteMajeUa. M 55; hisdeath,63. Majestas,crimeof, i. , io3 note; lawahomet,the Prophet,v. , 336note; concerning,under Arcadias,v. , adoptsthe Legendof the Seven 297andnote;_d. ,379.

314 INDEX Majo, Admiral,conspiresagainstWil- Malta,i. , 34; takenby theSaracens, lianaI. of Sicily,x. , x4x. ix. , 286note; conqueredbyRoger Majorcaand neighbouringhies, Van- of Sicily,x. , t3x; KnightsHospidalsin,v. ,343; submittoJustinian, ta. Uersat, 264. vii. , io8. Maltepe,HiUof, headquartersof MaMajorian,Emperor,originof, vi. , xo2; hornet,xii. , x8 note. panegyricof Sidoniuson, ib. and Maltret,Claude,publishesParisedit/on note; madeEmperorbyRicimer, of Procopius,vii. , 8 note; histmzo3;epistleof,tothesenate,/b. s_. ; fulfilledpromises,x3_note. lawsof,xo5andnote,xo6;protects Mamacc_on the Oise, Palaceof the the edificesof Rome,xo7; laws Merovingians,ix. , 35L concerningmarriage,io8; defeats Mamachi,Father,iii. , 38znote. Theodoric,i_o; buildsa fleet,xtr Mamalukes( Maml0ks),name,x. ,_9r and note; his fleetdestroyedby note; two dynastiesof, 333 and Geuseric, xx2; abdication and note;recruitedfromCircassia,xi. , death,x13. z2_; defeattheMongols,xi. , x45; Majorinus,AfricanBishop,iii. ,335- allianceof, withthe Khan, 153. Makrizi,x. , 3so note. Mamas,beaconof, viii. ,354note. Malabar,NestorianChristiansof, viii. , Mamas,St. ,monumentof, atCmsarea, x93sq. iv. ,48andnote. Malaga,reducedbyAbdelaziz,ix. ,3z9; Mamertinus,the panegyrist,ii. , I47 seatof learningunderthe Arabs, note,i55 note; consul,iii. ,35and ix. , _7x. note;iv. ,40andnote. Malalas,John,ii. ,x29note;onHistory l_amgo,the Scythian,ii. , x67. of Antioch,v. , 329note. Mammma,motherof AlexanderSeveMalarich,iv. , x78. rus,i. , i82; regent,x9z; avarice, Medasontha,seeAmalasontha. i93; murderof, 319; interview Malaterra,seeGalfridus. withOrigen,iii. ,53. /¢lalatesta,Italianfamilyof, xii. , 305. Mamfm,Caliph,ix. , 328note. SeeAIMalatest_,Sigismond,PrinceofRimini, MaroOn. xii. , 2 note. Man, Isleof, inhabitedby Scots,iv. , ]_alaxus,Emanuel,xii. ,56no/e. 236. Malazkerd,siege of, x. , 164; called Mananalis,in Cappadocia,x. , 3 and Marazikert,lb. note;battleof, _66. note. Malchus,accountof embassyfromthe Man,t, Arabicdeity,vi. , 56note. senatetoZeno,vi. , 148note. Man-Chu,dynastyin NorthernChina, l_alchus,adventuresof,iii. ,2oonote. xi. , x35note. Maldives,islands,iii. , 3xi note. Mancipation,vii. ,357note. MalekRodosaces,Emirof thetribeof Mancipiura,explanationof that term Gassan,iv. , x36. in Romanlaw, vii. , 357and not*. MalekShah,sonof SultanAlpArslAn,Mandmans,ii. , 27rnote. x. , 163; conquestsof, 173 Sq ;i Mandolori,G. , on Bazlaam,xi. , 377 pilgrimageof, to Mecca, x74; note. deathof, x75. Mandracium,suburb of Carthage, MalespinaRicordano,on Charlesof sackedbya Romanoffice. r,vii. ,102; Anjou,xi. , 79note. restoredby Belisarius,xo3. Malleolus,P. , vii. ,373note. Manes,i. , 261note;iii. ,333note;tenets Mallevilla,name for Zemlin,x. , 3xr of, revived,viii. , x79; rejectedby note. thePaulicians,x. ,5. Mallins(Theodorus),Prmtorianprefect, Man#, nameof SouthernChina,xi. , iii. , x3x, x32 note; epigram of I4I note. Claudianon,v. ,t92andnote. Mangta,grandsonof Zingis,xi. , _40and Malmistra,seeMopsuestia, note. M. alomir,sonofOmortag,x. ,33note. Mauiaces,George,Greekgovernorof

INDEX 315 Lombardia,general,viii. ,_77note; ManuelPahe_Iogus,sonof theelder subduesSicily,x. ,88 and note. Andronicus,xi. , 98. Maniach,Turkishambassador,vii. Manuel,Romangeneral,634A. D. ,ix. , x92note;at the Byzantinecourt x59x93. Manufactures,Roman,i. ,67. Maniach,princeof the Sogdoites,vii. Manumission,limitationof, ii. , xo8 t93. note. Manichmans,ii. , 277; iii. , 334 and Manus,powerof a husbandoverhis notes;laws against,underTheo- wife,vii. ,346andnote. dosius,v. ,26; persecutedbyHun- Manuscripts,ancient,destructionof,by nerie,vi. , i9t ; persecutedin the the Turksin Constantinople,xii. , provinces,207; on the natureof 46note,soandnote. Christ,viii. , ,28; in Arabia,ix. , Manzikert,seeMalazkerd. 28; desertthe standardofAlexius Maogamalcha,fortressof, taken by Comnenus,x. ,x6. Julian,iv. , x3i sq. Manilius,i. , xxonote. Maphri. in,Jacobiteecclesiastic,viii. , Manilius,Romanlawyer,vii. , 334note. x96. ManliusTorquatus,i. , 79note. Maxacci,Father,onthe Koran,v. ,336 Manorsor farmsgrantedto the hospi- note; onalmsgiving,ix. , 49nae; tallersandtemplars,x. , 264 and onParadiseandHellofMahomet, note. 53note. Mansf_r,seeA1-Mansor. Marasquin,x. ,354note. Mansftr, Prince of Fats, opposesiMarble,varietiesof,i. , 224andnote. Timour,xi. , x86. MarcAntony,removesthe Pergamene Mans0ra,battleof,x. ,320and32xnotes, libraryto Alexandria,v. , 85note. Mantinium,iii. ,404andnote. Marcelia,a Romanlady,v. , x49note, Manuel,brotherof TheodoreAngelus, 246 note;taughtbyAthanasius,vi. , xi. ,33note. x6rnote. ManuelComnenus,Emperorof Con- Marcellinus,brotherof Maximus,v. , stantinople,viii. ,29r; warsof, ib. 4x. sq. ; character,293; repulsesthe Marceflinus,Count, Chronicleof, v. , Normans,x. , i35; his ambition, x7x,293note;ontreaty,of Thcox37; makes peacewiththe Nor- dosinswithAttila,vi. , 2xnote;on marts,x39; secondand thirdcru- the miracleofTipasa,vi. ,200note. sadesin reignof, 277; accusedof MarceUinus,Countof the SacredLartreachery,28o; wivesof, 335;let- gesses,rebelsagainstConstans,iii. , tersof,to PopeAlexanderIII. , fib. 207;embassyto CorLstantius,2Jo; note;wailof,xii. ,ao note. death,22Iandnote. ManuelComnenus,firstof the Corn- Marcellinus [Marcellianus],son of neni,viii. ,280. Maximin,iv. ,25tsq. ManuelComnenusof Trebizond,xi. , MarceUinus,Romangeneral,rulesin zxnote. Dalmatia,vi. , xx5 sq. ; acknowManuelComnenus,sonof Andronicus, ledgesand assistsAnthemius,x27; viii. ,3o5. expelsthe VandalsfromSardinia, ManuelComnenus,brotherof Alexius lb. ; flightto Sicily,x3o;death,/b. I. , viii. ,285. note. ManuelPalmologus,Emperor,xi. , x76; Marcellus,BishopofApamea,destroys imprisonmentand escape, fib. ; thetemples,v. ,82s_. servesunder Bajazet,x77; visits Marcellus,Bishopof Rome,iii. ,76and Frenchcourt,x79; returnsto Con- note. stantinople,223; concludestreaty MarcellusEprins,i. , io3 note. withMahomet,/b. ; death, 225, Marcellus,generalof the cavalryin 25x; negotiationsof, aSo; dia- Gaul,iii. , 264and note; son of, ]ognesof,fib. twfe. executed,iv. , 39.

316 INDEX Marcellus,conspiratorggainst _ us-IM_rgaretof Hungary,wife of Isa_ tin/an,vii. ,286. Angelus,x. ,34xnote;xi. , 6note. Marcellusof Ancyra,iii. ,356andnote. Margensis,or UpperMcesia,//. , x43 MarceUus,centurion,iii. , 63, 64. note. March,Spanish,iastitutedby Charle- Margus, battlebetweenCarinusand magne,viii. ,365. Diocletianat,it. , z43andnote,25a; Marcia,concubineof Commodns,L, magazineof arms at, v. , _47; xx7,i22, x:3; iii. ,5o. meetingbetweenAttilaandBleda, Marcia. n,conspiresagainstGallienus, andtheambassadorsofTheodosius, ii. ,6o. vi. , 3; Bishopof, treats withthe Marcian,Emperor,v. , 322; marries Huns, x2; battle betweenTheodPulcheria,vi. , 37; educationand oric the Ostrogothand the Rocharacter,lb. sq. and note; his marts,vi. , 319. dream beforethe death of Attila, Maria,daughterof EmperorManuel, 76; acknowledgesAvitus(?), vi. , wifeof Reinicrof Monfferrat,x. , 94andnote;death, zx9. 355note. Marcianor Black Forest,iv. , 19 and Maria,daughterof EmperorMaurice, note. viii. ,67note. Marcianopolis,siegeof, bythe Goths, Maria,daughterof Eud_emonthe Carii. , za and note; campof Valens thaginian,v. ,358. at, iv. , a49;revoltof the Gothsat, Maria,daughterof Isaac Comnenus, a97; AttiladefeatstheRomansat, viii. ,28z. vi. , x3; positionof, x. ,66. Maria,daughterofMichaelPal_cologus, Marcilianfountain,fairat the,vi. , 328. marriesNogathe Mongol,X/. ,I54. Marcion,ii. ,32xandnote. Maria,daughterof TheodoreLascaris, l_4"axcionltes,gnosticsect,ii. , 277;iii. , xi. , 58note. x3; persecuted,333; phanlasti_Maria,sisterof Alex/usII. , viii. , 3o0. systemof,viii. ,zuT;inArabia,ix. , Maria,widowof AmurathII. , xi. ,324 a8; remnantof,in fifthcentury, andnote;retirestoa convent,/3. x. ,3. ,Maria, widowof Manuel Comnenus, MarcoPolo,visitsthecourtof thegreat: viii. ,294; regent,3oo; death,3o_. Khan,xi. , 134note. Maria,wifeof ConstantineVI. , viii. , Marcomanni,i. , 3oxandnote. a4xnote. Marcomir,Frankishking,v. ,I73. Maria,wifeofHonorius,v. ,x89. Marcus,seealsoMark. Mariabaor Merab,i. , u note. Marcus,Bishopof the Nazarenes,ii. , Mariana,i. , 286; his History ofSpain, 272. ix. , 208note. Marcus,deacon,hisLifeofPorphyry,Marina,daughterofArcadius,v. ,322. v. ,3x8note. Marino,noblesgatherat,againstRienzi, Marcus,Emperor,in Britain,v. , x78 x/i. ,x46. andnote. Marinus,electedemperorby the MoeMarcuSGrmcus,on Greekfire, ix. , sianlegions,it. ,2; murderof,_. 248 note. Marinns,Prmtorianprefect,vii. ,5onote. Mardaitesor Maronitesof MountLi- MariusMaximus,historian,v. ,2x5and banns,viii. ,198sq. ; reconciledto note. the Latinchurches,x99andnote; Mariusof Aventicum,accountof the attackDamascus,ix. , 24o; in the Burgundianwar,vi. , 227note. Greeknavy,354- Marius, one of the thirty tyrants,ii. , _/[ardavige,the Dilemite,Magian,ix. , 5° sq. ,82. 229note. Mal-[ns, Villaof,vi. , r5o. Mardia,battleof,ii. ,u47. MarkAntony,iv. , I49 note. Mardoniusthe eunuch,iv. ,48note. Mark,BishopofArethusa,iii. ,2a6note; Margaret,daughterof Catherineof persecutionof, iv. , 88sg. Valois,xi. , 38note. Mark,BishopofEphesus,at Councilof

INDEX 3x7 Florence,xi. , 265; oppOseSunion Council,viii. ,i79; exile,/b. note, of thechurches,268; death,298. 328. Maxkl. ,ofAlexandria,viii. ,x64note. Martin IV. , Pope,excludesMichael Markezina,the, mistressof JohnVa- VIII. fromLatinChurch,xi. , 78; taces,xi. ,57note. FrenchPope,8z; madesenator, Mark/and,Jeremiah,xi. , 285nat. xii. , 95. Marlborough,battle of, vi. , 274 and MartinV. ,Pope,xi. ,249,a52;election note. of, xii. , i67; medalsof, /b. and Marmol,his descriptionof Africa,ix. , not_; restorationof Romeunder, x93note. 21o. Maroboduus,KingoftheMaxcom_mni,Martin,St. ,BishopofTours,iii. ,3x3 i. ,3oznote,ii. ,xaonote. note;tolerationof,v. ,28,29; miMaroe,river,namefor the Savus,x. , raculousgiftsof,3oandnote;denix note. stroyedthe pagan temples,82 Maron,a Syriansaint,accountof,viii. , and note; foundsmonasticismin x98. Gaul,vi. ,x6z,x62;lifeof,/b,note; Maronga,battleat, iv. ,x48,x49. miraculousshrine,2o3,222;miraMaronites,sectof Maron,orMonothe- desof,252note. lites,viii. ,x97$q. See Mardaites. Martin,Vice-PrefectofBritain,iii. ,222. Marozia,Romancourtezan,viii. , 377, Martina,wifeof EIeraclius,viii. , 98; 380. assumesthe purple,22x; disgrace Marriage,oftheVisigoths,v. ,259note; andexile,223. of the Lombards,ib. note; laws Maxtinianus,namedC_marbyLiciaius, of Ik_Iajorianconcerning,vi. , 208; it. ,258andnote. RomanandByzantinelawsof,vii. , Martius,Galeotus,on Matthia. sC0r345sqq. ;of theCw. sars,ix. ,345$q. vinus,xi. ,315note. Marsa,widowat Constantinople,perse- Martyropolis,siege of, vii. , 7o; recutesChrysostom,v. ,3io note. stored,viii. ,66. Marsala,builtonsiteof Lilybmum,ix. , Mart)as,primitive,legendsof, iii. ,32; 284note. honourspaidto,42,43; underDioMarseilles,siegeof, byConstantine,ii. , clefian,59; numberof, 85; wor22o;takenbyEuric,vi. ,axx;prov- shipof,v. ,96sq. ; fabulous,99. ince of, cededto the Ostrogoths,Maru,cityof Khorasan,destroyedby 224note; resignedto the Franks, Zingis,vi. , xS;tombofAlpArslan 236and note; conqueredbyThe- at,x. ,xya. odoric,32o;portforAvignon,xii. ,: Marw_. n,caliph,seeMervan. 236note,I57. Mary,anEgyptiancaptive;ix. ,86note, Marsham,Sir John,on Islam,ix. , 5° 88. note. Mary,daughterof Conradof MontMarsi,i. , 27. ferrat,xi. , 25. Marsigli,Count,his MilitaryStateof Mary,QueenofBulgaria,xi. ,77. the OttomanEmpire,xii. , x8note. i Mary,Virgin,worshipof,bytheLatin Marsyas and M_eander,rivers of: Church,viii. , x93; Christiansof Phrygia,v. , 299andnote. St. Thomasobjecttoimageof,/3. ; Martel,see CharlesMaxtel. worshippedas a goddessby the Martialis,assassinatesCaracalla,i. , Collyridiaus,ix. , 36; doctrineof x77. immaculateconceptionof, borMartial,onRavenna,v. , z62note. rowedfromtheKoran,4oandnote. Martin,abbot,pilgrimageof, x. , 352 Masada,townneartheDeadSeamennote;in Palestine,356note;pious tionedbypllny,vi. , I58 note. robberyof,385note. Maseezel,brotherof Gildo,commands Martin,bringsSclavoniansandHumsto troopSagainstGildo,v. ,x3° and siegeofRome,vii. ,x5o. note;his victory,x33; death,x34 MartinI. , Pope,residedatthelateran andno/*.

3 18 INDEX Mascouon Roman law, vii. , 325 Maurus,iv. , 3xonote; betrayspassof _t_. SuedtotheGoths,3x8. Massaget_c,invadepersia,iii. ,204and Maria,reignof,ix. , x4note. note; sail forAfrica,vii. , 9_. M_-war_d-nahr,Transoxiana,iv. , 282 Ma. . _oud(Masfid),sonof Mahmfidthe ] note;xi. , x4onote. Gaznevide,x. , 155. iMaxentins,sonof Max/mian,revoltof, Master-general,ofcavalryandinfantry, ft. ,2o4;declaredemperoratRome, seeMagistermilitum, uxxsq. and note; excludedfrom Masterof the Offices,see Magister thesuccessionbyCongressofCarofficiorum, nuntum,2x4nole; opposesGaleMaternus,insurrectionof,againstCorn- riusin Italy,217;oneof the six modus,i. , ti3. emperors,2x9; tyrannyof,224sq. . AIaternus,JuliusFirmicus,onidolatry, andnote; civilwar withConstanv. , 71note; his Cato,22znote. fine,226sqq. ; leavesRome,234; Math_uintha,vii. ,x6xnote; motherof defeatedby Constantineat Saxa Germanus,x65note. Rubra,236; death, /b. ; protected Mathematics,studyof, by the Arabs, the Christians,iii. , 76. ix. , 272andnote. Maximianand Galerius,persecutethe Mathilda,Countess,x. , x94. Christians,iii. ,63. Matthewof Montmorency,x. , 343; at Maximian,colleagueof Diocletian,li. , passage of the Bosphorus,36i; xI7, x45; emperor,z46andnote; ambassadorto the emperor,366. provincesruled by,x5oand note; Matthew,St. ,Hebrewgospelof,ii. ,33x defeatSthe Bagaud_e,x5x sq. ; note;viii. ,x_5 note. warsof, x53sqq. ; triumphof,x78; MatthiasCorvinus,seeCorvinus. abdicates,at Milan, x9x; reaSMattiaci,li. ,x2xnote. sumesthe purple,220and note; Mattiarii,iv. ,3x2. takes Aries,/b. ; death, _2i and MaTuan-lin,Chinesebook,vil. ,32note. note. Maundrell,hisaccountof marchof the Maximianists,Donatistsect, iii. , 338. Franks,x. , u54note,255note. Maximilianus,martyr,iii. ,63. Maurenahar,name for Transoriana Maximkn,courtierof Constantinople, . _eeM_-warh-l-nahr. his embassyto Attila,vi. , 24;acMaurice,Emperor,Strategikonof,vii. , countof, /b. note; interviewwith _82note;commandstheconfeder- theministersof Attila,26; returns ares,viii. , 24and note; reign,25 to Constantinople,34. sgq. ; policyof, ib. note; Persian Ma_min,Emperor,originandreign,i. , war,26;receivesembassyofChos- 2x7 s_g. ; characterof, 220 and roes,63; warsagainstthe Avars note; marchesinto Italy, 234; 73; his bookson militaryart, 75 death,237; portraitof,lb. note; flight, 79; execution,8x Maximin [GaleriusValerius Ma. x_Lifeof,87note; pretendedsonof minus],(Day. a),Cmsar,ft. , 203; 88-9andnote. emperor,218; dividesthe empire Mauringania,supposedseat of the withLidnius,223; allieshimself Franks,if. , 23note. with Maxentins,223; takesByMau/JtaniaCmsariensisandTingitana, zantium,24o; death,/b. ; conduct i. ,32andnote,sq. ; Gensericin,v. , towardsValeria,242sq. ; towards 345; relinquishedto theempireby the Christians,iii. ,53, 80. Genseric,354; ravagedby Gen- Maximin,Prefectof Gaul,iv. , x98; seric,vi. , xx2; Gaditana,vii. , xx6 tyrannyof, 25I. note; Tingitana, conqueredby Maximinianopolis,seeMessinople. Akbah,ix. , z98. Maximus,abbot,opponentofmonotheMauritanianSifiti,provinceof,vii. ,xao. lism,viii. ,x8oandnote;protected Maurontius,Duke of Marseilles,ix. , by Prefect Gregory, ix. , 193 257hole. note.

INDEX 319 Maximus,Emperorwith Balbinus,i. , Mediana,Castleof,iv. ,x85. 230; reign,ib. sqq. ; death, _4x. Medicine,scienceof,amongtheArabs, Maximus,friendand rivalof Gregory ix. , 275. Nazianz_n,v. , _7andnote. Medicis. Cosmoof,xi. ,289. Maximus,madeemperorin Spain by[Medic. is,Lorenzoof, learningof, xi. , Gerontius,v. , 265; death, 267. 289. Maximus,Marius, historian,v. , 2x4, Medina,residenceof Mahomet,ix. , 8 2xsandnote. and note; under ScythianconMaximus,militaryGovernorof Thrace queror,zx; MahometmadePrince withLupicinus,iv. , 295sq. of, 59sq. ; siegeof,byAbuSofyan, Maximus,Petronius,Senatorof the 69; deathandburialofMahomet Anicianfamily,vi. , 80; procures at, 83; acknowledgesSaladin,x. , thedeathof Valentinian,8z; char- 295. acterof, vi. , 85sq. ; epistleof Si- Mediomatrici,iv. ,246note. doniuson,ib. note;madeemperor,MediterraneanSea,includedin Roman 86; marriesEudoxia,87; death, Empire,i. , 33. 88. Megalesia,Romanfestival,i. , xx4note. Maximus,revoltof, in Britain,v. , 5 Melanin,conqueredbytheSaracens,ix. , sq. ; invadesGaul,7; persecutes x32note. thePrisciUianists,a7 sq. ; invades Melania,St. , v. , 209note; generosity Italy, 37s_q. ; defeat and death tothe monks,vi. ,x72. 42. Melanthius,vii. ,283andnote. Maximns,RomanPatrician,vii. , 254. Melchitesorroyalists,easternnamefor _Iaximus,the Platonist,iv. , 56; at the Catholics,viii. ,x82sq. andnote;of courtof Julian, 69 and note; at PaphlagoniaputXenaiasto death, Julian sdeathbed,x54; charged i95; in Egypt,underthe Arabs, with magic, iv. , x95, x96 note; ix. , x82,232. metaphysicsof, viii. ,x25note. Meletians,sectof,iii. ,375andnote. MazanderAn,Princesof,ix. , xo6note. Meletius;Bishopof Antioch,iii. ,375 Mazaxa,Euphemiuslandsat, ix. , 284; andnote;iv. , 9znote; his death, physicianof, atthecourtof Roger v. ,22andnote;persuadesChrysof Sicily,x. ,xo8. ostomto enterthe Church,309. Mazda. k,the PersianArckimagus,vii. , Meliarakes,A. , hisHistoryof Empire x96andnote,sg. ofNicma,xi. ,54note. Mazda-kites,massacreof,vii. , x99note. Melisenda,daughterofBaldwinII. , x. , Mead,Dr. ,ontheplague,vii. ,299note. 298. Mebodes,generalof ChosroesI. , vii. , Melissenus,pretender,x. ,x79. 198;death,x99. Melitcne,restoredby Justinian,vii. , Mebodes,generalof ChosroesII. , viii. , 67; battleof,viii. ,53; destruction 64. of, /b. and note; won from the Mecca,ix. , 9 andnote; Caabaat, 23; Saracensby ConstantineV. , 237 besiegedbyAhrahah,3° sg. ;flight note. of Mahometfrom,58; the kebla Menobaudes,Countof the Domestics ofprayer,69; takenbyMahomet, and Kingof the Franks,iv. , [236 7_sq. ; Christiansexcludedfrom, and note, 257,see Merobaudes], 74andnote;collegeat, 235note; 307. pillagedby Abu Taller,ix. , 299; Meloof Bail,x. ,85. MalekShahat, x. ,x74; acknow-Melus,Isleof,takenbytheVenetians, ledgesSaladin,295; threatenedby xi. , 5 note; alum minesin, xi. , Reginaldof Chatillon,300. 229note. Medals,seeCoins. Melphi,metropolisof the Normazasin Media,Persianprovince,invitesTra, Apulia,x. ,89note,sq. ; synodof, jan,i. , 8; vizierof, appointedby i xoo. Nushirvan,vii. , x99. Membressa,in Africa,vii. , *37note.

320 INDEX Memnon,Bishopof Ephesus,viii. ,x45; Meroveus,youngerson of Clod. ion, degradedby the Orientalsynod, seeksprotectionof Rome,vi. , 5z x47. andnote. Memory,Templeof, at Carthage,v. , MerovingianKingsoftheFranks,vi. ,5I 264. andnote;coinageof,237andnote; Memphis,takenbytheSaracens,ix. ,x74 lawsof,239sqq. ;domainsof,250; sq. and notes, palacesof,lb. ; survivalinAquitain, Menander(comicpoet),last playsof, viii. ,364; last kings,ix. ,25xsq. ix. ,37xnote; "whomthegodslove Merseburg,castleof,x. ,46andnote. die young,"quoted,xii. , x59nole. Mervan,last Omayyadcaliph,ix. , 260 Menander(historian),extractSof, vii. , and note; deathat Busiris,26_. x96note;embassiesof,viii. ,sxnote. Merv-er-R0d,Yezdegerdat, ix. , x27 Menbigz,bridgeof,overtheEuphrates, note;takenbythe Saxacens,lb. iv. , xx9note. Merv,takenby the Saracens,ix. , x57 Menelaus,archer,ill. ,5z7note. note. Mengo,Timour,Khanof K. ipzak,xi. , Mesebroch,namefor Marseburg,x. , 54. _zznote. Menophilus,i. ,535. Mesembria,battle of, x. , 35 note; Mensurius,Bishopof Carthage,iii. ,77- townof, capturedby K. rum,_. ; Mentesia,lordof, submitsto Orchan, takenbytheTurks,xii. , z7. xi. , z6onote. Mesene,Islandof,siegeof,i. , 262note. Mentz,destroyedby the Germans,v. , MeshedAli,cityof,ix. , 500note. I75; pillagedby the Franks, vi. , MeshedHosein,cityof,ix. , zoonote. 50; massacreof Jewsat, x. , 5so; Mesopotamia,subduedby Trajan,i. , storyof itS foundation,xii. , xz8 8; resignedby Hadrian,9; ravnote. agedby Caxus,ii. , x3x; Galerius Mequinez,i. ,38" defeatedin, x69;cededtothe emMerab,inArabiaFelix,reservoixat,ix. , pire, r7S; invadedbySapor,iii. , 8 and_tole. x98, 252sqq. ; Julianin, iv. , x25; /¢ieranesor Mirraues,Persiantitle,iv. , towns of, fortifiedby Justinian, _48,x55. vii. ,68. Mercury, promontoryof, see Cape Mesrobes,inventorof ArmenianalphaBona. bet,v. , 332note. l_erdaza,sonof Chosroes,viii. ,xzT. Messalla,Governorof Pannonia,saves Merians,Russiantribe,x. ,54note. Constantia,iv. , 258. Merida,defeatofHermanricat, v. ,344; MessallaVaierius,firstprefectofRome, Theodoricat, vi. , 98; siegeof, iii. , _a4and note. 202; taken bythe Saxacens,ix. , Messiah,seeChrist. 217sq. Messina,Straitsof, v. ,255; captureof Merioneth,archersof, vi. , 283. townof, bythe Normans,x. ,88; Merivale,on thepopulationof Roman Roger the Norman at, xo6and Empire,i. , 53note,7o note. note;etymologyof name,xo7nots. Mermeroes,PersiangeneralintheLazic Messinopleor Maximianopolis,fiefof wax,vii. ,236. ViUehaxdouin,xi. , x9 note. Merobaudes,paganofthefifthcentury,MessinsDecins,Q. , HerenniusEtn_ panegyricof Aetius,vi. ,45note. cus,son of the EmperorDecius, Merobaudes,savesRomanusfromjus- ii. , 3 note. rice,iv. , 236note; withEquirius MessiusQuintus,C. ValensHostilianus, elevates Valentinian II. , 557;! son of the EmperorDecins,ii. ,3 death,v. ,8. ] note. Meroliac,castle, takenby Theodoric,[Mesua,Arabianphysician,ix. , 275. vi. , 256sq. ; positionof, i3. note. IMetaurus,river,ii. , 78note. Merou,revoltsfrom¥ezdegerd,ix. ,13o;IMetelli,consulship_of the,i. , 5ornote; takenbyZingis,xi. , x38. I iii. , xx9note.

INDEX 32I MeteUus,iv. , 234. MichaelVII. , Parapinaces,Emperor, MeteUusNumidicus,onWomen,i. , x92 viii. ,282sq. note. MichaelVIII. , Pal_eologus,reign,xi. , Metempsychosis,x. , 294note. 34 sq. ; recoversConstantinople, Meteorion,in . _siaMinor,xi. , 66twte. 35sqq. andnote;campaignof,in Methodius,Bishopof Tyre,ii. , 307 Epirus,58 note;,his familyand note. character,60sqq. ; his elevation, Methoneor Morion,iv. , 259note;vi. , 63sq. ; entryintoConstantinople, 3oxnote. 67; blinds John Lascaris,69; MetiusFalconius,if. , zo7. excommunicatedbyArsenius,7o; Metrodorus,the grammarian,vii. , 5o. absolvedbyJoseph,7x; unionof, Metrophanes,Patriarchof Constanti- with the Latin Church,73; renople,xi. , 298. leasesViilehardouin,72note;sends Metropolitans,Spanish,presideat the embassyto Councilof Lyons,75; legislativeassemblies,vi. ,266. persecutestheGreeks,76sq. ;povMetz,destructionof,by Attila,vi. , 55 erty of, 87 note; restoredthe andnote. navy,i2x; GoldenBullto GenoMeursius,Treatiseon Rhodes,ix. , _72 ese, lb. note; surprisedby the note. Tatars,x53. Meyer,G. ,onthe Greeklanguage,xi. , Michael1X. ,defeatedbythe Cat-al_tn_. 272note° xi. , 88; associatedin the empire, Meyer,Paul, his treatiseon Roman 97 andnot*;death,98• Concubinage,vii. , 354note. Michael,pretender,acknowledgedby MichaelAngelo,xil. , 2in. RobertGuiscaxd,x. , xxo; death Michael,Archbishopof Athens(Ako- of,at Durazzo,rx8. minatos),xi. , 7 note; defendsthe Michaelthe Janissary,xii. ,33note. Acropolis,/b. note,9° note. Michaelthe Syrian,viii. ,2t note. MichaelCatharus, grandsonof An- Middleton,Dr. , his FreeInquiry,if. , drouicusthe Elder,xi. , 98note. 297note;onpaganism,v. ,xo6note. MichaelDoceanus,Catepan,x. , 89 Milan,Dukeof,opposesEugeniusIV. , note. xi. ,255; troopsof,beforeFerraxa, MichaelI. (Angelus),despotof Epirus, 264. xi. , 12andnote. Milan,siegeof, ii. , 6o; imperialresiMichaelII. , despotof Epirus,son of denceof Maximin,x8o;edictof, MichaelI. , xi. , 33 note;war with iii. , 284 and note,320and note; TheodoreL_caris, 58note. councilof,384sq. andnote;capital MichaelI. ,Rhangabe,Emperor,elected, of Emperorof the West,iv. , x86; viii. ,244; reignof, 245; supersti- PorcianBasilicaat, v. ,32; disortionof,352; persecutesthe Pauli- dersat, 33; taken byAttila,vi. , darts,x. ,zx. 68; bythe Goths,vii. , x58; deMichaelII. , Emperor,revoltsagainst stroyed,x59and note; taken by Leo,viii. ,a46sq. ;reignof,248sq. ; Alboin,viii. ,x4; by FredericI. , letterto Lewisthe Pious,lb. note; 385; rebuiltbyManuel,x. ,x36. Crete and Sicilylost under,ix. , Miles,i. , x5 note. 282. Milesians,iv. , 223note. MichaelIIL, Emperor,viii. , 253sqq. ; Militaryforceof theRomanemperorS, campaignagainstthe Paulicians, i. , xxs_l. ;wholeamountof, 23. x. ,x3. Militaryofficers,iii. , x33. MichaelIV. , the Paphlagonian,Era- MiLlennium,doctrineofthe,if. ,289sff. peror,viii. ,276and note. andnotes. MichaelV. ,Calaphates,Emperor,viii. , Millet,cultureof,vii. , x8xandnote. 277s_ . Milo,trialof,vii. ,285sgl. Michael VI. , Stratioticus,Emperor,Milosh Obilic,Servianwho stabbed viii. ,279s_/. MuradSultan,xi. , x68note. VOL. XII. _2I

322 INDEX Milton,ii. ,265note;vii. ,293andnote. amongsttheScythlans,vi. , x6and MilvianBridge,i. , x46note; Vitiges note. at,vii. , z38andnote. Missorium,golddishbelongingtoTorisMJna,valleyof, ix. , 24; Feastof Vie- round,Kingof theGot]as,v. ,26L rimsin,48note. Mistrianus,ambassadorofLiciuius,ii. , Mincins,vi. , 73. 248. Minden,bishopricof, viii. , 366. Mithras,i. , 256; iii. ,6xnote;birthday Mineo,takenbythe Saracens,ix. , 285 of, v. ,xo6note. note. Mithreum,v. , 86 note. Minervina,wifeofConstantine,iii. ,x72 Mithridates,i. , 45; gold bustof, v. , andnote. 156 note; subduesColchos,vii. , Mines,useof,atsiegeofConstantinople, 2z9. xii. , 27andnote. MoRwiya,caliph,subduesPersiaand Ming,Chinesedynastyof,xi. , 152note, Yemen,ix. , 99; attempton his 2ix. life,lb. ; reign,/b,sq. ; sendsforces Mingrelia,seeLazica. to Africa,x97; hispeacewiththe Minorbino,a countof, xii. ,x49. emperor,ix. , 240. Minorca,relicsof St. Stephenat, v. , Moftwiya,Ibn Hudaii,generalof the 1o3 note. CaliphMoawiyah,ix. , x97 and Minority, Roman law distinguished _ote. twokinds,v. , xaonote. Mocilus,beaconof, viii. ,254note. Mint,revoltof workersin, ii. ,97sg. Moctadi(MuktadI),caliph,marriesthe Minucins,Felix,ill. ,7 note. daughterof MalekShah, x. , z76. MirabiliaRorae,xii. , 186mate. Moctador(Muktadlr),caliph,ix. , 266; Miraclesof the PrimitiveChurch,ii. , defeatedbythe Carmathians,299. 295sgq. ; pagan writersomit to Modain,AI, winter residenceof the notice,345; v. , zooandnotes;of Sassanlds,iv. , _37sq. ; loyalto the monks,vi. , x78Sfl. ;of Maho- Chosroes,viii. ,64; see Ctesiphon. met,ix. ,44. Modar,a Gothicprince,iv. ,33o. Miran,Shah,son of Timour,xi. , 217 Modenaand Parma,settlementof the note. Tai/ulmin,iv. , 3o9,3zoand no/e; Mirchond,hisHistoryofthe East,ix. , Attilaat (?), vi. , 68; reducedby 2_8andnote. the Greeks,viii. , 28; threatened Mirranesof Persia,vii. ,89andnote. bythe Hungarians,x. ,45note. MirtscheatheGreat,Princeof Wala- Moderator,nameusedbythe Popeof chia, at battleof Nicopolis,xi. , the Greekemperor,xi. , 235and x71note. note. MirzaMehemmedSultan,grandsonof Modestinus,iii. , 4 note; authorityof, Bajazet,xi. , 202sq. in jurisprudence,vii. , 326. Miscreants,originof word,x. ,238and Mceotis,Lake,li. , Ho. note. Mcesia,i. , 27 sg. ; legionsof, dect Misenum,a navalstation,i. , 23; re- Marinus,ii. , x; invadedby the storedbyMajorian,vi. ,xit; prom- Goths,za; regainedby Claudius, ontoryof, 15o. 68; revoltofthe Gothsin, iv. ,297 Misitheus,ministerof Gordian,i. , 244 sqq. ; Dukeof,seeTheodosiusthe andnote. Great; Theodoric in, vi. , 305; Misithra,Despotatof, provinceof the secunda,vii. , 59note. empirein fourteenthcentury,x. , Moezaldowlat(Muizzad-dawla),ix. , I13 note. 306. Misnah,iii. , 73 note. Mocz,Fatlmitecaliph,ix. , xo6. Misopogon,Julian s,iv. , 3r, H4 and Mogan,plainsof, Heraclitusin, viii. , notea. Io5 andnote. Misrah,nameof Memphis,ix. , I75. Moguls,great,i. , 268note; successors Missionaries, Christian, ii. , 33x; ofTimour,xi. ,2x7

INDEX 323 Moguls,seeMongols. Zingis,xL,128-r55; derivationof Moguntiacum(Mentz),taken by the name,13onote;divisionofempire Alemanni,iv. ,216andnote. of the, 159sq. Mohadior Mahdi, Abbassidecaliph, Mongous,iv. ,275andnote. sendsexpeditionto the Thracian Monks,theirlegends,iii. ,32;of Egypt, Bosphorus,ix. , 278. 394; vi. , 159; servein the army, Mohagerians,or fugitiveSofMecca,ix. , iv. , 207; destroypagantemples, 61[Al-Muhajirun]. v. ,84; originof,vi. , 156sfl. ; acMohammad,seealsoMahomet. countof, 159sqq. ; obedienceof, Mohammad-al-Ikshid,founderof the x65sq. ; dressandhabitations,I67 I"kshididdynasty,ix. , 3o3 note. sq. ;diet,169sq. ; labour,17osq. ; MohammadI. , Aghlabidcaliph,ix. ,288 riches,x7t; solitude,i73; visions note. of, 174; two classes of, 175; Mohammad,Ibn Kgsim,conquestsbe- miraclesand worshipof, 178sft. ; yondthe Indus,ix. , z32note. suppressedbyConstantineV. ,viii. , Mohammad,Mameluke,Sultan,^. D. 322sq. ; attitudeof the Saracens 1311--1341, X. , 323 note. to,ix. , 136;lay-monks,ib. note. Mohammad,son of Abbas,ix. , 258. Monomachus,meaningof the name, Mohammad,son of Abubekr,ix. x3x viii. ,278andnote. note. Monophysitedoctrine,viii. , x53; deMohammad,sonof Ismail,ix. ,297note. finedbySeverus,194. Mohammad,Sultan of Carizme,iv. , Monophysites,pillageJerusalem,viii. , 282note;defeatedbyZingisKhan, x6x; massacreof,inPersia,187. xi. , 137sq. ; death, 139. Monopolies,underJustinian,vii. , 43. Mohtadi(Muhtadi),caliph, ix. , 297 Monothelitecontroversy,viii. , 178sq. ; note. GreekpatriarchaIVlonothelite,ix. , Mokawkas,an Egyptiannoble,ix. , x77 233note. andnote,18o. Monoxyla,orcanoes,x. ,58. Moko,slaveof the Topa princes,v. , Monreal,seeMontreal(Chevalier). 164. Monstrelct,onsiegeof Constantinople, Mola,surrenderedto the Saracens,ix. , xii. ,6 note. 220. Montaigne,ii. , 41note. Moldavia,conquestof, byBajazet,xi. , Montanists,ii. , 283note; excommuni17oandnote. cared, 325 note; on ma-qyrdom, Molinists,v. , 352note. iii. , 46; persecutionof, by ConMomyUus,Greekcorruptionof Romu- stantine, 333; in Phrygia,viii. , lus,vi. ,149. 17oandnote. Monachus,George,vii. ,49note. Montas. _r,caliph[ Mtmtasir],ix. , 296 Monaldeschi,L. , his Diary, xii. , I26 sq. note,x8o. Monte Maggiore,battle of, between Monarchianism,heresyof,lii. ,353note. NormansandGreeks,x. , 89note. Monarchy,i. , 75. MonteMajella,xii. ,151note. Monasticism,vi. , 156sqq. ; in Egypt, MontePeloso,Normanvictoryat, x. , x59; in Rome,x6o; in Palestine, 89note. 161; in Gaul,162; causesof the Montesquleu,de,i. , 246;hisSyUaand proKressof, i62 sq. Eucrates,234 note; on Roman MOncada,de,hisHistoryof the Cata- militarygovernment,246; on the Inns,xi. ,89note. censorship,ii. , 14note; ontaxaMondars,dynastyof,ix. , xx9 andnote. tion,iii. , t54 andnote; criticised Money,useandvalueof, i. ,282. byRaynal,409; ondeclineof the Mongolsor Moguls,their connection empire,/b. ; ott Englishlaws,iv. , with the Tatars, iv. , 26x note; 38 note; on revolutionsof Asia, barbarousmaximsof war,vi. , 14 267note;on theGoths,339note; sq. andnotes;conquestsof, under on Armorica,v. , 28xnote; pro

324 INDEX posedhistoryofTheodoric,vi. ,3x3 Morrah,districtof, in fourteenthcennote;on secrethistoryof Proco- tury,xi. , xx3note. pins,vii. ,9 note;on Justinian,58 Mortgages,Roman laws concerning, note; on crime, 382 and _wte; vii. ,368s_. on climate,xii. , 66 note; on a Mortmain,in Empireof Romania, passageof Florus,zoonote. zi. , 2x. Montffaucon,Father, edition of St. Moscow,provinceof, x. , 53; cityof, Chrysostom,v. , 288note,3o8note; destroyedbyMongoLs,xi. , x46and ontheColiseum,xii. ,207note;his note; burnt,A. D. ,x382,x87note; visitsto antiquitiesof Rome,2x2 threatenedbyTimour,:89; taken note. byToctamish,lb. note. Montferrat, Marquis of, sends his Moseilama,afalseArabianprophet,ix. , daughterto Constantinople,xi. , xx2andnote; death,xx3. 249. Moselle,iv. , 2x4and note. Montius,qumstorof thepalace,iii. ,2u9 Mosesof Chorene,iii. ,60; Persianwax and note,sq. describedby,iv. , 242note;advenMontreal(beyondJordan),lordshipof, turesof Para, 245note; historyof x. ,u66note. Armenia,v. ,33xnote. Montreal,Chevalier,Italianfreebooter,i Moses,religionof,if. ,a65sqq. ; didnot xii. , x53and note. teach immortality,287; in the Monuments,Roman,i. , 54s_g. Koran,ix. ,39; lawsof,compared Monza,Palaceof,viii. ,34note. withthoseof Mahomet,63. Moorsand Parthians,instructorsof Mosheimon Gnosticism,ii. , 275note, Commodns,i. , xz8. 277note; viii. , x22note; onthe Moors,warsof Antoninnsagainstthe, Pauiiciasas,x. ,anote;onArnoldof i. , xonote;descriptionof the, iv. , Brescia,xii. , 78note. *37and note; preservedthe Ma- Moslemah,brotherof CaliphSoliman, hometanreligion,v. ,96note; ally besiegesConstantinople,ix. , 243 themselveswiththe Vandals,346 sqq. ;hisretreat,u46. andnote;Gelimeramongthe,vii. , Moslim,or Mnsulman,meaningof,ix. , x_xsq. and note;originand man- 35note. netsof,xx8andnote; revoltfrom Mosquefoundedat Constantinople,x. , Justinian,xx9; defeat of, ann; 28o. rebellionof,240sq. ; conversionof, Mnstali,Caliph of Egypt, imprisons toIslam,ix. ,206. deputiesof the Crusaders,x. ,252. Mopsucrene,near Tarsus, death of Mostarabes,seeMozarabes. Constantineat,iv. , u6. Mosta. sem[Mustasim],"lastof the AbMopsuesti_,in Cilicia,Aetinsat, iii. , ba_sidecaliphs,ix. , 29t and note; 388note;siegeof,byAndronicus, death,292note; bringsTurksinto viii. , 295; byPhocasandZimisces, Bagdad, 295; put to death by ix. , 3o9; takenbythe Crusaders, Holagou,xi. , x44. x. , u43; restoredto the empire,Mosthadi(Mustadi),caliphofBagdad, u73;nameof,lb. note. hisdeath,ix. , 264note: acknowMoravia,i. , 3o3note. ledgedin Egypt,x. , 293. Mordvans,religion of the, xi. , 299 Mosul,Heracliusat, viii. ,x33andnote. note. Motadhed(Mutadid),caliph,ix. , 233 Morea,the, set Peloponnesus. andnote. Morgingcup,weddinggiftofthe Lore- Motassem(Mutnslm),caliph, "Octobards,v. ,259note. nary," war with Theophilus,ix. , Morocco,i. , 33. 29xsqg. Morosini,Patriarchof Constantinople,Motawakkel (Mutawakkil), caliph, xi. , 3 and note. edictsof, ix. , 233note; deathof, Morosi,onGreekdialectsin Italy,xi. , ix. ,296. 276note. Motaz,caliph,ix. , 297note.

INDEX 325 Moulinet,metallichistoryof, xii. , x67 note;accountofhisworks,xSo~x; note. biographiesof,z8x. Moultan,conquestof, bygrandsonof Murcia,Saracensat,ix. , 2:4. Timour,xi. , x9x. Murci,iii. ,141andnote;onEudoxia Mountain,oldmanof the,xi. , x43. andtheVandals,vi. ,88. Mourzoufle,deposesIsaacAngelus,x. , Murder,under the Merovingians,vi. , 372; flight,376; death,xi. , 9. 243sq. ; underCharlemagne,245; Mousa,seealsoM_. Romanlaw concerning,vii. , 373Mousa,son of Bajazet,Kingof Ann- Muromians,Russiantribe,x. ,54note. tolia,xi. , no4; flightof,anddefeat Murom,townof,x. ,54note. byMahomet,2x9-2o; death,2:o, Murra,seePorcelain. MousaCassem,descendantof All, ix. . Mursa,or Essek,battleof,iii. ,axS,216 xo6note. andnote. Moxoene,provinceof, ii. , x76 and Mursa,Tatar chiefs. socalled,iv. , 283. note. MurtadiofCairo,ix. ,i86 note,188note. Moyle,Mr. , i. , 253note; on Roman Mfa_,seealsoMousa. religiouscolleges,v. , 72 note. M0_ [ibnNusair]the Saracen, deMozarabesofSpainandAfrica_ix. ,23x featsthe GreeksatUtica,ix. , 204; andnote. convertstheAfricans,207;dateof, Mucaper,assassinatesAurelian,ii. ,xox. lb. note;conquersSpain,2_7sqq. , Mucii,familyof, vii. ,319. 2i9 note;disgraceanddeath,22x, 31uezin(crier),xii. , 52. . _2z;legendsconcerning,223. Mugello,battleof,vii. , _84andnote. MlLe. ,lastof theHolagoudynasty,_d. , Mugnieronunionof GreekandLatin x86note. churches,xi. , 254note. Musailima,seeMoseilima. Muhallabadvancesto the Indus, ix. , Music,undertheRomans,v. ,2x5sq. I32note. Musonian,Praetorianprefect,iii. ,249. Mukan,vii. ,x94note. Mustapha,reputedson of Baja. zet,xi. , Muizzad-dawla,in Irak,A. . . 932,ix. , ai8; imprisonmentandreleaseof, 305note. See Moezaldowlat. 224; dismissesambassadorsof Muizzben Badis, Zayrid, Sultanof Manuel,ib. Tunis,x. ,87note. Muta,battleof,ix. ,78. Multanonthe Hyphasis,siegeof, by Muzalon,George,greatdomestic,xi. , the Saracens,ix. , x32note; taken 59; deathof,60. byMahmud,x. ,x5o. Mycenae,iii. ,42_lole. Mulucha,river,i. , 32note. Mycone,Isleof,takenbytheVenetiaus, Mummius,v. ,I4_note. xi. , 5 note. Mummolus,lastgovernorof Burgundy,Mygdonius,fiver,ii. , x75;iii. ,zo3and vi. ,26xandnote. note. Mundus,quellstumultat Constanti-MyosHormos,tradingportontheRed noplevi. ,28. Sea,i. , 69. Mundzuk,fatherofAttila,vi. ,4. Myriandrion,part ofwallof ConstantiMunicipalcities,Italian,i. , 44, 45and nople,xii. ,x8note. note; under Hadrian,/b. ; under Myron,heiferof,at Rome,vi. ,326and theAntonines,46. note. Munster,bishopricof,viii. ,366. Mythology,Pagan,i. ,37andnote. Muntaner,Ramande,historianof the Catalans,xi. , 89note. NABAL,fatherof Firmus,iv. ,233; disMunuza(or Abu Nesa),rebel Moor, cordin thehouseof,v. ,x29sq. ix. ,a53. Nabatha_. an,Syriac dialect,viii. , x83 Muratori,Italian annalist,i. , 234, a35 note. notes;hisScript. Per. Ital. inGib- Nabath_an ArabsopposeAntigonus, bon slibrary,xii. , 74note; onde- ix. , ii note. dineofimperialpowerin Italy,aoo Nacolia,battleof,iv. , x92andnote.

326 INDEX Nacoragan,PersiangeneralintheLazic Narses,Persianambassadorof Sapor, wax,vii. ,236; deathof, /b. iii. ,a$o. Nadhirites,Jewishtribe of, ix. , 69 Narses,Persiangeneralof theEmperor _#e[BanuNadir]. Maurice,restoresChosroes,_iii. , NadirShah,ix. ,94note;enrichestomb 64andnote; revoltanddeathof, of All,xoonole. 88. NaharMalcha,canalof the Tigris,iv. , Narses,the eunuch,vii. , x55; opposes t37and note. Belisaxius,x56$q. ; recallof,x57; Nanienus,iv. , 307. characterandexpeditionof,265$_. ; ]Vairs,ornoblesof Malabar,viii. ,J92. titlesof, /b. note; marchesfrom Naissns,birthplaceof Constantine,. ii. , Ravenna,268; defeatsTotila,27o; _o4; Julianat, iv. , au; maga. zane takesRome,27xsqq. ; hisdisattecof armsat, v. , x47; includedin tionand death,viii. , xxsq. Attila sdominion,vi. , I9; era- NarshakiofBokharaontheconquestof bassytoAttilaarriveat, 25. Trausoxiana,ix. , x32note. Nakishbend,religiousorderin Islam Nasirmus,Codex,sacredbookof the xi. , z83note. Christiansof St. John. Nakitchevan,destroyedby Heraclins,Nasribn Abroad,founderof S_manid viii. ,zo3 note. dynasty,ix. , 303note. Nantes,siege of, by Clovis,vi. , 2x6 NatanleodopposesCerdic,vi. ,276note. note;subduedby the Britonsof Nations,orDitch,battleof the,ix. ,69. Armoriea,275. Naulobatus,chiefof theHeruli,if. ,38. Naples,kingdomof, fief of theHoly Navigation,Roman,i. , 65; v. ,289and See,x. , 96. note; in fourteenthcentury,xii. , Naples,townof,buildingsofTheodoric _36note. at,vi. ,327;Greeklanguagespoken Navy,Roman,i. , 22, 23; stationsof, at,vii. ,x33andnote;takenbyBeli- underAugustus,ib. ; amountof. sa. rins,x34;takcn byTotila, 245; ib. ; of theGreekemperors,ix. ,35t dukesof,viii. ,29- sgq. Napolidi Romania,or Nauplia,xi. , 7 Naxos,Islandof, takenby theVcneandnote. tians,xi. ,5 note. Naptha,ix. ,247andnote. Nazarenechurch,at Jerusalem,ii. ,_7o. Narbonne,besiegedby the Visigoths,Nazario,Churchof S. , andS. Celso. Vi. , 45; marriageof Placidiaand at Ravenna,Mausoleumof PlaAdolphusat, v. , 259; palace of, cidia,vi. ,98note. 260; columnof Musaat,ix. , 2x9; Nazarius,orationof, if. ,25onote;acconqueredby the Saracens,ix. , countof Constantine sdream,iii. , 252andnote;recoveredbyPepin, 299andnote. 257note. Nazianzus,Churchof,iv. , _o5note;site Narbonne (Narona)in Illyricum,ii. , of,v. , x$andnote. x28note. Neapolis,seeSichem. Narbonne,provinceof,i. ,25; Firstand Nebridius,Pruetorianprefectin Gaul, SecondNarbonnese,two of the quW. storofthe palace,iii. ,23° note; sevenprovinces,v. ,286note. iv. , ,8 andnote. Nardini,topographer,xii. , 2za note. Necho,Kingof Egypt,constructscanal, Narisci,i. , 3o_andnote. ix. , x87note. Narni,Galerinsat,if. ,2z5; savedfrom Nectarius,successorof Gregoryat ConAlaric,v. , x99; rockof, vii. , x38; stantinople,v. ,24andnote,3o8. takenbyBelisarius,_52. Neged,districtof Arabia,ix. , 5Narses,KingofPersia,warwithRome, Negra,city of Yemen,vii. , 23x and ii. , x68and note; flight,XTt;re- note. ¢eivesthe ambassadorsof the era- Negroes,African,iv. , u38andnote. perorsin Media,x73; treatywith Negusof Abyssinia,vii. , 23i-3• Rome,t75- Nchavend,battleof,ix. , x26andnote.

INDEX 327 Neisabour,seeNishahur. Nevers,iii. ,x62andnote Nemausus,takenbytheSaracens,ix. , Nevigastes,generalofHonorius,v. ,I79. 252note. Nevitta,generalof Julian scavalry,iv. , Nemesianns,ii. , 95note,z4onote. x9; de/endspassof Succi,2a,35; Nennius,vi. , 268. consul,4o; in Mesopotamia,_24; Neo-C_esarea,retreatof St. Basilnear, at Maogamalcha,_3z;factionof, vi. , x6xnote. afterdeathof Julian. i56. Neopatras,in Thessaly,xL,91note. Newstadt,in Austria,defendedbythe Nco-Platonists,ii. , z98; iii. , 62; sup- FranksagainsttheTartars,xi. ,_49. pressedat Athens,vii. ,78sq. Newton,SirIsaac,vii. ,293;oncorrupNepos,Julius, Emperorof the West, tion of the NewTestamenttext, vi. , x42;makesEcdicinspatrician, viii. , x32note; chronologicalrule lb. note;flightanddeath,x42,x43; of, 3o6. sendsEpiphaniustothe Visigoths,Neyss(Neisse),cityin Silesia,viii. ,73. lb. note. Nic_a,seeNice. Nepotian,nephewof Constantine,iii. , Nice, in Bithynia, gymnasiumand 2x8. theatreat,i. , 56note;burntbythe Nepetianus(conSul), ii. , _o9 note; Goths,ii. , 35; councilof,iii. ,33_; iii. ,2x8. its canonS,concerningsynods,lii. , Nepthalites(Ephthalites), or White 329note;emperorelectedat, iv. , Huns,seeEuthalites. x82;synodat, A. D. 451,viii. ,x57; Nero,Emperor,i. , 92, xx8, x2xnote; reducedby Andronicus,3o4; secconspiracyagainst,9x; character ondcouncilfavoursimageworship, of, xox; desiresto abolishtaxes, 350; metropolisof the Obsequian 21o;saidtohaveburnedRome,iii. , theme,ix. ,43note;pillagedbythe x8sq. ; introducesmusicalcontest Paulicians,x. ,x3; SeljukconqueSt at Olympia,xii. ,x25note; farein of, x79andnote;capitalof Roum, hisreign,x88andnote, x8o; Crusadersnear, 2x2; beNerva,Emperor,i. ,94; administration sieged by the Crusaders,237; of,iii. ,27. taken by AlexiusComnenus,lb. ; Neshri,Ottomanhistorian,xi. ,ao3note. Conradat, 28o note; Theodore Nestor,Russianchronicleascribedto, Lascarisat, xi. ,io; empireof,_. ; x. ,51note. panicof citizensof, causedbythe Nestorianheresy,suppressedby PUt- Tartars,x54; takenbytheTurks, cheria,v. ,3_3; controversyinthe x59andnote; MirzaMe. hemmed East,vi. , 207. at, zo3. Nestorians,opinionsof the, viii. , x84 Nicephorium,or Callinicum,townof, sqq. ; schoolof, at Edessaclosed, Julianat, iv. , x2x; ix. , 28onote; x86; missionsof the, in Tartary, pillagedbythe Carmathians,299. India,China,It8; under the ca- NicephorusI. , Emperorof Constantiliphs,x9o;inTranSoxiana,ix. ,133 nople,viii. , 8 note; characterof, note; friendlyto the Mahometan 243; financialadministrationof, government,232-3. ib. note; embassyof, to CharleNestorius,Patriarchof ConStantinople, magne,373; toHarounalRashid, viii. ,x34,14OSClq. ;heresyof,x4x-2; ix. , 280; clemencyto the Paul/condemnedby the Council of clanS,x. , xx; slainbythe BulgaEpheSus,x46; exileof,x5x;death, Hans,3_; expeditionagainstthe z53. Bulgarians,63note;treatyof,with Netad,battleof the, vi. , 76; position Bulgaria,64note;deathof,65note. of,/b,note. NicephorusII. , Phocas,Emperorof Neumann,C. , on the empirein the Constantinople,characterof,viii. , eleventhcentury,viii. ,28anote. a69andnote;death,27x;reduced Neuss,fortifiedbyJulian,iii. ,a73note; Crete,ix. ,308; Easternconquests, siegeof,xi. , 3o4note. 309; fortifiesBagras,x. ,_43note.

328 INDEX NicephornsIn. , Botanlates,Emperor Guiscardduke of Apulia,x. , of Constantinople,revoltof, viii. , xoo. 284; interviewwithAlexins,285; NicholasIII. , Marquisof Este,xi. ,26t revoltof,x. , _79- and note. NicephorusBlemmydes,his autobiog-NicholasllI. , Pope,xi. , 80; enmityof, raphy,xi. , 54 note; his quarrel to Charlesof Anjou,x_. ,94; his withVataces,57note. Bull,/b. note. NicephorusBryennius,revoltof, viii. , NicholasIV. ,Pope,xii. , xx8; [Ursini], 284; x. , x79; vanquished,viii. ,_ x2o; hispolicy,x2xandnote. 286; historyof,x. ,x6xnote. NicholasV. , Pope, xi. , 288; xii. , 6x; NicephorusCallistus,Greek of the foundsVaticanlibrary,xi. , 289; fourteenthcentury,accountof the failsto assistthe Greekemperor, deathof Theodosius,vi. , 37 and xii. , x6; recognisedby Greek nole. Church,2x, x68; Romerestored Nicephorns,son of ConstantineCo- under,x69. pronymus,viii. ,239sq. NicholasQuerini,Venetian,xi. , 3r. NicephorusGregoras,historian,xi. , 54 Nicodemus,bodyof,exhumed,v. ,xoo. note,96andnote,xx4note; onthe NicolansMysticus,Patriarchof ConQuietists,H9 note; on Cantacu- stantinople,viii. , 263andnote;x. , zene,x64no/e,296--7 notes. 34note. NicephorusMelissenus,rebellionof, Nicolo,S. di Lido,Islandof,Crusaders viii. ,286. imprisonedbytheVenetiansin,x. , Nicephorus,son of MichaelII. of Epi- 352note. rus, xi. , 58note. Nicomedia,forumand aqueductat, i. , Nicephorus,patriarch and chronicler, 56note; takenby the Goths,ii. , viii. , 243note; abridgmentof,ix. , 35,36; residenceof/¢Iaximianand xx7note. Diocletian,18o;abdicationofDioNleephorusXiphias,victoryof,overthe cletian,x92; Churchof,burnt,iii. , Bulgarians,x. ,35note. 66; Palaceof, burnt, 68; earthNicetas,son of ConstantineV. , viii. , quake at, 37x; pillagedby the 239. Paulicians,x. , x3; Seljuk conNicetas,sonof Gregory,lieutenantof questof, x79;Crusadersat, 236; Manrice,viii. ,85; marriesdangh- territoryof, invadedby Othman, terof Heraclius,86. "Jr;. ,x57. Nicetas,a Greekgeneralin tenthcen- Nicon,St. ,Lifeof,ix. , 308note. tury,xii. ,34note. Nicopolis,siegeof, ii. , x2 and note; NicetasChordates,historian,x. , x4o restoredby Julian, iv. , 4x note; note;defendsPhilippopolisagainst capitulatedto theGoths,33° note; the Franks,278 note; on Isaac propertyofPaula,v. ,205andnote; Angelus,336note,372;onflightof Goths at, vii. ,262; battleof, bethe Greeks,376; savedbyaVene- tweenTurksand Europeanallies, tian merchant,377andnote; nar- xi. , XTX. rative of, comparedto Villehar- Nicnsia,Cathedralof,x. , 266note. douin, 379; misfortunesof, 380; Niebuhr,his workon Arabia, ix. , 94 MS. of,in Oxford,382. note; hisvisitto MeshedAll, xo4 Nieetins,Bishop of TrOves,viii. , x77 note,xo7note. note. NigerPescennins,governorof Syria,s_ NicholasSpecialis,Sicilianwriter,xi. , Pescennius. 83note. Nika riotsat Constantinople,vii. , 23 Nicholas,Cardinal,correctstextof the sqg. ; suppressed,28. LatinBible,vi. , r98note. Nile, statueof, found at Rome,xii. , NicholasL, Pope, his quarrelwith 2o9-xo. Photlns,x. ,33z. Nile,navigationof the,ii. , x_6; v. ,289 Nicholas LI. , Pope, makes Robert note;risingofthe,ix. ,x75andnote.

INDEX 329 Nilus,Patriarch,xi. , x77 note. 231 note; his interviewwith the Nine, reverenceof the Tartars for my_- Negus, 232. terious number, xi. , 186 note. Noodt, treatise on Aquilian law, vii. , Nineveh, battle of, viii. , xx3; circum- 37z note, 383 note. ference of,/b, note. Noricum, i. , 28. Nini, battle of the fiver, ix. , 2o5 and Normans or Northmen, x. , 5o; invade note. Italy, 83; in Sicily,87; in Apulia, Ninus, date, i. , 251 note. 89; Italian conquests, Io2; conNishabur,royal city of the Seljuks, x. , quest of Sicily,xo5; extinctionof, 157; palace at, i58; taken by z46; serve under Romanus, z64. Zingis,vi. , i5; xi. , 138. Northern Sea (Baikal), iv. , 276. Nisabur,see Nishabur. Notaras, Lucas, Great Duke, xi. , 325; Nisavi,secretary of Sultan Gelaleddin xii. , 24; quarrelswith GiustiaixJ. ,133note. ani, 35; his fate, 53 s_/. Nisibis, i. , 244 note; capture of, by Notoria, official despatch, ii. , 62 Avidius Cassius, 264 note; be- note. siegedby Sapor, ii. , 42; meetingof Notitia Digmtatum, Hi. , 112 and note, theemperorsat, x72, 174; Siegeof, i39; Urbis Romae, v. , 75 note; by Sapor, iii. , 203; ceded by Jo- Imperil,13o note; of AncientGaul, vian, iv. , 161; taken by Zimisces, by De Valois and D AnviUe,28t ix. , 312. note; citic_ mentioned in, i. , Nitfia,Desertof, iv. , 207; tallbrothers 25 note. of, v. , 313 note; anachorets of, vi. , Noureddin (N_r-ad-Din), Sultan of I59. Aleppo,viii. , 299; war with ChrisNitzch,battleof, xi. , 306. fian. s, x. , 288 sq. ; conquests in Nivernois,Duke of, on politicalsystem Egypt, 292 sq. ; death of, 296. of Clovis, vi. , 2I 4 note. Novairi, ix. , 19I note. Nizam [al-Mulk], vizir,x. , 172; crimes Novatians, excommunicated, ii. , 325 and dismissalof, x75. note; persecuted, iii. , 334; e. _Noah, a prophet, his place in the Ko- erupted from penalties, 334 and ran,ix. , 39; seven precepts of, /b. note; of Constantinople, 404. note. Novels of Theodosius, v. , 340 note; of Nobadmor Nubians, ii. , 162; conver- Justinian, vii. ,338 sq. sionof, viii. , 208 note. Novempopulania,one of the sevenprovNobilissimus,title of, iii. , t8x and note. inces, v. , 286 note. Nobles,Roman, wealth of the, v. , 204 Novgorod, Russian capital, x. , 54 and sq. and notea; manners of, 2o6and note, 55; BorgaKhan at, xi. , 153. notea; character of, by Ammianus Nubia, Church of,viii. , 208,gq. Marcellinus, 207 sqq. and notes. Numerals,Arabic, ix. , 24i note. Nocera,in Apulia, Saracen colony at, Numerian,son of Carus (M. Aurelius), z. , 145. ii. , i29 and note; Caesar,13o; emNoga,Mogul chief, xi. , 154. peror,132; character, z4o; death, Nogaxet,William of, minister of Philip x4x. the Fair,xii. , 1o8. Numidia, i. , 32; council of bishopsin, Nogent,nearSoissons,battle of, vi. , 215 _ iii. , 335; ceded tnthe Vandals,v. , note. 354note; attackedby theSaxacens, Nohordates (Nohordares), iv. , i52. ix. , i98. Nola, retreat of Panlinus, v. , i5o note, Numidicus, Metellus, censor, i. , x92 N " 253; destroyed by Alaric, 254. note. othac,de,P. , xi. , 277note. Nuahirvan, seeChosroes. No_, plan of Rome by, xii. , 2t2 note. Nushizad, son of Nushirvan, vii. , 202 Nomius, ambassador of Theodosius to note. Attila,vi. , 36. Nymphmum,residenceof the Emperors Nonaosus,ambassadorof Justinlan, vii. , of Nice, xi. , 66 and note.

330 INDEX OAr. ,suburbofChalccdon,v. ,xxx; xsa;miscrablestateofItalyunder, synodofthe,3x3andnote. z53sq. ;resignsprovincestoEur_c, OasisofLibya,descriptionof,v. ,a96 2xx;defeatedbyTheodoric,3o9 rote;Timasiusexiledto,296;Nes- sq. ;capitulationanddeath,3_z, torinsexiledto,viii. ,x52note. 3x2and note. Oathsofthe Ancients,v. ,a35note. Odoth_us,invasionof, iv. , 335note. Obedience,passive,theoryand practiceOea,cityof, iv. ,a3xandnote. of,iii. ,287sq. Oenoe,in Pontus,ManuelComnenus Obeidollah(Obaid-A1Exh),governorof at, viii. ,3oo. Cufa,ix. , xo2; insults corpse of Ogli,Lazarus,_d. ,324note. lZlosein,xo4,x3xnote. Ogotai,GrandKhan,deathof,xi. , x49 Obelisk,of the Templeof the Sun,re- note. movedby Constantine,ili. , 245; Ogors or Varchonites,conqueredbythe placedin the Circusat Rome by Turks,vii. , i9o and note. Constantius,ib. andnote. Ogyges,cometsinhistime,vii. ,29aand Oblations,of the Church,ii. , 319s_ . note. Obligations,Roman law concerning,Ohud,battleof,ix. , 68andnote. Vii. , 366 $_q. Oil, distributionof, at Rome,v. ,2x8 Obsequium,fourthTheme,ix. ,a43and note;tax on,in Africa,ax9. note. Okbaibn Nail,seeAkbah. Ochrida,capitalof Samuel,the Bulga- Olahus,Nicholas,Archbishopof Gran, dan,x. , 35note. hisLifeofAttila,vi. , xnote. Ockley,authorof the Historyof the Oldmanofthe mountain,xi. , x43Saracens,ix. , zo4 note,x35note, Olearios,traveller,viii. , 58 note; on 240note. Novgorod,x. , 54 note. Octai,sonof Zingis,Khanofthe Mon- Olga, Princessof Russia,baptismof, gois,xi. , 14o;conquestsof, z45sq. x. , 68. Octavia,tragedyof Seneca,v. ,22i _otc. OlJbriones,Gallictribe,vi. , 58not_. Octavian,son of Alberic,PopeJohn iOlive,cultivationof the, i. , 67. XlI. , seeJohnXlI. Olivcnto,river,victoryof theNormans Octavianus,nameof Augustus,i. , 75. onthe,x. , 89note. Octavius,i. , 75note. OljaJ,wifeof Timour,xi. , z84note. OculnsPastoralis,_di. ,9x note. iOlybrius,Romanpatrician,vii. ,254. Odenathusof Palmyra,li. ,46, 5o, 53; Olybrius, senator,madeEmperorofthe Persianvictoric_of, 84,85; death, WestbyRicimer,vi. , x38; death, 85. I4I Sq. and note. Odenathus(?), Prince,ii. ,36note. Olympia&wifeof ArsacesTiranos[ArOdessus,M. ilesiancolony,seeMama. shak], iv. , 240and note,242. Odeum,restoredbyHe. rode. s,i. , 58and Olympias,daughterofAblavius,ix. ,a84 note. note. Odin,flightof,ii. , 6,7 andnote; Gib- Olympicgamesat Antioch,iv. ,9o. bon renounceshisearlierviewon, Olympiodorus,accountof Rome,v. , xii. , x92note. 335s_. Odo,Frangipani,marriesnieceof Era- Olympius,the philosopher,defends pea-orManuel,x. , x37. paganism,v. , 86andnote. Odo, Abbot of Clugny,his Life of Olympinsof Tralles,vii. , 5o. Gregoryof Tours,vi. , a6onote. Olympios,anof_cerofthepalace,under OdodeDeogilo,x. ,a74note. HonoriusplotsagainstStillcho,v. , Odoacer,sonof Edecon,commandsin x85 sq. ; dismissedthe ambassaItaly, vi. , x44; puts Orestesto dotsof Alaric,a3x; death, a32death, x45; reign, x45sqq. ; his Olympus,deitiesof,iv. , 5o. correctname, Odovacar,/b. note; Oman,d/strictof Arabia,ix. , 5. babolishestheWesternEmpire,x47; OmarI. , caliph[Omaribn al-Khatta], silvercoinof, lb. note; character, mosqueof, at Jerusalem,iv. , 80;

INDEX 33I conversionto Mahometanism,ix. , VIII. , xi. , 63; comparedwith 55; acknowledgesAbubeker,9a; judicialcombat,64note. reignand death,93; virtuesof, Ordinationof clergy,iii. ,318andnote. x14-5;conquests,xx6sff. ; founds Orestes,prefectof Egypt,persecuted Bassora, xa3; interview with byCyril,viii. , z38. Haxmozanat Jerusalem,x6xsq. ; Orestes,Romanpatrician,vii. , a54. mosqueof, 162 and note; Ma- Orestesthe patrician,ambassadorof hornet sopinionof, x09note; de- Attila,vi. , 24 sq. ; at Constautistroyslibraryat Alexandria,and nople,35; deposesNepos,142; Persian books, 183 sg. note; accountof, /b. sq. ; refusesto allmosqueof, at Jerusalem,x. ,3o3. videItaly, z44; put to deathby OmaxIt. , caliph,persecutesthe Chris- Odoacer,x45. tians,ix. , a33note; a45andnote. Orhihuela,givenbyTheodemirto the Omayya,seeOmmiyah. i Saxacens,ix. 22o. Ommiyah,familyof, ix. , 58; support Oribasius,physicianof Julian,iv. , xo Omayya,98; Syria under the, note. 17o; revoltof Arabiaand Persia Origen,ii. , 278note,3o6; accountof from,258sqq. ; fallof,261. thenumberof Christians,341;of Omortag,sexGiom Omortag. themartyrs,iii. ,36; triesto conOnagri,warlikeengines,vii. , x4aand vertMama a,5a; opinionsof,viii. , note. x74and note. Onegesius,favouriteofAttila,vi. ,17sq. ; Origenism,controversyin Egyptconwifeof,receivesAttila,3x. cexning,v. ,313note. Onulph,brotherof Odoacer,vi. , 146. Orlando(Rutlandor Rolando),viii. , Opadna,vii. , 69note. 361note. Ophites,ii. , 274note. Orleans,Dukeof, brotherof Charles Opilio,delatorofBoethius,vi. ,339note. VI. ofFrance,xi. , a43. Opima,iv. ,335note. Orleans,colonyof Alaniat, vi. ,43and Opis,iv. ,145. note; besiegedbyAttila,55, 56; 0ppas,ArchbisbopofToledo,ix. , 209, siegeof, raised,58; . _Egidiusdeat6 note. featsRicimerat,vi. , z3L Oppianlaw,vii. , 347 note. Ormusd,principleof good,i. ,a55,a56 OpsildanTheme,mutinyof, viii. , 233 andnote. note; besiegeAnastasins,ix. , 243 Ormuz,cityof,xi. , 187andnote. note. Orosins,ii. , 26; v. ,169; in Palestine, Opsolxens,vii. ,x3xnote. a56and note; historyof Africa, Optafianns,panegyricof, ii. ,a52note; a63 note; on an inundationof iii. ,176note. Rome,xii. , 19onote. Optatus,brother-in-lawofConstantine,Orpheus,Christianforgeryof, ii. , 347 iii. ,_73; hisdeath, i94. andnote. OptatusofMilevis,iii. ,4o5note. Orsini,sexUrsini. Oraor Opta, givenby Theodemirto Orthogrul,fatheroftheCaliphOthman, the Saracens,ix. , 2ao. xi. , 156. Oracles,iii. , 6z and note; abolished,Ortok,hereditaryEmirof Jerusalem, 41o. x. ,x89. Orangoutang,iv. , 237note. Ortokides,expulsionofthe,x. ,x89note. Orchan,son of the CaliphOthman, Ortous,territory,of, iv. , 28x. conquersPrusa, xi. , i57; con- Orvieto,takenbyBelisarius,vii. , 157; quests of, 159 sqq. ; marries bishopof, vicarof pope,x/i. ,i32, daughter of Cantacuzene,163; 135,143. death,166. Osimo(Auximum),takenbyBelisarins, Orchoe,inAssyria,iv. ,xa7note. vii. , z57,x6xandnote. Orda,grandsonof Zingis,xi. , 187note. OsirL%Egyptiandeity,v. ,85andnote. Ordeals,trialby,abolishedbyMichael On_iglmi_tribeof,vi. , 275.

33z INDEX Osius,Bishopof Cordova,fii. ,3x2note, Otranto(l:Iydrus,Hydruntum),Greek 336; presidedat Councilof Nice, dialectspoken in, xi. , 276note; 365; banishment,387sq. andnote. capturebyTurks,_di. ,63andnote. Oskold,Slavhero,x. , 52 note. Otrar,massacreof Mogulsat, xi. , z37 Osnaburgh,bishopricof, viii. ,366. andnote;takenbyZingis,x38and Osrhoene,conqueredby Trajan,i. , 8; note; death of Timourat, 213. by Severusand Caracalla,266. Otter,onAfrica,ix. , 19xnote; travels Osset,or JuliaConstantia,in B_etica, in Turkey,x. ,24onote. fontat,vi. , _o3 andnote. Ottomans,originof,xi. , x55;etymology Ossian spoems,i. , x66andnote;ii. ,340 of name,z56note; eraof Ottoman note. Empire,158;theirconquestsunder Ostia,portof, i. , 65; takenbyAlaric, Orchan,/b. sqfl. ; coinageof the, v. , a35; descriptionof, 236note; ib. note; cavalry,ib. ; causesof an episcopalcity,ib. ; heldbythe succeSsof, z6znote;establishment Goths,vii. ,_52note; C:e. sariusat, of, in Europe,x65; conquestsof, ix. , 288; bishopsof, their partin underBajazet,x69sqq. ; threaten imperialcoronations,xii. , 67note; Constantinople,x77; attackConin the twelfthcentury,Iot. stantinople,2z3; besiegeConstantiOstius,L. ,firstparricidein Rome,vii. , nopleunderAmurathII. , 224sq. ; 373note. hereditarysuccessionandmeritof Ostrogoths,see underGoths. the, 225sq. ; educationanddisciOstrogotha,ii. , Iznote. plineof,227s_/. ;levytributeonthe Otasthesatrap,ii. , x66. Christians,/b. note; principleof Othmin,caliph,revisestheKoran,ix. , Ottomanlaw,that theSultansmay 42; reign,94; forgeddocument abrogatetreaties,xii. ,5-6. bearingthe seal of, 96 and note; Outlaws,in Gaul,iv. , z3 andnote. deathof, lb. ; recallsAmrou,x73. Ovid,i. , Io4note; 292note;hisFasti, Othm_. n,first OttomanSultan,reign, ii. , _82 note; descriptionof the xi. , x56s¢. Sarmatians,iii. , i86 andnote. Otho,RomanEmperor,i. , 94,135note. Oxford,numberof studentsat urdverOtho(Otto)I. , orGreat,Emperorof sityof, xi. , 274note. the West,viii. ,37zand note; re- OxusorGihon,river,vii. ,z96,2x4;ix. , storestheWesternEmpire,372Sfl. ;I x_9 andnote. nominatesthe Popes, 376; wax Oxyrhynchus,city of, monasteriesat, with the Hungarians,x. , 46 s_q. ; vi. , z6oandnote. defeats the Hungarians at the battle of theLech,47; Zurich PACATOS,hispanegyricof Theodosius walledin hisreign,xii. , 80note. the Great,v. ,43note. Otho(Otto)II. , Emperorof theWest, Pachomins,Abbot,in the Isle of TamarriesTheophano,viii. ,268and benne,vi. , i59, i6o. note; massacresthe senators,38z Pachymeres,George,historian,onOrand note;ix. , 348. deals,xi. , 6znote;hisPerspicuity, Otho (Otto) Ill. , removesbonesof 63note,96and note. Boethius,vi. , 34zand note;revolt Pacts,in Romanlaw,vii. , 366. of Romeagainst,viii. ,382; defeat Pacuvius,hisBrutusandDecius,v. ,22x of, bythe Saxacens,x. , 79; spu- note. riousdiplomaof, xii. ,85note. Paderborn,camp of Charlemagneat, Otho (Otto) of Freisingen,historian, viii. ,358; bishopricof, 365. onItaliancities,viii. ,384note;x. , Padua,destroyedby Attila,vi. , 68; •,8o note; leadspartof Conrad s wealthof, 69. army,/b. note;his Works,xii. , 95 Pmanius,ii. , x59note. note; on the Franks,98note. P_ederasty,lawsagainst,vii. ,39os¢q. OthodelaRoche,DukeofAthensand P_tus,Lucas,xiL,x7znote. Thebes,xi. , 9o. P_etns,Thrasea,i. , z72note.

INDEX 333 Pagan,history of the word, iii. , 473, 4t4 Palmologns, Theodore, xii. , 4x nole. note. Pakeologus, Thomas, despot of the Paganism,toleration of, by Constan- Morea, xi. , 3aa; son of, xii. , H; tine and his sons, iii. , 409 sgq. ; pays tribute to Turks, 57; war restoredby Julian, iv. , 63 sqq. ; fall with his brother, 58; fleesto Italy, of, under Jovian, x76 sq. ; toler- 6o. ated by Valentinian, 202; account Palamas, Gregory,histheologicalviews. of, under Theodosius, v. , 7x sqq. ; xi. , xx9 and note. prohibited, 9° sqq. ; extinguished, Palamites, seePalamas. 94; in the fifteenth century, xi. , Palanders or horse tra. nsports,x. , 357 29x. and 36I note. Pagans,zeal againstthe Christians,iiJ. , Palatine,Mount,i. , 79,80 note; vi. ,ta 5. 6x; favoured by Julian, iv. , 70; Palatines, iii. , x36; auxiliaries, iv. , 3 they persecute the Christians, 94 note; or borderers,in Africa,vii. , sq. ; of the West, v. , 94; tolerated xxo. by Theodosius, lb. and 95; con- Palermo, sack of, by Genseric, vi. , 85; version of, under Justinian, viii. , taken by Belisarins,vii. , z29; Sarax7x. tens at, ix. , 285 and note; silk Pagi, chronologyof, vii. , t37 note. manufactureat, 327 note and 328; PagusArebrignus,i. , 67 note. coronationof Roger at, x. , x29. Painting,in Italy, in sixthcentury,viii. , Palestine, i. , 3x; invadedby the Isau42. rians, v. , 3x8; taxes remittedafter Palacesof the Merovingians, vi. , 25o. Samaritanrevolt,vii. , 42 and note; Palmologi,end of the, xii. , 57 sq. and monasteries built by Justinian in, note; of Monfferrat, extinction of 57; corruptionof, 382 note. the, 57 note. Palestrina (orPrmneste),overthrownby Palmolognm,Andrew, son of Thomas the Romans, xii. , xox; seat of the despot of the Morea, xii. , 60 and Colonna,xx9. note. Palimbothra (Patna),seeK. innoge. Palmologus, Andronicus, Regent of Palladium, i. , t87; v. , 72 note; of Constantinople,xi. , _4x ; receives Edessa,viii. , 3t4; broughtto ConThessalodica, 25x. stantinople,3x7 and note. Palmologtm,Andronicus, son of John, PaIladins, Bishop of Iielenopolis, dexi. , x76; blinded, ib. ; made Era- fence of St. Chrysostom, v. , 3o8 peror, ib. note; vi. , xI5 nol:e. Palmologus,Demetrius, despot of the Palladins, sonof the Emperor Petronius Morea, xi. , 322; pays tribute to Maximns, marries daughter of Turks, xii. , 57; civil war with his ValentinianIII. ,vi. ,87. brother, 58; submits to Turks and palladins, messenger,v. , 33o. receivesislandsin North/Egean, ib. palladius, a notary,sent to Africa, iv. , Palmologns,George,viii. , 286; defends 232 and note. Pallas, son of Evander,discoveryof hisDurazzo, x. , xx2; besieges Bari, x36; death, x39. i tomb, xii. , 209 note. Palmologus, John, brother of Michael pallas, i. , xx5note. VIII. , xi. , 34 note. Pallium, xii. , 204 and note. Palmologus,John, son of Andronicus, Palma,A. Cornelius,lieutenantof Traxi. , :76; blinded, ib. ; made Era- jan, ix. , :_ note. peror, /b. ; held Selymbria, x77; Palmaxia,Isle of, Sylverinsat, vii. , 246 civilwarwith Manuel, lb. ; receives notes. Ottoman support, x79- Palmyra, ii. , 46 and note,88 sqq. Paheologus, Manuel, son of Thomas, Paltogles, admiral of Mahomet II. , xii. , despot of the Morea, xii. , 60. 77 note. Palmologus,Michael, lieutenant of the Pambo,the monk,vi. , 772 note. Emperor l_,qanuel,x. , x36. Pampeluna,taken by Euric, vi. , x3x.

334 INDEX Pamphronius,Roman patridan, hls Paphlagonia,invaded by legionaries, missionto Constantinople,viii. ,_6. ilL, 4o4; sdzed by David ComPamphyHa,peasantsof,resistTribigild,: nenus,xi. , xxnote. v. , 299. Papianilla,wifeofSidonius,vi. ,x32note. Pan,Altarof,onthe Palatine,vi. ,x25. Papias,theGreat,officeof,ix. ,338note. Panaetius,friendof Scipio,vii. ,322note. Papinian,Praetorianprefect,i. , 159; Panaretos,Michael,historianofTrebi- deathof, i73; legalworkof,vii. , zond,xi. , xxnote. 32o; authorityof,326andnote. Panchatantra,collectionof fables,vii. , Paplrius,i. , 79note;vii. ,304note. 203note. Papirius,Pmtus,friendof Cicero,vi. , Pandects,or Digestof Justinian,vii. , x55note. 315,33° andnotes,33x; Latinof, Papua,Mount,vii. , xH andnote. 333 note; faintlyrememberedat Para,sonof ArsacesTiranes,acknowRome,xii. ,86. ledgedKingof Armenia,iv. , 24z; Pandetaxia,iiJ. ,26note. adventuresof, 242 sqq. ; assassiPandulphof Capua,x. ,86note. natedbytheRomans,244andnote. Pandulphof Pisa,x. , x93 note; _di. , Parabolaniorvisitorsof the sick,iii. , 74note. 3x9,32o; viii. , x37andnote. Pandulph,nephewof Hughof Alatri, Paradise,Persiangarden,vii. , 99and x. ,x93note. note;of the Moslems,ix. , 52-3. Paneasin Palestine,imageof Christat Parakcem_menos(chamberlain),viii. , viii. , 3x2andnote. _ 27",note. Panhypexsebastos,title invented by ParaspondylusZoticus,xi. , 3xxnote. AlexiusComuenus,ix. , 337- Paris, Matthew,on BaldwinII. , xi. , Pankalia,battleof, viii. , 274note. 29note. Pannoniaor Hungary,descriptionof, Pax_,descriptionof,iii. ,277sq. ; palace i. , 28; submitsto Romanyoke, of the baths(Thermarum)at, iv. , x42; settlementof Suevi,ii. , 30; 8 andnote;siegeof,byClovis,vi. , colonyof Sarmatiausin, iii. , z9o; 2x6 note; Universityof, xi. , 274 invadedbytheQuadi,iv. , 252;falls note,xii. , x26,x63 andnote. to theEmperoroftheEast,v. ,339; Parker,E. H. , A ThousandYears of Aetiusin, 353; occupiedby the the Tartars,iv. , 267note;on the Ostrogoths,vi. , 77; campaignof Turks,vii. ,x86note. Majorianin, xxonote; evacuatedParker,J. H. ,Archeologyof Rome,_. , bytheGoths,vii. , x77. x43note. PannoniaSecunda,vii. ,59note. Parma,reducedby the Greeks,viii. , Pannonians,characterof,i. , x42. 28. Pan. sophiaor Irene,viii. , x58. Parricide,lawsconcerning,vii. , 373. Pansophia,matronofFlorence,v. , x69 Paros,Isle of, takenby the Venenote. tlans,xi. , 5 note. Pantheonat Rome,i. , 55 note;made Parsus,i. ,256note. intoa Christianchurch,v. ,84and Parthia,subduedby Trajan,i. , 8; by note. Artaxerxes,252; feudal governPantomimes,Roman_V. ,221,222and mentin,26x,262; summaryOfwar note- withRome,263. Panvinias,Onuphrius,xii. ,2x2note. Parthians,subduedby Artaxerxes,i. , Paolo,Fra,lli. , 88note;onthe Papal 25z; warsof, withthe Romans, System,xi. , 253note;xii. ,x76no/¢. 263,264. Papaloannu,Ch. ,onActsof theCoun- Partholanus,thegiant,i. , 278note. cilof Florence,xi. , 298note. PaschalII. , Pope,his coins,xii. , 68 Papencordt,Dr. Felix, his Life of note; seditionagainst,75sq. ;conRienzi,xii. , x28note. testwith the Colonna,xI7. Paper,manufactureof, at Samarcand,Paschalchronicle,accountof Attila,vi. , ix. , i34 andnote. 40note;viii. ,96note,97note.

INDEX 335 Pasitigrls,orShot-el-Arab,iv. , x27note. persecutionof, anddeath,lii. ,400 Patarain Lycia,vii. ,246note. andnote;viii. ,203. Paternus,Proconsulof Africa,iii. ,38. Paul,Warnefrid,the deaconof Friuli, Patras,BasilI. at, viii. ,257. on the Lombards,viii. ,6 note,9 Patriarch,titleof,vi. , x95note. note. PatriaPotestas,vii. ,340sg. ; limitationPaula, pupilof Jerome,familyof, v. , of,342sq. 200andhole,aox; ownedNicopPatricianof Rome,title grantedbythe otis, ao5; founds hospitaland SenatetoCharlesMartel,viii. ,344. i monasteriesin Palestine,vi. , x64; Patricians,Roman,revivedbyConstan- epitaphof, by Jerome,lb. note; fine,iii. , z*9, x2o and x2z and generosityof, tothemonks,x72. notes;viii. ,342sq. andnote. Paulicians,Christiansect, description Patriciate,Roman,viii. , 343- of, x. ,x sq9. ; derivationof name, Patricius,Augustin,historian,xi. , 27x 4 note;seventeachersof the,lb. ; note. beliefand worshipof, 6 sq. ; in Patricius,nameof,vi. ,x49note;titleof, Armeniaand Pontus,8 sq. ; perin Burgundy,26*andnote. secuted,9; revoltof, **; in Asia Patrick,saint,vi. , x49note. Minor, x3; in Thrace, xs; in Patripassians,iii. ,353note. Italyand France,*8andxii. , 78; Patrocles,admiraloftheKingsofSyria, settledamongthe Albigeois,x. , fleetof, in the CaspianSea,viii. , x9 sq. 54note- Paulinusof Bordeaux,v. ,279,28oand Patzinaks,invasionof, underConstan- note. fine IX. , viii. , 278note; besiegePaulinus,Suetonius,i. ,4 note. Kiev,x. ,63note. Paulinus,Bishopof Antioch,v. ,22. Paucton,M. , his M_trologie,vii. , x45 Paulinus,Bishopof Nolo,v. , ,5o note, note. x68_wte. PaulCatena,ill. , 222; iv. ,35- Paulinus,secretaryof Ambrose,v. ,36. Paulof Cilicia,desertsto Totila,vii. , Pauiinus,masteroftheoffices,execution 262. of,V. ,328. Paulthe Civilian,i. , x6o; vii. , 320; Paulinus,PatriarchofAquileia,viii. ,*3. authorityof, 326. Paulinus,Bishopof TrOves,banishPaul,commissionerin Africa,iii. ,405 ment,iii. ,387. andnote. Paullini,familyof the,conversionof, Paul,orthodoxbishop of Constanti- v. ,79. nople,banished,iii. , ,366; flight, Paullina, wife of Maximin,i. , 22z 4ox. note. Paul,the deaconof Aquileia,on the Paulus,Julius,onRomanlaw,vii. ,360 SevenSleepers,v. , 36z note; on note. theprovincesof Italy,vi. ,69note. PaulustheSecutor,i. , ,2* and note. Paul,thehermit,iLL,33note. Pautalia,vii. ,60note. Paul,brotherof the PatricianOrestes,Pavia, battle of, ii. , 78; pillagedby va. zn___" Attila,vi. ,68; Honoriusat,v. ,x87; Paul ,Pope, . om A adegoo,,b. Odoacer,,4,,emy,xi. ,29xnote. buildingsof Theodoricat, 327; Paul IIl. , Pope, vandalism of his Boethiusat,339; takenbyCharlenephews,xii. , 2o7 and note. magne,viii. , 339; burnt by the PaulIV. ,Pope,xii. , x76note. Hungarians,x. ,44. Paulof Samosata,Bishopof Antioch,Paximacia,monasticloaves,vi. , zTo iii. ,56; his degradation,$8; x. , note. 4_mte. Peace,templeof, at Rome,seeRome. Paul the Silentiary,vii. , 52 note, 54 Peacock,a royalbird,xii. ,6xnote. note. Pearlfisheryin Britain,i. , 4 andnote; PaulofTanis,PatriarchofAlexandria inOrmuzandCapeComorin,i, 69

336 INDEX note;largepearlin caliph streas-Pentapolis,theinland(in Italy),_i. , uryatCairo,x. ,290note. 29. Pegasians,legalsectofthe,vii. ,325and Pentapolis,the maritime(in Italy)of note. Ravenna,viii. ,29,345Pegasus,slaveofDomitian,vii. ,325andPepin,sonofCharlesMartel,delivers note. Rome, viii. , 337 sq. ; Kingof Pegu,kingdomof,conqueredbyZingis, France,340sq. ;coronationof,_. xi. ,I42. and note; donationsof, to the Pehlvilanguage,i. , 253note. Pope,344sq. ; recoversNarbonne, Peking,besiegedbyZingis,xt. ,x36and ix. , 257note. note; royalresidenceoftheKhans, Pepin,John,Countof Minorbino,xli. , 14onote,x52. x49andnote. Pela_an controversy,v. ,r76 andnote. Pepper,priceof,v. ,_29note. PelagianisminBritain,v. ,285andnote; Pera,iii. ,xox; Latinsin,x. ,37x; Genodecayof, vi. ,uo7. i ese in,14. ,z2o; siegeof, z24sg. ; Pelagius,papal legate in Egypt, x. ,l powerof thecolonyat, x27;royal 3x4; his measuresat Constanti- schoolof the Turks at, xL,228. nople,xi. , ao. Peratea,inCrimea,xi. , xxnote. Pelagius,archdeacon,embassyto Gothic Peredeus,murderedAlboin,viii. ,x6. camp,vii. ,253andnote;appealsto Peregrinus,the philosopher,ii. , 3o2 Totila,254; Pope,ib. note; viii. , note. I76. Perennis, ministerof Commodus,i. , Pelagius,Prmtorianprefect,oppresses iz2andno/e. the peopleof Pavia,vi. , x52note. Perfectissimus,rank of, iii. , I_5 Pelamides,or thunnies,iii. , 98note. note. Pelham, Mr. , on Arrian, vii. , 2x3 Pergamus,ancientsplendourof, i. , 63 note. andnote; libraryof, v. , 85no/z; Pella,Nazarenechurchat,ii. , 271and taken bythe Saracens,ix. , 243. note;vi. , 3oxnote. Peristhlava,Sviatoslavat,x. ,63note. Pellegrini,onGreekdialectof Calabria Perinthus,i. , x53; Belisuriusat,vii. ,94. xi. , 276note. Periplus,of Sallust,vii. , 2x3 note;of PellegrinoCamillo,historyofthe Lore- Arrian,lb. bards,x. ,75note. Perisabor,or Anbar,ontheEuphrates, Peloponnesus,stateof,ineightheentury, destroyedby Julian,iv. , x3oand ix. ,323sqq. ; citiesandrevenueof, note. 325; manufactureofsilkin,326-7; Perjury,Roman lawconcerning,vii. , familiesof, transportedto Con- 373. stantinople,xii. , 55; conditionin Peroun,godof thunder,x. , 7x. fifteenthcentury, 58 and note; Perozes,Persianphysician,vii. , 2o3. Albaniansin, ib. ; conqueredby Perozes,Kingof Persia,iv. ,a83;death, Turks,/b. vii. , 68s_/. and note;Nestorianizm Pelso,lake,ii. , 222and note; vi. , 299 of, viii. ,_87. note. Perpera,silvercoin,xi. , 3xnote. Peltmium,plagueat,vii. ,_96;takenby Perpignan,vi. , _34note. Chosroes,viii. ,90; takenby Am- Perron,Cardinaldu, onearlyChristian rou,ix. , x74; evacuatedby Shira- faith,v. ,xo4note. couh,x. , 29z. Persarmenia,v. ,333; revoltof,viii. ,52 Penance,public,ii. , 325. sqq. Pendragon,or Britishdictator,v. ,285. Persecutionof the early Christians, Pengwern,or Cmrmarthaen,vi. ,282. under Nero,iii. , x7 sqq. ; under Peniscola,BenedictXLII. at,xii. , x66. Domitian,24sqq. ; threemethods Penitentials,Greek,x. ,203. of escaping,45 sq. ; ten persecUPentadius,masterof theoffices,iv. , zx, tions,48; in secondcentury,5o; x2. bySeverus,50,5x; inthirdcentury,

INDEX 337 sr sqq. ; by Diocletianand his of Anjou,xi. ,82; proclaimedKing colleagueS,64 sqq. ; in Italy and of Sicily,83. Africa,76sq. ; in the East,78sq. ; PeterBaxtholemy,visionofHolyLance freshpersecutionbyMa_m_n,8o; seenby,x. ,248sqq. endof,82. Peter,Bishopof Alexandria,v. , zz. Perseus,treasuresof,i. , 2o3. Peter,BulgaxianTsar, x. , x7note,63 Persia,foundationof Sassanidmort- note. axchyin,i. , 250sgq. ; religionof, Peterof Bulgaria,foundssecondBul253; extentandpopulationof,262; gacianldngdom,x. ,338. militarypowerof,27x; civilwaxin, Peterof Courtenay,Emperorof Conif. , x68; warbetweenSaporand stantinople,xi. , 22; captivityand Constantius,iii. , x99sqq. ; Chris- death,23andnote. tiansof, protectedbyConstantinePeterGnapheus,Patriarchof Antioch, 3H; JuLianinvades, iv. , 123; viii. ,r65-6andnote. peace with Theodosius,v. , 33z; Peterthe Great,Tsarof Russia,iii. , underKobador Cabades,vii. , _96 x78; vii. ,73note;fleetof, in the _q. ; accessionof Chosroes,i97; Caspian,viii. ,54note. provinceof, x99; endless peace Peterthe Hermit,x. , x9_; proclaims withRome,2o5; waxwithRome, first crusade,_92 sq. ; leadsthe viii. , 5° sqq. ; anarchyafter the first,2o9;flightof,2t2; shirksthe deathofChosroes,55sqq. ; Chris- fast, 247. tianityin, z85sq. ; Shiiteschism Peter,brotheroftheEmperorMaurice, in, ix. , 94 and note; Sophisof, viii. ,74. xo6and note; conqueredby the PetertheNotary,v. , 189note. Saxacens,z27sqfl. ; Seljuksin, x. , Peter,the Patrician,if. , x72note;amx76; underSangiax,287; under bassadorto Itaiy,vii. ,x3o. Mohammadof Caxizme,xi. , x37; PeterPhocas,defeatedbySclerus,viii. , conqueredby Holagou,I43; de- 274nole. dineofMogulKhansin,155;con- PetertheReader,murdersHypati_hviii. , queredbyTimour,x86sq. i39. Persona,Christopher,translatesworks PeterdeRupibns,Bishopof Winchesof Procopins,vii. ,8 note. ter,xii. ,1o2note. Pextlnax,Emperor,L, 123note;reign, Peter,St. ,visitto Romeof,if. ,3x7and x24sqq. ;employmentsof,I24nole; note;trophiesof, at Rome,v. ,97 death,_3_,x4onote; funeraland sq. ; apparitionto Attila,vi. , 74; apotheosisof,I47sq. Epistlesof,rejectedbythePauliPertlnaxHelvins,i. , i72 and note. cians,x. ,5andnote;churchof,at Perusia(Perugia),takenhy Belisarins, Rome,sparedbytheGot]as,v. ,243. vii. ,152; besiegedbyTotila,26i; Peter of Navarre,gunpowdermines aretreatof Popes,xii. ,xo7. i usedby,xii. ,27note. PescenniusNiger,governorof Syria,i. , IPeterofCorbaxa,xii. ,io6. I39, x42; waxwith Severus,zSOPetitdela Croix,hishistoryof Zingis, sqq. ;death,x54. xi. , x33note; of TimurBeg,i8o Pessinus,iv. ,68note;altarofCybeleat, note. xo3. Petra,Arabiantownof, vii. , 22xand PestchersU,or CryptMonasteryat note;siegeof,222sq. Kiev,x. ,73note. Petrarch,on CharlesIV. , viii. , 391; Pestilenceat Rome,underCommodus, epistleof,totheDogeofVenice,xi. , i. , xx6. x27; revivedlearninginItaly,277 Petancius,Felix,on Varnacampaign, sq. ; Greekstudiesof,278; onSt. xi. , 3z1note. Bernard,xii. , 78 note; on forPeta_, onthe Trinity,iii. ,348note; eignersin Rome,xi5 note;charvm. ,x22note. acterandcoronation,x23sflq. ;re, Peter,KingofArragon,recelvesChaxles lationsto Kienzi,x29,x39;letter VOL. XII. -- 22

338 INDEX of consolationto theColorma,A. D. Phasis,town,ii. ,33note. x347,J48 note; advice to a car- Pheasant,aroyalbird,xii. ,6xandaole. dinalonreformingRomaaagovern- Pheretimeof Cyrene,viii. ,xa note. ment,xSOnote;regardedRienzias Phidias,transformedinto a magician, a poet,xSaandnote;invitesErn- xii. , ao9. peror CharlesIV. z54, x55 and Philadelphiain AsiaMinor,siegeof, note; exhortsPopestoreturnfrom raisedby RogerdeFlor,xi. , 86; Avignon,x55s¢. ; influenceof, on in fourteenthcentury,iI 3 note; Porcaro,172; onthedespoilingof captureof, by the Ottomans,16x Romanbuildings,195 and note, andnote; FredericBarbarossaat, ao_-_andnote;onthe population x. , a79. of Rome,z98andnote; onthein- Philadelphia,in Syria,fortificationsof, differenceof the Romansto their ix. , _37andnote. monuments,208andnote. !Philagrius,prefectof Egypt,iii. ,379. Petronius,father-in-lawof Valens,v. ,: Philaretns,governorof Antioch,x. , x88. x8x. PetronlusMaximus,seeMaximus. Philelphus,Francis,sophist,xi. , 272 Petronius,P. , Diariesof,xii. , 168note, andrwte; Latinodeof,xii. ,2noee, xSo. 48; on siegeof Constantinople, PetrusdeGodis,xii. ,i74note. xT-xS. PetrusPisanus,his Livesof the Popes, Philemuth, commands the Heruli x. , x93note. againstTotila,vii. , 266. Petrus Tudebodos,historyof, x. , x99 Philip, Pr_torianprefect,under Gornote. dian IIL, i. , _44,245 and note; Petulants,corpsof,iv. , 3 andnote. reign,246sg¢. ; rebellionagainst, Peucini,ii. ,xo. ii. , 3; death, ib. ; protectedthe Peyssonel,M. de, ii. , 3x note; xii. , 59 Christians,iii. ,53. note. PhilipII. , of Spain,xii. , x76note. Pezaro,Inscriptionat,ii. , 3_note. Philip,ambassadorof ConstantiusII. , Pfeffel,his Abr6g_Chronologiquede iii. , 2z5, 400; Przetorianprefect, l Histoired Allemagne,viii. , 39° 4oz. note. PhilipI. ofFrance,quarrelwithUrban PhaHala%occupiesCyzicus,ix. , 237 LI. ,x. , r96sq. note. PhilipAugustus(II. ) of France,inthe Phalanx,Grecian,i. , zT; Macedonian, East, x. , 306sqq. ; instituteSfm_d of Caracalla,x77. forI-IolyLand,342. Phallas,horseof Heraclius,viii. , rx4. PhilipIII. of France,xii. ,Ho note. Phanagoria,dry of, Justinian II. at, Philip IV. (the Fair) of France,his viii. ,a29. strugglewithBonifaceVIII. and Phantastic system,invented by the BenedictXI. ,xii. , zo8. Doeetes,viii. ,xa7. Philipof Macedon,hisrevenuefromthe Pharamond,v. ,278andnote. goldminesof Thrace,iv. , 3oI. Pharandzdm,wifeof ArsacesTixanus PhilipMouskeS,Bishop of Tournay, (Arshak),iv. ,240andnote. xi. , a7note. Phaxas,chiefof the Heruli,vii. , 9a; Philipof Swabia,AlexiusAngelusvisits, letterto Gelimer,x_asq. x. ,34z; Bonifaceof Monfferratat Pharezdak,poet,viii. ,x73. courtof, 35xnote. Pharisees,sectof the,ii. , 287. PhilipofTarentum,xi. , 38note. Pharos,lighthouseat Constantinople,Philip,Dukeof Burgundy,joinsHunviii. ,a54note. garian crusade,xi. , 304; triesto Phasis,river,ii. , 33, xxx; vii. , ax4; organisecrusadeagainstTurks, fortificationson, 22o; Grecian xfi. ,6xandnote. colonyof, 236; I-Ieracliusat, viii. , Philip,Kingof Germany,befriendsthe x3x. youngAlexius,x. ,354

INDEX 339 Philipof Courtenay,xi. , 23. Phoenicia,i. ,3z; templesof,dest_ oyed, PhilipofSide,iii. ,60,6xnote. iii. ,410. Philip,son of BaldwinII. , xi. , 30; Phoenicianinscriptions,vii. , xt8 no/. . betrothedto daughterof CharlesPholoe,Mount,retreatof Alaric,v. , of Anjou,80; allieshimselfwith x43. Charlesof Anjou,8x. Photius,Patriarchof Constantinople, Philippa,daughterof Raymondof v. , 3_3 note; educatesLeo VI. , Poitou,viii. ,298. viii. ,262; ix. ,368sq. ; onconvcrPhilippicns,sex Bat danes. sionof the Russians,x. , 68; theoPhilippopolis,siegeof, ii. , x2, 13 and logicaldisputesof,330note. note;capturedbytheRussians,x. Photius,son of Antonina,vii. , x68; 65 note; destroyedby the Bul- exileof,x69; arreststhePope,/b. garians,xi. , x9; takenby Murad no*; arrestsTheodosiusat EpheSultan,xi. ,xo6nate, sus, 17o; captivityof, x7I; bePhilippus,v. ,217note. comesamonk,z7a. Philo,ii. ,264note;philosophyof,iii. , Photius,thePatrician,viii. ,x7x. 340andno/*. Phrsntzes,seePhranza. Philocrene,hattie of, X. D. I33o xi. , Phranza,George,Greekhistorian,on x59. captivityof Bajazet,xi. , 207sq. ; Philopatris,dialogue,ii. , i3t, r32note; accountof,250andnote;embassy iii. ,8 note. fromConstantinePalmologusinto Philosophers,Grecian,i. , 37; attitude Georgia,323sqq. ; greatlogothete, to Christianity,ii. ,345sq. ; fanati- 326;oneventsofthesiegeofConcismof the neo-platonic,iv. , 55; stantinople,xii. ,tx andnote;humatthe courtof Julian,iv. , 68sq. hersthe citizensof Constantinople, Philosophumena,of I-Iippolytus,dis- 28--9andnote;fortunesaftercapcoveredatMountAthos,viii. ,I27 tureof Constantinople,47-8;fate note. ofhis children,48sfl. ;hisenmity Philosophy,divine,of the monks,vi. , toNotaras,53note. 257sq. ; at Athens,vii. , 75, 76; Phrygia,settlementof Ostrogothsin, studiedbyArabians,ix. , 272sq. ; iv. , 335; descriptionof, byClanin MiddleAgesat Constantinople, dian, v. , 299 note; rebellionof 368sqq. Tribigildin,299sq. Philostorgius,partialtoGallns,iii. ,23x Physiciansamongstthe Arabs,ix. , _75 note; Arianismof, 35° note; on sq. electionof Valentinian,iv. , x8o Picardy,originof the name, x. , x9x note; on Pulcheria,v. , 324note; note. heresyof,vi. ,xSonote. Picenum,Johnthe Sanguinaryat, vii. , Phflostratus,biographerof Herodes x52sq. ; faminein,282andnote. Atticus,i. , 57note; Lifeof Apol- Pictures,viii. ,32xsq. loniusof Tyana,iii. , 62note. Pierleone,Jordan,xii. ,85note. Philothens,a Macedoniansectary,vi. , Pierleoni,familyof, xi. , 75note;their _a4. fortress,xii. ,_oonote. Phinens,palaceof, iii. , 9a andnote. Pigmiesof Africa,. seePygmies. Phirouz,a Syrianrenegade,x. ,244. Pilate,Pontius,procurator,iii. , x8,48, Ph/egon/i. ,348note. 49andnote. Phoc. ma, infourteenthcentury,xi. ,ix3 Pilgrim,the, and the Paradise,two note; Genoesecolonyat, 22xs9. galleysof the Latins,x. , 375and Phocas,a centurion,electedemperor, note. viii. ,78andnote;putsNiauriceto Pilgrimages,Christian,iii. , 75,76and death,8o-I;character,8a sq. ; note. statueof,82note. Pilgrinus,missionaryin Hungary,x. , Phoc_,seeBardas,Co_tine, Leo,i 49note. Nicephorus,Peter. Pilpay,fablesof,vii. ,2o4andnote.

34o INDEX Pilum,descriptionof the,L, :6 $¢. and 2o2sg. note;studyrevivedinIta]L note. xi,,286. PincianGates,battle of, viL,146and Platonists,new,see Neo-PIaton/sts. note. ]Platon/sts,theologyof,i. , 37,38. Pinna marina, manufactureof silk[Plautianus,ministerof Severns,i. , xSS. from,vii. ,33andnote. Plautilla,Fulvia, daughter of PlauPipa,a Germanprincess,ii. ,3o. tianus,i. , x58,x59andnote. Pirmus,li. ,37,255andnote. Plebeians,Roman,iii. ,xx9 sg. Pisa, Pandectsat, vii. , 335and note; Pletho,GeorgeGemistus,xi. , 286note, merchants of, expelled by the 29r note; on stateof the Morea, GenoesefromtheCrimea,xi. , i23; xii. ,58note. Councilof,253. Plinthas,ambassadorto the Huns,vi. , Pisan/,Venetianadmiral,xi. , x26. 3. Pisidia,praetorof,vii. , 65; peopleof, Pliny,the elder,ii. , :64; I-tJst. Natur. , ib. note; ManuelComnenusin, 348; on monks, vi. , 358 note; viii. ,293. on use of silk, vii. , 32; on the Pisko,Julius,on Sca. nderbeg,_fi. ,3x6 Arabs,ix. , x6. note. Pliny,theyounger,i. , xo2,2xo; examPiso, Calpurn/us,it. , 5osq. ines the Christiansof Bithyaia, Pissumena,motherofLa. ta,v. ,_26note. it. ,3o3; lettersto Trajan,333and t_istisSophia,Gnosticwork,preserved note; edictagainstthe Christians, in Coptic,it. ,277note. iii. ,_onote;proceedingsagainstthe Pityns,siegeof, bythe Goths,it. , 33; Christians,27,28;ontheaugurate, Abuudantiusat, v. ,295and note; v. ,73. desert of, 337; fortificationsof, Plotiua,Empress,i. ,95. vii. ,2x9andnote. Plotinns,thephilosopher,i. , 24. 4note; PinsII. , Pope,see/EneasSylvins. ii. ,48andnote,398andnote;iv. , Placentia, battleof, it. , 78; Avitus 52. made bishop of, vi. , xoo, Tot; Plumbatae,weapons,it. , 382note. synodof,x. , :95. Plutarch,histreatiseof IsisandOs/ris, Placidia,sisterofHonorius,adventures iii. , 3:4 note; hisLives,ix. , 277 of, v. ,258sq. ; marriesAdolphus, note;onthetribunes,xli. ,x4onote. /b. ; marries Constantius,335; Pocock,on dynastyof the Almondars, fliesto Constantinople,336; ad- ix. ,x79note;hisDescriptionofthe ministrationof,340sqq. ; banishes East, z53note. Honoria,vi. ,52; death,78; sepul- Podest_officeof,xii. ,92andnote. clareat Ravenna,lb. note. PoetLaureate,_di. ,:25, x27. Plaxidia,youngerdaughterof Valen- Poetovio(Pettau), iii. ,233. tin/an III. , restoredby Genseric,Poggins,his dialogue,De Varietate vi. , x:8; marriesOlybrius,_38. Fortua_e,xi. , 206and note; disPlague,at Rome,v. , 227; under Jns- courseof,fromthe Capitoline,_i. , tin/an, vii. , 296-300;under Con- 182andnote,206andnote. stantineV. ,viii. ,237note. Poimanenos,battleof, xi. , 24. Plane-trees,cultivatedbythe andents, Poitiers,battleof,seeVouillt. v. ,254andnote. Pol,St. ,Countof,joinsfourthcrusade, Planudes,Maximns,xi. ,39note. x. , 355,367; Lordof Demotica, Plat_a, bulwarksof, restoredby Jns- xi. , 8. tin/an,vii. , 6L Pola,iii. ,233; Belisariusat, vii. ,248. Platoof Studion,viii. , 24xnote;ban- Poland,ravagedby the Mongols,_6. , ished,243note. 746. Plato,onImmortality,li. ,285; hisRe- Polemo,Kingof Colchos,vii. , 239and public,3x9 and note; systemof, note. beforeChrist, iii. , 339 s_. ; d/a- Polenta,Romanfamilyof,xii. ,205logues,translatedinto Persian,vii. , Politian,Angelo,xi,, 289.

INDEX 34z PoHenfia,battleof,dateof, v. ,I54 sq. 45sq. ; policyand ambition,324 and note; sack of, by Theod- sqq. ; regardedas firstmagistrates oric,vi. , 98. in Romc,334; assistedbytheCarPollistore,_di. ,x51 no/t. lovingians,340;donationsofPepin Polovtsi,nameof the tribeof Uzi, x. , andCharlemagneto,344andnote; _65note. donationofConstantineto,347sq. ; Polybius,onRome,vi. , 288and note, finalseparationof,fromtheE,astern 289" empire,354sq. ; transfertheemPolycarp,martyr,relicsof, v. ,99note. pireto Charlemagne,356;method Polyeuctes,Patriarch of Constanti- of theirelection,375s¢. ; poverty nople,dismissesTheophano,viii. , andvicesin ninthand tenthten271andnote. turies,377; allegedgift of ConPolycuctes,Martyr,storyof, ill. , 44 Stantineto,xii. ,69; authorityof,in P" note. Rome, /b. sgg. ; appealsto, 7z; olytheism,i. , 36note;weaknessof,ii. ,j electionof,_o3 sgq. ;absencefrom 3_8;iv. ,5x; revivalof,v. ,xo2sq. ] Rome,xo6s_¢. ; finalreturnof Poraoerium,Rienzi s confusionwithI GregoryXI. ,_57s_. ; triplecrown P pomarmm,xu. , i3z note. I or tiaraof,158-9 andnotes;rh,al ompeianus,Claudius,i. , xtz,x22,*26. ] popesofthegreatschism162sqq. ; Pompeianus,prefectof Rome,super-_ absolutedominiono[ Rome,z75 stiffenof, v. , 288note. | sq_. ; their governmenti77 sq. ; Pompeianus,Ruricius,commandantof| careofpublicbuildings,2resq. Verona,/f. , 231; death,233. [Popov,N. , workonLeoVI. ,_4ii. ,u6x PompeytheGreat,i. ,79andnote;villa note. of, vii. , x3onote; at the CaspianPoppma,Nero smistress,intercedesfor Sea,viii. ,54. theJews,iii. ,22,23. Pompey,nephewof the EmperorArias- Populationof Europe,i. , 53, 54and tasius,vii. , a6; death,28. note; of Rome,v. , 222sqq. See PomponiusL,_etus,v. , ,9I note;_ underRome. foundedRomanAeademy,xi. , 29x Porcaro,Stephen,his conspiracyat note. Rome,xii. , x72sq. ; death,_73. Pomponius,Mela,i. , 4note;onMauri- Porcelain,Chinese,v. ,2*xnote. tania,ix. ,z98note. Porcianlaws,i. , 79Pomptinemarshes,drainedbyTheod- Porphyriaus,the Ariansso called,iii. , oric,vi. , 328sq. note; vii. , 135. , 365. PonteMolle,seeMilvianBridge. Porphyrio,whale,vii. ,58andnote. PontifexMaximus,i. , 39,83; titleof, PorphyriusOptatianus,seeOptafianus. adoptedbyChristianemperors,iii. , Porphyrogenitus,meaning of, viii. , P 4x3and note. 264. ontiffs,ambitionof the Roman,ii. , Porphyry,neo-Platonist,ii. , x98and 317; I_. ganpontiffsestablished, note;iv. , 52. ii/. ,8x; jurisdictionof, v. ,72and PorphyryofGaza,v. ,3x8nole. note. Porticoof theStoics,vii. ,76. Pentimlo(pous Aureoli),ii. , 60 and Porto,cityof,vii. , I47; Gothsevacuno/_" ate, x52,25_note;colonyof CorsiPontius,hisLifeof Cyprian,iii. , 37 cans plantedin,by LeoIV. , ix. , note. 29o; bishopsof,theirpartin iraPontus,kingdomof, Alaniin, ii. , xxo; pedalcoronations,_i. , 67note;in Christianityin,333; Paulidansin, twelfthcentury,xoL x. ,8; kingsof, ib. note. Porter/a,or customs,i. , 207. Pope,Alexander,Homer sIliad, i. , 37 Portuguese,inAbyssinia,vii. ,23rnote; note. viii. ,2xosq. ; in SouthPersia,xi. , PopesofRome,titlegiventotheRoman x87note. pontiff,vi. ,331; theirpower,viii. , Portus,seePorto,

342 INDEX Porus,i. , _68Twte. PragmaticSanctionof Justinian,vii, Posides,eunuchof Claudius,iii. , 224, a8i note. note. Prague, universityof, founded by Possidius,Lifeof St. Augustin,v. , 350 CharlesIV. ,viii. ,39° nole;Rienzj note. at,xii. , xSI. Posthumian,a Gallic monk,vi. , z6u Praxagoras,Li/eofConstantine,if. ,2o5 note;onmonasticinstitutions,x65 note. no_. Praxeas,heresyof, if/. , 349and note; Posthumus,generalofGallienus,ii. , 25 Faunsof,vii. ,z4anote. and note; emperor,5o, 54 note; Praxedis(Euprmcia,Eufrasia,Adelais), death,8x. wifeofHem-yIV. ,of Germany,x. , Postsandpost-housesundertheempire, x94note. i. , 64sg. andnote; post-waggons,Praxiteles,sculpturesof, i/. , 4o; transiv. ,6 note. formedintoa magician,xii. , 2o9. Potamius,quw. stor,inthe Gothiccamp, Pray, George,on the Hungarians,x. , v. ,238. 36note. Fotestas,in senseof municipalmagis- Preaching,freedomof public,iii. ,328 tratc,xii. ,92note. I sq. andnotes. Fotid_ea,destroyedby the Bulgarians,Prefect,Latintide,vi. , 245andnote. vii. , I84. :Prefectsof Romeand Constantinople, Poullaius,or Pullani,childrenof the vii. ,354note; of Romein middle Crusadersin Syria,x. , 262note. ages,xii. , 75note,88s_. Prmjecta,nieceof Justinian,vii. ,259and Presbyters,if. ,3_x. note. Presidents,seePra_. s. 2Or_positus,chamberlain,iii. , x43. Presidius,vii. ,:x55. Prw. ses,iii. ,xu8,735note. Prespa,capitalofSamueltheBulgarian, P_ns, Bruttius,iii. ,u6note. x. ,35note. Prmtextatus,Archbishopof Rouen,vi. , PresterJohn, storyof, viii. , x89and a62note. note; xi. ,730andnote. Pr_textatus,Proconsulof Achaia,iv. , Priarius,KingoftheAIamanni,iv. ,307. 2ou,axxand note. Prideaux,Dr. , i. , 353 note; I. Meof PrmtorianGuards,i. , an; of Augustus, Mahomet,ix. ,53note. 8x; discontentunderPertinax,_a9; Priesthoods,pagan,hereditary,ilL,3z8 assassinatePertinax, x3x; de- note; imposturesof,v. , 88. scriptionof, x33; numberof, /b. Primate,titleoftheBishopofCarthage, note;claimsof, x35; sellthe era- vi. , 95 note. pire, /b. ; disgracedby Severns, Primogeniture,vii. ,360. *47; remodelledbyhim, _58;pay, PrincepsSenatus,i. , 77, z27note. x75 note; murder Ulpian, x98; Principateof Augustus,i. , 77 sqq. ; rebelagainstMaximus,u4o;revolt transformedbyDiocletian,if. , :45 of, underMaximus,34x; reduced note. by Diocletian,if. , x82; elevate Printingin China,vii. ,38. Maxcntius,uxx; oppose Maxim- Prior,chiefofmilitiaat Rome,xii. ,zTo. fan, u2o; increasedby Maxen-Prison,wi/eof Diocletian,if. , a43;emflus,3a8; rebelagainstConstan- bracesChristianity,iii. , 59. fine,_35;suppressedbyhim, u38. Priscian,vii. ,80. Praetorianprefects,officeof, i. , _58; Priscillian,Bishopof Avila,execution dvil andmilitarypower,iii. , xux; of,v. ,27andnote. four prefects,x2asqq. ; of Rome Priscillianists,persecutedbyMaximus, and Constantinople,_a4. v. ,u7sq. ; tenetsof,a8. Przetortutelaris,institutedby Marcus Priscus,acceptsthe purplefromthe Aurelius,vii. ,354note. Goths,ii. , x3" Preetors,Roman,i. , 84note. Prlscus,engineer,fortifiesByzantium Pr_evalitana,provinceof,vii. ,xx3note. againstSeverus,i. , x53andnote.

INDEX 343 Priscns,generalof theEmperorMan- funeral,x69;adventuresof,v. ,x86 rice,defeatstheAvars,viii. ,75- sqq. ; death,x92. Prisens,Helvidius,i. , xTanote. Procopins,the historian,accountof Priscus,philosopher,iv. ,_54. testamentof Arcadius,v. , 3t9; Priscus,thehistorian,hismentionof testimonyuncertain,vi. ,8xnote; Eudocia,v. ,329note;concerningaccountoftheVandalicporsecuAttila,vi. , x note; onthewarsof tJon,x9onote;onbattleofVouill6, theHuns,xxnot_; meetsa Greek 233note;onBritain,284andnote; inthe campof Attila,i8; accom- characterandwritings,_. ,7,8and partiesMaximinto Attila, 24; noted; his Edifices,8, 56 note; accountof,ib. note. SecretHistoryof,82note; serves Priscus,Thrasea,i. , x72andnote. underBelisarins,89sqq. ; defence Priulf,Gothicleader,iv. , 338,339and of archery,92 sq. ; confessionof note;death,/b. dishonesty,x28 nole; chronology Proba,widowof theprefectPetronins, of, x32note; corrupttextof, x37 v. ,249;flightof,to Africa,fib. note; descriptionof temple of Probole,orProlatio,ill. ,346note. Janus,x43note;mlgqionto CamProbus,chiefof the Anicianfamily, pania, iSi andnote; on the Slav. ,203sg. and noted, vonians,x8anote;estimateofnumProbus,generalof Aurelian,ii. , 88; bersdestroyedbythe Barbarians, opposesFlorianus,xta and note; x84andnote;oninvasionofSyria, characterof, zI3; reign,lb. sqq. ; 2o7; onLazicwar, 2r3 note; on victoriesof, xz6sqq. ; wallof,xao; troublesinAfrica,235note;escapes triumphof, 125; death,XaT. fromCarthage,u37; on stateof Probus,Praetorianprefect,iv. , 253sq. Africa,/b. ; historyof the Gothic andnote. war, 242note; in Corcyra,262 Processionof the HolyGhost,x. ,328 note; allegedmedicalskillof,297; sq. ; discussionconcerning,at Fer- on the plague,lb. ; on religion, raraandFloreuce,xi. ,265. viii. , x69; seemsto promisoan Processionsof the Greekemperors,ix. , ecclesiasticalhistory,x76. 343sq. Proculians,legalsect of,vii. ,324s_. Proclas,the qumstorof Justin,vii. , 3; Proculus,L. ,AradiusVale. flus,ilL,x3a opposestheadoptionof Chosroes,note. x97andnote. Proculns,prefect,sonof Tatian,v. ,zto Proclus,proposesto burnthe fleetof andnote;death,xro. Vitalian,vii. ,49- Proculus,revoltof,li. ,x25. Produs,St. ,boyof, viii. ,x65note. Proculus,Romanlawyer,vii. ,325. Proclus,thePlatonist,vii. , 78; Lifeof, Procurators,iii. ,x46note. ib. note. Professors,at Athens,vii. , 75,76. Proconnesus,Isleof,Hi. ,rouandnote. Profuturus,generalof Valens,iv. , 3o_. Proconsul,titleof, assumedbyAugns-Promotus,mastergeneralof theinfantns,i. ,77; of Asia,Greece,Africa, try,iv. ,302; exiled,v. ,xog. Gaul and Syria, 8i; of Asia, Promotus,presidentof Noricum,amAchaiaandAfrica,underConstan- bassadorto Attila,vi. , 43 note. fine,iii. ,*26andnote. Proportins,vii. ,3to andnote. Proconsularis,provinceofAfrica,ceded Property,Romanlawof,vii. ,355sq. totheVandals,v. ,354note. Prophets,of earlychurch,ii. ,3xo. Procopia,consortof MichaelI. , viii. , Propontis,or Seaofblarmora,descrip244s_. tionof,iii. ,94Procopins,father-in-lawof Valens,v. , Prosper,chronicleof, v. , x7t. 295; father of Anthemins,vi. , Proteaored,iii. , 350andnote; mutiny xu2. of,underJovius,v. ,234. Procopius,"kinsmanand generalof Proterius,patriarchofAlexandria,tourJulian,iv. , xao;conductsJulian s der o/, viii. , I61--2.

344 INDEX Protestants,iii. ,288; x. , 2_sqq. !Pugione,a,Cleander srifle,i. , tz6nOte. Protosebastos,titleinventedbyAlexius Puls,du,Pierre,xii. , xo8note,x63nOte. Comnenus,ix. , 337- Pulcheria,sister of Theodosiusthe Protospathaire,Byzantineofficer,ix. , Younger,Augusta,v. , 32x,322; 340andnote. characterand administration,/b. Protostrator,Byzantineofficer,ix. , 340. andnote;religiousopinionsof,322; . Protosymbulos,namegivenbyTheoph- educatesTheodosius,324; Eraonesto thecaliph,ix. , 203note. pressof the East, vi. , 37; puts 2_rotovestiare,officerof the Byzantine Chrysaphiusto death,/b. ;marries emperors,ix. , 339. the senatorMaxcian,lb. ; death Provinces,Roman,i. , 24sq. ; govern- and canonisation,tx9 and note. mentof, 44; divisionof theLatin Pulci,MorganteMaggioreof,xi. , z92 andGreekprovinces,48; division! note. of,betweenemperorandsenate,8x; PuleRudbar,orHyrcanianRock,viii. , oppressedbyMaximin,222; gov- 58andnote. ernorsof, underConstantine,iii. , Pullani,or Poullains,x. ,262note. x28s_ . andnote. s;SevenProvinces,Punicidiom,i. , 47. v. , 286andnote; assemblyof the Punishments,capital,revivalof, vii. , Seven,ib. 287andnote. 377sg. Provincials(Provencals),x. ,2x8. Punjab,Timourin,xi. , xgr. Prudentius,booksagainstSymmachus,Pupienus,i. , 24Inote. v. , 78 note; againstgladiatorialPurim,Jewishfeast,iii. ,5note. combats,i6o andnote. PurplechamberoftheByzantinepalace, Prusa,bathsat, i. , 56note; takenby ix. ,333the Goths,ii. , 36; Vetranioban- Purplecolour,Phmnician,vii. , 3° and ishedto,iii. ,2r3; reducedbyAn- note. dronicus,viii. ,3o4;conquestof,by Purpleorporphyry,viii. ,264. Orchan,xi. , z57. See Boursa. iPurpurius,ilL,336note. Prussia,Gothsin,ii. , 8. Purser,Mr. L. C. ,i. , 87note. PrussiansinvadeBritain,vi. , 271. Pus_eus,iv. , i26. Prypec,river,ii. ,9. Pydna,vi. ,3oxnote. Psalliction,orthe scissors,namegiven Pygmies,v. ,237, 238andnote. to Alexanderthe Logothete,vii. , Pylades,a dancer,i. , x37. _46. :Pyramids,Egyptian,xii. , x88andno¢¢. ]Psalmody,iii. ,397sq. iPyramus,river,viii. ,xo8note. ]Psellus,Michael,instructorof MichaelPyrrhic dance,i. , t4 andnote. VII. , viii. ,284; ix. , 37xnote; re- Pyrrhus,vii. ,z4o. vivedstudyof Plato,xi. , 086note. Pyrrhus,the Monothelite,viii. ,223. ]psellustheelder,ix. , 37Inote. Pytheaz,of Marseilles,ii. ,7note. ]psephina,tower(Neblosa,Castellum P/sanum) at Jerusalem,x. , 257 QtL,mLsubduedbyM. Antoninus,i. ,99, note. 3ozand note; warswithCommOPsylli,Africantribe,vi. , x26note. dus,1o9sq. note;receivethe SarPtolemais,or Acre,iii. , 326and note; matians,iii. ,90; subduedbyContaken by Saxaceus,ix. , x68; see stantius, 246 sq. ; oppressedby Acre. Marcellinus,iv. , _52; invadePanPtolemies,libraryof, v. ,85note. nonia,/b. ; appealto Valenrinian, PtolemyI. , S6ter,ii. , x89note. 255. ]ptolemyLI. ,]PhJladelphus,dearscanal, Quadriburgium(Schenkenschanz),forix. , t87 note;navyof,ix. ,352note. ; tiffedbyJulian,iii. , 273note. ]ptolemyIlI. , Euergetes,inscriptionof, Quadrivium,ix. , 37xnote. atAdulis,vii. ,37note. Qu_zst/ones,vii. , 384. Ptolemy,Romansenator,viii. ,382. Qu_estors,iJJ. ,x45-z47andnotes. l_udentius,Africansubject,vii. , 88. Quarto-decimans,seeAudians.

INDEX 345 Quierzy,assembliesat,viii. ,338. Ranzanus,Peter,onCorvinus,xi. ,3z5 Quietists,seeHesychnsts. note. Quindecemvirs,v. ,72. Raphael,hispictureoftheapparitionof QninqueGentanei,ii. , x6onote. SS. Peterand Paulto Attila,vi. , Quintianus,Bishopof Rodez,vi. , 23o 74 and note; his frescoof the andnote;lifeof,ib. battleof Ostia,x. ,289note;findQuintilianbrothers,i. , zza. ingofhiscotfin,xii. , x93note,212. Quintilian,the critic,ix. , x86note. Rasaphe,or Sergiopolis,tombof SerQuintilius[M. Aurelius Claudius], gius andBacchusat, viii. ,66and brotherof Claudius,li. ,69, 7° and note. note. Rashdall,H. , on universitiesin the QuintusCurtius,i. , 242note,268note. middleages,xi. , 274note. Quirites,i. , aoonote. Ratchis,duke,viii. ,8note. Ratiaria,magazineof armsat, v. , t47; RxccA,palaceof Harunal-Rashidat, destroyedbytheHuns,vi. , ra and ix. ,280; seeNicephorium. note. Racine,v. ,J42note. Rat/ono/es,ili. ,x46note,x48andnotes. Ra_kion Slavonianstruggleswiththe Ravenna,navalstation,i. , 23; besieged Turks,xi. , _68note. byMa. ximian,ii. ,2x3; accountof, Radagaisus,or Rhodogast,in league v. ,x6iandnote,sq. andnotes;StilwithAlazic,v. , iSi note; invades ichoslainat, x88; enteredbyArItaly, x66;besiegesFlorence,x68; daburiusand Aspar,337; arsenal threatensRome,x69; hisdefeatby of,restoredbyMajorian,vi. , xzi; Stilicho,/b. ; death, x7x,x82. besiegedbyTheodoricthe OstroRadbod,Kingof the Frisons,vi. , z87 goth,3xx; buildingsof Theodoric note. at, 327note; takenbyBelisarius, Radiger,Kingof the Varni,vi. , 285. vii. ,x6x,_63andnote; Nursesat, RadulphnsCadomensison miracleof _67; marshesnear, lb. note;exthe HolyLance,x. , 25i note. archateof, viii. ,23; setonfireby Raga:,or Rei, princesof, viii. ,57and Justinian II. , 232 note; sedition note; ix. ,J27; x. , x58. concerningimageworshipat, 33_ Ragnachar,dominionsof,vi. , 2x3 note. _ sq. ; Greeks expelledfrom, /b. ; Ragusa,i. , 28; takenbytheSaracens,! subduedby Astolphus,336 and ix. , 285note;treatyof,withMu-] note;mosaicsof,givento CharlerodSultan,xi. , x66note. marne,346 note; marblestaken Rahdi,theAbb _sid,ix. ,305. from,to AIXla Chapelle,aSi. ,_95 Rainulf,count,leaderofthe Normans, andnote. x. , 86and note; receivesSiponto Ravennika,parhamentat,xi. , 2xnote. andMountGarganus,9° note. Raymond,Count of Toulouse,viii. , Ralphof Coggeshall,x. , 3xonote. 292; takespartin thefirstcrusade, Rama,kingdomjoinedtoHungary,xii. , x. ,x99,2r8; marchto Constantir63note. nople,225sq. ; relationof,toKing Rama,submitsto Saracens,ix. ,x68and ofFrance,23x; atDoryla_um,238; note;Crusadersat,x, 254; battle illnessof, 24o; at Antioch,247; of,3oonote. guardianof theHolyLance,249; Ramadan,Mahommedanfast,ix. , 48. expeditionintoSyria,253;atsiege Rametta,takenbytheSaracens,ix. ,285 ofJerusalem,256;savesthegarrinote;battleof,x. ,288. son,257; refusescrownof JerusaRamlah,seeRama. lem,258note;deathof,lb. Ramusio,hishistoryoftheconquestof Raymond,Countof Toulouse,in thirConstantinople,x. , 385note. teenthcentury,hisheresy,xii. ,xxo Randnitz,xii. , xSx. note. Rondo,chiefof the Alamanni,enters Raymond,Countof Tripoli,treachery Mentz,v. ,2r6. of,x. , 299-30o.

346 INDEX Raymonddes Agiles,onlegendof the Republic,Roman,nameof,confinedto HolyLance,x. ,25x_ote. theLatinprovinces,v. ,278. Raynal,Abb_,hisHistoiredesdeu_Resa/na,Persiansdefeatedby MhiIndes,iii. , 309note; hiscriticism theus,i. ,=44note. onMontesquieu,409. Resmancipi,vii. ,358note. Rayy,seeRag_c. Restartor Arethusa,iv. , 88note. Razis,Arabianphysician,xi. , 2Ionote. Restitutus,sub-deacon,confessorwho Recared,sonandsuccessorofLeovigild, spokewithtongues,vi. , x99. conversionof,vi. , 2o4,265. Restore,or Rostam,hero,vii. ,2o2note; Rechiaxius,Kingofthe Sueviin Spain, romanceof Restoreand Isfendiar, messageto Theodoric,vi. , 97; de- /b. ,SeeRustan. fearedby Theodoric,98- Resurrectionof the dead, li. , _96; Recitach,son of Theodoric,son of churchofthe, onCalvary,iv. ,79; Triarius,vi. , 304note. Mohammadanbeliefin, ix. ,49s_. Red Sea,part of MareRubrum,ix. , 2 Retiaxius,i. , z=x. note. Retz, Cardinalde, his descriptionof Reformation,Protestantcharacterand Conclaveof x665,xii. , 3o5note,sq. consequencesof, x. ,2z sqq. note. Re]ormatores,councilof the Seven,xi. , Revenue,total underAugustus,i. , 2o6 xTonote. andnote;ofthe CbxistianChurch, Reggio,conqueredbyRobertGuiscard, ii. ,3_=,323. x. , zoo. Rex,titleof,x. ,279note,s_. RegiaPotestas,i. , 82note. RexRotate,yell. ,x63note. Regilianus,Emperor,ii. , 5o, 54 note. Rex versuum,xfi. ,z=5note. Reginaldof Ch_tiUon,x. , 300andnote. Rhadagast,v. , x66note. Regnum,seeTiara. Rhmtia,i. ,27; ii. , zx6;invadedbythe Rehimene,provinceof, ii. , 375note. Goths,v. ,z53andnote;Alamanni Reindeerin Germany,i. , 276. in,vi. , 2z9note. Reinier,brotherof Marquisof Mont- Rhazates,generalof ChosroesH. , viii. , ferrat,x. ,355note. zx3. Rei,seeRag_. . Rhegium,taken by Totila, vii. , z6_; ReisEffendi,principalsecretaryof the ColumnaRhegina,viii. , 28 and sultan,xi. , 3x8. note. Reiske,xi. ,290. Rheims,takenbytheGermans,v. ,x75; Reland, treatiseon the spoilsof the occupiedbytheHuns,vi. , 55note; templeat Jerusalem,vi. , 9° note; siegeof, by Chlodwig,216 note; onMahomet,ix. , 5xnote;onwars baptismof Clovisat, 22zandnote. of Mahomet,64note;ontheHoly Rhetoric,studyof, encouragedbyValLand,x57note. entinian,iv. , i99; vii. ,75. Relies,worshipof,v. ,99; tradein,x. , Rhine,freezingof the, i. , _75; seven 385; xi. ,3° sq. postsof Julianonthe,iii. ,273and Remigius,Bishopof Rheims,vi. , 22o note; fortifiedby ValentinianI. , andnote; epistlesof, /b. iv. ,217; crossedbytheSuevi,VaaRemigius,masterof theoffices,v. , 232. dais, Alaniand Burgundians,v. , Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus, his x74. characterof Aetius,vi. , 42nole. Rhodanus,chamberlain,iv. , z98note. Renaudot,Abb6,viii. ,2o7note. Rhodes,Isleof,conqueredbyChosroeS, Rennel,Major,hismapsand memoirs viii. ,9x; attackedbySaracens,is. , of Asia, vii. , 35 note; maps of! xTxand note; colossusof, lb. ;reHindostanxi. , x93 note. ducedby John Vatac xi. , 24; Rennes, subduedby the Britonsof: subjecttoMichael, esconqucred72; Armorica,vi. , 275. bythe Turks,z6o_q. Renungiatio,i. , 85note. Rhodope,ridgeof mountains,iv. , 3oz Repentance,doctrineof,ft. ,3oo. note.

INDEX 347 Rhodosto,AndronicusandJohnPal,z- enceat,betweenJoviusandAlaric, ologuSat,xi. , _77. 234; Britishbishopsatthe CounRhccteum,cityof,iii. ,96. ellof,285note;takenbyJohnthe Rhyndacus,river,ft. ,36. Sanguinary,vii. , 153; siegeof, by Riada,battleof,x. ,46note. the Goths,r55. Rialto,Islandof,x. , 345. Rinaldo,heroof Tasso,x. ,2x9 note. Riazan,cityof, takenbythe Mongols,Riothamus,Britishchieftain,sailsup _. , x46note. theLob e,vi. , x33. Ricci,G. , vi. ,343note. R/paille,hermitageof, nearThonon, RichardI. of England,in the East,x. , xi. ,27xandnote. 303,306sqfl. ;treatywithSaladin,RipuarianLaw (Lex Ribuacia),vi. , 3xx sq. ; conquersCyprus,338; 24oandnote. his answerto Fulke of Neuilly,Ripuariansor Riparii,joinTheodoric 342-3. againsttheHuns,vi. , 58andnote; Richard,CanonoftheHolyTrinity,x. , Franks,territoryof,vi. ,ax4note. 3xo note. Rizzo,Antonio,shipof, sunk bythe Richard,Countof Aversa,x. , 95. Turks,xii. , xi andnote. RicharddeSt. Germano,x. , 3x5note. Roads,Roman,i. , 63,64andnote. Richardof Cirencester0i. , 6 note;v. , RobertofCourtenay,Emperorof Con283note. stantinople,m. , 24sq. Richardof Cornwall,candidatefor Robert,Countof Flanders,letterof Romankingdom,viii. , 389note. AlexiusI. to,x. , 182note;in first Richomer,countof the domestics,v. , crusade,2x7; matchtoConstanti302; ambassadorto the Gothic nople,225,23o. camp,3z2 sq. ; re, eat of, at Robert,Kingof Naples,xii. , 195and Hadrianople,3x4. note. Ricimer,Count,familyof,vi. , xoo;de- Robert,Duke of Normandy,in first stroysVandal fleet,ib. ; deposes crusade,x. , ux7; marchto ConAvitns,/b. ; consentsto elevation stantinople,225; atsiegeof Nice, ofMajorian,xo3; causeshisdepo- 244; refusedcrownat Jerusalem, sifion,ix3; reignsundernameof 258note. Severus,H4; negotiationswiththe Robertof Paris,ascendsthethroneof EasternEmpire,H8; marrieshis Alexius,x. , u3xandnote. daughterto Anthemius,x22; de- RodericofToledo,ix. ,uH note,_x6note. fearedat Orleans,x3x; residesat Roderiethe Goth,vi. , 265; supplants Milan, x36; marchesto Rome thesonsofWitiza,ix-,u°9;escapes x37; takesRome,x4o; death,x4o, frombattleof Xeres,2_4; legend 14i. Of, 2X5 _lOte. Rienzi,Coladi, the Romantribune Rodocanachi,workof, onRienzi,a_i. , accountof,xii. , x29sqg. ; assumeS x28note. governmentof Rome,x32; tribune, RodostoorRh_edeStns,xi. , x6. x33;lawsof, /b. sq. ; taxationof, Rodugune,vi. ,286. x34; his Italianpolicy,x37 sq. ; Roesler,ii. , 74note. follies,_39; knighthood,x4xsqq. ; Rogatian,ConsularofTusevmy,vi. ,xo8 coronationof, x43; arrests Co- noge. lonna and Orsini, z44; fall and Rogatians,Donatistsectof,iii. ,338. flightof, I48sqq. ; at Pragueand Rogatus,fatherof Paula,v. , 2oi. Avignon,15x; senatorof Rome Roger I. , Count of Sicily,meaSures I52; deathof, xS4;his pyre,x85 Naples,vii. , x34note; introduces note;knowledgeof Romanantiq- silk manufactureinto Sicily,ix. , uities,2o8. 327• Rimini,councilof, iii. , 323 and note, RogerII. , greatCountof Sicily,con360sq. and note; confessionof, quersSicily,x. ,xo5sqg. ; reignof, iv. ,99; Alarlcat, v. ,i98; confer- z28sq_.

348 INDEX Roger de Flor, Catalan chief, account[ into xx6 provinces, iii. , 328; diviof, xi. , 85 note; Admiral of Ro-[ sion among the sonsof Constantine, mania, 86 note; made Cmsar, 88; [ x95, x96; Christianity the national death of, lb. [ religion, 308 sqq. ; treaty of Dura, Roger de Loria, Catalan admiral, xi. ,] memorable era in the decline of, 84• [ 162; division into East and West Roger, M. , his CarmenMiserabile,xi. , I under ValentinianI. , iv. , i85; fall x34 note. of, dates from reignof Valens,26x; R6hricht, his History of Jerusalem, x. , Dacia and Macedonia added by 27x note. Gratian, 323; decay of military Rollo, funeralof, x. , 84 note. discipline and disuse of armourin, Roman Empire, Holy, foundation of, v. , 69 sq. ; division of, betweenAtviii. , 356; divisionof the, 888 ^. D. , cadius and Honorius, 1o7sq. ; sepa37x sq. ; transactionsof the Western rate laws for Eastern and Western and Eastern empires,373 sq. ; elec- Empires, 339; Eastern Empire toral collegeof, 389 sq. note; aboli- abandoned to the Huns, vi. , i9; tion of, xii. , 66 note; relations of right of female succession, 53; emperorsto popes,lb. sq_. prophecy of the fall of, 83, 82 and Roman Empire, its decline, author s note; symptoms of decay in the Preface, i. , xxix sqq. ; in thesecond Western,82; extinctionof the Westcentury, _; boundaries under ern, vi. , x47 sq. ; observation on Augustus, 3; military establish- fall of, 287---98;weaknessof, under ment, x1 seq. ; naval and military Justinian, vii. , x75; regular force of, 23; extent of the em- strength of, /b. ; decline of, 235; pire, 34; population, 53 and note; transactions of the Western and union of, 54; number of cities in, Eastern empires, viii. , 373sq. ; cities 6i, 62 and note; refinement and of the Western Empire decayed,ix. , luxury, 68; eastern commerce of, 322; Revenue of the Eastern Era69 s9. ; felicityand declineof in sec- pire, 329; period of ignorancein, ond centurT, 7x sqq. ; condition 367 sq. ; revival of Greek learning after the battle of Actium, 75 sq. ; in, 368; decay of genius in, 372; imperial system, 86; happiest pe- want of national emulation in, 373 riod of, 99; sale of, by the prmto- s¢. ; restoration of, at Niczea, xi. , finns, x35 sq. ; civil waxsof, t49sq. ; 54; provinces of, in the fourteenth attempted divisionof, by Caracalla century, 313 note. and Geta, i69 and note; under Roman Island, ii. , ix3 note. Severus,x96; financesof, 202 sq_. ; Romans, number of, in the Punic war, want of hereditarysuccession, 2x6; v. , 399 and note; in Gaul, under decline of, 248 sq. ; limits of, under the Merovingians,vi. , 26J and note, Philip the Arabian, 248; invasion sqq. ; languageof, 262 sq. and note; of the Goths,ii. , 8 sq. ; division of, their fondness for the factions of under Diocletian, x49 and note; the circus, vii. , x9 sq. ; intercourse treaty between Diocletian and with the Greeks,306; name of, in Narses, x74 sqq. ; declineof the arts the empire of Constantinople, ix. , and letters, x96 sq. ; disturbances 366. after Diocletian s abdication, 200 Romanus I. , Lecapenns, commands sqq. ; six emperors, 2x8; under fleet, viii. , 264-5 and note; reign, Maximin and Licinius, 223; wax 265; rebellionof his children,266; between Constantine and Maxen- comparedto Pippin, 272 note. flus, 226 sqq. ; divisionof, between Romanus II. , emperor,viii. , 267; chilConstantine and Licinius, 245; dren of, 268. treaty of peace after the battle of Romanus III. , Argyros, emperor,viii. , Mardia, 249; united under Con- 276s_. stantine the Great, 260; divided Romanus IV. , Diogenes, marrieS Eudo

INDEX 349 cia, viii. , 282; deposed,283; his restorafionoftheForaof,247note; warsagainsttheTurks,x. , _64;de- sackof,bytroopsofCharlesV. ,25t featedby Alp Arslan,x66; cap- sq. ; laws for thereliefof, _62; tivityanddeliveranceof, x68. restorationof the city, 262,263 Romanus,sonof ConstantinePorphyro- andnote;sackedbyGenseric,vi. , genitus,ix. , 346. 89sq. ; MajorianprotectstheediRomanus,Count,inAfrica,iv. , 23xsqq. ; ricesof, xo7 sq. ; sackedby Ricichronologicaldifficultiesof the mer,x39sq. ;monasticismin,z6o; historyof,233note. underTheodoricthe Great,325 Romanus,governor of Bosra, ix. , sqq. ;citizensinviteBelisarius,vii. , x39. i37; siegebyVitiges,x38sqq. ;drRomanus,militaryduke,ambassador cumferenceof, z4oandnote;disto Attila,vi. , 43nole. tress duringthe siege,z46 rqq. ; Rome,Churchof, foundationof, if. , besiegedbyTotila,25osqq. ;fam317andnote;statisticsof,in third ine in,ib. ; takenbyTotila,254; century,337andnotes;underCon- byBelisarius,256sq. ; retakenby stantine,iii. ,398sqq. ; vicesunder Totila,26x; byNames,27z; five Vaientinian,iv. , 21o; acceptsira- siegesof, _Txand note; citizens ageworship,viii. , 324; discipline sendembassiesto Tiberiusand differentfromthat of the Greek Maurice,viii. , 26; duchyof, 29; Church,x. , 329; quarrelwith subjectto the exarehs,ib. sg. ; GreekChurch,33° sqq. ; corrup- depopulation,39 sq. ; preserved tionof, xi. , 252; greatschismof, bythe relicsoftheapostles,4i s!/. ; 162sqq. templesof,attackedbyGregory. I. , Rome,greatnessof, i. , 35; foreign 40; rcpublicof,332-3;territoryof creedsin,4° ; numberof citizens, theduchyof,333andnote;styleof 4x,42; freedomof,lb. sq. ; monu- the Romansenateand peoplerementsat, 54,55andnote;dateofits vived,334; attackedbytheLorefoundation,248note;threatenedby bards,335; savedbyPepin,337 theAlemanni,if. ,28; pestilencein, sg. ; separationfromthe eastern underGallienus,57; fortifiedby empire,355st. ; plunderedbythe Aurelian,79; seditionat, under Arabs,ix. , 286sq. ; ConstansII. Aurelian,97; DiocletianandMax- attemptsto restoreseatof empire iminian,firstemperorswhodidnot to, 364; siegeof, by HenryIII. livein, x79,x8o; Diocletianvisits of Germany,x. ,i22; SaracensunRome,x8o,x8x; Maxentiusresides derRobertGuiscardat,z24;cornat,226; Babylonof theprimitive paredwithConstantinople,xi. ,2o3; Christians,if. , 29x; destructionof, revolutionsat, fromthe eleventh predicted,lb. ; fireunderNero,iii. , century,:di. ,65sqq. ; Frenchand xS;prefectsof,x26;vicarsof,x27 Germanemperorsof,66sqq. ; aunote;visitof Constantiusto, 242 thorityof the popes,69sqq. ; St. sqq. ; councilof, 336; appealsto Bernard scharacteroftheRomans, Seeof Romesanctionedby the 77-8 andnole; restorationof the Councilof Sardica, 38z note; senate,consulsand tribunes,84 4o4templesat, iv. , 78note; in- sqg. ; of the Capitol,87; of the quiryconcerningmagic at, x92 prefectsof the city,88 sg. ; the *q. ; conversionof,to Christianity, revolutionof A. D. II9z, 92 note; v. ,77sqq. ;prosperityin theTheo- firstmunicipalstatuteof,lb. ;wars dosian age, 93 sqg. ; description withneighbouringcities,toosgq. ; of, 2o8sqg. ; populationof,22-,sq. popesresideat Avignon,xo9sq. ; andnole;houserent,224andno_e; noblesand baronsof, ix4 s_{. ; siegebyAlaric,225s99. ; second coronationof Petrarchat, x26sq. ; siege,235sfl9. ; third Siege,24x conspiracyof Rienzi,I32; city sqq. ; pillageand fireof, 243s99. ; underhisadministration,x33s_q. ;

350 INDEX taxationof, t34; populationin CmciliaMetella,tombof, xii. , z97 fourteenthcentury,x35 note,x98 note,200andnote. andnote;in sixteenthcentury,_. ; CampusMartius,xii. , z96. in eighteenthcentury,2zx note; Capitol)see below,underHills. Pope GregoryXI. returns from Castles: Torre di Bove,xii. , 2oo Avignonto, _57;state of, during note. Of the Brat/, 199 note. the greatschism,162sq. ; lastre- Cartularia,ib. Of theCenci,2oo volt of, z68; lastcoronationof a note. Of the Colonna,185note, Germanemperorat, 169; statutes_ 200 note. Of the Cosecti,x99 andgovernmentof,¢b. sqq. ;coun- note. Of the Frangipani,/b. dis of, z7Isq. ; conspiracyof Por-i Of the Pierleoni,75 note, 2oo caroat, 172sqg. ; lastdisordersof note. Of the Savelli,200 note. the nobles,x74; absolutelyruled St. Angelo,ii6, x85, 200 and by the popes, 175 s_q. ; taken note. byCharlesV. ,I76; authoritiesfor Catulus,vaultsof, xii. , 184. its historyin the fourteenthand Cestins,pyramidof,rdi. ,184. fifteenthcenturies,18osq. ; quar- Churches,shape of, xii. , 196. St. tieri (franch/ses)of, _79andnote; Angclo, r32. St. George, ib. Poggius descriptionof, 182sgq. ; St. John Lateran,lexregiain,330 herbuildingsandruins,_. ; decay and note,206. St. Mariain Ara of, 186sq. ; fourcausesof destruc- Cceli,87note,_41note. St. Maria tion, 187sqg. ; games at Rome, in Turri,67note. St. MariaMag204; bull-fightat, /b. sqq. ; bar- giore, z84 nole,206. St. Maria barismof the Romans,208sqq. ; SopraMinerva,i93 mote,z94note restoredunderMartin V. andhis (Pantheon). St. Paul, pilgrimage successors,21osqq. to, a rifleto absolution,zx2. St. Rome,New,iii. , iii, see Constanti- Peter,firstcoronationin, 67note; nople, pilgrimageto, a rifleto absolution, Rome,topographyandbuildings:- xx2,197; its defences,2oo; "the Amphitheatreof Titus, see Colos- most glorious"religionsstructure, seum. 21i. St. Stephen (in Piazzadi Aqueducts,_di. ,2x2. Pietra),x84note. Archesof: Antoninus,xii. , 199note. CircusAgonalis,xii. , 204andnote. Augustus,i84 note. Claudius,ib. Colosseumor Coliseum,xii. ,202sqq. ; Constantine, x84. Faustina, lb. usedas a quarry,206sg. Gallienus,/b. Julius Czesar,199 Columnsof: MarcusAntoniaus,xii. , note. Lentulus,184note. Severus, 185andnote. Trajan,t84. I84. Tiberius,lb. note. Titus,184, Constantine,churchand palaceof, x99note. xii. , 14I. Arx,xii. , 87note. Crescentius,Towerof,xii. , xx6. Augustus,Mausoleumof, xiL, x85 Forumolitorium,xii. , 87note. andnote. Gates: Asinarian,Belisariusenters BasilicaJulii,vii. ,164note. Romeby,vii. ,x37, 149;openedby Bathsof: Alexander,_di. ,I84 and IsaurianstoTotila,254. Aurelian, note. Caracalla,v. , 219sg. ; xii. , 153and note. Capena, i5x and z84. Constantine,184,2o9. De- note. Flaminian,openedto Belidus, 184note. Diodefian,i. , 209, saxins,14o. Maggiore,t44 note. 21oandnote;xii. , 184. Nero,184 Pincian,146and note. St. Paul, note. Titus, 184and note. Tra- openedto Goths, 261. Salarian, jan,x84note. SdpioMricanns,v. , t4o; assaultedby Vitiges,z44; 220note. Gothsenterby,x49. Bridges: Mflvlan,xii. ,96. Sa. laxian Goths,campsofthe,at thegates,vii. , inscriptionon, vii. , a65 note. Of z43note. St. Angelo,xii. , xxanote. Hadrian,Mausoleumof (CastleofSt.

INDEX 35I Angelo),vii. , x42 and note;xii. ,i tune, x84 note. The Pantheon, xx6,x85,200sq. and note. ; x84,x93and note,sq. and note. Hills: Aventine,xii. , x32. Capito- Peace,viii. ,40; xii. ,x84. Vesta, line,in MiddleAges,87andnote; x89note,sq. note. fortificationof, ib. ; Poggiuson, Theatresof: Balbtm,xii. ,adonote. x83andnote;legendoftheCapitol, Marcellus,viii. ,4o; xii. ,75note, 208sq. and note. Palatine,Pog- 185,200andnote. Pompeius,iSS, giuson, x83. Tarpeian,87 note. 20oandnote. Testacean,204 and note. Vaticanquarter,vii. , x46 (and se¢ Lateran,see under Churchesand underPalaces). Palaces. ViaFlaminia,Narsesonthe,vii. ,268 Leoninecity,foundationof, ix. , 29° andnote. andnote. ViaLatina,vii. ,x37. Library,Palatine,destroyedbyGreg- Vivarium,vii. , x44and note. dryI. , viii. ,40. Romilda,viii. ,95. MetaRomuli,xii. , xx2note. Romuald,Dukeof Beneventum,viii. , Monasteries,xii. , I96 and note. 3° note. Navalia,nearMonteTestaceo,vii. , Romulus,Count,ambassadorto Attila, 262note. vi-,43note; hisdaughter,mother Navona,xii. ,204note. ofAugustulus,vii. ,x49. Nero stower,Gardenof,xii. , 2o5. Romulus,interregnumafter, ii. , xo3, Obelisks,Egyptian,lli. ,245andnote; to4. _di. ,t85and note,2x2. Romulus,sonofMaxentius,ii. ,224note. Palaces:of Constantine,see above Roncaglia,diet of, viii. ,385. Constantine. Farnese, xii. , 207. Roncevalles,battleof,viii. ,36x. Lateran,restoredby CalixtusII. , Rorico,vi. ,234note,Sq. note. 77note; Charlesof Anjouin, 94; Rosamund,daughterof Cunimund, decayof,x56. Numa,x89note,sq. Kingof the Gepidm,marriesAInote. Pincian,vii. , x49and note. boin,viii. ,7; murdershim,x5$_. ; OfSeverus(Septizonium),defended flightanddeath,t7. by nephewof Gregoryvii. , x. , Roselii,Nicol6,xii. ,74no/*123; historyand remainsof, xii. , Rospigliosi,Italianfamily,xii. ,xt8note. x87and note,x97,x9O-Vatican, Rossano,heldbythe Goths,vii. , 258 decayof,xS6. OfSaUust,seeSat- and note; sevenconventSat, xa. , lust. 276 note. Pomcerium,xii. ,x3tnote. Rnsweyde,Lifeof the Fathers,vi. , x79 Porticuserinorum,_di. ,87note. note. Regionsof,xii. , x99and note. Rotharis,Kingof the Lombards,vi. , Rotaperphyretica,xii. , 67note. ao5note;lawsof,viii. ,32note;conSt. Laurence,suburbof,_5i. ,z33. cerningwitchcraft,38. St. Silvester,conventof,xii. ,x47note. Rotrud,daughterof CharlestheGreat, Septizonium,seePalaceofSeverus. viii. ,24xnote. Stadium,xii. ,x84note. Rouda,islandof the Nileat Memphis, Statues: horses "of Phidias and ix. , I75Praxiteles,"xii. , x85,209andnote;!Roum, Seljukian-kingdomof, x. , x79 theNile,2xo-xx;of Pompey,2xo. sq. ; extentof, 236. Tabularium,xii. ,87note. : Roumelia,i. , 29; EasternandWestern, Templesof: Concord,xii. , x97and ib. note. note. Hercules (dedicated by Rousseau,onanimalfood,iv. ,263note; Evander),x89 note. Janus, vii. , his parallelbetweenChristand r43andnote;xii. ,x99note. Jupi- Socrates,viii. ,x32note. ter Capitolinus,87 andnote. Ju- Rovere,Jacovadi, xii. ,2o5. piterStator, x89note. Minerva Rowe,Mr. , his tragedyof the Royal 2to. TheMoon,x89note. Nep- Convert,vi. , 286note.

352 INDEX Roxolani,Sarmatiantribe, ii. , xo, 54 of the GreekandLatin Churches, note;iv. , 288andnote. xi. , 299. Rubies,in the East, x. , z52and note; Rustam,generalof Yezdegerd,Kingof in caliph streasureat Cairo, 29° Persia,ix. , xao; slainbyan Arab, note. 12i. Rubruquis,themonk,traveller,iv. ,283 Rust. an,i. , xo2,262note; and Asfennote; visitsthe courtof thegreat diar,Persianheroes,iv. , 273. See Khan,xi. , I34 note,x5° note. Restore. Rudbeck,Olaus,i. ,276note,sq. Rusticiana,widowofBoethius,vi. ,336; Rudolph,Emperor,viii. , 389note. alleviatesthefamineinRome,vii. , Rudolph,Normanadventurerin Italy, 24. x. ,84note. Rutherinsof Verona,ix. , 36xnote. Rufinus,ministerof Theodosiusthe Rutillns Namatianus,v. , i3z note; Great,v. , 53; eye-witnessof the paganismof, x9o,19xnote;voyage destructionofthetempleofSerapis, of, 263note. 84 note; characterand adminis-Rutland,Rolando,Orlando,deathof, tration,3o8s_q. ; accusesTatian viii. ,363note. andProculus,3xo; prefectof the Ruy GonzalezdeClavijo,his embassy East,3xl; oppressesthe East,x3_ to the courtof Timour,xi. , 232 sqq. ; death,123; correspondence note. withtheGoths,x`38. Rufinus,presbyterofAquileia,iii. ,33o SAADIEFFE. ZDI,synopsisof, xi. , z57 note;v. ,x49and note;on monas- note. ticinstitutions,vi. , x65note. Saana,cityof,vii. ,23r note;ix. ,8 and Ruga,SpuriusCarvilins,vii. , 349note. note; marketsof,xo. Rugians,at the battleof Ch_lons,vi. , Sab_eans,or Homerites,Christianised 63; invadeBritain,27x; usurp by Theophilus,iii. , `33x. Gothicthrone,vii. , 243. Sabaria,Severnsdeclaredemperorat, Rugilas,or Roas, uncleof Attila,vi. , i. x44note. `3; death,lb. Sabas,St. , monasteryof,vi. , x58no/e; Rukn ad-dawla,principalityof, ix. , vii. , x7note; intercedesforpeople . 305note. of Palestine,42and note;courage Ruknad Din,princeof the Assassins, of,viii. ,x95note. xi. , t4`3note. Sabatius,fatherof Justinian,vii. ,xnote; RumiliHissari,seeAsomaton. Sabaton,lake,if. , 2_2note. R0miya,cityof, vii. ,2xonote. Sabellianism,iii. ,`35`3andnote,sq. note. Runiccharacters,i. , 279note. Sabellius,accountof hisheresy,iii. ,`348 Ruotgerus,biographerofSt. Bruno,viii. , note. `37x note. Sabiansin Arabia,ix. , 26; religionof, Ruric, Scandinavianchief,x. , 5x and /b. ,s_. andnote. note. Sabinian,conducts the war against Rnscianum,seeRossano. Sapor,iii. ,258. Rusium,battleat, xi. , x7. Sabinian,generalofAnastasius,vi. ,239. Russia,empireof, vi. , 39`3;geographySabinians,legalsect,vii. ,224. andtradeof,x. ,53sq_. ; conquest Sabinus,Flavius,cousinof Domitian, of, by the Mongols,xL, x45 sq. iii. ,26andnote. Russians,servein the Greeknavy,ix. , Sabinus,Prmtorianprefect,iii. ,80. 354; theirorigin,x. ,49-50;Greek Sabinus,Romanlawyer,vii. , 325,332 formof the name,5° note; colony note. of, inHungary,lb. ; extentoftheir SablesofSweden,vi. ,337andnote. empire,54sq. ; expeditionof the, Sabrata,cityof, iv. ,233; conqueredby against Constantinople,57 sqq. ; Saracens,ix. , x92note. their negotiationswith the Greek Sacra,tribeof,if. , x68no/*. emperor,6xs_. ; opposethe union Sachau,traveller,ix. ,6note.

INDEX 353 Sacrifices,human,of theSuevi,ii. , 27; calschoolof,1o3andnote;Gregof the Scythians,vi. , 6 and note; goryVII. at,xii. ,74of the Arabians,ix. , 24-5 and SalianFranksin Toxandria,iii. , 27o _wte;public,at Romesuppressed, andnote. v. ,8x. Sanans,confraternityofthe,v. ,73. Sacrificialking,v. ,73. Saliclands,vi. , _5i andnote. Sad-ad-Din,Ottomanhistorian,xi. ,203 Sahelaws,vi. ,239note. note. SaUces[Ad],battleof,iv. ,304andnote. Sadder,i. ,254note. SMib. Ayyfib,Sultan,x. , 3x8 note; Sadducees,sectof, ii. , 287andnote. deathof, 321note. Sade,Abb6de, ]Lifeof Petrarch,viii. , Sanmbene,Fra,xii. ,x2tnote. 391note;xii. ,i24note;ontheexile Salisbury,siegeof,vi. , 274. ofAvignon,11onote;on the Co- Salle,town,i. , 33. lonna,xx9 note;his descentfrom Saliust,descriptionof the Moors,vii. , Laura,124note. rx8note; Periplnsof, 213note. Sade,Hughesde, xii. , I24 note. Sallust,officerof Julian,iii. ,263and Sa. fffih,A1(orAbu-i-Ab"b_),ix. , 26o. note,iv. ,5; Prefectof Gaul,18and Sagodnus,John,x. , 3x note,347note. note,35note. Sagreda,John, his History of the Sallust,Palaceof,at Rome,destroyed Ottomanmonarchs,xii. ,63 note. bytheGoths,v. ,247andnote. Sagundinus,Nicolans,onMahometII. , Sanust,Prefectof the East,judgeat xii. ,2 note. Chalcedon,iv. , 35and note; his SahibKeran,surnameof Timour,xi. , adviceto Julian,139; refusesthe 182note. empire,_56;iv. ,x8o;hisembassy SaidibnAbroad,ix. , 27onote. to SaporII. , 16o; Prefectof the Said,lieutenantofthecaliphOmar,ix. , Eaztforthesecondtimeandquells 123sq. revoltof Procopius,19r. Sail, Homeriteprince, restoredby SallustiaBarbiaOrbiana,wifeofAlexNushirvan,viii. , 5x. anderSeverns,i. ,193andnote. Sain(Sh_. hin),Persiangeneral,inter- Salmasius,i. ,xx6note;onsilk,vii. ,3_. viewwithHeraclius,viii. ,97, xo3 SalonaorSula,seeAmphissa. note,io7note. Salona,residenceof Diocletian,ii. , 192; Saints,worshipof,v. ,96sqg. descriptionof, x94 s_ ¢?. ;DiocleSakaliba,seeLulon. tian spalaceat,I95; fleetofBeliSala,river,iv. ,218note;Charlemagne s sarinsat, vii. ,248;Narsesat,267. campat, viii. ,374. Salonina,Empress,ii. ,3° note. Saladinetenth,seeTithe. Saloninus,son of Ganienns,ii. , 25, 54 Saladin,Sultan,viii. ,299;defendsAlex- note. andria,x. , 292; GrandVizir of Salt,taxon,at Rome,xii. ,134,148. Egypt,295 and note; characterSalva,Castraof, iv. ,2x7note. of,lb. rq. ; conquestof Palestine,Salvian,on Carthage,v. ,356andnote. 297sgq. ; treatswithRichardI. , S_n_n, a noblemanof Balkh,ix. , 303 31o--xx;deathof, 3x2; Saladine note. tenth,ib. and note; embassyof S_. m_nids,Saracendynastyof, ix. ,3o3 IsaacAngelusto,338-9andnote. andnote;fan of,x. ,148. Salankamen,battleof, xi. , 226note. SamaraontheTigris,iv. ,x58andnote; Salban,viii. ,1o6note;takenbyHera- residenceof Motassem,ix. ,"264 CIJus, 107. t;ote,295; palaceat,293; nameof, Salem,Sonof ZiyS. d,ix. , x3xnote. 295andnote. Salerno,anonymouswriterof,viii. ,375 Samaxcand,vii. , 188sq. ; missionaries note;schoolof, ix. , 275andnote; of, viii. , 189; conqueredby the subjectto Greekemperor,x. , 78; Saracens,ix. ,133andnote;defeat siegeof, by the Saracens,81, 84 of Moslemsbythe Turksnear,/b. note;bythe Normans,xox; medi- note; Seljukin,x. ,157; subdued VOL. XlI. -- 23

354 INDEX by Malek Shah,x73; takenby Persia,birthof,iii. , x96; besiege. Zingis,i38; observatoryat, x82 Nisibis, i98; defeatsChesroes, note; Timourat, x93; triumphof x99; defeats Constantius,2o_; Timourat, arz. raisessiegeofNisibis,no4;expediSamaritansof Palestine,persecutedby tion to Mesopotamia,25z sgq. ; Justinian,viii. ,x72sg. besiegesAmida,255; Singaraand Samiel,hotwind,iv. , I65note. Bezabde, 257; attemptsVirtha, Samnites,i. , 27. _b. ;sendsa messengertoHormisSamosata,massacreof hereticsat, iii. , das, iv. , x43; his peacewithJo404; takenbyZimisces,ix. , 3,x; vian,xs9sq. ;invadesAymeuia,239 riseof Pauliciansectat,x. , 3. sq_. ; death,_42. Samothrace,inhabitantsof,transportedSapor,lieutenantofTheodosius,v. ,*9. to Constantinople,xii. , 55 14ote;Saracens,GreekandLatinnameforthe DemetriusPal_eologuslordof, 58. Arabians,describedbyAmmianus, Samoyedes,iv. , 275; inGreenland,vi. , iii. ,zoonote;in theserviceofJu3,8 note;xi. , *49. lian,iv. , ,22; 290; intheserviceof Sampsiceramus,iv. , 88note. Valens,3x7 andnote; pillagea Samsamah,weaponof CaliphHarun, town in Syria,viii. , *2*; wars ix. , 280. withTheophilus,250; nameapSamuel,sonof Shishman,x. , 35note. pliedto the Arabians,25o; deriSamuelthe prophet,ashesof, brought rationof name,/b. nole;theircato Constantinople,v. ,98. liphs,,z4sq. ; militaryforceof the, Samuka,generalofZingis,xi. ,*38note. 357sqq. SeeArabs. Sancho,the Fat, Kingof Leon,ix. , Saragossa(C_sar Augusta),city of, 275no_e. takenbyEuric,vi. , ,3x; Emirof, Sanctuary,privilegeof, iii. , 334 and asksprotectionfromCharlemagne, note. viii. ,365; mosqueat,ix. , 2z9. Sand,used forMahometanablutions, Sarapana,river,vii. ,2x3. ix. , 47. Sarbaxaza(Shahrbaraz),PersiangenSandoval,Historyof,ix. , a2o_4ote. eral,viii. , ,oo note,zo3 note;deSandwich,iv. ,227. featedbyHeraclius,Io7and note, Sangaxius,river,vii. ,58. xo9; at Chalcedon,*,2. Sangedes,for Count of St. Gilles,x. , Sarbar,seeSarbaraza. 234note. Saxdes,Turksdrivenfrom,x. , 27x. Sangiar(Sinj_r),SeljukianSultanof Sardica (Sophia), Galeriusdies at, Persia,x. , 287. ii. , _a2note; ConstantiusandVeSangiban,Kingof theAlani,offersto tranioat, iii. ,3ii andnote; CounbetrayOrleansto Attila,vi. , 55; cilof, 380note,sq. andnole;amat thebattleofChalous,6L bassadorsofTheodosiusandAttila Sanjak,vii. ,60andnote; titlegivento meetat,vi. , 24sq. ; Justinianborn Scanderbeg,xi. ,3,6. at,vii. ,*andnote. Sanut,familyof, acquireDuchyof Sardinia,Islandof, ravagedby the Naxos,xi. ,6. Vandals,vi. , xxT; bishopsexiled SanutusMarinus,Historyof Jexusalem into,byThrasimund,x92andnote; by,x. , 26onote. surrenderedwithCorsicato o/ricer Sapaudia,seeSavoy. of Justinian,vii. , zo8; Dukeof, Saphadinor Ardel,brotherof Saladin, i,o; ArabsandMoorsat,ix. ,288. se_Ardel. Sarmata_,Alanisettledin Gaul,vi. ,58 Saphrax,Gothicwarrior,iv. , 288,see and note. Alathens. Sarmatiangames,ii. , 25anote. SaporI. , sonof Artaxerxes,accessionSarmatians,i. ,3ooandnote;iJ. ,zo;subof,i. , 27x; Romanwarsof,ii. , 43 duedbyProbus,xx6; subduedby agq. ; death,9° andnote. EmperorCarus,,3o; alliesof the Sapor LI. , sonof Hormouz,Kingof Goths,a52; accountof, iii. , *84

INDEX 355 sqq. ; settlementsonthe Danube, SaturrLinns,husbandof Theodora sfax86; theirGothicwars,x87sqq. ; vourite,vii. , x6note. alliancewiththe Quadi,x9o; col- Satyrs,Greek,iv. ,xo6note;in Africa, ouy of, in the Romanprovinces, iv. , 237andnote. /b. ; crossedthe Danube, 237; Saul,generalof Stilicho,slainat Polmadeintoa kingdomby Constan- lentia,v. ,x54sq. tins, 246, 247; alliancewith the Sauromaces,Kingof the Iberians,exQuadiagainstValentininn,iv. ,252 pelledbySapor,iv. , 239. sqq. Sauzes,sonofAmurathI. , xi. ,x76and Sarmatia,provinceof, i. , 3oxnote. note. Sarans,or Draco, river,vii. ,273 and Savary,travelsin Egypt,ix. , x79note, note. 19znote. Sarts,tribeof,vi. , 27note. Save,i. , _9note. Sarukhan,Emirof,subduedbyBajazet, Savelli,Lucas,senator,xii. , xo2note, xi. ,x7o. I49. SarOkt_n,Turkishchieftain,xi. , 16o Savelli,Romanfamily,xii. , i16 and andnote. note,s_. note; memberof, murSarus,a Gothicwarrior,joinsStilicho deredatRome,x74,no5. v. ,z68; pursuesConstantine,x79; Saverne,iii. ,265andnote. at Bologna,x88; abilityof, x95; Savigny,onRomanlaw,vii. , 3o2note. destroysa body of Goths, 241 Savoy(Sapaadia),firstmentiono[,vi. , supportsJovinns,_7o; death,ib. 45note;Burgundianssettlein,/b. Sarus,river,battleat the,Persiansde- SaxaRubra,battleof,ii. ,235sg. fearedby Heraclius,viii. , xo8s_/. Saxons,ii. ,153note;accountof,iv. ,220 Sasima,Bishopricof, heldby Gregory sqq. ;settlementin Gaul,22a;join Nazianzen,v. , r5 andnote. TheodoricagainstAttila,vi. ,58and Sassan,founderofthe Persiandynasty, note;convertedbyRomanmissioni. , 252note; houseof, vii. , x96. ariesin Britain,182; in Britain, Sassanides,Persiandynastyof, i. , 252 a69sqq. ;Saxonheptarchy,271sq. ; andnote. tribe of o/d Saxons,lb. ; invade Sassoferrato,vii. , a68note. Italy underAlboin,viii. ,xo;vanSatala,in Armenia,restored by Jus- quishedby Charlemagne,366. tinian,vii. ,67. Saxony,ancient,viii. ,366sq. Satalia,the ancientAttalia,LouisVII. Scabini,vi. , 245note. at,x. ,281. Sc_evola,Mucius,Romanlawyer,v. ,214 Sathas,C. ,ontheKistoriaPatriarchica note; vii. , 320. xii. ,56note. Sc_evola,Q. Cervidius,masterof PaSatires,iv. , 1o6note. pinian,vii. ,317note. Satrapies,Persian,i. , 267andnote. Scaliger,xi. , 29o. Saturnalia,at Antioch, iv. , xx3; of Scanderbeg,PrinceofAlbania,xi. ,3o2; Lipsius,v. ,x6onote. birth and educationof, 3x5 sq. ; Saturninus,C_elins,iii. , z32note. revoltof, fromtheTurks,317sq. ; Saturninns,competitorof GallienuS dateof hisbirth,ib. note; valour tyrantin Pontus,ii. , 5o, 5a. of, 318; Catahrianexpeditionof, Saturninus,consul,v. , 295; count of 320 and note; applies to Pope thedomestics,assassinatedbyorder PiusII. ,/. b. ; deathof,at Alessio, ofEudocia,328. /b. Saturninus,Count,daughterof, chosenScanderoOn,Gulfof,Heraclinsat, viii. , tomarryAttila ssecretary,vi. , 23. xoo. Saturainus,generalof the cavalry,op- Scandinavia,i. , 274andnote. erationsof, againstthe Goths,iv. ,!Scaraziaor Thule,seeThule. Scaramangion,tunicof the Byzantine305• Saturninus,generalofProbus,revolt,ii. , Emperors,ix. , 336note. x_4. Scarpoana,battleof,iv. , ax4s_/.

356 INDEX Scatlnianlaw,see Law. Scyllltanmartyrs,ii. , 338note. Scaurns,familyof,iii. , xaonote. Scyros,Isleof, takenbythe Venetians, Scepticismof the paganworld,ii. , 3_o. xi. , 5 note, Sceptre,Greek(dicanice),xi. , 66note. Seyr_,rearguardof Uldin,v. ,331and Schafarik,his SlawischeAlterthiimcr,i note;vi. ,z43;defeatedbyEdecon, x. , 29no/*. 145. Schepss,G. , hisPriscillian,v. , 27note. Scythians,see Tatars, name usedfor Schiltberger,John,on battleof Nicop- Goths,ii. ,4oand note. o_s,xi. , XTznote,203note. Scythiaor Tartary, trade in furs,i. , Schlumberger,M. ,onNicephorus,viii. , 69; ii. , 253; situationand extertt a69note;L _poptebyzantine,274 of,iv. , 272sq_. note. Scythopolis,vii. , 4anote. Scholce,ofguards,ii. ,i85; military,iii. ,ISebastian,Countof Egypt, iii. , 39x; 144; vii. ,283andnote. iv. , 12o,165. Sclwlasticus,iii. , I33 note. Sebastian,Count,persecutedby GenSchultens,Life of Saladinby, z. , a94 seric, vi. , 194andnote. note. Sebastian,generalof Valens,iv. , 216; Schuldngins,orationof,vii. ,33znote. mastergeneralof infantry,3io and Schultze,F. , on theRenaissance,xi. , note; death,314. 286note. Sebastian,madeemperorbyJovinus,v. , Schwarzer,onimperialcoronations,xii. 270. 67note. Sebastian,son-in-lawof Boniface,perScience,cultivatedby the Greeks,i. secuted,vi. , 40; seizesBarcelona, 72,73- ib. note. Scip/o,Younger,vii. ,361note; atsack Sebastoerator,titleinventedbyAlexius of Carthage,xii. , 52note. Comnenns,ix. , 337Sciri,Scirri,see Scyrri. Sebasto-hypertatos,titleof LeoSgurosof Scironianrocks,v. ,z4I and note. Nauplia,xJ. ,7note. Sclavonia,Crusadersin, x. , 225. Sebastopolis,fortificationsof, vii. ,2t9, Sclavonians,see Slavordaos. 220andnote. Sderena,concubineof ConstantineX. Sebectagi,fatheroftheSultanMahmud, ( IX. ),viii. ,279. x. , 148and note. Sderus,seeBardasSclerus. Sebzar,villageof,birthplaceofTimour, Scodraor Scutaxi,Crusadersat,x. ,225 xi. , 182. andnote. Second,the,officeof, ix. , 338note. Scota, daughterof Pharaoh,iv. , 223 Seculargames,i. , 246and note. note. Secundinns,DukeofOsrhoene,iv. ,124, Scotland,Crusadersfrom,x. ,235and!Secutor,i. , 12o. note;historiansof,xii. , 176note. :Seditiosus,meaningof, vii. ,332note. SCotsandPicts,invadeBritain,iv. , 5 See. z,crueltyof Geoffreyof Anjouat, and note; 227 sq. ; de. _ption xii. , 73note. of,_25sq. andnote. Sefi,Sheik,fourteenth-centurysaint,ix. , Scotta,brotherof Onegesius,procures to6 note. Maximinan interviewwithAttila, Segelmessa,i. , 33. vi. , 26. Segestan,princesof, i. , 262note. { Scourgeof God,epithetof Attila,vi. , Segestans,ii. ,13o; inthearmyofSap0r, 16andnote. iii. ,254andnole;assistYezdegerd, Scribonianus,revoltof,i. , 93note. ix. , 128. Scrinia,iii. ,z44andnote. Seg jah,Arabian prophetess,ix. , 11_ Scudilo,Tribune,iii. ,232. note. Scupi,vii. ,60note. Segued,EmperorofAbyssinia,viii,,212, Scutari,in Bithynia,seeChrysopolis. Seid,seealsoSaid. Scutari,in Dalmatia,seeScodra. SeidBechar,xi. , 2a5. Scylitzes,continuatorof Cedrenns,x. , Seids, descendantsof Mahomet,xi. , x6xnote. 303note.

i i1 INDEX 357 Seifeddowlat,caliph,ix. , 3zL imian,zSzsqq. ; senateof ConSejanus,i. , z79note. stanfinople,iv. , 4z; majorityof Selden,ii. ,265note. RomanSenatorsremainedPagans, Seleueia,i. , 264sq. ; takenby Corm, v. ,75andnote;debateconcerning ii. , z3z; Julianat, iv. , z37. worshipof Joveor Christ,;,8and Sdeucia,in Cilicia,besiegedby the note;armedten legions,z68note; Is_urians,iii. , 237. Stilichorefers the demandsof Seleucia,in Isauria,councilof bishops Alaricto the, x84sq. ; filledwith at,iii. ,37x. newfamiliesfromthecolonies,2or Sdeucus,Mount,battleof,iJi. ,221and note; condemnsSerena,225,226; note. conductto Alaric,228sq. ; refuses SeleucusNicator,i. , 26znote; era of, toallowPagansacrifices,228;conib. venedbyAttalus,237; condemns Selgae,battleat, Tribigilddefeatedat, Avitusto death,vi. , zoosq. ;elects v. , 300andnote. Libius Severus, zz4; supports SelimI. , Sultan,conquersEgypt, x. , Anthemius,z4o; epistleto Zeno 323and note; (alleged)treatment on transferof seat of empireto ofGreekChurch,_di. ,56andnote. theEast,z47sfl. ;deputiesof,inSelina,saltpitsof, _d. ,3t8. rite Justinian slieutenantto enter Seljuk,x. , z54; founder of the Sel- Rome,vii. ,137;extinctionof,272; jukiandynasty,z56and note,sq. decreesof,3so; officeof President Seljukians,dynastyof, x. , z56 sq. ; of the Senateof Constantinople, probablyChristian,i57 note; in- viii. ,272note:authorityof,eradivadethe empire,z6z; divisionof caredbyLeothePhilosopher,ix. , empireof, z76;revivalof,xi. , z7o. 35o-z; revivalof, in twelfthcenSeljuksof Kirman,x. ,z76note. tury,xii. , 84sgq. ; no senatebeSelsey,nearCkichestcr,giventoWilfrid tweeneighthandtwelfthcenturies, of Sussex,vi. , 28L 84note; electionof, 9° sg. Selymbria,residenceof Andronicusand Senator,rifleof,in middleage,xii. ,84 JohnPalzeologus,xi. ,z77;besieged note; officeof, 9° sq. ; Charlesof bythe Turks,xii. ,ZT. Anjouelected,94; Rienzi,zS2; Sematsiea,Historyof China,iv. , 274 Foreasis,z69. note. Senatorialtax(]ollis),ii. , 230andlwte. Semi-Arians,iv. , 203. Senators,Roman,i. , 43note,x2znote; Semiramis,iii. ,223note. in Theodosianage,v. ,20osgq. Seralin,Crusadersat, x. , 2tz note. Seneca,Qumst. Natur. ,ii. , 348;onthe Semno,chiefof theLygii,ii. , xzS. luxuryof Rome,v. ,206and note; Semnones,ii. ,27. vi. , xSOnote; onCorsica,z92and Sempronianlaws,i. , 79. note;oncomets,vii. ,29zandnote. Senaar,ruinsof, viii. ,2o9. Seniorsor Lords,vi. , 25z. Senateof Rome,reformedbyAugustus,Sens,Decentinsat,iii. ,22x; Julianat, i. , 76; underthe empire,85; at- 264;monasteriesat,vi. , 285note; temptof, afterdeath of Caligula, Abderameat, ix. , 253. 9z; jurisdictionof, z26andnote; Senfinum,battleof,vii. , 269note. condemnsJulianus,z46;oppressedSeptemor Ceuta, taken by Roman bySeverus,z54; opposesMacri- tribune,vii. , so8 and note; beaus, i79; womenexcludedfrom, siegedby the Visigoths,z2t s¢. ; z92; restoredby AlexanderSev- attackedbythe SoracenS,ix. , 208 exus,z96; declaresagainstMa. xJ- andnote,2is. rain,227;electsMaximusandBal- Septaus,interpretafionoftheword,viii. , binusemperors,230; repulsesthe 329note. Alamanni,ii. ,29; notadmiredto Septima. n/a,retainedbytheVisigoths, militaryoffices,/b. ;underTacitus, vi. , 235;invadedbyGontran,263 so8s_. ; underDiocletianandMax- s_. ; invadedbySaxacea_,ix. ,2z9.

358 INDEX Septizoniumof Severus,seeunderRome. Servatius,St. ,of Tongres,vi. , 55Sepulchresof the Gauls, see Bust: Servetus,martyrdomof,x. ,23andnote. Gallorum. Servia,rebellionof,A. D. zo4o,viii. ,a77 Sepulveda,xii. , zSanote. note; dominant positionof, in Sequani,landsofthe,takenbytheGer- fourteenthcentury,xi. , zxo note; roans,vi. ,248. codeof laws of StephenDushan, Seraglio,iii. , zoo. ib. ;expeditionofCantacuzeneinto, Serai,cityand palaceof, xi. , 149and :16. note. Servians,overthrownbytheBulgarians, Serapeum,atAlexandria,seeSerapis. x. , 33and note; settlementof, it, Serapion,deaconofChrysnstom,v. ,3x2. Constantinople,. Hi. ,55note. Serapion,friendof Julian,ix. , 14onote. Servitudes,terminRomanlaw,vii. ,359 Serapion,saint of the Nitrian desert andnote. viii. ,z3o;teachesCyrilof Alex:n- Servius,civillawof Romemadeby,vii. , dria,136. 303. Serapis,i. , z7onote,174; templeof,iii. , Sesnstris,longwailof, ix. , :6 andnote. 92; descriptionof the templeof, Sestus,iii. ,95; fortificationsof,vii. ,62. at Alexandria,v. , 84 sq. ; its de- Severn,wifeof ValentinianI. , iv. , 256, struction,87sqq. 257and note. Seratculi,provincialtroopsoftheTurks, Severianus,ii. ,_4:. xii. , I8note. Severinus,St. ,his propheticspeechto Serbi,tribe of,viii. ,72note. Odoacer,vi. ,r46; Lifeof,byEuSerena, niece of Theodosius,marries gippius,/b. note; hisboneslaidin Stilicho,v. , 1i9 and note; inter- mona. steryofMisenum,15o;death, cessionof, concerningAlarie,:84; 15:note. paganismof, x9oandnote. Severus,Alexander,i. , x8anote;made Serendib,seeTaprobana. Cmsar,x89; reign,19osqq. ;charSeresor Sin_e,vii. , 34note. acter,aox; murdered,218;victory Sergieevich,x. , 57 note. over_erxes, a67; leniencyto Sergiopolis,seeRasaphe. theChristians,iii. ,5o,51; religious SergiusIV. ,Dukeof Naples,x. , 86note. syncretism,v. ,5: sq. ; privateworSergiusand Bacchus,saintsand mar- shipof, viii. ,3zonote. tyrs,viii. , 66andnote. Severus,BishopofHermopolisMagna, Sergius,the interpreter,iii. , :96 note; Arabichistoryof, viii. ,137note. vii. , no1note. Severus,BishopofMinorca,v. ,1o3note. Sergiusthe Paulician,x. , 4 note; pil- Severns,blindman,miraculouslycured, grimageof, 1oand note. v. ,35andnote. Sergins,Patriarch of Constantinople,Severus,generalofcavalryunderJulian, condemnedbyThirdCouncil,viii. , iii. ,265. 18onote. Severus,Jacobitehistorian,ix. ,:79note. SergiusI. , Pope, viii. ,23anote. Sevens, Libius,elected emperorby Sergius,nephewof Solomontheeunuch, Ricimer,vi. , : x4; death, /b. vii. , 238andnote,a4o. Severus,otficerofGalerius,madeCmsar, Serica,vii. , 33- ii. , =03and note; AuguStus,no8; Seriphus,Isleof,i. , :o4 andnote. defeatand death,a:2 andnote. Serjabil,friendof Caled,ix. , z38. Severns,PatriarchofAntioch,MonophSerjeants,horsemenwho were not ysite,viii. ,194; Lifeof,lb. note. knights,x. , 263,362andnote. Severus,philosopher,consul under Seronatus,prefectof Gaul,execution Anthemius,vi. , :=4of,vi. , i36. Sevel us,Septimius,i. , :26 note; comSerranus,friendofSidoniusApollinaris, mandsin Pannonia,143;declared vi. , 85note. emperor,/b. ; marchesto Rome, Sexres,cityof, takenby the Servians, x44; rapidmarch,146and no/e; xi. , x:o nols. disgracesthe praetorians,/b. ; ran

INDEX 359 peror,/b. ; defeatsNigerand A1- Sheri],usedbyZonarasforambassador, binus,x49;reign,x49sqg. ;expodi- x. ,x58note. tionto Britain,x65sqq. ; assumedSheroe,daughterof Chosroes,viii. , 67 thenamePerlinax,164note;death, note. x67; promotedMaximin,2x7;his Sherzhoux,cityof, Heraclinsat, viii. , treatmentof theChristians,iii. ,5o, IzS. 5L ShJJtes,sectof Mahometans,ix. , 94; Severus,Sulpicins,ii. ,29_note; v. ,26 burialgroundof,neartombof Ali, note; Dialoguesand Life of St. xoo. Martinby, vi. , x79note. Shiracouh,Emirof Noureddin,x. ,291 Sevillein fourthcentury,v. ,271; siege andnote;secondinvasionofEgypt of, vi. , 202; takenby Musa,ix. , by,/b. ; governsEgypt,293. 217-8; legionof Emesaat, 224; ShishmanofBulgaria,xi. ,x66note;reChristianityabolishedin, 232. voltsagainstthe Ottomans,x68 Sfefigrade,siegeof, xi. , 302note,3x9; note. siteof, lb. note. Shishmanof Trnovo,kingdomof, x. , Shaba,the greatKhan,invadesPersia, 34note. viii. ,57- Siam,i. , 268note. Shafei,sectof,x. ,297. SiassetNameh,orbookofgovernment Sh_thin,seeSain. byNizam,x. ,x75note. Shahmanism,ancientreligionof, xi. , Siberia,descriptionof, iv. , 275; con299note. queredbySheibaniKhan,xi. , I49. Shah,MansFtr,Princeof Fats, xi. , Sibyllinebooks,consultedbyAurelian, i86. ii. , 79 sg. ; by Constantine,3o4; ShahNameh,orbookofKings,vii. ,2or burntbyStiiicho,v. ,x9o. note. Sibyls,Christian,ii. ,347. ShAhraplakan,Persiangeneral,viii. ,Ho Sicamber,nameappliedbyRemiginsto note. Clovis,vi. , 22I note. Shahrbar_z,seeSarbaraza. Sichem[Neopolis],takenbySaracens, Shajar-ad-Durr,Queenof Egypt,x. , ix. , x68. 32Inote. Sichem,or Naplous,templesat,i/i. ,78 Shamer,Arabianchief,ix. , xo4. note; positionof, viii. , 172 note; Sharokh,son of Timour,xJ. ,2z7. groveof Tanonear,x. ,256 ; cut ShahAbbas,i. , 262note;plantscolony downbyCrusaders,/b. at Ispahan,ix. , 229. Sicily,ii. , 54; conqueredbythe VanShahAllum,xi. ,x8xnote,2t7note. dais,vi. , 85, I3o;cededto TheShaw,Dr. ,accountofthe Berbers,ix. , odoric,3H; regainedby Belisa2o7 note. rius,vii. , x27sqq. ; plunderedby Shawer,leaderof a factionin Egypt, Totila,262sq. ; reducedbyArtax. ,29oandnote; deathof, 293. ban, 264; partly recoveredby Shayb_n,Khanof theKirghizKazaks, Maniaces,viii. , 277 note; conxi. , x87note. queredbythe Arabs,ix. , 284sgq. ; Shebdiz,horseofChosroes,viii. ,93. Rogerthe Normanintroducessilk SheibaniKhan,conquersSiberia,xi. , into,327; Normansservein,x. ,87; S I49. princesof,legatesof holysee,xo8;heikhs,Arabian,ix. , x4. RogerII. , Kingof, x27; under Shelun,orZarun,descendantof Moko, Williamthe Bad, I4o; under andconquerorof Tartary,v. , x64 Williamthe Good,_42; subdued andnote. by HenryVI. ,x44;by Charlesof Sherefeddin,Ali,hishistoryofTimour, Anjou,xi. ,79sqq. ;SicilianVespers, xi. ,_8onote,204sq. note; hisac- 83andnote;failsundertheHouse countofBajazet,208. of Aragon,84s_/. Sherifai-F-Mfissi,Arabianscholar,x. , Sicininus,Basilica of, iv. , 2to and xo8note. note.

36o INDEX Sickel,W. ,onimperialcoronations,xiL, Silenus,characterof, in C_sars of 67note. Julian,iv. ,XOT;insixtheclogueof SicoriusProbus,ii. , x74. Virgil,/b. note. Siculi,tribeof theHuns,x. ,49note. Silingi,inB_etica,v. ,273;exterminated Siculus,Peter, historian,x. , 2 note,7 byWallia,276. note. Silistria,battleof,x. ,67_wte. Sidon,manufacturersof,vii. ,29; taken SiliusItalicus,i. , 47note. by Saracens,ix. , x68; Emir of, Silk,tradein,i. ,69; manufactureof,in helpsCrusaders,x. ,254; lordof,in China,vii. , 3z sqq. ; importation courtofpeers,266; lordshipof,/b, fromChina,33; inGreece,36sg. ; note;lostbytheFranks,324. ix. , 326; in Spain,SicilyandItaly, SidoniusApoliinaris,on taxation,iii. , /b. and327. x61; onSaxonpirates,iv. ,222note; Silko, Kingof Nubia,conversionof, onhumansacrifices,223note;pro- viii. , 208and note;receivesenvoy posedhistoryof Attila,vi. , 53; on fromJustinian,/b. EmperorMaximns,85 no/e; ac- Silures,Britishtribe,i. , 26; vi. , 276. count of Avitus,92note,sq. note, S/Ivanus,seeConstantine,teacherofthe 99; of thecountryfifeofthe Gallic Paulicians. nobles,93note; of Theodoric,94 Silver,i. , 7oandnote. andnote,sqq. ; panegyriconMajo- SilvesterI. , St. ,Pope,baptisesConstanrian,xo2andno,e; onAnthemius, finethe Great,viii. ,347; legendof 122andnote,sq. andnote;ontrial his healingConstantine,xii. , I42 of Arvandus,x32 note, x34 sq. ; and note. onSeronatus,136note;onBa. silins,SilvesterII. (Gerbert),Pope,hisepitaph x52andnote;epistlesof,x87note; onBoethJus,vi. , 34znote. ambassadortoEuric,2H. Simeon,Kingof Bulgaria,x. , 32and Siebenbiirgen,seeTransylvania. note; besiegesConstantinople,33. Sienpi,tribeofTatars,iv. ,28_andnote; Simeon,Greekminister,x. ,9powerof, 284; style themselvesSimeonMetaphrastes,ix. ,317andnote. "Topa,"v. , t64. SimeonStylites,the Syrianhermit,vi. , Siffan,plainof,battleofrivalcaliphson, x77sg. ix. ,98; siteof,/b, note. Simeon,teacherof the Paullcians,x. , Sigambrians,shorthair of,vi. ,48note. 4note;causesdeathofSylvanus,9. Sigma,capitalofChina,iv. , 28o; Yezid Simeons,Nestoriansect,revoltof,viii. , diesat, ix. , I3L x99. Siganfu,inscriptionof. See Singaufu. Simocatta,seeTheophylactus. Sigebut,despoilsthedaughterof Ebaof Simonde Montfortin fourthcrusade, herestate,ix. , 223. x. ,343. Sigelgalta,seeGaita. Simonthe Magician,viii. ,r52. Sigibert,Kingof Austrasia,vi. , not. Simony,iii. ,56note. Sigibert,Kingofthe RipuarianFranks, Simplicius,BishopofRome,iii. ,322and vi. , 2x8note. note; hisecclesiasticaldistribution Sigismund,emperor,protectsthe synod of Rome,vi. , 139note. of Constance,xi. , 255 257; xii. , Simplicius,lastof thephilosophers,vii. , x65. 8x. Sigismund,Kingof the Burgundlans,Sindbal,leaderof Heruli,vii. , 279; vi. , 227sg. ; flightanddeath,228. deathof,28L Sigismund,Kingof Hungary,warwith Singardu,inscriptionof,viii. , i9o nat. Bajazet,xi. , xTxsq. Singaza,siteof,ii. , x75no/e; battleof, Signla,the Conticountsof,xii. , xx6. iii. , 2o0; taken by Sapor,256; Sigonius,onRomanlaw,vii. , 383note; cededbyJoviantothePersians,iv. , onPopeGregoryI. , viii. ,49note; t6z. deRegnoItalim,x. ,75note. Singeric,brotherof Sarus,Gothicking, Silentiary,officeof,vii. ,227note. v. ,274.

INDEX 36i Singidunum,destroyedby the Huns, tixonium,xii. ,x87note,t97; munifivi. ,z2. SeeBelgrade. cenceof,2r2. Singing,tramontane,viii. ,45andvote. Slaves,amongthe Romans,i. ,49sflq. ; Sinistns,highpriestoftheBurgundians, enterthearmy,iii. ,x4o; joinarmy iv. ,218. ofAlaxic,v. ,230;undertheMeroSinjax,Se. ljukSultan,x. , 176vote. vingians,vi. , 253 and notessq. ; Sinope,aqueductat,i. , 56vote;under state underconquerorsof Rome, David Comnenns,xi. , xi note; 253sflq. ;underJustinian,vii. ,339 takenby Turks,/b. andxii. , 59 s_. sq. ; inhabitantsof, sentto Con-Slaves,seeSlavonians. stantinople,55note. SlavorLians,originof,vii. ,x8z; inroads Sintha,ii. ,x76. of, 182s_. ; accountof,byProcoSion,Mount,iv. , 74. plus, ib. vole; in Illyricumand Sipahis,xi. , 200. Thrace,I84sg. ,282;underCharleSiraorSchirn,wifeof Chosroes,viii. , magne,viii. ,366; in Greece,ix. , 66-7 andvote; flightof, xz6. 323vote,324; namesof Slaves,x. , Sirmium,ii. ,68, xa7; residenceof the 29andvote. emperorsat, 194; Julian enters,Slavoniclegends,vii. ,xvote. iv. , 21; Ariansat, 203; held by Sleepers,Seven,legendof the,v. ,358 Mesailaagainstthe Quadi,253; andvote,359sq_. Valentiniauenters,254; Imperial Smallpox,ix. ,3ovote. court,323; destroyedbytheHuns, Smaragdus,firstexarchofRavenna,vii. , vi. ,12;subduedbyTheodoric,32x 280; viii. ,xxvote. andvote;siegeof, by the Avars, Smith,Adam,xii. ,I77vote. viii. ,7osc1. Smyrna,i. , 62vote,63and vote;re. . Sirmond,onAetins,vi. , 72vote. storedto the empire,x. , 27x; beSiroesor Kabad,sonof Chosroesand siegedbythe Turksanddefended Sira,viii. ,i17; embassyto theRo- by the Rhodianknights,xi. , 163 roans,H9. andvote; takenbytheMongols, Sisaurane,fortressof, vii. ,2H. 2o3. Siscia,townof, taken byMagnentius,Sommias,motherof Elagabalus,i. , 182, iii. , 214. 192. Sisebut,Gothic"kingof Spain, perse-Soatra,x. , 274votecuresthe Jews,vi. , _o6sq. Socotora,Christianityin,viii. ,189. Sisenand,KingofSpain,v. ,261note. Socrates,demonof, ix. ,84andnote. Sisinnius,Bishop of Constantinople,Socrates,ecclesiasticalhistorian,iii. , viii. ,14o. 349vote; on Chrysostom,v. ,311 Sisman,seeShishman. vote; onPulcheria,324note. Sitifi,inAfrica,Theodosiusat, iv. , 236; Soderini,Romanfamilyof, xii. , 185 reconqueredforJustinianbySolo- vote. mon,vii. ,12o. Soffarides(Saffarids),dynastyof, ix. , Sitones,i. , 286. 303. Sittas,Dukeof Armenia,vii. , zovote, Sogdiana,provinceof China,ii. , 167 89vote. and vote; plainsof, iv. , _82and SixtusIV. , Pope,alarmedbyTurkish vote;vii. , 33. invasionof Apulia,xii. , 63; dis- Sogdoites,tributariesof theTurks,vii. , tuxbcdstateof Romeunder,174. i92 sg. SixtusV. ,Pope,placesobeliskof Con- Soissons,vaseof,vi. , 213note;cityand stantinenearSt. JohnLateran,iii. , dioceseof,underSyagrius,214and 245vote;economyof,xii. ,175vote; vote;takenbyClovis,215;arsenplacesstatuesof SS. Peterand alsof,/b. andvote;churchof St. Paul on columnsof Trajanand Draususat,x. , a32note; CrusaAntoniue,178vote; characterof, ders parliamentat,351. 178sq. ; usestheruinsof the Sep- Solicinium,Mount,iv. ,216.

362 INDEX Solidus,or Constantinianaura,s, ifi. , nop]e,accountof, see Constantix6onote;Gallic,vi. ,zo6note. nople. Soliman,brotherof the caliphWalid, Sophian,lieutenantof Moawiyah,ix. , besiegesConstantinople,ix. , 24a 238andnote. sq. ; death,244. Sophronia,Roman matron,il. , 225 Soliman,Shah of Carizme,deathof, note. xi. , x56. Sophronius,Patriarch of Jerusalem, Soliman,sonof Bajazet,xi. , 2o2; sub- treats withOmar,ix. , 6t sq. and mitstoTimour,209; characterand note. death,2z9. Sophys,reignof, in Tauris,viii. , zo5; Solknan,son of Cutulmish,conquers claimeddescentfromMahomet,ix. , Asia Minor,x. , x78; his new zo6andnote. kingdomof Roum,z79; threatensSora,Lombardfortress,viii. ,34znote. Constantinople,x8z; conquersSorbonne,facultyof the,xii. , z63. Jerusalem,ib. sq. ; temptstheCru- SortesSanctorum,modeoI divination, sadersintoplainofNice,2z2;king- vi. , 23zandnote. dora of,invadedbythe crusaders,Sosibius,iv. ,9° note. 236sq. ; calledKilJdgeArslan,/b. Soubahs,rebellionof,in Hindostan,xi. , andnote. z9i. Soliman,son of Orchan,xi. , r65-6; Soul, immortalityof the, belief of death,z66. ancient Germansconcerning,i. , Soliman, the Magnificent,Ottoman 295; attitudeofthepaganstowards Sultan,allegedtreatmentof Greek the doctrineof, li. ,284 Sqg. ;preChurch,xii. ,56note. existenceof, 285andnote; Jewish Solomon,Kingof the Jews,book of viewsof,287sol. ;material,ofuniWisdomof, iii. ,34Iandnote;his verse,i/i. , 34z and note; metasacrifices,iv. ,78; notauthorofEL - physicsof, viii. , x26 and note; clesiastes,vii. ,_I5note. viewsof originof, /b. note. Solomon,the eunuch, commandsin SovonorSo-on,Chinesepatriot,v. ,276 Africa,vii. , n 9 andnotes_. ;con- sq. note. quersthe Moors,t2o; conspiracySozomen,iv. ,95note; onChrysostom, against,237; deathof, 24aand v. ,3Hnote;onPulcheria,324note. note. Sozopetra,besiegedby the Emperor Solon,tablesof,vii. ,306. Theopkilus,ix. , 29x. Sondis,Mount,vi. , 306and note. Sozopolis,frontiercity in Thrace,xi. , Song,Chinesedynasty,xi. , x4r. xx3 note. Sonna,Mahometanoral law,ix. ,43sg. Spado,iii. ,223note. Sonnenwald,sacredwoodof the Suevi,i Spain,provincesof,i. , 24; divisionof, ii. ,27. by Augustus,lb. ; wealthof, 2o5; Sonnites,orthodoxMahometans,ix. , under Constantins,li. , x5o and 95- note,207andnote;Christianityin, Sontius,river,Odoacerat the,vi. ,3o9. 339; subduedby Constantine,v. , Sopater,the Philosopher,iii. , 378note, x8osq. ; accountof, for firstfour iv. , 68note. centuries,27x,272; citiesof, lb. ; Sophene,ii. , I75. barbariansin,273; Gothsin,274; Sophia,BasilII. at, x. , 35note;taken conquestof andrestorationof,by by the Turks, xi. , x66note. See theGoths,275;VandalsandSuevi Sardica. driven into Galicia, 276; VisiSophia,Empress,vii. , 7onote;relieves gothsin,convertedfromArianism, the citizensof Constantinopleof vi. , 200; legislativeassembliesof, debt, viii. , 3 sg. ; recallsNarses, 266sqg. ; civil warin, vii. , x2x; xx-x2;her treatmentbyTiberius, under Charlemagne,viii. , 365; ax_q. Arabsin, ix. , 223; agriculturein, Sophia,St. , churchof, at Constanti- 224; religionstolerationin, 226

INDEX 363 sq. ; revoltunderthe Abbassides,Stefaneschi,Martin[notUrsini],xii. , 262sg. ,3OL x36. Spalatro(Salona),ii. ,194sq_. Stein,L. , onTheodoreGaza,xi. , 286 Spanheim,E. , his OrbisRomanus,i. , note. 41note; hisdeUsuNumi_matum,Stephanephoru*,magistrateoftheCherii. , i83note; hisversionof Julian, sonites,iii. ,z88note. iv. , io6 note. Stephanieof Hebron,x. , 30onote. Spanheim,F. , his HistoriaImaginum Stephanitesand Ichnalates,vii. , 2o3 restituta,viii. ,3z8note. nole. Spaniards,in the sixteenthcentury,v. , StephenHI. , Pope,missionof,toLomb5x; inItaly,xii. ,177. bardy,viii. ,337-8. Sparta,destroyedby Alaric,v. , x4x; Stephen,Countof Bloisand Chartres, MahometII. at, xiL,58. in firstcrusade,x. , 217; marchto Spartianus,i. , 136note,z39note,x4x Constantinople,226; letterof,230; note,142note. desertsatAntioch,247. Speaabiles,titleof, iii. ,H4. StephenDushan,despotof Servia,reSpectacles,Roman,ii. ,z35sq. ceivesCantacuzene,xi. , io9; acSpelman,ii. , 17onote. countof,xzonote;lawsof,_. Sphc_ria_riumor tenniscourt,viii. ,268. Stephen,EarlofAlbemarle,at battleof Spicecountry,i. , 2note. Antioch,x. ,234note. Spires,destroyed,iii. ,260; bythe Get- Stephen,freedmanofDomitilla,iii. ,27. marts,v. , 175; massacreof the Stephenof Edessa,Greekphysicianof Jewsat, x. ,2xo. Kobad,vii. , 2o_note. Spoleto,buildingsof Theodoricat,vi. , Stephenof Hungary,embassyof, to 327;takenbyBelisarins,vii. , 152; Pope Sytvester,x. , 72 note, *_l. betrayedtotheGothsbyHerodian, not_;protectspilgrims,x87. 259; Dukeof, pillagesRavenna,Stephen,St. ,firstmartyr,bodyof, reviii. ,26; Dukeof,assistsLeoIII. , movedto MountSion,v. ,zooand 358;bathsof,xii. ,z96 _lOte. note; Abbeyof, nearConstantiSpondanus,onthe schismof Constan- nople,x. , 358; Towerof, on Sea tinople,xi. , 296note; on Hunga- ofMarmora,stormedbytheTurks, riancrusade,305; on Corvinus, xJi. ,x7note. 315note; on unionof Greekand Stephen,sonof RomanusI. ,viii. ,265. LatinChurches,xii. , 21note; on Stephenthe Savage,favouriteof Jusdeathof ConstantinePal_logus, tinianII. ,viii. ,23z. 44note;hisannals,62note. StephenUroshIII. of Servia,xi. , 11o Sportvd_orSporgdlce,v. ,2z3note. no/*. Squiltace,retreatof Cnssiodorus,vi. , Stephens,Robert,errorin textof Greek 324. Testament,vi. , i98 note; xi. , 290. Squirrels(ordormice,glires),eatenby Stigmataofthe Crusaders,x. ,2o9ttote. the Romans,v. , 213andnote. Stilicho,generalof the West,v. , 63; Stagira,AlexiusAngelusat,x. , 341. account of, x17 sqq. ; marries Stagirius,friendof St. Chrysostom,vi. , Serena,zx9; guardianof the sons 174gote. of Theodosius,12o; marchesto Stamboul,iii. ,xx2note. Thessalonica,z22; his property Stafius,epistleof, vii. , 133note; his confiscated,I25; bringscornfrom failureat Capitolinecontest,xii. , GanltosupplyRome,129;expediz_5note. tion to GreeceagainstAlaric,x42 Statues,destructionof, at Constanfi- sqq. ; defeatsthe barbariansin nople,x. ,382sqq. Rhmtia,iSi and note; battleof Stature,Romanmilitary,iii. , 14oand Pollenfia,I54; takespartin the note. triumphof Honoriusat Rome, Stauracius,EmperorofConstantinople, x59; opposesRadagalsus,169sqq. ; viii. ,242. treatywithAlaric,z82;adventures

364 INDEX 183sqq. ; death,189andnote;his Succi,Passof, iv. ,21, 22andnote,24; memorypersecuted,189andnotes, fortifiedby Frigeridns,3xonote; Stipulations,vii. ,366. betrayedby Maurns,318. St. Marc,on Charlemagne,viii. , 346 Sueno,Prince,deathof,x. , ax5 note. note. Suerid,Gothicleader,iv. ,298. Stobaens,commonplacebook of, ix. , Suetonius,accountof the Christians 370,sq. note. underNero,iii. , ao. Stoicphilosophy,i. ,37. Suevi,originof, ii. , 27; assumethe Stoics,maximsof the,vii. , 386. nameof Alamanni,/b. ; in Italy, Stonehenge,vi. ,_7onote. 28; in Gaul,ib. ; in Ganicia,143; Stoza,aprivatesoldier,insurrectionof vi. ,97;defeatedbyTheodoricnear vii. , 238andnotes. Astorga,98; hold Gallicia,x3x; Stradiots,Albanian cavalry, xi. , 320 conversionof,182,203andnote,sq. note. Sufetula(Sbaitla),Gregorythe Prefect Strasburg,destroyed,iii. ,a6o;hattleof, at, ix. , 193note; taken bySara267 sgq. ; destroyedby the Ger- cens,195and note,sq. note. roans,v. , I75. Suger,Abb6,x. , 282note. Strata,Romanroadfrom Auranitisto Suicide,under the Romans,vii. , 387. Babylonia,vii. ,206. Suidas,Lexiconof, v. , 293note; ix. , Strategikon,authorshipof the, vii. ,182 370s_l. note. _wte. Suintila,King of the Visigoths,vii. , Strategius,Arian Christian,iii. , 334 122note. note. Suiones,i. ,286. Stratopedareh,Byzantineofficer,ix. , Sujera. ss,river,vii. ,24Inote. 340. Sulaymran,see alsoSoliman. Strigonium,seeGran. Sulaymhn,caliph,conquestsof,ix. , 132 St. fitter,John Gotthelf,x. , _6note. note;seeSoliman. Strymon,river,iii. ,250. SuUecte,receivesBelisaxins,vii. ,98and Stubbs,Bishop,onFranksin Palestine, note. x. , 263note; onkingdomof Jeru- Sulpicianns,i. , 135s_. salem,298note;ontheItinerarium Sulpicius,Alexander,historian,v. , 59 Reg. Ric. ,31onote. note. Studion,fortof,xii. , x7note. SulpicinsSeverns,seeSeverns. Studites,see Damascenusand Theo- Suipicius,Servins,Romanlawyer,vii. , dore. 320sq. Stuhr,F. ,onCouncilsofPisaandCon- Sultan,tideof, x. ,148andnote. stance,xi. , 253note. Sumium,provinceof,ii. , 174note. Stukely,Dr. , ii. , 155note. Sumnat,pagodaof,x. ,15o. Sturgeonsof the Don, xi. , ra2 and Sun,worshipof, at Rome,i. , 187;by note. thePersians,256;templeofthe,at Stutias,seeStoza. Emesa,_82,186; at Rome,ii. , 96 StylianusZautzes,ministerof LeoVI. , and note; representedthe Logos, viii. , 26i note. iv. , 55Suanians,tribe of, vii. , 218. Sunday,iii. , 28xandnote. Suards,JosephMaria,xii. , 203note. Sunnites,seeSonnites. Sub-deacons(Rectores),juri. _ctionof, Sunno,Frankishprince,v. ,z74. viii. ,46. Super-indictions,iii. ,155. Subregulus,epithetof CharlesMartel, Superstition,ii. , 78, 33o; v. , 96; its viii. ,337note. fluctuations,:di. ,xo6note;modern Subuktigin,seeSebectagi. declineof, 191note. SuburbicarianChurches,iii. , 329note. Surat,Magianreligionamongtheexiles Subutai,generalofZingis,xi. , z38note, at, ix. ,229. I47 note. Surenas,Persiangeneral,iv. , x26; fl/ght Successianus,ii. ,33. of, z4o;inthecampofJulian,16o.

INDEX 365 Surgutonthe Sangar,campof Ortho- Sylvester,seeSilvester. grul,xi. , 156. Sylvia,motherof Gregorythe Great, Surmar(Suomar),King of the Ala- viii. ,42. manni,iii. ,272. Symbatios,brotherofBasilI. , viii. ,255 Surnames,uncertainty of, in Later note. Empire,ii. , zoS note; mult/plica-Symbatios,storyof, vii. , 287note. fionof, v. ,209note; viii. ,278sq. Symmachus,iii. ,412; iv. ,223,andnote; Sus, riverof WesternAfrica,ix. , x99. solicitsrestorationof Altarof VicSusa,in Italy,ii. ,230. tory, v. , 75 and note,sqq. and Susanna,St. , Churchof, at Rome,on notes; exile of, 78; warns the the siteof SaUnst sPalace,v. ,247 RomanSenateof scarcityof corn, note. x29andnote; vi. ,34xnote. Susnens,seeSegued. Symmachus,father-in-lawof Boethius, Sutri,campof Barbarossaat, xii. , 96 vi. ,336; death,342; familyof,lb. andnote. note,vii. ,x24. Sviatopolk,or Svatopluk,x. ,43note. Symmachus,Pope,electedby TheodoSwabia,duchyof, viii. ,389note. i tic, vi. , 33x; livesof,ib. note. Swatoslaus,Kingof Russia,reignof, Symonds,J. A. ,onthe revivaloflearnx. ,62 sq. andnote; paganismof, lag in Italy,xi. , 275note. 69. SynceUus,ii. , 85note. Sweden,populationof, infifteenthcen- SynceUus,Theodore,ondiscoveryofthe tury,xii. , 62note. Virgin sraiment,viii. ,96note,xxx Swedes,engagedin herringfisheryon note. coastof England,xi. , x48note. Synesius,Bishopof Ptolemais,iii. ,326 Swinburne,Travelsin Spain,ix. , 219 andnote;opinionsof,327note;on note. the Romanrepublic,iv. ,336note; SwissCantons,ii. , _4,25. v. , x45andnote,sq. ; on St. AnSwitzerland,idolatryin,vii. ,277note. tony,vi. , _58note. Sword(Roman),see Arms; of Aris- Synods,provincial,li. ,3x3;annual,ilL, totle,ii. , z29;of Mars,discovered 329; extraordinary,convenedonly by Attila, vi. , 5 sq. and note;of by the emperor,33o; canonsof God(Caied),ix. , 79. Nice concerning,ib. note. See Syagrius,son of 3Egidius,Kingof the Councils. Franks,reignsover Soissons,vi. , Syracuse,sackedbytheFranks,ii. ,x23; 214; extent of his kingdom,ib. Belisariusat, vii. , 129;description rote; defeat of, by Clovisand of,lb. note;plunderedbytheSaraflight,2x4. cens,ix. ,284note;deliveredbythe Syagrins,sonof Timasius,v. , _96. Greeks,285; siegeof,/b,and_wte; Sybarius,attemptof Belisarinsto re- CastelManiadat, x. ,88note. lieve,vii. , 258andnote. Syria,provinceof,i. , 3r; desertof,/b. ; Sybilla,sisterofBaldwinIV. of Jerusa- invasionofSapor,ii. ,44sg. ;Chrislem, x. , 299; marries Guy de tian churchesof,33_; invasionof Lnsignan,lb. ,3oz. ChosroesNushirvan,vii. ,90; subSyenein Egypt,li. , _62. duedby ChosroesII. , viii. ,8 sg. ; Sylla,the dictator,hislegislation,vii. , governedbyMoawiyah,ix. ,xoo-x; 377andnote. Saracensin,_35sq. ;liistoryofconSyUanns,consul,i. , 227. questof, lb. note; climateof,x53 Sylvania,sisterof Rufinus,v. ,x24note. sq. ; expeditionof Nicephorus Sylvanus,advocate,iv. , 167. [ Phocas,3xo; Seljukiandynastyin, Sylvanus,generalof Constanfiusin x. ,x76sq. ; invadedbythe Seljuks, Gaul,lii. ,2z5; assumesthepurple, i89; invasionof Timoux, x4. , a42;assassinationof,ib. x96sq. Sylverins,Pope,vii. ,I35note; exileof, Syriactongue,i. , 48,49andnote;used x49s_. ,a46andnole. in the eastern provinceso_ Ar

366 INDEX menia,v. ,33z_U; viii. ,x83and Tagina,battleof,vii. , 258sq. ; bishopsLote, ticof,ib. note;dateof,27o. Syrian and Cfliciangates, viii. , zoo Taherites(Tahirids),dynastyof, ix. , note. 302andnote. Syrians,establishedin Gaul, vi. , 236 Tahex (T_dair),founder of Taherite note. dynasty,ix. ,3oanote. Syrians,or OrientalChristians,x. , 269. T. _bir,sonofAmr,ix. , 3o2note. Syrianns,Dukeof Egypt,iii. ,389nole. Tai,tribeof,ix. ,xoa. Syropulus,Sylvester,his historyof the Taifalze,Gothictribe, iii. , 239; ally union of the Latin and Greek themsdvesto Fritigern,iv. , 306 Churches,xi. , 259; his name,lb. and note. note. Taitsong,Emperorof China,ix. , I3o. Szegedin,peaceof, xi. , 307; violated,Taiz,townof,i. , 262_ote. /b. Talba, bishopricof,viii. , z64note. Szeklers,x. ,49note. Talents,i. ,2o5 andnote;Attic,xii. ,x4 note. TABARt,on banishmentof the Jews Talmis,Inscriptionof, viii. , 208twte. from Chaibar,ix. , 7I note; his Tamerlane,seeTimour. generalhistory,xx7 note; account Tamsapor,satrap, iii. ,249. of the deathof Rustam,x3anote. Tana, or Azoph,merchantSof, send Tabaristgn,conqueredbythe Saraceas, deputationtoTimour,xi. , 189--9o; ix. , 132note. sackof,i9o note. Tabenne,islandin the Nile,monasteryTanals,river,battleon, betweenHans on,vi. , i59; positionof,/b, note. andAlani,iv. , 286. Tabenne, trumpetof the EgyptianTancred,Kingof Sicily,x. , z44. monks,iii. ,394- Tancred,cousinof Bohemond,joins Table of Solomon,intheGothictreas- firstcrusade,x. ,219note; atConury,v. ,a6tand note. stantinople,23I; parentageof, Tables,astronomical,of the Arabians, 238note; at Antioch,247; lenity ix. , 274note. of,at siegeof Jerusalem,257; deTables(triara_),gameof,v. , 213,2z4 fendsAntioch,272. andnote. Tancredde Hauteville,x. ,97,99. Tabraca,harbourof, v. , i33 and note. Tang, Chinesedynastyof the, ix. , 13o Tabue,Mahomet sexpeditionof,ix. ,8o andnote. andnote. Tangier,Saracensadvanceto, ix. , 198. Tacitns,Emperor,i. , Io3; accountof, Tanjou,chiefofthe Huns,iv. ,375sqq. ii. , zos; reign,xo6sqq. ITanrmina,seeTauromenium. Tacltns,the historian,accountof the Taor,villageof,vii. , 60note. Stoics,i. , 98; his episodes,25o; Taprobana(Ceylon),i, 69 and _wle, Germania,273; revoltof Civilis, 1I3 note; iv. , xo8andnote; vii. , 298; accountof the Christians 36!andnote;Christianityin,viii. , underNero,ii. , 336and note,iii. , 188. 21, 22; Life of Agricola,/b. ; on Tarachns,iii. ,83note. Gaul,vi. , 209sq. Taragai,fatherofTimour,xi. , 183no/e. Taaics of Leo and ConstantinePot- Taranton,cityin territoryof theHumS, phyrogenitus,ix. , 315 sqq. and viii. ,1o6note. notes,356andnote;x. ,40andnote. Tarantula,biteof, x. , xo7 note. Tadgics,tribeof, vi. , 27note. Tarantns,nicknameof Caracalla,i. , Tadmir,nameof Murciaand Cartha- 163note. gena,ix. , 219. Tarasius,patriarchof Constantinople, Tadmor,seePalmyra. viii. ,a4xnote;crownsNicephorus, Tmni,Arabictribe,iv. ,151note. 243; acknowledgeshissupremacy, TaghlakTimur,ChagataySultan,xi. , /b. note,35z; presidesat seventh x$3 note. generalcouncil,/,b.

INDEX 367 Taxcalissmus,seeZeno. dates,li. , :77; Heracliusat,viii. , Tarentum,assaultedbyAnastasius,vi. , xo5andnote. 3x9; takenbyTotiL%262; Con- Taurobolia,feastof,iii. ,6I note. stausII. at,viii. ,224. Tauromenium,captureof,bySaracens, Taxgetias,ambassadorof the Avars, ix. ,286andnote. viii. ,4- . . _ Taurus,brazenstatueinthesquareof, Targeteers,domesticguarus,w. , z_2. ; x. ,6=andnote. Tarif,Saracenchiefin Spain,ix. , 21x. Taurus,philosopher,vii. ,342note. Tarik,lieutenantof Musa,at Gibraltar,Taurus,PraetorianprefectofItaly,iii. , ix. ,212andnote;histreatmentof 371; flightof, iv. , 22; banished, Jews,215,221 st. ; ill-treatedby 36andnote. MUtsfi,218. Tavexnier,viii. , xo3 note; description Tarkhan,PHnceof Faxgana,ix. , 129- ofKerman,x. , I77note. 3°. Taxation,Romanswereexemptedfrom, Tarquin,posthumouspunishmentsin- i. , 2o3; provincialtaxation,lb. ; ventedby,vii. ,386 andnote. underAugustus,2o6s_q. ; under Tarquitius,iv. ,z5onote. Trajanand the Antonines,2ii; Tarraco,ii. , _24note. under AlexanderSeverus, 212; Tarragoaa,provinceof,i. , 24; cityof, underDiocletian,i88; underGa/. b. ;sackedbythe Goths,ii. , 26; lerius,2_osq. ; underConstantine in fourthcentury,v. , 27L theGreat,iii. ,i54sqq. ;landtax,157 Tarsus,in Cilicia,takenby Sapor,ii. , sq. ; on tradeand industry,164; 45,rx2; Julianat,iv. , xxS;burial reducedbyValens,iv. , 2oz; laws of Julianat, 169sq. ; Kingof Ar- of Majorianconcerning,vi. , xo5; inertiaat, 243; reducedby the underJustinian,vii. ,42 ${{. See Saxacens,ix. , 17o; siegeof, 309; Tribute. takenby crusaders,x. , 241; re- Tayef,siegeof, by Mahomet,ix. , 75 storedtotheempire,273. andnote;submitstoMahomet,77. Tartartopa,or Tartargates, vii. , 7= Taylor,Mr. Isaac,i. , 279note. note. Tcheremisses,religionof the,xi. , 299 Tartary,see Scythia. note. Tasillo,Dukeof Bavaria,viii. ,366. Tebeste,modernTibesli,battleof,vii. , Tasso,vii. , 265note; accountof Ri- 24i andnote,sq. andnote. nMdo,x. ,2x9note;sacredgroveof,Tecbir,Arabianwaxcry, ix. , 152and nearSichem,256and note. note. Tatars,or Tartars,descriptionof, iv. , Tecrit,takenby Timour,iii. , 257and 261,26=sqg. ;mannersof, 262and note. note;diet,263andnotesq. ;liabita- Tedaxdi,on siegeof Constantinople, tions,265s_l. ;emigrationsof, 266, xii. , 18note. 267andnote;exercises,268; gov- Teflis,Heracliusat,viii. , ZXL ernment,269sqq. andnote. r;corn- Teias, Gothiccommander,vii. , 267; paredtotheHunsofAttila,vi. ,_4; defeatand deathof, 273. originof, xi. ,13onote;underZin- Tekkur,titleof Greekprincesof Con_s,ib. sqq. stantinople,xi. , 21onote. Tatian,prefectof the East,imprison-Tekfia,rivuletnearJerusalem,x. , 255 meat and exile of, v. , xxo and note. note,sol. TeleM,onthe Hunyadys,xi. , 313note. Tatullus,of Petovio,accompaniese. m-Telemachus,St. ,v. , 16oandnote. bassytoAttila,vi. ,43note;father Telenissa,mountainof,vi. , 178. of Orestes,I43. Telha,Arabianchief, revoltsagainst Tauresium,villageof, Justinianborn Ali,ix. , 97; death,98. at, vii. ,x*tote,59sq. note. TellMannas,villageof,takenbyRayTauri,ii. ,31. mandof Toulouse,x. ,253no_e. Tauris,orGandzaca,residenceof Tiff- Tempe,valeof,vii. , 61*q. andnote.

368 INDEX Templars,knights,foundationof, x. , Thacea,battleof, vii. , a38andnote. a63note. Thadeusde Roma,xli. , 83note. Templeof EIagabalus,i. , z86. Thais,Kingof Yemen,iii. ,x97. Templeof Solomon,see Jerusalem. Tha labites,vii. ,2o5 note. Temple,SirWilliam,ix. , x86note;on Tharaan,seeOthman. theSaraceus,263note;onTimour, Thamar, Queen of Iberia, xi. , Ix xi. , aaa note; onScanderbegand note. Huniades,3xSnote. Thamud,tribeof,ix. , 23,56; caverns Temples,pagan,destroyed,iii. ,4xosq. ; of,56note. in the provinces,v. ,8osqq. ;Mar- Thanet,isleof,vi. ,27o. ceUusleadsan armyto destroy,83. Thapsacus,fordsof, iii. ,253; iv. , x2a Templeman,Dr. (Surveyofthe Globe), note. i. ,34note. Theatres,performancesin, v. ,222. Temugin,seeZingis. Thebzeanlegion, iii. , x63 note; at Tencteri,ii. ,a7. Hadrianople,a33note. Tenedos,isleof,JohnPal_eologusat,xi. , Thebals, desertsof, Westernbishops x_7. banishedto, iii. ,388note; monks Teneritt,Mount,i. , 33note. of,393. Tephrice,foundationof, x. , x2 and Thebarma,or Ormia,cityof,viii. ,xo6 note. andnote. Terbelis,the Bulgarian,besiegesCon- Thebes(inBoeotia),takenbyRogerof stantinople,viii. ,23o; madeC_sar Sicily,x. , x33; under Otto de la byJustinianII. , x. ,34note. Roche,xi. , 90; undertheAccaioli, Teredon,cityofAssyria,iv. ,t27note. 92. Terek,battleof the river,xi. , x88note. Thebes(inEgypt),kingsof,i. ,14xnote; Terracina,inscriptionat, vi. , 329note; wallsof,lii. , xo2andnote. viii. ,333andnote. Thecla,sisterofthe EmperorMichael, Terrasson,on RomanJurisprudence, viii. ,258note. vii. ,3o4note. Theft,Romanlawconcerning,vii. ,376, Tertullian,DeCoronA,ii. ,284note;on 379. thelaztjudgment,294;hisapology, Thegan,biographerof LewisthePious, 339andnote; Montanistopinions viii. ,37° note. of,iii. ,x3 note;describestheedicts Theiss, or Tibiscus, river, iii. , x86; of TiberiusandM. Antoninus,48, Romanembassyto Attilacrosses 346andnote;opposesthePatripas- the,vi. , a8. sians,353note. Themes,ix. , 243and note,32osq. Tertullus,Prefectof Rome,iv. , 23. Themistius,his fourthoration,iii. ,a42 Tervingi,opposeClaudius,ii. ,65 note. note;iv. ,3note;epistleofJuliant0, SeeThervingi. _8 note; his addressto Jovian, Tesser_(dice),v. ,2x4andnote. I77 and note; oration,A. ,. 374, Testament,GreekNew,textof,vi. ,x98; 206 note; speechto Valens,aSx publishedby Erasmus,lb. note; note; orationon Theodosius,337 text concerningthe threewitnesses note. includedin,/b. Theobald,Dukeof Spoleto,x. , 82and Testaments,lawof,vii. ,362s_q. note. Tetricus,ii. , 65; reignedin Gaul, 50 Theobaldof Champagne,x. , 343. SOl. ; defeatedby Aurelian,7i; Theoctiste,daughterof EmperorMaureign,82 and note; at Rome,94 rice,viii. ,83note. sq. ; reinstated,95- Theodatus(Theodahad),reignsinIt_. y, Teucri,nameappliedto Turks,xii. ,45 vi. , 3x5note;coinof,322note;vu. , note. xa6sq. ; negotiateswithJustinian, Teutonicknights,ii. , 7 note; vi. , 293. x27s_?. ;abdicationof,_3xs_. ;reThabor,Mount,discussionconcerning voltsagainstJustinian,x32_g. ; DivineLightof,xi. ,xxS. death,x36.

INDEX 369 Theodebald,Kingof the Frank%vii. , ofNic_a,_d. ,ro andnote;charac275andnote. ter,54andnote. Theodebert,Kingof Austrasia,vi. , 285 TheodoreLasca. dsLI. ,reignof,xi. , 57 andnote; invadesItaly,vii. , x58; sq. ; writingsof,58note. death,i6o. Theodore,monkof Tarsus,madePriTheodelinda,seeTheudelinda. mateof Britain,viii. ,282note. Theodemir,Gothicprince,vi. ,299and Theodoreof Mopsuestia,viii. , _75-6 note,sg. andnote. Theodolphus,Bishopof Orleans,viii. , Theodoreof Studion,viii. ,24x note; 357note. banished,243note;iconoclast,35x Theodora,accountof, vii. , 1o sqq. ; note. belongsto the blue faction,/b. ; TheodorePalamlag_sonof theelder wifeof Justinian,r3; hervirtues, Andronicus,xi. , 97note. x6 sq. ; death,x8; firmnessof,]Theodore, torturedunder Emperor duringtheNikariot,27; conspires[ Theophflus,viii. , 353note. againstJohnof Cappadocia,47;]Theodoret,iv. ,92note,94note;sacred negotiationswithItaliancourt,vii. , legendof, vi. , x79. x27s_. ; makesVigiiiuspope,x49; Theodoret,Bishopof Cyrrhus,v. ,82, friendshipwith Antonina, x68; 83; epistlesof,357note;restored, accusesherenemiesof crime,382; viii. ,x75. Monophysitismof, viii. , 173-4. TheodoricI. , sonofAlaxic,Kingof the TheodoraAngela,wife of Conradof Visigoths,vi. , 44 andnote; beMonfferrat,x. , 355note. siegesAries,/b. ; accountof, 46, Thcodora,daughterof ConstantineIX. 47; daughtersof, marriedto the [VIII. ],viii. ,276; empress,278. KingsoftheSueviandVandals,/b. ; "I"aeodora,daughterof JohnCantacu- aUieshim__. lfwiththeRomans,57 zene,marriesOrchan,xi. , x63-4. andnote,sq. ; death,62. Theodora,nieceof ManuelComnenu. ,TheodoricII. ,KingofVisigoths,vi. ,58; viii. ,293. acquiresNarbonne,vi. , x3i. Theodora,Petraleipha,wifeof Michac Theodoric,sen of Clovis,_-i. ,66note; II. ofEpirus,xi. , 58note. conquersAuvergne,vi. , 255. Theodora,. _cn_r/_:,xii. , 84note. Theodoric,son of Triarius,vi. , 304 Theodora,sister of Marozia, viii. , note;attacksTheodoric,306. 377. TheodorictheOstrogoth,accountof,by Theodora,widowof BaldwinIII. of Sidonius,vi. ,94sqq. ;expeditionto Jerusadem,viii. ,299. Spain,97sq. ; defeatstheSuevi,98; Theodora,wifeof Constantius,ii. , I49 sacksPollentiaand Astorga,/b. ; note,209. defeatedby Majorian,Io9; allies Theodora,wifeof EmperorTheophilus, himselfwithRome,xx4; marries viii. ,252note,sq. ; restorerof ira- sisterof Clovis,2x8; protectsthe ages,253; regencyof,/b. ; opposes AlamannJ,lb. note; consul,235; Bardas,258; establishesimages, birthandeducation,299sq. ; sub351; persecutesthePaulicians,x. , duesthe Sarmatians,3or; serves xl. Zeno,304;attackedbyTheodoric, Theodora,wifeof JustinianII. , viii. , sonofTriarius,306; atConstanti229. nople,3o7; hismarchintoItaly, TheodoreII. , sonof JohnVataces,xi. 308sg. ; territoryof, 3zx; reign, 33. 3r3sgg. ;foreignpolicyof,316s_. ; TheodoreAngelus,despotof Epirus, hisdefensivewars,3x8s_g. ; civil xi. , z2note,22; Emperorof Thes- governmentof,3at; Latinedictof, salonica,24,33note. ib. note; eoi_qsof, 322; visitto TheodoreGaza,xi. , 284andnote; on Rome,325; residesat Ravenna, AristotleandTheophrastus,286. 327; andVerona,/b. ; religious TheodoreLascaxisI. , x. ,364; Emperor tolerationof,329sqq. ;vicesofhis VOL. g11. _ 2. 4

370 INDEX government,33zs_. ;persecutesthe and note; pillarof, removedby Catholics,333; sendsPopeJohn Justinian,vii. , 290. to Constantinople,334;imprisonsTheodosiusII. (theYounger),receives Boethius,339; putshimandSym- the relicsof Chrysostom,v. , 317 machusto death,340sq. ; death, and note; Caesarand Augustus, 34a; monumentof, 343andnote; 3x8; educationof,324; character, dateofhismarriage,vii. , x24note; 326 and note; marries Eudocia, actsof,ratifiedby Justinian,28_; 327; campaignin Persia,329sq. ; buildingsof Rome under,xli. , in Italy,337; givesWesternEra*92. pireto ValenfinianIII. , 339; first TheodoHctmde Niem,xii. , *59note. Novelof, 340 note; negotiations Theodoropol/s,or Dristra,see Dristra. withtheHurts,vi. ,*9s_. andnotes; Theodorus,a personexecutedbyTheo- treatywithAttila,36; death,/b. ,37 dosinsI. ,iv. , *94note. andnote;takespartin theNestcTheodorus(a youth mentioned by rian controversy,vi/i. , *48 sq. ; Rufinus),iv. ,92note. subscribesan edict againstNesTheodorus,brotherof Heraclius,viii. , torius,*5*--2. x**. TheodosiusIII. , Emperorof ConstantiTheodorus,Mallius,consul,v. ,293and nople,viii. , 233 sg. ; retires,ix. , note. =43. TheodosianCode,validin Gaulunder Theodosiusthedeacon,brotherofContheMerovingians,vi. , =6x; lawof stansII. , viii. ,2=4-5;ix. , 3o8. the elergy,=63. SeeCode. Theodosius,deaconof Syracuse,ix. , Theodosiopolis,v. ,332and note;con- 285andnote;poemonconquestof flagrationof, vii. , 7o; wonfrom Crete,3o8no/e. the Saracensby ConstantineV. , Theodosius,fatherof TheodosiusI. , viii. ,237note. inBritain,iv. , 229sqg. ; in Africa, TheodosiusI. (theGreat),iii. ,,67 note; =34sqq. ; death,236. his successionforetoldby magic,Theodosius,loverofAntoniua,vii. ,x68; iv. , *94andnote; defeatsthe Sax- flightof, x69; retiresto Ephesus, matians,253,254;Emperorofthe {b. ;returnanddeath, 7 . East,3=, sqg. ; birth and char- Theodosius,Patriarchof Alexandria, acter,334s99. ; treatywithDuke viii. ,=o3; orthodoxyof, 2o5sq. of Mcesia,324andnote;conductsTheodosius,sonof the EmperorMauGothicwar,3a6sgq. ;illnessof,329 rice,viii. , 78; goesto Persia,79; and note; entertainsAthanaric, death,83. 33x;Maximus,v. ,9; baptismand Theodosius,opposestheusurperConreligiousopinionsof, *osqq. ; en- stantine,v. ,z8oandnote. tersConstantinople,,8; religiousTheodote,wifeof ConstantineVI. ,viii. , policyof,24sqq. ; edictsof,against 24xnote. heretics,24 _q. ; visits Thessa-:Theodotus, philosopher,Life of, by lonica, 39; marriesGalla, 40; Tribonian,vii. , 327enters Rome,43; virtuesof, /b. , ITheodotus,Presidentof the Councilof sg_. ; faults of,45, 46; statue of,I EUerapolis,iv, 24and note. brokenat Antioch,47; pardons_Theognostos,hisHistoryof Sicily,ix. , the Antiochians,49; massacreat 284note. Thessalonica,5x; restoresValen-Theon,fatherofHypatia,viii. ,*39and tinian,57; defeatedbyArbogastes, nole. 64; dividesthe empirebetweenTheonas,St. ,churchof,at Alexandria, his sons Arcadiusand Honorius, lii. ,39o,39*67; attitudetowards paganism,Theophane. s,Co_inua_ion o], ix. , 80sqq. ; jewelsof, *=xand note; 3*4. familyof, in Spain,*8x; descend-Theophanes,the chronicler,i. , _3 antsof, at Constantinople,vi. , *4z note;ill. , 295note; vii. , 234rwte;

INDEX 37I ix. , 3t4note; on ConstantineVI. , Theopompus,ix. , 37x. viii. ,a4xandnote;ix. , xr7note. Theotocos,title of theVirgin,viii. ,z4a Theophanes,torturedunder Emperor note. Theophilns,viii. , 353 note. Therapeion,fortof,takenbytheTurks, Theophania,widowof the younger xii. ,x7note. Rornanus,ix. , 309. Therapeutm,ii. ,335andnote;studied Theophano,daughterof RornanusII. , philosophy,iii. ,340 note; Chriswifeof OttoII. , viii. ,268andnote; tianityof,vi. , x56note. ix. , 348. Therianus,on revivalof lea. ruingin Theophano,wifeof LeoV. ,viii. ,047. Italy,xJ. ,275note. Theophano,wifeof RomanusII. , viii. , Thermm,seeunderRome,Bathsof. 268; marriesNicephorusII. , 07o; Therrnantia,nieceof Theodosius,v. , conspiresagainsthim, 07z; dis- xl9 note. missedbyJohnZirnisces,/b. note. Thermantia,wifeof Honorius,divorce Theophilus,Archbishopof Alexandria, of,v. ,x89. iii. ,306note;destroyedthetempleThermopylae,Straitsof,fortifiedbyJusof Serapis,v. , 86; persecutes tiaian,vii. ,6z. Chrysostom,3x2 sg. ; escapeof, Thervingi,see underGoths. 3x4; hisbookagainstChrysostom,Theseus,Dukeof Athens,characterin 3x7note. Shakespeare,Boccaccio,andChauTheophilus,authorof JustinianiVita, cer,xi. , 9° note. vii. , xnote,5 note. Thessalonica,siegeof, ii. , 66; headTheophilns,BishopofAntioch,ii. ,096; quartersof Theodosius,iv. , 308; iii. ,227note. revoltat,v. ,50sqfl. ;massacreat, Theophiins,consularof Syria,death, $x,5_; magazineof armsat,x47; iii. ,229. capturedby SaracensA. D. 904, Theophilus,Maroniteof MountLi- viii. ,o6xnote;sackedbytheSicflbanus,ix. ,277note. ians,304; playonthe name,ix. , Theophflus,missionaryto theSabmans, x71note; Bulgariansiegeof, xi. , iii. ,3xt andnote. uo;kingdomunitedtoNice,33and Theophilus,sonof Michaelthe Stare- note; Cantacuzeneat, zo9; irameter,Emperorof Constantinople, portanceof, in the empire,ix3 viii. , 049sqg. ; iconoclasticismof, note; John P_logus at, ix6; 353; warof, withMotassem,ix. , underAndronicusPalmologns,25I; 29x$qq. ;hisembassytoLewis,x. , conquestof, byAmurathll. , 3o2 50; wallsof,xii. ,0onote. ] andnote. Theophflus,thejurist,vii. ,314,338; ix. ,lThey, provinceof,cededtotheBul365note. garians,x. , 08; WMla_an, in Theophobus,Saxsanidprince,viii. ,u5x. fourteenth century, xi. , xx3 Theophra_tu*,Dialogue,date of corn- note. positionofthe,vi. , 199note. Theudechildis,sisterofTheodebert,vi. , Theophrastus,disciplesof, vii. , 74; 085andnote. exileof, 78 note; accountof the Theudelinda,daughterof Garibald, Romans,306 note; studyof, by King of Bavaria,convertsthe TheodoreGaza,_d. ,286. Lornbards,vi. , 005; marriesAuTheophylactus,father-in-lawofAlberic tharis,viii. ,35-6. xii. ,84note. Thendes,Kingof theGothsin Spain, TheophylactusSimocatta,vii. ,x9onote; expeditionof, to Africa,vii. , x21; viii. ,7note;onspeechofJustin,_o death,/b. and note; k/nsrnanof note;onHormuz,56note;History Hildibald,vii. , 243. of Maurice,75note. Thendibertof Met. z,vii. , o6Inote. Theopolis,vii. , 0o8; see Antioch. Theurgyof the Platonists,iv. , 55. Theveste,seeTebeste. Theopolis,note. villageor castleof, v. , 284 Thibant,CountofChampagne,general

372 INDEX of the confederateCrusaders,x. , ThunderingLegion,storyof the,iii. ,50 35x; death,/b, andnote. Thibet,kingdomof, destroyedby Cu- Thuringia,undertheruleof Attila,vi. , blai Khan,xi. , x42. 7; boundariesof the kingdomof, Thilsaphata,iv. ,I6 5 andnote. 216note. Thilutha,fortressof, iv. , x26. Thuringians,at thebattleof ChMons, Thomas,a Greeknoble,ix. x45sg. ; vi. , fix; crueltyof, to the Franks, exileof,I48. ] 65andnote. Thomas,apostle,apocryphalgospelof,: Thuroczius,historianof Hungary,xi. , ix. , 40note. x341tote. Thomasof Stromoncourt,territoryof, Thyatira,churchof,ii. , 332; battleof, in Greece,xi. , 7 note. iv. , x92and note. Thomas,Patriarchof Antioch,x. , _5 Thyrsus,churchof St. ,v. ,323note. note. Thysdrus,cityof,i. , 223andnote. Thomas,St. , Christiansof, in India" Tiara, crownof the Popes, xii. , x58 viii. ,i9xsq. note. Thomas,St. ,Manichman,Indian mis- Tiber,river,inundationsof, xii. , x89 sional-y,viii. , I9t andnote. sq. Thomas the Slavonian,officerof Leo Tiberias,residenceof theJewishpattiV. , viii. , 246 and note; rebels arch,iv. , 74and note; M_s_at, against MichaelII. , 248sg. and ix. , 222; siege and battle of, x. , note. 299sq. Thomassin,on Monasticism,vi. , x56 TiberiusI. , i. , 4o and note, 92_ote; note;ontheRnmanCardinais,vii. , adoptionby Augustus,93, xo3; 44 note. character,10x; placescampof the Thor, caveof,ix. , 58. pr_etofiansin Rome,x33, 134;reTboros,Armenianprince,x. , 24xand ducestheexcise,208note;alleged note. edict in favourof the Christians, Thous,MaiekShahat,x. , x72. iii. ,49. Thrace,Provinceof,i. , 29; invadedby Tiberius II. , sends embassyto the the Goths, ii. , 68; settlementof Turks,vii. ,x95; reign,viii. ,x9sqq. ; Bastarnmin, x22; of Sarmatians, virtuesof, 2xsq. ; selectsMaurice iii. , i9o; invadedbytheVlsigoths, fortheempire,24; relievesRome, iv. , 248; Goths settledin, a92; 26; trucewithPersia,52-3. goldminesof,3oxandnote;given TiberiusIll. , seeApsimar. to Theodosius,323; settlementof Tiberius,brotherof ConstantinePogotheGothsin, . 335;ravagedbythe natus,madeAugustusbyhim,viii. , Huns,vi. , i 3. 226. Thrasea,i. , xo2. Tiberius,sonof JustinianII. ,viii. ,_32. Thrasimund,Kingof the AfricanVan- Tibet, Buddhistsof, form friendship dais,persecutesthe Catholics,vi. , withthe Saraceus,ix. , i33 note. 189; exilesthe bishops,x9i sq. ; Tibur,orTivoli,townof,ii. ,95; Totila marriessisterof Theodoric,vii. , at, _. , 247; war of, withRome, x22. xii. , 85note; subduedby Rome, Three Chapters,dispute concerning, rot and note. viii. ,x74note. Ticinum,orPavia"Stflichoat,v. ,x68; Thuasne,L, on Belliniand Moham- siegeof,byAlboin,viii. ,r3. reedII. , _di. ,3 note. Tigranocerta,ii. , I76 note. Thucydides,on the plagueat Athens, Tigranes,i. , 268note. vii. ,297andnote. Tigris, Julian crossesthe, iv. , 137; Thule, vi. , 317 and note; name of navigationof the,145sq. note. England, x. , 53; colonyfrom, Til,orTula,fiver,vii. ,190andnote. servein Greek army, xxS, 273 Tillemont,M. de,i. , 162note,_34note; note. life of Chrysostom,v. , 308 rate;

INDEX 373 ofSt. Augustin,35xnote;shockedTobolskoi,residenceof the Mongol at certainPopes,viii. , x64 note; Khans,xi. , x49. Gibbon"takes leaveforeverof," Toctamish,Khan of Kipzak,xi. , z88 x67note. andnote;flightanddeath,x89. Timasius,master-general,v. , 53 not_; TogrulBeg,KingoftheTurkmans,x. , attemptsof, to reformthe legions, x56; reignandcharacter,_57sq9. 68; defeatsthe GothsinThessaly, Togrul,chiefol the Karalts,xi. , x3o :95; character,ib. andnote; exile note. and death,:96 andnote. Tokay,vi. ,28andnote. Timavus,describedby Virgil,i. , a35 Tolbiac,battleof,vi. , :x7 andnote. note. Toledo,Councilof, vi. , 2o4; eighth Timolaus,ii. , 86note. i Councilof,kS. note,2o6; Tarikat, Timosthenes,Greekhistorian,vii. , 2161 ix. ,:x8 andnote. note. Toleration,in the Roman Empire, Timotheusof Gaza,tragedyof,vii. ,39 popular,i. , 35sq. ; philosophical, note. 37; official,39; in the provinces, Timothy,St. ,bodyof,broughtto Con- 4o; at Rome,_. ; of paganism, stantinople,v. ,98. iii. ,409sgq. Timothythe Cat,a monk,Patriarchof Tollenburg,namefor Pragg,x. , :xz Alexandria,viii. , x6: and note. note. Timouror Tamerlane,iv. , :70 note; Tollius,vii. , xx7note. massacresof,vi. , _6note;historiesToncat,dietof,vi. ,3° note. concerning,xi. ,z8oandnote;deri- Tongousesand Samoyedes,iv. , 275. vationof nameTimour,x8xnote; Tongres,destroyedbytheGermans,iii. , accountof,182sqq. andnotes;reign 26o; Julian at, 27o; pillagedby andwars,x85sqq. ; conquersPer- the Hans, vi. , 55; subduedby sin, /b. ; Turkestan,x87; invasion Clovis, _x6; confoundedwith of Syria, x96sq. ; sacksAleppo, Thuringia,ib. note. I97; invadesAnatolia, 200 sq. ; Tonkin, kingdomof, conqueredby his conquests,:o9 sq. ; enters Cublai,xi. , 142. China,:x3; death,ib. ; character Tonsure,vi. ,x68andnole;ix. , x36note. ib. sq. ; his Institutions,2J6sq. Top:,nameassumedbytheSienpi,v. , Tingior Tangier,i. , 32; ix. ,x98. x64. Tingitana(Mauritania),i. , 32. Toparchof Gothia,notesof theGreek, Tipasa,maritimecolonyofMauritania x. ,7onote. miracleat, vi. ,z98sq. andnotes. Topirus,siegeof,bytheSlavonians,vii. , Tiraboschi,on restorationof Greek _85andnote. learningin Italy,xi. , 275note,289 Torismund,Kingof the Visigoths,vi. , note. 58; in the battleof Ch-alons,59 Tiranus,Kingof Armenia,imprisoned sqq. ; declaredking,65; put to bySapor,iv. ,:39 andnote. deathbyhisbrotherTheodoric,vi. , Tiridates,son of Chosroes,King of 94andnote. Armenia,ii. ,z64sqq. ; educatedat Torjok,SubutaitheMongolgeneralat, Rome,ib. ; invasionof Assyria, xi. , x46note. x68; defeatedby Narses,lb. ; re-ITort,Mr. C. ,onRhodes,ix. ,xyxnote. Stored,x76; convertedto Chris-Tortona,seditionin the Romancamp tianity,iii. , 198; death,lb. at, vi. , x13. Tithes,seeTythes. Torture,useof,iii. ,x5x, x52andnotes. TitlesofAugustus,i. , 89; andsurnamesTosti, L. , Historyof the Councilof ofthe Romannobles,v. , 2o9; of Constance,xi. ,:53 note. the imperialfamilyof Byzantium,Totila,Kingof theGothsin Italy,vii. , ix. , 336. :44; hisname,ib. note; reduces Titus,i. ,93. Naples,245; characterof, 247; Tivoli,s_ Tibur. besiegesRome,25° sg_/. ; takes

374 INDEX Rome,254; orationsof, 255; re-i spirit,tS; forumandpillarof,59; coveredbyBelisarins,257; enters revivedtheconsularoath,84noU; Romeasecondtime,26x; inSicily, adoptedbyNerva,95; refusesthe 262; attackscoastof Greece,/3. ; censorship,ii. , t4 noe; arch of, battleof Tagina,_68; death,27z; spoiledby Constantine,238 ; condid not injurebuildingsof Rome, ductto theChristians,iii. ,28; ia xii. , x93. Julian s Caesars,iv. , xoT; his Tott,Baronde,ondefenceof theDar- bridgeover the Danube, vii. ,59 danelles,ix. ,238note;xii. ,xSnote; andno/e; constructscanalinEgypt, onTurkishnavy,3° note. ix. , x87note. Touensh,brotherof the SultanMalek Trajan,Count,in Armenia,iv. , 4_; Shah,x. , i89. causesPara (Pap)tobe murdered, Toulouse,residenceoftheGothickings, 244; generalof Valens,302. v. , 278; attackedby Litorins,vi. , Tralles,in AsiaMinor,populationof, 45; Saxacensat,ix. , 252; Inquisi- xi. , 86note. tion of,x. , z9sq. no/e. Trani,seeTroina. Toulun, conquerorof Tartary, see Transmigration,seeSouls. Shelun. Transoxiana,conqueredbyZAngis,_, Toulunides(Tfilfinids),dynastyof,ix. , x38. 303andnote. Transubstantiation,x. , 3x3. Touran,kingdomoftheTurks,vii. ,x96. Transylvania,occupiedbytheMongols, Touran(Tffr_n)Shah,Sultanof Egypt, xi. , :t49note. x. ,32I. Trapezus,seeTreblzond. Tournament,x. ,222. Trascalissens,seeZeao. Tournay,taken by the Germans,v. , Trai_,ii. ,195andnote. 175; bytheFranks,vi. ,49- Treason,lawof, byArcadius,v. , 297 Tournefort,iii. ,9x note; vii. , 66note; and note,sq. andno/e; Romas viii. ,io3note;onHeraclea,ix. ,aSr lawof, vii. ,372. note; his map of the Bosphorus,Treasures,Gothic,atNarbonne,v. ,26o xii. , 7 note. andnote. Tours,secondCouncilof,vi. , 275note; Trebatins,vii. ,32aandnote,334no/e. Abderameat, ix. , 253; battleof, TrebeUianns,Emperor,revolt of, in 256. Isauria,ii. , 5o, 56. Toushi[J_ji], sonof Zing_sKhan,xi. , Trebizond (Trapezus),taken by the x4oandnote;sonsof, I87 no/e. Got]as,ii. ,33sq. ; buildingsofJusTowns,walled,originof,x. ,43st]. tinianat, vii. , 66; gold minesof, Toxandrla,in Brabant,Franksin, iii. , ax5; sovereignsof,viii. ,3o6;inde_6oandnote. pendentof theTurksin eleventh Toxotins,husbandof Paula, v. , 2oi century,xi. , io-x2; dukedomand andnote. empireof, xi. , xx-x2 and notes; Toxus,Hungarianruler,x. , 44note. inhabitantsof, sentto ConstantiTozer,H. F. , onGreek-speakingpopu- nople,xii. , 55note;fallsunderthe lationof Italy,xi. , 276no/e; on Turks, 59Sfl ; populationof, 59 Plcthon,286note. note. Trade,foreign,of theRomans,i. , 69. Trent,Councilof, ii. , 29xnole. Traditio,termin Romanlaw,vii. , 357 TrY:yes,ii. , i6o andnote;amphitheatre note. at, 224; Decentiusat,iii. ,220;de. Traditors,ilL,7I, 337. stroyed by the Germans, 26o; Tradouicus,Peter,Dogeof Venice,x. , Athanasiusat, 378; Valentinianat, 345note. v. ,2x7; pillagedbytheFrankS,v. , Tragutium,seeTrail. 278; vi. ,5o; massacreoftheJews Trajan,Emperor,i. , 6; annexesDacia, at,x. ,21o. /3. sq. ; his easternconquests,i3. ; Trevoux,i. , x52note. eatersPersianGulf,/3. ; militaryTrladitza(Sophia),viii. ,283note.

INDEX 375 Tribes,assemblyof the,at Rome,vii. , of Asen,Kingof Bulgaria,xi. , 26 309. note. Tribigild0the Ostrogoth,rebellionof, Troas,aqueductoftterodesAttieusat, v. , 3oos_lq. ; allies himselfwith i. , 57. Gainas, 3oi; dictates terms of Troina,battleof, x. , 88; fortressof, peace,3ox,3o2. io6; siegeof,xo7. Tribonian,ministerof Justinian,on Trowsers(bracc_),ii. ,94 noge. treason,v. , 297note; vii. , 26, 46; Troy,iii. ,96. accountof,3a7sq. ; choosesforeignTroyes,ii. ,x59; threatenedbytheHuns lawyers,33xsq. ; errorof,concern- andsavedbySt. Lupus,vi. ,54,55ing the Julianlaws,379note. Truce,annual,ofthe Arabs,ix. , x8and Tribuli,enginesused in the siegeof note. Rome,vii. , a57and note. Truceof God(TreugaDe. i),i. , 295; x. , Tribunes,i. , 8a sq. note; in middle I98andnote. ages, xii. , 84; tribune, title of Truli, namegivento Gothsin Spain, Rienzi,_33. v. ,276note. TribuniciaPotestas,i. , 82note,sq. note. Trumpet,Barbarian,iv. ,298andnote; Tribute,i. ,ao3s_q. ;ii. ,i8,z9andnote; Roman,vii. ,x45note. reducedafter the invasionof the Tryphon,Jewishwriter,viii. , x24note. Gothsinto Italy,v. ,262. Tsepho,grandsonof Esau,iii. ,5 note. Tricesimm(Kellen),fortifiedbyJulian,Tubero,Romanlawyer,vii. , 334note. lii. ,273note. Tudela, Benjaminof, ix. 329-3° and Trigetius,ambassadorto Attila,vi. ,72. note. Tringuemale,harbourof, vi. , 36. TukaTimur,Khanof GreatBulgaria, Trinity,controversyconcerningthe,iii. , xi. , 187note;houseof, x9onote. 338; Platonicdoctrineof°/-b. sq. ; Tull,sonofZingisKhan,xi. , 14o. controversyatAlexandria,344sqq. , Tfilfinids,see Toulunides. 35z; decisionof the Councilof Tureen,Kingof the Turks,vii. , 587 Nice,354; of Constantinople,v. , note. ao s_. ; textsinterpolatedin Gos-Tunis, Latin Christiansat, ix. , 232; pelof St. John,vi. , z96andnotes, takenby Rogerof Sicily,x. , 13x; sq. andnotes, siegeof,byLouisIX. , 322. Tripod,inmemoryof defeatof Xerxes,Turcilingi,vi. ,I43. iii. ,xo5 andnote. Turin,battleof,ii. , 230,a3x; Attilaat Tripoli(Syrian),conqueredbytheSara- (?),vi. , 68; siegeof,vi. , 296note. cens,ix. , x9i note,sqq. ; attackedTurisund,Kingof theGepid_e,viii. ,6. byZimisces,3ii; takenbyRoger Turkestan,expeditionof Alp Arslan ofSicily,x. ,13t sq. ; emirof,helps into, x. , x7osq. ; conqueredby Crusaders,254; takenbyBaldwin MalekShah,173; byTimour,,Jr;. , I. , 26zandnote; countyof, 262; x87. countof, in courtof peers,266; Turks, originand descriptionof, vii. , belongstodescendantsof Countof 185sqq. ; religionandlawsof,188; St. Giles,258note; escapesfrom conquestsof,/b. sqq. ; embassyto Saladin,3ox; lost bythe Franks, Constantinople,xotsq. ; conqueSts 324. of, in the East,viii. ,287; earliest Tripoli,federationof,iv. ,23xandnote; inscriptionof the,ix. , x33note;in loyalto Justinian,vii. , xo8; duke Bagdad,295; in Persia,x. , z47 of,Ho; underSaladin,x. , 296. sgq. ; mannersandemigrationof, Trisagion,hymn viii. ,z65sq. z53sqq. ; calledTurkmans,I58 Tristram,Sir,romanceof,vi. ,275note. note; invadetheempire,i6x sq. ; Tritheism,iii. ,352sq. note. Gelal_eaneraof,575andnote;conTriumph,thelastat Rome,ii. , z77sq. queStofAsiaMinor,578sq. ; take Trnovo,inscriptionof Omortagat, x. , Jerusalem,z82;in Egypt,25xsq. ; 32 note; cathedralof, inscription scatofgovernmentatIconium,273

376 INDEX andnote; conquestof Egypt,289 Ukraine,Gothsin,ii. ,3x. s_/q. For Ottoman Turks, see Uldin,KingoftheHurLs,defeatsGainas Ottomans. the Goth,v. , 307; his rearguard TurksorMagyars,seeMagyars. extirpated,33z. Turpilio,generalof Honorins,v. , x95. UIj_-Tu,Khan ofPersia,xi. , i55 note. Turpin,Archbishopof Rheims,x. ,z96 Ulpbila_,apostleof the Goths,account andnote. of, vi. , x8osq. ; histranslationof Turtullian,vii. , 313sq. the Scriptures,/b. note; Arianism Tuscans,producedthefirstHaruspi¢_, of, x86note. v. , 8xnote. Ulphilas, lieutenant of Constantius, Tuscany,marquisesof, RomanSeein v. ,268. subjectionto,viii. ,377. Ulpian,head of Mamaea scouncil,i. , Tusculum,countsof, hold the Seeof x6o,x94; onthe dutiesof a proRomein subjection,viii. ,377;their consul,iii. , i28 note;vii. , 3to; a titles,xii. , 84note; ClementIII. jurist,32o;authorityof,326; fraggives to the Romans, 9o note; mentsof, 334note. overthrown,xoz; battleof, _oi-_; Ulpiana,vii. ,60note. partlybelongedtotheColonna,xx8. UlpiusCrinitns,ii. , 7oandnote. Tu/da, inRomanlaw,vii. ,354. Ulubad,battleof, xi. , 2i9 note. TwelveTables,laws of the, vii. , 3o5:UlughBeg,foundsobservatoryat Sasqq. ; severityof, 37x. marcand,xi. , x82note. Tyana,siegeof,ii. ,87,xx2; Jovianat, Ulysses,shipof, at Corcyra,vii. , _62 iv. , x78; taken by the Saracens note. viii. ,23znote;ix. , 243. Umbrians,i. , 26. Typeof Constans,viii. ,x79. Unitarians,ix. , 38. Tyrant,insenseofusurper,ii. ,5o. UniversalHistory,Modern, on _IaTyrants,the Thirty,ii. , 49 sqq. ; of hornetand the Caliphs,ix. , Ho Britain,v. , 284andnote. note. Tyre,councilof,iii. ,376; recoveredby Universities,European,xi. , 275. Afdal,x. , 252andnote; emirof Upravda,translationof nameJustinihelpsCrusaders,254;takenbythe anus,vii. ,i note. Franks,26i andtwte;besiegedby Upsala,templeof,i. , 287note,li. , 5and RichardI. ,304;lostbytheFranks, note; CodexArgenteusat,vi. , 18t 324. note. Tythes, ii. ,3x9; institutedbyCharle-Uraias,nephewofVitiges,vii. ,x54,243. magne,viii. ,362andnote;SaladineUranins,sophist,at courtof Nushirtenth,x. ,312-3andnote. van, vii. , 2o2. Tzangra,crossbow,x. , 239note. UrbanII. , Pope,x. ,x92; at Councilof Tzechi,tribeof, viii. ,72and no/e;x. , Placentia,x93sg. 277note. Urban IV. , Pope, letter of, viii. , 389 Tzetzes,Isaac,ix. , 370note. note; protectsBaldwinof CourteTzetzes,John,vii. , 49andnote; Chil- nay,xi. , 73. ladsof,288 note;ix. , 370; other:UrbanV. ,Pope,xi. , 239andnote; adworksof, /b. note; on death of dressedby Petrarch,xii. , x55and Mourzoufle,xi. ,9 note. note,sq. note; returns to Rome, Tzympe,fortressof,takenbytheOtto- x57; deathforetoldbySt. Bridget, roans,xi. ,z65note. ib. ; introducesconservators,z7o note. UBERza_rtrsPusculus,xii. ,23note. UrbanVI. , Pope,xii. , x59; supported Ubiiof Cologne,i. , 28xnote. by Rome, England, etc. , x6x; Ugernum,nearAries,assemblyat, de- cruelty,ib. ,_62. daresAvitusemperor,vi. , 94andl Urban VIII. , Pope, removesroof of no/e. porticoof Pantheon,xii. ,x93note. Ugri,orHungarians,x. ,39sq. Urbanor Orban, Hungarian,mak¢_

INDEX 377 cannonfor Mahomet,xii. , x4and Vacearicia,battleof,x. ,85note. note. Vacsaor lawofZingis,xi. , 2i4 tlote. Urbicus,river,battleon the banksof, Vadomair,a princeoftheAlamanni,iv. , TheodoricdefeatsRechiarius,vi. , x4and note; epistleof, to Con98. stantius,23 note; sonof, murUrbino(UrbsVetus),takenby Belisa- dered,2x5;commandswithCount flus,vii. , x57andnote; duchyof, Trajanin Armenia,24z. unitedto Ferrara,xii. , 175. Vagabanta,battleof,iv. ,24_. Uregundi,seeBurgundians. Valaxsaces,dateof,ii. , x66_wte;King UroshV. , Kingof Servia,marchesto of Armenia,v. ,233note. deliverHadrianople,xi. , x66note. Valdrada,wifeof LothaireI1, ix. , 347Ursacius,Bishopof ILlyricum,professesValencia,worshipof Christabohshed Arianism,iii. ,362; epistlesof,382 in,ix. , 232. note. Valeus,ArianBishopofMursa,iii. ,216 Ursacius,masterof theoffices,iv. , 213 not£; influencesConstantius,368. andnote. Valens,Augustus,iv. , x84;Emperorof Urselof Baliol, commandsthe Nor- the East,lb. ; chaxacter,x96s_?. ; roansintheserviceofRomanus,x. , administration,x98s_l. ;adoptsthe x65andnote. Arianheresy,2o2,203;assiststhe Ursel,rebellionof,viii. ,286. Iberians,24z; Gothicwax,247 Ursicinus,inGaul,iii. ,242;inMesopo- sqq. ; residesat Antioch,290sq. ; tamia,258; disgrace,/b, settlestheVisigothsinThrace,292; Ursini,Romanfamily,xii. , x2o sq. ; at Constantinople,3o9; defeated splendourof, x77,205. at thebattle of Hadrianople,3x2 Ursini,Bartoldo,stoned,xii. , xSo. sq. ; death,3x4. Ursini,Martin,executionof, xii. , x36 Valens,Bishopof Illyricum,professes [seeStefaneschi]. Arianism,iii. ,362; epistlesof,382 Ursini,Savella,xil. ,2o5. note. Ursinus,contentionof, withDamasus, Valens,generalof the Dalmatianleiv. , 210. glons, esCapCS, V. , 232 ; in the Ursula,St. ,v. ,7note- Gothic camp, ,38; desertsto Ursulus,the treasurer,death,iv. ,36. Attalus,/b. Urtupa,battleof,xi. , x88note. Valens,madeCaesarbyLicinius,ii. , Uslpetes,ii. ,27. 247;death,248. Uspenski,T. , onBarlaam,xi. ,276note. Valens,usurperinAchaia,ii. , 5° sq. Usucapio,termin Romanlaw,vii. ,357 Valentia,cityof, Constantinebesieged note,sq. note. in,v. ,x79; destroyedbytheGoths, Usufruct,vii. ,359andnote. 270, 27,; colonyofAlaniat,vi. ,43 Usury,vii. , 369sq. andnote;reducedbyAbdal-Aziz, Usu,,terminRomanlaw,vii. ,359. 82. Utica,honorarycolony,i. ,46note;iv. , Valentia,provincein Britain,iv. , 23o 232; battleof,ix. ,204. andnote. Utturgurians,vii. , x8onote. Valentin,general,despatchedto the Utus,river,RomansdefeatedbyAttila, EastbyHeraclins,viii. , 22_-3. vi. , x3. Valentin,guardof Justinian,vii. , x9x. Uzbeksor Usbec Taxtars, iv. , 263 ValentinianI. , lawagahLstdeserters,iii. , note;vi. ,27note;xi. ,x83note;in- _4xnote; character,iv. , 18xs_. ; vade:PersiaandTransoxiana,2x7. dividestheempire,x85; crueltyof, Uzi,tribeof,x. ,x65andnote. x96sg. ;beaxsuf,x98;administration, t98$g. ; institutesde]ensors, VABALLATErus(orBalbatus),ii. ,86note. 2oo;religioustoleration,2ox; edict Vacasora,subduedbythe Saxaceus,ix. , againstthe clergy,207and note; 22o. warwiththe Alamanni,2z4sq_. ; Vacca,Fiaminius,xii. , x94note. invades Germany,2x9; sends

378 INDEX Palladiusto Africa,232; warwith Valvassors,orderof,at Rome,viii. ,384 the Sarmatians,25xsqq. ; enters andnote; or bannerets,in diocese Sirmium,2$3; death,256andnote. of Coutances,z. , 97ValentinianII. ,Emperor,iv. ,258;rules Vgmb6ry,A. ,Historyof Bokhgrfi,ix. , in Italy, AfricaandWestern11- x32note. lyricum,v. , xo;expelledby Maxi- VanDale,deConsec_ationePrincipum, mus,38; restoredbyTheodosius, i. , 87note. 57; character,58; death,60. Vandale,physician,iv. ,9° note. ValentinianIII. , Emperorof the West, Vandals,in Germany,i. , 3oxnote,ii. ,7, edict of, concerningthe annum 8andnote,74note;settleinBritain, consumptionof Rome,v. ,2x9,339 x22; allythemselveswiththeSatand note; reducesthe tributeof matians,iii. ,x87; invadeItaly,v. , NumidiaandMauritania,354note; I65; defeatedbytheFranks,i74; flighttoRome,vi. , 72; peacewith in GaulandSpain,273; defeated Attila,73; puts Aetinsto death by Wallia,a76, 277; take Seville 78sq. andCarthagena,343; inAfrica,343 Valentinians,sectof the,ii. ,277; per- sqq. ; maritime power,vi. , 84; secuted,iii. , 333; iv. , 98; theory plunderRome,89sqg. andnotes;on onthe natureof Christ,viii. , x3x the coastsof the Mediterranean, note. ix7; theirconversion,x82; perseValentola,surrenderedbyTheodcmirto cute the AfricanChristians,x88 theSaracens,ix. , 220. sqg. ; numberof, underGelimer, Valeria,daughterof Diocletian,ii. ,x49 vii. , 99s{. ; fateof, xo9 sqq. ; be, note; fate of, 243s_. ; embraces comeextinctin Africa,xxS; reChristianity,iii. ,59. voltof, in Africa,236; complete Valeria,provinceof, ii. ,222note; gov- disappearanceof, 242; effectof crnedbyMarcellinus,iv. , =5xand theircaptureon the buildingsof note. Rome,xii. , z92. Valerian,brings armyto the reliefof: Vannes,dioceseof, subduedby the Rome,vii. , x5o. Britonsof Armorica,vi. , 275. Valerian,censor,ii. , 2i; Emperor,22 Vapincum,iii. , 22tnote. andnote;associatesGallienus,23; Varanes,generalof Honorius,v. , x95. wallof, 37note;expeditionto the Vaxanes,or Bahrain,usurper,exploits East,42, 43; captureof, 44, 47; of, viii. , 57sq. ; rebellionof, 59 conducttowardsthe Christians,ili. , sqq. ; interviewswithChosroes,6z 55- note;deathof, 65. Valerianus,P. LiciniusCornelius,sonof Vaxanes,or Bahrain,King of Persia Gallienus,ii. , 23 note; death,25 (VarahranIL), ii. , x3oandnote. note. Varanes,son of Yezdegerd,Kingof ValeriusFlaccns,onthe Oppian law, Persia,persecutesthe Christians, vii. ,347note. v. ,33° ; ruinoftheArmeniankingValerius,nameassumedbyDiocletian, doraunder,333note. ii. , x44note. Varangians,in the Byzantineservice, Valet,titleof,x. ,35t note. ix. , 340; x. , 5i; nameof,/b, note; Valla, Laurentius,grammarian,vii. , acclamationsof, ix. , 344 note; 332note;viii. ,349andnote;Latin serveunderAlexiusComnenus,x. interpreter,xi. , 280. XlS;composedof DanesandEngValle,della,Romanfamilyof,xli. ,205. lish,364andnote;serveunderthe Vane,Pietxodella,iv. , x36note; vii. , EmperorsofNicma,xi. ,63,65. 222note; onruinsof Assyria,ix. , Varchonites,seeOgars. x25note. Varna,battleof,xi. ,309sq. Vallio,Count,death,v. ,8 note. Varni,or Varini,vi. , 285. Vahurio,Robert,his de Re Militari,Varro,onfan ofRome,vi. ,8zandnote; xii. ,2note. oncomets,vii. , 292andnote.

INDEX 379 Varroniaa,Count,fatherofJovian,iv. , republicof,vi. ,69_gg. ;historyof, z57. by Ma. ffei,/b. note; infant doVarron/an,/afant son of Jovian,iv. minionof,viii. ,29; allyof Lorex79. bardy,385; tradeof, withEgypt Varns,Alfenus,Romanlawyer,v. ,279 and Palestine,x. , x84note; tiisnote. toryof,344sqq. ; bronzehorsesof Varns,i. ,3 note,25note. Constantinopletakento, _d. ,384 Vasinobroncae,iv. ,246note. note; her monopolyof tradewith Vataces,JohnDucas,Emperorof Nice, the East,xi. , x46note;JohnPaxi. , 24; besiegesConstantinople, l,_ ologusat, 260; knowledgeof 26; conquests,33; death, /b. ; Turkishpoliticalaffairsat,xii. ,63 administration,55 sqq. ;treasures note;holdsalooffromfactionsof of,6,3andnote;interviewwiththe Italy,x98. Sultan of Iconium,xi. , x54; his Venti,Emperorof China,memorialto, accountofthe Mongolinvasion iv. , 277note,s_. note. 232- Venus,chapelof, at Jerusalem,iv. , Vatari,villageof,vii. ,237note. 75. Vatican,libraryof the,xi. , 289. Venusia,in Lucania,iii. , 70; Robert Vatican,suburb,seeRome. Guiscardburied at, x. , x27and Vaucluse,retreatofPetrarch,xi. ,x24 tzote. andnote. Veratius,vii. ,37L Vayvods,or Hungarianchiefs,x. ,38; Verdun,massacreof theJewsat,x. , xi. ,3t3. Cp. Voivode. 2xo. Veccns,Johannes,Patriarchof Con- Vergerius,pupll of Chrysoloras,xi. , stantinople,xi. , 76andnote. 283note. Vedastus,St. ,Lifeof,vi. ,2x8note. Verina,widowof Leo,vi. , x4x; claims Vegetius,his descriptionof Roman the empire,302sq. legions,i. , x9 note; v. , 7o and Verinianus,opposesConstantinethe note. tyrant,v. ,i8o andnote. Veii,siegeof, i. , 2o3; positionof, _b. Verona,amphitheatreat, i. , 56; splennote,ii. ,x79note. dourof,6x; siegeof,ii. ,23_sq. and Velleda,Germanprophetess,i. , 292. note;defeatof theGothsnear,v. , Velleius,Paterculus,i. , I42note. x58; destroyedby Attila,vi. , 68; Venaissin,county,cededto the Popes, battleof, 3xo; palaceof Thcodxii. ,xxoandnote. oric at, 327and note;chapelof Venantins,consul,viii. ,_62. : St. Stephenat, destroyedby TheVenedi,ii. , 9 sq. and note; subdued odoric,333; Teias at, vii. , 2¢,7; byHermanric,iv. , 246. Lombaxdsin,viii. ,x3Venerianus,ii. ,37note. Veronica,or imageof Christ,viii. ,3xSVenetians,recoverRavenna,viii. ,336; Verres,tyrantofSicily,vii. ,377. alliancewith AlexinsComnenus,Versinicia,battleof,x. ,32note. x. , x25; war withEmperorMan- Versuspolitici,ix. ,373andnote. uel,i38; commerce,347; govern- Vert_e,anunknownnation,inthearmy ment,ib. ;treatywiththeCrnsaders, of $apor,iii. ,254andnote. 348sqq. ; treacheryof,to Crusa- Vertot,Abb_de, xii. ,27note. ders,350note;territoryaftercon- Verns,. Elias,i. ,96. quest of Constantinople,xi. , 5; VerustheYounger,i. ,97settlementsin Constantinople,lb. ; Ves,Russiantribe,x. ,54note. warwiththe Genoese,x25; treaty Vespasian,i. , 55, 84 note,93sg. and with Cantaeuzene,/b. ; their de- note; discoveryof his lexde irafeat,x26; use of gunpowderby, perio,xii. , x3oand note. xi. , 23L SeeVenice. Vespasiana,allegedprovincein ScotVeneti,i. , 26andnote. land,i. ,6note. Venice,or Venetia,foundationof the Vestals,i. , x45; v. , 72andnote.

380 INDEX Veterans,landsbestowedon, iii. , x4o Constantinebesieged in, x79; and note. takenbyClovis,vi. , 226. Vetranio,governorofIllyricum,assumesVienna,Theodoricbornat, vi. , 299. the purple,iii. , 2o8andnote; de- Viennensis,oneof theSevenProvinces, posedand exiledby Constantins, v. ,286note. 2x3. Vigenna,orVienne,river,vi. ,232. Vettius,celebratedRomanaugur,vi. , Vigilantia,motherof Justinian,vii. , z 82note. note,I4. Vexin,Countof,titleof Kingof France,Vigilantins(presbyter),v. ,98note. x. ,28i note. Vigilantins,generalofHonorius,v. ,x95. Vdzelay,Parliamentof, St. Bernardat, Vigilins,deacon,madePope,vii. , x49; ! x. ,285. accusedof exileof Sylverius,246 Via Cmsaris,suburbof Ravenna,v. , note;sendsSiciliancornto Rome, x63note. 250and note; apostacyof, viii. , Vicarsor vice-prefects,iii. , x27 and x76. note. Vigilius,interpretersentwith embassy Vicennalia,festivalof the,ii. , x77,x78 to Attila,vi. , 24; interviewwith andnote. Attila,3o; his conspiracyagainst Vicenza,destroyedby Attila,vi. , 68. Attila,34. Victor,Africanbishop,his historyof VigilinsofThapsus,dialogueof,vi. ,x96 the Africanpersecution,vi. , x99. andnote. Victor,Aurelius,iii. ,ao6note; prefect Vignoles,M. des, on dateof firein of thecity,iv. , 2note. Nero sreign,xii. , x88note. Victor(Flavius),sonofMaximns,death Viliaris,aGothicwarrior, vii. , 244note. of,v. ,4_andnote. Villages,inRussiaandPoland,vii. ,x8z Victor,the Sarmatian,Julian sgeneral note;authoritiesupon,lb. of infanta%iv. , x24; at Maoga- Villains,or serfs,in Syria,x. , 270. malcha,_3x; wounded,z4o;gen- Villani,John,ontherevolutionof a. v. eralofVMensagainsttheGoths,iv. , x328atRome,xii. ,1o6note. :_49; withArintheusarrangespeace Villani,Matthew,historyof, xi. , tit withthe Goths,250; retreatof, at note. Hadrianople,3z4. Villas,oftheMerovingians,vi. , 250and VictorVitensis,HAstoryofthe Vandalic note. persecution,v. , 350note; vi. , x9o Villehardouin,Geoffreyde,joinsfourth note. crusade,x. ,343; originof nameof, Victor (the Younger),historian,lii. , lb. note; compared to Nicetas, z7onote,225note. 379; Marshalof Romania,xi. ,8; Victoria,motherof Victorinus,ii. , 5% retreats before the Bulgarians, 82andnote. x6. Victorianns,proconsulandmartyr,vi. , Villehardouin,William, Prince of x94note. Achaia,captivityof, :l:i. ,34 and Victorinus,associateof Posthumns,ii. , note. 50; death,8xandnote. Viminacium,i. , x64note;destroyedby Victors,veteranbandofthe,inBritain, theHuns,vi. ,xz. iv. ,229. Vindonissa,battleof,ii. ,z$9; ruinsof, Victory,statueandaltar of,v. , 74and vi. , 217andnote. note; banished by Gratian, 75; Vine,cultivationof the, i. , 66,67and restorationssolicitedby Symma- note. claus,/b. Virgil,fourtheclogueof, iii. , 304and Victovali,i. ,3ornote. note;sixtheclogueof,iv. ,xo7note; VicnsHelena,townof,Clodiondefeated nintheclogueof,v. , 279andnote; byAetinsat,vi. , 5° and note. mentionof silkby, vii. , 3x; menVienna (Vienne),iv. , 6; Julian at, (donssuicides,387andnote; asa x3; ValentinianII. at, v. , 59; magician,xii. , 2o9 note.

INDEX 38i Virtha, or Tecrlt, Arabian fortress,Volney,travellerin Egypt,ix. , z79note, besiegedby Sapor,iii. , 257and i9! note. note. Voloceanmarshes,ii. , aaanote. Visandus,Gothicstandard-bearer,vii. , Vologesia,iv. , xa7 note. x39. Voltaire,i. , 33note; hisZadig,ix. , x9 Visconti,sovereigntyof,in Milan,viii. , note; on Mahomet,73note; on 39L siegeof Damascus,x4onote;on Visigoths,seeunderGoths. divisionof the SaracenEmpire, Vistula,settlementof Gothson,ii. ,7- 263note;onAlexiusComnenus,x. , Vitalian,Gothicchief,deathof,vii. ,4; 227note;onAmurathII. ,xi. ,303 familyof,ib. note. note; xii. , 38 note; Turcophil Vitalian,nephewof Anastasius,revolt prejudices,56note. of,viii. ,z67. Volusianus,sonof Gallus,ii. , 20and Vitalianus,Prmtorianprefect,i. , 220 note. note,228. Volasius,wealthyRomansenator,v. , Vitalius,generalof Justinian,vii. , 244 206note. note. Vopiscus,ii. , :03note. Vitaxa_,or satraps,i. , 26x. Vortigera,Britishprince,vi. , 269st. , ViteUius,emperor,i. , 94, zot note. 276. Vitcrbo,viii. , 333andnote; battle of, Vortimer,sonof Vortigern,vi. , 276. xii. , xoa and note; a retreatof Vouillt,battleof, Clovisdefeatsthe popes,xo7. Gothsat,vi. ,333; positionof,and Vitiges,generalof Theodatus,Kingof site ofthe battle,lb. note. Italy,vii. , i36; besiegesRome,J38 Vou-ti,Emperorof China,ii. ,I67and sqq. ; sixcampsat Rome,I43and note;iv. , 279andnote. note;besiegesRimini,x55;fliesto Vsevladof Irdev,x. , 194note. Ravenna,lb. ; acceptsBelisaxiusas Vulcanus,Bonaventura,authorofLatin King of the Goths, 164; taken versionof Agathias,vii. ,8 note. prisoner,/b. ;senatorandpatricianVultures,twelve,of Romulus,vi. , St. at Constantinople,z65and note; embassyof, to Persia,ao6. WACg. rDY(AIW_. lddi),historyof the Vitruvius,thearchitect,v. ,233andnote. conquestof Syriaascribedto, ix. , Vitry,Jamesde,x. ,26i note. I35 note; historyof conquestof Vivariumat Rome,seeRome. Mesopotamia,x7o note;historyof Vivonne,Clovisattacksthe Visigoths conquestof Egypt,x73note. near,vi. , 233:r/o/e. WaimarofSalerno,x. ,90note;receives Vizir,officeof, revived,ix. , 203note; Capua,9t note. Turkishofficeof, xi. , x58. Waltz,G. ,onimperialcoronations,xii. , Vlachia,Great,x. , 338note. 67note. Vlacho-Bulgariankingdom,x. , 338 Wakasa,battleof (Yermuk),ix. , x57 note. note. Vladimir,metropolis,taken by the Walachians,ii. , 74note;originof,x. , Mongols,xi. , 146note. 28andnote;shareinsecondBulVladimir,seeWolodomir. gariankingdom,338 and note; Voconianlaw,vii. ,36i andnote,365. rebelagainstthe Turks,xi. , 168 Voguls,Siberianpeople,x. , 39note. note;claimHunyady,3x3 note. Voigt,G. , on iEneasSylvius,xii. , 62 SeeVlachia. note. WaladimirI. , ofRussia,seeWolodomir. Voigt,Johannes,onPopeHildebrand,Walamir,Princeof the Ostrogothsin x. ,x3_note. Pannonia,friendof Attila,vi. , 8; Voivode,:d. ,93- brotherofTheodorictheOstrogoth, Volaterranus,Jac. ,Diaryof,_di. ,xSo. vi. , 299andnote,sq. Volaterra,Raphaelde,translatesworksWalamirs,Gothictribe, fightfor the of Procopius,vii. ,8 note. EmperorZeno,vi. , 3o4•

382 INDEX Wales, Britonsretreatto, vi. , 275; Whiteandblack,meaningof,inTurkish marchesof, 288; musicin,/b. ,sq. language,ai. , 168note. note. WhiteHorde,xi. , 187_. ! Walid,caliph,marriesgranddaughterWhiteHuns,iv. , 282sqq. | of Yezdegerd,ix. , x3rnote;con- White,Mr. ,ArabicprofessoratOxford, i quersTransoxiana,_32and note; ix. ,254note;institutionsofTimour ]annexesSpain,21o; deathof, 222 translatedby, xi. , 18znote. a4r. Wibaldof Corvei,Abbot,x. , 28rnote. Wall, Roman,in Britain,i. , 5; of Wibert,hisLifeofLeoIX. , x. ,93note. Aurelian,ii. , 80; of Probus,i2o Widimir,brotherof Theodoricthe OsofChina,iv. ,277; of Rome,under trogoth,vi. , 299sq. andnote. Honorius,v. ,223; of Justinianin Wilfrid,Anglo-Saxonbishop,vi. , 28t ThracianChersonese,vii. , 61sg. ; andnote; at the Lateransynod, of Anastasius,62. viii. ,z82note. Wallia,KingoftheGoths,allieshlmr_f WilliamI. ,Kingof Sicily(theBad),x. , withRome,v. , 275;death,vi. , 44. I4° sg. Wnllus,or Cambricus,vi. , 28*note. WillisrnII. , of Sicily(the Good),x. , WalterdeBrienne,DukeofAthens,xi. , 139,I42. 9_; death,/b. William,Countof Apulia,x. , 88, 90; Walterde Poissy,uncleof Walterthe dividesthe conquestswithRainulf Penniless,x. ,2o9 note. andWaimar,9onote; death,x29. Walterthe Penniless,x. , 2o9; in Asia Williamof Malmesbury,on firstcruMinor,ax2. sade,x. ,234note. Walther,onRomanlaw,vii. , 3o2note. Williamof Nogaret,xli. , io8. Wangkhan,seePresterJohn. Williamof Tyre,errorof,x. ,182note; War,rightsof,vii. , *62note. knowledgeof antiquityof,240note. Warburtonon Julian,iv. , 78note. William,Viscountof Melun,flightof, Warna,seeVarna. at Antioch,x. ,247. Warnefrid,Paul,ontheLombards,vii. , Wimpfen,ii. , x2o. I78 note;viii. ,28 note;on defeat Winchester,Roman,Gyn_ceumat,iii. , d theSaraceus,ix. ,256note. x48note. Waters,Princeofthe,Persiantitle,vii. Windmill%introducedinto Europeby 2ooandnote. theCrusaders,xi. , 40note. Watson,Dr. ,ix. , 247note. Wine,publicdistributionof, at Rome, Waywode,seeVoivode. v. ,219; scarcityof, lb. andnote. Wei-lio,Chinesedocument, vii. , 32 Wingfidd,Sir Robert,ambassadorof note. HenryVIII. , xii. , i66 note. Wellhausen,on fall of Mecca,ix. , 74 Wisdomof Solomon,publishedbythe note. AlexandrianJews,iii. ,340andnote. Wells,in Persia,vii. , aoonote. Wisumar,VandalKingof the Goths, Wdtin,visionof,viii. ,36onote. iii. ,89, 9o. WendsorS1avonians,vii. ,,x7 note. Witchcraftand Witches,iv. , 193; in Wenzel,son of CharlesIV. , viii. ,39z Lombardcodeof laws,viii. ,37-8. note. Withicab,sonof Vadomair,murderof, Werdan,generalof Heraclius,ix. , x42 iv. , 2z5. andnote. Withimer,King of the Goths, war Wharton,Thomas,Historyof English against the Hunsand Alani,iv. , Poetry,vi. , 278note. 288. Wheat,priceof,iii. , _7note;fixedby Witikind(Widukind),Saxonchief,viii. , Julian,iv. , xz2. 372andnote. Whitaker,i. , x66note; his Historyof Witikind(Widukind),Saxonmonk,vi. , Manchester,iv. ,226note;vi. , 268 269note. note; on Englishlanguage,279 Witiza,KingoftheGothsinSpain,vi. , m_/4. 265; ix. , 2o9.

INDEX 383 Woden,godof war,vi. , _72. and note;subduedby Mo_wiya, Wolodomir,Grand Duke of Russia, 99; subduedbySaladin,x. ,295. viii. ,268; sendsauxiliariesagainst YenKing,seePeking. Phocas,274note; ix. , 349; bap- ¥ermuk,battleofthe,ix. , 156s_. tismof, x. , 7o; marriesPrincess¥ezdegerdI. , v. ,3x9. Anne,/b. ; dateof, /b. note. YezdegerdIII. , lastKingof Persia,ix. , Wolodomir,provinceof, seeMoscow. 12o;eraof,/b, notes;defeatedby Women,positionamongRomans,i. , theArabsat Jalula,_26;atRayy, x92;amongthe Germans,29zsg. ; /b. note; takes refugewiththe amongtheMahometans,ix. ,52sg. ; Princeof Fargana,129-3o;slain howregardedlegally,vii. ,346. bytheTurks,x3x; childrenof,ib. Woodward,W. H. , xi. , 275note. note; vii. ,20i. World,dateof creationof, ii. ,289and Yezd,MagianPontiffnear,ix. ,a29-3o. note;conflagrationof, 292sq. YezidI. , Caliph,sonof MnAwiya,ix. , Worms,destroyed,iii. ,260;murdersat, xox; sparesfamilyofAll,xo4; at intenthcentury,x. ,203note;mas- siegeof Constantinople,238. sacreof the Jewsat, 2_o. Yezid11. ,Caliph,iconoclasticedictof, Worship,public, solidfoundationof viii. ,3x6note. religion,v. ,95. Yezid,favouriteof Sulaym_m,ix. , 223 Wotton sReflectionson Ancientand note. ModernLearmng,ix. , x86 no/e; Yezid,sonof Walid,ix. ,x3t note. 275note. Yolande,daughterof Johnof Brienne, wifeofFredericII. ,x. ,3x5andnote. XEiqAIAS,or Philoxenus,Bishop of Yolande,sisterof BaldwinandHenry, Mabug,exileand death of, viii. , wifeofPeterofCourtenay,xi. ,22. x95andnote. Youldnna,chiefofAleppe,ix. , 163,165. Xenophon,on eunuchs,iii. , 224note; Yuen,Mongoldynastyof,xi. , t52. Cyropa_diaandAnabasi. Liv. , x63 Yule,Colonel,histranslationof Marco note;onSyrianand Ciliciangates, Polo,:d. ,x34note;onChina,I4x viii. ,ionnote. note. Xeres,battleof, ix. , 2x3 and note. Xerxes,Bridgeof Boats,lii. , 95 and ZAB,lesser,viii. ,nS. note;vii. , x74note. Zahatus,orgreatZab, river,iv. , x6a Ximenes,Cardinal,publishestheGreek note; Heracliusat,viii. ,xx5;detestament,vi. , x98note. featof CaliphMervanonthebanks Ximenes,Roderic,hisl-IistoriaArabum, of,ix. ,26o. ix. ,25onote. Zabdas,generalofZenobia,ii. ,87. Xiphilin,Patriarchof Constantinople,Zabdicene,provinceof, cededto the viii. ,283. empire,ii. , x76andnote. Xivrey,Bergerde,onEmperorManuel,Zabergan,leader of the Bulgarian xi. ,249note. cavalry, vfi. , 282; threatensConstantinople,283; retires,285. YAROSlAV,seeJaroslausandIeroslaus. Zablestan,reducedbyNushirvan,vii. , Yatxeb,seeMedina. 230. Yeletz,takenbyTimour,xi. , x89. Zacagni,viii. ,28note. Yelutchousay,Chinesemandarin,vi. , Zachariah, Patriarchof Jerusalem, x4andnote. takenbyChosroesto Persia,viii. , Yemanah,Arabiancity,andprovinceof, 9o. ix. ,zx2andnote. Zac_hariah,prophet,vii. ,x72. Yemen,orArabiaFelix,conqueredby Zacharias,BishopofMytilene,viii. ,I53 Nushirvan,viii. ,5x sq. ; kingdomi note. of, ix. , 5 and note; citiesin, 8; Zacharias,thePaulician,x. ,4note. subjugationof,bytheAbyssinians,Zachary,Pope,viii. ,34L Persians,Egyptians,andTurks,xo Zadeughel,viii. ,2ta.

384 INDEX Zagan,Pasha,at siegeof Constant. i-Zenobia,queenof Palmyra,ii. , 5o,53, nople,xii. , x8note. 65; defeatedby Aurelian,7r; Zagarola,fiefof theColonna,xii. , Ix7. characterandreign,83sqq. ; proZagatai,sonofZingis,xi. , x4oandnote. tectsPaulof Samosat3,iii. ,58. Zagatais,defeatToct_mi_h,xi. , 189. Zenobius,ii. , 95 _wte. Zaid,seeZcid. Zeno,Emperor,restored,vi. , x48;hasZaleucus,lawsof, vii. ,306and note. band of Ariadne,302; vii. , 64; Zalzuts,x. , x57note. Henoticonof,viii. ,x62andnote. Zama,battleof, ii. , x26note. Zeno,Bishopof Maiuma,iv. ,95note. Zarna,Saracenleader,deathof,ix. ,_52. Zeno,orator,vii. ,5L Zames,vii. ,266note. Zephaniah,prophecyof, iv. , 3x9. Zamma,brotherof Firmus,iv. , 233. Zeugma,passageof the Euphrates,iv. , Zamoixis,ii. ,74. ix9ffagte. Zamorin,grantsprivilegestoChristiansZeuxippus,bathsof, iii. , zoS,xo6and ofSt. Thomas,viii. ,x92. note. gampea,attendantoftheEmpressAnne, Zhebu,thechaganof theKhazars,viii. , xi. , 236and note. i_z note. Zani,Peter,Dogeof Venice,xi. ,6 note. Zichid_e,xi. ,3o3note. Zani,tribeof, vii. , 66; sent by Jus- Ziebel,Princeof the Chozars,viii. , tinianagainstthePersians,223. [ Ix2. Zano,brotherof Gelimer,vii. ,xo5s¢q. ;!Zimisces,John,theArmenian,viii. ,268 death,_08. note; Typikonof, a69 note,sq. ; Zanteor Zacynthus,massacreat, by accountof, 27osflg. ;easternconGenseric,vi. , xz8;takenbyVene- quests,ix. , 309 sgq. ; settlesthe tians,xi. , S note. Paul/clansin Thrace,x. , x5 and Zanubi,poetlaureate,xii. , x55note. note; conquersEasternBulgaria, Zapharan, Jacobite monastery,near 35note; hisname,65note;takes Merdin,viii. , z96. Marcianopolis,66; triumphof, Zara,siegeof,x. ,353andnote. 67-8. Zarabai,officeof the,ix. , 338note. ZingisKhan,iv. ,26i note,270andnote; Zarathustra,seeZoroaster. vi. , 5 andnote; slaysthe Chinese, Zathus,Kingof Lazica,vii. , _2o. x4sq. ; accountof, xi. , xa9 sgq. ; Zayrids,seeZeirides. birthandrace,/b,andnote;etymolZealots,sectofthe,iii. ,4 note,23. ogyof nameZing,is,r3onote;laws Zebrasat Rome,ii. , i36 note. of,x3xsq. andnote;religionof,13t Zehra,cityof,nearCordova,ix. ,267. sq. ; invadesChina,x35sq. ;conZeid,slaveofMahomet,ix. ,42note,54; quersCarizme,Transoxiana,and standardbearerat Muta,78. Persia, J37 sq. ; his strategical Zeineb,wifeof Mahomet,ix. , 86note. ability,ib. note; returnanddeath Zeineddin(Zaynad-Din)Cadhi,x. ,287. of,x39; childrenandsuccessorsof, Zeirides,SaracendynastyinAfrica,x. , J4osq. x3z. Zizais,chiefoftheSarmatians,iii. ,¢49. ZeitinBurnou,nearthe GoldenGate, Zobeide,wifeofHarunAl-Rashid,viii. , xii. ,3°note. _o5note. gela_orItali_e,tide,xii. , z4o. Zobeir,Arabianchief,supportedbyiaZemlin,seeSemlin. ; surgentsof Kfifa,ix. , 96andnote; Zemzem,holywellof Mecca,ix. ,9, 24. revoltsagainstAli, 97; death, Zendlanguage,i. , 253note. 98; _ Gregorythe Prelect,I94 Zendavesta,or Bibleof theGhebers,i. ,i sqq. 253,258. ZoeCaxbonupsina,wife of Emperor Zendecan,battleof,x. , 156. LeoVI. , viii. , 263and note; reZenghi,Governorof Aleppo,x. ,288. gencyof,264. ZeniaorZonastan,Armeniannamefor Zoo, daughterof ConstantineIX. China,ii. , x66note. . (VIII. ), viii. , a76; empress,278.

INDEX 385 Zoe,secondwifeof LeoVI. , viii. ,26I of his style,326; lack of judgnote,263and note. ment,336; v. ,4o; fanaticismof, Zoltan,sonof Arpad,Hungarianruler, 95 andnote; accountof Britain, x. , 44 note; Hungarianformof 28u; on revoltof Tribigildand "Sultan," x48note. Gainas,299note; on the monks, Zonaxas,i. , 232note; on AnnaCorn- vi. , x72. nena,ix. ,371note. Zost_patricia,maidofhonouratByzanZoroasteror Zarathustra,i. , 253 and tineCourt,ix. ,338note. note; systemof,254sqq. ; ii. ,277; Zotlcus,i. , i88 note. vii. ,196note;writingsof,ix. ,2a7; Zoupans,or Lordsof Croatia,x. ,3o. religionconfoundedwith that of Zuheir,SaracengovernorofAfrica,ix. , the Hindoos,/b. note,229. 2oo. Zosinaus,on taxation,iii. , x64, 165; Zurich,cityof,xii. ,8oandnote. accuses Constantine, 28o; on Zwinglius,ii. ,293note. epistlesof Julian, iv. , 23 note; Zygomala,Theodosius,on siege of prejudiced,31o note; description Constantinople,z/d. ,6 note. VOL. XU. --2_;

INDEX PART II. TO APPENDICES ABASGIA,ix. , 405. 4erariumof Rome,iii. ,452. Abbadgn,town,iv. , 343. Aetius,in Merobaudes,iv. ,35z; rdaAbbgsids,the, theirinfluenceon his- tionsto Boniface,376. toriography,viii. ,4x5. Africa,warsin (sixth century),vii. , AbdaI-Malik,buildingat Jerusalem, 403; exarc. hsof, 404; pt-_t,preiv. , 342; coinageof,ix. , 399" fectSand magg. milL,/b. Abdar-Rahmgn(historian),ix. ,397- Africa,Dioceseof,iii. ,43_. Ablavius,ii. , 35o. Africa,provinceof,i. , 3x6; iii. ,43I. Abraha,King,vii. ,402andnote. Agapetusof Synnada,iv. ,34x. Abraham,Armenianmonk,xii. ,2z6. Agathangelus,i. , 3ao; sourcesof, iii. , Abramos,in Yemen,vii. ,4oz. 44L Abulfaragius,seeBar-Hebrseus. Agathias,i. , 3_o-_; vi. , 353" Ab_-l-Fidg,geographyof, iv. , 343;life Ager_ezin rebus,iii. ,435. and workSof, ix. , 397. AgneUUs,iv. , 353. Ab_1Sh_ma,se_Abd ar-Rahn_n. Agriculture,code relatingto (eighth Abyssinia,ia fourthto sixthcenturies century),viii. ,4375q. A. D. ,vii. ,400sq_. Aizan,King,vii. ,4oo. Achaia,province,i. , 315. _lc_0_ o__vo_,viii. ,398. Acciajoli,the (Nicholas;Angelo; Ne- Alamanni,ii. ,356. rio I. ; Antonio;NerioII. ), xi. , Alania,ix. ,405. Alans,in Gaul,iv. , 348;ix. ,404. 33x-3" Alaric,Stilicho scampaignsagainst,v. ,Adand,A. H. D. , ii. ,35o. Acre,Saracensiegeof, ix. , 397. 365-7; in Greece,367; in Italy, Acropolites,George,ix. ,383-4• 368-9; "peaetrabisad urbem," Actso/Archedau. _,x. , 39o. 368. Adad,King,vii. ,4oxandnote. Ajmidain,battleof, ix. ,377. AdamdeMontaldo,xii. , 516. Albanians,inthePeloponnesus,ix. . 409. Adamek,viii. ,396hole. Albano,Bogomilsof,x. ,39o. Adelperga,friendof PaultheDeacon Albertof Aachen,ix. ,39_. AleppO,collegeof,ix. ,397viii. ,4x3. Alexanderof Alexandria,ii. ,366. Adoptionism,doctrineof, x. ,39o. Adorationof Emperors,iii. ,4a3. Alexandria,Librariesof, v. , 365sq. ; Adrunut. zion,ix. , 4o6. dateofcapitulation,ix. , 380. AlexiusComnenus,viii. ,408. Adscripti_ii,viii. ,436. Aegeansea, themeof, ix. , 4ox; seal Ali,Caliph,coinageof, ix. ,39z. of,4o3. Allectus,iv. ,355Aegina,xi. , 334. AE_lengyon,viii. ,436. Aegyptus,province,i. , 3r6. Alpes,maritime,Cottize,Poenin_,i. , Aelana,vii. ,393- 3x5" Aelius E_mpridius,writerofHist. Aug. , Alphabets,Slavonic,x. ,397. A1. Mam_n0iv. , 342. i. , 307S_q. AeliusSpartianus,writerof HistoriaAltandepict,MongolannalS,xi. ,328. Augusta,i. , 306sqq. Altziagiri,the,vii. ,396. Aemilianus,tyrant,ii. ,353- Amalfi,xi. ,332. 381

388 INDEX Amatusof Salerno,ix. ,388sq. vii. , 393; Radulph saccountof Ambrosethe Norman,ix. , 393. captureof, ix. ,39a. Amrlineau,vi. ,364. Antiparos,xi. ,335Amorgos,xi. , 336. AntoninusPins,Titus, Edictof, conAmmianusMarcellinus,hisworks,/. i. , cerningChristians,i/i. ,4x7. 362sq. ; listofGallicandEgyptian Antoninus,Marcus Aurelius,rescript provinces,iii. , 424sg. ,429. ascribedto, iii. , 4z7; Christian Ammon,bishop,vi. , 364. persecutionof, 420; mentionedin Amyris,of Filelfo,xii. , 2z7. Chinesebooks,vii. , 893. Anaea,xi. , 335. Anzitene,viii. ,4_3. Avd_X_ar_jsx_avo rarrLvlnroXrls,xii. , Aosta,viii. ,42L 2z7- Aphthartodocetism,viii. ,427. Anaphe,xi. ,335. Apollonius,Actso],iii. ,42o. AnastasiusI. , Emperor,vi. , 3Sa; coin- Apronianus,fatherof DionCassius,i. , ageof,vii. ,394. 3o5. Anastasins,Martyr,Lifeof,viii. ,398. Aquitania,province,i. , 3z4. Anastasiusof MountSinai,viii. ,399- Arabia,provinceof, i. , 312,3x6; in Andan,seeAdad. fourthcentury,iii. ,426; goldin,ix. , AndronicusI. , Emperor,ix. , 384. 375Andros,xi. ,334- Arbogast,iv. ,357Angers,Annalsof,vi. , 362. Arborins,iv. , 347. An-hsi(Parthia),vii. ,393. Arcadia,province,iii. ,424sg. Anianus,ii. ,368; viii. ,4x8. Arcadius,Emperor,v. ,377. AnnaComnena,herAlexiad,vii/. ,408 Archerand K/ngsford,Hist. of Crusq. sades,ix. , 398. AnnalesBarenses,ix. , 389. ArdashirII. ,iv. , 357; v. ,374. AnnalesBeneven_ni,ix. , 389. Arentans,the,ix. ,4o5. Annalsof Hundynasty,iv. , 357. Areobindus,vi. ,36o. Annalsof Ravenna,iv. ,353. Arethas,Kingof Azure,vii. , 4o2. Annon_ ]wMeratic_,iii. ,433. Arethas,Martyrdomo],vii. , 4oz and AnonymousChronographerof A. D. 354, note. _. ,3_o,320. Arians,in the Martyrologium,iv. , 342. AnonymousContinuatorof Dion, i. , Arickis,DukeofBeneventum,viii. ,4_33°6; ii-, 357; viii. , 395 hole, Aristakes,Catholicusof Armenia,ilL, 4xo. 442. AnonymousDirgeon Cnustantioople,Aristotle,Pselluson,viii. ,4o6. _d. ,329. Arius,Lettersof,ii. ,366. AnonymousMonodla on Theodore Armenia,historyand historiansof,in Pal,x_Ologus,ii. , 36o. fourth century, iii. , 44x sqg. ; AnonymousScribeof King B61a,x. , churchof,443; divisionof,between 398. the Empireand Persia,v. , 374; AnonymusCuspiniani,see Chronicon laterhistoriansof,ix. ,398;account Cusp. of, by ConstantinePorph. ,405. Anonymus,on Constantinethe Great Armeniaminor,iii. ,4_7andHelen,iii. ,446. Armenia,theRomanprovincesof,under AnonymusValesii,the first fragment, Justinian, viii. , 42_ sq. ; under iii. , 36o; secondfragment,origin Maurice,423. of, iv. , 353; natureof,vi. , 358. Armorici,defeatedbyAetius,iv. ,35t. Ansaldo,L. , ix. , 393- Army,Roman,L,3x3; underDiodeAntae,subduedbyAvars,viii. ,4no. tianandConstantine,iii. ,432$q_. ; Antala,vi. , 360; vii. , 4o3. sizeof,thirdtosixthcenturies,433. Anthony,St. , vii. ,364. Arnold,C. F. , iii. ,42o. Antioch,ii. ,35z; Zenobiadrivenfrom,Arnold,W. T. ,iii. , 4no. 354; mentionedin Chinesebooks,Arosa,i. , 312.

INDEX 389 Arsaces,title,ill. , 442. BahrAinIV. , iv. , 357. Arsacius,dragonslayer,iv. , 34z. Bahr_mV. ,iv. ,357. Ar_ak,King,iii. ,442. B_,ih. rens,i. ,3o9. Artemius,Lifeof,seeVitaArtemii. Baian,viii. ,4ax. Arverni,vi. , 357. Baian,seePaganos. Arzanene,viii. ,423. Baidar,xi. , 337. AschbachI. ,iv. , 355. Baldric,Archbishopof Dol,ix. ,39L Asena,vii. ,398. BaldwinIV. _ix. ,394Asia,province,i. , 3z5. BaldwinIII. , x. ,404. Asmus,J. , ii. ,361,366. BalearicIslands,vi. ,36z. Assessor,vi. , 348- Balista,general,ii. , 352; tyrant,ib. Assisasof Jerusalem,x. ,403sg. Banduri,hiseditionoftheAnonymous, A. _ti_at,iii. ,442. ix. , 383. Astypala;a,x/. , 336. Barbaro,Nicol6,journalof,xii. ,ax5. Asylum,rightof, viii. ,434. Barbaria,vi. ,358. Ataulf,iv. , 34S- Barbarusof Scaliger,iv. , 353Atecotti,the, iv. , 357. Baret,E. ,ii. ,362. Atelkuzu,x. ,4oo. Bar-Hebrmus(Abfi-l-Faraj),viii. ,4x8 Athanasius,Patriarch,writingsa source s_. ofSocrates,ii. ,366. Baxlaamof Calabria,ix. , 384. Athanasius,prier,pref. of Africa,vi. , Barlow,J. W. ,ix. ,398. 36o. Baronius,Cardinal,viii. ,44z. Athcnais,vii. ,405. BasilI. restoreslawsof Justinian,viii. , Athens,iv. , 346; Gothsat, v. , 367; 43° sq. ; land legislationof, 437; underAcciajoli,xi. , 332. navalimprovementsof,ix. ,406. Attaleiates,Michael,his history,viii. , BasilII. , landlegislationof,viii. ,436, 407. ! 438-9note. Attalus,tyrant,iv. ,348. [Basilica,collectionoflaws,viii. ,43o. Aub6,B, iii. ,42o. Basiliscus,tyrant,vi. , 346and note. AugustaPraetoria,viii. ,4az. Basina,vi. ,36a. Augustine,St. /v. ,354; DeCivitate,ib. Bassus,Pomponlus,correcturItali_e,ii. , Auler,A. , vi. , 353" 355" Aurelian,Emperor,war withZenobia,i Bastarnae,the,iii. ,44o. ii. ,354. Batiffol,P. ,ii. ,366. Aurelian,prset, pref. ("Osiris"), iv. , Baur,ontheearlyepiscopate,ii. ,368. 345; v. ,376sg. Baybars,Sultan,ix. , 397. Aurelius,M. , see Antoninus,M. Au-iBede,Venerable,vi. , 365; H/storyof, relius. = viii. ,4z3. Aureolus,tyrant,ii. ,353. Bedjan;ActaMartyrum,iv. ,34z. Ausonius,DecimusMagnus,iv. , 347. i Belgica,province,i. ,3x4. Auxentiusof Mopsuestia,iv. , 342. Belisarius,vi. ,348,35oAuxilia,i. ,3z3; iii. ,43a; palatina,433. :Belser,J. , iii. ,42o. Avars,the,iv. , 358; presson the Sa- Benedictof Peterborough,ix. ,394. biri,vii. ,396; theirconquestsand!Benjamin,C. ,vi. ,363. empirein Europe,viii. , 4z9sq. ; Berezin,J. N. , xi. ,328. theirempirebrokenup, x. , 39z. Berge,Dela,i. , 312. Axumites,the, in fourthto sixthcen- BernardtheTreasurer,ix. ,394. turies,vii. ,4oosqq. Bessel,on Claudian,iv. , 349. Bessarabia,x. ,396. B_vl. oN,captured,ix. , 380. Bestuzhev-Riumin,ix. , 387; x. , 4o2. Bacurius,iv. , 355- Bethman,L. , viii. ,4x4. Baetica,province,i. , 314. Be. zm_r,BulgarianKing,x. ,39z. Bagaudae,iv. ,35L Bieliaiev,D. T. ,iii. ,4ax; on"DeCereBah_ad-Dln,ix. , 396. moniis,"ix. ,38z.

39° INDEX Bil_dhurt,AI-,viii. ,4r7- 352; Scotsin,355-6;CarausiusII. BilAmi,Mohammad,viii. , 4t7. in, v. , 37x; tyrantsin, 37zsq. ; Binding,C. , iv. , 355- Saxonconquestof,vi. , 365. Birt,Th. , iv. , 348sq. ; onRadagaisus BroadribbandBesant,HistoryofConinvasions,v. , 369sq. stantinople,xii. , 2x7. Bithynia,province,i. , 3x5. Broglie,A. de,iii. ,42x. Blasiis,G. de, ix. ,398. Brooks,E. W. ,vi. ,355; ix. ,38o. Blemmydes,Nicephorus,ix. , 385. Briickner,M. ,vi. , 348,35z. Blemmyes,the, vii. , 402. Bryce,Jas. ,vi. , 363. BOcking,ed. of Not. Dign. ,iii. ,425. Brythons,the, iv. , 356. Bogomils,x. ,389sq. Bucellariantheme,ix. , 4oi. Bohadin,seeBah_. ad-Din. Buchon,J. A. , ix. ,386; x. ,333. Boissier,G. , ii. , 36t. Biidinger,i. , 308; ii. ,363. Boniface,Count,relationsto Aetius,v. , Bulgaria,Black,ix. , 4o5. 374s{_. Bulgaria,White,Paulicianismin, ix. , Booko/ the Canques:[of Morea],ix. , 389,39t; list of princesof, 393; 386. extensionof, northof Danube,395 Boor,C. de, on the Anon. Contin. of sg. ; conversionof,397Dion,ii. , 357; onEasternbishop- Bulgarians,weretheyKotrigurs?vii. , tics,i/i. ,446; onEunapius,iv. ,345; 395; relationto Avarempire,viii. , on John of Antioch,vi. , 356; on 42o; earlyhistoryof, x. , 39z sqq. GeorgeMonachus,x. , 388. Burckhardt,J. ,ii. , 367,369; iii. , 443. Blatno,Method/usat, x. ,397- Burdigala,iv. , 348. Bizya in Thrace,AbbotMax4musat, Burgundians,ii. ,356. viii. ,399. Bury,J. B. ,onapassagein Ammianus, Boccaccio,xi. , 332. ii. , 363; on positionof HebdoBolgary,villageof,x. , 392. mon,iii. ,422; on Praxagoras,436 BoleslawtheChaste,xi. , 337. sq. ; onapassageinChron. Pasch. , Bologna,law schoolat, viii. ,43z. 438note;onVitaArtemii,439; on Bonifaceof Montferrat,ix. , 395- battleof Singara,440; onStilicho s Bonwetsch,x. ,398. designs,v. , 366; on Radagaisus, Bordeaux,iv. ,347. v. , 369sq. ; on the Nika riot,vii. , Borghesi,i. , 3no. 390; on an oraclein Procopius, BorisandGleb,ix. ,387. 395; on originof Turks,398sg. ; Boris,Bulgarianprince,conversionof, viii. ,4x9,429; onthemes,ix. ,4oo, x. , 398. 4o3; onearlyBulgariankings,x. , Borries,E. yon,ii. , 364. 394; on Omortag s inscription, Bose,A. ,iv. ,347. ib. sq. Bosporus(Crimean),vii. ,397; ix-,4o5. Butyras,J. ,viii. ,398. Bostra,in Arabia,i. , 3r2. Byzantios,Sk. D. , iii. ,42z. Bouillon,Godfreyof,x. , 404. Bourbon,Houseof,Gibbon sreferenceC^DESlA,battleof,ix. , 378. to,vi. , 366. CmciliusFirmianus,L. , ii. , 359. Brandhi. ,3to; onthedeMort. Persec. , Cmsarea(in Cappadoda),see of, Arii. ,357sq. menianChurchdependenton,iii. , Braun,H. ,vi. , 35z. 44a. Breslau,Mongolsat, xi. , 337. Cmsarius("Typhos"),v. , 377. Bretschneider,vii. , 392; xi. , 329. Cafaroof Genoa,ix. ,393. Brieger,on Constantine sreligion,iii. , Cagliari,sealsof,ix. ,4o3. 443sq. Calchi,xi. , 336. Britain,conquestof, i. , 3it; coloniesCallistusAndronicus,Monodyof, xii. , of, 3x2; Hadrian in, ib. ; militia 217. in,3z3; province,3z5; dioceseof, Camalodunum,i. , 3x2. iii. , 429; Saxonconquestof, iv. , Caaanus,John, xi. , 328.

INDEX 391 Candia,xi. , 336,see Crete. Chachanov,A. S. ,vi. ,354note. Candidus,historian,vi. , 346. Chalatianz,onZcnob. ,iii. ,441sq. Cantacusino,Spandugino,on siegeof Chalcondyles,Laonicus,xi. ,327. Constantinople,xii. , axT. Chaleb,KingofAlum,vi. ,4ox. Canterbury,mentionedby ConstantineChMons,battleof, wherefought,vi. , Porph. ,iii. ,439- 345sq. Capito,theLycian,vi. , 346. Champollion-Figeac,ed. ofAmatus,ix. , Capitolinns,seeJuliusCapitolinns. 388. Cappadocia,province,i. , 3x5; theme Charlesthe Great, receivesPaul the of,ix. ,403. Deacon,viii. ,4x3; receiveskeysof Captureof Constantinople,anonymous St. Peter,444Greekpoem,xii. ,2x5. CharlesMartel,keysof St. Petersent Caracalla,law of citizenshipof, vii. , to, viii. , 444405- Charsianon,themeof,ix. , 403. CarausinsI. , tyrant,iv. , 355. Chazaria,ix. , 404. CaransinsII. ,tyrant,v. ,37xsq. Chazars,missionto the,x. ,397. Careasan,vii. ,403. Chelidromi,xi. ,335. Carla,provinceof, ix. ,4oo. Chenoboscium,vi. ,364. Carpathos,xi. ,336. Chersoo,vii. ,397;"duke"of,398; ix. , Carpi,the,iii. ,440. 406;missionofConstantineat, x. , Carpocrafians,Gnosticsect, ii. ,367. 397. Carri_re,A. ,i. , 32o; iii. , 44x. Chersonites,theirrelationswith the Cm-ystos,xi. , 335- Patzinaks,ix. ,4o4. Casanova,M. , ix. , 375. Chesney,General,iii. ,440. Cassino,Monte,Paul the Deaconat, Childeric,vi. ,362. viii. ,4x3. China, commerceof, with Roman Cassiodorus,GothicHistoryof,ii. ,35o; Empire,vii. , 392sq. careerandworks,vi. ,358s_. ChineseAnnals,iv. ,357sq. ; xJ. ,329. Casfinus,v. , 376. Chineseinscription,seeSi-ngan-fu. Castricia,v. ,377no_. Chios,xi. ,335. CassiusDio Cocceianus,noticeof, i. , Chlodwig,vi. , 36_sq. 3o5; onHadrian,3x3• ChlotacharI. ,vi. , 362. Catacombs,the,iii. ,4x7-8. ChosroesI. , viii. ,398. CatalanGrandCompany,ix. ,396; xi. , ChosroesII. , viii. ,398. 33a. : ChosrovI. , ofArmenia,iii. ,442. Catherineof Valois,Empressof Ro- ChosrovII. , of Armenia,iii. ,442. mania,xi. , 33x. Chosrovofpersarmenia,v. ,374CatholicPatriarch,titleof chiefof the Christ,W. ,ii. ,362. Nestorians,viii. ,426. Christians,numberof, in empirein Cecaumenos,his Strategikon,viii. ,407. thirdcentury^. D. ,ii. , 369; perCedrenus,George,Candidusa source secufionsof, in first andsecond of,vi. , 346; synopsisof, viii. ,4to. centuries,iii. , 4x8 sqq. ; under Cefalonia,xi. , 333. Diocletian,4ao; underConstanCelsus,tyrant,ii. ,354. fine,444sq. Censorshipof Augustus,i. _3x8. ChronicaCaN/ca,iv. ,352sq. ; vi. , 362. Ceos,xi. , 334. Chronicaltalica,iv. , 353; vi. , 36osq. Cephalhnia,themeof, ix. , 4ox; seals Chronicleof Constantinople,iv. , 353; of,402note;seeCefalonia. vi. , 36o. Cerealis,PefiUins,i. , 3xx. Chronicleof A. D. 354,SeeAnonymous. Cerealis,Governorof Cyrenaica,iv. , Chronicleof Cassiodorns,i. , 3to; vi. , 345. 359. Chronicleof Edessa,vi. ,356. Cerigo,ix. , 334- Chronw. onAlexandrinum,seeEu. tychins. Cerigotto,ix. ,334Ceuleneer,A. de,i. ,3xx. Chronic. onCuspiniani,i. , 3to; iv. ,35a.

392 INDEX Chr_ic_Imperi_ (Gibbon s"Pros- Comismrlum,iiL,424. perTim"),iv. , 352. ConstansI. , hisshareintheempire,iii. , Chroniconbm_e. N_orlmannicum,ix. ,389. 438$g. ChroniconPa_chale,relationto Idatins, Constaotia,sisterofConstantineI. ,iii. , ij. ,365; onapassagein (P. S32,ed. 436. Bonn),iii. , 438note; accountof, ConstantineI. , theGreat,letteragainst viii. ,398. Arins,if. ,366; forumof,iii. ,42x; ChroniconPi4hoeanum---Chroni¢onInto hisorganisationof theempire,422 periale, s_. ; militaryreforms,432 sgg. ; ChroniconTerraeSanaae,ix. , 394- treatmentof Faustaand Crispus, ChronographerofA. D. 354,i. ,320,32o. 435sg. ; divisionsofempireunder, Chronologyof 238A. D. ,i. , 320; world 436 s_. ; religion of, 443 $gg. ; eras,if. ,368. churchesof,atJerusalem,iii. ,342; Chrysostom,John, Pailadinson, iv. , landlegislationunder,viii. ,436sq. 345. Constantine11,shareintheempire,iii. , Chwolsohn,onSabianism,ix. , 375. 438sq. Cibyrrhaeottheme,ix. ,4oz; shipbuild- ConstantineVII. (Porphyrogenitus), ing in, 4o8. on the partitionof A. D. 338,iii. , Cilicia,province,i. ,315. 439; viii. , 4oi note; suggests Cimolos,xi. , 335. historyofGenesius,404; organises Cinnamus,John, historian,viii. , 409. continuationof Theophanes,4o5; Cipolla,C. , vi. , 358. lawof,concerninginheritance,433; Circusfactions,vii. ,389sq. novelof,438note; DeCeremoniis, Clary,Robertde, his works,ix. , 395- ix. , 382; treatise of, on themes, Claudian,poet,iv. , 348sq. ; on Rada- 4ou; on administration,403; on gaisus,v. ,369sq. the Dnieperrapids,x. ,402sq. Claudian,brotherof Maximnsthe phi-_ConstantineIX. , foundsa university, losopher,iv. , 348. viii. ,406;foundslawschoolatConClement,St. , of Bulgaria,Lifeof, x. , stmatinople,43i; drivesthe Pauli389. clansoutof Armenia,x. ,39o. ClementI. , Pope, remainsof, dis- Constantine,apostleof the Slavs,see covered,x. , 397- Cyril. ClementV. ,Pope,ix. , 398. Constantine,Bishopof Nacolia,viii. , ClementofDrenoviza,x. ,398. 443Clinton,i. , 3xz, 320; viii. ,4t9. ConstantineKabailinos,viii. ,4oo. Clisurarchit_,ix. , 403. Constantine,sonof EmperorManuel, Codeof Justinian,Greekformof,viii. , xi. , 327. 43°. Constantine,tyrantinBritainandGaul, Codinus,George,worksof, ix. , 383. hiscareer,v. ,37x sq. Cohen,i. , 318; ii. ,353. Constantinople,topographyof (espeCohortes,ill. ,43u. ciailyAugusteumand Forumof Coinage,underConstantine,iii. ,435; Constantine), iii. , 42XSq. ; great Saracen,ix. ,399. Palaceof, /b. ; ForumBovis,/b. ; Coloni,viii. ,436. ForumTauri, /b. ; ForumAma_Colonies,definitionof,i. , 3x6*q. trianorum,/b. ;Chalkoprateia,ib. ; CometofA. D. 53x,vii. ,4o5. Senatehousein the Augnsteum, Com/tatenses,iii. , 432sq. /b. ; the Nle_, /b. ; Hippodrome, Coraitea,iJJ. ,424; of Domestics,434- lb. ; Milestone,/b. ; GoldenGate, Commerce,conditionof, in eighthcen- /&; the Zeu. xJppns,/b. ; Churches tury,viii. ,440. of S. Sophia,S. Constantine,S. Comparetti,D. , vi. ,353. Maryof the Forum,the TheotoConcubinage,lawconcerning,viii. ,43x. kos,/b. ;siteof theHebdomon,/b. ; ConMliarlua,vi. , 348. Palaceof Lansus,v. , 367; names Con*iliumof Hadrian,iii. , 4-*4. of buildingsburnedin Nikariot,

INDEX 393 vii. , 39;; firein reignof Leo I. , Crum(orCrumn),x. ,395vi. , 346; St. Sophiainjured,35° Crusade,Fourth,ix. ,395. note;demesof,vii. ,389sq. ;siege Cumans,revoltofthe,xi. ,338. of,inx. D. 626,viii. ,397;synodof, Cumont,F. , ii. ,36x; vi. ,346. in A. v. 68o,Cb. ;in A. D. 92o,432; Cunimund,viii. ,4x3. siegeof,bySaracens,397; Bulga-Cuq,E. ,i;i. ,425. rian siegeof, A. V. 8x5,403; uni- Cura,viii. ,433. versityat,foundedbyConstantineCusina,vii. ,403s_. IX. , 4o6; lawschoolat, 43z;the Cyclades,provinceof, ix. ,4oo. Phialeat, ix. ,4o6; degenerationof Cyprus,provinceof, i. , 375; ix. , 4oo; peopleof,xii. ,zx5. accountof,byConstantinePorl_, ConstantiusI. , Chlorus,Germancam- 4o6; Assizesof,x. ,4o4. paignsof,ii. , 356; in Britain,iii. , Cyrene,iv. , 3454a9note;shareintheempire,436; Cyriacof Gantzac(Guiragos),ix. , 398. legendconcerning,446. Cyriades,i. , 35xsq. ; a tyrant,352. ConstantiusII. ,shareintheempire,iii. , Cyril(Constantine)and Methodius, 437sq. Livesof, ix. , 387; missionof, to Constitutionof RomanEmpire,i. , 3x7 theSlavs,x. ,397sqq. sq. Cyrillicalphabet,x. ,397. Consulavis,wit,i. , 378. Cythera,seeCerigo. Continuatorof Dion, anonymous,i. , Cythnos,xi. ,334. 306. Czwalina,L. , iii. ,425. Continuator,Havniensis,of Prosper, seeProsper. DA_A,of Trajan, and Ripensis,i. , Conybeare,F. C. ,onthePaulicians,x. , 3x_; militiain, 3x3; threedivi39o. sionsof,3x5. Corfu,xi. , 333. Dacia,dioceseof,iii. ,425,428. Corinth,bishopat,ii. ,369;underNich- Dacianwar,first,of Trajan,i. , 3z2. olasAcciajoli,xi. , 332. Dacicus,titleof Trajan,i. , 312. Corippus,vi. , 36os_. ; vii. ,4o3 sq. Dahmcn,ix. , 443note. Cornet,E. ,xii. ,2x5. Dahn,F. , ii. , 349; iv. , 355; on ProCorrecdorItoli_, ii. , 355s_. copius,vi. ,348sq_/. ,363. Corsica,province,i. , 374; territorialDalmatia,province,i. , 375; designsof rightsoftheChurchin,viii. ,443-4. Alarieon, v. , 366; annexedto Cosmas,Sicilianmonk, viii. ,399. EastIllyricum,ib. ; strategosof, CouncilofAries(A. D. 3x6),dateof,iii. , ix. ,402; accountof,byConstantine 446. Porph. ,405. Councilof Orleans(^. v. 5xx),vi. ,362. Dalmatius,seeDelmatius. Cracow,takenby Mongols,xi. ,337. Damascus,captureof,ix. ,378. Credit,defectivesystemof,viii. ,439st. Damasus,Pope,iii. ,4x7. Crete,provinceof, i. , 3x6; expeditionsDamian,Kingof Homerites,vii. , 4nx. to,intenthcentury,ix. ,4o7; Vene- Darns,vi. ,357;vii. ,4o3. tian,xi. , 335. Darraarios,Greek copyist,viii. , 4o4 Crimea,Onogurs,Kotrigurs,Gothsin, note. vii. ,396-7. Darmesteter,J. ,i. , 322. Criminallaw,viii. , 433. Ddbidom ,A. ,vi. ,353Crispus,sonof Constantine,taughtby DeBoor,ProfessorC. ,viii. ,404. Lactantiugii. ,358. Decebalus,i. , 372. Critobulusof Imbros,his historyofl Decius,Emperor,founder(?)ofProtonMohammedII. ,xi. , 328. I tores,iii. ,434Crivellucd,A. ,onEusebius,ii. ,36o. [Degreesof relationship,lawsconcernCroatians,ix. ,4o5. I ing,viii. ,43x. Cross,findingof true,iv. ,34x. Delacourt,Peign6,viii. ,431. Cruithnig(=Scots),iv. , 356. IDclarc,O. , ix. ,388,398.

394 INDEX Delmatius,his share in divisionof Domifian,persecutionofChrisfians,iii. empire,A. V. 335,Hi. ,438. 419. Delos,xi. , 334. DomitiUa,iii. ,419. Demesof Constantinople,vii. , 389sq. Donatists,andConstantinethe Great, Democratsof Bluesand Greens,vii. , iii. ,446. 39o. Donatus, De mortibu_dedicatedto, Dessau,i. , 309. i. , 3ix; ii. , 358. Destunis,G. S. ,Hi. ,42_; xi. ,328. Dorotheus,histranslationof theDigest, Dethier,A. , xii. ,ui7. viii. ,43o. De oasta_ioConstantinopoli_ana,ix. , 395 Dos(dowry),viii. ,43_. sq. Douglas,R. K. ,Life of JinghizKhan, Dexippus,usedbyZusimus,ii. , 365. xi. , 33o. Dhfl-Novas,vii. ,4or. Dovin,viii. ,4_3; councilof, 398. Diadem,imperial,iii. ,423. Dragovi_i,x. ,39o. Diamondmineof Soumelpour,i. , 3r7. Driiseke,J. , ii. ,36x. Diataxis,viii. ,407note. Drexler,i. , 32x. Dicalidones,the,iv. ,356. Drungarius,ix. , 407. DieM,C. ,vi. ,363; ix. ,4oo,4o3. Ducas,historian,xi. , 327. Dierauer,i. , 312. Dueas, Michael,xi. , 3_7. Digisene,viii. ,4u3. DucatusRwmae,viiL,444. l)in_r,ix. ,399. Ducenarii,membersof council, iii. , Dindorf,textof DionCassius,i. , 305. 425; protectors,434. Diocesesof AsturiaandGallaecia(2x6 Duchesne,Abb_,Hi. ,446; Vii. , 402$q. ; A. D. ), i. , 3x6; introducedbyDio- hiseditionofthe LiberPontificalis, cletian,iii. ,425; listof, /b. sqq. viii. ,4iI; onlettersofGregoryII. , Dioclea,ix. ,405. 44x; on riseof papalpower,444Diocletian,Germancampaignsof, ii. , Dudleby,the,viii. ,420. 356; tariff,monetaryreformsof, Dulaurier,ix. ,398. /b. ; persecutionsof, iii. ,42o; or- Du_aan,seeDhfl-Novas. ganisationof empireby, 422sq. ;!Duncker,A. i. ,3it. dioceses instituted by, 424 $_ . ; , DLirr, J. , 1. , 313. militaryorganisation,43a; division Duruy,i. , 3xx. of empire A. D. 293 , 436 sg. DionCassius,see CassiusDio; Anon. EBERT,ii. , 357eonfinuatorof,seeAnonymous. Eburacum(York),i. ,3t2. Dionysiusof Alexandria,letterof, iii. , Eedicius,vi. , 357. 442. Eckhardt,H. , vi. ,353sq. DionysiusExiguus,vi. , 365. Eckhel,i. , 318,320; ii. ,353Dionysiusof Tellmahr_,viii. ,418and Eclipseofthe sun,noticedbyTheophnote;chronicleof,396. anes,viii. ,429. D/them,Saracencoin,ix. , 399. Ecloga,viii. ,430; criminallawof,434. Diptunes,Cmsar,Tib. Jul. , vii. , 398 Edessa,li. ,351; inundationof,vi. ,35o; note. historyof,byJosua,356; account Divorce,lawsoftheChurchconcerning, of,byFulcherof Chartres,ix. ,39t. viii. , 432. Egypt,diocese of, Hi. , 425, 426; perseD/zabul,vii. ,399sq. cutionin,iv. ,354sq. ; monasticism Dnieper,waterfallsof the,x. , 402 sq. in, vi. , 363 sq. ; occupationby Dodu,G. ,ix. , 398; x. , 403. Nicetas,viii. ,423; conquestof,ix. , DtUinger,viii. ,444; x. , 389. 379s_. ; relationswithVenice,ix. , Domestici,iii. ,434sq. ; countsof, 434. 395. D Ohsson,Mouradja,onOttomanEra- Eichel,J. ,vi. , 353. pire,xi. , 33z. Ekkehaxdof Aura,ix. , 392. Dolphin,Zorzi,xfi. ,at7. Ektag,vii. ,399Dominus,imperialtitle,Hi. ,423. Ektel,vii. ,399.

INDEX 395 EktheslsChronike,xL,328. Eutychlus,Alexandrinechronicleof, Elba,island,viii. ,42x. iii. ,439;viii. ,4x8. Elesbaas,vii. ,4oz. Evagrius,vi. ,346sq. ,355sq. ;vii. ,389; Eleusis,Gothsat, v. ,367. accountof,viii. ,396. Elias and Ross, their translationof Evans,A. J. , v. ,37xMirza-Haidar,xi. , 329. Ewald,Paul, onlettersof PopeGregEmesa,Zenobiadefeatedat, if. , 354. ory,viii. ,4_2. Encratites,Gnosticsect,if. , 367. Ex_rchs,of ItalyandAfrica,vii. ,404. Engel,x. ,396. Excerpts,of TheodorusLector,viii. , Ennodius,vi. , 358. 4oz-_. Epanagoge,viii. ,43x. Excubitores,iiJ. ,433. EphraemSyrus,if. ,366. Executors,testamentary,viii. . 433. Epiphaniusof Cyprus,ix. , 382. ExpeditiocontraTurcos,ix. , 39o. Epiphanius,Bishop of Ticinum, vi. , Ezerites,ix. ,4o6. 358• Epiphanins,collaboratorin . _ist. Tri- FM. CANDUS,Hugo, Historyof, ix. , part. ,vi. , 359- 389. Epirus,i. , 3x5. Falco,ix. ,389. Episcopate,originof, ii. ,368sq. Falconi,Nicolas,ix. ,398. Erasofthe world(Roman,Antiochene,Fallmerayer,on the Hellenes,x. , 39x etc. ),if. , 368; Romanor Byzan- note. fine,viii. ,397- FastiVindobonen_es,iv. ,353. Ernoul,ix. , 394- Fausta,if. , 360,365; iii. ,435sqq. Esegcl,Bulgariantribeof, x. , 400. Faustnsof Byzantium,i. , 32o; charEsimphaeus,vii. ,4ox. acterof hisworkandsources,iii. , Eudoxia,wifeof Arcadius,v. , 377sq. 44xs_q. Eudoxia,wifeof ValentinianIII. , iv. , Fertig,onEnnodius,vi. ,358. 35xs_. ,v. ,366. Festus(Rufus),i. ,31o; ii. ,357;a pasEugippius,vi. , 358. sagein(Brev. ,27),iii. ,44o. Eumeniusof Augnstodunum,i. , 309. Fib. I,battleof,ix. ,379Eunapins,if. , 364sq. ; iii. ,439; muff- Finlay,G. ,on Justinian scoinage,vii. , latededit. of,iv. ,345. 394; ontheAcciajoli,xi. ,33xs_. ; Eupaterios,Dukeof Cherson,vii. ,398 Historyo]Greece,_5i. ,2x7. andnote. Fiscus,i. , 3x9. Euphemins,revoltof,viii. ,405. FlaviusClemens,iii. ,4x9. Euphrates,courseof,iv. , 343- FlavinsVopiscns,writerof Hist. Aug. , Eusebiusof Caesarea,his works,if. , i. ,3o6sqq. 359; a sourceofSocrates,366;on Florence,Acciajollat, xi. , 33x; San edict of Antoninns,iii. , 4x7; on Lorenzo,332note. conversionof Armenia,442; on F_terati,inarmy(iii. ,433. religionofConstantine,445. F6rster,R. ,onLinanius,if. ,36a. Eusebins,Bishopof Rome,iii. , 4x7sq. Fortrenn, iv. ,356. Eustathinsof Antioch,ii. , 366. Fr_ihn,C. M. ,x. ,392note. Eustathiusof Epiphania,vi. , 347. Fredegarins,viii. ,4z4. EustathiusofThessalonica,ix. , 383sq. Freeman,E. A. ,ont_ rantConstantine, EutharicCillica,vi. , 359. v. , 37xsq. ;on Aetiusand BoniEutropius,historian,i. , 3xo; in the face,374sq. ;onSaxonconquestof Hist. Misc. , iv. , 353sq. ; Greek Britain,vi. , 366. transl, of, vi. , 346; Historyof, Frexenses,the,vii-,4°3editedby Paul the Deacon,viii. , Frick,C. ,if. , 366. 4x3. Friedl;inder,i. ,3x_; ii. ,369. Eutropius,eunuch,v. ,377- Friedrich,viii. ,444; x. ,388. Eutychianus,on Julian sPersianwar, Frigeridus,seeRenatus. if. ,365. Fritigern,iv. , 359

396 INDEX Froehner,i. , 3z2, George the synceIlus,his chronicle, Frontinus,i. , 3_2. viii. ,4oL Frumentius,apostleof Ethiopians,iv. , Geougen,iv. , 358; vii. ,399. 355. Gepids,the,viii. ,420. Fulcherof Chartres,account of, ix. , GermaniaSeeunda,incorporationof, 39x. ii. ,356. Fulco,accountof theFirstCrusade,ix. , Germanica,superiorandinferior,prov39xs¢. inces,i. ,3z4. Fu-lin,vii. ,393. Germanus,Patriarch,Lifeof, viii. ,403, Ftahorc,the,vi. ,365. 44_. Gesoriacum,takenbyConstanfius,ii. , GAISEPaC,iv. , 35x. 356. Galatia,province,i. , 3z5. GestaFrancorum,authorof, ix. , 39o. Galicia,Avarsin,viii. ,4uz. GestaHenrlci II. et RicardiI. , ix. , GaUalalacidia,iv. , 35z. 394. GalliaNarbonenses,province,f. , 3z4. Geticaof Jordanes,ii. ,349Galliae,Dioceseof,iii. ,4u5,4u9. Gfrorer,viii. ,4x9; ix. , 406. Gallienus,Emperor,preventssenators Giesebrecht,ix. , 389. fromservingin army,iii. ,434- Gieseler,x. ,387. Gardner,MissA. , ii. ,36L Gildas,vi. ,366. Gardthausen,ii. ,364. Giloof Toucy,ix. ,39u. Gasmul,ix. , 385. Girtzel,J. A. ,x. ,398. Gattilusi,the,of Lesbos,sendDucasto Glagoliticalphabet,x. ,397. the sultan,xi. ,327. Glevum,i. , 3x2. Gaudentius,iv. , 35_- Gfeye,C. E. , v. ,375note;vi. , 355. Gauderic,Bishopof Velletri,x. , 397 Glubokovski,N. ,ii. ,367. note. Glycas,Michael,viii. ,4xI. Gaul,Dioceseof, see Galliae; prov- Glyceria,St. , island,JohnZonarasat, inces under Diocletian,iii. , 429. viii. ,4zo. Gedeonov,x. ,4o2. Gnosticism,theorieson origin of, ii. , Gelasius,Pope,iii. ,34z. 367• Gelzer,H. , onSextusJuliusMricanus, Goeje,Professorde,viii. ,4x6,444; ix. , ii. , 359; on ArmenianHistory, 376iii. ,44I sqq. ; on Eastern bishop-Goetz,L. K. , x. ,398. tics,446; onJohnof Antioch,vi. , Gold,in Arabia,ix. , 375. 356andnote;on demes,vii. , 390; Gorda. s,x. ,4ox,seeGrod. onMichaelSyrus,viii. ,4r8;sketch Grrres,F. , ondate of DeMort. Pet s. , of Byzantine history, 4x9; on li. , 358; on persecutionsof third GeorgeCyprius,423. century,iii. ,42o; onVitaArtemii, Gemoll,A. , i. ,309, 436; on YoungerLicinius,ib. ;on Gems,tradein,vii. ,393. St. George,iv. , 34zsq. Genesius,Joseph. ,ImperialHistoryof, Gothicalphabet,vi. , 365. viii. ,404. GothicWeihnachtspiel,ix. , 382 note. Gennadius,Continuatorof JeromDe Goths,originof, ii. , 349; historyof, V. IlL,vi. ,360. lb. ,sq. ; divisionof,35r; pacificaGennadius,exarchof Africa,vii. , 4o4. tion of, by Theodosius,iv. , 359; Genunians,iv. , 356- under Alaric,v. , 365; in Greece, GeoffreyMalaterra,ix. ,389. 367; of the Crimea,vii. , 396; GeorgetheCypriote,viii. ,4_2. Tetraxite,397. Georgethe Monk, chronicleof, viii. , Gran,captureof, byMongols,xi. , 337. 403; ix. , 387;x. , 387sq. !Gratian,Emperor,iv. ,346s_. George Pisides,on Persianwars oflGreekfire,ix. ,4o6,4o8s¢. Heraclius,viii. ,397. GreeklanguagesupersedesLatin,viii. , George,St. ,identityof, iv. ,34zs_. 43o.

INDEX 397 Green,J. R. , vi. , 366. Hamilton,F. J. , vi. ,357Gregoras,Nicephorns,seeNicephorus. HananJesus,Patriarch,viii. ,4_6. Gregorovius,F. ,v. , 367; vi_. ,4z9; ix. , Hannibalianus,sharein the empire 398sq. ^. D. 335,iii. , 438. Gregorythe Great,Pope,Lettersof Hardy,E. G. ,i. , 3t4; iii. ,4r8. viii. ,4r2,444. Harmonins,souofTaurus,v. ,376. GregoryII. , Letters of, viii. , 440 Hamack,Ad. ,ii. , 367; iiJ. ,417; vi. , policyof,443. 364. Gregory,Illuminator,Lifeof, iii. ,44t Harris,J. Rendel,iv. , 34r. Apocalypseof, /b. ; consecrationHartmarm,M. , on Byzantinerulein of,442. Italy,viii. ,419. GregoryMagistros,x. ,39o. Haruspiees,underConstantine,iii. ,445. GregoryNazianzen,hiswill,vii. , 4o5. Hatch,Dr. , onthe Episcopate,iii. ,309. GregoryNyssen,on theologicalsubtle-Hatzidak_s,G. N. ,x. , 4io. tiesin Constantinople,v. ,363; on Haury,J. ,vi. , 348s_. ,35t; vii. ,389. relics,365. Haverfield,F. , iv. ,356. Gregory,presbyter,Bulgarian(tenth Haythonns,seeHaitum. century),vi. , 354. Hebdomon,siteof,nearConstantinople, GregoryofTours,vi. ,36asq. ; Historia iii. ,42z. Francorumof, viii. ,4z3. Heeker,onJulian,ii. ,364. Grnsvenor,E. A. , iii. ,422. Hefele,on the Iconoclasticedictsof Grod,King,vii. ,397- Leo,viii. ,442. G_tzmacher,onPachomius,vi. , 364. Hegel,C. ,viii. ,419. Guest,OriginesCeltic_e,vi. , 366. Heimbach,W. E. ,viii. ,435. Guibert,Abbotof Nogent,ix. ,39L Heinemaan,L. yon,ix. , 398. GuiragosGandsa. ketsi,xi. , 330; se¢ Heinrich,A. ,vi. ,356. Cyriac. Heisenberg,A. ,onAcropelites,ix. ,384; GiLldenpenning,A. ,ii. , 366-7; iv. , 345, ed. ofBlemmydes,385. 355,376. Helena, St. , iv. , 34I. Gundlach,W. ,vi. , 353. Helenopontus,viii. , 423. Gutsdimid,A. yon,i. , 32z; emenda-Heliopolis,oldcustomsat, vii. , 4o5; tion in Ammianus,ii. , 363; on battleof, ix. ,38o. Agathangelos,iii. ,44z. Hellas,themeof, ix. ,4oxsq. Guyard,S. , iv. , 343. He. radius,Emperor,hisracewithNiceGwatkin,Mr. H. M. ,ti. ,366. tas, viii. ,423 sq. ; confusedwith Gyaros,xi. ,334. Heraclonas,ix. , 38o; his alliance Gycia,ix. , 406. withthe Bulgarians,x. ,39z. Hergenrother,J. ,onPhotius,ix. , 38z. . [-$adith,viii. ,414. Herodian,hishistory,i. , 3o6. Hadrian,Emperor,policyof, i. , 3x2; Herodotus,imitatedbyProcopins,vi. , rescriptconcerningtheChristians, 35I. iii. , 4x8sq. Hertz,onAmmianus,ii. ,364. Hadrian1I. , Pope ordainsCyrilandl Hertzberg,H. , vi. ,362. Methodins,x. ,397. IHertzberg,G. F. , viii. ,4_9. Hadrianus,RufinusSynesins,iv. , 348. IHerzog,i. , 318. Hagenmeyer,H. , ix. ,39L IHeskel,A. ,ix. ,389. Haidar,Mirza,xi. , 329. Hesperius,iv. ,347Haithon,ArmenianPrince,visitsMort-:HesychiusIllustris,historian,vi. , 347. golia,xi. , 33o. HesychiusofJerusalem,ii. ,367. Halthon,Monkof Pr6. montr6,xi. , 33o. Heydeareich,onlegendsof Constantine Haitum,ix. ,398. theGreat,iii. ,446. Halcomb,Mr. ,onSynesins,iv. , 345. Hflarion,palestinianmonk,vi. , 365. Hallier,L. ,vi. , 356. Hilgenield,onGnosticism,ii. ,367. Ham,. t,inSyria,ix. ,398. Hille,G. , iv. , 353no,¢¢.

398 INDEX Rillger,F. , ix. ,389. Hydatitts,aceIdafiua. Hippolytusof Rome,WorldChronicleHypatia,iv. ,345note. of,if. , 359; ]. . iberGenerationisof, viii. ,4x3-4. IAUDAS,vii. ,404. l:/Jrsc. h,F. , viii. ,404; ix. ,388. Ibelin,John,x. ,404. Hirschfeld,O. , i. , 318. Iberians(Caucasians),ix. , 405. Hirth,F. , vii. ,392. Ibn Abd-al-Hakam,viii. ,4x7. Hispania¢iterioror Tarraconensis,i. , Ibnal-Athir,ix. , 397. 3t4. Ibn Foslan,Arabictraveller,x. ,392. Hispellum,Inscriptionof,Hi. ,443. IbnI4_. ishRm,viii. ,4x5sg. . H isloriaAugusta,accountof,i. ,306sqq. Ibn Ishkk,viii. ,4t5 sq. ZfistoriaBelliSacri,ix. , 39o. Ibn Khallikgn,ix. , 397. 2_istoriaMizcdla,iv. , 353sfl. ; viii. , lbn K. hordadbeh,ix. , 403. 4z3. Ibn Kutaiba,viii. ,4x7. Hiung-Nu,the, iv. , 357; vii. ,398. Ibn _ukaffa, viii. , 4x7. Hodgkin,Mr. , if. , 349 s_. , 363; on IbnRusta,x. ,398. Notit. Dign. ,iii. ,425; on Salvian,IbnSad,viii. ,4x5. iv. , 354sq_. ,369; on Radagalsus Ibn Serapion,iv. , 343invasions,v. ,369; onBonifaceand Icaria,xi. , 336. Aetius,374sq. ; onMaximusand IconoclasticSynod,viii. , 429. Valentinian,/b. ; on Cassiodorus,Idatius,Fastiof, if. ,365sq. vi. ,359,362;onGregorytheGreat, Ifisdalas,vii. ,403. viii. ,4x3; onlettersofGregoryII. , Ifland,J. ,iv. , 355,359. 44L Ignatius,Deacon,hislifeofNicephorus, Hoeck,i. , 3zi. viii. , 400; by NicetasPaphlagon, H6fner,i. , 3XL 403. Holder,O. , iv. , 34L ILlyricum,Diocese,iii. , 428,436,440; Holder-Egger,O. , iv. , 352twte. partof, annexedto Prefectureof Honorias,province,iii. ,424,427; viii. , Illyricum,v. , 366. 423. Illyricum,Prefecture,iii. ,436,438sqq. ; lqonorius,Emperor,causeof death,iv. , Stflicho sdesignson, v. ,365sq. 353. Fllyrictma,province,i. , 3z5. Hopf,K. , viii. ,4x9; x. ,39_note; xi. , Ilovaiski,x. , 4o2. 333,336;xii. ,2x7. Im_dad-Din,ix. , 396. HormizdIlL, iv. ,357. Imageworship,defendedby John of Howorth,Sir H. , on the Huns, iv. , Damascus,viii. , 399357sq. ; on the Avars,viii. , 4"x Imperator,titleof, if. ,352; iii. ,423. hole. Imperialtitles,iii. , 423. Hubert,M. H. , viii. ,429. IncertusAuctor,seeAnonymus. Hugoof Burgundy,ix. , 405. Ingenuus,tyrant,if. , 353Hundertmark,i. , 3XL Inheritance,lawof, viii. ,433. Huneric,iv. ,35L Interest,ratesof,viii. ,439sg. Hunfalvy,x. , 396. Ireland,Scotsof,iv. ,355sg. Hungarians,relationswith the Patzi- Irene, suggestshistory of Alexiusto rinks, ix. , 4o4; accountof,byCon- Bryennius,viii. ,408. stantine Porphyrogenitus,405; Isidorusof Seville,iv. ,353; vi-,36a. earlyhistoryof, x. ,398sqg. IsikJ,vii. ,399Hungary,Avarsin, viii. , 410$q. ; in- Isperich,BulgarianKing,x. , 39x sq. , vasionof,bySubutaJ,xi. ,337. 395. Hums,the, originof, iv. , 357sq. Italy, its divisionsand politicalgeogHuaziker,on Diocletian spersecution, raphyc. 600A. D. ,viii. , 42xsg. ; iii. ,420. exarchsof,vii. ,404; Bulgariansin, Hutton,Rev. W. H. , onAphthaztodo- x. ,392. cetismof Justinian,viii. ,427. Italy,Dioceseof,iii. ,43o.

INDEX 399 Ithaca,xi. , 333. John,sentby Justinianas bishopto ltinerariumregisRicardi,ix. , 393- Yemen, vii. , 402. Joppa,ix. ,393JACOBX,R. ,onPaulDiaconuS,viii. ,4x4. Jordanes,ii. ,349Jagi_,V. , x. , 398. Jortin,RemarksonEccl. Hist. ,v. ,363• JalMad-Din,ix. , 397sq. JosuaStylitesvi. ,356. Jazyges,the, iii. ,44o. iovian,Emperor,v. ,367. Jazygia,Avarsin,viii. ,42x. [ugria,x. ,399. Jeep,L. , ii. ,366; iiL,438; iv. , 35o. ulian,the emperor,hisworks,ii. ,36i; Jerome,St. ,referencetoDeMort. Pers. , hisreferenceto Jesusinlettertothe ii. , 358; chronicleof, 366; iv. , Alexandrians,363; v. ,367. 35_; disputeswith Rufinus,355. JuliusCapitohnus,writerofHist. Aug. , Jerusalem,Churchesof Constantineat, i. , 306sqq. iv. , 34_; Churchof St. Sophia, JuneviUe,Petitde, ii. ,36x. ib. ; Mosqueof Omar,/b. ; Dome JuUian,L. , iii. ,425. oftherock,ib. ; dateof captureof, Jung,i. , 312; v. , 366. ix. ,379; Assisesof,x. ,403$g. Junghans,G. W. ,vi. , 36_. . le_,booksof, ii. , 368. Ju_Italicum,i. ,3x9. Jire_ek,C. ,onethnologyof the Sarma-Jus Latinum,historyof,i. , 3z6. tians,iii. , 440; on the Bogomils,Justi, i. , 32x. x. , 389; on the Bulgarians,393, JustinI. , intheSecretHistory,vi. ,349; 395. vii. , 389; embassyto Hira,4o_; JohnAnagnostes,xi. , 328. embassyto Axum,4o2. John of Antioch(Salmas. and Con- iustinianI, Scholaeunder,iii. , 433; stant. Excerpts),on Bonifaceand trafficin officesunder,435; has Aetius,v. ,375sq. ; identityof (?), Churchof St. Sophiaat Jerusalem,iv. , 342; treatmentby Procopius,vi. , 356. Johnof Biclarum,vi. , 36_sq. vi. , 348s_. ; date of death,360; JohnCameniates,oncaptureofThessa- positionunderJustin,vii. ,389;at lonica,viii. ,405-6. Nika riot,39:; his dealingswith Johnof Cappadocia,vi. , 347,349note, theKotrigur_,etc. ,396sq. ; hisre-arrangementoftheArmenianprov-352note. John Comnenus,viii. , 408and note; inees,viii. , 422sq. ; his heresy, capital punishmentunder, 435. 427s_l. ;legalworksof,430; navy johnofDamascus,viii. ,399;dateofhis of,ix. ,4o6. OrationsonImageWorship,442. [uvaini,accountof,xi. , 329. JohnDiacrinomenos,vi. , 347- [fizj_. nf,xi. , 329. Johnof Ephesus,viii. , 395. JohnofEpiphania,viii. ,395sq. K. . _A. RS,ix. ,405; x. , 399" Johnof Jerusalem,viii. ,399. Kaidu,xi. , 337Johnthe Lydian,vi. , 347sg. Kainites,Gnosticsect,ii. ,368. JohnMalalas,vi. , 354sqg. ; his notice Kalligas,P. , vii. , 392. ofAxum,vii. ,4o2. Kam_tIad-Din,ix. ,397. JohnMag. Mr, heroofthe Johannid, Kanalites,ix. , 405. Kan-Ying,vii. , 39_. vi. , 360; vii. ,403sq. Johnthe Monk,relationto the Vita Karabacek,J. , Prof. ,ix. ,376. Artemii,iii. ,435,439. Kaufmann,onSarmatianwars,Iv. ,359 Johnof Nikiu,viii. ,4z8. Kazachia,ix. ,405• JohnPsahes,vii. , 4ox. Kecharitomene,monasteryof,viii. ,4o8. JohnRogafinus,vii. , 404- Kehr,viii. ,443note. John Sikeliotes,vi. , 356; viii. , 409 Keim,Th. , iii. ,4x8. note. Keller,R. ,iv. ,355; v. ,366. Johnof Sirmium,viii. ,395- Kellett,F. W. ,on Gregorythe Great, John,tyrantin fourthcentury,iv. , 351• viii. ,4x2. 9

4oo INDEX Kertsch,x. , 4oo. ILanglois,V. , Hi. ,445. K4za,Simonde, x. , 398. Laribns,vii. , 403. Khud_i-n_aa,the, viii. , 4z7. iLatinlanguage,disuseof, vii/. , 430. KAepert,H. , viii. ,422note. Latyshev,V. ,vii. , 397sq. K/ev,x. ,4ox. Lau,G. T. , onGregorytheGreat,viii. , Kir_ly,i. ,3x2. ! 4x3. Kirchner,onProcopins,vi. ,353. Lausus,chamberlain,iv. , 345. K/rpitschnikow,A. , ilL, 446. Law,developmentof, in easternprovKlaproth,ontheHiung-Nu,iv. ,358. incesfromConstantinetoJustinian, Klein,i. , 3xz; on Raymondof AgUes, vii. , 4o5; degenerationof, /b. ; ix. , 39L Grmco-Roman,viii. ,43o. Klimek,iL,36x. Lazi,federatesof empire. Hi. ,433. Kobad,King,iv. , 357- Lazica_Abbot M_TimUSdies at, viii. , Kocel,x. ,397- 399. Koch,onJulian,ii. , 36z. Lebedia,Hungariansin,x. , 399. Koch,J. ,iv. ,350. LeBlant,E. , iii. ,45z. K6pke,R. , iv. , 355; vi. , 363. Lega_uslegi_mi_,i. , 3x3. Koran,the,vi/i. ,4x4. Leger,L. , ix. , 388sg. Kormis_s,x. ,394. Legion,sizeof,infourthceatury,iii. , Kostoboks,the, iiL,440. 432. Kotragoi,the,vii. , 395sq. Lemnos,x/. , 335. Kotragos,v//. ,396. Leo I. , Emperor,iii. , 433Kotrigurs,vii. , 395 sgq. ; viii. , 45o; Leo III. , Emperor,legislationof, viii. , x. , 39L 429; agriculturalcode of, 437; Krashen/nnikov,IV[. ,v/. , 353; vii. ,389. correspondencewithPopeGregory, Kraus,F. X. ,ii. , 367. 44x; IconoclasticEdictsof,/b, sg. ; Kreutzer,i. , 3o6. on navy,ix. , 4o8. K. rumbacher,K. , vi. , 354 note, 356 LeoVI. :,Emperor,lawsof,onmarriage, note; onCinnamns,viii. ,409; on vm. ,432; novelof,433; tacticsof, Glycas,4xx; onChalcondyles,xi. ix. , . 38z; relationswith Taron, 3_8note. 4o_ Knlsch,B. , v/Si. ,4x4. LeoDiaconns,hishistory,viH. ,406. Kugler,B. yon,ix. , 395,398. Leo Grammaticns,chronicleof, viii. , Kulakovski,v//. ,397. 404. Kunik,E. , x. , 402. Leo, Librarianof MonteCass/no,ix. , Kurt,Bulgarianking,x. ,39zsg. ,396. 389. Kuta_,chiefofthe Cumans,xJ. ,338. Leontinsof Byzantium,vii. , 389. Kuun,G4za,x. ,400note,sq. Leontius,Bishopof C_esarea,iii. , 442. Kuvrat,vii. , 396; seeKurt. Leontocomis,themeof, ix. , 403. LeovigHd,vi. , 36x. LABA-_U_,the, iii. ,444sq. Lesbos,xi. , 335. Lactantins,and authorshipof the De Lesghians,the, iv. , 357. Mort. Pers. ,i. ,3xx;ii. ,357s_/q. Le Strange G. , iv. , 343; ix. , 398. Laelianus,see Loll/anus. Leucas,seeSantaMaura. Lagobardia,themeof, ix. , 402. Leuva(league),vi. , 345Laguantan,the,vii. , 403. Lewis,T. H. , iv. , 342. La Jonquib-re,Hist. of OttomanEra- Libanins,the worksof,ii. ,36z-2; iv. , pire,xi. , 33z. 343. Lampridins,seeAelinsLampridins. LiberPontificalis,viii. ,4n. Land,tenureof,etc. ,viii. ,435sqq. LibcrPontifir,atisof Ravenna,iv. , 353LandulfusSagax,iv. , 354- Library,Ulpian,i. , 309. Lane-Poole,S. ,viii. ,4z6; onthe Sabi- Librilintel,i. , 309. arts,ix. ,376; onSaracencoins,ix. , Lichudes,funeralorationofPselluson, 399; onOttomanTurks,xi. ,33z. viii. ,407.

INDEX 4or Licinius,Emperor,iii. , 437 sq. ; iv. , Malnotes,ix. , 4o5. 445. MainChancellor,policyof, ix. ,39o. LiciniustheYounger,iii. ,436. Maju. _Impcrium,i. , 319. Liebermann,F. ,ix. , 393- Makin,al- (Elmacin),viii. ,4_8. Liegnitz,battleof, xi. , 337. Malchus,vi. ,346sq. LieutenantSof Emperor,i. , 3t8. Mallet,Mr. E. , on Procopius,vi. , Lightfoot,Bishop,ii. , 369. 353. Limesgcrmanicus,ii. , 355- Malta,xi. , 332Limita_i, iii. ,43_. Maraertinus,Claudius,ii. ,362. Lindum,i. , 3t2. Manasses,Constantine,hisHistoryof LingenthalZacharii_yon,viii. ,435,44o theWorld,viii. ,4xi. ix. , 38x. Mandman,Semiticdialect,ix. ,375. L_tusSaxonicum,vi. , 366. Mangoldonmonasticism,vi. ,364. Livadia,xi. , 333. Manso,J. C. ,vi. , 362. Loewe,G. , vi. , 360note. Mansfir,al-(caliph),viii. ,4i5. Logothete,the,seeSymeonMagister. Mansfir(S_manid),viii. ,4i7. L6hrer,J. ,i. , 320. Mansfir,fatherof Johnof Damascus, Lollianus,tyrant,ii. , 352sq. viii. ,399. Lombards,the,chronologyof theircon- ManuelComnenus,historyof,byCinnaqueStS,viii. , 422 sg. mus,viii. ,409;funeralorationby, Lombardy,themeof,ix. ,4o5,seeLongi- ix. ,383. bardia. Manzikert,ix. , 4o5. L6ning,E. , iii. ,368. Maphrian,viii. ,419. Longibardia,themeof, ix. , 4o2. MarApasCatina,iii. ,443. Lucius,on monasticism,vi. , 364. MarIzdbuzid,viii. ,426. Lucius,Martyr(secondcentury),iii. , Marcellinus,seeAmmianus. Marcellinus,Bishopof Rome,iii. ,4t8. 4t9. Lucius,Patriarchof Alexandria(fourthMarcellinus,Count,chronologyof,vi. , century),iv. , 354$q- 36o" Ludwig,F. , iv. , 355- Marcellus,Bishopof Rome,iii. ,4x8. Luetjohann,C. , vi. , 358. Marc. ion,ii. ,367. Lugdunensis,province,i. ,3_4. Marczali,H. , x. ,398note. Lupusprotospatharius,ix. , 389• Maxdaites,ix. ,406. Lusitania,province,i. , 3x4• Margat,captureof, byCrusaders,ix. , Lycandos,themeof, ix. , 4o3• 393Lycaonia,province,iii. , 427. _Mariades,nameof Cyriades,ii. , 35_. Lycia,province,i. , 313; iii. ,427. iMariusof Aventicum,iv. , 353; viii. , Lyons,councilof,ix. ,384• 362" Marius,tyrant,ii. ,353MACEDONIA,dioceseof,iii. ,425,428. the,vii. , 403• Macedonia,province,i. , 3:5; iii. ,428 the Stylite,viii. ,395. Macedonia,themeof,ix. ,4o_. VIarquaxdt,i. ,