Tuấn Đoan: août 2014

samedi 30 août 2014

The Science of Acupuncture

The Science of Acupuncture

August 30, 2014 | 34,016 views

Better Than Pain Drugs, But Your Doctor Would Probably Laugh at It

By Dr. Mercola

Acupuncture is an ancient holistic health care system still widely practiced in China. It falls under the wider umbrella, known in the West as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which also includes the use of herbs and other therapies. Diagnostic systems also include tongue and pulse diagnosis.

Contrary to allopathic, symptom-based medicine, TCM and acupuncture aims to eliminate the root cause of your problem, which is said to originate in a dysfunction in your body’s energetic meridian system.

Western vs. Eastern Mindset

Meridian-based energy therapies like acupuncture are quite useful for treating a number of health problems; pain in particular. In China, acupuncture may even be used in lieu of anesthetic drugs during surgery, as demonstrated in the BBC documentary above.
As unbelievable as it seems, a young woman actually undergoes open heart surgery with acupuncture instead of general anesthesia.
There are several advantages to using acupuncture during surgical procedures, the Chinese surgeon explains. For starters, it doesn’t have the health risks of general anesthesia. Recovery is also much quicker, and the cost is about one-third.
While most westerners would balk at undergoing invasive surgery with nothing but a few needles keeping pain at bay, each year, millions of Americans do turn to acupuncture to relieve chronic pain, high blood pressure, nausea, and much more.
Acupuncture is considered an alternative to conventional forms of medicine in the West and is actually one of the oldest healing practices in the world. In China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries, acupuncture has been used for thousands of years, and its staying power isn’t merely a matter of superstition or coincidence.
In modern-day China, some hospitals offer acupuncture and allopathic medicine side-by-side, allowing patients to choose. They can also opt for a combination of both. For example, if an adverse drug effect occurs, the patient can opt for a reduced dose in combination with acupuncture.

Basic Principles of Acupuncture

TCM views the body as a cohesive one—a complex system where everything within it is inter-connected—where each part affects all other parts. They teach that lack of balance within this biological system is the precursor to all illness. The body exhibits symptoms when suffering from inner disease, and if it’s not re-balanced these symptoms may lead to acute or chronic illnesses of all kinds.

There are 14 major energy channels called meridians that flow through your body. An energy called chi circulates along the meridians to all parts of your body, including the internal organs and every cell. This chi is the vital force that literally keeps us alive. Vibrant health is a result of balanced, unimpeded flow of energy through the body.

According to TCM, illness and pain is the byproduct of energy blockages somewhere along one or more meridians. Each acupuncture point along the meridian acts like a pass-through or gate. Energy can get “bottle-necked” in these points, slowing down the flow; sometimes to the point of standstill. This is the precursor to pain and illness.

By inserting a thin needle into the congested or “clogged” area, it opens the gate and allows the energy to flow again. With the life-energy flowing smoothly, the body can now re-regulate the flow of energy, repair itself, and maintain its own optimal level of health.

Herbs and other therapies such as guacha, cupping, and moxibustion—the burning of herbs on or over the skin—can be used to support the healing.

History of Acupuncture

The science and art of acupuncture is well documented and spans across centuries, all the way back to the Stone Age. Records of its use have been found in many parts of the world, not just the Orient, as most commonly thought.
The Chinese medical compendium, the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, is the oldest written record about acupuncture. It is thought to be the oldest medical book in the world, heralding from Emperor Huang Di who reigned between 2,696—2,598 B.C.
However, signs of acupuncture being used are found all over the ancient world.  There’s evidence of its practice in ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Sri Lanka, parts of Europe, and South America. Even our North American Indians have used it.
The Eskimos, for example, are said to still use sharpened stones for treating illness. Written evidence of the use of acupuncture in Egypt and Saudi Arabia also exists. The Ebers papyrus of 1,550 B.C. describes a physical system of channels and vessels that is closely matched to the Chinese system of meridians.
Even older evidence than the examples above exist. In 1991, a 5,000-year-old mummified man was found along the Otz valley between Austria and Italy. Remarkably well preserved, a complex system of tattoos were discovered on his body, and verified to be directly on, or within six millimeters of, traditional acupuncture points and meridians.

Evidence Showing What Acupuncture ‘Does’

Some research suggests that acupuncture stimulates your central nervous system to release natural chemicals that alter bodily systems, pain, and other biological processes. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted an extensive review and analysis of clinical trials involving acupuncture. According to this report,1 acupuncture impacts the body on multiple levels, including:
  • Stimulating the conduction of electromagnetic signals, which may release immune system cells or pain-killing chemicals
  • Activation of your body’s natural opioid system, which may help reduce pain or induce sleep
  • Stimulation of your hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which modulate numerous body systems
  • Change in the secretion of neurotransmitters and neurohormones, which may positively influence brain chemistry
In the featured video, a team of researchers, along with an acupuncturist, conduct an experiment that has never been done before. Using high tech MRI imaging, they were able to visually demonstrate that acupuncture has a very real effect on the brain.
Acupuncture, it turns out, does something completely unexpected—it deactivates certain parts of the brain, particularly in the limbic system, decreasing neuronal activity, opposed to having an activating impact. Their experiment also clearly showed that superficial sham needling did NOT have this effect. The limbic system is associated with our experience of pain, adding further evidence that something very unique happens during acupuncture—it quite literally alters your experience of pain by shutting down these deeper brain regions.

Acupuncture Proven Effective for Pain and Osteoarthritis

One of the most common uses of acupuncture is for the treatment of chronic pain. One analysis2 of the most robust studies available concluded that acupuncture has a clear effect in reducing chronic pain, more so than standard drug-based pain treatment. Study participants receiving acupuncture reported an average 50 percent reduction in pain, compared to a 28 percent pain reduction for standard pain treatment without acupuncture. Another large, well-designed study3, 4 assessing whether acupuncture might work for osteoarthritis—a debilitating condition affecting more than 20 million Americans—also produced remarkably positive results.
This landmark study is also discussed in the video above. A total of 570 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee were enrolled for this 26-week long trial. It was the longest and largest randomized, controlled phase III clinical trial of acupuncture ever conducted. None of the participants had tried acupuncture before, and none had had knee surgery in the previous six months. Nor had they used steroid injections. The participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or self-help strategies recommended by the Arthritis Foundation (the latter served as a control group).
Significant differences in response was seen by week eight and 14, and at the end of the trial, the group receiving real acupuncture had a 40 percent decrease in pain and a nearly 40 percent improvement in function compared to baseline assessments—a 33 percent difference in improvement over the sham group.  According to Stephen E. Straus, M.D., Director of National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):5
"For the first time, a clinical trial with sufficient rigor, size, and duration has shown that acupuncture reduces the pain and functional impairment of osteoarthritis of the knee. These results also indicate that acupuncture can serve as an effective addition to a standard regimen of care and improve quality of life for knee osteoarthritis sufferers. NCCAM has been building a portfolio of basic and clinical research that is now revealing the power and promise of applying stringent research methods to ancient practices like acupuncture."

Other Science-Backed Uses for Acupuncture

However, chronic pain is only one of 30+ proven uses for this natural treatment. Chinese doctors assert that acupuncture can be used to treat virtually ANY illness, but for those looking for scientific validation, the World Health Organization’s analysis concluded that acupuncture is an effective treatment for the following diseases and conditions.
According to the WHO’s analysis: “Some of these studies have provided incontrovertible scientific evidence that acupuncture is more successful than placebo treatments in certain conditions.” The report again confirmed its benefits for pain, saying: “The proportion of chronic pain relieved by acupuncture is generally in the range 55–85 percent, which compares favorably with that of potent drugs (morphine helps in 70 percent of cases) and far outweighs the placebo effect (30–35 percent).”
Adverse reactions to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy Allergic rhinitis (including hay fever) Biliary colic
Depression (including depressive neurosis and depression following stroke) Dysentery, acute bacillary Dysmenorrhoea, primary
Epigastralgia, acute (in peptic ulcer, acute and chronic gastritis, and gastrospasm) Facial pain (including craniomandibular disorders) Headache
Hypertension, essential Hypotension, primary Induction of labor
Knee pain Leukopenia Low back pain
Malposition of fetusMorning sickness Nausea and vomiting
Neck pain Pain in dentistry (including dental pain and temporomandibular dysfunction) Periarthritis of shoulder
Postoperative pain Renal colic Rheumatoid arthritis
Sciatica Sprain Stroke
Tennis elbow

More Potential Uses for Acupuncture

While further research is needed, acupuncture has also demonstrated therapeutic effects in the treatment of the following health problems, according to the WHO’s report.

Abdominal pain (in acute gastroenteritis or due to gastrointestinal spasm) Acne vulgaris Alcohol dependence and detoxification Bell’s palsy
Bronchial asthma Cancer pain Cardiac neurosis Cholecystitis, chronic, with acute exacerbation
Cholelithiasis Competition stress syndrome Craniocerebral injury, closed Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent
Earache Epidemic haemorrhagic fever Epistaxis, simple (without generalized or local disease) Eye pain due to subconjunctival injection
Female infertility Facial spasm Female urethral syndrome Fibromyalgia and fasciitis
Gastrokinetic disturbance Gouty arthritis Hepatitis B virus carrier status Herpes zoster (human (alpha) herpesvirus 3)
Hyperlipaemia Hypo-ovarianism Insomnia Labor pain
Lactation, deficiency Male sexual dysfunction, non-organic Ménière disease Neuralgia, post-herpetic
Neurodermatitis Obesity Opium, cocaine and heroin dependence Osteoarthritis
Pain due to endoscopic examination Pain in thromboangiitis obliterans Polycystic ovary syndrome (Stein-Leventhal syndrome) Postextubation in children
Postoperative convalescence Premenstrual syndrome Prostatitis, chronic Pruritus
Radicular and pseudoradicular pain syndrome Raynaud syndrome, primary Recurrent lower urinary-tract infection Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Retention of urine, traumatic Schizophrenia Sialism, drug-induced Sjögren syndrome
Sore throat (including tonsillitis) Spine pain, acute Stiff neck Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Tietze syndrome Tobacco dependence Tourette syndrome Ulcerative colitis, chronic
Urolithiasis Vascular dementia Whooping cough (pertussis)

jeudi 28 août 2014



Vào khoảng 3 giờ sáng ngày 17 tháng Tám, 1999, một trong những trận động đất kinh hoàng nhất đã xảy ra trong lịch sử Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.  Nó đã san bằng hàng trăm công trình kiến trúc và làm thiệt mạng hàng ngàn người.
Khi động đất xảy ra, một kế toán viên 40 tuổi người Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ là Yuksel Er vừa mới đi ra từ phòng vệ sinh ở lầu ba trong khu chung cư sáu tầng lầu.
Bỗng dưng, mọi thứ bắt đầu quay cuồng. Chính ông cũng lảo đảo và bị rơi vào dòng thác cuốn của đồ vật.  Trong 45 giây tiếp đó tai ông như điếc vì tiếng động mạnh.
Và rồi, bỗng dưng mọi sự im lặng một cách ghê sợ.
Khi Yuksel tỉnh dậy, ông thấy mình bị kẹt dưới đống gạch vụn trong một vùng thật tối.
Trong khoảng cách nhỏ bé đó, ông không thể nào cựa quậy được, chỉ có thể nằm yên ở đó.
Trên mình ông và chung quanh ông là những vụn vỡ của tòa chung cư sáu tầng lầu.
Lúc đầu ông tưởng là tận thế.  Nhưng khi nghe thấy tiếng rên rỉ ở xa xa, ông biết là một điều gì khác đã xảy ra.

Trong bốn ngày liền, ông không ăn uống gì.  Ông dùng thời giờ để cầu nguyện, suy nghĩ về đời sống và tự hỏi đời sống sau khi chết sẽ như thế nào.
Lúc đầu, ông còn la lớn kêu cứu.  Nhưng thấy vô ích ông im lặng dưỡng sức.
Ông bắt đầu nhớ đến gia đình, và nhất là đứa con trai 13 tuổi mà ông vừa mới la rầy nó chỉ vài giờ trước trận động đất - vì nó cứ dành máy computer của gia đình để chơi "game".
Sau đó vào ngày thứ tư, khoảng một giờ sáng, ông nghe có tiếng gọi quen thuộc.  Chỉ trong vài phút, ông nhận ra tiếng của đứa cháu và thằng con 13 tuổi.  Chúng đào xới đống vụn để lôi ông lên.
Khi đứa con trai lôi được ông ra khỏi đống gạch vụn, điều đầu tiên nó nói là, "Bố ơi, con sẽ không bao giờ làm bố giận nữa."  Ông Yuksel trả lời, "Bây giờ thì không còn quan trọng nữa, vì bây giờ mọi sự sẽ khác biệt."
Sau này, khi ở trong bệnh viện, Yuksel nói với gia đình và bạn hữu: "Đây là cuộc đời thứ hai của tôi.   Tôi sẽ cố gắng tận dụng cuộc đời ấy."  Và rồi ông khóc.  Giống như tiếng khóc carry-crosscủa đứa bé mới lọt lòng mẹ.

Trước trận động đất, Yuksel sống với những ưu tiên và mục đích, không khác gì những ưu tiên và mục đích của chúng ta.  Sau cảm nghiệm ấy, các ưu tiên và mục đích của ông thay đổi cách đáng kể.
Điều này đưa chúng ta đến bài Phúc Âm hôm nay.  Trong bài Chúa Giêsu nói rằng, "Nếu ai trong các con muốn đến với Thầy, phải từ bỏ mình, vác thập giá của con và theo Thầy."
Ở đó chúng ta cũng thấy Chúa Giêsu cảnh cáo các môn đệ về sự ngu dại khi giành được thế gian nhưng đánh mất điều quan trọng nhất trong tất cả: là sự sống vĩnh cửu ở đời sau.
Sau cùng, chúng ta cũng thấy Chúa Giêsu nói: "Con Người sẽ thưởng cho họ tùy theo hành động của họ."
Hãy trở về với câu chuyện của Yuksel.  Khởi đầu tưởng rằng là một thập giá nặng nề, nhưng sau cùng lại là một phước lành lớn lao.
Nó đã dạy cho ông và thúc giục ông sống thời gian còn lại theo một phương cách xứng hợp với Chúa, và với suy nghĩ của Thiên Chúa chứ không phải của Satan.
Cũng giống như trận động đất đã thay đổi cuộc đời ông Yuksel, bài Phúc Âm hôm nay cũng nhắm đến một kết quả tương tự cho chúng ta - tối thiểu cho một số người trong chúng ta.  Có lẽ, như Phêrô, lối suy nghĩ về đời sống của chúng ta trở nên nguy hiểm hơn và càng giống với kiểu cách suy nghĩ của Satan hơn là của Thiên Chúa.
Có lẽ, giống như Phêrô, chúng ta đang mất dần ý nghĩa của đời sống. Một đời sống không hoàn toàn vì vui thú và không muốn tránh càng nhiều thập giá càng tốt.
Đúng ra, đó là một đời sống để được phần thưởng là sự sống đời đời. Đó là lối sống trong những năm còn lại của chúng ta ở đời này để giúp chúng ta gặt được phần thưởng là sự sống vĩnh cửu ở đời sau.
Rõ rệt hơn nữa là vác thập giá hằng ngày của chúng ta và chấp nhận các thập giá ấy trong tinh thần mà Chúa Giêsu đã chấp nhận thập giá của Người.
Và đây là phần đáng kể. Một khi chúng ta bắt đầu sống như Chúa Giêsu đã dậy, chúng ta sẽ khám phá ra điều mà Yuksel đã tìm thấy.
Nó sẽ thay đổi mọi sự, và bỗng dưng, điều tưởng như một thập giá to lớn lại trở nên một ơn sủng lớn lao trong đời này và đời sau.
Hãy kết thúc với câu chuyện để nói lên điều chúng ta muốn nói:
Một vài năm trước đây, Gene Stallings đã huấn luyện đội banh trường đại học Alabama để thắng được 22 trận và được coi là trường đứng hạng hai về "football".  Nhưng không phải biến cố này, mà là một biến cố khác, đã ảnh hưởng mạnh mẽ đến cuộc đời của ông. Đó là việc sinh hạ đứa con trai, Johnny.
Khi bác sĩ nói với ông Stallings rằng Johnny sẽ bị hội chứng Down (chậm phát triển) và có lẽ không sống lâu hơn bốn năm, ông đã ngất xỉu.
Ba mươi năm sau, Johnny vẫn còn sống.  Nói về ảnh hưởng của Johnny trong cuộc đời, ông Stallings cho biết:
"Cháu rất đặc biệt!  Tất cả sự yêu thương của cháu thì vô điều kiện. Cháu không đạt thành tích gì.  Cháu hoàn toàn vị tha."
Trong rất nhiều dịp, ông Stallings tuyên bố rằng cho dù có thể đảo ngược mọi sự và bắt đầu lại với một đứa con không bị bệnh Down thì ông cũng không muốn như vậy.  Ông nói, "Tôi cảm nhận được rất nhiều ơn lành."
Điều mà ông Stallings nghĩ rằng sẽ là một thập giá lớn lao trong đời thì lại trở nên một ơn sủng lớn lao-cả ở đời này và ngay cả ở đời sau.
Đây là Tin Mừng của Phúc Âm hôm nay. Đây là Tin Mừng mà chúng ta cử hành trong phụng vụ này.

Đó là Tin Mừng khi chúng ta vác thập giá của mình và theo Chúa Giêsu, có thể thay đổi cuộc đời chúng ta.  Nhưng nó sẽ đem lại một bình an và phước lành mà chưa bao giờ chúng ta tưởng tượng ra hay hy vọng tới - và ngay cả dám mơ tưởng đến.

LM Mark Link, SJ

mercredi 27 août 2014

Conveyor Belt Sushi, Japan

Mờixem các máy làm Sushi tân tiến của Nhật cũng như dining concept rất hay.
Conveyor Belt Sushi, Japan
A dining concept that lets you pick from a wide range of one of Japan's best-known foods

dimanche 24 août 2014

Copenhagen (Đan Mạch 2014)

Trước tòa thị sảnh  của  Đan Mạch
Welcome to Copenhagen
 Đan Mạch đứng đầu trong danh sách những quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất thế giới năm 2013 theo bảng xếp hạng của Mạng lưới Các giải pháp phát triển bền vững Liên Hiệp Quốc (UNSDSN).

Tivoli Gardens is a famous amusement park and pleasure garden in Copenhagen, Denmark. The park opened on 15 August 1843 and is the second oldest amusement park in the world, after Dyrehavsbakken in nearby Klampenborg. Wikipedia


Hình internet

Bên trong City Hall


Đang nghe tour guide giải thích

Phố xá ngày mưa

Bầu trời ảm đạm

Có ít tia nắng

Copenhagen City Hall

Mùa Xuân hoa Tử Đằng nở đẹp

Tour guide trên du thuyền
Copenhagen Opera house
Một ngày mưa gió khó chụp hình 


the Little Mermaid,

The Little Mermaid

The Little Mermaid statue was a present from brewer Carl Jacobsen (The Carlsberg Breweries) to the city of Copenhagen, made by a then little known sculptor called Edvard Erichsen. The Little Mermaid was unveiled at Langelinje in 1913, as part of a general trend in Copenhagen in those days, selecting classical and historical figures to be used as decorations in the city's parks and public areas.

In 1909, brewer Carl Jacobsen saw solo dancer Ellen Price dance in Fini Henriques' ballet "The Little Mermaid" at the Royal Theatre. He was so taken with her that he asked her if she would pose for a statue. She agreed in principle, but was not very interested in posing without any clothes on, when she found out just how public the statue would be. Instead sculptor Edvard Erichsen's wife stepped in and modeled for the body. On September 14, 1912, the Little Mermaid statue was first placed at a test location, and on August 23, 1913, at its current and permanent site. The statue's birthday is celebrated in various ways every year on August 23. Throughout the year, 75% of all tourists visiting Copenhagen go to see The Little Mermaid.

Nguồn ( http://www.copenhagenpictures.dk/mermaid.html)

Tàu của Hoàng Gia đang đậu ở bến



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the city in Denmark. For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation).
From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
Official logo of Copenhagen
Coat of arms
Location of Copenhagen
Coordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″ECoordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″E
Country Denmark
Region Capital (Hovedstaden)
First mention 11th century
City Status 13th century
 • Lord Mayor Frank Jensen (S)
 • City 86.20 km2 (33.28 sq mi)
 • Metro 2.778,3 km2 (1.0727 sq mi)
Highest elevation 91 m (299 ft)
Lowest elevation 1 m (3 ft)
Population (2014)[3]
 • City 569,557
 • Density 6,600/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,246,611 (details)
 • Metro 1,975,361 (details)
 • Metro density 702/km2 (1,820/sq mi)
 • Ethnicity 77.3% Danish
22.7% Other[2]
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 1050-1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450
Area code(s) (+45) 3
Website www.kk.dk
Copenhagen (IPA /ˈkpənhɡən/ or /ˈkpənhɑːɡən/; Danish: København [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn] (About this sound listen)) is the capital and most populated city of Denmark, and second largest in Scandinavia, with an urban population of 1,246,611 and a metropolitan population of 1,975,361 (as of 1 April 2014). It is situated on the eastern coast of Zealand, 42 km (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden and 164 km (102 mi) northeast of Odense. The city stretches across parts of the island of Amager and also contains the enclave of Frederiksberg, a municipality in its own right.
Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. During the 17th century, under the reign of Christian IV, it developed into an important regional centre, consolidating its position as capital of Denmark and Norway with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment which included the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and cultural institutions such as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Nelson attacked the Danish fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the creation of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre.
Since the turn of the millennium, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the cultural, economic and governmental centre of Denmark and one of the major financial centres of Northern Europe with the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. In 2012, Copenhagen was third in the ranking of the richest cities in the world in terms of gross earnings, dropping from first place in 2009. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, the metropolitan area of Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, known as the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, the Little Mermaid Statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle, Frederik's Church, and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions. In addition to recent developments in the city service sector and the pharmaceutical industry, there have been a number of initiatives in clean technology, matching the city's aim to be carbon-neutral by 2025.
Copenhagen has over 94,000 students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions, including the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark and Copenhagen Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark, and has repeatedly been ranked as one of the best universities in Europe. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs and the ice hockey teams Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. The Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen together with the S-train network connecting the outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries.


The city's origin as a harbour and a place of commerce is reflected in its name. Its original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name is derived, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour", often simply Hafn or Havn. The English cognate would be Chapman's haven.[4] The English name for the city is derived from its Low German name, Kopenhagen. The chemical element hafnium is also named for Copenhagen, whose Latin name is Hafnia.[5] The bacterium Hafnia is also named after Copenhagen, being coined in 1954 by Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen.[6]


Reconstruction of Copenhagen as of c. 1500

Early History

Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metro have revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have also led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, and the remains of an old church with graves dating to the 11th century have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen. These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins go back at least as far as the 11th century, while substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of settlements as far back as the Stone Age.[7] Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard.[8] The natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century.[9] The first habitations were probably centred around Gammel Strand (literally "old shore") in the 11th century or even earlier.[10]
The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, which translates into Merchants' Harbour or in the Danish of the time Købmannahavn.[11] Traditionally, Copenhagen's founding has been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a modest fortress on the little island of Slotsholmen in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace stands today.[12] The construction of the fortress was in response to attacks by Wendish pirates who plagued the coastline during the 12th century.[13] Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Clemens Church had been built. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, it was replaced by Copenhagen Castle.[14]

Middle Ages

Tøjhus Arsenal (1604)

Børsen (completed 1640)
In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands including the town of Hafn were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde 1158-1191 and Archbishop of Lund 1177-1201, by King Valdemar I. On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.[9] Around 1200, the Church of Our Lady was constructed on higher ground to the northeast of the town which began to expand around it.[9]
The town rose in prominence but was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League. As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.[13] In 1254, it received a charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen[15] who garnered support from the local fishing merchants against the king by granting them special privileges.[16] In the mid 1330s, the first land assessment of the city was published.[16]
With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.[17][14] The University of Copenhagen was inaugurated on 1 June 1479 by King Christian I, following approval from Pope Sixtus IV.[18] The university's Christian role in Danish society was forced to change during the Reformation in the late 1530s.[18]

16th and 17th centuries

In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to Christian II was successfully besieged in 1523 by the forces of Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism. Thereafter, Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall. After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536 during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III. During the second half of the century, the city prospered from increased trade across the Baltic supported by Dutch shipping. Christoffer Valkendorff, a high-ranking statesman, defended the city's interests and contributed to its development.[9]
During the reign of Christian IV between 1588 and 1648, Copenhagen experienced dramatic growth as a city. On his initiative at the beginning of the 17th century, two important building were completed on Slotsholmen: the Tøjhus Arsenal and Børsen, the stock exchange. To foster international trade, the East India Company was founded in 1616. To the east of the city, inspired by Dutch planning, the king developed the district of Christianshavn with its canals and ramparts. It was initially intended to be a fortified trading centre but ultimately became part of Copenhagen.[19] Christian IV was also responsible for sponsoring an array of ambitious building projects including Rosenborg Slot and the Rundetarn.[13] In 1658–59, the city withstood a siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault.[19]
By 1661, Copenhagen had asserted its position as capital of Denmark and Norway. All the major institutions were located there as was the fleet and most of the army. The defences were further enhanced with the completion of the Citadel in 1664 and the extension of Christianshavns Vold with its bastions in 1692, leading to the creation of a new base for the fleet at Nyholm.[19][20]

18th century

A mansion at Amalienborg in Frederiksstaden (1750)
Copenhagen lost around 22,000 of its 65,000 to the plague in 1711.[21] The city was also struck by two major fires which destroyed much of its infrastructure.[14] The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 was the largest in the history of Copenhagen. It began on the evening of 20 October, and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October, destroying approximately 28% of the city, leaving some 20% of the population homeless. No less than 47% of the medieval section of the city was completely lost. Along with the 1795 fire, it is the main reason that few traces of the old town can be found in the modern city.[22][23]
A substantial amount of rebuilding followed. In 1733, work began on the royal residence of Christiansborg Palace which was completed in 1745. In 1749, development of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden was initiated. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved in the Rococo style, its centre contained the mansions which now form Amalienborg Palace.[24] Major extensions to the naval base of Holmen were undertaken while the city's cultural importance was enhanced with the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.[25]
In the second half of the 18th century, Copenhagen benefitted from Denmark's neutrality during the wars between Europe's main powers, allowing it to play an important role in trade between the states around the Baltic Sea. After Christiansborg was destroyed by fire in 1794 and another fire caused serious damage to the city in 1795, work began on the classical Copenhagen landmark of Højbro Plads while Nytorv and Gammel Torv were converged.[25]

19th century

On 2 April 1801, a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker defeated a Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack.[26] He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed.[27] Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar.[28] It was during this battle that Lord Nelson famously "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.[29]

Gottlieb Bindesbøll's Thorvaldsen Museum (1848)
The Second Battle of Copenhagen (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet.[30] But from a Danish point of view the battle was a terror bombardment on their capital. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle the first terror attack against a major European city in modern times.[31][32]

Slotsholmen canal, as seen from Børsen (1890–1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Rundetårn, Trinity Church, St. Nicholas Church (before the spire was rebuilt) and Holmen Church
The British landed 30,000 men and surrounded Copenhagen.[29] The attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the city.[29] The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery.[33]
Despite the disasters of the early 19th century, Copenhagen experienced a period of intense cultural creativity known as the Danish Golden Age. Painting prospered under C.W. Eckersberg and his students while C.F. Hansen and Gottlieb Bindesbøll brought a Neoclassical look to the city's architecture.[34] In the early 1850s, the ramparts of the city were opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. By the 1880s, the districts of Nørrebro and Vesterbro developed to accommodate those who came from the provinces to participate in the city's industrialization. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, as not only were the old ramparts out of date as a defence system but bad sanitation in the old city had to be overcome. From 1886, the west rampart (Vestvolden) was flattened, allowing major extensions to the harbour leading to the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen 1892–94.[35] Electricity came in 1892 with electric trams in 1897. The spread of housing to areas outside the old ramparts brought about a huge increase in the population. In 1840, Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 120,000 people. By 1901, it had some 400,000 inhabitants.[25]

20th century

By the beginning of the 20th century, Copenhagen had become a thriving industrial and administrative city. With its new city hall and railway station, its centre was drawn towards the west.[25] New housing developments grew up in Brønshøj and Valby while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the city of Copenhagen.[36] The northern part of Amager and Valby were also incorporated into the City of Copenhagen in 1901–02.[37]
As a result of Denmark's neutrality in the First World War, Copenhagen prospered from trade with both Britain and Germany while the city's defences were kept fully manned by some 40,000 soldiers for the duration of the war.[38]
In the 1920s there were serious shortages of goods and housing. Plans were drawn up to demolish the old part of Christianshavn and to get rid of the worst of the city's slum areas.[39] However, it was not until the 1930s that substantial housing developments ensued,[40] with the demolishment of one side of Christianhavn's Torvegade in order to build five large blocks of flats.[39]
World War II

RAF bombing of Gestapo headquarters in the Shell House (March 1945)
During World War II, Copenhagen was occupied by German troops along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. The occupation was not a part of the Nazi German expansion, and initially the German authorities sought to arrive at an understanding with the Danish government. Even a general parliamentary election was granted in 1943, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, after the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were scuttled in Copenhagen Harbour by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although most managed to escape to Sweden.[41]
After the Normandy Invasion the Germans feared the Danish police could become a problem. In early September 1944, they set about arresting the entire Danish police force. Most of them, however, managed either to hide or to escape to Sweden. Out of 2,000 policemen captured and deported to Germany, fewer than half returned after the war. In the absence of a police force, during the last eight months of occupation Copenhagen suffered a high rate of common criminality.[41]
Ole Lippman, the leader of the Danish resistance movement (SOE), invited the RAF to assist their operations by attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, Air Vice-Marshal Sir Basil Embry drew up plans for a spectacular precision attack on the Sicherheitsdienst and Gestapo building, the former offices of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building. The attack came on 22 March 1945, in three small waves. In the first wave, all six planes (carrying one bomb each) hit their target, but unfortunately one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg girls school. Because of this crash four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the military target, and aimed their bombs at the school leading to the death of 123 civilians (of which 87 were schoolgirls).[42] However 18 of the 26 political prisoners in the Shell Building managed to escape while the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed.[42]
On 8 May 1945 Copenhagen was officially liberated by British troops commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who supervised the surrender of 30,000 Germans situated around the capital.[43]
Post-war decades

The Black Diamond (1999)
Shortly after the end of the war, an innovative urban development project known as the Finger Plan was introduced in 1947, encouraging the creation of new housing and businesses interspersed with large green areas along five "fingers" stretching out from the city centre along the S-train routes.[44][45] With the expansion of the welfare state and women entering the work force, schools, nurseries, sports facilities and hospitals were established across the city. As a result of student unrest in the late 1960s, the former Bådsmandsstræde Barracks in Christianshavn was occupied, leading to the establishment of Freetown Christiania in September 1971.[46]

Øresund Bridge (1999)
Motor traffic in the city grew significantly and in 1972 the trams were replaced by buses. From the 1960s, on the initiative of the young architect Jan Gehl, pedestrian streets and cycle tracks were created in the city centre.[47] Activity in the port of Copenhagen declined with the closure of the Holmen naval base. Copenhagen Airport underwent considerable expansion, becoming a hub for the Nordic countries. In the 1990s, large-scale housing developments were realized in the harbour area and in the west of Amager.[40] The national library's Black Diamond building on the waterfront was completed in 1999.[48]

2000 to present

Copenhagen Opera House (2004)
Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö have been connected by the (Øresund Bridge), which carries rail and road traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area spanning both nations. The bridge has brought about considerable changes in the public transport system and has led to the extensive redevelopment of Amager.[46] The city's service and trade sectors have developed while a number of banking and financial institutions have been established. Educational institutions have also gained importance, especially the University of Copenhagen with its 35,000 students.[49] Another important development for the city has been the Copenhagen Metro, the underground railway system which opened in 2000 with additions until 2007, transporting some 54 million passengers by 2011.[50]
On the cultural front, the lavish Copenhagen Opera House, a gift to the city from the shipping magnate Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller on behalf of the A.P. Møller foundation, was completed in 2004.[51] In December 2009 Copenhagen gained international prominence when it hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15.[52]


Skyline of the old city core of Copenhagen.

Satellite view
Copenhagen is part of the Øresund Region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania in Sweden.[53] It is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand, partly on the island of Amager and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish towns of Malmö and Landskrona lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from Copenhagen.[54] By road, Copenhagen is 42 kilometres (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden, 85 kilometres (53 mi) northeast of Næstved, 164 kilometres (102 mi) northeast of Odense, 295 kilometres (183 mi) east of Esbjerg and 188 kilometres (117 mi) southeast of Aarhus by sea and road via Sjaellands Odde.[55]
The city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts that are still referred to as the Fortification Ring (Fæstningsringen) and kept as a partial green band around it.[56] Then come the late 19th and early 20th century residential neighbourhoods of Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro. The outlying areas of Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vigerslev, Vanløse, Brønshøj, Utterslev and Sundby followed from 1920 to 1960. They consist mainly of residential housing and apartments often enhanced with parks and greenery.[57]


The central area of the city consists of relatively low-lying flat ground formed by moraines from the last ice age while the hilly areas to the north and west frequently rise to 50 m (160 ft) above sea level. The slopes of Valby and Brønshøj reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft), divided by valleys running from the northeast to the southwest. Close to the centre are the Copenhagen lakes of Sortedams Sø, Peblinge Sø and Sankt Jørgens Sø.[57]
Copenhagen rests on a subsoil of flint-layered limestone deposited in the Danian period some 60 to 66 million years ago. Some greensand from the Selandian is also present. There are a few faults in the area, the most important of which is the Carlsberg fault which runs northwest to southeast through the centre of the city.[58] During the last ice age, glaciers eroded the surface leaving a layer of moraines up to 15 m (49 ft) thick.[59]


Copenhagen and the surrounding areas have three beaches with a total of approx. 8 kilometres (5 miles) of sandy shores within 30 minutes cycling from the city centre. These include Amager Strandpark, which opened in 2005 with a 2 km (1 mi) long artificial island and a total of 4.6 km (2.9 mi) of beaches, located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre.[60]
The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge and has won international acclaim for its design.[61]


Frederiksberg Palace in the snow
Copenhagen is in the oceanic climate zone (Köppen: Cfb ).[62] Its weather is subject to low-pressure systems from the Atlantic which result in unstable conditions throughout the year. The Gulf Stream brings warmer water across from the Gulf of Mexico causing average temperatures to be some 5 degrees higher than would be expected for the city's latitude of 55 degrees North. Apart from slightly higher rainfall from July to September, precipitation is moderate. While there can be snow from late December to late April, there can also be rain with average temperatures around the freezing point.[63]
June is the sunniest month of the year with an average of about eight hours of sunshine a day. July and August are warm too with daytime temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F) although rainfall averages 69 mm per month. By contrast, the average hours of sunshine are less than two per day in November and only one and a half per day from December to February. In the spring, it gets warmer again with from four to six hours of sunshine per day from March to May. February is the driest month of the year.[64] Exceptional weather conditions can bring as much as 50 cm of snow to Copenhagen in a 24 hour period during the winter months[65] while summer temperatures have been known to rise to heights of 33 °C (91 °F).[66]
Because of Copenhagen's northern latitude, the number of daylight hours varies considerably between summer and winter. On the summer solstice, the sun rises at 04:26 and sets at 21:58, providing 17 hours 32 minutes of daylight. On the winter solstice, it rises at 08:37 and sets at 15:39 with 7 hours and 1 minute of daylight. There is therefore a difference of 10 hours and 31 minutes in the length of days and nights between the summer and winter solstices .[67]
[hide]Climate data for Copenhagen (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.1
Average low °C (°F) −2
Precipitation mm (inches) 46
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1mm) 10 8 9 8 8 8 10 10 10 9 12 11 113
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45 67 110 168 217 218 202 193 133 90 55 42 1,539
Source: Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut



Districts of Copenhagen municipality
The conurbation of Copenhagen includes the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total population of 704,108 at the start of 2012.[68] After Copenhagen Municipality, the second largest is Frederiksberg Municipality, an enclave inside Copenhagen Municipality. Both are contained in the larger Capital Region of Denmark, containing most of the urban area of Copenhagen. Since a reform in 2006–08, Copenhagen Municipality has been divided into 10 official districts (Danish: bydele):[69] Indre By, Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vanløse, Brønshøj-Husum, Bispebjerg, Amager Øst, and Amager Vest. Neighbourhoods of Copenhagen include Slotsholmen Frederiksstaden, Islands Brygge, Holmen, Christiania, Carlsberg, Sluseholmen, Amagerbro, Ørestad, Nordhavnen, Bellahøj, Brønshøj, Ryparken, and Vigerslev.

Municipal government

Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagen's municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall (Københavns Rådhus). The council is chaired by the Lord Mayor of Copenhagen, Frank Jensen, who with two selected vice-presidents overlooks the 55 representatives of the council who are given civic duties to perform.[70] The council usually meets every other week at 17:30 on a Thursday.[70] They discuss a range of issues including labour and employment, business growth, economics, international cooperation and IT, urban planning, housing and construction, and young, old, and disabled people issues, healthcare, and traffic, with a central focus on making the city sustainable and meeting environmental and health targets.[71]
All members of the council are elected every four years. In the municipal elections in November 2013, the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27.8% of the vote (down by 2.2% from 2009) while Enhedslisten (the Red-Green Alliance) was in second place with 19.5%.[72][73] Copenhagen's mayor Frank Jensen retained his position, but was not happy with the result which was the worst ever for his party. The Social Democrats have been the party behind the mayors of Copenhagen for the past 110 years.[74]
The municipal government is divided into seven administrative departments; Employment and Integration, Culture and Leisure, Health and Care, Finance, Child and Youth, Social Services, and Technical and Environmental Administration.[75] It has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October and the annual report is published in May of every year. The accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagen's accounts.[76]

Lord mayors since 1938

All lord mayors of Copenhagen have belonged to the Social Democratic Party.[74]

Law and order

Most of Denmark's top legal courts and institutions are based in Copenhagen. A modern style court of justice, Hof- og Stadsretten, was introduced in Denmark, specifically for Copenhagen, by Johann Friedrich Struensee in 1771.[77] Now known as the City Court of Copenhagen (Kobenhavns Byret), it is the largest of the 24 city courts in Denmark with jurisdiction over the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør and Tårnby. With its 42 judges, it has a Probate Division, an Enforcement Division and a Registration and Notorial Acts Division while bankruptcy is handled by the Maritime and Commercial Court of Copenhagen.[78] Established in 1862, the Maritime and Commercial Court (Sø- og Handelsretten) also hears commercial cases including those relating to trade marks, marketing practices and competition for the whole of Denmark.[79] Denmark's Supreme Court (Højesteret), located in Christiansborg Palace on Prins Jørgens Gård in the centre of Copenhagen, is the country's final court of appeal. Handling civil and criminal cases from the subordinate courts, it has two chambers which each hear all types of cases.[80]

Politigården, the police headquarters
The Danish National Police and Copenhagen Police headquarters is situated in the Neoclassical-inspired Politigården building built in 1918–24 under architects Hack Kampmann and Holger Alfred Jacobsen. The building also contains administration, management, emergency department and radio service offices.[81] In their efforts to deal with drugs, the police have noted considerable success in the two special drug consumption rooms opened by the city where addicts can use sterile needles and receive help from nurses if necessary. While drugs are still illegal, police do not prosecute addicts using the rooms. Deputy Chief Superintendent Kaj Majlund commented, "You have to find new ways to deal with drug addicts. You can't succeed by putting them into jail."[82]
The Copenhagen Fire Department forms the largest municipal fire brigade in Denmark with some 500 fire and ambulance personnel, 150 administration and service workers, and 35 workers in prevention.[83] The brigade began as the Copenhagen Royal Fire Brigade on 9 July 1687 under King Christian V. After the passing of the Copenhagen Fire Act on 18 May 1868, on 1 August 1870 the Copenhagen Fire Brigade became a municipal institution in its own right.[84] The fire department has its headquarters in the Copenhagen Central Fire Station which was designed by Ludvig Fenger in the Historicist style and inaugurated in 1892.[85]

Environmental planning

Main article: Energy in Denmark
Copenhagen is recognized as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[86] The municipal policy is to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% before the end of 2015.[87] In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% of the city's energy.[88] Years of substantial investment in sewage treatment have improved water quality in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming with facilities at a number of locations.[89]

Middelgrunden offshore wind farm
Copenhagen aims to be carbon-neutral by 2025. Commercial and residential buildings are to reduce electricity consumption by 20 percent and 10 percent respectively, and total heat consumption is to fall by 20 percent by 2025. Renewable energy features such as solar panels are becoming increasingly common in the newest buildings in Copenhagen. District heating will be carbon-neutral by 2025. New buildings must now be constructed according to Low Energy Class ratings and in 2020 near net-zero energy buildings. By 2025, 75% of trips should be made on foot, by bike, or by using public transit. The city plans that 20-30% of cars will run on electricity or biofuel by 2025. The investment is estimated at $472 million public funds and $4.78 billion private funds.[90]
The city's architectural planning authorities continue to take full account of these priorities. Special attention is given both to climate issues and efforts to ensure maximum application of low-energy standards. Priorities include recycling rainwater, green roofs and efficient waste management solutions. In city planning, streets and squares are to be designed to encourage cycling and walking rather than driving.[91]
As a result of its commitment to high environmental standards, Copenhagen has been praised for its green economy, becoming the world's leading green city in the 2012 Global Green Economy Index.[92] It has also received the title of "European Green Capital 2014" as a result of its environmental record and its ambitious goals. Mention was made of the city's efforts to work with companies, universities and organisations in order to further green growth, the "Green Laboratory" component in its North Harbour project, and its efforts to increase the proportion of the population cycling to work to 50% by 2015.[93]

Demographics and society

Statistics from fourth quarter 2013 show that 439,824 (77.3%) of the population of Copenhagen Municipality were of Danish origin, 41,423 immigrants and 4,628 descendants from Western countries (8.1%), 56,026 immigrants and 27,099 descendants from non-Western countries (14.6%).[2]


Depending on the boundaries used, the population of Copenhagen differs. Statistics Denmark has never specified the geographical area of urban Copenhagen, but it is known to consist of Copenhagen Municipality, Frederiksberg and 16 of the 20 municipalities in the old counties Copenhagen and Roskilde, though five of them only partially.[94] The urban area of Copenhagen has a population of 1,246,611 inhabitants as of 2014, with a total of 1,975,361 inhabitants in the overall metropolitan area as 2014; the latter is equivalent to the local traffic area and ticket fare zones, covering 3,030 square kilometres (1,170 square miles).[95] Based on a 10%-isoline (data from 2002) in which at least 10% of the population commutes into central parts of the Copenhagen area, most of Zealand would be covered and this area has a population of about 2.3 million inhabitants.[96]
Since the opening of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, commuting between Zealand and Scania in Sweden has increased rapidly, leading to a wider, integrated area. Known as the Øresund Region, it has 3.8 million inhabitants (of which 2.5 million live in the Danish part of the region).[97]


Church of Our Lady, the National Cathedral of Denmark.
The majority of those living in Copenhagen are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark, although the 61.6% specifically confirming their membership by paying church taxes is well below the national average of 79.1% according to 2013 figures.[98] There are also several other Christian communities in the city, of which the largest is Roman Catholic.[99] The second most significant religion practised in the city is Islam. While there are no official statistics, most of the estimated 150,000 Muslims in the country live in Copenhagen, with the highest concentration in Nørrebro and the Vestegnen.[100] There are some 7,000 Jews in Denmark, most of them in the Copenhagen area where there are several synagogues.[101]

Quality of living

For a number of years, Copenhagen has ranked high in international surveys for its quality of life. Its stable economy together with its education services and level of social safety make it attractive for locals and visitors alike. Although it is one of the world's most expensive cities, it is also one of the most liveable with its public transport, facilities for cyclists and its environmental policies.[102] In elevating Copenhagen to "most liveable city" in 2013, Monocle pointed to its open spaces, increasing activity on the streets, city planning in favour of cyclists and pedestrians, and features to encourage inhabitants to enjoy city life with an emphasis on community, culture and cuisine.[103] Other sources have ranked Copenhagen high for its business environment, accessibility, restaurants and environmental planning.[104] For students, however, Copenhagen ranks only No. 39 for student friendliness in 2012. Despite a top score for quality of living, its scores were low for employer activity and affordability.[105]


Copenhagen is the economic and financial centre of Denmark but is also of international importance. Statistics for 2010 show that of the 350,000 people working in Copenhagen, the vast majority are employed in the service sector, especially transport and communications, trade, and finance, while less than 10,000 work in the manufacturing industries. The public sector workforce is around 110,000, including education and healthcare.[106] From 2006 to 2011, the economy grew by 2.5% in Copenhagen and Copenhagen Municipality while it fell by some 4% in the rest of Denmark.[107]
In Dansk Industri's 2013 survey of employment factors in 96 Danish municipalities, Copenhagen came in first place for educational qualifications and for the development of private companies in recent years but fell to No. 86 in local companies' assessment of the employment climate. The survey revealed considerable dissatisfaction in the level of dialogue companies enjoyed with the municipal authorities.[108] In 2012, Copenhagen was third in the ranking of the richest cities in the world in terms of gross earnings, dropping from first place in 2009.[109] In the 2011 UBS survey of prices and earnings, Copenhagen had fallen to fifth place for price levels while it held third place in gross wage levels and was said to have the highest purchasing power in terms of gross hourly wages although it was only in 12th place in terms of domestic purchasing power.[110]
Copenhagen is home to a number of international companies including A.P. Møller-Mærsk, Novo Nordisk, Carlsberg and Novozymes.[111] The city also has successful business clusters in several innovative sectors including information technology, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology.[112]
Tourism is also an increasingly important sector for Copenhagen's economy, reaching record numbers in 2012 for the third year in succession.[113] The number of room nights reached 8.1 million, up 25% since 2008. Between 2011 and 2012, room nights increased 9.2% overall, tallying a rise of 39% for Chinese visitors. The numbers of airline and cruise passengers visiting the city were also at new highs while turnover for congress tourism reached DKK 1.2 billion with a total of 57 congresses in the year. [113]
Copenhagen has a service oriented economy. Life science is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. In collaboration with Sweden, Medicon Valley is being developed as a central sector of interest across the entire Øresund Region. Major Danish biotech companies like Novo Nordisk and Lundbeck, both of which are among the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the world, are located in the greater Copenhagen area.[114] Shipping is also an import sector with Maersk, the world's largest shipping company, having their world headquarters in Copenhagen.
Copenhagen has some of the highest gross wages in the world.[115] High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists has made Denmark an attractive location for foreign labour. It is however also among the most expensive cities in Europe.[116][117]

Medicon Valley

Main article: Medicon Valley

Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals with the metro in front
Copenhagen is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on research and development within the biotechnology and life science sectors.[118] Two of the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the world are located in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. The biotechnology and life science cluster in Copenhagen and the rest of the Øresund Region is one of the strongest in Europe. Known as Medicon Valley, it is a collaborative venture supported by both Denmark and Sweden. The aim is to strengthen the region's position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia. Hundreds of companies have been established in the area, the majority on the Danish side of the sound.[119][120]


Launched in 2010, the Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster is the focal point of a cooperative effort between public authorities, universities, research institutions and cleantech companies. By 2012, the initiative involved 533 companies in the Copenhagen region, up form 396 in 2010. The service sector, with 44% of companies, was the top sector followed by wholesale and retail trade (22%) and production (20%). The cluster employed more than 85,000 people in 2010, down from 94,000 in 2008.[121] The region's most important cleantech research institutions are the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School,[122] Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and the Technical University of Denmark (of which Risø is now part). In 2012, companies in the Cleantech Cluster experienced growth as well as an increase in the launching of new products and services.[123]


Nyhavn, the seventeenth century waterfront, with its colourful buildings
The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen has a multitude of districts, each with its distinctive character and representing its own period. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen include the abundance of water, its many parks, and the bicycle paths that line most streets.[124]


Amagertorv square dates back to the Middle Ages

Developing skyline of the district Ørestad, located in the outskirts of Copenhagen
The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner city is often referred to as Middelalderbyen (The Medieval City).[125] However, the city's most distinctive district is Frederiksstaden, developed during the reign of Frederick V. It has the Amalienborg Palace at its centre and is dominated by the dome of Frederik's Church (or the Marble Church) and several elegant 18th-century Rococo mansions.[126] The inner city of Copenhagen includes Slotsholmen, a little island on which Christiansborg Palace stands and Christianshavn with its canals.[127] Around the historical city centre lies a band of congenial residential boroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts when the city was finally allowed to expand beyond its fortifications.[128]
Sometimes referred to as "the City of Spires", Copenhagen is known for its horizontal skyline, broken only by the spires and towers of its churches and castles. Most characteristic of all is the Baroque spire of the Church of Our Saviour with its narrowing external spiral stairway that visitors can climb to the top.[129] Other important spires are those of Christiansborg Palace, the City Hall and the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art venue. Not quite so high are the Renaissance spires of Rosenborg Castle and the "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange, so named because it resembles the intertwined tails of four dragons.[130]
Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen[131] both for Danish architecture and for works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen, but since the turn of the millennium the city and its immediate surroundings have seen buildings and projects designed by top international architects. At the same time, a number of Danish architects have achieved success in Copenhagen and abroad. Buildings in Copenhagen have won RIBA European Awards four years in a row ("Sampension" in 2005,[132] "Kilen" in 2006,[133] "Tietgenkollegiet" in 2007 and the Royal Playhouse in 2008.[134]) The last three are all by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects.[135] At the 2008 World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, Bjarke Ingels Group won an award for the World's Best Residential Building 2008 for a house in Ørestad.[136] In 2008 British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen the World's best design city 2008.[137]
The boom in urban development and modern architecture has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but several areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad now has seen most of the recent development. Located near Copenhagen Airport, it currently boasts one of the largest malls in Scandinavia and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as the IT University and a high school.[138]


Copenhagen is a green city with many parks, both large and small. King's Garden (Kongens Have), the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most frequented of them all.[139] It was Christian IV who first developed its landscaping in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitors[140] and in the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden with both a permanent display and temporary exhibits during the summer months.[139] Also located in the city centre are the Botanical Gardens noted for their large complex of 19th-century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen.[141] Fælledparken at 58 ha (140 acres) is the largest park in Copenhagen.[142]

Rosenborg Castle and park in central Copenhagen
It is popular for sports fixtures and hosts several annual events including a free opera concert at the opening of the opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival and Labour Day celebrations, and the Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix, a race for antique cars. A historical green space in the northeastern part of the city is Kastellet, a well-preserved Renaissance citadel that now serves mainly as a park.[143] Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Garden, a 32-hectare romantic landscape park. It houses a colony of tame grey herons and other waterfowl.[144] The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of the adjacent Copenhagen Zoo, the largest zoo in Denmark.[145] Langelinie, a park and promenade along the inner Øresund coast, is home to one of Copenhagen's most-visited tourist attractions, the Little Mermaid statue.[146]
In Copenhagen, many cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing, reading and meditation. Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro and a Copenhagen institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard is the largest cemetery in Denmark (54 ha (130 acres)) and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, hedges, overgrown tombs, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.[147]
It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen that by 2015 all citizens must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes.[148] In line with this policy, several new parks, including the innovative Superkilen in the Nørrebro district, have been completed or are under development in areas lacking green spaces.[149]

Landmarks by district

Indre By

Christianshavn Canal
The historic centre of the city, Indre By or the Inner City, features many of Copenhagen's most popular monuments and attractions. The area known as Frederiksstaden, developed by Frederik V in the second half of the 18th century in the Rococo style, has the four mansions of Amalienborg, the royal residence, and the wide-domed Marble Church at its centre.[150] Directly across the water from Amalienborg, the recently completed Copenhagen Opera stands on the island of Holmen.[151] To the south of Frederiksstaden, the Nyhavn canal is lined with colourful houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, many now with lively restaurants and bars.[152] The canal runs from the harbour front to the spacious square of Kongens Nytorv which was laid out by Christian V in 1670. Important buildings include Charlottenborg Palace, famous for its art exhibitions, the Thott Palace (now the French embassy), the Royal Danish Theatre and the Hotel D'Angleterre, dated to 1755.[153] Other landmarks in Indre By include the parliament building of Christiansborg, the City Hall and Rundetårn, originally an observatory. There are also several museums in the area including Thorvaldsen Museum dedicated to the 18th-century sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen.[154] Closed to traffic since 1964, Strøget, the world's oldest and longest pedestrian street, runs the 3.2 km (2.0 mi) from Rådhuspladsen to Kongens Nytorv. With its speciality shops, cafés, restaurants, and buskers, it is always full of life and includes the old squares of Gammel Torv and Amagertorv, each with a fountain.[155] Rosenborg Castle on Øster Voldgade was built by Christian IV in 1606 as a summer residence in the Renaissance style. It houses the Danish crown jewels and crown regalia, the coronation throne and tapestries illustrating Christian V's victories in the Scanian War.[156]


Halmtorvet in Vesterbro
Christianshavn lies to the southeast of Indre By on the other side of the harbour. The area was developed by Christian IV in the early 17th century. Impressed by the city of Amsterdam, he employed Dutch architects to create canals within its ramparts which are still well preserved today.[19] The canals themselves, branching off the central Christianshavn Canal and lined with house boats and pleasure craft are one of the area's attractions. Another interesting feature is Freetown Christiania, a fairly large area which was initially occupied by squatters during student unrest in 1971. Today it still maintains a measure of autonomy. The inhabitants openly sell drugs on "Pusher Street" as well as their arts and crafts. Other buildings of interest in Christianshavn include the Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling steeple and the magnificent Rococo Christian's Church. Once a warehouse, the North Atlantic House now displays culture from Iceland and Greenland and houses the Noma restaurant, known for its Nordic cuisine.[157][158]


Dronning Louises Bro leading into Nørrebrogade
Vesterbro, to the southwest of Indre By, begins with the Tivoli Gardens, the city's top tourist attraction with its fairground atmosphere, its Pantomime Theatre, its Concert Hall and its many rides and restaurants.[159] The Carlsberg quarter has some interesting vestiges of the old brewery of the same name including the Elephant Gate and the Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse.[160] The Tycho Brahe Planetarium is located on the edge of Skt. Jørgens Sø, one of the Copenhagen lakes.[161] Halmtorvet, the old haymarket behind the Central Station, is an increasingly popular area with its cafés and restaurants. The former cattle market Øksnehallen has been converted into a modern exhibition centre for art and photography.[162] Radisson Blu Royal Hotel, built by Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen for the airline Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) between 1956 and 1960 was once the tallest hotel in Denmark with a height of 69.60 m (228.3 ft) and the city's only skyscraper until 1969.[163] Completed in 1908, Det Ny Teater (the New Theatre) located in a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej has become a popular venue for musicals since its reopening in 1994, attracting the largest audiences in the country.[164]


The Gefion Fountain
Nørrebro to the northwest of the city centre has recently developed from a working-class district into a colourful cosmopolitan area with antique shops, ethnic food stores and restaurants. Much of the activity is centred around Sankt Hans Torv.[165] Copenhagen's historic cemetery, Assistens Kirkegård half way up Nørrebrogade, is the resting place of many famous figures including Søren Kierkegaard, Niels Bohr and Hans Christian Andersen but is also used by locals as a park and recreation area.[166]


Just north of the city centre, Østerbro is an upper middle-class district with a number of fine mansions, some now serving as embassies.[167] The district stretches from Nørrebro to the waterfront where the statue of The Little Mermaid can be seen from the promenade known as Langelinie. Inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale, it was created by Edvard Eriksen and unveiled in 1913.[168] Not far from the Little Mermaid, the old Citadel (Kastellet) can be seen. Built by Christian IV, it is one of northern Europe's best preserved fortifications. There is also a windmill in the area.[169] The large Gefion Fountain (Gefionspringvandet) designed by Anders Bundgaard and completed in 1908 stands close to the southeast corner of Kastellet. Its figures illustrate a Nordic legend.[170]


Frederiksberg Palace
Strictly speaking a separate municipality, Frederiksberg lies to the west of Nørrebro and Indre By and north of Vesterbro. Its landmarks include Copenhagen Zoo founded in 1869 with over 250 species from all over the world and Frederiksberg Palace built as a summer residence by Charles IV who was inspired by Italian architecture. Now a military academy, it overlooks the extensive landscaped gardens of Frederiksberg Park with its follies, waterfalls, lakes and decorative buildings.[171] The wide tree-lined avenue of Frederiksberg Allé connecting Vesterbrogade with the Frederiksberg Park has long been associated with theatres and entertainment. While a number of the earlier theatres are now closed, the Betty Nansen Theatre and Aveny-T are still active.[172]

Other districts

Not far from Copenhagen Airport on the Kastrup coast, The Blue Planet completed in March 2013 now houses the national aquarium. With its 53 aquariums, it is the largest facility of its kind in Scandinavia.[173] Grundtvig's Church, located in the northern suburb of Bispebjerg, was designed by P.V. Jensen Klint and completed in 1940. A rare example of Expressionist church architecture, its striking west façade is reminiscent of a church organ.[174]

Culture and contemporary life

The statue of the Little Mermaid, an icon of the city and a popular tourist attraction.
Apart from being the national capital, Copenhagen also serves as the cultural hub of Denmark and wider Scandinavia. Since the late 1990s, it has undergone a transformation from a modest Scandinavian capital into a metropolitan city of international appeal in the same league as Barcelona and Amsterdam.[175] This is a result of huge investments in infrastructure and culture as well as the work of successful new Danish architects, designers and chefs.[131][176] Copenhagen Fashion Week, the largest fashion event in Northern Europe, takes place every year in February and August.[177][178]


Copenhagen has a wide array of museums of international standing. The National Museum, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of archaeology and cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alike.[179] Denmark's National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst) is the national art museum with collections dating from the 12th century to the present. In addition to Danish painters, artists represented in the collections include Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso, Braque, Léger, Matisse, Emil Nolde, Olafur Eliasson, Elmgreen and Dragset, Superflex and Jens Haaning.[180]

Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum
Another important Copenhagen art museum is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek founded by second generation Carlsberg philanthropist Carl Jacobsen and built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian, Roman and Greek sculptures and antiquities and a collection of Rodin sculptures, the largest outside France. Besides its sculpture collections, the museum also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters such as Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as well as works by the Danish Golden Age painters.[181]
Louisiana is a museum of modern art situated on the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located in the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. Its collection of over 3,000 items includes works by Picasso, Giacometti and Dubuffet.[182] The Danish Design Museum is housed in the 18th-century former Frederiks Hospital and displays Danish design as well as international design and crafts.[183]
Other museums include: the Thorvaldsens Museum, dedicated to the oeuvre of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen who lived and worked in Rome;[184] the Cisternerne museum dedicated to modern glass art, located in former cisterns that come complete with stalactites formed by the changing water levels;[185] and the Ordrupgaard Museum, located just north of Copenhagen, which features 19th-century French and Danish art and is noted for its works by Paul Gauguin.[186]

Entertainment and performing arts

Royal Danish Playhouse (left) and the Opera House (background, right)
The new Copenhagen Concert Hall opened in January 2009. Designed by Jean Nouvel, it has four halls with the main auditorium seating 1,800 people. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and along with the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles is the most expensive concert hall ever built.[187] Another important venue for classical music is the Tivoli Concert Hall located in the Tivoli Gardens.[188] Designed by Henning Larsen, the Copenhagen Opera House (Operaen) opened in 2005. It is among the most modern opera houses in the world.[189] The Royal Danish Theatre also stages opera in addition to its drama productions. It is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one of the oldest ballet troupes in Europe noted for its Bournonville style of ballet.[190]

The Royal Danish Theatre main building
Copenhagen has a significant jazz scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster, Thad Jones, Richard Boone, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew, Ed Thigpen, Bob Rockwell, Dexter Gordon, and others such as rock guitarist Link Wray came to live in Copenhagen during the 1960s. Every year in early July, Copenhagen's streets, squares, parks as well as cafés and concert halls fill up with big and small jazz concerts during the Copenhagen Jazz Festival. One of Europe's top jazz festivals, the annual event features around 900 concerts at 100 venues with over 200,000 guests from Denmark and around the world.[191]
The largest venue for popular music in Copenhagen is Vega in the Vesterbro district. It was chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by international music magazine Live. The venue has three concert halls: the great hall, Store Vega, accommodates audiences of 1,550, the middle hall, Lille Vega, has space for 500 and Ideal Bar Live has a capacity of 250.[192] Every September since 2006, the Festival of Endless Gratitude (FOEG) has taken place in Copenhagen. This festival focuses on indie counterculture, experimental pop music and left field music combined with visual arts exhibitions.[193]
For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget, especially between Nytorv and Højbro Plads, which in the late afternoon and evening is a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus with musicians, magicians, jugglers and other street performers.[194]


Copenhagen's main public library
Most of Denmarks's major publishing houses are based in Copenhagen.[195] These include the book publishers Gyldendal and Akademisk Forlag and newspaper publishers Berlingske and Politiken (the latter also publishing books).[196][197] Many of the most important contributors to Danish literature such as Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) with his fairy tales, the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) and playwright Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754) spent much of their lives in Copenhagen. Novels set in Copenhagen include Baby (1973) by Kirsten Thorup, The Copenhagen Connection (1982) by Barbara Mertz, Number the Stars (1989) by Lois Lowry, Miss Smilla's Feeling for Snow (1992) and Borderliners (1993) by Peter Høeg, Music and Silence (1999) by Rose Tremain, The Danish Girl (2000) by David Ebershoff, and Sharpe's Prey (2001) by Bernard Cornwell. Michael Frayn's 1998 play Copenhagen about the meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg in 1941 is also set in the city. From 15–18 August 1973, an oral literature conference took place in Copenhagen as part of the 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences.[198]
The Royal Library, Denmark's national library, which also serves as the library of the University of Copenhagen is the largest library in the Nordic countries with an almost complete collection of all printed Danish books since 1482. Founded in 1648, the library is located at four sites in the city, the main one being on the Slotsholmen waterfront.[199] Copenhagen's public library network has over 20 outlets, the largest being the Central Library (Københavns Hovedbibliotek) on Krystalgade in the inner city.[200]


Interior of the National Gallery, combining new and old architecture
Copenhagen has a wide selection of art museums and galleries displaying both historic works and more modern contributions. They include Statens Museum for Kunst, the Danish national gallery, in the Østre Anlæg park and the adjacent Hirschsprung Collection specialising in the 19th and early 20th century. Kunsthal Charlottenborg in the city centre exhibits national and international contemporary art. Den Frie Udstilling near the Østerport Station exhibits paintings created and selected by contemporary artists themselves rather than by the official authorities. The Arken Museum of Modern Art is located in southwestern Ishøj.[201] Among artists who have painted scenes of Copenhagen are Martinus Rørbye (1803–1848),[202] Christen Købke (1810–1848)[203] and the prolific Paul Gustav Fischer (1860–1934).[204]
A number of notable sculptures can be see in the city. In addition to the Little Mermaid on the waterfront, there are two historic equestrian statues in the city centre: Jacques Saly's Frederik V on Horseback (1771) in Amalienborg Square[205] and the statue of Christian V on Kongens Nytorv created by Abraham-César Lamoureux in 1688 who was inspired by the statue of Louis XIII in Paris.[206] Rosenborg Castle Gardens contains several sculptures and monuments including August Saabye's Hans Christian Andersen, Aksel Hansen's Echo, and Vilhelm Bissen's Dowager Queen Caroline Amalie.[207]
Copenhagen is believed to have invented the photomarathon photography competition, which has been held in the City each year since 1989.[208][209]


For a broader look at this topic, see Danish cuisine.

Noma is an example of Copenhagen's renowned experimental restaurants, and has gained two Michelin stars.
As of 2014, Copenhagen has 15 Michelin-starred restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian city.[210] The city is increasingly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination.[211] These include Den Røde Cottage, Formel B Restaurant, Grønbech & Churchill, Søllerød Kro, Kadeau, Kiin Kiin (Denmark's first Michelin-starred Asian gourmet restaurant), the French restaurant Kong Hans Kælder, Relæ, Restaurant AOC, and, each with two Michelin stars, Geranium and Noma (short for Danish: nordisk mad, English: Nordic food). Noma, was ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World by Restaurant in 2010, 2011, 2012, and again in 2014,[212] sparking interest in the New Nordic Cuisine.[213]
Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen offers a great variety of Danish, ethnic and experimental restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød – a traditional, Danish lunch dish; however, most restaurants serve international dishes.[214] Danish pastry can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The Copenhagen Baker's Association dates back to the 1290s and Denmark's oldest confectioner's shop still operating, Conditori La Glace, was founded in 1870 in Skoubogade by Nicolaus Henningsen, a trained master baker from Flensburg.[215]
Copenhagen has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises on the border between the Vesterbro and Valby districts since 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth in the number of microbreweries so that Denmark today has more than 100 breweries, many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat on the premises.[216][217]

Nightlife and festivals

Copenhagen Pride parade, 2008
Copenhagen has one of the highest number of restaurants and bars per capita in the world. The nightclubs and bars stay open until 5 or 6 in the morning, some even longer. Denmark has a very liberal alcohol culture and a strong tradition for beer breweries, although binge drinking is frowned upon and the Danish Police take driving under the influence very seriously.[218] Inner city areas such as Istedgade and Enghave Plads in Vesterbro, Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro and certain places in Frederiksberg are vibrant and full of life even during the late hours. Notable nightclubs include Bakken Kbh, HIVE, Jolene, The Jane on Gråbrødre Square, Karriere Bar, KB3, Rust, Vega Nighclub, Culture Box and Gefährlich, which also serves as a bar, café, restaurant, and art gallery.[219]
Copenhagen has several recurring community festivals, mainly in the summer. Copenhagen Carnival has taken place every year since 1982 during the Whitsun Holiday in Fælledparken and around the city with the participation of 120 bands, 2,000 dancers and 100,000 spectators.[220] Copenhagen Pride is a gay pride festival taking place every year in August. Among the events is "Tivoli goes pink" which ends with a parade. Copenhagen Distortion is a youth culture festival capturing the zeitgeist of the city. Every year (five days up to the first weekend of June) it attracts up to 100,000 people in the streets, shops, galleries, clubs, bars, in boats and buses, with a cultural focus on street culture, art and upfront dance music.[221]
Since 2010 the old B&W Shipyard at Refshaleøen in the Copenhagen harbour has been the location for the outdoor music festival Copenhell, taking place every year in mid June. The festival is a large gathering for heavy metal, hard rock and punk rock culture with concerts and other on-site entertainment drawing thousands of visitors every year. Its location close to the center of Copenhagen provides its visitors easy and quick access to Copenhagen both by public transportation and bicycle, as well as providing visitors with the possibility of accommodation in the citys many hostels and hotels. Since its inception in 2010 the festival has hosted concerts by such acts as Alice in Chains, Judas Priest, Megadeth, Slayer and many more.[222]

Amusement parks

The Pantomime Theatre, opened in 1874, is the oldest building in the Tivoli Gardens
Copenhagen has the two oldest amusement parks in the world.[223][224]
Dyrehavsbakken, a fair-ground and pleasure-park established in 1583, is located in Klampenborg just north of Copenhagen in a forested area known as Dyrehaven. Created as an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV, it is the oldest surviving amusement park in the world.[223] Pierrot (Danish: Pjerrot), a nitwit dressed in white with a scarlet grin wearing a boat-like hat while entertaining children, remains one of the park's key attractions. In Danish, Dyrehavsbakken is often abbreviated as Bakken. There is no entrance fee to pay and Klampenborg Station on the C-line, is situated nearby.[225]
The Tivoli Gardens is an amusement park and pleasure garden located in central Copenhagen between the City Hall Square and the Central Station. It opened in 1843, making it the second oldest amusement park in the world. Among its rides are the oldest still operating rollercoaster Rutschebanen from 1915 and the oldest ferris wheel still in use, opened in 1943.[226] Tivoli Gardens also serves as a venue for various performing arts and as an active part of the cultural scene in Copenhagen.[227]


The University of Copenhagen main building
Copenhagen has over 94,000 students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen (38,867 students),[228] Copenhagen Business School (19,999 students),[229] Metropolitan University College and University College Capital (10,000 students each),[230] Technical University of Denmark (7,000 students),[231] KEA (c. 4,500 students),[232] IT University of Copenhagen (2,000 students) and Aalborg University – Copenhagen (2,300 students).[233]
Copenhagen's higher-education system relies on public universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1479, it is the oldest university in Denmark. A world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city, it forms part of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), which encourages international collaboration between top universities including Oxford, Cambridge, Yale, Berkeley and The Australian National University. The University attracts some 1,500 international and exchange students every year. It has repeatedly been ranked as one of the best universities in Europe.[234]

Student housing Tietgenkollegiet
The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, is located in Lyngby in the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2013, it was ranked as one of the leading technical universities in Northern Europe.[235]
The IT University of Copenhagen is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business aspects of information technology.[236]
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) has provided a practice-oriented complement to the scholarly investigation of the arts carried out at Danish universities for more than 250 years. It includes the historical School of Visual Arts, and has in later years come to include a School of Architecture, a School of Design and a School of Conservation.[237] Copenhagen Business School (CBS) is an EQUIS-accredited business school located in Frederiksberg.[238] There are also branches of both University College Capital and Metropolitan University College inside and outside Copenhagen.[239][240]


The city has a variety of sporting teams. The major football teams are the historically successful FC København[241] and Brøndby. FC København plays at Parken in Østerbro. Formed in 1992, it is a merger of two older Copenhagen clubs, B 1903 (from the inner suburb Gentofte) and KB (from Frederiksberg).[242] Brøndby plays at Brøndby Stadion in the inner suburb of Brøndbyvester. BK Frem is based in the southern part of Copenhagen (Sydhavnen, Valby). Other teams are FC Nordsjælland (from suburban Farum), Fremad Amager, B93, AB, Frem, Lyngby and Hvidovre IF.[243]
Copenhagen has several handball teams—a sport which is particularly popular in Denmark. Of clubs playing in the "highest" leagues, there are Ajax, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup).[243] The København Håndbold women's club has recently been established.[244] Copenhagen also has ice hockey teams, of which three play in the top league, Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey all inner suburban clubs. Copenhagen Ice Skating Club founded in 1869 is the oldest ice hockey team in Denmark but is no longer in the top league.[245]
Rugby union is also played in the Danish capital with teams such as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business School Sport Rugby, Frederiksberg RK and Rugbyklubben Speed. Rugby League is now played in Copenhagen, with the national team playing out of Gentofte Stadion. The Danish Australian Football League, based in Copenhagen is the largest Australian rules football competition outside of the English speaking world.[243][246]
Copenhagen Marathon, Copenhagen's annual marathon event, was established in 1980.[247] Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Race is a 2 km (1.2 mi) open water swimming competition taking place each year in late August.[248] This amateur event is combined with a 10 km (6 mi) Danish championship.[249] In 2009 the event included a 10 km (6 mi) FINA World Cup competition in the morning. Copenhagen hosted the 2011 UCI Road World Championships in September 2011, taking advantage of its bicycle-friendly infrastructure. It was the first time that Denmark had hosted the event since 1956, when it was also held in Copenhagen.[250]


The greater Copenhagen area has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe. Copenhagen Airport, opened in 1925, is Scandinavia's largest airport, located in Kastrup on the island of Amager. It is connected to the city centre by metro and main line railway services.[251] October 2013 was a record month with 2.2 million passengers, and November 2013 figures reveal that the number of passengers is increasing by some 3% annually, about 50% more than the European average.[252]
Copenhagen is served by a daily ferry connection to Oslo in Norway.[253] In 2012, Copenhagen Harbour handled 372 cruise ships and 840,000 passengers. As a result of the growth in the cruise industry facilities are being expanded and improved. At the World Travel Awards in 2012, Copenhagen Port was once again named Europe's leading cruise port after receiving the award every year since 2008.[254]

Bridge for cyclists Bryggebroen
The Copenhagen S-Train, Copenhagen Metro and the regional train networks are used by about half of the city's passengers, the remainder using bus services. Nørreport Station near the city centre serves passengers travelling by main-line rail, S-train, regional train, metro and bus. Some 750,000 passengers make use of public transport facilities every day.[255] Copenhagen Central Station is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark and international destinations.[256]
Copenhagen has an extensive road network including motorways connecting the city to other parts of Denmark and to Sweden over the Øresund Bridge.[255] The car is still the most popular form of transport within the city itself, representing two-thirds of all distances travelled. This can however lead to serious congestion in rush hour traffic.[257]
The Danish capital is known as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.[258] Every day 1.2 million km are covered by Copenhagen's cyclists. Some 37% of all citizens cycle to work, school or university. The city's bicycle paths are extensive and well used. Bicycle paths are often separated from the main traffic lanes and sometimes have their own signal systems, giving the cyclists a lead of a couple of seconds to accelerate.[259]


Promoting health is an extremely important issue for Copenhagen's municipal authorities. Central to its sustainability mission is its "Long Live Copenhagen" (Længe Leve København) scheme in which it has the goal of increasing the life expectancy of citizens, improving quality of life through better standards of health, and encouraging more productive lives and equal opportunities.[260] The city has targets to encourage people to exercise regularly and to reduce the number who smoke and consume alcohol.[260]
Copenhagen University Hospital forms a conglomerate of several hospitals in Region Hovedstaden and Region Sjælland, together with the faculty of health sciences at the University of Copenhagen; Rigshospitalet and Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen belong to this group of university hospitals.[261] Rigshospitalet began operating in March 1757 as Frederiks Hospital,[262] and became state-owned in 1903. With 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. It seeks to be the number one specialist hospital in the country, with an extensive team of researchers into cancer treatment, surgery and radiotherapy.[263] In addition to its 8,000 personnel, the hospital has training and hosting functions. It benefits from the presence of in-service students of medicine and other healthcare sciences, as well as scientists working under a variety of research grants. The hospital became internationally famous as the location of Lars von Trier's television horror mini-series The Kingdom. Bispebjerg Hospital was built in 1913, and serves about 400,000 people in the Greater Copenhagen area, with some 3,000 employees.[264] Other large hospitals in the city include Amager Hospital (1997),[265] Hvidovre Hospital (1970),[266] and Gentofte Hospital (1927).[267]


Aller Media conglomerate building in Havneholm
Many Danish media corporations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the major Danish public service broadcasting corporation collected their activities in a new headquarters, DR Byen, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly TV2 which is based in Odense has concentrated its Copenhagen activities in a modern media house in Teglholmen.[268] The two national daily newspapers Politiken and Berlingske Tidende and the two tabloids Ekstra Bladet and B.T. are based in Copenhagen.[269] Other important media corporations include Aller Media which is the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia,[270] the Egmont media group[271] and Gyldendal, the largest Danish publisher of books.[272]
Copenhagen also has a sizable film and television industry. Nordisk Film, established in Valby, Copenhagen in 1906 is the oldest continuously operating film production company in the world.[220] In 1992 it merged with the Egmont media group and currently runs the 17-screen Palads Cinema in Copenhagen. Filmbyen (movie city), located in a former military camp in the suburb of Hvidovre, houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie companies is Zentropa, co-owned by Danish movie director Lars von Trier who is behind several international movie productions as well as a founding force behind the Dogme Movement.[273] CPH:PIX is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion of the 20-year-old Natfilm festival and the four-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April. CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. On top of its documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event programme with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town.[274]

Notable people


  1. Copenhagen

    Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
    Københavns byvåben 1894.png
    Huy hiệu
    Map DK København.PNG
    Ví trí ở Đan Mạch
    Diện tích
     - City
     - Urban

    88 km²
    455,61 km²
    Dân số (2007-01-01)
     - Nội ô
     - Vùng đô thị
     - Mật độ dân số (tp/vùng đt)

    Múi giờ Trung Âu: UTC+1
    Vĩ độ
    Kinh độ
    55°43' N
    12°34' E
    Copenhagen (phiên âm tiếng Việt: Cô-pen-ha-ghen; tiếng Đan Mạch: København, IPA: [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn]) là thủ đô và là thành phố lớn nhất của Đan Mạch, đồng thời là thành phố lớn thứ hai trong khu vực Bắc Âu (chỉ thua thành phố Stockholm - thủ đô của Thuỵ Điển). Copenhagen có 1.153.615 cư dân (2008)[1]. Với công trình cầu Oresund nối liền hai quốc gia Đan Mạch-Thụy Điển, Copenhagen đã trở thành trung tâm của vùng đô thị Đan Mạch-Thụy Điển có tên là Oresund. Đây là vùng lớn nhất Scandinavia với dân số trên 3,5 triệu người[2]. Với cương vị thủ đô, Copenhagen là nơi đặt trụ sở của các cơ quan lập pháp, hành pháptư pháp trung ương của Đan Mạch.

    Tên gọi

    Tên thành phố thời trung cổKøpmannæhafn, tiếng Đan Mạch cổ, có nghĩa là Cảng của các nhà buôn, thể hiện tầm quan trọng của các nhà buôn đối với thành phố trong thời điểm đó. Một loạt tên bằng các ngôn ngữ khác dựa theo tên nguyên thủy tiếng Đan Mạch. Ví dụ Kopenhagen trong tiếng Đứctiếng Hà Lan, Copenhagen trong tiếng Anh, Copenhague trong tiếng Pháp, tiếng Bồ Đào Nhatiếng Tây ban nha, Hafnia trong tiếng Latin, Copenaghen trong tiếng Ý, Köpenhamn trong tiếng Thụy Điển, Koppenhága trong tiếng Hungary, Kööpenhamina trong tiếng Phần Lan, Kopenhaga trong tiếng Ba Lan, Kопенга́ген trong tiếng Nga, Kaupmannahöfn trong tiếng Iceland vv... Người dân tỉnh lẻ - nhất là ở Jutland - đôi khi cũng gọi theo tiếng lóngKøbenhavnstrup.
    Một nguyên tố hóa học được phát hiện tại viện Niels Bohr năm 1923 được đặt tên là hafnium, theo tên tiếng Latin của thành phố[3].

    Địa lý

    Copenhagen nằm trên 3 đảo là Amager, Slotsholmen và phần phía đông đảo Zealand. Một loạt cầu và đường hầm nối liền các phần của thành phố trên 3 đảo này[4].

    Lịch sử

    Dinh Amalienborg (của hoàng gia) phía cuối, chụp từ nóc nhà thờ
    Có 1 phần di tích từ thời tiền sử là vết tích 1 nơi cư ngụ bên bờ biển từ thời đại đồ đá mới, được tìm thấy ở khu vực Copenhagen, khi xây dựng Strandpark ở đảo Amager bên Eo biển Oresund. Các gò mộ cổ ở vùng ngoại ô cũng chứng tỏ nơi đây đã có người cư ngụ từ thời đại Viking.
    Người ta cho rằng ở khoảng năm 1000, Copenhagen chỉ là 1 thôn nhỏ của các ngư dân, ở vị trí phía bắc Tòa đô chính hiện nay, tại khoảng đường Mikkel Brygger. Tuy nhiên khi đào đường xe điện ngầm, người ta đã tìm thấy dấu vết các cầu tàu ở Gammel Strand (Bãi biển cũ), từ khoảng năm 800. Khi đào hầm để làm nhà ga xe điện ngầm ở Kongens Nytorv người ta lại tìm thêm được vết tích 1 nhà từ thời đại Viking[5].
    Thành phố được nêu với tên "Havn" lần đầu trong các nguồn sử liệu là 1 trận hải chiến giữa Svend Estridsen với vua Na Uy Magnus den Gode năm 1043. Sau đó, trong suốt 120 năm sau, không thấy nhắc tới tên này nữa, điều đó chứng tỏ là Copenhagen thời đó chỉ có tầm quan trọng thứ yếu so với các thành phố khác. Dường như trong thế kỷ 12, thành phố nổi lên vì nằm ở vị trí giữa các thành phố lớn có nhà thờ chính tòa là thành phố Lund (nam Thụy Điển, thời đó thuộc Đan Mạch) và thành phố Roskilde, do đó là điểm nút giao thông và buôn bán quan trọng giữa 2 thành phố lớn đó. Ở nửa sau thế kỷ 12, thành phố nhỏ tên "Hafn" hoặc "Køpmænnahafn" lại được Saxo Grammaticus nói đến, khi cho biết là khoảng năm 1160, thành phố này được trao cho giám mục Absalon - không biết năm chính xác, vì giấy trao tặng không còn tìm thấy. Tuy nhiên, ở Nha Văn khố quốc gia còn lưu 1 thư xác nhận của giáo hoàng Urban III ký ngày 21.10.1186 (26 năm sau) với phong bì có dấu niêm phong. Khoảng 1167-1171, Absalon xây 1 lâu pháo đài và 1 tường thành. Dường như lâu pháo đài đó nằm trên đảo nhỏ Slotsholmen, chỗ lâu đài Christianborg ngày nay. Cũng dường như chính Absalon đã xây 1 nhà thờ đầu tiên trong thành phố là nhà thờ thánh Clemens.
    Ngoài ra, Absalon cũng được trao cho các thành phố khác là Serridslev, Vigerslev, Valby, Brønshøj, Emdrup, Vanløse, Virum, Bagsværd, Rødovre, TårnbyNærum (đều ở Zealand).

    Dấu triện của thành phố năm 1296

    Lâu đài Rosenborg
    Thành phố bắt đầu phát triển trong thời kỳ Absalon lãnh đạo, nhất là trong thế kỷ 13, thành phố mở rộng phần lớn giữa quảng trường Kongens Nytorv và quảng trường Tòa đô chính (Rådhuspladsen). Các Nhà thờ Đức Bà, Tu viện dòng Phanxicô, nhà thờ thánh Phêrô, thánh Nicolai đều được xây trong nửa đầu thế kỷ 13. Thế kỷ này là thế kỷ bất ổn trong lịch sử Đan Mạch vì có cuộc tranh chấp gay gắt về quyền làm chủ các thành phố giữa các vua và các giám mục. Năm 1251 giám mục Jacob Erlandsen đã ép vua Abel trao thành phố cho ông ta, và năm 1254 lần đầu tiên ông ta đã cho thành phố này quyền là thành phố lớn. Tuy nhiên chỉ 5 năm sau, năm 1259, thành phố bị hoàng thân Jaromar tấn công chiếm đóng.
    Sau đó thành phố dân dần lớn lên trở thành thành phố lớn nhất và quan trọng nhất vương quốc, mặc dù chưa trở thành thủ đô.
    Cuộc chiến tranh giữa các thành phố buôn bán Đức với vua Đan Mạch Valdemar Atterdag, khiến cho thành phố bị chiếm và lâu pháo đài bị phá năm 1368. Năm 1419, cuối cùng vua Erik af Pommern đã hoàn toàn nắm thành phố từ tay giáo hội. Từ đó các vua Đan Mạch đều coi Copenhagen là thành phố quan trọng và năm 1443 vua Christoffer III đã biến thành phố thành nơi cư ngụ của nhà vua và gia tộc.
    Năm 1479, trường đại học Copenhagen được thành lập.
    Dưới thời Cải cách (sang đạo Tin Lành) và trong cuộc nổi dậy của bá tước Christoffer af Oldenburg (1534-36), dân thành phố đứng về phe vua thất trận Christìan II, nhưng được tha, không bị vua mới Christian III trả thù.
    Dưới thời vua Christian IV, các tường thành phố cũ dọc theo đường Gothersgade bị phá bỏ, thành phố mở rộng tới khoảng đoạn đường sắt hiện nay giữa Nørreport và Østerport, trong khi các bờ lũy bao quanh thời trung cổ được hiện đại hóa và được mở rộng với các công sự phòng thủ ở khu mới Christianshavn. Từ 1658-1660 dưới thời chiến tranh với Thụy Điển lần I, Copenhagen là khu vực cuối cùng còn ở trong sự kiểm soát của Đan Mạch, mặc dù bị quân Thụy Điển bao vây. Tháng 2/1659, quân Thụy Điển tìm cách tấn công thành phố, nhưng quân và dân thành phố đã giữ vững và quân Thụy Điển tiếp tục bao vây tới ngày 27.5.1660.
    Khi vua Frederik III lập chế độ quân chủ chuyên chế năm 1660 thì Copenhagen càng trở nên quan trọng, vì mọi quyết định đối với quốc gia đều xuất phát từ đây. Năm 1664 chiến lũy của thành phố được hoàn tất ở khu Østerport. Năm 1711-1712 Copenhagen bị 1 trận dịch hạch lớn nhất trong lịch sử, giết chết khoảng 20.000 người trong tổng số khoảng 60.000 cư dân. Năm 1728 Copenhagen lại bị 1 trận hỏa hoạn thiêu hủy hơn 1/4 thành phố.
    Năm 1748 người ta lập khu Frederiksstaden ở phía bắc quảng trường, sau này dinh Amalienborg được xây ở đây. Nửa sau thế kỷ 18, Copenhagen phát triển nhanh, nhờ lợi dụng việc tranh chấp thương mại giữa AnhPháp. Năm 1794, dinh Christiansborg bị cháy và năm 1795 lại 1 trận hỏa hoạn nữa thiêu hủy khu cổ thành. Sau đó hạm đội Đan Mạch bị hạm đội Anh bắt giữ, rồi cuộc bắn phá thành phố của quân Anh năm 1807, khiến cho thành phố hư hại nhiều.

    Cảng mới của Copenhagen
    Sau 1 số năm bị khủng hoảng, thành phố lại bắt đầu phát triển nhanh trong thế kỷ 19. Về văn hóa, Copenhagen là cái khung cho thời kỳ vàng son lịch sử của Đan Mạch. Tuy nhiên cái nổi bật nhất là việc kỹ nghệ hóa trong nửa sau thế kỷ 19.
    Sau trận dịch tả đáng sợ năm 1853, người ta quyết định phá bỏ các tường thành có tính quân sự cũ và người dân bắt đầu định cư ở vùng bên ngoài các tường thành này, tạo thành các khu mới với cầu nối như Nørrebro (từ 1852), Vesterbro, Østerbro, Amagerbro, Islands Brygge (từ 1905) khiến cho dân số tăng nhanh. Khoảng năm 1800 Copenhagen có khoảng 100.000 dân nhưng đến đầu thế kỷ 20 đã có xấp xỉ 500.000 dân và trở nên thành phố công nghiệp lớn.
    Năm 1905, xây Tòa đô chính và năm 1911 xây Nhà ga xe lửa chính.
    Sau thế chiến thứ nhất, mọi thứ đều thiếu thốn và nạn thất nghiệp lớn khiến cho các khu dân lao động bất ổn. Sau đó dần dần thành phố mở rộng tới các kkhu ngoại thành, và việc giao thông công cộng cũng mở rộng. Năm 1934 khai trương tuyến đường sắt cho xe điện nội thành và vùng ngoại ô.
    Trong thế chiến thứ hai Copenhagen cũng như toàn Đan Mạch bị quân Đức quốc xã chiếm đóng tới khi kết thúc chiến tranh, ngày 5.5.1945. Nhiều nhà bị phá - hoặc do du kích phá hoại hoặc do quân Đồng Minh ném bom - trong đó có thể kể đến Shellhuset, đại bản doanh của Gestapo (bị bom của Anh phá ngày 21.3.1945). Trong cuộc ném bom này, Den Franske Skole (trường Pháp) ở Frederiksberg cũng không may bị trúng bom, giết chết nhiều học sinh. Nhiều nhà máy kỹ nghệ cũng bị quân kháng chiến Đan Mạch cho nổ tung.
    Sau chiến tranh, thành phố gia tăng nhiều xe hơi, khiến nảy sinh kế hoạch phát triển thành phố theo dạng 5 ngón tay xòe ra từ mạng lưới xe điện nội ngoại thành. Một số nkhu ngoại thành đã nhanh chóng mọc lên. Sau năm 1990 Copenhagen bắt đầu phát triển nhanh hơn nữa với hệ thống xe điện ngầm, khu thể thao - văn hóa hiện đại Parken và cả các khu thành phố hoàn toàn mới (Ørestad, Islands Brygge, Teglholmen) gần ngay khu trung tâm.
    Nhất là sau khi xây xong Cầu Oresund và Copenhagen trở thành trung tâm vùng Oresund thì thành phố là 1 trong các nơi có giá sinh hoạt đắt đỏ nhất.[6]

    Hành chính

    Các khu vực hành chính ở Copenhagen

    Lâu đài Christiansborg

    Børsen Nhà giao dịch chứng khoán

    Nhà thờ đá hoa
    Khu vực Copenhagen trực thuộc 2 vùng hành chính là Vùng Thủ đôVùng Zealand và gồm có các thị xã hành chính sau:
  2. Thị xã Copenhagen
  3. Thị xã Frederiksberg
  4. Thị xã Albertslund
  5. Thị xã Brøndby
  6. Thị xã Gentofte
  7. Thị xã Gladsaxe
  8. Thị xã Glostrup
  9. Thị xã Herlev
  10. Thị xã Hvidovre
  11. Thị xã Lyngby-Taarbæk
  12. Thị xã Rødovre
  13. Thị xã Tårnby
  14. Thị xã Vallensbæk
và là 1 phần của các thị xã sau:
Thị xã Copenhagen là thị xã đông dân nhất với khoảng 500.000 dân (gần nửa dân số của Copenhagen). Các thị xã lớn khác như Thị xã Frederiksberg (93.000), Gentofte (69.000) và Gladsaxe (62.500), còn các thị xã nhỏ như Vallensbæk có 12.000. Về diện tích, thị xã Copehagen cũng lớn nhất với 88 km², Lyngby-Taarbæk (39 km²), trong khi các thị xã nhỏ như Frederiksberg có 9 km².
Thị xã Frederiksberg là nơi có mật độ dân số lớn nhất Đan Mạch với 10.600 dân/km².
Cơ quan cao nhất của thị xã là Hội đồng thành phố Copenhagen, gọi là Borgerrepræsentationen (Ban đại diện nhân dân) gồm 55 thành viên, do dân bầu trực tiếp mỗi 4 năm 1 lần. Cuộc bầu cử lần chót diễn ra trong tháng 11/2005 với số đại biểu thuộc các đảng sau:
Hội đồng thành phố này có các tiểu ban sau:
  • Tiểu ban Kinh tế - dưới quyền đô trưởng Ritt Bjerregaard (A)
  • Tiểu ban Văn hóa & giải trí - dưới quyền trưởng ban Pia Allerslev (V)
  • Tiểu ban Nhi đồng và Thanh thiếu niên - dưới quyền trưởng ban Bo Asmus Kjeldgaard (F)
  • Tiểu ban Y tế và Chăm sóc dân - dưới quyền trưởng ban Mogens Lønborg (C)
  • Tiểu ban Xã hội - dưới quyền trưởng ban Mikkel Warming (Ø)
  • Tiểu ban Kỹ thuật & Môi trường - dưới quyền trưởng ban Klaus Bondam (B)
  • Tiểu ban Việc làm & Hội nhập - dưới quyền trưởng ban Jakob Hougaard (A)[8]

Dân số

Biểu đồ phát triển dân số của thị xã Copenhagen.
Bên phải là Biểu đồ phát triển dân số của riêng Thị xã Copenhagen, trong tính các thị xã ngoại ô Bên dưới là Bảng kê dân số từ thời xưa:
Năm Ngày tháng Dân số
khoảng 4-5.000
khoảng 10.000
khoảng 30.000
khoảng 65.000
1769 15.1. 80.000
1787 1.7. 90.032
1801 1.2. 100.975
1840 1.2. 120.819
1850 1.2. 129.695
1860 1.2. 155.143
1870 1.2. 181.291
1880 1.2. 234.850
1890 1.2. 312.859
Năm Ngày tháng Dân số
1901 1.2. 360.787
1901 1.2. 400.575
1911 1.2. 462.161
1921 1.2. 561.344
1930 5.11. 617.069
1940 5.11. 700.465
1950 7.11. 768.105
1960 26.9. 721.381
1970 9.11. 622.773

Du lịch & Văn hóa

Nhà hát Opera mới

Các thắng cảnh

  • Tượng người cá (Den lille Havfrue), ở Langelinie, do Edvard Eriksen thiết kế theo yêu cầu của chủ hãng bia Carl Jacobsen, được khánh thành ngày 23.8.1913. Tượng thể hiện người cá Havfruen trong truyện thần tiên của Hans Christian Andersen, dựa theo khuôn mặt của nữ diễn viên Ellen Price và thân người dựa theo Eline, vợ của Edward Eriksen.

Các nhà hát & Nhà hát Opera

Nhà hát thành phố, nhìn từ Quảng trường Vesterbro

Các nhà bảo tàng

Thể thao

Ở Thị xã Copenhagen, người ta đang lập kế hoạch biến thành phố thành nơi tổ chức các sự kiện thể thao quốc tế.[11], trong đó có việc xin tổ chức Thế vận hội mùa hè 2020. Ngoài ra Copenhagen cũng là chủ nhà của giải World Outgames 2009, giải thể thao quốc tế cho các người đồng tính luyến ái.[12]

Giáo dục & Đào tạo

Thành phố có cá trường đào tạo sau đây:

Kinh tế

Năm 2008, thu nhập bình quân của dân Copenhagen là 1 trong số thu nhập cao nhất thế giới (hạng thứ 6)[14]. Đồng thời Copenhagen cũng là thành phố có giá sinh hoạt vào hạng cao trên thế giới[15]
Copenhagen cũng là nơi đặt trụ sở chính của các công ty, xí nghiệp lớn như Ngân hàng quốc gia, Danske Bank, Phòng giao dịch chứng khoán, công ty dược phẩm Novo Nordisk, các hãng Lundbeck, Ferring, Tập đoàn A. P. Møller-Mærsk, Torm, D/S Norden, J. Lauritzen, Carlsberg, ISS, Falck-Securitas, Skandinavisk Tobakskompagni vv...[16]

Các nhà cao tầng

Radisson SAS Royal Hotel đối diện với Công viên giải trí Tivoli.
Số Nhà Xây dựng Khu vực thành phố Chiều cao Tầng lầu
1 Domus Vista 1969 Frederiksberg 102 m 30
2 Văn phòng chính hãng Carlsberg 1961 Kbh./Valby 88 m 22
3 Radisson SAS Scandinavia Hotel 1973 Kbh./Vestamager 86 m 26
4 Ferring 2002 Kbh./Vestamager 81 m 20
5 Radisson SAS Royal 1960 Kbh./Indre by 70 m 22
5 Kongens Bryghus 1957 (omb. 1997) Kbh./Vesterbro 70 m 21
5 Bệnh viện Vương quốc 1970 Kbh./Indre Østerbro 70 m 17
8 Codanhus 1967 Frederiksberg 66 m 21
9 Scandic Copenhagen City 1971 Kbh./Indre by 62 m 19
9 Kobbertårnet 2004 Kbh./Indre Østerbro 62 m 16
11 Radisson SAS Falconer 1958 Frederiksberg 57 m 16
12 Danhostel Copenhagen City 1955 Kbh./Indre by 56 m 18
12 Wennberg-siloen 1960'erne (omb. 2004) Kbh./Vestamager 56 m 16
14 Domus Portus 1961 Kbh./Indre Østerbro 55 m 17

Các cư dân nổi tiếng

Thành phố kết nghĩa

Tham khảo

  1. ^ Danmarks Statistik (14. tháng 4 năm 2008)
  2. ^ Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007, sid 53
  3. ^ Biography of George de Hevesy
  4. ^ Fra sydvest mod nordøst ligger Sjællandsbroen, Bryggebroen (gangbro), Langebro og Knippelsbro. Metroen og togtrafikken mellem Hovedbanegården og Kastrup Lufthavn føres via tunneller under havneløbet. Derudover er Sjælland og Amager forbundet med motorvej via Kalvebodbroerne og en togbro ved Sjællandsbroen.
  5. ^ København er langt ældre end vi troede
  6. ^ "Prices and Earnings", a UBS report UBS.com. Truy cập 16 tháng 4 năm 2008.
  7. ^ DR valg
  8. ^ Københavns kommunes politiske styre
  9. ^ http://www.dsr-online.dk/Forside.asp?action=2&app=10&Omraade=DSRs%20historie
  10. ^ http://roningkbh.dk/page.php?5
  11. ^ København som Nordeuropas Oplevelsesmetropol
  12. ^ København forbereder sig på World Outgames i 2009
  13. ^ a ă Professionshøjskolerne er endnu så nye, at informationer om deres geografiske placering endnu ikke er endeligt fastlagt
  14. ^ Rigeste byer i verden
  15. ^ De dyreste byer i Europa
  16. ^ http://www.danmarksrederiforening.dk/profil/medlemmer.html
(tiếng Đan Mạch) Statistical Yearbook of Copenhagen (part English); ISBN 87-7024-230-5 (tiếng Đan Mạch) København Forslag til kommuneplan 1985; ISBN 87-88034-03-8
Chu du những quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất thế giới
 Theo Hồng Duy 
Đan Mạch đứng đầu trong danh sách những quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất thế giới năm 2013 theo bảng xếp hạng của Mạng lưới Các giải pháp phát triển bền vững Liên Hiệp Quốc (UNSDSN).
Việc lựa chọn dựa vào 6 tiêu chí, bao gồm GDP bình quân trên đầu người, trợ cấp xã hội, sức khỏe, vấn nạn tham nhũng, tự do lựa chọn cuộc sống và sự rộng lượng của con người. Theo các tiêu chí đó, Australia đứng thứ 10 với 7.350 điểm.
Trong số 10 quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất có 8 nước thuộc châu Âu. Xếp ngay sau Australia trong danh sách hạnh phúc nhất thế giới là Iceland với 5 điểm nhiều hơn.
Là quốc gia hạnh phúc thứ 8 trên thế giới, Áo đạt 7.369 điểm.
Cả 8 nước châu Âu trong danh sách hạnh phúc đều có khi hậu ôn hòa, GPD bình quân cao cùng phúc lợi xã hội đáng mơ ước. Đứng thứ 7 là Phần Lan.
Canada là đại diện duy nhất của châu Mỹ lọt vào danh sách 10 quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất thế giới. Không những vậy, quốc gia Bắc Mỹ này xếp trên 3 nước Bắc Âu để đứng thứ 6 trong danh sách hạnh phúc nhất thế giới.
Quốc gia Bắc Âu Thụy Điển xếp thứ 5 với 7.480 điểm.
Hà Lan, quốc gia nằm dưới mực nước biển, thiên đường của những loài hoa đứng thứ 4 trong danh sách hạnh phúc.
Xếp trên Hà Lan là Thụy Sỹ với điểm số 7.650.
Khi các quốc gia Bắc Âu liên tiếp nằm trong danh sách hạnh phúc nhất hành tinh, các quốc gia lục địa đen châu Phi lại chi nhau xếp cuối danh sách. Trong khi Na Uy xếp thứ 2 với 7.655 điểm, Rwanda, Burundi, Cộng hòa Trung Phi, Benin và Togo xếp cuối danh sách.
Do đứng đầu trên mọi tiêu chí, Đan Mạch chiếm vị trí đầu tiên trong danh sách "Những quốc gia hạnh phúc nhất thế giới" năm nay.