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The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.
- The world population is estimated at between 400 and 416 million individuals.
- World climate transitions from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age.
- Medieval music: The Notre Dame school of polyphony ends.
- February – After the death of Erik Eriksson on February 2, Valdemar I, who is the eldest son of Birger jarl, is elected king of Sweden, and becomes the first Swedish king of the Folkung House.
- April 30 – King Louis IX of France is released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta.
- October 12 – A great storm shifts the mouth of the River Rother in England 12 miles (20 km) to the west; a battering series of strong storms significantly alters other coastal geography around Romney Marsh.
- December 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies, beginning the 23-year-long "Great Interregnum". Frederick II is the last Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; after the interregnum, the empire passes to the Habsburgs.
- The Lombard League dissolves upon the death of its member states' nemesis, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- King Afonso III of Portugal captures the Algarve from the Moors, thus completing the expulsion of the Moors from Portugal.
- Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic, as the 8th discovered metal. He also first uses the word "oriole" to describe a type of bird (most likely the golden oriole).
- The Rialto Bridge in Venice (in modern-day Italy) is converted from a pontoon bridge to a permanent, raised wooden structure.
- The Ponts Couverts fortified bridges of Strasbourg (in modern-day France) are completed.
- Vincent of Beauvais completes his proto-encyclopedic work Speculum Maius ("Greater mirror").
- The first of the Parlements of Ancien Régime France is established.
- Villard de Honnecourt draws the first known image of a sawmill.
- The first usage is made of the English word "cuckold", according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
- A kurultai is called by Batu Khan in Siberia as part of maneuverings which will elect Möngke Khan as khan of the Mongol Empire in 1251.
- Starting in this year and ending in 1275, the Muslim Shougeng Pu, likely a Persian or Arabian, serves as the Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for the Song dynasty Chinese seaport at Quanzhou, due to his effort in defeating pirates.
- April 6 – Battle of Fariskur: Louis IX of France is captured by Baibars' Mamluk army while he is in Egypt conducting the Seventh Crusade; he later has to ransom himself.
- May 2 – Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Sultan of Egypt, is murdered, ending effective Ayyubid dynasty rule in the country. He is briefly succeeded by his widow, Sultana Shajar al-Durr.
- July 21 – Aybak becomes ruler of Egypt, beginning the Bahri dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo). After 5 days he stands down and the 6-year-old Al-Ashraf Musa is proclaimed Sultan nominally.
- The Welayta state is founded in modern-day Ethiopia.
- In Tunis, a popular rebellion against newly arrived, wealthy and influential Andalusian refugees breaks out, and is violently put down.
- The Flemish town of Douai emits the first recorded redeemable annuities in medieval Europe, confirming a trend of consolidation of local public debt started in 1218, in Rheims.
- The Sienese bankers belonging to the firm known as the Gran Tavola, under the steering of the Bonsignori Brothers, become the main financiers of the Papacy.
- April – The first Shepherds' Crusade, a domestic French uprising in response to events in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade, occurs.
- December 26 – King Alexander III of Scotland marries Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England, precipitating a power struggle between the two monarchs.
- Andrew de Longjumeau, dispatched two years earlier by King Louis IX of France as an ambassador to the Mongols, meets the king in Palestine, with reports from the Mongols and Tartary; his mission is considered a failure.
- Mindaugas of Lithuania is baptized, in prelude to his crowning as King of Lithuania in 1253.
- Alexander Nevsky signs the first peace treaty between Kievan Rus' and Norway.
- King Conrad IV of Germany invades Italy, but fails to subdue the supporters of Pope Innocent IV.
- The German city of Berlin, founded some 50 years earlier, receives its city charter.
- Ottokar II of Bohemia, later to become King of Bohemia, is elected Duke of Austria.
- The earliest known manuscript of The Proverbs of Alfred, a collection of sayings of England's Alfred the Great, is written.
- Möngke Khan is elected as the fourth great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
- The carving of the Tripitaka Koreana, a collection of Buddhist scriptures recorded on some 81,000 wooden blocks, is completed.
- April 6 – Saint Peter of Verona is assassinated by Carino of Balsamo.
- May 15 – Pope Innocent IV issues the papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes the torture of heretics in the Medieval Inquisition. Torture quickly gains widespread usage across Catholic Europe.
- June 1 – Alfonso X is proclaimed king of Castile and León.
- July – The settlement of Stockholm in Sweden is founded, by Birger Jarl.
- December 25 – Christopher I of Denmark is crowned King of Denmark, in the Lund Cathedral.
- The Polish land of Lebus is incorporated into the German state of Brandenburg, marking the start of Brandenburg's expansion into previously Polish areas (Neumark).
- The Lithuanian city of Klaipėda (Memel) is founded by the Teutonic Knights.
- The town and monastery of Orval Abbey in Belgium burn to the ground; rebuilding takes 100 years.
- Thomas Aquinas travels to the University of Paris, to begin his studies there for a masters degree.
- In astronomy, work begins on the recording of the Alfonsine tables.
- The classic Japanese text Jikkunsho is completed.
- The Chinese era Chunyou ends.
- The Mongols take the westernmost province of the Song Dynasty empire.
- January 18 – Henry I of Cyprus dies, and is succeeded as king by his newborn son, Hugh II.
- July 4 – William II, Count of Holland, defeats the Flemish army at Westkapelle.
- July 6 – Mindaugas is crowned as the only King of Lithuania.
- August 6 – King Henry III of England leads an expedition to Gascony, to repel a rumoured invasion from Castile. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, returns from Gascony to England where he allies himself with barons who oppose Henry.
- October – Pope Innocent IV returns to Rome, having left nine years earlier in 1244 to depose Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and being unable to return until after Frederick's death, due to the agitation throughout Europe caused by that action.
- Having rebuffed the armed forces of Conrad IV of Germany, Pope Innocent IV offers Sicily to Edmund, son of King Henry III of England.
- A series of naval wars begins between the Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice, which will continue sporadically until 1371.
- Henry III of England meets with English nobles and church leaders to reaffirm the validity of Magna Carta.
- Halych–Volynia becomes a vassal state to the expanding Mongol Empire.
- Matthew Paris completes the major part of his Chronica Majora, a chronicle of English history.
- The upper Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, the earliest important structure of Italian Gothic architecture, is completed in Assisi, Italy.
- Sligo Abbey is built in Sligo, Ireland.
- The Domus Conversorum, a building and institution in London for Jews who had converted to Christianity, is established by King Henry III of England.
- April 28 – Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, declares his intent to preach the Lotus Sutra and Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō as the true Buddhism, thus founding Nichiren Buddhism.
- May – King Louis IX of France dispatches William of Rubruck from Constantinople, on a missionary journey to convert the Tatars of central and eastern Asia. Later that year, William records the first meeting between European Christians and Buddhists.
- Hulegu's advance guard attacks the Nizari strongholds in east of Persia.
- The Mongol Empire launches attacks on the Muslim cities of Baghdad and Cairo.
- The Mongol Empire destroys the Dali Kingdom in modern Yunnan, and incorporates the region into their empire.
- Kublai Khan introduces the baisha xiyue song and dance suite, to the music of Yunnan.
- The Chinese era Baoyou begins, in the Southern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Mongols defeat the Thai Confederacy.
- King Louis IX of France, having exhausted his funds and being needed at home, abandons the Seventh Crusade (which he had conducted first in Egypt and then Syria), and returns to France.
- The Japanese classic text Kokin Chomonjo is completed.
- The Mongols destroy the Kingdom of Dali, in modern Yunnan.
- The Mongols enslave 200,000 Koreans and take them away.
- June 12 – The city of Alkmaar obtains city rights from the Count of Holland, William II.
- November 1 – Edward Plantagenet (the future Edward I of England, aged 15) marries Eleanor of Castile (aged c. 13), at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos. His father Henry III has demanded the marriage, in exchange for ending the war with her brother Alfonso X of Castile.
- In England, an important step in the evolution of the Parliament and Peerage occurs as lesser barons are replaced on the King's Council by elected representatives from shires and cities.
- Pope Innocent IV excommunicates Conrad IV of Germany and Rudolph I of Germany (who is later elected Holy Roman Emperor).
- The Danish city of Copenhagen receives its city charter.
- The Swedish city of Malmö is founded.
- Danylo of Halych, prince of Halych-Wolyn Rus, is crowned a king. The kingdom of Rus (Ruthenia Minor, Halych-Wolyn) is founded.
- December 2 – Manfred of Sicily defeats the army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia.
- King Louis IX of France expels all Jews from France.
- King Afonso III of Portugal holds the first session of the Cortes (Portugal's general assembly composed of nobles, members of the middle class, and representatives from all municipalities), in Leiria.
- The Ghibelline town of Pistoia is taken over by Guelph Florence.
- The Horses of Saint Mark, looted from Constantinople in 1204, are installed at Saint Mark's Basilica in Venice.
- Battle of Adrianople: The Byzantines defeat Bulgaria.
- Mount Rittmann erupts.
- As part of an offensive against usury in north-western Europe, Pope Innocent IV relieves the city of Beauvais from its obligations to its creditors.
- December 12 – Pope Alexander IV succeeds Pope Innocent IV, as the 181st pope.
- Construction is begun on the Cathedral of Saint Martin in Utrecht.
- The Catholic dogma of purgatory is clarified and so named, by the Catholic Church.
- Hulagu Khan begins his campaign to destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia, with the main targets being the Nizari Ismaili strongholds and the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad.
- May – William of Rubruck from Constantinople returns to Cyprus from his missionary journey to convert the Tatars of central and eastern Asia, his efforts having been unsuccessful.
- June – Battle of Bryn Derwin: Llywelyn ap Gruffudd defeats his two brothers to become sole ruler of northern Wales.
- The final Cathar stronghold in southern France falls, eliminating their last refuge, since the Roman Catholic Church began the Albigensian Crusade to crush the sect in 1209.
- Following the death of "Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln", in an instance of blood libel, nineteen Jews of Lincoln, England, are executed by royal command on suspicion of being involved in the boy's murder.
- Lisbon becomes the capital of Portugal when King Afonso III moves his court from Coimbra.
- A survey of royal privileges in England is conducted, which is included in the Hundred Rolls, a census seen as a follow-up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086; the Hundred Rolls is later completed with two larger surveys, in 1274/75 and 1279/80.
- Königsberg (modern-day Kaliningrad) is founded by the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, and named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia.
- Theodore II Laskaris, Byzantine Emperor (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea), conducts a military campaign to recover Thrace from the Bulgarians. He concludes the task successfully a year later, in 1256.
- The Duchy of Bavaria is split into Upper and Lower Bavaria.
- The lands of the House of Nassau are divided, not to be reunited until 1806.
- King Béla IV of Hungary grants Banská Bystrica the municipal rights of a royal town.
Arts and cultureEdit
- The Gothic cathedral at Bourges, France, is completed (it will become a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
- At the death of Bernardo Bonsignori, his brother Orlando is left sole director of the largest banking firm in western Europe, the Gran Tavola of Siena.
- May 4 – Pope Alexander IV issues the papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae, constituting the Order of Saint Augustine at Lecceto Monastery.
- The city of Lviv, in present-day Ukraine, founded by Danylo King of Rus, is first mentioned in the written account of Chełm fire.
- Theodore II Lascaris, Byzantine Emperor (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea), successfully concludes a military campaign started a year earlier, to recover Thrace from the Bulgarians.
- Abingdon School is founded in England.
- August 25 – In Bologna slavery and serfdom is abolished; the event is recorded in the document called Liber Paradisus.
- Roger Bacon becomes a Franciscan friar.
- The Church of Santa Costanza, Rome, is consecrated.
- The ancient Irish Kingdom of Breifne splits into East Breifne and West Breifne, after a war between the O'Reillys and the O'Rourkes.
- The War of the Euboeote Succession begins, involving most of the lords of Frankish Greece and the Republic of Venice.
- May – Mongol campaign against the Nizaris: Mongol forces capture and sack Tun (modern-day Ferdows), Persia and massacre its people.
- June 30 – A large volcanic eruption in Harrat Rahat (near Medina) is associated with an Islamic prophecy.
- September–October – The Japanese Kenchō era ends, and the Kōgen era begins.
- January – Lambsar Castle in Persia is destroyed by the Mongols.
- March – The Japanese Kōgen era ends, and the Shōka era begins.
- Spring – The Epirote–Nicaean conflict (1257–59) begins.
- June 5 – The city of Kraków is granted Magdeburg rights by Boleslaus V of Poland, having been rebuilt after being nearly destroyed in the Tatar invasions in 1241.
- c. September – 1257 Samalas eruption: Mount Samalas volcano erupts on Lombok Island, Indonesia. One of the largest volcanic eruptions in the past 10,000 years, it creates severe climatic changes across the globe, leading to severe famines and death, and to one of the biggest geopolitical changes across the globe over the next few centuries.
- The second Genoese War breaks out between Genoa and Venice in Outremer, known as the War of Saint Sabas.
- The Mongols take Dai Viet (northern Vietnam).
- Karelians make a campaign to Sweden. The campaign leads Swedish king Valdemar to request Pope Alexander IV to declare a crusade against Karelians, which leads to the third Swedish crusade to Finland.
- Władysław Opolski founds the Franciscan monastery in the city of Wodzisław Śląski. Before this date Wodzisław was granted Magdeburg rights (1246–1257).
- Louis IX of France confirms the foundation by his chaplain Robert de Sorbon of the College of Sorbonne in Paris, giving a formal college (and still-common name) to the already existing University of Paris.
- King Henry III of England orders the production of a twenty pence English coin of pure gold, the first high-denomination coin minted in England, and the first to use gold. Unfortunately, the bullion value of the coins is about 20% higher than the nominal face value, leading to poor circulation, as coins are melted down by individuals for their gold content.
- Matthew Paris, English historian, personally interviews King Henry III of England for an entire week while compiling his major work of English history, Chronica Majora.
- Aberdeen Grammar School is founded in Scotland.
- The observed effects of the volcanic 1257 Samalas eruption in Indonesia include the following anecdotal accounts: dry fog in France; lunar eclipses in England; severe winter in Europe; a "harsh" spring in northern Iceland; famine in England, western Germany, France, and northern Italy; and pestilence in London, parts of France, Austria, Iraq, Syria, and southeast Turkey.
- February 10 – The Siege of Baghdad ends with a battle, in which Hulagu Khan's Mongol forces overrun Baghdad, at this time the leading center of Islamic culture and learning, and capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. They burn the imperial city to the ground, killing as many as 1,000,000 citizens including the Abbasid Caliph, and destroy the House of Wisdom, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy.
- June 25 – War of Saint Sabas: In the Battle of Acre, the Venetians defeat a larger Genoese fleet sailing to relieve Acre.
- The Chinese era Baoyou ends, in the Southern Song Dynasty of China.
- Korea surrenders to the Mongol Empire, ending the effective resistance of the Choe faction within Korea.
- Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Mongol Empire invades the Đại Việt (present-day northern Vietnam). The Mongol army is soon defeated by the Đại Việt forces.
- May 11 – The Treaty of Corbeil is signed between James I of Aragon and Louis IX of France. The French king, as the heir of Charlemagne, formally renounces his feudal overlordship over Catalonia (independent de facto since 988), while the Aragonese king renounces his claims over Occitania.
- May/June – The Battle of Karydi ends the War of the Euboeote Succession in a crushing victory for William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea.
- June 11 – The Oxford Parliament, led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, convenes, leading to the acceptance by King Henry III of England of the Provisions of Oxford.
- August 25 – George Mouzalon, regent of the Empire of Nicaea, is assassinated in Magnesia ad Sipylum, as part of a conspiracy led by nobles, under future emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
- Llywelyn ap Gruffudd declares himself Prince of Wales. He is the final ruler of an independent Wales, before its conquest by the English.
- Gissur Þorvaldsson is made Earl of Iceland, by King Haakon IV of Norway.
- The Mongol Golden Horde attacks Lithuania.
- Ongoing – Epirote–Nicaean conflict (1257–59).
- In Genoa, the Republic starts imposing forced loans, known as luoghi, to its taxpayers; they are a common resource of medieval public finance.
- Civil unrest in northern Italy spawns the medieval musical form of Geisslerlieder, penitential songs sung by wandering bands of Flagellants.
- September – Battle of Pelagonia: The Empire of Nicaea defeats the Principality of Achaea, ensuring the eventual reconquest of Constantinople in 1261.
- December 4 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy), in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
- The famous frescoes of the Boyana Church in Bulgaria are completed (the church and its murals are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
- The German cities of Lübeck, Wismar, and Rostock enter into a pact to defend against pirates of the Baltic Sea, laying the groundwork for the Hanseatic League.
- Nogai Khan leads the second Mongol Golden Horde attack against Lithuania, and Poland.
- Epirote–Nicaean conflict.
- August 11 – While conducting a siege against the Song Dynasty city known as Fishing Town in the province of Chongqing, China, the Mongol Khagan, Möngke Khan, dies in the nearby hills. Persian, Chinese, and Mongol records have different accounts of how he died, including succumbing to an arrow wound received by a Chinese archer in the siege, dysentery, and even a cholera epidemic. His death sparks a succession crisis in the Mongol Empire, while his brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai soon convene their own kuriltai to elect themselves as the next Khan of Khans, opening the path to a four–year-long Toluid Civil War from 1260 to 1264. In the end, Ariq Böke surrenders to Kublai.
- While engaged in a war with the Mongols, the Song Chinese official Li Zengbo writes in his Kozhai Zagao, Xugaohou that the city of Qingzhou is manufacturing one to two thousand strong iron-cased gunpowder bomb shells a month, dispatching to Xiangyang and Yingzhou about ten to twenty thousand such bombs at a time.
- Lannathai, a kingdom in the north of Thailand, is founded by King Mangrai.
- The Goryeo Kingdom in Korea surrenders to invading Mongol forces.
- The Chinese era Kaiqing begins and ends, in the Northern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Japanese Shōka era ends, and the Shōgen era begins.
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- September – Robert II, Count of Artois
- Guido Cavalcanti, Italian poet (d. 1300)
- Jeanne de Montfort de Chambéon, Swiss ruler (d. 1300)
- Dmitri of Pereslavl, Grand-duke of Vladimir-Suzdal (d. 1294)
- Pierre Dubois, French publicist (approximate date; d. c. 1312)
- Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of Sicily (d. 1308)
- Moses de Leon, Spanish compiler of the Zohar (approximate date; d. 1305)
- Giovanni Pisano, Italian sculptor (approximate date; d. 1314)
- Asher ben Yehiel, German Jewish Talmudist (approximate date; d. 1328)
- Esclaramunda of Foix, queen consort of Majorca as wife of King James II of Majorca (approximate date; d. 1315)
- September 2 – Francis of Fabriano, Italian writer (d. 1322)
- Adelaide, Countess of Auxerre, French countess (d. 1290)
- Hōjō Tokimune, 8th regent of the Kamakura shogunate (d. 1284)
- March 25 – Conradin, Duke of Swabia (d. 1268)
- Safi-ad-din Ardabili, Persian Sufi leader
- Eleanor de Montfort, princess of Wales (d. 1282)
- March 20 – Wareru or Wagaru, born Gadu, Burmese commoner who founded the Hanthawaddy Kingdom (Pegu) (d. 1307)
- October 17 – Ivo of Kermartin, Breton canon lawyer, priest and saint (d. 1303)
- date unknown
- May 13 – Marie of Brabant, Queen of France (d. 1322)
- June 24 – Floris V, Count of Holland (d. 1296)
- September 15 – Marco Polo, Italian explorer (d. 1324)
- date unknown
- July – Albert I of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1308)
- October 23 – Ferdinand de la Cerda, Spanish noble (d. 1275)
- William de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros, claimant to the crown of Scotland (d. 1317)
- Duccio di Buoninsegna, Sienese painter (d. 1319)
- Margherita Colonna, Italian abbess (d. 1284)
- Grand Prince Andrey of Gorodets (approximate date; d. 1304)
- Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg, King of the Romans (approximate date; d. 1298)
- January 6 – Gertrude the Great, German mystic
- Robert, Count of Clermont, French founder of the House of Bourbon (d. 1317)
- Ibn al-Banna, Moroccan Arab mathematician (d. 1321)
- Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1326)
- Trần Nhân Tông, emperor of Vietnam (d. 1308)
- Lady Nijō, Japanese concubine and Buddhist nun
- February 25 – Infanta Branca of Portugal, daughter of King Afonso III of Portugal and Urraca of Castile (d. 1321)
- March 25 – Andronikos II Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor (d. 1332)
- Pietro Cavallini, Italian painter (d. 1330)
- Demetre II of Georgia (d. 1289)
- Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster (d. 1326)
- February 2 – Erik Eriksson, king of Sweden 1222–1229 and since 1234 (b. 1216)
- February 8
- April 6 – Guillaume de Sonnac, French Grand Master of the Knights Templar
- May 2 – Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Sultan of Egypt
- May 26 – Peter I, Duke of Brittany (b. 1190)
- June 18 – Theresa of Portugal, Queen of León
- August 10 – King Eric IV of Denmark (b. 1216)
- October 4 – Herman VI, Margrave of Baden
- December 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1194)
- Leonardo of Pisa, Italian mathematician
- Matej Ninoslav, Croatian ban
- January – Bohemund V of Antioch
- January 25 – Princess Rishi of Japan (b. 1197)
- February 9 – Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine
- March 6 – Rose of Viterbo, Italian saint (b. 1235)
- March 31 – William of Modena, Bishop of Modena
- June 6 – William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders
- September 7 – Viola, Duchess of Opole
- date unknown
- January – Bohemond V, Prince of Antioch
- January 23 – Isabella, Queen of Armenia
- February 3 – Sviatoslav III of Vladimir, Prince of Novgorod (b. 1196)
- April 6 – Saint Peter of Verona
- May 3 or May 4 – Günther von Wüllersleben, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
- May 30 – King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon
- June 6 – Robert Passelewe, Bishop of Chichester
- June 9 – Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- June 29 – Abel, King of Denmark (b. 1218)
- August 1 – Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, Italian chronicler of the Mongol Empire
- November 27 – Blanche of Castile, queen of Louis VIII of France and regent of France (b. 1188)
- date unknown
- John of Basingstoke, English scholar and ecclesiastic
- Henry I, Count of Anhalt
- Sorghaghtani Beki, Mongolian empress and regent
- Saint Zdislava Berka
- Kujō Michiie, Japanese regent
- Catherine of Ymseborg, Swedish queen consort
- Yesu Mongke, Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
- January 18 – King Henry I of Cyprus (b. 1217)
- April 3 – Richard of Chichester, English bishop and saint (b. 1197)
- June 11 – Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy (b. 1197)
- July 8 – Theobald I of Navarre (b. 1201)
- August 11 – Clare of Assisi, Italian saint, follower of Francis of Assisi (b. 1194)
- September 22 – Dōgen, Japanese founder of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism (b. 1200)
- September 23 – Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, king of Bohemia (b. c.1205)
- October 9 – Robert Grosseteste, English bishop, statesman and theologian (b. c. 1175)
- March 28 – William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (b. 1193)
- May 21 – Conrad IV of Germany (b. 1228)
- June 8 – Robert of Nantes, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- November 3 – John III Doukas Vatatzes, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1193)
- December 7 – Pope Innocent IV
- date unknown
- May 1 – Walter de Gray, English prelate and statesman
- August 27 – Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln (b. 1247)
- Batu Khan, Mongol ruler and founder of the Blue Horde
- Alice, Countess of Bigorre, ruler
- Jarler, Archbishop of Uppsala since 1236
- Sundiata Keita, semi-historical hero and founder of the Mali Empire (approximate date; b. c. 1190)
- December 1 or 2 – Muhammad III of Alamut, the Nizari Ismaili Imam
- January 28 – William II, Count of Holland, King of Germany
- April 12 – Margaret of Bourbon, Queen of Navarre, regent of Navarre (b. c. 1217)
- June 13 – Tankei, Japanese sculptor (b. 1173)
- September 1 – Kujō Yoritsune, Japanese shōgun (b. 1218)
- September 21 – William of Kilkenny, Lord Chancellor of England
- October 14 – Kujō Yoritsugu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1239)
- Johannes de Sacrobosco, English scholar
- Þórður kakali Sighvatsson, Icelandic leader
- April 28 – Shajar al-Durr, sovereign sultana of Egypt
- June 4 – Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland (b. 1220/1)
- August 15 – Hyacinth of Poland, friar, "Apostle of the North", canonized (b. c.1185)
- December 24 – John I, Count of Hainaut (b. 1218)
- February – Sulaiman Shah, Abbasid soldier
- February 20 – Al-Musta'sim, last Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad
- April 5 – Saint Juliana of Liège
- June 2 – Peter I, Count of Urgell
- July 22 – Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia-Tyrol (b. c. 1200) (alternative date is February)
- August 18 – Theodore II Laskaris, emperor of Nicea (Byzantine emperor in exile)
- August 25 – George Mouzalon, regent of the Empire of Nicaea
- November 10 – William de Bondington, Bishop of Glasgow
- Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili, Moroccan spiritual leader (b. 1175)
- Clement of Dunblane, first Dominican bishop in Britain
- Hong Bok-won, Goryeo commander who later served the Mongol Empire
- Ingerd Jakobsdatter, Danish countess (b. 1200)
- January – Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne, ruler of Boulogne, queen consort of Portugal (b. 1202)
- February 7 – Thomas, Count of Flanders
- May 29 – King Christopher I of Denmark (b. 1219)
- July 21 – Gojong of Goryeo
- August 11 – Möngke Khan of the Mongol Empire
- October 7 – Ezzelino III da Romano, Italian ruler
- November 18 – Adam Marsh, English scholar and theologian
- date unknown – Matthew Paris, English chronicler
- Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel; Bray, Barbara (1971). Times of Feast, Times of Famine: a History of Climate Since the Year 1000. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-374-52122-0. OCLC 164590.
- According to a monograph on the maritime economy of the Song dynasty written by Jitsuzo Kuwabara (桑原騭藏, 1870–1931).
- Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977). From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus 1193-1260. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780873952637.
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