Britain 1066-1485 - EuroDocs

Britain 1066-1485

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EuroDocs > History of the United Kingdom: Primary Documents > 1066 - 1485

Pre-Norman Conquest (through 1066)

Explore unique collection items and expert articles relating to some of the earliest works of English literature and most influential figures in literary history.
From the British Library
Contains the original and authentic testimony of contemporary writers to the most important transactions of our forefathers, both by sea and land, from their first arrival in this country to the year 1154.
(1-1154; English transcription)
  • Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland
Volume I (The British Church during the Roman Period and the Period of the Saxon Conquest; the Church of Wales; the Church of Cornwall)
Volume II.1 (Church of Cumbria or Strathclyde; British Church in Armorica; See of Bretoña in Gallicia; Church of Scotland during the Celtic period and until declared independent of the See of York)
Volume II.2 (Church of Ireland; Memorials of S. Patrick)
Volume III (English churches during the Anglo-Saxon period)
(200-1066; Latin and English; eBooks)
Charters, please and inquisitions in several volumes.
(447-1721; Latin eBook)
Online database of sources regarding medieval Europe
In cooperation with Fordham University
(450-1275 ; English transcription)
Eyewitness accounts of historic events from the Black Plague to the Crusades to Columbus’ discovery of America
EyeWitness to History
(585-1597; English transcription)
JISC-funded project bringing together four searchable databases of Anglo-Saxon sources.
ASChart and eSawyer: Anglo-Saxon charters (6th-11th centuries)
Langscape: Anglo-Saxon estate boundaries and related data (8th-18th centuries)
(6th to 18th centuries; manuscripts & transcriptions)
Database and datasets as sources to information on recorded inhabitants of Anglo-Saxon England.
(6th to 11th centuries; facsimiles of chronicles, saints’ Lives, charters, libri vitae, inscriptions, Domesday Book and coins)
Books, laws, treaties.
(600-1799; Russian transcriptions)
Internet Medieval Sourcebook on the commercial revolution, trade and commerce, the church, slavery and the rise of towns.
In cooperation with Fordham University
(600-1270 ; English and Latin transcriptions)
England-France Medieval Manuscripts
800 manuscripts from the French and British national libraries with historical significance for medieval relations between the two countries.
Search manuscripts by theme, author, place, or century.
(700-1200 A.D.; Latin, Old French and Old English facsimiles)
Chronologically organized collection of English literature, including Old, Middle and Modern English
From Bibliotheca Augustana
(8th-20th century; facsimiles and transcriptions)
Chronicles of St. Alban's Monastery
Volume II
Volume III
(793-1411; Latin eBook)
(9th to 16th centuries; facsimiles)
(Transcriptions and translations)
The aim of Florilegium Urbanum is to provide a considered selection of primary source texts illustrative of various aspects of medieval urban life, and to present those texts in modern English.
(English translations)
Includes records of religious houses, higher clergy and early urban government.
From British History Online
(11th & 12th centuries, transcriptions)
Early iteration of the separation of church and state.
(11th century; English)
  • Records of the Social and Economic History of England and Wales
Survey of the Honour of Denbign
The Black Book of St. Augustine, Canterbury
Documents Illustrative of the Social and Economic History of the Danelaw
(ca 11th-13th century; Latin with English notes; eBooks)
  • Works of Orderic Vitalis
Orderic Vitalis was a monk who chronicled Normandy and Anglo-Norman England
The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy
Battle of Bremule
On Henry I
Death of Edward the Confessor & Duke William's preparations for the invasion of England
The Gruesome Crowd; A True Medieval Ghost Story From Normandy
(11-12th century; English translations)

The Reign of the House of Normandy (1066-1135)

England-France Medieval Manuscripts
800 manuscripts from the French and British national libraries with historical significance for medieval relations between the two countries.
You find manuscripts by date, language, place of origin, author or subject, then view them side by side.
(700-1200; Latin, Old French and Old English facsimiles)
Also, calendars of all the treaties of peace entered into by the kings of England with those of Scotland; and of sundry letters and public instruments...together with catalogues of the records brought to Berwick from the Royal Treasury at Edinburgh...The Proceedings relating to the carrying back the records of Scotland...To which are added memoranda concerning the affairs of Ireland.
(11th-13th centuries; Latin; digitized book)
Historical documentation displayed by various themes and date ranges.
(1066-1484; facsimiles, transcriptions and images)
Carmen de Hastingae Proelio by Guy, Bishop of Amiens. These lyrics provide an early source for the Norman invasion.
Provided by the Traditional Music Library
(1066; English translation)
Written by Sir Thomas Grey while imprisoned by the Scots. It is a chronicle of England and Scotland.
(1066-1363; English)
Volume I - Regesta Willelmi Conquestoris. The first period of the Anglo-Norman kings.
  • The Battle of Hastings as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry
Section-by-section color rendering of the Bayeux Tapestry. Includes descriptions of what is depicted in each section.
Find the complete Bayeux Tapestry here.
Five principal sections that include primary documents online:
Scotland, England, France, Wales, and Ireland.
A well-designed site created by the UK Public Record Office
(1066 - 1603; facsimiles and transcriptions)
(post-1066; modern English translation)
A massive volume of primary sources derived from chronicles and annals, with direct links
(Middle Ages; English and Latin)
Links to primary sources on William I, William II, Henry I and Stephen.
From the Paul & Rosemary Trible Library
William of Normandy might be able, by force of arms, to make himself master of England, but not until London opened her gates to him could he be really King.
From Elfinspell
(1066; English translation)
Law cases from William I. to Richard I. eBook.
(1066-1199; Latin with English preface)
Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, and Annales de Burton
(1066-1263; Latin)
  • Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum
Containing calendars of royal acts (Vol. I) and full texts of charters (Vol. III).
Volume I - Regesta Willelmi Conquistoris et Wilhelmi Rufi
Volume III - Regesta Regis Stephani ac Mathildis Imperatricis ac Gaufridi et Henrici Ducum Normannorum
(1066-1154; Latin; eBook)
Vita Ædwardi Regis, available in preview format. Commissioned by his wife, this manuscript relates the years preceding Norman Conquest and also describes the holiness of King Edward.
See also Lives of Edward the Confessor and Edward the Confessor.
(1067; English)
Edited by Sir Walter Ellis, for King George the Fourth
(1070s-1520s; English)
William of Poitiers, The Deeds of William, Duke of the Normans. How he conquered England and the justification of his succession to the throne.
(1071; Latin transcription)
A royal excuse for late bill payment.
From Elfinspell
(1079; English translation)
William the Conqueror found slaves being sold from the north of England and from Bristol, but despite his laws the trade, according to Giraldus Cambrensis, was still being carried on a century later.
From the Medieval Sourcebook
(1080; English transcription)
276 documents from the earliest age.
(1080-1885; English; eBook)
The oldest surviving public record of Britain, a survey of boroughs and manors in England commissioned by William the Conqueror
This online version, at the National Archives, is searchable and includes downloadable images and other explanatory apparatus.
(1085; searchable images and modern translations, explanatory materials)
Online database of primary documents from the Crusades
From the Medieval Sourcebook in cooperation with Fordham University
(1093-1270 ; English transcriptions)
Digital facsimiles, transcriptions and translations.
Possibly made for Christina of Markyate.
(1096-1155; Latin facsimiles, transcriptions, English translations)
Stowe manuscript about Anglo-Saxon saints.
(11th century; Old English)
Includes charters and letters of William the Conqueror
(late 11th century; Latin; eBook)
Available in preview format. By Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon (c.1088-c.1157). The main narrative covers the history of England from the invasions of Julius Caesar down to the accession of King Henry II in 1154, and includes the only contemporary account of the entire reign of King Stephen (1135-54)
English translation, searchable here.
(12th century; English)
Writs, charters and letters extending from the time of Henry I to Charles II.
(12th-17th centuries; Latin with English translations)
For the history of England and Wales. Contents include: the series of Bullington, Greenfield, Kirkstead, Newhouse, Nuneaton, Stixwould, and Sulby; and several miscellaneous charters of monastic Provence.
(12th century; Latin with English summaries; eBook)
Including accounts of Norman royals, the capture of King Stephen, and the crusades
Made available by The Internet History Sourcebook
(12th century; English translation)
Eadmer’s history deals mostly with ecclesiastical affairs but is most valuable in this sort. Its purpose is to portray the supremacy of Canterbury over York.
(12th century; Latin transcription)
By Henry of Huntingdon
From Elfinspell
(12th century)
A historical compilation including The Kentish Royal Legend, a list of Northumbrian rulers, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Angloru, Historia abbatum, lost Northumbrian annals, parts of Gesta Regum and the Chronicle of John of Worcester, etc.
(12th century; English translation)
His works included Exordio atque Procursu istius, hoc est Dunelmensis, Ecclesie (an ecclesiastical book), Historia regum Anglorum et Dacorum (a historical continuation of Bede), and Libellus de Exordio (a history of the Durham community).
(pre 1129; Latin transcription)
Work of Godfrey of Cambrai, who wrote eulogies of English kings
See also Godefridi Prioris Epgrammata
(12th century; Latin transcription)
The volume contains a collection of some of the oldest poems in Welsh, many of them attributed to the poet Taliesin who was active towards the end of the sixth century and sang the praise of Urien Rheged and his son Owain ab Urien.
Manuscript version
(12th century; Welsh and English transcription)
Gesta Regum Anglorum. From the earliest period to the reign of King Stephen.
(12th century; English)
Commissioned by Henry II, with much of the text devoted to William the Conqueror. Includes the Battle of Hastings, much likely with information from family's eyewitness testimony.
(12th century)
From the commencement of the twelfth century to the close of the reign of Queen Mary
(12th-17th century; English)
Ed. W. Rich Jones and W. Dunn Macray
(London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1891)
(12th-13th centuries; text searchable Google Print facsimiles, mostly in Latin)
Picture archive containing nearly 18,000 digitised images of medieval stained glass in Great Britain.
(12th - 20th centuries; images and descriptions)
CLICK REFRESH TO SEE IMAGES. From the DeGreorio Collection of Antiquities come over 40,000 manuscripts from medieval England
(1100-1800; English, French and Latin facsimiles)
This charter, granted by Henry when he ascended the throne, is important in two ways. First, Henry formally bound himself to the laws, setting the stage for the rule of law that parliaments and parliamentarians of later ages would cry for. Second, it reads almost exactly like the Magna Carta, and served as the model for the Great Charter in 1215.
From the Internet History Sourcebook
(1100; English translation)
Treaty rolls and other diplomatic records. Digitized book.
(1101-1645; Latin)
Manuscript. Canute, son of Swein of Denmark and Carl Hacco attack York. Peace between England and France. Great fire in London.
From the DeGreorio Collection of Antiquities
(1121; Old English, French and Latin; facsimiles)
The original Annals of Rochester, digitized. A valuable collection of laws starting from the time of Æthelberht, along with secular documents and the chartulary of the Cathedral priory.
Click the title links, and then on the next page click the title links again to find the full PDF documents.
From the Rochester Cathedral Research Guide
(1122-1124; facsimiles; modern English translations)
12th century copy of The History of the English Bishops
Small selection of the modern translation available HERE
[1125; Latin facsimile]
From the Medieval Sourcebook on The Celtic World
In cooperation with Fordham University
(1130-1150; English transcription)
Of Henry I, Henry II, Richard I and King John. "Also early Lancashire charters of the period from the reign of William Rufus to that of King John."
(1130-1216; Latin; eBook)
Also called Estoire des Engleis, Geffrei Gaimar's History of the English is the oldest known chronicle written in French. Although it originally began with England's fantastical beginnings with Troy, now we only have those periods starting with the Cerdic.
(1130s; French; ebook)
Supposedly written by a companion of Hereward's during his rebellion against William the Conquerer
From the University of Rochester
(1131; English translation))

The Reigns of the Houses of Blois & Anjou (1135-1216)

England-France Medieval Manuscripts
800 manuscripts from the French and British national libraries with historical significance for medieval relations between the two countries.
You find manuscripts by date, language, place of origin, author or subject, then view them side by side.
(700-1200; Latin, Old French and Old English facsimiles)
See also The Chronicle of Florence of Worcester
A world history attributed to John of Worcester
(1140; Latin transcription)
By Geoffrey Gaimar
(1147; English)
Genealogy of the English Kings by Aelred of Rievaulx
(1153; Latin)
Links to primary sources on King Henry II, Richard I, and John Lackland
(1154-1216; English)
Instancing Also the Chief Agents and Adversaries of the King in His Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy.
(ca 1154-1189; English; eBook)
"The chronicle is a pseudo-history of Britain, beginning with its legendary founding. The chronicle contains a lot of material concerning the legendary King Arthur, including the earliest reference to Arthur’s Round Table...The manuscript also contains the earliest known image of Stonehenge (f. 30r – digitised image 5)."
From the British Library
[1155; facsimiles]
With direct links to digitized books and other useful websites on the English saint who was martyred following a conflict with Henry II.
This letter on the front page will serve as an introduction to the series of letters exchanged during the quarrel of Henry II and Thomas à Becket.
From Elfin Spell
(1163; English)
Ordering them to arrest anybody who appeals to the court of Rome, and the adherents (including their family members) of Thomas Becket.
From Elfinspell
(1164; English translation)
Primary text sources illustrating medieval English urban life, selected and maintained by Stephen Alsford.
(12th to 15th centuries; English translations from the original Latin, Anglo-Norman French, or Middle English)
including commentary on the questionable authenticity of the papal bull.
(1155; modern English translation).
Proclamation of Henry II of England.
(1164; modern English translation)
An assize of Henry II of England concerning justice.
(1166; modern English translation)
About his appeal to the Pope to replace Thomas as Archbishop of Canterbury.
Letter from Henry II to the Cardinals, defending himself from the Pope's charges.
From Elfinspell
(1166; English translation)
For High Treason and Misdemeanors From the Earliest Period. In 34 volumes.
(1163-1820; English)
The chronicle of the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I.; known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough.
(1169-1192; Latin; eBook)
The manuscripts which contain the poem of Jordan Fantosme. The metrical chronicle... has reference to the war which Henry II sustained against his eldest son, and chiefly against William the Lion, king of Scotland.
(1173-1174; English translation)
Which he executed in favour of Joanna, daughter of Henry, king of England, as to her dowry
From Elfin Spell
(1176; English)
In the first half of the 16th century, some scholars started to express scepticism about Geoffrey’s reliability as a historian, but Historia Regum Britanniae nevertheless remained an important and influential work.
From the British Library Medieval Literature Collection
(1175; facsimile)
Volume II.
Digitized facsimile selections found here.
(1176-1272; English; eBook]
And of the First Seven Years of the Reign of Richard I.
(1182-1196; Medieval Latin; eBook)
By Gerald of Wales
(1182; English translation)
Of the Reigns of Richard I and John
See also Rolls and Records of the Court Held Before the King's Justiciars or Justices
(1189-1216; Latin ebook)
History of England. To which is added his table of the bailiffs, sherrifs, and mayors, of the city of London
(1189-1558; English)
(1189: modern English translation)
from De Instructione Principis (On the Instruction of a Prince) by Gerald of Wales
From the Internet History Sourcebook
(1189; English translation)
Calendars and indexes from the reign of Richard I through King John. eBook.
(1189-1216; Latin with English preface)
(ca 1189-1199; Latin, English and other languages; eBook)
(ca. 1190: modern English translation)
Vol. 1 (London: Henry Colburn, 1846)]
(1190-1544; text searchable Google Print facsimiles with updated English transcriptions)
A dynamic timeline and map displaying the itinerary of King John for each day of his reign. The data were captured from the itinerary published in the Rotuli Litterarum Patentium in Turri Londinensi Asservati, edited by Thomas Duffus Hardy, and published in 1835.
Scanned page images of the complete text of the Rot. Lit. Pat. are included with Hardy's introduction, gazetteer, and indexes.
(1199-1216; Timeline, Map, Facsimiles: introduction in English, the roll in Latin [record type])
For the reigns of King John and King Henry III
See also Northumberland pleas from the Curia regis and assize rolls
(1199-1272; English ebook)
The Chronicle of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I
(late 12th century; Latin transcription with English preface)
  • Peter of Blois
Peter of Blois (c.1130-c.1203), had a distinguished academic, ecclesiastical, and political career, becoming archdeacon of London, ambassador to King Henry II, and secretary to his wife, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, the most powerful woman in Europe.
William Rufus and Henry I
Letter of Chastisement to Queen Eleanor
Letter 2
Letter to his Sister Christiana
Treatise Against the Perfidy of the Jews
See also the medieval facsimile collection of Letters, Sermons, And Other Works
(late 12th century; English translation)
Includes records of eyres, lay subsidies, higher clergy, religious houses and urban government.
From British History Online
(13th century, transcriptions)
  • Sources on Swansea
Domesday Breviate, a summary of the Domesday Book commissioned at the Neath Abbey. Includes family information and the murder of Llewellyn, prince of Wales.
Exeter College Manuscript, an "account of the hanging and apparently miraculous recovery of William Cragh."
1306 Swansea Charter, nicknamed the "Welsh Magna Carta."
(13th-14th century; Latin with English translations)
Icelandic sagas and other historical documents relating to the settlements and descents of the Northmen on the British isles
Including Magnus Saga and The Orkneyinga Saga (also known as "History of the Earls of Orkney" or "Jarls' Saga," a narrative dealing with the relationship between Norway, Scotland and islands. Its authenticity is debated.)
(13th century; English translation)
Includes the "Historia rerum anglicarum" by William of Newburght; "Draco normannicus" of Etienne de Rouen; "Gesta Stephani regis Anglorum" -- The chronicle of Richard; The "Relatio de standardo" of St. Aelred; The metrical chronicle of Jordan Fantosme; The chronicle of Richard of Devizes; The chronicle of Robert of Torigni
(ca 13th century; Latin transcription)
The documents contained in the present volume illustrate, for the most part, the general history of the north of England, particularly in its relation to Scotland.
(beginning 13th century; English and Latin transcription)
With notices of the priories of Pluscardine and Ardchattan and of the family of the founder, John Byset
(ca 13th century; English)
” A calendar of assize rolls for Lancashire for the thirteenth century
British History Online
(13th century; English transcription)
Geographical and literary mappings of the medieval city of Chester.
(1200-1500; digital map and texts)
Volume I
(1200-1225; Latin and English ebook)
A general history of England from 732 to 1201 by Roger of Hovedon. Only the years 1192-1201 are independent sources.
(1201; Latin transcription)
Calendar of state papers and manuscripts, relating to English affairs existing in the archives and collection of Venice, and in other libraries of northern Italy.
(1202; English; ebook format)
Relating to tithes
(1204-1825; English; eBook)
Extracts from the Forest Eyre rolls, including the Charter of the Forest of 1217 and perambulations, claims and proceedings. Offenses include poaching and trespassing.
(1209-1344; Latin and English; eBook)
Courtesy of the British Library
(1215; facsimile & English translation from original Latin)
From the Avalon Project
including definitions and index
(1215; modern English translation from original Latin)
List of primary sources on Henry III, Edward I, II, III and Richard II
Royal documents available to the public for the first time.
(1216-1272; facsimile images and searchable modern English translations)

The Reign of the House of Plantagenet (1216-1399)

"A fine in the reign...was an agreement to pay the king a sum of money for a specified concession...recorded [to] provide the earliest systematic evidence of what people and institutions across society wanted from the king and he was prepared to give. They open a large window onto the politics, government, economy and society of England."
(13th century; English translations)
In 3 volumes. eBook format.
(1216-1272; English)
(ca 1216-1272; Latin; eBook)
During the reign of Henry III
(1218-1272; English; ebook)
Digitized by the Harvard Law School Library.
(1220-1250; English & Latin transcriptions)
Database of legal decisions. Documents are found in PDF format.
(1220-1873; English)
These 13th-century charters record transactions with Jewish moneylenders.
From the British Library
(1221-1280; Hebrew and Latin facsimiles)
England's forests had once provided the common people with a place to forage for food and firewood, and space for their animals to feed. But by the 1300s, a number of kings had claimed much of this valuable land as their own, preventing others from using it to their own advantage.
From British History
(1225; facsimile)
In the early 13th century, three sisters decided to each have themselves walled up inside a cell. They chose to live alone and devote themselves to a life of prayer and contemplation.
From the British Library Medieval Literature Collection
(1225; Middle English facsimile)
A chronicle of England from 1066 to 1227.
(1227; Latin transcription)
This letter illuminates the complex dynastic and political problems Llywelyn faced in the wake of William de Braose's execution.
(1230; facsimile of original Latin, transcription and analysis)
"The Life tells how Edward was exiled as a boy during the Danish occupation, and how his rule proved of benefit to the English people; it describes his visions and miracles, his patronage of Westminster Abbey and the manner of his death, before covering the downfall of his successor, Harold, and the eventual opening of the king's tomb."
(1230-1240; facsimile of Anglo-Norman verse)
Decretals of Gregory IX, providing us with medieval Canon Law
From the Latin Library
(1230; Latin transcription)
Searchable database containing the proceedings of the Scottish parliament from the first surviving act of 1235 to the union of 1707.
(1235-1707; manuscripts and translations)
” Inquisitions post mortem were local enquiries into the lands held by a deceased individual, in order to discover any income and rights due to the crown. Such inquisitions were only held when people were thought or known to have held lands of the crown.”
British History Online
(1236-1509; English transcription)
Volume 36
(1243-1482; English ebook)
Flores Historiarum: Comprising the history of England from the descent of the Saxons to A.D. 1235. Includes the sealing of the Magna Carta and the war during King John's reign.
(1245; English)
Of the Abbots of Bec, Ramsey, Battle, and the Abbess of Romsey
(1246-1303; English; eBook)
Perhaps no monarch was ever more detested by the citizens of London than was Henry III. — a weak and foolish ruler, who subjected every class to his exactions and oppressions.
From Elfinspell
(1249; English transcription)
The account begins with the death of Svein Forkbeard.
From De Re Militari
(1250; English translation)
Including The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd; Asser's Annals of King Alfred; The Book of Hyde; The Chronicles of John Wallingford; The history of Ingulf; Gaimar
(ca 1257; English transcriptions)
When, in medieval England, the central authority was weak, injustice and oppression were rife throughout the country, and at such times the men of London were often hard pressed to maintain intact their privileges.
From Elfinspell
(1258; English transcription)
Records events from 1016 to the 14th century on and around the island whose thousand-year-old parliament, Tynwald, is the world's oldest continuous ruling body.
(1261, facsimile)
  • Select Cases Concerning the Law Merchant
Volume I (1270-1638)
Volume II (1239-1633)
Volume III (1251-1779)
(1270-1779; English and Latin)
Legal cases in 5 volumes. eBook format.
(1272-1307; French and English)
Includes the Wars of Scottish Independence and Robert the Bruce and offers details to daily life in Scotland and England
From Edward I to Henry VII. Preserved in the Public record office.
(1272-1509; English)
Pleadings In Parliament With The Judgements thereon, in the Reigns of Edward I and II.
Digitized book.
(1272-1327; Latin)
"The present series is of exceptional interest...because of the light it throws on the manners and habits of a rural population at that period...Such records as these show us the humble population of the land living its life and going its way regardless of political actions of kings."
(1272-1307; English eBook)
Available in PDF or HTML
The earliest prose chronicle in English, this copy starts with the legendary hero Brutus' conquest of Albion and continues, with the second continuation, to 1419 and Henry V's siege of Rouen.
(post 1272; English)
Offered here from the years 1225 to 1273. An independent source after 1235.
(1273; English translation)
Cronica Maiorum Et Vicecomitum Londoniarum Et Quedam, Gue Contingebant Temporibus Illis Ab Anno Mclxxviii an Annum Mcclxxiv; Cum Appendice.
Includes the Book of Ancient Laws (chapters 37 and 44), the Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London, etc.
(1274; Latin with English translations and explanations; eBook)
Digitised urban landscapes of a group of ‘new towns’ in Britain established in the reign of King Edward I.
The project looks at thirteen towns in detail:
England: Winchelsea.
Wales:Aberystwyth, Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Caerwys, Conwy, Cricieth, Flint, Harlech, Holt, Newborough, Overton, and Rhuddlan.
(1277-1303; interactive online atlases)
Index to the rolls of Parliament, from ann. 6 Edward I. to ann. 19 Henry VII.
(1278-1503; English; ebook format)
Transcripts of quo warranto proceedings for franchises and liberties in Eyre.
(1278-1377; Latin eBook)
From the Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages
(1281-1237; English and Latin transcription)
Letter from Sir Joseph de Cancy, knight of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, to King Edward I. (1281), and Letter from King Edward I, to Sir Joseph (1282).
(1281-1282; transcription)
"Designed to illustrate the succession of holders of land in 13th, 14th and 15th centuries."
(1284-1431; Latin transcription with English preface)
With Reports of Cases, Argued and Determined in the Courts of Law and Equity, Respecting Tithes
(1285-1628; English; eBook)
(1286-1329; facsimiles, transcriptions, translations and commentary)
(1289-1293; English eBook]
This chronicle includes events in which the writer was involved or lived during the time of. It includes detailed stories of the Norfolk floods, the Battle of Lews, the defeat of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, and the gory execution of Rhys ap Meredith.
(1290; Latin transcription)
Jews suffered from anti-Semitic prejudice, often scapegoated or wrongly accused of crimes... in 1290, they were banished from England altogether.
From the British Library
(1290; Latin facsimile)
These papers offer insight into late medieval society, including wooltrade, socialization, marriage and family, legal business, and estate management.
(1290-1485; Old English and Latin transcription)
Proclamation of Edward I of England, reaffirming previous charters and assizes.
(1297; English transcription)
Placita coram domino rege apud Westmonasterium de termino Sancte Trinitatis anno regni regis Edwardi, filii regis Henrici, vicesimo quinto.
(1297; Latin eBook)
Nine rolls, covering a formative period in the history of the City of London, and illustrative of ancient municipal law and legal custom.
See also, Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London, in three volumes, from 1323-1412.
(1298-1307; English transcription)
(Transcriptions and translations)
From the 1066 conquest through part of the reign of Edward III.
(14th century; Latin transcription)
About Edward of Woodstock who fought in the Hundred Year's War
(14th century; English translation)
  • Business and Trade in the Medieval and Renaissance Periods
Records compiled at LibGuides
Cambridge gild records
Original Ordinances of more than 100 Early English Gilds
The charters and letters patent granted by the kings & queens of England to the Clothworkers' Company.
The Gild of St. Mary, Lichfield
(ca 14th century; transcriptions)
  • The Honor and Forest of Pickering
Mostly including Duchy of Lancaster records but also extracts from the Forest Rolls, Coram Rege Rolls and pleas before the forest judges.
Volume II
Volume III
Other volumes of lower-quality digitization can be found here.
(ca 14th-17th century; Latin and English eBook)
Maps, accounts from Medieval Swansea.
(1307; English interface)
A collection of cases, in eBook format. Volumes 1-4 are available for free access.
(1307-1311; English and French)
(1311-1603; English; eBook)
Manuscript. The account tells how relatives of the dead had to carry the corpses themselves to open mass graves.
From the British Library
(1314; facsimile)
English Account of the famine which swept across Europe and ultimately took millions of lives
From the Internet History Sourcebook
(1315; English)
Searchable series of digitised documents which constitute the major source for Plantagenet rule in Aquitaine.
The Gascon Rolls are a series of records of the English chancery covering the duchy of medieval Aquitaine.
(1317-1468; facsimiles and transcriptions)
The prisoners request a commission of gaol delivery, as there are more than eighty of them and there has been no common deliverance during this eyre. They request as justices Richard de Willoughby and Richard de Whatton.
(1318; facsimile)
Scotland's declaration of independence.
(1320; original Latin plus an English-language translation)
This set of maps by the Genoese mapmaker Pietro Vesconte forms a supplement to a work by the Venetian author Marino Sanudo... This was a treatise written for Pope John XXII in order to promote a crusade to the Holy land in 1321.
From the British Library Medieval Literature Collection
(1321; Latin facsimile)
From History of England by Henry Knighton
Middle Ages
(English transcription)
For the 17th and 18th years of Edward II.
(1323-1324; English digitized book)
"It has been decided that prince Edward, the eldest son of the king shall have the government of the realm and shall be crowned king, for the following reasons."
From Elfinspell
(1327; English transcription)
Published by the authority of the lords commissioners of Her [or His] Majesty's Treasury, under the direction of the master of the rolls. A collection of legal cases.
(1327-1377; English ebooks)
A Treatise of the Laws of the Forest Wherein Is Declared Not Onely Those Laws As They Are Now in Force, but Also the Original and Beginning of Forests, and What a Forest Is in Its Own Proper Nature. Also a Treatise of the Pourallee, Declaring What Pourallee Is, How the Same First Began, What a Pourallee-Man May Do.
(1334-1336; Old English eBook)
From Elfinspell
(1337; English transcription)
Against the provision of aliens to English benefices.
See also Edward III.'s letter to Pope Clement
From Elfinspell
(1343; English transcription)
An idea of the show and gallantry of the tournaments and festivals of this period can be obtained from this description by the chronicler Adam of Murimuth, of a famous gathering at Windsor held by Edward while home on a visit after his first invasion of France, and of the foundation of the order of the Knights of the Garter.
From Elfinspell
(1344; English transcription)
This chronicle, written at the cathedral priory of Rochester between 1314 and 1350, includes a firsthand account of the Black Death, describing the changes in the everyday lives of people across the social scale.
From the British Library
(1348; facsimilie)
A vain attempt by the king to freeze wages paid to laborers at their pre-plague levels, the ordinance is indicative of the labor shortage caused by the Black Death. It also shows the beginnings of the redefinition of societal roles.
See also the Statute of Laborers, the vain attempt to enforce the Ordinance.
From the Internet History Sourcebook
(1349; English)
Old parliamentary handbook.
(1350; English)
Contains the works by medieval contemporaries, from nobles to the "everyman," from letters to lyrics.
(1350-1485; English transcriptions)
(1351; modern English translation)
How thirty French fought against thirty English and Germans by certain agreements in Brittany, and the English and the Germans were defeated. From the Chronicle of Jean le Bel.
See Froissart's account, based off Jean le Bel's
(1351; English translation)
The youths of London appear to have been addicted at this time to more exciting and less serviceable sports than the old exercise of archery, and Edward III.’s letter is at once a reprimand and an instruction.
From ElfinSpell
(1356; English transcription)
Plaintiffs' petitions and of writs of subpoena.
(1364-1471; English and Latin; eBook)
Excerpted accounts of the Hundred Years' War
(1369-1410; English translations)
See also details for reading Froissart's chronicles on the web in the original French or in modern French translation.
An impressive local history collection, comprising church, state, estate and personal records.
(1375 - 1854 transcriptions)
Claims made at coronations. Includes the reigns of Richard II to George II.
(ca 1377-1727; English eBook)
Volume I, from Richard II to George II
(1377-1760; English; eBook)
Here is a description, from a chronicle of the time, of the final meeting of king Richard II and the leader of the Revolt
From the Internet Medieval Sourcebook
(1381; English translation)
General oyer and terminer roll; Cambridgeshire roll of indictments
(1381; facsimile)
  • The King's Council in England During the Middle Ages
The appendix includes:
Acts and articles to the council from Edward I to Edward III
A journal of the clerk of the council during the fifteenth and sixteenth years of Richard II
Records of cases and other legal proceedings, from Richard II to Henry VI
(1383-1453; Latin and French; eBook)
Originally in Latin, it is one of the most rousing documents ever written in support of a nation's freedom, It details the ancient history of the Scottish people and lists the oppressive activities of the English.
From the British Library
(1385; facsimile)
The range is so extensive, the documents belong to six main groups only, the reign of Edward IV, the earlier years of Henry VII, the campaign in Flanders and the Swiss league of Henry VIII, the negotiations following the battle of Pavia, the divorce proceedings, and the English Catholics.
From British History Online
(1385-1616; English transcription)
Vol. I: Richard II-Henry IV, 1386-1410.
Vol. II: Henry IV-Henry V, 1410-1422.
Vol. III: Henry VI, 1422-1429.
Vol. IV: 8-14 Henry VI, 1429-1436.
Vol. V: 15-21 Henry VI, 1436-1443.
Vol. VI: 22-39 Henry VI, 1443-1461.
Vol. VII: 32-33 Henry VIII, 1540-1542.
(abbreviated Middle Latin, Middle French, and Middle English; eBook)
Book of legal cases, in eBook format.
(1388-1389; French and English)
  • Select Pleas of the Court of Admiralty
Volume I: Civil pleas during the reigns of Richard II and Henry VIII (1390-1404; 1527-1545)
Volume II: The reigns of Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth I (1547-1602)
(Latin and Old English; eBooks)
The Foedera, edited by the literary critic ad historian Thomas Rymer (1642/3-1713), details 'all the leagues, treaties, alliances, capitulations, and confederacies, which have at any time been made between the Crown of England and any other kingdoms, princes and states.
(1397-1502; Latin entries with English summaries)
Links to primary sources on Henry IV, V, and VI
Containing the history of England, during the reign of Henry the Fourth, and the succeeding monarchs, to the end of the reign of Henry the Eighth, in which are particularly described the manners and customs of those periods.
(1399-1547; transcription)
King of England and of France, and Lord of Ireland
(1399-1413; with English translations)
Includes records of lay subsidies raised, urban government, higher clergy and religious houses.
From British History Online
(14th century, transcriptions)
The Gough Map dates back to circa 1360, and is the earliest map to show the whole of Britain in geographically-recognizable form.
(14th century; interactive map)
Excerpts from an 1805 translation by Thomas Johnes
Edited by Steve Muhlenberger of Nipissing University (Canada)
(14th century; English translations)
Faits d'armes (Deeds of Arms)
Accounts of French, Scot and English tournaments and battles
(14th-15th century; English)
Edited by Steve Muhlenberger of Nipissing University (Canada)
(14th and early 15th centuries; transcriptions from Scots English, Middle English, Middle French and Latin; also English translations)

The Reigns of the Houses of Lancaster & York (1399-1485)

Includes records of urban and metropolitan government, religious houses and higher clergy.
From British History Online
(15th century, transcriptions)
John Rous's history of England from Brutus of Britain to Henry VII
See also facsimiles of The Rous Roll and History of the Kings of England
(15th century; Latin transcription)
Along with other clips from The Deeds of Henry the Fifth.
(1415; English translation)
  • Handbooks on Husbandry
Offering a picture of the agriculture, customs, and manners of England
Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry
Palladius on husbondrie
The whole art and trade of husbandry
(15th-16th century century; transcriptions)
Containing John Page's poem on the Siege of Rouen; Lydgate's verses on the kings of England; William Gregory's Chronicle of London.
(15th century; English; online book format)
A virtual page-turner of the greatest British illuminated manuscript of the late Middle Ages.
(Scroll down to Outstanding 15th-century church book)
Digitised by the British Library in its online gallery, Turning the Pages.
See also:
(1400-1407; facsimiles and audio files)
The most widely circulated work of travel writing in medieval Europe, including outlandish accounts.
From the British Library
(1400; facsimile)
Edited by Sir Walter Ellis, for King George the Fourth
(1400s-1520s; English transcription)
Edited by Sir Walter Ellis, for King George the Fourth
(1410s-1520s; English transcription)
Henry led the English army into the battle of Agincourt. A larger French force was led by the Marshal of France, Boucicaut, and the Constable of France, Charles D’Albret.
Available also HERE
Facsimile version HERE
(1415; Modern English translation)
  • Letters and Papers of the Paston Family
From three generations of the Norfolk family during the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV & Richard III.
One of the largest archives of mainly 15th century private English correspondence and documents.
Digitised by the British Library in its Digitised Manuscripts.
(1422-1597; facsimiles from 5 bound volumes)
By Hywel Fychan fab Hywel Goch of Fuellt.
It is best known as the source of the Mabinogion, as well as having much of its poetry reproduced in The Four Ancient Books of Wales.
Made available by Celtic Literature Collective
(1425; English and Cymraeg transcription)
Her remarkable Book, which only survives in this manuscript, records [her feelings and revelations and the form of her living], allowing us a window onto the life of an ordinary, middle-class person in a prosperous town in late-medieval England.
From the British Library
(1440; Old English facsimile)
"[Relating] incidents and aspects of society at various dates, to the alterations in manners and opinions... to the tenure and changes of landed and other property [and] to some of the most striking events in our national history."
(1446-1643; Latin and English transcription)
As well as Bishop Beckington and others. Written in the reigns of Henry V and Henry VI.
(mid 15th century; Old English transcription)
Online record of surviving manuscripts from over 200 British authors of the period 1450-1700.
(1450-1700; manuscripts)
(1450-1720; manuscripts)
During medieval times, pregnant women in labour were attended to by midwives, whose understanding of childbirth was learnt through practical experience rather than formal training.
From the British Library
(1450; facsimile)
From the Rare Books and Special Collections Reading Room
(1450-1512; Old English facsimile)
(mid to late 15th century; French and English transcriptions)
(transcriptions & translations)
Chronicle of the History of the World from Creation to Woden, with a Genealogy of Edward IV
From the Free Library of Philedelphia
(1460; facsimile)
Warkworth's Chronicle regarding the first Yorkish king of England.
(1461; old English; transcriptions)
A series of historical fragments, proclamations, letters, and other contemporary documents relating to the reign of King Edward the Fourth
(1461-1483; English; transcriptions)
From the Bull of Pope Innocent VIII. The king married the impoverished widow in secret; she was the mother of the tragic Princes in the Tower.
(1464; English transcriptions)
A rhyming chronicle from the beginning of English history to the reign of Henry IV.
Made available by The Oxford Text Archive
(1464; Old English transcription)
(1467-1477; English)
The Rebellion in Lincolnshire was one of the occurrences of that troubled period of the reign of Edward the Fourth, when he was struggling with the machinations of his overgrown subject, Richard Neville...
(1470; English transcriptions)
Oration by Johannis Russel to Charles, the Duke of Burgundy, involving his investiture with the Order of the Garter.
Several versions, which are made available by HathiTrust
(1470; Latin text reproductions with English introduction)
(before 1471; transcriptions)
One account within the chronicle includes Gloucester's arrival as Protector to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York's marriage.
(1474-1504; French; ebook format)
A primary source for the Wars of the Roses.
and the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, and Richard III.
(1453-1486; transcriptions)
From a Yorkist perspective.
(1472; transcriptions)
with a number of links to contemporary reporters and chroniclers from various perspectives.
(chiefly 1483-1490; transcriptions)
(transcriptions) courtesy of the Richard III Society.
Contemporary correspondence of a wealthy family of English wool merchants.
(1475-1488; transcriptions) courtesy of the Richard III Society.
Digitized book. Extracted From Act-Books of Ecclesiastical Courts in the Diocese of London, Illustrative of the Discipline of the Church of England.
(1475-1640; Latin with English introduction)
Hundreds of selected books describing festivals and ceremonies.
Digitised by the British Library in its online gallery, Treasures in Full.
(1475-1700; facsimiles)
This is probably the oldest surviving Valentine's letter in the English language. It was written by Margery Brews to her fiancé John Paston.
From the British Library
(1477; facsimile and audio)
(1477-1509; Old English)
Titulus Regius (the royal title in Latin) is a statute of the Parliament of England, issued in 1483, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III of England.
(1483; English transcription)
From the original docket-book
(1483; English transcriptions)
Primary & Contemporary Sources on the Battle of Bosworth
From Richard III Society
(1485; English transcription)

Other Medieval Collections

The works of Bede, Robert de Monte, William of Newburgh, and several other writers, in 5 volumes.
(middle ages; English translations)
Topographic Maps, Boundary Maps, and Land Use Maps of Historic Britain.
A subpage of A Vision of Britain through Time.
Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores. Here are some of the 99 volumes, compiled and published between 1858 and 1965, now digitized.
(Old English and other languages)
  • The Statutes of the Realm
Vol. 1, 1101-1301
Vol. 2, 1377-1503/04
Vol. 3, 1509/10-1545
Vol. 4, Part I and Part II, 1547-1624
Vol. 5, 1625-1680
Vol. 6, 1685-1694
Vol. 7, 1695/6-1701
Vol. 8, 1702-1707
Vol. 9, 1708-1713
Vol. 10
Vol. 11
(facsimiles with English translations)
Each ballad transcription also appends a synopsis with its historical background.
A subpage of Mostly Medieval: Exploring the Middle Ages.
(Transcriptions and commentary)
Over 30,000 images of objects, books, letters, aerial photographs and other items from museums, archives and libraries in Wales.
(Medieval to 20th century; facsimiles and photographs)
Writs, charters and letters extending from the time of Henry I to Charles II.
(12th-17th centuries; Latin with English translations)
A documentation project of Powys County, Wales.
(Medieval to present; facsimiles, Latin and Welsh transcriptions and English transcriptions and translations)

EuroDocs > History of the United Kingdom: Primary Documents > 1066 - 1485

EuroDocs Creator: Richard Hacken, European Studies Librarian,
Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
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