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A 2 




A 2 









Author of " TJU PoUtical, Social, and LiUraiy History o/Francefrom tke commencemttU 

to thtprtsetU day" Jth Edition; 

** Tke Guide to Science;* (380,000): ** Tke Dictvmary o/Phrase and Fahle;* I4ih Edition; 

" The Reader't Handbook,** srd Edition; 6v., ¿rv., érv. 




[The right of Translation and Reproducticn is reserved,] 

2i^ú. 1. \US- 




No history can be compared in interest to that of Germany, ' 
and none is so su^estive or dramatic From the first inroads of 
the barbarians to the establishment of the new empíre under thc 
hands of Pnissia, the canvas ¡s filled with moving incidents, and 
the persons who occupy attentíon stand üke Miltiades in the 
fresco of the porch Pcecilé. Look at the great Karl ruling almost 
all Europe with a strength and wisdom without parallel. Look 
at Heniy the Fowlcr fiying his hawks on the Harlz mountains, 
but no Icss skilled in ruling his barons than his falcons. Ixiok 
at Barbarossa, the hero of fa.ble, shadowy as the héroes of Ossian, 
1 but loved almost to idolalry. Look at Henry IV. in his life-and- 
I death struggle with thc pope ; ot at thc far-wiser champion of the 
f truc church, Martin Luther, the Michael Angelo of the Refor- 
matioiu Loot at Sigmund, the Balaam of modem history, 
knowíng what ís right and doing what is wrong: giving safe 
conduct to Huss and Jerome, and then gazing from his horse's 
saddle at the buming pile of the betrayed Bohemians. Look at 
the Fifth Karl, wading in blood to win the crown of eternal life, 
and then abdicating that he may die ¡n the odour of sanctity ; 
a discrowned glutton, playing the monk without one thought 
beyond the present world. Look at María Theresa and Frederíck 
the GreaL The Prussian Hercules would fain have taken from 
her the girdle of her empire ; but the modem Hippolyté bravely 
slood out to the last, and left her State stronger and more 
prosperous than ever. Then turn the picture to Germany in the 
dust, and see Napoleón cljpping and paring íts states, dealing 
them to his kinsmeo like a pack of caids, and striding over the 

Iloly Empire like a Colossus, till the blasts of Moscow and the 
field of Waterloo robbed him of "all his hangings,— yea, his 
leaves, — and leít him bare to weather." Where has the struggle 
with papacy been more bravely fought? Where has the struggle 
of the burgher class, where that with the Corsican Sesostris been 
so graphically played out? For my own part I have been 
intensely interested, and hope that I have infused some portion 
of the interest I have felt in the pages I have wrítten. 

The object I have kept in view has been to give bold broad 
outlines of Germán hístory, and to supply in smaller type the 
fuUest delaiL Those who wish to gain at a glance a general 
idea may read the larger type; those who would pick up the 
3 may consult the smaller under the heading of "Chief 

Much labour has been given to the literattu'e of Germany, 
and although many ñames have of necessity been relegated to 
Table xiii-, the authors best known to Englishmen, and those who 
have exercised the greatest influence on the nation, have been 
pretty freely selected. The gieat difficulty has been what to do 
with such giants aa Leibnitz, Kart, Fichte, and Hegel, so as to 
give a general idea of their wtitings in a few lines, and to steer 
clear of shoals and qiiicksands unsuited to a book liíce this. 

Numerous dynastic tables, with a table of the imperial wives, 
and another of men of mark from the earliest period to the 
present, have been added. Many plots of dramas and stories, 
many schemes of books, and many little details of history, have 
been woven ¡nto the test in smaller type ; and it is eamestly 
hoped that the book will be found neither dry ñor uninteresting. 

upon Ihe <ar of an English readn 

ü> Htbrich, Fritdrkb, Bcc, wo«ld li. 

)l be ia harmony with OUT languaj 

IS vihtn ah would noi expross Ihe sa 

vT buntd aScar a voweL, no beuer e 

(poDcnt at Ihia rerr un-EngUih vo 






Pages xxxi.. 166, 167, and in Index, >r " Sach," read *• Sachs 
Page xxxvii., line 10, and page 248, line %,far 1721, read 1729 
Page 207, line 23 from bottom. delete " the * Gr^at Elector ' " 



Charlemagne or Karl the Great 


• • . . • • 


Map of Europe at the period 



• • . ... 


Successors of Charlemagne (814-911) ... 

... ... 


Ludwig the Debonair 


Ludwig the Germán 


Karl the Fat 




Ludwig the Child ... 


The feudal system,/. 37. 

literature of Germany, /. a8. 

Konrad I. count of Franconia (911 


• • . • • • 


Viíl CONTlCM'i'S. 







The Saxon Dynasty (9i8-ioa4) 


Henry I. the Fowler (918-936} 


The nalion organised 


Otto I. the Great, sumamed "The Lion" 



Otto II. the Red King (973-9S3) 


Otto III. the Wonder of the World 



Henry II. the Saint, "The Lame" 



Social and political state of Germany 




HousE OF Franconia (1024-1125) 


Konrad II, the Salic (1024-1039) 


Henry III. the Black King (1039-1056) 


Henry IV. the Great (1056-1106) 


Eecond recognised advancement in Ihe status of 



Henry V. the Parricide (1098-1125) ■- 


Lothar 11. dulce of Saxony (1125-J137) 


The First Cruade 


Political and social state of Germany .. . 




Tiiblü of ihe Hohtnstaurcn lint of Itings, /. 70. 

Konrad III. duke of Suabia (1138-1152) 

7> j 

Frederick I. Barbarossa (1152-1190) ... 

74 M 

Henry VI. the Cruel (1190-1197) 

a. m 

Philipp of Suabia {1198-1208) 

84 ■ 

Otto IV. of Brunswick (1209-1215) ... 

34 ■ 



HOUSE OF HOHENSTAUFEN OR SUABIA (1132-1254) — €0ntinued. 

Frederick 11. the Wonder of the World ^ags 

(1215-1250) 85 

Konrad IV. (1250-1254) ... ... 90 

Minne-singers ... ... ... ... 91 

Henry of Veldig /. 91 5 his Duke Ernesto 

p. 91 ; Trojan War^ 91 ; Legend of S(, 

Gervais,p, 91. 
Walter of Vogel-weide, /. 91. 
Henry of Ofterdingen, /. 92. 
Hartmann von der Aüe, /. 92, His Poor 

Henry ^ p. 92 ; Erick^ p, 93 ; Knight of the 

Lim, p. 93. 

WOLFRAM OF ESCHENBACH, /. 93; his Parzivctl, 

GOTTFRiED OF Strasburg,/. 94; his Tristón, 

/. 94 
77ie AUxander-lied^ p. 95 

7TuNibelungen4ied, p, 95 

TTie Kudrun, p. <fi\ The Hagen, p. 96 ; The 
Hilctó,p.f^\ The líedel, p. ^'J 

The Heldenbuch or Book of Héroes, p, 97. 

Ecclesiastical architecture ... ... ... 97 

Thegranddukesof Genxmny... ... ... 98 

Chivalry ... ... ... ... ... ico 

X o T*us ••* ... ... ... *•. 100 

Trade Unions ... ... ... ... loi 

Liberation of the Serfs ... ... ... loi 

Administration of justice (The Vehmgericht) ... 102 

Intellectual state of Germany ... ... 104 





Interregnum (1256-1273) 106 

DiVERS HousES (i 273-1437) 107 

Rudolf I. of Habsburg (1273-1291) ... 107 

Menofletters ... ... ... ... X13 

Adolfof Nassau (i 292-1 298) ... ... 115 


DiVERS HouSES (1273-1437) — continuad, >acb 

Albert L of Austria (1298-1308) ... 115 

Tale of 'Wniiam Tell,>. xz5. 

Henry VIL of Luxemburg (1309-1313) 117 

Two simultaneous kaisers, viz.: — 

[Frederick the Handsome, 1314-1338]... 118 

Ludwig V., duke of Bavaria (13 14-1347) 118 

Battie of Moiígarten, p. xao ; TTIrídi Boner, /. 133 ; Bert* 
hold Schwarz,/. 123 ; Walter LoOard,/. 123. 

[KxurlGunther of Schwarzburg(nominally) 

1347-1349] ... ... ... ... 124 

Karl IV. of Luxemburg, the Pope's kaiser 

(1347-1378) ... 124 

The Black Death ... ... ... ... 127 

Persecution of the Jews ... ... ... 129 

Wenceslaus the Worthless (1378-1400) 130 

Jchaiin ven Pomuk,/. zsj. 

Rupert, sumamed Klemm (1400-1410) . . , 1 33 
Sigmund of Brandenburg (1410-1437)... 134 

John Hoss, p, X36; Jerome of Pragací /. X38; Hossito 
War,/. 141; Litexature,/. X44. 

HousEOP Austria (1437-1740) 

Albert II. the lUustrious (1438-1439) ... 144 

Frederick III. the Pacific (1440-1493) ... 146 

Charles the Bold of Burgundy ... ... 148 

Prussia and Brandenburg ... ... ... 149 

Electors of Brandenburg ... ... ... 153 

Invention of Printing ... ... ... 154 

Literature ... ... ... ... ... 255 

Maximilian I. the Pennyless (1493-15 19) 156 

TheMaster-singers ... ... ... ... 164 

Hans Sach, /. x66 ; his Children o/Eve, /. x66, Skip of 
Fools, by Brandt, /. 167. Tkyl OwlgUu* ihé Jester, 
/. z68. Reynard the Fox, by Alkmar, /. xóg. BaitU 
^ the Frogs andMice^ xóg. 

Social and Commercial state of Germany ... 170 

Fuggcr,/. X71. 
Pomestic habits, dress, &c., ... ... ... 171 

Gypsies,/, 173; the Jesmts,/. 172. 





KarlV. (1519-1556) 173 

Luther and the Reformation... ... ... 175 

Lriterature of the períod ... ... ... 1S8 

Ferdinand I. (1556-1564) 192 

Maximilian II. (1564-15 76) ... ... 192 

Rudolf II. (1576-1612) 193 

Mathias (1612-1619) 193 

Tydio Bráhe, >. 193; Kepler, >. 193; Galileo, /. 193; 
Copernictts,/. 294; Mercator,/. 294. 

Ferdinand 11. (1619-1637) 194 

Thirty-Years' War ... ... 198 

Danish interventíon, /. 298 ; Swedish intervention, /. X99 ; 
French intervention,/. aoa. 

Ferdinand III. (1637-1657) ... '... 203 

Literature of the Reformation ... ... 205 

Sebastian Munster, /. 905; Koond von Gesner, /. ao6; 
John Kepler, /. ao6. 

Leopold I. (1658-1705) 206 

Frederick-William the Great Elector ... 208 

Joseph I. (1705-1711) 216 

Karl VI. (1711-1740) 216 

Prussia (Frederick William I.) ... ... ^ 2x8 

Manners and Customs (1700-1750) ... ... 219 

Persecution of Witches ... ... ... 221 

MariaTheresa (1740-1780) 223 

First Silesian War ... ... ... ... 225 

Second Silesian War ... ... ... 227 

Years of peace improved ... ... ... 229 

Seven-years* War ... ... ... ... 232 

Partition of Poland... .. ... ... 239 



Joseph 11. till 1790 241 

Literature of the seventeenth century... ..^ 241 

The Silesian poets... ... ... ... 242 

Martia Opitz, /. 243; Paul Flemming, ^. 343; Axuirew 
Gryph,/. 343; &c. 

Authors, not poets or romancers ... ... 243 

I.eibnitz,/. 343; Spinoza,/. 244; Stahl, 345; &c 

Literature in the Germán lángoage ... ... 246 

First Half of the Eighteenth Century ... 246 

Wolf,/. 346; ThomasiuSí/. 246; Spener,/. 346; Gdlert, 
/. 247; Gottsched, 347. 

Second Half of the Eighteenth Century ... 247 

KIopstock, /. 347 ; his Messiakf /. 347. Lessing, /. 348 ; 
his NtUhati the Wise,^ 348. 

Golden Age of Germán Literature ... 248 

Herder, p, 349; Wieland /. 349; Goethe, /. 349; his 
Faustf p. 350; Schiller, /. 351; Voss, j(^. 251; Kot« 
zebue,/. 351 ; Kichter,/. 353; &c 

Philosophers ... ... ... ... 253 

3^^2uit,/. 856; Fichte, /. 356; Schelling, p„ 357; H^el, 
>. 357, &<:• 

Musidans ... ... ... ... 260 

Handel p. 360; Bach, /. s6o; Glück, /. 360; Haydn, 
¿, 26X ; Mozart, ^. 361, &c 

Francis II. (as kaiser 1 792-1806) ... 262 

Bonaparte's campaigns ... ... ... 267 




Francis I. emperor of Austria (late kaiser 

Francis II.) 1 806-1 835 ... ... 274 

Fourth coalition against France ... ... 275 

Fifth coalition against France ... ... 277 



Napoleones DownfalL 

Frederick-William III. king of Prussia 

Sixth coalition against France 

Frederick - William IV. of Prussia 


William I. of Prussia (1861- ) 

The Seven-weeks* War 

The Franco-Prussian war 

William I. created emperor of Germany 

Literature of the Nineteenth Century . . . 

TTie Romantie School 

Second half of the Nineteenth Century 


Table x. Charlemagne and his descendants 

2. The Saxon kings 

3. House of Franconia ... 

4. House of Hohenstaufen or Suabia ... 

5. House of Guelf or D'Este 

6. Divers Houses 

7. House of Austria ... 

8. House of Brandenburg (HohenzoUem) 

9. Kings of Prussia and their wives 

10. Dynastic Table of the Kaisers 

11. Kings of Prussia 

1 2. Table of the Imperial Wives ... 
„ 13. Men of Note in Literature 






















Tablb i.] 


EmperOT of the West 800-8x4. 

Pepin, Idng of Italy 781-8x0. x. LUDWIG, the Debonair. 

I Emperor 8z4-84a 

Bernaztl ditto 8x0-8x7. 

Carloman. ^ 3. LUdWIG, the Germán. 3. KARL, the Fat. Gisela, 

King of Bavaria King of Gennany KÍng of Germany 876-888. 

876-880. 840-876. King of Italy 880-888. 

4. ANULF. Bereñgar I. 
King of Gennany 888-899. King of Italy 888-934, 

5. LUDWIG, the ChUd. | 
lUng of Gennany 899-9ZX. Gisela. 

Bereñgar II. 
King of Italy 924-966. 

üy 924- 

Dethrotudh Otto, 

Tablb a.] 


(Descended /rom Lud'ong^ iJu Germán). 

• • • • 

X. KONRAD, of Franconia. 
King of Gómany 9x1-919. 

3. HENRY I., the Fowler. 
King of Gennany 919-936. 

3. OTTO L, the Great. (Tofikmar.) Bruno, Henry, 3 dau^kiers, 
King of Gennany 936-973. abp. of Cologae. dk. of Bavaria. 
Emperor 961-973. 

4. OTTO II., the Red King. 
King and emp. 973-983. 

5. OTTO III., the Wondcr of the Worid. 
King of Gennany 983-1002. Heñry, the Qnarrelsome. 
Emperor 996-X002 Died 995. 

6. HENRY II., Saint; Lame. 
Duke of Bavaria, 995. 
King of Germany 1002-X024. 
Emperor xox4-xo34. 


Tablb 3.] 


z. KONRAD II., the Salic, dnke of Fnuiconia. 
King of Germany z<»4-io39. 
Emperor Z027-1039. 

a. HENRY III., the Black King. 
Joint king of Germany 1036-1039. 
Solé „ „ z€>39-zo56. 

Emperor zo46-zo56. 

3. HENRY IV., the Great. 
King of Germany Z056-ZZ06. 
Emperor Z084-ZZ06. 

Konrad. 4. HENRY V., the Parridde. Agnes, &c 

Rebels and dies zzoz. Joint king of Germany Z099-ZZ06. marries 

Solé „ ' „ z 106-1x35. Frederick dnke of Suabia. 
Emperor zzzz-zz35. 

5. LOTHAR II. King of Germany ZZ35-ZZ37. 

His daughter, Richenza, marries Henry, the Proad {s€€ Table 5X 
(Last descendants of Henry^ the FawUr,) 

Tablb 4.] 


Frederick, of Hohenstaufen, duke of Suabia, married Agnes, d. of Henry IV. (v. Table 3). 

z. KONRAD III. Frederick, duke of Suabia. 

King of Germany zz38--zz5a. 


(Never emperor,) 

9. FREDERICK I., Barbarossa (nephew of Konrad). 
King of Germany zzss-zzpo. 
Emperor ZZ55-ZZ90. 



3. HENRY VI., the Cruel. 4. PHILIPP, duke of Suabia. 

King of Germany ZX90-ZZ97. King of Germany Z198-Z308 

Emperor ZZ9Z-ZZ97. (Never emperor.) 

I N. B.— rA^ tuxt king- of Germany 

6. FREDERICK II., the Wonder of the World. was Otto IV, (Table 5). 
King of the Two Sicilies zz98-z35o. 

King of Germany Z3Z5-Z350. 

Emperor Z33o-Z35o. 


King of Germany Z350-Z354. 
(Never emperor.) 





(This table is contetnporary tuith TabU 4.) 
Guelf I., dulce of Bavaria lo/x-xzoz. 

Henry, the Black. 

Henry, the Proud, 

mamed Richenza, 

daughter of Lothar II. 

iSee Table 3.) 



Henry, the Lion. 

5. OrrO IV. (5^í^Tablc4.) 
Kin^ of Germany zao^-zais. 
Abdicated. Died .... Z2z8. 

mamed Frederíck, 

dulce of Suabia. 

(The mother of Barbarossa.) 

See Table 4. 

Guelf II. 
(root of the Guelf íactioa). 

{pnr reigningfamily is descended/rom this line.) 

Tablb 6.] 

z. RUDOLF I., of Habsburg. 
King of Germany Z373-Z291. 
(Never emperor.). 



ALBERT I., dulce of Austria. 
King of Germany Z398-Z308. 

ADOLF, of Nassau. 

King of Germany 


Count Waleran of Luxemburg 
* (zath cent.). 

4. HENRY VII., ofLuxemburg. 
King of Germany X309-X313. 
Emperor z3za-z3Z3. 

John, married the queen- 
dowager of Bohemia. 

(FREDERÍCK, the Hand- 

Nominal king of Germany 


5. LUDWIG, dk. of Bavaria 

(descended from Matilda, 
daughter of RudolO** 

King of (}ermany Z3Z4-Z347. 
» • » » 

6. GUNTHER,of Schwarzburg, 
King of Germany 1347-Z349. 

John, slain at Crecy Z346. 
The olind king of Bohemi 


KARL IV., the Pope's Kaiser 

(Duke of LuxemburgX 
Kmg of Germany Z349-Z378. 
Emperor í355-X378. 


the Worthless. K. of Germany 

King of Bohemia X4Z4-Z437. 

Z367-Z419. Emp. Z433-X439. 
Kmg of Germany 
& emp. Z378-X400. 

(See Rupert) 

9. RUPERT, " Klemm " , Elizábeth, 

(descended from Matilda, who married 

d. of Rudolf.) * Albert II. 

King of Germany X4oa-x4xo. (See Table 7.)^ 
(Never emperor.) 

/' *J^aíXudolfth€ king and kaiser , but his seeond mm, wht hadsix danghters.) 



Tablb 7.] 


Albert III., dulce of Austria. 

Albert IV., dulce of Austria. 

married Elizabeth, daughter of Sigmund {su Table 6). 
Emperor X438-X439. 

Ernest, dulce of Carinthia. 
Eraest (cousin of Albert II.) 

Albert, the Prodigal. 

The first archduke of Austria, 


KARL V. Bom 1500. 

King of Spain 15x6. 
King of Germany 15x9. 
Emperor 1530. 
Abdicates XS56. Dies 1558. 

Emperor X44o-x493. 

3. MAXIMIUAN,thePwnyl< 
Emperor X493-X5X9. 

Philipp, the Handsome» 
archduke of Austria. 


Emperor XS56-X564. 


queen Mary of Englaod 


Emperor X564-X576. 

Charles dulce of Styria. 

Emp. x576-x6xa. 


Emp. z6x9-x6x9. 

Emperor X6X9-X637. 

Emperor X637-X657. 

Emperor x657-x705. 

Marie Antomette, 
narries the elector of Bavaria. 

X4. KARL, elector of Bavaria, 
calis himselfKarl VIL 
Emp. X74a-Z745. 


Emp. Z705-Z7XX. 

María Amelia, 
who maníes Karl, 
elector of Bavaria. 


b 2 

x3. KARL VI. (king of SpatnX 
Emp. Z7XZ-X740. 

heiress of the Estates of Austria. 
Kaiseiin Z740-X780. 
marries Frands, duke 
of Lorraine, 1736, who is 
X5. frangís L 
Emperor X745-X76S. 



HousE OF Austria — continued. 



16. jpSEPH II. 
£mp. 1765-1790 

Emp. X790-X793. 

Mane Antoinei 

manries Loáis XVI. 
of Fxanoe. 
x8. FRAKaS II. 
Emperor x793-x8q4. 
Called Fiancis I. ^ip. of Austria, 



marries the duc de C3iambord. 

^ Marie Louise, 
marries Napoleón I., zSio. 


Emp. of Anstria 18^5. 
Abdicates 1848. Dies 1850. 


Frands. 3 danghters. 


ao. frangís JOSEPH. 
Emperor of Austria 1848. 

Bom 1858. Married, i88x, 
Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein. 

Tablb 8.] 


frederigk i. 

Elector of Brandenbuzg 1417-1440. 

Joan, the Alchemist. 


Elector 1440-1470. 

ALBERT, the Achules and Ulysses. 
Elector 1470-1487. 

JOHN, the Gicero. 
Elector 1487-1499. 



JOAGHIM I., the Néstor. 
Elector 1499-1534. 

Eleaor X534-X57X, 

Elector X57X-X598. 



Elector 1608. 

Duke of Prussia i6z8-x6z9. 


Duke of Prussia and elector X6Z9-X640. 

FREDERIGK WILLIAM, the Great Elector. Z640-X688. 

His son FREDERIGK, the first king of Prussia. 
(•S># Table 9.) 



Tablb 9.] 



Soa of Frederíck-Wniiam, th« Great Elector of Brandenbnrg, and 

Louisa Henríetta, príncess of Oxange. 

Boro 1657. 

Elector óf Brandenborg Z688-Z70Z. 

King of Prussia Z70Z-Z7Z3. 

IVweSt (z) Elizabeth Henrietta, of Hessen-Cassel, m. Z679, d. Z683. 

(2) Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, m. Z684, mother of Frederíck* Wílllam. 



Boro z688 

King of Prussia Z7Z3-Z740. 

Wi/ef Sophia Dorothea, of Hanover, m. Z706. 


3. FREDERICK II., the Gr«at. 

Boro Z7Z2. 

King of Prassia z74o-Z786. 

(No oj^spring,) 

Augustas William. 



Boro Z744. 

King of Prassia Z786--Z797. 

Wiv€S% (z) Elizabeth Chrístina^ of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel, 

married Z765, divorced Z769. 

(3) Frederika Lonisa, of Hessen Darmstadt, m. Z769. 


Boro z^7o. 
Kinf of Prussia z797-z8^. 
W{f€t Louisa Augusta, of Mecklenburg Strelitz, 
mamed Z793, died zBzo. 

I ! 

Frederica Sophia^ 

married William V. 
of Holland. 


Boro Z795. 

King of Prussia Z840-Z86Z. 

{kefftncyfrom 1858.) 

Wi/iy Príncess Elizabeth Louisa, of Bavaria, 

married Z833. 


Boro Z797. 

Regent X858-Z86Z. 

King of Prussia z86z. 

Emp. of Germany Z87Z. 

Wi/e^vLzriz. Louisa Augusta, 

d. of Karl Frederick^ 
grand.duke of Saxe Weunar. 

And 5 others. 

Frederíck Wiíliam Nicholas. 
Boro Z83Z. 
Wi/ti Victoria, princess ro3raI, d. of ^ 

queen Victoria of Gt. Britain, m. Z858. 

Fredenck Karl. 











911- giS 




De.. ,3 


Ottd 1., the Great: Ihe Üon .. 
OTraIl.,lh=RedKing .. ., 
Otto lll., Wonder of ih, Wo,lJ .. 
Hitiitv II., Ihe SÚDI; Ihe Luoe 



9-8- 93* 



Fridíy . . 

ex :: 


KONSAD II.,Ihe&did 

Henrv III., theBUcktUnE ■■ 

HENiir IV., Ihc Gruí 

HiNnr V.. Ihe Pamdds .. .. 







Monday . 

Tucsdíy ,. 


LoTHAR II., dulce of Saiony 
KONBAD Ill.,dukeorSiiabia 
Fredebick !., BarhaioEU 
HaNRY VI., IheCruíl .. 



■11»-. 197 




Smurduy . . 
SuncUy .. 
Suoday .. 
Sunday .. 
Monday .. 


Dtc. 4 


Dec. .0 

IOtto IV., oT Branswick 
FnHDitiiicit II.. Wondtt of Ih 



1 lillllj 






Sundjiv . . 

Friday .. 

Monday " 

Tuly ,s 


RUPERT. lalled Klímn.. 
SlGMUND. IQlISraf Of b 


urs :; 





Maaálí '.'. 











HODHE OT AüaraiA (Eibibnigen). 

f»b"Íi«"iii.. " S¿ríi. :: :: 
M,.»,.A«i.,^.P«„.>™_ :; 

maT^íÍaVíi. :: :: :: :: 
ferdihahd'ii. " " .'. ;; 


S:':: :: :: ':: ii 

Kam. VIL, of BavuU. K>kcc ™ly 
m'ai^I^usa. kÜBÍn . . . . 

Lhopolo II 

FeRDÍMAMD, cmpcrot of Austria 
Fbancis Josiii'II, imperar ofAuíiría.. 




16. 5-. 63 7 

1637 -i6!7 



Total . . 




TuHtUy .. 
Monday .. 

SiindAy .. 


Fridiy . . 

S>m4iy .. 

Friday .. 

Monday .. 




Fcb. IJ 

Apa .7 













KiDg of FniuH 





LD vord Kul Ii 

n Hclnrich - Hiiu^k. 
Friedrich ~ Frud-rik. 

ic4b«3UHÍi utaplí II 

^ ^ v«y well lo our loncuitsc, a 

_„..,_ _..e Gemun moiurdu and ih«c of England, Fnnce, Spa! 

n» lulyi ftc .rñ^A ii proDOUDCtd tomethine belwecn -rxA uid .rvflA. 


Tablb xa.] 


Hbnry I Matüda, mother of kaiser Otto I., and erandmother of kaiser 


' Otto I i. Eadeyth, daughter of Edward the Eider, grand-daughter of Alíred 

the Great, and mother of kaiser Otto 1 1. Died 947. 
3. Adelaide of Lombardy, 952 

Otto II Theophania, daughter of the emperor of the East Mother of kaiser 

Ótto III. 

Otto III Maryof Aragón. Nooffspring. 

Hbnky II Cun^^onda. Noofispring. 

KoNRAD II Gisela, heiress of Burgundy, and mother of kaiser Henry III. 

Hbnry III z. Gunhilda, daughter of Canute the Great. Died 1038. 

3. Agnes of Poitou, Z043. Mother of kaiser Henry IV. 

Hbnry IV. , x. Bertha, mother of kaiser Henrv V. , and of Frederíck of Hohenstaufen, 

^ from whom comes kaiser Konrad III. She died xo88. 
3. Príncess Praxede (Adelaide) of Russia, Z089. 

Hbnry V Maud or Matüda, daughter of Henry I. of England. By her second 

husband she becomes^ mother of Henry II. (Plantaeenet of 
England). It was this Maud who was called tíie ** Lady of 
England," and who made war on Stephen. No child by kaiser 
Henry V. 

Lothar II Richenza, heiress of Heinrích the Fat of Saxony, last descendant 

of kaiser Henry I., called The Fowler. 


Frbdbrick i z. Adelaide, repudiated 1x53. 

3. Beatrice, hevess of Burgundy, 1x56, mother of kaiser Henry VI. 
and of kaiser Philipp. Died 1185. 

Hbnry VI Constance, heiress of Sidly, mother of kaiser Frederick II. 

Philipp Irene Angela, widow of Roger of Sicily, mother of Beatrice. 

Otto IV. Beatrice, daughter of kaiser Philipp. 

Frbdbrick II. ..z. Constance of Aragón, marríed Z309, died 12x3. 

2. Yolande or lolanthe, daughter of the king of Jerusalem, marríed 

Z335, died X238. 

3. Isabella, daughter of Henry III. of England, marríed X335, died 


Konrad IV 

RuDOLP I I. Gertnide of Hohenberg, marríed X245, died X28z. Mother of kaiser 

Albert I. 
3. Elizabeth of Burgtmdy, 1384. 

Adolp Imagina of Limburg. 

Albbrt i Elizabeth of Carínthia. 

Hbnry VII Margaret of Brabant, mother of John king of Bohemia. 

LuDWiG V Margaret of Holland. 


Karl IV. I. Anne, heiress of the Upper Palatinate. 

3. Anne, heiress of Silesia, mother of kaiser Wenceslaus and kaiser 


Wbmcbslaus ..».!. Joan of Holland^ murdered by hís dog 1388. 

3. Sqphia of Bavana, married Z389« 

RUPBRT Elizabeth of NOrnberg. 

SiGMUND z. Mary, heiress of Hungary, mother of Elizabeth, who married kaiser 

AJbert II. Married 1386, died 1392. 
3. Barbara of Cilley, the '* Messalina of Germany." 

Albsrt II Elizabeth, daughter of Sigmund. 

Frbdbricic IJI. .. Eleanoraof Portugal, married 1453, died 1467. Mother of kaiser 

Maxiiníli^n I. * 

Maximilian i. ..z. Marie, heiress of Burgundy, married 1477, died Z483. Mother of 

Philipp, and grandmother of kaiser Karl V. and kaiser Fer- 
dinand I. 
a. Blanca María, widov of the duke of Savoy, and niece of Ludovico 
María Sforza, " the More." Marríed Z494. 

Karl V. • Infanta Isabella of Portueal, mother of Phillip (who marríed Mary 

queen of England, and síterwards was Phillip II. of SpainX and 
of Mary, who marríed kaiser Maximilian II. 

Fbrdinand L . i Anne Jagellon of Bohemia. 

Maximilian II... Mary, daughter of kaiser Kart V. Mother of Anne, who marríed 

Fhillip II. of Spain, the widower ; and of Elizabeth, who marríed 
Charles IX. of France. 


Mathias Anne of Austria, marríed z6zz, died z6z8. No offspring. 

Fbrdinand II. .. 

Fbrdinand III. .. z. Mary Anne of Spain. Marríed Z63Z, died Z646. Mother of kaiser 

a. Mary Leopoldina of Austria, marríed 1648, died Z649. 
3. Eleanora of Mantua, Z65Z, survived him. 

Lbopold I z. Margaret-Theresa of Spain, marríed z666, died Z673. 

3. Claude Felicité of Innsprück, marríed Z673, died Z676. 
3. Eleonore Anne of Neuburg, Z676. Mother of the kaisers Joseph I. 
and Karl VI. 

JosBPH I Wilhelmina Amelia of Hanover. Mother of María Amelia, who 

married Karl Albert, afterwsurds kaiser Albert VI., and of Maríe 
Antoinette, who marríed the elector of Bavaria, whose son was 
kaiser Karl VII. 

Karl VI Elizabeth Christina. Mother of kaiserin Maria-Theresa. 

Karl VII María Amelia, daughter of kaiser Joseph I. 

Maria-Therbsa, kaiserin, her husband (duke of Lorraine) was called kaiser Frangís I. 

She was the mother of kaiser Joseph II., kaiser Leopold II., and 
Marie Antoinette, the unhappy wife of Louis XVI. of France. 

OSBPH II X. María Isabella of Parma, marrieü Z760, died Z763. 

3. Maria Josephine of Bavaria, 1765. 

Leopold II The infanta Maria Louisa. Mother of kaiser Francis II. (afterwards 

Francis I., emperor of Austria), and of Ferdinand I., emperor of 

Frangís II. of Germany (afterwards Francis I., emperor of Austria), married— 

I. Elizabeth of Würtembcrg, marríed Z788, died 1790. ^ 
3. Maria Theresa of the two Sicilies, marríed z7¿o, died Z807. Mother 
of Maria Louisa, who marríed Napoleón I. 

3. Maria Louisa of Austría, marríed z8o8, died z8z6. 

4. Charlotte Augusta of Bavaria, z8z6. 

(Ufaría LouisOf daughter of Francis IT. andhts second wt/e^ was bom I7gt^ 
tnarried NapoUon iSlOf and died 18^.) 

Fbrdinand, emperor of Austría. 

Frangis-Josbph, emperor of Austria, married Elizabeth of Bavaria. 

[For the kings ofPrussia see Table 8.\ 



Tablb 13.] 




//f fv/ arranged this tahle in strtct chronologiceU order^ eentury by centuty^ hut/^tmnd the 
dij^culty offitMii^ any ñame required so tedious that I uÜinuUely adopteathe alphabetícal 
arder. The former^ no doubt^ has its advofUages^ but thase who require them can easily 
rearrange any eentury for themselves, 

A.D. 400. 

Ulfilas, p. 29, apostle of the Goths. Translated the Gospels into Mceso- 
Gothic, using for the purpose the Greek characters. His book is called 
the Silver Code, 

A.D. 500. 

JoRDANUS, bishop of Ravenna, historian. Wrote in Latin a HUtory of the 
Goths f and Creation; both are extant ; died about 580. 

A.D. 700, 

Tke Hymn cf Hildebrand^ p. 29. It is alliterative. 

The Wessobrunn Prayer, p. 29. It is alliterative. 

The Vohungasagey a^ legend about Volsunga who loved Sigurd, — ^was deceived by hixn, slew 
him, and then killed herself. 

Walther 0/ Aquitatne, Walther and Hildeeonda flee to the camp of Attila^ where thev are 
held as hostaees, but being afterwards liberated, they marry.^ The tale is full of adven- 
tures met with on the way, combats, quarrels, misunderstandings, and such lUce. 

A.D. 800. 
The Muspelheim, p. 29. 
The Heliandy p. 29. 

The Ludivig-Lay, or tríumpha! song of Louis III., p. 29. 
Charlemagne causes the bardic songs, the homilies, and the laws to be compiled. 

Alcuin, pp. 23, 24, an Anglo-Saxon, invited over to the Court of Charle- 
magne; 737-804. 

Eginhard, p. 18, secretary of the great king. Wrote in Latin the Life of 
Charlemagne, one of the best biographies ever written. He married 
Imma, the king's daughter ; 771-839. 

NiTGARD, Charlemagne*s grandson, Wrote in Latin a History of the 
dissensions ofthe sons of Louis le Débonnaire ; 790-858. 

Otfried, p. 29, an Alsatian monk. Wrote in Germán the Evangelists^ 
Book, and a rhyming metrícal Life of Christ, This is one of the most 
precious relies of the middie ages, being the earliest Germán poem in 
rhyme ; died 870. 

Paul Warnefried (called Paulus Diaconus), secretary of Didier, king of 
Lombardy, and invited to the court of Charlemagne. Wrote in Latin 
the famous hymn Ut queant laxis, p. 53 ; <r History of the Lombards, in 
six books ; and a History ofthe Goths; 740-799. 


Raban Maur, abbot of Fulda, and afterwards archbishop of Mainz. Wrote 
in Latin the famous hymn Véni Creatar^ sung in the Anglican church in 
" the Ordering of Priests "— 

'* Come^ Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, 
And lighten with celestial fixe." 

He wrote several other works, as Th¿ Origin of JLanguages, Etytnology^ 
&c.; 776-856. 

A.D. 900. 


Hrosvita, p. 43, a nun. Wrote in Latin comedies^ j>oems, &c.; died 980. 
LuiTPRAND of Lombardy. Wrote in Latin a History of Germany^ from 862 
to 964; 920-972. 

NoTKER, the Stammerer, monk of St. Gall, in Switzerland. Translated Tht 
Psalms into Germán; 830-912. 

Reginon, abbot of Prum, in Prussia, historian. Wrote in Latin a ChronicU 
to the year 907 ; 892-915. 

TUTILO, a monk of St. Gall, in Switzerland ; painter, statuary, poet, and 
musician ; died 909. 

WiTiKiND of Westphalia, historian. Wrote in Latin Annals of Otto^ the 
Great; 963. 

A.D. 1000. 

The Ruod-ltehf p. 47, a poem by Tegem. A Bavarían monk, Guido d'Arezzo, p. 53, invents 
the musicad scale. Sec Paul Warnbfried, under a.d. 800. 

Abbat of Stade, in Hanover, historian. Wrote in Latin Chronicles, 

Adam of Bremen, p. 56, historian. Wrote in Latin a History of tht 
churches of Bremen and Hamburg; died 1076. 

BuRCHARD, p. 47, tutor of kaiser Konrad, the Salic ; compiled a volume of 
canons of such authority, that any sentence it gave was beyond appeal. 
Henee to burchardise meant to speak ex cathedra^ to speak dictatorially ; 
died 1026. 

DlTHMARy p. 47, of Merseburg, historian. Wrote in Latin a History of tht 
Saxon emperors of Germany, in eight books ; died 1018. 

Herbert, bishop of Eichstadt, in Ba varia ; poet and theologian. 

Hermann the Cripple, p. 56. Wrote in Latin a Chronicle of the Six Ages 

oftht World to the year 1053, it was continued to 1 100 by Bertholde ; 

loi 3-1054. 

Lambert of Aschaffenburg, p. 64, historian. Wrote in Latin a Universal 
History from Creation to the year 1050, and a History of Germany from 
losoto loyy; 1020-1100. 

Notker, bishop of Liége, historian. Wrote in Latín 9^ History of the 
Bishops of Lüge ; died 1008. 

Wetiknig, monk of Westphalia, historian. Wrote a History ofthe times» 

WlLLERAM of Bavaría. Wrote in the Frankic dialect a Faraphrast of 
Solomon^s Song, 

WiPPON, p. 50, almoner of kaiser Henry III., historian. 


., Tte Feíidil Uw! 

KineSellur, a IcitnáBTí p£ 

£ uñdeí'S'eD''o 

in Lalin and Gemun. Kin^ Rotherof Apuliadc 

u of Díeoich. stcpls away ihc lady and líbemles hJ5 ectvujs. 
Ji iDjiutim (si-riEs uocK ine lady lo CoEufiuitUiop]F| buc KalKer wiíh na anay of giaatt 
agaia curica her aff and kills I)ie empcrar. 

Anonymoüs, — 7ÍÍ Anno-liíd, a poeiical legend so called fram Anno, arch- 
bishop of Cologne, It is os stiange a jumble of chrono!(^y as the 
Orlañda Furioso of Arioslo. It beijins with Crealíon and Ihe FaJl of 
Man, runs otTto thc ballle of FharsaLa bctween Pampey and Ciesar, Üiea 
to [he introduction of Chiistianity among (he Franlis (called tbe eJc 
scendanls of the Trojan race), the fbundation of Cologoe calhedral, the 
civil wars in the leign of Itaiser Henry IV., and cnds with a eulogy uf 
Addo, the thiity-Eecond aichbishop of Cologne. 

Anselm (St.)> philosopher and theologian; 1033-1109. 

Bruno (St.) of Colige, p. 63, founder of the Caithusian order of monlts. 
Wroté in Latin Cemmtndarics on Ihe Psalms and on the Pattline EpistUs; 

GoDFREY of Viterbo, p. 84, secietary of Konrad III., Frederick Barbarossa, 
and Ilemy IV. ; historian. Wtole in Latia the Paníheim, a chronicle 
fcom creation to the yeat 1186; 1105-1191. 

Helmolde of Butiow, Meckienhurg, historian. Wrote in Latin a Hisisry ef 
the Slavs, contioued to the yeai 1209 by Arnold of LUbeck; dicd 1170. 

Henry of Veldig, p. 91, a Minneringer, 

HlLDECARDA (St.), abhess of Rupett, Maini; famous for heí visions, an 
Bccount of which sbe wrote by ordet of Ihe pope; 1098-1178. 

Konrad, a monk in the aervice of HeQt7 the Líon, wrote a legendnry poem 
called Rolands'Heá, the most oncient of all the slorics of thc great 
paladín. The poet Bays that an ángel appcaied to Charlemagne cata- 
manding him lo lead aa anny ioto Spam, lo convert the Moors to 
Chtlslianity. Aiter many battles and sieges, the pagans craved pcace, 
and Charlemagne scnt Canelón to arrange the lerms theieof. Canelón, 
the Judas of ihe tweive paladins, betrayed bía master for filthy lucre, 
professed lo have made terms, and persuaded Charlemagne to retum, as 
fiia nÚEsion was accomplished. Charlemagne accordinely retums at the 
head of the niain army, leaving hia nephew Roland lo bring up the rear. 
Roland was attacked in the Fyreneea by an army of Moots, and was 
slain with his friend OHver, Charlemagne heard Ihehlast of hÍ3 ivory 
hom and hastened to the lescue, cut to pieces the Moors, but was too late 
lo save his paladina and Ihe army under them. Marching in his fury ta 
Spain, he took Saragossa, Ihe capital, and put the king lo the sword. 
tile poem ends with the funeral rites, like the IliadtÁ Homer, As for 
Canelón, when he got back to Aix-ia-Chapellc he was lorn to pieces by 
wild horses. 

Th=r= is anofher EaUaSi-Uid Tiy Slricker (131I1 cent.), nnd nf coune ihe French 
talí by Ihe hypotheticol Turpin liiahap of Rheima. probably by a canon of BarctLona. 

KosMOs of Fragüe, historian. Wcote in Latin a Histary of Bohemia; 1045— 

. 64. Founder of the Fremonstreb 

:etenaÍMl ] 


OtTO, bishop of Ffeisengen, p. 74, historian, Wrote in Latín a CirVHirle I 
/ram Crealian to the year 1146, in seven books. Tlie lasl Ihree, belng i 
coDtemporary histoty, are very valuable. He alsQ wrolc n Li/e ^ 1 
Am/ínci (Baibarossa), whích was cuntínued by Radevíc; died 1158. T 

SlGGBERT, a Belgian monk, bistoiian. Wiote in Latia ChnmUia from 381 I 
lo mi; 1030-1112, 

SoLTH, p, 56, historian. Wrote a Hislory af kaiser ffmry If. 

WEE.NIIBR of Niederheíro, poet. Wrote a. poelical l^end about the healíng 
of Titus by St. Verónica. Verónica ís auppoaed lo posaess a handker- 
chief wilh wliich Jesús wiped his face on his wnj lo Calvary, and in eo 
doing left on the handketdiief his phott^aph. Verónica disphiyed thÍ3 

thandkerchief in the sighl of the empetor Tílua, who waa Eullenng ftom 
some incurable disease, and instantly he was "made whole." | 

KNHER of Tegero-See, in Bavatia, poet, Wrote an £k^ o» tie Virgin I 


(f lfilt!iHtgHI-IÍld, olled the ' 

, in Ihrec pArls, odled Üifi ' 

SI OÍ tha S 



Tte Suaitan Mirr 

by £pko of Repgow, In J 
^^Inl by tbs CDUIll 

— Public records wi 

digEst ol the Sunbü 

ni-BERT the Gceat (Albertus Magnus), p. 113, abbot of Stade, ín Hanover, 
I naturalist; promotes the atudy of Anstollej 1193-1280, 
AKNold of Líibeck, wrote a conlinuation of Helmolde's ChrenicU of the 
S/aví, bringing it down lo Ihe year 1209; died about 1213. (See above, 


Bennon a Germán cardinal. Wrote in Latín a ¿i/ir 0/ Gregpty VII. 
Ckristian, archbishop of Maini. Wrote in Latin a Histery of Mainz. 
David Scotus of Wiiraburg, historian. 
Frederick II., p. S6. Wrote in Latin On tne Arí of Huntins, one of the 

best treatises on the aubject ever written ; 1 196-1250. 
GoNTHiEB, p. 82, Ligurian poet. Wrote in Latín a poem called ¿ugurírtuí, 

aa heroic poem having Frederick Barbarossa for its heco; died 1 21 3. 
GOTTFRIKD of Strasburg, p, 94, a minnesinger, 
Hartuann von ber. Aue, p. 93, a minnesinger (1170-121S). 
llENRV of Oflerdingen, p. 92, a minnesinger (ijth cent.) 
KoNRAD of Lichtenou, historian, Wrote m Latin o History of Ursperg, on 

the Danube; died 1241. 
Konrad of WÜrzburg, poet. Wrole a Mnd of epic on the Tre/att War. 

This poem is also attributed to Wattei von Vogelweide, see p. 91; 

Konrad died 128a. 
Martin of Poland (Martin Poloniis, whose ñame was Matlin Slríebski), 

p. 113, historian. Wrote in Latin a Hiilery úf thí Popts and Emptrors, 

Xa the yeai 1277. Tbis history is nolEworthy, in that it is Ihe Rrst to 

íñve 3 full and particiüai accounlof "pope Joan," the íemale pontiCf¡ 
ied 1278, 




of Olto's Life ef Friáeriek 

RadEVIK, p. 74. 'Wrote in Lat 

(BttiljHiossa). Seeabovc, Otto, A-d. iiou, 
BOBERT of Auxeire, a, mock, historian. V/iole in Latín Clirimicleí fmn 

Crealion. It gocs down to the yeai 1213, and is certamly une of the best 

of these Chronides; died izia. 
RuDOLF of Munster, historian, 
ScHONHUTH, p. 107, historian. 'Wrole in Lalin a Hüiory and Life of A 

Rudolf ef Jlabsburg. ^ 

Semeca (John), Wrote Nolej oh Che Cuiten Law; died 1248. 
Strickek, poet, author of Ihe RalaiídsMcd. See KONKAD, A.I 
WaLter of Ví^elweide, p. 91, a minnesingcr. 
WoLFRAM of Eschenbach, p. 93, a minnesingcr. 

In Ihii CEnlory livEd &ud Gniiiiiiuiticu, thEDiiDÜh hUiorian; 1134- 

A.D. 1300. 

No niune of rminonce occuri in Ihú cenlury, n« ¡n Ihn firet h»lf of Ibc neil cenlmy. The 
literalure was of the Loweit type. coi»»LÍng of aDCcdútUj fabtu^ And lu5ICTÍc:il 
íbdücnU tonurcd in:D moral and reÜRious parablts. 

Tho Uys of the MinnsÍDecn caEkcted by HuEú of Tryniberr. 

Th< Muleraineerí- CSuüd founded, i^jo, \y Hemridl FraueJob, p. 164. 

John Ncpomnlc murdcrcd by kjUKT Wcnceslau' for refuvoE to bciny the kükii of Ihe 
Confesiionsl, p. 133. 

Walter líjlUrdand Bia-lhold TMirnt for " híieiy," p. 133. 

The ñnt Prp^r-Mi'l"^ G^!^y^s«'uplt'Nambere ¡n Tjgo. 

Albert of Strasburc, p- 124, wrote Chrankles from kaiser Rudolf I. to 

Kacl IV, 
BONER, Ulrich, p. 123, fabutist. Wrote in Germán the Edehtein (Precious 

Stone), a compilation of fables, ollegories, tales, and prccepls. Tbis was 

the ürst Germán boolc put into prínt ¡ died 1335, 
DtJNS ScoTiiS, bom in the British Isles and educaled at Oxford, was appoinled 

professor of divinity at Cologne. He was Ihe founder of the bcolists; 

Eberhard of Allheim, historian. Wrole in Latin a Hislary ef Aastria. 
ENGELBEürof Slyria, p. 113, poet and historian. Wrate in Latió TJU Jiist 

aad Fatl 0/ the Kentatt Empire. 
HeNrV of Ilervordcn, chronider. 
Henky of Hessen, nominilist; died 1397. 
Henry of Rebdorf, chtoniclei. 
Hugo of Ttymbe^, who coUecled the lays of the minnesingers, waa tha 

author of a book in the Germán language cslled Kennir (Runner), He 

compares himself or his book lo n noiae which gallops about carrpnc 

instrucción evcrywhere. The Rcnnir is a compilalion similar to Ihut 3L 

Boner's (see above]; died 1300. 
James of Kbnigshofen, Strasbuig. Wrote in Germán Chreniclts. 
JOKN of Eecka. Wrole a History ef Utriehl. 

LUDOLF of Sajony. Wrole ia Latin a Life ef Jeius Ckrisl; 130O-1370. 
MUSSATO, Alberlin, p. I17, poet and historian. Wrote in Lalin a Life ef 

Xaiier Henry VIL, ¡ 


I Histery 0/ Mvenís since the Death ef Hmry¡ 


SiFFRiD of Misnia, Saxon chronicler. 


(called Trecentisti. Dante died 1321; Petrarch, 1374; Boccaccio, 1375). 


A.D. 1400. 

The last century and first half of thjs were barren of great luunes ; but literature revived in 
the second nalf, and, strange as it may seem, the subject of interest was Astronomy. 

PBZITTZNCI' invented in Germany, between Z436 and 1466. (See p. 154.) 

Agrícola, Rudolf, p. 156, teacher of Greek and Latin in Heidelburg; 1442- 

Cusa, Nicholasvon, p. 155, astronomer; 1401-1464. 

FoLZ, Hans, p. 166, a mastersinger. 

Gmunden, John von, astronomer; died 1440. 

Hammerlein of Zurich, satirist. 

Muller of Konigsberg, p. 155, restorer of the science of astronomy; 1436- 

Peurback, Geoxge, p. 155, astronomer; 1423-1461. 

Persona, Gobelin, of Westphalia, p. 144. Wrote in Latin Costno-dromium^ 
a universal history; 135S-1420. 

SCHILDBERGER, of Munich, historian. Wrote a History of Timur the Tartar, 

Stadweg, historian. Wrote ChronUles in the Saxon disdect. 

Thierry of Westphalia, p. 144, papal secretary. Wrote in Latin a History 
of the Schisms of the Popes; died 1416. 

WiNDECK, p. 144, wrote in Germán a Life of Kaiser Sipnund. 

some other historical works, and the romance of Euryalus and Lucretia, a charming 
tale; X405-X464, p. 137. 

THE GOLDEN PERIOD OF PORTUGAL (was from John the Great to John III.) 
(Vasco de Gama lived 1469-1525; Camoens, 1524-1575). 

A.D. 1500. 

(It was not a reviva!, because such a vitality never existed before in Germany, but an 

awakening to life and vigour). 
Reformation of religión by Luther,. of astronomy by Copemlcus, and engraving by Albert 

The regular theatre established in Germany. 
The best period of the Master-singers, p. 164. 
The Hebrew Bible put into print 1518. 

Agrícola, George, mineralogist. 

Agrícola, John, p. 189, a reformen Wrote in Germán, Proverbs and their 
Explanations; 1492- 1566. 

Agrippa, H. C., p. 162, secretary to kaiser Maximilian L, astrologer and 

alchemist; 1486-1535. 
Alber, Erasmus, satirist. Wrote in Germán TTie Book of Wisdotn and 

Virtue, a coUection of 49 fables in verse, &c. He declaims against the 

papal court and the wandering preachers ; died 1553. 


169. Wrote in Germán Reynard tht Fox;^ 


frote Ih 

Al-KMAR, Heiorich v 

about 1510. 
AvBNTlN (whose Dame was John Thumiflier), p, 190, histoliao. 

\.a.tia a. Hiitory b/ Bavúria; I476-1534. 
BebEL, Henry, p, 170, poet. Wrole in Germán the Triumph cf Vchuh 

Bbkaiu, Martin, of Niirabei^, astronomer and geographer. He was the first 

lo conslrucl a Map of the Wm-ld and a Tírralnal Globe. Hía globe is 

sCill preserved at Nümbet^ ; 1430-1506. 
Brandt, Sebastian, p. 167, satirist. Wiote in Germao the SMp of Foeh; 

1458-1520. ^^ 

BUCER, Martin, p. 190, a refornier. Wrote in Gernian an Exfosilitn 4^§^H 

Psalms; 1491-1551. ^^| 

Calvin, ]o'ba, p. 1S9, a leformer, who sctlled in Geneva ; 1509-1564. ^^| 
Carlstadt, Andrew, p. 1S9, of Franconia, a leformer,- 1433-1541. ^^1 

Caiuon, historian. Winte in Latín a Compendium of Universal Hütury; 

died 1532. 
Cbltbs, Conrad, p. 170, ihe first Gcnnotí poet who was cíowned. Wrote ín 

Germán the Artef Poclry; 1459-1508. 
COPERNICUS, p. 191, ofThora, the Reformer of Astronomy; I473-IS43- 
CusplNlAN, John, p. 190, of Franconii, hislorinn. Wrole in Latin a Histoty 

of Auslria, and Commialaríes, or a hlstory of the ejnperors from Julius 

Cirear to Maximilian I.; 1473-1529. 
DuBRAW, John, p. 190. of Bohemia. Wrote in Latin a JIUiory of Bohemia, 

in 33books; died 1553, 
DURER, Albert, p. 192, of Nümbei^, artist and engraver; I47I-152S, 
FlscElART,p. 1 69, ofMainz, satirist. TranslatedA'a^/aúinto Germán; 1545-1589. 
Fouz, Hans, p. 166, a mastersinger ; 1479-1542, 
Fkank, Sebastian, p. 156, historian, Wrote in Germán Chranicks to Ihe 

year 1581, and a BiiU History; 1500-1545. 
Frischlin, Nicodemus, dramatic poet. Wrote in Latín comedies and 

Iragedics, ¡a Jiebicca, kc; 1547-1590, 
GESNER, p. 206, the "Pliny of Germany;" 1516-1565. 
GoETzof Berlichiiwen (called the Iron-handed). Víiole a Ifisltiy of iiioiVH 

advíiiíures; 1480-1562. 
Gk¥NBECK, historian. Wrole in Germán Ihe Life cf Fredeñck III. okJ 

Maximiliaa I.; died 150S. 
Kramach, Lucas, p, 192, artist and engraver; 1471-1553. 
Krantz, Albert, p. 1 56, chronicler. Wrote in Latin Chranicks ofthe Svudei, 

of the JWinw^iflíw, and of the ¿'nHíj; 1450-1517. 
LlNGMAN, Mathias {whose pseudonym was Philesius Vogesígena), of Schele- 

stadt, grammarian and lillh-aleur; 1482-1511, 
LUTHER, Martin, pp. 175-1S2, Ihe great reügiooB reformer. TransJnted the 

£iji^ into Germán ; J4S3-1546. 
Manuel, N., of Bcme, satirist and diamatif: wriler, especially severe on the 

catholic church ; 1484-1530. 
Melamckthon, Philip, p. 180, 1S9, reformer. He drew iip the CanfeateH 

BfAugsbtirs; 1497-1560. 


Mercator, p. 194, a geographer. Draws maps with parallel longitudinal 
lines, called Mercaiot's Frojcction; 1512-1594. 

MuNSTER, Sebastian, p. 205, of Ingelheim. Wrote in Latin a Universal 
Costnography; 1489- 1 521. 

MuRNER, p. 168, of Strasburg, satirist. Wrote in Germán the OwlgUus; 

Paracelsus, p. 191, chemist, &c.; 1493-1541. 

PiRKHEiMERy of Nümberg, historian and first Germán numismatologist. 
Wrote in Latin a Compendium of Germán History, &c.; 1470- 1530. 

ROLEWINCK, Wemer, p. 156, of Westphalia, historian. Wrote in Lfatin 
Fasculus Tempóruntf compendium of his own times; 1425-1502. 

RosENBLUTy Hans, p. 166, of Nümberg, a mastersinger. Wrote in Germán 
Drinking songs, an Elogy on Nümberg^ &c. He declaims severely 
against the clergy and nobles ; 1450-1 562. 

RuDOLF, p. 170, of Lange, introduced into Munster the study of Greek; 

Sach, Hans, p. 166, of Nümberg, prínce of the mastersingers ; 1494-1 574. 

Sleidan, John, p. 190, of Cologne, "The Germán Livy ;" 1506-1556. 

Treizsurwein, p. 156, secretary of kaiser Maximilian I. Wrote a Life of 
Maximilian /. from materials fumished by the kaiser himself. 

Tritheim, John, p. 170, chronicler and theologian; 1462-15 16. 

Tschudi, Egidius, historian. Wrote in Germán a Swiss Chranicle; 1505* 

Waldis, Burkhard, p. 243, of Altdorf, fabulist. Rendered the Psalms into 

Germán; died 1553. 
ZwiNGLius, p. 188, Swiss reformer ; 1484-1531. 

Erasmus, of HoIIand, lived in this century ; X467-X536. 
Bruno, p. 353, the Italian {Natura naiurans) ; X550-Z600. 


(Spenser was bom 1553; Marlowe and Shakespeare, 1564; Ben Jonson, 

A.D. 1600. 

This was a sad era of literary aflfectation and bad taste. AII oríginality was abandoned, and 
such poets as existed anected the Italian, French, or classic style. Their Italian model 
was Maríni, their classic model Séneca. The schools were called the Silesian. the ñrst 
founded by Opitz, all court lacquer and veneering ; the second was dramatic, alí bombasí 
and horror, 

Several literary guilds were established, as the Order of the Paim^ a vile imitation of the 
Della Cruscans (zózjX It was chiefly conñned to the exquisites ; each member assumed 
the ñame of some vegetable ; and vied in making the most courtly compliment. 

The Order qf the Flower was of a similar character, only the membíers were called by the 
ñames of flowers. 

The Society of puré Gemtan^ founded by Zesin in 1643, professed to purify the spelling 
and language, but was wholly ridiculous for its purism. 

The Society 0/ the Shepherds of Pe^nitz (Bavaria), founded in 164^, was a society for the 
cultivation of pastoral poetry, m which Colin and Lubin, Delia and Chloe, dressed in 
the style of Watteau's ñ^res, talked of sheep and shepherds in elegant verse fit for 
cream-laid princes and pnncesses. 

There was also the Order of the Swan^ but the affectation of elegance was the besettmg sin 
of the day. 

Opera was introduced after the Thirty-Years' War, and for a time wholly ecliíjsed the drama. 
Science made an advaacej especially astronomy, chemistry, and pneumatics. 

.— taSIí 

Lalin; 1530-1605. 

<lc Ihe Slarry Htmiats, willl 

a HUIory of Cermany, üoin 


AbraKAM vonSta. Claira, aSuabian monk, noted for the oiigiaaütyofhís ser* 

mons, íull of anecdotes, wilLiciams, drolleries, and. quotalions from seculai 

wrilers. One caWeA Judas Ihe FíZ/aín is veiy celehialed ; 1642-1709. 
AfíDREW, I. VaJenline, of Würtemberg, niystic. Founder of the Resicruciam ; 

Ayreh, Jacob, of Nürnberg, dramalic poel 
Balde, J,, Latin poet ; 1603-1Ó68. 
Bayer, John, of Augsberg, astconomer. 

mapsi i603'i669. 
Bellus, Nicholas, n. 194, historian. W 

1617 lo 1640 i died aboui 1645. 
BoEHMEN, Jacob, of GorliW, a mystic. Wtote in Germán the Aurora, s. 

mjíslic book on the [bree principies of the divine essence ; 1575-1624. 
BoNGARs, John, of Hanover, cride. Wrote in Latin a Histoy ef Che 

Cmsades ; 1546-1642. 
BiTXTORF, John, of 'We.sIphalÍH, oriental scholar. Defends the masoretic 

jKiinli. (Sibrea and Chaldaic Biblt.) 1504-1629. 
Canitt, F. R., of Bctlin, poet ; 1654-1699. 
Christ, F-, p. 194] historían. Wrote in Latín Annah of Ferdinand 11, ; 

ChkisTOPUeK von Grimmelsbauscn, p. 241 (csüed Samuel Greifenson voa 

Hirschfeld). Wrole in Gemían Simplidus Simplicusimus ; died 1676. 
Cluvier, Philip, of Daniig, gcographer, Wrote in Latín Ancteitl Germaiiy, 

Ancitnl Ilaly, Attcimt Siály, &c.; 1580-1633. 
CoNRlNG, Heimann, of Hanover, tuiiversal genius. Wrote in Latía an 

Introduclion to iht Univtrsat Art of MedUiíu ¡ 1606-1681. 
Dach, Simón, of Pmssia, poet of the "Order of Fruíta." His best lyrics 

are The Rosi, The Eagle, and Anae van Thara, His bymns aie still used 

in churchcB i 1605-1659. 
Thk Elzbvire, printers at Leyden ; 1595-1681. 

Fleming, Paul, p. 242, poet, of the " Order of the Palm ¡ '' 1609-1640. 
Fkbh&r, Marquard, of Nürnberg. Wrole in Latin Noted Aulhon 0/ Cer' 

many, asíA Noted Authors of Bohemia ; 1565-1614. 
Gerbarii, Paul, p. 343, a religious poet ; 1606-1676. 
Glass, S., oí Saxony. Wrote Sacred Philolo^, in two bookfl ¡ 1593-1656. 
GlAUBER, chemisi. Discovered Glouier's Sait (sulphate of soda); 1604-1668, 
GoLUAST, Melchior, of Heiminsféld, historian. Wrote in Latía Noted Suiáiati 

Anthors, and a Life of Jeanni d'Arc; 1576.1635. 
Grvph, Andrew, p. 242, best dramatic poet of Ihe '* Second Silesian Sehool," 

Wrote in Germán tragedies and comedies. His model was Séneca; 

GUBRICKE, Otto von, p. 2IO, of Magdeburg. Invented the air-pump ¡ 

HELMONT, Baplista von, of Brtiasek, the greateat chemist preceding Lavoisier. 
He was Ihe first fo use the word gas, and the first to tske the melting- 
point of ice and the boiling-point of water as standards of the measure of 
temperature, Wrote in l^lin The Rise of MedtítHe, His crotchels are 
that man is a dual being, consisttng of archi and duumvirat, p. 354, ajul 
that the soul is in the stomach; 1577-1644. 


JIevel, John, p. 310, oF Dantdc, 

Wrote a. Iteatise on Cometí; 

IIOFMANN, Christopher, p. 301, of Hofii 

SUesisn School," eleganl: but ¡ice 

andfullof epithels; 1618-1669. 
Hurtes, p. 194, hísiotian. Vítale 

about 1643. 

:, Elias, of Nüinbcrg, pol}^lotlist i lJ53-t6ll, 

Latín a History ef Austria; died 

KEPLER, pp. 193, 206, "Falherof Modem Asttonomy;" 1571-1630, 
Khevenhuller, F. C. Wroie in Laiio Amtals 0/ Ferdinand II.; Ij8^ 

LoGAU, Frederíck, poet of Ihe " Sccond Silesian School," Wrole ia Gerin«a I 

Epigrams; 1604-1653. 
I^KENSTEiN, Ga^püT, p. Z4]< dramatíc poet of the " Secood Süesian j 

r School," proverbial loi bombast ¡ 1635-1633. 
RROF of Weimar. Wroto in Latin Polykistar, 1 vols.; 1639-1691. 
" Pü1ymalh^ and Polyhijlpri, 
— MooBS, TkiDimlMKu^tluSclulan. 
Olgarius of Anhalt, a traveller. Wrole Trovéis in Muscevia, Traveís t» 

Tartary, and Traveh i'if Perita; 1600-1671. 
Opitz, Marlin, p. 24», called Ihe " Restorer of Germán Poetry." He waa 

Ihe founder of a school in which (inael and lawdiy were made to supply 

thc places of breathing thoughts and burningwords; 1597-1639. ' 

Fkilakdek. of Sittewali!, p. 343, satirist. Wrote in Gennan prose hi» | 

Marvellaus and Veraciaus VUiími, in which he scourges the folliei of 

theday: died 1650. 
PUFFENDORF, Samuel, p. 210, of Saxony. Wiote in Latín On the Laai tf ' 

Natims, in 8 books; 1633-1694, 
Rackei, satirisl ; 1617-1669. 
RiST, John, lyric poel. Insliluled the "Orderof the Swan." By 1 

smoüth Ihings he made many patrons, bnt his poelty lies buried w¡ 

poet; 1607-1667. 
RlTTEKSHüVS, Coniad, of Brunswick, lawycrj 1560-1613. 
RiTTERSHUVS, Nicholas. Wrote a Cenealogy ef ifie Kings, Emferer. 

Priitces of the -aihole World, lo the ycar 1640; 1597-1670. 
Rollen H AGEN, Geotge, p. 169. Wrote in Germán the Battie ef the Fregs ' 

andMice: 1543-1609. 
ScBtTPP, Ballhaiar, of Hamborg, sütirist. Wrole in Gennan prose Iiutrucliot j 

Z^Joni-, in dialogue; 1610-1661. 
SciOPPlüS, Gaspar (called Ihe " GraminaticaJ Cynic"). Wrole in Latin ■ 

Elemcnts of Ihe Stoie Philosífhy, and a Pkitoiopkical Grammar; 1576- 

Seckekdorf, historian. Wrole in Latín a Cempenáium of Chureh Hislory; 

I 6*6-1692. 
Senneíit, Daniel, founderof Ihe firsl chemical school of medicine; 1 573-1637. 
TaubmaNN, Frederick, of Franconia, a Latin poet; 1565-1613. 

Weckherlik, G. R-, of Würtemberg, the besl of Ihe lyric poet* of the 

^^F imitativa Bchools; 1584-1651. 

ZesC^E, Fbilip TOO, of iluxiburg Tiíed to puriíj the Germán laog 
made himself ridiculoo^ hj bis ptirísins; l6l9-l&4.3. 

ZiNKCKKr of Ueiddbe^ poce Wrole both Gemun >nd Latü 

Bef A, Hwacldre, of FnfiCe, Eved ¡n lliíi cenlnry, 1519-1609, 

DjocAitTTt, lite Ffmdi phil(MDfihcr,iirbo»úlCiyr>#if^fp j«f3iv; 1^^7-16^19. 

Cconuí sf Holknd, uUut of Ibt TmlJt tf Ikt Cirittíam Rtiifitm, and Di J\ 

Pt^,-,; ls83->4íS. 
SfraoíA, p. 1)4. of Holknd. Vroic tn Litín />i»rA(i»<: líji-iS??, 
TvcHD DKAHXt P' i93i tt>B B^^At Daniífa auraruaier ¿ 1546-1601. 

Il was the age of the Frencb pkiads. ComeillF. Racine, Moliere, La 
Fonlaioe, Balzac "the Salón of Krench pióse," Pascal, Kocbefbucauld, 
La Brayíre, L'Aneeli tíic conrt loo! ; the sitúts PoDssin, Lesueoí, Lebrun ; 
logelher with Moreti, Pelan, Mcoage, VoituK, Uul. Sávigné, &C., were all 
bom and all díed ia thü centuiy. 


TDWwdi Ihe niddle of (he ce 

Le vceicd, ud Owan vid Sbáke«pcBin 
ury the lan^a^ of Germany 


innoB fof poetry and eknrtic 


,D ph'üosophv w 

■ Thefiíhilllhtl 
d by Lcibi' 

A. Uboúrcd ta tilfcrate Gcnoan fn 
Akmold, Cocifrey, a mystíc. Wrole a Histary ^ Religiaut Bcnsin; 1665- 

Bahrdt, theologian, maiolained that religión consislcd of morality, atid tliat 
Chiisl wasDnly aman, the benerucloi and leacherofhisracei 1741-1793. 

a Ijtia, Thtory ef the 

laticians (Integral caUulus); 1654—1705; 
n I^alin ffydredynamia ; 1700- 

1, the benerucli 
Basedow of Hambui^ a cckbrated pedagogist ; 
Bauhgakten, p. 257, a disciple of Wolf. Wrote ii 

Bíauli/ul a;nA Gnieral PkUosaphy ; 1714 '~'- 
BekHOÜILLI {two brothen 

BERNOUII.LI, David, matl: 

BlLFIStíCR, philosopber. Wiole in Latin on the anima miindi, p. a54, and 

on Thne/iild Cegnitien {\. hístorícal, 2. philosopbical, 3. matbematical); 

BODMER of ZuHch, poet. 'Wrole Ihe Nuackiaii, =n epic in Iwelve books; and 

translated Homer's Iliad and Miltoo's Parixdisi I.osl into Germán. lie 

alsa did good seivice in editing Ibe lays of ihe Minnesingers, Ule 

Nibebingcn-!i ' ' ' " - > -- -'-f ---- 


Brockes of Hamburg, poet, opposed to the Silesian school. He directed 
his countrymen to Énglish Uterature in preference to French. Wrote 
Terrestrial PUasures, a didactic poem, far superior to anything of the 
períod, being more simple, fervid, and living. He also abandoned the 
long Alexandrine line for shorter metres; 1680-17 17. 

BuDDiEUS of Pomerania, theologian. Wrote a History of the Church of the 
Oíd Testament; 1667-1729. 

BuNAü, historian. Wrote a History of the Empire of Gertnany; 1697-1762. 

BuRGER, Gottfried, p. 251, wríter of ballads and lyríc poetry; 1748- 1794. 

BuscHiNG, one of the greatest of modem geographers. Wrote Universal 
Geography; 1724- 1793. 

Cellarius, constructed an atlas of ancient geography; 1638-1707. 

CoccEjí of Bramen. Wrote in I^tin a commentary on Grotius*s great work, 
De jure belli etjxuis ; 1644-1 719. 

CRAMERof Bohemia, poet; 1723-1788. 

Cranz, philosopher. Wrote in Latín on the Philosophy of Leibnitz and 

Wolf; 1690-1753. 
Croneck, dramatic poet. His tragedies are celebrated ; 1 731- 1758. 

Crusius, philosopher opposed to Wolf; 1712-1775. Author of a Sketch of 

the Essential Truths of Reason, Moral Philosophy^ &c. 
Curas, historian. Wrote a Universal History ; 1722. 
D AMM of Saxony, Greek scholar. New Etymological Greek Lexicón ; 1699- 1778. 

DlPPEL, theologian and chemist ; he discovered animal oil and Prussian blue» 
Wrote in I^tin the Christian Democritus; 1 673- 1734. 

EcKHOF, actor and dramatic author ; 1722- 1778. 

Ernesti, J. a., editor of Greek and Latin Classics ; 1707-1781. 

EuLER, mathematician. Elements of Algebra ; 1707- 1783. 

Fabricius of Leipzig, critic. Wrote in Latin Bibliotheca Graca, Bibliotheca 
Latina^ and Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica ; 1668- 1738. 

Fahrenheit of Danzig, improved the Thermometer, and invented the 
Aerometer; 1690- 1740. 

Forster, J. C., philosopher; 1735- 1798. 

FoRSTER, J. R., voyager and naturalist, accompanied Captain Cook. 

Wrote Character of the Australian Plants, History of the Northern 

Discoveries ; 1729- 1798. 
J. G. His son accompanied him. Wrote Voyage Round the 

World; I754-I794- 
Frisch, naturalist. Wrote a Description of the Insects of Germany^ a 

Description of the Birds of Germany, and a German-Latin Dictionary ; 

Fulda, grammarian. Wrote Germán Radicáis; 1 724-1781. 
Gellert, p. 247, poet and moralist, serious and humble, but feeble and 

morbid. The earth was to him a vale of tears, and man a miserable 

worm. He took La Fontaine for his model in his Pables; 17 15- 1769. 
Gesner, S., p. 252, idyllic poet Wrote in Germán the DecUh of Abel; 

1 730- 1 788. 
Gesner, J. M., of Gottingen. A Latin Thesaurüs; 1691-1761. 
Gesner, J. J., of Zurích. Wrote in Latin on Ancient Coins; 1730- 1788. 


eLUCK, p. 260, the "Michael Angelo ofMusic i" 1714-17S7. 

GoTTSCHED, p. 24;, aman of vcry modérale lalent who raised himself to tlie 

post pf ]¡terary diclalor and arbítet of taste in Gennany. He directcd 

■lis countrymen lo French lilerature and admired Opitx. "Quí Bavium 

non odil, nmet [na caraiina, Mcevi}" I7[X)-I766, 
GoTZ, pastoral poet; 1721-17S1. 
GrOssman cf Berlín, dramatic autlior, called "The Shakespeare of Ger- 

many;" ij^d-ijgd. 
GuNTHEB, tried to improve the líterary laste, and no doubt was a better poet 

Ihan his contemporary counlrymen, but hU diüsolute life deslroyed hís 

influence; 1695-1723. 
llAGEDOKN, Frederkk von, of Hamburg, poel. La Fontaine waa his model; 

MALLER, p. 2¡8, of Gerne, " Falhec of Physiology," anatomist, botaníst, and 

poel; he discovered Ihe foice al IrritabilUy independenl of sensibility. 

Wrote ¡n Germán the Flora g S-witzeH¡a,d, Ibe Book ef Balany, The 

Alps, a didactic poem on the English model, and EUmtnts ef Fhysiolegy 

(inLatiti); 170E-1777. 
Hauann, p. asS, "Magician of the Norlh." Wrote on everything, and on 

nolhingwell; 1730-17SS. 
It is oT Huiunn that JaUn Paul uíd, "Tb« miihty HwniuiD bcan on hli iliouldeii 

HANDEL, p. 260, piince of musical composers. Composed Tht McsHah; 

Hkinecciiís, p. 345, lawjer. Vrcte in l.atin the Eltmenls of Civil I.au>; 

Hermann, J., mathematician. Wrote Fkaronamia ; 1678-1733. 
Heumahn of Altstadt. Wrote in Latió a Compcndium ef the Republic ef 

Letttrs, and a Dictionary of Anonym¡ ; 1681-1764. 
HlPPEL, novelisl. yiíale Zigsag' 7'ravíls ; 1741-1796. 
MoFFMANN, Frcderick. Wrote in Latin the Halienal SysUmcf MedieiHt; 

HoLLMAN, philoaopher. Wrote to confute Wolfs philosophical system; 

HoLTT, L. H., lyric and idylHc poet. Wrote "Ever Trae and Honcsl," and 

the popular bacchanaliin called Thí Dñnking-songfor May ; 1748-1776. 
IsBLiN of Basle, philoíopher, Wrole an Enay tm tht Hislary ef Ilutnsatily; 

1 728-1782. 
KjfSTNER, mathematician and epigrammatic poet. Wrote a Neai Zhmon- 

ilraliort of Ihe Immortaiity of Ihc Saúl, and a Hiiltny of Maihetiiatits ; 

Kleist of Prussia, poet. Wrole edes, songs, idylls, fablii, and lales, 

chief poem is Spriag; 1715-1759. 
KLOTKof Saxony, acholar i 1738-1777. 
Knigge, Adolphus von, novelisl, Wrole the buniorous novel of n Jot: 

BrunsTvük; 1732-1796. 
KwsTER OÍ Westphalia, acholar; 1670-1716. 

taiei, Hú I 


IBERT of Betlin, nalural phllosopher. Wtole on Ihc /"a/í ef Light, Fres 
firspedÍTí, and Philemilry. He nlso iTiyenXeá (ne SjxakiHg TruMftt ; 
KtEIBNITZ, p. 243, linguist, hislanaD, philosopher, Knd mathenuilícUn. Wiole 
bolh in Latín und Fieach, {Monadi and I'rt-tiladíilhed Hannimy) \ 

tUESSIND, p. 34S, poet and pro< 
" language. Wrotí 

ene of thc ereal reformers of Ihe 

n Nathan Ihe Wist (a dramn), und 

immense influeace on the litecaiy tasle of the 

LaeaiSn, wluch had a 

nationi 1721-1731. 
LlCHTENBBRO of Darmsladl, humorist. Wrote the Piystognmny ef Tailt 1 

in ridicule of Lavater's system and etyle of writjng; 1 743-1 799. 
LlCHTWEK of Prussia, poct, fnbulisl¡ 1719-1783. 
LiEBERKÜKK of Berlin, anatomiat. Invented Refteelmg Comceue Mirnrt; ] 

Mascou, historian. Wrole a Histary of Germany; \(S^•l^(l^. 
Mbndelssoiin, Moses, p, 258, a Prussían Jew, the oiíginal of Ihe duraeter 

called " Nathan " in Lcssing's drama of Nathan Ihe Jew. 'Wrote on thc 

Immorlalily of tht Saúl ; 1739-1786. 
Me.ncs of Bohemia, catled thc " Frince of Bohemian artísts ; " I72S-1779. 
MiCHABLis, poet; 1746-1772. 

MiCHAELis, J. H., p. Z4S, orienlalisl. Edited a Hibrrai Bihle; 1668-1738. 
MlCHAELls, J, D., p, 345, orienlolist and theologian. Wrote on Tht Lmu ef I 

Mases; I7i7.i7gi. 
MosER, called the "Franltlin of Germany." Wrote Patrietic Ideas, and a 

Hislory of Osnabntck (a capital book); 17SO-1794. 
MosHElM, p. 362, Iheologisn. Wrote in Lstin Iiuliluliens cf Eeelesiaslieal 

Hislory, once a universal text-book, but Dow tuperseded by Meonder; 

MOZART, p. z6l, ihe "Raphael of Mueíc." Composed Zmiberflgle, DoH 

Giovatmi, ihe Matriage of Figart, the Réquiem (or MassinD ' 

&c.; 1756-1791. 
MuSjSUS, p. 303. Aulhorof Germán Fofuiar Legeads ; 1735-1787. 
Rabener, G. G., satirísl. He castigatcd seveicly Ihe upper classes foi thcir , 

pedantry and afiectalions ; 1714-1777. 
Rainlsr, poet, who contributed to give Gennany a nalional lileratuie hy his I 

¡oiigs, eanlalas, and odes; 1735-179S. 
Rbimar, naluralist. Wrote Suilíme Trutks ef Natural Religión, and on ihe 

Justincls of Aninmls ; 1694-1748. 
Reí NDECK, theologian acd philosophcr. Wrole on the Confession ef AugS' 

burg: 16E3-1741, 
ReiNeCCíUs of Saioay. Pnblished ihe Bible iafour languages; 1668-1752. 
Reiske, J. J., philoii^st and oHentalíst. Wrote ¡n Lalin Oiiervaliens ott \ 

Medie ami Aratian Mtmutnetils ; 1716-1774. 
RüEtNEKE, p, z6l, musical composer; 1748-1796. 

SCHILLBR, J. G., falhet of the poet. Wrote on AgricuUure; 1733-1796, 
ScuiLTER of Saxony, philoEophcr. Wrolc in Latín a TkesoMrui ef Ancient 
~ Teulenic, \a i \olA.; 1632-1795. 



ScHLEGEL J. Elias, of Soxony, dramotic aulhor. Wrote Hirmann (a IraE^y)' 

Miss Sarak Samson (a ttagedy), Ihe Dumt Beauly (a coinedy), and Hcnry 

/ííZi'on (bq historie poem); I7i8'i749, 
SCHMBITZBL, the f^ther of Statistics in Gerniony; 1G79-1747. 
ScHMiDT, hislorian. Vitola a. liistery of Ihí Gírman PeepU: 1736-1794. 
SCHMIEDEL, botanist; diEcovercd the lructi£catÍoa of ciyptogamic plauts. 

yiíaK^ Icones ftaatárum; 1718-1792. 
SCHMUCK, fatheiof Galvanism in Gernisny; 1719-1792. 
ScilNElDKB, J. G., naluralist. Wrote a Natural Hütory ef Amphtbious 

Ammalí; 1756-1794. 
SCKDLTENs, Alb., theol<^an and orientolist. Wrote in LaCin Oríffinís 

Heiraica, aaá Ancieni Arabir MoHuiiuiits ; 1686.1750. 
ScHULTENS, H. A., orientalist. Wrote in Latín Ansian Anthelogy, Median 

and Arabian Proverbs 1 1749-1793. 
ScHULZEof Prussia. Wrote % Histary ef Medicine ; 16S7-1741. 
Secner, mathematicion; 1704-1777. 
SrANiiEiH, p. 211, numismalist; 1629-1710, 
Spbner, p. 246, füundei of Üie Pietists; 1635-1705. 
STAHL, p, 245, chemist. His ñame is associatcd with Animisiit and Fkle^ 

Wrote the Organic Tktary 0/ Medicine, Rudiaienit ef Chcmistry, j 


lE the Miibanie T/rnry nf Midití, 

StrItVí, hislorian. Vitaie a Hiilory ef Literaiurt, 1672-1738. 
Stubm, J. C, p. 210, of Bavaria, called ihc "Restoret of Si 

Germany;" 1635-1703. 
SturM, p. 252, Wrote Reftectiont; \^^\^%&. 
SuLZElt of Betlin, philosopher. Wiote a Theory eflht Fine Arts; 1720.1779, 
Thomasius, p. 246, founded the first Gerroan serial; 1658-172S. 
TscHlRNHAUSBN, natntal phiJoaopher. Discovered the Eticycloid Cume, 

made a monster Buming Glass, and peilected seveía] optieal inatnim 

UsTERi, J, Martin, lyric and bacchanalian poetj 1741.1789. He wrot 

famous song : — 

" LUÉ EnJDv wbile (lie torch-Iight glows, 
£[c U bu raded pluck Ihe ruu.''^ 

Uz, poeC, Wrote odea, didactic and aacted poema j 1720-1796. 

VoGEL, Christopher, p. 261, musical composer; 1756-1788. 

Wachter, philologist. Wrote in Latin a Germán Glossary; 1673-1756. 

Walck, J. E., natutaliat. Wrote Nalurat Histary ef Fetrifactions and 7%* 

Naturalist; 1725-1778. 
Walch, C. G-, ecclesiaatical historian, Wrote the Hislery ef Htresies uid 

Meáiaval Manuments ; 1726-1784, 
Weise of the Second Siteaian School, writer of comedies and falces; 1(142- 

Weenicke, C, poet. Wrote in Gemían efiigramí and ekgies. His objcct 

Was to eilingiiish the " Süeaian School," and Ihe vile affeclations ¡Olto- 

diiced thruugh imitations of I tallan, Fren ch, and Latín models; 1666-1720. 

1 1%* 1 


WiLLAMOV, Pnissian poet. Wrote FabUs^ &c.; 1737-1777. 
WiNCKELMANN, p. 258, of Brandenburg, antiquary. Wrote a HUtory of Art 
afnongthc Ancients; ijij'iyd^, 

WOLF, p. 246, philosopher. He reduced Leibnitz's principies to a system ; 

ZacharIíK, fabulist and comic poet. Wrote The Phaeton, The Hamüierchief^ 
and The Four Ages of Woman, He had a host of imitators; 1726- 1777. 

ZiMMERMANN, p. 252, poet and physician. Wrote in Germán On Solitude; 

ZOPF, historian. Wrote a Compendium of Universal History ; 1691-1776. 


It began with Lessing, 1721-1781, and Schiller, 1723-1796, and extendsto the 

middle of the nineteenth century. 

In this century died John CUud Jacob, one of the oldest men that ever lived ; 1670-1790. 

A.D. 1800. 

Adelung produced seventy volumes of literature, amongst which were a 
Gemían Dictionary zná a Germán Grammar ; i734-i8(¿. 

Ancillon, publicist and historian. As statesman his influence in Prussia was 
very great, but always of a pacifíc character. His works are numerous 
and sdl in French ; 1766-1837. 

Arndt, p. 304, poet. Wrote "What is the Germán Fatherland?" 
"Blücher," "GaUant Schill," "God never meant Man to be a Slave," 
&c.; 1769-1860. 

Arnim, poet, novelist, and dramatic author ; 1784-1831. 

Bach, J. Sebastian, p. 260, musical composer. Wrote Fugues^ Preludes, and 
Passion Music; 1685-1750. William Friedemann, 1710-1784; Karl 
Philipp, 1714-1788; and John Christian, 1735- 1782, were also musical 

Baur, leader of the Tübingen or Historical School of Theology. Wrote the 
Christian Philosophy of Religión ; 1 792- 1 860. 

BEETHOVEN, p. 261, musical composer. Wrote Sonatas and Symphonies ; 

Becker, p. 305, poet. Wrote the "Germán Rhine," which has been set to 
music by no less than seventy different composers ; and the " Moming 
Song in Spring;" also a History of the Germán Revolution ; 1809- 

BISMARCK, p. 295, statesman, by whose sagacity Prussia was elevated to the 
headship of Germany ; 181 3- 

Blumenbach, ethnologist. Wrote on the Varieties of the Human Species 

(five); 1752- 1840. 
Borne, of Frankfort, humorist and poet ; 1786- 1837. 
Brentono, poet, &c. Wrote Brave Gaspar, a tale ; 1777-1842. 
Bunsen, author of Egypfs Place in History ; 1791-1860. 
BÜRGER, poet. Wrote Ballads and Legends^ as Lenore, the Pastoras Daughter, 

the Hunter, Son of the Brave, Oíd Bacchus (a capital convivial song); 



Chamisso, p, 302, poet ond prose writer. Wroie the famous stoty of Fetir 

SthUwtihl, the man who sold his shadow, and several capital songs, as 

"His Fielail hongs beliind hím " (a famous coinic song), Ibe " Tailoi's 

Hcroism, 'S:c.} 1781-1838. 
Claudius, a. popukr poet of great simplicity ixA sweetness, W^ote the soi^ 

of "Urian'sVoynge round the World;" 1740-1815. 
CoLLlKof Vienna, dramaticpoet. V^ttíitCoñelaiias,Regu¡us,^l.\ 1779-1823, 
Ckambe of Bohemia, one of the best iyric poets ; 1723-1783. 
Dahlmann, hisforian. Wrotc a líislery cf Denmark, a Bistary a/ the 

£Hglish JíívatuíioH, axiá ^ Histary of tht French Btvolutiim ; 1785-1860. 
Drovscn, historian, Wrofe a Hislary ef Daaish Falitics, and a Histery «f 

AUxanderthc Great; 180S- 
DuNCKBR, historian. Wrole a Hislory of Antiquity (a chairning boolc); 

Eberhard, J. a,, philosopher. Wrole the Theoiy of Theugkt and Semalien 

(cxcellenl) ; s. Hiitory of Philosopky ; Germa-n Synonyms ; 1739-1809, 
Eberhard, a. G., poet, &c, Wrole the "Mason's Haininec Song;" 

ElCHENDORFF, lytic pofit. Wrote the "Broten Rba" " Consolation," &c; 

Engei:., dramatic authot and popular philosopher, Wrole Lerens Siarek [a 

charmiog tale); 174I-1B03. 
Fessler, hislorical novelíst. Wrote Martuí Aurílius, Aristides and 1 

loíla, Aaila, &c.! 1756.1839. 
FICBTE, p. 256, philosopher j he developed "Kanlisn 

FoRtiTER, Kar], poet ; 1784-1818. 
yoUQUÉ, De La Motte, p. toz. Wrote Ihe charming stoty of Undine; 

the " War Song of the vuluoteers" (" Up I up to the merry hunling"); 

Gall, p, 259, iaiaiMc ot Pkrettology : 1758-1828. 
Gentz, Fnissian statesman. Wiote on the State ef Europc at the cióse cf Iht 

Eigkleenik Cenlury ; 1760-1832. 
Gervinds, historian, Wrote a Hislory of Germán Pottry (an eitcellent book, 

the besl on the sabject) i 1805-1871, 
GESENlt;s, orientalist, Compiled B capital HebreTii and Chaldee Lexicón; 

Gleim, chief of Ihe Germán Anacreonic poets. Wrote the "Soi^ of Victoty 

aflcr the Battle of Prague," the "War Song of the Prussian Grenadier," 

&c.i 1719-1S03. 
GOETHE, "prince of Germán poels." Wtote Fausl (a dramatic poem). Of 

Ua sonRS the following are popular— " The Tailor's Ftight," "The msh 

oftheWttter," "The King of Thulé," and " The Wandetet's Song ¡" 

Grillparzer of Vienna, poet. Wrole Sappho, Radctzky, &c; 1791-1872. 
Grimm, Barón F. M, Wrote a complete hislory of Freneh literature from 

'7S3 '" •79°f entilled Cerrespandence, LUerary, FhÜBsopbical, imd 

Critúal, i6voIe.; 1723-1807. 
GXJMM, William, author of Jliroic Lígtnds of Girmany; 1786-1859, 

' Tkemii- 



GRiMMy, Jacob, p. 307, philologist (GrimnCs Lmo for the changes of letters in 
etyinology); 1785-1863. 

Everyone knows Grimttis GobHtt Storus, compüed by the two brothers, William and 

Gruber wrote on the DestiruUion of Man^ a DicUonary of Esthtticsy another 
on Mythology^ &c, and founded the Universal Cyclopedia of Sciences and 
Arts ; 1774.1851. 

GuTZKOW, Berlín, of the Young Germany School. Wrote LetUrs of a Fool^ 

Maha Gurú (a novel) and a History of a God; 1811- 
Hacusser, L., historian. Wrote a History of Germany^ from the death of 

Frederick the Great to the foundation of the Confederation ; 1818- 
Hahnemann, p. 259, oríginator of Homctopathy, Wrote Organon of the 

Artof HecUing; 1755-^843. 
Halem, G. a. von, historian. Wrote a History of Oldenburg, &c., also a 

popular drinkii^ song, '* Our Ufe is the Ufe of a Flower ; " 1752-1819. 

Hartmann, J. M., orientalist; 1764-1817. 

Hartmann, Morítz, of Bohemia, poet, &c. Wrote apoem called ** Spring." 
the " Cup and Sword," &c. ; 1821- 

Hauff of Stuttgart, writer of tales. Wrote Extracts from the Memoirs of 
Satán (a TOok of wonderfiíl fancy and fuU of scenes of real Ufe); 

HAYDN, p. 261, .musical composer. Wrote Creation and the Secuons ; 

Hebel, p. 305, popular poet ; 1760- 1826. 

Heeren, historian. Wrote Ideas on the Politics and Commerce of the 
Ancients ; 1760- 1842. 

HEGEL, p. 257, philosopher. Jntuition and Philosophy of Contraries ; 

HEINE, p. 305, head of the Young Germany School. Wrote a host of popular 
songs, such as "Loreley," **The Fishermaiden," **The Grenadiers," 
''The Pilgrímage to Keevlar,** and many others ; 1800- 1856. 

Heinse of Tübingen, poet of the "Fleshly School.** Wrote Ardinghello or 
the Fortúnate Isles; 1749. 1803. 

Herbst, p. 259, of Prussia, naturalist. Wrote on the Crustácea and Jnsects; 

Herder, p. 249, called the "Fénelon of Germany,** one of the regenerators 
of the language. Wrote Outlines of the Philosophic History of Man; and 
a book of songs called Volks-lieder ; 1744- 181 3. 

Kermes of Pomerania, noveUst. Wrote Travels of Sophie from Memel to 

Saxe; 1738-1821. 
Hermes, G., theologian, Wrote Introduction to Christian-Catholic TTieology; 


HERSCHEL, Sir William, p. 259, astronomer. Discovered the planet Uranus; 

Heyne, p. 262, the **king of critics*' ; 1729-1812. 
Hoffmann, p. 302, founder of the New School. Wrote the DeviVs Elixir; 

HuMBOLDT, K. W., statesman and philologist ; 1767- 1835. 
HUMBOLDT, p. 303, naturalist. Wrote Cosmos; 1769-1859. 


HUMMEI, p. 261, musical composer ; 1778-1837. 

Iffland, actor and dramatic author ; 1759-1814. 

Immermann, dramatic author ; 1796-1840. 

Jacobi, philosopher opposed to Kantism. Wrote Idealism and RealistHf 
Editor of the Iris (joumal); i743-i8i9. 

John Paul, see Richter. 

Kalkbrenner, p. 261, musical composer ; 1756-1806. 

KANT, p. 256, philosopher. Wrote Critique of Puré Reason (Phenomena 
and Noumena, Objective and Subjective); 1724- 1804. 

Klauber, p. 260, of Augsburg, engraver ; 1753- 181 7. 

KiNKEL, poet, &c. Wrote Otto der Schutz, Nature and Man (a song)» &c.; 

Kleist, a man of great talent, l3nric and dramatic poet. Wrote a descriptive 
poem called ^rí«^; 1776-1811. 

Klinger, Frankfort, one of the Storm and Strain School. Wrote dramas 
and novéis. His best novéis are Dr, Famt^ Raphael of Aquilas^ and 
Giafer the Barmecide ; X 753- 1 83 1 . 

KLOPSTOCK, p. 247, poet. Wrote The Messioh, an epic in fifteen books; 

KOPP. Wrote on PaUtography and Ancient Chirography; 1762-1834. 
KÓRNER, p. 305, **The Tyrtaeusof Germany," dramatic and l)nricpoet. Wrote 

Lyre and Sword Songs, His "Battle Prayer/* "Men and Knaves," "Song, 

Lo ve, and Wine,'* are well known; 1 791 -18 13. 

There is another popular Germán poet called Kemer, who wrote the Rickest Prince^ the 
Two CoffinSf the Wanderer's üong^ &c. 

KOTZEBUE, p. 251, dramatic poet ; 1 761 -18 19. 

Krummacher, p. 307, author of Comelius the Centurión^ and Parables; 

1768- 1845. 
Krummacher, F. W., p. 306, author of Elijah the Tishbite ; 

G. D. Krummacher, author of Daily Manna^ p. 307. 

Krupp, discovered the method of manufacturíng cast steel in large quantities. 

He employed in 1865 as many as 10,000 workmen. Maker of cannons ; 

KuHNE, of the Young Germany School. Wrote Portraits and Silhouettes^ 

Characters of Men and IVomen, &c.; 1807- 

Lafontaine, novelist. Wrote the Man of Nature ; 1 759-1831. 

Lafontsdne was the son of a French refugee. The great French fabulist, John Lofontaine, 
lived Z62X-X695. 

Lavater, p. 259, conceived a facial exponent called Physiognomy; 1741-1801. 
LIEBIG, p. 307, chemist. Wrote on Agricultural Chemistty, the Chetnistry of 
Food^ ¿c; 1 803- 1 87 3. 

Meissner, historícal novelist. Wrote Alcibiadés, Masaniello^ Bianca Capelh, 

&c.; 1 703-1807. 
MENDELSSOHN, Félix, musical composer. Wrote Elijah; 1809-1847. 
Menzel, Silesia, of the Young Germany School. Wrote Streckverse^ A 

Hisiory of Germany ^ Travels in Austria, &c. ; 1798- 1855. 

Mesmer, p. 258, conceived the existence of a forcé called Animal Mc^netism; 


Metternich, p. 288, diplomatist {^Holy Aüümce); 1773- 1859. 

Meyerbeer» pp. 261, 307, musical composer. Wrote Les Huguenots^ Le 

Prophite, &c.; 1794- 1864. 
MoMMSEN, historian. Wrote a Román History^ to the death of Caesar ; 


MoRGENBLATT of Stuttgart, poct of great fecundity ; 181 5- 

MosEN, poet and dramatic author ; 1803- 

MÜLLER, J., p. 302, called "The Thucydidés of Germany.** Wrote z.Histoiy 
of the Swiss Confederation ; 1752- 1809. 

MÜLLER, K. O., classical scholar. Wrote a History of Greek LitertUure, a 
Manual of the History of Ancient Art^ &c. ; 1 797- 1 84 1 . 

MÜLLER, W., poet. Wandering^ and the Corning of Spring^ are well-known; 
1 794- 1827. 

Neander, pp. 303, 396, leader of the Broad Church party. Wrote Universal 
History of the Christian Religión and Church; 1789-1850. 

Neukomm, musical composer ; 1 778-1858. 

Neumann, orientalist and historian. Wrote a history of the Anglo-Chinese 
¡Vars, a History of the British Rule in Asia, a History of the United 
States of America, &.cry 1798- 1870. 

NICOLAI of Berlin, editor of the Literary Correspondente which had a con- 
siderable influence, and was written in excellent Germán; 1 733-181 1. 

NiEBUHR, historian. Wrote a Román History, in which he maintains that 
the stories about Romulus and the other Icings of Rome are either alle- 
goríes or fables ; 1 776- 1 83 1 . 

NovALis, p. 301, chief of the Romantic School of Germany. Wrote Hymns 
of Night; 1772-1801. 

Olbers, p. 260, of Bremen, astronomer. Discovered /'a/^tr and Vesta; 1758-1840. 

Pallas, p. 259, of Berlin, naturalist. Wrote on Z4>ophytes, and Observations 
on theform of Mountains ; 1741-1811. 

Paulus, p. 306, leader of the Rational School of Theology; 1761-1851. 
Pestalozzi, p. 259, educationist ; 1744-1827. 

Platner, p. 259, of Leipzig^, "Néstor of Germán PhUosophy." Wrote 
Anthropology; 1744- 181 8. 

Pleyel, p. 261, musical composer ; 1757-1831. 

Pütter of Westphalia, publicist. Wrote Institutions of the Lenvs rf Ger^ 
many. Manual of Germán History, the Development of the Germán 
Constitution ; 1 725- 1807. 

Ranke, p. 303, historian. Wrote a History of the Popes; 1795-1872. 

Raumer, p. 303, historian. Wrote a History of the House of Hohenstaufen ; 

Reinick of Dantzic, painter and poet. Wrote The Germán Artisfs Book of 

Songs, the Singer and Artisí; the following are popular: — **A Curious 

History," "TheMoondial," the "Double-song," "False Blue," "Under 

the Linden Trees," &c.; 1807. 

Richter, p. 252 (called John Paul). Wrote Wild Oats, the Titán or Age of 
Follies; 1763- 1825. 

RiTTER, geographer. He shows in a masterly way the influence of the 
interna! forces of the earth on its exterior surface; 1779*1859. 

RONTGEN, p. 260, ebenist; 1745-1807. 



tt Hisloty of BMicül 

ROSENMULLER, J. G., Iheolt^ian. Wrole ii 

Extgesis; 1736-1815. 
K0SKÍJHUI.1.ER, onatomist; 1771-lSzo. 

RoTTECK, historian. Wrote a Universal Hhtoty ; 1775-1840. 
RÜCKERT, F., poet. Many of his songs have become nalional ; for exampte, 

his "Evemng-song," " Barbatossa, " " Truth's Table-song," "The Artisl 

and the Public " (a coraic song about a harper who had no iiands) ; 1 788-1866. 
RÜCKERT, L. J., Iheologian. Wrole Christian Phibsíphy, Theahgy, and 

sesetal commentaries; 1797-1871. 
SaLIET, Frederick von. Wrote cpigrams, satireí, and tiües; 1S12-1843. 
SGHELLINCp. 157, philosophet. "Viioía Phi2esephy ef IdmlUy ; 1770-1854. 
ScHENKENDORF, one of Ihe best lyric poets of the ninetecnth centuiy. 

Wrote the Solditt's ^fffmingS<mg\t:.a.■^\\.a^)■, 1783-1817. 
SCHlLLERip. asi, poel,<!ramatist, and historian, Wrote XVilliam Tel/,&c.¡ 

"The Song of the Bell," (quile unrivalled), " Count Eberhard " (a war- 

song), the "Trooper's Song," "Punch" (the drinlc so called), "To 

Spring," "Hope,"' "The Diveí," all well known and popular; also x 

History of the Tltirty-Yíars' Ifofin encellent Gennan prose; l7S9->8oS' 
ScHLEGEL, A. W., p. 252, poet, Translated Shakespeare, and has done it 

well; 1767-1845. 
SCHLEIERMACHER, p. 306, head of the EvangelicBl School, Wrote Bri^ 

Oullinanf Theology: 1768-1834. 
ScHLossES, p. 303, hbtorian. Wrote a Histery ef Ihe Eighteenth and /fíne- 

teenth Cenluriei; 1776-1861. 
ScimECKENBUKGER, p. 305, author of the well-known song, "Who'll Guard 

theRhine?" 1815-1851. 
SCHÜIER, historian. Wrole a Universal History, a Hislery ef the Norlh^ 

Suisian Anaals ; 1737-1809. 
ScHUBERT, musical composcr; 1797-182S. 
ScHUMANN, musical composer; 1810-1856. 
Senefelder, p. 260, of Praguc, inventor of lilht^aphy. 

IMkegrapky; 1771-183*. 
ííEUHX, poetj 1763-1810. 
SiMROcK, poet. Wrote /íwww; the following are popular. — "TheNibcInngen 

Hoard," "Beware of the Rhíne ;" l8oz- 
Spindler, novelisl, once very popular; 1795-1855. 
SpoüN, philoli^ist; 1792-1824. 
Sfohr, p. 261, musical composer. Wrote Faust, The Crutifixi 

[1 Guard 


SrvR/HElM, p. 259, disciple of Gall, whose system of j)*i 

larised. V!ia\K Analomy ef tfic Brain; 1766-1833. 
Steffens, historie novelist. Wrote his own Bicgraphy, \ 

8THAUSS, p. 3tó, leader of the Mylhical School of Thcolog?. 

>. Sic; 1784- 
thgy he popu- 

exiits) ; 1808- 
THiEtiscH, a disciple of Schelling 

Doctrines of Faith (no bettei GenoíUk pnée 


Thümmbl, l*eipzig, novelist. Wrote Wandcrings in the South Provinces of 
France; 1738- i8i 7. 

TiECK, p. 302. Wrote Phantasus aiid Popular StorUs; 1 77 3- 1 853. 

Uhland, p. 304, head of the Suabian School of poets. He may be called 
the **Geiire poet of Gennany." Wrote the "Lad o* the Mountain," 
^'Ergo bibámus" (a capital drinking song), "The Hostess's Daughter/ 
**The Peasant's Rule/* "The Sunken Crown," "The White Hait,*» 
"Entertainment," "The Chapel," all well known; 1787-1862. 

Van der Velde, histórica! novelist. Wrote Conauest of México, Queen 
ChrisHna and her Court^ Idchtenshin (one of the very best of Germán 
novéis); 1779-1824. 

VOGBL» Dr. Edward, p. 260, African explorer; 1829- 1856. 

VOGLERy p. 261, musician; 1 749-1814. 

Voss, p. 251, poet and philologist. ' Translated into Germán verse Homer, 
Hesiod, and Virgil; 1751-1826. 

Wagner, p. 307, musical composer, 1813* 

Wagner, novelist. Wrote Opinions of WUibald on Human Life; 1767- 181 2. 

Waitz, anthropologist. Wrote Rudiments of Physiology, and a History of 
Schleswig Holstein ; 1 82 1 - 1 864. 

Waldaü, novelist. \í xoi& After Nature, Cordula, 8lc,\ 1822- 1855. 

WEBER, pp. 261, 307, musical composer. AvlÚíot o{ Der Freischütz; 1786- 

Weisse, dramatic author of the Second Silesian School. Wrote tragedies 
and comedies, operas and odes. "After the Harvest*' is one of his 
poems; 1726- 1804. 

Wezel, novelist. Wrote the History of Tobias Knaut; 1747- 18 19. 

WiELAND, p. 249, poet. Wrote Oberon, and Agathon (a prose romance), 

Zeller, p. 306, professor of theology at Tübingen. Wrote a History of thi 
Christian Church; i8i4« 

ZsCHOKKA, historian, poet, and novelist. Wrote a History of the Bavarian 
Feople, a History ofthc Swiss People, a Glance at Myself Hours of Prayer, 
&c.; 1774-1848. 








B.C. ZZ3-XOZ. 

In the year b.c. 113, a people unknown to the Romans 
appeared in the passes of the Alps, and demanded a friendly 
alliance. They were the Cimbri, some three hundred thousand 
of whom, with their wives and children, had moved southwards, 
and were joined in their route by the Teutons, a tribe from the 
borders of the Baltic 

They took their way through Bohemia, Bavaria, and Switzer- 
land ; and at length the Italian Gauls implored the Romans to 
resigt their further progress, "for they cpvered the face of the 
whole land, and did eat up every herb of the field, and all the 
fniit of the trees, so that there remained not any green thing 
throughout all the land on account of them." 

The Romans, accordingly, sent Cneius Papirius Garbo, the 
cónsul, to drive them back or stamp them out He tried, at 
first, to overreach them by treachery; but at the battle of 
Noreia,* in the mountains of Styria, he was slain, and his 
whole army would have been cut to pieces had not a storm 
arisen to cover the fugitives (b.c. 113). 

After this victory the combined bordes marched without 
resistance to the south of Gaul (France)^ and were joined by 
a multitude of Helvetians (Swíss) from the foot of the Alps. 
They then sent to Rome demanding sufficient territory to form 
a colony, and promising, in retum, to aid the Romans in their 
wars. This request was, of course, refused, and they resolved to 
win by the sword what they could not otherwise obtain. 

* Noreia (pronounced Ní-re-i'-ah), now called Neumarkt, is in Styria. Styria is Just below Vlenna* and 
bas Hungary to the east. 



Anny after army was sent against them, but army after armj' 
perisbeA All who resisied " were as the grass of the field, as the 
green herb, as the grass en the house-tops, as com blasted before 
it be grown up." 

The Second Geseral sent to oppose the barbarians was 
Junius Silánus, the cónsul; and a battle was fought in Trans- 
alpine Gaul; but the Romans were again discomfited (s.a 109). 

Cassius Longi'nus, whose province lay in Gaília Naibo- 
nensis,* next marched against them, but was totally routed at 
the lalce Lemanus,+ in Geneva. Longinus was slain, and the 
remnant of his army was sent under the yokel {b.c. 108). 

AuRELius ScAURUs, a consular légate, was the fourth oppo- 
nenl, but met with no belter success, Being made prisoner, he 
was taken before the council of war, and questioned obout the 
Romans, but would only answer that they were invindble. 
"How so?" críed Bajórix, the Cimbrian leader; "how can 
that be?" and, so saying, he cleft the legate's head in twain 
with his sword (b.c 107). 

The FirrH Defeat (b.c. 105). — The conquerors of the 
world were now seriously alarmed They thought themselves 
invincible, but had been checked by a people whose very ñames, 
a few months ago, had been almost unknown to them. Resolved 
to retrieve their fame, they placed a large army under Marcus 
Mallíus, and sent him to join CEepio, the cónsul, whose légate, 
Scaurus, had been lately defeated and slain. A batlle was fought 
in Gallia Narbonensis, but with the same resulL In this disaster 
we are told that 80,000 Román soldiers and 40,000 camp followers 
perished in the field. Mallíus and his two sons were amongst the 
slain, but Cxpio escaped. 

¡ Üiat Cicpio^ □□ hi> msrch, atole (rom the tcmpte of TolOn ( Tiru/aust) iht sald 

deposired fhere, part of Ll lx[g}( Che booty talieo by the Itreimiis of the t^ub fron 

'hr «iiKvMiipnr Hpf^iit or Ihe coiLsu] wds re£ardtd m a Diviüe puni^hioeDE of dm 

ic [he proverbia] phrus, AurHm ToíatS.num lutbtt (He hoi ^fA 


The conquerors, instead of marching at once to Italy, and 
availing themselves of the Cimbrian panic, made Iheir way I 


along the south of France, and penetrated into Spain, leaving 
the Romans to repair their losses and recover their sel? 

Marius (aa 104-101). — But one man now remained in 
whom the Romans could confide, and that was Caius Marius, 
the conqueror of Jugurtha. He was a plain, bluff soldier, of 
mean birth, and very unpopular with the " upper ten." He set 
at defiance their conventional ways, paid no respect to time- 
honoured customs, and was little practised in " the soft phrase of 
peace ; " but he was a good soldier, and the senate knew it 

He it was who was now charged to make preparations to meet 
these locusts from the north, which covered the face of southem 
France, and licked up those who were sent against them, " as the 
ox licketh up the grass of the field." Accordingly he crossed the 
Alps, reached the borders of the Rhone, and encamped there to 
drill his men, accustom them to the harsh gutturals of the foe, 
and make them familiar with their rude habits and uncivilised 
ways. He taught them to meet stragglers and foraging parties ; 
and by frequent encounters they soon leamed that their rivals 
were not gods, but men — and men far inferior to themselves in 
all the arts of civilisation. 

The impetuous Teutons, who thought Marius would attack 
them at once, set down his delay to fear. One day a giant of 
a fellow, coming to the Román ramparts, challenged the General 
to single combat ; but the witty Román sent him a halter, with 
this message : — " If the barbarían is tired of Ufe, Marius sends 
him a rope by which he can hang himself." 

H Soon as the forces returned from Spain, the barbarians 
divided themselves into two parts. The Cimbri advanced along 
the Rhine as far as the Tyrol, and the Teutons remained behind 
to oppose Marius. 

It was six days ere the Cimbrians had all defiled past the 
Román encampment, and as they passed they jeeringly asked the 
sentinels if they could take for them any message to their wives 
or sweethearts in Rome. 

Time roUed on. It was eleven years since the overthrow of 
Carbo, and three since Marius had received his commission from 
the senate. A squabble now brought things to a head. Some 
camp followers, who had gone to the Rhone to fetch water, 
encountered a party of bathers in the river. A contest aróse. 
The noise of the brawl soon spread, and a serious me/ée ensued. 
The Teutons were driven to their chariots, and there the fighting 
was renewed 3 but what added to the hubbub was a furious on- 

B 2 



slaught of the Teutón women, who had armed themselves with 
swords and axes. Night put an end to the fray¡ but it was a 
night of terror to the Romans, who every moment expected tbeir 
camp would be stormei The uproai in the Teutón quarters was 
something frightfuL There were howlings for the dead, groans 
from the wounded and djing, the bellowing of oxen, the bleatíng 
of sheep, and the fierce snoitings of teirified horses, reverberaled 
by the river on one side and the forest on the other. It was a 
night to he remembered fay the Román encampment. 

The Teutona Overthrown (July, rc ioi). — Day broke, 
and no attack had been made; but Mañus, convinced- he 
could no longer defer the struggle, gave orders to prepare fot 
battle. His infantry was drawn up before the camp, h¡s cavalry 
was dispatched to the plain ; Marcellus, the second in command, 
with 3000 men, was sent to occupy a hill in the enemy's rear, 
where he was to lie in ambush till the fight had beguti. 

When the Teutons saw the Romans arrayed for battle, tíiey 
were wild with dehght They thought of Catbo and Silanus, 
of Longinus and Scaurus, of Cíepio and Mallíus, atid felt sure 
that Marlus and his axmy would add to thcir tricmphs. Without 
waiting to be attacked, they rushed on the foe, who occupied the 
higher ground. The Romans received them without flinchíng, 
The Teutons fell back, and at this moment Marcellus, having 
buist from ambush, attacked them in the rear. Pressed on aÜ 
sides, the barbarians were panic-struck, and betook themselves lo 

The game was over. The flight became a lout; the rout, a 
run for Ufe. The Romans foUowed. No quarter was given, no 
mercy shown. "Thenwere the horsehoofs broken by means of 
the pransings, the pransings of the mighty ones." Death was the 
reaper; and his harvest, man, It is said that iqo,ooo Teutons 
fell by the sword in this field. It was a terrible camage, a 
butchery, the carnival of vengeance, a hecatomb to the spirits of 
the dead. Teutóbod, the general of the Teutons, escaped to the 
mountains, but, being taken captive, was reserved to grace the 
triumph of the conqueror. 

This great battle was fought at Aix, in Provence, in the yeai 
.c loz, just eleven years after the defeat of Corbo at Noreia 
[NÓ-re-i'-ah} It is said that the people of Marseilles em- 
ployed the bones of the slain to make fences for their vineyards, 
and called the field where the battle was fought "The Putrid 

The joy of Marius at this most splendid victory was dashed 


by a message from the cónsul Catülus, announcing his retreat 
before the Cimbri in the north of Italy, and praying Marius to 
come to his relief with as little delay as possible. 

Again the Cimbri lost their opportunity; for, instead of 
marching direct to Rome after the repulse of Catülus, they 
remained in the pleasant land, enjoying its novelty, and indulging 
in its luxuries. As Capüa was the downfall of Hannibal, the 
Adígé was the Capüa of the Cimbri. 

Having made good his retreat to the river Po, Catülus awaited 
the coming of Maríus with his victorious army; and then both 
consuls prepared to meet the invaders. 

The Cimbri Overthrown (Aug., b.c ioi). — ^The Cimbri, 
who had not heard of the annihilation of the Teutons, now made 
overtures of peace, only stipulating that land should be assigned 
them in Italy. "By all means," replied Marius, in the same 
bantering spirit with which he had answered the Teutón; "just 
land enough to bury you all." 

The Cimbrian delegates, indignant at this insolence, threatened 
to make him rué it as soon as the Teutons had crossed the Alps. 
" Cross the Alps ! " cried Maríus ; " why, they crossed the Styx a 
month ago, and are waiting for you to join them." So saying, he 
brought forth Teutóbod and other captives in chains, to assüre 
the deputation of the total overthrow of their allies. 

Bajórix, the Cimbrian leader, now went in person to the Román 
praetorium to ask Marius about the coming battle, leaving to 
him the cholee of position. "Very good!" said Marius; "we 
Romans are not wont to announce beforehand our plan and place 
of attack, but for once I'U break a custom. Look out for us 
three days henee on the plain between Vercelli and Varésa."* 

§ At dawn on the third day the Cimbrian army was drawn up ; 
the infantry in a solid square, and the 15,000 horsemen on the 
right wing. It was the intention of Bajórix to entrap the Romans, 
if possible, between this Scylla and Charybdis of horse and foot 

In the meantime the two consuls, having vowed a sacrifice to 
the gods if they prevailed, awaited the announcement of the 
augurs. " The entrails are favourable," said the priests. " Well, 
then," cried Marius, in a voice of thunder, to be heard by the 
soldiers, " the victory is our own ! " 

It was Au'gust The hot sun of the south was terrible to the 
Cimbri, and the dust suffocating. These wanderers from the 
north loved the cold, and could wallow naked in December's 

• "Vercelli and Varesa." Vercelli is in Piedmont on the river Sesia, Varesa or Várese is in Lombardy, 
south of the Lago MaRgiore. The battle took place between Como and Magenta, on a plain then called 
the Campi Raudü. 

snow with real pleasure ; but the hot Italian sun was new to 
them,' and the sweat poured from thera like water. 

The fight soon carne to cióse quarters. Here the short Román 
sword proved of great service, and Maríus had armed his men 
with a hooked lance with which to pulí away the leather bucklers 
of the foe, leaving their bodies defenceless and exposed. To 
make a long story short, the Cimbri were thoroughly defeated, 
and the bravest leñ dead upon the field. 

When the víctoríous Romans reached the ba^age wagons of 
the foe the scene was heart-rending indeed. There were the 
womenj in theii black dresses, beatíng the fugitives to renewed 
resistance. Sonie were placing their children iinder chariot- 
wheels, or the hoofs of horses, to be crushed or trampled 
to death. Many were killing themselves to escape captivity. 
Some were braving the foe thal they might meet with death at 
their hands. Death in any form was welcomed. Still some 
60,000 were made prisoners. This was the Cimbrian wax, and 
thus are we introduced to the Teutons, or ancient stock of the 
great Germán race. 

appEllaÜQn Df llie "Third Fnund. 
At a Tuture penod theyouii|: C 
the Ronutns at bay, oad luid Ital; 

m the foot of the AIps 10 



two ye^ held 

Sicund Swarni. Thdtomic. 

Spreading into Donmarlc Swedtn, and Ñormy, 
Thence croa&mg over ¡nta Kn¿\aaá, 
ThirdSaarTm. Slkvosic. 

In Polond, K.uuia, and Bohemia. 

The nations of the world belong to three primitive stocks — the 
Semitic, Turanian, and Aryan. The Scmiíic nations are the 
Hebrews, Arabians, and Phcenicians. The Turanian the Chínese, 
Tartars or Mogds, and Turks. The Aryan the Persians, ""' 



and Europeans, with the exceptions of ihe Basques, the Hun- 
garians, and ihe Finns. 

The first flight from the Aryan hive was the Celtic It settled 
in Greece, and spread Ínto Italy, Spain, France, and the British 
Isles. Many years afterwards carne the Teutonic swarms which 
colonised Gennany, and, spreading into Spain and France, became 
the dominant power. A part of this great colony, settled ¡n 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, crossíng over lo England, 
drove che Celtic inhabitants into Comwall and Wales. Welsh 
and Irish are reninants of ihe oíd Celtic language, but 
English is Teutonic. The third swarm from the Aryan hive was 
the Slavonic, which settled in Bohemia, Poland, and Russia. 
Hungary alone remains to be accounted for. It was peopled by 
Celts and Teutons, no doubt, but some of the Turanian stock 
contrived to settie themselves there ; and, as the Saxons in 
England pushed out the Celts, so these Turanians drove out 
the Teutons from Hungary, or compelled thetn to submit Even 
to the present day the best blood of Hungary is derived from the 
Turanian and not from the Teutonic or Germán race. 

The Etymology of the word Germany is uncertain. Pro- 
bably it is Germán', meaning war-men. The Germans cali 
themselves " Deutsch-en " [Doilck-'n\, their language " Deutsch-e," 
and their country " Deutsch-land." We still cali a part of the 
same great family the " Dutch;" and Germán docks, chiefly made 
in the Black Forest, we cali Dutch docks.* 

"Deutsch-en" is manifestly the same as "Teut-on," wíth the 
initial letter flattened into Z», and "Teuf'means a multiíude.\ 
It was the Romans who called the people " Germans," and their 
country " Germany."! 

The French cali them "Alle-mands" (two syl.) and their 
country " Alle-magne," from a confederacy of sundry tribea called 
the " Al-e-man-ni," meaning all-men. 

H The G«miana are described by ihe Romans as men of 
large stature, approaching to s¡x feet in heíght, with broad 
shoulders, sinewy limbs, and great bodily strength. Their com- 



plenon was fair, iheir eyes blue, their hair in childhood of a 
bright golden colour, but ín manhood it was long and red, 
frequently dyed with woad, and tmsted into a war-knot on the 
top of the head. 

The children wore no clothing, and the men only a loóse frock 
or sltin of some wild beast, bound at the waist by a belt. Men, 
women, and children bathed daily in co!d water all the yeai 
round, were remarkably healthy, and íree from bodily infinnities. 

Their chief defensive weapon was a long iron-poinied spear, 
thrust at the enemy in cióse combat, but hurled at him when at 
a distance. 

They did not Uve, or even slecp, in houses, although, witbout 
doubt, they had huís made of rough timber and thatched with 
straw. Severa! of these huts often stood in the same neighbour- 
hood, but, as a rale, they haled the confinement of house and 
home, and much preferred the wÜd lawless liberty of a squatter. 

The men found their cbief delight Ín the perils and excitement 
of war; in peace their favourite pastime was drinking beer, and 
their carousals not unfrequently ended ¡n a fray. 

The Germán women were beld in very hjgh honour. Their 
chastity was without reproach. They accompanied their husbands 
to battle, to cheer them with their presence, and sometimes to 
incite them by their example. 

Both sexes were equally distínguished for their love of liberty, 
and many a woman would kill both herself and her children 
rather tban fall into the power of a conqueror. 

Every ancient Germán tribe was divided into four classes: 
the nobles, the freemen, the vassals, and the slaves. The vassals 
were slaves who had obtained their freedom, and either waited 
on their lord, or beld lands under him for service definitely 

They were deraocratic in their Government All questions 
of peace and war, and all things relating to the general inteiests 
of a tribe were decided in a popular assembly, where every 
freeman bad a voice. In these assemblies the king of the tribe 
was elected from among the nobles, but he acted as chief 
magistrate only Ín times of peace; immediately war broke out 
some well tried warrior was raised on the shoulders of his ' 
foUowers, as leader, aniid wild battle cries, and the dash of 
spear and shield. 

The religión of the ancient Germana was extremcly simple 
They believed in a single supreme deity, called All-vater or 
All-father, too sublime for temples made with handsj but^JlJ 


stated times they went to some sacred grove, with feet bound 
together, in token of submission. Subsequently this simplicity 
of religión was mixed with Celtic and Román superstitíons, when 
sun, moon, and stars were held in divine honour, and Wbden or 
Odtn was the omnipotent of Valhalla. 

Their other chief deities, after their migration southwards, were 
Isis, supposed to be Fried, the wife of Odin ; Nerthus or Hertha^ 
the mother of the gods ; Mars or Tue^ the god of battles ; and 
Júpiter, supposed to be Thor^ the god of thunder. 

Originally they had no priests, but as their gods and goddesses 
increased they required both men and women ministers. Some 
of these latter, as Veléda, for example, have become famous in 
story for " prophetic powers." 

Veleda was a prophetess of the Bructerí, a tríbe which occupied both sides of the river 
now called £ms. Sne induced Civilis, the Hannibal of Batavia, to revolt from the Romans, 
but, notwithstanding the prophetic promise, the struggle was not successful. (Tacitus, 
Germaniaf 33.) 


B.C. 58. 

About half-a-century after the Cimbrian War we come to the 
next passage of arms between the Germans and the Romans. 
The former led by Ariovist, and the latter by Julius Caesar. 
This contest was not provoked, like the former, by an invasión 
of Román territory, but was the outcome of Germán and Román 
interference in the affairs of Gaul {Francé). 

In that part of Gaul, afterwards called Burgundy, were two 
neighbouring tribes, the Sequáni and the Ed'ui, who were for ever 
at war with each other. The former, being unable to hold their 
own, applied to the Germans for aid, and an army was sent into 
" Upper Burgundy," under the conduct of Ariovist The Edüi, 
on the other hand, applied to Rome, and the Senate sent Julius 
Caesar to their defence. Thus we have, on one side, the Sequani 
of Gaul supported by the Germans under Ariovist ; and the Edui 
of Gaul, on the other, supported by the Romans, under the íkst 

When Caesar reached the Eduan territory, he sent heralds to 
the Gorman army-chief demanding a conference, but Ariovist 
replied : " If I want Caesar, I will go to Caesar ; and if Caesar 
wants me he must come to me." To this Caesar sent word back, 
as the Romans had taken the Edui under their protection, the 
enemy of the one woüld be accounted the enemy of the other 



also ; and, unless the Germans wished to declare war wilh Rome, 
they must wichdraw beyond the Rhine, and give hostages not lo 
cross it again. To this Ariovist made answer ; " No one has ever 
attacked the Gerraans with impunity, and if Csesar attempts it, 
he will find to his cost that ihey can endure ' the grappling vigour 
and rough frown of war,' They are inured to fatigue from in- 
fancy, and never sleep under the cover of a roof." 

A quarrel deliberately sought ís not likely to be laid by a 
Tvar of words, the intention of which is only to find a pretext for 
open hostility. CKsar never ivished ñor intended peace, and at 
once put his anny in motion. Aiiovjst did the same, and made 
cholee of a most excellent positioa Csesar tried to forcé him lo 
a general engagement, but thís for a time he carefully avoided. 

At length the d¡e was casL The baggage and the women were 
sent to the rear, and the order of attack was given. For a time 
ihe fury of both sides was equal. The Román left wing gave 
way, but their righl wing drove bact the Germans. As the 
Romans were under better control they quickly rallied, but the 
repulse of the Germans ptoduced confusión, confusión terror, 
and terror flight. The Román cavalry pursued the fugitives. It 
was a " save himself who can," and the camage was dreadful. 

Among the Germán captives was one of the daughters of 
Ariovist, the other lay dead among the slain. As for the army- 
chief, his office only continued during actual war, and all we 
further know of him is that he and his two wives escaped, 
carrying their hves ín their hands, 

"Ariovisl" ia proliaWy not a prnper ñame st al]. Il is evídently compounded oT two 
Germán wonls, Aíít /firjí (army-diiri). 



To a.c. 48. 

After the overthrow of Ariovist, Cresar occupied himself ¡n the 
subjugation of Gaul ; but he twice crossed the Rhine with a view 
of attacking the SuevL He found it impossíble to dislodge them 
from their fastnesses, but he succeeded in inducing many of them 
to join his army ; for the excitement of war was their deÜght It 
was to them, as Shakespeare says, " a sprightly waking, audible, 
and fuU of vent" 

In the contest which Cansar afierwards carried on against 
Pompey, these red-haired mercenaries formed the sinews of hís 
strength. The army of Pompey was composed, for the most 
part, of Román cavaliers, proud of their "blue blood," and 



of their personal appearance. Ccesar opposed to Ihese trim 
soldiers his burly Germans, and at the baitle of Fharsália (b.c 48) 
told them to strike " at the face of the foe," knowing welt Ihat 
those E.oman dardies dreaded a scarred face more than they 
feared deatL "Aim at the face, soldiers!" cried Cassar; and 
his rough mercenaries played such havoc with the curled and 
scented exquisites, that Cfesar's victory was complete. 

From that day forth the Germans formed the best part of the 
Eoman army, and during the erapire were selected for the im- 
periai guard. 


FkoM BC. 13 TO A.D. <86. 

Drusus (b.c. 12-9). — Nothing of any moment is known of 
the Germans after the overthrow of Ariovíst tul we come to the 
four expeditions of Drusus, son of Tiberius Claudius Ñero, and 
younger brother of Tiberius, the futiire emperor of Rome. 

This favourite of Augustus biiilt some forty fortresses on the 
banks of the Rhine, and in his four expeditions advanced as far 
as the river Elbé, sweeping everything before him. 

It is said he was about to cross the river when he was accosted 
by an apparition. It was a woman of gigantic stature, who said 
to him, in the Latín tongue, " Insatiable Drusus, whither goest 
thou? The Fates have decreed thus far, but no further shalt 
thou go. Thy work is done, and thy life hastens to its cióse." 
Who this woman was nobody knows ; but it is quite certain that 
the young soldier, then in the thirty-first year of his age, retumed 
to the Rhine, fell from his horse, fractured his leg, and díed 
within a few weeks. 

Tiberius (b.c. st-8). — The Germán war was then committed 
to Tiberius, the eider brother of 'Drusus, whose policy was crafL 
He was no hunter, like Nimrod, but a fisher who caught his prey 
by guile. 

This adopted son of Augustus, who succeeded to the imperial 
purple, gave out that he wished to establish an abiding peace ; 
but when the Germán magnates arrived he made them all 
prisoners, and then marched against the people, who were as 
sheep having no shepherd. No resistance was offered, for there 
was no one to organize it ¡ so 40,000, being made captives, were 
sent in exile to Gaul (Jaraneé), whicb at that time was a Koman 


Varus and Hermann* (.\.d, 6). — Fot a time all went 
smoothly. Several Germán tríbes became voluntary allies of Rome, 
and it seemed not unlikely that all Fatherland would ere long be- 
come a Román province ; but ¡n a.d. 6, Quintilius Varus was sent 
s the Román governor. He had prcviously been Govemor of 
Syria. " When he went thither the province was rich, and Varus 
poor ; but when he left, the province was poor, and Varus rich." 

He thought to ride rough-shod over the Germans as he had 
ridden over the Syrians j and proceeded to plunder them, to treat 
them wth contumely, to claim the right of life and death even 
over the free men, and to abolish their language. All public triáis 
were carticd on in latín ; all cdicts were pubüshed in the same 
tongue. I^atin was the language of the govemor's court, and the 
only one listened to. Lictors were introduced, and evÍl-doers 
were subjected to corporal punishment. 

Varus wholly mistook the character of the people he carne to 
rule. He had been accustomed to the debased natives of Syria, 
where courage in man, and virtue jn woman, were unknown, and 
never gave it a thought that the sons of Germany were high- 
minded, and her daughters puré in spirit. The Román soldiery 
might with impunity viólate the domestic shrines of the Syrians, 
but any atterapt of the kind in Germany would most certainly be 
resented by revolt. 

And so it was, The Germans were indignant beyond measure. 
When matters come to a climax, a leader is never long wanting. 
There was, on each side of the river Weser, a large Germán tribe 
called the Cherusci. The son of their chief was named Hermann, 
who had been educated at Rome. and had been made both a 
Román citizen and a Román knignt. 

This young prince saw the yoke put npon his fellow-countrymen, 
and resolved to cast it ofT. He spoke in secret to the chiefs of 
several tribes, and found them more than -willing to support him. 
The heart of the people was, in fact, as the heart of one man ; 
but to declare open war against Rome would have been madness, 
Varus had three legions under him, loao Román horse, and a 
large army of allies. A Une of fons had been extended all along 
the south of Germany and eastward from the Rhine to the Elbe. 
s needful, therefore, lo catch the governor by guíle in order 
to insure success. So the confederates frequented the head- 
quarters of Varus, retained their posts in his army, and continued 
to flatter him to the top of his bent. 

When Hermann was ready, he gave notice of a revolt i 

tntinued I 
t in thg I 





Germíin tribes ¡n what ís now called Oldenburg, between the I 
Weser and the Ems. Varus resolved to stamp ÍC out at once, set I 
bis army ¡n motíon, and marched to Uppé. 

Turn now to a map of Germany, Lat. 52° and Long. 8° will I 
direct the eye to a range of hills called the Wald, or the Teuto- I 
berger Wald, a Httle to the west of the river. Tbis Wald is a I 
table-land intersected with deep valleys, smrounded by steep I 
mountains and rocks. AIl the valleys are traversed by rapid 
streams, and the high grounds are covered with forests of oaks. | 
This is the district into which Varus was allured, and tbe n 
of several places still bear testimony to the disaster which aw 
him. One is named "The Field of Victory ; " another, " Bone ] 
Lañe ; " a third, " Bone Brook ; " and a fourth, " The Cauldron 
of Slaughter." 

It was the middle of September, and the season had been an 
unusually wet one, so that the ground was sodden and sUpperyj 
but Varus, litüe dreaming of danger, led bis Icgions ¡nto the very 
midst of the wood. The thunder roared, the Üghtning flashed, 
down carne the rain in torrents. The forest oaks howled with the 
most weird noises. No orderwas preserved, ñor ¡ndecd could be. 
Here stniggled the heavy baggage-wagons as best they might ; 
there trudged the weary soldiers, regardless of rank or discipline; 
the women were faint with fatigue, draggled with mire, and not a 
little alarmed at the strange noises. Evidently " they fought from 
heaven : " the stars in their courses fought against Varus. Night 
carne on. The wom-out soldiers had still to throw up fortifications 
foi the night With a wild, unearthly'yell, echoed from every part 
of the forest, the Germans rushed upon the foe, and all tbe Germans 
in the Román army deserted. So sudden the attack, so unearthly 
the noises, so lurid the heavens above, so dismal the ground be- 
neath, so numerous the deserters, that no spirit was left in the 
legions, who fell like sheep. Varus threw himself on his sword. 
Most of his high officers did the same. Resistance was in 
vain ; down dropped their idle weapons. " Exhausted, spiritless, 
afdicted," fell the foe. It was not a victory, it was a massacre — a 
destniction root and branch. Not that every man was put to [he 
sword, but that what remained was only as " the shaking of an 
olive-tree, as the gleaning of grapes when the vintage is done." 

Some of the survivors were reserved for sacrifice, more for 
menials and slaves ; so that here and there long after might be 
seen amidst the Germán tribes some Román senator guiding a 
yoke of oxen, or some of the bluest blood of Rome tending tbe 
swine or watching the sheep of a Germán peasant 



To this victory in the Teutoberg forest the Gerraans owe their 
liberty and even their sepárate existence. If Varus had subju- 
gated the Germans, the whole history of Europe would have been 
changed, and even England itself would not have been the Saxon 
England it now is. Never was battle more iraportant Never 
was victory more pregnant with events. From thaC moment 
Germany had a sepárate existence. The Román garrisons were 
cut off, and the Germán soil was freed from the oppressor. 

When Augustus heard of the disaster he was hke a man beside 
hiraself. For many a day he neither shaved bis beard ñor 
trimmed his hair, but was for ever pacing up and down ex- 
claiming, " O Varus, Varus, give me back my legions ! O Varas, 
Varus, my legions, my legions ! Who will restore my legions?" 
He seemed to expect a general revolt. In his frenzy he banished 
from the empire every Germán, for perhaps Hermann was 
marching to Rome with his victorious armyj but, most wisely, 
the young prince made no attempt to pursue his conquesta 
beyond the fatherland. 

The blow was never forgotten. The Romans abandoned 
Germany for ever, and the Rhíne was the acknowledged 
boundary of the two natíons. It was so, at any rate, till the 
fiftb century, ivhen the Germans became the assailants, and 
carved oíd Rome, with its numerous provinces, into the kíng- 
doms of modem Europe. 

i¡6t. Prince Louü 


'— "Dulch Repubüe," 

Germanicus and Hermann (a.d. 14-16). — Afler the over- 
throw of Varus the Romans made no further effort, during the 
lifetime of Augustus, to reduce the Germans to subjection ; but 
at the death of that emperor (.4.D. 14) a general revolt in the 
Román army took place. The young soldiers stnick for an 
increase of pay, and the veterans demanded their discharge. 

Germanlcus, the son of Drusus, had at the time the command 
of the le^ons, and, as rauch to divert their minds as anything 
else, !ed them into Germany. 

He made three expeditions into that country, in which invasions 
he was opposed by Hermann ; and although, without doubt, he 
achieved a certain degree of success, he was compelled afier each 
carapaign to withdraw to the banks of the Rhíne. 

These victories are greatly lauded by Román historians j but as 


A.i>.2So.48a] GOTHS AND HUNS. 1$ 

they were wholly without any influence on the history of the 
people, they need no further mention. 

For some unknown reason the Emperor Tiberíus recalled his nephew from Gennany, and 
three years aüfterwiuxls he died, probably from poison, in the thírty-fourth year of his age 
(a.d. X9X 

Marbod and Hermann (a.d. 19-21). — Hermann being 
delivered from all fear of the Romans, grew jealous of a native 
chief, named Marbod, who had established a laxge and floiirishing 
kingdom in Bohemia. 

This Marbod had been sent in boyhood to Rome with other 
hostages, and by his muscular limbs, his noble bearing, and proud 
spirit, had attracted the attention of Augustus. On his return to 
Germany, he gathered round him a large number of restless spirits, 
and formed a settlement in the mountainous districts of Bohemia. 
This settlement he organized on the Román model, called his 
country Marcomania, or " border-land," and had for his capital a 
town where now stands the city of Prague. His army consisted 
of 70,000 foot and 4000 horse, which he kept in good training by 
constant inroads on neighbouring tribes. 

Marbod had taken no part in the late struggle, and Hermann 
resolved to attach the new kingdom to his own dominibns. Ac- 
cordingly, he made war on Marbod, and so utterly defeated him 
that his kingdom was broken up, and he himself sought refuge in 
Rome (a.d. 19).* 

Hermann did not long survive, being murdered, at the age of 
thirty-seven, probably by his únele and father-in-law, out of 
jealousy of his renown (a.d, 21). This Germán Cidf was un- 
doubtedly the greatest hero of the period, and, as the liberator 
of his country, long lived in the national ballads and historie 


A.D. 350-480. 

It would be tedious and profitless to dwell on the other 
struggles of the Germans and Romans; suífice it to say the 
former from year to year grew stronger and stronger, and the 
latter weaker and more weak, till at length the Goths broke up 
their empire, and changed the whole face of Europe. 

The Goths were a part of the great Teutonic swarm, at one 

* He passed the rest of his Ufe an exile in Ravenna, and died at the age of fifty-three (A.D. 35). 

f The Cid was the King Arthur of Spanish romance— half historie and half leeendary. Poets and 
romancers chose these ñames for their héroes, to give an air of probability to the achievements related in 
their books. 


time dispersed about the southern and eastern shores of the 
Baltic, but afterwards setlled on the coast of ihe Black Sea, 
where, in the middle of the third century, they split into two 
parts, Those who remained íd the eastern parts of Europe were 
called the Eastern, or Ostro, Goths ; and those that journeyed 
westwards, the Western, or Visi, Goths. 

Some of the lalter, in a.d. 250, invaded Gau!, and made 
themselves masters of that Román province.* 

The Huns, — ^Scarcely had the Goths separated, when a 
new element of disturbance was introduced by an inroad of 
Huns. They had overrun China, but, being driven from the 
Celestial Empire by Vou-ti,+ many lefl the steppes of Tartary and 
made their way to the Caspian Sea. A part crossing the Caucasus 
carne ¡nto colusión wkh the Eastern Goths (a.d. 375). 

They are described by Greek and Román authors as hideously 
ugly — more lilce gorillas than men. With broad shoulders, short 
thick necks, flat noses, smail black eyes deeply sunk in the head, 
no beard, and very iittle bair. They wcre filthy in person, re- 
pulsive in habíts, and savage to the last degree ; but they were 
undoubtedly warlike, admirable horsemen, and capable of enduring 
almost any amount of privarion and fatigue. 

Under Attila these Huns devastated Italy ; but soon afler the 
death of that chief they gradually fade away, being probably 
absorbed in other races possessed of more forcé of character 
(A.D. 453)- 


Hra\ ' 


From the time of Tiberius to that of Charlemagne the political 
history of the Germans is almost a blank ; but during this period 
many petty states were formed, each governed by its own chief, 
and, what is of far more importance, Christianity vas introduced 
into the country. 

By the middle of the third century the doctrine of the Cross 
had made considerable way in France, and in those parta of 
Germany which lay nearest to France and Rome. Cologne, 
Treves, and Mentz i were the first places in Germany which had 
Christian Churches. 

About the same time the Goths who had settled in Thrace 
became converts. In some of their incuisions inio Asia Minor 
christian captives had fallen Ínto their hands, and these captives 
taught them " the power and the wisdom of God." 

Not long after, Ulfilas, called the "Apostle of the Goths," was 
appointed their first bishop (348-38S). He was a man of great 
talent, and succecded in civ¡lising these barbarians, ituomuch that 
thcy became the most polished and enÜghtened of all the Teutón 
trlbes. He even translated the Scriptures into the Gothic tongue, 
and one copy at least of his four Gospels is still extant 

Somewhat later the doctrine of the Cross was intioduced into 
other parts of Germany, chieñy by English and Irish missionarics. 

Columban, an Irish monk, in the sixth century evangelized the 
Bavaxians (then called Boíi) and other Germán nations. 

Gall, one of his companions, laboured with eqiial zeal in the 
parts about Zürich and Constance. A monastery near the lattcr 
lake still exists called by his ñame, 

Kilian, another Irishman, carried to Würtzburg the tidings of 
salvatíon, and was murdered (6S9) by Geilána, a woman living with 
dtdce Gosbert. She was his brother's wife ; and as John the 
Baptist reproved Herod for living with Herodias, so Kilian 
reproved Gosbert for living with GeiUna, and the vengeance of 
a wicked woman was the death of both. 

Wilübrod, of Northumberland, towards the cióse of the same 
century, preached in Holland the christian faith, and was created 
ihe first bishop of Utrecht (a.d. 693). 

Disen, an Irish monk, about the same time laboured in the 
neighbourhood of Mentz with extraordinary success. 

In the same century Rupert, or Robert, was invited over by the 
duke of Eavaria to come and instruct his subjects more perfectly, 
His preaching was with great power, and he was made the first 
bishop of Sakburg. This zeálous prelate was succeeded. by an 
Irishman, who took the ñame of Virgil, a prelate of wonderful 
modesty and humbleness of mind. He díed a.d. 781. 

But by far the foremost man of all was WinfrJd, a natíve of 
Crediton, in Devonshire, a monk of the Benedictine order. At an 
early age he wenc to Ulrecht " to water where Wilübrod had 
planted." Afterwards he passed into Bavaria; then carried the 
glad tidings into what is now called Saxony ; then, retuming to 
Holland, met Willibrod, the aged misstonaiy, in co-operation with 
whoni he buüt several churches, schools, and religious houses, 

In 733, Pope Gregoryll. consecrated the English monk " Bishop 
of the New Germán Churches," changing his ñame to Boniface, 



the "Well-doer;" and, ten years later, Gregory IIL made hím 
Archbishop of Mentz. It was Boniface who established the 
bishoprics of Racisbon, Passau, and Würtzburg in Bavaria, Erfurt 
in Saxony, and two or three other sees. 

After labouring for above forty years in the conversión of the 
Germana, he was murdered near Ulrecht, in Holland, in the 
seventy-flflh year of his age, and was buried in Hessen-Cassel, b 
the abbey of Fulda, which he had founded. Unquestionably he 
was one of the greatesC missionariea that ever IJved, and well 
deserves to be called the " Apostle of the Germans " (680-755). 

It was an age of missionary enterprise, and the self-devotion, 
piety, and zeal, of these heroic Christians is the only gleam of 
sunshine in the dark picture of the limes. Sad is it to think how 
soon their successors dishonoured the holy work and word by 
their riotous hving, gross worldliness, and Utter ignorance of the 
very first principies of Cospel Iruth. 



ir Benha. Siiltr, CísU. . 

•olkín, Karioniiii 

(i) DuidersDk, duDghtEr at Deaideriot kins of Lombarily: dlToiced. (i) Hüde- 

oí Rodolf Ihe Suan, uid Duther of two daugliicn 

MallEgarde ; Cersuindt, Ihe Suoa ; RcgTns ; and ' 

¡«I. by Hildcgudc ; K^, Pcpm, und Ludme : RoRu 

\ Luitgudc, a GciBu ; 

e, Benha, and GííIil. By Fi 

la-ChapEHE; logclhcim in Uesícti 
,1 chunüi of ALt-b-Cbnpdle. 


Llenad MiKB/lhc ferisd, Ali 

{firtHíA), ,jÍ3 ; G. I 

a <£.(r6wí iB 

: Lcuuad, a Cerman: Peler, a Ksui: 

Smiirt ai iaHÍ, An Fnmee (eieept Britunj); Spaín, from ih= Pvrema to ihe li™ 
Ebra; kIihou ill Gennaor ud Ausirüi; sJJ Italy (excepl Naplcí): pan Df Tsiker iQ 
Europ*; tha iduidi Mijona, Mlootca, Ivija, indConia. 

H!> >"<id wimilled Lt/iijinuí! hiipeen, Paladini. 

The long reign of Charlemagne has always been regarded as 
the most important epoch of early Europeati history. As a man 
and a monarch he never had an equaL Alexander the Great was 
infinitely inferior to him except as a warrior; Julius Casar and 
Napoleón." I. carne nearer the high mark; but our own Alfred 
approached nearest to him in benevolence, judgment, and legís- 
lative wisdom. 

The great Karl is generally included in French history ¡ but he 
no more belongs to France than Edward III, did. Both were 
" Kings of France," but both had other dominíons which they 
preferred. As for Charlemagne, he was essentially Germán. He 
spoke Germán ; the language of his couit was Germán ; he lived 
in Germany; his three favourite palaces were all in Germany; he 
died in Germany ; and there, too, he was buried. 

C 2 

30 KARL07INOIAN PEIUOD: [U.i;«.ji. | 

He was a man of gigantic stature, rising over seven feet in 
height, and somewhat corpulent, but so well proportioned that his 
great size was scarcely noticed except when others stood beside 
him. His head was round; the expression of his face, opeo, 
benevolent, and cheerful ; his neck, short and thick ; his eyes, 
large, quick, and lustrous ; his nose was what Ís called " tlie 
conqueror's nose " — that is, prominent, straight, and rising at the 
bridge ; his hair was of a brownish hue, fine, thick, and flowing; 
his step, finn ; his hand, so strong it could straighten three horse- 
shoes at once; his voice, clear, but somewhat shrill; his deport- 
ment, dignified and naanly ¡ his health, exceUenL 

He was mild in temper, courteous and sociable ; most just and 
liberal, vigilant and industrious, magnanimous and self-denying. 
Abstemious in diet, simple in dress, hating luxmy, a despiser of 
flattery, and without a tinge of vanity. Extremely charitable, a 
great cultivator and most liberal promoter of the arts, a noble 
patrón of leaming, easy of access, deligbting in strangers of 
eminence, and patient in hearing suitors. 

Like all really great men, he had un untiring vigour of mínd. 
which seemed to grasp everything, from universal empire to ihe 
rotation of farm crops. No amount of labotir wearied him ; 
nothing was too great, nothíng too little, to engage his atteniion. 
He felt an interest in mending a broken toy or soothing a frelful 
child, as well as in the hurly-burly of a battle-field. 

In dress he was most simple. His clothes were made in the 
plainest fashion, differing very little from those worn by the 
common people. His under-garments were linen ; his waistcoat 
and tunic were edged with silk; his trousers reached to his 
anides, and fitted tight to the legs. His feet were covered wiih 
boots, and his ankles bound with linen sandal-straps, somewhat 
like those of a Scotch costume, 

In winter he wore over his chest an ermine or otter's skin, and 
a loóse cloak fastened at the right shoulder with a gold or silver 
clasp. Only on two occasions could he be induced to put on 
robes of state : they were in compUment to Pope Adrián, and 
his successor Pope Leo III. 

In eating he was most abstemious, and still more so Jn drínking. 
Drunkenness he abhorred, and banquets were his abomination. ■ 
His table was rarely served with more than four dishes;. He 
preferred roast meat to boiled ¡ and at his noon-day meal hís 
attendant brought him up his fa.vouTÍte roast on a spit, hoi from 
the fire. After dinner he took a little íruit, and thea a nap íbr 
about two hours. 

A.D. 800^x4.3 CHARLEMAGNE, 21 

While dining, his reader read to him. His favourite books 
were St Augustine's De Civitate Dei^ and the Wars ofthejews^ 
by Josephus. 

He lied to have leamed men about him, and made some 
progress himself in several branches of literature. He spoke 
Latin as fluently as his own Germán; had a fair knowledge of 
Greek; studied theology, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, and 
logic ; was a great coUector of national ballads ; but found his 
fingere too stiff and awkward to make much progress in copying 
manuscripts, an art in which his beautiful daughters greatly 

His chief delight was horeemanship. He was passionately 
fond of himting, and, next to hunting, swimming, in which he 
was wholly unrivalled. He loved the Germán spas, and freely 
used the hot mineral waters. 

Dnring his long reign of forty-six years, Charlemagne made 
fifty-six great expeditions, and many of less note. Of these, 
eighteen were against his neighbours, the Saxons ; but only two 
of the Saxon campaigns resulted in a battle ; the rest were mere 
military demonstrations, in which forts were built, unruly natives 
captured and " made Christians " at the point of the sword, foresta 
travereed, rivers crossed, and submission exacted ; after which he 
retumed home, till another rising called for a fresh expedition. 
This tedious opposition went on for three-and-thirty years, when 
patience was fairly wom out, and the Saxons, being subjugated, 
consented to be baptized. 

His other ware were against the Aquitanians (a people of Gaul 
between the Loire and the Gironde), the Bretons, the Avars in 
Hungary, and the Spanish Moors. All of which we shall here 
pass by. 

Charlemagne made Kaiser (800). — The father of 

Charlemagne was Pepin, sumamed "le Bref," who usurped the 
crown and called himself " King of the Franks." But, to give 
his title colour, he induced the pope's légate to anoint him, 
after the manner of the Jews. 

It so happened at this juncture that the pope had a contention 
with the Lombards about image-worship. The pope insisted that 
images and pictures were aids to devotion, especially with the 
illiterate and ignorant ; but the Lombards maintained that they 
savoured of idolatry; and because these reformers destroyed 
them in their churches, they were nicknamed "image-breakers." 
The quarrel was so ñerce that it led to war, and the pope fled 
to Pepin for aid. The usurper seized this opportunity to get 



himself crowned by His Holiness, and the pope conferred on liím 
the títle of "Patrician of E.ome," which made him the repre- 
sentative of the imperial power of the West 

The ceremony over, Pepin marched against the Lombards, 
defeated ibem, and gave to the pope " the exarchate of Ravenna " 
(a.d. 755). This is called "The Donation of Pepin," and is 
especially noteworthy, as thereon resled the whole íabric of the 
temporal sovereignty of the pope. Up to that time the popes 
were only spiritual lords; the exarchate gave them a temporal 
dominión abo. 

Charlemagne continued the title of " Patrician of Rome " 
which had been conferred on his father by Adrián I., and 
another petition of the pope for aid helped him to other 

On the death of Adrián, Leo III. was elected pope; but 
two rival candidates conspircd to murder him, and he fled to 
Charlemagne for protection. The great king threw his asgis 
over the fugitive, and restored him to the papal chair, for which 
service Leo conferred on his benefactor the title of Impera'tor 
Auguslus, and crowned him in solemn potnp as "Karl, King 
of the Franks, Kaiser Augustus of the Romans."* 

Thus was revived, in ñame at least, the Western empire. A 
christian priest, who had no right to the empire even if it 
had existed, gave it to a Germán as a thank-oíTering. It was 
altogether a piece of mummery ; yet it involved a question of 
vast importance in the future history of Germany — viz., whether 
the monarch was "Kaiser" or "Emperor of the Romans," 
in virtue of his kingly office, or was it essentíal for him to go 
to Rome for the title? In other words, was he " ís-her" (x o^ct'i?, or 
must the title be conferred on him by the pope? For 200 years 
the emperors went to Rome for the title ; but Henry II, of 
Germany broke throtigh the custom, and assumed ic ex officio, 
In the next century the heir elect to the throne was ca.lled " King 
of the Romans," tiU his coronation as "King of Germany." 

Charlemagne as a Legislatoe.— The conquesta of the 
great Kail are by no means his only title to admiration and 
respect That which raises him above all the monarchs of his 
age is the wisdom of his laws, whereby he replaced anarchy by 
order, and bound together in one a multitude of races diffeiing 
in origin, language, manners, laws, and religión. 

^U5^ J 

A.a.tBa*^4 CIUKLEHACHE. 33 | 

Twice a year he convoked a kind of parliament, consisting 
of bishops, abbots, and chieítains, lo remedy abuses, and to 
delibérate on his laws, called capitularía.* 1 

In order to malte these laws respected, he divided hís wholft I 
empire into districts, confiding the authority of each distríct to I 
three or four magistrales who were expected to report to hira ' 
everylhing of moment. And such was his diligence, that he 
made it his business to become acquainted with every poliücal 
movemenC of his vast empire, 

A CBriaus kind of ordea] wai ianituKd in Ihii nign called "Tbe judgnwnl of thí crou,' 
whLch «as this ;—Tbt plaincifT and doíendont uf a auk wen leciaiTieil to t^swa ÜKÍr VDis upoa 
ihtir breaat^ aad he who canid hold Ihcm thus Iha lanf^ett guincd (he lukl. 

Cst/fur EvoHfíHat <md tht Ptalml. The bcolc wu opencd il random, and ths finger 
[aid pmDÚHcniDuíJ/ opon a paaui^, which wa« KuppoEetJ 10 bq prophtlic Jn th« an of 
Qovil. ihe book of iht Acll nj Iht A fusila -m sím^larly empLoyed. The Cnekl Uied tlw 
. cpio poenu of UomeXi oad Lhc Laüu Üw jEnad oí Virgil, fot a uioilar purpoH. 

Charlemacke a Promoter or Edücation. — Charlemagne, 
fully aware that educatíon is the best method of civilising a 
peopie, used all his endeavovirs to introduce among his subjecta 
a taste for literature and the fine ans, in which commendable 
labour he was greatly aided by Alcuin, a native of York, and 
disciple of the Venerable Bede. As example is better than 
precept, the monarch established in his own household a Schüla 
Palafíaa, which accompanied the court wherever it went, and 
was attended by himself, his sons and daughters, and the high 
officers of the realm. 

Olher schools were planted in various parts of his dominions. 
That in SL Martin's Abbey, at Tours, was on the model of the 
great school of York. This was Alcuin's favourite foundation, 
and it was here he delivered his lectures añer bis retirement from 

Besides his attention to schools, Alcuin spent no little of his 
time in correcting manuscripts. The Greek and Latin manu- 
scripts had become greatly debased and mutilated; but Alcuin 
undertook to correct the spelling and bad grammar, arrange what 
was misplaced, and lestore what was missing. As soon as a 
manuscript was fully corrected, Jt was copied out by good writers, 
and the copies were sent to the different schools and monasteries 
of the empire. Transcribing manuscripts was the mosE fashion- 
able occupation of the day, ¡n which ihe royal priricesses took 
active part, and greatly escelled. 


Cj^tDlary, If ora tbf Laini ta^irüla {tí 



Many new subjects of study were intraduced in this reign. 
Hitherto almost the only litcrature of the empirc consisted of 
sermons, legends, and moráis. Alcuin introduced ihetoric, 
grammar, jurisprudence, aslronomy, natural history, chronology, 
mathematics, poetry, and scripture comments. His elementary 
treatises on philosophy, rhetoric, philglogy, grammar, and mathe- 
malics are still extant 

Alcuin also took a deep interest in the great religious questton 
of the day,— images and pictures as aids to devotion. He 
advised the king to submit it to a general council of the bishops 
of the West, and the result of this advice was the Caroíin Sooks, 
in which the practice is condemned. 

Enriched by many abbeys and princely favours, Alcuin died 
about ten years before his royal patrón (726-804). 

T hfi Frañks hj 

jíxviously bteuD Ihí 
■ : bul Cfaiistmas Un; 


<i Eili Ihe 3Íi 

.-WhEQ th< yesít begín with Mi 

d^tían <n wu gtí 

\hc day at Ihc Cli<- 
t» Vcar's Day, ot 
ti Uíy *ai shitl 

. the 
Id coi 






word tor . 

i lo consiítrf onJy .hrr, 
nUuim. Spring, iimiin 



Death of Charlemagne (a.d. 814). — Domestic griefe 

saddened the last days of this splendid reign. The great Kail 
had to blush fur the misconduct of some of his daughters, and to 
weep for the death of hís two eider and favourite sons, one of 
whom died in 810, and the other in the year following. 

He had made hb eidest son regent of France and Germany, 
and his second son regent of Italy. He intended, at death, to 
leave thetn ¡ndependent sovereigns ; but his design was brought 
to naught by their untimely death within a few months of each 

Grief made great inroads on the oíd king's health. Falling 
into a State of melancholy, he spent his time in devotion and acts 
of chanty. At length his debility was so great he was unable to 
take any nourlshment but water ¡ and he died uttering the words, 
"Lord, inlo Thy hands I conimcnd my spírit." 

He was seventy-two years of age when he died, and had 
reigned forty-six years. He had founded a church called St 
Mary's, at Aix-la-Chapelle, his favourite place of residence, and 
there was he ínterred in his imperial robe, his sword and shield, 
his sceptre and crown, his Bible and pilgrim's scrip ; but all these 
things were stolen when the body was exhumed by Otto III.¿ 



1 00 1, and all that now marks the spot of his remains are the two 
words Carolo Magno on the pavement which covers his vault 

Replbctions on thk Reign of Charlemagnb.— The great scheme projected by 
Charlemagne «ras to make his kin^dom a second Román empíre j and had he been succeeded 
by men equal to himself. thís might have been effected. As it was, he blazed awhile as a 
comet, and passed away, leaving behind him very little more than the memory of his glorious 

A host of half savages may be kept in subjection by a strong hand, and the prestige of a 
£^eat ñame ; but it requires many ages to chajige their general ignorance inte knowledjg^e, to 
cement them into a peaceful society and to convert their roving, warlike propensities into a 
love of domestic Ufe, commerce, and the arts. 

^ The utmost that Charlemagne effected was to ^ve one man here and there a taste for 
civilised life: the great mass of the people remained pretty much as he found them. He 
himself foresaw with grief the threatened decline of his vast empire. Towards the cióse of 
his reign a new race of invaders from Scandinavia* appeared ; and though they were held at 
bay for a time, he felt convinced that the cloud would break when he was gathered to his 
fathers. And so it did. Thus Charlemagne^ stands forth in the dark ages of European 
history not as the Moming Star which ushers in the dáy, but as a solitary hero between two 
long períods of turbulence and ignorance. It was not the light of dawn, which goes on 
increasing, spreading gradually and surely ; but the bright ray of a candle, throwing a well- 
defined beam of Ught uirough the outer darkness, — seen of aíl so lon^ as the candle shineSi 
but when the cancOe is withdrawn the beam vanishes, and the darkness is not lessened. 


From a.d. 8x4 to ad. 9xx. 

Coniemporary with Eghert ifirst solé king of EnglaneC)^ 827-836; Ethelwitlf Eihelbald, 
Ethelbert, Ethelred^ 837-871 ; Al/red the Great^ S7X-90X ; tind Edward the Eider, gox-gas. 

LuDWiG the Débonair (778, 814-840), solé surviving son of Charlemagne. 
LuDwiG the Germán . (806, 840-876), second son of Ludwig the Pious.t 

Karl the Fat (832, 876-888), youngest son of Ludwig the Gennan.t 

ARNyLP (— 888-899X nephew of Karl the Fat.^ 

Ludwig the Child ... (893, 899-9x1), son of Amulf. 

Terriiory, by the Treaty of Verdun: — From Switzerland to the North Sea, and from the 
Rhine to the Elbe ; Saal and the Bohemian forest ; together with the towns of Mentz, 
Spire, and Worms. 

The rest of the Karlings make no mark on history. The two 
Ludwigs were amiable and well disposed enough, but were whoUy 
unfit to cope with the difficulties of those times, when an iron 
will and a strong hand were more needful than a love for the fine 
arts and an amiable disposition. 

The family quarrels of Ludwig the Débonair led to the Treaty 
of Verdun (in 843), by which the vast empire of Charlemagne 
was divided into three parts amongst the three surviving brothers : 

* ScandinaviaF--¿í., Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 

t LUDWIG the Hous had four sons— I^thair, Pepin. Ludwig, and Charles. Pepin died ; Ludwig had 
Germany as his portion, and Lothair and Charles the rest of the empire. 

X Karl the Fat survived his two brothers, and thus became monarch of Germany, Italy, and France. 

4 Arnulf was son of Karlman, the eidest brother of Karl the Fat ; but Karlman died while Karl was 
Jotnt sovereign with liim and his brother, called " Ludwig the Saxon." who died in 883. 


given number of soldiers, ormeii with "a shield, a spear, a bow, twelve 
arrows, and a breaat-plale ¡ " dukcs underlct Iheit estates OQ similar con- 
ditions. The dukc who beid Ms laoda iindct a king, wa3 colled "Ihe king*: 
man;" and the graf who held bis lajids under a duke, was called "lie 
duke's mm." The king was Ihe "]oid " of his vasaal dakes, and the dake 
was " lord" of hb vnssid giafe. 

Estales Ihua held íor niilitary serviee were called /í/i, and those granted 
hf kings were called "¡mmediate íiefs," beiause they weie gianted inilne- 
iliatel/ by the king, and held immediatelj under him; any ñef, however, 
could be converted into an "imniediale fief," if the king chose, wilhoiit 
changíng ils titie i thus, a graf could be made a "king'a man" simply by 
plocing his Cef undei Ihe king's pioCection. 

Allodia. — Lands nnt rented for militaiy service were called allodtal or 
frcehold; but in times of anaichy and war, it was not unusual for a freeboldec 
to convert his allodial inlo a fief to prevent spoliatíon ; for every " lord " wonld 
protect his ' ' man." and a wrong done to a vassal was resented by his lord 
as a peraonal afiront. 

HoMAGE. — The Lalin word for "man" is homp, the French homme, 
Whiin any one received a fief he was required lo say to his lord " I become 
^ouc man {.komo)," and this ceremony was called Aam-HíT. A lord could aC any 
time demand "homage," to icmind a rcbellious spiííl tbat he owed his lord 
obedience and fidelity for ihe estates Jenl him. 

Iq sume cases lords greatly anaoyed their vassals by constantly caJliug on 
tbem for hotnoge, which often involved long and expensive joumeys : as when 
a king of Wales or Scotland had lo come to London to pay homage ; or a king 
of Ei^lond had lo ^ to París; or a duke of Gerniany hod to travel ftom 
one end of the empire lo the other. This annoyance was sometimes given to 
diive a vaasal into a lefusal, in wbich case he forfeited his lief. Thus wben 
our klugjohn refused to go to París lo do hoinage for his French fiéis, they 
were decíared forfeit lo the king of France. 

Such bcleSy was the feudal system, It was never formally repealed, but i( 
died uut graduslly of ilsclf, as stonding aimies toóle the place of vassals, and 
rents were poid in money instead of military scrvice. 


nationd i 


The Goths braught with Ihcm frora the north their l^enda and i 
songs ; but soon afler their arrival in the south their gceat héroes t 
Ilermann and Dietrich \Dl-irilí\. As they sat on the ground about theit 
leuts, (for they hated to Ih: under cover} sorae young warrior would roUick oul 
how Hermann enirapped tbe Román legiona on the denles of Teutobu^ or 
how he was poisoned by his countrymeo because he wanted to make bimself 
a king, At another time some harper would sing the wonderful deeds of 
Dietrich or Theodoric, his wars with the Romans, his marriage with the 
dauíjhter oí King Clovis, his laws, and so on. 

The more nortbem tribes would prefer to listen to the legends about 
Si^ried [Stfg-frtiJl, the enormous treasures which he won ftom the ting 
of Norway, the gianls that he slew, and hia other wonderful worka. These lays 
were ultimately compiled into a united slory, ciiled the NiUltm^H-tied [-¡^\ 
or the "Germán Iliad," (For the story of this grand petm siíf.^S.) 

fV-í*^i I 


ir Hymn OF HiLDEBRAND (8th cent.).— Another popular subject with the 
early Germans was the Hymn of Hildebrandy which has fumished Germany 
with many a proverb and national phrase. This fragment, which is still 
extant, consists of alliteration and metre without rh3nnes. The subject is not 
unlike an adventure of one of King Arthur*s knights and may be thus 
condensed : Hildebrand's son thought his father was dead ; but one day as he 
was ríding in íiill armour, another knight met him. "Sir Knight," quoth 
the younger man, "tell me thy ñame and country, but an ye refuse to do so, ye 
shaU not pass this way." "Wit you well," said the eider knight, "I am 
Sir Hildebrand of Lombardy." "Knave, thou lyestl" thundered out the 
younger horseman, and so saying he let drive at him with such fury that he 
knocked him over his horse's croup to the ground. Then going to unlace the 
helm, he discoyered that it was his father whom he had slain. 

ir Ulfilas, a Gothic bishop of the 4th century, translated a part of the 
Oíd and New Testament into Gothic. This translation is called The Silver 
Code, A copy of it is preserved in the public library of Upsala in Sweden, 
and is the the oldest muniment of the kind in Europe. Ululas also wrote 
Uves of the Saints, and invented the Gothic alphabet. 

ir The Wessobrunn Prayer and the Müspelheim. — In the 8th 
century we find two poems of considerable merit, The Wessobrunn Prayer 
and the Müspelheim [-htme], The former, which was discovered in a convent 
at Wessobrunn, in Bavaria, is a poem on creation ; and the "prayer" is that 
of the author for holiness and wisdom. 

The other poem is a mythological legend spiritualised. Müspelheim is 
the Scandinavian hell [mtíspel-heim, home of nre], and the subject of the 
poem is the last judgment. Thor is Elijah, and the giant Surtur, the keeper 
of hell, is Antichnst. At the end of the world Surtur will destroy all created 
things with fire. Then shall the "heavens pass away with a great noise, 
and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works 
that are therein shall be bumed up.'* This poem is in alliterative verse, and 
shows poetic talent and imagination. 

ir The Evangel and the Heliand. — A century later (a.d. 868), 
Otfried [Ot-freed], bishop of Wissemburg, in France, produced in Germán 
his famous Evangelist Book * or Gospel Story in lyric verse. This is no mere 
dc^gerel, but a work of real genius, with several descriptive passages and 
lynod flights of great merit. 

At the desire of Ludwig the Pious the Gospel Story had been already turnad 
into verse in what is called The Heliand^\ but these two productions dififer in 
many respects : the Evangel is lyrical, the Heliand epic ; the Evangel is in 
rhyme, the Heliand in alliterative verse; the Evangel is diversified with 
reflections and illustrations, the Heliand is only narrative. 

ir The Ludwig Lay (870). — Only one more work needs to be mentioned, 
and that is The Ludwig Lay, a bailad celebrating the victory of Ludwig HI. 
over the Northmen. The poet makes the pious king chant the Kyrie eleison 
[e-/i-zon] before the battle, and celébrate his victory with a Te Deum, This 

* The Eyangelienbuch has oíten been published. In 1831 an editíon of it was brought out. 

f Sercral editions and tnmslations of the Heliand ezist (See Notes and Querier, Feb. s. 1878). 


the üght. 

ir Amusements.— The grcat amusemenls of the period were hunting 
and hawking. A party for such a piirpose wns n led-lellcr day wilh Ihe 
gealty cf bulh sexes. Afíei the day's sport the ladies and geotlemeD 
sdjoiUQed to the tents, and spenC Ihe nigbt in dancing acd social intercouise. 

Tonmaments did not come into vugue till the Middle Age, when c 
wu in its piide. 

reourefc " ,1 


The boy Icing being dead, the eight great princes of Germany 
unanimously agreed to offer the crown to Otto the Ülustrious, 
duke of Upper and Lower Saxony, but the compütnent was 
rejected by him, in consequence of his great age, and he advised 
the electors to give the crown to Konrad, count of Franconia. 
This was truly noble, as the heads of Saxony and Franconia were 
not on friendly lerms,* 

Eonrad, withouc doubt was a prince of great merit, in every 
way qualified to rule. He was brave and prudent, generous and 
wise, but had fallen on evi! times j and his short reign of six years 
and a few months was one of ceaseJess war with his iinruly vassals. 
His worst enemy and most formidable opponent being Henry of 
Saxony, son of Otto the Illustrious, 

It is not a little remarkable that Henry's father being offered 
the crown forgot his hostility to the counts of Franconia, and 
pointed out Konrad as the best choice that could be made,^ — ^and 
Konrad, dying of his wounds, bore no resentment to his worst 
enemy, but senC the spear, the sword, and the jewels, to Henry 
the Saxon, although at the time he had a brother whoni) if he had 
thought fit, he might have chosen for his successor. 

■ ■ronrtd _b» aiiai 

. The isle it, thil in 

Z [Myitccí—Thc legEnd of Hallo being deinimd 


LTchbiEhcjp ihey mbb^ed him upajive. Qt,B. — MouK-to 




THE SAXON D7NAST7 (918-1024). 

GivBs 5 KzNGS.— Hbnry i., Otto i., Otto II., Orro III., and Hbnry II. 


Surnamed "The Father of his Country." Duke of Saxony and King of Germany. 
BoRN 876. Reigned z8 Years, A.D 918-936. 
Died at Memleben, in Thuríngia, Saturday, July 2, 936. Aged 60. 
Cimiemporary with Edward tke Eider ^ 901-925 ; and Athíhtan^ 925-941. 

FaiJur^ Otto the Illusüious, whom he succeeded in the duchy of Saxony 9x2. 

Wife^ Mechtildis (Matilda), who was a model wife.^ 

Children^ Otto the Great (his successor); Hedwig who marríed Hughes the Great, count 

of París, 938 ; Gerberga who marríed Louis D'Outremer king of France, 93a ; Bruno 

archbishop of Cologne ; Harduin ; Henry, father of Henry II ; and two natural children, 

Hathburga and Tankman. 
Died^ July 2, 036, of apoplexy, at Memleben, in Thurín^a, aged 60, in the x8th year of his 

reign. Éuried at Sl Feter's, Quedlinburg (Prussia), having founded both the town 

and the church. 
Tke Empire embraced Holland, Flanders, and Switzerland, as well as Germany. 
Territory added^ 925 Lotharingia (Lorraine) ; 928 Brandenburg ; 930 Holstein (held in fief of 

the king of Denmark.) 


923-5. Invades and annexes Lotharíngia (LorraineX 

926. Makes a truce with the Hungaríans for nine years. Vanquishes the Slavs. 

928. Makes Brandenburg a margraviate, or frontier to Saxony, with a military govemment. 

930. His son Otto being x.8, marríes Edith, daughter of Edward the Eider, and grand- 

daughter of Altred tíie Great of England. 
Prague besieged, and Wenceslas king of Bohemia is made to pay tríbute to the king 

of Germany. 
934. Great victory over the Hungaríans at Mersebur^, in Saxony. Henrjr the Fowler has 

an interview with the King of France and Kmg of Burgundy. Wmle at Gottingen, 

in Hanover, he institutes toumaments. 
*»* In this reign begins the House of Habsburg. Its founder was Gontram the Rich, count 

of Alsace (9x7-954), whose grandson Radebot built the chateau of Habsbuxg in X020, 

and Radebot's son, Wemer, assumed the title of "Count of Habsburg." 

We now come to the epoch from which the tnie history of 
Germany may be said to begin. All that preceded the advent of 
the great Saxon was but a prelude to the drama about to foUow. 
As the history of England begins anew with William the Conqueror, 
and that of France with Hugues Capet \U Cap-pay\ so the history 
of Germany begin^ anew with Henry I. the "Fowler," the 
" Saxon," and the " Father of his Country." 

Henry the Saxon was called the " Fowler " because he was 

flying his hawks on the slopes of the Hartz mountains, when the 

messengers came to tell him he had been chosen king. This 

honour was no sinecure, and he knew it ; there was dreadful work 

• before him, but the brave bold duke made up his mind at once to 

• Henry, in Germán " Heinrich " [ffüu-riJt}. 



do or día There was anarchy within, there were enemies without, 
but he set his face as a flint to bring order out of chaos, and lo 
stamp out the maracders who had hitherto made Germany the 
hunting-ground of their incursions, The great Saxon stands a noble 
figure in history, full ¡n the fore-front, as Milti'adés ¡n the batfle- 
piece of Marathón,* a very giant in the grey daw-n of the dark ages. 

Wars of Henrv i, — \Vhen it is said that the prínces of Germany 
agreed to offer the crovm to the Saxon dulce, it must not be 
supposed that they were unanímous in this choice, How could 
they be so, when "self was the god of their idolairy?" The 
dukes of Suabia and Bavaria stood out from the first, but the 
" ¡ron duke " soon brought them to submíssion, by the terror of his 
arms, or the power of his will. 

Lorraine also was a thorn in his side. It always was ín see-saw 
between France and Germany; but after some strong figl\ting, the 
Fowler made an alliance with the duke of Lorraine, and gave him 
his daughter Gerberga in marriage (923-5). 

H His gteat task was now before him : to clear the country of 
invaders, and prevent future inroads. The Suabians, Hungarians, 
and Korthmen had long been a trouble to Germany, Arnulf had 
taught the Northmen a lesson, and the others had been occasionally 
repulsed, but they saw nothing to fear in the new king and were 
soon in arms. The Hungarians mct at first with some advantages, 
and pushed their way inte the very core of Saxony ; but their chief 
falüng into the hands of the Fowler, brought matters to a crisbi 
and pcace was patched up on these conditions : the captive chief 
was to be set free, and the Hungarians pledged themselves not to 
cross the borders again for níne years (926). 

I Henry next made an expedition into Bohemia, laid siege to 
Prague (the capital), and forced it to submit. Bohemia was now 
made a fief of Germany, and the duke of Bohemia had to pay 
homage to the emperor, whenever a new ruler in eitber of the 
States succeeded, and at such other times as the kíng of Cermany 
might think fit to demand it of him (930). 

§ The Suabians were next subdued, and had so severe a lesson 
that ever after they quíetly submitted to the Saxon king. 

The Battle of Merseburg, in Saxony (934), — The níne 
years truce being ended, the Hungarians sent to the Fowler for 
black-mail. Black-mail indeed! The onl y tribute Henry would 
give them was a mangy cur, cropped of its ears and taiL The 
Hungarians were furious ; they vowed vengeance, death without 


raercy, battie without quarter ; but vengeance had gone over to 
the other side. A battie was fought at Mcrseburg, in Saxony, 
and the Hungarians wete dcfeated. The massacre was dreadfu! : 
the nuinber of prisoners we are told was 200,000, and although, 
without doubt, this is a gross exaggeration, we may readily believe 
that the victory was complete, That Henry thought it so is certaín, 
for he fell on his knees ¡n the battie-field, and tJianked God that 
he had given him the victory. The conqueror was hailed as 
the "Father of his Country," and to tliis day tbe anniversary of 
the battie of Merseburg is held in Fatherland as the day of its 
deliverance from the Hungarians. 

§ One more foe remained, — that oíd, oíd enemy, the Danés, 
They had once more made head and crossed the borders. The 
Fowler was not to be tampered with thus; "The lion and the 
adder he had trodden under foot," and these Danés would he 
"tread down as the mire of the streets." He boldly marched 
into the very heart of Denmark, forced its king to sue for peace, 
built a fortress at Sleswig, and placed there a margraf or border- 
reeve to keep watch and ward over the sea-kings for the 
fu ture (930). 

Institutions of Henry I. — ^With all this railitary actívily the 
Fowler forgot not his duty to the church. He founded afabeys and 
other religious hoiises, proving himself a wise ruler as weJl as a 
brave solcUer. He introduced more orderly methods of fighting 
than the Germans had hitherto known; and, that they might match 
the Hungarians, instítuted a cavalry forcé, for hitherto the Germans 
had fought only on foot, and were ill-prepared to cope with skilled 
horsemen. He also built several fortresses along the borders of 
his empire, into which the people might flee for refuge when un- 
expectedly attacked. These fortresses were placed under the 
charge of marquises or margrafs — that ¡s, reeves with a military 
govemmenl — to defend the marches or border-lands from in- 
cursions and itivasions. 

Altogether he established síx of these margraviates : one at 
Sleswig to keep a look out against the Danés ; one in Branden- 
burg;* one in Misnia and another in Lusaiia to watch over the 
Wends or Vandals ; a fifth in Austriaf to keep the Hungarians 
at bay; and a sixth in Antwerp to keep an eye upon the French. 
Those of Sleswig and Antwerp soon fell through, and that of 
Lusatia was changed into the margraviate of Saxony. Henry the 
Fowler is also called the founder of chívalry, and was the íiisl lo 






introduce those popular military sports called "toumaments" 

BuKGHER Class. — Though great in war, and wise in defence, 
the Saxon king was still more famous as the founder of the 
burgher or commercial class of Germany. This he efTected by 
creating a place of commerce where merchants míght carry 
on their trade with safety, With this object he built several 
towns, encouraged his subjects to live in them, and walled them 
for defence. In order to form garrisons he compelled every 
ninth man to act as a soldier in the nearest town ; and the other 
eight had to niaintaln him, and furnish his equipments. 

He furthermore enacted that all public meetings should be held 
io walled towns, that all fairs should be kept within the walls, and 
that no religious processions should take place ín the exposed 
country. He provided also hallsof justice, andacivic tnagistracy; 
so that towns soon grew Ínto places of resort, and the tradesman 
or burgher class became both rich and powerful. We shal! 
see in the seque! that they also proved the best friends of the 
crown in the struggles which ensued between the kings and the 
barón s. 

Death of Henrv i.— -This noble king díed of apoplexy July i, 
A.D. 936, as he was starting on an expedition into Italy, ín the 
i8th year of his reign, and the 6oth of his age. He was a bom 
statesman, and a right eamest man ; by far the wisest and strongest 
since the time of Charlemagne. He d¡d good work in his day 
and generation, and what is more, it was abiding work, so that his 
reign is a veritable epoch in medireval history. Before he died 
he summoned a diet at Erfurt, and obtained a promise from 
the nobles that they would choose his eidest son, Otto, as his 

§ In prívate life the first Henry was a good husband and a kind 
father ; fortunately he had a most excellent wife, who aided him in 
all civil and religious reforms. As a foe he was stern and terrible, 
as a magistrate padent and just, as a friend both tnie and aJTable. 
His manners were agreeable, his deportment dignified — he moved 
and looked a king. Hunting was his favouriie amusement; 
he exceded in athlctic sports ; and was a born commander of 

§ His eyes were blue and piercing, his brows beetling, his nose 
(like that of Charlemagne) was the " conqueror's nose," somewhat 
prominent and rising at the bridge. His beard was short and 
square, his moustache thick and mingling with his beard, hi$ , 
hair flowing to his shoulders, and of a red-brown colour. 

9x8-936.] HENRY I., THE FOWLER. 35 

He wore a short toga reaching to his knees and girded about 
the waist with a leather belt His shoes were sandalled both over 
the instep and up the leg as high as the knee; his spurs were a 
single goad. Over his toga he wore on state occasions the royal 
mantle, which was fastened at the neck with a gold and jewelled 
clasp ; but he went to battle on horseback, and in mail armour. 


Hitherto the people had been little organised : they were like 
the children of Israel in the wilderness, homeless, restless, and 
rebellious. The first elements of civilised life are a fixed home 
and legitímate employment The Fowler provided roughly for 
both these. He employed the people, and gave them fixed 
habitations. Those who delighted in war and plunder, he 
employed in defending the frontiers; so that instead of dis- 
turbing the peace and robbing one another, they were set to 
watch the French, the Danés, the Vandals, and the Huns ; if 
they wanted excitement, they might find it in incursions; if 
plunder, they might filch it from their foes. Those who had a 
taste for mechanical employments and domestic life, he induced 
to abide within walled towns, where they were under the pre- 
siding care of the local bishop. By these wise regulations he 
not only restrained turbulence and robbery, but he directed the 
energies of his subjects to useful ends, gave life a purpose, and 
made the welfare of each contribute to the welfare of the whole. 

The Militia. — In such turbulent times as those now referred 
to, when every man's hand was against his brother, opportunity 
is an invitation to wrong doing. It was absolutely necessary, 
therefore, for every man to be capable of self-defence ; so alí 
were drilíed and trained to arms — some for the militia, and others 
for the regular army. 

The militia* resembled the present land-wehr or land defence. 
They were the industrial class, such as tradesmen, mechanics, 
labourers, and so on, drilled for home defence in times of riot, 
insurrection, and disorder. The eldest son of every family was 
the king's man, and in time of war was expected to be sent 
forth equipped for the emperor's service. The military were 
soldiers by trade. 

Hitherto, the Jews had been the only merchants — trade, 

- * In Gennan heer-banttt i.e, aimy'band. 
D 2 



with all arts and industries, beíng considered 
employment. In fact, commerce and freebooting are like cat 
and dog, each hates and despises the other ; but once give men 
houses and homes, with the protection needful to secure íor 
themselves wealth, and they become at once lovers of order and 

It is not to be supposed that the people were reduced to order 
and brought lo hve in houses all aC once. Barons still carried 
on their prívate wars, and looked on this rlght as theia pre- 
rogative; but as a town grew in strength and wealth it became 
more formidable, and the most headstrong of the barons would 
pause before he aEteihpted to disturb such a homet's nest 
The houses, too, at first were rude, and the walls weak, but they 
were a good beginning, and the tide of civilisation never ebbs. 
It may advance and recede like the breakers of the sea, but 
the general wave moves on. With home life, walled towns, the 
creation of an industrial class which had its bread to eam, and 
might acquire luxuiies, the foundation of dvilised life was 
securely laid ; the masses were recognised as an estáte ; not a 
mere class, but an integral estáte ; a living litnb of the body 
corporate ; though the balance, no doubt, would be some tirae 
in adjusting itself. 

The Soldiers.— The soldíery, at thís period, consisted of 
horse and foot The niounted soldiers were the gentry, the 
infantry the lower orders. Every horseman chose for himself 
one ormore of the foot soldiers, and these associates niixed with 
their riders. A common danger drew thera closely together, 
and each felt bound to defend the other, even witli life itseUl 

The usual form of battle was the wedge. The instniments of 
music employed were brazen trumpets, huUs' homs, and huge 
timbréis. The whole army sang and clashed their shields, both 
on march, and when moving to attack. Such martial music may 
not, perhaps, be melodious, but it is certainly inspiriting. On 
march, the footfall was distinctly marked, but when moving 
to attack, the sounds grew faster and more fuiious as the dis- 
tance lessened. The chant became a shout, the shout a yell, 
the yell a whoop, made ten times more hideous hy the reso- 
nance of the volees from the shields which the men he!d before 
theii mouths. The bray of trumpets, the blast of buUs' homs, 
the clang of the timbréis, the clash of shields struck by the 
spears, the whoop and the yell of a whole army rushing forward 
with mad fury, made a pandemónium of sounds enough to lend 
the heavens and make the brute earth tremble. 


93S'«r3>) MEDUETAL PERIOD. 37 


" LION." 

Kínff of Geniumy, 936 ; Duke of Franconía, 943 ; King of Italy, 961 ; 
Kaker or Emperor of the Holy Román Émpire, February a, 962. 

BOKN, 9x3. KiNG, 936-973. EmPBROK, 961-973. 

Died, Augnst, 973. Aged 6z years. Reigned 4a years. 

Conit m^ tn u y witk Athelsteut^ 935-941 ; Edmund ihe Magnificante Edred^ Edwy, 

asuL Edgar tke Peace/ul, 959-975. 

Failurt Henry Úie Fowler, while doke of Sazony. Moiker, Mechtildis (Matüda). 

H^i/tj (z) Eadgyth (EdithX daaehter of Edward the Eider, and granddaughter of Alfred 
the Gfcat, 930-947. (3) Adelheid (Adelaide), widow of Lothaire king of Lombardy, 951. 

CAildrgn, Lodolf-AHio married the daughter of Hermann dulce of Suabia — died 957; 
Willíam, archlúshop of Mainz; Otto^ his saccessor; and one daughter, Luitgard, who 
manied oooat Konrad. 

Emj^rtf Kingdom of Germany, 936 ; Duchy of Franconia, since 943 ; Ringdom of Lom- 
bardy, or Italy, 951 ; Empuñe of the Romans, February s, 962. Bohemia, 950, 
Hung^ury, 955, Poland, 957, Denmark, 965, fiefs of the crown. 

The three diief duchies were held by the king's relatives— that of Bayaría by Henry the 


936. Wenceslas, Idng of Bohemia, murdered by his mother and brother Boleslas, who 
restore idolatry. 

938. War widí B<deslas Idng of Bohemia, the great persecntor of the Christians. 

939. Loáis D'Oatremer, king of France, marries Gerber^ the king|^s sister. The 

year. previous another of his sisters, named Hedwig, had married Hughes the 
UraU, count of París and ^ther of Hughes Capet. victory of Andemach, near 
CoUmiz, over the dukes of Lorraine and Franconia. 

947. Otto gets his son Ludolf elected his successor. 

950. Otto gives Ludolf the duchy of Suabia. Boleslas I., king^ of Bohemia, vanquished 

by Otto, and compelled to become a Christian. Bohemia a fief of Germany. 
95 z. Otto marches into Lombardy to succour Adelheid. widow of Lothaire king of 

Lombardy ; conquers the country ; is proclaimed " King of Italy " at Pavía ; and 

maníes Adelheid. 

953. Otto restores to Berengar the crown of Lombardy, as a fief of the Germán Crown. 
955. The Hungarians utterly routed in the battle of Lech, and Hungary made a fief of the 

Germán crown. 
957. Death of Luddf, the Idng's eldest son, in Italy. 
o6x. Otto, at the request of pope John XII., depbses Berengar king of Lombardy 

Crowncd at Milán " King of Italy." 

963. Otto causes John XII. to be deposed, and procures the election of pope Leo VIII. 

The Romans swear never to elect a pope without having first obtained the approval 
of the Idng of Germany. 

964. Otto hesites and takes Rome, because his protege Leo VIII. had been set aside for 

Benc^ct V. He takes Benedict captive into Germany. 

965. War with Denmark. The Danés pursued ^ even to Jutland. Harold^ king of 

Denmark, compelled to beoome a Christian, and Denmark made a nef of the 
crown of Germany. 

967. Otto retums to Rome to suppress a revolt. Causes pope John XIII. to crown Otto 

(the Idng's son) successor to the crown of Germany. 

968. Otto sends to Constantinople to negodate a marriage between his son Otto, and 

Theophania daughter of Románus II. emperor of the East. 

No better successor to the vacant throne of Henry the Fowler 
could have been chosen than his son Otto, sumamed the " Lion," 


and the "GreaL" He carried on the work of hía father in ihe 
same spirit and the same vigour, so that Gennany, which had 
been before a chaos of anarchy, rose by their energy and 
prudence into unity and power. 

CoRONATioN. — Otto I. was crowned by the archbishop of 
Mainz {Mynce), in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was 
fiUed to overflowing. The prelate took the young king by the 
hand, and, addressing the people, said aloud : " Hete I present 
to you Otto, the king elected by God, and nominated by 
Henry of blessed memory. If he is your choice, signify the 
same by hoiding up your hands." Iramediately every hand was 
held up, and a shout was raised of " God save the king ! God 
save king Otto ! " The archbishop then advanced with him 
lo the altar, where he was arrayed in the royal mantle, and 
presented with the sword, beit, and bracelets, sceptre, staif, and 
crown. As he girded on the sword the prelate said to him: 
"Receive this sword, to use it against the enemies of Chríst, 
and to increase the peace of his true disciples." Being then 
enthroned, high mass was perlormed with all possible solemnity 
and pomp. 

Dukes, at the beglnning of this reign, were appointed for the 
íirst time to nominal offices in the king's household. The 
duke of Lorraine, the king's brother-in-law, was made lord 
chamberlain ; the duke of Franconia, carver ; the duke of 
Suabia, cupbearer ; and the duke of Bavaria, grand marshal and 
master of the horse. These appointments, however. did not 
assure their loyalty and fidelity. 

Batile of Andernach (939). — Tankmar the half-brother 
of the king, and Henry, the king's youngest brother, were 
both iU pleased that Otto had been chosen king instead of 
themselves. Tankmar said he was the eider, being bom before 
the marriage of the Fowler with Matilda, and Henry pleaded 
that he was higher in rank, because Otto was born when his 
father was only duke, but he himself after his father had been 
crowned king. Worthless as these pleas undoubtedly were, 
they were quite enough to form a rallying cr)- for the disaffected, 
among whom were the duke of Lorraine the lord chamberlain, 
and the duke of Franconia the king's carver. 

Otto was fully prepared fot the disaffection of these nobles, 
and won over them the famous battle of Andernach, near 
Coblenz, in which Tankmar and the two dukes peiished. Henry 
was patdoned, and the duchy of Bavaria was given to him, aíler 
the death of the grand marshal (945). 

im, iuu» I 

gs&^n-] OTTO t, TBE CRCAT, ¡^M 

Wars of Otto. — This intestine trouble being over, Otto had 1 
leisure to attend to his foreign enemíes. He haá long and I 
bloody wars with the Slavs, his neighbours ¡n the north ; i 
büt at last he made them his tributaries, and compelled them ■ 
to become Christians. In 968 he made Magdeburg an arch- 
bishopric, and placed the Slavs in the jurisdiction of this 

Next, the dukes of Bohemia and Poland were made to do 
him horaage, and for the benefit of ihese duchies he founded 
the bishopric of Posen. 

Lastiy, he drove back the Danés as far as Jutland, because 
Ihey had made inroads upon Sleswig ; compelled Harold Blue- 
ToQth their king, with his wife and son, to be baptised, and 
made Denmark a fief of the Germán crown (965). 

Otto I, King of Italy (951).— Lothaire king of Lombardy, 
being dead, Berengar duke of Lombardy tried to make the 
widow marry his son, but she obstinately refused to do so, and 
fled, Being captured in her flight she was brought to Lombardy, 
and placed under the hands of the duke's wife, a woman of 
violent temper and great cruelty, who treated hcr like a slave, 
■ tore otf her omaments, struck her to the ground, and dragging 
her by the hair to the palace dungeon, threatened to leave her 
there lili she consented to the proposed marriage; The young 
widow, being liberated by a monfc, named Martin, applied to 
Otto for protection, and Otto, who was then a widower, gladly 
undertook her cause, married her, and assumed the title of " The 
king of Italy." Being subsequently reconciled to Berengar, he 
restored him to his dukedom, and Lombardy became a fief of 

Battle of Lech {955). — This marriage with the widow 
Adelaide, gave great oífcnce to Ludolf the king's son, and 
Konrad his son-Ín-law, who conspired to dethrone him, but he 
áoon brought them to submission, and made them sue for 
pardon (954). 

The Hungarians witoessed these family feuds with delight, and 
tliought it a ripe season to push into Bavaria ; but it was too late ; 
the rebellion was over, and the two chief rebela became arms of | 
strength to the king against their common enemy. 

The king encamped near the river Lech, in Bavaria. Both 
Ludolf and Konrad were given companies. The baggage was 
placed in the rear, guarded by 1,000 picked horsemea Contrary 
to all expectation the Hungarians made their attack on the baggage, 
but Konrad hastened to the rescuc, and the foe was driven back. 




Next day, the Holy Sacrament was administered in Otto's 
camp ; prayeis were offered up by the archbishop of Mainz 
_ Z '^]'> *Üe king's lance was blessed, and the holy banner of 
St Michael was unfurled. Tbe anny was drawn up, the cali 
to battle soimded. Forward ! The God of Batties be your 
strength ! On nished the Germans. All were of one mind. 
Konrad was resolved by his deeds this day to wípe out the staín 
of his rebellion. The foe gave way. The success was brilliant, 
the victory complete. The Hungarians fled on all sides. It 
was a stampede, and though many were made prisoners, the 
ground was covered with the slain. Three of the Hungarian 
cbiefs fell into the hands of the victors, and were hiing like 
dogs upon the nearest trees ; seven others had their ears cut off; 
but Otto had to mourn for the death of Konrad his son-in-law, 
who had been mainly instrumental to this great triumph — slain 
after the battle by a random arrow. Being greatly heated by 
the fight, the young man had just loosened his armour, when 
some Hungarians in their fiight discharged their arrows behind 
them, one of whích struck Konrad in the neck, It was his 
death-wound ; but he had lived long enough to deserve for 
epitaph " his fanlts lie gently on him ! " 

After this great battle, all the temtory along the Danube, being 
added to Gennany, was formed into the margraviate of Austria. 
The Hungarians ceased from further inroads; and till the thir- 
teenth century their kings were for the most part vassals of the 
Germán crown. 

OiTO I. Kaiser (znd February, 962). — We come now to 
another epoch in Germán history. Charlemagne had been 
crowned " King of Italy," and had been created by the pope 
"Kaiser" or "Emperor of the West" These tiües were lost by 
his degenerate descendants; but Otto the Lion restored them 
in his own person, and they continued for several centuries 
appendages of the Germán crown, Indeed, the kings whd 
succeeded the Lion cared less for the title of " King of Ger- 
many," than for thaC of " Kaiser " or " Emperor of the West," 
though one was a reality and the other at the best but a rojfal 
fiction, which, like Harmonia'a necklace,* was an ill-gain that 
never prospered. 

nect^e m Erlphylé 

rm^ iir'£liicn4.°°Tl£'^U mn^ 

93«^3.J OTTO L, THE GREAT. 4I 

It carne about thus: Berengar duke of Lombardy, who had 
before revolted and been pardoned, took up arms to assert his 
independence. The Lion of Geraiany sent his son Ludolf to 
quell this revolt, but Berengar's wife poisoned him. Otto now 
marched into Italy, put Berengar and his wife to death, and 
>vas crowned at Mikúi " King of Italy " (961). He next received 
at the hands of pope John XII. the imperial crown, and was 
hailed "Kaiser" or "Emperor of the West," as Charlemagne 
had been before him.* 

It shonld be distíncdy borne in mind that Gennany itself was never an empire till king 
William made it so, in iBji, during the Franco-Gennan war. 

Scarcdy had he retmned to Gennany when the pope deter- 
mined to undo the work that he had done. He tried to 
establish the son of Berengar in the estates and title of his 
late father ; but Otto was back without delay, stamped out the 
revolt, deposed the pope, and raised Leo VI 1 1, to the papal 
chair. No sooner, however, had he tumed his back on Italy 
than the ex-pope headed another revolt and drove Leo into exile ; 
so Otto had to retum once more in order to restore him and 
establish peace (963). 

Marriage of Otto's Son (972). — After quelling a revolt in 
Lorraine the kaiser returned to Italy, to get his son Otto 
crowned by the pope (967), and next year he sent ambassadors 
to Constantinople to demand for him in marriage the daughter 
of Románus 11. , emperor of the East The suit being granted, 
the princess was crowned at Rome and married to the co- 
emperor, who was only 18 years of age. 

Next year, the 6ist of his age, and the 38th of his reign, 
the brave oíd Lion of Germany died, somewhat suddenly, but 
very calmly, in the same place where his father had died. He 
was buried at Magdeburg, which he had lately created an arch- 
bishopric, and has justly been called the " Great" 

Personal Appearance of Otto I. — Otto I. was tall and 
stately, his chest broad, his limbs muscular, his eyes large and 
flashing, his hair flowing over his shoulders and of a blonde colour. 
He was sumamed the " Lion " for his undaunted courage and 
greatness of mind. Like a lion he was brave and generous, and 
like a lion he would never harm the prostrate. His usual oath 
was " By my beard ! " He was vain of his beard, and well he 
míght be, for it was very thick and reached to his girdle. 

* There wat this difference : Charlemagne and his successors were entitled *' Emperor of the West or of 
the Román EsqpirCt" but Otto and his successors wcre " Emperors of the West or of the Holy Román 




Thougli he greatly encouraged letters, and lifce Charlemagne 
had a school in his own palacc, he could not himself either write 
or read, 

Inlhisreign wer=dÍ5Covered th=Haniu!lyfrm!nM,t!ieiioh«t inEorope. Thi traditíon ii 
tha( B peudDt happencd lo tic hi* hat-w lo a Iree, and Ihe hurse niwing tln 
ume ¡[Wci ore. Ths empergr hcoHag oí ¡t, woriicd Ü» mias, imil Úie I 
built toi Ihc mÍDOs. 

if GtHluwi 


King oí Lorraine, 9É1 ¡ King of llaly, ^3 ; 

King of Germany aad Kuier of Ihc Holy Kamín Empin, 973. 

BoHK, 9ÍS. Reicked .0 YBAK5, gíj-sSj- 

Died ut Rome, Friday, Deceinber 7, gSj. Aged iS. 

CoKlimforary ""■'* £'íí»''i 959-975 ; Sdward tke Martjrr, amd 

ElMrid íAí UKrcady, 978-ioií. 

Fatktr, Ono I. ihi Grot. 

HoUitr, Edidí, granddaaghler df Alfrad Ihe Great. 
if'/i, Thcophúiia, dingliter oC Romilniu 1 1. unperor of Ihe Eaat. 
Chi&íreH, Ottn III., bis sacctssor, and four dsughtenL 


3 nnd magistrales of IlaJy bcbg invkcd by Olla [a a £ 
981. Otia's disastrous eipcditíac ai^akst thc Grcíks of southem ItaJy. 

Otto II., at his father's death, was barely níneteen years of age. 
Düring his father's lifetime he had been crowned by the pope 
" Emperor-elect of the Romans " to ensure his succession ; but 
the electors, insisting on their rights, assembled in due form to 
confimí his election. 

Neicher his coronation by the pope ñor his election by the 
Germán princes availed to secure him a peaceftil succession, fot 
several of the great feudatories rose in revolt against him, especially 
his cousin Henry surnamed the " Quarrelsome," son of that 
Henry who had risen against the Lion of Germany. As, how- 
ever, the Red King had much of his father's vigour of character, 
the rebellion was soon snuffed ouL Henry was taken captive, and 
brealcing from prison, was stripped of his estates, and banished 

King Harold of Denmark also tried to make himself in- 
dependent, but failed, and was compelled to pay homage to the 
young kaiser (976), 

Italian Massacre Í981). — In the meanlime the Romans, 
ansious lo free themselves from the Germán yoke, had formed 
a conspiracy for the purpose of cstablishing a republic This 
conspiracy was secretly revealed to Otto, who went lo Italy, i 

973> 983-ioEB.l 



pretending to know nothing about it, invited ihe chíef conspirators 
to a banquet at the Vatican. The invitation was accepted, but 
while the guests wete at table, Otto suddeniy rose from bis seat, 
and stampbg with his foot, the banquet hall was filled with armed 
men. The kaiser then deliberately unroUed a paper, from which 
he read aloud the ñames of those concemed in the plot ; and, as 
the ñame oí each was pronounced, the victim was dragged frora i 
the table and strangled. In consequence of this massacre, the 
Italians called him " Otto the Bloody." 

Next year he conducted his troops into the south of Italy to 
recover Calabria from the Greeks and Saracens. An ambush 
sprang upon him at Bassieniello, m Naples, cut lo pieces his 
whole army, and he himself with difficulty escaped to the coast, 
where he instantly put to sea. 

Not yet, however, were his perils endcd, for the vessel was 
captured by corsairs, and Otto would undoubtedly have been sold 
lo slavery, had he not contrived to throw himself into the sea, and 
swim for his life. i 

On reaching Germany he had his son, only three years oíd at the 
time, crowned " Eraperor-elect of the Romans," a ceremony which 
implied that he would succeed to the crown on the death of his 
father. The foUowing year the Red Kíng died at the early age of 
28, probably from the effectsofpoison administered in Italy (983). 


a nuiL fama 
hoped tadr 

iff Ihe HÍgn of Olio 11., üvec , , - 

'£ (in Latín). Aa Stcmhold nnd HopLJna hoped ta drívQ oul the ptufane fcnG¡« üf our 
jdCry by (heir mctricaJ psaltni, so Hnjtvita h«vd [o repLice the comedí» oCPUntiu 
rencc by her reUnous dramu. Her poems ore entílled : TÁi l^irnm Mary, TIU 
«. TIu Paaiim új SI. Pilagiiu. Tht CotatrHat, Tktífkilia, Tiu PsaUm tf SI. 
lad T)¡e Paiuorici ^ IJu Otlun. 






■ Crowned al Ai 

-li-Chapeüe king 

f Gerr 

asny, 9B3 

f Ctowncd king of Lo 

mbardy at Moma. 



Crowned kiüser oí empero 



te by Gregoiy V 


«s, 98j-ioca. 

Poisonf d hr Slíphanio, at PaJe 

-ms, in Campama, 

Friday,J»nu=rr = 



Fathtr, Olto II. Ihe Red King. 

HVí, M.iry, daughia oí Üle king 

to d 

lolh M Modín. 

for HduIl«T 



984. Ono 111. comed offbyHwrydgkeofBararia. 

bul re« 


996. Otto makei Gregory V. pope 


who ü pul 

997- RecoKiiUE» Bnodealiurg froi: 

the Slavi 

999- Otto III. miket his lotor, Sy 


looo. Gfxt on plgriniBge to ths lotnh of Adaibcit 
Ksfiopric of GoeMn. Opeo. Ihe lomb of 










Otto III. was but ihree years oíd at the death of hís father, but 
was recognised by the pñnces as his successor. Henry the 
Quarrdsome, who had been deprived of his fief by the late king, 
now broke from confinement, and carried off the imperial child; 
but, being rescued from his hands, he was restored to his mother, 
and at her death was placed under the charge of his raateraal 
grandmother, the empress Adelaida. 

From the age of eight years, the young kaiser was the pupil of 
Gerbert, afterwards pope Syivester II., one of the most profound 
thinkers and scholars the world has ever produced. He had 
studied under the Arabs of CordÓva, in Spain, and was not only 
a Greek and Arabic scholar, but an excellent mathematician 
and astronomer, a good musician, and a sldlled practical 
mechanic He invented a balance-clock, and constructed a 
speaking head of copper. Under this learned teacher the 
boy made such progress that he was called the "Wonder of the 

The regency ceased when he attained his sixteenth year, and 
his first independent act was to march into Ilaly to oppose 
Crescentins, a Román demagogue who wanted to convert Rome 
into a republia This demagogue had been elected cónsul of 
Rome ever since 972, and had opposed sevetal of the popes. 
Benedict VI. he had iraprisoned and strangled ; John XVL and 
Gregory V. he had driven from Rome. As Gregory had been 
advanced to the papal chair mainly tbrough the influence of 
Otto, the young kaiser fancied hiraself bound in honour to in- 
terfere ; accordingly he made war on Crescentius, got him into his 
power, and put him to death (998). 

Gregory was restored, but died the year foUowing. Otto then 
advanced to the papacy his tutor Gerbert, who designated him- 
self Syivester II. He was the first pope of French extraction, and 
seems to have borne his faculty with meekness, and to have been 
" clear in his great office," but he died the year after his imperial 

Otto, no doubt, was a good scholar, but, though not withoul 
vigour, was a dreamy young man who thought it would be a 
famous thing to become another Romulus, With this boyish 
ambition he set to work to make Rome his capital, and reduce 
Germany to a province of the Holy Empire. Happily this hair- 
brained scheme fell into limbo or brain lumber, from the death 
of Otto, by poison, at Palermo. His secret murderer is said to 
have been Stephanía, the widow of Crescentius. He was only 
twenty-two years oíd at the time, nineteen of which he had I 

da UUIJ I 

983,1000-1034.] OTTO III.; HENRY II. 45 

king of Germanyi and sixteen kaiser of the Holy Román 
Empire (1002). 

om was 

In this r^ga Boleslas, dake of Poland, was created " King" by Otto, but the kingd< 
still a fief oT the Hdy Koman Empire. 

Gerbert (Sylvester II.), was bom at Aurillac, in Auvergne, of 
obscure parents. He received his education in the abbey of his 
birth-town, but completed his studies in Spain. He first attached 
himself to Otto L, who entrusted to him the education of his son 
(Otto II.), and made him abbot of Bobbio, in Italy. Sub- 
sequently he went to París, where Hugues Capet made him the 
tutor of his son Robert the Pious, and raised him to the arch- 
bishopric of Rheims. As this nomination was disapproved of by 
the pope (John XV.), Gerbert returned to Germany, and undertook 
the education of Otto III. His imperial pupil made him 
archbishop of Ravenna, in Italy (997); and two years after- 
wards caused him to be elected pope (999). Gerbert introduced 
into France and Germany the Arabic figures, {Bom 930, 
J\?^€ 999-1.003). 



Duke of BaTaria, 905 ; King of Germany, 1003 ; crowned, at PavTa, kingof Ixnnbardy, X004 ; 

Kaiser or Emperor of the Holy Román £mpire, 10x4. 

BoRN, 97S. Rkignbd aa Ybars, xooa-xoa4. 

< Died at Grone,^ in Saxony, Fríday^ July x^, xoa4. Aged 59. 
Canonized by pope Eugemus II., in XX53. 

CotUtm^oraiy with Ethtlred 11.^ 978-10x6 ; Edmund Irtmsides, Canute, zox6-xo36. 

Father. Henry dulce of Bavaría, late regent. 
Wife, Conegunda, X003 ; no children. 


Z006. Drives Boleslas, king of Poland, out of Bohemia. War lasts thirteen years. 

X007. Hungary and Poland, christianized, erected into a kingdom. 

zoxo. Henry II. founds the see of Bamberg, in Bavaría. 

Z0X4. Restores pope Benedict VIII., who had been dríven from Rome by a faction. 

Z0X5. Defeated by the Poles. In xox8 Poland is declared free from feudal homage to the 

1033. Friendly interview between Robert king of France and the kaiser. 

Z034. Henry dies at Grone, in Saxony. 

Otto III. was succeeded by his cousin, Henry IL, surnamed 
the " Lame," son of Henry the Quarrelsome, and great-grandson 
of the Fowler. He was a pious prince, but, like his contem- 
porary, Robert the Pious of France, was more fit for a cloister 
than a throne in those troublous times when " silken dalliance in 
wardrobes lay, and men their pastures sold to buy a horse." 

SAXON DYNASry. [D,ii;Pt.i. 

Kaiser Otto, the wise pupil of the wise Gerbert, had been so 
well received by Boléalas, duke of Poland, in a stale visil, ihat 
he bestowed on his vassal the title of king. The lowliness of 
Boleslas " was young ambitíon's ladder," by which he intended to 
ascend ; so, on the death of Otto, he resolved to conven ihe 
ñame of king into a reality, and to make his fief independenl of 
the erapire. Accordingly, he not only refused tribute and homage 
to the new kaiser, but, making himseif niaster of Bohemia, he 
atlached it to Poland, and, having succeeded Ihus far, proceeded 
to invade Prussia, 

The Prussians were, at the time, no more civilised than the tribes 
of Central África or the North American Indíans. They lived in 
the deserts bctvreen Poland and the Bahic; but were famous for 
their trade in amber, which they obtained by divíng in the sea, 
and whicli the Romans bought for dritiking-cups. 

Henry the Lame wrested Bohemia from Boleslas, but Poland he 
released from feudal service. Weary of war, and worn out by 
rebellions in Germany and Italy, the pious kaiser would fain 
have given up the crown and reiired to a monastery, buE his 
prelates persuaded him Ihat he was doing God's service better by 
remaining where God had cast his lot 

He was very popular with the ecclesiastics from his zeal and 
IJberality to the chuich, and he foundcd several religious houses. 
Strasburg cathedral, founded in 1015, will always make him 
remembered ; and few kings have better deserved to be called 
saints, if rehgious works, a love for the priesihood, a missionary 
spiñt, and money freely spent for ecclesiastical purposes, can ever 
merit such a title. 

With Henry the Lame, who left no children, the Saxon dynasty 
ended, It began with Henry the Fowler, passed to the three 
descendants of the eider branch, Otto the Great, Otto the Red, 
and Otto III. ; and ended with the third in descent t' " 
youngest son, having lasted altogether io5 years. 

Htmy of Bs' 

Hfnry the Quarrelsornt 


Ai the cli»e of the Saxon dvnul? thcrc 

WfKtl Ctíogqe or KDln, Trexes or Trie. 

*.* Uoder Ihs Ssion kaisen rose the 

X ATchhlAoprics In Gr^nuiiy — víz.» Müu 
iHlatÍDc, who weiT chícf nmgístialcs» loaf 

leus oT Ita I 


LlTBRATüRS. — ^Early in the eleventh century was producéd a poem called 
Riiod'lieb \leeb\ which enjoyed considerable popularíty. Ruod was a kind 
of Solomon, who lived with the king of Egypt, to whom he rendered valuable 
Services, in retum for which the pharaoh ofiered him a choice of giíls — wisdom 
or wealth. Ruod chose the former, and the Egjrptian monarch appointed the 
twelve wisest men of Egypt for his instructors. The poem gives several 
examples of Ruod*s wisdom ; and tells us that the Egyptian monarch bestowed 
on him great riches by sending him, from time to time, valuable jewels secreted 
in cakes and manchets. 

LiUTPRAND (920-972), bishop of Cremona, wrote, in excellent Latin, a 
histoiy of Germany from 862 to 964. It is concise, energetic, and interesting. 

DiTHMAR (976-1018), bishop of Merseburg, in Saxony, also wrote in Latm 
a ChronkU of Germany in eight books, from the year 876 to 1018. This 
chronicle embraces the reigns of the Saxon d3masty, Henry the Fowler, Otto 
the Great, Otto the Red, Otto the Wonder, and Henry II. the Pious. 

BintCHARD ( * -1026), Bishop of Worms, compiled a huge volume which 
long enjoyed unbomided repute. It was a compte rendu of edicts and decretáis 
and obtained such authoríty that an appeal to his statements was considered 
final. This compilation has given the word butxhardicumt meanisg ''dictum 
beyond dispute,^ and its adjective ¡ntrchardic — ^beyond dispute. 


The brealdng-up of the Román power and the inundation of Goths and Huns 
led to a civil chaos in continental Europe. There was no common law, 
no common interest; but each chief with the men under him formed an inde- 
pendent section, made his own laws, and, except in times of common danger, 
was wholly isolated from every other chief. 

These cniefs had no one title in common. Some called themselves dukes or 
army-leaders; others, counts; others, kings; but the power of all over their 
little band of foUowers was alike arbitrary and supreme. 

The chieís paid the services of their followers by plunder or grants of land, 
and the followers were expected to stand by their leaders in times of danger. 
This was the nucleus of the feudal system. The chief was substantially a 
feudal lord, and the grants which he made to his men for service were sub- 
stantially ** fiefe." 

In times of common danger several chiefs joined together, and appointed 
one of their number sovereign ; but as soon as the danger was over the unión 
fell away, and the leader had no longer any authoríty over the chiefs who had 
served under him. In time, however, it was found to be more conducive to 
securíty for several chiefs to league together for mutual protection, Uke the 
cantons of Switzerland or the United States of America ; and a permanent 
president or overlord was appointed, called in Germany a king. 

It will be seen that there were two different sorts of subjection and two 
diíferent lordships. There was the lordship of the king over the princes who 
voluntarily placed themselves under him, and the lordship of the princes over 
their prívate followers. As the subjection of the princes was voluntary, the 
king had no real power over them. When they thought it for their interest to 
break loóse they did so, and unless the king was popular and a man of vigour, 
he had no power to punish a revolting chief. If, however, he was a man of 
energy, and cóuld count on the support of other princes, he could, by war, 
reduce the reyolter to subjection, deprive him of his rank, and confíscate his 


Such was the slate of things when Heniy the Fowler wis chosen overlord ; 
but as he and his saccessors were men of great ability and energy, they 
weakened Ihe prineely power and strengthened theit own. 

This they did in Iwo ways. First, by inlerfering whenever two princes 

auarrelled and disturbed (he peace ; and next, by crealing a thícd estale ont oC 
le common people gathered togethet in towns, wherc their numbers and 
common intercsU gave ihem a sttenglh too formidable lo be Irifled with. To 
Ihese towní wera grsnted the ri^htof coiningmoney, choosing magistrates from 
among tbemselves, ana enroüing' a núütia in tjiínr own defeace. As Ihe 
lowiia áded iviLh Ihe kings against the barons, they greatly strengthened Ihe 
royal power, and the princes wete less and less able to lord it ovet the land. 

We must now go back and loolt at Ihe rise of another power quite diíTerEnl 
to that of kings, princes, and lowns — I mean the power of the chuich. In 
the Saion dynaat^ Germany was a Christian counlry. It had its churches and 
cathedrals, its pncsts, its prelates, and its aichbishops. Theae church digni- 
taríes were landed pToprietora, ^nd both in weatth and station weie princes 
and potentates. 

The appüintment of Ihese church dignitaries was Eometimes by the pope, 
sometimes by Ihe king, and Gometimes missionary zeal wan for itself influence 
and power. Here, then, was an empire in an enipirc; and for many years the 
church and civil powers were like two wreatlers, each striving for masteiy oveí 
Ule other. 

or thirty^five popes sncceeded lo the papacy ; and, in order to sttengthen them- 
selves, craved the protection or aid of Ihe Germán kings. 

While thia was the case, of course Ihe liingly power would he the grealeí; 
but in Ihe Une which succeeded the Saxon Iheie was a death-strnggle between 
these two powers, and Rome, for a lime, had it olí her own way. However, 
she so abused her power that the kings were obliged to resist, and ullimalely 
nation aftet nation threw oíí the yoke; and not only sppointed Ihrir own 
lüerarchy, but compelled ecclesiaslics to submit to the civil magistrales. 

TT By the cióse of the Saion dynasty Germnny was formed into an orgnnised 
Itate, with magistrales lo execute the laws, churches planled throughout the 
nation, and «alled towus studded over tbe lajid growing into w^th and 

The towna were of Ihree sorts — imperial free cities, ducal lowns, and church 
cities, The firat were those built on the royal demesnes; and owed their oiigín 
to Henry the Fowler, who gianted them apecial privileges. 

Ducal lowns were those built on the domains of dukes and other princes. 
These wera inhabited by the duke's retaioers, who were aubject tojustsuch 
laws and serrice as he Ihought proper to impose. Generally the townsmeit 
were obliged to ask their lord'a permission even to marry or gire in marriiige; 
and the lord cxpccted a fee fot his permiasiun, When licence for a martÍMe 
was obtained, a herald announced it in the stre^ets; and al ene time Ihe 
ceremony could not be performed lili Ihat day twelve months. 

The church cities were those built on church lands, and in Ihese the bishop 
ñas chief magistrate, Generally speaking these cities were much more free 
than ducal lowna. 

No one coidd opcn a shop in any town wilhout permission; and no one but 
" free burghers " could oblain permission to do so in iinperial towns. Those 
who were not town-Cree could only have their shops beyond the walls. 

ExpeiieQce has úiown that the mote power is divided the more tyiaiQ 



becomes. A monaicli msv be dcspotlc; a plnlocrucy h eare to he eo; 
mob is the incsjnalion of despotism. With lords manj the sword is si 
be the sceptre; oc if piiesis be the lords, (he cíoss is onlj nnuther 
fot a wat-mace, Siich shepherds fleece the sheep,— such walchmen Bre ine 
woTst burglais; and the people are altetiiately the prey of duke and ptelale — 
now shom bj the sbeajrer, now sla.ughlcred by thebutchei, till at last they are 
glaj] to fiad tespíte beneath the ca^tlc-wall uf some nolf, who will allow 
nD other wolf to entct the folrl. Hete they build hovcis, which they surtound 
m time with mud walls, and heie in time the population increases: commetce 
brings wealth; wealth, independencej independence, fibertyj nnd libettyj 

3 And how, it may be aslced, did the ^reat mcn live 7 How did thej ralte 
up money, when Iheit reots were paid in servicef They were ctown- 
appoiQted " publicans," who coliected the tevenues of the aoveieign, each in 
bis own distnct. Full a third of the revenue slipped into their own eoffersj 
and ere long they became independent, and kept Che whote. 

If The fout chlef íources of revenue were crown-lands, tolls nnd ¡mposts, 
direct Caxes, and voluntan' gitts called benevolences. A "bcnevolence was 
very like drinking medicine mtbei than having it forced down yout thieat, 
In addition to these levies was a fifib — the commulation of punisbmeot by 
fine. Almost every offence could be aloned fot according to a certain tariff 
called a " raoncy-bote." Murder, larceny, aison, prívate wrones, and public 
misdeeds, all had theii ptice, There were a few exceplions, such as pariicide, 
sacrilege, and the mutdet of a inastet by a slave i but it must be pretly obviouB 
that, so long as misdemeanour was Che source of wealth, princes would tiot be 
loo vigilant lo spoíl tbeic harvest. Still, even Ihis check on sin was beltec 
than no check at all; and. as the people grew wiser, the worst parts of Ihe 
syslem toned down, and law became the executive powei, with one hand on , 
the ruleí and the otbet on the tuled. 



e have been di^aced by a worse succession of popes, many of whoni 
wete mote like monsters than men. At Rome two women of inlamous tepu- 
tation, Theodota and Matosia, weie the fountains of bonout, and confetied on 
their chüdren or gallants the highest churcb dignilies. Tbus Sergius III., one 
of the gallants of Marosia, was made pope in Q05; John X., who was crealed 
pope 10914, wasan unwedded husband of Theodoraj John XI., made pope ¡Q 
931, was a son of Matosia; and John XII. was her grandson (956). John XII, 
was a man of singular profligacy, The Romans wete by no mearu strict 
tnotaliats, but even the Romans were shocked at the conduct of theit pontitf. 
Boniface VII., called anti-pope, murdeted bis rivals Benedict VI, and John 
XIV. ; and John XVII., anothei anti-pope, was Ihe mete tool of Crescentius, 
a Román dcmagogue. 

In the Greek Church Theophylactus, a son of Románus, Empetot of the 
Hast, was mode paliiatch in 933, He was a mere lad, but it would be hard 
to ñixá a mote iníamoua chataclet. 

Still, Ibe influencB of Iba church increased, pattly by forcé and partly by 
usutpation; and ín this scandatoua age the dogma was firsl maintained that 
" the authoritr of Ibe bishops, though Divine in its origin, was conveyed to 
- -'— n b7 Si. Peter, Ihe Prince of the Aposües." 

HOtrSE OF FRANCONIA (1034^1125, 

Gmi 4 KiNGs: KoHiuD II., Henrt III., Hensv IV., and Hihrv V^ 





owned st Halni King of Genosny, 
Kaiier or EmpíTor of Ihe West li.t. 

DIed ai Utrecht, M 

1M4: »t Milnn. Kine of Halj, 
rf d.= Holy Ko=«m impire), ™; 

IOH«c IS Vkaí», 10J4-IO39. 
nnday, June 4, 1039. Aged 55. 
14-1035, flji¿«a™«/ía«/0DÍ, 10; 


<lif. Hcr 

«íí™., h 

i<y duke oT Fnuconia, a des 

«üdanl of Koni 

^ fc WU^, 8oa.. 


^ X wi'dow. DÍ<»x or Rudolf klnE of Buigundy, aad muthii by 1 
il of BararU, 

Wlppon, olmonir of Henry III. 

irgundy ini 


As Henry II. died childless, there were many who hoped to 
be elected to ihe vacant throne. When, therefore, the diet met 
on the banlcs of ihe Rhinc, all Ihe dukes, counts, and margrafs of 
the empire repaired thither, each at the head of a train of armed 
vassals who encamped on the plaíns, presenting the appearance of 
an army summoned to battle, raiher than of a comitia assembled 
to choose a king. 

There were so many claímanis on this occasíon, ihat it took 
six weeks before the moot point could be settled ; but when 
at last the archbishop of Mainz [M^nce] made known to the 
people that the choice of ihe electors had fallen on Konrad, 
duke of Franconia, ihe announcement was received with shouts 
of applause, and all the nobles carne fonvard without delay to do 
homage and take the oath of allegiance. The new sovereign was 
forty years oíd, and proved a wise and energetic ruler. 

He began Ms reign by a tour of his kingdom, the object of 
vfhich was to administer jusEÍce, rectify abuses, establish order, 
and punish robbers with severity; By this wise admínistration 
commerce flourished, cities increased in population and wealth, 
and the burgher class rose rapidly in importance. This was the 
class that Konrad most favoured; while he used every effort í 
reduce the power of the nobles, well knowing that " no maa^ 

n»t-ia39.1 KOHSAD IL THE SALIC 5I , 

serve two masters ; for either he will hate the one and love the 
other, or he will hold to the one and despise the other." So 
long, therefore, as the barons rivalled the king in power, Ger- 
many could not prosper. There could be no unity. At the very 
best, the kingdoin would be " a house divided against itselí" 

Having set in order the affairs of Fatherland, Konrad the 
Salic went to Mil'an to be crowned "King of Itaij'" (1026), and 
then lo Rome to receive from the Pope the crown of the Holy 

Román Empire (1027). | 

KoMRAD II., King of Burgündy {1033). — Towards the ^^É 

cióse of his reign a new kingdom fell into his hands. It hap- ^^^ 

pened thus : Hudolf, king of fiurgundy, dying without issue, ^^H 

his kingdom carne to Konrad in right of his wife, Rudolf's niece. ^^V 

This greatly displeased Ernest, duke of Suabia, who thought ' 

he himself should be the heír, seeing he was the son of Konrad's 1 

wife by her first husband. Failing in his attempt to oust his _ 

father-in-Iaw, he was deprived of his duchy, and iraprisoned for ^^J 

three years. Konrad then promised to restore to him his estates, ^^^| 

if he would tell where count Wemer lay concealed. This count ^^^H 

was Emest's great friend, the man who had urged him to ^^^H 

rebellion, and had aided htm with money and nien. Ernest ^^^ 
¡ndignantly refused to betray his friend, and fled with him lo 
the Black Forest, where they coUected a band of malcontenls, 

and lived as brigands. Konrad sent an army against them, and ^^1 

both Ernest and Werner fell fightíng, till from " their bonea Iheir ^^^| 

ñesh was hacked." ^^^| 

The adventures of thís young prince exactly suitcd the laste ^^^^ 

of the age. His youth, his bravery, his high birth, his wrongs, ^^^1 
his bold resistance of authority, and his death, made him the 

hero of many a bailad, and for years afterwards the exploits of , 

Ernest were celebrated by poets, who fteely " broughc in wonder ■ 

to wait on tieason." ^^^H 

Peace op God (ro3s).— About thís time a great famine ^^H 

occurrcd, which more or less afTccted all Christendom. It was ^^^| 

caused in some measure by a general belief tbat the end of the ^^^H 

world would take place 1000 years after the crudfixioiL In ^^^| 

consequence of this belief, many lands were left uncultivated, ^^| 

and many laymen tumed monks. It will be remembered that ^^| 

king Robert of France, who lived during this religious panic, ^^^ 

was sumamed the "Pious;" king Henry II. of Germany was " 

called the "Saint"; Canute of England was a deeply reíigious | 

man, and Edward the Confessor was thirty years oíd at the m 

Itísae. Oliius II. of Norway was anothei saint; K.nuC IV, ^^^m 



of Denmark, king Stephen of Hungary, Boniface II. duke of 
Tuscany, were " Saints ; " and Nicephónis II. emperor of the Easl 
united the hero to the sainL No period of history can fumish 
Buch a cluster of saintly kings,* 

The clergy availed ihemselves of this deep religious feeling to 
mitígate the warlike tendendes of the age ; and commanded all 
men to lay down their atms under pain of excommunication. 
The second advent of the "Prince of Peace" was espected, 
and the millenium was about to dawn when wars would cease 
throughout the land. This cessation of hostilities was tenned 
I7te Peace of God. 

The command and malediction attached to ihe violation of 
this " bull" were read from the pulpit daily by the ofBciating 
príest after the proper gospel : " May they who refiíse to obey be 
accursed, and have iheir portion with Cain the first murderer, 
with Judas the arch-Ctaitor, and with Dathan and Abiram who 
went down alíve into the pit. May they be accursed in the Ufe 
which now is ; and may theír hope of salvation, like the líght 
of these canales, be put out." So saying, the tapers were 
extinguished ; and the people responded : " So may God put oul 
our light if we viólate this peace. Amen." 

Ths TxurE ni> God (lato}.— Soms fin vnin later ¡c «as fonnd expedlcnt ta modiíy lbit 

'--d mbsidcd. The worfd hid nol como to an end, ñor had (he 

"Peace oí God" wns therefpre repealed, and Iho "Truco rf 

warwaa dol whollv Torbidden ; butno milibryDlIackwax in kdv 
wn on Wednesdiiy <ÍIL lun-rii: Ihe ÍdUdwíhe Mauday, Dor on anr 



of í^^yci 

LC priesthood, and 

FiEFs MADE Hereditary (1037). — Kontad visited Italy a 
second time in 1037. It was during this vlsit that he made the 
famous edict " that freeholders should not have their lands taken 
from them except by the judgment of their peers." By this 
decree fiefs were made hereditary. Its real intention was lo 
rescue the inferior vassals from the arbitrary power of their 
lords. It was the axiom of the Salle that the power of 
kings should be unlimited, but that of nobles limited. This 
edict gained for Konrad the good will of the inferior vassals ; so 
that he secured for the crown both the burgher and tlie vassal 


ioa4-xos6.1 KONRAD II.; HENRY III. 53 

classes. He furthermore reduced the baronial power by giving 
to his son Henry three of the vacant duchies. 

Death of Konrad IL (1039). — Two years later Konrad 11. 
died, and was buried in the cathedral of Speyer [Spire] which 
he had founded. He was firm and intrepid, severe to evildoers, 
merciless to foes, considérate to his subjects, and strictly just 
His activity was indefatigable, and he seemed to be acquainted 
with every event of importance which occurred in his vast empire, 
Many sovereigns have been more brilliant and dazzling, but few 
have equalled him in all the sterling qualities of a good and 
useful king. 

^ About Z020 Guido d'Arezzo [tüi'rei'-zo] invented the^ musical scale, and the uve muñcal 
lines called the staff. llie tradition is, that while chanting a hyma in honour of St. John, he 
was struck with the gradual and regularly ascending tones of the opening s^llables of each 
hemistich in the three fírst verses, and discemed at once their fítness for a system of 
solfegs^o. On introducing his new theory to the choir it proved eminently successful, and 
was ]^uuUy adopted. The words of the hynm in Latín are : — 

Uí queant laxis ^ Z7/-tered be thy wondrous story 

J?^-sonare fíbris i?tf-prehensive though I be, 

Mt'-TSi gestorum Me make mindful of tny gloiy, 

/^0-muli tuorum, ^a-mous son of Zebedee ; 

So¿-yñ poUuti Soi'SLce to my spirít bring, ^ 

JLa-hú reatum. Zo-bouríng my praise to sing. 
Sánete Jonannes. 

Tké Eng^ltsh vertúm ü noi given as a tmnslatum of the LaiiHi hui iipnsetvti tki idta 
and the initial sy Hables, 

%* Guido was net a Germán But an Italtan monk. 


King of Germany, 1026, but he succeeded his father in 1039. Patrícian of Rome and Kaiser 
Augustus of the West, or of the Holy Román Empire, Z046. 

BoRN, X0Z7. Rbignbd 17 Years, 1039-Z056. 
Died at Botfield, September, 1056. Aged 39. 

Coniemporary with Hardicanute and Edward the Confessor^ Z04Z-Z065. 

Father t Konrad II. Mother^ Gisela of Buigundy. 

WiveSi (z) Kunihild or GOnhild, daughter of Canute of England, married Z036, died Z038 ; 

13) Agnes, daughter of William duke of Aquitaine, Z043, the mother of Henry IV. 

nis successor. 

Territory added. Bohemia Z045. 


Z056. Creation of the title " King of the Romans," to be borne by the heir presnmptive of 
the Germán Empire. 

The investiture of prelates with ring and crosier, on their election to a diocese. 

Henry, called the " Black King " from the colour of his hair, 
was barely twenty-two years oíd at the death of his father. He 
had been already elected to the crown (1026), and the cholee was 
readily confirmed by the great nobles and their vassals. A 
better one could not have been made, for since the days of 


Charlemagne no Icing had more genius for command, and none 
have kept the people in better order and subjection. 

As prince he possessed three duchies ; but when he carne lo 
the crown he resigned these fiefs, and bestowed them on men 
likely to strengthen bis hands, and not resíst his authority as theii 
king and lord. 

Henrv III. AND THE PoPES. — Henry IIL remained at home 
for the first six years of his reign. As Augustus closed the gales 
of Janus, to signify that Rome was at peace with all the world 
(a boast which none could have made since the reign of Numa) ; 
so Henry the Black King, in 1043, proclaimed that Germany 
enjoyed a Universal Peace, which no other ruler could have said 
since the foundation of the kingdom. 

Three years after this he was obliged to go ínto Ilaly to 
Settle the affairs of the church. So great was the disorder 
there, that three rival popes claimed "the cap"* at the same 
time: Benedict IX., Sylvester III,, and Gregory VI. Henry 
made no attempt to decide between these rival claimants, aU 
of whom were equally infamous, but simply set them all aside, 
and gave the chair to a Germán. The new pope took the ñame 
and title of Clement II., but died the following year. Henry 
then chose another Germán, but he also survived only one 
year. The next t*'o popes were likewise Germans, but their 
united span of ofBce was only seven years, so that we are 
constrained to think ihe Italians, who hated the Germans and 
had little scruple in poisoning their kings, had some hand in the 
deaths of their popes also. 

It was Clement II. who crowned the Black King " Kaiser," bot 
he refused to accept the title of " King of Italy," preferring to be 
called " Pafrician of Rotne" after the example of Charlem^ne, 
Though the four popes chosen by the son of Konrad had but 
brief tenures of office, they all did credit to his choice, belng alike 
distinguished for their learning, piety, and judgment. 

Henry IIL and the Hungakians. — The chief wars of Heniy 
III. were those carried on against the Hungarians, He de- 
feated them in 1044, and compelled them to receive back Petet 
their king, whom they had deposed. Peter being restored to his 
throne received from Henry the gilt lance, to denote that he 
acknowledged himself to be Üis " man." 

Heniy IIL wu Üw las! kíog tlut held (he popes lubjed lo hií aulhoiity. 

Death of Henry III. (1056). — This truly great monarch died 

iD39->osfi-] HENRY HL THE BLACK KJNC. $$ 

süddenly in the highlands of Saxony, whither he had gone for a 
little hunting. He was still in the prime of manhood, being only 
thirty-nine years oíd when " death lay on him, like an untimely 
frost upon the sweetest flower of the lield." W¡th all h¡s forcé 
of character he was extremely pious ; and although he decreed 
that no pope should in future be elected without the consent 
of the king of Germany, few monarchs have shown themselves 
more submissive to the church. He was a man of genius and 
education, greatly encouraged schools, was a bountiful patrón of 
literature, and very fond of learned raen. It was his firm con- 
viction that vice and turbulence were chiefly due to ignorance, 
and that the best way lo civilise a people is to edúcate them. 

KiNG OF THE RoMANS (1056). — A líttle bcfore his death he 
assembled the prínces of the empire to recognise his son Henry 
heir-elect to the empire, and he then called him " Kíng of the 
Romans." Thia was a new title created by the Black K.ing, and 
first borne by his son Henry. Several of the kings of Germany 
had been crowned at Rome "Eraperors of the Romans," or 
" Emperors of the Holy Román empire," and several had been 
crowned at Milán " Kings of Italy," but none had hitherto bome 
the title of '* King of the Romans." 

From this time forth every king elect of Germany was ex 
officio king of the Romans, whether associaled or not with the 
reigning emperor ; even the kaiser was no more until after his 
coronation at Aix-la-Ch apelle. 

The title, it will be perceived, differed from that of dauphi 
prince of Wales, inasmuch as it was no birth-righl, but was taken 
up by any one whom the electors chose to appoint successor lo 
the crown, Líke dauphin and prince of Wales, however, it was 
dropped immediately the bearer was duly crownei 

Investiture, — Henry the Black King was also the first to give 
pretales a ring and crozíer on their elevation to a diocese. This 
was a symbol of investiture, or grant of the episcopal tempoialities. 
No queslion ever caused so much ill-blood as ihis did for seventy 
years. All Europe was agog, and day after day, monlh aíier 
month, year after year, the vexed question was mooted, whether 
kings ot the pope ought to invest The ring and crozier were small 
macters, bul their gift involved a very serious point — Did the gifi 
of these symbols confer the office or not ? If the pope invested, 
then the pope would be giving temporalities which did not belong 
lo him ¡ if kings invested, and investment conferred the sacred 
office, then kings would be encroachíng on the pope's prerogadve. 


1 I 


íío pope can give away lands and edificea in another man'a ^^J 





dominión, and no temporal king can confer office in a " kingdom 
not of ihis ff orld. " A king may recommend, buC cannot consécrate ; 
and a pope can recommend, but cannot endow. It was not till 
iiaa, that this knotty point was setüed. It was then agreed that 
the pope should consécrate and confer all spiritual rights, and the 
king should confer the temporalities. So the prelates were first 
consecrated by the pope, and then did homage to the king for 
their temporal fiefs. 

It was an important political question also : for if the pope had 
all the church patronage of a nation, he might fill it with his own 
partisans, and thus créate a power independen! of the civil 
magistrates, and most dangerous to the state. If, on the other 
hand, kings made bishops, the church would be secularised and 
the reigning pope would lose the right of choosing his ovm 
apostles. The solution ¡s so simple, ¡t seems marvellous how ít 
could have wanted seventy years for its soiution. 

Hkrmann the CHtPFLI (1013-10:1). — tn ihiirngnliTHl Hmncjin ihe Crípple, oneoTthl 

rnovc wiLhL>uta5Hstnnc«. He could icárcdy suido a pcn or tpcíik nq aa lo be undcniocid, ytt 
was ho «D leatn«d and honoiurd tlmt hia aociety wm eonrly «nighl, aod mea ciuuc from ^1 
pnrtft of Europe (o lútea to h» warda of wihlom. He hnt left o. book of etcae mcric b«hú]d 

history of Germajif durlog the UnLh and elévetilh ccnluHeB- He has ahoffivtn ._ , 
'-- -TI Muaic, and anodier on the AMtolabe, an imtniment for lakisg thi 

lose-xxodlj HENRY IV. THE GREAT. 57 


X063. Hanno archbishop of Cologne and Adalbert ardibishop of Bremen usurp th« regency. 

Z070. Guelf or Welf made by the king ' * duke of Bavaría. " 

Z073. Insarrecüon of the Sáxeos and Thuringians. Quarrel with pope Gregory VII. begins. 

Z076. Henry holds a diet at Worms and deposes Gregory. Gregory holds a council at Rome 
and deposes the king. 

Z077. Hemy submits to the pope, is absolved, breaks his oath, and Rudolf of Suabia is elected 
king in his stead. Death of Agnes the queen dowager. 

Z078. Rudolf defeated. The king excommunicated. 

Z080. Henry procures the de{)osition of the pope, and the election of Clement III. Defeatt 
Rudolf at Wolksheim, in Thuringia, (October 15). Rudolf dies of his wounds. 

xo8z. Hem?^ invades Italy. Is again excommunicated. Hennann of Luxemburg is elected 
kuig of Germany. 

zo84* Henry crowned " Emperor of the Romans " b^ Clement III. Retums to Germany, and 

defeats Hermann of Luxemburg, Guelf of Bavaría, and Ecbert of Thuríngia. 
Z088. Death of Hermann. 

Z089. Henry again excommunicated by Urban IV. 
Z093. Revolt of his son Konrad. Henry imprisons his wife Adelaide. 
Z096. The first crusade starts under Peter the Hermit. 

X098. Kcmrad put under the ban of the empire. Henry's second son, named Henry, is 
declared his successor at the diet of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

zzoz. Death of Konrad. 

z 104. Revolt <^ prince Henry. 

XZ05. Prince Henry arrests his father and confines him in a castle. 

zzod. Henry makes his escape, and dies at Li^e, August 7. 

Henry IV, was only five years oíd when his father died, and 
the care of the kingdom was entrusted to his mother Agnes, an 
amiable lady, but whoUy unable to govem the wilful and unruly 
barons who were ever ready to rebeL When the boy was twelve, 
Hanno archbishop of Cologne compelled his mother to resign 
the regency, so she retired to Rome, and died there in a convent 

The boy king was then placed under the charge of Hanno, 
who acted as regent, and subsequently under Adalbert arch- 
bishop of Bremen. Hanno was a stern churchman; Adalbert, 
a gay libertine : Hanno was proud, imperious, and overbearing ; 
Adalbert, good-humoured and jovial : Hanno lived abstemiously 
and strictly ; Adalbert, in luxury and ease : Hanno was thrifty 
and frugal; Adalbert, reckless and extravagant The great 
expenses of the court under the regency of Adalbert soon in- 
volved the young king in money diñiculties, and the people 
showed symptoms of discontent 

In 1065 Henry was fifteen years of age, and was no longer 
under govemors and tutors. He fixed his court at Goslar, in 
Hanover, where his father had usually lived ; and began his reign 
like a spoilt child who thought if he fancied the moon it ought to 
be given him. He looked on every one who opposed his whims 
as his enemy, and Adalbert, his chief adviser, encouraged the 



notion. It was very foolish, and soon brought him into trouble — 
trouble which foUowed him through life, and even in death, as 
will be seen in the sequeL 

The Saxons Rebel (1073-1075). — As his coiirt was in 
Saxony, the Saxons were the first to remonstrate. They ínsísted 
on the distnissal of Adalbert Adalbert persuaded the young 
king that Hanno Ihe archbishop of Cologne was at the bottom 
of thís plot. and had stirred up Otto the Saxon to this insolent 
demand, The boy was angry. Some absurd charge of treason 
was vamped up against Otto, who was deprived of his duchy of 
Bavaria, and the fieí given to Guelf,* his son-in-law {1070). 

Of course Otto would not bear this injustice, and he formed a 
leaguc with duke Magnus, a brave young Saxon, to revenge the 
ínsuLt ; but before thelr plans were ripe the young king broke up 
the conspiracy, and cast both Otto and ÍJagniis into prisoa 
Otto was released at the end of a year, but Magnus was left in 
duran ce still. 

In 1073 a deputation of Saxons waited on the king with a 
petition of grievances. The petition demanded the liberation of 
duke Magnus, the demolition of fortresses erected to overawe 
the Saxons, the dismissai of Adalbert from the counsels of the 
king, and the removal of the court from Goslar. The king 
laughed the deputation to scorn ; but an arroy of 60,000 men 
was at hand, and the logic of the sword was not to be resisted. 
The boy king was thoroughly frightened, and fled for his life. 
For ihree days he skulked amidst the forests of the Hartz moun- 
tains, fearing each bush a soldier come to take him prisoner ; but, 
hungiy and weary, he reached Wonns, on the banks of the Rhine, 
and once more breathed again. 

In the mean time the Saxon revolters were like an army of 
locusts. "They ran to-and-fro in the city, they ran upon the 
walls, they chmbed up upon the houses, they entered in at the 
Windows like a thief." They pulled to the ground the fortresses, 
set fire lo the churches, OTerturned the sepulchres of the royal 
family, and dragged from theii graves the infant son and brother 
of the king. 

At length the boy king was enabled to muster an army to- 
gether ; and in a bloody battle the Saxons were defeated, though 
both sides sufTered severely. Henry now came to térras with 
the insurgents; but no sooner were they dispersed, than he broke 
the covenant, and deprived the ringleaders of their tilles and 
estates (1075). 



Henky IV. AND THE PopE (1074-10S4}. — Heiuy in hís 
troubles applied to the pope, and this gave his Hoüness the very 
opportunity he wanted of putting his hand on the church in 
Germany. It so happened that the pope at the time was a man 
of great vigour, with a purpose, His purpose was threefold : to 
reform the lives of his clergy, to put an end to all traíSc ín 
spiritiial matters, and to free the church from ihe state. " My 
kjngdoni," said the founder of the christian church, "is not of 
this world ; " thcn the powers and ministers of it should not be 
camally minded, but spiritual. "Not of this world;" then its 
offices and sacraments should not be bartered by this world's 
money. " Not of this world ; " then kings should not be its 
nursing fathers, ñor queens its nursing mothers, The teniix>ral 
powers should have no lot in ¡ts inheritance; but ¡ts powers 
should be spiritual; its ministers, spiritual; its appointments, in 
the hands of the church; its laws, spedalj and tbough "in the 
world, it should not be o/ the world." 

So argued pope Gregory VIL, whose ñame was Hildebrand; 
and when he corapared the church with this standard, he was 
shocked to see " the whole head síck and the whole heart faint, 
From tho solé of the foot even to the head there was no sound- 
ness in it ; but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores." The 
lives of the clergy were profligate and abandonad; the offices 
were sold to the highest bidder ; the sacraments could be bought 
like houses and lands; the king of Germany looked on the 
church as he looked on his metal-mines in the Hartz country, as 
Bo much property for carnal indulgences or the rapid supply of 
the sinews of war. He felt, and felt deeply, that " the kingdom " 
was far too worldly for " the kingdom of God." 

Italy was bad, Éngland was bad, France was bad, but Germany 
out-Heroded them all; Germany was the worst "stone of stum- 
bling " and greatest " rock of oíTence." It had gradually arrogated 
the right of appointing even the popes, and had made it a law of 
the land that no man should fill the chair of St. Peter without the 
consent of the reigning kaiser, Germany alone had dared to set 
up and pulí down the spiritual heads of God's church, The 
church was not God's church at all, but a fief of a Germán king. 


church was not God s church at all, but a fief of a Germán kmg. I 

Well, Germany was now weak ; it was divided against itself ; I 

the bundle of sticks was untied by civil dissensions, and stick by | 

stick might be broken. The king was too busy with his wars to ^^^H 

resist; the people, too disunited for concerted action. Now, ^^^H 

then, was the time to strlkc. Of all sinners, Germany was the ^^^| 

—^ worst; and of all Germans, Henry IV. the worst sinner. He was ^^^| 


SO extravagant, he was always tn need of money; and, to sapply 
" ihe needful," sold openly the sees and benefices of his empire 
to those who paid him the best price in ready money, 

Gregory VIL had not only a strong wÜl, but a keen judgment, 
Like a wise fisher, he ínew full we!l that men must be " caught 
by guile," and not driven like sheep by loud barking. He first 
sent a letter of gentle remonstrance to the king, then another, and 
a third. These being of no avail, he sent légate after légate to 
remonstrate personally ; and when these also were unheeded by 
the scape-grace king, he issued a " bull " by which any priest who 
paid money for a benefice was excommunicated. 

The matter had now come to a head, and an opportunity soon 
occurred for the two combatants to try their strength. The see 
of Milán fe!l vacant, and bolh Hcniy and Gregory appoinced a 
successor. The pope summoned the young king to Rome to 
answer for his sins (1075). Henry was furious; but his hands 
were tied, for he was then at war with the rebellious Saxons. AIl 
he could do was to summon a diet at Worms, and declare Gregory 
to be deposed. The pope was prepared for the niove, and, 
calling together a synod, excommunicated the king and absolved 
his sübjects from their oath of allegiance. The dukes and 
tributary nations were but too glad at this licence for rebellion. 
Henry was no longer king, rebels were no longer traitors ; and 
even those who took the life of the outlaw were not guiíty of 
raurder, Henry felt that a mark was set upon him, and " that his 
punishment was greater than he could bear." With the first 
murderer he might have said, " Behold, thou hast driven me out this 
day from the face of the earth . . , and I shall be a fugitive and 
a vagabond in the earth ; and it shall come to pass, that every one 
that findeth me shall slay me." The nation was panic-struck ; 
the eyes of all Christendom were upon it ; all foreign powers had 
liberiy to invade it. The throne, the ufe, the salvation of its 
king, his very future state in the land of spirits were imperilled. 
It was too much. He was frantic What was to be done? He 
was told that the princes had already chosen Rudolf in his place: 
Resístance was no longer possible; and, although it was dead 
winter, he hastened to Rome to see Gregory and raake peacc with 

The winter of 1076-7 was unusually severe; but king Henry, 
with his wife and infant son, started for Italy, In crossing ihe 
Alps they met with the greatest difficulties — the cold was intense ; 
the way, wearisome in the extreme ; the danger from wUd beasts 
and brigands, not a little ; but the joumey was surmountedi a 



thcy reached Lorabardy. Where was the pope? He was ¡^ 
to Ñaples — -was at Canosa, a ñame memorable in history; for ¡t 
was at CannEB, a few miles distant, that Hannibal defeated the 
Romans. Now Gregory was the Hannibal, and Germany (in the 
person of its king) was at hís mercy. Humbled in spirit, the klng 
reached the town of Canosa, dressed as a suppliant with a single 
garment of coarse woollen, bare-headed and bare-footed. He 
must wait ¡ his Holincss was not at leisure to receive him ; and he 
waited in the open court, hour after hour, day and nighl, night 
and day, for three days and nights amidst the snow, the wind, and 
the frost ; that luxurious king waited in the open court almost 
wíthout clothing ; that man, bom in a palace and who lived in a 
palace, waited in the dead winter with only a wooden bench to 
rest on ; that hasty temper, which could brook no contradiction, 
waited íbr an audience of the pope whom he had deposed. The 
triumph was complete. Canosa was the Canna of this Hannibal 
The royal penitent was at length admitted, and the senlence of 
excommunication removed. , 

Stung to madness by this treatment, the young king, then only I 
twenty-six years oíd, hastened back to Germany, breathing íire and 
slaughter. He defeated his rebellious subjects in several battles. 
He would have grappled in his present mood witli "the Russian 
bear, the armed rhinoceros, or the Hyrcan tiger, and his firm 
nerves would not have trembled." Rudolf, the king appointed 
to fill his throne, he conquered and slew ; and having restored his 
fortunes at homc, he hastened, whÜe the fit was on him, to take 
vengeance on the priest who had so ¡nsulted him. 

In io8r he entered Italy with a powcrful army, declared 
Gregory Vil. deposed, and elected Clement III. in his stead, 
He would then have marched direct to Rome and occupied that 
city; but hearing that Roberc Guiscard, with an allied army of 
Italians, Normans, and Saracens, was waiting to do him battle, 
was obliged to retreaL For two years he hung about watching 
his opportunity, and in 10S4 Rome fell into his hands. Clement 
III. now presented his patrón with the imperial crown, and, 
thinking his work done, the kaiser king returned to Germany. 
Scarcely was his back tumed when he found "that he had 
scotched the snake, not kñled it." Pope Gregory retumed in his 
strength, deposed and excommunicated his rival pope, and also 
the kaiser king. 

The beginning of the end was now at hand. The sun of 

Gregory was hastening to ¡ts set, and the clouds of night were 

f iast gathering around them both. Hildebrand had fought hard 



^m for the 
^B Feeling 


for the church, and had wom the tiara for níneteen yeais. 
Feeling that his Ufe in Rome was not secure, he retired to 
Salerno, and died in a few weeks at the age of seventy-one 

Gregory VII. had set himself a great work, and partly accom- 
plished it, thovigh not whoUy. Many great and important refonns 
he efFected, some of which continued, but others fell gradually 
back in the course of time. He found the papacy almost a fief 
of the king of Germanj', but left it electoral by a coUege of 
ecclesiastics. He found the clergy dependents of the crown, but 
left them the dependents of the tiara. He found the patronageof 
the church the merchandise of princes, but left it in the giñ of 
the holy pontiff. He found the clergy impure, profane, ignorant, 
and time-serving ; but did much to reform these evils by filling 
benefices, as they fell vacant, with a better class of naen. 
Whether the celibacy of the clergy, which Gregory VII. regarded 
of the first importance, is to be commended or not, is not easy to 
determine ; doubtless it did its work in alienating the clergy froni 
the State, and makíng the kingdom of Christ more ecclesiastical, 
and this was the great object which Gregory had in view. 

Death of Heney IV. (1106). — Henry IV. was crowned kaiser 
by Ctement III., the very year that Gregory VII. died. His great 
rival went first, and his dying words were, " I have loved righteous- 
ness and hated iniquity, though now I die in exile." Could the 
kaiser Henry say the same when he carne to die? Gregory was 
dead; but Henry now found a worse enem^ in his own house- 
hold. His eldest son, Konrad, hfted up his heel against him ; 
but he struggled on a little longer, and Konrad died. His wife 
Adelaide provcd unfaithful, and he divorced her ; and still he held 
up his head in the troubled waters, and married again. His 
second son, his favourite, Henry, whom he had associated with 
himself in the govemment, now pushed him from his throne, and 
compelled him to sign his abdication ; and the king of Italy and 
Germany, tlie patrician of Rome and emperor of the West, was 
driven from house and home a houseless and homeless beggar, 
with nowhere to lay his head. Yea, the kaiser and king actually 
knockcd at the door of a religious house which himself had 
founded and endowed, praying he might be made reader for a 
morsel of bread ; but no man gave unto him. He was driven 
away as a son of Bclial, and found next moming dead upon the 
door-steps. He died of hunger; he wanted bread, and there was 
none to pity— no kind Samaritan in all Germany to pour oil and 
wine into the wounds of this traveller on life's bighway who;^ 


loje-iioE.) BZHRV 17. THE GREAT. 

fallen among thieves. He had sinned, no doubt ; which of us I 
has not ? but surely, surely, was never man more sinned agaüist I 
thanhe (1106). I 

Not yet was hls cup fuU. He díed under the ban of the I 
chiirch, and therefore no funeral rites could be perforraed over ' 
him. His very body couId not be decently interred, so it was 
put into a stone coffin and stowed in a cave for five years. 
At length pope Pascal removed the sentence from the dead 
monarch; and "his large kingdom fornid him a little grave — a 
Uttle, Uttie grave." 


H (Thí riskt Ib carry arms.) 

P" When Heniy IV, fled (o Worms, the people opened thdr gates to him, oad ' 

\vaa-' -'--'' '--- "^"-^ .i-r.._.., í.. L._.. . ... , 



had hitherto considered it theii exclusive right, and Ereated citizena wilh 

contempt because they could not weai swotds. 

This imporlant privílege was extended by Heniy TV. to 3II imperial cilies, 
and was a great advantage to him, as he had thus at all tiincs a tnrge body of 
anned men at hia command. Henceforth meichants and tradesmen rose 
rapidly in honour, ond in tirae the haughliest nobles Ihought it no loas of casta 
to form matrimonial alliances with their Sons and daughters. 

A Traditios.— We are told thnt in this reign a bandit chieflain, named 
count Adalbert, plundered the bíshop of Treves and carried off the apoil to hia 
Etronghold. Tycho, one oí the prelate's vassala, promised to avenge the afiront ; 
and Icnockíng at the chieftain's door craved a draught of water. The poiter 
bionght him a cup of wine, and Tycho said to the man : *' Thank thy lord for 
his charily, and tell him he shall meet with his lewaid." Returninghome Tycho 
piovided thicty large wine butts, and atowed in each an armed retainer, and 
weapons for two others. Each cask was carried by two meo to the castle 
of the robbcr, and when the door was opened, Tycho said to the portel, 
' ' See, I am come to recompense thy lord and master i " and the sixly bearers 
carried in the thirty casks, When count Adalbert went to look at the present, 
al a signal given by Tycho Ihe tops of the casks flewoff, and the ninely armed 
men slew Ihe count and his brigands, snd then butnt his castle to the giound. 

Of course the reader will instantly see the resemhlance of this tale to Ihat of 
Ali Baba tr Ske Ferty TAiniís, in the Araiiajt Ni^ils' Enleriainmail, 


^ i 

meal, drink no wine. " Chatter.houae " ¡s a comiplioo of Chartreuse-house I 

^K'bi Carthusion monastery. Eiuno was canonised by Gregoiy XV,, ía l(i2¡. ^^^H 

St. Bruno {[030-1101), a native of Cologne, having retited with six of 
his companjons to the desert of Chaitreuse, founded, in 1084, Ihe CarthuEÍi " 
order. Each monk of the otdei lives in a sepárate cetl, sleepa oa straw, sr 
canleave but once a week, Theyeat together only on festival days, nnd once 
weeit they fast on bread and water. They observe the most rigid silence, e ' 



St. Nobbert (1080-11J4). — A native pf Cleves, in Westphalía (Germany), 
He led a veiy wUd lite, but one day heiag ovcttaken ¡a a stoim became n 
converted man, and went about Geimany prenching the gospel of Christ. 
Ultimately he reliied to Frémonstif, in Fmnce ; foundcd thcre the Premonstre- 
tendan oiilet, whích at one time was the most numetous in Cetniíuiy. The 
great object of this order vas the practical inalnictiun of tbe people and choral 
cervices. St. Norbert was oreated, in 1127, archbishop oí Jlagdeburg, in 
Getmany. Ue was canonised by Giegory XIII. in 15S2. 

The wotd Pré-mnnslré, meons "the meadow pointed out," because 
St. Norbert aflirmed Üiat líic spot was pointed out lo hiin by inspiratíon. 

Laubcrt Ihe chconiclet (1020-1100] wrole a l/nivenal Hislory firom tbe 
creation to 1050, and a Hütory of Gímiany from I050 to IO77. 


HeniyV. disappointed the hopes of the Church, which had 
done its utmost to secure his election to the crown, Instetid of 
playing into the hands of the pope, hé asserted, as obstinateiy 
as his father, the royal prerogative of investing hishops. 

In 1 1 1 1 he went to Italy with a powerful army, and took pope 
Pascal II. prisoner, compelled him to crown him kaiser, and to 
confirm to the king of Germany the right of investiture; but 
no sooner had he left Italy, thaii Pascal thundered his anatheina 
agajnst him, and annulíed the concession which had been 
extorted from him. 

CoNCORDAT OF WORMS (ina). — At the death of Pascal, the 
affairs at Rome were for a time in dreadful confusión. There 
were popes and antipopes for twenty years, when Calixtus II., a 
man of more conciliatory temper was elected. He wished, if 
possible, to settle the moot-point of investiture, and to this end 
summoned a council at Worms. An arrangement, called a " con- 
cordat," was then enterad into between the kaiser and the 
pope, the scope of which was that the pope was to invest the 
bishop and confer on him his spiritual powers, and thea t 


HENRY V.; LOTHAR 11. 6$ i 

preiate was to acknowledge, by homage to the reigning king, that I 
he held his temporaUlies as fiefs of Che crown 

The remaining three years of Henry's life were one continual 
battle wilh his nobles. He died in the forty-fourth year of his 
age, and the twenty-seventh of his reign. As he had no child 
the Franconian dynasty carne to an end 




BoBN .075. RhIGHED 13 YlTAKÍ, ¡11¡-X¡37- 

Died io ihe Tjrol, Snnirdny, Decerabtr f, 1137. Aged 63. 

Ten princes met, at the death of Henry V-, to choose a 
successor, and gave the crown to Lothar duke of Saxony, who 
had joined the rebeis against the last kaiser. He showed great 
deference to the church, and even confessed himseíf the pope's 

No event of iniportance occurred in this reign. Retuming 
from Italy, Lothár fell sick, was taken to a peasant's hut in the 
Tyrol, and there died at tlie age of sixty-two. 

TAc PandtcU Ditcmtrcd. 
la thU reign (ii3s)was iliscovend kt AbuíR, in Xaples, b nnique copyoT Ihe RoniBii 
pandecls or code of laws. Thcse boolcj, ia tlioir relalioQ la iho kiaiory and liieraiura of 
ondent Romc, ore invalnablc, rnid il would bs diliüciill: tg Dverauía Ihcir inSnenCE aa tha 
dvílísation of EuTope. Thíír díscovery revived iho study of law, which aoon becBoie vi 
popular Üial vHlhin five yeorA Lornbordy waa ful] of LawyerSf on whom Frederick Barborora* 
BDcl Alexander 111. hnpcd e]J soru of honoim and pnvilvfu. Bcfon (bis importan^ 
discovcry, the proTuuDii of amu wu (he one and ddIv outfet for a ^entlemají ; but from (hü 
period Ehe «tudy of ]nw ron úia by Aide wilh il, bní grciLtly ouutnpped \í ía mimben finid 

THE FIRST CRUSADE (1096-1099). 

While Henry IV. ajiil V. were jangling with ibe popes, 100,000 Europeans 
abandoned their coanti^ to go lo the Holy Land, to take it if possiUe from 
the Sarocens, nho were then masters of it. 

It bsd long been custoniBiy foi Chrisdans to go thither as pilgrims, thai 
ther might offer up theii praycrs in the very places where Chust once trod, 
bathe in the liver in which he had heea baptize<i, and visíC the tomb in 
wMch his body had been laid, They thought tbat special blessings would 
come to Ihem lor so doing. The popes encouiaced the noCion, and made a 
ptlgiimage lo the Holy Land an ací of piety whicA merited forgiveness of sins. 

Constantine, the tirsl chrislian empetor of the East, and his nmlher 
Helína, took great pains to clear away Ihe earth from the tomb, and to gioup 
round the Holy Sepulcbre the gaiden of GelhsemiDÉ, the supper loom, the 
la dolorosa, Momit Calvary, and Ihe site of the Ascensión. Ovcr Ihe tonib 


Ihey taised a dome on pilláis, and decorated the ccüiiig with gold, ailv 

1 maible ; aiound the dome and above it Ihey placed oíatoiies, bmlt what. 



2 o( gold, where hia Lord and Master v 

Of the Hermit we know but little nfier Ihe crusade commenced. He wps 
nne of the fcw slragelcrs who reached the Holy Land, and when Jerusalcm 
ivas laken, hundrcds ras to the Mounl of Olives lo teU the man of Amiens 
thal God had given hün the victory. 


Idng W» i 


(j) Peqple. — Nominally Gemiany was a liingdom, and the Idng 1 _. 
Eupreme ; bul in roalily the kaiser had veiy little power, foc many of his nobles 
were quite os powerful, and same were far richec thon himself. The gieat 
nobles cunsidered themselves sovereigns, and obeyeá Cheir overlord oí not 
as they thought proper. The duke of Ba varia was not the oaly prince oí 
Germany who had a swoíd borne before him like a king. 

Many of the nobles wete oo better than híghwaymcn, and the whole land 
was fiUed with blood. The reason was this : The vassa]s, by Ihe condición of 
their feudal leñares, owed their lords a short military seivice ; when this ex- 

Eired they were free, and let themselves ouC as freelances to any one who would 
iie [hem. If no one wonted their service, they dispersed themselves sbout 
and lived by plunder. 

So Ihere was a king, suirounded by feudatoríes, each of whom was a lord to 
other vassals. There weie hosta of serfs jast eme^iog ialo tíbetty, of militaiy 
ad venturera living by rapiñe, of rebellious spirils made slaves by the chances of 
war, and a growing populatíon of tradesmen, despised as inferior day, yet 
heaping up riches, and gradually feeiiag their Way into independen^. 

(a) HousES.^ — ^The townsfolk iived in wooden houses, but they had very few 
conveniences, and their fumiture was of the rudest kind. Some of Ihe moEt 
wealthy covered tbe walls of their best apattments with tapestry, and otbcrs 
painted them in imítation ; but there were no firegrates, no glass windows, no 
carpets, no bcds similar to our own, no chairs and safas, glasses or pictures, 
few knives and no forks, very few books, no paper, no clocka and watches, and 
few lamps ; if here and there some of these Ibings were to be found, they were 
lootced on as luxuries, and had not yet come into any general use. 

The great baions lived in huge casttes, frequently built on the top of a high 
hill. almosi inaccessihle, and surrounded by high walls. Thc^ were dreadfuUy 
gloomy and lonesome, for Ihe master was rarely at home ; and the ladies spent 
their time in spinning or erobtoideiy, weaving gold fringe, decoraling sword- 
belts, banners, and surcoals for favourite knights, learning leechcraít, or playing 
on their harps and lutes, 

When their lords were at home they were more cheerful, because the Germans 
were fond of feast and revelry; but as these feasts generally ended in excess, Ihey 
were quite as likely to lead to a brawl as not. 

(3) Baníjuets. — When a grand banqnet was given, crowds of minstrels, 
juggiers, fools, and mimics, assembled to amuse the guesls; and s kind oftaii 
was improvised outside,wherepedlBrEand merchants hawkcd about their wares, 

One would display on a. benói his clolh of gold and silver, his silks and velvel, 
his ermines, minever, and other furs. Another, his silver cups, gold clasps, 
and other omoments foi knights and ladies. A tbird would exhibit cutleiy and 
armour, Danish batlle-axes, Coli^ne swords, casques &om Foitiei^ ^/^ 
hauberks ot Rouen manufacture. ' 


The hubbub without and within would be loud and boisterous. The laugh, 
the shout, the **what will you buy" of the merchants, mingled with instru- 
ments of music, as the flute, the bagpipe, the rote or hurdy-gurdy, and the 
cithem or guitar, was a very Babel but worse confounded. 

At the same time pennons, ñags, and banners floated íirom the walls and 
pinnacles of the castle, and crowds of gay dresses fluttered about in every 

ir The banquet hour on such occasions was 4 o'clock, and was announced 
by a flourish of trumpets. 

When the guests had assembled in the castle, pages handed to each a silver 
basin and fine napkin, while other pages followed with silver ewers to pour 
water on their hands. This ceremony over, another ñourish of trumpets 
announced that dinner was served, and each knight handed his lady to the 
banquet hall. 

The tables were covered with fine Unen from Damascus, and the benches 
with tapestry. The place of every guest was fixed, and the ** cover " consisted 
of small loaves of bread, dinner napkins, a few silver spoons, and here and 
there a knife, but the carving was generally done by the dirks or swords of the 

Wooden platters or pewter trenchers were employed for plates, and the 
drinking vessels were 01 silver, horn, and earthenware. Water, wine, and 
beer, were served in silver, glass, or earthen jugs, of sundry shapes, re- 
presenting dragons, castles, ships, ogres, and other &ntastic devices. 

The gentleman and the lady assigned to him ate from the same platter, and 
drank from the same cup. They had no forks and no knives for private use, 
but picked their food with their fíngers, and even served it in the same way. 

When the feast was over, another ñourish of trumpets was made, and the 
guests retired to the castle grounds to listen to the minstrels, many of whom 
were amongst the most honoured of the guests. 

(4) Dress. — Kings on grand occasions wore rich purple tunics, confíned at 
the waist by a golden girdle from which hung a sword of state. The neck and 
sleeves were fastened with gold bands; and over their shoulders was a robe of 
crimson and sendal lined with ermine. Their hair fell in profusión over their 
shoulders, and was omamented with a jewelled cap of crimson velvet. The 
toga of Konrad II. came to the knees like a Scotch kilt, but that of his 
successors below the knee. The shoes fitted the feet and were not peaked. 

§ The costume of the nobles was also magnificent — the borders of their 
tunics and their swordbelts being most elaborately decorated, Their long- 
pointed shoes of purple cloth were frínged with gold, their gloves were 
embroidered and jewelled, and on their heads they wore a cap or hood with 
jewel and plume. 

Their hair was long and curled, beards and moustaches were carefully 
cultivated, and altogether the age was foppish and splendid. 

The common sort wore serge or cloth, generally of a brown colour, but 
young children went unclad. 

Ladies wore very long robes, the sleeves tight and down to the wrist, The 
body fitted cióse to the waist, which was bound by a rich girdle; and the skirt 
fell in drapery all round. 

State robes and mantles were splendidly embroidered. The wimple, wrapping 
rouúd the head and chin, was in fashion, and was bound on the forehead by a 
gold or iewelled fiUet. 

The boots or shoes of ladies were short, but their robes were so long that 
only the tips of their toes were visible. Gloves were in general use, and so 
were reticmes or ponches. 



resolved to win back the forfeited estates for his nephew, and 
made war upon the new king ; but being defeatcd at Weinsbe:^ 

tvinís-hairg\, ín Würtemberg, took refuge in the town, which the 
Jng at once besieged (1140). 

A pretty story Ís connecled with Ihis siege, After an obstínate 
defence ihe city surrendered ; and Konrad resolved to bum it to 
the ground, but before doing so he gave notice that the women 
might leave, and carry wilh them any one thing they liked besL 
The day arrived. The gates were thrown opea A long line of 
■women carne up, each carrying on her back a husband, a lover, 
or a son. The kaiser was moved to tears by this touching sight, 
and not only forgave the rebels, but spared the city. 

CcELre AND Ghiheuhs.*— Thtbaulcof Wíinsbnrgk.lilIfijilhcrnoledfürEivinErtielo 
ths faiviti (9 iM " Guelb and GhibclÍDS.* The ItUlie-uoM of CDunl Gudrwu Us own 
luine, and (hal of Kndiad's uaiy wu " Gbíbdia," or ratlier Wiblingen, bnsuse FndEriek 
duks of Susbís, the kinE'i couiui, lived then, and vu commaudci of Ibe king'i fom 
HeocE ihecris, "Quelf m the rescue I " i)r " Ghibelins lo Ihe reicue ! " are mach abouc the 
«voQuif. In the Wor of Rohs» the p(uv1c(»f the White Roaehad betn Yarkt and that tíí 
the Red Rose Wiadsarl In añer lueEi, the pDpe'l pony was callcd ttie GueLf, snd the 
imperial pany oppcscd to Lt GhibclÜL 

Secomd Ceusade (1146-1149). — Konrad was startmg for Italy 
when the news carne lo Europe that Edessa, in the Holy T..anc^ 
had fallen into the hands of the infidels, that ¡a,aoa Christians 
had been massacred, and 20,000 more had been reduced to 
slavery. All Europe was in constemation, and a cry for 
vengeance rose on every side. 

Peter the hermit was sent by pope Urban II. to preach up the 
first crusade; Bernard abbot of Claírvaux \¡:lair'vd\ was sent by 
pope Eugenius III. to preach up the second. Both were men 
of great power, both had the gift of eloquence, both were 
zealous Ín the cause, but in most other respects they were as 
unlíke each other as they well could be. Peter was bold and 
giaphíc, Bemard melliñuous and fulL Peter blazed as a comet, 
Bernard shone like the fuU mooa Peter was a mountain 
torrent, Bemard a " river of paradise." Peter was an axe laid 
to the root of a tree, Bemard the dew of heaven. Peter 
Ihundered and lightened, but the words of Bernard fell " like 
the gentle rain of heaven on the earth beneath." Peter worked 
on the sensibüities, Bemard on the conscience. Peter was an 
Elijah, a Paul, an .íEschylus ¡ Bemard an inspired Isaiah, a loving 
John, a SophSclés. Both were suasive in theír eloquence, but 
the power of Peter was over the outer man, that of Bematd 
spoke to the soul within. 


xi38-ix5a. KONRAD IIL 73 

When the abbot addressed himself to Louis of France, the 
young king put himself at once at the head of 100,000 volun- 
teers. He might have had as many more if he had taken all 
who wanted to join his standard. Konrad, of Germany, was a 
man of another metal He refused at first to join the crusade ; 
left Frankfort to escape the abbot, and lay for awhile in hiding 
at Speyer' [»S^/>tf] ; but Bernard folíowed him, and Konrad could 
not hold out. ** I own," he cried, with tears in his eyes, " my 
deep, deep debt to God ; I am his servant, his unworthy servant, 
let him do with me as seemeth him good." 

Bernard now raised the standard of the cross upon the altar, 
and Frederick Barbarossa, with Guelf and 60,000 men, put 
themselves under arms. Misfortune hung over the two armies. 
In 1 147 Konrad encamped near Constantinople. It was No- 
vember 21, the feast of the birth of the Virgin. The rain had 
fallen in torrents, and the river at midnight overflowing its banks 
flooded the whole plain, sweeping in its torrent hundreds of 
men and horses. He next encamped in a country which the 
Turks had laid waste, and no food or forage could be obtained. 
Here famine ate up both horses and men; and the Turks, 
without coming to a battle, kept them in ceaseless alarm all 
night and day, leaving them no rest, and no sleep, "that best 
of rest," so that when Konrad reached the Holy Land, his 
60,000 men had wasted to 6,000. Fighting was out of the 
question, so he merely visited the Holy Places, and returned to 
Germany to die. And what of Louis VII. ? More than half of 
his fine army was lost in the defiles of Laodicéa. With the 
remainder the young king attempted several enterprises, but 
failed in all. At length, he also reached Palestine, not as a 
monarch, but a pilgrim; not with an army, but a staff. He 
visited the Holy Sepulchre, and having paid his vows, returned 
to France, with the prestige of his ñame, as a monarch and a 
knight, wholly destroyed. 

Konrad had been absent for two years. He had just time to 
put his foot upon a rebellion headed by count Guelf, and then 
he died, at the age of fifty-nine, having been king of Germany 
for fourteen years. He was never crowned kaiser, but had 
been created " King of the Romans " before the death of his 
predecessor. Konrad III. was undoubtedly a brave man and 
an estimable man, but he was not a brilliant one, ñor has he set 
his mark upon the age. His son was too young to succeed 
him, so he left his sceptre to his valiant nephew, Frederick 
Barbarossa, who had accompanied him to the Holy Land 

The Barons Subjected. — In the first year of his reign he 
made the klng of Dcnmark do homage for his crown. The king 
of Poland and the king of Hungary also became his metí ; the 
duke of Bohemia he rewarded for his fidelity by raising his duchy 
to a kingdom ; Burgutidy fell into his hands by his marriage with 
Eeatrice ; and Henij' the Lion, the head of the Guelfs, he recon- 
ciled, for a time at least, and made him a fríend. 

Only Italy remaincd, and there he had uphill work : the popes 
were a constant thom in his side. Six times he crossed the Alps 
(four times at the head of large armies) to chastise the refractory 
cities of Lonibardy. It is said that on one occasion he sent a 
letter lo Milán, when the governor tore off the pendent seal, and 
starnped the parchment under foot ; but the king had his revenge, 
if, indeed, the rest of Ihe tale may be believed. The governor 
was Gebhardo; him Barbarossa arrested, and made him lie, 
chained üke a dog, for three days under his table. There could 
be no doubt he was in eamest, and would not be trifled with. 

Barbarossa and the Pope. — In his first visit lo Italy Barba- 
rossa was crowned at Pavía " King of Lombardy," and then went 
to Rome to settle matters with the pope. The pope was Adrián 
IV., the only Englishman who ever sat on the papal chair, His 
ñame was Ñicholas Breakspeare. He was a natíve of Langley, 
near SL Albans, and rose from being a raenial in a monastery 
to the dignity of abbot, then of cardinal-bishop, and lastly of 
pope. Breakspeare took for his roodel Gregory VII., bul 
Barbarossa was not Henry IV. When kings visited the pope it 
had hitherto been usual for the temporal monaich to hold the 
pope's stirrup, and help him to dismounL Barbarossa refused to 
do so ; and Adrián remonstrated with him, saying that all previous 
kings had shown thls mark of respect to God's vicar, Next day 
the king held the stirrup for his Holiness while he dismoimted 
from his mulé, but did ic so awkwardly that the pope refused to 
give him the Idss of peace. The king remarked he had never 
been apprenticed to a groom ; but Adrián made answer, " If in 
so small a matter you need a teacher, you must be wholly unfit 
to rule a greaC empire." However, peace was made between 
them, and Adrián crowned him " Kaiser " in St. Peter's, at Rome, 
after which he retumed to Germany (1155). 

Soon the contention with the pope broke out agaln. The 
légate, cardinal Rowland (afterwards Pope Alexander III.), had 
the audacity to say, in the Assembly of the princes, " Of whom 
does your kaiser hold his empire if not of the pope ? " Otto, the 
king's sword-bearer, would have cleft ihe legate's head ia I 

in hó^ 



wrath if the king had not interposed ; and the légate would 1 
been tom to pieces when he left the assembly, if Frederkk 
not protected him and sent him back to Rome under the escort 
of a guard. 

Pope Adrián IV. died in 1159, and then the affairs of the 
Román church became entangled. Barbarossa appoJnted Víctor 
IIL pope, and the Italians chose Alexander III, ; so there wera 
again two rival pontiffs, who excommunicated each other and 
hurled reckless anathemas at the heads of theii opponents. 

Barbarossa's Italian Expeditions. — In 1154 Barbarossa 
went to Italy and was crowned " King of Lombardy." Next year 
he was crowned " Kaiser " by the pop& After this he had to returtí 
four times to Italy with large armies to put down insurrections in 
the cities of Lombardy, and once in 1184, that his son raight be 
crowned with the iron crown of Lombardy,* 

(ist, 1158). His fiísl Italian expedition was in 1158, agaínst 
Mii'aa He crossed the Alps at the head of 100,000 foot and 
15,000 horse. The Milanese were thoroughly alaimed, and went 
as suppiiants to crave mercy : the priests in sackcloth, bearing 
crosses ; the pcople bate-headed, bare-footed, and with ropes 
round their neck ; tbe women with their hair loóse, and other 
signs of woe. All knelt before the great king and implored him to 
spare the city. His heart relented, he took hostages, raísed the 
imperial eagie on the altar of the cathedral, and returned home. 

(and, 1159-1162), Next year the Milanese so grossly insulted 
his officers, they had to flee for their lives. Barbarossa was 
furioüs, put Mil'an to the ban of the empire, and swore ven- 
geance. Another army was Iransported across the Alps. First 
Crema, in Lombardy, was levelled to the ground after a siege of 
seven montbs. Then Mil'an was ¡nvestcd, but held out for two 
years, when its fortifications were thrown down and its inbabitants 
driven from the city. 

(3rd, 1166). In 1166 tbe red-beard king had to retum to Italy 
with a third army, This time to put down a confedetation of the 
Lombard cities, The Jeague was easily broken up, and the king 
marched to Rome, where he was :^ain crowned. In this expe- 
dition a fatal epidemic broke out in his army. As oíd Homer 
said, "A foul contagión raged in all the camp, and hundreds left 
their bodies to devouring dogs and birds of prey," Eight bishops 
were amongthevictims, four dukes, and 1000 others of noble rank 






The Ilalians looked on this mortality as a judgment. The kaiser ñed 
to Germany, the Milanese retumed to the city from which they had 
been banished, and the fortifica tions were restored (1166-1 j 68). 

(4th, 1174). The fourth ItaÜan expeditíon was in 11 74. This 
time it was Alessandria which was besieged, a new city, reared in 
honour of Pope Alexander III., and the most poweríiil of thí 
confederation. Here, also, was Red Beard held at bay foi 
sevcn months, when, boing told that the Lombards were coming 
against him with a large army, he raised the siege, marched to 
Pavía, and entered upon negotiations for peace. 

It was at this crisis that bis cousin, Henry the Lion, chose to 
deaert him. The cause of quarrel was a mere pretence. Henry 
asked the king to give h¡m the royal city of Goslar, in Hanover, 
which he lefused. To give up Goslar would be like ene of our 
kings giving up Windsor Castle to an Englísh barón, or like a 
French king giving up St. Cloud [C/oo]. It was at Goslar that 
Henry the Black King held his court ; it was there that Henry IV. 
usually lived. Goslar Castle was founded by that fine oíd kaiser 
Henry the Fowler in 920, and had been an imperial residence 
ever stnce. It was preposterous to ask for such a gifl ¡ but 
though Barbarossa refused, he implored his cousin not lo abandon 
him at this critical juncture [some say he even went on his knees 
to him]¡ but the seífish Guelf had no atom of magnanimity, and 
retumed to Germany with his large contingent, leaving his cousin 
to sink or swim for aught he cared, 

The quarrel being noised abroad, the Lonibards broke off the 
conference and prepared for battle. They brought out their 
sacred oriflamme — the banner of St. Ambrose, the patrón saint of 
Mil'an. It was drawn in a red car by red buUocks hamessed 
with red trappings. Flag, car, bullocks, and hamess were all 
consecrated by the pope; and the car never started till the 
archbishop had performed mass and pronounced his benediction 
Dver it. 

Battle of Legnano (May so, 1176). — The sacred car was 
drawn lo Legnano, on the river Adijé (3 syl), Legnano is in 
Lombardy, and is worth remembering; for what Canuíe was lo 
the oíd Romans in the time of Hannibal, or Austerlitz to Austria 
in the time of Napoleón I., the battle of Legnano was to 
Prederick of the red beard. 

The Lombards outnumbered the Germans in this battle, The 
sacred banner was placed in the centre, under charge of " the 
300," sworn to defend it or die in its defence, these "300" being 
supported by a guard of 900, the elect of Lombardy. The " 




began, the Lombards were driven back, and the kaiser fought hís 1 
way lo the red car. " The 300 " retreated, the sacred banner was f 
seized, but the 900 horaemen carne to the resctie. The fighting 
was desperate. The kaiser's siandard-bearer was struck down ' 
and the statidard seízed. Barbarosaa fought like a giant ; death , 
was in every blow ; but his horse stumbled, he feli, and the ] 
rumour ran that he was slain. Then were the Geraians thrown ' 
into confusión, they gave back, they fled; the flight was a panic, 
a stampedcj a sauve qui peitt, and night only put an end to the 

In two days the kaiser reappeared. AU thought him dead ; but 
he was found at Pavía, to ihe joy of his faithful friends and the 
amazemenC of alL Peace was made, and Frederic Barbarossa 
returned to Germany, where another trouble awaited him (1179). 

Barbarossa and Henry. — Henry the Lion was the son of 
Henry the Proud, and was cousin to the king, who took a fancy to 
the young man, and wished to promote him to very great honom:. 

It will be remembered that the Lion Henry was head of the 
Guelfs, and Barbarossa of the Ghibelins (/. 70) ; but the kaiser 
wished, if possible, to heal the family feud. Kaiser Konrad III. 
had rescnted the refractory conduct of Henry the Proud by 
taking from him the duchies of Bavaria and Saxony, as he 
refused to do homage for them. Subsequently, however, Saxony 
was restored to the proud man's son, and Barbarossa gave him 
back Bavaria ; so that the young Henry, surnamed the " Lion," 
was by far the most powerful lord in all Germany, holding 
Tuscany and Holland, besides the fiefs of Saxony and Bavaria. 

For a time the young Henry was loyal and true to his royal 
cousin, and became more and more powerful He founded 
Munich, and greatly enlarged Hamburg and Liibeck. His 
greatness turned his head, and like Issachai "he waxed fat and 
kicked." The other barons hated him, not alone from jealousy, 
but for his overweerdng pride and offensive arrogance. 

Barbarossa would noE have ¡nterfered, but in 1175, when he 
was in conference with the Lombards, the arrogant young noble 
deserted him, taking with hím all his soldiers ; in consequence 
of which, the conference was broken up, and Barbarossa was ' 
involved in that fatal war which proved so disastrous to him at I 

On his return to Germany, after the battle, kaiser Barbarossa, 
smarting with his wounds, and galled in spirits, sent for Henry 
the Lion to come and pay him homage at Worms. Henry 
refused, so the kaiser puC him to the ban of the empirc, 

8o HOrSE OF HOl 

and again took from him ihe duchies of Saxony and Bavaiío. 
Bavaria he gave to Otto, hís sword-bearer, who had shown 
himself a ime friend ; and Sasony he divided between Beraard 
of Anhalt and the archbishop of Cologne 

Henry the LÍon roaxed and struggled as a lion in a net; 
he chafed and threatened, vowed vengeance and tried to kicfc 
against the goads ; but fínding all in vain, he carne to hís senses, 
and craved pardoa The noble heart of the kaiser was touched 
by ihis humiliaiion, — something of the oíd friendship retumed, 
and the duke was treated like a spoilt child. The kaiser could 
not reslore to him his duchies, for they had been ^ven to others; 
but he suffered him to retain Brunswick and Luneburg, provlded 
he left Germany ; so he went to England for thiee years, to the 
court of Henry II., his father-in-Iaw ; and while there his wife 
presented him with a second son, named William, frora whora 
our present royal family is descended. 

Third CausADE (ii8g). — ^The ñne oíd king was sixty-eight 
years oíd when the third crusade was set on foot. His 
beard was not red then, but grey; and his head was frosted, 
yet "his eye was not dim, ñor was his natural forcé abated." 
He started with a large army, but never reached the Holy Land. 

In one respect thís was the greatest of the crusades. On one 
one side were Richard the Lion's Heart, Philippe sumamed 
"Augustos" of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of Germany; 
a cluster of crowned heads rarely equalled in one generation; 
on the other side was the noble Saládín, the great Mosiem hero, 
and modei of eastern chivalry, undoubtedly one of the finest 
and most captivating characters in all history. Such were the 
actors, but the effects ill-corresponded with the general expec- 
tation. Barbarossa was drowned in Cilicia; Philippe mardied 
back again to France ; and Richard, left alone, after winning glory 
by his deeds of fight, was glad to conclude a treaty of peace 
with Saladin, siraply stipulating ihat pilgrims should be allowed 
to visít the holy places without tax or toll. 

Barbarossa was drowned. He had started from Germany 
with his two sons, Henry and Frederick, at the head of 150,000 
men, a magnifjcent army, fully cquipped and admirably organised. 
He cut his way through the Greeks and Turks, and carne to 
the frontiers of Syria. His huge army had to cross a bridge 
over the river Cydnus, where Alexander nearly caught hís death- 
chin by bathtng in the stream. It was slow work Crossing this 
nartow bridge, and Henry, the kaiser's son, was commantÜng 
the advance guard. The fond oíd father wished to be nea 


son to aid him in case of danger. He could not wait to i 
the bridge ; so throwing himself into tlie river, to swim to the 
other side, he was carried away by the tide and chilled to death. 
Many went to his rescue, but he was quite dead ¡ and tlie grief 
of tbe army was great indeed at the loss they had sustaiiied 


It is hard to explain why Ftederick Barbarossa has taken such 
deep hold of the heart; other wairiors have performed more 
brilliant exploits, other lawgivers have made wiser laws, other 
patrons of learning have won a greater ñame; but, like our 
Arthuc and the model Charlemagne, Frederick " Red Beard " 
is the admired of kings. H¡s bravery, his activity, his chivalry, 
his gencrosity, his kind forgiving nature, his strong ivili in every 
ríghteous cause, and his great muscular strength, were exactly 
adapted to the age ; there was nothing selfish and mean in him, 
nothing arroganC and supercilious ; he could forget and forgive, 
but would hold his own, and would be obeyed. Ic was 
characteristic of him that he would ncver allovr vines or fruit 
trees to be injured in times of war, for though a warrior every 
inch of him, he respected property and encouraged both agri- 
culture and commerce. 

It is said that his body was buried at Tarsus ; some, however, 
maintain that he is not dead at all, but only sleeps in a cavern 
near Salzburg.* Sis favourite knights sit with him at a stone 
table, waiting for the fulness of time. His red beard has grown 
through the slab, but must wind itself thrice round the table 
before the ravens will quit the mountain and the sleeper awake. 
A peasant declares he actually saw the Red King sitting at the 
table leaning on his elbows. He looked up and asked, " Is it 
time ? " " Not yet, not yet ! " was the mysterious reply of some 
unknown voice, and the venerable kaiser closed his eyes, tiU the 
world required his aid to seC it right. Peace to his ashes I Even 
fable shows how highiy he was honoured, how intensely he was 


mou,1 Abíluritt. He wis a man ¿ 

C great IciicB of tíiuaclcr, a republican in polilics, and an 
He was hLiJih^d fram l'Sly and ríüríd to Imna ; buí 

rolléd by him, and ths propcRy of lhe dcrgy hecsme a 
-barotsa, [n tt;;, Amali£> wai aciulEd and Kat lo Ramo 
a be buint alivc, and n biitet wu ths lancoui of itw 

Xh cocuis, irlbnntí, and knighis. 
re Si. Bemud hanud and houtidi 
Zurich. in Swiimland. la iho 
roaghoul Lombardy, and Arnaldo 
a cr<Í» Df Iwnhaídy «»d c^l 





1 "^e Tcuiolíc D^ oí kaighihoxL wi 

n. [bal hü vei7 a£htt m 

ítii ufrcd tokcÁcJLvc ÜIE spírit cpf bcft^ and : 

u (ütfiKil loDk Ih( lilis of arch-diaiictiiar ai Ccniuniri whiía 
" ' -' ' ' dlúT of luüy. The ihree lulíaq 

treifii byHcnry kíní ofJeruMdHii, 

^ . ..,._.. baruEiL In ihe HoJy l^nd. TbcK 

knighti wcrc GnL called " KníebU Df Sl Gcd^c" Sooil aíur its ¡luritulion, Ihe onder wat 
plaodundtr Ihe luicbgcoE lile Virgin, and i» mcmbcBwm ihen olled "Knighu of IhE 
VirE¡D Muy," la 11Q1, pope CeleiÜDe Ilt. confirmed ibc privilens of Ihe ordcTi Jtnd 
changid Ihe lume iniD ihe ^Tenloale Knigbu ül Ihe Hcapítal oí Su Mury ibe \kea." th¡ 

_.. ,..,._..j,_ . .,...._....___, of rra--- 

^ 1 1809 by Napoleoi. - 

:b < • -lua), poet and hiator 

: in Lalia eid1«l 

T/¡e Hiil«ry íj 


^; cro™Xty''oíle>tine IIL,' ÍCaSir^ 
gi : CKnrned al Falamo King of thc Two Si 

BoBM 1163. RstCHUí 7 Yeahs, 1190-1 
PoÍKined by hii wiíe at MeainiL, SuDdiky, SepL ai, 

CmUtmfiúrary wilkRichatdCxitr-dt-Liortt 11S9-1Z99. 

of Ihe Holy R 

, , MofWmiflinlheGoodof ih 

ChiLI, Froderidt IL, boni 1194. He wn> ktng aftet hi) lindo PhUippaad Olloof Bi 
Bie^rapher, hú «creUry, Gode&ey of Viterbo; and Jaeger (E790X 

ry VI. invadej luJ 
iumi Richard 1. el 

> ihe duchy of Suabb 

Igümd. Reteueihiin, Il( 

I i9j) he hod given Ihe 

With Barbarossa the glorj- of the House of Hohenstaufen 
\stou-fñ\ hastened lo its set ; for although his grandson was a 
brilliant scholar, he did very líttle for the empire, and at death he 
bequeathed a long civil war, not unlike that of the White and Red 
Roses in our own history. 

Kaiser Henry VI., surnamed the " Cruel," was the eldest son 
of Barbarossa, but no more like his father than Pan to Hercules. 
He was mean-spirited and revengeful, a money-grasper, without 
one generóos impulse in his wholc composition, cruel and con- 
temptibie. He married Constance, heiress of the Two Sicilies ¡ 
and at the death of her father, William the Good, laid daim to 
the heritage \ but the Sicilians themselves chose Tancred for ti 


king. This brought Henry into Sicily, where he behaved more 
like a wild beast than a human being. Tancred died, and the 
tyrant could not reach him, but he put out the eyes of his son, 
shut up his wife and daughters ¡n a convent, and put to death his 
chief adherents with barbarous torture. It is said that he forced 
them down on red-hot iron chairs, and then placed on their heads 
crowns of buming iron.* 

Only one more incident remains to be told of this most hateful 
tjnrant, and that is of a piece with his meanness, avance, and 
spite. Richard Coeur-de-Lion, returning from Palestine, was driven 
by stress of weather up the Adriatic His ship being tempest- 
tossed, he landed on the Dalmatian coast, intending to cross 
Germany on his way home. He was dressed like a pilgrim, but, 
being recognised, was seized by Leopold, duke of Austria, a 
vassal of the Germán crown. This contemptible hound, in sheer 
spite, t sent the royal pilgrim prisoner to the kaiser ; and Henry 
VI., mean-spirited as his vassal, instead of helping him on his 
way, as his father would have done, shut him in a dungeon 
as a malefactor, determined to make bloodmoney of his 
prize. For a year and more he kept him in bonds. The pope 
was applied to over and over again by queen Berengaria and 
others, but he shuffled and prevaricated J till all Christendom 
cried shame, then he commanded the kaiser to reléase his 
prisoner without money and without price. This Henry refused 
to do, and the English sent him the enormous sum of a million 
crowns § for the ransom of their king. A more base and con- 
temptible business it would be hard to find in the whole range 
of history. 

With this price of blood the kaiser raised an army for another 
expedition into Sicily, where he repeated his acts of cruelty, and 
was poisoned by his own wife. She was a Sicilian by birth, and 
her hot blood boiled to see the treatment which those with whom 

* This method of punishin$f traitors was not anusual in the middle üges. Thus, in the Hungarian "war of 
the peasants" (1513-15x4), Geoi^e Dozsa, the leader, being taken, was put to death in the same way. Seated 
naked on a bumine throne and crowned with a red-hot iron crown, his flesh was tom piecemeal from his 
bones. Goldsmith ailudes to him at the end of " The TraveUer," but erroneously calis him " Lulce." 

t The offence j^ven by kin^; Richard was this : — When a certain fort was taken inthe Holy Land, Leopold, 
who was only a vassal, had the audacity to plant his own flae thereon, althoueh the king 01 England and the 
king of Ivance had both taken part m the siege The nery Richard, inoignant at this insolence, pulled 
down the duke's flag and planted m its place the royal banner of England. 

Richard's friendship for Tancred, and the betrothal of his nephew Arthur to Tancred's daughter was the 
real root of bíttemess to the kaiser. 

L.eopoId's death is thus given by Mentzel : — ^Falling from his horse, the duke broke his lee so badly that the 
leeches could not set it. "Cut it off, then," said Leopold, but no one would run the risk ; whereupon the 
duke summoned to him a couple of his squires, put his leg on a biock, and bade one of the young men hold a 
sharp ase under the broken leg. while the other with a sledge-hammer struck it a heavy blow. The 1^, of 
course, flew olf ; but inflammation set in, and the duke died. 

X The letters of queen Berei^aria to the pope, and the pope's ^uffllng answers, are given at length !n 
R3rmer's Faciera» No protest can be too strong in condemnation of the conduct of pope, kaiser, and 

I A million ecus, equal to about six mülions sterling, according to the present valué of money. 

G 2 

W — "^'^i 


^^P she once lived, and moved, and had hcr being, received at the I 
^^r haad of the husband she despised. I 

Godífrevor Vilerbaíiioi-iiao'). vas secHUrvIo Kantad III.. Frcdericli Barbamss. and ' 

aiaporancDU^ pcriud 

KoDtad III., Frcderí . . 

tbe medem parLioiu, upecüUly che ojd- 


Philipp (1178, ri98-i2oS).^Kaiser Henry the Cruel left a 
son named Frederick, only two years oíd; but the barons ihought 
him too young to reign, so the Guelfs and Ghibelins each chose a 
representative of theii own faction to be the new Idng. The 
Guelfs selected Otto, the second son of Henry the Lion ; and the 
Ghibelins chose Philipp, brother of the last king. For ten years 
Gerraany was kept in a ferment by these rivals to ihe crown, when 
Philipp died, being murdered in his bed by Otto of Wittelsbach 
for refusing to give him his daughter in marriaga 

Orro IV. (1177, 1209-1215).— After the death of Philipp, 
Otto IV. was crowned king [ but the only event of his life of any 
interest was his aUiance wilh John Lackland of England against 
Philippe Augustus of France. King John was Otto's uitcle, 
for Henry the Lion, Otto's father, had married John's sister 
Maud The nephew was with his únele in the dísastrous battle 
of Bouvines (2 syl), won by the French {1214) ; and this alliance 
put him in bad odour with the pope, who used all his influence to 
get Frederick, the young son of kaiser Henry VI., appoinied king. 
Otto, finding it hopeless to resist popular feeling backed with the 
support of the sovereígn pontifF, abdicated, passed into private 
life, and died in 1218. 

__ _ _..iiy VI., m 310S, his üifknt . , _ 

dready ackncpAvledged King of rhí RomaiiB, So ÜicTfl veré for s 

ít Ihc deslh of H( 
kaisen (Fredciicli, Fhilippg'aiid Ótuj, 

^ luÜKT clüed a 

¡In i»4 died Saio, h Donish chroniclcr, atlhe ige of seventy. Bs U oiually alled Sun 

Ld-lIu) begins fri^m tha faundation of Üia Uañish monArdiy jn 0.11.103^. It ]s basedcm^ 
Scaldic Lay^, Ihe Icelimdlc sagas, and local tradilioiu, Much of jt, for its hiatorícid wlüti, a 
aboui equal to the Sriliík Hiilcry of GcoBny of Moomaudi. He wai aa Gomuí, ud 
Ihcnfon the intradvclían of hís same i> raüur oul of place.] 

VEichardl. and John worofcmgsof England; WiHiam iraí king oí Scolland ¡ CElsdn» 
III. and lunocent III. wen Ihepinws: PhlÜppc II. o-uldneof Fnnce; Alfonso IX., king 
ot Spair; Sandio I., Itínf of Poriugai; Svfrktn II.. king of Swedcn; Knat v£ 1^ I 
Waldcmarll. weicking^ of De nm ark \ andX.edi V. woaking of Folaad. 






King of the Romans {üe.j Idng elect), 1x96. His sev«n crowns: (z) crowned, at Palermo, 

(5) crowned Kine of Burgiindy; (6) crowned, at Milán, King of Lombárdy; and (7) 
Lord Protector of Hungary, 1341. 

BoRN ZZ94. Rbignbd 35 Ybars, 1315-1250. 

Díed at Fiorentino, probably poisoned by his son Manfred, Tuesday, Dec 13, 1250. Aged 56. 

Contentparary with John^ 1x99-13x6; and Henry JII,^ i3i6'i:ija, 

FeUker^ kaiser Henry VI. the Cruel. Mother^ Constance, heiress of the Two Sicilies. 
IVives (x) Constance of Aragón, married X209, died 12x2 

(2) Yolande, or Jolanthe, daughter of John de Bríenne king of Jerusalem, married 

Z225, died 1228. 
C3) Isabella, daughter of Henry III. of England, 1235, died 1241. 

He was 15 when he married his Jirst wi/e^ 3X when he married his second^ and 41 
when he married his third, 

Childreni^ Henry, bom Z3X3, elected king of the Romans z33o; regent of Germanv 
z32o-x2^5 ; revolts X229 and again X234 ; the rebellion suppressed and Henry both 
deposed and imprísoned X235 ; died m prison X246. 

(2) Konrad IV., bom X2z^, elected king of the Romans 1237; regent of Germany 

Z235, kaiser 2250 ; poisoned by Manfred 1354. 

(3) Enzio, bom 2234. made king of Sardinia 1338, vicar imperial of Italy 2339, 

excommunicated by Innocent IV. X245, wounded and captured by the BoiQg^ese 
2249, died in prison X272. 

(4) Manfred, or Manfroi, bom 2232, made prínce of Tarentum 2248, regent of Sicily 

X250, kine of Palermo 2258, excommunicated by Alexander IV. 2259 and by 
Urban IV. in 2262, poisons his half-brother Enzio 2272, poisons his fatner 2250, 
is defeated by Charles of Anjou and dies in battle 2266. - 
%• Several other sons, all of whom died before 2272, either by the executioner, tbo 
sword, or by poison. 
Excommunicated^ 2332, by Honorius III. ; twice in 2227 by Gre^ory III., again in 2228, 
2239, and 22^9; by Innocent IV. 2245. Crusades published agamst him 2228 and 2240; 
depoísed by tne councíl of Lyons 2245. 

Territory added^ 12301 Posen (Prussia), the two Sicilies by marríage. 

Biogra^herSf John Funck, Anecdotes of kaiser Frederick II, Í26th cent.); M. Huillard- 
Bx&oll^ Histoire dipiomaiique de Frederic II.; Knighton (2864). 


2224. Founds the University of Naples. 

2226. LoMBARD Lbagub renewcd ; put to the ban 2226, reconciled 2227. 

2337. Victory of Cortknuova over the Milanese Nov. 27. 

1242. Capture by prínce Enzio of the Genoese fleet with cardinals, abbotSj bishops^ &c., 

coming to Rome to support the pope against the kaiser. . The captive ecclesiastics 

liberated 2243. 
Z246. The pope gets Henry Raspón, landgraf of Thuríngia, elected king of the Romans or 

heir presumptive of Germany. Kaspon dies 2247. 
2247. The pope then gets William count of HoUand elected king of the Romans. 
2249. Defeat and capture of prince Enzio by the Bolognese, He dies in prison 2272. 

Frederick II., son of kaiser Henry VI., and grandson of 
Barbarossa, was only two years oíd at the death of his father, and 
only four when his mother died, leaving him under the guardián 


care of pope Innocent III. He was brought up in Sicily, ¡tnd 
always prefened the mild ItaÜan sky to that of Gernianj' ; so ihat 
although he was nominally Icing of Germany for ihirty-five years, 
he spent only two of them in that country after he was crowned 
kaiser (1210) ; and those two were occupied in punishing his son 
Hemy for Ireason, or in festivities on his marriage with Isabella, 
the daughter of Henry III. of England. 

For íifteen years he left his son Henry regent of Germany, 
although he was only eíght years oíd when first appointed. He 
was a mean-spirited headstrong lad, more like his grandfather 
Henry the Cruel, than like his father or great-grandfather 
the noble " Red Beard " ; no wonder then he preved a traitor, 
tried to dethrone his father and usurp the crown. When kaiser 
Frederick carne to Germany to put down this rebelüon, Heniy 
tried to poison him, but not succeeding in this was imprisoned fot 
hfe. He remained in durance for six years, and then died (1246). 
The kaiser having removed Henry, appointed his second son 
"Konrad regent, married Isabella, returned to Sicily, and never 
set foot in Germany again. 

It could not be expected that a kingdom so neglected would 
be well ordered, ñor was it. The barons, always turbulent at 
the best of times, grew more unruly ; their castíes became the 
strongholds of brigands who robbed and plundered whatever they 
could lay hands on ; no family was safe, no life no proper^' 
secure. A father and raother might retire to resC, and find nejtt 
moming their daughter carried offlo some baron's castle a captive 
for life, A farmer, folding his sheep or driving his cattle to market, 
might be set upon by some noble with his retainers, who would 
drive o£f without recompense his ñocks or herds for the use of the 
lord's household ; and if resistance were offered he was cut down 
without mercy. Barón with barón held endless feud, and no 
language can exaggerate the lawlessncss, the misery, the honors 
of the time. 

Chak.\cter of Frederick II. — Frederick II., the possessor 
of seven crowns, was only a king Log after all, yet was he the 
most accomplished and leamed sovereign of the middle ages, 
insomuch that he was called the "Wonder of the W'orld." Per- 
fect master of six languages, he wrote and spoke Germán, Italian, 
French, Greek, Latín, and Arabic, with faultless accuracy. All 
nature had ils charms for him, and in natura! histoiy he was a 
second Aristotle. He knew the anatomy, structure, and habits of 
birds and beasls. In falconry he was wiser than Sir Tristram of 
Arthurian romance and wrote a treatise which proved ' ' 


thorough master of the subject This treatise is full of profound ¡ 
research, but is thoroughly practical withal ; it enlers fully on the 
habits and treatment of falcons, the foods to be given them, their 
maladies and remedies, their intemal organisation and their aut- 
ward fonns, their plumage, their varíety, and so oa He was an 
excelienc leech and practica! surgeon, an unrivalled nnusician and 
minne-singer, and with all this Uterary taste and fine genius was so 
active and manly that no one could beat him in athletic feats or 
knightly exercise. He was the admirable Crichton [Crt-íon] of 
Germany, and deserved to be called the " Wonder of the World" 

Not only was Frederick himself a scholar — he also loved , 
scholars, patronised leaming and art, surrounded himself with 
men of thought, founded the University of Naples (1324), 
greatly improved that of Salemo, and made two excellent 
museums which unhappily were destroyed in the lawless times 
which foUowed. 

Al H¡Ltoan al Ra^hid «nt Chulenuigiie s curioui dock, lo A! Kamel the laltuí of Égypt 
«ni Frederiiik II. a doch-ldnl. The tuil woi made of lUk : and by ortful contciviiicei ti uicd 
Kt a ma-dial and moan-dial, rtcordia^ accuralcly Ihc exoct haur oí the day and night, Lha 
day dT the moQLh, the age of the moDo, and oLher uicftiL obscrvaticns. 

In person kaiser Fredenck II. resembled bis grandfather, but 
was more refined and not so large. His hait was blonde inclining 
to red, his forehead square, his nose and mouth Grecian, his eye 
serene except under excitement, when it flashed like lightning ; 
his figure was well made, his constitution good, and his health 

CONTENTiONS WITH THE PopES. — This fine genius was un- 
happily pestered almost all his life with insuirections in Lombardy, 
and quarrels with the popes. He was brought up by pope 
Innocent III., and the Romish church expected Co find in him a 
nursing father and willing vassal. but he was neither the one ñor 
the other. 

At his coronation in 1315 he made a vow to head a new 
crusade, These absurd expeditions were the craze of the 
period, especially promoted by the pope and his clergy. Just 
three years before kaiser Frederick II, carne to ibe crown, 
90,000 children left their mothers and schoolmasters to rescue the 
Holy Land from the infídels. Seven ships were placed at their 
service, but tbose who reached Alexandria were sold as slaves. 
Nothing could be a stronger proof of the pervading spirit of the 
time, — the general notion that God would interpose, and might 
choose an instrument of weakness to show to the world it is not by . 

r wisdom ñor by strength that success is achieved "but bvthe spirit ^^m 



of the Lord of hosts ;" and it took many centuries, and enormous 
suffering before the chrisUan ivorld could be taught that God ¡a 
/lot man's vassal to do his bidding and setlle his disputea, catering 
to his t)Taniiy and indolence, and supplemencing his ignorance 
and wcakness. The sword and the spear are not the ¡nstrumene 
of the spirit of God, as Jesús has told us when he said to Pilate, 
"Ifmykingdom wereof ihis w-orld, then would my servants fight." 
The Jewish kingdom is no model for other govemmenls ; it was a 
theocracy or goveniment by priests, but other governments ore 
ruled by civil pon-ers. It is true that the papa! sovereignty was 
under the rule of a pope and his cleí^, but this was a usurpation, 
an unrighteous aggrcssion, established in the veiy teetl^ of that 
fundamenta! axiom of Christ "My kingdona ¡s not of this world," 
but "The kingdom of God is within you," — íts laws are to rule 
the heart, its ])OK-ers act on the heart, its influence is over the 
heart, and if God interposes at any time it is to change the spírit 
of the mind. Henee the foUy of ordeals, appeals to God, crusades, 
and persecutions by fire and torture, which act only on the flesh 
and speak only to the carnal man. It took, howevcr, many 
hundred years to teach this elemental lesson, " though we walk 
[or Uve] in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh ; for the weapons 
of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty . , . casting down 
imaginations , . , and bringing into captivity every ihought to 
the obedience of Christ." (a Cor. x. 3-5.) 

At his coronation, as has been said, Frederick II. promised his 
guardián, pope Innocent III., to head a crusade; next year the 
j}Opedied{i2i6), and the king deferred the hateful task. He waa 
far too fond of arts and sciences, literary ease and princely luxury, 
for a pilgrim king ; besides, he had a crusade of his own, no wiser 
than Ihe one he had vowed to undertake, but neaier home,— his 
crusade was to bring the cities of Lombardy into subjection, and 
to unífy his severa! Idngdoms into a sort of " happy family," or 
Utopia. Honorius III. succeeded Innocent III., a more indulgent 
pontiff, during whose life the vow of the crusade was allowed lo 
drop; but Honorius died ¡n 1227, and Gregory IX insisted on íts 
fulfilment without further delay. \Vhen the kaiser still tarried and 
loitered, unwilling to move, the new [xipe excommunlcated hira, 
and Frederick was obliged to go. On reaching the Holy Land 
he found that the Chrístians there regarded him as " a tainted 
ivether of the fold," and avoided him as a thing unclean ; so 
instead of warring with the sultán he tried the golden spears which 
Philip of Macedón had ])ronounced to be resistless, bought the 
titular honouTS of " King of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazaret^ 



Sidon," and then retumed home. Gregory was obliged to remove 
the ban ; but the kaiser lived to see that golden weapons were no 
more to be relied on than those of steel, for Jerusalem fell back in 
1 244 ; and in a few more years the Christians were driven out from 
Palestine, and the Holy Sepulchre was destroyed 
. The kaiser having retumed to Italy, carried on war with the 
cities of Lombardy, and pope Gregory IX, alarmed at his successes, 
vamped up a pretext for excommunicating him again, on the absurd 
charge of infidelity or blasphemy, because his soldiers during the 
wars in Lombardy had devastated some of the churches. Kaiser 
Frederick losing all patience now carried his wars into the papal 
States, and Gregory not only hurled anathemas upon him, but 
actually preached a crusade against him, urging the Germán 
barons to depose him. This they refused to do, so the pope 
called a general council to pronounce his deposition and elect a 
successor. Frederick was prepared for the move, and intercepted 
the ships which were conveying the prelates to Rome. Gregory 
was furious, and "his ungoverned rage dissolved the life that 
wanted means to lead it ; " he died of apoplexy, and the kaiser 
breathed again (1241). 

The next pope was Innocent IV., a prívate friend of the 
kaiser, who now expected to have his own way; but Innocent 
IV., though he loved Frederick much, loved the papacy 
more. Instead of leaving the kaiser to foUow his own bent, 
Innocent IV. peremptorily commanded him to restore at once all 
his conquests, and submit himself wholly to the papal wilL The 
kaiser refused, and war broke out anew (1245). Innocent fled to 
Lyons, declared the kingdoms of Germany forfeit, and the kaiser 
outlawed. He even appointed a new kaiser, and when this puppet 
of Rome was slain, gave the kingdom to William of Holland 
(1247). This brought the regent Konrad (son of Frederick) 
upon the scene, to resist the coronation of the papal nominee. 

Kaiser Frederick 11. , the king of seven crowns, and the 
Wonder of the World, was unable to bear up under this 
persistent persecution, Wherever he went he was compassed 
with spies; each bush was an ambush; every hand was against 
him; every man might slay him. He was an anathema- 
maranatha; his friends stood aloof, his companions fell off; 
alone he lived, alone in the crowded court, alone in the wide 
world ; the king of seven crowns could not gather as many guests 
around his board; the admired of all scholars, "the glass of 
fashion and the mould of form," sneaked about his kingdom like 
an " unminded outlaw," footed as one " spurns a stranger cur over 


the threshold." No wonder he died suddenly ; some say he was 
poisoned by his son Manfred, but it needed no drug to kill him. 
He died at the age of fifty-aix, and of all his numerous famUy 
not one of them died a natural death. Only one of them, 
indeed, survived him, and he was a captive when hís father died, 
and remained a captive for three-and-twenty years, when he died 
alsa 'Tis very strange, but some vessels are by the potter set 
apart for hoi^our and olhers to dishonour, though both are 
moulded by the same hand, and out of the same clay. 

KoNRAD IV. (1250-H54).— On the death of Frederick, 
Konrad was recognised as king of Germany, but he died in 
1254, the last kaiser of the hotise of Hohenstaufen [ítou-fn"^ 

*«* Winiam oF Holland, the pope's firitíéfféj dird in lísfi. He was marchin^ a^Ainst [fie 

¡at ol the wipei. Towards the cióse of 

and cnndemned him ta Idís hi> eyei. Desvignel broke liU he^ agaío» hU fraoa walll, aKl 
mD4t petMns thlnk he wat iniíocent {i]9d-i34&). 

Itvuduring the reign of kaiur Frederick II, that Ihe TEUlonicbíighU took posieulon of 
Fniuia, wiih a tiew o? reducing the heathcn levagea m ChiúIianiíT, end what ji ollai 

ihe nock. becime al luí Ihe kingdom of Frmiia, and Its king me EPiperor of Gennaiiy. 

The age of the Hohenstaufen kings is, doubtless, the most 
fascinating period of ihe medieval history of Germany. It was 
the period of strong dramatic contrasts — heroic devotion, and 
almost incredible selfíshness ; a joyousness of spirit, exuberant, 
and earthly, with a monkish severity neither of earth ñor heaven. 
Then chivalry was in its hey-day, crammed with the seemings of 
courtesy, manliness, and generosity, but añer all a cage of very 
unclean birds. Women were exalted to angels with professions 
of reverence, but never was the sanctity of home more grossly 
dishonoured. It was then that the Crusades were in ful! 
favour. It was then that travellers, warriors, and pílgrims, 
told their tales of adventure, or startled their hearers with the 
strange doings of strange lands. It was then that the Germán 
lovc-poets warbled their native wood notes, or sang of chivalry, 
or drew on imagination for stories of romance. It was then that 
Gothic churches were planned and buih. It was then ihat 
towns rose into rea! iniportance, It was then that commerce 
began to feel its strength. Germany never before or since has 
seen a period so fascinating, so full of lífe, so instinct with 
movement, so lich in colour, It Üved as if life were a 1 
thing to it, a thing of beauty and a joy for ever. 

ere a dbw ■ 


MINNE-SINGERS (1160-1260). 

With the House of Hohenstaufen rose and set the love-poets, called the 
Minne-singers* {4syL), the heralds of the revival of European literature. 
They were contemporary with the house of Hohenstaufen, because these 
sovereigns spoke Suabian, the ríchest, smoothest, and most musical dialect in 
Germany. Although called love-minstrels their subjects are by no means 
limited to love-songs, — some of their lays extend to the grandeur and length of 
epic poems, some are national ballads, and others are records of heroic deeds 
or wonderful exploits. . 

The father of Germán minstrelsy is Henry of Veldig [Waldeck] and the chief 
of his brother singers are, Walter of Vogel-weide [-z/i-de], Henry of Ofterdingen 
[-</í»^-'«], Hartmann, Wolfram, and Gottfried. A brief sketch of their different 
poems will render their ñames familiar. Of these six, Walter is by far the best 
as a lyrist, Henry of Veldig the most naíve and ingenious, Hartmann the most 
classical, Wolfram the most sublime, and Gottfried the most licentious. 

I. Henry of Veldig (¿?r Waldeck) contemporary with Frederick 
Barbarossa wrote several sustained poems resembling epics in 
length and dignity. His chief ones are: Dtike Emest ; The 
Trojan War ; and The Legend of St Gervats. 

(i) Ihike Emest is son-in-law of kaiser Konrad II. Having murdered his 
feudal lord he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to expíate his críme. 
The poem describes his adventures on the way; and is a mixture of Homeric 
legends, oriental myths, and pilgrims' tales of adventure. We have pigmies 
and cyclops, geni! and enchanters, fairíes and dwarfs, monks and devotees. 
After a world of hair-breadth escapes duke Emest reached the Holy Sepulchre, 
paid his vows, retumed to Germany, and obtained absolution. 

(2) The Trojan War» — ^This is no translation of Virgil's epic, but the Latin 
tale in Germán dress. The héroes bear the oíd familiar ñames, but speak and 
act like Germán knights. The incidents therefore are not the same, ñor are 
the characters, speeches, and sentiments the same. The most celebrated 
passage of this " Germán JEnéiá '* is where Lavinia tells her tale of love to her 
mother. This part of the poem is charming. The freshness, the artlessness, the 
simplicity of Lavinia*s love-tale is beyond all praise. The language glows with 
warmth and tendemess, and is always graceful and delicate. 

(3) The Legend of St, Gervais is not equal to the other minne-songs, and yet 
each of the four cantos has its beauties. St. Gervais and his brother were two 
martyrs of the first century, who appeared to St. Ambrose bishop of Milán in 
the fourth century to infomi him wnere their bodies were buried. St. Ambrose 
found the relies in the place indicated, removed them to Milán, and enshrined 
them in the cathedral there. 

*^ The poetry of Henry of Veldig is marked by vivid imagination, profound 
thought, wonderful simplicity, a charming freshness, and shows great obser- 
vation and discemment. 

II. Walter of Vogel-weide t (i 168-1230). — The great 
patrons of the minne-singers were the sovereigns of the House of 
Hohenstaufen, Henry the Lion, the dukes of Austria, and 

* Minne {a syl.) means lore. t Vo^el-weide £ vi<U\, is in Thuringria. 



Hermann margraf of Thuringia. This margraf líved at Warlburg* 
Gotha, and instltuted a yearly prbe for the best poem, It 
was given in honour of hís wife Sophia, and all the best 
minstrels attended. These annual festivities went by the name 
of The Contests of Wartburg or The Batiles of the Minstrels; 
and about one hundred and fifty specimens of these poems are stíll 
extant Walter is without doubt the best of the lyrisls. He had 
real genius, and his poetry has the true ring of ¡nspiration. Bold 
in language, loñy in thought, patriotic in sentiment, he carries us 
away wilh " thoughts that breathe, and words that burn." If iove 
is his subject it is puré and chaste, yet warm from the heart and 
without affectation. He was deeply pious and devout, yet he 
lashes the clergy for their luxurious living, and is especially hard 
upon the court of Rome. 

IIL Hexry of Ofterdingen {i3th centuiy) lived in the 
court of Leopold VIL of Austria, and was one of the renowned 
competitors in the poetic contests of Wartburg, Very little of his 
poetry is extant, but it is thought that he was one of the authors 
of the Helden-buch {or Book of Héroes), and that he asslsted in re- 
ducing the "Germán Iliad," called the Nibelungen-iied [-leeií], into 
its present form. 

_ The Catilest of Worlhurg.—The poem so called was by Wolfram, a rojnne- 
ainger. It records the conlest of the iwo great Geiman scfiools of poetty in the 
Ihirlcenth century : the Thiiringian and the Suabian. The fortner, called the 
northem school, was famous for lyric poetry, and the latter fof ils romances. 
As a rule, the Thuringian poets possessed more sentiment and elegance oí 
diction, but failed in loftiness, vigour, and novelty: while the Suabian or 
southem school had more originality and a greatet rangc of subjects. Heniy 
of Voget-weide [vi-de\ and Henry of Ofterdingcn represented the two schools, 
and the palm waa given to the former. At a fiítüre period Ofteidingen con- 
tended against Wolfiam, and won Ihe priíe. 

IV, Hartmann von der Aue [Oiír]. — Hartmann, one of the 
best of the minne-singers, combined soundness of thought with 
clegance of diction. His Poor Henry is a touching tale, simple, 
natural, and poetic. It has been made familiar to us by 
Longfellow, who has taken it as the subject of his Geldtn 
Legend. Eesides Poor Henry two romances of chivalry remain 
to us of this poet : Píreck and Tlie Xnight of the Lion. 

(i) Poor Heitry. — -Heniy lord of Hoheneck, in Bavoria, being struelt by 
leprosy, was told by a wise mnn of Salemo that he would never be he.iled, lili 
. Borne roaiden of spotless purity volunteered to die on his behalf. As lord 

■ Wuitmii lí la Sui Wtíaer. WQruburg b in B»ula oa Ibi Milii. WUnemtiiiii li la Siulili, tKtiit 


Henry neither expected to find such a victím, ñor even desired it, he gave the 
main part of his goods to the poor, and went to live in the cottage of a small 
tenant farmer, one of his vassals. Here Elsie, the farmer's daughter, waited 
on him ; and hearing by accident the condition of his cure, offered herself, and 
after great resistance the prince accompanied her to Salerno to complete the 
sacrifice. When he arrived at the city, either the exercise, the excitement, or 
the charm of some relie, no matter what, had eífected an entire cure ; and when 
he took Elsie into the cathedral, the only sacriñce she had to make was that of 
her maiden ñame for the lady Alicia wife of prince Henry of Hoheneck. 

(2) Ereck, — Ereck was a knight of the Round Table. After his marriage 
with Enit, the daughter of a poor knight, he lived in idleness, till roused by 
Enit to activity. He now renewed his adventures as a knight-errant, and went 
about fíghting with brigands, giants, and dwarfs. At the feast of Pentecost he 
retumed to the court of Prince Arthur, where he remained till the death of his 
father, when he retired from public Ufe, and lived on his estates. 

(3) TTu Knight ofthe Lion, — Iwein [E-znne] ** the knight of the Lion," was 
also a knight of the Round Table. He marríed the widow Laudine. When 
he started on his adventures he told his bride he would return at the expiration 
of a year ; and as he failed to keep his promise, his wife forsook him. On 
hearing this, Iwem went mad, and lived in the woods as a savage. One day 
he rendered aid to a lion attacked by a dragón, and the grateful bnite became 
his constant attendant and guardián. At the enchanted fountain he released 
Lunete who was in bondage, and Lunete returned the favour, when the knight 
attempted to disenchant the fountain. After overthrowing giants and releasing 
three hundred virgins, Iwein returned to the court of Prince Arthur, and 
married Lunete, in place of the faithless Laudine. 

*^* The poem of /W* Henry is as superior to the other two, as the bailad 
of Oíd Robin Gray to that oí Alanzo the Brave and the Fair Jmogine* 

V. WoLFRAM OF EscH EN BACH (¿//V¿/ after 1 22 7) — ^Wolfram the 
minne-singer, was a poor knight of Franconia. He resided for 
the most part in the court of Hermann of Thuringia. His contest 
with Ofterdingen for the poetic prize has been referred to already. 
His chief poems are Parzival and Titurel^ both allegoricaL There 
is a dash of humour in this ancient poet which reminds us of our 
own Chaucer. 

(i) Parzival (cióse of the I2th century). — The object of this lav is to 
show how a man must live in order to render himself worthy of admis- 
sion into paradise. Of course the Román Catholic notion of self-denial, 
penance, and a total abnegation of the world, "are the means which duty urges 
agents of God*s will to use.'* Parzival is the son of a widow, who retired from 
the world, and brought up her son in solitude ; but one day two knights 
encounter him, and propose to take him to the court of King Arthur. His 
mother greatly objects — but at length gives a reluctant consent, provided he 
will go thither dressed in the motley of a Fool. She thought his pride would 
revolt af such indignity, — but no, dressed as a fool he accompanies the two 
knights. On the journey he achieves so many exploits that he is readily 
enroUed among the knights of the Round Table, starts on his adventures, and 
comes to Graalburg, or the city of the Holy Graal, built by the priest-king 
Titural, on Mont-Salvage, in Spain ; but in consequence of some informality, 
he is not allowed to enter. On his return to court, the report of his failure 


having preceded hím, he ¡i veiy coldly icceii-ed ; and ere Itmg the pñesless of 
títaalbu^ enlering, insísts not only on bis eipnlsion írom the sodeCj-, but pven 
on bis dq;Tadalioii hoto knighthood. Diilñnaiiied and disgrac«l Farzivs.1 
resol ves ia good eamest to qiulify himselffaT admissíon into Giaal Castle, and 
s holy beimit undenakes lo instnict him ia Ihe ligbt way. By piayct, ab- 
stÜDcncc, Kir-mottiücmioii, KDd hamility, be renden tünself so saiutly, tbat 
tbe priestesi of Graalbuig comes [o hím iieain, and says he is now wotlhy to 
entei the Holy Gates, and to reiga os king aad príest foi eveí in ibc Celestial 
rily ot Grafllba^. 

TSw e/ aairse is an aUegtry ef man " madt pCTfiCl Ihrougk tvffcñns-"~-Sfc 

VI. Gotthued of Strasburg (i2th century). — Gotlfried 

[Goi-freed], the minne-singer, ís the author of Trisían and Yseult 
E-soilíX This poem forms a complete contrast to that of ParaivaL 
Parzival w-as broughl up in soütude, Tristan in a court ; Parzi^Til 
knevr nothing of the worid, Tristan was initiated into all its vices : 
Parzival was a religious man, Tristan a worldly one ; Parzival lived 
for the Ufe to come, Tristan for the Ufe that now is. So also the 
two poets are ín strong contrast : Wolfram is religious, Gottfried 
secular; Wolftam ¡s grand and often myslic, Gottfried aiiy and 
simple; Wolfram is solemn and moral, Gottfried sensuous and 
lawless. As a poem the latter is the more artistic, and in a literary 
point of view is decidedly the superior. 

Tristan was the nephcw of king Maik of Comwall. Being severely wounded 
while ñgbting for hís uode, he went to Irelond to be cured, snd the prínceu 
Yseult was bis leech, On bis retum to Cornwoll, he gaye surh a glomng 
descríptioa of his fair nuTse, tbat Mark senthim to cravehcc band in moniage, 
aod lo coDducl her to Comwall. On embarkiog, the queen-molber entrusled 
hcr daughtct with a love.phíltte to be given to king Maik oo the day of 
espKiusals; but Ihe young coupie, wbolly ignorant of ÍU untura, diank it 
Ibemselves, and ^om that moment Iheit attachmenC to each olber nu a 
chormed passion. True, Yseult married Matk, but her love fot Tristan knew 
no abatemenl. Maik could not shut his eyes to the guilty love of his nepbew, 
and banished him fiom Comwall; but Yseult eloped wilh him, and they lived 
in CDQcealment in a cavem. Mark tracked them to Iheir biding-place, and 
brought Ibem back ; buC as Tiistan slill conlinaed his attenlions to his sunt, 
king Mark again banisbed him, aod be went to Noimandy, Here he manicd 
a lady of the same ñame, wbo fot distinclion sake is called Yseult with 
the White Iland. 

[Here the poem bteaka ofT, but sequéis have been added by other bands. 
One sequcl saya, Ibat Tristan returned to Comwall, and as he fastened on a 
necklace and was kissing his aunt's neck, Mark stabbed hím in tbe biick aod 
be died. This is tbe stoiy wbicb Teuiyson füllows in bis Idjills cf Ihe King, 
and is tbe most andenl. 

Aaotber sequel is, that Tristan, being wounded in Normandy, sent for his 
aunl, and tole! Ihe messenger, if she consented lo come, to fasten s 
sttcimer to the mast-head, Tbe ship hove in sight, and " White-hand " ^ 

1 a wbíte I 


her husband a black flag was displayed ; on hearing which, he bowed his'liead 
and died. When bis aunt heard of bis deatb she kissed the corpse and died 
also. Mark buríed them botb in one grave, and planted over it a rose-bush 
and a vine. Tbis ending is wbolly inconsistent with tbe cbaracter of the 
cowardly, mean-spiríted, and jealous Mark. 

Other minne-singers ofUss note were : Conrad of Würtzburg ; Ulrick of Luh^ 
tenstein ; andiíadlub, 

^ At the same period were produced four other poems of 
considerable importance, the Alexander-lied [-¡eed], the JVtlfe- 
lungen-liedy the Kudrun^ and the Helden-btuh or Book of Héroes^ 
all of which must be noticed somewhat in detaiL 

I, AlexandeT'lied, — Tbe Alexander-lied by Lambrecbt, a monk, is one of 
the best poems of tbe middle age. It is divided into two parts, one historie, 
and the other mythical. In tbe first part we are told of tbe education of 
Alexander and bis wars. The Persian expedition is very graphicly written : 
the fate of Darius is related with pathos and good taste. 

In tbe second part we see the Macedonian among the Scythians, admiring 
tbeir poverty, their independence of spirit, and tbeir simple manner of life. 
He then goes to the extreme limits of the world, when a resistless desire comes 
over him of seeing Macedón once more. He sends a letter to bis mother, and 
in tbis letter he describes bis adventures, the marvels be has seen, and tbe 
enchanted regions be has visited. Having gone down to tbe infernal regions, 
he purposes to visit paradise, but is told that before be can do so he must cease 
from war, purífy bis soul, and crucify bis body with its aifections and lusts. 

II. The Nibelungen-lied [-lee¿í] is tbe most important poem of the middle 
ages. It is called the ** Germán Iliad," and the tbirty-nine books or lays run to 
about the length of Milton*s Paradise Lost, Nibelung was a mythical king of 
Norway, whose subjects were called Nibelungers, and bis kingdom Nibelungen- 
land. As Nehal means "darkness," tbe Nibelungers were the "children of 
tbe land of mists." 

Tbis grand poem, like the Alexander-lied ^ is divided into two parts. The first 
part contains the marriage of Siegfried and Kremhild, and ends with the 
deatb of the brid^room. The second part contains the marriage of Kremhild 
with Etzel, and ends with the deatb of the bride. 

Tbe hero of tbe first part is Siegfried of Xanton, youngest son of the king 
and queen of tbe Netherlands. After having conquered the Nibelungers and 
carríed ofF tbeir "board," he goes to Worms to solicit in marriage Kremhild, 
the sister of Güntber, king of Burgundy. Tbis journey gives an opportunity of 
informing the king who Siegfried is, of recounting bis exploits, and of making 
US acquainted with tbe previous history of the hero. It is in tbis narrative 
we are informed of the conquest of tbe Nibelungers, of the cloak of invisibility, 
of tbe enormous strengtb of Siegfried equal to that of twelve men, of bis slaying 
a dragón, and of bis having anointed his body with its blood, wbereby be had 
rendered himself invulnerable. i 

Siegfried, on his arrival, was entertained with princely hospitality, and it 
was during bis stay at Worms, that Giinther started for Issland, to ask the 
hand of queen Brunhild in marriage. As tbe conditions were that he must first 
surpass her in hurling a lance, tbrowing a buge stone, and in leaping, Güntber 
induced Siegfried to accompany him with bis cloak, and to assist him in tbese 
feats. Siegfried readily consented, and enabled Güntber to win, in consequence 
of which Brunbild became his wiíe. The proud queen was still so imperious 



that Günther agaia applicd to Ws fricnd for aid ; and Siegfried, invisible fiom 
his doak, look from the hiide her talismán, a m^c ring and a girdle, alici 
which she wss peilecúy submissive ; and Gunther, in retum fbi these seivices, 
allowed Siegfried lo mnrry ihe lady Krenihild, 

Some yeais having passed over, Sit^iied and Kis wift: paid a visil to 
GÜDther, at Womis. Duñng this visit the two kdies fell ouC respecting the 
superior merits oí tbdi busbands; and Kremlüld, in order (o any her paint, 
toíd Brunhild it was by SitEfried's aid that Günther hadwon Ihe contesls, 
and that it wos Siegfried wbo had carried otT hei talismims on the wedding 
night. Brunhild was íurious, vowed vengeance, and employed Hagan lo 
muider Siegfried. Hagan had lenmt from Kfemhild that Siegfried's vulner- 
able point was betwcen Ihe shouldcrs, so dne day on his retum from a hunling 
eipediticn, as he alooped down to drink from a spring. Hagan stabbed him ia 
the back, and killed him. Thus eods the first port, 

The Becond part ibowj that a total change had come over Ihe chaiactei of 
Kremhild since the murdei of her busband. She, wbo before was modest, 
arlless, simple, and conñding, became arrc^ont, darle, plolting, and levengefiíl. 
Het one thought was vengeance, — -ihis wos the end and aim df her eiistcnce, 
The bettcr to accoroplish her object, she marcied Etiel or Atlila, king of Ihe 
Huns, and after a time invited Günther, Brunhild, and H^¡an to visit 
Huügaiy. The king accepted Iba invitation, and went in royal slate, with a 
host of followers. Scarcely had the party orrived, when Kremhild accused 
Hagan of murdering her busband, ana Hagan confessed the deed, The-old 
animositybeíng thuskindled llagan murdered Eliel's young son. Kremhild was 
mad with rage and grief ; she wos like a beariobbed of her wheips, or a tigieis 
of her cubs, She vowed vengeance on Hagan, Bninhild, and o!i the Eur- 
gundians. Slaughter followed slaugbter; and after many a fray. Hagan and 
Giinlher were laken prisoners. Kremhild gloatcd over her victims, she 
chuckled with joy, she was beside herself, and seiiing a sword, cut oS both 
theii faeads. Híldebtand, an oflicer of Ihe Hunnish army, horriñed at Ibis 
inhuman conduct, slew the queen as he would have killed a serpent or nild 
beast, and so cnds the sccond part of this grand cpic* 

in. ?3í Kadnm. — The Kudcun is called the "Germán Odyssey," because 
it ¡3 the second hest epicof Ihe Hohenstaufen school. It is djvided into 
three parts, caUed "The Hagen," "The Hildg," and "The Hedel," from 
the chief characters. 

(1) The Hogen. — Hagen, the aon of Siegeband, king of Ireland, was 
carried off by a griSbn to a desert ¡sle ; but it so happened that three siaters, 
princesses, had been banishcd to the same island, and they took the boy under 
theil cbarge. By conalant encounters with wild beasts, young Hagen grew 
ap manly, stroog, and brave, whíle Ihe inñuence of the three priocesses 
developed in him the element of chivalry, After a time, a shlp happened lo 
louch npon the island, and carried tbem all to Ireland, when Hagen married 
Hildé, the youngesl of Ihe three sislers. 

(2) The Hildl — llUda in due lime had tt daughter, called HildS, 
after her mother, The father doled on his daughler, and could not bear 
the thought ot losing her ; so when any messenger arrived witli pro- 
posals of marriage, he was put lo death. At length Hedel, King of 
Friesland, sent three messengers with proposals of moniage, but instead of 

. Protuhlr Ibn •reí 

»!.•. Ei*-. lo 


addressing the father, they addressed the daughter, and induced her to elope ; 
Hagan pursued and overtook the fugitives, but finally consented to give his 
daugfater in marriage to the suitor. 

(3) The Hedel. — Hedel and Hildé had two children ; a son, named 
Otwin, and a daughter, Kudrun, of most extraordinary beauty, A crowd of 
suitors songht her in marriage, amongst others, Hartmut of Normandy, but 
none of them found favour with King Hedel. At length carne Herwig of 
Fríesland. He carne as an invader with a large army, and to prevent blood- 
shed the king allowed him to address his daughter. Kudrun willingly 
accepted him, but while preparations for her marriage were going on, Hartmut 
came secretly and carried her off. Chase being given, Hedel overtook the 
ravishers ; but as he boarded their ship he was cut down by Ludwig, the 
father of Hartmut. The party at length reached Normandy, but Kudrun 
resolutely refused to marry Hartmut ; whereupon Ludwig, in his wroth, flung 
her from the castle into the sea, from which she was rescued by Hartmut. 
Ludwig and his son being called to the wars, Kudrun was left under the 
charge of Queen Gerlinde (3 syL), a woman of savage disposition and most 
violent temper. She insisteid that Kudrun should consent to accept her son, 
and when she proved restive, knocked her down, dragged her by the hair, 
and.shut her in a dungeon. When released from this durance, Gerlinde 
empioyed her as a slave in the most menial of work. At length her brother 
Otwin and Herwig came to Normandy, and saw Kudrun washing in a river 
the queen's Unen. A very touching scene ensues, most beautifiílly described. 
In order to hoodwink the queen Kudrun promises to marry her son, but 
Otwin and Herwig attack the castle. Ludwig, who has retumed, is slain, and 
as Gerlinde is rushing forward to stab Kudrun, shé is arrested by Watt 
Long-beard, and laid dead at his feet. Kudrun now retums home, marries 
Herwig, and the poem ends. 

IV. 77ie Heldenbuch or Book of Héroes (i3th cent.) — The literary valué of 
the Heldenbuch is very small. It consists of several tales, the best compilation 
being that by Gaspar Vander Roen \ruhn\, The exploits are the usual 
encounters with giants and dragons, and the perpetual recurrence of the same 
adventures, varied like the changes of a chime of bells, is most tedious. 
Those who can read with pleasure The Seven Champions of Christendom may 
enjoy a similar treat over the Germán Book of Héroes. 


At the same period were conceived and put in hand some of the fínest 
cathedrals of the world ; as, for example, that of Strasburg,* begun in 1015, 
the spire of which (466 ft.) is one of the highest in Europa, and is wholly 
unequalled in grace and symmetry. Cologne cathedral was founded in 1248, 
but was not finished till the year 1880, when its completion was celebrated with 
great pomp, the emperor of Germany being present on the occasion. Its spire 
(525 ft.) is the highest in the world. This sublime conception in stone, with 
its numberless and exquisite carvings, shows a ripeness of art which could 
belong only to a people far advanced in civilisation. The superb spires of 
Vienna and Ulm, and the cathedrals of Magdeburg, Spire, and Fribui^, 
belong to the same period. 

* Strasburg Cathedral, begun 10x5, completed 1276. The spire was begun 1277, and finished 1439, 




Añer [he death of Koniad IV. and WiHiara of Hollind, the c 
GeiiDimjr went begging ; none of the gieal dukes would accepl il. Th^ 
prefccced the solíd advanlages of their own duchiea to the ungnicious hononT 
of being called kaiser, While ihe monnrchy U lying shipwrcckcd, it wiil be 
a fnvDurable moment for taking n glance at the greal feudaloríes of Gennany. 
Tbey were ñve in numbei : the duke of Saxocy, the duke of Bavaría, the 
duke of Suabia, tbe duke of Franconia, snd Ihe duke of Lolhaiiagia oí 

I, TAe duie itf Saxony at one time held moie than half Getmany. His 
possessiom included HoUtein in Detimark, and (taking the river Elbe as an 
eastem boundary) iin aouthwnrd tUl they embraced the duchy of Bavaria, 
Eut and West they extended along the sea-boaid of the Baltic, from Rusaa 
la ihe Zuyder Zee. ThÍE was a monstrous ove^own dependeacy, which 
bappüy did not long exisl, and was in some meaauíe due tu accident, thus : — 
Lottiár, duke of Saxony, being chosen kaiser, (¡ave bis ducby to his son-in-law 
Ilenn' the Pioud, who was, at Ihe time, duke of Bavaría, and hetd Hallaná 
and Tuacany in ri{>ht of his wife. This haughty magnate lefuíing ta pay 
homage to Konrod III., wa» at once deprived of all his possessions hcld 
undei the crown. One itroke nf the pen reduced hÍ9 ducby to Holland and 
Tuscany, oveí which Gcnnany had no lordship. Bavaría was again made a 
sepárate duch}'; the principal bishops of Northern Gennany took West- 

Íhalia and Oldenburg ; Meckleobuig and Holstein became independcnt ; and 
huríngia was ^ven to Ihe landgraf Ludwig. Fcedcríck Barbaro&sa did 
something for Henry the Lion, son of Henry the Proud, by giving him 
Brunswick and Lunebui^, bul the nnwieldly duchy was hopelcssly analomised, 
and at the death of kaiser Xonrad IV. consisted of what is now called 
Prusaian Saxony, wilh some small poitioos of Brandenburg and Fomerania. 
The Chief dty was Wittenberg. 

/« líil Ihe dtíchy of Saxony vías agaia reduced by the separaíion qf Anhait 
ai a separatí priacipmity, 

In I2ib Ijibeck, ence tht capital ef the duchy, vías diclaríd frre by kaiser 
Fredcrick I!, 

la ¡260 the duchy ■was diviáed into twa portions, ene callea Saxe-Latienburg, 
aad the olher Saxe- Wittenberg, Ta the latter was attached the electorial 
dignily. Part of Saxony naw belongs to the ÜKgdom 0/ Pussia. 

II. 73í liuke of £avaria. — Bavaiin, a conupt foim of the Latín Boi-aria, 
the country of the Boii, a Cellic race, was colonised some Soo years before the 
birth of Christ. The eountry was conqueted by Chailemagne, and at the 
partition of his kingdom was settled, by Ihe treaty of Verdun, on Ludwig 
suinamed the "Geiroan."* In 1070 it passed to the Guclfs, and continued in 
that family 1 10 "years, when (shom of Carínthia, Austria, and Styría] it was 
transferred by imperial grant to Otto, count of Wittiesbach. Iq 1803 Napo- 
león 1. erected the duchy into a kingdom, and adescendanl of 'Witlleibach slill 
occupies tho throne. The original capital was Ratisbon ¡ bul in 1 183 
Ratisbon was raade a free city, and Munich became the Bavarinn capital, 

'.* In the Franco-Germán war Bavnria sided with Piussia ; but Saxony, 
which lefused lo juin, lost its individualily and was addeá to the kingdom of 
Prusao. (1S70-71.) 

ijth cfuLl 



III. Thí dfiíe e/StiaUa.—Saah'íA, i comipüon of Siievia, the COunlrV 
Ihe Suevi, lay between Ihe Rhine and the Lech, reachíng north to the Bla 
íbrest, and induding Zurich in the south. In Fact, ít was what is now called 
Wiiitemberg, with paita of Bavaria and Switzeiland. The followmg towna 
weie in the oEd duchy of Suabia : (b^nnii^ north) Esgenlingen and Noidlinget ; 
Tubingen and Ulm (olí in Wurlembcig) ; AugsbUTg in modem SuaDÜi t 
Alsace ; Constance nnd Zurich (in Switn:rland ). 

In 918 Suabia was acknowledged as a ducby of the empire, and after 
changing hands several times, was (in 1080) bestowed on count Fredcrick of 
Hohenstaufen [j/du^'h]. Under this ¡üustituus house, it became the most 
weaithy, palished, and civilised portion of Germany, and was especiaUy 
femous fbr being the ducal court of the minse-singets. 

With the House of Mohenslaufen it r]ipid1y declincd, and giadually Ihe 
ñame of WÜFtemberg overrode that of Suabia, Díssenaions between Ihe 
locdships of Würtemburg nnd Badén led (in 1376) to Ihe first Suabian llague, 
oppoEed to ihe ¡'i'goí ^ Marbach fotmed between Würtemberg, Badén, and 
seventeen lowns. The Suabians took the side of the Swiss in Ihe wai of 
independence, and the other league that of the Auslcíans ; but ultimately Ibe 
count of Würtcmberg joined the Suabisns, nnd Ihus fonned (ín 1449) the 
Grtaí Suabian Leagat. 

¡S'S. Suabia becamt ene of the ten areles of Germany. 

•,• iWjiu no remaini ef iis fiíriner greatness ixist, and lahat is tcmtttt 
Suabia ii an üuignijkant fortioit ef the Germán ímpire. 

IV, Thí áuke of FntMonta.—'nis ñame of Ftanconia was givcn to a lurgB 
district of Germany lying noclh and south of the river Main, originiUlj 
peopled by the Franks. In the eorly part of the empire, this province 


ia 913 Konrad I. count or duke of Ftanconia, succeeded the Cario- 
vingians, The house gave at that lime only one soveieign, but on the 
extinction of the SsJioa dynasty, it was re-etected in the person of Konrad 
11., audaupplied Henry III., Heory IV.,andHeQry V. Thehouse of Hohen- 
staufen was also ai branch of Ihe same poweríul line. 

In this period, Fianconia greallj incieased in extent and impoitance ; and 
its sptrítufd príncipalities of Mainz [Mytue^ Worms, and Spire (west of Ihe 
Rhine), with WüMbn^ ¡rast of that river), acquired both wrájlh and political 
inñucnce. Its other chief towns wcre Fulda (in Hessen-Cossel), Bamburg, 
and Nlirnburg. 

At the clase of Ihe Hohenalanfen dynasty, Franconia, like Suabia, rapidlf _ 
dediaed. It now forms part of the kingdom of Bavaiia. J 

V. T/ie áuke ef Lotkaringia or Lorraine. — Lothaiingia, or the kingdom rf-J 
Lothár, induded the south of Holland, all Belgium, and the norlh-east comer 
of Fiancet cut ofT by the river Meuse. In 1044 tliis vast district was dirided 
into Lowcr and Upper Lorratne, the former being the part which now bdonga 
to Holland, and the Upper all the rest. The dukes of Lower Lothiirijigia 
were generaliy called Ibe dakes of Brabant. 

1[ lite GermoH anpire at iMs feriod contained six arckhiskaps, thirty-seven 
hishops, scvettly aibeti, abiesses, &v., altagether iij «xlesiastical magnates. 

Of lay primes it kad one ¿ing, six diiies, thirly caunls, and lixty imperial 
AUogttktr nineiy-seven lay eslates. 



Il would he quite imponible, withcut a recc^ition of the ínstítutícñi c 
cllivalry, lo form any correct notíon of the stale of society in the middle age&. 
Knigbthood wob the one ambilion of Ihe gentrj, and its [equiremenls formed 
the educalion, gave Ihe bias, and diiected the moial and social lone oí sociely. 

The crusades gave lo chivalíy a peculiar importance, beeause those who 
emboiked in [hese wais fancied Üiej were doing God service, and flattereti 
themselves ihat they weie the soldiers and champions of God aod of hisChiist. 
This gave to the profession of anna an enthusiasni, a fanatidsm, a halo oí 
living martyrdom eaaly won and rcodily conceded. 

Eveiy youth of centle blocxl was r<¿ularly tiained ta Icnightliood hy being 
domesticalcd fiom ue age of seven ¡a the castle of some knight, (o serve in the 
capacitjr. of psE^. His duty st this teoder age was chiefly lo wail upon the 
ladies of the famity. He was laugbt, from the first, to honoui God, to levetence 
iromen, lo obey promptly, and to respcct the chrístían religÍDn. 

At Ihe age of iímrteen the page was advanced to the rank of sqiüre, and his 
duty tben was lo attcnd on the kníghc at all times, whether at borne or abrood, 
In Ule chase or the banquet, in the toumament or the baltle-íield. To coveí 
him will) s buckJer and defend him with a sword. Every squire was accoanted 
a gentieman, and as such was privileged 10 bear anns on his sbield. In his 
escutcheon, the helmet which surmountcd the shield was alw^placed sideways 
with Ihe vizor down. Squires had sworde, but no belt ; and iheir spuis were 

At the age of twenly-one the squire become a belted knight, and changed bis 
silver spuis for gilt oí goldcn ones. He was called Sir and his wífe Madam. 
He was allowed to cany a Spear, to weai niail annour, to hojst a flag on his 
ca£tle-keep, to take pait in any toumament, lo be attended by a squire, and to 
confcr Ihe honour of knighthood upon others. 

This was the education of the period. Book-leBtning wns for the most pait 
telegated to ecclesiastics ; and not a few churchnien were wholly unable to wiite or 
read. Fages and squires were taught to dance and £Íng, to play on the lute and 
harp, to hawk and hiuit, to lide aud fish, but theii great ae%bt was the tilt- 
yard, whcre they strove with each olher in Itnightly exercises. 

It was an advance, no doubt, on the barbarism of the preceding period, but 
:n time the knight! became arroganl and excluáve, tyranoical and overbeaiing, 
money-gioüping and sdf-íodulgent, moat dogurnticál and mo^t intolerattt. 


At one time the entíre population of Gennany was divided into 
the eentry and the common people; but wilh the tise of chivalry aróse a 
middle ciass, that of metchants and tradesmen. Knights ond nobles lived ia 
isolated caatles, but metchants and tradesmen in towns. 

Ere the dynasty of the Hohenstaufens \stmi-fns\ had come to a cióse, there 
were many towns of Gtrmany of great politícal importance from their wealih 
and numericil streagth, The crusades, which gave glory to the order of 
knJehthood, gave wealth and inüuence to the merchant class. War with all its 
erihisgoodfor trade: large armiea have lo be equipped.enormous stores tobe 
provided, and many wants are created which must be supplied. Besides all 
Ihese Eources of Irade, the crusades opened up new countries, inlroduced ncw | 
anieles of bailcr, and new marts ; so Ihat líiese lioly Wars, which íi 




□ civiliw ^^H 

ed lo the ^^ 
íes, were I 

effect the object for which they were set on fool, neverlhdess helped tn 
the nation, and to mse the great towns tu political and soci 

According to feudal Inw, towns {like olí the real oflhe soil) pertoined 
feudal lords ; aaá the inbabitants, ti^ethel wilh their shops and houses, 
the property of thcse lords ¡ but when a town increosed in wealth and popn- 
lo-tion iC was geneíally charteied, and fotthwith bad íts own magistiates, its 
own guUds, its own pólice, ila own militia, and its own hye-laws. The bailiff 
or stewaid pievicusly sppointed to look sTter Ihe Ínteres! of the feudal loíd, 
and to collect his dues, was supeiseded by crown oí civie ofRceis ; and the people 
who were vassals to some duke oí barón, become subjects of the ctown, recng- 
nising the supremacy of the monaich, but niUng themselves by theii own 

Both towns and Hngs had one common enemy in the barons, and tbereTore 
sided togethcr in all baronial contests. The towns strengthened the hands of 
monarehs, and kii^ elevated towns by giants and royal chaiteis. Havtng 
thu5 become a Ihird power of the state, the time could not be far off when they 
would be adniitted os a thitd coUege in the great national Diet or Assembiy. 



; a gteat impulse to tinde, 1 
pouce anangemenis oí ijcrmany were still so defeclive that the c 
swarmed with pirales and highwaymen ; while the extortiona and lapacily of 
Ihe baions acted lil;c a hlighl upan commercial enterpiise. 

As far bnck as the clevenlh ceotury, Hamburg, Breiaen, and Liibeck, 
combined tt^ethei in mutual defence ; but in 1241 was tet on fout the famoua 
Ilanseatic League.* Il began with the Ihree cities of Hambure, Brunswicl^- 
and Lübeck, bnt rapidly increased, and ultimately contdned all the chief com- 
mercial cities between Holland and LivDiliatolhenuniberof eighty-five. These 
cittes were divided into foui circles, the head centres of which were Lübeck, 
Coteje, Bninswick, and Dantiig. A Diet was held every three yeacs fot 
general purposes, and an esitraordinaty one every tenth yeat for renewing the 
unions. The edicts pasaed at these Diets were communicated lo Ihe head 
centres, and were by them transmitled to the severa! guilds within iheit 

This leaguewas the first systematic trade-union in Europe. It altai 
cnormous political power, and its good infiuence on trade, agriculture, 
civilisation, can hardly be ovei-rated. For inimy years it was the undisputi 
mislress of Ihe Baltic Sea and Germán Ocean ; the cieatest poweis dreaded ' 
hoslility, and every commercial nation sought its alliance. 

In the fifteenlh century jl rcached its culminating point, snd then giadunlly 
decllned, because it failcd to keep pace with the times. In 159S it carne íntu 
colusión with Englaod ; in 1630 the majority of its cities formally tenounced 
their alliance. 


The crusades had anotlier beneficial effecl — the liberatíon of the serfs. 
one time the large mass of the people were serfs, who worked without h 
and were looked upon as human cattie : some might be sold from hand tr ' 
but others were attached to the soil like its tiees and buildiugs, 




id ^^ 




By a hríeí of Üie pope, every slave who took part En a cmsnde was free, and 
thousands upton thou»inds of them oblained Iheir libetly by this means. In 

" " " a lord, when he slarted foi the Holy Land, voluntarily sel hís serfs 

iree ; in oiherí, they deserted during the loog absence of iheir lords ; and in 
not a few the mastec nevet retumed. 

If serfs Bought refuge in a large city, no biiliCf or barón would líare to lay 
haDds on Ihem. They were utider the protection of ihe city, and anjaltempl 
st forcé would have béen reseuted Dot oóly by the city ítself, but by the whole 
lei^ue of whiuh it was a part. 

1 1 was not absoln telyneedful to dwell within thewalU lo be accounted a denizen 

theceof ; Iheic weie the eitia-mural, &s well as the intra-miiral, butghers. It wos 

requisile foi those who tillcd the Goil to be ex Ira -mu tal, but it made no differ- 

e to their rlght of protection whether one lived within oí without the gates, 

so íong as he was within the jurisdiction of the town. 

Thus Eerfdom was broken-in upoi;, and maay toiters of the soil becanie a 
fiee peasantiy. Expeiience soun showed that free labour was Ihemoieproütable, 
and before the cióse of the thirteetith century the great mass of Germán peasants 
had beCDmc frcc and independent. 


.0 one EyaCcm of law in use over all Germany in Ihe Middie A^es 

iwn diatricl, aecording to local 

The princes administered justice, each ii 
cuslotns and tiaditions. 

SachsEN-spiegel. — Between IZ15 and 121S, a Saxon noble compiled the 
local luws of Saxony inlo a digest, whích he cslled the Saxon A/irrar 
{Sachsea-iplegel); and in the 6fleenlh century, thia digest had the same 
autharíty m Germany as the Common Law has in ouc own coonlry,* 

Vehm-GERICHT. — In Westphalia there waa a veiy remarkable tribunal, 
callcd the Vekm-Ceñcht or " Secret Tribunal." Its judges and oflicers were 
alt inuffled, its summonses were delivered in secret, and evety one connecled 
¥ñlh Ihe tribunal was swora to secrecy. This mysteríons institution excrted a 
wholesoine testraint on the lawless baions, fot an ofTender niight at any 
moment be dra^ed blindfold before the judges, and hung on Ihc fiíst tree 
in obedience to their sentence. 

The Holy Vehm, Lke the Holy Inqiiisition, waa no ángle conrt, but a 
sociely which could hold a court in any place within the Red Land, It 
was at Ihe summit of its power in the fourteenth and üfleenth centuries, but 
towards Ihe clase of the lattei period it rapidly declined ; and tn its decline 
it was disgraced by many deeds of prívate nmlice, persona! envy, or the mece 
lust of greed. 

Originally its courts were held in open day under some tree, but in its 
degenetate days ¡t had inidniglit Bessions in secret cbambeis or caverna 
underground. The district ovet which it held jurisdiction was called the 
" Red Land," the place where a court was convened a " Free-bench" (Jrñ- 
Jlukl), the court itself a "Free Ses5Íon" (frei-din^, the judges were " Free- 
grafs " (if of noble rank), and " Free Burghera " (if olhetwise). The inftxior 
ofRceis, such as the crier, ushers, sergeants, doorkecpers, and so on, were 
called " oflicials " (líAíjí/™), The emperor waa íj ^Erin " Grand Master," 
and the atchbishop of Cologne, as lord of the land, was president. None but 
freenien and those born in wedlock could hold any office in the Vehm, and 
evety membcr was swom to secrecy : what was done in the tribunal, who 


belonged to it, and who was biought before il, were profounil secrels, 
to be divulged la wífe oí child, father oí mothei, fiiend oí confeasoí — 
be told In woids, oí eipieased in wiiting, or siEnified by symbols, or dressed 
in parable, or hinted at by úgn, or communicated by look," if Ihe pelson 
sworn lo secrecy " would slecp in an iinbloody grave." 

A court bcing assembled, a coil of lope and a nalted aword were placed on 
the aliar before [he president. The rope signified Ihe mode of death which 
awaited Ihe nccused ; and the Eword, which formed a cross wilh ils handle, 
«ymbolUed the christian failh of ihe tribunal. 

The president sat on a black stool iust bchind the altar, Ihe Fiee-gtaís 
occupied a black bench immcdialety bchind the piesidcnl, sod the Free 
Buighers aoothet behind the nobles. The naher haviog cried " Silence 1 " 
three times, the president, with hls hand upon the rope and sword, pro- 
naunced the following forní of words, which the judges and ofücials lepeated 
aftei him ; " I Ewear by the Holy Trinity and the Foui Evangelists lo uphold 
the Sacrcd Vehm, and to defend ita fudgments against father and mother, 
wife and children, brother and siater, fire and water, carth and air, olí that Ihe 
auQ shines on, alí that the dcw moistens, al! who dwell on the eaith, and all 
who occupy the gieat deep. I swear lo give Ihe Sacred Vehin ¡nforaiatíon of 
b11 that I know, all that I believe lo be Irae, and all that I hear repealed by 
credible witnesses which alfect i(s inteiest or may aid its judgmenls. I swear 
to conceal nothing, to extenúate nothing, to exaggeiale nothing, oul of love, 
afTeclion, or friendship, ot for aoy consideration whalsovet of houscs or 
lands, gold, silvcr, oí precious stones. I swear ncvel to associate wilh 
any one under the sentcnce of this couit ; never to hint to a culpiit hís danger 
of arrest, never to advisc him lo flight, noi to ajd him directly or indirectly 
to evade the snmmons or senlence of the conrt. I swear never to succour 
any one accused or convicled wilh fire or watei, food or clolhing, shelter or 
concealment ; never to give him a cup of water to allay bis Ihiist, noi invite 
hini lo a Ríe in the cold, ñor give him sheitcr from the stotiD. So help me 
God and the Holy Evangelists," 

Afleí this oath had been duly repealed, the presidcnl commanded " the 

child of the cord " lo be brought forth, and six of the utücials dragged him, 

"bound and helpless," to the foot of the altar. Inatantly every member of 

the court unsheathed hia da^cr, and the ^cuaed was unbound to stand his 


H" "Speak, accuseí," said the president; "speak lo the foar quarlers of 

■ Jieaven, lo the free judges heie assembled, and make good the cha^e brought 

Pigainst Ihe prisoner." If, aftcr Ihe charge, the accnsed couid justif)' himself, 

he was bound to secrecy and acquitled ; if not, the president said to him : 

" Prisonei, I now deprive you of liberty, divest you of all honouii, and put 

you lo Ihe ban of the empire. I foibid you Ihe fuur elemenls, and pronounce 

you oullawed. I devote your neck to the rope, your body to the birds of 

prey, and may Cod have mercy on your soul. Officers, do your duly." 

Whereupon Ihe prísonei was takeo from the couit, and hanged on the first tiee. 

If any one refmed to obey a summons, or lesísted an arrest, or cscaped 

}m the hands of Ihe otücials, he was at once Hven ovcr to death, and it wai 

c bounden duty of eveiy member of Ihe tribunal lo seek his death ¡ buC 

Jfhocver killcd him had lo leave a knife wilh the eoipse, lo show paasets-by 

" " "' lan had met wilh his dealh by judicial senlence, and not by murdcr. 

usBtion had to be made in the Red Lond, and the accused could be 

d nowhere else.' 

<a I 


^V 104 



^^H The mind of a new peopk &cems to giow in koawledge likc the roind oí 

^^H chitdren in civilised slates. In infancy very litlle intelligence is (lisplayed ; in 

^^H early youth [he imagiaalion outruns Ihe judgmeDl ; then is ít thaC tbe body 

^^V lequicea conatont acüvity, imagioidan is rampant, Hnd Ifae dawning mind 

^^^ delights iu Ihe marvdlous : ghosts and spirils, giants and dwarfs, miracles and 

wonders, nolhing is inciedible, no incondstency is too extiavacant. This Íe 

[he age oF muscular aclivity, of selfishness, of cruelty and misdiief^ heedleas- 

nesa and boistecous animal spárits, yet is it also the age of credulity and 

icligious fetvout, chnrity ond giving, The literaiy taste is not for bistoiic 

facls, moial [eaching, or logical eioctitude, but fur tales of wondei, romance, 

and daiing ; quips and cranks are preferred lo sober ac^menl, and the suipiise 

of a liddle is preferred to the alaw and gradual piocess of demonEtiation. 

Such was the intelleclual period of Germany in the thirleenth ceotnry. 
The mind of the people was just opening, the people weie beginning to 
rejoice ia their strength, and to long fai adventuie. It was the age of 
romance, the age of daiing, the restless, careless age of young lifc. Henee the 
crusades ¡ henee the lovc of biigandage ¡ henee the heedless cruelty, the over- 
weenÍDg seltishueis, the recUIess liberality ; henee too the crcdulityand love of 
the marvellous. Nolhing was too eitiavagant, tooincoodstent, looabsurd; and 
the literalure consisted of tales of romance, quibbling on words, metaphysical 
fandes, and iili^ic^l imaginings, more Iban of sobec iiLcts and togicai truths. 

Take, for example, the gteat question of the day, which gave rise to the two 
Iheological parties ¿dled Ibe Realists and Nominalists. Plato, the Greek 
philosophcr, had said that wben God created the world, he must have formed 
an lüa of wbal he inlended to créate, befare he called it luto beíng, This 
ii/ea he compared to a mould which models wbat is put into it according to 
its shape, or to a seal which impresses soft wax «ñth its own intaglio. The 
iiüaoí deity, according to Plato, was a rva/ something ; it wat a mould, a seal; 
it was thal which stereotyped airynothingness with ÍL5 íbrm andfashion; itwas 
the matrix of the divine will. Such was Ptato's nolion, and this fancy 
(ransferred to christian divinity, gave rise to the party called Renlists, that is, 
the party who believed the ii/ca oí cteation was a real somethíng which 
moulded all things inlo their ptesent shapeí. Aristotle, another Greek 
philusopher, disagrced with Flato, and thought the divine id/a was símply a 
thought, a visión of the mind, and when God soid let there be this or that, it 
was not the idea which was photcfjraphed, hut each article spcang ¡oto form 
and fashion in obcdience to the creative word. God named Ihe article, and it 
was — he spoke, and it was done — he commanded, and it stood forth. This 
party, therefore, called thetnselves Nominalists in opposition to the Rea- 
lista. The fotmer were the dlsciples of Aristotle, the latter of Plato, and 
more volumes — ^huge pondecous folio volumes — -were written on this subject, 
than on any other which ever provoked a war of words bcfore or anee. Of 
all divinity the scholastic was the most puerile and mast profitless; it was 
mud-pie divinity, as wortbless and as frsgile as the architectural labouis of 
childrea on the sea-shoce. Of all literalure the juggling with words is the 
most tedious. Of all books this school divinity is the most profitless. 

Concurrent with thia knight-ettantty of ihe schoolmen, were the wonder- 
workers and theological romancers. It was customary for the monks to be 
read to at ineals, just as Charlemagne was, bul inslcad of some standard book, 
the reader preferred novelty, and nol unfrequenlly amused his audience with 
— e healhen tale or scripture iacident adapted to chriatiaa t; " 



lence wito . 



especiollj mnusing lo these childcen o! manly growth lo pl^ce some soint m 
a ptedicament frora which there seemed no escape, and then lo deliver hím by 
a mirade. Il was Ihought Ihat the greater the difficully and Ihe more 
astoondiog the míracle, the more it redounded to the glory of God. Thcy 
gnagniñed God by making Hin the machine to extrícate Ihcir héroes when 
there was none else to deliver them. Henee the mitacles o&cribed to saínts, 
their lives of wonder, Iheir morvellous advcntuces. 

SI. Paul lells US that "God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to 
conlbund the wise ; imd .... Ihe weak tbings of the world lo con- 
found the Ihings which ate mighty ; and base things of the world, and things 
which are despised .... and things which ate nol, to bríng to nought 
things that ate ¡ that no flesh should glory in his presence." This was a 
bvoarite text : it gave coloiii to all soits ol ttdtacles, and maay an adventuie 
was undertaken in a fatse relíance on this sctipture. We need hete oniy 
mention the crusade of Peter the Penniless, ot that of Ihe childien, which 
pethaps was more foolish still. If God chose the weak things of the wurld 
to confound the mighty, then might he choose an aimy of childten to bri(^ 
to naught the great Saracenic powet ; if he chose things despised as his 
Instruments "thal no fiesh might glory," then might he choose women and 
vagiants to delivet Jeiusalem fiom the hands of the infidel. 

Divinity was all in all in the Ihirteenth centuty. Not the divinity of the 
Bible, but the divinitj of the Bible intetpreted by the eccle&iasdcs of the 
period. The divinity which magnified the church by mulliplying the inter- 
ferences of deity with Ihe laws of nature, and made the ministers of religión 
fellow-wotkers with God — nol fellow-workeis to do his biddíng, but eommis- 
sionets and plenipotentaríes, with supethuman wisdom, and miraculous poweis, 
if needs be, to carty ¡nio effect whal they considered would add to the glory 
of Ihe church. 

In schools, divinity was the one study — that is, every branch of leaming wob 
dipped in thnl vat. Lnwwas l^al divinity; leech-ciaft, medical divinity ; the 
atls were sdentiñc divinity ¡ mathemalics, mágica) divinily ; asltonomy was 
astiological divinity ; and wilhout divinity there was no learníng. 

Law was not trying offenders by evidence but by appcals lo God. The 
plainliff and defendant were pítted ti^ther, and judged guilty ot not 
according to theit snccess in a combat oí ttiol of endnrance. God was asked 
to defend the xight, and he who prevailed was proclaimed by God to be 
innocent. Oí the accused was subjecled lo some otdeal; to walk btindfold 
and baie-foot amongst led-hot ploughshares, oí to Ihrust his naked arm u^ to 
the shouldcT in scaldíng hot water, ot bound hand and foot to be lossed uto 
a livet ; if he escaped unharmcd, it was manifeslly by miracle, and no one 
could do such miracles except God wete with hiin. 

So in medicine, it was not so much by the administration of drogs, os by 
the miíaculous eSects of cbarms and amuléis, pilgrímages, vidling Ihe lombs 
of sainls, louching some boly lelics, inletcession ot penance, that the sick 
wete to be lestored. God was ci^ected lo give health when he was appealed 
to, fot ibe "Lord killeth and makelh alive ; he bringeth down to Ihe gtave 
and btingelh up. . . he will keep the feet of bis sainls . , and by 
Ettength shall no man prevail," 

"Jor was it otberwise in science, whete magic and aslrology wete mainly 
I lehed on, Such is a píclute of Ihe intellectual slalc of Germany in the 
1 ttiitteenth centoty, It was a ptogteas, no doubl, from the pteiious petiod, 
I bul it was al present the purposeless activily and ctnde wisdom oC a child, not 
L ihe Eleady inuustiy and sober maltet-of-fact wisdom of experieüced manhood. 




lí Ymk, «SS-.1T3. 
CsiUmfaram viilli Hnrí III. ef Enelaná. 

The Hohcnstaufcn Une had gone out miserably. The boy 
Konradin, a bright brave lad of sixteen, the last represenCative oí 
the Une, became the pope's captive and períshed on the scaffold, 
"throwmg down his glove in protest or defiance" (ia68). The 
poet Dante was present at the execution : he was a little boy then, 
not above three years oíd. It was a sad añair, and brought about 
the "Sicilian Vespers,"forthe pope took itupon himselfto appoint 
a Frenchman, Charles d'Anjou, to the kingdom of Sicily. 

Gerraans, Siciliana, pope, and etnpire, being all at loggerheads 
with ene another, no kaiser was appointed, but ihree nominal kaísera 
were elected at the same time, and this period of anarchy Js called 
the interregnum, 

The three nominal kaisers were William of HoUand, Alfonso of 
Castile, and Richard duke of ComwalL William, a rough fellow, 
was the pope's protege, the pope even supplying him with money, 
tiU the Hollander períshed in the Dutch bogs, horse and man too. 

Alfonso kitig of Castile, was surnamed the "Wise," from his 
knowledge of astronomy. He said of Ptolemy's system, that " the 
world seemed but a crank machine, and it was a great pity Ptolemy 
had not been consulted before it was turned off." He was wise 
enough to stay at home ; and, except that he wore the title of 
kaiser,concernedhimsetfverylittle with the Holy Román Empira A 
clerk or two at Toledo díd all the official writing that was required. 

The third nominal kaiser was Richard duke of Coniwall, 
brother of Henry III, king of England, and cousin of Otto duke 
of Brunswick. Richard was a younger son of John Lackland, 
and not much wiser than his foolish father and foolish brother. 
He had however plenty of money from his Comish mines, and 
was liberal with it. The tales told of liis prodigality and pomp are 
fit forthe fabulous princes of the AraUan Nights Entertainmenls. 
We are told that he entered Aix-la-Ch apelle at his coronation in 
thirty-two state carriages, each. drawn by eight horses, and that he 
distributed in gifts " three hogsheads of gold and silver pieces." * 


ignored in the English court, and he died iii i 

This period of the ¡nterregnunj vas one of the darkest ¡n the I 
annals of Germany. There were keepers enough of the sheep, but I 
nene to keep the keepers, so robbery and outrage were the order 
of the day. Princes with barons, barons with knights, and knights 
with burghers, were at daggers drawn. Each was an Ishmael, 
whose " hand was against every man, and every man's hand against 
him." Robber barons robbed allwho had anything worth stealing, 
a.ndsnatchedupeverythingtheycouldlay handson, housesorlands, 
no matter, — prindpalities or powers, sheep or oxen, merchandise 
or njoney. "The heart of the people was but for covelousness, 
and for oppression, and for violence, to do ¡t The princes of 
the land were rebelHous, and the companions ofthieves." 

HappÜy this midnight darkness was broken into by one of the 
greatest of the Germán kaisers. One well worthy to take his place 
with Henry the Fowler, Otto the Great, and Frederick of ihe Re^ 


FiioH .173 TO 1437- 

GÍ™-.. IdnB». 




; AuoLí of Ñauan ; Albíbt 





FuBDEHicic III. the Handso 




. lllt 


esj or ín. 

•■ Kltaim," r 


1»; imd S 

IGHLMI maigraí of EraodcDb 



IB Romans (Le. king ciccl} lí 

Díed 41 Germenhcii 


Falhrr, Alben Iho WÍK, c 

dicd in PalcHiDc 1140. 

W¡vi¡l.i) GEitrudE, countt 

Ckildm (i) Albcrt, who a 
dnughlíT of Meinhord 
dL^Uchu! from 13ohenjü] 


of Hohenberg, danghter 
abelb o( Burguady, mvriE 
: Ihe duii 

uidf and Eondgnf oT AJ 

r Mnnhsrd of the Tyml, n 

'fÍÉtorr ófl 


lint of Tyrol, i: . 

(1) Küdi^r. to wboD hi> fin 

lad lii daughtert : Míthild., , 

of Surdny : HedcTÍe, ihc margraf flf Bnridenbuig (all hel 
«Kolai rV. king Df BohEmis ¡n iiBg; aemcnllna man., 
jmd KuhuüiB mjirried Ludwi^ dukc < 


¡¡.Lifíí/R-dol/: AJbm 


Ylenni, [n which Otiokar mjt defeaUíl ai 
of Rudolf. 

ALbert " kiug oí the Ronuns " or hdi pnsumptivc of lb< 

The anarchy ¡n the central parts of Germany reached its height 
The people, aÜve to the deplorable state of affairs, attributed it to 
the want of a ruler lo keep the nobles in check and maintain 
obedience to the laws. The barons were by no means desirous 
of giving up thcir brigandage ; and probably would have made no 
change, ¡f the pope had nol ¡ntorfered. He insisted on the 
appointment of a king, and gave out that he would himself appoinC 
one, if the electors refused to do so. 

At last Wemer, archbishop of Mainz [Mfnfí], induced the 
seven electora* to make cholee of Rudolf of Habsburg, Rudolf 
was too poor to excite the jealousy of the nobles, but being heir 
of one of the oldeat lordships in Suabia and of the gray Hawk- 
castle called Habsburg, he commanded their respecL 

Rudolf is first seen in history in the train of Ottokar, ting of 
Bohemia, whom (in 1354) he followed in a crusade against the 
pagans of northem Germany. The Bohemian thought him 
" hardy and modest, stout of heart, and fairly wise." 

Bornon May-day, 1218, Rudolf had reached thefifty-sixthyearof 
bis age when he was called to the throne of Germany. He had 
¡ong cast oír the wildness of youth, and had shown the stability 
and judgment of matiue manhood. 

Character and Likeness. — Rudolf is described as a tough 
steel-gray warrior, of strong character and firm grasp of hand. 
Honest, vigorous in intellect, God-fearing, and of the simplest 
habits. He had been much tried, and, as he had a thorough 
knowledge of man and was wise in the ways of the world, he was 
much respected, and had the confidence of all who knew h¡m, 
from the highest to the lowest In person he was above six 
feet high. His nose was large and arched ; bis figure sienderj his 
head bald on the scalp, but at the sides the long hair fell strajght 
to his shoulders and then c^urled. He had neither beard, mous- 
taches, ñor whiskere. His complexión was palé, his countenance 
grave and thoughtful, his temper cheerful, his manners urbanc, 
and his deportment dignified. 



E-imoLF AND THE Church. — Rudolf was always supported 
the chuich, to which he was profoundly sübmiss¡v& 1'here is 
tradition, that one day a poor priest was taking the holy elementa 
to a dying man, and came to a brook swoUen by recent ratns. 
Rudoif happened to come up at the time, and dismounting, placed 
his horse at the disposal of the priest to carry hitn across the 
brook. When the man of God had reached the other side, and 
was about to retum the steed to its owner, Rudoif begged him 
to accept it as a gift: "Father"said he, "takc it. I am not 
worthy to use it now, seeing it has been consecratcd to the service 

This priest was subsequently chaplain to Wemer, the archbishop, 
■whora he determined to win over to the interests of RudolE This, 
however, was not needftil, for Werner was his friend already. In 
1260, the prelate being on hlsway to Rome to receive the pallium 
on his appointment to the see of Mainz [Mync¿\, Rudoif gave him a 
night's lodging, and accompanied him with a sufficient escort frotn 
Strasbm-g to Rome, and back again, across the Alps, which were at 
the time infested with robbers. 

Rüdolf's Cokonation. — It was Michaelmas day, 1273, when 
Rudoif was chosen king by the electors. He was kying siege to 
Basel when his brother-in-law, Frederick, brought him the news. 
He at once raised the siege, and concluded peace with the towns- 
men. It is said that the bishop of Basel, when he heard of the 
appointment, exclaimed, "Sit firm, O I^rd of Hosts, or Rudoif 
wil! push Thee from Thy throne ! " Whether true or not, this 
half profane remajk shows the character of the new king. It 
shows him to have been a man of iron will and iron grasp, and 
therefore well fitted for those unsettled times. 

Without delay the kaiser elect went to Frankfort lo meet 
electors, and thence to Aix-la-Chapelle for h¡s coronation. 
anointing over, the investment followed, the coronation oaths, thtf 
homage, and the enfeoíTments of the nobles. By some mischance 
there was no sceptre prepared. It had been íost in the time of 
anarchy. No matter. Rudoif took a cross from the hand of a priest 
standing by. " This is the sceptre of the worid ; the symbol of the 
Ring of kings," said he. " Be this my sceptre. And may He by 
whom kings rule and princes decree justice make the sceptre of 
righteoüsness the sceptre of my kingdom." These words de- 
lighted the bystanders, and confirmed the goodwill of the clergy. 

Rudoif began his rule as a christian king should do— with eve 
justice, firmness, and benevolence. The new honour made no 
diñerence in his character and habits. He still dressed with the 



same simpUcity, and in camp was not ashamed lo wear a gray 
doublet patched and mended by his own hand. Though king 
and kaiser, he reraained poor to ihe last 

Resolved from the very first to put down brigandage, he sent a 
circular letCer to his vassals slating his intentlon, and calling on 
them for their co-operatÍon. At the same time he requested them 
to come without delay to render homage for their londs. 

Ottokar of Bohemia. — Ey far the most powerful of the 
CTOwn vassals was Ottokar, king of Bohemia and Austria — a 
proudj overbearing prince, who fully expected to have been made 
kaiser. He was disgusted that he was passed over. Here was 
he, the most opulent and mightiest noble of all Germany, set 
aside for one of his own ritters — a poor, threadbate Swiss gentle- 
man-at-arms, once domesticated in his own court It was too 
ínsulting, and Ottokar refused to acknowledge the upstart. So he 
replied lo those who suromoned him, "What do^ Rudolf want 
with me? I have pajd him his wages." 

Rudolf, though an upstart, knew how to hold his own. Though 
" poor and threadbare," he was not to be browbeaten. He sum- 
moned Ottokar to Nümberg (1274) to render homage; but the 
summons was disregarded. A few months later he cited htm to 
Würtsburg, but with no better result Next year he commanded 
him to appear at Augsburg, and, as he still neglecied to obey, 
declared him an outlaw, and put him to the ban of the empire. 
War could no longer be avoided. Rudolf at once invaded 
Austria, and smote the rebellious vassat both hip and thigh with 
such great slanghter that he demanded peaca " Peace I " cried 
Rudolf; "there can be no peace between us till you have done 
homage for those lands of yours." Ottokar was loath, but there 
v.'os no reroedy, and he was obligad to submit (1276), 

The proud Bohemian hopcd to be allowed to pay homage in 
prívate. He hoped to be received ín a tent on an island in the 
Danube ; and, in order to strike awe and command respect, he 
arrayed himsclf in all his bravery. Rudolf, ciad in buff leather 
and iron, sat on a camp-stool to receive him. He sat as a soldier 
among his comrades, not as a monarch amidst his vassals. "The 
Bohemian," he said, " has ofcen laughed at my leather doublet, 
but now shall my buff jerkin laugh at his purple and fine Unen." 
The prelates, the princes, the dutes, the common soldiers of both 
armies, beheld the gorgeous Bohemian, ungirt and bare-headed, 
kneel on both his knees before the leather and the iroa They 
saw him place his two hands between those of his lord, and heard 
him say, in humble suit, "I confess myself your man, life i 


limb ; and to yon tcíII I be true and leal for the lands that I hold.l 
of you." The proud master who " had paid the wages " was the ■ 
submissivc vassal of his late domestic. 

Markfeld {iz78).^Otiokar had rendered homage He had 
humbled himself by his lips, but his masterful spirit was not bent. 
On his retum home his queen upbraided him roundly for his 
cowardice and want of spiriL KeCtled and stung mth pismires, 
he prepared to renew the war ¡ and Rudolf met him in the 
August of 1278 in Markfeld, on the very spot since noted for 
the famous battle of Wagram.* 

The Bohemian divided his army into three parts ; Rudolf did 
the same. The Bohemian's war-cry was " Praga ; " Rudolf chose 
the word "Christ" The Bohemian standard was a lion; Rudolf s 
was a black spread-eagle, Early on the morntng of August a6th 
the battle began. It raged with unabated fury tíU mid-day. 
Neither side gave way ; neither could claim the advantaga At 
length Eudolfs horse was shot under him, and Rudolf, thrown to 
the ground, covered himself with his shield lili another horse was 
broiight him. He mounted. His guard rallied round him, 
" Charge ! " The Bohemians fell back, imable to resist the attack. 
" They fice ! " cried Rudolf. The confusión spread. The retreat 
became a rout; the rout, a flight; the flight, a panic, The 
victory was certain. Many Bohemians were taken prisoners ; 
more were left dead ufion the road, or driven into the marshes. 
And where was Ottokar ? In the vanguard, which was the last to 
tum. Ottokar refused to flee. He resolved to stand his ground 
to the very losL One of his own nobles gave him his death 
wound, and, when he fell, twenty others pierced him with their 
long spears, His own soldiers stripped him of his costly armour. 
robbed him of everything he had about him, and left hira naked, 
gashed with wounds, and weltering in his blood. 

Rudolf rodé up and saw the naked body on the ground. He 
could not but rejoice at the unexijected victory, but his joy was 
dashed with grief at the sad spectacle before him. " How are 
the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished ! " " He that 
is mighty hath done great things, and holy is his ñame. His 
mercy is on them that fear him. He hath showed strength with 
his arm ; he hath scatiered the proud in the imagination of their 
hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and hath 
holpen his servant" that trusted in him. 

The vlctorious kaiser commanded the bleedíng body to 



cleaned and carried to Vienna There it was embalmed and laiJ 
ín State. In due lime it was conveyed to Prague in grand pro- 
cession, and buried with the burial of a king. 

As for Austria, it was divided between the two sons of Rudolf, 
while Carinthiawas given to the graf of theTyrol, whose daughter 
had married Albert, the kaiser's eldest son. Thus ttiumphed 
Rudolf over Ottokar, and thus was it ihat Habshurg became the 
most powerful famÜy of Austria. 

Rudolf's Raid on the Robbers {1281-1291). — Being now 
the undisputed master of the empire, Rudolf appüed hímself 
to the Dstablishment of good order. He revived the pólice 
system set on foot by kaiser Frederick IL, and rodé yearly 
through his kingdom lo put down prívate feuds and rid the 
country of robbers. The nobles thenaselves were the chief 
aggressors. They used to send forth their retainers for plunder, 
and give them shelter and protection in their strong fortresses. 
Rudolf felt assured that nothing could be done while ihese nests of 
unclean birds were sufTered to remain, so he destroyed the castle 
when he put to death the lord who made it a den of thieves, In 
Thuringia,* which perhaps was the worst of ihe haunts, he levelled 
to the ground as many as sixty-six castles, and put to death 
twenty-nine of the robber-nobles. Sorae were tied to the tfüls of 
their own horses and trampled to death ; others were hung on the 
nearest trce. 

By this vigoróos administration a wholesome fear of doing 
wrong soon spread, and, with increased securíty, commerce 
rapidly increased The ñame of Rudolf became Ihe terror of 
evil-doers and the praise of them who did welL In 1290 he 
wished his son Albert to be appointed his successor ; but the 
electors refused to nomínate any one during the lifetime of the 
kaiser. Next year Rudolf died, in the seventy-fourth ycar of his 
age and the eighteenth of his reign. 

He was undoubtedly the right man in the right place. He was 
brave and well favoured by fortune — a prudent man, who took his 
tide at the flood. For many years his reign was accounted the 
standard of perfection, and to come up to the fulness of the 
measure of king Rudolf was the Germán beau ideal of kingly 
excellence. Few men could have held their own in these 
turbulent times, and fewer still have done so, and yet bought 
" golden opinions of all sorts of men." 

wilh Edward 1., ene nf the grealesl and best oí odt Biitüh 




pleaAcd thal sha hod 


Engelbert (1259-1331}, iibbol of Admont, in Styria, poet and historian( 1 
lived in the leiga of Eudoíf. Hia pióse wotk is a History tf Ihe RUe lamm 
Fall úf ihe Romaii Empirí, Baí oaeta \s oa Úie Elccltcn ef Rudoljih. ■ 

Martin, of PoUmd ( " -1278), who wiote it Chnmicle úf thí Fofa and 
Emperors to 1277, is especially noteworlhy for hís very minute account oí 
the scandnl leapecting JoLin, the female pope, whom he places between Leo IV. 
and Benedict III. (S53-S55). The tole U thaC she wos eui English cid 
educated at Col;^ne, who assumed man'» clothes in ordet lo elope withher 
lover, the monk Folda. While at Rome Ehe eomed such high piaise for her 
great wisdom tfaat she was elecled to succeed Leo IV., and assumed the ñame 
of John VIII. Her sen was discoveied by the biilh of a child on her way lo 
the Laleran basilica, and, being pat tp death, she was smuggled ¡uto the grave, 
and the time of her pontiücate was added to hei predecessor. The fiíst to 
mentioQ this scandal wns Anaslasius, in 886, otuy thirty yeois afiei the 
supposed deatb of Joan, whea maoy coDlemgoraríes musí have been living. 
In the Auguslctn Annals (113S) we are tolB that this "female" was the 
pope who consecrated Louis II. of Fiance {S5<;). Lenfanl, who died ii 

t George II., gives a Hislary of the Female Pept. Though 
uiDDon \LiecKne, &c., ch. x\ix.,) calis the tale "fabuloiis," it waa accepted 
as genuine histury lili quite recent limes; itnd it would be well indeed if the 

t thing that could be said againat the popes of Rome is, that c 
woman was mistaken for a man. 

Albert thb Great, or íi/iírtaj Afagnus (1193-1280), bishopofRatisbon, 
waa a marvellous man, whoae works cover twenCy-one folio volumes. Thomas 
Aquinas was hia pupil. Mis knowledge of chemistry brought 00 him the lepu- 
tation of being a soreerer. In the winlerof 1240 he gave a banquet at Cologne 
to WilUam of Holland, king of the Romans (í« p. 106), when instantaneonsly 
the bleak, bare, wintry sccne was tmneformed into the veidure and bloom 
of aummer. If Albert had a hothouse screened from sight, by dcawiDg a 
curtain on one alde he might eosily have ahown hls guest plants in fiíll flower, 
and fiuits in full lipeness, even in Decembei. He also made a spcaking head, 
an automaton of biass, which uttered articúlate sounds. This in the thírteenth 
centnry was looked on as Satanic inspiration ; but Maskelyne and Cooke hcd 
not then enhibited, "every evening at eíght o'clock, in Üie Egyptian Hall. 
London, theii mechanical wonders. 

1[ The ñame, however, of Albertus Magnus bas a mnch greater bistorical 
importaoce than that of a clever gardener or mechanical genius. He was 
Tounder of the Second Age of Scholastic Philosophy, in which 

nctaphysicB and logic of Arialotle were brought t 

d religión. 
For a ceotuiy oí more this worthlcss "battle of frogs and micc" had bi 

itbe _^H 
the ^^1 




114 MED1.EVAL 

goíng on. For a century 01 more Ihe wise ones of Christeadam had spent 
Iheir Ihought in dreaming !he dreains of Alaaschar,* rather than on building on 
the solid foundations of real facls. Foi example, Ihe waid " person," applied 
to God, does k mean person or something else f Or when il is said that the 
Son of God was miide ílesh, does il mean His divine nalute was incorporaled 
or somelhing else ? Questions of this sort were pieoched from the pulpít and 
taught ID the schools, fai rather than puré and undeGled religión, based on 
ümple faith aod manifested by good worlis. Albert tiied to botch up a 
retigious compound of Aristolle, Si. Paul, and the christian fathersi andall 
Europe ran mad after his theological niinotaur. Never was there religious 
fülly more utlerly worlhless (han this everlasling disputation "about goats' 
wool." Nevet was blindness mote dangetoüs than when ihe half-enligh tened 
"saw mcn as trees walking," and Ihought they snw aright. Never were huge 
folio volumes more broadcast oveí the world Ihan by Ihe doctors of the middle 
ages. Like spiders, Ihey drcw forth materíals from wilhín themselves, and 
produced cobwebg of leamingj but iheir only cffecl was to entangle. Won- 
derful they might be for the Rneness of the threads and the delicacy of the 
workmanship; but they were only cobwebs after all, to be swept away by the 
berom of common sense. Meknchthon Iclls us that Arjslotle's ethics were 
lead in chuiches by these schoolmen inslead of ihe New Testament; and that 
man was deemed the wisest, not who could explain the best, but who could 
puiileraost, (Apolog. A.C., p. 62.) 

To gi^e one eiamplei^Are the bread and wine, in Ihe eucharisl, really 
bread and wine? or are they converted ¡nto Ihe humanity and dívinity of Jesús 
Chríst ? or are the humanity and divinily of Christ compounded wíth them ? 
or do those who parlake of ihem receive bread and wine into fheír mouths, and 
Christ Hímseír into their hearts by an act of faith ? Libraries of books have 
bcen written on these speculations, and ihe ill-blood they bave stirred up has 
produced a whole " Iliad of evils." 

This " philosophy, falsely eo called," not only degraded religión, it alsa 
debased the language by Ihe introduclion uf a hosl of new and barbarous 
Wotds, It was necessary lo invent lerms lo show the supposed diflerence 
betwecn tweedledum and Iweedledee; and as no existing words could do so, a 
new coinage was necessary, ood henee the language of the schoolmen was 
barbarous and wordy in Ihe extreme. It is a jargoii as difficult to read as 
heraldry or botany, and good scholars are tost in the shoals and quicksands, 
onlesa they have made a special study of the technicalities of the system. 

Vives tells US it was by Do means uouiual, when disputants had exhausted 
their slock of arguments, to ñnd them slanging each olhei tike Biltingsgate 
ñsh-fags, aod aflerwards coming to blows with físts, clubs, or swords. And it 
waa not uncommon to see men wounded, or even killed, in a quarrel aboul 
some word, Take, for example, the word "matter," meaning the element 01 
material of Ihings created. Is it a mass ofatoms, or only divine Ihought? Is 
it an emanation from the Cceator, Itke light and heat from the sun, or only 
latent power enet^cd? Is it the impress of the divine wiU stamped inlo 
form, like the impression of a seil on soft wax, or is Deily all in al), both 
creator and crealion ? Be it what it may, one thiog is certain : not all the 
schoolmen, from Albcrtus Magnus lo Duns Scotns, could expiain what il 
and, in Ihe words of Martial, freely translated, i 



a profiüui trífle. 




Wi/í, tmagina, daugh»r of Cerlach lord of Limburg. 

On the death of Rudolf it was generally thought that hís si 
I Albert would be chosen king; but Gerhard, archbishop of Mainxl 
I \M^n(¿\, had sufficient influence with the electors to get hís 
i cousin, Adolf of Nassau, nominated instead. 

Adolf was a stalwart, but necessitous, prince, much concemed 
n the French wars of Edward I. of England, whose stipendiary 
I he was. As he did not answer the expectations of the electors, 
I they deposed him and set Albert, the eidest son of Rudolf, on the 
I throne. Adolf, of course, resisted, but was slaín in a battle, near 
LWorms, after a feeble reign of six years. 


^_ uu 


BoKM «48. Rsir.NEn m Yeahs, ti^i-iyA. 
Wiji, E1ÍMb«Ji, daiighter of Miinhard gonnt of Tyinl, and nicce of Frederick gf Bi 
fatktr, kaiser Kudolf I. of Hiib:,burg. 

Albert was crowned at AÍx-la-Cbapelle. He was not a prei' 
possessing man either in personal appearance or in manners. 
He "looked like a clown and behaved lilte a loon." He was 
bíg-nosed, loose-lipped, blind of one eye, rude ín manneiS| 
grasping, selfish, and overbearing. 

When pope Boniface VIH. was told of bis election he ex- 
claimed, "Why, how Ín the world can such a one-eyed lout be 
emperor of the Romans ? " In addítion to his ugliness, the pope 
objected to him both because his wife Elizabeth was nearly relaled 
to the excommunicated Frederick of Badén, and also because he 
was the "assassin of Adolf," for so the pope insisted on calling 
him, although Adolf was slain in faír fight Ín the battle of Worms. 

The angry pontiíT summoned Albert to Rome, but Albert sent 
a representative. Wben the ambassador presented his credentials, 
the pope, in a towering rage, exclaimed, " 'Tis I, 'tis I who am 
kaiser ! Tis I, I say, who am emperor ! " The ambassador was 
dismissed, Albert excommunicated, and his subjects absolved from 
their oath of aüegiance. Albert at once prepared for war, and 
the pope in alarm wilhdrew his opposítion and became reconciled 
to the "one-eyed loon." 

The great defect of Albert's reign was that he considered the 
kingdom made for the king, and not the king for the kingdom. 
Thus he cared very líttle about the well-beíng of his subjects, buC 
dicected all bis efforts to enrich his family by new principalilies, 





bishoprics, abbacles, and free cities. His acts of spoliation and 
injustice estranged many and raised up a host of enemies, 

WiLLiAM Tell (1307).— SwiCzerland was divided at the time 
into several cantona, each ruled by its own laws ; but the forest- 
cantons, for greater security, had placed themselves under the 
protection of Rudolf, before he was made kaiser, and Rudolf had 
govemed them wisely and welL On the death of Rudolf, his son 
Albert, duke of Austria, became their protector, and goaded them 
to rebellion that he míght find excuse for depriving Üiem of their 
independence and adding them to his own estates. To thís end 
he sent them " Egyptian taskmasters," who annoyed them in every 
way possible. 

After enduring much, the proud mountaineers formed a con- 
spiracy to free themselves of their " protector." They assassinaled 
the govemor, Gessler, and, after the famous battle of Morgarten, 
obtained their reléase by royal cbarter. 

Death of Albert (1308). — Albert was on his road to punish 
the Swiss for their rebellion when he was murdered by his 
nephew John, whom he had basely defrauded of bis inheritance. 

John was the son of Albert's younger brother Rudolf, and - 
joíned with four othera to assassinate his únele, They foUowed 
him to the war, they crossed the Reuss in the same boat, and on 
their way to Habsburg castle fell on him and murdered him. 
The Jifeless body was left on the road, and subsequently a 
convent was built upon the spot where it was found- No one 
mourned bis loss, and the electors reñised to make cholee of his 
son for the next kaiser. 

■WiUiam Tdl was onc oT iBo diieli of Uri, and refuscd lo talun s cao which Gesslir, Iba 
govemor, imá insalintly rúcd en a palé in Altorf markEl place, Gesalcr CDOimandcd Tdl 
lo be Dut to draEh,^ bul bdng loLd of hít sklll in archery, condcmned him lo shoot od apple 
from Ihe head of his own aoa ai the diataDce of loo paces. Tell £ucceeded in Ihis pczílans 
laílc wiihout injuríng Üie lad, but LeLLlng láiJ a conccaled arrow, vas oskcd hy Gcsaler wiih 
whal object he haf secreted it. " To al¿ol ihee," said Tell, "if I had/flíled ¡n Ihe toslc 

ísDachl. ín Ibs lakc Luam,' " there lo be devounsl alive liy 

IMlf to s» 

well, tabeunchained thal 1 
Icapéd ofihare, pushcd back 

Albert was on his itiarch lo punish 
■nd Leopolii (ihe broiherot kaiser 

oner who knew thi lake 
ough to th island T U 

m »ith hB death: 





■jr, John c 


■- lúng cleci), laufi ; Kinc uf Gtrmany, 1309 : Kíng of Italy, 1 
a or Emperor of the Holy Román Enpíre, 1311. 



Ifif', MBTgarcI of Bmbuil, tni 

Sm, John, whn in ijto imuried EliiabEth, »idaw of Wenceslani IV. snd helnsí oT Iha 

After an interregnum of seven months the electora chose for 
their king, Henry count of Luxemburg. He was chosen " for 
his renowned valour," and because his brother, the archbishop, was 
one of the electors. Henry was brave and powerful, sagacioua 
and just, but he lived too short a time to do much for ihe empire. 

None of the kings of Germany since Frederick II, had been 
crowned emperor of tbe Roinans by the pope, and none since his 
successor, Konrad IV. had entered Italy with a hostÜe anny. 
Henry VII. wished to be crowned emperor, so leaving his son 
John regent of Germany, he entered Italy ; was crowned at Milán 
" King of Lombardy," and at Rome " Kaiser of the Holy Román 
Empire." He then put Robert king of Naples to the ban of the 
empire, and marched to Naples to bring it into 
In Tuscany he received the sacrament from the handi 
Dominican monk,* but died the next day, poisoned, as the world 
said, by the sacramental wine ; if so, it was certainly an atrocious 

His death vras a great loas, Ciit ofF in the flower of his age, 
and in the full tide of his usefulness — cut off, too, in such a 
way thai the ñesh shudders at the thought — poisoned by wine 
administered to him in a sacrament, in the house of God, by one 
of the miniaters of the Holy Cospel,- — it is alraost too horrible 
to be believed, but a Dominican himself lays the cliarge at the 
door of his brother monk. 

The connection between Germany and Italy was now practi- 
cally at an end, and it is well for Germany that it was so, It was 
a costly honour, and Rudolf was wise enough to know ÍL He 
compared Italy to the lion's cave, and said wítJt the fox, " I see 
many footsteps tending that way, but none from the cave back 
agaia" Certainly much blood and treasure was spent in Italy, 
but no Germán king hrought away with him thence either profit 
or glory. 

Albehtin MU5S«to (1161-1319) poel and historiíú, fiUed several oflkes near kaiser Henry 
VII.i ud cwnmiinded [he troopiin ihe llaliim eipnJiLion, bul he dicd in eiuls. He le» 
behind him, in Lalin, Iwo hisurical trorla ; Thr Ditds cf Kainr /ftrtry Vil. und the 
HisiBric Bvenli lincí lit Dtalh sf Hinry. Tboe hiiloriei are eiallent bolh ia ilyle 




DUKE OF AUSTRIA. 1314-1338. 


King a( tht Rora^ns (i'.t. king elecl), '3I4 : irowned al Milán King of Lombardy, I 
ciawneil al Rume Kabcr or Empcrar of ihE Ko\y RDiBan Snipire, ° 


On the death of Henry Vil., ihe electora could not agree upon 
asuccessor; somewere for Frederick, sumamed the " Handsome," 
son of kaiser Albert I. ; whÜe others chose Ludwig duke of Ba- 
varia, both being grardsons of Rudolí Frederick was crowned 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, and Ludwig at Cologne. The result of this 
double election was a terrible war which lasted for ten years. 
The towns, for the most part, sided with Ludwig, but the nobles 
with Frederick. At length a decisive battle was fought at 
MÜHLDORF, in Bavaria, in which Frederick was defeated and 
taken prisoner {1322}- He had fought hke a Uon. The 
chroniciers say that " he slew fifty of the opponents with his 
own hand." His brother was to join him, and after ten houis' 
fighting a cry was raised of " Help at hand I Leopold to the 
rescue ! " On rushed the Austrian with redoubled fury, on drove 
he into the thickest of the fight ; but alas ! the re iníbrc ementa 
were not those of his brother, but those of the enemy. AIl hope 
was lost, Resistance was in vain. He was surrounded on all 
sides, hemmed-in, disarmed, and taken captive. For three years 
was he kept prisoner in an oíd castle in the Upper Palattnate, 
where his solé employment was whittling sticks. His Spanish 
wife cried herself blind at the sad fate of her " Handsome " 
husband. He was ultimately set free by his brother Leopold, on 
condition of resigning all claim to the empire, and he died in 


The biltle or Mahldarf wa> fought rigfat yrsre ofter the balüc of BannDckbnm, and 

«mong the sovcrcigps of Gctmany aiíy more Ihan Lady Jane Grey is reckoned amang thoH 
úf £n£]nDtL 

Ludwig V. had no sooner got rid of his rival than he became 
involved in a quarrel with the pope. Pope John XXII. was 
angry because Ludwig had not applied to him to sanction his 
election; but Ludwig insisted that he owed his crown to the 
electors, whose cholee was final, and needed no conñrmation. 

The pope would not admii this, and excommunicated him, laying 
under an interdict all those parts of Gennany which supported 
him. Thus the oíd oíd quarrel between pope and emperor broke 
out afresh, but the beginning of the end had set in, and the 
thundcrs of the Vatican were passed by as the idle wind which 
no man regarded. 

Pope John XXII. was succeeded by Benedict XII., who carried 
on the contest of his predecessor, but found himseif no longer 
supported by public opinión. The effect of these anathemas was 
indeed the reverse of what was intended : ¡nstead of weakening 
the power of the kaiser they strengthened it ; instead of estranging 
the people they naade them rally round their monarch, and lifted 
a personal quarrel into a great national question, which the 
general voice resolved should be now and for ever settled. 

The Pragmaíic SancHon of Rense* (1338). — At length the 
princes of the empíre took the matter up, and met in convocation 
at Rense, near Coblentz, on the Rhine. Here they passed a 
decree declaring that the kaiser or emperor of the Romana 
derived his rank and power, not from the pope, ñor yet from the 
pope and the electors mutuaüy, but from the electors only. This 
ordinance was accepted by the states, was proclaimed through the 
length and breadth of the empire, and became a law of the land. 
It was of the utmost importance, as it established for all time the 
independence of the empire. 

Ludimg V. and Margaret Alauliasch (1346). — The next move of 
kaiser Ludwig V. was most unwise. He had won tríumphantly his 
first contest wíth the pope, because it was a question pertaining 
to the civil polity of the empire, but his presen! dispute was like 
that of Korah against Moses. In the first dispute the voice of 
all Europe was with him ; in the second, the voice of all 
Christendom was against him. The case was this : Margaret 
sumamed " Maultasch " or Bag-mouth, daughter of the Duke of 
Tyro!, was the richest heiress in Europe. She had married the 
eldest son of John king of Bohemia, but after twelve years of 
wedded Ufe, having no chüd, had separated from him. The 
kaiser resolved to secure the wealth of this rich heiress ; so he 

liradertook as emperor to sign her divorce, and then gave her in 

I^Uairiage to his son. t 



A kaiser had no more right to annul a marriage than the pope 
had to elect an emperor. Marriage, at ihat time, was a religious 
rite, and to interfere with it was to interfere with the prerogatives 
of the church. Hete, then, the pope stood on good ground. In 
1346, Clement VI. declared Ludwig deposed, and named Karl, 
margraf of Moravia, kaiser in his stead. Happily for the nation 
Ludwig died the year following by a fall from his horse in a boar 
hunt, or another civil war might have broken out (1347). 
The batíU of Creiy wasfought Áugust 24, 1346. 
It was this Ludwig V. who placed ihe two eagles on the imperial 
Seal; whence í/ie double-headed eagle qf Austria. 

Ludwig V, was the last emperor excommunicated by a pope. 
Batti-e of Morgarten* (Novcmber 15, 1315}. — We musí now go back 
lo the death of kaiser Albert. It will be lemembeied ttuit he was assassinateil 
on his march lo Switierland, Frederick of Austñs. was one of the two 
kaiaeía electEd la succeed him, and his brother Leopold took up the cause of 
kaiser Alberl, In 1315 he entered the ForesC Cantona at the head of 15,000 
men. It is said Ihat he carríed Topes with him, to hong Ihe ricgleaders, and 
Ecaie the peasants into submisúon. 

The Swiss wete not daunted. They conlrived to muster aome 1300 mcn, 
who placea Ihemselves on the mountain slopes of Morgsjten. At daybreak 
the Austrian cavolty bogan to move. Their heimets and armour, swords and 
lancea, e'is'siEd in the sun, The advance guord entered the poss. The 
whole [and, fiom the foot of Ihe hil! lo the Lake Luien^ was covered with 
troops. They began Ihe ascent, when Bome fifty Switiers rolied down on (hem 
huge boulders and fiagments of rock. The horaes were lerrified ; the foremost 
of the men weie crushed to death ; confuaion followed auipríae ; and belbre 
they could reslore ocder, Ihe Swiss poured on Ihcm like an avalandie. The 
Austrian» fled. Theyfled "from Ihe villnny of Iheir own fear." Counts, 
knights, nobles, and common soldiera all fcll in one common ruin : heaps upon 
heaps they fell — heaps upon heaps. Hundreds of horses and men were 
diowned m the lake. Leopold was one of tbe few who escaped. In one 
hour-and-a-hnlf the 1 5,000 Auatrians "gleaming in purple and gold," were cnt 
down by 1300 Swiss peasants. Like the lenves of the forest in June were 
Ihey at sunriae, and in less Ihan Ihree hours were they strewn and scallered 
like the leaves of the forest in December. The víctory wns complete. The 
cause was won ; nnd kaiser Ludwig V. conñrmed Ihe freedom and indepen- 
dence of Ihe cantons by royal charter. The baltle of Morgarlen was one of 
Ihe decisive ballles of the worid, aad as worthy to take ila place with Marathón 
and Thermopyla; of oíd Greece. 

The latter part of the reign of kaiser Ludwig V. was a time of 
peace and prosperjty. Toumaments, which had been discontinued 
for nearly 400 years, were revived with great splendour, The 
citizens grew opulent ; and there were above 200 frce cities 
governed by their own laws and electing their own maestrales. 
Law was beginning to be studied as a profession, and opeaed 

1 beginning t 



fie!d of employment for the younger sons of the aris- 
tocracy, But one occupation — that of the sword — had hitherto 
been open to them, and ihey were glad to relieve the tedium of 
an idle life by brigandage and adventure. Now, however, instead 
of rude, unlettered soldiers, many became leamed lawyers. Colleges 
greatly multipHed, the taste for literalure increased, and the 
manners of society were greatly improved, 

Investiture of Vassals. — The investíture of bishops has 
already been referred to {p. 55), not so the investiture of lay 
vassals. When a great fief fell vacant by the death of its 
possessor, and there was no direct heir, it lapsed to the king, who 
had the ríght of installing a new vassaL A platform being raised 
in some open space, the kaiser took his seat thereon arrayed ¡n 
robes of state and surrounded by the electors and princes of the 

The nobleman who was to receive the fief then rodé to the foot 
of the platform, attended by his friends and tenants dressed 
his livery. At a given signal the whole party galloped thrice 
round the platform to the sound of martial music The first time 
without any banner; the second time with the banner of the 
chief; and the third time with the new banner, decorated with 
the arms of the fief about to be conferred, 

When these courses had been duly made the chief dismounted, 
and was conducted by two princes to the throne to do homage, 
Bwear fealty, and receive investiture. 

Homage was paid kneeling on both knees, but without oathii 
The person who performed it placed both his hands betweeoj 
those of his suzerain, and said aloud, " I become your man from 
this day forward, to Ufe and limb, and all eatLlily worship. 
Unto you will I be true and leal, and will bear you faith for the 
tenements I shall hold of you." Having thus said, the king, 
without rising from his seat, bent forward and kissed him on the 
forehead and each cheek. 

The chief then rose, and, standing beforc his lord, swore fealty. 
This was done by placing his right hand on a book, and saying, 
" K.now ye this, my lord, that I swear to be faithful and true to 
you, and to bear faith to you for the lands that I shall hold of 
you. And I will lawfuUy do unto you the customs and services 
which I ought to do, and at the times assigned. So help me God 
and his saints." Then taldng up the book on which he had Said 
his hand, he kissed it and returned it to its place. Homage wa*/ 
paid kneeling, but without oath; fealty was tcndercd standing^' 
and was conñrmed by oath. 

;od I 

^^V tas 



Having received homage and fealty, the kaiser invested his 
man with ihe fief by delivering to him the oíd banners belonging 
ihereto. There were often a goodly number; for every large fief 
contained several smaller ones, each of which had íts own banner. 
The chief threw the oíd banners inte the crowd to be lom lo 
pieces, and then presen ted his dependents with new ones 
emblazoned with arms of the new fief, by accepting which the 
dependents acknowledged the suzerainty of their new lord. 

Thk Düchy of CARiNTHrA. — There was a peculiar custom 
belonging to the duchy of Carinthia, which once belonged lo 
Bohemia and was taken by Rudolf from lung Octokar (p, iii). 
The duke of this province was not invested by the kaiser, but had 
to "purchase his fief from the people." Of course "the pur- 
chase " was only nominal ; but it told of days gone by, when the 
lands belonged to the people and the lordship was bestowed by 
them, and not by the crown. 

When a duke of Carinthia died, the people chose a free 
peasant as their representative, and the new duke had to buy of 
him the lands of his dukedom. The peasant appointed was not 
chosen at randoni, but belonged to a particular family, in whom 
the rigbt had been vested time out of mind. It was an honour- 
able office, and not wíthout its perquísites. 

On the day of inauguration, the peasant seated himself on a 
marble block beneath a tree. He was conducted thither by a 
great crowd, who waited around him the arrival of the heir. The 
new duke approached on foot, dressed as a countryman, and 
carrying a crook, a spade, and a walleC of bread and cheese. 
Two noblemen, also on foot, attended as his sponsors ; and the 
procession was brought up by the knights and nobles of the 
province, in the duke's livery, mounted on horseback, and bearing 
the flags and banners of the duchy. 

The peasant, afTecting great surprise, said to the crowd, "\^^lo 
are these I see comíng hitber in such pomp and state?" "'Tis 
the prince of the country," was the reply. " Is he a good man 
and true, a just man and a Christian?" demanded the peasant. 
" He is," was the response. " Then, by what right will he remove 
me from this seat?" asked the peasant. "He will buy it of 
thee," said the crowd. " For how much ? " " For sixty pence." 
Wbereupon the peasant rose, and the duke took possession of the 
seat. For the part he played in the ceremony the peasant was 
cntitled to sixty pence, to the clothes worn by the duke on the 
and exemption from rents and taxes. 
the duke had seated himself, his vassals approached ü 



pay him homage. The duke then promised even justice to aV 
proceeded to chuich to hear mass, and finished the day with ; 
State banquet. 

Ulrich Boner (1324-1349)1 a didactic poet, is worthy notice, 
because his Edehtein (or predous slone) was the first book in 
Germán which appeared in print (1461), It is a collection of 
fables, tales, and maxims, " to win to brighter worlds, and point 
the way," Ulrich Boner set his face against science "falsely so 
called ; " denounced the airogance and vices of the nobles ; and 
considered the love of money the " root of all evils." 

*^* The first printed book was Úie J'salícr 0/ Maitií (1457); 
the next was William Durand's Ifi>¿y Offices {Rationale 
dk'inomm offidorum /¡¿iris %'iii. distinctuní) printed 1459; the 
third was Balbi's Catholecon, a sort of dictíonary (1460). 
Then comes the Edtlsíein in Germán. 

Berthold Schwarz, a Benedictine mont, born at Fribourg, in 
Switzerland, is sometimes credited with the ¡nvenlion of gun- 
powder (in 1320), and a statue has been erected to him at 
Fribourg. He seems to have learnt by accídent its explosive 
powers ; but its composition had been known hundreds of years 
previously. Thus the Chínese in the first christian century used 
it in their fireworks, and in 673 jt was employed in what is called 
"Greek fire." Roger Bacon, in izi6, makes mention of its 
composition. It was employed by the Spaniards as far back as 
1257 in tbe siege of Niebla; but we do not hear of its employ- 
ment again in artillery till 1378, at the siege of Venice, ihough 
some say it was used by Edward III. at the battle of Crecy, in 

Walter Lollard must not be omitted, the morning star of 
the Reformation in Germany. He was born in England, and 
declaimed against "the intercession of saints" as whoUy without 
scripture warrant. He also declared the seven sacraments and the 
ceremonies of the catholic church to be priestly inventions wholly, 
not to be defended by the New Testament He was tried by the 
Inquisition, and burnt alive at Cologne in 1322, but left behind 
him 20,000 disciples who spread his doctrines in Bohemia and 
Austria. Walter Lollard prepared the way of WycUffe in England 
(1324-1384) and John Huss in Bohemia (1376-1415). 

N.B. — Ludwig of Bmmria is called by some Ludwig IV., and 
by others Lítdwig V. The five are made out thus :— Ludwig I. the 
Debonair (814-840): Ludwig JL (8^-876); Ludtvig IIL the 
Saxon (876-881); Ludwig IV. the Child (Sgg-gzi). T/wse 



wha eaütd the Bavarian kaiser Ludwig IV. omit Ludwig the 
Díbonair, and begin witk Ludwig " king of Germany" S43, made 
emperor 8¡S ; but Ludwig the Debonair has as tniuk \ ' * """^ 
Ckaríemagne lo be reckvned arnong the Gertnan kings. 

'■ ri^jm 


After Ludwig V. was deposed, the pope's nominee was Karl 
dulce of Luxeraburg ; but the electors rcfused lo ratifyhis election, 
and set up Günther, a simple knight, for the new kaiser. 

There was nothing to ohject to in this choice: Günther was 
brave and prudent, and might have proved a good king; but he 
sold the crown to his rival, and d¡ed two days afterwards, some 
say of apoplexy, and others of poison. Be this as it may, his 
death left the coast clear for Karl "the pope's kaiser," who 
succeeded without further opposition. 


King af the Romads (i'.f., kiiu cien), 1346 ; King of Bohemia snd Kbg of Burgund^, 
n Reme, Kuüer oí ihe Ualy Román Empire! 135; I and King of Ailit, 1355. ' 

aguE, In Boheniia, Monday, Novuobcr 99, 137S. Aged 63. 
;A Edward 111. Ja FruHií. Jmn It Bon and Ckm-lis V. I 
. al Crccy. Kurl,™ ihc 1 


Childnn, hy: 


pfllafüie, who hroughl him Úvt Upper Palatba 
jhi him Siloía, I3Í3. 
\it tecand wifo, Wcnceslauj. lüng of Bohemia, who succeeded hia father tu 
uermany; Sigmuiul, murgraf of Brandenburg, who aucceeded Rupcn; aod John. 
/-MMJrMM, Karl IV.* was, in his own righl, IJng of Bohemia frarri IJ46. His hertdilar? 

Blsgtvfkm, KarFü Comminlarits on hii ovm life. Albcrt of Slnuburg, CkranieUs from 

dolf i. 10 Korl II 



1347-1378.] KARL IV., THE POPE'S KAISER, ' 1 25 


1346, Aug. 25. The Battlk op Crecv. This was a month after Karl was crowned 

" King of the Romans," and fourteen months before he succeeded to the crown 
of Germany. 

1347. RiBNzi tribune of Rome. He was assassinated in 1354. Lord Lytton has a novel 

on the subject. 

X348. The plague referred to by Boccaccio in his Decanteron, 

1349. Edward III. of England instituted the Orderqf the Garter, 

1351. The great Helvetic Confederation instituted. 

1354. Marino Falieri elected doge of Venice at the age of eighty. Beheaded by order of 

the Ten, April 17, 1355. Lord Byron has a tragedy called Marino Faliero, 
1356. Karl IV. submits to the diet of NQmberg the famous Golden Bull, which defíned 

the number and powers of the electors. 
Sept. 19. — ^The famous Battle of Poitiers. 
John Mandeville wrote his adventures in French and Latin. The book was dedicated 

to Edward III. 
X357. Robert Bruce of Scotland set at liberty by Edward III. 
Z363. Tamerlane, or Timur the Tartar, begins his wonderful career. 
1371. The Stuart dynasty of Scotland begins with Robert Stuart. 
Z374. The Italian poet Petrarch dies. Dante died 1321. Chaucer lived Z328-Z400. 
1376. Edward the Black Prince dies. 
Z377. Edward III. dies. 

Karl IV. was the grandson of kaiser Henry VIL, and son of 
John, the blind king of Bohemia,* slain at the battle of Crecy. 
According to tradition, the badge of the prince of Wales, con- 
sisting of a plume and the motto Ich dien \ik deen\ was taken by 
the Black Prince as a trophy from KarPs father.f 

As Karl was nominated by pope Clement VI. without consent 
of the electors, he was nicknamed the Pop^s Kaiser, % He was a 
bad ruler for Germany, as he sacrificed the empire to his here- 
ditary kingdom of Bohemia. He was no " father of his country," 
but a hireling who fleeced his sheep, and contrived like Jacob, 
by a thousand artifices, to make Laban's flock contribute to his 

He greatly enlarged his hereditary lands by purchase and 
marriage. His first wife, Anne, brought to him the Upper 
Palatinate; and his second wife, another Anne, added Silesia 
to his dominions. Brandenburg he obtained by pui'chase from 
Otto, the drunken son of kaiser Ludwig IV. It is áaid that Karl 
promised him ;£^3o,ooo for the electorate, but never paid half the 
purchase money ; and Otto died soon after the bargain had been 

This grasping policy did not answer; for his son Sigmund 
pawned Brandenburg to the House of HohenzoUem, and most of 
his other domains went to the House of Austria. Karl IV. was 

* King John of Bohemia was father>in-law of Jean le Bon, kin^ of Franca. (Jean= DjaKn.'S 
t This tradition has been disputed. % ^"ff^*^ Kaiser, 



a man of considerable learning. He was master of several lan- 
guages, and wrote a Commeníaty of his own life for the use of 
his son. He founded the three universities of Heidelberg. 
Vienna, and Prague ¡ builc the schloss of Tanger-münde {Mbuth 
0f the Tánger), where he generally resided ; and erected the castle 
of Karlsiein, in Bohemia, as a depository for the regalia ; but ihe 
electors insisted on their being kept either at Nümburg or ai 

The EialEoivü seal. whíoh in Ihc reien of Ludwig V. had bno hvti black eagles, wa£ dujiEcd 
in ihe RJgD of Korl IV. la a block coglc x-ilh [wo besdi. 

The Golden Bull (i356).^By far the most important act 
done hy Karl IV. for Gennany was passing the edict called the 
" Golden Bul!," from the gold case ¡n which the sea! was enclosed. 
The object of this edict was to settle everything connected with 
the kaiser's eleclion. It limited the number of electors 10 
seven, three prelates and four lay princcs. The prelates were 
the three archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and Treves;* the lay 
electors were the king of Bohemia, the duke of Saxony, the mar- 
graf of Brandenburg, and the palsgraf of the Rhine. Il declared 
the person of the electors sacredj enacled Chat every question 
should be decided by majority, and that there should be no 
appeal from the sentence of the court, It appointed Frankfort 
the place of session, and Aix-la-Chapelle the place of coronatioa 
Indirectly it set aside the interference of the pope in these 
elections, as it pronounced the kaiser fully elected and competenl 
to exercise every function of his office from the moment of his 
election, Finallyj it appointed the palsgrof of the Rhine and 
the duke of Saxony regenta, in case of an interregnum. 

N.B.— In the Thirty Years' War the palsgraf of the Rhine 
was struck off from the electoral coUege and the duke of Bavaria 
put in his place ; but at the Peace of Westiihalia, in 1648, it was 
deterrained that the honour of elector could not be alíenated ; 
consequently, the palsgraf was restored, and the number of 
electors was increased to eíghL 

In 1692 Emst duke of Hanover was created a ninth elector; 
but in 1777 the number was again reduced to eight, because the 
palsgraf of the Rhine was also duke of Bavaria. Napoleón 
broke up the Germán empire, and the college of electors fell 

Kaiser Karl IV. died at Prague in 1378, in the sixty-second 
year of his age and the tbirty-first of his reign. Two years pre- 


viously the electors had named his son Wenceslaus "king of the 
Romans," or heir presumptive of the empire. 

Few peiiods of Ihe WQTld huve been so piegniinl of mighty c 
lattcr huir of the fouileentti centuiy. Fourtecii manths belbie the accession 
of kaiser Karl IV„ Edwaid III. and the Black Prince won over Ihe French 
Ihc memonible batlle of Crecy, and during the reign Edward III. instituted 
the OráíT of Ihe Garter and won the batlle of Poiders. During the same 
reign slarted up Tamerlane, the Moogolian Bonaparte; Marino Faliéri, made 
doge of Venice al the ^e of eighty, was bcheaded (1355), a mournful tale 
which has fumished lord Byron with ihe subjcct of hís best iragedy ; about the 
same lime (1354) was Rienzi oasiissinnted, a demagogue who had taised himself 
lo imperial powcr under the modcsl tille of "Iribuneof Romc." Lord Lyllon 
has embodied Ihis hislorical romance in a novel of great inlerest and consider- 
able fidelity. In the same reígn occurred that terrible plague which suggested 
to Boccaccio the scheroe of his Dtcameran, in which be supposes Ihal ten 
ladies and gentlemen diverted Iheirattention from the horrois around by lelling 
each a tale daily for len days. Petrarch, the great Italian poet, flourished and 
died while Kari IV. was kaiser; so did our Englísh traveller, sir John 
Mandeville, whoae advcntures in Palestinc, Egypt, nnd China were for many 
years Ihe delight af Europe. Chaucer was fifty when Kail died, but had not 
yet published his Canlerbury Tala; Wycliffe was üfly-Iour, and had been 
charged by Ihe pope with heresy (l377), but lived sorae seven years longei, 
and Froissart, whose ChronicU embraces the period of English histoiy belweei 
1322 and 1400 was forly years oíd when Karl died. It would be difGculI le 
find a reign more fuU of mntter for tomance ; and Pelrarch, Chnucer, 
Boecüccio, sir John Mandeville, and Froissart, are ñames which will be held 
in hoDour as loog as the worid endures. 



The Black Death (1348, 1349).— In the reign of kaiser Karl IV. 
occuried the plague called Ihe Blnck Death, which devaslnled Aíia, Europe, 
and África. It broke out in China ia 1333, where it carried off iwenty.four 
millions of Ihe inhabitants. Il appeared in Ilaly in Ihe yenr of Ihe baltle of J 
Ciecy, and spread thence inlo Fiance, Spain, Germany, and England. In ■ 
1349 it reached Sweden and Norway, and in 1351 it desolated Rusúa. It I 
reappeared in Europe in 1360, 1373, and 1382, and Ihe number of victim» ^ 
wbich fell lo this scourge exceeded loo millions. In England, we are told, it 
ravages were so tremendous, Ihal " scarcely a lenth par! of Ihe inhabitants 
survived.' Thougb Germany did not suffer like Ilaly, England, and France, 
yel were ils ravagea ftighlful : Ihus the deaths in Liibeck are sel down ai 
90,000, Basle at 14,000, Erfurt 2o,0DO. Vienna was almosl without inhabi- 
tants. In Poland Ihree-fourlhs of Ihe people werecarried oft and above zoo.ooo 
oí Ihe villages were left " as a cuttage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of 

For ten yeara before Ihe great outbreak Ihe carth had been troubled, Thus 
in 133S, armies of locusts had devasled Ilungary, Poland, Silesia, Austria, 
and many olher countries. A great faoiiue ensued, and Ihousands died of 






waot. From the jexr of ihe locusts to 1342, inundations, hunicanes, earlh- 
□Dakes, and olher distuibanccs, followcd each olhcr in quick succession. 
severol mountaíns sank ínto the eaitb ; olhers shifted Iheir places ; whole 
cilies were swallowed op ; caslles, houses, and churches were overthrown,* 
huge chastns appeaied in Ihousands of places, from which issued most 
ntudous vapnuts, and enormous swamps CQveied whole disIricCs wílh slagnant 

The disease was accompanied with inñammatíon of the 1un{^, boils and 
tnmours ov^r the whole body, aad black spots, inJicative of putríd decorn- 
podtion. The sufierings were great, the thirst in tolerable ; the contagión so 
certain thal «ives fled from their husbaads, and husbands fioni their wives : 
molhers from their childien, and children from their molhers. Decent burial 
V/Os auC of the question : all that cauld be done was to thcow the dead bodies 
into pits OT riveis. Even sheep and oxea, horiei: and asses, biids and fisbes, 
weie affected. Boccaccio tells us he saw two hcf^ woiiying some rags and 
drap down dead, ns if they had been shot. Flíght was of no avail to the 
timid, for they carried the plague with ibera iit theit clolhes. Medicines were 
uselesi. Some tried dietaiy, others fastinji, some reclusión, others gaiely ; 
some prayei and penance, olhers riut and debnuch ; some ílocked to hospitils, 
others lo churchcs, but the Black Dealh followed them, regardless of everj- 
thing — youth and age, strength and weakness, piety and piofaaity, weallb and 
povertjí, no matter, the plague was no respecter of persona. 

Flageliants (1349). — The chief efTect of this fearfiü morlality was a great 
inciease of religiouB fervour. Mea felt the helplessness of man, and mshed 
to relipous observances, penance, and gifts. They gave largely to religions 
houses and the shiines of saínts, so ihat religious establUhments grew 
wealthy, and with weallh carne luxury and worldliness. We soon see theaini 
of the church grow gross, and provoke indignatian, persecution foUows, and 
within a century and a-ha!f came Luther denouncing the dt^enerate hierarchy, 
and bringing ía the Refotmation. 

The more immediate effect uf this religious infatuation was to cali op a 
body of impostors, who made a matket of men's credulity and weakness, A 
sct of riff-raff banded together, and called themselves the "Broüierhood of 
the Cross," but they are bettei known by the ñame of Flagellonts or 
Scourgers. They wore a cross on tbelr bceast, another on their back, a 
third on their hats, and they took upon themselves to do penance for the aíns 
of the people. This was no new device : a similar folly had appeared soioe 
ninety yeira before in Italy, and was put down. Theae fiúiatics, Essuming thst 
Ihe marlality was a puniahment for sin and that Gotl's anger míght be ap- 
peased by human penance, undettook by their own bloód to make atonemcnt 
ibr sin. Strange as it may appEai, Ibis blasphemous folly fell in with the 
religious craving of the time, and became foc Ibe nonce so popular, that nobles 
and priests ñocked to the slandard — yea, nuns and honourable women joined 
the vagabonds, and soon brought the muvement to open shame. 

The method of proceedíng was as fuUows : A procession was foimed id 
which Ihe biolherhood marched two-and-two, preceded by crocifijtes, tapo», 
and banners. Bells lang when it entered a lown, and the people from ail the 
neighbourhood flocked tt^ether. Wheo the processíon reached the spot 
agreed upoo, the whole body of Flageliants, whether male ot female, üócfl 
oQ their shoes, stripped to the waist, and appeared in a short linea áiea 
reaching to the ankles. Being thus Etripped they fell proslrate in diflTeient 
posilions, aceurding to the sm they undertook to atone for. Those, fot 

• la Qirloftin ¡liar Ullrty viUascs were ísmoHalied.— J. VITQDUKAN, C»nn 



"9 I 

example, who undertook to da penance for lying and othcr slns of the 
tongue, threw themselves on Iheir sido and held up tliree fingera. Thoae who 
did penance for ndulletcrs fell flat on their faces. Those who undertook to 
Elone for infidelicy and impiety lay on Iheii backs «fith Iheir anns outslretched i 
in the foim of a cíoss. In a fcw mioutes the Master called out — 
" Rík i Let the ucrüice hepa — 

Instantty all started np, some singing psalms, some ejaculaling prayers, some 
howling, some bending the knee, some boasting oF their chastisement, oad all 
scourcin^ their naked backs with whip baving three lashes, knotted, and 
tipped with iron. When thís had been carried far enough, one of the brolher- 
hood read a letter whicb he a^serted an ángel had left ín St. Peter's Church, 
at Jerusalem. This impudent forgery staled thal Cbrist wes displeaaed at the 
sins of the people, but at (be intercession of the Virgin had consented lo 
foi^ve all Ibosc wbo joined the Brothers of the Cros3 for thirty-thiee days — 
a day for a year of Chíist's sojoum npoQ earth. 

At first every house gave welcome to the brothers : money was lavished oa 
them, all sorts of oinatoents were devated to their use ; but arrwance, oppo- 
ELtion to the church, contempl of all leligious rites, and the breath of scandal 
raised a. storm against the order. Every door was Ihen shul upon thera ; every 
church was clo^ed against them ; the pope interdicted Che pageant, and the 
□ii^istrales procecded against the brotherhood as dislurbers of the pcacc. 
The cry was raised thal the Flageliants spCEad the plague, and as no une 
would suffer Ihem to enter into town or city the insanity died out. 

Pbksecution of the Jews (1348, 1349). — A far more horrible exhibit of 
the pl^ue, was the persecution of Üie lews. Strange, that the religión of 
love and good-will should be the hol-bed of ¡ntolerance, and should number 
among its works the crusadea, the persecutions of the Jews, the wars of the 
Albigenses, the horror of the Inquisition, the Baitholomew massacre. the 
fires of Smithñeld, the dr^onnades, and ibe persecutions of witcbes, 
sorcerers, and science, miacaüed the black arl. 

Every peatilence has been attributcd by the common people to the poisoning 
of wcUs. IC was so in the plague of Alhens ; it was so in the Black Death. 
The question was Who were the poisoners ? and the infatuated people con- 
cluded thal as the Jews crucified Cbrist, they musí be the natural enemics of 
all Chiistians ; as they cut off the foundcr, they would Dalurally seek to cuC 
off his followers alio. Henee the present raorCality was ascribed to poisoncd 
wells, the Jews were the poisoners, acd the Jews must be atamped out both 
toot and branch. 

l'he perseeution began in Ihe aulumn of 134S. Immediately the suspicion 
was sec on foot, a pamc seized the people. The wells weie shut up, and the 
inhabitants were compelled to drink river or rain water. Men bound them- 
selves by oath to cxtirpale the Jews by (iré and sword : some were tom lo 
pieces ¡ some were bumt alíve aíter a mockery trial ¡ many wece enclosed in 
WQodea huís erecled fot Ihc purpose and burned witbout trial. At Speyec 
[Spirí] the Jews in despair set ftre to their own houses and consumed them- 
selves rather than fall mto the hands of the mob. In Mainz [Mytice\ alone 
iz,ooo Jews were pul lo n cruel dealh. Al Eslingen, (he whole Ji 
munily bumt themselves in their synagogue. At Slrasburg 3000 were burnt 
in their burial ground by the popidace, and those who altempted lo escape 
weie tom píece.meal, and cast into the ñames. Any one who concealc ' 
protected, or aided the Hight of a Jew, waa put lo Che rack and executed 
withouC meicy. 


' J 


130 DIVEKS HDUSES. ["■ >1J P 

It vas currently reported Üial ihe Jews oblained Ihe poison by sea froia 

e great ii 

s known only to the Rabtiís, No 
irs oí Ihe persecutions. What with 
re of Ihe Jews, ihe wanl of water, and 
iety, tnily ít was a time of soilows, of soixoillí . 
single spies, but ¡n batlalions. " 


BohemiA 1367-1410; King of Iht Ronuns (/.tf. Vina 
Kai»r or EloipciDr at Sie Holy Konun Empire 

Dicd Wvdíiesday, Aufo^ 16, nig, ogcd 63. 
■tmforary vnik üírHard //., 1377-1400 ; «tó CÁarUi VI. »/ Fr 
kaiser Kart IV. : Ahllii^, Annc of Schoildnili. 
1) Joan Df Holland. whom he nnirdrrcd b/ srltlno; T 
la, wbe» conluwr wui John Nepomub. 

M Vlí.,' 



II., M<H-'* 

Grejory X.I.. tijo-1378. 
CkmtTilVll., .J7B-.394. 
Beoedid XI II., I}g4-i4xf, 


Like Ñero of Rome, Wenceslaus began his reign welL He 
reduced the taxes, attended to business, and showed bolh 
energy and judgment; but his natural weakness and vicious 
propenaities soon cropped up, and he abandoned himself, like 
Vitellius the Román emperor, to gluttony and drunkenness, 
seeking excitement either in the chase or in the wanton torture of 
his feHow-crea tures. He had a great dog, trained by a sign to fty 
at any one obnoxious to him, and he murdered his wife Joan by 
setting ihis dog upon her. At another time, it is said, that he 
roasted alíve his cook for sending to table a ragout not served lo 
his liking, 

The foolery of this sot reininds one of Elagabálus, the Román 
emperor. As Elagabálus invited the chief men of Rome to a 
banquet, and then smothered theni in a shower of roses, so 
Wenceslaus invited the chief men of Bohemia to a banquet, and 
then sent an executioner among them. After amusing himself 
awhüe with their terror, his wife Sophie entered with pen and 
l>aper, and the drunken fool told his guests he would spare them 



if they would vow ín writing to give their lives for him. *] 
document waa signed, and Wenceslaus plumed himself on the 
of this silly joke. 

He rarely quitted Bohemia, being wholly ¡ndifTerent to the 
affaírs of Germany ; and after twenty-two years of neglect the 
diet deposed him, A few months later Richard II. of England 
was dethroned by hís cousiti Henry. Richard II. was murdered 
after his deposition ; but Wenceslaus still reígned over h¡s here- 
ditary kingdom of Bohemia for níneteen years longer, when he 
died regretted by no ene (1419). 

The last quarter of the fourteenth century was a frightful epoch 
of misrule, Germany was cursed with Wenceslaus, a worthless 
debauchee; England with Richard II., an extravagant fop¡ 
France with Charles VI., an idioC; and Navarre with Charles 
sumamed the "Bad." There were also iwo opposition popes, 
one at Rome and one at Avignon, who ceased not to excom- 
municate each other, and to curse the adherents of the rival 

Germany was in a deplorable state, and so ovetrun by 
brigands that the people leagued together for mutual defence. 
The most important of these bands was the Sitabian Con- 
FEDERATioN, which contained thirty-two towns, but later on as 
many as forty-one. It was formed on the model of the Swiss 
league, which had so eminently distinguíshed itself in the battle 
of Morgarten (1315), and during the reign of Wenceslaus 
eclipsed even that acEiievement by the still more famous victory 
of Sempach. 

Battle of Sempach (July g, 1386). — The battle of Morgarten 
was between the Austrians and ihe Swiss, so was the battle of 
Sempach. The Austrian leader in the former battle was Leopold, 
the proud and valiant duke of Austria ; the Austrian leader at 
Sempach was a nephew of the same ñame, no less proud and 
valiant than his únele. The battle of Morgarten was undertalten 
to punish the Swiss for the death of Geasler, the Austrian 
governor; that of Sempach, because the Swiss had admitted to 
their league certain towns enfeoffed to Austria, Sempach being 
one of them. 

The hatred of Austria against the Swiss was unbounded. 
was the hatred of arÍstocratÍc pride, the contempt of princes and 
nobles who had been humbled by peasanta and freed serfs ; so 
any pretext of war was haüed by the Austrians, and they now sent 
forty-three allegations to the Swiss council, demanding instan*' 
redress. The Swiss received the schedule, and prepared for war. 

K 3 



132 DTVESS HOUSBS. !!)•■: I 

The dap of grace passed by, and ihe Swiss made no sign, so 
the Austrians marched at once to Sempach, a smail town in the 
cantón of Lucerne. There is a lake of the same ñame some nine 
miles rorth-west of the town, and the space belween was covered 
with Austrian cavalry. Conspicuous among the horsemen rodé 
Leopold. He was a fine, handsome fellow, about thirty-five yeais 
oíd, of martial bearing, bold as a lÍon, and the hero of a hundred 

The Swiss were on the uplands. Their whole forcé was imder 
1,400, while ihat of the allied Austrians was 4000 horse and a 
mixed multitude of mfantry. The Swiss wore no armour, their 
weapons were halberds and shoct swords ; the Austrians were 
mail-clad, and their weapons enormous pikes. 

When Leopold saw the ground was ünfit for cavalry, he cora- 
manded his knights to dismount, and in cióse array, with extended 
pikes, to march up the ascent. The Swiss observed the move- 
ment, and rushed with a shout on the advancing phalanx; but the 
waU of brass was impenetrable, and aU who attempted to break 
through were slain. 

At this juncture one man, named Amold von Winkelried, 
tumed the tide of battle ; and his ñame should be enrolled with 
those of Kodros and Leónidas, Curtius and Decius, of classic 

Seized with a noble inspiration, he rushed forward, caught in 
his arms all the pikes he could grasp, and, flinging himself on the 
ground, bore with hína the pikes sheathed in his own body. A 
gap was thu3 made in the iron wall, and the Swiss rushed in. A 
dreadful havoc ensued. The Swiss with their short swords had 
every advantage, while the Austrians could do nothing in the 
crowded phalanx with their long and cumbrous pikes. The result 
was a decided victory for the Swiss, who lost about aoo men, 
whüe the Austrian loss was ten times as great, including 600 
knights. The body of duke Leopold was found next moming on 
the field covered with wounds, and buried beneath a pile of slaia 

This was indeed a brilliant affair. The world knows no 


y bod paroQd bv AnotAm iav, he lüvDiBKd nU iüs mrm)r f scepi 300 who irere 


greater, and its anniversary is still celebrated by prayer 
thanksgiving on thé field where the balUe was fought 
swoíd, the shield, and the baiile are not the weapons of chrístian 
warfare ; but who can fail to honour the men who hold " their 
country dearer [han themselves ? " Men like Arnold von Winkel- 
ried exalt the whole race; and such victories as Morgarten and 
Sempach are sturdy preachers to oppressors, feelingly reminding 
them that the race is not always to the swift, ñor the battle to the 


John NepSmnk, the patrón Eaint oF Bohemiii, is noted for lefusing lo 
Tcveal to kmg Wencesliui the secreta of the confessíonal. This chuichttuin, 
hora flt Pomuk, in Bohemia, became vicai-general of the dlocese of Prague, 
and was chosen by Sophie (the second wife of Wenceslaus, fot her (alher- 
confesíKiT. Wenceslaos being suspidous of his queen, liied to exlorl (rom the 
churchninn the confesóos she bad made to him, but he noblyrefused lo reveal 
thein. The king pul him lo the torture, and as be still remained obdurUe, 
baji hiiii tttkan ftom the lack and casi into the rivet Moldau, His bfidy hang 
lescued was buríed with greut honour; he was cononiíed by pope Benedict 
XIII., and bis inemoiv is still chetiíhed ¡n Bohemia with peculiar ifTection. 

John von Fomuk had furthei ofTended the kaiser kmg by lesisllng his 
simoniacal practices. Wenceslaus was in the habit oF selling chuich piefer- 
ments for money which he stiuandered on bis own pleasuies. This abominaiion 
the vicar-general most stoutly rcsisted, and became a maiked man, meted for 
death as soon as a favourable oppottunity ofTeied, 

_/ai« von Panitii is gtnerally calkdJohM of Nefiomtüt, The Frnteh ni mraia 
born, aitd Ne-Pomuk tneans bom >t Pomuk. "Johit of Nepomak" is tKit- 
sense. It shmld cither be "J,aha úf Pamak" or "John Ncpomttk" 


When Wenceslaus was deposed, the clectors made choice of 
Rupert, the elector palatíne, for his successor. It was not a bad 
choice, as Rupert had a good head and stout heart ; but unfortu- 
nately he interested himself in matters which in nowise tended to 
bring into order the unsettled state of Germany. Thus in the 
early part of his short reign he invaded Lombardy to wrest from 
" ihe duke of Milán " the sovereignty he had purchased of 
Wenceslaus for 100,000 florins, but met with such a reception 
that he gladly sought the north side of the Alps. He made a 




like fruitless attempt to heal the schism of ihe church, but greatly 
offended his nobles by taking Che part of pope Gregory XII., who 
had been deposed by the council of Pisa (1409). A third failure 
was his endeavour to add Brabant to the crown. Rupert was 
always loo pinched for money lo uphold the dignity of the crown, 
or to carry out his policy ; and as far as Germany was concemed, 
his whole history may be written in four shori words — " he reigned 
ten years." 


Huneiry through t\a Rni wih ¡m ; Kiag of lh< 

-ntd r.1 Aii-la-Ch.ptlLt King of Germany titi : "" 

ID KÚIE oC Lambvdy 143' '. "^'t R<"°c K^ 

BoBN ijta. Reicned =7 Veai 

D¡«9 ai Ziuini, in Motavis, Monday, De. 

CeMimtKiTary ailh Htnty K.. «13- u" 

ItBistr Ksrl IV. í/o/*<^, Anne of SchweWniíz 

(i) María of AnÍDU. a-acca o( Hunnarv. macr 

■.y, caJIíd Ihe Me 


King of Bohemia i*rg ; crowrwt 
of lEc tloly Rgman Empire 143 

id II. 11 

: F.Tis.b«h, daughur of Mari 

1)1 : (a) Bartan et 
ü oTAIbeit n. «to 

Bitsrafhj, Lift efSigmtaid by li¡t KCntvy, Ebcrturd Windeck of Maini. 

1 aiicnd Ihc council ■ 



«neof Pnine < 

. Bcnedicl XIII., I 

Martin V. elecúd pope in llis place. Beni 

cland bv Ib. 

lo cali hii 
•W ■ni.marv.llL.^ 
iucc«ded it: 

«nd Sismi 

part to W 

all Brandcoburg. 

H of Jeanne d'Arc, a yillagc girl, of Domríiny, in Lairaine. wha 

ing Ibc licgc of ÓrJons. anii eMIiog Charles vil. Df Fmh 

-ownHianp cooHcraicdal Rhdmi, Nut year ihe was »1d u Ihe Engliah byüw 

>«ir 13S7. — Signuind elector of Braridenhurg, pawaed the electúrate lo hift conüd 

Tor his Himgarían expedition. In Ij^s, John, who held a parí of 

ifg, ealled Newmarkt, baying died. Ihal par! of ihe eleaoiate lapsed lo Signiund, 

, ind pawned it to ihe TeuloDic KnightB. Jobst, indignan! at Ihis. pawned hü 

Wniiamlhe Rich.anddyineuonafierwar^, Sigioiinddaiined th,- elTciDnK of 

!. and, in nt j, sold it all to Frederiolf, Inirgiaf of NarubtiB, the finí rf 



On the death of Rupert two kaisers were elected — the margraf 
of Moravia and the elector of Brandenburg. The former died 
within three months, and Sigmund, the brother of Wenceslaus, 
remained solé kaiser. 

Sigmund, the second son of kaiser Karl IV., was well made 
and majestic, certainly the handsomest man of the period, s 



long Román nose, brilliant blue eyes, and curly blonde hair 
flowing over his shoulders, beard and moustaches. He was well- 
educated, could converse in six languages, was quick 
repartee, and was called the " Light ofthe World," His frankness 
was winning, and he wished to do well, but marred his popularíty 
and usefulness by his selñshness, avance, and want of deter- 
nünation. Like a man wbo beholdeth "his natural face ín a 
glass : he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway 
forgetteth what manner of man he was ; " so Sigmund saw in his 
mind's eye what was required for the good of the people, made 
brave resolutions, but forgot theni as soon as they were made. 
Always hoping, never resting, successful in nolhing, specious, 
speculative, and diplomatic, full of good words, and ever short of 
money, adding crown to crown and therewithal adding debt to 
debt also. The loom he wove on was very large, but the weaver 
wanted perseverance and wanted thread, so his work was flimsy, and 
bolh warp and woof were dreadfully cntangled. 

CouNCiL OF CoNSTANCE {three-and-a-half years, 1414-18). — 
The first object of Sigmund was to put an end to the great 
schism of the Western church. This schism had lasted for forty- 
one years, and now there were three popes, one in Italy, another 
in France, and a third in Spain, all hurling anathemas at each 
other, and each thundering out curses against those who sided 
with the rival pontiffs. 

In 1414, the Council met at Constance, a city situated on the 
lake of the same ñame. It must have been a large city at that 
time, for the council brought into it at least 200,000 strangers, 
some say as many as 400,000. There were the kaiser Sigmund 
and pope John XXIII, There were 7 patriarchs, 21 cardinals, 
ío archbishops, 52 bishops, 124 abbots, and 1800 ordinary ecde- 
siatics. There were 166 princes and knights, and 150,000 retainers, 
menials, and attendants. Never was known such a brilliant 
gathering, and never, since the " Wise Men of the East " presented 1 
their gifts to the Babe of Eethlehem, had there met together such 
pride of pomp and pomp of pride. 

One finds it hard to look upon the crowns and crosiers, the 
sceplres and Iruncheons, the gilt-spurs and mitres, the purple, the 
scarlet, and the gold, the kings, the prelates, and the princes. 
assembled at Constance, and reconcile it wíth those memorable 
words ofthe Nazarene " My kingdom is not of this world." 

The three rival popes were all deposed, and Martin V. was elected 
instead. Sigmund wished the council to reform the abuses of the 
church throughout, but the councU resolved to leave that matter 





to the new pope, and only stípulated that a general council should 
meet every tenth year to remo ve abuses. 

Martin having obtained the triple crown,* dísmissed the council, 
but the decennial assemblies were never called, Thus met, and 
thus fell through, this mightymuster whích was to effect so mucli. 
Pope and kaiser, cardinals and bishops, princes and knights, all the 
tatent, rank, and dignity of Europe, brooded for nearly four yeais 
over this wind-egg ; they toiled, they debated, they met, they parted, 

andbrought forth (the ñame of this newpontiffmightsuggesta 

pun) for the " mouse " of ihis great labour was a Martin. 

John Huss the Bomemian Reformer (1376-1415). — The 
abuses of the church and conduct of the ciergy had long been 
subjects of ridicule, satire, and grief Wyclifle, in England sotne 
forty years previously, had declaimed against them, and in order 
to enlighten the people had translated the Scriptures into English, 
that they might be studied and referred to by the people. WycURe 
inveighed especially against the doctrine of transabstantíation, or 
conversión of the bread and wine, used in the eucharist, into the 
body and blood of ChrisL His disciples were called Wycliffites 
or LoUards {síe p. 123). 

John Huss of Bohemia, a man of low parentage, bnt great 
integrity, pjety, and eloquence, enlertained similar views to the 
"morning star of the reforraation." He was greatly honoured, 
and was appointed rector of the University of Prague, preacher of 
Bethlehem, and confessor of queen Sophie, second wife of king 
Wenceslaus. Huss preached eamestly ; bis great subjects were : 
the depravity of man, and salvation by faith, " Ye are saved by 
faith, and that nol of yourselves: it is the gifl of God; not of 
works, lest any man should boast." " Faith," said John Huss, 
" not faith in the virgin, not faith in the saints, ñor yet in the 
pope, ñor even in baptism, but in Christ." The church he cotn- 
pared to a bam-floor on which lies wheat and chaff, one for the 
gamer, and the oiher for the fire. 

This " heresy," of course, was galt and worrawood to those who 
believed the pope " the living spirit of the church," and the gospels 
the capul mortuum or dead letter ; who looked on baptism as the 
"new birth unto righteousness," and the church as the ark of sal- 
vation. It was, in fact, a deposing of the pope, and placing 
faith in Christ above the rites of baptism, absoluiion, the 
sacrament of bread and wine, and even of extreme unction. 
Such heresy was not to be borne, and in 1410 the archbishop of 

MIOI437.I eigmund; j, huss. 

Fragüe had the writings of Huss burnt by the public executioner. 
This persecution only increased the renown of ihe reformer, and 
diffused his doctrines abroad, but at the same time it made Huss 
more ard more obnoxious, so that he was excommunícated ; and 
when the council met at Constance, he was summoned to appear 
before ¡C False miracles were nothing, imposture was nothing, 
simony was nothing, traffic ín sin was nothing, the scandalous hves 
of the clergy were nothing, the schism of the church and the 
infamy of pope John were of small momenl compared to the 
teaching of John Wycliffe and John Huss, The kaiser gave Huss 
safe-conduct, and thereforraer, "puttinghistrust inprinces,"wentto 
the counciL Perhaps he thought his knowledge of the Scriptures 
would serve him, but had he been an ángel from heaven he could 
not havecleared himself, forhis condemnation was pre-determined, 
and his "examination" was only a trap to entangle him, if possible, 
ín his words. 

The kaiser had promised that Huss should come and go in 
safety, but the pope disregarded the imperial promíse, and com- 
mitted the reformer to prison, on the plea that no faith is to be 
kept with heretics. He was laden with chains, and kept in durance 
till the day of his condemnation. " I came hither," he said, " of 
my own free will, under the pubhc faith of the kaiser, here 
present." In so saying he fixed his eyes on Sigmund, "who 
blushed scarlet at the sudden and unexpected rebuke." 

Sentence being passed on him, John Huss was degraded, 
arrayed in a surplice, with a chalice in his hand. " Why," said 
Huss, " our divine Redeemer was clothed in a white robe, when 
the Jews mocked him in Herod's judgment hall, ere he was 
given over unto Pílate. " " Thou cursed Judas," cried the presi- 
dent of the council, "wetake this chalice from thee, in tokén that 
thou hast no part ñor lot in the blood of the redemption." Then 
stripped they him, put on his head a paper mitre on which 
three devils were painted, and round the band was the word 
" arch-heretic" " Thus we devote thy soul to the devil," said the 
presiden!; "but I," said Huss, "devote ic to the hands of Jesús." 
Sigmund, as the head of the secular powcr, then committed him 
to the elector palatíne to be led away to the stake. His paper 
cap fell ofF as he was going, but one of the soldiers picked it up, 
and replaced it on his head. Ha\-ing come to the place of 
execution,hewas chained and bound, the elector withdrewa little, 
the fire was kindled, and the martyr of Bohemia was soon suffo- 
cated by the ascending smoke. 

jEnéas Sylvius tells us, that Huss "went to the stake as to a 





S niVERS HOUSES. [D.l.; Pl-ii. 

banquet: not a word, not a look, betrayed that he feared to díe. 
He sang hymns in the flames evento the very last."* Thus fell 
John Huss, one of the most upright and blaineless of men. His 
death has branded with infamy the council of Constance, and the 
ñame of Sigmund. Huss was not a man of great parts, but his 
uprightness was withouC rcproach. He was mild in temper, eamest 
in piety, and a very Daniel in devotion. He had no mysticism, 
no vanity, no ostentalion. He was as unlike Wychffe in characler, 
as John the Evangehst to John the Baptist. Wyclifle, like the 
Baptist, was a lion of the tribe of Judah, but Huss, like John the 
Evangelist, was one of the lambs of God's fold. One thundered 
and lighlened to purify the air ; the other, like the gentle rain, fell 
in fertilising showers, which blesseth him that gives and him that 
takes. John Huss, the Bohemian martyr, died Sunday, July 7, 

Jerome of Praguf, a Bohemian Reforraer {1378-1416). — 
While Huss was at Constance, Jerome of Prague arrived. He 
was no ecctesiasttc, but a layman, a learned scholar, and Mastcr 
of Arts, He promised his friend Huss to follow him and support 
him, but, when he found how high the tide ran, his courage failed 
him and he lefc the city. Scarcely had he done so when he was 
airested and haled before the counciL He asked of what he was 
accused: "Of heresy," said the president. "What heresyí" 
demanded Jerome. " Heresy concerning the blessed Trinity," 
was the reply. Being requested to state the charge more clearly, 
the accuser said, while lecturing aC Heidelberg, he had likened 
the ho!y Trinity to a liquid in three states ; water, vapour, and ice, 
On hearing this the whole assembly cried with one voice, "Away 
with him 1 Away with him I To the stake ! To the stake ! He is 
not fit to live!" "Men and brelhren," said Jerome, "since 
nothing but my blood will satisfy you, God's will be done ! " Then 
was he delivered inlo the hands of the warders and carried to a 
dungeon, but the archbishop of Rega had him bound to one of 
the pilláis of St. Paul's church, and fed on the bread and water 

Jerome recanted, Hke Cranmer, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
140 years afterwards. As Peter cursed the Christ and swore thal 
he knew him not, so Jerome cursed Wyclifíe and Huss, and ab- 
jured their doctrines. He was now led back to prison, but I 
relieved of his heavy chains, 

On his next examination he withdrew his recantation i 


great anguísh of spirit. " Ye have confined me," he said, 
several places for 340 days. I have becn cramped with irons 
and almost poisoned with stenches ; I have been famished and 
parched w¡th thirst, buC have not been allowed lo speak iti my 
defenca I carne here under the safe-conduct of the kaiser, but 
ye are witnesses ihis day how faith has been kept with me. I 
acknowledge my cowardice with contrition and shame. I confess 
my spirit trembled with the fear of fire ; but I renounce my re- 
cantation, and declare that I look upon it as the basest act of my 
whole life. I know you will condemn me, but my death will 
leave behínd a worm whích will never die." Sentence was then 
passed on him, and he was delivered over to the secular power. 
When the paper mitre was btought forth he took it in his hands 
and placed it on his head, saying, " This is of paper ; my Lord 
and Saviour was crowned with thoms." When bound to the 
stake, the execulioner was going to light the fire from behind, but 
Jerome bade him kindle the fagots in front of him. He lived 
for fiñeen minutes in the burning maas, and died, saying, " Thou 
knowest. Lord, that I have loved the truth." 

Poggius, the secretary of pope John XXIIL, says, " His voicc 
was sweet and fuU, his action free and graceful. He made no 
appeat to the passions, but spoke dírect to the understanding. 
The greatesl character of ancient story," he continúes, " could not 
surpass him in eloquence and greatness of soul. He was truly a 
prodigious man, and the epithet is not extravagant. I was 
myself an eye-witness of the whole transaction, and I write this 
letter in all sobemess and sincerity."* Jerome of Fragüe was 
burnt to death, Tuesday, May aóth, 1416. 

The corrupt state of the Church.— One thing the council 
of Conslance has proved beyond a doubt : that the state of the 
church was as bad as it well could be. The whoie head was 
sick, and the whole heart faint. The council proposed to reform 
abuses, but all they did towards it was to write letters into 
Bohemia to stamp out the rinderpest of Hussism. 

Under the gross example of such popes as John XXHI,, and 
the clergy in general, under the thieving, lying, licentious 
exaraples of such a kaiser as Wenceslaus and the Germán barons, 
can it be wondered at that sin abounded. Sin was no sin 
in those days, provided it touched not the dogmas of the 
church. The clergy were universally accused of pride and 
avalice, of simony and trañicking in sin, of the most flagrant 


abuse of ihe sacraments, and the grossest ignorance of Scripture, 
of arrogance and cruelt)', of gluttony, drunkenness, and sins 
which one dares not so much as narae ; but they were guiltless of 
the sins of Huss and Jerome, " faith in Christ," and belief thai 
the gospels are "able to make us w¡se unto salvation." 

Bemard, a French abbot, preaching to the council of Con- 
stancc, declainied unsparingly against the vices of the clergy. 
" With rare exceptions," he said, " the council itself was an 
assembly of Pharisces, whose religión consísted of masks and 
mummery, but whose lives were whited sepulchres. The catholit 
faith has been reduced to mere outside show ; the hope of l!te 
baptised is in waier and oil, not in piety and good moráis ; the 
love of God is unknown, and the love of one's neighbour a dead 
letter. Falsehood pervades the laity, avarice the clergy, maüce 
and íniquity the prelates, There is no sanctity even at ihe 
pope's-court, but law-suits are its delíght, and impostura its chief 
aim." This is bold language, and was spoken to the council, bot 
like our own confession, " We have erred and strayed Hke lost 
sheep ; we have foUowed too much the deviccs and desires of oor 
own hearts .... and there is no health in us," the woris 
gave no offence, touched no pet dogma, but were rather regarded 
as indications of humility and sincerity, a sort of flatlering 
unction, as if the great magnates had said, Here are we, the 
princes of the land, the great ones of the earth, yet see how vre 
abase ourselves by confessing our sins I As tíie pope humbles 
himself by wasbing the feet of beggars, and calUng htmself the 
" servant of servants," so we bow in dust and ashes, and confess 
ourselves "miserable sinners." This pride of humility is quite 
consistent with worldlmess and indulgence in iniquity. It touches 
not the apple of the eye, it is not " Go, and sin no more," bat, 
we have confessed and received absolution, and are now ready to 
begin again. 

The Germán memorial to the council was in the same strain as 
the sermón of the French abbé. It complained that the popes 
had arrogated the judgment of all causes, civil as well as eocle- 
siastic ; that they had made a sliding scale of sin, an ad valomn 
duty on wrong-doing ; that for money a Barabbas might get into 
the priesthood, a Caiaphas rise to its highest honours. Money 
was the lever that moved the world, the passport to Paradise, the 
key that unlocked the gates of heaven. The rich had the pro- 
mise of the life that now is and of that which is to come ; but 
poverty is the unpardonable sin. It was Lazarus who would die 
and be buried, and Dives who would be borne into Abraharo's 



bosom. The words of our Redeemer were reversed ; not " How 
hardlyshall a rich man," but how hardlj' shall a/ííorman, "enter 
into lile etemal." It is easier for a carne! lo pass through the 
eye of a needle than for a paor man to enter into the kingdom 
of heaven. 

This frightful state of things went on for nearly a century- 
and-a-half longer, and then carne the reformation. We, in this 
reformed age, look on that gteat earthqualte as a contest between 
the teaching of Luther and the teaching of the Church of Rome 
as it now ¡s; but, casting an eye on the picture given above, and 
that picture exa^erated by another century of coiruption, we 
shall form other ¡deas of the Herculean task of cleansing such an 
Augean stable, such "a cage of unclean birds." 

The HussiTE War (1419-1436). — Tbe Eohemians, indignant 
at the murder of Huss and Jerome, organised themselves into 
a religious confederacy, bound to maintain : (i) The free preach- 
ingof the Gospel; (2) the adminístrationof the Eucharist, in both 
kinds, to laymen as well as clergymen; (3) the separation of the 
clergy from all secular employments ; and (4) the punishment of 
offencea in clergymen as well as laymen by the civil powers, Ee- 
cause these Bohemian reformers gave the "cup" to the laityin the 
Lord's Supper, they were called Calixtines (3 syl.') or chaUce-mcn, 
from ealix, a Latín word, meaning a chalice, Processions were 
made through the streels, in whích banners were displayed, bear- 
ing the device of a chalice. One day, as one of these processions 
was passing through Fragüe, some one threw a stone at it from 
the Guildhall; instantly a rush was made into the conncil 
chamber, thirteen of the magistrates were thrown into the streets, 
and the excited chalice-men made a raid on the papists, pulling 
down their churches and convents, pillaging and destroying their 
propeity, and killing or torturing the most obnoxious of the 
priests and monks. 

About this time died king Wenceslaus (1419}, and the heir to 
the Bohemian throne was bis brother, the kaiser Sigmund ; but 
he was hateful to the chalice-men, for breaking his bond of safe- 
conduct ; and the Bohemíans refused to acknowledge him as 
their king. The reforméis prepared to resist by forcé, and chose 
Zisca, the " One-eyed," for their leader ; Sigmund also pre- 
pared to assert his rigbts, and from this moment the conflict 
assumed the character of a politico-religious war. Zisca built 
strong fort on mount Tabor, near Prague, and henee his 
adherents were called Taborites (3 jy/-)) I*"' ''^^ more modérate 
of the reformers contínued to cali themselves Calixtines or 



14* DIVERS HOUSES. [D.ni Ft.tk 

chalice-men. The chalice-men confined their platform to ihe 
four anieles staied above, but ihe Taborites, like our own 
Puritans, insisted ihat nothing should be enforced as an 
anide of faith or religious rite which is not enjoined in the New 

In 1420 Sigmund was ready, and at the head of 40,000 
Gennans, invaded Bohemia; but Zisca, with 4000 Taborites 
utterly routcd the invaders. Zisca was the mosi experienced 
general of the age. He had greatly distinguished himself in (he 
wars against the Teutonic knights, when he lost his right eye; 
afierwards he joined the Austrians against the Turks, and then the 
Enghsh against the French, His íngenuity was endless ; he was 
a first-rate military engineer, and knew the last devices of warfare. 
He armed his followere with smail íirc-amis, then very little 
known, and protected his infantry against the Germán knights by 
banicades fornied by his baggage wagons. 

Añer the defeat of Sigmund the chalice-men wished to end 
the war, and oflered the throne lo the king of Poland and others; 
but Zisca was not 'satisfied, and the reforaiers spüt into two 
pañíes. The chalice-men left the army, and the whole brimt and 
burden of the war fell on the Taborites, 

In 142 1 Zisca lost his remaining eye at the siege of Rabí 
Castle ¡ but though quite blind he continued to lead the 
Taborites from victory to victory, almost without parallel in the 
whole course of history, His two greatest achievements were 
the rout of Sigmund's second Invading anny, when 2000 Ger- 
mans were drowned in the Iglau (January i8th, 1412); and his 
victory at Aussig over Frederick the Warlike, of SaJ(ony, and the 
Elector of Brandenburg. It this latter conflict the first onset of 
the Taborites was repulsed. Zisca in his can carne iip to tiie 
fugitives, and after thanking them for their services, added, "lí 
now, my brothers, you have done your utmost, let us retire." 
Thus addressed they made another attack, and that with sudí 
fury, such stern resolution and confidence, that the Saxons fled 
on all sides, leaving 9000 dead upon the field It was magnili- 
cent. It was marvellous. The stars in their courses fought foí 
the reformers. Sigmund was dumfounded He felt that the 
conquest of Bohemia was hopeless, and proposed a treaty oí 
peace. Ey this treaty the Hussites were to be allowed full reli- 
gious libeny, and Zisca was to be their govemor. The terms were 
ampie, but the blind oíd chief died soon afterwards of the plague 
(October i2th, 1424). " Sic vos non vobis," might have beenis- 
scribed on his tombstone. ' -^^ 


eigmund; procop. 

Tradilion Bays the blind olí! hcro ordered hia sltin to be tanned and | 
made Inlo a, dtum-liead, that even in dcalh his voice miglit spirit on 
Hussitea to victory. The tale is chame lerístic, Yike all ather populai myths. 
Byron twice tefeis to it in his Wírmr and hís Age of Bronní. In the latler 
puem, speoldng of Bonaparte, he says — 



Le lisc^i drUAL" 

*,* Zvca, wns cnlled the "One-eyed," having lost hia right eye nt the 
ballle of Tannenbcrg ; but the woíd " ZÍ5Ca" does not mean ant-eytd, as we 
are generally told it does. It is a familj ñame, and had beca so for leveial 

II AnothcT anecdote is worth metitioning : Wencealaua wag greaüy afraid of 
his chamberlain, One day a servant ¡nadvertently announced him, -wben the 
the king shouted, " Zisca I Zisca thcre I Yon lie, you varlet I " So saying, 
he drew his sword, inlending to Gtab the stave, but the paraxysm of rage 
brought on a fit, which proved the dealh of the worn-out dibauehé. 

H Procop the Eldee and the Less (1424-34), — On the 
death of Zisca, Procop the Eider, sometimes called " the Holy," 
was chosen leader of the Taborites ; and for three years his 
daring attacks on the Austríans are more like romance than sober 
liistory. Joined by Procop ihe Less, he offered successful resis- 
tance to three Germán armies, levied to extermínate the 
" Bohemian heretics." He not only resisted the ¡nvaders, but 
drove them with fire and sword Ihrough Silesia, Moravia, and 
Hungary, as far as Presburg. 

In 1419, Procop made inroads into Germany as far as Magde- 
burg, and returned not only laden with spoils, but with a host of 
captive nobles and knights. 

Next year {1430), at the head of fifty thousand men-at-arms, 
and half as many horsemen, Procop again broke into Misnia, 
Franconia, and Bavaria ; bumt ido castles, destroyed 1,400 
vülages and hamlets, and carried home an enomious araounl of 
treasures. Sigmund wished for peace, but Procop rejected the 
terms offered. 

Another crusading atmy was utterly routed by the Hijssites 
in 1431, This victory was foUowed by others in Silesia, Hun- 
gary, and Saxony. A council was then summoned at Basel, and 
the treaty called the Bastí Campad was passed, allowíng the 
Hüssites the use of the cup in the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, Procop was not satisfied wilh this concession ¡ he de- 
manded that the Bible, and nolhing but the Bible, should have 
any authority in religious doctrines, rites, sacramenta, and dis- 
cipline ; and where the Bible is silent eveiy man should be free 
to act on his own judgment. The Chalice-men, on the other 
hand, acccpted the compact, joined Ihe Gerraans, and succeeded 


in defeating the Taborites in 1434, when both the Procops werc 
slain. With these brave leaders the party ceased to exist. Those 
of them who survived joined the Bohemian Brethren, and boih 
were ultimately merged Jn the Moravians or United Brethren. 

As forlhe Calixtines or Chalice-men, they concinued for a time 
the dominant party ¡n Bohemia, but gradually lapsed from Iheii 
four tenets, and at the Reformation were lost in the great 
Protestant party. 

At the fall of Procop the Eider and the Less, Sígmund was 
recognised kíng of Bohemia ; but he survived only a. year, and 
died at the age of sixtynine, having reigned somewlmt more than 
twenty-seven yeare {a.d. 1437}. 

Sjjjmund wai the luí of tht Don-Ha1uburB;en. 


No lileraiy pr<^ess was made ín Gennany in the ñrst half of the fiíiecDlh 
cenlury, and áll Ihe aalhors whose [lames have tranapired are three oi biu 
chronicleis who wiote ¡a Latin: Windeck, who wrote the Bife of Siemiind, 
ha£ been aJready mentíoned (p, 134), and Iwo more may be added :— Thietij de 
Niem, in Wcstphalin ( * -1416), Ihe papal secretary, who has left a. hisEory 
of Ihe Schiims of Ihe Popa; and Gobelinus Persona, also of Westphalii 
(1358-1420) who wrole a Universa! Chroniclc colled Cosms-dremiutrt, 

Kut piintuig was b^¡i][i, and befoie the cióse of the ceotuí; ils searchiiie qpe 

" Dan hía light throuch every rnilty hole, 
>V-),cn laureen, Ireiuoiu. and dct^Ied Hns 

ghe closkof lC\¿nl bcInE plucked from off 
¡U lund lUrk nakcd. Irembling V. Ihccu 

HOUSE OF AUSTRIA (1437-1740) 

3 KlNG 
Alberl II. Ihe IllmUÍQü^Prntcrick 111. ihc Pacific, 
joscph I. Üio VicIorioiB, K^ri VI. 


aad IlL, 

tAlso called ihe " Cravt" and tht " Magnaniraoui,") aon-m-h.w of Sgmiuid. ^| 
ThikEsíAuíir^. 1404: King or Hungary, /«wuy, 1438; Klzig dT Bohemia, m ^m^B 

Bo.N .394- ReICNMJ a YaAB-AND-A-HAUf, M3B-1435. ^1 

Ditd al LanEcndorfr, Toesday, Ocu 

" rí' íí*'' "^^ ^'1 *"° ^"^ '™" ™*^e™''^H 

FiUhtr, Alberl IV. Iho Pious, dulic 
dnlts of AuHria. 

(Married I4ii.> 
Ckild, Ladiilaui ihc Postliumous (ho 

■X Austria, -herefon kaiser Albert II. vat Albnt T. 
Signnod and his fir« wife, Mary qu«. of Hungaij. 

TI añer the deaih of hb father), _ 


Albert, duke of Austria, son-üi-law of the late kaiser, was 
elected his successor. He was a prince of great promise, but 
died in the second year of his reign from dysentery, biought on 
by eating a melón. 

CouNciL OF Basel (1431-1449). — The council of Constance 
had left the refonn of abuses to the new pope, and in December, 
1431, Martin V. convened at Basel an ecclesiastical council for 
the purpose. The asserably was desirous of conciliating the 
Hussites, but Martin would not listen to such a thing; and when 
the council persisted, he sent his légate to dissolve it The 
assembly refuaed to be dissolved, and passed a decree that a 
general council is supreme, with power to bind even the sovereign 
pontiff himselC This was carrying malters with a high hand, and 
Martin stoutly resisted. He ñashed forth his anath^mas; he 
published " bull " after " bull ; " but the council, inslead of heeding 
them, cited the pope to its bar to answer for himselC Death, 
however, removed him to another tribunal, and Eugenius IV. was 
pope in his stead (i430' 

The council now carried out their conciliatory measures by 
granting the Hussites the use of the cup in the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper; the new pope ratified the concession (December 1 5, 
1433)1 ^nd the ChaÜce-men accepted ¡L It has been seen akeady 
that the acceptance of this concession created a división among 
the Bohemian refonners which proved their ruin. 

The council next proceeded to limit the prerogativea of the 
popes, and with this object in view toofc from them the right of 
electing to the stalls and benefices of cathedra! and collegiate 
churches ; restricted their grane of indulgences ; removed from 
their court the punishment of ecclesiastics who had violated the 
law of the land ; prohibited the Festival of Fools ; and laid down 
fixed laws for the future election of popes. This was laying the 
axe to the root of the tree indeed. Eugenius was amazed ; and 
in the blindness of his rage so far committed himself that the 
council cited him to its bar for forgery, perjury, simony, heresy, 
and other ofTences. Eugenius answered this ctCation by calling 
an opposition councIL So the council of Basel deposed him, and 
appointed Félix V. pope in his stead (1438). 

Kaiser Albert II. sided with the council against Eugenius, and 
had he lived, much of the woric of Luther would have been taken 
from his hands ; but Albert died, and his successor, Frederick III., 
took the part of Eugenius. Kaiser and pope were too potent a 
power to be withstood ; the position of the council grew perilous, 
and its members were obliged to consult theii own safety. Again 




death stepped in the gap. Eugenius died ; and the next pope, 
Nicholas V., beíng of a more conciliatoiy lemper, granted a 
general amnesty ; so the matter drop¡>ed, and the refonns of ihe 
council of Basel carne to nothing (1449). 

Albert II. was of the eldet bnmch of the House of Habsburg, fourlli in 
descent froni kaiser Albert I. Karl VII. (son oí Maiia-Therésa) was a Ilila- 
bui^i on bis motbei's side onl]'. 


(A helleí lille would be [he " Indolínt." Called by tome híilorinni Frederide IV.) 
Kínff oT the Romaní (^.í. kiqg c]«c(). 144a ; crowned al Aii-b-Chapelle wt(H Itie sdlvn- erenn 
oí GenDony, i44> ; crowiwd at Rc;fnF Kme of Lombardy, 1452, and ihrce ómvs aítcr^ 
wirU Kaiici of che Holy Romm Empire. 

Düd Bt LídUt Mondcy, Au^tt ig, '493i fiftcd 78. (Hfi d¡«d of indigesciún of a n^ga, Eka 
hu predecessor). 

Cmltmffnnitialli Hnry VI., i4!u-t46i ; EJwanl IV., (461-1463 : Edmar^ V- uBj; 
Rklutrílll., .481-1485 ; Ht") y"- mSs-iS'^ Al" •«"« i""" -tV. ^ />n>i 
Ciarla ti Témírairt e/ Burprnilri •>'^ <«''* f'cnU<¡Mmi and IsairiU ñfSfaiH. 

Falin-.-Rn,, - 

amtd iho"Iron-hearte4."_ ^iiíter, Cimbuigis,» PoTiA 
tVi/t, EIcDciore (muried 1459, died 1467). She wu the daughier of EdvanJ king <i 

CAi'iUrn.Usiiinilliiui, whoiucceeded hliru Thlswu the archdnke of Auitría, who mama! 
Mane, hcireum of Buií^ndy Aod tbc NethorUndit daughier of Charles le Témírvn of 
Burgundy, who wai killed la ihe siege of Naocy^ Aiier hja deaih diameodi w«lb 
■bove ¿30,000 ncre picked up from ihe fíeld^ One now adomi the pope't liara, one wa 
the famoiu Sancy díaiñond, aaoLhcr ivas Hld to Heiiry VIH. foriTsaoo. Cun^nndiu 

Sicntaiy, JE.atas Sylvius PiecDlomliii, afterwsrdi pope uqdu the name and tille of Fio U. 

1444. Death of Ladiilai», hicg of Hungsry. 

, Albert the Powhumoiu choscn king of Hungary, but the Itaiser kceps Alben and ihí 
■ Su Sicphcn in hU ownt«plng. 

:towD of Su Si 

lie firit unnli 
Sqh^fler. I 

lof Ladií 
n of John ■ 

it had alfcady pribtcd thr 

I la give ap ihe eniwa of'SL Siepfaeti. 
kaiser, wilh hii wife and child, brinc held priionen in Vlenna h^ mne icyoIicb. ir 
wl a( libertj by Podiebrad, for whlch. aervice the kaiser recDgfUzeb hini ai kl^ l¿ 

I4£6. FlBce of Tham, by which ihe Teulonic ktdghls are obligcd to give up ikll the iiiiiliill 

istria (the kaiier'i son) wilh Marie, heÍRn tt 

jt of Proüla to Cosimi 
Tiage of Maximilian sm 
HurgundyCthe daughter 

Ordaioed Utiivcnal) wi 


Frederick III. was a well-meaning prince enough, but far too 
indolent and "pacific" for the times. He was a square ; 
a round hole, and by no means ihe right man in the right place. 
His rcign was the longest of all the kaisers of Germany; but 
though events of great pith and moment were passing before him, 
like Gallio, the deputy of Achaia, " he cared for none of those 
things," He had no talent for niling, and deüghted far more in 
his cabbages than in the camp, in his apple-orchard than in his 
subjects. He was also extremely parsimonious, and refused to 
spend his prívate fortune ín maintaining the pomp of royalty. 

OvERTHROW OF THE TuRKS (145Ó). — The Turks took Con- 
stantinople in 1453, and advancing along the Danube laid siege 
to Belgrade, intending to make themselves masters of Hungary, 
John Capistrano, an Italian monk, preached up a crusade against 
them, and put himself at the head of a rabble rout just as the 
sultán Mahomet II. was before Belgrade. Being joined by John 
Huniadés Corvínus, the Turks were forced to retreat, and 
Huniadés with his cavalry falling on the fugitives made a great 
slaughter. The Turkish camp, with all its stores and much spoil, 
fell into the hands of the conquerors, and above ao,ooo were 
left dead upon the field. This victory was achieved by an Italian 
monk and a private gentleman of Hungary, but Kaiser Frederick 
III. had no part nor !ot in the matter, It was a great victorj-, 
big with important consequences ; but, sad to say, both Capistrano 
and Huniadés died before the year had expired. They were 
fcver-stricken by the putrid exhalations which rose from the 
bodies of the slain, and slept the sleep whích knows no waking. 

Kaiser Frederick III. besieged m Vienna (1462).— As 
the kaiser took no part in the great events of the day, he com- 
manded no respect and inspired no terror. Both Hungary and 
Bohemia had selected kings for their respective countries, but the 
kaiser would not acknowledge tbeni, and even refused to give up 
the crown of St. Stephen, which was in his keeping. A revolt 
was organised against him ¡ his brother Albert did what he could 
to add fuel to the fire; and one day the poor, spiritless emperor 
found himself, with his wife and son, held prisoners by his Austrían 
subjects in his palace at Vienna. 

In this emergency Podiebrad {3 sj/.) the kíng elect of Bohemia, 
carne to his rescue, and succeeded in patching up a reconciliation 
between the two brothers ; but Albert died the year following. 
For this service Frederick consented to acknowledge Podiebrad 
as king of Bohemia ; but the year following pope Pió II. excom- 
. municated him because he favoured the Hussítes, cited him lo 



Rome, deposed him, and gave Bohemia to Matthias Corrinus, 
the son of Huniadés, nitli whom he carríed on war tíll his 
death, early in the year of 1471. 

Battle of NCrnberg (1456). — Nümberg, in Bavaria, was in 
the fifteenth ceniury one of the most fiourishing cities of Germanj-, 
consequently it was an object of hatred to the cavaliers. These 
haughty nobles had no objection to lowns so Íong as they re- 
mained abject and administered to their wants ; but inimediately 
they claimed independence they became rivals, and, as Cie^ai 
said, " No world two suns can bear." 

So far back as 1449 war had broken out between these rival 
powers. Seventeen of the chief nobles of the empire, amongst 
whom was Albert, elector of Brandenburg, the " Achules of 
Germany," had leagned together to stamp out ihe obnoxious city; 
but sixty other towns determíned to support Nümberg, and cast ia 
their lot with ihe oppressed against the oppressor. 

Skirmish followed skirmish, devastation followed devastation. 
Eighl times the cavaliers prevailed, aoo towns and villages were 
burnt by them to the ground ; but the sturdy burghers were not 
to be put down. Luce Ant^us* they fell, but rose from the eanh 
with renewed strength, They might be infant staies ; but they 
were infants like Hercules, who strangled serpents even in his 
eradle. Eíght times the cavaliers triumphed- Eight times Mrs. 
Partington might sweep back the advancing tide of the Atlantic; 
but what then ? on it flowed, retreating it is true, but advancing 
still So was it with the free towns. No power of man could 
stop their progress. It was ihe tide of civilisation, slow but sure, 
and every recoil was only the precm'sor of a. substantial adyance. 
Thus, although for eight times the cavaliers had swept them back, 
in 1455 they made a ninth attempt at independence, and tlús 
time led captivity captive. Albert was taken prísoner, and ere his 
ransom was accepted the cities had vindicated their freedom. 

The batüe nf Nümbeig !s especially famous, 

Hans Rosenblul, a maslersinger, aod one of Ü . . 

Gennany, He was aa hetiüdic ptxinter of Nücabeig, and took part in Ibe 

Charles the Bold of Burgundy. — At this period wss 
living Charles the Bold, ofBurgundy.t Undoubtedly brave, bul 


hjs courage was alÜed to rashness. He rushed upon danger fronj 
the love of excitement ; and flung himself into difficulties because 
he despised Üiem. His wealth was enormous, his provinces 
thickly populated, his army well-diaciplined, his knights the 
noblest in the land, his court the most magnificent ; he was lavish 
in expenditure, splendíd in his appointments, but, like Corio- 
lánus, "he was vengeance proud, and loved not the common 

This haughty prince had one child, a daughter named Maiy, 
and the avaricious Frederick, kaiser and king of Germany, wished 
to secure the prize for his son Maximilian. In 1475, the two 
young nobles were betrothed, the lad was sixteen and the lady two 
years older. They certainly were well suited to each other, and 
though the alliance was one of policy, it was also one of love. 
Mary was a beautiful hazel-eyed maiden, modest, gentle, and affec- 
tionate, Maximilian was an interesting lad, inteliigent, brave and 
chivalrous, well-formed, and, though not handsome, courteous, 
graceful, and lender-hearted. Mary was the greatest heiress in 
Europe, and her betrothed the heir-presumptive to the largeat 

In 1476, Charles died: like a mad bull he had rushed upon the 
Swiss, because they had dared to be men ; and the " insolent cow- 
herds," as he called them, had not only routed his army once and 
again, but laid the duke low, even in the dust His orjihan 
daughter was still a girl, a timid, unpretending girl, " frail as the 
glass in which she viewed herselfi" Louis XI. of France was 
marching against her to spoil her lands, probably to take her 
captive. What was to be done? She threw herself at once under 
the protection of Maximilian, their marriage was consummated 
without delay, and to attack her then would have becn to declare 
war, not against an unprotected girl, but against the powerfal empire 
of Germany {1477). 

By this alliance Brabant, Luxembourg, Franche comlé, rte comlí Paltttin, 
Flandeis, Hainault, Namuí, Artois, Holland, Zealand, the moiquisate of 
Antwerft and the seignoty uf Mechlin, were added to ihe archdachy of | 
Austria. ! 

Mary of Burgundy did not long survive. About four yeais after her mairiage , 
she was Ihrown from het hoisc in a bawking expedition, and died, 

In isr* '' the Union of Utrecht, seven of these territorfes were taken from 
Austria, and erected íoto "The Seven Uuiled Provinces," of HoUand. In 
1678, Franche comté was united to France. The rest of Maiy's possessaions 
remained lo Austria till the " Peacc of Campo Formio and Luneville," in iSoi. 

Prussia and Brandenburg. — [Brandenburg is now a province 
of Prussia, lying, roughly speaking, between the river Oder on the 




eost, and the river Elbe on the west It contains Berlín the 
capital of ihe present Germán empire, Potsdam the " VersaiUes of 
Prussia," Frankfort, Stettin, and so on. Prussia proper lies to the 
east of Brandenburg, and contains Dantzig, Kónigsberg, Tilsit, 
Marien-werder, Thorn, and olher cities or towns less known to the 
English reader. 

Brandenburg is now a provínce of Prussia, but at one time 
Prussia was an appendage of Brandenburg, so that in speaking of 
the early history of Prussia, we must begin with Branderiburg, and 
graft in Prussia; but the gran has outgrown the stock, has become 
the tree, and the stock has lost its ideniity. 

The first notice we have of Brandenburg is from a Greek com- 
missioner, named Pythéas, looking-out for new channels of trade, 
while Alexander the Great was pursuing his Indian conquests 
(b.C 327). It was then a covintry of swamps and woods, maishf 
jungles and sandy wÜdemesses ; inhabited by liears and wxjlves, 
otters and wild swine ; with a few shaggy barbarians of the Sueric 
type, tall, blonde, stem of aspect, of great strength, and formidable 
in ñght 

From this time we have no further notice of it for 300 yean, 
when Drusus Germanlcus erected pillars on the banks of the £lb^ 
under pretence of havíng taken possession of the landL 

In the fourth century, the Goths or Germans moved in tbrongs 
southward, and continued so to do for two centuries, so that the 
oíd Baltic countries were left well-nigh desoíate, " as a cottage in 
a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers," and new 
emigrants from the East, of Sclavic origin, found no difEcidty in 
gaining a footing there. In 928, Henry the Fowler mardied 
across the frozen bogs and took Brandenburg,* at that time a town 
of clay huts, fortified by a ditch and sod-walL His son, Otto the 
Great, founded the cathedral, and took great interest In the con- 
versión of the inhabitants. 

§ Let US now look to Prussia proper, or Preussen, to the eatí 
of Brandenburg. All that we know of the original inhabitants is 
that they were herdsmen and fishers, fiery and strong-boned, a 
mixed race of Wends, I.,etts, and Goths. The country was famous 
for amber, a petrified resin distilled from pines. Long after 
Polandwas christianized, the oíd Pmssians retained their primitive 
faith, and the christian stales felt a strong desire for thdl 

The first missionary to Preussen was Adalbert of Prague, a 
zealous hot-headed ecclesiastic, who threw up hia bishopric to 


preach ihe gospe! to these barbarians. He had not been long in 
the land when a loüt struck h¡m across the shoulders with an oar, 
and stunned him; but he afterwards forced his way itito the 
" Place of Oak-trees," the Holy of Holies of these worshippers of 
Odin, which it was death for any one to enter, but the priests 
alone. The ministering Druids hustled him out, and so belaboured 
him with blows that he died. Of course he fell in the orthodox 
fashion of a cross, with his two arms extended wide, and it need 
scarcely be added that numberless miracles are saíd to have pro- 
ceeded from his tonib at Gnesen, in Poland. 

Litüe more was done towards the conversión of these heathens 
till the thirteenth century, when the Teutonic kníghts established 
among them the "religión of peace" at the point of the sword, 
and in 1283 found themselves the undisputed masters of the 
country. They foundcd the cities of Thorn, Kuhn, Marien-werder, 
Memel, and Kónigsberg ; colonised the country with Germana ; 
encouraged agriculture and trade ; and laid in Preussen the foun- 
dation of a well-ordered and prosperous state. The unhappy wars 
between the Poles and these knights led, in 1466, to the "Treaty 
of Thom," by which all the westem part of Preussen was ceded to 
Poland, and the rest was held by the knights as a fief of that 

§ Retuming now to Erandenburg, In the tweifth century it 
formed part of the great duchy of Saxony held by Henry the 
Proud. This haughty noble refused to do bomage to Konrad III. 
and the kaiser confiscated his fiefs. Bavaria he gave lo Leopold 
margraf of Austria, and Saxony to Aibert the Bear. On the 
death of Henry the Proud, Saxony was divided into two parts, 
one of which was given to Henry's son, and the other was retained 
by Aibert; but,in compensation for the loss of Bavaria, the residue 
of the fief was erected into an electorate — that is, one of the seven 
principalities which elected the reigning sovereign of Germany. 

Aibert the Bear was a really great man. He was called the 
" Bear," not that he was bearisí» in manners, or in temper, but be- 
cause his cognisance was a bear. He was a fine tall fellow with a 
quick eye, and so well-featured that he was familiarly called the 
" Handsome." He had a good head and a strong hand, was a famous 
manager, a capital soldier, and saw instinctively not only what 
could be done, but when to stop, Pushing his way among the 
Wends, he seized the town of Brandenburg, called his territory 
the Mark of Brandenburg, and was thus first margraf to that 
frontier. As Henry the Fowler was the Romulus of Brandenburg, 
Aibert the Bear was its second Romulus. He died ¡n his castle 



at the age of síxty-five, in 1 1 70, the very year thal Thoma&4-Becitt 
was murdered in Canterbury catheáraL 

On the estinction of Albect's Une, the electoratc of Erandenburg 
carne by purchase to Fredericlt, count of Hohenzollern and burgraf 
of Nümberg, a remóte kinsman of the Bear. Kaiser Sigtnund sold 
it him in 1412, and the towns, harried and plundered, gladíy 
paid him homage, but Ihe barons and gentry, who líked better to 
"live by the saddle," turned sullen. Frederick was patieat with 
them for a time, but as they coniinued in theír evil courses, he re- 
solved to make an example, and blew up two or three of tbeir 
castles with a cannon called " Heavy Peg." The lawless gentiy, 
terrified by these vigorous measures, abandoned their evil ways, and 
the electorate has evet since gone on peacefuUy and well {see p. 134). 

Frederick of Erandenburg was a very master in the art of 
goveming ; just and patient, brave and resolute, honest and ira- 
partial, active and vJgilanL He was square-headed, mild-looking 
but solid; there was a twinkle of mirth in his eye, and a Une of 
humour on his mouth, but his high-bridged nose showed that he 
was born to command and be obeyed. He presided over 
Erandenburg some thirty years, and died in 1440, at the age of 
sbtty-eight, a few months after kaiser Frederick III. had succeeded 
to the imperial crown. 

The next elector of Erandenburg was Frederick II., son of the 
preceeding, as good a governor as his father. He was only twentjr- 
aeven at his accession, but when certaín of the burghers, presuming 
on his youth, tried to take some liberly with htm, he showed 
his teeth so unmistakably ihaC he was nickiíamed " Iron-tooth." It 
was this elector who buílt, for his own residence, the Schloss at 
Berlín, but his chief glory was the purchase of Neutnarkt, in 
1455. of the Teutonic knights. Frederick Iron-tooth abdicated 
in 1470, in favour of his brother Albert, called the "Achillesof 
Germán y." 

Elector Albert was taíl, fiery, and resolute. His battles were 
numerous but of no historical importance. He díed ín 1486, 
aged seventy-two, a few months after the baltle of Bosworth-field, 
where Richard III. fell, and the War of the Roses was brought 
to an end. 

§ Again going back lo Prussia, in ordet to join it with Enw- 
denburg, we must pass to the year 1525, when the Grand Mastet 
of the Teutonic Order and many of his knights became Lutherans. 
The country then made most rapid strides in wealth and well- 
being ! schools were established, the University of Kónigsberg was 
founded, the Bíble was translated, printed, and circulated, and 

ever since Prassia proper has remained eminently protestan! ¡n it3 | 
failh and practica 

In 1609 elector John Sigmund of Brandenbtirg married Anne, 
daughter of the insane duke of Pnissia, by which alliance all 
eastern Pnissia became incorporated wíth Erandenbui^, and the 
electorate was doubled in extent, 1618. 

Frederíck Wüham, called the Great Elector, raised the country 
to the rank of a great European power, and elector Frederíck III. 
in 1701, receiving the title of "King of Pnissia," raised his 
electorate to a kingdom, From this epoch, wilh a short interval 
when Napoleón, the spoíler of nalions, reduced Germany to a 
geographical expression, Prussia has gone on steadily increasing 
in wealth and power. In 1866, in a war of seven weeks duraiion, 
it overmastered Austria, and in 1870, ín the seven months' war, 
it triumphed over France in a series of battlea and sieges, and 
William king of Prassia, during the siege of Paris, added the words 
"Emperor of Germany " to his former title] .* 

BrandenbEirg was díclarEd an electorate in i^sfi, b; Ihc Goldea BuE], buL we may pas£ ovcf 

» Fnduícle 11^, IroD-tooth, 1445-1471. 

JT An»it, Iha AchiJlQ of GermaiiT, mzS-mBS- 

nr John, nunained Ibe Cicero of Gemían^, 1486-149;. 

QT Joadüm J., 1499-1934- 

3r Joachün 11.. who caLablished LutheTaDÍWi 1534-1571 

■ of Albcti Fredeti 

El«tor JohnSigmnod.dudiyrfPmBsiauDitedifiíai i6oa-r5ig. 
Eleclor GnngB mjliam, ifiíg. 

Elector Frcdenclt WUIkm, called The Great Electtn. iei9-i<1B8. 
Elector Frederíck III. called hU dominión a kingdom, .;oi, and asaumed tlie [ 
of Frederick I. Lingof PrUBTkia s6SB, 1701-L74I. 

lormally aboliihed lili iSud. 

Death of Kaiser Frederíck III. — The closing years of ] 
Kaiser Frederick the Pacific were his quietest and best. He was [ 
fond of melons, and like his predecessor, Albert II., died from 
indigestión, brought on by the too free índulgence in this fiuit i 
He had reigned above fifty-three years, and had passed his 
seventy-eighth birthday. 

It was Frederick the Pacific who took for his device the five 
vowels A. E. I. O. XJ., an anagram, which means that Austria Ís 
destined to be the empire of the worid ; but after the seven weeks' 


war in r866, when Austria was obliged to succumb to Pmssia, liie 
anagram was wittily perverted into A ustría's E mpire h 
O verthrown U tterly. 

In Ulin : /I mlria Eit ¡mttralx 

laGtnana: Allts Erértich la 

InEngUih: Axítríat Emfirc !i 

",• The Austrian Lip. — Frcderick III, was Ihe first of tie Habsbms 
Icoiser's who hml what iscatled the "Au&tñan lip," ihat is, a. protiutting LDiln' 
javr, vfith heavy lip dísinclined lo shul. Ho cot it from his mothei, CíB' 
burgis, a Polish pimccss, 'Uughlcr of ihe duke of Misovia. 

Orbi UnivtTv. 

Orstrrrritk UMktrlia. 

O rdaiHtd l/nhunaL 


The end of the reign of Frcderick III. and the accession of hís son M»¿ 
milian in 1493, bring us to the cIom; of the ñfteenth ccntuiy ; this ¡s alratk 
cióse of the Míddle Ages, and ihe beginníng of Modera History. TUisOl 
be easily temembered, inasmueh as medieval hialory closes with Ihe InycDliufi 
of pñnLing and discovery of America ; and modem history begins with Lk 
Lutheran Keformalion. 

Ptinlinp, in a sense, had been known loog before the íiíleenth cenlury, bol jl 
was prínline by blocks or tablels : that is, an entíre poge or entire woíd heing: 
ciit on e. tabtet, an impres5Íon*was taken off in rouch the same way as a wooil- 
engraving. This ia not, strictly speakíng, prinlinc, Ihough it may lie callcj 
"block printing." The greal merit of the invenUon of printing was Ujalof 
forniing each lelleí and each stop in a sepárate piece. 

This very simple, yet marvellous idea, is said to have first occurred W 
Lauíence Koster, in 1420, but John Gánsfleisch, a Germán, is also ciEilitd 
with the inveotion ; probábly, like so many other inventions, the díscoTEi; 
attuck bolh at the same lime, The types first empioyed were of wood. Luí 
metal was soon found to be Iwtter and less cunibersome. 

John Giitenberg, a lelalive of GansfleÍEcb, was the first to use the ne» 
syatem of "moveable metal typcs"in Ihe printing of booka. In 1450 he wm 
juined by John Fusl, a rich goldsmith, who brought money into the concern: 
and, in 1455, 01 thereabouts, issued his Bihlta Sacra Latina. It is & Iblio 
Bible, printed in double columns, and Ihe iniliid letler of each chapter is 
" illuminated," or done by hand with a pen, in colours and gold, Unhnppily 
this book beais no date. 

In 14SS John Fust dissolved parlnetship with Gütenberg, and joined a 
voimg mechanic nomed Peler ScbselTer, who married his daughter. This firra 
brought out the Fsalmerum Cadex, in 1457, the first printed boolc contaliüng 
a date ; the BibüaLafína, in 1462 ; and Cicero's De Úfficiis, in 1466, By the 
cióse oí the centmy the ait had spread to Italy, France, and England. 

Of all inventions ever roade by man none has exetcised such infinence 
on sociely as the art uf printing. It has brought knowledge to the door ofthe 
coitage, has made ' ' public opinión " more powerful tlian pope or kaiser, an4 
has given erapioymcnt lo more hantU than cven war. Man must have sorae 
woik to do, some outlet lo his enei^es. Before the invention of printing Ihe 
great employment waa manual dexleiity, cither io mechanical works, pilTage, 
lebellion, or war ; but the art of printing and the multiplicslion of bouks has 
given work to legions of men nnd women— same as authors, some as piinlers 
and binders, some as sellers, othcrs as machinísts, foundera of type, makers 
of paper, and hundtedi of collateml aits. lis inñuence on sodcty 


felt, but much still reranins Co be done. The cducation of Ihe masses, ii 
tüure years, will woik such a chonge on socíety thaL a new epoch 
hislory of man will be UEhered in, an epoch ds fnc in odvance of thal we uve 
¡11. as the age of mpdern history was an advance on the down-troddcn, 
benichted, feudal domination of the Middle Ages. It musí come. It is as 
certain as tbat nighC opeas ioto dawn, and davm lo the lighL aüd genial 
wannlh of noon. 


Towards the cióse of the fifteenih centuiy, the dawn began to break in upon 
the blackness of the darkness of the previous age. Albert Durer and Luke 
Kianach had won fame as engravers and painteis ¡ Alexandei Heguis of 
Westphalia, called the cealorer of letteis, had just passed away ; astronomj 
was revivingunder John Müller, of Konigsberg, and his tnlenled pupil George 
Feuthach ; Kameter, bíshop of Worms, had founded the univcrsily of Hcidel- 
berg, the moít ancient school for scíence and Uterature in all Gennany i and 
sei-eral eccleáastics had produced excellent chtoniclea, not of "all time," 
bt^nning ai ovo, but what is of infinite more valué, histories of the times in 
vihich they Chemselves lived, and biographicB of peíaons with whom they had 
familiar acquointance. As litecatute giew tnto power, the iioportance of 
popes, kings, and kaisers, declined ; so that although a reigning liimily stiil 
made, and ever must máke a strong mark upon a nation, other influetices 
co-opeíaled, aod a poet, phílosopher, ioveolor, or other genius, has led (he 
world, stamped his own ¡mage and Buperscription on the age, and givcn 
currency to certain views or opinions, even as the moon acts upon the lides of 
the sea, with more power than the sun. i 

In the long reiñi of kaiser Frederíck the Pacific, Ihe ñames which stand 
most prominently forwaid are Ihe foUowiDg i— I 

NiCHOLAs ofCusa, OH the Mosel(i40i-i464), the son ofapoorfisherman, 
who Tose to be ihe foremost man in aU the state. He acquired a profound 
knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, Ihen very little known even by the ripest 
scholars, and was an eminent phílosopher, mathcraatician, and theolOTian. 
In the Council of Bascl he defended "the infallibility of Ihe church, and 
was made by Ihe pope cardinal and bíshop. He tried to reform his diocese, 
but stÍRed up Buch commotion among the monks, tbat he was accused of 
hereay and imprisoned. Nicholas of Cusa wrole in Latín aeveral treatiaes on 
Iheological and phílosophical subjects, the best known of which are Leamed 
Ignoraitce, Tnit ÍViíJoni, and Conjeclurcd Ktunutedge. 

John Müller* of Konigsberg, in Franconía (1436-1476), Ihe restorer of 
the scíence of astronomy, was archbíshop of Ratisbon. His leclures on 
íistronomy drew tl^lhet imraensc crowds ; and the "system of Ptolemy " 
was the moat popular novelty of the day. John Müller wrote several works 
on matbematical and astconomícal Gubjects. 

George Peurbach of Austria {1423-1461), was the disdple of Müller, 
and the Iwo nemes are always linked logether, so that MUHer and Peurbach are 
spoken of aa the regenerators of astronomy in the Middle Ages, Frobably 
the disdple oulstrípped the master. His Theoiy of Ihe Flanets and Tablea/ , 
EcUfses are his best known works, 

Thiee other ñames in a ditferent branch of Uterature must be added, viz., 
Rudolf Agrícola, Albett Krantz, and Wemer Rolewinck, 

the rfi>tf 'j mauM, nlilch ip L^lla Ib Retius moni, ími Jicato ■■icg;ÍD-iiuHiElDiu~ tliii;^ muoi iCOOE^:» 



Rddolf Agrícola,! professorofphilosophyat tlienew co1I^:e of Hdiid- 
berg (1443-1485), was one of tho restorers of science and letters in Euiopt, 
and (¡csetves honour, íí for nothing else, for hia bold nmi tncslerly anlagoDÍsD 
of scholastic divinity. He wns a Inithlul Ihinker, raid saw the shallow leain- 

g of the wat of woids, then in fashioo. His chief works are one os He 

'iiise ef Philescfhy, and anolher un Dialectics or scholastic divinity. A 
life of Areola was written by Treslong in 1830. 

Albeet Khanti of Hamburg, 1450-1517, chronider, phUosopher, «nd 
Iheulogian, was Germán ambassador both in París antl íti I^ndon. He wroli 
in Latín severa! chronícles, os, for eiample, the ChrenicUs of thi Dana, Ihe 
ChraHicla of the SiotiUs, the ChrenicUs of the Noraiegiarts, anaüier caÜEd 
i'andíli, and a fiflh enlilled Saxonia, A life of Albert Knuitz, writteo \ij 
'VVilkeos, was publiíhed in t^zz. 

Wkrner Kolbvinck of Westpbalia, 1425-1502, hbtorian, is universally 
linnwii by his Fasíicftlus TempSram. Stronge to sny, his ñame does nol 
aiipear in any ordinaty biographical dictionary, yet few books of Ihe period 
ate tu be compared with Wemei Rolewinclc's Skelckts qf his own Times. 


any), .íB6:ci 


V«Ls In Upper Auatría, Wcdatiday, January xoth, 1519. Agcd 60. 
IHa^iimiian, Jíit Jalher FndcrírA III.. and his graKi/alhtT Albct! I!., <Ul ditd Jnm 

rmporary ■mlh fftnry Vil., 1485-1505, ¡má Hnry flll., 1509-1547. 
laFraKf. Chsrleí VIH., LouIsXIL, Bod Fron^QÚ I. 
InSiaix: FenJiíuuld Uld lubclla. 
Tho /■ígln.- AleMnder VI., Pius III., Julius 11., and Uo X. 

STatktr, Eleonon ef f urtiigd. 

JuaRa oT Spoüi, daughter 

idCkaiKT Ferdimnd I.) í 

Jretognc, aiid sedi bock to Germany- 

Posaaioa addrá ia Ike Hmtsc ¡/AustrioT^K Neiherlondi and Fr« Countr; aX Burgnad] 
y by Ibfl mamago or Fcrdíoaad with £hc 

by the marriaKc df Maxiiml 
lauisXI.of Frflnce.) Spaii 
Hudgary by Itw mamar- 

Biosrafhen, Matliiis Ticiinir 
Scbaaüan Fouik, Halori 

ndi and Fito Country of Burgnady, 

dlichy oT Buranndy was seiwd fe 

lipp wiih Ihe infanta. Bohemia asd 

' igbter at Wladislaus Úng of 

Is by the empenjr liiinseír, isíí i 



c Imperial OíambcTr for i 

wilhtheSwi». Mai 

. sisned ihe Pcace ai Basel. 

n, sfler eighl defest 
sao. Diet of Aunburs snd birth oT lúirl (Charles-uuinl). Gcrmany dividEd Inla sbc 

dicleí ; f mocorik, Buvaiú, Suibía, Uppcr RKüiE, Waiphalia, and Suony. 
501. The Aulii: Council atablithed lea crown causa. 
S07. Margarethe {the kaíser's daughlet) ng«út of the NEtherioada. 
jo3. MaximilÍAn refiued a pan throitgh VcDÜe, («gdalnu hímitelf " Empüror elect of Ihe 

Romjvis." Tbe league of Camhray, 
570. Expulaiad of tliB Jewa from BnuidEoburg. 
511. Mubmlian, during the illncsa oT thc pope, tries to get nomlnUed his sucosHir, but 

the pope recovéis and Ihe scheme MLi ttraugb. 
513. The Rhineuid Saxony eoch siibdiv^ded. and two new diclcs (Aiutim aad Burnindy) 

added. Thus makiDg the nuinber of drclcs ten. 
Sl5. Msiiin Luthet pRaches at ^Ittemburg. 
517. Pope Leo X. pabtlshn hia bull íar the sale of indulHocei, to talse fnads for the 

cansiniction of 5t. Feter'iat Rome. 
SiS. D;ei of AugsburE, in whích Luthei U conileinaed by the pope (Decembcr gth). 
519. Death of Maximilíaq h 

Maximilian I., son of Frederick the Pacific, is certainly one 
of the raost conspicuous figures of mediseval times. Not ihat he 
waa a bright and buming Ught, but that he was a candle set on a 
hill, and could not be hid. He was no colossus, yet stood he as 
a colossus, with one foot on the oíd rígime and one on the new, 
His reign was the closing of the feudal period, the transfonnation 
scene between middle and modem history. 

In the "good oíd times" kings had armies at beck. They 
had but to ask, and their vassals found them soldiers ; but, in the 
fiñeenth century, armies were composed of paid soldiers, and 
kings had to find the pay. If the people hked the cause they 
shared the expense; if not, those who made the wars had to find 
the sinews, and it became a very expensive plaything, Maxi- 
milian was no Alexander, but he was perpetually making war ; 
and though his possessions exceeded those of any other kaiser 
before or since, he was always a beggar, and was called the 

He was furthermore conspicuous for being one of the crowned 
heads in a race of conlemporary giants : There was Julius II., 
one of the greatest of the popes, patrón of Michael Angelo and 
liaphael, and founder of SL Peter's, at Rome. There were Fer- 
dinand and Isabella of Castile and Aragón, ñames almost 
identical with Spanish greatness and prosperity. There was Em- 
manuel the Great of Portugal, founder of the Portugese navy, thi 
Mecenas of arts and sciences, and fñend of Vasco da Gama the 


^^M great na 
^^ dinal W 
^^ foreign ■ 



great navigator. There was Henry VIII. of England, with Car- 
dinal Wolsey his counctUor, a. statesman never equalled for hís 
foreign poÜcy, and ihe first to win for England a i>lace among 
the great powers of Europe. There was Bajazet II., sultán of 
the Turks, conqueror of Constantinople, whose mosques have no 
rivals for beauty and magnificence. The kaiser of Germany 
could not even stand in such a group and fail lo be conspicuous. 

Again. He was conspicuous for his marriages — his own, his 
Bon's, and his grandson's. His first wife was Mary of Burgundy, 
heiress of seventeen provinces, and daughter of Charles the Bold. 
Charles would have nothing to say to the young man, when his 
father, kaiser Frederick, like a thrifty tradesman, tried to strike 
a bargain for his son ; but Mary looked with favour on ihe 
young enthusiast, of whose personal appearance writers greaily 

Personal Appearanck — Germán hislorians, who never saw 
him, except perhaps in a picture, describe him as " tall and strong, 
majestic in bearing, with blonde hair falling in curls about his 
shoulders; eyes like two stars, blue and sparkling; high forehead, 
and prominent aquiline nose;" but John Taylor, clerk of the 
Engüsh Parliament, who had seen him scores of times, and knew 
him as well as way to parish church, assures us " he was of 
middle height, pallid complexión, snub-nose, and a grey beard,' 
Of course, at the age of nineteen he was no grey-beard, and his 
palé cheeks might then have glowed with "the purple light of 
youth," but be this as it may, the French maid looked with favour 
on him, and síx months after the death of her father, who feil at 
Nancy by the hands " of shepherds and cowberds," she gave botii 
herself and her possessions to the archduke. She bore him two 
children, a boy and a girl, but falling from her horse some fiw 
years after her marriage, she died, be foro Maximilian had 
succeeded to the throne (1482). 

His second marriage was in the year after his fathei's death 
(1494). He was then pennyless, and would have married Anne of 
Brittany, but could not raise money enough to buy a wedding sui^ 
so he offered his hand to Bianca Sforza, widow of the Duke of 
Sayoy, who brought him some 500,000 ducats (about ^200,000), 
as a dovrry. This rich young widow was the daughter of Ludo- 
vico Sforza, called the More, from a mortts or mulberry (stain) 00 
his right arm. He was only an Italian adventurer, whose very 
ñame in the same century was first borne by a woodman, who 
made himself captain of a band of foresters. No great alÚance 
emperor, the living representative of the | ~ 

■ i|93-'5'9'! MAXIMILIAN I. THE PENNYLESS. 159 1 

and the proud blue-blood of Germany asked one another with a 
sneer, "Oughtwe to visit her?" Never mind ; Blanca had the 
one thing needful, and ^200,000 would do something to patch 
the fortune of the always-pennyless ; and so he married her. 

In regard to his son Phihpp, a sad profiigate, surnamed the 
" Handsome," he married, in 1496, the infanta Juana, daughterof 
Ferdinand and Isabella, by whích alliance Spain became united 
to the house of Austria. The fcuits of this marríage were two 
sons — Karl and Ferdinand. Kart was subsequently the great 
emperor Charles V., the second Charlemagne, called by the 
í'rench Charles-quint j and Ferdinand succeeded Charles as 
emperor of the West. 

Once more, Maximilian was most of all conspicuous for his 
invariable bankruptcy, and the mean and shuffling trícks to which 
he tesorted to " put money in his purse." The state papers pub- 
lished under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, tell us he 
was " the most barefaced and importúnate of beggars, who felt 
no delicacy in appropriating to his own use the money entrusted 
to him for other purpwses j and yet withal, " this man of few 
pence," set up a claim for fastidiousness and delicacy. He 
was called a man of parts, but seemed to concéntrate his whole 
intellect on shifts and expedients for raising money, without ever 
being the richer for ÍL There was no meanness to which he would 
not stoop for money : "honour and empire were both bartered for 
it." This is no exaggeration, for Henry VIH, himself, in a letter 
to Margaret of Savoy (June lith 1514) distinctly states ihat 
Maximilian oflered to sell him the imperial crown, and evcn 
agreed upon the terms of sale.* We know he sold Hungary 
for 100,000 ducats (about ;Í4S,ooo}, and served the king of 
England, in Pícardy, as a common mercenary, for roo crovms 
a-day. NobUssi obUge was not the raotto of the bankrupt Maxi- 
milian, but ralher the plea of the poor Mantuan apothecary.f 
who sold poison at the hazard of his life, " ray poverty and not 
iny will consents." Yet was he kaiser and king, but money in 
his hands was like water in the sieves of the fifty daughters of 
king Danáus. I So thriftless a prodigal would always be penny- 
less, though backed with " the wcallh of Ormus and of Ind." 

The Imperial Chambee (1495).— The reign of Maximilian is 
connected with one establishmcnt which has given it 





inasmuch as it pul an end to those sanguinary feuds which were 
for ever disturbing ihe public peace ; substituted order for con- 
fusión ; and changed the sword of vengeance, if not " into a 
pruning hook," at any rate into a sword of justice. 

In I49S Maximilian asked his diet, then aasembled at Worms, 
for troops and money to oppose the king of France, who had íd- 
vaded Naples ; but the nation was sick of war, and instead of 
granting bis request proclaimed a, perpetual Jieací. By this decree 
the right of prívate feuds was for ever aboÜshed. Those who 
thought themselves wronged were no longer to appeal to "the 
sword, the shield, and the battle," but to a court of law, where an 
umpire would adjudicate between the wronger and the wTonged; 
and whoever refused to abide by the judgment was at once put lo 
the ban of the empire. Thus, with a bigh hand, was established 
the first law-court in Germany, called The Imperial Chantber. 

The Imperial Chamber consisced of one president, four judges, 
and fifty assessors, The president was named by the crown, and 
the other officers by the states. Maximilian never liked it, and 
did all he could to make it fail, but it went on, and remained a 
permanent institution to the end of the empire. 

Aulic Council. — The Imperial Chamfaer was assísted by an 
inferior court called the Aulic Council, which was established tO 
expedite business by preparing matters for the Chamber ; but it 
soon assumed higher functions, and in 1654 was formally recog' 
nised as equal in dignity to the Imperial Chamber itselt The 
Aulic Council was composed of a president, a vice-president, a 
vice-chancellor, and eighteen counciUors, all (except the \ice- 
chancellor) chosen and paid by the crown. On the death of the 
kaiser the council was dissolved, to be reconstructed by his siic- 
cessor. This court also continued to the end of the oíd Gerraan 
empire in 1806. 

The Teíí Circles, 1512. — Almost as a necessary part of these 
legislative reforms was the división of Germany into ten juris- 
dictions, called circles, the government oí which was to assist ¡n 
raaintaining order, and to see that the sentence of the courts wj! 
carried out. Each circle was presided over by an ecclesiaslial 
and lay prince, aided by a military chief; and each circle W3s 
represented in the national diet At the reformation, one cirde 
(viz., Saxony) was Protestant, three (Austria, Bavatia, and But- 
gundy) were Catholic, and the rest were mixed,* 


Emperor Elect OF THE RoMANS (1508). — The w 
milian were of no national itnportance ; they began Íti arrogance 
and ended, for the most part, in disaster, Two, however, require 
a passing notice, not so much on their own account, as for what 
aróse indirectly out of them. 

In 1508 the kaiser started with a large anny over the Alps, 
intending to go to Rome, and there receive from the hands of 
pope JuUos II. the imperial crown. Having reached Italy, the 
doge and senate forbade his march through Venice. He was 
greatly indignant, and put them to the ban of the empire. But 
how about the crown ? As he could not go to Rome to receive 
it from the pope, he crowned himself "Emperor Elect of the 
Romans," a title which all his successors continuad ever after. 

LeACUE of CaMBRAY (1508) AND THE HOLY LeAGUE (1513). 

Having declared himself " Emperor Elect," he retumed to Ger- 
many for fresh supplies to punish the Venctians ; but during his 
absence, the French and Venetians fell on his amiy at Friu'li, and 
so demoralised it, that Maximilian was fain to sue for ]>eace, 
which he bound himself to observe for three years. 

No sooner had he signed the treaty than he joined the Zeague 
of Caíitbray (1508). This alliance, which consisted of the pope, 
himself, Louís XII. of France, and the dulce of Ferrara, was 
bound by oath " to blot out the Republic of Venice from the map 
of Europe, and divide the spoils." The Venetians bribed off the 
pope, and the pope promised to break up the league. With this 
view he made a compact with the Swiss to chase the French out of 
Lombardy; Venetia, Spain, and England, joined the alliance, 
which was called The Holy League {1513), and the French were 
soon driven across the Alps. 

Henry VIII. of England now led his aimy into Picardy, and 
here the Emperor Elect of the Romans served Jn the English 
army as an hireling, at 100 crowns a day. In September, 1513, 
was fought at Guinegate the battle known in history as the Battle 
of ihe Spurs, because the French used their spurs in fiight more 
than their swords in fighL 

Death of Maximilian (1519)- — ^Always in hot water, always in 
want of money, the Emperor Elect of the Romans went on forming 
schemes which carne to nothing ; struggling to be rich, but growing 
poorer every day ; and planning newwars which he could never 
carry ¡nto eñecL During the illness of Julius 11. the pennyless 
kaiser plotted to get himself elected pope ; but this bubble burst 
like all the others, for Julius recovered, and Maximilian could not 
crown himself even " PontÜf Elect of Rome." He next tried to 




rouse the States to vote a crusade against the Turks, but the diei 
decUned. Lastly, he tried to persuade the electors to make hia 
grandson, Karl, " King of the Romans," but in this also he failed. 
On hÍ3 way home from the diel the disappointed kaiser died, ftom 
a surfeit of mclons, as bis father and grandfather had done befoie 

The Germán historians are enthusiastic m their praise of 
Maxirailian the Tacitum and Pennyless ; and look upon him as 
one of their heroic monarchs and national benefactors. That 
something was done in his reign for the better governnient of the 
country and the promotion of order, cannot be detiied, but It was 
done rather in his despite, than al his bidding. Even his hardi- 
hood and activíty seem to be doubtful, for while he was party to the 
League of Cambray, and the other allies were up and doing, 
Erasmus tells us that " the poor emperor was dozing over his 
stove," afraid of the cold. Perhaps he was wriiing poetry, foi, 
like the Welsh Glendower, "he framed to the harp many a 
[Germán] ditly lovely well, and gave the tongue a helpful ortu- 
ment." Perhaps he was niaking books, for be wrote a treatise on 
cookery, another on gardening, a third on hunting, a fourth on 
architecture, and one even upon war. He also left an auto- 
biography, so full of marvels, " jt wül not let belief lake hold of 
it ; " and a genealogical table of his own family. He was, doubt- 
lessly, clcver ; he cou Id converse in all the languages ofEurope; 
tnade several discoveries in pyrotechny, and some ¡mprovemenls in 
gunnery ; ñor did he lack personal courage, in proof of which the 
the foUowing anecdote is told of him : — 

While he was at Worms, one Claude de Eatré, a French cavalíer, 
aneering at tbe decree of a " Perpetual Peace," deciarcd he would 
himself challenge the whole nation. No notice was taken of thís 
vaunt, tiU Maximilian himself picked up the glove, and desired the 
rrenchman to meet him, unarmed, in a stated field. It was to bes 
íisty fight ; and the kaiser, we are told, so mauled and belabouied 
the poor Bobadil* "that since he plucked geese, played truanti 
and whipped tops, he knew not what 't was to be beaten till then." 
There is nothing in this story incredíble, and it may pass musid 
with the other royal taies, whích for the most part deserve the 
doubtful compliment of Celia, ¡n j4s You Like It, " O wonderful ! 
wonderful ! and most wonderfully wonderful 1 and yet agün 
wonderful ; and añer that, out of all whooping." 

li Maximilian had for secretary Henry Cornelius Agkif» 


(1486-1535) astrologer and alchemist. It was the heyday of 
alchemy, and there were very few, even wise men, who did not 
believe in the possibility of prevetiting the dccay of the physical 
powers, and prolonging the days of oiir years by means of a com- 
pound called the "elixir of life." 

Probably MaKimilian was far more anxioijs for the other 
el Dorado, the " philosopher's stone," a preparation which was to 
convert any of the inferior metáis into gold. The monopoly of 
such a reaígar would doubtlessly be a mine of weaith to its 
possessor, but ¡f once discovered there could be no monopoly; 
and as gold would then be more plentiful than iron, it would be really 
less valuable, as iron can be used for many more purposes. Thus 
cutlery made of gold would be worthless; so would machinery in 
general Ladies could not sew with gold needles, ñor gardeners 
use spades and hoes made of gold. As a money médium it would 
of course be worthless, seeing it is its rarity which gives it valué. 
If alchemists, therefore, had succeeded in discovering the trans- 
mutation of metáis, they would have done more harm than good. 
Ñor would the elixir of life have been one whit more usefuL It 
would be a general curse if our oíd men had the vigour and energy 
of youth, — for progress is the worlc of the young not of the oíd. 
And as for the mere extensión of days, depend upon it, thtee score 
years and ten, or four score years is all that man requires for any 
of the uses of this Ufe. 

Happily, therefore, the elixir of life and philosopher's stone have 
never been discovered; but the search for these secrets has been 
indirectly of enormous benefit. Astrology led to astronomy, and 
alchemy to chemistry, the most sublime and infinitely the most 
useful of the sciences: the forraer enlarging the mind, the lattet 
giving man the lordship of the elements of nature. 

Fran^ois I. of France, who, in common with the rest of the 
world, believed in alchemy and astrology, invited Agrippa to París, 
hoping to obtain from him a glimpse of future events. Agríppa 
frankly confessed he was no prophet, but Fran^ois would not 
believe him, and dismissed him in disgrace. 

Louis XI. (1461-1483), it will be remembered, had bis Calabrian 
hermit, who "íooled him to the top of his bent." This worldly- 
wise impostor told the credulous monarch that an astrologer had 
" strangely linlced their uves together. I am to die first," he added, 
" but your majesty will not long survive me." Louis believed the 
knave, and petted him like a spoilt child: for if he was to outlive 
the astrologer, so long as the astrologer could be kept alíve, his 
own life would, of course, be secure. Sir Walter Scott, in his novel 

M 2 




of Quintín Durward has giaphically and tnithfully louched oa 
l>oth these characters. 

Henrí 11. (1547-1559), wbo followed Franqnis L on the French 
throne, had a similar credence in Nostrodamus, the astróloga. 
He loaded him wíth favoure, and thought the more he besSowed 
Ihe more favourably the "prophet" would dispose for hím futuie 

Charles IX. (1560-1574), was no less infatuated with the same 
charlatán ; invited him to Ihe TuUeries, and appointed him coun 
phystcian entraordinary. 

Henry Cornelius Agrippa was no ■ charlatán, although botíi 
alchemist and astrologer. He was a realiy leamed man, well- 
versad in all the sciences of the period, His work on Ocadl 
Philosephy brought hím into trouble as a magician, for which he 
suffered a long imprísonmenL His other chief works are on the 
Unctrtainty and Vamty of the Scimces, and on The JVbbiltíy and 
abounding Exallency of fke FemaU Stx. All, of course, in 



Since the Invention of printing education has made tñadJ 
strides, but for many years the whole syslem was imbued with ll« 
monastic spirit. In the preceding period, the monasteries lud 
kept leaming from utter annihilation, and they now kept it fossiUied 
and mumniified, more like a curious relie of an age gone by, than 
a living energizing principie. The five facukies of the universides 
were civil law, canon law, medicine, theology, and the arts, bul 
theology still dominated, and pervaded the other four. PedanHy 
ruled supreme ; nevertheless good work was being done. 

The children of the wealthier classes had great facilities for edu- 
cation in all the large towns, and Latin, music, and modem 
languages, especially French, were generally cultivated. Even tht 
hard-working artisan and craftsman caught the infection, 

Leagues, combinations, and guilds, were universal ; they wereí 
necessity of self-defence, but were by no means confined to 
political associations and trade. There were guilds of all sorts for 
mutual improvement and amusemenL Themasonicguildwasdoing 
good work in church archilecture, The mÜitary guilds made the 
use of the musket, sword, and crossbow, a useful recreation. The 
rhetoric guilds were for the encouragement of poetry and ma<iic 

1 guilds had a holiday once a yeai, when a guild-k 


chosen, a pageant got up, and a banquet for the brotherhood 
pre pared. 

So important were Üiese societies and so powerful their in- 
tluence, that Idngs and princes enrolled themselves as members, 
and paid their "guild" or annual subscription, attended their 
raeetings, and took part in their feasts. Of all the güilds, that of 
the Master-singers concerns us most. It was a guild of Rhetoric, 
or association of mechanics to amuse their leisure with music and 
poetry. It had its oflScers, its laws, and its degrees, The lowest 
degree was the " apprentice," given to ihose who had just joined 
the guild ; " companion " was the next step ; and " master " the 
third. The members were apprentice-poets or apprentice-singers, 
companion-poets or companion-singers, master-poets or master- 
singers, as they went in for the composition of poetry, or for the 
musical branch which consisted of the composition and per- 
formance of music, both vocal and instrumental. Of course, we 
are not to look for much original genius in a literary guild, ñor 
very refined taste in a society of mechanics ; but the productions 
■ of the tradesmen were quite equal in wisdom and good taste to the 
vile pedantry of the "schools," and it was a glorious move to see 
weavers and cutlers, smiths and gardeners, cobblers and tailors, 
spending their leisure in the fine arts, even ¡f they did not arrive 
at gteat proficiency thereia 

Agreeable to the general taste, the chief subjects of these 
craftsmen poets were Bihle stories, hymns, the lives of saints, 
and moral songs. The composition was stiff and forma!, the 
metre counted by the finger, and the rhymes doubtful ; but the 
work was judged by the committee which qonsisted of cobblers, 
carpenters, tailors, weavers, and so on, in much the same way as 
they would judge of a fabric, shoe, or garment. The manual 
work was expected to be in conformity with the rules laid down. 
The manufacture must pass muster ; but breathing thoughts and 
burning words are gifts of nature, and not to be attained by file 
and haramer. 

The first towns that set up guilds of rhetoric were Mainz 
[A/ftue], Nürnberg, and Strasburgj others afterwards joined in. 
The popularity of the movement may be inferred from the fact 
that in Nürnberg alone there were more than 250 members with 
the degree of " master," who held their meetings every Sunday in 
the cathedral ; and its national importance may be inferred from 
Karl IV. giving them corporate rights and a corporate seal 
(■378)- . , 

Almost the only ñames of these master-singers which have 



¡ahat the FfOgl. 

its and evils of 
cratic, and die 


nonejiha^oi (nys Ihe potai). ion or Teiag Moa», wenl on n visit 

guest^ in iTlun}, aíí Üat waA d«ne in Fnjg-mDor. K» majesty ihen pn 
*ülk thrDugh Frog-pflrk. «id m thty wtre ciuume a pool thcprinH - 

Part II. is a trealise upon govenimcnts, in which the n 
the Ihree fomis of governtnent (the republicac, the aiis 
moDoriMcal) aj-e dnly set fatlh. Part IIl. is the battle. 

There were oiher poets of the period besides those of ihe 
literaiy guild, but they all wrote in Lalin. The chief were 
Rudolf of Lange, Conrad Celtés, and Henry Bebel. 

Rddolf of Lance (1440-1519) was one of the pioneers of the rcvinl^ 
lelters in Gcimany, and introduced into Munslerthe study of Greek. 

Conrad Celtés (1459-1508), of WürUburg, received al Ihe hands oT 
kaiser Frcdenck III. the poelic crown, and was appointed by Maiimilim 
profesaor of eloquence in the Univeraity of Vienna. He íbuniled ín Heidd- 
burg the first lilerary society in Germany, and greatly conlributed lo Iht 
spr^d of literary [aste. To him we owe the díscovety of Phicdrus's Faila. 
Ilis chief works are The Arf ef foetry and four boolts of Odes, 

HBNitY Bebel (1475-1516), leceived from the hands of Maximilian Hit 
poelic crown, and is well known by his poeta The THutnph of Vrnm.t 
Ritual ef Facetia [in Latín), and a collection of tieatíses called his Optutula. 

John Tritheim (1462-1516), chroniciec and theologian, should nol be 
unmentioned. Líke oui own Ko^er Bacon, he was accused of deolings wilÜ 
Ihe devil, because he was wíser Ihan his fellows; ^ Festus said to Faiü. 
"Thou att beaide thyself; mueh leaming doth make thee mad," so wasit sikl 
of Tritheim. 

Being appointed abhot of Spanheim, in Frussia, he tned to lelbnn Ibc 
monks, hut called down such a stonn upon his head that he was foiccdUi 
reaign. He was afletwarda appointed Abbot of Würtiburg, His chief Worli 
are Ecelesiastical Autheri, Familiar Letleri of Germán Princei, and SttgSiH- 
graphia ot secret conespondence, which gave great offence, and was placed lo 
the IndCK of boolis forbidden by the pope to be read. 

Jt ii na proof Ihat a baikii unfil lo be read Shai Ihe pape af Ronie ecmdemm& 
in Aii Itüex. MiUatCs Paradise Losl was placed in the Index, andrsemk 
pretly chUd'i tale called Henry and his Bearer. Of coane all tiiorkí of Lu4Sfr, 
CaínÍH, and tfher r^ormtn. -^ 



ToY-MAKiNG. — Germany had made some progresa in the polite arts ^^ w.- 
lime of the reformation, but in this respect was far behind Italy, the Lo» 
Countries, England, France, and Spain. It was chicfiy in mechanícnl sm I 
that the Germans excelled. 

NÜRNBERC, in Bavaria, waa even then famous for its wooden toys, whitl I 
were aold in all the fairs of Europe, and were exponed to India. The l^^ I 
mand fot tbese wares was so great, that almost all the villagera round aboiK 
Niimberg earned their livíng by toy-making. Even to the prcsent day (sx 



The charch of St. Lawrcnce, in Nürnbere, which was two centuries ii 
buílding, vías finished in 147S, wilh Us pninted-glass Windows, ita lowers, ani 
doorway. In IJOO ihc stone pyx, bj Adam Krafl — the work of five j-ears— 
was cumpleted ; and about the same time, the exquisite wood caivings b/ I 
Veit Sloss. 

Nürtdnrg áerived ils ñame from Ntrs. Jl iuntañtíd ¡sS ilrali, In Sí. 
Liratreaa Church iiií ari told Ihat tki spiar-aikUh piercá aur Saviimr's lide ' 
and apart of iht croa are freiemed. 

AuGsBUKG, íd Bavaría, was, at the lime, in the spiing~t¡de of its píos- 
,. ,, lirly Years' War.'* It was noled lor ils 

gold and silver sroiths, its jewellers, Íls dye and manufactures. It still re 

pericf, and continiied so till the "Thirly Years' War. 

much of its oíd leputation íoi gold and sürer wares, but the blight of leUgious 
persecution was ils niin. 

All the cities of the Hansa, as Frankfort, Lubeck, Hambui^, Col^ne, 
Brunswick, and Daruig, were govetned by Iheir own bu^omasters, sherifS ot 
□ther annual magistiatcs, and weie bolh rich and populous. 

Aug¡btirg deríved its ñame from Augustta Casar. 

FuQCER.- — Theie needs no grealeí proof of the prívate wealth of the 
merchant princes of Gennany at ihis penod, than thal fumished hy the Fugger 
family. Their goods were soid in every part of Ihe globe ; Iheir wagons were 
on eveiy lOad, and iheir ships on every sea. Antony Fu^^r, at hís dealh, 
Icfl in rcady money, slit millions of gold ctowns.* When Karl V, was in París, 
and was shown the royal treasury, he said to his royal host, " I have a lineo- 
weaver in Augsbuig who would pay as much as tlus out of his own pockel, 
and not empty it eithei." It was this rich merchant who lent Kail Ihe monej 
for his Tunis expedition, and in ihe banquet given on his leturn bumt the 
bonds in a fire made of cinnamon wood. 

Gennany had not, at Ihe time, many manufactures, being supplied from 
Anlwerp with linens, woolleos, and mercery. From the same city it obtained 
dritgs, spices, sugar, tapeslry, precious slones, and Indiao produce. Theae 
articles the Antwerp tiaders oblained from Lisbon. Etpotled Germán 
goods were for the most part meláis, glass, dye-stufTs, sallpelte, fumítuie, 
kitchen uteosíls, childrec's toys, and Rhenish wines. 


There was no lack of shops in Ihe lowns. Bakers and butchers, wine and 
olher traders were numerous enough ; but the chief marls were the faírs, held 
once or twice a yeai in almost all the great towns. These faiis were 
fiequenled by merijiajits from HoUand, Spain, Italy, and other countiies ; and 
hele it was thal the Germán nobles and merchant princes supplied Ihemselres 
with Cenoa velvet, cloth of gold, and other coslly articles of drcss. 

It was about Ihis time ihat coaches were firsl introduced, bul lillers were 
more common, Thua Karl V., when loo weak in his legs to walk or ride on 
hoiseback, was carried in a litter ; although it is quite cerlain Ihat coaches had 
been used in París some years before, and Karl must have seeo Ihem there. 

Dress.— The Gennan nobilily, as well as Ihe Ilalian, Spanish, French, 
and English, were, in the sixieenth and seventeenlh centuries, wonderflilly 




extravagant in dress. Men, ns well as women, vrore Ihe most coslly «eirtü 
ailks, and satins, wtought wilh gold, and adomed wilh jeweis. Sük stockinp 
wcre inlroduced inlo England in the leiga uf EUiabelh, but KaxI V. had bem 
dead foi iweoly-ñve years ere we hear of their introdiictioii into Gennany. 

The dress of a Germán ^nlUman ¡n 1577 is Ihus described by a. conlrai- 
poiaiy : " He wore a doublet of blue EaCin, Che sleeves and body sliuhel 
with crímson velvet, and Ihe Elashes fastened with diamond, pearl, or golJ 
butloos. His cloak was of crimson velvet, lined willt satin, and edgcd willi 
gold. His cap was of velvet. with a la^ white ostrich feather íastened mili 
a jewei. His hose were of sílk, his shoes of Spanish leather, and the liilcuí 
his sword WBS marvellouíily inlaid with diamonds and gotd." 

The ladia also wote velvet hats, and not unfrequently a veil of gold gaiu(< 
Their gowns weie open in ftont and hung Xixsk from the ñecle, without ^sh 01 
girdle. They weie generally of sük, «nd over ihem whcn they went oui 
Ihey wore a loóse jackel of block velvet. The sieeves of the gown were fiíll, 
leocbing to the wríst, but Ihose oí the jacket were half-sleeves. Rufis wac 
fashionabte íd BaTaria. 

The latalon of Lripáe dressed in blacfc cloth or velvet. In their oficia 
capacity they wore long black-silk robes trimmed with fur, a black velvet ho^ 
and a go!d chain. In Leipzig long beards were in vogue, but eveiy provinn 
foilowed its own taate in ihia respect. 

Citaein wore an undcrcoat fcstened round the waist with a teather bell. 
In the Street th^ wore besidcs a loóse lopcoat with light sieeves, pufTed si iIk 
shouldecs ; a ruff and a black velvet hat with a hroad brtm. Their hose aiui 
trousers were aU in one. and Ihe/ were shod with half-boots, wide at ibe tof, 
Irimmed with some aort offringe and ruckcd over the shins. 

The wives and dau^hters of citiiens imitated the stj^le of their saperion 
as they do still. The rieh had their velvet jacket» and sillc gowns ; but Ihosi 
ofhumbler means had to be satisñed with some chcaper ronteriaj made upial 
similar atyle. 

e had Iheic own specia! costóme, whidl «u 
iquc ; and aa it nevet varied, was a provindtl 


ir In Búkemia the costume 
was a short slouch coat of 1 
boota ¡ and a high fur cap. 
especially in themount; ' 
gEnetally covcred wilh 

far ruder than in the rest of Gennany. It 

>e wuollen cloth, lined with flir ; Ihick widc 

[ut it niQst be temetnbered that Bohemif. 

distdcls, is extiemely coid, Its higih peaks va 

; and fuU a Ibird of the countiy is forest. Ths 

i called Cíe 
Teutons. They ar» 
frame, and uncouth manners. 

Gvpsies. — About three years befcire the death of Maximilian I. a new raa 
of people ctopped up in Bohemia. They are called by us gypsies, beqause we 
took it for ¿nnted ihey migrated out of Egypt. The French cal] theai 
Bohemians, bccause Ihose Ihal first showed IhemBelves in France came from 
Bohemia. Probably they were a people driven OHt of Egypt by Selim (fittho 
of Solyman the Magnifícenl}, when he conquered it in 1516. They ture 
always been a nomad. homeless race, living uñder tents, and but " indiSérefll 
honest." The men are tinkers and the women fortune- tellers. In Spain ihcj 
were innkeepers in leogue with bandits. 

The Jesuits (1554). — ^In the middleof the sinteenth ccntury Ihe socielyof 

Íísuits wasfounded tocounleract theinfiur--- -"'■•■ -■ -■- 
hey took cha^e of the pubUc education, s 

In Anstria, Bavaria, and the Rhine provinees, tbey founded sevoral colleges, 
■were appoinled profeaaora of the univcrsiliea, and hod chnrge of the epbcopal 
schools then newly eatablished. The Jesuíta differed widely from the monks 
agninst whom Luther railed, and whose ignorance and scnsuality were a 
atandingjest. They were men of superior leaming ¡ perhaps, on the whole, 
no body of mcn evcr equallcd them fot keen inlelligence, knowledge of hniaaa 
nature, and political wisdom. Theic habits, loo, wete remarkably temf>erate, 
EO that they soon became leaders. It is supposed by some Ihal they insligaled 
and kept alive the " Thirty Veita' War," bul of Ihis Ihete ia no proof, The | 
aociety waa suppressed in IJJZ, but many of the ordei remained, and i 
Bavana and Austria they aie still employed as leachers. 





y. ; hy tbfl Freach Qurles-qulDtJ 
... jmani.iSiaJcrownfdslAij-U-ChapelliiKing 

', isao; crDwaed at Bologna King of LDinbardy and Ihe IVo SIcUiu, Februiiry 1 
and two days afurwardt KbIht ot £tnt«rúr oí thv Hr>ly Román Empire. ' 


BoRH 15011. Retrhed 37 YEAna, 

Spoin, Wedneadjiy, Stpn 
. 1. Malhir, Jua.na, Aaa 

Conltmfsrary vnik Hcnry VIH., 

Isabel la. DTCasdle and Aragaii. 
iyi/t, IsabcUs, daughcr of Enimanuel king 6S Partug: 
ChildrtM, Musucl of Palm» <nal. A.\ mtiher, Molgo. 

Philip rj. of SpainX boro 153^ ; and two daughte 

I, («la 

i», King Df ihe SpsnUh i. 
oí Loinbardy; and cmpcroi 

rdgn of the Seventcen Nctht 
ifihíts. Juan Gcnesns de Sepalvcda, Spanüh hiatorbn. 
íbemon, /íiíiBiy D/CAaiV« J'. (EnslUh); -" 

ra ; duka I 

■Imt, TMi ClalstcrJ.Ífi ^Clnriaí'.! I 

: FhiJip bis loa inccudcd Üm Id Spain, and Fcrdinand, hii brolhcr, 


Henry Vlll. 


,30. (J"n= 'O LeoX publiíht 
Karl cnlimHi in Ocfobti 
;ji, (January) .Li 

It Luí 

, Wat agoinat Iba AnalnptL 
invades HoDEary and . 

ield of Ihe aolh of Gold ñau 
>n (Aíx-Ia-Chapelle), 

ler and Ihe Ludierans. TTie facully of Ihcoloe» 
(April 15). Henn- VIII. miblisíes his bo5k I 
Ihe pope Ihe lille of "' Defeudir of Ihc Failh." 
lorrio Isabella, danghterof Eoimanael lale !:_.. 
— j — -'1' IhereieniaE kúüg. Snlvinan the Hagnificeid 
gain» the battle of Moha«. J 


[¡3$. The dÍM oC Spsycr ISHní accordi ta the Lutlwnru liboty dT coawaa tlll ik 
Dcxl gEiicnlcDuncU. The LulhEiaiu ^nfuf igzinu this lleerse (Apiil 19}, td 

:rowned at Boliwna hiñe dF Lomhardy {F«hctiary 9i), emperor of the Wat MÍ 
ig of ihe T*o SkíIí» <Fchmary 34). faiet of Augjbure opeoed by Kart b pan 
ine 13X The PnMtlUlots ptESeni ihe samniiiry of cReír fiiilh called T*l C» 

. Feídinand, küiE of Hungaiy an 

. SolymíLn Ihe MunrAcent invadí 

The Aiuhbpluu Mit beuegci 

•f Gradina. KbIV. 
ea thelr chUf perúfaü 

til, SoLynun Ihc Maen]fi«iit 1nv^«s Hungftfv I 
lU cuiilal, wüh Ihi Turkiah cmpire. Hi 

roe IhE Ihird iTmE, and Ir, 

, The Lulhenuu admllWd ta ihe inipcrú] 
iealhorLulhfr<Ftbruary 16). 

Uhe (Ápríl 14). 

if MOhlbere, n 



hwi <td«t 

l'hc /"«..a- ( 


Caith, called tho Titirlm, ís 1 
Karl in Ihe Smalkaldic War, ü rewarded foi 
agaÍDíl Karl, (aking the »¡dv of Ihe Prot 


Seplembcr >i, issS. 

j taken by Ferdlnand Coi 
li ¡^íra«rí gílS; : \a 

be moaaitery of 51. JuJil 


ci : 15», Magellan suk 

1 Catrcouidura. 



Karl, the eidest grandson of the late kaiser, had succeeded W 
the Spanish throne in 1516, nearly three years before the deilb 
of Maximilian the Pennyless. He was also heir of the Twd 
Sicilies, the Netherlands, and the dukedom of Burgundy; and 
joint-heir, with his brother Ferdinand, of Austria and its depen- 
dencies. It was a question with the electors whether one with sucli 
large possessions would be a desirable monarch. Franjéis I. of 
France, ofTered himself, but here the same objection occurred: 
if Karl might make Germany subordínate to Spain, rran^ois 
might make it subordínate to France ; so they offered the crown 
to Frederick the Wíse, elector of Saxony. Frederick declined the 
honour, and then they elected Karl, but bound him by oath 
" never to make war or form alliances wíthout consent of his 
diet ; to enlíst no foreign soldiers in the Germán army ; to give 
office in Fatherland only to natives; lo use the Genoan 
language habílually, both in spcech, in the law courts, and ín 
all legal documents; and to make Gerroany his chief resi- 
dence." The young king, then barely twenty years of age, ha,i 


I5>9-55S-1 KARL V. 175 ' 

set his hand to the bond, lefl Spain, was crowned at Aíx-Ia-Ctiapelle 
with great pomp (October, 1520), and appointed his first diet to be | 
held at Worms the following year. This was the great diet, Ihe 
most splendid ever held, the diet to which Martin Luther was 
summoned, and it wíll be desirable at this point to give a short ' 
sketch of the stirring events which led up to this brilüant con- 

Martin Luther and the Diet of Worms (1521). 

Many an effort had been made from time to time to refonn 
some of the grossest errors of the christian church, but these re- 
forms had aimed, for the most part, at external abuses and corrupt 
practices. The Lutheran movement went much deeper. It was 
no longer a question whether the cup of communion should be 
given to the laíty, whether the clergy should be allowed to 
many, or whether bishops should be invested by the civil or 
ecclesiastical authorities ; but whether " etemal life is the gift of 
God, through Jesús Christ, our Lord ; " whether man is " saved by 
faith ; " whether " when we have done all we are unprofitable 
servants," or can accumulate merit to pay off the short-comíngs 
of others ;" whether " God will render to every man according to 
his deeds," or will stríke a balance between his sins and the 
vicarious merits he may chance to parchase of some hawker 
of " absolutions." These were the moot points of the Lutheran 
movement, and were infinitely more important than those of 
investiture, the cup in the eucharlst, and the celibacy of the 

If the clergy had been decently moral and tolerably literate 
they might, at least, have commanded respect; but the moral 
sense was outraged by Iheir sensuality, Luther, writing to 
pope Leo X., appeals to him in confirmatJon of the following 
statement : " No man living can deny thal Rome is more corriipt ' 
than Babylon or Sodom. It is," he says, "a most Ucentious den 
of thieves, and Antichrist himself could add nothing to its impiety. 
Nothing can even be conceíved further from Christ and his 
religión than the practices of the Román see." There can be no 
doubt of the scandal, when a humble monk can thus write to the 
pope, fearless of contradiction, The Hussite persecution had 
done the church much harm, so had the everlasting warfare 
between church and state, the anathemas bandied by pope against 
pope, the scandalous crimes of Alexander VL, and the military 
ferocity of pope Juhus IL 

There was at this period a large leaven of thinkíng men. 


Printing had supplied ihe means of dilTusing knowledge ; and Iht 
discontent at the state of the church was both wide and de^ 
Gunpowder is harmless till a spark ignites it, and Martin Ludm 
was the spark which fired the train Ihat led lo the reformation oT 
the sixteenlh century. 

Pope Leo X., being desirous of complcting the cathedial d 
Rome begun by his predecessor, thought to raise funds hr tbc 
purpose by the sale of indulgences, and committed the pifr 
mulgation of ihem ¡n Germany to Albert, archbíshop of Maiiii 
[vfcrj''"!'] 3nd Magdeburg. 

The archbíshop chose for his emissaiy John Tetzel, ¡ 
Dominican monk who had already been employed on a similar 
commission by the Teutonic Icnights. Tetzel was a vulgar áw- 
latan, with plenty of low wit and impudence. He was the veij 
man for a mob, and no one could better puff a nostrum, or cajolt 
the uneducacei This holy Autoljfcus* hawked about his "wares" 
in a most shameless manner. For a paltry sum of money any OM 
could buy iramunity from crime, both in this world and in the lifc 
to come. "'The very moment the ring of the cash is heard in tbt 
basin," said Tetzel, " St Peter will throw open the gates 01 paiadis; 
to the buyer; and if for the dead they will be taken at once ¡n» 
Abraham's bosom," He boasted he had saved more souls by hs 
indulgences than SL Peter by his preaching. 

Some notion of the enormous sale of these pardons, may bí 
inferred from the well-known fact that 500 bales of them smt 
found in a captured vessel ; about a million in a bale; the prici 
ranging from twenty pence to half as many pounds. 

" May the Lord have mercy on thee," so the words ran, "ano 
absolve thee by the merits of his most holy passion ! And 1, b» 
God's authority, do hereby absolve thee from all ecclesiaslíoi 

censures and from all sins .... how enormom 

soever they may be ... . and I remit to thee all iht 
punishment which those sins have deserved. I restore thee to Üit 
holy sacraments of the church, to the coramunion of sainS 
and to perfect innocence of life ; so that when thou dlest, tlK 
gates of hell shall be shut and those of paradise thrown openl» 
thee. , . . . In the ñame of the Father, and of the Son 
and of the Holy Ghost." 

These are the exact words of one of these diplomas. Som 
times a favourite of the pope had a monopoly of them in a gíití 
district, but more often they were farmed to the híghest biddet. 

In the memorable year J517, it happened that certain peisoiü 

havíng confessed to Luther sins of great magnitude, refused to 
submit to the penances he awarded them, because they had 
bought diplomas of indulgcnce, Luther was at a non-plus, but 
refused absolution. Tbe matter was laíd before Tetzel, who was 
then in the town. The Dominican blustered a.nd bullied, but 
Luther was not to be brow-beaten. He drew up ninety-five ob- 
jections against the sale, and nailed his iluses on the door of 
Wictenberg church. 

In his controversia! writings, published ¡n 1518, he says: "I was 
compelled in my conscience to expose the scandalous traffic, as I 
myself saw some seduced into profaneness by them. The sale of 
pardons has made us the jest of every pothouse. There was no 
occasion to fan the hatred and contempt of the pubUc against the 
priesthood, for their avarice and profligacy had already become a 
byeword and a proverb." 

The pope cited the Reformer to Rome, but Frederick the Wise, 
duke of Saxony, interfered, and the pope consented to his ap- 
pearing at Augsbutg before Cajctan, the cardinal-lcgate. The 
_ cardinal tried to induce the " heretic " to recant, but failing in this, 
he resolved to arrest him; Luther, however, lefc Augsburg secretly, 
and returned to Saxony, where the power of the elector was 
sufficient to protect him. 

In June, 1 5 20, pope Leo X. pubUshed a bull, in which forty-one 
stalemenls of the Reformer were condemned as "heretical, scan- 
dalous, and offensive." It forbade the faithful to read any of the 
books of tbe son of Belial, and commanded those who had any, 
at once to burn them. It then goes on to say, " unless within 
sixty days the arch-heretíc recants, he shall be bound over 
unto Satán, and it will then be doing God's service to seize 
him, that he may sufier the punishmcnt which his sins have 

Such was the bull against Luther ; but the time of anathemas 
and interdictions had gone by, and Luther, in reply, publicly 
announced his intenlion to sepárate from the church of Rome, 
and to burn the pope's bull without the city gates. Great was 
' the throng of spectalors lo see the threaC carried out, and every 
eye was fixed on Luther as he walked at the head of the professors 
■ and Btudents of Wittenberg to the place appointed. He then 
dcliberately committed the bull to the ñames, and with it the 
decretáis and book of canon law (December lo, 1510). 

Three weeks after this defiance the pope issued another bull 
' against the " heretic," repeating the substance of his former a 
thema, and giving over Luther and his followers to everlasting 


perdition. " In the name of the Father. and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, the blessed Virgin, Su Pctcr and St Paul, wcdo 
curse him and ihose who are led astray by him ; and we cut of 
bolh him and them from all communion of the saints. Cursed be 
they in piayer, cursed in speech and in silence, in eating and in 
sleep, in taste, ín hearing, and all the other sensea. Cursed in ihe 
eycs, the head, and the whole body, from the crown of the liad 
to the solé of the fooL I conjure Satán and his imps to toniM 
them bolh day and night, lili they perish by water, by fire, or tlic 
cord." As these imprecations were read in the churches, ihe 
officiating priest blew out the lights, saying " as I blow out thesc 
lights may the lighi of ufe be for ever hidden from their eyts 
So be it. Amen and Amen." " Bless, and curse not," said St 
Paul,* yet was this malediclion given in the name of St. PauL 

We have now come to the year of Karl's coronation, and ibe 
diet of Worms, a few weeks later, to whích Luther was cited The 
papal légate wanted the young kaiser to take measures at onK 
against the apostate, but the great elector supported him, and 
Kart durst not so condemn him. He was therefore brought be- 
fore the board, and when commanded to recaní, boldly made 
answer, "whatever is sliown to be conirary lo Scripture or rigi" 
reason, that will I reiract ; but he who shall take away frora tk 
words of God's book, God shall take away his part out of tk 
book of life." He was ihen suffered to depart, but was pO 
nounced a heretic and put lo the ban of the empire. Twenty-ons 
days afterwards any one mighi slay him, and to give hin 
shelter or food would be to make oneself paitaker of his crinití 
(May 8, 1521). 

To save him from assassins, Frederick the Wise had him secrell; 
conveyed to the castle of Wartburg, near Eisenach. Hereht 
remained for nine months translating the New Testament ioio 
Germán, and publishing numerous pamphlets on the great subjec 
of the day. In the mcantime his books were read everywheií 
were translated into several languages, and were s¡ireading in »1J 
directions. The diet of Worms made the Reformer notorioui 
and the prohibition to read his books, made every one greedy W 
taste the forbidden fruit. 

Luther left his " Palmos," after lying concealed there for nirí 
monlhs, and relumed to the active duties of the Reformation. 
Leo was dead^ but so long as his buU remained in forcé iht 
Saxon Reformer carried his life in his hand. 

Adrián VI., the new pope, was more bltler against Luther Ihan 

tiíg-iSSS.] -KARL V. LUTHER. T79 

even Leo had been, and in his brieve to the díet of Nürnberg, he 
calis on the princes of Gerraany to stamp out the pestílence, and 
even, if needs be, "to have recourse to the caiitery and the 
knife." " Whatl" says he, "is Luther alone wise ? is Luther alone 
guided by the Holy Ghost? Has the church been ever in 
darkness tíll this turbulent monk gave it light? Deal with him as 
the Almighty did with Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Deal with 
him as St. JPeter did with Ananias and Sapphira. Cleanse the 
land of the foul spot, as your forefathers purged it of Huss and 
Jerome. Cut off the accursed one from the land, that ye be not 
partakers of his sin. So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord ; 
but let them that love Him, be as the sun when it goeth forth in 
his might." 

In reply to this brieve the diet sent a memorial of a hundred 
grievances which thcy besought his hoÜness ío redress, and that 
without delay, for the nation neither could ñor would endure 
them any longer. 

It was plain that the principies of the Reformation were at 
work, and the Reformers grew bolder witli success. Luther 
severed himself froni the church of Rome, left oíf his monkish 
dress, and even married a nun, named Katharine von Bora. 

Just about this time Frederick the Wise died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother John, a far bolder spírit, who not only 
sided with the Reformers, buC estabUshed reformed churches 
throughout Saxony, and appointed professors of the same per- 
suasión in Wittenberg University, So earnest was he ¡n the work, 
that he is generally called the " Second Parent of the Reformed 
Church." Philipp, landgraf of Hessen, pursued the same course, 
and their example was followed, says Dr. Milner,* " by all the 
most enlightened princes and slates of Germany" (1525). The 
papal party grew seriously alarmed, and thinking it hígh time to 
stand at hay, the kaiser called a diet of the empire at Augsburg, 
to settle wíiat was to be done to prevent a rent in the seamless 
robe of the christian church. The diet met in November, but 
was adjourned to Speyer [S/t're] for the foUowing May. It 
ended in a temporary toleration, so that the Reformers had rest 
in those parts of Germany presided over by princes favourable to 
their views ; but in other parts, as Bohemia, Hungary, and Bavaria, 
they were persecuted even unto death. John HeugÜn and Peter 
Spengler were held under water till they were dead ; while Tolmar 
and the aged widow Clara, of Bohemia, with George Carpenter and 
Leonard Cíesar, of Bavaria, witnessed at the stake a good con- 

N 2 





fessioD (1527). Oh, when will persecutors learn this simple 
truth, "ihere is no sure foundation set in blood." 

Protestants (1529). — The decree of the last diet of Speyer 
[Sfiire] accorded to all Germany liberty of conscience " tul the 
next general council ;" but in 1529, a new diet, held in the same 
place, revoked this decree, and declared Lutheranism " heredcaL" 
FouTieen imperial cicies,* wíth the elector of Saxony, the marquij 
of Brandenburg, the duke of Lüneburg, and the prince of Anhall, 
at their head, protesUd against this revocation, as tinjust and in- 
tolerable. Henee the reformed party were nicknamed the 
" protestors," or protest-ants. 

The kaiser was absent from Germany during these litigalions. 
He left soon after the diet of Worms, in 1521, and did not retum 
for eight years. He was busy al war with the French at Miba 
but his victoiy over Fran^ois I. at Pavía, and his siege of Rome, 
ending with the Piaee of Cambray in 1529, belong to Spanish ot 
French history, and may be passed over. Having brought these 
contenlions to an end, he wenC to Bologna to be crowned by ihe 
pope "Emperor of the West," and "King of Lorabardy" (1530). 
This was the last time that any of the kings of Germany received 
from His Holiness the imperial crown. 

CoNFESSiON OF AuGSBURc (1530).! — Eeing now the grealesl 
monarch since the time of Chariemagne, king of Germanv, 
Lombardy, and Spain, emperor of the West, and ruler utider oiíe 
title or another of more than half Europe, and much of the Ne» 
Worid, he again turned his eyes to the Germán schism, which he 
determined to put dowa Accordingly, he summoned a diel 
at Augsburg for the 8th of April, which he promised to attend in 
persoa He was, at the time, at Bologna, in the papal palace, a 
guest of pope Clement VII., who had recently placed on his head 
the imperial crown. Clement greatiy objected to diels and 
councils, and wanted Karl to taice a high hand, and support the 
chtirch with the sword ; but K.arl held back, and commanded 
that a summary of the points in dispute should be laid beforí 
him at Augsburg, that he might himself judge between th( 

Kcmplc». HJIbnn. I.»l ft=l»™i«T[, N(willl=g«, mi SL C^. ■™'~™. mienta.. Lase 

li ud eood woria (Ait scirTxiILíí v.Oflta 

disputants. Melanchthon was deputed to prepare the summary, 
Tvhicli he digested Ínto twenty-eight anieles, twenty-one of which 
pertained to doctrine, and seven to practical matlers. This 
summaty, called the Con/ession of Aug¡burg, minutely re- 
sembles the Thirty-nine Artides of the Church of England. 
The Confession was presented ; discusston foUowed díscussion ; 
neither party would give way ; at length John elector of Saxony, 
and Philipp landgraf oí Hessen, left Augsburg and returned 
home. Karl now, sick of the controversy, pronounced the 
articles "heretical," He commanded the schismacics to return 
to mother church, to restore the property they had appro- 
priated, to re-endow the religious houses they had suppressed, 
and to destroy all the pernicious books which they had spread 
broadcast over the einpire. Jf within three weeks they obeyed, 
they should find him merciful; but if not, they should be 
put to the ban of the empire. Then appointing hís brother 
Ferdinand " King of the Romans " or regent of Gerraany, he 
dissolved the díet, and supposed he had settied the matter right 

Provisionary Peace of Nürnberg (1532). — The nextmove 
requires a littie retrospect in the political history of the perlod. 
In 1522, Ferdinand, the kaiser's brother, married the daughter of 
I^dislaus, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and on the death of 
Ludwig her brother, the two crowns carne to him by inheritance. 
A party opposed to the archduke set up a rival king ¡n Hungary, 
John of Transylvania, who applied to Solyman H. of Turkey for 
supporC. John promised the sultán to hold the crown as his 
tributary and vassal, if he would grant him effectual aid ; so 
Solyman, in 1529, carne at the head of a large army, and not 
on!y overran Hungary, but entered Austria, and laid siege to 

Ferdinand sought to ally himself with the protestant party, 
which had formed ínto a united body called the "Smalkaldtc 
League ; " but the league would have nothing to say to him unless 
the Augsburg decree was revoked. In this dilemma Karl had no 
choice; so aíter trying in vam to make a compromise, he granted 
the protestants full liberly of worshíp till the next imperial díet; 
and this decree iscailed the "Peace of Nürnberg." 

The league now joined the impeiial army, and the Sultán, 
unwilling lo risk a battle, withdrew his forces to Constantinople. 
This danger being over, the kaiser summoned an imperial diet at 
Trent, in the Tyrol, for March 15, 1545 ; but the protestant 
princes refused to attend, because Trent was on the frontiers of 


Italy, and the pope who had already condemned them vasV) 
preside al the council 

Karl, wholly unable to utitie the knot, detemiined to cut ti 
with his sword ; and, making a treaty with the pope, prepared fot 
war. The protestan! parly did the same ; and tliis brings lu to 
the death of Lmher. 

Death of Luther (Feb. 18, 1546). — Luther died before ihe 
war broke ouC He saw it coraing, and tried to avert it; but 
each party was too slrong to give way, and so distrustlul of the 
other that " theír only voicc was in Iheir swords." The Augsburg 
Confession was the culminating pointof the Germán reformat¡PD¡ 
and though Luther lived some sixteen years longer, he passed Olí 
of histórica! interest 

His character presents a rare combination of great qualitiet. 
He was possessed of strong human sympathies, herculéan eneigT, 
and an íntuitive penelralion. He was a born leader ; intrepid ffl 
danger, reckless of place, and neilher to be allured by flattoy 
ñor alarmed by threats. What was said by Pyrrhus of Fabñciui 
might be said of the Saxon reíormer, " It would be as easy ta 
turn the sun from its course, as Luther from the path of duty." 
In constitution he was slrong and heaUhy, in habits abstemions 
and self-denying, in temper impatient of conlradiclion, in condnd 
submissLve to authoriiy, but insolently deíiant when authoritf 
carne into collision with his conscience. His eyes were pieiting 
and full of firc; his voice síngularly sweet, but vehement; his 
countenance stern, but benevolent ; his spirit meek, but dauntless, 
Children and women loved him, good men honoured him, bis 
enemies feared him, his friends adored him. He was an undoubted 
scholar, and "a good and ripeone;" blameless ín life; a man oí 
thought, and yet a man of action ; a voluminous writer, and a 
true orator. Varillas calis him " a perfect master of eloquence." 
Like Sl Bernard, he could carry captive the understanding ; likc 
Peter the Hermit, he could conimand the passions. It was » 
Titanic work he set himself to do, but Luther was a Titán. To 
clear the air, as he himself said, required thunder and lightning; 
but Luther could wield ihe thunder of Jove and the ligbtning of 
Apollo. On the whole, history presents no parallel to the great 
Saxon reformer of the sixteenth century j and never did one man, 
single-handed, achieve so enormous a task. Like the stone cul 
out without hands, whidí smote the image of the Babylonian 
dreamer, and brake it in pieces, so Luther broke in pieces the 
image of popery as it then was, and scattered " the iron, " 

the brass, the silver, and the gold . 

. like chaff of the smnina 


threshing-fioors And the stone that smote the image became 

a great mountain, and fílled the whole earth." (Dan. Ü. 34, 35). 
Popery survived the leformation, and is in vigour still ; but it is 
reformed popery, and Esau's hands are well-nigh as smooth as 
Jacob's. Il is not the province of history to pass any opinión 
upon creeda, except so far as they are motive powera to those 
outward acts which make up the obedient subject, the peaceful 
citizen, the wise ruler, and the benefactor of mankind, 

Smalkaldic War (1546-1547). — Karl V. and Fran^ois I. were 
like cat and dog ; they were for ever at war wíth each other, and 
for ever patching np treaties of peace, which neither intended to 
keep. Frangois at length allied himself with the Turks, laid 
siege to Nice, and invaded Italy, but was repelled by the kaiser, 
Karl then formed an allíance with England, and attacked Franco 
at five difTerent points at once ; but the daiíger was averted by 
the Turks, who threatened Germany. Karl and Franjois now 
shook hands at Crespy, in Laonnais (Sept, 17, 1544), and agreed 
to terms of peace. The French king because he was unequal lo 
the contest, the kaiser that he might defend Germany from the 

In this crisis of aíTairs, ihe kaiser tried to win over the 
Liitherans ; but he , had deceived them too often, and they 
thought this a ripe time to stand at bay, so they raised the 
standard of revolt. Karl put the whole league to the ban of the 
erapire, raised a new army, and marched against the revolters. 
In April, 1547, was fought the Battle of Mühlberg, in which the 
Lutherans were utterly defeated, and the elector of Saxony (the 
giant John-Frederick, called the " Magnanimous ") with the land- 
graf of Hessen, were taken prisoners. Moritz or Maurice, 
Saxon and a protestant, greatly distinguished himself in this 
battle, fighting in thé imperial army ; and Karl, to reward his 
Services, appointed him elector of Saxony in the place of his 
cousin, John-Frederick, who was deposed, Thus ended the firsl 
religious war in Germany. 

The Interim of Augsburg (1548). — We are told that Karl, 
in his dispatch announcing his victory at Mühlberg, parodied the 
Cffisarian brag, "I carne, I saw, God conquered." It certainly 
was a brilhant exp!oit, perhaps the most brilliant of his reign : si 
complete and so sudden that it was compared to the victory o 
Joshua in the valley of Ajalon. Karl did what he could to 
conciliate the conquered Saxons ; he treated with kindness the 
wife and childrcn of the captive elector, and even visíted the 
tomb of Luther. \Vhen the duke of Alva hiiited lo him that he 





should disinter ihe bones of the heretic and bum theni, tk 
kaiser repiied, " Let be ; he has found his judgt I wax not wiit 
the dead, but with the living." 

The pope was angry with him for not smittng the heretics bott 
hip and thigh when he had them tn hís power ; but Karl called 
the pope a drivelling oíd dotard, and like hís grandfather, enier- 
tained the idea of adding the tiara to his other crowns at no raj 
distant period. He took upon himself to settle the affairs of lii! 
church in Germany, and summoned the states to Augsburg fot 
May is (1548) to hear his determination. WTien the diei wai 
assembled he read to them " The Declaration of his Royal and 
Imperial Majesty on religious rights in the Holy Román empiíf, 
till the next general council," and this declaration was calltd 
"The Interim of Augsburg" It reduced niatters preitywellw 
the s/aíu quo before the reformation. The elector of Maim 
[;WJ««] ihanked the kaiser in the ñame of the states ; the diel 
dispersed; and Karl supposed he had made all tbiogs smootbj 
but it was the lull before the storm. 

Moritz, the new elector of Saxony, was a protestant; bdiÍ 
although he had served in the imperial army, his sympathi» 
were with the Lutherans, and the captive princes were his kins- 
men, Beíng now ruler in the very eradle of the reformation, and 
surrounded by Lutherans on all sides, his sympalhies with them 
were rekindled, and he entertained the idea of making himsei! 
theír champion. Accordingly, he disiiatched a secret embassy 10 
Henri II. of France, lo unite with him in protecting the libeitia 
of the Germans. 

Absorbed at Innspruck with the deliberations of the Coundl 
of Trent, Karl paid no heed to the mutterings of the cominj 
storm; and while he was spinning his webs to ensnare the 
schismatics, the rapid and daring Moritz, with long red beard, 
streaming üke a meteor in the wind, dashed through the moun- 
tain passes at the head of his lancers, and nearly caught his hiid 
The gouty o!d kaiser had just time enough to escape in 1 
peasants' wagón, disguised as an oíd woman, and fled to FlandcTi 
On pressed Moritz, and again, al dead of nighl, midst thunder 
and lighlning, wind and rain, the kaiser ñed. Moritz was glad ol 
it, because, as he said, he had " no convenienl cage for such a 
falcon," The Treatv of Passau foUowed in August, and the 
whole fabric of the kaiser's toil to extírpate the protestants 
crumbled into dust By this trcaty, which secured perf«t 
freedom o f religión to protestants, the " Interim of Augsburg^ 
fell through j the landgraf of Hessen was liberated ; and M 


freedom of worship was accorded to every one till the next 
imperial coundl (July 31, 1552). 

KarI now turned hia arms against France to win back the ihree 
bishoprics of Mainz, Verdun, and Toul, which had fallen into the 
hands of the French king. He laid siege to Mainz [Afynire], 
but without auccess ; and concluded peace with his rival by 
giving up ihe three episcopal cities. 

Religious Peace of Augsbuec (Sept afi, 1555)- — According 
to the treaty of Passau, an imperial council was called for the 
autumn. Karl would take no part in it ; he was disgusted at the 
turn of affairs, and deputed his brother Ferdinand to represent 
him. The council was held at Augsburg. Ful! liberty of worship 
was confirmed. Lutherans and Catholics were declared alíke 
eligible to all offices of the state, and to seats in the imperial 
diets. Every ruler might sanction what form of religión he chose 
in his own province, but all were to tolérate those who held 
diíTerent views. 

Addication of Karl V, (Aug., 1556), — Disappointed in his 
schemes, broken in his fortunes, with income anticipated, estales 
mortgaged, all his affairs in confusión, failing in mental powers, 
and with one foot in the grave, the second Charlemagne deter- 
mined to retire from public life, and prepare himself for a 
kingdom not of this world. He was sadly shattered. The victim 
of gout, asthma, dyspepsía, and gravel ; crippled in the neck, 
arms, knees, and hands ; and troubled with boils and blotches all 
over his body, the effecC of gluttony and intemperance, His 
appetite remained when he couid no longer digest his food. He 
breakfasted at five in the morning on a fowl seethed in new milk 
with sugar and spices ; went to sleep again, and dined at noon on 
twenty dishes. He supped twice, at vespers and at midnight. At 
all his meáis he ate ravenously of pastry, of which his son Philip, 
the husband of our queen Mary, was extravagantjy fond In 
"SSS I"^ made over to his son the Low Countries, the Two 
Sicilies, and Spain ; in the year foUowing, to his brother Ferdi- 
nand, the government of Germany ; then retíred to St. Juste, in 
Estremadura, where he died in about eighteen months (1558), 

Karl V. was never good looking even in his hey-day ; but at 
fiñy, as Heuter the Spaniard, and cardinal Contarini, who knew 
him well, inform us, he was ugly and decrepit with premature oíd 
age. He was of médium height, and had once been athletic 
Broad in the shoulders, deep in the chest, thin in the iíank, and 
muscular in the arm. As a young man he was a match for any 
one of his own age in the tourney and ihe ring; and no matadore 





l86 KAKI. T, IK RrnKEKENT. ID;.tB;&i 

codld better tackk a bull in the arena. But at fiñy he vas ioék 
and nervous. Being crippled in his knees and legs, be sappand 
bimself on a stick in one hand, and leaned with the othei onlk 
shoulder of an attendant His hair, which in youth «ras tdeadt 
and floKÍDg. vas hoaiy, spai^e, and brbtling in míddle life; ai 
hjs beard shaggy, coane, axKl grav. His forehead was wide; I> 
ejres dark blue; his nose aquihne, but crooked ; aitÚ tfae toM 
pait of his face tras defonned with the heaty hanging Atu» 
lip and protTuding lower jaw. Ulien he opened his mouthk 
sbowed a hideous airay of díscoloured stumps, which made hs 
speech thick and hard to be understood. Eatíng iras bk h^ 
setttng sin, and even to the lost his appetíte never failed him. 

For the greater jiart of his life he was an indefatigable vnñn, 
and could endure any pñvation but that of food. He codil si 
in bis soddle all day and all night, and, as the duke of Aira siji. 
*' he was a born soldier." Karl used himself lo say the''lhiw 
best caplains of the age were himself, the duke of Alva, and tk 
constable Montmorency." He was fearless and energetic, cala 
in reverses and success, the ñrst to ann for battie, and the lást U 
throw his hamess off. So phli^gmatic was he in temperament, tiai 
he was calk-d a man " without sentJment and without a tear.' 
No doubt he was a hero to his soldiers, and a favourite almos 
everywhere ; for besides his mílitary genius, he had a wonderia 
talent for arranging a court pageant, and knew how to flatter Tfñii 
spiccd words. 

Karl V. IN RETrREMEST (1556-1558), — The romatitic pe- 
tures of Sandoval and Strada of the kaiser in retiremwit, ar; 
about as tme to fact as David's picture of Napoleón, prandnj 
over the AIps, on a cream-white charger, instead of toilLog m 
comfoner and great coat on a |>atient mulé, The investigatioiu 
of Stirling, Mignet, and others, have drawn back the curtain, ajti 
shown US the spangled harlequin of the stage in real home Ufe. 

So far from leading a cloister life, in prayer and meditatíon, his 
whole time was occupied in politics and eating. He read noihing 
but despatches, wrote nothing but replies. He had no taste for 
retiremenl, no religious sentimentahty. He was fond of making 
docks, hke Louis XVI, of France; and, if we may believe bio- 
graphers, was apt at an epígram and a jest ; but how far the* 
smart things were filed and hammered Ínto shapc by couii 
flatterers we cannot judge, His furious letters to his son "W 
cut out heresy without merey " are still extant ; and as for fasúog 
and mortifi catión, his cell was lilerally crammed with Estremadüra 
sausages, sardine omelettes, eel pies, pickled partridges, tu 

I, quince syrups, iced beer, fíagons of Rhenish, senna and 

(obarb. This picture of "the monarch retired from business" 

K'Í3 Irom Ufe, that of Sandaval and Scrada from imagination. One 
is ihe painting of Eurípides of the man as he was ; tlie other of 
Sophoclés of wbat he should have been. 

In reading up the lives of Karl V., his son PhiHp of Spain, and 
Ferdinand IL of Germany, from state papers and other original 
sources, often and often I have felt so sick at hearC that I have 
been obliged to abandon the task sometimes for several days. 
The martyrology of John Fox distressed me less. Lorente (i. 380) 
informs us that in the Netherlands alone, during the eighteeu years 
of Torquemáda's administration, 10,320 persons were burnt at 
the stake, and 197,327 punished by being buried alive, drowned, 
imprisoned for life, or reduced to beggary, merely because they 
thought Luther and Calvin interpreted Scriplure more correctly 
than he did. It would be as easy to believe that Robespierre, 
Danton, and Carrier were the servants of the God of Mercy in 
the French Revolution, as that a church can be infallible which 
CDUld instígate, organise, and commend such wholesale morder 
and horrible suffering, 

fl The Turks, — The religious aflairs of Germany in the reígn 
of Karl V. were of such absorbing interest as almost to eclipse 
oihers of less permanent importance ; nevertheless, the invasions 
of Sol5toan the Magnificent must not be wholly passed by. 

He invaded Hungary in 1526, 1541, 1543, iSS^i and 1566. 
In the second of these invasions he took Buda, the capital, and 
annexed it to the Ottoman etnpire During these invasions 
frequent inroads were made Ínto Austria, sometimes to the very 
gates of Vienna ; many women and children were taken captive, 
and great crueltíes were committed, 

Barbarossa, a notorious pírate, havíng dríven ínto exile Muley 
Hassan, the dey of Tunís (1534), was made by the sultán "pacha 
of the Turkish fleeC" Karl V., taking the part of Hassan, em- 
barked for África, defeated the corsaír, took Tunis, restored the 
dey, and set at líberty 20,000 christían captives who had been 
sold by Barbarossa ínto slavery (1535). This was a very brilüant 
achievement, and raised the fame of Karl throughotit all Chris- 
tendom. It was like an exploit of one of the seven champions, 
a paladin of Charlemagne, or a kníght of the round table in the 
court of Arthur, It does not look like sober history, but no 
conceívable act would be more calculated to captivate the mind in 
the Míddle Ages. It was heroíc ; it was on the síde of Christ ; it 
was a veritable crusade^ín íts eifects the most brillíant of tbem alL 



FROM 1450 TO 1550. 



There are times in the histoiy of man when a wave of inspira- 
tion seems to pass over the race, and men of toweríng genius 
spring up in all directíons at the same time ; peñods like these are 
historie landmarks, epochs not of a single people, but of a whole 
continent of nations, Such a period was that between tlie 
middle of the fifteenth centuiy, and the tniddle of the síxteenlh, 
Where can a hundred years be íound so full of mighty events? 
The invention of printing, the sail round the Cape of Good Hope, 
the discovery of a new world, the reformation of religión by 
Luther, and that of astronomy by Kopernik? The same agí- 
that produced Luther and Calvin, produced Líelius Socinus 
(founder of the Socinian sect), and Ignatius Loyola (founderofthe 
Jesuits). The same age thal saw ZwingÜ and Melanchthon, savr 
Cardinal Wolsey and Sir Thomas More. Of the same period 
were Erasmus of Rotterdam, Sleidan of Cologne, Coleí (founder 
of Sl Paul's School, London), Vasco da Gama the Portuguese 
navigator, Christopher Columbus of Genoa, Raffael and Leonardí 
da Vinci (Italian artists), Albert Düter and Kranach. France at 
the same time boasted of her " Chaucer " ihe poet Marot, and 
of Rabelais the very phcenix of wit, whose coaiseness, verging 
often on profanity, and oftener stíll on indeiicacy, woiild have 
sunk him into obÜvion, if bis genius had not produced a work 
which stands alone in the literature of the world. 

It will be desirable to give a short sketch of some of the n 
noted Germans contemporary with Karl V., and their specialilies 
wili be more easily remembered if they are divided into four 
groups :— (i) Those connected with the religious reformation; 
Tz) the historians of the period; (3) Kopernik and Paracelsus) 
(4) Albert Dürer and Lucas Kranach. 

(i) The chief of the reform group round Luther were UMch 
Zwingli, Philipp Melanchthon, John Agrícola, Andrew Carlstadt. 
Mattin Bucer, and John Calvin; with Jerome Emser and John 
Faber on the other side, 

ZwiNGLi (1484-1531), ihe reformer of religión in Switzetland, As eatnest 
as Luther ag^nst líie abuses oí ihe court of Rome, he oeverlheless diffaol 
from him on severa! imporlant points — ^notably on Ihal of the "real ptcsence" 
in the elemenls of [he eucharisl. The vety same cause which roused Lulhd. 
stirred Zwingli iilso into activity, vii., the sale of induleences. Teuel was Üie 
chapman 01 ihese warcs who provoked Luther ; and Zwingli sel hímself 
against Samson, the licensed hawket of indulgcnces io Switierland . Beiiigíii|>' 
oorled by the chief powers of Zürich, Zwingli had not the uphill work of l^^ 
'uion reformer. lo 1520 the magistracy commanded Ihat the Bible, ife 

Wle Bible, and cothing but the Bible, snould be the kw of the chuichu' 


ita doctrines ; and two jears later the reform was íaUy eslabüshed in Ihe 
canlon. AU pictursE aud images were removed from the chinches, mass was 
aboliühed, begging fiiars were put down, mairiage was inade a dvil contract, 
and Zwingli piotested ugaínst the celibac]' oí the cleí^ by manyíng the 
widow of a Swiss nobleman. 

Oí all the reformcrs none surpassed Zwingli in honest^ o[ puipose. He 
knew exBctly whil he waated, and adhered fiom the ñrst to the simplicity of 
the Goapel. Less violent tban Luiher, he was more candid ; lesa contio- 
versial, he was more clear-headed. Le^ ayslematic Ihan Caivin, he was (¡uite 
as original; less dogmatic, bewasnolessfaithful. His Conftssian, or sixly-seven 
atlicles of religión, wjll always be considered a masler work by Protestajits, 
and will beu compartson wíth MeUnchthon's Confession of Augsburg, or the 
Tkirly-niíu ArticUs oí out Aoglican rcfonned church. 

JoKN Calvin (1509-1564), a Frenchman by birth, cast his lot in Geneva. 
He was twenty-aix years youngei than Luther, and twenty-ñve than Zwíngli, 
both of whom he oullived. He was veíy stern and dogmático!, but tendered 
ctfectual seivice to celigious reform. What St Paul did for Ihe christían 
church at its foundalion, Calvin did for the leformed church : he oiganlaed its 
discipline, and enuociated its doctrines. As a relígious teacher, social legis- 
lalor, and theological wriler, he has no equal. His works are numerous, ail 
■written in elcgant Latin ; bnt his Instituía of thi Ckrislian Religión, his first 
vrork. is still Ihe besC Itnown. Nearly al! orthodox dissenters, except the 
Metbodisti, lean towards Calvinism, but the Prole&lant episcopal chucches of 
£ng]and and Germany incline more to Luther'a teaching. 

pHlLtPP Meijinchthon (1497-1560), Luther's fellow-labourer, was a 
leader of the Reformation, Being appoínted professor of Greek in the 
univeisity of Witlenberg, he £oon took the úde of Luther ; and, being an 
e:icellent scholir and clear thinker, he helped on Ihe wotk discreetly and well. 
It was Melanchthon who composed the arllcles of religión known as the 
Augsburg Confession. As a public leachei he was exceedingly admiied, 
and was certaióly one oF the rípest scholars that Gennanf has ever had. His 
Contman-place Boek of TAtology went thiough fifly editions even in the ufe- 
lime of the aulhor. 

John Agrícola (1492-1566), was another of Luther's fcllow-labourers. 
Helookpart inthe " Inlerim of Augsburg " {¡íí p. 1S3), and signed the articles 
of Smalkald, ÍniS37. Likc Melanchthon, he loo was a profcsaorofWiltenberg, 
Agricola was not orthodox according to Lulhei's views. Luiher called him 
an Antinomian, meaning an opponent of good works. He said, with 5t. 
Paul, "maQ Í3 not justiñed by the woiks of the law, hut by the faith of Jesns 
Christ .... for by the works of the law ahall no flesh be jnstified ' 
(Gal. ii. 16) ; but he did not say, as Luther insinuated, let us " continué in sin, 
thatgroce may abound " (Rom. vi. l). He was, however, obliged to lesign his 
professorship, and, being reduced (O want, be recanted, and b«:ame preacher 
to Ihe court st Brandenburg. Agricola wrole many books, but by far his best 
is CommoH Germán Proveris wilh Explanatiens. 

Andrew Carlstaut (1483-1541), of Fianconia, was another of Luther's 
friends, and líke Melanchthon and Agricola, a professor in the □niversity of 
Wittenberg. Carlstadt, like Agricola, was unable lo go the whole length with 
Luiher. Agricola differed on the subject of faith and good works, Carlstadt 
on the subject of the "real presence " in the bread and vñne serveJ to com- 
■ ' ■' it of Ihe Lord's supper. Luther believed Ihat the 



Pthat Ihe brea 
chiuif^e took p 
ihe sacmmeDt 


universily of Címbridge. Ilia best w 

)' of'whi 

only bread, and Ihe wine nnly wine ; thal no soil of 
Ihe clemcnts by consecration, and ihal the solé objecl oí 
a show foTth the Lord's dealb." Carlstadt was the ünl 
ecclesiiulic in GeTumny Ihat bioke Ihrougti the law of celibacy by mairiage. 

Martin IÍucer (1491-1551), a Dommican, was one of ihe most arden! of 
the reformers. He went to Slrnsburg, ■where he íntroduced Ihe doctrino of 
the reformatioQ. Bucer, líke Carlstadt, differed ñom Luther on the subject 
of " the leal piesence." ThU made his pusition in Sttasburg uDtenable, and 
he accepted an invitation from archbishop Cranmer lo leach theology in Ihe 
..„.■.—,„.... «<■ (■.n.i.<ij™^ tti. v.^> ...^.i. .„ — Expositisn of ¡he J^cUms, 

' Lalin ñame ÍOBlead of voor owtl 

, — «r'i na] nnme was KakAirn ((0»- 

hom), of which Bucet a the Gndi:. Mdanchthon'a real namcwad SchtuariatrtUi^Ji^ 
carthj, for whícb MeUnchtbon U the Greeli. So wifh othcrA. 

(2) The chlef historians of the same period are Cuspinian, 
Aventin, Dubraw, and Sleidnn, all of whom wrote in Latín. 

JoHM Cuspinian of Franconia (i473-tS*9)> wrote a MUíoty 0/ AuttrU, 
and another of the kaisers, FretnJuHtis C<riar ta Maximiiian. 

Aventin (1476-1534), the ñame by which John Thurmaier is eeneroE)' 
known, was bcoii at Aventinum, or Abenshurg, in Bavaria, lie wrote > 
hislory of Bavaiia, called Annalh Boiñrum, a standard woik stilt. 

John Dubraw of Bohemia {* -1553), wtote a History ef Bokíniia, ía 
thirly-three books. 

John Sleidan of Cologne (1506-1556), called "the Prolestant Livy," 
WTote a history uf the Kefunnatíon, a standard work, which he called Thi 
Stale of Religim in Ihe Jí^g/i ef Kaiser Kart V. 

(3) Kopemík of Prussia and Paracelsus irere men of enor- 
mous influence. Each was a Luther in his own line. Kopemik 
was the great reformer of astronomy, and Paracelsus of 
medicine. Luther discarded the oíd traditíons of the Reman 
chnrch, and purged otf its worst errors ; Kopernik discarded 
the oíd traditions of the solai system, and began that brillianl 
conception which was perfected by Sir Isaac Newton ; and Pan- 
celsua discarded the red-tape of mediieval pharmacy for experi- 
ment and observation. HippocríLtés was nothing, Galen wiS 
nothing, Aristotle was nothing ; experiment was far more to be 
relied on ; observation and experience were far better teachei& 
Galen belleved ¡n the influence of the moon, in critical days, in 
amulets, but Paracelsus maintaíned thaC every disease requiíes its 
special treatment, which only experience can determine. His 
two axioms were : — (i) The cure of diseases is not to be leanit 
from books, but from observation and experience ; and (j) 
disease does not depend on any one thing, such as excess ía 
deficiency of bile, phlegm, or blood, but each disease has ÍB 
special cause, must be specially treated, and is subject to its own 
laws. This was a great advance. It weaned the mind from oM 
stagnant notions, half dogmatic, half superatitous, and pointed to 


observation, experiment, and practice. The system of Koper- 
nik, no doubt, was crude and imperfect, but it started on the 
right path ; the "system" of Paracelsus was no less so, but was a 
midwife of thought And both ca]led up a hosC of mcn in quick 
succession, who purged off the crudilies, and brought ¡ 
noray and medicine to their present state. 

Nicolás Kopernik, Latinised into Copemicus, of Thorn, in 
Prussía (1473-1543), showed that the earth is not the centre of 
our system, and that day and night are not due to the sun 
moving round our earth, but to the earth moving round its o 
axis. He proved the revolution of the planets round the sun by 
eclipses, and that the earth has two moiions, one round the sun, 
and the other on its axis. The ideas were not new. They 
had been suggested long before by Pythagóras, but Kopemilc 
disinterred them, brought them to the liont, and gave them in- 
creased probability. To those who start right, every fresh obser- 
vation is a valuable fact ¡ but those who start in error, stray in 
error, and even truthful observations are distorted to confirm their 
error. Take an example ; According to classic mythology, every 
ferial phenomenon is an act of Jove; if ¡t thunders and lightens, 
it is Júpiter hurling about his thunderbolts ; if an eclipse occura, 
it is the angry god who causes it ; a fallíng star is only a 
messenger from heaven. Believing this, observation is of no 
valué, because the phenomenon is ascribed to a wrong cause, and 
truth maltes no progress ; but once belíeve that lightning is a dis- 
turbance in the eléctrica] state of the atmosphere, that eclipses are 
due to the moveraent of planets, and failing stars to gravitation, 
then every observation is useful, and heljDS on to more perfect 
knowledge The nierit of Kopernik was not so much its 
freedom from error, as its starting in the right direction. 

Paracelsus (1493-1541} is no proper ñame, but a Gneco- 
Latin free translation of Bombast. As bombast means " tur- 
gidity," so para-celsus means "very loñy." The real ñames 
of this physician are Aureolas Theophrastus Bombast Some 
called him a quack, because he pooh-poohed received authotities, 
such as Hippocrátés, Galen, and Aristotle. But charlatán or not, 
none can deny that he ¡ntroduced into pharmacy many new 
drugs, both mineral and vegetable, such as mercury, salt, sulphur, 
antimony, arsenic, and opium. He lectured in Germán, and for 
a time his lecture-rooms were crowded. Without doubt he was 
conceited and only half-educated ; without doubt many of his 
notions were crude, and he bitterly offended the budge doctors 
of the classic school; but it is no less true that he made men 



doubt — to doubt is to think, and to think is to improva Tnili 
is not dogma and tradition, but the result, for the most pan, d 
the shocic and colusión of dilfering opiníons. Nothing can be 
worse than a stereotyped system, from which no one must deviale 
either lo the right hand or lo the left. This Chínese "dtcumlo- 
cution " makes merit to consist only in memory and repeütíun. 
Luther broke it down in religión, Kopernik in astronomy, Pan- 
celsus in medicine ; and though all had errors of no littie magiiJ- 
tilde, they all did good servíce by abolishing mental serfdoni, and 
introducíng liberty of thought. 

{4) Aldert Dürer (1471-1528), — Alberl Dürer, son of » 
goldsmith in Nürnberg, was a great painler and engraver. He is 
said to have been the first who engraved on wood. His 
countrymen cali him " the prince of artists." Maximilian I 
appointed him court aitíst, and Karl V. continued him in iÍk 
same office. Englishmen cali him " the Chaucer of aitisti' 
His portraits of Charlemagne and other emperors are univenall; 
admired. The pictures of Dürer are scarce and highly vaJued; 
and his book on the " rules of painting " is stíl! a high authoritr. 

Lucas Kranach {1472-1553), the engraver and painiei, «s 
intimaie with Luther and Melanchthon, and his portraits of thesí 
reformers are as interesting and vaiuable as the portraits rf 
Charlemagne and his successors by Albert Díirer. xAnach's SM 
was also a noted artist 


Ferdinand i., born 1503, kaisec 1556-1564, was the second son ^ 
I'hilipp the HandsoiTic, and brother o( Karl V. He mairied Anttt << 
Bohemio, and died of diopsy at Vienna. 

Maximilian II., bom 1525, kaiser 1564-1576, was the son of Fetdinanál- 
and Anne. He mairied his cousin Maiy, daughter of Karl V., and U 
fifteen chíldren. His daughter Anna María was the thiid wife o( FU; 
II. of SpBÍn(iS7o). Isabclla mamed Charles IX. of France (1570). 

Rl;DoLFlI.,born 1552, kaiser 1576-1612, wassonof Maximilian II. and Min. 

Wathias, born ISj6, kaiser 1611-1619, was brother of Rudolf 11. Hi*l 
no children of hia owo, he adopted his cousin Ferdinand of Styria. 

The next four reigns may be dismissed in a few Unes. 

Ferdinand I., brother of Karl V., reigned eight years. Hí 
was a man of moderation, and his government was peaceful ai^ 
prosperous. He called himself Emperor of the West, bm "* 
never crowned by the pope. j| 

Maxjmiuan II., son of Ferdinand I., was a very núld^| 
températe prince of Lutheran proclivities. He lived and c^B 
peace after a reign of iwelve years. -^h 


It was during the reign of thís "prlnce of peace," that the 
massacre of the protesiants in París was perpetrated on St, Bar- 
tholomew's eve. It needs scarcely be added that Charles IX. 
was king of France, under the leading-string of his mother 
Katharine de Mediéis ; Eliiiabeth was queen of England ; and 
Philip II. was king of Spain. Queen , Mary died in the second 
)-ear of the reign of Ferdinand I., the father of Maximilian, and 
the Spanish annada was equipped and scattered (1588) in the 
reign of his son Rudolf, Just cighteen months before, the luck- 
less Mary queen of Scots, was beheaded ¡ and about ihirtj' years 
from the death of Rudolf brings us to the reign of Louis XIV., 
the grand monarch of France. A fair notion may henee be 
formed of the social and commercial state of Gennany, — ils 
progress in the arts, its comforts and conveniences of domestic 
life, — for it differed but líttle in these respects from Spain, 
France, and our own country. 

Rudolf II., son of Maximilian 11., was brought up ín Spain. 
He had no talent for ruling, but left all state affairs to the Jesuits, 
while he himself occupied his time in chemistry, natural hístory, 
and botany, in studying astronomy with Tycho Brahé and Kepler, 
or in ttimery, etching, and mechanics. 

In this reign Kepler and Tycho Brabé drew up their astro- 
nómica! tables, which they callea "Rudolfine Tables," out of 
compliment to their imperial pupil. He reigned thirty-six years. 

Mathias, brother of Rudolf, reigned seven years. He was no 
ruler, and as he had no children he adopted his cousin Ferdi- 
nand, duke of Stjria, who was also his coadjutor. In this reign 
began the Thirty Years' War between the cathoHcs and the pro- 
testants, but all further mention of thís important event may be 
deferred to the following reign. 

TvcHO BrakE, Ihe astronomer, was a Dnne. He lefl Denmaik beciase 
the Danish nobles Ihnught he degiaded his rank by studying oilronoroy. 
Rudolf allowed him a pensión of 3000 ducats (¿1500) a-year (1546-1601). 

Kepler, " the father o¡ modem astronomy," was a Germán, boca in a liltle 
village of Wüttembeig. He ís celehrn.ted for the thrce grcat trulhs called 
KtpUi's Laws: (i) The planets move in ellipsea, with the sun in one of the 
foci ; (3) the radius-vector sweeps over equal arcas in equal times ; (3) the 
square of Ihe períodic time of the planets is proportional lo the cube of their 
ineait dislance. He furihermore axcertained that Galileo's " four new planets " 
were not planets at all, bul salelliles of Júpiter ¡ he gave a complete theory of 
eclipses ) calculaled the exact epoch of the trnnsiis of Merciiry and Venus 
Bcrosa tbe sun's disc ; and made numecoQS important discoveries in optics, 
geometry, and general physics (1571-1630). 

Galilbo, of Pisa, was conlemporary with Tycho Brahí and Kepler, but 
his ñame bclongs to Italian and not Germán history (1564-1642), 



[D. m; Fli 

CoPERNicus, the Prussian astronomer, died three years before Tjd» 
Brahé was born (1473-1543). 

Mercator, the Flemish geographer, another noted ñame of the same 
períod, published a number of maps and charts, which he engraved aod 
coloured with his own hand. Mercator is universally known for what is calkd 
" Mercator*s Projection," a plan of drawing longitudinal Unes so as to cat tbe 
parallels of latitude at right angles (15 12-1594). 

§ Shakespeare, the greatest dramatic poet that ever lived, was born tbe 
same yearas Galileo, but died before either Galileo or Kepler (i 564-1616). 

SiR Isaac Newton was born the year that Kepler died (i 642-1 727). 


FERDINAND II., King of Bohemia, 16x7; crowned at Presburg Kin^; of Hungaír, xiSil; 
Emperor Elect of the Romans, 1619. Kesigns the crown of Hungary Z635, and Úaíd 
Bohemia 1637. 

Born 1578. Rsignsd x8 Years, Z619-1637. 

Died, Sunday, Feb. xsth, X637. Aged 59. 

Coniem^orary tuith James /., X603-1625, Charles /., X635-Z649. 

Father^ Charles, archduke of Styria, younger brother of Maximilian II. and i3th9aBtf 
Ferdinand I. Motker^ Mana of Ba varía, who infused into her soa a hatred of de 
jprotestants, and had him brought up by the Jesuits of Ingolstadt. 


Child^ Ferdinand [III.] who succeeded him. 

BiographerSy Hurter, Rerum Atístriacarum Historia (1643). F. Chríst, Anmk 
Ferdinandei (X578-X637X Nicolás Bellus, Affairs of Gemiany /"ratH tórj to lófi- 
Schiller, Tkirty-Years War, Lamormian the Jesuit,^ Virtutes F'erdiMomUi {ik^ 
Kcester, Seiffart, Zimmermann, Funke, Garve, Stein, Thibault, Foerster, Pkenss, Nicw 

FERDINAND III., King of Hungary, X625 ; King of Bohemia, 1627 ; King of the Ronm 

1636 ; Emperor of the Romans or of the West, X637. 

Born 1608. Reigned xa Years, X637-X657. 

Died, Monday, April 2nd, X657. Aged 49. 

Contemporary with Charles /., 1625-1649. The Commonwealthf x649>z66o. Crommd 

was lord j^rotector X6S3-X658. 

Father^ Kaiser Ferdinand II. Mother^ 

Wivest (x) the príncess Maria-Anne, daughter of Felipe III. of Spain, married 1631, iW 
^2) María-Leopoldina archduchess of Austria, married 1648, died 1649. 
(3) Eleanora of Mantua, married 165 1 and survived him. 
Childretty Ferdinand, who died, 1654, of smallpox ; Leopold I., who succeeded his fetberí 
the empire. 



Maximilian II. 



Rudolf II. 



Karl duke of StyriA (i3th s«4 
Ferdinand II. 
Ferdinand III. 

Leopold I. 



Marie Antoinette 

who married the elector of 


! Maria Josephine 

I who tnarried 

Joseph Ferdinand Karl Albert ^ Augustus III, 
died 1699. elector of Bavaria elector of 

Joseph I. 


Karl VIL 

Saxony and 
king ofPoland. 

Maria Anulict 

who married 

Karl Albert 

elector of Bavariu 

her cousin 

(Karl Vil.) 

Karl VI. 

María Theita 
who married 
Franx Stepbtt 

. WullcnilEianiíciiinaiinTiillhEcalhDlic inlcral, anilAta Üit ballU qf Daiau. 
Tilly, hisd oí Ihe Colholic loigiu, deCcau Chriitiu IV. « Luiur. 
tíij. Wollciutein diifeui the Dan», snd ncarly lül Holnclo filli inID hú hjmds. 

ifiag, The kaiser CDmruDdj hy cdk[ Ihal Ihfl pratcBtaats shauld rcxlore lo Üia calhdíci 

Pea™ oT LObKlí, lirtwwn Frnünand (Icaúer of Gtnmay) «id ChrUliiui IV. (king 

Y lijo.* The Uaná havíng shandoned the protulanl caiue, Ihe king orSwedcD [ilnvited lo 


laviisAdolphus . ..... - . .- 

js Adolphus, over Tilly and Ihe Calholic Leoguí (Stpt«nfcr;). 

9 tan mairieí Ihe pHnceis Maria-Aone, daughier of Felipe llt.arSpain, 


&tíl¡,ofLMI^ wofi.by the S*edes.bDi Guiu™ Adolph™. died oT 61. wound. 



The French imii the Sweda in the Thirty Vears" War, The pesM Df Pngu 


The kaiKT makcj hii son '■kine of ihe Romans." 


Dealh oT Ihe kaUer. His «n F«ídin.nd 11 1, «nlinues ihe war. 




Acceai™ of Ftcderic William I., ihí Great. 


Deaih of Banier Ihe Swedíih genetal. He it succeeded by Tonlenioha. 


and lakei Leipdg. 


Second talIU «f JVsírfífM™. This wu won hy Iho duke d'EnghIen over Ih 

1648. BalHt ^/S«mmtrsha<tí.n won by Turenne and Wmngel {April 17Í 

Peace of Weslphalia and end of Ihí Thirly YcarV War (October J4), V/tt 

Ferdinand II. was forty years oíd when he was crowned king of 
Hungary; he had succeeded to Bohemia the year before. He 
was a rigid calholic, who had been educated at Ingoldstadt by 
Jesuits, and had been laught to believe it a christian virtue to say 
with David : " Do not I bate tbetn, O Lord, tbat hate thee ? 
And am not I grieved with those ihat rise up against thee? I 
bate them with perfect hatred : I count them mine enemies." 




(Ps. acxúx 21, 2a). Of course liis error was in supposiiij 
ihe catholic section of ihe church to be the one and only 
church, and that all who differed from it were the enetnies of God 
Knowing the man, the protestants had good reason tbr feaiinj 
him ; and events proved that iheir fears were not groundless, fot 
he involved the whole empire in a series of wars which contíaueJ 
without intermission for thirty years (1618-1648,) 

The progress of this war wilí be the history oí Germany duriii¡ 
this reign and the nexc, and it will be convetiient to divide il tnw 
four parís : — 

(i) From the commencement to the intervention of the Dan» 
A period of seven years {1618— 1625). 

(a) From the intervention of the Danés to the peace of Lübeci, 
when Christian IV. retired from the contesL A period of 6t 
years (1625-1630). 

(3) From the intervention of the Swedes undcr Gustan 
Adolphus to the battle of Nordlingen. Another period of 6« 
years (1630-1634). 

(4) And lastly, from the French intervention to the peace rf 
Westphalia, a period of thirteeii years, in which the character 0^ 
the war was wholly changed. It was no longer a struggle betweti 
catholics and protestanls, but a fight by Sweden and France 61 
polilical ascendancy over Germany (1635—1648). 

The chief battle of the first period was that at WeissenÍHHS 
near Prague, in which the protestan! Eohemians were defeatedt^ 
the imperialists (1620), 

The chief battles of the Danish period were Ihose of LdUS 
and Dessau, in 1626, ¡n both of which the Danés were defeaud 
by Wallenstein and Tilly. 

The chief battles of the Swedish period were those of Ltíp? 
(1631), the Lech and Lützen (1632), won bythe Swedes; andtó 
battle of Nordlingen (1634), in which they were defeated bylfc 
kaiser's son, afterwards Ferdinand JII. 

The chief batdes of the French period were those of WittsloA 
Leipzig, Nordlingen, and Soramershausen, in all of which ih 
imperialists were defeated- Then the peace of Westphalia puta 
end to the war, and the land had rest for a few years. 

With this brief outline for a guide it will be more easy to fono" 
out the details of the war. In the first two periods the imperiaÜ* 
and catholics had the advantage ; but in the last two the lA 
turned in favour of the Swedes and the French, who fought ■ 
the protestant ínterest. 

1S19.1ÍJ7.I raRDIKAND IL 197 

I. The finí perioá of tht Tkirty Years' War, 


(Fron the commeuenieiit to tht mltrvcDiíon ef ihe Dincs), 

There had long been two protestant churches in Bohemia, one 
in ihe diocese of the archbishop of Prague, and the other in Ihe 
territory of the abbot of Braunau. The archbishop and tlie 
abbot puUcd these churches to the ground, and the protestanls, 
when they remonstrated, were told it was the king's pleasure; 
so count Thurn headed a deputation which went to the Royaí 
Castle at Prague to lay their grievance before the king. Being 
admitted into the Coundl Hall, they were so insolenily received, 
that they ihrew two of the councillors and the king's prívate 
secretary out of the windowinto the moat. Thenialcontents then 
took forcible possession of the Castle, drove the Jesuits out of 
Bohemia, and appointed a new council consisting of thirty pro- 
testants. Ferdlnand, king of Bohemia, instantly drew together an 
army to put down the rebels, and was promised siipport from 
Spain and the Catholic League. Count Thurn also girded up his 
loins for war. In the meantime kaiser Mathias died, leaving 
Ferdinand (king of Hungary and Bohemia) his successor. 

The Bohemians refused to acknowledge the new monarch, and 
set up the elector-palatíne, Frederíck (son-in-Iaw of James I. of 
England), in his stead. Frederíck was a poor pitiable prince, 
calied the " Winter King," because he was elected in November, 
reigned one winler, and fled to England ere the year carne 

Ferdinand II., being crowned at Frankfort kaiser and king of 
Germany, lost no time in marching against bis rival, won the battle 
of Weissenbeig, near Prague (Sunday, November 8), while the 
" Winter Kíng " was at dinner. Frederíck heard the booming of ihe 
cannon, made ofF in hot haste, and hís palatinate was given to the 
duke of Bavaria, who was a catholic 

The Bohemian protestants were cruelly treated bythe victorious 
kaiser; their lands were confiscated, and many were put to the 
sword. The protestant clergy were banished ; and every form of 
religión was prohibited except that of the Román catholic 

Thus ended the firsl part of the war, though fighting still con- 
tinued for three years longer with different adherents of the 
*' Winter King," The troops of the protestant unión were still in 
arms, strengthened by a contingenC from England under Sir 
Horace Veré. The unionists, however, were little better than 


paper soldiers. Sir líorace Veré showed fight, and so SÁ 
Christian of Brunswick, a fiery young prince, who stuck the glort 
of the "Winier Queen" in his hat, and declared he would eillio 
restore her to the Ihrone or die in the attempt. Count MansfeMl 
was anoiher of the fighling protestants who continued in snsi, 
but all saw it was a losing ganie. Christian of Brunswick «1 
poisoned, and Mansfeldt with Sir Horace Veré were sent ka bj 
james I. 

// T/k Danisk inUrvention in thí Thirty Year^ Wor. 

The protestants now invLced Christian IV. king of DeninaikV 
come and take their parL He was brother-in-law of James L, íbí 
like the kings of Denmark referred to by Shakespeare, "« 
fond of hisrouse." His intervention inthewarwas disastrous 6o< 
beginning lo end ; it brought the protestants to the brink oír» 
and endangered Denmark also. 

Almost the only thíng one remembers of Christian's campaipl 
is the accidenl which befell him at the commencement WÚt 
riding to inspect the ramparts of Hamelin his horse stumbled,: 
the royal rider was thrown. Many Ihought he was kÍUe<Í,6il 
being " full of wine," he met the usual luck which is said to be6í 
drunkards and ch i Id rea 

The protestants of Hanover and Mecklenburg, Hambni^ 
Lübeck, and Magdeburg, took no part in the war; but Christiaiía 
Denmark received some slight support from his brother-itt-lií 
James I., and more substanlial aid from count Mansfeldt and lit 
duke of Brunswick; the circle of Lower Saxony, howevM, bot 
the chief brunt of the protestant cause. 

At this crisis Albert von Wallenstein, a rich Bohemin 
nobleman, offered his services to the kaiser in the catholií 
interest. He promised to raise an army of 50,000 men, atbi 
own expense, provided he might command it himself, choose hl 
own officers, and recoup himself by plunder. The kaiser ^adh 
accepted the offer, and Wallenstein soon found himself at the hw 
of 30,000 adventurcrs. 

There can be no doubt that Wallenstein was the right niasii< 
such an expedition. His parents were protestants, but theydií* 
when he was a boy, and his únele sent him to be educated byti* 
Jesuits. He married a rich widow, who soon died leaving hiniíl 
her wealth. By the death of his únele he was heir to his fourttO 
estates ; and he furthermore enriched himself by buying at a If 
valué sixty confiscated lordships. He was the richest " 


Bohemia, and the kaiser dubbed him dulce. Wallenstein was a | 
tall proud man, with short black hair, and deep sunk eyes. 
spoke little, but was a most rigid exactor of discipline. 

This volunteer chíef with his band of adventurers, hot for action 
and hungry for plunder, fell on count Mansfeldt at Dessau, and 
utterly routed him. He followed the retreating army through 
Silesia and Moravia, and the count died of fever brought on by 
anxiety and fatigue. To add to ihis calamity, the young duke of 
Brunswick died alao the same year. About the same time TUly, 
at the head of the Catholic League, defeated the king of Denmarlc 
at Lutter, and Wallenstein joining Tilly, drove Christían and hÍ3 | 
Danés out of Germany. 

For these services, kaiser Ferdinand 11. gave Wallenstein 
the duchies of Mecklenburg, and raade him admiral of the East 
Sea (the Baltic). He now fitted out a fleet of fifteen ships, in- 
tending to make himself master of Denmark; but the Danés 
annihilated his fleet, and then proposed peace, Wallenstein 
advised the kaiser to conciude it, and peace between Germany and _ 
Denmark was signed at Lübeck, May iz, 1629. Thus ends the I 
second part of the war. 

III. The Swtdish iKlerven/wn in the TMrty Yearí War. 

The retirement of the Danés from the war seems to have tumed 
the kaiser's head, for he forthwíth íssued that foolish proclamation 
called The RestiMion Edtcf, which enjoined restoration to the 
catholics of the two archbishoprics, the twelve bishoprícs, and all 
the parish churches, lands, and other properties which had been 
confiscated by the protestants since the " Treaty of Passau," 
Compliance with this edict was well-nigh impossíbie, and the pro- 
testants applied to Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, for 

Gustavus Adolphus was a Lutheran, and one of the most 
accompiished princes of Europe. He was erainently war-lilce, and 
very unlike the sottish king of Denmark. His discipline was 
perfect — his moral influence unbounded. On June 24, 1630, he 
landed with 15,000 Swedes in the isle of Usedom, (3 jj7.l and 
soon set to work in right good earnesL He drove the impenalists 
frooi Pomerania, and took Stettin. The catholics in contempt 
nicknamed him the " Snow King," because he carne from the 
north, and they thought he would melt away like Frederick the 
" Winter King ; " but Gustavus Adolphus was of sterner stuff than 




^^¡e king of Bohemia or Christían IV. of Denmark. ^^^M 




Battle OF Leipzig (September 7, 1631). — The elector uf 
Saxony joined ihe king of Sweden, and marched against Tillj, 
who, at the head of the Catholic League, had entered Saxony, and 
given it up to pillage. They halted at Leipzig, and here was fougbi 
one of the three greal battles of the war,* Tilly was an h- 
perienced general, who used to boast he had never lost 3 
battle ; Gustavus Adolphus was under thirty-seven years of agt 
Here then they were to try conclusions ; and on the result of the 
fight the hopes of the protestanls hung as in a balance The 
elector with his Saxons occupied the left wing, Banier with his 
Swedish cavalry the right Tilly began the battle by an attack on 
the left wing, the Saxons flcd, and Tilly pursued. With the 
Swedish cavalry it was far differenL It stood like a wall of braa; 
seven times the assault was renewed, and seven times It feiled 
Tilly carne up and joined in the attack, but the Swedes biidged not 
Foot to foot they fought, hreast to breast, and horse to hoise, 
Victory hung on a thread. Gostavus now raked the hill with his as- 
tillery ; the enemy wavered ; il was enough, and Gustavus saw he 
held the battle in his hand. On he pressed with greater vigour ; the 
Germans gave ground. On he still pressed ; Tilly was severelj 
wounded, and the fight was won. It was a grand success, and all tllé 
world rang with the praises of the Swedish king. He was called 
" The Star of the North." Wherever he went he was hailed by the 
protestants as their delLverer. Prophecies were applied to him; 
and one might have supposed that no in considerable portíon <rf 
the sacred volutne had special reference to thís young king, 

His march from Leipzig to Bavaria was a series of triumphíi 
but at the river Lech the elector Maxirailian attempted to barhíi 
passage. He was driven back, and the ríver crossed. TDly 
coming up at this moment was mortally wounded by a bullet, uA 
died al Ingoldstadt, whíther he was carried. He was a man of 
iron and a good general, one who had passed his whole Ufe in die 
tented field. A tall gaunt man, hard-featured, with large lustrous 
eyes, bushy eyebrows, huge moustache, a prominent nose, 
grey hair, and a thin grey beard. He rodé a small grey cob, and 
dressed like a Spaniard, in green satin doublet with slashed 
sleeves, and a hat turned np in front, with a large red pluiae 
hanging down behind ; round his waist he wore a broad belt, in 
which he carried a pistol. After the battle Gustavus marched to 
Munich, where he was presented with the keys of the city; and 
the ekctor Maximilian fled to Ratisbon. 

■1.: l^^V.S^^^?^^^^''"^^ '■'^'""" "^ ■ "' ""•""^ tw«*j*w-»l— b 

iej9-ifi37-l TERDINAND IL THIRTY-YEARS' WAR. 301 1 

Battle Of Lützen (November 16, 1632). — The Catholic 
League hated Wallenstein, and after the peace at Lübeck, induced 
the kaiser to dismiss him. So his army was broken up and placed 
under Tilly; but on the death of Tilly, Wallenstein was recalled 
as the only general who couid cope with the " Snow King." Wallen- 
stein took Prague, drove the Saxons frotn Bohemia, and set out 
for Nürnberg. Gustavus Adolphus was there before him, and 
Wallenstein, unwilling to hazard a battle, marched towards 
Saxony. Gustavus followed, and on November 16, was fought at 
Liitzen the second of the three greaC battles of the war. 

It was a bitter cold moming with a thick fog, but at noon the 
fog lifted and the iwo armíes prepared for fight The Swedes, as 
usual, sang Luther's hymn :— 

"A fort our God of stTength indeed, J 

A awocd, and shield a^oimd us, I 

A refuge ¡n the hour of need, I 

A help when ills confound us." ] 

The hymn being over, Adolphus addressed his men, and ofTered 
a short prayer, — then placing himself at the head of the righc 
wing, swung his sword above his head and shouted " Onwards I 
In the God of battles is our trust ! " Onwards rodé he, and his 
army followed like a torrent The foe fell back, and the battle 
would have been won, but just at this moment Pappenheim carne 
Ttp with a reinforcement of cavalty, The Swedes were staggered, 
and Gustavus, seeing the danger, rodé to the front lo reassure his 
troops. It was a fatal move, for he was instantly shoC in the arm; 
as he turned, another bullet struck him in the back, and he fell. 
A melée round the body ensued ; hundreds and thousands fell on 
both sides. The Swedes fought like tigers, resolved not to leave 
the body of their king in the hands of the foe. The catholic 
general Piccolomini was wounded, Pappenheim was slain, 
Wallenstein sounded a retreat, and the Swedes were left masters 
of the field. It was so dark and foggy Ihat pursuit was impossible, 
and Wallenstein led back to Bohemia the residue of his army. 
At daybreak search was raade for the king's body. It had been 
stripped of everything, and was covered with wounds from head 
to foot. Being sent to Stockholm, it was buried with the burial 
of a king, and al! protestants moumed for him. He was only 
thirty-eight years oíd, and died a hero's death in the very zenith 
of his glory. The place where he fell was marked for two 
centuries with the " Swede's Slone," erected by Jacob Erichsson 
on the night after the battle; but in 1832 the Germán nation 
replaced the stone by a noble monument erected to his memory. 


He was succeeded in command by count Oxenstiem ihe Swedól 

About fouiteen months after ihe death of Gustaviis AdolpbiR 
Wallenstein was ireacherously murdered while sitting at mea 
He had been removed a second lime from bis command, and &t 
kaiser probably instigaled Ibe murder : at any rate he sanctíoneí 
it by rewarding ihe murderers (January 24, 1634). Hewni 
good general, and deserved a better fate for saving the empiíc 
twice in its hour of danger. 

Baitle of NoRDLiNGEíj (Novcmber 6, 1634), — On the deilli 
of Wallenstein, the kalsert son Ferdinand was madc general-ir- 
chief, and opened bis career with brílliant success. After chasis 
the Swedes from Bavaria, he halted at NordlLngen, in Franconii 
and here was fought the third great battle of ihe war. The olhc 
two were won by the Swedes in the prolestant ínterest — thisbyllt 
kaiser's son in tbe interest of tbe Román catbolics. It was 1 
crusbing defeal, and the Swedísh power in Germany was well*tii^ 
annihilaled. It was followed by tbe defection of Saxony whict 
made peace with the kaiser ; and sucb easy terms were granlei 
that within three months all the chief protestant sutes senl ii 
tbeir allegiance to the treaty. 

The State of Germany at tbis epoch was deplorable indeal 
Tbe wars had mowed down the men líke grass ; the lands wetc 
uncultivated, or if bere and there a palch of com sprang np, líii 
chances to one it would be trampled on by soldiers on thtí 
march, or be made Ihe plunder of a raid. The towns were tó 
desoíate ; the buildings were in ruins ; the whole head was faiol 
and whole heart sick. Tbe sword did its work, and famine wa 
not far oií O Ferdinand, Ferdinand, did you never ask youncií 
this question ; Wberewith shall I come before the Lord, andbo» 
bcfore the higb God? Shall I come before him with a kingdon 
laid desoíate for his sake? Will the Lord be pleased with thi 
slaughter of tbousands, the wail of widows, and the cry of orphansí 
Shall I give cities to be sacked, and lands to be laid waste, thall 
may findfavourin the day of judgment? "He hath showed iho- 
O man, wbat is good ; — and what doth the Lord require of thet 
but to do justly, and to love mercy, — and to walk humbly with Av 
God?"— (Mia V. 8). 

/y. Tlte French Infervtníion in ihe Tlñrty Year^ jyar. 
(163S to Ihe Peace of Westphalta 1650.) 

After the defeat of the protestants at Nordlíngen, the W 
entered on its fourth pliase, tbe least interesting and moü 


extended of them all. Oxenstiern applied for aid to Richelieu, 
chief minister of France. Richelieu was 3 cardinal, a catholic of 
the deepest dye. He detested the " Augsburg Confession," and 
did all in his power to root out the pemicious heresy ; but pre- 
fcTring France to the catholic church, he now cast in his lot with the 
prolestants, thinldng to malte them his caf s paw for the exaltation 
of France over Germany and Spain. In order lo limit hostilities 
as much as possible he also concluded alliances with Holland, 
Switzerland, and Savoy. As for England, ít was far too busy with 
her own revolution, which brought Charles I. to the scaíTold. to 
take any interest in foreign affairs. 

Having declared war with the kaiser (Ferdinand II.) and also 
with Spain, the cardirwl raised four large arraies ; one of which he 
sent into Flanders, another inte Mil'an, a third into the Valtellina, 
and the fourth to the Rhine. Ic is only with the last that the 
history of Germany is concerned. 

The object of Richelieu was to annex Alsace to France, and 
that of Oxenstiem to extend the territory of Swedea Neither 
fought " for an idea ; " and the war henceforth was not for protestant 
or catholic ascendancy, but for French and Swedish supremacy, 
The disposition of forces was now astounding. There was Saxony, 
the very eradle of Lutheranism, allied with the kaiser, whose whole 
poHcy was to stamp out the Augsburg heresy ; and Richelieu, the 
catholic, who hated the very ñame of Luther, siding with Sweden, 
their ángel and defender. It was protestant and catholic against 
protestants, and catholic and protestant against catholics. 

Sweden being reinforced by new arrivals restored the prestige 
of her army by defeating the Saxons at Wittstock (October 4, 
1636), and battle foUowed battle, with similar success. 

In 1637 the kaiser died, and was succeeded by his son 
Ferdinand III,, the victor aC Nordlingen. In 1641 Banier the 
Lion of Sweden, died also, and was succeeded by Torstensohn, 
a wonderful military genius, brilliant in conception, fertile in re- 
sources, and rapid in execution. He swepl like a whirlwind from 
Austria to Denmark. Victory followed victory ; and though borne 
on a litter, being too weak to sit his horse, he burst on his foes 
ere they supposed he was in motion. So brilliant his career, the 
Saxons deserted the kaiser, and again joined the Swedes. So 
fatal his blows, that a few more of them would have laid the 
empire at the feet of Sweden ; bul increasing feebleness compelled 
him to retire in 1645. He was received in Sweden with the 
wildest enthusiasm, and honours were literally piled upon him 

The French allies, led by Bemard of Weimar, were less suc- 



cessful in the Rhine provinces, bot when Conde and Turenne 
joined him, the kaiser's array was like straw before the whirlwind 

Peace of Westpmalia (October 24, 1648). — ^Heartily sick oí 
the war, the new kaiser, Ferdinand III,, tried to negocíate pea«; 
but Sweden and France claimed such mighty índemnities that ihe 
confetence dragged on from month to month for five years. Al 
length, a basis of a negociation was agreed upon, and the trean, 
calSed " The Peace of Westphalia," was signed at Munich, 
October 24, 1648, 

By the terms of thÍ3 treaty the sovereignty and independence of 
all the differenl states of Germany were fully recognísed ; and Hbenj 
was given to ihem lo form alliances at pleasure, provided ihe kaiser 
and the empire were not menaced thereby. 

All religious persecution was whoUy forbidden ; the " Edíct üf 
Restitution " was cancelled ; perfect freedom of conscience wai 
accorded to every one ; and all men, irrespective of creeds, were 
placed on one common level. 

No one was henceforth to be put under the han of the empitc 
but by the diet alone. 

§ In regard to the territorial changes, they were as follows :— 

The Lower Palatinate was restored to the son of the " Winte 
King " (Frederick V.), and an eighth electorate was created in his 

Part of Alsacewas added to France, and amuch largcr cantle to 
Sweden,* besides a large money indemnity. The provinces and 
townships awarded to Sweden were to be held as fiefs of ihe 

The independence of the United Provinces was recognised b; 
Spain, and that of Switzerland by Austria. 

France gained somethíng by the treaty, Sweden more, the pro 
testants all they required, but the Germán empire was irretrlevahiy 
ruined- It was a sad ending for the empire, to one of the saddtsi 
wars that imperial bigotry and wTong-headedness ever dedsed 
The pope's agent still protested against the peace. He prolesieJ 
against the alienation of church property to Augsburg heretics 
He would rather have seen all Germany without inhabitant, ihan 
one tittleofland or ducatof money pass from the church of Romc 
to " those vile míschievous animáis called Lutherans." 

There may be consistency in such a creed, but 'tis a creed loo 
dangerous to be entrusted to man, be he prophet, priest, or kinf 
The légate made his protest, and shaking the dust from off his 


feet, left the congress and retumed to Rome. Thus ended the 
Thirty Years' War, a warning to kings and kaisers. Wars of 
aggression are bad enough, but wars of political opíníons or re- 
ligious creeds are "most mischievous foul sin." 

Ferdinand III. continued to reign tiil 1657, when he also was 
gathered to his fathers. The sundry states of Germany were stÜl 
called an erapire, but they were an enipíre only in ñame. Every 
State was wholly independent, and the kaiser had no longer even 
the power of declaiing war or making peace, of forming alliances 
or raising armíes. Ail these dangerous privileges were vested in 
the diet. Six years later (1654), the diet itself was little better 
than a ñame, for all questions of importance were settled by nego- 
ciations between the sCatea interested therein. 

As the States dífTered in size and power, the weaker ones were 
protected by international laws, and Ihe feeblest princlpality was 
as safe from aggressions as the most powerful electorale. The 
history of Germany is henceforth the history of each individual 
State. Each had its courts of justice, its hired troops, its coinage, 
its toUs and taxes. The several rulers rivalled each other in pomp, 
and took for their model the court of Louis XIV. of Fram 
The people were heavily taxed to keep up this vain show, trade 
languished, and ihe empire of Germany was only a geographic. ' 




The feign of Ferdinand III. brings down the history of Germany ti 
Liiiddle of Ihe sevenleenth centuty. Donté and Pctrarch, Ihc great Ilalian ¡ 
¡ineLs, had been dead thtee centuríes. Añosto and Tasso, about half that , 
lime. England bad passed ber goldea age : Spenset, for example, 
terapQrary with Tasso ; Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and Massinger w 
In Spain, Cervantes, the auChor of Dsn Quiíott, died m 1616; and Lope de 
VegB, the dramalist, in 1635. France was in her Augustan primt; but 
Germany had scarcely beguti a. oatíve litcrature. It is almos! incrediblc Ihat 
Martín" Lpthbr, ihe teformer (14SJ-1546), was the íalher and fouoder of 
(iennan prose; but for a cenlury longer all solid Icoming in Germany was 
wrilten in Latín. Luiher formed his slyle on the oíd Saxon cbarters, but 
greatty enriched the langnage. Ilis ptose is vigorous, flowing, and swcet. 
His Irnnslatton of the Bible was immeñsely popular, and became the model of 

Sebastian Munster of Ingelheim (1489-1521), contemporary with 
Luihcr, to wbose relígious views he was a convert, was a most learned 
scholai, aod published an edílíon of the Hebrew Bible, a Cbalilee grammar^ 
and tnonj other works; but he is best kcowa by his Universal Cssmegrafhy, 


a hage folio in Latín on History, Chronology, and Geography. This kand 
book won for the author the cognomen of " The Germán S trabo."* 

KoNRAD VON Gesner of Zürích (i 516-1565) was the son of a fnrríer, «fao 
published a host of books on the three kingdoms of nature. His Catal^dj 
Flants, in four languages, was highlj esteemed ; his Biblioth¿que Unwmé 
(in French) was the first biographical dictionary of modem £urope; batbis 
History of Animáis (in Latin) was a marvellous production, 'wrhich from that 
day to this has formed the basis of all treatises on zoology. This great scbolii 
is called the " Pliny of Gennany." t 

John Kepler of Würtemberg (i 571-1630), nearly a century bíter, died is 
the seventh year of the reign of Ferdinand III,, a ñame second to nene ii 
astronomical science, and immortalised by his discovery that the orbits of the 
planets are not circular but elliptical. His Tabla and Mphenuridh are in- 
valuable, and his New Astronomy contains the great treatise on ''the motioo 
of Mars." He was an ardent restless genius, most enthusiastic, laborious, and 
patient. Undaunted by difficulties, unbroken by fatigue. His motto waS| 
" So fíxed and so resolved." 


This period includbs, The Siege of Vienna by the Turks; thi 
War of the Spanish Succession; and the Wars of Mau^ 

LEOPOLD L, King of Hungary, 1655 ; King of Bohemia, 1657 1 Kaiser, 2658. 

BoRN 1640. Reigned 47 Years, Z658-X705. 

Died Wednesday, May 6. Aged 65. 

(On his death-bed he requested that the court musicians should be admitted into his chamber, and be&d 
to the sounds of sweet music Mirabeau, of France, said on his death-bed, " l^et me die to the souadsaí 
sweet music") 

Contemporary with Charles //., 1660-1685 ; James IT.y 1685-1688 ; IVilliatn III.^ z689-i7a9; 

AftfUt 1702-1714. 

Father^ Ferdinand III. Mother^ María Anne of Spain, who died 1646. 

IViveSf (i) Margaret Theresa, daughter of Felipe IV. of Spain, and sister of María Therea 
(wife of Carlos II. of Spain), married x666, died 1673. 
f 2) Claude Felicité, daughter of the archduke of Innsprück, married 1673, <11^ '^ 
(3) Eleonore Anne, dau^ter of the count palatine of Neuburg, married 1676, oatUved 
her husband. 

Chüdren^ Marie Antoinette (daughter of the ñrst wife). She married Maxtmilian £mmairad. 
elector of Bavaria, and had two children: Toseph Ferdinand, -«rho died x69Q;ao<i 
Karl Albert. It was this Karl who married his cousin María Amelia, and was v«»«f 
KarlVII. ' «w««B» 

Ferdinand, who died before his father. 

Joseph I., who succeeded his father. He was apparently the son of Eleonore befoR 

wedlock ; for Claude Felicité died April 8, 1676, Eleonor was married I>ecember X4i 

1676, and Joseph was bom July 26, 1676. 
Karl VI., who succeeded his brother. 

Biography^ The Italian histories of Leopold I. by Galleazzo Gualdi, Baptista Ccnnazn, and 

Íoseph María Reina. And the Germán histories of Leopold I. by J\ J. Sdunaus, C B. 
lenicen, E. G. Rink, and F. Wagner (in Latin). 

* Strabo was a Greek geographer who flourished about the beginning of the christian era (B.C. 54—^01. ^ 

t Pliny, the author of Historia Naturalis, fai Latin, was bom somewhere in the North of Italr eitber t. 
Verona or Como (A.D. 33-79). His work is a compilation of astroaomy, geography, meteoroloey ¿ÁienkDi 
xoology, botany, inventions, fine arts, and almost eveiything. *" ^^ 

X658-X740.I HOUSE OF AUSTRIA. 207 

JOSEPH I. THE VICTORIOUS, King of Hungary, 1687; Kingof the Romans, 1690; 
Kaiser, 1705. 

BoRN 1676. Reigned 6 Years, Z705-Z7ZZ. 

Died Fríday, Apríl 17. Aged 35. 
(Joseph» his eider brother Ferdioand, and bis younger brother Karl VI., all died of smal^z.) 

Contemporary with Anne^ 1702-17Z4, 
J^atheTf Leopold I. Mother(^\ Eleonore Anne, before wedlock (see oBove), 
Wife^ Wilhelmina Amelia of Hanover. 

Children^ (i) María Josephíne, who mamed Augustus III., elector of Sazony and king of 
Poland. (2) María Amelia, who marríed Karl Albert, her cousin, elector of Bavaría. It 
was this son-in-law of kaiser Joseph who was afterwards Karl VII. 

Biograj^hers^ Wagner, Zschackwitz, and Herchenhahn. 

KARL VI. \Eng, Charles VI.] Kaiser, Z7zz ; King of Naples^ 17x4. 

BoRN Z683. Reigned 29 Years, Z7ZX-X740. 

Died Wednesday, October 26. Aged 57. 

Coniemporatyunth Anne^ X702-X7X4; George I.^ X7X4-X727; and Georgt II,, z'jvj'ij^o, 

Fatker, Leopold I. Mother^ Eleonor Anne. 

Wife^ Elizabeth Christina, daughter of Rudolf of ^ Brunswick-WolfenbQttel, brought up a 
protestant, but became a catholic when she marríed. (Bom xógx, died 1750.) 

ChUdren^ Leopold, who died youne j Maria Theresa, who marríed Franz Stephan, doke of 
Lorraine, X736. He changed this duchy for the grand-duchy of Tuscany in Z737. 

BiografhérSi Zlscbackwitz, Schwarz, Schmauss, and Schirach. 


Between 1658 and X740. 

z66o. Peace of Oliva between kaiser Leopold I., Sweden, Poland, and the elector of 

1665. The diet of Ratisbon made perpetual. 

Z674. Campaign of Turenne in the Rhine States. Killed July 27, X675, and replaced by Conde. 

z68i. Strasburg seized by the French (Louis XIV.) Restored to Germany X87Z. 

(1690. Batile 0/ the Boyne^ 
X692. A Ninth Elector created in favour of Hanover. 
X697. The peace of Ryswick. 

X700. Frederick the " Great Elector " of Brandenburg made " King of Prussia." 
Z70Z. The War of the Spanish Succession begins. 

(1702. Death of WilUam, III. ^ and eucession qf Anne.) 

(1704. AdmireU Rooke takes Gibraltar.) 

( ,, MarlborougKs victory at Blenheim.') 
Z705. Death op Leopold I. and accession of Joseph I. 

(1706. MarlborougKs victory at Ramillies.) 

(1708. MarlborougKs victory at Oudenarde.) 

(1709. MarlborougKs victory ai Malpiaquet.) 
Z7XX. Death of Joseph I. and accession of Karl VI. 
X7Z4. End of the War of the Spanish Succession. 

Z7x6. The Turks attack Corfú. Karl VI. (now king of Naples) declares war against Turkey, 

and prince Eugéne obtains a victory which causes the Turks to raise the siege. 
X7X7. The Turks defeated before Belgrade (August 20). 
Z718. Karl VI. signs the treaty of the Quadrupie Alliance. 

Z720. " The pragmatic sanction," settling the crown of Germany on Maria Theresa, signed 
October 25. 

Signed in the Netherlands Apríl 7, X72X ; in England, July 22, X73Z. 

(1727. Death 0/ Sir Isaac Newton and of George /.) 

Z733. War of the Polish Succession. Ends November x8, X738. 

Z736. Marriage of Maria Theresa with Franz Stephan duke of Lorraine. Death of prince 

Z740* Dbath of Karl VI. 


Kaiser Leopold I., generally called " the little man in rti 
stockings," had no end of wars, — wars with the Turks, wan il 
Ilaly, wars in which Dutch William was the chief actor, wm 
growing out of the Spanish Succession. Elector Fredericlc, rá 
his 30,000 excellent troops, did him good service, and in retimi 
was created king of Prussia (ijoo). As Austria is now hastemrí 
to its set and Prussia rising to the ascendant, the present 
a convenient poínt to sketch in the hístory of Prederíck WiUim 
the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, fatiier of Frederick L cí 
Prussia {1620, 1640-168S). 

'^ Frederiík WiUtant^ the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, m 
the founder of the greatness of the House of Hohen-zollem, tSc 
present imperial family of Germany. He was no fighting hero 
though tTOubled with wars on every side by the mischieí-maliií 
l^uis the " Grand Monarch " of France. The forte of the Cía 
Elector was not war, but administration. He was a very Éii- 
seeing man, a man of method ; and had the gift of calling oií 
the talents and energies of those under him. He encoiir^ 
trade, as every wise rulcr ought to do ; he draíned bogs, coloniafl 
waste places, and gave a home to 20,000 rcfugees, driven oui i 
France by the mad folly of the Grand Monarch, ín revoking to 
" Eklict of Nantes." This wietched prig of a king, miscalled it< 
" Great," deemed ic ireason against his mightiness for any onsn 
think differently to himself. Was he not anointed ? Had he no; 
the " divine right " of doíng what seemed good in his own ejo' 
And was it not treason to God and himself to think one's tm 
thoughts when the Ihoughts one ought to think were sel don 
and patented by law? So he drove his protestant subjects outii 
France, and when he found the exodus depopulating bis kínj 
dom forbade them to leave, and sent his dragoons to teach tlioi 
"the royal faith" by sword and gibbet, galley or wild b«st 
and so a millioa of his subjects, by death or exile, testified to tbi 
littleness of this " great kíng." 

Some 20,000 of tliese refugees settled in Brandenburg, mJiJf 
the "waste sands about Berlín into potherb gardens," introducta 
many useful arts, and helped to make the electorate both 
dustrious and rich. 

Frederick William was a protestant and a good one tofti 
God-fearing man. Not a lazy monk, not a hermit, but a man (í 
activity and energy, who watched the tide of affairs, took ¡t attlí 
flood, and was led on to fortune. 

In person he was thick-set ; had brisk eyes, bigh Reman m» 
and a large head, which seemed ahnost giganiíc 

lB-i7(^.] LEOFOLD L PRUSSIA. 309 1 

' enormous frizzled Louis-quatorze wíg. When young he 1 

- eagle features and a ready smile ; biit in middle life he ' 
sédate and ponderous, wrinkled and puckered about the eyea 

- and mouth. 

When he succeeded to the electorate he found an empty 
exchequer, towns sparsely inhabited, and lands lying waste, the 
results of war, His first care was so to regúlate the finances as 
always to leave a balance in his favour ¡ to conclude a treaty of 
peace with Sweden ; to organise an eífective army ; to repeople 
his towns and villages; to encourage trade; to colonise waste 
places ; and to invite over strangers. Every refugee found a home 
ihere, for the wise elector knew that population means wealth and 

In the course of ten years he had an army of 30,000 men, the 
best of all Gennany. He aided Charles X. of Sweden in the 
siege of Warsaw, for which service Prussia was freed from its 
feudal dependence on Poland, and thís was the first step to its 
future greatness. 

As soon as Frederick-William could consolídale peace, he 
applied all his energies to the wel!-being of his subjects. He 
more than Iripled the área of his electorate, greatly increased its 
population, founded or reorganised several universities, establlshed 

- the royal library of Berlin, opened cañáis, organised a system of 
posts, greatly beautiJied the city of Berlin, made roads, and lefl 
at death a well-ñlled exchequer, a well-disciplined army, and a 
thriving merchant community (1688). 

He was succeeded by h¡s son Frederick IIL, the first elector 
who bore the title of " ilng of Prussia." 

Leopold I.^ — Return we now to the kaiser, with the red fealher 
and red stockings. His reign was a vcry long one, extending 
over forty-seven years, eventful years in European history, but in 
which kaiser Leopold I. had about as much influence as a fly on 
the speed of a raiíway express. 

It was during this period that Víenna was invested by Ihe 
Turks and saved by Sobieski, the PoUsh hero. 

It was during this period that the Stuarts were chased from 
- England, and William of Orange was substituted for James 11. 

It was during this period that ihe war of the Spanísh Suc- 
cession was begun ; but it ran through the reign of Joseph I. 
and dipped into that of his successor, when the peace of Radstadt 
brought it to an end (17 14). 

It was during this period that the elector of Brandenburg was ■ 

■ made " king of Prussia." ^^^J 




It was during this períod that Lcuis JLLV. reToIced. tiie ^ficrof 
Xantes,** a short-sighced fbily which drove his bese sobjects inta 
íbreígn lands, to enrich them by thdr arts and industzy. 

ÍXiríng this period the Madman of die Nordii' muiextaokto 
hümble Denmark, Poland, and Rusia; and íxl rToa, with. S^ooo 
men overthrew So,ooo Russians at Narva, x «m#-n^.4B« winck xnade 
him madder than he was before. 

In thú long penod seven popes fíTíed suxessively tft<* dudr of 
St Peter; Alexander VIL, Clement ESL and X, XzzxxacsDt 51, 
Alexander VIIL, Innocent XIL, and qement XL 

It was a very noced period, but not disdngoished. £ar men of 
genius, at least in Germany. A feír nameft, h owevtav stand oot 
conspícuous in science and astronomy : Otto von Gwsncks (3 ij¿)i 
John Hcvel, and John Christopher Stnrni. 

Otto ton GtreiticKe of JVIagddDnr^ one of tixe coonadlaD 
oí the great elector, inventad the air-pump^ tíie Magdebazg faoni- 
spheres, { and the weather-giass (1602-1686). 

j0H:f HevEL of Danzig, was a Éunoos astrononiei^ secoad 
only to our own Flamst&^i, his contemporajy. He wrote a 
Treatise en Carnets^ and made a Map oftké Moam, (1602-1686)1 

JOH2V Chkistopher Sturm of Bayaría, restored 9XíA popn- 
larised science in Germany, and pablished, in T^Ht»^ sevoai 
excellent compilatíons, but wrote no original work (1635—1703)1 

To these must be added Puffendorf, and three coin-stndents d 
grezt celebrity — Morell, Beyer, and Spanheim. 

Samuel Puffendorf of Saxony (i 632-1694), contemporaír 
wíth Grotíus, was the son of a Lutheran minister, immortalised 
by his masterly work On ihe Law of Natians^ in eight boob 
(I>atín), which is a standard book in all the nations of Emope 
He also wrote in Latín Th¿ EUments of Natural Jurisprudena^ 
and several histories, as the History of &weden from Gustacm 
Adolphus to Queen Christina (1628-1654), a History of Charia 
Gustavus of Sweden^ and a History of Frederick IVUliam IIU 
ihe Great Elector of Brandenburg (i 632-1694). 

11 Andrew Morell of Beme, the coin-student, wrote in Latín 
two works on Román Coins, the most complete ever produced, 
and still standard books (i 646-1 703). 

• " Edict of Nantes," passed la the reí£^ of Henrí IV., givii^ pratestants eqnal statns aad 
catholics, in F ranee, 
t " Madnian of the North "—/./.. Charles XIL of Sweden. 

ÍThe Mafpdeburji: hemispheres are two brass cups each famished wUh a handle» The two 
CT and forro a sphcre. The object of this sdentific toy is to show the ¡wessure of air, for 
Is pumped out of tnem. two &trong men cannot pufl them asund er , bu( Um motaeot air is 
part without the slíghtest eífort, 
f In Latin, ZV yurc Natura et Gentium, 



Laurentius Bever of Heidelberg, coin-student, wrote (¡n 
latin) on the Coim of í/u Román Poniiffs, and the Coins of ilie 
^aíwrj (1653-1705). 

EzEKiEL Spanheim of Gcncva, coin-student, wrote (in Latin) 
on Ancient Coins. He was a scholar of the very highest order, 
and fílled several important posts, amongst others that of ambas- 
sador to our English court (1629-1716). 

To Ihue mm be iddcd O-na Mkhüke nf Oldenliurg (i«44-i7<>7), who edLled the lint 
lilerary juumal or Getmany. li was in Laiiii —■• —r-^-^^— f—j--.- ui- — 


1Í The little man in red stockings had no part in all this, except 
that by the accident of birth he happened to be kaiser. It was 
I.ouis XIV, who pulled the string which set all Europe by the 
ears. He it was who instigated the Turks to invade Austria. 
He it was who supported James II. after h¡s abdication, and 
assisted him in the battie of the Boyne. He it was who stirred 
up the War of Succession, wliich lasted twelve years ; and after 
the victories of Marlborough at Blenheim, Ramillies, Oude- 
narde, and Malplaquet, left France at the verge of bankruptcy. 
And he it was who induced the Madman of the North to run a 
tilt witii Peter the GreaC of Russia. He is called the Great 
Monarch of France ; but he muddled whatever he touched, and 
liis greatness is by no means due to hís moráis as a man, or bis 
wisdora as a ruler. 

Tke Ttirkisk War (lóSj-ióg?). 

Count Stephen TékéÜ joined a conspiracy to free Hungary from 
the Austrian rule. The conspiracy failed, the possessions of 
the count were confiscated, and hís son Emeric took refuge in 

On the death of Stephen, the son Iried to recover his patri- 
monial estates, but meetíng with no success, invaded Hungary at 
the head of 20,000 mea Being joined by numerous malcontents, 
he not only established himself in his paternal castle, but made 
inroads into Austria, Styria, and Moravia. Emeric was per- 
suaded by agents of Louis XIV. to form an alliance with the 
Turks, and was promised substantial hetp from France. Ac- 
cordingly, the Sultán proclaimed him " King of Upper 
Hungarj-," and sent his grand vizier, Kara Mustapha, at the head 
of a large army to hold Hungary for his ally. 

Leopold, supported by John Sobieski, king of Poiand, being 
joined by the electors of Saxony and Bavaria, and some others, 
got together 46,000 men to drive back the invaders. 


SiEGE OF ViENNA (16S3). — The Turlts being garrisoned á 
Hungaiy, añer several minor ¡ni'oadSt marched to Vienoj U 
take it by assault The terror of iKe townsmen was beyod 
description. Many fled, but a garrison of 50,000 men deíendEÍ 
the walls. 

On marched the Turics, destroying everything in their paá 
On they marched, altnost to the walls of the city, and pitckd 
theit tents, The siege began. It went on from week to mi 
Probably the grand vizíer intcnded to starve the defenderá ¡ntoi 
capitulation. They were in despair. They fell that at 1111; 
moment an assault would lay the city at the mercy of the ÍK 
when every one would be put to the swoíd or reduced to slavcn. 
The kaiser had deseited them, and sent no relief, Stay! A 
booming of cannon is heard. It comes from mount Kalen, íli 
leils the besieged of succour near at hand. 

On the lath September, early in the morning, the allied ansí, 
led by Sobieski, attacked the Turks. The king of Poland, vá 
his cavalry, threw himself on the besiegers wiih the fury ofi 
huiricane. He was on the point of being taken prisoner, wi» 
a reinforcement arrived whicfi brought him ofT in safety. 

Next moming, as the grand vizier was stpping coffee in his tttt 
a messenger announced that the Poles were at hand, fightinj 
their way to the camp. " Sobieski ! Sobieski ! " rang throughth 
air. It was the battle-cry of the day. Nearer and neaitt t 
resounded. No time was to be lost In hot haste MusQjéi 
mounted his horse. In hot baste he gave orders for battle. y 
was too late. Sobieski was wíthin the camp. The grand yüa 
galloped off ; the Turks fled in disorder, leaving everythirí 
behind — the money for the siege, the pay for the soldieis, ll* 
baggage, tents, cannons, chariots, even the sultan's standari 
inscribed with the words, " There is but one God, and MahoK 
is his propheL" Sobieski was allotted ^£^30,000 as his slaií 
of the spoil, and all the other chiefs obtained a proportionjü 

Tlie Turkish standard was long kept in the palace of MuniA 
and shown to strangers. It was of painted calicó, with SÜl 
cords, tassels, and ornaments. Together with the standard »f 
preserved many splendid dresses, and the hamesses of sevtri 
Turkish horses adomed with silver, gold, and precious stones. 

It was a splendid triumph indeed! and Sobieski, writing lot* 
wife, says " Never could be seen a more complete overthro». 1^ 
was like the explosión of a mine, it was so sudden. After i!* 
battle the elector of Bavaria, and many other of the pnnce^ Ü 


on my neck and lussed me Jn the fulness of their joy. The I 
generáis hoisted me on their shoulders and carried me through ' 
the ranks. Wherever I went, ' Long hve Sobieski ! ' ' Sobieski 
for ever ! ' ' Huzza ! ' sounded on all sides. Mothers and 
children ran to touch me, oíd men covered my hands with kisses, 
and those who could not get through the crowd, waved their hats . 
or handkerchiefs, shoucing with one voice, ' God save thee, ] 
Sobieski ! Welcome, Sobieski ! Huzza ! ' " 

The little man of the red stockíngs and feather carne also to ' 
welcome his deliverer, but greeted hlm with chilling politeness, IC 
was the oíd, oíd story of Saúl and David over again. The people 
shouted in their simple honesty, " Saúl hath slain his thousands, 
but David his tens of thousands," and the countenance of Sau! 
feU, for his envy was moved against the man who had delivered 
Israel from the giant of Gath, Leopold I. had not slain his 
thousands, he had only deserted Vienna ín its day of peril, a 
he felt humiliated that a king of Poland should be m< 
honoured than a kaiser, who bore the high-sounding title of 
Ctesar Augustus of the Holy Román empire. 

of the B^d^.r ííítín írom Louís XI V. Óf FrancTE^K a pistl of™ °icge.)'° ' " 

The war did not end with tlús overthrow. It dragged on for 
fourteen years longer. The duke of Lorraine and prince Eugfene, 
so well known in English history, defeated the Turks in 1687 ¡ 
and the margraf of Badén in 1691 ; but prince Eugbne gave 
them the grace-blow at Zenta Ín 1697 ; after which they gladly 1 
signed the Pea^e of Carlovitz, not to bear arms against any part 
of Germany for twenty-five years. 

Tekéli lived in retirement in Turkey. The crown of Hungary, 
which was before elective, was made hereditary in the house of 1 
Austria, and it still forms a part of the Austrian empire. 

Wars witk France (1673-16^7). 

The mischief-making Louis XIV., who wanted to be 
universal king, was for ever disturbing the peace of Europe ; 
and sent Turenne into the Rhine provinces under the hope 
of raaking that river the scientific boundary belween Germany 
and France. _ _ ■ 

Kaiser Leopold I. gave the command of the allicd imperial 
army to MontecucuUi. Frederick William, the Great Elector, ' 
joined the allies, but had to return to Brandenburg the foUowing 
year to defend it from the Swedes (1674)- 
^_ The two generáis were unwilling to run the hazard of a general ^^1 


engagement, and manceuvred for four monlhs, each hotring* 
outwic the other, or lo catch hiin trippíng. At length, Ib; 
prcpared for battle at Sasbach, in ihe duchy oí Badén ; buti^ 
Turenne was visiting a baltery, he was struck wíth a cannon U 
and killed (iCts)- 

He was sixty-four years oíd, had beeti brought up a proKsBH 
but not long before hís dealh had become a catholic He» 
undoubledly one of the foremost men of France. Mighty 
battle, and unrívalled as a tactician. Clear-sighied and ¿ni 
hearted, noble in mind and of the síraplest manners, just aid 
generous, a polítician and a soldier, Honoured with a spleodid 
funeral, he was buried at Sl Denis [X>'«íe], amongst the kinjsol 

On the death of Turenne, Montecuculli entered Alsace wiiW 
opposition, and next year peacc was concluded with FraM 
al Nimeguen [Nim-g'n], in Holland. Montecuculli retired fca 
public Ufe, and was killed in 1681, by a beam falling on himasli! 
was entenng Linz with the imperial court 

Strasburc SEizED (1681), — Notwithstanding the peace, Loé 
XIV. would not leave Germany alone, but under one pretal B 
another, seized upon several towns, viUages, and lands, on bfllli 
sidcs of the Rhina Amongst other towns was that of Strasbwj 
ihe key lo southem Gennany. This he seized on a Sundífi 
while most of the inhabitants were gone to Frajikfort for tbí 
annual faír. Though thus treacherously taten, it was sufTered B 
remain as a part of France lili the end of the Franco-Gennio 
war in 1871, when it was restored to Germany. 

In 1688 Louis again renewed the war in the Rhine proTÍnas 
on the most frivolous pretence. It was then that Heidelberg 
with its beautifut castle was destroyed- 

These infamous aggressions so disgusted the European pomff 
that a coalition against France was made by England, Gemiain, 
Spain, Holland, and Savoy ; and battle after battle was fou¿iI 
with varying auccess. At length, in 1697, another peace wa 
patched up and signed at Ryswick. France kept Strasbor^ bul 
had to resign to Germany, Spain, and Holland, all that she had 
won from them ; so that after an enormous loss of life and 
treasure, she found herself ¡n about the same position as she wji 
before the war broke out. 

Frederick crealed King of Prussia, December ry^lh, jyoo. 
Frederick-William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, was s 
ceeded by hís son Frederick, whose great ambition waj^^ 


made a king. This title could ooly be obtained from the kaiser 

The elector had 30,000 troops, the best ín all Germany, and 
the elector played his cards well. He did the kaiser good service 
with his troops, and the kaiser rewarded him by the coveted titie; 
so Frederick elector of Brandenburg, was styled Frederick " king 
of Prussia." 

It was mid-winter, and Frederick was at Berlín when tbe 
diploma arrived, duly signed and sealed, Unbounded was his 
joy, and he determined to set out for Kónigsberg, the chief city 
of Prussia, wJthout delay, for hís coronatioa Now Kónigsberg. 
is 450 miles north-east of Uerlin, and the way thitherwag through 
tan^ed forests, wild bogs, and deeply rutted roads, Never 
mind ; there was a famous stud of horses at Berlin, and 30,000 
post-horses were stationed along the road for the use of the royal 
cortige. Sophia Charlotte, the elector's wife, Frederick William 
her son, and 1,800 carriages, started with the elector for Kijnigs- 
berg, December ijth, 1700, 

The procession tbrougb the city was of more than eastern 
magnificence. The streets were carpetea with scarlet cloth, and 
the houses dtaped with flags. Illuminations, salvos of cannon, 
fountains running wine, bands of music and processions, foUowed 
one anocher for many days. The corotiation dress of the elector 
must have cost a fortune. It was a snuff-coloured coat with 
diamond buttons, each button being worth above ;^iooo. He 
himself put the crown on his own head, saying as he did so, 
" King now in my own rigbt" All present shouted in one voice, 
"God save king Frederick I God save the king of Prussia!" 
and salvos of cannon thundered abroad the news that Prussia 
had received her first king, 

Jlie War of Ihe Spanish Sueceísion (1JOI-IJ14). 
The whole reign of the little man in red stockings and of his 
brother Joseph was one perpetual war, profitless ¡n the extreme, 
and forced on Germany by the " Great Monarch " of France, 
First it was an ambition in Louis to attach HoUand to his 
kingdom; then to attach Germany, or at any rate the Rbine 
provinces ; now it was Spain he wanted to get Ínto his hand. Of 
course, tbere is always some pretext, and in the present instance 

Carlos II. of Spain died without issue, and four of tbe crowned 
heads of Europe had more or less claim to be his successor : the 
king of France, the kaiser of Germany, the elector of Bavaria, 

nd 1 






and ihe kmg of Savoy. The two latter abandoned thei 
and left the field dear lo Francc and Germany. 

Louis XIV. was ihe cousin of Carlos, and son-in-law oíl 
IV. of Spain, whose eldest daughter he had married. 
descendants, thereíore, of Louis had the highest claim; icil 
Carlos had recognised it by leaving the crown to Philipiif 
d'Anjou, the dauphin's second son.* 

Leopold I. of Gemiany argued that no son of the daiiplm 
could accept ihe crown of Spain, because Louis had made ihis i 
distinct stipulation ¡n the Treaíy of the Pyreneís. By that Irotf 
Spain and France were never to be united under one famili. 
So Leopold claimed the crown of Spain for his second son KaÁ 
whose moiher was a daughter of Felipe IV. Besides, he aü 
Karl V. was kaiser of Germany and king of Spain, and thereíat 
the succession belonged to the house of Austria, and noi U 

Louis cared very little for treaties or such considerations a 
these, and his giandson, Philip¡je, was proclaimed " king oí 
Spain." Leopold, on the other hand, proclaímed his seconi 
son, Karl, "king of Spain;" and the two monarclis \ 
themselves for battle to fight it out to the bítter end 

It so happened just at tliis crisis that Louis XIV. had insulied 
England by sending James IL, after his abdication, to recovethii 
crown by French soldicrs. This was virtually a declaration of 
war. So England recalled her ambassador, and made an alliina 
with Holland, Portugal, Germany, Prussia, and Savoy, agáns 
France and Spain. 

The war lasted twelve years. The French won the battles ^ 
Friedlingen (1702), of Alamanza in New Castile (1707), é 
Villa-Viciosa in New Castile (1710), and of Denaín in ibe 
north of France (1712); but lost the batties of Blenhón, 
Ramillies, Turin, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet ; together with ti 
naval battle of Malaga, won by Admíral Rook in 1704. 

In 171 1 Joseph, the etdesC son of Leopold L díed, and Kal 
who succeeded his brother, gave up all further claim to tht 
Spanish throne; so Philippe, the grandson of Loiiis XIV. al 
all was acknowledged king of Spain. 

Louis was seventy-two years oíd. He lost in one yeai, bj 
death, his only son, his eldest grandson, his great-gra'ndson, anJ 
the duchess of Burgundy, his great-grandson's mother. The <r< 
ended in the Treaty of Utrecht, which was signed in 1713, and 

^tr"->74B-] KARL VL FÓUSK SUCCESSIOH. 2 1 7 

ín 1715 the oíd king died. His long reign was one of uiihe:ird-of 
pomp and courtly splendour, but his grey hairs were brought with 
soiTow to the grave. Requiacat in poíeí 

Leopold I. died ¡n 1705, the fourth year of the war. 

Joseph I., his son and successor, in 171 1, the year after the 
battle of MalplaqueL And Joseph was succeeded by his brother 
Karl VI., who reigned from 1 7 1 1 to 1 740. 

The Peace of Utrecht was signed in 1713; but Germany, 
allhough abandoned by all her allies, — England, Holland, Portugal, 
and Savoy, — still continued the war till the foUowing March, when 
the Peace of Radstadt was signed. The kaiser gave up all claim 
to Spain ; and received the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milán, 
and Sardinia. 

Last Ytars of Karl VL 

Karl had no son, and iherefore drew up a decree, called 
" The Pragmatic Sanction,"* in favour of his eider daughter Maria 
Therésa. This decree fixed the succession in the female line, 
and most of the powcrs of Europe were willing to guarantee the 

The duke of Bavaria protested against ít, for he had marríed 
María Amelia, a daughter of Leopold, " the litüe man in red 
stockings ; " and he maintained Ihat the daughier ought to 
succeed before the grand-daughter. 

The only other event which needs to be mentioned is the IVar 
of Poltsh Succession {r733-r738), the history of which was briefly 
this :^ 

On the death of Sobieski {1674), Frederick elector of Saxony 
was chosen king; and at his death (1733), two claímants were put 
forward, Stanislaus a Pole, and i'rederick-Augustus elector of 
Saxony. France supported Stanislaus, who was father-in-law of 
Louis XV. the reigning king, but Germany took the part of the 
elector. The wat terminated by a compromise : Germany gave 
up Lorraine to Stanislaus, and agreed to exchange Naples and 
Sicily for Tuscany and Parma. This being done, Frederick 
Augustus was allowed to keep the crown of Poland. 

Karl died of smallpox, October 26, 1740, the last kaiser on the 
male hne of the House of Habsburg. He was a heavy, humane 







man, fond of pardoning crimináis, stately axid dulL His life 
was an expensive one, full of futile adventures and airy nothings; 
profítless to his own house and to those under him. 

Bielfeld says he saw him : — He was then a short, squat figuici 
with a thick neck sunk between his shoulders, and a big kad 
His eyes were fine, and the " glance of them was terrible." He 
says the portraits of his majesty répresent him as very beautiíiil 
" but certainly there was no beauty in his face or ñgare when I 
saw him. His complexión was a compound of the strongest 
tints of blue, yellow, green, and red" It is true that he regardd 
all except crowned heads as inferior clay ; but there was a gleam 
of humanity in his love of pardoning, quite cheering after the 
sickening persecutions of several preceding reigns. 


Frederick the first king of Prussia was succeeded 1t)y his soo 
Frederick-William I. (17 13-1740). He was, in ahnost evaj 
thing, the opposite of his pomp-loving father. Simple and almosl 
penurious in his habits, attentive to business, and passioi 
fond of soldiering. He hated books, was impatient of 
training, and entertained the most antiquated ideas of the 
" divinity which doth hedge a king." By his economy he i« 
enabled to indulge his passion for military organisation. His 
only extravagance was his whim for tall soldiers. A good tal 
fellow he would bribe at any price, kidnap, or forcé into his 
service. At death he left a splendid army of 70,000 men, most 
of whom were giants. 

Cariyle tells the following anecdotes of the wilfulness of Frederick-WilliJíJ 
in his early boyhood. At the age of five he was one day slobbering one A 
his buckles, when his nurse chid him, and threatened to take it af^l 
from him. ** No you sha'n't," cried the wilful little fellow^, and delibentíí| 
swallowed ít. • I 

On another occasion, when his governess set him a task "which he disKkttl 
he jumped out of the window, dinging to the sill with his hands* andiflif| 
governess had not given way, he would certainly have dropped himself do«l 
to the ground ; but getting the mastery, he allowed himself to be drawnb*c^| 
and was from that day placed under the charge of a man. 

John Philip Baratier and Christian Henry Heinecken. 

In the year 1721 were bom two boys of such marvellous precodtytbiiM 

will not be out of place to mention them. I 

John Philip Baratier (1721-1740) was of French extraction, but **| 
bom at Schwabach, near Nümberg. At the age of four he spoke in Fia^l 




L and Gciman. As his falhei lalkcd to him ¡n Lalm, Ihis language was familiar 
to him whEQ he was Uve. Al the age dF six he could tura Ihe Greek versión 
" of Ihe Bible into Latín ; nnd at seven he could transíate the Hebrew 
Sible into Laltn, Fiench, or Germán; and could lepeat in Hebrew any 
U of Ihe Psalms. Belween seven and eíght he made a Ilebrew Clavis. At nine 
I, he hud read the Talmud, sludied Chaldee, Syríac, and Arabio, and had made 
acquainlance with Ihe Greek fathers. Before he was eleven he had rnastered 
' both tbe globes Íd tea day s, so as to salve instontiy an; probiem on them ¡ he 
f had also coinmunicated a dUcovery to the Koyal Soaely of London. At 
> fourteen he was admitled n member of Ihe Berlín Univerút)'. At üfteen he 
received a líternty penson fiom the margraf of Btandenbuig, and louk his 
M.A. df^ree. Between fiftcen and eighteen he had published severa! Irealises 
' on Christian hereües, the oíd Román ponliffs, the Thirty Vears' War, 
\ aslranomy, medats, and antiquíties. At nineteen he died, and was wrtting 
ot Ihe time a book of EgyfHait AntiqídtUs. His Ufe was wiilten by Formey 
in i;4l. 

CuRiSTrAN Henry HEiNECKEff, called Ihe "Infant of Lnbeck ' 
fiyai-i^zS), is an inslance of even greater precQcity, if what -we are lold of 
tlím can be trusted. We are told that he spoke when only a month oíd. At 
twelve months oíd he knew (he chief events of the Fentateuch ; at thirteen 
months he knew the history of Ihe whole Oíd Testomenl, and in one oíontli 
Viore all Ihe history of the New Tcatament olso. At two and a-half ycars he 
could answer any general queslion of history and geography. At thrce years 
oíd he knew French and Laün as famlliaj'ly as he knew Germán, allhongh 
'^¡¡e, waa not then weaned. lie died hetween four and five. Ic appears 
that this unhappy babe actually had a tutor, named Schbneich, and this 
tutor wrote his life. Il is devoutly to he hoped that such a monater never 

Üf Baralier thete can be no doubt ; bul that Iwo infants should be bom in 
dennany the same year, of such mieartlily piecocity, lo say the least, is 
marvellous as a blue moon. 



H Centl'rv.) 

VlENNA. — Viennii was a gay and handsome cíty in the first half of the 
aghteenth cenlury. The houscs were built of slone, the citizens rich, and 
the lableswell furnished. The rooma were healed with stoves; and ladies, 
when they went to church, had fout'waimeis or portable sloves taken thilbcr 
I in wintec time. Both men ond women wore furs, 

I A favourite paslime of the ladies in wbter was sledge-racing, especially by 
' torchlight, The sledges were made in curious devices: somc lilte scaílop- 
¡ shells, others likc ligers, othcrs like góndolas, and so on. They were all 
' bBDdsomely decoraled, and drawn by a single horse tricked oul with plames, 
' libbons, and bells, Servants on horseback caiñed torches, ond a gentlenum 
sat behind each lady to guide Ihe sledgc-horse. 

The favourite pastíme of gentlemen was boar-hunting i and the boar's head, 
I -with a lemon in the moulh, ond gamished with leaves and Bowets, was a 

grtmd dish at slate banquels. 
f 'The kaiser Leopold was especially fond of a hunt. On Tweifth Night it 
^as customary for masters and servants to lay asidc Ihcir rank anJ join in the 
) common sports. Kaiser and kaiserin, duke and duchess, mat^af and 


a-=: V. 


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My-Á.'. ./'., ': '.'< .-.-. , - .':; » 2.= -.h-; lar jís: cf all tie commeicial cides of Ge- 
::.%:.!. '\ :.*-. :.'..jr. *'::-:: "-■ír.- r.i^r.. izi :he streeB so narrow tint t*"* 
/•;.,'.,';4 V, .;-: .'.-,: ;.í.. -r-j,-!-. '-'.h-ir. Tni :zhibÍLin3 wcre chieflv merchiiSk 
>:.''. a;;.',.-.í;/. *.-.':." a':.'* r.-.ar.y Er.^!i¿h. Í2jnil:es. The city was divided i:- 
í. ''-. ;,<i r. .;,':'., ^íi/,h of -a.'.:'-'-, r.á'i a h^riiaome protestant church. Hamití 
//;;; * U-^. c/y, govírr.cd Iv four b-ugoaiasíers^ twenty-foar scoatocs, i¿ 



' some olher magisltates, There wcre vcry fcw mechanics md fewer manufac- 
' turcis, the on\y orticles made there beiug gold and silver liice, slockings, and 
silks. The trade, however, was so gieat that as laany as 300 ships were 
' conslantlf employed ¡n canying its merchandise lo and from England, 
' Molland, and the Germán slates, by meaos of ihe river Elbe (z y/.) So 
I important was Ihis city, Ihat in times of war it waa always considered neutral, 
and was nol, Iherefore, subject lo depredalions like othec cilies. 

Hamburg tras veiy conspicuous foi ¡ts titile Irim Dutcb gacdens along Ihe 
banlis of the river. Not a Iwig was oul of oider, not a plan! was atlowed lo 
grow to any heighl, All was piim and formal in Ihe extreme ; but here ihe 
meichanl wonld sannter up and down smoking his pi¡>e aftei ofüce houis, in 
gossip wilh his neighbuur on the cuirent topics of ihe day. 

The gate were ^ways closed at sun-down, after whidí no one was allowed 
to enter ot leave Ihe city. 

The ladies of Hambu:^ were very reseivcd in Iheir manners, and rarely 
appeared in the streets wilhout a ihíck black veíl, The senalors woie a black 
Spanish cloalt, a velvet bal, and a aword. Thcy were chosen for life, [en 
bei[ig lawycrs, and fourteen of them merchants, each of whom was eipected 
to keep a private coach. 

The TvEOL.^In the Tyro] the men were famous for their sltill in hunting; 
and eveiy vill^e had its playground, where Ihe boys weiit to proclise shooting 
and wiestling. The hunting costume y/as a. largc creen bal lo keep olF the 
sun, a gua slung at the back, a slick poínted wilh non to assíst in climbing 
the dangeious heights, and a bag of provisions. 

AusTKlAN CosTUME. — The female peasantry of Austria wore very pretty 
dreíses, consisting gencrallj of n sluff petticoat of Iheit own manufacture, a 
light bodice laced wilh libboa, and a red or yellow kerchief. The stockú^ 
and apron were bine, and Ihe bal grey ornamented with ribbons. Of 
couise in so large a dominión as Austria, there was a great vaiiety of 
costume in the dilfeienl parts, and each village was very canservalive in its 

Geuiuan ClTlES.— The townsanddliesof Germany were. for the most part, 
handsome and well-buill, populous and weallhy, govemed by Ibeir own Isws 
and their own magislrales. The^ were fortified and ganisoned. The 
Germans were not manufacturers like the Flemings, but their toys, docks, 
and watches were imported lo every parí of the globe. 


The same misappiehension of scripture which led to Ibe crusades and the 
perseculion of proteslants, led abo lo Ihe belief in wilches. The Egyptians 
practi&ed soicery, and the Jews, whíle they sojourned in the land of bondage, 
learnt Ihe idolatrous practices and vain supcrstilions of their lords and maslers. 
Moses forbade ibe people under his char^ lo make graven images, whethei in 
the likeness of human beings, land animáis, fish, or any olber Ihing; and be 
also forbade ihem lo praclise witchcraA 01 magic, like their Egyplian task- 
masters, In order to enforce these laws, he decreed that all who professed 
these arts should be pul to deoth. In the Middle Ages, ihe church of Rome, 
which assumed lo be Ihe one and only Irue church, perseculed to death Ihose 
who held any creed bul Íls own; and taking it fot {pranled Ihat men and 
women sold themsclves lo the devil, or got possession of famÜiar spiríts by 
Eome black arl, it hunted afler the accursed Ihing in order to root it oul. 


Pope Innocent VIII. led the way in his famous bull of 14S49 which áa^ 
the inquisitors and all true catholics diligently to search out and put to doA 
those who practised diabolical arts, such as witchcrail, magic, soxcesjtiá 
enchantment. He appointed for Germany two special inquisitors, Heuiíiá 
Institor and Jacob Sprenger, who, with the aid of John Gremper, an ecck- 
siastic, drew up the infamous document called the Witchí^ Jlafnmer, Tló 
vile balderdash lays down with great minuteness the characteristics of witds 
and wizards, the skin-marks to be songht for, the familiar which duogtii 
them in the shape of cat, dog, góat, or other pet animal, and the questioosts 
be asked in order to convict them out of their own mouths. 

Alexander VI. in 1494, Leo X. in 1521, and Adrían VI. in 1522, sappi^ 
mented the bull of pope Innocent VIII., adding to its severíty, and ¿umiogio 
a flame the mania which continued in Christendom "with more or less tíoIos 
for four centuríes. The result of these bulls was sickening. A panic-feariií 
witchcraft set in. If any one fell ill it was attributed to an "evileye;"í 
any one sufíered from lumbago or rheumatism, agüe or toothache, misfortos 
or accident, crosses or losses, it was the efíect of witchcraft ; if a storm injori 
the crops or troubled the sea, it was some witch who ** untied " the winds;í 
cattle sickened or died, witchcraft was the cause. To be accused of & 
offence was to be convicted, for the Witches^ Hamnter would always sapplí 
reasons for sending a suspected person to the stake. If the accused ¡deadeí 
not guilty they were put to the test, either by water or by torture. In tk 
former ordeal, the hands and feet being tied together, the person sospedei 
was thrown into a running stream ; to float was proof of guilt, to be punisM 
at the stake ; to sink was to be drowned. Many a wxetch 'would plead guittj 
under terror of these tests, or after being racked, to save themselves £rom \ 
repetition of the torture. 

In no part of the world were witch-hunts more common than in Gennany. 
In the small bishopric of Bamberg, 600 persons in four years were burntfa 
witchcraft ; in Würzberg 900 ; and in Lindheim, in the same space of timci 
one in twenty of the whole population, 

In Geneva, 151 5, within three months, above 500 persons were bumtattht 
stake on the same charge. In Como, 1524, double that number, and for nuw 
following years between 100 and 200 every year. In France, fires blazed ii 
every town for the extermination of witches and wizards in the year 1 520, ai¿ 
for at least a century the provincial **parlements" were ceaselessly employed c 
witch-trials. England was not exempt from the same madness. During tb 
Long Parliament, 3000 persons are said to have perished for witchcraft, aci 
executions on the same absurd charge continued long afterwards. The Scotá 
Assembly, betwéen 1640 and 1649, passed five acts against ** the crime,"eaá 
more stringent than the preceding one. As many as seventeen persons, h 
1659, were burnt for witchcraft in Stirling, and the entire number in al 
Scotland who suffered death for the ofíence exceeded 4000. 

The last instance of a witch-execution in England was in 1 7 16, whenMc 
Hicks and her daughter, a child only nine years oíd, "were hanged tí 
Huntingdon **for selling their souls to the devil, and raising a storm H 
pulling off their stockings and making a lather of soap." In Scotland tli 
last execution was at Dornoch, in 1722; at Würzburg, in 1749; at Geneva, ia 
1782; and at Posen, in 1793. 

Witch -executions were abolished by law in France during the reignct 
Louis XIV. (1670); in Great Britain, not till the reign of George II. (1736); 
and in Austria, during the kaiserite of María Theresa and her husl»ai 
Francis I., in 1766. The scripture says the heart of man is desperateij 


^rVricked, and cruelty is bound up in his very constitution. Strange, that popes 
fSind prelates, kings and counsellors, budge doctors of our universities, and 
-xnen of genuine learning, should consent to hound to death *'old women with 
^ wrinkled face, a furred brow, a hair-lip, or gobber tooth, or squint eye, 
^ croaking voice, or scolding tongue, or tattered gown, or one who in her 
^oneliness has a dog or cat, bird or goat, to bear her company. Such were 
.the wretches pelted and persecuted as witches. Such were the wretches burnt 
.or hung, because a farmer's cart stuck in the mire, or some idle boy pretended 
't:o be bewitched for the sake of a holiday from school or work." Yet such 
"wrere the poor unfortunates selected by christian nations to endure tortures 
"which it would have been death to inflict upon a brute. 


Kaiserin or Empress of the West, 1740 ; Quecn of Hungary, 1741 ; Queen of Bohemia, 1743. 

J^oint Kaiser and King, Francis I. husband of the Kaiserin (1745-1765); Joseph II. son of the 
Kaiserin (1765-1780), and after his mother's death, Kaiser (Z780-Z790.) 

(Joseph was made " King of the Romans," that is, johit niler with the right of succession, in 1765). 

The Elector of Bavaria was crowned kaiser at Frankfort, under the ñame and title of 

Karl VII, 

MARÍA THERESA. Born, 1717. Married, 1736.. Reigned 40 Ykars, Z740-Z780. 

Died, Sunday, October 29th, Z780. Aged 63. 

Contetnporary with George II. ^ jjzj-tj6o; George III. , Z760-Z830. 

Jf'atker^ Kaiser Karl VI.; Mother^ Elizabeth Christina, daughter of Rudolf of Bninswick- 
Wolfenbüttel (1691-1750). 

Jlushand^ Francis Stephan duke of Lorraine. He changed this duchy for the grand-duchy of 
Tuscany. Married, 1736 ; crowned kaiser Francis I., 1745 ; died, 1765. 

Childrefti z. Joseph II., who was associated with his mother after his father's death in Z765, 
and succeeded to the empire in 1780. 

a. Leopold II., who succeeded his brother, and was grand-duke of Tuscany from 


3. Maria Karoline, who married Ferdinand IV. king of Sicily. 

4. Ferdinand, who married Maria Beatrice d'Este, by which marriage he became 

duke of Modéna.t 

5. Maríe Antoinette, who married Louis XVI. of France, and was guillotined. 
And four other daughters. 


'Z740. Frederick-William, king of Prussia, dies : and is succeeded by his son Frederíck II. 
•• the Great." 

Z741. Maria Theresa refuses to give up Silesia to Frederick II. of Prussia. War of the 
Austrian Succession. Frederick II. wins the beUtU qf Molwitz, 

X742. Maria Theresa appeals to the Hungarían diet. The elector of Bavaria crowned at 
Frankfort as Karl VII. (February zath). 

X743. Battle of Dettingen won by George II. in favotur of Maria Theresa (June 37th). 

Z744. Frederíck II. of Prussia renews the war against María Theresa. 

* This Leopold was the ipandfather of Maríe Louise, who, in 18x0^ married Napoleón I., and was the 
mother of Napoleón FranQoís Joseph Charles "lünfj^ of Rome" and duke of Reichstadt. 

t Ferdinand was the fatíier of the conat of Cbambocd, and great-giandfather óf don Caxlos of Spain. 



Liucue opiinsl France »nd PraHii bv Muii Thccm, GttIrEe U. of 

<]«:lí>[ uf Suony, and ihc kíng af KolUind. 

Tlie hi.ib.nd o( Morm llitr™ tro-ncd kaber FnuKi» I. ü™= ■JÜ'X 

AlliiDU bcIWHD Maria ThcRU uid Rlu^ii. 



T»e SsvMK YiASS' Wa» (■7JS-.76JX 

England lod Pninú .llkd .piiail Mari» Thf rea ¡ad Fnuice. 

Runü joú» the «IIÍhikí oT AunrU and Franct 


J(«ph. «n rf MwmThírtía, m«U " King of .h= Romans" CMatch =71 


Dcath or kal»r Fiancii I. Ihe huiband of Mana Therua. 

War wiih Ba-uia nnewul. 

Pcace of TBchtn. 


D«lhof Marial-hír™. SacCHdcd b; h« ■« JoKph II. 

Dtílhof Jo«phlI. SuCEMdid by hi. bniiher Uopold U. 


Deaih of Ltopold 11. 

Maria Theresa was twenty-two years oíd when her father diaJ; 
beautiful, young, magnanimous, atid energetic By a dectee, 
called Úie pragma/ic satuíi'en {/, 217), shewasheir to the Austrisn 
dominions, but others having a priority by birthright, dispuicd 
this arbitrary decree ; and the rival claimants involved Gernmif 
in the Jfi/r c/ the Austrian Suecesston, whích lasted seven yean 

If kaiser Karl VI. had followed the advice of Eugfene prince oí 
Savoy, and left his daughter a fu!l exchequer and good army, ii 
would have done her more service than any parchment bond, 
but he left a people peeled and exhausted, an exchequer empiy, 
an army weak, and a worthless bond ; so Bavaria, Saxonf, 
Prussia, Sardinia, and Naples, all backed up by France, pul is 
their rival claims ; and if María Theresa had not been a woman oí 
stout heart and heroic constancy, the Austrian dominions wonlii 
have been rent inte fragments by the different claimants. 

First, the elector of Bavaria, Karl Albert, maintained thal Ix 
had a greater right than Maria Theresa, both on the male id 
female line. He himself was the grandson of Leopold L seein 
his father married the kaiser's eldest daughter ; so much fot ifcí 
spear side, Then for the spindle side — the elector's wife rt 
Maria Amelia, second daughter of kaiser Joseph I. (eider broüifl 
of Karl). Legally, there is no doubt that Karl Albert had ngll 
on his side — unless, indeed, a subsequent crown over-rida J 
previous one. 

The next claímant was Frederick Augusfus, elector of SaíCJiT 
and king of Poland, who had married Maria Josephine the eidtí 
daughter of kaiser Joseph. On the female side Frederid 
Augustus had a prior right lo the elector of Bavaria, seeing ^ 


s^S I 

n- married the eider sister ; but he had no Austtian blood in his 
_, own veins. 

Prussia demanded Silesia ; Sardinia wanted Milán ; and Spain 
laid claim to Bohemia and Hungaiy. 

Tkefirst Silesian VVar {\ 740 io Üte Feace 0/ Berlín, 1 743). 


(T%c Ihree gtniemmenis ef Silísia wírí Ltigniis, Breslau, ana Of'fieln. This 
■ frovitiít ina¡ tht búití of contatlüm in Ihe three " Silesian viars : Jirst war, 
B JJ40-1742S lecanáviar, fí44-'74S ' ihirdwar, ijjó-ijój.j 

* At a very early date Silesia was joined to Bohemia. In the 
? tenth century it belonged to Poland, from which it was severed in 
" 1163, when it was ruled by dukes. These dukes at death 
" divided their province amongst all their sons, so that at one 

* time it was subdivided into seventeen petty dukedoms. To 
. prevent falling into the hands of Poland again, Silesia placed 

* itself under the protection of Bohemia. In 1537, the duke of 

* Leignitz (one of the many dukes) made an agreement with the 
*^ elector of Brandenburg that if either failed in succession, the 
^ other should rule over the two realras. In 1675 the line of the 
" duke of Leignitz did fail, and therefore belonged to the elector 

* of Brandenburg; but the kaiser (Leopold I.) refused to acknow- 
ledge the agreement, and seized on the province, pretending it 

'■ was a "lapsed fief of Bohemia," and therefore a part of the 

* Austrian dominions. At the death of kaiser Karl VI., without 

* male issue, Fredeñck the Gteat, of Prussia, claimed Silesia as 



his right by prívate agreement, for il will be rememberedthai 
elector oí Brandenburg had been raised to the dignity of tiif 
Pnissia. Marching an army into Silesia, he sent an embasífl 
María Theresa, offering to help her against all her other ti ' 
she would resign to him the province in question- The 
kaiserín indígnantly rejected the proposai, and Frederick 
bcgan hoatilities. He had no düBculty in driving the 
out of Silesia, as they were wliolly unprepared for »-ar. 

In the following spríng María Theresa sent an army 
the young king of Prussía, but ít was utterly defeated at JKM 
in 1 741. 

The ill succcss of María Theresa induced the French to cw 
wiih Prussia, Eavaria, Saxony and Spain, against the f 
kaiserín, and they attacked Austria in five different poiDBi 
once. The elector of fiavaría marched to Lintz in Upper AuíB 
where he proclaimed hiniself " hereditary grand-duke of Austñ: 
then to Prague, where he proclaimed himself " king of BoheniiL^ 
and in January the year following (1742), to Frankfort, wtiotl 
waa crowned " kaiser," under the ñame and tiüe of Karl ÍI 
He accordingly styled himself "king of Bohemia, hcrediM 
grand-duke of Austria, and kaiser Augustus of the Holy RfflSi 

María Theresa wins the Hungarians to her side (i74fl- 
There seemed now but small chance for María Theresa, bul iiw 
her nature to incline to hope rather than fear; so, leaving Vienimi': 
repaired to Presburg, where she was crowned " queen of HungiK' 
Then riding on horseback up the royal mount she wavedk 
sword in defiance to the four cardinal points, and summoiwdka 
diet to meel wilhout deiay to ddiberate on the state of a 

The diet met, and the beautiful young queen with her infiínli 
her arms, entered the assembly. " Hungarians," she said, "I* 
your queen, and Ihis infant your future king. Abajidoned bj* 
friends, persecuted by my enemies, and attacked by my ncBfl 
kinsmen, I have only you to rely on. Your fidelity, HungariíA 
your courage, your constancy, these are the anchor of my^ 
I commit myself to your hands, and to your charge I consígn» 
infant, the chüd of your kings," The chivahous Hiíngarians iT 
touched to the quick; they started to their feet; drew theírolf 
and exclaimed, " In defence of our queen will we díe ! God w 
Maria Theresa, our queen ! " A powerful army was soon on fi>* 
which in six days won back Austria ; then entering Bavaria, «ü 
the elector was at Frankfort, took possession of Munídi, ^ 
capital (January, 1742). 


1S7 ' 

Baitle of Czaslauand Peace of Berlín (1742). — While the 
Hungarians were thus successful in Bavaria, the prince of Lorraine 
was sent against Frederick kJng of Prussia. A battle was fought 
at Czaslau, in Bohemia, which was won by the Prussian army, and 
Maria Theresa demanded a peace conference. The conditions 
were agreed to at Breslau, and the treaty signed at Berlín (June 
28, 1742). By this treaty Silesia was given up to Prussia, and 
thus ended the first Silesian War. 

The Second Süestan War 1744, to ihe Peace of Dresden 1745. 

The elector of Saxony having come to a rupture with the nomi- 
nal kaiser [Karl VII., elector of Bavaria], retíred from the contest, 
and Maria Theresa could direct the whole of her Austrian forcé 
against the French and Bavarians. The French army was in 
Bohemia, and held Prague in its possessioa Accordingly, the 
young kaiserin sent the prince of Lorraine to besiege that city ; 
and ihe French maishal, reduced to extremlties, abandoned it 
secretly in midwinter. His retreat was mosl disastrous ; it 
resembled in roiniature Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. The 
roads were wretched, the mountains deep with snow, and in eleven 
days 4,000 men succumbed to fatigue and cold. Thus ended the 
French doraination in Bohemia. 

The elector of Bavaria, the shadowy kaiser, now only remained, 
and his resistance was of the feeblest The prince of Lorraine 
led his Austrian array into Bavaria in the early spring ; the elector 
fled to Frankfort, and Austria took possession of the electorate. 
"Kaiser Karl VIL" hadindeed lost the substance for the shadow! 
—the rich electorate of Bavaria for the tinkllng cymbal of an 
empty litle. He called hímself " king of Bohemia," but he had 
no subjects there who acknowleged him. He flaunted the 
title of " hereditary grand-duke of Austria," but had no inheritance 
there. He had been crowned " kaiser " at Frankfort, but was as 
much a kaiser as Lambert Simnel was earl of Warwick or Perkin 
Waibeck duke of York. Like a poor player he strutted and 
fretted his hour upon the stage, and then was heard no more. 
His coronation and claims of empire ended in smoke ¡ the whole 
was a mere " tale told by an idtot, full of sound and fiíry, 
signifying nothing." 

The Battle of Dettingen (June 27, 1743). — The king of 
England now took part in the war j and George II. in person led 
an allied army of Britísh, Hanoverian, and Hessian troops into 
Bavaria, The allied army amounted to 37,000 men, the French 
to 72,000. The two camps lay only four leagues apart from each 

f . 


r — :: 

r_: ■'*■■ 


^1-. irsí:- ' .>trir, icrs. 

' A > ' ^^k A^a 

:-.»^ í'crxr. y. •jíi's-.r^^ vrr-XLZ iiini Xiir mii 'Ti-nr^* jj 

vi.'.r'^írv: «.•.'- víar.-/ roe rr:mnce!Í. icr ±:e Frsncá. ¿ 
.' ,:Cjtcr>f, «.'.r: j->x i".c lij. »je?:cz5 IL -vas ac ztí 


100,000 men, penetrated into Bohemia, and took the city of 
Prague, The duke oí Lorraine was sent against him, and drove 
him out of Bohemia. It was a disastrous campaign for Prussia. 
The king lost many of his soidiers, large stores of provisions, and 
wasted much treasure. The alliance of France in wliich he trusted 
proved "the stafT of a broken reed, whereon if a man lean, it will 
go into his hand and plerce it;" and Karl [elector of Bavaria], 
the nominal kaiser, died suddenly, January 20, 1745. 

The king of Prussia was now without ally, and hís stale was 
full of danger; but, like a true hero, "the fire that killed him 
made the ashes of his revival." Girding himself with strength, he 
won several battles; and Maria Theresa again concluded peace, 
confirming to him Silesia. The treaty was signed at Dresden, 
December 25, 1745, and terminated the "Second Silesian 

The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (October 18, 1748). — Karl 
being dead, Maria Theresa arranged with his son MaximiUan 
Joseph to restore to him the electorate of Bavaria ; and Maximilian 
agreed to abandon his claim to the kaiserate, and to give his vote 
to the husband of the kaiserin. Accordingly the grand-duke 
of Tuscany was elected kaiser Francis I., and crowned at 
Frankfort, October 4, 1 745. 

France still contínued the war with Austria under the command 
of roarshal Saxe. Saxe was one of the greatest commanders of 
the eighteenth century, both ¡n gallantry and enterprise. He ob- 
tained several victories in the Low Countries, over the duke of 
Cumberland, a peace was eigned at Aix-la-Chapelle, October 18, 
and the land had rest for the next eight years. 

T/íí years of peace tmproved in Austria and Prussia. 
The beautiful and heroic kaiserin employed the interval of 
peace in repairing the evils consequent on the wars, and was 
eminently qualified for the task, She united the administrative 
talent of queen Elizabeth to great kindness of heart, wifely affection, 
and a mother's domestic love. She was a true queen and a true 
woman ; full of feminine graces, piety, charity, and the most afTable 
nianners. Her husband, now kaiser, took very little share in the 
government He was a very humane and amiable prince, but 
more fond of experimental chemistry than politics. His hobby 
was searching for the " philosopher's stone," and the besi hope 
of his life was that he might be the lucky individual lo slumble 


n the secret. 





Frederick the Great, of Prussia, also employed the peace wiselj 
and we!L He lived for the most part in the palace of Sans Snaa, 
which he had biiilt at Polsdam, and devoted several hours of Iht 
day to public business. He was fond of books, wrote in French 
nutnerous works both In prose and verse, and was passionalelr 
fond of music Once a year he made the tour of his kingdom lo 
review his troops, and make himself personally acquainted wilh 
the State of affairs. Varióos industries were encouraged by him; 
fierlin was beauíiñed with new buíldin^, and enriched by voibs 
of art In 1 750 he invited Voltaire to come to BerÜn, and reside 
in his court. The great and popular Frenchman, twenty yeati 
the king's sénior, was treated at first with every mark of résped 
Frederick greatly admired the speculative wisdom and líteraiy 
genius of the Frenchman, but they soon felt disappointed willi 
each other and parted in mutual disgusL The king was a would- 
be poet and Voltaire was no courtier. When asked to criticise 
and correct the king's verses (which were always written in 
French), he made no concealment of his contempt for the royal 
doggerel, and the king haled the critic, as the archbishop of 
Granada hated Gil Blas, and dismissed him. When Voltaire lefi 
Berlin he wrote a most scandalous chronicle purporting to bí 
Tkí prívate Ufe of Ike king of Prussia. It was full of wicked wii. 
but utterly wonhless as an historical chronicle. I"rederick was no 
demigod, but he was al least a reality ; he spoke what he meant, and 
meant what he said ; his acts were not like ihose of Felipe II 
of Spain, mere shams, but ihe honest exponents of an honest hean; 
and what Uttle truth is incorporated in VoltaJre's "chronicle" ¡s so 
exaggerated, distorled, and masked, that it was the worst of all 
falsehoüd, " the lie that is part of a lie," expressly designed to 
deceive and lead to false conclusions. The great Prussían king 
had his faults, but was an excellent monarch for Prussia, thriílj 
and considérate. Though so many years were years of war, hí 
never overtaxed his people. He was most liberal, but practised suíJi 
wise economy that he left a full treasury to his successors, and 1 
kingdom most prosperous. 

Frederick II., as he is best known, was a little wiry alert oki 
man, slightly stooping in his figure. He was greatly beloved bf 
the common people who called him endearingly " Father Fnti' 
He was a king every inch of him, without the shams of royalty. 
Carlyle tells us that he dressed with Spartan simplicity ; wore sn 
oíd military cocked hat, a soldier's blue coat with red facings, "fer 
from new, and thickly covered down the front with Spanísh snuff' 
His legs were encased in high military boots, well-soled, bm 

" guiltless of Day and Martin's brilliant blacking," or what might 
be ihe Nubian blacking of the day. In his hand he carried a 
walking stick. It was a contras: worth looking at to see I^uis XIV. 
sleek, grimacing, periwigged, and posturing, — and oíd Father Fritz 
dignified, simple, stiff as a poker and slovenly in dress, mounted 
on his jog-trot mare, walking-stick in hand, which he held upright 
or wích which he struck the patient oíd bruCe ever and anón be- 
tween the ears, The blow was always a tender and loving one, 
not by way of chastisement but by way of feminder that Father 
Fritz was its companion. It was a mountebank and a Spartan, a 
royal fop and royal father, 

His face was not heroic, but had strong character. His mouth 
firmly shut, hps thin, jaw and nose prominent, brow receding, 
eyes grey and swift-darting, no lynx had keener — -Mirabeau said 
of them, " They fascinated with seduction or with terror." His 
voice was clear and sonorous. He talked much but well to the 
point, and those who heard him would sooner have tasked him 
for silence than taxed hSm for speech. 

He was a very original man, and what ís more, he dared to be 
honest, dared to discard all fajsity and shams. He lived in one 
of the worst periods of European history, the eighteenth century, 
the age of rottenness and falsehood j but was neither taJnted 
with the corruption ñor tarrcd by its touch. No wonder the 
French revolution broke out, for the whole state of society was 
a bubble, and bubbles mcst burst Kings had bubble notions 
of king-craft, ministers of diplomacy, the church of religión, 
society of socialism, tradesmen of common honesty, and artists 
of art. The drama was without decency, and works of fancy 
without even the veil of modesty. The earthquake carne, the 
Windows of heaven were opened, the fountains of the great deep 
were broken up, and the whole fabric of Ues was swept away. 
True there is much evil still, but it is not so hopelessly pre- 
dominant — ít does not contamínate everything. — the slime of the 
serpent is not over all. There are frogs and flies to annoy, but 
they are not in "all our quarters." 

With Maria Theresa in Austria and Frederick 11. in Prussía, 
Germany rapidly grew in population, wealth, and literary emi- 
nence ; and neither Maria Theresa ñor Frederick " ate their 
hearts," because men saw not eye to eye with themselves, ñor 
attempted to puU up the tares in God's wheatfield, lest by so 
doing they pulled up the wheat also. 

^ Carlylc itícia. 

id and Ircc]^ 


THE SEVEN YEARS" WAR (1756, to tke peace of HtUferidmrg,xfíÍ^ 

(CaUed the Thiid Silesian War). 

First Campaign (1756). 

Dresden captured by Frederick II. king of Pnissia (Aiig.)« 

Battle of Lobosiu (OcL i). Indedsive. Saxons sorrender. 
Siomd Campaign (1757). 

Pra^e (May 6). Won by Frederick II. over Charles of Lomine. 

Kolin (Tune 18). Daun defeats Frederick II. 

Rosbach (Nov. 5). Won by Frederick II. 

Leuthen (Dec 5). Won by Frederick over Charles of Lorraine. 
Third Campaign ( 1758). 

2^mdorf ( Aug. 25). Won by Frederick over Fermor. 

Hochkirchen (Oct. 14). Daun defeats Frederick II. 
Fourth Campaign (1759). 

Minden (Aug, i). The French defeated by Ferdinand of Bnmswkk. 

Kunersdorf ( Aug. 12). Laudon defeats Frederick II. 

Maxen (Nov. 20). Daun defeats the Prussian army. 
Fifth Campaign (1760). 

I^eignitz ( Aug. 16). Won In^ Frederick II. 

Torgau (Nov. 3). Won by Frederick II. over Daun. 

Sixth Campaign (1761). 

LangenssJza (Feb. 14). The French defeated by Hanoverians. 
Villingshausen (July 15). The French defeated by Ferdininl 

Schweidnitz captured in September by Laudon. 

Seoenth Campaign (1762). 

Burkersdorf (July 21). The Austrians driven from their intreD£]imeQi& 
Reichenbach (Aug. 16). Won by Frederick II. over Daun. 
Schweidnitz recaptured (Oct. 7) by the Prussians. 
Wilhelmsthal (June 24). Won for Prussia by the two dnkes 

Peace of Hubertsburg and end of the War (Feb. 15, 1763.) 

— Carlyle, History of Friedrich II, of F^russia, Vols. III. and 
On the Aus trian side : — 
María Theresa, allied with France, Russia, Sweden, Poland, and (in 
first year) with Saxony. 

Commanders: Charles prince of Lorraine, Daun, Fermor (a Rnsáí! 
general), and Laudon. (Prince Charles was removed in 1757, and ^ 
command given to marshal Daun). 

On the Prussian side : — 
Frederick II. the Great, king of Prussia, allied with Great Britt 
Hanover, and Hessen. 

Commanders : Frederick II. and the two dukes of Brunswick. (Thcd"'' 
of Cumberland was recalled in 1757, and the command of the allied Bi^ 
Hanoverían, and Hessian army was given to Ferdinand duke of Brunswick. 

Prince Charles of Lorraine was the younger son of duke L«Jp¿ 
of Lorraine, and younger brother of Francis or Franz (husband of Mu' 
Theresa). He was one of the Austrian generáis in the Silesian wac, ^ 
often defeated. 



"33 I 

Maeshal Daun [proQounce ¿>aan'] 1705-1766. Commander-in-cMef of 
the Austrian troops in Ihe " Seven Years' War," was brava and prudent. 
He won the batttes of Kolin (I7S7), Hochkiichen (175S), and Maxen (1759) ¡ 
but lost thoae of Torgau (1760}, and Reich^nbach (1762). 

Fermor. (1704-1741} a Russian genera], but son of a Scotchman. He 
entered the aimy of the czar in 1720, and was miide cummander-in-chief in 
1755- I» tile " Seven Years' Wat " he lost the battle of Zorndorf (1758). 

LAtiDON (1716-1760}, an Austrian general of Scotch extiaction. He wod 
the battles of KuneTsdorT (1759), and Landshut (1760); carried the lown of 
Olati, in Silesia (1759) ; and was created field-marshal in 1778. 

Fbrdinand ddkb of Brunswick {1721-1792), appointed by Geoí^ II. 
commaoder of the allied Brítish, Hanoveiian, and Hessian troops, in ihe 
place of the duke of Ciimberland. He defeated the French at Minden 
(175SI, and again at Wilhelmsthal (1762). 

Charles Wiluak duke of Brunswick (1735-1806} ncphew of 
Ferdinnnd, under whom he served in the " Seven Years' War." It was 
the son of this duke who took patt in the battle of Waterloo, and was killed 
at Quatte Bias (1815}. 

J^irsí Cavipaign (1756). — María Theresa could never reconcile 
herself to the loss of Silesia, which had been ceded to Pnissia at 
the cióse of the last war ; and as the rapid growth of Pnissia 
was viewed with jealousy by most European powers, she thought 
it a favoiirable moment to strike at the young Icing. Accordingly, 
she secretly negotiated an aUiance with France and Russia. 
Frederick II. of Pnissia, fully aware of the threatened danger, 
formed an alliance with Great Britain, and marched suddenly 
into Saxony at the head of 70,000 men. His object was to 
prevent the Saxons from joining the Austrians, a conjunction 
which would have been ruinous to his best hopes. An aimy of 
Austrians was sent against the young Prassian king, and being 
defeated by him, the Saxons laid down their arms, and most of 
the men were enroUed in the Pnissian anny. Thus, with 
the submission of the Saxons, ended the first campaign of the 
" Seven Years' War," and Frederick the Great with his Prussians 
wintered in Saxony and Silesia, 

Second Campaign (1757). — In the second year of the war the 
Austrians had received another ally, the Swedes ; so that now 
there were on the side of Austria — France, Russia, Sweden, 
and numerous Germán states; on that of Prussia only Great 
Britain, with Hanover and Hessea The allied Austrian arrales 
were 450,000 strong, while the allied Prussians were scarcely half 
that number. On each side was a most incompetent general — 
prince Charles of Lorraine commander-in-chief of the Austrians, 
and the duke of Cuniberland of the allied British, Hanoverian, 
and Hessian army. Both these generáis were superseded, 


Charles of Lorraine by marshal Daun, and the duke of Cuml* 
land by duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. 

The caropaign began in April, when Frederick IL led ií 
Prussians ínto Bohemia, and ullerly defeated prince Chariai 
Lorraine at Fragüe (May 6th); but marshal Daun comingu 
inflicted on the victorious Pmssbns a most crushing defeai 
Kelin (June i8th}, and drove them out of Bohemia. 

King Frederick, nothing daunted, ¡nstantly tnarched ■ 
Saxony, where he utterly defeated the F'rench at Jíosbaik i 
complételas this victory and so dísgraceful to the Frendi,lli 
the ■' rout of Rosbach " became proverbial in the Frendi íis 
The loss of the Prussians in this victory was under 300 
while the French left 1,300 slain on the field, and 6,000 
taken prisoners (Novcmbcr 5, 1757). 

Exactly one month after the victoiy of Rosbach, the Prasm 
defeated Ihe Austrians at Leuthen (December jih). Pn» 
Charles was the Austrian leader, but after this terrible defeíi 
was recalled, and the chief command was given to marehal D» 
Though the Austrians at Leuthen were more than two to onti 
complete was their overthrow, that whole battalions weie m 
prisoners, and thírty cannons with 3,000 baggage w-agons 
into the hands of the Prussians. Frederick followed upk 
victory by chasing the Austrians out of Silesia, Thus endedñ 
second year of the war. Silesia was left in the hands of* 
king of Pnissia, and although marshal Daun ■won fot I 
Austrians the battle of Kolin, Frederick 11,, jtistly called "1 
Great," won those of Prague, Rosbach, and Leuthen, igiÍB 
vastly superior numbers ; and acquired immortal glory futí 
rapidity of his movements, the energy of his character, li 
fertiUty of his rcsources, and his indomitable conrage. 

Third Campaign (1758). — The ihird year of the campa 
began with an attack on the French in Lower Saxony by Fo* 
nand, duke of Brunswick, commander-in-chief of the al!" 
Brittsh, Hanoverian, and Hessian army. The duke drove J 
French across the Rhinc, and defeated them at Krejdd «J 
greatly inferior forces (June zjrd). 

Meanwhile Frederick the Great marched to Brandenl«í 
against General Fermor, who had been sent by the Cix* 
Elizabeth with a Russian army to aid the Austrians and hun» 
the Prussians. The king fell in with the Russian army at á" 
(/íí^ ( Augtist 25th), and gained so complete a victory thal Fa* 
retreated inte Poland. 

This was the most bioody conñict of the whole war. 

I tT4^i76s.] 



(Bcarcely be called a battle in the modern sense of the word, for 
.t was more like one of those Homeric fighls we read of in the 
gf liad. It began al nine in the morning and continued till ten at 
;^ghL Hand to hand they fought, and horse to horse. They 
icushed on each other like personal foes ; they reeled from side to 
.5¡ide ; they hewed each other like ancient paladins ; from morn 
¿to noon they fought, from noon to night — ■" trasing, raising, 
¡jloyning, staggering, panting, bleeding ; " now butting like rams, 
,;now goring each other like wild boars, now grovcUing on the 
,;ground, now hurtling together. The sun went down and still 
jjthey fought, the moon rose in her fulness, and still they fought. 
jNo quarter was given, and therefore no life was spared. Above 
ji9,ooo Russians were mowed down like autumn corn, and 
' 11,000 Prussians, 

Scarcely was this bloody battle fought and won, at such terrible 
„cost, than the indefatigable Frederick marched into Saxony to the 
jelief of bis brother, who was hard pressed by marshal Daun, the 
Austrían leader. Daun retreated as the king carne iip, and 
Jredericlc foUowed hira. 

. Strange to say, on October i4th, the king encamped on an 
open plain near HochkirchetL How he could commit such a 
jiblunder is past understanding, but Daun was not slow in taking 
.advantage of it. At five o'clock in the morning, while it was still 
jdark, noiselessly and stealthily he crept towards the foe. The 
\Prussians were roused from sleep by the roar of artiUery. The 
advanced post was attacked, and their battery, being setzed, was 
made to play upon the camp. Crash went voUey after voUey, 
belching out flame and smoke. Whish ! whir ! crash I boom I 
■without intermissioa Nothing could be seen, but the rattie was 
sharp and crisp. Up start officers and men in every style of 
'undress, some wilh their nighlcaps on. The horses, mad with 
'terror, scamper in all directions, adding to the confusión ; and 
'the riders are at their wits' end. All is at sixes and sevens. It 
'is impossible to move. No word of commaiid can be obeyed. 
'The men are shot down at a venture, before they can lay hands 
'upon their muskets. The sun rose — rose in thick clouds, a 
dingy red, hke a candle in a horn lantern. The fog thickens ; so 
'thick was it one could not see his hand ; and well it was sa 
i*Bugles sounded the retreat, the Prussians decamped, but all their 
i'baggage was lost and many of their guns ; while several of the 
'best officers, and 3,000 rank-and-file strewed that fatal field like 
'broken glass. 

Though in retreat and checked, the undaunled king was " cast 



down but nol destroyed ; peqílexed but not in despair." Hel 
his anny at once into Silesia, and met there with such JiKK 
that the end of the year saw him stÜl master of ihat cow 
province. He had won in this campaign the great baOfc 
Zomdarf, and suffered a check al Hochkirchen, but the bÚi 
of advantage was still with him, and he wintered in Bohemis. 

Fourth Campaign {1759). ^The fourth year of the wai n 
the Pnissians the most unfonunaie of the seven. The SUc 
Frederick at the end of the campaign could not be WOise, II 
"things at the worsC must cease, or e!se cUmb upward." T 
Icingdom and Ufe of Frederick did not "cease" in thii;: 
"worst" conditton, and, therefore, dawn broke throu^' 
dorkness, or, as Shakespeare has it, his aífairs began to "(S 

The year began with a little patch of red, for Ferdinand A 
of Brunswick, with his allied British and Hanoverian traO 
giúned a signal victory at Minden over the French (Aug. i)t' 
this was the only gleam of hght in the deep darkness ofl 
terrible year. 

August iith, king Frederick of Prussia, suffered at Kutttrtiá 
near Bedin, the greatest defeat of all his reign, from the cí 
bined Russian and Austrian armies. He had gone to BraniJS 
burg to strengthen the hands of general Wedel, who had ' 
sent to prevent the Russians from joining the Austrians. Hl 
won the day, and had even dispatched a letter to Berlín 
announce hís vícLory, when Laudon with his Austrians carne í 
and completely changed the whole aspect of affairs. His ¿ü* 
was unmistakeable : 165 cannons were lost, and of all his í* 
army but 5,000 answered to their ñames when the roU wasaills 
over. Frederick was broken-hearted, and wrote in pencil to te 
chief minister at Berlín: "All is losL Save the royal famüj' 
Three hours laler he dispatched another note : " I sha!! W 
survive my kingdom, Fareweil for ever." Strange to say, ^ 
victors did not march to fierlin, but the Russian and Austria 
generáis fell out, and Prussia was saved, 

Misfortunes never come in single file, but in battalions. 
November the king suffered another loss : A body of men IwJ 
been sent to defend Dresden, but before they arrived the city huí 
been dehvered up to the Austrians ¡ and not long after this m"»- 
adventure, Fink, another Prussian general, with his whole arOJí 
sunendered to marshal Daun. "To lowest pitch of ¿j^' 
fortune fallen," the great Frederick could say with David, "ti* 
waters are come in unto my souL I sink in deep 

> miiÜAfl 

^^ 740-1765.] MARIA-THERESA AND FRANGÍS I. 237 

■Milátere is no standing; I am come itito deep waters, where ihe 
^icdoods overflow me. .... Deliver me out of the mir^i 
^■■et me not sink. Let me be delivered from them that hate 
^■zne, and out of the deep waters. Let not the waterflood over- 
^S^Aow me, neither let the deep swallow me up, and let not the 
^SXpit shut her mouth upon me." And he could add with the 
^^(Psalmist, " Thou hast shown me great troubles, but Thou wilt 
,^Bl)uicken me again, and bring me up from the depth of the earth, 
^gfThaa wil! increase my greatness, and comfort me on every side. 
^^^ will yet praise thee, and my lips shall rejoice, for they are 
■—^confounded and brought unto shame that sought my hurL" 
^^ JrifíA Campaign (1760). — The fifth year of the war found 
^^¡^rederick of Prussia in great straits. His army was much 

teduced, and was composed chiefly of foreigners and recruits, 

^^^hile the number of his enemies had increased. In August he 

^^marched into Silesia, dogged by the Auslrians, and halted at 

^^Xeigniíz. Three Austrian armies threatened him — one under 

^arshal Daun, another under general Laudon, and the third 

under Lasci. 
j^ Before daybreak on the i5th, general Laudon led his men 

Etealthily round to the opposite heights, intending to fall on the 
^^ Prussians in the rear, while Daun and Lasci held them in fight, 

but it so happened that king Frederick, during the night, had 

* changed hís encampment, and taken up bis position on the very 
** heights which Laudon intended to occupy. It was early morn- 
^^'ing; the Prussians were asleep; the king himself had lain down 
^' to rest, with his martial cloak over him ; all was silent, not a 
^ souiid stjrred except the occasional challenge of the sentries, or 

* the hushed whisper of watchers. Between two and three in 
*■ the moming, while it was still dark, the patrol woke the king 
' P with the announcement " the foe is at hand I " In a moment he 
^ was on his horse, in a moment later every officer was at his post, 

* the whole camp was astir, every man, from highest to lowest was 
" * on the alerL Laudon was thunderstruck ; he had fallen Ínto a 
■* trap, but retreat was impossible, and he prepared for battle, being 
fully persuaded that Marshal Daun and general Lasci would hear 
~ the guns and bring up their men without delay. 
' After three hours' fighting (it was then only five in the moming) 

■ the struggle was decided. Laudon had lost 4000 men, 6000 more 
*" were wounded, eighty-two cannons had fallen Ínto the hands of 
' the Prussians, and Laudon retreated in full flight. 

* At daybreak, marshal Daun, whoUy ignoran! of what had taken 
place, moved his army to give bartle ; but was drivcn back with 





great loss, and the viciory of the Prussians vas brilUanlii 
complete. The fortune of the kíng had tumed, for the ñcloiji 
Leignitz gave Frederick all the north-westem portion of Sileá 

The Austrians who escaped ftom Leignitz, joining the RdsÍ 
contingert, now marched to Berlín, the capital of Prussia, irta 
soon fell into their hands ; but hearíng that the kíng ñas hÜ 
way to the relief of the city, ihe combined armies relreated il 
Saxony. Hete the king carne up to them, and oñered balüei 
Torgau, The attack was made in Vko divisions, that led bjrtli 
king was repulsed, and Frederick was under the ¡mpression ' 
the battle would be renewed next morning. Not so. Ma 
Daun decamped secretty during the night, Having I 
wounded, he retreated to Dresden, and at daybreak the PÍu 
were ama^ed to see the camp deserted. The battle of Toip 
cannot be called a victory ; but it was as good as a victoij, ía 
Icft the Prussians masters of the field, and the greater jaBí 
Saxony fell into their hands. The year had been a briiUint « 
for the great Frederick, and he took up his quarters for the 
in Leipzig. 

The Sixth and Seventk Campatgns (ijór—r^ós). — Nothinj¡ 
any great moment occurred in the sixth year of the y¡3t¡ 1 
in January, 1761, the czarina died, and in July Katherine 
recalled the Rnssian army, and entirely withdrew from Gerauw 
Sweden also withdrew, so that only Austria and France rt 
and Frederick no longer doubted of a successful issae. TkI» 
followed victory. France, tíred of being beaten, withdrew;* 
minor statcs of Germany, whoUy exhausted, withdrew abo; ot 
Maria Theresa, the kaíserin, was compelled to conclude pe« 
The treaty was signed at Hubertsburg, February 15, i^fij, d 
Frederick the Great of Prussia was the acknowledged Lord 

The war began because Prussia refused to resign Silesia, ll* 
war ended and Prussia was allowed to retain ít. This was a vff 
small matter for a war of seven years' duration, a war in wliin 
almost all Europe took part — a war in which a million lives tí"- 
losl, and many a nation was brought almost to the brink of mi» 
but small as this result undoubtedly was, the heroism, the per.- 
nacity, the genius of king Frederick, madc him the obseti-cd <> 
all observers ; and Prussia, which seven years age 
insignificant kingdom, becarae at once one of the Great Poiw* 
and the rival of Austria. 

IF For the next century Germany was two-fold, Austrian»" 
Prussian, and all the minor states grouped themselves aroi«¿ 

, 'TTt^nfsl 



g- ^hese two great powers, according to their interests or sjmipa- 
^(ihies. Prussia was the risíng sun, Austria the setting. In another 
^j^ntury, another wrestle of supremacy occiirred. This time the 
i^onflict did not last seven years, but seven weeks ; for in 1866 
p .Austria yielded the palm to Prussia, and after the Franco-Germán 
^jffar (1870-1871) the king of Prussia, not the kaiser of Austria, 
Jaivas the acknowledged "Eniperor of Germany." Seven years 
made Prussia a European power, seven weeks placed it above 
^^ustria, and seven months made the king of Prussia " emperor of 

^ f When the Seven Years' War was ended, Maria Theresa 

araployed herself again in promoting the well-being of her 

jubjects, and Austria rapidty Increased in wealth, prosperity, 

ind population, She encouraged the arts and sciences; pro- 

^ected trade ; establíshed schools ; and gave prizes for useful 

inventions, improvements in manufactures, and superior excel- 

''lency in cereals, fmits, and flowers. She abolished the garae 

'laws, and the right of sanctuary. Hitherto no farmer was allowed 

^o kill game. Wild boars, wolves, foxes, rabbits, or hares were so 

called, and to hunt or shoot them was the privileged amusement 

^■"of the upper ten. By the new law, farmera were allowed to 

'"^destroy any wild animáis that injured their crops, and their wealth 

'^'rapidly increased, By the right of sanctuary, any criminal who 

■could make his escape to a convenl or church was under the 

ttection of the priesthood, and could not be punished by the 
I authorjties ; buC the right being abolished, every law-breaker 
amenable to the law, and might be arrested in a convent or 
rch as well as in a prívate house or the public streets. Maria 
líTheresa also abolished ihe search for witches, examination by 
Utorture, the Inquisition, and religious persecution ; and threw open 
4lall civil offices to protestants and catholics alilce. 

By this wise administration Austria soon became one of the 
pirichest and most prosperous countries of the world ; poverty was 
Biare, and want absolutely unknown. 

* T/ie Partitions of Po¡ani. 

¿ Maria Theresa, like most other crowned heads, — kin^, kaisers, 
f sultans, shahs, and czais, — thought she served the country by 
% pushing back its límits. Russia has always made encroachment 
^herpolicy, and Prussia hassought scientific boundaries. as well 
g as France and England. Poland was an extensive country, 
reaching from the Baltic Sea to the Carpathian Mountaiiis, north 
«and south; with Brandenburg and Silesia on the west; and 





H Hu 



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# ^ _ ^ ^^ ^_ .^^ "^ _^ ^ ^ — ^ ** " - 

§ -^#- m • » ^ ^ ^ 

f * — — '— .•^.^^* • •• "^* . 

Y.'// . . .í.r,. \'.-z ?'/-.• !i rer.tríL if c::i:?e -«Tas cvenhrc*i- 
Vií.',^-r. •.-',-': oj;,í*^L •s'2.- tikt- : íT.i 'h'Ílí: 'w;is left cf Pcl:^- 
>.í;; -,;.;;."/: v^. •.-;;:. :!'c rv::l-=r5. I:: this rn:»^ PAivimox, v— ¿ 
»V// j,.;:^; .r. ;7;5. ?.:si¿ t'.o!-: 43.CCC square mües (icsii-"-* 
;j, *'//'•* ;.';." i'^A.".^.', '-'--¿76 rr.:.e=.. Prjssia tcx>k 2i,coo scurs 
u,..*\ fu.^-ü::.'»!^ '^.v/¿K\rJzz 56.CC0 sr.:are mües), and A'JsrJ 
i'''./.',^* '/. -íir'; rr.ii'js ^rnaking al:oge:her 45.000 square miicí- 
ít y/'/i>i i/: 'A:y.\vl to attemp: any justiñcadon of thíj; pluccé:: 

l|-<t;4Í-i«;o.] UASIA THERESA. LITERATUSE. 341 | 

but it will not do to sean the honesty of nations too minctely, for 
the very best of them cannot show a " a maiden and an intiocent 
hand," be it Jew or Gentile, protestant or catholic, republic or 
monarchy ; the lust of dominión is a masterfess passion, which 
aJways sways " to what it líkes or loathes." 

Death of María Tkeresa ana Fredírick the Greaf. 

María Theresa died in 1780, ten years before the second 
partition and fifteen before the third partition of Poland, 
Frederick the Great died in 1786, and had no share in the 
second and third partitions of the peeled naíion, Maria Theresa 
was succeeded in Austria by her son Joseph II., and Frederick in 
Prussia by his nephew Frederick Wilhajn IL 

Joseph II, died in 1790. He wished to reign wel!, but was 
too violent in his reforms. Frederick William II., who died in 
1797, was weak and worthless, 

Joseph II, was succeeded by his brother Leopold II., who 
died in 179a, a little after the outbreakoí the French Revolution. 
like his broüier, he meant weU, and was more prudent ; but both 
these kaisers reigned in an interval between the bursting of a great 
Btorm, and are whoUy dwarfed by the magnitude of the events 
which followed their alinost eventless Jíves. 


The seveoteenth centun' may be loolced on as the dark períoá of Germán 
litcrature. The Thirty Years' Wor cnisbed oai the spiíit oí men and paia- 
lyseA both sdence and ait. Vet even in these calamilous times there was a 
Bilvet thread of genius. This time of rapiñe and rc^uery, of wild disotder 
and inslabüity, gave birth to a class of Lterature called picaresco remaiice ot 
romance of knavery, ]i\íe TkeAihientiires sf Gil Blas. Of these tales Ihat called 
Simfilicius Simplicissimus is the best.* Simplicissimiis relates his own adven- 
tüíes, and Fortune casts him intovarious grades ofsociety to " blowon whom he 
pleased." The advcnturer is the son ota peasant, but in consequence oí the 
wars is sent for security to be educated and brought up by a bcnnil. In time 
ie enters theseríice of a govemment oRicer, whcre he plays all sorts of 
pranks, and his master resolves to make him a. licensed fool. As Ihis does not 
suit the viewsof Simplicissimus he runs away.and aftet many slrange adventures, 
enlists as a soldier, distlnguishes hiniselt, and is made a barón. So mnch 
for his rise, now fot his fall. He mairies, loses all his money, becomes fearfully 
diafigured by small-pox, and is laken prísoner, Here more adventures foHow, 
till at last weary of Ufe, woni out wilh fatigue, brofccn in spirit, and dicap- 
pointed in all hia hopes, he retires from Ihe world and turns hermit. This 
popular tale gives as s graphic picture of sodety in the Thirty Venta' War. 

The Robinson Crusoe period followed tbe picaresca. Of this cIhsí of 
romance, Octavia, by Antón Ulrich of Brunswick, is well known. It is a 
capital tale, full of anecdotes, cpisodes, iocidents, and hisCorical traditioDs. 1 





Tif MantUítis aitd Víracisui Vísiúiu ef FkUattdír of SUtfwidd (i6so), iii 
Tomance of diflercnt charactei lo eitbfi of the for^oing. It is a. pióte Bln 
on Ihe vica and folües of ihe day, and conlains many ímportant deuiU of ll> 
TtiaXf Vean' War. The vices of Ihe age aie casligated in dreams oí <Í9on* 
Thus, onc vifflon, calleil " the anuy of ihe dead " lashes tíie buyítt 
and ridiculez Iheir chicnneiy and jaigon. Another gtbb«ts the foUy a> 
trolt^y. Anolhec the bastard Germán longuagc, dtstoited into Bninunt^ 
Ilalian, French, and Lalín ; as Johnson and Addísan a little Uleí tonóif 
ibe £nglish langusge. In another vi^on the author directs his shaft 
the fkarnca school of novela Iheir ¡mmonü tendenc)', cheir coaisem . 
their bad inftuence. One chapter "On Militaiy Life " is espedally exedln 
and is oficD lefeired to in proof of the savage btutaliiy of Che petioo. 


Wat is not the time for poeliy, bul during Ihis stormy period floaiískd íl 
Silesion poets Martin Opiti, Paul Fleming, Andiew Gryph, and Glí* 
l^henslein. Contempoiary with Fleming was Paul Gerhard of Saxonf, d 
n little bcfore him was Wald» the labulisl. 

Martin Opitz of Silesia (1597-1639), Ihe "faiher of modeni 
poeUy," waa a protestant, but wos much pampeied by catholic priluH 
Fcldinand II, ennobled him, and few poets havc ever been so peltM— (0 
bnve exercised a giealer ¡nfluence. His poetryis not fervid and glowii^ ¡ifl» 
no deep passion or brilüant fancy, but the language is chaste and tbc ~ 
smooth, descriptive or didactic, full of reñeclions, and in long Alexu. 
verse. He wiole an opera cal!edy«iA'M ¡ translated into Germán the Áiá^ 
of Sophoclés and the Ptalms of David ¡ and wrole a descriptive poes coSi 
Campaigns of Laái¡lau¡ IV. against Jiussia. Some cali his Ladiikia» 
epic, but it ñas about as much claím to auch a distinction as. Voltiiiii 
Hsnriadi. His best produclion is a didactic poem caJled ConiBÍaii» * 
IktlreMbleí o/ toar. Opiti, absurdly called the "Dryden of Gennany," li* 
no more resemblance to the "immorlal John" than Klopstock does lo MOir 
He wos at bes! a mere imitalorof the Italian poets, and bad no or¡^na]it]^l 
Tigour, no imagination. In fact, his ideal of good poetiy was elegantdióio 
and he might with far more justice be lenned the Mad. Ttissaud of pnelt 
Fancy comparing a finical courtiei whobowed hímself into "socie^,"iB« 
Brummel of language, to Ihe duke of Bucltingham's poet Squab I Opiti'» 
the founder of a school, but none of bis followeis need even be mentioiwd. 

Paul Fleming of Silesia (1609-1640), the "Germán Herrick,"* stini 
the head of all the lyric poets of Ihe sevenCeenth century. He is abetlaj'* 
Ihan Opitz, with far more Are, vigour, and passion. His Sacred and Seiít 
Paimt cnnlain some exquíaite love-songs worthy Anacreon,+ and for a ceiW 
or more were looked on as models of elegance and finish. His soniKl ^ 
Mystlf, and his epilaph written only fout days befóte he died, are 
"heaven-bted poetry. 

Andrew Gryph of Silesia (1616-1664) was Ihe prince of Siledan podi^tt< 
the "father of Ihe modera drama" in Germán)'. Our Shakespeare did ti 
vety yeor tbat Gryph was bom. like Shakespeare the Silesian draniat 


■bolh comedies and tragedles, but he wns no child of nalure lite our bard 
■of Avon, Gtyph took Séneca for his model, and is consequently pompous, 
"declamatory, and overstratned ; but hia ploCs are good, lus observations just, 
'and bis cbaiaclers slrongly diawn ¡ two orthem have become housebold words 
■ in Getmany, Peta- Squeni and HorTibili.scribrítax. The foraier an author, the 
B lauer a soldier of ihe Bobadil type, "a coward but a biagEer.'" lie alao 
* wrote odes, elegies, and bymns. 

j Gasi-ah Lohenstein of Silesia (163S-16S3) wns a writer of tngedies of ihe 
^ same school but not equaL lo Gryph. He was altugetbet a blood and thunder 

Ct, detighling íd boriors, and selecting his plots from thc bloodiest pagcs of 
non and Tuikish sloiy. " Titus Andron'icus," one of Ihe doublful dramas 
^ of Sbakespeaje, might have beca wiicten bf hlm, for it Í3 most revolliog from 
begÍDoing to end. His best tragedies are SÓphonisba, Asri/f'"", and Cleofatra, 
but even in tbese he is turgid, pedantic, and strained. 

Thc golden age of Germán poetry lüd not dawned eveo in the screateenlh 

Na mhject hai b«n HJ oftEn Ihe inbject of traged^ u SaphanUbo. la tlaüim. ve hava 
Ihe finys at Trisaino (ijn) ud Allieri (17B3). m iWíi*, ihose of Mnralon (1605) and 
•ad ia Gtrnum, ihai of Gaspar LohonsKín. 

SophonUba -was Ihe daughler of Asdrubal, thc Carlhaginluí, and hke Haaiuhid. wai 
reared to deirst Ranc She wu affiaaccd ro Maainissb, kin^ of NmoLdla ; but wu given by 
hci fllher [d mamage 10 Evphax, vha ihen becanK the ally aiul fricad of Cuihngt. Añer 
(lie defest of S>;(ihu byMumiua, Sophonisba fell inlo Ihe bandi of the conqueror. vho 
mairied her. Scipio, (he Román» feariiiK tlifl íafluence of the beautiful capüv«, ioaslcd on 
lier beiagei^D ínto hu hañdB¡ and Masinína, to save h« from capcivity, »bdi her mbowl 
cfppÍHm which Bhe readüy drañk. iind ihu* pul aa end lo her ILfe. 

Thcro aje many pninta of resemblaoce between Sophotmba and Cleopaira (nnother popular 
Hld«t of dramaUats). Both wcre young and faKÍnnliiiB — bolh were married— bolh wen 
dotñned to hold io boads tif love thür conqueror,-'^th wer« saved írom bcing nudc Román 
CAptivea by uiicíde. 

' PAt;L Gerhard of Saxony (1606-1676) was a teligious poel of thc highest 
oider. Deeply píous and full of lelígious fervour, a spiril of adoration brcalhea 
in evei)> line. His hyams aie stlll popular, and are juslly reckoaedmastet-pieces 
of sacred poetiy. 

Bdrkhard Waldis of Altdorf [sixteenlh century) is Ibe best fabulist of 
Gerraany, and woa the fa^t, to transíate .£sop's fables into Germán. He 
published 139 original fables, lalcs, and shoit allt^ories. His stylc is groceful, 
arcb, and humorous. 


Thc seventeenth eentuiy produced no poets of grcat merit, but three ñames 
stand out in stiong rebef : Leibniti:, Spinom, and Stahl ; and two others are 
wotthy most honuurable mention, Ikiichaelis and Ileíneccius [ffi-ne^-f-tu}. 

WlLLlAM Leibhim (1646-1716) linguist and historian, philosopher and 
mathemstician, waa a man to be proud of. His scholatship probably was never 
cqualled, certainly never surpasseS. Hiswritíngs are "l^on," but all eíther in 
French or Latín. Germán was stíll despised by courtiers and scholars, and índeed 
vas, at the lime, a sad harlequín imüt í<it soUd Itterature. I^eibnitz conttíbuted 


la^iy af J^t>t7j Afart íh ^'^ J/, 


maní feslDCi, and otherpublic docuoieDU ; bat his y4 Hnolr ^ Gmiiai^^«li 
uid his nadfoa, wtúch coduíds hk melaphysical and Eheolc^ical idin' 

Thú magiule of Gennan lileraluie was a man of middle útt; l|M 
but of yigorous fíame. His cmiotenance was pleasant, his cyes kcal,h 
slooped in hü walk, and tiis huir wu preroaturely grey. He ate sponog!)',!' 
slept lin!e. He was a member oí Ihc Royal SÓciely of England, uní im 
ihioi^ his infioence Ihat thc king of Prussia foonded ihe Umveríily of Batí 

Lfibnili is chiefly known fot his speculadve philosoph}', and Ihe two n* 
original of his spcculalioru are his Thtüry o/ JUonadí, and what he olUft 
alailisked HaitHimji. He maintained that there are iwo kinds of malud>< 
pioloplasins, onc ipírítusl and Uie othei material. Tbe former makc ^ 
and ihc latleiboily. Spiíil EDOoads, he said, p<Hsess innale consdonaiCAal 
are Ihe piotoplatRis of toul ; roalnial monads posse^s innate sensbililjí, i> 
are Ihc protoptastns of (he animal body, " Pre-esCablished haimony"áíi 
canse of ihe perfecl sympalhy and joinl action of ihesc two protopl^ms. & 
compared Ihc machines made of sjñrit and body monada in oiie uldivi^d > 
Iwo dock» having simullaneous but indcpendent aclion. The mind roui* 
or Ihinkine dock delermines Ihe operation (as Ihe hoiu, minule, and tim ' 
slriking), bul Ihe body dock shows outwardty «hat tbe hour or mianteisi^ 
ítrikes audibly ihe hour tequíted, The one is Ihe machine of volitíte,* 
olher of aclion. He oppoied l^xUc, Ihe English philosopher, on Ihe fi^ 
of " innale ideas." Locke maintained ihat Ihe miod at birth is as baic a i 
sheet of white paper, bul Leihnilz íiuisted that the seeds of ¡deas aic isb 
infant mind, as Ihe eeeds of plañís in the embryo shoots, The influtmi 
Leibniu on all Europe was immensc, and can hardly be overstatedj bm* 
doy has gotie by, and no one now beUeves in dual monads and ihni p 
eslablíihed harmony, 

Spi.noia {1632-1677}, ihe deepest Ihinket and mosl logical reasoüO > 
World hascver seen. His gieal-work, wrillen in Latín, and called ¿'/íjíi, Éa 
expoMtion of " pantheiam, ' that is, ihe identity of God and ihe üiiiw» 
According lo this philosopher the universe was not creaieti by God IjsI' 
identlcal with God. God is eveiything and everything is God,' li 
hypothesis was not a new one: it wassuggeíted bylhe Gredi philosophtn» 
ycars before the chrístian ero, and even they were by do means the üisl loe 
leitain ít. Spinoiawas no alheisl — Ihe furtheat fromit ijosable : hebeiievdi 
an omnipresenl deity in ila widest extenl. Evemhing with hito was Ihejae* 
deity ; but he díd not believe that deity and the univetse are sepanit' 
separable. He was wonderfolly modest, devout, and honest, and his í'*^ 
in uve patls, is the most stupendous piece of logical rcasoning that evcr \b^ 
froni (he human hrain, The Bible sayí " Canal thou by seatching find J 
Godf " No, for "the world by wisdom [ttnows] not God," but only b»it» 
lation. "Whyisthis? "That no flesh shouldglory in his presence." L'* 
devout spirit, and logical reasoning of Spinoza did not succeed in léaiüii"^ 
lo ihe Irulh a» revealed in the Bihie, no inferior mind can hope by philoBS! 
lo succeed. These things, revealed lo babes, are oflen Mdden to ihe»» 
Unlike to ordinary scíence, Ihe foolish may he the wiaest, and lie " 
foolish in Ihat knowledge whicb is not givea (o man's underatanding ic " 


iBlh Cml.) 



1 GeoROe Ernest Stahi of Anspach ( 1660-1734), '""•s *■ chemist, once of 
universal repule, bul his sysleoiB of Anímiim and Phlogiston, üke thoae of 
I.cibniti, have been superscded. Stahl laught Ihal ihere was in the world a 
ibrce called anír/ia, a viuJ principie independent oF matler and superior to it. 
Pope, who lived aC the same time aa Stahl, alludes lo this principie in his 
Ssiaj- tm Man, in which he compares crealion lo a body, and cftlU anima 
"üod." This hkAki, hesays, is — 

" Grwt ip ihe iwíh, aa in líiE ilhcreal frame ; 


[he rapL Kraph that odun 

Thisiswhat Stihl cM^Üunattmamundi, the Torce whichenergíses, vitalices, 
and dilecta every foice in nalure. This is no place lo discuss whelhei ¡I is God 
in the tree which makes it grow and bloom; «hether il is God in the sun 
which makes iC give foitll light and heat ; wbethcr il is God in the ait 
wbich Etiis it lo a breeze or gale; or whelbei these eJTects are produced by 
natural causes. The difTerence of these two ideas mar be shown by a simple 
illustration, Take a watch, Is it the WBtdhmaker in ibe walch which makcs it 
go¡ or is it thal the walch once madegoes ofilself ? 

In regaid to "phl<^slon," Stabl's other theory, be taught that Ihere ís a 
principie of heat in ínSammabte bodíes nhich causes ihem to bum, and Ibis 
principie he called phlogiston. Thus, if asked whj ñre burns? he would 
snswet because fuel conlaina phlogiston. If asked why candles and lamps 
£ive light? he would reply because tbey contaio phlc^islon. PblogistoQ was 
wilh Stahl a sort of electricity rcádent in combustible bodies,* lilis system 
was univetsally accepted for about a century, when Lavoisier showed that the 
phenomenoü is due nol to phlogiston, but to the breaking up of the elemenlB 
of the air and fuel, and iheir recombination wilh oxygen gasr (I775)< 

J. Theopkilus Hbinkccius [Ifi-iux'-f-uí] of Alleoburg {1681-1741}, w=s 
noC a magnate like Leibnitz and Stahl, hut his work is more cnduring. 
Leibnitz and Stahl blazed líke comets, and almost sel ihe world on íire ; but 
Hdneccius sludied law, aod wrote severa] books which aie still consulted as 
authority. Ws Eiements 0/ Civil Laui is one of Ihc boola used in the law 
Bcboolsof our univerüities. 

John Henry Micuaglis, count of Hobenstein (166S-173S), professor of 
llebrew aX Leipzig, was a most leamed oriental scbolar, who knew Hebrew, 
Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, and Arabic, beaides Greck and Latin. Ilis 
chief work la a Hcbrem BibU in folio, wilh notes. 

David Michaklis, his great nephew (I7i7-i79i], is alsowell known as the 
aulhoT of CoTnrntntaria on the Lirw of Mases, and an Iniroductiett to the Neío 
Trstamenl, translated into English by bishop Marsh. Both these ate valuable 

346 haría theresa. woi^. lAñtlplil 



Prior to ihe eighteenlli centiuy Ihe Goman language \ras looked OB bj 
Kholan and potilc wcklf as ■ jb^od oaiy £[ fot hinds. AU lespixl^ 
jienoiu spoke Fiench, and sil tcholim mole ihdr books ia PTCnch or Latiii. 

The Gecman of itie previoui ceDtaiy was certainly 1. miserable juable c[ 
Ijlinised words and French phrases, nor waa Memcl far wrong when bt SiiJ 
of Ihe poelí " Uicir Apollo Mts on Ihe Germán Pamassus in rull-bottomed wif. 
leaüing v'nb a French fiddle tbe concert and dance oí hit weU-powdend 

In thc firsi lialf of Ihe eiglilcenth eenWry some roen of geníus daied M 
cmpln; Ihcir nalive language in science, philosophy, and geneíaJ Utemlmt 
Ic gredually thiew otf its tawiliy patches of French and Lattn, and in lix 
second hall of ihe cenlury was wholly tegeaerated, became fashionable, mi 

Tbe pioneers, ali honoui to theír ñames, weie Wolf in scieDce and moni 
philosophy ; Thomasius in general líteratuie ; Spener in thcology; nd 
Gellert in poelty. These bold spirits dared to address Ihe miJIion in Iki 
mother tonque, puTged of Ihat petUous ituff which tbe Getman coiuts ^£1.1:^ 
and admircd. 

The perfeclers of Ihe language were KIopstock, Lessing, Herdcr, 'Q'iclaad 
Goethe, and Schillet. Klopstock showed it lo be susceptible of digrüljinl 
elegance; Lessing of peispicacily and slrength ; Herder of supplencss u' 
ríchness ; Wíelond of gracc and airiness ; and under Goethe and Schilla 
rose to the fulness of its stature, strength, and beauty. 

Finí ha!f of the Ei^leenth Ctntury. 
WoLP (1679-1754), a disciple of Leibniti, was a phílosopher and a scholii 
Leibniti wrole only in í'rench or Latín, but Wolf had the coutage to enplf 
hisnative Germán al leas! in bis elementary works, ajid as these books wat 
used in acbooii, where L^tin only had been hilbeito employed, they inltoductJ 
Ihe wedge whiqh was about lo split op the absord oíd system. The thtorioiJ 
LeibnitEand Wolf are now quite out 01 dale, but inihe ñist half ofthe^hltrul 
cenlury they were immensely popular, and laid Ihe foundation of tfaat tutcte 
speculative philosophy for which the nation isstill noted. (Síe Z^¿itüi,f.na\ 
IxíOaili ifGnnEil, In GonlnidictigQ \o Gajlc IHe Frendi philosopher, ihat the vnU ■• 
Uve ín ii Ihi bul iKuublT Ihu nud could cDJoy, and U evll& uíst Úny uc Ihe intcpol* 

Thomasius (1658-1728), wasstill more lealous than Wolf for Ihe granJ 
use of bis molher longue. He did ali he could to induce his counlcymea ■ 
abandon French and Latin ; to expunge frora their own language atl L*» 
terminologies and French phrases, and to use evety effort to tnake Gennan > 
a médium of thought and speech, full, graceful, and charactetistíc lleca 
Ihe first lo deliver leclures in the language, and in this he gready offendcd IV 
ecdesiastics, wbo seemed lo think thal orthodoxy was somehow bound <lp«^ 
Latin, and Ibat beresy of faith would indubitably follo-w hercsy ofspM^ 
Thomasius aJso founded a critica! and general periodical which appt»* 
monthly, It waa the firsl Germán seria?, and did much lo popularise lie !•» 
guage, Beades these lilerarv merits, Thomasius deserves great honour for* 
oulspoken way in which be denounced the hue and ciy against witcfacnA.o' 
for his manly effbrts to abolish torture. 

Spener (1635-1705) was rathetbefore Wolf and Thomasius, bal of itien* 


'and in his thcologícal wrtEings. 
in chiídrea, eslablishaJ home meetings, was a fervent and popular preacher, ana 
labonred hard to wean Ihc miad from specalative religión to active piety, 

' huinility, and works oí chrísdan chaiily, 

■ Gei.lert (1715-1769) was a poet and moralist. His lectures on poetry, 
theloríc, and medicine, weie numeiously attended and greally admired. Li¿e 
Thomasius he lectuied in Germán, and not in French or Lacin. He wrute 

-fables and stories in verse, didactic poems, songs, and odes. His sCyle is 
easyand natural, more afier the French than the Lalin modcl. Gellert aaüisted 
Woír, Thamasius, and Spener in lifting Ihe literatiire qí his counUy ñam the 

. pedantry and dullnEss of the preceding period. 

. GOTTSCHED (1700-1766} canniil be omitled, because for the first half of the 

, dghteenlh century he was the lilerary dictator of GetTnaoy, aod the arbitec of 

' tasle. His influence ín Tnisda was unbounded, but instead ot advancing the 
Germán Lteratuie and language he turned the tide back to the pedantry and 

milliiiery of OpitE. Opitz advocated imitation of [he Italian style, Gottschcd 
of the French ; bolh thottght that fine feathers make une birds in poetiy, 

' and their productions were not living breathing thoughts, but wax dolía diessed 

^ in the last new fashions. The poetry of Gottschcd is about equil to the 
odes of our poels lauréate Eusden, Cibbér, Whítehead, and Pye, 

• Second half of the Ei^ttntk Century, 

' Klopstock (1708-1803) waa ihe author of an epic poem in the Germán 
language, called Thi Missioh, ín fifleen books. As an epic it is doubtlcss very 
dcfectivc, but its language is elegant aod thoroughly Germán. It 'was received 
-with unbounded honoui, and did (he language incalculable sei 
Cbaucer was called "the well of English undefiled," so Klopstock may be 
called ''the well of modem Germán undeliled." His MisHak was the foun- 

I dalion of a new epoch in Germán literature. 

I The general scheme of Klopstock's Messiak, writlen in Germán hexomelcrs, i: 

\ as foUows : — 

01 SalBA senda a ^rcam ra 

I be paaHa the t 

n Ihe 


■ ,XAb. 

n bu.'k ID Ihe Ran 

>. hyih 

eatli, IhB buriul, and i 

lliejcws. Thm 

It will be seen at once that Klopstock has chosen for his subject the eleiing 
days of the Messiah — his betrayal, trial, crucifixión, and resurrection, Mülon, 
in his Faradise Eegaineá, selecled the beginaing of Chiísl's ministiy — the 
temptation in the wilderness. There is a singular propiiely in Milton's 
choíce, as a supplement to his great poem. In Faradise Lcst the poet shows 
that Adam (our federal head) lost paradise, because when he was templed by 
Satán heyietdaíta the temptation. In J'jrxiiise /íegaineJ'br; shows that Jesús 
(our new federal heod) regained paradise for man, because when tempted by 
Salan he nsisted the temptation. Klopstock has chosen, no doubt, a most 
tragic atory, but his poem is no more an epic poem than if he had describid 
Ihe murder of Julius C¡esar, or the death of Richard III. on Bosworlh üeld. 
It is a series ofconneclEd lays or relígious idylls, but no epic. It is descriptive 
and not realistic. We are lold that the characters introduced wept, loved, 



moTcd, sod IkUced, faul Ihey wanl reaJily ¡ \hcy are picture taca, vemet,! 
angeli — «clora and actresses dressed op. There is no living uiovoisM, 
niuterless passion swaying Ihein to what it tikes and loathet. It ís i b 
pulonmi uid not a living world. His languoge is excellent Gennaii, nill 
slory is inletcslinE, bul the ñlaiiak oí Klopstock is no more lo be «o)»* 
wilh ihe Paradht Lorí oí Milton, itum tbe pictuies af David* wilhlh«' 
Micbael Angelí). 

LissiNC (17x1-1781) follatred in the footstefis of Klopstock, and dmal* 
natire language foi hii médium. He was apoet, but by íar the laigETpHt' 
his productioni aie Íd píDse. Most of his dramas are tu prose, all hitwt 
and his Laocoen (a. treilise on painling aod poetry) ; but his prose is adnnlk 
and may be called the cnrner-Uoue ormodem Oernian. Lessing watfoiB^ 

Íears a leader ofthought, and a leader oriiteraiy taste. His style iss«l^ 
udd uid vigorous, and always channing. Mis chief poetical woi1i>A> 
drama of ifatkan Iki M'ist, his fríend Moses Mendelssohn beiij * 
acadcroy figure of the wiie Jew. The slory of the play is as follows:— 

han. « nch Jíw mcrchaiit of JcTusjdem, julcppts Recha, a. cbrístlají chíld, and Mv^ 

WhcD Recha waa «dileen yan ol 

llar rvccnily Ubérawd b) 

3 NaLi 

¡ve ac Gath ti; 
iríng che abumcv of the merchantt hi^ 


Ltchs, bnt being vqwed to celibacy could noi nuuTT, miil* 
iiher ukI liuer, diE children ot hss^A, ilie SuIud'i brOlia. 

The characleis of Nathanind Rechaarewell drawn, and partsoribeFlir< 
tindoubledlye«ellent,butlt3con5truclion¡smostdefective. Ala^epaniíoa 
piedwilh the '■crime"of Nathan, ajew.ínadoptingand bringing up > cÜ» 
child. The patriarch of Jerusnlem declares it lo be " the unpardonablc »' 
and tells us he sholl ea slroightway to the sultán and insist that Nilhn^ 
buml lo dealh ; but allthis crackiing ends in smoke, nnd if it weie Itfi A 
the plot of the play would not be affected ín the least- Of «ww '■ 
déneucmint Iklls flat, and severa! of the dramatis persona are mere un* 

" MiaHa t/ Samhelia" ana " JEiniUa Callííi" are Lasing's hesl dramtt,i 
are infinüdy superior lo aity previoutfy pmduad in Gemuoty. The Stfi* 
aimfotitimt i' citar, precise, cemiací, and oítive. Ide kteps the rradírirf 
tator otoaie iy vivid inutges, wtl, and wnapected tums ofikouekl. 

His rations of poclry and art viere liihaUy ideal. Jíente he anda 
descriptive poetry attd painling f rom naturc. 



The last holf ofthe cighteentli century, and Ihe first of the nineteenth, 
be considercd Ihe Colden Age of Germán literature. The revolulion »B 1 
complete ilhoa been called the "Storm and Strain"+ period, or in moreíM! 
gible pbrase the " volcanic ero, " when oíd things were done away and íH ibi» 
becamenew. Wolf, Tbomasius, and Spener hadied the way in prose; CelknB 

•David. aFrmchpaJnLH-canteimvitaiy wiiliNupnlecnL HSa paiiuli 

—^Klopstocli, in poetry; Lessing, ín general lireraturq; Ihen foUowed Hetder ^ 
'^^jW'ielttnd, GQCthe, and Scbilleí, witbabout íattyothas of inferíoc note, and Ihe 
^ jjpcmian language became Ihe language of the Dadoo, in courts and schools, for 
^^^poetry and prose, even for phüoBophy, science, and exegesU. It vraa no loneei 
^ _:el^;aled to hinds and peasants, buC was used in poUce society. Il was no 
^^uOQger conñned tu papular liteíature, but wos emplcwed by scholars. And as 
onguage acts upun tbought, as soon as Italian anil Frenen, Latín and Greelc, 
^ w ere Bwept out of it, origimüily of thought sel in, and Germán literature be- | 
Jétame essentially Germán. 

^y" Herder (1744-1813) follows Klopslock Wld Lessing as one of Üie r 
. "^Vsneralors of Ihe Germán language. Hia Fraffmaiíi on recetit Germán I 
' ■^^ileralure had a magicol iofluence aa ihe literaiy taste of his countrymen. j^ 
j*As Cervantes by hia 3an QuilrD/ígave Ihe death blow to chivalrjc romance, 
^M Heider weaned his countiymen from bald and lifelesa ímitations of Italiun, 
^J*rrench, and English authors, to a healthy national poecry, national in spiíit 
^■■^s wel! as ¡n language. He wrote a book on the S/irít of íftbrrui púclry, 
^ -''which produced a considerable aensation ; waa a voluminous wnleí on philoaophy 

■ ■M<and history ; published some Iheological woiks of Socioian Cendency, and tried 
* ' Ibis hand on poetry, but was no poet. Hís master work was his Oullinís e/lhe 
'^^ifhilesophy of thc Hhtor^ of Man, in which he sets Mmaetf to provethat history 

is not a mere series of isolaled nationaJities, but a giand drama of the race ¿f j 
^■»man. Diffetent scenes may be hud in different places, at different limes, and I 
^**lie awarded to different actors, but all tend lo the ultímate issue. Herder was \ 
^^ ^cootemporary wilh Kant, whoie phüosophy he entirely opptosed. 
^^ WlELAND (1733-1813) Í9 undoubtedly one of the gceateat of Germán poels. 
( wKlopstock's poetry hada great inñuence ovcr hím. His philosophícol prose 
_^ romance ofjí^^oM was well recdved, but hia fame rests on his Oéeron, na 
^Mheioic poem auggested by Shaltespeare's Midsummer Nighi's Dnam. The 
^language of this charming poem is graceful, its versiücation airy, and its fancy 
^^ " spirimel." 

■ fg Wieland was not a reíormet, like Kiopstock and Lessing, hut he did good 
^ , service to Germán literature, and helped to give the language grace ajid 

_ri llannony. He was surnamed the " Voltaire of Germany." 

Agalkmhsa [omiuioe rf Greek lífc. Thehero Is an Epieurean in lenlLnwnt, MallinBihe 

^ Goethe* (1749-1832), called by hís countrymen Ihe "prince of Germán 
^J poels," had an inñuence on their literature wholíy unexampled. He holds Íq 
^~ Gennany the peerleas place which Homer holds in Greece, Dante in Italy, and 
25 Shakespeare in England, but out of Germany this judgment is by no means 
^ conlirmcd. All allow him to have been a roan of extraordínary talent, bul hia 
lyric poetrr has been greatly surpassed, his dramas ore defectivc in dramalic 
ort, and hia prose ooTels are seldom r^id in the present day. Homer, Dante, 
^Hf and Shakespeare are as fresh now as ever, are read with the same pleasure, and 
rather ¡necease in fame ihan decicase, but Goethe is waning fast. He ia \ 
scarcely read out of his own country, and even ¿ere hís reputation is O' 
c w eqiml lo what it was- 

■M His four chief works are TTie Sorrovis ef Werther, a aenlimental comancí 
mt Willtelm Master, a philosophical novel (botb in prose) ; IpAigaiTa in Taiii-i 
W a classícal play j aod Faust, a dramalic poem in Iwo parta, Nexl to the 
■■ come Hcrmann and Dorathío, a poem in hexameler verse ; and Torguaío Tass 
Of these Faurí alone seems lo roaintain its ground, and that only in parts. 

■'2 /:'.ijrKtz xn T-sf^is li tr.-e iCi clx&ác tale modetnised. 1 
:>..i : íi:.^fr..í, -.'z/t ii.:^.'tT : : Aji^-kl»:*!, was aiboat to be ! 
I/u.-j. i- -z.^'.: zr-.'.-^:t :hA: g:*ideu: aad thxa sccnie éítoi 
í^f :--.* *2J. '.í -.--* Or*c-jj: r**: zj, Trj. J:ist as thc pñest was a 
K:i '».-::.T., I-^^ra z^sr.fi htr 'la :d Tzzris ii.^., thc Crimea), ai 
rivir;^* r^f :r.* 'tzr.i'.t •.r-r*- Pin oí hcr dnry was to ofier np in 
*Tar.;j»m »"r,o s«: f-.-.t ir. :he rerir-s^U. Xow, onc day hcr brol 
íarr:*:'! xriTi-rl» » -.:■■. hi» íritr.d I*j;ád¿s; but Iphigenia, instead of 
thfiTr., f!f:'i »¿:h :r.«:i, carn-ing; cff the image of the gcxidess. L 
timr, Eitctra :>c:r^ told :hat Orestcs was murdered by the príestes 
r^rvji%'^ !o avtrr.ge the crirr.e ; and ir.ecting Iphigenia at Delphi w 
p jt o-j: hfrr cyf:%, when Ores:¿$ ap^^eared and explaincd the whole i 

( if /If «.-/, a rje'^/auchee no longer young, learned in all the leai 
times firi'li ít only vanity and vexation of spirít. By the means < 
fcummons a spirít into his presence, and the spiíit chides him « 
un w'jrthv of a high destiny. Faust then resol ves to take poison anc 
to his lifc, but hears the dock strike, and forthwith the choir in thc 
in^; church l^e^^n chanting the Easter h}inn. Oíd memoríes of chi 
across his braín, and he feels there is a beauty in holiness ani 
dcvoutly to lie desired. While he thus muses. Satán» under thc 
travcllin^; scholar, named Mephistophélés, appears and makes a o 
him. 'I'Tic terms agreed on are that Faust should ha ve all his wisl 
for a time, and should then consign both body and soul to Satán, 
bcconies a Iil>crtíne — not a coarse, vulgar sensualist like Don fu 
intclligcnce imbrutcd "by lewd and lavish acts of sin." M 
Margaret on lier retum from church, he woos and wins her. *] 
innoccnt girl, who knew no sin, and feared noevil, loves the encha 


tm capiivating to think of Margaret as a soiled dove, so loving, so 
l^nlle, so innocently guilty, so wronged against, so suffering, that 
"te lose sight of her wrong-doings in pity for her falL 

1^ ScHlLLER (l755-l8os), the greatesl poetical genius of modera times, was a 
:3a.tive of Würtemberg. The Germans piace him in the aecond range qf Iheir 
■•«ocla, but foreigneis place him highest of all ; ceitaiiily in England no Gennan 
^oetissowellknown.andsomuchliked. liefotehe wns íoyearaold hebrought 

int liÍ3 playcalled TAe Robbers whích eicited among the youne men of Getmany 
ptn enthusiasin wholly uapaialleled, and gave birth lo a ^nea of dramas and 
ijiomances about brigands, It ia a "thunder and lightning" drama, of Ihe mosC 

/iolent kind, glowing with passion, and full of fancy¡ but tbedukeof Würtem- 
1^^, his palron and superior officer, a fossiliied Gemnuí " Setene Highness," 
^-brbade him to write any more plays wilhout submittmg them lo his inspcction. 
^\bout iS months atterwarils the píay was brought out at Mannheim ; the poel, 
^ho was in the army, was clandestinely present, and was put iinder anest for 

^eing "absent wilhont leave." Impatient of this tyranny, he deseited, and 
t^vea in Mannheim under s. fa!se ñame. Here he became acquainled with the 
director and majiager of Ihe theatre, and entered upon híS líterary career. 
¿His masletpieces are WallmstHn and WUlianí Tí// (dramas J, and The Smg 
j^ the Bill (an aüegorícal ode). As a dratnatist Schiller has no cqual in 
jCennany ; as a lyrist he is certainly equal if not superior to Goethe ; and his 
^rose wrilings are models of elegance and profound thoughl. 
^ "¡Vallaislein" is atrilagy orlrifie dranta, likeSAakesfeare'i "Bemy VI." 
íjt threí part¡. 

' Don Carlos, Mary Slmrt.Jvan o/Arr;!LaiÜii: Briíke/Míísina, areolher 
'dramas of the same poet of surpassing merít. 

' His Songoflhe Sill'n an allegory of human Ufe, each phase being vaiied hy 
'corresponding melody and metre. Both lord Lytton and Browning have tians- 
'la,ted the tyiics of Schiller into Englísh. 

I Next, but a long way inferior to Goethe and Schiller, come 
'Burger, Voss, Koizebue, and Schlegel (poets). Lomer still, 
' Gesner, Zimmermann, and Sturm (prose-poets) ; and second to 
none, John Paul Richler, the humourist, one of the most original 
geniuses of the age. 

GoTTFHíED BuRGEK (1748-1794) wriler of bailad s and Ijtíc poet. His 
hallad ofZtOTiiWfl first brought him into notice. His poem called ChaslUy 
is in all collectiuns of hymns and sacied poeto'. The style of Buiger is ctear, 
foicible, and elegant, but he was not b power m Germán literature. 

John Hbnry Voss (1751-1826}, one of the ripest scholars of Germany, 
translated into Germán hexameters the Odyssty and Iliad of tiomer, Virgit, 
íletiod, and nther Greek and Román aulhorE, Ilia Jícnier lakes the same 
rank in Germany as Pope's Homo- does with ub, and is a far bclter tronslation. 
He atlempted tíarace, but failed. His métrica! idyll called Luise was an 
original work, and created a new class of poetiy, imilated by Goethe ín his 
Hertiiann and Doroihta. What are especiíjly admired in Voas's idyll are the 
portraitures, so simple and true lo Ufe, that they remind one of Goldsmilh's 
Vüar qf Wakefiíld, and a highec compUment cannot be paid them. 
KoTZKBUE [1761-1819), a very piolific dramatic aathor of Germany, whose 

Elays were at one time well-known by lianslalions and adaplalions on the 
inglish stage, especially Piíarro, Sheridau's adaplation of the Spaniard in 




PtTu: Tif Slrangrr, Bcnjunín Thompson 'i adaptaron of Miaiaii^^ 
Kffeiiliaiíi, ioucheá up by Shchdan ; Z^ivi-'i' l^irais, by Mts. InchteUi<a 
boriowrd trom Kouebue, so was the íí>j>» of the Sun, and Üie Á ' 

Thc/arle oí KoUebue was c1«p-trap. He loved to staitte his iBdi(Bi!' 
leat * puson lo tatlers, lo very rags; to pile up agony; and melt rlownl^ 
lo maudlio «nlimenlalily. Stcange ihat hL> best play the TJfvi AVlNji^ii 
H'iI beca pioduced on llie London stage. Kotsebue was a veiy p[oM()il 
wrjght, w(io flaahed like a tockel for a lime and delighted play.goeis, klí 
<¡»y is gone, and liltle but hia name will outlive the centuiy. 

AuGtlSTUS ScKLEGEL OÍ HanQveí (1767-1845), the traerla < 
Shakespeare inlo Germán, was one of the founders of the Alinta», 
lileraiy joumal in greal vi^ue, whích placed the ñame of Schltgel nal ii i 
liit of critics. He had olso Ihe merít of enhuming the .^i6e/uHgai-Stá,iik 
the " Germín lliad." Schlegel was Ihe fríend of Goethe and SchiJler. 
F*í/ aüa iramkled ShoAísfíart, bul hi¡ Vírñon is not e^nat lo SíAltgfi. 

The ñames of Gesner, Zimmermann, and Stiirm, are too»á 
known in England to be omiited, although they can none oítíw 
be ranked among the great authors of Germany. 

Gesner (1730-1788), n pretty idyllic poet, was at one time well-líi 
in England by his Firit Njj/igalor, and slill betler by his Dtaih ef Ji^ 
Knglish iranslatiuns of which were staple books in the " Britiah Claas* 
publiahcd in the firsi hnlf of the nineteenth centary. Few books weie fK 
populat wilh the genera! public, especially with such as loved Efítaínli S>9 
ExiU ef Sihíria, Paul and Virginia, Utrvry'i Maiiliitiatis among the TaaM 
and StunH'i Rtfitctiom. ■ 

Zimmermann (1718-1792), was aneminentphysicianwhose medical «Mili 
Jrrilabilüy is slill held in eslecra. He wiole a poem on ZSe Earikqi^ ¡M 
J.isbon, and an essay on NatioHol Fride which was tianslaled into aloiasm^l 
European language; bul hia ñame is chieñy assodated wilh his essaj '»\ 
Solilude, a tranalalion of which, likc Gesner's First Nirvigaior, and Dali Vl 
Abd, formed patl of Ihe *' Brilish Classic" series. Every one slill kntpwsllí" 
ñame, but few read it now. It was wtilten in the lucid interval belweBH»" 
deplorable attacks of conslilutional melancholy. 

STURm (1740-1786), a Gennan clergymín, is also knowo by nameinaliw" 
every counlry of Éutope, by his book called ReJUetions, leligious obsenallw 
and meditalions on the works of God, arranged in an " annuary," that is,»» 
foreveryday in theyeac. This Iwok also foimed one of the " Brilish CIísbcs." 
and in the reign of George 111. few gentlemeo's houses would be wilhonl »■ 
The section for a day was very short, and the Rtflectien was sufEcienlly ^\ 
o cal! up pious Ihoughts on the goodness, providence, and wisdom " 

Thesc Ihreeauthors justsuited thehalf literarytaste, and pious sentinienlíBl 
of Ihe Georgian era. Steme's &niÍHuntal Jímmey {iy6&), ajid MackeHBi^ 
Man 0/ Faliiig (iTn), were household books io the same period, 

ir RiCKTER, ^erallj^ known as John Paul (1763-1S25). was a Gero» 
humourisl, bom in Bavarin. He was ao oiiginal that it was some time hcfc" 
his counlrymen caughl hia spirit, but when it flashed upon them h 
instonlly riised ftom abject poverly to easy drcumstances aad u ' 

them h(*v ^ I 




popularity. His Itíí/ Oalí ís a charming prose idyll, bot Tilait ar the Age 
~ fif Fúllies* is his gieat romance, in which we ate ¡nltoduced lo the ( 
extremes of perfecliun aad cortuplion. 
John Paul waa as simple-mindEd and unsophisticated as GoMsmitli, as great 
_Bn observer, and as full of humour. He lived in a WQtId of iiis ovni. His 
e puie of heait like himseír, and his héroes whollj' imaginai^. His 
Mtgeriptions are tumi sketches of víllage ways and víllage fita, of hills and 
^UleTG, of the rising and selting sun. In Titán we have twt> brothers, one a 
aól of enthuáastic youth, and the other a humourist who Itnows the wotld. 
Ftaaien, Fmils, and Thortn, we have Ihe magnificent Dnam ef the dead 
I, which ha£ been tcanslated ínto Engliah by CarlyU, 

The Philosopliers (1750-1850). 
!íie second half of the eighteenth century and fhe first of the 
Mneteenth, produce d in Germany such a number of deep 
^ thinkers, that no period of history has equalled it, since Ihe 
era of the seven sages of oíd Greece ; but it is a matter of doubt 
"^whether this vast array of brain-force has accoraplíshed any 
^"adequate result. Is the world wiseí for their wisdora ? or will 
their ponderous volumes be placed beside those of the schoolmen 
■•*whose art was to puzzle rather than expound ? 

*" The great Germán metaphysicians of the latter half of the 
^^eighteenth century were Kant and Fichte (z sy¡.). ^hqse of the 
-^ first half of the nineteenth century were Schelling and Hegel. 
BíThey carried on the speculations of Giordano Bruno, from whose 

birth to Schelling's death is about 300 years. 
■* Bruno (1 550-1 600), the Italian.maintained that the Creator and 
*creation are as much one as the divine and human nature which 
.^niake one Christ, or as soul and body which make one man, 
^ According to the jargon of the time, God is called the natura 
«1 naiurans, the substance and Ufe of evcrything. Bruno was burnt 

• alive for his theory, but buming Bruno did not put an end to his 
speculations, for in the very next century (1632-1677) Spinóza 

¿ taught thaUnature and God are all one, and that both are eternal 
3Cseep. 244). 

■í In che meantime Descartes {Da-kart), the French philosopher 
■*' (1597-1650), attempted to prove the existence of God by his 
■| celebrated axiom cagíto, ergo sum (I must exist, because I thíntt). 
He argued thus ; " I think," but thought cannot proceed from 
^ nothing ; if, therefore, I think, " I " must be something. Agaln, ex 
i nihilo nihil fii (something cannot proceed from nothing); and if 

* thinking man ís something, he must proceed from something, and 
V that something is God. 

»54 MARÍA THERESA. LEIB^fIT2. STAttl- [D.ra;^ 

Somc fifty years later (1638-1715) Malebranche of París nn 
up Descarte's axiom lo prove ihe duality of hiiman nata 
Taking the exisience of man for granted, he argued thus : Miii 
body is made of dust, or (accordíng to modern sc¡ena|n 
carbón, certain gases, and a few minerals. But carbón, gíse 
and minerals, cannot think ; and as man thtnks, this Úáiia, 
power iDUSt be something else than carbón, gas, and 1 
That " something else " is the deity in raan, or what is caib 
" soul." Henee ihere must be a God, and man must consia 
body and souL 

Leibniti; (1646-1716) denied this theory, and said the rosa 
why man ihinlcs, is not because h¡s body is the temple oí Ctí 
but because it is madc of two different sorts of atoms or moiai 
body monads and spirit monads, whích, act togcther by "p 
established harmony."* 

Siahl (1660-1734), going back to Bruno and Spinoza, miii 
tained, it is not God, but a ^■¡tal principie, which he tond 
anima mundt, that anímales creatíoa This forcé, he said, d*A 
ín every living thing, as the soul in man's body. It 
materia!, it ís wholly independen! of matter, but co-existsiriÜ)il 
and quíckens it 1 

Bishop Berkeley (1684-1753) asserted that Stahl's . 
mundi ía nót wanted; but only a soul in man's body. 
said he, the objects of the world around exíst only in the 
The things we see, like Macbeth's dagger, are only the ere 
of the braia If man had no mind, his eyes would see nolliisi 
his ears hear nothing, hts tongue taste nothing, his fingeis m 
nothing, in fact, all nature would be a blank, quite ^lit o* 
From these premises he inferrcd the reaÜty of a God. IT ' 
world around ¡s wholly ideal, wholly the creatíon of n 
thinking faculties, what but a creaior could have gíven to 
this wounderful creatíve faculty? 

Berkeley struck the keynote which has pervaded metaphysiai 
theology from that day to this : What is the world f Doo ' 
absolutely exist, or ís it only a dream and visión of the mindf 

Kant afiirmed that everything is twofold, subjective or relati» 
and objetíive or real. Every one knows that the senses are lií 
trustworthy. Thus the raoon which is opaque and spherioi 
appears to the eye lumínous and flaL The waves of the sea. &= 
corn blown by the wind, seem to move forward, but renW 



Btationary, Flowers appear coloured with varíous dyes, and so 
does a common lustre '¡n the sun, or cut drinlung glass if light 
shines on it. Henee we cannot trust our senses, and things may 
be very diflerent to what they appear to be from the report of our 
senses. What they are to our senses, or as they seera to us, they 
are said to be subjectively ¡ and what they are absolucely or really, 
they are said to be objectively. Of the latter we can know 
nothing, but can suppose the possibiUty. Kant affirmed that 
everything has this twofold nature, what it seems to be to our 
senses he calis its subjective nature, but what it is ín realíty its 
objicHve nature, By a similar distinctíon Ihought is the subject, 
the thing Ihought oui the object of thought Man, as the 
fiílcnim of thought, is the subject who thinlcs, and ideas which 
are its creatrons are the objects of thought. 

Fichte (2 syl.) incÜned more to Berkeley's " idealism." He 
argües thus : What is knowledge ? What one knows. What 
does one know? only that which ¡s in the mínd. All, therefore, 
that man can know of the world must be in his mind. Henee 
the whole world is ideal, inasmuch as all we can know of it must 
be in our mind. 

Schelling inclined more to Bruno's and Spinóza's notions, that 
God is nature and nature God. According to Schelling, Kant's 
división of subjective and objective is a distinctíon without a 
difference, The outsJde world, he maintained, has a real exis- 
tence, and we obtain our knowledge of it by "intuition." 

Hegel harks back again to Berkeley and Fichte, whose theory 
he adheres to with a difference. Fichte says man can know, see, 
and feel nothing but what his braín informs him of. If he sees a 
tree, the tree he sees is in his brain. If he hears a sound, the 
sound he hears is in his braia If he feels a touch, the touch he 
feels is in his braín, Everything is in his brain, and can be 
nowhere else, Hegel says, not so : objects may eídst per se, and 
the mind does not créate, bul only takes knowledge of them. 
The world, therefore, is not the work of man's braín, but only 
the recognition of it. What is God? That which the mind 
recognises. What is the world ? That which man recogníses ? 
\Vhat is man himself ? What he recognises, no more. 

This brief sketch will suffice to give a notion of the subjects 
which have occupied the minds of Germán scholars for aoo 
years, and have evoked more thought than any subject since 
the schoolman measured Scripture with the unes and compass of 
Aristoile. In both cases we cannot but admire the array of 
thought ; but in both cases feel inclined to ask an bono? 

haría there5a. schelunc hegei. 

Kant, Fichte, Schelusg, axo Hegeu 

1, Kant of Konigsbei^ (i734-i8o4), one Df ihe barieil 1 

red, was of Scotch extractiiHi. ilis Ereal wotk, in wi 

theory, is ihe Critique of Puré Riason {lo Gemun). It D»^ 

isalion, and all Europe was divided into Kantü» aid tf 


Kant was a lillle man, not muth nbore uve feet high, and slighllf f w 
Ilis hail wai lighl, complexión fresh, forehead square and h¡g}i, cya)! 
DíDscalar powei venr féeble. He lived wtth Spartají fnigalily, aad ■• 
mctbodical as amachine. He rose ac ñve, letiied to bed al ten, ateoncl 
a day, and Uved to ihe age of eighly. He died a bachelor, and foiltl 
]reaiB ncver leñ Ihe cily where he lived. 

HU watchwords ore pktnemena and tummeMa, subjective and oIiIiCIk 
Subjeclives aie things as we iecc^¡nise them — these be calis "pbenolHr 
Objccijves ate ihings as they ore absolutely, or quite iudepeodenc i 
nolions of Ibem — these he calis " noumena." Phenomena we kaotr, m 
we can onl}' imagine. Fhenomena aie oulwaid and sensible, noínnena i 
but wholl; ideal. 

Ucaides hia Critiqui o/ Pun Rrasan, Kant wrole a Critique ef F . 
Xiaimi, settin^ fonh Ihe motives which uige mea to moral aeúoas: ' 
Criligue of Ftnai Causts, dcñning Ihe dununiac of judgmenl ; lod tcA 

Kantiim ii now gone by, Tbe aceptre of Ihis intellectual kaiset is bnls 
bul his writings abide as prodigies of human intellect. Like tbe {K 
nyiamid of E^pl, Ihe ilylc of archítecture has passed away, its vccy lucM 
lie doubtful ; but Ihe whole world must legard it as one of Ihe wonden, if M 
Ihe grealest wondei of the woild. 

John GoTTLiED Fichte [Fik-Uh^ of Lnsatia (1762-1814), cw» 
potaiy with Kant, was more famous as a lectureí iban a wriler. His fc 
eloquence, his clear leosoning, his conecl language, gave a chano ti 
lectuies, which won Ihe hearts of all who heard him. He differed ftam K* 
os he explains fully in his Uoctriae of Scicnct. 

The watchvyords of Rchte ore tgo and nen-ego, and his syslem is oie 
" idcalism." Leí ua liy to get al Ihe meaning of these two lenns. The tma 
moon, treea, rivets, and hiUs, exiat, How do we know it? Our senseslEÜt 
so. If we had no acnses, Ihen, all nature would be a blank, and therefon » 
senses moke our world. Discased senses mike a distocted woild, bol w4 
discased Ibis distorted woild ia the unly irue one. Now, as the senscicfi' 
Iwo individuáis ate identical, there are as mony worlda as there are indirid* 
and no two olikc. Here ihen comea the necessity of this distinction, the «* 
as our individual senses lepresent it, and the woild as it really is, llu <f 
world, and the tun-ígo world, — our own wotld, and the world as il a* 
irrespective of onrselves. Of courae, all we con Itnow of the world is 00 n» 
Jursonal viatíá, that is, the world which our own senses reveal |o us, W" 
can ibink of a dilferenl state of being. The ef^ wurld is tay world the <hi' 
as ic Í3 to nie, the world as it affects me, tbe world as I know ít ! bol ili 
TiBH-tgo world is the imaginary world, the world as it exists J)er st absolúltlj » 
regardless of what my senses reveal it lo be. 

rhjs, however, is not all. If our senses make our world Ihen it (i)(k« 
there is no world out of ourselves. Thus, I look at the sun— wliat do 1 «' 
nol the sun certainly, but only a picture of Ihe sun painted for the lime boa*" 
Ihe relina of the eye. So when we look al ourselves in a glass, we donoTí'' 
ourselves, but only a reflection, and thai tefleclion we do nol see in tbeEi»- 



but oniy 9. transfer ofic phuto^phed on Ihe retina oF the eye and telegraphed 
by neivc; lo the bioin. No doubt tiiece ¡9 n trulh in all Ihís, but a tnlth that 
is pn.[t oí a iTuth Í3 often the gr? aleal íalsebDod. 

Fichle's systeDi is callcd idiolism. The diftereoce belwecn Idcalism and 
Materialism is this ; Ihe fonner places the recognition cf objects !□ the mina, 
a. something independent of Ihe material body ; but malenalism pEaces it in 
the brain. The idealist savs thought spríngs from mind, the iDatcríalUt says 
thcie is no such tliing hs mind, but that all tnought, cotiscience, judgment, and 
so on, are ofTspiing of the braiu, as much as perfume is the outcome oí a 
flower, 01 light and heat of üie. 

This ílhtnk is the Ihcory of Fichlt, tmd hls poirtl of dtpartare jram Kant, 
6iit lite books of Ihtse nula/ihysiíiattt are very latgí aiui very subtiU. DiffiatU 
ta graspt and iliil more dijkttlt lo condense inlo lighl úr tea Unes. 

Fichte »as a little slurdy man, wel! fonned, and ot commandiog besring-, 
amiable in dispoGilion, and of singular puríCy of life. He combined the deep 
tbinker with the ñie of a piophet, and the thunder of an orator, 

Besides his Doclrine of Seieiue, he publísbed several olhet works, as a 
Si/sUm of EthUs, Ihe Destinatíim of Man, the ÍVay la a Uapfy Li/e, the 
Charaeterislks of ¡he Presen! Age, &c., all of whicb have been tianalated into 
Eoglish aud published ia the "Catholic Series." 

FredericK WlLLlAM ScHELLlNO of Würtemberg (1775-1854), began 
wilh Fichte's idealism, but aflerwards published his PhUosophy of Ideutity, 
in which he tries to provc that knouimg and beiag are ¡dentical.t 

His systeni, called the fhSosophy qf identity, and his watchwords are — 
"ideas aie ideutical with the Ihings Ibat créale tbose ideas," "thought is 
idéntica! with substaace," Fichte's ego with his non-ego, Kant's phenomena 
with his noumemí, man with nalure, all being the oneabsolute God. 

His works aie very numetous: besides Ihe une mentioned, we have Ideas oh 
the Pkilosophy of Nattire, the Syslem of Transcendental Idcalism, and several 

*^ George William Fredekick Hegel of Stuttgard (1770-1831), firit 
embraced Ihe systetn of Ficble, Ihen that o£ Schelling, but ullimately 
propounded a system of his own. He agreed with Schelling ss to Ihe 
identity of ¡ubject and ebfect, and Che absnlule iinily of all things, but 
differed from him as ta the method wbereby this uoity is obtained. 

His watchwords are Intuilian, and the idenlity of conlraries. _ His axioms 
are "every thought involves its contrary;" "whatever is tational is real, 
snd whntcveí is real is rational." The three processes of thought, he says, 
are logic, the philosophy of nature, and ibe philosophy of mtnd. 

His chief works ore the Philosi>phy cf Nalure, Logic, and the P&üoiepky of 
Mind. His lectuies were delivcied in a stammcnng mannei and without 
rhetorical omament, but notwitlistanding, attiacted large audiences. 

Olher philosophtrs: Baumgarten, Moses Mendelssokn, and Hamann, 

Badmgarten (1714-1762), a native of Berlin, aud disciple of Liebnitz and 

Wolf, was the first to establish Ihc "theoryof the Beauliful," which he called 

astheties. Accoiding lo Baumgarten, the Een^bilities are the ultimate judges 

X ininíof a trec. m'y M,«fi.i/ (or [UDlty ol 

nf whai !• betoliful. Wl»t it te^jr « 

MiMU Mrkdclhohm (1719-1786!, a fricDd of Licssia^s, w» i}n< 
conltiliuwd in DO uiudl degice to bicok down the general yaj aS a r' 
ihal tRcc, and to the rqicol of thme taws which ornee dii|i: ~ 
ttaluln ImciLi of Chrí«lcnil(ini. While he Ihas Ltbooied foc tbc 
iMiion oT the Jcwt, he iirove tu elévate them, and make tben tK«V<^4 

III* l>«it known worki ate a Dislogne in Germán, between Sociilbtf 
(Henil 1 nn Útt Immeríality ef (ht Saúl ; sná a short Ireatise, also is Coa 
enlilleil_/i-fWJa//m, which oavcd tht wny lo Ihe political emandiuliin if 1 
cininlTyiiien. Mout MenHeluohn wu the prototype of Lcssing's Anta' 
H'w («f p, 248). 

HawaN!« (1730 1788). who c»I!ed himseír the " Magician of the S«l 
wat a rruialaii |ibila«ii)hpr, who defended " Revelation " against ÜeiiS 
of the Kallonaliiti. lie wa> the fiicnd of Herdet [lee p. 349), and Ekela 
»taut>ch oi<]»inciit ii( Kanl. 

Natural Philosophen 
The fivc moat notcd for science, including natural phiM 
In ihe Golden Age of Germán líteraturc, are Haller (the feltó 
phyuology), Wintkelmann (the antiquary), Mestner (the fslbS' 
in«incr¡Km), l^vuier (ihe father of physiognomy), and Heri 
ihc grcat nstronomer who tnade Englond his adopted home 

IULLRK (1708-1777), called the "Father of physiolcey," wis o» rf! 

eeaieit ikhf ilclans Ihat cvcr livcd. tIU great worb The EUmenti ifff^ 
in l^tin, fur at the lUne Ihis booV was pub1i^«d the Getman Imgcft' 
thouüht unfit for tchutnrs uid gentlcfolk. He wiute as nuny as * '" 
btuki on medicmc and phjiiology, and contributeil 12,000 anides la 

Haller b ci]iecMll]r cclcbraled for his observalions on raascubr ñiñtá 
Ite WM >]sa a poel. HU poem, Tir ^4^ U fiíU of p 
uf Swiís Mcaery, uta ün>a¡¿x soukhIuI poaden 

AVlNCKlutA»N (1717-176$), tbe greit aottqiouy a 
cUnical att, wro» in Ciennan a fíiittry tfArtí hhmh^ 
l«anied work, which eierciKd an in>p«taBt indiaeDcc a 
tbe ei((ileeiith ccnturr. WinckdnuuiD «a* Ü)e fiaiiiMn 1 If7|««»' 
MtM^ and hi* iniDencc has bcen dnt''T ^'^ **> "^1 swIn^Mil ' "^"^ 
Ev«a aam hñ peal J/ütrj tDut be siiadied bf aU «fao ■»— s— 
hIvci muaen of itiis hnBch of xstbctics. 

Mbickk (I73fi8i5), cotKÓttA ihc criaenee of » Smcb o 
MlpMri^a " He bcñtn hf inmsiiptñc ike c^ntivc povov 
M*fM(. •»! «oaceiicJ tbe Mea ihai ifctR csfats M 1^ h^MH fe 
ftNee «Udk «af be Made lo pus fasa Ihe opecaan to ^nae ^e 

-_ :_• )cq> «t CMC miadies. FaatBe*<Me^Beñ^*BpkHl'l 

lEmncbM itwas tJMdc m a e i as t— -^t^t Vr^ 1*^* 
Fn>c« «Bd Ae Ronl Socie<T«f V - ^^ --tí-« 



r, anáifany fart Bfwhútwe are luid of its asthttic foTutris Irue, it ntust 

Bm WiLLiAM HeKscKEL (1738.1822) was bom in Hanovet of Gennan 

'~ei]ts, and is thereíbie justly numbered among the Germán worthies, although 
1 was his iidopted country vfhere be lived above siity-Iwo ycars of his 
o «ne beforc oT aince has added so many new bodies lo our planetary 
His gicat discovery was the plaaet Utános, which he named the 
m Sidus, in comptiraent to George III., who appointed him his privató 
Det, with a salacy oí ^£400 a year, and knighted him. Besides Ihe 

kaeC, Herschel discovered its ax satellites, the two sntellítes of Satum, and 

B rotation of Satnm and Venus ; he also (hrew new light on Ihe Milky Way, 
and investigated Ihe constitution of nebulie. His catalogue ofdouble slars and 
nébula, his lables of the comparative biightness of slars, and hís researches on 
light and heal, would of themselves entitle him to the firsl rank in astionomy 
and natural philosophy. 

His sislrr Caraline assisUd him intk in his oiíervaiieni and in his ivrilings. 
Her " Catalogue " fiitblished by Iht Rúyal Socicty, addtdjói slars le the British 

His Son Sirjohn HerscheliBas hom in England, anddUdin iSjr. 

Lavater (1741-1S01) was bom at Zürich. His books on Fhysiognemy {tn 
Germán) profess to reduce lo a system the art of leading character by the ex- 
presión of the face. They caused an immense sensation, and in some places 
inen and womcn wore masics in public, that casual obscivers might Dot have 
the opportunily of Itnowing Iheir secret characler. 

Of ihe men of science in the eíghteenth century, Ilerschel belongs to 
England, his adopled counlry, as much as lo Germany where he was bom ; 
Mesmer and Lavater 5 tarted systems scarcely admitted into the palé of science. 
Vineltelmann, as an antiquary, was whoUy Germán ; bul Holler, in Ihe first 
llalf of Ihe century, was undoubledly the grcatest genius of the ñvc. 

Lavater was a celebraled freacher, and was often catled the " Flneloa of 

PestalozzI of Zürich (1746-1827) Ihough neither poel ñor speculative 
philosopher has made himself a ñame. His spedality was object leaching. 
As the ñve senses are the doors of knowlege, he based all his instiuctions on 
sensible objccts ot real occurrences, a system now pursued ín all our nationnl 
schools. Take an example : Peslalozíi would hold up a piece of sponge, and 
say sponge is an animal producl. Sponge is poroits. Sponge is absoibent. 
Sponge is amorphous, i.e., of no one umform shape like trees, horses, birds, 
and so on. And in leaching arilhmetic he wonld show how 3 books added 
to 5 books made 8 books ; or how tf you subtracted or took away 3 of 
them, Ihere wuuld be 6 books left, Without doubt, be inlroduced a great 
chftDge for the bettei in iofant and ragged schools. 
A more camplae list. 
Haller 1708-1777 faihcrofphyiiology. 

I Gall t7sB-tS9ÍfauiiderartJirini>lDgy. I 

I SpiíTzbeim .. .. .. 1766-183} popularíwd phicoology. J 

J Lsvfller 17*1-1801 founderofphyBkigllOniy. J 


¡il^ltst A&icu ciqilOK 


i rt a ^^ i cal editor. 

Musiciam {¡^00-1850). 

The age that produced Klopslock, Lessing, and \Vie!and ; Ka 
and Fichte ; Haller and Herschel ; produced five musicúui 
undying fame : Handel, Bach, Glück, Haydn, and Mozait. 

HaNdel [ 1684-1759}, ont of the pealest musical geniuses Ulat ever lifc4i- 
■ lulive ot SBioDy, but, like Herschel, made England his adopled cw. 
■nd comiMHcd Ihcte hii grealest woiks. From infancy he maníftsícJ '- 
muucal tute. Among his woiks are GTty operas and twenty nralnria. 

the lormer Acü and Calaíta and Paslor Fida a 

infrequently pi 

ilill; bul hií oriloriol hold Ihe same place in musíc tha.( is accorded 
lo ihe plays of Shakespeare. His Jtrail in Egyft is a wonderíil mni 
«mod-painling, but his Mesñak ii wholiy unrivalled ín subUmilj and dc 
Of hii olher grcal produclions may be menlioned I.'AUegro and EPmaP. 
AUxander'i Feast, Etther, Samson, and Saúl. 

SEBASTIAN Bach [prqnounce5flfi](i68s-ir5o). 'he organisl, wasalsoto 
ín Saxony. Like Handel he maiufested his musical lalent in eBTlrl¡le,fe 
Handel he was a masler-player on Ihe orenn, and like Handel he wis lif 
towards ihe cióse of hU life. He was b vuluminaus composer of sacrcd nie 
noled for fugues, of striking oiiginality, elevaled in slyle, and rich in [mIbü 
His muaic, though of the first order, is loo di£&cult to be generally populo. 

His itcend ibh Kart inhrriírd kii falket's musicai taUtUs ana cmp 
numenmt vocal ani iitslrumfnial J>úía\,tTn-'iyi&). ' 

Glück {1714-1787), caüed by Dr. Bumey the " Michael Angelo of 0» 
was a geiiius of the higheat order, nnd maj- be termed the " father of mcdo 
opera." He found it insipíd and artificial, but left it natural and sMí 
He found il a corobination of music and words without symnatby balo» 
itsmuac an echo of the words, and insisted that ít should rigidíypitW" 
their accents and rhylhm. His dramalic effects are tnily matvellous, buti*' 
especially gicat ¡n depicting intense grief and lempestuous passion. 5 
master-piece is his Ifhigmia tn Taurit, which was reccived witb an enthiisBí 
never equalled in the annals of muac, 

Piccini, the Ilalian, was a rival composer, and before the appeaniw 
^ai¿-(W(a, allPanswasdivided inlolwo foctionscalled Gluckistsand PícciM 
bul after hearing Ihat splendid composilion, Ficctni would not allow h 
(he same subject lo be produced, so the conlesl was dtopped.* All 



, operas of Glück are whoilji nnriralled in meril, Ihey 
; ¡D Lonilon or Paris. Perhaps it is bccause Ihey cooi 
B fof strecl organs, concert rooms, or parlour singing. 
■ His Jive bcst ópíras arí " Otfka" "Aléate" 
"JpkigénUen Tauridí," anJ "Armida." 

Haydn (1732-1809), cspccially noled fot his symphoni 
Ereat oratorio, callee! Ihe CTeatian, he began when 
!i 1 — 1. !.:_ ....^ . ,_._ ■. i,T^ r., 

Ifhiginie » 


it took him It 

'a and quartets. 

ts sixty ycars oíd, and 

.□ complete it, It la full of beauliful musió, and in some 

) the sublime. His olhcr oratorio, Ihe Síoianr, though not 

equal lo the Crealisa in grandeur and sublimity, ¡a a very mastcrly com- 

, poúcion. Hia "Amens" and "Hallelujahs" aie especiálly joyous and 

* spirited. 

r For symphonies nnd quaitels Haydn stnnds unrivnlled. His "allegros" are 
] spirited and full of Hfe, occasionally bursting inlo slrong pnssion. Altogether 
I he produced 537 instrumental pieces. 

inlendtd ii id luí íor msny yon. Thia replj; wm somcihing IíIie ihai ¿I EuripTdfai 

t days, wbCKaa hehad himstlf IhroAvn oQ* 3£., .. .^.. . . . ^ - --- ^ , 

P MOZART {1756-1791), lhe"Raphael of music," was one of Ihose Cítra- 
t ordinary geniuses wbich, Jike Homer and Shakespeare, sort not with the 
I common race of man. At Ihe age of 4 he wrote severa] musical pieces, slill 
I extanl. At 7 he took part at sight in a violin trio ; at 13 he crealed by his 

composilions and performances an enthusiasm whiíJi gave hím a European 
I renown ; at 15 he produced his opera Miihridalís', at 16 his opera of Idonuneo 
I which forms an epoch in the history of music ; bul Don Gimianni \% 
I tindoubledly his masler work. Here we have most eiquisite melodies and 
, perfect harmonies. Here we have all that is tender and playful, pathetic and 
, terrible, myslerious and sublime. The ghost scene of the last act is wholly 
, nnequalled for dramatic efiect. 

His Réquiem (or mass in D minor) was Icfl unfinished at his denth. It was 

bespoke by a stianger who paid him too ducals in advance. It was lo be 

completed in a montb, but when the slranger called, Mozart required anolber 
' motvth for ils completion. Tbe stranger paid down ñfty more ducats, and 
' Mozart, wishing to know who he was, sent a man to follow him j but the man 

IdeC sight of him, and Moiart got into his bead that Ihe stranger was a mes- 
' senger fromlbe world ofspirils sent to announce his dealh. "This réquiem," 
I saidhe tohis wife, "wiil serve fot my own funeral, and will be my réquiem in 

I Mozart is called tbe bther of modem music, and no music was ever produced 
I wbich so stirs the feelings. He left behind him about Soo ¡ñeces. 

Gennony has truly no equal ia musical compoaers ; and ihe fi«e geniíises of 
I Ihe cighteenth century (Handel, Bach, Glück, Haydn, and MorartJ are so 
I ^eat, that no nation in the world in a single cenlury, can produce their equat 
I tu any one deparlment of the arts and sciences. 

A more compUti lisl of Musictnits. 

Voílo-.. .. 

. 1748-1796 
. i749-'"'4 

vogci :: ,7j6.,jíB 



^V 26* 

t? omití 



TVo othér ñames, Mosheim and Heyne (x jy/.) _ 

omttied ; but ¡t would swell the book far bcjond its intendcd 
lo mention even briefly the many Germans of the centmy, 
almost every departmenl, less geneíallj: know-n, or of less ¡nfiím 
although undoubtedly highly honouied ia theír own countij, 
well-known to Germán scholars. 

MOSHEIU * (1694-1755) waSBoÜioiDr aa Estlaiastical H¡st*ry, is 1 
Thii charch hUtoT? has been tnuutated into En^ísb, uid <rss a stüdnd 
lili it wís superseded ia \%1% by Neuider*! UHmmai Htitffiy ^ílu Cifm 
Xífigimt and Ciurck, which bluller, mote proEooDd, more soggcstiw, nri I» 
dogmalic. As a preachet, Mothcim wu chute, lucid, and graceñil ¡ fcmS 
cloqucnl, uid eimcsl. 

IlEVNK (l7l9-lSl3,) Ihe ^;kM dassic and "kü^ of cñtics," Bimt w^ 
conraunded with Heine the Gcrmao poet wbo «ras bonu semtf pP 
lalci. Hcfne vat a leviathuí of Uleíaluie wlio edíted üamia taA nm 
Viígil uid Pliny, with sevcnü othet Greek and Ramaa atUbor*; piUisUi 
"can-load of uiuulatioiu," and six volumes of 9fitiai¿a 01 maot WX 

1 A'ar/ HUUhtxatá, íh AU " LecitirtstH GrrmaH Tfuvgki " (1SS0), uf* 
tcti P/* Cimitt» liltraíurt mu irvm if Kb^Uoek, IVimckeSaiaat, IKfin 

K o//, by Líinag. 

t ;- SiiUla'i"'» 


(Afkovardf caU«d FttJKV I-, Eopers- at Atuin^ (fiajul \ 

OiaBalKji«a(Hiui(aTTi79>, Jbe^í Küa, JiIt t*: xad Ki.->« of BütenvA^ai 

Bonsi t^ Dns Honui. Mabís 1, t*is. Acaa «S. 

XKCBcdukÜEr FnKBlUoiVBa'of OnAOT, <4 TonliTot-ika, 

Il«e«d a> Fiuek 1., «íBwaÍA—íb. >, ,«„ itíS^ 




AididnlBe Kart deféats die Frcndi tamcy at Neunavlct (Angust 93X and at Ambcq 

(AagnsK 33). 
Wfiít^mrg taken by úfte Frcndi (Septembcr 3). but restoved to the AustziansinOctober. 
The CguDous retreat of Moreau továkrds the Kaine (October)» 

Y Booaparte beats Würmser, the Anstxian general, at ^-^H^^tn (Angust 3), aod a 

Casdgiiooé ^Attgust 5). 
He gains orer WQrmser the battie of Baasano (ScptoaAer 8). 
The Cispauüan RepobUc fonaed (Octc^wr loX 

Bom^nrte's great victorv at AicOÜ orer Alviim, the Anstrían geaexal (November 17). 
X797. The archduke Kari retakes the fort of Kehl (Janiuuy o). 

Booaparte's triple vktoiy, at RítúU (Janvarj 14) ; at tke lauboaT^ of St. Geoí^ near 

Mantua (Jsmnarj 15) ¿ and near the palace caílled The Favouríte (January 16)1 
Ca|Mtulatioa of Würmser (Febraary a). The Austrians evacúate Italy. 

Y Booajparte deficats the Austrians Qnider the archduke Karl at Tasliamcxtto (Maidi x6)i 
Austria cedes to France the Belgic unmoces, renoonoes IxxnlMUtly. 

The Cisalpíne Republic is formed (july 9). 

The Treaiy of Camk> Formio (October 17). By this treaty Austria, gaiks Yksvo, 

but gtves up the Nkthkklands and Lombasdy. 
Booaparte retums to France in December. 
N.B.— Frederick-Wtlliam II. of Prussia dies Norember x6y and is sacceeded bjb* 

son Frederick-WilUam III., aged 27. The new kiqg refocms the coart^gitatif 

corrupted in the last reign, andreduccs the taxes. 
1799. Tke 9€cmtd cúolition agañut Frunce by Russia and Austria joined by Ei^aid, I 

Naples. Portueal, Turkey, &c. (only xK years after the peace of Campo Fomio). 
The archduke Karl conquers Jourdan, the French general, at Ostrach (Maich ao), aoi 

at Stockach (March 25). 
The Austrian general Kray beats the French in Italy at Verona (Mardi 30), and ^ 

at MagnAno (April 5). 
Suwarow^ the Russian general, defeats Motean at CassSno, and ««irr 5000 prisonto 

(Apnl 38), and again on the Trebia (June Z7-X9). 
Assassuiation of the r rench plenipotentiaries at Rastadt f April sS). 
llie allied Austrian and Russian armv win the battie of Novi. In this bloody battie #» 

French prisoners were taken, and Joubert, the French general, was «!«;« (Augnst 15)1 
x8oo. Moreau, the French general, defeats the Austrians at Engen, at UfoeUr^h and tf 

Biberach (April). 
Bonaparte's " forty days' campaign." He left Paris May 6, nuuxJied over the (jittf 

St. Bemard and reachea the vallev of Aosta by May 33, and entcred MBa 

Íune a ; won the battie of Montebelío over the Austrians June 9, and the giot 
Iattlb op M arengo Tune 14. 
Bonaparte retums to París (July a). 
Battie of Hochstadt won by Moreau (June 19). 
Battie of Hohenlinden, in Bavaría, in which Moreau took 10,000 Austrians pri soneg, 

amongst whom were threc general officers (December 3). 
Moreau occupies Salzburg (December 15) ; defeats the Austrians near the riverTian 
(December 18) ; takes Liñtz, on the Danube (December 25) ; and marches towards 

1801. Pbacb of LunÉvillk betwcen Austria and France. By this treaty kaiser Frands IL 

resij^s to France all bis possessions on the left l^nk of the rivcr Rhine, tha 
making that river the boimdary of France (February 9}. 

1802. Peack of Amiens (March a/). 

1803. Three nevir electors, all protestants — ^viz., those of Badén, Wurtemberg, and Hesscs* 

Cassel. The college of free cities reduced to these eight — Augsburg, NOmbot 
Ratisbon (the seat of the diet), Wetzlar (the seat, suice z688, of the ii^icdil 
chamber), Frankfort, Lübeck, Hamburg, and Bremen. 
1804 The kaber proclaims himself " Hereditary Emperor of Atistria," becanse Napokoi 

had assumed the title of emperor (August 11). 
1805. The third coalition against France^ consisting of England, Austria, Russia, vk 
Sweden (August 9). 

The Austrians under the archduke Ferdinand take Mtuiich from the Fitodk 
(Scptember 8). Another Austrian army, led by the archduke John, oocnpf tbe 
Tyrol ; and a third, under the archduke K^rl, ad vanee along the Adige (3 jr^A) 

The Austrians, under Mack, beaten by the French at Wertingen (October 8) aod < 
Gunzburg (October 9). Augsburg occupied by the French (October io>, aed 
Munich retaken by them (October la). Ihe French, under marshal Ney, wintk 
battie of Elchingen (October 14), and, under Napoleón,. successiully ¡nvest U^ 
(October 17). Mack capitulates (October 20). 

Napoleón marches to Vienna (November 13). 

The Batti.r of Al'sterlitz won by Napoleón (December 2). Annivccsaiy ofkit 

with Napoleón CDeceiTiber 61 

I lutu, but chaní 

I lUs succcseor Ferduu 
Hujigarv Al 

topoíd II. promised before he died to send eui army into 
: for the Uberatiotí of the king, ivho had been vírtually 
foned, and was held ¡n captivity by the revolulionists ; but 
j Louis XVI. accepted the new constitution, a term of mutual 
■^icbearance ensued, and Leopold consented to receive again the 
ü^ench ambassador. 

The National Assembly now demanded that the kaiser should 
"^^ase to interfere with their conccrns. Leopold received this 
■"lessage with haughty disdain, and would have declared war 
¡^ his life had been spared. He died suddenly in the forty- 
l^cond year of his age, and the second of his reign (1793). 
„nm His son and successor, Francis II., made it his first duty lo 
,^nd to París a declaration of vfar ; and being joined by the king 
I— .f Prussia, an army of considerable forcé was raised, and placed 
'^nder the command of the duke of Brunswick. 

The duke was a haughty Germán who utterly desplsed the 
i^-rench mob and their parliament He looked on the revolution 
«a a contemptible riot, an insolent subversión of established order 
s-ind divinely-constituted authority ; so he gave out that he was 

;ornmissioned by the sovereigns of Europe to lay Paris in the 
íliust, and to crush the republican vipers under his heels, France 
I icing at the time whoUy unprepared for war, the duke met but 
lasmall resistance, and took several towns in his march towards 
¡JParis. Al length France was alarmed, and sent an army to arrcst 

the invaders. The coUision took place at Valmy, in the depart- 
"ment of the Mame, and strange to say the republican army was 
i*^ictorious. The oíd duke was thunderstruck. He never dreamt 
^of such a rebuff, but was obliged to retreat. Every town taken 
Jby the invaders was now retaken by the French ; and the retreating 
i^Germans were foUowed closely into Belgium. They turned at 
Jbayiiithevicinityof Jemappes (2 syi.), were completely overthrown, 
^and all Belgium, which at that time formed part of the Austrian 

empire, was annexed to the French rcpublic (Nov. 6, 1793.) 





In January, the year foDowmg^ Loáis XVT. was faroo^tD 
scaífold, and all the sovereigns oíf £iirope fiew to anns^ 
and Pnissia, England and Holland, Spozn and Pcctn^ 
and Sardinia, the Holy See, and^ after a. tizne, Rnsm, toakiip 
cudgels; and France was literally hemined m oa etoj 
England with her ships was on her coasts; Spoin on tíic 
Sardinia and Austria on the Alpine frontier ; HoOazid and 
on the noithem frontier. Altogether tfaere were 250^000 ma 
aims against the republia \lliat was to be dooe ? DutfoB 
the only man bold enough to cope widí the HrflFSmffy r » 
soldiers," said he, ^* desert us by thousaiídsL Onr only hope 
b in Paris. Paris must save France. This Texy day Pam 
supply a volunteer army oí 30,000 men. By these Hdbmi 
be conquered, by these France must be saved." 

It was a bold project, but the case was desperatei Mads 
scheme appeared, it was received with tmnakiioiis 
The black flag oí despair was hoisted on the gnüd ha¿; 
before midníght not thirty but thirty-^ve thoasand idm 
presented themselves, ready to carry their liyes in their ^«Mfc 
their beloved France. 

It will not be worth while to follow the Ticissitudes of the 
prior to the advent of Napoleón ; the coalition was too 
and was almost everywhere successñiL In 1795 Prussia k& 
allies, and made peace with the French republic A littk 
Hanover, Hessen-Cassel, Holland, and Spain feü offi Fi 
boldly seized the opportunity, resolved to concéntrate 
whole strength against Austria, and to forcé her to peace bf 
general invasión. Moreau was sent into Suabia, Jourdan 
Franconia, and Bonaparte into Italy. 

The French had already an army in Italy, but it was liní; 
demoralised, ill-fed, ill-clad, without artillery and withoot ] 
>Vhen the new young general arrived, "Soldiers" said he, "I 
sent hither by France to lead you to victory, wealth, and 
You are short of provisions, short of clothes. Your coi 
owes you much, and can pay you nothing. Your 
soldiers, and coiu^e must carve you out a fortune and I 
come to show you the way; come to lead you into the 
fertile plains of the whole world, and to take you where yoa 
find glory and riches to your heart's content. Soldiers, wiB 
follow me ? " 

These words were received with tumultuous applaose, 
young Bonaparte was at once received with confidence byl 
officers and men. 


. G The French army in Italy did not excced 36,000 men íti all, 
ri'hile thc allied Austrian and Sardinian forcé was nearly double 
tñ9X number. Bonaparte, therefore, resolved at once to divide 
bnd conquer ; accordingly, he moved to Savóna, and separated 
jhe Sardinians from the Austrians, 

ir Bonaparte's ERiLLiANT Itauan Campaigx (i796). — April 
ñith, the young general won his first Italian victory at Monie- 
f^otte, in Sardinia. It was over BeauÜeu, the Austrian general 
^!)n the i4th he repulsed the Austrians at Millesimo ; on ihe i5th 
,j.t Dego. On the zand he confronted the Piedñiontese and 
iflefeated them at Mondoví'. On the loth May, after driving the 
,AustrÍans from the town of Lodi, he forced the passage of the 
j3ridg& It was a. vfooden bridge, 609 feet iong, and was 
>bstinate!y defended. The young general led the charge in the 
(kce of a tremendous cannonade, and completely succeeded. The 
Austrians fled, and on the isth the victorious army entered 
Jklil'an without any further opposition. 

g The Piedmontese had to pay, as the pnce of peace, twenty-one 
i^ilüons stcrling towards the expenses of the war ; to cede to 
e'rance Savoy and Nice; and to give up 100 of thcir master- 
^ieces of arL The tide had evidently set in for France, and, 
sül it tumed, resistance would be i'ain. The pope saw this, and 
pought perraission to remain neuter with ;¿'2i,ooo in gold, and 
aoo rare MSS. 

' Thus began the first Italian campaígn, The army was in 
Waptures, and Paris beside Itself with joy. The Directory Iwice 
Voted that Bonaparte and his army " had deserved well of their 
W;ountry," and from this moment the victorious general was 
^virtualiy the Dictator of France. 

H Meanwhile two French arniies under Jourdati snd Moreau 
'Tfere forcing their way into the heart of Germany, It was a 
'perilous time for Austria ; but the archduke Karl, younger brother 
'of the kaiser, staved off the dangcr for a time. He twice 
I defeated Jourdan in the month of August, and so complete was 
*the victory, that the French army fled to the Rhine, and Jourdan 
Iresigned his command. 

I Moreau, after this disaster, could no longer remain in 
' Germany; but he conducted his retreat with such dexterity that 
' it has immortalised his ñame. It was indeed a perilous march, 
I through Suabia and the Black Forest, the foe always in pursuit, 
and the natives annoying him in every way possible; but for 
all this, he reached the Rhine after a march of 200 miles, 
with all his booly and his prisoners. It reminds one of 
the famous retreat of the 10,000 Greeks undet Xs.ws^'a'a^ "í»,-*. 


historian,* along the Tigris, oveí the table-lands of A 
the Black Sea. 

H In Iialy ihe Austrian anns continued unsuccessfbt I 
pane beat Würmser al Lonato (Aug. 3), at CastigÜoné (Aitj: 
and al Bassino (Sep. 8i. An army was placed under marc 
Alvinzi to support the Italian contingent, but, after two indecs 
cngagements, it sustained a signal defeat at Areola (Nov. r 
January 14. the year following (i797)i Alvinzi and Wünnserw 
defeated at Rivfili, ncar the Adige (3 syJ.). It was inri 
prowess in this battle that Masséna, the French marsbl.» 
calk-d by Napoleón Bonaparte the " Child of Fortune," 8 
was crealed by the Directory the " duc de RivolL" Januari' 
and 16 Bonaparte, having obtained two more victories, enio 
Mantua ; and further contention being utterly hopeles 
capitulaled and evacuated the peninsula (Feb. 2). 

Ilaly had always been the evil genius of Germany. LDaí 
gold of Tolósa, it was an ill-slarred treasure.f It was, in liH 
white elcphaní, coveted, no doubt, but ruinous to ihMcit 
indulged in the possession. 

Treaty of Campo Formio (Oct. 17, 1797), — Italy bí 
contiuered, Bonaparte resolved lo carry the war into Aus 
¡tself. It was a bold step to isolate himself thus from all tó 
and leave no line of retreat, but Austria had been so vü^ 
and stung by pismires, it had no life lefL Crossing ihe Alp!,ú 
young Frenchman marched boldly into Styria, and thieatet 
Vienna. Where was the imperial army? where the M 
Hungarians? where was field-maishal Laudon, who had íi 
good service for Maria Therésa ? where the Venetian conting* 
If they had acted vigorously, coming up on all sides, »!« 
would the French army have been ? But, while they % 
thinking and debaling, Bonaparte had finíshed bis work. T 
kaiser craved peace, and the wíly Frenchman, knowing tbe pí 
of his situation, condescended to grant what only a maá " 
would have refused. Peace was agreed to, and signcd at O 
FoRMiO, October 17, 1797, 

Thus Bonaparte in two campaigns had conquered Italtr - 
foürtcen baltles, brought Sardinia and Austria to their ¿1* 



jidded to France Savoy and Nice, the Netherlands and Italy, had 
ibtained large raoney compensations, and enriched París with 
jiunierous art treasures. Austria, ¡n return for her Italian states, 
^hich were formed into a republic under the protection of 
(France, received Venice and the islands of the Adriatic. 
j AU things seemed prosperous and promisíng to general 
|Bonaparte, A congress was convencd at Rastadt to settle the 
jCnoot points of the peace treaty. The Germán pcínces were 
atiubbed and snuffed out whenever they opened their lips ; biit 
¿uddenly the wind changed, the congress was broken up, and 
'-X second coalition against France compelled the republic to 
.■*ird itself agaln " for the grappling vigour and rough frown of 

' H 1799. The congress of Rastadt continued till the cióse of 
."he year 1798, when Paul, emperor of Russia, whose personal 
iignity felt affconted, formed a coalition with Austria against 
feonaparte. It was only about a year and a-half since the treaty 
pf Campo Formio, but treaties are ropes of sand, " and forcé with 
"orce will be ejected when the conquered can." England joined 
the league, so did Portugal, so did Naples, and even Turkey. It 
was the second European coalition against the modern Attila, 
and, like the first, ended in a further dismemberment of the 
Austrian empire. 

The war of 1799 began most brilliantly for the allies. First, 
the archdulce Karl of Austria delivered Germany from the 
I'rench incubus by his two victories over Jourdan, who had been 
again selected by the Directory to command the French army on 
the Danube (March zo, 35). 

Next, Masséna, the "child of Fortune and duke of Rivoli," 
rwas driven out of Switzerland. 

Thirdly, the Austrian general Kray defeated the French at 
iVeróna and Magnáno, in Italy (March 30, April 5), 
I Fourlhly, the Russian Suwarow, sumamed "the Invincible," 
idefeated Moreau, the French Xenophon, al Cassáno and Trebla 
l(ApriI 28, and June 17 to 19). Above S°°° Frenchmen were 
taken prisoners in this last battle, and almost all Italy returned to 
its former masters. 

Three months later Suwarow a^n defeated the French at 
Kovi, in Sardinia. It was a brilllant victory, in which 4000 
, French were made prisoners, and general Joubert was slain 
'(Aug. 15). 

§ And where was Bonaparte all this time ? He had been sent 
by the Directory into Egypt, where his usual good fortune had 


followed him, ^Vh^e the French generáis ín Gennany and la 
were losing battle after battle, Bonaparte was gaining fte^lítn 
every day, Alexandria fell into his hands, he won the gralí»; 
of the PjTamids, compicted the subjugation of Egypt, passeií 
Syria, tnade himself master of Gaza and Jaffa, won the bitút 
Mount Tabor, retumed to Egj'pt, attacked the Turks at Aboé 
and utlerly destroyed their whole army (July 25, 1799). 

Hearing of the deplorable losses of the French in Gom 
and Italy, he left Kléber with the army in Egypt, retumol 
París, overthrew the Government, and got himself appflis 
First Cónsul (Nov. 9, 1799). 

1Í 1800. Next year he set himself to repair the fallen fora: 
of Frarce in Europe. He sent Morcau to the Rhine, and 
himself into Italy to encounter his oíd enemies. 

The whole aspect of aflTairs was now changed, as if by 
Moreau defeated the Austrians in three successive batües, io' 
nionth of April, and Bonaparte in his " forty days" cam¡ 
won baclc Italy. It was a marvellous success ; a vent, vidi.\ 
not a conques! without a terrible struggle, but a conqaisi: 
rapid and so complete, that almost as soon as he set eyes «>' 
nation he obtained possession of it. 

To take the encmy by surprise, he led his army over tliE 
and debouched Ínio Italy by the valley of AÓsta. It ' 
Titanic labour. AII the stores had to be conveyed on the 
of mules ; and all the cannon, packed Ín hollow pine-lrees, hsdl 
be dragged over the mountains by men, 100 soldiere to a ' 
On ihe i7th May he began his ascent, on the and June . 
Mil'an, nnd on the 9th of tlie same month won the batlfc 

Eight days afterwards (June 14, iSoo) the Austrians altsct* 
him at Marengo, and so impetuous was iheir charge, thal C 
French gave way. At this critical moment the First Con' 
launched into the plain the grenadiers of the consular gcs 
They formed into a square : slood like flints against the ít 
stopped all further advance ; and received the honoani 
cognomen of the Grantte. Rcdoubf. It was well-timed * 
well-planned. The foe was checked ; other divisions had limí' 
come up, Kellerman with the dragoons and ¿esaix «iih f 
reserves. " Forward ! " shouted the First Cónsul. " FonraW' 
ran along the lines. The charge was terrible, was irresístíi 
The Austrians gave ground. " On ! " shouted Bonaparte. "On 
was echoed from mouth to mouth. The disorder becamé genP 
Ihe victory was won j and Italy was again ¡n the haods ' """ 

i^Tie campaign had occupied less than six weeks, and Bonapartí 
,^tumed lo Paris more honoured than ever (July a, 1800). 

« The losa df Auílrin al Miircngo was 4,5™ kill<:d. ú,«» *í« di cemiat, 5, 
j ' .aocUrdH, und ¡o fídd-picccs. 

t« The Test of the yeai belongs to Moreau. He had defeated the 
5A.ustr¡ans thrice in the month of April, and on the igth of June 
jíwon the battle of HochstadL Austria now summoned her whole 
«nale population to arms, and the archduke John, wíth lao.ooo 
^en, encountered the republican armyat Hohenlinden, in Bavaria, 
^his lamous French victory has been immoitalized by the beau- 
íful poem of Thomas Campbell, beginning— 


" On Linden when (he sun was low 
A11 bloodless lay the untrodden snow. 
And dark n winter waa Ihe flow 

Of Iset rolling rapidly. 
Sut Iser saw another sight 
When the drum beat at dead of niglit, 
Commmiding ñies oí death to lighC 

The darkness of her scencry. 

It was a bloody victory, won on the 3rd of December, and 
1^1,000 Austrians with loo field-pieces fell into the hands of the 
Trench army. The way to Vietina being now open, Moreau 
Jjressed forward without delay, gained fresh laurels, and compelled 
the kaiser to sue for peaca 

Peace of LunÉville (February 9, 1801). — In twenty-five 
<lays the French marshal had subdued 90 leagues of Germán 
territory ; had forced four formidable Unes; beaten 100,000 men 
twice ; and made 25,000 prisoners. To hold out longer was im- 
possihle, and the treaty of LunévilU concluded peace between the 

This treaty confirmed and extended that of Campo Formia 
The kaiser confirmed to France the Austrian Netherlands ; con- 
sented lo recognise the several repubhcs which France had created 
in Italy, Switzerland, and Bavaria ; gave up all the territory left of 
the Rhine, and compensated the prínces thus despoíled by 
secularising the charch property. The landgraf of Hessen-Cassel, 
the margraf of Badén, and the duke of VVürtemberg were made 
"electors," and the fiñy-six Free-cities were reduced to six: 
Lübeck, Frankfort, and Bremen, — Hamburg, Augsburg, and 

Peace of Amiens (March 27, 1802). — Only one enemy now 
remained, and that was England. William PítC having resigned 
office, was succeeded by Mr. Addington ; and the new cabinet, 


desifous of pcace. signed the trtaty of Ami^ns, by wl 
was allowed to retaín Ceylon, Trinidad, and the Cape 
Hopc France gave back to Rome both Naples and EH», 
was rcstored to the knights of St. John ; Spain and H 
rcgnined their colonies ; and Turkey was restored to its ' 

The Third Coaution against France (Augtistt), 
Pili, who «"as again prime miníster of England, 
over-bearing conduct of Napoleón, now emperor of 
with considerable dissaiísfaction, and ¡nduced Austria, Ri 
Swed(;n, to júín England in resisting the en< 
modcrn Nimrod. 

As in fornicr cases the allies gained at first sew 
The Vaiser's son, Ferdinand, took Munich from 
ganison (Seplember 8) ; another Austrian airoy, led by 
duke John, occupied the Tyrol ; and a thitd, under the 
Kart, advanced along the Adlgé. 

Thcsc Uttlc spurts of success were counterbalanced b, 
reverses : Thus, Masséna, called by Bonapaite the "i 
Fortune," drove the arch-duke Karl oul of Italy ; Mural (j 
brother-in-law of Napoleón, called " the good swordsman,"" 
Mack, the Austrian genera!, at Wertingen (October 8) ; 
was occupied by another French army (October lo) ; M 
lecaptured {October la); and marshal Ney, called U 
¡iraves, won the battle of Eldiingen, in Bavaria, an ac... 
which gave him the title of " duke of Elchingen " (Oct(¿a . 

Napoleón hímself now comes on ihe scene. He crossed 4 
Danube; occupied Bavaria; made himself master of Wi 
(October 17) ; and enlered Vienna (November 13). From Vkhü 
he marched to Austerliti, in Moravia, to meet the allied anniett' 
Austria and Russia, led by their respective emperors. Tb 
nutnber of the allies was 84,000, of which 16,000 were caviliT ' 
that of the French ivas 80,000, Napoleón placed BemiidoB 
(3 syl.) in the centre ; Soult in the right wing ; Lannes (i ijí) • 
the lefi; Murat, the best cavalry officer in Frunce, commfflU 
the cavalry ; and 20 of the best hatcalions formed the resav& 

At sunrise, Decemher 2, Napoleón passed along the lil» 
" Soldiers," said he, " this battle must be a thunder-clap." Itf* 
enough. The enihusiasm of his troops was unbounded, «I 
shouts of applause greeted him as he rodé along the Unes, !) 
one o'clock he had obtained the most brílliant of all his victona 
15,000 of the foe períshed on the field ; z,ooo more were drowW* 
by the breaking up of the ice ; 20,000 were made prisoners; *= 
colours and aoo pieces of cannon were among the trophies of if 


tíiay. Napoleón called it the " Battle of the Three Emperors," 
rind the result of ÍC was peace, It was won on the anniversary of 
i-his coronation. 

g Peace of Presburg (Deccmber 26, 1805). — Fotir days after 
^íhe battle, kaiser Francis II., went in person lo Napoleon's tent to 
»jue for peace, and he sígncd on the aóth, at Presburg, a treaty 
3n whích he stirrendered all his ItaÜan statcs, and ceded to 
granee Suabia and the TyroL Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, for their 
^delity to Napoleón, were erected into independent kingdoms ; and 
^russia, which had remained neuter, was rewarded by the 
clectorate of Hanover. Napoleón returned to París, was received 
.with rapturous enthusiasm, and surnamed "the Great." 
~ End of the Holv Román Empire (August 6, 1806). — 
Austria was now humbled almost to the dust, but there was still 
jome life lefL Prussía was also a European power. The allisnce 
of these two míght " sting lo hurt," but eilher alone could only 
*' buzz." 

During the war of 1805, so disastrous to Austria, several 
Germán princes, too weak to remain neutral, had allied them- 
Celves with France. The first lo do so were the electors of 
'Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, who, in recompense of their treason, 
'■were raised to the dignity of "kJngs." A few months later the 
' arch-chancellor of Germany announced to the diet thal he had 

■ chosen for his successor one of Napoleon's úneles ; and, in July, 
" 1S06, sixteen Germán princes, having signed an act of aliegiance 
' to the Aaron's serpent of France, and dissolved their connectíon 
'■ with the Germán empire, were formed by Napoleón into The 


f To cali what remained the Empire of the West or the Holy 
alloman Empire would be a farce; and it scarcely needed Ihe 
FofBcial declaration of the great arbiter of Europe through his 

■ ambassador to inform the sovereign that his master, Napoleón, 
I' no longer recognised a GermanJc empire, 

> The confedérate princes were under the proteclorate of 
' Napoleón, and engaged to furnish him in times of war with 63,000 
' fighiing men, fuUy equipped, and led by the confedérale princes 
I themselves. Between 1806 and i8o3 several minor states joined 
f the league, swelling it to fifteen million souls, with an army in 

■ Uu prince ^ Hrnt^Xü^buis. Ilu pri^ ol HnííiLútoííiiaiiMii. ■ihlTpiSi 

t' ateniBfiíwn. the prince of SsSmSMlai, the prknce gf SalnwKvrtiunEi the priDce íit lienburg-BIritriii* lh« 
ImTiicc of LgJghMateto. Ihe Jükeef Afeiiiber|f.Midt h e c pun cofLewn. SubicqueDüy fhe dulte of WünUwi 
i Ibc kin^iif 5uu]r,llicUacii[WBIpkilii,E&Bdiike oí HccOB a magitBÚ «hKuuU fuiacei JelBt« Ih* 




behoof of France amounting to nearly 120,000 men.^ Tkse 
Germán potentates, so mighty once in their own eyes, were not 
become " but mockery kmgs of snow, standing before the sus 
[of Bonaparte]." 

Francis II. was no longer king of Germany, for Germany n 
no longer a kingdom, but only a geographical expression. Hí 
was no longer emperor of the Romans, for all Italy had bea 
taken from him, and more than half the states had ^^ cracked ííkj 
strong warrant of their oaths." He was no longer kaiser FiaD£í| 
II., the successor of Charlemagne, but as the ñrst sovereignof 
new empire he called himself henceforth Frangís I. Emperor 
Austria (August 6, 1806). 

Thus ended the Holy Román Empire, 1005 years after 
Leo conferred on Charlemagne the title of Au,g2ís/us, and ero 
him " Emperor of the West" 




From 1806 to 1813, 

Emperor of Austria^ Frangís I. (late kaiser Francis II.) 

King 0/ Prttssia^ Frederick William III. 

Confederation of the Rhine, formed July, z8o6, dissolved March, 28x3. 




' fourth coaUHon eigaitui France, conslsting of Prussia, Saxony, G«al 
md Russia (October 6). Dissolved by the peace of Tilsit üuly, 2807). 


Napoleón leaves París (September 26) ; his first success at Schíeítz (October ¿j 
next at Saalfeld (October 10). He defeats the Prussians at Jena (October wlii 
on the same day marshal Davotist defeats another Prussian army at Auostnt 

Bemadotte defeats the Prussians at Halle (October 26, 17). 

Napoleón defeats the Prussians at Potsdam (October 25), and at Berlin (Octobffí 

Prussia gives up Lübeck (November 7), Custrin and Maedeburg (NovemberHJ 
nothing of the kingdom but oriental Prussia and Silesia remains to Fr*^ 
William III. 

The Silesian campaign. Glogau and Breslau taken by the French (January?)^ 
Siege of Dantzic (March 19). 

The Battle of EvLAU.the most bloodyof all Napoleon*s victoríes. The Fieai"! 
54,000 strong, the allied Prussians and Russians 73,000 (February 8X 

• The utter collapse of the Moscow expedition tnelted this snow*balI, aad by the summer of ifcj* 
Taaished in the sudden outburst of Germán patriotlsm. 



oled, o 

liiluiE *>r Fnndi, Gtmuiu, iBlIuu, Dntdi, snd Sputudí 

Ihe Kuuiani bealeii u Heüsbti^ Oi-m "), "id Bgmn al Fritdluid {Jone m). 
ioult occupies EDnigsberjt (Jude 16X 

rKBATyoi-TiLsiTaiilvB). NapoLf on lütoiMlo Prussii Pomeriola, BMdtnborg, 

undSUuui. Danliíc ii coiuimitEd iL rr» ciiy, 
ítiHD-Ca&se] formcd ínlo a kiagdam for Jcroine BoiupaTle. 
rhe duchin of Po»n and VarKvie, wiih Polnnd, creclcd ¡nía > grand-dudiv for I)» 

king of Saiony, irlio ú receivid inio thí Conftdenition of ihf Rhint. 
rhe princes of OLdDDbujg ond Mccklcnbarg n-csiablished ín their ropcctivv 



. uTiucaDyinlosEnind-diichyfi: 
i« grand-dudiy dT hct^ to Laui» Bnupa 



NapoLion wlns the hallle dT InaDl:iUdl (April 3C% Uk» Lsnd^hut (Api 

-'---:h-dukcKarl>lEdimQhl la SavarialApril »), ukea lUüibac 
led iu the b«l (April ij). 
Tile FfCDch Euntul Uaisáw defcau the Auslñaiu Bt Ebcnhcrg <May 1 

fatherluid (ApríL and May). 

»lcan Bddi Ihe ttaleí ofthe Hnly Román Empíre ta Fraace (May 17 

lokan deTuItd by the im:h-<¡uk< Karl ai Aípem (May 31), and al Eul 


«burg by Davoust (June sj). 
.Battlb df Wai^bau vnn hy Napoleón (July í). 
flTKEATV OF Peacs íigoell » ViEHNA (Oclober 14). AuitKa dlveitíd of 

¡BonapatlcJ lúne of 
(ApríL i¿3, áiaadívtii 

1.) gi,e> h» 

BUEhlcc Mari 

d Húlland ia tmltod te 

lie emperor of AiBtna (Francb 
Napoleón (AprU a). 
Louis [Itoiiapsrie], king of HdII. 

French empLrc (JuLy 9), 
UniVBisity of Berlín opeoed (Oelober is). 
Aboliilon of cotpoiatíons in Prussia (October a^X 

circlta, aod Wünenibcrg inlo twelvo dopartmcnis (Oclober 1 10 November laX 
lií. The Mosco* EKPeoinoN.— Napoleón eniers Moko» Seplember ij, and eracuato 

it Ociober 19-3,. 
tlj, Frederick-WiHiam III. ofPnuaia calla En arnuaU the male KlreDEtb of hú kingdnn 

(FebruaivX and declaren Lhe Canfedeniiiocí of the Rhine disolved (March), bni k 

Wllncmbcigjuiuürcheallies, Bavajia followed al Ihs enii o'flfie monlh. 

TAe Fourlh Coalilion against Frunce {Odober 6, 1806, ia 
July 7, 1S07). 

Frederick-William III. of Prussia, a young man wlio had quite 
itely succeeded his father, jusilyalarmed at the magnítude of the 
' Confedera t ion of the Rhine," resolved no longer to remain 
^ütral ; and demanded that the French troops should be with- 
Mvm froni Germany. This, of course, was a virtual declaration 
f wai; and both sides prepared themselves for the inevitable 



fight. Louisa, the young queen of Prussia, " with hot ardenl- 
would set the realm on fire." and rodé about the streets o( Biri 
in miiitary costume to rouse the spirJt of the people. Napoloi 
whti\y said of her, "she was Armida in her distraction setünjÉi 
to Iier owm palace."* 

Pitt and Fox were boih dead, but the new ministiyreri* 
enlered inio a new coaliiion with Prussia, Russia, and Smóf- 
ngainsl the dislurber of the peacc of Europe. Austria toct 
jartin thiscampaign. It began September 28, and by Oclolí 
14 the fale of Prussia was sealed, by iwo defeats in one dif,- 
al Jena [ Vfa-naA] and Auerstadt — ihe former won by NajxJM 
and the latler by Marshal Davoust, who was created " diit ^ 
Auerstadt " in reward of his victory (October 14, 1806}. 

After three or four more combats of no great moment liibffl 
was taken ; foitrcss añer fortress capitulated ; and by Noveinlí 
the miiitary monarchy of Prussb, once so powerful, was wíUu? 

Having taken Berlin, the capital, Napoleón visited Potsda 
the burial-place of Fredcrick the Great, and carried away i* 
swordof that hero, to deposit it as a curiosity ¡n the ffi/íil i¡ 
InvaUdes'^ oi París. He deposed the elector of Hessen, mí 
raiscd Saxony into a kingdom. 

\Vhal remainud of the Prussian army, marched towari 
Kónigsbcrg, and was joined by an army of Russiatis. Napelm 
followed, town after town fcll inio his hands with little resísiann 
and at last he haltcd at Eylau.l where was fought one of the ba 
contested batlles he had witnessed. A thick snow had coi'cfs 
the ground, and added greatly to the horrors of the day. T 
niurderous struggle was repeatedly renewed, and the promise 
victory Bwayed from side to side. Night closcd upon the í«= 
while the French were in retreat; but Napoleón claimed the d;' 
because the foe during the night decaraped, leaving him nuíitt' 
the situation (February 8, 1807). 

Day after day fighting went on, always with the same xeA'^ 
Jane 14, the anniversary of the battle of Marengo, when >'- 
fought the decisive battle of Friedland. It began at daybro 
and continued far inio the night The allies fought manfulíy, P 
for many hours the balance was against the French ■ but «í:' 
Ney and Víctor arrived with reinforcements the scale was tms 

■Sot-iBij-l frangís I-, EUPEROR OF AUSTRIA. 377 

and the alliea gave itp the struggle. The victory was complete, 
, and Napoleón entered the lown of TÜsíl 

Tre.viv of TiLsiT (Juiy 8, i8o7).~AIexander of Russia ex- 

presscd a wish to see ihe conqueror : a conference took place, 

and a treaty of peace waa signed at Tílsit by Prussia, Russia, and 

. France. Hard terms were exacied from Prussia, which was stripped 

, of Brunswick. Hessen-Cassel and part of Hanover were formed 

. into a new monarchy, called the " kingdom of Westphalia," and 

I' given to Napoleon's youngesl brother, Jerome, The PoUsh terri- 

tory of Prussia was also talcen away, formed into what was called 

the " grand-duchy of VVarsaw," and given to the king of Saxony. 

A fine of five-and-a-half millions sterling was exacted as an 

^ indemnity, and the Prussian army was restricled to 41,000 men. 

' Tlte Fiftk Coalition agaiast France {April g, to Odober 14, iSog). 

' Austria stood aloof from the fourth coalition, but it may well be 

understood that she was only watching her opportunity. The 

I peace of Tílsit was signed in 1807, and at the opering of the year 

I foUowing (1808), Napoleón Bonaparte entered Spain to repair the 

! losses which his armies had sustained ihere. Arthur Wellesley, 

añenvards duke of Wellington, had been sent to the península to 

support the Spaniards, and the emperor of Austria thought this a 

favourable opportunity 10 rise and stríke. So the army was 

Btrengthened to the utmost, the emperor's brother Karl was 

appointed commander-ín-chief, and every thing was done to rouse 

the spirit of the people. 

On the (jth April, 1809, the arch-duke left Vienna, and directed 

his march lo Bavaria : but it was too late. Napoleón had quitted 

I Spain at the cióse of the previous year, and was quile ready for 

I the new trouble immediately ít begaa He left Paris the dayafier 

I the arch-duke left Vienna, and look up his quarters at Ingolstadt, 

I in Bavaria. Day afler day the Austrians were defeated, twice on 

the aolh of April ; at Landshut * on the 2ist ; Eckmúhl* on the 

I aand. This was a seríous affair, as 20,000 prisoners, all the 

, Austrian artillery, and ig standards fell into Ihe hands of ihe 

French. On the i3rd of the month, the Austrians were chased 

from Ratisbon. Here ít was ihat Napoleón received his first and 

only wound, a slight one in the hcel. May 13 he entered Vienna 

for the secón d time. 

The arch-duke hearing of the fall of Vienna, marched thither 
and halted at Esslinc. Napoleón met him there, and a dreadful 




I in. or PBtrssM. Anlg 

crmflict commenced an the zist of May, which was reneroi 
&Mowing momii^ Here it was that kaiser Rudolf in 11760 
threw Ottokar, kuig of Bohemia, and here ¡t was that Nañdi 
met his scverest check. Not onty was marshal J^aanesjla 
slain, but 30,000 French were made prisoners, Having léoSm 
hii armjr from Iialy, Bavaria, Würtemberg, and Saxony, Napol» 
Bonapaite resoS-ed to measure swords again. Pretendingtoiüi 
preparations of battle on the former site, he completely decóil 
the foe, for on the 4lh July, during a terrific thundersttn^li 
marcbed six miles lower down, crossed ihe Danube, and drcH 
his order of battle ncar Ihe vilbge of \\'agram. This nt: 
serious disadvantage to ihe arch-dufce, as it compelled him tow. 
the foe in a tnost unfavourabie position, and rendered his preiW 
óperations of no avaiL At daybreak, on the 6th of July.thefiíl 
began, and by 10 o'dock in the moming its issue was dtíM 
The French were victorious, their loss did not exceed 5,000 n 
while (hat of the Austñans was at ieast S to i, according lo 
French bulictins. 

The cmperor of Austria now found it useless to continué * 
contcst longer. Ati annístice was proposed, and on the 141!! 
October was signed the Treaty of Vienna, in which Franco 
agreed to recognise all the political changes enforced by Ñapóle* 
to cede to hini several provinces,* to discard his English ilÜa 
and to observe faithfully " the continental sysiem," that peí íül 
of the French emperor.t 

Second Marriage of Napoleón (April z, iSio). Nanole* 

decidedly the foremost man of all the world, now above fortyyon 
of age, emperor of half Europe, " the expectancy and 1 " ' 
France, had still a croóle in his lot, a thorn in his flesh, ;. 
drop in his cup, a puddic in his jíaih. He had been mairicír 
Josephine for thirteen years, but was without an heir. This M' 
great grief to him. He hoped to be the founder of a long line ofkinS 
but bcgan to fear his dynasty would begin and end with himselt 

Uiider hope of oblaining a posterity he dívorced his virtiK» 
and loving wife, called his ÍÍÉ'íní^B^í/; so amiable and gncioa 
so honoured and beloved, that he frequently saíd to hei "I ca 
win battles, but you win hearts." 

Josephine being informed of the mutual wish of her husíwi 
and the nation regarding a successor, nohly sacrificed hei o» 

;8ij.] FRANas I. OF AUSTRIA. MOSCOW. 279 | 

^prívate feelings and splendid position, and actually consented to 
1^ her husband's marriage wíth Maria Louisa, arch-duchess of Austria, 
_j the most ancient and Ülustrious h o use i ti Europe. 

On the 2oth March, iSi r, Napoleon's joy was full ; the climax 

i of his wonderful dcstiny was attained, — a son and heir was born. 

^ Theinfant from his ciaúíe was pTOclamcd King of Jíome. Thiswas 

^ the "crest unto the crest " of all his ho¡>e, but was almost the last of 

the hrilliant giñs of fortune accorded to him. Already the storm 

vras gathering, the noíse of the thunder might be heard, the 

~ blackness of the darkness might be seen. It might be no bigger 

than a man's hand, but it portended the coming rain ; and iii four 

more years the Phaéton who drove for a little day the chariot of 

almost all Europe was a poor discrowned exile in ihe island of St. 

" Helena, "fallen like Lucifer, never to rise again," 

In the year j8ii, in Fortune's cap Napoleón "was the very 
^ button," but ¡n 1812 "he and Fortune parted." It was the fatal 
" year of his retreat from Moscow, when famine, pestilence, and 

* the sword, fatigue, disaster, and the unusual severity of a Russian 
winter, combined to plague him. Every bridge was broken down 
to increase the labour of his retreat. Every convoy was inter- 

* cepted. Plunder was impossible. Rest and repose were impos- 
' sible. And, to add to these "griefs upon griefs," on ihe Jth 
} November, there fell a terrible snow-storm, accompanied with a 
' cold and biting wind, fierce as a tornado. The roads were no 

* longer discerníble. Multitudes fell into ditches and died there. 
The horses perished "not only by hundreds but by thousands ; " 

" and no little of the artillery and baggage had to be abandoned. 

I In less tlian a month, the 110,000 who started from Moscow 

were reduced to So,ooo. With ihese Napoleón hastened to reacli 

the Vístula, but found, on nearing the Eerezjna, that the bridge 

had been destroyed. By a dexlerous manceuvre he contrived to 

deceive the vigilance of the foe, and constructed two new bridges, 

one for the cavalry, and one for the foot ; but now befel a calamity 

more like romance than history : Napoleón himself passed firsl, 

and took his route towards Zemlin. Next day a Russian army 

carne up, and opened a dreadful cannonade on those who were 

seeking lo cross the bridges. Suddeníy the bridge for the cavalry 

( broke in, and the whole way was blocked up by horses, baggage- 

I wagons, carriages, artillery, and men, advancing at full speed 

( towards the river. On nished theyall to the other bridge, — horse 

and foot, gun-carriages and baggage- wagón s, in inextricable con- 

' fusión. The slrong ihrust the feeble into the river, or trod them 

', under fooL Hundreds were crushed to death — an army of 


Rwnam <ns ckse bebiod, was in sigfat, when oae oí the Fni 
g-*-"»*, irira had crossed Xhe bñdge, ordcml it to be M 
amst paistút, Honible beyuíd descrip ci ón was the so 
foUowed. Tbe aaa oa the bñdge was so wedged in, ¡i 
nove. It saw the doublc dcath ; asd shnekin^ s 
cnnaDS, implorii^ sank into the stream below. TI 
cacaped, tegudlcss of disciplUte and authoñty, rao for thdtftl 
and the retreat was a mere sEampede, a. " save who can.' 

The loss of the French in Ilua deplorable campaign, bas Ib 
csttnutcd at 300.000 mcn. Napoleon's siar "shone daMjm 
hjtn," and " his glory, Uke a shootiog star, was £illing &oa H 

MUfonunes nevcr come in angle file. While the Frencliait 
retrcating from Moscow was thus cruelly dealt with, the ai 
Portugal and Spain itere being defcated in every direclíon bfúl 
duke of Wcllington. He had chased iheni from Domo, i 
Fonugal, ríghl out of Spain ; and on ihe gth November, iSiiSi 
great dulce slcpt for the last ticae on Spanish ground. 


LrrUrmftTtr, nitk Cttrgt tlt.e/Cnlit BrÜain (i76a-iKaa). 
Froleríck-WUluní III. calli lo amu all Üie majipopalatic 

1 of PntiúatFcbnurr' 
of ihe RhÍH' d 

Er Ihe aUIed unües td 9¡ 

TI» r«ir d>v>' Ailra 

«r ihe »>ne sIühI en' 


JUm, íaSiKffly.íiW»" 




Thi titlk and iial ei«tlilhn ag^iul Kaftl 
Swíd™, and GrDl Briuín (August ifi). 


<ȣ ofPnueie, Pnrii. ^r* 


Swedtí (Aueuw «). 

The French defEaiEd 

el Keubech by Bl.lchu (Augiul ü 


Dteulen by NepoLeoB. 


Inin in the beiile [AiiiKb' 

The French defealtd 

raiiiiof A 

Uitriasnd Rueda (AslKr' 


Bt Den.in-in by Ihe 5wede> ÍSep 


al Warwnbiirg in Pnis. 


Battlíoí Lelriic 

«-on by IhcBllicd Pre»ien, Austn 




<¡ Elsier bridge b=tW!« 


d Lindenan. 


Germany only waited its opportuníty, and justly thought tliia 
'rench disasler the joybell of deliverance. Prussia was the first 
j movc. A secret society, called the Tugend-bund or League of 
'irtue, was organised by the students, having for its objcct the 
üpulsLon of the French from Germán soil. This bund was 
' ' ^ all sorts of men, students and professors, patriots and 


fanatics — all who smarted under the scorpion lash óf the 

Then again, the restriction of Napoleón, at the Peace of 
to limit the army of Prussia to 42,000 men, was tumed to 
account, and skilfully evaded. The army was nominally kept 
this máximum, but as soon as one set of men were well 
and trained for war, ¡t was replaced by another ; and in 
manner the whole male population was one vast anny without 
expense of keeping up more than 42,000 at a time. 

This sort of militia was called the land-^wehr and latd- 
that is, the ** land-defence " and the "land-assault" levies. 
former included all young men up to the age of 40, and the 
all men between 40 and 60. The land-wehr could be called 
arms on all occasions, and was, in fact, the general soldiery of 
nation ; the land-sturm was called into service only when 
country was invaded or assaulted, and was not expected to 
sent on foreign service. In times of war it was required to ací 
a home militia, but not to foUow the land-wehr beyond 
fronticrs(March 17). 

Every battalion of the land-wehr had, and still has, its sqi 
of uhlands or " hussars,*' mounted on fleet horses, lightly ciad, 
armed with sword, pistol, and lance. These uhlands did nol 
service in the Franco-Prussian war half a century later (1870). 

On February 3, the young king of Prussia (Frederick-WilliamlK 
issued an appeal to the young blood of Prussia to arm in defencí! 
of fatherland, and on the i8th (181 3) he formed an allianceii¿ 
Russia against the conimon enemy. The "cali" was eagaif 
responded to, — young men fiocked to the standard, and o» 
spirit breathed in alL l'here could be no doubt of the eamestns' 
this time to avenge on France the injuries arid insults offeredljf 
her to Germany. Every man was ready for martyrdom, if neeé 
be; every man would subscribe to the words "come the thKi 
corners of the world in arms, and we shall shock them." 

The Sixth and Last Coaliiion against Napoleón (Augusiióy jSií 

to the end of the year i8xj). 

Napoleón saw the gathering storm, and obtained from tlí 
senate a new levy of 350,000 men. He was in Germany bytbí 
i5th April, drove the allied Prussian and Russian forcesouttí 
LuTZEN, May 2 ; gained the barren victory of Bautzen on tbc 
2ist ; and ten days afterwards obtained possession of Bresuu,*^^ 

* Pronounce au Hice ou in the word ** our." 



^iFrancis I., emperor of Austria, the father-in-law of Napoleón, 

)w proposed to mediate between the combatants, and a congress 

di^as opened at Prague on ihe 4th June, when an armístice for two 

~:onths was agreed upon. 

j At the end of July the terms proposed, as the basis of a treaty, 

•ere that Napoleón should abolish " The confederation of the 

^Jiine," and circumscribe the empire of France by the Alps, the 

. jjiine, and the Meuse. These terms were índignanlly rejected, 

jind the kaiser declared war against his BOn-Ín-law. The natural 

^^sult of this declaration was a six/h coalition, formed of Prussia 

^^d E.ussia, Austria, Sweden, and Great Brilain, with the solé 

^iew of overthrowing Napoleón the "great disturben" All minor 

^ .etails were wisely held in abeyance till this " one thing needful" 

_-as accomplishcd, 

- , The torch of the Corsican adventurer was nearly burnt ouL It 
jially seemed that Josephine was his good star and his Austrian 
.ueen his malignant one. Till his divorce all went well with him, 
^nd on his " sword sat laurelled victory." With the divorce he 
eemed " wedded to calamity." First carne the Moscow expedi- 
jáon (1812), A sÜght flash burst forth in Ihe spring of 1813, but 
'lie year closed with loss upon loss. Next year (1814) Pans 
■•'urrendered to the allies, and Napoleón was baníshed to Elba ; 
'Vnd in 1815 was the baltle of Waterloo and the banishment to 
,^t. Helena. The torch was gone out, and only smolced awhile in 
'i disiant land, and then — well, "since the torch is out, lie down, 
•^d stray no further." 

^ Six combats ensued, in five of which the French were defeated 
■ jy the allies, and then came the great Battle of Leipzig, one of 
*he niost sanguinary and decisive of modern times. The French, 
^ommanded by Napoleón, numbered 160,000 men ; the allied 
"írussian, Austrian, and Russian forces amounted to 240,000. 
'During the action iz,ooo Saxons, in Napoleon'a army, deserted, 
l^nd this determined the fate of ihe field. Napoleón ordered a 
^treat over the bridge which crossed the river Elster. 

Under this bridge the French engineers had laid a mine to 
]5revent pursuit; but it exploded while ihe whole rear of the 
prench army was stilt on the Leipzig side of the river, A cry of 
dismay aróse ; many threw themseSves into the river ; many were 
lillt-d by the explosión ; and the rest were taken prisoners. 

Next day the allied sovereigns made iheir solemn entiy into 
Leipzig, and congratulated each other in the great scjuare of the 
cúty on the deliverance of Germany, and the dissolution of the 
" "^nfederation of the Rhine." The spoils were enormous : 




15.000 prisoners, 250 fie!d-pieces, 900 caissons, besides o; 
and colours. Of ihe 160,000 French brought inlo the litio,: 
So,ooo ciuraped witb thcír imperial commander (October ú 

The Alues ENTER París (March 31, 1814). — On retunmi 
París after this disaster. Napoleón demanded anocher anay. T 
Senate accorded him a levy of 300,000 nien, but the Lej^ia 
Assembly venlured (o oppose the grant, and even K 
vote of censure on their emperor. Napoleón was furious;* 
nounccd its Inslant dissolution ; and prepared hitnself for on:- 
cfTorL He had yet to leam that a falling tree can ne\ 

Lcaving his Austrian wife rcgent, and his broilier J 
charge of the capital, the Scourge of Europe entered 01 

All the fronticrs of his empire had been snatched fro» b 
The English, under Wellinglon, had advanced to ihe soulh W 
Pyrenees ; 150.000 Austrians and Russians. under Schwinr 
bcrg, were debouching into France by Switzerland ; 130,= 
Prussians, under Blücher, were marching from Frankfo[i;t 
100,000 Swedes, under Bemadotte, had reached Belgium. Se 
was ihe desperale aspect of afTairs at ihe beginning of 1814. T- 
emperor, in this terrible crisis, despatched Augereau [C-í/^wj"" 
Lyons to arrest the march of the Austrians ; Eugene he smI' 
defend Jtaly ; Soult to the Pyrenees to oppose Wellingtoa ; wü 
he himaelf marched against Blücher and Schwartzenber& 

The Austrians were successful against Augereau, and succwfc 
in occupying I.yons. Miirat [Afu-roA] king of Ilaly, so fat ír« 
co-opcrating wíth Eugí:ne, forsook the sinking ship oí his ini[C> 
brother-in-law, and made common cause with the allies. A> 
Soult was utterly trodden under foot by the British anny ii«e 
Wellington. In all points the allies were victorious, ww 
against Napoleón himself, who defeated both Blücher a 
Schwartzenberg ; but his victories were barren, as the i 
succeeded in eflecting a junction and reaching Paris. 

It was nearly two ccnturies since Paris had been threittK' 
with invasión. The empress fled. Joseph capitulaled. Tl> 
allies were admitted ¡nto the city ; and Talleyrand, in the nantí 
the senate, declared Napoleón deposed. 

In the meantimc the discrowned emperor turned nade t 
Fo n tai nebí eau, where he was compelled to sign his abdiaUK» 
,^„fviK, =1 theMeditenaO 

and was banished to the little islandof Elba, i 

-oa 285 

á Thus fell thc colossus of the igthcentury, afterliavinggovemed 
^"rance íor 14 years. Never was it given to man to achieve more 
^rillianC success ; and no man ever so deeply shook the thrones 
f Europe. He is now fallen ; but his career is noC ended. The 
jiant will put OH strength again in less than twelve months, "for 
^e weened, by fight or by surprise, to win [c'enj yet the height of 

jjhis history has no concern; but in October was held in Vienna 
^CoNGREss of the allied sovereígns to distribute the spoíls of the 
^Yench empire. It was found impossible to satisfy the greed of 
Tie difTerent powers ; and probably they would have fallen out 
jito war had they not been startled by the alarming news that 

■fapoleon had escaped from Elba, was gathering aroiind him the 

»est strength of France, and was preparíng to "set his Ufe upon a 

ast"(March 7, 1815). 

No lime was to be losL All the allies girded on their swords ; 

'.nd by June 15 a combined English and Prussian army was 
^uartered in the vidnity of Brussels under the comraand of 
•^ellington and Blücher. 

- Napoleón, with his usual promptitude, was ready. It was his 
•titention to divide and conquer ; so he directed Ney to drive the 
Pillies from Quatre Bros, while he himself went to Ligfty to 
'sncounter Blücher. The attaclc on Blücher was snccessful, but 
^he defeat was not suliicíently grave to prevent his ap¡)earing two 
y.ays afterwards on the field of Waterloo. The attack of marshal 
"Ney was less successful; for, at the cióse of the day he was 
■bbliged to wiihdraw his troops, and give up the point he had 
hnost bravely contested. 

I Battle of Waterloo 0une 18, 1815}. — Napoleón, trium- 
(phanC at Ligny, proceeded at once to tneet the English, Dutch, 
band Hanoverian troops, under the command of WelUngtoiL It 
^was a niotley group, but such as they were, the dulce drew them 
into array near Waterloo, and waited the attack of the French 
array. Never was battle more momenious. The fate of Napoleón, 
the fate of Europe, hung on the issue of the field. 

On the i8th June, at ten in the morning, the action began, It 
was a desperale affair, Napoleón thought to overwhelm the foe 

before Blücher arrived with reinforcements, but the iron duke 
was of unyielding stufT, and stood his ground with uníiinching 
obstinacy till six at night. A body of troops now appeared in the 
distance. Who are they? Are they about to throw the poise 
into the British balance, or into the scale of France? Both 



annies are on the típtoe of expectatíon. Napoleón hopediti 
Grouchy ; Wellington that it was Blücher. It was Blücheri 
his Prussians. The victory was complete;. The camage 
The spoil immense. This was the most gloríous victoiy 
won by Brítish arms, and the most happy in its conseqi 
It was won over the greatest captain of the world, and the 
troops, by sheer ñghting, not by strategy or trick, accident orí 
but by patient endurance, courage» and skilL The victorf 
decisive, and it settled the state of Europe. 

Napoleón was lost His honour, his CTown, his hope^ his 
had been cast upon one stake, and tiie stake was lost, lost 
hope, lost beyond redemption. When he saw the resistancei 
the Brítish, he took snuff by handfuls ; and as the guards ati 
command of Wellington made their last charge, he said to 
of his officers " Let us be off, it is all over." 

To Paris he fled, leaving his army, as he did in Rusaa. 
demanded of the senate another levy, but his appeal was 
listened to ; and on the 22nd June he agam abdicated. " 
fell the new Sesostrís, "whose game was empire, and 
stakes were thrones." In October he was sent in odie to 
Helena "to fret out" what few years remained to him "of 
fitful fe ver." 


Plunged in a dnngeon, he had still been great ; 

But lo 1 how little was this middle state ! • . . 

A single step into the ríght had made 

This man the Washington of worids betrayed ; 

A single step into the wrong has given 

His name a doubt to all the winds of heaven." 

— Byron, Th€ Age of Brmau 


DEATH OF frangís I. 

x8x5 TO X835. 

Coniemporary with George III.^ 1760-1820 ; George /K., zSao-zS^o • WüBmm /T, 

x83<>-2837. * 

EuPEROR OF Austria : Frands I., died 1835. 

KiNU OP Prussia : Frederick-WUliam III., X797-X8I40. 

KiNG OP Bavaria : Maximilian-Joseph, died 1825; Loáis I., X825— 1848. 

KiNG OP Saxony : Fredeñck Augustus I., 1806-1827 ; Antcay I., x827-x8^6L 

KiNG OP WuRTEJíBERG I Frcderíck, died 1816 ; Fredendc-William I., x8x6-x848. 

Grakd-di'kb op Badbn: Kari Louis Frederíck, z8xi-x8i8 ; Louis WüHam A«*» 

DuKK op Bri'nswick: Fredeñck-Williaxn, 1806-18x5 ; Karl Freden<>¥ «n*^ -«„.waSi> 
1830, abdicated X83X ; when Brunswick was joined to PtussiaT^^ XO15-1B30. "■^ 

Wük wumy miüT* 0/ ütfericr importamcu 

Trruyi.f thcHuLvAu.!. 
The Germán diel, as codíi 
<Ocl. .). 
Uppe-ScluTiunberf» Sch^ 


Ihd» WUliam ETOiit! a mw cop^tituri». lo Nasuu. 


Bavaiii (Míy í^l ; Badén <Aus. «). 




SjuM-Coburg rcctivH I npnaentati»e eonsiilution (Aug. a). 



The Zcllvenin facmed (Jan. iB). 

Dralh of Francis I. empcror nf Austria, who began lo reígn as 

•' After the fall of Napoleón, the Germán princes thought that all 
*the lands taken from tliem by tlie French would be restored; but 

this idea could not be carried out, and they were obliged to 
»content themselves with the boundaries which existedin 1792. 
- The ncw kinydom of Westphalia, made by Napoleón, was at 
^ once aboÜshed. Prussia received part of Saxony, the Rhineland, 

and Swedish Pomerania. Austria received back the Tyrol and 
if Salzburg. Hanover was erected into a kingdom. ¡Vtimar, 

MeckUitburg, and Oldenburg, became grand-duchies. Lubeck, 
Bremen, Hamburg, and Frankfort, free c' ' 

The jealousies of Austria and Prussia, and the unwilUngness of 

1 Eavaria and Würtemberg, elícctually prevented the restoration of 
the Germán emjiire, so the sundry states were bound together irto 

■ a bund, calltd The Gf.smam Confeueration. This league or 

bund was made up of thirty-nine states, including the four free 

lí cities. Each state was to remain indcpendent in all matters 

except such as affected the general interesL A permanent diet, 

consisting of the plcnípotentiaries of the States, was established, 

k Frankfort-on-the-Main was fixed on as the place of assembly, and 

■* Austria presided. The first session was held November 5, 1816, 

f and decreed that representative constilutions should be granted 

to every state, and that every one in eacfa state should have equal 

' rights regardless of religious creeds. 


This diñsion of Cennany ¡uto ihirly-nine states itas iüi 
trcakness. Austria ivas jealous of Prussia, and IVussía oí Ai 
The small stales were jealous of the larger ones, and the 
ones coveted ihe weaker. So, instead of a uniíed Gen 
tlicre were thirty-nine govemments tied together with a lípJ 
sand, whose only agieement was jealousy of each other, 

The bistory of the next ten years is lictle else ihan lialof! 
]iitifui devices by wliich the Germán rulers sought W 
popular rights, and lo submit the many lo the ruling íew. 

In Austria prince Metternich was the controlling spirit 
pohlical s^-stem was the oíd one of " the divine right oí t»| 
and the sin of revolulions. Henee the scandalous unión éA 
the HOLY Alliance (Sept x6, 1815), cntered inio by K» 
Austria, and Prussia, to stamp out all popular demonslntifl 
aml to preserve ¡ntact the absolutism and privileges cf roji 
In 1821 England protcsttd against this "unholy " compact,» 
in 1830, when the second French revolution broke ouE, Fnmdil 
" cmperor of Austria," exclaimcd " All is lost ! " MetKfá 
thought olherwise. True, half the thrones of Europe w 
cmptied of thcir rulers, but Mettemich clung to the oU re¿m 
the last To calm the people he was asked to resign, but saü 
the deputation whicli waited on him, " No, gentlemen, I will i 
resign," The arch-duke John then said, " I have already toldp 
prince Mettemich, to resign." The oíd man indignanlly replK 
" Is this the return I get for fifty years' ser\'ices P " and cert a 
left the city in a huff. He died ai the age of eighty-sis ¡a iS?; 
as the Times remarked, " renowned rather than great, liw 
rather than wise, venerated for his age more than for his¡a« 
and admircd more than lamented." 

Prussia was not quite so fossíliscd as Austria, but even Iit¿ 
rick-William of Prussia tried to sraother popular aspÍraüons,i 
stamp out secret societies, as dangerous to the powers thal bt 

In 1830, Charles X of France was driven from his thio 
He was a "Ho!y Alliance" man, with Stuart notions ff' 
"divinity that doth hedge a king;" but the day was past 
kings could say, " I ana the stale." The spirit of the revfl.- 
leavened the states of Germany, Prussia and Austria wete 
powerful to be disturbed, but the smaller states were a goodW 
shaken. In Brunswick the duke Karl IVederick was chased í* 
the dukedom by insurgents, just as Charles X. had bcen diñ» 
from France. His brothcr William, who succeeded him gw*' 
the rcquircd constitution. Saxony followed suit and 'tn 1^ 
Hessen-Cassel, and even Hanover, stood out no longer. 



^ The Zollverein (1819-1828). — Almost the only sensible 
**liing done by the slates of Germany since ihe fall of Napoleón 
^Vas the establishment of a Customs Union called the Zollverein, 
I ,t was set on foot by Bavaria and Würtembeig. Another unión 
■^vas made with a similar object for the northem states, having 
citPrussia for its leading power ; and a third was conscituted in 
i=J;enlTal Germany. In 1833 the idea of an amalgamated ZoU- 
— ^íerein was started, which was joined by almost all Germany 
lÉStxcept Austria. It removed many obstructions to commerce, and 
^^^a of infinite service in bringing Prussia lo the fore-front, while 
; fell behind, no less averse lo reform ihan E.ussia or 
fetey (1833-1836.) 

fín March 2, 1835, Frands I., emperor of Austria, died. As 

r he had ruled over Germany for thirteen years, and when 

f Holy Román Empire was dissolved, he reigned over Austria 

Bemperor for nearly thirty more. He laboured hard and 

Testly for the welfare of hls subjects, encouraged the making 

ids and cañáis, and the introduction of manufactures, Kts 

ror of everything revolutionary had some excuse, seeing his 

e Antoinette, had been scandaiously guJUotined, as well 

r husband. Napoleón was a nursling of the revolution, and 

»leon was tbe plague of Austria. Francis I. was succeeded 

s son Ferdinand, a weak-minded emperor, who abdicated in 

1, in favour of his nephew, Francis-Joseph. 





edJ»T,uary„,,8«i. Asídís 

yca» and 3 1 


CsnJemporary ^iík quet 

•Mlitr, Frederick 

-WilUamlll. //«Ao-, Louis. 





Viiiu Londod, 

and guinda pidlitliEr fot the pr 


Is visiled by qu 

ctn Viclotia (Auguil). 


M by TKhKh (July «6). 


Berlin (March 15 10 19. 9l).' 


■War wilh Dean 


Publishts f. con 


FJ«wd GtmuH 

s empenir by ÜiE dLtl, bul dcd! 

n« the honc 



Hls Ufe .iS^. 

igc (May aa) 


aM of lh= braia, and > rie=ocy appiMBled. 




iM. PriBM Mmuniich lites lo Engluid (MutJi 13), 

rnuidJ.Jo«ph Kiecetdi tüiiincle FenJiouKl <DccnDbe(ii), 
ta^o. PuUiího > wnuiíiiikxi (March «X Repcalcd i8si 
ti}» ThiF™Ko.Au«ri»ii-a.Uui«-u"«July). 

LcH4 Lomturdf bf Ihe Pem» oT Zurich. 
iMd. a new coniiiLuiian gniHed (OEtcbu kX 

Ifi 1840 Frederick-William IV. succeeded his fiíthet in 
kingdom of Pnissia, and, as he was known to be a wise 
his accession to ihe throne was looked on as ihe dawn of 
liberal govemmenL He began his rejgn by a free pardon to 
polilical prisoners ; and he received with open arras the UcAt 
Grimm, who had been driven from GÓttingen by Ernest AupW 
king of Hanover. These were wise acls, but ít was soon ifá 
that Krederick-William IV. was as autocratic as his predecew 
liad becn. 

In 1848 ihc third French revolutiun broke out, and causedi 
Germany a widcspread dissalisfaclion, All the people claffloui 
for constitulional govemments, and demanded : FreedoraoflSí 
press ; tria! by juiy ; national armies ; and political represa» 
tivca. As, however, there was no unity of acdon, Üie pblftr 
fell to the ground, and the atteniion of the people was divtnií 
by the Schleswíg-Holstein question, 

The Schleswig-Holstein quusiion was this ; Díd thae !• 
duchies belong to Dentnark or lo Germany ? It migfil N 
thought at first sight that this question could present no ib 
difficulty; for, as they were parts of the kíngdom of DemnJrt 
they must of necessíty belong to that kingdom. Not ejad/s» 
For example, Hanover belonged to the crovm of England,!* 
when queen Victoria ascended the throne it no longer follo»rf 
the crown, because no wotnan was allowed to rule in HanoiR 
So was it with Holstein. This duchy was only a fief of DenmiA 
and, though the duke owed homage to the crown, be was ini 
pendent of it. In the reign of our Henry VIII. it so happcnft 
that the duke of Holstein was also king of Denmark, and thet 
fore held the double title "king of Denmark and duVe 

Holstein, as an indcpendent duchy, joined the Gennu Of 
federation, and, as the king of Denmark was also duke i 
Holstein, he was ex officio merabcr of the same bund. 

In 1846 the king of Denmark declared the two dudúes"* 
henceforth to be united to the crown, but Holstein demuned»^ 
appealed to the Germán Confederation. The diet wamed ^ 
king to respect the rights of the duchy, and the king repUed ^ 

he never intended to infringe tíiem. Nearly two years had rolled 
on, when the third French revolution (1848) greatly disturbed the 
States of Germany, and the spírit of insurrection spread into 
Holsteia The king of Denmark sent troops to puC down the 
revolt. The Germán diet sent troops to defend Holstein as a 
member of the confederation. More or less íighting went on till 
1851, when peace was effected, and ihe Great Powers of Europe 
signed in London a protocol (1852) guaranteeing to Denmark the 
possession of the duchies, This was all very well, but neither 
the confederation ñor the duchies would acknowledge the 
obligation of the protocol; so the "serpent was scotched, not 

is« p.^>! ' " '''"*''™ '"'^' '"""^ "'"' ^^ ' * '"' ' '^" "*"" ' * '^^ ''^^' 

Abdication of Ferdinand (Dec, 2, 1848). — In the mean- 
time it seemed likely that the Auslrian empire would fall to 
pieces. Bohemia and Italy were in tevolt.^the Hungarians 
demanded home rule, and Prussia was watching her opportunity 
to supplant her rival. The danger was averted, at least for a 
time, by the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of his nephew 


many Had long been thirsting for unity, but the moot point was 
who should be elected emperor, Should the emperor of Austria 
be emperor of Germany also, or should the king of Prussia be 
the overlord of the German-speaking states. The Frankfort diet 
drew up a formula; but Austria objected, and proposed the 
appointment of a board consisting of seven princes, Austria and 
Prussia being chairman and chief alternately. This scheme djd 
not commend itself to the diet, and Frederick-WiUiam IV. of 
Prussia was named "emperor of Germany." Frederick-Willianí 
knew if he accepted the honour it would involve him in civil 
war, and, not having the hcart to "pluck honour from the nettle 
danger," he declined it, saying he could not take on himself the 
responsibiÜty of the imperial tille unless he was assured that it 
was the unanimous wish of all the Germán princes and free 
citics ; he invited, however, the several powers to send deputies to 
BerÜn to díscuss the question. In fact, he was afraid to be the 
same in act as in desire, and let " I daré not wait upon I would, 
like the poor cat i' the adage." The deputies met {1849), and a 
" Germán Union " was determined on, wíth Prussia at the head. 
To thisj of course, Austria objecied, and prayed the princes to 



•end depaúcs to FTanUbn to reorganíse tbe Germanic 
iedaaúaa. So Gettaanj «as a bou% divided agaínsc ioelC 
wdtU two smn can tKar, no empire rwo mast " 

Bxnró, Mrortanbag, H*ñovei, Saxony, and the 
ven oa ome sid^ Pnissá and ibe smaller North (. 
oo tbe otbd. It was Aiutría and the Confederación 
Prasda and Ibe Unk». 

A fotle spaik «oold suffice to set ttie hostile spiríu 
aad it was not ^ oC Tbe eleOor of Hessen-Cassel íit 
fandamcnal law of the conaitutioQ by Ie\'ying ta 
applyíDg to bis " paiUament" The " parliament " pr 
was at once dissolred. Austria bocked up the elector, 
look the Other side. Austria and Bavaría sent troops 
dectorate to "deíend the ñghi" by the logic of the sword; 
Prussia, with gieaier vigour, actually held by her iroops the I 
of Cassel and Fulda. Austria insísced that Prussia should 
draw her troops, but Prussia refused to do so. War 
ioevhabte; huí a compromise was proposed, and the firMJffll 
consented to refer the question to a conference to be heldt] 
Dresden. The conference met in 1850; but everything safj 
gested by Austria was opposed by Prussia, and evei7llii«|l 
proposed by Prussia was rejected by Austria, so the confereut 
ended in airy nothing but a name. 

Thb Franco-Austrian War (1859).^ — ^"In a íalse qoraií 
there is no truc valour." The quarrel over Hessen-Cassel «ai 
thorough sham, and the antagonists did not come to blows. 

In 1859, Napoleón III. was inspired with the " idea " oí driíin 
the Auslrians outof Italy, He thought to gain over Italyísi 
useful al!y in case of war with Prussia, for he watched n^l 
waited for the opportunity of malcing the Rhine the boundaiyti 
France. War was procláimed, and the French etnperor himsíl' 
went in person to Italy to command the carapaign. While m¡lái(, 
for the concentration of ihe five armies, he sent fonrardi U 
Magenta hís friend MacMahon. He was vigorously attackedtl 
the Austriana, but sustained the onslaught so sturdily that tbt 
Auslrians retreated, not wíthout loss of prestige and mea F" 
this brilliant action MacMahon was made on the field a raaisíii 
of France, and received the title of "duc de Magenu' 
(June 4, 1859). 

On the nightof the asrd of June the Auslrians crossed * 
Mincio and resolved lo take thü offensive. Early next tnomi 
some zjo.ooo of them occupied the formidable position ' 
Solferino ; and the allied French and Sardinian army » 

íslodge them. The íight began at six in the momíng and 
bued tiU three in the afternoon, when the Austrians re- 
bed, leaving 1,500 prisoners in the hands of theír opponents 
' 1859)- 

me Austrians next entrenched themselves in the famous 
_iadritateral" or four fortresses;* but while expectation stood 
I tiptoe, a telegram flashed through Europe that an armistice 
lad been privately concluded between the emperor of ihe French 
%nd the emperor of Austria. A treaty of peace was sígned two 
*days afterwards, by whích Francis-Joseph ceded Lombardy to 
"France, Napoleón III. handed it over to the king of Sardmia, 
Buid received for honorarium Nice and Savoy {Jnly iz, 1859). 

' Víctor Enunanucl kiní of Sardioía wm prodomecl kiig o/ llitly Ío iS6i ; VcnHuí -^na 
puMed b iSM, uid Rome m 1S70. 

& Nexc year Frederick-William IV. of Pnissia died, and the 
(jcrown devolved on his brother William I. This was the golden 
qieiiod of Prussia, when fiismarck, by his sagacity and daring, not 
lOnly placed it at Ihe head oí Germany, but won for her king the 
ftitle of Geiman emperor. 


Rcetnl 1S58, K¡ng of Pnissia .S61, Emptror of Gcrmanj' January iS, 1S71. 
BosN 1757. RaiGHBD .B61- 


Emperor of Auslria .BíS, Kíng of Hungiry and Bohemia .867. 

BoBN 1S3D. ReIünbd iB^S- i 


Fai^tr, Frtdtrick-WLllLain III. («cond mu). 

Malltir. princus Louiss AugusU of MECklenhnrg-Smtili, married i?;^, dicd iSio. 
Wift, MarU Louita Anguila, dam^tir of Karl-Frcdcrick giwid-dukt of Saxo-Weimar, m. iltq. 
fírir afifamtí, Fredericli William Nlcholai, bom 1831, imuried Vicioria, princHa-royal of 
England (daughiu of quon Vinoria} lejs. 

Faíktr, Fnncii Karl iMnih (sccond son of Fiancis 1. emperor of AniCría). He Has the 
younger hrotbet of^Fcrdinatid,ciiipcro[of Auilria, andhcocí Ftuici»'JaKpti would be Iba 

Mfílur, Sopbia, princesB of Bararia. 

H'ifi, ElUabeth, daughtHofMajiiiiiilüii jDieph,of Bavaria, I». ia¡4. 
Chiidrpt, (i) Gisela, barrí iBjti. mairlcd príncc LuirpoMof Bavaila 1873- 
<j) arch-duke Rudolf, heirapparent, born 1858. 


4- 'f > 



3)l Vcnembtti 

wini P>i wM i i*' 
caUed t]ie**N<itkr 


che leadodúpof: 


tbe rakr is cncitkd "cofies' 


(Aacost s8X 

Frcac& sxves np his svord to the kinf of Ptiissia (Septeobcr ^ 
SiraiioETj scrrcaaerí to Fruaú (Sqiccmber 27^ 
SJe-¿c c£ Paiñs bc^ias (October sX 
Meu capcnüazes (October *7X 
The Ncnh Gcniun Coofedendoo becomes the "Gcmuui Confedenition,' bf'-'l 
voiunuuy unuD oí Bavaria, Wúrtemberg, Badén, and Hessen (November). ' 

iBjx. A^llliam I. oí Prassú made *' Emperor of Gennany ** O^nuary x8X 
París soirenders (Janoaiy 38X 
Peacc of Frankfort sigaed (May loX 

• PrussU after the Seren Weeks' War consistedof-* 

Tbe kinf^dom of Prussia. as before c»isting. 

The kinf dom of Hanover. 

liessen-Cassel, Nassau* Fiankfort. 

I^uenbergjsince 1865). Schleswi^. and Holstein. 

Caulsdorf. Gersfeld, and Orb (ceded by Bavaría). 

Hessen-Hombure. Arnt-Homburf^. Aint-Meisenheim (ceded bv TTctiun tv..«m»»m 

Bavaria, WürtemberK. Hessea-Dannstadt, Badea, and Suoay álUedSftuíSSStJ*** 

Austro-Pf-ussian or Seven - Weeh? IVar. ( Í-Var decland 

Jutfi i^; Peaee of Fragüe signed Augusl 23, iSÓÓ). 

After the fall of Napoleón Germany was split into thirty-níne 

ivemments, the two most powerful of which were Austria and 

These states were united in a measure by a common 

^^nd called the Germán Confederation. It was the unity of a 

i^Bfichanical mixture, like dífTerently-coloured sands in a bottie, not 

■^^ unity of a chemical compound, where every sepárate in- 

viduaüty is lost in the general mass. The unity of banded 

■Mttes with sepárate interests may be all very well, but the Germans 

^^hed fora more perfect unión. Itwas not enough that Germany 

■^Mould be a geographical expression, thcy wanted it to be an un- 

■*Svíded empire, The moot point was where should the centre 

■^p, at Vienna or Berlín. The oíd empire was Austrian, and 

lerefore Austria had the prestige in her favour, but Prussia was 

ii^^ie strongest military power, and was more thoroughly Germán. 

"2 The riddle was now on the eve of solution, and Bismarck, the 

Hef minister of Prussia, was the CEdipus to solve it There are 

•^mes in a nation's history when one man sways it to the mood of 

ffhat he likes or loathes. His influence is all powerfuL He has 

nade himself master of the latent wish of the people, developes 

^t, guides it, and brings it into substantive reality. 

^ Sucha man was count Bismarck inthereignofWilliaml.of Prussia. 

.^h. tal! powerful man, with massive strongly-marked countenance, and 

decided features, the sure index of vehemence and strong passion. 

His grey eyes were clear and penetrating, but could turn a cold 

impenetrable gaze on any object they wished to watch. His high- 

bridged nose told of coramand, his mouth of an Íron will, and his 

broad massive brow of deep ihougbt and logical arrangemcnt 

His one idea was to place Prussia at the head of united Germany, 

and this ¡dea he pursued through evil report and through good 

' report. If the " parliament " went with him, well, but if not he still 

followed out his plan, Shakespeare says "spirits are not fine ly 

touched, but to fine issues ¡ " this was certainly true in the case of 

'Bismarck. Hís spiritwas "touched" with patriotic ambítion, and 

f he would win or perish, nay more, his country should win or perish 

; alsa He knew exacüy what he wanted, and like Cromwell he 

Ecrewed his courage to the sticking place, and could not faiL 

It so happened, just at this crisis, that William I. was king of 
Prussia, He was averse to a Germán war, no doubt, but having 
t his hand to the plough, would not draw back. 



^a¡í(i at ñrst with a heavy heart, but after the flash of the first ^^mñ 


cannon, would throw hk wbole soul ¡uto tbe ^i^ x 
monarch in Ihe generaL 

An opportunity soon occnrrcd for count Ksmarck I. _ 
pUn afoot. In 1663 the oíd Schleswig-Holsteín questiona 
up again, It irül be lemembered that the questíoo k " 
icttlcd in London in 1851;* a!l the Great Powers ag 
the duchiea to DenmarL Prussia now pretended t 
of Dcnmark did not treat the duchies fairly, and : 
belongcd to the Germán bund, Austria and Pníssia pn. 
the bund should send troops into the duchy to keep iL. _ 
The bund declíned to interfere, so Austria and Pmssii vA 
tnilitary occupalion of the duchies themselves. Denmaik tesas 
a Wir ensued ¡ success fell to the side of the strongest báuliat 
and the duchies werc severed frora Denmark. England ae 
shame. All Europe cried shame History críes shame. i 
matter. Count Bismarck said in hís sleeve, *'tny cunning lU 
not shame me," and scored his first game (October, 1864). 

His second — a quarrel wiih Atistria — was not far to seek ' 
man is resolved to throw stones, he can pick one up in anjlis 
Prussia waa ripe for war — not so Austria. Never was nation saii 
prepared as Prussia, Ncver was Austria less sa It had r- 
battled wilh France, and had been driven out of Italy. Hmipí 
was on the eve of a revolL Venetia wanled to join united llA 
And tlioügh the southem states of Gennany sympathized «i 
the emperor, there was no masterless passion to unite ihm ii^ 
that which constrained Prussia. Aü Prussia had oneinsh;lil 
in the southem states the feehng was "each one Ibritsel^d 
Austria forus all." 

The cause of the quarrel was no better than that of Demoabstf 
traveilers.t the "shadow of an ass, in the hot sunshine." It« 
infinitely ridiculous in the abstract, but it ser\-ed as well u tt 
Irishman's coat at Donnybrook fair to provoke a fightj HW 
simply this: Austria and Prussia had taken possession cí* 
duchiea. Austria held Holstein, and Prussia Schleswig. B 
long Bismarck objected to something, It was about equal lo*f 


Offence of the rival retainers in Ronuo andJulUí. Says one, " Do 
you bite your thumb at us, sir? " " I hite my thumb, sir," says the 
other. " Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?" demands the first 
speaker. " No, sir, I do not bite my thumb at you, sir, but I bite 
my tbumb," and ihen they fight Austria bit its thumb in 
Holstein, and Bismarclc sent a protest to Vienna. The Austrian 
minister replied that the protest could not be listened to, and bolh 
piepared for war. Prussia obtained Italy for its alty under the 
promise of contitiuing the war till Austria gave up Venice. 

In June, 1 866, war was declared by Austria, and in seven weeks 
it was ended. Prussia won every move, and on July 3 (1866) 
was fought the decisive battle of Sadowa,* ¡n Bohemia. It began 
at seven in the moming, and raged with great fury several hours. 
Early in the afternoon the crown prince of Prussia carne up with 
his army, and the Austrians fell back. The Prussians pursued ; 
the ranics of the retrealing army were broken, and the retreat be- 
came a flighL This battle, one of the most important in modem 
history, virtually decíded the great Germán queation, Prussia and 
a united Germany, 

Fighting still went on, but on July 26 (1866), the emperor of 
the French persuaded the combatants to an armistice, and on 
Aügust 23 the Peace of Prague was sígned, by which Austria 
■was wholly and entitely excluded from Germany. Prussia annexed 
Hanover, Hessen-Cassel, Nassau, and FrankforL Bismarck in 
the meantirae concluded a secret peace with Pavana, Würtemberg, 
Badén, and Hessen-Darmstadt, all of which states agreed to place 
their armies at the disposal of Prussia in case of war. As for 
Venetia, the emperor of Austria was too proud to cede it to Italy, 
so he gave it to Napoleón for the part he had taken in bringing 
about the armistice, and Napoleón handed it over to Víctor 
Emmanuel, the king of Italy. Henee the results of the battle of 
Sadowa were : (i) A united Germany with Prussia at the head ; 
(a) the exclusión of Austria from Germany; (3) the unión of 
Venetia with the new-formed kingdom of Italy. Thus Bismatck 
scored his second game. 

The Franco-Prussian or Sevin-Monl/t/ IVar. (War declared 
July ip, i8jo. Peace signed ai Frankfort, May 10, iSjz.) 
Napoleón III. fuUy expectcd to obtain from Prussia a sop for 
not siding wilh Austria ; and when peace was signed, was amazed 
to ñnd that Bismarck had made secret alliances with Bavaria, 
Würtemberg, and Hessen-Darmstadt, so that these nations could 


xqS franco-prussian war, 

nol be paraded íh terrortm o%er him. He demanded 
Ptussía " the ftonlicr of ihe Rlilne with Luxembetg and Un 
[ilO'««l, but Bismarck made answer that "Not an bchrfl 
ñor onc single fonress shall be yielded, be the consequenaii 
ihey may." Napoleón bit his lips in wrath : the craityhadií 
Ulen in his own wilioess, and he convened at once a cod» 
war. The adder would have binen the file, but was told i^ 
own marshals that Krance was whoUy unprepared for wa,) 
would require at Icast two years btlbre it could takeiitíl 
It was a sad tnilh; but Napoleón III. never for one fflta 
doubted the fact, and gave orders to make the reedfolf 
parations. This delay was quite as beneficia! lo Prussiiü 
Flanee, as it gave Bismarck time to bind the natjonal siisajt 
Geimany more closely togethcr. 

In 1870 the minister of war informed Napoleón that f" 
was tíady, and on!y a pretext was wanted for dedaring 
This, of coursc, is never far to seek. In July, 1870, the Sps 
govemment asked Leopold prince of Hohenzollera to btra 
iheir king, The emj>eror Napoleón objected, and Leopolii 
clincd the ofler (July ii). Thinking that Prussia had yitíWi 
of fear, the emperor next demanded a promise from ihe láí¡ 
Prussia that no prince of the house of HohenzoUem sfionldí 
sit on the Spanish throne. This insuUing demand WS 
listened to, and on the i9th of July the French emperor » 
declaration of war. All Paris was jubilant. Every Frenctoi 
expected the war would be simply a triumphant march toftó 
when the king of Prussia would be glad to purchase peatt! 
paying the expenses of the campaign, and extending the üt* 
of France to the Rhine; but events turned out far otlio* 
Instead of the French marching in triumph to Berlín, 1 
Prussians raarched to Paris. Instead of Prussia paying Fw 
the expenses of the campaign, France had to pay ft»' 
zoo millions sterling. Instead of extending France tu ^ 
Rhine, the French had to gíve up Alsace and Lotraíiic' 
cluding the fortified towns of Strasburg and Metz. 

The emperor Napoleón wilh his son left for the fa* 
July 28, 1870, and on ihe and of August the businesi^A 
war began, The French crossed the frontier, and caniedi 
height overlooking Saarbrück, in Prussia. The emperOl • 
his young son were present at the action. It was an affair oí' 
merit, but Napoleón telegraphed to the empress that herwak" 
passed bravely his " baptism of fire." 

This was the only laurel which the French won. 


1 1 Oto-iSjí:] WnXIAM I. OF PRUSSlX 399 

, leaf flaríng with Dutch gold, the tínsel for a child's fairing — ^no 
. wreath of the god Mars. The crown prince of Prussia stormed 
Weissenherg on the 4th of August, and on the Clh ihe French 
, marshal MacMahon suffered a disastrous defeat at Wórth. The 
discomfiture was complete. The French fled m disorder, and 
were for some lime hopelessly scattered. On the very day of the 
battte of Worth the Prussians gained another vktory, and rctook 
the height where the prince imperial had received his " baptism 
of fire." The braveiy of this action has rarely been equalled, 
and forthwith the whole Germán army crossed over into France. 

Disaster followed disaster ; the demoraÜsed French troops fled 
jn all directions ; the supposed invincible army was a mere wreck ; 
and still the Prussians marched on steadily, reso!utely, victoriously, 
carrying all before them. Blow followed blow with frightful 
rapidity, and not once did fortune change. Never were so many 
slain in a war of the same duration, never did victors take such 
spoíl of arms and so many prisoners. 

Battle of Sedan (Sept. i, 1870).— The great battle-field of 
Germán invaders was near Metz, which was invested AugusC 
23. The French marshal Bazaine made several sorties, but 
always without success. Marshal MacMahon tried to join 
Eazaine to opérate with hím against the Germán army under 
prince Frederick Karl, but being attacked on his toute retreated 
to Sedan, where the French emperor was. Here was fought 
(Septeraber r) the decisive battle of the carapaign. It began at 
five o'clock in the morning, A shell burst beneath the horse of the 
marshal, and wounded its rider in the thigh. He was carried to 
the back, and the emperor Napoleón took his place. He soon 
found that resistance was in vain, and a flag of truce was hoisted 
on the fortress of Sedan. Just one month after the " baptism of 
fire," Napoleón placed his sword at the feet of William I. king of 
Prussia, and he was sent to Wilhelms-hohé till the end of the war. 
Here he was treated with every honour due to his exalted rank ; 
and there he remained till the followíng March (1871), when he 
joined the empress and his son at Camden House, Chiselhurst, 

With the surrender of the emperor terminated the first half of 
the Franco-Prussian War. The second half consisted of a series 
of sieges, and the roil of French towns which became a prey to 
the Germans within a few months is most startling. Amongst 
them was Nancy ("the darling of Lorraine); Strasbourg ("the 
Amazon of Alsace"); Metz ("the maiden fortress"); Rhtims 
("the Sanctuary of Champagne"); Dijon (the court of Bur- 



gund)-); Laon and Soitscnt (the abodes of Frankish 
OrUans (ihe ficld of the "Maid's ejtploits"); and " 
scene of hcr "legendary" martyrdom). 

On ihe igth of September (1870) París was ínw 
añcr sufiTering greatly from want of food, it capitulatoJ' 
1$, 187 1 ;andpeace was fonnally sígned at Frankfoit on 
ofthe foUowing May. 


During ihe siegc of Paris, Ludovic II, ki'ng of Bavaría 
that the "president of ihe Germán Confederation " s! 
ceive the title of " Gennan emperor." ^ViUiata agreed 
the honour; and, on January 18, 1871, ¡n the Hall of 
in the palace of Versailles, in the presence of a brilliant 
of Germán prínces, and during a great siege, the king of 
was proclaimed "William I. king of Prussia and Ei 
Germany," Thus Bismarck won hís third game. 
severed the duchies from Denmark ¡ then he ousted 
from Germany, and placed Prussia at the head of the 
lastly he converted the Northern Confederation into the 
Confederation " with ihe king of Prussia as president, añil 
to the royal tille the style of emperor. By ihe Austro-ft. 
war Prussia was laised lo the foreraosl place ín Germany; byl 
.íVaífíi^Prussian war Germany was placed amongst the to' 
powers of Europe. 

Tlw wholt tchcme of the Fraocí-Germíii war wu not Unüted to the Rl 

ivl^l^er oí'F™n«'"ta i^'Rhíntt ^"w'^ni^folT iiit°?^oiSi^^üí 
PKKQlcd 1I1V cmpreu wllh thfi ¿oJden roK¡ and that to rcstoie I^Abelis 
Spain, fw ihí Fttnch empreuwM a Spanlurd, >nd had snting; sympathíeiv 
puiy. Thú ii no conjeciurc, bul wu vcll kuDwn lo Ihe CEnt guard ; «ni 
ofScSrt, a *ciy inlíoiíu rríend of mine, irilh wbom Itíved for naay ycm\ 
penonaily ¡I wm ihe common tullt of ihe courl at Ihe outbreak of ihe war Nor>b< 
ni([ bul poriiaM iUfill be boller, lili livüijWogtaphr has lettlcd down into pul ti¿aT.i 
lo vna the fallen loo f»i. Th« ume Frendi gtnUfman loid me tha. Napoleón IlLi»» 
bom in Ihe Tuilrnes, and when I wrgte 10 Id AíIm DUrf Querirt, I callisl forth bib 
and rain from al) Ibe ocwipape», bul now evecy Dse u coovinced nf the fnrl. 

From i8yt Ío the Presmt Doy. 

It might be supposed that these brilliant achievements, 
enonnous accession oí territory, and the unheard-of indemí* 
exacted from France, would have made Germany nch conienW 
and prosperous ; but never in raodem times has it been 
pinched, never more discontented. 

The resources of the nation had been drained by a «**■ 
military system, trade declined, wages fell, and thousands •« 
thrown out of employ. Every great change musí of netts^ 
entail inconvenience, and disturb the weU-being of many. ~~ 


' evils are unavoidable; but ■without doubt the unity of Germany 
• is a mighty accomplishment, and it is well that neither "The 

Holy R-oman Empire " vras revived, ñor the new erapire incum- 
'' bered with Italian dependen cíes. Germany Is now a German- 
1 speaking people, wíth one interest, one nationality, one con- 
I federation ; and although it contains more than one crowned 

head, yet, for all defensive and ofFensive purposes, it is one and 
I indivisible, with a brÜliant future before it, 

' iS/B. May ii.— HOdcI Iricd lo asíudRste ths Germán cm|Mror Williun I. 


Di cf [hl Turkilh qs 

Imperíiü oSctrt m 
The REichiUK 

lie Gbrmah EHriKOR rcprucnti Üie c 
e dcclaralbn oT vís, itiuiíng pcacc, 1 

1 WUnembc^ ü 


Sufiíietland, snd oihcr 
siA (ratt of the Goma 


te schoolfl, aad ^Bo " ¡ 


r elíDienlary Khools, 


First half af Ihe NineUrnth CiMuty. 

The founders of the Romantic School ín Germany were ScWeEcI, Noval^ 
xaA Ludwig Tíeck, to cach of which a short menioir must be given. 

ScHLeOEi, is most celebraled fot hÍ3 trünslalíon of Shakespeare'! playE, in 
which he was ossisted by Tieck, and which is occounted Ihe standard Germán 
texE of out great dramiüst. Of his original Works the most valiiable and 
püpular ate his Indures m Dramalic lÁItmlure, a Icanaladon of which fonns 
oneofthe volumesofBohn'í "Standard Libnuy" (1767-1845), 

Noval'is is the pseudonym of Frederick von Hardenbei^, a Saxon lyric poet, 
chief of the Romantic School of Geñnany. His first ptüduction was Ihat 


cnlitled ff/mni ef Nighl, his lasl was > wíld romance ca]Ied Ssa, 
dinmi, incant, as he telli ui, for "an apothéosisof poetty,"biit aó, 
Carlyle calb NovaJ'U the "Pineal of Germany," bul probabl; d 
of ücnnaD]' " would havc becn mote apprapriate (1773-1801) 

LuDwiG TlKCK was > biilltaot and prottñc Germán writet ol ._ 
Srhool. HU PAanláiui Ua colleclion or^host and goblín slorín, jl 
TaUían mch Hoticias " BluebcBrd," " Puss in Boots," '" LitlIelP 
h(Kid,"Bnil so on, made the médium ofsatire, especiallyof the tilol. 
eighteenlh century. His chicrDovet is Kaiítr Octamánus, Tieckfal 
himseira greal ñame, but it may be questioned whether thc inflofl 
Romantie School hai not been evil, altbough without doubl thein 
Shakespeaic'í works is worthy oí allpraísc (1773- 1S53). 


The nert ihree carnes of Ihe same school, Hoffman, De La Mott 

aid Chaniisso are well known, especially thc twu latler,— onc by Ib* 

of Undint, Üitoüíahy ñttrSchUmihlÜiciaaa who had □□shido«^< 

IIOFFHAN was a wild gcnius, brillinnt in fancy, but most inonnAl H 
back on. It wns in thc dninken orgics of a lavem that thii e" 
brightest. There his wU flashed anH sel the tabte in a roar, and Ihcre,) 
Ibiclc amake and Bavañan beer, he wasled the néctar of hÍ! RMVL 
suGceU of his novel, ThiDa/irs Elixir, Kunu^ his head, and conEtroriKl 
tendencio. Hia masler-work was Liftsitiehís of the Tom-nU Marr, 
humout is racy and his fancy rich, but all Ihat he has left behiiii B 
□rganic temains of a cenius waaied and buñeil in the naradise of foobl 


De La Motte Fou<)i'e(i777-i843) is thc aulhor of í7niA'w, onei 
must beauliful, simple, and original toles ever produced. 

tJndifK U a »al<r-tylph who wu chmnfva m infancj 
finhcnniui Üved ncv an cnchanLcd forHI, Hnd Lcamcd 
OicdaySirHuLiIbniTidli ' ' ' - ^ -- ' ' 
h<r. E«Ing thoi united t. _ _. 
aFMr the weddiiiE Sic Huldbmid ..- 
beaulr, to Gome Bud «ay viih hi ^ 
wilh vuicuu, bol Undins had aweJJ-htad «.._._, 

malHÜng her lord, tnihv mcantiiDe Sir Hddbnqd fcil bi Io'vq with Bcrtild*,^^ 
taa thfl ñihenniüi^t dkaghrer. 

Om daj, tailioE on Üis Danube, he nbukcd Undine ín «iigEr. 5hE was ioButlr' 
«w»)- W .i.ttr ^Tpli» lo her walery hniM, nnil nol long afiEr Sb- HuMbniíd pmM 
BcrUldaandwBsaccFpud. On ihiweddiDK mom ihibndirwuestBi herhanJma"'' 
h«F»Die water from thc well, and imipcdiattly 11 was uncovcred Üi '" . - - 

WBleí, winl tolhochambertíllieliiiight, Usjid him, nnd he died. .„c, uunn •»■' 
>il«r«reani ran bübblingKmDd hiígrave. Jl wai Undine who thiu rnfhnml buB 

Chamisso is chicHy tnown in Englond by his tale of I'eier Sc..~ 

man wbo sells his shadow to tbe fuul fiend. This stoiy was wnlUn Ü*' 
children of a friend, and has been ttanslaled into most Eutoneaa 
Chamisso was a botanisl, and his bailada take rnnk with the besl ii 
J. Korl Musan» il weII 

MÜLLER the Swíss historian, wrote a Unhiir-sal Hülery bul Kil 
celcbíatcd work is his invaluabls HUtary o/ lie Swiss Confederáis. Hii 



ü is dignified, liis research deep, and his Überalitj of sentiment raost praise- 
■iworlhy (1752-1809). 

I SCHLOSSKR was a. distingaiahed Gennan historian, whoM gicnt WOrk ¡s a 
\ ^ilery ofthc Eightemth attd Nmetantk Cenlaría, which has been translaled 
Ijioto English. He also publishcd A Crüical Exatitincaion ef NapaUait, and a 
^JRttBry úf thí Ancieat WorldímdiU CwüitaHim (1776.|S6I). 
i Rausier {i78i- ) wrotc a History of the Hahenitaufin Dynasly, a 
^ Sistary of Europc fiom the clase of the ñftecnth cenlury, and a Hütary of 
) Mngland. 

t NEANDER.*^Few Gemían authora are belter known in England, cspecially 
ifcy !cho1ar5 inicrested in Iheolugy, than Neander's UnÍTienal History of tke 
Ckrülian Rtíigion and Chtirch, which has superseded Mosheim's Eccúsiailical 
-Bistúry, once a standard work. Neander's is a noble history, pious, prufound, 
knd of excellent discemment. The style, however, is sotnewhBt heavy, and it 
iJb whoUy unrelieved by graphie pictures of life. No professor was ever more 
loved ttún Neander. His roodcsty, his kindness ofhearí, his deliehtful sim- 
¡BÜcity won evety une who knew him. He was aliving epistle of christian Ufe 
¡known and readofallmcn(l7S9-i85a). 

I Ranke (j !)■/.), s.\i\.)¡ot ai Üis Hiílory ef the Fofa, Iranslated into English 
I ijy Mrs, Austin, and commented on by lord Macaulay in One of his very best 
cssays. This work was received with ra[ilurous applause in Gcrmany, and no 
modera book has been more latgcly circulaled in England and America, 
Holland and France. His History éfGermany duñng the Reformalian, also 
tianslated by Mrs. Austin, is even more highly esteemed than his History of 
the Popes. I[ contaíns many documenta never before made public, and is set 
Ibith m the most methodical and intelligenC mannei possibte. He published 
Bcveral other histories and biographies of great valué, as that of Fruaia in 
tAí Sei/inteenth and Eighíicnth Centuria, £aui¡ XIV., &c. (1795-1S72), 

T HüMBOLDT is almosl universally known as the author of Cosmos, or a 
! phylical description of ihe universe, a translación of which is published in 
BtÁn's "SciemificLibcary' (lyóí-iSsgl, 

Seamd Half of tke Niniíemlk Ceniury. 
Literature, like the chameleon, changes its colour with changing circum- 
■tances. The salient eharacteristics of the time being is reÜected in the 
current titerature, as face answerelh to face in water. Jn the age of chivalry, 
Ihe deeds of knighls and the glow of lovc were reflected in the lays and 
romancea oí the períod. The cnisades opened up new Chemes and new 
aspuations. Then was it that poets and romancers lold of wooders in field 
I and flood, míxed up mylhologies, and iniroduced into European tales the 
I li^nds and fables of Egypt and Asía. Inñdelity over-ran the nations as a. 
I flood, and satirists inveighed loudly against the church and íts minísters. The 
Reibrmaticín waved ils wand, and Ihe litemlure was dípped in the vat of 
' religión. Hymns were Ibe mode, polemícs and doctrinal trealises the popular 
I UBte. This mode also had its day, and then gave place to the tevival of letters 
cslled the classíc period, when bad ímllations of Greek and Latia cla&sics, 
Jtalian, French, and Englbh, produced a harlequtn patchwork most stale, 
flat, and unnaturnl. Next followed the revoiulionary period when religious 
»nd political creeds were tumed upside down, all old-ealablíshed orders were 
BCt aside, and novelly waa the order of the day. Napoleón carne and set his 


tmRATUiui «uiKrEEiirrH cektdrt. 

fsol opon lÍK mlions, slamping-out Iheir nationality and libeity. kl 
bunson boimd. ihty broke Üieii bonds, and rose up in newness of fW«l 
> giant refte^cd »ilh wine. This was the period of sttong pünñ 
Gcrmany was no longer French but whoUy Gemían : the spíril dT lümi 
■bnud, mcn weie in eam«t, and spoke the words of eanieslness utl bfa 
dence. Thenwuit th«( UhUndand Aindt shared wilh Sehüler and Kim' ~ 
liupiratioo ofTyrtarus, kindiing the ardour of war — nol war íbr agcrcMi 
for nationalitr ; and, ihaoiine the nobles of their selfish ieaJousies, biill 
logclher in the one gteal cause. Lasl, carne Vairi^ Cervtany, the zeedoal- 
and pmnl, piquanfy and polish i Ihe age of críiics and periodicals: ÜKm 
dogmaliiim, baok-leanung, and staitlingnovelties.* 

Uhlasd (1787-1S62). head of Ihe Snabian school of poeta, b IbtMta 
nnmetous «ongs and balladi, the populaiily of which is uabounded. Et" 
■ (^<n<'« P^l't'cian ai well aa a patríot poet. His poetiy U o»e[flowi:(i 
ipinl and imo^nation, truc to nalure, pícturesque, and exquiau in ÍBia_ 
louehct of feehng. Nothing can turpass the tereeness, vigour and sa^ 
beaiiiy of hii ballads, One of (he mosl popular of his sones Ís TAt iMé- 
JHoíHlaiii, Twu of Ihe five staniai lun Ihus : — ^ 

ARNDT(i769-t86o)!n Thi Spiril ef the Timeí attaekcd Napolton b 
l>ull-d(^. So boldly he ípoke in Ihe cause of frecdom ihat therfs 
(Jermany were alarmed, and dcnounced hím for his Hiiíory ef ¿i^'' 
Pamerania. He co-operated wilh Sleín in outwLlling "the íbÍm 
nationt. and h.s íp.nl-sUrring lays had the same irresistible cfibrta' 
Gennans that the Jacobile aongs had on Ihe Scotch IVkat i¡ thtOt* 
Falhtrlandt mighl be called Ihe RuU BrUannia or Marsailaia of &* 

Two of Ihe U 


ü ihc Gcrv 

ih rcd^Eraptí lun|[. 


land."— E.CB. 



RNER, the dramatic poet, was aulhor of The Green Zlomino, The 

, and TAí Nighl pyaicktr, which are among the very best of Germán 

lies. The uptistng ofthe nailon asaínst Napoleón inüpiíed Korner with 

^ pa.trioüc zeal, and his íyre and Sward Songs slírrcd hia cauntrymen lilie a 

^ trumpet. IC was Tyrtasus and the Spaitans over again. The mosC famous of 

¿ the colleclion is that called The Sword Song í,lj^l-l&ll). 

_ í Amongst the national war-aongs of Germany The Walch o'er Ihe Rhine, 

^ by Scbneckcnboigei U one of Ihe b¿t and iuo$t popular. Two of Ihe verdes 
. tnn üJHs ;— 



oc all thy som will guard the Rhine. 

ThyíoiuiIaDdíirmtOEuardlhc'RUiie. — E.C.E 
Becker's Germán Rhint is very símilai and no tess inspiriting :- 

In 1S41, when M. Thiers was stirring up the Frcnch to daim the Rhine 
¡ntific boundary of France, the general cij of Germany was, " On to 
' a cry strangely realised thirty years añerwards. The followiog is 
etse of a. sang in eveiybody's mouth at the time: — 


And shou' 

^^f Heikb \HÍ-fuh\ wit, cynic, and poel, was boin on the ist of January, 
iSoo; and was Iherefoce, as he said, "ihe ñrst man of Ihe century." The 
brilliant wil. and bold political addiesses lo ihe sovereigns of Germany in his 
IHcturts of Travfls eslablíshed his femé ; and his Book of Songí placed him at 
the head of the " Voung Germán School." Since ihe days of Voltaiie there 
has been no such scoflér as Heiniich Heine. Nothing that men venérate 
escaped hia sneers. His prose is smari, but has been buried in the limbo of 
forgetfulness ; not so hís ballads and his songü. Some of these are most 
exquÍ3Íte, and of such etheteal beauty Ihat they are wholly imequalled 

Tranilatiims cf his " ¡otigs " have bceii publiskcd by J. E. Wailis atid hf 
E- -í. Bowring, 

Hebel (1760-1S26) was a popular poet, somewhat similar to 
Mackay. He sang to the people, eihorting thero to piety, chaiity, cheerfulness, 

► and work. 




Theology has occupied a large share of attention in Germany danng 
nineteenth century. Wríters of commanding talent ha ve headed fíve sd 
the rational, the evangelical, the mythical, the histórica], and the 

The " Rational School" was revived by Paulus at the bcginningof 
century in his Commentary of the New Testant^nt (1800-1864). His ' 
was to show that miracles, and all that is beyond man's reason and j 
experíence should be discarded, and that the object of biblical crítidsm 
be to prove this. Paulus was a man of great note in his daj, but his 
has given way to more recent ones (1761-1851). 

The "Evangelical School" was under the leadership of Schleieul.^, 
\Shiy '€r'm<urK-€r\ whose Discourses on Religión (1804—1828) madeaneis 
in theology. These "discourses," though most eloquent, are latherpbsk 
religión in the abstract than for the christian religión in particular. His&r« 
are masterpieces of ai|[ument and pulpit oratory, carrying captive bodiV 
head and heart. His Brief Outlinis of Tkeology^ líirhich ha ve been tnosb^j 
by Farrar, divide theology into philosophical, historical, and practica!, tbeii 
being the battle-fíeld of polemics. His last and greatest work is CknÁ 
FaUh cucordingto the Evangelical Church (1768- 1834). 

The "Mythical School'* was founded by Straüss [^/fVKj^], and is 
course opposed to the " orthodox ** or evangelical. Strauss tried to 
that the Gospels are not real history, but bectux^ideaJs of ancient pro 
personifíed. His Life of Jesús (1840) caused an immense excitemoitL 
and out of Germany. Ñever did book cali forth such a war of contio' 
His Christian Doctrine of Faith enters upon the struggle between sdence 
the Bible. Whatever may be thought of the orthodoxy of Strauss, there 
be no doubt of his massive understanding, his masterly eloquence, his eanxs-| 
ness and devotion. His style is model Germán, wholly unapproached ss: 
the days of Lessing (1808- * ). 

The **Historicjü or Tübingen School" was founded by Baur [Bffsé'r 
maintain the historícal genuineness of the New Testament. His ^ 
important works are The Christian Philosophy of Religión^ The Ckñ¿^ 
Doctrine of the Trinity cmd IncamatÍ4m^ and The Christian Doctrine (}■• 
Atonement. Baur wrote a book to prove that the Gospel of St John « 
written some time after the three other Gospels ; and another to show that s 
Mark*s Gospel was not written so early as had been hitherto supposed. Ie^ 
his works he insists on the historicsd statements of the New Testament i 
undoubted facts, and that these facts must be admitted before críticism b^ 
(i 792- 1 860). 

Zellerj SchiaegUr^ Kostlin^ and Hilgenfeld are distinguished writm i» ¿ 
same school, 

The "Broad Church" divines of Germany, headed by Neander canharJ 
be called a school. We should cali them in England the modérate psic 
Neander was a disciple of Schleiermacher [Shiy^er'fnarJ^-erX but tí- 
broader views. He gave a place to religious féeling, and cared les - 
theological subtleties. Resting on the grand central truths, he took \^ 
genersd views, and henee was called a "broad church divine." 

All these were men of massive genius, profound thought, devoutness, c 
eloquence. They were thoroughly in eamest, and made theology a ^ 
science as well as a matter of faith. 

Krummacher. — It is scarcely consistent to place Kiummacher with tbs 
great ñames; but few books were better known in flngland and AmeñOi* 


well as in Germany, in the middle of the nineteenth century, than Krum- 
macher*s life of Elijak the TishbUcy a kind of religious historical novel. It 
was followed by the life of Elisha^ but the Shunamite was not received with 
the same favour as the Tishbite. 

§ The father of F. W. Krummacher was also a popular writer of religious 
books, the best known of which are The Life of St, John^ Comelius the 
Centurión^ and Parablesy all translated into English. The parables were 
extremely popular (1768- 1845). 

There was also a G, D, Krummacher^ well known by his book called Daily 
Manna, reproduced in England under the title of The Christian's Everyday 
Book. Another of his books, The Wanderings of the Children of Israel, was 
translated into English. 


Jacob Grimm, universally known by philologists for his Word-book, 
'*Grimm*s law " for the changes of letters in etymology makes a literary 
epoch (1785-1863). 

LiEBiG, the great chemist, was the author of a host of books. The 
foUowing are well known in England: — Chemistry in its Application to 
Agriculture^ Principies of Agricultura^ Chemistry^ Animal Chemistry^ 
Chemistry of Food, Familiar Letters on Chemistry, The last of these has 
done more to popularise the study of chemistry than any book ever wrítten 


The chief musical composers of Germany of the nineteenth century have 

been Beethoven, Hummel, Spohr, Weber, Meyerbeer, Schubert, Mendelssohn, 

Schumann, and Wagner, 181 3- 

X 2 

!n 800 the Rotnin cmpire was divided inlo Easl and Westj 4efl 
ptrl w»* p«en by Ihe pope lo Chulemagoe. who waa crolnKd i 
" Kaiiei" or Empeíoi of ihe Romeas. 

On Ihe death of Charlcmagnc, hií son Ludwig the Debonaii re 
lllle, but tona tStei b» dcslh, the empire af Charlemagne wu ' 
IhrM partí t^rance, Ilaly, and GcrTnany), and the kajs«rite wen 
king of íia/ji. On ihe deílh o( Lothair, his son Ludwig the Gml 
il. ll then wenl to ha híJf-broihcr Charles the Bald king of f< 
then to Charleí Ihe Fal also king of Frame, Oa the death of Cl 
F»l ihc empiíe wu disÍDiegiutcd, and the tille of kaiscí v 
br Mventy-four yeui. 


Neiiher Konrad I. o( Germany noT Henry I. tbe Fowler was kaisBitl^ 
jói pope John XII. inducid Otto I. (the Fowler's soa) lo recejve llw 
E[n|>etiir of Ihe Iloly Román Empire, a title which aJI the kings of ti 
continued lo bear till Napoleón bnike up the empire. 

Empetor of the Wesi is ihe s. 


is Emperor of the Romans, Enpo" * 
Rome, and Empeíoi af the Hbly Román Erapiíe, ajid bII these tlOsV 
EVQonymous wíth Kaiser, Charlemagne and his successocs were EmpeM^ 
ifieWest, Emperora of Rome, or Emperors of the Romans. Otte iri' 
subsequent kings of Gennany were Emperors of the West, Eropercn^ 
Rome, or Emperors of the Holy Román Empire. Stríctly speakinei ^ 
distinciion should be obsetved, but hiatoriina cali the kings olGenDu;)! 
al] four tilles indilíerenlly. 

King of thb Romans is quilc another title. It was aboul eqiii«*> 
to king clect. It was Henry III. who invenled the title. A titile IkÍ* 
his death in 1056, he induced the electors lo nomüíate his son as his sacoOT 
and then called him "Iting of Ihe Romans," This title was bomi |J 
1508) by every associaled king or king elect of Germany. Thos, íf lili* 
made his son joinl king, Ihe father was tmferor and ihe son Játlg d * 
Romans. Also every king elect of Germany was King of the Romans, ü^ 
conlinued so lili he was aclually ermiiind Emperor of the Romans, la Ifí 
Manimilian, whoíajled in gelting crowned emperor, called htmself '" EBi[«f I 
'""''"'" " ítyle adopled by al¡ his successors belweealliy 

Elect of the Romi 


J OF ROME was the tille pvea by Napoleón I, to h 
whom he " assodated ¡n bis empire." Probably 
e invented by Kaiser Henry III. of Germanv — il 

blunder ¡ but íf he símply meanC to imita 

ca!l his son "king of Rome" if he chosc. 

thttt kaiser, he was quite free ti 

IVAeti d¡d a king ef Germany bicorne Kaiser i 

From Ihe time of Charleraagne no kíng of Italy, France, or Germany was 
Emperor of the West, or Emperor of the Ronians, till he was crowned so by 
the pope, generally at Rome ; but in 1056 Hecry III, invented (he tille 
" king of the Romans," and ¡n 1338 the cleclors deciared Ihat it Icd up lo 
Ihat of imperar as naturally as mayor elect lends up to mayor, or bishop clat 
to bishop. As the king elecled was íx oj/iríü "King of the Romans," it 
followed that as soon as he was crowned king of Germany he became ix offieio 
emperor of the Romans. So they díd away with Ihe coronation by the pope, 
and the kíng appointed by the college of electora was kaiser without a seconil 


The kings of Germany wcre originaüy chracn by Ihe popular assembly, and 
the peiBon selected was hoisted on a buckler, ahown to the people, and pro- 
claimed. As the population increaset!, thcse popular assemblies became 
impracticable, and the cholee of the kíng was roíide by a councii of barons, 
and finsUy by a body of ihe chief nobles caUed electors (xü. century), 

The original number of the electing nobles was seven, four princes and 
thrce pretales. The pretales were the aichbishop of Mainz (ofEcial president 
of the college, and " Convener of the Electors "), the archblshop of I 
Cologne, and the archbishop of Treves {1 sy!.). The foui lay electors were 
Ihe duke of Saxony, the mai^^raf of Brandenburg, Ihe palsgraf of the Rhine, 
and the kine of Bohemia, In 1648 the number of electors was raised lo 
eighl, the duke of Bavaria being added; and in 1692 Emest, duke of 
Hanover, was created itíiilh elector; but in 1777 Ihe number was again 
leduced to eight, 

In 1356, the famous Golden Bull, issued by Karl IV,, reeognised the right 
of the electors lo choose the king, and so legalised thcír eleclions ; but in 
1806 the whole system was swepl away by Napoleón Bonaparte, and the Jaw 
of inheritancc, whicb bad beea reeognised among vassals fiora immemorial 
time, was applied to the king and kaiser too. 


II Ihen n 

d hit faih 

¡I- hcredltarv In G«nii 

IT, alltiongh Ihe eldest » 




ihe Eovernmtnt. Fn> 
' and from Maiimilia; 

1 tinit Ihe küig eleci was enliiled " king of Üi 
: end of the Holy Homun Eoir^re (iSofi), Ih 
nc unonaiion) was cntiUed "Emperor Elect c 


It musí be distinclly undeistood that Willíam I. king of Prussia, was the 
first " Emperor of Gcrmony" or " Germán Emperor," and that the tille did 
not exist till January, 1S71. Ihe kíngs of Germany were emperors but not 
emperors of Germany [ they were Maigi of Germany and emperors of Ihe 
Jíomam or " of the West." 

The kiii(^ of Gennany Dcver succeeded by infaeritance bat cmly bf i 
Thií U priíved by Ihe vcry eiisleoce oí a college of elector^ and was 
■hown in thc pcríod belween (he gieal Intccregnum and tbe accccvui 
House üf lubsburg (1356-143S), whcn there was no apptoicb «■ 
heiediUry successor. 


KÍDg of Cenruiy, Emperor of Ihe Rumans, or more correcüy, Einp(i*i 
tíie Holy Román Etnpirc, King of Itaiy or King of Lombardy. Síbi 
Üieiu had olhet titleí oí a pcisonol at laitiity nature. 


Craf, originally ■ mw, as in oor wotd "sherifl'" — i.f., a Shire-fíew. S» 
leqacmlyil vas a mere honoiaiy tille, somewhat lilce the Prencb countudí* 
nrl. Ptobably th« officeofugnif waslocotlect the revenues ofbisdistiíct. "¡t 
wotd ii very oíd, and occuts in the íix ja/íra (v, century). Charienip 
divlded his vait empire into ciaAchafteD or districts, over each of whictif 
chicf mogistrate calW a grol. 

Mar-cíiaf i» Üic reeve ot chief ofBcer of the mark or inorch— i.í.,ii 
iionlier, hice oui nuuquis, whose duty was oríginally to defend some bou 
ot border-land. 

PaLS-crak is the reeve or pre^dent of the pTalz or palace.conrt, Ihet^ 
eoutt of the tealm, which originally moved from place to place witb the moMíl 
Whcn the kw-coufts wcre stalionar^, Ihe pre^dency was given to a "Ju^t'I 
but if Ihe king chose, he coafened judicial {xiweroa the "man of n Gd^'l 
province, Vf ho was Ihen called a pala.graf or vice-roi. There wcrelwoGo«| 
grofa possessed of this judicial powec. undtheirdístticlsor provioces weteaM I 
" palatina les." There was the Uppec Palatinate, wMch was Bavaiía, and ik 
Lower Palatinate on the Rhine¡ l)ut the Vford pal^raf iised alone iln» 
means ihe count-palalinc of the Rhine. This noUenian was one of iSiezw! 
original eleclors, bul in the tcnth year of the Thjrty-Vears' \V« be •* 
ileposed from the colige and his place given to the duke of Bavaria. Al^ 
Feace of Westphalia (164S) it was setlled Ihat the dignity of Elector to¿i 
nnt lie alienaled, so the pal^iat was reslored, and the number of electorí** 
raised to eight, When, in 1692, Ihe honoor was confeired on Emesl dntt ■' 
Ilanover Ihe electoral coUege contained nioe memliers; but ¡n I77J * 
number was again reduced lo eight hy the amalgamation of Eavaria uiJ f*" 
liheniah palatinate. The tiüe was abolished (except fot Hessen-Caad) í 
Napoleón I. in 1806. 


Charlemagpe strove lo sttenglhen the sovereign power, and Ihmf* 
preferred pajd ministera to independenl nobles for offices of ttusl; bul* 
, the dealh of the greal king Ihe royal powct rapidly decHned, and a númW* 
nobles sprang up rivalliog ibe crown in power, and making the govenmiEí ' 
virlual oligarchy. 

This aróse chiefly from the incursions of border bordes. As the Icingí"* 
vnable to keep invailers at Lay, they deputed this ofitce lo powetfulbDri° 
chiefs, who were sltcngtbened by standing arniies. Henee arosa*' 
powerfu! dukes as those of Fiaaconia, Saxony, and Bavatia, w'" "*" 

e ara«^ 



^^uabia, Lorraine, and Carinthia. In time, the dulce of Saxony became the 
^^¿Qost powerful of all; and his duchy extended along the whole west of 

jermany, from the North Sea to the Rhine. 
^^ At first these dukes were crown ministers, but as they increased in power 
"~ ';hey arrogated to themselves privileges which the kings were too feeble to 

iispute. They had their vassals, and transmitted their titles and offices to 

:heir children. 
^ In the reign of the boy-king they boldly declared themselves independent, 

and the great ecclesiastics did the same; so that Germany was in reality 
™yivided into a number of minor states, as Éngland was during the heptarchy, 
^iWd ^'emperor" was little else than a mere titular expression. 

"A house divided against itself cannot stand." These **lords many " had 

always some grievance in hand. Sometimes one of them coveted his neigh- 

bours ** vineyard ** ; sometimes his neighbour*s wife. Sometimes a barón 

wanted to avenge a wrong ; sometimes a rival barón bit his thumb, and his 
^-■j quarrelsome neighbour would demand whether he bit his thumb at Aim, If 
^^e governing power is weak, might always becomes right, and the strongest 
^ann is a law unto itself. 


In 1387 kaiser Wenceslaus divided Germany into /our departments, called 
^í^circles (Saxony; the Rhine provinces ; Austria, Ba varía, and Suabia; Franconia 
* i^and Thuríngia). In 1438 kaiser Albert II. increased the number to six, each 
of which had a right to be represented in the diet or national assembly. The 
^six circles were Franconia, Bavaria, Suabia, Westphalia, Upper Rhine, and 
v< Saxony ; represented by the archbishops of Mainz and Salzburg, the electors 

/ of Brandenburg, Cologne, and Saxony, and the count of Würtemberg. 
^ *< In 1512, under Maximilian I., the circles of the Rhine and Saxony were 
es( each of them sub-divided ; and two new circles being added, raised the entire 
a^ number to ten, viz., Austria, Bavaria, Burgundy, Franconia, Lower Rhine 
raií provinces, Upper Rhine provinces, Lower Saxony, Upper Saxony, Suabia, 
~ $ and Westphalia. 

oM Each circle had an ecclesiastical or lay prince, with a military chief. 
Ti At the Reformation the circles were divided into Catholic, Protestant, and 
f > Mixt. 

ri The Catholic Circles were Austria, Bavaria, and Burgundy. 
be: The Protestant Circles were those of Saxony. « 

kÍ The JMtxt Circles were the other five. 

'S This división into circles fell through in 1806, when Napoleón I. instituted 
r J the " Confederacy of the Rhine." 


843. By the Treaty of Verdun Germany was severed from the empire of 
ü Charlemagne, and erected into a sepárate kingdom. Ludwig, 

surnamed the ''Germán," had assigned to him, for a kingdom, 
.^ all the territory bounded — 

^ South by Switzerland ; North by the North Sea ; West by the 

Rhine ; and East by the Elbé, the Saal, and the Bohemian forest. 

This includes Holland and Hanover, Westphalia and Saxony, Hessen Darmstadt and 
Franconia, Badén, Würtemberg, Bavaria, and part of Austria. 

He had also the three towns of Mainz, Speyer [Spire], and 




is no Empcror of Geraumy or Germán enmeror, till 1871. The style fiom 962= 
2806 was ** Kin^ of Germany, and Emperor <^ the Holy Román Empire;" since iSjiiksl 

924. Lotharingüí [tV. Lorraine] was made a fíef of Henry I. the Fowk 
928. Brandenbure was added by Henry I. [East of the Elbé]. 
957-1355. Poland did homage to the Germán ctowb. 

961. Lombardy, in Italy, was made feudatory by Otto I. the Great 

962. The kin|; of Gennany was called "Émperor of the Holy 


There was no Emi 
S06 was *' Klxn of ( 
** King of Pnusia and Empcáror <^ Gerñíany.' 

1024-1 125. Arles was added. 

1033. Lower Burgundy was added by the marríage of Konrad II. with Gisd^j 
niece and heiress of Radolf. 

Lower Bnrgnndy indoded Frandie-comté, Dauphiné, Lyonnais, West Switnsil 
Provence, and Savoy. 

^•^ Henrv III. was king of Gennany, king of Burgundy, empero ^1 
the Holy Román Empire, &c. 

1045. Bohemia was added. 

1056. The king elect of Gennany was called " king of the Romans." 

1057. Hungary was agaih added. Se^ 955. 
1 152-1355. Holstein and Lauenburg were made fiefs of the Germán ctofi. 

(Holstein was subject to the dukes of Saxony.) 

1205-1556. Livonia became part of the Germán empire. 
1230-1525. Prussia became part of the Germán empire. 
(By Prussia in this case Is meant the north-east comer of Gennany, east of the Vtstdi.) 

1387. Germany was divided iato /our circles ; in 1438 into j¿r, andini5u| 

into /en. I 

1452. Frederick III. was crowned kaiser by the pope. This was thclií 

king of Germany crowned at Rome, 
149J. The imperial chamber and ulic council were established. 
1508. Maximilian king of Gennany, called himself ** Emperor Electof &| 

Romans," a title which all his successors assumed betweoitbtfl 

accession and coronation. 
1530. Charles V. received at Bologna the imperial crown. This was the Is I 

time any kaiser received the imperial crown from the haadsof'l 

1806. End of the Holy Román Empire. 

Kaiser Francis II. henceforth called himself Francis I. emperor of Austria. 

1868. The emperor of Austria was styled " Emperor of Austria and Kinf «í| 

Hungary." His domain being called the Austro-HungarianEmpíR 
1871. The king of Prussia was styled "King of Prussia and Empewrc| 

188 1. Population of Prussia 27,260,351. 



Abbat of Slade xxv 

Abdication of Karl V. . . z8j^ 
Abraham von Sta.Claira xxxii 
Achules of Germany 148, 152 
Adalbert 57, 150 

martyred zsx 

Adalbert (count) 63 

tale told of him .... 63 

Adalenda xB 

Adam of Bremen .... xxv. 56 

Adamus Magister 56 

Adelaida 44 

Adelaide of Lombardy . . 37 

ill-treatment of 39 

mames Otto 39 

Adelaide of Russia 56 

Adelaide, wife of Bar« 
barossa 74 

repudiated 74 

Adelheid 37 

Adelunjg xxxix 

Administration of justice 102 
Adolf of Nassau .... xvi. 1x5 

Adrián 1 22 

„ IV 76 

rebukes Barbarossa . . 76 
„ .VI. .,. X78 

bneveagainstLuther X79 

AEIOU, 153 

iGneas Sylvius. . . . xxix. 137 

on Huss X37 

Aerometer, Fahrenheit xxxv 

Agathon 249 

AgneSfdaughterofRudolf X07 
Agnes, mother of Bar- . 

barossa 76 

Agnes, wife of Henry IV. 62 

Agrícola, George ^ xxix 

Agrícola, John. . . . xxix. 189 
Agrícola, Rudolf. . xxix. 156 
Agríppa, H. C. . . xxix. 162 

invited to París .... X63 

works of X64 

Air-pump V. Guerícke . xxxii 

Aix, battle of 4 

Aix-la-Chapelle — ^peace of 229 

Alber, Erasmus xxix 

Albert, Achílles and 
Ulysses of Germany . xvíii 

148, X52 

taken pnsoner X48 

Albert sells indulgences. . 176 










Albert Durer 

Albert I. of Austria . xvi. 

a lout 


Albert II xvíi. 

child of 

father of 

wife of 

Albert of Strasbura^. . X07, 
Albert, son of Rudolf. . . . 

maníes Elizabeth . . 
Albert the Bear .... 74, 

called Romulus. . . . 


Albert the Great . . xo8, 

Albert the Wise 

Albertin Mussalo 

Albertus Magnus . xxvíi. 

si>eaking head of . . . . 

winter gardens of . . 
Alcuin xxiv. 

corrects MSS 23 

death of 34 

Alemanni, who 7 

Alessandra threatened . . 74 

AlexanderlII 74, 76 

„ VI 222 

bull against witches 222 
Alexanderlied^ Th* .... 95 

Alfonso IX 84 

Alfonso of Castile, Icaiser xo6 

calis creation a 

"crank machine" xo6 
Al Kamel's clock-tent ... 87 
Alkmar, Heinrích von X69» 

AUmands, who 7 

Allodia 28 

converted into fíefs . . 28 

Allvader 8, 9 

Alnaschar 1x4 

Altenkirchen, battle of . . 263 
Alva 183 

reproved X83 

Amaln 65 

Amber, Prussian 46 

Amiens, peace of 271 

Amulets, use of X05 

Amusements of Charle- 
magne ax 

zoth century 30 

Anacreon 942 n 

Ancient history z 


Ancillon, statesman . . xxxix 
Andemach, battle of . . . . 38 

Andrew, J xxxii 

Angelo, Michael 157 

Anhalt, príncipality of . . 97 

Anima mundi^ 245 

Animal magnetism 258 

Animal oil v. Dippel . . xxxv 

Anne of Bríttany X58 

Anne, wife of Karl IV. . . 125 

„ „ Sigmund.. 153 

AnnolUdy The legend. . xxvi 

Anselm, St xxvi 

Antsus Z48 n 

Antwerp, margraviate of 33 
margraviateabolished 33 

Anulf xiv 

Apostle of the Germans . . x 8 
„ ^ „ Goths .... 17 

Apostolic succession .... 49 

Appeals to God ........ X05 

Archbishqprícs^ the six .. tfin 
Archbishops of Germany 99 ^« 

Arch-chancellor 82 

Arché xxxii. 254^» 

Architecture.ecdesiastical 97 
Arcis-sur-Aube, battle of 281 

Areola, battle of 268 

Aremberg slain 14» 

Aríovistus 9 

conquered 9 

deatnof zi 

meaning of xon 

reply o^ to Caesar . . xo 

Aristotle's "Idea " X04 

Arles added to Germany. 312 

Anuida 376 n 

in her distraction .... 276 
Arms given to the people 63 
Amaldo of Bresda ...... 8z 

Amdt xxxix. 304 

Amim. poet xxxix 

Amold, Godfrey xxxiv 

Amold of Lubrók .... xxvii 

Amoldo bumt 74 

Amulf 25, 26 

Articles and Augsburg 

confession z8o, x8i 

Aryan stock 6 

Aspem, battle of . .^ 275 

Astronomical divinity . . 105 
Astronomy revived X55 




AttiU i6 

Auerstadt, battle <^ .... 276 
Augsborg — 

omfession of . . . . 180, i8z 

,, heretical i8x 

diet of . . . . Z79, xBo, 184 

interim of 183, 184 

meaningof 171 

noced for jewellery . . 171 

peace of 185 

AngustanAgeof France xxxiv 
Augustas and Varus .... 14 
Augtutus II. of Poland.. 240 
Augustus III. of Poland 240 

Aulic Council z6o 

Aurum Tolosanum 3 

Attsterlitz, battle of .... 273 

Austria, an archduchy . . 146 

contends with Prussta 391 

empire of 274 

cxcluded from Ger- 

many 397 

given to AJbert .... . . ii3 

nouse of xvU. 144 

margraviate of . . . . 33, 40 
renounces — 

Lombardy 364 

Netherlands 264 

Ventee ceded to .... 264 
Anstrían — 




zi^«, Z54 

Austro- Hungarían Ein< 

pire 3x2 

Austro-Prussian War. . . . 205 

Autolycus 176» 

Avars conc^uered 21 

Aventin, historian ..xxx. 190 
Ayrer, Jacob xxxii 

Bach, Sebastian xxxix. 360 

Bach, W. F xxxix 

Bach, K. P xxxix 

Bach, J. C xxxix 

Bahrdt, theologian .... xxxiv 

Bajazet II 158 

Bajorix, The Cimbrían . . 2 

Defeat of 6 

Interview of, with 
Marius 5 

kills Scaurus 2 

Balde, poet xxxii 

Bamberg, See of 45 

Banier, "lien of Sweden" 203 
Bannockburn, Battle of. . zi8 

Banquets, XII. cent 68 

*• Baptism of fire" 298 

Baratier 218 

Barbara of Cilley Z34 

Barbarossa 74 

joins a crusade 73 

See Frederick I. 
Barbarossa, the pírate ., 187 
Barón oftheH.Sepulchre 76 
Baronialpower, Growthof 310 
Bartholomew slaughter . . 193 
Bartoli and the Golden 
Bull X26 


Bartoli (Cosmo) ^4 

Basedow of Hamburg . zxxiv 

Bishop of 109 

"Sitfirm" Z09 

compact Z43 

Council of Z45 

Bassano, Battle of 368 

Bassientello 43 

Batré's vaimt z6a 

Battle of— 

Aix (b.c Z02) 4 

Altenkirchen (Z797) 363 
Andemach (939) .... 18 
Ards-sur-Auoe (z8z4) 28z 

Areola (Z796) 268 

Aspem (1809) 275 

Auerstadt (x8o6) .... 276 
Austerlitx (z8o5) .... 272 

Bassano ^1796) 268 

Bautzen (x8z3) 282 

Beaumont (1870) . . . . 294 
Blenheim (z7<ú) 207, 2x6 
Bouvines^i2Z4) .... 84 

Boyne (1690) 207 

Burkersdorf(z762) .. 232 
Camp-Aubert (x8x4) 281 

Cassano (1799) 264 

Castiglíone (z79¡6) .. 268 
Chateau Tnierry 

(1814) 28x 

Cortenuova (1237) .. 85 
Crecy (13^6) . . . . 120, 125 
Custozza (1866) .... 294 

Czaslau (X742) 227 

Denain^z7i2) 2x6 

Dennewitz (18x3). . . . 280 
Dessau(j626), X95, X96,x99 
Dettingen (1743) .... 227 

Dresden (1813) 280 

Ebersberg (1809). . . . 275 
Eckmuhl (1809) .... 277 
Elchingen (1805) .... 272 

£ngen7i8oo) 264 

Eyiau (1807) 276 

Friedland (1807) .... 276 
Friedlingen (1702) .. 216 

Frogs {The) 169 

Ora velotte (1870) 294 

Gross Beeren (18x3). . 280 
Gunsburg (1805) .... 264 

Halle (1806) 274 

Heilsberg (X807) .... 274 

Hochkirchen(x758).. 235 

(18x0).. 280 

Hochst (1795) 263 

Hochstadt (x8oo) 264 

Hohenlinden(x8c>o).. 271 
Ingolstadt (1800) .... 275 
Temappes(x792) .... 265 

Jena (i8o6) 276 

Kaiserlauten (x 793) . . 263 
Katzbach (1813) .... 280 

Kolin(i757)........ 234 

Kdnigratz (1866) .... 297 

Krefeld (1758) 234 

Kulm(i8i3) 280 

Kunersdoif (X759) .. 236 

Battle of— 

Langensalza (1761). 


Laon (x8z4) 

I-ecIi (955) 

(X632) ....12 
Le^nano(xi76) ... 

Leignitz (X760) 

Leipzig ^1631) 


Leuthen (1757) 


Lobositz (1756) 

Lodi (1796) . . 
Lonato (X796) 
Lutter fx626' 
Lutzen 1x632 

„ (x8x3', . 
Magenta (T859) 
Maenano {\^^) 
Malaea (X704) . . .. 
Malpiaquet (x 709) 2 
Marengo (x8oo) ... 
Markfeld (X278) ... 


Mersebiirg(^34) ... 
Millesimo (x7q6) ... 

Minden JX759) 

Mondovi (X796) ... 
Montebello (1800) . 
Montenotte (1796) 
Montmirail (xBii) 
Morgarten (X315).. 
Muhíberg (X547) .. 
Mühldorf (X322) .. 
Neresheim {ijqfi). . 
Neumarkt (1796).. 
Nordlingen (1634) 

,, (1645) 

Noví (1799) 

Nümberg (X456) .. 
Olnautz (x866) .... 
Ostrach (X799) .... 
Oudenard (ijdS) 2 


Pharsalia (b.c. 48) 
Poitiers (1356) .... 
Pragueíx62o) .... 

^ »» (5757) . • 
R-amilIies (X705) 2. 
Reichenbach (X762] 


Rothiere (1814) .. 
Rosbach (X757) .. 
Saarbruck (X870) . . 
Sadowa(x866) .... 
St. Dizier (x8x4) .. 
Sasbach (X675) .. 
Schweidnitz (X761) 

Sedan (X870) 

Sempach (X386) .. 
Solfereno (X859) .. 


Spurs, The (X5X3) 




lento (1797).. 264 
írger 13, 14 

(1760) . 






cíosa (i 7 10). 

hausen (1761) 232 



e (1870) 

a (1809) 111», 
berg (1813) . . 
•0(1815) .... 
iberg (1620).. 
(1870) . . 
jen (1805) . . 
isthal (1762) 
;k (1636) 195, 
1870) . . 
en (1813) 

f(i758j .. 234 

i xxxiv. 2^7 

>gian xxxix 

ittleof 282 

Boiaria .... 97 

ted 151 

elector 108», 126 
ike of 97 

■« 97 


'ife of Bar- 







'he), theory.. 

y XXX. 


>mas 152 

.... xxxix. 261 

rtín XXX 

lolas xxxii 

, a captiva . . 37 
., strangled 44, 49 
II 45 

; 54 

I xi^ 



es Adelheid 

ess . 


!^Iairvaux . . 
d to Peter 
> a crusade 
rmon .... 
iVeimar . . 




jhter of Otto 56 
iwarz 123 









Beyer, L 211 

Beza, Theodore xxxiv 

Bianca Sforza 158 

Bible translated 152 

Biblia Sacra Latina .... 154 

Bielfeld 218 

Bilñnger, philosopher . xxxiv 
Bishops of Germany .... 99» 

Bismarck xxxix. 295 

minister president .. 294 

GutwitsNapoleonlII. 298 

wins his fírst stake . . 296 

,, second stake . . 297 

,, third stake.. .. 300 

Black Death 127 

Black King 53 

Black Prince 125 

Blenheim, Battie of 207, 2x6 
Blumenbadi, ethnolo- 

eist xxxix 

Bobadil x62ff, 243» 

Boccaccio X27 

Bodmann X07 

Bodmer, poet xxxix 

Bodmer of Zurích .... xxxiv 

Boehm^ Jacob xxxii 

Bohemia, ñef .... 32, 37, 3x2 
king of, elector zo8n, 126 

kingdom 74 

Bohemian dress 172 

"platform" 141 

Bou 17, 97 

Boleslas of Bohemia .... 37 

conquered 37 

murders Wenceslas. . 37 
persecutes the chris- 

tians 37 

Boleslas of Poland 45 

revolt of 46 

Bonaparte — 

Addresses of . . . . 266, 272 
Alps surmounted by 270 
Bngadier-General^ . . 263 
Egryptian campaign 269 

fírst cónsul 270 

forty-days' campaign 270 
Itahan campaign .... 267 

Bone brook 13 

lañe 13 

Boner, Ulrích .... xxviii. 12^ 

Bongars, John xxxu 

Bomface (St.) 17 

murdered 18 

Book of Héroes 97 

qf Hotisewifery .,.. 169 
Bora, Katharine von .... x;^9 
Bdme of Frankfort. . . . xxxix 
Bouvines, Battie of .... 84 
Boyne, Battie of the .... 207 
Boys, Precocious. ... 2x8, 219 

Brabant, Dukes of 99 

Brandenburg, bought .. X25 

electors of X53 

fief of Germany .... 312 

house of xviii 

margraf of, elec- 
tor xo8n, Z25 

margraviate of 33 | 


Brandenburg, Original in- 

habitants of 150 

partof Saxony 151 

pawned 125 

sketch of ^ 149 

sold by Sigmund 152 

Brandt, S xxx. 167 

Shipo/Fooh X67 

Brave des braves 272 

Breakspeare 76 

Bremen, Archbishopríc of 45» 

Brentono, poet xxxix 

Broad Church 306 

Brockes of Hamburg. . xxxv 

Bruce, Robert 125 

Bruno 31 

Bruno 253 

Bruno (St.) xxvi. 63 

Brunswick, Duke of .... 265 

defeated 265 

manifestó of 265 

Bucer, Martin .... xxx. X90 
Buddsus of Pomerania xxxv 
Bull vPope's)— 

against witches .... 223 

burnt 177 

curse of 178 

Bunau, historian xxxv 

Bunsen, statesman .... xxxix 

Burchard^ , . . xxv. 47 

Burchardic, what 47 

Bürger xxxv. 251 

Bürger, poet xxxix 

Burgher class created .... 34 
Burgundy, Extent of . . . . 50 
added to Germany . . 3x3 
Busching, geographer . xxxv 
Buxtorf, John xxxii 


escape of s 

imprisoned 3 

robs a temple 3 

Caesar and Ariovistus. . 9, xo 

„ ,, Pompey .... xo 

Caesar, L., martyred .... 179 

Cajetan, the le^te 177 

Calabrian hermit, The . . 163 

Calixtines, who 141 

quit the Taborites . . 143 

Calixtus II 64 

Calvin, John xxx. 189 

Calx of lead 345 n 

Cambray, League of . . . . x6x 

object of i6t 

peace of x8o 

Camp-Aubert, battie of . . 281 
Campo-Formio, Treaty of 268 

Canitz, F. R xxxii 

Cap of the popes 54 

C^pistrano, John X47 

Carinthia, duchy of .... X22 

investiture of X22 

Carion, historian xxx 

Carlos II. of Spain 2x5 

Carlovitz, Peace of 2x3 

Carlstadt, Andrew . .xxx. 189 
Carolin Books 24 



Ourpcnler, G..inart7red. 179 
Cardtusiaii order f oanded 63 

Canr«r, The kin^'s 38 

Cunoo, BatUe of 064 

CaotigUooe, BatUe oí . . 968 

CmihúUcmi. The 123 

Cátalas deieaced 5 

CaoldroQ of Shuighter . . 13 

Cftvalnr of Heniy 1 33 

CelestinelII 84 

CeUaríus, geooprmpher. . xxzv 

Celtes, Gomad xxz. 170 

Celtíclanguage 7 

swunn 6(7 

Chalioe-men 141 

allowed the cap .... 245 

qait the Tabontes . . 143 

Chamberlain appotnted . . 38 

Chambord, Comte de . . 933* 

Chamiaso xl. 303 

Charlemagne z8 

amasements of az 

Avan conquered hy . az 

biogrophers of z8 

books ne Itked best . . 3Z 

brothers of 18 

buried. where 95 

capituumes of 93 

children of zo 

death of 34 

deacribed 90 

diet of 90 

dUpotition of 90 

dreu of 30 

dying words of 34 

dynastjc table xiv 

cducationpromotedby 93 

cmpire of 18 

cxpeditions of 91 

fatherof x8 

height of so 

kaiser .^ 3X 

legislation 22 

mother of z8 

palace of 18 

reflections on 25 

Saxons conquered by sz 

stature of 20 

strength of 20 

successors of 25 

sword of z8 

wives of z8 

Charles the Bold Z48 

death of Z49 

Charles le Gros 26 

See Karl. 
Charles IX., believer in 

magic Z64 

Charles X. deposed .... 288 
Charles duke of Austria . 234 

Charles-quint Z73 

Charter-house 63 

Chateau Thierry, Battie of 28 z 

Chaucer .... .^ 125, Z27 

Chieftains, Titles of . . . . 47 

Child of Fortune 269 

Children of Eve z66 

Children's crusade 87 


Chñraby zoo 

dae to Henry 1 3^ 

ChristjF.fhistonazi.... xxxii 
Christiaii,archbishop .. xxvü 
Chrístianof Brunswick.. Z98 
Christian I V. of Denmark 198 
Qiristopher vod Grimmel- 

« h a u sen xxxii. 34Z 


dties 48 

corrapt state of .... Z39 

ríse 01 the 48} 49 

Cid, who zs» 

the Germán zs 

Qmbri z 

known to the Romans 7» 
migrate southwards . z 

overthrown 5 

Cimbrian panic 3 

Cirdes of Germany . z6o, 3ZZ 

foar 3XZ 

six 3ZZ 

ten 3XZ 

CitieS , . 22Z 

Citizens' dress, sixteenth 

century Z73 

Civilis....^ 9 

Batavian Hannibal . 91» 
Civilisation never ebbs . . 36 

Clara nuurtyred Z79 

Clarendon, Constitution 

of. . 3Z7» 

Claudios, poet xl 

Clement 11 54 

Clement III 6z 

excommunicated .... 61 

Clement VII. z8o 

objects to diets z8o 

Clementina (Rudolf's 

daughter) Z07 

Cleopatra and Sophonisba 343 

Qocks ínvented 4^ 

Clüvier, Philip xxxii 

Coaches introduced .... Z7Z 
Coalition against France — 

First 263, 366 

Second 264, 266 

Third 272 

Fourth 375 

Fifth 377 

Sixth 282 

Cocceji of Bremen .... xxxv 

CoritOy etvv tutn 25^ 

Collin of Vienna xl 

Cologne, Archbishop of, 

elector .^ zo8«, Z25 

archbishopric 46» 

cathedral 97 

chrístianised z6 

Columban 17 

"Come, HolyGhost" .. xxv 
Commercial state six- 
teenth century 170 

Concordat of Worms .... 64 

Confed. of the Rhine 273, 274 

declared dissolved . . 280 

Napoleón protects . . 273 

princes of the 273»* 

Confession of Ai ^ 

ccMnpared wuh 

«'heretical" .... 

and Nep(»niik .. 
Cmigress <^ Berlín .. 



Conrad (jfet Konn^ 

Connng, H 

Coostance, Coundl oí 

laige dty .... 

treaty of 

Coostance, wifeofF] 
„ H( 

Constitution ot 
Constitutions gran 
Consabstantiati(»i . 
Ccmtinental Systm 
Conversión of we 
Contests of Wartbai{ 
Coronation of OttoL 

place of 
Cortenuova, BattkOÍ 


Corvinas, Matthias. 
CostMo-dronditm ... 

Coundl of Basd ^ 

Conndl of Constanoc- 


Cramer of Bohenüa.... 

Cramer, poet 

/!^ranz^ pmlos(H)her ...■ 
Creation a "oank i 


Crecy, Bat. of, 118, 1» 

Crema destroyed 


cónsul of Reme 

death of 

Crespy, Peaceof.... 
Critics, Kingof.r.H 
Critiqtie 0/ Puré Rt 

Croneck, poet 

Crown, last timegivi 

ziot hereditary . 

the iron 

red-hot iron . . . 


Crozier given bynr 
Cruel. Tlte ...... 

Crusade, Children's 





Crusius, philosophe 
Cumberland, Duke 


Cupbearer, The kin 
Curas, historian ... 
Curse of a pope's b 


Cusa, Nidiolas voa 

Emperor EItct 'of*"Á 



1. 113 




. 6s 



. aso 

■ !f 


- 'M 

Dacaltowni 48 

DnluSnast gi 

Dulu of Bnvaña gB 


Empire «r Ibe We« .. 
En>p»u»f India .... 

ar?.:::::::: i 

SSi?üíS,::;::: % 

Durer.Albat ..h«.iss..9S 


"iW ^4 

Duumri™i ...,™ü. .;4> 
OyuíuicTBbl» u 

EADcrTH.wírtoTOuo.. 37 

EselüofAu^iri. I» 

Ebcrh=rd.A.G xl 

Ebcrhard.J.A il 



*sr 9(6 





£™i./ :. 


of Henr^lV. .... 

fcr:;:: .E 

Ecu,VjJu=of si! 


(tataof.... .?7 

Ediih, vlfe of Olio ..37.49 

EdwKdiii i« 

Egiülmd «iy. lE 

£r¡> Bnd fux-wg acd 

Etiüiíndd* po« xJ 

Elchiiigc»,&ittleof .... >7. 



Falber of his Country 



Fesilitri of tho Prince 

«ÍKl" '"^a»» 

" "" 


pU«ofro«ib.g.... .>6 
HCKd 116 


ií IOS 

EUa'b¿lhrf Buiwi'iüy.. ." 
ElúabcihofRuiúa .... ijÍ 

dalhof. .Ja 

Elixir of Ufe undoicable. .63 

Eizcvin.Tbe uiu 

Empeimof Germán» 41,310 
,, „ Thí Finí 1S3 
Íhi crowMd bypops i8a 

o^' -h. -kolylío™ "" 

Empire .... 41», 30» 

,. 0.10l.....'%, 

°rthrRoi^'4iilp.'.'.' 41 

„ Cbitlunagne 41 

Lv:::: i 

Ferdiiund snd Iiabdiii 

king of Ihe Ruminí 
„ . Hungax)... 

FadlSüdll XVI 


P-:-.: ;; 




Fcfdinand III. .. xviL 194 

accesión of 003 

childrcn of 194 

death of 905 

fiuher of Z94 

geneftloffy of 194 

Víctor ot Nordlingen aoa 

wiyes of 194 

Ferdinandof Austria xvüi. oSg 

abdicaiion of 391 

Fenler, novelist xl 

Festival of fools abolished 145 

Feudal system 27 

Fichte xl. 355, 956 

described 357 

Fief, what 38 

an immediate 38 

Fiefs made hereditary . . 53 

Fiachart xxx. zoo 

Flagellanu xs8 

Fleming, Paul .... xxxii. 342 
Flower, Order of the . . xxxi 

Folz, Hans ^ xxx. 166 

Fools, Festival of, abo- 

lished Z45 

FooU.Skipof Z67 

Forster, phtlosopher . . xxxv 

Forster, poet xl 

Forster, voyager xxxv 

Forster. G xxxv 

FouQue, De la Motte xl. 30a 

Undiru of 30a 

Fourteenth century preg* 

lumt Z37 

Fowler, The 31 

France, Wars with 213 

Francis I xvii. 239 

alchemist 163 

death of 224 

retires from state 

aflfairs 229 

Francis I. of Austria .... 280 

death of 289 

See Francis II. 

Francis II xvüi. 262 

children of 262 

death of 289 

father of 263 

mother of 262 

no longer kaiser 274 

ousted from Germany 296 
war declared by .... 265 

wives of 262 

Francis Joseph .... xvüi. 289 

father of 291 

mother of 291 

silver wedding of . . . . 301 

wife of 291 

Franconia, Duke of . . . . 99 
Franconia, House of . . 50-65 
dynastic table of . . . . xv 
Franco-Prussian war .... 297 
whole pro^ramme of . 300 
Frank, Sebastian . . xxx. 156 
Frankfort, Peace of .... 300 

Frederick I xv. 70, 74 

Barbarossa 75 

Burgundy gained by 76 



Frederick I. crowned.... jj 

death of 80 

father of his countiy 74 
Henry deserts hiin 78, 79 
Italian expeditions 

.of 77» 78 

king of Hungazy . . 75 
king of Poland .... 75 

legend about 8z 

loses battle of Leg« 

nano 78 

person of 75 

rebuked by pope .... 76 

sets seáis to deeds . . 83 

subjects the barons . . 75 

Frederick I. of Prussia . . 2x8 

characCer of 2x8 

coronation of 215 

descendants of xú^ 

dynastic line of . . xviii 

fírst kine 218 

Frederick lí. xv. 85 

anathematised 8^ 

author xxvii 

character of 86 

contention with the 

pope 87 

excommunicated .... 85 
founds a tmiversity . . 87 
king of Jerusalem .. 88 

marriage of 86 

personal appearance 

of 87 

vows a crusade 88 

Wonder of the World 85 
Frederick II. of Bran- 

denburg 152 

"IronTooth" X52 

Frederick II. of Prussia . 230 

author 230 

claims SUesia 225 

described 230 

improves the peace . . 230 

lora of Silesia 238 

original 3^z 

pedigree of . . xvüi, xix 
swokI of, removed . . 276 

"theOreat" 234 

Voltaire visits 230 

Frederick III xvii. 146 

besieged 147 

children of 146 

death of 153 

father of 146 

indolence of X47 

secretary of Z46 

vowels adopted by . . 153 

wife of X46 

Frederick III. of Prussia — 

called"King" X53 

Frederick Augustus . 217, 224 
claims the kaiserite . . 2x8 
Frederick of Hohen- 

zollem 152 

buys Brandenburg .. 152 

character of 152 

Frederick of Saxony .... 217 
Frederick of Staufen 71 

Frederick the Gnaí 
FrederidcII ofPti 
Frederick the Haadi 

genealogy of 

Frederidc the On»<ji 
Frederick the WatiOi 

defeated by 23» 
Frederick theWintcrK 


Frederick the Wise.. 

protects Luthei 
Frederick-William 1 

described J 


the "Oréate 


anecdotesof .... 

character of ... 

calis toarms... 

pedigree of ... 

provokes war 

death of 

father of 

life of, attempt 

znother of .... 

pedigree of .. 

wife of 

Frce bench 

burghers ... 



Freher, Marquard 
Freinor, General. 
French pope, The 
thiitl revoluti 
Friburg cathedral 


Friedland, Battle 
Friedlingen, Batt 
Frisch, natturdist 
Frischlin, poet . . 
Friuli ,..\7..... 



wealthof .. 

Fulda, g rammar i 

Fulda (the town] 
Funck, John.... 
Fust, John .... 


Gall, phrenologi 
Gall(§t.) .._ 
Gánsfleisch, Joh 
Garter, Order of 
Gebhardo humil 
Geilana murd 



Genre poet, v, U 
Oentz, statesmai 
George II. at D 


marríes Lou 




m 107 

tope .... 44 

by 44 

ad of . ... 44 

tishop of 

.V "5 

. . . xxxii. 243 

1 naked . . 8 

ration . . 287 

le States . 288 

itions.... 286 


the .... 301 

:herland " 304 

>welected 8 

riod .... 144 

period .. 50 
regnum.. zo6 
en ..... . 70 

n ^ period 18 
erioid .... 31 

es 173 

riod .... 297 
rman .... z 

d 31 

re in Ger- 
xxiv-xlv. 246 
Prince of " xl 



m army . zo 
chaste .. 8 
Hermann Z4 

)ed 7 

oíd water 8 

s 8 


id 238 

>f 7 



iFrance. 3zz 

nch in- 



)f Rudolf Z07 

i of 9z 

an xl 

:alist .... xl 

in Pliny" 206 

set xxxv. 252 

ai>her . xxxv 

atist .. xxxv 







t xxxii 


fírst, V, 


:entury.. 68 
. ..xxxvL 260 
voQ .. xzix 


Gobelinus Persona Z44 

Godfrey of Bouillon .... 67 
Godfrey of Viterbo xxvi. 71, 
^ , 74, 82, 84 

Goethe xl. 249 

Goetz, the Iron-handed xxx 
Goldast, historian .... xxxii 
Golden age of Germany . 248 
Golden buU, The .... 74, X26 
Golden period of Eng- 

land xxxi 

Golden period of France xxiv 

Germany xxxviii 

Italy ^^^ 

minne-singers .... xxvii 

Portugal xxix 

Prussia 293 

Gonthier xxvii. 82 

Gosbert Z7 

Goslar built 42 

court of Henry IV. . . 57 
demanded by duke 

_ Henry 78 

Gothic alphabet 29 

Scríptures ij 

Gothofredas X07 

Goths zs 

apostle of the X7 

converted Z7 

Ostro- z6 

VUi. z6 

Gottfried of Strasburg . . 94 

Gottsched xxxvi. 24;^ 

Gotz, poet xxxvi 

Graf 310 

" Grammatical Cynic" xxxiii 
GrandmasteroftheVehm zo2 

Granite redoubt 270 

" Grave," The Z44 

Gravelotte, Battle of . . . . 294 
Great, The— 

Ilenry 2 

Otto 37 

Great dulces, The 98 

Gregory V 44 

Gregory VI 54 

Gregory VII., Death of . 62 

deposed 60, 6x 

dying words of 62 

objects of his Ufe .... 62 
quarreb with Henry 

IV 59 

Gregory IX 88 

death of ^ 89 

quarrels ofl with Fre- 

derick II 89 

Grillparzer, poet xl 

Grinun, Barón F. M xl 

Grimm, brothers xl. 307 

expelied from Gottin- 

gen 290 

Grimín, Jacob xli 

Gross Beeren. Battle of . . 280 
Grossmann 01 Berlin . . xxxvi 

Grotius, Hugo xxxiv 

Grubcr ^ ^ xli 

Grunbeck, historian . . xxx 
Gryph,Andrew ..zxxiL 24» 


Guelf 58, 7z 

house of 70 

dynastic table of . . . . xvi 

and Ghibelins 72 

Guelfl 70 

GuelflI 70 

Guericke, Otto de xxxii. 2zo 

Guido d'Arezzo 53 

Guilds, Common Z64 

^ literary xxxi. Z64 

Guiscard 61 

Gunhild 53 

Gunpowder Z23 

Gunsburg, Battle of 264 

Gunther xvi. Z2^ 

Gunther, poet xxxvi 

Gustavus Adolphus Z99 

death of 20Z 

" Snow king " Z99 

victories of 200 

GQtenberg, John Z54 

Gutzkow of Berlin xli 

Gypsies Z72 

Habsburg, meaning of . . Z07 

last of the Une 2Z7 

Habsburger kin^s Z46 

Hacusser, historian .... xli 

Hagedom, poet xxxvi 

Hannemann xli. 250 

Halem, historian xu 

Halle, Battle of 274 

Haller xxxvi. 258 

Hamann xxxvi. 258 

Hamburg 220 

customs in 220 

enlarged 79 

Hammerlein xxix 

Hamiltrude x8 

Handel xxxvi. 260 

Hanno 57 

Hansa^ zoz» 

dties, self-govemed . Z7X 

Hanseatic league zoz 

Harold Blue-tooth 39 

baptized 39 

revolt of 42 

Hathburga 31 

Hardenberg, Novalis. . . . 301 
Harmonia's Necklace . . 40» 
Harounal Raschid's clock 87 

Hartmann, Moritz xli 

Hartmann von der Aue. . 92 
Hartz mines opened .... 42 
Hatto eaten by mice .... 30 

Hauff of Stuttgart xli 

Hawking party ........ 30 

Haydn xlL 261 

"HcavyPeg" zs2 

Hebel xli. 303 

Hebrew Bible printed . xxix 

Hgdel, The 97 

HedeUntch 97 

Hederig, daughter of 

kud^f Z07 

Hedwig 3Z 

maníes Hughes .... 31 
Heer-bann , 35 

I.'^*En~¿lajid i¡S 

Hodel. neíddf » 

Henry ti» BLl^ ja 

chaCnMl S> 

"ojry tha LÍoa,of Savony 70 

i.-: ;íj 

found& Munich,.. 

nuda !□ Eagland . . 

I Heiuj Ihr 1 

Holimdn.plüIfiiD ' 

Holctcin fíef of L 
held by Aiuñ -' 
,, by Dsflai • 
„ by SaMCI ... 

HSlty, pon .. 


Holy Loigue 

Holy plues .. 

Haly Rom^Ei 


: Hdi 

a df Poiñenun* >. 

nchd, SirW lU. 3 

Ho bem oütro - 


5. Divua_^ 

Htosv¡u. -tliepTieas-l 
Hubeinbiirg, hKiil..' 

Hughald ." 

Hughes couDIotnó 

I Hugo of Trymbcri.... 
Hungariafu, vha.-.-- 

» Hilátbramd, Hyma t 

. HUdfpird 

: HildEgarda, St. ....J 

. Hildcgardc 





ianised 45 

f Germany .... 312 
a kingdoin .... 45 

,John 147 

o x6 

ibed ^ 16 

istorian xxxiii. 194 
in Z36 


ded 137 

ar 141 

ülowed the cup 145 

-eedom 1^2 

Jias xxxiii 

Hildebrand .. 29 

saw, &c 183 


ning of X04 


aterialism .... 257 

Philosophy of . . 257 

)f contraríes . . 25jr 

:tor xhi 

>, The Z44 


nn, dramatist . . xlíi 
■Augustus .... 22 

:hamber 159 



purgatoríus.... Z70 
:es, Price of . . . . 176 

! of 176 

c, Battle of . . . . 275 

III 84 

ntionsof 87 

IV 89 

»wns Frederíck 


VIII., bull 
instwitcnes.... 322 


al State, thir- 

:entury Z04 

" Augsburg X83, Z84 

hrough Z84 

Lim, The Great. zo6 

ic períod Z07 


« V.- 55 

nnthia Z22 

isals Z2X 

ion of, settled . . 64 

:s, The 269 

in Tauris .... 250 

n of Lombardy 77 

buming .... 83 

lity " V, Haller 


wife of Frede- 


Basel xxxvi 

issacre 42 

se of Germany . 40 
s' cave Z17 


ÍAcoBi, philosopher .... xlii 
aeger 82 
ames of Kdnigshofen . xxviü 

eanned'Arc Z34 

emappes, Battle of .... 265 

_ ena, Battle of 276 

Jerome Bonaparte's king- 

dom 274 

Jerome oí Fragüe Z38 

bumt .... é. Z39 

Jesuits, Order of Z72 
ews, Persecution of . . . . Z29 

quarters 320 

tradesmen 3^ 

ÍJoachim I. the Néstor . xvui 
joachim II. xvüi 
oachim Frederick .... xvüi 
oan, pope zx3 

wife of Wenceslaus . . z 30 
„ killed by a dog . Z30 

Íohn X 49 
ohn XI 49 

John XII. crowns Otto. . 4X 

deposed 41 

proflieate 49 

son of Marosia 49 

ohn XIII 37 

ohn XIV 49 

ohn XVI 44 

ohnXVII 49 

JohnXXII.or XXIII. xx8,X39 

infamous X39 

tiara wom by ^ X36 

Íohn Frederíck, prísoner. x8^ 
ohnGeorge xviii 

ohn Nepomuk «. X3^ 

ohn of Becka. ....... xxviu 

ohn of Transylvania .... x8x 

ohn Paul xlii. 2^^ 

ohn Sigismund xviu 

ohn, the Cicero xvüi 

olanthe 85 

ordanus ^^ xxiv 

oseph I xvü. 207 

biographers of 207 

children of 207 

deathof 2x7 

father of 207 

mother of 207 

wife of 207 

Joseph II xvüi. 24X 

death of 241 

Josephine, death of 28x 

divorced 278 

a"goodangel" .... 278 
Joyeuse^ La 19 

Judgment of the cross . . 23 
udith, daughter of Ru- 

dolf X07 

Julius II X57 

sick z6x 

KiCSTNBR xxxvi 

Kaiser 308 

emp. of the Rbmans . 308 

of the West . . . . 308 

ofH.Rom.empire 308 

titles of the ..,.,.,. 3x0 



Kaiser Augustus 23 

elects the pope 37 

independent of pope xxg 
last crowned by pope x8o 

pope's X24, X25 

two simultaneous xo6, xx8 
Kaisers, Wives of the . . xxii 
Kaiserlautem, Battle of . . 263 

Kalkbrenner xliL 261 

Kamerer .^ 155 

founds Heidelbei^g 
university ........ X55 

Kant, philosopher xlü. 354, 256 

Karl X24 

the Fat xiv. 25 

the Great {¡tee Charle- 

Karl IV xvi. X24 

commentaríes of . . . . X24 

deathof Z26 

leamed X25 

pope's kaiser X24 

universities founded 

by X25 

KarlV. xvü. X73 

abdication of X85 

and Luther X75 

biographers of X73 

captives liberated by. X87 

chief events of X73 

children of X73 

coronationof X78 

emperor x8o 

escape of X84 

father of X73 

gourmand X85 

in retirement x86 

king of Lombardy . . x8o 

momer of X73 

personal appearance . X85 
retires to St. Juste . . 185 
visits Luther's tomb . 183 

wife of X73 

Karl VI. ^ xviL 207 

accession of ^ . . 2x7 

biographers of 207 

chs^acter of .... 2x7, 2x8 

children of 207 

deathof 2x7 

father of 207 

last Habsburger .... 217 

lastyearsof 2x7 

mother of 207 

wife of 207 

Karl Albert X94 

Karl Albert of Bayaría . . 224 
Karl duke of Styría . . . . X94 

Karl VII xviL 226 

deathof X29 

Karl Gunther X24 

sells the crown Z24 

Karlovingian períod .... z8 

dynasty xiv 

Karlstein castle Z25 

Katharine, daughter of 

Rudolf Z07 

Kepler xxxiü. Z93, 206 

Kcnier,poet.. .......... xlii 

Rha^Hihalkr, T.C-, 

KÍQCof luly^m tille.... 4a 
Xine of iWiHii, Fínt . . 153 

Kinc sf 81U 173, jen 

Kins otf'ÜMi Rdnuu ai, s^ ^ 

KinEd, pKl 

Klonm, BUHiiiiu of ..., 131 
XUtifEriirrnDErart.... nllí 

Kloptiack ■!' 


liad lb(> 

„ gilIBpun ..... 


KOn^BinUí Bulllenr.... t 
KOnig^xrg faimded . . . . 1 

Kwmd. Rcvoltof 


Knanti (OH of Heory tV. 

kingal Burgundy ,. 
Badc líds hetcdltuy 

Kooraaill.iüüüi'i^^ ■ 



KHciiidu , . 

KrHUfecA, Loo* _ , . , j 

Knnli, Albcit x; 

KnrdJ, Bttde sf ... 
Knuniniidia, T. W. s 
■ r, G. p, » 

&-.r*;: ::::::::: "^ 

KuhDe xlü 

Kulm, BudaoT ^Sa 

KuiMTidori; Baulc al".'. 336 

íuIrtoT.. .,1 

I^epoJd ai H«pin . 
L«cn>o]d dT Abioi.-... 

dadiof „^ 

Leopold, DcTeu <■ 

Seíanuch .-,_ 

LcDpúfd, tbcDup^ - 


Lieba-lcühn of B«^.* 

KuuctdC WeitpWia . K 

Kulibach, Butle of 2B11 1 Ueeóiii, Bailíc(4^ 

Kyffhlunrbttj Bi j-'lihl of Ihe Watt' 


LflvoDÍa pan of Gennaii- - - 

Ijwimdicd : 


LíHgue, The Holy 

The Smallcaldic ... 
Leapie of Cambnjr . . _ 


Lemanu», Laka j 

Leolll ; 


' <X. agalnstLulhu.. i; 

LcDDold T.....„. 

Lip, TbeAJiílnu*!., 

Líutprand ..,.-. 


gíyeo 10 lul» _ 


fief oíGenUBTi 




Memdfouaded 151 

Mendel (Neander) .... 303* 
Mcodelaaohn, Moms 258 

'^Nadurnthejetr".. 948 
MendeUaohn, Félix .xliL 30^ 

llengs, aitist xxzvii 

llenu, MV Maiiu 

Menad oT SUeñ xlü 

Mercator xxx. 194 

MeneborS| Battle oí ... . xa 
Mery sor Seine, Battle oí a8i 

Mtsst'mAt Th4 347 

llesmer xlü. 258 

llessalina oí Gcnnany . . 114 
Metcemich xliü. a88 

oompelled to reúgn . . 388 
Meyerbeer. . . . xlUL a6z, 307 
** Michael Angelo oT 

Music** xl. 960 

Michaelis xxxvü. 94j{ 

MichjMlis, poet .... xxxvu 

Migneton Kari V 186 

Miuui invested 77 

AliUtary music 36 

Militia 35 

Aljüeúmo, Battle oí ... . 367 

AlUner. quoted 179 

Mihiaaes' reward 33« 

Minden,^ Battle of 336 

Minne'singen 91 

lavscompüed .... xxvtii 

Miracfe playa xxvi 

Misnia, margraviate of . . 33 

Mobs, despoiic 49 

Modera History 17^ 

Momnisen, historian .... xlm 

Monads 244 

Mondovi, battle of 367 

Money-bote 49 

Montebello. Battle of. . . . 364 

M >ntecucuíli 3x3 

Montenotte, Battle of . . 367 
Montmirail, Battle of.. .. 38x 
Moreau, Retreat of .... 367 

Morell, Andrew szo 

Morgarten, Battle of lao 

Morgenblatt of Stutt- 

gart xliü 

Morhofof Weimar .... xxxiii 
Moritz 183 

deserts the kaiser .... 184 

Moscow expedition 2^q 

Mosen, poet xlüi 

Mdser, Franklin of Ger- 

many xxxvü 

Mosheim xxxvü. 363 

Mouse-tower 30 

Mozart xxxvü. 361 

Mühlberg, Battle of .... 1B3 

Müldorf, Battle of . . 118 

Müller, astronomer xxix. 155 
Müller, historian . . . .xliü. 303 

Müller, K. O xliü 

Müller, W., poet xlüi 

Munich founded ........ 79 

capital of Bavaria . . 98 
Munster, the " Germán 
Strabo " xxxi. sos 


Mant deaerts Napoleón . 284 i NOraberg, Battle of .... i 

Mnmer xzxL x68j* meaningof 7 

Musctts xxxvü. 303 

Music at death 206 

MUitary 36 

MutpeUuimt xxiv. 39 

Mussato xxviii. X17 

Mythkal school 305 

notedfortoys ?| 

Peaceof i| 

St. Laurenoe ?| 

Oak-trsbs, Thepiaaaíi^l 

Oathof Ottol (I 

Objective, Meaningof ..M 

Octama >P| 

Odin \ 

Olbers xi£*| 

Olearíus of Anhalt .... sal 

Olmutx, Battle of A 

Oh. Uf Pratuel f\ 

^ — _, Opera introduced .J^\ 

refusedalevy 384 I Opitz xnáif 

Namss Latinised . . . 

Napoleón I. abdicates 

banished to EUfaa. 

St. Helena . 


downfall of a8o 

ipe from EUba. . . . 385 






aecood marria^^ .... 278 

son boro to 278 

Nap<^eon's son 278 

king of Rome 278 

Nartnschiff 167 

tfatlumtktjew 248 

Natura naturans ^.^ 253 

Neander xlüL 30^, 306 

Nepomuk, John ..xxviu. 133 

murdened 133 

Neresheim, Battle of . . . . 263 

Ñero of Germany x8o 

Nestorof Philosophy.... xliü 
Neukomm, musicum .... xliü 
Neumarkt, Battle of .... 264 
New Testament, Luther's 178 
Newton, Sir Isaac 194 

death of 207 

Ney, Marshal 273 

brave des braves .... 372 
Nibelungenlúd xxvü 

anaivsed 93 

Nice.yieided to France 367,393 

Nicholas V., Pope 146 

Nicholas of Cusa 155 

"Nightingale of Wit- 

temberg " x6;r 

Nicolai of Berlin xliii 

Niebuhr, historian xliü 

Nimeguen, Peace of .... 314 

Nitgard xxiv 

Nobiling, regicide 301 

Nobles, highwaymen .... 68 
Nominalists Z04 

creed of the 104 

Non-ego 356 

Norbert, St. xxvi. 64 

founds Premonstre- 

tensians 64 

Nordlingen, Battle of 195, 303 
Noreia, where xn 

Battle of I 

Northmen, who 36 

invade Germany .... 36 

slaughtered 26 

Nostrodamus ^ 164 

Notker, historian xxv 

Notker, the Stammerer xxv 

Nountena • . 256 

Novalis xliü. 301 

Novi, Battle of 269 

Ordeals "^ 

Ossian imitated 00 

Ostrach, Battle of ....•■ 4 
Otfríed's Evangtl..ixS' > 

Ottol í 

beard of ^ 

chief events of 3 

children of I 

coronation of f 

death of ^ 

deposes pope I 

empire c^ "% 

fatner df. ? 

kaiser # 

kine of Italy 3 

mouier of • S 

no scholar ^ 

oath of 4í 

personal appeaiaDOC' 41 

the Lion ? 

ivars of T 

■wives of 3» 

Otto II 41 

children of '^ 

emperor elect <* 

father of ^ 

marriage of *^ 

xnother of 4^ 

poisoned 4i 

the Bloody C 

"wife of f 

Otto III «i 

emperor elect 43 

pil^^mage of 43 

potsoned ♦» 

Saracens defeated by << 
taught by Gerbert .. *♦ 
WonderoftheWorid 4; 

Otto IV. 70,5* 

abdicates ^ 

Otto, Bishop xxvü. !> 

Otto of Brandenburg.... ^' 

Freysingen "^ 

Wittelsbach ^ 

Otto the Bloody «J 

Otto the Infant ? 

Otto the Great * 

Ottathe Illustrions .... ? 
refuses the crown .. ? 

Otto the Saxon 5 

disfiefcd J 




Otto the swordbearer. ... 76 

and the le^te 76 

3tto von Guencke^ sxo 

3ttokar of Bohemia .... 1 10 

death of xxz 

homage done by . . . . zxo 
!)udenard, Battle of . 207, 2x6 

OivlglasSy Thyl z68 

i>xenstierQ 203 

Pacific, The 146 

Pa^es, Duties of ico 

Pamtine (counts) 46H 

Pa las, natiualist. . . .xliii. 25^ 

Pa m, The order of xxxi 

Palsgiaf of the Rhíne — 

elector 125 

struck off the coUege 126 

restored 126 

regent.^ 126 

Pandects discovered .... 65 

Pantheism 2^^^^ 

Paper Mills set up . . . . xxviii 

Pappenheim ^ 201 

Paracelsus ....xxxi. 190, 191 

real ñame of 191 

Pardons, Sale of 177 

Parrícide, l'he 64 

París, Peace of 281 

entered by allies .... 284 

siege of 300 

surrenders 284 

Parzival 93 

Pascal III. 74 

Passau diocese estab- 

lished 18 

treaty of 184 

Patrician of Rome 22 

Charlemagne 22 

Henry IIl. 54 

Paulus, theologian xhii 

Paulus Diaconus xxiv 

Pavia, Battle of x8o 

Peace of Aix - la - Cha- 

pelle ^ 329 

Amiens 271 

Berlin 227 

Cambray z8o 

Carlovitz 213 

Crespy 183 

Dresden 228 

Frankfort 300 

God 51 

Hubertsburg 238 

Lunéville 271 

Nimeguen 214 

Nümberg z8i 

Paris 281 

Prague 297 

Presburg 273 

Radstaot 217 

Ryswyk 214 

Utrecht 217 

Westphalia 204 

Peasants, dress of six- 

teenth centiiry 172 

Peculium, A 27 

Península war 277 


Pennyless, The 156 

People carry arms 63 

recognised 48 

State of, twelfth cen- 

tury 68 

Pepin le Bref 2z 

donation of 22 

Patrician of Rome.. 22 
Perpetual peace, The .... z6o 
Persón of the Godhead . . 1x4 
Persona, Gobelinus xxix. 144 

Pestalozá xliii. 259 

Petau xxxiv 

Peter of Hungary 54 

PeterScfUemihl 302 

Peter Squenz 943 

Peter the Hennit 66 

compared with St. 
Bemard 72 

eloquence of 66 

Peter's (St.) founded 257 

Petrarch 225, 127 

Petrus a Vineis 90 

Peurbach, George . .xxix. 155 
Pharsalia, Battle of .... zi 

Phenomena, what 256 

Phílander xxxiii. 242 

Philipp of Snabia 84 

Phílipp, son of Maxi- 
miíian 159 

the grandfather of 
Charles V 159 

the Handsome 159 

Philippell 84 

Auguste 80 

Philosopher's stone unde- 

sírable 163 

Philosophy of identíty . . 257 

Phlogiston, what 245 

Phrenology 259 

Physiognomy 259 

Phjrsiology, father of . . . . 258 

Picaresco romance 241 

Piccini 260 

Piccolomini, £. S 146 

Piccolomini, General .... 2ox 

Pierre des Vignes 90 

Pious kings 51 

Pirkheímer, historian., xxxi 
Place of Oaks, The . . ... 151 
Platner, phílosopher xliii. 259 

Plato's"idea" 104 

Pleyel, musician. . . .xliii. 261 

Pliny 206» 

" Phny of Germany " 206 

Podiebrad excommtmi- 
cated 147 

made king 247 

rescues AÍbert II. . . 147 

Pog^íus, on Jerome 239 

Poitiers, battle of 125 

Poland christianised .... 45 

free state 46 

king^om, a 45 

partition of 239 

Polish succession, War of 217 
Política! state of Germany 47 

twelfth century 68 


Politian .^ xi;r 

Polyglots, polyhístors . .xxxhi 

Paor Henry 92 

Pope — 

election of, by kaiser 37 

first French 44 

free . .^ 54 

kaiser's consent re- 

quired 55 

Pope Joan 113 

Pope's kaiser 224, 125 

power curtailed 145 

temporalitíes, whence 22 
Portugal, Golden age of xxix 
Portuguese navy foimded 157 

Posen, a see 39 

Potsdám 250 

battle of 274 

battle of 274 

built 2^0 

Poussin ^ xxxiv 

Pragmatic sanction 219 

of Charles VII. .. 317» 

KarlVI. 217 

St. Louis 2x7» 

Prague, Battles of . . 295, 234 

peace of 297 

university founded . . 126 
Precocious boys .... 318, 2x9 
Pre - estailiuied Har- 

ntony 244 

Prelates of Germany 99» 

Premonstretensíans, Tlie, 

founded ; . 64 

Presburg, Peace of 273 

Preussen, see Prussia 
Priestly power, Rise of . . 48 
Prince of Wales' feathers 125 
Princes of Germany .... 99» 
Printed book, The first . . 123 
Prínting invented . . 244, 154 

valué of 154 

Procop 143 

the Holy 143 

Protestants, origin of . . . . x8o 

Prussia 2x8 

amber trade of 46 

ceded to Poland .... 151 

converted x^x 

dynastic table xix 

first missionary to . . 150 

eolden períod of 293 

kings of xix. XXI 

natives of 150 

protestant X43 

severed from Austria. 291 

sketch of 249 

uncivilised 46 

under Teutonic 

knights 90 

Psalmorum Codex 254 

Psalter of Mainz 223 

Pueri regis 27 

Puífendorf xxxiii. 3x0 

Putrid plain 4 

Putter of Westphalia xliii 

Pyrenees, Treaty of the , 3x6 
Pythéas 250 


QuimitA'muLiTtv. m* 
Oum b». Buil* nf .. alj 

ijiiiimi. nhli nf xau 

Qhsiíb Dnraud 164 

R»«i.MAtm. **y_ 

Rjítaw.'.'.V.'.V.'.'.imiü. M 

RidHadt, Flacc a( ht 

KÚBla.pact vara 

tUmÜlica, Bullí sf . *aj, »6 

Rupon. Hcnrr íj 

KuUdt, Confiw of 169 

Kaliowl Scbool 306 

Ituo^ '^^™P'i vben ^. i* 

cnñd of Iha loi 


Red KiDE.TIiE 

Rtdl^^, TIm 

Rdomiuiai. LuihEr'i 
RigiUi. vhen k(v< ' 
R^edU fil*d 

Kf^indo, hluerían... 


Ranw, ninnllH 

Rcíbbcck. philvepkcT xxkvií 
Keíatodiu üf SaÜajt jobvíI 

R«Ínkt,_po« «lili 

ReiJiíií I bcpA- 

Rtligion ef aDcient Co- 

RcJiíknú F wc i<; 

Rgl«Í«uWu', FilM.... >B; 

RcninlIII J, 

RBiinition Eilicc !«{ 

JUaloru- Df kltsn 15! 

Rcu«t of Momii iS; 

Rívanuc, Sourcq of - . - . 4^ 
Revolution, Vtcoítbt.. t3' 

JtrjmUTi tié Fox i6c 

Kluiíieke lurriL 16] 

Rhine palk^rmf, clcclor .. 1^ 

Rkbit-íyalck,'Tkr" '.'.','. 3Q1 
Richud lion-hun 8< 

Richud dulu dT CÓrniñili loé 

prodisality of .... 
Síchur, jHinI'aul..il 

Ring giren lo pnluct 

RZtLer, geofirsphcr 


S»llM, Fi^diíitlt™ 

Subuh, BlUleor. 
Savoy ceded la Fnim 






dulce of.el«« 



Schelling ili 

Schsikei^orf. pM 



Scluauck,'lxther ii[ Gil 

SchbpPi t&tírüt ..... 
SchwaLbaii[»«d . . . . . 
Sdiwan, Bcnluild ... 

Scioppiiu, Gtopar _.. 

Seal of Cpemany 

Seáis firít nsed 

Seaions, dciIt úan . 




SlUerobcs T'^'t^ ^^H 


::: «? 

SS^,T<ÁÍT?. ..'!.. 

si™i^.t™mi,;¿i¿d:: í,s ^^H 

Sloa, waDd.caTver 171 ^^^^B 

Slrasburg oHhedñiL ' '. '. 46. j7 *! 
seuod 114 

Strauis, philoiopl^^v; n^ . . 

Simfb-ciu. Simfbn 

jfl- "^ 

eennen, Duiitl 


Sil daughlcn wed 

.. IOS 


.. i 

.. 39 

Sleidm n 

Sliswis fortificd .... 



SnulkaldJc wu .... 



!icaTm,J.U.....mviü. í¡a ^^^M 
EivBl ,10 a ÍÍah;D-' ^^1 

SívipiE, Mad. 

uamlaled is 

hauMDT ^ ^^1 

■nvIeacÍRLe » ^^H 

soin-orBoib...... ixx<^ ^^H 

Sumum» 1Í9 ^^^H 

Swan,OnUr'i¡rtlU.'."!!;inut ^^^| 
Swedo' Udhc, Th mi ^^^| 

s-diiS".:::::: ::: •;: 

:: '36 

lál ni 









^^5iS":::::-:-: 1 H 

Tuacum.Thc "!! í^ ^^^| 


TuibclUiiiLrilideríck'.'.'ilum ^^^| 
l^.d.^&Tii^'^.iril.d':.^! ^^1 



SiMfried.murjnif rf... 

Siarid, chioiiicla 

Sigobert, hÚEorian.... 
Sie Sigmund. 

Sppdiu. novclitt ... 






GiginnDd dT BreádVñbi^^ 

SiUnuidefealed "^ 


Tauconic knÍEh» ¡a ^^^H 

buUd dt»! in PniuU ISI ^^^H 








BÜgnte •oaünñurds . i 

ovcrtoTOvn ^4 


Theodorm 49 

Tbedofy 30^ 

broád church 906 

erangelíod 306 

histortcal 306 

mythtcal 306 

iiAtional 306 

Tubtn^en 306 

Thcophania 37i 4». 43 

Thcophylaunus 49 

llieory of the B«Mitiful . 357 
Thicrry de Niera . . xxix. 144 

lliiench xhv 

Third estáte cmted 48 

llúrty-nine articles .... z8om 
Thírty-year»' war . . 1^6-1105 

llionuuius xxxvut. 946 

Thor 9 

Thorn founded 151 

treatyof 151 

*'Thucydid¿s, Germán" . xhii 

ThOmmel, novelist xlv 

Thunder-clap battle .... 373 

Thuríngia zi3 

Tiara 54* 

added 136» 

Tiberíus II xx 

treachery of xx 

Tieck xlv. 303 

Tdly 199 

TiUit, Treaty of 376 

Timur the Tartar X35 

Tinstel. the age of xxxi 

Titurel 94 

Tolmar martyred 179 

Tolosa^Toulouse 3 

gold of 3, 368 

Torgau, Battie of 338 

Torstensohn ....••. 203 

honours paid hiin .... 303 
Toumaments in&títuted . . 34 

rcvived 120 

Towns 48, 100 

chartered lox 

church 48 

ducal 48 

free 48 

Germán 99» 

imperial 48 

pertaln to feudal lord loi 

Toy-making 170 

Trade connned to Jews. . 35 

disreputable 36 

encouraged 35 

unions loi 

Transmutation of metáis 

undesirable 163 

Transubstantiation 1x4 

Transylvanla 220 

manners, &c., of . . . . 220 

Traun, Battie of 264 

Treaty of— 

Campo Formio 368 

Constance 74 

Tilál 376 

Verdun 9$ 

Vienna a^8 

Trecenttsciperiod xzuc 

Treixsurwein »itTrü. 156 

Trent, Diet of_ x8i 

Treves, Archbishop oT . . 45» 

elector zo8, 1^5 

dmstiaiúsed z6 

Tristón and Yseult .... 94 

Trítheim, Tohn xxxL 170 

Trojan ff^r (Gemian> . . 91 

Truce of God ^ 5a 

Tichech, r^idde a8^ 

Tachimnausen.^ joorviu 

Tichudi, historian xxxi 

Tubingen School 306 

Tue, The war-god 9 

Tugend bund 382 

Turanian stock 6 

Turenne 9x4 

Tarín, Battie of sz6 

Turks overthrown 147 

by Sobieski 3x2 

Tatik>ofSt. Gall xxt 

Two simnltaneons kai- 
ser» zzS 

Tycho otttwits Adalbert . 63 

Tycho Brahe xxxiv. 293 

Types, metal 154 

movable 154 

wooden 154 

Tyrol, The 321 

dress in 331 

govcmor of Syñ - 
Vasco da Gana .. 

Uhland 304 

Uhland, poet xlv. 283 

Ulfilas 17 

silver code of 39 

Ulm, Battie of 273 

cathedral spire 97 

Ulrích, Antón 241 

Ulñch Boner 123 

Undine 302 

Unlversity, the ñrst. . . . xxvüi 

ofHeidelberg 155 

KOnigsberg .... 153 

Vienna 126 

Uranos discovered 259 

Urbanll 66 

promotes crusade . . 67 
UrbanlV 57 

excommunicated .... ^^ 

Usteri, poet xxxviii 

Ut, re, me, &c 53 

Utrecht, First bishop of . 17 

Peace of 21^ 

Uz, poet xxxviii 

Valmy, Battie of 265 

Van der Velde xlv 

Van Helmont 254» 

Varesa, where 5« 

Varillas on Luther xSs 

Ci ..... 
mpñcdcf • 

vidiiiigericnt — 

jndgments of Ae... 
mooíe of triil br ... 

oathof iidc&y 

oatb of secncj..." 


Veoetia gxvcn to Itilj >< 


Vercélli, wliere < 

Verdui», Treatyof 

Veré, Sir Honce -^ 

Veroaa, Battie of. -41 

Versailles of GeiaaT -*| 

Víctor IIL ?l 

Viexina ^1 

cathedial «re f| 

Congress 01 «^I 

Frenchenter »>R| 

manoers, && 4l 

siegeof »l 

treatyof. Jl 

uxiiverstty of '*l 

Vnia Viciosa, Battkrf..i^ 

ViUeins í 

in sross c -- '1 


VionvUle, Batdeof »| 

Virjjil, The prelate .. 
yísions, MarvtUoui^ fc. * 

Vives .^.c* 

Vogel, mtisidan. .zzzvffl. A 
Vogtfl, Dr. explorer..á».« 
Vo^ler , inusician .... ¿». * 

Voiture xo? 

yolsungeuage ^ 

Voltaire in JPrussia ? 

JLife cf Freitñá 

ir. ^ 

Voss, poet xIt- ^. 

Vou-U " 

Wachtbr, philologist xxxrj 
Wagner, musidan . . xIt- "f 

Wagrarn, Battie of "^ 

.(1809) ^' 

Waitz, anthropologist.... x-Í 
Walch, historian .... x»*^ 
Waich, naturalist.... xxx^j; 

Waldau, novelist ** 

Waldemarll ^ 

Waldis xxxL^j 

Wallenstein >* 

adminü of the east.. J» 

xnurdered ^: 

Walter Lollard xx^^ 

Walterthe Pennyless.... í* 
Waltervon Vogelweide.. « 
^alth^r 0/ Afmtmüu ..xxJ» 




ustro-Pnusían .. 395 
.nco>Austrian .... 292 
iicoPnissian .... 297 

ssite X4X 

linsula 277 

ish Succession . . 217 

'en-months' 397 

•en-weeks* 295 

'en-years' 232 

ísian, First 225 

Second 327 

Third 232 

inish Succession.. 215 

ligious 183 

irty-years .... 196-205 

rkish 211 

Lh France 213 

', grand-duchy . . 277 
bere, Battle of . . 280 

ried, Paul xxiv 

o'er the Rhine . . 305 

K), Battle of 285 

xlv. 261, 305^ 

:rlin, lyrícpoet. . xxxiii 

General 236 

erg, Siege of . . . . 72 

oles of ^2 

poet xxxviii 

dramatbt xlv 

iburg, Battle of . . 299 
lade king .....'... 57 
ey's Peninsula 

••' «77 

^on 380 

laus , Z30 

ads Zisca 243 

g of Rome 127 

rders Nepomuk . . 133 
rders his wifc . . . . X30 
laus of Bohemia . 37 

rdered 37 

, archbishop of 
z Z08, Z09 


Werner, Count 51 

death of 51 

Wemher, poet xxvii 

Wernlcke, poet xxxviii 

Werther 350 

Wertingen, Battle of . . . . 364 
Wessobrunn Prayer xxiv. 39 
Western empire revived . 32 
Westphalia, Kingdom of . 377 

peace of . . . .^ 304 

Wetiknig, historian .... xxv 

Wezel, novelist xlv 

What is the Germán 

fatherland f 304 

Wieland, poet xlv. 349 

Willamov, poet xxxix 

Willeram of Bavaria .... xxv 
William I. of Prussia. . . . 393 

father of. 393 

golden wedding of . . 301 

mother of 393 

son of 393 

wife of 393 

William archbishop of 

Mainz 37 

William of Holland . . 85, 90 

death of 90 

named kaiser . . 89, xo6 
William of Scotland .... 84 

William theGood 82 

William Tell 116 

mementos of. ii6n 

Wniibrod 17 

Wimple worn 68 

Winckelmann ....xxxix. 358 

Windeck xxix. 144 

Winfrid 17 

Wintergarden 113 

Winter king 197 

Winter queen 198 

Wippon xxv. 50 

Wissenberg, Battle of. . . . 197 
Witch túsis abolished . . 333 


^^tch tnals in AustrU .. 339 

Witche¿ Hammer ssa 

Witches persecuted 331 

bull a^ainst 333 

executions of, abo* 

lished 333 

last executions of . . . . 323 

Witikind, historian xxv 

Wittlesbach 98 

Wittstock, Battle of . 195, 30^ 

Wi ves, imperial xxit 

Woden 9 

Wolf, philoso^er xxxix. 346 
Wolfram von £schenbach 93 

Wolsey, Cardinal 158 

Wonder of the World . . 43, 85 
Worms, Concordat of . . . . 64 

diet of 178 

memorial of 179 

WOrth, Battle of 399 

Wurtchen, Battle of sao 

Würtzburg, Diet of 80 

dioceseof 18 

Wycliffe 137 

Xbnophon's retreat . . . .368» 

YouNG Germany 3041* 

ZachariíB, poet xxxix 

Zeller, theologian xlv. 306 

Zesen, Philip von xxxiv 

Zimmermann ....xxxix. 3^3 

Zinkgref, poet xxxiv 

Zisca, Blind 143 

leads the Bohemians. 141 
skin used for drums . 143 

one-eyed 143 

Zollverein, The 389 

Zopf, historian xxxix 

Zomdorf, Battle of 3^4 

Zschokka xlv 

Zwingli xxxi. 188 





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