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history meme: 01/05 queens | anne boleyn

Anne Boleyn was the second wife of King Henry VIII and served as Queen of England from 1533 to 1536. Her marriage to Henry resulted in his excommunication by the papacy and led to the English Reformation. Henry grew infatuated with Anne during her time at court as his wife, Catherine of Aragon’s, maid of honor and began his pursuit of her. Anne, however, refused to become Henry’s mistress as her sister Mary had been and vowed that she would only share his bed as his rightful queen. Thus, Henry dedicated himself to annulling his marriage to Catherine and marrying Anne. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, he wed Anne in secret and had his marriage to Catherine declared invalid by Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer as she had previously been wed to his brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales and therefore their subsequent marriage was a sin in God’s eyes. Anne was declared Queen on June 1 1533. However, public support remained largely in Catherine’s favor and Anne was dubbed the “oggle eyed whore” for seducing the king. However, several months into their marriage,Henry grew disinterested in her and began courting Jane Seymour, one of Anne’s maid’s of honor. Anne grew increasingly jealous at the attention Henry was giving Jane and the stress of her failing marriage and the pressure to give birth to a son, led to a series of miscarriages which further distanced her from the King’s affection. With a newfound intent to marry Jane Seymour, Henry began looking for reasons to end his marriage to Anne. He had her arrested on charges of incest, adultery, and high treason. Anne was executed on May 19 1536 and was survived by her daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth I.

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ancient history meme | 1 civilisation: ancient egypt

Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. The name ‘Egypt’ comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the ancient Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah’ (“Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah”), originally the name of the city of Memphis. To the ancient Egyptians themselves, their country was simply known as Kemet which means 'Black Land’ so named for the rich, dark soil along the Nile River where the first settlements began. Later, the country was known as Misr which means 'country’, a name still in use by Egyptians for their nation in the present day. Egypt thrived for thousands of years (from c. 8000 BCE to c. 30 BCE) as an independent nation whose culture was famous for great cultural advances in every area of human knowledge, from the arts to science to technology and religion. The great monuments which ancient Egypt is still celebrated for reflect the depth and grandeur of Egyptian culture which influenced so many ancient civilizations, among them Greece and Rome.

One of the reasons for the enduring popularity of Egyptian culture is its emphasis on the grandeur of the human experience. Their great monuments, tombs, temples, and art work all celebrate life and stand as reminders of what once was and what human beings, at their best, are capable of achieving. Nowadays, it is still regarded as one of the greatest civilisations of human history.

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history meme (french edition)  →  8 moments (5/8) The Disaster of Agincourt

“[Comments] suggest that in France chilvary was something to be confined to a significant extent to story books, courts and tournaments. Great wars had coloured the Middle Ages blood-red; the Hundred Years War, the Crusades, bitter civil conflicts across Europe, all had scarred the landscape of chilvary with an unttractive and utilitarian tint of pragmatism. Since the disastrous edeats at Crécy, Poitiers and elsewhere the French had managed to protect their country by avoiding pitched battles. The catastrophe at Agincourt was reversion to old, outdated tactics which the French thought that they had left behind them. Now Brabant, Alençon, and other great men were all dead, some struck down during the course of the battle and others slaughtered in cold blood.”    W. B. Bartlett, Agincourt

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history meme | one out of nine kings and queens

↳ King Jadwiga of Poland (reigning October 16 1384 - July 17 1399)

King Jadwiga of Poland, also known as King Hedwig, was the first female ruler of The Kingdom of Poland. With her ancestry connecting back to the native Piast dynasty of Poland, she is said to be the most Polish of all of Poland’s rulers. After her father’s death and much dispute over who was to be the next ruler of Poland, at roughly age eleven Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland as Polish law did not specify whether a King could be male or female – although this title is thought to have been given to her to distinguish the fact that she was not a queen consort but rather a queen regent.

Due to the fact that Jadwiga was a minor during the first years of her reign, she was merely a tool for her advisers to exploit. Jadwiga, however, matured quickly (particularly her charm and kindness) and strengthened her position and soon became a ruler in her own right. A notable part of her early rule includes her marching at the head of Polish troops to Ruthenia where all but one governors submitted her without opposition after a group of rebels murdered her mother. During the last years of her reign, Jadwiga’s strength as a leader continued to show as she was a skilled mediator – famed for her intelligence and impartiality. She strived to create peace between her country and the threats to it.

Jadwiga attended many charities and cultural festivals as ruler. She sponsored writers and artists and donated much of her personal wealth, including her royal insignia, to charity, for purposes including the founding of hospitals. She financed a scholarship for twenty Lithuanians to study at Charles University in Prague to help strengthen Christianity in their country, to which purpose she also founded a bishopric in Vilnius. Among her most notable cultural legacies was the restoration of the Kraków Academy.

Jadwiga gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth Bonifacia, on June 23 1399. Elizabeth died on July 13 1399. Jadwiga passed away soon after on July 17 1399. She was buried with her daughter in Wawel Cathedral on August 24 1399.

Jadwiga often prayed before a large black crucifix hanging in the north aisle of Wawel Cathedral. During one of these prayers, the Christ on the cross is said to have spoken to her. The crucifix, “Saint Jadwiga’s cross,” is still there, with her relics beneath it. Because of this event, she is considered a medieval mystic. According to another legend, Jadwiga took a piece of jewelry from her foot and gave it to a poor stonemason who had begged for her help. When the king left, he noticed her footprint in the plaster floor of his workplace, even though the plaster had already hardened before her visit. The supposed footprint, known as “Jadwiga’s foot”, can still be seen in one of Kraków’s churches. On June 8 1997, Jadwiga was canonized as a saint by Pope John Paul II. [x]

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history meme (french edition)  →  7 inventions/achievements (5/7) the foundation of the Montpellier school of medicine (1181)

“The famous charter that Count Guilhem gave to the scholars of Montpellier […] meant much more than a proof of liberality and tolerance. “I wish … that all persons whoever they are and wherever they hail from could hold school of physics in Montepellier without hindrance.” His charter was in fact issued in order to combat monopolies by competing masters seeking to keep students and income for themselves alone. // Historians at various times have posited Salermitan, Iberian Muslim and Jewish influences as sources of the early development of medicine at Montepllier. […] In general, however, evidence of knowledge of Salermitan and Arab medicine among Montpellier masters must be ascribed to their study of written works. Intellectual contacts between Jewis and Christian medical scholars and practitioners at Montpellier oudoubtedly took place. […] Montpellier had become known as a center of medical activity by about the middle of the twelfth century; medical teaching was being carried on there before the century’s end.”    J., Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine, and Medieval Society // N. G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine. 

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History Meme || {1/4} phrases
L E T  T H E M  E A T  C A K E ●

It’s one of the most famous quotes in history. At some point around 1789, when being told that her French subjects had no bread, Marie-Antoinette (bride of France’s King Louis XVI) supposedly sniffed, “Qu’ils mangent de la brioche”—“Let them eat cake.” With that callous remark, the queen became a hated symbol of the decadent monarchy and fueled the revolution that would cause her to (literally) lose her head several years later. But did Marie-Antoinette really say those infuriating words? No, there is no record of her ever saying it.

That aside, what’s even more convincing is the fact that the “Let them eat cake” story had been floating around for years before 1789. It was first told in a slightly different form about Marie-Thérèse, the Spanish princess who married King Louis XIV in 1660. She allegedly suggested that the French people eat “la croûte de pâté” (or the crust of the pâté). Over the next century, several other 18th-century royals were also blamed for the remark, including two aunts of Louis XVI. Most famously, the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau included the pâté story in his “Confessions” in 1766, attributing the words to “a great princess” (probably Marie-Thérèse). Whoever uttered those unforgettable words, it was almost certainly not Marie-Antoinette, who at the time Rousseau was writing was only 10 years old—three years away from marrying the French prince and eight years from becoming queen.

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history meme (french edition)  →  8 moments (6/8) The Dreyfus Affair

“Dreyfus had renounced the right to claim monetary compensation for wrongful imprisonment, but was awarded the Knight’s Criss of the Légion d'Honneur. Picquart, who became Minister of War, died six months before WWI broke out, from a horse fall. Esterhazy remained an innocent man, living in England until his death in 1923. Mathieu Dreyfus, who had become in the meantime the head of the family factories, died five years before his brother Alfred, in 1930. Lucie Dreyfus outlived her husband, and fled from France in 1942 before returning home at the end of WWII. Emile Zola died under mysterious circumstances in 1902. The Dreyfus Affair tells a story that needs no fictional embellishment. ‘What a poignant drama,’ Zola wrote in Le Figaro, ‘and what superb characters.’ Many books have been written about the miscarriage of justice in France in 1894 which led to the Affair. The tumult that divided France was of major and long-lasting significance in three interconnected histories – that of France, that of Israel and ‘above all’ that of Christianity.”   P. P. Read, The Scandal that Tore France in Two.

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On this day in Ottoman history - 5 July 1743 - Hatice Sultan, daughter of Mehmed IV, died:

“The assembly decided that the sovereign should proceed immediately to Constantinople, preceded by the sacred standard, and followed by the princes and his whole court. Before embarking, the Sultan wanted to once again take the advice of his sister, the Sultana [Hatice], who advised him to keep all his ministers close to himself, in order to keep his life by sacrificing theirs, in case the rebels asked for a satisfaction of this kind.”

Sound advice, but it did not preserve the Sultan from deposition. It must be said that this princess had had a good experience in the field, having already witnessed the revolt that resulted in the deposition of her father; besides, she was also among the elder women of the dynasty, an elder whom the years had made wise.“    – Juliette Dumas, Les perles de nacre du sultanat: Les princesses ottomanes (mi-XVe – mi-XVIIIe siècle) 

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history meme | four out of ten moments

↳ Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (19 April 1943 - 16 May 1943)

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising that occurred in the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest ghetto in German occupied Poland, in 1943 was the single largest Jewish revolt during World War II.

On 18 January 1943, the German forces began the second deportation of the Jewish in the Warsaw Ghetto. While families hid in “bunkers”, fighters of the ŻZW joined with the ŻOB and engaged the Germans in direct clashes. 5,000 instead of the targeted 8,000 were deported.

Hundreds were ready to fight. Both adults and children were armed with handguns, gasoline bottles, and few other weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto by resistance fighters. Most of the fighters were not fighting to save themselves but instead they saw fighting as a battle to retain the honor of the Jewish people and to protest the world’s silence.

The ŻZW and the ŻOB took control of the ghetto soon after the fighting that occurred on 18 January. They built fighting posts and built prisons to hold and execute traitors and Nazi collaborators (including Jewish Police officers, member of the fake [German sponsored] resistance organization Żagiew, and Gestapo & Abwehr agents).

On 19 April 1943 — the eve of Passover — police and SS forces entered the Warsaw Ghetto, planning to complete the deportation of the Jewish inhabitants in three days, but were ambushed by Jewish guerrillas who fired and tossed Molotov cocktails and hand grenades from alleyways, sewers, and windows. Two vehicles were set aflame by insurgent petrol bombs. That afternoon, two boys took to the rooftops and raised two flags — A red and white Polish flag and a blue and white ŻZW flag. The flags remained on the rooftop for three days. The flags reminded hundreds of thousands of not only the Jewish cause but the cause and strength of the Polish.

As the battle continued in the ghetto, the Polish insurgent groups AK and GL engaged the Germans at six different locations outside of the ghetto walls between the 19 and 23 April. In one attack, three units of the AK joined up in a failed attempt to breech the ghetto wall with explosives. The ŻZW eventually lost all of it’s commanders and, on 29 April, the fighters of the organization escaped the ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel and relocated to the Michalin forest. This marked the end of the significant fighting.

On 8 May, the Germans discovered a large dugout at Miła 18 Street which served as a ŻZW command post. Most of the remaining leadership and dozens others committed mass suicide by ingesting cyanide. Deputy Mark Edelman escaped the ghetto with comrades through the sewers two days later. On 10 May exiled member of the Polish government, Szmul Zygielbojm, committed suicide in protest of lack of reaction from the Allied governments.

The uprising was officially suppressed on 16 May 1943 when the Great Synagogue of Warsaw was demolished.

It is estimated that 13,000 Jews were killed during the uprising and most of the remaining 50,000 inhabitants of the ghetto were sent to concentration and extermination camps. Only 17 Germans deaths were recorded, although it is suspected their are much more.

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HISTORY MEME → [1/10] Moments: Battle of Westerplatte

On 1 September 1939, at 04:48 local time, the battleship Schleswig-Holstein, then on a “courtesy visit” to the Free City of Danzig, without warning opened fire on the Polish garrison. However, soon after crossing the artillery-breached brick wall, the attackers were ambushed by the Polish defenders, with small arms, mortar and machine gun fire from concealed and well-positioned firing points that caught them in a crossfire. Another two assaults that day were repelled as well, with the Germans suffering unexpectedly high losses.

Over the coming days, the Germans repeatedly bombarded Westerplatte with naval artillery and heavy field artillery along with dive-bombing raids by Junkers Ju 87 Stukas. Repeated attacks by the German soldiers were repelled by Polish soldiers for seven days. Major Henryk Sucharski had been informed that no help from the Polish Army would come. Cut off, with no reinforcements or chance of resupply, he continued his defense, keeping the main German force stalled at Westerplatte and so preventing further attacks along the Polish coast.

According to plans, Westerplatte was supposed to defend itself for six hours, and in reality fought for 7 days. During the fights, the Polish Radio continuously broadcast the message “Westerplatte still fights on” each morning of the battle.

Already during the war the defense of Westerplatte served as an inspiration for the Polish Army and people as the successful German advances continued elsewhere and even today is still regarded as a symbol of resistance to the invasion; a Polish Thermopylae.

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history meme | 6 women: Queen Anna Nzinga (c. 1583 – December 17, 1663)

Also known as Ana de Sousa Nzinga Mbande, was a 17th-century queen (muchino a muhatu) of the Ndongo and Matamba Kingdoms of the Mbundu people in Angola. She assumed control as regent of his young son, Kaza, who was then residing with the Imbangala. Nzinga sent to have the boy in her charge. The son returned, who she is alleged to have killed for his impudence. She then assumed the powers of ruling in Ndongo. In her correspondence in 1624 she fancifully styled herself “Lady of Andongo” (senhora de Andongo), but in a letter of 1626 she now called herself “Queen of Andongo” (rainha de Andongo), a title which she bore from then on. Today, she is remembered in Angola for her political and diplomatic acumen, great wit and intelligence, as well as her brilliant military tactics. In time, Portugal and most of Europe would come to respect her. A major street in Luanda is named after her, and a statue of her was placed in Kinaxixi on an impressive square in 2002, dedicated by President Santos to celebrate the 27th anniversary of independence. Angolan women are often married near the statue, especially on Thursdays and Fridays.

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HISTORY MEME → [10/10] Moments: Woodstock

The Woodstock Music & Art Fair—informally, the Woodstock Festival or simply Woodstock—was a music festival attracting an audience of over 400,000 people, scheduled over three days on a dairy farm in New York from August 15 to 17, 1969, but ultimately ran four days long, ending August 18, 1969.

Billed as “An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music”, it was held at Max Yasgur’s 600-acre (240 ha; 0.94 sq mi) dairy farm in the Catskills near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles (69 km) southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, in adjoining Ulster County.

During the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors before an audience of more than 400,000 people. It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, as well as the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation.

Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll.

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History Meme || {1/9} Kings or Queens
N E F E R N E F E R U A T E N  N E F E R T I T I ●

Nefertiti ruled alongside Akhenaten during the eighteenth dynasty. She lived in Tell El Amarna, a city constructed by the pharaoh to worship their god Aten. There, they safeguarded their family and their beliefs—it became the center of Egypt’s new religion.

During her reign as queen, Egypt went about many radical religious changes. Hundreds of years of culture and worship had been exchanged for a new radical concept— Monotheism. The old gods had been disregarded, temples shut down, and priests forced to change their ways. Many historians believe this transition could have been hostile and was not adopted so easily by the citizens or priests. 

Her reign with Akhenaten was unlike the traditional ways Egypt had seen. She was more than just a typical queen and helped to promote Akhenaten’s views. Her reign was only 12 years, but she was perhaps one of the most powerful queens to ever rule. 

Nefertiti is also known for her elegant beauty. Her bust has been an icon for many women and for many modern cosmetic lines. Many societies around the world have adopted the queen as a symbol of true beauty. 

history meme

Fun fact: I love history! So here’s a little meme I feel like doing, and if you feel like doing stuff for it too, feel free to do so :) Just tag it with “historymeme” and I’ll see your beautiful picspams/graphics/etc. 

  • one revolution
  • two quotes
  • three places
  • four wars/conflicts
  • five discoveries
  • six fashions/styles
  • seven events
  • eight technologies/inventions
  • nine places
  • ten people