Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary
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|Elisabeth of Poland|
|File:Elżbieta Łokietkówna z dziećmi.JPG|
|Elisabeth of Poland with her sons|
|Spouse||Charles I of Hungary|
|Louis I of Hungary and Poland|
Andrew, Duke of Calabria
Stephen, Duke of Slavonia
Catherine, Duchess of Świdnica?
Elizabeth of Hungary?
Charles of Hungary
Ladislaus of Hungary
|House||House of Piast (by birth)|
House of Anjou (by marriage)
|Father||Władysław I the Elbow-high|
|Mother||Jadwiga of Greater Poland|
|Died||29 December 1380|
She was a member of the Polish royal clan of Piast, the daughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high, prince of Kujavia and Jadwiga of Greater Poland, she was the sister of Casimir III the Great, King of Poland and the last ruler of Piast dynasty, who died in 1370. Her sister was Kunigunde of Poland, who was married to Bernard of Świdnica.
Before her father became King of Poland, life was very dangerous for Elisabeth and her family. She went to live in hiding with her mother, brother and sister. Wenceslaus II of Bohemia died in 1305, when Elisabeth was born. His son, Wenceslaus III of Bohemia took over as King of Poland. Although, Elisabeth's father, Władysław had a better claim to the crown, being the great-grandson of Casimir II the Just.
The sixteen year old Wenceslaus III was assassinated while on campaign in Poland. In Poland, Elisabeth's father inherited the crown. In Bohemia there was trouble over who inherited.
She was married on 6 July 1320 to Charles Robert (Charles I), King of Hungary, son of Charles Martel of Anjou and Klementia of Habsburg. Elisabeth was Charles' third wife. The marriage brought an alliance between Poland and Hungary.
Charles' two previous marriages are believed not to have left surviving issue, at least no surviving sons. Charles' first wife Maria of Bytom was believed to have been barren but it is also believed she bore two daughters: Katherine and Elisabeth. Others however believe that the two girls were daughters of Elisabeth.
Charles married again at Maria's death to Beatrix of Luxembourg, sister of John of Luxembourg, this marriage also ended badly. Beatrix became pregnant aged only fourteen in 1319 but mother and child both died when the child was born.
While at court in Hungary, Elisabeth is credited as having been the first to introduce perfume, then known as Hungary Water, to Europe and the western world.
Elisabeth and Charles Robert had five sons and possibly two daughter:
- Charles (1321)
- Ladislaus (Belgrade, 1 November 1324 – 24 February 1329)
- Louis I of Hungary (1326–1382)
- Andrew, Duke of Calabria (1327–1345)
- Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (1332–1354)
- Katherine of Hungary (d. 1355) some believe that Elisabeth was her mother but others say that Mary, Charles' first wife was Katherine's mother 
- Elisabeth of Hungary (d.1367), married Boleslaw Opolski, sister of Katherine and also possible daughter of Elisabeth of Poland.
Charles Robert died 16 July 1342 leaving Elisabeth a widow and to raise her surviving children.
Marriage for Louis
Elisabeth wished to make a good marriage for her eldest surviving son, who would become the next King of Hungary on the death of his father. Elisabeth had her son betrothed to Margaret of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Blanche of Valois. They married in 1342 but the marriage didn't last because, seven years into the marriage, the fourteen year old Margaret died, childless. Elisabeth now needed for her son to remarry and produce and heir.
Elisabeth had heard that Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia had a young daughter named Elisabeth, and she insisted immediately on bringing her to the Hungarian Court for fostering. Stephen was reluctant at first, but eventually dispatched Elizabeth. After three years of life in the Hungarian Court, Elizabeth fell in love with Louis, and Elisabeth invited Stephen II to Hungary and arranged a marriage so that Elizabeth could marry Louis.
On 20 June 1353, Elizabeth of Bosnia married Elisabeth's son, Louis, achieving a huge diplomatic success for her father. However, Stephen became seriously ill and could not be present at the actual wedding, after the planning with Elisabeth.
It was discovered that Elizabeth and Louis were related in the fourth degree through a common ancestor, a Duke of Kujavia in Poland (an ancestor of Elisabeth through her father). The Roman Catholic Church regarded the marriage to be within a prohibited degree of consanguinity and some ecclesiastics were tempted to curse the couple. Later in the same year Pope Innocent IV wrote to the Bishop in Zagreb granting a dispensation for the marriage and forgiving the sin.
Claim on Poland
Elisabeth was heir to her Casimir's throne after the death of their sister, Kunigunde. Her claim passed to Louis after the death of his two elder brothers. Casimir had married four times but none of his wives had given him surviving sons. He instead had four surviving daughters. Among them was another Elisabeth of Poland, whom had married Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania and was the mother of Elizabeth of Pomerania. Elizabeth had married Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and had six children. Her son was Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who would have had a claim to the Polish crown through his maternal grandmother.
Casimir also had two other surviving daughters from his fourth marriage to Jadwiga of Żagań. One of these daughters, Anna married William, Count of Celje. Anna had been a possible candidate to marry Louis. She had a daughter, Anna of Celje who married a future King of Poland, Jogaila. They had one daughter, Jadwiga of Lithuania, whom after the death of Elisabeth and Louis, claimed the throne of Poland, being the only surviving member of the House of Piast. Jogalia was a member of the House of Jagiellon and had two sons from his fourth marriage to Sophia of Halshany. Many Polish nobles wished for Jadwiga and a husband to succeed Jogalia. But Jadwiga didn't since she was supposedly poisoned by her stepmother, Sophia.
Both of these claims plus one from two other daughters were bypassed because Casimir wanted a male heir. Casimir had five surviving nephews from Elisabeth and Kunigunde. Kunigunde's sons being Bolko II the Small and Henry II of Świdnica. Casimir chose to leave Louis the crown of Poland thus Hungary and Poland being united under one monarch.
Elisabeth's second surviving son, Andrew married Joan I of Naples, she was three years his senior and they were both still young at the time. Andrew wished to be made King of Naples and rule jointly with his wife, but Joan refused to share her power with Andrew. He was made Duke of Calabria, the title given to the heir of Naples, but Andrew still wanted the crown. Joan was crowned Queen of Naples in 1344, with the approval of Pope Clement VI. Fearing for his life, Andrew wrote to Elisabeth that he would soon flee the kingdom. She intervened, and made a state visit; before she returned to Hungary, she bribed Pope Clement to reverse himself and permit the coronation of Andrew. She also gave a ring to Andrew, which was supposed to protect him from death by blade or poison, and returned with a false sense of security to Hungary.
The ring didn't work. Hearing of the Pope's reversal, a group of noble conspirators (the involvement of Queen Joan remaining unproved but Elisabeth's involvement proved) determined to forestall Andrew's coronation. During a hunting trip at Aversa, Andrew left his room in the middle of the night and was set upon by the conspirators. A treacherous servant barred the door behind him; and as Joan cowered in their bed, a terrible struggle ensued, Andrew defending himself furiously and shrieking for aid. He was finally overpowered, strangled with a cord, and flung from a window.
After Andrew's death Joan bore Elisabeth a grandson, Charles Martel whom died young.
Louis was absent from Poland between 1370-1375. Rather than leaving Poland in the hands of his wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia, he left Elisabeth as regent to conveniently eliminate her from his Court . Still, Elisabeth had some justification for taking part in the affairs and quarrels of Poland: she had been a Polish princess before marrying Charles I of Hungary. The Poles hated to pay taxes and loved to quarrel among themselves and with the Court, especially with the domineering dowager Elisabeth. Elisabeth's regency turned out to be a failure, her background notwithstanding. In 1375, the Poles killed 160 of her Hungarian bodyguards and Elisabeth escaped to Hungary lest she, too, be killed by her compatriots. Louis reconed with the rebels, and strengthened his power, at his mother's expense.
After her tragic regency and her return to Hungary, Elisabeth spent her final years in a monastery outside of Buda, where she wrote her will. It specifies her desire to rest in the monastery of St. starobudzińskim. Elisabeth also left money and possessions to her family: she left Louis several golden vessels, daughter-in-law, Elizabeth of Bosnia - Buda Castle, granddaughter, Mary - a gold wreath, granddaughter, Jadwiga - wreath of lilies, and his niece, Jadwiga - a ring. She also left money to some churches.
Elisabeth had at least seven grandchildren from her three surviving sons. From Louis she gained four granddaughters: Mary of Hungary, Jadwiga of Poland, Catherine and Mary. Only Mary and Jadwiga live to adulthood, Catherine and another daughter named Mary died in childhood. From Andrew she had a short-lived grandson, Charles Martel. From Stephen she gained a granddaughter and a grandson: Elisabeth of Slavonia and Jan of Slavonia. Elisabeth's family line ends with the death of her granddaughter, Elisabeth. None of her grandchildren had surviving offspring, although it is believed by some  that Elisabeth had one or two daughters, Catherine and Elisabeth. If this is so, then Elisabeth's line may still have died out but would have lasted longer. Katherine was mother of Anna von Schweidnitz, whom married Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and had two surviving children: Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and Elizabeth of Bohemia. The line would have ended there since Wenceslaus and Elisabeth did not have children, although both did marry. It is unknown if Elisabeth of Hungary had children.
Elisabeth of Poland
Chronicon Pictum I Karoly Robert.jpg
Charles I of Hungary, Elisabeth's husband
Elżbieta Łokietkówna z dziećmi.JPG
Elisabeth with her sons
Elisabeth's son, Louis I of Hungary
Portret Królowej Jadwigi w ZSP 6 Piotrków Tryb by Ron.jpg
Jadwiga of Poland, Elisabeth's granddaughter
Mary of Hungary, Elisabeth's granddaughter
Erzsébet és Mária királynők Nagy Lajos sírjánál.jpg
Elizabeth of Bosnia (left) and Mary of Hungary (right) mourning over Louis' grave
Anne of Świdnica, possible granddaughter of Elisabeth
Elisabeth's ancestors in three generations
Notes and References
- ^ thePeerage.com
- ^ Elizabeth Piast of Poland
- ^ Existence is disputed
- ^ Zemaljski muzej u Bosni i Hercegovini, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini, Zemaljska štamparija, 1893
- ^ Krunoslav Draganović, Poviest hrvatskih zemalja Bosne i Hercegovine, Hrvatsko kulturno družtvo "Napredak", 1942
- ^ POLAND, Medieval Lands
- ^ Translation from Polish Wikipedia, with further sources
- ^ Chronological Dates in Stoyan
Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of HungaryBorn: 1305 Died: 1380
Beatrix of Luxembourg
|Queen consort of Hungary|
Margaret of Bohemia