Agricola, Martin 116, 222n

Albrecht V, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1579) 178–80

Algazi, Gadi 17, 18–19, 21

Anabaptism 59, 251n

Anna Maria, Duchess of Württemberg 148

Anna of Denmark, Electress of Saxony 137

Anna of Württemberg (sister of Duke Christoph) 145–7, 147, 159

anniversaries, celebration of 288–9

see also Jubilee (1617)

Appadurai, Arjun 134

Appiah, Kwame Anthony 19–20, 31

Aquila, Johann Caspar 274, 274n

Aristotle 98, 108

Arndt, Johann 161, 207

Arnold, Gottfried 278

arts see music; visual arts

Asisi, Yadegar 27, 28–9

astronomy 109–10, 112

Augsburg, peace of (1555) 16, 166, 199

August, Elector of Saxony (d. 1586) 275–6

Aurifaber, Johannes 268, 275, 277

Bachmayer, Wolfgang 99–100, 109–10, 111

Diagram of the solar eclipse 110, 112

bad behaviour, critiques of 70–2, 79, 83–4

see also excess; sexual activity

Bakhtin, Mikhail 74–6

baptism 45n, 171–4

 Calvinist-Lutheran differences 220, 224

 Catholic adoption of Protestant practices 171–3

 cross-confessional 172, 187–8

 dispute over font 173–4

 language of 172, 188

Barnes, Robin Bruce 213

Baum, Jacob 107

Baumhauer, Leonhard 148

Baumhauwer, Jacob 155

Bautzen, Lusatia

 administration 169–71

 significance for local Catholicism 168–9, 171

Bavaria, Duchy of see names of rulers

Beare, Mary 240n, 261n

Beham, Barthel 238

Beham, Sebald 238, 242, 251

Behem, Johann 247n

bell-ringing 97, 101

Belting, Hans 246n

Bembo, Pietro 60n

Bergmann, Rosemarie 240n, 242, 260–1n

Beyer, Valentin 275

Bible see Elijah; Genesis; Sachs, Hans

Bildhauer, Bettina 227

Blöbelius, Christoph 173–4

blood, wonders involving 221–8

body, Lutheran understandings of 23–4, 49–50, 51–66, 77–9

 bodily pleasures 50, 51–4, 103

 frailty 84

 images of 61–4

 presence of Christ 58–61

see also Genesis; sexual activity; speech; suffering

Bohemia see Lusatia

Boaistuau, Pierre 217, 222

books, inscribed 274–5

Bora, Katherina von (Luther's wife) 11, 52, 53–4, 55, 58, 64

Bosch, Hieronymus 74

Bose, Johann Andreas 278

Boyd Brown, Christopher 119, 120

Brady, Thomas 15

Brahe, Tycho 109

Brandenburg

 blood cults 223–4, 235

 political/religious conditions 215–16, 220, 222–3, 230

 supposed demonic possession cases 218–21

Brenz, Johannes 45, 159

Brinkmann, Inga 150

Bruegel, Pieter 74

Buchanan, George 135, 136

Buddeus, Johann Franz 283

Bugenhagen, Johannes 262

Burckhardt, Martin 158

Burke, Peter 60

Burnett, Amy 15n

Bynum, Caroline Walker 20–1, 36n, 235

Caelius, Michael 262

Calvin, John/Calvinsim 29, 134, 270

 Catholic attitudes to 178

 commentary on Genesis 54

 controversies with Lutheranism 220, 224

 hymns/hymnbooks 137

 Lutheran attacks on 230–4

 spread of ideas 17, 26

 teachings, divergence from Luther's 59, 60–1, 63, 90, 97, 110

 threat to Lutheran supremacy 229–31

 wonder books 216, 227

Camerarius, Ludwig 283

Castiglione, Baldassare 60n

casts, post-mortem taking of 12, 79

Catholic integration/cooperation with Lutherans 26–7, 165–88

 baptism 171–3

 Communion 174–81

 joint services 186–7, 189

 mutually beneficial elements 172

 Papal acceptance 178–80

 reasons for 166

 shared religious spaces 172, 186

see also convents, mixed-confessional

Catholicism/Catholic Church

 attitudes to suffering 33–6

 ideological objections to 22, 24, 33, 63, 134

 idiosyncratic interpretations 169

 Lutheran mockery of 72, 78, 80

 memorials 139–40

 as minority religion 102, 165, 168–9

 objections to Lutheran psalter 189

 relic culture 26–7

 responses to demonic possession 219–21

 see also Catholic adoption of Protestant ideas/practices

Celtis, Conrad 259n

childbirth 46–8

choirs, conventual

 authorities' reforms 195–7

 calls for exclusion of certain confessions 204

 centrality to monastic life 191–3, 199

 disagreements over form of service 189

 furnishings 192–3

 location 192, 196–7

 Lutheran criticisms 193–4

 minority demands for alternative rites 200–1

 non-attendance, consequences of 199

Christ

 artistic depictions see Cranach, Lucas; crucifixes

 physical/spiritual presence 45–6, 52, 58–61, 65

 sufferings see Passion

Christian II, Duke of Saxony (d. 1611) 121n

Christoph, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1568) 142, 145–6, 148, 152, 156, 159

Clarenberg, convent of 199, 200–1

Clark, Stuart 98, 99n, 217

Classen, Albrecht 76–7

Cochlaeus, Johannes 14

Colerus, Jacob 219

Cologne, Archbishop of 199

Communion in both kinds 174–81

 Catholic toleration of 174–6, 180–1

 illustrations 176–8, 177

 papal acceptance 178–9

Communion in one kind

 Catholic preference for 174–6

 illustrations 181

 theological arguments for 176, 178

confessionalization 16–17, 213–14

convents, mixed-confessional 189–211

 criticisms 193–4

 internal tensions 189, 190–1, 197–8, 204–5, 210–11

 male counterparts 194–5n

 minority demands for alternative rites 200–1

 negotiation of compromises 190, 191, 199–200, 201–3, 206–8

 official interventions 205–6, 208–10

 planned abolition 194–5

 resistance to reform 194–7, 198–9

 separation of confessions 205–6, 207, 211

 testimony to hybrid practices 203–4

see also choirs, conventual; nuns

Correll, Barbara 83

Cosgrove, Dennis 241

Cranach, Lucas (the Elder) 9, 38, 83–4, 94, 174, 242, 246, 248, 284

The Crucifixion (1538) 38–40, 41

Crucifixion of Christ (1502) 38–40, 38–40n, 39

Crucifixion with Centurion (1539) 38n

David and Bathsheba 127–9, 128

Frau Musica 131–2, 133

Law and Gospel 126–7

Passional Christi und Antichristi (woodcut illustrations) 72, 75

 Wittenberg City Church predella 62–3

Crell, Johann Christian 280

Crowther, Kathleen 78

crucifixes, presence in sanctuaries 61–2

Crusius, Martin 139–40, 151–2, 158

culture(s)

 differing understandings of 17–20

 of Lutheranism 12–13, 20–2, 26–7, 29–30

Cyprian, Ernst Salomon 283, 284, 286, 288

Daniels, Stephen 241

de Kayser, Hendrick 269

deafness 92–3, 101–2

Dedekind, Friedrich

Der Christliche Ritter 81, 89

Grobianus 21, 67–8, 69, 72, 78–9, 81–3, 84, 85, 87–8, 104

Denck, Hans 251n

Dennis, Flora 118, 122

Descartes, René 98

The Devil, presence in Lutheran literature/thought 215, 217–21

 extent/limits of powers 218

see also possession, demonic

‘Devil books’ 70–2, 78

Dieterich, Conrad 99–104, 105, 110, 111, 266–7

 lifestyle 103–4

 sermons on the senses 101–4, 108–9

Dieterich, Daniel 109

Dietrich, Veit 194, 197, 208, 209, 210, 211, 275

drink, evils of 71–2, 73

Dürer, Albrecht 269–70

Dysmas, St 38–40, 39, 41

Eaton, Elizabeth, Bishop 30

Eber, Paul 137, 246

Eberhard I (Eberhard im Bart), Duke of Württemberg (d. 1596) 144–5

Eberhard III, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1674) 144, 160, 161–2

Eberlin, Johann 193–4

Ebert, Andreas 219

Ebner, Margaret 35, 36

Eck, Johannes 183

Edelkirchen, Anna von, Abbess 200

Edwards, Kathryn 226

Eickstedt, Ursula von 125

Eire, Carlos M. N. 13

Elijah (biblical figure), Luther compared to 265, 266, 267

Elisabeth, Duchess of Brandenburg (d. 1558) 114, 116, 196

Elisabeth of Saxony, Countess Palatine (d. 1590) 137

Elizabeth I of England 150

Emhart, Emerich 139–40, 163

Emser, Hieronymus 243

Engel, Andreas

 anti-Calvinist writings 229–34

 biography 215, 219

Annales Marchiae Brandenburgicae 228, 230–1

Calvinischer Betlersmantel 231–4, 232

Rerum Marchiarum Breviarum 228

WiderNatur und Wunderbuch see separate main heading

Entzelt, Christoph 228

Erasmus, Desiderius 79

Erikson, Erik H. 52

Ernst, Georg 117

Ernst I, Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg 114

Eucharist 52, 65, 102

excess, critiques of

 bodily indulgences 71–2, 83, 103–4 (see also sexual activity)

 grief 161

exorcism 219–21

Fabricius, Johann Albrecht 279, 286–7

Faust, Johann Georg (historical figure) 67, 272

Faust (fictionalised character) see Historia von D. Johann Fausten

Ferdinand I of Bohemia 174, 178–80

Fincel, Job 213, 217, 222, 230

Fischart, Johann

Flöh Harz 83

Geschichtklitterung 72, 104

Fischer, Marx 219

Fisher, Alexander 122

Fleischhauer, Werner 149, 150

fonts, decoration/disputes over 173–4, 175

food/drink, pleasures of 103

Formula of Concord (1577) 142

Francke, August Hermann 284

Frau Musica (Lady Music), allegorical figure 131–4, 133, 138

Frederick I of Prussia 189, 209

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1688) 204, 205

Friderich, Mattheus, Wider den Sauffteufel 71–2, 73, 89

Friedrich I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608) 148–9, 150, 151, 152, 153

Friedrich Carl, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1698) 154

friendship albums 135–6

Friess, Hans Georg 103–4

Fritsch, David 283

Frobelius, Christoph 186–7

Fumo, Bartolomeo 172

funerals/funerary monuments 139–64

 Catholic 139–40, 158–9

 changing styles 149–50, 162–3

 collections of inscriptions 155, 158

 displays of grief 160–1

 ephemeral nature 156–7

 function of body/casket 159–60, 161–3

 memorial books 153–4

 print record valued above physical monument 154–8

 relocation of remains 158–9

 sermons 151–3, 155–6

 social context 142–4

 visibility 147–8

Furttenbach, Joseph, the Elder 99–100, 104–8, 110–11, 156

 architectural designs 104–5, 107–8

 background 104

Kirchengebäw 105, 106

Furttenbach, Joseph, the Younger 105

Gabelkover, Johann Jakob 158

Gaimster, David 129

Galileo Galilei 270

Geertz, Clifford 18

Geier, Martin 157

Genesis, Book of 52, 54–8

 artistic representations 63, 87

 cited in funeral contexts 161

 duality of Luther's commentary 55, 56–8

 pre-Lutheran commentaries 56

Georg I von Hessen-Darmstadt, Landgrave 149

Gerhardt, Johann 207

Gerhardt, Paul 161

Germer, Hans 224–5

gesture 95

Gillen, Eckhart 28

Girlich, Martin 46–8

Glaser, Peter 42

Gleich, Johann Andreas 281

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 270n

Goetz, Georg Heinrich 281, 282

gold

 as emblem of misleading appearance 67–9

 non-monetary symbolisms 69

Goltwurm, Caspar 213, 217, 222

good works, as path to salvation 63, 78, 89, 134

Goulart, Simon 216, 216n, 219, 227

Grafton, Anthony 285

Gregory, Brad S. 51

Greyerz, Kaspar von 166

Grien, Hans Baldung 270

Grubner, Johann Christian 284–5

Gugerli, David 280n

Güttel, Caspar 277

Habermann, Johann 207

Habsburg dynasty 140, 145, 167–8

Hahn, Philip 24, 159

Harms, Wolfgang 255n, 258n

Hass, Johannes 169

Hausväterliteratur 93

Heal, Bridget 15

Heal, Felicity 134

hearing 91, 101–2

 physical vs. spiritual 92–3, 101

Helbach, Wendelin 68, 83

Helen, St 62

Hempel, Michael 157–8

Henze, Helene 254–5, 259n

Herberger, Valerius 265

Herdecke, convent of 200, 201

Hergott, Hans 242n

Heumann, Christian August 274

Heyden, Sebaldus 45

Heymair, Magdalena 121

Hilten, Johann 228, 229

Historia von D. Johann Fausten (anon., 1587) 67, 67n, 69, 85

Hocker, Jodocus 71

Hoënegg, Matthias Hoë von 268

Holbein, Hans 244

Totentanz 85–6, 86

Holl, Karl 13, 15

Honold, Jacob 110–11

Horst, Gregor 108–9

Hovel, Helena von, Abbess 202

Huberinus, Caspar 40, 42, 43–4

humour

 range of functions/responses 76–7

 role in marriage 57–8

 scatological 23, 70, 74–6, 78–9

Hus, Jan 182, 223, 244

hymns/hymnbooks 116–17, 120–1, 136–7

 Catholic adoption/adaptation of Lutheran 165, 176–8, 182–4

 cross-confessional migration 166

 illustrations 176–8, 177, 184–5, 185

 sung in the home 125

Illyricus, Matthias Flacius 42, 44

images, ideological objections to 90

see also crucifixes; visual arts

incense, burning of 107, 108

Irenaeus, Christoph 213, 218n, 222

Jenner, Mark 24

Jesuits 158–9, 267

Jews, pogroms/expulsions 222–3

Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1535) 220, 224

Joachim Ernst of Württemberg (son of Eberhard III) 162

Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1608) 276

Johann Casimir, Elector Palatine (d. 1592) 137

Johann Friedrich, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1628) 148, 149–50

Johann Friedrich, Elector of Saxony (d. 1553) 262–3, 275

Johann Georg II, Elector of Saxony (d. 1680) 288

Johann I von Pfalz-Zweibrücken, Pfalzgraf 149–50

Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (d. 1716) 208–10

John Chrysostom, St 86

jokes see humour

Jonas, Justus 262, 280

Josephus, Flavius 224–5

Jubilee (1617) 11–12, 24, 100

Juncker, Christian 282, 287

Jussen, Bernard 40n

Karant-Nunn, Susan 37–8

Karlstadt, Andreas Bodenstein von 15n, 61

Karsthans (anon., 1521) 80

Kaufmann, Thomas 14, 51, 99, 214

Kawerau, Gustav 278n

Kepler, Johannes 98, 99, 108–11, 112

Kilian, Martin 135

Kircher, Athanasius 110

Klatten, Judith 218–19

Knöfel, Johann 135n

Koerner, Joseph 79, 87

Kolb, Robert 266n

Könneker, Barbara 76

Körber, Otto, A Consoling Instruction 46–7

Koslofsky, Craig 20, 40n, 141

Krafft, Johann Melchior (collector) 281, 282

Krafft, Johann (printer) 129–31, 130, 132

Kramm, Heinrich 276n

Krause, Helmut 240, 251n, 260–1n

Kröner, Johann 148

Küchler, Paul 174

Kymaeus, Johannes 43

Lauban (modern Lubań, Poland) 186–7

Laube, Stefan 273, 278–9n

laughter, emotions giving rise to 76–7

Lautensack, Paul III 126

Leaver, Robin 123

Leisentrit, Gregor 171

Leisentrit, Johann 169–86

 Catholic criticisms of 184

 cooperation with Lutherans 178

 disapproval of Calvinsim 178

 handling of baptism issues 171–3

 handling of Communion 174–81

 hardening of attitudes towards Lutheranism 186

 on heresy 183, 186

Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen 165, 176–8, 177, 182–6

Leonardo da Vinci 132

letters

 collection/editing 276, 283–4

 in private collections 276–7

 rediscovery 280–1

Letzner, Johannes 268

Leuckfeld, Johann Georg 280–1

Linck, Wenzeslaus 45n

Lindenau, Sigmund von 54

Lindner, Tobias 173–4

Lixander, Olaus 136

Lohse, Bernhard 58

Löscher, Valentin Ernst 283, 284, 286

Lucius, Jakob (the Elder) 132

Ludecus, Matthaeus 223–4

Ludwig, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1593) 147, 148, 152, 156

Ludwig I von Württemberg-Urach, Count 145–7, 146

Luebke, David 25

Lüneburg convents 197–8

Lusatia (region of Bohemia) 165–88

 Catholic minority, social/legal status 165, 168–9

 confessional composition 165, 168

 cross-confessional practices 165–7

 fluctuations in overlordship 167–8

 introduction of Lutheranism 168

see also Bautzen

Luther, Johann Ernst (grandson) 284

Luther, Johann Martin (great-grandson) 284

Luther, Johann Martin II (great-great-grandson) 284–5, 285n

Luther, Martin, personal attributes

 artistic representations 9–10, 11, 12, 27–8, 50, 279

 biographies 14, 14n, 52, 265, 268–9

 books 274–6

 cult of see ‘Luther cult’

 death 10, 14–15, 258–9, 262

 domestic furnishings 130

 dominant place in Reformation studies 27–9

 fluctuations in posthumous reputation 265–73

 letters/manuscripts 276–8, 278n, 280–4

 marriage/sex life 11, 52–4, 55, 58, 64

 memorialization 287–9

 models/effigies 12, 30

 in modern popular culture 30

 physical appearance/public persona 9–12, 14–15, 50, 263–4, 266

 possessions 273–4

 posthumous attacks on 267

 temporal context 64–5

Luther, Martin, views/attitudes

 on blood cults 223

 on the Body of Christ 45–6, 52, 58–61

 on domestic tasks 121–2

 on the female body 55, 56–7

 on Genesis narrative 54–8

 on gesture 95

 on marriage/sexual relations 52–4, 55, 57–8

 on monasticism 193–4

 on music 122–4, 131–2, 133–4

 on the senses 92–3

 on suffering 36–7

Luther, Martin, works

Abbildung des Bapstums 78, 80

‘Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein’ (hymn) 116–17

Admonition to Prayer against the Turks 12n

Avoiding the Doctrines of Men 243

‘Christum wir sollen loben schon’ (hymn) 183–4

Der Prophet Sacharja ausgelegt 244–5

‘Ein feste Burg’ (hymn) 116, 138

Explanation of Two Horrible Figures (with Philipp Melanchthon) 229

The Freedom of a Christian 243, 250, 253

 hymns 116–17, 138, 165, 182–4

A Meditation on Christ’s Passion 37

 psalms, translated from Latin 189, 195, 197, 207, 209

Sermon on Indulgence and Grace 37, 242

Sermon on the New Testament 248n

Smaller Catechism 127

Symphoniae Iucundae 134–5

Table Talk 12n, 244

Luther, Paul (son) 275–6, 277, 284

‘Luther cult’ 26–7, 263–4, 269–73, 280–9

 compared with other venerated figures 269–70

 demythologisation 266–9

 memorialization 287–9

 origins 280–1

 reasons for interest in 285–6, 289

 relics 273–8, 280–5

 sites of memory 278–80

Lutheranism

 centenary see Jubilee (1617)

 church architecture 105, 107–8

 conversions to 114

 culture of see culture

 definitions 10

 doctrine of salvation 44–5, 84–5, 89

 funerary practices/culture 140–4, 158–9, 160–1, 162–4

 historiography 13–17, 96

 importance of music 119–25

 interaction with other faiths 166 (see also Catholic integration/cooperation with Lutherans)

 internal conflicts 22–3

 origins 22

 relationship with other confessions 26

 religious identity 20–2

 ridicule of opponents 72–4

 sacraments see baptism; Communion

 and sensory perception see sensory perception

Lycosthenes, Konrad 222

Machwitz, Joachim von 135

Maestlin, Michael 109

Magdalena Sibylla von Hessen-Darmstadt, Duchess of Württemberg (d. 1712) 153–4, 158, 161, 162, 163

Magdalena zur Lippe, Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt (d. 1587) 149

Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon) 31

Mansfeld, Grafschaft (County)

 chronicles 9–10, 11

 public monuments 149–50

manuscripts 276–8, 278n, 280–3

maps 9–10

Marbach, Johannes 43, 43n

Marburg Colloquy (1529) 59–60

marriage

 advocated for clergy 57–8

 aristocratic ceremonies 114–16

 forbidden to clergy 168

 sex within 54

see also humour; Luther, Martin, personal attributes; sexual activity

material goods/wealth 67–89

 duality of Lutheran ideas 69–70

 warnings of illusory nature 67–9

Mathesius, Johannes 265, 268, 271n, 285

Mattathias ben Johanan 155

Mauss, Marcel 134

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 227

Mayer, Johann Friedrich 283–4, 285n

McGinn, Bernard 35n, 36n

Mechthild, Countess of Württemberg 145–7, 146

Meissen, Bishop of 174, 187

Melanchthon, Philipp 11, 58, 109, 212, 262, 276n, 280, 285

Explanation of Two Horrible Figures (with Luther) 229

Liber de anima 108

Passional Christi und Antichristi 72, 75, 242

Vita Lutheri 265

Mellinger, Johannes 9

memory, sites of 278–80

Merback, Mitchell 38, 38–40n

Merckel, Johann Friedrich 158

Meuche, Hermann 246n, 247

Midelfort, H.C. Erik 217

Milner, Matthew 98

Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) 270

Moller, Martin 161

monasteries 194–5n

monstrous births 225–6

Moritz, Duke of Saxony (d.1553) 127

Morrall, Andrew 126

Müntzer, Thomas 27, 28, 182

Conditor alme siderum 183

Murner, Thomas 80

Murphy, Emilie K.M. 122

Murrhe, Michaël 226

Musculus, Andreas 71, 83, 224

Musculus, Johannes 224

music 114–38

 allegorised representations 131–2

 artistic depictions 114–17, 126, 129–34, 130

 centrality to confessional culture 119–25

 as gift 134–8

 in the home 118, 121–2, 125–34, 138

 instruments 114–16, 126, 134

 in Lutheran churches 97, 101

 physicality of 123–4

 practical musicianship (Musica Practica) 131

 printed books 117–18, 125–6

 spiritual benefits 123, 132

 studies 95, 118–19, 124–5

Myconius, Friedrich 271

Nas, Johann 258n

Neoplatonism 60n

Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von 272

Neumeister, Ingeborg 242n

Newe deudsche geistliche Gesenge (anon., 1544) 138

Nicolas of Lyra 55, 56

nobles

 burial/memorials 142–64, 144

 marriage 114–15

Nörmiger, Augustus 121n

Nuber, Georg 268

nudity, in art 63

nuns

 participation in shared services 186–7

 planned abolition of distinctions from laity 194–5

see also convents

Ochsenkhun, Sebastian 126

Oecolampadius, Johannes 59

Oettinger, Johann 153

Oettinger, Rebecca 120

Osiander, Andreas 238–40

Ottheinrich, Elector of the Palatinate 126

Papacy

 attacks on 72, 78, 80, 183, 209, 229–30, 238–40, 244

 sanctioning of Communion in two kinds 178–80

Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim) 272

Parker, Hal 60

Passion, doctrines of 48–50

Peasants' War (1524-5) 27, 28, 80, 183, 222, 229

Pencz, Georg 238, 247, 248, 249

Petrarch 270

Pettegree, Andrew 246–7, 255

Philip William, Duke of Neuburg-Pfalz 205

physical appearance 81–4

 excessive pride in 82

 linked to moral worth 55–6

 misleading nature 67–9

 stereotypes 83

Pius V, Pope 172–3

place, constructions of 25–6

plague, outbreaks of 107–8

Platter, Felix 108–9

Poach, Andreas 275

Ponickau, Johann Georg von 157

Poppo XII, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen, tablecloth celebrating marriage 114–17, 117n, 125, 127, 132

possession, demonic 217–21

 alleged occurrences 218–20

 Catholic/Lutheran responses 219–21

 mass outbreaks 219

Praetorius, Johann, Calvinisch Gasthauß 231–4, 233

Praetorius, Michael 135

Praetorius, Zacharias 9–10

print, development of 153–5, 238–9

Probus, Anton 268

prodigies 212–36

see also wonder books

prophecies 93–4

Rabelais, François 70, 72, 74–6, 104

Rabus, Ludwig 80, 83

Ranke, Leopold von 15

Ratzeberger, Matthäus 275

Rebhahn, Nicholas 279

Regnart, Jacob 137

Rehdiger, Thomas 283

Reinhard, Wolfgang 16

relics 270–3

 books 274–6

 lack of interest in 274–80

 letters/manuscripts 276–8, 280–4

 and Luther cult 273–4

 Protestant, nature of 270–1, 273

 renewal of interest in 280–5

 stocktaking 281

religious identity, formation of 20–2

Rhau, Georg 116, 131

Rhegius, Urbanus 49, 86

Rhein, Stefan 278–9n

Richter, David 277, 285

rituals 95–6

Rivander, Zacharias, Lutherus Redivivus 12n

Roper, Lyndal 9, 14, 37, 50, 52n, 70, 222n, 273

Rörer, Georg 275, 277

Rose, Stephen 119, 135

Roth, Stefan 275

Röttinger, Heinrich 242n

Rublack, Ulinka 17, 20, 79, 81, 136, 274

Russell, Paul 253

Rüttel, Andreas 148, 156

Ryrie, Alec 15, 21, 22

Sabina, Duchess of Württemberg 151

Sachs, Hans 22, 25, 237–61

 animal imagery 241–2, 259–60n

 Biblical landscapes 247–50

 dream settings 253–60

 printed works 238–9

 urban settings 250–3

 vineyard imagery 243–7

Book of Trades 81

 ‘Characteristics of the Twelve Clean Birds’ 259n

A Conversation about the Sham Works of the Clergy 251

A Conversation between an Evangelical Christian and a Lutheran 251–3, 254

A Dialogue Containingan Argument of the Romans against the Christian Flock 251–3

Disputation between a Canon and a Shoemaker 250–1, 252

Epitaph or Lament on the Body of Doctor Martin Luther 258–9

Fastnachspiele 81

Germany’s Lament to Faithful Eckart 259–60, 259n

 ‘God’s Lament for his Vineyard, Laid Waste by Human Teachings and Commands’ 243–7

The House of the Wise Man and the House of the Foolish Man 242

Lady Theology Tortured 256–7n, 256–8, 257, 258n

Lady Truth Suppressed 256–7n

The Lamenting Gospel 256

The Nightingale of Wittenberg 237, 238, 239, 241–2, 244, 250, 258

The Seven-Headed Papal Beast of Revelation 240, 240n, 244n

Seven Worldly Obstacles Encountered by the Person Who Seeks Christ 247–50, 247n, 249, 253

The Sheepfold of Christ 242–3, 244

The Spiritual Vineyard 245–6

A Wondrous Prophecy about the Papacy (with Osiander) 238–40

Sagittarius, Johann Christfried 283–4, 286

salvation, doctrines of 44–6, 78, 84–9

Salzmann, Wilhelm 84

Sam, Konrad 107

sanctuaries, decoration of 52, 61–4

 verbal 65

Sarcerius, Erasmus 40–2

satire 72–6, 84

Scheidt, Caspar

Der Todtentanz (Dance of Death) 85–6, 88

 translation of Grobianus 67–8, 78–9, 87–8

Schenda, Rudolf 217, 228n

Schildesche, convent of 189, 204, 206–10, 211

Schiller, Friedrich 270n

Schilling, Heinz 16, 51, 230

Schmalkaldic League/War 99, 196, 259

Schmid, Johann Andreas (professor) 284

Schmid, Johann (pastor) 150, 158

Schmid, Joseph (sculptor) 145

Schön, Erhard 238, 242, 243, 245–7, 259–60n

Schönebeck, Peter von 191–2

Schöpffer, Justus 287–8n

Schott, Caspar 110

Schwenke, Michael 175

Scribner, Robert 9, 15, 17, 18, 120, 213n

Sebisch, Georg 155

Seckendorff, Veit Ludwig von 286

Selnecker, Nicholas 208, 210, 265

Senfl, Ludwig 122

sensory perception 24–5, 90–113

 Aristotelian theory 98, 108–9, 110

 Catholic vs. Lutheran attitudes 92

 centrality to Lutheran thought 90–1, 111–13

 and Fall of Man 108

 historical changes 96–8, 111–13

 and lay prophecies 93–4

 limitations of scholarship 98–9

 sermons on 101–4, 108–9

see also hearing; smell; vision

sexual activity

 acceptability 52–4, 55, 57–8

 Edenic 55–7

 limits on acceptability 65, 71

Shakespeare, William, The Merchant of Venice 68–9

signatures, collection of 135–6

Sinner’s Mirror for Confession (anon., 1510) 34

smell, sense/experiences of 96

 and public health 107–8

Smith, Bruce 122, 136

Smith, Mark M. 98

solar eclipse (1654) 110, 112

Solger, Adam Rudolph 283

Solms-Lich, Anna zu 136–7

Sophia of Saxony, Princess 121n

Sophie Charlotte of Hanover, Queen 159

Sophie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Countess Henneberg-Schleusingen 114–15, 121n

soteriology see salvation

‘soundscapes’ 95

Spangenberg, Cyriacus 9–10, 13, 21, 56, 80–1, 266, 268–9

Spangenberg, Johannes 9, 48

speech 79–81

Spriewald, Ingeborg 240n, 260–1n

Steffens, Martin 278–9nn

Stella, Tilemann 9

Stolberg-Wernigerode, Count of 283

Stüber, Johann Ernst 155–6, 157

suffering 33–50

 Catholic attitudes to 33–6

 pedagogical role 46

 as penance 33–6

 spirtual, as greater than physical 40–4

Suso, Henry 35

Life of the Servant 35–6, 35nn

syncretism 166–7

Tacitus, P. Cornelius 259n

Tanneberg, Hieronymus 48–9

Taylor, Charles 50

Tentzel, Wilhelm Ernst 281–2, 284, 286, 289

Tetzel, Johann 169

Theiß, Winfried 254–5, 255nn

theology, studies/role in Reformation 15–16, 30–2

Thirty Years War 16, 288, 289

Thomas Aquinas, St 34n

Totentanz (Dance of Death) 85–7, 86, 88

Tralles, Johann Anton 155

Tübingen collegiate church 142, 143, 144–7, 151, 155

Tübke, Werner 27

Uffenbach, Johann Friedrich Hermann von 283

Ulm 90, 99–111

 Catholic minority 102

 celestial phenomena 109, 110

 church architecture 105, 107–8

 Jubilee celebrations (1617) 100–1

 public health concerns 107–8

 wall paintings 90, 100

Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1550) 144–5, 151–2

Ursinus, Zacharias 267

Veit, Patrice 119

Vetter, Conrad 267

Vincke, Anna Sybilla von, Abbess 208–10

vineyard, allegorical image of 243–6

vision 91, 101–2

visual arts, role in Lutheran thought 94

see also names of artists/subjects

Vogel, Matthias 42

von der Hardt, Hermann 282n, 283

Wachter, Georg 256–7n

Walch, Johann Georg 282–3, 286, 289

Walsham, Alexandra 15, 25, 29–30, 212, 237

Walter, Johann (C16 poet) 132

Walter, Johann Gottlob (C18 biographer) 277, 282–3

Waltmann, Eberhard 223

Weidenteich, Anton 125–6

Weinsberg, Hermann von 35

Weislinger, Johann 288–9

Weismann, Ehrenreich 160–1

Weiss, Michael 120–1

Weller, Hieronymus 42

Wernsdorff, Gottlieb 284

Westphal, Joachim 83

Westphalia, Peace of (1648) 203, 205

Wickram, Georg 259n

WiderNatur und Wunderbuch (Engel) 26, 214–36

 biblical influences/imagery 226–7

 influence 216–17

 on monstrous births 225–6

 relationship with Engel's other writings 228, 234

 social/literary context 215–16, 230

 theme of blood 215, 221–8

 treatment of demonic possession 215, 217–21

Wilhelm V, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1626) 150

William V of Jülich-Cleves, Duke (d. 1592) 198–9, 202

Wittenberg

 City Church 62–3

conversion of Luther family home 279–80

modern town 27–8

Wolff, Johann 216

Woller, Jacob 143, 148

Wolrab, Hans 176

Wolsey, Thomas 270

women

 physical form 55, 56–7

 as temptresses 55, 83

see also childbirth

wonder books 25–6, 212

 studies 214n

see also WiderNatur und Wunderbuch

Württemberg, Duchy of 139–64

see also names of Dukes/Duchesses

Zeitz, Saxony 282, 284–5

Zell, Katharina Schütz 120–2, 125, 133, 245

Zemon Davis, Natalie 15, 134

Zwingli, Ulrich 29, 270, 272

 influence in Ulm 90, 99, 100, 102

 teachings, contrasted with Luther's 59, 60, 61, 97, 101, 110, 123