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@Evolene Switserland

Corporal Ray E. Masters of Chicago, Illinois, and member of Company E, 128th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Division. "First man to silence an enemy sniper - shot down German from tree" according to the handwritten pencil note on the reverse of the photo. This photo was taken by 32nd Division Photographer Frank A. Wallock.

Domenico Morelli (Naples, 7 July 1823 - Naples, 13 August 1901) - seduction (1848-55) oil on canvas - 47.5 x 37 cm - Ricci Oddi Modern Art Gallery, Piacenza


Acquistato a Napoli, tramite Casciaro, nel giugno 1918 per 6.000 Lire. Proviene dalla Collezione Nacciarone.

Opera giovanile. Sul retro vi è un abbozzo raffigurante una donna con brocca e l'autentica di Casciaro.

Protagonista della cultura figurativa del Risorgimento, Domenico Morelli è una personalità carismatica che partecipa a tutto tondo alla vita artistica e culturale italiana, prima e dopo l'Unità. Egli si configura artista moderno e capace di intessere relazioni in tutta Italia e legarsi a committenti di livello nazionale ed europeo.


Purchased in Naples, through Casciaro, in June 1918 for 6,000 lire. It comes from the Nacciarone collection.

Youth work. On the back there is a sketch depicting a woman with a jug and the authentic Casciaro.

Protagonist of the figurative culture of the Risorgimento, Domenico Morelli is a charismatic personality who participates in the round in the Italian artistic and cultural life, before and after the Unification. He configures himself a modern artist and capable of weaving relationships throughout Italy and binding himself to clients at national and European level.


When it was realised that reports of new German destroyer armaments had been exaggerated the Controller suggested in February 1917 that destroyer construction should revert to Modified 'R' class. They would be cheaper, faster to build, and 2kts faster. Several improvements were incorporated after consultation with Captains (D) and the various Commands. These included the provision of more TT, a 'trawler' bow or sharply sheered forecastle and a turtleback forecastle. The original proposal for the 450mm TT was for single fixed tubes firing 'cold' torpedoes, but the Admiralty design was given training tubes, which meant that the forecastle plating had to be cut away to allow the tube to train. This made the boats very wet, for the open forecastle permitted spray to be thrown up over the bridge. In the Thornycroft design two tubes were fixed athwartships, firing through a narrow aperture, so the problem was avoided. The torpedoes were fired by the CO, who carried two trailing leads in his pockets, permitting him to fire at targets of opportunity. The Thornycroft boats also carried the forecastle gun on a raised platform, further improving seakeeping. As weight was critical in the Admiralty design it was soon realised that the weight of the single 450mm TT was too much, and the later boats were completed without them, to permit the heavier Mk.V 533mm torpedoes to be carried in the midships TT. In June 1918 Senator was fitted with an aircraft platform aft, allowing an aircraft to takeoff when the destroyer went full speed astern. Orders were placed for 24 boats in April 1917, followed by 33 more in June, but Saturn and Sycamore were cancelled in 1919. Only 19 were completed by the Armistice. The class were completed from April 1918 to October 1919 apart from Shikari and Thracian


Builder…………………………John Thornycroft , Woolston

Class…………………………….S class (Thornycroft Special)

Launched……………………..12 April 1919

Completed……………………December 1919

Displacement normal…..1025 tons

No of shafts………………….2

Machinery…………………….2 x Brown-Curtis geared steam turbines, 3 Yarrow boilers

Speed(max)………………….36 knots


•3 -single mounts 102mm (4 inch) /40 QF Mk IV,

•1 – twin mount 40mm/39 2pdr QF Mk II

•2 x double 533mm Torpedo tubes

•2 x single 450mm Torpedo Tubes



In 22 April 1930, the London Naval Treaty was signed which limited total destroyer tonnage in the Navy. Tourmaline was one of those chosen to be retired and, on 28 November 1931, the destroyer was sold to Thos W Ward and broken up at Grays.


Pennant Numbers Carried

D83……………..Dcember 1919 - 1921

H00………………January 1922 – 1925

???.................1925 -1930


The Victoria Bridge Abutments are remnants of the fourth bridge to cross the Brisbane River at this point. Constructed in 1896 to a design by A B Brady, Government Architect, the bridge was constructed of iron, with stone abutments at each end. The stonework was undertaken by Arthur Midson and the ironwork by Messrs Cormick. The abutments each comprise a large masonry podium, with the southern of the two supporting a section of road and a sawn stone rusticated arch with composite neoclassical ornament. A marble memorial tablet is fixed to the southern side of the arch to commemorate an eleven-year-old Greek Australian child, Hector Vasyli, who was accidentally killed on the site in 1918 while welcoming returning soldiers and is of significance for the Greek community.


The 1896 bridge was the fourth structure to cross the Brisbane River at this point. The first, built from timber in 1865, was closed only two years later due to excessive damage caused by marine borers. A permanent structure was commenced in 1864 but was not completed until 1874 when it was opened by the Governor who named it for the ruling British sovereign. Operating as a toll bridge until 1877 it was destroyed in the February 1893 floods. A further temporary bridge was erected by September 1893 but was again destroyed by flooding in 1896. By this time, however, the second permanent bridge was nearing completion.


The opening of the Victoria Bridge in 1874 provided an important transport and communications link between the north and south banks of the river and provided further impetus to the development of the south bank. In the 1880s the south bank experienced a development boom. A dry dock was opened in 1881, coal wharves at Woolloongabba and associated rail links were established in c1885, and South Brisbane was established as the passenger terminus for suburban and country train lines built during the 1880s. Industry and commerce were attracted to the area, and Stanley Street developed into a major retail centre and thoroughfare. The spread of housing included the development of large residences located along the ridges with views of the river and industry developed along the southern bank of Milton Reach.


South Brisbane Municipality was established in 1888. The development of the civic centre focussed on the Stanley and Vulture Street intersection and included the Town Hall, Post Office, Fire Station, and Railway Station. The boom of the 1880s collapsed, following maritime and pastoral strikes and the early 1890s and the collapse of banks in 1893. A series of floods in 1893 resulted in the collapse of the Victoria Bridge which cut vital transport and communications links with the central city. Urban expansion continued following the opening of the new Victoria Bridge in 1897 and was further supported by the introduction of electric trams.


The significance of the Victoria Bridge to the commercial development of the south side of the river is best demonstrated in two anecdotes relating to human nature. At the opening of the bridge in 1897, both North and South Brisbane demanded that they have a ceremony to celebrate this significant event. The ceremony, therefore, required a formal opening on the north side, following which the party of dignitaries proceeded to cross the bridge to the southern bank. Here another ceremony was held and the procession then crossed the river once more to be met with refreshments on the north bank. The second story relates to a Commemoration Day prank perpetrated by students in the early 1930s. Early one morning they installed a sign at each end of the bridge indicating that the bridge was closed to traffic. Police arriving on the scene took the signs at face value and proceeded to prevent vehicular traffic from using the bridge for most of the day. It was not until someone thought to check with the appropriate authorities that it was discovered that the signs were placed in position as a joke. As a consequence of this prank commerce on either side of the river as considerably disrupted and the university students were severely reprimanded for their actions.


The design of the bridge caused much comment, due to the impressive stone arches flanking the approaches and the manner in which the engineers had addressed the various problems presented by the site. The river banks were at two different levels, presenting a design challenge which was competently met by Brady. The gentle slope of the decking from the higher north bank down to the southern abutment was imperceptible to the eye. The cylindrical iron pillars which supported the span across the river were slightly tapered above normal water level.


The bridge provided a divided carriageway for traffic, with two lanes operating in each direction. The central dividing structure echoed the form of the sides of the bridge, consisting of a series of metal lattice framed hog-backs. Each end of the central divider was marked with a rusticated stone pilaster topped with an ornate gaslight. The sides of the bridge were also enclosed in lattice trussing. A swinging span was designed to permit the passage of tall-masted ships, however, even at that stage such vessels were becoming increasingly scarce and much of the up-river traffic was the lower motorised vessels. Following the introduction of tram services to South Brisbane, this 'swinging girder' was closed permanently to permit the laying of tracks. Each end of the bridge was provided with stone pillars at the river bank and, at the point of entry, rusticated stone arches spanned the pedestrian walkways. Pedestrian footways were provided on either side of the main decking. Until the 1930s the Victoria Bridge remained the only permanent crossing point between the north and south banks of the River within Brisbane. By 1926 the bottleneck caused by the increased volume of traffic attempting to use the only river crossing in the city led to the establishment of a commission to explore alternative sites for bridges. After consideration of a number of factors such as flooding, navigation and level of demand, the Grey Street (William Jolly) Bridge was constructed, followed by the Walter Taylor Bridge which functioned as a toll bridge from its opening in 1936. The Storey Bridge was not opened until 1940 due to pressures against the construction of a down-river bridge which had the potential to limit shipping to the city wharves.


In 1918, during the celebrations marking the end of the Great War and the return of the soldiers from the front, an incident occurred that touched the heart of the public and led to the provision of a memorial tablet on the southern end of the bridge. An 11-year-old child, Hector Vasyli, of Greek ancestry, was struck by one of the vehicles in the parade and killed. A marble tablet was erected to his memory and a memorial service has been held at the site on Anzac Day ever since.


Hector did lots of patriotic work for returned soldiers during the war, and supposedly gave gifts of cigarettes to returned soldiers and participated in many of the welcome home parades in the city. He lost his life in one of these parades when a vehicle swerved suddenly and hit him. He died from a fractured skull.


The Brisbane Courier (Qld), 3 December 1918 reported:


The unveiling of the Hector Vasyli memorial tablet will take place next Sunday afternoon, at 3.30, on the south side of Victoria bridge, and the general public are invited to be present. The ceremony will be performed by the Mayor of South Brisbane (Alderman P. Forrest), who, it is announced, will be supported by the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Association, the Hellenic Greek Association, the Anglican Church Mission, and representatives of the various churches. The returned soldiers who are taking part are asked to meet at the General Post Offlce at 3 o'clock, and march with the Military band, under the command of Lieutenant Grant Hanlon, and the various branches of the Baden Powell Boy Scouts are also asked to assemble at the same time, and march in procession to the service.


The tablet reads:


"Every land is his native land to a brave man


Near this spot as a result of a lamentable accident whilst welcoming returned soldiers, Hector Vasyli, was killed 9th June 1918


Aged 11 years.


During his brief sojourn on earth he devoted much of his time to patriotic work for Australian soldiers during the Great European War.


In his veins ran the heroic blood of Greece and in the breast of a child he carried the heart of a man.


This tablet was erected by the Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League, Hellenic (Greek) Association, and citizens of Brisbane."


In 1969 when the bridge was being demolished, to be replaced by the present structure, the memorial tablet was removed for safekeeping until a suitable location was found for it. Discussion with the Greek Community and Brisbane City Council led to the decision to retain that portion of the southern abutment which had originally held the memorial tablet and so it was returned to its original location on April 24, 1970. During storage, the bronze relief head of the boy which decorated the tablet was lost. The Greek Consul, Mr Alex Freeleagus located the boys' sister in Sydney and she provided a photograph of the boy from which a replacement likeness was cast.


Construction of the new bridge resulted in the part demolition of the northern abutment, with the arch and upper courses of the Brisbane Tuff stonework removed. More recent works associated with the upgrade of the North Quay Ferry Terminal included the removal of a curved stone retaining wall (c1920s) that formed a large planter box adjacent to the abutment, and cleaning of the newly exposed stonework. A cantilevered viewing platform was constructed above the abutment, along with an adjacent public lift, stairs and ramps to provide access from Queens Wharf Road to the walkway and ferry terminal below.


The more intact southern bridge abutment retained its arch but was left as a ruin for some time following the demolition of the bridge, photographs taken in 1971 show that it was still in a ruined state at that time. Restoration work is reported as having been undertaken as a part of the revivification of the South Bank area in preparation for the 1988 Exposition which was held at South Bank Park. At that time two bronze plaques were attached to the side of the abutment recording the history of the bridge. Conservation works were undertaken in 2003-4, including cleaning, patching and repointing of the stonework. In 2015 a new walkway, featuring interpretive signage panels, was built between the abutment and the modern bridge.


Source: Queensland Heritage Register.

After Baz identified the A7Vs above, I thought it only fitting I give the photograph a bit of a face-lift.


This assessment from Baz aka "diggerdogroff" of the photograph.


"A7V 560 is probably lurking in the rear behind 540, going by its similar, albeit faint, skull and crossbones and complete absence of large front flapped vision ports.


Both 540 and 560 served in Abteilung 1 in the Battle of la Montagne de Reims against the French on 15 July 1918. As both also came through unscathed, everything seems to fit nicely with Brett's superb photo above."


The tank's name was derived from that of its parent organization, Allgemeines Kriegsdepartement, 7. Abteilung, Verkehrswesen.


A7V chassis listing:


501 Gretchen: scrapped by the Allies in 1919 (Female).

502: Scrapped by Germans in October 1918.

503 Totenkopf: Scrapped by Germans in October 1918.

504 Schnuck: lost at Fremicourt 31 August 1918.

505 Baden I: scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

506 Mephisto: lost at Villers-Bretonneux on 24 April 1918, recovered by Australians, now in Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia.

507 Cyklop: scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

525 Siegfried: scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

526: Scrapped by Germans in 1 June 1918.

527 Lotti: lost at Pompelle Fort 1 June 1918.

528 Hagen: lost at Fremicourt 31 August 1918.

529 Nixe 2: lost at Remis 31 May 1918, recovered by Americans and scrapped at Aberdeen Proving Grounds Museum in 1942.

540 Heiland: scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

541: Scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

542 Elfriede: lost at Villers-Bretonneux 24 April 1918

543 Hagen, Adalbert, König Wilhelm: scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

560 Alter Fritz: lost at Iwuy 11 October 1918.

561 Nixe: scrapped by Germans 24 April 1918.

562 Herkules: scrapped by Germans after 31 August 1918.

563 Wotan: scrapped by the Allies in 1919, a replica of Wotan was built in the late 1980s based largely on Mephisto, which is now in the Panzermuseum in Munster, Germany.

564: Scrapped by the Allies in 1919.

Format: Silver gelatin photoprint


Notes: Find out more about the people and places of New South Wales at Discover Collections - People & Places www.sl.nsw.gov.au/discover_collections/people_places/inde...


From the collections of the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales www.sl.nsw.gov.au


Information about photographic collections of the State Library of New South Wales: acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/SimpleSearch.aspx


Persistent url: acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=440395

CARMI is a ghost town in the Boundary Country region of southern British Columbia. The town is on the west side of the West Kettle River, east of Penticton, on Hwy 33. Carmi emerged as a silver mining camp just after the turn of the 20th century, named after the nearby mine owned by James C. Dale from Carmi, Illinois. By 1910, Carmi comprised crude log cabins and a hotel owned by "Trapper" Smith. When the mine closed, the town disappeared after three decades of existence. Passenger train service ceased in the early 1960s. The abandoned Smith House hotel burnt to the ground in 2000. Although comprising a few residences, most of the old cabins have disappeared with time.


LINK to an article - Carmi was once the Payroll City of the West Fork - www.nelsonstar.com/community/carmi-was-once-the-payroll-c...


- from 1908 "Lovell's Gazetteer of the Dominion of Canada" - CARMI, a post settlement and mining village in Yale and Cariboo District, B.C., on the west branch of the Kettle River, 49 miles from Midway Station, on the C.P.R. (Nelson, Grand Forks, and Midway Div.). It has 2 stores, 2 hotels, and 1 lumber mill. The population in 1908 45.


(from - Wrigley's 1918 British Columbia Directory) - CARMI - a post office and station on the K. V, Railway, 46 miles west of Midway, in Greenwood Provincial Electoral District. C. P. R. telegraph. Roman Catholic Church. Local resources: Mining, lumbering, mixed farming and good hunting. The population in 1918 was 40.


Carmi Post Office opened - 1 June 1902, James Kerr postmaster; closed - 1 November 1907; re-opened - 16 November 1907; closed again - 31 December 1909; re-opened - 1 August 1911; closed for the last time - 31 January 1969. Founded c. 1900 and named after a mineral claim located in 1896 by James Cass Dale; the mineral claim in turn had been named for his birthplace and early home Carmi, Illinois.


LINK to a list of the Postmasters who served at the CARMI Post Office - www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/postal-heritage-philately/...;


- sent from - / CARMI / FE 12 / 12 / B.C. / - split ring cancel - this split ring hammer (A-2) was proofed - 3 July 1911 - (RF C) - split ring hammer (A-1) was proofed c. 1902.


Message on postcard reads:Dear J. J. :- Will you please exchange cards with me? Do you know of any store in Boise where I could get oil paints? Please answer soon. Jean Crawford, Carmi, B.C. (No 26).


Jeanne "Jean" Jamieson (nee Crawford) Clarke

(b. February 1896 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada – d. 1994 in British Columbia, Canada)


Her father - Isaac Crawford

(b. 15 January 1868 – d. 23 September 1929) was the General Storekeeper and Postmaster at CARMI from - 1 June 1913 to - 17 February 1923.


Her husband - Thomas Wallace Clarke

(b. 9 April 1889 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada – d. 21 November 1967 at age 78 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) - they were married - 7 June 1918 in Phoenix, Kootenay Boundary, British Columbia - he replaced her father as Postmaster at CARMI and served from - 13 September 1923 to - March 1925. LINK - to his Personnel Records from the First World War - www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-wo... He was an Officer (Lieut.) and served in England and France during WWI with the 4th Bttn, 18th Reserve Battalion, 2nd Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops, Canadian Railway Troops Depot and Canadian Army Pay Corps. His occupation in 1914 was listed as a civil engineer. LINK - Obituary for Thomas CLARKE - vancouversun.newspapers.com/clip/61366039/obituary-for-th...


Addressed to: A.T. Nelson / Boise, / Idaho / Box 906 / USA


Axel T. Nelson

Birth - 22 Mar 1862 in Dalarnas län, Sweden

Death - 26 Nov 1942 (aged 80) in Boise, Ada County, Idaho, USA

Burial - Morris Hill Cemetery Boise, Ada County, Idaho, USA

Occupation (1907) was listed as a Stenographer.


Axel T. Nelson / Box 906, Boise, Idaho / Manager of the Idaho Post Card Exchange "The Best in the World" LINK to this interesting postcard - www.cardcow.com/805405/boise-idaho-at-nelson-mgr-post-car...


Advertisement from 1912 - You'll get card from everywhere. membership 10 cents. Idaho card exchange. Dept K. Box 906, Boise, Idaho.


Autobiography of Axel T. Nelson, including his childhood in Sweden, transatlantic voyage (1879), rail travels in the West and South, farm work in Nebraska, and railroad construction in Colorado and Montana. Also Includes descriptions of a gambling hall in Denver (1882) and a Mississippi River steamboat voyage from St. Louis to St. Paul (1886).

Photographs from an album compiled by Pionier Leutnant Karl Wilhelm Lenz of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16.


In the rear with the gear, Sturm-Soldaten carrying boxes of hand grenades await orders to move forward and resupply their comrades fighting on the other hill.

Brief note on reverse penned 28 June 1918 in Germersheim.


Contrary to what the author writes on the back, "BMW" is clearly visible on the front of the aircraft's motor.


A decorated Bavarian airman from an unidentified Bayrische Flieger Abteilung stands in front of a Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke C.V. reconnaissance aircraft.


The C.V and it's related designs were used as a multi-role combat aircraft, for reconnaissance, observation, and bombing by Germany and Bulgaria during World War I. Six aircraft were delivered to Bulgaria in 1917. In the hands of a skilled pilot it could outmaneuver most allied fighters of the period. It remained in service until early 1918 though 600 were still in use by the Armistice of 11 November 1918.

Erikson was a smuggler for the Helsinki White Guard, here she's photographed in the spring of 1918, in the middle of the Finnish Civil War. With a pistol and ammunition belts wrapped around her, hidden beneath the coat.


The photo was published after the war on the cover of the weekly magazine Suomen Kuvalehti on 15 June 1918. The caption to the image declared, "One of the finest protectresses of the Helsinki White Guard. Miss E., a student at the University of Technology, bearing three bandoliers and a large pistol. Altogether Miss E. is carrying some 1,350 bullets strapped to her person."


Erikson was given the newly founded Order of the Cross of Liberty in 1918. She sadly past away the same year due to cancer, she’s buried in Hietaniemi Cemetery, Helsinki.

Note kindly translated by xiphophilos.


Unsurvivable - The crash site of an unidentified training aircraft flown by Flieger Scholz, somewhere well behind the lines, June 1918.

Photographs from an album compiled by Pionier Leutnant K. Lenz of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16.

Photographs from an album compiled by Pionier Leutnant K. Lenz of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16.

Camrose, Alberta - 19 June 1918 to New Westminster, B.C. short-paid "2" handstamp (1¢ + 1¢ penalty / shortpaid 1 cent and taxed double the deficiency) & "NOT CALLED FOR" straight line marking -


April 15, 1915 - June 30, 1926 - In 1915, pursuant to The Special War Revenue Act, a war tax was imposed on certain classes of mail: On every letter and postcard for transmission for any distance within Canada and on every letter and postcard not intended for transmission through the mails but for posting and delivery at the same post office. 2 cent forward letter rate + 1 cent War Tax.


/ GENERAL DELIVERY / A / JUN 22 1918 / NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C. / - double ring oval marking in greyish purple ink.


General delivery: term that allows customers with identification to pick up mail at post offices...


Addressed to: Mr. Samuel Morley / New Westminster / B.C.


The Morley family were early settlers in Delta, B.C. Samuel Morley (1861-1940) moved from Holton County, Ontario, to British Columbia in the early 1880s. He homesteaded in Aldergrove before settling in Delta where he bought farmland in 1901 (28th St.) and 1908 (Goudy Road). He and his wife Isabelle Duff (1864-1949) married in 1887 and had two children, Nancy S. Morley and Robert Morley. Samuel served on the council in Delta. Robert married Vera Evelyn Gillanders in 1914 and had two children, Lloyd and Vasey. Robert and his sons continued to farm and expand their holdings in Delta. Robert was also active in the I.O.O.F Delta Lodge No. 21. Lloyd served in the army in WWII and later left farming to start a general contracting company when the family farms were expropriated for the Roberts Bank superport in 1969. Vasey and his wife Anne re-located to a farm on Crescent Island, land originally owned by the Gillanders family.


The only other Samuel Morley that lived in this area - had him working as a shipping clerk at the Cunningham Hardware Company - 747 - 751 Columbia Street in New Westminster, B.C. from 1909 to 1921. Both came to B.C. from Ontario - but are they the same person - I do not know.

Daniel Horatio ROBSON

Regimental number - 667

Religion - Church of England

Occupation - Agent

Address - Kadina, South Australia

Marital status - Married

Age at embarkation - 40

Next of kin - Wife, Mrs Lucy Ethel Robson, Kadina, South Australia

Enlistment date - 23 September 1915

Rank on enlistment - Private

Unit name - Australian Remount Unit 1, Squadron 3

AWM Embarkation Roll number - 28/2/1

Embarkation details - Unit embarked from Melbourne, Victoria, on board Transport A67 Orsova on 12 November 1915

Recommendations (Medals and Awards)

Mention in Despatches -

Awarded, and promulgated, 'London Gazette', Supplement, No. 30746 (14 June 1918); 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 173 (7 November 1918).

Date of death - 25 November 1960

Age at death - 85

Place of burial - North Road Church of England Cemetery, Adelaide, South Australia


(found on ebay)

Photographs from an album compiled by Pionier-Leutnant Karl Wilhelm Lenz of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16.


Supported by at least one machine gun, a Gruppe of fully equipped Sturm-Pioniere await further orders.

Photographs from an album compiled by Pionier Leutnant Karl Wilhelm Lenz of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16.


Under the watchful gaze of hundreds of high ranking officers, men of Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 16 assault "enemy positions" at the battalion's Truppenübungsplatz near the Kaiserstuhl in Baden and close the Elsaß-Lothringen border.

Identifier: cangroceraprjune1918toro

Title: Canadian grocer April-June 1918

Year: 1918 (1910s)


Subjects: Supermarkets Grocery trade Food industry and trade

Publisher: Toronto : Maclean-Hunter Pub. Co. [1887]-

Contributing Library: Fisher - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto


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Text Appearing Before Image:

ing.E v ery poundof it you sellmeans furthere n c o u rage-ment to Cana-das i n c reas-ing prod uc-tion o f SugarBeets. •Hi,. <#( Beets,recom- If, II*1 * |Sk * 100 LBS- #& m^ythi NET. J$ JoiBS.Nn Wlt*f I^^AR-CO. We have just publisheda 40-page book describ-ing the method wherebysugar is made from Cana-dian grown Beets. Thisbooklet, beautifully illus-trated and telling in plain,simple terms the story ofSugar—from Beet toBowl will be sent to anygrocer. Every one whosells sugar should be in-terested in the develop-ment of our SugarBeet Industry and inthe perfectedprocessesw h e reby weare able to of-fer a sugarrefined frombeets that is asfine and pureand whole-some a s canbe o b t a inedany where inthe world. WRITE FOR THE BOOK THAT TELLS ALL ABOUT THIS PROCESS-—IT IS hREE TO YOU—-SENT PROMPTLY ON REQUEST Circulation of Canadian Grocer has been audited by the Audit Bureau of Circula tions.Copy of report will be sent on request to anyone interested. CANADIAN GROCER


Text Appearing After Image:

FINE! That deliciousness in every glassof Coca-Cola is a business-build-ing factor for those aggressivegrocers who are pushing the salesof this delightful beverage. Foreverybody knows Coca-Cola.Everybody likes it. Everybodybuys it.


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Suur Tõll is an Estonian steam-powered icebreaker preserved in the Estonian Maritime Museum in Tallinn. She was originally built for the Russian Empire in 1914 by AG Vulcan in Stettin, Germany, as Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich. In 1917, she was taken over by the Bolsheviks and renamed Volynets. However, in 1918 she was captured by Finland and served as Wäinämöinen until 1922, when she was handed over to Estonia according to the Treaty of Tartu and renamed Suur Tõll. When Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, the icebreaker rejoined the Soviet fleet and was again named Volynets. She remained in service until 1985.


The Soviet Navy decided to sell the decommissioned icebreaker for scrap, and she was purchased by the Estonian Maritime Museum in 1987. The ship was given back her original Estonian name and was extensively renovated; Suur Tõll, the largest preserved pre-war icebreaker in the world, is currently moored at Lennusadam, the historical seaplane harbour in Tallinn.

In 1912, the Imperial Russian government organized a request for tender for the construction of a large steam-powered icebreaker designed specifically for the ice conditions of the Baltic Sea. The shipbuilding contract was awarded to the German shipyard Stettiner Maschinenbau AG Vulcan and the vessel, christened Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich (Царь Михаилъ Феодоровичъ) after Michael of Russia, was ready for launching on 26 December 1913. In the following spring, the new icebreaker carried out sea trials off the coast of Finland. Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich was presented to the general public in St. Petersburg on 26 May and on the following day she was officially handed over to Russia.[3] In 1915, two armed icebreakers of similar design, Knyaz Pojarskiy and Kozma Minin, were constructed in England.[4][5]


Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich arrived to her homeport, Tallinn, on 2 July 1914. When Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August 1914 and the First World War began, the icebreaker was armed and 96 soldiers were stationed on her. During the war, the icebreaker operated in the Gulf of Finland, where she carried troops and material, and escorted transportation vessels between Tallinn and Helsinki. In 1916, she was drydocked in Kronstadt.[3]


On 12 March 1917, the Volhynian Guard Regiment from Petrograd mutinied against their Tsarist officers and joined the revolutionary Bolsheviks. Followning the February Revolution, Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich was renamed Volynets to honor the regiment on 15 May 1917. During the winter of 1918, Volynets assisted the retreating Baltic Fleet — the Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet — together with another large Russian icebreaker, Yermak.

After the failed attempt to capture the small Finnish icebreaker Avance from the Russian revolutionaries in March 1918, Finnish captain Theodor Segersven and his men shifted their focus to the much larger Volynets. On 29 March 1918, 53 men dressed as workers boarded the icebreaker and Segersven presented a forged written order for the ship's political commissar claiming that he and his men were to be transported to Kuivasaari for construction work. When the icebreaker passed the lighthouse of Harmaja, the men broke into the ship's weapons storage and shortly afterwards the Russian crew of 116, half of them armed guards, had been taken into custody. In the evening Volynets, flying the Finnish flag under the command of Segersven, arrived in Tallinn, where she was welcomed by a group of high-ranking German officers, including Prince Henry of Prussia. On 28 April 1918 the captured icebreaker was renamed Wäinämöinen after the legendary Finnish hero. This caused some discontent with the crew who had held a naming contest while the icebreaker was moored in Tallinn and chosen the name Leijona after the Lion of Finland.

Shortly after the capture Wäinämöinen was used to transport 3,000 German soldiers — Detachment Brandenstein — to Loviisa together with Tarmo, another Finnish icebreaker. The Germans supplied her with coal and provisions and she spent most of the spring assisting German ships between Helsinki and Tallinn. On 3 June 1918 Wäinämöinen was officially handed over to the Finnish Board of Navigation and became the largest and most powerful icebreaker in the Finnish state-owned fleet. Captain Segersven was replaced by Polish-Estonian Stanislaus Juhnewicz, the ship's original captain who had joined forces with the Finns during the capture after having been promised a government post by Gustaf Wrede, the director of the Board of Navigation.[6]


Although Wäinämöinen was an invaluable addition to the Finnish icebreaker fleet, she was not used as extensively as the smaller state-owned icebreakers due to her high fuel consumption and the shortage of coal shortly after the war. In addition to icebreaker duties she was used to transport volunteers across the Gulf of Finland to participate in the Estonian War of Independence.[7] In September 1919 she was drydocked in Suomenlinna, but while the repair work was completed in late October, she could not leave the shipyard until 24 November due to her deep draft and the particularly low sea level.[8] During the particularly harsh winter of 1922 she assisted 170 ships to and from the Finnish ports. Her last task under the Finnish flag was to open the South Harbour in Helsinki on 16 April 1922.[9]


During her years under the Finnish flag Wäinämöinen demonstrated the advantages of a large icebreaker and that such vessel was definitely needed in Finland. As a result, the Finnish Board of Navigation decided to order a large icebreaker based on her basic design and the experiences gained during her operation. The new icebreaker, Jääkarhu, was delivered in 1926.

When Finland signed the Treaty of Tartu on 14 October 1920, it had agreed to return the Russian icebreakers seized by the Finnish White Guard during the Civil War. However, instead of the Soviet Union Wäinämöinen was handed over to Estonia on 20 November 1922 and renamed Suur Tõll after Toell the Great, a great giant from the Estonian mythology.[9] During the era of Estonian independence in the 1920s and 1930s, she assisted ships mainly outside Tallinn in the southern Gulf of Finland, but sometimes sailed as far south as the coast of Lithuania.[4] Her last winter in 1940 was so difficult that Suur Tõll had to escort ships all the way from Stockholm and Danzig to Tallinn.[3]


In the 1920s, Estonia did not possess a dry dock large enough to accommodate the 3,619-ton Suur Tõll and as a result the icebreaker was drydocked in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1923. As a response, the Tallinn-based Riigi Laivatehas combined their 2,000-ton and 3,000-ton floating docks with pontoons. In 1927, the shipyard replaced Suur Tõll's old boilers with new ones purchased from Vulcan and heightened the bridge by one deck to improve visibility over the bow.

When the Soviet Union occupied Estonia in June 1940, Suur Tõll was transferred to the Soviet fleet. On 27–29 August 1941, she participated in the evacuation of Tallinn, joining the convoy led by Soviet cruiser Kirov while carrying 980 passengers and hundreds of tons of military supplies. Although the convoy suffered heavy losses — over half of the 67 civilian ships were destroyed and around 6,000 lives were lost — Volynets, steaming in front of Kirov, managed to evade the bombs dropped at it and arrived in Kronstadt unharmed.[4] However, on 11 September the icebreaker was hit by three incendiary bombs which caused minor damage to the vessel. Following a secret decision to scuttle all vessels in the port of Leningrad to prevent capture, depth charges and other explosives were placed in the engine rooms and boiler rooms. However, these were later removed when the icebreaker was pressed into naval service.[3]


On 4 October 1941, Suur Tõll was transferred to the Soviet Navy and armed with four 45 mm anti-aircraft guns. Two weeks later, her Estonian crew was replaced by Soviet Navy sailors and on 11 November she was given back her old name, Volynets. However, it was not until 25 January 1942 that she raised the naval ensign. At the same time, her armament was increased with two 76 mm anti-aircraft guns and later she received two more guns of the same type. During the Siege of Leningrad and the resulting shortage of coal, Volynets mostly remained in the port as a stationary anti-aircraft battery. She had also struck naval mines twice, first on 24 November 1942 when three small mines caused minor damage to her bow and then again in January 1945.[3]


After the war, Volynets was used for towing captured vessels from Germany and Poland to shipyards in Leningrad. Still flying the naval ensign, she was transferred to the auxiliary fleet on 29 April 1948 and stationed in the Western Gulf of Finland.[3] In 1951–1952, Volynets was extensively refitted at Rauma-Repola shipyard in Rauma as part of the Finnish war reparations to the Soviet Union.[4] The refit included replacing her old coal-fired boilers with new Swedish-built oil-fired boilers and almost complete rebuilding of her superstructure.[3]


In 1957, Volynets was transferred to Kronstadt where she remained for the remainder of her active career. Equipped with large pumps and extensive fire-fighting outfit, the old icebreaker was stationed at the shipyard where the Red Fleet demolished its old warships. In 1966, two ships once named after the hero of the Finnish national epic Kalevala met for the last time when Vyborg, the former Finnish coastal defence ship Väinämöinen that had been handed over to the Soviet Union as part of the war reparations, was broken up at the naval scrapyard.

While the scrapping of the obsolete steam-powered icebreaker was planned already in 1967, Volynets remained in service until 1985. In the following year, she was used to supply steam during the construction of the naval port in Primorsk, but was afterwards returned to Lomonosov. She was finally slated for demolition in late 1987.

When Ants Pärna, the director of the Estonian Maritime Museum, found out that Volynets was going to be scrapped, he decided to purchase the icebreaker for the museum in order to preserve it. After a long negotiation, the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Navy agreed to trade the ship for 300 tons of scrap iron.[11] On 10 October 1988, a delegation from the Estonian Maritime Museum arrived at Lomonosov to inspect the old icebreaker. When the seagoing tugboat Tjulen began towing her towards Tallinn in the following evening, the other ships in the port saluted the old icebreaker with their horns. 31 hours later, on 13 October 1988, Volynets dropped her anchor outside the port of Tallinn. On 21 November 1988, the icebreaker was given back her old name, Suur Tõll. On 24 August 1991, four days after Estonia regained full independence, she raised the blue-black-white flag of Estonia for the first time and on 23 December she became the first ship to be added to the newly founded Estonian Ship Register with register number 001. She was opened to the general public on 2 December 1994.[3]


The restoration of Suur Tõll has been an enormous task which has included cleaning garbage accumulated in the ship over the years and finding the missing fittings, including the helm that had been swapped to a steering wheel of a truck during the night before the departure and the large bronze bell of the icebreaker which was found in a military museum in Leningrad. However, not everything had been stolen — for example, the old German piano was still in the saloon because it was too big to be transported away.[4] While the original piano was destroyed in the First World War, the current musical instrument is from the same manufacturer and dates back to the early 20th century.[3] Despite the limited funding and materials, Suur Tõll was largely restored during the 1990s. In 1997, it was found out that the rivets under the waterline were leaking water and the icebreaker was drydocked at Balti Laevaremonditehas for the first time since 1986.[3] However, over the years the hull of the old icebreaker had deteriorated even further, flooding the tanks with a mixture of water and black oil. In 2011, the Estonian Maritime Administration requested the Estonian Maritime Museum to draw up a restoration plan to save the vessel.[12][13] In September 2013, Suur Tõll was closed for renovations which included extensive repairs to the hull in a dry dock. While the icebreaker retained her 1950s post-refit outfit, the saloon was restored to its original 1910s art nouveau style.[3] She was re-opened to visitors in 2014.[14]


In the 1990s, Suur Tõll visited Finland twice. In 1993, she was towed to Kotka to participate the annual maritime festival (Kotkan Meripäivät). During the spring of 1998, the Estonian diesel-electric icebreaker Tarmo towed her to Helsinki for a couple of days to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the independent Estonia as well as capturing of the two steam-powered icebreakers, the other being the 1907-built Tarmo which has been preserved as a museum ship in Finland. While Suur Tõll has not moved under her own power since 1994, the Estonian Maritime Museum intends to return her boilers and steam engines to operational status.

Suur Tõll is the largest preserved pre-war steam-powered icebreaker in the world,[5] bigger than both the Finnish Tarmo and the Swedish Sankt Erik. Although the Russian icebreaker Krasin, built in 1917, is considerably larger than Suur Tõll, she was extensively modernized in the 1950s and retains hardly any resemblance to the other icebreakers of the time.

Technical details

Engine room


Suur Tõll is 75.4 metres (247 ft) long and has a beam of 19.2 metres (63 ft), and at a draft of 5.7 metres (19 ft) her displacement is 3,619 tons. Her hull, strengthened by a cast iron stem and a large number of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads, is surrounded by an ice belt with a width of 2 metres (6.6 ft) and thickness of one inch (25 mm). To assist icebreaking in difficult conditions she is also equipped with heeling tanks and pumps capable of transferring 570 tons of water from one side to another in ten minutes, listing the ship by 10 degrees. Furthermore, her trim could be adjusted by a forepeak tank with a capacity of 600 tons of water. All tanks were connected to an electrical control and indication system.[4]


Powered by three 2,300 ihp triple-expansion steam engines, two driving four-bladed propellers in the stern and one powering a third propeller in the bow, Suur Tõll was one of the most powerful icebreakers in the Gulf of Finland. All moving parts had been dimensioned 35% stronger than in other ships of similar power. She had six coal-fired boilers equipped with mechanical ventilation, burning 3.5 tons of coal per hour in normal operation and four tons during ramming. Her fuel stores could hold 700 tons of coal, almost as much as the cargo capacity of a small cargo ship of the time.[4]


When Suur Tõll was delivered in 1914, she was one of the most modern icebreakers in the world. Extensively electrified, she had electrical lighting and her anchor windlass, winches and two coal cranes were all powered by electricity to avoid having easily freezing steam pipes on the deck. Furthermore, she had an electrical salvage pump that could be transported to a grounded ship in a boat or on a sledge over ice without bringing the icebreaker too close to the shallow waters. When delivered, her radio station had a range of 400 kilometres (220 nautical miles), but it was later increased to 1,100 kilometres (590 nautical miles).


No correspondence.


Emil Thuy (11 March 1894 – 11 June 1930), Pour le Merite, Württemberg's Order of Military Merit, House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross First and Second Class, was one of the leading German fighter aces of World War I, with 35 victories.


In August, 1914, Thuy volunteered to serve as a pioneer, which was the German equivalent of a combat engineer. After only six weeks basic training, he was rushed into combat. In November, 1914, he was so severely wounded as to be considered unfit for further military service.


Nevertheless, when he recuperated, he volunteered for the Imperial German Air Service. He underwent aviation training in Berlin. He then reported for duty with FFA 53, which was a reconnaissance unit that spotted and directed artillery fire from the air. He reported in on 10 July 1915 as a Vizefeldwebel or non-commissioned pilot. He would remain with FFA 53 until 1 November 1916. Despite flying a two-seater plane poorly suited for combat, he scored his first victory on 8 September 1915.


On 1 November 1916, he entered fighter pilot training, graduating only 18 days later. He was then assigned to Jagdstaffel 21 (Jasta 21), then equipped with Albatros fighters. He was commissioned Leutnant in the reserves on 27 March 1917 after three weeks training.


On 16 April 1917, after joining Jasta 21, he scored his second victory. He began to tally triumphs on a regular basis. By the time he left Jasta 21 on 29 September 1917, his list read 14, with number 14 being shot down on 22 September.


He then transferred to command Jagdstaffel 28, which had lost two commanders killed in action in the previous month. On 24 September, he scored his first victory with his new squadron. He continued to accumulate wins on a steady basis, by ones and twos.


He was injured in a crash on 2 February 1918. On the 20th, he was discharged from hospital and returned to duty. On 30 June 1918, he was awarded the Pour le Merite. At about this time, he changed aircraft from the Pfalz D.III he had been flying, to a Fokker D.VII. In July, Jagdgruppe 7 was founded, incorporating his Jasta and three others. Thuy commanded both JG 7 and Jasta 28 simultaneously.


He ended his victory string with a double victory on 14 October 1918. In his combat career, he had earned several awards even before the Pour le Merite; besides both classes of the Iron Cross, he had also been given the Knight's Cross of the Military Merit Order of Württemberg.


The Treaty of Versailles banned Germany from having an air force. To get around this, a secret training base was established in the Soviet Union, at Lipetsk fighter-pilot school, in 1924. Thuy was offered the opportunity to serve there and accepted.


On 11 June 1930, while flying from Moscow to Berlin as part of this mission, Thuy crashed fatally in the vicinity of Smolensk. He was testing a secret Albatros L 76 reconnaissance airplane at the time.



La vecchia strada che conduce al passo da Tovena , cioè attraverso il cosiddetto canale della Scala o di San Boldo (in dialetto Canal de San Boit), ha una notevole importanza storica. Il percorso originario risalirebbe all'epoca romana ed era affiancato da torri di vedetta (ne restano i ruderi di una, di età bizantina). Fu fondamentale nei collegamenti tra il Trevigiano e la Valbelluna: oltre a pastori, mercanti e pellegrini, era percorsa dagli zattieri, i conduttori di zattere che riscendevano il Piave dal Bellunese e dal Cadore per poi tornare via terra.

Nel corso dell'Ottocento vengono presentati richieste e progetti per la costruzione di un nuovo percorso più agevole, ma i lavori cominciarono solo nel 1914 sotto la direzione dell'ing. Giuseppe Carpenè. Con l'invasione seguita alla rotta di Caporetto, l'infrastruttura fu ultimata, tra marzo e giugno del 1918, dal genio militare austriaco per esigenze strategiche; fu un'impresa memorabile (per la quale fu fondamentale la manodopera locale) in quanto l'opera, che vide peraltro lo scavo di cinque gallerie, si concluse in tempi brevissimi: da qui il soprannome "strada dei 100 giorni"


The old road that leads to the pass from Tovena, that is, through the so-called Scala or San Boldo canal (Canal de San Boit in dialect), is of considerable historical importance. The original route dates back to Roman times and was flanked by lookout towers (the ruins of one from the Byzantine age remain). It was fundamental in the connections between the Treviso and Valbelluna: in addition to shepherds, merchants and pilgrims, it was traveled by raftsmen, the conductors of rafts that descended the Piave from the Belluno and Cadore areas and then returned by land.

During the nineteenth century requests and projects were presented for the construction of a new easier route, but the works began only in 1914 under the direction of Eng. Giuseppe Carpenè. With the invasion that followed the Caporetto route, the infrastructure was completed, between March and June 1918, by the Austrian military genius for strategic reasons; it was a memorable undertaking (for which the local labor was fundamental) as the work, which also saw the excavation of five tunnels, was completed in a very short time: hence the nickname "road of 100 days"

@ Evolene Wallis Swtseland

Frank Gilbert Cook was my grandfather's brother. He was an aviator during the war and died of wounds received in combat in June 1918.


I recently entered this image in a competition and the judge said he couldn't see a connection between the aviator's certificate and the medals. Duh? I sometimes wonder which planet these judges come from.


Dianne McMillan

@ Vanoise France

Pernes, June 1918. Collection photographer unknown

A June 1918 advert.

Don't forget, there was a war on. ☹.

An interesting follow up to the Macro Mondays theme, 'candy'.

Pralognon en Vanoise

Taken from a photograph by W D Cooper in my collection.

Built as LNWR class B, entering service numbered 1043 in December 1902. Rebuilt as a Class G1 June 1918 and a class G2A August 1938. Became LMS 9304 in April 1928. Renumbered 49304 October 1951 and withdrawn December 1959.

A naval cannon from the First World War, on Whitby seafront near the West Pier. It was retrieved from one of the many wrecks on this coast. A plaque states that it was a 12 pounder salvaged from the wreck of SS AFRICAN TRANSPORT. This may be incorrect, as this ship was armed with a larger gun - a 4.7 inch quick firing cannon, and that gun is still among the wreckage near Kettleness Point where she sank after being torpedoed in June 1918. This 12 pounder likely came off another WW1 wreck in the area. (Info from Martin Evans, Flickr)

In the background are the East and West piers.


©SWJuk (2020)

All rights reserved

""Bagtown", originally a (New South Wales) Public Works Department Camp was established in 1911. Eventually became known as "Bagtown", though the early Settlers preferred the title 'Old Griffith'. Many of the camps were made up of empty cement bags, left over from the construction of the channels, hence it became known as 'Bagtown'. Bagtown Cemetery came into existence after Louis Montague was buried there in May 1912 and was declared a Reserve on 21 June 1918." griffithgene.org.au/landhold.htm


The cemetery, which sits among orange groves about 5 km south of Griffith, NSW was restored in recent times after many years of neglect.

The Fokker D.VII was a German World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz of the Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. Germany produced around 3,300 D.VII aircraft in the second half of 1918. In service with the Luftstreitkräfte, the D.VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aircraft. The Armistice ending the war specifically required Germany to surrender all D.VIIs to the Allies. Surviving aircraft saw continued widespread service with many other countries in the years after World War I.


Many sources erroneously state that the D.VII was equipped with the 120 kW (160 hp) Mercedes D.III engine. The Germans themselves used the generic D.III designation to describe later versions of that engine. The earliest production D.VIIs were equipped with 170-180 hp Mercedes D.IIIa. Production quickly switched to the intended standard engine, the higher-compression 134 kW (180-200 hp) Mercedes D.IIIaü. It appears that some early production D.VIIs delivered with the Mercedes D.IIIa were later re-engined with the D.IIIaü.


By mid-1918, some D.VIIs received the "overcompressed" 138 kW (185 hp) BMW IIIa, the first product of the BMW firm. The BMW IIIa followed the SOHC, straight-six configuration of the Mercedes D.III, but incorporated several improvements. Increased displacement, higher compression, and an altitude-adjusting carburetor produced a marked increase in speed and climb rate at high altitude. Because the BMW IIIa was overcompressed, using full throttle at altitudes below 2,000 m (6,700 ft) risked premature detonation in the cylinders and damage to the engine. At low altitudes, full throttle could produce up to 179 kW (240 hp) for a short time. Fokker-built aircraft with the new BMW engine were designated D.VII(F), the suffix "F" standing for Max Friz, the engine's designer.


BMW-engined aircraft entered service with Jasta 11 in late June 1918. Pilots clamored for the D.VII(F), of which about 750 were built. Production of the BMW IIIa was very limited and the D.VII continued to be produced with the 134 kW (180 hp) Mercedes D.IIIaü until the end of the war.


D.VIIs flew with different propeller designs from different manufacturers. Despite the differing appearances there is no indication these propellers gave disparate performance. Axial, Wolff, Wotan, and Heine propellers have been noted.

""Bagtown", originally a (New South Wales) Public Works Department Camp was established in 1911. Eventually became known as "Bagtown", though the early Settlers preferred the title 'Old Griffith'. Many of the camps were made up of empty cement bags, left over from the construction of the channels, hence it became known as 'Bagtown'. Bagtown Cemetery came into existence after Louis Montague was buried there in May 1912 and was declared a Reserve on 21 June 1918." griffithgene.org.au/landhold.htm


The cemetery which sits among orange groves about 5 km south of Griffith, NSW was restored in recent times after many years of neglect.

Norman Rockwell (1894 - 1978)

oil on canvas, 1918

Cover illustration for "The Red Cross Magazine," June 1918

Anzac Centenary 1915 -2015



Sgt. Frank Gilbert Cook


Killed in Action

23rd June 1918

North of Méry-la-Bataille, the necropolis of 6238 m², built in 1919, adjacent to the cemetery. It contains 1538 body whose 254 ossuaries. There is also the grave of a French soldier killed during the 2nd World War. From 1919 to 1921, and in 1934 and 1935 were grouped by graves from temporary cemeteries Rollot Courcelles-Epayelles, Mery Wacquemoulin, Moyenneville, Rouvillers, Léglantiers, and Montiers Rouvroy-les-Merles. The majority of men buried here were killed during the fighting in the Battle of Matz (9-11 June 1918).

My grandparents, Frederick George Hughes and Nora Kelly, at their wedding, Wimbledon, London, in July 1918. My grandfather was 35. Next to him stands his elder brother. Seated are, right, the bride's brother (probably), and left, a friend of the bride. My grandmother was from County Cork, Ireland, and her parents disapproved of her marrying an Englishman.

Lynn Creek and Lynn Valley area are named after sapper John Linn, a Royal British Engineer who was granted land at the mouth of the creek in 1871. The Linn family name was often misspelled "Lynn". By the turn of the century Linn Creek had become Lynn Creek.


(from 1918 - Wrigley's British Columbia directory) - LYNN CREEK - a post office and suburban residential district on Lynn Creek, which is 10 miles long, and runs into north side of Burrard Inlet, 1 mile east of North Vancouver. The post office is 4 miles northeast of North Vancouver wharf.


Link to - From loggers to joggers: The History of Lynn Valley

Footprints of the Past - lynnvalleylife.com/life/history/


Mrs. Sugden ran the post office from her home at 1535 Kilmer Rd. since 1906, making daily, usually difficult trips into North Vancouver to fetch the community’s mail. Travelling by horse and buggy through muddy, rutted roads, she always carried a loaded pistol to discourage cougars and thieves alike!


The Post Office at Lynn Creek was established - 1 July 1906 it became - Vancouver Sub Office Lynn Creek - 1 April 1949.


LINK to a list of the Postmasters who served at the Lynn Creek Post Office - www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/postal-heritage-philately/...;


sent from - / LYNN CREEK / JUN 29 / 14 / B.C. / - split ring cancel - this split ring hammer is not listed in the proof book - but was most likely proofed c. 1906 when the Post Office opened - (RF C).


arrived at - / AMHERST / AM / JUL 6 / 14 / N.S. / - partial cds arrival backstamp.


Message on postcard reads: June 21, 1914 - Dear Gladys! It is so long since I have heard from you. That I have began to wonder, if I will ever hear from you again. I wrote you a letter over a month ago - it will be two months on the first. Perhaps you haven't received it. I suppose you are to busy any way to be writing all the time. Well I hope you are all well as it leaves us (Daisy & her mother) the same and hoping to hear from you soon. Daisy M. Barr / P.O. Box / In care - R.W. Logan / North Vancouver, B.C.


Daisy May Barr (b. 18 May 1897 in Halifax, Nova Scotia - d. 3 Dec 1987 at age 90 in North Vancouver, B.C.) - she married SYDNEY JOSEPH MCLEAN (b. 11 Dec 1887 in Dartmouth, England - d. 15 July 1963 at age 75 in North Vancouver, B.C) in Venon, B.C. on 5 June 1918. They had 4 daughters.


LINK to her husband "Sydney Joseph McLean" Personnel Records from the First World War - www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-wo...;


Daisy's mother - Regina Katherine / Kate "Webber" Barr (b. 22 December 1861 in Clam Harbour, Halifax County, Nova Scotia - d. 3 December 1932 in Lynn Creek, British Columbia). Her first husband was William Thornton - they had one daughter HESTER WINIFRED THORNTON (occupation nurse) - Hester married ROBERT LOGAN on - 18 December 1913 in North Vancouver. Daisy and her mother were staying in Hester and Robert Logan's house in North Vancouver when Daisy wrote this postcard.


Daisy's father / Regina's second husband - James Barr (b. 4 Sept 1864 in Antrim, Northern Ireland - d. ) occupation was a carpenter - he immigrated to Canada in 1884. He married Regina Thornton - 8 September 1894 in Halifax, N.S.


Addressed to: Miss Gladys Coates / 150 Willow Street / Amherst / Nova Scotia


Gladys Isabelle Coates

(b. 10 December 1895 – d. 1953)


Her husband - Herald Strachan Major

(b. 25 November 1894 in Halifax, Nova Scotia - d.)

Occupation - Insurance Inspector / Banker


They were married - 12 Jul 1921 at Amherst, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia


LINK - to LT Herald Strachan Major's Personnel Records from the First World War - www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-wo...

Camrose, Alberta - 19 June 1918 to New Westminster, B.C. short-paid "2" (1¢ + 1¢ penalty) & "NOT CALLED FOR" straight line marking


- It was then sent to the Dead Letter Office in Vancouver for processing. "Branch Dead Letter Office" - double oval handstamp - 15 July 1918 (type VAN2b-c1) - the latest known date.


/ BRANCH DEAD LETTER OFFICE / JUL 15 1918 / VANCOUVER; B.C. / - double rim oval handstamp with serif letters - (type VAN2b-c10) in violet / purple ink.


- sent from the - Vancouver "Dead Letter Office" - single oval handstamp - 24 July 1918 (type VAN2a-c1) - the latest known date.


/ DEAD LETTER OFFICE / JUL 24 1918 / VANCOUVER, CANADA / - single rim oval handstamp with sans-serif letters - (VAN2a-c1) in violet / purple ink.


The following information was received from Brian Plain - (Chairman of "The Canadian Dead Letter Office Study Group" - The single rim marking as per my list is: VAN2a-c1; 4 reports; EKD 9/5/1917; LKD (yours) 24/7/1918


The double rim marking: VAN2b-c1; 8 reports; EKD 17/8/1912; LKD (yours) 15/7/18 [note the semi-colon after the ‘R’ in Vancouver]


The earlier was used at the DLO as a receiver’s mark, signifying entry into their service and the later making was applied when their task was completed. The cover would likely have been placed in an ‘ambulance’ cover (Returned Paid Letter envelope) showing a large ‘2’ which represented the DLO service charge at the time.


New ERD Handstamp - written by Gary Steele - The attached post card shows a single oval Dead Letter Office handstamp. It is not a NEW handstamp, however, it is a new early date for this handstamp of which only 3 have been reported. Finding Vancouver, Victoria, Calgary and Edmonton DLO handstamps on the east coast is not the easiest of tasks. There are 4 known type 2a (Single Oval handstamps) reported for Vancouver, three with distinctly different lettering and another with all mixed lettering that is significantly larger in both width and height. Proofed on December 12 1916 only nine months prior to this specimen, this is the only proof done of the four types. LINK to the complete article - www.bnaps.org/hhl/newsletters/dlo/dlo-2013-01-w011.pdf


Link to all of the Dead Letter Office Study Group newsletters - www.bnaps.org/hhl/n-dlo.htm


A dead letter office (DLO) is a facility within a postal system where undeliverable mail is processed. Mail is considered to be undeliverable when the address is invalid so it cannot be delivered to addressee, and there is no return address so it cannot be returned to the sender. At a DLO, mail is usually opened to try to find an address to forward to. If an address is found, the envelope is usually sealed using tape or postal seals, or enclosed in plastic bags and delivered. If the letter or parcel is still undeliverable, valuable items are then auctioned off while the correspondence is usually destroyed. Despite this practice, in the past some undeliverable envelopes were acquired by philatelists.


Initially named KRONPRINZ name changed June 1918 to KRONPRINZ WILHELM The name Kronprinz (Eng: "Crown Prince") refers to Crown Prince Wilhelm, and in June 1918, the ship was renamed KRONPRINZ WILHELM in his honour.

Type:………………………..KONIG class Battleship

Builder:…………………….Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel

Laid Down:……………….May 1912

Launched:………………..21 February 1914

Commissioned:………. 8 November 1914

Installed power:……..3 × oil-fired water-tube boilers and 12 × coal-fired water-tube boilers

Propulsion:…………….3 screw propellers each driven by a Parsons steam turbine

Speed: 21 knots


•10 × 30.5 cm (12 in) guns

•14 × 15 cm (5.9 in) guns

•6 × 8.8 cm (3.5 in) guns

•4 × 8.8 cm anti-aircraft guns

•5 × 50 cm (19.7 in) torpedo tubes



These ships were essentially improved Kaisers with a much better turret distribution. The first three were built under the 1911-12 programme and Kronprinz under that of 1912-13. The run of the forecastle deck and freeboard were similar but the funnels were not so far apart as in Kaiser. GM was 2.59m and fighting draughts apparently varied from 8.85m to 9.05m. The turrets were all on the centreline with superfiring pairs fore and aft and the fifth between the funnels at the same height as the after super-firing one. The mountings were Drh LC/11, similar to C/09 and with 13.5° elevation, increased to 16°. Magazines were all below shell rooms. The 15cm battery was on the upper deck. TT were arranged as in Kaiser. There were 3 oil-fired and 12 coal-fired boilers, with the oil-fired in the 3 foremost boiler rooms, 6 coal-fired in the next 3 and another 6 in the 3 after boiler rooms. The 3 sets of turbines were in 6 engine rooms, and boiler pressure remained at 16.5 kgf/cm2.


WWI Service notes

5 November 1916: Torpedoed by the British Submarine JI under the bridge, vessel was able to maintain a speed of 17-19 knots


British postcard taken at Scapa Flow 1919

After Germany's defeat in the war and the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, KRONPRINZ WILHELM and most of the capital ships of the High Seas Fleet were interned by the Royal Navy in Scapa Flow. The ships were disarmed and reduced to skeleton crews while the Allied powers negotiated the final version of the Treaty of Versailles. On 21 June 1919, days before the treaty was signed, the commander of the interned fleet, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, ordered the fleet to be scuttled to ensure that the British would not be able to seize the ships.


History of the Theatre per its website


"In spite of the Cairasco Teatro being in existence since 1845, now the location of the present day Gabinete Literario (Literary Cabinet), it was clear to the city of Las Palmas by the middle of the 19th century that the construction of a new theatre was necessary. The main reasons for such a proposal were undeniable faults in the construction of the theatre, an increase in population and interest as well as it being the wish of the ruling class. The city of Las Palmas requested a more ambitious theatral building which was in accordance with the requirements of the society of that period


With this aim in mind, a private joint stock company was founded in 1866 which dealt with problems such as economic matters, the site of the future construction of the building and choosing the architect to take charge of the project. The first matter was taken care of by contributions from people and organisations of great economic power, as well as the unselfish collaboration of the remainder of society, by both the wealthy and the humble citizens.


The decision to locate the new theatre turned out to be more problematic, given that no location could be found which fulfilled all the necessary requirements. Finally the Boca-Barranco or the Pescadería (Fishmonger's) was suggested, which met the three main conditions: it was centrally situated, the shape and dimensions were suitable, and the location had easy access and visibility. However its juxtaposition to the sea, to the mouth of the ravine and the fishmonger's caused controversy amongst the citizens. The fact is that witty criticism arose being it captured on sketches and in verse by Benito Pérez Galdós (Who was the stupid patriot? / Who was the vandal patriot? / Who thought of the vaults / of this Aquatic Teatro? ...").


After several formalities and with a certain degree of apprehension by the locals, the architect Francisco Jareño y Alarcon (1818 – 1892), born in Albacete and resident in Madrid, was commissioned to take charge of the works of art for the project. This was to be approved on May 22nd, 1868.


In 1888 and before the impending visit of the famous Italian tenor Roberto Stagno, passing through Gran Canaria on tour with his company on his way to America, the construction works were speeded up so that a recital could be accommodated and funds be raised. However an unfortunate accident occurred in Puerto de La Luz between a French and an Italian tanker causing fifty-five fatalities, precipitating the Tenor's decision and subsequently the decision of the board of directors to donate all the raised funds to the victims of the tragedy. Thus two years later, in 1890, the solemn inauguration of the Tirso de Molina Theatre takes place with The Traviata, causing the promoters to go bankrupt and culminating in the municipal incumbency of the theatre from 1913.


11 years later on the occasion of the grand success of the première of Electra by Benito Pérez Galdós in 1901, during a solemn tribute a proposal was made to name the new theatre after the writer.


On the night of the 28th of June 1918, a large fire destroyed the theatre's wooden structure almost completely. Miguel Martín Fernández de la Torre completed the rebuilding works between 1925 and 1928.


Miguel Martín asked his brother Néstor, artist and painter, for help to decorate the interior of the building. The job was to do the paintings of the Saint-Saëns Hall, the ceiling over the stalls, the stage and to design the stained glass windows and the curtain. After the building works were completed, the theatre organised a lavish re-opening ceremony on the 28th of May 1928 with the premiere of Aida, a four-act opera by Verdi.


The building was listed as a Monument (BIC, from the Spanish) by the Canary Island Government in 1994.


The restoration and development of the Theatre began in 2004, both of the historical building (public area) as well as of the new extension (area for the artists and administration), including the whole scenario from the stage mouth, premises, annexes and other installations.These building works managed to combine the romanticism of the 19th century construction with the advanced theatre technology of the 21st century, thus making it one of the most complete theatres in the country.


The Teatro Pérez Galdós Theatre re-opened on the 14th of April 2007 with a concert given by the Philharmonic Orchestra of Gran Canaria, directed by its tenured conductor, Pedro Halffter, performing Ludwig van Beethoven's 9th Symphony. The performance was broadcast on giant screens for the audience that congregated outside of the theatre. Moreover, to celebrate the re-opening, the Theatre programmed a whole week of performances of all kinds. There were performances by the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra of Saint Petersburg and Wagner's opera The Ring of the Nibelungs. The premier of The Ring of the Nibelungs (Ring Cycle)was the perfect vehicle to showcase the new technical and scenic capacities of the Pérez Galdós Theatre, as the first theatre in Spain to put on the entire work in just one week."

On 29 June 1918 Croatia exchange one prison for the other one and soon after a next one... and so on. Let's be smarter this time.

Bloody Croatian history

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