List of German monarchs in 1918 | Military Wiki | Fandom
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Greater imperial arms of Germany

This is a list of German monarchs of all ranks in 1918, the final year of the First World War and the year in which monarchy in Germany was abolished. The term German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich) commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of its last Kaiser, Wilhelm II, on November 9, 1918. The defeat of Kaiser Wilhelm II in World War I also brought about the depositions or abdications of the majority of European crowned heads from rule of the states within the German Empire. These included the German Emperor, and German kings, princes, grand dukes and dukes. These events brought an end to monarchy in Germany. Germans, when referring to the Reich in this period under the Kaisers, 1871 to 1918, typically use the term Kaiserreich.

Emperor of Germany (1918)[edit | edit source]

Emperor Styles Empress Symbols German Empire 1871 – 1918
Kaiser Guglielmo II.jpg

1859 – 1941
His Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Emperor, King of Prussia
Wilhelm II


Her Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Empress, Queen of Prussia
Augusta Victoria
Philip Alexius de Laszlo - Auguste Viktoria, Deutsche Kaiserin, 1908.jpg

1858 – 1921
House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg

Flag of the German Empire.svg

1871 – 1918
Kingdoms
Prussia. Bavaria. Saxony. Württemberg.
Grand Duchies
Baden. Hesse. Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Oldenburg. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Duchies
Anhalt. Brunswick. Saxe-Altenburg. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Saxe-Meiningen.
Principalities
Lippe. Reuss, junior line. Reuss, senior line. Schaumburg-Lippe. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Waldeck-Pyrmont.
Free Hanseatic cities
Bremen. Hamburg. Lübeck.
Imperial territory ( Reichsland )
Alsace-Lorraine.

Commanded by Emperor: During times of war in Germany, all military forces came under the direct command of the German Emperor, via Article 60 of the Constitution of the German Reich (1871). From 1871 to 1918, the forces of the Emperor included those of the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wurttemberg, with all other states commanded by, or merged with his Prussian army.

Kings and Kingdoms (1918)[edit | edit source]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
Keisari vihelm II.jpg Kaiser
Wilhelm II

1859 – 1941
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Flag of Prussia (1892-1918).svg
House of Hohenzollern
C.11th – 1918

Kingdom of Prussia
1701 – 1918
Map-DR-Prussia.svg Spouse:
(1) Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein
(2) Hermine Reuss of Greiz

Children:
(1) William, German Crown Prince, (2) Eitel Friedrich, (3) Prince Adalbert, (4) Prince August Wilhelm, (5) Prince Oskar, (6) Prince Joachim, (7) Princess Viktoria Luise

LodewijkIIIBeieren.jpg King
Ludwig III

1845 – 1921
Wittelsbach Arms.svg
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
House of Wittelsbach
1180–1918

Kingdom of Bavaria
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Bavaria.svg Spouse:
(1) Maria Theresia of Austria-Este

Children:
(1) Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, (2) Adelgunde of Hohenzollern, (3) Maria, Duchess of Calabria, (4) Karl of Bavaria, (5) Franz of Bavaria, (6) Mathilde Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary (7) Wolfgang of Bavaria (8) Hildegarde of Bavaria, (9) Notburga of Bavaria, (10) Wiltrud, Duchess of Urach, (11) Helmtrud of Bavaria, (12) Dietlinde of Bavaria, (13) Gundelinde of Bavaria

100px King
Frederick Augustus III

1865 – 1932
Coat of arms of Saxony.svg
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg
House of Wettin
900 – 1918

Kingdom of Saxony
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Saxony.svg Spouse:
(1) Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany

Children:
(1) Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony, (2) Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen, (3) Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, (4) Maria Alix Karola of Saxony, (5) Margarete Karola of Saxony, (6) Maria Alix (Luitpolda) of Saxony, (7) Princess Anna of Saxony

König Wilhelm II.jpg King
Wilhelm II

1848 – 1921
Wappen Herzogtum Württemberg.svg
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
House of Württemberg
1081 – 1918

Kingdom of Württemberg
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Wuerttemberg.svg Spouse:
(1) Marie of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(2) Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe

Children:
(1) Pauline, Princess of Wied, (2) Prince Ulrich

Princes and Principalities (1918)[edit | edit source]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
LeopoldIVofLippe.jpg Prince
Leopold IV

1871 – 1949
Lippe-1798.PNG
Flag Schaumburg-Lippe.png
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Lippe
1123 – 1918
Map-DB-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Bertha of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
(2) Princess Anna of Ysenburg and Büdingen
100px Prince
Adolph II

1883 – 1936
Lippe-Schwalenberg.PNG
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
1643 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Ellen Bischoff-Korthaus (1894–1936)
Gunther of Schwarzburg.jpg Prince
Victor Gunther

1852 – 1925
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.jpg
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg
House of Schwarzburg
11?? – 1918

Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
1599 – 1919
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
(1909–1920)
SBRU.png Spouse

(1) Princess Anna Louise of Schönburg-Waldenburg

100px Prince
Friedrich

1865 – 1946
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Fürstentum Waldeck und Pyrmont.png
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
House of Waldeck and Pyrmont
1815 – 1918

Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont
1180 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Waldeck.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Bathildis of Schaumburg-Lippe

Children:
(1) Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, (2) Prince Maximilian, (3) Helena, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, (4) Prince Georg

Heinrich XXIV RäL.jpg Prince
Heinrich XXIV

1878 – 1927
Map Reuss OL.gif
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg
House of Reuss
(Elder Line)

1778 – 1918

Principality of Reuss-Greiz
1778 – 1918
Map-DR-Reuss-Reuß ältere Linie.svg
100px Prince
Heinrich XXVII

1858 – 1928
Weida Vögte von Weida (die Grafen Reuß).png
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg
House of Reuss
(Younger Line)

1913 – 1918

Principality of Reuss-Gera
1806 – 1918
R-JL.png Spouse:
(1) Princess Elise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg

Children:
(1) Viktoria, Duchess Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (2) Princess Luise Adelheid, (3) Prince Heinrich XL, (4) Prince Heinrich XLIII, (5) Heinrich XLV, Hereditary Prince Reuss Younger Line

Friedrich Karl HK 02.jpg Prince
Frederich Charles

1868 – 1940
Wappen-HD.png
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg
House of Hesse
House of Brabant
C.13th – 1918

Grand Duchy of Hesse
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Hesse.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Margaret of Prussia

Children:
(1) Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, (2) Prince Maximilian, (3) Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse, (4) Prince Wolfgang, (5) Prince Christoph, (6) Prince Richard

Grand Dukes and Grand Duchies (1918)[edit | edit source]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
100px Grand Duke
Friedrich II

1857 – 1928
Wappen Zaehringer.png
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1891–1918).svg
House of Zähringen
C.10th – 1918

Grand Duchy of Baden
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Baden.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Hilda of Nassau
100px Grand Duke
Ernest Louis

1868 – 1937
Hesse Darmstadt coat of armes (1736).gif
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg
House of Hesse-Darmstadt
1806 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Hesse by Rhine
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Hesse.svg Spouse:
(1) Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(2) Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

Children:
(1) Princess Elisabeth, (2) Hereditary Grand Duke George Donatus, (3) Prince Louis

100px Grand Duke
Friedrich Franz IV

1882 – 1945
Mecklescudo.jpg
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1131 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1815 – 1918
Karte-Mecklenburg.png Spouse:
(1) Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland

Children:
(1) Hereditary Grand Duke Friedrich Franz, (2) Duke Christian Ludwig, (3) Duchess Olga, (4) Duchess Thyra, (5) Anastasia, Princess Friedrich Ferdinand of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich Augustus

1852 – 1931
Blason Adolphe de Holstein-Gottorp.svg
House of Holstein-Gottorp
(Oldenburg)

1544 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
1814 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Oldenburg.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Elisabeth Anna of Prussia, (2) Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Children:
(1) Sophia Charlotte, Princess Eitel Friedrich of Prussia, (2) Duchess Margaret, (3) Nikolaus, Hereditary Grand Duke (4) Duchess Alexandrine, (5) Ingeborg Alix, Princess Stephan of Schaumburg-Lippe, (6) Altburg, Hereditary Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont

100px Grand Duke
Wilhelm Ernest

1876 – 1923
Blason Grand-Duché de Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.svg
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1897-1920).svg
House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1741 – 1918

Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1809 – 1920
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Caroline Reuss of Greiz, (2) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen

Children:
(1) Sophie, Princess of Schwarzburg,
(2) Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,
(3) Prince Bernhard, (4) Prince Georg