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Solutions Advanced Student s Book original

crnOITO l.Joddns wexa PJ oJxo SSHlId X.LISlIHAINfi crnorro p5 Memories e : r"C p7 The origins of English p8 Sporting origins Describing feelings (overawed, bewildered, Grammar: Habitual acti on s English through the ages The origins of rugby, basketball and baseball etc.) " Talkin g about family resemb lances Vocabulary: Recent coinages Vocabulary: Adverb collocations (staunchly Prefixes (dis-, mis-, under-, super-, etc.) " Rad io programme about the origins opposed, etc.) Time expressions (never-ending, etc.) of English " Talking about childhood • Reading Missing sentences · Use of English Open doze. Speaking Debate p15 Compound adjectives p16 What ' s on the box p17 Death of a salesman p18 Lord of the Flies Compound adjectives (ill -equipped, eye- Is too much TV bad for you? Arthur Miller & Death of a Salesman Extract from the nove l catching, for-reaching, etc.) Vocabul ary : like, unlike and as Vocabulary: Verb-noun & adjective-noun Compound nouns (feature film, heart throb, " Tal kin g abo ut TV watching habits collocations (overturn a verdict, etc.) etc.) " Extract from Death of a Salesman " Talking about films • Language Review Units 1- 2 p2 4. Ski lls Round-up Units 1- 2 p25 Get Ready for your Exam 2 p26 • Use of English Word forma tion gap-fill · listening Multiple-choice statements· Reading Banked gap-fill p27 Relationships p28 Friends p29 Marriage in the UI( p30 Love conquers all Collocation: Verb + adjective + nou n (form a Song: I turn to you " British habits and attitudes Love and War close friendship, suffer a major setback, etc.) Grammar: Contrast: present perfect concerning wedd ings Vocabulary: Literal and figurative language Set phrases (bone dry, pitch black, fighting fit, simple and contin uous " Talking about different aspects of etc.) Vocabulary: Friendship wedd ings and marriage " Talking about relationships " Describing friends Get Ready for your Exam 3 p36 • Reading Multiple matching· Use of English Error correction p37 Describing change p38 Life changes p39 Protest songs p40 A new direction Synonyms of change (alter, modify, refine, etc.) Grammar: Comparative and superlative " Radio programme about the song Little stars: Andrea laeger, tennis star turned Nouns formed from verbs (alteration, etc.) forms Strange Fruit charity worker Expressions with change (change of heart, etc.) " Talking about how people change Singing for change Vocabulary: Adjective -noun coHocations " Talking about changes as they become teenagers Grammar: Reduced relative clauses • Language Review Units 3- 4 p46· Skills Round -up Units 1-4 p47 • Reading True/False/Not stated· Use of English Sentence transformation p49 War and peace p50 Family tensions p51 Fighting for equality p52 Wildlife warrior Words related to war (coalition, insurgents, etc.) Healt hy Arguments? The suffragettes Steve Irwin Verb-noun collocations (inflict casualties, etc.) Grammar: for + noun/pronoun + " Song: Sisters are doing it for Vocabulary: Verb-noun collocations (shake off a Idioms (drop a bombshell, etc.) infinitive themselves cold, pronounce sentence, ete.) Adjective suffixes (-01, -ous, -less , etc.) " Ta lking about family arguments " The Battle of the Somme Get Ready for your Exam 5 p 58 • Speaking Picture -based discussion· Use of English Multiple-choice gap-fill. listening True/False/Not stated ｾ ｾ＠ p59 Looking into the future p60 The meaning of dreams p61 The European dream? p62 Sleep -deprived teenagers Synonyms of predict (anticipate, prophesy, etc.) Why do we dream? The European Union Let sleeping teenagers lie Dreams Expressions for plans and predictions (set your Grammar: Phrasal verbs - particles and Vocabu lary: Verb - noun collocations Dictionary work: using a dictionary of sights on , in the foreseeable future, etc.) their meanings (bring benefits, exercise control, etc.) collocations Grammar: Talking about the future " Talking about dreams Vocabulary: Dependent prepositions (2) Vocabulary: Collocations of sleep " Where do you see yourself in 10 years' time (benefit from, the key to, cope with, etc.) Vocabulary: Register (stop/cease , keep/retain, " Opinions on the European Union allow/permit, etc.) • Language Review Units 5-6 p68 • Skills Round -up Units 1- 6 p69 Get Ready for your Exam 6 p70 • Reading Banked gap-fill· Use of English Sentence transformation· Speaking Picture-based discussion p71 Travelling about p72 The travel bug p73 Early migration to the UK p74 Time travel Synonyms of journey (tour, pilgrimage, etc.) Grammar: -ing fo rms with prepara tory it Vocab ulary: Nouns related to ph rasal Time travel for beginners Informal language (whinge, heaving, etc.) Vocabula ry: Phrases fo r 'softening' verbs (breakthrough , get-together, Vocabulary: Easily confused words (infer/imply, Phrasal verbs (drop off, see off, stop by, etc.) ideas (in a way, or whatever, etc.) comeback, etc.) etc.) Phrasal verbs with run and walk " Talking ab out tourist destinations Vocabulary: Noun suffixes (-sion, etc.) Vocabulary: Linke rs that refer to other people's " Radio programme about migration to expectations (the plain fact is, to tell the truth, the UK over the ages etc.) 7 p80 • Speaking Picture-based discussion . Use of English Ope n d oze· listening Identifying true statements p81 Fashion p82 Food or fuel? p83 Youth culture p84 Food of t he futu re Clothes and style Meat for vegetarians Our gang Nano-food Two-part adjectives Grammar: would Vocabulary: Colloquial language Vocabulary: Food related words and phrases Clothes idioms (off the cuff, etc.) " Talking about attitud es to food (wannabe, clued up, crew, etc.) (shelf life, etc.) " Talking about clothes and fash io n Vocabulary: Talking about food • Language Review Units 7- 8 p90 . Skills Ro und-up Units 1- 8 p91 Get Ready for your Exam 8 p92 • Listening Sentence co mpletion . Use of English Multiple-choice gap-fill p93 Gossip p94 In conAd ence p9S The Secret Agent p96 Conspiracy theories Expressions related to gossip and secre ts How to kee p a secret Extract from The Secret Agent Conspiracy theorists: are they out to get you? (eavesdrop, indiscree t, drop a bombs hell , etc.) Styl e: Using phrases not sin gle-word " Information about loseph Conrad Vocabulary: Literal and figurative language (rich/ Giving and withholding info rmation (blab, etc.) verbs (talk/have a talk, etc.) rolling in money, etc.) " Listening to gossi p Vocabulary: Colloqu ial omis sions 9 p102 • Listening Multiple-choice statements · Use of English Error correction· Speaking Debate pl03 Farewell : : ... Th eats . 0 our planet p10S Happy endings? p106 Immortality Synonyms of end and finish (cea se, etc.) Vocaoulary: Th e environm en t (p olar ice Vocabu lary: Adjectives to describe fil ms Would you die of boredom if you lived forever? Dictionary work: Synonyms caps, degrade, etc.) (connotation) Vocabu lary: Negative prefixes and suffixes Synonyms and anto nym s (lucky/fortuitous , Vocaoulary : Verb -noun coll oca tions " A film critic talking about the endings unlucky/ill-fated, etc.) G'Cmmar: Whatever, whoever, ete. of films " Extracts from a vari ety of text types " - al ing abou t global threats Vocabulary: Adverbs of degree • Language Revi ew Uni s 9-; 0 01:2 ' S' 'lIs Round -up Units 1-10 P1 ,. 13........ｾ＠ Get Ready for your Exam 10 p114 • Reading missing ser,le"'Ce5 .' ｓ ｰｾｊ､ｮｧ＠ Picture based discussion GRAMMAR BUILDER AND REFERENCE p115 LITERATURE A',D C_.-"'" _, SS C\S ｯＺＳｾ＠ COM MUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES plSl "Listening (1.01 = disk 1, track 1 / 2.01 = disk 2, track 1) -asal verbs pl1 Discus,"on -::61 - 4 Vocabulary: Phrases for reacting to an op posin g vi ew (That's a fair Style: Long and short sen tences Vocabulary : Adject ives to describe emotiona l Ｍｾｬ＠ verbs: passive and infinitive point, I suppose. But in my view, ... etc. ) Vocabulary: Similes (as white as snow, states (perplexed, remorseful, disillusioned, etc.) " Reacting to an opposing view etc.) Dictionary work: Finding synonyms ... le tenses p21 Photo comparison oast perfect, future in the past, Vocabulary: Phrasal verbs (hang out with, kick sb out, etc.) A film review Vocabu lary: Adjectives describing films (low· Vocabulary: Verb·noun collocations (skip school, etc.) Using participle clauses to improve style budget, wacky, x-rated, etc.) -:e an d continuo us forms Grammar: Speculating Vocabu lary: Aspects of films (soundtrack, Vocabulary: Modifying adve rbs with gradablej " Describing photos of homeless people screenplay, etc.) non ·gradable adjectives (extremely, fairly, etc.) terns p33 Negotiation _ :;;:tern s Vocabu lary: Comparative phrases Describing a place Vocabulary: Adject ives for descri bing places :- : - crywork: Find ing out about verb Vocabu lary: Phrases for negotiating (I'll go along with that, have we Style: Using more elaborate vocabulary (bustling, touristy, sprawling, etc.) come to a decision' etc.) Vocabulary: Synonyms (interesting, Dictionary work: Dependent prepositions (1) " Talking about t he rela tive merits of di fferent cafes captivating, gripping, fascinating, etc.) (renowned for, reminiscent of, etc.) lals p43 Discussion 3rd and mixed conditiona ls Urban change Top ic sentences Vocabu lary: Speculating (It's bound to happen, ｾＢＧＺＬ＠ wh en ifomitted " Talking about planned changes to a town centre Vocabulary: neither .. nor, either ... or, not there's no chance of it happening, etc.) -; =5, supposing, provided, unless Vocab ulary: Expressi ng opin ions (That's how I see it, to my mind, etc.) only ... but also, etc. p5 5 Presentation ｾＺ＠ nfinit ives 7 Functiona l phrases Considering the target audience Vocabulary: Linkers for addition (apart from, ,;: - of ma in verb after modal or Vocabulary: Changing the subject; Acknowledging an opposing view; Writing a good opening along with, to boot, etc.) Dismiss ing an opposin g view; Referring to something said earlier Vocabulary: Personal qualities (altruism, " Listen ing to a presentation amiability, trustworthiness, etc.) Vocabulary: Word fam ilies sl ructures p65 Photo comparison - -, ,erbs Vocabulary: Synonyms of prize (award , reward, trophy, etc.) Style : Adve rbs, ad jectives, etc. ""= ",d reported speech Vocabulary: Idiom s for expressing joy (aver the moon, thrilled to bits, Vocabulary: Adverbs and adverb phrases '=, -g [on e and emotion jumping for joy, etc.) (type and position) - -, spe ech without using precise Vocab ulary: Concession and counter-argument (all the same, granted, Vocabulary: Order of adjectives mind you , etc.) Vocabulary: Reporting verbs (groan, etc.) " Spe culating about a photo Gram mar: Punctuating reported speech lasis p77 Presentation s=--:e!'1ces Eco-frie ndly tourism Appropriate style Vocabulary: Holid ay probl ems and comp laints Ｚｾ Ｍｾ＠ Ｎ ｲ｡ｳ･ ｳ＠ " Listening to presentations Correct layout .: ｾＮ＠ emotive or contrastive Vocabu lary: Expressions for describing benefits and drawbacks (have Vocabulary: Formal language (I trust you -:=-s s a detrimental effect, of mutual benefit, etc.) will ensure, we regret to inform you, etc.) Vocabulary: Expressing cause, purpose and result (lead to , etc.) Vocabulary: Generalisi ng (to a great extent, by and large, etc.) bs p8? Stimulus-based discussion of modals Vocabu lary: Phrases for describing statistics, graphs and charts Recommend ing local music venues and Vocabulary: Connota ti on (attentive/ intrusive, Vocabu lary: Verbs for describing trends (rocketed , slumped, etc.) restaurants bustling/crowded, light/ insubstantial , etc.) Vocabu lary: Phrases for giving estimates (in the region of, etc.) Layout of a report " Talking about different kinds of chart Vocabulary: Periphrasis and euphemism I(tures p99 Drawing conclusions -= ｾ＠ J:'lra ses Vocabu lary: Phrases for drawing logical conclus ions Vocabulary: Phrases for introductions Editing your wo rk without damaging the meaning Vocabu lary: Vague language Grammar: Passive structures with believe, or flow " Comparing and contrasting photos consider, ete. Vocabu lary: Adjective· noun collocations ｾｮｴ･｣ｳ＠ p109 Presentation ｾ ｳＺ＠ ::::'l5 in relative clauses Paraphras ing and correcting yourself Writing a good conclusion Grammar: Impersonal structures for introducing ｾ＠ :.au ses Avoid ing repet ition Vocabu lary: Round up of useful phrases opin ions (It would be wrong to suggest that, etc.) " Listening to presentations and linkers (It would be hard to deny that, Style : Us ing stylistically appropriate language moreover, ete.) (admittedly, currently, inconceivable, etc.) " Expressing opinions Check your progress Think about your progress as you work through Solutions 2nd edition Advanced. After completing Skills Round-up 1-4 read each statement and write the number of ticks (v') that apply to you. Do the same again after Skills Round-up 1- 10. v'= I need more practice. v'v'= I sometimes find this difficult. v'v'v'= No problem! Skills Skills In English I can ... Round-up Round-up 1-4 1-10 Listening B2 ... understand extended discussions on familiar topics and identify speaker viewpoints. lA, IB, IF, 2A, 2F, 3A, SA B2 ... understand and react to current affairs radio programmes. 1( B2 ... follow complex lines of argument on familiar topics. 3F B2 ... understand detailed and linguistically complex descriptive and narrative passages. 2(, SA, SF Cl ... follow extended speech even when it is not clearly structured. 2(, 4A, SF, 7F, 9F Cl ... understand a wide range of broadcast material and identify finer points of detail. 3(,4(,6(, 7(, 9(, 10( Re ading 82 ... scan quickly through long and complex texts, locating relevant detail. ID, 20 B2 ... read rev iews dealing with the content and criticism of cultural topics and summarise the main views . 2G 82 ... unde rstand magazine articles about current issues in which writers adopt particular viewpoints . 3D 82 ... understan d factual articles and reports. 10, 4E, 6E (1 ... understand long and complex factual and literary texts. 20, 40, 60, 70, 90, 100 Cl ... re ad reports, analyses and commentaries where opinions and viewpoints are discussed. 50, SO, 9G, 100 Cl ... recognise the social, political or historical background of a literary work. 4(, 9( Speaking B2 ... present detailed descriptions on a variety of familiar topics. IB, 2A, 2G, 38 B2 ... take an active part in a discussion on familiar topics. lA, 1(, 20 B2 ... develop a clear argument, supporting my views at some length with relevant examples. 1F, 2B, 2F, 3A (1 ... engage in conversation on most general topics. 30,4(, 6A, 7(, 9A, 9B (1 ... formulate ideas and opinions and present them skilfully and coherently to others. 3(, 4A, 4B, 4F, SA, ｓＨＬＶｾ＠ 7B,SB,90, lOB, 10( Cl ... give a clearly developed presentation, highlighting significant points and relevant supporting detail. 3F, SF, 7F, SF, 9F, 10F Writing B2 ... write a review of a film, book or play. 2G B2 ... write detailed descriptions of real or imaginary events in a clear connected text. IG, 6G (1 ... write clear, well-structured texts which expand and support views with subsidiary points, reasons and examples. 4G, 9G, lOG . Cl ... select a style appropriate to the reader in mind . SG (1 ... put together information from different sources and relate it in a coherent summary. 3G, SG Cl ... write formally correct letters. 7G 4 Check your progress © Oxford University Press Photocopiable THIS UNIT INCLUDES Beginnings Vocabulary . prefi xes. time exp ress ions. adve rb collocatio ns . adjec:". es cescribin g emotion al states. simile s • Grammar . phrasal verbs . talking abo ut habitua l act io ns Speaking . talking about childho od memories. talking about inherite d characteristics . ta lking ab out t he origins of lan guages. disc uss ion: genetic eng ineerin g . reacting to opposing view s Writing . a descrip tion of an event VOCABULARY AND LISTENING l#iJ3@1 Look at the photo of a 4 Match the expressions (1-10) with the synonymous words child's first day at school. Answer and expressions below. the questions. all the time finally for now immediately occasionally 1 How do you imagine the child is never never-ending repeatedly then very soon feeling? Use the words below to 1 time after time 6 endless describe his emotions . 2 at the time 7 once in a while bewildered circumspect 3 for the time being 8 not for a moment disorientated distraught 4 any moment now 9 at once overawed overwhelmed 5 the whole time 10 in the end preoccupied uneasy unnerved withdrawn 5 Complete the text with words and expressions from exercise 4. 2 What other situations might cause similar emotions? 3 What are your own memories A d1i\dnood memor-t of your first day at school? I grew up in central London, ID> VOCABULARY BUILDER 1.1: PREFIXES: WORKBOOK where it took two hours to PAGE 102 <m escape from the city by car or bus . 1_ _ , dad used to take ｾ＠ 1.01 Listen to four speakers talking about aspects of us for a drive in the countryside ·" eir childhood. Choose the topic which best matches each but most of the time, we stayed so eaker. close to home. So the first time a prima ry school (classmates, teachers, subjects, etc.) I visited my grandparents' house on the coast, I fell in best friends love with the seaside 2_ _ • 3_ _ , my grandparents amily relationships were in their sixties and quite fit and healthy, so they :: favou rites (games, food, clothes, films, TV shows, books, would come with us to the beach every day. I have su ch etc.) vivid memories of those 4_ _ afternoons that my : 'ears an d anxietie s sisters and I spent playing in the sea . The water was pec ial occasions (birthdays, festivals, etc.) freezing, but 5_ _ did that put us off! Neither did the ｾ Ｍ eaker 10 Speaker 2 0 Speaker 3 0 Speaker 4 0 large and powerful waves, which used to knock me off my feet 6_ _ • I would laugh, jump up and rush ba ck 1.01 Complete the phrases the speakers use with the into the waves 7_ _ • We wouldn't want to leave the ords below. Listen again and check. beach, but 8_ _ , sunset would force us to return to my :2 .1 evocative hindsight ingrained picture grandparents' house for the night. -:: ca 11 recollection reminisce traumatic .:,s 1__ , the trouble started when ... Z Ｎｾｩｴｨ＠ _ _ , I suppose it was ... 6 Choose one topic from exercise 2 to talk about. Think of three :3 fou nd the whole thing quite ___ . memories to include. can still _ _ it clearly. J un ti l it became completely ___ in my memory. ... 7 I>14iM3il!fI Work in pairs. Take turns to be A and B. ｾ＠ :::hri st mas is a very _ _ time for me. Student A: Tell your partner about your memories. In clude can 't _ _ to mind many disappointments. as many words and expressions from exercises 1, 3 and 4 still have a clear _ _ of that smile. as possible. Then try to answer B's questions. - : .vo uld be fun to _ _ about the good old days. Student B: Listen carefully. Then ask your partner three questions about his or her memories. Unit 1 Beginnings 5 18 1 1010@3@1 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. 4 "1.03 Listen again. What exact words do the speakers use to express these ideas? 1 I've got the same kind of nose as my dad . 2 I've inherited my mum ' s personality. 3 We deal with stressful problems in a very similar way. 4 I look extremely similar to my granddad . 5 Other people can see that my sister and I are from the same family. 6 My brother does not look similar to any other family member. 7 I can see clear similarities between me and my dad. 8 The habit must have been inherited . 5 Write five sentences comparing yourself to family members. Use expressions from your answers to exercise 4. 6 Study these sentences. Underline the verb forms for talking 1 What physical and mental traits can be inherited? about habitual behaviour. Complete the chart (1-8) with the 2 What physical and mental traits can only be aquired? sentences (a-h) below. 2 "1.02 In pairs, complete the quiz questions using the a My grandmother used to suck the third finger on her left words below, then choose the correct answers. Listen and hand. check. b I'll often call my mum to talk about my problems. c People were always m istaking us for twins. bases ch romosomes code genome helix trait d I'd deliberately wear very different clothes from my 1 DNA is often described as the 'double _ __ ' because: brother. a every cell contains two genes . e My sister will phone me late at night for a chat. b its structure is arranged in pairs. f My brother is forever borrowing my clothes . c there are two different kinds of DNA. g My grandfather would insist on driving without a seatbelt. 2 How many pairs of ___ are found in most human cells? h I usually like the same music as my dad . a 23 b 46 c more than a million 3 How many different chemical ___ , the fundamental past present building blocks of DNA, are there? I neutral a 4 b 40 c 4,000 4 How many genes, approximately, are described in the I expressing human ___ , a complete map of human DNA? II disapproval a 250 b 25,000 c 25 million m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.1: TALKING ABOUT HABITUAL 5 Humans share about 50 per cent of their genetic _ __ ACTIONS: PAGE 115 <m with: a chimpanzees. b dolphins. c bana na s. 7 1010@3!1[51 Work in pairs. Think of five examples of things 6 A recessive gene shared by both pare nts causes offs pring which a family member often does or often used to do. Then to have a personality or physical _ __ wh ich : tell your partner, using as many different verb forms as a none of their ancestors had. possible from exercise 6. b only their grandparents had . c certain ancestors had, but not their parents. 8 Prepare an interview for your partner about mental or physical traits inherited from parents or grandparents. 3 "1.03 Listen to a dialogue betwee n three people talking Use the list from exercise 3 to write six questions and try to about family similarities. Which of t hese things do they include expressions from your answers to exercise 4. mention? I Which of 'tour parents or grandparents do 'tou be\)r the a strong physical resembl ance strongest ph'tsical resemblance to? b similar personality traits c similar tastes and hobb ies 9 101#13I1ti1 Work in pairs. Take turns to be A and B. d a shared childhood habi t Student A: Interview B using your questions from exercise 8. e similar political vie ws Student B: Answer A's questions. Use expressions and verb f a shared talent forms from exercises 4 a<1 d 6 where appropriate . 6 ,i Un it 1 11 Beginnings le Work) n pairs. Look at excerpts 1-5 and match them with the works of English literature (a-e) from which they are taken. ｾ ､＠ ,. v ik. 0-"1 . T .•t..--.. "\. f1T :A :' "'lPi' f -" T,q."f"·· .. " "I'lIp -L.: , . Ｌ ｾ ·1 I Ｎ＠ f! 11 i Which words gave you the clues? 1 ' I never had one hour' s happiness in her society, and yet my mind all round the four-and-twenty hours was harping on the happiness of having her with me unto death.' 2 ' O! she doth teach the torches to burn bright.' 3 ' Hwcet! We Gardena in geardagum, peodcyninga, prym gefrunon, hu oa cepelingas ellen fremedon.' 4 ' It was the day my grandmother exploded.' 5 'With us ther was a Doctour of Phisik, In al this world ne was ther noon hym lik, To speke of phisik and of surgerye, For he was grounded in astronomye.' a Beowulf, an epic poem composed by an unknown author some time between 800 and 1200. b Th e Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories written in the fo urteenth century by the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. c Romeo and }uliet, a play by William Shakespeare, written around 1594. 4 Match the words (1-8), which have all entered the English d Great Expectations, a novel by Charles Dickens, written language recently, with their definitions (a-h). Can you work in 1860. out how the words were formed? e Th e Crow Road, a novel by lain Banks, written in 1992. 1 neet 5 newpeat " 1 .04 listen to a radio programme about the origins of 2 shedquarters 6 slurb he English language. What are the three main phases in its 3 peerents 7 glocalisation hi story? Complete the terms. 4 moregeoisie 8 locavores 1 0 English (also known as Anglo-Saxon) a parents who try to be like their children 's friends 2 M English b a suburban area with very poor housing 3 M English c a TV episode which is shown again with extra material "1.04 listen again. Complete each sentence with up to not previously included th ree words. d young people who are not in employment, education or training 1 Before the fifth century, the inhabitants of Britain spoke e when multinational companies try to respect local various C.eltic. languages. customs and sensitivities 2 When Britain was invaded by Germanic tribes during the f consumers who strive to acquire more than others fifth century, the native population went to live in Wales, g people who only eat food which is produced near to Cornwall _ _ . their home 3 Many English words derived from Anglo -Saxon are a reflection of their _ _ . h a home office in the garden 4 Along with the word for school, one thing which the 5 lWIJ3@1 How much do you know about the origins of your Anglo-Saxons borrowed from the Romans was _ _ . own language? Discuss the questions with the class. 5 The Viking raiders who came to Britain around 900 mostly settled in the _ _ parts of the country. 1 How much has your language changed over the past 6 From the eleventh century onwards, English word order 1,000 years? Would you be able to understand a text became _ _ . written 1,000 years ago? 7 The words beefand mutton reflect the fact that, in the 2 Which other languages are most closely related to your Middle Ages, the wealthiest people in Britain were own language? Why? 3 Does your language contain words derived from Latin or 8 The era of Modern English is generally accepted to Greek? Give examples. coincide approximately with the invention of _ _ . 4 Does your language contain many words derived from 9 Today, the English language is being shaped not only by English? Are they old or recent acquisitions? people who speak it as a mother tongue, but increasingly 5 Can you think of any words which have been added to by the vast number of _ _ . your language in the past 5-10 years? Unit 1 Beginnings 7 A A public school product 1 101Q¥J3@1 Read the quotation from British actor, Robert A new form of football originated in England during the Morley. What do you think it means? Do you agree with it? 19th century, taking its name from the place where it was Give reasons. supposedly invented: Rugby School. In the early 1800s, football was played throughout England (and in many other countries The ball is man S most too) but there were no standard rules, and in most versions disastrous invention. of the game, the ball could be caught as well as kicked. However, running with the ball was largely outlawed. Legend 2 Work in pairs. How many of the different sports in the photos has itthat in 1823, a student at Rugby School called William can you name? Can you think of any other ball sports? Webb Ellis picked up the ball during a football match and ran with it towards the opposing goal line. This illegal action 3 Read the texts quickly. What are the three sports, and in what caused a permanent change in the rules ofthe game, or so the chronological order were they invented? story goes, and from that day onwards, Rugby School played its own version of football which became known as Rugby Football. (The more familiar kind of football is officially known When doing a multiple matching task, read through the as Association Football to distinguish it from Rugby Football.) questions before you read the text carefully. This way, To this day, there is an inscription at Rugby School celebrating you will know what information you are looking for. William Webb Ellis and his actions, and although the historical truth of the events is highly questionable, the story endures. The 4 Read the Reading tip!. Then read the texts carefully again. plaque reads: 'This stone commemorates the exploit of William Answer the questions A, B or C. Webb Ellis who with a fine disregard for the rules of football as played in his time first took the ball in his arms and ran with it Which sport: thus originating the distinctive feature 1 was invented to keep young people entertained? 0 of the Rugby game.' 2 might have been based on an English game? 0 3 had a special group of experts set up to uncover its origins? 0 .. 4 is supposed to have resulted from one player breaking the rules? 0 5 was later prohibited by the organisation where it was invented? 0 6 was not intended to be played outside? 0 7 was officially declared to have been invented by a member of the armed forces? 0 8 was named after the place where it was reputedly fi rst played? 0 9 was far more successful than its inventor expected? 0 10 was almost certainly first played in England? 0 8 Unit 1 Beginnings 5 Match the highlighted adve rbs in the text with thei r equivalents. 8 A Canadian invention 1 by and large 7 untidily James Naismith was a Canadian physical education instructor 2 staun chly 8 paradoxica lly .'Ih o worked at the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) 3 swiftly 9 extensively :rai ni ng school in Springfield, Massachusetts, in the USA. In 4 purportedly 10 un ambiguou sly .n91, he was asked to devise a new sport which the students 5 effective ly 11 forwards :oul d pl ay indoors during the winter to stave off boredom. 6 th ereby 12 vaguely '.ai sm ith came up with a game which involved two teams of -'1 e players trying to throw a ball into peach baskets which LOOKOUT! .'. ere fi xed to the wall at either end of the gym. It was loosely Words with th e sa me mea nin g do not always collo cate in :3sed on a game from his own childhood called 'Duck on a the same way. For exa mple, we can say This is your big -:ck'. On 15 January 1892, he published the rules of his new chance! but not This is your large chance! , even thou gh ; :: 'T] e, which he called basketball. Naismith's handwritten big and large are synonyms . A good dictionary will include : ari es, which were discovered by his granddaughter in 2006, information about colloc at ions. -". ea l that he was anxious aboutthe new game and thought it Id prove a failure, like many other attempts at inventing new 6 Read the Look out! box. Then complete t he sentences with .- :oor sports. On the contrary, the game was a huge success the adverb (a-c) that collocates best. -= -:l rapi dly became very popular throughout the USA, spreading 1 The practice of ta ki ng drugs to enhance athleti c .:: -oss the country through the network of YMCA gyms and performance is _ __ agreed to have begun in anci ent :=.'on d. (Ironically, the YMCA banned the game from its gyms ::. '"5W years later because it was too rough.) In 1893, iron hoops Greece. '"::l nets were introduced to replace the original baskets. a largely b generally c chiefly - :,':ever, it was another ten years before open-ended nets were 2 In the 1930s, the fi rst amphetamines were produced , but -". elop ed; prior to that, players had to climb up and retrieve the were not _ __ available for a few decades. :.: 'rom the net whenever a basket was scored . a widely b broadly c extensively 3 At the 1952 Olympi cs, speed skaters who had taken amphetamines became ___ ill. a grimly b gravely c solemnly An all-American sport 4 In 1968, the Intern ation al Olympic Committee issued its first list of substances that athletes were _ __ ｾ Ｍ -3()5, a famous sportswriter named Henry Chadwick wrote prohibited from taking. ｌｾ＠Ｚ ':'licl e suggesting that baseball evolved from the old English a firmly b rigorou sly c st rict ly :; =.-e of rounders. This upset Albert Spalding, one of the game's ==- 9St players and a manufacturer of sports equipment. He 5 In 1991, twenty ex-East Germ an swimmi ng coaches ］ｾＺ＠ utely refused to accept that the great American game did _ _ _ admitte d givi ng anaboli c steroids to the ir for mer _:: ::riginate in America . So Spalding organised a commission of charges during th e 1970s. =::: ::in prominent and patriotic men to determine the 'true origin' a openly b overtly c plainly ｾ＠ ::;seb al l. The project was widely reported in the newspapers. 6 In 1994, _ __ renowned footballer Diego Marado na - :,arge of the commission was Colonel Mills of New York. He was banned from the World Cup for taking drugs . _.:: Jlayed baseball before and during the Civil War and was the a globally b universally c internationa lly .-=-_ LTl pre sident of the National League in 1884. The commission 's 7 In 2003, a British sprinter called Dwain Chambers tested _- 3sri gations were essentially at a dead end until Abner Graves, positive for THG, a ___ invented stero id. -=- - nin g engineer from Denver who was travelling through Ohio ｾＺ［ＭＹ＠ ti me, happened to see a newspaper article about it. He a freshly b lately c newly ';:.::: Gown in his hotel room and wrote a long letter to the Mills 8 Today, while the vast majority of people are _ _ _ =,:-'Iissi on. In the letter, Graves stated categorically that at opposed to the use of drugs in sport, detection rema ins a =::J erstown in 1839 he had watched a US army officer called real prob lem for the governing bodies. ! ..:-er Do ubleday scratching out a baseball pitch on the ground a staunchly b sec urely c steadily .:.-: 'nstructing other young men how to play baseball with 2': li S of eleven players and four bases. Graves described how 7 l@itJ3@1 Discuss the question in groups. Then compare -=--" Jail that they used was made of roughly-stitched horse-hide your ideas with the class. =- - : stuffe d with rags . The Mills commissioners and Spalding If you could ' un-invent' one sport so that it no longer i ,,'9 el ated . They promptly proclaimed baseball was invented existed, which would you choose, and why? : "5n Am erican army officer, Abner Doubleday, in Cooperstown - . 339. The only evidence for this was the testimony of Graves, -J was perhaps not the most reliable of witnesses. A year later, - = lIu rde red his wife and was committed to an asylum for the ｾ＠ :- - inally insane . Unit 1 Beginnings 9 lE 1 Read the text and explain the question in the title. Then sum LOOK OUT! up the answer the text gives. When phrasal verbs are used in passive structures, the two or three parts stay together_ What makes you you? All the lights had been switched off The same is true for infinitive structures unless the phra sal Why do some people back down when faced with a threat, while verb belongs to type 2. others stand up to it? When given a difficult task, why do some lane is not easy to get on with. I need to look it up in a people see it through, while others give up? It all comes down dictionary. to personal ity. But where does that come from? Some scientists believe that most traits are inherited. Others take the opposite view: personality, they say, is formed by our environment and 3 Read the Look out! box. Then find phrasal verbs 1-8 in the parents do not pass it on to their children. text in exercise 1 and decide: The truth is probably somewhere in between . Some traits are a what each phrasal verb means . clearly determined by your environment: whatever your genetic b whether they are type 1, 2, 3 or 4. background, if you grow up in Sweden, you'll probably speak c whether they are active , passive or infinitive structures. Swedish. On the other hand , when it comes to traits like the colour of your eyes or your blood type, it is clear that genetics 1 back down 3 see throu gh 5 pass on 7 account for alone accounts for them . There are also traits which are partly 2 stand up to 4 give up 6 grow up 8 make up inherited but partly shaped by environment: your weight, and 4 Read the text in exercise 5, ignoring the mistakes. What even your height and skin colour, are examples. can identical twins tell us about the effects of genetics and Of course, genetics and the environment together are not the full envi ron ment? picture. Your free will- your ability to take decisions - is also a factor in shaping your identity, but how big a factor? You'll have m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.3: PHRASAL VERBS: PASSIVE to make your own mind up about that! AND INFINITIVE FORMS: PAGE 116 <m 5 Find and correct eight more mistakes with the word order of 2 Read the Learn this! box below and match one, two or t hree phrasal verbs. examples (a-h) with each type of phrasal verb. a How well do you get on with your siblings? Most people would agree that human behaviour is made b Put your jacket on , we' re going outs ide. tlf-ttpup of a mixture of genetics and environment. The question is: can we break down it into its constituent c Who is going to look after me when I'm old? parts and decide which influence is stronger in certain d It' s nin e o'clock - time to get up! situations? It's an intriguing question, and one which will e I don 't think many guests are going to turn up. certainly have important consequences for our society if f Don 't forget to take off your shoes. the scientists who have been looking it into for many years g How can you put up with that noise? suddenly come with up a definitive answer. h I'd like to think it over for a while. For example, if drug addiction turns out to be largely genetic, can we blame a heroin addict for not being able to give up it? If a man is destined to be a criminal because of I::ｾ＠ Phrasal verbs his DNA, is it morally right to punish him for his crimes, ｾ＠ A phrasal verb is when a verb combines with an adverb or should society allow him to get them away with? i! or preposition (or sometimes both) to create a new Calculating the relative importance of genetics and ｾ＠ meaning. Phrasal verbs can be divided into four main environment is difficult, but in some situations, it types : is possible to work out it. Of particular interest to i researchers are identical twins who have been brought in 1 Two-part verbs with no object. Example(s): _ _ 2 Two-part verbs whose object can co me betwe en OR different families up. It's the differences between these twins which provide the key: only their environments can after the two parts . (Howeve r, when the obje ct is a account them for because identical twins share exactly the pronoun , it must come between the two parts.) same DNA Example(s): _ _ 3 Two-part verbs whose obje ct cannot come between the parts . Example(s): _ _ 6 'WfJ3!I[C1 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. 4 Three-part verbs w hose object cannot co me between 1 What kind of people do you get on with best? . the pa rts . Example(s) : _ _ 2 Which famous people do you look up to , and why? 3 Wh ich of your personality traits were passed on by m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 1.2: PHRASAL VERBS: your parents and which can be accounted for byyour PAGE 115 <m experiences? 10 Unit 1 Beginnings IF Read the first paragraph of the text. What is unusual about 3 g 1.0 5 List en to a man and a woman discussing the topic Andi, the monkey in the photograph? of genetic expe riment s. Answer the questions. a Before birth, he was genetically identical to a human a Who is in favo ur and who is against? embryo. b At what point do es th e wom an think the man is not being b His DNA was genetically engineered to make him immun e serious? to certain diseases. c His DNA includes a gene from another creature. 4 Who makes points 1-8, the man or the woman? Complete the points with the adverbs below. Read the rest of the text. Which view is closer to your own entirely eventually freely genetically morally opinion? realistically virtually widely 1 It's ___ indefensible to use animals in experiments . Meet Andi 2 If scientists are allowed to create designer babi es, then one day, people who haven't been _ __ modified wi ll be seen as inferior. Although it is illegal 3 By altering our DNA, scientists will _ _ _ be able to in most countries for eliminate the most serious diseases. scientists to alter the 4 There' s no reason why parents shouldn't be able to choose ___ whether they have a baby girl or boy. DNA of human eggs or S Artificial alterations to our genes may have _ __ embryos, experiments unforeseen side effects. on animals are allowed. 6 ___ , scientists will never find a cure for cancer unless In April 2001 the first experiments on animals are permitted . 7 If this kind of experiment is _ _ _ permitted , scientists genetically-modified will go on to create monsters by mixing human and monkey was born - animal DNA. he was called Andi 8 We have to embra ce scientific progress, si nce it's _ __ (representing 'Inserted impossible to hold it back. DNA' backwards). Andi S g 1.06 Complete the useful expressions fo r react ing to an developed from an egg opposing view. Then listen again and check. into which scientists 1 I don 't really _ _ with that. 2 That' s just an opinion - there ' s no evidence t o ___ it. had inserted a jellyfish 3 But where will it ___ ? gene; as a result of which Andi glowed green in 4 That' s a fair point, 1 _ _ _ • But in my view ... ult raviolet light. S That argument do esn't ___ sense . 6 You don't _ __ to _ __ things to such an extreme. Dave King, a campaigner against human genetic 7 1 _ __ what you mean. But ... engineering, said yesterday: 'It is science 8 You can't _ __ serious. ut of control and at its most irresponsible. 6 Student As work in pairs and Student Bs work in pairs. People should wake up to the fact that genetic Student As: You agree with the statement below. en gineering of people could be just around the Student Bs: You disagree with the statement below. orner.' Each write a list of points to support your own position. Use the points from exercise 4 and your own ideas. Compare your Simon Fishel from the Park Hospital, Nottingham, list with your partner. res ponded: 'We've been striving for hundreds of Designer babies will lead to a ousands of years to eliminate human diseases. healthier and happier population. we get to the stage in human development ",ere the only way to do that is to attack the 7 l1#'@(Cj Work in new pairs of one Student A and one Student B. Discuss the statement in exercise 6. Use errors in our DNA, then we have to try to attack expressions from exercise S to react to opposing points. ose errors. I see this as positive research.' Unit 1 Beginnings 11 1G Read the model. Have you ever experienced a live music gig? Read the Writing tip. Then underline two very short sentences If so, were your feelings similar? in the model. Which is used for emphasis and which is used to build suspense? Rewrite the sentences to include at least one short sentence. Say whether the effect is building tension or suspense or adding emphasis. 1 When we arrived at the hotel, I went straight to our room . I looked out of the window and there was the sea! 2 As Ben approached the door, he could hear footsteps inside the room . He turned the handle, the door swung open and he finally came face to face with the man who ｾ＠ __---. My first BiB had been following him. 3 The playground was huge and I had never seen so many other children in one place. They were running to and I first went to hear a live rock fro, shouting and bumping into each other and it was concert when I was eight years old. terrifying. My brother and his friends were all fans of a heavy metal Complete these sentences from the model. group called Black Wednesday. When they discovered that Black Wednesday were going to perform at our local 1 Then there was a roar from the crowd, _ __ an theatre, they all bought tickets for the gig . However, at the explosion, as the first members of the band stepped onto last minute, one of the friends couldn 't go, so my brother the stage. offered me the ticket. I was thrilled! 2 The first song was already starting and the music was _ _ _ loud _ _ _ a jet engine. I remember the buzz of excitement inside the theatre as 3 I felt bewildered, _ _ I had just woken from a long we all found our seats. After a few minutes, the lights went sleep. down and everybody became quiet. I could barely make out the stage in the darkness. We waited. Then there was a roar Use your answers to exercise 4 to complete the information from the crowd, like an explosion, as the first members of about similes. the band stepped onto the stage. My brother leaned over and shouted something in my ear, but I couldn 't hear what Similes he was saying. The first song was already starting and the Writers often use similes to make their writing more music was as loud as a jet engine. I could feel the bass descriptive. A simile makes a comparison using like or as. notes and the drum beats in my stomach . 1 We use _ _ _ + noun to express a general similarity between two things. I can 't recall any of the songs that the band played. I just The hospital was ___ a maze. remember that I didn 't want it to finish . But in the end, after 2 We use _ _ _ + adjective/adverb + _ __ + three encores, the show finished. We left the theatre and noun/ -ing form to compare a specific aspect. stumbled out onto the pavement. I felt bewildered, as if I Her face was _ __ white _ __ snow. had just woken from a long sleep. My ears were still ringing 3 We use _ __ ___ to introduce a comparison with with the beat of the last song. a complete clause. After the gig, I became a Black Wednesday fan too for a few The runner fell to the ground _ _ _ _ he'd been years before getting into other kinds of music. Once in a shot. while, though , I listen to one of their songs and imagine I'm back at that first gig. lOiQi;131m' Work in pairs. Invent similes to complete these sentences. 1 My sister covered her mouth with her hand, as if ... 2 The water in the lake where we used to go swimming was You can improve the style of your writing by using like ... sentences of different lengths . Very short sentence s can 3 When I lost my teddy bear, I cried and cried as if ... be effective if used occas ionall 0 crea e em phas is or 4 I crept downstairs as quietly as ... build susp ense or tens ion. S My mother suddenly began sniffing the air like ... J 6 The two men stared at each other as if ... 12 Unit 1 Beginnings 1G Look at the adjectives for describing emotional states below 5 Whe n t he pho ne rang, I answered it immediately and and find pairs with similar meanings. Then say when you kne w imme dia tely that something was wrong. might experience these states. 6 I found my father's diary and found an old postcard ---.---- ldtec. ｾｉ＠ d c,ercrcnted En' h It; ac;tic ｾ＠ inside it. l."1Q¥,'@(ij Work in pairs. Choose two 'firsts' from the list VDU.., ｰｅＧｴｲｩｦｾ＠ d relJ( tant remo c;rful below and discuss your personal memories. Use adjectives r fl£'d hrltt£'d Jnwll, ng uptil!, from exercises 1-3 where appropriate. an noied - irritated 1 your first day at a new school lOU might feel annoied or irritated if iour brother plaied loud 2 your first trip abroad "1usic. while iOU were triing to revise. 3 the first time you met a close friend 4 the first CD or DVD you ever bought 5 your first romantic date Use synonyms (words with the same meaning) to avoid 6 your first day at work re petition. A good dictionary may provide information 7 your first visit to a large city about synonyms. 8 the day you got your first pet You have been asked to write an article for your school ead the Writing tip. Then look at the extract from the magazine. Follow the plan below to describe one of the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and answer the events that you chose in exercise 4. uestions below. SY NONYMS 1 When and where did it happen? How old were you? Who else was there? angry 2 What are your strongest memories? What happened? mad . indignant. cross· irate How did you feel? -\11 these words describ e peo ple feeling and/ or showin g anger. 3 What other memories do you have of the occasion? angry fee lin g or showin g anger: Please don 't be angry with me. <> Thousands of angry demonstrators filled the How did it end? square. ,,"ad [not before noun] (informal, especially NAmE) angry: 4 What happened afterwards? How do you feel abo ut it He got mad and walked out. <> She's mad at me for being now, looking back? ,ate. 11'I.!in Mad is the usual word for 'a ngry' in inform al -\merica n English. When used in British En glish, especially in the phrasego mad, it ca n mea n 'very angry': Dod'lI go mad when he sees what you've done. 'Go mad ' can also mean 'go crazy' or 'get very excited'. Work in pairs. n dignant fee lin g or showing anger and surprise 1 Look at your partner's notes from exercise 5 an d w rite beca use you think that you or sb else ha s been treated unfairly : She was very indignant at the way she had been down three questions to ask. iIeated. 2 Ask and answer the questions you wrote dow n. cross (rather informal, especially BrE) rath er angry or ann oyed: I was quite cross with him for being late. I1'I.!in 3 Use your answers to your partner's questions to add "his word is oft en used by or to children. more details to your plan . rate very angry: irate customers 0 an irate letter l1'I.!in Ira t e is not usually followed by a preposition : 5/<te-wti5 Write an article of 200-250 words following your plan. 'd le " ith ｭ･ Ｏ ｴＱ｢･ｾ＠ it. Remember to use synonyms to avoid too much repetition and ich of the four synonyms of angry are you most likely to to include at least one simile. _s e: Check your work using the list below. 'f you're six years old? ｾ＠ J you're from New York? ｃｉＡｾｋ＠ YOUR WO ｾ＠ 3 ｾ ｦ＠ you're describing unfair treatment? - :f you're describing an extreme feeling? Have you: followed the plan correctly? ｾ ･ ﾷ＠ .... ri te the sentences using synonyms to avoid repetition. w ritten the correct number of words? ｾｳ ･＠ a dictionary to help you, if necessary. used synonyms? - he room was very large with very large windows. included at least one simile? - Sh e was a thin woman with a thin face . used at least one short sentence to add em phasis or 3 ｜ｾｹ＠ clothes were wet and my hair was wet. build suspense? checked the spelling and grammar? could see the beautiful mountains and beautiful lakes. Unit 1 Beginnings 13 1 Get read to READ Read the definition and think of A She is thought to have become especially attached arguments for and against cloning. to it after the pit bull saved her life when another dog clone /klaun; NAmE kloun/ nou n, verb attacked her. • noun 1 (biology) a plant or an animal that is produced B The latter achieved notoriety when his well-publicised naturally or artificially from the cells of another plant or breakthroughs in cloning human stem cells were animal and is therefore exactly the same as it • verb [VN] 1 to produce an exact copy of an animal or a discovered to be fake . plant from its cells: A team from the UK were the fi rst to C Increasing demand means the cost for cloning a dog successfully clone an animal. 0 Dolly, the cloned sheep may come down to less than $50,000. D The dog, named Booger, died a year and a half ago but 2 Look quickly through the text in the Reading exam task, his owner kept part of the dog' s ear in cold storage. ignoring the gaps. What two arguments in favour of cloning E Nevertheless, some people are worried that human are implied by the text? Do you agree with them? cloning is an inevitable development. F In this case, cells have been extracted from Booger's 3 Do the Reading exam task. ear tissue and inserted into the eggs of living dogs. READING exam task ,. Look at the photo of Frankenstein below. Discuss the questions. Read the text carefully and decide which sentence (A-F) 1 What do you know about the story? best fits each gap (1-5) . There is one sentence that you 2 How does it portray science and scientists? do not need. 5 Do the Use of English exam task.$150,000 for a pet dog, USE OF ENGLISH exam task just like your last one Complete the text. Write one word only in each gap. Snuppy: the first cloned dog in the world Many people regard the A Californian dog-lover has agreed to pay $150,000 possibility of human clones to have her dead pit bull recreated in the world 's first 1_ __ horror and see commercial pet cloning project. 10 South Korean it as a sign th at scientific scientists will now use the tissue to attempt to create an progress is sp iralling 2_ _ of control. Although exact replica of the pet. this initial revulsion is RNL Bio, based in Seoul, said it is already working on understandable, it is the order. The work will be carried out by a team of Seoul perhaps taking things 3_ _ _ an extreme. After all, National University (SNU) scientists under the direction human clones already exist in nature: they' re called of professor Lee Byeong-chun, a key member of the identical twins, and "_ __ though some people find research team headed by disgraced stem cell scientist identical twins unnerving, few are actually disgusted by Hwang Woo-suk. 20 But the SNU team was successful the very idea of them . in creating the world's first dog clone, an Afghan hound It's all 5_ _ _ easy to dismiss cloning 6 _ __ the named 'Snuppy'. work of mad scientists trying to create Fran kenstein-like Bernann McKunney is the American wom an who really monsters. This image has very little to 7_ _ _ with the misses her dead dog. 3DSpecific breeds of pit bull are truth. 8 _ _ _ reality, the aim of scientists is to find new ways to combat disease and repair the human banned or restricted in several countries in cludin g th e body. Some scientists have suggested that by cloning UK, New Zealand and Canada , but not in the USA. our own cells, we could halt or maybe 9 _ _ _ reverse Cho Seong-ryul, RNL' s marketing director, said the the ageing process . The ultimate prize would be a kind company's success rate for produ cing dogs by cloning of immortality. 10_ _ _ that would be a good thing in was high with around one out of every four su rroga te practice is anoth er question . mother dogs producin g cl on ed pupp ies. The "0 scientists and Mrs McKunney are hoping that at least one of these will deve lop into a hea lthy puppy. 6 Do the Speaking exam task. 'If successful, this will mark the first time that a dog has SPEAKING exam task been cloned in a commerc ial contract,' Cho said. ' But it won't be the last. Cloning is fast becomin g an ind ustry. Read the following statement. Do you agree or disagree 5D' RNL Bio plans eventua lly to focus on clonin g not with it? Discuss the issue with your partner, responding only pets, but al so spec ia l dogs like ho se trained to to any counter-arguments they have. sniff out bombs . The cloning of humans shp uld never be allowed . >...- ::nt-ot Get Ready for your Exam 1 THIS UNIT INCLUDES Vocabulary. compound adjectives ｾ＠ compound nouns. verb-nou n/a djecti ve- noun collocation s • phrasal verbs. aspects of films. adjectives describing films • mod ifying ad verbs Grammar. like, unlike and as • narrative tenses. simple and co ntinu ou s forms . spec ul at ing Stories Speaking. talking about characters in films and books. talking about TV vi ewin g hab its • reacting to literary texts Writing . a film review 1 "1.07 Listen to three people describing the kind of films 4 How many compound adjectives can you make using the they like. What aspects of the films do they particularly like? adjectives and nouns below? How many more can you add using different adjectives and nouns? big broad cold empty fair kind long narrow single thin wide blood eyed hair hand head heart leg mind shoulder skin 5 Rewrite the text by replacing the underlined words with compound adjectives. You may need to make other changes. Of M/a. and Men if> a novel bi the Nobel 'Priz.c-winnin9 author John ｾｴ･ｩｮ｢ＦｃＬｫ＠ . .. ｾＢｦｩＴ＠ .. ｾ ｾ ｲＮ＠ "' ' _. "_" ｾ＠ Of Mice and Men is a novel by the author John Steinbeck, 2 "1.07 Complete the compound adjectives that the who won the Nobel Prize. It is set in 1930s California and is speakers use with the words below. Then listen again and the story of two migrant farm workers, George Milton and ch eck. Lennie Small. George thinks quickly, and has a kind heart, action cool engineered heart man moving narrow and looks after his friend Lennie Small, who is like a child and raising run self time witted has a simple mind. Physically they are different too; George is small, with a slim build. while Lennie is tall and his shoulders 1 genetically-_ _ 7 _ _ -headed are broad. They share a dream that one day they will own their 2 _ _ -packed 8 all-_ _ 3 _ _ _ -warming 9 _ _ _ -down own ranch. But it all goes wrong when Lennie accidentally slow-___ 10 hair-_ _ _ kills someone. The ending breaks your heart, as George kills Lennie in order to save him from a lynch mob. The novel onlv 5 _ _ -made 11 _ _ -minded has 100 pages, but it is a fantastic read. 6 quick-___ 12 _ __ -assured 3 Which adjectives in exercise 2 can be used to describe: a ch aracter? b aspects of films? 6 l.iQ!J3@1 Work in pairs. Think of someone or something that can be described using the compound adjectives below. Explain why they can be described like this. Compound adjectives 1 Ma ny compound adjectives consist of 1 cold -blooded 5 time-consuming a a noun, adjective or adverb plus present participle. 2 absent-minded 6 cut-price thirst-quenching easy-going never-ending 3 light-hearted 7 remote-controlled 4 long-lasting b a noun, adjective or adverb plus past participle. tongue-tied left-handed well-paid 7 Make notes under the headings below about a character from 2 When the first element of the compound is an a story, film or TV programme that you know. Use some of the ad jective, the past participle can be formed from a compound adjectives on this page. noun rather than a verb . 1 Character: positive aspects th ick-skinned tight-fisted thin-lipped flat-footed 2 Character: negative aspects 3 Another common pattern is adjective/number + 3 Appearance nou n. The noun is always singular. deep-sea last-minute ten -storey 8 1.#'MiltCl Work in pairs. Describe the character to your partner. Can your partner guess who it is? DD VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.1: COMPOUND ADJECTIVES: m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.2: COMPOUND NOUNS: WORKBOOK PAGE 102 <m WORKBOOK PAGE 102 «<I Unit 2 Stories 15 28 1 Complete the text with appropriate words. Write one word 5 '#fJ311[C1 Ask and answer the questions in exercise 4. Give only in each gap. reasons and examples. Too much TV may result 1_ _ academic failure 6 "1.08 Complete these sentences from the listening with like, unlike or as. Then listen again and check. Teenagers who watch several hours 2_ _ television a day do worse a And she's _ _ , 'Why are you watching that rubbish?' at school and are less likely to graduate 3_ _ their peers, a new b My parents are a bit _ _ that too. study suggests. The 20-year study involving nearly 700 families in the c I don't have a lV in my bedroom, _ _ _ Chris does . USA found that those watching more than three hours of TV a day were d We watch dramas and films mainly, and series, _ _ half as likely 4_ _ continue their education past high school. Heroes. In the mid-1980s scientists began interviewing 14-year-olds from 678 e The stories are fascinating, _ _ are the characters . families about their television viewing habits. They also asked the teens' f _ _ Heroes, Lost is set in the real world. parents as 5_ _ whether the youngsters had any behavioural or academic difficulties. The researchers continued collecting information from the parents and interviewed the teens again at age 16, and again at ages 22 and 33. At age 14, most of the children watched 6_ _ one and three hours of television each day, while thirteen per cent watched more than four hours, and ten per cent watched less than one hour. The scientists found that 30 per cent of students who watched more than three hours of television at age 14 had attention problems 7_ _ subsequent years, and fell behind or failed to graduate by age 22. 8_ _ comparison, /" I only fifteen per cent of those who watched less than one hour of TV at age 14 showed the same attention deficits later 9_ _ • 7 Read the Learn this! box. Match the sentences (a-t) from Other experts, however, say the link is unclear and maintain that the exercise 6 with uses 1-6. study does not provide strong evidence 10_ _ a causal relationship between television viewing and subsequent attention difficulties. Teens like, unlike and as 11 _ _ learning disorders might simply be more likely to watch a lot We can use like or as to describe similarities. of TV because they find activities 12_ _ as reading textbooks too 1 like is a preposition and comes before a noun or challenging. pronoun . You're like a child! 1_ _ 2 '#fJ3@1 Discuss this question: Should parents restrict the 2 as is a conjunction and comes before a clause (subject amount of lV their children watch? Justify your opinions. and verb / auxiliary) . She's scared, as we all are. 3 "1.08 listen to three people discussing television. What 3 We often use like as a conjunction instead of as. It's reasons for watchinglV do they mention? Choose from: less formal. He fooled me, like he fooled everybody. 2_ _ boredom cultural and aesthetic enjoyment escapism 4 We sometimes invert the subject and verb after as (but family activity filling time getting news relaxation satisfying curiosity and general interest seeking advice never after like). self-education social activity He's tall, as is his father. 3 __ 5 We use the preposition unlike to describe differences. 4 Complete the questions with the words below. Use the Unlike you, I love American comedies. 4_ _ correct form of the verbs. 6 We use like to give examples. 5_ _ 7 In very informal speech, we can use be + like to portray rubbish set slushy unwind well-drawn introduce somebody's words. 1 Do you watch lV _ _ ? He was like, 'I'm so happy!' 6_ _ 2 Do you agree there's a lot of _ _ on lV? 3 Do you like _ _ romantic com edies? 4 Are you critical of the way wom en _ _ on lV? m> GRAMMAR BUilDER 2.1: AS AND LIKE: PAGE 116 <m 5 Can you think of a really _ _ character in a lV series? 8 '1#j@td Discuss with a partner. Do you think men and 6 Do you prefer fantasy serie s to lV dramas _ _ in the women have different tastes in films and lV programmes? real world? Give reasons and examples .. 16 Unit 2 Stories 2e Read the definition of the 'Great American Dream'. To what 4 Make new collocations. Match 1-8 in exercise 3 with extent do you believe that the dream is (a) admirable and the verbs and adjectives below. Choose three and write (b) achievable? sentences. Th e Great American Dream is the belief that every citizen can a reac h c ca use e marital g coveted achieve prosperity and happiness through their own efforts b serve on d draw fright-wing h considerable and abilities, irrespective of class or race. 5 "1.09 Read the glossary, then listen to the opening Complete the text with the correct form of the words in of Death of a Salesman. Why does Willy arrive home late? brackets. Choose the correct answer. Glossary shoulder = side of the road Studebaker = a make of car arch supports = things you put in shoes to give support and comfort Arthur Miller (1915-2005) is windshield = car window universally recognised as one of the greatest 1_ _ (drama) of the 1 He couldn't concentrate while he was driving. twentieth century. Miller's father had 2 He fell asleep while he was drivin g. emigrated to the USA from Austria- 3 He was involved in a car accident. Hungary, drawn like so many others by 6 "1.09 Listen again. Answer the questions, giving reasons the 'Great American Dream'. However, for your answers when appropriate. -2 experienced severe 2_ _ (finance) hardship when his 1 How would you describe Willy' s physical and mental ==.,ily business was ruined in the Great Depression of the state? == 1y 1930s. 2 How would you describe Linda' s attitude to Willy? Ｚ ｾ ･ ｲＧ ｳ＠ most famous play, Death of a Salesman, is a powerful 3 What reasons does Linda suggest for what happened to =:-...ack on the American system, with its aggressive business Willy in the car? "2.:D CS and its 3_ _ (insist) on money and social status 4 What remedies does Linda suggest? .=s -_ _ (indicate) of worth. In Willy Loman, the hero of :.-e play, we see a man who has fallen foul of this system. 7 "1.10 Read the glossary, then listen to the second extract. What two topics do Linda and Willy discuss at : ..y is 'burnt out' and in the ruthless world of business length? :.-ere i s no room for sentiment: if he can't do the work, : -en he is no good to his 5_ _ (employ), the Wagner Glossary :: ,pany, and he must go. Willy is 6_ _ (pain) aware of to send a wire = send a telegram to show the line = show new products ':'- : 5 an d bewildered at his lack of success. He hides behind accommodating = willing to adjust to the needs of other people ::. Ｕｾｯ ｫ ･ｳ｣ｲｮ＠ of lies and 7_ _ (pretend) to disguise the crestfallen = sad and disappointed after an unexpected fai lure ==':I to himself and others that he has failed. to tramp around = travel around; move about -en it was first staged in 1949, the play was greeted with 8 "1.10 Listen again and answer the questions. _ _ (enthuse) reviews, and it won numerous 9_ _ 1 What does Linda suggest that Willy should do in order to : -2sti ge) literary awards. However, Miller's views attracted improve his working life? : -= attention of the Un-American Activities Committee, 2 How does Willy react on the three occasions that Linda - :ch had been set up to investigate American artists makes this suggestion? ｾ ＮＭＵｊ ･｣ ｴ ･､＠ of having communist sympathies. Miller was found 3 What did Willy and his son Biff argue about earlier? _ _ (guilt) by the UAAC of undermining the American 4 Can you identify three occasions when Willy is indecisive Ｓｾ＠ of life. The verdict was, however, later overturned and and quickly changes his mind? - _e r went on to write over fifty plays. 9 'Mt@m" Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you feel sympathy for Willy and Linda? Why? / Why not? ake collocations with the words below. Use verbs for 1-4 2 Is there similar pressure on business people to succeed 2nd adjectives fo r 5-8. Find them in the text. in your country? , _ _ hardship 5 _ _ hardship 3 To what extent do you believe that your future prosperity - _ _ attention 6 _ _ status and happiness depend on your own efforts? 3 ___ a committee 7 _ _ award 4 Do you agree with Willy that it's good for young people to ｾ＠ ___ a verdict 8 __ sympathies move around and tryout lots of different jobs? Unit2 Stories 17 1 I."#!'@(d Work in pairs. Imagine you and a group offriends 6 I.1#+1@[d Discuss the questions. Justify your opinions. were marooned on a small island in the middle of the ocean. 1 Do you think that a group of twelve-year-old boys is likely Discuss the questions. to behave in the way described in the extract? 1 What would you do in order to: (a) survive? (b) get rescued? 2 If left to their own devices, do you think a group of 2 What rules, if any, would you establish? How would you twe lve-year-old boys is capable of living peacefully with agree on them? one another? 2 Read the extract from Lord of the Flies by William Golding. ignoring the gaps. Answer the questions. A group of boys 1 Where are the boys and how did they get there? have been marooned 2 Why is Ralph angry at the start of the extract? 3 What was the purpose of the fire? on a desert island, 4 Whose responsibility was it to keep the fire going? following a plane 5 What was Jack doing instead of looking after the fire ? crash, and are 6 How does he justify his behaviour? waiting to be rescued. 7 Who had the boys chosen as their leader? 8 What possession of Piggy's did Jack break? In this extract Jack 9 Who helps Piggy to find his glasses? and Ralph, strong 10 What does Jack apologise for? characters who both 3 Match the sentences (a-h) with the gaps (1-7) in the extract. want to be leader of There is one sentence that you do not need. the group, come into a Piggy grabbed and put on the glasses. conflict. b He took a step, and able at last to hit someone, stuck his fist into Piggy's stomach. 1 Ralph flung back his hair. One arm pointed at the c Jack turned to Piggy and apologised for his cruel empty horizon. His voice was loud and savage, and behaviour. d They m ight have seen us. struck them into silence. e They waited for an appropriately decent answer. 'There was a ship: f He went on scrambling and the laughter rose to a gale of 5 Jack, faced at once with too many awful implications, hysteria 10 . ducked away from them. He laid a hand on the pig g Jack was loud and active. and drew his knife. Ralph brought down his arm, fist h Then his voice came again on a peak of feeling. clenched, and his voice shook. 4 Explain in your own words these sentences from the text. 'There was a ship. Out there! You said you'd keep the 1 The dismal truth was filtering through to everybody. 10 fire going and you let it out!' He took a step towards (line 23) Jack, who turned and faced him. 2 There was the brilliant world of hunting, tactics, fierce 'I 0 We might have gone home - ' exhilaration, skill; and there was the world of longing and This was too bitter for Piggy, who forgot his timidity baffled common-sense. (line 32) in the agony of his loss. He began to cry out, shrilly: 3 He resented, as an addition to Jac k's misbehaviour, t his I S 'You and your blood, Jack Merridew! You and your verbal trick. (line 84) 4 By the time the pile was built, they were on different hunting! We might have gone home - ' sides of a high barrier. (line 105) Ralph pushed Piggy on one side. 'I was chief; and you were going to do what 1 said. You 5 Find examples of the following behaviour in the text: talk. But you can't even build huts - then you go off 1 Jack's violence and aggressiveness . 20 hunting and let out the fire - ' 2 Jack's cruelty. 3 Ralph's indecision. He turned away, silent for a moment. 20 4 Piggy's defiance. 'There was a ship - ' 5 Ralph's inflexibility. One of the smaller hunters began to wail. I The dismaF 6 Simon's concern for others . truth was filtering through to everybody. Jack went 7 the hunters' quickly chang ing moods. 18 Unit 2 Stories :5 very red as he hacked3 and pulled at the pig. 'All right! All right! ' 'The job was too much. We needed everyone: 75 He looked at Piggy, at the hunters, at Ralph. Ralph turned. 'I'm sorry. About the fire, I mean. There. I - ' 'You CQuld have had everyone when the shelters were He drew himself Up. 12 finished. But you had to hunt - ' , - I apologise: 'We needed meat: The buzz from the hunters was one of admiration Jack stood as he said this, the bloodied knife in his 80 for this handsome behaviour. Clearly they were of hand. The two boys faced each other. There was the the opinion that Jack had done the decent thing, had brilliant world of hunting, tactics, fierce exhilaration, put himself in the right by his generous apology and kill; and there was the world of longing and baffied 4 Ralph, obscurely, 13 in the wrong. 60 '5 common-sense. Jack transferred the knife to his left Yet Ralph's throat refused to pass one. He resented, as hand and smudged5blood over his forehead as he 85 an addition to Jack's misbehaviour, this verbal trick. pushed down the plastered hair. The fire was dead. The ship was gone. Could they not Piggy began again. see? Anger instead of decency passed his throat. 'You didn't ought to have let that fire out. You said 'That was a dirty trick: - \'ou'd keep the smoke going - ' They were silent on the mountain top while the This from Piggy, and the wails of agreement from 90 opaque look appeared in Jack's eyes and passed away. -ome of the hunters drove Jack to violence. The Ralph's final word was an ungracious 14 mutter. olting look came into his blue eyes. 30 Piggy sat 'All right. Light the fire: down with a grunt. Jack stood over him. His voice was With some positive action before them, a little of the - '.icious 6 with humiliation. tension died. Ralph said no more, did nothing, 'You would, would you? Fatty!' 95 stood looking down at the ashes around his feet. ?0 llalph made a step forward and Jack smacked Piggy's He gave orders, sang, whistled, threw remarks at the ead. Piggy's glasses flew off and tinkled? on the rocks. silent Ralph - remarks that did not need an answer, Piggy cried out in terror: and therefore could not invite a snub;15 and still Ralph Ｍ ｾｦｹ＠ specs!' was silent. No one, not even Jack, would ask him to :re went crouching and feeling over the rocks but 100 move and in the end they had to build the fire three Simon, who got there first, found them for him. yards away and in a place not really as convenient. ?assions beat about Simon on the mountain-top with Ralph asserted his chieftainship and could not have .:,\,ful wings. chosen a better way if he had thought for days. Against = One side's broken: He looked malevolently at Jack. = got to have them specs. Now I only got one eye. Jus' this weapon, so indefinable and so effective, Jack was 105 powerless and raged without knOWing why. By the time the pile was built, they were on different sides of "ou wait -' a high barrier. -ack made a move towards Piggy who scrambled8 .:.,,·ay till a great rock lay between them. He thrust his ｾ ･｡ ､＠ over the top and glared at Jack through his one .Jashing glass. Glossary 1 (to) wail = (make) a long , high cry of pain or sadness Ｎ ｾｯｷ＠ I only got one eye. Just you wait - ' 2 dismal = miserable .ack mimicked 9 the whine and scramble. 3 to hack = cut with rough , heavy blows 4 baffled = confused 'us' you wait - yah!, 5 to smudge = make a dirty mark ?iggy and the parody were so funny that the hunters 6 vicious = cruel and aggressive _egan to laugh. Jack felt encouraged. 50 Unwillingly 7 (to) tinkle = (make) a light, high ringing sound 8 to scramble = move quickly and with difficulty, using your hands ｾ｡ｬ ｰｨ＠ felt his lips twitch;ll he was angry with himself to help :or giving way. 9 mimic = copy in a funny way the way sb speaks and acts 10 a gale of hysteria = the sound of people laughing uncontrollably - :-le muttered. 11 (to) twitch = (make) a sudden , small movement without -:bat was a dirty trick: meaning to -ack broke out of his gyration and stood faCing Ralph. 12 to draw oneself up = stand up to one's full height 13 obscurely = for a reason that was difficult to identify :lis words came in a shout. 14 ungracious = ill-mannered and unfriendly 15 a snub = an insult Unit 2 Stories 19 2E 1 Read the Aesop's fable and choose the moral (a-c) which you 4 Complete the fable with the correct form of the verbs in think best fits the story. brackets. Sometimes two answers are possible . Justify your a Don 't try to achieve the impossible. choices. Then in pairs, write a moral for the fable. b It is easy to despise what you cannot have . c Don 't underestimate the difficu lty of a task. The Hare and the Tortoise One day a hare 1_ __ (run) along a path when he 2_ _ _ The Fox and the Grapes (come) across a tortoise. The hare 3_ _ _ (follow) the same There was once a fox that used route every day and 4_ _ _ (never come) across a tortoise to wander far and wide to find before . The tortoise 5_ _ _ (walk) slowly and the hare 6_ _ _ food . H e would sometimes (begin) to laugh at her. Irritated by the hare, the tortoise 7_ _ _ walk for days in order fi nd a (challenge) him to a race. The hare 8_ __ (never have) any nice meal. One day, he came doubt that he was the fastest animal around, so he 9_ _ _ across a vine branch from (accept) the challenge. After the hare 10_ _ _ (run) for a while, which were hanging bunches he realised that he 11 _ _ _ (leave) the tortoise far behind, and 12_ _ _ (sit) down under a tree to relax for a while. It wasn't of ripe, black grapes which no one had yet picked. The fox long before he 13_ _ _ (fall) asleep. Although the tortoise 14_ _ _ (not hurry), she overtook the hare. When the hare had been searching for foo d 15 _ __ (wake up) , he 16_ __ (realise) that the tortoise for many days and was almost 17_ __ (beat) him to the finishing line. The hare 18_ _ _ dying of hunger. He stood on tip-toe and stretched as high (remember) this experience for the rest of his life. as he could, but he couldn't reach the grapes. He tried jumping but still without success. The fox had thought that it would be easy to reach the grapes, and to 5 Use the notes below to write the fable The boy who cried hide his disappointment he said to himself, 'What a fool I am! wolf. Use a variety of narrative tenses and make any The grapes are sour. I was going to eat them, but I've changed my necessary changes to the text. Begin There was once ... . mind.' And with that, he walked off. The Boy Who Cried Wolf Find examples of verb forms 1-7 in the fable in exercise 1. A shepherd boy lived in a village. H is family lived there for many When do we use them? years. He looked after a flock of sheep. Every day he went to the 1 past simple 5 would hillside above the village. He was bored. He left his sheep. H e ran to the village. H e shouted, 'Wolf! Wolf!' The villagers heard his 2 past continuous 6 used to cries. They ran to help him. They wasted their time. H e laughed at 3 past perfect 7 future in t he past them. He did this two or three times. A wolf really did come. H e 4 past perfect continuous shouted 'Wolf! W olf!' The villagers ignored him. The wolf killed the whole flock of sheep. The boy didn't cry wolf again. 3 Explain the difference in meaning in these sentences. 1 a When Joe arrived , I'd made some coffee . b When Joe arrived, I made some coffee . 6 Complete these sentences in your own words. Use as many c When Joe arrived, I was making som e coffee . verb forms as you can from exercise 2. d When Joe arrived , I'd been making some coffee . 1 ... because it had been raining. 2 a He spoke Japanese because he' d lived in Japan for two 2 I' d had a terrible day at school ... years . 3 Whe n I last spoke to you .. . b He spoke Japanese because he ' d bee n living in Japan 4 I hadn't been feeling well .. . for two years . 5 I'd never thought ... 6 As I was walking through the park, ... 3 a What was that book you rea d on ho li day? 7 I was to have ... b What was that book you were re ading on holiday? 4 a George used to smo ke in t he office. 7 "i#Miml Work in pairs or small groups. Invent a fable to b George would smoke in the offi ce. illustrate one of these sayings. Tell it to the class. 5 a Kim and Ben met in 2010 and were to get ma rried in Make hay while the sun shines . Look before you leap . 2012. Don't judge a book by its cover. A stitch in time saves nine. b Kim and Ben met in 201 0 and were to have got married in 2012 . m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.3: SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS FORMS: PAGE 118 cm m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.2' NARRATIVE TENSES: PAGE 117 cm 20 Unit 2 Stories 2F M41M@J Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 7 "1.12 Listen to someone saying what she thinks life is 1 What problems do homeless people face? like fo r the person in the first picture and why he might be 2 Why do people become homeless? homeless. Do you agree with her opinions? Work in pairs. If you had to interview a homeless person, 8 g 1.12 Complete the speculative sentences. You can use what questions would you ask? Note them down. more than one word in a gap. Then listen again and check. 1 This man _ _ _ quite young. g 1.11 Listen to the interview. Were any of your questions 2 It _ _ he's had a particularly hard life. asked? How did the girl answer them? 3 It _ _ _ he has enough layers to keep warm . g 1.11 Complete the phrasal verbs (1-6) with the correct 4 He's sitting on a bunk bed in what's _ _ｾ｟＠ a night ;>repositions, and match them with the definitions (a-f). Then shelter of some kind . listen again and check. 5 1_ _ _ he hasn't been sitting there for long, and he _ __ doesn't spend his days there. 1 getsb _ _ a start taking (e .g. drugs) 6 He _ _ _ to have any possessions with him . 2 hang _ _ b stay in a place 7 1 _ _ _ life is pretty tough for him . 3 get _ _ sth c leave sudden Iy 8 I _ _ _ he's run away from home for some reason. if ｾ＠ walk _ _ d spend time with (people) 5 ki ck sb ｾ＠ __ _ e make sb leave m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 2.4: SPECULATING: hang out _ _ _ f depress sb PAGE 118 <m l atch 1-5 with a-e to make collocations from the listening. 9 IMfr@1!d Work in pairs. Say what you think life is like for the sk ip a one's drug habit person in the second picture and why he might be homeless. _ loose b rough 3 fee d c change ick d one's drug habit - sl eep e school .th en comparing photos, start by saying what is similar 2nd different about what you can see before you start to Jffer opinions or speculate about other aspects of the Jhotos . ｾＭ［ﾧ＠ !@[?j Work in pairs. Read the Speaking tip! and the :csk in the box below. Talk about the main similarities and ::ITferences between the photos. Use the phrases below to -elp you. - he photos show homeless people . Compare and co ntrast the photos, and say what you think life is like 'or t hese people and why they might be homeless. escribing similarities and differences ｾ･＠ most obvious similarity between the photos is (that) ... -"'e photos are similar in that... - e '11ost obvious difference between the photos is (that) ... ihe first picture, ... while/whereas in the other, ... > 'oto 1 shows ... Photo 2, on the other hand, shows ... .'le often use the present perfect simple and continuous ,'.h en speculating about photos. 10 'i4fn@1!d In your pairs, turn to page 151 and do the picture comparison task. Unit 2 Stories . 21 2G Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. In which paragraph (A-D) does the writer: 1 Have you seen any films recently, in the cinema or on the 1 talk about the film's strengths? TV? Did you enjoy them? Why?/ Why not? Use the ideas 2 give a brief summary of the plot? below to help you. 3 give background detail about the film, such as the title and director? I. ')ourdtrdck petial €ffe et') 4 give his/her overall verdict on the film? 5 talk about the film's weaknesses? 2 Who are your favourite film stars? What do you like about them? Complete the sentences with the words below. g 0<;') Read the film review. How would you describe it? IOCd ion mi ')c.a'>t 5 qu I ')equenr Ｇ＾ｉＺｴｬｮｾ＠ Find evidence in the text for your opinion. ') 1 very positive 2 fairly positive 1 As the story ｾ ｟＠ , the pace of the action quickens. 2 The film is an ｾ ｟＠ of lan Fleming's best-selling novel. 3 lukewarm 3 There is a car chase in the opening ｾ｟＠ of the film. 4 negative 4 The film was shot on ｾ ｟＠ in the mountains of Scotland . 5 Keira Knightley was ｢｡､ｬｹ ｾ｟＠ in the role of the villain . FILM Review 6 7 An instant ｾ｟＠ on to ｾ｟＠ the ｾ ｾ｟＠ hit when it was released, the film went over$200 million. The film was let down by below-average performances by cast. 8 After numerous ｾ ｾ｟＠ and turns, there's a nail -biting A I am a big fan of the finale. James Bond movies, 9 The back streets of New York provide the perfect ｾ ｟＠ so I was first in the for this film noir. queue at the box 10 Brad Pitt ｾ ｾ｟＠ a fine performance in the leading role . office when Skyfal/ 11 The movie is beautifully filmed and _ _ by digital was screened at our tech nology. local cinema. It is 12 The Two Towers is the ｾ ｟＠ to the highly-acclaimed directed by Sam Mendes and, like its two immediate Fellowship of the Ring. predecessors, Casino Royale and Quantum of Solace, it stars Daniel Craig in the title role as the British secret What is the function of the sentences in exercise 4? Put them agent and Judi Dench as the enigmatic spy-chief, M. under the correct heading. B Set in the present day, the action takes place in locations as far apart as Istanbul, Shanghai and the Scottish Highlands. The plot revolves around the race to prevent the chilling arch villain Silva (Javier Bardem) from revealing the identities of undercover NATO agents. 2 describing the acting Needless to say, at the end of the film Bond triumphs and Si lva gets his come-uppance. C Under the extremely stylish direction of Sam Mendes, 3 describing the filming and how the film looks Craig, Dench and Bardem give superb performances. As you'd expect, the film is thrilling , fast-moving and visually spectacular, with state-of-the-art special effects, 4 giving general and baCl<ground information about the hair-raising chases and jaw-dropping stunt scenes. A film . v ｾ＠ " ｾ＠ bonus is the superb new Bond theme song from Adele. However, like all Bond films it has one weakness: the rather convoluted and far-fetched plot, which begins to unravel in the final quarter of the film. D That said, this is the best Bond movie for many years, In a review, we use the present simple tense to describe and far more entertaining than its pretty powerful the plot of a film, book or play. immediate predecessor, Quantum of Solace. If it is pure escapism you 're after and you love action spectacu lars, this film is definitely for you. I@:t!1@1?j Work in pairs. Read the Writing tip, then describe the plot of a film to your partner, without using the names of any of the characters or actors. Can your partner guess the film? 22 Unit 2 Stories 2G pairs, look at the adjectives for describing films. Which 2 The Incredible Hulk was panned by the critics when it was as pects of films (1-5) can they be used to describe? (Some first released, but it was a box office hit. adjectives can describe more than one aspect.) 3 Titanic is one of the most successful films of all time, and won eleven Oscars. "" ... ｾｶ＠ ...Ｍｾ＠ ｵｾＺｮＮｉｕＵ［ｴ＠ 4 Forrest Gump features Tom Hanks in the title role and is ·b. dgnt dic;clJpointmg edgy epic far-'etched my favourite movie of all time. 'Tlovmg flawed frigrtenirg grippin?, .ight hparted 5 The Mist was adapted from the Stephen King novel and is ﾷ｢ｵ､ｾ･ｴ＠ moving powPrful prcdlctab e .,e-i"us a terrifying horror film . . ,- " 0''''. - - ). ﾷｾｉＬ［Ｂ＠ \/it'1l€nt wac W X rated Match 1-8 with a-h to make sentences that give overall th e performance of the actors opinions of films. Which ones are (a) positive? (b) negative? _ th e story (c) lukewarm? 3 th e film in general - th e screen play 1 If you have an aversion to pointless special effects, J sp ecial effects 2 Not the greatest film ever made, 3 For hardcore fantasy fans, 4 This movie is, quite simply, fantastic and 5 There are some nice moments, JU can describe aspects of a film more accurately and 6 If, like me, you are a lover of feel-good movies, ｾ｟ｯｴｬｹ＠ by combining adjectives with modifying adverbs 7 The film is well worth seeing, ｾＮｊ｣ｨ＠ as: 8 Despite being a low-budget art-house film, : l ittle) bit not particularly not very quite fairly : -etty rather very extremely a this is one of the most impressive movies you'll see. :::::n ember that the adverb quite comes before the b this film is not for you. -cefi nite article: c but it's marred by poor a performance from the lead. :-'5 quite a slow-moving film . d this film won't live up to all the hype surrounding its release. :::.cd the Writing tip and rank the modifying adverbs in order, e if only for the dazzling special effects. "': .11 the strongest to the weakest. Then find examples of f then you won't regret going to see this film. s.::-n e of them in the text on page 22. g but worth the price of admission . h I thoroughly recommend it. 10 ) VOCABULARY BUILDER 2.3: MODIFYING ADVERBS: RKBOOK PAGE 103 <m Make notes about a film that you have seen. Follow the plan below . . • , . 'lW' Work in pairs. Think of a film that you have both sen. Talk about the film using adjectives from exercise 1 and 1 Background information about the film (title, genre, ifying adverbs. director, based on a book? date? other interesting facts?). - . ｊｾｮｴ＠ tht ading in 'Twilight' wa" prttt'j thirc:\-rak 2 A brief summary of the plot. 3 The film's strengths and weaknesses. 4 Your overall verdict on the film and a :: can use participle clauses to improve our writing recommendation (positive or negative). E: .. 2 . --'5 film was released in 2002 and was an instant success. - Jeleased in 2002, this film was an instant success. Write your review (200-250 words). Use the notes you made - : 7cock' stars Will Smith and is a superhero adventure in exercise 6. ＭＧＺｾ＠ left me cold. Check your work using the list below. - Ｕ ｾ ｡ｲ ｩ ｮｧ＠ Will Smith, 'Hancock'is a superhero ::. enture that left me cold. Have you: -5= Darticiple clauses to rewrite these sentences that followed the plan correctly? uce films. written the correct number of words? • 5:lin g Private Ryan was directed by three-time Academy includ ed at least one modifying adve rb? - ,',ard winner Steven Spielberg and is one of the most checked the spelling and grammar? ｾｰｩ ｮ ｧ＠ war films ever made. Unit 2 • Stories I 23 1-2 Vocabulary Grammar 1 Add a prefix to the words below and use them to complete 5 Complete the sentences. Use a past or present form for the sentences. describing habitual actions in the first gap and like or as in awed ..e.asyr occupied orientated nerved the second gap. Harry knew he'd made a mistake, so he felt very unea,,'j 1 When my grandfather was younger, he work when his boss called him into his office. _ _ _ _ a tennis coach every summer. 2 My sister losing her temper these days, just 1 Jack soon became in the narrow streets of the _ _ __ our mum! city. He realised he was completely lost. 3 Tom's a good tennis player, but he behave 2 Olivia was too with her new boyfriend to _ _ __ a child whenever he loses a game. notice that her mother was ill. 4 Don't worry. I making mistakes that 3 It was the first time she'd sung in public, so she was when I was your age. completely when she walked out on stage. 4 The doctor's failure to meet her eyes during the Mark: _ /8 appointment Grace considerably. Mark: _ /4 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs below. Where possible use an object pronoun. 2 Use the words in brackets to form compound adjectives which look after look into make up put on stand up to are synonyms of the first word. think over artificial (make) man-made. 1 My sister's got two children, so when she goes out I 1 intolerant (mind) always _ _ __ 2 pleasing (warm) 2 I was going to carry my jacket, but when I saw it was 3 sensible (head) raining I decided _ _ __ 4 mean (fist) 3 Police have not yet found the person responsible for the 5 intelligent (wit) burglary but the case _ _ __ 6 scary (raise) 4 Her father is very domineering, but she's started _ _ _ _ and tell him what she thinks. Mark: _ /6 5 The court proved that she had lied. The story of her husband's disappearance to obtain his life 3 Match the adjectives (1-5) with their opposites (a-e). insurance money. 1 serious a gripping 6 When Mike asked Holly to move in with him she said she 2 believable b flawed 3 dull c third ·rate Mark: _ /6 4 perfect d far·fetched 5 high-quality e light-hearted 7 Complete the text with the correct past tense form of the Mark: _ /5 verbs in brackets. Gary was fed up. He 1 (wait) for h is girlfriend for 4 Complete the sentences with the adverbs below. over an hour and she still 2 (not turn up) . Just as categorically ironically loosely promptly widely he 3 (contemplate) going home, she walked round 1 The film A Beautiful Mind is based on the life the corner looking pleased with herself. Her smile of John Forbes Nash. _ _ __ (vanish), however, when she saw the expression 2 The athlete finished the race and collapsed on Gary's face. onto the track. 'What's wrong?' she asked . 3 The idea that human actions are responsible for climate 'You're late again,' he said. change is now accepted. 'No, I'm not,' she replied, 'The clocks 5 (go back) 4 William's boss refused to give him a pay rise. last night. You 6 (be) early!' He said it was impossible. Mark: _ /6 5 Van Gogh is one of the world's most famou s painters, yet _ _ _ _ he only sold one pictu re when he was alive. Mark: _ /5 24 I Language Review 1-2 4 For questions 1-8, choose the correct extract (A-D). Which writer says that he or she: ork in pairs. Decide what the three most important 1 responds well in difficult situations? ersonality traits are for working in a large, office-based 2 does not find his/her current job demanding enough? co mpany. 3 has lived in several different countries? Com pare your ideas with another pair. Can you agree on a 4 has the technical skills necessary? 'oi nt 'top three'? 5 co-operates well with other workers? 6 initially worked in education? 7 is keen to raise his/her level of English? _ading 8 has a good knowledge of the business as a whole? .3 :'ook quickly at the four extracts written by four different Jeople and decide: listening a wh at type of text they are all from . what the topic of each paragraph is. - ;i I wn5ide-r mi5e-If to be- a 5e-If-5tarte-r wno can 5now initiative- wne-n appropriate- I am al50 ate-am plaie-r witn ･ＭｾＮＨｦｉｬｮｴ＠ wmmunication 5kil15 and a 5e-n5e- of numour. A5 mi re-kre-nce-5 will indicate-, I am we-II-organi5e-d in mi approacn to work and nave- tne- abiliti to manage- large- and ｷｭｰｬ･Ｍｾ＠ proje-c.t5 witn tne- minimum of fU55 I nave- a pragmatic approacn to proble-m-50Iving and be-lie-ve- tnat alm05t notning i5 imp055ible-, give-n tne- rignt attitude- and abilitie-5. 13 '-ia vi ng worked at a comparably-sized logistics company in Ziga for more than three years, I firmly believe that I have the '1ecessary programming skills for this position at InterPost. I am "amiliar with all of the programming languages most widely-used '1 t his field, including XHTML, CSS2/3 and JavaScript. I have also acquired a good understanding of how the logistics and distribution industry functions. As well as being a fluent English- 5 g 1.13 Listen to a job interview. Which of the extracts in exercise 3 did Edgars write? sDeaker, I am also fluent in Latvian (my mother tongue) and Zussian, and I have a sound knowledge of French. 6 g 1.13 Listen again. Answer the questions. 1 What is the main purpose of Edgars's visit to the UK? Altnougn mi wrre-nt job offe-re-d a de-gre-e- of cnalle-nge- at tne- 2 What joke does the interviewer make when they're "tart, I nave- now re-acne-d a 5tage- wne-re- I ne-e-d to broade-n mi talking about visits to Edgars's homeland? prok55ional noriwn5 in orde-r to de-ve-Iop mi 5kil15 furtne-r. 3 Why does the interviewer continue the interview when That i5 wni I am ke-e-n to move- to a large-r wmpani· In the fire alarm first sounds? addition, I am aware- tnat a nign Ie-ve-I of flue-nci in Cngli5n 4 Why does the interviewer offer Edgars the job and press ·5 a gre-at a55e-t profe-55ionalli, wnicn i5 wni I inte-nd to 5pe-nd him for a response, rather than waiting for a letter to be a minimum of two ie-ar5 in an Cngli5n-5pe-aking ｷｵｮｴｾ＠ to sent? pe-rffc.t mi language- 5kil15 5 What assistance does the interviewer offer Edgars in relation to accommodation? After graduating with a degree in Computer Science from Vilnius University in my home country of Lithuania, I Writing completed a post-graduate diploma in web design at the University of Manchester. This led to a teaching post at the 7 Imagine you are Edgars. Write an account of your job interview as part of an email to a friend. Write about: same institution. After four years in academia, I decided on a change of direction and applied for various jobs in the • your feelings before the interview. co mmercia l sector. I relocated to Madrid to work for a large • what happened during the interview. advertising agency as their head of web development, a • what happened at the end of the interview. position I found both challenging and enjoyable. • how you feel about it now, looking back. Skills Round-up 1-2 25 1 Can you give any examples of: (a) 'urban myths' (strange well- 4 Do the Reading exam task. known stories that many people believe but are unlikely to be true) and (b) 'Internet myths' (stories spread via the Internet READING exam task which turn out not to be true)? Read the text. Decide wh ich sentence part (A-J) best fits 2 Do the Use of English exam task. each gap (1-8) . There are two options that you do not need. USE OF ENGLISH exam task An article in the Japanese Mainichi Daily News (which Complete the text with the correct form of the wo rds claims mere ly to 1_ _ _ that appeared in a magazine in brackets. called Fushigi Knuckles) te ll s the story of the attempt In 2007 a rumour spread by chatrooms and text message to introduce Worm Burgers in Japan . A food company, hit the price of bananas from China's Hainan island . so the story goes, tried to market worms as food for The messages claimed the fruit contained viruses that human consumption because of their high nutritional bore a strong 1 _ _ _ (similar) to SARS, the severe value . Worm Burgers contained ground worms (instead respiratory 2_ _ (ill) which has killed hundreds of of beef), chopped onions, wheat, flour and egg - with a people worldwide . 3_ _ _ (produce) of the bananas in little milk to make it go down more easily. The magazine Hainan say the 4 _ _ _ (result) price slump cost t hem up notes that 2_ _ _ the Worm Burger ended up as a major to 20 million yuan (US$2.6m) a day. China's Agricu lture flop. The company had been targeting women and young Ministry dismissed the SARS claim as comp letely people, but appear to have struggled to overcome the 5_ _ _ (true) . Officials claimed that there was no image of worms 3_ _ _ • 6_ _ _ (science) evidence to support the rumour and It's possible that the story is true, but it is more likely that it was 7_ _ _ (total) without foundation . They added a recycling of the old Worm Burger urban myth 4 _ _ _ • that it was 8 _ __ (possible) for humans to contract a This urban myth started when papers reported that plant virus. The banana fears come amid internationa l concerns over tainted Chinese exports, including 9 _ __ food scientists were experimenting with earthworms as (allege) of poisons in pet food and toothpaste . The a source of protein. Take , for instance, this article that state-o wned China Daily newspaper 10_ __ (recent) appeared in a number of American newspapers in mid- criticised China 's food safety regulators and ca lled on the December, 1975 . government to do more to protect Chinese consumers . 'The lowly earthworm, 5_ __ the fisherman, is burrowing its way into the world of big business, and 3 " 1 .14 Do the Listening exam task. may be put to work soon to he lp man grow crops, dispose of garbage and even satisfy his dietary need LISTENING exam task for protein. If produced in sufficient quantity at a cost Listen to a radio programme about an urban myth. competitive with other protein materials, worms could Choose the correct answer (A-D) . be used as feed for pets, poultry, fish and other animals , 6 _ _ _ • Seventy-two per cent of a worm's dry weight is 1 The New York Times report about alligators stated that A the first alligator sighting took place in sewage. protein .' B one of those who first saw an alligator was killed. After a few artic les like this had appeared, it was ( one was first seen during a period of cold weather. simply a matter of time before tales began to spread of D local authorities refused to investigate the matter. McDonalds and other fast-food chains 7_ _ _ • However, 2 Some of the peop le at Brooklyn Museum station worms are a much more expensive source of protein than A said the animal they'd seen was extremely big. beef, so there's little reason to fear that fast-food chains B witnessed an all igator transported on a trai n. will start padding their burgers with worms 8 _ _ _ • C tried to trap the animal in a rubbish bin . A in the near future D provided an explanation for the animal's presence . B secretly using worms in their burgers 3 According to a popular myth , alligators in th e se wer C instead of protein A reproduced and lived in large gro ups. B had been introduced to fight rats. D from the late 1970s C were of a type specific to Ne w York. E ignored by almost everybody but D climbed up into people 's toi lets. F replacing the beef with worms 4 Scientists think G despite the best intentions A alligators grow too big to fit into se wers. H be repeating a report B there's no food for all igato rs in sewers. as a bizarre food C sewers are too co ld for al li ga tors to breed. as well as food for people D they need to do more resea rch into th e myt h. ］ＭＬＺ ｾ ＧＶ ｾ＠ Get Ready for your Exam 2 ""HIS UNIT INCLUDES locabulary. verb (+ adjective) + noun collocations. set phrases • phrase s rela ted to friendsnip • "i eral and figurative language. comparat ive phrases. phrases for negotia t ing • 2dj ec tives for describing places. dependent prepositions (1) ｾ ｭ｡ｲ＠ • contrast: present perfect simple and continuous. verb pattern s Partners 5:le aking • talk ing about relationships. negotiation "li ng. an article abo ut a pla ce ieJ.ltlIWI Work in groups. Look at the photos and answer 4 Match the verbs (1-9) with the nouns (a-i) to form common - -2 questions. expressions. _ .. hat kind of partnership does each photo show? Collocation: verb + noun - Nh at qualities are needed to make each partnership su ccessful? 1 voice a a friendship J Nh at other kinds of partnership can you think of? What 2 form b your mind :ual ities do they require to be successful? 3 offer c a dispute 4 pay d the favour 5 take e a setback 6 resolve f attention 7 return g advice 8 speak h control 9 suffer an opinion Some verb + adjective + noun collocations are also common" Look for these in your dictionary and in texts you read . Over the years, they suffered some major setbacks. _ .fi. Pay close attention to what I'm about to tell you. ｾ｜ ｉ＠ ｾ＠ ｾ Ｚｦ＠ ｾ＠ 5 Read the Learn this! box. Then complete the sentences with expressions from exercise 4. . ._. • .. 1 It's impossible to _ _ _ a close _ __ with som ebod y \' unless you have a lot in common. _ t '. . \. ｾ＠ Ｚｾ ) 2 In any friendship, one partner is always stronger and ＢＧ ｾ Ｎｴ＠ tends to _ _____ of the relationship . 3 If you're with a friend, it's always OK to ___ an honest -: "1 5 Listen to five people talking about their partners. E:ch the speakers (1-5) with the kinds of partnership (a-e) 4 A friendship that has _ _ _ a major ___ is stronger Ｍ ｾ ＡＧ＠ are describing. Which words gave you a clue? than one which has not. _ ::l-presenters of a news programme D 5 A friend wil l never get annoyed or upset with you for ｾ＠ : "1 t ow ners of a clothes shop D _ __ constructive _ _ _ . - :0 composer and lyricist D 6 The easiest way to ___ a ___ is to ignore it and ::l- stars of a stage play D pretend that nothing is wrong. :0 -ally driver and a navigator D 6 l0i4iM@1 Work in pairs. Do you agree or disagree with the : "1 5 Listen again. Say which speaker (1-5) mentions statements in exercise 5? Give reasons and examples. - =.se things. Then answer the questions. ." 5=:tin g depressed D (About what?) I disagree with number one . I think it's perfectly possible to form a close friendship with somebody who - :2 i,1g like a married couple D (In what way?) is very different from you. In fact, some people say that : -2 ir different backgrounds D (What are they?) 'opposites attract'! :0 Jartner's irritating habit D (What is it?) ｾ＠ .:: -" vi ng to be careful about what m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 3.1: SET PHRASES: ｾＭ･ ｳ｡ｹ ｳ＠ D (Why?) WORKBOOK PAGE 103 «<J Unit 3 Partners 27 38 1 "i#J@[d In pairs, discuss this quotation by C.S.Lewis, 6 g 1.16 Complete these excerpts from the description author ofThe Chronicles of Narnia. Do you agree with it? using the words below. (You need to use some words more Can you give any examples of how friendships in your own than once.) Then listen again and check. life began? back down inside out through to up Friendship is born at that moment 1 As friends, we go _ _ more than ten years and we've when one person says to another: 'What! known each other even longer than that. You, too? I thought I was the only one.' 2 We haven't fallen _ _ at all in recent years, but in the past, we've had our _ _ s and _ _ so 2 Read the song. How would sum up the meaning of the lyrics? 3 We've even had the odd set-_ _ over the years . 4 We've been _ _ so much together. 5 Recently, problems at work have been { turn to you getting me _ _ . When I'm lost in the rain, 6 She's always been somebody I can really open _ In your eyes I know f'/{ find the light to light my way. When I'm scared, 110sing ground, 7 It's easy to talk to close friends because they know you When my world is going crazy, you can 2turn it all around. 8 She's very dependable, and honest _ _ and _ _ . And when I'm down you're there, pushing me to the top. You 're always there; giving me all you got 7 Look at the examples of the present perfect in exercise 6. Try For \ :1 shield from the storm, to explain the choice of the simple or the continuous form. For a friend, for a love Use Grammar Reference 3.1 on page 119 to help you. To keep me safe and warm, I turn to you. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.1: PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE For the strength to be strong, AND CONTINUOUS: PAGE 119 <m For 4the will to carry on, For everything you do, 8 Explain the difference in meaning between sentences a and b For everything that's true, in each pair, if there is any. I turn to you. 1 a I've spent a lot of time with my best friend. When I lose the will to win, b I've been spending a lot oftime with my best friend. IJust reach for you and 5 I can reach the sky again 2 a We've drifted apart since leaving school. I can do anything, b We've been drifting apart since leaving school . 't:ause your love is so amazing; 'cause your love inspires me. 3 a How long have you been working in IT? And when I need a friend, you're always on my side, b How long have you worked in IT? uiving me faith to get me through the night 4 a Have you seen the girl in the flat below us? For the arms to be my shelter through all the rain, b Have you been seeing the girl in the flat below us? For truth that will never change, 5 a Have you been wearing the coat I bought you? For 6someone to lean on, b Have you worn the coat I bought you? For a heart I can rely on through anything, For 7the one who I can run to . 9 Look at the words and phrases in exercise 5 and choose one I turn to you. type of friend from your own life. Write down five key points about your relationship with that person. Try to include appropriate phrases from the song and from exercise 6. 3 Explain the underlined phrases in your own words . 10 "i#@1td Work in pairs. Take turns to be A and B. 4 "i#@1td Work in pairs. How many other songs can you Student A: Using your notes from exercise 9 to tell your think of about friendship? Compare your ideas with the partner about your friend. Then answer B's class . questions. 5 g 1.16 Listen to a woman describing a friend. Which of Student B: Listen carefully to your partner's description . Then ask three questions about the friend using the these words and phrases best describe that friend, and why? present perfect simple or continuous . For example : an acquaintance an associate a ch ild hood friend a classmate a crony a fair·weather friend What have you been doing together recently? a family friend a friend of a friend a soulmate What's the biggest argument you've ever had? a workmate one of a close-knit circle (of fr iends) 28 I Unit 3 Partners ｾＧｮｬＡｊ＠ Explain this slightly altered quotation from the 6 '.>iQ/Ja@' Wo rk in pai rs. Answer the questions and justify 'sh writer Oscar Wilde in your own words. What does it tell your answers. u about his attitude to marriage? 1 Would yo u pay for any beauty treatments before your Bigamy is having one husband or wedding day? Would you want or expect your fiance(e) to? 2 If you get married, which celebrity would you most like wife too many. So is monogamy. to resemble on your wedding day? Which celebrity would you most like your fiance(e) to resemble? ＧｾＢｨ＼ｊ＠ Work in pairs. Look at the chart about weddings in =' 4.ain . Present the information it contains to another pair. 7 "1.18 Listen to six people talking about different aspects ' tO OING VENUES of weddings and marriage. Choose the correct answers. 1 A man is talking about weddings . What often spoils them, in his opinion? church a the music durin g the evening b the standard of food at the reception licensed venue c a family argument abroad 2 A woman is talking about the age you can legally marry in the UK. What is her opinion of the law? Registry Office a She thinks the age should be raised. b She doesn't think parental consent should be needed. c She believes the existing law should remain. c:rsed venue = a non-religious venue (e.g. hotel or restaurant) 3 A man is complaining about couples who choose to - =1 has been granted a licence to perform wedding ceremonies marry in a church . Why is he critical? ］ｾ［＠ stry Office (or Register Office) = a municipal office which a He thinks everyone should have a civil ceremony. :e-"orms non-religious wedding ceremonies and also officially b He thinks they choose it for the wrong reasons. -:-.::::'ds births, deaths and marriages c He doesn't believe in making religious vows . 4 A woman is discussing superstitions surroundin g 't ,. "W' Work in pairs. Compare the information in exercise marriage. What is her attitud e to them? your own country. Answer the questions. a She is determined to follow them as much as possible. _ - -e th e basic choices of venue the same? Explain any b She doesn't believe in them but t hi nks they're worth : ·::':erences. following as part of tradition . - :::J you t hink church weddings are more or less popular in c She thinks they' re ridiculous an d refuses to follo w :Jr co untry? Why? them. ': .1 7 Listen to a news report. What is it chiefly about? 5 A man is explaining the traditional orde r of spee ch es at a British wedding reception . Which thre e peop le gi ve _ :-e ri sin g cost of weddings in Britain speeches? ｾ＠ =. -iri sh habits and attitudes concerning weddings a the best man, the bride and the groom _ :-e dec lining popularity of weddings in Britain b the bride's father, the groom and the best man _: .17 Listen again. Are the sentences true or false c the bride , the bride's father and the best man Ｍ ﾷＭ Ｍｾ､ｩ ｮ ｧ＠ to the report? Correct the false ones. 6 A woman is talking about unusual wedding venues. _ __ Jer ce nt of men and women would like to lose weight What is her attitude to them? :E=ore the ir wedding. a She thinks th at the more unusu al the venue is, - ］Ｚｾｰｬ ･ｳ＠ getting married intend the wedding to cost, on the better. =,erage, £10,600 . b She thinks it's very romantic . - --e su rvey only included men and women between the c She thinks people just do it for pUblicity. =5e s of 20 and 34. 8 ,i#,@tCj Work in pairs. Answer the questions. Early a quarter of brides pay more towards the wedding - - E'1 th e groom does. 1 What is the ideal age to get married, in your opinion? :_nger couples tend to have shorter engagements than 2 Do you know any superstitions connected to weddings in : :er co uples. your country? I:: - J! of men said they would most like their bride to loo k 3 What happens at a typical wedding in your country? e Kate Winslet on their wedding day. (Think about the ceremony, the reception , the guests, gifts, etc.) Unit 3 Partners I 29 1 l#lJ@!ij Work in pairs. Discuss what problems might be Love and War experienced by two people wanting to be a couple if: a they're from different continents . b they follow different religions . c one is from a rich family and the other from an ordinary working-class family. 2 '#M@!ij Share your ideas from exercise 1 with the class. Decide whether a, b or c would create the most problems. Would you personally be willing to face these problems for the right person? 3 Read the text quickly. Which of the problems from exercise 1 did Ehdaa and Sean face? 4 Read the text again. Are the sentences true or false? In which paragraph A-K can you find evidence to support 1 A They say all's fair in love and war; unless, perhaps, it your answers? involves the US Army. A year ago, when an American 1 At th eir first meeting the attraction between Sean and soldier fell in love in Baghdad, his commander ordered him Eh daa was physical. not to marry. What was a hearts ick soldier to do? Well, 2 Th e writer finds it surprising that the army was not more Sgt Sean Blackwell launched a secret mission to marry the Iraqi woman he loved . That's when the Army came supportive of the relationship between Sean and Ehdaa. down with both boots and ordered Blackwell home, 11,000 3 Sea n's commanding officer made it impossible for Sean kilometres from his bride, Ehdaa, apparently never to see and Ehdaa to see each other after the wedding. her again. 4 As Ehdaa set off to be reunited with Sean, she was preoccupied with the risks of the journey. 10 B But there was one thing the Army didn't count on . It's 5 Members of Sean's patrol knew that the secret wedding something else they say about romance - that love, of was going to take place . course, conquers all . It's 6 a.m. in Baghdad and Ehdaa 6 Sean took time off from his army duties in Iraq in order to Blackwell is donning a bullet-proof vest. She's filled with be with Ehdaa . hope for a new future, even as she waves goodbye to 7 The fact that there has been media interest in Ehdaa's 15 everything she has ever known. Ehdaa is making a run of story makes it easier for her to enter Jordan. 500 kilometres through the dangers of the Sunni Triangle , 8 Sean and Ehdaa found it difficult to communicate with trying to reach her new American husband, the one that each other when they were face to face . the Army ordered out of her life. 'Sometimes, you just fall 9 The army overestimated the strength of feeling between in love and you don't know why. I think it's our fate; says 20 Ehdaa . 'I think we're meant to be together. I just can't wait Sean and Ehdaa. to see him.' 10 The rules of the military forbid soldiers from marrying local civilians while on active service . ( The dream is to bring together two lives that couldn 't be 11 Sean feels slightly awkward when he is reunited wit h more different. Ehdaa grew up wealthy in a country at Ehdaa in Jordan . war. Sean grew up peacefully, in a working-class area 12 Sean changed his religious beliefs befo re marrying 25 in Florida . He listened to country music; she listened to Ehdaa . Saddam. She went to medical school; he held to a family tradition, following his father and six uncles into the ｾＮ ｒｅ｀Ａｎｇｔｉｐ ｾ＠ ｾ＠ military. Many military words and phras es can be used in a literal D After the fall of Baghdad, Blackwell landed in one of those sense to describe military events, or in a f ig urat ive 30 places where the tension was greatest, Baghdad's biggest sense to describe other kind s of even t s. hospital. One day, amid the chaos, in walked Ehdaa, a Literal: Caesar's armies outflanked their enemy and young Iraqi doctor. To be honest, when I first met her, I was attacked them from behind. like, you know, she's very, very attractive, but you know, Figurative: The Prime Minister'S announcement has what's the point of trying to start a relationship over here?' 35 recalls Blackwell. 'And the more we talked, the m'ore we outflanked his opponents, who were planning to raise started to learn about each other, and it didn 't take long for, this very issue themselves. you know, emotional attachment to grow there.' 30 I Unit 3 • Partners 1= 'I saw a tall, shy, handsome soldier. He had the most for questionin g. The re is no guarantee that she will make 95 oeautiful eyes I had ever seen: says Ehdaa. Ehdaa had it out of Iraq - Sa ddam di dn 't allow doctors to have ever met an American before in her life . But soon, she passports. She spends three hou rs going nowhere, when ,'/as seeing this American every few days. Blackwell had the imp robab le happens: one of the guards recognises her oeen in Iraq only a few weeks, but between patrols and fro m an article he read about an Iraqi woman who married ",eapons raids, she'd bring him home-cooked meals and an Americ an so ldier. And in this dusty little outpost, fame 100 ours of conversation. 'I started thinking, what we are is a pa ssport. Ehdaa continues on her journey and at oi ng is impossible. I'm Muslim and he's a Christian. I'm last, in Jordan, the couple are reunited. 'She looks just as aq i and he 's American. It just can 't happen: says Ehdaa. beautiful as the first time I saw her. I feel so comfortable . .. . di d. Love can produce miracles. I do believe this now.' It's like I haven 't been away from her for six months: says = ! <ter three months of war-zone dating, Blackwell took the Blackwell. J unge - keeping, of course , with local tradition, where 105 K In a sense, the Blackwells are exactly what the Pentagon s marriage proposal is a question asked man-to-man. had dreamed of at the start of the war - American soldiers ackwell asked Ehdaa 's brother, who told him, 'I'd be embraced by Iraq. It seems ironic that when the military 1onoured for you to marry my sister.' But under local got what it wanted, at least on a small scale, it manoeuvred 5W, a Muslim woman can marry only a Muslim man. So to divide, only to be outflanked by a soldier who would not ackwell stood before an Iraqi judge and said in Arabic: disobey the orders of his heart. ere's only on e God and that's God and Mohamed is ＺＮ ｾ･＠ messenger of God.' Through those words, Blackwell :ec ame a Muslim. It was a conversion of convenience, not :onviction. - ｾ＠ e couple was ready to say 'I do' when Blackwell's 5 Read the Reading tip on page 30. Complete these verb-noun :Jmmanding officer stepped in. There was no regulation collocations from the text. ::Jainst a marriage, but the battalion commander was a to _ __ a (secret) mission '.orried that, in a war zone, it would be a dangerous b to _ __ a bullet-proof vest : straction. So he ordered Blackwell notto get married. c to ___ an order ','/e were brought together by some, some higher force d to ___ on patrol :-an ourselves, and it was meantto be: says Blackwell. e to _ __ to an attack , :-Id I wasn't going to let anybody stop that.' For the first f to ___ a detour : -;'le in his career, Sgt Blackwell set out to disobey an g to _ __ guard : -der. On a sizzling August morning, he went out on patrol h to _ _ _ charges '.:.m a small team . The soldiers responded to a rocket ::::ac k. But on the way back to base, the patrol made an 6 Complete the sentences with collocations from exerc ise 5. _, auth orised detour to a restaurant. Are the phrases used literally or figuratively? - - '.0 so ldiers with heavy weapons stood guard outside. 1 On the way home from school, we _ __ into town to ｾ＠ 3ckwell went into the courtyard whe re Ehdaa was buy a new video game. 3fting with her family, a judge, and a pair of rings. Friends 2 The chief executive was accused of negli ge nce, but :-::'lslate d the Arabic vows and recorded on tape one small _ __ by pointing out that the events in qu estion --m ent of peace in a larger war. It ended with a kiss on occurred before his term of employment began . :-3 forehead, and then Blackwell went back on patrol with 3 Three members of the battalion were severely - s team. Once the battalion commander found out about reprimanded for ___ after they gave unauthorised :-3 wedding, Blackwell was exiled to Baghdad Island in interviews to the press. :-:l Ti gri s River. However, no charges were filed against 4 Some African governments _ __ to eradicate malaria Ｎ ｾ＠ ackwell, and it may be that the Army just wanted the by2015 . 10le thing to go away. Blackwell got away with no more 5 They met on the steps of the Art Institute of Chicago, -3n a reprimand and left the military with an honourable where two bronze lions _ __ outside the entrance. :: sch arge. 6 Some areas of town are considered so lawless that police ｾ｟ＭＺ＠ six months after his wedding, Blackwell said goodbye officers are instructed to _ _ _ before going on foot = l is mother and headed back towards the war zone he -=::1 rec ently left. Ehdaa, escorted by her little brother, sped patrol. :=51 the war zones of Fallujah and Ramadi towards the 7 I01#J@!CI Work in pairs. Think about a story you know which -=-d ezvous on the border between Iraq and Jordan. Soon, involves love triumphing over obstacles. It could be a true -:l 11,000-kilometre separation is cut down to a stretch of story, a book or a film. Answer the questions. - ;;nway, 80 kilometres long . 1 What exactly were the obstacles? -: :he border, guards search the ca r three times, and 2 How did the couple manage to overcome them? J: -da ni an intelligence pulls Ehdaa and her brother aside 3 What is your opinion of the story? 8 t1#13I1tCl Work in pairs. Present your story to the class. Unit 3 Partners I 31 3E 1 ..14iM311tC1 When you work closely with someone, what kind 4 Look at the dictionary entry. Does this verb take an infinitive of person do you work better with? Give reasons. or -ing form ? How do you know? a a family member c an acquaintance post'pone /pa'spaun; NAmE pou'spoun! verb - 5th (to/ b a close friend d a stranger until 5th) to arrange for an event, etc. to take place at a later time or date mi!I PUT OFF : [vNl The game has al- ready been postponed three times. 0 We'll have to postpone 2 Complete the text with the infinitive, base form (infinitive the meeting until next week. 0 [v -ing] It was an unpopular decis ion to postpone building the new hospital.-compare without to), past participle or -ing form of the verbs in CAN CEL ｾ＠ post-pone·ment noun [ U, cl : Riots led to the brackets. Then describe the twins' working relationship in postponement of local electio ns. your own words. 5 Use a dictionary to find out if the verbs below: Like many identical twins, Helen and 1 take an infinitive. Moma Mulgray are used to 1_ _ _ (do) 2 take an -ing form. things together. They have always enjoyed 3 take either, with no difference in meaning. 2_ _ _ (watch) the same television 4 take either, but with a difference in meaning. programmes and have tended 3_ _ _ (read) the same books too. They even claim demand fail guarantee hate love refuse chose 4 _ _ _ (pursue) the same career remember risk stop try as teachers. Now, at the age of 73, being retired has allowed them 5_ _ _ (focus) LOOK OUT! on a mutual hobby: writing. Verb patterns can include passive, perfect and continuous 'We both spent 31 years 6_ _ _ (work) as forms of the infinitive or -ing form . English teachers, so we've always been keen on ,_ _ _ (write); She claims to have met Leona Lewis. (perfect infinitive) said Moma. The window appears to have been broken deliberately. (pass ive perfect i nfi nitive) It t ook the twins five years 8_ _ _ (get) their novel, which is entitled No Suspicious Circumstances, 9_ _ _ (accepted) by a publisher, although they have since had three further novels 6 Read the Look out! box. Then complete the text with the 10_ _ (publish) . infinitive or -ing form of the verbs in brackets. You may need to use passive and/or perfect forms. Moma, who is the elder by ten minutes, said: 'We both sit at the laptop , and whoever happens 11 _ _ _ (be) closest to the Sam and Dave were one of the most popular singing duos of the 1960s. computer or feels like 12_ _ _ (type) just starts: Helen added : Their live performances were so good that some other stars of their day 'Occasionally there are small disagreements over the text but .. . ' refused 1 __ _ _ (book) on the same bill in case they were made She lets her sister 13_ _ _ (finish): 'It rarely happens: 2_ __ (look) second-rate. In his autobiography, the boss of Atlantic Records remembers 3_ _ _ (impress) by Sam and Dave's 'harmony and goodwill' on stage. In fact, the two performers were only pretending 3 Find one verb in the text for each verb pattern (1-5). Use the 4 _ __ (have) a good relationship. Off stage, they were hardly verb to make your own example sentence. managing 5_ _ _ (stay) on speaking terms. When Dave shot and inj his own wife in a domestic dispute, Sam gave up 6_ _ _ (try) 1 verb + infinitive ' ___ (maintain) any kind of relationship with his partner. Althoug h decide : We decided to get married in june. Dave seems 8_ _ _ (forgive) by his wife shortly after the shooting, recalls 9_ _ _ (disgust) so much by the event that he told Dave: 'I'll 2 verb + object + infinitive sing with you but I'll never speak to you again: And although they ｷ ･ ｮｾ＠ persuade: My sister persuaded me to take up aerobics. on 10_ _ _ _ (perform) together, he claims 11_ _ _ (not speak) a wore to Dave for the next twelve years. 3 verb + object + base form make: My parents made me learn the piano. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.3: VERB PATIERNS (2): 4 verb (+ object) + -ing form PAGE 120 cm imagine: ! can 't imagine (my broth er) becoming rich. 7 ..i#M@1 Work in pairs. Tell your partner something that you: 5 verb + object + past participle 1 regret not having done. have: She had her car stolen last weekend. 2 can imagine having been said about you . 3 were taught to do by a relative . m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 3.2: VERB PATIERNS (1): 4 would hate being made to listen to . PAGE 119 cm 5 hope to be doing in five years' time . 32 Unit 3 Partners _ ,J,t'lH'" Work in pairs. Look at the photos in exercise 2. 6 1#IJ@td Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. atch 1-8 with a-fto make comparative phrases and decide 1 What features would your ideal nightclub have? ich cafe each phrase is likely to apply to. You can use 2 What do you imagine are the best and worst aspects of rds a-f more than once. working in a nightclub? • ":lO re attentive 3 Do you think owning a nightclub is an easy way to make - ,'velier a portions money? Why? /Why not? ｾ＠ -:lo re affluent b hygiene - ,arger c staff 7 l@itJ@td Imagine that you and your partner are going to " ore affordable d atmosphere open a new nightclub. Decide on: = 1igh er standards of e clientele 1 a name. - -:lo re laid-back f drinks 2 the type of clientele you wish to attract. ore up-market 3 the type of music you will play. 4 the image: internal decoration and external appearance. ＧｾＭＢｩＱ＠ Work in pairs. Compare and contrast the photos. S what food and drink you will offer. '- at kind of people would you expect to find at each cafe? - ich cafe would you prefer to visit, and why? 8 J,iUiJ@!d With your partner, imagine now that you have received the suggestions (l-S) below from a marketing agency for improving the profitability of your new club. Discuss each suggestion and decide which one you are going to choose. Think about questions (a-e) below and include phrases from exercise S. a Will it be popular with your clientele? b Will it be easy/difficult/cheap/expensive to organise? c Will it be popular/unpopular with local residents? d Will it be more attractive to people on their own / in groups? e Will it be profitable? Why? /Why not? t- , ; , 11,''1 Work in pairs. Imagine you are business partners fII Fancy lan to buy a cafe. Which of the factors below do you night! - , is most important? Give reasons. :cation 4 external appearance _ .o:e S name Every' l=hOrsday - -:ern al decoration 6 quality of staff Different theme each week £5 entry fee : _19 Listen to two business partners discussing three £50 prize for the winning Ｍ］ｾＺｓＮ＠ Which do they decide to buy? Which two factors from costume - ｾＭＺｩ ｳ･＠ 3 lead to the decision? - --:; So up Bowl b Mario's c The Corner Cafe 17ｾ＠ ill Happv hour! : .1 9 Complete these useful phrases from the dialogue. b\] Half price drinks from 1- 8 p.m. every evening. --=- Listen again and check. _ ':::::. let' s look at the different _ _ _ . m ｓｩＱＧｴｏｾＬｯｫ＠ -at puts me _ _ _ is ... - - 'n _ _ _ , it isn't very appealing. ＬＯｾ＠ :- ' 1k we should _ __ onto the next option. - -- 's on e has quite a lot _ _ _ for it, in my opinion . - =-=-yo u thinkofany _ _ _ ? '::_JP ose there are _ _ _ around that. Half-price entry fee :- ' nk it' s definitely _ _ _ considering. =:- -efl ection, maybe we should _ _ _ that option . ':::. have we _ _ _ a decision? cJQJ for anyone arriving alone. A great way to make ｾ＠ new friends! go _ _ _ with that. Unit 3 Partners 33 3G 1#t13@1 Look at the photos in the article. Which town would you prefer to visit? Give reasons. Read the article. For each town, say which of the topics below The Cotswolds region in the centre of England boasts some are mentioned . of the most exquisite scenery in the country, as well as some a eating out e sport of the quaintest villages, renowned for their golden Cotswold b architecture f excursions stone. Alternatively, if shopping and nightlife are more your c nightlife g culture and arts scene, both are readily available in some of the larger towns. d shopping h surrounding landscape Why not base a visit around two contrasting towns? They make perfect partners for the ideal holiday! Burford You can liven up a description by going beyond basic Rich in history, Burford is situated twenty miles north of vocabulary and using more elaborate words and Oxford and is reminiscent of a town from a storybook. The phrases. This also helps to avoid repetition. Compare: High Street, which slopes gently down to the willow-fringed There are a lot of shops in the town centre. River Windrush, is lined on either side with golden stone The town centre boasts an impressive array of shops. houses, some of which date back to the fifteenth century. Often described as the southern gateway to the Cotswolds, Read the Writing tip. Then look through the article and find: Burford is ideally placed for excursions, whether it be 1 at least four different ways of saying that there is/are a on foot, by car or by bicycle. Explore the picturesque lot of something. countryside of central England, where idyllic villages tucked 2 as many different adjectives as possible which have a away in wooded valleys are waiting to be discovered. base mean ing of 'attractive' . Work in pairs. Using a dictionary to help you, decide which synonym (a-c) is least likely to be applied to a town or city. What else might it describe? 1 interesting: a captivating b fascinating c gripping 2 large: a considerable b immense c vast 3 old: a ancient b antique c historic 4 modern: a up-ta-date b current c contemporary Rewrite the sentences, going beyond basic vocabulary. Try not to use the same phrase more than once. Cheltenham 1 There are a lot of old, attractive buildings on the High Street. If shopping is your thing, then Cheltenham, on the western 2 There are a lot of large, modern buildings in the edge of the Cotswold region, has a great deal to offer, from financial district. fashion to furniture and from accessories to antiques. The 3 The port has a lot of interesting history. Beechwood Shopping Centre, a stone's throw from the train 4 There's a lot for young people to do in the town centre. station, has a wealth of well-known stores, while for those S There are a lot of modern Internet cafes near the station. seeking a more individual purchase, Suffolk Street has a 6 A lot of culture is on offer in the theatre district. parade of small, independent shops. By night, the streets of Cheltenham are teeming with life, IMiJ3@1 Work in pairs. Describe some of the attributes of and thanks to the w ide your own town or city, or a place you know well, using these variety of venues offering expressions from the article. after-hours entertainment, 1 ｉｦ ｾ｟＠ is your thing, then ... clubbers are well provided 2 ｦｉ ｾ｟＠ is/are more your scene, then ... for. The town also caters 3 For those seeking ｾ ｾ｟＠ , ... for couples, and whether you wish to dine at a romantic hide-away or a busy bistro, you'll find yourself spoiled for choice. 34 Unit 3 Partners 3G Work in pairs. Look at the adjectives for describing places. Find expressions 1-12 in the article on page 34 and write the ivide them into two groups: positive and negative. Which missing preposition. cdj ectives could go in either group, depending on your 1 reno wn ed _ _ 7 a stone's throw _ _ pi nion? 2 rich _ _ 8 teeming _ _ or describing: places 3 reminiscent _ _ 9 thanks _ _ J >rt buo;tlmg [QC r lOpO!tJr: aowdE'd de>priVt'd 4Iined _ _ 10 well provided _ _ ate high-rise hi.ly ＢｩｳｾｦＩｲ＠ r ｩｮ､ｵｾｴｲ＠ d. ,.c,olat d 5 to date back _ _ 11 to cater _ _ rsqu p rp'llotE' rU'1doNr s Hclwlir £ thriv,n 6 ideally placed _ _ 12 spoilt _ _ choice cty vi;'Hd'1t ｶｬｾＧｉＭＨｯｮ＠ lHtrd Complete these expressions with a preposition. Use a dictionary. E 1 Compare and contrast the two photos using J ;"",\·, :=djectives from exercise 1. Answer questions 1-4 below. 1 buzzing with 5 to be home _ _ 2 to play host _ _ 6 blessed _ _ 3 steeped _ _ 7 todate _ _ 4 to hark back _ _ 8 to take pride _ _ Complete the sentences with expressions from exercise 5. a Cheltenham is 1_ _ _ to the world-famous Ch eltenham racetrack. Every March, the racetrack 2_ _ _ _ __ to the annual Cheltenham Festival, which 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ to 1902. b The residents of Burford 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ in their town, which is 5_ _ _ in history. The Bay Tree Hotel, which 6_ _ _ from the sixteenth century, maintains many original features such as stone floors and open fireplaces. Read the task below. In pairs, choose the two towns you _ ',', li ch place would you prefer to visit? Give reasons . are going to write about and make notes. Use the topics in - ..:ni ch place would you prefer to live in? Give reasons . exercise 2 on page 34 for ideas. _ ",n at do you imagine would be the advantages and Write an article for an in-flight magazine extolling : "sa dva ntages of living somewhere isolated? the virtues of two contrasting towns in your region. _ ,':1 at do you imagine would be the advantages and : "sa dva ntages of living somewhere touristy? Work in pairs. Write your article (200-250 words) . 1 Use your notes to write about one to wn eac h. Try to go beyond basic vocabulary. - : 'ction ary entry will often include information about 2 Swap your work and make suggestions for im proving your :-,, ::JO sit ions that go with that word. Try to learn the word partner's writing. ｾＭＺ＠ th e preposition together as a phrase. Make a note 3 Work together to write the introduction . :; :l em as you come across them. Writing an example ｾ］ Ｍ ｴ ･ｮ｣ ･＠ can help to fix it in your memory. Check your work using the list below. J ;=c' th e Study tip. Then complete this sentence using ｃｈｾｋ＠ YOUR WO ｾＭ =- - ation from the dictionary entry below. Have you: :- =.:en ha m benefits _ __ excellent transport mentioned a range of attractive features for each - --ect io ns. town? written the correct number of words? ne ·fit o-w I'bemfIt/ noun, verb gone beyond basic vocabulary? • Ｌｾｲ｢＠ "t· or -tt-) 1 [VN] to be useful to sb or improve their used the correct prepositions? ＮＺｾ＠ in some way: We should spend the money on something ＺｾＮ＠ will benefit everyone. checked the spelling and grammar? : - (from/by sth) to be in a better position because of sth: better position because of sth: Who exactly stands to benefit from these changes? Unit 3 Partners 35 1 Get read to READ Look at the photo from a newspaper Jackie and John met at primary school in Plymouth in story. What do you think the story might be? Use the 19S2 at the age of five and quickly became friends. The expressions below to help you. two lost touch when Jackie moved on to secondary school. For 26 years Jackie ran a rescue home for rabbits in Hythe, childhood sweethearts romance blossomed drift apart a couple of hundred miles away from John. After being mutual love to tie the knot reunited on the Internet, the couple arranged to meet up in Southampton. 'We knew we loved each other before we even met up,' said John. So, taking drastic steps, John resigned from his job and stayed in Southampton. Despite the obstacles they had to overcome, and the people they hurt, Jackie and John both firmly believe it was all worth it. Which couple: 1 never had a period when they were not in contact? D 2 prioritised their own relationship over the feelings D of others? 3 first met outside England? D 4 were temporarily separated after seeing each D other again? 2 Do the Reading exam task. 5 both got divorced before getting back in touch? D 6 did not re-establish contact online? D 7 met at secondary school? D Read the text. For questions 1-8, choose the correct 8 lived in the same country while apart? D couple (A-C). The couples may be chosen more than once. 3 Do the Use of English exam task. A Beatrice Ballott, 84, first met 87-year-old Ivan Hicks in 1942 when she was a clerk in a bank in Oudtshoorn and he was stationed near the town as part of his training for the RAF. The pair met at a party and their romance soon blossomed, Some lines of the text are correct and some contain an but when Mr Hicks was stationed back in England they extra word which should not be there. Cross out the drifted apart. Eventually, they both married, although extra words and tick the lines which are correct. they stayed in touch over the years with letters and cards. However, when Mr Hicks's wife passed away last year o There are many customs and superstitions associated L he set about going through his diary and it was then that 00 with weddings, most of which l'tcH;loriginated centuries he came across Ms Ballott's telephone number. After his ago. In the past, a wedding was seen as a time when daughter Hazel contacted her for him, the two arranged to 2 people that were particularly susceptible to bad luck and see each other. They quickly realised that their mutual love for each other was still present. The pair happily tied the 3 evil spirits. Some traditions, such as the bride is not being knot on Saturday, 26th September. 4 seen by the groom in her wedding dress before the B Childhood sweethearts Sue Hammond and Chris Osment 5 ceremony, are known throughout the UK and many other have married after being reunited via the Internet 30 years 6 parts of the world too. Others may be regional or can even _ after they first met. Romance first blossomed between the 7 maintained within families from generation to generation. _ couple when they were IS-year-old pupils at Highfield Comprehensive School in Newcastle, in the north-east of 8 Whether they are widespread or specific to a small group, _ England. But after they left school they didn't set eyes on 9 they are maintained in the belief that they will bring the each other again until last year, when they made contact 10 good luck and happiness to the couple at a time when on the Friends Reunited website. Both Chris and Sue w ere 11 their lives are changing, hopefully for the better. In the single following the break-up of their marriages. They 12 days gone by, when marriage proposals were more chatted to each other every day for two months u sing webcams before Sus an travelled to Chris's new home on the 13 formal, the prospective groom sent his friends or his opposite side of the world. She spent two w eeks in Sydney 14 members of his family to represent his interests to the before returning to the UK, but then after four painful 15 prospective bride and her family. If they saw a blind man, months apart from Chris, she made the decision to emigrate 16 a monk or a pregnant woman during their journey it was to Australia for a new life with the m an she 100·ed. 17 thought that the marriage would be doomed to failure as if _ C A man has left his wife after meeting a childhood sweetheart he had not seen for nearly half a century. John Pearce 18 they continued their journey, so they had to go home and walked out on his wife of twenty years to meet up with old 19 start again! If, however, they saw goats, pigeons or friend Jackie Butt and never w ent back home. They met 20 wolves, these were good omens which would not bring each other on the Friends Reunited website, the Internet site 21 good fortune to the marriage. which puts old school friends back in touch ,,-ith each other. =__==J:6'::t Get Ready for your Exam 3 -,.-...,::;,:" "" TH IS UNIT INCLUDES Changes ocabulary • synonyms of change. nouns formed from verbs . expressions with change. ad jecti ve-nou n :ollocations • express ing opinions. -linking words. neither/nor, either/or, not only/but also • spec ulating (degrees of probability) ram mar • comparative and superlat ive form s. red uced relati ve clauses. cond itional s Sp eaking. ta lking abo ut change. talking about protest and protest songs . discussion: plans for urban deve lopment ri ling' . a disc ursive essay t-ii"iNI\'l<' Read the quotation from George Bernard Shaw 4 "1.20 Write nouns formed from the verbs in brackets. :=n d answer the questions. Then choose which collocation the speakers used. Listen again and check. Some people see things as they are 1 film/screen (adapt) and say, 'Why?' I dream of things that 2 significant/minor _ _ (alter) never were and say, 'Why not?' 3 complete / radical _ _ (transform) K How could you paraphrase the writer's attitude to 4 slight/ small _ _ (modify) ch ange? Is he generally in favour of it or against it? 5 process/period of _ _ (adjust) - What is your own attitude to change? Which parts of your 6 make/require some _ _ (refine) li fe do you prefer to remain constant? 7 undergo/experience a _ _ (convert) 8 theory/process of _ _ (evolve) - mplete each pair of sentences with one verb below in the ::mect form. Use a dictionary to help you. 5 IO#fJ3@i Work in pairs. Describe the changes that have taken place in the photos. Use verbs and nouns from ;:apt adjust alter convert evolve modify exercises 2 and 4. Give your personal opinion of the changes. Ｇ ］ｾｮ ･＠ transform a This sofa ___ into a bed. Last year my uncle ___ to Catholicism. - a The novel was _ __ for the screen . My cousin couldn't _ _ _ to life in France. _ a Not hing can _ _ _ the fact that the world's population is in creasing rapidly. Whe n I met Harry, he had _ _ _ beyond recognition. a Yoga has ___ her life. She's become much calmer and more positive. => Scie ntists can now ___ human cells from one type into another. _ c. Zoo logists believe that birds _ __ from dinosaurs. => Ame rican football ___ from rugby and soccer. : c. Crude oil is _ __ to make petrol and diesel. Th e law needs _ __ if it's to be completely effective. - 2 Th is knob _ _ _ the volume on the TV. It took a moment for my eyes to ___ to the bright light. _ ;3 In Brazil, many cars have been _ __ to run on eth an ol. It' s possible to genetically _ _ _ crops to make them 11 0re resistant to disease . . -:. .20 Listen to four speakers talking about things --::c ;J eo ple that have changed in some way. Say if the '::=::3kers are: _ :ositive about the changes. - -ega tive about the changes. - -eutral. m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 4.1: EXPRESSIONS WITH CHANGE: WORKBOOK PAGE 104 <m Unit 4 Changes 37 4B 1 Compare the two photos and use the words below to say 4 g 1.21 listen to three teenagers talking about how their what image they convey of childhood and teenage years. lives have changed since childhood . Match two sentences Do you think it is accurate? If not, suggest what other words (a-f) with each speaker (1-3). would give a more accurate portrayal. a He/She claims to be less childish than most teenagers . carefree frustrating idle idyllic innocent joyful b He/She sees family members far less and friends far listlessness more. c He/She has become slightly more independent by working. 2 Read the opinions (a-h) about how people change as they d He/She thinks parents are generally to blame for become teenagers. Say whether you agree or disagree with arguments with their teenage children . them, and try to think of examples. e He/She does not have so many family arguments as a Emotionally, you are probably at your least stable during before. your teenage years. f He/She believes that having more money would mean bOne of the hardest things about being a teenager is fewer family rows . leaving behind the security and comfort of childhood . c During your teenage years, you become more and more 5 Look at these phrases the teenagers use for modifying aware of the world around you. comparative and superlative adjectives. Use them to d When you're a teenager, the more friends you have the complete the Learn this! box below. better. a good deal a bit so a long way marginally e As a teenager, you aren't quite so willing to involve your far and away only very parents in your social life . You become less and less likely to accept your parents ' modifying superlatives opinions without questioning them. 1_ _ / easily the best g The older you get, the more you start to have your own the 2_ _ best opinions. the best by far / by miles / by a mile / by 3_ _ h The worst thing about being a teenager is that you have modifying comparatives to work more and adults help you less. no better (than .. .) /4 _ _ as good (as ... ) 5_ _ / very slightly better 3 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets, and the examples in exercise 2 to help. Don't change the meaning! a little /6 _ _ / a little bit better Then say whether you agree or disagree with each one. Give rather better reasons. not quite as / not quite / not 7 _ _ bad (as ...) (quite) a lot better 1 It becomes steadily more difficult to make new friends much / far / a far sight / an awful lot / 8_ _ better during your teenage years. (less and less) 2 As you start to go out more, money becomes more central to your life. (the more) LOOKOUT! 3 Few things are more important to teenagers than We can only put very before a short superlative form, not a friendship. (one of) superlative with most. We also use it with first. 4 Teenagers want to have the most fashionable cl ot hes My parents walked in at the very worst moment. possible. (the better) It was the very first time I'd spent a night away from home. 5 As a teenager, you are more sensitive t o criticism th an at any other time . (at your most) 6 I.;Qt@/tfl Read the Look out! box. Then discuss your own 6 As a teenager, you become a bit more un will ing to follow ideas about how people change as they become adults rather orders. (not quite so) than teenagers. Use expressions from exercise 5 and discuss the topics below or your own ideas. . m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.1: COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS: PAGE 120 <m family relationships fashion freedom friendship money work 38 I Unit 4 • Changes m!J3WI Work in pairs. Read the lyrics of Strange Fruit. 5 Complete the text with the correct form ) iscuss what you think the 'strange fruit' are and what the of the words in brackets. so ng is about. Then share your ideas with the class. Strange Fruit SINGING FOR CHANGE Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves, and blood at the root The story of the American protest song goes back Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze 1_ _ _ (significance) further than Strange Fruit. After the Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees founding of the United States in 1776, songs were written by Pastoral scene of the gallant south The bulging eyes and the tw isted mouth slaves in protest against their 2_ _ _ (captive). Songs like The scent of magnolia sweet and fresh We Shall Be Free and Steal Away had their roots in religious Then the sudden smell of burning flesh music, but their message was more 3_ _ _ (politics). One Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck song, called Follow the Drinking Gourd, even contained code For the sun to rot, for the tree to drop words that helped slaves escape to 4_ __ (free) in the Here is a strange and bitter crop North by describing landmarks along the route they needed to follow. 1.22 listen to part one of a radio programme about - ange Fruit. Were your ideas in exercise 1 correct? During the nineteenth century, protest songs featured a variety of subjects, including the 5_ _ _ (abolish) of slavery and votes for women. 6_ _ _ (perform) often took well- .a mes of people and places can be difficult to understand known existing songs and wrote their own words, a tradition ".. hen you hearthem . Before listening, look through the which continues to this day. :uestions and pronounce any names in your head . The 7_ _ _ (economy) hardship of the Great Depression in the 1930s proved fertile ground for the protest song and a 1. 22 Read the Listening tip . Then listen again and ｾ Ｂｳｷ･ｲ＠ the questions using the names below. One of the new theme emerged: unionism and workers' rights. Later, in : -swers requires two names. the 1960s and 1970s, singers from different musical genres united in their 8 _ _ _ (condemn) of the war in Vietnam and - e Meeropol Abram Smith Laura Duncan in their support for Martin Luther King Jr and the Civil Rights .= s Allan Thomas Shipp movement. Jn de r whose name was the song Strange Fruit first ublis hed ? _ _ _ Today, American musicians of every genre continue to - .'/h at was the real name of the writer? _ __ write protest songs. Some have an 9_ _ _ (envi ronment) J On whose murder was the song based? _ __ message, others campaign for social justice or against wars , - .'/h o first sang Strange Fruit? _ __ Whether it is possible to change the world with a song is hard to say, but songwriters who are part of this tradition certainl y 1.23 Read the sentences below. Then listen to part two feel that it is their duty to try. := ｾｨ ･＠ radio programme. Are the sentences true (n, false (F) :- 's the answer not stated (NS)? _ 3a rn ey Josephson told Billie Holiday about the song. 6 '>iQiM3WI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Give most nightclubs at that time, black and white examples where possible. :::u stomers were segregated . 1 How many protest songs do you know? What are they _ ｾ ｯｬ ｩ ､｡ｹ＠ was too frightened to sing Strange Fruit in protesting about? asep hson's nightclub. 2 Are songs an effective method of protest? What e song received a very good reception the first time advantages might songs have over other forms of ｾ ｯｬ ｩ､ ｡ｹ＠ performed it. protest? _ ｾ ｯｬ ｩ､｡ ｹ＠ blamed racial prejudice for the death of her 3 What other methods of protest are there and which is the =ot her. most effective, in your opinion ? =<eco rding Strange Fruit led to the termination of 4 Are there any singers, past or present, from your own ｾ ｯｬ ｩ ､｡ ｹＧｳ＠ recording contract with Columbia. country whose songs often have a serious message? - Ｕ ｾ ｲ｡ ｮ ｧ･＠ Fruit was generally regarded as one of Holiday's 5 If you were going to write a protest song, what would it - est recordings . be about? Invent a title and think of some possible lines _ "or Ho liday, the emotional effect of performing the son g for your song. :ecame even stronger as the years passed. Unit 4 Changes 39 1 1#lj@tCl Work in pairs. Read the quotation from Raymond Chandler. Do you agree with it? Give reasons. Ability is what you're capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it. 2 Look at the photo and the first two lines of the article. Predict what the text is about. Then skim-read it and check your ideas. 3 Read the text and choose the best answers. 1 As a child, Jaeger played tennis because a she wanted to be the best in the world. b her parents put pressure on her to play. c she wanted to escape from her overbearing father. d she wanted to develop a 'killer instinct' . 2 Jaeger gave up tennis when she a started a children's charity. 4 Match the adjectives (1-8) with the nouns (a-h) to make collocations from the text. b got fed up with the competitive atmosphere on the tennis circuit. 1 enforced a teenager c suffered an injury. 2 uplifting b environment d realised that she wanted to help people. 3 impressionable c father 3 When she stopped playing tennis, she was pleased 4 stormy d childhood because she 5 overbearing e journey 6 brief f retirement a had put her amazing talent to good use . 7 com petitive g row b had achieved her ambition of beating Billie-Jean King. 8 protracted h relationship c no longer enjoyed the applause. d could do something different with her life. 5 I:i#;13IItCl Work in pairs. Retell the story of Jaeger's life so far 4 What did Andrea Jaeger keep secret for nearly using the collocations from exercise 4. twenty yea rs? a her frequent arguments with her father 6 Look at the example of a reduced relative clause from the b the fact that she deliberately lost an important match text. Expand it into a full relative clause. c a close friendship with Martina Navratilova Jaeger lacked the killer instinct required of great champions . d her ambition to do something different with her life 5 When Jaeger looks back at the past, she 7 Find three more examples of reduced relative clauses in the text (lines 15-18, 25-29, 60-65) and expand them into full a believes she could have won a lot of Grand Slams . relative clauses. b wonders how successful she might have become. c has no regrets . m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.2: REDUCED RELATIVE d wishes she hadn't been injured . CLAUSES: PAGE 121 «<J 6 When Jaeger returned to Wimbledon, she a was surprised that the guards didn 't know who 8 l>iQtl@(CI Work in pairs. Answer the questions. she was. 1 Do you admire Andrea Jaeger? Why?/Why not? b was overwhelmed by the fact that the guards treated 2 Why don't more famous people devote their lives to her like royalty. good causes? c was bitter about the fact that she ha d wasted 3 Do you think that you would be willing to give up fame her youth . and fortune and devote your life to people less fortunate d was delighted at the way that the guards treat ed the than yourself? Why? /Why not? children she was with . 4 'Kids should be driven by their own goals and th eir own passion, not by someone else's. That's when it becomes dangerous .' To what extent do you agree or disagree with Jaeger's view? 40 Unit 4 Changes \, '" ｾ＠ Little ｾｴＴｦ｡＠ ｾ＠ I' t 40 sitting in my hotel room all night, going, "Well, everybody thinks I' m great because I won the match , but what about - "'1d rea Jaeger was a tormented teenager lost in the the person I beat? How's she feeling?'" She minded :xld of professional tennis. Now she's at peace with losing less than her opponents did. Only in 2008, though, -5cself. did Jaeger admit to deliberately losing the final of the - : the age of 47 and more than two decades after her 45 1983 Wimbledon Championships, a tournament she had =-iorced retirement from the game, Jaeger now runs a blasted through without losing a set. On the eve of the :-arity that she set up to help children with cancer. It has final, after a protracted row with her father, she was shut :aen a long, sometimes tortuous, often uplifting journey out of the family's rented house in Wimbledon. Jaeger went to knock on the door of the only person she knew ｾＢ＠ sacrifice on the road to a destiny she dimly glimpsed :.5 an impressionable teenager lost in an adult world. 50 in the street, which happened to be Navratilova. The next day the three-time champion finished Jaeger off in 54 - , ·ng the way she had to reconcile a stormy relationship minutes. her overbearing father, Roland, and admit to losing -c::ches on purpose, among them the Wimbledon final 'I never looked back on my tennis career until this year ｾ＠ "983. Through a painful and all too brief childhood , and I've never wondered how good I could have been ,' ｟ＧｾＵｑ ･ ｲ＠ discovered she had few equals at hitting tennis 55 she says. 'If I'd stayed out there for ten years an d not been -.2.. ,S , but lacked the killer instinct required of great injured and won all the Grand Slams, I think I would have :-a'Tlpions. In the women 's locker-room, inhabited by lost a bit of my soul. Professional tennis was my teenage .:-;s Evert, Billie-Jean King and Martina Navratilova, the calling; this is my adult calling. When my teenage years ';;"=-..3€n -year-old found herself out of step with a ruthlessly were done, it was time to move on to something else.' :':!"'lpetitive environment. 60 Success is now measured in less stark ways than the numbers on a scoreboard. Raising money for her '. ::dn't join the circuit to be number one', she says. 'I :-00 because I was good enough to.' She also played charity requires preparation and discipline, qualities Ｍｾ＠ gam e to please her parents. 'Kids should be driven by easily transferable from the tennis court, but the sound Ｍ］ｾ＠ own goals and their own passion, not by someone of laughter coming from the children on holiday at the foundation's ranch near Aspen in Colorado echoes =52·S. That's when it becomes dangerous,' she says. 65 through each day. Many of them have never seen a .:=.=ger took the first opportunity offered to her by a mountain, let alone experienced rafting down the Roaring --::..rlder injury, sustained at the French Open in 1984, to Fork River, with Jaeger as guide. Recently she was =_ "Sue the life that secretly she had always been wanting recognised by a fellow passenger on a plane not for _ 5ad . She set up the Little Star Foundation - initially 70 being a former tennis champion , but for running a cancer -- her career earnings of$1.38m - to help children with charity. That pleased her, a sign of progress in her own ］ｾ｣･ｲ＠ or at risk in the community. life too. -£n I got injured, to be honest, I was relieved', she A few years ago Jaeger returned to Wimbledon with -. =: ains. 'Everyone was applauding me for playing some of her terminally ill kids and the guards on the gate ;,--,s, but when I was injured I thought, "Finally, I can go 75 not only recognised her but gave the children bags of .:: :::>e me." I was given a gift to play tennis, but it wasn't sweets. 'There were these guards all dressed in uniform ｾｧｨ ｴ＠ to say whether I had it for five years or 50 years. practically saluting the kids . My kids thought they were :ez: Bill ie-Jean King on Centre Court at Wimbledon - the king and queen of England, ' Jaeger says. 'If it took all ｾ Ｂ＠ 'Tlany people can even say they played Wimbledon? those hours of training and discipline, all the anguish, Jad was a brilliant coach and my mum enjoyed how 80 to get to this , it was worth it. I didn't lose anything by _ ,'/e were doing. My sister was at Stanford and I was losing a Wimbledon final.' Unit 4 Changes 41 4E 1 Work in pairs. Try to answer the questions. 4 Rewrite the sentences using mixed conditionals. 1 Were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded? 1 You didn't listen, so you don't know what to do. 2 When and why did they become extinct? If iou'cI listtntcl, iou'cI I::now wnat to clo. 2 Kate failed her driving test last week so she's retaking 2 Read the text and find the answers to the questions in it in July. exercise 1. 3 He's being prosecuted because he refuses to pay any tax. 4 I don't like him because he was rude to me. 5 His injuries are more serious because he wasn't wearing It is a scientific fact that a seatbelt. dinosaurs suddenly 6 I forgot my keys so I can't get back into the house. became extinct about 65 million years ago. Many S Rewrite the sentences using an inversion in the conditional palaeontologists believe clause and omitting if. that the extinction 1 If you should need to make any photocopies, there's a was caused by a giant photocopier outside my office. meteor crashing into 2 Please contact head office if you should need to make the Earth. On the face a complaint. of it, it sounds an 3 If Kurt Cobain were alive today, he'd be over 40. unlikely explanation, but 4 If it weren't for the fact that she's married to the boss, dinosaurs were a highly she'd never have got the job. successful species that 5 If I'd known it would rain, I'd have taken an umbrella. had ruled the Earth 6 If it hadn't been for my parents' generosity, I could never for about 160 million have afforded a new car. years, and it's difficult to account for their sudden 6 1#1J3@1 Complete the sentences in your own words. disappearance unless something pretty drastic took place. Compare your answers with your partner. But an equally intriguing question is what would have 1 If only I had more time, ... happened if the meteor had missed its target? Suppose 2 If I hadn't studied English, ... dinosaurs were still roaming the Earth today, would the 3 If teenagers aren't allowed enough freedom, ... human race have managed to evolve alongside them? 4 Unless we act now, ... It was thought for a long time that dinosaurs were cold- 5 As long as the weather doesn't change, ... blooded and would never have survived an Ice Age. 6 How I wish ... However, more recent research has revealed that dinosaurs were in fact very adaptable, and some may even have been 7 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. warm-blooded. Some palaeontologists believe that, had the 1 I'd never have finished the job without your help. (if) meteor not hit the Earth, dinosaurs would have continued l'cI ntvtr navt finisntcl tnt job if ioU nacln't ntlptcl mt. to thrive, meaning it's unlikely that we'd see many of the l'cI ntvtr navt finisntcl tnt job if it nacln't bttn for iour ntlp. mammals that we now rely on for food and company! And 2 If we don't hurry, we won't get to the airport on time . if there were no sheep, cows and dogs, we wouldn't have (unless) wool , milk or 'man's best friend' . In all likelihood, if the 3 You can borrow my MP3 player, but you must give it back meteor hadn't struck the Earth, we wouldn't be around to me tomorrow. (provided that) today to speculate on how things might have turned out. 4 Even if there were intelligent life out there, how could we make contact? (supposing) 5 Follow the directions I gave you and you can't go wrong. (as long as) 3 In the text, find examples of structures 1-5. Which refer to 6 For him to have admitted he was wrong would have been (a) the past (b) the present or (c) the past and the present? totally out of character. (if/it) 1 a second conditional 8 'i#Miltij Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 2 a third conditional How might things be/have been different if 3 two mixed conditionals 1 we could travel back in time? 4 two conditional clauses introduced by word s ot her than if 2 we stopped eating meat? 5 a conditional clause where ifis om itt ed and th e su bject 3 we could live for ever? and verb are inverted 4 computers hadn't been invented? m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 4.3: CONDITIONALS: 5 Columbus had not discovered America? PAGE 121 <m 6 dinosaurs were still ｡ｬｩ ｾ ･＿＠ 42 Unit 4 Changes tW03@' Work in pairs. Answer the questions. 1 How has your town or city changed (a) over the last few years? (b) over the last few decades? 2 Are the changes for the better? Justify your opinion . 3 In general, are you in favour of renovating old, dilapidated buildings or of knocking them down and re placing them? Give reasons for your opinion . 6 Put the expressions from exercise 5 in the correct group (A-D) in the chart below. A Giving opinions one advantage of...is (that) .. . k at the plans for the redevelopment of a town centre. one drawback of...is (that) .. . - nw many of the buildings and facilities below can you find? Personally, I think that... ich can you find in your town or city? B Agreeing/Partially agreeing 5 centre chain store cycle racks disabled access That's how I see it too. ｾ Ｎｪ ･ｰｮ､ｴ＠ shop landscaped area open-air market I go along with that. ti -storey car park pavement cafe pedestrian crossing =:j estrianised street period buildings shopping mall C Disagreeing • teboard park water feature I don't accept that. I disagree with the view that... -:r,Y would you describe the plans? Use the adjectives below D Conceding a point - 1.. elp you. True. , -rning chic child-friendly contemporary drab Yes , I suppose you're right. of character functional impersonal old-fashioned Yes, I hadn't thought of that. a:nt soulless state of the art trendy 7 Work in pairs. Each choose one plan from exercise 2 and think 1. 24 Listen to two people talking about the changes about its merits. Consider the questions below and make -3t are being proposed in picture 2. What benefits and notes. Your answers to exercise 4 will help. =--:wbacks for the new buildings do they mention? 1 Which would be better for (a) young people (b) families (c) elderly people? 1. 24 Complete these expressions from the dialogue. 2 Which is visually more attractive? -. en li sten again and check. _ [h at) would seem like the best _ _ _ to me . 8 tWt@mt Discuss the plans with your partner using your ｾ＠- 0 my _ __ , building a car park ... notes from exercise 7. Think about the drawbacks of your - - at's not how I _ __ it at all. partner's plan. Give your opinion and react to your partner's 1at's a _ __ point. points using expressions and phrases from exercises 5 and 6. couldn't _ __ more . Unit 4 Changes 43 Ｑ ｾ＠ .. 4_G Work in pairs and discuss the question. Thin k about the Read the Writing tip. Match five of sentences a-f with the topics below. gaps in the model essay. Which topic from exercise 1 does the other sentence match? How might the world be different a Assuming that the processing power of computers a hundred years from now? continues to increase at its current rate, their importance in the world will also grow. ( Othfl, (o'11IT,unicdt ons COMputer eouratlO 1 b Within a hundred years, scientists will almost certainly enviro 1l'1en+ fdIT Ily life food t"ealth c nguag have eradicated most common diseases. lei u € '11orey po'iticc:, religion tr l<;port work c The increasing congestion on our roads will have led scientists to develop new forms of transport. Read the model essay, ignoring the gaps. Match paragraphs d If I am still alive a hundred years from now, I imagine the 2-4 with three of the topics from exercise 1. world will be a very different place from how it is today. e Broadly speaking, the kinds of changes that I envisage happening will make the world a better place to live. f I imagine that, a hundred years in the future, fashions will have changed hugely. Work in pairs. Choose three topics from exercise 1 which are not in exercises 2 or 3. Write a topic sentence to begin a paragraph for each one. ! 1 D Science and technology will continue advancing at an Make your writing more fluent by using the following ever-increasing pace, and there will doubtless be inventions linking words to join ideas together: and discoveries every decade which will affect every aspect neither... nor... ... or even ... of our lives. either... or... both ... and ... 2 D A hundred years from now, they will in all probability ... rather than... not only... but also ... -----' be far more intelligent than humans. Consequently, our attitude towards them may change: we may regard them Read the Writing tip. Then find an example of each expression either as friends or as potential rivals! We will use them not in the model essay. Which two are similar in meaning? as only as sources of information, but also as sources of Explain the mean ing of the others. wi sdom and advice. 3 D New forms of synthetic material will no doubt have Rewrite the two sentences as single sentences using been invented, and these could revolutionise clothing in the expressions from the Writing tip. same way that the invention of both nylon and Lycra did in 1 Computers are becoming more powerful. They're the twentieth century. Having said that, designers have a becoming cheaper. habit of looking to the past for inspiration, so in the twenty- 2 Soon computers may be able to hold conversations with second century, people could be wearing jeans or even humans . Telling jokes may also be possible . nineteenth-century suits and dresses . 3 We may not have to use a mouse or keyboard. We may be 4 D Particularly popular will be vehicles which allow able to control it with our mind. commuters to fly to work rather than sitting in a traffic jam . 4 Computers may demand better treatment. They may The vehicles will as likely as not be powered by magnetism demand equal rights! or some other force which neither requires fuel nor 5 Some people maintain that computers will never think creates pollution. like people. They say that computers will never have 5 D However, some may make it worse. It is impossible emotions. to predict the future with any certainty. There wi ll be many 6 Super-powerful computers will be incredibly useful. unforeseen developments in the world and som e of th ese Or perhaps they' ll be incredibly dangerous to mankind . will more likely than not be negative. i.1Qtl3llt?i Work in pairs. Discuss the questions, then compare your ideas with the class. 1 If a new kind of material for clothing were to be invented , Each paragraph in an essay should conta in a 'topic what do you think it might be like? sentence' which expresses the ma in idea of that 2 What new kind of vehicle would be most useful, in paragraph . This usually goes at the beginning. Top ic your opinion? sentences make the essay easier to follow for the read er. 3 Do you think it matters if computers become more intelligent that ｨｵｭ｡ｮ ｾ＿＠ Give reasons . 44 Unit 4 Changes 4G " 1.25 Listen to two teenagers discussing what life might Work in pairs. Plan the following essay: e li ke a hundred years from now. Number the ideas in the How might the world be different a hundred years from now? rder that your hear them. 1 Use your topic sentences from exercise 4 on page 44. _ Humans might have cross-bred with aliens and Paragraph 1 Introduction developed green skin, scales and antennae. 0 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Humans might have become extinct. 0 Paragraph 4 - A ch ip in the brain might allow 24/7 Internet Paragraph 5 Conclusion acce ss in your head . 0 2 Brainstorm ideas for each paragraph and add them to - Humans might have moved to another planet. 0 the essay plan . Decide how likely each event is, in your _ Humans might be bald and very pale as a result opinion. of living in space. 0 Cars might have been banned completely. 0 _ Children might be able to plug something into Th ei r brain instead of going to school. 0 ｾＮ Ｇ＠ ｾ ＬＮｴ＠ k/- ｾ＠ .. ark in pairs. Decide which ideas in exercise 1 are the most ｾＭ､＠ least likely to happen, in your opinion. Order them from 1 • fIA ".<'1 -ost likely) to 7 (least likely). f ( c, co ｾ＠ ,.,"",' ___ ..... ,.:,' .,. ..c:>.. .. e ca n use a range of expressions for specu lating ｾＺＩ ｯｵ ｴ＠ events in the future , depending on how like ly we ::elieve them to be. -- ,- : could/ might happen. : may well happen . . s bound to happen. :'s very likely to happen. : ,'Iill (almost definitely) happen . : ,'Iill probably happen . ----ere's a (faint) chance it might happen. Ｍｾ･ｲ ･ Ｇｳ＠ (almost) no chance of it happening. ;=ad the Learn this! box. Put the phrases in approximate _.'" er of likelihood. (Some expressions are almost -" onymous.) ｾ］ｄｨｲ ｡ｳ･＠ the ideas from exercise 1 using suitable =-,::>ressions from the Learn this! box, depending on how Working individually, write an essay of 200-250 words • ely you think each event is. following your plan. Remember to use suitable expressions from the Learn this! box and exercise 5. - ere's a faint chance that humans might have cross-bred with aliens. Work in pairs. Swap essays and check your partner's work. ---' "':Dk back at the model essay on page 44. Complete these Have you: -ds and phrases which all mean (very) probably. followed t he essay plan correctly? _ _ _ less written the correct number of words? _ 2s _ _ as _ _ used expressions from the Learn this! box? _ ,o re _ _ _ _ not used linking words from the writ ing tip on page 44? ! -0 _ _ checked the spe lling and gra mmar? - _ _ _ _ probability Unit 4 Changes 45 3-4 Vocabulary Grammar 1 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the verbs 5 Complete the sentences with the present perfect simple or below. continuous form of the verbs below. 6ffef pay resolve return speak suffer clean go know rain retire stay Dora had had enough of people offe.ring her advice on how to 1 My boyfriend _ __ __ to the gym recently to get fit. bring up her son . 2 We each other since we started school. 1 Kieran's relationship a setback recently. 3 Sarah out her cupboards so her clothes are His girlfriend has been transferred to Boston. all over the floor. 2 When choosing furniture for a new house it's important 4 My parents to their second home on the coast. to your mind and make a joint decision . S It every day this week and the forecast fo r 3 Last summer our neighbours watered our garden . tomorrow is also pretty bad . We the favour by looking after their dog. 6 I with a cousin while I look for a flat. 4 The dispute over custody of the children last Mark: _ /6 week in court. S Tina gets furious with her boyfriend because he never 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. _ ___ attention when she tells him what to do. 1 He claims (play) basketball with Kobe Bryant. Mark: _ /5 2 The travelling isn't much fun, but I don't mind _ __ _ (take out) for dinner when I go away on bus iness. 2 Match the adjectives (1-6) with their opposites (a- t). 3 The detective's first impression was that the victim 1 well-connected a old-fashioned appeared . (push) 2 affluent b drab 4 Ignore her. She's only pretending . (cry) 3 chic c thriving S I truly admire Ingrid Betancourt. Imagine _ _ __ 4 picturesque d soulless (keep) hostage in the jungle for six years ! S run down e remote Mark: _ /5 6 full of character f deprived Mark: _ /6 7 Choose the correct adverb. 1 He finished the race in just under twenty seconds. 3 Complete the sentences with a suitable preposition. He was easily / by a mile the fastest. There' s a new Asian restau rant a stone's throw 1 my 2 Football is a long way / a good deal more tiring than cricket. hous e. Thanks 2 an effective advertising campaign, 3 We beat them by 10-1. Our team was the best fa r and it was teeming 3 people on the opening night last away / by miles. week. It caters 4 all tastes in Asian food - Chinese, 4 A broken rib is only marginally / quite more painful than Japanese, Thai and Vietnamese - and the owner takes pride just bruising it. _ __ greeting all the guests as they arrive. Mark: _ /4 Mark: _ /5 8 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. ,. Complete the sentences with the noun form of the verbs If I'cl hacl (have) my car serviced , it wouldn't have. broke.n clown (not below. break down) . adapt ｾ＠ convert modify transform 1 That accident (not happen) if you _ __ _ Entering the hall, he made a small a4ju5tme.nt to his tie . (look) at the road! 2 If penicillin (not discover) people _ _ __ 1 The town centre had undergone a complete _ _ __ (still die) from simple infections. since I was there last. 3 Supposing oil (run out) , how will electricity 2 There has been a small to th e plans for the _ _ _ _ (generate)? new station . 4 People (use) cars less if more _ _ _ _ 3 It was the author himself who wrote t he stage _ _ __ (invest) in public transport. of the novel. S Had the area (not evacuate) , more people 4 I'm looking for a firm to carry out t he loft _ _ __ _ _ _ (die) . Mark: _ /4 Mark: _ /5 46 I language Review 3-4 1-4 eading 3 Say whethe r sentences 1-7 are true (1) or false (F). Do you think you would be an easy or difficult person to share 1 St uart cou ld afford better accommodation in Edinburgh. a flat with? Give reasons. 2 He used to live in a small flat in Lewisham. 3 Initi ally, Stuart and his girlfriend plan to split the rent. ead the text. In what way is Flat Night Fever similar to a 4 Stuart believes his situation is very problematic . speed-dating event? 5 At Flat Night Fever, people with orange badges are looking for somewhere to live, 6 Flat Night Fever is a ' live' version of a process that also happens electronically. 7 Karim Goudiaby argues that choosing a flatmate is just as difficult as finding the right wife or husband . < , Jordan's '---_/ ""lOt , >"" "".",," Listening o12-t-t :Ql OBO " "1.26 Listen to a dialogue between Edgars and two other people in his new flat. Who are they? Choose from: a bank employee a housemate a neighbour the landlady the letting agent the postman 5 "1.26 Listen again. Are the sentences true (1), false (F) or ｾ］ＭＳ ｲｴ＠ Ke lly, 31, earns £28,000 a year, yet he can't find anywhere is the answer not stated (NS)? 'O:ent to live in London. 'Back home in Edinburgh I'd be rich, but 1 Most of Edgars's possessions are still in Latvia . 'O-" my money goes nowhere: he laments. 'I started out renting 2 Tomas has been living in the house for more than a year. ;-Jbby room with no lock in an old mansion in Lewisham, then 3 The bank won't let Edgars open an account until he has a - : '/ed to Belgravia, where I had problems with the landlady. I formal job offer in writing. - :urr ently paying £800 per month for a rather small single room 4 Edgars has to pay a larger deposit on the flat because he '.nite chapel. In the process, I have lost about£500 in non- =_ -1 ed deposits and the like. Now my girlfriend wants to come doesn't have a bank account. ','1 to London but she won't be earning any money to start with, 5 Tomas has not had any problems with the neighbou rs . :-:: ju st can't find a double room we can afford. I'm in pretty dire 6 The landlord sometimes calls by unexpectedly. .--=-:S, to be honest.' Which is why he is spending the evening at 7 Edgars's letter is from the person that interview ed him . ,- _- d, a West End nightclub in Leicester Square, the venue for a ｾＧＮ＠ an d un usual type of event called Flat Night Fever. Speaking -- s is th e property world's version of speed-dating . People with 6 Work in groups of four. ': -s to let put on orange -coloured name badges and sit at tables • Students A and B: You are flatmates, loo king for one -= ed no rth, south, east or west, according to the part of town more tenant. -=-e th ei r accommodation is located . Those who are looking for • Students C and D: You are both prospective tenant s, =:::S to live (white name badges) circulate round those tables, in keen to share with students A and B. You can invent new =-Jo e of convincing their orange-badged counterparts that they personas. =_:l make the ideal flatmate. : .':orks both ways, of course: explains the event's organiser, • Students A and B: Interview students C and D one at a ... _ :::urry, of accommodation website easyroommate.co.uk. The time. Ask them questions about their personality, their :;:1 looking for the room might not hit it off with the person habits and anything else that occurs to you. Then talk :'--:g the room, either. That is the purpose of this event: to about the two candidates and agree which one to accept. = 3 - { having to do that thing we've all done, which is trek - . ay ac ro ss London to see a flat you hate, lived in by people Writing ,sh you'd never met.' 7 Read the task below and make notes. - s isn't an evening we make any money out of: says You have been asked to write a short article for a travel ｾ Ｚｬｏｭ ｭ ｡ｴ･Ｇｳ＠ founder Karim Goudiaby, who usually charges magazine about the different areas of your town and where ::- s introduction service via email, with subscribers getting the the best places to rent would be . ==:: deta ils of the flat-seeker or flat-owner they want to see. snows we are more than just a property bulletin board: we 8 Write your article. Remember to include one or two -;:,:) en sure that the people we match up are compatible . Just recommendations and give reasons for them. : _ would choose a wife with great ca re, so you should choos e r.:-ate with great care, too.' m> CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: PAGE 4 <m Skills Round-up 1-4 47 - 1 You are going to read a text called Read the text. Decide whether the information in each Tropical weather at the Poles. Do you think it will be mainly sentence (1-8) is true, false or not stated . about the future or the past? Give reasons for your answer. True False Not stated 2 Read the text in the Reading exam task quickly and check 1 Shackleton and his men were your answer. surprised to find coal at the Antarctic. D D D 2 The fossils that they found could only have been created in a warmer climate . D D D 3 Shackleton achieved the main Always read true/false statements before reading the text closely. That way, you know what information you are objective of his expedition . D D D 4 Most scientists believe that looking for. Remember that in order to be 'true' or 'false', continental drift explains the fossils the information in the whole sentence has to match exactly what is in the text or be explicitly contradicted by that were found in Antarctica . D D D 5 The dinosaurs that used to live in it. If neither is the case, choose 'not stated'. Do not be Antarctica became extinct when the misled by ind ividual words and phrases. climate became much colder. D D D 6 The Arctic was once inhabited by 3 Do the Reading exam task. freshwater crocodiles . D D D READING exam task 7 John Tarduno is a Canadian scientist employed by a university in New York. D D D Tropical weather at the Poles 8 Scientists are not exactly sure what WHEN Ernest Shackleton and his men marched towards the a champsosaur looked like. D D D South Pole in December 1908, they came across something entirely unexpected. After scaling the vast Beardmore glacier on the edge of the polar plateau, they found seams of coal amid the snow and ice. They also found impressions of leaves in sandstone Do not be thrown by unknown words. You can often use boulders nearby and even fossilised wood from a coniferous tree. the context to guess their meaning, either precisely or The conclusion was extraordinary but inescapable: Antarctica approximately. was once warm and forested , conditions that could hardly be more different to the far-below-freezing midsummer weather that fo rced Shackleton's team to turn back before reaching their goal. 4 Read the Exam tip. Then find words 1-3 in the text and How was this possible? choose the meaning which makes most sense in the context. Four years later, Alfred Wegener put forward his theory of continental drift which, it was later realised, could explain the 1 scaling: a finding b climbing cleaving balmy climate: Antarctica had been warmer because it was once 2 balmy: a warm b cold c freezin g much closer to the equator. Even today, some schoolchildren are 3 a gharial is a type of: a lake b bone c reptile taught that continental drift provides a complete explanation for a warmer Antarctica. 5 Do the Use of English exam task. However, the fossil trees Shackleton's team discovered " grew around 250 million years ago, when Antarctica was barely closer to the equator than it is today. What's more, the continent reached its current position roughly 100 million years ago, and Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it an ever-growing list of fossil finds date from 100 to 40 million means the same as the first. years ago. During this time, when dinosaurs roamed the almost subtropical forests of an ice-free Antarctic, conditions on the 1 We'd have arrived on time if our car hadn't broken down . other side of the planet were even more remarkable: the Arctic Had arrived on time. Ocean was a gigantic freshwater lake infested with crocodile- 2 As I spend more time online, I'm finding it easier and like reptiles. easier to use search engines. The most evocative image of a warm Arctic has emerged from the work of John Tarduno of the University of Rochester, The more to use search engines . New York. For more than a decade, Tarduno has been hunting for 3 I'll meet you in town unless it's raining. fossils on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Provided in town. Greenland. The island was already well within the Arcti c Circle 4 I only recognised George because he was wearing the 90 million years ago. His team has found bones and even partial jacket I'd given him. skeletons of a crocodile-like creature called a champsosa ur from If George recognised him . this period. The champsosaur was a fish-eating repti le up to 2.4 metres long that probably looked much like the gharia ls of India. 5 Skiing is more difficult when the snow is very sdft. Because these reptiles would have relied on the ir environment to It isn't is very soft. stay warm, conditions in the far north mu st have bee n far hotter 6 She writes songs and plays several instruments too . than today. Not only instruments . .ｾ ｾ＠ Get Ready for your Exam 4 THIS UNIT INCLUDES Battles -{ ocabulary • war and war idioms. verb -noun collocations. sexu al di sc rimi nat ion . phrases for s:r ucturing a presentation. personal q ualities. word formation (1) • linki ng words : addition rammar • for + noun/pronoun + infinitive. ellipsi s (reduced infinitives , om issio n of verbs) Sp eaking. talking about armed conflict . discussing family tension s . discussing gender =(Ju ality • a presentation Nri ting • a de scription of a person ｾｗＧｊＳ｀Ｑ＠ Work in pairs. Discuss the meaning of the 4 " 2 .01 Listen to an account of the Battle of the Somme in :uotations and sayings. Do you agree with them? the First World War. Complete the missing information with hy? /Why not? no more than four words. 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.' 'The pen is mightier than the sword.' 3 'The direct use of force is such a poor solution to any problem that it is generally employed only by small children and large nations.' - 'We make war so that we can live in peace.' Soldiers climbing out of the trenches on the first day of the battle ' -"" ｾ Ｎ Ｎ＠ ｾ＠ __•• ', 4! " :Omplete the text with the words below. 1 The war had started _ _ years before the battle ｾ Ｍ ｬｩ ･ｳ＠ coalition insurgents mass destruction began. Ｒ｣ｾ ｵｲｩｴｹ＠ suicide bombers troops violation 2 The land between the two armies was called _ __ . eapons inspectors 3 The speaker expresses great surprise that some British and French soldiers were told ___ when they advanced towards the German lines. 4 The bombardment didn't kill many German soldiers because they had hidden _ _ . 5 At first, British generals didn't know how many men they had lost because of _ _ _ . 6 German resistance in the weeks after the battle prevented the British and French from making _ __ . 7 In the autumn, the weather made it impossible to ___ . 8 _ _ could say that they had won the battle . 5 Complete the collocations from the listening exercise with the -e I raq War began in 2003 when a multinationaI 1 ___ verbs below. ｾ＠ fo rces led by the USA invaded Iraq. The reason for the break call up claim give grind inflict launch - .rasion was America and Britain's belief that Saddam make put up suffer - .....ssein possessed and was developing weapons of 2_ _ 1 _ _ _ a breakthrough 6 ___ casualties -uclear, biological and chemical weapons) in 3_ _ 2 _ __ an attack 7 ___ losses ｾ＠ a 1991 agreement. In the event, UN 4_ _ found 3 ___ the stalemate 8 ___ reinforcements -- evidence of such weapons. The Iraqi military forces 4 _ _ orders 9 _ _ to a halt "re quickly defeated by America and her 5_ _ , and 5 _ __ resistance 10 _ _ victory ::-ou sands of Iraqi 6_ _ were captured and disarmed. - J,vever, the victory was short-lived as 7_ _ began to 6 'i#J3WI "2.01 Work in pairs. Retell the story of the ;::::ack the occupying forces in an attempt to liberate the Battle of the Somme using the collocations in exercise 5 to =Jnt ry, frequently employing roadside bombs and 8_ _ • help you. Then listen again and check . ..-5 t ro ops finally withdrew in December 2011, when Iraqi ::JO ps took responsibility for 9_ _ in the fledgling 7 '%@4iI!d Work in pairs or small groups. Think of: ":21l0cracy. 1 two sets of circumstances in which a country would be justified in going to war as a last resort. ］ ｾ Ｍ Ｎ ､＠ words in the text in exercise 2 that have the opposite 2 two sets of circumstances when a declaration of war - eaning to the words below. would be unjustified. ::.: 'lance (v) arm (v) civilian (adD defeat (n) defend m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.1: IDIOMS: WORKBOOK ::-e mies occupy release (v) PAGE 104 <m Unit 5 Battles 49 58 1 10000tmma Discuss these questions: Do you think it is good to for + noun/pronoun + infinitive argue? If not, why not? If so, why and in what circumstances? 1 We use this structure when an infinitive needs its own subject. 2 Read the text. How would Tabitha Holmes have answered the It's important for Jane not to fail her exams. Uane is the questions in exercise 1? subject of the verb fail .) 2 It is frequently used after adjectives and nouns . I'm unhappy for the children to miss school. There may be It's time for us to go. nothing worse than 3 It can be the subject of a sentence . slammed doors, For him to apologise would be unthinkable. raised vo ices and 4 It is often used in place of a that-clause with should or tears but, according the subjunctive and is less formal. to new research, it's It's essential that Sue ring her dad. / actually a good idea It's essential for Sue to ring her dad. for parents who want to be close to their teenage children to have a row a day. Instead of causing t»> GRAMMAR BUILDER 5.1: FOR + NOUN/PRONOUN + al ienation, conflict can strengthen parent-adolescent INFINITIVE: PAGE 122 CD relationships, says Tabitha Holmes, a specialist in adolescent 4 Read the information in the Learn this! box. Then rephrase development. 'It was a complete surprise to me to discover the sentences using for + noun/pronoun + infinitive. during my research that teenagers themselves saw heated 1 It' s important that she say sorry. arguments as something that brought them closer to their 2 My idea is that we should leave before dawn . parents: said Holmes. 'Whereas their parents talked about 3 I was anxious that he shouldn't feel offended. how upsetting and destructive arguing with their child was, 4 It would be a disaster if we lost the match . the adolescents were able to see how locking horns helped 5 It won't snow - it isn't cold enough. them to understand their parents' po ints of view more clearly. They were also very aware that a good row forced them 5 g 2.02 Listen to three people talking about family to think through, articulate and defend their opinions and arguments. Write M (Mandy), 5 (Simon) or T (Tina). Who: desires.' According to Holmes, it is the day-to-day confl icts 1 feels that experiencing arguments has brought benefits? - the very ones that can be so draining - that are most 2 doesn't think it's surprising that families argue a lot? constructive : the endless rows over homework, clothes, 3 has a theory about why boys and men are quite likely to curfews and fr iends. It's vital for conflicts to be heated : calm argue with one another? discussion or animated debate does not count. 'Adolescents 4 feels that being similar to another fam ily member gives said they only told the ir mothers what they really felt and rise to arguments? thought when they were forced to defend their pos ition . 5 had a competitive relationship with a sibling? If your teenager is rowing with you, it's actually a mark of 6 used to try to stop family members arguing? respect,' Holmes said . 'It shows they value you enough to tell you their genuine feelings and thoughts.' To be positive, 6 g 2.02 Complete these discourse markers, which indicate the speaker's attitude. Then listen again and check. conflicts have to be handled in the right way, Holmes admitted. Parents need to listen genuinely to their teenager's doubtless fortunately 1_ _ enough 2_ _ frankly viewpoint; it's necessary for them to be able to modify their 3_ _ honestly 4_ _ to my annoyance own position in the light of whattheir child tells them ; and no 5_ _ surprisingly 6_ _ thank 7_ _ they need to be respectful, to go into the row acknowledging to be 8_ _ honest to my 9_ _ astonishment that their child's point of view is worthwhile. 7 Which discourse markers indicate that the speaker: 3 Compare these sentences with the sentences in blue in the 1 believes they are being sincere? 2 is surprised? text. What structure is used in the text to express the same 3 thinks something is probable but not certain? ideas? 4 approves of something? 1 Parents who want to be close to th eir tee na ge chi ldren 5 disapproves of something? should actually have a row a day. 2 It's vital that conflicts should be he ate d. 8 IMf:@ItCl Recount an argument that you once had, or 3 Parents need to be able to modify thei r own positi on in witnessed. Try to use discourse markers to show the attitude or the light of what their child tel ls them. the people who were arguing, or you r attitude as the witness. 50 Un it 5 Battles se 1 What does the graph below show? How does your coun t ry 3 Can you explain the motto : 'Deeds not words '? compare with others? What is your reaction to the statistics ? 4 Why did the Suffragettes put their campaign on hold in 1914? Sha re of women in national parliam ents (single/ lower ho use) 5 What was strange about the position of women MPs 50 between 1918 and 1928? 40 % 30 4 g 2.03 Read and listen to the song. Do you think the song is anti-men? Why? /Why not? Sum up the message of the 20 song in a few words. 10 Sisters are doin9 if for themselves (The £'ur'lthmic.f» Sou rce: http :// data.wordbank. org/ indicator/ SG.GEN .PARL.25 Now, ｴ ｨ･ ｲｬｾ＠ wa" a time when thei u"ed to "ai 2 Complete the text with appropriate words. Use one word only That behind evet'j great man in each gap. There had to be a gre.at woman . " ut in the"e. time" of Ghange, From the m iddle of the You know that it'" no longer true. nineteenth century many 'So we're wmin' out of the kitGhen women campaigned p eacefully 'Cau"e there'" "omethin' we forgot to "ai to iou. to obtain , _ _ _ right to vote in British elections. They We say, Sisters are doin' it for themselves. organised themselves into Standin' on their own two feet. groups, held meetings, sent And ringin' on their own bells. p etitions to Parliament and Sisters are doin ' it for themselves. tried to p ersuade MPs to ch ange the law to en able 2_ _ _ _ to Now, thi" i" a uong to Gelebrate ｾ＠ ｾ＠ J'o- vote. How ever, the government The wn"Giou" liberation of the female "tate. "'--'" - _ . . ignored their p lea. Mother", daughter" and their daughter" too ::: 1903, the campaign 3_ _ _ the right of w omen to vote took an Woman to woman, we're "ingin' with iou. :::lportant new turn. 4_ _ _ year Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) and The inferior "n' ha" got a new el'terior -C'r daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, started the Women's Social and We've got doGtor", lawier", politiGian" too. -"litical Union in Manch ester s_ _ _ the motto: 'Deeds not words' . C;vet'jbodi' take a lOOk around. ｾＱＮ･ ｹ＠ were referred 6 _ _ _ as the 'Suffragettes' . Th e Pankhursts and :::eir supporters declared that the situation was 7_ _ _ serious that Can ioU "ee, Gan ioU"ee, Gan ioU "ee ::.ey would have to pursue extreme measures of civil disobedience. There'" a woman right nel't to i0U! ::1.ey campaigned tirelessly and sometimes violently 8_ _ _ achieve C.horus :::eir aim: chaining themselves to the railings outside Parliam ent, Now we ain't makin' "torie" -.:srupting p olitical meetings and even committing acts of arson. Many And we ain't laiin' plan" ·omen 9_ _ _ imprisoned and, wh en they w ent on hunger strike, ·ere force-fed. In 1913 Emily Davison d ied for the cause, '0 _ _ _ , at Don't ioUknow that a man "till love." a woman ｾ＠ horse race, she rushed out on to the course and stepped in front of the And a woman "till love" a man .;Jng's h orse. Ju"t the "ame . =.., 1914 the First World War broke 11 _ __ . In the in terests of national .:nity the Suffragettes suspended their campaign of direct civil action. =..lS tead, they urged women to take over men's jobs, so 12 _ _ _ the 5 l>1@ifJ3@' Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Justify your ::1en could go and fight in the war. Wom en were able to prove how opinions. .:ldisp ensable they were in the fields and armaments factories. 1 Should husbands and wives share the housework? =.., March 1918 the government gave in 13 _ _ _ the pressure, and 2 Do you think school classes should be single-sex or ?assed a law giving women over 30 the right to vote. Later that year, mixed? _: allowed women over 21 to become Members of Parliament, but they oill couldn't vote in elections if they w ere 14 _ _ _ 3D! It 1 5_ _ _ take 3 Wou ld you prefer a male or a female boss? .3 further ten years to amend the age qualification and put men and 4 Would you employ a man to look after your child? -,omen on an equal footing. 5 In what other ways are there inequalities between men and women in your country? Why do such inequa lities 3 Read the text and answer the questions. exist? Use the ideas below to help you . 1 What was the result of the nineteenth-century campaign discriminate against sb equal pay and conditions to gain the vote for women? glass ceiling maternity leave opportunities for promotion 2 How did the Suffragettes' campa ign differ from the positive action role models sex discrimination methods used before? sexist stereotyping Unit 5 Battles 51 1 lOiQfe13iltij Work in pairs. Describe what is happening in the photo. Why is the man acting in this way, do you think? What do you think of his behaviour? 2 1O#t,'!@[€J Work in pairs. Answer the questions. 1 Do you enjoy watching wildlife programmes on TV? What do/don't you like about them? 2 Would you enjoy seeing a show like the one in the photo at a wildlife park? Why?/Why not? 3 Read the text, ignoring the gaps. 1 How did Steve Irwin die? 2 How did he become rich? 3 What business did he take over when his parents retired? 4 Match sentences A-H with gaps 1-7 in the text. There is one sentence that you do not need. A But the 44-year-old, who is believed to have suffered an instant cardiac arrest, was pronounced dead by medical staff at about noon local time . B It's a shame that audiences need that to be attracted to wildlife . C Although Irwin was one of Australia's most successful exports, he provoked mixed feelings at home. D A theme park famous around the world, it has more than 1,000 animals on 60 acres of bush land and employs 360 people . E He appeared to have no fear. F In spite of this, Irwin's death was reported widely in the press and on TV. G Irrepressibly ebullient, he thrived on his death-defying encounters with wildlife . H He simply could not understand what the fuss was about. 5 Answer the questions. m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.2: VERB-NOUN 1 Why were people surprised that Irwin had been killed by COLLOCATIONS: WORKBOOK PAGE 104 <m a stingray? 2 How did he react when people criticised him for exposing 7 Explain the meaning of these sentences. h is baby son to danger? 1 Steve Irwin was a man in tune with his surroundings. 3 Why did many Australians have mixed feelings about Irwin? (line 3) 4 Why did some people object to Irwin's television 2 Nothing fazed him. (line 9) programmes? 3 And it was, perhaps, that sense of invulnerability that killed him. (line 14) 6 Choose the correct verbs to complete these collocations from 4 Animals were in Irwin's blood. (line 31) the text and the sentences in exercise 4. 5 He was a natural showman . (line 57) 1 provoke / spark off mixed feelings 6 I get called an adrenaline junkie. (line 78) 2 drop / shake off an image 3 take / make a risk 8 lOi#j@tij Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Justify your 4 acquire / take fame and fortune opinions. 5 laugh off / laugh an incident 1 Do you admire Steve Irwin? 6 announce / pronounce somebod y dead 2 Do you agree that TV has become 'gladiatorial and 7 take out / take over a business voyeu risti c'? 8 administer / issue a heart massage 3 Do you agree that 'some things in nature should be 9 create / cause pain left alone'? 52 Unit 5 Battles Unlike most Australians, who shrink from the tropical sun cradling his baby son , Bob, in one arm while feeding a large , and shudder at the dangerous creatures that surround snapping crocodile with the other, there was an uproar and t hem, Steve Irwin was a man in tune with his surroundings. 50 Irwin apologised. He later insisted, however, that boy had A true environmental warrior and lifelong an imal rights been in no danger, and in later interviews laughed off the advocate, he founded W ildlife Warriors Worldwide, which incident. 4 D It was all about 'perceived danger' he said , protects habitat and wildlife , sets up breeding and rescue claiming that 'in front of that crocodile I was in complete programmes for endangered species, and leads scientific control , absolute and complete control.' One commentato r research to aid conservation. 55 blamed his death on the demands of an increasingly Nothing fazed him - not the sharks or killer jellyfish, nor the voyeuristic brand of television. But Irwin was only doing - man-eating crocodiles, nor the dozens of snakes and spiders what had come naturally. He was a natural showman. 5 D capable of delivering a fatal bite. For Irwin, Australia's The British television presenter and survival expert, Ray animals were 'like a magnet', and he acquired fame , and Mears, said his death proved that 'some things in nature considerable fortune, by getting up close to them. 1 D And 60 should be left alone'. He said of Irwin: 'He clearly took a lot it was, perhaps, that sense of invulnerability that killed him . of risks, and television encouraged him to do that. 6 D You leave dangerous animals alone because they will Th e warrior who wrestled crocodiles and hand led pythons without a scratch was diving in the warm waters of defend themselves.' Mears, too, condemned some wildlife Qu eensland's Great Barrier Reef when a stingray shot its programmes as 'voyeuristic', saying: 'Television has become oo isonous barb into his heart. According to a witness, Irwin 65 very gladiatorial, and it's not healthy. The voyeurism we swam too close to it. Triangular-shaped stingrays, which gl ide are seeing on television has a cost, and it's that cost Steve _ th rough the water on their wide, flat bodies, are usually Irwin's family are paying now.' However, scientists who study J lacid, lashing out with their long tails only when they feel stingrays say that Irwin was extremely unlucky. Unp rovo ked th reatened or are trodden on. Irwin was believed to be only attacks are virtually unheard of, and although a sti ngray's th e third person killed by a stingray in Australian waters. 70 venom will cause agonising pain, it is rarely fatal. Irwin , whose television show Crocodile Hunter made him 7 D Like Kylie Minogue, he was not taken entirely se rio usly an international celebrity and a superstar in America, was in Australia, and appeared to be more valued abroad. Urban Iming an underwater sequence for a documentary called Aussies want to shake off the image e mbodied by the bras h, Oceans Deadliest at the remote Batt Reef.The crew of his blond Irwin, and to have their modern , multi cultural nation J oat called the emergency services and administered heart 75 portrayed overseas in a rather more sophist icated fash io n. ...,assage as they rushed to a nearby island to meet a rescue Whatever one thought of Irwin, his passion fo r life could not 2 eli copter. D be denied, nor the 100 per cent enthus iasm t hat he bro ught to everything he did . 'I get called an adrenaline junkie eve ry nimals were in Irwin's blood. At the age of six he was other minute, and I'm just fine with that; he once remarked . given a four-metre python for his birthday.When he was 80 On another occasion, he claimed never to have experienced eight , his father, Bob, a plumber with a passion for repti les, 'fear of losing my life' . ...,oved the family from Melbourne to Queensland's Sunshine oast, where they opened a small wildlife park. By the -;me Irwin was nine, he was catching crocodiles, and in is twenties he worked for the Queensland government as a crocodile trapper, removing problem animals from opulated areas. In 1991, when his parents retired, he took ver the business - originally called the Queensland Reptile and Fauna Park, and now known as Australia Zoo - and ｾ･ｶ ｬｯｰ､＠ it into a major tourist attraction . 3 D rwin told the ABC documentary:' I've got animals so £;enetically inside me that there's no way I could actually be anyt hing else .' Visitors came in droves to Australia Zoo to •..-at ch Irwin hover perilously close to untethered crocod iles, ::>Tten leaping on to their backs. But in 2004 he went too far, Unit 5 Battles 53 SE 1 g 2.04 Read and listen. What words have been missed 2 Read the Learn this! box, then complete the sentences using out, or are understood, following the words in red in the a reduced infinitive and a verb below in the correct form. dialogues? If more than one answer is possible, explain your choice. be able hope intend not like love not mean want use to 1 'Do you want to join us for a bite to eat?' 'Yes,I _ _ .' 2 'You broke my new MP3 player! ' 'Sorry, 1 _ _ .' 3 'Did you go for a stroll along the beach?' 'No, 1 _ _ , but I was feeling a bit under the weather.' 4 'I think you should apologise to Jean.' 'I _ _ . 5 'Do you think you'll get the job?' '1 _ _ _ . 6 'You could have asked Kate if she'd lend you her car.' 'I know, but 1 _ _ • I' m always asking her for favours.' 7 'I was hoping to come to your leaving do, but I'm afraid 1 8 'Dave doesn't run as much as he _ _ .' Mum Harry, can you turn off the computer now, please? 3 g 2.05 Complete the dialogues with appropriate auxiliary Harry I don't want to . or modal verbs, or like. Sometimes you need a negative verb. Mum Have you done your homework yet? Then listen and check. Harry No, I haven' t. But I will when I've finished this email. Dad You're not going out dressed like that! Alice Wh y l _ _ I? Fred Have you drunk all the Coke? Dad Because you'll freeze to death . lucy No, I haven't. Alice 12_ _ ! It isn't that cold. And anyway all my Fred Well someone has. There were a couple of cans in friends dress like this. the fridge this morning. Dad Maybe they 3_ _ , but I insist that you put on lucy Go and buy some more. something warmer. Fred Why should I? I bought the last lot! Mum Neil, will you tidy up in the bathroom, please? 4 Dad Did you remember to post that letter for me? Neil 1 _ _ • Sally Er ... No, I forgo t. Mum You 5_ _ • You've left your clothes in a heap on Dad Oh, Sally! You promised you would . the floor. Sally I know I did. I'm sorry! Sandra Who's pinched my hairdryer? Cathy I 6 _ _ • Maybe Ellie 7_ _ • Sandra No, she 8_ _ • She never uses one. Ellipsis Cathy If you 9_ _ , you can borrow mine. We often leave words out in order to avoid repetition . 1 We can use to instead of a whole infinitive Ca 'reduced infinitive'), or sometimes the whole 4 Prepare a dialogue in which a parent and a teenager argue infinitive is omitted. about something. Avoid repetition by including a number of I love reading sci-fi stories, but I didn't use to. auxiliary verbs and reduced infinitives. Use one of the ideas Stay for lunch if you want. below or choose your own. 2 A main verb can be omitted after a modal or auxiliary 1 an argument about tidiness verb. 2 an argument about staying out late He didn't phone me, but he should ha ve. 3 an argument about schoolwork 3 In ellipsis the pronunciation of the auxil iary/ modal 4 an argument about the television verbs and to is usually strong . 5 lOi#@ltd Work in pairs. Act out your dialogue to the class, paying attention to the pronunciation. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 5.2: ElLIPSIS: PAGE 122 <RI S4 Un it 5 Battles t!#j@tij Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 3 "2.06 Listen again. Add the phrases the speakers use for What does the graph tell us about military spending? structuring their presentations to the chart below. What is your reaction to this information? _ Look at the poster. How do the armed forces recruit Changing the subject people in your country? I' ll now turn to ... 3 What are the people in the photo demonstrating against? I'd now like to deal with ... Are protests like these generally effective? Why?/Why not? 1_ _ 2 __ Acknowledging an opposing view : : lal distribution of military expenditure I freely admit that ... Others take a different view . 3_ _ 4 __ Dismissing an opposing view ..- ;. .t.{ I don't accept there's any merit in the argument that ... I entirely reject the notion that ... 5_ _ 6 __ Referring to something said earlier Returning to (the issue of ... /the point about ...) U To restate the main argument, ... 7 __ 8 __ JOIN YOUR COUNTRY'S ARMY! GOO SAVE THE lUNG 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words below. defend destroy eradicate have spend too much 1 _ __ poverty through health and education would mean wars wouldn't be necessary. 2 Everyone should be able ___ their country. 3 _ __ a single global superpower is safer than having two or three . 4 There are more important things for young people _ _ _ their time on . 5 _ __ power in the hands of a single state is a ｓｐ ｾＡｉｎｇ＠ TIP ___ｾ＠ dangerous thing. r ivin g a presentation 6 Even if all weapons _ _ _ , there would still be disease Present your strongest argument first. and poverty. _ " cknowledge the opposing view and then give a co unter-argument or restate your own opinion. 5 Match the sentences in exercise 4 with the statements below. Which are arguments for the statements, and which are hen you are thinking what to say next, use fillers. arguments against? hen you don't know the English for something, try to oaraphrase. a National Service should be compulsory. Look at the examiner and speak loudly and clearly. b Every country should reduce military spending and spend Try to sound confident. the money instead on humanitarian causes . c The USA poses the biggest threat to world peace. r 2.06 Read the Speaking tip and the task below. 6 Work in pairs. Choose one of the statements in exercise 5. - - en listen to two students doing the task and answer the Decide if you agree or disagree and brainstorm two or three : ·_csti ons. additional arguments to support your opinion. Include at _ - 0 what extent do the speakers follow the advice? least one opposing argument. Make notes. ? .'Ihi ch arguments do you find the most persuasive? Why? 7 ti#J3!1[ij Give your presentation to the class. Speak for a - be a pacifist is to be a coward.' Do you agree or maximum of three minutes. Follow the advice in the Speaking : sa gree? Present your opinion, giving arguments to tip and use some of the phrases in exercise 3. :: _:Jp ort your view. Speak for a maximum of three minutes . Unit 5 Battles 55 5G Explain this quotation about admiration. Do you agree with Read the article. Find passages where the writer has: it? Why? /Why not? 1 addressed the reader. We always love those who admire us, but we 2 used a rhetorical question. 3 used : (a) a ch atty, person al style (b) a mo re formal style. do not always love those whom we admire. Top of the list of people I greatly admire comes my great-grandfather, who, at the age of 97 , is still living a full and Writing an article active life. If you were to meet him , When writing an article, it is important to consider: you wouldn 't believe he's only three 1 the target audience, i.e. who you are writing for. years short of a hundred. 2 the purpose of the article (e.g. to entertain , Throughout his long life he has battled to persuade , to inform, etc). against adversity and misfortune . He 3 the appropriate style (e.g. formal, informal, 'chatty' lost both his parents before his twelfth and personal; the use of headings, bullet points , etc.). birthday, and on top of that his elder brother died in the First World War. As a young man in the 1930s he was out of work for long periods and really struggled to support his young Read the Writing tip and the task below. What is the target family. Then , just as things began to go better for him , he was called audience? What is the purpose of the article? What style up to fight in the Second World War. He joined the RAF and was shot would be most appropriate? down over France in 1944. Not only was he badly injured , but he was also captured and spent the rest of the war in a prisoner-of-war camp. Someone I admire After the war, he opened a small garage, doing repairs and serv icing, Write an article about someone you admire . It could and selling second-hand cars, and through sheer hard work built it up be someone you know personally or a public figure . into a successful business. However, the business ran into difficulties • Include information about their life. during a recession and he went bankrupt. • Include information about their achievements. All this was long before I was born , of course. But what's he really like • Explain why you admire them. as a person? In the years that I have known him he has shown other great qualities besides the courage and determination which helped The three best articles will be published in the school him through the difficult times. He's kind , willing to listen and offer magazine next month . a word of advice - but he never forces it on you. What 's more, he's great fun to be with and very witty. The open ing of the article should grab the reader's attention He's one of the wisest and most tolerant people I know, and I'm very and draw them in. Which of these openings works least well? lucky to have him as my great-grandfather. Why? An article needs a good title. Choose the best t itle for the 1he-re, art a number of people \ ac\mire, but one article in exercise 4. ® per50n 5tanc\5 out from all tl1e otl1er5 1 A long life 4 My great-grandfather 2 A lovely old man 5 Someone I admire Patience, wisdom and generosity are three qualities 3 Battling against adversity ® that I value greatly, and my friend Susan has all t hree In the article, find two of the nouns below and three in abundance. adjectives formed from the nouns below. CS> ｾ･Ｎ＠ pe. rSO'11, :r: I.\d.... ire. ....ost is ""zy e.£de.r brotlAe.r, d votion V 1"0 :..Jose.plA. He. s 1.\ re.1.\££zy I.\d .... irl.\b£e. pe.rso'11 . P tl r (' r I bl ty nc;ltlvlty c,lnCE'rI+y t l.. two thi H c, w c;d M wit If tnere'r, one perr,on tn3t emboaier, 3\\ tn3t I Form adjectives from all the other nouns in the box. @) 3amire in 3 num3n being, it'r, mi Aunt Lina3. DD VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.3: WORD FORMATION (1): WORKBOOK PAGE 105 <m What makes us admire people? Often it is '>i4M3iItCl Work in. pairs. Make a list of five well-known ® because they have admirable qualit ies which people whom you admire. What are the qualities and we don't ourselves possess. achievements that you find admirable? Use the nouns and adjectives in exercises 6 Clnd 7 to help you. 56 Unit 5 Battles 5G _ook at the pictures. What achievements are the people 5 ja ke has got both a great sense of humour and great deal =a mous for? What difficulties did they have to overcome? of charm . In addition to _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ 6 My grandmother looked after five children and she looked after her own sick mother. My grandmother plus _ __ _ __ 7 Pete owns a flat in London as well as a house in the country. Apart from _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ Read the task. Plan an article, making notes for the sections below. Heroes Write an article about someone you admire because they have overcome adversity. It could be someone you know personally or a public figure. • Describe the problems they faced. • Describe the qualities they have that make them ::h eck the meaning of the words and phrases used to express special. ｾ｣ ､ｩｴ ｯｮ＠ in the Learn this! box. Which two would you only =xp ect to see in a formal context? Find four more in the article The three best articles will be published in the school ::1 page 56 and put them in the correct place in the Learn magazine next month. ::lis! box. Opening paragraph: (Introduce the topic. Grab the reader's attention. Refer to the question, but do not copy it.) inkers for addition Main part: (Adversities that they have overcome and the reposition + noun Adverbs/adverbial phrases besides, ... personal qualities that make them special - one or two :;/ongside furthermore paragraphs .) :; /ong with Ｚ［ｾ Ｚ Ｉｑｲ ｴ＠ from ... into the bargain Final paragraph: (Briefly sum up.) :;5 well as moreover Work in pairs. .- addition to ... to boot 1 Look at your partner's notes from exercise 4 and wri te ｾ Ｏ ｵ ｳ＠ down at least three questions which you'd like to ask about the person . :lreposition + gerund Paired conjunctions 2 Ask your partner the questions you noted down. :::Jart from both ... and ... 3 Use your answers to your partner's questions to add ::5 well as more details to your article plan. -esides n addition to Think of a good title for your article. Write a first draft of the article. Write between 200-250 ID> VOCABULARY BUILDER 5.4: lINKERS (1): words following your plan. ORKBOOK PAGE 105 <m Check your work using the list below. - mplete the second sentence so that it means the same as -- e fi rst. Ｍ ｃｈ ｟ ｾｃｋ＠ YOUR WO • Nen dy is very determined and she's also very ambitious . Have you: Be sides _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ followed the plan correctly? enry travelled up the Amazon, and some of his friends written the correct number of words? .'le nt with him. grabbed the readers' attention in the first paragraph? -l enry along with _ __ _ _ _ used some linkers for addition? • j am is a fine painter and he's a good pianist too. checked the spelling and grammar? j am to boot. _ Vty mum has a full·time job and does all the housework. y mum aswellas _ _ _ _ _ _ Unit 5 Battles 57 1 Get read to SPEAK Work in pairs. Answer the questions. distractions - instead of helping them 8 _ _ _ it to suit 1 Have you ever witnessed, or heard about, a road rage their learning styles , the body said. On the plus sid e, incident? What happened? the report said, parental 9_ _ _ in homework has been 2 Do you eve r row with anyone? What do you argue about? shown 10_ __ the strongest predictor of better grades. Report author Dr Susan Hallam said: 'Parents have the 2 Do the Speaking exam task. most positive influence when they offer moral support, SPEAKING exam task make appropriate resources available and discuss general issues. They should only actually help with Compare and contrast the photos then asnwer the homework when their children specifically ask them to .' questions. 1 A atmosphere B mood C attitude D climate 2 A while B even though C supposing D if 3 A damage B injury C destruction D hurt 4 A exceed B overbalance C outweigh D compensate for 5 A bring B do C make D grow 6 A proceed B derive C rise D arise 7 A go without B miss Clack D are deprived of 8 A amend B adapt C refine D convert 9 A involvement B contribution C collaboration D connection 10 A being B having been C as being D to be 11 Get read to LISTEN Do you know why the year 1066 is 1 Why are the people arguing, do you th ink? important in British history? 2 Can rows be beneficial? Why?/Why not? 3 What's the best way of avoiding family rows? 5 g 2 .07 Do the Listening exam task. 3 Do the Use of English exam task. USE OF ENGLISH exam task Listen to the radio programme. Decide whether the Choose the best word or phrase (A-D) to complete each information in each sentence (1 - 7) is trueen, false (F) gap. or not stated (NS) . True False Not ' Homework at root of many family arguments' stated Homework can cause friction between parents and 1 Everyone in Britain knows wh at children , especially in middle -class families where happened in 1066. D D D concerns about a child ' s future can lead to a dangerous 2 In history lessons children have to 1_ _ _ of pressure to succeed, according to a re cent learn too many dates. D D D report by the Institute of Education, University of 3 No country has invaded Britain London . Homework can also create an xiety, bored om, since 1066. D D D fatigue and emotional exhaustion in children , w ho 4 Some people think that the English resent the encroachment on their free time, 2_ _ _ Channel has defended the country they think homework helps them do well at sch ool. Th e from invasion . D D D resulting 3_ _ _ to the parent- child rel ati onship may 5 Other battles have changed history to 4_ _ _ any educational advantage hom ework may the extent that Battle of Hastings did. D D D 5_ _ ,the Institute claimed . The rep ort found t hat 6 The Norman system of government problems can 6_ _ _ when parent s t ry to he lp wi th was superior to the Anglo -Saxon model. D D D homework, especially when they fe el they 7_ __ 7 After 1066, the whole population of the knowledge or the time. Paren t s may inhi bit t he ir Britain was forced to speak French . D D D children's effectiveness in doin g homework by tryin g to control the homework enviro nme nt - tellin g chi ld ren w hen and where to do homework or t rying to elim inate 58- Get Ready for your Exam 5 • HIS UNIT INCLUDES ｾ ･ ｰ ･ｮ､ｴ＠ prepo sitions (2) • re gister . collo cation s with sleep • syn onyms of p riz e • idioms for exp ressing joy Drea m5 cabulary • sy non yms of predict • expre ssion s for pl ans and predi ct ion s • ad jec tive- advero 'verb-1oun colloca tions :o ncess lo n and cou nter- argum ent . reportin g ve rb s ::rammar • tal kin g about t he future. phras al ve rb s: part icles and t hei r meanin gs. re porting structures 5:>eaking • talking abo ut persona l ambition s. talkin g ab out sleep and drea ms. talki ng about the EU • photo compar ison riti ng • a story VOCABULARY AND LISTENING 11 ... ac h ieve my _ _ (of + gerund) 12 I hop e 1 _ _ in (+ gerund) 13 I may _ _ towa rds that. 14 I don't see th at happening in the _ _ future. 15 I' ll be in a better _ _ to ... (+ base form) m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 6.1: TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE: PAGE 122 <m 4 Where do you see yourself in ten years' time? Make notes under these headings. c ,- 1''1 .... Work in pairs. Describe the photo and answer the - '· estions. What job does the woman do? ave you ever had your fortune told? If not, would you like to? Why? / Why not? 3 Why do people want to know their future ? - Do you think it is possible to predict the future? - Do you know any famous prophecies? Did they come ru e? 5 1@i(;@It?j Work in pairs. Make predictions about your ID> VOCABULARY BUILDER 6.1: SYNONYMS OF PREDICT: partner's future. ORKBOOK PAGE 106 <m 6 Work in pairs. Look at each other's notes from exercise 4 and 2. 08 Listen to six teenagers answering the question : ask some questions about the predictions. Add your answers ere do you see yourself in ten years' time? Answer the to your notes. · ·estions. Give reasons for your answers. ho has the most/ least interesting ambitions? Why did you write 'l ead guita rist'? - Who is the most/ least optimistic about fulfilling their ambitions? 3 00 you have similar ambitions to any of the speakers? 7 Prepare to present your ideas using some of t he expressions in exercise 3 and the box below. 2.08 Complete the expressions with the words below. Expressing doubt and uncertainty en listen again and check. It's difficult to say, really. me counting determined everything foreseeable I guess I'll ... =-. Ifil goal hopes likely myself position realise I (don't) suppose I'll ... /1(don 't) imagine I'll ... ;; gh ts succeed work I would(n't) say that .. . • I thin k it's _ _ that ... I doubt if I'll ... - I can (not) see _ _ (+ gerund) It' s unlikely that I' ll ... 3 I'v e set my _ _ on (+ noun) As suming that ... - I' m not _ _ on it. I may/ might well ... S Ass uming that I _ _ my ambition ... It depe nds whether/how / what, etc. ... 5 If my plans _ _ to nothing, ... It's anyo ne's guess what / when/where , etc. ... - I' m _ _ to (+ base form) I cou ld go in a number of directions . I' ll give it _ _ I've got. _ _ my dream (of + gerund) 8 ti#@it?I Work with a different partner. Tell him or her about I' m (n ot) pinning my _ _ on (noun / gerund) where you see yourself in ten years from now. Unit 6 Dreams 59 68 1 Discuss this question in pairs: How do dreams differ from real ｾ＠ .u. Phrasal verbs: particles and their meanings life? ｾ＠ Particles often add a specific meaning to a phrasal verb. 2 Choose the best word (a-d) to complete each gap. ｾ＠ Most particles have more than one meaning. ｾ＠ back = 1 repeating 2 looking into the past Have you ever 1_ _ why we i The secretary read the letter back to her boss. This building dates back to 1650. dream? It seems such an easy down = 1 record in writing 2 reducing question , but it is very difficult to I jotted down the phone number on a scrap of paper. answer. Most scientists agree Wait till your coffee cools down. that we don't yet know what off= 1 departing 2 ending The thieves made off with £1 million in cash. purpose dreams 2_ _ . Given Sam broke off his engagement to Tilly. the amount of time we spend in a on = 1 continuing 2 attacking dreaming 3_ _ , this may My boss droned on for ages at the meeting. at first seem baffling. However, Pick on someone your own size! \ it isn't really surprising when we \ out= 1 disappearing 2 solving, searching consider that science is still Dinosaurs died out about 60 million years ago. I could just make out a ship on the horizon. 4_ _ the exact purpose and over = 1 visiting 2 considering, examining function of sleep itself. Scientists have put forward a number of theories Let's pop over to jamie's . as to why we dream, but as yet no 5_ _ consensus has emerged . Always look over your work before you hand it in. Some experts are of the opinion that in all likelihood dreaming has up = 1 approach 2 improve no real purpose. They maintain that sleep probably has a biological Don't creep up on me like that! function (allowing the body and brain to recuperate), but that dreaming I'm going to evening classes to brush up on my French. is merely a mental 6_ _ , nothing but a sequence of images and feelings experienced 7_ _ sleeping . Other scientists, on the other 4 Study the Learn this! box. Then complete these sentences from the listening with the particles below. Which meanings in the hand , believe that dreaming is essential to mental, emotional and Learn this! box do the particles convey, 1 or 2? physical well-being. They suggest that dreams are 8_ _ triggered by the feelings we experience while we are awake, such as fear, anger back down off on out over up or love. This is why dreams are more frequent and intense following 1 I remember the wolf coming _ _ to the house. powerful emotional experiences, especially stressful or traumatic ones. 2 I've never tried to work _ _ what it means, though . 3 I throw myself forward and I take _ _ . According to this theory, such dreams allow the mind to make sense of 4 So in order to carry _ _ flying, I have to believe I can the emotional experiences, 9_ _ suggests that they help us both to fly. reduce the distress caused by the trauma , and to cope better if further 5 Gradually I calm _ _ . traumatic or stressful events occur. 6 Mostly my d reams are just a rehash of events of the day, coming _ _ in muddled form . 7 It's quite amusing sometimes to go _ _ the dream in 1 a wondered b thought c speculated d reflected 2 a serve b carry out c complete your own head . d do 3 a condition b circumstance c position d state ID>GRAMMAR BUILDER 6.2: PARTiClES AND THEIR 4 a unwinding b unravelling c separating d untying MEANINGS: PAGE 123 <m 5 a single b sole c singular d solitary 6 a act b activity c action d pro ce dure 5 "01#@1!?i Work with a partner. Discuss these questions. 7 a on bin c during d whi le Try to use some phrasal verbs in your answers. 8 a somewhat b somehow c anyhow d anyway 1 How often do you dream? Do you often remember your 9 a this band c that d which dreams? Do you have recurring dreams? What happens? 2 Do you think your dreams can tell you anything about 3 "2.09 Listen to three people talking about dreams. your true state of mind? If so, what? Answer the questions in your own words. 3 Do you believe that dreams can foretell the future? Why? / 1 How did Belinda's dream rel ate to her life? Why not? 2 In his dream, what makes Ha rry ab le to fly? 4 Have any of your dreams ever come true? If so, what 3 According to Christine, what fu nctio n do dreams serve? happened? 60 Unit 6 Dreams 1 Test your knowledge of the EU. Try the quiz, then read the text and check your answers. 1 In which decade was the organisation that was to become the EU formed? 2 Can you name three of the six original members? 3 How many member states are there now? : . the aftermath of the 4 In which two cities does the European Parliament meet? :':':ond World War, some -.oliticalleaders in Western 2 Complete the text with appropriate words. Use one word only in each gap. :::..:rope believed that the :\- 1 _ _ _ to avoid war 3 Read the text and explain in your own words: ·-.cl conflict in the future .5 to unite the countries 1 what the founders of the EU hoped that it would ach ieve . - :=urope in an economic and political union. So, in 1952 six 2 what 'pooling sovereignty' means. '.lIltries - France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands 3 how the European Commission, the Council of the EU and ｾ､＠ Luxembourg - formed 2_ _ _ was to evolve into the the European Parliament are made up, and what their =:l:opean Union (EU). Since then a 3_ _ _ 22 countries have roles are. '8ed the organisation, bringing the total population of the 4 what Eurosceptics fear. =-: to over 500 million. :':ow does it work? 4 Find these nouns in the text and complete the collocations with the correct verbs. -:-:2 EU is not a federation 4_ _the United States. _ -:-.c member states of the EU remain independent sovereign 1 _ __ an organisation 5 _ _ _ an election -.;.::ions but they pool their sovereignty in certain areas of 2 _ __ powers 6 _ _ _ benefits - -:icy. Pooling sovereignty means, 5_ __ practice, that 3 _ __ new legislation 7 _ __ peace and stability member states delegate some of their decision-making 4 _ _ _ a law 8 _ __ control - ;:"wers to shared institutions they have created, so that ::cisions 6 _ _ _ specific matters of joint interest can be 5 Complete these phrases from the text with prepositions. - ｾ､ ･＠ democratically at European level. 1 evolve _ _ _ 2 consist _ __ 3 vote _ __ -:.e three main decision-making institutions are: m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 6.2: DEPENDENT • :ne European Commission, consisting of 28 commissioners, PREPOSITIONS: WORKBOOK PAGE 106 cm J rle chosen by each member state. The role of the Commission is to propose new legislation, but it cannot 6 "2.10 listen to four people talking about the EU. Match :-ass laws 7_ _ _ itself. each speaker with one benefit (a-d) and one drawback (e-h) . • :ne Council of the EU, consisting of one government ::Unister from each country. The Council is the EU's main Speaker 1 DD Speaker 3 D D :'ecision-making body. It votes on legislation proposed by Speaker 2 DD Speaker 4 D D ::te Commission. Benefits of the EU " :::,e European Parliament, based in Brussels and Strasbourg, a The EU gives European countries a voice in world affairs. ;..,d consisting of 785 ME Ps directly elected by the citizens b The EU has made it much easier to trave l around Europe. ;:i the EH Elections are held 8_ __ five years. Like :.i.e Council, the Parliament votes on and passes laws c The European single market is a real success. :::uposed by the Commission. d The EU provides economic aid to the poorer regions of Europe. ,: .:m troversy Drawbacks of the EU :--:c British have a very uneasy relationship with the EH e The EU should leave more decisions to national -::::ish Europhiles claim that the EU continues to bring governmen ts. ::gible economic and political benefits to the UK, and that f The EU is ove r-bureaucratic and many of the laws it .-..as delivered peace and stability to Europe for over half a z .:ury. Eurosceptics, however, who are probably 9_ _ _ a passes are unnecessary. - .;.'o rity in the UK, are concerned about the direction the EU g The free movement of labour has created problems . :al<ing. They believe that it is fundamentally undemocratic h The EU is undemocratic. -..; unaccountable, and maintain that the real aim of the EU create an enormous federal state in which individual 7 l#fJ31m1 Discuss the statements in exercise 6 and decide if -.=:nber states will exercise little control 10_ _ _ their own you agree or disagree with them. Justify your opinions. -::, 11'S. l> Discuss the EU at http://www.debatingeurope.eu Unit 6 Dreams 61 1 li#,,@tij Work in pairs. Describe the photos. Then ask and answer these questions. 1 What time do you usually go to bed? Let sleeping teenagers lie 2 Do you have a computer or a N in your bedroom? 1 Why is it that many teenagers have the energy to play 3 Do you go straight to sleep? If not, what do you do? computer games until late at night but can't find the energy to 4 Do you ever lie in at weekends? Until what time? get out of bed in time for school? According to a new report, today's generation of children are in danger of getting so little 2 Read the text. Which explanation for teenagers not getting 5 sleep that they are putting their mental and physical health enough sleep does the writer favour? at risk. Adults can easily survive on seven to eight hours' 1 Teenagers think they catch up with sleep at weekends . sleep a night, whereas teenagers require nine or ten hours. 2 Teenagers' bodies do not produce a hormone that makes According to medical experts, one in five youngsters gets them sleepy until the early hours of the morning. anything between two and five hours' sleep a night less than 3 Teenagers engage in late-night activities such as playing 10 their parents did at their age. computer games and watching N instead of going This raises serious questions about whether lack of sleep straight to sleep . is affecting children's ability to concentrate at school. 3 Answer the questions. The connection between sleep deprivation and lapses in 1 In what two ways can lack of sleep affect teenagers? memory, impaired reaction time and poor concentration is 2 Why do some experts believe that activities such as 15 well established. Research has shown that losing as little playing computer games before bed are more likely to as half an hour's sleep a night can have profound effects on prevent teenagers from sleeping than reading a book? how children perform the next day. A good night's sleep is 3 What evidence does the writer produce to support his/ also crucial for teenagers because it is while they are asleep her view that it is normal for teenagers to go to sleep later that they release a hormone that is essential for their 'growth than adults? 20 spurt' (the period during teenage years when the body grows at a rapid rate) . It's true that they can to some extent catch 4 Scan the text and underline all the examples of the noun up on sleep at weekends, but that won't help them when they sleep. Look at the words sleep collocates with in the text. are dropping off to sleep in class on a Friday afternoon. How many of the collocations can you find in the extract from the Oxford Collocations Dictionary? So why aren't teenagers getting enough sleep? Some experts 25 suggest the presence of televisions, computers and mobile sleep noun phones in children's bedrooms may be to blame. Instead of 1 co ndition of rest reading a book at bedtime, children are going to their rooms ADJ. deep I light I much-needed 0 ['m off to bed for some m uch-needed - . I adequate I REM and playing computer games, surfing the web, texting and VERB + SLEEP drift into, drift off to, drop off to, fall back to (Am£), get to, go to <> She turned over and went back to - . I messaging, or watching television. As these new childhood cry yourselfto I catch, get, snatch <> Close your eyes and get some - now. <> I snatched a few hours' - in the afternoon. I 30 pre-sleep activities have become more widespread, so more need I survive on <> They seem to survive on only a f ew traditional ones such as reading have declined . Dr Luci hours' - a night. I induce, promote <> They use drugs to induce - . I lull sb to, send sb to <> The qu iet music soon sent Wiggs, a research fellow at Oxford University's Section of her to - . I drift in and out of <> He drifted in and out of - all n ight. I lose (often figu rative) <> Don't lose - over it-we71 sort Child and Adolescent Psychiatry everyth ing out in the morn ing. I disrupt, disturb, interrupt I catch up on <> I used Saturday to catch up on my - . I feign said, 'One of the problems <> I f eigned - when the nurse came around. 35 with these pre-sleep SLHP + VERB come <> Sleep came to her in snatches. I overcome sb, overtake sb <> Sleep f inally overtook me. activities is that they SLEEP + NOUN cycle, pattern, schedule (esp. Am£) I deprivation, loss I disorder I apnoea/apnea I aid (esp. are unstructured, i.e. Am£) <> the nation 's most commonly prescribed - aid PREP. during - <> a decreased heart rate during - I in your- they do not have <> He often walks and talks in his - . PHRASES a lack of - <> I was suffering fro m a lack of - . I a clearly defined start wink of - <> I won't get a wink of - with that noise 40 and end times .' She downstairs. 2 period of sleep went on , 'This is ADJ. long I little, short I dead, deep, heavy, sound I uninterrupted I good, restful I light I disturbed , the first generation exhausted, fitful , restless, troubled, uneasy <> I woke up of children to face early after a disturbed - . I dreamless, peaceful I drun ken I beauty <> Sorry, but I need my beauty - . such a plethora of VERB + SLEEP need I have <> Did y ou have a good - ? I be in <> I was in a deep - when the phone rang. I drift into, fa ll into, 45 alternatives to going sink into <> I im m ediately fell into a dead - . I awake (sb) from , awaken (sb) from , wake (sb) from <> He woke from a to sleep and the long- f it/ul - with a headache. PHRASES a good, poor, etL night's - <> Yo u'll fee l better after l a good night's - . 62 Unit 6 Dreams 5 Use th e examp les in the dictionary entry to help you identify which collocations have meanings l-S. 1 worry abou t someth ing with the result that you aren't a ble to sl eep 2 get a littl e sleep in a short available time , usually during t he day 3 whi le you are sleeping (two phrases) 4 make some body go to sleep S pretend to be asleep 6 Complete the sentences with collocations of sleep from the dictionary. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 The moment her head touched the pillow she _ _ _ into a deep sleep. 2 Teenagers have different sleep _ _ _ from adults . 3 After splitting up with her boyfriend, she went home and _ _ _ herself to sleep. consequences in terms of physical and mental health 4 I'm going to get an early night. I need to _ __ on - - ooth the child and their family can only be guessed at. my sleep . -3: we do know is that impaired sleep quality or quantity S He drank a whole bottle of wine and fell into a _ _ _ Ｍ ｾ＠ com promise children's physical health, academic sleep. -- evements and mental health.' 6 I woke at 3 a.m . and couldn't _ _ _ to sleep for ages. ==search has shown that teenagers have different sleep Sleep finally _ __ me at about five o'clock. Ｚｾ･ ｲｮ ｳ＠ from younger children and adults . A timing 7 Match these words with the more formal equivalents in red in - ·: chanism in the brain regulates our bodily functions over a the text. :--"lour period. At night, the heart rate falls, blood pressure 1 need (v) S happen ｾ＠ ::wered and urine ceases to be produced. When the sun 2 a big impact 6 a very large number ｾ ｣ｳ Ｎ＠ the body begins to wake up. One important change 3 control (v) 7 stop -z: occurs at night time is increased levels of the 'darkness 4 carry out one' melatonin, which helps us to fall asleep. Most - - _ 1S start to produce melatonin at about 10 p.m. When m> VOCABULARY BUilDER 6.3: REGISTER: WORKBOOK =-- agers were studied in a sleep laboratory, researchers PAGE 106 <m : s::overed that they only began to produce the hormone at =- '"'l . It is possible that this delay in melatonin production 8 l1#J311tC1 Work in pairs. Answer the questions. Give reasons for your answers. _ ::a.used by the behaviour of teenagers. Playing with 1 Do you think you get enough sleep? ］ＭＮＢｾＺｲｯ ｮ ｩ｣＠ gadgets late at night stimulates the brain and 2 Do you sometimes feel tired and unable to concentrate at c ::oses the teenagers to bright lights which could cause school? Why is that? -.:; ater release of melatonin. A more likely explanation, 3 Would you prefer it if school started and finished later? ··:". ever, is that the hormonal upheaval of puberty is pushing 4 What would be the drawbacks of starting school later? -.:; melatonin release back, in which case teenagers are Ｚ･ｾｧ＠ kept awake by their bodies - they simply can't help =-' peculiar sleeping behaviour. Although it isn't impossible _ adolescents to go to sleep before 11 p.m., or even - ::e alert in the morning, their bodies make it difficult ' :nem, and in some cases nearly impossible. This is . C'"1e out by studies conducted in the USA, where some ' --ools have delayed the start of their classes to give their -::::1agers some extra time in bed . Many teachers reported - c:: students were more alert and less moody. One school • .:;, noticed a significant improvement in the educational : .".-=ormance of its students . Ｍ ｾ･ ｳ＠ surrounding sleep - who needs how much and when - =:e usually given short shrift in efforts to improve student -- - evement. But modern brain researchers say it is time -z: more schools woke up to the biological facts and started =ssons at a time better suited to their teenage students. Unit 6 Dreams 63 6E 1 Read the text. Have you ever had an 'anxiety dream' like this? 5 Rewrite the sentences in exercise 4 using the verbs you did not use. I had the strangest dream the other M'{ clacl ｷｧｾｦ＾ｴ｣ｬ＠ tnat I f>noulcl get an ｾ｡ｲｬＧｻ＠ nignt night. I was having breakfast and my mum reminded me that the school exams 1 We often use adverbs with reporting verbs to convey started that day. She asked me if I had the tone or emotional content of the original words . done enough revision and I told her the 'I've had enough otyour insolence!' exams weren't for another three weeks, He shouted angrily that he 'd had enough other and promised to revise for them. But insolence. when I got to school. I found that my classmates had already started the English 2 We can report speech without giving the precise words Literature exam . I apologised for being that were spoken . late. The teacher instructed me to sit down 'Fancy seeing you here!' said james . and start writing, but when I opened the lames expressed his surprise at seeing me there . exam paper, I couldn't ans wer any of the questions. I claimed not to have read any of the books, but the teacher insisted that 6 "2.11 Listen to the sentences and add an adverb below I should do the exam. It was at that point to convey the emotions of the speaker. that I woke up . bitterly callously defiantly resignedly sarcastically sharply sympathetically 2 What do you think were the original words spoken by the people in the dream? 1 ' Unfortunately, there's nothing we can do about it,' she said _ __ . m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 6.3: REPORTING STRUCTURES: 2 'You've never really loved me, have you?' she said _ _ _ . PAGE 124 <m 3 'That was really clever, wasn 't it? ' said Sarah _ __ . 4 'You can't stop me from seeing whoever I like! ' said Sam 3 Report the sentences using the verbs below. beg claim congratulate insist promise 5 'Mind your own business! ' said Frank _ _ _ . recommend threaten warn 6 'It's not my problem . Sort it out yourself,' said John _ _ _ . 1 'I've never had a nightmare,' he said . 7 'You must be feeling terrible . If there' s anything I can do, just let me know,' said Christine _ __ . I-k ｇｉＮＧｬｩｭｾ｣＠ ｮｾｶｲ＠ to nave nacl a ｮｩｧｴｭ｡ｲｾ＠ 2 'I think you should go to that restaurant. It's really good,' 7 "2.12 Listen to eight extracts and match them with a-h . said Ben to Lee . a She expressed her gratitude for ... e 3 'Please , please don't wear those old jeans,' said Jo to b She boasted of her ability to ... e lan . c She enquired after her grandfather' s ... e 4 'If you don't stop talking, I'll give you a detention,' said Mr Medway to his class . d She expressed her sincere apologies for ... e 5 'Don't swim too far out to se a as the currents are quite e She complimented him on ... o strong,' said Jo to Tom . f She declined the invitation to ... o 6 'Well done for passing your driving test,' said Sue to g She confirmed her willingness to ... e 7 Chris . 'I'll never lie to you again,' said Steve to Vanessa . h She told him off for being ... e 8 "2.12 Listen again and complete each report a-h above 8 'You must eat your vegetables,' said Liam to his dau ghter. in a suitable way. 4 Choose the correct alternatives. Then change the sentences 9 I.iQ¥Mimi Work in pairs. Tell your partner about 1-8 below. to direct speech . Use reporting verbs and adverbs that convey the tone and 1 My dad suggested / advised me to get an early nigh t. emotional content. 2 Harry refused / denied that he had cheate d in the exam. 1 something your parents forbade you to do 3 Dave asked / insisted that I should hel p him . 2 something you complimented somebody on 4 Kate agreed / proposed to buy a new car. 3 something you apologised for 5 Fred ordered / reminded his son th at he had to tu rn off 4 an invitation you declined the com puter. 5 something you were blamed for 6 Robbie blamed / accused hi s brother for the acc ident. 6 something you reminded somebody to do 7 The robbers admitted / agreed to steal the gold bullion 7 something you expressed surprise at from the security van . 8 something you refuse-d to do 64 Unit 6 Dreams @:tj3@' Find one ofthese items in the photos. Explain the di fference in meaning between the six words. "Nard honour medal pri ze reward trophy "iQ/MW' Have you, or anyone you know, ever won any of he things in exercise 1? What was it for? How did you/they ' eel? g 2.13 Listen to four people talking about achievements. Match the speakers with four ofthe people below. How did hey feel (a) when they won the award or prize and (b) now? • a sportsperson 4 a scientist 2 a film star 5 an explorer 3 a politician 6 a lottery winner Sp eaker 1 0 Speaker 3 0 Sp eaker 2 0 Speaker 4 0 g 2.13 Match 1-8 with a-h to complete the expressions. en listen again and check. . I was over a our luck. 2 I couldn't believe b to bits . 3 It was a c for joy. ｾ＠ I felt as if I was walking d of the world . S It is such e dream come true . 6 I was thrilled on air. I' m on top g the moon. They are jumping h an honour. Nork in pairs. Read the task. Compare and contrast the ?h otos using the prompts below. Use the expressions in exercise 4, and in exercise 6 on page 21, to help you. Where are the people and what they have won? 2 How do you think they are feeling? 8 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 3 How similar are their achievements? Sometimes you will need to make two sentences into one, Th ese photos show people who have won something. and vice versa. Compare and contrast the photos. Say what you think 1 I'd like to be rich . Nevertheless, I'm not prepared to '1l otivated them, what they did to achieve success, and waste my money on lottery tickets. (much as) how it might affect their lives. 2 He hardly did any revision for his exams and yet he managed to pass . (even though) 3 Much as I admire his achievements, he ' s neglected his g 2.14 Listen to a student answering the second part of family in his quest for success . (although) ' ''e task. Do you agree with her opinions? Give reasons. 4 Although she's worked really hard, she's never really got Vhich of these phrases for concession and counter-argument the recognition she deserves . (nonetheless) oes the speaker use? Which are adverbs and which are 5 Even though she's widely acknowledged to be the best co njunctions? actress of her generation, she's never won an Oscar. (yet) 6 The winning goal may have been lucky, but they deserved Concession and counter-argument to win the match. (though) 3,t hough even though all the same and yet s'anted even so having said that in spite of this m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 6.4: CONCESSION AND :' s t rue that mind you much as nevertheless COUNTER-ARGUMENT: WORKBOOK PAGE 107 «D -o netheless though yet 9 IOjQ:tj@tCj Turn to page 151 and do the exam task. Unit 6 Dreams 65 6G IOiUJ3mc' Work in pairs or small groups. Think of a book or Rewrite the sentences using the adverbs and adverb phrases film that you all like and discuss what makes it a good story. in brackets. You may need to change the punctuation. Sometimes more than one answer is correct. Read this extract from a story. Does it exemplify any of the 1 We used to go skiing. (at this time of year / often / in features of a good story that you identified in exercise 1? France / in the past) 2 I go for long rides . (still / along the river / now and then / on my own) 3 I couldn't have done it. (so quickly / certainly / without your help) 4 It's raining. (heavily / today / quite) 5 Your letter arrived. (here / yesterday morning / oddly enough / only) 6 He didn't understand what you said . Gust now / fully / clearly) Put the adverbs on the right into this extract from a story, on the same line as they appear. You may need to change the punctuation. Sometimes more than one answer is correct. . . .- ... - ... . Gemma marched into the cafe. Where was Ryan and why hadn't he angrily - .. ... ,.. I muttered to myself. .... ... ,. phoned? She hoped he had got her text reminding him to meet her. She would wait for him and no earlier here for 15 minutes more. She walked to the far side of moodily .. - . .. ... -. ••• .. the cafe and threw her bag onto the table furthest from the door. She got herself a coffee, sat down and in a fit of pique .- .. ... .. 'Who are you? What do you want?' I asked nervously. .. ...... took her phone out to check for messages. Nothing. Sighing, she tried his number again, but it went again loudly ... -. . .. . .. 1mm'Jl'Z.m!!i-1l. .. ,." • • ... a cold sweat and sat bolt upright in onto voicemail. She didn't leave a message. She felt very straight, like before suddenly .-. . turned over and closed .. .. .. upset. It had all been going wrong. Ryan was not himself, but what was the matter, and why wouldn't lately at the moment he talk about it? She had finished ever, just her coffee and was getting up to wearily Underline the adjectives, adverbs and adverb phrases in go, when in he walked. the story. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 6.4: ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES: Find three pairs of adjectives in the story. Complete the Learn PAGE 125 <m this! box with age, colour, opinion, size. " 2.15 Check the meaning of the reporting verbs below and find two of them in the story in exercise 2. Then listen Order of adjectives and match each verb with the direct speech. Before a noun, adjectives usually come in this order: 1_ _ _ 2 __ 3_ _ _ shape 4 _ _ _ origin material all u "' h <. p \ 11 Numbers usually come before adjectives. m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 6.5: PUNCTUATING REPORTED SPEECH: WORKBOOK PAGE 107 <m Correct the mistakes in adjective order in these phrases. 1 an old wonderful Itali an painting lOi#;@/(ri Work in pairs or small groups. Discuss how the 2 two leather enormous black suitcases story in exercise 2 might continue. Write the second half of 3 a Siamese grey stupid fat cat the story in 100 words. Include some direct speech and use 4 a square modern small house some adverbs and pairs of adjectives to make your writing 5 a linen cream beautiful suit more interesting. 66 Unit 6 Dreams 6G You are going to write a story (200-250 words) about a ream, ending with the words, 'I woke up. It had all been a ream.' The outline of the story is told in the pictures, but the en d of the dream is missing. Work in pairs. Read the outline an d discuss what the characters are like and how the dream en ds. Make your writing more interesting by using: • a variety of adverbs and adverb phrases. • a variety of adjectives. I was reading in bed. It was late. I heard a strange noise • direct speech, with a variety of reporting verbs and outside. adverbs. ｾ ･｡､＠ the Writing tip, then write the first paragraph of your story. Use the first picture and the sentences below it, and :h ese questions to help you. ,vhat kind of book was it? How often do you read in bed? " ere you feeling sleepy? "rite the second paragraph of your story, using the second icture, the sentences below it and these questions to help 'ou. 'Jhat does the window overlook? What was the weather ·'<e? How did you feel? Did you call out? 2 I got up and looked out of the window. I couldn't see what was making the noise. "rite the third paragraph of your story, again using the se ntences and these questions to help you. Use direct speech ｾｯｲ＠ the conversation. 'ias your brother already awake? How did he react? - ad he heard the noise too? Did he try to reassure you? ,','h o suggested going outside? 'lrite the final paragraph of your story, again using the sen tences and the question. Add the ending you thought of in exercise 1. Finish with the words, 'I woke up. It had all been a ream.' Cou nt the words. If there are fewer than 200, add some more 3 I went to my brother's room. We discussed what to do . • etail, events or direct speech. If you have written more than _5 0 words, look for unnecessary repetition, or cut some ｾ ･ｴ ｡ｩｬ＠ or events. ow write a final copy of your story. ｃｈｾｋ＠ YOUR WO - Have you: used adverbs and adverb phrases? used a variety of reporting verbs and correct punctuation with direct speech? used a variety of adjectives and put them in the correct order? checked the spelling and grammar? 4 We went outside. The door closed behind us. written the correct number of words? Wh at happens next? Unit 6 Dreams I 67 5-6 Vocabulary Grammar 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs 5 Rewrite the sentences using the construction for ... to .... below. The answers may be active or passive. It's time that we admitted defeat. break grind inflict make put up It',, time for u" to admit defeat 1 Scientists a breakthrough in their quest for a 1 It' s important that athletes should train hard . cure for cancer recently. 2 The aim is that we should learn English in six months. 2 The stalemate last night by the offer of a ten 3 In the past, women wearing trousers was scandalous. per cent pay rise. 4 The manager is unhappy about staff taking time off work. 3 Negotiations between unions and the management 5 It is vital you read the instructions before switching on . _ _ _ _ to a halt yesterday. Mark: _ /5 4 Over a thousand casualties upon the civil population so far in the conflict. 6 Choose the correct form of ellipsis. Sometimes more than one 5 Residents resistance to the new parking laws answer is correct. introduced by the city council last week. 1 I apologise for hurting your feelings, Mark: _ /5 a I didn't. b I didn't mean. c I didn't mean to. 2 You can park in the garage 2 Write the noun form of these adjectives. a if you want. b if you want to. c if you want it. 1 wise 3 She's really tight·fisted now, but 2 altruistic a she didn't use. b she didn't use to. c she didn't use to be. 3 courageous 4 We didn't win the match, but 4 sincere a we could. b we could have . c we were able. 5 amiable 5 She's worried. Her boyfriend said he'd call, but Mark: _ /5 a he hasn't. b he wouldn't. c he wasn't. Mark: _ /5 3 Choose the correct words. 1 Paula has set her goals / sights on winning the gold 7 Complete the sentences with the particles below. medal in the Olympics. back off on out up 2 Igor hopes to get the job, but he's not realising / 1 My mother is hunting _ _ a costume for the party. counting on it. 2 She has to smarten _ _ if she wants to be promoted . 3 I can't see myself getting married in the foreseeable / 3 A colleague rounded _ _ her unexpectedly in the likely future. meeting. 4 Do you think he'll ever succeed / fulfil his ambition of 4 They hadn't understood, so she went _ _ over the playing for Real Madrid? rules. 5 They're not pinning their hopes / dreams on victory, but 5 We wanted to see our visitors _ _ properly, so we they're going to give it everything they've got. accompanied them to the airport. Mark: _ /5 Mark: _ /5 4 Complete the sentences with the verbs below and punctuate 8 Report the sentences using the verbs below. them correctly. blame claim rell'li-rltl suggest threaten warn gasp mutter sigh whisper yell 'Don't forget to empty the bin,' Jim's mother told him. 1 He to her you look gorgeous :rim'" moiher reminded him to emptj ihe bin 2 Slow down her husband we're going to crash 3 I suppose so she _ _ __ 1 'I think we should consult an expert,' said Amy. 4 Look at your leg Grace I think it's broken 2 'I've never cried at the cinema,' said Harriet. 5 Why doesn't he just get to the point Dan 3 'My iPod's broken and it's your fault!' said Mia to Ryan . 4 'If you don't pay, I'll sell the photos,' she said. Mark: _ /5 5 'Don't take the motorway as there's been an accident,' he told him . Mark: _ /5 68 I Language Review 5-6 stening Scientists have developed a In pairs, think about what has happened to Edgars so far. mind-reading technique which What problems is he currently facing? How should he tackle could one day allow them to take pictures of memories them, in your opinion? and dreams. By comparing brain activity scans, they g 2.16 Listen and choose the correct answers. were able to correctly predict 1 Edgars won't formally complain about being offered the which of 120 pictures job and then rejected because someone was focusing on in A it was probably a misunderstanding anyway. 90 per cent of cases. The B he doesn't have any proof. technique could one day form ( he doesn't have the money to pursue a complaint. the basis of a machine to o he doesn't have the same rights as British employees. project the imagination on to a screen. 2 What is Edgars's reaction to Tomas's comments about Professor Jack Gallant dreams? led the Californian research A He thinks Tomas may be right. team. Writing in the journal Nature, he said: 'It may B He finds it hard to understand what Tomas is saying. soon be possible to reconstruct a picture of a person's ( He pretends to agree at first, but then disagrees. visual experience from measurements of brain activity alone. Imagine a general brain-reading device o He's sceptical about Tomas's comments . that could reconstruct a picture of a person's visual 3 Tomas invites Edgars to experience at any moment in time .' A go out with him and his sister. Two scientists volunteered to look at 1,750 images B have dinner with him at his sister's house. while data was recorded from their brains and linked ( join him and his sister for dinner. mathematically to the 'points' that make up a 30 thought image . This link between brain activity and o have dinner with him, his brother and his sister. image was then used to identify which images were 4 Edgars is speechless when Rita arrives because seen by each volunteer from a new set of 120, just by A he recognises her from his dream. looking at their brain scans . B she fulfils all his romantic dreams. The research evokes sci-fi film Minority Report, where ( he realises that they've already met. police in the future read people's minds and arrest o he's pretending to be amazed . them for 'thought crimes'. But such a situation is a long way off, as the technique currently only works on viewed images, not imagined ones, and it takes hours . , 'Jeaking for the scanners to take the brain images. Professor Gallant said: 'It is possible that decoding 3 Think about your own dreams for the future. Make notes brain activity could have serious ethical and privacy about (a) three personal ambitions and (b) th ree hopes for implications in 30 to 50 years . We believe strongly th at t he world in general. no one should be subjected to any form of brain-reading involuntarily, covertly, or without comp lete In groups of three or four give a short presentation to the informed consent.' group about your dreams using your notes from exercise 3. reading Writing 5 Read the text quickly. Explain the connection between the 7 Read the question in the box and make notes for an essay. Use the paragraph plan below. text and the photo. 6 Answer these questions about the text. What would be the possible uses and misuses of a machine that could read people's thoughts and dreams? 1 Using current technology, what can scientists tell about a Do you think it would be a good or bad thing, on person's thoughts by looking at brain scans? balance? 2 What might a more advanced version of this technology allow them to do in the future? Paragraph 1 Introduction Paragraph 3 Possible misuses 3 What ethical issues would arise if this technology were Paragraph 2 Possible uses Paragraph 4 Conclusion successfully developed? 4 What safeguards does Professor Gallant suggest to 8 Write an essay of 200- 250 words, following your plan from prevent misuse of the technology? exercise 7. Skills Round -up 1-6 69 1 Work in pairs. What do you know about former US President until he arrived at the East Room Abraham Lincoln? Share your ideas with the class. which awoke him from his dream 2 Do the Reading exam task. K who were grieving as if their hearts would break READING exam task 3 Do the Use of English exam task. Read the text. Complete the text with the phrase (A-K) that best fits each gap. There is one phrase you do not USE OF ENGLISH exam task 0 need . Complete the second sentence so that it means the same A famous dream as the first. Use two to five words including the word Although Abraham Lincoln is given in brackets. Do not change the form of word given. today one of America's best- 1 'I didn't steal the money! ' said William . (denied) loved presidents, that was not William the money. always so. During the American Civil War he was hated by 2 ' Don't forget to write thank-you letters for your Southerners for abolishing presents ,' said Mandy to her daughter. (reminded) slavery, and 1_ _ _ that he Mandy thank-you letters fully expected to be murdered for her presents. by his political opponents, and 3 'I'll pay for the meal,' said jake. (insisted) had resigned himself to his fate . jake for the meal. According to a close friend of 4 'I'll send you to your room if you speak to me like that his, three days prior to his assassination, Lincoln recounted a dream he'd had to his wife and a few acquaintances, again,' said George to his son. (threatened) 2_ _ _ . In the dream, he was lying in bed in the White George to his room if he House in Wash ington , and there seemed to be a death-like spoke to him like that again . stillness around him. Then he began to hear quiet sobbing, 5 'You broke my MP3 player!' said Sally to Tom . (accused) 3_ _ _ • He got out of bed and wandered downstairs. Sally her MP3 player. There the silence was broken by the same pitiful sobbing, 6 'I won't tell anyone what you've told me,' said Fred . but he couldn't see who was making the noise. He went (promised) from room to room but they were all deserted, 4 _ _ _ • It was light in all the rooms and every object was familia r to Fred what I'd told him . him ; but where, Lincoln wondered, were all the people 7 'Thank you so much for everything you've done,' said 5_ _ _ ? He was both puzzled and alarmed.What could be Martha. (gratitude) the meaning of all this? Determined to find the cause, he kept Martha everything I'd on walking 6_ _ _ , wh ich he entered .There he met with a done. sickening surprise. Before him was a platform, 7_ __ • 8 'I'm definitely going to apply for the job,' said Ben . Around it were stationed soldiers who were acting as (intention) guards; and there was a crowd of people, some gazing mournfully upon the coffin, others crying bitterly. 'Who has Ben confirmed _ _ _ __ __ __ __ for died in the White House?' Lincoln demanded of one of the the job. soldiers. The President,' came the answer. 'He was killed by an assassin.' Then there was a loud exclamation of grief from the crowd, 8 _ __ . 4 Do the speaking exam task. Some people have ascribed a powerful meaning to his SPEAKING exam task ｾ＠ o. '. dream, claiming that 9_ __ . Others point out that, given the fact that he fully expected that someone would try to Compare and contrast the photos of two 'dream' assassinate him, 10_ _ _ • homes. What might the owners of these homes be like A although the same mournful sound s of distres s met and which photo more closely matches your idea of a him as he walked along ' dream' home? B as if a number of people were cryi ng C in which he foresaw his own death D it is hardly surprising that he dre amt of his own death E Lincoln knew that he was about to die F on which rested a coffin G such was their antipathy to wards him H he had had the dream befo re -70 Get Ready for your Exam 6 THIS UNIT INClUDES Vocabulary . informa l language • phrasal verbs with run and walk . sy nonyms of journey and walk • ph rases 'Jr 'softening ' ideas • nouns re lated to phrasal verbs • noun suffixes • easi ly confuse d wo rds • linkers : othe r J0 Urn eys :eople's expectations. benefits and drawbacks . cause, purpose and res ult . forma l language Grammar . -ing forms after preparatory it • emphasis Spe aking . talking about trave l . presentat ion: tourist destinations . ta lking ab out imm igra tion . presen tat ion : :l e benefits of tourism Writing. a letter of complaint Ｒ ｾ＠ 5 Match the verbs and particles to make phrasal verbs related to travel. They are all from the listening. 1 stop a round 2 show sb b up 3 touch c off (at) 4 get d away 5 hold e down 6 Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from exercise 5 and below. check into drop off pick up put up see off stop by stop over 1 The guy who _ __ the palace had some fascinating stories about the history of the place. 2 This evening the taxi ___ you _ _ _ in the town centre and _ _ _ you _ __ at the hotel. 3 My uncle's returning home to the States tomorrow. I'm going to the airport to _ _ _ him _ __ . 4 My plane ____ and I didn 't arrive until after midnight, so I _ _ _ a hotel near the airport. 5 Do _ _ _ in if you're ever in London. We can easily _ _ _ you _ _ _ . Discuss the difference in meaning between these words. 6 Last summer we _ __ in Greece on our way to Israel. Use your dictionary to help you. 1 a break 6 an outing m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.2: PHRASAL VERBS WITH 2 an expedition 7 a pilgrimage RUN AND WALK: WORKBOOK PAGE 108 <m 3 an excursion 8 a trip 4 a journey 9 a voyage 7 Make notes about a memorable journey, trip, excursion, etc. 5 a tour 10 travels that you have made. Use some of the words from exercises 2, 4 and 5, and try to include some informal words and phrases. ,; "2.17 Listen. What are the four speakers describing? 1 Where did you go? Match each speaker with a word from exercise 2. 2 What happened? Speaker 1 D Speaker 2 D Speaker 3 D Speaker 4 D 3 Why was it memorable? "2.17 Listen again. What informal equivalents did the 8 I.iQ#J3@1 Work in pairs and tell your partner about it. speakers use instead of these words? m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.3: SYNONYMS FOR WALK: Speaker 1 Speaker 3 WORKBOOK PAGE 108 <m 1 complain 7 dirty 2 very crowded 8 food 3 make sb pay too much 9 spend Speaker 2 Speaker 4 4 nervous 10 hotel or restaurant 5 exhausted 11 rain heavily 6 sleep 12 sell m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.1: INFORMAL LANGUAGE: WORKBOOK PAGE 107 <m Unit 7 • Journeys I 71 78 1 Look at the chart. Do any of the statistics surprise you? Why? 4 Read the information in the Learn this! box, then complete the sentences from the listen ing with the -ing form of the World's Top Ten Tourist Destinations ｾｲＢ＠ .. • I • verbs below. attempt backpack kip lug pay see trek 1 France 79 ·5 6 Turkey 29·3 1 For me it' d be a place well worth _ _ a visit because 2 USA 62 ·3 7 UK 29. 2 I'm really interested in doing outdoor activities. 3 China 57·6 8 Germany 28 ·4 2 It's always fascinating _ _ how other people live. 3 I' d find it really exhilarating _ _ through the 4 Spain 56·7 9 Malaysia 24·7 mountains at high altitude. 5 Italy 46 .1 10 Mexico 23-4 - 4 It's hard work _ _ all your equipment with you . 5 Obviously it'd be crazy _ _ to get to every country 2 Match the photos with four of the countries in the chart. inside a month. What do you know about the places in the photos? Would you 6 I actually think it would be fun _ _ on my own , a rea l like to visit them? Give reasons. adventure. 7 It's a bit of a pain _ _ on the train , but I' ll survive I' m sure. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 7.1: -ING FORMS AFTER PREPARATORY IT, NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: PAGE 125 <.m In informal speech you can soften ideas or ma ke them less precise by using the following words and phrases . a bit (of a) in a way in one way or another just kind of sort of or something along those lines or that kind of thing or some(thing) like that or whatever I just kind of want to visit somewhere really remote. (=In a way, I' d sort of prefer to go on a package holiday 3 "2.18 listen to three people talking about where they or that kind of thing.) would like to visit and why. Match three or four of the reasons below (1-10) to each speaker. 5 "2.18 Read the Speaking tip. Which of the phrases did Speaker 1 _ _ Speaker 2 _ _ Speaker 3 _ _ the speakers use in the listening? listen again and check your answers to exercises 4 and 5. 1 architecture 6 landscape 2 atmosphere 7 to improve language skills 6 Read these sentences aloud, adding some phrases from the 3 cultural activities 8 to meet people speaking tip. 4 food 9 outdoor activities 1 Paris, Rome and Madrid are good places to visit. 5 history 10 personal challenge 2 I' d like to travel round the world . ｾ＠ Iu -ing form with preparatory it 3 Tom wants to backpack or hitchhike round Europe. ｾ＠ｾ＠ It can be used as a preparatory subject or object for an 4 We're planning to visit the Seychelles or the Maldives. ｾ＠ -ing form, especially in informal style. 5 Thailand has to be top of my list of holiday destinations. ｾ＠ It was amazing walking along the Great Wall. 7 Work in groups of three. Decide on three places (e.g. a • It's fun travelling with friends . country, a city, a tourist site) that you would like to visit. It's no good just staying in hotels. Make notes on why you would like to visit those places, using I'd find it strange being on my own in a fore ign cou ntry. the ideas in exercise 3 to help you. It'd be tiring travelling non-stop to the south of Ita ly. In this structure with worth , the obj ect of the -ing form 8 l1#J311ti1 Present your ideas to the class. Try to use some can become the subject of the sentence . of the structures in the Learn this! box and the phrases in the Speaking tip. It's well worth visiting Paris. Paris is well worth visiting. 9 Take a class vote on the most popular destination. 72 Unit 7 Journeys M#J311tC1 Work in pairs. When, approximately, did the 3 Ju lius Caesar led a successful invasion of Britain . groups of people on the map invade Britain? Mark your 4 The Anglo·Saxon invaders lived peacefully alongside the answers on the map. The invasions are numbered in existing population of Britain . chronological order. 5 Despite many frequent attempts by the Danish to invade Britain , they never gained control. 6 The existing population welcomed the Norman invaders. 5 Write the compound nouns related to these phrasal verbs. '" n They are all in the listening. o --! r 1 come out outcome- 4 pull out "o :2 2 rise up 5 fall down Hadrian 's ••• ········Wal l 3 take over 6 make up ｾ＠ ｾ ｾ＠ y"" \,<-'" 6 Complete the sentences with nouns formed from the verbs in brackets combined with a preposition below. (Sometimes the c;;.. verb comes first, sometimes the preposit ion.) '"'" i' ｌｯｮＺｾ ｾ＠ ｾ＠ back off out out over up 1 There was an _ _ in the number of people fleeing the \ ANGLO·SAXONS 3 country. (surge) ｾ ｏｍａｎｓ＠ 2 Following the _ _ of war, the Britons launched an 1 NORMANS 5 attack on the Romans . (break) 3 The Celtic languages made a _ _ following the departure of the Romans. (come) 4 The Normans ruled Britain following the _ _ of the Anglo·Saxon nobility. (throw) What legacy did the invaders leave behind? Match the photos 5 There was a _ _ between the defenders and the to four of the groups on the map. invading forces . Neither could gain the upper hand . (stand) 6 Following the Norman invasion, the _ _ for the Anglo· Saxon people was bleak. (look) m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.4: NOUNS RELATED TO PHRASAL VERBS: WORKBOOK PAGE 108 cm 7 Make nouns from these words. They are all in the listening. 1 succeed (= follow) 5 know 2 migrate 6 conquer 3 attem pt 7 resist 4 invade 8 supreme m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.5: WORD FORMATION (2): WORKBOOK PAGE 109 cm 8 'i#MWCj Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Who were the earliest settlers in your country? 2 Were there any subsequent invasions? Who by? When? Was there much resistance? g 2.19 Listen and check your answers to exercises 1 and 2. 3 What legacy did the settlers and invaders leave, if any? (e.g. cultural, linguistic, po litical, etc.) g 2.19 Listen again and explain why these statements 4 When was the last uprising in your country? What was it must be false. about? 1 Foreign influences on the British identity began in the 5 Has there been an upsurge of migration in the past five nineteenth century. years? If so, why do you think that has been the case? 2 In the distant past people couldn't migrate to Brita in unless they came by sea . Unit 7 • Journeys 73 1 "i#13Im, Work in pairs. Answer the questions. Tiilrne trllvel 1 Do you know any stories or films in which the characters for beginnen travel through time? 2 Do you think it will ever be possible to travel through ｾ＠ Just over 100 years ago , in 1895, H. G. Wells's time? Why? / Why not? classic story The Time Machine was first published. As befits the subject matter, that was the 'minus tenth' anniversary 2 Read the text. Which sentence best sums up the opinion of of the first publication, in 1905, of Albert Einstein's special the writer? 5 theory of relativity. It was Einstein, as every schoolchild 1 Time travel runs co unter to common sense and must knows, who first described time as 'the fourth dimension' therefore be impossible. - and every schoolchild is wrong. As a matter of fact it 2 Time travel may one day be possible because the laws of was Wells who wrote in The Time Machine that 'there is no science do not rule it out. difference between Time and any of the three dimensions of 3 Time travel is impossible because of the inherent 10 ISPTe, jxcept that our consciousness moves along it: paradoxes. B Ever since then, writers have been fascinated by time travel, and especially by the paradoxes that seem 3 Match headings 1-6 with paragraphs A-F. to confront any genuine time traveller (something that 1 The impossibility of time travel Wells neglected to investigate) . The classic example is 2 Limitations 15 the so-called 'granny paradox', where a time traveller 3 Can we trust our common sense? inadvertently causes the death of his granny when she was 4 Versions of reality a little girl, so that the travelle(s mother, and therefore 5 A schoolboy error the traveller himself, were never born. In which case, he 6 A writer comes to the aid of the scientists did not go back in time to kill his relative, and so on . 20 A less gruesome example was entertainingly provided by the science-fiction writer Robert Heinlein in his story By His Bootstraps. The protagonist stumbles across a time- travel device brought back to the present by a visitor from the distant future. He steals the device and travels forward 25 in time. He constantly worries about being found by the old man from whom he stole the time machine - until one day, many years later, he realises that he himself is now the old man, and carefully arranges for his younger self to 'find' and 'steal' the time machine. 30 cs=D As these paradoxes show us, the possibility of our being able to travel through time is clearly irrational and runs counter to common sense. The problem is that common sense is not always the most reliable means of assessing scientific theories. To take Einstein's own 35 theories again, it is hardly common sense that objects get both heavier and shorter the faster they move, or that moving clocks run slow. Yet both of these predictions of relativity theory have been borne out many times in experiments. In fact, when you look closely at the general 40 theory of relativity - the best theory of time and space we have - it turns out that there is nothing in it to rule out the possibility of time travel. The theory implies that time travel may be exceedingly difficult, but not impossible. ｾ＠ Perhaps inevitably, it was through science fiction 45 that serious scientists finally convinced themselves that time travel could be made to work by a sufficiently advanced civilisation. What happened was this. Carl Sagan, a well-known astronomer, had written a novel in which his characters travelled through a black hole from 50 a point near the Earth to a point near the star Vega. 74 Unit 7 Journeys 4 Are the sentences true en or false (F)? In which paragraph(s) did you find the evidence? 1 Mo st scien tists dismiss the idea of different worlds Although he was aware that he was bending the accepted co-existing alongside one another. rules of physics, this was, after all, fiction . Nevertheless, 2 It won't be possible to travel through time until we are as a scientist himself, Sagan wanted the science in his a ble to find and control black holes. novel to be as accurate as possible, so he asked Kip 3 H.G_ Wells demonstrated the problems thrown up by the Th orne, an established expert in gravitational theory, to conce pt of time travel. ch eck it out and advise on how it might be improved. 4 The possib ility of taking a short-cut through space led After looking closely at the fictional equations, Thorne scientists to real ise that time travel may be theoretically rea lised that such a passage through space-time from one possible . black hole to another (a 'wormhole') actually could exist 5 Einstein's theories are validated both in scientific ,vithin the framework of Einstein's theory. Sagan gratefully experiments and by common sense. accepted Thorne's modification to his fictional 'star gate', an d the wormhole duly featured in the novel, Contact, S Read paragraphs Band Fagain and explain in your own DU b(iShrd in 1985. words: E The star gate, however, still only acted as a 1 the 'granny paradox'. shortcut through space. Scientists soon realised that, 2 the theory of parallel worlds. 'heoretically, a wormhole could just as well link two different times as two different places. While it is hard 6 Find one word from each pair in the text. Then translate the to see how any civilisation could build a wormhole time pairs of words into your language. machine from scratch, it is much easier to envisage that 1 classic / classical (line 2) a naturally occurring wormhole might be adapted to 2 unreasonable / irrational (line 31) suit the time-travelling needs of a sufficiently advanced 3 possibility / opportunity (line 42) civilisation. Sufficiently advanced, that is, to be able to 4 imply / infer (line 42) ravel through space by conventional means, and locate 5 excessively / exceedingly (line 43) an d manipulate black holes. Even then, there's one snag. 6 borne / born (line 98) It seems you can't use a time machine to go back in time o a point before which the time machine was built. You m> VOCABULARY BUilDER 7.6: EASilY CONFUSED can go anywhere in the future, and come back to where WORDS: WORKBOOK PAGE 109 <m you started, but no further. Which rather neatly explains why no time travellers from our future have yet visited us linkers that refer to the other person's expectations - because the time machine still hasn't been invented! as a matter of fact (paragraph A) ill So, where does that leave the paradoxes, and in fact (paragraph C) com mon sense? Actually, there is a way out of all the actually (paragraphs D and F difficulties, but you may not like it. It involves another the plain fact is (paragraph F) favourite idea from science fiction : parallel worlds. These to tell the truth are the 'alternative histories', which are envisaged as in some sense lying 'alongside' our version of reality. 7 Read the Learn this! box. Find four of the linkers in the text According to the theory, each of these parallel worlds is and then match all five linkers with their uses. just as real as our own, and there is an alternative history 1 used when admitting something for every possible outcome of every decision ever made. 2 used to show a contrast between the truth and what the Alternative histories branch out from decision points, other person believes bi furcating endlessly like the branches and twigs of an 3 used for talking about a fact that some people do not infi nite tree. Bizarre though it sounds, this idea is taken accept or may not like to hear seriously by a handful of scientists. And it certainly fixes 4 used to give extra details about something all the time travel paradoxes. According to the theory of 5 used to add a comment, of interest to the other person parallel worlds, if you go back in time and prevent your ow n birth it doesn't matter, because by that decision you m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.7: lINKERS (2): create a new branch of reality, in which you were never WORKBOOK PAGE 110 <m born. When you go forward in time, you move up the new branch and find that you never did exist, in that reality; 8 "i#M@1 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. but since you were born and built your time machine in 1 If yo u could travel back in time, when and where would the reality next door, there is no paradox. Hard to believe? you travel to? Give reasons. Certainly. Counter to common sense? Of course. But the 2 How might it change your view of the world? plain fact is that all of this bizarre behaviour is at the 3 Wo uld you try to change anything in the past? What? very least permitted by the laws of physics, and in some Why? cases required by those laws. I wonder what H. G. Wells would have made of it all. Unit 7 Journeys 75 7E Fly-drive commuting • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • For decades scientists have dreamed of building a car that can also fly, but it's only in the past few years, with the development of light-weight construction materials and highly efficient engines, that the dream has become a reality. I recently visited the headquarters of a company called Terrafugia in Massachusetts. 'What you are going to see,' said the young man who showed me around, 'will revolutionise the way we travel around.' He led me into a hangar. Before me stood the 'Transition', brainchild of a versatile, it's also fairly economical, travelling 13 km per litre of unleaded group of young graduates from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology petrol in the air and 17 km on the ground. The Transition has attracted a (MIT). It was while they were studying at MIT that they came up with the huge amount of general interest, but the question is, is there a market? idea, but not until they'd left college did they build the prototype. You can What may put a lot of people off is the price-tag: $148,000. The company drive the Transition to the airport, extend its wings, take off, fly up to 800 doesn't anticipate huge sales in the first year or so, but it does believe that km and land at another airstrip. Then, having folded up the wings, you can it's only a matter of time before hybrid car-planes replace conventional complete the journey to your destination by road. But not only is it very cars. 1 Read the text. What is unusual about the vehicle? 4 Rewrite the sentences to make them more emphatic, using the techniques in the Learn this! box. More than one answer 2 Read the Learn this! box and underline nine examples in the is sometimes possible. Compare your answers with a partner text of ways of adding emphasis. What is being emphasised and explain any differences. in each sentence in the Learn this! box? I don't like the design. It'f> the d{;f>ign I don't liKe. 1 I don't have a car, but I have a bicycle . ｾ＠ Adding emphasis 2 I've never read such a thought·provoking book. ｾＮ＠ｾ＠ 1 Cleft sentences 3 I don't like his attitude to women. ｾ＠ I don't understand how the Transition can take off. 4 I can't afford a new car. That's the problem. ｾ＠ » What I don't understand is how the Transition can 5 A man in a yellow jacket came round the corner. ｾ＠ take off. The cost may put a lot of people off. S "2.20 listen. How do the speakers make the following » It's the cost that may put a lot of people off. sentences more emphatic? 2 Fronting phrases 1 What are you doing? 5 Why did you do that? a negative and limiting expressions 2 I know I'm wrong. 6 Take a seat. I've rarely been so impressed by a new invention. 3 The weather's nice today. 7 You're wearing a nice tie. » Rarely have I been so impressed by a new 4 You've done well. invention. b adverbial expressions of place 6 Make the following sentences more emphatic. Say them out The pilot sat in the cockpit. loud, paying attention to the stress and intonation. » In the cockpit sat the pilot. 1 Where have you been? c Phrases such as The problem/trouble/truth/fact/ 2 You should apologise to me, not to him . question is, ... 3 He scored a fantastic goal. 3 Use of do/does/did for emotive or contrastive 4 Help yourself to more potatoes . emphasis 5 I was just dozing off when Jack burst in . The Transition looks elegant! » The Transition does look elegant! 7 t1Qi;@l[d Complete the sentences in an appropriate way, I don't like the colour, but I like the design. using an emphatic structure. Compare your answers with your » I don't like the colour, but I do like the design . partner. 1 What really bothers me is ... ID> GRAMMAR BUILDER 7.2: EMPHASIS: PAGE 126 <m 2 Rarely have I seen ... 3 It's not just me that ... 3 Read paragraphs A, C, D and F of the text on pages 74 and 75 4 What I've set my sights on is ... and find examples of ways of adding emphasis. 5 I don't ... , but I do .., 76 Unit 7 Journeys 7F (WM3@1 Look at the photos and the graph. What aspects of m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.8: EXPRESSING CAUSE, foreign travel do they show? PURPOSE AND RESULT: WORKBOOK PAGE 110 <m 4 Match 1-10 to a-j to make complete sentences. Look at the collocations in bold. 1 Increased carbon emissions have clearly had a detrimental 2 Climate change, then , is a major 3 Tourism can have a negative 4 Big hotels spring up along the coast, usually to the 5 The increased demand for water, for example, can pose 6 I don't think the benefits to local people outweigh 7 Local people benefit 8 When the purpose of travel is to learn about other cultures, it's clearly of mutual 9 I don't think we can avoid doing ' illi ons Number of passengers flying from UK airports 10 We should endeavour to minimise the damage 25 0 a from the money that tourists spend while they are on 200 holiday. 150 b effect on the earth's atmosphere . : 00 c a threat to rivers and lakes . d benefit to the tourist and the local people. 50 e the damage that tourism does. f detriment of the local environment 1953 1962 197 1 19 8 0 1989 19 98 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 g we cause to the environment. h concern, but by no means the only one. " 2.21 Listen to two people answering the question harm altogether. below. Which of their opinions and supporting arguments do impact on the physical environment. you find most persuasive? S Complete the phrases for generalising with the words below. Should people be encouraged to travel abroad on holiday, or discouraged? broadly by in in on to Generalising "2.21 Complete the fi rst gap in these sentences from the 1 _ _ the whole 4 _ _ _ and large listening exercise using the words below. If there is a second 2 _ _ _ a great extent 5 _ _ _ most cases gap, use a preposition. Then listen again and check. 3 _ _ _ general 6 _ _ _ speaking consequences due leads mean purpose resulted the reason this reason 6 Read the task below. Make notes about your opinion and 1 A vast increase in the number of flights over recent years arguments that support it. Include at least one opposing has _ __ __ _ increased carbon emissions. argument. Think about the environment, economic benefits/ 2 An increase in the number of visitors inevitably _ __ drawbacks, quality of life for your compatriots, and the image _ __ expansion and development. of your country abroad. 3 The local environment was _ _ _ __ _ the resort's popularity in the first place. To what extent does tourism benefit your country? 4 More hotels and more restaurants inevitably _ __ ｾ＠ more Should more tourism be encouraged? Give reasons for your opinions. strain on the local infrastructure. 5 The ___ __ _ more flights will be increased climate change . 7 (iUij3@1 Prepare a presentation of no more than three 6 For ___ , I think it's particularly important for peop le minutes using some of the phrases and collocations from to travel. exercises 3, 4 and 5. Then give your presentation to the class. 7 Climate change is partly _ _ _ __ _ carbon emiss ions from planes. 8 The ___ ___ travel is to learn about other cultu res . Unit 7 • Journeys , 77 7G 101#;@1[4 Describe the photos. What do you thin k the customer is saying? What do you think the call centre 33 Charles Road assistant is saying? Use the ideas below to help you. Morecambe Lancashire LA34 5GH IUUU.y b v 01 5 11 5 ... 24th August 2009 slow/pot E.' wrongly pr CE.'d goods Customer Services Dept. Sunny Day Holidays PO Box 342 Birmingham B89 6GH Dear Sir or Madam, Booking reference: SD3467PH-7 I have just 19ot back / returned from a holiday organised 101#;@1[4 Answer the questions. by your travel company and 2I'm writing / I am writing to 1 Have you ever wanted to complain about something you complain in the strongest terms about la number of / quite bought? Why? a few things. 2 Did you actually complain? If not, why not? If so, what 4First of all / To start with, on your web site 5you say the happened? hotel is / the hotel is described as being 'a short walk from the beach', 6but actually / whereas in fact it took us Read the letter of complaint. Choose the most formal nearly fifteen minutes to get there, walking briskly. 7What expressions to complete it. is more, / On top of that, the beach itself was dirty and there were a number of submerged rocks near the shore Answer the questions about the letter. 8 which made swimming hazardous / which meant it was 1 Where does the writer put (a) her own address? dangerous to swim. (b) the recipient's address? (c) the date? My second complaint concerns Sunny Day's representative 2 If the writer knew the name of the recipient, how would in the resort. 90 n our arrival, we were informed by your she (a) greet the person? (b) sign off? representative / When we got there your rep told us that the excursions IOwe'd / which we had pre-booked had Find tinkers in the letter with the following functions. been cancelled and that we would have to llmake our own How many more tinkers can you add to the tists? arrangements / sort it out ourselves if we wanted to see the local sights. l2To make matters worse, / Even worse, 1 making a contrast (find two) she llmade no apology for this / didn't say sorry and was 2 ordering points (find two) generally brusque and unhelpful. 3 making additional points (find two) Finally, I should like to l4draw your attention to / point 4 generalising (find one) out the quality of the food at the hotel. On the whole, breakfast and lunch were l5fine / great. However, dinner Match words 1-6 with their more formal equivalents below. was of a very poor standard and l6we were not offered / V IIV I I VV 11 U I v.... t'" they didn't offer us a choice of main dishes. 'ek All this has spoilt what should have been a wonderful 1 match 3 reply holiday, 17and I would therefore like a partial refund / so 5 many I want some money back. I suggest fifty per cent of the 2 ask for 4 buy 6 deal with cost of the holiday. Complete the sentences using the formal words from exercise I look forward to hearing from you. 6 in their correct form . Yours faithfully, 1 Despite _ __ calls to your office, up to now no one ___ my complaints. #eteu. PJOObW4f&b Helen Woodward 2 I am writing to complain about a CD player th at 1 _ _ _ from your shop. 3 As the holiday did not _ _ the description in the brochure, I shall _ __ legal advice from my soli citor. 4 Should you fail to _ _ to my letter, I shall have no option but to initiate court pro ceed ings. m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 7.9: FORMAL LANGUAGE: WORKBOOK PAGE 110 <m 78 Unit 7 • Journeys 7G &i#M!l[C1 Work in pairs. look at the holiday photos. What complaints might the holidaymaker make to the travel company? Use the ideas below to help you . :., ,..hUIIU, IIIC'UIUlt' I or' urc lar{!"Q' IN OVf r d [C,n -,t I ,tol'ln c,lh' Read the task, the advertisement and notes. Yo u have just returned from a short holiday in London and are very disappointed. Write a letter of 200-250 words to the customer services department of the company complaining about the holiday and the way in wh ich the advertisement m isled you. Getaway Breaks Two nights in London at ,.-- ｾｵｲ ｬ ｩＬ＠ the comfortable, friendly ｾ＠ Ine.\pful "taff 4 **** King's Hotel -: Panoramic views of the city ｾ＠ i ard ing Din" Only a short walk to London 's theatre land " wa" late.. Tour Sightseeing tour of the city la"te.d 30 min" l for \ land,j Only £130 per person , I fOOd. '- including meals V- Book now to avoid ,cc_'1d Ｍ｡ｴｾ＠ disappointment. Ｚｾ＠ 2.' i% ｾＬ＠ Write the middle section of your letter. Put each major complaint in a separate paragraph . Use some of the sentences from exercise 3. Write the final paragraph of your letter. Say what you expect Turn the notes from exercise 2 and some of the complaints in the company to do. Finish with an appropriate set phrase. exercise 1 into full sentences using the phrases below. 1 I was disappointed that / to (find) ... Once you have written a rough draft, check your work using 2 It is really unacceptable that ... the checklist below. Then write a final copy of the letter. 3 The brochure claimed that ... However, ... CHJCK YOUR WO _____ ｾ＠ 4 I was appalled that/by ... 5 What I found totally unacceptable was ... Have you: 6 To our horror, .. . included all the necessary information? 7 Seldom have I .. . lai d out your letter correctly? 8 One major problem was ... started and finished the letter correctly? used formal language, and linking wo rds? Write the first paragraph of your letter. Say why you are checked the spelling and grammar? writing. w ritt en the correct number of words? Unit 7 Journeys 79 1 Get read to SPEAK What reasons do people have for 4 Do the Use of English exam task. suddenly leaving home and starting a new life abroad? USE OF ENGLISH exam task 2 Make sentences about the photos using the words in the box. Complete the text. Write one word only in each gap. load (v) possessions precariously balanced ramp For such a small sea bird, the sooty shearwater has an ambitious removal van stack (v) strap (n) take ,_ _ _ the world . 2_ _ _ its diminutive size, it thinks nothing of flying from New Zealand to Alaska 3_ _ _ pursuit of 3 Do the Speaking exam task. an endless su mme r. For years, ornithologists have known that sooty shearwaters SPEAKING exam task breed off the coasts of New Zealand and Chile in the southern hemisphere, and then cross the equator to the rich summer Compare and contrast the photos. Answer the questions feeding grounds of the North Pacific , 4_ _ _ stretch from about each photo. California to Japan. Now a study has shown that this epic feat 5_ _ _ performed over a single breeding season, with individual birds travelling as far 6_ _ _ 62, 400 km in just one year. It is the longest migration route undertaken by individual animals that has been recorded by scientists, according 7_ _ _ Scott Shaffer, a research biologist at the University of California , Santa Cruz, who led the team behind the study. 'The 8_ _ _ bird species known that 9_ __ rival the migrations of the sooty she arwater would be the arctic tern, which breeds in the Arctic and migrates to Antarctica: Or Shaffer said . 'But we don't know 10_ __ they do that in a single season, because nobody's ever tracked them.' 5 Get read to LISTEN Read the sentences in the Listening exam task. What do you think the listening is about? 6 g 2.22 Do the Listening exam task. Listen to part of a radio programme. Choose the correct option(s) to complete the sentences. At least one of the options is always correct, and sometimes both options may be correct. 1 Humpback wha les A travel further in one go th an any other animal. B are born in warm waters off the coast of Central America . 2 The markings on the whales' tails enabled the researchers to A identify th e same whale in entirely different locations. B identify which calves belonged to which mothers. 3 Baby humpback whales 1 Why are the people moving, do you think? A spend the first year of their lives in warm water. 2 Where do you think they are going? B sometimes travel thousands of kilometres from the 3 How are their experiences different? breeding ground soon after they are born. 4 The researchers employed a satellite - EXAM TIP --= ｾＭ - =--- A to establish how warm the water is where the baby whales are born. Completing a text with appropriate words B to track the wha les' journey across the equator. .. Most of the missing words in this type of ta sk will be 5 One result of the research is that scientists now know 'grammar words' (articles, auxili ary verbs, pronouns, A which type of whales migrates the furthest. prepositions, etc.). B why humpback whales travelled north across the • Do not write more than one wo rd in each gap . equator. -==-S'O Get Ready for your Exam 7 THIS UNIT INCLUDES Tastes Vocabulary . clothes and styles . tWQ-part adjectives . colloquial lang uage • food related I'.ords 2nd Jh rases • phrases for describing statistics, graphs. charts and trends . phrases for giving estimates • periphrasis and euphemism· connotation Grammar . would . modal verbs Speaking . talking about attitudes to food . talking about youth cultu re . stim ulus based -discussion Writing . a report ti#J3@J Discuss this quotation by English eccentric 3 Read the Speaking tip . Work in pairs. Match as many of the Quentin Crisp. What does it mean? Do you agree? Are there words below as possible with the photographs in exercise 2. other reasons for wanting to be fashionable? General Fashion is what you adopt when chic dishevelled elegant neat scruffy shabby smart stylish trendy unkempt well-dressed you don't know who you are. Specific ti#M@J Look at the photos. Do you think these people garments: bandana corset cravat waistcoat look fashionable or unfashionable? Which clothes do you like parts of garments: buckle button collar cuff laces most and least? designs, materials, etc.: check denim fishnet ripped stripy studded tartan hair: bob dreadlocks extensions goatee plaits stubble accessories: bangle chain piercing 4 ti#J3@J Describe one photo from exercise 2. Follow the structure suggested in the Speaking tip. S g 3.01 Listen to four teenagers talking about clothes. Are the sentences true Cl) or false (F), or is the answer not stated (NS)? 1 Speaker 1 talks about a boy from school and recalls that casual clothes were his thing. 2 Speaker 2 was made to wear an outfit that, if it had be en up to her, she wouldn't have been seen dead in. 3 Speaker 3 thinks that the style of clothing worn by Chandler in Friends quite suits his brother. 4 Speaker 4 complains about having to wear clothes with logos on the front. 6 g 3.01 Complete these two-part adjectives with the words below. Try to remember which nouns they describe. Then listen again and check. fitting length neck piece sleeved tight toed up 1 th ree - 5 loose- 2 full- 6 long- 3 open- 7 skin- 4 V- 8 zip- ｾ｟ ｾｉｎｇｔｐ＠ - ｾＺＭＮ＠ ____ m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 8.1: CLOTHES IDIOMS: WORKBOOK PAGE 111 <m When describing a photo, it is often helpful to structure your description in this way: 7 t"l#@It?J Work in pairs. Tell your partner whether you agree general--7 specific --7 speculative or disagree with these statements, and why. For example, if describing a person's appearance, start 1 Women are more interested in fashion than men. by saying whether they look smart, casual, etc. Then 2 Some clothes only suit young people . describe their appearance in detail. Then speculate ab ou t 3 Yo u need a lot of money to always look fashionable. who they might be, where they might be going, etc . 4 Some clothes do not look good on anybody and should never be worn . Unit 8 Tastes 81 8B 1 "i#M@1 You are going to read part of an article called Meat 6 " 3 .02 Complete these excerpts from the listening with for vegetarians. What kind of meat do you think it could be? the words below. Then listen again and check. Discuss your ideas in pairs. craved foodie fuel gorge lived menu tooth 2 Quickly read the article and find the answer to exercise 1. touched treat 1 It was a real _ _ _ , going to the local take away. 2 Lots of things are off the _ _ . Meat for vegetarians 3 As teenagers , we _ _ _ nothing else. It is the ultimate conundrum 4 I pretty much _ _ _ on chocolate and sweets . for vegetarians who think that 5 1 hardly _ _ a piece of fruit. meat is murder: a revolution 6 My friends reckon 1 _ _ _ on chocolate . in processed food that will 7 I just don't have a sweet _ _ _ . see fresh meat grown from 8 I suppose 1 treat food as _ __ . animal cells without a single 9 My sister's a real _ _ _ . cow, sheep or pig being killed . Researchers have published 7 Study the following excerpts and match the uses of would to types 1-5 in the Learn this! box. Which example is difficult to details in a biotechnology journal describing a new technique match? Expla in the meaning of that example. which they hailed as the answer to the world's food shortage. Lumps of meat would be cultured in laboratory vats rather than 1 1 would have been about fourteen at the time . carved from livestock reared on a farm. 2 1 wouldn 't eat swordfish, for example . According to researchers, meat grown in laboratories would 3 I' d say the re are very few foods that are safe to eat! be more environmentally friendly and could be tailored to be 4 My dad wouldn 't let us have sugar when we were kid s. healthier than farm-reared meat by controlling its nutrient 5 But he would say that, wouldn't he? content and screening it for food-borne diseases. Vegetarians 6 She'd insist that we try it, though . might also be tempted because the cells needed to grow 7 1 would guess she's hoping to make a career out of it. chunks of meat can be taken without harming the donor animal. 8 I would love to sample their everyday dishes. Experiments for NASA, the US space agency, have already shown that morsels of edible fish can be grown in petri dishes, We can use would though no one has yet eaten the food. Now researchers have 1 with verbs like say and think to make a statement less taken the prospect of 'cultured meat' a step further by working definite. out how to produce it on an industrial scale. They envisage 2 to talk about habitual actions in the past. muscle cells growing on huge sheets that would be regularly 3 to talk about willingness (or unwillingness) to do stretched to exercise the cells as they grow. Once enough something in the past or in the hypothetical future . cells had grown, they would be scraped off and shaped into 4 with verbs like love, like and rather when talking abo ut processed meat products such as chicken nuggets. preferences . 5 to make a logical deduction (similar to must) . 3 Find examples of would in the text in exercise 2. How would m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 8.1: WOULD: PAGE 127 «<I the meaning be slightly different if these were changed to 8 Rewrite these sentences using would. will? 1 My dad always used to cook lunch on Sundays. 4 ..iQiM3 !l[?1 In pairs, discuss these questions about the text. 2 I'm not prepared to eat genetically modified food . Give reasons for you r answers. 3 He's trying to lose weight, probably. 1 Would you eat 'cultured meat' ? 4 Spending a year travelling has broadened her tastes in 2 Do you think many vegetarians would eat it? food , probably. 3 Do you think the mass producti on of 'cultured meat' 5 My mothe r refu sed to buy South African fru it because of would be a good or bad thing for t he wo rld? apartheid . 4 In general, do you think it is goo d to t ry new an d unusual 9 "iQt13@1 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. kinds of food? 1 Do you consider food to be fuel, or are you a bit of a 5 "3.02 listen to four people talkin g ab out t heir attitudes ' foodie'? Justify your answer. to food . Does each speaker eat a wider or narrower range of 2 How have your tastes changed over the years? food now than in the past? Why? 3 If you had to live entirely on three different dishes, what would they be? • 82 Unit 8 Tastes sc '" I.i#@1!d Work in pairs. Describe Our gang what the people in the photo are A #ippie wearing. Do some Who they are They may care about the environment but this crew young people are less alienated than their early 1990s counterparts. They don't reject the modern world - they embrace it to change it. dress like this Where you find them Noses buried in ecology books; organising in your country? online petitions. What their look is Sweatshirts from Howies; dreadlocks or undercuts. What they listen to Jungle-folk band Vampire Weekend; drum'n'bass DJ Mechanical Organic. Look quickly through the text Our gang. Which of the five B URBANITE styles does the photo in exercise 1 show? Who they are Street kids, but not as you know them - imagine mini-entrepreneurs who are ridiculously clued-up on art, fashion and, For questions 1-10, choose from the five styles (A-E). of course, music. Where you find them In the day, spot them skiving in their local Which gang record shop, looking for rare 1990s tracks to remix. Later, it's 1 is interested in creating music? D everyone over to a mate's place to hear his latest demo. 2 always dresses immaculately? D What their look is Hoodies from Supreme or Bathing Ape; limited- edition trainers. 3 is interested in 'green' issues? D What they listen to Oubstep, a heavier, more meaningful branch of 4 often wears very high shoes? D hip-hop. 5 tends not to mix with the opposite sex? D c Neo Indie 6 prefers the cinema to the television? D Who they are Instead of ruthless introspection, life for neo-indie kids 7 has a keen sense of business? D is about pushing each other home in trolleys and then posting the 8 enjoys provoking negative reactions? D photos online. Where you find them Travelling around town in single-sex packs; 9 often wears distinctive make-up? D queuing for tickets to see bands. 10 is more interested in fun than reflection? D What their look is Whatever it is - Topshop and American Apparel , mostly - it must be perfect. Match eight of the colloquial words in red in the text with What they listen to Their favourite band, of course. We Smoke Fags definitions 1-8. Then write similar definitions for the other and The Enemy are hot. six. Use the context to help you and a dictionary, if necessary. 1 ｾ Ｈ｡､ｪＩ＠having an ambition to be something o Nu GRAVE 2 _ _ (v) avoiding work/school Who they are Goths, but flamboyant ones. They love to be different 3 _ _ (adj) very tight and lap up the attention they get from shocked relatives. Where you find them Find them at nu-grave nights in grungy venues 4 _ _ (phr v) seeing or watching (a show, etc.) like Korsan Bar in east London. 5 _ _ (adj) dirty, not smart What their look is They take inspiration from the darker side of high 6 _ _ (adj) knowledgeable, well-informed fashion . Add wet- look hair, black lips, patent-leather trench coats 7 _ _ (phrv) accept gratefully and 20 cm platforms. 8 _ _ (n) a group of friends What they listen to Good-looking young nu-grave bands such as The Horrors and Ipso Facto. 5 Compare your six definitions from exercise 4 with your classmates. Do you agree on the meanings? E FAUX PUNK Who they are Art students and wannabe actors who live for Work in pairs or groups. creativity, love and their friends. Do not mistake them for real punks. 1 Decide on a distinctive style that is common among Where you find them Watching bands at the Dot to Dot festival in young people where you live. Invent a name for it, if it Nottingham; reading underground 'zines such as the PiX; taking in does not have one. films by Gregg Araki or Gus Van Sant; actively not watching telly. 2 Make notes about the style using the same subhead ings What their look is Like old punks, but much better-looking. Yellow as the ones in Our gang . OMs; su per-skin ny jeans; McQ vests; biker jackets. 3 Write a text about the style similar to the ones in Our What they listen to Good-looking, well-dressed bands such as Gallows and Late of the Pier. gang. Use colloquial language where possible. Unit 8 Tastes 83 1 "i#;@1td Read the newspaper cutting and answer the 4 Technology developed to keep cooking oil fresh could questions. help the world's poorest people by a increasing their consumption of nutrients. 1 What are nano-particles and what potential benefits do b preventing fish from going off too quickly. they have in relation to food? c alerting them when water supplies become 2 Why are some people concerned about nano-particles contaminated. in food? d enabling them to purify water more easily. 5 At its most advanced, nano-technology might enable 104 products on shelves already consumers to contain toxic nano-particles, a experience previously undreamed-of combinations of tastes. warns Friends of the Earth b make any food they can think of without the need for conventional ingredients. Potentially toxic chemicals are being incorporated into food, c have a much higher level of protein in their diet. packaging, health supplements and other products by stealth, it d avoid foods they dislike altogether. is claimed. Manufacturers boast that nano-particles, which are thousands of times thinner than a human hair, can deliver drugs 6 In the opinion of the scientist David Bennett, how will th e or vitamins more effectively, kill harmful bugs in food or create public react to nano -food? self-cleaning windows. But scientists, consumer groups and green a They'll give it a cautious welcome. campaigners fear the technology is being introduced into the diet, b They'll be too concerned about the dangers to welcome Ｎ ｾ＠ body and environment without proper safety checks. c They'll eventually be won over by all the potential benefits. d They'll want to decide whether the potential benefits 2 Look quickly through the text on page 85 . Match paragraphs outweigh the dangers. 2-6 with five of the headings below. 7 How is the size of nano-particles relevant to their Create your own flavours Healthier and more exciting food potential dangers? Products available now Public protests Tiny toxins a Most substances are toxic at nano-scales . Unknown dangers b They are too small for scientists to track their position. Paragraph 1 lntrodudion c Once they're inside the body, they behave like viruses. Paragraph 2 d Their microscopic size allows them to pass through th e Paragraph 3 body's usual defences. Paragraph 4 ,. Find these words in the text. Paragraph 5 Paragraph 6 Paragraph 1 two sweet dishes and two savoury dishes Paragraph 2 four adjectives that describe food or drink 3 Read the text and choose the best answers. Paragraph 3 two things that can spoil food and make it 1 What does Willy Wonka's magical chewing gum have in inedible common with types of nano-food in development? Paragraph 4 three of the elements that most food contain s a They both contain an exciting mix of tastes. (such as carbohydrate ...) b Both are appealing to young children. Paragraph 5 four words which mean danger c They both allow the consumer to choose the flavours . Paragraph 6 four organs of the human body d They're both made in a factory. 5 Work in pairs. Write as many words as you can under these 2 Which elements of 'programmable food' would headings in three minutes. Which pair has the most words? consumers be able to determine by zapping it? 1 sweet dishes 3 adjectives that describe food or dri nk a colour, consistency and nutritional value 2 savoury dishes 4 elements that food contains b temperature, colour and taste c taste, nutritional value and colour 6 ..1QiM3i1t?l Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. d texture, taste and colour 1 Would you be willing to eat food which contained nano- 3 Unlike ordinary packaging, 'smart' packaging particles? Why? /Why not? a keeps food fresh permanently. 2 Do you think research into nano-food should be banned ? b prevents any oxygen from reachi ng the food. Why?/Why not? c has yet to arrive on supermarket she lves. d can monitor the condition of the food it contains. m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 8.2: TALKING ABOUT FOOD: WORKBOOK PAGE 111 <m 84 Un it 8 Tastes Most people have heard about the 'smart' 'nanobiotechnology', believes the public will ano-food Willy Won ka is the father of nano-food. food packaging that will warn when oxygen has got inside, or if food is going off - research on that is complete and the almost certainly reject nano-food because of the perceived perils. 'Very little risk assessment has been done on this area, --e great chocolate-factory owner, you'll products are arriving . Samsung has fridges even on some products already entering =;nember, invented a chewing gum that on the market in Asia and America that use the market'. What's to be afraid of, from a ｾｳ＠ a full three-course dinner. 'It will be nano-silver to kill bacteria. Also available technology that offers so much - healthier :.-e end of all kitchens and cooking; he told in American supermarkets is cooking oil food, fewer, better-targeted chemicals, less :.-e children on his tour - and produced a that, in theory, can be kept fresh for ever - waste, 'smart' (and thus less) packaging, Ｚｾｯｴ ｴｹｰ･＠ sample of Wonka's Magic Chewing thanks to nano-engineered molecules which and even the promise of a technological ｾｊｭ Ｎ＠ One strip of this would deliver tomato lock onto contaminants. These could also solution to the problem of the one billion ;.::u p, roast beef with roast potatoes and simplify the process of cleaning drinking people who don't get enough to eat? 'Matter :.ileberry pie and ice cream - in the right water - potentially hugely important for has different behaviour at nano-scales; :-:Jer. the developing world. In Australia, you can says Dr Kees Eijkel from the Dutch Twente : Far-fetched? The processed-food giant buy bread that contains undetectable nano- University. 'That means different hazards -a ft and a group of research laboratories capsules of omega-3, a valuable nutrient are associated with it. We don't know what ｾＭ･＠ busy working towards 'programmable found naturally in oily fish like salmon . these are: For example, some metals will kill =::od'. One product they are working on is 4 Food manufacturers including Unilever bacteria at nano-scale - hence the interest :0 colourless, tasteless drink that you, the and Nestle plan to use nano-encapsulation in using them in food packaging - but what ::nsu mer, will design after you've bought it. to improve shelf life and engineer will happen if they get off the packaging Ju'll decide what colour and flavour you'd taste sensations in fat-based foods like and into us? Could they be a threat to our ｾＨ ･＠ t he drink to be, and what nutrients it chocolates, ice creams and spreads. There health? No one seems to know. ｾｬ＠ have in it, once you get home. You'll could be huge reductions in fat and salt 6 The size question is central to these 3D the product with a correctly-tuned in processed foods . Unilever believes it concerns. Nano-particles that are under 100 -:crowave transmitter - presumably Kraft can reduce the fat content of ice cream nano-metres wide - less than the size of ill sell you that, too . This will activate from fifteen per cent to one per cent. In a virus - have unique abilities. They can -3no-capsules - each one about 2,000 the future, atomic-level encapsulation cross the body's natural barriers, entering :-l1es smaller than the width of a hair - techniques will get more sophisticated. A into cells or through the liver into the :Jntaining the necessary chemicals for your chef might decide that some flavours in his bloodstream or even through the cell wall :loice of drink: green -hued, blackcurrant- dish would only be released to the eater a surrounding the brain. 'I'd like to drink a '::.3vo ured with a touch of caffeine and certain number of seconds or minutes after glass of water and know that the contents :iega-3, say. They will dissolve while all chewing, or when they sip a glass of wine. are going into my stomach and not into my :.-e other possible ingredients will pass Further ahead, the industry is looking at lungs; says Dr Qasim Chaudhry of the British _1used through your body, in their nano- food that is pre-engineered to cater for your government's Central Science Laboratory. 'We 3psules. tastes, your dislikes and yo ur allergies - or are giving very toxic chemicals the ability to 3 The end of cooking? Probably not. But just built from scratch . Ultimately, it might cross cell membranes, to go where they've -ano-food and nano-food packaging are be possible to create any mea l you want never gone before. Where will they end up? :1 their way because the food industry at the push of a butto n, using noth ing but It has been shown that free nano-particles - 3S spotted the chance for huge profits: pla nt protei ns. inhaled can go straight to the brain . There ::cording to analysts, the business will soon 5 But Dr David Bennett, a vet era n are lots of concerns. We have to ask - do :e worth$20 billion annually. You'll first biochemist now working on a Europea n the benefits outweigh the risks?' -eet nanotechnology in food packaging. Commission project on the ethics of Unit 8 Tastes 85 BE 1 li@t13l/(ti Look at the newspaper cutting and explain the 4 Look at the photo of a wordplay in the headline. What do you think the sandwich dessert that costs might contain? $25,000 and talk about it using How does Ihe £110 sandwich these phrases. lasle;lln a word: rich It's not a ..... ｾ＠ It must be ... It couldn't be .. . You'd have to .. . People should/ gimmick, shouldn't ... because ... says chef who 5 g 3.03 Listen to a created it. conversation about the dessert. Who would like to try it: the man or the woman? 6 g 3.03 Read the sentences from the conversation . Decide which modal makes better sense in the context. Then listen 2 Read opinions 1-7 aboutthe £110 sandwich. Decide which again and check. modal or modals fit each gap. Try to explain why the other(s) 1 They may / must have sold hundreds. do not fit. 2 You might / may have told me you were going to New 1 'It _ _ be a publicity stunt by the restaurant.' York next week! a can b must c should 3 You could / should take him out for a meal. 2 'A sandwich _ _ be worth £110, however amazing.' 4 We may / might have been arrested. a can't b mustn't c couldn 't 5 You might / should have a better evening this time . 6 It couldn't / might not be any worse! 3 'People _ _ spend so much on a sandwich when 7 You could / may give me a lift to the airport! there's poverty and hunger in the world.' 8 Well, if you might / should try it, let me know! a shouldn't b ought not to c don't have to 4 'If you think it's a waste of money, you _ _ buy it.' 7 Explain how the meaning of each sentence in exercise 6 a needn't b mustn't c don't have to would change if the other modal were chosen. 5 'If you have that much money to spend, you _ _ buy a 8 Work in pairs. Decide whether the sentences are natural sandwich for f3 and give £107 to charity.' English or not. Improve the sentences which are not. a have to b ought to c should 1 This dessert is amazing. You really must try it! 6 'The moral is : You _ _ believe everything you read in 2 The food there is always terrific, but the service could be the newspapers!' a bit slow sometimes. a mustn 't b don't have to c needn 't 3 ' Could I try your pizza?' 'Yes, you could . Go ahead!' 7 'A lot of people _ _ work for a whole day or more to 4 Customers may only consume drinks purchased on the earn £110! ' premises. a must b have to c should 5 My credit card bill is astronomical! I guess I ought not to have spent so much on eating out! 3 Look at your answers to exercise 2. Decide which modals we 6 It's only another 30 kilometres . We should be there in use to talk about 1-7. time for dinner. 1 what we believe is right (_ _ or _ _) 7 I prefer eating out now that people mustn't smoke 2 what we believe is wrong Ｈ ｾ＠ _ _ or _ _) anywhere inside a restaurant. 3 what we can deduce is definitely tru e (_ _ ) 8 Because my sister works in a restaurant, she must work 4 what we can deduce is definitely not true (_ _ or late every night. - - ) 5 what we are obliged to do (_ _ ) 9 liQf;1@(Cj Work in pairs. Discuss the question. 6 what we are not obliged to do (_ _ or _ _ ) Is it morally wrong for people to pay that much for a 7 what we are obliged or strongly advi se d not to do (_ _) restaurant dish, even if they can afford it? Why? / Why not? fl» GRAMMAR BUILDER 8.2: MODALS: PAGE 127 <m 86 Unit 8 Tastes SF Work in pairs. Match the charts (1-4) with their names and 3 "3.04 Listen again. Tick the expression (a or b) that the their descriptions (a-d) below. speakers use. (Both are valid expressions.) bar chart graph pie chart table 1 a For me, the most interesting aspect is .. . b What strikes me as most interesting is .. . 1 ideal forD 3 _ _ _ ideal forD 2 a ... a sharp rise in the total number of ... 2 ideal forD 4 _ _ _ ideal forD b ... a significant increase in the total number of ... a displaying statistics which total 100% 3 a ... a very large proportion of people ... b showing how a situation has changed over time b ... the vast majority of people ... c visually comparing two related sets of statistics 4 a The chart tells us that .. . d presenting a variety of statistical information in a clear b According to the chart, .. . but non-diagrammatic form 5 a ... more or less the same number of people ... b ... roughly equal numbers of people ... Estimated sales ofFairtrade products Regular vs occasional buyers of Fairtrade products 6 a ... seeing it in this form really brings home to you ... 20 0 0 50 b ... the way it is presented helps to emphasise ... 16 0 0 40 7 a There's a strong tendency to reject ... /embrace .. . r-- b There's a definite trend away from ... /towards .. . 1 20 0 % 30 80 0 ...... 8 a ... the rate has remained quite stable ... 20 b ... the rate has not fluctuated very much ... 40 0 10 • Regular 9 a There has been a slight increase/decrease in ... • Occasional b ... has increased/decreased marginally . 2010 2011 2007 2011 10 a The significance of this is that ... b This is significant because ... In an average week, how often do you eat at a fast-food outlet? 4 Explain the following expressions. Use language from exercise 3 where appropriate. Rates of obesity have : 1 rocketed 5 plateaued every day 7% 2 crept up 6 slumped . /: 3 plummeted 7 tailed off 3 times or more 8% 4 multiplied 8 stabilised :} Sales of organic food 5 Complete the sentence below using expressions below in 530 position a or b. Which expression could go in either position? 52 5 What other words could you use to mean the same? 52 0 Fast food consumption has risen (a) 10 - 5:5 per cent (b) ｾ＠ _ _ ｾ ｟＠ - 5:0 give or take a per cent in round numbers in the region of Ss more or less or thereabouts something like o 2 0 01 2 002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2 0 07 2 0 08 2009 2010 ｬＭｾｪｊＡ｜＠ ｬＧｩＡ｡］ｾ＠ Healthy eating When you are talking about charts and statistics, do not simply report the information they contain . Give a personal reaction too. What is surprising or important about the information? 6 Read the Speaking tip. Which expressions from exercise 3 can be used to give a personal reaction? " 3 .04 Listen to four people talking about different charts. For each speaker, identify what the general topic of the chart 7 ti#13I/t?A Talk about the information contained in the charts in exercise 1. Use expressions from exercises 3, 4 and 5 they are speaking about is. where possible. Speaker 1 ｾ ｾ ｾ｟＠ Speaker Ｓ ｾ ｾ ｟＠ Speaker 2 ｾ ｾ｟＠ Speaker Ｔ ｾ＠ _ __ 8 ti#@i!?A Turn to page 152 and do the exam task. Unit 8 Tastes 87 8G Introduction showcase for local talent, it's garnering quite a reputation The aim of this report is to give an among serious music fans in the area. Tickets are insight into the wide range of live reasonably priced, with concessions for students and the music that is available in this area, unemployed. The room is a little cosy, to say the least, but and to single out one venue which that adds to the atmosphere I That said, it does have a I would particularly recommend tendency to be very crowded on Saturday nights, perhaps visiting. unpleasantly so . Stage One is somewhat larger than the Cave, with an advertised capacity of 350 as opposed to the Large venues Cave's 250. They tend to attract slightly better-known acts, There are two live music venues of but at £25- 30 a throw, tickets aren't exactly cheap, and a reasonable size the Apollo and the when bought over the phone incur an Hippodrome. These attract headline additional booking fee of £2.50 acts from all parts of the UK, and per ticket . occasionally from overseas too. The Apollo has recently been refurbished Recommendation and is clean, well-run and well-appointed. To my mind, If you only have time to however, it is a little on the sterile side. The Hippodrome is visit one venue , I would the polar opposite dark, grungy and chaotically-managed recommend Its - and it could certainly do with better air-conditioning. But programme includes the best w hat it lacks in slickness, it makes up for in character I bands in the UK and while it Smaller venues may not be the most polished gig you've ever seen, it should If it's internationally-renowned performers you' re looking be a memorable evening. for, the Cave isn't the venue for you. However, as a l>iQfr'l@[Cj Compare and contrast the photos. Which gig Read the Writing tip. Then find examples of periphrasis and would you rather be at? Give reasons. euphemism in the text with the meanings below. 1 It's sterile . Read the report about live music venues in the writer's area. 2 It needs better air-conditioning. Answer t he questions. 3 It isn't slick, but it has character. 1 Is the report written in formal or relatively informal 4 The Cave doesn't have internationally-renowned language? Give examples to support your answer. pe rfo rm ers. 2 Who do you think the intended audience for the report 5 The room is small. might be? Give reasons. 6 It's very crowded on Saturday nights . 3 Which venue does the writer recommend? Complete the 7 Tickets are expensive. gap in the report. 8 The gig won't be polished, but the evening should be memorable. Find words or phrases in the text which mean the opposite of 1-8. Soften these negative comments using periphrasis or 1 un known acts 5 overpriced euphemism. 2 badly-managed 6 empty 1 The band isn't very successful. 3 poorly-equipped 7 unrehearsed 2 The drummer isn't skilful, but he's enthusiastic. 4 clean 8 forgettable 3 The song isn't very original, but it's catchy. 4 The singer's voice is unattractive . 5 The singer sometimes goes out of tune. In order to soften a negative comment, we often use 6 The stage is too small. periphrasis (using more words than nece ssary) or 7 The sound system sometimes doesn't work. euphemism (replacing negative or offe nsi ve words with 8 The room is too hot. something less direct). Periphrasis: This venue is a little on the shabby side. l>i#MIItCj Discuss the questions as a class. (instead of This venue is shabby.) 1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of listening Euphemism: The floor could do with a clean . (in stead of to live music, rather than recorded music? The floor is dirty.) 2 Which performers would you most like to see performing live? Give reasons. 88 Unit 8 Tastes 8G M#@1tiI Work in pairs. Compare and contrast the In pairs, think of words which have the same core meaning restaurants in the photos. Which would you prefer to eat at, as the words below, but a less negative connotation. Use a and why? dictionary if necessary. 1 bossy - assertive 5 scrawny 2 stubborn 6 arrogant 3 tactless 7 flippant 4 out-dated 8 abnormal A report should be laid out in the clearest possible form. Unlike other forms of writing, it is fine to use subheadings in a report. Read the Writing tip. Then, in pairs, read the task and decide what headings to use for sections 2 and 3 of the plan below. Divide the venues according to size, style of food, price, or your own idea. A group of foreign students are visiting your town fo r a Read these two descriptions of the same restaurant meal. week. Write a report giving information about the range Which is more positive about the experience? of cates and restaurants. Include at least one personal recommendation. A Lunch was a relaxed affair. I began with a light starter of garlic prawns. This was followed by 'Creole Gumbo', 1 Introduction (the aim of the report) a novel combination of pork, chicken and seafood 2 (first type of venue) which came with a side dish of succulent vegetables. 3 (second type of venue) For dessert, I opted for the mango sorbet, which was 4 Recommendation particularly sweet. B Lunch was a long and drawn·out affair. I began with a J.1#'@(ij Work in pairs. Talk about cafes and restaurants meagre starter of garlic prawns. This was fo llowed by you know (or invent them if you don't know any). Add notes to 'Creole Gumbo', an odd concoction of pork, chicken the plan in exercise 6. Decide which venue to recommend. and seafood which came with a side dish of soggy vegetables . For dessert, I opted for the mango sorbet, Working individually, write a report of 200-250 words which was particularly sickly. following your plan from exercise 6. Remember to write in an appropriate style for your audience. Include at least one example of periphrasis or euphemism. Words with the same core meaning can have very Check your work using the list below. different connotations: these give us information about the writer's attitude. CHECK YOUR WO ＭＺｾ＠ Have you: Read the Writing tip. Find words in the texts in exercise followed the plan? 2 which share the same core meaning but have different written the correct number of words? connotations. included at least one examp le of periphrasis or Find pairs of words with similar core meaning below. Decide: euphemism? used words with positive/negative connotations? a whether each pair is most likely to be used when used correct grammar and vocabulary? describing a restaurant's food, staff or interior. --- b which word in each pair has a more positive connotation . eSPrtpd n.c ｵ｢｣［ｾ｡ｮｴ＠ rlmr<-I "",arty hE avy h'H iec' ,:;1 ntimdte i-rltrtt<rtVt" laid back Ii<rh attentive - intrusive describing staff 'attentive' is more positive Unit 8 Tastes 89 7-8 Vocabulary Grammar 1 Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs formed from a 5 Rewrite the sentence with extra emphasis using the words in verb in A and a particle in B. Use active or passive. brackets. A check drop get hold show stop I was first attracted to his smile . (it) B around away into off over up It wa& ni& &mile- tI1at I wa& fir&t attracted to Harry was c;nuking into the hotel when I arrived. 1 We need to know when their flight is due. (what) 2 The new head teacher is charming, and she's very 1 We aren't having a holiday this summer, but I'm sure we professional too. (only) _ _ _ __ to somewhere nice in the autumn . 3 He earns too little to support himself. (truth) 2 They arrived two hours late because they _ _ _ __ 4 Your new haircut looks nice. (does) in the rush hour traffic leaving London. 5 I don't understand why he's upset. (what) 3 Emma's taxi was late her at the 6 You told everyone my secret. (it) station, so she nearly missed her train . 7 We're lost. (fact) 4 During our flight to Australia last year we _ __ __ 8 I rarely stopped to think about her feelings. (did) in Singapore for four hours. 5 She the exhibition by the artist himself. Mark: _ /8 Mark: _ /5 6 Tick the verbs which can complete the sentences correctly. (Sometimes both are correct.) 2 Complete the sentences using a noun related to the phrasal verb in brackets. 1 They were going to call this morning, so he _ about the job by now. 1 There has been an _ _ of flu. (break out) a would know b should know 2 There was a peasant _ _ in 1917. (rise up) 2 I'm amazed that she _ you like that. 3 The _ _ has caused many job losses. (take over) a would treat b should treat 4 The scandal led to the president's _ _ . (fall down) 3 They took some extra blankets in case they _ cold . 5 Boy band Take That made a _ _ in 2006. (come back) a would get b should get Mark: _ /5 4 We _ to express our thanks by inviting you both to dinner. 3 Complete the sentences with compound adjectives formed a would like b should like from the words in brackets. 5 It's essential that everyone _ on time. 1 It didn't look as if it would rain, so she put on a would arrive b should arrive her _ _ - _ _ (toe) sandals. Mark: _ /5 2 My brother is cultivating his trendy image by wearing _ _ - _ _ (skin) T-shirts wherever he goes. 7 Complete the sentences with the modal verbs below and the 3 There was a cold breeze and less wished she had worn a correct form of the verbs in brackets. _ _ - _ _ (sleeve) top instead of a T-shirt. 4 Since she's been pregnant, my sister feels more can't may not might must needn't comfortable in _ _ - _ _ (fit) garments. ought not to should 5 losh wanted to make a good impression, so he wore a 1 Candidates (leave) the room until the _ _ - _____ (three) suit to the interview. examination is over. Mark: _ /5 2 lane's dad is furious with her for having a party while he was away. He says she (ask) him first. 4 Give the sentences a more negative connotation by replacing 3 You Ooke) if you think I'm going to lend the underlined words with the words below. you the money for my birthday present! 4 People (put) used batteries in their cloying cramped crowded fte8vy sloppy household rubbish. 1 They were served a l1.e-avV breakfast. ne-,w,/ 5 He _ _ _ _ _ (tell) me he wouldn't be home for 2 We were served a sweet dessert. lunch! 3 The streets are bustling with shoppe rs. 6 There's plenty of time so we (hurry). 4 The tavern had an intimate atmo sphe re. 7 You (see) Tom yesterday. He's in China . 5 The waiters have quite a laid-ba ck atti tu de . Mark: _ /7 Mark: _ /5 90 I Language Review 7-8 1-8 1 Dublin's physical appearance is misleading because it makes the city Choose a capital city that you would like to visit. Think about A seem poorer than it really is . why and make notes. B seem colder than it really is. Work in groups. Present your ideas to the other members of C seem less lively and up·to·date than it really is. your group. D look grander and wealthier than it really is. 2 What has been the effect of European funding on Dublin? eading A The city has become very expensive. B The city has changed faster than the rest of Ireland . ead the text. For questions 1-4, choose the best answer. C The city no longer has a strong sense of history. D The city has rebuilt many of its derelict buildings. 3 The fact that Dublin's population has grown rapi dly A is good news for people under 25 . B has had positive and negative consequences. C has damaged the economy of other region s. D has meant some people can't find housi ng. 4 The writer advises visitors to Dublin to A see both the old and the new parts of th e city. B ignore whatever they previously thought about the city. Dublin • • • • C ignore the city's bad points. _JoY-slung, grey and solid, Ireland's premier city can look D find out about the history of the city befo re th ey arrive. =_rpri singly dark and gloomy at first glance. Its appearance - :.-e result of its 19th-century architecture of Irish stone and Listening ｾ｡ｮ ｩ ｴ･＠ - is deceptive. The town itself is anything but gloomy, ｾ［｝､＠ it's not the stodgy, old-fashioned city of the late 20th 4 g 3.05 Edgars, Tomas and Rita are on holiday in Dublin . :?'ltury. Behind all those sturdy columns and beneath all that Listen and identify the three locations for the dialogue. ｾＭ･ｹ＠ is the real, modern, Euro-Dublin - an affluent place filled "th trendy coffee shops, organic juice bars, pricey five-star S g 3.05 Listen again. Complete each sentence with a single word. o:staurants and expensive designer boutiques. The European -oney that has flooded in over the last decade changed many 1 Edgars says that the hotel reservation was made _ _ . :'"1i ngs in Ireland, but it altered Dublin most of all, catapulting 2 Edgars complains that his room looks really _ _ . :.-is historic town from the early 20th century, where it had 3 One bad thing about the hotel restaurant is that they are madeto _ _ . _' -gered too long, into the 21st, where it now revels in its own 4 By the time the food arrives, Rita no longer feels _ _ . .:.ccess. Gon e are the days when many visitors to Ireland chose to 5 Regarding his new business, Edgars feels _ _ . .:<i p Dublin altogether. Nowadays, a weekend in Dublin is one 6 Rita would prefer to have their next meal in the _ _ . := the hottest city breaks in Europe, as people pile into its old :Jbs and modern bars, shop in its thriving markets and malls, Writing ｾ Ｌ ､＠ relax in its trendy cafes. Because of all of this, Dublin's 6 Imagine you are Edgars, Rita or Tomas. Make a note of three :opulation has swollen to 1.5 million ; more than a third of different things you were unhappy with at the hotel in Dublin. :."'e Irish population lives in this city, which , while good news Invent details or use information from the dialogue. - r the economy, has residual side effects of overcrowding, -:gh property prices, and gridlocked traffic. It has also helped 7 Write a letter of complaint to the hotel. Say: -ake Dublin one of the world's most youthful cities, with an • what you are complaining about and why. :;sti mated 50% of the population under 25 years old. • what you would like the hotel to do about it. It is a contrary, amusing, complex small city, and my advice : 0 those who haven't been here in a while, or who have never :een here is this: the first thing you should do is leave you r : reco nceptions behind. Then you can see this historic, mode rn , -"..awed, charming, and entertaining city for what it really is. Skills Round·up 1-8 91 1 What are the advantages and 4 Do the Use of English exam task. disadvantages of bottled water, as opposed to tap water? Which do you prefer to drink? Read the text and decide wh ich word or phrase (A- D) best fits each gap. Water for £50 a litre Claridge's has taken luxury to a new 1_ _ _ by offering its guests more than 30 , ___ of water - with prices stretching to as much as £50 a litre. The opulent hotel in the heart of London has l _ __ an extensive menu with water from places as far flung as Norway, Patagonia, New Zealand and Hawaii. Customers are given advice on which water is best 4 _ _ _ to what occasion. For those suffering from exhaustion or trying to get over jet lag, OGO spring water from the Netherlands contains 35 times more oxygen than 5_ _ _ water 6_ _ the drinker. The If you miss an answer during the first listening, don't most expensive on the menu is 420 Volcanic, spring water worry about it. Move on to the next sentence. When you from New Zealand, which can be bought for £21 for 42 cl listen again, focus on the missing answers. - the equivalent of £50 a litre. Its low mineral content and 'smooth sensation on the palate' come from its journey from 2 g 3.06 Do the Listening exam task. the 7 _ _ _ _ at the bottom of an extinct volcano through 200 metres of volcanic rock. Fiuggi from Italy has 8_ _ ._ been admired: Michelangelo wrote about its restorative effects in 1554 and it is said to be very popular with the Listen to the radio programme and complete each Vatican. 9_ _ _ included on the list is Mahalo Deep Sea sentence with up to four words . Water, from Hawaii, which is £21 for 75 cl. Originally a 1 About one in five restaurant customers order bottled fresh water iceberg, the ice melted thousands of years ago water because they don't want to ___ . and sank to the bottom of the ocean floor because of its 2 It takes 162 grams of oil to make one _ _ _ . different temperature and salinity. It is now 10_ _ _ to the 3 When discarded plastic bottles reach the ocean, they surface through a 1,000 metre pipeline. But among all the grandeur there is one option which is free of charge - a become a ｾ＠ __ . glass of 'old-fashioned London tap water'. 4 The Eastern Garbage Patch is a particularly polluted area of _ _ _ . 1 A height B peak C summit D rate 5 Plastic breaks down into pieces which can be smaller 2 A varieties B differences C variations D options than ___ . 3 A revised B advised C comprised D devised 6 In order to reach its customers, about a qu art er of all 4 A appropriate B suited C suitable D linked bottled water has to ___ . 5 A common B typical C ordinary D natural 7 Waterhouse, a new restaurant in Lon don , is un usual 6 A revitalising B revitalised C is revitalised because it won't _ __ . D to revitalise 8 Bottled water has had so much bad pu bli ci ty tha t 7 A source B foundation C basis eventually people who drink it coul d lo ok like _ _ _ . D beginning 8 A much B thoroughly C once D long 9 A Futhermore, B Also C Plus, 3 Look quickly through the text in the Use of English exam task D Moreover about Claridge's, a lUxury hotel in London. Find the most 10 A dragged B hauled C pulled D pumped expensive and the cheapest water ava ilab le. c,-- Ｇ ＹＭｾ＠ Get Ready for your Exam 8 THIS UNIT INClUDES Vocabulary . gossip and secrets . giving and withholding information. co lloquia l ｯｭ ｩ ｳ ｩｯｾ ｳ＠ • literal and figurative language . va g"ue language Grammar . passive structures . the causative . participle phrase s Speaking . talking about gossip and secrets . talking about spy stories. talking abou t Secrets conspiracy theories . drawing conclusions Writing . an opinion essay f1#13I1t?l Work in pairs. Describe what the people in the photos are doing. Why do you think they might be doing it? How might you explain their expressions? Use the words below to help you. confide (in somebody) drop a bombshell eavesdrop (on a conversation) gossip (n & v) indiscreet outraged rumours scandal scandalised scanda lous - " 3.07 Listen to three people gossiping over the phone. Complete each sentence with the information you hear, using up to four words. 1 Kate tells Gerry that Harry has got _ _ . 2 She urges Gerry not to tell anyone because Harry hasn't yet _ _ . 3 She claims only to have told Gerry the secret because he is _ _ . 4 Brian tells Jake about secret plans to _ _ . 5 He suspects that some of the people involved in the deal will _ _ . 6 Julia tells Karen about two friends who started a relationship at a _ _ . 4 Rewrite these sentences using expressions from exercise 3. 7 She reveals that Sue is very keen to keep the relationship More than one answer may be possible. secret from her _ _ . 1 Don't tell anyone who you heard this from, but I think my 8 She expects the secret will eventually come out when the brother is getting married . couple _ _ . 2 I discovered a few interesting titbits about her pri vate 3 " 3.07 Choose the correct word in these expressions. life, but I won't tell a soul. My lips are sealed! Then listen again and check. 3 Her plans for next year are top secret. 4 For the time being, they're withholding the identity of 1 Have you heard the latest / newest? their new manager. 2 I' m telling you this in the firmest / strictest confidence . 5 I'll tell you my secret because I know you aren't a gossip. 3 If word / truth gets out, it'll cause ... 6 She told me one really fascinating secret about Tony. If it 4 Harry's the heart / soul of discretion . ever becomes common knowledge, he' ll be furious! 5 He hasn't breathed / whispered a word to anybody. 6 I know it won't go any longer / further. 5 1#t.1@(?1 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Then 7 I managed to glean / clean some information . compare your ideas with the class. 8 It's fully / highly confidential at the moment. 1 What kinds of topic often form the basis of gossip? 9 Don't quote / repeat me on this, but... 2 Why are so many people interested in gossip? o I've got some really fruity / juicy gossip for you . 3 In what ways could gossip be damaging? 11 It's all very hush-hush / hush up. 4 What would be the advantages and disadvantages of 12 They won't be able to keep it under hats / wraps for ever. being friends with a gossip? m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 9.1: GIVING AND WITHHOLDING INFORMATION: WORKBOOK PAGE 111 <m Unit 9 ' Secrets 93 98 1 I>i#@ltd Have you ever failed to keep a secret? If so, what Colloquial omissions were the consequences? In informal, spoken English, we often omit unstressed 2 Complete the text with the verbs below. words at the beginning of the sentence (pronouns, articles, etc.) provided the meaning is clear. For example: betray boost crop drop fall feign get give Can't talk now! (J can't talk now.) go hold prise turn Speak later. (We'll speak later.) Need a lift? (Do you need a lift?) A negative form is sometimes replaced by not. How to j(e-ep {;\ .se-ere-t Not a cloud in the sky. (There isn't a cloud in the sky.) • Just don't tell anyone! Avoid the subject as much as you can . Should it 1_ _ _ up in conversation for whatever reason , f») GRAMMAR BUILDER 9.1: COlLOQUIAL OMISSIONS: 2_ _ _ ignorance. PAGE 128 <m • Never 3_ __ hints in company that you know a secret but can't say what it is. This is like a red rag to a bull. The people 5 Read the information in the Learn this! box. Then cross out you are with will try to 4 _ _ _ the information out of you and any words in the dialogue that you think could be omitted you probably won't be able to 5_ __ out. in normal, colloquial speech. (You may have to make other • If you feel yourself weakening, 6_ _ _ your motivation by minor changes as a result.) focusing on why it's so important to keep the information secret. Is it to avoid ruining a surprise? Or to protect a friend's Sam Are you on your way home? reputation? Colin No. I'm just hanging around. • Whenever you're tempted to 7 _ _ _ a friend's secret, remind yourself of the long-term damage that this could do Sam Do you fancy a coffee? to your friendship. At the same time, tell yourself that being Colin Sure . trustworthy is a wonderful trait to have. Sam It's my turn to pay. • Don't 8 _ __ into the trap of thinking you can tell just one Colin Thanks . So, how are you? other person provided you insist that it should 9_ _ _ no Sam I'm good _ How are you? further - it always does! And sooner or later, your lack of Colin I can't grumble. Have you discretion will 10_ _ _ back to your friend. heard any good gossip recently? • If you know you're bad at keeping secrets, don't encourage Sam I have, as it happens . people to share them with you - or at least 11 _ __ them Colin Well, go on then. Spill the beans! some warning of your track record! Sam Well, apparently Ben and Molly have split up . wARrv:f.rv&! Sometimes it is better to pass on a secret, if you Colin You're kidding! Really? suspect the person who told you may be in trouble. A secret can Sam But they haven't told people yet. So don't say 12 _ _ _ out to be a cry for help. a word to anyone! Colin I understand. 3 l>iQMMd Work in pairs. Decide whether you agree or Sam Do you promise? disagree with the advice in exercise 2. Can you add any more Colin Yes! advice? Sam OK. Would you like another coffee? Colin No, thanks . I'd better make a move _ LOOK OUTI Sam OK. I'll see you later. It's often more natural to use a phrase (verb + noun) Colin Sure . It was nice talking to you. instead of a single-word verb, especially in informal language . 6 g 3_08 listen to the dialogue and compare what you hear talk ｾ＠ have a talk decide ｾ＠ make a decision with your answer to exercise S. 4 Read the Look out! box. Then rewrite the sentences using 7 I>%O@[d Work in pairs. Role-play a dialogue using the phrases instead of the underlined verbs. outline below. Include some colloquial omissions. A: You meet your old friend B in a cafe and start chatting. 1 I'd love to shOR with you this afterno on, but I nee d to revise . B asks about a mutual friend , and you hint that you know a secret. You are unwilling to share it at first, but B persuade s 2 Think about what I've said and Iill! me la te r. you. You make B promise that it won't go any further. 3 I've concluded that what I really need is to rest. B: You meet A in a cafe and start chatting. You ask about a 4 I looked at her painting and comR lime nted her. mutual friend, and A seems to know a secret about that S I hinted that I'd like to be paid , but I did n't wan t to offend friend but is unwilling to share it. You persuade A to let on . by asking. 94 Unit 9 Secrets ;4#@/trt Work in pairs. How much do you know about the '''fi ter Joseph Conrad? Can you name: Literary texts often imply information without explicitly 1 the country he was born in? stati ng it. To get the most out of a text, you should be ｾ＠ the country he adopted as his home? se nsitive to this . Certain phrases can convey information 3 any of his works? indirectly, as can the repeated use of similar words . 3.09 Listen to the information about Conrad. Find the 2n swers to question 1. 6 Does the text imply that Mr Verloc's life is glamorous or not very glamorous? Find several adjectives in the text to support 3.09 Listen again. Are the sentences true (1) or false (F), your answer. r is the answer not stated (NS)? Th e themes of Conrad's works are very relevant to the 1 Mr Verloc, going out in the morning, left his shop problems of the modern world. nominally in charge of his brother-in-law. It could Conrad lived in London and later in a village. be done, because there was very little business 3 Sp ecial postage stamps were issued to commemorate at any time, and practically none at all before the 150th anniversary of Conrad's birth . 5 the evening. Mr Verloc cared but little about his - Conrad's friends never really regarded him as English . ostensible business. And, moreover, his wife was - Conrad's contemporaries accused him of racism. in charge of his brother-in-law. The shop was small, and so was the house. ead the opening to the novel The Secret Agent by Joseph It was one of those grimy brick houses which o n rad. How does it convey the fact that Mr Verloc is a secret 10 existed in large quantities before the era of reconstruction dawned upon agent of some kind? Is it: London . The shop was a square box of a place, with the front glazed in small a by describing the shadowy characters who frequent panes. In the daytime the door remained closed; in the evening it stood his shop? discreetly but suspiciously ajar. by mentioning the political propaganda displayed in his The window contained photographs of more or less undressed dancing shop window? 15 girls; nondescript packages in wrappers like patent medicines; closed yellow by implying that the shop is a front for some other paper envelopes, very flimsy, and marked two-and-six in heavy black figures; clandestine activity? a few numbers of ancient French comic publications hung across a string as if to dry; a dingy blue china bowl, a casket of black wood, bottles of marking ead the Reading tip . Then find these phrases in the extract. ink and rubber stamps; a few books, with titles hinting at impropriety; a few , ,'lhat exactly do they imply? Choose a or b. 20 apparently old copies of obscure newspapers, badly printed, with titles like nominally in charge of his brother-in-law The Torch, The Gong - rousing titles. And the two gas jets inside the panes a His brother-in-law was the one who really ran the shop . were always turned low, either for economy's sake or for the sake of the b His brother-in-law was incapable of running the shop. customers. 2 his ostensible business These customers we re either very young men, who hung about the a The shop was not his real business. 25 window for a time before slipping in suddenly; or men of a more mature age, b He was ashamed that the shop was his business . but looking generally as if they were not in funds. Some of that last kind had 3 a square box of a place the collars of their overcoats turned right up to their moustaches, and traces a The shop was an attractive building. of mud on the bottom of their nether garments, which had the appearance of b The shop was an ugly building. being much worn and not very valuable. And the legs inside them did not, as 30 a general rule, seem of much account either. With their hands plunged deep for the sake of the customers in the side pockets of their coats, they dodged in sideways, one shoulder a His customers were ashamed to be seen there . first, as if afraid to start the bell going. b His customers were really spies. The bell, hung on the door by means of a curved ribbon of steel, was difficult 5 who hung about the window for a time to circumvent. It was hopelessly cracked; but of an evening, at the slightest a The young men had nothing else to do. 35 provocation, it clattered behind the customer with impudent virulence. b The young men needed time to summon up courage. 6 with impudent virulence a The customers disliked the loud bell. 7 iOi#J@trt Discuss the questions with the class. b The customers rang the bell loud lyon purpose. 1 Why do you think people are interested in stories about spies and secret agents? 2 Do you like this genre of fiction? Why? /Why not? 3 Do you know any writers from your own country who write spy stories or mysteries? Unit 9 ｾ＠ Secrets I 95 1 I>Wf;!@(ij Work in pairs. Discuss the conspiracy theories. Have you heard any of them before? Do you believe any of them? 1 The US military has known for years that UFOs exist but is ＨｾＩ＠ NS1'1 IlllＨｾ＠ are thei out hiding the truth from the public. 2 The 1969 Apollo moon landing did not really happen - it was filmed in a TV studio on earth. 3 Elvis Presley did not really die - he faked his own death because he was tired of being famous. 1 In 2003, a former government minister in the UK called 4 The HIV / AI DS virus was created by scientists. Michael Meacher claimed that the US Government had 5 The US government were behind the bombing of the known all about the September 11 attacks but let them World Trade (enter on 11 September 2001. 6 Princess Diana, who died in Paris in 1997, was murdered happen to justify grabbing control of the world's oil on the orders of the British royal family. 5 supplies . That such a bizarre conspiracy theory broke OL-: from Internet chatrooms, grabbed the mind of a former 2 Read the article, ignoring the gaps. Which of the conspiracy minister and was splashed across the media reflects the theories in exercise 1 are mentioned? growing popularity of conspiracy theories. 1 D Although Mr Meacher admitted that he got much 10 of his information from websites, he made his claim in the respected British newspaper The Guardian. The newspaper later published letters from readers relieved that the truth had come out. David Aaronovitch, a Guardian columnist, expressed alarm that his newspapw 15 had given credibility to such' rubbish'. According to David Alexander, author of Conspiracies and Cover-Ups - What the Government Isn't Telling You , 'There's been a tremendous increase in conspiracy theories about September 11 .' In 1998, Rich Buhler, an 20 American radio show host, set up Truthorfiction.com to track and prove or disprove hoaxes, urban myths and conspiracy theories. 2 D Mr Buhler said: 'The Internet has proven a valuable tool for conspiracy theorists - they exchange ideas and fuel the stories. They have a much 25 larger canvas than before. There's an impression that whatever is written is more reliable than what is said. When it is written down, as it is on the Internet, it comes packaged as truth .' Yet there are other reasons why conspiracy theories 30 are gaining currency - in particular the complexity of ou r rapidly changing world. 'A conspiracy theory becomes more compelling when reality makes less sense, when life is beset by problems, when the established order suddenly changes - even something as simple as losing 35 a job. If people can't absorb what's going on, conspiracy theories help us to make sense,' Mr Alexander said . 3 D 'If people just knew a little more, they would know the thing is false,' he said . People are becoming further removed from seats 40 of political and industrial power. Patrick Leman , a 96 I Unit 9 • Secrets 3 Match se ntences a-g with gaps 1-6 in the text. There is one senten ce that you do not need. a His organisat ion now gets 1,000 such stories a week. b People were more likely to believe that there was a conspira cy behind it if he was killed than if he was un inj ured . c And yet, it really does exist: members agree not to reveal ＧｉｾＨＩｳｲｬｓＺ＠ the contents of their discussions, and the minutes of the meetings are not published for 50 years . d Observers of the phenomenon, more pronounced in o get ｾｏｕ＿＠ America than here, say that their increasing prevalence is destabilisingvulnerable individuals and undermining society. e That is how conspiracy theories gain momentum, even though there is no real evidence to support them . :sychologist at Royal Holloway College, London, who f One held that he had been spying for the Chinese, and -as been studying why conspiracy theories are so was spirited away by a Chinese submarine. ｾｰ ･｡ｬｩｮｧ Ｌ＠ said: 'Conspiracy theories feed into a feeling g A limited understanding of the world makes conspiracy :' disconnection with government. People don't like gaps theories seem more plausible. - their accounts; they have a need to believe them. They - l ent fantastical things that protect them from the real 4 Rephrase the underlined parts of these excerpts from the article in your own words. orld.' In one experiment, he showed people footage of a 1 A bizarre conspiracy theory was splashed across the =::tional president who was shot at, and provided fictional media. -swspaper articles. 4 D He concluded: 'People think that 2 They ... fuel the stories. :: oig event must have a big cause, but often things are 3 When it is written down ... it comes packaged as truth. :aused by mistake or accident, not conspiracy.' 4 There are other reasons why conspiracy theories ｾ＠ Thousands of people die in Europe every year in car ga ining currency. ::xidents resulting from fast driving and too much alcohol. 5 People are becoming further removed from seats of 3Jt when Diana, Princess of Wales died, many could not political and industrial power. ::::cept that such an important event could have such a 6 When Harold Holt disappeared, conspiracy theories :: 'Tlple cause. Many believed that she was assassinated ran wild. :} the secret services to stop her marrying a Muslim. In 7 Such is the public appetite for conspiracy theories, there - Jstralia there were 161 suspected drownings between is money to be made. 8 There's danger in buying into pat explanations. - 961 and 1985 in which the bodies were never found . ::: Jt when Harold Holt, the Prime Minister, disappeared m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 9.2: LITERAL AND FIGURATIVE 'len swimming in 1967, conspiracy theories ran wild . 5 D LANGUAGE: WORKBOOK PAGE 112 <m Such is the public appetite for conspiracy theories, ::-ere is money to be made. Bart Sibrel makes money 5 "#fn@IM Give an example of: 1 a story that has been splashed across the media very :;.slli ng his video claiming that the first moon landing was a recently. ｯｾ ･Ｎ＠ 2 something which, in your opinion, is fuelled by There is no simple way to determine the truth of a the Internet. :onspiracy theory. 'The danger lies in buying overarching 3 something which is packaged as truth, but in your =xplanations of complex events. That having been said, opinion is not. :-ere's danger in being too complacent and buying 4 an idea which is gaining currency in your country. "';;0 pat explanations of extraordinary occurrences,' Mr 5 one of the main seats of power in your country. ＧＺ ｾ ･ｸ ｡ｮ､･ｲ＠ said. In other words, scepticism can go too 6 a rumour which has run wild in your school but which 03'. When stories began to circulate about the Bilderberg may not be true. 3 r ou p, a secretive grouping of the world's political 7 something which there seems to be a growing public ::'ld business elite, most people dismissed it as just a appetite for in your country. :onspiracy theory. 6 D 8 something which you personally refuse to buy into. Mr Alexander says that the growth of conspiracy 6 IOi#@l!d Discuss the questions with the class. Ｚｾ ･ｯ ｲｩ･ｳ＠ is not something just to laugh at. 'It 's dangerous if 1 Describe any conspiracy theories that are specific to your _our belief system makes you see the world in a way that's own country. ｾ＠ '1 real. Conspiracy theories can affect a whole society and 2 Why do so many conspiracy theories involve the USA? """ake the society mad .' 3 Are conspiracy theories harmless or damaging? Give reasons. Unit 9 • Secrets I 97 9E 1 Complete the article with appropriate passive forms of the Use of the passive verbs below. What is your opinion of the way )oyce Hatto and The choice between active and passive voice is often her husband behaved? made for stylistic reasons, because we want a certain bomb consider copy describe hail inform issue word to be the subject of the sentence in order to fit make pass off perform record reduce show with the topic and flow of the text. Compare : uncover Clara Butt gave th e first performance of Elgar's Sea Pictures. (in a text about the singer Clara Butt) The first performance of Elgar's Sea Pictures was given by Clara Butt. (in a text about Elgar's music) 2 Read the Learn this! box. Then decide which of the underlin ec clauses in the text below would be better in the passive an d rewrite them. Give reasons. loyce Hatto and her husband left London in the 1970s aft e doctors had diagnosed loyce with cancer. Away from the public gaze, they worked together on recordin gs of som e 0< the finest classical pieces th at anybody had ever compo se c But it soon became clear that her disease was hamperin g loyce's efforts to produce outstanding recordings . Willia m made the first ele ctronic alterations in order to cover up Classical pianist Joyce Hatto was born in London in 1928 and her cries of pain . Although William knew that it was wro ng, remembers practising the piano as a teenager while London a desire to protect his wife's musical reputation triggere d 1_ _ _ in the Second World War. As a performer in London his dishonest actions. He simply wanted people to give her during the 1950s and 60s, she 2_ _ _ to be proficient but not the acclaim which her di sease had denied her. Was that outstanding and she more or less retired from professional so wrong? Although people never took loyce 's ｲ･｣ｯ ｲ ､ｩｮ ｾ＠ seriously again, perh aps we should admire her courage, music in the 1970s. She had her piano moved from London and her husband ' s love after all. to a small house in the country, and there she lived with her husband, William Barrington-Coupe, a recording engineer. 3 Does the text in exercise 2 change your opinion of )oyce Hatto Over the next thirty years, she performed at home, and these and her husband? Why?/Why not? performances - 104 of them in total - 3_ _ _ by her husband and then 4_ _ _ on his own record label, Concert Artists . Participle phrases They caused a sensation. Her performances 5_ _ _ by music Remember that we can sometimes use a phrase critics as some of the finest recordings that 6_ _ｾ｟＠ ever _ __ beginning with a past participle Ca participle phrase) in and Hatto 7_ __ as 'the greatest instrumentalist that almost place of a passive construction . Compare: The fraud was exposed by a music magazine and it nobody has heard of' . became international news. But in 2007 a music magazine discovered that one of the Exposed by a music magazine, the fraud became recordings 8_ __ electronically from another artist's CD. Since international news. then , further frauds have emerged . At least five of the pieces 9_ _ _ in fact ___ by other artists, and more fakes 10_ _ _ on a daily basis. It seems likely that in due 4 Read the Learn this! box. Then rewrite the following text usi ng an appropriate mixture of active and passive constructions course, all 104 pieces 11_ _ _ not to be genuine. Only and participle phrases. yesterday, classical pianist David Owen Norris 12 _ _ _ that his Millions in the USA watched the cookery show Dinner: 1988 solo piano recording of Elgar's Symphony No 1 in A flat Impossible . British chef Robert Irvine presented it. major 13_ _ _ as Hatto's work. 'I'm just very sad ,' he said . 'I The Queen had knighted Irvine and she had given him a think it's pathetic really that somebody should 14 _ _ _ to this.' castle in Scotland - or so he claimed . Officials investigateo Irvine when a business venture failed and they exposed hir as a fraud . Irvine has finally admitted the truth. m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 9.2: THE PASS YE: PAGE 128 <m Now, angry creditors are pursuing Irvine and the N chan ne has removed his fictitious biography from its website . 98 Unit 9 Secrets @:t.@lteJ Work in pairs. Think of three different situations in 'I hich somebody might want to make themselves invisible, or ery difficult to see. Then compare your ideas with the class. ?iQ:ti!@!eJ Work in pairs. Compare and contrast the two Jh otos. Answer the questions. Why do you think each person is attempting to hide? 2 How successful do you think their attempts are? 3 In what ways do the photos emphasise the differences between the town and the country? .... In what other situations might it be useful not to be visible? " 3.10 Listen to two students talking about the photos in exercise 2. How different are their ideas from your own? " 3.10 Read the phrases for drawing conclusions and clauses a-m. Think about which clauses belong together logically. Then listen again and match the clauses with gaps -13. ｾｲ｡ｷｩｮｧ＠ conclusions dging by the fact that '0 I'd say that 20 - he fact that 30 would suggest that 40 ｾ＠ so obviously 60 ,'s clear from the fact that that70 sO - ', IS would point to the fact that 90 ｾ＠ which leads me to think that 110 ake it that 12 0 =or that reason, I assume that 130 a He's sitting behind a bush, he's planning to be there for some time. c t he photo was taken in a forest or some such place. t his could be Tokyo or some other large city in Japan. e he's bothered to bring such a large piece of equipment he's some kind of photographer or cameraman. Vague language g she's pulled the top part up in order to hide, Words like thing and stuff are useful when it isn't there are bushes, long grass, and a river. possible to be more precise about what you see. You can she's in a back street rather than on a main road. a Iso use phrases li ke some kind of an d some ... or other. j the picture was set up, so to speak. k he's got a camera 6 Read the Speaking tip. Find examples of vague language in The people look Japanese to me, clauses a-m in exercise 4. Then use the same language to m he wants to blend in with his surroundings. make these sentences more vague. Use the prompts to make sentences. Include phrases for 1 He's wearing a coat made of feathers. drawing conclusions from exercise 4. 2 The photo was taken in Brazil. 3 He's bored. 1 t here's a microphone ---7 it's a video camera 4 She works as a private investigator. 2 he has a grey beard ---7 he's quite old 5 She's in her thirties. 3 he's chosen this career ---7 he likes being alone 6 She wants to blend into the background. 4 the boy is turning around ---7 he's seen the woman 5 it doesn't look much like a real vending machine ---7 it's 7 'i#J@!eJ Turn to page 152 and do the exam task. Use just a joke phrases from exercise 4 for drawing conclusions and include vague language from exercise 6. Unit 9 Secrets 99 9G ti#'@td Discuss the quotation by academic Noam Chomsky. Is it an argument against or in favour of Passive structures with verbs like regard, consider censorship? Do you agree? and believe make statements appear less personal If we don't believe in freedom of and are therefore often appropriate in an essay. The expression for people we despise, plain statement: 'Censorship is undesirable.' could be rephrased in these ways: we don't believe in it at all. Censorship is usually regarded as undesirable. Read the essay. What is the writer's basic answer to the Censorship is generally considered (to be) undesirable. question in the title? Censorship is often seen as undesirable. It is widely accepted that censorship is undesirable. It is often said that censorship is undesirable. Should freedom of speech It is generally believed that censorship is undesirable. always be defended? Read the Writing tip. How many times is this type of passive structure used in the model text? Choose one other sentence The first amendment to the American Constitution defends every which could be rephrased in th is way and rewrite it. citizen's right to free speech, and most democracies around the m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 9.3: PASSIVE STRUCTURES WITH world pride themselves on a lack of state censorship. Indeed, CONSIDER, BELIEVE, ETC.: PAGE 129 <m the fact that newspapers and TV news stations report stories which are highly critical of the government is seen as one of the Match 1-6 with a-fto form common collocations. Check you r signs of a healthy democracy. But how far should this lack of answers by finding them in the essay in exercise 2. censorship extend? Is it possible to have a society which places 1 free a opinions absolutely no controls on information? 2 state b security Freedom of speech is usually regarded as one of the 3 personal c speech cornerstones of democracy. It is essential that the content of 4 false d results newspapers, for example, is decided by the newspaper editors 5 national e censorship and not by politicians or police. If politicians were allowed to 6 catastrophic f accusations determine what should or should not be printed, they would be Complete the sentences with the collocations in exercise 4. able to suppress any information which did not put them in a good light. Corruption would increase and there would be no way 1 It was felt that revealing the government's nuclear plan s of exposing politicians' wrongdoings. Moreover, it goes without could jeopardise _ _ _ _ . saying that ordinary citizens in a democracy should be allowed to 2 Whatever her _ _ _ _ may be, she never criticise s voice their personal opinions without fear of intimidation. her employer in public. Having said that, it is clear that total freedom of speech 3 Attempts to close down the website have been portraye d is impossible, or at least extremely risky. This is because as an attack on _ _ _ _ . sometimes it is necessary to limit freedom of speech in order to 4 Allowing people to stir up racial hatred could have protect individual members of society or society as a whole. _ _ _ _ in a multiracial society. An example of this would be the laws against libel. These 5 In some countries, _ _ _ _ prevents newspapers prohibit you from making damaging and untrue statements about from printing the truth . somebody. Without this protection, people's lives could be ruined 6 The minister claimed that he was entirely innocent and by false accusations. had been the victim of _ _ _ _ . It is widely accepted that some information needs to be kept secret for reasons of national security or crime prevention. If a t1#r13lltd Discuss whether it is more important, in your newspaper was allowed to print details of a secret anti-terrorist opinion, to protect freedom of speech or to protect people operation, there might be catastrophic results. from false accusations. Give reasons. To sum up, I would say that freedom of speech should be defended in the majority of cases. However, there will always be situations in which this freedom would have negative consequences . In those instances, I believe that it is nec essary to sacrifice freedom in order to protect people's lives. 100 I Unit 9 Secrets 9G 'iQ!f,@1tC1 Work in pairs. Discuss the proposition. Do you Plan an opinion essay about the proposition in exercise 1. agree or disagree? Give reasons. Make notes for paragraphs 2-4. Use ideas from exercises 1 and 3. The Internet should be more tightly Paragraph 1 Introduction controlled by governments. Paragraph 2 Points in support of the opposite opinion Read the start of four newspaper articles about Internet Paragraph 3 Points in support of your opinion controls. Do they change your opinion about the proposition Paragraph 4 Further points in support of your opinion in exercise 1? Why? /Why not? Paragraph 5 Conclusion Cyber Bullying led 1 One way of writing the introduction to an opinion essay is to describe the current situation as you see it and then to Teen's Suicide restate the question in your own words . The parents of a 13-year-old girl who believe their daughter's Read the Writing tip, then look at the Introduction to the suicide was the result of a cruel cyber hoax are pushing for model essay on page 100. Which sentences describe the measures to protect other children online. current situation? Which sentences rephrase the question in different words? Terror websites could be 2 Work in pairs. Write the introduction to your essay using the blocked in EU crackdown phrases below to help you. _-\.ccess to web sites that provide information on how to - ........... LlIII:.:t. ILlt make bombs could be blocked by security forces in an Over the ,,<1st few derJc.ec" H'e l'lter'leL. attempt to crack down on terrorists. Wf' hdVt' now rp" (t ed cl POI nt wherp "' ______________, -__ ________J NE'wc;pc;perc, d:€ full Of ｣［ｴｯｲｾ･ｳ＠ ｾ｟＠ ｾ＠ ｾＭ al.)out. .. 11 c,omp cOJrtries .. 11I/1,i1e i 1 other J. Online anorexia Microsoft abruptly closed 3 Restating the ql estio.1 down four pro-anorexia f'l€' wy QUf'<;tlOn IS .• sites shut down websites in Spain yesterday What it comes dowr to '5 .•. after a corn plai nt that they Whu t ne!'( c, to be dC'cldpd S amid claims they were endangering the lives M,rv pe-o:.>le "re starti 11:' tl) word€ r W"E't'· e ... glorify starvation of teenage gi rls. Compare your introduction with another pair's introduction . Share ideas to improve your work. Working individually, write paragraphs 2-5 of your essay Bank details being sold 4 following your plan. Write 200-250 words in total. over the Internet for just £1 Check your work using the list below. Lists of credit card numbers, names and addresses are being traded across the Internet by criminals involved CHECK YOUR WO ｾＭ＠ in ID fraud, it is claimed today. Have you: followed the essay plan correctly? written the correct number of words? 'i#J3!1[?1 Work in pairs. Decide whether the following included passive phrases for distancing your things should or should not be allowed on the Internet. Then opinions? compare your ideas with the class. checked the spelling and grammar? 1 stories about famous people which may be untrue 2 unauthorised photos and video clips of ordinary peo ple 3 instructions for writing computer viruses 4 unauthorised video footage of rock concerts 5 negative opinions about the government 6 adverts for untested medicines Unit 9 • Secrets 1 101 1 Describe the photograph. What is the role of the two people 3 Read the text quickly, ignoring any extra words. Why was an in the photo? What does the machine do? Use the words inability to lie a big problem for this criminal? below to help you. 4 Do the Use of English exam task. blood pressure deceit deception detect detection lie detector pulse sweat Some lines of the text are correct and some contain an extra word which should not be there . (ross out the extra words and tick the lines which are correct. 0 It may be tough for Alejandro Martinez to De 00 clear himself of charges that he robbed aLas L Vegas pizza parlour after he allegedly leaving 2 behind a crucial piece of evidence . According to 3 prosecutors, the 23-year-old Martinez entered the 2 "3.11 Do the Listening exam task. 4 parlour, ordered a pie and requested for a job LISTENING exam task 5 application. The cashier immediately gave him an 6 application and a pen, so that he started filling it Listen to a radio programme. (hoose the best answers 7 out: said Clark County Prosecutor Frank Coumou . (A-D). 8 'Then, when he thought the moment was right, he 1 During an experiment into the development of 9 lifted his shirt, exposed the butt of a firearm, and had deception in children 10 told her to give him all of the money. A almost all of the three-year-olds lied . 11 Having stuffed over the$200 in his pocket, Martinez B about half of all the children lied. 12 rushed out to a waiting car, authorities say. But a ( all of the five-year-olds lied. 13 witness was followed the gunman and wrote down D all of the three-year-olds and half of the five-year- 14 the number plate. An easy trace of that number that olds lied . 15 led to police straight to Martinez, whom they found 2 According to research, what proportion of everyd ay 16 sitting at home. None of that has not made it easy lies are not identified as lies? 17 for the lawyer who he has been given the job of A four out of five (more than eighty per cent 18 defending Martinez. But the evid ence that left behind B a third D eight percent 19 could render his job almost as impossible. When 3 Research into how well people can detect lies has 20 police returned to the pizza parlour after the arrest, shown that 21 they found Martinez's job application still was on the A people can only tell if close family members are 22 counter. He had dutifully filled in with his real name lying. 23 and address. 'I'd chalk it up to either inexperience B men are bette r than women at detecting lies. 24 or plain stupidity: he said Prosecutor Co umou. ( young people are the best at detecting lies. D only a small number of people can identify lies 5 Work in pairs. Decide in what consistently. circumstances, if any, you might be tempted to lie about: 4 Psychologist Paul Ekman has demonstrated th at 1 somebody's appearance. 3 your age. A judges and psychiatrists lie just as much as 2 feeling unwell. 4 your emotions. robbers. B it' s easier to detect a lie when you watch it on 6 Do the Speaking exam task. video. ( it's hard to detect a lie when you are part of a gro up . o experts are no better than ord in ary peop le at Read the following statement. Do you agree or disagree detecting lies. with it? Discuss the issue with your partner, responding 5 Research by Professor (harle s Bond suggest s that to any counter-arguments they have. people fail to detect lies becau se If you want to succeed in life you should become a A they don 't look into the eyes of t he pe rso n speaking. good liar. B they are looking for the wrong signs. ( they don 't notice changes in bod y lan guage . D people from differen t co untri es hav e very differe nt body language. Ｚ］ＭＱ - --:::. Ｑｴ ｾ＠ Get Ready for your Exam 9 THIS UNIT INCLUDES Vocabulary . synonyms for end. t he environmen t. adverbs of degree . adjectives to desc rib e films (connotation) • ve rb · noun coll oc ations - . nega tive pref ixes and suffi xes . stylist ica lly appropriate langu age Grammar . whatever, whoever, etc. • compl ex sen tence s . prepos it ions in relative clau ses. imperson al struc tures for in t rodu ci ng opini ons Endings Speaking . role· play • ta lking about threats to t he plan et . talking about film s and their endings. comm unicati on st rategie s Writing . an opi nion es say VOCABULARY AND LISTENING @¥J3@' Describe the photos of people saying goodbye to 1 It is likely that many of these languages will _ _ to each other. What do you think they are feeling? What might exist over the next century or so. they be saying? 2 This research _ _ ｾ＠ in the discovery of the gene responsible for a rare form of bone cancer. 3 Ryan jones _ _ ｾ＠ it _ _ｾ＠ for City with a goal in extra time. 4 And now I'd just like to _ _ this rather long speech by thanking the bridesmaids for looking after Karen . S The party doesn't _ _ till eleven. 6 The phone lines are now open and they _ _ｾ＠ at nine o'clock. 5 Read the usage note from The Oxford Learner's Thesaurus. Which of the four verbs cannot be used to complete the sentences? llIiIi1I END,STOP, FINISH OR CONCLUDE? End can be used for things that end in space as well as things that end in time: The road ends here. End, finish and conclude are used especially about things that you do not expect to start again after they have ended: The war ended in 1945, after almost six y ears of fighting. <> The concert should f inish by 10 o'clock. <> She concluded her speech with a quotation from Shakespeare. Finish and con- clude, in particular, suggest that sth has come to an end because it has been completed. Finish is used more to talk about when sth ends; conclude is used more to talk about how sth ends. Stop is used about things that may or will start again, or that cannot ever be 'completed ': The rain stopped just long enough fo r us to have a quick walk in the park. Read the quotation from Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Explain its meaning. 1 The river _ _ｾ＠ in a long narrow lake. 2 The party didn 't _ _ until the early hours of th e Good-night, good-night! Parting is such morning. sweet sorrow, 3 The police have _ _ｾ＠ their investigation into the murder. 4 Will you please _ _ｾ＠ interrupting me? That I shall say good-night till it be S The sales conference _ _ｾ＠ with a speech by the morrow. managing director. j " 3.12 Listen to nine extracts and match them with 6 Work in pairs. descriptions a-j. One description is not needed. • Prepare one of the following situations. Make notes. 1D 2D3 D 4DsD6 D 7DsD9D • Start the situation a minute or two before the dialogue would end . a a job inte rview f a news bulletin • End by parting from each other. b a radio interview g a speech c a talent show h a chat between friends 1 a job interview d a radio advertisement a documentary 2 a conversation with a friend at a party e an announcement a business meeting 3 an interview with a famous person 4 a bu siness meeting " 3.12 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs below. Use a dictionary to help you. Then listen 7 l#M3Wd Act out your roleplay in front of the class. again and check. m> VOCABULARY BUilDER 10.1: SYNONYMS AND cease close culminate conclude wind up wrap up ANTONYMS: WORKBOOK PAGE 112 <m Unit 10 Endings 103 lOB 1 Complete the facts about the environment using the words 3 g 3.13 Listen to three people talking about different below. global threats that we face. Who is least optimistic about the carbon dioxide degrade equivalent exported threat? Who is most optimistic? extinction impact occurred polar ice caps 11 Match the verbs and nouns to make collocations used by the raw material resident rubbish tailbacks speakers. 1 add ress a climate change 2 combat b vaccines 3 assess c weapons 4 stockpile d a threat 5 decommission e measures 6 bring in f a risk whatever, whoever, wherever, etc. We use whatever, whoever, etc. to say 'it doesn't matter what, who, etc. because the result wi ll be the same'. Whatever we do, global warming is here to stay. Whoever thinks we can ignore the problem is serious ly mistaken. Whichever country you live in, you'll be affected by climate change. We'll never prevent sea-levels rising, however hard we try. In the UK, twenty million tonnes of food are imported, and twelve million tonnes ___ , every year. In some clauses we can omit the verb be. However difficult (it is), we have to act now. 2 On average every person in the UK throws away their own body weight in _ __ every three months. 3 Internationally, one in six species of mammal faces m> GRAMMAR BUilDER 10.1: WHATEVER, WHOEVER, HC PAGE 129 <m 4 On average, each UK ___ uses 55,000 litres of water every year. 5 g 3.13 Read the Learn this! box. Then rephrase these ideas as they were expressed by the speakers, using 5 Across the European Union at anyone time, there are whatever, whoever, wherever, etc. Then listen and check ___ stretching along 64 ,000 kilometres of road. your answers to exercises 4 and 5. 6 The ten warmest years in the last 130 have all _ _ _ 1 It doesn't matter which way you look at it, global warm ing since 1978. is a very real threat. 7 It takes around 450 years for a plastic bottle to _ __ . 2 Everybody should do their bit and make an effort, even i' 8 Aviation generates nearly as much _ __ in one year as it's really small. the total population of Africa. 3 Any time the media hear about an outbreak of bird flu, 9 An area of tropical rainforest _ __ to sixteen football they always blow it out of proportion . pitches is destroyed every single minute. 4 It doesn't matter how much the government scientists t l) 10 For every tonne of waste we produce in our homes, it to reassure us, nobody really believes them . is estimated that five tonnes of waste has already been 5 Realistically I don't think there's any chance at all of th at created at the manufacturing stage, and twenty tonnes happening in the foreseeable future . at the point where the ___ was extracted . 6 It doesn't matter what we do with our own nuclear 11 40% of the _ __ have melted over the past 50 years. weapons, we have to prevent other countries from 12 The ___ of the average US citizen on the environment developing their own. is approximately three times that of the average Italian, thirteen times that of the average Brazil ian, 140 times 6 1O"I#!3I1[1 Work in pairs or small groups. Decide what, in yo u that of the average Bangladeshi , and 250 times that of opinion, is the gravest threat facing either your country, you r the average sub-Saharan African . continent or the world . Choose one of the threats below, or come up with your own. Present your ideas to the class. alien invasion disease and starvation 2 "'1#!3I1[1 Work in pairs. Do any of these facts disturb you? excessive consumption global terrorism Are many people concerned? Why? / Why not? Agree on which global viruses global warming natural disasters three facts alarm you most. Give reasons . nuclear war populatio R explosion the drugs trade 104 Un it 10 Endings loe 4 Explain these sentences from the listening exercise in your own words. 1 By the final reel , inspiration is often replaced by rote . 2 Special effects have become the crutch of lazy dramatists. 3 (The closing shot of The Third Man is) a shot that has echoed through movie history. 4 When someone does come up with an original ending, everyone apes it. 5 Look at the list of adjectives that could be used to describe the ending of a film. Decide whether each one has a positive, negative or neutral connotation. Use a dictionary to help you . ambiguous baffling cliched feel-good hackneyed heart-rending incongruous intriguing nonsensical overblown sentimental shocking spectacular tiQi(;13iItCl Look at the list of films. Have you seen any of subtle touching thought-provoking unexpected them? Do you remember the ending? Use the words and unsatisfying vague phrases below to help you describe the ending. 6 Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective from a great last shot an upbeat finale bleak exercise 5. Several answers may be possible. Compare your could see it coming dramatically coherent answers with a partner. end with a twist feel-good end ing long, drawn -out 1 The final scene is really ___ - I was crying so much I mystifying conclusion unsatisfying could hardly see the screen! 1 Shrek 2 The ending is completely _ __ - you tend to assu me 2 Spider-Man 3 that the hero is going to win , not die ! 3 Pirates of the Caribbean : At World's End 3 There's a very ___ twist at the end of t he fil m, whic h I 4 Enchanted couldn't get out of my mind for days. 5 The Sixth Sense 4 Unfortunately, the film ' s finale is totally _ __ , wi t h 6 2001: A Space Odyssey loud , frantic music and huge spec ial effects . 7 Carrie 5 The film deals with tragic events, so I foun d the happy 8 Before Sunset 'Hollywood ' ending totally _ _ . 9 Love Actually 6 Thankfully, the director avoided the obviou s endin gs and opted for something far more _ _ _ . g 3.14 Listen to a film critic talking about the endings of 7 I@¥J3WI the films in exercise 1. What is his opinion of them? Write: Complete the sentences with your own ideas. + (good), - (bad) or ? (doesn't know yet) next to the film title. Then compare sentences with your partner, justifying your opinions. Does he or she know the film and agree about the g 3.14 Listen again. Are the sentences true en or false (F), ending? or is the answer not stated (NS)? 1 The film with the most touching ending I've ever seen is ... 1 Unsatisfying endings to Hollywood films are often the 2 The film with the most spectacular ending I've ever seen result of fear. is ... 2 Film studios often use special effects because they can't 3 The film with the most baffling ending I've ever seen is .. . come up with a good ending. 4 The film with the most unexpected ending I've ever seen is .. . 3 The film Titanic confirms Hollywood's view of what audiences want. 8 li#13Iltd Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 4 The only good thing about The Sixth Sense was the 1 Why do you think American films tend to have more ending. happy endings than European films? 5 Nobody has succeeded in solving the riddle at the end 2 Is there a kind of ending that you particularly like or 2001: A Space Odyssey. dislike in films? 6 It is a shame that almost every horror movie follows the 3 Which film that you 've seen recently had the most example set by Carrie. effective ending, in your opinion? Why? 7 The critic liked Before Sunset because the audience is left 4 Which film had the worst ending, in your opinion? Why? not knowing if the lovers get back together at the end . m> VOCABULARY BUILDER 10.2: ADVERBS OF DEGREE: 8 The critic hates all films in which the lovers kiss at th e end. WORKBOOK PAGE 112 «<J Unit 10 Endings 105 1 l@tJ@td Work in pairs. Look at the photo of a patient care 2 Read the first two paragraphs of the text and find the answer bay and the title of the text. What do you think is inside the to question 1. Explain in your own words what 'cryonics' is. metal cylinders? Would you die 01 20 This may be explained by the growing conviction among scientists that mankind is closer than ever to achieving what until now boredom il you has seemed the stuff of our wildest dreams or worst nightmares, depending on your perspective. They think it may well be possible - extend human life way beyond its current span - enabling us to ｬ ｩｾ］＠ lived lor ever? 25 many hundreds of years and perhaps even for ever. The problem with all attempts to find the secret to longer life 1 Lined up in neat rows, their stainless steel sides gleaming, the huge over the centuries has been that the human body somehow see ms metal cylinders stored in a nondescript office building give little programmed to die. Although we generally enjoy much longer lives clue as to their gruesome contents. On each vessel there is a sticker than our forebears, we accept that even if we avoid accident or bearing the name and logo of a company called Alcor. Only the 30 illness, our bodies will wear out and we will eventually die of 5 small print beneath hints at what its work might be. 'Life Extension 'old age'. However, humans don't have a 'death gene' which triggers Foundatio n Since 1972; it reads, offering a website address for those the ageing process; the process is the result of malfunctioning cel. visitors who join the t wice-weekly tours of Alcor's headquarters in reproduction. From the immortalists' point of view, instead of beinr; Scottsdale, Arizona, and who might want to find out more about its an inevitable part of human biological destiny, death is something highly unusual services. 35 which can be avoided if we can only find cures for the illnesses 10 Alcor is in the business of cryonics. For a fee of approximately which threaten our lives. Given that we are talking about diseases \$200,000 - depending on your age and health - it will dispatch such as cancer, this is a very big 'if' - but medicine's success in a trained response team when you die to drain your blood and eradicating polio in the twentieth century shows how quickly toda, ; deep freeze your body in one of those huge vacuum flasks of liquid incurable illness can become tomorrow's medical success story. nitrogen . The theory is that the firm's employees will thaw you 40 Already, advances in technology are raising previously unimagin ab.= 15 out and revive you at some point in the future when science has possibilities in medical science. For example, scientists at the Wa ke adva nced enough to cure you of whatever it was you died of. And Forest University Medical School in America are working to grow although the total number of people across the world who have twenty different tissues and organs, including blood vessels an d sign ed up for freezing is still little more than 1,000, Alcor says its hearts, in the laboratory using human cells. This procedure cou ld, membership has increased rapidly recently. 45 one day, help combat diseases such as cancer, by simply replacing the diseased organs with 'spares' supplied by the recipients' own cells, with therefore no risk of rejection. In this way, humans mig r: become much like cars - with every part replaceable and immortal;:_ guaranteed. 50 Perhaps the real question is not whether eternal life will one day be possible, but whether the quest itself is misdirected. In his short story, The Immortal , the Argentinean writer Jorge Luis Borges writes of a man who goes in search of a river which cleanses ｰ･ ｯｰ ｬｾ＠ of death. The immortal people whom he finds there are inert and 55 apparently miserable. Since they will live for an infinite number of years, they reason that everything that can happen to them will de at some point. As a result they can hardly bring themselves to mo :; 'I remember one who I never saw stand up; says Borges' narrator. ' bird had nested on his breast: 60 This raises the question: what incentive would there be to do anything if we knew that we had an endless number of days ahead of us in which to accomplish all our goals? Indeed, would our lives have any meaning at all? As humans, we only seem able to understand our feelings when they are balanced against opposi ng 65 emotions. When we feel happy, it is in contrast to being sad; ｷ ｨ ･ ｾ＠ we feel at peace, it is a respite from being anxious. How then coul we feel glad to be alive, to savour our existence day to day, if t here 106 Unit 10 End ings 3 Read the rest of the text and choose the best summa ry. 5 Scientists can take what they learned from tackling polio What is wrong with the other tW{) summaries? and use it to find cures for other diseases. 6 Scientists at Wake Forest University Medical School are A developing man-made organs to replace human organs. Many scientists now believe that death is not biologically 7 The Borges story implies that achieving immortality inevitable and could be avoided if there we re cures fo r all would deprive us of the joy of being alive . life-th reatening diseases . However, livin g for ever w ould 8 Deciding whether or not to choose immortality may be create its own problems . People might become apathetic difficult, but it will probably never arise for anyone and the planet would be overcrow ded . alive today. B 5 Match the adjectives in red in the text with these definitions. Underline the negative prefix or suffix in each adjective. Scientists are developing new ways to combat seri o us diseases, like cancer, and may soon be able to repl ace 1 _ __ impossible to imagine parts of the body, just like a mech ani c replaces parts 2 _ __ not working properly of a car. However, living for ever would have several 3 _ __ not relevant disadvantages as well as advantages . 4 _ __ with no interesting features 5 having no conclusion 6 _ __ not aimed at the correct goal C If scientists found a way of allowing humans to live for 6 Complete the sentences. Make the words in brackets negative ever, the result would not necessarily be positive . As by adding the correct prefix or suffix from exercise 5. Use a Borges illustrated in a short story, immortality would lead dictionary to help you if necessary. to a complete lack of motivation . It would also cause the 1 Cells can become ___ as a result of replicatin g planet to become over-popUlated . themselves time and time again . (formed) 2 Knowing that you will never die could make your daily life According to the text, are the sentences true Cl) or false (F), or _ _ . (meaning) is the answer not stated (NS)? Justify your answers. 3 One day, serious diseases could be rendered _ __ 1 Scientists believe that im mortality may soon be a (existent) by science . possibility. 4 Perhaps people who opt for cryonics are _ __ to accept 2 Past attempts to find the secret of immortality failed the reality of death . (willing) because nobody fully understood the ageing process. 5 Reviving people who have been frozen may prove to be 3 Everyone accepts that finding cures for illnesses will scientifically _ _ (feasible). never be enough to prevent people from dying. 6 If you were revived centuries into the future, you migh t be 4 Advances in science make it almost inevitable that we _ _ to life in that era . (adjusted) will soon find a cure for cancer. 7 Anyone who lived to be 200 would be _ _ _ of remembering their own childhood . (capable) 8 Perhaps the very ambition of achieving im mortality is "s no possibility that it might one day be _ _ . (conceived) :;:-atched from us? All our emotions would become immaterial. 9 Maybe the secret of immortality will rem ain _ _ _ - 1d what about the limitations of our memories which often fail (penetrable) for ever. .-5, even in the short lives currently allotted to us? It is frustrating ::cou gh to acknowledge that we have forgotten things which 7 t1Ui(;1@[ct Discuss the questions with the class. -=ppened ten , twenty or thirty years ago. Imagine then the 1 What emotions might somebody who had been frozen fo r ｾＮＺｳ ｴｲ ｡ｴｩｯｮ＠ of hundreds of years' worth of memories slipping away 200 years and then revived experience, in your opinion? - m us as we drift through the centuries - constantly losing sight 2 What might be the best and worst aspects of being :-' .vhere we have been and what we have done. immortal? --ere would be other problems too . Unless we began to colonise 3 Would you personally choose to be immortal, if you ;::ace, the Earth would soon be burdened with too many people could? Give reasons . ,,-d some sort of limit on the number of children we can have might Ｚｾ＠ necessary. Perhaps we might only be allowed to reproduce if we _1dertook to die ourselves at some future point. ::'ven all this, it seems that longer life might come at a price much -::avier than many of us are willing to pay. For most of - alive today, immortality may never be an issue - but for those 10 are at the start of their lives, or yet to be born, it i s a decision :-ey may well have to confront, and much sooner than any of us - ight have imagined. Unit 10 Endings 107 10E 1 Read the text and explain in your own words how the Darwin 3 Write the story of Larry Waiters by joining each group of two Awards get their name. or three sentences into one complex sentence. When there are two possible positions for a preposition , choose the mo re The Darwin Awards formal. The various individuals upon whom the Darwin Awards are 1 Among the 'near misses' is the story of Larry WaIters . bestowed each year are , by definition, unaware of t he ｨｯｮｵｾ＠ and Most fans of the Darwin Awards are familiar with his even if they were, it certainly is not an award of which any right- exploits. minded person could be proud.This is because the people to 2 In 1982, he attempted a daring flight using only an whom it is awarded have inadvertently caused their ow n death ordinary garden chair. He'd attached 45 helium balloo ns through an act of reckless stupidity (The famo us scie ntist that to it. the awards are named after put fo rward the theory of natural 3 The plan was to float up to a height of about ten metre s. selectio n, according to which inferior members of a species are He'd be able to enjoy a fine view of the surrounding less likely to survive long enough to pass on their genes.) Each terrain from that height. The plan had been worked out ｹ･｡ｾ＠ the Darwin Awards website publ ishes a numbe r of such stories which are then voted for by the public in order to select carefully. a winner. Although t he purpose of the award is, strictly speaki ng, 4 Unfortunately, he rocketed into the air, climbing more to cele brate t hese bizarre death s and t he people whose stupidity than 5,000 metres. He remained at that altitude for mo re brought them about, the website also includes 'near misses', which than fourteen hours. people can receive an 'honourable mention' for. 5 Air traffic control received bewildered messages from passenger planes. Their pilots had seen Larry. 2 Read the information below. Then, where possible, rewrite 6 It was a terrifying flight. Larry had no control over it. the clauses in bold in exercise 1 with the preposition in a 1 Luckily, Larry had brought his pistol. He burst some of t hE different position. If it is not possible, explain why. balloons with it. 8 He gradu ally descended to the ground . At this point, he I:! Prepositions in relative clauses was arrested by the police. ｾ＠ 1 Wh en a relative clause includes a preposition, we ｾ＠ can often choose whether to put it at the beginning 4 Work in pairs. Decide which of the complex sentences you ｾ＠ or at the end . The latter is more common and more wrote in exercise 3 could be rewritten in a less formal style by i informal. putting the preposition in a different position. That's the man from whom we bought our car. S Add the information a-e to the correct place in the text 1-5 That's the man (who/that) we bought our car from. using one or more relative clauses. 2 However, when the preposition is part of a phrasal verb, it always stays with the verb. One evening, Fabio was chatting to some friends . He adopted three children, whom he looked after 10 Fabio was a 28-year-old Italian truck driver. 20 He well. took a gadget 3D out of his pocket to show his friends. It 3 Multi-word prepositional phrases can go at the looked like an ordinary pen, but was in fact a pistol 40 . beginning or end, but we don't separate the words . Keen to demonstrate the gadget to his friends, Fabio held We saw a cafe, in front of which sat several diners. it to his head and pulled the trigger 50 . We passed a cafe, which several diners sat in front of. 4 We can't put a preposition at the beginning when the a he'd recently become the proud owner of it. relative pronoun is the subject of the following verb. b a single .22 calibre bullet could be fired from it. I bought a house which hadn't been lived in for c he was having a quiet drink with them . years. d at this point, the gun fired and Fabio died. 5 The relative pronoun may form part of a noun phrase e h is hobby was spy gadgets. He had some of them such as some of which, many of whom, the first of with him . which or an adverbial phrase like at which point, for which reason, in which case. 6 1000tj3@1 Work in pairs. Student A: Briefly retell the story I have three brothers, the youngest of whom is five. of Larry Waiters in your own words. Student B: Briefly retell He recorded more than fifty songs, many of which the story of Fabio in your own words. Try to use complex became hits. sentences. Which person deserved a Darwin Award more, in The host fell asleep, at which point we left. your opinion? Why? m> GRAMMAR BUILDER 10.2: RELATIVE CLAUSES: PAGE 130 <m 108 Unit 10 Endings 10F 1 1>1#1311[51 Work in pairs. Read the task below. Discuss and C Mentioning associations decide on three things you might talk about. For each thing, You'd find it in / on / near ... th ink of two reasons why the world would be better off It' s something you'd expect to see if you were ... without it. You might need one of these if you were ... D Giving a definition Give a presentation about one thing which , in your It' s a type of ... that .. . opinion, the world would be far better off without. It's another word for .. . 5 'Mi.tJ@(C1 Play a word game to practise coping when you forget a word. Use phrases from exercise 4. • Everybody in the class writes three nouns on three pieces of paper. • All the pieces of paper are put into one bag. • One pair takes the bag and has one minute to score as many points as possible . Student A takes a piece of paper from the bag and describes the word to Student B without saying (or spelling) the word. Student B has to guess the word . The pair receives one point for each word correctly guessed. You are allowed to 'pass' if you cannot guess the word, but only twice . " 3.15 Listen to extracts from five students' • The pair with the most points wins . If there's a tie , the presentations. For each speaker say what thing has been pair with the fewest passes wins . chosen and give one reason that is mentioned. 6 Choose one idea from exercise 1 and expand your list of "3 .15 Listen again. Complete the phrases the students reasons why the world would be a better place without that use when they forget a word. Then write the word that they thing. have forgotten . 1 'The word has just _ __ my mind.' 2 'The correct word _ _ _ me for the moment.' Try not to repeat the same phrase too often in a 3 'I can't quite remember what it's _ __ .' presentation . Before you start, try to think of a few 4 'The word is on the tip of my _ __ .' different ways of referring to the main idea . In add ition, 5 'I can't put my _ __ on it at the moment.' think about what adjectives you will nee d and note down a few synonyms. Try not to panic if you forget a word while you are 7 Read the Speaking tip. Then study the box below. Can you speaking. Just use one of the phrases from exercise 4 to add any phrases to it? admit it, and then find a different way to describe it. put a stop to put an end to Read the Speaking tip. Then put the phrases below under the I'd put a halt to _ _ _ __ because ... correct heading A-D. like to see the back of do away with It's quite similar to a... It would come in handy for ... -ing ... A (police officer) would probably have one of these. 8 I.WM311tCl Give your presentation to the class. Remember to carry on speaking if you forget a word, using phrases from It's a word that means ... exercises 3 and 4. You can also use the phrases below to help A Specifying use with fluency. It's one of those things for -ing ... Correcting yourself Paraphrasing It's something you might use for ... It can be used to ... What I meant to say was ... Or to put it another way .. - What I should have said was ... In other words, ... B Describing appearance Co me to think of it, ... What I'm trying to say is ... It's one of those things that has (a handle) Or rather, ... The point I'm trying to It looks a bit like a ... make is ... It's like a... only (smaller) Unit 10 Endings 109 lOG Look at the photo. Work in pairs. Think of as many other phrases as you can that What are eBooks and would fit in the gaps in the essay. how do they work? Read the first sentence Did the writer mention any of the arguments which you of the essay in exercise 3 discussed in exercise 2? Which of the writer's arguments do to check your ideas. you find most persuasive? Give reasons. In which paragraph does the writer: 1 state his/her own view for the first time? 2 reiterate his/her view? 3 give background information about eBooks? 4 focus on the propositio n by turning it into a question? I>W",@tij Work in pairs. Read the proposition below. Decide 5 give arguments supporting his/her view? if you agree or disagree with it, and brainstorm ideas for and 6 give counter-arguments? against the proposition. I>Wfn1@tij Work in groups. Discuss the questions. eBooks will eventually make 1 Do you think any of the things in the photos will become traditional books obsolete. obsolete in the future? Give reasons. 2 Can you think of anything else which might become Complete the essay with the phrases below, adding capital obsolete in the future? Justify your opinions. letters where necessary. (Some of the phrases can go in more than one gap, but there is only one set of correct answers.) O\'l. 110 firm.y )E'IIt:'vp thJt In (O'1( u'>lon 't wOlld bp ha d to dp Iy that rr.orfOVE'r of thE opm 0'1 t p < V ('u ,tlOI1 .., Over the past few years we have seen the introduction of eBooks: digital versions of paper books which can be down loaded from the Internet onto small hand-held devices called eBook readers. 1_ __ eBooks will inevitably have an enormous impact on the sales of traditional books, but 2 _ _ _ , will they become so popular that they will eventually replace books? Many of us already down load more music than we buy from shops in CD form, and the same will soon be true of films. 3 _ _ _ in the next decade or so it will be the turn of books. So what are the advantages of eBooks? A single eBook reader can hold hundreds of digital novels, which in their traditional form would occupy metres of shelving. 4 _ _ _ , they are more environmentally friendly as they save paper and there are no transport costs. 5 _ _ _ eBook readers have two major drawbacks: they are currently very expensive and they rely on batteries. 6 _ _ _ , they are sure to come down in price as they grow in popularity, as computers and mobile phon es have done, and I'm convinced that battery-life will improve enough in the coming years for this no longer to be a serious concern. 7 _ __ , then, although eBooks are a relatively new phenomenon, I'm 8 _ _ _ that it is only a matter of time before eBooks make traditional books uneconomical and therefore obsolete. 110 Unit 10 End ings 10G (1#J3@1 Work in pairs. Discuss the proposition . Do you ,ll>hol ｦｾ＠ grd'1tE'd ｮＧｾｨｉｙ＠ ImprobdblE' "1(0'10' VdblE' agree or disagree with it? Brainstorm ideas fo r and against. 4 Sure, I admit that pretty soon they' ll develop a computer Computers will soon make pens, paper that you can carry in a pocket. and handwriting obsolete. 5 People sometimes even say that handwriting will become obsolete, but I really don't reckon it's at all likely. 6 You simply cannot imagine they won't teach handwriting When you are expressing your own opinion in the essay, in schools in the future. it is acceptable to use first person pronouns. Plan an opinion essay about the proposition in exercise 1. I am convinced that ... I am of the opinion that ... Make notes under the headings using ideas from exercises However, to avoid over-use of personal pronouns, 1 and 3. opinions , judgements and arguments can be introduced using impersonal language, for example passive ｐ｡ｾｧｰｨＱ＠ Introduction structures (see page 98), or preparatory it. ｐ｡ｾｧｰｨＲ＠ Points in support of your opinion It is interesting how much ... ｐ｡ｾｧｰｨＳ＠ Points in support of the opposite op inio n It would appear that ... ｐ｡ｾｧｰｨＴ＠ Conclusion It is undoubtedly true/highly likely that ... Write the introduction and paragraphs 2 and 3 of you r It is usual/important/impossible, etc. for ... to ... essay following your plan . Write no more than 210 word s. It is right/wrong to suggest that ... Remember to use some impersonal language. Read the Writing tip. Then rewrite the sentences using preparatory it and the words in brackets. In an essay of 200-250 words, your conclusion 1 We have to remember that people have been using pen shouldn't be more that 40-50 words long. A good and paper for centuries. (bear in mind) strategy is to acknowledge the strength of the oppos ing 2 I' m pretty sure that paper won't become obsolete . argument and then to restate your own opinion. Do not (almost certainly true) 3 Some people say that it's a waste of time teaching introduce new arguments in the conclusion . .J children to write neatly. (be argued) Read the Writing tip. Then write the conclusion to your essay. 4 I simply cannot believe that paper will become obsolete . Use the phrases below to help you. (inconceivable) 5 What surprises me is how few people can write neatly. ｈｾ＠ Id restating: your (surprising) opinion 6 I think children really should be taught to touch-type at Whi,e ,>", ＾ｲｵｾ＠ to SlY thJt. • I r(dlly do th'nk. school. (essential for children) Evt'r thol g'" 0;0 11e Pl'vp.E' ｭ｡ｬｮｴｾｩｲ＠ thdt... • I nE verH'E'IE'ss 7 People who say that paper and pen will become obsolete b.::-I E'VE' he) .. are wrong. (wrong to suggest) fhE'€"o; SOME trL.tt- in t;e ViEW tt-ilt •... !\Jt:'ve 'thE'IE sc,. dOE'c,n't dlh'r 'ny ",ew thot . " 3.16 Listen to two people giving their opinions on the proposition in exercise 1. Which opinions do you agree with? Work in pairs. Swap essays and check your partner's work Which do you disagree with? Give reasons. using the list below. Rephrase these extracts from the listening so that they would ,CHECK YOUR W " ｾ＠ be stylistically appropriate for an essay. Use the words below to help you . Sometimes a passive construction is appropriate. Has your partner: followed the essay plan correctly? ... 111..1 .. lA written the correct number of words? used expressions from the Writing tip and exercise 7? 1 I mean, we now send loads more emails than traditional checked the spelling and grammar? letters. 2 OK, so some old people will stick with paper and pen, but there won't be many of them . 3 Also, more and more often we're doing our schoolwork on com puters. Unit 10 Endings 111 9-10 Vocabulary Grammar 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs 4 Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the below. The answers may be active or passive. verbs below. breathe confide drop glean hear keep decide evacuate lie rebuild record repair 1 The manager a bombshell in the board 1 Several towns last night due to flood meeting when he handed in his resignation . warnings. 2 Tell me what you know - I promise I a word . 2 The staff have been assured that the pay increase 3 Anna all the information she could about the _ _ _ _ during the next board meeting. job from the HR manager, who happens to be her cousin. 3 Pete couldn't watch the match because his lV _ _ __ 4 The identity of the jury mem bers under wraps 4 You can't enter the studio right now because tonight's in case they are blackmailed. news programme _ _ __ 5 I told my best friend about my date with Dylan and now 5 It took time to realise he _ _ _ _ to by his wife. everyone knows. I ___ never ___ in her again! Mark: _ /5 6 ___ you ___ the latest? Martha's split up with Paul and she's going out with Andy! 5 Rewrite the sentences using the correct causative form of th e Mark: _ /6 verbs in brackets. 1 Someone mows my aunt's lawn once a fortnight. (have) 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words 2 They're coming to change our windows next week. (have) below. 3 They'll refurbish the office when they can afford it. (get) accuse catastrophe censor nation person speak 4 No one had serviced my father's car in years . (have) 5 Someone stole my boyfriend's wallet yesterday. (get) 1 Democratic countries believe in _ __ _ 2 In many countries, there is state of the press. Mark: _ /5 3 It's essential to be able to express your _ _ __ opinion when discussing politics. 6 Rewrite the sentences using the words below. 4 Opponents to totalitarian regimes are often imprisoned however whatever whenever ｾ＠ whichever because of false _ _ __ whoever 5 security is under threat from terrorist groups. No matter where you end up, please write to me. 6 The results will be if the problem is ignored. Whe-reve-r iOU e-nd up, ple-,%e- write- to me-. Mark: _ /6 1 The person who gave you that has impeccable taste. 2 John will never become an airline pilot, no matter how 3 Match 1-8 with a-h to make common collocations. hard he tries. 1 finalise a confidential 3 Every time I'm in the UK I buy a load of tea bags . 2 strictest b a contract 4 She'll look stunning, no matter which dress she wears . 3 complete c a meeting 5 It doesn't matter what you do, but don't panic. 4 highly d arrangements Mark: _ /5 5 wind up e a Master's degree 6 cease f a word 7 terminate g industrial action 7 Join the two sentences using formal relative clauses. 8 breathe h confidence A fight started in the club. At that point we went home. Afight 5tarte-d in the- du\), at whiGh point we- went home-. Mark: _ /8 1 She started to dust the desk, On top of it lay piles of papers. 2 He has won eleven medals so far. Most of them are gold, 3 The president will appoint a number of new ministers in the new session. Many of them are women. 4 That woman's an actress. My friend was mistaken for her. 5 I addressed my complaint to an employee. He was blatantly rude. Mark: _ /5 Total:I!!I/40 112 I Language Review 9-10 Reading listening 1 Look quickly through the two excerpts from two emails, ignoring 3 g 3.17 Listen. Which three of the following four the gaps. Decide: dialogues do you hear, and in what order? a who each email is from. a Edgars and Tomas b what the relevance of the photo is. b Tomas and Rita c Rita, Edgars and Tomas 2 Match sentences A-G with gaps 1-6 in the emails. There is one d Edgars and Rita sentence that you do not need. A That would be a shame, because I've made some good friends 4 g 3.17 Listen again, focusing on the speakers' here, including a really nice guy from Latvia called Edgars. intonation. Say how each speaker sounds when they B That's how I managed to earn enough money for the flat say the words below. Then say what this implies about deposit. what they are thinking or feeling. ( This was a bit of a disaster, as I'd already fou nd a flat and 1 Rita: 'Oh, I see. Professional.' needed to pay my rent. 2 Edgars: 'You don't have to say anything now.' D Ironically, she works for InterPost, the company who let me 3 Rita: 'I've just accepted a promotion .' down over that job offer. 4 Edgars: 'So you're moving to Edinburgh.' E It's in a great location too, only a couple minutes from a tube 5 Tomas: 'No, she hasn't said anything to me.' station. 6 Tomas: 'Nobody tells me anything.' F As it happens, my flatmate's sister, Rita, works in IT and would 7 Rita: 'His face went red and he couldn 't speak.' be an ideal business partner. G Who knows when another one might come along? Speaking :: .eryth ing is going we ll here. I'm 5 Work in pairs. Role-play one of the following dialogues: 3'lari ng a flat with two oth er women, • Edgars persuading Rita not to go to Edinburgh. :1e from Lithuania and the other from • Rita telling her boss that she's leaving the company. Jol and. The flat isn't huge, but it's big =10ugh and in re latively good condition, Writing ',ith modern furniture and appliances. 6 Read the statement below. Decide whether you agree '_ (Everybody travels by tube here, or disagree with it. Make notes for and against. Use the :s the only way to avoid the traffic.) words and phrases in the box to help you. :lork is going fine. In fact, I've recently : een offered a promotion, which wo uld It is impossible to maintain a close -:Jean more money as well as more friendship with somebody who lives -espons ibility. The downside is that I'd a long way away. ｾ｡ｶ ･＠ to re locate to Edinburgh because body language chat rooms email face to face :'lat's where the company's head office is. 2 _ We've really hit it off, hang out physical contact social networking sites end between you and me, I think he quite fancies me. And of course, -.,y brother is here too. But I suppose I should do what's best for my 7 Write an essay of 200-250 words using your notes from :aree r and accept the opportunity 3_ Anyway, I haven't made a final exercise 6. : ec ision yet m> CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: PAGE 4 <m I' ve been in London for six months now. Can you believe that? The tim e has really flown byl :'m so sorry I haven't been in touch earlier, but I never seem to have time . I haven't had a particularly easy time since getting here, for one reason or another. Having oeen offered a job at interview, I was then told that I didn't have the job after alL 4_ _ I decided :0 set up in business as a consultant, and it 's really taken off. In fact , I'm so busy that I'm :ooking for somebody to w ork w ith me - either an employee or a partner. 5_ _ Not only is she :eally well qualified , but we also get on w ell together. However, she 's currently in full-time employment, so I'd have to lure her away from her job 6_ _ She hasn't been there long, so : doubt she 'd want to leave. Skills Round-up 1-10 113 1 Get read to READ Read the text in the Reading exam task, 3 Read the information about synonyms of old and complete ignoring the gaps. In what order will the Sun turn into these the sentences with the adjectives in the correct form. Justify types of star? your choice of adjective. a a black dwarf b a red giant c a white dwarf SYNONYMS 2 Do the Reading exam task. old ｾＣ｀ＧｩＮｭｗﾧＴＦ＠ elderly. aged. long-lived. mature READING exam task , , These words all describe sb who has lived for a long time or that usually lives for a long time. Read the text carefully and decide which sentence (A-F) old having lived for a long time ; no longer young: She's getting old- she's 75 next year. best fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence that you elderly (rather forman used as a polite word for 'old': She do not need. is very busy caring for two elderly relatives. aged (jorman very old: Having aged relatives to stay in The end of the world your house can be quite stressful. long-lived having a long life; lasting for a long time: Everyone in my family is exceptionally long-lived. The Sun is now approximately half-way through its life span. It is mature used as a polite or humorous way of saying that in a 'dynamic equilibrium' - there is gravity on one hand and the sb is no longer young: ciothesfor the mature woman fusion process that 'fuels' the Sun on the other hand. 10 Astronomers still don't know all the exact details but they know 1 The ____ person in the world is 117, that the Sun will start to swell up and turn into a red giant with a 2 A 400-year-old clam may be the _ _ _ animal known. diameter about 100 times greater than its current size. 20 The 3 There are over eleven million _ __ people in the Unite d Earth will be scorched at this point, leaving the planet unsuitable Kingdom, according to the most recent census. for life. Pluto, in fact, would be the only place suitable for any life 4 This particular dating agency is for men and women of in the solar system. At the very end of its life cycle, the Sun is likely _ _ _ years. to blow off its outermost layers. It will then shrink to the size of the 5 Women have traditionally borne the brunt of supporting Earth, surrounded by a glowing bubble of gas called 'planetary ___ relatives. nebulae'. 30 Astronomers have observed many Sun-like stars in their final stages, before becoming white dwarfs. The images of 4 Do the Speaking exam task. planetary nebulae are spectacular and each looks like no other. The expelled gas has intriguing symmetrical patterns as well as more chaotic structures . Compare and contrast the two photographs. Answer the A white dwarf derived from a star as massive as the Sun will questions. be roughly the same size as the Earth. 40 The gravity on the surface will be over 100,000 times what we experience on Earthl Once the white dwarf has reached its minimum size, it will have a temperature of over 100,000 Kelvin and shine through residual heat. 50 Because the Universe is only 13.7 billion years old, there are no black dwarfs yet. One thing is for sure: if the human race hasn't migrated to another solar system within the next five billion years, it is sure to become extinct. A The star will gradually cool and eventually, after hundreds of billions of years of radiating, it will no longer be visible, becoming a black dwarf. B The gases will eventually disperse in the course of several thousand years leaving behind a white dwarf. C It will be so dense that a teaspoon of wh ite dwa rf material will weigh several tonnes. D It will continue to burn in this stable co ndition for a further five billion years, when it will start to chan ge. 1 In your opinion, at what age do people become 'old'? E This means that the radiation, whi ch initial ly will be 2 What effect will increasing life expectancy have on very high, will lessen with time . society? F It will be so big that it will engulf Mercu ry, while Venus 3 What, if anything, can we learn from talking to elderly will probably orbit just outside the Su n's surfac e. people? Give examples. -. - 1111-::" Get Ready for your Exam 10 B Talking about habitual actions 2 Rewrite the sentences using the word in brackets. 1 We used to spend hours playing hide-and-seek when we were kids. Cd) Present simple We'd spend hours plaiing hide-and-seek when we were kids. We use the present simple with an adverb of frequency to talk 2 My mother will cook something special whenever we go about repeated actions, habits and routines. round. (usually) ";)he often 90es to work bi bicicle 3 Gina will take my COs without asking. (constantly) resent/Past continuous 4 We had no pets when we were little. (use) We use the present/past continuous with the adverbs always, 5 Ben would always leave his dirty dishes all over the place constantly, continually and forever to talk about annoying when he lived with us. (leaving) 'epeated behaviour. 6 Every summer we made sandcastles on the beach. (used) ｾｨ ･ Ｇ＠ s alwa'{s c..omplainin9 about her job. ｾｮ･ ｩ＠ were forever shoutin9 at each other. ｾ＠ Phrasal verbs Will / would Will and would can be used to talk about habitua l actions and Phrasal verbs combine verbs with adverbs or prepositions (or .:lehaviour. When they are stressed in spoken English, sometimes both) to create a new meaning. Phrasal verbs can 't suggests criticism. Would refers to the past. be divided into four main types: -)ne'\\ often forget to bUi milk. Two-part verbs with no object. -'e would pla'{ records so loud we couldn't have a conversation. Mi car ｢ｲｯｾ･＠ down on the motorwai last night Used to Two -part verbs whose object can come between or after the two Ve use used to + infinitive to describe past states or habits that parts. However, when the object is a pronoun, it must come so meone did in the past but does not do now. between the two parts. ',e used to live in New York. He turned down the job offer he received. He received ajob offer but he turned it down. Would Nould can also be used to talk about past habits, but it can't Two-part verbs whose object cannot come between the parts. Je used to talk about past states. We use used to to do that. We have to a\\ow for different opinions from 5taff members. e would 90 to stai with our grandparents ･ｶｾ＠ summer. Three-part verbs whose object cannot come between the parts. How do iOU put up with his comments? 1 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. One, two or three answers may be correct. 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal 1 Before my brother had children he _ _ a motorbike. verbs below. Where possible use an object pronoun. a used to have b would have chad cheer sb up .-en m @ acre:;!> sttr get away with sth 2 My sister often gets annoyed with her husband - he go for sb pass out put up with sth set off tear 5th up 1 Myoid school reports were in a box - I came acrMS them a would wind the children up in the attic yesterday. b 's always winding the children up 2 Carol's children are very badly behaved - I don't know c will wind the children up howshe _ _ _ _ _ 3 When I was little my mother _ __ nursery rhymes to me 3 We're going to have an early night as we at at bedtime. 6 a.m . tomorrow. a used to sing b would sing c sang 4 Matt's girlfriend has left him, so his friends are trying to 4 I moved out of Isaac and Maisie's house - they _____ when I was around. 5 Nobody could prove that Bill had stolen the car and so he a were constantly arguing b would argue 6 It's too hot and I'm feeling dizzy. I think 1_ _ __ _ c will argue 7 The letter made Karl furious, so he and put 5 Before she got married she _ __ in Germany for two it in the bin . 8 Emma's dog bit her last night - it as she years. b lived c would live was opening the door. a used to live 6 If it's not raining, 1 __ to work. a usually walk b used to walk c '11 walk Grammar Builder and Reference 115 2 Complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs below. Use an 2 Complete the sentences with the infinitive form of the object pronoun where necessary. phrasal verbs below and an object pronoun. do away with sth I fall out with sb get away do sth up ｾ＠ get round to doing sth go through sth let sb down run into sb turn sb down get through to sb give sth up go with sth put sb up 1 'Did you watch the film all the way through?' 1 Jim was going past the station so I asked him to drop 'No, I dropped off in the middle.' me off outside . 2 'Did you see Becky yesterday?' 2 If they want to rent out the cottage, they'll have 'Yes, I in the supermarket.' _ _ _ _ _ first. 3 'Does your boyfriend think he'll get the job? ' 3 I haven't washed the car - I hope soon . 'No, he thinks they _ _ _ __ 4 We've thoroughly enjoyed our stay. It was so kind of yo u 4 'Do you know where you went wrong in the exam?' 'Yes, my tutor with me.' 5 Jane's phone is always engaged - it's impossible 5 'Does your school still have a uniform?' 'No , they _ _ __ _ 6 Once you start smoking, it's very hard _ _ _ __ 6 'Did they catch the thief?' 7 Keira bought a dress but couldn't find shoes 'No, he _ _ _ __ 7 'Do you still see your old neighbours?' 'No, 1_ _ _ __ ｾ＠ as and like 8 ' Does Harry always turn up for football practice?' Like is a preposition and it is used with a noun or a ' No, he often _ _ _ __ pronoun to describe similarities . E!] Phrasal verbs: passive and infinitive M'j brother'"ju"t li\(e m'j dad. Unlike is also a preposition and it is used with a noun or a forms pronoun to describe differences. Some phrasal verbs that have an object can be used in the Unli\(e raCK, I don't enjo'j watching r ea\it'j "how" passive . As in all passive structures, the subject comes before As is a conjunction and it is used with a subject and a verb the verb . This means the two or thee parts of the phrasal verb to describe similarities . always stay together. This also applies to infinitive structures : \-le'" a good p\a'jer , as hi" father wa" when he wa" 'jounger V\ea"e switc.h 'jour wmputer off when 'jou leave the office. However, in informal speech like is also often used as a V\ea"e maKe "ure 'jour wmputer i" switc.hea off when 'jou leave conjunction. the office. ｾ ｨ ･＠ doe"n't dresn li\(e 'jou do. ｾ ｨ ･＠ hann't got 'jour nt'j\e. It',, vef'j difficult to get throu9h to him. \-le never \i"ten". In written English, when as is followed by an auxiliary or 1 Rewrite the second sentence with a suitable passive form of modal verb the word order of questions is often used. the phrasal verb in brackets. \-le went, as did hin brother n, to a boarding nchoo\ . 1 A gang attacked Tom on his way home. (beat up) As is used to talk about the job a person has. In this case it Tom wa " beaten up on his way home. operates in the same way as a preposition . 2 They've cancelled the match . (call off) As 'jour doctor, I rewmmend 'jou give up nmoKing. The match _ __ __ If we replace as with like in this sentence it changes the 3 Her grandparents took care of her. (bring up) meaning. As means 'I am your doctor' and like means 'I have She by her grandparents. the same opinion as your doctor'. 4 A local builder is doing the work. (carry out) Lj\(e 'jour doctor, I r ewmm end 'jou give up nmoKing The work by a local builder. In very informal speech like can be used to introduce 5 500 workers will lose their jobs. (layoff) reported speech . 500 workers _ _ _ __ M'j dad wan li\(e, 'What time do 'jou ca\\ thin?' 6 The police stopped the riot. (brea k up) Notice how the function of like can change depending on The riot by the poli ce. whether it comes before or after a negative clause . 7 An accident is delaying the traffic. (hold up) Lj\(e m'j ninter, I'm not Keen on w medien. The traffic by an acc ident. (She doesn't like them and neither do I.) 8 His boss has refused his transfe r request. (t urn down) His request _ __ __ I'm not Keen on wm edien, li\(e m'j ninter . (My sister likes them but I don't.) 116 Grammar Builder and Reference 1 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. We use the past perfect continuous to talk about longer events (Sometimes both are correct.) that were happen ing before another event in the past. 1 I prefer Italian food, _ _ pizza and pasta . I'd been waitin9 for an nour before "ne arrived. a as b like We use used to + infinitive to describe past situations or habits 2 The weather was superb, __ was the hotel. that are different now and would + infinitive is used to describe a as b like past habits that are different now. 3 _ _ you, I don't enjoy staying in all day. You never move 'Sne used to 90 out witn Tom. from the sofa! We would 90 to tne c.inema ever'j 'Saturda'j morning. a Like b Unlike We use the future in the past to talk about things that were in 4 My boyfriend's __ yours in some respects . the future when we were talking about them. We express these a as b like ideas by using structures similar to the ones we normally use to 5 I don't work out every day, _ _ you do. talk about the future but changing the verb forms. a as b like I tnougnt 'Iou were 90in9 awa'j for tne wtekend. 6 ' _ _ your doctor, I recommend you to try and lose He I'>aid ne would see me nt'f.t wetk. weight,' said Or White. a As b Like 1 Correct the mistake with narrative tenses in each sentence. 7 My sister's __ , 'Where's my jacket?' 1 Although the storm had passed, the roads were sti ll a as b like treacherous because it ｾ ｡ｬ＠ night. 8 '_ _ your doctor, I think you should lose some weight,' nad bten I'>nowing his mum said . 2 He climbed the stairs stealthily and was entering the a As b Like bedroom. 2 Complete the sentences with as, like or unlike. Sometimes 3 She crossed a field when she spotted a bull grazing by two answers may be possible. the gate. 4 They couldn't take the flight because they had been 1 Owen enjoys playing team sports, _ __ basketball and forgetting their passports. volleyball. 2 '_ _ the rest of the family, I'm fed up with your 5 As a child, I was sitting in the kitchen for hours watching moods,' her mum said. my mother cook. 3 _ _ _ my brother, I'm not very good at maths. He always 6 They used to be married in the spring, but war broke out gets top marks! and he was called up. 4 Your dad doesn't go away on business _ __ mine does. 7 My parents would live in a cottage in the country before 5 You've got a car ___ mine, haven't you? they moved to the city centre. 6 We got lost on the way, ___ did most of the guests. 8 Our arms were aching as we had shifted boxes all day. 7 ' _ _ _ your father I think you should seriously consider We weren't looking forward to continuing the next day. your future,' said Connor's dad. 8 My boyfriend's _ _ . . , 'Where have you been?' 2 Complete the mini dialogues with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 2.2 1 Narrative tenses 1 'Why didn't she answer the phone?' 'Because she wal'> l'jing in the bath.' (lie) le use past tenses to narrate past events. 2 'Why are you late?' le use the past simple to refer to short actions and events that 'Because I my train.' (miss) ::-e soon finished, longer actions and events and to repeated 3 'Have you got any pets?' :::tions. 'Not now, but I a dog.' (have) -, wal\(ed down tnt "trttt and bougnt a ntw"paptr 4 'Why were they so lethargic?' e lived in Manc.ntl'>ttr for 2-0 'jtarl'>. 'Because they TV all day.' (watch) ent to tne g'jm tver'j week lal'>t 'jear 5 'Do you remember your grandparents well?' e use the past continuous to set the scene of a situation in 'Yes, we every summer with them as kids.' :-;e past. It is often used to describe a background event in (spend) ':Jn junction with the past simple, which describes an event or 6 'Why was Annabel crying?' :::tion that interrupted it. ' Because her boyfriend .' (walk out) Ｍ Ｍｾ＠ sun was shinin9 and tnt birdl'> wert I'>inging 7 'Why didn't you book a hotel?' Ｍ Ｍｾｩ＠ were deanin9 tne c.ar wntn it I'>tarted to rain. ' Because we had decided we camping.' (go) e use the past perfect to talk about an event that happened 8 'When did you have your bag snatched?' :efore another event in the past. 'While I at the traffic lights.' (wait) ｾ Ｍ ［Ｓ ｲｴ ･､＠ tne t'f.erc.il'>e and realil'>td I had done it befort. Grammar Builder and Reference 117 2 Complete the two sentences with a simple and a continuous 12.31Simple and continuous forms form of the verb given. 1 RUN We use simple forms to talk about habits, repeated actions and a He was out of breath because he 'd been running . states. b He was out of breath because he 'd run all the way. We ｰ｜｡ｾ＠ tenni5 evet"j wee\(. I was in the arml 2 EAT We've alwa'i5 \ived here. a Ruth got food poisoning because she _ _ _ __ We use continuous forms to talk about something happening at something strange. a particular moment. b Daisy had greasy fingers because she _ _ _ __ He was 5till s\eeping at IOa.m . fish and chips . Thi5 time tomorrow 1'\\ be ｜ｾｩｮｧ＠ on a beach. 3 JOG He' s ｷｯｲｾｩｮｧ＠ at the moment. a I in the park when I twisted my ankle. We use simple forms to talk about permanent situations . b I didn't have much time so I once roun d He ｷｯｲｾ･､＠ for the wmpan'i all hi5 life. the park. We use continuous forms to talk about temporary situations. 4 STUDY I'd been ｳｴ｡ｾｩｮｧ＠ with Jac\( until the hou5e wa5 fini 5hed. a George passed his exams because he _ _ _ __ We use simple forms to talk about finished situations. every night. We deaned the office and then we went home. b Charlie had a headache because he _ _ _ __ We use continuous forms to talk about unfinished situations . I've been reading thi5 boo\( for two month5. 12.41Speculating There are two types of verbs, dynamic and state. Dynamic verbs We use the following structures to speculate about people an d are verbs that describe actions. They can be used in simple and things: continuous forms. look (and seem, sound, feel, etc.) like with a noun. ｾ ｨ ･＠ eats lunch at home evet"j dal 'She ｜ｯｾｳ＠ ｩｾ･＠｜ a 5tudent. I was eating lunch at home when I heard the neW5 on the radio. It fee\s ｜ｩｾ･＠ 5il\(. We don't usually use state ve rbs in continuous tenses. look (seem , sound, feel, etc.) with an adjective. The'i want to vi5it the cathedral. The'i ｯｾ＠｜ upset. Some common state verbs are : believe, belong, enjoy, forget, ｾ ｨ･＠ seems ｡ｮｧｲｾ＠ hate, like, love, need, prefer, remember, understand, want. wonder + iffollowed by a subject and verb . 1 Choose the correct words. I wonder if the'i have had problem5. 1 They'd only known / 'd only been knowing each other modal verbs to talk about possibility, probability and certainty for three weeks when they got married. in the present and the past. 2 The teacher refused to repeat the explanation because He must be at home now. some students hadn't listened / hadn't been listening. The'i might have gone out la5t night. 3 I adored my new shoes - they were just what I 'd looked 1 Rewrite the example sentence using the words in brackets. for / 'd been looking for. 4 We voted for the opposition party because we thought / 1 I wonder if he' s a sailor. were thinking they might change our foreign poli cy. a He 100\(5 li\(e a 5a ilor. (look) 5 Ruby didn't enjoy / wasn't enjoying the party, so she b He might have been a 5a i\or. (might) decided to leave early. 2 She might be ill. 6 The fish smelt / was smelling off, so we th rew it away. a _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ . (wonder) 7 The ring had belonged / had been belonging to my b . (look) grandmother before it was handed down to my mother. 3 It looks like they're going to a football match . a . (wonder) b Ｎｾｵ＠ 4 I wonder if he's passed his exams. a . (not look) b . (can't) 118 Grammar Builder and Reference 2 Complete the sentences with one word. 2 Complete the formal letter with the present perfect simple or 1 The lights are on. She must be home . continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 2 You awful! What's wrong? 3 I what time it is. Dear Albert, 4 Her boyfriend didn't stop. He have see n her. I am writing to complain about your proposed 5 Rudi looks he didn't sleep last night. changes to our agreement regarding business flights . 6 Sara's not at school today. I suppose she be Employees from TNN 1 (fly) with BusyAir ill. for over twenty years now, and our relationship until 7 What's that noise? It like a fire alarm . now 2 (be) more than cordial. Each year 8 My mother didn 't call me on my birthday. She _ _ __ we 3 (negotiate) a reasonable increase have forgotten . in fares and every month our accounts department (deal) promptly with your invoice. ｾ＠ 4 Present perfect simple and I fail to understand why on this occasion you (choose) to communicate your continuous 5 proposal in this impersonal manner. Ne use the present perfect: Regarding the price increase itself, I can only hope • continuous for something which has been happening you 6 (make) a mistake . This year we repeatedly in the very recent past. _ __ _ _ (pay) on average nearly 80 per cent of • simple when something has happened on several occasions the full business rate and you are now proposing that over a period of time and may happen again . we pay the full fare. • continuous with for or since to say how long an action has Since receiving your fax, my colleagues and I been in progress. _ __ _ _ (discuss) our relationship with BusyAir • simp le with for or since only if the verb is one wh ich is not and we wish to express our i ndignation at the lack of commonly used in continuous tenses. respect we have suffered at your hands. • simp le for a recent action that is now complete. Yours sincerely, • continuous for a recent action that is ongoing. Benjamin Murray 1 Complete the two sentences in each pair with the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous form of the verbs given. Use contractions where possible. ｾ＠ Verb patterns (1) 1 SWIM a William 50 lengths today. Some verbs are followed by an infinitive. b We in a mountain stream and now we're We wanted to leave earli but we wuldn't. frozen . Some verbs are followed by + object + infinitive. 2 SEE I won't allow the c.hi\dren to 5ta'f up. a I all of Woody Alien's films. Some verbs are followed by + object + base form . b Lily Adam for over two years now. will thei let U5 5ta'f and see the end? 3 STAY Some verbs are followed by + (object) + -ing form . a Daisy in rented accommodation since We enjo'f c.omin9 to see iOu. she arrived in London. Some verbs are followed by + object + past participle. b We at this guesthouse a few times ｾｨ･＠ had her nai\5 pO\i5hed at the hairdressers. before. Verbs which are only followed by an infinitive : afford, agree, 4 DISAPPEAR appear, decide, expect, fail, happen, hope, manage, mean, a My car isn't where I parked it. It _ __ __ pretend, promise, refuse, seem, want. b Bags from the changing rooms for Verbs which are only followed by an -ing form: admit, several weeks now. appreciate, avoid, can't stand, consider, contemplate, delay, 5 STOP deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, face, feel like, finish, forgive, a Now you arguing perhaps you can tell mention, miss, practise, put off, resent, risk, suggest, me what happened . understand. b The police pedestrians to ask them Some verbs are followed by both an infinitive or an -ing with about the burglary. little or no change in their meaning: begin, like, love, hate, prefer, start. Grammar Builder and Reference 119 Some verbs are followed by both an infinitive or an -ing with a 2 Complete the sentences with to be, being, to have or having. change in their meaning: forget, go on, try, regret, remember, 1 My sister avoids being seen with her glasses on . stop_ 2 I don't recollect been bullied at school. We can also use infinitives and -ing forms directly after some 3 She resents treated like an idiot when she nouns_ takes her car to the garage. I neecl a ｜Ｈ･ｾ＠ to open the cloor. 4 The accident appears _ _ __ been caused by leaves It'" not worth ｷｯｲｾｩｮＹ＠ about. on the track. 5 I refuse spoken to like that. 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. ｾ＠ Comparative and superlative forms 1 Most people tend to take their summer holiday in August. (take) Some comparatives can be used with the to say that two 2 Angie volunteered the money for Gina's changes happen at the same time or are linked. leaving present. (collect) The bi99er the piZ.ZLI, the happier I am. 3 Because of the crisis they had difficulty their The ric.her '(ou are, the more suaessful '(ou are. house . (sell) We can use two comparatives to express the idea of continui ng 4 The inheritance enabled him a yacht. change. (purchase) What he "a,(" i" less and less interestin9 5 Ryan's parents wouldn't let him a tattoo. (get) l1e'" getting taller and taller I 6 It's not worth the doctor - he'll only give me We use the following words to modify comparatives : very much, some pills. (consult) a lot, lots, any, rather, a little, a bit. 7 Peter stopped in a car park a phone call. I" he ｡ｮｾ＠ happier than when I la"t "aw him? (make) That re"taurant wa" ｶ･ｲｾ＠ muc.h nic.er than the other one we went to 8 Last year we spent a month _ _ _ _ around Europe. (travel) 1 Complete the sentences with a comparative or superlative 9 I'm so glad I remembered _ __ _ my mum's birthday form of the adjectives in brackets. Be careful of negatives! card yesterday. (post) 1 The (long) you wait for something, the more you appreciate it. 13.31Verb patterns (2) 2 Good health is one of (important) things in When a verb is followed by another verb, the infinitive or -ing life. 3 The (fast) he speaks, the _ _ __ form can include the passive, perfect and continuous forms. (intelligible) he becomes. 1 Complete the sentence with the correct alternative. 4 Most mothers are at their (Iow) when their 1 After her ordeal, she described _ _ in the jungle. children leave home. a to be held b being held 5 The more time he spends at home, the (goo d). 6 Life is (hard) in Europe as it is in Africa. 2 If he starts another fight at school, he risks _ _ . a to be expelled b being expelled 2 Complete the sentences with the words below. 3 She was unlucky that she happened _ _ in the wrong awful bit deal far mile quite slightly very place. a to be standing b being standing 1 Mallorca isn't as popular as Ibiza with young people. 4 They admitted _ _ the car. 2 I'd like to introduce you to my best friend, a to have stolen b having stolen Katie. 5 The actress agreed _ _ on TV. 3 My mother spent a good more time with us as a to be interviewed b being interviewe d kids than my father did. 6 We appear _ _ an agreement. 4 My younger brother is a little taller than me. a to have reached b having reached 5 Daniel Craig is better as James Bond than 7 The politician denied _ _ . Sean Connery. a to have been mistaken b having been mistaken 6 In my opinion, Cristiano Ronaldo is and away the most talented footballer in the world. 8 The painting seems _ _ by a profes sional. 7 JK Rowling is an lot richer than Philip Pullman . a to have been stolen b having bee n sto len 8 Nico is the most intelligent student in our class by a 120 Grammar Builder and Reference result clause 14.21Reduced relative clauses if + past perfect would have + past participle We can sometimes form reduced relative clauses from If ｾｯｵ＠ had left earlier, ｾｯｵ＠ wouldn't have missed the plane. identifying relative clauses. In a reduced relative clause we drop the relative pronoun and auxiliary verb that helps form the Mixed conditional verb tense . We use mixed conditionals to say how an imaginary situation in A lot of the people (.... ho .... ere) sittin9 at the table were mi rel.ative". the present depended on an imaginary event in the past taking 1he bUilding" (.... hic.h .... ere) c.onstruc.ted in the seventies are ugll place. Reduced relative clauses cannot be used if the relative pronoun We form mixed conditionals with if + past perfect and would + is not the object of the verb in the relative clause. bare infinitive in the result clause. It's also possible to put the if A lot of the people .... ho I tah:ed to at the table were mi relative". clause at the end of the sentence. 1 Join the two sentences using a reduced relative clause. conditional clause result clause 1 Some information was given in the leaflet. It was wrong. if + past perfect would + bare infinitive '5ome informati on given in the leaflet wa" wrong. If she had 90ne "hopping, she wouldn't have an empt) fridge now. 2 A player was injured in the match. He was rushed to Inversion hospital. 3 Some boys are hanging around outside the shopping In a more formal style the auxiliary verbs should, were and had centre . They live on my estate. can replace ifat the beginning of a conditional sentence. 4 A man was arrested last night. He is now in police custody. If I had seen him, I .... ould have told him. 5 Some hostages are being held by the hijackers. They are Had I seen him, I .... ould have told him. all members of the crew. We can use unless instead of if. .. not when we want to say we ' ll 6 Several employees were dismissed for bad conduct. do the first thing if the second condition does not happen . They have all been reinstated . We'll have a barbewe unless it ra in". 7 A lifeguard is jumping into the sea . He's going to rescue We can sometimes use as long as instead of ifin first someone . conditional sentences. 8 Some measures have been enforced by the government. We Gan watc.h the film as lon9 as if" not too late. They seem to be working. 9 A woman is standing on the podium . She's my mother. 1 Decide if the sentences are correct or not. Correct the 10 Some houses were destroyed in the earthquake. sentences that are incorrect. They' re going to be rebuilt. 1 You'd have passed your test if you hadn't been so nervous. 14.31Conditionals 2 If I'd spoken better Engl ish, I got the job. Second conditional 3 She wouldn't have called unless she had a problem. We use the second conditional to talk about an imaginary 4 Suppose I hadn 't been to the bank, how did we pay for situation or event and its result in the present or future. that meal? We form the second conditional with the past simple in the 5 Had they arrived any later, the show would start. conditional if clause and would + bare infinitive in the result 6 You wouldn't be so tired if you went to bed earlier last clause. It's also possible to put the if clause at the end of the night. sentence. Furthermore, were can be used instead of was in the 7 Should you requ ire any help, our call centre is open conditional clause with /, he and she. 24 hours a day. 8 If they'd been driving more slowly, they wouldn't crash. llilI.IUltHr. result clause if + past simple would + bare infinitive 2 Choose the first, second, third or a mixed conditional to complete the sentences. If ｾｯｵ＠ lived in Pari", ｾｯ ｵＧ ､＠ learn fre.nGh qUiGKI) . 1 You spent all your money in the sales . You're broke now. Third conditional If iOU hadn't "pent all iour monei in the "ale", iOU wouldn't We use the third conditional to talk about the imaginary re sult be broKe now. of things that didn't happen in the past. It is often used it to 2 I didn't know you liked Cold play. I didn't buy you a t icket express criticism or regret. for t he concert. We form the third conditional with if + past perfect, would ha ve If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ + past partic iple. It's also possible to put the if clause at the end of the sentence. Grammar Builder and Reference , 121 3 You didn't lose your glasses . You'll be able to read the menu . Had ________________________ ｾ＠ Ellipsis 4 John didn't pack the sandwiches. He' s starving now. We can leave words out when the meaning is clear without If ___ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ｾ＠ them and also to avoid repetition. S If they don't ban tourists from the ancient city, it will be We can sometimes just use to , a reduced infinitive, instead of ruined in no time . repeating the whole expression again . Un less ______________________ l1e. want5 me. to go to the. cinema with him and I would li\(e to 6 Mary doesn ' t work at home. She doesn't spend much (go to the. cine.ma with him). time with her children . We sometimes leave out the whole infinitive. Mary ______________________ You don't have to te.11 me if 'Iou don't want (to tell me). ｾ＠ We sometimes leave out the main verb after an auxiliary or for + noun/pronoun + infinitive modal verb. We use for + noun/pronoun + infinitive after certain adjectives. We didn't fini5h the work but we f>hould have (fini5hed the work). These sentences are often introduced by it. I can't fi'l- it thi5 morning, but I c.an (fi'l- it) thi5 afte.rnoon. 15 that Ok? With adjectives used to express importance or the lack of it: In these cases, the second auxiliary verb is stressed in spoken 1t'5 vital for Uf> to win the makh. English . 1t'5 unnu.ef>f>ar'l for the 5tudentf> to memorif>e evel"{thing. 1 Cross out the words that can be omitted from the sentences With adjectives used to express frequency: because of ellipsis. It' 5 normal for lorl"{ driver5 to get tired. 1 Millie agreed to peel the potatoes although she didn't It' 5 rare for m'j 5tudent5 to do all their homework. want to peel them. With adjectives used to express reactions to future events: 2 Maria is going to try to get the books I want but I'm sure I'm eager for the pla'j to 5tart. she won't be able to get the books . We're \(een for the children to return. 3 I didn't ask after Pam's mother when I should have asked This structure can be more formally expressed by using a that after her. clause: 4 Alfie's always upsetting his girlfriend although he doesn 't 1t'5 vital that we win the makh. mean to upset her. It' 5 normal that lorq driver5 get tired. S My brother didn't go out last night although he could I'm eager that the pla'j 5hould 5tart. have gone out. This structure is also used with some nouns: 6 Andy doesn't know if he'll be able to beat Rafa, but he It' 5 time for U5 to 5tart work. certainly hopes to beat him . 7 Max goes horse-riding now, but he didn 't use to go 1 Complete the sentences using t he words in brackets. horse-riding. 1 It's a shame for 'Iou to mi% (you / miss) the party. 8 When Liam asked Grace to go out for a drink, she said 2 Her father's plan was (she / take over) the she' d love to go out for a drink. 4 medical practice. 3 They're reluctant (he / leave) the company. (they / win) would be a miracle. B Talking about the future We use will + infinitive when we decide to do things as we are S She's anxious (we / go) and stay in her new speaking (instant decisions, offers, promises) _ house. I'm going now. i'I\ phone 'Iou thi5 e.ve.ning 6 It's impossible _______ (I / start) work next wee k. You don't lOOk we.lI. i'I\ ta\(e 'Iou home. We'\I brin9 'Iou that bOOk tomorrow. 2 Rewrite the that- clauses using for + noun/pronoun + infinitive. We also use will to make pred ictions about the future . 1 It' s important that Grace arrive before th e ot her speakers . l1e.'\I never get all that work fini5he.d b'j frida'j. 1t'5 important for Grace to arrive before. the othe.r 5peaker5. We use going to + infinitive for plans and intentions that we 2 Mum's plan was that the whole family go camping together. have already decided on before speaking. 3 It's essential that he shouldn't turn up late. We.'ve. alre.ad'j de.cide.d where we want to go. We.'re 9oin9 to vif>it 4 He's eager that his girlfriend acco mpan y him to Jo's Brnil. wedding. S It seems unnecessary that we stay until the boss leaves. We also use going to to make predictions about the future . 6 Our host's idea was that we sh ouldn't set off unti l after In this case, the prediction is based on some present evidence . lunch. It' 5 five to nine. and he.' 5 onl'j jU5t left. l1e' f> 9oin9 to be late. for 5chool again l 122 Grammar Builder and Reference We use the present continuous to talk about arrangeme nts we have already made, usually at a specific time in th e futu re and with somebody else. 16.21Particles and their meanings I'm meetin9 the- bo% in he-r office- at nine- O'clOCK tomorrow morning. Phrasal verbs are formed from two (sometimes three) parts: a verb followed by a preposition or adverb. The prepositions or We use the present simple to talk the timetables of fut ure adverbs are sometimes referred to as particles. These particles activities and events. often add a particular meaning to a phrasal verb and they Your plane- leaves at ? pm tomorrow. usually have more than one meaning. We use the future continuous (will + be + -ing) to talk about back = repeating or looking into the past actions that will be in progress at a certain time in the future. Could iOU pla'f baG\: the- te-Ie-phone- me-ssage-, ple-ase-? It suggests that the future event has already been decided on . The- tennis club dates baG\: to the- Iqth ｣･ＭｮｴｵｾＮ＠ l'\\ be 'IIor\:in9 in our 'Sidne-i office- ne-"l-t month. Will he be sta'fin9 with 'lou at Christmas? down = record in writing or reducing Could iOU write the-se- dates down? We use the future perfect (will + have + past participle) to talk \-louse- price-s have- finalli 90ne down. about actions or events that will have finished in the future. we-'II have finished the- GOurse- in June-. off= departing or ending I hope- iou'lI have left the- office- bi se-ve-n O'clOCK. \-le- quicKli said goodb'le- and the-n ran off to catch the- bus. The- two GOuntrie-s have- GUt off diplomatic re-Iations with e-ach othe-r. 1 Choose the correct alternatives. on = continuing or attacking 1 Sophie's gone very pale, I think _ _ out. 'She- spe-nt the- whole- time- 90in9 on about he-r ne-w partne-r. a she's going to b she'll pass Those- bullie-s are- alwa'ls piG\::ing on Dave-. 2 Come and stay with us, the fresh air _ _ you good. out = disappearing or solving, searching a is going to do b will do The- fore-st fire- fin2lII'l died out afte-r two daiS. 3 Dave's been saving up. _ _ a new car. Can iOU 'IIor\: out tile- answe-r to tl1is maths que-stion? a He's going to buy b He'll buy over = visiting or considering, examining 4 There's a documentary on TV tonight. _ _ at 7.30. We- popped over to mi mum's but she- was out. a It's starting b It starts Le-t's go over the- re-port be-fore- the- me-e-ting 5 Alex can't see his girlfriend tonight. _ _ with her up = approach or improve friends. \-le- alwa'ls Greeps up on me-. \-le- just appe-ars, without maKing a noise-. a She ' ll go clubbing b She's going clubbing I want to brush up on m'l GOmpute-r SKills this ie-ar. 6 This time next year _ _ around the world. 1 Choose the correct meaning for the underlined particle. a we'll be travelling b we're travelling 1 Have you sorted out what you're doing at the weekend? 7 By the time you get home _ _ the cases. a disappearing b solving, searching a I'll pack b I'll have packed 2 We' re going to ask some friends over for dinner on 8 Don't cry. By this time next week _ _ someone new. Saturday. a you'll be meeting b you'll have met a visiting b considering, examining 2 Complete the mini dialogues with a suitable future form of 3 Hannah cheered @ as soon as she saw her boyfriend's the verbs in brackets. message on her mobile . a approach b improve 1 'Can you call me before midnight?' 'OK. I'm sure I 'll have- arrive-d by then .' (arrive) 4 Janice is going to stay on at school to do the university 2 'Shall we go out for a coffee after class?' entrance exam . 'Sorry, I can't. I tennis.' (play) a continuing b attack 3 'Why are you slowing down?' 5 Every now and then we look back at our wedding photos. 'Because I can see the traffic lights .' (change) a repeating b looking into the past 4 'Shall I pick you up at eight tonight?' 6 Matt's mum asked him to turn down the TV. 'No, We dinner then. Come round at 8.30 a record in writing b reducing instead.' (have) 7 The old man is always telling the kids to clear off. 5 'What time do you have to get up?' a departing bending 'At six. The bus at 7.15 .' (leave) 6 'When will you be able to hand in your project?' ' I'm sure I it by Friday.' (finish) Grammar Builder and Reference ' 123 2 Choose a particle that can be used in both sentences. Decide Reporting verbs which meaning from exercise 1 is used in each sentence. We can use a number of other reporting verbs to introduce reported statements apart from say and tell. These verbs are 1 bac.k - (a) looking into the pa£>t, (b) repeating . used with a variety of structures. A few verbs are used with a This song takes me to our first family more than one structure: holiday in Greece. b Paola played the CD to make sure it had verb + infinitive: agree, ask, claim, offer, promise, refuse, recorded properly. threaten 2 He promised to help u£>. a When my aunt had finished criticising my sister, she verb + object + (not) infinitive: advise, beg, dare, order, remind, started me. urge b They kept working until they finished the He advised us to appl'l for a vi£>a. report. verb + gerund: deny, mention, recommend, suggest 3 He rec.ommended visitin9 the mu£>wm . a Let's invite some friends _ _ _ _ to see our holiday verb + preposition + gerund: accuse, admit, boast, confess, photos. congratulate, insist b I'm going to think _ _ _ _ the job offer before I He c.onfessed to c.oP'lin9 m'j work. accept it. 4 verb + object + preposition + gerund: accuse, blame, warn a Tom noted _ __ _ her number and arranged to call The'j ac.c.used me of stealin9 their car. that afternoon . verb +that + (should) clause: demand, propose, recommend, b They played the incident _ _ _ _ to prevent the request, suggest crowd from panicking. '5he sU9gests that we £>hould get up earl'j. 5 verb + (object) + question word + infinitive with to : ask, tell a The weather soon brightened and we were He asKed ...,here to go able to go out for a walk. b The castle loomed at us through the fog. 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in 6 brackets. Use an object pronoun where necessary. a We set _ _ _ _ for the beach as soon as the sun 1 Tyler's friends dared him to do a bungee jump. (do) came out. 2 I've only lent Holly the money because she's agreed b Anne's waiting for Stephen to log _ _ __ so she can _ _ _ _ by the end of the week. (pay back) use the phone . 3 As soon as Beth mentioned to a theme park, 7 her brother and sister wanted to join her. (go) a We need to find what time our train leaves 4 The teacher kept the whole class behind until someone tomorrow. confessed her mobile. (steal) b The government is phasing analogue TV. 5 Nathan's parents urged home. (not leave) 6 The head teacher gave the student her prize and 16.31Reporting structures congratulated the competition. (win) We use direct speech to repeat the exact words that someone 7 The protesters are demanding that the government _ _ _ _ taxes. (reduce) said . We use reported speech to report what someone has said, but without using the exact words. 8 The muggers threatened Amy's boyfriend if Anne £>aid, 'It wa£> an inc.redible c.oncut. We had a fanta£>tic. time.' she didn't reveal her PIN number. (beat up) Anne said the'l had rea\l'l enjo'led the c.onc.ert. 2 Choose the correct alternative. When we change direct speech to reported speech we usually 1 They warned me against crossing / not to cross the park change the tense of the sentence, the pronouns and possessive at night. adjectives from first and second person to third perso n and the 2 Tom's girlfriend reminded to call her at midday / him time expressions. when to call her. 'I had an interview 'je£>terdai', £>aid :John. 3 He accused me to use / of having used all the milk. :John said he had had an intervie..., the da'l before 4 Millie advised us where to stay / we stay in Mykonos. 5 The teacher suggested Dan to stop / that Dan stop and think about it. 6 Mum insisted on giving / to give us more cake. 124 Grammar Builder and Reference 1 Complete the sentences putting the adjectives in brackets in 16.41Adverbs and adjectives the correct order. You may also need to add an article. 1 They purchased a Gnarming little- tnakne-d cottage in the Adjectives auction . (thatched, charming, little) The order of adjectives before a noun usually depends on their 2 She looked very stylish in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ meaning. Adjectives which describe attitudes and opinions evening gown. (silk, black, long) usually come before all other adjectives. 3 John drives sports car. It'n an inc.redib\e old fre-ndl painting. (fast, Italian, elegant) Adjectives referring to size, length and height often come 4 They're going to pull down that before age, colour, origin, material and purpose. _ __ _ _ __ _ __ building on the corner. rk' n got an enormous blaGK Japane-ne- motorbiKe-. (concrete, grey, hideous) Numbers usually go before adjectives and the words first, next 5 Grace is hoping to meet _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ and last go before numbers. stranger while she's away. (tall, dark, gorgeous) The-ne- are- mi first two old Britisn ntampn. 6 Susan's down-and -out father wore _ __ _ __ _ _ __ suit to her wedding. (check, Adverbs old-fashioned, scruffy) We can usually use adverbs in three positions: at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence. However, 2 Decide if the sentences are correct or not. Sometimes there is most adverbs are only used in one or two of these positions. more than one possibility. Correct the incorrect sentences. We use adverbs that show our thoughts or feelings about 1 We'd luckily booked a table for dinner the day before. something at the beginning of a sentence. LUGKili, we-' d booKe-d a table-. Persona\\,!, I'm not re-alIi intere-ste-d in nin ide-an. 2 Zoe spent her childhood in Moscow and she can still Unfortunate\,!, we- won't be- able- to wme- to tne- we-dding speak fluently Russian. We use adverbs of frequency in the middle of a sentence. 3 Unfortunately, the young peop le in my area rarely put They go after the verb to be, between an auxiliary verb and a their litter in a bin . main verb, and before all other verbs . 4 I lost my job almost yesterday. fk wan often late-. 5 Basically, we never are going to finish on time. The-i've- a\wa,!s live-d ne-re-. 6 She's been trying to eat healthily for the last week or so. We- usua\\,! plai at tne- we-e-Ke-ndn. 7 They occasionally in the summer go camping. We also use adverbs of degree like almost, nearly and quite in 8 My cousin even didn't say thank you when we put her up the middle of a sentence. last weekend . We- are- near\,! tne-re-. '0ne- a\most won tne- raGe-. ｾ＠ -ing forms after preparatory it, nouns When we want to say something was unexpected we use even and adjectives before a verb. It can be used as a preparatory subject or object for an -ing MiKe- even woKe-d lunGn. i\nd it wan good l form, especially in informal style. '0ne- didn't even re-turn tne- mone-i I nad Ie-nt ne-r. We often use it with adjectives. We usually use adverbs of manner with the verbs they describe. It was interestin9 ne-aring wnat ne- nad to nal If the verb has an object, the adverb follows it. It wi\\ be 9reat f,e-e-ing iOU .1\\ again. '0ne- nan aiwain nung ope-ra beautifu\\,!. We often use it with the noun worth. The- Gnildre-n ate- quic.\(\'! and we-nt out to pial 15 it rea\\,! worth bUiing tnOne- je-ann? It was worth af,King for ne-Ip. The object of the -ing form can sometimes become the subject of the sentence. It' f, wortn f,e-e-ing \Z.egent' 5 ParK \Z.egent' 5 par\( if, wortn f,e-e-ing It is also often used negatively with the noun use. It won't be an,! use waiting ne-re- for nim. Som e nouns and adjectives can be followed by -ing forms. A preposition usually joins the -ing form with the noun or ad jective. I nate- the idea of gettin9 bad e-'l-am re-f,ultD. Grammar Builder and Reference 125 1 Complete the sentences with the words below and the -ing We use not only... but also ... to emphasise that two negative form of the verb in brackets. events have happened. He lost his job and his wife left him . good nice pointless tiring ｾ＠ worth Not on\'I did his wife leave him, but he a\so lost his job. 1 It' s no u&e reporting the crime . Your wallet will never be Adverbial expressions of place found. (report) Adverbia l express ions of place can be put at the beginning of 2 It was you r mother out for lunch . a sentence for emphasis, especially when they are followed by She didn't eat anything. (take) intransitive verbs such as come, sit, stand or walk. 3 It's no on at school if you aren't He walKed up the hill. going to study. (stay) Up the hi\\ he walKed. 4 It's been to you . Thank you for your We can also use phrases such as the problem/trouble/truth / time. (talk) 5 It was with the same old problems, facti question is. The prob\em is he doesn't do an,/ worK. day in and day out. (deal) We sometimes use the auxiliary verb do to add emphasis to t he 6 It isn't our house right now. (sell) main verb. 2 Complete the sentences using the word in brackets and an We reall,/ do enjo'/ his rec.itals at the wnc.ert hall. -ing form. 1 Complete the second sentence adding emphasis. 1 Nobody wants to have an operation. (thought) 1 The four officers jumped into a waiting police car. People don't like the thought of having an operation . Into a waiting pOlic.e c.ar jumped the four ofkers . 2 Of course I'll pass all my exams. (confident) I'm _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ 2 The party had hardly got going when the lights went out. Hardly 3 Everybody thinks that Nadal will win . (chance) Nadalhas _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ __ 3 We got completely carried away. That's the truth . The truth is 4 Her main concern is that her children may get lost. (worried) 4 The captain reported the fault as soon as we took off. She's _ _ _ _ __ __ __ __ _ _ _ ____ No sooner 5 I've never spent the night in an igloo before. (strange) 5 They need to improve public transport to solve the It' ll be ______________________________ congestion problem. What 6 Kids rare ly like thinking that their parents might split up. (thought) 6 I miss my older sister the most. Most children hate _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ It's 7 Two armed soldiers stood o'utside the palace. 17.21Emphasis Outside 8 We didn't pay for the flight. We paid for the hotel. (do) We add emphasis to written English by using special structures. We didn't Cleft sentences 2 Rewrite the underlined phrases in the text to add emphasis. We can use It is/was ... that... to emphasise different pa rts of a Use the words in brackets for 3,4,6 and 7. sentence from the verb. 1 A solitary figure stands in front of the ruins of his house. Jac.K lo&t the c.amera. 2 Neither a bomb nor a fire caused the destruction. but a It 'IIas ｊＧ｡ﾣＮ｜ｾ＠ 'IIho lo&t the c.amera. formidable tornado, which roared through the French town It 'IIas the c.amera that Jac.K lo&t. of Hautmont last Sunday night. 3 The storm ripped houses We can use What... is/was ... to emphasise the subject or object apart and killed three people. 4 Nobody knows what turned a of a sentence. thunderstorm into a devastating tornado . kate &old her t1at. What \<ate &old 'IIas her t1at. Paul Knightley, at the Tornado and Storm Research Inversion Organisation, believes that 5 a supercell struck the north of Some negative adverbs can be used at the beginning of a France. Supercells are exception ally powerful thunderstorms . sentence to add emphasis. In these cases the auxiliary verb is They rotate like a slowly spinning carousel but deep in their put before the subject. If there is no auxili ary verb do, does or centre a faster-spinning column of air drops down to the groun d did is used . as a tornado. 6 These storms occur frequently in the USA. but I've never &een wc.h an animal. Never have I sun wc.h an animal. 7 they haven't been seen in northern Europe before. We rarel,/ arrived on time. \Z-are\'I did 'lie arrive on time. 126 Grammar Builder and Reference 1 In front of tne ruin5 of ni5nou5e 5tan(h a 50litaq f igure. 2 What _____________________________________ 18.21Modals 3 _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ (not only) 4 ___ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ ______ (question) Modal verbs are used to talk about obligation, permission, 5 It ____ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ willingness, ability and future possibility. They are also used 6 _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ (do) to talk about the possibility or probability of something 7 _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ (not until) happen ing. Ability ｾ＠ would We use can and am/are /is able to to talk about ability in the present. We can use would to: I'm able to drive ｶ･ｾ＠ big lorries . • express examples of what was typical behaviour in the past. C.an iour daugnter swim? r'eople Itlould Itlear the.ir be"t c.lOthe.5 on 'Sunda,{". We use could and was/were able to to talk about ability in t he • express exam pies of willingness in the past or in a past. We use both structures to talk about repeated activit ies in hypothetical present. the past. He. Itlouldn't nelp me with m'{ homework la"t night. He c.ould dance ｶ･ｾ＠ well I Itlouldn't Itlant to visit £9,{pt at this t ime of '{ear We \>Ieren't able to 5peak frencn tnen. • make a deduction about the present or past. We only use was/were able to (i.e . not could) to talk about I heard someone. at the. door. That Itlould be the. pMtman. something that only happened once in the past. We. Itlould nave been at unive.r"it-j when we saw that fi lm. The Parti fini5ned late but I \>Ias able to take a ta'l-i We express preferences using would + like, love, prefer and Permission rath er. 'd ｬｩｾ ･＠ a blaCk wffee, ple.a5e. We use can to say something is permitted in the present and could to say something was permitted in the past. Can 't and We use would with the verbs say and think to make our couldn't are the negative forms. opin ions more tentative. We c.an leave work at ') p.m. ･ｶｾ＠ fridal 'd sa'f that '{ou should tl'j and improve '{our performance. I c.an't use tne Internet at nome after 10 p.m. 'd ｴ ｮｩｾ＠ ,/ou'\\ have a difficult time. Mi dad c.ould onli eat cnocolate on 'Sundais. t Complete the sentences using would and the verbs in I c.ouldn't wear long trousers to scnool wnen I Wa5 a bo'l. brackets, Then match the sentences to the uses on page 82 Obligation of this Student's Book. We use must and have to to talk about obligation in the 1 The children didn 't like vegetables when they were little. present. We usually use have to when we are talking about (eat) rules , must when it's a personal obligation. Tnei wouldn't eat vegetables wnen tnei were little. You have to wear a swimming cap at tne public 5wimming pool 2 As a child I always made my own birthday cards . (create) I must studi more f.ngli5n before I go to live in C.nicago When _________________________ We use mustn'twhen something is prohibited. 3 Can't we get a takeaway instead? (rather) 'Student5 mustn't eat and drink in tne ｬｩ｢ｲ｡ｾ＠ 1------------------------- We use needn 't and don't have to to say there is no obligation 4 It never occurs to my brother to call me. (think) to do anything. You may choose to do or not to do something. My brother _______________________ We needn't do tne5e e'l-erCi5es but I tnink it would be a good idea to. 5 In my opinion about twenty people turned up. (say) He doesn't have to nelp ni5 old neignbour but ne likes to. 1------------------------- Possibility 6 I guess you were tired after your journey. (been) you _________________________ We use may, might and could to discuss the possibility of 7 Going to the Emeli Sande concert's a great idea! (love) something happening. May suggests that the chances of 1------------------------- something happening are slightly greater than could and might. 8 Of course her boyfriend stood up for her! (defend) I tnink it ma'f rain tni5 evening. Her ? 'She 5aid 5ne mi9ht come, but sne didn't sound ｶ･ｾ＠ entnu5ia5tic. Logical deductions about the present We us e may/ might/ could + infinitive to say something is possi bl e. Tom mi9nt win tne race. He's in good form Grammar Builder and Reference 127 We use must+ infinitive to say something is certain . 6 a pen? I want to write down yo ur MiKe. i5 50aKing It must be. raining. email address . (borrow) We use can't + infinitive to say something is impossible. 7 I'm not sure why they're so late, but they _ _ __ It c.an't be. true.. '0am Wa5 with me. la5t night. (get lost) 8 Jessica isn't going out tonight because she fo r Logical deductions about the past tomorrow's exam . (study) We use may/might/ could + have + past participle to say something was possible in the past. It' 5 5trange. that he. ha5n't phone.d. He. mi9ht have 105t hi5 mobile.. ｾ＠ Colloquial omissions In informal spoken English we can sometimes leave out words We use must + have + past participle to make a strong at the beginning of a sentence if the meaning is very clear. supposition about something in the past. These words are not stressed in spoken English when they are John Wa5 off worK la5t we.e.K. He. must have be.e.n ill. included in a sentence. We use can 't + have + past participle to say it was impossible Articles that something happened in the past. ｗｨｾ＠ did ｾｯｵ＠ c.atGh the. bU5? (,The) Train5 are.n't running todal Ｑｨ･Ｎｾ＠ didn't Know ｡ｮｾｴｨｩｧ＠ about the. film 50 ｴｨ･Ｎｾ＠ c.an't have 5e.e.n it. Possessive pronouns 1 Cross out the modal verb that cannot complete the sentence. i\re. ｾｯｵ＠ O\(? No. ＨｍｾＩ＠ He.ad hurt5. I thinK I've. got a migraine. Try to justify your choice. Subject pronouns 1 He _ walk for a year after his accident. He went around What did ｾｯｵ＠ Ｕ｡ｾ＿＠ (I) Can't he.ar ｾｯｵｬＱｨ･Ｎ＠ mU5ic.'5 too loud. in a wheelchair. Auxiliary verbs and personal pronouns at the beginning of a couldn't b wasn't able to c shouldn't questions c. - c.ou\dn't and lIIasn't ab\e to npre.% no ｡｢ｩｬｴｾＬ＠ (I'\ave ｾｯｵＩ＠ Be.e.n to the. c.ine.ma re.c.e.ntli? shou\dn't i5 ｮｯｲｭ｡ｬｾ＠ u5e.d for adVic.e. No. What'5 on? 2 She _ have left her mobile in the coffee shop . Negative forms can be replaced by not Her mum called while she was there. How' 5 John? a might b can c could (I'\e isn't) Not hapPi, I'm afraid. 3 1_ get my hair cut - it looks awful. a must 4 You _ b can't c have to park on a double yellow line or you'll get a fine. 19.21The passive a don 't have to b can't c mustn't We make passive forms with the verb be + past participle. 5 _ I stay at your house tonight? I've missed the last bus home. a Can b May c Must Present simple is decorated every summer. 6 They _ wait in the queue. They had already bought Present is being decorated at the moment. their tickets. continuous a mustn't b didn't need to c didn't have to Present perfect has been decorated recently. 7 We _ buy a leaving present for Mary. She's been such a good boss. Past simple was decorated last month. a ought to b should c would Past continuous was being decorated until the bad 8 It's 2.30 p.m. George _ have arrived in Beijing by now. weather started. a can b must c will had been decorated only once before Past perfect 2 Complete the sentences with a suitable modal verb and t he will be decorated soon. verb in brackets. More than one answer may be possible. is going to be decorated next month . 1 I don't mind our school uniform because we _ _ __ modal verb may be decorated in the next few months. a tie. (wear) 2 To reduce carbon emissions people public The passive is used to talk about processes. transport more. (use) 1he. C.ar5 are ta\(.en from the. ｦ｡､ｯｾ＠ and the.n the.i are transported 3 My mother until she was 40. She passed he r all ove.r f.urope.. test on her birthday. (drive) The passive is used when we don't want to say or we can 't say 4 It John that called . He sai d he would. (be) who performed the action . 5 You your mobile phon e while you're drivin g. 1hi5 bOOK lIIas IIIritten in the. nth ｣Ｎ･ｮｴｵｾ＠ but the. author is un\(.oollln. It' s illegal. (use) 128 Grammar Builder and Reference -:1 e passive is used when it's obvious who performed the 4 Wind power is the best solution to the global energy ｾ｣ｴ ｩ ｯｮＮ＠ crisis. (say often) - 'e fire has finall'{ been put out. It _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ 1e passive is also used to put the main focus at the beginning 5 Oil is ru nning out. (consider generally) Oil _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ )f th e sentence . If we want to say who carried out the action we 1tro duce the person's name with the preposition by. 6 Public transport is too unreliable. (see usually) - "e5e email5 have been sent b'{ 5Omcone in thi5 offic.e, and I want Public transport _ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ -- Know whol 7 Commercial flights cause a great deal of pollution . (acknowledge widely) 1 Complete the article with the correct passive form of the verb Commercial flights _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ in brackets. 8 Flooding has worsened in recent years . (report freq uently) It _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ ___ • study into the future of the world's monkeys - -35 been c.3rried out (carry out) recently by animal experts, :'1 e re sults of which ,2 (release) at an 110.11 whatever, whoever, wherever, . ternational conference last month. however, etc . uri ng the survey it 3 (find) that 303 of the We use whatever, whoever, wherever, however, etc. to say 63 4 primates studied may soon become extinct in the wild; 69 it doesn't matter what, who, where, how, etc. because speci es 4 (classify) as critically endangered the outcome will be the same. As these expression s are 5ince the results became known . conjunctions, they can come at the beginning or in t he midd;" e main reason for the rapid decline in numbers of a sentence . _ _ _ _ __ _ (identify) in the report as deforestation. Whatever '{OU 53,{, I won't c.hange m'{ mind. owever, in some areas more damage We had a great time in ltal'{, I,>lherever we went _ _ __ __ _ (do) by local people who hunt the We can also use however with an adjective or ad verb to rre2- ::1i mals for food. Monkeys 7 (eat) in it doesn't matter to what extent. In these senten ces we C2- several regions of Africa and Asia . sometimes leave out the verb to be. :::o nservationists want world leaders to take urgent HOl,>lever interestin9 (it i5), I don't want to 5ee the pIa,! eas ures to protect these animals in the hope that they _ _ _ _ _ __ (save) from extinction in the near future . 1 Complete the sentences using the words below. [!] Passive structures with consider, however whoever whatever whenever wherever v believe, etc. 1 I' m not telling you my phone number, _ _ _ _ 'Je sometimes use passives with an introductory subject to 2 Don't go out with Mandy's brother, yot.: C) :al k about things in a general sense. Some the verbs most 3 We can meet up day is best for yo u. ,.eq uently used in this way are believe, consider and feel. 4 People are seldom satisfied with their sala ry _ _ _ _ - ni5 man is {..onsidered e'l-tremel,{ dangeroU5. much they earn . - is felt that the government mU5t do 50mething about inflation. 5 We can meet you've got time, I've got a flexible schedule. 1 Rewrite the sentences in the passive using the words in 6 My little brother follows me I go. brackets. 1 National security is of paramount importance. (believe firmly) It i5 firml'{ believed that national 5ewrit'{ i5 of paramount importanc.e. 2 Human actions are responsible for global warming. (accept widely) It _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 Monsoons are a tropical phenomenon. (regard usually) Monsoons _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ Grammar Builde r and Referrr (c 129 1 Join the sentences with a suitable relative clause. Omit the 110.21 Relative clauses pronoun where possible. 1 A man answered the phone. He refused to listen to my Relative pronouns complaint. Tile man wllo / tllat answered tile pllone refused to lif>ten to mi complaint. 2 Some medicine got rid of my cough. It tasted of liquorice. 3 The Golden Gate Bridge is an impressive sight. We crossed it yesterday. 4 He's a pilot. His plane crashed yesterday. 5 The lift is being repaired . It broke down yesterday. 6 I asked a woman for information . She was very helpful. 7 Britney Spears is hoping to make a comeback. She sang Defining relative clauses Baby one more time. Defining relative clauses give essential information about 8 The hotel was full. We had booked it. the person, thing or place in the main clause . Without this information the sentence would be incomplete. 2 Rewrite these relative clauses in a more formal style. It is not possible to rewrite two of the sentences. mat' f> tile flat that 'lie. 'IIant to bU1. I met tile perf>on 'IIho is 90in9 to ta\::e. over tile. department. 1 The land which the river runs through belonged to my I've bougllt iOU tile book 'IIhiGh I told iOU about. family in the past. Tile land tllrougll wllic.1l the river flowf> belonged to mi We can om it the relative pronoun when it is the object of the defining relative clause but not when it is the subject. famili in the paf>t. 2 My grandfather, who I have the utmost respect for, mat' f> tile flat (that) wc want to bUi. died fighting for his country. I met tile perf>on 'IIho if> going to take over tile department. I've bougllt iOU tile book ('IIhiGh) I tOld iOU about. 3 Applications which are filled in incorrectly will be Non-defining relative clauses rejected . Non-defining relative clauses give non-essential information about the person, thing or place in the main clause . This extra 4 My mother'S glasses, which she cannot see without, information must always go between commas. look quite stylish . me Queen, 'IIho 'IIas 'IIe.arin9 a blue. summe.r dre.ss, opened tile new Ilof>pital in Manc.llef>tcr. 5 William ' s best friend, who he has always confided in , Mi c.ar, 'IIhiGh I bou9ht last 1e.ar, if> alwaif> breaking down. has just moved abroad . We cannot omit non-defining relative pronouns from the sentence. Neither can we use the relative pronoun that in place 6 They gave away some old toys which hadn't been played of which or who . with for years. Prepositions in relative clauses 7 The wall which Ryan was standing on top of looked like it If a relative clause includes a preposition we can often choose would topple over. to put it at the beginning or the end of the clause. If it is used at the beginning of the clause it sounds more formal. 8 The boy who Sarah fell in love with turned out to be a m if> if> tile c.llurc.1l (wllic.ll) wc got married in. thief. mif> if> tile c.llurc.1l in wll ic.1l wc got married. We usually use the formal relative pronoun whom in stead of who when a preposition comes before it. me people wllo I f>poke to were realli Ilelpful. me people to wllom I spoke we.re re.alli Ilelpful. If the preposition is part of a phrasal verb it stays wi th th e verb . I met tile man wllo set up tile compani witll mi fatller. 130 Grammar Builder and Reference 1 ..14i1J31m1Work in pairs. What do you know about 7 "1#@/[4 Act out the extract from Romeo and )uliet. Shakespeare? Can you name any of his plays? 2 Read the Fact file. Compare your ideas from exercise 1. Is there anything that surprises you? FACT FILE Born 23 April 1564. Died 23 April 1616. Married at eighteen and had three children. Wrote 37 plays: history plays (e.g. ju/ius Caesar, Henry \/)' tragedies (e.g. Hamlet, King Lear, Othella,) and comedies (e.g. As You Like It, Twelfth Night) . Regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. Many of his plays were first performed at the Globe Theatre, London. The theatre was destroyed by fire in 1613 - and reconstructed in 1997! Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive. 3 Read the information about Romeo and Juliet. )uliet o Romeo, Romeo! l Wherefore art thou Romeo ? Th e play is set in Verona in Italy. Romeo, from the Montague Deny 21hy father and refuse thy name. fam ily, and juliet, who is a Capulet, have fallen in love, but Or, if thou 3w ilt not, be but sworn my love, hei r families are sworn enemies and would never consent to And I'll no longer be a Capulet. heir marriage. They can't see each other openly, so Romeo 5 Romeo [aside] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at co mes at night to juliet's balcony ... this? )uliet 4'Tis but thy name that is my enemy. 4 g TRCD listen to a modern version of part of a famous Thou art Sthyself, though not a Montague. scene from Romeo and juliet. Choose the correct words to What's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot, complete the summary. 10 Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part ju liet is l awa re / unaware that Romeo is there . She wishes Belonging to a man . 0, be some other name! t hat Romeo could change his 2name / family. She wishes What's in a name? That which we call a rose t hat names were 3 more / less important and reasons that By any other word would smell as sweet. if a rose were given another name it 4would still be a rose So Romeo would, 6were he not Romeo called, / would be quite different. Romeo is sunwilling / willing to 15 Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo, 7doffthy name, reveal his identity to juliet, but in any case she recognises And for that name, which is no part of Bthee his 6vo ice / face. Take all myself. 5 g TRCD Now read the original text and match the Romeo I take thee at thy word. underlined words and phrases with the modern English 20 Call me but love, and I' ll be new baptized . equivalents below. Then listen and read again. 9Henceforth I never will be Romeo. )uliet What man art thou that, thus lObe screen'd in from now on hidden I don't know if he weren't if I had night, it is only private thoughts remove speech why So stumblest on my ll counsel? why are you will young woman you your yourself 25 Romeo Bya name 12 1know not how to tell thee who I am. 6 ..14iJ3i1til Match the phrases to make famous Shakespeare My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself quotes. Then translate and explain them. Because it is an enemy to thee. 1 To be, or not to be: a nor a lender be. 13Had I it written, I would tear the word. 2 All the world's a stage b never did run smooth . 30 juliet My ears have not yet drunk a hundred words Of that tongue' s 14 uttering, yet I know the 3 Neither a borrower c that is the question. sound. 4 Love is blind d Parting is such sweet sorro w. Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague? S The course of true love e and lovers cannot see . Romeo Neither, fair ls ma id, if either thee dislike. 6 Good Night, Good f and all the men and wome n night! are merely players . 1 literature William Shakespeare 131 1 1 1000¥MIltCl ln pairs, answer the quiz questions about the 3 Which of these countries is not a Commonwealth realm? British royal family. a Australia b Canada c India d the UK 4 More than 54 countries enter the Commonwealth Games because: a ex-members of the Commonwealth can enter. b non-members can enter by invitation only. c countries which are part of a larger state can enter separate teams. 5 Read the text about the kind of English spoken in the Commonwealth country of Ghana. Match the words below with their synonyms underlined in the text. 1 How many children does Queen Elizabeth have? Can you copy freedom inheritance language reaction name any of them? rules status 2 What is the relationship between Prince William and the Queen? uestion: 'Have you eat?' Reply: 'No I go eat I 3 Assuming William has children, who will become after small small.' This is just one of the turns of monarch after his death? phrase Ghanaians use, in the words of one local a his younger brother commentator, 'to give the Queen's English a good b h is eldest son or daughter beating'. But as Ghanaians begin to speak their inherited c his eldest son (even if he has a daughter first) colonial 1tongue with growing creative 2licence, a row is 4 Does the Queen have any political power in the UK? breaking out about what really is the proper way to speak Choose the best answer. English . On one side of the fence are the old-school a Yes, in theory, but he/she never uses it. Ghanaians who were taught throughout their education b Yes, and she uses it occasionally. to 3 mimic received pronunciation - or BBC English, as c No, her political powers were abolished years ago . it is popularly known - with varying degrees of success. 5 The next head of the Commonwealth of Nations On the other side, a 4backlash is growing against the old a will be the Queen's eldest son. mentality of equating a British accent with Qprestige. b has yet to be decided. 'The idea that intelligence is linked to English c will be from a country other than the UK. pronunciation is a 61egacy from colonial thinking,' said Delalorm Semabia, 25, a Ghanaian blogger. 'People used 2 g TRCD Listen and check your answers to the quiz. to think that if you speak like the British then you are as intelligent as the British. But now we are waking up to 3 g TRCD Listen to the information. What does the the fact that we have great people here who have never map below show? Is it (a) the British Empire, (b) the stepped outside the borders.' Commonwealth, or (c) the Commonwealth Realms? 'In the 90s many local artists wanted to sound like Usher or Jay-Z, but now they are taking local names 4 g TRCD Listen again and choose the correct answers. and branding themselves locally,' said Semabia. 'For 1 The Commonwealth of Nations is an organisation made us, English is our language - we want to break away up of 54 independent states, nearly all of which were : from the old 7strictures, to personalise it, mix it with our a in NATO b part of the British Empire c in Africa local languages, and have fun with it. The whole point 2 Sixteen members, including the UK, are Commonwealth of language is that it's supposed to be flexible and it's Realms, which means that they all share the same: meant to be fun.' a constitution b president c monarch 6 g TRCD Listen to five sentences about the text in exercise 5. Are they t rue <n or false (F)? 7 1@:tj@tCl Discuss these questions with your partner. 1 How important is, orwas, the royal family in your country? How much do you know about them? 2 Is there such a thing as a 'modern royal family' or is the whole idea old-fash ioned? 132 I 1 Culture . The British Commonwealth 1 l@iJ@tij Look at the photo. How much do you know about this character? Compare your ideas in pairs. It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my ltoils. With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. It was already one in the morning; the rain pattered dismally against the panes, and my candle was nearly burnt out, when, by the glimmer of the half-extinguished light, I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its 2limbs. How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the "wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavoured to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! - Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these 4luxuriances only formed a more 2 "TRCD Listen to the information about the novel horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the Frankenstein. Complete the notes in the fact file. Write one or same colour as the dun white sockets in which they were set, his two words in each gap. shrivelled complexion and straight black lips. The different accidents of life are not so changeable as the ｾ ｆａｃｔｉｌｅ＠ feelings of human nature. I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. The novel was written and published near the beginning of For this I had deprived myself of rest and health. I had desired the Ｑ ｾ ｟＠ century, it with an 5ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I The author, Mary Shelly, later married a famous Ｒ ｾ ｟＠ , had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless Mary and some friends decided to write stories on holiday horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure the aspect of because of Ｓ ｾ｟ Ｌ＠ the being I had created, I rushed out of the room, and continued The idea for the story came to Mary in Ｔｾ ｾ｟＠ , a long time traversing my bedchamber, unable to compose my In the novel, Frankenstein is the name of Ｕ ｾ｟＠ , mind to sleep. At length 6lassitude succeeded to the 7tumult I had The novel's themes reflect concerns of the day, such as the before endured; and I threw myself on the bed in my clothes, fear that Ｖ ｾ ｟＠ were becoming too powerful. endeavouring to seek a few moments of forgetfulness. But it was in vain: I slept, indeed, but I was disturbed by the wildest dreams. 3 Read the extract opposite. Match the underlined words I thought I saw Elizabeth, in the bloom of health, walking in the (1-10) with the definitions below (a-D. streets of Ingolstadt. Delighted and surprised, I embraced her; a confusion f dead body but as I imprinted the first kiss on her lips, they became livid b healthy-looking features g arms and legs with the hue of death; her features appeared to change, and I c cloth for wrapping the dead h drops of water thought that I held the 8corpse of my dead mother in my arms; a d work passion, eagerness 9shroud enveloped her form, and I saw the grave-worms crawling e tiredness miserable person in the folds of the flannel. I started from my sleep with horror; a cold lOdew covered my forehead, my teeth chattered, and every 4 101#33lltij In pairs, discuss how the extract is made more limb became convulsed: when, by the dim and yellow light of the effective by: moon, as it forced its way through the window shutters, I beheld a the weather and time of night. the wretch - the miserable monster whom I had created. He b the detailed description of the creature's face. held up the curtain of the bed; and his eyes, if eyes they may be c Victor's dream. called, were fixed on me. His jaws opened, and he muttered some d the creature's inability to speak clearly. inarticulate sounds, while a grin wrinkled his cheeks. He might 5 J>i#J@tij Work in pairs. How many different characters from have spoken, but I did not hear; one hand was stretched out, horror films or stories can you think of? What makes them seemingly to detain me, but I escaped, and rushed down stairs. scary? Do they have any other qualities which make them appealing or sympathetic? 2 ｾ＠ Literature • Mary Shelley 133 2 3 g TRCD Listen to the radio programme about the British class system and speech. Which of these topics are mentioned? grammar pronunciation spelling vocabulary 4 g TRCD Listen again. Using information from the programme, try to follow the instructions below. 1 Choose the option (a-c) which rhymes with the word on the left when it is spoken in an upper class accent. getting a sh utting b patting c sitting just a fist b chest c past catch a pitch b fetch c clutch 1 IMt1311t?1 Describe the photo and answer the questions 2 In an upper class accent, say: 'Let's get ready for the below. match!' 1 In your opinion, what might be: 3 In a working class London accent, say: 'I think I'll have a the attitude of the boys on the right towards the boys some butter.' on the left? 4 Translate this sentence into standard English: 'My mate b the reason why the boys on the left are not looking at went into the boozer to use the bog.' the boys on the right? 5 Translate this sentence into London working class 2 What does the photo tell you about British society at the language: 'You were lucky I'm not a police officer.' time? 5 t1#13I1td Read the fact file about a popular British TV show. 2 Complete the text with suitable words. Then discuss the questions below in pairs. The British are particularly aware of - and fascinated FACT FILE 1_ _ _ their class system. While many other societies Downton Abbey, one of the most popular shows on British TV, around the world have a comparable structure, in is shown in more than 100 countries worldwide. Britain it seems to permeate every aspect of life, from First screened in 2010, it became an instant hit. food to fashion and 2_ _ sports to speech. Downton Abbey is the fictional home of an aristocratic family, A hundred years ago, the British class system was well-defined the Crawley family, in the north of England. and there 3_ _ _ little movement between the classes. In broad The events take place in the early part of the twentieth century. terms, society was divided into three social groups. The upper There are two sets of characters: the upper-class family who class consisted 4_ _ __ people with inherited land or wealth who own the Abbey and the servants who work there. 5_ __ no need to work. The middle class were professional Highclere Castle is used for the setting. Its owner, the Earl of people, generally well-educated, with jobs which paid a monthly Carnarvon, is a personal friend of the show's writer. salary: teachers, architects and doctors, for example . The working class were people who did unskilled work or skilled manual work for 6 ｾ＠ _ _ _ they were paid a daily or weekly wage. Although the basic structure of the class system remains the 7 _ __ , some important aspects of it have changed. Firstly, the proportions. For most of the nineteenth century, the upper and middle classes together constituted only about 15% of the population . But the middle classes grew rapidly 8_ _ _ the economy grew, with more and more people becoming merchants, businessmen, financiers and civil servants . Secondly, inequalities in wealth have become 9_ _ _ pronounced . Before th e 20th century, ordinary workers earned so little that even a mo derately 1 In what way does the popularity of Downton Abbey reflect wealthy member of the middle classes 10_ __ afford to employ servants. This changed as workers began to demand a re asonable an interest in the class system? wage. Thirdly, ideas of status have change d and peop le tend to 2 In your opinion, is it morally wrong to have servants? be proud of their origins rather than asp iring to move up th e class Why? /Why not? ladder. 3 Do you think society would be better without a class system of any kind? WRY? /Why not? 134 I2• Culture • The British class system 1 l'@ln'@(ij Think about the plots of two romantic comedies and answer the questions. Use two from the list or your own ideas. Mr Bingley had soon made himself acquainted with all the principal people in the room; he was lively and unreserved, Definitely Maybe Forgetting Sarah Marshall danced every dance, was angry that the ball closed so early, Hit and Run The Five Year Engagement Marley and Me and talked of giving one himself at Netherfield. Such amiable 1 Is it usually clear from the start which characters will end qualities must speak for themselves. What a contrast between up together? How can you tell? him and his friend! Mr Darcy danced only once with Mrs Hurst 2 How well do these characters get on earlier in the film? and once with Miss Bingley, declined being introduced to any What happens between them? other lady, and spent the rest of the evening in walking about the room, speaking occasionally to one of his own party. His 2 Read the information about lane Austen and Pride and character was decided. He was the proudest, most disagreeable Prejudice. Complete the text with suitable words. man in the world, and everybody hoped that he would never come there again. Amongst the most violent against him Although lane Austen (1775-1816) is one of the most was Mrs Bennet, whose dislike of his general behaviour was famous writers in the English 1_ _ _ , she was not sharpened into particular resentment by his having slighted one regarded as a major figure in English literature until a of her daughters. century 2_ __ her death . Her six novels are generally Elizabeth Bennet had been obliged, by the scarcity of regarded as romantic fiction, but they also show the reality gentlemen, to sit down for two dances; and during part of of contemporary society and customs, particularly from a that time, Mr Darcy had been standing near enough for her female perspective. In Austen's day, women were financially to overhear a conversation between him and Mr Bingley, who 3_ __ on men, living at home until they got married . For came from the dance for a few minutes to press his friend to families with several 4_ _ _ , it was a daunting task finding join it. a 'good match' (that is, a suitable husband) for them all. In 'Come, Darcy,' said he, 'I must have you dance. I hate to see Pride and Prejudice, Austen's best-known novel, Mr and Mrs you standing about by yourself in this stupid manner. You had Bennet have five daughters, and 5_ _ _ the girls all have much better dance.' certain qualities, they have no private wealth to 'I certainly shall not. You know how I detest it, unless I am 6 _ _ _ them more attractive to would-be husbands. So particularly acquainted with my partner. At such an assembly when Mr Bingley, a handsome, rich and charming bachelor, as this, it would be insupportable. Your sisters are engaged, and moves to the area, it naturally causes great excitement in there is not another woman in the room whom it would not be the Bennet family. His friend, Mr Darcy, is also handsome a punishment to me to stand up with.' (and even 7_ _ _) but his behaviour is far from charming. 'I would not be so fastidious as you are,' cried Bingley, 'for a Elizabeth Bennet, the second eldest daughter, immediately kingdom! Upon my honour I never met with so many pleasant dislikes him. This dislike grows throughout the novel- girls in my life, as I have this evening; and there are several of exacerbated by various deceptions and misunderstandings them, you see, uncommonly pretty.' - until, eventally, the inevitable happens: they fall 'You are dancing with the only handsome girl in the room,' desperately in 8_ _ _ • said Mr Darcy, looking at the eldest Miss Bennet. 'Oh! she is the most beautiful creature I ever beheld! But 3 Read the extract from Pride and Prejudice. Underline parts there is one of her sisters sitting down just behind you, who which either show or imply that: is very pretty, and I dare say very agreeable. Do let me ask my partner to introduce you.' 1 Mrs Bennet is protective towards her daughters. 'Which do you mean?' and turning round, he looked for a 2 lane Austen believes gossip leads to exaggeration. moment at Elizabeth, till catching her eye, he withdrew his own 3 Bingley and Darcy are close friends. and coldly said, 'She is tolerable; but not handsome enough to 4 Darcy has a high opinion of himself. tempt me; and I am in no humour at present to give consequence 5 Darcy is feeling particularly unsociable on this occasion. to young ladies who are slighted by other men. You had better return to your partner and enjoy her smiles, for you are wasting 4 "TRCD Listen to an extract from Pride and Prejudice. your time with me.' Does Mr Bennet break his word to his wife? Why? /Why not? Mr Bingley followed his advice. Mr Darcy walked off; and 5 "TRCD Listen again. Find evidence to show that these Elizabeth remained with no very cordial feelings towards him. statements are true. 1 Mrs Bennet is very keen for her daughter to marry. 2 Mr Bennet is used to his wife being over-dramatic. 6 fiQifJ@(ij Discuss this question: How has the relationship 3 Mr Bennet has a low opinion of Mr Collins. between men and women changed now that women can work 4 Mr Bennet has a close relationship with Elizabeth . and support themselves financially? 3 r Literature lane Austen 135 1 l"14t;13!I[C1Work in pairs. Look at the photos above. 4 g TRCD Listen to the information about the BBC World How has the BBC changed over the years? Do you know Service. Answer the questions. any BBC programmes? 1 How confident was the director general of the BBC that the new Empire Service would be successful? 2 Read the text. Which of these media is not mentioned? 2 What event did the same director general describe as books the Internet magazines radio television 'the most spectacular success in BBC history'? 3 What did the Empire Service change its name to in 193 9? 3 Match these headings (A-F) to paragraphs 1-5 of the text. 4 Why did General Charles de Gaulle broadcast such There is one extra heading. strange messages from London? A A false start D Radio's heyday 5 How did the BBC respond when the Communists B A multi-platform provider E The launch of BBC News attempted to block their broadcasts? C Commercial beginnings 6 How did Vaclav Havel get around efforts to prevent him speaking on the BBC's Czech Service? 7 What happened to Bulgarian journalist Georgi Markov on The story of the mm[!] his way to work in London? 8 In what way did the BBC World Service inadvertently help the KGB? 5 ti#,@tij Discuss this statement in pai rs: Television and The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), the most famous radio belong to the past and will soon be replaced by the public service broadcaster in the world, began life as the British Internet and social media. Do you agree or disagree? Broadcasting Company, owned and managed by a consortium Give reasons. of six radio manufacturers. By establishing a network of radio transmitters around the country and broadcasting a popular mix of news, weather, children's entertainment and music, they hoped to achieve their main goal: selling more rad ios! It worked, and 3_ by 1926, more than two million households in the UK owned at During World War 11, BBC radio played a crucial role, not only least one radio set. Newspapers refused to print details of the by broadcasting public service announcements and reporting programmes on offer for fear their readers would desert them , so news, but also by providing morale-boosting entertainment for they were listed in a new BBC magazine called The Radio Times. the troops abroad and their families back home. Du ring that 2 period, the BBC also broadcast news programmes in all European In 1927, the company evolved into a national institution rat her languages and these were an important part of the propaganda than a business venture, and its General Manager at th at t ime, war against Nazi Germany. After the war finished in 1945, radio John Reith, had a clear vision of the BBC's role: it was to educate , continued to flourish and became a central part of British culture. inform and entertain. Their output increased massi vely during 4_ the 1930 as did their number of listeners, and in 1936 they began Today, the BBC is the largest broadcasting company in the world experimenting with a new and exciting form of technology: employing about 23,000 people. Although its main activity is television. Sport immediately became an import ant part of the TV still making and broadcasting rad io and TV programmes, it also schedules and in 1937 they broadcast tenni s from Wimb ledon . But maintains a huge website which includes a news service, an when Europe went to war in 1939, the BBC's televi sion se rvice on-demand video service (BBC iPlayer) and a wide range of closed down. educational resources. 136 3 Culture · The BBC 1 fi4:tZ!@M Work in pairs. Can you name any Ro mantic writers, 5 What does the poet com pare the daffodils with in: artists or composers? Can you describe any of their work or Ca) lin es 7- 10 Cb) 11-13? say why you like or dislike it? 6 Wh at is t he poet's mood or moods in: 2 Read the text about Romanticism . Answer the questions. Ca) lines 15-16 Cb) lines 19-20 c) lines 23-24? 1 Wha t did the En lightenment (a) react against?( b) va lue? 7 What is the rhyme scheme ofthe poem? 2 What did th e Ro mant ic poets disl ike about modern life? 3 How did Roma ntic artists differ from those who preceded 1 ABCA B C 3 ABA BCC the m? 2 AABBCC 4 ABABAB 8 fi#Mlltij Do you like the poem? Give reasons. Romanticism was a movement in the arrs which starred in the late eighteenth century and lasted fo r abo ut 50 years. It revolurionised the way people thought about the world. In the eighteenth century the Enlightenment (or 'Age of Reason') had emphasised the imporrance of knowledge and reason , and had championed freedom of thought over despotism , m edieval religion and superstition. It placed a special value on science, invention and discovery, and paved the way for the Indusrrial Revolurion at the end of the eighteenth century. Although in sympathy with many of the aims and achievements of the Enlightenment, poets like William Wordswo rrh reacted against industrialised urban life. I wandered lonely as a cloud T hese Romantics, as they came ro be known, stressed the That floats on high o' er vales l and hills, imporrance of 'narure' in contrast ro the 'monstrous machines' When all at once I saw a crowd, in the new cities. T hey placed a high value on emotions; A host, of golden daffodils; for Wordsworrh, poerry was 'the spontaneous overflow of 5 Beside the lake, beneath the trees, powerful feelings'. Whereas in th e period before Romanticism Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. arrists had often fo llowed 'rules' and tried to create beautiful works of arr, the Romantics despised conventions and valued Continuous as the stars that shine above all origin ality and imagination. The arrist was a lonely And twinkle on the milky way, figure, a talented 'genius', with a special mission in the world . They stretched in never-ending line H e or she often sh unned the company of others to be alone 10 Along the margin 2 of a bay: with nature. Through the power of imagination and memory, Ten thousand saw I at a glance, he or she was able to create works of arr which spoke directly Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. to the reader and invited them to identifY with the artist and share h is or her feelings. The waves beside them danced ; but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: 15 A poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: 3 "TRCD Read and listen to Wordsworth's poem Daffodils . I gazed-and gazed-but little thought Choose t he best summary: What wealth the show to me had brought: 1 The poet saw some daffodils but soon fo rgot t hem. 2 The poet saw some daffodi ls and takes great pl easure in For oft, when on my couch I lie the memory. 20 In vacant 3 or in pensive mood, 3 The poet didn 't see rea l daffod ils but created a be auti fu l They flash upon that inwa rd eye 4 image of them in his im agi nation. Which is the bliss 5 of solitude ; And then my heart with pleasure fills, 4 "TRCD Read and listen again. Identify parts of the poem And dances with the daffodils. which show: 1 the poet alone with natu re . 2 the poet spend in g ti me at home alone wi th his t houghts. Glossa ry l over va ll eys 2edge 3witho ut tho ughts 3 t he importance of memo ry and imagination in qu iet ' mi nd or imagination 5joy mo men ts. 4 Literature Wordsworth 137 It 1 r;.iQiJ3@1 Work in pairs. What do you know about these 4 What nouns do these adjectives qualify in the text? Think of famous streets? other nouns that they could be used with. Use a dictionary to 1 Downing Street 2 Oxford Street 3 Carnaby Street help you. 1 ceremonial 4 iconic 7 refined 2 g TRCD Listen to the radio advertisement for a sightseeing 2 edgy 5 prestigious 8 upmarket tour and check your ideas. 3 fashionable 6 principal 9 world-renowned 3 Find these words and phrases in the texts below. Explain 5 r;.i#;@1tC1 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. them. 1 Which of the places mentioned in the text would you like 1 draw a big crowd 5 bring into the mainstream to visit? Which not? Why? 2 blockbuster shows 6 fashion house 2 Have you ever seen a play or a musical? If so, tell your 3 flagship stores 7 residence partner about it. If not, would you like to see one? Why? / 4 independent boutiques 8 accession Why not? 3 Describe a the most important shopping streets in your town /capital city/country. Theatreland b the main residence of your country's president or monarch . 'Theatreland' is London's principal theatre district. Situated in the heart of the West End, it contains approximately Chelsea became centres of youth 40 theatres. The first, The culture. Fashion designers Mary Theatre Royal, was established Quant, who invented the mini- in 1663 in Drury Lane and is still skirt and hotpants, and Vivienne open , although the building itself has been demolished and Westwood, who brought punk rebu ilt several times. The works staged at West End theatres fashion into the mainstream, are predominantly classics, comedies and musicals, often both opened boutiques there . starring world -renowned film actors like Nicole Kidman In recent years, edgy young and Orlando Bloom, who draw big crowds . The success of London designers such as John blockbuster shows like Cats, Phantom of the Opera and Les Galliano, Alexander McQueen Miserables has helped the West End overtake New York's and Stella McCartney, daughter of Beatle Paul McCartney, Broadway as the world capital of have landed top jobs at the most famous fashion houses, musical theatre . such as Givenchy and Christian Dior, and become some of the industry's most revered and fashionable figures. While Shopping Milan and Paris are famous for haute-couture and refined elegance, London-based designs have gain ed a reputation Stretching two and a half for quirkiness and extravagance. kilometres through the West End, Oxford Street is Europe's Government longest and busiest shopping street, with about 300 shops, The British Prime Minister including major department resides at Britain 's most stores and prestigious flagship famous address: 10 Downing stores . Nearby Bond Street is home to many high -pric e Street. Nearby, the Palace of upmarket stores , especially jewellers . Small inde pendent Westminster, on the north bank boutiques can be found in another famous West End of the Thames, contains the shopping area , Covent Garden, formerly home to Bri tain ' s two Houses of Parliament (the largest fruit and vegetable market. Commons and the Lords), Big Ben - probably London ' s most iconic landmark - and Westminster Hall, which has Pa/hion been used for trials, coronations and ceremonial banquets for over 900 years. Not far away stands another world - London is one of the four big fashio n capitals of the worl d, renowned building: Buckingham Palace, the principal the others being Paris, Milan and New York. London is a residence of British monarchs since the access ion of Queen relative newcomer, only rising to prom inence in the 1960s Victoria in 1837. when Carnaby Street in the West End and the Kin g's Roa d in 138 i 4 • Culture The West End 1 ,.1#M@1 Work in pairs. Match the sentence halves to make Lady Bracknell Mr Worthing! Rise, sir, from this semi- epigrams by Oscar Wilde. Which ones do you like? Say why. recumbent posture. It is most indecorous. 1 Always forgive your enemies; Gwendolen Mamma! [He tries to rise; she restrains him.] 2 I am not young enough I must beg you to retire . This is no place for you. 3 I can resist everything Besides, Mr Worthing has not quite finished yet. 4 Some cause happiness wherever they go; Lady Bracknell Finished what, may I ask? 5 One should always be in love. Gwendolen I am engaged to Mr Worthing, mamma. [They 6 Experience is simply rise together.] Lady Bracknell Pardon me, you are not engaged to any a but temptation. one. When you do become engaged to some one, I, or b That is the reason one should never marry. your father, should his health permit him, will inform c nothing annoys them so much. you of the fact. An engagement should come on a d the name we give our mistakes. young girl as a surprise, pleasant or unpleasant, as e others whenever they go. the case may be. It is hardly a matter that she could f to know everything. be allowed to arrange for herself. And now I have a few questions to put to you, Mr Worthing. While I am 2 Complete the information about The Importance of Being making these inquiries, you, Gwendolen, will wai t fo r Earnest and Oscar Wilde with the nouns below. me below in the carriage. Gwendolen [Reproachfully] Mamma! crime customs health play plot release success Lady Bracknell In the carriage, Gwendolen! [Gwendolen trial goes to the door. She and jack blow kisses to each The Importance of Being Earnest is Oscar Wilde's best other behind Lady Bracknell's back. Lady Bracknell known and most popular 1_ _ _ • First performed in 1895, looks vaguely about as if she could not understand it was subtitled 'A trivial comedy for serious people' and in what the noise was. Finally turns round.] Gwendolen, many ways it is, for despite the light-hearted 2_ _ _ and the carriage! Lady Bracknell [Sitting down] You can take a seat, Mr witty dialogue, it mocks late-Victorian 3_ _ _ and morality, Worthing. [Looks in her pocket for note-book and especially marriage and love. In the play the two main pencil.] characters have secret identities so that they can behave Jack Thank you, Lady Bracknell, I prefer standing. differently in different places . The Importance was an Lady Bracknell [Pencil and note-book in hand.] I feel immediate 4 _ _ _ , but it proved to be Wilde's final play. bound to tell you that you are not down on my list of Shortly after it opened in London, Wilde was put on eligible young men, although I have the same list as 5_ _ _ , accused of being homosexual, which was then a the dear Duchess of Bolton has. We work together, in 6 _ __ in Britain . He was found guilty and sentenced fact. However, I am quite ready to enter your name, to two years' hard labour. His 7_ _ _ suffered greatly in should your answers be what a really affectionate prison and he died destitute in Paris in 1900, three years mother requires. Do you smoke? after his 8 _ _ _ • He was just 46 years old. Jack Well, yes, I must admit I smoke. Lady Bracknell I am glad to hear it. A man should always 3 Check the meaning of the words below, which all appear in have an occupation of some kind. There are far too the extract from The Importance of Being Earnest that you many idle men in London as it is. How old are you? Jack Twenty-nine. will listen to in exercise 4. Lady Bracknell A very good age to be married at. I have candidly demonstrative destined get christened always been of opinion that a man who desires to get ideal (n) indifferent plain propose to sb (vb) married should know either everything or nothing. speculation thrill (vb) Which do you know? Jack [After some hesitation.] I know nothing, Lady 4 "TRCD Now listen to the extract. Does Gwendolen accept Bracknell. Lady Bracknell I am pleased to hear it. I do not approve of Jack's proposal? What does she find most attractive about anything that tampers with natural ignorance. [oo.] The him? Why is this a problem for Jack? whole theory of modern education is radically unsound . 5 g TRCD Listen again_ Find evidence of: Fortunately in England, at any rate, education produces no effect whatsoever. If it did, it would prove a serious 1 Gwendolin's a confidence. b cynicism . danger to the upper classes, and probably lead to acts 2 Jack's a nervousness. b romantic nature. of violence in Grosvenor Square. 6 g TRCD Read and listen to the next part of the play. Identify comic moments and say why they are funny. (Look at 7 What does the extract tell us about the nature and purpose of both the characters' lines and the stage directions.) marriage in late-Victorian England? 5 Literature Oscar Wilde 139 5 J oseph Mallord William Turner was bo rn in London in 1775. He came from a modest background; his father was a barber and wig maker and his mother was from a family of butchers. He showed a very early talent for drawing and painting, and began to sell his pictures from his father's shop. By the age of 14, young Joseph was already an accomplished artist and entolled at the Royal Academy of Arts school, the most prestigious painting school in Britain. In the 1790s Turner spent the summers travelling widely in Britain, sketching in the open air, and spent the winters painting in his studio. His paintings soon began to appear in exhibitions in London alongside works by much older, well-established painters. In 1802 he made the first of many trips to mainland Europe, visiting France and Switzerland. He was very influenced by French painters and imitated their style. But he soon began to experiment and to develop a very individual style of his own. paint realistically. He has imagined the very popular and sold well, making Turner was particularly attracted scene rather than painted it from nature, him a very wealthy man. On his death, to dramatic, romantic subjects like and attempts to make it as dramatic he left all his paintings to the British shipwrecks, fires and natural disasters. and as striking as possible. He is giving government and most of them are He was fascinated by the destructiveness us an impression of the tiny boat in the kept at the Tate Gallery in London. of nature and in particular the violent swirling rain and mountainous seas. He Turner had a big influence on the power of the sea. In this painting, is trying to show us how helpless we are French impressionist painters in the 'Snow storm - steamboat off a harbour's when faced with the destructive powers second half of the nineteenth century. mouth', exhibited in 1842, the boat is of nature. What they admired in Turner was the caught in the middle of a terrible storm Turner was recognised by his 'impressionistic' atmosphere in his and is trying to reach the safety of the contemporaries as an artistic genius. paintings and the way that he painted harbour. Turner is not trying here to His romantic, dramatic paintings were light. 1 I#M3I1tCl Look at the painting. Discuss these questions. 3 IM(;1@tCl Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Give reasons for your opinions. 1 Do you like the painting in exercise 1? Why? 1 What does the painting depict? 2 Do you generally prefer figurative art (art that attempts 2 When do you think it was painted? to represent with some accuracy its subject matter) or 3 Describe the atmosphere of the painting. abstract art (art that in some ways departs from the reality of the subject)? Why? 2 Read about the painting and the artist. In your own words tell 3 Tell your partner about a work of art or an artist that you your partner about the following aspects of the artist. admire. Give reasons for your views. 1 family background 2 early career 3 travel 4 subject matter of his paintings and style 5 success during his lifetime 6 influence on later artists 140 5 Culture Britart 1 IMfJ@t?i When was the First World War? Which countries 7 1O.#(;@/tfI Do you like the poems? Which one do you prefer? were involved? Give reasons. 2 "TRCD Read and listen to the poems. Which poem : 1 glorifies dying for your country? THE SOLDIER by Rupert Brooke 2 highlights the horror of dying in war? If I should die, think only this of me: That there's some corner of a foreign field 3 "TRCD Read and listen again. Use the adjectives below to That is for ever England. There shall be describe the tone and content of each poem. Give reasons for In that rich earth a richer dust1 concealed; your opinions. 5 A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam2, angry bitter compassionate depressing gruesome A body of England's, breathing English air, hard-hitting nostalgic patriotic peaceful powerful Washed by the rivers, blesfl by suns of home. realistic sentimental shocking soothing uplifting And think, this heart, all evil shed away!, 10 A pulse in the eternal mind, no less 11 Read the Fact file. In what way do the two poems reflect each Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given; poet's experience of war? Her Sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. FACT FILE Glossary I'a richer dust' i.e . the soldier's body Rupert Srooke and Wilfred Owen both died in the First World 2paths and roads to wander 3blessed 4removed War. Srooke was 27 and died of an infected mosquito bite on a naval ship in the Mediterranean. Owen was 26 and was killed in action in France on 4 November 1918, exactly a week before the war ended. DULCE ET DECORUM EST The Soldier was written in 1914 at the start of the war. Srooke had not experienced any fighting. by Wilfred Owen Dulce Et Decorum Est was written in 1917 after Owen had Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, experienced a number of years of trench warfare. The poem Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, was written to Jessie Pope, who wrote poems encouraging Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs young people to join the army. And towards our distant rest began to trudge. 5 Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots But limped on, blood-shod 1 . All went lame; all blind; 5 Match each of the four stanzas of Dulce Et Decorum Est with Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots a summary sentence below. There is one sentence that you Of gas-shells dropping softly behind. don't need. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! - An ecstasy of fumbling, a the image of the soldier dying recurs in the poet's 10 Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; dreams But someone still was yelling out and stumbling, b a direct address to the reader challenging him/her not to And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime ... glorify war Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. c a warning not to join the army 15 In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, d sudden action as the soldiers come under chemical He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. weapon attack If in some smothering dreams you too could pace e a description of tired soldiers returning from battle Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, 6 Consider and contrast the imagery used in the poems. 20 His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; 1 In The Soldier, find: If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood a references to the English landscape. Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, b tranquil images in lines 12-14. Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud 2 In Dulce Et Decorum Est, find: To children ardent for some desperate glory, 25 The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est a two similes in lines 1- 2 describing the soldiers . b four adjectives in lines 6-8 describing the soldie rs . Pro patria mori2. c shocking images describing the dying soldier in lin es Glossary 1 'shod' wearing on one's feet 16-24. 2 Latin : 'It is sweet and fitting to die for one's country'. 6 Literature War poets 141 6 1 Work in pairs. Answer the quiz questions. 1 When did the Aboriginal people first arrive in Australia? a about 50,000 years ago b about 25,000 years ago c about 5,000 years ago 2 In which century did Britain first colonise Australia? a 17th century b 18th century c 19th century 3 What did the British establish in Botany Bay? a a cricket club b a holiday resort c a penal colony 4 The British colonists took Aboriginal land principally to a grow crops. b raise livestock. c build new towns . 5 What made Australia much richer in the mid -19th century? a livestock farming b the arrival of immigrants c the discovery of gold 6 Australia gained independence from Britain in 5 g TRCD '@ifJ@tij Work in pairs. Listen to part of a song a 1851 b 1901 c 1951 called Botany Bay, written in the 19th century. Discuss the questions. 2 g TRCD Listen and check your answers to the quiz. 1 Who is 'we' in the song? 3 g TRCD Listen again. Answer the questions. 2 3 What do they find depressing? Who else is on the ship besides them? 1 What information is given about the early indigenous 4 What warning is contained in the third verse? people? 2 What unfortunate effect did the arrival of the European colonists immediately have on the Aboriginal people? 3 What caused conflict between the colonists and the Ilf),l'llNY IlllY indigenous people? It's not leaving old England we care about, 4 What effect did the Gold Rush have on the population? Nor sailing for shores far away, It's the bloomin' monotony wears us out It Complete the text with the adjectives below. And the prospect of Botany Bay. common first free ideal overcrowded penal Oh, too-roo-lie, oo-roo-lie, oo-roo-lay, poor reluctant useful Too-roo-lie, oo-roo-lie ay. Too-roo-lie, oo-roo-lie, oo-roo-lay, Too-roo-lie, oo-roo-lie-ay. Oh, the Captain and all the ship's officers ITRANSPORTATION The Bo's'n and all of the crew, The first- and second-class passengers, Knows what us poor convicts go through. B y the late eighteenth century, Britain's prisons had Chorus become very 1_ _ _ , and transportation to the American colonies had become a 2_ _ _ punishment Now, all you young dukes and you duchesses, Take warning from what I've to say: for many crimes. In the 1770s Britain lost her American Be sure that you own all you touchesses colonies and was forced to look elsewhere. Australia, which Or they'll land you in Botany Bay. had recently been claimed for Britain by Captain James Cook, was the 3_ _ _ location for a new 4_ _ _ colony. Conditions Chorus on the transport ships were 5_ _ _ and many prisoners died before reaching their destination. For the few d ecades after the arrival of the 6_ _ _ settlers, convicts m ade up the majority of Australia's population. Approximately 161,700 convicts taking their jobs. It was the discovery of gold that convicts, of whom 25,000 were women, were sent to Australia finally led to the abolition of transportation. Free settlers were between 1788 and 1868. As time went by, however, they were understandably 8_ _ _ to share the new-found wealth with { increasingly seen as a 7_ _ _ source of labour rather than convicted criminals, and argued that transportation was no simply as prisoners undergoing punisrunent. Opposition to longer a punishment but a 9_ _ _ ticket to riches. The last transportation grew among the free settlers, w ho resented the convict ship arrived in Australia in 1868. 142 I 6 • Culture Going Down under 1 '#4:t!'@!ij Work in pairs. What do you know about: 4 ....,Q{;1@!ij Discuss this question in pairs: What do you think 1 the Russian Revolution? 2 Stalin? might happen later in the story with regard to the Seven 3 life in the Soviet Union before the fall of Communism? Commandments? 2 "TRCD Listen to information about Animal Farm and 5 "TRCD Listen to an extract from near the end of the story. George Orwell. Answer the questions. Did you make any correct predictions in exercise 4? 1 In which countries did Orwelllive before returning to 6 "TRCD Listen again and answer the questions. England in the 1930s? 1 Which of the first six commandments have the pigs 2 In which war did he fight, and on which side? broken? In what way? 3 Why did he have to flee from Spain? 2 What other resolution described in the text in exercise 3 4 Why was he critical of left-wing people in Britain? have the pigs also broken? 5 Did Orwell believe that the Russian Revolution was totally 3 What role do (a) the sheep (b) the dogs have on the wrong? Why? jWhy not? farm? 6 What other famous books did he write? 4 How has the seventh commandment been altered? 3 Read the extract from Animal Farm. Answer the questions. 5 In what way is this new single commandment nonsensical and contradictory? 1 How does the animals' fear and wonderment manifest itself as they look round the farmhouse? 7 "#f;!@!ij Do you think allegories are an effective way of 2 What do the animals resolve to do with the house? conveying a political message? Give reasons. 3 What have the pigs done that demonstrates how much cleverer they are than the other animals? 4 What does Snowball first use the paint for? 5 The commandments are designed to unite the animals, Napoleon sent for pots of black and white paint and led and to emphasise the distinction between them and the way down to the five-barred gate that gave on the what else? main road. Then Snowball (for it was Snowball who was (The animals have just taken control of the farm and expelled best at writing) took a brush between the two knuckles of Farmer lanes.) his trotter, painted out MANOR FARM from the top bar of the gate and in its place painted ANIMAL FARM. This They filed back to the farm buildings and halted in was to be the name of the farm from now onwards. After silence outside the door of the farmhouse . That was theirs this they went back to the farm buildings, where Snowball too, but they were frightened to go inside. After a moment, and Napoleon sent for a ladder which they caused to be however, Snowball and Napoleon butted the door open set against the end wall of the big barn. They explained with their shoulders and the animals entered in single that by their studies of the past three months the pigs had file, walking with the utmost care for fear of disturbing succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to seven anything. They tiptoed from room to room, afraid to commandments. These seven commandments would now speak above a whisper and gazing with a kind of awe be inscribed on the wall; they would form an unalterable at the unbelievable luxury, at the beds with their feather law by which all animals on Animal Farm must live for mattresses, the looking-glasses, the horsehair sofa, the ever after. With some difficulty (for it is not easy for a pig to Brussels carpet, the lithograph of Queen Victoria over the balance himself on a ladder) Snowball climbed up and set draWing-room mantelpiece [.. .] A unanimous resolution to work, with Squealer a few rungs below him holding the was passed on the spot that the farmhouse should be paint-pot. The commandments were written on the tarred preserved as a museum. All were agreed that no animal wall in great white letters that could be read thirty yards must ever live there. away. They ran thus: The animals had their breakfast and then Snowball and Napoleon called them together again. THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS 'Comrades,' said Snowball, 'it is half-past six and we 1 Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. have a long day before us. Today we begin the hay harvest. 2 Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. But there is another matter that must be attended to first. ' 3 No animal shall wear clothes. The pigs now revealed that during the past three 4 No animal shall sleep in a bed. months they had taught themselves to read and write fro m S No animal shall drink alcohol. an old spelling book which had belonged to Mr Jones's 6 No animal shall kill any other animal. children and which had been thrown on the rubbish heap. 7 All animals are equal. 7 Literature George Orwell 143 7 1 ..1MJ3@1 Describe the photo below and answer the questions. PIONEERS The earliest European settlers in North America e stablished colonies on the east coast, where they had landed. But as the population increased, many felt the urge to move westwards in search of new lands and a new life. The vast expanses of the continent were largely unpopulated, except for scattered tribes of indigenous Indians. Those who headed west were called p ioneers, and they travelled in lines of wagons for up to six months in order to reach California or Oregon on the west coast. The pioneers faced many dangers on their journey Some Indians were hostile, although not as blood-thirsty as Hollywood 1 Where do you think these people were going and why? films tend to suggest. Injury and illness were far more likely 2 What problems do you think they might have faced on causes of death. Crossing rivers was perilous, as were storms the journey? and wild animals, and since distances between watering holes 2 Read the text and find the answers to the questions in could be great, they were always at risk of running out. exercise 1. What is the connection between the photo below Given the hazardous nature of the journey; why did so many the text and the photo in exercise 1? Americans choose to make it? Partly; they were tempted by exaggerated descrip tions of how wonderful life could be in the 3 Are these sentences true en, false (F), or is the answer not west ; many had heard tale s of crops growing taller than a man. stated (NS)? But they were also escaping very real hardships in the Mid West, 1 The word 'pioneers' refers to the first European settlers in where the swamps of Missouri and Mississippi were infested North America. with disease-carrying insects. 2 The most likely cause of death for members of a wagon Once they had arrived at their destination, p ioneers used train was illness. any money they had brought with them to buy land. They 3 Some rumours about life in the west were not true. cleared trees and p repared the land for farming, and built 4 Malaria was a big killer in the swamps of the mid -west. simple houses. The pioneers needed to be largely self-sufficient, 5 Few of the pioneers who made the journey west regretted making their own clothes, tools and furniture. Life was certainly their decision . hard but communities were close-knit and supportive, and most 6 People who make 'road trip movies' are a modern families were glad they had made the journey incarnation of the pioneer spirit. In modern America, people still talk of the 'pioneer spirit' , meaning a willingness to face hardships and danger in order 4 " TRCD Listen to the true story of an ill-fated wagon train to achieve a better life for yourself and your family. Many of the called the Donner Party. Who was mostly to blame for their immigrants who come to the USA each year are a testament to problems? this spirit. And although these days Hollywood makes few films about wagon trains, the modern 'road trip movie' taps into the 5 "TRCD Listen again. Answer the questions. same urge to escape your surroundings and follow your dreams 1 Why were the group called the Donner Party? across a vast and exciting continent. 2 Why did the party choose to follow Lansford Hastings's new route from Fort Bridger to Californi a? 3 How many people and wagons were in the gro up? 4 Why did the party stop and wait several days before entering the Wasatch Mountains? 5 Why did the delays during their journ ey become more important when they reached the Sierra Nevada? 6 What are members of the party rumou red to have done to escape starvation while trapp ed in t he mountains? 6 ..14%@II5I Discuss examples of the ' pion eer spirit' in the modern world. Do you think it is somet hin g specifically American or do all nations have it? 144 7 Cultu re Go West! 1 'i#@mi Work in pairs. Can you think of any films or 1V shows in which the two main characters are close friends but very different? Why is it an appealing kind of story? Curley stepped over to Lennie like a terrier. 'What the hell you laughin' at?' 2 Complete the text with the words below. Lennie looked blankly at him. 'Huh?' as enduring particularly peacefully previously Then Curley's rage exploded. 'Come on, ya big bastard. Get temporary while wholly up on your feet. No big son-of-a-bitch is gonna laugh at me. I'll show ya who's yella: At the beginning of the 1930s, the United States entered Lennie looked helplessly at George, and then he got up and a long period of economic depression, 1 _ __ did most tried to retreat. other countries in the developed world. Economic output Curley was balanced and poised. He slashed at Lennie with his declined sharply, 2_ _ _ unemployment soared. There was left, and then smashed down his nose with a right. Lennie gave widespread poverty, 3_ _ _ in areas which depended on a cry of terror. Blood welled from his nose. 'George: he cried. heavy industry, construction and farming. The people who 'Make 'urn let me alone, George: He backed until he was against had 4 _ __ been employed as farm labourers, builders the wall, and Curley followed, slugging him in the face. Lennie's and factory workers now found themselves without jobs, hands remained at his sides; he was too frightened to defend without money, without homes - and often without hope. himself. Against this background, the Nobel Prize·winning novelist George was on his feet yelling, 'Get him, Lennie.