Dome of the Rock | History, Architecture, & Significance | Britannica

Dome of the Rock

shrine, Jerusalem
Alternate titles: Qubbat al-Ṣakhrah
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Fast Facts

Dome of the Rock, Arabic Qubbat al-Ṣakhrah, shrine in Jerusalem built by the Umayyad caliph ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān in the late 7th century ce. It is the oldest extant Islamic monument.

The structure is situated on a flat elevated plaza known to Muslims as al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf (“The Noble Sanctuary”) and to Jews as the Temple Mount (the site where the Temple of Jerusalem once stood). According to Muslims, the rock above which the dome is constructed is the spot from which the Prophet Muhammad was taken up into heaven for an encounter with God (an event known as the Miʿrāj). Nearby, on the southern extreme of the plaza, is Al-Aqṣā Mosque; Muslims believe the Prophet was miraculously transported there from Mecca on the night of his encounter (see Isrāʾ). The term “Al-Aqṣā Mosque” is commonly extended to denote the entire plaza and, consequently, to the Dome of the Rock itself.

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The Dome of the Rock’s structure and ornamentation are rooted in the Byzantine architectural tradition, yet its construction in the 7th century represents an early stage in the emergence of a distinct Islamic visual style. The structure, positioned near the centre of a wide raised platform, comprises an octagonal base topped by a gilded wooden central dome. The dome, which is approximately 65 feet (20 metres) in diameter and is mounted on an elevated drum, rises above a circle of 16 piers and columns. Surrounding this circle is an octagonal arcade of 24 piers and columns. Below the dome a portion of the sacred rock is exposed and protected by a railing. A stairway leads to a natural cave beneath the surface of the rock. The outer walls also form an octagon, with each of the eight sides being approximately 60 feet (18 metres) wide and 36 feet (11 metres) high. Both the dome and the exterior walls contain many windows.

The interior and exterior of the structure are decorated with marble, mosaics, and metal plaques. Although the mosaics are similar in technique to those found in Byzantine public buildings and churches, the Dome of the Rock’s mosaics exclude any representations of human or animal forms, instead featuring Arabic script and vegetal patterns intermixed with images of items such as jewels and crowns. Arabic religious inscriptions run around the octagonal arcade.