Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Volume 4 (Q-S)
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FEANZ PETER SCHUBERT

GROVE'S

DICTIONAEY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS

EDITED
BY
J.

A.

FULLER MAITLAND,

M,A.,

FSA.

IN FIVE

VOLUMES

VOL. IV

Wefa gorfe

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


1908
All rights reserved

/\

aas~'^'^q

By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.


Set up and electrotyped.

Published June, 1908.

Nottaiaiili

$teM

J. S.

Cashing

&

Co.

Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

LIST OF CONTEIBUTOES
The names of deceased writers are printed in

W.

A. AlKIN, Esq.

......

italics

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Sir George Grove, O.B., D.G.L.
G.

W. H. Hadow,

Esq.

W. H. H".

H. V. Hamilton, Esq.

H. v. H.

William Henderson,
Georob Heubebt, Esq.

Esq.

W. H.
G. H.

Arthub
A.
J.

F.

Hill, Esq.

A.

F.

H.

HiPKiNS, Esq., F.SA.


J.

A. J. H. E. J. H.

Miss E.
A.

HiPKiNS

Hughes -Hughes, Duncan Hume, Esq.


William H. Husk,
F.

Esq.
.

A.

H-H.

D. H.

Esq.

W. H. H.
P. H. J. A. J.
F. K.

H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A. M. Adolphe Jullien


.

Frank Kidson,

Esq.

H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York James Lecky, Esq. Robin H. Lbggb, Esq.

H. B. K.
J. L.

R. H. L.

Hercules MacDonnell, Esq. R. F. M'EWEN, Esq. Eev. Ghakles Mackeson, F.B.S. Herr A. Maczewski, Kaiserslautern Julian Marshall, Esq. Mrs. Julian Marshall BussBLL Martinbau, Esq. Signor Giannandeea Mazzucato
.

H. M'C. D.
R. F.
C.

M'E.

M.

A. M.
J.

M. M.

F. A.

R. M.
G.
J.

M.
H. M.

Rev.

J.

H.
R.

Mee
.

Miss Louisa M. Middlbton


Rev.
Mrs.
J.

L.
J.

M. M.
R.

J.

Milne
Esq.
.

M.

Newmaroh Weston Nicholl,


Herbert
S.

R. N.
J.

W. K.

E. M. Oakbley, Esq.
Sir

B. M. O.

Oakbley, Mus.D.
Bart., Mus.D., Director of the

H.
S.

S. O.

Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. Sir 0. Hubert H. Parry,


of Music
.

H. P.

Royal College
C.

H. H. P.

E.

J.

Payne,
G.

Esq., Barrister-at-law

E. J. P.
T. P. P. C. F.

Rev. Canon T. Percy

Pembehton

Fbrdinanb Pohl William Pole, Esq., F.B.S., Mm.D. Victor be Pontigny, Esq. Reginald Lane Poole, Esq. Miss OiGA Racster
Herr
.

P.

V.
V.

P.

DE

P.

E. L.
O. R.
L.

LuiGi Ricci, Esq.

R,
S.

W.

S.

ROCKSTRO, Esq.

W.
Esq.

R.

Desmond Lumlby Byan, Carl Siewbrs, Esq.


Dr. Philipp Spitta

P. L. R.
c. s'-

P. S.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTOES
S. J.

Spobling, Esq.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Franz Peter Schubert
Joseph Joachim Raff
Frontispiece FACING PAGE

12

Jean Philippe Kameau

18
56

Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke Ernest Reyer Hans Richter


Nicholas Andreievich Rimsey-Korsakov
Gioacchino Antonio Rossini

80
92

...
. .

102

150
176 178

Giovanni Battista Rubini

Anton Gregor Rubinstein


Charles Camille Saint-Saens Antonio Salieri
Pablo Martin Meliton de Sarasate t Navascues Sarasate Alessandro Scarlatti
.

206

210

...

224
240
276

Wilhblmine Schroder-Devrient Fac-simile page of the manuscript of Schubert's great Symphony in C Clara Josephine Schumann Robert Alexander Schumann

328

344 368 408 410


486 620
638 646

Anton Seidl Marzella Sembrich Friedrich Smetana


Henriette Sontag, Countess Rossi
Louis Spohr

Gasparo Luigi Pacifico Spontini

Richard Strauss

718

'

DICTIONARY
OF

MUSIC AND MUSICIANS


Q
(German Contretans), a dance executed by an equal number of couples drawn up in a square. The name (which is derived from the Italian sqimdra) was originally not solely applied to dances, but was used to denote a small company or squadron of horsemen, from three to fifteen in number, magnificently mounted and caparisoned to take part The name was in a tournament or carousal.
next given to four, six, eight, or twelve dancers, dressed alike, who danced in one or more companies in the elaborate French ballets ' of the 18th century. The introduction of ' oontredanses ' Into the ballet, which first took place in the fifth act of Eousseau's ' FStes de Polymnie (1745), and the consequent popularity of these dances, are the origin of the dance which, at first known as the ' Quadrille de Contredarises,' was soon abbreviated into ' quadrille.' [The use of the Spanish equivalent, cuadrilla, for the party of four banderilleros associated with each torero in a bull-fight, and the familiar name of a card -game once very popular, may be mentioned.] The quadrille was settled in its present shape at the beginning of the 19th century, and it has undergone but little change, save It was very in the simplification of its steps. popular in Paris during the Consulate and the first Empire, and after the fall of Napoleon was brought to England by Lady Jersey, who in 1815 danced it for the first time at Almaek's" with Lady Harriet Butler, Lady Susan Ryde, Miss Montgomery, Count St. Aldegonde, Mr. Montgomery, Mr. Montague, and Mr. Standish. The English took it up with the same eagerness which they displayed with regard to the polka in 1845, and the caricatures of the period abound with amusing illustrations of the quadrille mania. It became popular in Berlin in
1821.

QUADRILLE

Le pantalon

De Madelon
N'a pas de fond,

and was adapted to the dance. The music consists of 32 bars in 6-8 time. No. 2 is L'Ete,' the name of a very diflioult and graceful contredanse popular in the year 1800 it consists of 32 bars in 2-4 time. No. 3 is La Poule (32 bars in 6-8 time) which dates from the year 1802. For No. 4 (32 bars in 2-4 time) two figures are danced, 'La Tr6nise,' named after the celebrated dancer Trenitz, and La
' ' ' ; '
'

'

perhaps a survival of the old 'Pastorale.' No. 5 'Finale' consists of three parts repeated four times. In all these figures (except the Finale, which sometimes ends with a coda) the dance begins at the ninth bar of the music, the first eight bars being repeated at the end bywayof conclusion. Themusic of quadrilles is scarcely ever original ; operatic and popular tunes are strung together, and even the works of the great composers are sometimes made use of.^ The quadrilles of Musard are almost the only exception ; they may lay claim to some recognition as graceful original musical commons, w. B. s. QUAGLIATI, Paolo, born about 1560, was a musician living In Rome, who in 1608 is indicated as holding the position of organist at the Liberian Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1585 he edited acoUection of Spiritual Canzonets
Pastourelle,'

for

three voices,

containing,

besides

sixteen

'

numbers by himself, some contributions by Marenzio, Nanino, and Giovanelli. His other publications before 1600 consist of two books Two Canzonets a 4 of Secular Canzonets a 3. with cembalo and lute accompaniment appear in Verovio's collection of 1591, which has been recently republished complete by Alfred Wotquenne. After 1 600 he appears to have followed
with interest the twofold direction in music emanating from Florence and Venice respectively,
the
voices,
a

The

quadrille consists of five distinct parts,


' ' '

which bear the name of the contredanses to which they owe their origin. No. 1 is Le Pantalon,' the name of which is derived from a song which began as follows
:

Florentine Stile rappresentativo for solo and the Venetian concerted style with
readers

Some

may

recollect the clever

'Bologna QuadriUes'

on themes from Bossini's 'Stabat Mater,' which were published


shortly after the appearance of that work. The plates of these qnadriUes were destroyed on the publishers learning the source from which the author (popularly supposed to be J. W. Davison) had obtained the melodies. [Hans von BUlow wrote a set of quadriUes on airs from Berlioz's Benvenuto OeUinl,']
'

more 'quadriUes'
3

t The Balleta were divided into fire acts, each act into three, six, nine, or twelve ' entr^,* and each ' entree ' was performed by one or of dancers,

See Captain Oronow's Sfftnintxc&ncet

(1861).

VOL. IV

IE

QUALITY
basso eontinuo.
'

-QUANTZ
Buffardin.

In 1606 he composed an opera with libretto by his pupil Pietro della Valle, entitled Carro di fedeltJi d' amore,' which was performed on a Carnival car in the streets of Rome, It has five solo voices, and was published in 1611, with the addition of several Arie a 1-3. His other works are a book of Concerted Madrigals It 4 for voices and instruments, with a separate book for Basso Continuo, some other books of Spiritual Madrigals a 1-3, and two books of Sacred Motets and Dialogues for two and three choirs in the concerted style with Basso Continuo (Rome, 1612-27). In Diruta's II Transilvano there appears a toccata by Quagliati for organ or clavier, which has been republished by L. Torch! in Arte, Musicale in
' '

In 1723 he went with Weiss to

Prague, and the two played in Fux's opera 'Costanza e Fortezza,' performed in honour of Here also he the coronation of Charles VI.

heard Tartini. In 1724 Quantz accompanied Count Lagnasco to Italy, arriving in Rome on July 11, and going at once for lessons in counterpoint to Gasparini, whom he describes In good-natured and honourable man.' as a 1725 he went on to Naples, and there made the acquaintance of Scarlatti, Hasse, Mancini, Leo, Feo, and other musicians of a similar stamp. In May 1726 we find him in Reggio and Parma, whence he travelled by Milan,
'

Turin, Geneva, and Lyons to Paris, arriving on August 15. In Paris where his name was

Italia, vol.

iii.

j.

r. m.

QUALITY. See Tone. QUANTITY. See Metre, vol. iii. p. 186. QUANTZ, JoHANN Joachim, celebrated fluteplayer and composer, born, according to his autobiography in Marpurg's Beibrage zwr Auf-

nahmeder Musik, 3 3.n.

30, 1697,atOber3oheden,

a village between Gbttingen and Miinden. His father, a blacksmith, urged him on his death-bed (1707) to follow the-same calling, but, in his own words, Providence, who disposes all for the best, soon pointed out a different path for my future.' From the age of eight he had been in the habit of playing the double-bass with his elder brother at village fgtes, and judging from this that he had a talent fbr music, his uncle Justus Quantz, Stadtmusikus of Merseburg, offered to bring him up as a musician. He went to Merseburg in August 1708,' but his uncle did not long survive his father, and Quantz passed under the care of the new Stadtmusikus, Fleischhaek, who had married his predecessor's daughter. For the next five and a half years he studied various instruments, Kiesewetter being his master for the pianoforte. In Deo. 1713 he was released from his apprenticeship, and soon after became assistant, first to Knoll, Stadtmusikus of Radeberg, and then to Schalle of Pima near Dresden. Here he studied Vivaldi's violin-concertos, and made theacquaintance of Heine, a musician in Dresden, with whom he went to live in March 1716. He now had opportunities of hearing great artists, such as Pisendel, Veraoini, Sylvius Weiss, Riohter and Buffardin, the flute- player. In 1717 he went, during his three months' leave, to Vienna, and studied counterpoint with Zelenka, a pupil of Fux. In 1718 he entered the chapel of the King of Poland, which consisted of. twelve players, and was stationed His alternately in Warsaw and Dresden. salary was 150 thalers, with free quarters in Warsaw, but finding no opportunity of distinguishing himself either on the oboe, the instrument for which he was engaged, or the violin, he took up the flute, studying it with
' 1

he remained seven months, and occupied himself with contriving improvements in the flute, the most important being the addition of a second key, as described by himself in his Versitch einer Anweiswng die Mote . . zu spielen, vol. iii. chap. He was at length recalled 58 (Berlin, 1752). to Dresden, but first visited London for three

remembered ^

as

'

Quouance

'

He arrived there on March 20, months. 1727, when Handel was at the very summit of his operatic career, with Faustina, Cuzzoni,
Castrueci,
train.

He

1727, and the chapel, and again devoted himself to the flute. During a visit to Berlin in 1728 the Crown Prince, afterwards Frederick the Great, was so charmed with his playing, that he determined to learn the flute, and in future Quantz went twice a year to give hini instruction. In 1741 his pupil, having succeeded to the throne, made him liberal offers if he would settle in Berlin, which he did, remaining till his death on July 12, 1773. He was Kammerr rausicus and court-composer, with a salary of 2000 thalers, an additional payment for each composition, and 100 ducats for each flute which he supplied. His chief duties were to conduct the private concerts at the Palace, in which the king played the flute, and to compose
pieces for his royal pupil. He left in MS. 300 concertos [but see the QvMlen-Lexikon, p. 99, on this number] for one and two flutqs of which 277 are preserved in the Neue Palais at

Senesino, Attilio, and Tosi in his returned to Dresden on July 23, in the following March re-entered

Potsdam and 200 other pieces flute solos, and dozens of trios and quatuors, of which 51 are to be found at Dresden. His printed works are three Sei Senate dedicated to Augustus III. of Poland, op. 1, Dresden, 1734 'Sei duetti,' op. 2, Berlin, 1759 [six sonatas for two flutes, op. 3, of doubtful authenticity, London,
;

'

'

Walsh;

five sonatas for flutes, also op. 3, Paris, Boivin], a method for the flute Fermcfe einer Anweisimg die Flote traversi&re zu spielen

dedicated
Berlin,

to Frederick
4to,
2

1762,

Konige in Preussen,' with twenty-four copper'

Not

1707, as

Mendel

states.

In Eoivin's

CatiUoffiie.

QUARENGHI
This passed through three (or four) editions, and was also published in French and Dutch. He left also a serenata, a few songs, music to twenty -two of Gellert's hymns, Neue Kirchenmelodien, etc. (Berlin, 1760), and an autobiography (in Marpurg's Beiirdge). Three of the Melodien are given by von Winterfeld, Evang. Kinheng. iii. 272. Besides the key which he added to the flute, he invented the sliding top for tuning the instrument. His playing, which was unusually correct for the imperfect instruments of the day, delighted not only Frederick, but Marpurg, a more fastidious critic. He married, not happily, in 1737 and died in easy circumstances and generally respected at Potsdam, July 12, 1773. All details regarding him may be found in Lebenund JVerken, etc., by his grandson Albert Quantz (Berlin, 1877). F. G.

QUAETET
any other combination being more fully particularised and it is to the string quartet we will turn our principal attention. The origin of the quartet was the invention of four- part harmony, but it was long before a composition for four instruments came to be regarded as a distinct and worthy means for the expression of musical ideas. Even the prolific J. S. Bach does not
;

German

>

'

'

to have favoured this combination, though he wrote trios in plenty. With the symphony was born the string quartet as we

appear

now understand it
and both were
[See FoiiM.]

the symphony in miniature

bom of

the same father, Haydn.

QUARENGHI,

Gugliblmo,

violoncellist

and

composer, born at Casalmaggiore, Oct. 22, 1826, died at Milan, Feb. 4, 1882. He studied at the Milan Conservatoire, 1839-42, occupied the post of first violoncello at the Scala Theatre

in 1850 became professor of his instrument at the Milan Conservatoire in 1851, and in 1879 Maestro di Cappella at the Milan Cathedral. As a composer he contributed an opera entitled 'II didi Michel'; published in 1863 some church music and transcriptions, as well as an inter;

The early quartets of Haydn seem to ns sadly feeble in the present day ; there is not enough flesh to cover the skeleton, and the joints are terribly awkward ; but therfe is the unmistakable infant quartet, and certainly not more clumsy and \inpromising than the human infant. In the course of his long life and incessant practice in symphonic composition, Haydn made vast progress, so that the later quartets (op. 71, etc.) begin to show, in the lower parts, some of the boldness which had before been only allowed to the 1st violin. Eighty-three quartets of Haydn are catalogued and printed, while of the ninety-three of his
contemporary Boooherini, scarcely one survives. Mozart, with his splendid genius for polyphony as well as melody, at once opened up a new world. In the set of six dedicated to Haydn we notice, besides the development in form, the development of the idea, which it has only been given to Beethoven fully to
carry

esting

treatise

method for the violoncello a valuable upon the origin of bow instruments
;

this Metodo di Violoncello (Milan, 1876), in which he compares the earliest forms with the various barbaric and semi-- barbaric instruments previously in use amongst primitive nations. In addition the author gives the ' Personaggi of Monteverde's ' Orfeo, and the tuning of the earliest viols. Riemann, Lexikon; Baker, iog. Diet, of Shisic. E. h-a. QUARLES, Chakles, Mus.B., graduated at Cambridge in 1698. He was organist of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1688 to 1709. He was appointed organist of York Minster, June 30, 1722 ; and died at York early in 1727. 'A Lesson for the harpsichord by him was printed

precedes

out

the

making each part

of equal

'

'

and importance. Theoretically, in a perfect quartet, whether vocal or instrumental, there should be no 'principal part.' The six
interest

quartets just spoken of were so far in advance of their time as to be considered on all sides as

'hideous stuff.' In our time we find little that is startling in them, except, perhaps, the

famous opening of No. sound harsh from the


second and fourth bars.
Adagio.

6,

which

will always

false relations in

the

'

by Goodison about 1788.

w. h. h. See Violin. QUART-POSAUNE. See Tkombonb.

QUART-GEIGE.

i35:4

QUARTERLY

MUSICAL

MAGAZINE
;

AND REVIEW,
of Norwich.

conducted by R. M. Bacon vol. iii. p. [See vol. i. p. 181


G.
;

680.]

Quaiuor Ital. Quartetto). A composition for four solo instruments or voices. I. With regard to instrumental quartets the favourite combination has naturally been always
that of two violins, viola, and violoncello, the chief representatives since the days of Monteverde of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass, in the orchestra: in fact, when 'quartet' only is spoken of, the ' string quartet is generally understood ;
'

QUARTET (Fr.

Mozart's twenty-six quartets all live, the six dedicated to Haydn and the last three composed for the King of Prussia being immortal. Those writers whose quartets were simply the echo of Mozart's such as Romberg, Onslow, Ries, and Fesca made no advance in the treatment of the four instruments. It is not our province here to speak of the

QUARTET

QUARTET
They also lying too often in the top part. lose much through the pecuUar mannerism of the composer's harmony, which so constantly
occupies three of the parts in the performance of pedal notes, and portions of the chromatic
scale. Still

growth of the symphonic form as exhibited in the string quartet, this subject having been already discussed under Form, but rather to notice the extraordinary development of the art of part-writing, and the manner in which the most elaborate compositions have been constructed with such apparently inadequate
materials.

more than Schubert does Mendelssohn

In these points the


far eclipse
all

quartets

of

Beethoven so In the very

others

that

we

to chafe at the insufficiency of four stringed Not only instruments to express his ideas.

seem
this,

might confine our attention exclusively to them.


first (op. 18,

but he

No. 1) the phrase

in one
wi-iting.

own, fails, through no fault of his point needful for successful quartet-

Beethoven and Schubert have shown

of the

first

movement

is

delivered so impartially

to each of the four players, as

though to

see

what each can make

that we feel them to be on an equality never before attained to. If the 1st violin has fine running passages, those of the 2nd violin and viola are not a whit inferior. Does the 1st violin sing a celestial adagio, the violoncello is not put off with mere bass notes to mark the time. All four participate equally in the merriment of the scherzo and the dash of the finale. This much strikes one in the earlier quartets, but later we find that we are no longer listening to four voices disposed so as to sound together harmoniously, but that we are being shown the outline, the
of
it,

us that the theoretically perfect string-quartet should have an almost equal amount of interest in each of the four parts ; care should therefore be taken to make the merest accompanimentfigures in the middle parts of value and Tremolos and reiterated chords character. should be shunned, and indeed the very idea The of Oiceompaniment is barely admissible. quartet, though differing from the symphony only in the absence of instrumental colouring and limitation of polyphony, is best fitted for the expression of ideas of a certain delicacy, refinement and complexity, anything like boldness being out of place, from the weakness Now the chief of the body of tone produced.
of Mendelssohn's music is its broad and singing character, passage-writing is Consequently, however good his weak point. his quartets, one cannot but feel that they would sound better if scored for full orchestra. Take the opening of op. 44, No. 1, for instance this is not quartet- writing at all there is a melody, a bass, and the rest is mere fiUingup in the second, we have here as thorough an orchestral theme as could be devised the ear longs for trumpets and drums in the fourth bar. The name symphony in disguise has often, and not unjustly, been applied to these works. This is curious, because' Mendelssohn has shown himself capable of expressing his ideas with small means in other departments. The four-part songs for male voices, for instance, are absolutely perfect models for what such things ought to be. Schumann (op. 41) is the only writer who can be said to have followed in the wake of Beethoven with regard to using the quartet as a species of shorthand. All his three quartets have an intensity, a depth of soul, which, as with Beethoven, shrinks from
characteristic
: ; ;

faint pencil sketch, of works for whose actual presentation the most perfect earthly orchestra would be too intolerably coarse. The posthumous quartets are hardly to be regarded as pieces written for violins, but we are rather forced to imagine that in despair of finding colours delicate and true enough the artist has preferred to leave his conceptions as charcoal This fancy is borne out when we sketches. note how large a compass the four parts are constantly made to cover, a space of nearly five octaves sometimes being dashed over, with little care for the inevitable poverty of tone

produced.

There is a wide contrast between these stupendous works of genius and the polished and thoroughly legitimate workmanshipof Schubert's Here we find everything done which quartets. ought to be done and nothing which ought not.

One are indeed in-eproachable models. point deserves notice here as illustrating the comparative strength of two great men Beethoven gives frequent rests to one or two of the players, allowing the mind to fill in the lacking harmony, and thus producing a clearness, boldness, and contrast which no other composer has attained ; Schubert, on the other hand, makes all four parts work their hardest to hide that thinness of sound which is the drawback of the quartet. Mention of Spohr's quartets might almost be omitted in spite of their large number and their Technically they are no more great beauty. advanced than those of Haydn, the interest

They

little

plainer methods of expression. Of the earnest band of followers in this school Bargiel, Kheinberger, and others aU

that can be said is that they (tre followers. [Brahms's three quartets, opp. 51, 67, are perfect examples of the art of spreading the interest over all the parts, and the way the return is made to the opening subject of op. 67 at the close of -the variations is a touch of unmistakable genius.] II. Quartets for strings and wind instruments
are

uncommon, but Mozart has one

for oboe,

QUARTET
viola, and violoncello. Next to the quartet ranks the pianoforte quartet, which, however, is built on quite a different principle here the composition becomes either equivalent to an accompanied trio, or to symphony in which the piano takes the place of the 'string quartet,' and the other instruments usually violin, viola, and violoncello the place of wind instruments. In any case Mozart the piano does quite half the work. has written two such quartets, Beethoven only one, besides three early compositions, Mendels-

QUARTET
alto,

violin,

tenor,

string

times.

and bass Some ground

be

sohn three, Schumann and Goetz one each, while Brahms (opp. 23, 26, 60) and the modem composers have favoured this form of quartet still more. III. Vocal quartets are so called whether accompanied by instruments or not. The fourpart songs of Mendelssohn have been mentioned. For many years no oratorio was considered complete without its unaccompanied quartet, Spohr having set the fashion with Blest are the departed in the ' Last Judgment.' Modem opera is learning to dispense with concerted music, Richard Wagner having set the fashion. To enumerate the fine operatic quartets from ' Don Giovanni to Faust, would be useless. [Brahms's first set of Liebeslieder ' for piano duet and four voices ad libitum, was one of the compositions which began his popularity in England ; in the second set, and in opp. 92, 103, and 112, he has left notable exa,mples. Hensohel's ' Serbisches Liederspiel,' op. 32 Stanford's quartets from Tennyson's 'Princess Walford Davies's ' Pastorals ; and Ernest Walker's songs from England's Helicon, may also be mentioned.] IV. The whole body of stringed instruments in the orchestra is often incoiTeotly spoken of as 'the Quartet,' from the fact that until the time of Beethoven the strings seldom played in It is now the other than four-part harmony. usual custom to write the parts for violoncello and double bass on separate staves ; in Germany (and in the present day in England) these instruments are grouped apart, a practice which is decidedly unwise, seeing that the double bass requii'es the support of the violoncello to give the tone firmness, more especially the German four-stringed instrument, the tone of which is so much lacking in body. V. The term is also applied to the performers of a quartet, as well as to the composition
' ' ' ' ' ' ; '
'

found in the concert of eight flutes (in four sizes) discovered on one of the tombs in the Necropolis of Gizeh, dating according to Lepsius from the fifth Dynasty (b.c. 2000) which are reproduced in Carl Engel's Catalogue of the Exhibition of Musical Instruments, South Kensington Museum, 1874. Certain Hebrew coins in the British Museum ascribed to Simon Maccabaeus (of the second century of the Christian era) depicting lyres differing in size, shape, and number of strings, and a pertinent passage, quoted from Aristides Quintilianus (about B.C. 110, in Burney's History ofMusie, vol. i. p. 513). Mention may also be made of the string trio portrayed on the splendid Greek Vase in the Munich Museum. The three figures, grouped in the manner of our modern trio performers, appear Two of the to be playing ensemble music. performers have lyres of different sizes and stringing, whilst the third, Polyhymnia, plucks a small harp. Passing hence to the 11th century, it would appear from Dr. Kuhlmann's Geschichte der Bogeninslrwmente, that a ' set of crouths is to be seen in an old MS. prayer-book of that period (vide Getetbuch des JErzh. Leopold d'Heil von Osterreich. Bibl. zu Kloster Neuburg bei Wien, Codex, No. 98, Fol. 110, XI Jahrh.). Four centuries later (April 14, 1401) Charles VI. granted 'Lettres-Patentes,' to the Society of Minstrels who styled themselves 'joueurs d'lustruments tant hant que has,' and in the following century the sets of viols began to make In Martin Agricola's Musica their appearance. InstruTmntalis deutsch (1528), woodcuts of a complete quartet of viols may be seen, as also ' Rebecs,' in four different sizes, which he designates, 'Discantus,' Altus,' 'Tenor,' 'Bassus.' [In the same year, in the Oortigiano of Bald. Castiglione, there is a reference to music played

from very early assumption may following examples: The


voices,
for this

'

'

'

'

on 'quattro

viole

da

arco.']

In 1566, Andreas

Amati (see that name) made the famous set of bow instruments for the French King Charles IX.
It consisted of twelve large and twelve small pattern violins, six tenors and eight basses, and in all probability these instruments were the On the finest examples of this maker's work. backs were painted the arms of France and other devices, and the motto 'Pietate et Justitia.' During the French revolution the mob took these instruments out of the chapel at Versailles (on Oct. 6 an^ 7, 1789), and destroyed all but two violins which were afterwards recovered by One of the small Viotti's pupil, J. B. Cartier. violins is now, or was recently, the property of Mr. George Somes. In the following century numbers o'f Chests of Viols ' (two trebles, two tenors, two basses), for the performance of the elaborate compositions in parts, called ' Fantasies,' were made, and the growing adoption
'

itself.

F. c.

VI. The word is used of a set of stringed instruments, corresponding to the old phrase a chest of vials.' Although, accurately speaking, quartets of musical instruments were not employed in chamber music, as we understand the term, until the era of Monteverde (15681643), yet the literature and art records of past centuries seem to point to the existence of 'sets' of instruments, analogous in pitch to the soprano,
'

QUARTET

QUATRE FILS AYMON, LES


the following Count Archinto of Milan, who This quartet passed into the died in 1860. hands of J. B. Vuillaume, and the violoncello (1689) was the instrument used by Mons. Jules Delsart. Nioolo Paganini also owned a quartet by this maker. The Due de Camposelice, who died in Paris in 1887, possessed about twenty of the great master's instruments, and M. Wilraotte of Antwerp, who died in 1893, left eight violins, two violas, and two violoncellos. M. de St. Senoch's quartet violin, 1737 ; second violin, 1704 ; viola, 1728 ; violoncello, 1696 was sold after his death in 1886, at the H6tel Diouot. At the present time Stradivari quartets are owned by Baron Knoop, Dr. R. E. Brandt, and the Herren Mendelssohn. The late Dr. Charles Oldham's quartet was bequeathed to the British
:

of instrumental music at the Royal Courts of Europe induced Antonio Stradivari (see that name) to turn his attention to the making of ' sets' of instruments, comprising violins, tenors,
basses. The first 'set' of instruments, recorded as by this maker, is that mentioned in the Arisi MSS., a document written by Desiderio Arisi, a Cremonese priest of the order of St. Jerome and belonging to the Church of St. Sigismondo (see Ainlonio Stradivari, his Life and Work, W. E. Hill & Sons). He states that Stradivari received an order, in 1682, from the Venetian banker Miohele Morigi, for a com-, plete ' sett of instruments, destined to be presented to James II. of England. As no trace of these instruments has as yet been found, their existence rests entirely upon the statement made in the MSS. referred to. In 1690 the same maker produced the so-called 'Tuscan Concerto,' or 'set' of instruments, for Cosmo di Medici. This probably consisted of two or three violins, a contralto (small tenor), a tenore (large tenor), and a violoncello. The tenore of this set^ has been preserved in its original state, and may be seen, together with the violoncello, in the Musical Institute at Florence. In 1696 Stradivari made the inlaid quintet which for some years was owned by Philip IV. of Spain, and at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, the 'set' (dated 1696-1709) destined to have been presented to Philip V. of Spain, but not sold until after Stradivari's death, when his son Paolo disposed of it (in 1775) to a priest named Padre Brambrilla for 148, and later it became the property of Don Carlos, afterwards Charles IV. of Spain. This 'set' consisted of two violins, two violas, one tenore, and o violoncello. The large tenore vanished at the dispersal of the royal collection, and the rest of the ' set ' were submitted to such barbarous reparations at the hands of Dom Vincenzo Acenzo and his successor Ortega, that, especially in the case of the violoncello now in the Chapel Royal, Madrid, little of their original character remains. In modem "times ' sets of instruments by one maker have been largely collected by ardent connoisseurs. We are told that the Dumas family, friends of Beethoven, assembled a quartet of Gio. Paolo Maggini's instruments, violin, viola, violoncello, and small bass, and that with the exception of the last, they are some of the The finest specimens of this master's work. Prince J. de Caraman Chimay owned a very interesting quartet of instruments by Stradivari's pupil (?) Ambrose de Comble of Tournay (about 1750) and also an ornamented quartet (copies of Stradivari) made by J. B. Vuillaume jn 1865. [These instruments were exhibited Quartets of in the Albert Hall in 1885.] Stradivari's instruments have been collected by
' '
,

and

Museum. The quartet of Stradivaris employed by Lady Halle and her collaborators at the St.
James's Hall Popular Concerts were dated as Mr. Ries' follows : Lady Hallo's violin, 1709
;

violin,

1710

Mr. Gibson's

viola,

Signer Piatti's violoncello, 1720. pear that the only present-day instrumentalists who play upon a complete set of Stradivari's Dr. instruments are the Joachim quartet. Joachim's violin is dated 1715, Prof. Hausmann's violoncello, 1724, Prof Carl Halir's violin is a long-pattern Stradivarius, and the fine viola played upon by Prof Wirth is lent to the Agricola, quartet by the Herren Mendelssohn. Miisica Instrumentalis ; Burney, History of Music; Yis.v!kma, History of Music; deLaborde, Essai swr la Musiqite ; Hart, The Violin ; Hill, Antonio Stradivari ; Engel, Catalogue, South Kensington Exhibition of Znstrwtnents, 1874 Catalogue of Inventions Exhibition, 1885; von Moser, Joseph Joachim. b. h-a.

and 1728 It would ap;

QUARTET ASSOCIATION,
Hill,

THE.

Society for the performance of chamber music, started in 1852 by Messrs. Sainton, Cooper,

and Piatti, with such eminent artists as Sterndale Bennett, Mile. Clauss, Mme. Pleyel, Arabella Goddard, Pauer, Hall^ etc., at the pianoforte. They gave six concerts each season at Willis's Rooms, but ended with the third season, the time not having yet arrived for a sufficient support of chamber music by the London public.

The programmes were

selected

with

freedom, embracing English composers Bennett, EUerton, Loder, Macfarren, Mellon, etc. ; foreign musicians then but seldom heard

much

Schumann,

Cherubini, Hummel, Beethoven's Posthumous Quartets. were analysed by G. A. Macfarren.

etc.,

and
pieces
g.

The
'

QU ASI

as if

i. e.

an approach

to.

Andante

quasi allegretto' or 'Allegretto quasi vivace' means a little quicker than the one and not so quick as the other answering to poco allegretto, or piii tosto allegro. q

QUATRE FILS AYMON,

LES.

An

op^ra-

For the history of the violin

of this set see article

MoBBL.

comique; words by MM. Leuven and Brunswick, music by Balfe. Produced at the Op&a-


QUAVEE
Comique,
Paris, July IS, 1844, and at the Princess's Theatre, London, as 'The Castle of Aymon, or The Four Brothers,' in three acts,

QUEISSER

Nov. 20, 1844.

G.

QUAVER
'

(Ger. Achtelnote,
'

whence American

eighth note ; Fr. Oroche ; Ital. Oroma). A note which is half the length of a crotchet, and therefore the eighth part of a semibreve ; hence the German and American names. It is written thus I*, its Rest being represented

The subdivision of the quaver into semiquaver and demisemiquaver followed somewhat later. Gafurius, in the work quoted above, mentions a note ^ of a minim in length, called by various
names, and written either

^ *

1 or 4, but the true

by T The idea
writers to

of expressing the values of notes by diversity of form has been ascribed by certain .(about 1340), but this undoubtedly an error, the origin of which
traced
'

De Muris

semiquaver or semichroma, the earliest form of Q which was does not appear until later, while the demisemiquaver must have been a novelty
,

is is

as

late

as

1697,

at least

in

this

country,

by both Hawkins (Hist, of Music) and Muris ') to a work entitled L'antica F4tis (art. Musica ridotta alia modema Prattica, by Vicentino (1555), in which it is explicitly stated that

De Muris invented all the notes, from the Large


to the Semiquaver. It is, however, certain that the longer notes were in use nearly 300 years earlier, in the time of Franco of Cologne [Notation, vol. iii. p. 399], and it seems equally clear that the introduction of the shorter kinds is of later date than the time of De Muris. The fact appears to be that the invention of the shorter notes followed the demand created by the general progress of music, a demand which may fairly be supposed to have reached f its limit in the quarter-demisemiquaver, ox ^'fi of a quaver, occasionally met with in modern " music. The Quaver, originally called Chroma or Fusa, sometimes Unea (a hook), was probably invented some time during the 15th century, for Morley (1597) says that 'there were within these 200 years (and therefore in 1400) 'but four ' (notes) known or used of the musicians, those were the Long, Breve, Semibreve, and Minim ' ; and Thomas de Walsingham, in a MS. treatise written somewhat later (probably about 1440), and quoted by Hawkins, gives the same notes, and adds that ' of late a New character has been introduced, called a Crotchet, which would be of no use, would musicians remember that beyond the minim no subdivision ought to be made. ' Franehinus Gafurius also, in his Practiea
'

judging from the 13th edition of Playford's Tntrodiiction to the Skill of Musick, in which, after describing it, the author goes on to say 'but the Printer having none of that character by him, I was obliged to omit it.' When two or more quavers (or shorter notes) occur consecutively, they are usually grouped together by omitting the hooks and drawing a thick stroke across their stems, thus j^jj. [This grouping, which had been in use for centuries in MS. music, was one of the great difficulties in the way of printing from musictypes it was not overcome until about 1690, when John Heptinstall brought it into use. See Heptinstall, and Music-Pkinting.] In vocal music, quavers which have to be sung to separate syllables are written detached, while those which are sung to a single syllable are grouped ; for example
; :

"The peo-ple that walk-ed in

dark

ncas,

that

F. T.

One quaver of historical importance deserves mention, that which Handel added in pencil to the quintet in 'Jephtha' in 1758, six years after he is supposed to have lost his sight, and which in Schoelcher's words shows that by looking very closely at a thing he was still able to see it a little.' G.
'

QUEEN OF SHEBA.
;

(i.)

La Rbine de

words by Barbier and Saba, in four acts Carre, music by GounojJ. Produced at the

Musicae (1496), quoting from Prosdocimus de Beldemandia, who flourished in the early part of the 15th century, describes the division of
the minim into halves and quarters, called respectively the greater and lesser semirainim,

and written
(Ex.
fell

in

two ways, white and black


of these notes soon

1).

The white forms

and the black ones have become the crotchet and quaver of modern music. ^
into disuse,
1 There were really the Double Long.

five, iacludinff

the Large, which Morley calls

worthy of notice that in the ancient manUHCrlpt hy Engauthors known as the Waltham Holy Cross MS., a note is mentioned, called a 'simple,' which has the yalue of a crotchet, but is written with a hooked item like a modern quaver. That a note half the value of a minim should at any period have been written with a hook may help to account for the modern name crotcha, which, being clearly derived from the French croc, or
^ It ia

lish

Adapted as 'Irene' by Op^ra, Feb. 28, 1862. H. B. Famie, and produced as a concert at the Crystal Palace, August 12, 1865. The beautiful Airs de ballet contain some of Gounod's best music. G. (ii.) See KoNiGiN von Saba. QUEISSER, Carl Tbaugott, a. great trombone player, was born of poor parents at Dtiben, His turn for near Leipzig, Jan. 11, 1800. music showed itself early, and he soon mastered He all the ordinary orchastral instruments. ultimately confined himself to the viola, and to the trombone, which he may really be said
a hook, is somewhat inappropriate to the note in form, which has no hook.
crochet,
its

present

'

QUINTE

'

QUICK-STEP

to have created, since, for instance, the solo in the TuTm rrdrv/m of Mozart's Requiem was before his time usually played on a bassoon. In 1817 he was appointed to play the violin and trombone in the town orchestra, and by 1830 had worked his way into the other orchestras of Leipzig, including that of the Gewandhaus. He played the viola in Matthai's well-known quartet for many years ; was one of the founders of the Leipzig 'Euterpe,' and led its orchestra for a long time ; and in short was one of the most prominent musical figures in Leipzig during its very best period. As a solo trombone-player he appeared frequently in the Gewandhaus Concerts, with concertos,

[See the Diminished Fifth of modem music. w. s. r. Mi contra Fa.] QUINTE. The name given in France, during the latter half of the 17th and part of the

18th centuries, to the now obsolete five-stringed Five-stringed viols were amongst tenor viol. Praetorius (Organographia, the earliest in use. 1619) says they were employed in ancient times, and Agricola {Mvska Instrumentalis, 1632)
gives the tuning of the five-stringed viols then Although composers of vocal music in vogue. during the 16th century not infrequently called their tenor part 'Quinte' or 'Quintus,' viols of

concertinos,

fantasias,

and

variations,

many

of

them composed

expressly for

him by

0. G. Miiller, F. David, Meyer, Kummer, and others ; and the reports of these appearances

rarely mention

him without some term

of pride

' or endearment. For fulness, purity and power of tone, lightness of lip, and extraordinary facility in passages,' says his biographer, 'he

surpassed all thetrombone-players of Germany.' There was a Leipzig story to the effect that at the first rehearsal of the Lobgesang, Queisser
led off the Introduction as follows
:

that denomination remained under the title of tenor until a later period ; and probably the first instance where ' Quintus ' designates a musical instrument occurs in the overture to Olaudio Monteverde's opera, 'Orfeo' (Venice, 1609L'^tai de France, in 1683, gives the 1613). name of 'Fossart,' who played the 'Quinte de Violon' in the Queen's band, and in 1712-13 the Paris opera orchestra included two ' Quintes amongst the instruments. In 1773 there were four ' Quintes amongst the musicians of the
'

Grande Chapelle, and Quintes were employed Jean Jacques Rousseau in aU the orchestras. (Bictionnaire de Musique, Paris, 1708) gives a good deal of information concerning the Quinte. Under 'Viole' he says that in France the Quinte and the Taille (a large six-stringed
'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

to Mendelssohn's infinite amusement.


iiero, .B

8e non

Jem trovaio. Queisserwaa well known throughoutGermany, but appears never to have left his native country. G. He died at Leipzig, June 12, 1846. QUICK -STEP (Fr. Pas redaubU; Ger. Gesehwind Marsch) is the English name for the music of the Quick march in the army, a march in which 116 steps of 30 inches go to the (See Boost's Jov/rnal of Marches, minute. It may be well to Quicksteps, Dances, etc.) mention that in the Slow march there are 75 steps of 30 inches, and in the 'Double' 165 of
G. vol. iii. p. 50.] ancient form of Neuma, [See Notation, representing a kind of shake. w. s. R. vol. iii. p. 396.] QUINIBLE. See Quintoybr. QUINT. An organ stop which causes the fifth above a given note to sound as well as the note belonging to the key which is pressed down. From the note and its fifth there arises a differential tone an octave below the note. ^y this mixture an organ with 16 -ft. pipes can be made to sound as if with 32-ft. pipes ; that is the pitch of the lowest note, but of

tenor viol), contrary to the Italian custom, played the same part, and under ' Partie mentions that the ' Quinte and ' Taille ' were united under the name ' Viole.' The highest and lowest notes of these instruments, according to the same writer, were
'

Quinte or Viola.

from which it is to be inferred that the tuning was the same as that given by Agricola in
1532,
i.e.

33 inches.

[See

March,

QUILISMA.

An

Alto and Tenor.

course it sounds with far less

energy than
T. E.

if

In England the two tenor viols which formed a part of the Chests of six Viols, so much in vogue during the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were probably identical with the Quinte and 'Taille' but the French title was never adopted in this country. The bulky size of the Quinte rendered it such an awkward instrument to play upon that its dimensions gradually diminished from century to century,
'
'

'

'

'

'

properly produced with a 32-ft. pipe.

and when the


it

violin

came into more general


' '

use,

The for(False Fifth). bidden interval between Mi in the Hexachordon durum, and Fa in the Hexachordon naturale

QUINTA FALSA

JUff,

masikaUache Zeitung, July

8, 1846.

melted into the Haute Centre (alto viol). In the second half of the 18th century it developed into a tenor violin with four strings, clef on the third line which and adopted the

'

QUINTUPLE TIME

'

QUINTET
was formerly the
clef of the ' Haute Contre or alto viol. (See Tenor Viol.) Agricola (Martinus), Musica Instrumentalis ; Praetorius,

It is, however, oratorio chorus. easy to write naturally.

by no means
r. c.

Orgcmographia ; Rousseau (J. J.), Dictiormaire de Musigue ; La Borde, Ussai sur la Musiqiie Grillet (Laurent), AncUres du Violon ; Hart,
;

QUINTON [See Viol, treble]. QUINTOYEE (Old Eng. Quinible). To sing


a French verb, in frequent use among extempore Organisers during the Middle Ages. [See Organum, Part-Weiting.] w. s. e,
in Fifths

E. h-a. Quintuor; Ital. Quintetto). A composition for five instruments or voices with or without accompaniment. I. Quintets for strings have been far less often written than quartets, owing to the greater complexity demanded in the polyphony. Boccherini, however, published 125, of which twelve only were written for two violins, two violas, and one violoncello, the others having two violoncellos and one viola. The former is the more usual choice of instruments, probably because the lower parts are apt to be too heavy sounding with two violoncellos, owing to the greater body of tone in this instrument. Schubert's noble Quintet in C (op. 163) is for two violoncellos, but the first is used constantly in its upper octave, soaring above the viola. Onslow's thirty-four in number are for a double bass and violoncello. Beethoven's two Quintets, in El> and C, belong to his earlier periods, and have therefore none of the extraordinary features of the later quartets. Mendelssohn's Quintet in B|> (op. 87) is so orchestral as to seem almost a symphony in disguise, but that in A (op. 18) is an exquisite specimen of what a string quintet should be. Many other combinations' of five instruments have found favour with musicians, mostly including a pianoforte. Thus there is Mozart's Quintet in El> for oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, and piano which the composer esteemed the the beautiful one for best thing he ever wrote, clarinet and strings, and another for the piquant combination of flute, oboe, viola, violoncello, and harmonica. Perhaps the most effective association is that of piano, violin, viola, violoncello, and double bass, as in Schubert's wellknown 'Trout' Quintet (op. 114). [The splendid quintets of Schumann and Brahms for piano and strings are for the ordinary combination above referred to, as are also those of Dvoijdk, DohnAnyi, and others. The quintet by Brahms for clarinet and strings is one of his most beautiful works.] Beethoven's quintet for piano and wind instruments (op. 16), in Eb is a noble representative of a very small class. Hummel has also written a well-known one. II. In vocal music none who have ever heard it can forget the admirable quintet (for two soprani, contralto, tenor, and bass) which forms the finale to Act 1 of Spohr's ' Azor and Zemira.' In modem opera the most striking specimen Five-part occurs in Wagner's ' Meistersinger.' harmony has a peculiarlyrich effect, and deserves to be more practised than it is, especially in

The

Violin.

QUINTET (Fr.

QUINTUPLE TIME.
beats in a bar.

The rhythm of

five

As a

rule quintuple time has

accents, one on the first beat of the bar, and the other on either the third or fourth, the bar being thus divided into two unequal parts. On this account it can scarcely be considered a distinct species of rhythm, but rather a compound of two ordinary kinds, duple and triple, employed

two

alternately.

Although of

little practical value,

quintuple time produces an efiect sufficiently characteristic and interesting to have induced various composers to make experiments therein, the earliest attempt of any importance being a symphony in the second act of Handel's 'Orlando' (1732), in which the hero's perturbation is represented by this peculiar time (see Bumey,

The same rhythm occurs in words Se la sorte mi condanna in the opera of Ariadne by Adolfati, written in 1750, and it is also met in some of the national airs of Spain, Greece, Germany, etc. Thus Eeioha, in a note to No. 20 of his set of 36 fugues (each of which embodies some curious experiment in either tonality or rhythm), states that in a certain district of the Lower Rhine, named Eochersberg, the airs of most of the dances have a, well-marked rhythm of five beats, and he gives as an example the following waltz
ffistory, iv. 364).

an

air to the

'

'

'

In the above example the second accent falls on the third beat, the rhythm being that of 2-8 followed by 3-8, and the same order is observed in a charming movement by HiUer, from the Trio, op. 64.
In Reicha's fugue above referred to, the reverse is the case, the fourth beat receiving the accent, as is shown by the composer's own time - signature, as well as by his explicit The following is directions as to performance.
,

the subject

AUegretto.

Other instances of quintuple rhythm are to be found in a Trio for strings by K. J. Bischoff, for which a prize was awarded by the Deutsche Tonhalle in 1 8 5 3 in Chopin's Sonata in C minor,
;

op. 4

in Hiller's 'Rhythmische Studien,' op.


'

52
'

in

Viens, gentille
'

Dame

'

in Boieldieu's
' '

Prinz La Dame blanche Lowe's Ballad Eugen a number in Rubinstein's Tower of


; ' ;

Babel,' etc.

Another characteristic example

'

QUODLIBET
-one

10

QUINT^US

occurs in the ' Gypaies' Glee, ' by W. Reeve (1 796). This may fairly be considered an example of genuine quintuple rhythm, for instead of the usual division of the bar into two parts, such as might be expressed by alternate bars of 3-4 and 2-4, or 2-4 and 3-4, there are five distinct beats in every bar, each consisting of an accent

with the Bachs, at whose annual family gatherings the singing of quodlibets was a great feature (see Spitta, J. S. Sack (Engl, transl.) Sebastian Bach himself has i. 154, iii. 172-6).
us one delightful example of a written-down quodlibet, at the end of the ' 30 variations in major, for a detailed analysis of which see Spitta. The two tunes used in it are ' Ich bin
left
'

and a non- accent.

This freedom from the ordinary alternation of two and three is well expressed by the grouping of the accompaniment. [The same true quintuple time, as distinguished from a combination of triple and duple time, distinguishes the best-known example of all, the second movement of Tchaikovsky's Pathetic symphony. The passage in the third act of ' Tristan und Isolde,' occurring at a most exciting moment in the drama, is apt to escape the attention of many hearers who are only conscious of the impatient effect it produces.' See Rhythm.] s. t. QUINTUS (the Fifth). The Fifth Part in a composition for five voices ; called also Pars quinta and Quincuplum. In music of the 15th and 16th centuries, the Fifth Part always corresponded exactly in compass with one of the other four it would, therefore, have been impossible to describe it as First or Second Cantus, Altus, Tenor, or Bassus. w. s. R. QUIRE. Another way of spelling Choik.
' ;

so lang bei dir nicht gewest,' and 'Kraut und One of the Riiben, Haben mich vertrieben.' best modern examples, although only two themes are used, is in Reinecke's variations for two pianos on a gavotte of Gluck's, where, in the last variation, he brings in simultaneously with the gavotte the well-known musette of Bach which occurs in the third English suite. A good instance, and one in which the extempore
'
'

character is retained, is the singing of the three tunes 'Polly Hopkins,' 'Buy a Broom,' and 'The Merry Swiss Boy' together, which was formerly sometimes done for a joke.

6.

QUODLIBET (Lat. What you please


'

'),

also

very interesting specimen of a 16th-century quodlibet by Johann Gbldel, consisting of five chorale-tunes viz. (1) 'Erhalt uns, Herr bei deinem Wort,' (2) 'Ach Gott, von Himmel,' (4) 'Wir (3) 'Vater unser im Himmelreich, is given glauben all,' (5) Durch Adam's Fall as an appendix to Hilgenfeldt's Life of Bach. We quote a few bars as an example of the ingenuity with which the five melodies are brought together

'

'

'

called

QuoTLiBET
Italian
.

and
(
'

in

As many as you please '), Messanza or Mistichanza


(
'

mixture '). This was a kind of musical joke in the 16th and early part of the 17th centuries, the fun of which consisted in the extempore juxtaposition of different melodies, whether sacred or secular, which were incongruous either in their musical character, or in the words with which they were associated sometimes, however, the words were the same in all parts, but were sung in snatches and scraps, as in the quodlibets of Melchior Franck. (See Praetorius, Syntagma Musicwm, tom. iii. There were two ways of performing cap. V.) one was to string the melodies together this simply and without any attempt at connecting them by passages such as those found in modern fantasias the other, the more elaborate method, consisted in singing or playing the melodies simultaneously, the only modifications The effect of this, allowed being those of time. unless only very skilful musicians engaged in it, must have been very like what we now call This pastime was a favourite a Dutch chorus.
;
:

iipi^=^^^i^=p
A^^r
[ST

'

'

'

'

'

R
one of the most distinguished tenors of his day ; born 1714 in the village of Holzem, near Bonn, and educated for the priesthood at the Jesuit College at Cologne. His fine voice so struck the Elector,

AAFF, Anton, "P

history of Scottish music -printing. Eabau gave up business in 1649, dying in 1658. F. K.

Clement Augustus, that he took him to Munich, where Ferrandini brought him forward in an After studying for a short time with opera. -Bernacchi at Bologna, Eaaff became one of the first tenors of his time. In 1738 he sang at Florence on the betrothal of Maria Theresa, and followed up this successful debut at many of the Italian theatres. In 1742 he returned to Bonn, and sang at Vienna in Jommelli's 'Didone' (1749), to Metastasio's great satisIn 1752 he passed through Italy to faction. Lisbon; in 1755 he accepted a summons to Madi-id, where he remained under Farinelli's direction, enjoying every favour from the court and public. In 1759 he accompanied Farinelli to Naples. In 1770 he entered the service of the Elector, Karl Theodor, at Mannheim. In 1778 he was in Paris with Mozart, and in 1779 he followed the com-t to Munich, where Mozart composed the part of Idomeneo for him. He died in Munich, May 27, 1797. Mozart in his letters speaks of him as his best and dearest friend,' especially in one from Paris, dated June -12, 1778. He composed for him in Mannheim the au-, Se al labbro mio non credi (Koohel,
'

CLA.ssiCHE MUsiCALi. Collection of pieces of which the full title is as follows ' Collection generate des ouvrages classiques de musique, on Choix de chefs d'oeuvres, en tout genre, des plus grands compositeurs de toutes les Eeoles, reoueillis, mis en ordre et enrichis de Notices historiques, par Alex. E. Choron, pour servir de suite aux Principes de Composition des eeoles d'ltalie.' A notice on the wrapper further says that the price of the work to subscribers is calculated at the rate of 5 sous per page, The numbers were not to be issued periodically, but the annual cost to subscribers was fixed at
:

RACCOLTA GENERALE A

delle

opeke

from 36 to 40 francs. engraved by Gill6

The work was


fils,

in folio,

and

published

by

Leduc&

Richelieu, 78, with agents at Bordeaux, Marseilles, Leipzig, Munich,


Co., Paris,

Rue de

Vienna, Lyon, Turin, Milan, Rome, and Naples. It was got up with great care and taste, but seems to have ceased after about six numbers. For Alfieei's Raccolta di musica sacra
'

see vol.

i.

p. 66.

G.

'

'

295).

c. F. p.

was an Englishman, and having fought in the wars of the Netherlands, from the year 1600, settled at Edinburgh, at the Cowgate Port, as a printer, in 1620. One work with the Edinburgh imprint alone remains, and in the same year he removed to St. Andrews, and finally to Aberdeen in 1622. In this place he was under the patronage of the town dignitaries, and had the friendship of Bishop Forbes. It was, no doubt, these cii-cumstances that enabled him to carry on his craft unmolested, unlike John Forbes of the same city who, at a later date, suffered fine and imprisonment for infringing the monopoly held
after

EABAN, Edward,

Seegei Vassilievich, a pianist of repute, and one of the most talented of the younger Moscow school of composers born in the Government of Novgorod, April 1 (March 20, O.S.), 1873. At nine years of age he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatoire, where he remained three years, making the pianoforte his chief study. Three years later, in 1885, he was transferred to the Conservatou'e at Moscow. Here he studied the pianoforte, first with Tchaikovsky's friend, Zvierev, and
;

RACHMANINOV,

Baban by the King's printer in Scotland. at once commenced the printing of liturgical
works, including a prayer-book, dated 1625, which is stated to have the music to the Psalms. In 1629 he printed two editions ofCL. Psalmes of the princelie prophet David, a quarto for binding with Bibles and a 16mo edition. Also, in 1633, two editions of The Psames of David in prose and metre according to the Church 2n Aberdene, imprinted by of Scotland. ... Edward Rohan for David Mdvill, 1633, 8o. These have the music to the Psalms printed from movable type. Though probably not so well executed as the music of Andro Hart of Edinburgh, these are of great interest in the
11

afterwards with Siloti. His masters for theory and composition were Taneiev and Arensky. The musical influences of Moscow are clearly evident in the works of Rachmaninov. In 1892 he won the gold medal for composition, and on quitting the Conservatoire, in the same year, he started on a long concert-tour through In 1899 Rachthe chief towns of Russia. maninov appeared in London at one of the concerts of the Philharmonic Society, and made a good impression in the threefold capacity of In 1893 composer, conductor, and pianist. he was appointed professor of pianoforte to the Maryinsky Institute for girls, in Moscow, a post which he still holds. Several of Rachmaninov's songs and pianoforte pieces, especially the famous prelude in CJt minor, have attained immense popularity. His compositions are as
follows
:

A, Obcbbstbal 'The Rock,' fontaala, op. 7; Gipsy Capriccio,


op. 13 (1895).

op. 12;

SymphoDy,

B. PlAWOFORTE

Two

Concertoa, opp. 1 and 18 ; pieces for four hands, op. 11

two
;

Suitea. opp. 5

five pieces for

and 17 ; six two hands, op. 3

EADZIWILL
Panoaldi a Bolognese lawyer wrote an eulogy in his memory, but unfortunately mentions but one date, that of his election at Padua on

12
(Including the

KACKET
C$ minor
op. 16

Moments Muaicaux,
Prelude In

prelude) ; levea plecea, op. 10 ; six TaTiations on the theme of Chopln'B

minor, op.
C.

22.

Chamber Mubio

Elegiac trio (In

and

memory of Tchaikovsky) for pianofoirte, violin, violoncello, op. 9 (1893) ; Bonata for violoncello and pianoforte, op. 19; two pieces tor violin and pianoforte, op. 6; two pieces for violoncello and pianoforte, op. 2.
*

D. Vocal Six choruses tor female voices, op. Ifi; humorous chorus for mixed voices ; Cantata, Spring,' for chorus, baritone solo, and orchestra, op. 20 six songs, op. 4: six ditto, op. 8; 12 ditto, op. 14 ; Fate (to Beethoven's Fifth Symphony), op. 17. ' Aleko,' opera in one act, first performed at the Imperial Opera-n House, Moscow, 1892.
' ; '
'

As a violinist his qualities 31, 1815. appear to have been those of a musician rather Pancaldi tells us than those of a virtuoso. that his style was dignified and his tone sonorous, that he counted Haydn, Beethoven, and Romberg among his friends, and that he was well educated in other respects than music.

March

As a composer he devoted himself

especially

BACKET, EACKETT, or RANKETT (also known as Cervelat). An obsolete instrument


of small cylindrical bore, played with a double

to perfecting the Quartet, which at that time was less in spite of Boccherini's influence thought of in Italy than in other countries.

reed of the bassoon type. It is described both by Praetorius and by Mersenne, and was made both of wood and ivory. The apparent length of the instrument was very small, as the bore doubled many times upon itself, the true length being thus disguised. In addition to the holes or ventages closed by the tips of the fingers in the usual way, the doubling of the tube allowed of the piercing of several holes which were closed by other joints of the fingers, or soft According to Praetorius parts of the hand. the rackets were made in families, the compass of a set of four extending from C to d'. D. j. B.

It would seem that his interest in the cause of chamber music was aroused by a German critic, who, reviewing some of Eadicati's quartets performed in Vienna, remarked that 'The Italian mind is not apt to compose works of

the highest

Germans seem

character ; in this matter the Eadicati's to take precedence.

EADIOATI, FelicbdaMaurizio di, violinist


and composer, bom at Turin in 1778 ; died, according to the Quellen-LexiJcon, at Vienna, April 14, 1823. His parents belonging to the poor nobility of Italy, the child's singular
music was encouraged the more, and he began his studies at a very early age. Profiting Pugnani taught him the violin. by the precepts of this great master, Eadicati
interest in

acquired many of Pugnani's finer qualities, and, on reaching manhood, toured with unqualified success in Italy, France, and England. The love of his native land, however, and the additional inducement of a post at the Court
of King Victor Emanuel V., drew him back to Italy, whither he returned, accompanied by his accomplished wife Teresa Bertinotti. In the year 1815 the town of Bologna announced a competition for the post of leader of the town orchestra at that time celebrated ; but when it came to be known that Eadicati had entered the lists, no one would contend against him with the result that he was elected to the post on March 31, 1815, without contest. After this his talents obtained for him the appointments of director of the great orchestra of the Basilica di S. Pietro, and professor of the violin at the famous Liceo Filarraonico of Bologna. His career was calamitously cut

short, in the

prime of

life,

by a

fatal carriage

accident.

The authorities on the subject of Eadicati's According to the career give but few dates. Quellen- Lexikon he was in London 1806-7,
and toured in Lombardy (Fitis, Biog. desMus.)
in

more than melodies accompanied by harmonies in secondary parts.' This so incensed Eadicati that he gave a number of concerts of Italian music in Vienna, in order that the German critic might be convinced of his error and, on his return to Italy, not only devoted himself to the writing of many quartets and quintets, but also endeavoured to induce other Italian composers to do likewise, and thus efface the stigma cast upon Italian music by the Germans. Besides his numerous contributions to chamber music, Eadicati wrote six or seven operas, among which are included his 'Ricardo Cuor di Leone," produced at Bologna a couple of farces, I due Prigionieri,' II Medico per forza ; a concerto for violin, and a number of small Arias,' Cavatinas,' etc. All these were in the possession of his son in 1828. The most complete list of his compositions published and MS. is probably that given in the Qiiellen- Lexikon. Radicati's wife and his son Karolus, who became a lawyer, erected a monument to his memory in the Campo Santo at Bologna. Pancaldi (Carlo), Cenni intomo Felice Sadicali, Bologna, 1828 ; Eitner, Quellen-Lexikon ; Fttis, iog. des Mus. ; Baker, Biog. Diet. Mus. e. h-a. RADZIWILL, Anton Heinrich, Prince of, Royal Prussian Statthalter of the Grand Duchy of Posen, bom at Wilna, June 13, 1775, married in 1796 the Princess Luisfe, sister of that distinguished amateur Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. [See vol. ii. p. 772.] Eadziwill was known in Berlin not only as an ardent admirer of good music, but as a fine violoncello player, and 'a singer of such taste and ability as ia very rarely met with amongst amateurs. 'i Beethoven was the great object of his admiraHe played his quartets with devotion, tion. made a long journey to Prince Galitzin's on purpose to hear the Mass in D, was invited by
quartets are nothing
;

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

1816.

His

principal

biographer.

Carlo

A.M.Z. 1831, July W.

See also 1809, June 28

1814, Sept. 28.

JOSEPH JOACHIM KAFF

BAFF
Beethoven to subscribe to the publication of that work, and indeed was one of the seven who sent in their names in answer to that appeal. To him Beethoven dedicated the Overture in C, op. 115 (known as 'Namenafeier '), which was published &a Grosses Ouverture in dur gedicAtet,' etc., by Steiner of Vienna in 1825, Eadziwill was not only a player, a singer, and a passionate lover of music, he was also a composer of no mean order. Whistling's Handhuch (1828) names three Romances for voice and PF. (Peters), and songs with guitar and
'

EAFP

13

violoncello (B.

&

H.), and

Mendel mentions

duets with PF. accompaniment, a Complaint of


violoncello, and MS.) composed for Zelter's Liedertafel, of which he was an enthusiastic supporter.' But these were only preparations for his great work, entitled Com-

Maria Stuart, with PP. and

many

part-songs

(still

in

'

positions to Goethe's dratoatic poem of Faust.' This, which was published in score and arrange-

in Nov. 1835, contains twenty -five numbers, occupying 589 pages. A portion was sung by the Singakademie as early as May 1, 1810 ; the choruses were performed in May 1816, three new scenes as late as Nov. 21, 1830, and the whole work was brought out by that institution after the death of the composer, which took place April 8, 1833. The work was repeatedly performed during several years in Berlin, Danzig, Hanover, Leipzig, Prague, and many other places, as may be seen from the index to the A, M, Zeiiung. It made its appearance in a performance at Hyde Park College, London, on May 21, 1880, under the direction of L. Martin-Eiffe. full analysis of it will be found in the A. M. Zeitung for 1836, pp. 601, 617 ; and there is a copy in the British Museum. 6,

ment by Trautwein of Berlin

reviewer finding in it ' something which points to a future for the composer.' Encouraging notices of opp. 2 to 6 inclusive are also given in the A. M. Zeitvmg for the 21st of the same month. Amidst privations which would have daunted any one of less determination he worked steadily on, and at length having fallen in with Liszt, waa treated by him with the kindness which always marked his intercourse with rising or struggling talent, and waa taken by him on a concert-tour. Meeting Mendelasohn for the first time at Cologne in 1846, and being afterwards invited by him to become his pupil at Leipzig, he left Liazt for that purpoae. Before he could carry this project into effect, however, Mendelasohn died, and Ralf remained atCologne, occupying himself inter alia in writing critiques for Dehn's Caeilia. Later, in 1854, he published Die Wagnerfrage, a pamphlet which excited considerable attention. Liszt's endeavours to secure him a patron in Vienna in the person of Mecohetti the publisher, were frustrated by Mecchetti's death while Raff was actually on the way to see him. Undismayed by these repeated obstacles he devoted himself to a severe course of study, partly at home and partly at Stuttgart, with the view to remedy the deficiencies of his early training. At Stuttgart he made the acquaintance of Billow, who became deeply interested in him, and did him a great service by taking up his new Concertstuck, for PF. and orchestra, and playing
it (Jan. 1, 1848).

RAFF, Joseph Joachim, born May 27, 1822, at Lacheu on the Lake of Zurich. He received his early education at Wiesenstetten in Wurtemberg, in the home of his parents, and then at the Jesuit Lyceum of Schwyz, where he carried off the iirst prizes in German, Latin, and mathematics. Want of means compelled him to give up his classical studies, and become a schoolmaster, but he stuck to music, and though unable to afford a teacher, made such progress not only with the piano and the violin, but also in composition, that Mendelssohn, to whom he sent some MSS., gave him in 1843 a recommendation to Breitkopf & Hartel. This introduction seems to have led to his appearing before the public, and to the ibat drops of that flood of compositions of all sorts and dimensions which
from 1844 he poured forth in an almost unceasing stream. Of op. 1 we have found no critical record ; but op. 2 is kindly noticed by the N. Zeitsclwift for August 5, 1844, the
1

By degrees Raff attached himself more and more closely to the new German school, and in 1850 went to Weimar to be near Liszt, who had at that time abandoned his career as a virtuoso and waa settled there. Here he remodelled an opera, Kbnig Alfred,' which he had composed in Stuttgart three years before, and it was produced at the Court Theatre, where it was
'

Zelter's Correspondence with Ooethe

teems with notices of the

Prince.

often performed. It has also been given elsewhere. Other works followed a collection "of ' PF. pieces called Friihlingsboten in 1852, the first string quartet in 1855, and the first grand sonata for PF. and violin (E minor) in 1857. In the meantime he had engaged himself to Doris Genast, daughter of the well-known actor and manager, and herself on the stage ; and in 1856 he followed her to Wiesbaden, where he was soon in great request as a pianoforte teacher. In 1858 he composed his second violin sonata, and the incidental music for Bernhard von Weimar,' a drama by Wilhelm Genast, the overture to which speedUy became a favourite, and was much played throughout Germany. In 1859 he married. In 1863 his first symphony, 'An das Vaterland, obtained the prize offered by the Gesellsohaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (out of thirty-two competitors), and was followed by the 2nd (in C) and the 3rd (in F, ' Im Walde') in 1869, the 4th (in G minor) in 1871, the 5th ('Lenore') in 1872, the 6th ('Gelebt, gestrebt,

'

'

'


14

RAFF
umworben
')

EAFF
in
are

gelitten, gestritten, gestorben,

made

to appear spontaneous is remarkable.

1876, and the 7th (' Alpensinfonie ') in 1877, the 8th (' Friihlingsklange ') in 1878, and the 9th (' Im Sommerzeit ') in 1880. A 10th (' Zur Herbstzeit ') was played at Wiesbaden and the
;

11th, left unfinished at his death, was revised by Erdmannsdbrfer. In 1870 his comic opera ' Dame Kobold was produced at Weimar. Other operas for which he himself wrote the libretti
'

minor (op. 185), In the Pianoforte Concerto in in each movement all the subjects are in double counterpoint with one another, yet this is one of Eafl"s freshest and most melodious works; To return to the Symphonies: the Scherzos are, as a rule, weak, and the Finales without excepWriting vulgar. an uneducated public. Raff has forgotten that for a symphony to descend from a high tone is for it to be unworthy of the
tion boisterous

and indeed

here, as ever, for

have not been performed in public.


tatas,

Two

can-

and another written for the Festival in commemoration of the battle of Leipzig, were his first works for men's voices, and are popular with, choral societies. His arrangement of Bach's six violin sonatas for PF. is a work of great merit.
auf,'

'Wachet

name. A remarkable set of thirty Songs (SangesFriihling, op. 98) deserves notice for its wealth of fine melodies, some of which have become national property (' Kein Sorg um den Weg'
Sohon' Else,' etc.) ; and among his pianoforte is a set of twenty Variations on an original theme (op. 179) which displays an astonishing of five and fertility of resource, the theme seven quavers in the bar being built up into canons and scherzos of great variety and elegance. Raff's Pianoforte Concerto was very popular, and his Suite for Violin and Orchestra (op. 180) His versatility need not be only little less so. enlarged upon. In all the forms of musical composition he showed the same brilliant qualities and the same regrettable shortcomings. His gift of melody, his technical skill, his inexhaustible fertility, and above all his power of never repeating himself all these are beyond praise. But his very fertility was a misfortune, since it rendered him careless in the choice of his subjects ; writing ' pot-boilers injured the
'

Detailed analyses of the

first

six of these

Symphonies will be found in the Monthly Musical Secord for 1875, and from these a very good
idea of the composer's style may be gathered. Remembering his struggles and hard life it is only a matter for wonder that he should have striven so earnestly and so long in a path that was not his natural walk. glancei at the nearly complete list of his works at the foot of this notice will explain our meaning. The enormous mass of ' drawing-room music tells its own tale. Eaff had to live, and having by nature a remarkable gift of melody and perhaps not much artistic refinement, he wrote what would pay. But on looking at his works in the higher branch of music his symphonies,

music

'

and chamber music one cannot but be struck by the conscientious striving towards a high ideal. In the whole of his published Symphonies the slow movements, without a single exception, are of extreme melodic beauty, although weak from a symphonic point of view the first movements are invariably worked out with surprising technical skill, the subjects appearing frequently in double counterpoint And however and in every kind of canon. modern and common his themes may appear, they have often been built up with the greatest showing that care, note by note, to this end he does not, as is often said, put down the first Observe the thing that comes into his mind. following treatment of the first subject in his 1st Symphony 'An das Vaterland'
concertos,
;
:

'

development of a delicate feeling for what is lofty and refined in short, the conscientious
;

allow him a place in the front rank of composers. Even those who have least sympathy with Raff"s views on art- must admire the energy and
critic hesitates to

5=^^g
Viola

pp

S ^^ ^^^^m
Violoncello

a canon in augmentation and double augmentaSuch instances as this are numerous, and tion. the art with which these contrapuntal devices

with which he worked his way upwards throw in his way. He was a member of several societies, and received various orders. In 1877 he was appointed with much &lat director of the Hooh oonservatorinm at Frankfort, a post he held until his death, in the night of Jiine 24-25, 1882. [Since his death liis music has passed, alike in Germany and England, into an oblivion which cannot excite surprise in those who realise the inherent weaknesses of the composer and the sudden change on the part of the public, from a widespread admiration to almost complete neglect, is of itself a severe criticism on his work.] The first of his large works performed in this country was probably the Lenore Symphony at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 14, 1874. [The Musical World oi kagast 1890, p. 629, contains translation of a Raffs letters explaining the meaning of the work.] This was followed by the 'Im Walde,' and the PF. Concerto in C minor (Jaell), at the Philharmonic ; the Symspirit

in spite of every obstacle poverty could

'

RAFF
phonies in G minor, Im Walde,' Friihlingsklange' and 'Im Sommerzeit,'witli the Concertos
'
'

RAFF
Op.
71. 72.

15
Valse favorite.

Suite in 0. PF. solo. KUhn. Suite in E minor, PF. solo,

PF.

solo.

for violoncello

and

violin,

and the Suite

for

73. lat

KUhn. Grand Sonata.

Kistner. Fantasie. PF.solo. Kistner.

PF. and

Spanish Rhapsody, for PF,


Kistner, 1855. Illustrations de ' L'Af ricaine' (4 Nos.). PF. solo.

PF. and orchestra, at the Crystal Palace. His Quintet (op. 107), two Trios (opp. 102, 112), Sonata (op. 128), and other pieces, were played at the Monday Popular Concerts. f. g.
Catalogue of Maff's Works.^
Op.
1.

74.

V. (E minor). Schuberth. S FF, solos (Ballade, Scherzo, Metamorphosen). Schuberth. Suite de


(12)

B.B.4 mains.

75.

les petltes

Morceaux pour PF, solo.


Morceau
PF. and Orcb.
1)

10 SungB for Men's Voices.

Kahnt.
Concert - Overture
Siegel.
(in

Kistner.
76.

F).

Ode au Frintemps.
de Concert.
Schott.

Op.
Serenade. PF. solo. Andre. Trois pieces caracbfristiques. PF. solo. B. & H.2 Scherzo (O minor). PF. solo. B. AH. Horceau de Salon . . Bur 'Maria de Kudenz,' PF. solo. B. St H. 4 Galopn. PF. solo. B. & H. Jtlorceau Inst. Fantaisie et Varns. PF. solo. B. & H. Rondeau sur 'lo titn ricco.' PF. solo. B. & H. 12 Komances en form d'Etudea en 2 Cahiers. PF. solo. B. & H. Iiuproinptu brillant. PF. sulo. B. & H.
. ;

77.
. .

Quatuor (No.
for Strings.

42.

'Le Pritendant'

de
'

in D minor, Schuberth,

2. a.
4.

KUcken
Kistner.
43. 44.

(3 Nos.).

PF.

solo.

78. 79.

2nd Grand Sonata for PF.

Festival-Overture on 4 favourite Student-songs, for the 50th anniversary of the ' Deutschen-Burschenschaft.' FF. 4 hands. Praeger.

!>.

45.
46.

6. 7.
8.

47.

Divertissement sur La Juive.' PF. solo. Schuberth. Fantasina sur *Le Barbier de Seville.' PF. solo. Schuberth. Souvenir de 'Don Giovanni.' PF. solo. Schuberth. ' La dernldre Rose (The last rose of summer). Impromptu. PF. solo. Cranz. 3 Lieder (by J. G. Fischer) for Bar. or Alto and PF.
'

and V. (in A). Schuberth. Cachoucha, Caprice. FF.eolo,


Peters.

80.

'Wachetauf'
,

(Geibel). Men's voices, Solo, Chorus, and Orchesti-a. Schott.

Gavotte; Berceuse; Eapidgle; Valse. PF. solo. Siegel. ClavierstUcke Menuet, Romance.Capriccietto. FF;

81.

No.

1. Sicilionne de I'Op^ra des 'Vfipres Siciliennea.' No. 2. Tarantelle de ditto.

Fraeger. 'Ein' feste Burg,' overture to a drama on the 30-years' war. Orchestra. Uofmeissolo.

'

PF.
82.

solo,

Peters.

ter.

Suite de
les

(12)

Morceaux pour
FF.
solo,

petites mains. ducts. Schuberth,


83. 84.

SeniF.
48. 49.

9.

2 Lieder for Voice and PP.


Seutf.

Mi)ourka-Caprice. Schott.

PF.

10.

HoiDinage

au

Ndoroman-

3 Lieder (by J. G. Fischer)


for Voice and PF. Heinrichsliofen. Italienische Lieder (by Sternau) for Voice and PF.
85.
86.

'Chant de TOndih,' Grande Etude de I'Arpeggio tremolatido.

tisuie. Grand Caprice. PF. sulo. B. & H. 11. Air Suisse, transcrit. PF. solo. B. & H. 12. Morceau de Salon. Fant. gracieuse. PF. solo. B. & H.
IS.

PF.

solo.

Peters.

50.

51. 52. 53.

VaUa

Heinrichshofen. 5 Lieder for Voice and PF.


Kistner. 3 Lieder for Voice and PF. Schlesinger. 2 Lieder vom Rhein for Voice

87. 88. 89. 90.

Kondino sur
PF. duet.

'

Les
B.

Huguenots.'

AH.
14. 15. 16. 17.

Sonata &. Fogne (Gb minor). PF. Bolo. B. & H. 6 Pofimes. PF. solo. Schott. Impromptus for PF. Unpublished.

54.
55.

and PF. Sehloss. Tanz-capricen (4). PF. solo.


Bahn. FrUhlingaboten pieces for PF.
berth.

Morceaux. FF. and V. Kistner. 2 FantaisiestUcke, PF. and Vcello. R. B.3 Introduction and All scherzoso. FF. solo. R. B. Giessbach,' Etude. PP. solo. R. B, Vilanella, FF. solo. R. B. Quartet, No. 2, in A, for
6
*

3rd Grand Sonata, FF. and V. (in D). Schuberth. 4th Grand Sonata. PF. and V. 'Chrom, Sonate in einein Satze.' (G minor). Schuberth. 2 Etudes m^lodiques.- PF. Eolo. Schuberth. Styrieime. FF. solo. Hof-

Marche
El^gie.
ter.

brillante.

FF.

aolo.

^Eofmeister.

PF.

solo.

Hofmeis-

Am

'Vom

Bhein,' 6 FantasiestUcke. PF.solo. Kistner, 'Blatter und BlUthen,' 12


pieces for FF. solo.

Kahnt,

Strings.

Schuberth.

12
solo.

Album

Lyrique.
(4

Schuberth
IS. 19. 20.

PF. solo. books contain56.

short Schusolo.

ing 9 pieces).
Parapfarases (on Liszt's songs)

SalonstUck.

PF.

Bachmann.
'Aus der Schweiz."
Fantas-

91. Suite in D. PF. solo. Peters. 92. Capriccio in minor. PF, solo, Peters. 93. 'Dans la nacelle,' ReverieBarcarolle. PF, solo. Peters. 94. Impromptu Valse. PF. solo.

3rd String quartet (E minor). Schuberth. 4th string quartet (A minor). Schuberth. 5th String quartet (G). Schuberth. Festmarsch, for Orchestra,
Schott.

PF.
solo.

solo.

Bck.

Fantaisie draniatigue.
LitoltE.

PF.

Bachmann. 2 Nocturnes, PF. and violin.


tisch? Ggloge.

2 MoFCeaux de Salon. S^nJnadeitalienne; AirBhenan. PF. solo. Litolff.

21. Loreley.
22. 23.
24.

Dichtung

ohne

60.
61.

Worte. PF. solo. Spina. 2 Rhapsodies til^giaquea. PF.


Spina. solo. 3 Pidces caract^stiques. PF. solo. Kistner.

Schuberth. Duo in A. PF. and violoncello. Nagel. Schweizerweisen (9 M'os.). PF. solo. Schuberth. No. 1. Wagner's Lohengrin,' Lyrische Fragraente.' PF. solo. No. 2. Do. 'Tann' '

Valse
solo.

m^lancollque. Spina.

PF.
solo.

hfiuser,' Fantasie. PF. solo. No. 3. Do. ' Pliegende

HoUSndei*,' Reminiacenzen.

25.

Romance-^tude.
Spina.

FF.

26. 27.

Den

Manen
PF.

Scarlattis.
solo.

Scherzo.

Spina.

62.

Angelens

letzter Tag im Kloflter. Bin Cyclus, etc. (12 pieces in 2 books). PF. solo,

Kistner.
28.

airs from ' Robert le Diable,' transcribed for FF.

Schumann's Qenoveva.' PF. solo. Schuberth. Salon -Etuden from Wagner's operas. PF. solo. Schlesinger. No. 1. Andante from Fliegende Hollander.' No. 2. Sestet from TannIiohenhSuser.' No. 3.

PF.

solo.
'

No.

4.

'

'

griii's

farewell.

Unpublished.
29. Llebesfrtlhling, songs. 30.

63.

2 Mazurkas

and Serenade,
Cranz.

for PF. 31. Tarantelle, forPF.


32. 33.
34.

Am

Duos on motifs from WagPF. and V. ner's operas. No. 1. 'Fliegende SiegeL Hollander.'No. 2. 'TannhSuser.'- No. 3. 'Lohengrin.'

Orchestra. Schott. Psalm 130 ('De Frofundis'). 8 voices and Orcb. Schuberth. Fantaisie (Ff). PF. solo. Kahnt. Kistner. 98. 'Sanges-Frtlhllng.' 30 Ro- 143. Barcarolle (E^). PF. solo. manzen, Lieder, Balladen, Kistner. and Gesange, for Sopr, and 144. Tarantella (C). FF. solo. PF. Schuberth. Kistuer. 99. 3 SonatiUes (A minor 145. 5thGrandSonata.FF.andV, C). PF. solo. Schuberth. (C minor). Schuberth. Auferste- 146. Capriccio (Btf minor). FF. 100. ' Deutscblands Fest Cantate on solo. R. B. hung.' 2 Meditations. FF. solo, the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig, for Male R.B. Voices and Orch. Kahnt. Scherzo in m. PF. solo. 101. Suite for Orchestra. Schott. for PP. Bolo. R. B. 102. 1st Grand Trio, for PF., 2 Chaconne (A minor). 2PFs, v., and violoncello. SchuR. B. berth. Allegro agitato. FF. aolo. 103. Jubilee Overture, for Orchestra. Kahnt. R, B. 104. 'Le Galop,' Caprice. PF. 152. 2 Romances. FF. solo. R. B.
;

de la Reine,' Caprice. FF. solo. Peters. 96. 'An das Vaterland,' Prize Symphony (No. 1). Schuberth. Male 97. 10 Lieder for Voices.
95.

'La.

Peten. Polka

2nd Symphony

(in C), for

^^es

Bhein, Romanze.
Spina.

PF.
\.

solo.

Albmnstiick, for PF. Unpnhlished.


65.

Capriccio in F minor, PF. Leockart. solo. No. 1. Fantaisie on motifs

6 Liedertlbertragungen, PF. Ebner,


'Preischlltz').

for

from
Raff's

Berlioz's

Cellini.'

35.

Capriccietto (on themes from

Caprice

PF.

solo.'

Benvenuto PP. solo. No. 2. on motifs from 'Alfred.' PF. solo.


'

153. Peters. solo. 105. 5 Eglogues. PF. solo. Peters. PF. 154. 106. Fantaisie -Polonaise. Peters. solo. 107. Grand Quintuor (A minor). 155. PF., 2 VV., viola, and 156. violoncello, Schuberth. PF. solo. R. B. 108. Saltarello. 109. RSverie-Nocturne. PF. solo.

3rd Symphony,
(F).
'

'ImWalde'

Orchestra. Kistner. Kobold,' Comic opera. B. B. 3rd Grand Trio. PP., V., and violoncello. B. B, Valse brillante (fib). PF.

Dame

solo.
'

Rien.

Cavatine

(Ab)

and Etude
FF,
solo,

R. B.
110.
'

La

Fileuse.'

36.

Schuberth. FantaisieMilitaire(on themes fi-ora 'Hi^uenots'). PF. solo. Schuberth.

Schuberth. Trauni -KOnig und sein Lleb (GTeibel). Voice and PF.
Schott.
67.
'

37.

Melange
'

(on

Sonnambula

themes from PF. solo. ').


PP.
solo.

La

F^

d' Amour.'

Morceau

Schuberth.
38.
39. 40.

caract^ristique pour Violon de Concert avec PF. Schott.


68.

Grand Mazourka.
StoU.

41.

(on romance by FF. solo. Kistner. Capriccietto & la Boh^mlenne. FF. solo. Kistner. Romance PF. solo. Kistner.
Liszt).

Nocturne

6 Transcriptions (Beethoven, Gluck, Mozart, Schumann, Spohr). FF. solo. Peters,


Suite.

70. 2

vatore, Traviata). Peters.

FF. solo. Karner. Paraphrases de Salon (TroPF. solo,

A
of

1 "The Editor desires to express his obligations to Messi-s. Augener Co. tor great assistance kindly rendered him in the difficult task drawing up this list. 2 B, 4 H.=Breitkopf & HSrtel.

Seiis. Gitana,' Danse Espagn. PP., Caprice. PF. sOlo. R. B. 158. 4th Grand Trio (D). v., and violoncello. Seitz. 111. Boleros and Valse, 2 CaSchu- 159. 1st Humoreske (D) In Waltz prices. PF. solo. form. PF. duet. B. B, berth. FF. PF. 160. Reisebilder (10 Nos.). 112. 2nd Grand Trio (in G). duet. Siegel. V. and violoncello. R, B. 113. Ungarische Rhapsodie. PF. 161. Concerto for Violin & Orch. (B minor). Siegel, Forberg. aolo. Suite in G minor. PP. solo, 114. 12 Songs for 2 voices and Challier. PF. Forberg. FF. Suite in major. FF. solo. lyriques. 163. 115. 2 Morceaux Seitz. solo. Forberg, PF. solo. 164. Sicilienne, Romanze, Tar116. Valse Caprice. antelle. PF. solo. B. B. Forberg. Gicereuella, Nouveau 117. FestivalOverture(in A), for 165. 'La Carnaval.' PF.solo. Siegel. Orchestra. Kistner.

La

R.

B
4

=Rieter-Biederniaiin &Co, B. B.=Bote & Bock.

; '

EAIMONDI
first compositions, we may infer that he was He died in London born about 1735 or 1740. at his own house, 74 Great Portland Street, During his residence in January 14, 1813. Amsterdam he established periodical concerts, and produced Ms symphony entitled *The Adventures of Telemachus.' From Amsterdam he went to Paris, where his opera, La Muette,' was performed, and about 1790-91 he came to
'

16
Op.

RAG TIME
Op.
198. 10 GesSnge for Mixied Choir. Seitz.

166. Idylle i Valse champfltre. PF. BOlo. Seitz.

169.
1'70.

4th Symidiony (G minor). Orchestra. Schuberth. FantaJsle-Socate (D minor), FF. solo. Siegel. Romanze; Valse brillante. PF. solo. Siegel. La Polka glfsaante, Caprice. PF. solo. Siegel.
'

2 Scenes for Solo Voice and


* Jiiger-braut Orch. and 'DieHlrtin.' Siegel. Suite in Eb for PF. and Orch. Siegel. 201. 7th Symphony, 'In the Alps (Bb). Orch. Seitz. 202. 2 Quartets for PF. V. Va.
'
.

'

171.

Im Kahn and Der Tanz.'


' '

2 BongB for Mixed Cfaolr

'

and violoncello (G). Siegel. Volker,' cycllsohe Tondichtung


(9 Nob.).

and OrcheBtra.

Siegel.
,

V. and FF.

'Maria Stuart, eln Oyclus von GeaSngeii,' for Voice and PF. (11 Nos.) Siegel. 8 GesSnge for Voice and FF.
174.

Siegel.
.

176. 177. 178. 179. 180.

Suite (Bb). Orch. Challier. 8th Symphony 'Frllhlingakl^inge (A). Orch. Siegel. Seitz. 2nd Concerto for V. and 'Aus dem Tanzaalon, PhanOrch, (A minor). Siegel. taaieStllclEe'(12M'os.). PP. 207a. Pbantasie (G minor). 2 4 bands. Seitz. PFs, Siegel, * Orientales," 8 Morceaux. 2D7&, The same arranged for FF. PF. solo. Forberg. and strings. Siegel. Octet for stringB (C). Seitz. 208. 9th Symphony (E minor), 6fch Symphony, 'Lenore.' Ira Sommer.' Orch. SieOrch. Seitz. gel.. Sestet. 2 VV., 2 violas, 2 209. Die Tageszeiten,' for Choir, vluloncellos. Seitz. PP., and Orch. B. & H. Variations on an orlgtnal 210. SuiteforVIn.andPF. Siegel, theme. PF. solo. Seitz. 211. 'Blondel de Nesle,' Cyclus Suite for Solo V. and Orch. von OesSngen. Barit. and
'
,

London, where he received

sufficient encourage-

'

'

Siegel.

2nd Humoreske in "Waltz .form, 'Todtentanz (Danae


macabre).' PF. duet. 8ie_
2
183.

212.

PF. B. & H. Weltende Gericht

Neue

213. 10th
(or

Welt, oratorio. B. & H. Symphony, 'ZurHerbatzeit.'

Komancea
cello.

for

Horn

Siegel.
*

violoncello) and PF. Siegel. Sonata for PP. and violonSiegel. Siegel.

214.

11th Symphony,
ter.'

Der Win-

Siegel, Siegel,

215. 216.

'

Von der schwiibischen Alb,'


10 PF. pieces.
pieces.

184. 6

Songs for 3 women's voices

and PF.
185. Concerto,

'Am der Adventzelt,'


Bahn.

8 PF.

PP. and Orch. (C


Siegel.

minor),
186a.
.

MorgenliedforMlxedCholr

and Orch. Siegel. WOEKB WITHOUT OpDS-NUMBHlt. Einer entachlafenen. Soprano BoIo, Chor. and Orch! Valse-rondlno on motifs from Siegel. Saloman'a Diamantkreuz.' Erlnnerung an Venedlg (6 Schuberth. Ifos.). PF. Bolo. Siegel. Beminlscences of the Meistei'' '

Sinfonietta for

wind instru-

singer' (4 Pts.).

Scbott.

ments. Siegel. Valse - Impromptu k la Tyro6th Symphony (D minor), llenne. Schott. Gelebt, gestrebt, gelltten, Abendlied by Schumann. Congestritten, gestorben, umcert-paraphrase. Schuberth. worbeii.' Orch. B. B. Berceuse on an Idea of Gounod's.
'

190.
191.

Feux

follets,

Caprice-dtude.

Siegel.
'

PF. solo. Siegel. Improvisation on Damroscb's Blumensprache. Six Songs. Lied Der Llndenzwelg.' LlchRiea and Erler.

192. 3 String Quartets.

No.

6.

tenberg. (C Valse de

Juliette

(Gounod).

minor) Suite Slterer Form. Siegel. 7. (D) Die schdne 4 Capi-icclos on Wallaohian (2) Mulleriu.yo. 6. (C) Suite and Servian (2) themes. Siegel, In Canon-form. Kahnt. Introduction and Fugue for OrConcerto (D minor). Violongan (E minor). R. B. cello and Orch. Baff-Album containing op. 156 Siegel. 194. 2nd Suite in Ungarisuher 167, Nob. 1, 2: 166, No. 2; 196, Weiae (F). Orch. Bahn. Noa. 14{ 197. Seitz. 195. 10 Gesfinge for men's voices. Oper Im Salon containing op. ^ahnt. 3537, 4345, 61, 65. SchuBerberth. 196. Etude 'am Schllf ; ceuse Novelette ; Im- FrUhlinga-Lled, Mez. Sop. and promptu. PF, solo. Seitz. PF. Schott. Capriccio (1%). PF. solo. Stlindchen for Voice and PF.

So.

Seitz.

Ootta.

RAG TIME.
rhythm

A modem

term, of American

origin, signifying, in the first instance,

broken

in melbdy, especially a sort of con'Rag time tunes' is a tinuous syncopation. name given in the States to those airs which are usually associated with the so-called * coon songs or lyrics, which are supposed to depict f. k, negro life in modern America. RAIF, OsKAR (born July 31, 1847, at ZwoUe, in Holland, died July 29, 1899, in Berlin), was a pupil of Tausig, and occupied a post as pianoforte teacher in the Royal Hochschule at Berlin, with the title of Koniglicher Proh. v. h. fessor, from 1875 till the time he died. RAIMONDI, Ignazio, Neapolitan violinist and composer. The date of his birth is unknown, but, judging by the fact that he went to Amsterdam in 1760, and there produced his

it his permanent home. His compositions became very popular in England, particularly a symphony entitled On June 1, 1791, he gave a The. Battle.' benefit concert at the Hanover 'Square Rooms, at which he figured both as violinist and composer ; he was assisted by Signer Pacchierotti, Madame Mara, Lord Momington, and Monsieur Dahmer (vide Morning Ghromde^ June 1,1791), The following year he gave a series of subscription concerts at Willis's Rooms, and at these he both played solos and led the orchestra. Emanuele Barbella is said to have taught Raimondi the violin, but whether this be fact or no, we may infer from Dr. Bumey's remark {Bistory of Music, vol. iii.), *The sweet tone and polished style of a Raimondi,' that this artist's technique was of the then greatly adRaimondi's published mired Tartini school, compositions include two symphonies besides the 'Telemachus' above mentioned, a number of quartets for two violins, viola, and violoncello, two sets of six trios for two violins and violoncello, and some sonatas for two violins, violin and violoncello, and violin and viola. Dr. Bumey, History of Music Park (W. T.), Mtmcal Memoirs F^tis, Biog, des Mus. Eitner, Quellen-Lexikon; The Gentleman's Magazine, Jan. 1813 The Times, May 14, 1800. E. H-A, RAIMONDI, PiETRO, was bom at Rome of parents poor Dec. 20, 1786. At an early age he passed six years in the Conservatorio of the Piet^ de' Turchini at Naples, and after many wanderings, mostly on foot from Naples to Rome, from Rome to Florence, from Florence to Genoa and many years, he at length found an opportunity of coming before the public with an opera entitled *Le Bizzarrie d'Amore,' which was performed at Genoa in 1807. After three years there, each producing its opera, he passed a twelvemonth at Florence, and brought out two more. The next twenty-five years were spent between Rome, Milan, Naples, and Sicily, and each year had its full complement of operas and ballets. In 1824 he b.ecame director of the

ment

to induce

him

to

make

royal theatres at Naples, a position which he retained till 1832. In that year the brilliant success of his opera buffa, * II Ventaglio ' (Naples,

1831), procured him the post of Professor of Composition in the Conservatorio at Palermo. Here he was much esteemed, and trained several promising pupils. In December 1852, he was
called

upon

to succeed BasHi as Maestro di

' ;

EAINFOETH
Cappella at St. Peter's a post for which, if knowledge, experience, and ceaseless labour of production in all departments of his art could qualify him, he was amply fitted. Shortly before this, in 1848, he had after four years of toil completed tliree oratorios, Potiphar, 'Pharaoh,' and 'Jacob,' wliich were not only designed to be performed in the usual manner, but to be played all three in combination as one work, under the name of 'Joseph.' On August 7, 1852, the new Maestro brought out this stupendous work at the Teatro Argentina. The success of the three single oratorios was moderate, but when they were united on the
; '

EALLENTANDO

17

the English Opera -House. Subsequently to her public appearance she took lessons from Crivelli. In 1837 she sang in oratorio at the Sacred Harmonic Society, and continued to do

She made her first appearance at the Philharmonic, March 18, 1839. In 1840 she sang at the Antient Concerts, and in 1843 at the Birmingham Festival. After performing at Co vent Garden from 1838 to 1843 she transferred her services to Drury Lane, where she made a great hit by her performance
so for several years.

the three orchestras and the following day three troupes forming an ensetribU of nearly 400 musicians the excitement and applause of the spectators knew no bounds, and so great was his emotion that Raimondi fainted away. He did not long survive this triumph, but died at Kome, Oct. 30, 1853. The list of his works is astonishing, and embraces 62 operas ; 21 grand ballets, composed for San Carlo between 1812 and 1828; 8

of Arline, in Balfe's ' Bohemian Girl, on its production, Nov. 27, 1843. In the previous year she had a most successful season in Dublin,
'

and repeated her visits to Ireland in 1844 and 1849. She was engaged as prima donna at the Worcester Festival of 1845. She continued to
perform in the metropolis until about 1852, when she removed to Edinburgh, where she remained until about 1856. She then retired, and in 1858 went to live at Old Windsor, and taught music in the neighbourhood until her complete retirement in March 1871, when she removed to her father's at Bristol. Her voice was a high soprano, even and sweet in quality, but deficient in power, and she possessed great judgment and much dramatic feeling. Although her limited power prevented her from becoming a great singer, her attainments were such as enabled her to fill the first place with credit to herself, and satisfaction to herauditors. Shedied at Redland, Bristol, Sept. 22, 1877. w. H. H.

4 masses with full orchestra ; 2 with 2 choirs a cappella ; 2 requiems with full orchestra 1 ditto for 8 and 16 voices a Credo for 16 voices the whole Book of Psalms,
oratorios
;

ditto

for 4, 5, 6, 7,

and

8 voices

many Te Deums,
ergos, psalms,

and two books of 90 partimenti, each on a separate bass, with three different accompaniments a collection of figured basses with fugued accompaniments as a school of accompaniment
Stabats, Misereres,
;

Tantum

litanies

RALLENTANDO, RITARDANDO, RITENENTE, RITENUTO' Becoming


'Slackening,'

slow again,'

4 fugues for 4 voices, each independent but capable of being united and sung together as a

The

first

'Holding back,' 'Held back.' two of these words are used quite

quadruple fugue in 16 parts 6 fugues for 4 voices capable of combination into 1 fugue for 24 voices a fugue for 16 choirs 16 fugues for 4 voices 24 fugues for 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 voices, of which 4 and 5 separate fugues will combine into one. A fugue in 64 parts, for 16 four-part Besides the above feat choirs, is said to exist. with the three oratorios he composed an opera seria and an opera buffa which went equally Such well separately and in combination. stupendous labours are, as F^tis remarked, enough to give the reader the headache what must they have done to the persevering artist who accomplished them ? But they also give one the heartache at the thought of their utter futility. Raimondi's compositions, with all their ingenuity, belong to a past age, and we may safely say that they will never be revived. G. RAINFORTH, Elizabeth, bom Nov. 23, 1814, studied singing under George Perry and T. Cooke, and acting under Mrs. Davison, the eminent comedian. After having gained experience at minor concerts, she appeared upon the stage at the St. James's Theatre, Oct. 27, 1836, as Mandane, in Ame's Artaxerxes, with comShe performed there for the plete success. remainder of the season, and then removed to
; ; ; ; : '
'

indifferently to express a gradual diminutiqn of the rate of speed in a composition, and although

the last is commonly used in exactly the same way, it seems originally and in a strict sense to have meant a uniform rate of slower time, so that the whole passage marked ritenuto would be taken at the same time, while each bar and

exists a difference in their uses is conclusively proved by a passage in the Quartet op. 131 of Beethoven, where in the 7th movement (allegro) a phrase of three recurring minims, which is repeated in all five times, has the direction Espressivo, poco ritenuto ' for its first three appearances, which are separated by two bars a tempo, and for the last two times has ritardando, which at length leads into the real u, tempo, of which the former separating fragments were but a presage. This is one of the very rare instances of the use of the word The conclusion from it ritenwlo by Beethoven. is confirmed by passage in Chopin's Rondo, op. 16, consisting of the four bars which immediately precede the entry of the second Here the first two bars consist of a subject. fragment of a preceding figure which is repeated,
'

would be a That there

each phrase in a passage marked rallentando little slower than the one before it.

VOL. IV


18

: ;

EAMANN
in

BAMEAU
1882.

so that both these bars are exactly the same the last two bars, however, have a little chromatic cadence leading into the second subject. The direction over the iirst two bars is 'poco ritenuto,'

This

is

an important

work.

It

somewhat from over -enthusiasm, but and it is done with great care, minuteness, intelligence, and obviously profited largely by
suffers

and over the

we may be

last two ' rallentando, by which quite sure that the composer intended the repeated fragment to be played at the same speed in each bar, and the chromatic cadence to be slackened gradually.
'

direct information
also

Slie from Liszt himself. edited Liszt's writings (1880-83, in six

volumes).

Her

cousin,

Bruno Ramann, was bom

April 17, 1832,

Ritenente is used by Beethoven in the PF. Sonata, op. 110, about the middle of the first movement, and again in the Sonata, op. Ill, in the iirst movement, in the seventh and fifteenth bars from the beginning of the Allegro con brio. It would seem that the same effect is intended as if ' ritenuto were employed ; in each case, the words ' meno mosso ' might have been used. Beethoven prefers Sitardando to Hallentando, which latter is common only in his earlier works. M. EAMANN, LiNA, musical writer and educationist, was bom at Mainstookheim, near Kitzingen, in Bavaria, June 24, 1833. Her turn for music and her determination to succeed were evident from a very early age. It was not, however, till her seventeenth year that she had any instruction in music. At that time her parents removed to Leipzig, and from 1850 to 1853 she there enjoyed the advantage of pianoforte lessons from the wife of Dr. F. Brendel, herself formerly a scholar of Field's. From this period she adopted the career of a teacher of music, and studied assiduously, though without help, for that end. After a period of activity in America, she opened (in 1858) an institute in Gliickstadt (Holstein) for the special training of musie-mistresses, and maintained it till 1865, in which year she founded a more important establishment, the Music School at Nuremberg, in conjunction with Fran Ida Volkmann of Tilsit, and assisted by astaff of superior teachers, under Frl. Ramann's own superintendence. The school was transferred to Aug. Gbllerich in 1890, when Frl. Eamann moved to Munich. With a view to the special object of her life she has published Die Musik als Gegenstand der two works Erziehwng (Leipzig: Merseburger, 1868), and Allgemeine Erzieh- und Unierrichts-lehre der
'

at Erfurt, and was brought up to commerce, but his desire and talent for music were so strong, that in 1857 or 1858 he succeeded in

getting rid of his business and put himself under Dr. F. Brendel and Riedel, for regular instruction. He then for five years studied under Hauptmann at Leipzig, and was a teacher and composer at Dresden from 1867 until his death,

March 13, 1897. His works are numerous, but they consist almost entirely of songs for one or more voices, and of small and more or

He sentimental pieces for the pianoforte. and some dramatic pieces. 6. RAMEAU, Jkan Philippe, eminent com' poser, and writer on the theory of music, bom at Dijon, Oct. 23, 1683,' in the house now His father,^ Jean, was No. 5 Rue St. Michel. a musician, and organist of Dijon cathedral, in easy circumstances. He intended Jean Philippe, the eldest of his three sons, to be a magistrate, but his strong vocation for music and obstinacy
less

also wrote poetry,

of character frustrated these views.


seven, before

According

to his biographers he played the harpsichord at

and read at sight any piece of music put

music indeed absorbed him to such an extent when at the Jesuit College that he neglected his classical studies, and was altogether so refractory that his parents were requested to remove him. Henceforth he never opened.^ book, unless it were a musical treatise. He quickly mastered the harpischord, and studied the organ and violin with success, but there was no master in Dijon capable of teaching him to write music, and he was left to discover

him

for himself the laws of harmony and composition.


jVt

the age of seventeen he

fell

in love with a

young widow in the neighbourhood, who indirectiy aid nim good service, since the shame which he felt at the bad spelling of his letters drove him to write correctly. To break off
this acquaintance his father sent him, in 1701, to Italy, where, however, he did not remain

Jugend (Leipzig: H. Schmidt, 1869 2nd ed. 1873), which were both received with favour by the German press. From 1 8 6 she was musical
;

long, a mistake which, in after life, he regretted. He liked Milan, and indeed the attractions of

correspondent of the Hamburg Jahreszeiten. A volume of her essays contributed to that paper has been collected and published, under the title of Aits der Oegcnviart (Nuremberg In the early part of 1880 she Sohmid, 1868). published a study of Liszt's ' Christus ' (Leipzig, Kahnt), and later in the year the first volume of a Life of Liszt, completed in two volumes in

music must have been great some unknown reason he soon left with a theatrical manager whom he accompanied as first violin to Marseilles, Lyons, Nimes, Montpellier, and other places in the south of FranQg.
so gi-eat a centre of
for

but

How

long the tour lasted it is impossible to no letters belonging to this period are to be found. From his ' Premier Livre de
ascertain, as
1 [The date of birth Is taken from the compoaer'fl momiment at Dijon : the firat edition of this Dictionary gives the more usnal

The first portion was H. Eddy, Chicago, and by Miss E. Cowdery, and published in two vols.
1894
(Leipzig, Breitkopf).

translated

by Mrs.

S.

date. Sept. S5, 1683.]


3

His mother's name was Claudine Demartin^oourt.


RAMEAU
de clavecin' (Paris, 1706) we learn that he was then living in Paris, at a wig-maker'a in the Vieille Rue du Temple, as Haydn did at Keller's, though without the disastrous results which followed that connection. Meantime he was organist of the Jesuit convent in the Rue St. Jacquesj and of the chapel of the Peres de la Meroi. No particulars, however, of the length of his -stay in Pai'is are known, nor how he occupiMy/the interval between this first visit and /tSf^ return about 1717. In that year a
pieces
rgadfir,-and

RAMEAU
his

19

competition took place for the post of organist of the church of St. Paul, and Rameau was among the candidates. Marchand, then at the head of the organists in Paris, was naturally one of the examiners ; and either from fear of being outshone by one whom he had formerly patronised, or for some other reason, he used his whole influence in favour of Daquin, who obtained the post. Mortified at the unjust preference thus shown to a man in all points his inferior, Rameau again left Paris for Lille, and became for a short time organist of St.

thevery boldness and novelty- of excited surprise and provoked His dijgovery o f the l aw of inversion criticigm. in chords was a stroke of genius, and led fo very important results, although in founding his system of harmony on the sounds of the common chord, with the addition of thirds above or thirds below, he put both himself and others on a wrong track. In the application of his principle to all the chords he found himself compelled to give up all idea of tonality, since, on the principles of tonality he could not make the thirds for the discords fall on the notes that his system required. F^tis justly accuses him of having abandoned the tonal successions and resolutions prescribed in the old treatises on harmony, accompaniment, and composition, and the rules for connecting the chords based on the ear, for a fixed order of generation, attractive from its apparent regularity, but with the serious inconvenience of leaving each chord disconnected from the
theories
.

rest.

Thence he went to Clermont in Auvergne, where his brother Claude-i resigned


ifetienne.

Having

rejected the received rules for the

the post of organist of the cathedral in his In this secluded mountain town, with a harsh climate predisposing to indoor life, he had plenty of time for thought and study. The defects of his education drove him to find out everything for himself. From the works of Descartes, Mersenne, Zarlino, and Kircher he gained some general knowledge of the science of sound, and taking the equal division of the monochord as the starting-point of his system of harmony, soon conceived the possibility of placing the theory of music on a sound basis. Henceforth he devoted all his energies to drawing up his Treatise on Harmony Beducedtoits Naiwral Erindples, and as soon as that^ii^pBftant work was finished he determined to go to Paris and publish it. His engagement with the chapter of Clermont had, however, several years to run, and there was great opposition to his leaving, owing to the popularity of his improvisations on the organ, in which his theoretical studies, far from hampering his ideas, seemed to give them greater freshness and fertility.
favour.

succession and resolution of chords which were contrary to his system, Rameau perceived the

new ones, and drew composing a fundamental bass The principles he for every species of music. laid down for forming a bass difierent from the real bass of the music, and for verifying the
necessity of formulating

up a method

for

right use of the chords, are arbitrary, insufficient in a large number of cases, and, as regards many of the successions, contrary to the judgment of the ear. Finally, he did not perceive

that by using the chord of the 6-5-3 both as a fundamental chord and an inversion he destroyed his whole system, as in the former case it is impossible to derive it from the third above or below. ^ After more study, however, particularly on the subject of harmonics, Rameau

gave up

many of his earlier notions, and corrected


his

some of

most

essential

mistakes.

The

development and modification of his ideas may be seen by consulting his works, of which the
following
is
.

a
.

list
.

tMorique
traits

Nouveau syslime de Ttiusique pour servir d' Jntrodnction au


:
;

Once free he started immediately for Paris, and brought out his Trail4 de VHarmonie (Ballard, 1722, 4to, 432 pp.).2 The work did not at first attract much attention among French musicians, and yet, as F^tis observes, it laid
the foundation for a philosophical science of Ram^aJi^atylaJs-piolix and ob scure, often calculated rather to repel thanattract tfie

harmony.

1 Claude EameiLU, a man of indoioitable wiU and capricious temper, atld a clever organist, lived ancceiiflively at Dijou, Lyons, Marseilles, Clermont, Orltjans, Strasburg, and Autun. His son Jean Francis, a gifted musician, but a dissipated man, is admirably portrayed by Diderot in his Newti de /tameav. He published in 1766 a poem in five oantos called Le RamiXde, followed in the same year by La nmuietle UawAhie, a parody by his schoolfellow Jacques Cazotbe. Ke is mentioned by Mercier in his Tableau de Paris. ^ The third Part of this was translated into English dfteen yearn later with the title A Treatiieo/Muiiccontaininff the Principles of

Oiniration (1726, 4to) (1737, 8vo) ; Dimonstration dii, principe de I'harmmiie (1750, 8vo) Nmi-cellcs reflexions sur la dimonstration du principe de Vharmonie (1762, 8vo) Extrait d'une riponse de M. Eanwau a M. Euler sur VidentiU des octaves, all published in Paris. To etc. (1753, 8vo) these specific works, all dealing with the science of harmony, should be added the Dissertation sur les diffirentes methodes d'accompagnement

dmarmomie
etc.

harmonique,

pour

le

clavecin ou

pour I'orgue

(Paris, Boivin,

1732, 4to), and some articles which appeared in the Mercwre de Fra/nce, and in the Mdmoires de Trivoux.
3 Fetis has explained, detailed, and refuted Rameau's system in EiqmiK de I'Bistotre de t'narmonio. which has been nt-ed by '\^ the writer, and to which be refers his reiuiers.

his

Composition.

London, no date, 8vo,

160' pp.

'

20

RAMEAU
set to music,

RAMEAU
though the performance was prohibited on the eve of its representation at the Academic an exceptional stroke of ill-fortune. [On the history of this work, see Hugues Imbert's

The mere titles of these works are a proof of the research and invention which Rameau brought to bear on the theory of music ; but what was most remarkable in his case is that he succeeded in lines which are generally opposed to each other, and throughout life occupied the first rank not only as a theorist, but as a player and composer. Just when his Traiti de I'Harmonie was beginning to attract attention he arranged to make music for the little pieces which his fellow-countryman, Alexis Piron, was writing for the Th6S,tre de la Foire, and accordingly, on Feb. 3, 1723, they produced 'L'Endriague,' in three acts, with dances, divertissements, and grand airs, as stated in the title. In Jan. 1724 he obtained the privilege of publishing his cantatas, and various instrumental comijositions, amongst others his ' Pitees de clavecin, avec une Methode pour la m&anique des doigts,' etc., republished as ' Pitees de Clavecin, avec une table pour les agr^ments'' (Paris, 1731 and 1736, oblong
folio).

Symphonie (1891), and

for a resume of the facts, see Musical Times, 1898, p. 379 ff.] At last the Pellegrin agreed to furnish him with an opera in five acts, 'Hippolyte et Aricie,' founded

AbW

on Racine's 'Phedre.' He compelled Rameau to sign a bill for 500 livres as security in case the opera failed, but showed more sagacity and more heart than might have been expected
from one
Qui dinait de
for
C
I'autel et soupait du th^trp, ct lo soir idolatre,

Le matin catliolique
first

he was so delighted with the music on

its

performance at La Popeliniere's, that he tore up the bill at the end of the first act. The world in general was less enthusiastic, and after having overcome the ill-will or stupidity of the performers, Rameau had to encounter the astonishment of the crowd, the prejudices of routine, and the jealousy of his brother artists.

As the favourite music-master among ladies of rank, and organist of the church of Ste. Croix de la Bretonnerie, Rameau's position and prospects

Campra alone recognised his genius, and it is to his honour that when questioned by the Prince de
Conti on the subject, he replied, There is stuff enough in Hippolyte et Aricie for ten operas this man will eclipse us all. The opera was produced at the Academic on Rameau was then turned fifty Oct. 1, 1733. years of age, and the outcry with which his work was greeted suggested to him that he had possibly mistaken his career for a time he contemplated retiring from the theatre, but was reassured by seeing his hearers gradually accustoming themselves to the novelties which at The success of Les Indes first shocked them. galantes' (August 23, 1735), of 'Castor et Pollux,' his masterpiece (Oct. 24, 1737), and of 'Les Fetes d'Hebe' (May 21, 1739), however, neither disarmed his critics, nor prevented Rousseau from making himself the mouthpiece of those who cried up Lully at the expense of the new composer. But Rameau was too well aware of the cost of success to be hurt by epigrams, especially when he found that he could count both on the applause of the multitude, and the genuine appreciation of the more en' ; ; '

now warranted

his taking a wife,

and on

Feb. 25, 1726, he was united to Marie Louise Mangot, a good musician, with a pretty voice. The disparity of their ages was considerable, the bride being only eighteen, but her loving and gentle disposition made the marriage a

very happy one. A few days later, on Feb. 29, Rameau produced at the Theatre de la Foire, a one-act piece
called
'

L'Enr81ement d'Arlequin,' followed in


'

the autumn by Le faux Prodigue,' two acts, both written by Piron. Such small comic pieces as these were obviously composed, by a man of his age and attainments (he was now forty-two), solely with the view of gaining access to a stage of higher rank, but there was no hope of admission to the theatre of the Aoad^mie without a good libretto, and this it was as difficult for a There is beginner to obtain then as it is now. a remarkable letter, still extant, from Rameau to Houdar de Lamotte, dated Oct. 1727, asking him for a lyric tragedy, and assuring him that he was no novice, but one who had mastered the art of concealing his art." The blind poet refused his request, but aid came from another La Popelinifere, the fermier giniral, quarter. musician, poet, and artist, whose houses in Paris and at Paasy were frequented by the most celebrated artists French and foreign, had chosen Rameau as his claveoinist and conductor of the music at his fStes, and before long placed at his
'

lightened.
list

His industry was immense, as the following of his operas and ballets produced at the Academic in twenty years will show
:

DardanuB, flye acta ilogue (Oct. 19. 1739).

Platde, thie acta and prologue (Feb. 4, 1749). Loa Pfitea de Polymnie. three NaTa, three acta and prologue 'acta and prologao (Oct. 12. 1746), (April 22, 1749). Le Temple de la Ololre, P6te, Zoroaetre, five acta (Dec 5.
'

and pro-

in three acta
';*, 17*i).
;
I

and prologue (Not,

1749).

disposal the organ in his chapel, his orchestra, and his theatre. He did more, for through his influence Rameau obtained from Voltaire the
lyric tragedy of 'Samson,'
I

ZaTa, four ac1 !(Peb. 29, 1748).


1 1

La Guirlande, on lea Fleui-a enone act (Sept. 21. 1751). Acanthe et Cdphiao, three acts (Nov. 18, 1761). l!r48). Les Surpriaes de 1' Amour, three Lea Fte8 de I'Hymen et de acts (July 12, 1767). I'AinouT, three acta and prologue Lea Paladins, three acts (Feb.
and prologne
27,

chanttSea,

Pygmalion, one act (Aug.

'

'

which he promptly
mietake o< comider-

lUarch

15, 1747).

12, 1760).

Both Fitia and Pongln have

fallen Into the

Ing this a Bepar^te work.

Besides these, Rameau found time to write divertissements for 'Les Courses de Temp6,' a

'

EAMEAU
Pastoral (The3.tre Franfais, August 1734), and ' La Rose' (Theatre de la Foire, March 1744), both by Piron. From 1740 to 1745 the director of the Opdra gave him no employment, and in
this interval he published his Nouvslles-Snites de Pitees de clayecifi~and his Pieoeajde-elavecin en concerts avec un violon ou une flflte' (1741), remarkable jscunpositions whtcVhave been reprinteaby Mme. Farrenc ( Le Tr^sor des Pianistes ') and M. Poisot. He also accepted the post of conductor of the Op^ra-Comique, of which Monneti was manager, probably in the hope of attracting public attention, and forcing the management of the Academie to alter their treatment of him. Finally he composed for the Court Lysis et D^lie,' Daphnis et Egle, 'Les Sybarites' (Oct. and Nov. 1753); 'La Naissance d'Osiris, and Anaorfon (Oct. 1754),
' ' '

RAMEAU
nauseam. developed
interest,

21
;

Nor did he
it,

neglect the chorus


its

he

added greatly to

musical

and introduced the


effect.

considerable

syllabic style with Lastly, his ballet -music

was

so new in its rhythms, and so fresh and pleasing in melody, that it was at once adopted and copied in the theatres of Italy and Germany, have said enough to prove that Rameau was a composer of real invention and originality.

We

His declamation was not always so just as that of Lully his airs have not the same grace, and are occasionally marred by eccentricity and
;

harshness,
ful taste
;

and

disfigured

by roulades in doubt-

'

'

but when inspii-ed by his subject Rameau found appropriate expression for all sentiments, whether simple or pathetic, passionate, dramatic, or heroic. His best operas
contain beauties which defy the caprices of fashion, and will command the respect of true
artists for all time.
if his music was so good, how is it that never attained the same popularity as that of Lully ? In the first place, he took the wrong line on a most important point and in the second, he was less favoured by circumstances than his predecessor. It was his doctrine, that for a musician of genius all subjects are equally good, and hence he contented himself with uninteresting fables written in wretched style, instead of taking pains, as Lully did, to secure pieces constructed with skill and well versified. He used to say that he could set the Gazette Thus he damaged his de HoUande to music. own fame, for a French audience will not listen even to good music unless it is founded on an interesting drama. Much as Rameau would have gained by the co-operation of another Quinault, instead of having to employ Cahusac, there was another reason for the greater popularity of Lully. Under Louis XIV. the king's patronage was quite sufficient to ensure the success of an artist but after the Regency, under Louis XV. other authorities asserted themselves, especially the Rameau had first to encounter philosophes.' the vehement opposition of the Lullists this he had succeeded in overcoming, when a company of Italian singers arrived in Paris, and at once obtained the attention of the public, and the The partisans of support of a powerful party. French music rallied roirad Rameau, and the two factions carried on what is known as the 'Guerre des Bouffons,' but when the struggle was over, Rameau perceived that his victory was only an ephemeral one, and that his works would not maintain their position in the repertoire of the Academic beyond a few years. With a frankness very touching in a man of his gifts, he said one evening to the Abb6

'

'

'

given at Fontainebleau. Some years previously, on the occasion of the marriage of the Dauphin with the Infanta, he had composed La Princesse de Navarre to a libretto of Voltaire's (three acts and prologue, performed with great splendour at Versailles, Feb. 23, 1745). Thia was the most successful of all his operas de dramstancc, and the authors adapted from it 'Les Fetes de Ramire,' a one-act opera ballet, also performed at Versailles (Dec. 22, 1745). In estimating Rameau's merits we cannot in justice compare him with the great Italian and German masters of the day, whose names and works were then equally unknown in France
all
'
'

But

it

we must measure him with contemporary French


composers for the stage.

These writers had no

idea of art beyond attempting a servile copy of LuUy, with overtures, recitatives, vocal pieces, and ballet airs, aU cast in one stereotyped form. Rameau made use of such a variety of means as not only attracted the attention of his hearers, but retained it. For the placid and monotonous harmonies of the day, the trite modulation, insignificant accompaniments, and stereotyped ritornelles, he substituted new forms, varied and piquant rhythms, ingenious harmonies,

boldmodulations, and a richer and more effective orchestration. He even ventured on enharmonic changes, and instead of the time-honoured accompaniments with the strings in five parts, and flutes and oboes in two, and with tttttis in which the wind simply doubled the strings, he gave each instrument a distinct part of its own, and thus imparted life and colour to the whole. Without interrupting the other instruments, he introduced intei-esting and unexpected passages ou the flutes, oboes, and bassoons, and thus opened a path which has been followed up with ever -increasing success. He also gave importance to the orchestral pieces, introducing his operas with a well -constructed overture, instead of the meagre introduction of the period, in which the same phrases were repeated ad
' See Monnet's Supplement au Roman comigue, Beems to have escaped aU Rameau's biographers.

'

p, 61.

Thie fact

Arnaud, who had lately arrived in Paris, If I were twenty years younger I would go to Italy, and take Pergolesi for my model, abandon something of my harmony, and devote myself
'


EAMEAU

KAMONDON
such as Dauvergne, and the organist Balb&tre. He was a vehement controversialist, and those whom he had offended would naturally say hard Tall, and thin almost to things of him. emaciation, his sharply mai-ked features indicated great strength of character, while his eyes burned with the fire of genius. There was a decided resemblance between him and Voltaii'e, and painters have often placed their likenesses side

to attaining truth of deelamation, which should he the sole guide of musicians. But after sixty

one cannot change

experience points plainly

enough the best


to obey.'

course, but the


critic

mind

refuses

No

could have stated the

truth more plainly. Not having heard Italian music in his youth, Rameau never attained to the skill in writing for the voice that he might

have done ; and he is in consequence only the first French musician of his time, instead of taking his rank among the great composers of European fame. But for this, he might have ellected that revolution in dramatic music which Gluok accomplished some years later. But even as it was, his life's work is one of which any man might have been proud and in old age he enjoyed privileges accorded only to
;

may be specified

best portraits of Rameau those of Benoist (after Restout), Caffieri, Masquelier, and Carmontelle (full length). In the fine oil-painting by Chardin in the Museum of Dijon, he is represented seated,

by side.

Amongst the

talent of the first rank. The directors of the Op^ra decreed him a pension ; his appearance

in his box was the signal for a general burst of applause, and at the last performance of 'Dar-

danus' (Nov. 9, 1760) he received a perfect ovation from the audience. At Dijon the Academic elected him a member in 1761, and the authorities exempted hituself and his family for ever from the municipal taxes. The king had named him composer of his chamber music in 1745 his patent of nobility was registered, and he was on the point of receiving the order of St. Michel, when, already suffering from the infirmities of age, he took typhoid fever, and died Sept. 12, 1764. All France mourned for him Paris gave him a magnificent funeral, and in many other towns funeral services were held in his honour. Such marks of esteem are accorded only to the monarchs of art. Having spoken of Rameau as a theorist and composer, we will now say a word about him
; ;

with his fingers on the strings of his violin, the instrument he generally used in composing. The bust which stood in the/oj/er of the Opera was destroyed when the theatre was burnt down in 1781 ; that in the library of the ConservaA bronze statue toire is by Destreez (1865). by Guillaume was erected at Dijon in 1880. The fine medal of him given to the winners of the grand pHx de Home was engraved by
Gatteaux.

There are many biographies of Rameau the most valuable are, among the older, Chabanon's
;

Mloge (1764) ; Maret's Eloge hislorique (1766) ; and the very curious details contained in De Croix's L'Ami des Arts (1776) ; among the more modern, the notices of Adolphe Adam, Fetis, Poisot (1864), Nisard (1867), and Pougin
(1876).

Rameau had one son and two daughters, none of them musicians. He left in MS. four cantatas, three motets with chorus, and fragments of an opera Roland,' all which are now
'

in the Bibliothfeque Nationale. organ pieces have survived ; and


'

None
some
'

of his

cantatas,

man. If we are to believe Grimm and Diderot, he was hard, churlish, and cruel, avaricious to a degree, and the most ferocious of egotists. The evidence of these writers is, however, suspicious ; both disliked French music, and Diderot, as the friend and coUaborateiir of d'Alembert, would naturally be opposed to the man who had had the audacity to declare war It is right to say against the Encyclopedists.' that, though he drew a vigorous and scathing portrait of the composer, he did not publish it.^ As to the charge of avarice, Rameau may have been fond of money, but he supported his sister Catherine ' during an illness of many years, and assisted more than one of his brother artists
as a

mentioned by the earlier biographers, besides two lyric tragedies Abaris and Linus,' and a comic opera, Le Procureur dup^,' are lost but they would have added nothing to his fame. Some of his harpsichord pieces have been* published in the Tresor des Pianistes ; in the Alte Klaviermusik of Pauer (Ser. 2, pt. 5) and of Roitzsch also in Pauer's Alte Meister,'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

and in the
edition,

'

Perlcs Musicales

'

(51, 52).

A new

Kameau was asked to correct the articles on music for the Sncyctopidie, but the MSS. were not submitted to him. He publlehed
1

in consequence : JSrreurg aur la Tnuaique dans VSnoyclopfitlie (17551 Suite d Erreurt, etc. (17S6) ; Riponae de H. Rameau d MM. let Sdtteurs de V Encyctop6die aur leivr AvertUsement |1757) ; Lettre de M. d'Alembert d Si. Jtwneau, concernatit le corpa aonore, avee la r6ponee de M. Rameau (undated, but apparently 1759) aU printed

in Paris. s refer to Diderot's violent satire on the morals and philoflopbic tendencies of the 18th century, entitled Le Neveu de Rameau. It is a curious fact that this brilliantly written dialogue was only Itnown in France through a re-translation of Goethe's German version. The first French edition, by Saur, appeared in Paris only

We

in 1821.
3

A good player on the harpsichord

she lived in Oijon, and died

-dihere, 1762.

with a preface by Saint-Saens, appeared in Paris in 1905. g. c. RAMONDON, Lewis, presumably a Frenchman, and at first a singer in the pre-Handelian Italian operas. He appeared in 'Arsinoe,' 1705 in 'Camilla,' 1706 and 'Pyrrhus and Demetrius,' 1709. He sometimes took Leveridge's parts in these operas, but about 1711 he ceased to be a public singer, and turned his talents to composition. He brought out the series called 'The Lady's Entertainment' in 1709, 1710, 1711, and 1738. He arranged for the harpsichord the song-tunes in Camilla using, perhaps for the first time in music-notation for this instrument, a five instead of a sixline stave, and giving as the reason' that the
; ; ' '

RAMSEY
lessons being placed on five lines renders them proper for a violin and a base.' His vocal
publications.

EAM)EGGEE

'23

Later issues of these publica-

compositions v^ere in high favour, and half a, dozen or so may be seen in Walsh's ' Merry Musician, or a Cure for the Spleen,' vol. i., 1716 ; others are on the single song sheet of the period. A tune of his, All you that must take a leap in the dark,' attained some degree of popularity by being sung by Macheath in It is probable that he the 'Beggar's Opera.' died about 1720, as his name does not appear to occur on any fresh work after that date but biographical details regarding him are
' ;

tions have Randall's name erased, and before 1720 his name entirely disappears from them.

Randall, William, is presumed to be a son of the preceding P. Randall. At tlie death of John Walsh, junior, Jan. 15, 1766, William Randall succeeded to the extensive business in Catherine Street, and shortly afterwards was for a couple of years or less in partnership with a person named Abell. Randall & Abell
issued in large folio in 1768 what is practically the first complete edition of the Messiah,' as well as some minor issues. Randall was in
'

lacking.

F. K.

Robert, was organist of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1628 to 1644 in' Magister Choristarum from 1637 clusive, and but whether before or after to 1644 inclusive
'

RAMSEY,

He those dates is not certain in either case. took the degree of Mus.B. at Cambridge in 1616, and was required to compose a 'Canticum to be performed at St. Mary's Church. A Morning and Evening Service in F by him is contained in the Tudway Collection (Harl. lis. 7340) and in the Ely Library, where, and at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, there are
'

also

two anthems of his.

Add. MS. 11,608 in

the British Museum contains a setting by him of the dialogue between Saul, the witch, and Samuel In guiltie night,' which was after-

'

wards
John.

set

by

Purcell.
'

Tudway

miscalls

him

madrigal by him is in the British Museum, and a commencement song a 8 was G. sold at Warren's sale in 1881. RANDALL, John, Mus.D., bom 1715, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates. He was one of the boys who shared in the representation of Handel's Esther at Gates's house, Feb. 23, 1732, he himself taking He graduated as Mus.B. the part of Esther. at Cambridge in 1744, his exercise being an anthem. In 1743 he was appointed organist of King's College, and on the death of Dr. Greene in 1755 was 'elected Professor of Music In 1756 he proceeded Mus.D. at Cambridge. He composed the music for Gray's Ode for the Installation of the Duke of Grafton as Chancellor of the University in 1768, and some church music. He was organist of Trinity Collegeinl777. He died at Cambridge, March 18, 1799. His name is preserved in England by w. H. H. his two Double Chants. RANDALL, P., a London music-seller and publisher, who had a shop at the sign of Ye Viol and Lute,' at Paul's Grave, without Temple He Bar, in 1707, and for some years later. may have been related, by marriage, to John Walsh, senior, the great music -publisher of Before 1710 he was a jiartner this period. with Walsh, and had abandoned his own place of business for Walsh's address in Katherine Street, Strand. -His name, in conjunction with Walsh's, appears on many imprints of Walsh's
' ' ' '

business alone in 1771, and besides reprinting the Walsh publications, he published many interesting works. One of these was a reissue in 1771 of Morley's Plaine and Easie Introduclion. Collections of Vauxhall or other songs came forth, country dances, and the like. William Randall died about 1780, and his widow, Elizabeth, earned on the business until it was taken over, about 1783, by Messrs. Wright & Wilkinson, who made a great business almost solely by reprinting Handel's works from the original plates. F. K. RANDEGGER, Alberto, composer, conductor, and singing-master, was bom at Trieste, April 13, 1832. He began the study of music at the age of thirteen, under Lafont for the PF. and L. Ricci for composition, soon began to write, and by the year 1852 was known as the composer of several masses and smaller pieces of Church music, and of two ballets La Fidanzata di Castellamare and ' La Sposa d' Appenzello,' both produced at the Teatro grande of his native town. In the latter year he joined three other of Ricci's pupils in the composition of a buffo opera to a libretto by Gaetano Rossi, entitled II Lazzarone,' which had much success, first at the Teatro Mauroner at Trieste, and then elsewhere. In the next two years he was occupied as musical director of tlieatres at Fiume, Zara, Sinigaglia, Brescia, and Venice. In the winter of 1854 he brought out a tragic opera in four acts, called ' Bianca At Capello,' at the chief theati'e of Brescia.

'

'

'

was induced to come to London. gradually took a high position there, and has become widely known as a teacher of singing, conductor, and composer, and an enthusiastic lover of good music of whatever school or He has resided in England ever since, country. and is one of the most prominent musical figures In 1864 he produced at the in the metropolis. Theatre Royal, Leeds, 'The Rival Beauties,' a comic operetta in two acts, which has had much success in London and many other places. In 1868 he became Professor of Singing at the Royal Academy of Music, and has since been made an honorary member and director of that institution and a member of the Committee of Management. He is a Professor of Singing at the Royal College of Music, and is on the Board
this time he

He

24

RANDHAETINGER

RANELAGH HOUSE AND GARDENS


certain that Schubert's 'Schbne Miillerin' would He was called out of his never have existed.

of Professors. In the autumn of 1857 he conducted a series of Italian operas at St. James's Theatre, and in 1879-85 the Carl Rosa Company. [He conducted grand opera under Harris's

management
in 1887-98.

and Covent Garden conducted the Queen's Hall Choral Society in 1896-97, but his most important position of this kind was the conductorship of the Norwich Festival, which he held with great success from 1881 to 1905 inclusive.] Mr. Kandegger's published works are numerous and important. They comprise a dramatic cantata (words by Mme. Rudersdorff), entitled ' Fridolin," composed for the Birmingham Festival, and produced there with great success, August 28, 1873; two soprano seenas 'Medea,' sung by Mme. Eudersdorff at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, in 1869, and 'Saffo,' sung by Mme. Lemmens at the British Orchestral Society, March 31, 1875 the 150th Psalm, for soprano solo, chorus, orchestra, and organ, for the Boston Festival, 1872 Funeral Anthem for the death

at Drury Lane

He

room while Schubert was paying him a visit, and on his return found that his friend had disappeared with a volume of W. Miiller's poems which he had accidentally looked into while waiting, and had been so much interested On his going the next day in as to carry off.
to reclaim the book, Schubert presented him with some of the now well-known songs, which he had composed during the night. This was
It is surely enough to entitle Randin 1823. hartinger to a perpetual memory. He had a brother Josef, of whom nothing
is

known beyond this that he was probably one of the immediate entourage of Beethoven's He, Lachner, and coffin at the funeral. Schubert are said to have gone together as torch-bearers (Kreissle von Hellbprn's ScJmbert,
p. 266). G.

of the

Prince Consort, twice p'erformed in London ; a soena, 'The Prayer of Nature,' sung by Edward Lloyd at a Philharmonic concert in 1887 and a large number of songs and concerted vocal music for voice and orchestra or PF. He is also the author of the Primer of Singing in Novello's series. As a teacher of singing, Mr. Bandegger has a large number of pupils now before the English public as popular singers. (See the Musical Times for 1899, p.
;

653

if.)

G.

Benedict, an Austrian musician, memorable for his connection with Schubert. He was born at Ruprechtshofen, in Lower Austria, July 27, 1802 at ten years old came to the Convict school at Vienna, and was then a pupil of Salieri's. He afterwards studied lor the law, and for ten years was Secretary to Count Szfohenyi, an official about the But he forsook this line of life for Court. music in 1832 entered the Court Chapel as a tenor singer in 1844 became Vioe-Court-Capellmeister, and in 1862, after Assmayer's death, entered on the full enjoyment of that dignity. His compositions are more than 600 in number, 20 masses comprising an opera, Konig Enzio symphonies quartets, etc. 400 60 motets Of all these, songs, 76 4 -part songs, etc.
; ; ;
' '

EANDHARTINGER,

Elizabeth, an extraordinary infant musical prodigy and performer on the pianoforte. She was born at Wrexham, August 1, 1800, and played in public before she was Her father, a blind fully two years of age. harper and organist of Wrexham, of some degree of local fame (1760-1820), placed her under John Parry the harper, and afterwards took her on tour to London, where she attracted much attention, and was made a pet of by the Royal family. A second visit to London was undertaken in 1808, and a concert for her benefit given in the Hanover Square rooms. At this Madame Catalani and other singers and instrumentalists gave their gratuitous services. Sir George Smart conducting. She settled in Liverpool as a music teacher about 1818, and died there in 1829. f. k.

EANDLES,

RANELAGH HOUSE AND GARDENS


were situated on the bank of the Thames, eastward of Chelsea Hospital. They were erected and laid out about 1690 by Richard Jones, Viscount (afterwards Earl of) Ranelagh, who resided there until his .death in 1712. In 1733 the property was sold in lots, and eventually the house and part of the gardens came into the hands of a number of persons who converted them into a place of public entertainment. In 1741 they commenced the erection of a spacious Rotunda (185 feet external, and 150 feet internal diameter), with four entrances through porticos. Surrounding it was an arcade, and over that a covered gallery, above which were the windows, sixty in number. In the centre of the interior and supporting the roof was a square erection containing the
'

124, chiefly songs, are published


of Grepk national songs,

also a vol.

of Greek His acquaintance with Schubert probably began at the Convict, and at Salieri's though as he was Schubert's junior by five years, they can have been there together only for a short time ; but there are many slight traces of the existence of a close friendship between them. He was present, for example, at the first trial of the D minor String Quartet (Jan. 29, 1826), and he was one of the very few friends who
vol.

and a

liturgies.

orchestra,

as well as fireplaces of peculiar construction for warming the building in winter. Forty-seven boxes, each to contain eight persons, were placed round the building,

and

visited Schubert in the terrible loneliness of his


last illness.

But

for

Randhartinger

it is

almost

company partook of tea and In the garden was a Chinese building, and a canal upon which the visitors were
in these the
coffee.

' '

EANELAGH HOUSE AND GAEDENS


rowed about in boats. Eanelagh was opened with a, public breakfast, April 5, 1742. The admission was 2s. including breakfast. On May 24 following it was opened for evening concerts ; Beard was the principal singer, Festing the leader, and the choruses were Twice a week ridottos chiefly from oratorios. were given, the tickets for which were l:ls. Masquerades were each, including supper. shortly afterwards introduced, and the place soon became the favourite resort of the world Ranelagh was afterwards opened of fashion. about the end of February for breakfasts, and on Easter Monday for the evening entertainments. On April 10, 1746, a new organ by Bytield was opened at a public morning rehearsal of the music for the season, and Parry, the In 1749, celebrated Welsh harper, appeared. in honour of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, an A Jubilee Masquerade entertainment called in the Venetian manner, was given, of which Horace Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace Mann, dated May 3, 1749, gives a lively
'
'

EANSFORD

25

description.

This proved so attractive that it was repeated times in that and succeeding years, until the suppression of such entertainments in In 1751 morning concerts were given 1755. twice a week, Signora Frasi and Beard being the singers. At that date it had lost none of You cannot conceive, says Mrs. its charm. Ellison, in Fielding's Amelia, 'what a sweet Paradise itself elegant delicious place it is. In 1754 an can hardly be equal to it.' entertainment of singing, recitation, etc. was Comus's Court, given under the name of which was very successful. In 1755a pastoral, the words from Shakespeare, the music by Arne, was produced Beard and Miss Young were the Handel's L' Allegro ed II Pensieroso singers was introduced on Beard's benefit night, and In 1759 Bonnell Stanley was the organist.
several
'
'

'

'

'

Cyclops at work in the centre of the mountain, and the lava pouring down its side, was The mountain was 80 feet high. exhibited. In 1793 the Chevalier d'fion fenced in public with a French professor, and about the same time regattas on the Thames in connection with the place were established. In 1802 the Installation Ball of the Knights of the Bath was given at Eanelagh, and also a magnificent entertainment by the Spanish Ambassador. These were the last occurrences of any importance the fortunes of the place had long been languishing, and it opened for the last time July 8, 1803. On Sept. 30, 1805, the proprietors gave directions for taking down the house and rotunda the furniture was soon after sold by auction, and the buildings removed. The organ was placed in Tetbury Church, Gloucestershire. No traces of Ranelagh remain the site now forma part of Chelsea Hospital garden. w. H. H. EANK. A rank of organ-pipes is one complete series or set, of the same quality of tone and kind of construction from the largest to the smallest, controlled by one draw-stop, acting on one slider. If the combined movement of draw-stop and slider admits air to two or more such series of pipe^, an organ-stop is said to be of two or more ranks, as the case may be. Occasionally the twelfth and fifteenth, or fifteenth and twenty-second, are thus united, forming a stop of two ranks but, as a rule, only those stops whose tones are reinforcements of some of the higher upper -partials of the gi'ound-tone are made to consist of several ranks, such as the Sesquialtera, Mixture, These stops have usually from Furniture, etc. three to five ranks each, reinforcing (according to their special disposition) the ground-tone by the addition of its 17th, 19th, 22nd, 24th, 26th, 29th,that is, of its 3rd, 6th, and 8th [See in the third and fourth octave above.
; ; ; ;

Thornton's burlesque Ode on St. Cecilia's Day In 1762 was performed with great success. In Tenducci was the principal male singer. 1764 a new orchestra was erected in one of the porticos of the Eotunda, the original one being On June found inconvenient from its height. 29, 1764, Mozart, then eight years old, performed on the harpsichord and organ several pieces of his own composition for the benefit of a charity. In 1770 Burney was the organist. Fireworks were occasionally exhibited, when the
price of admission

Sesquialtera and Mixture.] j. s. RANSFORD, Edwin, baritone vocalist, songwriter, and composer, born March 13, 1805, at
Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, died in He first appeared on London, July 11, 1876. the stage as an extra in the opera-chorus at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, and was afterwards engaged in that of Covent Garden During Charles Kemble's manageTheatre. ment of that theatre he made his first appearance as Don Caesar in The Castle of Andalusia,' on May 27, 1829, and was engaged soon afterwards by Arnold for the English OperaHouse (now the Lyceum). In the autumn of 1829, and in 1830, he was at Covent Garden. In 1831 he played leading characters under Elliston at the Surrey Theatre, and became In 1832 he was with a general favourite. Joe Grimaldi at Sadler's Wells, playing Tom The Truck, in Campbell's nautical drama Battle of Trafalgar, in which he made a great
'
' '

was raised

to 5s.

In 1777

the fashionable world played one of its strange, Walpole unreasoning freaks at Ranelagh. It is the fashion now to wrote on June 18 go to Ranelagh two hours after it is over. You may not believe this, but it is literal. The music ends at ten, the company go at twelve. This practice caused the concert to be commenced In 1790 a repreat a later hour than before. sentation of Mount Etna in eruption, with the
:

'

'

'

'

26
hit with

EANTZAU
Neukomm's
he

EAPPOLDI

song, 'The Sea.' At this sustained the part of Captain Cannonade in Bamett'a opera ' The Pet of the Petticoats.' He afterwards fulfilled important engagements at Drury Lane, the Lyceum, and Covent Garden. At Covent Garden he played the Doge of Venice in ' Othello,' March 25, 1833, when Edmund Kean last appeared on the stage, and Sir Harry in ' The School for Scandal on Charles Kemble's last appearance as Charles

theatre

The most

celebrated

Ranz des Vaches

is

Surface. His final theatrical engagement was with Macready at Covent Garden in 1837-38. He wrote the words of many songs, his best being perhaps In the days when we went gipsying.' In later years his entertainments, 'Gipsy Life,' 'Tales of the Sea,' and 'Songs of Dibdin,' etc., became deservedly popular. As a genial bon camafade he was universally liked. [He was also a music-seller and publisher, and during the forties and fifties issued a great number of the popular songs of the day. His shop was in" Charles Street, Soho, but in 1850 he moved to 461 Oxford Street. In 1869 he went into partnership with his son, William Edwin, at 2 Princes Street, Cavendish Square. The son, who continued the business after his father's death, was a tenor vocalist of ability. w. H. He died Sept. 21, 1890. F. K.] RANTZAU, I. Opera in four acts, text by G. Targioni-Tazzetti and G. Menasci, music by Produced at the Pergola, Florence, Mascagni. Nov. 10, 1892, and at Covent Garden, July
'

that of Appenzell, a copy of which is said to have been sent to our Queen Anne, with whom The first work in it was a great favourite. which it was printed is Georg Rhaw's Bicinia It is also to be found in (Wittenberg, 1545). a dissertation on Nostalgia in Zwinger's Fasciculvs ZHssertationum Medicarum (Basle, 1710). Rousseau printed a version in his Diciionnaire

de Musique, which Laborde arranged for four It was voices in his Ussai mr la Mtisique. used by Gretry in his Overture to Guillaume Tell,' and by Adam in his MMhod de Fiano du. It has been also arranged by Cmiservatoire.^
'

Webbe, Weigl, Rossini Meyerbeer.

BAPPOLDI,

He 21, 1831. early age under Doleschall, and made his first appearance in his seventh year as violinist, His talent for the pianist, and composer.

Guillaume Tell '), and ^- b. s. Eduard, born at Vienna, Feb. was placed by his father at an
('

pianoforte was so great as to induce the Countess Banffy to put him under Mittag, Thalberg's But the violin was the instrument of teacher.

7,

1893.

RANZ DES VACHES


gen
;

(Kuhreihen, Kuhrei; Appenzell patois GhUereiha), a strain of an

irregular description, Switzerland is sung or

which in some parts of blown on the Alpine horn

and he succeeded in studying it under Jansa, who induced him to go to London in 1850. Here he made no recorded appearance. On his return to Vienna he was so far provided for by the liberality of the same lady, that he became a pupil of the Conservatorium under He then Hellmesberger from 1851 to 1854. put himself under Bbhm, and shortly began to travel, and to be spoken of as a promising
his choice,
player.

in June, to call the cattle from the valleys to Several derivations have the higher pastures. been suggested for the words ranz and reihen or reigen. Banz has been translated by the English
' rondeau,' and has been ' rant,' and the French derived from the Keltic root 'renk' or 'rank,' which may also be the derivation of reihen, in which case both words would mean the ' procesStalder (Schweizesion or march of the cows.' ' risches Idiotikon) thinks that reihen means to reach,' or ' fetch,' while other authorities say

The

first real

step in his career

was

that the word is the same as reigen (a dance accompanied by singing), and derive ram from
the Swiss patois ' ranner,' to rejoice. The Eanz des Vaches are very numerous, and differ both in music and words in the different They are extremely irregular in charcantons.
acter, full of

conducting a concert of Joachim's at Rotterdam in 1866, where he had been concertmeister since 1861. At the end of that year he went to Liibeck as capellmeister, in 1867 to Stettin in the same capacity, and in 1869 to the LandesDuring this time he was theater at Prague. working hard at the violin, and also studying composition with Sechter and Hiller. From 1871 to 1877 he was a colleague of Joachim's at the Hochschule at Berlin where he proved himself a first-rate teacher and a member of his quartet party. In 1876 he was made Eoyal

There

Is

a curious analogy between the above and the following

strain, which is sung with inftnite variations in the agricultural districts near I^ndon to frighten away the birds from the seed. In Txith passiiges the F is more nearly FS.

long cadences and abrupt changes


2 Other examples and deseriptiona will be found In the following works :Cappellei-'s Pilati MontU JTiatoria (I7ff7) Stolberg'a Reise
;

of tempo.

seldom

It is a curious fact that they are strictly in tune, more particularly when

played on the Alpine horn, an instrument in which, like the Bagpipe, the note represented by F is really an extra note between F and F)t. This note is very characteristic of the Ranz des Vaches passages like the following being re;

peated and varied almost ad infinitum.

in DeutscMand, der Bchvieiz, etc. (a'794) Ebel'fl SchUderung der GebirgsvOtker der Schieeiz (W98) Sigmund von Wagner's AcTU Schweizer Kuhreihen (1805) the article on Viotti in the Diceule /'hUoaophUjue {An B) Caatelnau's ConaidireUiojis sur la Nostalgie (1806): Edward San&a'a MiMical Curiosities [\Sn)^ Recwnl de liwrn des Vachet et de Chansons Rationales Suisses, third edition, Berne, 1818, also Tarenne's SamTtdwnff von Schweizer Kuhreihen uvd Vot&eUedern (1818) Ruber's RecueU de ftanz des Vavhes (1830) and Tobler'a Appenielliicher Sprachschatz (1837).
; ; j ; ; ;

JEAN PHILIPPE BAMEAU

EASELIUS
and soon after received a call to a This, concertmeistership at Dresden. however, his love for Joachim and for Berlin, where he had advanced sufficiently to lead the Quartets alternately with his chief, induced him for a long time to hesitate to accept, notwithstanding the very high terms offered. At length, however, he did accept it, and became (in 1877) joint conoertmeister with Lauterbaoh at the Dresden opera, and chief teacher in the Couservatorium. He retired in 1898, after which time he only taught a few favoured pupils; he died in Dresden, May 16, 1903. Though a virtuoso of the first rank he followed in the footsteps of Joachim by sacrificing display to the tiner interpretation of the music, and succeeded in infusing a new spirit into chambercourt
Professor,

EASOUMOWSKY

27

so that the congregation may easily sing the chorale-tune while the trained choir provide the harmonies. The chorale-tune is in the ujiper part, but the harmonies are not always mere note-for-note counterpoint as in a modern hymntune. A few specimens of these settings are given in Schbberlein's Schatz. Other published works of Raselius are Teutsche Spriiche ans den .,' Sonntaglichen Evangelia 53 German
' . .

Motets a 5 (Nuremberg, 1594), and 'Neue Teutsche Spriiche auf die Test und .,' 22 Motets a 5-9, described Aposteltage as composed on the 12 Modes of the Dodecachordon (Nuremberg, 1595). Besides these published works there remain in MS. several collections of Latin and German motets and
.
.

music at Dresden.
quartets,

He composed

symphonies,

and songs, some of which They are distinguished for earnestness, and for great beauty of form, and a quartet was performed in Dresden in the winter of 1878 which aroused quite an unusual sensation. In 1874 Eappoldi married a lady nearly as distinguished as himself, Laura. Kahree, who was born in Vienna, Jan. 14, 1853, and whose acquaintance he made many Her talent, like his, years before at Prague. On the nominashowed itself very early. tion of the Empress Elisabeth she became a
sonatas,

have been printed.

magnificats by Raselius. He is also known as the author of a historical work, a chronicle of Ratisbon, originally written both in Latin and German, of which only the German edition survives. Raselius remained at Ratisbon till 1600, when he received a pressing invitation from the Elector Palatine Frederick IV. to return to Heidelberg as Hofcapellmeister. This higher post of honour he was not permitted to retain long, as death carried him olf on Jan. 6, 1602. monograph on Raselius by J. Auer of Amberg appeared as a Beilage to Eitner's J. K. M. Monatshefte of 1892.

EASOUMOWSKY,!

Andreas

Kyeillo-

pupil of the Conservatorium at Vienna, under Dachs and Dessoff, from 1866 to 1869. After taking the first prize, she made a toumee to the principal towns of Germany, ending at Weimar.

There she studied under Liszt, and matured that beauty of touch, precision, fire, and intelligence, which have raised her to the first rank of pianists in Germany, and which induced Herr von Biilow no lenient critic to praise her playing of Beethoven's op. 106 in the highest tei-ms. She was the worthy colleague of G. her husband in the best concerts of Dresden. RASELIUS, Andreas, was born at Hahnbach near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate some time between 1562 and 1564. He was the son of a Lutheran preacher, who had studied at Wittenberg under Melanohthon, and whose original name. Easel, Melanchthon latinised into Easelius. From 1581tol584 Andreas attended the then Lutheran University of Heidelberg, taking his degree as Magister Artium in the latter year. In the same year he was appointed

cantor and teacher at the Gymnasium of Ratisbon, then conducted under Lutheran auspices. In his capacity as cantor he published in 1589 a Musical Instruction book with the Quaestiones Musicae title Hexachordiim seu Praclicae sex capitibus comprehensae, which was In 1599 1664. still in use at Ratisbon in

appeared his 'Regenspurgischer Kirchen-Contrapunkt,' which contains simple settings a 5 of 51 of the older Lutheran Psalm-tunes and
chorales.

VITSCH, a Russian nobleman to whom Beethoven dedicated three of his greatest works, and whose name will always survive in connection with the Rasoumowsky Quartets (op. 59). He was the son of Kyrill Rasum, a, peasant of Lemeschi, a village in the Ukraine, who, with his elder brother, was made a Count (Graf) by the Andreas was Empress Elisabeth of Russia. bom Oct. 22, 1752, served in the English and Russian navies, rose to the rank of admiral, and was Russian ambassador at Venice, Naples, In EngCopenhagen, Stockholm, and Vienna. land his name must have been familiar, or Foote would hardly have introduced it as he has in The Liar (1762). At Vienna he married, in 1788, Elisabeth Countess of Thun, one of the 'three Graces,' elder sister of the Princess Carl Lichnowsky [see vol. ii. p. 723a] and on March 25, 1792, had his audience from the Emperor of Austria as Russian ambassador, a post which he held with short intervals for more than twenty years. He was a thorough musician, an excellent player of Haydn's quartets, in which he took second violin, not improbably That, studying them under Haydn himself. with his connection with Lichnowsky, he must have known Beethoven is obvious but no direct trace of the acquaintance is found until May 26, 1806 (six weeks after the withdrawal of in his usual polyFidelio '), which Beethoven has marked on the first page of the glot
'
'

'

'

'

The fuU

title describes

them

as set

1 Raautnoffaky and Eaaoumoffaky are forms used by Beethoven in various dedicat ons.


28

RASOUMOWSKY

KAUZZINI
humblement dedi^es i son Excellence MonBeethoven himself mentions them in a letter to Count Brunswick, which he has dated May 11, 1806, but which
tres

Quartet in F of op. 59, as the date on which he began it Quartetto angefangen am 26ten

'

sieur le Oomte,' etc.

May

1806.'

In 1808 the Count formed his famous quartet party Schuppanzigh, first violin Weiss, viola; Lineke, violoncello and he himself second
for many years met in the evenand performed, among other compositions, Beethoven's pieces, 'hot from the fire,' under his own immediate instructions. In April 1809 appeared the minor and Pastoral Symphonies (Nos. 5 and 6), with a dedication (on the Parts) to Prince Lobkowitz and 'son excellence Monsieur le Comte de Rasu-

violin which
ings,

Thayer

(iii.

11) sees reason to date 1807.

The Quartet in F is the one which Bernard Romberg is said to have thrown on the ground and trampled upon as unplayable. The slow movement is entitled in the Sketchbook Einen Trauerweiden oder Akazienbaum aufs Grab

'

moffsky (Breitkopf & Hartel). These dedications doubtless imply that Beethoven was largely the recipient of the Count's bounty, but there
'

no direct evidence of it, and there is a strange absence of reference to the Count in Beethoven's letters. His name is mentioned only once July 24, 1813 and there is a distant allusion in a letter of a much later date (Nohl, Bricfe B. 1865, No. 354). In the autumn of 1814 came the Vienna Congress (Nov. 1, 1814June 9, 1815), and as the Empress of Russia was in Vienna at the time, the Ambassador's Palace was naturally the scene of special festivities. It was not, however, there that Beethoven was presented to the Empress, but at the Archduke Eodolph's.i The Count's hospitalities were immense, and, vast as was his palace, a separate wooden annexe had to be constructed capable of dining 700 persons. On June 3, 1815, six days before the signature of the final Act of the Congress, the Count was made Prince (Fiirst), and on the Slst of the following December the dining-hall just mentioned was burnt down. The Emperor of Russia gave 400,000 silver roubles (40,000) towards the rebuilding, but the misfortune appears to have been too much for the Prince ; he soon after sold the property, pensioned his quartet, and disappears from musical history. The quartet kept together for many years after this date, Sina playing second violin. Beethoven mentions them Apropos of the Galitzin Quartets in the letter to his nephew already referred A. w. T. to, about 1825.
is

A weeping willow. or acacia meines Bruders' But which tree over the grave of my brother.' brother? August died in 1783, twenty-three years before, Carl not till ten years after, and Johann not till 1 848. Carl's marriage-contract had, however, been signed only on May 25, 1806. Is it possible that this inscription is a Beethoveuish joke on the occasion ? If so, he began The finale has a in fun and ended in earnest. Russian theme in D minor for its principal subject, and the second of the three has a Russian theme in E major as the Trio of its third
'

movement. G. [The tunes are given in Kbhler's 'Album Russe' as Nos. 188 and 175 respectively ; and are also in 'Chants Nationaux Russes,' Nos. 13 and 45.] RATAPLAN, like Rub-a-dub, is an imitative word for the sound of the drum, as Tan-ta-ra is for that of the trumpet, and Tootle-tootle for the flute.' It is hardly necessary to mention its introduction by Donizetti in the FUle du Regiment, or by Meyerbeer in the Huguenots and every Londoner is familiar with it in Sergeant Bouncer's part in Sullivan's ' Cox and
'
' ' '

Box.'
title

'Rataplan, der kleine Tambour' is the of a Singspiel by Pillwitz, which was

produced at Bremen in 1831, and had a considerable run both in North and South Germany between that year and 1836, g. RAUZZINI, Venanzio, born 1747, in Rome, where he made his d^but in 1765, captivating

by his fine voice, clever acting, and prepossessing appearance. In 1766 or 1767 he was at Munich, where Bumey heard him in 1772, and where foiu: of his operas were perhis audience

The three quartets to which Rasoumowsky's name is attached form op. 59, and are in F, E The first of the minor, and C respectively.
as already mentioned, was begun May 1806, and the whole three were finished and had evidently been played before Feb. 27, 1807, the date of a letter in the Allg. mus. Zeilung describing their characteristics. ^ They were published in January 1808 (Vienna Bureau Pesth, Schreyvogel), and the dedides Arts cation (on the Parts) begins 'Trois Quatuors three,

26,

Schlndler, i. 233 (quoted by Thayer, lli. 321). 3 They are again alluded to In the number for May 6 ae more and more auccessfiil, and possibly to be soon published and then, with astonishing naXveti, follows 'Eberl's newest compositions, too, are anticipated with great pleasure
;
'

He sang at various plac.es during this In London he made his first appearance in 1774, in Corri's 'Alessandro nell' Indie.' [His appearance in a pasticcio of Armida in the same year has resulted in the attribution to him of an opera of that name dated 1778, and the error has been copied into most dictionaries from the first edition of this work.] He also distinguished himself as an excellent teacher of singing, Miss Storace, Braham, Miss Poole (afterwards Mrs. Dickons), and Incledon, being among his pupils. In 1778 and 1779 he gave subscription concerts with the violinist Lamotte, when they were assisted by such eminent artists as Miss Harrop, Signor Rovedino,
formed.
period.
' '

OtherformsarePatapataplan, Palalalalan,

Bee the Didionnaire SncyclopSdigue of Sachs

Bumherumbumbum.
ft

Villatte.

EAVENSCROFT
Fischer, Cervetto, Stamitz,

KAWLINGS
Imperfection, and Diminution in Mensurable Musicke against the Common Practise and Custome of these Times ; Examples whereof are exprest in the Harmony of 4 Voyces Concerning the Pleasure of 5 vsuall Recreations. 1. Hunt2. Hawking. 3. Dancing. 4. Drinking. Enamouring a vain attempt to resuscitate an obsolete practice. The musical examples were composed by Edward Pearce, John Bennet, and Ravensoroft himself. [Much of the material is found in a MS. in the Brit. Mus. Add. MS.

Decamp, and de-

menti.

new

also gave brilliant concerts in the Assembly Rooms (built 1771) at Bath,

He

where he took up his abode on leaving London. Here he invited Haydn and Dr. Burney to visit him, and the three spent several pleasant days
together in 1794. On this occasion Haydn wrote a four-part canon (or more strictly a round) to an epitaph on a favourite dog buried iu Rauzzini's garden, ' Turk was a faithful dog and not a man.' (See Turk.) Rauzzini's operas performed in London were ' Piramo e 'nsbe' (March 16, 1775, and afterwards in Vienna), 'Le Ali d'Amore' (Feb. 27, 1776); 'Creusa in Delfo' (1783); 'La Regina di

ing.
5.

'

19,758

{Diet,

of Nat. Biog.).

In 1618-22 he

was music -meister at

Christ's Hospital {Mus.

Golconda' (1784); and 'La Vestale' (1787). L' Eroe Cinese,' originally given at Munich in 1771, was performed in London in 1782. (These dates are from the Public Advertiser.) He composed string-quartets, sonatas for PF., Italian arias and duets, and English songs also a Requiem produced at the little Haymarket Theatre in 1801, by Dr. Arnold and Salomon. He died, universally regretted, at Bath, April 8, His brother 1810. Matteo, bom in Rome 1754, made his iirst appearance at Munich in 1772, followed his brother to England, and settled in Dublin, where he produced an opera, II Rfe pastore, in 1784. He had written Le finte Gemelli for Munich in 1772, and 'L' opera nuova' for Venice in 1781. He employed himself in teaching singing, and died in 1791. o. F. p. RAVENSCROFT, John, one of the Tower
' '
'

'

'

Hamlets waits, and vioUnist at Goodman's Fields Theatre, was noted for his skill in the composition of hornpipes, a collection of which he published. Two of them are printed in Hawkins's History, and another in vol. iii. of 'The Dancing Master.' A set of sonatas for two violins and
violone or arch-lute, were printed at

Times, 1905, p. 580.)] In 1621 he published the work by which he is best known, 'The Whole Booke of Psalmes With the Hymnes Evangelicall and Spirituall. Composed into four parts by Sundry Authors with severall Tunes as have been and are usually sung in England, Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, France, and the Netherlands.' Another edition was published in 1633. Four anthems or motets by Ravenscroft are among the MSS. in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. [For other music by him see the Quellen-Lexilcon.^ The date of his death is not known. It is said by some to have been about 1630, and by others about 1635. w. H. H. RAVINA, Jean Henki, a pianoforte composer, was bom May 20, 1818, at Bordeaux, where his mother was a prominent musician. At the instance of Rode and Zimmermann the lad was admitted to the Conservatoire of Paris in 1831. His progress was rapid- second prize for PF. in 1832; first prize for the same in
:

1834;

first for

harmony and accompaniment

in

Rome

in

w. H. H. RAVENSCROFT, Thomas, Mus.B., born about 1582, was a chorister of St. Paul's under Edward Pearce, and graduated at Cambridge in 1607. In 1609 he edited and published Pammelia. Musickes Miscellanie or Mixed Varietie of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches
1695.
died about 1745.
' :

He

10 Parts in one the earliest collection of rounds, catches, and canons printed in this country. A second impression appeared in 1618. Later in 1609 he put forth 'Deuteromelia or the Second Part of Musiok's Melodic, or melodius Musioke of Pleasant Roundelaies ; K. H. mirth, or Freemen's Songs and such delightfull Catches' containing the catch, Hold thy peace, thou knave,' sung in Shakespeare's 'Twelfth Night.' In 1611 he published Melismata. Musicall Fhansies, fitting the Court, Citie, and Countrey Humours, to 3, 4 and 5 Voyces.' In 1614 he published 'A Briefe Discourse of the true (but neglected) use of Charact'ring the Degrees by their Perfection,
of 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
'

1835, ajoint professorship of PF. Nov. 1835. In Feb. 1 837 he left the Conservatoire and embarked on the world as a virtuoso and teacher. He resided exclusively at Paris, with the exception of a journey to Russia in 1853, and Spain in 1871. He received the Legion of Honour in 1861. His compositions are almost all salon pieces, many of them very popular in their time, graceful and effective, but with no permanent qualities. He also published a 4 -hand arrangement of Beethoven's nine symphonies. Ravina died in Paris, Sept. 30, 1906. The above sketch is indebted to M. Pougin's supplement

to F^tis.

G.

RAWLINGS,
and

or

RAWLINS, Thomas, bom

about 1703, was a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and a member of Handel's orchestra at both opera
oratorio performances. On March 14, 1753, he was appointed organist of Chelsea Hospital. He died in 1767. His son, Robert, bom in 1742, was =t pupil of his father, and afterwards of Barsanti. At seventeen he was appointed musical page to the Duke of York, with whom he travelled on the continent until his death in 1767, when he returned to England and became a violinist in the King's band and Queen's private band. He died in 1 8 1 4, leaving

'

'


30

RAYMOND AND AGNES


than

KEADE
his labours and enthusiasm deserved. Besides weekly organ and pianoforte recitals, he formed n choir of eighty voices, which iu 1862 was amalgamated with the existing Sacred

a son, Thomas A., born in 1775, who studied music under his father and Dittenhofer. He composed some instrumental music performed at the Professional Concerts, became a violinist at the Opera and the best concerts, and a teacher of the pianoforte, violin, and thorough-bass. He composed and arranged many pieces for the pianoforte, and some songs, and died about the middle of the 19th century. w. H. H. RAYMOND AND AGNES. A 'grand romantic English Opera in three acts words by E. Fitzball, music by E. J. Loder. Produced at Manchester in 1855, and at St. James's Theatre, London, June 11, 1859. g.
'

Harmonic Society of Newcastle.

In 1867 he

The second note of the natural scale in and in the nomenclature of France and Italy, as TJt (or Do) is the first, Mi the third, and Fa the fourth
RE.
solraisation
Ut queant laxis resonare fibris Mira, gestorum, /amuli tuorum.

to Metastasio's words (with compressions), composed by Mozart at Salzburg in 1775, in honour of the Archduke Maximilian. First performed April 23, 1775. It contains an overture and fourteen numbers. The autograph is in the Royal Library at Berlin, and the work is published in Breitkopf s complete edition as Series Aminta's air, 'L'amer6,' with V. No. 10. violin obbligato, is the number by which the work is most widely known. g. REA, William, born in London, March 25, 1827 ; when about ten years old learnt the pianoforte and organ from Josiah Pittman, for whom he acted as deputy for several years. In about 1843 he was appointed organist to Christchurch, Watney Street, St. George's-in-the-East, and at the same time studied the pianoforte, composition, and instrumentation under Sterndale Bennett, appearing as a pianist at the concerts of the Society of British Musicians in 1845. On leaving Christchurch he was appointed In 1849 organist to St. Andrew Undershaft. he went to Leipzig, where his masters were Moscheles and Richter ; he subsequently studied under Dreyschock at Prague. On his return to England, Mr. Rea gave chamber concerts at the Beethoven Rooms, and became (1853) In 1856 he organist to the Harmonic Union.

By the Germans and English it is called D. RE PASTORp, IL. A dramatic cantata

G.

began a series of excellent orchestral concerts which were carried on every season for nine years, when he was compelled to discontinue them, owing to the pecuniary loss which they entailed. In 1876 he gave two performances of 'Antigone' at the Theatre Royal, and devoted much of his time to training his choir (200 voices), the Newcastle Amateur Vocal Society, and other Societies on the Tyne and in Sunderland, besides giving concerts at which the best His published works comartists performed. prise four songs, three organ pieces, and some anthems. At the close of 1 880 he was appointed organist of St. Hilda's, S. Shields, in 1888 he [He resigned the corporation appointment. was an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Organists, and in 1886 received the honorary degree of Mus.D. from the University of Durham. He composed a ' Jubilee Ode for the Newcastle Exhibition of 1887, and he died at Newcastle, March 8, 1903. An account of his life and His works is in Mvsical Times, April 1903. wife, Emma Mary {rde Woolhouse), was an accomplished musician, actively connected with the musical life of Newcastle. She died May 6, w! B. s. 1693. p. K.] READE, Chakles, English dramatist and novelist born June 8, 1814, died April 11, 1884 claims a notice in his capacity of xpert connoisseur, and one of the earliest collectors of old violins. He devoted much time to the study of violin construction, and as his sons put it acquired as keen a scent for the habitat of a rare violin, as the truffle dog for fungus beneath the roots of the trees.' He gathered much of this accurate knowledge from one
'

'

founded the London Polyhymnian Choir, to the training of which he devoted much time, and with excellent results at the same time he conducted an amateur orchestral society. In 1858 he was appointed organist at St. Michael's, Stookwell, and in 1860 was chosen by competi;

tion organist to the corporation of Newcastleon-Tyne, where he also successively filled the same post at three churches in succession, and

Road Chapel. At Newcastle Mr. Rea worked hard to diffuse a taste for good music, though he met with less encouragement
at the Elswick

Henri, a player ajid a maker to boot, resident in Soho, with whom he engaged in experiments in varnish, and in the business of importing fiddles from abroad for the English dealers. Frequent visits to Paris, in the latter connection, resulted sometimes in profit, and at other times in financial catastrophe ; but they succeeded in bringing to England some of the finest specimens of Cremona instruments that are known to-day. They were in Paris, buying a stock of thirty fiddles, when the Revolution of 1848 broke out, and Henri threw aside fiddle-dealing and joined the revolutionists. He was shot before his friend's eyes at the first barricade, and Charles Reade escaped with difficulty, leaving the fiddles behind. These were found stored away in a cellar after the Revolution, and eventually reached Reade, who records that he sold one of them for more than he paid for the whole lot. At the time of the Special Loan Exhibition of Musical Instruments held at the South Kensington Museum in 1872, Reade wrote a

EEADING
series of letters upon Cremona fiddles in the JPail Mall Gazette, in whicli he propounded the

REBEC
who was a

31

theory that the Lost Cremona Varnish was a spirit varnish laid over an oil varnish. Coming as it did from so noted a connoisseur, there were many who accepted the theoi-y as the solution of the question. These letters were privately reprinted by G. H. M. Muntz, under the title Lost Art Revived : Cremona Fiolins and Varnish (Gloucester, 1873), and again in the volume entitled Readiana (Ghatto & Windus, 1882). In later life Charles Reade abandoned fiddles and fiddle-trading, but we
' '

singer at Drury Lane in the latter part of the l7th century. In June 1695 he and Pate, another singer at the theatre, were removed from their places and fined 20 marks each for being engaged in a riot at the Dog Tavern, Drury Lane, but were soon after reinstated. A Rev. John Reading, D.D., Prebendary of Canterbury Cathedral, preached there a sermon in defence of church music, alnd published it in 1663. w. H. H. REAL FUGUE. See Fugue.

REAY, Samuel,

born at Hexham, March 17,


;

find traces of his infatuation in his writings.

The adventurous

career of
is

the violin- maker,

John Frederick Lott, told by him, somewhat

romantically, in his novel Jack of all Trades ; whilst interesting matter concerning the violin comes into Christie Johnstone, and his collection Reade (Charles L., of tales entitled Cream. and Rev. Compton), Charles Reade Coleman (John), Charles Reade ; Sutherland - Edwards, Personal Recollections ; Hart (G.), The Violin ; E. h-a. Diet, of Nat. Biog. READING, John. There were three musiThe first cians of these names, all organists. was appointed Junior Vicar Choral of Lincoln Cathedral, Oct. 10, 1667, Poor Vicar, Nov. 28, 1667, and Master of the Choristers, June 7, 1670. He succeeded Randolph Jewett as organist of Winchester Cathedral in 1675, and retained the office until 1681, when he was He appointed organist of Winchester College. He was the composer of the died in 1692. Latin Graces sung before and after meat at the annual CoUegeelection times, and the well-known all Winchester School song, ' Dulce Domum printed in Dr. Philip Hayes's ' Harmonia The second was organist of Wiccamioa.' Chichester Cathedral from 1674 to 1720.

'

Several songs included in collections published

between 1681 and 1688 are probably by one or The third, born other of these two Readings. 1677, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under In 1696-98 he was organist of Dr. Blow. Dulwich College [information from Dr. W. H. Cummings]. He was appointed Junior Vicar and Poor Clerk of Lincoln Cathedral, Nov. 21, 1702, Master of the Choristers, Got. 5, 1703,

and Instructor of the

choristers in vocal music,

He appears to have resigned Sept. 28, 1704. these posts in 1707, and to have returned to London, where he became organist of St. John,
Hackney (in 1708), St. Dunstan in the West, St. Mary Woolchurchhaw, Lombard Street, and He published A Book St. Mary Woolnoth.
'

Songs (after the Italian manner) with Symphonies and a Thorough Bass fitted to the Harpsichord, etc.,' and (about 1709) 'A Book of New Anthems.' One of the Readings was also the reputed composer of the tune to Adeste
of
'

New

fideles.'

He

died Sept. 2, 1764.

There was another person named Reading,

1822, was noted for his fine voice and careful singing as a chorister at Durham Cathedral and under Henshaw the organist, and Penson the precentor there, became acquainted with much music outside the regular Cathedral services. After leaving the choir he had organ lessons from Mr. Stimpson of Birmingham, and then became successively organist at St. Andrew's, Newcastle (1845) St. Peter's, Tiverton (1847);St. John's Parish Church, Hampstead (1854) Saviour's, Warwick Road (1856) St. St. Stephen's, Paddington Eadley College (1859, succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk) Bury, Lancashire (1861); and in 1864 was appointed 'Songschoolmaster and organist of the parish Church Newark, retiring from the latter post in 1901, but retaining that of Song schoolmaster on the Magnus foundation until his death, which took place at Newark, July 22, 1905. In 1871 Reay graduated at Oxford as Mus.B. In 1879 he distinguished himself by producing at the Bow and Bromley Institute, London, two comic cantatas of J. S. Bach's ('Caffee-cantate' and Bauern-cantate '), which were performed there certainly for the first time in England on Oct. 27, under his direction, to English words of his own adaptation. Mr. Reay was noted as a fine accompanist and extempore player on the organ. He published a Morning and Evening Service in F, several anthems, and two madrigals but is best known as a writer of (all Novello) part-songs, some of which ( The clouds that wrap, The dawn of day, written for the Tiverton Vocal Society) are deservedly popular. G. REBEC (Ital. Ribeca, Ribeba Span. Rabd, Rabel). The French name (said to be of Arabic origin) of that primitive stringed instrument which was in use throughout western Europe in the Middle Ages, and was the parent of the viol and violin, and is identical with the German fiddle in outline geige and the English something like the mandoline, of which it was It was shaped like the probably the parent. half of a pear, and was everywhere solid except at the two extremities, the upper of which Was formed into a peg-box identical with that still in use, and surmounted by a carved human head. The lower half was considerably cut down in level, thus leaving the upper solid part of the instrument to form a natural finger-board. The portion thus cut down was scooped out,
; ; ; ; ;
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

32

REBEC
disused,

REBEL
and no specimen was known
until, at

and over the cavity thus formed was glued a short pine belly, pierced with two trefoil-shaped sound-holes, and fitted with a bridge and sound-

the exhibition of Musical Instruments at Milan in 1881, six genuine specimens were shown. Representations of it in sculpture, painting, The illustramanuscripts, etc., are abundant. tion is from an Italian painting of the 13th century engraved in Vidal's Instruments a Archet. [The custom of playing songs in unison with the voice, which came into vogue in the 15th century, resulted in the classification of rebecs into definite ' sets answering in
'

pitch to the Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass voices. Martin Agrioola, in his Musica Instrumentalis, 1528, gives woodcuts of a 'set' of rebecs which he calls Discant, Altus, Tenor, and
Bassus.
B. H-A.] E. J. p.

in Paris about 1661, [the son of Jean, a singer in the service of the French court, from 1661 to his death in 1692.] After a precocious childhood he entered

REBEL, Jean FtoT, born

The player either rested the curved end of the instrument lightly against the breast, or
post.
else

held

it like

the violin, between the chin

In 1703 he produced the Opdra as a violinist. ' Ulysse,' opera in five acts with prologue, containing a pas seul for Francois Pr6v8t to an air The opera called 'Le Caprice,' for violin solo. failed, but the Caprice remained for years the After test-piece of the ballerine at the Opera.

and the collar-bone, and bowed it like the violin. It had three stout gut strings, tuned like the
lower strings of the violin (A, D, 6). Its tone was loud and harsh, emulating the female voice, according to a French poem of the 13th century. Quidam rebecam arcuabant, Muliebrem vocem confingentes.^
old Spanish poem speaks of ' el rab^ gri2 or the ' squalling rebec' This powerful tone made it useful in the mediaeval orchestra ; and Henry the Eighth employed the rebec in his state band. It was chiefly used, however, to
tador,'

composed violin solos' for various other ballets, such as ' La Boutade," 'Les Caracteres de la Danse' (1716), 'Terpsichore' (1720), 'La Fantaisie' (1727), 'Les 'Les Elements.' Plaisirs ChampStres,' and Several of these were engraved, as were his
this success. Rebel

An

accompany dancing andShakespeare'smusicians in Borneo and Juliet, Hugh Rebeck, Simon Catling (Catgut), and James Soundpost, w^ere
;

In 1713 he was accomsonatas for the violin. panist at the Opera, and in 1717 was one of the '24 violons,' and by 1720 'compositeur [This latter oflice de la chambre ' to the King. he resigned in 1727, in favour of his son Fran9ois, and later passed on to him the duties of conductor of the Opera, which he had fulfilled for many years.] He died in Paris, 1746 or 1747, and was buried on Jan. 3, 1747. [His
sister,

undoubtedly rebec -players.

After the inven-

Anne-Ren^b, born 1662, became one

tion of instruments of the viol and violin type it was banished to the streets of towns and to rustic festivities, whence the epithet 'jocund'
It was applied to it in Milton's L' Allegro. usually accompanied by the drum or tambourine. It was in vulgar use in France in the 18th century, as is proved by an ordinance issued by Guignon in his official capacity as 'Eoi des

of the best singers of the court, and from the age of eleven years, appeared in the ballet, etc.

She was married in 1684 to Michel Richard de Lalande (see vol. ii. p. 623), and she died in
1722.]

Jean -Fury's son Franqois, bom in Paris, June 19, 1701, at thirteen played the violin in the Opera orchestra. It seems to have been
at Prague, during the festivities at the coronation of Charles VI. in 1723, that ha became

Violons'in 1742, in which street-fiddlers are II leur prohibited from using anything else sera permis d'y jouer d'une espfeoe d'instrument k trois cordes seulement, et connu sous le nom de rebec, sans qu'ils puissent se servir d'un violon k quatre cordes sous quelque pr^texte que
'
;

intimate with

Franjois

Francoeur

the two

composed

extant, dated 1628, ce soit.' in which it is forbidden to play the treble or bass violin 'dans les cabarets et les mauvais lieux,' but only the rebec. The rebec .was extinct in England earlier than in France. Itis now totally similar order
is
1

D'Aymeric de Peyrat;

see nii Gauge's


;

Glonarium^

b.t.

'ban-

Don Ant Bod. de HIto

lee Vldl, Ida

ImtrumenU i arOut.

Academic, Thisbe' (1726); 'Tarsis et Z^ie' (1728); Scanderbeg" (1735); 'Ballet de la Paix' (1738); 'Les Augustales and 'LeRetourdu Roi' (1744); 'Z^lindor,' 'Le Trophic (in honour of Fontenoy, 1745); 'IsmJine' (1750) ; ' Les Gteies tut^laires (1751) ; and ' Le Prince de Noisy (1760) most of which were composed for court ftes or public rejoioinga. [Rebel
' ' '

at the the following operas: 'Pyrame et

conjointly,

and

produced

'

'

RSBSK
seems to have been the sole author of a
Pastorale heroique' (1730).] From 1733 to 1744 Rebel and Franoceur were joint leaders of the Aoademie orchestra, and in 1753 were appointed managers. They

EECITATIVE

33

soon, however, retired in disgust at the petty vexations they were called upon to endure.

word, everything combines to make it one of the safest and most valuable of instruction-books. The second part especially, dealing with 'accidental notes or, notes foreign to the constitucontains novel views, and obsertion of chords vations throwing light upon points and rules of harmony which before were obscure and con'

Louis XV. made them surintendants of his music, with the Order of St. Michel. In March 1757 these inseparable friends obtained the privilege of the Opera, and directed it for ten years on their own account, with gieat administrative ability.

fused.

In 1862 M.

Reber succeeded

HaUvy

as

Professor of composition at the Conservatoire ; since 1871 he was also Inspector of the succwsales or branches of the Conservatoire.

He

Rebel died in Paris, Nov. 7, 1775. He composed some cantatas, a Te Deum, and a De Profundis, performed at the Concerts Spirituels, but all his music is now forgotten, excepting a lively air in the first finale of Pyrame et Thisb^ which was adapted to a much-admired pas seul of Mile, de Camargo, thence became a popular contredanse the first instance of such adaptation and in this form is preserved in the C\k du Caveau,' under the title of 'La Camargo.' [A very interesting siccount of the family, with detailed notices of the music of G. F. Kebel, appeared in the Sammelbande of the Int. Mus. Ges. vol. vii. p. 253, by M. L. de la
'

died in Paris, after a short illness, Nov. 24, 1880, and was succeeded as Professor by M.

Saiilt-Saens.

'

Laurencie.]

G. c.

at Miilhausen, Oct. 21, 1807 pat twenty entered the Paris Conservatoire, studying counterpoint and fugue under Seuriot and Jelensperger, and comCircumstances led him position under Lesueur. to compose chamber -music, after the success His music to of which he attempted opera. Le the second act of the charming ballet Diable amoureux' (Sept. 23, 1840) excited considerable attention, and was followed at the Op^ra-Comique by ' La Nuit de Noel,' three acts (Feb. 9, 1848), 'LePfereGaillard,'threeaots(Sept.
'

KEBER, Napoleon -Henri, born

His compositions comprise four symphonies, and three quartets for strings, one PF. ditto, seven trios, duets for PF. and violin, and PF. pieces for two and four hands. Portions of his ballet Le Diable amoureux have been published for orchestra, and are performed at concerts. In 1875 he produced a cantata called 'Roland,' but 'Le Menetrier k la oour,' op^racomique, and 'Naim,' grand opera in five acts, have never been performed, though the overtures His best vocal works are his are engraved. melodies for a single voice, but he has composed choruses for three and four men's voices, and some sacred pieces. G. c.
a quintet
'
'

7, 1852), ' Les Papillotes de M. Benoit,' one act (Dec. 28, 1853), and 'Les Dames Capitaines,' In these works he three acts (June 3, 1857). strove to counteract the tendency towards noise

'performance.' a term which has come into use in England to signify a performance of solo music by one performer. It was probably first used by Liszt at his performance at the Hanover Square Rooms, June 9, 1840, though as applying to the separate pieces and not to the whole performance. The advertisement of theconcert says that *M. Liszt will give Recitals on the The name Pianoforte of the following pieces.' was afterwards adopted by Ha]l^ and others, and is in the present day often applied to concerts when two or more soloists take part. The term Opera Recital is used for a concert in which the music of an opera is sung without
(Ital.),

RECITA

RECITAL,

and bombast then so prevalent both in French and Italian opera, and to show how much may
be made out of the simple natural materials of the old French opera-eomique by the judicious
use of

costume or action.

G.
(Ital. Eecitativo
;

RECITATIVE
citativ
;

Germ. Me-

modem

orchestration.

In 1851 he was appointed Professor of harmony at the Conservatoire, and in 1853 the well-merited success of Le Pere Gaillard procured his election to the Institut as Onslow's successor. Soon after this he renounced the He theatre, and returned to chamber-music. also began to write on music, and his TraiU d'Harmmiie (1862) went through many editions, and is without comparison the best work of its kind in France. The outline is simple and methodical, the classification of the chords easy to follow and well connected, the explanations luminously clear, the exercises practical and well calculated to develop musical taste in a
'
'

irom the Latin Secitare). of declamatory music, extensively used in those portions of an Opera, an Oratorio, or a Cantata, in which the action -of the drama is too rapid, or the sentiment of the poetry too
Fr. EicAtatif ;

species

changeful, to adapt itself to the studied rhythm of a regularly constructed Aria. The invention of Recitative marks a crisis in the history of music, scarcely less important than that to which we owe the discovery of harmony; Whether the strange conception in which it originated was first clothed in tangible

form by Jacopo

Peri, Giulio Caccini, or

Emilio

del Cavalieri, is a question decided.

which has never been

Thus first launched upon the world, for the purpose of giving a new impetus to the progress

VOL. rv

34

RECITATIVE

RECITATIVE
Haydn (1V98).

of art, this particular style of composition has

undergone less cliange, during the last 300 years, than any other. What simple or unaocompanled Recitative (Redtaiivo secco) is to-day, it was, in all essential particulars, in the time of Euridice. Then, as now, it was supported by the lightest possible accompaniment, originally a figured-bass. Then, as now, its periods were moulded with reference to nothing more than the plain rhetorical delivery of the words to which they were set melodious or rhythmic phrases being everywhere carefully avoided, as not only unnecessary, but absolutely detrimental
'
'

(,,)

(c)

Mozart (17SC).

,,,

i^

cbe carta i

quellat

Be U eonte viene

detrimental that the difficulty of adapting good recitative to poetry written in short rhymed verses is almost insuperable, the jingle of the metre tending to crystallise itself in regular form with a persistency which is rarely overcome except by Hence it is, that the the greatest masters.
to the desired effect

so

I
Beethoven
(1805).

and best poetry for recitative is blank verse hence it is, that the same intervals, progres;

and cadences have been used over and by composers who, in other matters, have scarcely a trait in common. We shall best illustrate this by selecting a few examples from the inexhaustible store used by some of the greatest writers of the l7th, 18th, and 19th
sions,

over again

premising that, in phrases ending with two or more reiterated notes, it has been long the custom to sing the first as an appogWe have giatura, a note higher than the rest. shown this in three cases, but the rule applies
centuries
;

to

many
(o)

others.
Peei(1600).
(o)

^-EpS^^l^^
che tra pun-geii-tl
Bplnl.

Cavalieri
l

(1600).

le fu meglior pen

siero.

zb;

(I)

Mendelssohn

(1836).

fe
Carissimi(16^.

(o)

e^I^eISe^eE
in Tic
-

to

ri

la

ra

el

1=^E=
,^

m
J. i3. il. S.

{Sung) Ib

ra

eL

Bach (1T34). UACH


(

they re-joi-oed ex

ceeding-ly

(Sung) ceed-lDg-ly.

^^ ^
(")
,

*
(6)

Handel (1713).

il

ne-mi-co traacorre

A mi dunque Agi-lea ?

i.^^^=fei^g=^^^
b


RECITATIVE
the purpose for which they were originally designed. But the staunch conservatism of Becitativo secco goes even farther than this. Its accompaniment has never changed. The latest composers who have employed it have trusted for its support to the simple Basso continuo, which neither Peri, nor Carissimi, nor Handel, nor Mozart cared to reinforce by the introduction of a fuller accompaniment. The chief modification of the original idea which has found favour in modern times was when the harpsichord and the pianofoi'te were banished from the opera orchestra, and the accompaniment of Eecitativo secco was confided to the principal violoncello and double bass the former filling in the harmonies in light arpeggios, while the latter confined itself to the simple notes of the Sasso continuo. In this way the Recitatives were performed at Her Majesty's Theatre for more than half a century by Lindley and Dragonetti, who always played at the same desk, and accompanied with a perfection attained by no other artists in the world, though Charles Jane Ashley was considered only second to Lindley in expression and judgment. The general style of their accompaniment was exceedingly simple, consisting only of plain chords, played arpeggiando but occasionally the two old friends would launch out into passages as elaborate as those sho*n in the following example ; Dragonetti playing the large notes, and Lindley the small ones.
; ;

RECITATIVE

35

governed by no law whatever beyond that of euphony. Its harmonies exhibit more variety now than they did two centuries ago ; but they are none the less free to wander wherever they please, passing through one key after another, until they land the hearer somewhere in the immediate neighbourhood of the key chosen for the next regularly constructed movement. Hence it is that recitatives of this kind are usually written without the introduction of
sharps or flats at the signature since it is manifestly more convenient to employ any number of accidentals that may be needed, than to place three or four sharps at the beginning of a piece which is perfectly at liberty to end in seven flats. But notwithstanding the unchangeable character of lieciiativo secco, declamatory music has not been relieved from the condition which imposes progress upon every really living branch of art. As the resources of the orchestra increased, it became evident that they might be no less profitably employed in the accompaniment of highly impassioned recitative than in that of the aria or chorus and thus arose a new style of rhetorical composition, called accompanied recitative {Mecitativo stromentato), in which the vocal phrases, themselves unchanged, received a vast accession of power, by means of
; ;

symphonies interpolated between them, or even by instrumental passages designed expressly for their support. [The
elaborate orchestral

Don Giovanni.

^^^3^^^^
preade

Leporello.

Don Giovanni.

Per IknunoesGaal-lo-z&me

An-co-nmeglio

M'acca

rez-za,

ml abbraccia

In no country has this peculiar style been so as in England, where the traditions of its best period are scarcely yet forgotten. [On an interesting MS. of Mendelssohn's, showing the kind of treatment he preferred while following the English practice, see Musical Times, 1902, p. 727.] A return was made to the old method by the employment of the piano, first by Mr. Otto Goldschmidt at a performance of Handel's 'L'AUegro' in 1863, and more recently by Sir
successfully cultivated

first

example of

it

seems to be in Landi's

'

San

Alessio' (1634)], and its advantages in telling situations were so obvious that it was im-

John

Stainer, at St. Paul's, in various oratorios.

Again, this simple kind of recitative is as free now as it was in the first year of the 1 7th century, from the trammels imposed by the laws of modulation. It is the only kind of music which need not begin and end on the same key. As a matter of fact it usually begins upon some chord not far removed from the tonic harmony of the aria or concerted piece which preceded it and ends in or near the key of that which is to follow but its intermediate course is
; ;

mediately adopted by other composers, and at once recognised as a legitimate form of art not, indeed, as a substitute for simple recitative, which has always been retained for the ordinary business of the stage, but as a means of jiroduoing powerful effects, in scenes, or portions of scenes, in which the introduction of the measured aria would be out of place. It will be readily understood that the stability of simple recitative was not communicable The steadily increasing to the newer style. weight of the orchestra, accompanied by a correspondent increase of attention to orchestral effects, exercised an irresistible influence over Moreover, time has proved it to be no less it. sensitive to changes of school and style than
the aria itself; whence it frequently happens that a composer may be as easily recognised by
his accompanied recitatives as

by

his regularly


'

36

RECITATIVE
Scarlatti's

EECITING-NOTE
accompanicourse of which Orfeo distractedly calls his lost bride by name, in tones which harmonise with

constructed movements. ments exhibit a freedom

of thought immeasur-

ably in advance of the age in which he lived. Sebastian Bach's recitatives, though priceless as music, are more remarkable for the beauty of their harmonies than for that spontaneity of expression which is rarely attained by composers unfamiliar with the traditions of the stage. Handel's, on the contrary, though generally based upon the simplestpossibleharmonic foundation, exhibit a rhetorical jierfection of which the most accomplished orator might well feel proud ; and we cannot doubt that it is to this high quality, combined with a never -failing truthfulness of feeling, that so many of them owe their deathless reputation to the unfair exclusion of many others, of equal worth, which still lie hidden among the unclaimed treasures of

the symphony, yet have not the least appearance In ' Iphigenie en Tauride,' of belonging to it. and all the later operas, the same device is constantly adopted ; and modern composers have also used it freely ^notably Spohr, who opens his 'Faust' with a. scene, in which a band behind the stage plays the most delightful of minuets, while Faust and Mephistopheles

sing an ordinary recitative, accompanied by the usual chords played by the regular orchestra in front. By a process of natural, if not inevitable development, this new style led to another, in

which the

recitative,

though

still

distinct from

his long-forgotten opersis. Scarcely less successful, in his own peculiar style, was Haydn, whose ' Creation ' and ' Seasons owe half their charm
'

Mozart was so uniformly great, in his declamatory passages, that it is almost impossible to decide upon their comparative merits ; though he has certainly never exceeded the perfection of Die Weiselehre dieser Knaben,' or Non temer.' Beethoven attained his highest flights in AbscheuUoher wo eilst du hiu ? and Ah, perfido Spohr, in ; ' Faust,' and Die letzten Dinge ; Weber, in ' Der Freisohiitz.' The works of Cimarosa, Kossini, and Cherubini abound in examples of acto their pictorial recitatives.
' ' '
! '

'

'

'

'

companied recitative, which rival their airs in beauty ; and it would be difhcult to point out any really great composer who has failed to appreciate the value of the happy invention. Yet even this invention failed either to meet the needs of the dramatic composer or to exhaust his ingenuity. It was reserved for Gluck to strike out yet another form of recitative, destined to furnish a more powerful engine for the production of a certain class of effects than any that had preceded it. He it was who first
conceived the idea of rendering the orchestra, and the singer to all outward appearance entirely independent of each other ; of filling the scene, so to speak, with a finished orchestral groundwork, complete in itself, and needing no vocal melody to enhance its interest, while the singer declaimed his part in tones which, however artfully combined with the instrumental harmony, appeared to have no connection with the resulting effect resembling it whatever ; that which would be produced, if, during the interpretation of a symphony, some accomplished singer were to soliloquise aloud in broken sentences, in such wise as neither to take an ostensible share in the performance nor to disturb it by the introduction of irrelevant An early instance of this may be discord. found in 'Orfeo.' After the disappearance of Euridice, the orchestra plays an excited crescendo, quite complete in itself, during the

the accompaniment, assumed a more measured tone, less melodious than that of the air, yet more so, by far, than that used for ordinary declamation. Gluck has used this peculiar kind of Me7,ai Sedtativo with indescribable power, in the prison scene, in ' Iphigenie en Tauride.' Spohr employs it freely, almost to the exclusion of symmetrical melody, in 'Die letzten Diiige.' Wagner makes it his cheval de bcUaille, introducing it everywhere, and using it as an ever-ready medium for the production of some of his most powerful dramatic effects. His theories on this subject have already been discussed 'so fully that it is unnecessary to revert to them here. Suffice it to say that his Melos, though generally possessing all the more prominent characteristics of pure recitative, sometimes approaches so nearly to the rhythmic symmetry of the song, that as in the case of Nun sei bedankt, mein lieber Schwan

'

! '

it is difficult it

to say, positively, to

which

class

belongs.

We

may,

therefore, fairly accept

this as the last link in the chain

which

fills

up

the long gap between simple ' Recitative secco and the finished aria. ['The free declamation, built on the natural inflexions of the speaking voice, which is employed for the vocal part of Debussy's ' Pelleas et M^lisande," though not styled 'recitative,' has much in common with
it.]
,

w.

s.

E.

RECITING-IirOTE (Lat. Repereussio, Nota domiTians). A name sometimes given to that


important note, in a Gregorian Tone, on which the greater portion of every verse of a psalm or Canticle is continuously recited ; and it is commonly used of the corresponding note in Anglican chant. As this particular note invariably corresponds with the Dominant of the Mode in which the Psalm-Tone is written, the terms. Dominant, and Reciting -Note, are frequently treated as
interchangeable.

[See

Modes and Psalmody.]

its appearance twice in the course of every tone ; first, as the initial member of the Intonation, and afterwards as that of the Ending ; the only exception to the general rule is to be found in the

The Reciting -Note makes


EECOEDER
Tonus Peregrinus (or Irregularis), in which the true Dominant of the Ninth Mode (E) is used for the first Reoiting-Note, and D for the setond. The Eeciting-Notes of Tones III, V, VII, VIII, and IX, are so high that they cannot
be sung, at their true pitch, without severely
straining the voice
;

RECORDER
player.

37

8 inches ; its lowest note is

existing contrabass measures 8 feet below the bass stave. Instruments of different families were formerly

An

kept apart, each family forming a consort, or The basis of the consort was band, of its own.
the quartet the discant, the alto, the tenor, and the bass. But the consort was not confined to the quartet ; thus Virdung, referring to recorders, writes : ' GeJierally, one makes four flutes in one case, or six ; this is called a set,

are almost attempt has been sometimes made so to arrange their respective pitches as to let one note serve for all. generally A This plan may, perhaps, be found practically convenient ; but it shows very little concern for the expression of the words, which cannot but suffer, if the jubilant phrases of one Psalm are to be recited on exactly the same note as the almost despairing accents of another. w. s. E.

tones

in practice, therefore, these always transposed. An

two

discant,

two

tenor,

and two

bass.'

The

EECOEDER.
a kind of
'

A
now

name given

flute,

in England to discarded, but once very


'

popular in "Western Europe. The verb to record was formerly in common use in the sense of to warble or sing as a bird, e.g., 'Hark! hark oh, sweet, sweet How the birds record
!

(Beaumont and Fletcher). A recorder, then, is a warbler, than which a more appropritoo'
ate appellation for the instrument, looking to

circumstance that each set was kept in a separate case, enables us to say how many recorders were played together. In the time of Henry VIII. the number rose to seven, eight, and nine, as the inventory of that monarch's recorders shows. When Praetorius wrote twenty-one were required to form a full flute consort. Dr. Burney saw a set at Antwerp comprising no less than thirty or forty, the case for which, when filled, was so heavy that eight men were required to raise it from the ground. By the middle of the 18th century the number had dwindled in France to five, and in a very late set, now in the Grosvenor Museum at Chester, it is reduced

sweetness and facility for trilling, it would When the word sprang up be hard to find.
its

uncertain. There is resison for believing that it was in use in the 14th century ; it is indisputable that in the 15th it was known from Cornwall to Scotland ; for in a miracleplay in the Cornish language, the manuscript of which is of that date, we have recordys ha
is
'

and symphony), and in the Scottish work entitled the Buke of the Howlate maid ie Holland, (c. 1450), The rote, and

symphony'

(recorders

'

the recordour, the ribup, the rist.' The recorder belonged to the fipple flute family (see Fipple Flutb), of which the flageoIt was distinguished let is a familiar example. from the other members of the family by the number and position of its finger-holes. Their
eight. The highest, which was closed with one of the thumbs, was pierced at the back, the lowest, played with a little finger, The remaining six at the side, of the tube.

number was

were placed in the front of the instrument. In early recorders, which were made in one

was duplicated for the accommodation of left-handed players ; there were thus two holes for the little finger, but one of them was kept stopped with wax. The
piece, the lowest hole

Discant

Alto.

Tenor.

Bass.

The Chester
to four.

Flutes.

duplication of the hole explains a paradox. the recorder was an eight -holed instrument, it was called in France (in addition

Although

to la fliUe douce
fi&te

and la

fiUte d' Angltsterre) la


flute.

a neuf

trous, or

the nine-holed

The

largest contrabass recorders were pierced with three holes below the eight. They were covered with keys, the two lowest of which were closed

some instruments by the otherwise unemployed thumb, in others by the feet, of the
in

The date of this set is unknown, but they are marked with the name of Bressan, a maker of whose flutes Sir John Hawkins speaks in a way which shows that they were in common use in his time (1719-89) in 1724 Mr. Bressan, by whom presumably the Chester set was made, was carrying on business at the Green Door in Somerset House Yard, in the Strand. The tone of the recorder was remarkable for two characteristics, solemnity and sweetness.
;


38

'

EECORDER
;

KEOOEDER
the flute a bee. The change of name led to a strange chapter in the history of music chapter which should be a warning to those who attempt to reconstruct extinct instruments out of preconceived ideas of what they might, or must, have been. For more than a hundred years the recorder was enshrouded in mystery. Sir John It was asked, What was a recorder ? Hawkins put forward the notion that it was a flageolet, and persuaded himself that Lord Bacon had spoken of the recorder as having six holes, the number of those of the flageolet. Burney, writing thirteen yeara after Sir John, stated authoritatively that a recorder was a flageolet, thereby revealing the secret that he had availed himself of his rival's labours withNext came out acknowledging his obligation. Mr. William Chappell, who brought himself to the belief that he had discovered in a book of instructions for the recorder the statement that the instrument was pierced with a hole called the recorder. He fancied that the recorder took its name from the hole, and drawing further on his imagination, supposed the hole to be covered with a piece of thin skin. Finally, Carl Engel acquired a Common flute (it is now in the South Kensington Museum) in which there was a hole covered with membrane. He pronounced this flute to be a recorder of the 17th century, and explained that the hole thus covered was intended to make the sound reedy and tender ; whereas an examination of the instrument would have shown him that his recorder of the 17th century was made in New Bond Street between 1800 and 1812, and that the hole covered with membrane was so placed that it was impossible for it to affect the tone. The claim of the recorder to be considered the head of instruments of the flute kind was destined to be called in question. Its supremacy was challenged by the transverse flute, an instrument called by the French- the German flute, to distinguish it from the recorder, which they termed the English flute. In lip flutes, to which family the German flute belongs, the channel from which the jet of air issues (see Flute) is formed by the lips. The control exercised by the lips over the shape of the jet and the size of the opening of the mouth-hole of the flute enables the player to influence the intonation and the quality of the tone, advantages (not to mention greater power) more than sufficient

Bacon twice alludes to ita solemnity Milton speaks of its 'solemn touches,' and under the name of 'the solemn pipe,' mentions it as one of the instruments played on a, great occasion in Heaven. Its sweetness was ineffable. Referring to the effect of recorders used at a theatre to represent a choir of angels, Pepys writes But that which did please me beyond anything in the whole world was the wind-musique when the angel comes down, which is so sweet that it ravished me, and indeed, in a word, did wrap up my soul so that it made me really sick, just as I have formerly been when in love with my wife that neither then, nor all the evening going home, and at home, I was able to think of anything, but remained all night transported, so as I could not believe that ever any musick hath that real command over the soul of a man as this did upon me and makes me resolve to practice wind-musique, and to make my wife do the like.' Some weeks afterwards he buys a recorder, 'which,' he says, 'I do intend to learn to play on, the sound of it being of all sounds in the world, most pleasing to me. The command which recorders had over the soul of a man,' and their
' ;
: '
'

'

power to mitigate and 'swage With solemn touches troubled thouglits, and chase Anguish, and doubt, and fear, and sorrow, and pain From mortal or immortal minds

may

serve to explain why Hamlet, in the frenzied state to which he had been wrought
spectacle of the murder of his father played before his guilty uncle, should bethink him of the calming influence of a consort of these instruments. Come, he cries, some music come, the recorders. If Shakespeare's design were carried out, instead of tlie two musicians we generally see furnished with little pipes not unlike penny whistles, there would come upon the stage in the recorder scene at least four recorder players carrying instruments varying in length from nearly two to nearly four feet. It is needless to say that even the discant is far too stout to be snapped like a twig, so that the act of violence sometimes seen, the breaking to pieces of the recorder borrowed of the player, would be as impracticable as it is foreign to the true spirit of the scene, and out of keeping with the nature of the gentle Hamlet. With the advance of the orchestra the consorts of wind instruments broke up and disappeared, only such members of each family being retained as were most suitable for the new combination. The member of the recorder family which survived had a compass of two octaves, from /' to /'", iingerings up to a'" being sometimes given. About the end of the 17th century the instrument ceased to be called the recorder, retaining only the appellation of flute, and descending after a time to that of the Common flute. In France it came to be styled
'
'

by the

'

'

to compensate for inferiority in sweetness and dignity. In Handel's orchestra the German

and the Common flute existed side by side, a circumstance which enabled Handel to express niceties of flute timbre to which we are strangers. Thus in Judas Maccabseus he was able to avail himself of the martial strains of two German flutes for 'See the Conquering Hero comes,' but to assign the cajolery of 'Wise men flattering may deceive you to the cooing blandishments of two Common flutes. We can
'
' '

' '

RECORDER
always
for
lie

RECORDER
;

39

tell

which

flute

terms the
flute
;

Common

he intends to be used, flute Flauto the


Traversiire,

German
Traversa.

Traversa, Traversa,

Traversiera

sometimes,

hut

rarely,

Flauto

Scarcely ever does Ije leave open which flute is to be employed ; there is, however, in 'Paniasso in Festa,' a passage marked Flauto ou Trav. 1., Flauto ou Trav. II. Handel's orchestra is known to have contained four hautboys and four bassoons ; his flutes, as
will be

shown, were

still

more numerous.

He

once uses

una

traversa bassa.

iraversieri tviti,

he wrote he no doubt expected not short

When

It of four treble transverse flutes to respond. seems certain that he had at his command as many Common flutes ; for the fourth scene of the first act of ' Giustino ' opens with a passage in
less than four FlauK and a Bassa de' We are not bound to Flauti play together. suppose that Handel had in his pay ten musicians who devoted themselves exclusively to the flute ; performers on other instruments, especially the hautboy, were expected to take the flute when required. Handel could call for not only five but six fipple flutes, his ottavino being a fiauta piccolo, or octave Common flute, not a transverse instrument. This does not seem to be even suspected, Here one yet the evidence is quite conclusive. The accompaniment to proof must suffice. ' Augelletti che cantate (the air in ' Kinaldo, on the singing of which birds were let loose) is marked in the conducting waT& flauto piccolo, but in the autograph copy in Buckingham Now Palace Handel has written ' Flageolett.' Handel would never have called a transverse The usual description of piccolo a flageolet. this accompaniment, that it is scored for two flutes and a piccolo, gives to the modern reader a false impression, neither the flutes nor the piccolo being the instruments we now call by It is a trio for three fipple flutes, those names. a. flauto piccolo and two flauti ; the flauto piccolo

which not

the third decade of the 19th century, long after that instrument had been banished from the orchestra, the second hautboy player used to play the part on a so-called flageolet at the As the society was estabAntient Concerts. lished in 1776, only seventeen years after Handel's death, it is reasonable to suppose that the practice was handed down from 'the time of the great composer. When the orchestra was remodelled by Haydn only the transverse flute was retained, the Common flute being altogether rejected. The German flute having thus captured its rival's place, proceeded to usurp its title of Flauto, and to drop its old name, Traversa. Its superiority for orchestral purposes was already so marked as to cause Haydn's choice to fall upon it but during Haydn's career as a composer it received an improvement which gave the coup de grdee to the old favourite. The improvement consisted in boring new holes in the tube and covering them with keys kept closed by

'

playing a brilliant solo which

th.e flauti

support.

The accompaniment has been pronounced by a


musician to be the
scoffing
'

loveliest imaginable
'

'

the

Addison writes of it, The musick proceeded from a concert of flagelets and bird-calls which were planted behind the scenes. Handel uses tYie flauto piccolo in a Tamburino in Alcina, and in two movements of the Water Music. In the latter two piccolos which play in unison are employed. They are not in the same key as the
'

To make clear the importance of this necessary to explain that in the onekeyed flute, which was tlien in use, there were no holes for four of the notes of the chromatic octave. When the player was in want of either of them, he muffled, and to some extent flattened, the note above the accidental needed by closing one or more holes below the hole from which the note to be flattened issued. Although tlie spurious notes thus obtained were so impure, feeble, and out of tune as to make the flute and those who played it bywords amongst musicians, the one-keyed flute held its ground for a period of not far short of a century. Remonstrances on the subject of its imperfections were put to silence by the dictum that the the flute, like the violin, was perfect player, it was asserted, not the instrument, was at fault. At length a stand was made against authority. The rebellion broke out in England, where two professional players named Tacet and Florio had the courage to adopt a flute with no Their example was quickly less than six keys. Between 1770 and 1780 the sixfollowed. keyed flute came into use in this country, and
springs.

step

it is

'

it, they were fipple Thrice the flauto piccolo furnishes a florid aceorapaniment to the soprano voice ; in Augelletti che cantate, just mentioned, in a song in ' Kiccardo,' and in ' Hush, ye pretty warbling The obbligato choir,' in =Acis and Galatea.' in the last-named work to the bass solo, ruddier than the cherry,' is marked in the score flauto, but seems to have been always

orchestral piccolo, but, like


flutes.

'

'

'

assigned

to

the flauto piccolo.

As

late

as

in spite of opposition, the keys were introduced abroad. The advantages conferred on the transverse flute by the completion of the chromatic octave were so immense that it is inconceivable that the makers of the time should not have thought of applying the system to the Common flute. Why the idea was not carried out is unknown, but it may be conjectured that mechanical Of the ten digits difficulties stood in the way. with which the hands of man are furnished but nine are available for execution, the tenth As the being required for holding the flute. Common flute was pierced with eight holes, only one finger was free when they were all Possibly, then, the makers may have closed.

by degrees,


40

'

KECTE ET RETEO, PER

RECTE, ET RETRO, PEE


or the cry of the Evil Spirits
In girum imus noctu ecce at consumimur igni.

been unable to contrive a method of acting on the five keys required for the chromatic octave,
being baffled by the want of fingers for the purpose but whatever was the cause, closed keys did not find their way to the Common flute, and so the instrument after a time fell completely
;
.

The canons were frequently constructed in exact accordance with the method observed in these
curious lines ; and innumerable quaint conceits were invented, for the purpose of giving the singers some intimation of the manner in which they were to be read. 'Canit more Hebraeorum Misericordia et was a very common motto. indicated that the Veritas obviaverunt sibi singers were to begin at opposite ends, and meet In the second Agnus Dei of in the middle. his 'Missa Graecorum,' Hobrecht wrote, 'Aries Aries being the first sign vertatur in Pisces In another of the Zodiac, and Pisces the last. part of the same Mass he has given a far more
'
'

into disuse. (See Proceedings of the Musical Associaiien, 1897-98, pp. 145-224 ; 1900-1, pp.

110-120; and 1901-2, pp. 105-137.) The above is epitomised from the writer's Ledv/res on the Secorder, to be published shortly, c. w.

RECTE ET EETRO, PER


crizans, Imitalio

(Imitatio can-

retrogradum, ImitaMo recwrrems ; Ital. Imitazione al Sovescio, o alia Siversa ; Eng. Retrograde Imitation). peculiar kind of Imitation, so constructed that the melody may be sung backwards as well as forwards ; as shown in the following two-part canon, which must be sung, by the first voice, from left to right, and by the second, from right to left, both beginning together, but at opposite ends of the music.

per

Motum

'

'

'

mysterious direction

Tu tenor

cancriza et per antifrasin canta,

Gum furcis in capite antifrasizando repete.


This introduces us to a new complication ; the secret of the motto being, that the tenor is not only to sing backwards, but to invert the intervals (' per antifrasin canta '), until he reaches the Horns that is to say, the two cusps of the semicircular Time-Signature after which he is to sing from left to right, though still continuing to invert the intervals. This new device, in which the intervals themselves are reversed, as well as the sequence of the notes, is called Retrograde Inverse Imitation (Lat. ImitaMo cancrizans motu contrario ; Ital. Imitazione al conLrario riverso). It might have been thought that this would have contented even Flemish ingenuity. But it did not. The part-books had not yet been turned upside down In the subjoined example we have endeavoured to show, in an humble way, the manner in which this most desirable feat may also be accomplished. The two singers, standing face to face, hold the book between them one looking at it from the ordinary point of view, the other, upside down, and both reading from left to right that is to say, beginning at opposite ends. The result, if not strikingly beautiful, is, at least, not inconsistent with the laws of counterpoint. ( For other examples see Inscription.)
'
'

^=

S^Egf^E^E^E

The earliest known instances of Retrograde Imitation are to be found among the works of the Flemish composers of the 15th century, who delighted in exercising their ingenuity, not only upon the device itself, but also upon the Inscriptions prefixed to the canons in which it was employed. The Netherlanders were not, however, the only musicians who indulged successfully in this learned species of recreation. Probably the most astonishing example of it on record is the motet, ' 'Diliges Dominum,' written by William Byrd for four voices and transmuted Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass into an eight-part composition, by adding a second Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, formed by singing the four first parts backwards. It is scarcely possible to study this complication attentively, without feeling one's brain turn giddy ; yet, strange to say, the effect produced is less curious than beautiful.

'

'

nRia-Tm-o<l f-p-iii 'n)

Ida - dA-i Dominum, om - nes

tea,

lau-da-te Do-mi-num.

There is little doubt that the idea of singing music from right to left was first suggested by those strange Oracular Verses ^ which may be read either backwards or forwards, without injury to words or metre ; such as the wellknown Pentameter

Retrograde Imitation has survived, even to our own day ; and in more than one very popular form. In the year 1791 Haydn wrote for his Doctor's degree, at the University of Oxford, a Canon cancrizans, a tre ( Thy Voice,
' ' '

Harmony
p..

'

),

which

Roma

tibi subito

motibns

ibit

amor.

1 Reprinted by Hawkins, History, ch. 96. 2 Venus recurreniXM, said to have been first invented by the Greeic Poet, Sotades, during the reign of Ptolemy Philadeipbus. The examples we have quoted are, however, of much later date century. the oldest of them being certainly not earlier than the

367, and he in the minuet of one of his symphonies. Some other modern composers have tried it, with
less

will be found in vol. ii. has also used the same device

happy

effect.

Hh

yet appeared in

But perhaps it has never a more popular form than

EEDEKER
that of the well-known Double Chant by Dr. Crotch.

REDOUTE

41

difficult to point to two schools bitterly opposed to each other than those of the early Netherlanders, and the English

It

would be

more

British Museum. A motet, some fancies, and a voluntary by him are in MS. at Christ Church, Oxford. [See also the Monaishefle for 1902, for list of other works by him.] His name is included by Morley in the list of those whose works he consulted for his 'Introduction.' w. h. h. REDHEAD, Richabd, born March 1, 1820, at Harrow, was a chorister at Magdalen College, Oxford, 1829-36, having received his musical education therefrom Walter Vioary, the organist.

Cathedral writers of the 19th century. Yet here we see an artifice, invented by the former, and used by one of the latter, so completely con amore, that, backed by the harmonies peculiar to the modern 'free style,' it has attained a position quite unassailable, and will probably last as long as the Anglican Chant itself shall continue in use. [Sir John Stainer wrote a hymn-tune 'Per Recte et Retro' in 1898 for the Church Hymnary (No. 381) ; it is also No. 81 of Novello's edition of the composer's hymns. It reads backwards in all the parts.] With these things before us, we shall do well to pause, before we consign even the most glaring pedantries of our forefathers to oblivion, w. s. E.

He was organist at Old Margaret Chapel (now All Saints' Church), Margaret Street, in 18391864, and from the latter date at St. Mary Magdalene, Paddington, a post he held till his death at Hellingley, Sussex, April 27, 1901.
His works are almost exclusively written or compiled for use in the Church of England service, viz. 'Church Music,' etc., 1840, 'Laudes Diurnae, the Psalter and Canticles in the Morning and Evening Service,' 1843, Music for the

Holy Communion,' 1853; 'O anthem for Good Friday Church Melodies, a collection of short pieces and Six
Office

of the

my

people,'

'

REDEKER,

Louise Dorettb Augustb, a

contralto singer, who made her first appearance in London at the Philharmonic Concert of June 19, 1876, and remained a great favourite until she retired from public life on her marriage with Dr. (now Sir) Felix Semon, Oct. 19, 1879. She

wasbornatDuingen, Hanover, Jan. 19, 1853, and from 1870 to 1873 studied in the Conservatorium at Leipzig, chiefly under Konewka. She sang first in public at Bremen in 1873. In 1874
she made the first of several appearances at the Gewandhaus, and was much in request for
concerts

Sacred Songs," 1858 'The Celebrant's Office Book," 1863 'Ancient Hymn Melodies, Book of Common Prayer with Ritual music. Canticles at Matins and Evensong, pointed as they are to be sung in churches and adapted to the Ancient Psalm Chants, and Parish Tune Book and Appendix,' 1865 'The Universal Organist, a Collection of Short Classical and Modem Pieces,' 1866-81; 'Litany with latter part of Commination Service, Music to the Divine Liturgy during the Gradual, Offertorium and Communion, arranged for use throughout the year,' 1874 Festival Hymns for All Saints and St. Mary Magdalene Days, Hymns for Holy
; ; ; ;

and

oratorios in

Germany and

other

countries during 1874 and 1875. In England she sang at all the principal concerts, and at

Seasons, Anthems, etc. a. c. REDOUTE. Public assemblies at which the guests appeared with or without masks at

the same time maintained her connection with the Continent, where she was always well received. Her voice is rich and sympathetic ; she sings without eSbrt and with great taste. G. REDEMPTION, THE. A Sacred Trilogy, written and composed by Charles Gounod. First performed at the Birmingham Festival, August 30, 188?, under the composer's direction. M. REDFORD, John, was organist and almoner, and master of the Choristers of St. Paul's Cathedral in the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII. (1491-1547). Tusser, the author of the Hundred good Points of Husbandrie, was one of his pupils. An anthem, 'Rejoice in the Lorde alway,' printed in the appendix to Hawkins's History and in the Motett Society's
first

The word is French, and is explained by Voltaire and Littr^ as being derived from the Italian ridotto perhaps with some analogy to the word 'resort.' They soon made their way to Germany and England. They are frequently mentioned by Horace Walpole under the name 'Ridotto,' and were one of the attractions at Vauxhall and Ranelagh in the middle of the 18 th century. In Germany and France the French version of the name was
pleasure.

volume,
are

is

remarkable for

its

melody and

expression.

by him

Some anthems and organ pieces in the MS. volume collected by

Mulliner, master of St. Paul's School, afterwards in the libraries of John StaSbrd Smith and Dr. Rimbault, and now in the

Thomas

adopted. The building used for the purpose in Vienna, erected in 1748, and rebuilt in stone in 1754, forms part of the Burg or Imperial Palace, the side of the oblong facing the Josephs-Platz. There was a grosse and a Meine Redoutensaal. In the latter Beethoven played a concerto of his own at a concert of Haydn's, Dec. 18, 1795. The rooms were used for concerts till about 1870. The masked balls were held there during the Carnival, from Twelfth Night to Shrove Tuesday, and occasionally in the weeks preceding Advent ; some being public, i.e. open to all on payment of an entrance fee,


42

REDOWA
the

EEED
harmonium and" concertina, its union with Beating reeds in the organ not having proved
successful.

and others private. Special nights were reserved for the court and the nobility. The ' Redoutentanze Minuets, AUemandes, Contredanses, Schottisches, Anglaises, and Landler were composed for full orchestra, and published
'

[See

Fkbe Reed,

vol.

ii.

p. 106.]

vibrator, as its name implies, passes freely through the long slotted brass plate to which

The

(mostly by Artaria) for pianoforte. Mozart,' Haydn, Beethoven, ^ Hummel, Woelfl, Gyrowetz, and others, have left dances viritten for this
purpose.
c. F. s.

REDOWA, a Bohemian dance which was introduced into Paris in 1846 or 1847, and quickly attained for a short time great popularity, both there and in London, although it is now never danced. In Bohemia there are two variations of the dance, the Rejdovak, in 3-4 or 3-8 time, which is more like a waltz, and the Rejdovaoka, in 2-4 time, which is something like a polka. The ordinary Redowa is written in 3-4 time (M.M. J=160). The dance is something like a Mazurka, with the rhythm less strongly marked. The following example is part of a Rejdovak which is given in Kohler's ' Volkstanze aller Nationen
'

the first impulse of the wind adapted tending to push it within the slot and thus close the apertm-e. In percussion harmoniums the vibrator is set suddenly in motion by a blow from a hammer connected with the keyboard. [The [See Hakmonium, vol. ii. p. 308.] Beating reed in its single form is that of the In this the edges of organ and the clarinet. the vibrator overlap the slot leading into the
it is
; ' '

resonating pipe or tube, and so close


cally during vibration.

it periodi-

which is a thin blade or lamina, has roughly the form of a long parallelogram, and it is firmly secured for a portion of its length to the bed or table of the In tube or mouthpiece in which the slot is cut.
reed,

The

m^^^^^^
-M^!

the organ reed the necessary opening for the entrance of the wind at the free end is obtained by giving a slight curvature to the blade or reed ; the pressure of the wind tends to close this opening, and vibration is thus set up. In the clarinet the same result is obtained by giving a slight curvature to the bed of the mouthpiece towards its tip, the under side of the reed itself being left perfectly flat (see

s&t

h^

-r-e-^

iiii^^^^

Clarinet). The Double reed, as used in the oboe and the bassoon, is constructed of two segments united in a tubular form at one end, and splayed out and flattened at the other so as to leave a slight opening in shape like the section of a double-convex lens. The bassoon reed is
placed directly upon the
' '

REED

Mohr). both ancient and modern ; the name being derived from the material of which it has been immemorially constructed. The plant used for it is a tall grass or reed, the Arundo Donax or Saliva, growing in the South of Europe. The substance in its rough state is commonly called ' cane,' though differing from real cane in many respects. The chief supply is now obtained from Frejus on the Mediterranean coast. Many other materials, such as lance-wood, ivory, silver, and
'ebonite,' or

W. B. S. (fi.AncAe; Ital. Aneia; Germ. Matt, The speaking part of many instruments,

crook

'

of the instru-

ment, but the oboe reed is built up upon a small tube or staple. The exact appearance of both single and double reeds will be gathered better from the drawings than from a more
'

detailed description.

hardened india-rubber, have been

experimentally substituted for the material iirst named ; but hitherto without success. Organ reeds were formerly made of hard wood, more recently of brass, German silver, and steel. The name Reed is, however, applied by organbuilders to the metal tube or channel against which the vibrating tongue beats, rather than to the vibrator itself. Reeds are divided into the Free and the Beating the latter again into the Single and the Double forms. The Free reed is used in
;

f
to

"> mouthpiece by a metaufBrta:"^' Double R6ed:-2.BMooii reed. 3. Baeeoon reed, toeehortened ho the opeulns between the two blades. 4. Oboe reei.

"""'" "'^"^

>' t

Sn KSchers Catalogue,

No. S99.

etc.

'

8e Nottelwlim'B Thematic Catalogue, Section 11. pagei 136-37.

The single reed is used also on the saxophone, and the double reed for the ohaunter of the Highland bagpipe, but the drones of the bag-


REED
pipe are sounded by single reeds of a most rudimentary character. It is possible to replace the double reed of the oboe and bassoon by a single reed of the clarinet type fitted to a small

REED

43

ducting the music at the Olympic under Mr. Wigan's management, and making prolonged
provincial tours. In 1855 he started a

mouthpiece. The old dolcino or alto-fagotto was so played in the band of the Coldstream Guards by the late Mr. Henry Lazarus when a The idea has been revived of late years boy. as a novelty, but neither the oboe nor the bassoon is capable of improvement in this way, although the saxophone, also a conical tube, is well adapted to the single reed, being an instrument of wider calibre.] w. H. s. with addi;

tions

by

D. J. B.

REED, Thomas Gbkman, born at Bristol, June 27, 1817. His father was a musician, and the son first appeared, at the age of ten, at the Bath Concerts as a PF. player with John Loder and Lindley, and also sang at the Concerts and at the Bath Theatre. Shortly after, he appeared at the Haymarket Theatre, London, where his father was conductor, as PF. player, singer, and actor of juvenile parts. Ifi 1832 the family moved to London, and the father became leader of the band at the Garriok Theatre. His son was his deputy, and also organist to the Catholic Chapel, German Reed now entered Sloane Stieet. eagerly into the musical life of London, was an early member of the Society of British Musicians, studied hard at harmony, counterpoint, and PF. playing, composed much, gave many lessons, and took part in all the good His work at the theatre music he met with. consisted in great measure of scoring and adapting, and getting up new operas, such as In 1838 he became 'Fra Diavolo' in 1837.
Musical Director of the Haymarket Theatre, In 1838 a post which he retained tiU 1851. he also succeeded Mr. Tom Cooke as Chapelmaster at the Royal Bavarian Chapel, where the music to the Mass was for long noted both Beethoven's Mass for quality and execution. in C was produced there for the first time in England, and the principal Italian singers habitually took part in the Sunday services. At the Haymarket, for the Shakespearean performances of Macready, the Keans, the Cushnians, etc., he made many excellent
innovations,
entr'actes,

new class of performance which, under the name of 'Mr. and Mrs. German Reed's Entertainment,' made his name widely and favourably known in England. Its object was to provide good dramatic amusement for a large class of society who, on various grounds, objected to the theatres. It was opened at St. Martin's Hall, April 2, 1855, as 'Miss P. Horton 's Illustrative Gatherings,' with two pieces called Holly Lodge and The Enraged Musician ' (after Hogarth), written by W. Brough, and presented by Mrs. Reed, with the aid of her husband only, as accompanist and occasional actor. In Feb. 1856 they removed to the Gallery of IllustraA tion, Regent Street, and there produced Month from Home,' and 'My Unfinished Opera'
'
'

'

'

(April 27, 1857); 'The Home Circuit' and 'Seaside Studies' (June 20, 1859) all by W. Brough; 'After the Ball,' by Edmund Yates ; ' Our Card Basket,' by Shirley Brooks ; ' An Illustration on Discord ' (' 'The Rival Composers '), by Brough (April 3, 1861) ; and
'

31,

The Family Legend, by Tom Taylor (March They then engaged Mr. John 1862).
'

Parry,

and produced the following


for this

series

of

company of three, and including some of Mr. Parry's most popular and admirable songs in the characters
pieces specially written

of Paterfamilias at the Pantomime, Mrs. Roseleaf, etc. etc.


'

The Cliarming Cottage.' April

'

Dream

in Venice.'

T.

W.

6,1863.

Robertson.
'

March

18, 1867.

Our Quiet Ch&teau.' B. Beece. 'The Pyramid.' Shirley Bitwka. Dec. 26. 1867. Feb. T, 1664. Inquire w-itbin.' jr. C. Bur"The Bard and his Birthday.' nand. July 22, 1868. W. Brough. April 20, 1864. Idst of the Faladina.' B. Beece. 'The Peculiar Family.' Do.
' '

March

19, 1S6S.

Dec. 23, 1868.


F. C.

'The Yachting Cruise.' Burnand. April 2, 1866.

company was further inby the addition of Miss Fanny Holland and Mr. Arthur Cecil, and soon after by Mr. The Corney Grain and Mr. Alfred Reed. following was the repertory during this last

At

this period the

creased

period
bach.

by introducing,
pieces,

as overtures

and

Arthur Near Belations.' 'LiscbenandFritschen.' OffenSketchley. August 14, 1871. Feb. 8, 1869. ' No Cards,' W. S. GUhert, and King Christmas.' Planch^. ' Cox and Box,' Bui*nand and SulDec. 26, 1871. Charity begins at Home.' B. Uvan. March 29. 1869. (A CecU'a
'

good

original or scored

by

himself, instead of the rubbish usually played During the temporary closing at that date.

of the theatre. Reed did the work of producing Pacini's opera of 'Sappho' at Drury Lane Clara Novello, Sims Reeves, (April 1, 1843

Eowe and Cellier. Feb. 7, 1872. appearance.) My Aunt's Secret.' Burnand 'Ages Ago.' W. 8. Gilbert and and Molloy. March 3, 1872. P. Clay. Kov. 22, 1869. Happy Arcadia.' W. S. GilNeighbour.' C, F. Beggarmy bert and F. Clay. Oct. 28, 18:12. Burnand. March 28, 1^0. 'Very Catching,' Burnandand Our Island Home.' W. S. GilMolloy. Nov. 18, 1872. bert. June 20, 1870. Burnand Mildred's Well.' The Bold Eecruit.' F. Clay. and German Seed. May 5, 1873. July 19, 1S70. 'A Sensation Novel.' Do. Jan.
first
' ' '

'

30. 1871.

1844 he married Miss Priscilla Horton, and for the next few years pursued the same busy, useful, miscellaneous life as
etc.).

In

During this period a diversion was made by the


introduction
characters.
'Jessy Lea.
larren.

of 'Opere di Camera,' These comprised


:

for

four

directing the production of English opera at the Surrey, managing Sadler's Wells during a season of English opera, with his wife. Miss Louisa Pyne, Harrison, etc., conbefore,

Oxeuford and Mac-

'Widows bewitched.' Virginia


Gabriel.
' ' '

A Fair Exchange ; A Happy Too Many Cooks.' Oifettbacb. 'The Sleeping Beauty.' Balfe. Eesult'; 'ChingChowHi.' AU 'The Soldiei-'s Legacy.' Oxen- three by OiTenbach. told and Mactarren.


44

EEED

'

REED-STOP
to these pieces were played For many on a pianoforte and harmonium. years the 'Musical Sketches' of Mr. Oorney Grain were a principal attraction of the entertainment. German Reed died at Upper East Sheen, Surrey, March 21, 1888, and in 1895 the entertainments came to an end, with the

"While the entertainment still remained at the Gallery of Illustration, Reed became lessee of St. George's Hall for the production of Comic Opera. He engaged an orchestra of forty and a strong chorus, and *The Contrabandista

The accompaniments

(Burnand

and

Sullivan),

'

L'Ambasaadrice

(Auber), and the 'Beggar's Opera' were produced, but without the necessary success. Mr.

Reed then gave


of Illustration,
successful,

his sole attention to the Gallery

in which he was uniformly owing to the fact that he carried' out his entertainments, not only with perfect

respectability,

but always with great talent,


variety.

much

tact

and judgment, and constant

the lease of the Gallery of Illustration expired, the entertainment was transferred to St. George's Hall, and there the following entertainments were produced
:

When

He's Coming.' F. C. Burnand and Gerinan Beed. Too Many by One.' F. C. Burnand and F. Cowan. The Tbiee Tenants ; 'Ancient Britons.' Oilbert A'Beckefct and
' ' ' '

Gilbert A'Beckett and German Keed. 'Matched and Match.' F. C. Burnand and German Beed. Puff of Smoke.' C. J. Bowe and Mme. Goetz. * Oar Dolls' German Bed. House.' C. J. Bowe A Tale of Old China.' F. 0. and Cobaford Dick. Burnand and Molloy. *A Wight's Surprise.' West Eyes and no Byes.' W. S. Gil- Cromer and German Beed. bert and German Beed. Poster Brothers.' F. C. Bur'

'

A Spanish Bond

; An Indian nand and King Hall. 'The Wicked Duke.' Happy Bungalow.'
' ' '

A.

Law.

The following were produced under the management of Mr, Oorney Grain and Mr.
Alfred Reed
'No.
'

F. C. Burnand and 'A Water Cure.' A. Law, ArBeed. nold Felix, and George Gear. Once in a Century.' A Moss Bose Bent.' A. Iiaw G. A'Beckett and Vivian Bligh. and A. J. Caldlcott. Double Event," A. Law, 'Our New Dolls' House,' W. Yardley and Cotsford Dick. Alfred Beed, and Corney Grain. * Fairly Puzzled.' Answer Paid.' F. C. Burnand Oliver Brand and Hamilton Clarke. and W. Austin. Doubleday's Will.' Burnand A Terrible Fright.' a. Law and Corney Grain. and King Hall. 'Artful Automaton.' Arthur Old Knockles.' A. Law and A. J. Caldlcott. Law and King Hall. A Peculiar Case." A. Law and 'A Tremendous Mystery.' F. G. Grosamitb. G, Burnand and King Hall. Hobbies.' Stephens, Yardley, Enchantment.' A. X^aw and aud G. Gear. German Beed. A Pretty Bequest.' M. WatGrange.' Orimstone G. son and Hamilton Clarke. A'Beckett and King Hall. ' '100 Beward.' A. Law and A Night In Wales.' H. Gardner and Corney Grain. Corney Grain. 'In Cupid's Court.' M. WatBack from India.' Pottinger sou and A. J. Caldlcott. Stevens and Cotsford Dick. ' The A United Pair.' Comyns CanHome.' G. Pirate's ard A. J. Caldlcott. A'Beckett and Vivian Bligh. The Friar.' Do. 'A Christmas Stocking.' O.
204.'

German

'

deaths of Alfred German Reed, March 10, and An attempt was Corney Grain, March 16. made to revive the enterprise, but without effect. Mrs. Geuman Reed, n^ Priscilla Horton, From was born at Birmingham, Jan. 1, 1818, a very early age she showed unmistakable qualifications for a theatrical career, in a fine strong voice, great musical ability, and extraordinary power of mimicry. She made her first appearance at the age of ten, at the Surrey Theatre, under Elliston's management, as the Gipsy Girl in *Guy Mannering.' After this'she was constantly engaged at the principal metropolitan Her theatres in a very wide range of parts. rare combination of grea,t ability as a singer, with conspicuous gifts as an actress, and most attractive appearance, led to a very satisfactory step in her career. On August 16, 1837, she signed an agreement with Macready for his famous performances at Covent Garden and Drury Lane, in which she acted Ariel, Ophelia, the Fool 1 in 'Lear,* the Attendant Spirit in 'Oomus,' Philidel in 'King Arthur,' and Acis in 'Acis and Galatea,' After the conclusion
of this memorable engagement, Miss Horton became the leading spirit in Planch^'s graceful

'

'

'

'

burlesques at the Haymarket Theatre. On Jan. 20, 1844, she married Mr. German Reed, and the rest of her career has been related under She died at Bexley Heath, March his name. 18, 1895, a few days after her son and Corney Grain. g,

REED-STOP.
controlled

"When the pipes of an organ,

'

A'Beckett and King Hall. A. 'Casfcle Botherem.'

The Naturalist.' ComynaCarr

their tone of a vibrating tongue striking the face of a reed, the stop is called a Reed-stop ; when the pipes contain no such reeds, but their

by a draw-stop, produce

by means

Law and King HaU.


TaUy-Hol'
J. Caldlcott.
' *

and Hamilton Clarke.


and Edouard Marlols. 'A Flying Visit.' A. Law and Oorney Grain. ' The Turquoise Bing." G. W. Godfrey and Lionel Benson. 'A Merry Christmas.' A. Law and King HaU. 'Bandford and Merton.' Burnand and A. B. Gatty. 'All at Sea.' A. Law and Corney Grain.
' *

M. Watson and

'TheThreeHafca.' A.A'Beckett A.

Wanted an Heir.' Do. W. The Bo'aun's Mate." Browne and A. J. Caldlcott.


Brittany Folk.' Walter^Prith

and A.

J. Caldlcott.

Tuppins and Co.'

Malcolm

Watson and Edward Solomon.


'The Verger,' aud King Hall.
Walter Frith
'Carnival Time.'

M. Watson

and Corney Grain. Walter Browne 'Possflssion.' Many Happy Betums.' G. and A. J. Caldlcott. A'Beckett and Libnel Benson. A Bright Idea.' A. Law and 'Killlecrumper.' M. Watson and E. Solomon. Arthur Cecil. The Old Bureau,' H. M. Paull 'Cherry Tree Farm.' A. Law and A. J. Caldlcott. and Hamilton Clarke, ' Walter 'The Barley Mow.' Law Head the Poll.' A. The of Frith and 0. Grain. and Eaton Faning. Nobot^'s Fault.' Dan'l's Delight.' Archie ArmA, Law and
'

produced merely by the impinging of sharp edge, the stop is called a Flue-stop. Any single pipe of the former kind is called a Reed-pipe, any single pipe of the latter kind, a Flue-pipe. Pipes containing Free reeds are seldom used in English organs, but are occasionally found in foreign instruments under the name of Physharmonika, etc. [See Harmonium, Reed.] The reed-stops consisting
tone
is

air against a

of ' striking-reeds ' are voiced in various ways to imitate the sounds of the Oboe, Cor Anglais, Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Cornopean, Trumpet,

A Strange Host.' A, Law and 'An Odd Pair.' M. Watson and A. J. Caldlcott. King Hall. P^gy's Plot.' Somerville GibO. That Dreadful Boy.' ney and Wtdter Slaughter. A'Beckett and Corney Grain. 'A Big Bandit,' H. Watson *A Mountain Heiress.' G. aud W. Slaughter. A'Beckett and Lionel Benson. 'Melodramaula,' Do. Tieaaure Trove.' A. Law and
'
' '

Hamilton Clarke.

strong and J.

W.

EUiott.

'

etc, all of which are of 8-ft. pitch (that is, in unison with the diapason). The Clarion 4-ft. is an octave reed-stop. The Double Trumpet 16-ft. is a reed-stop one octave lower in pitch than the diapason ; it is also called a Contraposaune, or sometimes a Trombone. Reed-stops
I

A. J. Caldlcott.

A.O.

See ifacreadj/'t Jteminiicences, hy Sir P. Pollock,

ii,

97.


KEEL
of the trumpet class are often placed on a veryhigh pressure of wind under such names as

EEEVE
that
'

45

such highpressure reed-stops are generally found on the Solo-manual the reed-stops of the Great organ being of moderate loudness those on the Choir organ altogether of a softer character. A very much larger proportion of reed-stops is usually assigned to the Swell organ than to any other manual, owing to the brilliant crescendo which they produce as the shutters of the swell-box open. Reed-stops are said to be 'harmonic' when the tubes of the pipes are twice their normal length and perforated half-way with a small hole. Their tone is remarkably pure and brilliant. The best modern organ-builders have made great Improvements in the voicing of reedstops, which are now' produced in almost infinite variety both as to quality and strength of
mirabilis,
etc.
; ; ;

Tuba

Tromba major,

Duncan did go before them playing a The Irish dance upon a small trump. reel, which is apparently alluded to here, is in 2 -4, or common time, and is always danced singly the first eight bars, danced in steps, are followed by a round for the next eight bars, wlien the
Giles
reill or
'

originalstepsareresumed,butreversed. w.h.g.i'.] An example of the Danish reel will be found

National Music (London, 1866). most characteristic Scotch reels the Reel of TuUooh (Thulichan) :
inEngel's
' '

One

of the

is

^^^^^m
Others, equally good, are 'Colonel 'Bean's Reel,' Ye're welcome, Charlie Stuart,' The Cameronian Rant,' 'Johnnie's friends are ne'er pleased,' and Flora Macdonald.' For the slow Reel see Strathspey, w. b. s. REEVE, William, bom 1757 ; after quitting school, was placed with a law stationer in Chancery Lane, where his fellow-writer was Joseph Munden, afterwards the celebrated comedian.
' ' '

tone.

J. s.

REEL (Anglo-Saxon hreol, connected with the Suio-GothiontWa,' to whirl'). Anancientdance, the origin of which is enveloped in much obscurity. The fact of its resemblance to the
Norwegian Hallv/ng, as well as its popularity and its occurrence in Denmark, the north of England, and Ireland, has led most
in Scotland,

writers to attribute to it a Scandinavian origin,

although its rapid movements and lively character are opposed to the oldest Scandinavian dance-rhythms. The probability is that the
reel is of Keltic origin, perhaps indigenous to

and from there introduced into ScandiIn Scotland the reel is usually danced by two couples in England where it is now almost only found in connection with the Sword Dance, as performed in the North Riding of Yorkshire it is danced by three couples. The figures of the reel diifer slightly according to the locality their chief feature is their circular character, the dancers standing face to face and The describing a series of figures of eight. music consists of 8 -bar phrases, generally in common time, but occasionally in 6-4. The Irish reel is played much faster than the Scotch in Yorkshire an ordinary hornpipe-tune is used. The following example, 'Lady Nelson's Reel,' is from a MS. collection of dances in the possession of the present writer
Britain,
navia.
;

Determined, however, upon making music his he became a pupil of Richardson, organist of St. James's, Westminster. In 1781 he was appointed organist of Totnes,Devonshire, where he remained till about 1783, when he was engaged as composer at Astley's. He was next for some time an actor at the regular theatres. In 1791, being then a chorus singer at Covent Garden, he was applied to to complete the composition of the music for the ballet-pantomime f Oscar and Malvina, left unfinished by Shield, who, upon some differences with the manager, had resigned his appointment. Reeve thereupon produced an overture and some vocal music, which were much admired, and led to his being In 1792 appointed composer to the theatre. he was elected organist of St. Martin, Ludgate. In 1802 he became part proprietor of Sadler's His principal dramatic compoWells Theatre. sitions were 'Oscar and Malvina,' and 'Tippoo 'Orpheus and Eurydice,' partly Saib,' 1791 The Apparition,' adapted from Gluck, 1792 'British Fortitude,' 'Hercules and Omphale,'
profession,
'
'

'

^^^
it is

and 'The

Purse,'

1794;

'Merry Sherwood'
;

[In

News from

Scotland (1591)

stated

(containing Reeve's best-known song, ' I am a 'Harlequin and Friar of orders grey '), 1795 Bantry Bay,' 'The Round Oberon,' 1796, Tower,' and Harlequin Quixote,' 1797 ; ' Joan of Arc,' and Ramah Droog' (with Mazzinghi), 1798 ; ' The Turnpike Gate (with Mazzinghi), 'The Embarkation,' and 'Thomas and Susan,' 'Paul and Virginia' (with Mazzinghi), 1799 and 'Jamie and Anna,' 1800; 'Harlequin's Almanack,' 'The Blind Girl (with Mazzinghi), 1801; 'The Cabinet' (with Braham, Davy, and Moorehead), and 'Family Quarrels' (with Braham and Moorehead), 1802 'The Caravan,'
' ' ' ' ;
'

' '

'

46

REEVES
' ;

BEEVES
Donizetti's 'Linda di Chamounix,' appearing [His operatic also as Florestan in 'Fidelio.'
career was more or less overshadowed by the great plac he made for himself in oratorio ; he

1803; 'The Dash,' and 'Thirty Thousand' fwith Davy and Braham), 1804 Out of Place' (with Braham), and The Corsair,' 1805 The
'

'

White Plume, Rokeby Castle, and An Bratach, 1806; 'Kais' (with Braham), 1808; 'Tricks upon Travellers (part), 1810; and 'The Outside Passenger (with Whitaker and D. Corri), 1811. Rewrote music for some pantomimes at Sadler's Wells; amongst them 'Bang up,' by 0. Dibdin, jun., containing the favourite
'

'

'

'

'

'

Clown's song,

Tippity witchet, for Grimaldi. The Juvenile Preceptor, or Entertaining Instructor, etc. He died June
'
'

He was

also author of

22,1815.

w. H. H.
Sims, son of a musician in

sang the part of Faust when Gounod's opera was given for the first time in English, at Her Majesty's Theatre, and for a few performances he sang Braham's old part of Sir Huon in Oberon. Captain Macheath, in The Beggar's Opera,' was one of the last operatic In the autumn parts in which he appeared.] of 1848 he was engaged at the Norwich Musical Festival, where he showed his ability as an oratorio singer by an extraordinarily fine
'
' '

BEEVES, John

the Royal Artillery, was born at Woolwich,


Sept. 26,1 1818 {Memoirs of the Eoyal Artillery Band, by H. G. Farmer (1904), p. 74 ff.).

' The enemy said in ' Israel in Egypt.' On Nov. 24 following he made his first appearance at the Sacred Harmonic Society in Handel's ' Messiah.' The rapid strides which he

delivery of

'

received his early musical instruction from and at fourteen obtained the post of organist at North Cray Church, Kent. Upon
his father,

He

gaining his mature voice he determined on becoming a singer, and [after a year spent in studying for the medical profession] in 1839 made his first appearance at the Newcastleupon-Tyne Theatre, as the Gipsy Boy in Guy Mannering,' and subsequently performed Dandini in 'La Cenerentola,' and other baritone parts. The true quality of his voice, however, having asserted itself, he placed himself under J. W. Hobbs and T. Cooke, and in the seasons
'

of

1841-42 and 1842-43 was

member

of

Macready's company at Drury Lane, as one of the second tenors, performing such parts as the First Warrior in Purcell's King Arthur,'
'

was then making towards perfection in oratorio were shown to take a few instances only by his performances in Judas Maccabaeus and 'Samson,' 'Elijah,' 'St. Paul,' and 'Lobgesang,' and Eli and Naaman (both composed expressly for him). [He sang in Bach's St. Matthew Passion,' under Sterndale Bennett, when the work was given for the first time in England in 1854.] But his greatest triumph was achieved at the Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace in 1857, when, after singing in Messiah and ' Judas Maccabseus with increased reputation, he gave The enemy said in Israel in Egypt with such remarkable power, fire, and volume of voice, breadth of style, and evenness of vocalisation, as com-

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

pletely electrified

his hearers.

He

repeated

He Ottocar in ' Der Freischiitz,' and the like. then went, to prosecute his studies, first to Paris under Bordogni, and subsequently to Milan under Mazzuoato ; he appeared at the Scala as Edgardo in Donizetti's ' Lucia di Lammermoor with marked success. Returning to England he [appeared at various con'

this wonderful performance at several succeed-

and] was engaged by Jullien for Drury Lkne, where he made his first appearance on Monday, Dec. 6, 1847, as Edgar in ' The Bride of Lammermoor,' and at once took position as ' His an actor and singer of the first rank. voice had become a pure high tenor of delicious quality, the tones vibrating and equal throughout, very skilfully managed, and displaying
certs,

remarkably good taste. His deportment as an actor was natural and easy, his action manly and to the purpose, and exhibiting both passion and power, without the least exaggeration.' A fortnight later he performed his first original part, Lyonnel in Balfe's 'Maid of Honour.' [Berlioz, who conducted the performance, engaged him for the performance of two parts of La Damnation de Faust at Drury Lane, Feb. 7, In 1848 he was engaged at Her 1848.] Majesty's Theatre, and came out as Carlo in
1 Or possibly Oct 21 (he entered hie as born on that day).

name

in a

birthday book

ing festivals, and in the Handelian repertory nothing was more striking than his delivery of 'Total Eclipse' from 'Samson.' [He was the first representative of various tenor parts in oratorios and cantatas that are for the most part forgotten in the present day, such as Benedict's 'St. Peter,' Bennett's 'May Queen,' Sullivan's Prodigal Son and Light of the World.' His singing of Tom Bowling and Come into the garden, Maud remained unapproachable until the end of his life. It was unfortunate that he was compelled by adverse circumstances to go on singing after his voice had begun to decay. His farewell concert took place at the Albert Hall on May 11, 1891, but he sang afterwards at Covent Garden, and at music halls. Some critics, who only heard him in his last days, were inclined to question whether he had ever been great, but their doubts were without foundation. In the quarter of a century during which hi^s voice was at its best, he sang on the orchestra with Jenny Lind, Clara Novello, Tietjens, Adelina Patti, and Christine Nilsson, and held his own with them all. Asisuredly none but a great artist could have done that. Even in his vocal decay there was nothing harsh or ugly. He never sang off the key, and even when he was
' ' '
' '

'

'

'

'

REFORMATION SYMPHONY, THE


nearly seventy his legato singing was a model ot steadiness and breath management. The expression ' voice colouring was not much used in Sims Reeves's day, but of the art implied in the words he was a past master. No one could with greater certainty find the exact tone to fit the most varied emotions. It was a comprehensive talent indeed that could range at will from the levity of Captain Macheath's songs to the poignant pathos of Handel's ' Deeper and deeper still,' the emotional wairath of Beethoven's 'Adelaide,' or the cycle 'An die feme Geliebte.' He died at Worthing, Oct. 25, 1900.] Sims Reeves married, Nov. 2, 1850, Miss Emma Lucombe, soprano singer, who had been a pupil of Mrs. Blane Hunt, and appeared at the Sacred Harmonic Society's concert of June 19, 1839, and sang there and at other concerts until 1845, when she went to Italy. She returned in 1848, and appeared in opera as well as at concerts. She retired from public life and occupied herself as a teacher of singing, for which she had a deservedly high reputation. [She died at Upper Norwood, June 10, 1895 ; and in the same year her husband married his pupil. Miss Maud Rene, with whom he went on a successful conHis son cert tour in South Africa in 1896.] Herbert, after a careful education under his father and at Milan, made his successful debut at one of Mr. Ganz's concerts (June 12, 1880), and met with considerable favour from the w. H. H. ; additions from the Diet, of public, Nat. Biog., S. H. Pardon, Esq., etc.
'

EEGAL
known
'

47
'

Dresden Amen, which has as the been used with marvellous effect in Wagner's
'

Parsifal.

G.

REFRAIN

(Fr. Se/rain

Germ. Beimkehr).

This word is used in music to denote what in poetry is called a 'burden,' i.e. a short sentence or phrase which recurs in every verse or stanza. It was probably first employedin music in order to give roundness and unity to the melody, and was then transferred to the poetry which was written especially for music. Such collections as the Eclios du temps passe give an abundance of examples in French music, where songs with refrains are most frequently to be found. Lilliburlero may be cited as one English instance [See vol. ii. p. 731.] out of many. Schubert's four Refrain - Lieder were published as op.
'
'

'

'

95.

M.
(Fr.

REGAL
[The word

E^ale

It.

Eigale or

mnfak).

may be derived from 'regulus,' the idea of gi'adation being inherent in a keyboard.
The wooden harmonicon, when played with
a

REFORMATION

SYMPHONY,

THE.

Mendelssohn's own name for his Symphony in D minor, written with a view to performance at the Tercentenary Festival of the Augsburg Protestant Confession, which was intended to be celebrated throughout Germany on June 25, The first mention of it appears to be in 1830. a letter of "his own from North Wales, Sept. 2, 1829. On May 25, 1830, he writes from Weimar that it is finished, and when copied It was not, however, will be sent to Leipzig. then performed the political troubles of that year prevented any festive demonstrations. In January and March, 1832, it was in rehearsal in Paris, but it did not come to actual performance till November 1832, when it was It played under his own direction at Berlin. was not repeated during his life, but was revived at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 30, 1867. It was afterwards played at the Gewandhans, Leipzig, Oct. 29, 1868, and was published in score and parts by Novello & Co., and by Simrock as Symphony No. 5 op. 107, No. 36 of the posthumous works. The first Allegro is said to represent the conflict between the old and new religions, and the Finale is founded on Luther's Hymn, Ein' feste Burg ist unser One of the most prominent themes of Gott.' the work is the beautiful ascending phrase
; '
'

keyboard, was at one time called 'r%ale en This name describes a variety of organ, bois. '] which is especially interesting as being in some ways the prototype of the modern harmonium. It consists of a single row of beating reeds, the pipes of which are in some instances so small as hardly to cover the reeds. A fine specimen is in the possession of the Brussels Conservatoire, and was lent to the Inventions Exhibition in 1885. The name 'bible regal' is the title of another variety, the peculiarity of which consists in its being arranged to fold in two, on a similar principle to that on which leather backgammon boards are made. The bellows are covered with leather, so that when the instrument is folded it presents the appearance of a large book.
' '

Praetorius in his Syntagma, vol.

iii.

pi.

iv.,

gives a view of one, which its extended condition, bellows and all, appears to be about

He ascribes (ii. p. 73) 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. the invention to a nameless monk others give it to Voll, an organ-builder at Nuremberg in 1575. The specimen preserved in the Muste of the Conservatoire at Paris is said to date from the end of the 16th century, and has a compass of four octaves. The instrument has been long since extinct, but the name regal is still applied in Germany to certain reed["The word is used by Fetis, Rimbault, stops. and Engel to denote the portable organ of the 12th and 13th centuries. Mr. Hipkins possessed a remarkably fine specimen, believed to be unique as far as Great Britain is concerned. It is smaller than the Brussels one, being 2 ft. 5 in. wide, and (with the bellows) 3 ft. 8 in.
;
'

long.

The compass

is

from

to

c"'.

The

'

sharps are of boxwood stained black, the naturals of bird's-eye maple. The keys are not balanced, but hinged. The instrument is of oak, and is dated 1629, with no maker's name.] In the inventory of Henry VIII. 's musical

"

48

KEGAN
A
fol.

REGER
200],
op.
1. 2.

instruments [Harleian MS., 1419,

we find thirteen pairs of single regalls (the 'pair* meant only one instrument) and five pairs of
double regalls (that is with two pipes to each note). The name continued in use at the English Court down to 1773, the date of the death of Bernard Gates, who was tuner of the Regals in the King's household.' For further particulars the reader ia referred to Mr. A. J. Hipkins's Musical iThstruments (A. & C. Black, 1887), where instruments are figured; also to the same writer's History of the Pianoforte^ 1898. G.; with additions from MS. notes left by Mr. Hipkins. REGAN, Anna, soprano singer. [See
'

Sonata for violin and piano, in


Trio for piano, violin

D minor.

and viola.

Sonata for violin and piano, in >. Six SongB. 6. Sonata for violoncello and piano, In F minor, g / Two Sacred Songs with oiguti. iBongB for 4 voices with piano. 7. Tlu'ee Organ pieces. 8. Five SongB. , ^ Walzer Kapricen (piano pieceB for 4 handflj. 9. 10. Deutsclie TSnze (piano pieces for 4 hands). 11. Waltzes for FF.. solo. 12. Five Songs. 13. Lose Bl&fcter,' FF. solo, 14. Duets foi- soprano and alto, with piano.
3.
4.
' ' ' ' ' '

15.

Ten Songs.
Suite in E minor, for organ. AuB der Jugendzeit,' twenty pieces for PF. solo, Improvisation,' FF. solo. Two Sacred Songs, with organ. Five Humoresken for PF. solo. Hymn An der Gesang (male chorus, with orchestra). Six Waltzes, for piano (4 hands). Four Songs. Six Pieces for FF. solo. Aquarellen for FF. solo, Seven FantasiestUcke for FF. solo. Fantasie for organ on 'Bin' feste Burg-'
' * '

SCHIMON.]

REGER, Max, was born March 19, 1873, at Brand, a village near Kemnath in Bavaria, and left his native place when but a year old for "Weiden, whither his father, who was a teacher, was transferred in 1874. There he received his first musical training through his father and the organist, whose name was Lindner. In 1890 he went to study with Riemann at Sondershausen, whom he followed to Wiesbaden on the latter's appointment to the Conservatorium, and became himself a teacher there in 1895, till in 1896 he was called to the service of his country. After recovering from a severe illness he returned to his own home in 1898, removed again in 1901, this time to Munich, where he
married.

16. VJ. IS. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. SO. 31. 82. 33. 34. 85. 36. 37.

Sonata for piano and violoncello, in 6 minor. Fantasie and Fugue, C minor, for org&n. Fantasie for organ on 'Freu' dich sehr, o meine Seele. Six Songs.

Seven Chai-acteristlc Pieces for PP. solo. Sonata for Organ, Fit minor. Pieces Plttoieaques for piano (4 hands).
'

Six Songs.

Bunte Bl&tter, nine small pieces for PF.

solo.

Five Songs. , ^ ^, ("Two volumes of Folk-songs for male chorus (a o-9J. jjo J Two volumes of Folk-songs for mixed chorus (a ft^). '"'1 Sacred Oerman Folk-songs (a 7<12}. VSeven Choruses for male voices, 39. Three Six-part Choruses for mixed voices. Morgenstem,' *n / I. Fantasie on Wie Bch5n leucht't uns der *'' I If . Ditto on Straf mich nicht Indeinem Zom' (both for organ). 41. Sonata in for violin and piano. 42. Four Sonatas lor violin, in D minor. A, B minor, and O- minor. 43. Eight Songs. 44. Piano Solos. 45. Six Intermezzi for piano. 46. Phantasieand Fugue onBACHfor organ. 47. Six Trios for organ.
' '

48.
'

Seven Songs.
r

Four Sonatas for violin alone (one in the style

of Bach).

composers of the modem German school of chamber and church music Herr Reger occupies a place that is probably the most prominent of any, and the fact that his publishers attest to an enormous sale of his works in Berlin and other musical centres must contribute to that belief. It cannot be denied that he is a composer gifted, a*a celebrated German critic remarks, with s trong individuality, and that he handles with the utmosF'facility the art of counterpoint but to a large number of persons

Of

all the

\Two Sonatas for clarinet and piano. 50. Two Bomances for violin in O and D.
61. 62.

f
-I

'-Ditto. 'Halleluja,

Twelve Songs. Organ Fantasie on ' Atle Menschen mUssen sterben.* Ditto. Wachet auf, riif t uns die Stimme.' Gott zu loben.'
'

63. 'Silfaouebten' for piano. 54. Three String Quarbetts in G, A, and minor. 65. Fifteen Bongs. 66. Five easy Preludes and Fugues for organ.

'58. 59.

Variations on Heil unaerm. KSniK. Heil.'l , .. /'' ** 1 Symphonic Fantasie and Fugue. Six Burlesken for PF. (4 hands).
i
'

60.

{'
62. 63. 64.

Twelve Pieces for organ. Sonata for organ in D minor. Falmsonntagmorgen (5 voices a cappella). Der evangeUsche Kirchenchor (for 4 voices), forty Easy Com* positions for church performance.
'

Sixteen Songs.

Twelve Honologues for the organ.


String quintet in
cello).

at the present day his resources of harmony and his indulgences in rhythm and in form will appear so infinite as to fog even a most attentive

C Hlnor (two violins, two violas, and violon-

and experienced listener with their complexity. Truly, however, his compositions contain remarkable and original effects. In his songs, to quote hat er sich vielfach von the aforesaid critic, einer Stromung fortreissen lassen, welche das Grundwesen des Liedes zerstbrt.' To which he adds that Herr Reger's powers of invention are
'

65. Twelve Pieces for organ. 66. Twelve Songs. 67. Fifty-three Easy 'Choral Vorspiele. 68. Six Songs. 69. Ten Organ Pieces. 70. Seventeen Songs. 71. 'Gesang der VerklSrten' (for 6-Toiced choir

and grand

or-

chestra).

so rich that only the employment of a conscious limitation of his artistic means instead of an intentional eclipse of his forerunners i"to be de-

and he would then be the master to continue the direct line of the great German composers. For a man of thirty-four years of age the number of his compositions is enormous, as will be seen from the catalogue below, which, it will be noticed, contains only one number for
sired of him,

Sonata for piano and violin. Variations and Fugue on an original theme for oi^n. String quartet in minor. 75. Eighteen Songs. 76. Fifteen Schllohte Weisen for piano and voice. for flute, violin, and viola. 77. la) Serenade in \b) Trio In A minor for violin, viola, and violonceUo. 78. Sonata for violoncello and PF. in F. 79. Fourteen volumes of Pieces for piano, for organ, lor piano and violin, for piano and violoncello, and songs. 80. Five Easy Preludes and Fugues, B^h's Two-part Inventions arranged as organ trios (with K. Stranhe), and twelve pieces for organ. 81. Variations and Fugue on a theme of J. S. Bach, lor PF. solo 82. Twelve small pieces for PF. solo, Aus meinem Twebuche.' 83. Eight Songs for male chorus. 84. Sonatas for PF. and violin in Ftt minor. 85. Four Preludes for the organ. 86. Variations and Fugue on a theme by Beethoven for two PPs
72. 73. 74.

'

'

'

(4 hands).

87.

Two Two

Compositions for violin and PP.

88. 89. 90.

Four SongB.
Sonatas (E minor and D) lor PP. aolo. Sinfonietta for oi-chestra.

orchestra (op. 90).

EEGGIO

BEGNAET
etc.,

49

.Without opus numbdra are Two Booka of Canons (1896) for PF. PF. Transcriptions of Bach, Kuhlau,
:

for FF. solo

and

dueta.

Four Heiterc Lieder.' Four Sacred Songs. Four PF. Studies for the left hand alone. Five FF. Studies [arrangetnents of Chopin's works).
'

'

Wiegenlied."

Piano Transcriptions of songs by Hugo Wolf and Richard Stmuss.


r

Der Evangelische Kirchenchor, consisting of Book 1. Forty easy sacred songs (8.A.T.B.) for

all festivals,

in four series. II. Cantattk 'O wie selig' for mixed choir and congregation, with accompaniment of strings and organ. Book III. Cantata for Good Friday, "O Haupt Toll Bint und Wundeu,' for alto and tenor (or sopr.) solos, mixed choir, violin solo, oboe solo, and organ.

Book

For male chorus Nine volkslieder.


:

Five volkslieder.

Twelve madrigals. Fop mixed choir


:

Sistine Chapel, which are so far interesting as showing the curious custom of the time in combining different liturgical texts. Thus, in one of them, while the two upper voices sing the usual words of the mass the tenor sings the Eooe ancilla Domini, 'and the Bass 'Ne timeas Maria,' which would seem to show that this mass was specially composed for the festival of the Annunciation. In the other, the Alto and Tenor sing Duni sacrum mysterium cemeret Joannes,' which would imply the work to be intended for the festival of St. John the Evangelist. Regis is also the author of a mass
' '

Eight volkslieder. Six volkslieder. Twelve German sacred songs

(in three books).

'Komm,
' *

helliger Geist.'

Es Uel eim Than,' for 5-part choir.

hoch,' for 4-part chorus, two solo violins, choir, and congregation, with organ or harmonium. For Organ; Schule des Triospieis (arrangements of Bach's 2.part inventions, with K, Straube). Bomanse, also for harmonium. Songs with organ or piano. Arrangements of fifteen of Bach's clavier works for organ. Arrangements of aougs for harmoniuin. PF. and violin : Petite Caprice, Eomanze (G major), and

Vom Himmel

Wiegenlied.

For PF. and violoncello : Caprice. For voice and FF. Sixteen songs. PF. solo Perpetuum mobile, Elegie, Humoreske, Bomanze,
;

musical, Scherzino, Albumblatt, Frlihlingslied, 31<ilodie, two Humoresken, Nachtatllck. Canons in all major and minor keys. Book 1. in two parts, Book II, in three parts. Four special studies for lefthandalone: Scherzo, Humoreske, Bomance. and Prelude and Fugue.

Moment

Begiments-Marsch der ehemaligen Hannoveiwihen Armee


(arrangement). orchestral variations is announced for performance in the winter of 1907-8. Literary work .-^Beitrdge zur Madvlaliorulelvre (Contribution to the Bules of Modulation).

A new set of

U Y H

EEGGIO, PiETRO, born at Genoa in the first quarter of the 17th century, was private musician (lutenist and singer) to Queen Christina of Sweden after her abdication. After her final departure from Rome, Eeggio came to England and settled at Oxford, where, in 1677, he published. ./I Treatise to sing well any Song whatsoever. In 1680 lie issued a book of songs dedicated to the king, and containing the earliest setting of 'Arise, ye subterranean winds,' from Shadwell's 'Tempest,' afterwards set by Purcell. (See Sammelhdnde of the Int. Mus. Ges. v. 553.) Seven Italian songs are in the British Museum in MS., two duets in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, and a three-part motet, in the Reggio died Christ Church Library, Oxford.
in London, July 23,

arme,' in the Archives of Cambrai, pieces in the collections of Fetrucci. The setting of a popular song S'il vous plaisait ' a 4, transcribed by Kiesewetter in his Schicksale und Beschaffenheit des weltlichen Gesanges, serves to show the skill of Regis as a contrapuntal harmonist of the time in very favourable light. J. E. M. REGISTER, of an organ. Literally, a set of pipes as recorded or described by the name written on the draw-stop ; hence, in general, an organ-stop. The word ^register' is, however, not quite synonymous with 'stop,' for we do not say 'pull out, or put in, a register,' but, a stop, although we can say indifferently ' a large number of registers ' or ' of stops.' The word is also used as a verb ; for example, the expression skill in registering or 'registration' means skill in selecting various combinations of stops for use. The word stop is, however, never used as a verb in this sense. j. s. REGISTER is now employed to denote a portion of the scale. The 'soprano register,' the 'tenor register,' denote that part of the scale which forms the usual compass of those voices ; the ' head register means the notes which are sung with the head voice ; the 'chest register those which are sung from the chest the 'upper register' is the higher portion of the compass of an instrument or voice, and so on. How it came to have this meaning, the g. writer hasjiot been able to discover.

'L'omme

and of a few other

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

REGISTRATION
' '

(or

REGISTERING)

is

1685 (Hawkins), and was

M. buried in St. Giles's in the Fields. REGIS, Jean, a Flemish musician of the latter part of the 15th century, usually reckoned along with Busnois, Caron,Obreeht, and Okeghem as belonging to the transitional school of composers between Dufay and Binchois on the one hand, and Josquin Despres on the other. Tinctoris

the art of selecting and combining the stops or registers of the organ so as to produce the See Organ-Playing, vol. iii. pp. best effect. 562-64. EEGNART, surname of a family of Flemish musicians who flourished towards the end of

mentions him with special distinction.

He was

for a time master of the choir-boys in Antwerp Cathedral, and is also supposed to have been in

Though he does personal relation with Dufay. not appear, like Dufay, to have ever been a member of the Papal Choir, two of his masses were copied into the great choir-books of the
VOL. IV

There were five brothers, the 16th century. one of whom, Augustin (not August, as given by Eitner, which would correspond to Augustus in Latin but not to Augustinus) was a canon of the Church of St. Peter's, Lille (not Douai, as Eitner suggests in the QuelUn-Lexikon, forgetting the words of the dedication partly quoted by himself in his Bihliographie, p. 21 6),^ and in 1590 edited and published at Douai a,
i See also Goovaerb's Bihllagraphie, p. 268 ; but he contradicta himself by elsewhere (p. 52) describing Augustin Begnart as Canon of St. Peter*st Louvain.

50

REGNART

EEGONDl
herself in preparing for publication in 1602-3

Collection of thirty-nine Motets, o 4-6, composed by his four brothers Francis, Jacob, Faschasius, and Charles Regnart. The work appropriately

bears on

its title-page

the motto,

'

Ecce

quam

bonum
unum,'

et

quam jucundum

fratres habitare in

Psal. 132. The full title is 'Novae Cantiones Saorae, 4, 5, et 6 vocum turn in-

three volumes of her husband's Masses, containing altogether 29 a 5, 6, 8, and 10, also a book of Sacrae Cantiones, a 4-12, 35 Nos. The other sacred works of Regnart which appeared during his lifetime were a book of

strumentorum

generi tum vivae voci aptissimae, authoribus Francisco, Jacobo, Pascasio, Carolo Begnart, fratribus germanis ' (another incidental mistake of Eitner is that of taking the word 'germanis' as indicative of nationality, and explaining it on the ground
cuivis

Sacrae Cantiones, a 5-6, 1575, and one a 4, 1577 ; also one entitled MariaZe, 1588, Marian Motets composed by way of thanksgiving for recovery from severe illness. He was, however, even more widely known by his secular works, which consist of (1) two books of Canzone
Italiane, a 5 (1574-81), (2) two books entitled Threni Amorum, German secular songs, as 5

that Flanders was then part of Germany, while all that the word really implies is tiiat the brothers were fuU bro&Srs). Of the four brothers only two attained any real position or eminence as composers, Francis and Jacob. The other two are only represented by three motets a piece in this Collection, and of their careers nothing is known with any certainty. Of Francis, Angustin tells us that he had pursued his studies at the University of Douai and the Cathedral of Tournai. Besides the twenty-four motets in the Collection above mentioned, Francis Regnart is chiefly known by a book of

(1595), and (3) several collections, a 3, 4, 5, entitled ' Kurtzweilige teutsche Lieder nach Art der Neapolitanen oder welschen Villanellen' Of the latter, the collection of (1576-91). 67 a 3 was republished by Eitner in modem score in 1895. They are written in the simple

melodious Italian canzonet style, without any


artificiality

of counterpoint.

In some intro-

Chansons a 4-5, 'Poesies de Ronsard et Douai by Jean Bogaerd in 1575, and afterwards at Paris by Le Roy and Ballard in 1579. These Chansons have now been republished in modern score by H. Expert in his collection 'Les Maitres Musicians de la renaissance Fran^aise.' F^tis mentions a book of Missae tres a 4-5, by
fifty

autres,' originally published at

ductory lines of verse the composer apologises for his frequent intentional employment of consecutive fifths in the harmony as being in accordance with the simple popular character he wished to give these songs. The melody of one of them, 'Venus du und dein Kind,' has become, with a slight alteration in the first line, the chorale tune well-known later, Auf meinen lieben Gott.' Two of Regnart's other songs,
'

Francis Regnart, published by Plantin in 1582, but there is no trace of such a publication in Goovaert's Bibliographic, and Eitner knows nothing of it. Of the life and works of Jacob Regnart we have fuller information. He was early received as an Alumnus of the Imperial Chapel In 1564 he is desigat Vienna and Prague. nated ais tenor singer in the chapel ; and as a member of the chapel accompanied the Emperor In 1573 he is to the Augsburg Diet of 1566. mentioned as musical preceptor to the boys of the choir, and before 1579 became the vicecapellmeister. In 1580 he was offered by the Elector of Saxony the post of oapellmeister at Dresden vacant by the death of Scandelli, but declined. In 1582, however, he left the imperial service to enter that of the Archduke Ferdinand at Innsbruck, where he remained as He then returned to capellmeister till 1595. Prague, where he died in 1600. Shortly before his death, in the dedication of a book of Masses to the Emperor, Rudolf II., which, however, was not published till afterwards, he recommended to the care of the Emperor his wife and six children. The widow, a daughter of Hans Visoher, the famous bass singer in the
Electoral Chapel at Munich under Orlando Lassus, returned to Munich, where she occupied

5, which have something more of imitative counterpoint, have been reprinted in Commer's selection of 'Geistliche und weltliohe Lieder aus der xvi-xvii Jahrh.' None of his Latin motets have been reprinted, with the exception of one which found admission into the Emmgelical Gotha Gantional of 1655, whence it has been reproduced in Schoberlein's ScJiatz. His Masses, several of them based on the themes of German popular songs, must have been popular in their day, judging from the MS. copies of them enumerated in Eitner surviving in various church archives. Passion according to St. Matthew, a 8, by Regnart survives only in MS., of which some account is given in

Eade, Die aeltere Passionskompositionen, pp.


60-62.
J. E.

M.

REGONDI, GiTJLlo, of doubtful parentage, bom at Geneva in 1822. His reputed father
was a teacher in the Gymnasium of Milan. The child appears to have been an infant phenomenon on the guitar, and to have been sacrificed

by

his father, who took him to every court of Europe, excepting Madrid, before he was nine

years old.
;

They arrived in England in June 1831 and Giulio seems never to have left the United Kingdom again except for two concert tours in Germany, one with Lidel, the violoncellist, in 1841, the other with Mme. Dulcken in 1846. On the former of these tours he played both the guitar and the melophone (whatever that may have been), and evoked enthusiastic

EEHEAESAL
praises from the correspondents of the A. M. Zeitung in Prague and Vienna for his extraordinary execution on both instruments, the very

EEICHA
action

51

and business

begin.

The

orchestra

is

and individual character of his performand the sweetness of his cantabile. The concertina was patented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1829[see Concertina], butdidnotoome into use till Eegondi took it up. He wrote two concertos for it, and a very large number of arrangements and original compositions. He also taught it largely, and at one time his name was
artistic

ance,

to be seen in almost all concert programmes.

He

was a great friend of Molique's, who wrote for him a Concerto for the Concertina (in G) which he played with great success at the concert of the Musical Society of London, April 20, 1864. When he went abroad for his second tour, his performance and the effect which he got out of so unpromising and inartistic an instrument (See the A. M. astonished the German critics. Zetong' for 1846, p. 853.) Regondi appears to have been badly treated by his father, and to have had wretched health, which carried him G. off on May 6, 1872.

REHEARSAL

(Fr.

M^aUion,

Ger. Probe).

In the case of concerts, a trial performance preliminary to the public one, at which each piece included in the programme is played through
at least once, if in

MS.

to detect the errors in-

evitable in the parts, and in any case to study the work and discover how best to bring out

the intentions of the composer, and to ensure a perfect ensemble on the part of, the performers. In England, owing to many reasons, but principally to the over-occupation of the players, sufficient rehearsals are seldom given to orchestral works. The old rule of the Philharmonic Society (now happily altered) was to have one rehearsal on Saturday morning for the performance on

Monday evening, and the Saturday Popular Conwere originally, in like manner, rehearsals Monday evening concerts. No new works can be efficiently performed with less than two
certs
for the

never used until the last two or three rehearsals, and these are termed Full Band Rehearsals Last of all, before the (Germ. GenercU-probe). public production of the work, comes the Full Dress Rehearsal, exactly as it will appear in performance. G. REICHA, Anton Joseph, born at Prague, Feb. 27, 17.70, lost his father before he was a' year old his mother not providing properly for his education, he left home, and took refuge with his grandfather at Glattow, in Bohemia. The means of instruction in this small town being too limited, he went on to his uncle Joseph Eeioha (born in Prague, 1746, died at Bonn, 1795), a violoncellist, conductor, and composer, who lived at Wallerstein in Bavaria. His wife, a native of Lorraine, speaking nothing but French, had no children, so they adopted the nephew, who thus learned to speak French and German besides his native Bohemian. He now began to study the violin, pianoforte, and flute in earnest. On his uncle's appointment, in 1788, as musical director to the Elector of Cologne, he followed him to Bonn, and entered the band of Maximilian of Austria as second flute. The daily intercourse with good music roused the desire to compose, and to become something more than an ordinary musician, but his uncle refused to teach him harmony. He managed, however, to study the works of Kirnbergcr and Marpurg in secret, gained much practical knowledge by hearing the works of Handel, Mozart, and Haydn, and must have learned much from his constant intercourse with Beethoven, who played the viola in the same band with himself and was much attached to him. At length his perseverance and his success in composition conquered hisuncle's dislike. He composed without restraint, and his symphonies and other works were played by his uncle's
;

orchestra.'

rehearsals

on record that Beethoven's Eb Quartet, op. 127, was rehearsed seventeen times before the players therefore must its first performance have arrived at that state of familiarity and certainty which a solo player attains with a
it
;

and have

in the case of large, intricate, vocal works, many more are requisite.
;

and

We

On the dispersion of the Elector's Court in 794, Reieha went to Hamburg, where lie remained till 1799. There the subject of instmo1

tion in composition began to occupy him, and there he composed his first operas, 'Godefroid

concerto or sonata. In the case of Operas, every practice of either chorus, principals, or orchestra, separately or
together, is termed a rehearsal. These will sometimes continue every day for six weeks or two months, as the whole of the voice-music, dialogue,

de Montfort, and Oubaldi, ou les Franjais en Egypte' (two acts). Though not performed, some numbers of the latter were well received, and on the advice of a French ^migr^, he started for Paris towards the close of 1799, in the hope In this of producing it at the Theatre Feydeau. he failed, but two of his symphonies, an overture, and some Scenes Italiennes,' were played
' '

'

and action has to be learnt by heart. Whilst the chorus is learning the music in one part of the theatre, the principals are probably at work with the composer at a piano in the green-room, and the ballet is being rehearsed on the stage. It is only when the musicand dialogue are known by heart that the rehearsals on the stage with

After the successive closing of the Theatre Feydeau and the Salle Favart, he went to Vienna, and passed six years (1802-8), in renewed intimacy with Beethoven, and making friends with Haydn, Albreohtsberger, Salieri, and others. The patronage of the Empress Maria
at concerts.
1

See an intereBtlDg notice by Kaatner, quoted by Thayer,


i.

JJeethoverit

IBS.

52

REICHA
be grateful
for.

EEICHARDT
Czerny published a German
translation of the Traiti de haute composition (Vienna,' 1834, four vols, folio), and in his Art cSimproviser obviously made tise of Reicha's

Theresa was of great service to him, and at her request he composed an Italian opera, ' Argina, regina di Granata.' During this happy period of his life he published symphonies, oratorios, a requiem, six string quintets, and many solos
for

Art de varier
original theme.

fifty-seven

variations on an

PF. and other instruments.

He

himself

attached great importance to his '36 Fugues pour le piano,' dedicated to Haydn, but they are not the innovations which he believed them to be ; in placing the answers on any and every note of the scale he merely reverted to the Eicercari of the 17th century, and the only effect of this abandonment of the classic laws of Real fugue was to banish tonality. The prospect of another war induced Reicha to leave Vienna, and he settled finally in Paris in 1808. He now realised the dream of his youth, producing first 'Cagliostro' (Nov. 27, 1810), anopera-oomique composed withDourlen and at the Academie, Natalie (three acts, July 30, 1816), and Sapho (Dec. 16, 1822). Each of these works contains music worthy of respect, but they had not sufficient dramatic effect to take with the public. Reicha's reputation rests on his chambermusic, and on his theoretical works. Of the former the following deserve mention a diecetto for five strings and five wind instruments an octet for four strings and four wind instruments ; twenty-four quintets for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon six quintets and twenty quartets for strings one quintet for clarinet and strings ; one quartet for PF., flute, violoncello, and bassoon one do. for four flutes six
' ' '
' :

Reicha married a Parisian, was naturalised in 1829, and received the Legion of Honour in 1831. He presented himself several times for election to the Institut before his nomination He only as Boieldieu's successor in 1835. enjoyed his honours a short time, being carried off by inflammation of the lungs. May 28, 1836. His death was deplored by the many friends whom his trustworthy and honourable character A life-like portrait, had attached to him.

somewhat spoiled by

excessive

laudation,

is

contained in the Notice sur Beicha (Paris, 1837, G. c. 8vo), by his pupil Delaire. REICHARDT, Alexander, a tenor singer,was born at Packs, Hungary, April 17, 1825. He received his early instruction in music from an uncle, and made his first appearance at the age of eighteen at the Lemberg theatre as Rodrigo in Rossini's ' Otello. His success there led him to Vienna, where he was engaged at the Court Opera, and completed his education under Gentiluomo, Catalani, etc. At this time he was much renowned for his singing of the Lieder of Beethoven and Schubert, and was in request at all the soirees ; Prince Esterhazy
'

made him his Kammersanger. In 1846 he made a toiimie through Berlin, Hanover, etc.,
to Paris,

returning to Vienna.

In 1851 he

do. for flute, violin, tenor,

and violoncello
;

six

made

his first appearance in England, singing

string trios

; one trio for three violoncellos ; tweuty-four do. for three horns six duets for

at the Musical Union,

harmonic,

May

12, at

May 6, and at the Philmany other concerts, and


'

two violins; twenty -two do. for two flutes; twelve sonatas for PF. and violin, and a number of sonatas and pieces for PF. solo. He also composed symphonies and overtures. These works are more remarkable for novelty of combination and striking harmonies, than for abundance and charm of ideas. Reicha's faculty
for solving

before Queen Victoria. In the following season he returned and sang in Berlioz's Romeo and Juliet,' at the new Philharmonic Concert of April 14, also in the Choral Symphony, Berlioz's

musical problems brought


first

him

into
in-

notice
Paris,

among musicians when he

settled

and in 1818 he was offered the professorship of counterpoint and fugue at the Conservatoire.

Jelensperger,

Elwart,
others.

his pupils there were Boilly, Bienaimd, Millaut, Lefebvre, PoUet, Lecarpentier, Dancla, and
all

Among

published in Paris, are : Traitd de Melodie, etc. (4to, 1814) ; C(ywrs de composition mimcale, etc. (1816) ; TraiU de haute composition rrmsicale (first part 1824, second 1826), a sequel to the other two and Art du compositefu/r dramatique, etc. (4to, 1833). F^tis has criticised his theories severely, and though highly successful in their day, they are now abandoned, but nothing can surpass the clearness and method of his analysis, and those
;

His didactic works,

who

use his works will always find

much

to

Faust,' and the Walpurgisnight,' and enjoyed a very great popularity. From this time until 1857 he passed each season in England, singing at concerts, and at the Royal Opera, Drury Lane, and Her Majesty's Theatre, where he filled the parts of the Count in The Barber of Seville,' Raoul in The Huguenots,' Belmont in the 'Seraglio,' Don Ottavio in 'Don Juan,' and Florestan in 'Fidelio.' The last was a very successful, impersonation, and in this part he was said to have laid the foundation of the popularity which he has so honourably earned and maintained in London.' He also appeared with much success in oratorio. In 1857 he gave his first concert in Paris, in the Salle Erard, and the following sentence from Berlioz's report of the performance will give an idea of ' his style and voice. M. Reichardt is a tenor of the first water sweet, tender, sympathetic and charming. Almost all his pieces were redemanded, and he sang them again without a sign of fatigue.' In 1860 he settled in Boulogne,
' ' ' ' '


54

REICHER-KINDERMANN

EEICHMANN
She the chorus, in order to gain experience. sang the alto part in Franz Lachner's Requiem at Leipzig in 1871 with such success that she became engaged at Carlsruhe. She played as guest at Berlin as Pamina, June 5, and Agathe, June 9, 1874 ; she then returned to Munich, and sang Daniel in Handel's 'Belshazzar,' April 14, 1875. Soon after she married Emanuel Eeicher, an actor at the Gartnerplatz theatre, and for a time sang there in opfra bouffe, but returned to opera and played Grimgerde in the 1st Cycle, and Erda in the 2nd She next played Cycle, at Bayreuth in 1876. at Hamburg, Vienna (where she appeared as Leah on the production of Rubinstein's MacHaving recabees '), and again at Munich. ceived instruction for the purpose from Faure and Jules Cohen at Paris, she sang in French at Monte Carlo in 1880 with such success that she received an offer to sing at La Scala, Milan, but declined it in favour of an engagement under Neumann at Leipzig, where she made her debut as Fidelio, May 12, 1880. She became a great favourite, and remained there until 1882. She played in Neumann's company in the Trilogy at Berlin and other German towns, in London, and lastly at Trieste, where she died June 2, 1883. [See Neumann's Erinnerwngen, etc., 1907.] She made a great impression at Her Majesty's Theatre as Fricka on the production of Rheingold,' May 5, and of WalkUre,' May 6, 1882, and still more as Briinnhilde in the 2nd Cycle not only was her magnificent voice equal to all the demands upon it, but her presentation of the character was full of force and of pathos. While no less touching than Fran Vogl in the truthfulness of her expression, she was more heroic and dignified the supernatural element was brought into stronger relief ... in the grand awakening scene her manner was perhaps too coldly dignified and wanting in the impulsiveness which characterises the heroine when she has finally abandoned her supernatural attributes and become a true woman.' ^ a. o. REICHMANN, Theodoe, was bom at Rostock, March 15, 1849, was taught to sing at first by Mantius, and subsequently by Lamperti in Milan he made his debut as a baritone at Magdeburg in 1869, and sang at Berlin, Rotterdam, Strasburg (1872), Hamburg (1873), Munich (1875), and was a member of the Court Opera at Vienna in 1882-89. In 1882 he sang the part of Amfortas at Bayreuth for the first time, and was identified with it for some ten years, after which differences with the authorities resulted in his non-appearance there until 1902. In the seasons between 1889 and 1891 he sang in New York, and in the latter year returned to Vienna, becoming once more a member of the Opera Company in In that year he sang the part of Creon 1893. Medea at an operatic festival at Gotha. in 3 AtheniBwm, May 20, 1882.
'
'

which he seldom manifests even towards the greatest masters. He never rested until he had
arranged
for

the performance

of Eeiohardt's

Morning Hymn, after Milton, at the Diisseldorf Festival of 1835 ; and hia enthusiasm for the composer, and his wrath at those who criticised
him, are delightful to read.'
Years afterwards,

when his mind had lost the ardour of youth, and much experience had sobered him, he still
retained his fondness for this composer, and few things are more charming than the genial appreciation with which he tells Reichardt's daughter of the effect which her father's songs had had,

even when placed in such a dangerous position as between works of Haydn and Mozart, at the Historical Concert at the Gewandhaua
in Feb. 1847. It is the simplicity, the naivety the national feeling of this true German music

'

that he praises, and the applause with which it was received shows that he was not alone in his appreciation. Amongst Reichardt's numerous

works are eight operas

eight Singspiele, includ'

ing four to Goethe's poems, Jery und Bately,' (1789), 'Erwiri und Elmire,' 'Claudine von Villabella,' and Lilla five large vocal works, including Milton's Morning Hymn, translated by Herder, his most important work, in 1835 a large number of songs, many of which have passed through several editions, and been pub'
'

'

'

lished in various collections. Reichardt's writings show critical acumen,

'

'

and jiidgmeut. Besides the letters previously mentioned, he published Das Kunstmagazin, eight numbers in two vols. (Berlin,
observation,

'

1782 and 1791) Musihfrewnde, a

Studienfur TonMnstler wnd


;

critical and historical periodical

Vertraute with thirty-nine examples (1792) Vertravie Briefe aus Paris, three parts (1804) Briefe auf einer Beise nach Wien, etc. (1810) ; fragments of autobiography in various newspapers and innumerable articles, critiques, etc. The Briefe are specially interesting from the copious details they give, not only on the music, but on the politics, literature, and society of the A biography, J. F. various places he visited. Beichardt, sein Leben vmd seine musikalische ThdtiglceU, by Herr Schletterer, Capellmeister of the cathedral of Augsburg, is unfinished, two volumes only having been published at Augsburg in 1865. [For list of compositions and
; ;

writings, see the QiLellen-Lexilcon.']

A. M.

REICHER-KINDERMANN', Hedwig,
daughter of the
oelebratfed baritone,

the

Kindermann

(?..), was bom, July 15, 1853, at Munich. She was taught the piano first by her mother, and at the School of Music, but abandoned the same in favour of singing, on the advice of Franz She received her vocal instruction Wiillner. from her father, and made her d^but at the Munich Opera as one of the boys in the Meistersinger,' and next played small parts in the opera, drama, and ballet, besides singing in
' 1

'

'

Letters, Dee. 28, 1833

Apfll

3, 1835.

56
in 1865,

EEIMANN
when
a krge number of students,

EEINAOH
who
and directed a musical which performed oratorios, etc., under him, and had become known during 1879 and 1880 as musical reporter to the ScMesicher ZeUvmg, and by other literary works {Nmms, 1882 ; Prosodies, 1885-86). After he definitely took to music, he published some vocal and organ compositions (sonatas, studies, etc.), and a biography of Schumann, which was published by Peters in 1887, and in that year he moved to Berlin to act as musical critic for For the Allgerrteine Musikalische ZeiMmg. a time he was occupied at the Royal Library, besides being teacher of organ -playing and theory.at the Scharwenka-Klindworth Conservatorium till 1894, and organist of the Philharmonic till 1895, in which year the Kaiser
Brosig; had founded
society at Ratibor,

thought that they had a right of entry, broke


into the conoert-hall.

Such was the state of things on Professor Oakeley's appointment in 1866. Finding it ilnposaible, after twenty years, to return to the original system of Tiiomson and Bishop, he made a, compromise, by giving free admissions to the Professors, the University Court, the students in their fourth year at college, and a few leading musicians in the city, and admitting the rest of the audience by payment. From this date a new era dawned on the Reid Concerts the university and the city were satisfied, and the standard of performance at once rose. In 1867 the engagement of Manns and of a few of the Crystal Palace orchestra produced
very good results. In 1869 HalU and his band were engaged, and the demand for tickets soon became so great that the Professor organised two supplementary performances on the same scale aa the 'Reid,' and thus, from concerts which on some occasions seem to have been a mere performance of ballads and operatic music by a starring party, the Reid Concert grew into the 'Edinburgh Orchestral,' or Reid Festival,' which in turn was converted into the series of historical con'

certs described in vol.


TJ]jiiversities

iii.

p. 816.

The

Scottish

Commission abolished the 'Reid

about 1893. G. Ignaz (born Deo. 27, 1820, at Albendorf in the district of Glatz, died June 17,
Concert'
itself,

REIMANN,

became principal teacher and choirmaster at Rengersdorf in Silesia, having been a pupil of the Breslau Seminary. He was an excessively diligent and fluent composer of church music, and wrote no fewer than 74 masses, of which only 18 were published, 24 Requiems (4 published), 4 Te Deums (3 pub1885),
lished),

37 Litanies, 4 Oratorios, 83 Offertories (48 published), 50 Gradualieu (40 published),


burial -songs, wedding cantatas, Salves, Aves, etc., and 9 overtures, and other

appointed him to the great church in the Augusta- Viotoriaplatz, erected to the memory of the Emperor William I., where he enjoyed a great reputation as an organ virtuoso, and directed some of the most magnificent and impressive performances of oratorios, masses, and church music generally, given in any church in Germany. In 1897 he received the title of Professor, and in 1898 founded a Bach Society. He died at Charlottenburg, May 24, 1906. His compositions include duets for female voices ; love scenes in waltz form for four voices a chorus for four male voices ; an album of children's songs for solo voice toccata for organ in E minor (op. 23) ; piano duets two wedding songs for bass yoicei ; arrangements of twentyfive German soiigs, 'Das deutsche Lied,' of the 14th to the 19th centuries, also for bass voice a prelude and triple fugue in D minor for the Qrgan and ciacona for organ in F minor. His. writings are numerous, and include a contribution on the theory and history of Byzantine music (1889) two volumes of musical retrospects, Wagneriana-IAsztiana an opening
; ; ; ; ;

besides

many

instrumental works.

Heinrich

(son of the above) was

bom March

14, 1860, at Rengersdorf, and received musical He passed the instruction from his father.

at Glatz, and studied philology at Breslau from 1870 to 1874, graduated the following year, and taught at the gymnasia of Strehlen, "Wohlau, Berlin, Ratibor, and Glatz, for a year in each place successively, till in 1885 he became director of that at Gleiwitz, in Upper Silesia. There he quarrelled with the authorities, threw up his post,- embraced the Protestant faith, and thenceforth devoted himAs a schoolboy (Gymself entirely to music. nasiast) he had already conducted an orchestral

Gymnasium

his own collection of lives of celebrated musicians, being the biography of Schumann already mentioned, to which he added, those of BUlow and J. S. Bach. H. v. H. REIMANN, Matthiett (Matthias Reymannus), (born 1544 at Lowenberg, died Oct. 21, 1597, at Prague), was a Doctor of Law and Imperial Councillor under Rudolf II. , and wrote two works for the lute ; the one entitled ' Noctes musioae' appeared in 1598, and the other, ' Cithara sacra psalmodiae IDavidis ad usum testudinis,' in 1603. h. v. h.

volume to

REINACH, Saloman
3,

(Th6odoke),

bom

June

and choral society, and had composed church and chamber music, and as a student had led
the academical singing -club (Gesangverein), ' Leopoldina,' studying incidentally with Moritz

1860, at St. Germain-en-Laye, was at first educated at the fcole Normal in that place. His bent was always for languages, and especially for Archaeology. His occupation of the post of Conservator (curator) of the Museum,
of Antiquities at St. Germain which was both, the reward of, and the ever -fresh incentive to, his taste for original research afforded

CAKL HEINKICH OAKSTEN REIXECKE

58

REINER
;

EEINHOLD
in England
it

1872 he made extensive tours

he played at the Musical Union, Crystal Palace, and Philharmonic, on the 6th, 17th, and 19th of April, 1869, respectively, and met with great success hoth as a virtuoso and a composer. He reappeared in this country in 1872, and was equally well receivedi [In 1895 he resigned the post of conductor of the Gewaudhaus concerts, but kept his position in the Conservatorium, being appointed in 1897 director of musical studies until 1902, when he retired
altogether.]

Eeinecke's industry in composition is great, might be expected, being those for piano ; his three PF. sonatas indeed are exoellent compositions, carrying outMendelssohn's technique without indulging the eccentricities of modern virtuosi ; his pieces for two PFs. are also good ; his PF. Concerto in FJt minor, wellestablished favourite both with musicians and the public, was followed by two others in E minor and C respectively. Besides other instrumental music a wind octet, quintets, four string quartets, seven trios, concertos for violin and violoncello, etc. he has composed an opera in live acts, ' Konig Manfred,' and two in one act each, Der vierjahrigen Posten ' (after Kbmer)
his best works, as

Incidentally Motets a 5-6, appeared in 1579. may be mentioned that in 1589 Lassus dedicated a book of six masses, the eighth volume of the Patrocmki/m Musices, to the Abbot of Weingarten. Reiner himself returned to Weingarten, and from at least 1586 to his death on August 12, 1606, was engaged as lay singer and His publicachoir-master to the monastery. tions are fairly numerous, and consist of several volumesof motets, masses, andmagnifieats, which need not here be specified in detail, especially since part -books are frequently missing, also two volumes of German songs a 3-5. Three settings a 5 of the Passion exist in MS., of a
similar character to those

by

Lassus.

The

first

volume of Reiner's Motets was reproduced in lithograph score by Ottomar Dresel in 1872, and one of the numbers also appears in the supplement to Proske's 'Musica Divina,' edited J. K. M. by F. X. Haberl in 1876.

'

and

'

Ein Abenteuer Handel's


'

'

'

Auf hohen

Befehl' (1886), and Der Gouvemeur von Tours' (1891); incidental music to Schiller's 'Tell'; an oratorio, ' Belsazar' ; cantatas for men's voices ' Hakon Jarl and Die Flucht nach Aegypten overtures, 'Dame Kobold,' 'Aladdin,' 'Friedensfeier, an overture, ' Zenobia, and a funeral march for the Emperor Frederick (op. 200) ; two masses, and three symphonies, (op. 79 in A, op. 134 in minor, and op. 227 in 6 minor) ; and a large number of songs and of pianoforte pieces in all styles, including valuable studies and educational works. Of his settings of fairy Schneetales as cantatas for female voices, wittohen,' ' Dornrbschen,' ' Aschenbrodel,' and His style several others are very popular. is refined, his mastery over counterpoint .ind
' ' ' ' ' '

EEINHOLD, Hugo, bom March 3, 1854, in Vienna, was a choir-boy of the Hofkapelle of his native city and a pupil of the Conservatorium der Musikfreuude till 1874, where he worked with Bruckner, Dessofl', and Epstein under the endowment of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and He has Gotha, and obtained a silver medal. presented various compositions, numbering up to op. 59, to the public, including piano music and songs, a string quartet (op. 18 in A major), a suite in five movements for piano and strings, and a Prelude, Minuet, and Fugue for stringed orchestra. The two latter were performed at the Vienna Philharmonic Concerts of Dec. 9, 1877, and Nov. 17, 1878, respectively, and were praised by the Vienna critic of the Monthly Mimeal Secord for their delicate character and absence of undue pretension. The quartet was executed by Hellmesberger. H. v. H. EEINHOLD, Theodor Christlieb, bom in 1682, died in 1755, was the teacher of Johann Adolf Hiller (Hiiller), the composer of numerous motets, and cantor of the Kreuzkirche at Dresden
from 1720
till

his death.

h. v. h.

and he writes with peculiar He has also done clearness and correctness. His much editing, for Breitkopfs house.
form
is

absolute,

EEINHOLD, Thomas, born at Dresden about


1690, was the reputed nephew, or, as some said, son, of the Archbishop of that city. He had an early passion for music, and having met Handel
at the Archbishop's residence conceived so strong a liking for him that after a time he

position at Leipzig speaks for his ability as a conductor ; as a pianist (especially in Mozart) he kept up a high position for many years as
;

an accompanist he

is

first-rate

and as an

arranger for the pianoforte he is recognised as Various contribuone of the first of the day. tions to musical literature will be found enumerated in Eiemann's Lexikon. [See also ri G. E. Segnitz, Carl Ileineeke.'\ REINER, Jacob, born about 1559 or 1560
at Altdorf in Wurtemberg, was brought up at the Benedictine Monastery of Weingarten, where he also received his first musical training. We have it on his own authority that he was afterwards a pupil of Orlando Lassus at Munich, where also his first publication, a volume of

quitted his abode and sought out the great composer in London, where he appeared in various

works of Handel's, after making his first appearance in July 1731 at the Haymarket Theatre as a singer in 'The Grub Street Opera.' He died in Chapel Street, Soho, in 1751. His son, Charles Frederick, bom in 1737,
received his musical education first in St. Paul's and afterwards in the Chapel Eoyal. On Feb. 3,

1755, he made his first appearance on the stage at DrUry Lane as Oberon in J. C. Smith's opera,

'The

Fairies,'

Eeinhold.'

He

being announced as 'Master afterwards became organist of

EEINKEN
St. George the Martyr, Bloomsbury. In 1759 he appeared aa a bass singer at Marylebone Gai-dens, where he continued to sing for many

EEISSIGER
by G. A.

59

Eitter, then studied theology in Berlin, but after passing his examination, de-

afterwards performed in English operas, and sang in oratorios, and at provincial


seasons.
etc. He was especially famed for his singing of Handel's song, ' ruddier than the cherry.' He was one of the principal bass singers at the Commemoration of Handel in 1784. He retired in 1797, and died in

He

festivals,

Somers Town,

Sept. Times, 1877, p. 273.

29,

1815.
or

See Musical

w. H. H.

KEINKEN, JoHANN Adam,

Jan Adams

Eeincken, eminent organist, bom at Wilshausen in Lower Alsace, Api-il 27, 1623, a pupil of Heinrioh Soheidemann, became in 1654 organist of the church of St. Catherine at

Hamburg, and retained the post

till

his death,

KTov. 24, 1722, at the age of ninety-nine.

He

was a person of some consideration at Hamburg, both on account of his fine playing, and of his beneficial influence on music in general, and the Hamburg opera in particular, but his vanity and jealousy of his brother artists are severely commented on by his contemporaries. So great and so widespread was his reputation that Sebastian Bach frequently walked to Hamburg from Ltineburg (1700 to 1703), and Cothen (1720), Keinken may be considered to hear him play. the best representative of the North-Gennan school of organists of the 17th century, whose strong points were, not the classic placidity of the South-German school, but great dexterity of foot and finger, and ingenious combinations His compositions are loaded with of the stops. passages for display, and are defective in form, bothin individual melodies and general construcHortus tion. His works are very scarce ; Musicus,' for two violins, viol da gamba and bass (Hamburg, 1704) is reprinted as No.
'

voted himself entirely to music, and studied with A. B. Marx. His first attempts at composition, some psalms sung by the Cathedral choir, attracted the attention of King Frederick William IV., and procured him a travelling grant. He visited Paris, Milan, Eome, and Naples, taking lessons in singing from Geraldi and Bordogni. On his retm-n in 1853 he obtained a post in the Conservatorium of Cologne, and in 1858 became organist in the Cathedral of Bremen, and conductor of the Singakademie. He had already composed an oratorio, Jephta (performed in London by HiiUah, April 16, 1856, and published with English text by Novellos), and in 1875 his opera Edda was played with success at Bremen, Hanover, and elsewhere. His Bismarck-hymn obtained the prize at Dortmund, and he composed a symphony, and a large number of part-songs. [He was a member of the Berlin Academy from 1882, and had the title of Eoyal Professor in 1888. His cantata In der Wiiste had a great success, and his opera 'Kathchen von Heilbronn' received a prize at Frankfort. He retired from the Singakademie in 1890, and died at Bremen, Feb. 13, 1896.] F. a. EEISSIGER, Karl Gottlieb, son of Christian Gottlieb Eeissiger, who published three symphonies for full orchestra in 1790. Born Jan. 31, 1798, at Belzig near Wittenberg,
'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

where his father was Cantor, he became in 1811 a pupil of Sohicht at the Thomasschule, Leipzig. In 1818 he removed to the University with the intention of studying theology, but some motets composed in 1815 and 1816 had already attracted attention, and
the success of his fine baritone voice made him determine to devote himself to music. In 1821, he went to Vienna and studied opera Here also he composed 'Das thoroughly. Eockenweibohen.' In 1822 he sang an aria of Handel's, and played a PF. concerto of his own composition at a concert in the Karnthnerthor

XIII. of the publications of the Maatschappij tot bevordering der Toonkunst (Amsterdam, 1887). No. XIV. of the same publication consists of Reinken's 'Partite Diverse' (variations), but even in MS. only very few pieces are known two on Chorales, one Toccata, and two sets of Variations (for Clavier). ^ Of the on the chorale An Wasserfirst of these, one

flussen

Babylons'

'

is

specially

interesting,

because it was by an extempore performance on that chorale at Hamburg in 1722 that Bach extorted from the venerable Eeinken the words, ' I thought that this art was dead, but I see that it still lives in you.' Two organ fugues, a toccata in G, Variations on chorales and on a 'ballet, etc. are in MSS. at Dresden, Leipzig, and Darmstadt. (See the Tijdschrift of the Vereeniging voor N. -Nederlands Muziekgeschiedenis, vi. A. M. pp. 151-8, the Quellen-Lexikon, etc.) EEINTHALEE, Karl Martin, conductor
'

Soon after he went to Munich, where he studied with Peter Winter, and composed an opera. ' Dido,' which was performed several times at Dresden under Weber's condnctorship. At the joint expense of the Prussian government
theatre.

and of his patron von Altenstein, a musician, he undertook a tour in 1824 through Holland, France, and Italy, in order to report on the

of the Private Concerts at Bremen, born Oct. 13, 1822, at Erfurt, was early trained in music
1

Spitta'8 Bach, Engl, transl.

1.

197-9.

On his condition of music in those countries. return he was commissioned to draw up a scheme for a Prussian national Conservatorium, but at the same time was offered posts at the Hague and at Dresden. The latter he accepted, replacing Marschner at the opera, where he laboured hard, producing both German and In 1827 he succeeded C. M. Italian operas. von AVeber as conductor of the German Opera


60
at Dresden.

'

REISSMANN
Among his operas, Ahnenschatz
'

RELATION
gerraeisterin

(1824), 'Libella,' 'Turaudot,' ' Adfele de Foix,' and 'Der Sohiffbruoh von Medusa,' had great success in their day, but the term ' Oapellmeis-

tennusik' eminently describes them, and they have almost entirely disappeared. The overture to the Felsenmiihle,' a spirited and not un'

interesting

piece,

was

occasionally
'

played.

von Sehomdorf (I^eipzig, 1880), and 'Das Gralspi^l (Dusseldorf, 1895), aballet, 'Der Blumen Rache (1887),a work for singing and speaking soloists, with choir and piano, 'Kbnig Drosselbart' (1886), dramatic scenas, an oratorio, 'Wittekind' (1888), a concerto and a suite for solo violin and orchestra two sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; and a great
'
'

Masses and church music [an oratorio, David '], a few Lieder, numerous chamber compositions,
particularly

some graceful and easy trios for PF. violin and violoncello, made his name very
popular for a period. He is generally supposed to have been the composer of the piece known as Weber's Last Waltz.' Keissiger died Nov. 1859, and was succeeded at Dresden by 7,
'

quantity of miscellaneous pieces for piano solo and for the voice are mentioned. In 1881 he edited an Illustrated History of German music. G. [He died in Berlin, Dec. 1, 1903.]

Julius Rietz.

F. g.

REISSMANN,

Attgttst, musician

and writer

RELATION is a general term implying connection between two or more objects of consideration, through points of similarity and In other words, it is the position contrast. which such objects appear to occupy when It considered with reference to one another.
is

on music, born Nov. 14, 1825, at Frankenstein, Silesia, was grounded in music by Jung, the Cantor of his native town. In 1843 he removed to Breslau, and there had instruction from Mosewius, Baumgart, Ernst Riohter, Llistner, and Kahl, in various branches, including pianoforte, organ, viplin, and violoncello. He at first proposed to become a composer, but a residence in 1850-52 at Weimar, where he came in contact with the new school of music, changed his j>lans and drove hiiu to literature. His first book was Von Bach bis Wagner (Berlin, 1861) rapidly followed by a historical work on the
;

defined

by

its

context.

The
another

relations

of

individual

notes to

one

may be described in various ways. For instance, they may be connected by belonging
members of the diatonic any one key, and contrasted in various degrees by the relative positions they occupy
to or being prominent
series o

further simple relation is in that series. established by mere proximity, such as may

be observed in the relations of grace -notes, appoggiaturas, turns, and shakes to the essential notes which they adorn and this is carried so far that notes alien to the harmony and even
;

German song. Das dewtsche Lied, etc. (1861), rewritten as Geschichte des Deutschen Liedes This again was succeeded by his (1874). General History of Music Allg. Geschichte der Musik (3 vols. 1864, Leipzig), with a great number of interesting examples ; Allg. Musiklehre (1864) ; and Lehrlmch der nvusik. Kompositionen (3 vols. Berlin, 1866-71). His later works were of a biographical nature, attempts to show the gradual development of the life and genius of the' chief musicians Schumann

to the

key

are freely introduced,

and are

per-

fectly intelligible

when

in close connection

with

characteristic diatonic notes. The relations of, disjunct notes may be found, among other ways, by their belonging to a chord which is easily called to mind ; whence the successive sounding

of the constituents of familiar combinations is easily realised as melody ; while melody which
is

founded upon

less

obvious relations

is

not so

readily appreciated.

The

relations of chords

may be either direct or

(1865), Mendelssohn (1867), Schubert (1873), Haydn (1879), Bach (1881), Handel (1882), In 1877 he Gluok (1882), Weber (1883). published a volume of lectures on the history of music, delivered in the Conservatorium of His chief Berlin, where he resided from 1863. employment from 1871 was the completion of the Musik Conversationslemkon, in which he succeeded Mendel as editor, after the death of The 11th volume, completing the the latter. work, appeared in 1879, and it will long remain as the most comprehensive lexicon of music.

indirect.

common,
Ex.
1.

several notes in as in Ex. 1, or only one, as in Ex. 2,


Bl.
2.

Thus they may have

Ex.

3.

to make simple direct connection, while the diversity of their derivations, or their respective degrees of consonance and dissonance, afford an

Dr. Reissmann unfortunately thought it necessary to oppose the establishment of the Hochschule in 1875, and to enforce his opposition by a bitter pamphlet, which, however, has long since been forgotten. Many treatises on musical education were written in the later part of his
life.

immediate sense of contrast. Or they may be indirectly connected through an implied chord or note upon which they might both converge as the common chord of D to that of C through G, to which D is Dominant, while G in its turn is Dominant to C (Ex. 3). The relation thus
;

established

is

sufficiently clear

to

allow the

As a practical musician

Dr. Reissmann was

almost as industrious as he was in literature. The operas, 'Gudrun' (Leipzig, 1871), 'Die Biir-

major chord of the supertonio and its minor seventh and major and minor ninth to be systematically affiliated in the key, though its

'

EELATrON
third and minor ninth are not in the diatonic
series.
;

RELATION
tonalities as part of the musical structure,

61
on

further illustration of the relations of is afforded by those of the Dominant and Tonic. They are connected by their roots being a fifth apart, which is the simplest interval, except the octave, in music ; but their other components are entirely distinct, as is the com-

chords

pound tone of the roots, since none of their lower and more characteristic harmonics are They thus represent the strongest coincident. contrast in the diatonic series of a key, and when taken together define the tonality more clearly than any other pair of chords in its
range.

The relations of keys are traced in a similar manner ; as, for instance, by the tonic and perone being in the diatonic series of another, or by the number of notes which are common to both. The relations of the keys of the minor third and minor sixth to the major mode (as of E|> and Ab with reference to 0) are rendered intelligible through the minor mode ; but the converse does not hold good, for the relations of keys of the major mediant or submediant to the minor mode (as of E minor and minor with relerence to minor) are decidedly remote, and direct transition to them is not easy to follow. In fact the modulatory tendency of the minor mode is towards the connections of its relative major rather than to those of its actual major, while the outlook of the major mode is free on both sides. The relation of the
fect fifth of

key of the Dominant to an original Tonic is explicable on much the same grounds as that
of the chords of those notes.

The Dominant

key is generally held to be a very satisfactory complementary or contrast in the construction of a piece of music of any sort, but it is not of For instance, at the very universal cogency. outset of any movement it is almost inevitable that the Dominant harmony should early and emphatically present itself hence when a fresh section is reached it is sometimes desirable to
;

With find another contrast to avoid tautology. some such purpose the keys of the mediant or
submediant have at times been chosen, both of which afford interesting phases of contrast and connection the connection being mainly the characteristic major third of the original tonic, and the contrast being emphasised by the sharpening of the Dominant in the first case, and of the Tonic in the second. The key of the subdominant is avoided in such cases because the contrast afforded by it is not sufficiently strong to have force in the total impression of the movement.
;

the one hand and on contrast of character and style in the idea on the other ; which between them establish the balance of proportion. The relation of the second main division the working-out section to the first part of the movement is that of greater complexity and freedom in contrast to regularity and definiteness of musical structure, and fanciful discussion of characteristic portions of the main subjects in contrast to formal exposition of complete ideas ; and the final section completes the cycle by returning to regularity in the recapitulation. The relations of the various movements of a large work to one another are of similar nature. The earliest masters who wrote Suites and Senate da Camera or da Chiesa had but a rudimentary and undeveloped sense of the relative contrasts of keys consequently they contented themselves with connecting the movements by putting them all in the same key, and obtained their contrasts by alternating quick and slow movements or dances, and by varying the degrees of their seriousness or liveliness but the main outlines of the distribution of contrasts are in these respects curiously similar to the order adopted in the average modern Sonata or Symphony; Thus they placed an allegro of a serious or solid character at or near the beginning of the work, as typified by the Allemande ; the slow or solemn movement came in the middle, as typified by the Sarabande and the conclusion was a light and gay quick movement, as typified by the Gigue. And further, the manner in which a Courante usually followed the Allemande, and a Gavotte or Bourree or Passepied, or some such dance, preceded the final Gigue, has its counterpart in the Minuet or Scherzo of a modem work, which occupies an analogous position with respect either to the slow or last movement. In modem works the force of additional contrast is obtained by putting central movements in different but allied keys to that of the first and last movements the slow movement most frequently being in the key of the Subdominant, At the same time additional bonds of connec'

'

tion are sometimes obtained, both by making the movements pass without complete break from one to another, and in some cases (illus-

by Beethoven and Schumann especially) by using the same characteristic features or figures in different movements. The more subtle relations of proportion, both
trated
in the matter of the actual length of the various

movements and

The relations of the parts of any artistic work are in a similar manner those of contrast For within limits of proportion and tonality. instance, those of the first and second section in what is called first movement or ' sonata form are based on the contrast of complementary
'
'

their several sections, and in the breadth of their style ; in the congruity of their forms of expression and of the qualify of the emotions they appeal to ; in the distribution of the qualities of tone, and even of the groups of harmony and rhythm, are all of equal importance, though less easy either to appreciate or to effect, as they demand higher degrees of artistic power and perception ; and the proper

EELATIVE
adjustment of such relations
operas, oratorios, cantatas,
is

EELLSTABB
all

and

as vital to other forms

1809

gave lectures

travelled to Italv.

on harmony; in 1811 Not long after his return

of vocal music, as to the purely instrumental forms. The same order of relations appears in all parts of the art ; for instance, the alternation of discord and concord is the same relation, implying contrast and connection, analogous to the relation between suspense or expectation and its relief ; and, to speak generally, the art of the composer is in a sense the discovery and exposition of intelligible relations in the multifarious material at his command, and a complete explanation of the word would amount to a complete theory of music. o. H. H. p. EELATIVE is the word used to express the connection between a major and a minor key which have the same signature ; A minor is the ' relative ' minor of 0, C the ' relative major of A minor. In other words, the relative minor of any key is that which has its keynote on the submediant of the major key. The term is used to distinguish this minor key from the other, which is ^perhaps as closely allied to the major, that which has the same keynote as the major, and is consequently called the ' tonic ' minor. The ' tonic minor of is C minor, the ' tonic major of minor is C ; in this case, the key -signature is of course changed. M.
' ' ' ,

he was struck with apoplexy while walking at Charlottenburg, August 19, 1813,and was found As dead on the road some hours afterwards. a composer he left three cantatas, a Passion,' Also an opera ; songs a Te Deum, and a Mass. vocal scores of Graun's too numerous to specify
' ;

and a Tod Jesu,' and Gluck's Iphig^nie German libretto of Gluck's Orphfe apparently Of instrumental music he from his own pen.
' ' ' ; '
'

published

marches

for PF.,

symphonies and

overtures ; a series of pieces with characteristic titles, 'Obstinacy,' 'Sensibility,' etc. ; twentyfour short pieces for PF., vioUn and baas, etc. Also Versuch Wber die Vererinigung der mus. vmd Ueber die oraiorischen Deklamaiion (1785) ; Bemerlcwngen emer Jteisenden . . , (1789) (see Ebiohakdt) ; and Anleitv/ng fur Clamerspieler (1790).

These works, for the most part bibliographical curiosities, are very in-

structive.

Ka.el Fkibdeich, was born in Berlin, Feb. 27, 1759. His father, printer, wished him to succeed to the business, but from boyhood his whole thoughts were He was on the point of devoted to music. starting for Hamburg to complete, with Em; mauuel Bach, his musical studies begun with Agricola and Fasch, when the death of his father He added forced him to take up the business. a music-printing and publishing branch ; was the first to establish a musical lending library (1783); founded a Concert -Society, on the

EELLSTAB, Johann

model of

Hiller's at Leipzig, and called it 'Concerts for connoisseurs and amateurs,' an The unusually distinctive title for those days. first concert took place April 16, 1787, at the Englisohes Haus, and in course of time the following works were performed ; Salieri's 'Armida,'Schulz's 'Athalia,' Naumann's 'Cora,' Hasse's 'Conversione di San Agostino,' Bach's ' Magnificat,' and Gluck's ' Aloeste,' which was thus first introduced to Berlin. The Society He wrote at last merged in the Singakaderaie. musical critiques for the Berlin paper, signed with his initials ; and had concerts every other Sunday during the winter at his own house, at which such works as Haydn's ' Seasons were performed ; but these meetings were stopped by the entry of the French in 1806, when he frequently had twenty men and a dozen horses quartered on him ; lost not only his music but
' '

aD

press.

his capital, and had to close his printingIn time, he resumed his concerts ; in

Eellstab had three daughters, of whom CAKOLi:gE, bom April 18, 1794, died Feb. 17, 1813, was a singer, distinguished for her extraHis son, ordinary compass. Hbinmoh Fbibdeich Ludwig, born April 13, 1799, in Berlin, though delicate in health, and destined for practical music, was compelled by the times to join the army, where he became ensign and lieutenant. In 1816, after the peace, he took lessons on the piano from Ludwig Berger, and in 1819 and 1820 studied theory with Bernhard Klein. At the same time he taught mathematics and history in the Brigadeschule till 1821, when he retired from the army to devote himself to literature, ultimately settling in Berlin (1823). He also composed much part-music for the ' jungere Liedertafel,' which he founded in conjunction with G. Beichardt in 1819, wrote a libretto, 'Dido,' for B. Klein, and contributed to Marx's Musikseiiimg. A pamphlet on Madame Sontag (Senriette, oder die achone Sdngerin) procured him three months' imprisonment in 1 826, on account of its satirical allusions to a well-known diplomatist. In 1 826 he joined the staff of the Vbssische Zeitv/ag, and in a short time completely led the public opinion on music in Berlin. His first article was a report on a performance of ' Euryanthe,' Oct. 31, 1826. Two years later he wrote a cantata for Humboldt's congress of physicists, which Mendelssohn set to music. Eellstab was a warm supporter of classical music, and strongly condemned all undue attempts at effect. He quarrelled with Spontini over his ' Agnes von Hohenstauffen ' (Berlin Musikalische Zeitwng for 1827, Nos. 23, 24, 26, and 29), and the controversy was maintained with much bitterness until Spontini left Berlin, ,when Eellstab, in his pamphlet Ueber mein Verhaltniss als KrUiker zu fferrn Spontin/i, (1827) acknowledged that he had gone too far.

EEMBT
Rellstab's novels
for the

REMOTE
Paris,

63

and essays are to be found

most part

24

vols.

in his Gesammelte Schriften, (Leipzig, Broekhaus). musical

and in the summer of 1877 came to London, where also he produced a sensational
effect in private circles.

The season being

far

der Tonjcwnst, founded by him in 1830, survived till 1842. His reeoUeetions of Berger, Schroeder-Devrient,
periodical, Iris

im Gebiet

advanced he appeared in public only once, at


Mapleson's benefit concert at the Crystal Palace,

Mendelssohn,

Klein,

Dehn,

and Beethoven

(whom he visited in March 1825) will be found in Aus meinem Leben (2 vols. Berlin, 1861).

He was thoroughly eclectic in his taste for music, and, though not an unconditional supporter, was no opponent of the modem school of Liszt and Wagner. He died during the night of Nov. 27, 1860. f. g.
Ernst, was born in 1749 750 at Suhl, in the Thuringer-Wald, where in 1773 he was also appointed organist, and remained till his death on Feb. 26, 1810. He was distinguished as a performer, and, devoting himself to the study of the works of Sebastian Bach, he worthily upheld the more solid tradior
1

EEMBT, JoHANN

tions of the Bach school of organ-playing against the prevailing shallowness of his time. Messrs.

Breitkopf & Hartel stiU retain in their catalogue some of his works originally published by them, such as his six Fugued Chorale-preludes, six Organ Trios, and various Chorale-preludes in Trio-form. Various Fughettas for the Organ also appear in Volkmar's ' Orgel- Album. j. n. M.
'

a (according to another account at Miskolc) in Hungary, and received his musical education

REMENYI, Edtjard (real name Hoffmann), famous violinist, was bom in 1830 at Heves

at the Vienna Conservatorium during the years 1842-45, where his master on the violin was

Joseph Bbhm, the famous teacher of Joachim. In 1848 he took an active part in the insurrection, and became adjutant to the famous general Gorgey, under whom he took part in the cam"paign against Austria. After the revolution had been crushed he had to fly the country, and went to America, where he resumed his career as a virtuoso. [The details of his German tour in 1852-53, which indirectly had so great an influence on the career of Brahms, may be read in Florence May's lAfe of Brahms, vol. i. pp. 92-104.] In 1853 he went to Liszt in Weimar, who at once recognised his genius and became his artistic guide and friend. In the following year he came to London and was appointed solo violinist to Queen Victoria. In 1855 he was in America, and in 1860 he obtained his amnesty and returned to Hungary, where some time afterwards he received from the Emperor of Austria a similar distinction After his to that granted him in England. return home he seems to have retired for a, time from public life, living chiefly on an
estate he owned in Hungary. In 1865 he appeared for the first time in Paris, where he Repeated tours in created a perfect furore. Germany, Holland, and Belgium further spread In 1875 he settled temporarily in his fame.

where he played a fantasia on themes from the ' Huguenots.' In the autumn of 1878 he again visited London, and played at the Promenade Concerts. He was on his way to America, where he gave concerts and took up his residence. In 1887 he undertook a tour of the world, in the course of which he appeared in private in London in 1891 and 1893. As an artist he combined perfect mastery over the technical difficulties of his instrument with a strongly pronounced individuality. His soul was in his playing, and his impulse carried him away as he warmed to his task, the impression produced on the audience being accordingly in an ascending scale. Another important feature in Rem&yi's playing was the national element. He strongly maintained against Liszt the genuineness of Hungarian music, and showed himself thoroughly imbued with that spirit by writing several Hungarian melodies,' which have been mistaken for popular tunes and adopted as such by other composers. The same half-Eastern spirit was observable in the strong rhythmical accentuation of Remenyi's style, so rarely attained by artists of Teutonic origin. Remenyi's compositions are of no importance, being mostly confined to arrangements for his instrument, and other pieces written for his own immediate use. [His name is known to musiclovers in the present day by the circumstance that Brahms went on a tour with him as his accompanist, and was discovered by Joachim
'
'

'

Rem^nyi died during a conin this capacity. cert at which he was playing at San Francisco, May 15, 1898.] E. h-a.

REMOTE is a term used in speaking of modulation from one key to another, or in regard to the succession of keys in a work in several movements. A remote key has little in common with the key which may be called the starting-point. Thus a key with many sharps or flats in the signature will probably be very In the early days remote from the key of C. of the harmonic period, the nearest keys to a major key were considered to be its dominant, subdominant, relative and tonic minors and the nearest to a minor key were its relative and tonic majors, the dominant major, and the subdominant minor. As the art progressed, it was gradually admitted that keys which stood to each other in the relation of a third, whether major or minor, were not to be considered remote from each other. Beethoven, in the piano sonata in C, op. 2, No. 3, puts his slow movement into the key of E major in op. 106, in B flat, the slow movement is in F sharp minor and Schubert, in his sonata in the same key, employs C sharp minor for his slow move'
'

; ;

64
ment
cess,

E^MY
verein,

RENAUD
became conductor of the Steiermarkische Musikand earned experience as an orchestral director. He kept the post till 1870, composing many orchestral works during the period, among them an overture to Sardanapalus,' and a symphonic poem, 'Helena!,' as well as his first symphony in F. The three works made their way as far as Leipzig, where they were received From the date of his with great success. resignation he lived as an unofficial teacher, and
'

the connection, In this last instance, is ; attained by a kind of unconscions mental pro-

involving a silent modulation through the B flat minor, and its relative major, sharp major. This is an unusual succession of keys, even with Schubert ; but other examples, quite as strange, are in Beethoven's 'posthumous' quartets, and elsewhere. Of the eleven semitones apart from the keynote, six were now accepted as within the scope of modulation without a long and complex process two others, the whole tone above and below the keynote, involve a double modulation, the tone above being the dominant of the dominant, and the tone below being the subdominant of the subdominant. There remain, therefore, three keys which are very remote, the semitone above and below the keynote, and the augmented fourth of the key. Even these are nowadays brought within fairly easy distance, by the fact that for the semitone above, it is only necessary to regard the keynote as the leading -note of the new key ; and for the semitone below, a ' Phrygian cadence ' (such as is figured in the last two examples in vol. i. p. 436, column a) may be imagined. The semitone above the keynote is used for the slow movement of Brahms's sonata for violoncello and piano, op. 99, in F, where F sharp major is the key chosen for the slow movement. As transition to the augmented fourth of the key involves several steps of modulation, this may be considered the most remote part of the octave. (It is not quite obvious why minor keys should almost always be remote from other minor keys, but they certainly are, from almost all excepting the key of their subdominant minor. See Relation.) In relation to any given major keynote, we may recognise four degrees of proximity, besides ite relative and tonic minors. In relation to the key of 0, the notes F and G 'stand nearest of all next come F flat, F, flat and A, as standing in the relation of thirds, major or minor ; next, and B flat as requiring a double modulation, and farthest of all, C sharp, B, and F sharp, the last being the extreme of remoteness. Before equal temperament was a part of practical music, the inherent error in the scale was confined by tuners to the ' remote ' keys, that term being used simply of the keys which had many sharps or flats, leaving the key of C perfectly in tune, M. and F and 6 almost perfect. B^MY, W. A. , the name by which an eminent musician and teacher in Prague preferred to be

key of the tonic minor,

devoted himself to composition, until his death His works include at Prague, Jan. 22, 1898. two more symphonies (in F and E flat), a ' for orchestra, given at the Phantasiestiick "Vienna Philharmonic concerts under Dessofl'; a ' Slawische Liederspiel for solos and chorus, with accompaniment of two pianos, another work of the same kind, 'Oestliche Eosen,' a
'
'

concert-opera,
etc.

'

Among

his

Waldfraulein,' and many songs, most eminent pupils may be

Busoni, Kienzl, Heuberger, von (Neue Rezniozek, and Felix Weingartner. M. MusHc-Zeitwng, 1890, p. 261.) EENATJD, Maukioe Arnold, bom 1862, at Bordeaux, studied singing at the Conservatoire, Paris, and subsequently at that of Brussels. From 1883 to 1890 he sang at the Monnaie, Brussels, in a variety of parts, making a great impression ; on Jan. 7, 1884, as the High Priest in Beyer's ' Sigurd,' and on Feb. 10, 1890, as Hamilcar in Beyer's ' Salammbfi,' on production of these operas he also sang baritone or bass parts in 'Manon,' 'Lakm^' etc., and as Kothner in 'Meister-

mentioned

known. His real name was Wilhelm Mayer, and he was the son of a lawyer in Prague, where he was born, June 10, 1831. A pupil of 0. F.
Pietsch, he appeared at the age of seventeen years as the composer of an overture to Sue's
' Fanatiker in den Cevennen ; but in obedience to the parental desires, he studied law, took the degree of Dr.Jur. in 1856, and did not take up music as his profession until 1862, when he
'

On Oct. 12, 1890, he made his d6but at the Opera-Comique, Paris, as Karnac in ' Le Eoi d'Ys,' and sang on Deo. 3 as the hero of Diaz's new opera ' Benvenuto.' On July 17, 1891, he made a very successful debut at the Op&a as Nelusko, and remained there until 1902. On Feb. 29, 1892, he sang the modest part of Leuthold, in ' Tell,' at the Rossini centenary ; he added to his repertory the parts of Telramund, Wolfram, lago, Beckmesser, Hilperie in Guiraud's ' Fr&l^gonde,' completed by SaintSaens, the Shepherd in Bruneau's 'Messidor,' and, on Nov. 15, 1899, Chorebe in Berlioz's ' Prise de Troie.' On leave of absence, on June 23, 1897, he made his d^but at Covent Garden as Wolfram and De Nevers in selections from 'Tannhauser' and 'Huguenots,' at the State performance in honour of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria ; and in the same season he sang the above parts, Don Juan, and Juan in D'Erlanger's * Inez Mendo. ' He fully confirmed his Parisian reputation by his fine voice and presence, and excellent singing and acting. From 1898 to 1905 he has re-appeared here frequently at the above theatre, singing the part of Henry VIII. in Saint-Saens's opera, July 19, 1898, that of Hares in De Lara's 'Messaline,' July 13, 1899 ; and appearing as Hamlet, Eigoletto, Valentine, Escamillo, etc. In 1903 M. Renaud
singer.'

'

REPETITION
65

EENCONTRE IMPREVUE
sang at the Gaite, in Paris, as Herod in Massenet's H^rodiade,' and both there, and at the Op^ra-Comique in 1904 as Don Juan, and the Flying Dutchman, always with great success. He sang at Monte Carlo in 1907 in Bruneau's A. c. 'Nais Micoulin.' ,
'

given the trio twice over each time with full repeats. m.

REPjfeTITION.

(Fr.)

REPETITION

(Pianofoetb).
called

Rbheaesal. The rapid


repetition
;

reiteration of a note is

special touch of the player facilitated

by me-

EENCONTRE IMPREVUE.
RENDANO,

SeePlLGEiMB
5,

VON Mekka.
Alfonso, horn April
1853,
at Carolei, near Cosenza, studied first at the Conservatorio at Naples, then with Thalberg, and lastly at the Leipzig Conservatorium. He played at the Gewandhaus with marked success

chanical contrivances in the pianoforte action ; the earliest and most important of these having been the invention of Sebastian Erakd. [See the diagram and description of Erard's action

under Pianofoete,
a contrivance the

vol.

iii.

p. 730..]

By such

hammer,

after the delivery of

on Feb. 8, 1872. He then visited Paris and London, performed at the Musical Union (April 30, 1872), the Philharmonic (March 9, 1873), the Crystal Palace, and other concerts, and much and after a lengthened stay returned in society He was a graceful and refined player, to Italy. with a delicate touch, and a great command His playing over the mechanism of the piano. He published of Bach was especially good. G. some piano pieces of no importance.
;

REPEAT, REPETIZIONE, REPLICA


Wiederholwng
;

(Ger.

Fr. iJ^^^iJMoro,

which also means

In the so-called sonata form, there 'rehearsal'). are certain sections which are repeated, and are either written out in full twice over, or are
written only once, with the sign

=4p^=

at the

end, which shows that the music is to be repeated either from the beginning or from the previous The sections which, acoccurrence of the sign. cording to the strict rule, are repeated, are the

first

section of the first movement, both sections of the minuet or scherzo at their first appearance, and both sections of the trio, after which

the minuet or scherzo is gone once straight through without repeats. Thelatterhalf of the firstmovement, and the first, or even both, of the sections in the last movement, may he repeated ; see for instance Beethoven's Sonatas, op. 2, No. 2 ; op. Schubert's Symphony No. 10, No. 2 ; op. 78 Also, where there is an air and variations, 9. both sections of the air and of all the variations, This should, strictly speaking, be repeated.
;

a blow, remains poised, or slightly rises again, so as to allow the hopper to fall back and be ready to give a second impulse to the hammer before the key has nearly recovered its position The particular advantages of repetition of rest. to grand pianos have been widely acknowledged by pianoforte makers, and much ingenuity has been spent in inventing or perfecting repetition in upright pianos, however, actions for them the principle has been rarely employed, although its influence has been felt and shown by care in the position of the 'check in all cheek action instruments. The Frenohhave named themechanidouble oal power to repeat a note "rapidly, tehappement' the drawbacks to double escapement which the repetition really is are found in increased complexity of mechanism and liability to derangement. These may be overrated, but there always remains the drawback the repetition of loss of tone in repeated notes blow being given from a small depth of touch compared with the normal depth, is not so elastic and cannot be delivered with so full a, forte, or with a piano or pianissimo of equally telling Hence, in spite of the great vogue vibration. given to repetition effects by Herz and Thalberg, other eminent players have disregarded them, or have even been opposed to repetition touches, see p. 7, 10 as Chopin and von Bulow were of the latter's commentary on selected studies by Chopin (Aibl, Munich, 1880), where he designates double escapement as a 'deplorable
;
'

'

innovation.

A
is

fine

undoubtedly arose from the facility with which on a good harpsichord the player could vary the and qualities of tone, by using different stops there was a tradition that, on that instrument, a change of register should be made at every Although it is a regular custom not repetition. to play the minuet or scherzo, after the trio, with
;

in Thalberg's

example of the best use of repetition A minor Study, op. 45

-etc.

'

'

L.H.

"

'

repeats,

Beethoven thinks fit to draw attention to the fact that it is to be played straight through, by putting after the trio the words Da Capo senza repetizione, or senza replica,' in one or two instances, as in op. 10, No. 3, where, moreover, the trio is not divided into two sections, and is not repeated ; in op. 27, No. 2, where the Allegretto is marked ' La primaparte senza
' ' '

where the player, using the first two fingers and thumb in rapid succession on each note, produces by these triplets almost the effect of a sustained melody with a tremolo. Repetition is an old device with stringed instruments, having been, according to Bunting, a practice with the Irish harpers, as.we knowit was with the common dulcimer, the Italian mandoline, and the Spanish
|)andurria.

repetizione
his

In (the first part without repeat). Fourth and Seventh Symphonies he has VOL. IV
'

remarkable instance

may

be quoted of the

06

REPORTS
tus
' ;

REQUIEM
(7) the
'

effective use of repetition in the Fugato (piano solo) from Liszt's' Todtentanz'(Danse Macabre),
-

Benedictus '

Dei'

Vivace,

To

'Lux aeterna.' (9) the Communio these are sometimes added (10) the Respon;

and
'

(8) the

'

Agnus

sorium,

Libera me,' which, though not an

integral portion of the Mass, immediately follows it, on all solemn occasions ; and (11) the Lectio

But there need be no difficulty in playing this on a well-regulated and checked single escapement. "With a double escapement the nicety of
not so much required. a. j. h. (the word seems not to be used in the singular), an old English and Scottish term for points of imitation. From the eight examples in the Scottish Psalter of 1635 (reprinted in the Rev. Neil Livingston's edition, 1864) it would seem that the term was used in a more general sense, of a setting of certain tunes in which the parts moved in a kind of free polyphony, not in strictly imitative style. In Parcell's revision of the treatise which
checking
is

EEPOETS

Taedet animam meam,' of which we possess at least one example of great historical interest. The Plain-song Melodies adapted to tlie nine divisions of the mass will be foimd in the Gradual, together with that proper for the Responsorium. The Lectio, which really belongs to a diflerent Service, has no proper Melody,
'

appears in the third part of Playford's Introduction to the Skill of Musick (twelfth edition, 1694), the term ig mentioned but not explained, further than as being synonymous with ' imitation': 'The second is ImUaiion ov Beporls, which needs no Example.' (See Sammelb&nde of the Int. Mus. Ges. vi. p. 562.) m. REPRISE, repetition ; a term which is occasionally applied to any repetition in music, but is most conveniently confined to the recurrence of the first subject of a movement after the conclusion of the working out or Dmchfiihrung, [In Couperin, Eameau, and other French composers, the term is used of a short refrain at the end of a movement, which was probably intended to be played over more than twice, as sometimes it contains the ordinary marks of repetition within the passage covered by the word.] o.
(Lat. Missa pro Defundis Ital. Fr. Messe des Marts ; Messa per i Defunti Germ. Todtenmesse). A solemn Mass, sung
; ;

REQUIEM

annually^ in CommemoratidH of the Faithful Departed, on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2) ; and, with a less general intention, at funeral services, on the anniversaries of the decease of particular persons, and on such other occasions as may be dictated by feelings of public respect or indi-

is sung to the ordinary ' Tonus Lectionis.' The entire series of Melodies [See Inflexion.] is of rare beauty, and produces so solemn an effect, when sung in unison by a large body of grave equal voices, that most of the gi'eat polyphonic composers have employed its phrases more freely than usual, in their Requiem Masses, either as Canti fermi, or in the form of unisonous passages interposed between the harmonised Compositions of this portions of the work. kind are not very numerous ; but moat of the examples we possess must be classed among the most perfect productions of their respective authors. Palestrina's ' Missa pro Defunctis,' for five voices, first printed at Rome in 1591, in the form of a supplement to the Third Edition of his First Book of Masses,' was reproduced in 1841 by Alfieri, in the first volume of his ' Raccolta di Musica Sacra ' ; again, by L^fage ^ in a valuable 8vo volume, entitled 'Cinq Messes de Palestrina' ; and by the Prince de la Moskowa in the 9th volume of his collection [see vol. iii. p. 271], and has since been included by Messrs. Breitkopf & Hartel, of Leipzig, in their complete edition. This beautiful work is, unhappily, very incomplete, consisting only of the ' Kyrie,' the ' Offertorium,' the ' Sanctus,' the ' Benedictus,' and the 'Agnus Dei.' must not, however, suppose that the composer left his work unfinished. It was clearly his intention that the remaining movements should be sung, in accordance with a custom still common at

but

'

We

Roman

funerals, in unisonous plain-song ; and, as a fitting conclusion to the whole, he has left

vidual piety.

The Requiem
word
eia,

takes

of the Introit

its
'

name ' from the

first

Requiem aeternam dona


:

Domine.' When set to music, it naturally arranges itself in nine principal sections (1) ' Requiem aeternam ; (2) the The Introit ' Requiem Kyrie ; (3) the Gradual, and Tract aeternam,' and 'Absolve, Domine'; (4) The Sequence or Prose ' Dies irae ' (5) The Offer' Domine Jesu Christi ' ; torium (6) the Sanc-

'

'

'

us two settings of the Libera me,' in both of which the Gregorian melody is treated with an indescribable intensity of pathos.^ One of these is preserved in MS. among the archives of the Pontifical Chapel, and the other, among those of the Lateran Basilica. After a carelul comparison of the two, Baini arrived at the conclusion that that belonging to the Sistine Chapel must have been composed very nearly at the same time as, and probably as an adjunct to, the five printed movements, which are also founded, more or less closely, upon the original Canti fermi, and so constructed as to bring their
'

on which

I That iB to uy. Its name an a special Haaa. The Music o( the ordinary Polyphonic Haaa always bears the name of the Canto lermo It Is lonsded.

* Paris. Launer et Clc; London, Schott & Co. ' Bee Alfieri, Raccolta di Muaica Sacra, torn, vil.


REQUIEM
characteristic beauties into the highest possible relief in no case, perhaps, with more touching

'

RESOLUTION
.' '

67

etfect

than in the opening Kyrie,' the first few bars of which will be found at vol. ii. p. 613. Next in importance to Palestrina's Requiem is a very grand one, for six voices, composed by Vittoria for the funeral of the Empress Maria, widow of MaximOian II. This tine work undoubtedly the greatest triumph of Vittoria's
'

posed after the last Osanna,' to fulfil the usual office of the Benedictus which is here incorporated with the Sanctus exhibits the composer's power of appealing to the feelings in
'

'

'

its

most

affecting light.

The second Requiem,


;

in

minor, for three

genius comprises all the chief divisions of the Mass, except the Sequence, together with the Besponsorium and Lectio, and brings the plain -song subjects into prominent relief throughout. It was first published at Madrid the year of its production. in 1605 In 1869 the Lectio was reprinted at Katisbon, by Joseph Schrems, in continuation of Froske's 'Musica Divina.' A later issue of the same valuable collection contains the Mass and Eesponsorium. The original volume contains one more movement ' Versa est in luctum ' which has never been reproduced in modern notation ; but, as this has now no place in the Roman Funeral Service, its omission is not so much to be

regretted.

Some other very fine Masses for the Dead, by Francesco Anerio, Orazio Vecohi, and Giov. Matt. Asola, are included in the same collection, together with a somewhat pretentious work by Pitoni, which scarcely deserves the enthusiastic eulogium bestowed upon it by
far finer composition, of nearly Colonna's massive Requiem for eight voices, first printed at Bologna in 1684 a copy of which is preserved in the Library of the Royal College of Music. Several modern Requiem Masses have become very celebrated. (1.) The history of Mozart's last work is surrounded by mysteries which render it scarcely less interesting to the general reader than the (See vol. iii. music itself is to the student.

Dr. Proske. similar date,

is

male voices is in many respects a greater work than the first though the dramatic element pervades it so freely that its character as a religious service is sometimes entirely lost. It was completed on Sept. 24, 1836, a few days after the composer had entered his seventyseventh year ; and, with the exception of the sixth quartet and the quintet in E minor, was his last important work. The Dies irae was first sung at the concert of the Conservatoire, March 19, 1837, and repeated on the 24th of the same month. On March 25, 1838, the work was sung throughout. In the January of that year Mendelssohn had already recommended it to the notice of the committee of the Lower Rhine Festival; and in 1872 and 1873 it was sung as a funeral service in the Roman Catholic Chapel, in Farm Street, London. It is doubtful whether Cherubini's genius ever shone to greater advantage than in this gigantic work. Every movement is full of interest and the whirlwind of sound which ushers in the Dies irae produces an eff'ect which, once w. s. K. heard, can never be forgotten. [Schumann's Requiem, op. 148, is of commore beautiful paratively small importance compositions of his with the same title are the 'Requiem for Mignon,' and a song included These two have, of course, nothing in op. 90. to do with the words of the Mass which are nor has the famous here under discussion German Requiem of Brahms, which has been
' '

'

'

'

'

'

'

p.

308
(2.)
p.

ff.)

For Gossec's

'

Messe des Morts

'

see vol.

ii.

203.

(3.) Next in importance to Mozart's immortal work are the two great Requiem Masses of Cherubini. The first of these, in C minor, was

written for the Anniversary of the death of King Louis XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793), and first sung on that occasion at the Abbey Church of Saint- Denis in 1817; after which it was not again heard until Feb. 14, 1820, when it was repeated in the same church at the funeral Berlioz regarded this as of the Due de Berri. It is undoubtedly Cherubini's greatest work. full of beauties. Its general tone is one of

noticed in its own place (see vol. i. p. 384). Verdi's Requiem, written in memory of Manzoni, startled the purists when it was produced in 1874, but it gradually won the enthusiastic approval even of the most ardent classicists, Among later for it is a masterpiece in its way. Requiem Masses may be mentioned Stanford's work in memory of Lord Leighton, given at the Birmingham Festival of 1897 ; Henschel's expressive Requiem, written in memory of his wife, in 1902 ; and Sgambati's in memory of King Humbert, published 1906.] RESIN. See Colophane, and Rosin.

RESINARIUS, Balthasar, is possibly, but not certainly, identical with Balthasar Harzer

extreme moumfnlness, pervaded throughout by deep religious feeling. Except in the Dies irae and 'Sanctus' this style is never exchanged and, even then, the for a more excited one
'
'

treatment can scarcely be called dramatic. The deep pathos of the little movement, inter-

He was bom at Jessen early in or Hartzer. the 16th century, took clerical orders and became Bishop of Leipa in Bohemia about 1543. He had been a chorister in the service of the Emperor Maximilian I. He is said to have been a pupil of Isaac, and he published at Wittenberg in 1543 Responsorium numero octoginta libri duo. de tempore et festis RESOLUTION is the process of relieving All dis< dissonance by succeeding consonance.
' . . .


68

RESOLUTION

RESOLUTION
by degrees to their classification. The first marked step in this direction was the use of the Dominant seventh without preparation, which showed at least a thorough appreciation of the fact that some discords might have a more independent individuality than others. This appears at first merely in the occasional discarding of the formality of delaying the note out of a preceding chord in order to introduce the dissonance but it led also towards the considera;

sonanoe is irritant, and eajinot be indefinitely 'dwelt upon by the mind, but while it is heard the return to consonance is awaited. To conduct this return to consonance in such a manner that the connection between the chords may be intelligible to the hearer is the problem of resolution. The history of the development of harmonic music shows that the separate idea of resolution in the abstract need not have been present to the earliest composers who introduced discords into their works. They discovered circumstances

which the flow of the parts, moving in consonance with one another, might be diversified by retarding one part while the others moved on a step, and then waited for that which was left behind to catch them up. This process did not invariably produce dissonance, but it did conduce to variety in the independent motion of the parts. The result, in the end, was to establish the class of discords we call suspensions, and their resolutions were inevitably implied by the very principle on which the device is founded. Thus when Josquin diversified a simple succession of chords in what we call their first position, as follows-
in
Ex.
1.

tion of resolution in the abstract, and ultimately to greater latitude in the process of returning to

consonance.
ticular

Both their instinct and the parmanner in which the aspects of discords

presented themselves at first led the earlier composers to pass from a discordant note to the nearest available note in the scale, wherever the nature of the retardation did not obviously imply the contrary and this came by degrees to be accepted as a tolerably general rule. Thus the
;

Dominantseventhisgenerally found to resolve on


the semitone below ; and this, combined with the fact that theleading note was already in the chord with the seventh, guided them to the relation of Dominant and Tonic chords ; although theyearly realised the possibility of resolving on other harmony than that of the Tonic, on special occasions, without violating the supposed law of moving the seventh down a semitone or tone, according to the mode, and raising the leading note to what would have been the Tonic on ordinary occasions. However, the ordinary succession became by degrees so familiar that the Tonic chord grew to be regarded as a sort of resolution in a lump of the mass of any of the discords which were built on the top of a Dominant major concord, as the seventh and major or minor ninth, such as are now often
called

-J-

i A P d A
it

ESE Ei S^a^E
!

1-

seems sufficiently certain that no such idea as resolving a discord was present to his mind. The motion of to and of to B was predetermined, and their being retarded was mainly a

happy way of obtaining variety in the flow of the parts, though it must not be ignored that the early masters had a full appreciation of the actual function and eff'eot of the few discords
they did employ. Some time later the device of overlapping the succeeding motions of the parts was discovered, by allowing some or all of those which had gone on in front to move again while the part which had been left behind passed to its destination as by substituting (6) for (a) in Ex. 2.
;

Fundamental discords.
3.

Thus we

find the

following passage in a
Ex.

Haydn Sonata

in

Bx.

2.

(a) I,

Of)

which the Dominant seventh is not resolved by its passing to a near degree of the scale, but by the mass of the harmony of the Tonic followingthe mass of the harmony of the Dominant. Ex. 4 is an example of a similar use by him of a Dominant major ninth.
in
Ex.
4.
I

j^

This complicated matters, and gave scope for fresh progressions and combinations, but it did not necessarily affect the question of resolution, pure and simple, because the destination of the part causing the dissonance was still predeterHowever, the gradually increasing fremined. quency of the use of discords must have habituated
hearers to their effect and to the consideration of the characteristics of different groups, and so

more eoinmon way of dealing with the resolution of such chords. wais, to make the part

RESOLUTION

RESOLUTION

69

having the discordant note pass to another same harmony before changing, and allowing another part to supply the contiguous note as in Ex. 5 from one of Mozart's
position in the
;

borated. One which was more common in early stages of harmonic music than at the present day was the use of representative progressions, which were, in fact, the outline of chords which

Fantasias in
Ex.
5.

minor.
Ex.
Set.

SSi^ ^^^li^y
Some theorists hold that the passage of the ninth to the third as Dl> to E in Ex. 5a (where the root C does not appear) is sufficient to constitute resolution. That such a form of resolution is very common is obvious from theorists having noticed it, but it ought to be understood that the mere change of position of the notes of a discord is not sufficient to constitute resolution unless a real change of harmony is implied by the elimination of the discordant note or unless the change of position leads to fresh harmony, and thereby satisfies the conditions of intelligible connection with the discord. A much more unusual and remarkable resolution is such as appears at the end of the first movement of Beethoven's F minor Quartet as

would have supplied the complete succession of parts if they had been filled in. The following is a remarkable example from the Sarabande of
J. S.

Bach's Partita in
8.

Bb

Ex.

*^

"

which might be interpreted


Ex.
9.

^^^
:

as follows

Another device which came early into use, and was in great favour with Bach and his sons and their contemporaries, and is yet an ever-fruitful
source of variety, is that of interpolating notes in the part which has what is called the discorresolution,

follows
Ex.
6.

dant note, between its sounding and its final and either passing direct to the note which relieves the dissonance from the digi-ession,

where the chord of the Dominant seventh contracts into the mere single note which it represents, and that proceeds to the note only of the Tonic so that no actual haiinony is heard in the movementafter the seventh has been sounded. An example of treatment of an inversion of the major ninth of the Dominant, which is as unusual, is the following from Beethoven's last Quartet, in F, op. 135
;
:

or touching the dissonant note slightly again at the end of it. The simplest form of this device was the leap from a suspended note to another note belonging to the same harmony, and then back to the note which supplies the resolution, as in Ex. 10 ; and this form was extremely common iu quite the early times of polyphonic music.

Ex.

7.

m m
Ex.

10.

&i=

^^^^

mmmEx.
11.

Ar_ Ar

J.r

J'"'

But much more elaborate forms of a similar made use of later. An example from J. S. Bach will be found in vol. i. p. 3146
nature were
of this Dictionary
;

the following example, from

There remain to be noted a few typical devices by which resolutions are either varied or ela-

a Fantasia same point


also as

by Emanuel Bach, illustrates the somewhat remarkably, and serves


:

an instance of enharmonic resolution


70

'

EESOLUTION

BBSPONSE
incredible to people who do not believe in what they are not accustomed to, is felt to be obvious to all when it becomes familiar ; and hence the peculiarities which are reserved for special

The minor seventh on C in this case ia ultimately resolved as if it had been an augmented sixth composed of the same identical notes according to our system of temperament, but derived from a different source and having consequently a different context. This manner of using the same group of notes in different senses is one of the most familiar devices in modern music for varying the course of resolutions and obtaining fresh aspects of harmonic combinations. [For further examples see Modulation,

occasions at first must often in their turn yield the palm of special interest to more complex Such ia the history instinctive generalisations.
of the development of muaical resources in the The past, and such it must be in the future.

Change, Enharmonic]

An inference which follows from the use of some forms of Enharmonic resolution is that
the discordant note need not inevitably move to but may be brought into consonant relations by the motion of other parts, which relieve it. of its characteristic dissonant effect ; this is illustrated most familiarly by the freedom which is recognised in the resolution of the chord of the sixth, fifth, and third on the subdominant, called sometimes the added sixth, sometimes an inversion of the supertonic seventh, and sometimes an inversion of the eleventh of the Dominant, or even a double-rooted chord derived
resolution,

laws of art require to be based upon the broadest and most universal generalisations and in the detail under consideration it appears at present that the ultimate test is thorough intelligibility in the melodic progressions of the parts which
;

from Tonic and Dominant together.


It is necessary to note shortly the use of vicarious resolutions that is, of resolutions in

which one part supplies the discordant note and another the note to which under ordinary circumstances it ought to pass. This has been
alluded to above as

common

in respect of the

so-called fundamental discords, but there are

instances of its occurring with less independent combinations. The Gigue of Bach's Partita in minor is full of remarkable experiments in resolution ; the following is an example which illustrates especially the point under considera-

tion

^^m
Ex.12.

constitute the chords, or in a few cases the response of the harmony representing one root to that representing another, between which, as in Examples 3 and 4, there is a recognised connection sufficient for the mind to follow without the express connection of the flow of the parts. Attempts to catalogue the various discords and their various resolutions must be futile as long as the injunction is added that such formulas only are admissible, for this is to insist upon the repetition of what haa been aaid before ; but they are of value when they are conaidered with aufficient generality to help us to arrive at the ultimate principles which underlie the largest circle of their multifarioua varieties. The imagination can live and move freely within the bounds of comprehensive laws, but it is only choked by the accumulation of precedents. c. h. h. p. RESPOND (Lat. Hespmsorimn) a form of ecclesiastical chant which gi-ew out of the elaboration of the primitive Eesponsobial Psalmody. Some of the Besponds have- been frequently treated in the Polyphonic Style, with very great effect, not only by the Great Masters of the 16th century, but even as late as the time of Colonna, whose Eesponsoria of the Office for the Dead, for eight voices, are written with intense appreciation of the solemn import of the text. A large collection of very fine examples, including an exquisitely beautiful set for Holy
Vittoria, will be found in vol. iv. of Musica Divina. \v. s. R. RESPONSE, in English church music, is, in its widest sense, any musical sentence sung by the choir at the close of something read or chanted by the minister. The term thus includes the Amen after prayers, the Kyrie

Week, by
Proske's
'

inference to be drawn from the above examples is that the possible resolutions of discords,

The

which have an individual but that it takes time to discover them, as there can hardly be a severer test of a true musical instinct in relation to harmony than to make sure of such a matter. As a rule, the old easily recognisable resolutions, by motion of a single degree, or at least by Interchange of parts of the chord in supplying the subsequent consonant harmony, must preespecially of those
status, are Varied,

'

'

'

''

after each

commandment

in the

Communion

ponderate, and the more peculiar resolutions


will be reserved for occasions when greater force and intensity are required. But as the paradoxes

Sermce, the 'Doxology' to the Gospel, and every reply to a Versicle, or to a Petition, or Suffrage. In its more limited sense the first three of the above divisions would be excluded from the term, and the last-named would fall naturally into the following important groups
:

of one generation are often the truisms of the next, so treatment of discords such as is utterly

(1) those which immediately precede the Psalms, called also the Preees ; (2) those following the Apostles' Creed

and the Lord's Prayer

(3) those

'

RESPONSE

RESPONSE
71

following the Lord's Prayer in the Litany (4) and the Responses of the first portion of the Litany, which, however, are of a special musical form which will be fully explained hereafter. Versioles and Responses are either an ancient formula of prayer or praise, as, Lord, have mercy upon us,' etc., 'Glory be to the Father,' etc., or a quotation from Holy Scripture, as,
; '

Creed and the Lord's Prayer. And here we at once meet the final fall of a minor third,' which is an ancient form of inflec- ft ~~ tion known as the Accentus
'

^^^~~J

This

is

one of the most characteristic progresversicles,

sions in plain-song
fessions, etc.

responses,

con-

^ O Loid,
B;

open Thou our

lips.

And our mouth shall shew forth Thy


li.
;

praise.

which is verse 15 of Psalm from a church hymn, as,


/^

or a quotation

must have already struck the reader that this is nothing more or less than the note of the cuckoo. This fact was probably in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote,
It
' '

The finch, the sparrow, and the The ptai/n-song cuckoo gray.

lark,

Lord, save

Thy

people.

And

bless Thine inheritance.

This medial accent


syllable
:

is

and Responses when the


thus

only used in Versicles last word is a polyMedial Atxent.

which is from the Te Dev/m

or an adaptation of ; a prayer to the special purpose, as,

^
I^

Favourably with mercy hear our prayers. O Son of David, have mercy upon us.

$^SE
When
the last word
is

And

grant us

Thy

salya-tion.

of such Versicles and Responses offers a wide and interesting field of study. (There can be little doubt that all the inflections or cadences to which they are set

The musical treatment

a monosyllable or

is

accented on its last syllable, there is an ad-

Moderate Accent,
:

have been the gradual development of an original monotonal treatment, which in time was foimd to be uninteresting and tedious (whence our term of contempt monotonous '), or was designedly varied for use on special occasions and duiing holy seasons. [See Inflexion.] The word ' Alleluia is found as a Response in the Prayer-Book of 1549, for use between Easter and Trinity, immediately before the Psalms during the remainder of the year the
' ' ;

ditional

note,

thus This may be said to be the only law of the Accentus Ikdetiastieiis which the tradition of our

^ As we do put OUT trust in Thee.

Reformed Church enforces. It is strictly observed in most of our cathedrals, and considering its
remarkable simplicity, should never be broken. The word 'prayers' was formerly pronounced as a dissyllable it therefore took the _ ^ Favourably .... OUT pi-ay-era. medial accent thus but as a monosyllable it should of course be treated thus -9 Jz
;

word was Here is Marbeck's mUSioforit (1550)


translation of the
used.

^ n

'

f-

Praye 7 the

Lotde.

Favourably

.... our

prayers.

was in later editions converted into a Versicle and Response, as in our present Prayer-Book, the music was, according to some uses, divided between the Versicle and Response,
this

When

thus

PiBise ye the Lord.

1% The Lord's name be praised.

In comparing our Versicles and Responses with the Latin from which they were translated, it is important to bear this rule as to the final word in mind. Because the Latin and English of the same Versicle or Response will frequently take difiiBrent accents in the two languages. For example, the following Versicle takes in the Latin the medial accent but in the translation will require the moderate accent.
'
'

'

'

But as a matter of fact these ' Preces' in our Prayer-Book which precede the daily Psalms have never been strictly bound by the laws of 'ecclesiastical chant,' hence, not only are great

Latin farm.

met with, other uses, but also actual settings in service-form (that is, like a motet), containing contrapuntal devices Nearly all the best in four or more parts. cathedral libraries contain old examples of this elaborate treatment of the Preces, and several have been printed by Dr. Jebb in his ' Choral
varieties of plain-song settings to be

Ab inimtcis nostrls defends nos Chris


Englisti form.

te.

gathered

from

Roman and

From our enemies defend

us,

Christ.

It has been just stated that the early part of

Responses.

As then the Preces are somewhat exceptional, we will pass to the more regular Versicles and
Responses, such as those after the Apostles'

the Litany does not come under the above laws of ' accent.' The pi^incipal melodic progression however, closely allied to the above, it is, having merely an additional note, thus


72
This


KESPONSE

EESPONSE
::f:

men
and
us,

is the old and comResponse

It
-

sionally to be heard in our northern cathedrals. The plain-song was not always entirely ignored

ra

pro no-bis.
'

by church-musicians, but

it

was sometimes

in-

to this are adapted the Responses,


'

'We
' '

good Lord ; Good Lord, deliver us ; beseech Thee to hear _ us, good Lord'; Grant us Thy peace ; Have mercy upon us
'
'

'

'

'

Christ, hear us
;

'

(the first note being omitted

as redundant)

and ' Lord, have mercy upon us At this point, Christ, have mercy upon us.'
;

the entry of the Lord's Prayer brings in the old law of medial and moderate accents the above simple melody, therefore, is the true Response for the whole of the first (and principal) portion of the Litany. It is necessary, however, to return now to the preliminary sentences of the Litany, or the Invocations,' as they have Here we find each divided by a been called. colon, and, in consequence, the simple melody last given is lengthened by one note, thus
'

cluded in the tenor part in such a mutilated It is genestate as to be hardly recognisable. rally admitted that the form in which Tallis's responses have come down to us is very impure, To such an extent is this the if not incorrect. case that in an edition of the people's part of Tallis, published not many years since, the editor (a cathedral organist) fairly gave up the task of finding the plain-song of the response, 'We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord,' and ordered the people to sing the tuneful super' '

structure

We
this

be

seech Thee

-to

hear

us,

good Lord.

It certainly does appear impossible to

combine

with

*=

i
This
is

M-J-IL
us,

used without variation for all the InvoThe asterisk shows the added note, cations. which is set to the syllable immediately preIt happens that each of the ceding the colon. sentences of Invocation contains in our English but it version a monosyllable before the colon is not the case in the Latin, therefore both Versicle and Response differ from our use, thus
;

good Lord.

But
this

it

appears

that

ancient
by
thus

form

mex
-

existed
OhriS'te

au

di

uqs.

This, if used

Tallis, will

combine with his

harmonies

We

be

r
-

T^r

seech Thee to hear

r -^

r
us,

good Lord.

{jasro;}"

'^XSLT-la-MesUmers.

h
Pater de coelis

etc.

(FlaiD-song in Tenor.)

De

us.

In the petitions of the Litany, the note marked with an asterisk is approached by another addition, for instead of

Having now described the Preces, Versicles and Responses, and Litany, it only remains to say a few words on (1) Amens, (2) Doxology to Gospel, (3) Responses to the Commandments, all of which we have mentioned as being responses of a less important kind. (1) Since the Reformation two forms of Amen have been chiefly used in our church, the monotone, and the approach by a semitone, generally harmonised thus

-fj we have fer^

i-

with

UB

for ever.

The whole sentence of music


thus

therefore stands

i
(Petition chanted
Priest.)

by

(Response by Choir and


People.)

have now shortly traced the gradual growth of the plain-song of the whole of our Litany, and it is impossible not to admire the simplicity and beauty of its construction.

We

But the early English church-musicians frequently composed original musical settings of the whole Litany, a considerable number of nearly which were printed by Dr. Jebb all, however, are now obsolete except that by Thomas Wanless (organist of York Minster at
;

The former of these Amens in early times was used when the choir resporided to the priest the latter, when both priest and choir sang
' '

together (as after the Confession, Lord's Prayer, Creed, etc.). Tallis, however, always uses the monotonic form, varying the harmonies thrice.

the close of the a7th century), which

is

occa-

In more modern uses, however, the ancient system has been actually reversed, and (as at St. Paul's Cathedral) the former is only used

EESPONSOEIAL PSALMODY
at the close of each verse.

EESPONSOEIAL PSALMODY
when
priest and choir join ; the latter when the choir responds. In many cathedrals no guiding principle is adopted ; this is undesirable. (2) The Doxology to the Gospel is always monotone, the monotone being in the Tenor, thus

73

^
There
are,

{nSsji^ toTi".*) !->"


=l=

settings of these

however, almost innumerable original words used throughout the

countiy.
(3) The Responses to the Commandments are an expansion of the ancient

Such a response was known among the Greeks as an acrostic (dxpoffT/x'oc or aKporeKeiriov), and the technical word in Latin for this performance by the congregation was Respondere hence this form of psalmody was called Eesponsorial Psalmody.' The refrain was originally very brief, an Amen or an Alleluia, a short text like the For his mercy endureth for ever of Psalm cxxxvi. or some pregnant sentence drawn from the Psalm which was being sung. In the earliest days the soloist's text was very little removed from monotone, but already by the time of St. Augustine it had become more elaborate, and the ancient simplicity was looked upon as an archaism. The result was a performance some;

'

'

'

what resembling the

familiar

Litany.

The
this

Kyrie eleison,
Christe eleison,

psalmody remained such a short time in

Kyrie eleison,

to serve as ten responses instead of being used as one responsive prayer. The ancient form actually appears in Marbeck (1550), and the so-called Marbeck's Kyrie now used is an editorial manipulation. Being thrown on their own resources for the music to these ten responses, our composers of the reformed church always composed original settings, sometimes containing complete contrapuntal devices. At one period of vicious taste arrangemerUs of various sentences of music, sacred or secular, were pressed into the service. The Jommelli Kyrie' is a good or rather, a bad example. It is said to have been adapted by Attwood from a chaconne by Jommelli, which had already been much used on the stage as a soft and slow accompaniment of weird and ghostly scenes. The adaptation of ' Open the heavens from Elijah is still very popular, and may be considered a favourable specimen of an unfavourable class. [Both these have happily passed out of general use at present, 1907.]
'
'

made

'

'

'

'

The re-introduction of choral celebrations of Holy Communion has necessitated the use of various inflexions, versioles, and responses, of which the music or method of chanting has,
almost without exception, been obtained from pre-Keformation sources. j. s. EESPONSOEIAL PSALMODY is the earliest form in which psalms have been sung in the Christian Church. It is a development from inflected monotone (see Inflexion). In the earliest Christian days the recitation of the psalms was carried out by a single soloist, who monotoned the greater part of the psalm, but inserted various cadences or inflexions at certain points of distinction in the verse. This was very probably but the carrying on of what had long been current in the Synagogue. (See Plain-song, Synagogue Music. ) It was very advisable not to leave the whole of the performanceof the psalm and it became customary for the to the soloist congregation to interject some small response
;

comparatively simple Stage that very few actual monuments of it have survived. The Eesponsorial Psalmody that exists is of the elaborate sort. Partly as a result of the growing artistic feeling, partly also in consequence of the existence of trained singer's in the great Song School at Eome, the music, alike of the soloist who sang the verses of the psalm and of the "choir who responded, was elaborated to a very high pitch. Then, since it was impossible to sing the whole psalin. to a highly ornate chant habitually, certain verses were Selected from the psalm for this elaborate treatment ; and there grew up, therefore, the musical form called the Respond, which consisted in its simplest shape of a choral melody (called the Respond proper), alternating with one or more Verses sung by the soloist. This form is found both in the music of the Mass and in that of Divine Service, and mainly as an interlude between the reading of lessons. In the former it is called for distinction's sake Responsorium GraduaU or the Gradual. In the latter case it is simply called EesponsoHuTn ; for the lesser Oflices, which were sung without musical elaboration, there came to be a few simple forms of Eesponsorial music, modelled on the elaborate responds of Mattins but differing from them in being simpler in This brief form was then called Retexture. sponsorium breve as distinct from the Besponsorium prolixum. The highest development of elaboration was reached in the Gradual but even there, in spite of all the embroidery, the primitive monotone around which everything else centres
'

is

still

traceable

and

careful

analysis

will

the chant is This statement can still an inflected monotone. most easily be proved by the study of a single group of Graduals which are ordinarily ascribed to the second mode, and are decorated with similar melodic themes. The music falls into eight divisions, each of which consists of (a) an intonation, (6) the recitation in inflected monotone, (c) the cadence or
all its elaboration

show that with

74

RESPONSORIAL PSALMODY
or melisma.
;

EESPONSOEIAL PSALMODY
Gloria patri as well, in the early shape in which consisted of one phrase, not two. Further, it became customary in France to repeat after the Verse not the whole of the respond but only a and this custom spread till it was part of it
it
;

pneuma

There are in all fifteen scheme of music the Justus lit palTna is given here as being the best representative of the group but in two of the divisions another text is given as well, in order
diflerent texts set to this
;

to reveal the structure the more clearly.


I.

universal.
.

h- ^
i^ Jus

.
tus

-^aV^ri^
bit

ut pal

ina floT

-^7^
Sicut ce

^t^^l;

^^=^^ i^^s=m.-=!s^
Ti^ri^^^i^^z; 3.,]Mi4,
bi
-

III.

Mul

tar

IV.

ii^=^=a^-p^^^^^'^'^^
In
do(Pro-ce

dens d tha

mo mo

su

o
-ni)

Do-mi

^ Ad
(BL

an -nun
lue
- i

tl

an

diim

^\^^^^^MT7;:^
:K^TCTtm ^>\
.

-tf^''>

noD luerint do-ml

. 8
VI.

..

fl

li

cor

di

>m

VII.

^^r^S^l^i^^JMsf^(Cp. III.)

VIII.
(Op. IV.)

>.i8
Ptr
. .

IV'
noc

'*'
tela

31

gV 's*^

The same plan holds good with the responds


of the Office which are found for the most part It is visible more in the service of Mattins. plainly in the verses of the responds than in Those of the Office the responds themselves. use a set of invariable psalm -melodies, one

The following respond, then, which belongs to Mattins of the First Sunday in Advent and stands at the head of the series, may be taken
as representing this form of composition in an unusually full shape.

Three boys sing the Eespond


-_!

belonging to each mode in these the monotone is very clear, and yet there is much elaboration in the cadences, and the forms are so plastic that they can by certain well-defined rules be readily adapted to the various texts of the (See Psalmody.) The Graduals in the verses.
;

As'pi - ul

eoa

Ion

ge

ec

ce

Ti-de

^-gfrJi^V^AT^

mass do not
their

utilise these
;

common
is

V^
1

foi-ms for
po-teu-ti
-

Verses
;

each

Verse

peculiar to the
_

am

Te-iii-en

but even so there is much similarity observable amongst them both in general strucIn exceptional cases even ture and in detail. the responds of the Oflice have their Verses set to a special melody and not to the common one. As regards liturgical (as distinct from musical) structure the respond of the Office is like the gradual -respond of the Mass, but not

Gradual

--Mi^1^;^aSIf^-J>^-^^-if
-

tern, et

ne-bu

lam

IfO

tam

ter-raiu te

Mts:-^

^
di

gV-^^-j^-a^,X

tem.

te

ob

vi

identical.

In neither case

is it

common now
ni

more than one Verse, but the respond in the Office is often accompanied by the
to find

'*M \
i,

^
et

ci

te

t Nun-cl -a


EESPONSORIUMJ

REST

'

75

^^-H-='-'-ft^>V4;:
no
bia si

tu es ip

Qui

(Hawkins, Hist, of Mvmc, chap. 63.) Accordingly we find rests corresponding in value to each of the notes then in use, as shown in the following table.
LoQga.
Brevia. Semibrevia.

i~-^-f, ^ifSti=M=S=i=f^
reg-na-tn
-

tub
I

In po - pu - lo

Maxima. Longa perfecta.

E^^S^tt^
Is
-

LoDga imperfecta.
Fusa.

Paiua. Seniipaus;i.

Minima.

Semimiuima.

SemlfuHa.

ra

el.

boy sings the first Verse to the psalm melody of the Seventh mode (see Psalmody)

Quique terrigeoae et fllii hominum, simul in unum dives et pauper (Pa. xlix. 2).

Susplrium.

Semisuspirium.

Pausa

Fusts.

Pausa Semifu.

The

choir repeats the Respond from Ite onwards. second boy sings a second Verse as before Qui regis Israel intende, qui deducis velut ovem Joseph

these rests, two, the semipav^a and suspirium, have remained in use until the present day, and appear, slightly increased in size but of unchanged value, as the semibreve and minim rests. Two of the longer rests are also occasionally used in modern music, the pausa, or breve rest, to express a silence of two bars' duration, and

Of

(Ps. Ixxx.

1).

The

choir repeats the Respond from Nwnda. third boy sings a third Verse Excita domine potentiam tuam, et veni ut salvos facias

nos.

The R7

repeated from Qui regmatwrus. The three boys sing the Gloria pain (down to Sancto only) to the same psalm melody, and the choir repeats the closing section of the Respond In
is

populo

Israel.

w. h.

f.

RESPONSORIUM.

See Respond, and Rb;

SPONSOBIAL Psalmody. REST (Fr. Silence, Pause

Ger. Pause

Ital.

Pausa). The sign of silence in music, the duration of the silence depending upon the form of the character employed to denote it. The employment of the rest dates from the invention of 'measured music,' that is, music composed of notes of definite and proportionate
values.

the longa imperfecta a silence of four. These rests are called in French bdtons, and are spoken of as baton k deux mesures, k quatre mesures. The rests employed in modern music, with their names and values in corresponding notes, are shown in the table below. By a license the semibreve rest is used to express a silence of a full bar in any rhythm (hence the German name Taktpause) its value is therefore not invariable, as is the case with all the other rests, for it may be shorter than its corresponding note, as when used to express a bar of 2-4 or 6-8 time, or longer, as when it occurs in 3-2 time. To express a rest of longer duration than one bar, either the bdtons of two
' ' '

[See

MusiCA Mensitrata

Notation.]

In earlier times the cantus was sung without pauses, or with only such slight breaks as were necessary for the due separation of the sentences of the text, but so soon as the relative duration of the notes was established, the employment of rests of like proportionate values became a necessity. Franchinus Gafurius, in his Practica Musicae (1496), says that the Rest 'was invented to give a necessary relief to the voice, and a sweetness to the melody for as a preacher of the divine word, or an orator in his discourse,
;

or four bars are employed (Ex. a), or, more commonly, a thick horizontal line is drawn in

the stave, and the number of bars which have to be counted in silence is written above it (Ex. 6).

W
increased

(6)

10

Like the notes, the value of a rest can be by the addition of a dot, and to the same extent, thus -- is equal to -^r, T to r n,

and

so on.
'

necessary oftentimes to relieve his auditors by the recital of some pleasantry, thereby to make them more favourable and attentive, so a singer, intermixing certain pauses with his notes, engages the attention of his hearers to the remaining' parts of his song.'
finds
it

In the earlier forms of the ancient measured music rests were used as a part of the timesignature, and placed immediately after the clef. In this position they did not denote silence, but merely indicjited the description of Mood to be counted. [See Notation, Mood, Time, SlONATUEB.]
'

W
EvOLtBH. Bemlbrove rest.
reat. Crotchet rest. Quaver rest. SemiquaTor rest.

(Pi

W
Gebuah,
(a)
(A) (c)

(6)

(/)

(3)

T
,

^
French.
Italian.
la)

(a)
I&) ic)

la)
(b) (c)

Minim

id)

Id)
|)

Fnu9c, Deini-pauHe. Souplr. Denil-Boupir.


Quart-dfl'BOupir.

Taktpause.

Halbe Fauae.

(/)
(j)

Demisemiq'uavBr

rest.

Semidemiaeiiiiquaver rest.

{/) Deml-quart-de-flonpir. (^) Seizidme-de-BOupir.

Viertelpause. AchtelpauBe. Sechszebntelpause. ZweiunddreJasigBtheilpauae. (/) Ig) YierundaacbBzlgstheUpauae.


\d)
ie)

Pausa della Semibrere. Pauaa della AHaima. Pausa della Semimininia, or Quarto. id) Puusa delta Croroa, or Mezzo Quarto. Pausa della Semicroma, or Bespiro. Ie) /) Pauaa della Biscroma. a) Paiisa della Semibiscroma. F. T.


76

RESULTANT TONES
rimltans
;

RESULTANT TONES
(Fr.

EESULTANT TONES

Som

other sound
differential
differential.

Ger. Combinationatone) are produced when any two loud and sustained musical sounds are heard at the same time. There are two kinds of resultant tones, the Differential and the Sum-

or from the combination of a with a partial, or with another Thus the major Third C-E may
; :

have the following differential tones

mational. The Differential tone is so called because its number of vibrations is equal to the di fferenoe between those of thegeneratingsounds. The Summational tone is so called because its number of vibrations is equal to the sum of those of the generating sounds. The following diagram shows the pitches of the differential tones of the principal consonant intervals when in perfect tune.
'
'

'

'.

Generators.

All these tones are heard simultaneously but convenience the differentials of the first, second, third, and fourth orders are written We see, then, in notes of different length. that the number of possible resultant tones is
;

for

Differentials,

be wider than an octave, as in the last two examples, the differential is intermediate between the sounds which produce it. These tones can be easily heard on the ordinary harmonium, and also on the' Organ. They are not so distinct on the piano, because the sounds of this instrument are not sustained. By practice, however, the resultant tones can be distinguished on the piano also. Dissonant as well as consonant intervals produce resultant tones. Takingthe minor Seventh in its three possible forms the differentials are
as follows
:

If the interval

very great but only those which arise from the primes of musical sounds are sufficiently strong to be of practical importance. In enabling the ear to distinguish between consonant and dissonant intervals, the differential tones are only less important than the upper partials. Thus if the chord G-E-0 be accurately tuned as 3 5 8, the differential of G-G coincides with E, and that of E-G with G. But if the intervals be tempered the differentials are thrown out of tune, and give rise to beats. These beats are very loud and harsh on the ordinary harmonium, tuned in equal temperament. Again, in the close triad C-E-G the
;
: :

differentials of

C-E and

of

E-G

coincide

and

give no beats

the intervals be in perfect tune. On a tempered instrument the result is very different. If we take C to have 264 vibrations, the tempered E has about 332^, and the
if

tempered
ential of

C-E

about 396^ vibrations. The differis then 68j, and that of E-G 63.

first form of minor Seventh is obtained by tuning two Fifths upwards (C-G-D) and then a major Third downwards(D | Bl>) its differential tone is /A|>, an exact major Third below C. The second form is got by two exact Fourths upwards (C-F-B|>) : the differential is then \Ab, which is flatter than the previous IA\) by the interval 35:36. The third form is the so-called Harmonic Seventh on G, whose differential is G, an exact Fourth below C. The marks \, /, here used to distinguish notes which are confused in the ordinary notation, will be found fully We may explained under Temperament. briefly remark that the acute sign # refers to notes in an ascending series of Fifths, the grave sign I to those in a descending series of Fifths. Hitherto we have spoken only of the differential tones which are produced by the fundamentals or prime partial tones of musical sounds. But a differential may [See Partial Tones.] also arise from the combination of any upper partial of one sound with any partial of the

The

These two tones beat 5J times each second, and thus render the chord to some extent dissonant. In the minor triad, even when in just intonation, several of the resultant tones do not fit in with the no^es of the chord, although they may

be too

far apart to beat. In the major triad, on the contrary, the resultant tones form octaves with the notes of the chord. To this difference

Helmholtz attributes the less perfect consonance of the minor triad, and its obscured though not inharmonious effect.

The origin of the differential tones has been the subject of much discussion. Thomas Young held that when beats became too rapid to be distinguished by the ear, they passed into the resultant tone. This view prevailed until the publication in 1856 of Helmholtz's investigations, in which many objections to Young's theory were brought forward. To explain what these objections are, it would be necessary

RESULTANT TONES
some length of the nature of beats, and the reader is therefore referred to the article Beats, for this side of the question. The later mathematical theory given by Helmholtz is too
to treat at

EESZKE
remember the
municated
it

77

fact are still living.

He

com-

at once, without reserve, to pro-

fessors of the violin.

He made

it

the funda-

abstruse to admit of popular exposition. It was also part of Young's theory that the differential tone was produced in the ear alone, and not in the external ail-. But Helmholtz found that stretched membranes and resonators

responded very clearly to

produced by the siren or the harmonium. This he considers to prove the existence of vibrations in the external air corresponding to the differential But when the two generating tones were tones. produced by separate iustniments, the differential, though powerfully audible, hardly set
differentials,

the

resonator

in

vibration

at

all.

Hence

Helmholtz concludes that the differential tone is for the most part generated in the ear itself.

mental rule of perfect tuning for the pupils in his school at Padua, which was commenced in 1728 and which still exists and thus the phenomenon became known throughout Europe.'" Tartini in some cases mistook the pitch of the differential tone but there does not appear to be any reason for taking from him the credit of the discovery which has so long been associated with his name. j. L. RESZKE, DE, Edotjakd, born at Warsaw, Dec. 23, 1855, was taught singing by his brother Jean, Ciaffei, Steller, and Coletti, and made his d^but April 22, 1876, as the King in Aida,' on its production at the Italiens, Paris. He sang there with success for two seasons, and
; ; '

He

further points out that certain features in the construction of the ear easily permit the The action of the law which he has stated. unsymmetrical form of the drum-skin of the ear,

and the

loose attachment of the ossicles are, he thinks, peculiarly favourable to the production [A practical use of reof resultant tones. sultant tones is shown in the article Okgan,
vol.
iii.

p.

552a.]

of his theory, Helmholtz deduced a different series of resultant tones, which he calls summaiional tones, because their

As a consequence

of vibrations is the sum of those of the The existence of the summational tones which Helmholtz believed he verified experimentally, has recently been called in

number

generators.

afterwards went to Italy, where, in ISSQ, at Turin, he made a success in two new parts ^^the King in Catalani's Elda,' Jan. 31, and Charles V. in Marchetti's 'Don Giovanni d'Austria,' March 11, and appeared at Milan on the production of Ponchielli's 'Figliuol Prodigo,' Dec. 26; From 1880 to 1884, he was engaged with the Royal Italian Opera, until its collapse. He made his d^but on April 13, 1880, as Indra (' Roi de Lahore '), but his success as a foremost lyric artist was established by his admirable perfonnances of St. Bris, the Count in Sonnambula,' Basilio, and later as Walter (' Tell'), Peter the Great, Prince Gudal ( Demonio '), June 21, 1881 ; Senon (Lenepveu's 'Velleda'), July 4,

'

'

'

question by Dr. JVeyer.


in

He

points out that

some

intervals, as, for instance,

1:2, 1:3,

1 : 5, there will be a partial tone present of the same pitch as the presumed summational tone, and these cases therefore prove nothing. Again, if we take 2 3, the note 5 is not necessarily a summational tone, but may be the differential of 4 and 9, which are the 2nd partial Dr. Preyer. of 2 and the 3rd of 3 respectively. was unable to find any trace of the summational tones when care had been taken to exclude the But to do this he could only upper partials.
:

1882 Almaviva Mephistopheles Alvise, on production of La Gioconda,' May 31, 1883 ; Hageu, on production of Reyer's Sigurd,' July In 1883-84 he reappeared in 15, 1884, etc. Paris at the Italian Opera (Theatre des Nations),
;
;

'

'

with great

success, in
'

'

Simone Boccanegi'a'

in

use sounds of tuning-forks gently bowed, which were far too weak to produce any resultant tones The question, however, is one of in the air.
theoretic interest merely.

Not only the origin, but also the discovery The of differential tones has been disputed. earliest publication of the discovery was made by a German organist named Sorge in 1745. Then came Romieu, a French savant, in 1751.
Lastly, the great Italian violinist, Tartini, made the phenomenon the basis of his treatise on Harmony in 1754. But Tartini explicitly claims 'In the year 1714, priority in these words when about twenty- two years of age, he discovered this phenomenon by chance on, the,
:

Massenet's Herodiade,' on its production in Paris ; in Dubois' ' Aben Hamet,' Dec. 16, 1884, and in other operas. He was engaged at the French Opera, where he first appeared April 13, 1885, as Mephistopheles, a part he sang subsequently in the 500th performance of Faust.' He appeared as Leporello in the centenary performance of ' Don Juan,' Nov. 4, 1887, and has sung in Le Gid and ' Patrie.' He played at the Italian Opera at Drary Lane in 1887 the part of Ramfis in Aida, and sang during the season as Basilio, St. Bris, Mephistopheles, and Henry the Fowler (' Lohengrin '). From 1888 to 1900 he sang every season (except 1899), and added to his repertory the parts of Almaviva, Marcel, the Mefistofele of Boito, and the Wagnerian parts of Hans Sachs, King Mark, Hunding, and Hagen. From 1890, for many seasons, he sang in America with his brother, with the He sang at the Mozart (congreatest success. cert) Festival at. the Nouveau TheS,tre in Paris in the spring of 1906, under the direction pf M. Reynaldo Hahn. In.Feb. 1907 he advertised
' ' ' ' ' 1

violin at Ancona, -sphere

many

witnesses

wha

De Princi^i delV Armania^

Pa(Joyaj 1767. P- 36.

'

78

EESZKE
dramatic
purity.
side,

EEUTTEE
without losing sight of vocal
for several seasons in

his intention of opening a school of singing in London, and appeared there on June 13.

He sang

America

His brother, Jean (more correctly Jan MecZISLAW) born at Warsaw, Jan. 14, 1850,1 ^^s the eldest son of the controller of the government railways, was taught singing by his mother, a distinguished amateur, and at the age of twelve sang solos in the Cathedral there. He was taught later by Ciaffel, Cotogni, and Sbriglia. Under the name De Reschl he made his debut
'

with his brother, and at Warsaw and St. Petersburg. OnDec. 11, 1890, he assisted gratuitously in the performance of Carmen at the Op&aComique in Paris, where Mme. Galli-Mari^ reappeared in her original part, and Melba and Lassalle were in the cast. He reappeared at in..
' '

tervals at the Paris Opera, singing in 'Siegfried'

'

at Venice as Alfonso (' Favorita ') in Jan. 1874, according to an eye-witness with success. ^ He
his d^but at Drury Lane on April 11 of the same year, and in the same part, and played there two seasons as Don Giovanni, Almaviva, De Nevers, and Valentine. A contemporary ' spoke of him as one of whom the highest expectations might be entertained, having a voice of delicious quality he phrased artistically and possessed sensibility, but lacked experience such as would enable him to turn his vocal gifts to greater account and to become an eSective actor. It is interesting to find that the quality of the organ was even then considered to be more of the robust tenor timbre than a baritone. Under his own name he made his debut at the Italiens as FraMelitone('ForzadelDestino'), Oct. 31, 1876, with some success, and as Severo (Donizetti's Poliuto ') Dec. 5, Figaro (' Barbiere ') Dec. 19. He made his tenor d^but as Robert at Madrid in 1879 with great success, and was engaged at the Thi&tve des Nations in 1884. He played there the part of St. John the Baptist on the production of H^rodiade so much to the satisfaction of Massenet, that he procured him an engagement at the Academic to create the titlepart of 'Le Cid,' in which he made his debut on its production, Nov. 30, 1885. He was engaged there for four years, and sang the usual tenor parts, notably Don Ottavio (' Don Juan centenary) and Romeo (in 1888, on the production of Gounod's opera at the Grand Op^ra). On June 13, 1887, he reappeared at Drury Lane as Radames, and sang as Lohengrin, Faust, and Raoul. He worthily fulfilled his early promise by the marked improvement both in his singing and acting, and by his ease and gentlemanly bearing, the improvements being almost entirely
; ' '
'

made

and Pagliaoci on the Paris production of those operas. He was announced in Keyer's Sigurd in 1904, but was unable to appear through illness. He is living in Paris, and devotes himself
' '

'

to teaching.

Their sister, Josephine, educated at the Conservatorium of St. Petersburg, attracted the notice of M. Halanzier at Venice, and was engaged by him at the Academic, where she made her d^but She sang there with as Ophelia, June 21, 1875. success for some time, where she was the original Later Sita (' Roi de Lahore '), April 27, 1877. she was very successful at Madrid, Lisbon, etc. ; sang at Covent Garden as Aida, April 18, 1881, and again in Paris at the Th. des Nations as She Salome (' H^rodiade '), March 13, 1884. retired from public on her marriage with M. Leopold de Kronenburg of Warsaw ; she died a. c. there Feb. 22, 1891. RETARDATION is a word used by some theorists to distinguish a small group of discords which are similar in nature to suspensions, but resolve upwards, as in Ex. 1.
Ex.
1.

Ex.

2.

'

'

'

due to his own hard work and exertions. On June 4, 1888, as Vasco de Gama, he made his first appearance at Covent Garden, and from that
season dates the revival of opera as a fashionable

amusement in London. Till 1900 inclusive, he sang nearly every year here, his parts including John of Leyden, the Duke in Un Ballo,' Don Jos^, Phoebus in Goring Thomas's 'Esmeralda,' Elaine,' Werther (in Lancelot in Bemberg's Massenet's opera). In the great parts of Wagner, such as Walther, Tristan, and Siegfried, he was unrivalled, throwing new light upon the music by his wonderful power of interpreting the
' '

for making this sub-class is that appears inaccurate to describe as suspensions notes which are delayed or retarded in ascending. A comparison of Ex. 2, which would be distinguished as a suspension, with Ex. 1, will show the identity of principle which underlies the two discords ; while the fact of their ascending or descending is clearly not an attribute but an accident. So in this case there is no other ostensible reason for breaking up a well-defined class but the fact that the common designation in use is supposed, perhaps erroneously, to be insufficient to denote all that ought to come und er it. On the other hand it requires to be noted that as all discords of this cla.ss are discords of retardation, and as those which rise are very much less common than those which descend in resolution, the
it

The ground

describe the whole class is reserved for the smallest and least conspicuous group in that class. c. h. h. p

name which might

2 Letter o<

See Trua, July 15, llBf!. Hr. Hiehael Wllllsmii In Mmieal World, Jan. 3 Athmaum, April 18, and Ju]y 28. 1874.
I

31, 1674.

^EUTTER, Geoeg, born 1656 at Vienna, became in 1686 organist of St. Stephen's, and in 1700 Hof- and Kammer-organist He also
played the theorbo in the Hofcapelle from

; '

EfiVE,

LE

KEY

79

1697 to 1703. In 1712, he succeeded Fiix as Oapellmeister to the Gnadenbild in St. Steplien's, and in 1715 hecame Oapellmeister of the cathedral itself. He died August 29, 1738. His church music (see list in the Qu-ellcn-Zexikon), was sound, without being remarkable. On Jan. 8, 1695, he was knighted in Rome by Count Francesco Sforza, on whose family Pope Paul III. had bestowed the privilege of conferring that honour in 1539. His son, Geokg Karl (generally known by his first name only), according to the cathedral register, was born in Vienna, April 6, 1708, became Court-composer in 1731, and succeeded his father in 1738 as Oapellmeister of the cathedral. In 1746 he was appointed second Oourt-eapellmeister, his duty being to conduct the music of the Emperor's church, chamber, and dinner-table. On Predieri's retirement in 1751 Eeutter exercised the functions of chief Court-capellmeister, but did not receive the As title till the death of the former in 1769. an economical measure he was allowed the sum of 20,000 gulden (2000) to maintain the court- capelle (the whole body of musicians, Tocal and instrumental), and he enjoys the melancholy distinction of having reduced the establishment to the lowest possible ebb. Reutter composed for the court numerous operas,
cantatas d'occasion, and Italian oratorios for Lent ; also a requiem, and smaller dramatic

REVERSE. See Recte bt Rbtko, RovEscio. REVUE ET GAZETTE MUSICALE, the


of French musical This branch of literature has taken root in France with great difficulty. So far back as Jan. 1770, M. de Breuilly and other amateurs founded the Journal deMusique (monthly, 8vo), which after a troubled existence of three years was dropped till 1777, and then resumed for one year more. In 1810 FayoUe started Les Tableltes de Polymnie (8vo), but it did not survive beyond 1811. Undeterred by these failures, F^tis brought out the first numbej-of the Eeime musicale in January 1827. It appeared four times a month, each number containing twenty-four pages 8vo, till Feb. 5, 1831, when it was published weekly, in small 4to, double columns. La Gazette musicale de Paris, started Jan. 6, 1834, was similar in size to F^tis's Eeime and also weekly, but issued on Sunday instead of Saturday. The two were united on Nov. 1, 1835, since which date the Remie et Gazette musicale twice enlarged its form, in 1841 and in 1845, at which date it became what it was till its last number, Dec. 31, 1880. The property of the publishers Schlesingei & Brandus, this periodical was always noted for the reputation and ability of its editors. Amongst its regular contributors have been Berlioz, P. Bernard, M. Bonrges, Chouquet, Comettant, Danjou, Ernest David, F. J. F^tis, O. Fouque, Heller, A. JuUien, Kastner, Lacome, A. de La Fage, Liszt, d'Ortigues, Pougin, Monnais (' Paul Smith '), Richard Wagner, and Johannes Weber. A careful reader of the forty -seven volumes will easily recognise the sentiments of the various editors through whose hands it passed among those deserving special mention are Fetis, Edouard Monnais, and M. Charles Bannelier, who conducted it from 1872 with The indexes given equal learning and taste. with each volume are a great boon, and constitute one of its advantages over other French G. 0. periodicals of the same kind. REY, Jean Baptiste (I), born at Lauzerte (Tarn et Garonne), France, Dee. 18, 1724. His musical studies began at an early age at Toulouse, where he became a chorister at the Abbey of Saint Sernin. There he remained until the age of seventeen, when he competed for and obtained the position of Maitre de Three Chapelle at the Cathedral of Auch. years later, in 1739, a dispute with the authorities caused him to resign this position and return to Toulouse, where he became chef Until the age of d'orchestre at the opera. forty he filled similar posts at Montpellier, It was at Marseilles, Bordeaux, and Nantes. the last-named town that a summons to Paris to assist in the production of Gluck's Alceste' Three years later Louis reached him in 1776. XVI. appointed him Maitre de la Musique de In the Chambre, with a. salary of 2000 frs.

oldest

and most complete

periodicals.

and sacred works. His grand masses are showy, with rapid and noisy instrumentation, so much so that 'rushing(rauschende) violins d laHeulter' became a proverb. Burney heard one of them during his visit to Vienna in 1772, and says 'it was dull, dry stuff; great noise and little meaning characterised the whole performance (Present State of Mitsic in Germany, i. 361).
In 1731 Reutter married Therese Holzhauser, His a court singer of merit, who died in 1782. own death took place March 12, 1772. He was much favoured at court owing to his great tact and Maria Theresa ennobled him in 1740 as Edler von Reutter.' His name is inseparably associated with that of Haydn, whom he heard sing as a boy in the little town of Hainburg,
'

and engaged for the choir of St. Stephen's, where he sang from 1740 to 1748. His treatment of the poor chorister, and his heartless behaviour when the boy's fine voice had broken, are mentioned under Haydn, vol. ii. pp. 349See Stollbrock's biography in the Vier8, p. 165 ff., also the QuellenLemkon, where a list of his compositions will
350.
teljahrsschri/t,

be found.

c. F. P.

RftVE, LE. Lyric drama in four acts, text by Louis Gallet after Zola, music by Alfred Produced at the Op^ra-Comique, Bruneau. Paris, June 18, 1891, and at Covent Garden,
Oct. 29, 1891.

'

REVEILLE.
Signals,

vol. Ui. pp.

See Militajrt Sounds 204-209.

and

'

80

REY

BEYER
F^tis says that he cut his pension in 1806. throat in delirium caused by a nervous fever. He wrote some trios for two violins and violoncello ; some duos for violin and violoncello, etc., and a brochure entitled : Mimoire justicatif des Artistes de VAcadimie Boyale de Musique, ou adressie le response d la lettre qui leur a 4 Sept. 1789. This last was a reply to Papillon de Lafert^'s complaints of the behaviour of the

same year the King decorated him with the Order of Saint Michel, and appointed him
Surintendant de la Chapelle. According to Fdtis and Brenet, Rey conducted the orchestra of the Concert Spirituel between 1 782 and 1786, and some of his compositions were performed there. After the French Revolution, he was elected a member of the Committee of Administration for the Affairs of the Opera, and the decree which established- the Conservatoire of Music in 1795, named him one of the professors of

members of the opera orchestra.


Concerts en France
;

Brenet, M..,Lcs

harmony. It was there that F. J. F^tis became a pupil of Bey, and was instructed by him
according
to

the

complicated

principles

of

Saint Laurent, Didionnaire Eneyelopidiqvs ; Nouvelle Biographic G&nerale, Paris, 1843 ; Fetis, Biog. des Mus. Journal de B. h-a. Paris, July 19, 1810.

Rameau. So staunch was his adherence to bygone traditions that he became involved in the turbulent discussions which were roused by
Catel's innovations. Finally his championship of his friend Lesueur brought about his dismissal from the Conservatoire in 1802. Napoleon soothed his wounded feelings by nominating him his Maitre de Chapelle two years later. He held this appointment for five years, but the death of his daughter, who was a talented pianist, plunged him into an abandonment of grief, which caused his death, July 15, 1810. As a conductor, Rey was closely associated with all the great composers of his day and assisted in the productions of the masterpieces of Piccini, Gluck, Paisiello, Grftry, Lemoine, and M^hul. Sacchini, on his deathbed, entrusted the completion of his opera ' Armife This et Evelina ' to his friend Rey. commission was conscientiously executed by him, and the opera was produced April 29, 1788. He is also said to have written all the ballet music in the same composer's opera Oedipe i
'

REY, Jean Baptistb,


about 1760,
is

(II),

bom

at Tarasoon

said to have taught himself the harpsichord, violin, and violoncello ; occupied the post of Maitre de Musique at the cathedrals of Verviers and Uzes, and went to Paris in

1785, establishing himself there asa professor of music. A year later he was admitted into the opera orchestra, and held an appointment as violoncellist until his death, at Paris in 1822. A potpourri (op. 1) of his for pianoforte was

published by Leduc, in Paris, and Nadermann of Paris brought out his Cours iU'tnentaire de Musique et de Piano. In 1807 the same firm published his Exposition ilementaire de I'harinonie ;
last

thiorie giiiirale des accords d'apris les

Musique. Copies of this are in the Bibliotheque at Brussels, in the British Museum, London, and also in
diffirents genres de

work

The Quellen-Lexikon mentions twelve sonatas for violoncello, op. 4. J. B. Wekerlin, Bibl. du Conservatoire Nat. de Paris ; Fetis, Biog. des Mus. E. H-A.
Glasgow.

Colone,'

and

in Salieri's 'Tarare.'

His original compositions comprise some MS. motets with orchestra, several of which v;ere performed in the Chapelle du Soi, and some solfege studies which are included in the third part of His the Solfeges du Conservatoire de Paris.' Diana and Endymion ' was two - act opera produced in Paris in 1791, and the opera in one act, entitled 'ApoUon et Coronis,': was performed at the Academic Royale de Musique, This last was written in conjunction in 1781. with 'his brother, Rby, Louis Chaklbs Joseph, who was born at Lauzerte, Oct. 26, 1738, and died May Also a chorister at the Abbey of 12, 1811. St. Sernin, Toulouse, he became a violoncellist in the theatre orchestra at Montpellier, and
' '

REYER, Ernest, whose real name is Rey, was born at Marseilles, Dec. 1, 1823. As a ohUd he learned solfege at the free school of music founded by Barsotti (born in Florence, 1786 ; died at Marseilles, 1868), and became a good reader, though he did not carry his musical education far. At sixteen he went to Algiera as a, government official, but continued his pianoforte practice, and began to compose without having properly learned harmony and counterpoint. He was soon able to write romances which became popular, and composed a mass which was solemnly performed before the Due and Duohesse d'Aumale. The Revolution of 1848 deprived him of the support of the Governor-General, and he returned to Paris, and placed himself in the hands of his aunt
Mme. Louise Farrenc, who completed his musical
and before long he found an opportunity of coming before the public. From his friend TWophile Gautier he procured the libretto of ' Le Selam,' an oriental Symphony in four parts,, on the model of David's ' Le P&ert. It was produced with success, April 5
education,
' '

came

to Paris in

1755 to

profit

by Berteau's

years later he occupied the post of violoncellist at the principal theatre in Bordeaux, an appointment which he held for At the end of the year 1766, he nine years.
teaching.

Two

became a member of the Paris opera orchestra, and in 1772 was admitted into the orchestra
After forty years' of the Chapelle du service Eey retired froip the orchestra with a
Roi.

and then Mery furnished him with Maitre Wolfram,' a one-act opera, which was also successful, at the Theatre Lyrique, May 20
1850,"
'

ERNEST REYER

EEYER
1854. (Revived at the Opera- Comique, 1873.) His next work was 'Saoountala' (July20, 1858), one of the charming ballets of Thtophile Gautier and 'Victoire,' a cantata, was given at the Opera, June 27, 1859 ; but his full strength was first put forth in 'La Statue,' a three-act opera produced at the Theatre Lyrique, April 11, 1861, and containing music which is both melodious and full of colour. (It was revived in 1878 at the Opfra-Comique, and in 1903 at the Grand Op^ra.) 'Erostrate (two acts) was performed at Baden in 1862, and reproduced at the Academic, Oct. 16, 1871, for two nights only. Among his earlier works may be mentioned a Recueil de 10 Melodies for voice and PF. songs for a single voice ; and some
' '
'

EEZNICEK

81

inspired Wagner, who, however, went further back and took his subject direct from the Eddas, moulding it after his own conception.

pieces of sacred music.

G. o.

After numerous attempts on Beyer's part to ' secure an unmutilated performance of ' Sigurd at the Paris Opera, he produced it at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, Jan. 7, 1884, with great and lasting success. On July 15 of the same year it was produced at Covent Garden. The first performance of the work in France was at Lyons, on Jan. 15, 1885, when On June it was received with marked success. 12, 1885, 'Sigurd' was performed at the Grand Op^ra in Paris, but at the general rehearsal the directors thought fit to make curtailments in the score, and the composer retired, protesting against the proceeding, and yet unwilling to withdraw a work on which so much trouble and expense had been bestowed, on the eve of its production. He threatened never to set foot in the opera-house until hia score should have been restored to its original The public, integrity, and he kept his word. less exacting than the composer, received the opera, which in many passages must have considerably surprised them, with increasing sympathy, and its success was all the more remarkable as it was entirely unassisted either by the composer, who appeared to take no interest in its fate, or by the directors, who

In 1868 the libretto of Wagner's trilogy had been published for fifteen years, but it was completely unknown in France, and when the trilogy was produced in 1876, Reyer's score was nearly finished and ready for production. Reyer was decorated with the Legion d'Honneur in August 1862, and was raised to the rank of an ofiicer in Jan. 1886. In 1890 his grand opera on Flaubert's SalammbS, was produced in Brussels, and was given at the Grand Opera in Paris, on May 16, 1892, with great success. It has been frequently revived. Besides being reckoned among the most poetical of French musicians, M. Reyer is an accomplished feuilletoniste. After writing successively for the Presse, the Bevue de Paris, and the Oourrier de Paris, he became editor of the musical portion of the Jmimal des Dibats, having succeeded d'Ortigue, who followed Berlioz. He has collected his most important articles and published them under the
'
'

of Notes de Mimque (Paris : Charpentier, In both literature and composition he 1875). is the disciple and admirer of Berlioz, in whose collected essays, published as Les Musidens, there is an interesting article on La Statue on It is curious that M. Reyer, having p. 333. succeeded F. David at the Institut (1876), who himself succeeded Berlioz in 1869, should thus occupy the positions, both in music and literature, of the master whose legitimate successor he may well claim to be. A. j.
title
' '

REZNICEK, Emil Nioholaus von, born May 4, 1861, at Vienna, was at first, like
many

on
so

would not
It

have

Ijeen

sorry

had

it

failed.

has definitely taken a high place in the

repertory.

The
'

qualities
'

which

are

most

Sigurd are the individual charm of its musical ideas, the exact agreement between the words and the music, vain repetitions and conventional formulas being generally absent ; and lastly, the richness and colouring of the instrumentation, the style of which was

prominent in

other musicians, destined for a legal career, and for that purpose was entered as a but, rebelling against the irklaw student someness of that kind of employment, he became a student at the Leipzig Conservatorium. Being drawn towards the dramatic side of music, he presently undertook the duties of theatre conductor at Graz, Zurich, Stettin, Berlin, and at other places ; and then, branching out in a difierent direction, obtained an appointment as military conductor in Prague. [For a short time he was Court Capellmeister at Weimar, and in 1896-99 held a similar post
;

at

Mannheim. In 1902 he moved to Berlin, where he founded the 'Orchester-KammerKonzerte for works requiring a small orchestra.
'

greatly influenced

by Reyer's favourite masters, Weber and Berlioz, and in places by Wagner.

He

also

directs the

Warsaw Philharmonic

monthly concert of the Society, and makes fre-

charge of plagiarism from the last-named composer is intended to be suggested, nor could It is true that such a charge be substantiated. the subjects of 'Sigurd' and the 'Ring des Nibelungen' are identical, but this is a, mere The plot of the libretto, which coincidence. was written by Du Loole and A. Blau, is taken from the Nibelungen K8t, the source that VOL. IV

No

quent journeys to Russia, where he is as highly appreciated as he is in Berlin. He became teacher of composition at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatorium in 1906. He conducted two concerts in London in Nov. 1907.] AU
his operas are of distinctly Czechish character ; although the libretti, as will be seen below,
are founded

on

stories

derived from various

'' '

EHAMES
The operas, with one exception, were produced in Prague, where they met with great success. Their titles and dates of production are as follow Die Jungfrau von Orleans,' 1887 'Satanella,' 1888; 'Emmerich Fortunat,' 1889 ; 'Donna Diana,' 1894 'Till
nations.
all
: ' ; ;

RHAPSODY
derivation of 'FafifSia is pdirrw = I = aong, ode. Musicians might speak, in Hamlet's phrase, of a ' rhapsody of words, or of tunes that is to

The usual
sew, and

<fS-^

'

say, of a string of melodies arranged with a view to effective performance in public, but without

Euleuspiegel,' 1901. Of these the most celebrated is ' Donna Diana,' a comic opera, of which the scene is laid in the castle of Don Diego at Barcelona, at the period of the independence of ' Catalonia ; the libretto is by Moreto. Till Euleuspiegel' is a 'folk -opera,' dealing with the jokes of the well-knoiyu German comical ; character it was produced at Carlsruhe, on the date given above, and repeated at Berlin in 1903.
'

regular dependence of one part upon another. Such a description would seem to apply pretty
closely to Liszt's fifteen Rhapsodies Hongroises, and to his 'Reminiscences d'Espagne' (a fantasia

on two Spanish tunes, Les Folies d'Espagne and 'La Jota Aragonesa,' 1844-45) which, in
'

1863,herepublishedasa 'Rhapsodic Espagnole.'


history of the latter piece is similar to that of the Hungarian rhapsodies portions of which were originally published under the title of

The

[His compositions include a Bequiem for Scfameykal, for chorus, and organ a Mass in P for the Jubilee of the Emperor Francis Joseph 11. (1898); 'Buhm und Bwiglceit,' a poem of Fr. XietzBche set for tenor voice and orchestra ; a Comedy Overture, a Symphonic Suite in E minor, and another in D major some songs and piano pieces a String Quartet in C minor ; an Idyllic Overtui'e (Berlin Nikiech, 1903} : a Tragic Symphony in D minor (Berlin: Weingartner, 1904) Three Volkslieder for voice and small orchestra (Kammer-Orchester-Konzerte, 1905) ; Ironic Symphony, B major (do.); a String Quartet in Ct minor (Berlin: Dessau Quartet, 1906) ; Nachtstlick for v'cello, with accompaniment for harp, four horns, and string quartet a Serenate for strings, and an Introduction and Valse-Caprice for violin and orchestra (Kammer-Orchester-Konzerte, 1906) ; Fugue inCtt minor, originally for strings, and subsequently for full orchestra.]
orolieBbra,
; : ; : ; ;

Melodies Hongroises Ungarisohe Nationalshort transcriptions of Hungarian melodien tunes as they are played by the wandering bands of Gipsies, the national musicians of Hungary.
'
'

'

The prototype
ability

of these

was Schubert's

Hongroise,' in
several versions
solo,

melodies in all probDivertissement i la minor, op. 54 a piece Liszt


'

'

was always fond

of,

and of which he produced

EHAMES,
lishers.

additions by H. v. H. a family of Dublin music-pubD. H.


;

and of the march


' ;

as of the whole for pianoforte in C minor for orchestra. ^


'

Benjamin Rhames was established, about the year 1765, at 16 Upper Blind Quay, at the sign of the Sun. Dr. W. H. Grattan Flood informs the writer that the father, Aaron Rhames, was issuing sheet-music in Dublin, circa 1729 to 1732. Benjamin Rhames was in an extensive way of trade, and published great quantities of single sheet songs, mainly of contemporary English music. He was succeeded by his widow, Elizabeth, about 1773 or 1775. lu the year 1776 the name Upper Blind Quay was altered into Exchange Street, and the later
imprints of Jllizabeth Rhames bear the new address with the same number, 16. She remained in business until about the year 1790, when Francis Rhames, her son, took over the concern and greatly increased the output of music sheets. In or near the year 1811 Paul Alday bought the business and remained at the same address until 1823 or 1824,, removing then to 10 Dame Street. Elizabeth Rhames and her son published, among other Irish works, pieces by Sir John Stevenson, the copyright of which, after being held by Alday, was trans-

Melodies Hongroises date the fifteen so-called Rhapsodies Hongroises from 1853 to 1854. In 1859 Liszt, published a book in French Des Bohemiens et de leur Musique en Hongrie a late and overgrown preface, as he confesses, to the Rhapsodies. In this brilliant, though at intervals somewhat meretricious work,^ an effort is made to claim for the set of Rhapsodies the dignity of an Hungarian Epic sui generis. Be this as it may, the term Rhapsodic remains as one of. Liszt's many happy hits in the way of musical nomenclature. Brahms has adopted the term Rhapsodic both in Liszt's sense and in that of the Greek Rhapsodists and, as usual with him, he has
Liszt's ten sets of

from 1839 to 1847

'

'

added weight to
'

its significance.

His original

Rhapsodien,' op. 79, for pianoforte solo in B minor and G minor are abrupt, impassioned aphoristic pieces of simple and obvious structure, yet solidly put together. The Rhapsodic in

'

'

0, op. 53, for contralto, male chorus, and orchestra, justifies its title, in the Greek sense, inasmuch as it is a setting a recitation, a

rhapsody
'

of

portion
'

of

Goethe's

poem

James Power of London. F. K. RHAPSODY. The Greek Rhapsodist ('Pa./'ifSSi) was a professional reciter or chauuter of
ferred to
'Pa\l/<pdla is the Greek title of each book of the Homeric poems, the first book of The the Iliad being 'Vaij/^fSia A, and so forth. Rhapsody was the song of the Shapsode a. sequel of Rhapsodies when sung in succession or written down so as to form a series, constituted an epic poem, and when a long poem was chanted in sections at different times and by different singers it was said to be rhapsodised.

Harzreise

im Winter

it,

also, is

a compact

and

carefully balanced piece. The last pianoforte piece, in op. 119, is a noble Rhapsody, in

epic poetry.

which there
that
is

is perhaps rather more of the quality usually called 'rhapsodical' than is to be found in Brahms's other rhapsodies. Among later rhapsodies may be named Mackenzie's Scottish Rhapsodies, Stanford's Irish

Rhapsodies, German's Welsh Rhapsody, Rhapsody on March Themes.'


'

and

!""'* "1 I^oaon, AprU 1886. \ ?ilj'f w''f?',;S'';v-' "Like Lisst s ClKpm, this *f book is on good authority be the joint production of himself and cirtain female reported to frimds^

'

EHAW
The last Moderne in

EHEINBEEGER
Parry's
'

83

movement

of

Suite

In

November 1848 Rheinberger heard a

minor

for orchestra,' entitled

'Khapsodie,' consists of a systematised series of melodies on the plan familiar in the Eondo. E. D. RHAW, or RHAU, Georg, born about 1488 at Eisfeld in Franconia, was Cantor at the Thomasschule at Leipzig till 1520, after which he settled at Eisleben as a schoolmaster, and subsequently at Wittenberg, where he became a printer, issuing books both in ordinary typography (including many first editions of Luther's writings) and in musical notes, including his own works, Enchiridion musices ex variis

string quartet for the first time when a few dUettamti came over to Vaduz for the day from the neighbouring town of Feldkirch. The boy was allowed to turn the leaves for the leader,

musicorum

libri, etc.,

1518 (often reprinted),

Enchiridion mibsicaemensv,ralis,lh2f),eba. He also brought out many collections of musical works (see the Quellen-Lescikon) ; Winterfeld ascribes some chorales to him. He died at Wittenberg, August 6, 1548.

EHEINBEEGER,
March At an
17,

Josef Gabeiel, was

bom

1839, at Vaduz (Liechtenstein). early age he showed extraordinary musical aptitude, and when five years old had

His agent to Prince Liechtenstein, though unmusical himself, was quick to recognise and encourage the uncommon
attained to considerable local reputation.
father,

a revenue ofiicial named Schrammel. When the tuning began Josef promptly remarked, Your A string sounds a semitone higher than my piano at home.' As the boy's statement turned out to be perfectly accurate, the interest of Schrammel was aroused. Realising the possibilities of a musical career for the talented child, the violinist approached Rheinberger's father, who was finally Induced to allow his son to reside in Feldkirch under Schrammel's protection, and receive musical instruction from the choir director there, Philipp Schmutzer. A special condition attached to the permission was that the organist's duties at Vaduz should not be abandoned so for two years the boy walked the ten miles between Vaduz and Feldkirch every Saturday and Monday. In Feldkirch Rheinberger made rapid progress in his musical studies. It was here that he acquired,
' ;

who was

financial

talent of his son.

He accordingly

placed

him

in charge of Sebastian Pohly, a superannuated

schoolmaster in Sohlanders, who gratuitously gave him lessons in musical theory, pianoforte, and organ. The organ pedals not being within reach, Pbhly arranged a second pedal board for In 1846, when the convenience of his pupil. only seven years of age, Eheinberger was appointed organist at Vaduz Parish Church, and during the following year his first composition a three-part mass with organ accompaniment -was publicly performed. Shortly after this event the Bishop of Chur invited Rheinberger senior to bring his sou to the cathedral in order that his musical abUity might be tested. A 'Salve Regina' for four male voices and organ was placed before the young musician, which he was requested to play whilst the The performance, bishop and clergy sang.

though under somewhat strict conditions, his intimate knowledge of the music of the great masters. He was allowed to study only one piece at a time, and this he had to play from memory before exchanging for another. Such strict discipline, however, had a, beneficial inIt laid that foundation of thoroughness which was so distinguishing a characterfluence.
istic

in later

life.

In

1850 Rheinberger

left

Feldkirch,

and

after a year of careful preparation entered the

Munich Conservatorium (founded in 1846 by Franz Hauser by command of King Ludwig I.).
Here he remained from 1851 to 1854, studying the piano with Julius Emil Leonhard, the organ with Joh. Georg Herzog, and counterpoint with Jul. Jos. Maier, the learned curator of the musical department of the Munich On leaving the Conservatorium Library. Rheinberger obtained the highest honours granted by that institution, and he particularly impressed the ministerial examiner. Professor von Sehafhautl, by an extempore performance on the organ of a complete four-part fugue. To show his appreciation of the youth's talent, Sehafhautl presented him with a copy of Oulibicheff's biography of Mozart, and ever afterwards remained his true friend and adviser. Rheinberger then became a private pupil of Franz Lachner, and remained in Munich supplementing his small income by giving lessons. A series of 124 youthful compositions bears eloquent testimony to his untiring energy and On Leonhard's enthusiasm at this time. resignation in 1859 Rheinbej-ger was appointed to succeed him as professor of pianoforte at the Conservatorium, and after holding this position about a year he was given the more important When the office of professor of composition.

however, was brought to an unexpected conclusion by young Rheinberger, who abruptly ceased his accompaniment and exclaimed, But, Herr Bishop, you continually sing out of tune ('Aber, Herr Bischof, Sie singen ja immer
*
!

falsch

')

Even
berger

at this early stage of his career Rhein-

had very decided opinions upon any Disapmusic which, came under his notice. proving of certain masses composed by one Franz Biihler, an Augsburg musician, the young organist one day during service stiiffed them all into a stove. The volume of smoke arising in
consequence alarmed the assembled congregaand the culprit had probably his youth to thank that this mito dafi had no unpleasant
tion,
result.

'

EHEINBEEGER
It is comparatively seldom that a highly distinguished composer attains great success as a Rheinberger, however, was accounted teacher. one of the foremost musical theorists and

84

RHEINBERGER
'

Munich Oonservatorium was dissolved Rheinberger was appointed ' Repetitor at the Court Theatre, where he at onoe favourably impressed his colleagues by playing and transposing u,

prima vista Wagner's Flying Dutchman.' The


'

environment of the theatre, however, proved uncongenial. He therefore retired from active
service in 1867, retaining, however, his interest in the stage.

Students came to his teachers of his day. composition classes at the Munich Oonservatorium not only from his own country but from many European countries, as well as from Three years were required to comAmerica.
plete the full course of theoretical instruction In the iirst year students in these classes. were taught free harmonisation of chorales, including canto fermo in alto,' tenor, and bass the same for strings with free florid counter-

Much of Rheinberger's earliest success as a composer was due to his WaUensteiu and Florentine Symphonies. He at one time thought of setting the complete Wallenstein trilogy to music. The project, however, was discarded in favour of a Symphony, which was published and first performed in Munich in 1866. The Florentine Symphony was commissioned by the SocietkOrohestrale of Florence. In 1868 Rheinberger revised his opera, Die sieben Raben,' and composed the music to Eaimund's Die unheilbringende Krone.' Both works were successfully produced in Munich the following year. From 1860 to 1866 Rheinberger was organist of the Court Church of St. Michael. He had been since 1854 accompanist to the Munich Choral Society, and in 1864 he became director. When the present (1907) 'Kbnigliche Akademie der Tonkunst was founded in 1867 by Hans von BLilow, he accepted the position of composition and organ
' '

Second and third year : form, double counterpoint, fugue, vocal and instrumental in two to six parts, instrumentation, scoring of movements from Mozart's and Beethoven's
point.

sonatas and quartets, etc. As an organ teacher Rheinberger's activity in His his later years was somewhat restricted. organ class consisted of four advanced students,
generally chosen because of marked ability. The organ works of Bach and Mendelssohn, and Rheinberger's own organ sonatas, received the greatest amount of attention. He insisted upon a clear and noble delivery, his remarks upon the interpretation of his own works being especially valuable. Rheinberger's compositions embrace almost every branch of musical art. All his works show marked individuality, together with an absolute mastery of musical technique. It is, however, as a choral writer and composer for the organ that he is especially distinguished. His twelve masses, Stabat Mater, De Profundis, and many other examples of church music are marked by earnestness and deep religious feel-

and inspector of instrumental and which he held with everincreasing fame imtil the year of his death. The title of Royal Professor was conferred upon
professor

theory

classes, a post

after his installation in the Conservatorium, and in the same year he married Frau von Hoffnaass, rUe Fraulein Jagerhiiber (bom October 1822, died December 31, 1892), a gifted authoress and singer, who wrote the words of many of her husband's most successIn 1877 he was offered the ful choral works. directorship of the newly-founded Hoch Oonservatorium at Frankfort-on-Main, but being unwilling to forsake the congenial artistic surroundings of Munich, he declined the invitation. King Ludwig II., to mark his approval and appreciation, conferred upon him the order of knighthood of St. Michael. In the same year Rheinberger resigned his position as musical director of the Munich Choral Society and succeeded Franz WUllner as director of the Court Church music (Konigliche HofcapeUmeister). This appointment stimulated Rheinberger to compose many ecclesiastical works, one of which a mass in eight parts, dedicated to Pope obtained for him the order of Leo XIII. knighthood of Gregory the Great. In 1899, on his sixtieth birthday, Rheinberger was created Doctor honoris causa of the University modorum mvMcorum inventm-em of Munich

him soon

(Legend for soli, 120) Rheinberger combines religious and secular sentiment in a masterly and convincing manner. The Christmas cantata, Stern von Bethlehem (for soli, chorus, and orchestra, op. 164), is also remarkable for its sustained beauty and loftiness of
ing.
'

In

Christophorus
orchestra,

'

chorus,

and

op.

'

'

conception. Amongst his finest secular vocal compositions are the 'Seebilder,' 'Das Thai des Espingo,' 'Am Walohensee,' 'Wittekind,' ' 'Montfort,' ' Toggenburg, Die Rosen von Hildesheim.'
'
'

Sir Charles Halle were to introduce Rheinberger's music into England. At a pianoforte recital which BUldw gave in London in 1873, he played the'Andante and Toccata,' op. 12, one of the finest and most

Hans von Biilow and


first

the

brilliant of Rheinberger's pianoforte compositions. In the same year at the Musical

Union,

and
cert,

also in the following year at a popular con-

op.

Bulow gave the Pianoforte Quartet in E flat, 38, which achieved a wide popularity. Among

fecundissimum

artis

ad

leges sevoriores adstrictae

praeceptorem subtilissimiom preisend. in Munich, Nov. 25, 1901.

He

died

his pianoforte compositions which have been received with special favour are the three 'Kleine Concertstiicke,' op. 5, and Aus Italien,' op. 29.
'

RHEINBERGER
Rheinberger's twenty organ sonatas are undoubtedly the most valuable addition to organ music since the time of Mendelssohn, and it is probably upon the artistic worth of these works that his position as a composer ultimately depends. They are characterised by a happy blending of the modern romantic spirit with masterly counterpoint and dignified organ style. As perfect examples of organ sonata form they are probably unrivalled. With the object of

RHEINBERGER

85

a lack of strong impassioned enthusiasm, and seldom, if ever, attains to that degree of exalted musical inspiration which marks the finest creations of a great genius.

CATALOGUE OF EHEINBERGBE'S COMPOSITIONS


Op.
. .

. .
.

. . . . . .
.

4 Pieces, pf. 5 Fart-BongB. 7 Songs. 5 Songs. 3 Small pf pieces. 3 Studies, pf. 3 Characteristic pieces, pf.
.

74. 5 Hale choruses. *75. 2 Vocal quartets, with pf. 76. ' Toggenburg,' soli, chorus,

andpf.
77. 78. 79.

Sonata,
T'cello

vln.

and

pf.,

or

and

pf.

obtaining external and material relationship between the chief movements, Rheinberger generally introduced as a coda to his finale a brief summary of one or more of the chief subjects of the first movement. Another device with the same object in view the unifying of the sonata was the re-introduction, generally with fine artistic effect, of a first -movement subject as an integral part of the last movement. An instance of this procedure is found in

'WaldmKrchen,'

pf.

.
.

5 Studies, pf. 'Wallenstein,' symphony. 5 Pieces, pf. Toccata, pf. ' Tai-antella,' pt., 4 hands. 21 Preludes, pt.

3 Pf. pieces. Fantasia, orch. or pf., 4 hands. 80. 5 Part-Bongs. 81. 'Die todte Braut,' romance, mezzo-soprano, choir, and
orch., or pf,
82.
83.

String quintet, in
(or pf. duet).

minor
minor,

.
.

Duo, 2
'

pfs.

.
,

Stabat Hater,' soli, chorus, and' orch. 2 Four-part Ballads. Overture, 'Taming of the Shrew.'
Toccatina, pf.
'

Missa brevis in
choir.

I>

Die Sieben Kahen,' romantic opera in 3 acts.


vocal

'Wasserfee,'

quartet

Sonata No. 9 in B flat minor (op. 142). Here the principal subject of the first movement is re-introduced in the finale as the second subject and developed in connection with the fugal subject of this last movement. Similar examples of this method are found in Sonatas No. 16 (op. Throughout the 175) and No. 17 (op. 181). whole of the organ sonatas there is a constant flow of beautiful ideas, though a considerable distance separates his best and weakest movements. There is occasionally a tendency to prolong some of the movements, considering the The two materials upon which they are built. concertos for organ and orchestra show real breadth of treatment and a freedom of manipulation that appeal strongly to the musical
sense.

and
.
.

pf.

4 Songs. Fantasia, pf. 4 Vocal quartets. ' Lockung,' vocal

Symphony ('Florentine') in F, 3rd Organ sonata ('Pastoral ') in G (or pf. duet). 89. String quartet in C minor. 90. 'Vom Rheine,' G male
88.

84. 85. 86. 87.

ttequiem in E flat, choir. 7 Male choruses. 4 Epic songs, male choir.

choruses.
91.
'

Johannisnacht,' male choir

quartet
92.

and
93.

p.

andpf.
.

7 Songs.
Ist

Sunata, pf. and T'cello, in (or vln. andpf.).

Organ

Sonata,

in

minor.
, ,

Rheinberger was not

much

in

sympathy with

disapproved of In the anteWagner's methods and theories. chamber of his class-room were lying one day Lohengrin and Ber the opened scores of Freischiitz/ the former on the top of the latter. As Rlieinberger passed through, he glanced at the books, and then with a gesture full of meaning, as if to say, * This is how it ought to be,' pulled out the 'Freischiitz' and placed it In his later years Rheinberger on the top. suffered from a chronic lung disease contracted by excessive exposure when making a mountain His constant ill-health and tour in the Tyrol. naturally austere, retiring disposition precluded much personal intercourse with the outside

modern

art.

He

strongly

'

'

55.

4 Humoresken, pf. 'Aus Italien,' 3 pf. pieces. 7 Pf . duets (from the music flat. to 'Der Wunderthatige 95. 2 Chonises with orch. or pf 96. 3 lAtin hymns, three-part Magus'). female choir and organ. 5 Part songs. 'Daughter of Jairus,' can- 97. Ballad, 'Chirioe of Elwrtata for children. stein,' soli, chorus, and Prelude and fugue, pf. orch. 4th Or^Ji sonata, 'tonus Trio, pf "and strings. peregrinus,' in A minor (or Hymn for female choir, pf. duet). organ, and harp. Pf. sonata in D flat. 9 Duets, pf. (from the music to 'Die unheilbringende 100. 7 Songs, male choir. 101. 3 Studies, pf. Krone '). 'Poor Henry,* comic opera 102. Ballad. 'Wittekiud,' maJe chorus and orch., or pf. for children. Quartet, pf. and strings, in 103. 3 Vocal duets, sop., bass, and pf. Eflat. 104. Toccata, pf. 6 Pf. pieces, in fugal form. 105. Sonata, vln. and pf., in E 5 Motets, choir. minor. T^Songs. 106. 2 Romantic songs, choir and Etude and fugato, pf. orch., or pt. Capriccio giocoao, pf. 3 Male choruses. 107. 5 Hymns for choir. 2 Pf. studies on a theme by 108. 'Am Strom,'6 part-fiODgs. 109. Mass in E flat for double Handel. 'Passion Music,' choir and choir, ded. to Leo XIII. 110. Ovei-ture to Schiller's 'Deoi^n. metrius ' (or pf. duet). Symphonic sonata, pt. 111. 6th Organ sonata in F sharp 4 Male choruses. (or pf. duet). 10 Organ trios. Ballad, 'Das Thai des Es- 112. 2Dd Trio, pf., Tin. and v'cello, pingo,' male chorus and in A. 113. 6 Studies for pf. (left hand). orch. Improvisation on a theme 114. Quintet, pf. and strings, in C. ' from Die ZauberfliJte,' pi 115. Toccata, pf. in C minor. 116. 4 Songs, male choir. 6 Fart-Bonf^. 117. 'Missa Sanctiflfiimic Trini3 Studies, pf. tatis,' choir, in F. 4 Hymns, mezzo-soprano and 118. 6 Two-part hymns, with organ, orpf. organ. 8 Songs. Vocal quartets, with 119. 6th Organ sonata, in E flat minor (or pf. duetj. strings and pf
.

TariationB. string quartet in minor (or pt duet). 94. Concerto, pf . and orch. in

Theme

and

I.

I.

120.

Legend,
soli,

'

Christophome,*

Hymns,
orch.

choir.
soli,

chorus,

and

orch., or

Pf. study.

pf.

Bequiem,

chorus, and 121. Trio, pf.


flat.

and

strings, in

Towards his pupils he was invariably world. exacting and often severe, but his musical genius and commanding personality never failed to compel their respect. Rheinberger's individuality is faithfully reThoroughness and flected in his compositions. unpretentiouaness are qualities equally eharacHis teristic of the artist and of his work. musical themes are for the most part of great Much of his work, however, betrays beauty.

Theme and

variations, pf

122.

Sonata,Cminor,pl,4hand8
2 pfs., 8 hands). 24 Fughetten for organ.
(or

Mass for one voice and organ.


8 Part-songs. ' May Day,' 5 iJiree-part female choruses, with pf . 2Dd Organ sonata in flat. 3 Studies, pi 6 Preludes, pt. 6 Pieces, in fugal form. 3 Sacred part-songs. TOchterlein,' Thurmere comic opera in 4 acts. ' K5nig Erich,' Ballad,

123. 124. 8 Part-songs.


.

125. 7"M8te-<dujruEes. 126. Mafis, three-imt choir, in A.


127.

female

7th Organ sonata in

F minor

chorus with pf. 'Aus den Ferientagen,' 4pt.


duets. 6 Hale choruses.

(or pf. duet). 128. 4 Elegiac songs, with or^an. 129. 3 Itafian songs. 130. 6 Hale choruses. 131. 6 Female choruses. 132. 8th Organ sonata, in minor (or pf. dnet). 4 Motets, six-part choir. 134. Easter hymn, double choir.

:'

86
Op.

RHEINGOLD, DAS
Op.
I

RHYTHM
instead of notes of equal length, let each group consist of unequal notes, but similarly arranged, as in the following example from Schumann

135. Pf. sonata. In flat. 175. 16th Organ sonata, in G136. 14 Songs, sharp minor (or pf. duet). 137. Organ concerto in F, with 176. 9 Advent-Motetten, choir. orcli. (or pf. duet). 177. 2nd Concerto for organ and 138. Stabat Mater, choir, string orch,, in G- minor (or pf.

oroh.
139.

and organ.
178. 179.
'

duet),

Nonet, wind and strings (or pf. duet). 143. 5 Hymns, choir and organ. 141. 6 Male choruses. 142. 9th Organ sonata, In flat minor (or pf. duet). 143. 'Die Rosen von Hildeaheim/

Sonata for horn and

pf.

Hymnua an die Tonkunst,'


pf.

for male chorus and orch. 180. 12 Characteristic pieces for


181. 182.

male chorus and wind


strameuta.
144. 3 Male choruses. 145. ' Montfort,* soli, chorus,

In183. 184.

I7th Organ sonata in B. * Vom goldenen Horn,' TUrldBahes Liedersplel

with

pf,

12 Studies, pf. and Bomantic sonata for pf., in orch. F sharp minor. 146. lOfch Organ sonata, in B 186. 7 Male choruses. minor (or pf. duet). 186. 8 Four-part songB, 'Jahres147. String quartet in P. zeiten.' 148. 11th Organ sonata in *187. Mass, for female voices and minor (or pf. duet). organ, in G minor. 149. Suite, organ, violin, Vcello, 188. I8th Organ sonata, in A. and string orch. 189. TLS Organ trioa. 150. 6 pieces, violin and organ, 190. Mass, for male choir and or v'cello and oi^an. organ, in F. 151. Mass in O. 191. Trio,forpf.,vln.,and v'cello, 152. 30 Children's songs. inF. 163. 'Das Zauberwort,' singspiel, 192. Mass, Mlsericordias Doin 2 acta, for children. mini,' choir and organ, in 154. 12th Organ sonata, in flat E. (or pf. duet). 193. 19th Organ sonata, in Q *165. Mass. three -part female minor. choir and organ. 194. Bequiem, for chorus and 156. 12 Characteristic pieces for organ. organ. Akademische 195. overture, 157. 6 Sawed songs, with oi^n. fugue with 6 themes for 158. 8Soprano(orbaritone)Bougs. orch, 159. Mass, four -part choir and 196. 20th Organ sonata, 'Zur organ, in F minor. Friedensfeiei',' in F. 160. 7 Male choruses. (poathumoua), choir 197. Mass 161. 13th Organ sonata, In E flat and oigan (finished by (or pf. duet). Louis Adolph Coeme of 162. 'Monologue,' 13 organ pieces. *I63. 5 Motets, five-part choir. Without Oput Numbera, *164. Bethlehem," Star of Christmas cantata, soli, *' Ave Maria,' soprano and organ, or three-part female choir. chorus, and orch., or pf. Bomance, for soprano and harp. 165. 14th Organ sonata, In G (or ' Carmiua saciu,' songs with pf. duet). organ. 166. Suite, vln. and organ, In C Arrangement of Bach's 30 varlaminor. tions, for 2 pfs. 12 oi^n 167. 'Meditations,'

or in the Vivace of Beethoven's No. 7 Symphony the form of these groups also is spoken of as the ' prevailing rhythm, though here accent is the
'

only correct expression.

Thus we see that the proper


three terms
is

distinction of the

as follows

Accevi arranges a heterogeneous mass of notes into long and short Tiine divides them into groups of equal duration
;

'

Rhythm does

for these groups does for notes.

what Accent

'

'

'

pieces.
163.

Three five-part songa.

15th Organ sonata, in

(or

Idylle for v'cello

and pf.

pf, duet). 169. Ms^a, soli, choir,

and

orch.

BhapBodie,for flute and pf ., in B. 'Trenuung,' for voice, pf., or


organ. ' WaldbKchlelu,' for choir. Pastorale, for oboe and organ, frqm op, 98. Bhapsodie, for oboe and organ, or vln. and organ, from op.
127.

or strings
170. 8

and organ.
Hymnen,'

Four-part songs, 'Sturm

und Frieden.'
171.
'

Marianische

voice
172. Mass,

and organ, or pf. male choir with organ, or wind lusts.

In short. Rhythm is the Metre of MusicThis parallel will help us to understand why the uneducated can only write and fully comprehend music in complete sections of four and [Rhythm is an essential part of eight bars. all primitive music, and every folk-song has a It was long distinct rhythmical character. before this characteristic was introduced into serious music, which had been rhythmless because the notes of plain-chant exist only with reference to the words.] In polyphonic music the termination of one musical phrase (foot, or group of accents) is always coincident with, and hidden by, the commencement of another. And this although the subject may consist of several phrases and be quite rhythmical in itself, as is the case in Bach's Organ Fugues in G minor and

minor.

The Mhythmus

of the ancients

was

173. 4 Male choinises. 174. 12 Organ pieces.

Tarantella from op, 122, for 2 pfs., 8 hands.

Works possessing English text.

J,

W. N.

The *Vorabeiid' of Wagner's trilogy. See Ring des Wibblungen. RHINE FESTIVALS. See KiederrheinISCHE MUSIKFESTE,
Vol.
ill.

RHEINGOLD, DAS.

p. 377.

See Rebeo. RHYTHM. This much -used and manysided term may be defined as the systematic grouping of notes with regard to duration.' It
'

RHUBEBA.

is often
its

inaccurately employed as a synonym for two subdivisions, Accent and Time, and in its proper signification bears the same relation

to these that fnetre bears, to qimntity in poetry. The confusion which has arisen in the employment of these terms is unfortunate, though so frequent that it would appear to be natural,
therefore almost inevitable. Take a number of notes of equal length, and give an emphasis to every second, third, or fourth, the music will

simply the accent prescribed by the long and short syllables of the poetry, or words to which the music was set, and had no other variety than that afforded by their metrical laws. Modern music, on the other hand, would be meaningless and chaotic a melody would cease could we not plainly perceive to be a melody a proportion in the length of the phrases. The bar-line is the most obvious, but by no means a perfect, means of distinguishing and determining the rhythm but up to the time of Mozart and Haydn the system of barring, although used more or less accurately from the time of the Elizabethan composers, in Virginal music, etc., was but imperfectly understood. Many even of Handel's slow movements have

and

only half their proper number of bar-lines, and consequently terminate in the middle of a bar instead of at the commencement as, for instance,
;

be said to be in

'

meaning

rhythm

'

in

tiyne.

Now

of two, three, or four take a number of

shall feed His flock ' (which is really in 6-8 time), and ' Surely He hath borne our griefs
'

He

these groups or bars and emphasise them in the same way as their subdivisions : the same term win still be employed, and rightly so. Again,

(which should be 4-8 instead of "Where C). the accent of a piece is strictly Unary throughout, composers, even to this day, appear to be often in doubt about the rhythm, time, and

RHYTHM
barring of their music. The simple and unmistakable rule for the latter is this : the last strong accent will occur on the first of a bar,

RHYTHM

87

and you have only


the piece accents it
falls

to reckon backwards.

If

naturally into groups of four is four in a bar, but if there is an odd two anywhere it should all be barred as two in a bar. Ignorance or inattention to this causes us now and then to come upon a sudden

This may also be effected by causing a fresh phrase to begin with a strong accent on the weak bar with which the previous subject ended, thus really eliding a bar, as for instance in the minuet in Haydn's 'Reine de France 'Symphony:

2-4 in modern music. to the regular sequence of bars with reference to close and cadence which is
change from

C to

/)

*r

(a)

-m-.m-

With regard

the true sense of rhythm much depends upon the character of the music. The dance-music of modern society must necessarily be in regular periods of 4, 8, or 16 bars. Waltzes, though wiitten in 3-4 time, are almost always really in 6-8, and a dance-music writer will sometimes, from ignorance, omit an unaccented bar (really a half-bar), to the destruction of the rhythm. The dancers, marking the time with their feet, and feeling the rhythm in the movement of their bodies, then complain, without understanding what is wrong, that such a waltz is ' not good
to dance to.'

:etc.

Here the bar marked (a) is the overlapping of two rhythmic periods. Combinations of two -bar rhythm are the rhythms of four and six bars. The first of these requires no comment, being the most common
of existing forms.

Beethoven has specially

marked in two cases (Scherzo of Ninth Symphony, and Scherzo of Cj{ minor Quartet) 'Eitmo di
4 battute,' because, these compositions being in such short bars, the rhythm is not readily perceptible. The six-bar rhythm is a most useful combination, as it may consist of four bars followed by two, two by four, three and three, or two, two and two. The well-known minuet by LuUi (from Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme ') is in the first of these combinations throughout.
'

In pure music it is different. Great as are the varieties afforded by the diverse positions and combinations of strong and weak accents, the equal length of bars, and consequently of musical phrases, would cause monotony were it not that we are allowed to combine sets of two,
three,

and four

bars.

Not

so freely as

we may

combine the different forms of accent, for the


longer divisions are less clearly perceptible indeed, the modem complexity of rhythm, especially in German music, is one of the chief
obstacles to its ready appreciation.

And

the opening of the Andante of Beethoven's

Every

one,

as we have already said, can understand a song or piece where a half-close ocoui's at each fourth and a whole close at each eighth bar, where it

expected ; but when an uneducated ear is continually being disappointed and surprised by unexpected prolongations and alterations of rhythm, it soon grows confused and unable to
is

First Symphony isanothergood example. Haydn is especially fond of this rhythm, especially in Of the rhythm of the two forms first named. thrice two bars a good specimen is afforded by the Scherzo of Schubert's C major Symphony,

foUow the sense of the music. Quick music naturally allows ind eed demands more variety of rhythm than slow, and we can scarcely turn to any scherzo or finale of the great composers where such varieties are not made use of. Taking two-bar rhythm as the normal and simplest foi-m ^just as two notes form the simplest kind of accent the first variety we have to notice is where one odd bar is thrust in

where, after the two subjects (both in four-bar rhythm) have been announced, the strings in unison mount and descend the scale in accompaniment to a portion of the first theme, thus
:

to break the continuity, as thus in the

Andante

of Beethoven's

C minor Symphony

better example is the first section of save the King.' This brings us to triple rhythm, uncombined with double. Three-bar rhythm, if in a slow time, conveys a very uncomfortable lop-sided sensation to the
still
'

God

The writer remembers an inuncultivated ^t. stance when a band could hardly be brought to play a section of an Andante in 9-8 time and rhythm of three bars. The combination of was one which their sense of accent Beethoven has taken refused to acknowledge. the trouble in the Scherzo of his Ninth Sym-

3x3x3

phony

to

mark Ritmo
'

di tre battute, although


'


88
ill


RHYTHM
it
is

such quick time the passage,

hardly necessary

being understood as though written

Numerous

instances of triple

rhythm
; :

occur,

which he has not troubled to mark as in the Trio of the C minor Symphony Scherzo

movement

is

in four-bar

rhythm

as

unchanging

Rhythm
tive of

of five bars

is

not, as a rule, produc-

good effect, and cannot be used any more than the other unusual rhythms for long

as the semiquaver figure which pervades it. The device has the effect of preventing monotony in a movement constructed almost entirely on one
single figure.

together.

It is best

bars followed by in compound form followed by two.

consisting of four one, and is most often found

when

middle of the

first

The same thing occurs in the movement of the Sonatina

that
,

(op. 79, Presto alia Tedesea).

Now

in both of

is,

as

eight bars

Minuet, Mozart's

Symphony
,jJ-

in

(No.

J.

i
I

3^

m
t^

6).

these cases the accent of the bars is so simple that the ear can afford to hunt for the rhythm and is pleased by the not too subtle artifice but in slower and less obviously accented music

.^1-

A very quaint effect is produced by the unAn impression is conusual rhythm of seven. veyed that the eighth bar a weak one has got left out through inaccurate sense of rhythm, as so often happens with street-singers and the like. Wagner has taken advantage of this in

'

his

'

Dance of Apprentices
:

('

Die Meistersinger'),

thus

litis:

^=^=M^-^^

such a device would be out of place there the rhythm requires to be impressed on the hearer rather than concealed from him. On analysing any piece of music it will be found that whether the vZtimcUe distribution of the accents be binary or ternary, the larger divisions nearly always run in twos, the rhythms of three, four, or seven being merely occasionally used to break the monotony. This is only natural, for, as before remarked, the comprehensibility of music is in direct proportion to the simplicity of its rhythm, irregularity in this point giving a, disturbed and emotional character to the piece, until, when all attention to rhythm is ignored, the music becomes incoherent and incomprehensible, though not of necessity disagreeable. In 'Tristan und Isolde' Wagner has endeavoured, with varying success, to produce a composition of great extent, from
;

which rhythm in
etc.

its larger signification

shall

iaf^-rj^^5^^g3^F^

It is obvious that all largersymmetrical groups than the above need be taken no heed of, as One they are reducible to the smaller periods. more point remains to be noticed, which, a beauty in older and simpler music, is becoming a source of weakness in modern times. This is

be wholly absent. One consequence of this is that he has written the most tumultuously emotional opera extant ; but another is that the work is a mere chaos to the hearer until it
is closely

studied.
(re-striking),

j._

c_

EIBATTUTA
a
trill

an old contriv-

ance in instrumental music, gradually accelerating the pace of a phrase of two notes, uutU

was arrived

at.

the disguising or concealing of the rhythm by strong accents or change of harmony in weak bars. The last movement of Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonata in D minor (op. 31, No. 2) affords At the very outset a striking instance of this. we are led to think that the ijhange of bass at the fourth bar, and again at the eighth, indicates a new rhythmic period, whereas the whole

Beethoven has preserved

'

EIBIBLE
ever in the Overture ' Leonore No. 3 (bar 75 of Allegro). See too another passage farther on, before the Flute solo. [See Tkill.] g.
it foi-

BICCI
of

89

a bow.

obsolete instrument played by mentioned by Chaucer and other early writers, and appears to have been either the rebec itself, or a particular form of it. Sometimes it is spelled rubible.' It has been suggested that both 'rebec' and 'ribible' are derived from the Moorish word rebeb or rebab, which seems to have been the name of
It is
' '
'

RIBIBLE, an

'

'

a somewhat similar musical instrument.

(See

Eebec.)

f. k.

1831 he produced at the Scala, Milan, 'Chiara di Eosemberg,' and this opera, performed by Grisi, Sacchi, Winter, Badioli, etc., was greatly applauded, and soon became successII nuovo ful in all the theatres of Italy. In it sang Figaro' failed in Parma in 1832. The Bozer, who afterwards married Balfe. same fate attended I due Sergenti at the Scala in 1833, where the following year he gave Un' Avveutura di Scaramuocia,' which was a very great success, and was translated into French by Flotow. The same year Gli esposti,' better known as Eran due ed or son tre, was applauded in Turin, whilst Chi dura vince, like Rossini's
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

KIBS

(Pr.

tclisses;

Germ. Zarge).

The

sides of stringed instruments of the violin type,


sist of six

connecting the back and the belly. They con(sometimes only five) pieces of maple, and should be of the same texture as the back, and if possible cut out of the same piece. After being carefully planed to the right thickness, they are bent to the required shape, and then glued together on the mould by means of the corner and top and bottom blocks, the angles being feather -edged. The back, the linings, and the belly are then added, and the body of the violin is then complete. The ribs ought to be slightly increased in depth at the broader end of the instrument, but many makers have neglected this rule. The flatter the model, the deeper the ribs require to be ; hence the viol tribe, having perfectly flat backs and bellies of slight elevation, are very deep in the ribs. The oldest violins were often very deep in the ribs, but many of them have been since cut down. Carlo Bergonzi and his contemporaries had a fashion of making shallow ribs, and often cut down the ribs of older instruments, thereby Instruinjuring their tone beyond remedy. ments made of ill-chosen and unseasoned wood will crack and decay in the ribs sooner than in any other part ; but in the best instruments the ribs will generally outlast both belly and back. Some old makers were in the habit of glueing E. j. p. a strip of linen inside the ribs. EICCI, Ltjigi, born in Naples, June 8, 1805, in 1814 entered the Royal Conservatorio, then

immortal Barbiere,' was hissed at Rome. It was afterwards received enthusiastically at Milan and in many other opera-houses of Europe. In 1835 'Chiara di Montalbano' failed at the Scala, while La serva e 1' ussero was applauded in Pavia. Eicci had thus composed twenty operas when only thirty years old ; and although many of his works had met with a genuine and well-deserved success, he was still very poor and had to accept the post of musical director of the Trieste Cathedral and conductor of the Opera. In 1838 his 'Nozze di Figaro' was a fiasco in Milan, where Eossini told him that its fall was due to the music being too serums. For the next six years Rioci composed nothing. In 1844 he married Lidia Stoltz, by whom he had two children, Adelaide, who in 1867 sang at the Theatre des Italiens in Paris, but died soon after, and Luigi, who lives in London. La SoHtaria delle Asturie was given in Odessa in 1844 'II Birraio di Preston' in Florence and in 1852 La Festa di Piedigrotta' in 1847 was very successful in Naples. His last opera, II Diavolo a quattro, was performed in Trieste
' '
' ' ' ; '

'

'

in 1859.
his brother

under Zingarelli, of which he became in 1819 one of the sub-professors together with Bellini. His first work, L' Impresario in angustie,' was performed by the students of the Conservatorio In in 1823, and enthusiastically applauded. the following four years he wrote 'La Cena frastomata,' 'L' Abate Taccarella,' 'II Diavolo condannato a prender moglie,' and La Lucerna d'Epitteto,' all for the Teatro Nuovo. In 1828 his 'UUsse,' at the San Carlo, was a failure. In 1 829 II Colombo in Parma and L' Orfanella di Ginevra' in Naples were both successful. The winter of 1829-30 was disastrous for Ricci, his four new operas ( II Sonnambulo, ' L' Eroina del Messico,' 'Annibale in Torino,' and 'La Neve ') being all unsuccessful. In the autumn
' '

'

'

'

'

'

Luigi Eicci composed in collaboration with Fedbrico ' II Colonnello, given in Eome, and ' M. de Chalumeaux, in Venice, in 1835; in 1836 'II Disertore per amore' for the San Carlo in Naples, and ' L'Amante di Of these richiamo,' given in Turin in 1846. four operas, ' II Colonnello ' alone had a wellBut Eioci's masterpiece, deserved reception. the opera which has placed him in a very high rank among Italian composers, is ' Crispino e la Comare,' written in 1850 for Venice, and to which his brother Federico partly contributed. This opera, one of the best comic operas of Italy, enjoyed a long success all the world over. Shortly after the production of II Diavolo a quattro' in 1859, however, symptoms of insanity showed themselves, a;nd the malady soon became He was taken to an asylum at Prague, violent. his wife's birthplace, and died there Deo. 31, He was much mourned at Trieste ; a 1859. funeral ceremony was followed by a performance of selections from his principal works, his bust was placed in the lobby of the Opera-house, and a pension was granted to his widow. He
'

'

'

'

90

BICCIO
'

EICH
largely used in the services of Lutheran court cha,pels, and so we find that his publications

published two volumes of voeal pieoes entitled Mes Loiaii's and Les inspirations du Th6
' '

(Ricordi),

and he

left in

MS. a

large

number

of

compositions for the cathedral service.


brother,

His

Federioo, was born in Naples, Oct. 22,1809, entered the Royal Conservatorio of that town, where his brother was then studying, and received his musical education from Bellini and Zingarelli. In 1837 he gave ' La Prigione d'Edimburgo' in Trieste. The barcarola of this opera, ' Sulla poppa del mio brick,' was for long one of the most popular melodies of Italy. In 1839 his 'Duello sotto Richelieu' was only moderately successful at the Scala, but in 1841 ' Michelangelo e EoUa' was applauded in Florence. In it sang Signora Strepponi, who ' afterwards married Verdi. Corrado d' Altamura was given at the Scala in the same year. At the personal request of Charles Albert he composed in 1842 a cantata for the marriage of Victor Emmanuel, and another for a court festival. In 1843 his ' Vallombra failed at La ' Isabella Scala. de' Medici (1844) in Trieste, 'Estella' (1846) in Milan, 'Griselda' (1847) and ' I due ritratti (1850) in Venice, were all ' II failures. Marito e I'Amante ' was greatly applauded in Vienna in 1852, but his last opera, II paniere d' amore, given there the following year, did not succeed. He was then named Musical Director of the Imperial Theatres of St. Petersburg, which post he occupied for many years. Of the operas written in collaboration with his brother we have already spoken. He brought out at the Fantaisies-Parisiennes, Paris, 'Une Folic k Rome,' Jan. 30, 1869, with great success. Encouraged by this he produced an op6ra-comique in three acts, 'Le Docteurrose' (Bouffes Parisiens, Feb. 10, 1872), and 'Une Fte k Venise,' a reproduction of his earlier work, ' II Marito e 1' Amante (Athtefe, Feb. Shortly after this Federico retired 15, 1872). to Conegliano in Italy, where he died Deo. 10, 1877. He was concerned partially or entirely in nineteen operas. Of his cantatas we have spoken. He also left two masses, six albums or collections of vocal pieces (Ricordi), and many detached songs. L. E. RICCIO, Tbodoko, a native of Brescia, who after holding the post of choirmaster at one of the churches of Brescia was in 1576 invited by George Frederick, Margrave of BrandenbergAnspach, to be his capellmeister at Anspach. When in 1579 George Frederick became also Duke of Prussia, Riocio accompanied him as capellmeister to his new capital Kbnigsberg, where, like Soandello, also a native of Brescia, in similar circumstances at Dresden, Riccio adopted the Lutheran faith, and seems to have settled for the rest of his life with an occasional visit to Anspach. His adoption of Lutheranism made little difference to the nature of his compositions for use in church, as Latin was still
' ' ' ' ' ' '

mainly consist of various volumes of Latin masses, motets, and magnificats, a 4 to 8 or 12. Probably Johann Ecoai'd, who was called to be his coadjutor at Konigsberg from 1581, provided the music required for German texts. Besides the Latin works the Quellen-Lexikon mentions two incomplete books of madrigals a 5 and 6, and one book of Canzone alia napolitana. "Riccio is supposed to have died between 1603 and 1604, since in the latter year Eocard is known to have definitely succeeded
MJ. (from ricercare, to search out '), an Italian term of the 17th century, signifying a fugue of the closest

him

as capellmeister.

RICERCARE,
'

or

RICERCATA

Frescobaldi's and most learned description. Rioercari (1615), which are copied out in one of Dr. Bumey's note-books (Brit. Mus. Add. MS.

11,588), are full of augmentations, diminutions, and other contrivances, in fact J. S. Bach has rechercMs or full of research. affixed the name to the 6-part Fugue in his Musikalisches Opfer,' and the title of the whole Regis lussu contains the word in its initials Oantio Et Reliqua Canonica Arte Eesoluta. But the term was also employed for a fantasia on some popular song, street-cry, or such similar
inversions,
'

theme. Dr. Cummings has a MS. book, dated 1580-1600, containing twenty-two ricercari by CI. da Coreggio, Gianetto Palestina (sic), A. Vuillaert (sic), 0. Lasso, Clemens non Papa, Cip. Eore, and others compositions in four and five parts, on 'Ce moy de May,' 'Vestiva i colli,'' La Eossignol,' Susan unjour,' and other apparently popular songs. This use of the word appears to have been earlier than the other, as ijieces of the kind by Adriano (1520-67) are quoted. a. RICH, John, son of Christopher Rich, patentee of Drury Lane Theatre, was bom about 1682. His father, having been compelled to quit Drury Lane, had erected a new theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields, but died in 1714 when it was upon the eve of being opened. John Rich, together with his brother Christopher, then assumed the management and opened the house about six weeks after his father's death. Finding himself unable to contend against the superior company engaged at Drury Lane, he had recourse to the introduction of a new species of entertainment pantomime in which music, scenery, machinery,* and appropriate costumes formed the prominent features. In these pieces he himself, under the assumed name of Lun perfoi-med the part of Harlequin with such

'

ability as to extort the admiration of even the

most determined opponents of that

class of entertainment. [He play ed Harlequin in ' Cheats, or the Tavern Bilkers," a pantomime by John
1 Most of Eioh'. maoWner, was InTsnted Ijy John Hool., tile translator of Tmso, .nd his father, Samuel Hoole,

.i enSneit

; '

RICHAFOET
Weaver (adapted from Les Fourberies de Seapin"), with music by Dr. Pepusch, in 1716-17. w. H. G. F.] [See also Beggar's Opera, vol. i. Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, p. 277 vol. ii. p. 733 Pantomime, vol. iii. p. 616.] Encouraged by success he at length decided upon the erection of a, larger theatre, the
'

RICHARDS

91

stage of which should afford gieater facilities

and mechanical display, and accordfirst Covent Garden Theatre, which he opened Dec. 7, 1732. Hogarth produced a caricature on the occasion of the removal to the new house, entitled 'Rich's Glory, or his Triumphal Entry into Covent Garden,' copies of which will be found in Wilkinson's Londina llltistrcUa, and in H. Saxe Wyndham's Annals of Covent Garden Theatre,
for scenic

ingly built the

works retain a character of antique severity, others, as Eitner observes, are remarkable for their wonderful beauty, clearness, and simplicity. Several of his motets Ambros singles out for high praise. Of one which he mentions, Quem dicunt homines,' the opening portion is given by Mr. Wooldridge in the Oxford History of Music, vol. ii. pp. 269-70. Glarean gives' in full Richafort's motet Christus resurgens as a good example of the polyphonic treatment of the Ionic mode. Of the fifteen chansons of Richafort in various collections, two fine specimens are
' '
'

accessible in deplaisir' in

modem
Commer

reprints,

'

De mon

triste

Collectio xii.,

and 'Sur

tous regrets ' in Eitner's republication of Ott's 'Liederbuch,' 1544. j. R. M.

vol.

i.

He

conducted the new theatre with

great success until his death, relying much upon the atti'action of his pantomimes and musical pieces, but by no means neglecting the regular drama. In his early days he had attempted tragic acting, but failed. He died Nov. 26, 1761, and was buried Dec. 4, in Hillingdon churchyard, Middlesex. (See list of productions, w. h. h. etc., in the Diet, of Nat. Biog.) KICHAFORT, Jean, a Flemish musician of the earlier part of the 16th century, whom we know on the authority of the poet Ronsard to have been a pupil of Josquin Despres. He was one of the more distinguished composers of the period immediately after Josquin, in which with the retention of what was valuable in the older technique of contrapuntal artifice, there was, as Mr. Wooldridge observes, a greater approach made towards purity of sound and "beauty of expression. The only known dates of Richafort's
career are that between 1543 and 1547 he was choirmaster of the church of St. Gilles, Bruges, but this is supposed to have been towards the end of his life, since as early as 1519 a motet of his composition appears in one of the collections of Petrucci, the Motetti de la Corona, His works appeared only in the colleclib. ii. tions of the time, and specially in those of

RICHARD C(EUR DE LION. An op&acomique in three acts words by Sedaine, music by Gretry. Produced at the Op&a-Comique Oct. 21, 1784. The piece has a certain historical
;

value.

One

of the aus,

'

Une

fievre brulante,'

was

for long a favourite subject for variations.


it (in

Beethoven wrote a set of eight upon

major), published in Nov. 1798, having probably heard the air at a concert of M'^eigl's in the preceding March. Anotlier set of seven (also in C)'were for long attributed to Mozart,

but are now decided not to be by him. The air 'ORichard, 6 mon roi, I'univers t'abandonne, was played on a memorable occasion in the early stage of the French Revolution at the banquet at Versailles on Oct. 1, 1789. [Two versions were made for the English stage General Burgoyne's was acted at Dmry Lane in 1786, and Leonard MacNally's at Covent Garden in the same year. Thomas Linley adapted Gr^try's music to one of them and the opera remained a standard work for many

years.

F.

K.]

G.

Attaignant and Modemus between 1530 and 1550. Two masses are specially mentioned, one Ogenetrix gloriosa' published by Attaignant 1532, and afterwards copied into the Sistine chapel and other choir- books the other, Veni Sponsa Christi,' 1540, based on one of his own
'

'

motets, which Ambros describes as the finest of the collection of motets in which it appears. The motet has been reprinted in Maldeghem's Requiem, a 6, would seem from the 'Tresor.' account which Ambros gives of it to be on the

son of Henry Richards, organist of St. Peter's, Carmarthen, was born there Nov. 13, 1817, and intended for the medical profession, but preferred the study of music, and became a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, where he obtained the King's scholarship in 1835, and again in 1837. He soon gained a high position in London as a pianist. As a composer he was financially very successful, his song God bless the Prince of Wales (published in 1 862) having reached a high pitch of popularity, even out of England, and his sacred songs, part-songs, and pianoforte pieces having been most favourably
'
'

RICHARDS, Henry Bbinley,

whole more curious than beautiful, though it testifies to the aim after intensity of expression. While the other voices sing the ritual text, the two tenor sing in canon Circumdedei-unt me gemitus mortis,' and also reply to each other as c'est if with exclamations of personal sorrow, douleur non pareille.' If some of Richafort's
' '

[An overture in F minor was perHe composed additional formed in 1840.] songs for the English version of Auber's Crown Diamonds,' when produced at Drury Lane in 1846. He especially devoted himself to the study of Welsh music (upon which he lectured), and many of his compositions were inspired by
received.
'

his enthusiastic love for his native land. exerted himself greatly in promoting
interests of the

He
the

South Wales Choral Union

'

EICHAEDSON
on its visits to London in 1872 and 1873, when they suooessfully competed at the National Music Meetings at the Crystal Palace. [He died in London, May 1, 1885.] (Additions from Diet, of Nat. Biog.) w. h. h. EICHAEDSON, Joseph, an eminent iiuteplayer, horn in 1814, and died March 22, 1862. He was engaged in most of the London orchestras, was solo player at Jullien's concerts for many years, and afterwards became principal

BICHTER
tion proved correct, and his judgment was so sound that his business increased rapidly, and he was soon obliged to move into larger premises in the Boulevard Poissonni^re, first at No. 16,

and then at No. 26. Here he published Mozart's Concertos in 8vo score, and other works of the classical composers of Germany, and acquired
the bulk of the stock of the firms of Frey, Naderman, Sieber, Pleyel, Petit, Erard, and Delahante. He moved in 1862 to No. 4 in the Boulevard des Italiens.
died, Feb. 20, 1866, well

[He played Club and the Sooieti Armonica in 1836, and was a member of the Liszt concert party in 1841, and visited Dublin in that capacity, w. H. G. f.] His neatness and rapidity of execution were extraordinary, and were the great features of his playing. He composed numerous fantasias for his instrument,
flute in the

Queen's private band.

In this house he
as a publisher

at

the

Melodists'

known

judgment and ability, a man of keen intelHis son, lect, and a pleasant social companion. GuiLLAUME Simon, born in Paris, Nov. 2, 1806, had long been his father's partner, and
of

usually extremely brilliant.

G.

born in London in the latter half of the 17th century, was in 1685 a chorister of the Chapel Eoyal, under Dr. Blow. He was possibly a nephew of Thomas Eichardson (alto singer, gentleman of the Chapel Eoyal from 1664 to his death, July 23, 1712, and lay vicar of Westminster Abbey), and a brother of Thomas Eichardson, who was his fellow-chorister. In June 1693 he was appointed organist of Winchester Cathedral. In 1701 he published A collection of Songs for one, two, and three voices, acoompany'd with instruments. He was author of some church music a fine anthem, Lord God of my salvation,' and an Evening Service in C (composed in 1713), are in the Tudway Collection (Harl. MSS. 7341 and 7342), and another anthem, '0 how amiable,' also in Tudway, and printed in Page's Harmonia Sacra' others are in the books of He was also composer of different cathedrals. 'An Entertainment of new Musick, composed on the Peace' [of Eyswiok], 1697 'A Song in praise of St. Cecilia,' written for a celebration at Winchester about 1700, and a 'set of vocal and instrumental music,' written for a like [An autograph volume of occasion in 1703. music, containing fourteen anthems, a 'Song for the King' (1697), six sonatas for strings,
'
: '

EICHARDSON, Vauohan,

continued in the old line of serious music. At the same time he realised that in so important a business it was well that the Italian school should be represented, and accordingly bought the stock On his death, Feb. 7, of the publisher Pacini.
1877, his son,
LfiON, born in Paris, August 6, 1839, resolved to give a fresh impetus to the firm, which already possessed 18,000 publications. Bearing in mind

'

that his grandfather had been the first to publish Beethoven's Symphonies and Mozart's Concertos in score ; to make known in France the oratorios of Bao^j and Handel, and the works of Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Schumann ; to bring out the first operas of Ambroise Thomas and Victor Mass^ ; to encourage Berlioz when his ' Damnation de Faust was received with contempt, and to welcome the orchestral compositions of Eeber and Gouvy ; M. L^on Eichault above all determined to maintain the editions of the German classical masters which had made the fortune of the firm. His intelligent administration of his old and honourable business procured him a silver medal at the International Exhibition of 1878, the highest recompense open to music-publishers, the jury having refused them the gold medal. g. g.
'

EICHTEE, Ernst Friedrich Eduard,

son

of a schoolmaster, born Oct. 24, 1808, at Grossschbnau in Lusatia ; from his eleventh year attended the Gymnasium at Zittau, managed

etc., is in

the possession of J. S. Bumpus, Esq.] died before June 26, 1729, and not, as w. H. H. commonly stated, in 1715. EICHAULT, Charles Simon, head of a family of celebrated French music-publishers,

He

bom

Paris,

at Chartres, May 10, 1780, came early to and served his apprenticeship in the
.

From him music-trade with J. J. Momigny. he acquired a taste for the literature of music and chamber compositions ; and when he set up for himself at No. 7 Eue Grange Batelifere in 1805, the first works he published were He soon perceived that there was classical. an opening in Paris for editions of the best works of German musicians, and the early efforts His calculaof French composers of promise.

the choir, and arranged independent performances. Inl831he went to Leipzig to study with Weinlig, the then Cantor, and made such progress that soon after the foundation of the Conservatorinm, in 1843, he became one of the professors of harmony and counterpoint. Up to 1847 he conducted the Singakademie he was afterwards organist successively of the Peterskirche (1851) and the Neukirche and Nicolaikirche (l862). After Hauptmann's death, Jan. 3, 1868, he succeeded him as Cantor of the
;

Of his books, the Lehrbuch der Earmonie (afterwards called PraHische Studien
Thomasschule.

zw

Tfteone), (12th ed. 1876); has been translated into Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Eussian, Polish, and English. The Lehre der

mn

Fuge

HANS BICHTER


RICHTER
has passed through three editions, and Vom Cmitrapmict through two. The English translations of all these are by Franklin Taylor, and were published by Cramer & Co. in 1864, 1878, and 1874 respectively. Eichter also published a, Catechism of Orga/n-iuilding. Of his many compositions de circonstance the best known is the Cantata 'Dithyrambe,' for the Schiller Festival in 1859. Other works are an oratorio, Christus der Erloser (March 8,
' '

RICHTER

93

the court of Mannheim since 1747, and no doubt this was the cause of his dismissal from Kempten. He is stated by F. Walter, Geschichte des Theaters, etc. (1898), to have appeared in operatic perHe was also formances in 1748 and 1749. engaged as leader of the second violins in the
orchestra.
croce,'

An oratorio, 'La deposizione della was performed at Mannheim in 1748.


Mannheim
for

He

left

Stiasburg

in

1769,

1849),- masses, string-quartets,

psalms,

motets,
for

organ-pieces,

and sonatas

PF.

He became

one of the King's Professors in 1868, died at Leipzig, April 9, 1879, and was succeeded as Cantor by W. Kust. r. G. RICHTER, Ferdinand Tobias, a native of Wiirzburg, the date of whose birth is given as 1649, succeeded Alessandro Poglietti as Imperial Court organist at Vienna in 1683. In the Quellen-Lexikon he is wrongly said to have been the teacher in composition of the Emperor Leopold I., but he was undoubtedly music teacher to Leopold's children, the future Emperor Joseph I. and the three-Archduchesses. Richter enjoyed a high reputation as orgafl-player and composer. Several even of Pachelbel's pupils
,

becoming capellmeister at the Minster, and He spending the remainder of his life there. died Sept. 12, 1789, and was succeeded by Ignaz Pleyel, who, according to Fetis, had acted
as his assistant for six years.

Burney, in his

at

Nuremberg came afterwards

to

perfect themselves in organ-playing

Vienna to by further

instructions from Eichter, and Pachelbel himself must have held Eichter in high esteem,

1699 he dedicated to him along with Buxtehude his organ or clavier work entitled 'Hexachordum ApoUinis.' It is all the more remarkable that so few organ works of Eichter have been preserved. In a recent volume of the Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Oesterreich
since in

Th. 2) three clavier suites out of and an organ toccata with short fiigued Versetti out of a set of five on the church tones intended for liturgical use, have been printed for the first time, but hardly suffice to The Imperial explain his great reputation. Library at Vienna preserves in MS. two serenatas by Eichter evidently intended for court festivities, L' Istro ossequioso, and Le promesse also five spiritual dramas composed degli Dei for performance by the pupils of the Jesuit There are also some instrucollege at Vienna. mental works, a sonata a 7 (described as for two Trombe, one Timpano, two' violini, two viole da braccio e cembalo), along with some Balletti a i and a 5, also two Sonatas a 8. Eichter died j. R. M. at Vienna in 1711. EICHTEE, Franz Xavek, was born at HblliHis schau in Moravia on Dec. 1 or 31, > 1709. first official post was that of capellmeister to the Abbot of Kempten, which he held from 1740 until 1750, whendifiiculties appearto have arisen with the authorities as the result of his duplicaHe had been a bass-singer at tion of posts.
(Jahrg.
xiii.

a set of

five,

'

'

'

'

'

Present State (Germany), ii. 327, speaks of the great reputation Eichter enjoyed, and of the want of real individuality in his music. He speaks of his frequent employment of the device called Eosalia. He left sixty - four symphonies, of which the themes of sixty-two are given in the volume devoted to the Mannheim school of symphonists in the Denkm. der Tank, in Bayem, vol. iii. 1. Three of the symphonies are printed in full, and the preface contains a, detailed account of the composer. An enormous mass of church music is ascribed to him in Eiemann's Lexikon, such as twentyeight masses, two requiems, sixteen psalms, thirty-eight motets, etc. The Quellcn-Lemkon gives a more limited list of extant works, and contains many doubtfal statements concerning the composer. M. EICHTEE, Hans, celebrated conductor, born April 4, 1843, at Eaab in Hungary, where his His father was capellmeister of the cathedral. mother, n(e Josephine Csazinsky, sang the part of Venus in 'Tannhauser' at the first performance in Vienna in 1857 ; she was aftenvards a very successful teacher of singing in Vienna, and died Oct. 20, 1892. The father died in 1853, and Hans was then placed at the Lowenburg Convict-School in Vienna. Thence he went into the choir of the Court chapel, and remained there for four years. In 1860 he entered the Conservatorium, and studied the horn under Kleinecke, the violin under Heissler, and theory under Seohter. After a lengthened engagemenj; as horn-player in the orchestra of the Kamthnerthor opera he was recommended by Esser to Wagner, went to him at Lucerne, remained there from Oct. 1866 to Dec. 1867, and made the first In fair copy of the score of the ' Meistersinger.
'

Gerber'B Ltxikon, foUowed by Biemann, in his Lexikon, and in his preface to the Denitm. volume containing worlcB by Jlichter, givea Dee. -1 as the date of birth : Eitner's Quellen-Lixdkon follows Lobstein's Beitrdge, etc., in giving Dec. 31 as the date.

18 68 he accepted thepostof conductorat theHofund National Theatre, Munich, and remained He next visited Paris, and there for a year. after a short residence there, proceeded to Brussels for the production of Lohengrin (March 22, 1870). He then returned to Wagner at Lucerne, assisted at the first performance of the Siegfried Idyll' (Dec. 1870), and made the fair copy of the score of the Nibelungen Eing for the engraver. InAprill871 he went to Pesth as chief conductor of the National Theatre, a post to which he owes
' ' ' ' '


94

EICHTER
practical

RIDDELL
great master of crescendo and decrescendo, and of the finer shades of accelerating and retarding

much of his great


and stage

knowledge of the stage

In Jan. 1875 he conducted a grand orchestral concert in Vienna, which had the effect of attracting much public attention to him, and accordingly, after the retirement of Dessoff from the Court opera, Richter was invited to take the post, which he entered upon in the autumn of 1875, concurrently with the conduotorship of the Philharmonic Concerts. In 1884-90 he acted as conductor of the concerts of the Gesellsohaft der Musikfreunde. He had conducted the rehearsals of the Nibelungen Ring at Bayreuth, and in 1876 he directed the whole of the rehearsals and performances of the Festival there, and, at the close of the third set of performances, received the Order of Maximilian from the King of Bavaria, and that of the Falcon from the Grand Duke of Weimar. In 1877 he produced the Walkiire in Vienna, and followed it in 1878 by the other portions of the trilogy. In 1878 he was made court capellraeister, and received the Order of Franz Josef. His first introduction toEnglishaudiences was at the famous Wagner Concerts given in the Albert Hall in 1877, when he shared the duties In 1879 of conductor with Wagner himself. (May 5-12), 1880 (May 10-June 14), and 1881 (May 9-June 23) were started what were at Orchestral Festival Concerts, but first called afterwards the 'Eiohter Concerts,' in London, which excited much attention, chiefly for the oonductor'sknowledge of the scores of Beethoven's symphonies and other large works, which he conducted without book. [The Richter Concerts went on for many years with great success, but after the great conductor went to live in Manchester in 1897, as directorof theManchester Orchestra, the London concerts were given less regularly. In 1882 and 1884 he conducted important performances of German operas in London, introducing 'Die Meistersinger and
business.
' ' '
'

the time.

^- '^

RICOCHET. The employment of the bounding staccato staccato a ricochet is thus indicated in violin music. As the best examples of this bowing are to be found in the works of the French and Belgian composers, it is probable that it owes its invention to the father of
virtuosity

Paganini.

The same system which

so brilliantly governs the flying staccato applied by Paganini, de Beriot, Wieniawski, Vieuxtemps, and latter-day virtuosi, to the passages execution of swift chromatic dominates the ricochet, but being thrown upon the strings less rapidly, and with more force, To accomplish this style the eSeot is heavier. of bowing neatly, the stick should be held so that the full breadth of the hair at the upper

The part shall fall upon the strings accurately. wrist must remain flexible, while the fingers grip the bow firmly and relax to allow the bow to rebound. Two graceful examples of the application of the ricochet are to be found in the Bolero of de B^riot's ' Scene de Ballet,' and in the Polonaise
of Vieuxtemps's
'

Ballade et Polonaise.'

o. R.

RICORDI, Giovanni, founder of the wellknown music-publishing house in Milan, where


he was born in 1785, and died March 15, 1863. He made his first hit with the score of Mosca's Pretendenti delusi. Since that time the firm has published for all the great Italian maestri, down to Verdi and Boito, and has far outstripped all rivals. The Gazzetta musicaU, edited with great success by Mazzucato, has had
'
'

'

'

much

influence

on

its prosperity.

It possesses

'

Tristan to the London public. The special performances of German opera which form part of the Covent Garden season have been conducted by Richter since 1904. Since 1885 he has conIn that year ducted the Birmingham Festival he received the honorary degree of Mus.D. at He has numberless decorations. (See Oxford. Musical Times, 1899, pp. 441-6.) A special concert in celebration of his thirty years' work in England took place ai the Queen's Hall, June
'
'

the whole of the original scores of the operas it has published a most interesting collecGiovanni's son and successor Tito (bom tion. Oct. 29, 1811, died Sept. 7, 1888) further enlarged the business. The catalogue issued in 1875 contains 738 pages large 8vo. The present head of the firm is his son GlULlo DI Tito, bom Dec. 19, 1840, who is a practised writer, a skilled draughtsman, a composer of drawing-room music, under the pseudonym of Burgmein, and in all respects a thoroughly

cultivated

man.
(or
'

p. g.

3,

1907.]

is certainly one of the very greatest of conductors. He owes this position in great measure to the fact of his intimate practical acquaintance with the techniqueof the instru-

Herr Richter
.

ments in the orchestra, especially the wind, to As a musia degree in which he stands alone. cian he is a self-made man, and enjoys the peculiar advantages which spring from that fact. His devotion to his orchestra is great, and the high standard and position of the band of the Vienna opera-house is due to him. He is a

Riddle '), composer of Scottish dance music, born at Ayr, Sept. 2, It is stated in 'The Ballads and Songs 1718. of Ayrshire,' 1846, that Riddell was blind from infancy, also that he was composer of the wellknown tune 'Jenny's Bawbee.' This latter statement is not authenticated. Burns mentions him as 'a bard-born genius,' and says he is composer of this most beautiful tune (' Finlayston House '). Riddell published about 1766 his first Col'
'

RIDDELL, John

'

lection of Scots Reels, or


folio,

Country Dances and Minuets,' and a second edition of it, in oblong


in 1782.

Hedied Aprils, 1795.

RIDDELL, RoEEKT,

p. k,

a Scottish antiquary'

a
: '

RIDOTTO
and
(or Volunteer) captain,

RIEMANN
said against
3,
it.

95

He was an army and resided on the family estate Glenriddell, Dumfriesshire. He was an amateur composer of Scottish dance music, and wrote the music to one or two of Bums's songs. His most interesting publication (1794) is 'A Collection of Scotch, Galwegian, and Border Tunes selected by Robert Riddell of Glenriddell,
friend of Robert Burns.
. . .

Riedel died in Leipzig, June


G.

1888.

RIEM, Wilhelm Fmedrich, born at CoUeda


was one of J. A. Thomasschule at Leipzig. In 1807 he was made organist of the Reformed church there, and in 1814 of the Thomasschule itself. In 1822 he was called to Bremen to take the cathedral organ and be director of the Singakademie, where he remained till his death, April 20, 1837. He was an industrious writer. His cantata for the anniversary of the Augsburg Confession, 1830 (for which Mendelssohn's Reformation Symphony was intended) is dead so are his quintets, quartets, trios, and other large works, but some of his eight
in Thuringia, Feb. 17, 1779,
Hiller's pupils in the
;

Esq.,' folio.

He died at Friai-s'

1794.

Carse, April 21, F. K.

RIDOTTO. See Redoute. RIEDEL, Carl, bom Oct. 6, 1827, at KronenThough always berg in the Rhine provinces. musically inclined he was educated for trade, and was at Lyons in the silk business until 1848, when he determined to devote himself He returned home to music as a profession. and at once began serious study under the direction of Carl Wilhelm, then an obscure musician at Crefeld, but destined to be widely knowix as the author of the ' Wacht am Rhein. Late in 1849 Riedel entered the Leipzig Conservatorium, where he made great progress
under Moscheles,Hauptmann,Becker,andPlaidy. He had long had a strong predilection for the vocal works of the older masters of Germany and Italy. He practised and perfonned in a
private society at Leipzig Astorga's ' Stabat,' Palestrina's Improperia,' and Leo's Miserere,' and this led him to found a singing society of
' '

sonatas and twelve sonatinas are still used for teaching purposes. He left two books of studies for the PF. which are out of print, and sixteen progressive exercises, besides useful compositions for the organ. G.
,

RIEMANN, Karl Wilhelm Julius Hugo, was born at Grossmehlra near Sondershausen, July 18, 1849, and studied law, etc., at Berlin and Tiibingen. He saw active service in the Franco -German war, and afterwards devoted
his life to music, studying in the Leipzig Conservatorium. After some years' residence at Bielefeld as a teacher, he was appointed to the

post of
Leipzig,

'

privatdozent

'

in

the

University of

which began on May 17, 1854, with a simple quartet of male voices, and was the foundation of the famous Association which, under the name of the Riedelsche Verein,' was
his own,
'

which he held from 1878 to 1880, going thence to Bromberg in 1881-90 he was teacher of the piano and theory in the Hamburg Conservatorium, and subsequently (after a three;

so

celebrated in

Leipzig.

Their

first

public

The was held in November 1855. reality of the attempt was soon recognised members flocked to the society and its first great achievement was a performance of Bach's B minor Mass, April 10, 1859. At that time Riedel appears to have practised only ancient music, but this rule was by no means mainand in the list of the works performed tained by the Verein we find Beethoven's Mass in D,
concert
; ; ;

Kiel's 'Christus,' Berlioz's

and

Liszt's

'

'Messe des Morts,' Graner Messe and ' St. Elizabeth.'


'

was extraordinary conductor, but librarian, His interest secretary, treasurer, all in one. in the welfare of music was always ready and always effective, and many of the best vocal
Riedel's devotion to his choir
its

he was not only

associations of
to his advice

North Germany owe their success He was one of the Beethovenstiftung,' and an founders of the
and help.
'

earnest supporter of the Wagner performances His own compositions at Bayreuth In 1876.

but he important ancient works by Praetorius, Franck, Eccard, and other old German writers, especially a 'Passion' by Heinrich Schiitz, for which he selected the best portions of four Passions by that master proceeding certainly deserving all that can be
are chiefly part-songs for men's voices,

edited

several

months' stay at the conservatorium of Sondershausen) was given a post at the Conservatorium of Wiesbaden (1890-95). In the latter year he returned to Leipzig, as a lecturer in the University, and in 1901 was appointed professor. He has been amazingly active as a writer on every branch of musical knowledge, but his work is as thorough as if it had been small in extent. On the teaching of harmony, on musical phrasing and the peculiarities of notation required for explaining his system to students, he has strongly supported various innovations, most of them due to his own inventive faculty. The complete list of his works is given in his own Musiklexikon, to which the reader must be Die Naiur der Earmomik (1882), referred Vereinfachie Harmonielehre (1893), Lehrhuch CbjiirapMmtfe (1888), have been transdes lated into English, as well as the various catechisms dealing with every branch of musical study, and the famous Musiklexikon (first editioii, 1882, sixth, 1905, Engl, translaThe useful Opernhandbuch tion, 1893, etc.). (1884-93) and works on musical history must not be forgotten. As a practical illustration of his excellent method of teaching the art of phrasing, his editions of classical and romantic
'

;'

pianoforte music, called 'Phrasierungsausgaben,'

may be

mentioned.

He

has

edited

many


96

EIES
when he was nineteen
[at

KIEMSDIJK

masterpieces of ancient music, as, for instance, the works of Abaco and the Mannheim symphonists for the Denkmaler der Tonkunst in

25 thalers a year

he

Bayern (1900 and 1902


original compositions

respectively).

for

His he has found time

to write music as well as musical literature

are numerous but not very important, being mainly of an educational kind but his position in the musical world of Germany is deservedly a very high one. M. RIEMSDIJK, J. G. M. van, bom 1843, died June 30, 1895, at Utrecht, was a member of an aristocratic family, and thus grew up amid the best and most powerful social influences. An enthusiastic amateur musician, he threw himself into the work of furthering the cause of music. A cultivated scholar, he devoted himself to editing the old songs of the Netherlands with marked success. A practical and businesslike citizen, he became Technical Director of the State railway. His house was always open to any artists, and his welcome was always ready for those who followed music as a profession. He was chairman of the Society of Musical history in the North Netherlands,' in which capacity he doubtless had many facilities for collecting old Netherland Folk-Songs, of which he availed himself in the most able manner. His works are as follows
; '
:

In 1779 he occupied the post until 1774]. visited Vienna, and made a great success as a But he elected to resolo and quartet player. main, on poor pay, in Bonn, and was rewarded by having Beethoven as his pupil and friend. [On March 1779, he petitioned the Elector
2,

Maximilian for a post, and received it on May 2.] During the poverty of the Beethoven family, and through the misery caused by the death of Ludwig's mother in 1787, Franz Ries In 1794 stood by them like a real friend.
the French arrived, and the Elector's establishment was broken up. Some of the members of the band dispersed, but Ries remained, and documents are preserved which show that after the passing away of the invasion he was to have been Court-musician, i Events, however, were otherwise ordered he remained in Bonn, and at Godesberg, where he had a little house, till his death held various small offices, culminating in the Bonn city government in 1800, taught the violin, and brought up his children He assisted Wegeler in his Notices of well. Beethoven, was present at the unveiling of Beethoven's statue in 1845, had a Doctor's degree and the Order of the Red Eagle conferred on him, and died, Nov. 1, 1846, aged ninety; ;

1881. State Mu*ic School of Utrecht 163M881 (a complete history of the Art of Blusic in the Netherlaads between those dates). *1882. ITetherlaud Dances arranged for PF. Duet. 1888. The two first Music books of Tylman Susato {c. 1546), a collection of Netherland Folk Songs of the 16th century. 1888. HortuB Muslcus of J. A. Reinken (1623-1722) for two violins, viola, and bass (translation into Dutch). *1890. Twenty-four Songs of the 15th and 16th centuries with PF.

accompauimeDt. Folk S<mg hook of the Netherlands (poathnmons). worlcs marked thus * are among the publications of the Vereeniging voor N.-Nederlands Miisikgeschiedenis. jj_ j^^ ,
1896.

The

RIENZI,

DER LETZTE DER TRIBUNEN

An opera in five (the last of the Tribunes). acts ; words (founded on Bulwer's novel) and music by Wagner. He adopted the idea in Dresden in 1837 ; two acts were finished early in 1839, and the opera was produced at Dresden, 'Rienzi' was brought out in Qet. 20, 1842. French (Nuitter and Guillaume) at the Theatre Lyrique, April 16, 1869, and in English at Her Majesty's Theatre, London (Carl Rosa),
G. Jan. 27, 1879. distinguished family of musicians. RIES. 1. JoHANN RiES, native of Benzheim on the

but nine days. Franz's son Fbkdinand, who with the Archduke Rudolph enjoys the distinction of being Beethoven's pupil, wais born at Bonn in November (baptized Nov. 28) 1784. He was brought up from his cradle to music. His father taught him the pianoforte and violin, and B. Romberg the violoncello. In his childhood he lost an eye through small-pox. After the break-up of the Elector's band he remained three years at home, working very hard at theoretical and practical music, scoring the quartets of Haydn and Mozart, and arranging the ' Creation, ' the ' Seasons, and the Requiem with such ability that they were all three publishes by Simrock.
one
all
2.
'

Rhine, born 1723, was appointed Courttrumpeter to the Elector of Cologne at Bonn [with a salary of 192 thalers], May 2, 1747, and violinist in the Capelle, March 5, 1754. On April 27, 1764, his daughter Anna Maria was appointed singer. In 1774 she married Ferdinand Drewer, violinist in the band, and remained first soprano till the Her father died at Cologne break-up in 1794. Her brother, Fraxz Anton, was born in 1784. at Bonn, Nov. 10, 1755, and was an infant phenomenon on the violin learned from J. P. Salomon, and was able to take his father's place in the orchestra at the age of eleven. His salary began
;

In 1801 he went to Munich to study under Winter, in a larger field than he could command at home. Here he was so badly off as to be driven to copy music at 3d. a sheet. But poor as his income was he lived within it, and when after a few months Winter left Munich for Paris, Ries had saved seven ducats. With this he went to Vienna in October 1801, taking a letter from his father to Beethoven. Beethoven received him well, and when he had read the letter said, I can't answer it now but write and tell him that I have not forgotten the time when my mother died and knowing how miserably poor the lad was, he on several occasions gave him money unasked, for which he would accept no return. The next three years Ries spent in Vienna. Beethoven took
'

'

I See the curious and important lists and memorandnma tihK '^ lished for the fli-st time in Thayer's Beetr^ven^!S

' ;

RIES
a great deal of pains with his pianoforte-playbut would teach him nothing else. He, however, prevailed on Albrechtsberger to take him as a pupil in composition. The lessons cost a ducat each ; Ries had in some way saved
ing,

RIES
He had

97

up twenty -eight

ducats,

and

therefore

had

Beethoven also got him an appointment as pianist to Count Browne, the Russian chargi d'affaires, and at another time The pay for these to Count Lichnowsky. services was probably not over-abundant, but it kept him, and the position gave him access
twenty-eight lessons.
to the best musical society. Into Ries's relations with Beethoven we need not enter here. They

are touched upon in the sketch of the great master in vol. i. of this work, and they are fully laid open in Ries's own invaluable notices. He had a great deal to bear, and considering the secrecy and imperiousness which Beethoven often threw into his intercourse with every one, there was probably much unpleasantness in the
relationship.

still his eye on Russia, but between Stockholm and Petersburg the ship was taken by an English man-of-war, and all the passengers were turned out upon an island in the Baltic. In Petersburg he found Bernhard Romberg, and the two made a successful tour, embracing places as wide apart as Kiev, Reval, and Riga. The burning of Moscow (Sept. 1812) put a stop to his progress in that direction, and we next find him again at Stockholm in April 1813, en route for England. By the end of the month he was in London. Here he found his countryman and his father's friend, Salomon, who received him cordially and introduced him to the Philharmonic Concerts. His first appearance there was March 14, 1814, in his own PF. Sextet. His symphonies, overtures, and chamber works frequently occur in the programmes, and he himself appears from time to time as a PF. player, but rarely if ever with works of

Meantime of course Ries must have become saturated with the music of his great master ; a thing which could hardly tend to foster any little originality he may ever have

Beethoven's. Shortly after his arrival he married

an English lady of great attractions, and he remained in London till 1824, one of the most
conspicuous figures of the musical world. ' Mr. Ries,' says a writer in the Hai-monicon of March 1824, 'is justly celebrated as one of the finest pianoforte performers of the day ; his hand is powerful and his execution certain, often surprising ; but his playing is most distinguished from that of all others by its romantic wildness. His sojourn here was a time of herculean labour. His compositions numbered at their close nearly 180, including 6 fine symphonies 4 overtures ; 6 string quintets, and 14 do. quartets ; 9 concertos for PF. and orchestra an octet, a septet, 2 sextets, and a quintet, for various instruments ; 3 PF. quartets, and 5 do. trios ; 20 duets for PF. and violin 10 sonatas for PF. solo ; besides a' vast number of rondos, variations, fantasias, etc., for the PF.
; ;

As a citizen of Bonn he was amenable to the French conscription, and in 1805 was summoned

He left in Sept. to appear there in person. 1805, made the journey on foot via Prague, Dresden, and Leipzig, reached Coblenz within the prescribed limit of time, and was then
dismissed on account of the loss of his eye.

He then went on to Paris, and existed in misery for apparently at least two years, at the end of which time he was advised to try Russia. On August 27, 1808, he was again in Vienna, and soon afterwards received from Reichardt an offer of the post of capellmeister to Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, at Cassel, which Reichardt alleged had been refused by Ries behaved" with perfect loyalty Beethoven.
and straightforwardness in the matter. Before replying, he endeavoured to find out from
Beethoven himself the real state of the case but Beethoven having adopted the idea that Ries was trying to get the post over his head, would not see him, and for three weeks behaved to him with an incredible degree of cruelty and insolence. When he could be made to listen to the facts he was sorry enough, but the opportunity was gone. The occupation of Vienna (May 12, 1809) by the French was not favourable to artistic life. Ries, however, as a French subject, was free to He accordingly went to Cassel, poswander. sibly with some lingering hopes, played at Court, and remained tiU the end of February 1810, very much applauded and feted, and making money but had no offer of a post. From Cassel he went by Hamburg and Copenhagen to Stockholm, where we find him in Sept. 1810, making both money and reputation. VOL. IV

and duet. Of these 38 are attributable to the time of his residence here, and they embrace 2 symphonies, 4 concertos, a sonata, and many smaller pieces. As a pianist and teacher he was very much in request. He was an active member of the Philharmonic Society. His correspondence with Beethoven during the whole period is highly creditable to him, proving his gratitude towards his master, and the energy with which he laboured to promote Beethoven's interests. That Beethoven profited so little therefrom was no fault of Ries's. Having accumulated a fortune adequate to the demands of a life of comfort, he gave a farewell concert in London, April 8, 1824, and removed with his wife to Godesberg, near his native town, where he had purchased a property. Though a loser by the failure of a London bank in 1825-26, he was able to live independently. About 1830 he removed to Frankfort. His residence on the Rhine brought him into close contact with the Lower Rhine
solo

RIETEE-BIEDEBMANN

98
Festivals,

RIES

and he directed the performances of the years 1825, 1829, 1830, 1832, 1834, and 1837, as well as those of 1826 and 1828 in conjunction with Spohr and Klein respectively. In 1834 he was appointed head of the town orchestra and Singakademie at Aix-la-Chapelle. But he was too independent to keep any post, and in 1836 he gave this up and returned to Frankfort. In 1837 he assumed the direction of the Cecilian Society there on the death of
Schelble, but this lasted
for
illness.
a,

on Jan. 13, 1838, he died

few months only, after a short

a leader, and more especially as a methodical and conscientious teacher. His Violin-School for beginners is a very meritorious work, eminently He published two practical, and widely used. violin-concertos, studies and duets for violins, and some quartets. An English edition of the Violin-School appeared in 1873 (Hofmeister). He died in Berlin, Sept. 14, 1886. Three of his sons gained reputation as musicians Louis, violinist, born at Berlin, Jan. 30, 1830, pupil of his father and of Vieuxtemps, has, since 1853, been settled in London, where he enjoys
:

great

and deserved reputation as

violinist

and

principal works which he composed after his return to Germany are ' Die Rauberbraut,.'

The

which was

first performed in Frankfort probably in 1829, then in Leipzig, July 4, and London, July 15, of the same year, and often afterwards in Germany ; another opera, known in Germany as Liska,' but produced at the Adelphi, London,
'

in English, as 'The Sorcerer,' by Arnold's company, August 4, 1831, and a third, ' Eine Nacht auf dem Libanon ' ; an oratorio, ' Der Sieg des Glaubens' (The Triumph of the Faith), apparently performed in Dublin for the iirst time in 1831^ and then at Berlin, 1835; andasecond oratorio, ' Die Kbnige Israels (The; Kings of Israel), Aix-la-Ghapelle, 1837. He also wrote much chamber music and six symphonies. All these works, however, are dead. Beethoven once said of his compositions, 'he imitates me too much.' He caught the style and the phrases, but he could not catch the immortality of his master's work. One work of his will live the admirable Biographical Notices of I/udwig van Beethoven, which he published in conjunction with Dr. Wegeler (Coblenz, 1838). The two writers, though publishing together, have fortunately kept their contributions quite distinct Eies's occupies from pp. 76 to 163 of a little duodecimo volume, and of these the last thirtyfive pages are occupied by Beethoven'fe letters. The work is translated into French by Le Gentil (Dentu, 1862), and partially into English by Moscheles, as an Appendix to his version of Sohindler's Life of Beethoven. 3. Hubert, youngest brother of the precedHe made ing, was born at Bonn, April 1, 1802. his first studies as a violinist under his father, and afterwards under Spohr. Hauptmann was his teacher in composition. From 1824 he lived at Beirlin. In that year he entered the band o f the Kbnigstadt Theatre, Berlin, and in the following In year became a member of the Royal band. 1835 he was appointed Director of the Philharmonic Society at Berlin. In 1836 he was nominated Concertmeister, and in 1839 elected [In a member of the Royal Academy of Arts. 1851 he became a teacher at the Kgl. Theater'

a member of the Quartet of the Musical Union from 1855 to 1870, and held the second violin at the Monday Popular Concerts from their beginning in 1859, until his retirement in 1897. Adolph, pianist, born at Berlin, Dec. 20, He was a pupil of 1837, died in April 1899. KuUak for the piano, and of Boehmer for composition, and lived in London as pianoforte teacher. He published a number of compositeacher.

He was

tions for the piano, and some songs. A. yf. T. with additions in square brackets by E. H. -A.

RIES, Franz, violinist and composer, was His musical born on April 7, 1846, in Berlin. gifts were apparent in early youth. The possessor of an alto voice of exceptional beauty, he was admitted at the age of twelve to the
Konigl. Domchor (royal Cathedral choir), which then, under JTeithardt's direction, enjoyed considerable reputation in the musical circles of Berlin. He studied the violin in the first instance under his father, and afterwards, in

under Leon Massart and Henri VieuxIn composition he Was a pupil of Friedr. Kiel. Gained in 1868 the first prize at the Paris Conservatoire, and was active in the
Paris,

temps.

musical life of the city as soloist and also as viola -player in the Vieuxtemps Quartet. In 1870 he migrated, owing to the Franco-German war, to London, appearing as a soloist at the Crystal Palace. But in 1872 an unfortunate nerve aflfection of the left hand compelled him to renounce the career of an executive artist. He founded in 1874 a publishing business in Dresden, and ten years later became partner in the firm Ries & Erler in Berlin, where he still resides. As a composer his main successes have been made in four suites for violin and pianoforte, which are in the repertory of almost every famous violinist. He has also written a

string quintet, two string quartets, a dramatic overture, piano and violin solos and arrange-

ments, besides a series of songs, one of which, the 'Rheinlied,' has taken rank in the Rhine provinces as a Folk-song. c

RIETER BIEDERMANN.
-

w w
"

An

instrumentalschule, from which he a pension in 1872.] A thorough musician and a solid violinist, he was held in great esteem as
retired with
'

German

eminent

firm of music-publishers.

The founder

Information from L. H'C. L, Dix, Sag.

was Jacob Melchior Rieter-Biedermann (born May 14, 1811 died Jan. 25, 1876), who in June 1849 opened a retail business and lending.
;


RIETZ
Since the first work was published in 1856, the business has continually improved and increased. In 1862, a publishing branch was opened at Leipzig. The stock catalogue of the firm includes music
library at Winterthur.

EIETZ

99

resignation in the summer of 1835, Rietz became his successor. He did not, however, remain long in that position, for, as early as 1836, he accepted, under the title of Stadtischer Musik'

by Berlioz, Brahms (PF. Concerto, PF. Quintet,


Requiem, Magelone-Lieder, etc.) A. Dietrich O. Grimm ; Gernsheim von Herzogenberg ; F. Hiller Holstein Kirchner ; Laohner ; F. Marsohner Mendelssohn (op. 98, Nos. 2, 3 opp. 103, 105, 106, 108, 115, 116); Eaif; Keineeke; Schumann (opp. 130, 137, 1S8, 140, ' 142); etc. G. RIETZ (originally ElTZ i) Eduard, the elder brother of Julius Kietz, an excellent violinist, was born at Berlin, Oct. 17, 1802. He studied first under his father, a. member of the royal band, and afterwards, for some time, under Rode. He died too young to acquire more than a local reputation, but his name will always be remembered in connection with Mendelssohn,
; ;

J.

conductor of the public subscription - concerts, the principal choral society, and the church -music at Diisseldorf. In this position he remained for twelve years, gaining the reputation of an excellent conductor, and also appearing as a solo violoncellist in most of the principal towns of the Rhine-province. During this period he wrote some of his most
director,' the post of

successful

works

incidental music
;

of Goethe, Calderon, Immermann, music for Goethe's Liederspiel ' Jery


his first

to dramas and others und Bately,'


;

in G minor three overtures 'HeroSymphony and Leander,'* Concert overture in A major, Lustspiel-overture, the Altdeutscher Sehlachtgesang and Dithyrambe both
' ' '
'

for

who had
powers
SIS

the highest possible opinion of his

an executant,^ and who counted him

amongst his dearest and nearest friends. It was for Rietz that he wrote the Octet which
is

He was six times men's voices and orchestra. chief conductor of the Lower Rhine Festivals in 1845, 1856, and 1869 at Diisseldorf; in 1864, 1867, and 1873 at Aix. In 1847, after Mendelssohn's death, he took leave of Diisseldorf, leaving Ferdinand Hiller
and went to Leipzig as conductor of the opera and the Singakademie. [He gave up the post at the opera in 1854.] From 1848 we find him also at the head of the Gewandhaus orchestra, and teacher of composition at the Conservatorium. In this position he remained for thirteen years. Two operas, 'Der Corsar' and 'Georg Neumark,' were failures, but his Symphony in El? had a great and lasting success. At this period he began also to show his eminent critical powers by carefully revised editions of the scores of Mozart's symphonies and operas, of Beethoven's symphonies and overtures for Breitkopf & Hartel's complete edition, and by the work he did for the Bach and (German) Handel Societies. His editions of Handel's scores contrast very favourably with those of some other editors. An edition of Mendelssohn's complete works closed his labours in this respect. In 1860 the King of Saxony appointed him Conductor of the Royal Opera and of the music He also accepted at the Hofkirche at Dresden. the post of Artistic Director of the Dresden Conservatorium. In 1874 the title of GeneralThe UniMusikdirector was given to him. versity of Leipzig had already in 1869 conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Rietz was for some time one of the most He was a influential musicians of Germany, good violoncellist, but soon after leaving Diisseldorf he gave up playing entirely. As a composer he showed a rare command of all the resources of the orchestra and a complete mastery of all technicalities of composition. Yet few of Rietz's works have shown any vitality.
as his successor,
*

dedicated to him, as well as the Sonata for

PF. and violin, op. 4. For some years Rietz was a member of the royal band, but as his health failed him in 1824 he had to quit his appointment and even to give up playing. He founded and conducted an orchestral society at Berlin, with considerable success he died of consumption Jan. 23, 1 832. Mendelssohn's earlier letters teem with affectionate reference to him, and the news of his death aifected him deeply. ^ The Andante in Mendelssohn's string quintet, op. 18, was composed at Paris 'in memory of E. Ritz,' and is dated on the autograph 'Jan. p. D. 23, 1832,' and entitled 'Naohruf.' RIETZ, Julius, younger brother of the preceding, violoncellist, composer, and eminent conductor, was bom at Berlin, Deo. 28, 1812. Brought up under the influence of his father and brother, and the intimate friend of Mendelssohn, he received his first instruction on the violoncello from Schmidt, a member of the royal band, and afterwards from Bernhard Romberg and Moritz Gahz. Zelter was his
;

teacher in composition.
siderable

Having gained con-

proficiency on his instrument, he obtained, at the age of sixteen, an appointment in the band of the Konigstadt Theatre,. where he also achieved his first success as a composer

by writing

incidental music for Holtei's drama, 'Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab.' In 1834 he went to Diisseldorf as second conductor of the

opera.

Mendelssohn,

who up

to

his

death

showed a warm interest in Rietz, was at that time at the head of the opera, and on his
1

VnilozmJy eo spelt hy MeDdelesohn. ' I long earnestly,' says he, in a letter from Bome,

'for

h js t jolin,

of feeling ; they come vividly before I see his heloved neat handwriting.'

and his depth

my mind when

3 MendelBsohn's/;ett6rs/yom/CaffandAsUzerIafid,EngliBh translation, p. 327.

See Uendelssohn's Letteri,

ii.

p.

234 (Eng.

ed.).

100
As

RIGADOON
is

EIGBY
unequal, and the music generally begins on The folthe third or fourth beat of the bar. lowing example is from the third part of Henry
'Apollo's Banquet' (sixth edition, The same tune occurs in The Dancing 1690). Master,' but in that work the bars are incorrectly divided.

a composer he can hardly be said to show his ideas are wanting ; in spontaneity, his themes are generally somewhat dry, and their treatment often rather
distinct individuality

Playford's

and laboured. In fact Rietz was an excellent musician, and a musical intellect of the first rank but not much of a poet. His great reputation rested, first, on his talent for conducting, and secondly on his rare acquirements as a musical scholar. An unfailing ear, imperturbable presence of mind, and great
diffuse

'

personal authority, made him one of the best conductors of modern times. The combination
of practical musicianship with a natural inclination for critical research and a pre-eminently

tendency of mind, made him a judge on questions of musical scholarship. After Mendelssohn and Schumann, Bietz probably did more than anybody else to purify the scores of the great masters from the numerous errors of text by which they were disfigured. He was an absolute and uncompromising adherent of the classical school, and had but little sympathy with modem music after Mendelssohn and even in the works of Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms he was over-apt to see the weak points. As to the music of the newest German School, he held it in abhorrence, and would show his aversion on every occasion. He was, however, too much of an opera-conductor not to feel a certain interest in Wagner, and in preparing his operas would take a special pride and relish in overcoming the great and peculiar difficulties contained in Wagner's scores.
intellectual
first-rate
;

m^^^^^^^^M

l^i^^gi^^

^^^^^^^^m
RIGBY, George Vernon, bom at Birmingham, Jan. 21, 1840, when about nine years old was a chorister of St. Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, where he remained for about seven years. In 1860, his voice having changed to a tenor, he decided upon becoming a singer, tried his strength at some minor concerts in Birmingham and its neighbourhood, and succeeded so well that in 1861 he removed to London, and on March 4, appeared at the Alhambra, Leicester Square (then a concert room, managed by E. T. Smith), and in August following at Mellon's Promenade Concerts at Covent Garden. In 1865 he sang in the provinces as a member of H. Corri's Opera Company, until November, when he went to Italy and studied under Sangiovanni at Milan, where, in Nov. 1866, he appeared at the Carcano Theatre as the Fisherman in Guglielmo Tell.' He next went to Berlin, and in Jan. 1867 appeared at the Victoria 'Theatre there,
'

Rietz had

appear natural with a

many personal friends, but, as will man of so pronounced a

character and opinions, also a number of bitter enemies. He died at Dresden, Sept. 12, 1877, leaving a large and valuable musical library, which was sold by auction in Dec. 1877. Besides the works already mentioned he published

a considerable number of compositions for the chamber, songs, concertos for violin and for He also wrote a various wind-instruments. p. d. great Mass. RIGADOON (French Rigadon or Bigaudon), a lively dance, which most probably came from Provence or Languedoc, although its popularity in England has caused some writers to suppose It was danced that it is of English origin. in France in the time of Louis XIII., but does not seem to have become popular in England until the end of the l7th century. According to Rousseau it derived its name from its inventor, one Rigaud, but others connect it
,

in the principal tenor Jarts in ' Don Pasquale,' 'La Sonnambula,' and 'L'ltaliana in Algieri.' He then accepted a three months' engagement in Denmark, and performed Almaviva in the

Duke in 'Rigoletto,' and other in Copenhagen and other tovims. He returned to England in Sept. 1867, and sang at various places. In 1868 he was engaged
'Barbiere,' the
parts,

at the Gloucester Festival with Sims Reeves, whose temporary indisposition afforded him

with the English 'rig,' i.e. wanton or lively. The Rigadoon was remarkable for a peculiar jumping step (which is described at length in Compan's Dietionnairede la Danse, Paris, 1802) this step survived the dance for some time. The musio of the Rigadoon is in 2-4 or Q time, and consists of three or four parts, of which
the third
is

the opportunity of singing the part of Samson Handel's oratorio, in which he acquitted himself so ably that he was immediately engaged by the Sacred Harmonic Society, where he appeared, Nov. 27, 1868, with signal success,
in

and immediately established


festivals.

himself as an oratorio singer, appearing at all the principal


In 1869 he appeared on the stage of the Princess's Theatre as Acis in Handel's Acis
'

quite short.

The number

of bars

' '

RIGHINI
and
Galatea.'

EIMBAULT
iine quality, full

101

His voice was of

compass, and considerable power, and he sang with earnestness and care. Since an appearance at Brigliton in 1887 in 'Eli,' he has virtually retired. w. h. h. RIGHINI, ViNCBNZO, awell-known conductor of the Italian opera in Berlin, born at Bologna, Jan. 22, 1756. As a boy he was a chorister at San Petronio, and had a fine voice, but owing to injury it developed into a tenor of so rough and muffled a tone, that he turned his attention to theory, which he studied with Padre Martini. In 1776 he sang for a short time in the Opera buffa at Prague, then under Bustelli's direction, but was not well received. He made a success there, however, with three operas of his composition, La Vedova scaltra,' La Bottega del Gaffe,' and 'Don Giovanni,' also performed in Vienna (August 1777), whither Eighini went on leaving Prague in 1780. There he became singing-msister to Princess Elisabeth of Wiirtemberg, and conductor of the Italian opera. He next entered the service of the Elector of Mainz, (1788-92) and composed for the Elector of Treves Alcide al Bivio' (Coblenz) and a missa solemnis In April 1793 (owing to the success (1790). Enea nel Lazio ) he was invited to of his succeed Alessandri at the Italian Opera of Berlin, with a salary of 3000 thalers (about 450). Here he produced 'II Trionfo d'Arianna' (1793), 'Armida'(1799), 'Tigrane'(1800), Gerusalemme liberata,' and 'La Selva incantata' (1802). The last two were published after his death with
' '

'

'

'

'

German

text (Leipzig, Herklotz).

In 1793 Righini married Henriette Kneisel (born at Stettin in 1767, died of consumption at Berlin, Jan. 25, 1801), a charming blonde, and according to Gerber, a singer of great After the death of Friedrich expression. Wilhelm II. (1797) his post became almost a sinecure, and in 1'806 the opera was entirely discontinued. Righini was much beloved. Gerber speaks in high terms of his modesty and courtesy, and adds, It is a real enjoyment to hear him sing his own pieces in his soft veiled As a comvoice to his own accompaniment.' poser he was not of the first rank, and of course His best point was wjis eclipsed by Mozart.
'

Besides twenty operas, of which a list is given F^tis (thirteen are mentioned in the QiiellenLexikon as still extant), Righini composed church music a Te Deum and a Missa Solennis were published several cantatas, and innumerable Scenas, Lieder, and songs ; also a short ballet, 'Minerva belebt die Statuen des Dadalus (1802), and some instrumental pieces, including a serenade for two clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons (1799, Breitkopf & Hartel). One of his operas, II Convitato di pietra, ossia il dissoluto,' will always be interesting as a forerunner of Mozart's 'Don Giovanni.' It was produced at Vienna, August 21, 1777 (ten years before Mozart's), and is described by Jahn (^Mozart, ii. 333). His best orchestral work is his overture to 'Tigrane,' which was often played in Germany and England. Breitkopf & Hartel's Catalogue shows a tolerably long list of his songs, and his exercises for the voice (1804) are amongst the best that exist. English amateurs will find a duet of his, ' Come opprima, from Enea nel Lazio, 'in the 'Musical Library,' vol. i. p. 8, and two airs in Lonsdale's Gemme d'Antichitk.' He was one of the sixty -three composers who set the words ' In questa tomba oscura,' and his setting was published in 1878 by Ritter of Magdeburg. r. g. RIGOLETTO. An opera in three acts; libretto by Piave (founded on V. Hugo's Le Roi s amuse), music by Verdi. Produced at the Teatio Fenice, Venice, March 11, 1851, and given in Italian at Covent Garden, May 14, 1853, and at the Italiens, Paris, Jan. 19, 1857. , G. RILLE, FRANgois Anatole Laukent de, the composer of an enormous number of partsongs and other small choral works, born at Orleans in 1828. He was at first intended to be a painter, but altered his purpose and studied

by

'

'

'

which the quartet in He was a a good example. successful teacher of singing, and counted disAfter the tinguished artists among his pupils. loss of a promising son in 1810, his health gave way, and in 1812 he was ordered to try the When bideffects of his native air at Bologna. ding good-bye to his colleague, Anselm Weber, It is my belief that I shall never he said, return if it should be so, sing a Requiem and touching words, too soon a Miserere for me fulfilled by his death at Bologna, August 19, His own Requiem (score in the Berlin 1812. Library) was performed by the Singakademie in his honour.
his feeling for ensemble, of
'

music under an Italian named Comoghio, and subsequently under Elwart. His compositions, of which a list of the most important is given in the supplement to Fetis, have enjoyed a lasting popularity with orph^oniste societies, and although they contain few if any characteristics which would recommend them to the attention of earnest musicians, they have that kind of vigorous effectiveness which is exactly suited to
' '

Gerusalemme

'

is

their purpose.

large

number

of operettas of

very slight construction have from time to time been produced in Paris, and the composer has

made

'

'

various more or less successful essays in the department of church music. M. RIMBAULT, Edward Fkancis, LL.D., son of Stephen Francis Rimbault, organist of St. Giles in the Fields, was born in Soho, June 13, 1816. He received his first instruction in music from his father, but afterwards became a pupil At sixteen years old he was of Samuel Wesley. appointed organist of the Swiss Church, Soho. He early directed his attention to the study of musical history and literature, and in 1838

102

EIMSKY-KOESAKOV

EIMSKY-KOESAKOV
VIOH, was born March 18 (O.S. March 6), 1844, in the little town of Tikhvin, in the Government of Novgorod. The child's earliest musical impressions were derived from a small band, consisting of four Jews employed upon the

delivered a series of lectures on the history of

music in England.

In 1840 he took an active part in the formation of the Musical Antiquarian and Percy Societies, of both wliich he became
secretary,

and

for

both which he edited several

works. In 1841 he was editor of the musical publications of the Motet Society. In the course of the next few years he edited a collection of Cathedral Chants ; The Order of Daily Service according to the use of Westminster Abbey ; a reprint of Lowe's Short Direction for

These musicians mustered two family estate. violins, cymbals, and a tambourine, and were often summoned to the house to enliven the evenings when there was company or dancing. At six years old the boy began to be taught
the piano, and at nine he made his first attempts at composition. His talent for niusic was evident to his parents, but being of aristocratic family he was destined for one of the only two professions then considered suitable

performance of GathedraX Service Tallis's Responses Marbeok's Book of Common Prayer, noted ; a volume of unpublished Cathedral Services Arnold's Cathedral Music and the oratorios of 'Messiah,' 'Samson,' and 'Saul,' for the Handel Society. In 1842 he was elected a F.S.A. and member of the Academy of Music in Stockholm, and obtained the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. He was offered, but declined, the appointment of Professor of Music in Harvard University, U.S.A. In 1848 he received the honorary degree of LL.D., from the university of Oxford. He lectured on music at the
the
; ; ; ;

In 1856 young man of good birth. Eimsky-Korsakov entered the Naval College in St. Petersburg, where he remained until 1862. This period of his life was not very
for a

favourable to his musical development, but he

managed on Sundays and holidays to receive some instruction in the violoncello from Ulich, and in the pianoforte from an excellent teacher,
His acquaintance with Bala1861, was the decisive moment in his career. Intercourse with the young but capable leader of the new Russian school of music, and with his disciples, Cui, Moussorgsky, and Borodin, awoke in the young naval cadet an ambition to study the art to more serious purpose. He had only just begun to profit by Balakirev's teaching when he was sent abroad but, undaunted by the interruption, during this cruise, which lasted three years (1862-65), he completed a symphony, op. 1. From the letters which he wrote at this time to C^sar Cui it is evident that he composed under great difficulties, but the work was completed in spite of them, and, movement by movement, the manuscript was sent to
kirev,

Liverpool ; the Philosophic Institute, Edinburgh ; the Eoyal Institution of Great Britain, and elsewhere. He published The Organ, its History and Oomslrueticm (1855) (in collaboration with Mr. E. J. Hopkins), Notices of the Early English Organ Builders
Institution,

Collegiate

Fedor Kanill^. dating

frofli

(1865), Histmy of the PianofarU (1860), Bihliotheea Maglrigaiiana^Xiil), Musicallllustraiions of Percy's Meliques, The Ancient Vocal Music of

England, The Bounds,

.Catches,

and Canons of
Kev.
J.

England
Metcalfe),

(in

conjunction

with

P.

two

collections of Christmas Carols.

Book of Songs and Ballads,' etc etc. edited North's Memoirs of Musick (1846), Sir Thomas Overbury's Works (1856), the Old
Little

'A

He

Cheque Book of the Chapel Boyal (1872), and two Sermons by Boy Bishops. He arranged many operas and other works, was author of many elementary books, and an extensive His comcontributor to periodical literature. positions were but few, the principal being an
operetta,
'

was performed

The Fair Maid

of Islington

'

(1838),

music to 'The Castle Spectre' (1839), and a posthumous cantata, 'Country Life.' His pretty Happy Land,' had an extensive little song,
'

Balakirev for advice and correction. The work for the first time in December 1865, when Balakirev conducted it at one of the concerts of the Free School of Music, St. Petersburg. It weis the first symphony from the pen of a native composer, and the public, who gave it a hearty reception, were surprised when a youth in naval uniform appeared to

popularity. After his resignation of the organistship of the Swiss Church, he was successively

organist of several churches and chapels, such He died, after a as St. Peter's, Vere Street. lingering illness, Sept. 26, 1876 (buried at Highgate Cemetery), leaving a fine musical library, which was sold by auction at Sotheby's on July 3, 1877, and following days. See an

account of the library in the Musical World, An obituary notice appeared in 1877, p. 539. the Musical Times, 1877, p. 427, and other papers. The most complete list of his works w. h. h. is in Brit. Mus. Biog.

acknowledge their ovation. Rimsky-Korsakov now remained in St. Petersburg, and was able to renew his musical studies and his close association with the circle of Balakirev. The compositions which followed the First Symphony the symphonic poem 'Sadko' (1867), and the opera Pskovitianka ('The Maid of Pskov ') called the attention of all musical Russia to this promising composer. In 1871 he was appointed professor of com-

'

'

position

and instrumentation in the

St. Peters-

burg Conservatoire. He retired from the navy, which can never have been a congenial profession, in 1873, and at the wish of the Grand

EIMSKY-KOESAKOV, Nicholas Andreie-

Duke Constantine Nicholaevich was appointed

NICHOLAS AXDREIE\"ICH EIM.SKY-KORSAKOV

'

'

EIMSKY-KORSAKOV
inspector of naval bands, a post which he held From 1883 to until it was abolished in 1884. 1884 he was assistant director to the Court Chapel under Balakirev. Succeeding to Balakirev, he became director and conductor of the Free School Concerts from 1874 to 1881, and conducted the Russian Symphony Concerts, inaugurated in St. Petersburg by Belaiey, from 1886 to 1900. His gifts in tliis respect, although ignored in England, have been highly appreciated in Paris and Brussels. RimskyKorsakoy's career has remained closely associated with St. Petersburg, which was the scene of his earliest successes, and on more than one occasion he has declined the directorship of the Moscow Conservatoire. His pupils number some distinguished names : Liadov, IppolitovIvanov, Sacchetti, Grechianinov, and Glazounov have all studied under him for longer or shorter
attention.

RIMSKY-KOESAKOV
A
than musical truth
realistic

103

lover of musical beauty rather or, to put it more justly, believing truth to lie in idealistic rather than

In 1873 Rimsky-Korsakov married Nadejda Nicholaevna Pourgold, a gifted pianist,


periods.

who proved

a helpmeet in the truest sense of This lady and her sister, A. P. the word. Molas, have played important parts in the the history of the modem Russian school former by her clever pianoforte arrangements of many of the great orchestral works, while the latter, gifted with a fine voice and dramatic instinct, created most of the leading female rSles in the operatic works of Cui, Moussorgsky, and Borodin, before they obtained a hearing at the Imperial Opera. Rimsky-Korsakov had already composed his
; '

methods of creation, he was never deeply influenced by the declamatory and natu-, ralistic style of Dargomijsky and Moussorgsky. Like Tchaikovsky, he has divided his career between operatic and symphonic music, but with a steadily Increasing tendency towards the former. After his first symphony, written on more or less conventional lines, ie showed a disti nct prrference fQi^_th e freer forms of programme music, as shown injthe symphonic poem 'Sadko,' the Oriental Suite 'Antar,' and the Symphonic Suite Scheherezade. In the Sinfonietta upon Russian themes, and the Third Symphony in C major, he returns to more traditional treatment. Of all his orchestral works the Spanish Capriceio seems to have met with the greatest appreciation in England. Almost without exception Rimsky-Korsakov's symphonic works are distinguished by a poetic and tactful expression of national sentiment. His art is rooted in the Russian soil, and the national element pervades it like a subtle but unmistakable aroma. We may be repelled or fascinated by it, according to individual taste, but we are forced to recognise that this is not mere local colour laid on by a coarse brush
'
'

to give factitious and sensational interest to music which would be otherwise commonplace in character, but an essential product of the

symphonic works 'Sadko' and 'Antar,' and Pskovitianka,' and had been aphis opera
pointed professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatoire,

as to the solidity Admirably as of his early musical education. the system of self-education had worked in his

awoke

in

when his ideal him some doubts


'

conscientiousness

national spirit. His music invariably carries the charm of expressive orchestration. Taking it up where Glinka left it in his ' Jota Aragonese ' and incidental music to Prince Kholmsky,' Rimsky'

he still felt it a duty to undergo a severe course of theoretical study in order to have at his disposal that supreme mastery of technical means in which all the great classical masters Accordingly he began to work at excelled. fugue and counterpoint, thereby calling forth from Tchaikovsky, in 1875, this tribute of adcase,

miration
I

my respect
am
an
artist

do not know how to express all your artistic temperament. a mere artisan in music, but you will be
:
'

for

Most of Rimsky-Korsakov's

in the fullest sense of the word.' early works have

been revised since this period of artistic disIn the earlier phases of his career he cipline. was obviously influenced by Glinka and Liszt, and in a lesser degree by Schumann and Berlioz. The imitative period was, however, of short duration, and perhaps no contemporary composer can boast a more individual and distinctive utterance than Rimsky-Korsakov. But its distinctiveness lies in extreme refinement and restraint rather than in violent and sensational expression. He wins but does not force our

developed this characteiistio quality of Russian musicians beyond any of his contemporaries, without, however, overstepping the bounds of what sane minds must still reHe is at his best in gard as legitimate efliect. descriptive orchestration in the suggestion of landscape and atmospheric conditions. But his clear objective outlook leads him to a luminous and definite tone-painting quite different from the subtle and dreamy impressionism The musical pictures of Rimskyof Debussy. Korsakov are mostly riant and sunny,; sometimes breezy and boisterous, as in the sea-musio often full of of Sadko and Scheherezade a quaint pastoral grace, as in the springtide music in his opera 'The Snow Maiden.' His harmony has freshness and individuality. He makes considerable use of the old Chuich modes

Korsakov has

'

'

'

'

and Oriental

scales.

All Rimsky-Korsakov's operM, except 'Mozart and Salieri,' are based upon national subjects, historical or legendary. Tales from the Slavonic mythology, which combine poetical allegory with fantastichumour, exercise the greatest attraction for him. In his first opera, 'The Maid of Pskov, he evidently started under the partial influence

'

104.

EIMSKY-KOESAKOV
'
'

RIMSKY-KOESAKOV
other hand, some Russian critics have accused him of opening the door to Wagnerism in^ This is only true in so far as national opera. he has grafted upon the older lyrical forms the use of some modern methods, notably the As occasional employment of the leitmotif. regards instrumentation he has a remarkable faculty for the invention of new and brilliant effects, and is a master in the skilful use of gnomatoposia. Given a temperament, musically" endowed, which sees its subject with the direct and observant vision of the painter, instead of dreaming it through a mist of subjective exaltation, we get a type of mind that naturally

of Dargomijsky's The Stone Guest, for the solo parts consist chiefly of mezzo - recitative, the

dryness of which

compensated by the orchesemployed in the accompaniments. In the two operas which followed, A Night in May' and 'The Snow Maiden," the
is

tral colour freely

'

dramatic realism of his first work for the stage gives place to lyrical inspiration and the free
flight of fancy.

With Mozart and


'

Salieri

'

a settipg of Poushkin's dramatic duologue

and 'The Boyarina Vera Sheloga' RimskyKorsakov shows a return to the declamatory style, while 'Sadko,' which appeared in 1896, is a skilful compromise between lyrical and dramatic forms, and may be accepted as the mature expression of his artistic creed. Of all his operatic works, The Snow Maiden,' founded upon Ostrovsky's poetical legend of the springtide, has perhaps the most characteristic charm, and seems best calculated to win popular favour
'

outside Russia. Sadko,' the thematic material for which is partly drawn from the symphonic poem of the same name, is more epic in character and full of musical interest. It must be surmised that it is only the peculiarly national character of the libretto which has hindered this remarkable work from becoming more
'

widely known. Time, which must inevitably bridge over this intellectual gulf which separates eastern and western Europe, will probably bring these two masterpieces of Russian art to Paris,

and

J)erhaps farther afield.

Most of Rimsky-

Korsakov's operas combine with this strong national element that also of the neighbouring
East.

As a song-writer he takes a high place in a school which has shown itself pre-eminent in He has composed about this branch of art. eighty songs, remarkable for an all-round level of excellence, for few are really poor in quality, while the entire collection comprises such lyrical gems
as 'Night,' the

Hebrew song ('Awake,


'),
'

long since the dawn appeared


night,' 'Spring,'

Southern

and 'Come to the kingdom of In his songs, as in his operas, roses and wine.' he inclines more to the lyrical grace of Glinka than to the declamatory force of Dargomijsky. His melodies are not lacking in distinction and
charm, especially when they approach in style to the melodies of the folk-songs ; but in this respect he is somewhat lacking in impassioned

The richinspiration and copious invention. ness and picturesqueness of his accompaniments

make the

characteristic interest of his songs.

study of the works of Rimsky-Korsakov reveals a distinguished musical persona thinker, a fastidious and exquisite ality craftsman, an artist of that refined and discriminating type who is chiefly concerned in
close
;

tends to a programme which is clearly defined.^ Rimsky-Korsakov belongs to this class. Wei feel in all his music the desire to depict, which ^ so often inclines us to the language of the studio in attempting to express the quality of his work. His music is entirely free from that tendency to melancholy unjustly supposed to The be the characteristic of all Russian art. the source from folk-songs of Great Russia which the national composers have drawn their inspiration are pretty evenly divided between the light and shade of life ; it is the former aspect which makes the strongest appeal to the vigorous, optimistic, but highly poetical temperament of this musician. Many gifted members of the New Russian School were prevented by illness, by the enforced choice of a second vocation, and by the imperfect conditions of artistic life fifty 'or sixty years ago, from acquiring a complete musical education. Rimsky-Korsakov, out of the fulness of his own technical equipment, has ever been ready to sacrifice time and labour in the interest of his fellow-workers. Thus, he orchestrated ' The Stone Guest ' which Dargomijsky endeavoured to finish on his death -bed ; part of Borodin's 'Prince Igor' and Moussorgsky's operas ' Khovantshina ' and ' Boris Godounov. In 1889, during the Paris Exhibition, he conducted two concerts devoted to Russian music given in the Salle Trocadero. In 1890 and again in 1900 he conducted concerts of Russian music in the Th^toe de la Monnaie, Brussels. In March 1905, in consequence of a letter published in the Suss, in which he advocated the autonomy of the St. Petersburg Conservatoire, hitherto under the management of the Imperial Russian Musical Society, and complained of the too stringent police supervision to which the students were subjected, RimskyKorsakov was dismissed from his professorship. This high-handed action on the part of the

authorities
colleagues,
feld

was deeply resented by all his and Glazounov,Liadov, and Blumen-

conscience rather than the tastes of the general public. Outside Russia he has been censured for his
satisfying the

demands

of his

own

exclusive devotion to national ideals.

On

the

immediately resigned their posts by way By the autumn of the same year the Conservatoire had actually wrested some powers of self-government from the Musical Society, and having elected Glazounov as
of protest.


RINALDO
director, the

; ; ;

RINALDO DI CAPUA
105

re-instating

new committee lost no time in Rimsky-Korsakov in the professorship of composition and instrumentation which he had honourably filled since 1871. The following is a list of Eimsky-Korsakov's numerous compositions
:

ORCHESTRAIi

18&4; Sinfouietta on Russian themes, A minor, op. 31. Overture on Kussian themes, op. 28 ; Easter,' overture, op. 36, 1888 Sadico,
' ' ; ; '

Symphony No. 1, Eb minor, op. 1, afterwarda tmnsposed into minor; Symphony No, 2, 'Autar,' op. 9, afterwai-da entitled 'Oriental Suite'; Symphony No. 3, C minor, op. 32, 1873, revised

music&l picture, op. 5, 18ff7, revised 1891 Serbian Fantasia, op. 6 * A Tale,' op. 29, subject fium the Prologue of Fouahkin s Russian ; Capriccio on Spanish themes, op. 34^ 1887 ; Sym. phonic Suite 'Scheherezade' (from the Arabian Ifighta),OT^S5,lS68i Suites from the operas The Snow Maiden and TTsar Saltana,' and the opera-ballet 'Mlada,' op. 57; prelude 'At the Grave,' op. 61; Suite fivm the opera 'Christmas ve' (chorus ad lib.),

and Lioudmilla

'

'

'

Cbaubeb Mvbic
major, op. 12 ; string sextet, major (MS.) first movement of the string quartet on the theme B-la-f, allegro (Belaiev) ; third movement of the quartet for a Fte Day Serenade for of the string quartet in the coUection Fridays String quartet,
'
'

A
'

'

violoncello

and pianoforte,

op. 37.

Orchestra and Solo iNStRDBiENis Kanoforte concerto, Cj^ minor, op. 30 Fantasia on Russian themes for violin and orchestra.
;

PlASOFORTB
Six variations on the theme B-a-c-h, op. 10 four pieces, op. 11 i three pieces, op. 15 six fugues, op. 17 ; eight variations on a folktime (no op. number); five variations for the 'Paraphrases' (see
; ;

terrupted run of fifteen nights at that time unusually long. The march, and the air II tricerbero, were long popular as Let us take the road' ('Beggar's Opera'), and 'Let the waiter ' Lascia bring clean glasses. ch'io pianga made out of a saraband in Handel's earlier opera Almiia (1704) is still a favourite with singers and hearers. [John Walsh published the songs in folio with the title Arie del' opera di Rinaldo composta dal Signor Hendel, Maestro di Capella di sua Altezza Elettorale d'Hannover. London, printed for J. Walsh, Servant in ordinary to her Britannick Majesty.' It is said that Walsh made 1500 by the publication, and that the composer addressed to him a satirical letter ' My dear Sir, as it is only right that we should be on an ei^ual footing, you shall compose the next opera, and I will sell it.' F. K,] G. ^ii.) Cantata for male voices, set to Goethe's First words, by Johannes Brahms (op. 50). performed by the Akademisehes Gesangverein, Vienna, Feb. 28, 1869.
' ' ' ' ' ' '

'

RINALDO DI CAPUA,

an

Italian composer

BoRoniN). Chorai, with Orchsstka Folk-song, op. 20 Slava,' op. 21 ; cantata for soprano, teoor, and mixed chorus, op. 44 ; The Fir and the Palm (from op. 3) for baritone two ariosos for hass, Anchar (The Upae Tree) and The Prophet,' op. 49 trio for female voices, op. 63 ; The Legend of St. Olga,' cantate for soli and chorus, op. 58; 'Fragment from Homer,' cantata for three female voices and chorus, op. fjO.
; ' '
'

of the 18th century, of whose life very little is known. Burney made his acquaintance in Rome in 1770, and since he describes him as
to have been born about 1700-10. F6tis gives 1715 as the year of his birth, and Rudh^rdt 1706, but

'

'

'

an old man we may suppose him

'

Chorus Only

Two trios for female voices, op. 13 ; four variations and a fughetta for female quartet, op. 14; six choruses a cappella, op. 16; two mixed choruses, op. 18 ; fifteen Russian folk-songs, op. 19 ; four trios for male voices, op. 23. Songs, tc.
Four songs, op. 2 ; four songs, op. 3 ; four songs, op. 4; four songs, op. 7 ; six songs, op. 8 ; two songs, op. 25 ; four songs, op. 26 ; four songs, op. 27; four songs, op. 39; foiu: songs, op. 40; four songs, op. 41 ; four songs, op. 42 ; four songs, op. 43 ; four songs, op. 45 five songs, op. 46 ; two duets, op. 47 ; four duets, op. 50; five duets, op. 51 ; two duets, op. 52 ; four duets for tenor, op. 55 ; two duets, op. 56.

neither wi'iter states his authority for the date. According to Burney he was ' the natural son of a person of very high rank in that country [i.e. the kingdom of Naples], and at first studied music only as an accomplishment ; but being left by his father with only a small fortune, which was soon dissipated, he was forced to

make

it

his profession.'

It has

been assumed

The liturgy of St. six transpositions, including the psalm ' By praise Thee, O God ' (MS. 1883). op. 22 o ;

Sacred Works John Chrysostom (a portion

only), op. 22 the waters of Babylon,'

We

Operas
(' Pskovitianka '), libretto from a drama by performed St. Petersburg, 1873, revised in 1894) 'A Night in May," text from Gogol (1878, St. Petersburg, 1880) from Ostrovosky (1880-81, St. Petersburg, Maiden,' text The Snow 1882); 'Mlada,'fairy opera-ballet (St. Petersburg, 1893) ; 'Christmas Eve,' legendary opera, text from Gogol, 1874 (Maryinsky Theatre, St.
'

The Maid

of Pskov '
;

Mey

(1870-72

Petersburg, 1895); 'Sadko,' epic-opera, 1895-96 (Private Opera, ; Moscow, 1S&7 ; St. Petersburg, 1901) ' Mozart and Salieri,' dramatic ' scenes, op. 48, 1898 (Private Opera, Moscow, 1898) ; Boyarina Vera Sheloga,' musical dramatic prologue to ' The Maid of Pskov,' op. 54 (Private Opera, Moscow. 1899 ; St. Petersburg, 1902) ; ' The Tsar's
Bride,' 1898 (Private Opera, Moscow, 1899 St. Peteraburg, Maryinsky Theatre, 1902); "The Tale of Tsar Saltana, etc,' 1899-1900 (Private Opera, Moscow, 1900): 'Servilia' (Maryinsky Theatre, St. PeteraKostchei the Immortal,' an autumn legend (Private burg, 1902) Pan Voyevoda,' ' The Tale of the Invisible Opera, Moscow, 1902) City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia.'
; ; ' ; '

One hundred Russian


folk-sougs (1882)
;

forty Russian folk-songs, op. 24 (1877) Practical Guide to the Study of Harmony (1888).
;

R. N.

Handel's first opera in England composed in a fortnight, and produced at the King's Theati-e in the Haymarket, Feb. The libretto was founded on the 24, 1711. episode of Rinaldo and Armida in Tasso's Gervsalemme liberata (the same on which Gluck based his Armida '). Rossi wrote it in Italian, and it was translated into English by Aaron HUl. The opera was mounted with extraordinary magnificence, and had an unin-

RINALDO.
;

(1.)

'

that he was born at Capua, and took his name from that place ; but it may be noted that whether Rinaldo had a legitimate claim to it or not, Di Capua was a fairly common surname in the neighbourhood of Naples at that time. He composed his first opera at the age of seventeen, at Vienna, according to Burney ; Spitta showed that no opera by Rinaldo was ever produced at Vienna, but thought it probable that he had some connection with that city, Giro Riconosciuto,' which since Metastasio's formed the libretto of an opera by Rinaldo produced at Rome in 1737, was set to music for the first time by Caldara for performance at Vienna A further connection on August 28, 1736. with the imperial court is shown by the fact that he composed a special work to celebrate It seems, the election of Francis I. in 1745. therefore, not unreasonable to take Burney's words literally, and to understand that the opera 'Giro Riconosciuto,' though performed If this in Rome, was composed in Vienna. was his first opera, it would settle 1720 as the Spitta was, however, year of Rinaldo's birth. not aware of the existence of a few airs from a comic opera, the title of which has not been
'

'

: : : :

106
preaerved,

RINALDO DI CAPUA
produced at the Teatro Valle in
capable
operas.

EINCK
of

producing most attractive

light

of 1737. Of the subsequent history of Einaldo's life nothing ia known. ia the

Eome

autumn

Burney informs ua that 'in the course of a long life he has experienced various vioissitudea
aometimea in vogue, sometimea neglected,' Moat of his operas were given at Rome, a, few being produced at Florence and Venice ; although described in some libretti as a Neapolitan, no opera of his ia known to have been performed in Naples. The Bouffons Italiens performed an intermezzo of his, La Zingara' (La Boh^mienne), at Paris in 1753, in a version which included songs by other composers ; among these was the well-known Tre giorni son che Nina,' generally ascribed to Pergolesi, and on this account attributed to Riualdo by Spitta. The song has, however, been recently proved to be by another compo^r [Tee giorni son che Nina]. When Burney knew him he was in somewhat impoverished
;
' '

' his 'Vologeao' seem to have been his

To judge from the few fragments of work that remain, Giro Eiconosciuto and
'

most important

dramatic works.

of fortune

CATALOGUE OP EXTANT WOEKS OF BINAUJO DI CAPDA


Ofebab 17S7). Fragments Palermo B.C.H. . Borne, ,oni 1788). Giro KioonoBoluto (Eome, T. Toldlnona, 1737; leylyed Fragments: formerly In possession of Spitta; Brit. Mm.;

A oomio opera, mme unknown (Borne, T. VaUe,

IJbretto; In Oommedla (Eome, T. Valle, 1738). Brussels Conservatoire. Fragments; Palermo E.C.M. Eevived Marc. at Venice (T. San Cassiano. 1749). Libretto Venice, Bibl. The opera was also performed in London Walsh printed five aus as The favourite Songs in the Opera call'd La Comedia in Comedla. probably a Einaldo's name is not mentioned, and the work was pasticcio one song, however, Non so la prole mia,' is in the Palermo collection, which bears Einaldo's name. ^ .._ ^^ Famace (Venice, T. S. Giovanni Grisostomo, 1739). Libretto:

Ia

Commedk

Venice, Bibl, Marc. Vologeso Be de' Parti (Eome, T. Argentina,


Lie. Mus. Fitz. Mus.
:

1739).

Libretto Bologna,
: ;

Fragments Brit. Mus. ; Brussels Cons. Cambridge, ; Dresden ; Mttnster ; New York, in possession of H. . Krehbiel, Esq. La Liberti Nociva (Eome, T. Valle, 1740). Libretto; Bologna, Brussehi Cons. Fragments Brit. Mus. ; Cambridge, Fitz. Mus. Eevlved in Florence (T. Cocomero, 1742), Bologna (T. FotmagLibretti: Bologna. Also at Venice (T. San liari, 174S).
:

circumstances, owing to the indifference of the public which had once applauded him. He

had

collected hia

works with a view to making

proviaio'n for hia old age, but at the

moment

when they were

son had of his death is not known. Burney mentions an intermezzo composed for the Capranica theatre in 1770 (' I finti pazzi '), when he was already an old man. Another opera, 'La
,

required, diaoovered that his sold them for waste paper. The date

donna vendicativa' (ascribed by Clement and Larousse to 1740, though on no apparent authority), was performed in Eome in 1771, and this was probably hia last work. After La Giocondina this date we know only of (Eome, 1778), which was probably a revival of Burney, with characteristic an earlier work. kindliness, recommended him as a teacher to "William Parsons, who had studied at a
'

Neapolitan conservatorio, where according to Parsons his own account he learnt nothing. became Master of the King's Miisiok in 1786, to the great disappointment of Burney, to whom the post had been promised. Another pupil of Einaldo's was Antonio Aurisicehio. Einaldo was supposed to have been the inventor of accompanied recitative ; Burney pointed out that this invention belonged to Einaldo himself only Alessandro Scarlatti. claimed 'to have been among the first who introduced long ritoniellos or symphonies into the recitatives of strong paasion and distress, which express or imitate what it would be An ridiculous for the voice to attempt.' example fi-om Vologeso is in the Fitzwilliam Museum. His musical education having been that of an amateur, his technique of composibut apart from tion was sometimes defective this slight weakness of harmony, he was one of the beat compoaers of his period for dramatic power and melodic beauty. He was especially succeaaful in brilliant coloratura, but was also
' '

Libretto Bologna, Venice. Tumo Herdouio Arioiuo (Eome, T. Capranica, 1743). Libretto Bologna, Brussels Cons. Le Nozze di Don Trifone (Eome, T. Argentina, 1743). Libretto Bologna. Libretto: L' Ambizione delusa (Venice, T. S. Cassiano, 1744). Bologna, Venice. Eevived at MUan (T. Ducale, 1745). Libretto Bologna. La Forza del Sangue (intermezzo), (Florence, T. Pallacorda. 1746). Libretto Brussels Cons. bravo & 11 beUo (intermezzo). (Eome, T. Granarl, 1748). Libretto Bruesels Cons. Mario In Numidia (Eome. T. Dame,' 1749). Libretto Bologna. Fragments Brit. Mus., Dresden, Munich, Bravo Burlato (intermezzo), (Florence, T. Pallacorda, 1749). Libretto Brussels Cons. comic opera (EomeV 1750). Fragments: Dresden, A Bipiego in Amore (Eome, T. Valle, 17B1). Libretto Bologna, n Cavalier Mignatta') (intermezzi), (Eome, T. Capranica, 1751). II Galloppino / Libretto Brussels Cons. La Donna superba (intermezzo), (Paris, Op^ra, 1752). Libretto Brussels Cons. Fi-agments (with French woi^) BrusselB Cons. La Forza della Pace (Borne, T. Pace, 1752). Libretto Bologna. La Zingara (intermezzo). (Paris, Op^ra, 1753). Libretto Brussels Cons. Score, printed in Paris, BnisselsCone. Eevived at Pesaro. 1755. as II Vecchio Amante e la Zingara.' Libretto Bologna. La Serva Sposa (Eome, T. Valle. 1753). Libretto : Bologna. La Chiavariua (Eome, T. Valle, 1754). Libretto Bologna. Attalo (Eome. T. Capranica, 1764). Libretto: Brussela Cons. Binaldo di Capua appears here under the pseudonym of Cleofante Doriano. Adriano in Siria (Eome, Argentina, 1758). Libretto: Brussels Cons. Fragments Brit. Mus. La Smorflosa (Florence, T. Cocomero, 1758). Libretto Bologna. Le Donne Bidicole (intermezzo), (Eome, T. Capranica. 1759). Libretto Brussels Cons. CafB di Campagna (faraetta), (Eome, T. Pace, 1764). Libretto; Bologna, Brussels Cons. I Finti Pazzi per Amore (farsetta), (Eome, T. Pace, 1770). Libretto Bologna, Brussels Cons. La Donna Vendicativa (farsetta), (Rome, T. Pace, 1771). Libretto Bologna. Score; Brit. Mus. La Giocondina (farsetta), (Bome, T. Pace, 1778). Libretto Brussels Cons. [La Statua per Funtiglio, ascribed to E. di Capua by Eitner, is by Marcello di Capua.]
Cassiano, 1744).
: :

n n n

'

Sacred Musio Cantata per la Nativity della Beata Vergine (Eome, CoUegio Nazareno, 1747). Score MUnster. Paris, Bibl. Nat. f (Eitner). A few other works ai-e mentioned by Eitner; symphonies probably opera oyertures, and cantatas (Venice) ascribed to Cavallere Einaldi, who may have been a different composer. Airs from operas as yet unidentified are at Cambridge. Fitz. Mus
:

MUiister,

aire in his possession ; the MS. from which they are taken formerly belonged to Thomas Gray, the poet, and is described in Mr. Krehbiel s ATuiia and Afannera in tha Clawical Period.
:

and Montecassino. The writer is indebted to Mr. H. E. Krehbiel for notice of the

authorities consulted Bnmey's PreteM State tif ifuHc in Frame fcy Spitta in the VierteWaln-aicTtrift fiir '"'^' ',!? 'Sr'LS* jtfujiJaeiM., vol. ill. f^^" IW), and A. Wotquenne'a Catalame if the library of the Bruesels Conservatoire, vol. i. (1898). The two latter worke give fuUer bibliographical detoUs than we have space for

Other

E. J. D.

EINCK, or RINK, Johann Christian HeinRICH, celebrated organist and composer for his instrument, was born at Elgersburg in Saxe-Gotha, Feb. 18, 1770, and died at Darmstadt,Augnat7, His talent developed itself at an early 1846.


RINFOEZANDO
period, and, like Johann Schneideh, he had the advantage of a direct traditional reading of the works of Sebastian Bach, having studied at Erfurt (in 1786-89) under Kittel, one of the great composer's best pupils. Kinck having sat at the feet of Forkel at the University of Gbttingen, obtained in 1790 the organistship of Giessen, where he held several other musical appointments. In 1805 he became organist at Darmstadt, and professor at its college in 1813 was appointed Court organist, and in 1817 chamber musician to the Grand Duke
' ' ; '
'

EIOTTE

107

a trilogy with a preludial drama), words and music by Richard Wagner, was first performed
in its entirety at Bayreuth,

August

13, 14, 16,

(Ludwig I.). Rinek made several artistic tours in Germany, his playing always eliciting much admiration. At Treves, in 1827, he was greeted with special honour. He received various decorations, in 1831 membership of the Dutch Society for Encouragement of Music ; in 1838 the cross of the first class from his Grand Duke ; in 1840 Doctor of Philosophy and Arts from the University of Giessen. Out of his 125 works

'

'

a few are for chamber, including sonatas for PF.,

and PF. duets. But on his organ music, or rather on his Practical Organ School, 'a standard work. Ginck's compositions for his instrument show no trace of such sublime infiuence as might have been looked for from a pupil, in the second generation, of Bach indeed, throughout them
violin,

and

violoncello,

his reputation is based


'

conspicuous by its absence. But iv'ithout attaining the high standard which has been reached by living composers for the instrument in Germany, his organ-pieces contain much that is interesting to an organ student. Einck's name will always live as that of an executant, and of a safe guide towards the formation of a sound and practical organ -playdr ; and his works comprise many artistic studies. Amongst these the more important are the

fugue - writing

is

Organ School,' in six divisions (op. re-edited by Otto Dienel, 1881), and numerous ' Preludes for Chorales,'* issued at He also composed for the various periods. church a ' Pater Noster ' for four voices with organ (op. 59) motets, ' Praise the Lord ' (op. 88) and 'God be merciful' (op. 109) ; twelve
'Practical
55,
;

H. s. o. chorales for men's voices, etc. EINFORZANDO, ' reinforcing or increasing This word, or its abbreviations, in power.
'

1876, and repeated during the two following weeks. The book, which is written in an alliterative style modelled on that of the ' Stabreim, is founded on the Icelandic Sagas, and has little in common with the NibelungenDer Nibelunge N6t,' lied, or more correctly a mediaeval German poem of the beginning of the 13th century, in which the mythical types of the old Norse sagas appear in humanised modifications. The poem was completed in The whole was given at Her Majesty's 1852. Theatre, under the management of Angelo Neumann and the conductorship of Anton Seidl, on May 5-9, 1882 ; four performances of the complete cycle took place. 'The dates of first performances of the separate parts are appended Das Rhbingold. The ' Vorabend,' or Preludial Evening, was first performed at Munich, Sept. 22, 1869. Die WALKiJRE was completed in 1856, and the first performance took place at Munich June 25, 1870. It was given in English at Covent Garden, Oct. 16, 1895. SlEOFRlBD was completed early in 1869, and first performed in its place in the cycle, at Bayreuth, August 16, 1876. It was given in French at Brussels, June 12, 1891, and subsequently at the Opera in Paris ; and in English, by the Carl Rosa Company, in 1898. GoTTERDAMMBRUNG, completed in 1874, was first heard at Bayreuth, August 17, 1876. The whole trilogy was announced for production in English at Covent Garden in the winter season of 1907-8. M. RIOTTE, Philipp Jacob, bom at St. Mendel, Treves, August 16, 1776. Andre of Offenbach was his teacher in music, and he made his first appearance at Frankfort in Feb. 1804. In 1806 he was music-director at Gotha. In 1808 he conducted the French operas at the Congress of Erfurt. In April 1809 his operetta ' Das Grenzstadtchen ' was produced at the Kamthnerthor Theatre, and thenceforward Vienna was his resiIn 1818 he became conductor at the dence. Theatre an-der-Wien, beyond which he does not

and

17,

'

'

used to denote a sudden and brief crescendo. It is applied generally to a whole phrase, however short, and has the same meaning as sforzando, which is only applied to single notes. It is sometimes used in concerted music to give a momentaryprominence to a subordinate part, as for instance in the Beethoven Quartet, op. 95, in the Allegretto, where the violoncello part is marked rinforzaTido, when it has the
rinf. or rfz, is

second section of the principal subject of the

movement.

M.

seem to have advanced up to his death, August The list of his theatrical Works is 20, 1856. immense. His biography in Wurzbach's Lexicon enumerates, between 1809 and 1848, no less than forty-eight pieces, operas, operettas,ballets, pantomimes, music to plays, etc., written mostly by himself, and sometimes in conjunction with others. In 1852 he wound up his long labours by a cantata The Crusade, which was perfoi-med in the great Redoutensaal, Vienna, with much applatise. He wrote an opera called Mozart's Zauberflbte at Prague about 1 820. He left also
' ' '
'

RING DES NIBELUNGEN, DER,


Ring of the Niblung,'
a

'The

tetralogy or sequence of four music-dramas (more correctly

a symphony (op. 25), nine solo-sonatas, six do. for PF. and violin, three concertos for clarinet

and

orchestra,

but

these

are

defunct.

He

'

108

KIPIENO
called

RITORNELLO
'The
medals in solfege and elementary piano in 1887, a first piano prize (in Dimmer's class) in 1889, a second harmony prize in 1892, and the first prize for accompaniment in 1897. On leaving the Conservatoire, Risler made further studies with Dimmler, Stavenhagen, D' Albert,
first

became very popular by a piece

Battle of Leipzig,' for PF. solo, which was republished over half Germany, and had a prodigious sale. G.

EIPIENO, 'supplementary.' Thename given in the orchestral concertos of the 17th and 18th centuries, to the accompanying instruments
which were only employed to fill in the harmonies and to support the solo or concertante parts. [See Concbetaute, and Conceetino,
'

vol.

i.

pp. 576-7.]

RIPPON, John, born


1751.

M. at Tiverton, April 29, Died in London, Dec. 17, 1836 {Brit.

In 1896 and 1897 he was one of the 'Assistenten auf der Biihne' at r^p^titeur,' in Bayreuth, and took part as for the Paris Meistersinger preparing the Op&a. In 1906 he was appointed a member of the Conseil superieur of the Paris Conserva-

and Klindworth.

'

'

'

toire.

Risler has given

many pianoforte recitals

Mus. Biog.). He was a doctor of divinity, and had a meeting-house for a number of years in Carter Lane, Tooley Street. His Selection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes,' from the best authors in three and five parts (1795) was a tune-book
'

Germany, Holland, Russia, Spain, etc. His first appearance in England took place at Prince's Hall, May 17, 1894, when he played two sonatas of Beethoven, a, master for whom he has a special predilection. His playing was
in France,

in

much

request for congregational singing,

and ran through a large number of editions. In its compilation and arrangement he was assisted by T. Walker. Bippon was composer of an oratorio 'The Crucifixion,' published in
1837.
F. K.

EISELEY, Geokgb, born

at Bristol,

August

then found to be singularly free from affectation, although in his later years he has yielded to certain mannerisms which detract from the His artistic beauty of his earlier performances. He played the technique is very remarkable. thirty-two sonatas of Beethoven in London in 1906. He has written a, concert- transcription
of Strauss's 'Till Eulenspiegel,' etc.
G. f.

28, 1845, was elected chorister of Bristol Cathedral in 1852, and in Jan. 1862 articled to Mr.

RISPOSTA
The Answer
of imitation.

(Lat.

Comes; Eng. 'Answer').

John Davis

Corfe, the Cathedral organist, for

to the subject of a Fugue, or point [See Peoposta.] the answer

instruction in the organ, pianoforte, harmony,

and counterpoint. During the next ten years he was organist at various churches in Bristol and Clifton, at the same time acting as deputy at the Cathedral. In 1870 he was appointed organist to the Colston Hall, Bristol, where he started weekly recitals of classical and popular music, and in 1876 succeeded Corfe as organist In 1877 he started his orto the Cathedral. chestral concerts, which have won for him
a well-deserved reputation.

In Real Fugue,
the Tonic

subject, interval for interval.

imitates the In Tonal Fugue,

is always answered by the Dominant, and vice versa. In both, the imitation is usuaUy conducted, either in the fifth above

Notwithstanding

the Proposta, or the fourth below it, when the subject begins upon the Tonic ; and, in the fourth above, or the fifth below, when it begins upon the Dominant. [See Fugtjb, Subject.] w. s. E.

considerable opposition, and no small pecuniary risk, he has continued, during each season, to give fortnightly concerts, at which the principal works of the classical masters have been well performed, and a large number of interesting

RITARDANDO; RITENENTE
UTO.
[See

RITEN-

Rallentando.]
I.

and 1878 he was appointed conductor of the Bristol Orpheus Society, and has enlarged its scope and greatly increased its
novelties

by modern

writers, both English

foreign, produced.

[In

He is conductor of the Bristol reputation. Society of Instrumentalists, and was the founder He of the Bristol Choral Society in 1889.
with a pension from the cathedral appointment in 1898, and was appointed conductor of the Alexandra Palace, and of the In 1896 he Queen's Hall Choral Society. conducted Iiis first Bristol Festival, with great His compositions include a Jubilee success. Ode (1887), part-songs, etc. See an intferesting article on him in Musical Tiines, 1899, p. w. B. s. 81 ff.] RISLER, Joseph Edouaed, bom at Baden,
retired
toire,

(Abbrev. Ritorml., RUor. ; An Italian word, literally signifying a little return or repetition ; but more frequently applied, in a conventional sense, (1) to a short instrumental melody played between the scenes of an opera, or even during the action, either for the purpose of enforcing some particular dramatic effect or of amusing the audience during the time occupied in the preparation of some elaborate ' set-scene ; or, (2) to the symphonies introduced between the vocal phrases of a song or anthem.
Fr. RUournelle).
'

RITORNELLO

1.

The

earliest

first sense, is

known use of the term, in its to be found in Peri's 'Euridice,'


melody
'

in connection with a

for three flutes,


'

which, though called a Zinfonia on its first appearance, is afterwards repeated under the
of 'Ritornello.' 'Euridice' was first printed at Florence in 1600, and at Venice in 1608. A similar use of the term occurs soon afterwards in Monteverde's ' Orfeo, printed at Venice
title
'

Feb. 23, 1873, studied at the Paris Conservawhere he gained, among other distinctions.


EITTER
in 1609, and republished in 1615. In this work, the Overtui-e there called Toccata is followed

RITTER

109

ing to Lorraine, aged eighteen, he was nominated


professor of music in the Protestant seminary of Fenestrange, and invited to conduct a Soci^t^

by a

Ritornello in five parts, the rhythmic form of which is immeasurably in advance of the age in which it was produced. [Both toccata and ritornello are printed in the Musical Times for 1880, in an essay on Monteverde and the toccata is given in Parry's SevemteerUh Century
' ' ;

de Concerts at Bordeaux.

The

representations

made by some

of his family who had settled in America induced him to visit the New World.

(Oxford Hist, of Music, vol.


2.,

iii.),

p. 51.]

music with instrumental accompaniment became more extensively cultivated, the word was brought into common use, in its second sense, as applied to the instrumental symphonies of a song, or other composition for a solo voice. Ritornelli of this kind were freely used by Cavalli, Cesti, Carissimi, and many other composers of the early Venetian dramatic school, who imitated their manner. An example from CavaUi's II Giasone will be found at vol. iii. p. 440. Towards the close of the 17th century such instrumental interpolations became very common, in all styles and countries. For instance, in early editions of the Verse Anthems, of Croft, Greene, and other English composers, of the 17th and 18th centuries, we constantly find the words 'Kitornel.,' 'Ritor.,'
vocal
'
'

When

He spent a few years in Cincinnati, where his enthusiasm worked wonders in the development of taste. The Cecilia (choral) and Philharmonic (orchestral) Societies were established by him, and a large number of important works presented at their concerts for the first time in the United States. In 1861 Ritter went to New York, becoming conductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society for seven years, and of the Arion Choral Society (male voices), and instituting (1867) the first musical f^tival held in that city. In 1867 he was appointed director of the musical department of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, whither he removed in 1874 on resigning his conductorships.

The University

of

New York

conferred

on him the degree of Doctor of Music in 1878. He died at Antwerp, July 22, 1891. Ritter's literary labours have included articles on musical topics printed in French, German, and American periodicals. His most important work is A
History of Music, in the Form of Lectures vol. i. 1870 ; vol. ii. 1874, Boston ; both republished by W. Reeves, London, 1876. Music in Sngland appeared in New York in 1883, and Music in America in the same year. The following works have appeared in the catalogues of Hamburg, Leipzig, Mainz, and

or 'Rit.,' printed over little interludes, which,

unknown in the more severe kind of ecclesiastical


music, formed a marked feature in works of this particular school, frequently embodying some of its choicest scraps of melody, as in Dr. Boyce's Anthem, The Heavens declare the glory of God.' In later editions the term disappears, its place being supplied, in the same passages, by the words Organ,' or Sym.' ; which last abbreviation is almost invariably found in old copies of Handel's songs, and other similar music, in which the symphonies are interpolated, as often as opportunity permits, upon the line allotted to the voice. II. An ancient form of Italian verse, in which each Strophe consists of three lines, the first and third of which rhyme with each other, after the manner of the Terza rima of Dante. Little FolkSongs of this character are still popular, under the name of 'Ritornelli' or 'Stornelli,' among the peasants of the Abrazzi and other mountain w. s. K. regions of Italy. RITTER, FRtoERicLouis, bomat Strasburg, June 22, 1834. His paternal ancestors were Spanish, and the family name was originally His musical studies were begun at Caballero. an early age under Hauser and Sohletterer, and continued at Paris (whither he was sent when sixteen years of age) under the supervision of Possessed with his cousin, Georges Kastner.
' ' '

New York
Op.
1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
'

publishers

Hafifi,'

cyclus of Persiao Op. 10. Five songs.


acct.
11. 12.
' '

Ten Irish

Melodies wil^

new PF.

Freambule Scherzo, PF. Ten children's songs.


Faii7 Love. Eight PF. pieces. Six songs. Five choruses, male voices. Psalm xxiii female voices.

Organ fantasia and fugue. Voices of the Night, PF.

'

Salutaris,' baritone, organ. Maria,' mezzo-sopr., ot^an. Parting,' song, mezzo-soprano. practical Method for the Instruction of Chorus-classes.

Ave

The following

are his
:

most important unpub-

lished compositions

3 Symphonies A, Eminor, Eb. One string quartet; three PF. Stella,' Poime -symphonique, Do. d'apria V. Hugo. Psalm iv. baritone solo, chorus, Overture, ' Othello.' and orchestra. Concerto, PF. and orch. Psalm xlvi., solo, chor. and orch. Do. violoncello and orch. Psalm xcv. female voices vnth Fantasia, bass clarinet and orch. organ.

Dr. Ritter's wife, n^e Raymond,

is

known

under the name of

Fanny Raymond Ritter

(born at Philadelphia in 1840), as an author and translator of works on musical subjects. She brought out translations of Ehlert's Letters cm Music, to a Lady; and of Schumann's Essays and Criticisms in two series, as Music and

Musicans and a pamphlet entitled Woman as a Musician all published by Reeves, London. f. h. j.
;

the idea that beyond the Rhine he would find better opportunities forthe study of composition, he ran away to Germany, where he remained for two years, assiduously pursuing his studies with eminent musicians, and attending concerts whenever good music could be heard. Return-

RITTER,

Hermann,

son

of

German

government official, was born at Wismar, Mecklenburg, Sept. 26, 1849. A gifted writer and able violinist and musician, he attracted considerable public interest in Germany during the la,tter half of the 19th century by his performances

no

rittbb!
'

RIZZIO
Paris in 1861,

on the Viola Alta, an instrument which he claimed to be his own invention. While studying history and art at the Heidelberg University, Herr Bitter became deeply interested in the history of musical instruments, and the desire to improve the muffled tone of the ordinary viola induced him to attempt the construction of a similar instrument which should possess the acute resonant qualities of the violin. According to his own account, this consummation was effected by the aid of the rules laid
Bagatella in his pamphlet entitled Begole per la costruzione di Violmi, Viole, VioloncelH,e Violon%e\c. eto.,Padua,1786, of which a second edition appeared in Padua in 1883, and German translations at Padua in " 1786 and Leipzig in 1806. In point of fact Hermann Ritter's ' Viola Alta was in reality a revival of the large 'Tenor Viol,' that direct descendant of those instruments de remplissage the QuirtteaaAHaiUeContre, which he methodised into a tenorof extralarge proportions constructed on the scientific acoustical basis appertaining to the violin. His public appearances with the instrument began in 1876. They attracted the consideration of many eminent composers, and Wagner, who was at that time occupied with his 'Nibelungen,' invited his aid for the production of that opera in the same year. After completing this engagement Herr Eitter travelled for several years, touring in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Holland, Bussia, England, and Scotland, and in 1879 he was appointed professor of musical history and aesthetics, as well as of the viola, at the Eoyal School of music at Wiirzburg. There his talents and personal influence were the means of attracting a vast number of students, who assisted in spreading the fame of his invention, and in 1889 five of his pupils were playing in the
'

and La dea
'

risorta,' at Florence,
6,

1865)

he died in

Paris,

April

1886.

EIVARDE, Sebgb Achille, violinist, was bom on Oct. 31, 1865, in New York of an
American mother, his father being a Spaniard. He lived in America till the age of eleven, receiving lessons successively from Felix Simon, Henri Wieniawski and Joseph White (a man Coming to Europe he entered the of colour). Paris Conservatoire, to become a pupil of Charles
Dancla. He won a first prize in July 1879, sharIn 1881 ing the same with Franz Ondricek. he returned to America, where he stayed three years, and then gave up violin-playing entirely In 1886 he came back to Paris and for a time. entered Lamoureux's orchestra, in which he remained for five years sis principal violin, and occasional soloist. He gave up the appointment in 1891 and made his d^but in London in 1894. In 1899 he took the post of violin professor He is occaat the Eoyal College of Music. sionally heard as soloist in London and abroad, being the possessor of an exceptionally pure style, but spends most of his time in teaching. Until recently he played almost exclusively upon violins made by a modern maker, Szepessy Bela, but recently has taken to a w. w. c. Nicolas Lupot.

down by Antonio

RIVISTA MUSICALE ITALIANA, an important quarterly review on music, published by the firm of Bocca in Turin, and edited by L. Torchi. Each quarterly ' fascicolo ' contains about 200 pages in Italian or French, the articles headed ' Memorie dealing frequently with points of musical archaeology, while ' Arte contemporanea is the heading of those which treat of current events or the criticism of new music. Operas and other works of importance
' '

are discussed in detail, there are illustrations, musical and otherwise, and shorter reviews of

orchestra of the Bayreuth festival. In 1889 he was learnedly advocating the use of a three-footed binder in a pamphlet entitled Der Dreifiissige Oder Normal-Geigensteg (Wiirzburg, G. Hartz).
of Mecklenburg appointed Court Chamber Virtuoso,' and the Emperor Ludwig II. of Bavaria gave him He married the the title of 'Court Professor.' He wrote singer Justine Haecker in 1884. and arranged an immense amount of music for his 'Viola Alta' and traced its history in his book entitled Die Geschichte des Viola Alta (Leipzig, Mersebnrg). (See Viola.) G. Adema,

The Grand Duke


'

Herr Ritter his

musical books appear under the title of ' Eecensioni.' A useful feature is a list of articles on music which appear in other periodicals. Among the Italian contributors to the first volume may be mentioned Signori Ohilesotti, Giani, de Piccolellis, Tacchinardi, Tebaldiui, and Valdrighi while the names of some of the most eminent writers of other countries, such as Guido Adler, F. Draeseke, F. A. Gevaert, Adolphe JuUien, Arthur Pougin, Saint-Saens, Philipp Spitta, and J. Weckerlin, appear in the list of contributors. The publication began in 1894, and has maintained a high standard of excellence
;

Hermann Ritter und seine

Viola alia (Wiirzburg,


;

ever since.

u.
(Rizzi, or Ricoi), the son

Hermann Ritter, 1881, 2nd edition, 1890) Die Viola alta Oder Altgeige (hevpzig, 1885), 1st edition, Heidelberg, 1876, 2nd edition, Leipzig, (Biemann, Diet, of Music.) B. h-a. 1877. RITTER (properly Bbnnbt), Theodore, born near Paris, April 5, 1841, was a pupil of Liszt and wrote a number of successful drawingroom
etc.).

EIZZIO, David

of a professional musician and dancing-master, born at Turin, in Italy, in the early years of

pieces

('

Chant du

braconnier,'

'

Sylphes,'

He

produced two operas ('Marianne,' at

the 16th century. He obtained a post at the court of the Duke of Savoy, and came over to Scotland in the train of the ambassador in With his brother Joseph he remained 1561. in the service of Queen Mary, in the first instance as a bass singer, receiving 80 per year;


ROAST BEEF OF OLD ENGLAND
so won his way into her favour (no doubt primarily by his ability in connection with court masques, of which she was so fond), that he became, in 1564, her foreign secretary. By this he aroused political and other feelings, and he was stabbed to death, almost in the Queen's presence, in Holyrood Palace, on the evening of March 9, 1566. There is no doubt that Eizzio exercised some influence on the music then fashionable in Scotland (or at least in Edinburgh), and there appears to have been a very strong tradition that he was the composer of several of the well-known Scots tunes. In 1725 William Thomson' in the ' Orpheus Caledonius puts this tradition into definite form by affixing a mark to seven of the airs there engraved, stating them to be the com'

'

111

EOBERTS

He

subject of which is the carrying of a huge piece of beef before a starved French sentry, the praises of roast beef are set to several popular
airs,

concluding with the ' Roast Beef of Old England.' F. K. EOBARTT, of Crewkerne, was an orgyn maker ' who let out organs to churches by the year. The Mayor of Lyme Regis, in 1551, paid him ten shillings for his year's rent. v. de p. ROBERT BRUCE. A pasticcio adapted by Niedermeyer from four of Rossini's operas 'Zelmira,' the 'Donna del Lago,' 'Torvaldo e Dorliska,' and ' Bianca e Faliero.' Produced without success at the Aoad^mie Royale, Dec. 30, 1846. It is published in Italian as 'Roberto
'

Bruce

'

by

Ricordi.

g.

ROBERT LE DIABLE.

Opera in

five acts

position of Kizzio (see Orpheus Caledonius). James Oswald and others have in one or two instances also assigned other airs to Rizzio with

probablylessof tradition to justify them.

f. k.

KOAST BEEF OF OLD ENGLAND, THE. An English national song whose tune has
become associated with the serving of dinner at public functions, and o^asionally used as a signal for the same in the army. The air is a fine marked specimen of English melody, and is probably the composition of
Richard Leveridge, who doubtless sang the song The first two verses were inserted in public. in Henry Fielding's ballad opera, Don Quixote They are in England,' produced in 1733. considered to be by Fielding himself, and are marked as to be sung to the air The (Jueen's Another claim, however, arises. old Courtier.' In Walsh's British Musical Miscellany or The
' '

words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. Produced at the Academic, Paris, Nov. 21, 1831. In London, and in English, imperfectly, as The Demon, or the Mystic Branch,' at Drury Lane, Feb. 20, 1832, and as The Fiend Father, or Robert of Normandy,' at Covent Garden the day following as Robert the Devil at Drury Lane (Bunn), March 1, 1845. In French, at Her Majesty's, June 11, 1832, with Noun-it, Levasseur, Damoreau. In Italian, at Her Majesty's, May 4, 1847 (first appearance of Jenny Lind and Staudigl). G.
'

'

'

'

ROBERTO DEVEREUX, CONTE D'ESSEX.


Opera in three acts, text by Romani (from Produced at Comeille), music by Mercadante. Milan, March 10, 1833. (2) An opera in three acts ; libretto by Camerano from Corneille's
(1)

Delightfid Grove, vol. iii., is 'A Song in praise the words and of Old English Roast Beef Musick by Mr. Leveridge.' This is a version of seven verses, including the two, with slight verbal differences, already placed in Fielding's
:

'Comte d'Essex,' music by Donizetti. Produced 1837 at the Italiens, Paris, Dec. at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 27, 1838 June 24, 1841. The overture contains the air
in Naples in
; ;

of

'

God

save the King.

G.

Don Quixote.' The tune is, however, the now well-known melody as under
'

a music and an ornamental engraver, who issued several notable books of songs with music, now much sought
after,

ROBERTS, Henry,

character.

mainly on a4x^ount of their decorative In these works the pieces are headed

with pictorial embellishments.


Roberts's publications
issued
sobrd our veiiis,alld enriched our blood. Onrsoldierawere
is
'

The

earliest of

Calliope, or English

Chorus.

England,

and

old

EngliBh roast

beet

The melody has been used

for

many

songs, one,

formerly well known in the north, being ' The 'The Roast Kail Brose of auld Scotland.' Beef Cantata ' was a well-known piece originally Headed by a copy published about 1760-70. of Hogarth's picture the 'Gate of Calais,' the

Harmony,' in two volumes octavo. It was by and for the engraver in periodical numbers of 8 pp. and commenced late in the Twenty-five numbers formed the year 1737. first volume, which was completed in 1739. The second volume began in this year, but from some cause now unknown, the publication came to a standstill when half through, and was not resumed until 1746, when it came out with the imprint of John Simpson {q.v.). This volume oonteins God save the King,' which, from the date 1739 appearing on some of the plates, has been hastily assumed to be prior to the copy in the GenUemun's Magazine of 1745 this, however, is not the case, for ample proof exists that this portion of the volume was not
' ;

issued before the spring of 1746.

The

plates

,'

112

ROBERTS

ROBINSON
the London Church Choir Association Festival in 1894 ; about fifty anthems, besides partHis Practical Method songs, and organ pieces. of Training Choristers, 1898, 1900, and 1905,
is

of 'Calliope,' thirty or forty years afterwards, came into possession of Longman & Broderip, who reprinted from them. Roberts's other

famous work

is Clio and Euterpe, precisely similar in style, which, issued in two volumes, bears the dates 1758 and 1759. later edition
' '

very useful.

w.
[See

B. s.

ROBIN ADAIR.
i.

Eileen Akoon,

vol.

has a third volume added, and is dated 1 762. A fourth was again added when re-issued by John Welcker. Henrjr Roberts kept a music and a print-shop in Holborn near Hand Alley almost opposite Great Turnstile.' His name is
'

p.

770.]
' '

attached as engraver to several pieces of decorative engraving on music-sheets. f. k. ROBERTS, John, composer of sacred music, bom in Wales, Dec. 22, 1822. Before 1839 he had adopted the name ' leum Gwyllt.' He removed to Liverpool and became editor of a Welsh newspaper, besides writing upon musical matters. In 1858 he again returned to Wales, and at Aberdare set up as a music teacher. On Jan. 10, 1859, he founded there the first of a long series of Welsh musical festivals, and in the same year published a tune -book, 'Llyfr Touau,' which was much used throughout Wales, and passed through many editions. Roberts was a strong advocate of temperance, and preached as a Calvinistic Methodist. He died May 6, 1877. [Information principally from Diet. Nat. Biog.\ F. K. ROBERTS, J. Vaeley, Mus.D., native of Stanningley, near Leeds, bom Sept. 25, 1841. He early exhibited much ability for music, and at twelve was appointed organist of S. John's, In 1862 he became Farsley, near Leeds. organist of S. Bartholomew's, Armley, and in 1868 organist and choirmaster of the parish church, Halifax. In 1 8 7 1 he graduated Mus. B. and in 1876 Mus.D., at Christ Church, Oxford. During his organistship at Halifax, upwards of 3000 was raised to enlarge the organ, originthe instrument upon ally built by Snetzler which Sir William Hersohel, the renowned and it is now astronomer, formerly played one of the finest and largest in the North of England. In 1876 Dr. Roberts became a Fellow

The title of the French Der Freischiitz at its first appearOperaance in Paris (Od&n, Dec. 7, 1824 Lyrique, Jan. 24, Comique, Jan. 15, 1835 The libretto was made by Sauvage 1855). the names of the characters were changed, the action and the story were altered, portions of Preciosa and Oberon were introduced, and The the piece was made to end happily. alterations were due to Castil Blaze, who, to save expense, scored the music himself from a

ROBIN DBS BOIS.

version of

'

'

'

'

PF. copy. Nevertheless, with all these drawbacks, so great was the popularity of the music that Castil Blaze made a large sum of money by it. For the translation by Pacini and
Berlioz see FkeisohOtz, vol.
ii.

p. 107.
in.

G.

three acts words by John Oxenford, music by G. A. Macfarren. Produced at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, Oct. 11, 1860, and had a very great
run.
G.

ROBIN HOOD.

An

opera

Other operas on the same subject have been produced, besides many masques of the 16th and 17th centuries, more or less associated with the May Day games and observances
;

of these early pieces little record as to detail has survived.

of the Royal College of Organists, London. In 1882 he was elected organist at Magdalen Oxford, succeeding Mr. (now Sir College,

ballad opera of the name was acted at Lee Harper's great booth, at St. Bartholomew's Fair, in 1730 ; the music and libretto of this was published by John Watts in the year of production. A different ' Robin Hood, ' by Moses Mendez, was performed at Drury Lane in 1750, the music being supplied by Charles (afterwards Dr.) Burney. Another English ballad opera in three acts, which attained some degree of fame, was entitled 'Robin Hood, or Sherwood Forest.' This was written by Leonard MacNally, with the music selected, arranged, and

&

In 1884 the University Glee Walter) Parratt. and Madrigal Society was founded under his In 1885-93 he was organist oonductorship. of St. Giles's, Oxford, and in the former year was appointed examiner in music to the Oxford Local Examinations, and also became conductor In 1883 he was of the Oxford Choral Society.

composed by William Shield. It was produced at Co vent Garden Theatre in 1784, the principals being Mrs. Kennedy, Mrs. Martyr, Mrs. Banister, and Miss Kemble, while the male singers were Banister, Johnstone, and Edwin. The piece had a considerable run, and several
of the songs lasted in popularity long after the opera itself was dead. p. k.

appointed one of the University examiners for In 1907 he presented a new musical degrees. organ to his native village of Stanningley. His compositions include sacred cantatas, Jonah, for voices and orchestra; 'Advent,' 'The Story of the Incarnation,' 'The Passion,' for church
'

ROBINSON, Anastasia, born about 1698, was daughter of a portrait painter, who, becoming blind, was compelled to qualify his children
to gain their instruction

Psalm ciii. for voices and orchestra services, one an evening service in C written
choirs
;
;

six
for

Anastasia received from Dr. Croft, Pier Giuseppe Sandoni, and the singer called The Baroness, successively. She appeared in Creso,' in 1714 ; as Ariana in Handel's 'Amadigi,' May Ss'
'

own livelihood.

1715

and in 1720

at the King's Theatre as

ROBINSON
Echo in Domenico Scarlatti's opera, She afterwards sang in the pasticcio
Scevola,' in Handel's
'

ROBINSON
'Narciso.'
of
'

113

Muzio

'Ottone,'
'

'

Floridante,'

and Giulio Cesare in Buononcini's 'Crispo' and 'Griselda,' and other operas. Her salary was 1000 for the season, besides a henefit-night. She possessed a fine voice of extensive compass, but her intonation was uncertain. She quitted the stage in 1724, having two years previously been privately married to the Earl of Peterborough, who did not avow the marriage untU shortly before his death in
Flavio,'
'

1735, although, according to one account, she him as mistress of the house, and as such by the Earl's friends. According to another account, she resided with her mother in a house at Parson's Green, which the Earl took for them, and never Uved under the same roof with him, until she attended him in a journey in search of health, a short time She died at Bevis Mount, before his death. Southampton, in April 1755, and was buried There is a fine portrait of her at Bath Abbey. by Faber after Bank, 1727. Her younger sister, Elizabeth, intended for a miniature painter, preferred being a singer. She studied under Buononcini, and afterwards at Paris under Rameau ; but though an excellent singer, was said to have been prevented by A timidity from ever appearing in public.' fortunate marriage, however, relieved her from the necessity of obtaining her own subsistw. H. H. ; with additions from the Did. ence, of Nat. Biog. ROBINSON, John, born 1682, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. He became organist of St. Lawrence, Jewry, in 1710 and St. Magnus, London Bridge, in 1713. Hawkins, in his History, describes him as ' a very florid and elegant performer on the organ, inasmuch that crowds resorted to hear him ' In parish churches the and elsewhere says voluntary between the Psalma and the first Lesson was anciently a slow, solemn movement, tending to compose the minds and excite sentiments of piety and devotion. Mr. Robinson
resided with was received
: '

youngest daughter of William Turner, Mus.D. She was a singer, and appeared at the King's Theatre in 1720 in Domenico Scarlatti's opera 'Narciso,' being described as Mrs. TurnerRobinson' to distinguish her from Anastasia Robinson, who sang in the same opera. She died Jan. 5, and was buiied Jan. 8, 1741, in the west cloister of Westminster Abbey. Robinson had a daughter, who was a contralto finger and the original representative of Daniel in Handel's oratorio Belshazzar,' 1745, and also sang in others of his oratorios. w. H. H. ROBINSON, Joseph, was the youngest of four brothers, born and resident in Dublin. Their father Francis was an eminent professor of music, and in 1810 was mainly instramental in founding ' the Sons of Handel,' probably the
'

'

earliest societyestablished therefor the execution

of large works. His eldest son Francis, Mus. D. born about 1799, had a tenor voice of great beauty and sympathetic quality ; was a vicarchoral of the two Dublin Cathedrals and, at the Musical Festival in Westminster Abbey, in June 1834, sang a principal part. He died Another son, WiUiam, had a Oct. 31, 1872. deep bass of exceptional volume while John, born about 1812, died in 1844, the organist of both Cathedrals and of Ti-inity College, had a 'The four brothers tenor ranging to the high D. formed an admirable vocal quartet, and were
;

the

first

to

make known

the

German Part-songs

introduced a different practice, calculated to display the agility of his fingers in allegro movements on the comet, trumpet, sesquialtera, and other noisy stops, degrading the instrument, and instead of the full and noble harmony with which it was designed to gratify the ear, tickling
airs in two parts, in fact solos and a baas.' On Sept. 30, 1727, Robinson was appointed to succeed Dr. Croft He had an as organist of Westminster Abbey.
it

with mere

for a flute

extensive practice as a teacherof the harpsichord, and will be long remembered by his double He died April 30, 1762, and was chant in Eb. buried. May 13, in the north aisle ofWestminster He married, Sept. 6, 1716, Ann, Abbey.
1

aa Ariel in

'Mies RobiDflOn, Jun.,' appeared at nrury Lane, Jan. 2, 1729, The Tempert.' It is possible that this was Margaret
'

Bobinson.

then rarely heard either in England or Ireland. Joseph Robinson, born August 20, 1815, was a chorister of St. Patrick's at the early age of eight, and afterwards a member of all the choirs, where his fine delivery of recitative was always a striking feature. He also played in the orchestra of the Dublin Philharmonic. But it is as a conductor- that his reputation In 1834 he founded the is best established. *Antient Concert Society,' of which he was conductor for twenty-nine years, and which It ceased to exist soon after his resignation. commenced its meetings in a private house, then took a large room, now the Royal Irish Academy of Antiquities, and in 1843 had made such progress that it purchased and remodelled the building since known as the Antient ConAmongst the last things written cert Rooms.' by Mendelssohn was the instrumentation of his Hear my Prayer (originally composed for voices and organ only), expressly for Mr. Robinson to produce at the Antients.' It did not reach him till after the composer's death. [See Mendelssohn, vol. iii. p. 145a, note 2.] In 1837 he became conductor of the 'University Choral Society,' founded by the students. At one of its concerts the music of Antigone was He given for the first time out of Germany. continued to conduct the Society for ten years. [In 1849 he married Miss Fanny Arthur (see In 1852, at the opening of the Cork below).] Exhibition, Mr. Robinson conducted the music,
' '
'

'

'

'

VOL. IV


114

ROBINSON

ROCHLITZ
concert in Paris, attheSalle Erard(Feb. 4, 1864). Her pianoforte compositions are numerous and graceful. Her sacred cantata, God is Love, ' was repeatedly performed throughout the kingdom.
'

which was on a, large scale, and included a new cantata by Sir Robert Stewart. In 1853, an International Exhibition was opened in Dublin ; there he assembled 1000 performers, the largest band and chorus yet brought together in Ireland. In 1856 efforts were made to revive the Irish Academy of Music,' founded in 1848, but languishing for want of funds and pupils. (See Royal Irish Academy.) Mr. and Mrs. Robinson joined as Professors, and nearly all the Irish artists, both vocal and instrumental, who appeared during their time, owed both training and success to their teaching and when, after twenty years, Mr. Robinson resigned, the institution was one of importance and stability. In 1859, for the Handel Centenary, he gave the Messiah,' with Jenny Lind and Belletti among the principals. The net receipts amounted to 900, an unprecedented sum in Dublin. In 1865 the large Exhibition Palace was opened by the Prince of Wales, and Robinson conducted the performance with a band and chorus of 700. After the cessation of the Antients,' there was no Society to attempt systematically the worthy production of great works. To remedy this a chorus was trained by Robinson, and established in 1876 as the 'Dublin Musical Society.' The last concert conducted by Robinson was on Dec. 6, 1888, previous to which the memberspresented him with -an address and a purse of 100 sovereigns. The purse was returned by him with warm expressions of gratitude, but with the characteristic words, While I think a pro'
'

On Oct. 31, 1879, she metasudden and tragic end, which caused profound regret. H. m'c. d. ; with additions from rit. Mm. Biog., Musical Times, Sept. 1898, p. 609, and from W. H. [See also an article by Sir Grattan Flood, Esq.
C. V. Stanford in Cornhill Jfofliasi7i, Junel899.]

ROBINSON, Thomas, was author of a curious work published at London in folio in 1603, bearThe Schoole ofMusieke ing the following title wherein is taught the perfect method of the true fingering of the Lute, Pandora, Orpharion and In 1609 he published 'New Viol de Gamba. Citharen Lessons.' Nothing is known of his ' w. H. H. biography. See ROBSON, Joseph, organ - builder. Apollonioon, vol. i. p. 95, and Flight, vol.
ii.

'

p. 61.

'

'

fessional
tion,

man

should expect his

fair

remunera-

yet his chief object may be something higher and nobler the advancement of art in his native city.' The Society was revived in 1889, under the conductorship of Dr. Joseph Smith, but collapsed after some years. He wrote a variety of songs, concerted pieces and anthems, besides arranging a number of standard songs and Irish melodies. In 1881 he married for the second time ; he died August 23, 1898. In 1849 a young pianist, Miss Fanny Akthuk (born Sept. 1831), arrived in Dublin from Southampton, and made her first successful appearance there^Feb. 19, 1849. She had studied under Sterndale Bennett and Thalberg. Mr. Robinson and she were married July 17 following, and she continued for thirty years to be an extraordinary favourite. Her first appearance in London was at the Musical Union, June 26, 1855, when she played Beethoven's Sonata in F (op. 24), with Ernst, and received the praises of Meyerbeer ; also at the New Philharmonic in 1856, where she played Mendelssohn's Concerto in D. Mrs. Robinson also passed a very active musical life, though it was often interrupted by In teaching she had a peculiar nervous illness. power of infusing her own ideas into others. She played from time to time at concerts of a high class, and herself gave a very successful

born at Calais, Feb. 20, 1828, died at Paris, Dec. 16, 1861, began life as a violin-player, first as Habeneck's pupil at the Conservatoire, but quickly relinquished music for literature. Roche undertook the translation of the libretto of 'Tannhauser' for its representation at the Op&a, March 13, 1861, and in a preface to his Poesies posthum^s (Paris, L^vy, 1863) M. Sardou has described the terrible persistence with which Wagner kept his translator to his task. (See Pougin's supplement to F^tis.) In Jullien's Richard Wagner, 1887, the facts of the case were made public ; it seems that Roche, not knowing German, had recourse to the services of a friend named Lindau, and the translation, when sent to the director of the Opera, was rejected, as it was in blank verse the necessary alteration into rhyme was made by Roche, Nuitter, and Wagner in collaboration.
;

ROCHE, Edmond,

On

this Lindau brought an action against Wagner, to enforce the mention of his name as one of the translators ; the case was heard on March 6 1 8 6 1 a week before the first representation of the opera, and it was decided that no name but that of Wagner should appear in the books. So that Roche had not even the satis, ,

name in print, in connection even Lajarte {BiU. Mus. de I'Opera, ii. 230) gives Nuitter as the author of the French words. Besides the poems contained
faction of seeing his

with the work,

for

in the

volume

cited,

Roche contributed

critical

articles to several small periodicals.

m.
critic,

ROCHLITZ,
and
founder
ische Zeitung,

JoHANN Friedrich,

of the Allgemeine musikalborn of poor parents at Leipzig, Feb. 12, 1769. His fine voice procured his admission at thirteen to the Thomasschule, under the Cantorship of Doles, where he spent six years and a half. He began to study theology in the University, but want of means compelled him to leave and take a tutorship, which he supplemented by writing. [For the


ROCHLITZ
titles of his non-musical works see Riemann's Lexikon-I H *^so attempted composition,
22.

ROCKSTRO
23. 24.
S5. 26.

115
EcceDomlnus.aS.

and produced a mass, Te Deum, some partsongs for male voices, a setting of Ps. xxiii., and a cantata, 'Die Vollendung des Erlosers.' In 1 7 9 8 h e founded the UgemeiTie wAisikaZische Zeitung (Breitkopf & Hartel), and edited it till 1818, during which period his articles largely contributed to the improved general appreciation of the works of the three great Austrian composers, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, in North Germany. The best of these were afterwards re-published by himself under the title of Fiir Freunde der Tonkwnst, in four vols. (1824 to 1832, reprinted later by Dbrffel, third edition, 1868). It contains, amongst other matter, an interesting account of a visit to Beethoven at Vienna in 1822. Another important work was a collection in three vols. (Schott, 1838 to 1840) of vocal music, from

GalluB. Ecce quomodomoritUT Justus, a 4. Do. Adoramus, a 6. Do. Media vitae, two choirs,

28. Fiuetorius.

4.

VulpiuB. Exultate justi, aA. Do. Bun-exit Christus, two Paleetrina. Et incamatUB, etc. choirs, a A. (from mass Assumpta
'

Appendix

27. Walllser.

Oaudent In coelis,

est

'),

6.

two

choirs,

a A.

FxaetoiiuB,
(1600-1700)

tos omnes.

1.

Caccini.

Solo

Third Period and chorus,

Stabat.

i. }.

Funeste piaggie. Do. Chorus. Biondo

19.

20.

Do. Do.

Facme.

Oquam.

t.

'}.

Cariasimi. Recitative and 21. Durante. Kyrle. chorus, Turbabuntur (from 22. Do. Beglna angelorum. Cantata 'Flaiutes dea r^- 23. Do. Bequiem aetemam. prouv^ '). 24. Do. Domine Jesu. Do. Ardens est cor, fonr 25. Lottl. CrucifixuB, a 6. soloB and chorus. 26. Do. Qui toUis, a 4. Do. O sacrum convivium, 27. Do. (>uciflxuB, a a Uiree solo voices. 28. Marcello. Udir* le orecchie,

{.

Do. Cantemus omnes, chorus and Bceua (Jelta).


Plorate, a 6. Benevoli. Sanctus, four choirs, a 4. Do. Chrlste, a 4. Bemabei. Alleluja, a A. Do. Salve regina, a 4. A. Scarlatti. Kyrie, a 4. Do. Gloria, a 5. Do. Vacuum est, Canto solo and chorus, with vioUuB. Do. Sanctus, a A, and Agnus,

Ps. xliv.
29. 81.
!.

Do.

a A. Et incamatus, a 4.

'.

Hauler. Pater noster, a 7. H. SchUtz. Belig sind die

t.
I. >.

Todten, a 4. Do. Chorus, ChriBtufllBthier,

aA.
53.

Do.

Psalm,

Was

betrUbst

du?
54.

L
L

Do. Vater unser. V. Leiaring. Trotz sey

dem

Dufay to Haydn, in chronological order, of which the contents are given below. The first two volumes of the A.M.Z, contain a series of anecdotes on Mozart, whose acquaintance he
Mozart's visit to Leipzig ; but Jahn, in the preface to his Mozart, has completely destroyed the value of these as truthful records. Rochlitz was a good connoisseur of paintings and engravings. In 1830 he was one of the committee appointed by the Council of Leipzig to draw up a new hymn-book, and some of the hymns are from his own pen. He also wrote the librettos for Schicht's Ende des Gerechten,* Spohr's 'Last Judgment' and Calvary,' and for Bierey's opera Das Blumenmadchen.* He was a Hofrath of Saxony, and died Dec. 16, 1842. r. g. The following are the contents of the collection mentioned above Sammlung vorziiglicher
* ' *

a 7.
. . .

Caldaxa. Salve reglna, a 3. Do. Agnus, alto and tenor.

Teufel, two choirs, a A. Gloria^ a 5. 36. Grimm. 37. J. J. Fux. Domine Jesu, a 4. Trema la terra. Coro 36. Do.

from oratorio 'La Deposl2done.' (1700-1760)


.

Do.

Qui

tollis,

a A. Fourth Period

made during

HandeL
ness.

Te Deimi, in D, Glorlae tuae. Do. He sent a thick darkDo. Do. Do.

Behold God.

He rebuked the Bed Sea. And Israel saw. the Lamb of

Hasse. Alto solo. Ad teclamamus. Do. Miserere, and Benigui. Do. Te Deum, a A. Oraun. MacbetdieThUrweit. Do. Tu rex gluriae, a A. Do. Freuet euch (Tod Jesu), Do. Wir hier liegeu. Do.
Bolle.

Do. He was despised. Do. Thy rebuke. Do. Lift up your heads. Do. Hear, Jacob's God. Do. Zadok the Priest. Christoph Bacli. lob lasse dlch nlcht. J. 8. Bach. Nimm' von uns Herr. Do. Mache dicb meln Geist. Do. Wir setzen uub mlt

Der Herr

ist KSiiig.

Do. Welt-Bichter(XodAbel). Wolf. Lausetperennisglorla,

aA. Do. Des Lebens FUrsten.


C. P. E. Bach. Et misericord ia,a6,froinMagnifit;at.

ThrSnen
Do,

Wie

nieder. sich ein

Do. Heilig, two choirs, a 4. M. Haydu. Salvos fac iios. Do. Tenebrae factae. Do. Miserere. Leu. Coro, Dl quanta pena
(8.

Vater.
40. 41.

Elena).

Lbbet den Herm.


Zelenka.
Ehi-e,

Credo.

Telemann. Amen.

Lob nnd

aa
Gloria.

Gesangstiicke

vom Ursprung
'

gesetzmassiger
:

StOlzeL

Harmonie
.

bis anf die neue Zeit

PlEBT PeEIOD (1380-1550) Dufay. Eyrie, a A. Belafar g. O. I^sso. ay pale. a 5.


Do. Kyrie, u axmd.'
4.

Vater unser, a A. Pasterwltz. Bequiem. Hasse. Duet and Chorus, Le porte a noi.
Homillus.

Do. Et incamatus. Do. Miserere; Ecceenlm,a6. Jommelli. Confimia hoc Deus, five solos and chorus. Do. Miserere. Pergolesi. EJa ergo (Salve
Beglna).

Do. Do.

Qui tolUs, a 6. Stebat Mater.

Angelns pnstores,

G.

'L'omme

10.

Do.

Miserere, Amplliu, Cor Ne proficeas, niTindnin,

Okeghem. Kyrle and Chrlste,


a4. JosquindePrte. HymDOB, a4 Tn paupemm refugium. Do. Zwiactaeugcflang einer der grOsBten Messen des MeiBtere, et Incamatus, aA, Do. Motet, Misericordlaa Domini, a 4.
0. Lhsso.
11.

Bedde mihi,

etc.,

6.

C. GondinieL Domine quid multiplicati, a 4. Kyrle et 12. Ch. de Morales. Chrlete, a 4. 13. Do. Gloria.
14. T. Tallis. 15. L. Senfl.
*

.
.

B^na Coeli, a 4.
'

16. 17.

Verba mea, a 4. Motet on a Choral. Mag Ich ungllick,' a 4. Do. Deus propitius esto, a 5.

Do.

Salve"

Do.

Nunc dimittis, a 4.

appointed organist of St. Margaret's, "Westminster, June 4, 1802, in succession to William Rock, junr., who had He comfilled the office from May 24, 1774. 'Let the sparkling posed some popular glees wine go round' (which gained a prize at the Catch Club in 1794), 'Beneath a churchyard y7. h. h. yew,' etc. He died in March 1809.

ROCK, Michael, was

Second Period
. .
,

(1550-1630)

ROCKSTRO

(originally

RACKSTRAW),

Palcstrlna. Adoramus, a 4. Do. Gloria, two choirs, a 4. Do. Pleni sunt, a 3. bone Jean, a 4. Do. Do. Popule mens, two choirs,

Soprano TenorsoloandchoruB, a 4, with three horns, two trombones and violina. Do. BenedictuB, three choirs.
Gabrleli. In excelsis.
nolo.
.

a 4.
.

Do. Madrigal, ' Cedro gentll,'

Bcihm, BrQder.
:

Two Lieder,
;

a
,

5.

a 4 Der Tag vertrelbt Die


Nacht ist komraen.
.

Do.

Lauda anfma mea, a 4.


4.
,

G. M. Nanini. Stabat mater,

"Do.

Two

Lieder,

a
;

A: Ver-

Do. Do.

ai. Exaudi noa. a

leih'

UTifi

Frieden

Nimm'
gratiaa,

von
A.

iins.

Haec

dies,

a 5. a 4. a A.

Walther.

^temo

Vittoria.

Jean dulcis. a
glorlosam,
est,

a 4.
.

Do.
Do.

guam

F. Anerio.

Adoramua, a 4. two
choirs,

GesSngeMartlnLiithers, a4: Mlt Pried und Freud Es


:

Chrlstns factns
5.

AlleKri. Miserere,

woU'unsGott: Nunkomm derHeidenHeiland; Christ


li^; Jesus Christas.

North Cheam, Surrey, on Jan. 5, 1823, and baptized at Morden chm'ch. The form of his surname by which he was known was an older style resumed after 1846. He was successively pupil of John Purkis, the blind organist, of Stemdale Bennett, and at the Leipzig Conservatorium, where he studied from 1845 till 1846. He enjoyed the special friendship and tuition of Mendelssohn, and was with Hauptmann for theory and with Plaidy for pianoforte. For some years after his
at

William Smith, bom

116

BOCKSTRO
method

EODE
singing-master and teacher of the pianoforte his
of imparting instruction

return to England, lie was active as a teacher and performer in London, being regular accompanist at the Wednesday concerts, where Braham and other eminent singers were to be heard. At this period he wrote his most popu' '

was remarkably

successful.

a composer, he never quite freed himself from the powerful influences engendered

As

by

his studies

the lovely madrigal,

'

too

and beautiful, song, Queen and huntress and his pianoforte editions of classical and other
lar
'
'

operas led the way in popularising that class of music in an available form for the use of those who could not read full scores and in his indications of the orchestral instruments above the music-staves he did much to point the way towards a general appreciation of orchestral colour. In the early sixties he left
;

was judged unworthy of a prize by the Madrigal Society on the ground that it was and his modelled too closely on Palestrina oratorio, 'The Good Shepherd,' produced at the Gloucester Festival of 1886 under his own
cruel fair,'
;

London for Torquay on account of his mother's health and his own, and on her death in 1876, he openly became a member of the Roman communion. He had been organist and honoraiy precentor at All Saints' Church, Babbacombe, from 1867, and won a high position as a teacher. He published, with T. F. Ravenshaw, a 'Festival Psalter, adapted to the Gregorian Tones,' in 1863, and 'Accompanying Harmonies to the Ferial Psalter,' in 1869. These were the firstfruits of his assiduous study of ancient music, on which he became the first authority of his time in England. A couple of valuable textbooks, on harmony (1881) and counterpoint (1882) respectively, had a great success, and in the lattdr part of the first edition of this Dictionary he wrote a large number of articles on musical arohseology generally. In the present day, musical research has been sedulously carried on in other countries, and it is inevitable that some of his conclusions should have been controverted, if not disproved ; but, considering the state of musical education at the time he wrote, the value of his contributions to such subjects as the music of the period which closed He was iu 1600, can hardly be exaggerated. too ardent a partisan to be an ideal historian, but his History of Music for Young Students General History (1879) and his larger work of Music (1886) contain much that is of per-

was found to bear too many traces of Mendelssohnian influence to deserve success. In 1891, he collaborated with Canon Scott Holland in writing the life of his old friend, Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt an abbreviated edition came out in 1893, and with Mr. Otto Goldschmidt he wrote a still shorter book,
direction,
;

Jenny Lind, Tier Vocal Art and Culture (partly For many years reprinted from the biography). his health had been bad, and he had many

He adverse circumstances to contend with. fought bravely for all that he held best in art, and boundless enthusiasm earned him through. He died in London, July 2, 1895. {Diet, of M. Nat. Biog. etc.) RODE, Jacques Piekbe Joseph, a great violinist, was born at Bordeaux, Feb. 16, 1774. When eight years of age he came under the tuition of I'auvel aine, a well-known violinist of his native town, and studied under him for six Here years. In 1788 he was sent to Paris. Punto (or Stich), the famous horn-player, heard him, and being struck with the boy's exceptional talent, gave him an introduction to Viotti, who at once accepted him as his pupil. With this great master he studied for two years, and in 1790 made his first public appearance, when he played Viotti's 13th Concerto at the Th^&tre de Monsieur with complete success. Although then but sixteen years of age, he was appointed leader of the second violins in the excellent band of the The&tre Feydeau. In this position, appearing at the same time frequently as soloist, he remained till 1794, and then started for his first tour to Holland and the north of Germany. His success, especially
at Berlin and Hamburg, was great. From the latter place he sailed for his native town, but the vessel was compelled by adverse winds to make for the English coast. So Rode came to

His Life of Handel (1883) and Mendelssohn (1884) are fine examples of eulogistic biography, though they are hardly to be recommended as embodying a calmly critical

manent

value.

In his larger estimate of either composer. History he showed that he was, nevertheless, not above owning himself in the wrong, and his recantation of certain excessive opinions expressed by him in the Dictionary against

works was due to true moral conducted a concert of sacred music of the 16th and 17th centm-ies at the Inventions Exhibition of 1885, and in 1891 gave up Torquay for London, giving lectures at the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music, and holding a class for counterpoint and plainsong at the latter institution. Here he imparted the true principles of the ancient music with and as a great success to many worthy pupils

Wagner's

later

Courage.

He

London ; but he only once appeared in public, at a concert for a charitable purpose, and left England again for Holland and Germany. Finally he returned to France and obtained a professorship of the violin at the newly established Conservatoire at Paris. He was solo violin at the Opera until November 1799. In 1799 he went to Spain, and at Madrid met Boccherini,

who
for

is said to have written the orchestration Rode's earlier concertos, especially for that On his return to Paris in 1800 in' B minor. he was appointed solo-violinist to the First Consul, and it was at that period that he

: !

; '

RODE
achieved his greatest success in the French capital. In 1803 he went with Boieldieu to St. Petersburg. Spohr heard him on his passage through Brunswick, and was so impressed that for a considerable time he made it his one aim to imitate his style and manner as closely as possible. Arrived at the Russian
capital,

RODWELL

117

reception,

Eode met with a most enthusiastic and was at once attached to the private music of the Emperor with a salary of 5000 roubles (about 750). But the fatigues
of
life

this period

in Russia were so excessive that from a, decline of his powers appears to

have set
his

in. On his return to Paris in 1808 reception was less enthusiastic than in former times, and even his warmest friends and admirers could not but feel that he had lost considerably in certainty and vigour. From 1811 we find him again travelling in Germany. Spohr, who heard him in 1813 at Vienna, tells in his Autobiography (i. 178) of the disappointment he felt at Eode's playing, which he now found mannered, and deficient in execution

musical education appears to have been, like that of most French violinists, deficient (we have already mentioned that Boccherini added the simple orchestration to his earlier concertos), yet his works,' especially his concertos, have a noble dignified character and considerable charm of melody, while, it need hardly be added, they are thoroughly suited to the nature of the violin. On the other hand, they hardly show high creative power ; of thematic treatment there is very little, the form, though not unsymmetrical, is somewhat loose, and the instrumentation poor. He published ten concertos (three more were issued after his death); five sets of quartets; seven sets of variations; three books of duos for two violins, and the well-known twentyfour caprices. Of his concertos,
still

the 7th in

minor

is

The

in the repertory of some eminent violinists; variations in major the same which

and

style.

In Vienna Rode came into contact, with Beethoven, who finished the great Sonata in G, op. It waa played by Rode 96, expressly for him. and the Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven's pupil, at a private concert, but as far as the violin part was concerned, not much to the composer's satisfaction. Soon afterwards, at any rate, Beethoven requested the Archduke to send the violin part to Rode that he might play it over before a second performance, and he adds He wiU not take it amiss certainly not would to God there were reason to beg his pardon for doing so.'' F^tis's statement that Beethoven wrote a Romance for Rode, probably rests on a confusion of the G major Sonata with the Romanza in the same key. In 1814 Eode went to Berlin, married, and remained for some time. He then retired to At a later date he made an his native place. ill-advised attempt to resume a public career. But his appearance at Paris proved a complete failure, and Mendelssohn, writing from thence in April 1825, says that he was fixed in his resolution never gain to take a fiddle in hand.^ This failure he took so much to heart that his health began to give way, and he died at Bordeaux, Nov. 25, 1830. Rode was one of the greatest of all violinists. During the earlier part of his career he displayed all the best qualities of a grand, noble, His pure, and thoroughly musical style. his tone large and intonation was perfect boldness and vigour, deep and tender pure In feeling, characterised his performances. fact he was no mere virtuoso, but a true artist. His truly musical nature shows itself equally Although his general in his compositions.
'
;

the famous singer Catalani and other celebrated vocalists after her have made their cheval de iataille are occasionally heard. But above all, his 24 caprices or etudes will always, along with Kreutzer's famous forty caprices, hold their- place as indispensable for a sound study of the violin. Although, owing to his life of travel, he had but few direct pupils, his influence through his example and compositions on the violinists of France, and more especially of Germany, was very great indeed. Bohm, the masterof Joachim, and Eduard Rietz, the friend of Mendelssohn, both studied under him for some time. p. D.

'

'

RODWELL, Geokge Herbert


bornNov.

Bonaparte,

15, 1800, brother of J. T. G. Rodwell, part proprietor and manager of the Adelphi

Thayer, Life

Me FantUie Mendelssohn,

<if

Beethoven,

iii.
i.

p. 223. p. 149.

Theatre, London, and author of several dramatic pieces, was for many years music-director of the Adelphi. On the death of his brother, in March 1825, he succeeded to his share in the theatre. He was a pupil of Vincent Novello and Henry Bjshop, and became in 1 828 professor of harmony and composition at the Royal Academy of Music. He was the composer of very many operettas and other dramatic pieces, ' of which the following are the principal The Flying Dutchman' (Adelphi, 1826); 'The Cornish Miners' (English Opera- House, 1827) ; ' The Bottle Imp ' and ' The Mason of Bnda (partly adapted from Auber's Le Ma^on '), 1828 ; 'The Spring Lock,' 'The Earthquake,' and 'The Devil's Elixir,' 1829; 'The Black Vulture,' 1830 'My Own Lover,' and 'The Evil Eye," 1832 ; ' The Lord of the Isles,' 1834 'Paul Clifford' (with Blewitt), 1835; 'The Spirit of the Bell' (Lyceum, 1835); 'The Sexton of Cologne,' 1836; 'Jack Sheppard,' 1839; and 'The Seven Sisters of Munich,' In 1836 he was director of the music 1847. at Covent Garden, where he brought out many adaptations of operas, etc., 'anticipating the
: ' ;

'

'

118

EOECKEL
'

KONTGEN
From admiration of Wagner's genius, Eoeckel withdrew an opera of his own, Farinelli, wliich had been accepted for performance at Dresden. See also Praeger's Wagner as I knew He died at Buda-Pesth on him, p. 119 ff. June 18, 1876. Edward, the second son of Professor Eoeckel, was born at Treves on Nov. 20, 1816, and received his musical education from his uncle He came to London in 1835, J. N. Hummel. and gave his first concert in 1836 at the King's Theatre. He subsequently went on a concerttour in Germany, and performed with great success at the courts of Prussia, Saxony, SaxeWeimar, Anhalt-Dessau, etc. In 1848 Eoeckel settled in England, and resided at Bath, where he succeeded the late Heniy Field. He died there Nov. 2, 1899. He published a considerable quantity of pianoforte music. Joseph Leopold, theyoungest son of Professor Eoeckel, was born in London, April 11, 1838. He studied composition at Wiirzburg omder Eisenhofer, and orchestration under Gotze at Weimar. Like his brother, Mr. J. L. Eoeckel settled in England, and lives at Clifton ; he is well known as a teacher and a voluminous composer of songs. His orchestral and instrumental compositions are less well known, but Fair Eosamoud,' Euth,' The his cantatas Sea Maidens,' 'Westward Ho,' and 'Maiy
wards.
' ' ' '

repertory of Drury Lane (Diet, of Nat. Biog.). He was author of several farces and other

dramatic pieces, amongst which were 'Teddy the Tiler' (written in 1830 for Tyrone Power, and eminently successful), The Chimney-Piece, 'The Pride of Birth," 'The Student of Lyons," and 'My Wife's Out'; of three novels, 'Old
'

London Bridge,' Memoirs of an Umbrella,' and Woman's Love and of 'The First Eudimeuts
'

'

'

1831. He composed also two collections of songs: 'Songs of the Sabbath Eve,' and 'Songs of the Birds' (1827). He for many years persistently advocated the establishment of a National Opera. He married the daughter of Listen, the comedian ; died in Upper Ebury Street, Pimlioo, Jan. 22, 1852, and was buried at Brompton Cemetery. w. h. h.
of Harmony,'

EOECKEL, Pkofessok Joseph August, wsis born August 28, 1783, at Neumburg vorm Wald, in the Upper Palatinate. He was originally intended for the chur.oh, but in 1803 entered the diplomatic service of the Elector of Bavaria as Private Secretary to the Bavarian Charge d' Affaires at Salzburg. On the recall of the Salzburg Legation in 1804, he accepted an engagement to sing at the Theatre anderWieh, where, March 29, 1806, he appeared as Florestan in the revival of Fidelio.'^ In 1823 Eoeckel was appointed Professor of Singing at the Imperial Opera ; in 1828 he undertook the
'

direction of the opera at Aix-la-Chapelle, and in the following year made the bold experiment

Stuart,'

'

The Victorian Age

'

(1887), and

many

German operas in Paris with a complete German company. Encouraged by the success of this venture. Professor Eoeckel remained in Paris until 1832, when he brought his company to London, and produced Fidelio,' Der Freisohiitz,' and other masterpieces of the German school, at the King's Theatre the principal artists being Schriider-Devrient and Haitzinger, with Hummel (Boeckel's brother-inlaw) as conductor. In 1835 he retired from operatic life, and in 1853 finally returned to Germany, where he died, at Anhalt-Cbthen, in September 1870. August, his eldest son, was bom Dec. 1, He was Musikdirector at Bam1814, at Graz. berg, at Weimar (1838-43), and lastly was Musikdirector at the Dresden Opera in 1843-49, and so a colleague of Eiohard Wagner being, like the latter, involved in the Eevolution of 1848 (he had also witnessed the Paris revolution of 1830), he abandoned music and devoted himself entirely to politics. He spent thirteen
of producing
' ' ; ;

have been received with much favour. The first of these was performed at the Crystal Palace in 1871, and a baritone scena with orchestra, 'Siddartha,' was produced at the Bristol Festival of 1896. A song-cycle was brought forward at the same festival in 1902. In 1864 Eoeckel married Miss Jane Jackson, a successful pianist, who did much good work sis a teacher at Clifton, and wrote pianoforte pieces, etc. under the name of Jules de Sivrai. She died at Clifton on Aug. 26, 1907, aged 73. w. b. s. EONTGEN, Engelbeet, bom Sept. 30, 1829, at Deventer in Holland, entered the Conservatorium at Leipzig in 1848, as a pupil of David
others,
,

for violin

and of Hauptmann

for theory.

Upon

graduating at the Conservatorium, Eontgen was engaged as a first violin both, in the Opera orchestra and in the famous Gewandhaus orchestra. In 1869 he became professor of the violin at the Conservatorium second Concertmeister of the Gewandhaus orchestra, and, on the death of his illustrious master, David, in 1873, he was made first Concertmeister in his
;

years in prison (1849-62), and on his release became editor of various newspapers, at Coburg, Frankfort, Munich, and Vienna, successively. He published an account of his imprisonment (Sachsen's Erhehvmg, etc.). Wagner's letters to him were published in 1894, and translated into English by Miss E. C. Sellar shortly after^

Eontgen was a fine violinist although he never adopted the career of a virtuoso, and his careful editing of Beethoven's Quartets proves him to have been a scholarly musician. He maiTied a daughter of Moritz Klengel, himself Concertmeister at the Gewandhaus. He died in Leipzig, Deo. 12, 1897. A. Ehrlich's Celebrated
place.

ee^ Thayer, vol.

For Boeckera own account of his intercourse with Beetiioven li. p. 294, and ToL ili. p. 369.

Violinists;

Bachmann, Le

Violon

Lahee's
ir

Famous

Violinists.

a ; ; '

'

KOGEL
His son, Julius, waa born at Leipzig, May 9, 1855, and soon displayed a great gift for music. His parents were his first teachers, and he afterwards learned from Hauptmann, Richter,Plaidy, and Eeinecke. In 1872 he went to Munich, and remained there for some time studying counterpoint and composition under Franz Lachner. tour with Stockhausen in 1873-74, during which he played chiefly his own compositions, launched him favourably before the world. [He now lives in Amsterdam, where he was teacher in the Conservatorium for some years before succeeding Verhulst as director of the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Tonkunst in 1886. He was also conductor of the Felix Meritis society for the last two years of its existence. Since 1898 Eontgen has devoted himself entirely to teaching and composition.] His published works amount to eighteen, almost all of a serious character. They are, for the JF. duet for four hands, in four movements (op. 16) two sonatas (opp. 2, 10), a phantasle (op. 8) ; a a ballade (op. 5), a cyclus of suite (op. 7) pieces (op. 6), and a theme with variations (op. 17), etc. etc. ; a sonata for PF. and violin a (op. 1) and for PF. and violoncello (op. 3) concerto for PF. and orchestra (op. 18) a serenade for seven wind instruments (op. 14) 'Toskanische Rispetti,' a Liederspiel (op. 9); The violoncello nine songs (op. 15) etc. etc. sonata was played at the Monday Popular Concert of Feb. 14, 1881, and was well re-

ROGER

119

and is from copper plates. It is said that he was one of the first to introduce the practice
of punching the notes on the copper as a substitute for engraving. Walsh and Hare are stated to have taken this idea from him and to have used pewter, a cheaper and a more ductile metal. He translated the TraiU de la com'

position of de Nivers into Flemish (1697). Among other works Roger issued, cArca 1720,

a fine edition of Corelli's four sets of Sonatas, and also of the same composer's Concertos. Several collections of miscellaneous works are mentioned in the Quellen-Lexikon. Roger either died or gave up business about 1725 (his last dated publication is 1722), leaving as his successor Michel Charles Le Cene,

who

reissued

many

of his predecessor's publir. K.

cations,

ROGER,
up by an

GusTAVE

Hippolite,
17,

eminent
at

French singer, born Dec.


Chapelle-Saint-Denis, Paris.

1815,

La

He was

brought

uncle, and educated at the Lyo& Charlemagne for the legal profession, but his studies were so neglected for an amateur theatre of which he was the leading tenor and selfconstituted manager, that he was at length

ceived.

G.

Jos6, Spanish conductor and composer, born at Orihuela, Alicante, Deo. 24, 1829 began music under Cascales and GU, organist and conductor of the cathedral, and made great progress, till sent to Valencia by his father to study law. The six years which he spent there
were, however, devoted much more to music than to law, under the guidance of Pascual Perez, a musician of ability, from whom he learned

ROGEL,

composition and other branches of practical After completing his legal course and music. taking his degree at Madrid, Rogel was able to indulge his taste, plunged into music without restraint, and became, or at any rate acted as, conductor and composer to several theatres. The notice of him in Pougin's supplement to F^tis, from which this notice is taken, enumerates no fewer than sixty-one zarziielas or dramatic pieces of his composition, fourteen of them in three acts, eight in two acts, and the remainder in one act, besides a dozen not yet brought out. The titles of the pieces are of all characters, ranging from ReVista de un muerto ' and ' Un Viage demil demonios to ' El General Bumbum. No criticism is given on the merits of the music,
' '

but

it

must

at least be popular.
in a very extensive

6.

ROGER, EsTiENNE, an Amsterdam


publisher,

music-

who was

way

of

His work is of business from 1696 to 1722. the highest class of music-printing and engraving,

allowed to follow his real vocation. He entered the Conservatoire in 1836, and after studying for a year under Martin carried off the first prizes both for singing and opera -comique. He obtained an immediate engagement, and made his debut at the Op^ra-Comique, Feb. 16, 1838, as Georges in L'ficlair.' To a charming voice and distinguished appearance he added great intelligence and stage tact, qualities which soon made him the favourite tenor of the Parisian world, and one of the best comedians of the day. Ambroise Thomas composed for him ' Le Perruquier de la R^gence ' and Mina,' Halevy gave him capital parts in ' Les Mousquetaires de la Reine ' and ' Le Guitarrero,' and Auber secured him for ' Le Domino Noir,' ' La Part du Diable,' ' La Sii'ene, and Haydfe. ' Meyerbeer declared him to be the only French artist capable of creating the part of John of Leyden. In consequence, after ten years of uninterrupted success, Roger left the Opi^ra-Comique for the Academie, where on April 16, 1849, he created an immense sensation with Mme. Viardot, in Le Prophfete. His acting was quite as good in tragedy as it had been in comedy, but his voice could not stand the wear and tear of the fatiguing riperUyire he had now to undertake. During the next ten years, however, he was invaluable at the Op^ra, creating new parts in the 'Enfant prodigue,' His best the ' Juif errant,' and many more. creation after John of Leyden, and his last part Hercuat the Op^ra, was Helios in David's lamim' (March 4, 1859). In the following autumn he lost his right arm while shooting, by the bursting of a gun he reappeared with a false one, but with all his skill and bravery he could not conceal his misfortune, and found
' ' ' ' ' ' ;

'

'

120

EOGERS
tlie

ROGEKS
Aca(see

himself compelled to bid farewell to

Wesf s Gaih.

ddmie and to Paris. He went once more to Germany, which he had been in the habit of visiting since 1850, and where he was invariably successful, partly owing to his unusual command of the language. After this he sang in the principal provincial theatres of France, and in 1861 reappeared at the Op^ra-Comique in his best parts, especially that of Georges Brown in 'La Dame Blanche,' but it was evident that the time for his retirement had arrived. He then took pupils for singing, and in 1868 accepted a professorship at the Conservatoire, which he held till his
death, Sept. 12, 1879. Roger was of an amiable and benevolent disposition. He talked well, wrote with ease, and was the author of the French translation of Haydn's Seasons,' and of the words of several romances and German Lieder. His book, Le Garnet d'un Unor (Paris, Ollendorff, 1880), is a portion of his autobiography. It contains an account of his visits to England in 1847 (June),
'

ever, assuring to

him an annuity

Org., p. 120), the College, howof 30 for life.

He survived until June 1698, on the 21st of which month he was buried at St. Peter-le-Bailey. His widow, whom the College had pensioned with two-thirds of his annuity, survived him only seven months, and was laid by his side Rogers composed much church Jan. 5, 1699.

four services are printed in the collections of Boyce, Rimbault, and Sir F. Ouseley ; another, an Evening Verse Service in G, is at Ely in MS.

music

in 'Cantica Sacra,' 1674, and by Boyce and Page ; and many others are in MS. in the books of various cathedrals and college chapels. Four glees are contained

Some anthems were printed

in Playford's 'Musical Companion,' 1673, and many instrumental compositions in 'Courtly

Masquing Ayres,' 1662.

[Some MS.

organ

and 1848 (June-Nov.), when he sang at the Royal Italian Opera, and made an artistic tour in the provinces with Mile. Jenny Lind, and
other artists.
G. c.

ROGERS, Benjamin,

Mus.D., son of Peter

Rogers, lay-clerk of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, was born at Windsor in 1614. He was a chorister of St. George's under Dr. Giles, and afterwards a lay r clerk there. He succeeded Jewett in 16-39 as organist of Christ Church, Dublin, where he continued until the rebellion in 1641, when he returned to Windsor and obtained a lay-clerk's place there but on the breaking up of the choir in 1644 he taught music in Windsor and its neighbourhood, and obtained some compensation for the loss of
;

compositions are in the library of the Royal College of Music, and Mr. J. S. Bumpus possesses a volume in the handwriting of Dr. Philip Hayes, containing the whole of Rogers's compositions for the church.] His Hymnus Eucharisticus (the first stanza of which, commencing 'TeDeum Patrem colimus,' is daily sung in Magdalen College Hall by way of grace after dinner, and is printed in the Appendix to Hawkins's History) is sung annually on the top of Magdalen tower at five in the morning of May 1 in lieu of a requiem which, before the Reformation, was performed in the same place for the soul of Henry VII. His service in and some of his anthems, which are pleasing and melodious in
'

character, are still

ROGERS, John,
London, was
Charles
gate,
II. in

sung in cathedrals, w. h. h. a famous lutenist, born in attached to the household of

1661-63.

He

lived near Alders-

and died thereabout 1663. w. H. H. ROGERS, SiE John Leman, Bart., born April

his appointment.

airs in four parts for violins

In 1653 he composed some and organ, which

were presented to the Archduke Leopold, afterwards Emperor of Germany, and favourably received by him. In 1658 he was admitted Mus.B. at Cambridge. (See Carlyle's Oliver Cromwell, v. 243, 244 (People's edition).) In 1660 he composed a Hymnns Euoharistieus in four parts, to words by Dr. Nathaniel Ingelo, which was performed at Guildhall when Charles II. dined there on July 5.' About the same time he became organist of Eton College. On Oct. 21, 1662, he was reappointed a lay-clerk at St. George's, Windsor, his stipend being augmented by half the customary amount and he also received out of the organist's salary 1 per month as deputy organist. On July 22, 1664, he was appointed Informator Choristarum and organist of Magdalen College, Oxford. On July 8, 1669, he proceeded Mus.D. at Oxford. In Jan. 1685 he was removed from his place at Magdalen College on account of irregularities
'

18, 1780, succeeded his father in the baronetcy He became a member of the Madrigal in 1797. Society in 1819, and in 1820 was elected its

1 Thehymn vita different fram that, beArln^ the same Bbgers afterwarde eet for Magdaleu College, Oxford.

title,

wMcb

permanent President (being the first so appointed), and held the office until 1841, when he resigned on account of ill-health. He composed a cathedral service, chants, anthems, madrigals, glees, and other vocal music. [See Hullah's Part Music, Class A, and Vocal Scores.] He was an ardent admirer of the compositions of Tallis, and by his exertions an annual service was held for several years in Westminster Abbey, the music being wholly thatofTallis. HediedDee. 10, 1847. w. h. h. ROGERS, Roland, Mus.D., bom at West Bromwich, Staffordshire, Nov. 17, 1847, where he was appointed organist of St. Peter's Church in 1858. He studied under Mr. S. Grosvenor, and in 1862 obtained by competition the post of organist at St. John's, Wolverhampton. In 1867 he similarly obtained the organistship Of Tettenhall parish church, and in 1871 was appointed organist and choirmaster of Bangor Cathedral, a post which he resigned at the end
,


' ' '

ROGUES' MARCH, THE


of 1891. He took the Oxford degree of Mus.B. in 1870, and that of Mus.D. in 1875. Dr. Eogers's published works are ' Prayer and Praise, ' a cantata, a prize cantata, The Garden (Llandudno, 1896), Evening Services in Bl> and D, Anthems, Part-songs, Organ Solos, and Songs ; a Symphony in A, a Psalm De Pro'

EOI DES VIOLONS

121

14, 1321, the minestriers or fiddlers of France formed themselves into a regular corporation, with a code of laws in eleven sections, which

was presented

to the Prev6t of Paris, and by registered at the Chatelet. The Confraternity, founded by thirty-seven jongleurs and

him

jongUresses,

fundis,'
still

in

and MS.

several

Anthems and

Services are

w.

B. s.

Originally a military quickstep, which from some cause has become appropriate to use when offenders are drummed out of the army. When, from theft, or other crime, it is decided to expel a man from the regiment, the buttons bearing the regimental number, and other special decorations, are cut from his coat, and he is then marched, to the music of drums and fifes playing 'The Rogues' March,' to the barrack gates, and kicked or thrust out into the street. The ceremony stiU continues at the present day. The writer, though he has made diligent search, cannot find traces of the tune before the middle of the 18 th century, although there can be but
little

ROGUES' MARCH, THE.

doubt that the air, with its association, had been in use long before that time. About 1790, and later, a certain more vocal setting of the air was used for many popular humorous 'Robinson Crusoe,' 'Abraham Newsongs. Tight little land,' and the better -known
'

The latter song, as 'The Island,' was written by Thomas Dibdin about 1798, and sung by a singer named Davies
Island,' are

among

these.

whose names have been preserved, prospered so far as in 1330 to purchase a site and erect on it a hospital for poor musicians. The building was begun in 1331, finished in 1335, and dedicated to St. Julien and St. Genest. The superior of this ' Confr^rie of St. Julien des mte^triers' was styled 'king,' and the following were ' Rois des men^triers in the 14th century: Robert Caveron, 1338 ; Copin du Brequin, 1349 ; Jean Caumez, 1387 ; and Jehan Portevin, 1392. In 1407 the musicians, vocal and instrumental, separated themselves from the mountebanks and tumblers who had been associated with them by the statutes of 1321. The new constitution received the sanction of Charles VI., April 24, 1407, and it was enacted that no musician might teach, or exercise his profession, without having passed an examination, and been declared suffisani by the 'Roi des These statutes m^nestrels' or his deputies. continued in force down to the middle of the History, however, tells but 17th century. The only little about the new corporation. ' rois whose names have been preserved in the

'

'

charters are

at Sadler's Wells in that year. The original ' Rogues' March

'

stands thus

Jehan Boissard, called Verdelet, 1420 ; Jehan Facien, the elder, and Claude de Bouchardon, oboes in the band of Henri 111., Claude Nyon, Claude Nyon, 1590 1575 Fran9ois Rishomme, called Lafont, 1600 1615 and Louis Constantin, 'roi' from 1624
; ; ; ;

Constantin, who died in Paris 1657, to 1655. was a distinguished artist, violinist to Louis

Xlll. and composer of pieces for strings in five and six parts, several of which are preserved in the valuable collection already named under
,

It is foimd in
fife

many

18th-century collections of
;

and flute music the above copy is from 'The Compleat Tutor for the Fife,' London, printed for and sold by Thompson & Son, 8vo,
circa 1759-60.
F- K.

Philidor, vol. iii. p. 703. In 1514 the title was changed to 'roi des m&estrels duroyaume. All provincial musicians were compelled to acknowledge the authority of the corporation in Paris, and in the 1 6th century branches were established in the principal towns of France under the title of Confr&ie de St. Julien des men^triers.' In Oct. 1658, LouisXIV. confirmed Constantin's successor, Guillaume Dumanoir I., in the post of Roi des violons,
'

'

'

ROHR FLUTE
work,
vol.
ii.

(Rohrflbte). pp. 68-9.

See Flute-

Opera in five acts, libretto by Louis Gallet, music by Jules MasProduced at the Grand Op6ra, Paris, senet. April 27, 1877, and at Covent Garden, Royal
Italian Opera, Jnne 28, 1879.

ROI DE LAHORE, LE.

of the violins of great interest as illustrating the struggle between Art and Authority. On Sept.

ROI DES VIOLONS' King


title

maitres a danser, et joueurs d'instruments tant haut que bas,' ordaining at the same time that should have the sole the ' Roi des violons privilege of conferring the mastership of the art throughout the kingdom ; that no one should be admitted thereto without serving an apprenticeship of four years, and paying sixty livres to the ' roi,' and ten livres to the masters of the Confr^rie ; the masters themselves paying an annual sum of thirty sous to the corporation, with a further commission to the ' roi for each
'

'

122
pupil.

ROI DES VIOLONS

KOKITANSKY
obliged to be content with the title of Roi et maltre des menetriers, joueurs d'instruments tant haut que bas, et hautbois, et communaute Roi Guignon still predes mattres ii danser.' served the right of conferring on provincial musicians the title of lieutenants gtodraux et particuliers to the 'roi des violons," but even this was abrogated by a decree of the Conseil The last 'roi dea d'fitat, Feb. 13, 1773. violons at once resigned, and in the following
' ' ' '

The masters alone were privileged to play in taverns and other public places, and in case this rule were infringed, the 'roi' could send the offender to prison and destroy his instruments. This formidable monopoly extended even to the King's band, the famous 'twenty -four violons,' who were admitted to office by the roi alone on payment of his fee.
' '

[See

ViNGT-QUATKE ViOLONS.]

So jealously did Guillaume Dumanoir I. guard his rights, that in 1662 he commenced an action against thirteen dancing-masters, who, with the view of throwing off the yoke of the corporation, had obtained from Louis XIV. permission to found an Academic de danse.' The struggle gave rise to various pamphlets,' and Dumanoir was beaten at all points. He bequeathed a difficult task to his son Michel Guillaume Dumanoir II., who succeeded him as 'roi' in 1668, and endeavoured to enforce his supremacy on the instrumentalists of the Academic de Musique, but, as might have been expected, was overmatched by LuUy. After his difficulties with the director of the Op^ra,
'

was abolished by an edict of the King dated from Versailles. This hasty sketch of a difficult subject may be supplemented by consulting the following works : Abrigi historiqiie de la Meneslramdie (Versailles, 1774, 12mo) ; Statvis et riglements des maitres de danse et jcmeurs d'instrumenis

month

his office

registry

au Parlement

le

(Paris,

1753)

Becueil d'idils, arrSts

2Z AoUt 1659 du Conseil

Dumanoir II.,

like his father,

came into collision

du roi, lettres patevtes, . . . en faveur des musiciens du Boyawme (Ballard, 1774, 8vo) ; and Les InstruTmnts d, archet, by A. Vidal (i. and ii. Paris, 1876, 1877, 4to), which last contains nearly all the necessary information. G. c. ROI D'YS, LE. Opera in three acts, text
miisic by Edouard Lalo, produced at the Opera -Comique, Paris, May 7, 1888, and at Covent Garden, July 17, 1901. ROI L'A DIT, LE. Opera-comique in three acts, text by Edm. Gondinet, music by L6o Delibes produced at the Opera-Comique, Paris, May 24, 1873, in English at Prince of Wales's Theatre, by the Royal College of Miisic, Dec.

with the dancing- masters. In 1691 a royal proclamation was issued by which the elective committee was abolished, and its place filled by
hereditary officials, aided by four others appointed by purchase. Against this decree the corporation and the thirteen membera of the Academic de danse protested, but the Treasury was in want of funds, and declined to refund Finding himself unequal the purchase money. to such assaults Dumanoir resigned in 1693, and died in Paris in 1697. He delegated his powers to the privileged committee of 1691, and thus threw on them the onus of supporting the claims of the Gonfrerie over the clavecinists and organists of the kingdom ; a parliamentary decree of 1695, however, set free the composers and professors of music from all dependence on the This struggle corporation of the nUw&riers. When Pierre was several times renewed. Guignon (bom 1702, died 1775), a good violinist, and a member of the King's chambermusic, and of the Chapel Royal, attempted to reconstitute the Gonfrerie on a better footing, it became evident that the musicians as a body were determined to throw off the yoke of the Guignon was appointed 'Roi des association. violons ' by letters patent, June 15, 1741, was installed in 1742, and in 1747 endeavoured to enforce certain new enactments, but a parliamentary decree of May 30, 1750, put an end to his pretended authority over clavecinists, The organists, and other serious musicians. corporation was maintained, but its head was
1 of these the principal are EtatMaiemevt de PAcad&mte roytde de dance [sic] en la vUle de Parii, avec u ditcourt Acadimlgue pour prouver que la dance, done ta plus Twbte partie, n'apas beioin

by fidouard Blau,

13, 1894.

ROI LUI, LE. Opera-comique in three acts, text by Emile de Najac and Paul Burani, music by Emmanuel Chabrier ; produced at the Opera-Comique, Paris, May 18,
1887.

MALGRE

ROITZSCH,

F.

August,

bom Dec.

10, 1805,
es-

at Gruna, near Gorlitz,

won a high reputation


and more

as a careful editor of old music,

pecially of Bach's instrumental compositions, in the valuable cheap editions of the firm of
Peters.

He died at Leipzig, Feb. 4, 1889. ROKITANSKY, Hans, Frbiherk von,

M.

born

March

8, 1835, at Vienna, eldest son of Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky (1804-78), an eminent

medical professor. He studied singing chiefly at Bologna and Milan, and first appeared in

England at concerts

made

in 1856. In 1862 he his d^but at Prague in ' La Juive,' and fulfilled a very successful engagement there of two years. In 1863 he sang the same part

at Vienna, in 1864 obtained an engagement there, and was a member of the opera company
for many years, retiring in 1892. His voice was a basso -profondo of great compass and volume, very equal in all its range he had a commanding presence, and was an excellent His operas include La Juive," Robert actor.
;
'

dee inetrumentt de mutique, et pendamie duviolon (Parla, 1663,

gu'elte eat en tout abatOument ind64to}, and Le marioffe de tamurique etdela dance, contenant la rSp/mce [ale] au livre det treite prSCetidue acadimiciene touchante cea deux arte (ParlB, 1664, 12nio),

'

le Diable,"

berflbte,'

Les Huguenots," 'Guillaume Tell,'


'

'

Don Juan,' Zau'

'Le

Prophfete,'


ROKITANSKY
'Aida,' 'Faust,' 'Vestale,' 'Medea, 'and Wagner's

EOLLE

123

17, 1865, he reappeared in London at Her Majesty's as Marcel with very great success, and then sang there and at Drury

operas.

On June

on the timpani are made by the simple altemaSee nation of strokes with the two sticks.

Drum. EOLL-CALL.
Signals.

f. k.

See

Military Sounds and


violinist

Lane fo^ four consecutive seasons, and was greatly esteemed. He played with success as Kooco, Sarastro, Leporello, II Commendatore,
Oroveao, Falstaff, Osmin (June 30, 1866, on production in Italian of Mozart's Entfuhrung '), and Padre Guardiano in La Forza del Destine,' June 22, 1867. He returned for the
' '

He first at Pavia, April 22, 1757. studied the pianoforte, but soon exchanged it for the violin, which he learned under Eenzi
poser,

EOLL A, bom

Albssandro,

and com-

and 1877 in some of his old and played for the iirst time the King in 'Lohengrin,' and Giorgio in 'I Puritani.' He retired from public life at the end of 1894, and is now a professor in the Vienna Conserseasons of 1876
parts,

vatorium.

A. 0.

KOKITANSKY,
of the above, at Vienna.

Victor.

A younger brother

and a fashionable singing-master Born July 9, 1836. From 1871

to 1 880 he filled the post of Professor of Singing at the Conservatorium of Vienna ; he published Ueber Sanger mid Singen in 1894, and died in A. c. Vienna, July 17, 1896.

He had also a great predilection the viola, and wrote and performed in public concertos for that instrument. In 1782-1802 he was leader of the band at Parma, and it was there that Paganini was for some months his pupil. [See Pabanini.] In 1802 he went to Milan as leader and conductor of the opera at La Scala, in which position he gained a great reputation. He became in 1805 a professor at the Conservatorio of Milan, and died in that town, Sept. 15, 1841, aged eighty -four. Hia compositions, now entirely forgotten, had considerable success in their time ; they consist of a large number of violin
and Conti.
for

CO., pianoforte makers. William Rolfe was at 112 Gheapside in 1796 as a musicseller and publisher of minor musical works, Before also as maker of musical instruments. this date he was partner in a small musicpublishing fii-m, CuUiford, Kolfe, & Barrow, at With Samuel the same address, about 1790. Davis, Eolfe took out a patent for improvements in pianofortes on Jan. 31, 1797, and his pianofortes had some degree of reputation. His business continued until 1806, when the firm was William Rolfe & Sons, and in 1813 they had additional premises at 28 London Wall. Eolfe & Sous (or Co.) remained in Gheapside In 1850 the number had been for many years. changed to 61, and the London Wall premises They removed to 12 Great to 31 and 32. Marlborough Street (1869), and then (1878) During the eighties to 11 Orchard Street.
their place of business was at 6 Lower Seymour Street, but after 1890 the wTiter can find no r. K. traces of them.

EOLFE &

serenades, trios, quartets, and stringed instruments, and concertos for the violin and for the viola, as well (See the Quellen-Lexilcon. ) His son as songs. and pupil, Antonio, violinist, was bora at Parma, April 18, 1798 ; from 1823 tUl 1835
duets,

some

quintets

for

was leader of the Italian Opera band at Dresden, and died there. May 19, 1837. Hepublishedconcertos and other solo pieces for the violin, p. D.

A German musical family. The Christian Friedrich, was town musician of Quedlinburg and of Magdeburg in 1721, Of his three sons. and died there in 1751. Christian Carl, bom at QuedUnburg in 1714, was Cantor of the Jerusalem Church, Berlin, about 1760, but was apparently of no account. He had sons, of whom Friedrich Heinwhile KICH left a biography of his father Christian Carl (the younger) succeeded him
EOLLE.
father,
;

as Cantor.

2.

A second
3.

son

is

mentioned, but

without Aame.

The

third,

JoHANN Hein-

RICH, was bom at Quedlinburg, Dec. 23, 1718, and at an early age began to play and to write.

EOLL, in dramming, is a tremolo -effect on the side-drum, produced by a certain varied method of playing according to the kind of roll
desired.
'

He

held the post of organist at St. Peter's,

The first practice of this is called daddy mammy,' which, commencing deliberwith a long stroke
for

each syllable, gradually increases in speed until the beats are merged into one continuous roll. The 'long roll is an alternate beat of two with the left The stick, followed by two with the right. is two with the left, two five stroke roll with the right, one with the left, two with the right, two with the left, and one with the
ately,
'

'

'

right
' '

or

more

briefly

The seven

stroke roll ' is

nine stroke roll ' is by a short rest, and

L lerllrr.l followed
.

l lek.l;ekll.k. L L R n L L K. The

krllrrll..r.

EoUs

Magdeburg, in 1732 when only fourteen years He was at the Leipzig old (^Quellen-Lexikon). University in 1736, and migrated to Berlin in hopes of some legal post but this failing he adopted music as his career, and about 1740 entered the Court chapel of Frederick the Great There as a chamber musician (viola player). he remained till 1746, and then took the organist's place at the Johanniskirche, Magdeburg, as town musician, worked there with uncommon zeal and efficiency, and died at the His industry age of sixty-seven. Dee. 29, 1785. seems almost to have rivalled that of Bach himHe left several complete annual series of self. church music for all the Sundays and Festivals ; cantatas for Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas,
;


'

124
of

ROLLI

ROMANTIC
In from the character or title of the words. English poetry we have few romances,' though such of Moore's melodies as She is far from the land where her young hero sleeps might well But in France they abound, and bear the title. some composers (such as Puget and Panseron) have derived nine -tenths of their reputation ' Partant pour la Syrie may be from them. named as a good example, well known on this Mendelssohn's Songs without side the water. Words' are called in France 'Romances sans
' ' '
'

Berlin

which many are in the Eoyal Library at fiite Passions, and at least sixty other
;

large church compositions. Besides these there exist twenty-one large works of his, of a nature between oratorio and drama, such as ' Saul, or

the power of Music,' 'Samson,' 'David and Jonathan,' 'The Labours of Hercules,' 'Orestes

and Pylades,' 'Abraham on Moriah,' 'The Death of Abel,' etc. The last two were for many years performed annually at Berlin, and
were so popular that the editions ha(i to be renewed repeatedly. In addition to these he
songs and compositions for organ, orchestra, and separate instruments. (See the Quellen-Lexikon for list.) All have now as good as perished ; but those who wish to know what kind of music they were, will find a specimen in Hullah's 'Vocal scores,' 'The Lordis King.' It has a good deal of vigour, but no originality or character. Others are given in the collections of Sander and Eochlitz, and a set of twenty motets for four voices was published at Magdeburg by Eebling (1851-66.) g.
left
I

'

Paroles.'

<*

many

Florentine,

ROLLI, Paolo Antonio, an Italian poet, a who was employed by the managers

of the Italian opera to supply the libretti for


several of the operas put before the English public

in the early years of the 18th century.


said that he

It is

was originally a pastry-cook, but coming to England about 1718, his productions pleased the public, and he became much noticed. In 1727 he issued a small book of canzonets and cantatas, with the music, dedicated to the Countess of Pembroke. At a later date he set up as teacher of the Italian language, and left England for Italy in 1744. Two stanzas of his poem, Se tu m' ami,' were set by Pergolesi, and three by J. J. Rousseau and his whole book of canzonets and cantatas was adapted to new music by William De Fesch about 1745-46, and published with a fresh dedication
'

Felice, a famous Italian litteraHe was teur, born at Genoa, Jan. 31, 1788. educated for the law, but soon forsook it for more congenial pursuits, and was in early life appointed to the post of poet to the royal The fall theatres, with a salary of 6000 lire. of the French government in Italy drove him to his own resources. He began with a comedy, ' L' Amante e 1' Impostore," which was very successful, and the forerunner of many dramatic But his claim to notice in a dictionary pieces. of music rests on his opera-librettos, in which he was for long the favourite of the Italian comFor Simone Mayr he wrote 'Medea' posers. (1812), 'La Rosa bianca e la Rosa rossa,' and Aureliano in Palmira,' others for Rossini, Bianca for Bellini, and ' II Turoo in Italia
' ; ' ; '

ROMANI,

e Faliero,
'

'

'

La

Straniera,
' '

'

'

La Sonnambula,
and Beatrice
'

II Pirata, '

'

Norma,

I Capuletti, '

di
for
'

Tenda';
'

for Donizetti,

'Lucrezia,'

'Anna
;

Bolena,'

L' Elisir d' amore,'


'

and 'Parisina'
' ;
'

to

Lady Frances Erskine.

r. K.

Conte d' Essex for Eicci, and many Un Avventura di Scaramuccia As editor for others, in all fully a hundred. many years of the Gazzetta PiemoiUese, he was a voluminous writer. In the latter part of his life he became blind, and was pensioned by government, and spent his last years in his family circle at Moneglia, on the Riviera, where he died full of years and
Mercadante,
II
;

(Germ. Somanse). A term of very vague signification, answering in music to the same term in poetry, where the characteristics are rather those of personal sentiment and The Romanze expression than of precise form. in Mozart's D minor PF. Concerto differs (if it differs) from the slow movements of his other Concertos in the extremely tender and delicate character of its expression ; in its form there is nothing at all unusual and the same may be said of Beethoven's two Romances for the violin and orchestra in G and F (opp. 40 and 50), and Drei Romanzen (op. 28), of Schumann's Schumann has also afiixed the title to three movements for oboe and PF. (op. 94), and to a well-known piece in D minor (op. 32, No. 3), just as he has used the similar title, in LegenThe Romance which forms the second denton.

ROMANCE

honours, Jan. 28, 1865. G. ROMANO, one of the names (derived from his bii'thplace) of a certain Alessandro, who was also known under the name of Alessandko

BELLA Viola from his favourite instrument a composer and performer on the viola, was born at Rome about the year 1530. His published works include a set of madrigals, Venice, 1554
tb.

(Royal College of Music, etc.); five-part madrigals, 1565 twQ books of Canzoni Napolitane for
;

'

'

'

'

movement of his symphony in D minor, little poem full of sentimental expression.


In vocal music the term
is

is

obviously derived

1572 and 1576); a set of motets in five parts (Venice, 1579). A fivepart madrigal by him, 'Non pur d'almisplendori,' is published in the Libro terzo deUe Muse' (Venice, Gardano, 1561). [See ;the QuellenLexikon, s.v. Alessandro.] p. d. ROMANTIC is a term which, with its antithesis Classical, has been borrowed by music from literature. But so delicate and"Ineorporeal are the qualities of composition which both words describe in their application to music, and
five voices (Venice,
'


ROMANTIC
so arbitrary has been their use by different writers, that neither .word is susceptible of very precise definition. The best guide, however, to

EOMANTIC

125

presence of the fuller romanticism of Beethoven, placed Haydn and Mozart among the classical

the meaning of 'romantic' is supplied by its etymology. (The poetic tales of the Middle Ages, written in the old Romance dialects, were called Romances. In them mythological fables

and why Beethoven himself, in his was declared to-be^ classical. The propriety of applying the ter m Roman tic to-QjiEias -whose sulyects are taken fro m rmnaiitin literatm:fi._or_ to songs where music is set to
composers
turn,
;

and Christian

legends, stories of fairyland,

and

romantip. words, wi11 not be qumtioTiBd-

And

adventures of Crusaders and other heroes of chivalry, were indiscriminately blended, and the fantastic figures thus brought together moved in a dim atmosphere of mystic gloom and religions ecstasy. These mediiKval productions had long been neglected and forgotten even by scholars, when, about the close of the 18th century, they were again brought into notice by a group of poets, of whom the most notable were the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedxich

from. such works it is easy to select passages which present romantic*pictures to the mind, as, for instance, the Trumpet passage on the long B|7 in the bass in the great Leonore overture, the three horn notes in the overture to ' Oberon,' or the three drum notes in the overture to Der Freischiitz.' But in pure ingtnnnB ntal mu^i c
'

von Schlegel,
Novalis.

Ludwig

Tieck,

and Friedtich
spirit

They

set themselves to rescue the old

romances from oblivion, and to revive the

of mediaeval poetry in modern literature by the example of their own works. Hence they came to be called the Romantic School, and were thus

distinguished from writers whose fidelity to rules and models of classic antiquity gave them a claim to' the title of Classical. It was not long before the term Romantic was and it was introduced into musical literature understood to characterise both the subjects of certain musical works and the spirit in which
;

the marks of romanticism are so fine, and the recognition of them depends so much on sympathy and mental predisposition, that the question whether this or that work is romantic may be a subject of interminable dispute among critics. Sometimes the only mark of romanticism would seem to be' a subtle effect of instrumentation, or a sudden change of key, as in the following passage from the Leonore Overture :

//tutu

Its antithetical significance they were treated. and to the term Classical still clung to it regard to perfection of Jafm-being often subordinated by so-called romantic composers to the object of giving free p^ay to the imaginative and emotional parts of our nature, there grew up around the epithet Romantic the notion of a tendency to depart more or less from the severity But, in truth, of purfly classical compositions. no clear line divides the romantic from the classical. As we shall endeavour to show, the
;

Another example from Beethoven is supplied of the PF. Concerto in 6 major, where after the solo has ended on the dominant the orchestra enters^ with the chord of B major. The whole bf the slow movement of this Concerto is thoroughly romantic, but perhaps that quality is most powerfully felt in

by the opening bars

the following passage


Tutti.

iV

greatest nameS-afJthe Classical school display the quality:-of romanticism in tha_spjrit or expression of some of their works,' while, on the

pdim.

Yet

other hand, the compositions of the Romantic school are freque!jlj_jnarked by scrnpulous adherence-io-thaiorais of traditional excellence. Again, as the associations of the word Classical convey the highest med__o-^>Eaise, works at
first pronounced to be rom antic es tablish, by general recognition of their mesitrAj^aim to be considered classical. What is 'romantic' to-day may thus grow, although itself unchanged, to The reader will thus be ' classical to-morrow. understand why, in Reichardt's opinion, Bach,
'

so subtle is the spell of its presence here thatiit would be difficult to define where its

Handel, and Gluck were classical, but Haydn and Mozart romantic ; why later critics, in
1 PreTOonltions of nmsical romanticism existed in fact long before the word came into use. To our modern ears, now conscions of this special quality, traces are clearly discernible. As examples we may take J. S. Bach's preludes Nos. 14 and 18 in the second hook of the Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' or the Arioso 'Am Abend da es JiUhlewar' from the Matthew Passion. Also many passages from Gluck's and Mozart's operas.
'

lies, unless it be in the abrupt change both in key (A minor to F major), and in the character of the phrase, almost forcing a scene, or recollection, or image, upon Indeed, romantic music possesses the hearer. 2 in the highest degree the power of evoking in the mind some vivid thought or conception as for instance, in a passage from the Adagio of the Ninth Symphony, where a sudden transition into D|> seems to say, Vanitas vanitatum, omnia and again in the Eroica, where at vanitas the end of the Trio, the long, holding notes and peculiar harmony in the horns seem to suggest the idea of Eternity
'
'

intense romanticism

'

'

B Pater's

definition

may
is

essence of romanticism
beautiful.'

well be applied to this example ' The the blending of strangeness with the
:

126
strings,

ROMANTIC
Horns.

ROMANTIC
subjectivity co-existed, the pleasures of imaginaSuch tion sometimes took a. morbid hue.

That there are times when music has a fuller and wider range of meaning than language, and defies expression in words, might be illustrated

by many
the last
that,

passages in Beethoven's

flat trio or

But with regard to the, choice of examples we must remind the reader
five sonatas.

where the standpoint of criticism is almost wholly subjective, great diversities of judgment
are inevitable.
It was not until after the appearance of the works of Carl Mar ia von eber, who lived in close relation wit^ the romantic school of literature, and who drew his inspirations from their writings, that crit|e s began to speak of a romantic school of mus ic' Beethoven had by this timeTeeiT accepted as classical, but in addition to Weber himself, Schubert and afterwards Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin were all held to be representatives of the romantic school. Widely as the composers of this new school differed in other respects, they were alike in their 'ifl(iept'^''''*^y *" *'^ *""" "*' ^'hnij;*'*^ and feeling wh ich so -deeply cnloiired the rom antic lit,eratiirBjTf_their time. {Tone of them were strangers to that weariness of the actual world around them, and those yearnings to escape from it, which pursued so many of the finest minds of the generations to which they belonged. T(f men thus predisposed, it was a relief and delight to live in an ideal world as remote as possible from the real one. Some took refuge in mediaeval legends, where no border divided the natural from the supernatural, and where nothing could be incongruous or improbable some in the charms and solitudes of nature and others in the contemplation of peace and But in all there beatitude beyond the grave. was the same impatience of the material and

conditions of origin as we have been describing could not fail to affect the forms of composition. It was not that the romanticists deliberately rejected or even undervalued classic models, but that, borne onward bY_the impulse to give freg_gjprssiqn[to theif^own individu ality, they did not suffer themselves to be bound by forms, however excellent, which they felt to be inadeHad the leaders of quate for their purpose. the romantic school been men of less genius, this tendency might have degenerated into disregard of form ; but happily in them liberty did not beget license, and the art of music was 'The enriched by the addition of new forms. extremes,' says Goethe, speaking of the romantic

'

school of literature, 'will disappear, and at lei%th the great advantage will remain that a wider and more varied subject-matter, together with a freer form, will be attained.' Goethe's anticipations were equally applicable to music. Among masters of the romantic school,

Weber stands second to none. In youth he surrendered himself to the fascination of literary romanticism, and this early bias of his mipd was confirmed in later years by constant intercourse at Dresden with Holtei, Tieck, E. T. A. Hoffmann, and other men of the same cast of thought. The subjects of Weber's Qgeras were selected exclusively from romantic literature, and the 'RomanticjOpeia,lejhich Gei-manyhas so much reason to be proud, owed to him its origin and highest development, although the names of Spohr,i Marschner, Lindpaintner, Kreutzer, Lortzing, and others are justly assoit. The romantic effects which Weber could produce in his instruittentation are

ciated with

indisputable; and never, even in the least of his pianoforte works, did he cease to be romantic.

Though Weber holds the first place in the opera of the romantic school, he was surpassed in other branches of composition by his contemis

conditions of their existence, the^ame longing to dwell in the midst of scenes and images which mortals could but dimly see through the glass of religious or poetic imagination. As might have been expected of works

mundane

porary, Franz gehtihgrt. Pure and classic as the form of Schubert's symjJiQnies and

sonata, the very essence of romanticism is disclosed in them. His unrivalled wealth of melody was the gift of romanticism. It gave him also a certain indefiniteness and, as it were,
indivisibility of ideas, which some critics have judged to be a failing, but which were in fact the secret of this strength, because they enabled him to repeat and develop, to change and then again resume his beautiful themes and figures in long and rich progression, without pause and without satiety. None have known, as he knew, how to elicit almost human sounds from a single instrument as for instance, in the wellknown passage for the horn in the second movement of the C major Symphony, of which Schumann said that 'it seems to have come
">'','?P0'"-' olin> to priority of -i,!!P'T Komantic opera, are discumed in OpEUi, vol. iil. inventioi of th(? p. 456. oto.

produced under
of outline

su(ph influences, indistinctness

of the romantic school.

wasacommon attribute of compositions The hard, clear lines

of reality were seldom met with in them, and the cold analysis of pure reason was perpetually eluded. It was equallynatural that the creations of minds withdrawn from contact with the

>

actual world and wrapt in their own fancies, should vividly reflect the moods and phases of

that they feeling out of which they sprang Nor should be, in short, intensely subjective. was it surprising that when impatience of
reality, indistinctness of outline,

and excessive

''"'''

ROMANTIC
lis from another world.' Many glorious passages might be pointed out in this Symphony, the romanticism of which it would be difficult to surpass ; for instance, the second subject in the first movement, the beginning of the working out in the Finale, etc. etc. In Song Schubert stands alone. Even from boyhood he had steeped ><; cn^^Ul^ T"^!^^^!? pnntry ; and so expressive isThe mi^ic of his songs that they require no words to reveal their deeply romantic

ROMANTIC
;

127

to

rhythmsappearin all his works and the frequent directions Mwrtato assai or MoUo marcato show what stress he laid upon emphasis. The influence of Jean Paul may be traced also in Schumann's sometimes grave and sometimes playful humour. Many of his pianoforte pieces are marked mit

Hwmor or wAt vielem Humor. And in this respect he is inferior only to Beethoven, of whose ' romantic humour ' he so often speaks in his Gesammelle Schriflen. The romantic* bias of
,

character.

Few were the thoughts or feelings which Schubert's genius was unable to express in music. He was (to quote Schumann again) the deadly enemy of all Philistinism, and after Beethoven the greatest master who made music
'
'

Schumann's mind was not less evident in his treatment of Oriental subjects. The colouring
Paradise and the Peri,' and of his 'Bilder aus Osten,' is vividly local. And of his songs we may cite the Waldesgesprach (op. 39, No. 3) as an example of the purest essence of romance. Full as the poem is in itself of romantic feeling and expression, the music interprets the words, rather than the words the music. The romantic spirit found a less congenial abode in the happy, equable disposition, and carefully disciplined imagination "*' MfTlf^"^"sohn ; but his genius was too sensitive and delicate to remain unaffected by the main currents of his age.'^ Take, for example, the first four chords in theoverture to A Midsummer Night's Dream.' And could it indeed be possible to illustrate Shakespeare's romantic play in music with fuller success than Mendelssohn has done ? The overtures The Hebrides,' 'Melusine,' and 'Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage,' are likewise full of the brightest qualities of romanticism. Not unlike Mendelssohn was William Sterndale Bennett ; and the points of resemblance between them were strict regard to form, clearness of poetic thought, and cultivated refinement of taste. Eomantic, too, Bennett certainly was ; as may at once be seen in his overtures, 'The Naiads' and 'The Wood Nymphs.' So
of his
' '
'

'

his vocation in the noblest sense of the word..'

S^jumann's own enmity to Philistinism was not less deadly than that of Schubert, andromanticism was its root in both men. So strongly
did Schumann resent the popularity of Herz, Hiinten, and other Philistines, whose works were in vogue about the year 1830, that he founded the Davidsbund to expose the hollowness of their pretensions. And equally dissatisfied with the shallow and contracted views of the musical critics of that day, he started his Neue Zeilschrift fur Musik to vindicate the claims of music to freedom from every limitation, except the laws of reason and of beauty. Even in childhood Schumann was an eager reader of romantic literature, and thewritingsof Hoffmann . and Jean Paul never lost their charm for him. He told a correspondent that if she would rightly understand his ' PapillonSj/op. 2, she must read the last chapter of Jean Paul's Flegeljahre ; and from Hoffmann he borrowed the title of.' Kreis^eriana.' It was not, however, the imaginary sufferings of Dr. Kreissler, but the real deep melancholy of Schumann's own soul, which exThough pressed itself in these noble fantasias. perfect in form, they are thoroughly romantic in thought and spirit. Not less romantic were the names he gave to his pianoforte pieces. These ' for is names,, he said, were scarcely necessary not music self-sufficing ? does it not speak for itself?' but he admitted that they were faithful The indexes to the character of the pieces. clearest tokens of the same source of inspiration may be found in his Fantasie, op. 1 7, which bears In the last as its motto a verse from Schlegel. part a deeply moving effect is produced by the abrupt change of key in the arpeggios from the But change s chords of C to A and then to F. of key were not his only resource for theproducExcepting Beethoven, tion of romantic effects. none have illustrated the power of rhythm so He often imparts a strange well as Schumann.

'

'

tranquil, clear

and perfect in

detail are

most

of;

Bennett's compositions, so delicate was tlie touch which fashioned them, that they latf^ been likened to the landscapes of ClaudgXftrraine. Yet there were rare moment|| '^mgn Bennett's habitual reserve relaxed, anS to the inspiration of such moments we may ascribe the romantic passages^hich occm- in his beautiful 'Paradise and the Peri' and 'Parisina' overtures.

whom

and entirely novel significance to commonplace

by syncopated notes, by putting the emphasis on the weak part of the bar, or by accents so marked as to give the impression of a simultaneous combination of triple and common time. These strong and eccentric
or familiar phrases

Notice of the modem German composers on the stamp of Schumann is so unmistakable, would lead us too far, but the names of Eobert Franz and Adolf Jensen cannot be Some of the tenderest and most omitted. delicate attributes of romanticism are to be found in their songs, as for instance in- the Dolorosa cycle of the latter composer. Peter Cornelius's spirit moves in adifferentatmosphere; a poet himself, he casts a peculiar and magic
'
'

1 In describing to Reichardt's daughter the succeea of her father's ' MorgeiigesRTig' at the Khine Festival, MendelBsohu adds, At the words Und schlich in diewr Jfac-ht the music beeoines 80 romantic and poetical that every time 1 hear it, 1 am more touched and
'

charmed.'

128
spell of

ROMANTIC
illustrate this.

EOMANTIC
poetic creations of Tchaikovsky

romance over his muaic. Wagner we pass by, because he cannot be counteoStmong the followers of the romantic school, and,
within the limits of this article, it would be impossible to show the points wherein he differs from all former romanticists. We may, howevei', designate one of the greatest of modem composers as oneofthegreatestromantioists and it is no disparagement to the individuality of Johannes Brahms to say that he is in many respects the disciple of Schubert and Schumann. The romanticism of such productions as the beautiful romances from Tieck's 'Magelone' (op. 33) or the cantata ' Einaldo (op. 50) is of course visible at a glance, and there are many other songs in which the presence of romantic sensibility is felt throughout. For instance in one of his most ex(juisite songs Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer,' the phrase 'Eh'- die Drossel singt im Wald reaches a point of romantic emotion difficult to describe. In Brahms's greater works the romanticism seems sometimes veiled, but there~are passages in his chamber - music and symphonies where this quality in its deepest sense besides. As examples, the romanticism of which could hardly be surpassed, we may cite the slow movement of the A major pianoforte quartet and the opening of the last movement of the C minor symphony or the last part of the first movement of the T) major symphony (seventy-three bars before the end, where the horns enter and the strings are kept in the low register) or the andante of the tliird symphony in F, where the different instruments softly call to each other, as if from another woly sentimentality, in the stilted diction and threadbare forms of
expression affected by the reigning school, the insurgent authors had indeed much to provoke them. But in the vehemence of their reaction against such faults they were apt to fall into an opposite extreme ; and thus, finish of form, clearness of outline, and coherent sequence of thought are too often absent from their works. With respect to music, Berlioz is the typical* name of the renaissance of 1830 ; but Liszt, on whom the French school exercised so strong an influence, may be associated with him. So far were these composers and their countless followers borne by the revolutionary impulse, that they did not shrink at times from a total rejection of the old traditional forma in their instrumental music ; but it cannot be said that very valuable results were obtained by their hardihood. They chose indeed romantic subjects for musical representation, as

tjWenty-seven bars before the close. Chopin holds a solitary position in romantic art. Ko school can claim him wholly for its own, and the best poetic gifts of the French, German, and Sclavonic nationalitie.3 were united in him. 'Chopin,' says Liszt, 'refused to be
to rules which fettered the play of his imagination, simply because they had been accepted as classical.' But the classic training and solid studies of his youth, combined with his exquisite taste and Annate refinement, preserved him from abuse of the liberty which The mental he was determined to enjoy. atmosphere of his life in Paris may be felt in his works. In hatred of whatever was commonplace and ordinary, he was one with the French romantic school but unlike them he would not allo^ originality alone to stand in his comBeauty there must always be to positions. and he would have recoiled from satisfy him the crudities and extravagances which disfigure some works of the French romantic period. So uniformly romantic was Chopin in every stage of his career, that it would be impossible to illustrate Among this quality of his music by extracts. the Sclavonic and Scandinavian races the romantic a study of the element is especially marked

bound by deference

but there the resemblance ceased.

Weber and Schumann had done, They iime