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Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest

Department of Foreign Languages and



Editura ARS DOCENDI – Universitatea din Bucureşti
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Editor: Ioan Crăciun

Tehnoredactare: Mălina GURGU
Coperta: Mălina GURGU

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României

“In the Beginning Was the Word”. On the Linguistic Matter

of Which the World Is Built / coord.: Zoia Manolescu, Mălina Gurgu,
Elena Maftei-Golopenţia – Bucureşti: Ars Docendi, 2015
ISBN 978-973-558-696-6

I. Manolescu, Zoia (coord.)

II. Gurgu, Mălina (coord.)
III. Maftei-Golopenţia, Elena (coord.)


Resposabilitatea pentru conţinutul lucrărilor din acest volum aparţine autorilor.

© Autorii, 2015
Tipărit la Editura Ars Docendi




Anca-Margareta BUNEA Marinela Doina NISTEA

Liliana RICINSCHI Raluca Maria TOPALĂ


With respect to documents available from this book neither the Department of
Foreign Languages and Communication nor any of its employees make any
warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for
the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,
product, or process disclosed.

Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by

trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily
constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by the
Department of Foreign Languages and Communication.

The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or
reflect those of the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication, and
shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

Foreword .......................................................................................................... 8


Anca-Margareta BUNEA
Localizing the software used in radiocommunication: a case study.............. 10
Cristina CHIFANE
Revisiting translation theories and models of children’s literature ............... 19
L’impact de la communication interculturelle dans la
traduction spécialisée à visée professionnelle ............................................... 40
The importance of terminology for translation studies ................................. 54
Collaborative and transnational translation: Margento ................................. 61
Maria Cătălina RADU
Dispariţia limbilor – o realitate a secolului XXI ............................................. 70
Mirela RADU
Ȋntre medicină şi arta scrisului ...................................................................... 80
Patricia ŞERBAC
Goethes „Erster Verlust“ – Analyse der Übersetzungsvarianten ................... 86
Roxana Cristina TOMA
Localisation et variation diatopique dans l’espace virtuel francophone ...... 102
Sorin TOMA
Zum Stand der Diskussion um die Frage der interkulturellen Kompetenz .. 117

Dana Sorana URS

Language as a universal manifestation ....................................................... 131

II. LINGUISTICS AND COMMUNICATION STUDIES .......................... 137

Florentina Ramona COIMAN

Le dispositif dit de scène dans une interview politique televisée ................ 138
Ana-Maria COMAN
La ponctuation: mécanisme pour la réalisation polyphonique ? ................. 145
Bianca GEMAN
Definiţiile şi rolul lor în terminologia arhitecturii ........................................ 159
Mălina GURGU
Comunicarea online pentru recrutarea studenţilor: cazul
instituţiilor de învăţământ superior româneşti ............................................ 167
Virginia POPOVIĆ
Errors in Romanian epitaphs in a Serbian Banat village (Seleuș)................ 180
Marina-Cristiana ROTARU
An awareness raising approach to the language of Queen Elizabeth II ...... 191
Raluca Maria TOPALĂ
Lexical features of diplomatic language ...................................................... 201
Effects and defects of language in
Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s short prose ................................................. 210

III. DIDACTICS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES ........................................ 221

Yolanda-Mirela CATELLY
Refreshing teaching resources – why, what, when, how ............................ 222
Lecturers’ intercultural communicative competence in an
English language classroom ......................................................................... 233
Irina-Ana DROBOT
Teaching phonetics and phonology using the film My Fair Lady (1964) ..... 252
Cognitive parameters of the acquisition of English as L2
by young learners ......................................................................................... 259

Willingness to communicate in an interdependent world:
impact on FL academic performances .......................................................... 275
Marilena Doina NISTEA
Româna șugubeață - un bob de zăbavă ....................................................... 287
Español medio, dialectos romances y rumano moderno. Similitudes
y diferentes de lenguas latinas europeas a comienzos del siglo XXI........... 296
Audio description and subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing
in translation training (report)..................................................................... 311

“In the beginning was the word”, and then everything that followed has been
based on great creations. It is the creative drive that has never been lost in
people and research in all fields implies not only new creations but also a
diversity of ideas, approaches and methods, which should be disseminated. This
is what the present volume is about.
We gathered here research papers from the conference on Professional
Communication and Academic Discourse in the Global Context of
Multilingualism, held at the Technical University of Civil Engineering and
organized by the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication on
June 12, 2014.
The title of the conference “In the Beginning Was the Word” on the Linguistic
Matter of Which the World Is Built was chosen considering that our university
has been a well-known “construction” place which has always provided a
suitable venue for initiating dialog between researches as well as for sharing
experiences and approaches.
In order to accommodate all papers within the time frame of the conference,
three thematic concurrent sessions were set up:
• Translation Studies and Intercultural Studies,
• Linguistics and Communication Studies,
• Didactics of Foreign Languages.
The International Conference welcomed researchers from Romania and from
different countries around the world providing opportunities not only to discuss
on various research topics but also to create and tighten academic bonds
between institutions.
As organizers of this event we would like to thank all the participants for the
opportunity that was offered to us to have in one-place academic colleagues
and friends that enabled a wealth of new knowledge and expertise to be
shared, making the conference a memorable event.

Bucharest, Romania

Lect. Anca-Margareta BUNEA, Ph.D.

Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract. Nowadays, telecommunications are tremendously important and certain

applications belonging to this field need some synthetic tools such ICS Manager
Software – a database which proves to be not only a useful tool, but also an essential
one, for all the activities concerning radio spectrum. For these activities, engineers
employ the ICS Manager Software which is quite accessible for the majority of those
who are in charge with radio spectrum administration. Localizing this software is not an
easy task and requires lots of adaptation processes and explanations for many
specialized concepts using an encoded terminology. The present article introduces the
main aspects of localization and proposes a short variant of how the Software ICS
Manager could be localized into Romanian.

Keywords: radio spectrum administration; skopostheorie; localization;

internationalization; translation difficulties.

As ICS Manager is the software which cannot miss while speaking about radio
spectrum management, an analysis for this case study is rather challenging.
This software along with ITU Radio Regulations may be seen as important
reference tools for every employee in radio spectrum management.
The use of the software application involves an appropriate understanding of
the radio communication terminology. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show
that the equivalence in localization is significant since a device has only one
function and a misinterpretation of a term may produce confusions in using a
function of the software.

1. Theoretical background
Regarding the theory of localization, Anthony Pym argues that usually, only
some parts from a software menu have been localized and some others have
been not. In the writing process of this paper, we have encountered the same

situation because there were only few strings localized into French and Spanish
making the present research a new one.
The method we use for our theoretical support is the so called “skopostheorie”
which actually is the engine of any localization as the words in the menu of a
software are no longer a text, but a product which needs being implemented. In
translation, the features of skoposthoerie are the following:

1. Translation must be focused on semantic features (topic, text

content and meaning structure), as well as on elements of form (syntax,
morphology, vocabulary and style).
2. The target reader group is important, as well as the type of message
that is sent to them and the effect that the translation will have upon
3. The translator needs to analyze the text, then to devise a strategy
for its translation according to the purpose of the target text, in full
agreement with the text type concerned. (Ardelean, 2009: 103)

In our study, localization is focused on semantic features specific for the field to
which the software is addressed. Sometimes, common concepts are adapted in
order to describe new meanings in science and technology and that may create
dreadful confusions for the linguist accustomed with the common language, but
not with the new technical terminology. Should it be the lack of time for
thinking or the lack of communication among specialists from the different fields
(linguists and telecom engineers) for causing mistranslations or bad translations
or even translations that are in a total disagreement with the specificity of our
mother tongue? The answer to this issue is given by the theory of localization
explaining that we have to take a product and tailor it to an individual local
market (i.e. ‘locale’) as Pym argues in his video conferences Theories of
localization 1 and 2 (Exploring Translation Theories). Therefore, the factor “x”,
in our case, is represented by the common ones: internationalization for terms
such as acronyms: CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division
Multiple Access), TDD (Time Division Duplex), FDD (Frequency Division Duplex),
BER (Bit Error Rate) etc., product reengineering and product testing as well as
project management.
In an attempt to successfully localize software, we need a typical localization
team which includes apart from the translator, the customer, the contact
person, the in-country reviewer, the technical expert, the localization project
manager, the engineers, the desktop publisher and quality assurance

2. Implementation
ICS Manager is a software application and is developed for the Microsoft
Windows operating system. The program is developed with an intuitive and user
friendly graphic user interface (GUI). Installing the client part of the application
on PC is rather simple without requiring advanced knowledge in database or
programming. An important step in implementation is the migration of the
actual database to the new system by keeping database existing structure.
Another significant step in implementation is adapting and customization of the
application to the specific requirements for each customer.

3. Prerequisites
The purpose of this software is to be worked with; therefore, the producers
of this software identify the necessities of the customers. The producers may
provide goods and services to suit to the customer’s needs and among these
the language equivalences of the menus and messages should be kept in mind.
The application contains a function for language shifting (Fig. 1) through which
the user can access the localized text in the mother tongue. In IT terms, the
producer facilitates the text localization (messages, menus, and devices) by
simply creating a text file with the message in English and the blanks to be filled
in for each equivalent in the required language as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 ICS Manager, Language Preferences

Fig. 4 ICS Manager, Custom Translations file

4. General description of the ICS Manager software as a

platform for radio spectrum administration
This integrated IT structure for radio spectrum administration consists in the
main application: a database system and spectrum administration application
(client part). ICS Manager represents the global platform where the operators
access the database and keep the evidence of different processes administered
by the regulator (licenses, fees, coordination, notifications and so on and so
forth). Each department may have a particularized access to this system for
radio spectrum administration with different menu configurations and different
rights for accessing the tables with databases for different profile users.
The database of the system contains the national databases for radio spectrum
administration which includes: stations, equipment, antennas, and allotments of
radio frequencies or channels, reports, invoices, fees as well as the digital maps.
This database is populated through a semi-automat process from the already
existing database the customer has. This process requires an active
participation from the customer. Parts of the database are filled with the
customer’s inputs (for instance: forms, invoice templates etc.).

The system uses a real architecture on three levels (3-tier) or client-server
where the data view, the processing and data administration are separated.
ICS Manager Software contains a central database, an application (ICS Manager
Server and the database) and the clients distributed to this database. For that
reason, the clients distributed in this way can exist in different physical
The implemented solution uses a standard architecture; first of all, it is opened
with a high security level which allows the integration of any Web interface
(Front Office) for the online applications/request forms.
Secondly, the Front Office application is an included package installed on the
web server. It uses a local mirror database in order to isolate the master
database from the internet.
A firewall is necessary with the intention of protecting the web server, the
database and the application server from potential intrusions or hacking.
From exterior (via Internet), operators working in regional units may access the
services through ICS online module (part of ICS Manager). Among the
functionalities available one can find: the notification of a form filling, the
consultation of the database, the validation of the data, checking the previous
applications status, checking previous accepted data, asking/ reporting data etc.
The Front Office application has its own database (application forms, the
confirmation or information results).

5. Equivalences in translating a sample from the ICS

Manager Software
In chapter five, “Equivalence in Translation” from Exploring Translation Studies,
Carmen Ardelean states that:

The latest translation term which places under question the role of
equivalence is the 1990s concept of “localization” which starts from the
assumption that an appropriate translation should be preceded by a
neutralization of all culture-specific elements of the text, meant to give
the respective text an “international” character. This intermediate stage
of “internationalization” can be then followed by an adaptive procedure,
whereby the respective text is endowed with a form that can be more
easily recognizable to local readers - that is, “localized”. (Ardelean,
2009: 86)

In the next adapted translation of a small part from the ICS Manager Software,
there are terms such as “script” and “dBL” which remain the same in Romanian
being internationalized in the telecom field.
The localization of the next list is the result of teamwork as, for a linguist, would
be difficult to “guess” the right Romanian terminology and thus the telecom
engineers are not only helpful, but a mandatory presence because they have
their own specific system of equivalences. Therefore, the correct meaning of
"Horizontal Pattern" is „Diagrama de radiație în plan orizontal” and "Wien OUT"
is „Calculează cod Wien” where “Wien” is the type (technical procedure) of
coding the antenna pattern.1 Wien is the place where this technical procedure
(part of the HCM Agreement) was developed for the first time.
Next, there is a list of some strings (some quite easy to be translated others
required revision from the specialists as already mentioned) that have been
partially localized as for the whole document the localization have not been
done yet. For the Latin string omni, a Romanian translation has been added
because the term is usually used as a prefix whereas in this context, it is a
string by itself.

LANGUAGE / LIMBA > Elevaţie max. "Set Value font..." > Incărcă…
"Map" "(in degrees)" > Setare font valoare "Save..."
> Hartă > în grade "Display grid" > Salvează…
"Map image" "Min. elevation" > Afişaj grilă "Show points"
> Imagine hartă > Elevaţie min. "Text Alignment" > Arată punctele
"Terrain (DTM)" "Y scale" > Aliniere text "mechanical tilt"
> Teren (DTM) > Scală Y "Value names" > înclinare mecanică
"Colored" "Percents" > Numele valorii "electrical tilt"
> Colorat > Procente "Parameter List" > înclinare electrică
"Shaded" "dB" > Listă parametri "rotary"
> Umbrit > dB (decibeli) "Power" > rotație
"Display coverage" "Text Box" > Putere "rotate"
> Afişează acoperirea > Casetă text "Antenna" > rotește
"Display map scale" "Font style:" > Antenă "Wien OUT..."
> Afişează scala hărții > Stil font "Frequency" >calculează cod Wien
"Object properties" "Size:" > Frecvenţă "Symmetry"
> Proprietăţi obiect > Dimensiune "Channels" > Simetrie
"Def." "Apply" > Canale "preview"
> Def. > Aplică "Coordinates" > previzualizare
"Cancel" "Help" > Coordonate "Source"
> Anulează >Asistenţă "Full parameters" > sursă
"Refresh" "Effects" > Toti parametrii "Import .H"
> Reîmprospătează > Efecte "Horizontal Pattern" > Import .H

1 For further information see:

berliner_vereinbarung.htm. Retrieved on 24.01.2014

"Display Type" "Strikeout" > Diagrama de "Azimuth (°)"
> Afișează tip > Tăiat radiație în plan > Azimut (°)
"East to West "Underline" orizontal "Image"
distance" > Subliniere "Linear dB" > Imagine
> Distanţă Est-Vest "Color:" > dB linear "Image filename"
"meters" > Culoare "Display graduations" > Denumire fișier
> metri "Sample" > Afișează gradații imagine
"Brightness" > Eșantion "Scale" "Browser"
> Luminozitate "Script" > Scală > Program de
"Contrast" > Script "Vertical pattern" navigare
> Contrast "Info" > Diagramă de "Frame image"
"Hue" > Informaţie radiație în plan > Cadrare imagine
> Nuanţă "Insert field..." vertical "Reset size"
"Saturation" > Inserează câmp "Symmetry..." > Resetare
> Saturaţie "Template" > Simetrie dimensiune
"Coverage" > Şablon "Interpolation" "Legend properties"
> Acoperire "Template name" > Interpolare > Legendă proprietăți
"Map display" > Denumire şablon "delete select." "Horizontal"
> Afişaj hartă "Rescale" > ștergere selectie > Orizontal
"Transparency" > Rescalare "omni" "Vertical"
> Transparenţă "Width" > omni [toate] > Vertical
"North to South > Lărgime "delete all" "Frame legend"
distance" "Height" > Şterge tot > Legendă cadrare
> Distanţă Nord-Sud > Înălţime "Wien IN..." "Orientation"
"Vertical Pattern" "Keep proportions" > Introdu cod Wien2 > Orientare
> Diagramă în plan > Păstrează proporţiile "dBL" "Labels"
vertical "units" > dBL > Etichete
"Polar view" > unităţi "Select..." "Show labels"
> Vizualizare în "Properties" > Selectează…
> Arată etichete
coordonate polare > Proprietăţi "Load...
"Show values"
"Cartesian view" "Set Field font..." > Configurație
> Vizualizare în > Setare font câmp "3D Options" > Arată valori
coordonate carteziene "Load template" > Opțiuni 3D "Printer setup..."
"Max. elevation" > Încarcă template "Hide" "Arrow keys: Forward,
> Setări imprimare "Items" > Ascunde Backward, Left, Right"
"Save template" > Articole "Terrain" > Tastatură săgeți:
> Salvează template- "Report" > Teren Față, Spate, Stânga,
ul > Raport Dreapta
"Delete template" "LAYOUT"
> Șterge template-ul
> Imprimă

Institutions and associations from the public sector, such as ISO or IEC have
initiated principles and strategies for software internationalization. Yet, software
has many localized versions and its localization remains a constant challenge
especially for translators. Current attempts to apply these principles showed

2 It is a function used in converting data.

numerous deficiencies which are still in working. Regardless of this fact,
software translation is sometimes discredited by developers and during the
process of translation many translators give up this endeavor thinking that this
job may be done after the application is completed and, the customers are
familiar with this kind of software and there is no need for the product to be
localized as long as it is purchased anyway.

Academia Română. (2012). Comisia de Terminologie pentru Științele Exacte, Dicționar
explicativ pentru știință și tehnologie, Român / Englez / Francez,
Telecomunicații. București: Editura Agir.
Academia Română. (2004). Comisia de Terminologie pentru Științele Exacte, Dicționar
explicativ pentru științele exacte, Român / Englez / Francez, Terminologie.
București: Editura Academiei Române și Editura Agir.
Ardelean, Carmen. (2009). Exploring Translation Studies. București: Conspress.
ATDI Website. [online]. Retrieved on 24 Jan 2014 from
ATDI Great Britain Website. [online]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from
ATDIvideos's channel. (2012). “ICS manager: automated spectrum management
solution from ATDI”. [Video file]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from
Ball, Thomas, Mayur Naik, and Sriram K. Rajamani. (2003). “From symptom to cause:
Localizing errors in counterexample traces”. In Proceedings of the ACM
SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. New
York: ACM: 97-105.
HCM Vereinbarung Website. [online]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from http://www.hcm-
ICNetwork. (2009). “Best Practices for Qt Localization”. [Video file]. Retrieved 24 Jan2
014 from
International Electrotechnical Commission. “Electropedia: The World's Online
Electrotechnical Vocabulary”. [online]. Retrieved 24 Jan2014 from
ITU. Radio Regulations. Editions of 2012. [online]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from
Larus, James R. et al. (2004). “Righting software”. IEEE Software 21(3): 92-100.
Lingoport. 2009. “Internationalization, Localization, and Translation: What's the
difference?” [Video file]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from
Pym, Anthony. (2009). “Theories of localization 1 (Exploring Translation Theories)”.
[Video file]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from
Star Temperatures. [online]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from at http://hyperphysics.phy-

Themediashow. (2011). “What is Language Localization? - The Media Show”. [Video
file]. Retrieved 24 Jan 2014 from

Cristina CHIFANE

“Dunărea de Jos” University, Galaţi, ROMANIA

Faculty of Letters, The English Department

Abstract: Out of the multitude of translation theories, some are more likely to be
applied to children’s literature translation especially under the present circumstances
which oscillate between globalizing and anti-globalizing approaches to translation. The
international success of contemporary series for teenagers and the modern
phenomenon of crossover fiction have started to operate changes at the level of
children’s literature status in the sense that it is no longer placed at the periphery of the
mainstream adult system and consequently its translation has witnessed an
unprecedented growth both quantitatively and qualitatively.
This paper aims at viewing literature for children in the light of a number of modern
translation theories based on interdisciplinariness and multiperspectivism (the prototype
theory, the polysystem theory, the skopos theory, the corpus-based translation theory
and the audiovisual theory). In terms of translation models, we shall focus upon the
analogue models and the functionalist interactive models offering the translators of
literature for children equal status with authors, editors or clients and entrusting them
to make the most appropriate decisions in the elaborate translation process which
involves cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: prototype, polysystem, skopos, corpus-based theory, audiovisual theory,

functionalist interactive model

1. Introduction
In a plea for Children’s Literature Translation (CLT) to lose its marginal position
in the translation polysystem, this paper traces some important guidelines in
terms of translation theories specific to Children’s Literature (CL) and of
translation models functioning during the translation process. Unity and
translation guidelines are imperiously needed especially since CL is a
heterogeneous field ranging from picture books to novels for teenagers,
covering various types of discourse and addressing readers of different ages
and with various interests and preferences.

1 This paper was supported by Project SOP HRD – PERFORM/159/1.5/S/138963.

2. Children’s Literature Translation (CLT) Theories
According to Lathey (2011), “Recent developments in translation studies offer
new methodologies for the analysis of translations for children” (211). She
considers that the theory of prototypical translation, the computer analysis of
large corpora of translated texts and the reader-response theories highly
contribute to the understanding of the translation process of children’s
Modern translation theories are characterised by interdisciplinariness and
multiple perspectives hence they are relevant to our present concern. The
prototype theory, the polysystem theory, the skopos theory, the corpus-based
translation theory as well as the audiovisual theory reveal some of the most
interesting issues related to Children’s Literature Translation (CLT).

2.1 The Prototype Theory and its Influence on CLT Strategies

Developed by Rosch (1978), the Theory of Prototypes and Basic-Level
Categories relies on the fact that human beings recognise distinctive features in
objects and thus combine the objects into certain categories according to
different levels of inclusiveness and abstraction. Superordinate is the highest
level of inclusiveness and abstraction, basic-level is one level below and
subordinate is the lowest level of inclusiveness and abstraction (e.g. animal –
dog – retriever).
Following Rosch, Lakoff (1987) explains that most of our world knowledge is
organised at the basic-level since this is the level at which one uses the shortest
description for an object and terms at this level are most commonly used by
Prototype theory and especially the basic-level acquire a lot of significance in
translating literature for children if we look at the definition of the basic-level
provided by Shalomi-Hen: “It is the level at which terms are used in neutral
context, it is the first level to enter the lexicon, and the first level named and
understood by children” (2000: 27).
On the other hand, Vîlceanu (2007: 25) considers that the semantics of the
prototype is in fact a referential mode much more flexible than the classical
model of the necessary and sufficient conditions.
The superordinate is one level of abstraction above the basic-level and the
categories included here share only a few attributes with each other whereas
the subordinate is one level of abstraction below the basic-level and its

categories share most of their attributes with each other, many of which overlap
with other categories.
Children usually learn new words by including them in one category or another.
Picture dictionaries might be organised according to this criterion. To put it
differently, the translator of children’s texts has to acknowledge the importance
of categorisation for children especially when he/she is confronted with
situations of non-equivalence when the target language (TL) may lack a term
belonging either to the superordinate or to the subordinate levels.
Another interesting aspect about these categories is that most of them, if not
all, do not have clear-cut boundaries. In these situations, “there is no one to
one correspondence from language to language” (Thomson-Wohlgemuth, 1998:
69). In those clear cases given by people as the best example for category
membership we can refer to the prototypical members of a community with the
amendment that “the more prototypical of a category a member is rated, the
more attributes it has in common with other members of the category and
fewer attributes in common with members of the contrasting categories” (Rosch
& Mervis, 1975: 602).
Understanding the cognitive models of both the source culture (SC) and source
language (SL) and that of the target culture (TC) and target language (TL) is of
vital importance for any translator of children’s literature especially since
different cultures might have different representatives of a category.
As a consequence, if different cultures have different judgements of degree of
prototypicality for different reasons then translating literature for children would
mean substituting a particular prototype of the SL with another prototype in the
TL. An instance of domestication, this technique will help children form an idea
of prototypes in their own culture or at older age just recognise the prototypes
in their culture. On the other hand, translators might choose to preserve the
prototypes in the TL if their intention is to introduce the young readers to
prototypes in other languages and cultures.

2.2 The Impact of The Polysystem Theory upon CLT

Developed by Even-Zohar in the 1970s, the Polysystem theory relied upon
“high” literature while overlooking the importance of literary systems or genres
such as children’s literature, thrillers and the whole system of translated
literature. Even-Zohar (1978: 118) focuses upon the fact that translated
literature operates as a polysystem defined as “a heterogeneous, hierarchised
conglomerate (or system) of systems which interact to bring about an ongoing,

dynamic process of evolution within the polysystem as a whole” (Shuttleworth
and Cowie, 1997: 176). When translated literature occupies a primary position,
it can change the centre of the polysystem determining new orientations in
Translation Studies (TS): “Often, leading writers produce the most important
translations and translations are a leading factor in the formation of new models
for the TC, introducing new poetics, techniques and so on” (Munday, 2001:
Translated literature may occupy the primary position when a “young” literature
is being established and looks initially to “older” literatures for ready-made
models; when a literature is “peripheral” or “weak” and imports those literary
types which it is lacking or when there is a critical turning point in literary
history at which established models are no longer considered sufficient. For
Thomson-Wohlgemuth, the second case reflects “the situation in smaller
nations” whose “resources are limited” and “their literary tradition is weak”
(1998: 100). She considers that the outcome would be a peripheral position
within the hierarchy of European literatures. Moreover, in these countries
translated literature would become the main source of innovation.
If when she refers to limited resources Thomson-Wohlgemuth has in mind the
economic resources then she is right in assuming that this would be a reason
for the peripheral position in the literary polysystem. When it comes to literary
tradition and to translated literature as the main source of innovation. The
example of the Romanian literature is eloquent in this respect. In the 1840s
there was a true invasion of translated literature in Romania and Kogălniceanu,
one of the Romanian leading figures of the literary movement of the time
warned Romanian writers against the danger of translating mediocre works of
foreign writers to the detriment of their national productions. In his opinion,
original autochthon literary works should exceed the number of translated
A long tradition of valuable Romanian literary productions both in adult
literature and in children’s literature proved that Kogălniceanu was right.
Unfortunately, statistics in contemporary Romanian literature for children are
again in favour of translations, especially from writers of English expression.
Comparative analysis shows that Kogălniceanu’s warning in the 1840s holds
valid today when translated literature threatens to suffocate original Romanian
productions of literary works for children.
On the other hand, translated literature might assume a secondary position and
in this situation it represents a peripheral system within the polysystem, it has

no major influence over the central system and even becomes a conservative
element, preserving conventional forms and conforming to the literary norms of
the target system. Even-Zohar (1978: 196) points out that this secondary
position is the “normal” one for translated literatures. However, translated
literature itself is stratified (ibidem: 195). Some translated literature may be
secondary while others, translated from major source literatures, are primary.
In addition, Even-Zohar (ibidem: 196-7) suggests that the position occupied by
translated literature in the polysystem conditions the translation strategy. If it is
primary, translators do not feel constrained to follow target literature models
and are more prepared to break conventions. They thus often produce a TT
that is a close match in terms of adequacy, reproducing the textual relations of
the ST. This in itself may then lead to new SL models. If translated literature is
secondary, translators tend to use existing TC models for the TT and produce
more “non-adequate” translations (ibidem: 197).
Even-Zohar’s polysystem theory has been easily extended and applied to the
translation of children’s literature. Only the fact that children’s literature and
translated children’s literature have been integrated in the literary system as a
whole is an important step forward for CLTS.
To emphasise the importance of the polysystem theory, Carta mentions the fact
that this theory “has provided useful instruments to look into the reception of
both original and translated children’s books in the target literary system and to
understand its influence on a wider socio-cultural context” (2008: 38).
Irrespective of its primary or peripheral position, translated literature for
children preserves its dynamic character requiring a continuous adjustment of
the translation strategies in accordance with its integration in the literary
polysystem. In addition to Even-Zohar’s observations, Shavit (1986: 112)
expresses her wish to examine the implications of the systemic status of
children’s literature upon the translation of children’s literature. She considers
that the systemic affiliation of a text entering the children’s system “is very
similar to that of a text entering another peripheral system – the non-canonised
system for adults” (ibid.: 114). The model transferred from adult literature to
children’s literature functions initially as a primary model. Once accepted by the
canonised children’s system, the model enters the non-canonised chidren’s
literature and is perhaps reduced and simplified.
According to Shavit (1986, 1981), the low and marginal status of children’s
literature and its development out of non-canonised adult literature have
influenced the translation practices of drastic change and adaptation of the ST.

On the contrary, Tabbert (2002) questions the low status of children’s literature
and argues that in the case of former East Germany “the overall status of
children’s literature was higher, due to its ability to function as a form of social
criticism” (256). The situation described by Tabbert was in fact similar in other
totalitarian regimes. Another critic of the polysystem theory, O’Sullivan (2000:
134-147) challenges the universal nature of Shavit’s idea of the development of
children’s literature and provides two examples of children’s literary systems
(one in Africa and one in Ireland) which show different developmental patterns
from Shavit’s model. She also suggests that the internal stratification of the
fields according to differential status may equally play a role in determining the
degree of change in translations of literature for children and contends that
there is some evidence that low status texts are adapted more than high status
texts (ibidem: 236-237). She is in favour of a functional theory for the
translation of children’s literature which takes into account these differences in
status and type of text (ibidem: 190-191).
To conclude, the translation of children’s literature might relate the text to
existing models in the target system or might change the original text in order
to adjust it to a model existing in the target system. The merit of the
polysystem theorists is to have shown that translation represents a creative
process which involves the original adaptation of the ST to the TC.

2.3 The Double Addressee in the Skopos Theory

Translating children’s literature involves main aims and purposes, therefore the
so-called “skopos theory” mentioned by Carta “has proven to be useful in
uncovering the mechanisms involved in translating this body of literature”
(2008: 41). In translating children’s literature, the objectives and functions have
a major influence upon the final product:

In the framework of this theory, one of the most important factors

determining the purpose of a translation is the addressee, who is the
intended receiver or audience of the TT with their culture-specific world-
knowledge, their expectations and their communicative needs. Every
translation is directed at an intended audience, since to translate means
to produce a text in a target setting for a target purpose and target
addressees in target circumstances. (Vermeer 1987: 29 cited in Nord
1991: 12)

The relevance of the skopos theory to the study of children’s literature in

translation is given by the focus on the addressee. The translator has to
consider a double addressee (the child and the adult) and consequently choose

the educational, pedagogical or entertaining goals he/she thinks are
If CLTS neglects to specify the commission or the skopos, then there will be no
possibility of choosing the best method to translate a given text. The skopos
theory expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible
translation strategies and releases the translator from the corset of an enforced
Intentional and unintentional changes affect the entire translation process.
Unintentional changes may arise from the different language structures as well
as from differences in translating competence. Intentional changes frequently
occur in translating, if the aims pursued in the translation are different from
those of the original. As far as intentional changes with a negative impact are
concerned, CLT has been under the influence of ideology which lead to
manipulation and censorship in the countries of the totalitarian regimes.
On the same lines, Shavit (1986) and Klingberg (1978) agree that there are two
main intentions pursued in translating children’s literature.
The first consists in trying to adapt the text in order to satisfy the socio-cultural
expectations prevailing in the TC, expectations related to what is regarded as
pedagogically and morally appropriate and useful for children. The second
involves the adaptation to what are believed to be the children’s reading and
comprehension skills according to their age. These two principles affect the
different stages of the translation process and determine the acceptance and
the affiliation of a text to the TC. They both coexist and should be integrated in
the guideline of a translator of literature for children.
The skopos theory has been criticised and objections mainly concern the
definition of translation and the relationship between ST and TT.
Vermeer himself brings arguments against these objections. In his opinion,

The notion of skopos can in fact be applied in three ways, and thus
have three senses: it may refer to
a. the translation process, and hence the goal of this process;
b. the translation result, and hence the function of the translatum;
c. the translation mode, and hence the intention of this mode. (cited in
Venuti, 1995: 224)

If a given act of behavior has neither goal nor function nor intention, then it is
not an action in the technical sense of the word. Another objection would be

that not every translation can be assigned a purpose or an intention. On the
contrary, the translator of literature for children has specific goals, functions or
intentions in mind when he/she translates a text dedicated to children.
In the present theory of translational activity the task of the children’s literature
translator includes matters of ethics and the translator’s accountability. Specific
goals, functions and intentions do not restrict the translation possibilities or limit
the range of interpretations of the TT in comparison to that of the ST.
In text linguistics and literary theory a distinction is often made between text as
potential and text as realisation. When a text for children is actually translated,
this is done with respect to an assumed function. The same text might be used
later in ways that has not been foreseen originally: “The skopos theory merely
states that the translator should be aware that some goal exists, and that any
given goal is only one among many possible ones” (Vermeer cited in Venuti,
1995: 228). Consequently, the trajectory of a translated book for children is not
always the one expected by the translator or by the publishing houses. After all,
success in the SC does not necessarily guarantee success in the TC but it is
unquestionably a determining factor.
The claim that the translator has no specific addressee or set of addressees in
mind is clearly dismissed in the case of CLT which has to constantly report to
the needs and expectations of the child-readers.
The translator of literature for children makes a number of decisions during the
translation process. They are primarily based on the skopos, the concrete
purpose and aims in a concrete translation commission.

2.4 The Mandatory Presence of The Corpus-Based Translation

A corpus-based approach is an asset valuable for both the theoretician and the
practitioner in the field. In the development of such a theory, the term corpus is
used to mean “any collection of texts held in machine-readable form and
capable of being analysed automatically or semi-automatically in a variety of
ways” (Baker, 1995: 226).
According to structure and organisation, the most frequent type of corpus is the
parallel corpus usually made up of SL texts and their translated versions. Two
other types could be added. The first is comparable corpora described as either
a selection of similar texts in two or several languages or language varieties
(Sinclair 1994 cited in Laviosa, 2002) or as a combination of sub-corpus
comprising texts written by native speakers of a language and a second corpus

made up of translated texts into the same language as the ones written by
natives, the two not being source and target language versions, but
independent of each other. The second type is the so-called “learner type”
meant to determine the improvement of translator training programmes by
investigating the performance of would-be translators based on their
examination papers.
Judging by the language or languages involved, corpora are classified into
monolingual, bilingual or multilingual ones. A classification by domain or content
divides corpora into reference versus specialised ones. Temporality brings about
the distinction between synchronic and diachronic corpora. From the viewpoint
of the written or spoken modes, corpora can be written, spoken or mixed
(written and spoken). In terms of length, the corpus types are: full-text,
sample, mixed (full-text and sample) and monitor (made up of full texts which
are scanned on an ongoing basis so that the corpus is continually updated).
Translating literature for children would require bilingual or multilingual, parallel
or comparable corpora. Written full-text, sample or mixed corpora are also
necessary. Since a large number of books for children is written and published
every year, a monitor corpus type is recommendable in order to provide an
update of the latest developments and changes in the field.
Representativeness, size, authorship, time-span and issues of confidentiality and
copyright have to be dealt with when opting for any corpus in TS. In this
respect, CLTS is no exception.
So far, studies in the field of corpus-based translation have indicated that
simplification, explicitation, normalisation, repetition avoidance, leveling out,
disambiguation and standardisation are some of the tendencies of translation
products.2 The research team is supposed to report both quantitative and
qualitative results.
The tools for quantitative research are borrowed from corpus linguistics and
include word frequency lists, text concordances and statistics (Laviosa, 2002).
In addition, originals as well as translations are analysed contrastively at both
the textual and the linguistic levels in terms of discourse (cohesion and
coherence), morpho-syntactic structure, lexis (frequency and density,
distribution, contextualisation), stylistic and semantic features or register.
The advantages of corpus-based translation are numerous: lexical search and
documentation cease to be so time-consuming and counterproductive; if the

2 See Baker (1995); Laviosa (1998); Schmied&Schäffler (1996).

data are reliable, then immediate accessibility is a point in favour of a good
translation; the richer the corpus, the higher the chances to translate better
finding the word, collocation, phrase or idiomatic expression that fits the
Using the corpus-based analysis method, researchers could highlight differences
between literary translations for children and for adults. For example, the
degree of explicitation varies in books for children in comparison with books for
A corpus-based research regarding noun density, added connectives and added
notes would most probably prove that CLT displays a higher degree of
explicitation than adult literature translation. In fact, a variety of translation
variables of CLT versus adult literature translation would be understood and
explained if corpus-based translations were given priority. Last but not least,
universals of CLT (features which are hypothesised to be common to all
translated texts regardless of text type and language pair) could be identified.

2.5. The Audiovisual Theory or Changing Landscapes in CLT

First of all, translating literature for children in the wider context of globalisation
means being aware of the multiple and different modes of translating in
contemporary society. The audio (radio), the audio and the visual (screen), or
the written, the audio and the visual (multimedia) channels could represent the
ST. In all these situations, audiovisual translation is called “to encompass all
translations – or multisemiotic transfer – for production or postproduction in any
media or format, and also the new areas of media accessibility: subtitling for
the deaf and the hard-of-hearing and audiodescription for the blind and the
visually impaired” (Orero, 2004: VIII).
At present, the quantity of output is huge so audiovisual translation is indeed
one of the fastest growing areas in the field of TS. Training in audiovisual
translation, particularly subtitling and dubbing has gradually become part of the
curricula of some major Romanian universities.
Diaz Cintas (2008: 4) has also noticed a general surge in interest: the Schools
of Translation and Interpreting have proliferated enormously in recent years
and compulsory or optional modules on audiovisual translation are common on
university undergraduate programmes as well as on a number of postgraduate
programmes, notably at masters degree level.
Since younger children are unlikely to be able to read subtitles “screen
translation for this age group is therefore dominated by dubbing” (Lathey,

2011: 209)3. On the other hand, screen adaptations for older children and
teenagers allow for subtitling which should be the work of a professional
In addition to the obvious difference in price (subtitling is cheaper than
dubbing), there are other elements that distinguish the two forms of screen
For instance, while there is over-representation of SL features in film subtitling,
TL-specific features are more commonly found in dubbing scripts. One of the
difficulties in dubbing is the inability to express foreign accents and local
dialects. Nevertheless, both forms of screen translation should be employed
taking into account the age and comprehension-abilities of the children in the
Children and young adults also form a significant audience for translated video
games. Mentioning Bernal-Merino’s (2006) investigation of video game software
based on children’s books, Lathey (2011: 209) contends that this investigation
proves that the localisation of such texts requires considerable technical
acumen, since localisers have to translate multiple formats including operating
instructions, coded text and periodic game updates.
Professional training in the field is mandatory: “Translating games for child
viewers demands that such expertise be combined with an understanding of the
child audience and the role of text and image in games designed for children”
Some might argue that audiovisual translation and literary translation have
nothing in common. From my perspective, the former was generated by the
latter and audio and screen productions for children are in fact ramifications of
the written texts. Moreover, they have emerged as an answer to changing
landscapes dominated by new media and technologies. For example, Rowling’s

3 As an illustration, O’Connell’s (2003) study of the dubbing of a German-language animated

children’s television series into Irish identifies both lexical simplification and the reduction of dual
address, thus replicating findings in studies of written texts.
4 O’Connell (1999: 214) elaborates upon the dubbing process. When a film or video is to be
dubbed, a script translator usually provides a complete draft translation which serves as a basis
for the final, usually somewhat adapted, version that emerges when dubbing actors, producers
and directors get together in the dubbing studio. The dubbing script translator usually faces many
of the same linguistic challenges as those associated with the drafting of foreign language
versions of other oral material, for example radio and theatre plays. The task is typically
complicated by the constraints imposed by the need to achieve good quality lip synchrony
whenever as possible, syllable count and sentence length in the source and target versions.

Harry Potter book series has given birth to an entire entertainment industry,
audio books, film series and video games included.
If we expand the notion of children’s literature to a very broad field
encompassing everything that a child reads or hears, “plays, puppet shows,
computer and video games, radio and TV programmes, films, videos etc. are
just as important as books in terms of the education and entertainment of
young people” (O’Connell, 1999: 214). In the case of such texts, it is more
appropriate to speak of listeners or viewers rather than readers, therefore
Oittinen (1993: 10) suggests that the more general term of receptor should now
be used.
Last but not least, the impact of new computer technology changes our
conceptualisation of translation in general and of CLT in particular. For Littau
(2010: 435), the environment and format of the hypertext influences the way in
which people write, read and translate.
Hypertext allows people to arrange and rearrange text, to disperse fragments of
text, insert them into other texts, connect, dis- and interconnect texts as well as
images. Computer technology can display texts in a variety of formats and
layouts to the benefit of translators for children who have to profit from the
possibility of using this technology since it is well-known that children are
attracted to sound and image.
To sum up, the current discourse of the translator’s visibility is nowhere better
realised than in the hypertext environment which locates visibility in the text
rather than outside the text (in prefaces, footnotes and critical commentaries).

3. CLT Models
Models of translation range from iconic or diagrammatic representations (known
as analogue models) to conceptual and theoretical models. Different types of
models could be employed:

It is possible to consider the relevance of models in the context of

translation from four different angles:
the use of theoretical models as heuristic tools in translation studies;
the use of diagrammatic or analogue models to represent certain
aspects of translation;
the view of translating as a modeling activity;
the relation between models and norms. (Hermans, 2001: 154-155)

All types of models have their relevance and it would be futile to attempt a
clearly defined listing of theoretical models of translation.

3.1 Analogue Models

Some well-known analogue translation models will be further employed and
applied to CLT since they represent the characteristics of a prototype relevant in
the case of CLTS.
Firstly, Nord’s model of translation is close to the idea of a “hermeneutic circle”:
“translation is not a linear, progressive process leading from a starting point S
(=ST, source text) to a target point T (=TT, target text), but a circular, basically
recursive process comprising an indefinite number of feedback loops, in which it
is possible and even advisable to return to earlier stages of the analysis” (1991:
In translating children’s literature, this circular model asks for a constant
reevaluation of the ST which could have been initially dedicated to children or
not, but which has to be carefully examined for the translator to decide if it
needs adjustment to the TL or not, if it is still appealing for contemporary child
readers or not.
In Translation Studies (2002), Bassnett refers to Nida’s (1969) model of
translation process which illustrates the stages of decoding and recoding
necessary in a good translation:

Translating children’s literature implies a thorough analysis of the ST and a

transfer of data towards the TL. This transfer is not just a simple act of

transposition from one language into another; it is a complex activity of
restructuring in the reception language. Only in these conditions is translation
In his book entitled Basics of Translation Studies, Dollerup (2006: 11-12)
considers that any model of translation presupposes the existence of a sender
in the SC who encodes a message uttered in the SL which is received
(=decoded), mediated (=encoded) and sent (in the translation process) as a
message (the translation or the product of translation) in the TL for subsequent
decoding by recipients/ the audience in the TC. The translational activity
described can be illustrated as follows:

The role of translator as a mediator between sender and recipient is perhaps

nowhere else better envisaged than in the case of children’s literature in
translation since his/her work addresses a dual reader (the child and the adult).
As a consequence, training competent translators able to ensure cultural
transfer between the SL and culture to the TL and culture remains one of the
most important desiderata of CLTS.
Further on, Dollerup underlines the main characteristics of complete written
translation which he distinguishes from oral translation or interpretation. In his
opinion, this type of translation displays the following features: is proactive, at
least in principle; presupposes an analysis of the text in question; assumes that
there is a literate audience that has little change of aware that there has been
translational activity and the translation product appears to be the authentic TL
text unless attention is called to its status as a translation or this is obvious, for
instance, from the introduction of features (such as names or phenomena

unknown in the TC) or excessive representations of awkward phrasings, false
friends etc.
In CLT, the translator arrives at a decision only after he/she decides upon the
translation strategies to be used in key with the text type. As for Dollerup’s
assumption that the audience is not specifically oriented towards fully realising
the status of a text (original or translation), I think that children are less likely
to make this distinction unless there are clear references in or outside the text.
The complexity of translating narrative texts for children was investigated by
O’Sullivan (2000) and illustrated in the following diagram:

The narrative-communication model is similar to Chatman’s (1978) model.

However, in the new model the real translator (positioned outside the text)
enables communication between the real author of the ST and the real reader
of the translation. His/ Her first act is that of a receptive agent, who then, still in
an extratextual position, transmits the ST via the intratextual agency of the
implied translator.5
The narrator, narratee and implied reader of the TT, all generated by the
implied translator, can be roughly equivalent to their counterparts in the ST;
however they can also differ greatly.

5 According to Lathey (2011: 204), “the translator’s voice is heard directly in additions, but may
also be responsible for structural alterations”. The removal of the layer of adult humour from the
first German translation of Winnie-the-Pooh is one of O’Sullivan’s (2000: 262-4) most eloquent
examples of such an alteration.

In translated texts, therefore, a discursive presence is to be found, the presence
of the (implied) translator. It can manifest itself in a voice which is not that of
the narrator of the ST. We could say that two voices are present in the narrative
discourse of the translated text: the voice of the narrator of the ST and the
voice of the translator.
Translators of children’s literature have to differentiate between the implied
child readers inscribed in the source and target texts. For the latter they
sometimes need to insert material and explanations because otherwise they
might not understand foreign elements in the ST. Nowadays, due to the impact
of mass-media and the changing perspective upon children and childhood,
translators may find it difficult to decide upon the best way to deal with
children’s classic books: “The relationship between translator and implied reader
is a particular concern in retranslations of the classics of children’s literature,
where translators have a choice between producing a scholarly edition for an
adult readership, complete with contemporary language and detailed notes, or a
version that is adjusted to the modern child reader” (Lathey, 2011: 204).
From my perspective, contemporary retranslations of children’s classics should
be oriented towards a child-friendly approach, but historical retranslations
complete with original illustrations are also necessary. To distinguish between
translation types, translators should possess all three types of translation

3.2. The Functionalist Interactive Models

The functionalist models of translation rely on the assumption that texts are
produced and received with a specific purpose or function in mind. Scholars
working with functionalist approaches prefer to speak of ST and TT, instead of
source-language and target-language text, because they want to highlight that
translation is not only, or exclusively, a linguistic activity, but rather a
purposeful activity, embedded in and contributing to other purposeful activities
(Nord, 1997 cited in Munday, 2001: 14).
Initiated by Vermeer’s Skopos theory, functionalist approaches have been either
challenged or developed.

6 The translation competence types mentioned by Hewson and Martin (1991: 198) are:
interlinguistic competence which refers to the acquisition of competence in at least two linguistic
systems, dissimilative competence which includes an aptitude to generate and dissimilate
homologous statements and an aptitude to define and recreate socio-cultural norms and last but
not least, transferred competence which means dissimilative competence accumulated and
committed to translation auxiliaries.

Criticism and objections alluded to the fact that the TT apparently becomes
more important than the ST whose richness of meaning is neglected7. If
linguistic approaches differentiate between translation proper and adaptation8,
functionalist models are based on a broad definition of translation which takes
into consideration various forms of translational activity which occur in
professional practice: “The functional approach offers the possibility of using
one and the same theoretical model to account for both documentary and
instrumental forms of translation, including, of course, any form of equivalent
translation, whatever the specification of equivalence may be” (ibidem).
In CLTS, functionalist models become important because they favour the
addressees with their knowledge and expectations without leaving the linguistic
structure of the ST out of account.
The ethical problems raised by the skopos theory do not hold valid when
translating literature for children. Translations adjusted to the child readers’ age
and level of understanding are not incompatible with the ST author’s intentions.
They simply fulfill some translation requirements in order to reach a specific
kind of audience. Otherwise, how could we explain the success of certain books
which were originally intended for an adult readership? For example, Mark
Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was originally intended for an adult
audience and today is widely read as a part of children’s school curriculum. On
the other hand, in the vast majority of cases when books are both written and
translated for children translators are indeed morally responsible in front of the
author of the ST as in front of their future clients. Loyalty is thus bidimensional
and in accordance with translation norms.
Besides the translation model established by the skopos theory, the theory of
translatorial action developed by Holz-Mänttäri (1984)9 displays a more
elaborate model of translation. Translation is perceived as a complex action
designed to achieve a particular purpose, an action that is realised by an expert
in a network of translatorial actions involving the initiator, the client and the

7 See Newmark 1991.

8 In linguistic approaches, there is a clear delimitation between a translation of Shakespeare’s
Hamlet into German and an adaptation of the text for German-speaking children or an adaptation
to a fictional setting in the 21st century (Schäffner & Wiessmann cited in Munday 2001: 17).
9 Schäffner & Wiessmann (cited in Munday 2001: 20) consider that due to the fact that Holz-
Mänttäri has published predominantly in German, her important ideas have unfortunately not
seen the reception they deserve beyond German-speaking functionalists. In her terminology, text
becomes “message transmitter”, text production is called “production of message transmitter”
whereas translating turns into “translational” or “translatorial action”.

The translatorial action model in general presupposes a text required by a client
with a specific purpose in mind and consequently, all the specifications for the
text production have to be negotiated between client and text producers. In
CLT, confusion might arise. If the client is the TR, that is the child in the TL and
culture, then he/she is powerless in terms of negotiations including deadlines,
fees, potentially contact addresses etc. Adults act on his/her behalf and
publishers negotiate with translators as far as the translation terms are
concerned. Of course it is also true that publishers decide upon the book to be
translated at the translator’s suggestion or according to recommendations
coming from teachers, librarians, critics and so on.
Functionalist models of translation view translators as experts in text production
for interactive communication. Expertise requires translation competence which
is mandatory in both children’s literature and adult literature translation.

Translation competence includes several types of sub-competences:

linguistic competence of the languages concerned;
cultural competence, i.e. general knowledge about historical, political,
economic or cultural aspects in the respective countries;
textual competence, i.e. knowledge of regularities and conventions of
texts, genres, text types;
domain/subject-specific competence, i.e. knowledge of the relevant
subject, the area of expertise;
(re)search competence, i.e. general strategic competence whose aim is
the ability to resolve problems specific to the cross-cultural transfer of
transfer competence, i.e. ability to produce TTs that satisfy the
demands of the translation task (Neubert 2000; Wilss 1996).

In the English-Romanian and Romanian-English translations of children’s books

all of the afore-mentioned sub-competences are required. Being linguistically
competent in English and Romanian is not enough in the translation process. On
a larger scale, translators of children’s literature have to be accustomed with the
socio-cultural frame of reference of the two countries. In particular, they need
to be familiarised with their assumed area of expertise, i.e. children’s literature
with its adjacent sub-genres and text types predominant in different age
groups. Research competence is also necessary when translators encounter
translation problems such as cases of cultural specificity or instances of non-
equivalence between the ST and the TT. Last but not least, without transfer
competence translators would not be able to produce texts aimed at satisfying
the expectations of the future TRs. These observations about translation sub-

competences hold valid for all translators of children’s books, no matter the
source and TLs and cultures involved in the process.
To sum up, the functionalist interactive models of translation focus on the
translator’s communicative purpose or goal since he/ she wants the receiver to
react in a certain way. Different child readers in different countries may require
different translations. As a result, the translator of children’s literature is seen as
a transcultural actor who can adapt the ST to respond to the demands of the
audience, taking into account cultural and behavioural patterns. A functionalist
TT will conform to the requirements of the initiator’s brief and will be acceptable
in the TC. The most important thing the functionalist models put forward is the
translators’ empowerment offering them equal status with authors, editors or
clients and entrusting them to make the most appropriate decisions in the
elaborate translation process which involves cross-cultural communication.

4. Conclusions
Contemporary translators for children need to take into consideration the
different variables at work during the actual translation process. All the theories
which have been analysed in this paper are meant to establish some recurrent
features of CLT with the aim of providing a coherent translation model meant to
help translators in their activity.
The prototype theory focuses on the (non)substitution of a particular prototype
of the SL with another prototype in the TL and the subsequent recognition of SL
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dynamics of CLT with am emphasis on the translator’s role and the idea of
permanent transfer and readjustment of translation strategies. All in all, the
functionalist interactive model reunites the various actors involved in the
process of translating literature for children viewing translators as experts in
text production for interactive communication.

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Dr. Euphrosyne EFTHIMIADOU

École de l’Air hellénique, Cholargos, GRÈCE

Commandement-Gestion, Sciences Humaines et Physiologie

Abstract In our days, intercultural communication is a prerequisite to acquiring new

market sectors; it also contributes equally to sustainable development and efficient use
of resources. Because each language is the carrier of the culture that underlies it, it is
considered essential to evolve specialized translation towards the areas of Negotiation,
Marketing and Management. Overcoming language barriers promotes process control,
profitability and concentration of forces for innovation. As for translators, they need to
be not only qualified linguistically but also experienced specifically in industry so as to
gain insight into the business mentality in their own culture. Finally, the use of new
technologies and especially terminology databases proves essential, given the
ambiguities in translation that arise in intercultural scientific and technical

Keywords: strategic issues of specialized translation with professional aiming,

intercultural management, ambiguities in the scientific and technical communication,
terminology databases

1. Introduction
Actuellement, la communication interculturelle représente la condition
indispensable à l’obtention de nouvelles parts de marché, au développement
durable et à l’utilisation efficace des ressources. De plus, elle favorise la
croissance mondiale par le développement d’un réseau professionnel
pluriculturel dans un contexte mondial. Dans cette perspective, on va, d’une
part, se demander dans quelle mesure on pourrait cultiver des compétences
transversales en traduction pour agir dans un milieu professionnel compétitif.
D’autre part, on va aborder le rôle du management interculturel et la possibilité
d’affronter les défis interculturels dans les contacts professionnels en focalisant
l’intérêt sur les qualifications des futurs traducteurs spécialisés. Enfin, on va
tenir compte des perspectives d’applications des outils multimédia à visée
professionnelle tout en observant dans quelle mesure les gestionnaires

d’information pourront les maîtriser dans un environnement diversifié et
exigeant pour faire face aux défis de la traduction spécialisée.

2. La contribution de la communication interculturelle dans

le milieu professionnel
Dans le domaine de la traduction spécialisée, il est de plus en plus question non
seulement de changer la manière de concevoir les pratiques habituelles mais
aussi de construire une thématique neuve qui s’élargit avec la globalisation. La
possibilité de transférer des idées d’un contexte à un autre similaire ou même
divergent permet de construire des concepts tout en respectant les valeurs de
l’écrit. Or, on pourrait s’interroger comment la communication interculturelle
contribue à valoriser le milieu professionnel non seulement par l’acquisition des
compétences transversales en traduction pour agir dans un milieu professionnel
compétitif mais aussi par l’élaboration des stratégies dans la traduction
spécialisée à visée professionnelle.

2.1. Comment cultiver des compétences transversales en

traduction spécialisée pour agir dans un milieu professionnel
compétitif ?
L’apprentissage par compétences désigne de cultiver des capacités liées au
savoir, au savoir faire et au savoir être. Sous cet aspect, les compétences
langagières et culturelles doivent s’associer aux compétences discursives et
pragmatiques. En effet, les facteurs interculturels font partie de la langue de
spécialité et conduisent à l’adoption de stratégies comportementales. Comme le
signale Hurtado Albir,

Une compétence est, en outre, une intégration de différentes sortes de

capacités et d’habiletés (cognitives, affectives, psychomotrices ou
sociales) et de connaissances déclaratives (savoir quoi). On peut donc
dire que la compétence intègre un savoir (un ensemble de
connaissances spécifiques d’une discipline), un savoir-faire (habiletés
pour résoudre des problèmes pratiques), ainsi qu’un savoir-être
(habiletés de type affectif et social). Autrement dit, une compétence est
à la fois un savoir, un pouvoir et un vouloir. (Albir, 2008)

Dans cette optique, on observe qu’au cycle supérieur, les objectifs

d’enseignement en traduction se centrent sur la familiarisation des étudiants
avec de textes diversifiés dans le but de développer des compétences
théoriques et pratiques liées à la vie professionnelle. Les enjeux se définissent
d’une part, comme méthodologiques pour être aptes à procéder à des choix

adéquats selon les différents contextes d’utilisation d’une traduction mais
encore stratégiques visant à maîtriser les ressources et outils disponibles pour
produire une traduction de qualité professionnelle et satisfaire les exigences des
entreprises. D’ailleurs, le projet européen Tuning s’intéresse à harmoniser les
programmes dans l’espace européen de l’enseignement supérieur.

Pour le projet Tuning, les compétences représentent une combinaison

dynamique de connaissances, de compréhension, d’aptitudes, de
capacités et d’attitudes. Il établit la distinction entre compétences
génériques (ou préprofessionnelles et transférables) et compétences
spécifiques (ou disciplinaires).Selon le projet Tuning, les résultats
d’apprentissage expriment le contenu et le niveau de compétence
atteint par l’apprenant. (Référentiels de compétence en licence, 2012,.

Si l’on tient compte de la valorisation des compétences transversales dans le

milieu éducatif, il est de plus en plus essentiel de les appliquer en traductologie.
En 1997, selon le Décret Missions, article 6,

Les compétences transversales y sont définies comme des attitudes,

démarche mentales et démarches méthodologiques communes aux
différentes disciplines à acquérir et à mettre en œuvre au cours de
l’élaboration des différents savoirs et savoir-faire ; leur maîtrise vise à
une autonomie croissante d’apprentissage des élèves. (Crutzen, 2005,
no 40, 3).

Ainsi, les traducteurs doivent cultiver des échanges dynamiques pour soulever
les blocages de traduction et agir avec créativité aux défis tout en collaborant
étroitement avec leurs partenaires. De cette manière, il arrive d’accroître la
performance des équipes de travail si on focalise l’intérêt sur la cohésion du
groupe et la participation active à des projets communs.

2.2. L’apport de la communication interculturelle pour élaborer

des stratégies dans la traduction spécialisée à finalité
Même si l’anglais monopolise les échanges dans le secteur économique, on
s’intéresse à investir dans d’autres langues telle que le français pour accroître la
compétitivité des entreprises. En effet, une étude du marché économique
permet de révéler les aspects culturels qui caractérisent une région et même un
pays. Ces paramètres locaux font découvrir les compétences interculturelles à
acquérir et les stratégies à appliquer pour fidéliser les marchés et augmenter le
nombre de ventes.

Sous cet aspect, la communication interculturelle devient un outil de gestion
stratégique car elle englobe des identités différentes dans un univers
pluridimensionnel. Ce qui importe, c’est gérer les défis dans un contexte
interculturel afin d’équilibrer les tensions qui peuvent insulter. Dans ce sens, on
doit concevoir un schéma d’interaction où le facteur culturel devient un enjeu
pour acquérir un marché concurrentiel.

(…) il est clair que la communication est omniprésente dans le monde

de l’entreprise. Elle pénètre toutes les dimensions et en raison des
interconnexions multiples, les opportunités de communication sont
beaucoup plus nombreuses et l’exposition au monde est bien plus large.
(…) Il faut partager un message, une information mais aussi entrer en
interaction (Bull, Loinard & Sulmona, octobre 2005, 28).

D’autre part, la diversité culturelle doit s’associer avec une adoption de

stratégies qui dénotent des comportements et des attitudes creusant dans un
contexte interculturel. Dans le monde de l’entreprise, il est question de gestion
des compétences pluriculturelles et d’une expertise des pratiques stratégiques
où le savoir faire reste lié au savoir agir. Comme l’indique Challe O., «La
dimension culturelle des discours de français de spécialités s’ouvre sur la culture
de l’entreprise en termes de stratégies, d’implantation territoriale et de
recrutement de compétences multiculturelles, plurilingues et hautement
spécialisées.» (Odile Challe, 2008 : 51). La prise de conscience des applications
multidimensionnelles des langues de spécialité dans les organisations
internationales et les entreprises à vocation internationale est plus que
nécessaire, puisqu’elle souligne le besoin en expertise interculturelle à travers
l’usage des langues où l’instauration des relations interpersonnelles permet,
d’une part, de s’identifier soi-même et, d’autre part, de chercher la relation avec

3. Le management interculturel dans la traduction

spécialisée à visée professionnelle.
Aussi faudra-t-il faire face aux défis interculturels dans les contacts
professionnels en vue d’assurer une coopération internationale loin des tensions
éventuelles.Quant à la formation des futurs traducteurs spécialisés, on va se
demander dans quelle mesure ils seront aptes à proposer une diversité de
pratiques dans la manière d’agir et de penser tout en ayant une expérience
spécifique dans le monde industriel ainsi qu’une connaissance profonde de la
mentalité de l’entreprise propre à leur culture.

3.1. Affronter les défis interculturels dans les contacts
Comme on vit dans un monde qui bouge continuellement en vue d’atteindre
l’innovation dans toutes ses formes, on doit tenir compte de la formation des
personnes afin de pouvoir conduire des projets ambitieux dans un cadre

Les recherches menées en linguistique cognitive nous montrent la

nécessité de fournir des informations plus générales sur les différentes
spécialités, car elles conditionnent l’ensemble de la terminologie,
fortement marquée par les attitudes, surtout dans les domaines
tertiaires, et par les pratiques, dans les entreprises. (Humbley, sept.
2012, no 9, 11).

Si les entreprises réussissent à accroître les compétences de leur personnel

dans l’adoption des stratégies de management interculturel, elles assureront
une coopération internationale tout en évitant les conflits et les malentendus.
Pour affronter les défis interculturels dans les contacts professionnels, on
apprend à réagir avec flexibilité et efficacité vis-à-vis des partenaires de cultures
différentes. Comme le souligne Gomerzano N.,

La discipline du management interculturel recouvre principalement la

négociation à travers les barrières culturelles, la gestion d’équipes
multiculturelles de travail, la formation de futurs expatriés ou encore la
gestion de fusions ou d’entreprises conjointes internationales. Le
management interculturel est un savant mélange entre connaissance,
perspicacité et compétences nécessaires pour jongler correctement
entre les différentes cultures régionales et nationales, à différents
niveaux de management au sein de et entre les organisations
(Gomerzano, nov. 2009, no4, 9).

Grâce au management interculturel, on fait créer des synergies nouvelles pour

affronter les enjeux dans les contacts professionnels. Tout en dépassant les
barrières de la langue, les compétences interculturelles visent à la gestion
d’équipes de travail par la négociation dans toutes ses formes en s’appuyant sur
l’empirisme et l’expertise dans les activités multiculturelles au sein des
Pour cette raison, les traducteurs doivent savoir agir dans un marché
concurrentiel mondial et mettre en place des compétences stratégiques pour
exercer leur influence dans les domaines de communication, de marketing et de

gestion des ressources humaines. L’application des stratégies leur permettra
d’ouvrir les perspectives du plurilinguisme pour aller à la quête des cultures
différentes. D’ailleurs, il ne faudra pas négliger que c’est à travers le parcours
d’un manager flexible que les traducteurs pourront apprendre: a. à mieux saisir
le comportement de leurs collaborateurs, b. à se mettre à l’aise pour donner
sens à leur action à visée internationale, c. à viser aux paramètres interculturels
dans la planification des stratégies de coopération internationale.

3.2. Quelles qualifications faudra-t-il attribuer aux futurs

traducteurs spécialisés?
Avec la mondialisation, on vit dans un village planétaire avec des habitudes et
des cultures communes. Il s’avère de plus en plus nécessaire de viser au
renouvellement de la formation des futurs traducteurs dans le but de répondre
aux nouvelles exigences qui se créent dans un marché international et de
couvrir les déficiences en matière de spécialisation et de professionnalisation
Un message unique s’adresse directement au public ciblé en faisant appel à des
stratégies interculturelles. Le rôle des traducteurs consiste à faire les
ajustements nécessaires au texte original et à intervenir efficacement tout en
tenant compte des éléments visuels. Il se peut aussi de porter des modifications
pour recontextualiser le message.

C’est donc aux traducteurs et non plus aux rédacteurs et autres experts
que revient la responsabilité de rédiger le contenu des messages
présentés dans la culture cible et de prendre des décisions très
importantes quant aux ajustements à effectuer par rapport au contenu
du message original. (Vandal-Sirois, juin 2011, ILCEA).

En outre, les futurs traducteurs doivent se procurer du texte original mais aussi
des outils et des ressources pour explorer toutes les solutions éventuelles et
adapter le texte dans un contexte plus large en l’intégrant dans une entité
dynamique. Loin de se limiter à un seul transfert linguistique, l’instauration
d’une situation authentique permet de détecter et de mieux saisir la nature des
changements à réaliser.

Seule l’observation de données authentiques, autrement dit l’analyse

conceptuelle, phraséologique et morphosyntaxique des textes produits
par les communautés technoscientifiques concernées, permet de
comprendre le fonctionnement des unités terminologiques ainsi que de
restituer les usages véritables des langues de spécialité, d’où un recours

systématique à de vastes corpus électroniques et aux outils et
programmes (concordanciers, extracteurs terminologiques, analyseurs
syntaxiques, etc.) permettant d’exploiter ces derniers pour mener à bien
les différents projets terminographiques menés par nos soins» (Peraldi,
Nov.2009, no 4 : 24).

De cette manière, on réussit à faire preuve d’inventivité et d’originalité pour

œuvrer en partenariat avec des spécialistes et rechercher les qualités formelles,
fonctionnelles et culturelles d’un message. La fonction des traducteurs
spécialisés s’élargit pour réaliser des études de marché dans le but d’adopter
des stratégies de communication qui les amèneront vers une piste de solutions
face à des contraintes textuelles. Cette nouvelle dynamique multidimensionnelle
ouvre un éventail de changements opérés dans le milieu professionnel où l’on
interagit avec d’autres experts. Dans ce cas, il s’avère essentiel de savoir
négocier avec ses partenaires mais aussi de pouvoir modifier ses réflexes et, en
général, sa façon de s’adapter dans un environnement pluriculturel. La
possibilité d’exercer des tâches dans un état d’autonomie offre l’opportunité de
mesurer l’impact créé dans la clientèle de la culture cible.
Dans la planification des stratégies de coopération internationale, le facteur
culturel se considère comme essentiel pour amener les communautés et les
groupes sociaux à la quête de leur identité dans le but d’instaurer des échanges
dynamiques. D’après le rapport mondial de l’UNESCO, la diversité culturelle
demeure un défi à relever pour œuvrer dans le monde des affaires et optimiser
les relations avec des partenaires multinationaux tout en évitant les conflits.

Parce que les compétences managériales doivent désormais englober la

capacité de travailler dans des contextes culturels très variés, on a vu
apparaître dans l’organigramme de certaines entreprises des «
responsables de la diversité », chargés de promouvoir et de gérer la
diversité au sein de l’entreprise afin de prévenir les conflits qui, dans les
activités quotidiennes, pourraient nuire à la performance globale du
groupe. (Rapport mondial de l’Unesco, 2009 : 22).

Sans aucun doute la diversité culturelle gagne du terrain dans la sphère

professionnelle mais présuppose une diversité des pratiques de la part des
traducteurs spécialisés dans la manière d’agir et de penser. Ainsi, une politique
favorisant la diversité culturelle pourrait créer des conditions bénéfiques pour
changer la manière de concevoir les pratiques habituelles dans la
communication interculturelle en focalisant l’intérêt sur les qualifications des
futurs traducteurs spécialisés.

4. Les applications des nouvelles technologies à des fins
terminologiques et leur contribution dans la traduction
spécialisée à visée professionnelle.
Etant donné que les technologies de l’information et de communication ont
proposé de nouveaux outils à la traduction spécialisée, tels que le traitement
automatique et la traduction assistée par ordinateur, il est crucial de former des
spécialistes en communication multimédia pour répondre aux nouvelles
exigences qui se créent avec l’évolution continue dans les domaines
économiques et technologiques. On a besoin de vrais gestionnaires
d’information qui puissent maîtriser les nouveaux outils multimédia pour
s’adapter dans un environnement diversifié et exigeant.

4.1. Perspectives d’application des outils multimédia à visée

Désormais, l’accès à des corpus constitués de documents numérisés se facilite.
Avec le développement des TICE, les possibilités d’interfaces avec la mise en
ligne de lexiques préférentiels combinatoires ouvrent les perspectives
d’application pour les traducteurs spécialisés.
Selon les pratiques usuelles, les traducteurs effectuent une traduction
automatique tout en se limitant à une vérification de la traduction. Pourtant, les
traducteurs spécialisés doivent, d’une part, recourir à des outils de traduction
comme les dictionnaires en ligne, les bases de données de terminologie, les
mémoires de traduction et, d’autre part, maîtriser les outils informatiques
multilingues et être capables de les évaluer tout en combinant les
connaissances linguistiques avec les compétences numériques.

Dans une démarche didactique, on (toujours selon Humbley) doit

procéder à une évaluation en classe, dans les cours de traductologie et
de l’anglais scientifique. Selon cette démarche, on pourra avoir trois
types de corpus:
- Un corpus aligné: il s’agit d’une traduction des textes en français.
- Un corpus parallèle: il s’agit des articles, en français et en anglais, qui
portent sur le même thème.
- Un corpus des articles créées en anglais par les auteurs francophones,
ensuite corrigés à condition que le suivi de modification figure sur ces
articles.» (Matas-Runquist. 2008 : 212).

Cette tâche taxinomique propose de fournir des connaissances terminologiques

dans un contexte multidisciplinaire.

Dans le cas où l’on aiderait les futurs traducteurs à prendre conscience de la
nécessité de réaliser des recherches en corpus et de recourir aux outils de
pointe, on réussirait à exploiter le champ d’expérimentation pour offrir des
nouvelles potentialités dans les recherches en traduction spécialisée.

Les outils d’aide à la traduction désignent généralement les logiciels de

Traduction Assistée par Ordinateur (TAO), plus communément appelés
mémoires de traduction – bien qu’une mémoire de traduction (MT) ne
soit qu’un composant du logiciel où sont stockées les phrases en langue
source assorties de leur traduction en langue cible. (Frérot, 2010).

Le Centre de Recherche en Technologies Langagières propose des outils de

recherche sur corpus tels que les concordanciers bilingues et même multilingues
pour des recherches terminologiques à finalité professionnelle. D’abord,
TransSearch, mis en ligne, donne accès à une base de données comptant des
millions de phrases dans six corpus. Ainsi, les usagers peuvent opter parmi un
bon nombre de solutions de traduction variées. Puis Textstat donne la possibilité
de combiner des textes et former des corpus dans le but d’étudier la fréquence
des termes recherchés mais aussi les cooccurrences existantes.

Ce logiciel agit en tant que concordancier multilingue pour l’analyse de

 Il analyse les textes (dans différents codages) et les textes
HTML (pris directement sur Internet) et produit des listes de
fréquence des mots et des cooccurrences de ces textes.
 La version actuelle comprend un robot indexeur qui analyse,
dans un corpus TextSTAT, autant de pages que le souhaite
l’utilisateur à partir d’un site Web particulier. Le nouvel
agrégateur de nouvelles transforme aussi les nouvelles en un
fichier-corpus qui est lisible par TextSTAT.
 Ceci permet aux utilisateurs de connaître la fréquence d’un mot
ou le contexte dans lequel il est utilisé; les combinaisons de
mots peuvent aussi être examinées. (Aperçu des technologies
langagières sur le marché, 2011 : 14).

Enfin, Multitrans est un autre concordancier disponible en version bilingue ou

multilingue qui permet aux traducteurs spécialisés de faire des rapprochements
dans des corpus analogues et mieux gérer leurs recherches terminologiques et
phraséologiques. Il existe aussi une mémoire de traduction mais encore une
banque terminologique permettant de construire des banques de données

terminologiques spécialisées. On arrive plus facilement à créer et, par la suite, à
gérer et réutiliser la terminologie stockée en mémoire.
Ainsi, les corpus électroniques et les outils multimédia comme les
concordanciers et les extracteurs terminologiques offrent l’opportunité de
combiner ressources linguistiques et informatiques à l’usage de la traduction
spécialisée dans les communications scientifiques et techniques.

4.2. Comment maîtriser les outils informatiques multilingues

pour faire face aux défis de la traduction spécialisée ?
Loin d’être une entité figée, une langue vit dans un mouvement perpétuel en
incorporant de termes nouveaux. Les traducteurs doivent disposer d’une
banque de données renouvelée avec les néologismes qui se créent chaque fois
dans les domaines scientifiques et techniques. Dans le cadre de l’enrichissement
de la langue française ont été créées des commissions spécialisées de
terminologie et de néologie.
A cela s’ajoutent les partenariats avec des organismes francophones qui
œuvrent pour la normalisation internationale en réalisant des travaux
systématiques et multilingues d’harmonisation terminologique, mais aussi
France Terme (, qui est la plateforme numérique de
ressources terminologiques officielles de la délégation générale à la langue
française et aux langues de France. Quant à la recherche dans la traductologie
et le management interculturel, le Centre de Recherche Appliquée sur la
Traduction, l’Interprétation et le Langage (CRATIL) fait collaborer des
chercheurs français et internationaux dans un projet interdisciplinaire pour
réaliser une médiation interculturelle dans les domaines de la traduction, de
l’interprétation et du management, tout en étudiant les implications
économiques, politiques et sociales de la communication multilingue ainsi que
du management interculturel.
Il est vrai que la communication interculturelle vise à la construction de
nouveaux savoirs et des savoir-faire dans une société qui se mobilise avec la
création de nouveaux concepts scientifiques et techniques. Le défi de la
traduction spécialisée existe du fait que la perception du réel diffère selon la
culture des individus. En effet, c’est par le transfert des cultures que l’on passe
à la reconceptualisation des structures d’expression. Pour cette raison, la
création des échanges fructueux avec d’autres partenaires donnera lieu à de
nouvelles pistes de solutions face aux défis traductionnels liés aux outils

En ce sens, le métier de traducteur spécialisé demeure ambigu car il sollicite des
compétences diversifiées et présuppose un savoir agir et une flexibilité
d’adaptation dans un contexte pluriculturel. D’un côté, il se perfectionne dans
les techniques de reformulation et dans la recherche de phraséologie spécialisée
tout en maîtrisant les compétences méthodologiques, lexicales et techniques
spécifiques. De l’autre, il se caractérise par une maîtrise des données
terminologiques et des outils multimédia multilingues car il devient un
gestionnaire de la linguistique et des services numériques tout en étant
compétent dans une communication interculturelle. Par conséquent, on
s’intéresse plutôt à prêter aux futurs traducteurs spécialisés de nouvelles
qualifications en vue de faire preuve d’expertise et de professionnalisme.
Comme le signale Scarpa F.,

(…) toute définition adéquate du concept d’expertise est de grand

intérêt pour la formation des traducteurs, si bien que, pour certains
chercheurs, la transformation du traducteur novice en traducteur expert
grâce à l’acquisition graduelle de la compétence traductionnelle en
plusieurs étapes individuelles devient l’objectif final de tout programme
de formation des traducteurs. (Scarpa, 2010 : 317).

Avec la globalisation, il est donc question de créer une nouvelle génération de

traducteurs spécialisés qui creuseront le domaine professionnel afin de répondre
aux enjeux de la communication interculturelle. Ces gestionnaires d’information
seront aptes à acquérir des compétences méthodologiques essentielles pour
agir au sein des entreprises internationales comme la flexibilité intellectuelle,
des capacités rédactionnelles et une ouverture vers autrui. Tout en s’intégrant
dans un marché de travail international, ils sauront répondre aux attentes des
organisations internationales, des associations professionnelles et des
entreprises. Tout compte fait, c’est par la dynamique des échanges
interculturels que les traducteurs seront en mesure de proposer des solutions
créatives et efficaces pour s’adapter dans un environnement diversifié et
exigeant et affronter les défis de la traduction spécialisée à visée

Bull, Anthea, Séverine Loinard et Maguy-Myriam Sulmona. (2005). Communication
interculturelle. Gestion nécessaire ou préoccupation superfloue ? ». Paris :
Université Paris Dauphine. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : http://mba-

Centre de recherche en technologies langagières. (2011). Aperçu des technologies
langagières sur le marché. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : (consulté le 14.04.2014).
Centre français du commerce extérieur. (25 déc.-07 jan. 2009.) Le Moci : moniteur du
commerce international. Accessible à l’adresse :
28%20LE_MOCI_MONITEUR_DU_COMMERCE.pdf (consulté le 07.01.2012).
Challe, Odile. (2008). « Les cultures en discours, trame de fond du français de
spécialités». In Bertrand Olivier et Schaffner Isabelle (sous la direction de). Le
français de spécialité. Enjeux culturels et linguistiques. Palaiseau : Les Editions
de l’Ecole Polytechnique : 49-67.
Crutzen, Dany. (2005). « Les compétences transversales. Un concept-clé pour
l’éducation à la diversité en Europe. Quelle réalité en Communauté française ?
». In J. Aden (sous la direction de). De Babel à la mondialisation : apport des
sciences sociales à la didactique des langues. CNDP - CRDP de Bourgogne, coll.
Documents, actes et rapports pour l'éducation. No 40.
Frerot, Cécile. (2010). « Outils d’aide à la traduction : pour une intégration des corpus
et des outils d’analyse de corpus dans l’enseignement de la traduction et la
formation des traducteurs». Les Cahiers du GEPE. Outils de traduction - outils
du traducteur ? No 2. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : (consulté le 29.12.2012).
Gomerzano, Nathalie. (2009). « Management ». Le Bulletin du Cratil. 4 : 8-11. [en
ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : http://www.isit- (consulté le
Humbley, John. (2012). « L’élément culturel dans les terminologies : pistes de
réflexion». Le Bulletin du Cratil. 9 : 2-14. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :
isit_sept12.pdf. (consulté le 30.12.2012).
Hurtado Albir, Amparo. (2008). « Compétence en traduction et formation par
compétences ». TTR : traduction, terminologie, rédaction. 1/21 : 17-64. [en
ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : (consulté le
Matas-Runquist, Nada. (2008). « Intégration des problématiques disciplinaires et
culturelles dans la langue de spécialité scientifique et juridique ». In Bertrand
Olivier et Schaffner Isabelle (sous la direction de). Le français de spécialité.
Enjeux culturels et linguistiques. Palaiseau : Les Editions de l’Ecole
Polytechnique : 207 - 218.
Référentiels de compétences en licence. (2012). [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :

NK ""/61/4/HYPERLI
NK ""referentielHYPE
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LINK ""pdf (consulté le
Peraldi, Sandrine. (nov.2009). « Terminologie ». Le Bulletin du Cratil. 4 : 22-24. [en
ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : http://www.isit- (consulté le
Rapport mondial de l’Unesco. (2009). « Investir dans la diversité culturelle et le dialogue
interculturel ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : (consulté le
Scarpa, Frederica (2010). La traduction spécialisée : une approche professionnelle à
l’enseignement de la traduction. Ottawa : Presses de l'Université d'Ottawa.

Vandal-Sirois, Hugo. (2011). « Publicités multilingues : l’apport du traducteur en agence
de communication marketing ». ILCEA 14/2011. [en ligne]. Accessible à
l’adresse : (consulté le 27.01.2014).

Lect. Raluca GHENŢULESCU, Ph.D.

Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: Terminology as an independent science has emerged as a response to the

need for defining and standardizing new specialized terms in various newly created
domains. The technological boom, the discoveries in medicine, the increasing concern
for the environment and the ways to protect it have all led to the necessity to introduce
new terms in the already existing LSPs or to create entirely new LSPs. Therefore,
Terminology has emerged as an essential discipline, which grants acknowledgement to
the most recent LSPs and facilitates the transfer of knowledge from one field to another
and from highly specialized languages to the general language. Moreover, it is vital for
the field of Translation Studies, as, without the information provided by Terminology,
specialized translations cannot be validated and released on the market. The theoretical
principles provided by Terminology help the translators understand the relationships
between concepts, the ways to create new syntagmatic units and to choose the best
equivalents in the target languages.

Keywords: LGP vs. LSP; language specificity; standardization; terminological

databases; term formation.

Terminology is important for many scientific disciplines, as it enables them to

spread their recently acquired information through articles and other reference
materials, as well as to popularize their discoveries.
The wide range of applications and disciplines for which Terminology is
important nowadays has been discussed by the members of a European project
entitled POINTER, who created a diagram of the potential uses of terminological
information in various domains and for diverse purposes. As we can see in
Figure 1 below, the role of Terminology in various contemporary fields is so
significant that we may say it is one of the disciplines that, in recent years, have
increased in importance, popularity and versatility.
Out of these diverse applications, Human Translation, Machine Translation,
Computer-Aided Translation, Term Databanks and Technical Writing are strictly
related to the domain of Translation Studies, thus making Terminology a

compulsory subject in the curriculum of any faculty, department or
specialization of translation and interpretation.

Figure 1: Terminology Applications

In the context of an increased interest in science and technology and a strong

tendency to interdisciplinarity in many modern fields, such as biotechnology or
environmental engineering, communication in Europe relies more and more on
terminological information, in order to facilitate understanding among scientists
and engineers from various countries. In spite of using English as the lingua
franca of the European Union, there is an ever increasing awareness towards
multilingualism and, therefore, the relationship between specialized terminology
in different languages and translations is closer and closer.
Many European governments are willing to ensure equal access for all their
citizens to new ideas and to keep them abreast of the latest discoveries in
science and technology. For this reason, they need specialized translators to
make this information available in each national language and, consequently,
the market of translations is on the increase. Furthermore, all the member
states of the European Union must comply with the same regulations related to
product liability and consumer protection and all the documents on these topics
must be accurately translated into each national language.

According to EU Resolution C 411, product documentation must be translated
into the language of the country in which the product is to be sold (Council of
the European Union 1998:4). After it has been translated, this documentation is
considered technical documentation in its own right and, therefore, it must
comply with the norms and regulations pertaining to original language
documents. Wright’s axiom that technical translators are technical writers is
completed by Göpferich, who states that technical translation is actually
"interlingual technical writing" (Göpferich in Byrne, 2007:7). In other words, the
technical translators’ duty is not only to localize the technical documentation
(i.e. to adapt the user’s guides or instructions of a product or service to a
particular language and culture), but also to know and comply with all the legal
provisions related to their translation.
Consumer goods manufacturers are highly interested in localization, as
marketing studies show that products sell better when they are localized into
the languages spoken by their target groups. Thus, with more than one million
pages of localized texts per year only in the European Union, both in the public
and private sectors, specialized translations are seen as big business and,
consequently, is subjected to a set of strict norms, among which there are the
terminological ones; these norms impose the use of a particular term in a
particular context, in order to avoid any problem that might arise from the
translator’s negligence, thus putting the users in danger and leading to severe
legal consequences for the translator.
An example that illustrates the technical translator’s legal liability, in direct
relationship with the terminology used in translation, is detailed by Jody Byrne
in her article entitled Caveat Translator: Understanding the Legal Consequences
of Errors in Professional Translation. In 1996, in Germany, there were reported
many cases of smoke intoxication, as a result of using a particular type of bread
making machine. When the Regional Institute for Health and Safety in
Düsseldorf investigated the matter, it found that the cause of this problem was
the faulty translation of the user’s guide. In the original guide in English, users
were informed that the bread making machine would release steam while in
use, which was perfectly normal. However, the person who translated the user’s
guide from English into German mistook the word steam (Dampf) for the word
smoke (Rauch). Consequently, the users, who were assured by the guide that it
was perfectly normal for the machine to release smoke, did not turn it off until,
as a consequence of overheating, it really released smoke, which unfortunately
led to their intoxication. (cf. Révy von Belvárd, 1997:192).

This example demonstrates once again that the information provided by
Terminology is vital in specialized translations, which cannot be validated and
released on the market as being safe without the guarantee provided by
terminologists. Furthermore, the theoretical terminological principles help the
translators understand the relationships between concepts, the ways to create
new syntagmatic units and to choose the best equivalents in the target
languages, as well as to create comprehensive term banks.
Many international bodies, such as UN, Unesco and EU, have set as one of their
major targets the creation of multilingual databases, meant to encourage
translation-oriented Terminology. Terminological databanks (e.g. TERMIUM of
the Canadian government, EURODICAUTOM of the EU) have been created to
facilitate translators’ work, by offering standardized equivalents in various
languages. The terms included in these databases are used as reference points
by the translators all over the world and contribute significantly to the quality of
Another important objective of the international terminological networks is to
encourage term-formation in various languages, instead of simply loaning the
terms from the major internationally spoken languages. As most of the recent
scientific and technological discoveries have been made in English-speaking
countries, especially in the United States and the United Kingdom, the newly
introduced terms are in English and many languages have imported them as
such, without trying to find equivalents for them. Therefore, terminologists are
now attempting to create a favourable context for the introduction of equivalent
terms in various languages, instead of the loans from the languages of the
technologically dominant countries.
Terminology as a science, together with its principles of terminological research
and management, is extremely useful for specialized translators, because it
provides the methods to choose the most appropriate and accurate equivalent
in the target language, to understand the conceptual organization of a
specialized field in two or more languages, to adapt the target text to the
specificity of the target language (i.e. word order, collocations, grammar rules),
to find solutions when the target language lacks a specific equivalent term, to
choose the best translation solution when there are several equivalents
available in the target language and to properly use the most reliable
terminological resources, so that the translation would be of the best quality.
The importance of Terminology for different types of users varies in accordance
with their purpose to use it. On the one hand, the specialists in a certain

domain, who are considered direct users of Terminology, resort to
terminological information in order to communicate the result of their research
both to other specialists in the same field and to the general public interested in
that domain. Moreover, the teachers in a specific field resort to terminological
methods for passing on knowledge to their students, who should understand
the relationships between highly specialized concepts and use the proper terms
to designate them.
On the other hand, the professionals in linguistic sciences (i.e. translators,
interpreters, editors, reviewers etc.), together with the teachers and students in
this field, seen as indirect users or linguistic mediators, resort to Terminology as
a way to mediate communication between the specialists in a certain field from
different countries, speaking different languages, or between the specialists and
the non-specialists.
Besides the direct and indirect users of Terminology, a special category is
represented by terminologists themselves, who are specialized both in
Linguistics and in a particular field of knowledge and are expected to create
professional dictionaries, glossaries, computerized databases and computer
programs for terminological management.
Translators and interpreters are both terminology users, as they access the
computerized databases and glossaries provided by terminologists, and
terminology providers, as they introduce newly created terms into glossaries or
databases. From this point of view, their work is essential for Terminology, to
the same extent in which terminologists’ work is vital for translators and
interpreters – both of these professions are focused on the connection between
linguistic, cultural and specialized knowledge.
Translation Studies take full advantage of the information provided by
contrastive lexicology, phraseology, multilingual terminology and pragmatics.
Besides the semantic analysis and description of terms in at least two
languages, a translator has to search for the best idiom equivalence and the
right equivalent specialized terms in another language and to take into
consideration the specific context in which a certain utterance (be it in the form
of a written text or a conversation) is produced. Nowadays, it is easier to do all
these, as most collections of terms, together with their collocations and idioms,
are available online and there is the possibility to analyze them automatically on
the computer. Both Terminology databases and translation memories (i.e.
databases of textual units) are part of any computer-assisted translation.

Terminology is important especially for non-literary translations, where the
term-word distinction must be clearly made. If the translator encounters words,
he/she should know there is a certain degree of translation freedom, which
should be exploited to the benefit of the target readers. If they deal with a
term, they should be aware that they must provide the right equivalent in the
target language, so that they would avoid any kind of equivocalness. The most
difficult distinction to make is the one between genuine words and terms that
look like words. For example, a term like “gate” seems to be a word, but
actually it is a term with various meanings in no less than 14 different fields and
has seven meanings only in the field of Electronics.
In cases like the one mentioned above, a translator may resort to a concept
introduced by S.D. Shelov in 1982, namely “degrees of terminologicality”, which
implies that the more knowledge is needed to understand a lexical unit, the
more “terminological” that lexical unit is. In the light of this notion, a term like
“gate” has several degrees of terminologicality, from the lowest, which makes it
comparable to a word (e.g. gate – Building – a movable barrier, usually hinged,
for closing an opening in a wall, fence, etc,) to the highest, which requires a
great amount of information in order to be clearly understood and properly
translated (e.g. gate – Electronics – the electrode region or regions in a field-
effect transistor that is biased to control the conductivity of the channel
between the source and drain).
Moreover, for a translator it is important to clearly distinguish between a word
and a term in order to search for their definitions and equivalents in the right
place: either a general dictionary or a special subject field dictionary or glossary.
Even more important, this distinction is the first step towards choosing the right
translation strategy, as translation procedures vary in accordance with the
degree of specialization and difficulty of the source text.
In translation practice, one of the basic rules is to perform a macro-analysis of
the source text before starting to translate it. This implies collecting information
on the author, source, topic, style, register, target audience and any other
relevant aspects, which make up the so-called communicative setting.
Depending on this information, the translator decides whether the text is a
general or a specialized one and, consequently, if he/she has to choose
equivalent words or terms.
Besides the elements of macro-analysis, a translator should have in mind other
features of the source text, such as intentionality (i.e the presence/absence of a
purpose of the text), acceptability (i.e. the evidence that the text is meaningful),

situationality (i.e. the location of a text in a socio-cultural context), informativity
(i.e. the amount of information in a text), coherence, cohesion and
intertextuality (i.e. the complex interrelationship between a new text and other
similar texts that we have previously read and that we take as a model for the
understanding and the interpretation of the new text).
Together with all these general aspects of a text, the intrinsic terminological
information must be kept in mind and reviewed at any stage of the translation
process, in order to create a meaningful, accurate, precise, concise and
coherent target text, in compliance with all the legal provisions for the field it
belongs to.
To sum up, the cooperation between terminologists and translators is extremely
important for either of them, as they heavily rely on the linguistic concepts,
definitions, equivalents and strategies provided by the other one, in a mutually
advantageous process of creating both accurate translations and comprehensive
glossaries, dictionaries and terminological databases.

Byrne, Jody. (2007). “Caveat Translator: Understanding the Legal Consequences of
Errors in Professional Translation”. Journal of Specialised Translation
2007(7): 2–24.
Nord, Christiane. (1997). Translation as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches
Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome.
Révy von Belvárd, Kathy. (1997). "The Legal Importance of Technical Translations".
Technology, Law and Insurance 1997 (2): 191-194.
Sager, Juan. (1996). A Practical Course in Terminology Processing. Manchester: UMIST.
Shelov, S.D. (1982). “Russian Terminology Science”. IITF Series 12. Berlin: Fundus-
Online GbR Borkert SchwarzZerfaß.
Wright, Sue Ellen. (1987). "Translation Excellence in the Private Sector". In Marilyn
Gaddis Rose (ed.). Translation Excellence: Assessment, Achievement,
Maintenance. ATA Scholarly Monograph Series, Vol. I. Amsterdam/Philadelphia:
John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Felix NICOLAU, Professor PhD

Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: Literary translation contains all the other species of translation: economic,
juridical, technical and so on. This is possible due to the veracious appetite of literature.
Literature is an omnivorous phenomenon: it feeds on every type of text. It means that
the literary translator has to be proficient in all the other related branches of translation.
In my paper I intend to highlight this interdisciplinary prowess of the literary translator
by analysing Margento’s book Nomadosophy: A Graph Poem (2013). This is not a
common poetry book, as it is the result of a plethora of philologists and artists around
the globe. Nomadosophy enhances the archaeology of meanings in subtext discussions,
and then weaves them into the transnational fabric of the text.

Keywords: archaeology of meaning, interdisciplinarity, Margento, negotiated and

collaborative translation, expressivity

Literary translation is a multifarious business, one that encompasses both the

skills of a professional translator, and the craft of literary minds. It encompasses
the other species of translation: economic, juridical, technical
(specialized/professional types) and cultural. That is why the ones who assume
the responsibility of going into this “business” have to be masters of the target
language but, in the same time, to benefit of the closest contact possible with
the source language. These two preliminary conditions imply, first of all, that
the genuine literary translator must be an aesthetic writer and a technical
writer, if we take into account the complexity of literary texts. How is one to
translate, for instance, literary works referring to industry, business or sport?
Second, the literary translator must be a traveler if she is to have a living
knowledge of the source language; especially in the case of English, as this
lingua franca colonized in the past and is colonized now. There are plenty of
versions, of cross-English around the world.
Third, a gifted and expert translator is able to read between the lines. As David
Morley showed: “The writer weaves a certain degree of sparseness into their
final text. If matters are left unexplained, untold, or the language of a poem is

elliptically economical without becoming époque, then inquiring readers will lean
towards that word (Morley, 2007: 2).
And here we are, debating upon the most difficult – since subtle and
suggestive- type of translation: poetry translation. In regard to the above-
mentioned conditions, Chris Tănăsescu, the leader of band, meets all three of
them: he is a published poet, an essayist, a world-travelling academic and an
accomplished translator. Margento is an experimental syncretic band with a line-
up consisting of a writer and a performer (Chris Tănăsescu), two musicians and
(Costin Dumitrache and Valentin Baicu), a painter (Grigore Negrescu) and two
vocalists (Maria Răducanu and Marina Gingiroff). The band made its debut 2001
and in 2008 they were awarded the Gold Record. They also took part in
international Poetry Slam competitions and won many prizes.

The “graph” concept

In Nomadosofia - Poem graf/Nomadosophy – A Graph Poem (Max Blecher
Press, 2012), collectively attributed to Margento as an enlarged team this time,
Tănăsescu implemented parts of his international project of building a graph
poem. This means that diverse poets launch lines of creation and others
develop and multiply them. I have to remind that Chris Tănăsescu majored in
Computer Science before graduating from Faculty of Foreign Languages, where
he also earned an MA’s degree and defended a doctoral thesis on rock poetry.
So, his graph poetry is related to graphs in discrete mathematics and, on the
same principle, relies on interconnectedness.
Margento’s poetry pays great attention to form; somehow it resumes the haiku’s
inner contradiction (Altieri, 1995: 72) between a strict structure and a dreamy,
highly suggestive content. Because what matters here is the perfect blending of
form and content: musicality and thought: This art is complex as it strives to
capture both the local, the vernacular, and the international, so, the translation
had to resort to different strategies: adaptation, foreignization, localization and
so on.
One first obstacle is to feel and reproduce slang or ethnic pronunciations. For
instance, “Uvertură: Țigan alfabet, cânt acordeon Roma” is slightly abbreviated
in order to avoid hiatus and, especially, to render the uneducated, accelerated
pronunciation: “Overture: the Gnorant Gypsy Play Accordion Rome” (Margento,
2012: 9-10). The translation of the second section, “Bucharest – Budapest;
More at Home than Anywhere Else”, of the symphonic poem: Europe. A Gypsy
Epithalamium belongs to Martin Woodside.

An idiomatic phrase like: “dumnezeu cu mila” is rendered as “may Lord never
put me down”, as there is no formal similitude. Of course, as we all know, good
poetry is resistant to an exact transfer into another language. The same
happens here: “cânt și io pă la metrău/să-mi cresc copilașu’ meu” has to lose
some phonetic aberrations. They are compensated with the help of ellipsis and
idiomatic phrases: “here I play stuff in the subway/t’ make some dough and
feed my kiddies”. The poet knows too well that „technical innovation for its own
sake is like the tail that tries to wag the dog” (Barr, 2006: 435). That is why he
retains only those linguistic structures able to maintain the local flavour;
through the skilful translation they become universal. Woodside dwelled upon
the complexity of the text to be translated in a review of the book: “one readily
senses the great fun Tănăsescu must have had putting this elaborate pastiche
together, and the feeling is infectious. Pop music lyrics jostle with fragments
from Charles Wright and Jerome Rothenberg. Conversations with Rothenberg
work their way into lyrical mediations on etymology. Poems are translated from
Vietnamese into English (and then into Romanian), while an e-mail exchange
about the process of translating the poems runs across at the bottom of the
page” (Woodside, unpaginated).

Translation procedures
Modulations are the charming side of this translation. For example, „terasele-s
calde ca para” is rendered as “the outdoor pubs are as cool as flame”
(Margento, 2012: 10-11). Not all the rhymes can be preserved in the English
version, as not all the words have an equivalent. A verse like „stăm tolăniți ca
belferii-n cafeneaua” becomes “Later we lay cozy in…” (idem :12-13). So,
Woodside tries as much as possible to stick to the original and keeps a keen eye
on puns, allusions and idiomatic phrases.
Tănăsescu translated himself some of his poems. One representative poem is
Corul Țânțarilor/The Mosquito Chorus. His expertise in translations allows him to
preserve almost all the rhymes, but some sensitive and humoristic hints had to
be compensated. „Da’ mă gândesc cu dor la mama” gets reformulated as “But I
still miss my good old mama”, where „dor” is paraphrased. A highly idiomatic
line: „s-o duc mânca-ți-aș la bodega muilie-n ruj de la las veghea” needs
modulations and idiomatic compensations in English: “I gotta take her to the
bodega named wanky bangy in lost vegas”. The pun „las” -> “lost” functions
only in the translated version. Almost untranslatable is a traditional Romanian
poetry song refrain: „Trai neneacă, hop și hopa”. „Neneacă” is an ironic-
sentimental way of addressing a relative or a friend, and “hop și hopa” suggests

a hopping dance. The translation could have straightly landed on hip-hop, but
the traditional suggestion would have been lost. That is why he reformulates
everything in an American country-like fashion: “one, two, dance, you dudes on
dope!” (ibidem 26-27), a choice which also preserves the orality and euphony of
the original.

Diaspora and cultural contaminations

At this point, I have to dwell upon Tănăsescu’s diasporic condition. Wherever he
has travelled, he immersed himself in the local culture by getting into contact
with the local artists. This is the explanation for his capacity of and ability to
localize and foreignize in translation. As Benzi Zhang remarked, the “term
‘diaspora’, as we use it today, indicates not only a condition of ‘out-of-country’
displacement, but also the mishmash ‘out-of-culture’, ‘out-of-language’ and ‘out-
of-oneself’ experiences […]. Diaspora hence refers not only to a movement from
one place to another, but also to the transition that implicates a paradoxical,
multilayer rehoming process.” (Zhang, 2004: 105); of course, “evading” a
culture means plunging into another/others. The diasporic individual gets even
more culturally contaminated than those who stay home and do not take heed
of local art and tradition. Maybe diaspora represents the utopia of translators:
“Since diaspora develops crossroads that connect and span cultural and national
borders, home occupies no singular cultural/national space, but is situated in a
web of social, economic and cultural links encompassing both factual and
fantastic conditions” (idem: 106). Only in these conditions translators become
intermediary agents and mediators.
Nomadosophy begins with two great gates: 1. Europe. A Gypsy Epithalamium
and 2. Asia. Planetary Rhythm Marriages. The second gate contains some
pastiches. The EURO-GATE MARGENTO. Hungry Hell-Romania 1948 is a
pastiche after Randall Jarrell’s The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner and it has a
problematic line in terms of translation. “Au băgat un furtun, totuși, când m-au
dat la câine” needs an explanatory paraphrase, which also, fortunately,
enhances expressivity: “they washed me out of the cell with a hose and fed me
to the hounds” (Margento, 32-34).
Coming to the cycle Uverturi/Overtures, we are offered glimpses into the
intricacies of translation. In working on Ly Doi’s poem Who do you take me for?
Chris Tănăsescu collaborated with Alec Schachner. The volume includes
exchanges of e-mails between the two translators. One of the problem is the
line “you are too shy of thinking”: “Chris: Does that mean too shy to think? Or if
not, how would you put it? Alec: I wouldn’t translate ‘shy’. ‘Vo tu’ has a number

of meanings - literally ‘absent of thought’, but could be positive or negative.
‘Carefree, unworried, headless, jaunty’ OR ‘disinterested’ OR ‘impartial,
unbiased.’ The pronoun ‘bon may’ indicates a strong negative attitude towards
‘you’, almost like ‘you motherfuckers are so thoughtless’, though not quite that
vulgar”. Then, there is a remark on the quality of the products of a Vietnamese
translator: “Tien Van’s translations are a little wacked out at times bc he’s
steeped in academic English but doesn’t have a great sense of idiomatic
language (he’s told me this himself)” (Margento, 57). The discussion in the
subtext struggles to clarify some unique items, as Yves Gambier termed them:

translated texts would manifest lower frequencies of linguistic elements

that lack linguistic counterparts in the source languages such as that
these could also be used as translation equivalents. I will refer to these
unique items or unique elements. The unique elements are not
untranslatable, and they may be frequent, typical and entirely normal
phenomena in the language; they are unique only in respect of their
translation potential, as they are not similarly manifested in other
languages (Gambier, Shlesinger and Stolze 2007: 4).

These unique items are the dread, but also the pleasure of a fulfilled translator.

Recreating enjambments
In [te mai adulmec oare...]/ [do I still get your scent…] there are some
interesting solutions. The Romanian fragment is: “De-așa obiceiuri de beci//mi
se luase, dar ne-am con/format odată cu prost//ituatele tatuate/nederanjând și
nevrând//să fie deranjate în afara/programului, la o iarbă.//Și dintr-odată (dup-
o oră/pe care n-am simțit-o)//a-nceput să urle balamucul/o țăcăneală tehno”
(Margento 98). The more synthetic „mi se luase” is rendered through the
phrase “sick and tired”, but the hurdle is the enjambment, as this highlights
some sonorous effects, especially alliterations: „ne-am con/format odată cu
pros//ituatele tatuate”. So, „format” loses some of its rigid allusiveness, and the
second enjambment suffers a compensation which increases its dynamism: „we
com/plied together with the pros//tit-hoots and their tattoos”. The last part of
the fragment proposes some partial synonyms for „balamuc” and „trăncăneală”,
which even in Romanian are lateral or quite slangy terms: “a turmoil started
with roars/and ticks of techno”. Let’s not forget that “tick” can mean also the
tormenting insect, and this polysemantism strengthens the effect of the
aggressive music. Some of these words are close to the conditions of
culturemes, as they are defined by the same theorists: cultural phenomena
“present in culture X but not present (in the same way) in culture y” (Gambier

5). Contemporary poetry implies “delicacy” in translation, owing to its openness
to all linguistic registers: “Formal shifts of a more delicate kind occur when a
translator shifts from one source-text verb class (say, transitive) to a different
one in the target text (intransitive), or from a mass noun to a count noun, or
from e.g. singular to plural” (ibidem 7).
Translating enjambments implies more often than not a change in the sense of
split parts. An example in point is to be found in Un arbore de ploaie în
Pattaya/A Raintree in Pattaya: „o funcțională înrudire între meninge și mate/ria
interstelară radiind//largi matematici” (Margento 154). In the source language,
„mate” is a short form for “mathematics”, but „ria” stays for no perceivable
meaning, but it resonates consonantally with „interstelară radiind”. In the target
language the enjambed words are „mat” (which acquires a new meaning) and
“ter”, which is useful in the economy of the alliteration relying on “r”. Apart
from that, the translation resorts to transpositions and sense derivations: „/ria
interstelară radiind//largi matematici” becomes “/ter radiating in the interstellar
field//begetting mathematics”. „Largi” means “large”, so “begetting” involves a
second generative process after the first radiation process. It results that
Tănăsescu hardly ever prefers the gist translation or the exegetic translation. He
tries to avoid synthesizing or explaining original formulations. He knows very
well that it is “very hard to achieve an ideal rephrasing, a halfway point
between gist and exegesis that would use terms radically different from those of
the ST, but add nothing to, and omit nothing from, its message content”
(Hervey, Higgings, Cragie and Gambarotta 2005: 10). Maybe also because it is
self-translation, thus re-writing, re-creation? An application of what Marjorie
Perloff termed “translational poetics”, in Unoriginal Genius. Translating poetry
requires both semantic and communicative solutions and acceptability surpasses
adequacy. Nomadosophy betrays a Balkanic flavour, irrespective of the
profusion of snapshots taken worldwide. That is why the translators here made
use especially of foreignization rather than of domestication. They understood
that “an overt translation is realized as a way of providing the target world a
glimpse into the source world, or of ‘eavesdropping’ on another culture or
discourse community, and retains the integrity of the original socio-cultural
context” (Angelelli and Jacobson 2009: 2).

Musicality supersedes meaning

Many difficulties in translation presents the multi-layered text Poemul de sticlă/
The Glass Poem. From simple transpositions we are offered phonetic additions
in order to increase musicality. The first stanza of VIII. Fire e a fura, with a

gerundially compressed translation VIII. Being is stealing, looks like this in the
source language: “Spunându-mi numele, lumea toată/ practic mă pupa-
nprejur,/toți pe silabe-ar pune labele-/pe mine mă cheamă Mercur”. The
translated version implies dramatic modifications at the level of the third line:
“They all call my name/that’s how they kiss the whole of me/mouthing the
syllable- siblings all the same-/so let me introduce myself, I’m Mercury”
(Margento 194-195). The tactile sensation in the third line is pushed towards
sonorous effects by adding “siblings” and by introducing “mouthing”. The verse
at the destination implies a sort of chewing, a sensuous pronunciation.
Another interesting modification is in the poem [Intermezzo- și criminalii au
nevoie de arta seducției, mai ales ei/[Intermezzo- the criminals also need the
art of seduction; even more than everyone else. Splitting the word Jerusalem
generates different sub-meanings in the two languages: “sunt mulți români în
ieri-Salem” and “there are many Romanians in Jerry-Salem”. In Romanian “ieri”
is a temporal adverb, while “Jerry”, in English, is a name, even the shortened
form of Jerome. Salem in both languages sends to the trial of demonized
witches. Thus, there is a sliding process from temporality to onomastics.
Taking account of all these strategies we notice the moderate invisibility of the
translator. Venuti saw invisibility as an attempt at transparency:

A translated text, whether prose or poetry, fiction or nonfiction, is

judged acceptable by most publishers, reviewers, and readers when it
reads fluently, when the absence of any linguistic or stylistic
peculiarities make it seem transparent, giving the appearance that it
reflects the foreign writer’s personality or intention or the essential
meaning of the foreign text –the appearance, in other words, that the
translation is not in fact a translation, but the ‘original’. The illusion of
transparency is an effect of a fluent discourse, of the translator’s effort
to insure easy readability by adhering to current usage, minting
continuous syntax fixing a precise meaning” (Venuti 2005:1).

Targetting fluency reflects many times an inexpressive translation. It is exactly

what Tănăsescu tries to avoid. He invests expressive content in the initial fabric
of the source text.

In fact, Nomadosophy contains auto-translations and translations realized by a
plethora of contributors. It is a métissage or an interweaving (Duarte, Rosa and
Seruya 2006: 3) with the ambition of building up a homogeneous text. As many

of the poems included in the book belong to Tănăsescu, he managed to instil
here a protective approach, with no colonization or servitudes. In other words,
there is no trace of gendered translation: “The hierarchical authority of the
original over the reproduction is linked with imagery of masculine and feminine;
the original is considered the strong generative male, the translation the weaker
and derivative female” (Simon 2005: 1). The craft of translation in the case of
Nomadosophy originates in a profusion of procedures: adaptation, re-
contextualization, condensation, re-vision and so on. The great achievement is
the overlap between local and universal from the point of view of a Romanian,
which equates to an intermediary position between Asians and Americans. In
this case, translation is also a balancing process with geo-political urgencies.
Translations belonging to academics coming from neuter geographical stances
are a future opening for the translation studies in the third millennium.

Altieri, Charles. (1995). “Images of Form Vs. Images of Content in Contemporary Asian-
American Poetry”. Qui Parle. Vol. 9, No. 1. The Dissimulation of History: 71-91.
University of Nebraska Press Stable. Retrieved from:
Angelelli, Claudia V. and Holly E. Jacobson. (2009) Testing and Assessment in
Translation and Interpreting Studies, A call for dialogue between research and
practice. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Barr, John. (2006). “American Poetry in the New Century”. In Poetry, Vol. 188, No. 5:
433-441. Retrieved from:
Bassnett, Susan and Harish Trivedi. (2002). Post-colonial Translation. Theory and
practice. Routledge, Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Duarte, João Ferreira, Alexandra Assis Rosa and Teresa Seruya. (2007). Translation
Studies at the Interface of Disciplines. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins
Publishing Company.
Gambier, Yves, Miriam Shlesinger and Radegundis Stolze (Eds.) (2007). Doubts and
Directions in Translation Studies, Selected contributions from the EST Congress,
Lisbon 2004. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Hervey, Sándor et al. (2005). Thinking Italian Translation. Routledge, Taylor & Francis
Margento. (2012). Nomadosofia - Poem graf/ Nomadosophy – A Graph Poem. Bucureşti:
Casa de Editură Max Blecher.
Morley, David. (2007). The Cambridge Introduction to Creative Writing. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Simon, Sherry. (2005). Gender in Translation Cultural identity and the politics of
transmission. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Venuti, Lawrence. (2005). The Translator’s Invisibility. A History of Translation. New
York: Routledge.

Woodside, Martin. MARGENTO's Nomadosofia/Nomadosophy. Retrieved 7 May 2014
Zhang, Benzi. (2004). “The Politics of Re-Homing: Asian Diaspora Poetry in Canada”. In
College Literature, Vol. 31, No. 1: 103-125. Retrieved from: College Literature,

Maria Cătălina RADU

Universitatea Tehnică de Construcții București, ROMÂNIA

Departamentul de Limbi Străine și Comunicare

Abstract: One language dies every two weeks. There are around 7000 languages in
the world and it is predicted that half of them will disappear during this century. The
extinction of languages is not a new phenomenon; languages have been dying as long
as they have been spoken. However, the pace at which languages are disappearing
today has no precedent. This presentation will analyze the reasons why the death of
languages became such a real danger nowadays, as well as the way the modern
technology and especially the Internet influence the evolution of languages in the world
and contribute to the extinction of those languages that remain absent from the
Internet. Another aspect approached in my presentation concerns the measures taken
at the global level in order to preserve a broad language diversity as well as the
consequences of a massive extinction of languages on the cultural evolution of the

Keywords: culture, diversity, endangered languages, Internet, language extinction.

1. Diversitatea lingvistică în schimbare

În momentul de faţă, pe glob sunt vorbite aproximativ 7000 de limbi, însă
experţii prevăd că până la finalul acestui secol mai mult de jumătate dintre
acestea vor înceta să existe. În medie, la un interval de 2 săptămâni o limbă se
stinge. La început de secol XXI, dispariția limbilor este un fenomen mai rapid
decât dispariția speciilor. Optzeci de procente din limbile pe cale de dispariție
sunt de origine africană și cele mai multe dintre acestea nu au un sistem de
scriere. Odată cu moartea ultimului vorbitor dispare și limba, împreună cu
identitatea și moștenirea culturală a unei întregi comunități.
Limbile pe cale de dispariție constituie o problemă globală ce amenință
moștenirea culturală a unor grupuri, regiuni și chiar națiuni. Limba manchu,
vorbită pe teritoriul Chinei, limba bilakura din Papua Noua Guinee, limba
comanche din Statele Unite ale Americii și chiar și limba aramaică, limba lui
Iisus, toate acestea și mii de alte limbi din întreaga lume sunt pe punctul de a
se stinge.

Acest fenomen al dispariţiei limbilor nu este unul nou. Puțini sunt cei care știu
însă că cele aproape o sută de limbi vorbite de-a lungul timpului pe teritoriul
actual al Californiei au dispărut aproape în totalitate sau că peste 250 dintre
limbile aborigenilor din Australia s-au stins. Multe dintre aceste limbi nu sunt
înregistrate şi nu sunt recunoscute ca limbi oficiale. Ele sunt transmise de la o
generaţie la alta, în măsura în care noua generaţie este interesată să-şi păstreze
limba tradițională. Odată cu dispariţia unei limbi, se pierde o întreagă cultură,
istoria, experienţa, tradiţiile şi comportamentul acelei culturi.
Fiecare limbă constituie o modalitate unică de a vorbi lumii despre lume. Limba
permite vorbitorilor să articuleze concepte şi idei unice, defineşte modul în care
oamenii vorbesc şi ceea ce spun, fiind o reflectare a realităţii, valorilor şi
regulilor lor. Realităţile sunt concepte foarte diferite de la o cultură la alta şi din
această perspectivă, diversitatea lingvistică este esenţială pentru menţinerea
unei diversităţi culturale. Cântece, povești și expresii idiomatice, dezvoltate de-a
lungul a mai multor generații, se pierd odată cu dispariția unei limbi.
Este imposibil de estimat numărul total al limbilor care au dispărut de-a lungul
istoriei. Lingviştii au calculat numărul limbilor dispărute pentru anumite regiuni,
de exemplu, Europa şi Asia Mică (75 de limbi) sau Statele Unite ale Americii
(115 limbi pierdute în ultimele cinci secole). Câteva exemple de limbi dispărute
recent sunt: Akkala Saami (Federaţia Rusă), ultimul vorbitor a decedat în anul
2003, Aasax (Tanzania) în anul 1976, Ubyh (Turcia) în anul 1992 iar cea mai
recentă limbă dispărute este Eyak (Statele Unite, Alaska), ultimul vorbitor
decedând în anul 20081.
Unele dintre cele 7000 de limbi vorbite în lume au sute de milioane de vorbitori,
cum este cazul limbii engleze, limbii chineze, spaniolei sau arabei, în timp ce
alte limbi mai numără doar câțiva vorbitori. UNESCO a realizat un clasament
care cuprinde 577 de limbi cu un grad critic de risc. În ceea ce privește
repartizarea geografică, regiunile cele mai afectate sunt chiar regiunile cu cea
mai mare diversitate lingvistică, de exemplu Melanezia, Africa Subsahariană şi
America de Sud2. Însă limbi pe cale de dispariție se găsesc pe toate continentele
şi aproape în orice ţară din lume.
În România, există în momentul de faţă 10 limbi şi dialecte cu risc ridicat de a

1 (consultat la 12.05.2014).

2 (consultat la

 Aromâna: 250.000 de vorbitori, dintre care 28.000 în
 Limba bulgară din Banat: 8.000 de vorbitori, dintre care
6.500 în România;
 Limba tătară crimeeană: peste 5 milioane de vorbitori,
dintre care 22.000 în România;
 Graiul ceangăiesc: 62.000 persoane;
 Limba găgăuză: 162.200 de vorbitori;
 Limba ladino: 110.000 de vorbitori;
 Limba nogai: 87.000 de vorbitori;
 Limba ruteană: 600.000 de vorbitori;
 Dialectul Torlak: 1.5 milioane de vorbitori;
 Dialectul săsesc: 200.000 de vorbitori în Transilvania.

2. Dispariția limbilor – evoluția către involuție

O limbă dispare odată cu moartea ultimului ei vorbitor. În lucrarea Digital
Language Death, András Kornai afirmă că există trei semne clare ale dispariției
iminente a unei limbi. Primul este pierderea funcționalității limbii, fenomen
ce are loc atunci când alte limbi devin predominante în domeniile funcționale, ca
de exemplu comerțul. Cel de al doilea semn îl constituie pierderea
prestigiului, reflectat în mod special în atitudinea generației mai tinere, care
preferă să învețe și să folosească limbile dominante, în detrimentul limbii
tradiționale. Ultimul semn este pierderea competenței, concretizat în apariția
”pseudovorbitorilor”, care înțeleg limba vorbită de generațiile mai vechi, însă
adoptă o versiune gramaticală drastic simplificată. (Cf. András Kornai, 2013: 1)
De-a lungul istoriei umanității, limbile și dialectele grupurilor puternice s-au
extins, conducând la dispariția limbilor aparținând culturilor mai mici. Acest
fenomen are la bază politicile oficiale legate de utilizarea limbilor pe un anumit
teritoriu, respectiv atracția pe care o poate exercita cunoașterea și utilizarea
unei limbi aparținând unui imperiu. Acest fapt explică, de exemplu, de ce Bolivia
are o diversitate lingvistică mai mare decât întregul continent european, care
are o istorie lungă a statelor de mari dimensiuni și a puterilor imperiale.
Kary Lidersen, în articolul Preserving Languages is about more than Words,
publicat de The Washington Post, afirmă că răspândirea unor limbi precum
engleza, spaniola și rusa au condus la dispariția altor limbi vorbite pe teritorii
sau de grupuri restrânse. Politicile legate de utilizarea limbilor în Rusia au avut
drept consecință dispariția multor limbi din Siberia, printre care și limba tofa,
care utiliza un singur cuvânt pentru ”ren, mascul, în vârstă de doi ani, necastrat,

bun pentru călărie”. În Statele Unite ale Americii, în ultimele decade, guvernul a
forțat vorbitorii nativi să-și abandoneze limbile, folosind mijloace precum școlile
și internatele, care pedepseau tinerii ce vorbeau limbi tradiționale. Numeroase
limbi ale nativilor americani și australieni nu au mai fost recuperate niciodată.
Dintre cele 115 limbi dispărute pe teritoriul Statelor Unite ale Americii în ultimii
500 de ani, conform datelor UNESCO, 53 au dispărut după anul 1950. (Cf. Kary
Lidersen, 2009)
Motivele pentru care limbile se sting sunt variate și diferă de la o limbă la alta și
de la o regiune la alta. Unul dintre principalele motive este că grupurile
puternice își impun limbile asupra celorlalte. Politicile regionale în ceea ce
priveşte limbile pot influenţa dispariţia acestora. Numeroase ţări au limbi oficiale
pentru afaceri, limbi ce ajung să domine şi conduc la dispariţia limbilor locale.
Conform UNESCO, o limbă dispare atunci când vorbitorii ei dispar sau când trec
la a vorbi o altă limbă – în cele mai multe cazuri, o limbă folosită de un grup mai
puternic. Limbile sunt ameninţate de forţe externe, precum subjugarea militară,
economică, religioasă, culturală şi educaţională, sau de forţe interne, precum
atitudinea negativă a comunităţii faţă de propria limbă3.
Comunitățile au tendința de a adopta limbile mai puternice din punct de vedere
politic și economic. Globalizarea joacă, în egală măsură, un rol important, unele
comunități neavând altă soluție decât să renunțe la propria limbă în favoarea
limbilor dominante. De asemenea, copiii învaţă limba dominantă şi resping limba
lor istorică. De exemplu, copiii emigranţilor basci din Statele Unite ale Americii
nu au vrut să înveţe limba bască. În mod similar, copiii din numeroase culturi nu
mai învaţă limbile lor native şi istorice.
Un alt motiv este acela că limbile sunt izolate geografic de alte culturi şi limbi.
Un exemplu este acela al regiunilor vaste din Brazilia, în care limbile indigene
sunt vorbite doar în cadrul unui trib cu un număr mic de oameni. În momentul
în care tribul respectiv se va restrânge foarte mult ca dimensiune, este posibil să
nu mai existe nimeni care să transmită limba mai departe.
Polemicile referitoare la supremația limbii engleze și pericolul pe care aceasta îl
constituie la adresa limbilor naționale nu este un subiect nou. Conform
statisticilor, 25 % din populația Terrei vorbește limba engleză la un anumit
nivel. Numeroase țări nevorbitoare de engleză au susținut predarea limbii
engleze din motive care includ mediul de afaceri, turismul și politica. Deși
engleza poate fi considerată una dintre limbile vitale pentru internet și la nivel

3 (consultat la

mondial, un raport al declară că mandarina a devenit în prezent
cea de a doua cea mai utilizată limbă pe internet iar odată cu dezvoltarea
mediului online, secolul XXI ar putea reconfigura diversitatea lingvistică. Pentru
culturile care depun eforturi pentru a-și conserva limbile, accesul la internet ar
putea fi cheia către succes.4

3. Salvarea limbilor în și de către era digitală

Arheologii sunt, probabil, cei care știu cel mai bine că limbile vorbite în prezent
nu sunt primele amenințate de pericolul dispariției. Specialiștii încă încearcă să
descifreze limbi dispărute cu mii de ani în urmă. În zilele noastre, lingviștii
dispun de un arsenal de tehnologii noi care pot contribui la protejarea limbilor
pe cale de dispariție. Dorința de a le salva este evidentă prin angajamentul
vorbitorilor acestor limbi, însă și prin implicarea agențiilor culturale la nivel local
și național, alături de universități și alte organizații care contribuie la dezvoltarea
de noi sisteme pentru a proteja atât limbile, cât și moștenirea culturală cu care
acestea sunt înzestrate.
Unul dintre cele mai importante proiecte a fost lansat în anul 2012 de Google,
Endangered Languages Project, susținut de Alliance for Linguistic Diversity.
Obiectivul acestui program este de a aduna informații actuale despre limbile
aflate în pericol și de a distribui informații de ultimă oră cu privire la acestea.
Colaborând cu lingviști din întrega lume și stabilind parteneriate cu universități,
Google speră să înregistreze progrese semnificative în confruntarea acestei
probleme. Prin intermediul site-ului acestui proiect, părțile implicate vor utiliza
mijloace digitale moderne pentru a stabili un contact între comunitățile ale căror
limbi sunt pe cale de dispariție și pentru a facilita predarea și învățarea acestor
Rosetta Stone, firmă producătoare de software-uri specializate în învăţarea
limbilor străine, a fondat în anul 2004 programul numit Endangered Language
Program, în cadrul căruia colaborează cu grupuri indigene din întreaga lume
pentru a dezvolta software-uri de învăţare a limbilor pentru a revitaliza limbile
cu grad ridicat de risc.6
Programul Enduring Voices elaborat de National Geographic a dezvoltat aşa-
numitele Talking Dictionaries. Acestea ne dau ocazia de a auzi unele dintre cele
mei ezoterice şi misterioase sunete în limbajul uman. Comunităţi din întreaga

4 (consultat la 03.05.2014).

5 (consultat la 1.07.2014).
6 (consultat la 4.05.2014).

lume colaborează cu National Geographic pentru a-şi înregistra limbile şi a fi
difuzate online. Astfel avem ocazia de a auzi sunete fascinante şi frumoase –
forme ale limbajului uman pe care nu le-am mai auzit niciodată – şi de a
pătrunde mai adânc în diversitatea culturii şi experienţei pe care oamenii le-au
creat pe întreg globul.7
O altă organizaţie non-profit care are ca scop păstrarea informaţiilor valoroase
pentru generaţiile viitoare este The Living Tongues for Endangered Languages.
The Smithsonian şi UNESCO derulează, de asemenea, programe pentru
prezervarea limbilor.
În prezent, aplicațiile pentru telefoanele mobile și tablete joacă, de asemenea,
un rol important. În urmă cu câteva luni, CNN anunța că a lansat o aplicație
pentru telefoanele mobile pentru a ajuta la salvarea unei limbi indigene
australiene, pe cale de dispariție. Ma!Iwaidja este prima aplicație de acest tip,
destinată protejării unei limbi indigene din Australia, care numără mai puțin de
200 de vorbitori.
Platformele de socializare se implică, de asemenea, în stabilirea de conexiuni
între vorbitorii limbilor minoritare. Site-uri precum Twitter și Facebook permit
membrilor aparținând grupurilor lingvistice minoritare să creeze spații digitale
pentru promovarea și conservarea elementelor limbilor lor. Grupurile pot
înregistra dicționare cu suport sonor pentru a preda pronunția și a o împărtăși
prin intermediul platformelor media.

4. Internetul şi dispariţia limbilor

În mod paradoxal, sau nu, una dintre cauzele dispariţiei limbilor este internetul.
Conform lucrării Digital Language Death publicată de Andras Kornai în PLOS
One, mai puţin de cinci procente din cele 7000 de limbi existente în prezent vor
trece în domeniul digital.
Lumea globalizată a internetului operează, în mare măsură, ca o monocultură.
Conform statisticilor, doar 250 de limbi ocupă o poziţie solidă în mediul online şi
140 se află la limită. Dintre cele 7000 de limbi existente, probabil 2500 vor
supravieţui, în sensul clasic, şi mult mai puţine vor intra în era internetului.
(ibidem: 9)
Andras Kornai şi-a început cercetările acolo unde încep toate documentările
online – pe Wikipedia. Experienţa demonstrează că Wikipedia este întotdeauna
printre primele comunităţi lingvistice digitale active şi poate fi utilizată drept

7 (consultat la 04.05.2014).

indicator pentru frecvenţa utilizării limbilor pe internet. Copiii, în momentul în
care încep să utilizeze internetul pentru altceva decât jocuri, accesează
Wikipedia, care furnizează un volum mare de cunoştinţe, pe care mulţi îl găsesc
nu doar atractiv, ci şi util în a-şi implementa limba şi cultura în mediul virtual.
Există 533 de limbi propuse pentru Wikipedia, aproximativ dublu faţă de
numărul real existent, însă Kornai estimează că cel mult o treime dintre acestea
vor atinge minimum de cinci utilizatori activi şi vor avea suficiente pagini pentru
a face parte în mod adecvat din Wikipedia. (ibidem: 10)
Prin urmare, în mod inevitabil se ajunge la problema supremaţiei limbii engleze,
prin faptul că cei care doresc să intre în mediul de afaceri online, cel mai
probabil o vor face în limba engleză sau în limbile FIGS (franceză, italiană,
germană, spaniolă), în limbile CJK (chineză, japoneză, coreană) şi în principalele
limbi ale fostelor imperii colonialiste (olandeză, rusă, portugheză). Astfel, limbile
cu număr mai mic de vorbitori sau cu o reprezentare mai restrânsă în mediul
online au o funcţionalitate imitată. Ideea că „ceea ce nu există online, nu există”
implică pierderea prestigiului. Având în vedere că urmează o generaţie pentru
care mediul digital va prima, limba lor online nu va coincide, cel mai probabil, cu
limba maternă.
Pe lângă cei 250 de supravieţuitori, toţi ceilalţi se vor deplasa spre ceea ce
Kornai numeşte „starea de moştenire digitală” în care materialele sunt
disponibile pentru cercetare şi documentare, însă limba nu este utilizată de
nativi online. Kornai explică faptul că o mare parte din excluderea lingvistică de
pe internet are ca motiv faptul că internetul este, în cea mai mare parte, un
mediu scris. (ibidem: 8) Baza de date lingvistică Ethnologue estimează că 3535
din cele 7105 limbi existente nu au un sistem de scriere.

5. Ce se poate face pentru a stopa dispariţia limbilor?

Conservarea limbilor funcționează cel mai bine atunci când limba, cultura și
identitatea comunităților minoritare de vorbitori sunt respectate de formele
naționale de guvernare. Astfel, în loc să fie interzise sau marginalizate, limbile
minoritare ar trebui să fie predate ca limbi materne copiilor sau aceștia să
beneficieze de ore speciale în care să studieze aceste limbi, în plus față de
învățarea limbii naționale sau regionale. Beneficiile bilingvismului sau
multilingvismului sunt deja cunoscute, iar acestea sunt demonstrabile și în ceea
ce privește importanța conservării limbii materne, ceea ce permite dialogul între
generații și consolidează continuitatea culturală și identitatea comunității.

Cel mai important lucru care se poate face în acest sens este crearea de condiţii
favorabile pentru vorbitorii acestor limbi de a vorbi limba şi de a o transmite mai
departe copiilor lor. Acest lucru necesită deseori politici naţionale care să
recunoască şi să protejeze limbile minorităţilor, sisteme educaţionale care să
promoveze învăţământul în limba maternă şi o colaborare creativă între membrii
comunităţilor şi lingvişti pentru a dezvolta un sistem de scriere şi pentru a
introduce învăţământul formal în limba respectivă. Având în vedere că cel mai
important factor este atitudinea comunităţii în care se vorbeşte limba respectivă
faţă de propria limbă, este esenţial să se creeze un mediu social şi politic care
să încurajeze multilingvismul şi respectul faţă de limbile minoritare.
Cel mai reușit exemplu în acest sens îl constituie ebraica, limbă care s-a stins cu
două secole în urmă, după care a fost readusă la viață în secolul al XX-lea ca
limbă maternă a unei întregi generații de israeliți. Și alte limbi au fost salvate de
la dispariție datorită voinței și determinării comunităților lor, printre acestea
numărându-se limba galeză, limba cornică și limba maori din Noua Zeelandă.
Într-adevăr, unele limbi au în prezent atât de puţini vorbitori, încât nu vor putea
fi menţinute, însă lingviştii pot, în cazul în care comunităţile respective doresc
acest lucru, să înregistreze cât mai mult posibil din limbile respective pentru ca
acestea să nu dispară fără urmă.
Cu toate acestea, deși cercetătorii depun eforturi sporite pentru a readuce la
viață și a reintroduce în uz limbile rare, limbile dominante câștigă din ce în ce
mai mult teren, acaparând sute și mii de noi vorbitori. Așadar, ne îndreptăm
spre o lume în care engleza sau spaniola vor deveni cele mai vorbite limbi?

6. Salvarea unei limbi înseamnă salvarea unei culturi

Salvarea limbilor pe cale de dispariție înseamnă totodată salvarea culturilor pe
care aceste limbi le reprezintă. Limba este mai mult decât un mijloc de
comunicare, este un sentiment de apartenență la o comunitate, un mod de a
gândi și de a simți. Fiecare limbă reflectă o viziune unică asupra lumii, asupra
modului în care o comunitate se raportează la lumea în care trăiește. Astfel,
limba constituie mijlocul de expresie a moștenirii culturale a oamenilor și
rămâne o reflectare a culturii respective, chiar și după decăderea sau dispariția
acelei culturi, de cele mai multe ori sub impactul unei culturi diferite, mai
puternice. Odată cu moartea și dispariția unei limbi, se pierde pentru totdeauna
un element de neînlocuit din cunoașterea și înțelegerea noastră asupra gândirii
umane și a viziunii asupra lumii.

Cei care militează pentru conservarea limbilor afirmă că există, în egală măsură,
motive culturale și pragmatice pentru salvarea limbilor pe cale de dispariție.
Numeroase comunități indigene dețin cunoștințe vaste despre plante
medicinale, informații ce ar putea furniza indicații importante pentru
tratamentele moderne. Populație kallawaya din America de Sud a transmis de-a
lungul generațiilor, de peste 400 de ani, cunoștințe importante legate de numele
și utilizarea plantelor medicinale. Limba acestora este vorbită în prezent de mai
puțin de 100 de oameni. Conservarea limbilor prin utilizarea tuturor mijloacelor
digitale pe care le avem la dispoziție este, așadar, esențială.

Coșeriu, Eugeniu. (2009). Omul și limbajul său. Iași: Editura Universității „Alexandru
Ioan Cuza”.
Eco, Umberto. (2002). În căutarea limbii perfecte. Iași: Editura Polirom.
Eco, Umberto. (2008). A spune cam același lucru. Iași: Editura Polirom.
Endangered Languages. Adresa electronică:
(consultat la 1.07.2014).
Ethnologue. Languages of the World. Adresa electronică:
(consultat la 04.05.2014).
EurActiv.Com. Adresa electronică: (consultat la 3.05.2014).
Kornai, András. (2013). Digital Language Death. [online]. Adresa electronică:
%2Fjournal.pone.0077056&representation=PDF (consultat la 06.04.2014).
Lydersen, Kary. (2009). ”Preserving Languages Is About More Than Words”. The
Washington Post. [online]. Adresa electronică:
dyn/content/article/2009/03/15/AR2009031501857.html (consultat la
National Geographic. Disappearing Languages. Enduring Voices – Documenting the
Planet’s Endangered Languages. Adresa electronică: (consultat la
Open Language Archives Community. Adresa electronică: http://www.language- (consultat la 12.05.2014).
Rosetta Stone. Adresa electronică: (consultat la
Senghas, Ann, Kita Sotaro and Asli Özyürek. (2004). ”Children creating core properties
of language: Evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua.” Adresa
(consultat la 1.07.2014).
The Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages. Adresa electronică: (consultat la 13.05.2014).

UNESCO. Endangered Languages. Adresa electronică: http://www.- (consultat la

Asistent universitar Mirela RADU

Universitatea „Titu Maiorescu”, Bucureşti, ROMÂNIA

Facultatea Ştiinţe Sociale şi Politice

Abstract: Physicians, sensitive to socio-economic changes, authentic ethic laymen have

represented, along history of manking civilization, important promoters of enlighting
thinking, trying to enlarge the peoples’ knowledge. Our paper aims at promoting some
of the Romanian medical school, physicians who were, at the same time, cultivated
people and whom the society has unfortunately forgotten. The objective of the herein
article is to bring into the searchlight these personalities and to regrant them the
glamour they should fully rejoice. Men of medicine, apart from promoting social
wellness have also created art in its various forms. Suffocated by clinical cases, they
have gone through a catharsis via the artistic accomplishments they have yielded to

Keywords: physicians, ethic laymen, artistic accomplishments, society, art, writing

Faptul că slujitori ai unei meserii atât de opuse au fost angajaţi în arta

condeiului este, poate, datorată faptului că această a doua îndeletnicire a
pătrunde în suflet, permiţând să iasă la iveală ceea ce deja purtau adânc în
conştiinţa şi spirit: „scrisul descifrează în lăuntrul celui care scrie lucruri altfel
greu de descoperit, lucruri menite abia a se face-şi pe care le constrânge să iasă
la iveală, să devină acţiuni” (Raicu, 1978: 106). O disjungere ȋntre biografie şi
autor nu poate fi făcută ȋn mod tranşant deoarece există „...multiple şi subtile
fire care leagă ȋntre ele eul pragmatic şi cotidian de eul creator. Omul se
caracterizează printr-o unitate indestructibilă, care se poate ȋnsă manifesta pe
planuri foarte diferite, dintre care unele sunt privilegiate şi le subordonează pe
celelalte, fără a se lipsi cu toate acestea de ele, dar supunându-le unei
metamorfoze care face ȋndeobşte dificultatea examenului analitic.” (Mihăilescu,
2008: 258) Tale quale, considerăm că această abordare poate fi aplicată şi
medicilor literaţi. Disocierea ȋntre viaţa lor socială şi profesională, pe de o parte,
şi trăirile exprimate ȋn pagina de literatură, pe de altă parte, nu poate fi aplicată
fără a trunchia ȋnţelegerea resorturilor ce i-a ȋmpins spre exprimarea artistică.
Chiar „părintele medicinei”, Hipocrat, a emis aforismul Ars longa, vita brevis,

ceea ce demonstrează că cel mai vestit medic al Greciei antice a intuit
importanţa artei ȋn viaţa omului.
Respingând preconcepţiile, fiind promotori ȋn diverse domenii, nu doar medicina,
susţinând raţionalismul, medicii pot fi consideraţi, de-a lungul istoriei umanităţii
promotori ai unui „radicalism laic” (idem: 258). Asemuirea medicinei cu arta
este consecinţă evidentă a acestui mod integrator de a gândi a oamenilor
antichităţii: Omnium artium medicina nobilissima est. A le alătura pe cele două
nu este, deci, o contradicţie, ci mai degrabă dovedeşte caracterul lor
Filosoful francez Gaston Bachelard (1884-1964) ȋncerca să descopere puncte
ce făceau ca ştiinţa şi literatura să se atagă dar să se şi respingă totodată. Cele
două se află la antipozi, ştiinţa care ȋncearcă să le pună laolaltă este
filosofia:”Axele poeziei şi ale ştiinţei sînt de la bun început inverse. Tot ce poate
spera filosofia este ca poezia şi ştiinţa să devină complementare, să le unifice ca
pe două contrarii bine alcătuite. Trebuie deci să opunem spiritului poetic
expansiv, spiritul ştiinţific taciturn pentru care antipatia prealabilă este o
precauţie sfîntă” (Bachelard, 1989: 1-2). Ȋn 1949, ȋn lucrarea Raţionalismul
aplicat, Bachelard identifica, la oamenii de ştiinţă, un complex al lui Harpagon.
Acest complex, specific „spritelor realiste” se traducea prin luarea ȋn posesie a
realului şi transfigurarea lui ȋn mod subiectiv, prin filtrul lui omului de ştiinţă,
ȋntr-o manieră aproape avară.
Ion Biberi a avut ambiţia, poate mai mult decât orice confrate medic, să
descopere o relaţie ȋntre medicină şi literatură. Cum era de aşteptat, medicul
psihiatru a dedicat pagini de eseu tocmai legăturii tridimensionale medicină-
literatură-antropologie. Pornind de la cunoaşterea generală care are două
direcţii - instinctuală (specifică reflectării ȋn conştiinţă) şi analitică (specifică
ştiinţei) – Biberi consideră medicina ştiinţă de graniţă, care face joncţiunea
dintre disciplinele umaniste şi cele realiste. Motivul pentru care ştiinţele
medicale se apropie cel mai mult de literatură dintre toate disciplinele ştiinţifice
este numitorul loc comun: fiinţa umană studiată de medicină din punct de
vedere anatomic şi psihologic iar de literatură din punct de vedere al abisurilor
conştiinţei. Medicina ȋnzestrează literatul cu uneltele necesare sondării
cunoaşterii intuitive: „Ȋnţelegerea pe care o epocă istorică o are asupra omului
este ȋn acelaşi timp intuitivă, expresie a interiorizării, dar şi a punţilor
simpatetice pe care oamenii le stabilesc ȋntre ei, ajungând la o formulă etică –
dar şi teoretică, rod al unei cercetări analitice asupra vieţii omeneşti, cu ajutorul
disciplinelor ştiinţifice. Ştiinţa cea mai proprie acestei cercetări a fost, ȋncă din

antichitate, medicina, sinteză de preocupări foarte variate, ȋn primul rând
higienice şi terapeutice, dar ajungând la o cuprindere teoretică a naturii omului.”
Pentru ca ȋn acelaşi context, Biberi să accentueze conexiunea medicină-
literatură: „Medicina a fost prima expresie a unei năzuinţe de ȋnţelegere
antropologică, de totalitate, a fiinţei umane. Era firesc ca, statornicindu-şi ca ţel
o cuprindere analitică a omului, medicina să aibă interferenţe cu activitatea
literară. Ţelul celor două preocupări era acelaşi: Omul, deşi mersul gândirii
slujitorilor celor două ȋndeletniciri, medicul şi scriitorul, era diferit. Medicina
oferea, ȋnsă, literatului, un instrument esenţial de cunoaştere, pe care artistul
nu-l putea trece cu vederea” (Biberi, 1982: 43). Medicina este, după părerea sa,
cea care a răspuns ȋncă din timpuri străvechi necesităţii umane de a ȋşi formula
o ȋnţelegere amplă a omului. Deşi analizează omul ȋn ipostaze diferite, medicina
şi literatura, converg ȋnspre un scop comun: omul şi era, deci, inevitabil ca cele
două să se contamineze reciproc. Acest medic practicant dar şi scriitor a fost
unul dintre puţinii care au teoretizat şi analizat ȋn detaliu relaţia medicină-opera
literară. Dubla perspectivă pe care o aduce Biberi este una dintre cele mai
cuprinzătoare ȋn special pentru că acesta şi-a construit un sistem de gândire
izvorât din medicină cu aplicaţii literare. De altfel, Biberi conchide că informaţia
medicală ȋn literatură serveşte atât producătorilor actului cultural cât şi
receptorilor acestuia: „Influenţa formaţiei sau chiar numai a unei informaţii
medicale şi psihiatrice ȋn viaţa literară a fost ȋndoit: ca instrument de lucru, ȋn
primul rând pentru numeroşi autori (...) şi ca mijloc de comprehensiune pentru
cititori, ce ar fi putut fi uneori derutaţi ȋn faţa unor opere, care depăşeau
orizonturile normalităţii şi rigorile gândirii clasice” (idem: 56). Nu numai
literatura a profitat de informaţiile puse la ȋndemână de medicină ci şi critica
literară care a apelat la „(...) metode freudiene, psihiatrice sau medicale”
(ibidem) pentru a ȋşi argumenta opiniile. Medicina, prin descoperirile făcute,
serveşte rolul de ȋndrumător pentru literatul dornic să sondeze resorturile
conştiinţei umane. Iar medicina şi literatura se ȋntâlnesc fericit pe tărâmul
Cu Ioan Molnar-Piuariu (1749-1815) se deschide un lung şir de medici-
cărturari ce aveau să influenţeze nu doar medicina cât ȋntreaga cultură română.
Ioan Molnar-Piuariu a fost unul din arhitecţii Supplex Libellus Valachorum dar a
fost şi autorul primei gramatici româno-germane, a unei Istorii universale
proiectată ca o compilaţie dar la care marele cărturar a adăugat propriile
cugetări. De numele său se leagă şi apariţia primei tipărituri medicale Sfătuire
către studenții în chirurgie apărută în anul 1793.

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805) este un exemplu
grăitor asupra modului ȋn care medicina şi literatura se ȋntrepătrund ȋn aceeaşi
persoană. Ȋn 1780 a devenit medic militar al unui regiment din Württemberg iar
un an mai târziu (1781) publică şi ȋi este jucată la teatru prima dramă Hoţii.
Succesului acestei piese i se datorează calitatea de cetăţean de onoare al
Republicii Franceze, titlu pe care ȋl primeşte ȋn 1792. Ȋn 1785 scrie poezia Către
bucurie, pe care Beethoven o foloseşte ȋn partea finală a Simfoniei a IX şi care,
ȋn present, este imnul U.E. Ȋn 1799 ȋi apar mai multe drame: Wallenstein, Maria
Stuart, Fecioara din Orléans, Mireasa din Messina, Wilhelm Tell. Cu trei ani
ȋnaintea morţii primeşte titlul nobiliar.
Vasile Popp (1789-1842) renumit medic, publicist şi bibliograf din Transilvania
şi-a susţinut teza de doctor ȋn medicină cu o lucrare etnografică Despre
obiceiurile populare de înmormântare la români (1817) pentru ca, doi ani mai
târziu, să ajungă să predea filosofia şi filologia la Şcoala de la Socola (Iaşi),
interesul său ȋn filologie traducându-se ȋn apariţia lucrării Filosofia și filologia,
sau comparație între limba română și limba latină. Ȋn calitate de medic a luptat
ȋmpotriva bolilor profesionale, a celor endemice, sprijinind campanii de
vaccinare a copiilor şi ȋntemeierea de farmacii.
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804–1869) a urmat cursurile Facultăţii de
Medicină ȋntre 1824-1827. Tot ȋn 1924 ȋncepe să publice articole ȋn ziarul Globe
iar ulterior se ȋmprieteneşte cu Victor Hugo. Articolele şi eseistica sa au fost
reunite ȋn volumele Port-Royal (1840-1959) şi Portrete literare (1932-1939). Ȋn
1934 a publicat un roman autobiografic Voluptate. Ȋn timpul domniei lui Louis
Napoleon a devenit profesor de poezie latină la Collège de France. Ȋn 1865 a
devenit senator şi a fost unul dintre susţinătorii fervenţi ai libertăţii de exprimare
şi a presei. Ȋn calitatea sa de critic literar a iniţiat o metodă inovativă de studiu
literar, prin prisma biografiei scriitorului analizat.
Primul moldovean ce a ajuns doctor ȋn medicină, Constantin Vârnav (1806-
1877) obţine doctoratul ȋn medicină cu o lucrare complexă Scurtă fiziografie a
Moldovei (1836) ce se dorea o frescă economică, socială, medicală şi de condiţii
climatice a Moldovei. Dar, spirit european, Vârnav a participat activ şi la viaţa
socio-politică fiind membru al Partidei unioniste şi luptând pentru Unirea
Pavel Vasici-Ungureanu (1806-1881) pe lângă practicarea medicinii şi-a făcut
timp şi pentru preocupările culturale. Astfel, el a fost fondatorul primei publicaţii
medicale din Transilvania Higiena și școala dar scrierile sale nu s-au limitat la
domeniul medical, activitatea sa publicistică ocupând pagini din revistele vremii

Foaie pentru minte, inimiă și literatură, Transilvania, Telegraful român, Gazeta
de Transilvania etc.
Depăşind cu mult limitele medicinii pe care a studiat-o la Paris ȋntre 1834-1839,
Nicolae Kretzulescu (1812-1900) a fost o personalitate culturală. Activitatea
sa medicală se traduce prin apariţia, ȋn 1843, a Manualui de anatomie
descriptivă. Ȋn 1842, a ȋnfiinţat Şcoala de Mică Chirurgie pe lângă Spitalul
Colţea, Kretzulescu fiind aici profesor de anatomie Dar, Nicolae Kretzulescu s-a
implicat activ şi ȋn politică deţinând de trei ori scanul de prim-ministru al
României din partea Partidului Liberal. Ȋn calitate de politician, ocupând fotoliul
de ministru de interne, l-a ajutat pe Carol Davila să pună bazele Şcolii Naţionale
de Medicină şi Farmacie, prima facultate cu profil medical din ţară.
Ioan Alexandru Brătescu Voineşti (1868-1946) a absolvit Facultatea de
Medicină dar, profund marcat de experienţele trăite nu o practică niciodată şi se
orientează către Drept. De altfel, ȋntr-o conferinţă din data de 8 martie 1932
organizată la Facultatea de Litere, acesta rememora anii studenţiei la Medicină
şi motivele ce l-au determinat să nu practice această meserie. Nu studiul
teoretic l-a ȋndepărtat de prima alegere ci confruntarea cu suferinţa reale a
pacienţilor a fost cea care i-a repugnat:”…m-am ȋnscris la Medicină, pe care am
urmat-o un an. Dibaci la mână, că desenam, lucram la tâmplărie, disecam
frumuşel ȋn sala de autopsie, cu ale cărei orori, care mă impresionaseră la
ȋnceput, mă obişnuisem. Când ȋnsă, din sala de autopsie a trebui să trec ȋn sala
de operaţie şi ȋn saloanele spitalelor, aspectul suferinţelor, al agoniilor, auzul
gemetelor m-au ȋngrozit ȋntr-atât, ȋncât m-am lăsat de medicină şi m-am ȋnscris
la Drept.” (Mihailide, 2001: 73).
Ion Rotaru, ȋn preambulul lucrării, Medici scriitori români. Mic dicţionar
(Mihailide, op. cit.: 15), vedea ȋn Dimitrie Cantemir primul autor al unora dintre
„...primele tratate de medicină (empirică, fireşte) care s-au scris (vorbit mai
bine-zis) ȋn limba română.” Medicii au reprezentat, de-a lungul istoriei
umanităţii, nu numai promotori dar şi practicieni ai culturii ȋn formele ei cele mai
variate. Ȋncă din Grecia antică medicina ȋncepe să fie practicată de oameni cu
ştiinţă de carte, dezvoltându-se „...o medicină laică, ilustrată de medici
filozofi...” (Vătămanu, Brătescu, 1975: 6) acelaşi lucru este perpetuat şi ȋn Evul
Mediu, unde „...vindecătorii se rectrutau, cu deosebire, dintre clericii
monopolizatori ai ştiinţei de carte” (ibidem)pentru ca Renaşterea să aducă ȋn
prim prim plan medicii savanţi. Ernest Renan, mare filozof francez al secolului
al-XIX-lea, considera că o eventuală istorie a ştiinţei medicale este una dintre
cele mai interesante abordări ale spiritualităţii omenirii:”...adevăraţii oameni ai

progresului dovedesc un mare interes fată de trecut. Istoria medicinii este una
dintre cele mai interesante şi mai importante faţete ale istoriei spiritului
omenesc” (idem: 7).

Bachelard, Gaston. (1989). Psihanaliza focului, Editura Univers, Bucureşti.
Biberi, Ion. (1982). Opera literară, expresie a unei viziuni antropologice ȋn Eseuri
litrerare, filosofice şi artistice, Editura Cartea Românească.
Mihailide, Mihail. (2001). Medici-scriitori români. Mic dicţionar, alcătuit de Mihail
Mihailide cu texte introductive de Ion Rotaru şi C.D. Zeletin, Editura Viaţa
Mihăilescu, Florin. (2008). Critica sau judecata fără sfârşit, Editura Fundaţia culturală
Libra, Bucureşti.
Raicu, Lucian. (1978). Practica scrisului şi experienţa lecturii, Editura Cartea
Rotaru, Ion. (2001). De la descântec la vaccine ȋn Medici-scriitori români. Mic dicţionar,
alcătuit de Mihail Mihailide cu texte introductive de Ion Rotaru şi C.D. Zeletin,
Editura Viaţa Medicală.
Vătămanu, Nicolae; Brătescu, George. (1975) O istorie a medicinii, Editura Albatros,
Vătămanu, Nicolae. (1979.) Originile medicinii româneşti, Editura Medicală, Bucureşti.
Zeletin, C.D. (2008) . Distinguo. Eseuri. Evocări. Scriitori medici. Convorbiri, Editura
Vitruviu, Bucureşti.

Dr. Patricia ŞERBAC

Universität für Medizin und Pharmazie Târgu-Mureș, RUMÄNIEN

Abteilung für Fremdsprachen

Abstract: The poem First Loss (in original Erster Verlust) of the German poet Johann
Wolfgang von Goethe renders the mood of someone suffering for love and lost youth.
This poem has known translation variants into Romanian over the years. Surprisingly
different, according to the style of each translator, they all successfully render the
atmosphere of the original. The paper aims to analyze the different versions of
translation with reference to figures of speech, prosody, metrics and the solutions found
by each translator. Thus, it becomes obvious how each translation reveals a side of the

Keywords: translation versions, figures of speech, prosody, metrics, equivalences,

poetic message.

Das Gedicht Erster Verlust von Johann Wolfgang Goethe ist im Jahre 1785
veröffentlicht worden und drückt Gefühle der Traurigkeit und Bedauern nach
der verlorenen Liebe und nach der unwiederbringlichen Zeit aus.

Erster Verlust

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,

Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde
Jener holden Zeit zurück!

Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde,

Und mit stets erneuter Klage
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,

Jene holde Zeit zurück! (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1999: 156)

Obwohl nicht so bekannt, hat dieses Gedicht das Interesse rumänischer
Übersetzer erweckt. Es gibt insgesamt vier veröffentlichte Übersetzungen.
Daran füge ich auch meine eigene, noch unveröffentlichte Übersetzung bei. Im
Folgenden werden die Varianten analysiert und miteinander verglichen, mit der
Absicht, sie genauer bewerten zu können und, nicht zuletzt, mit der Absicht,
Anweisungen für die Gedichtübersetzung zu.
Die erste Übersetzung ist von Marcel Romanescu unternommen worden (Johann
Wolfgang Goethe 1936: 70). Sie stammt aus der ersten Hälfte des 20.
Jahrhunderts, nicht später als 19361. Der Band heißt Poezii und vereinigt
Übersetzungen von Emanoil Bucuța, P. Cerna, Șt. O. Iosif, Ștefan Nenițescu, Al.
A. Philippide, Ion Pillat, Marcel Romanescu, Marin Ion Sadoveanu und Ion Sân-
Georgiu und vielen anderen. Die Gedichte werden von Ștefan Nenițescu
gesammelt und das Vorwort vom Dichter Ion Pillat geschrieben worden. Mehr
als ein halbes Jahrhundert später hat Ion Acsan die Übersetzung von Marcel
Romanescu gewählt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1999: 157), als er 1999 den
Goetheband Lyrische Dichtungen / Poezii, eine zweisprachige Ausgabe Deutsch-
Rumänisch zum 250. Geburtstag Goethes zusammengestellt hat. Auch in diesem
Band gehört das Vorwort Ion Pillat. Nur zwei Gedichte des Bandes sind von
Marcel Romanescu übersetzt worden. Die anderen gehören bekannten
Übersetzern wie Maria Banuș, Ion Pillat u.a.

Dezamăgirea dintâi

Unde-s zilele-n risipă

De zburdalnică iubire?
Cine va-nturna o clipă
Vremea gingașă’napoi?

Singur stau de-mi zgândăr rana

Și cu lacrămi veșnic noi
Plâng pierduta fericire.

Cine va-nturna-n risipă

Vremea gingașă-napoi? (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1999: 157)

Die nächste Übersetzerin, die ihre Kräfte mit diesem Gedicht erprobt, ist Maria
Banuș. Ihr erster Versuch erscheint 1957 in ihrem bekannten Band mit

1 Über das Jahr s. die Fußnote bei diesem Titel in der Bibliografieliste.

Întâia pierdere

Cine poate să-nvieze

Dulcea vreme-a primei dragosti,
Cine-un ceas ne-nvie doară
Din frumosul timp apus?

Singur rana-mi scurm să doară,

Și-n jelanii veșnic treze
Îmi bocesc norocul dus.

Cine poate să-nvieze

Dulcea vreme ce-a apus? (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1957: 20)

1964 erscheint eine zweite Variante von Maria Banuș (Johann Wolfgang Goethe
1964: 56), diesmal in einem Band (Poezii și poeme), in dem sie nicht einzige
Übersetzerin ist. Die Anthologie, das Vorwort und die Endnoten sind von Romul
Munteanu zusammengestellt worden. Diese zweite Variante wird auch in den
späteren Bänden und Sammlungen wiederveröffentlicht, wie der Band von Jean
Livescu vom Jahre 1984 (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1984: 109), eine Sammlung
von mehreren Übersetzern, und der kleine Band von Ion Acsan von 1997, in
dem Maria Banuș einzige Übersetzerin ist (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1997: 12).

Întâia pierdere

Cine poate să învie

Vremea dragostei dintâi?
Cine-nvie doar o oră
Din frumosul timp apus?

Singur îmi hrănesc durerea,

Tânguindu-mă tot mie
Și-mi jelesc norocul dus.

Cine poate să învie

Dulcea vreme ce-a apus? (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 1997: 12)

Lange Zeit vergeht, bis 2013 eine andere Übersetzerin, den nächsten Versuch
unternimmt. Grete Tartler ist eine der drei Übersetzer des von Jean Livescu
angefangenen und von George Guțu fertiggebrachten Bandes.

Întâia pierdere

Ah, acele zile clare

De amor dintâi în pârg,
Cine-mi mai aduce oare
Stropi din timpul minunat?!

Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,

Cu sporită jale plâng
Un noroc pierdut, plecat.

Ah, cine-mi aduce oare

Înapoi timp minunat? (Johann Wolfgang Goethe 2013: 140-141).

Aus dem Wunsch, nahe am Original zu übersetzen, habe ich 2014 eine eigene
Variante gedichtet:

Întâia pierdere

Zilele cele frumoase,

Ale dragostei dintâi,
Fie și un ceas din ele,
Cine le-aduce ’napoi!

Singuratic rana-mi caut

Și cu veșnică ardoare
Plâng norocu-mi dus de ploi.

Zilele cele frumoase

Cine le-aduce ’napoi!

Dieses Gedicht ist von Schubert vertont worden. Eine Übersetzung sollte auch
das berücksichtigen, d.h., dass die Form dem Original entspricht, dass sie als
ein Lied auf Schuberts Musik gesungen werden kann.
Das Gedicht hat eine spezielle Form. Es besteht aus drei Strophen und die
Verszeilenanzahl in jeder Strophe ist rückläufig: vier in der ersten Strophe, drei
in der Zweiten und zwei in der Letzten. Die letzte Strophe ist eine Art
Zusammenfassung der ersten Strophe, denn darin werden die erste Verszeile
und eine Abwandlung der vierten Verszeile wiederholt. Diese Struktur wird bei
Maria Banuș behalten. Bei Marcel Romanescu ist es umgekehrt: V8 ist identisch
mit V1, während V4 und V9 identisch sind. Bei Grete Tartler sind beide Verse

Abwandlungen und bei mir sind beide Verse identisch mit ihren Entsprechungen
in der ersten Strophe.
Was den Rhythmus betrifft, besteht ein Vers aus vier Trochäen. Nur im zweiten
Vers gibt es eine unbetonte Silbe mehr, was den zweiten Versfuß zu einem
Daktylus macht. So kann man hier die Abweichungen im zweiten Vers erklären:
ein Silbe mehr bei Marcel Romanescu und bei Maria Banuș a, zwei fehlende
Silben bei den anderen Übersetzungen, was auch zur männlichen Kandez statt
der weiblichen Kadenz führt. Weitere Abweichungen sind eine Silbe weniger im
V6 bei Marcel Romanescu und Grete Tartler, und eine Silbe mehr im V7
wiederum bei Marcel Romanescu, was erneut zu Kadenzänderungen führt.
Die Reime im Original sind abcd cad ad, wobei b und c auch als unreine Reime
von a gelten könnten. Dieselbe Reimstruktur abcd cad ad schafft Maria Banuș in
der Variante a.
Eine richtige Übersetzung des Titels ist Întâia pierdere „Erster Verlust”. Nur
Marcel Romanescu benennt das Gedicht Dezamăgirea dintâi „Erste
Enttäuschung“, was offensichtlich nicht das von Goethe Gesagte ist.
Das Zahlwort erste wird durch das altrumänische întâia im Titel oder dintâi in
der zweiten Verszeile. Nur bei Maria Banuș steht die Entlehnung prima in ihrer
ersten Variante in der zweiten Verszeile. Bei Marcel Romanescu steht das
Numerale nur im Titel.
Für Liebe steht nur einmal das rumänische iubire (bei Marcel Romanescu) und
dreimal dragoste (bei Maria Banuș und bei mir), während Grete Tartler die
lateinisch-romanische Neuentlehnung amor gebraucht.
Was die Benennung der Zeiteinheiten betrifft, gibt es im Original drei
Substantive: Zeit (zweimal), Tage (dreimal) und Stunde (einmal). Keine
Übersetzung enthält alle drei und in dieser Verteilung. Für Zeit steht das alte
Substantiv vreme und die Neuentlehnung timp. Marcel Romanescu gebraucht
zweimal vreme, Grete Tartler zweimal timp, Maria Banuș einmal timp und
zweimal vreme (das erste Mal statt des Substantives Tage). Zile ,Tage’ erscheint
einmal bei Marcel Romanescu und zweimal bei mir. Das Äquivalent für Stunde
ist ceas (bei Maria Banuș a und bei mir) oder oră (bei Maria Banuș b). Die
anderen Übersetzer bieten einen Ersatz dafür: clipă ,Augenblick’ (bei Marcel
Romanescu) und stropi („din timpul minunat”) ,Tropfen’ („aus der
wunderschönen Zeit”) (bei Grete Tartler).
Die zwei Epitheta des Gedichts sind schön („schönen Tage“) und hold („holde
Zeit“). Bei mir steht „zilele cele frumoase” („die schönen Tage” – zweimal, wie

im Original) und bei Grete Tartler „zile clare” („klare Tage” – einmal). Das
Adjektiv hold wird zu zart (rumänisch gingaș) bei Marcel Romanescu, zu
wunderschön (rumänisch minunat) bei Grete Tartler, zu schön (rumänisch
frumos) und süß (rumänisch dulce) in beiden Varianten von Maria Banuș.
Die Ausdrücke der Traurigkeit sind bei jedem Übersetzer originell. Der Satz
„nähr' ich meine Wunde“ klingt folgenderweise: „[î]mi zgândăr rana“ („kratze
meine Wunde auf“ – Marcel Romanescu), „rana-mi scurm să doară” („nage ich
an meiner Wunde, damit sie wehtut“ – Maria Banuș a), „îmi hrănesc durerea”
(„ernähre ich meinen Schmerz“ – Maria Banuș b), „îmi hrănesc eu rana”
(„ernähre ich meine Wunde“ – Grete Tartler) und „rana-mi caut” („suche ich
meine Wunde“ – meine Variante). Nur Maria Banuș in ihrer Variante b
verwendet für Wunde das abstrakte Substantiv durere ,Schmerz’.
Die sechste Verszeile („mit stets erneuter Klage“) bietet einen noch breiteren
Raum für Kreativität: „cu lacrămi veșnic noi“ („mit ewig neuen Tränen“ – Marcel
Romanescu), „[î]n jelanii veșnic treze“ („in ewig wachen Gejammern“ – Maria
Banuș a), „tânguindu-mă tot mie“ („indem ich immer noch mir selbst wehklage“
– Maria Banuș b), „cu sporită jale plâng“ („mit zunehmendem Jammer weine
ich“ – Grete Tartler), „cu veșnică ardoare“ („mit ewiger Innbrust“ in meiner
Übersetzung). Es scheint mir hier wichtig, die Konstruktion im Original zu
behalten: Präposition mit + Adjektiv + Substantiv.
Einsam wird durch seine zwei Bedeutungen übersetzt: singur ,allein’ und
singuratic ,allein, einsam’ (nur bei mir). So wird auch Glück, für das noroc und
fericire (nur bei Marcel Romanescu) stehen. Für das Verb trauern aus der
siebenten Verszeile stehen folgende Verbe: plâng ,weine’ (Marcel Romanescu,
Patricia Serbac, Grete Tartler – bei Letzterer jedoch in V6), bocesc ,beklage’
(Maria Banuș a) und jelesc ,beweine’ (Maria Banuș b, unterstützt vom Partizip I
tânguindu-mă ,wehklagend’ im V6).
Das „verlorene Glück“ ist verloren nur bei Marcel Romanescu, Maria Banuș b
und Grete Tartler (pierdut). Bei Grete Tartler gibt es noch ein Adjektiv -
weggegangen (plecat). Sonst ist es vergangen (dus) bei Maria Banuș und bei
mir, die eine eigene Bildung geschaffen habe: „von den Regen weggetragen“
(„dus de ploi“).
Einen breiten Bewegungsraum bieten die Synonyme der rumänischen Sprache.
Vorrang haben die ältesten Wörter in der Sprache, zu Ungunsten der

Vom besonderen Effekt ist im Original die dreimalige Wiederholung „Ach, wer
bringt […]“ in den Verszeilen 1, 3 und 8. Nur Grete Tartler schafft es, die
Interjektion ach, im Text – zwar nur zweimal (V1 und V8) – einzubetten. Wenn
die Interjektion nicht dreimal stehen kann, sollte wenigstens der Rest des
Satzes („Wer bringt […]“) dreimal stehen, was bisher aber nicht realisiert
worden ist. Nur Maria Banuș schafft es, einen vom Fragefürwort cine ,wer’
eingeleiteten Satz dreimal zu haben (Variante a: „Cine poate să-nvieze […]
Cine-un ceas ne-nvie doară […] Cine poate să-nvieze”, Variante b: „Cine poate
să învie […] Cine-nvie doar o oră […] Cine poate să învie”). Marcel Romanescu
und ich schaffen es nur zweimal, in den Verszeile 3 und 8: „Cine va’nturna“
bzw. „Cine le-aduce-napoi!”, wobei ich die Wiederholung des ganzen Satzes
schaffe. Die schwächste Leistung ist also hier die von Marcel Romanescu.
Fehlende Wörter und Elemente gibt es in allen Übersetzungen, weil die
rumänischen Wörter in diesem Fall länger als ihre deutschen Entsprechungen im
Originalgedicht sind. Die Varianten von Grete Tartler und von mir haben die
wenigsten fehlenden Wörter und sind somit am Original näher. Was die
hinzugefügten Elemente betrifft, steht meine Variante bei weiten am besten, mit
nur einer Hinzufügung: de ploi „von den Regen“.
Es gibt also für ein einziges Gedicht fünf Übersetzungsvarianten, fünf Gesichter
des Originals. Solch eine vergleichende (auch quantitative) Analyse, in der alle
unter die Lupe genommen werden, zeigt die Qualitäten, aber auch die
Abweichungen jeder Übersetzung. Sie hilft dazu, sie besser zu bewerten und zu
entscheiden, welche den Geist des Originals besser wiedergeben. Die Suchen
der Übersetzer, die mehrere Annäherungen an den Text oder Abweichungen
vom Original als Ereignis haben, werden auch dadurch interessant, wie die
Übersetzer den Geist des Gedichtes Goethes wahrgenommen haben. Eigentlich
geht es um den offenen Charakter des Kunstwerks.
Es wäre sinnvoll, alle Übersetzungen oder wenigstens mehr als eine in
demselben Band zu veröffentlichen, damit die Leser, vor allem die Nichtkenner
der Originalsprache, sich eine komplette Idee über das Original machen können.
Auch deshalb ist es sinnvoll, dass immer noch neue Übersetzungen geschaffen
werden. Man kann nie sagen, dass man den Sinn des Originalwerks völlig
begriffen hat, oder dass man die Möglichkeiten einer Sprache erschöpft hat.
Eine kontinuierliche Übersetzungstätigkeit zeugt vom lebendigen Interesse für
die Kultur des „Anderen“. Mehrere Übersetzungen zeigen die Reife einer Kultur
und ihre Bereitschaft, die Werte einer anderen Kultur zu assimilieren.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1936). Poezii. Rumänisch von Emanoil Bucuța, P. Cerna, Șt.
O. Iosif, Ștefan Nenițescu, Al. A. Philippide, Ion Pillat, Marcel Romanescu, Marin
Ion Sadoveanu und Ion Sân-Georgiu. Sammlung von Ștefan Nenițescu, Vorwort
von Ion Pillat. Bukarest: „Universala” Alcalay & Co.2
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1957). Poezii. Bukarest : Editura Tineretului. Rumänisch von
Maria Banuș.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1964). Poezii și poeme. Bukarest : Editura Tineretului.
Rumänisch von Maria Banuș. Auswahl, Vorwort und Endnoten von Romul
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1984). Opere. Poezia. I. Rumänisch von Maria Banuș, Șt. O.
Iosif, Ion Marin Sadoveanu, Lucian Blaga. Einleitende Studie, Noten und
Kommentare von Jean Livescu. Bukarest : Univers.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1997). Poezii. Rumänisch von Maria Banuș. Auswahl,
Vorwort und Noten von Ion Acsan. Bukarest: Miracol.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (1999). Lyrische Dichtungen / Poezii. Zweisprachige Ausgabe
Deutsch-Rumänisch. Auswahl und Vorbemerkung zur Auflage von Ion Acsan.
Bukarest : Grai și Suflet – Cultura Națională.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. (2013). Opere alese. Vol. I. Poezii. Übersetzungen und Noten
von Gabriel Horațiu Decuble, George Guțu und Grete Tartler. Von Jean Livescu
begonnene, von George Guțu neubegonnene, neukonzipierte und koordinierte
Ausgabe. Bukarest : RAO.

Abkürzungen und Aufzeichnungen

bzw. beziehungsweise
d.h. das heißt
S. Seite
u.a. und andere
u.z. und zwar
ver. veraltet
vgl. vergleiche

(2) zweites Synonym für das betreffende Wort

(3) drittes Synonym für das betreffende Wort
_ fehlende unbetonte Silbe
a‘, a“ mögliche unreine Reime für a
m männliche Kadenz
V Verszeile
w weibliche Kadenz
X Hebung
x Senkung

2Das genaue Jahr ist leider nicht bekannt, denn es steht nicht auf dem Band. Das Jahr 1936 steht
nur handgeschrieben und ist möglicherweise nur das Jahr des Inventars. Im Katalog der
Zentralbibliothek der Universität Bukarest ist die Jahresangabe 19_ _.

Anhang 1

Übersetzungsvarianten ins Rumänische

Cine poate să-nvieze
Erster Verlust Dulcea vreme ce-a apus?

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, 3. 1964 Maria Banuș b

Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Întâia pierdere
Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Cine poate să învie
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, Vremea dragostei dintâi?
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Cine-nvie doar o oră
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück. Din frumosul timp apus?

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Singur îmi hrănesc durerea,
Jene holde Zeit zurück! Tânguindu-mă tot mie
Și-mi jelesc norocul dus.

1. ...1936 Marcel Romanescu Cine poate să învie

Dulcea vreme ce-a apus?
Dezamăgirea dintâi

Unde-s zilele-n risipă 4. 2013 Grete Tartler

De zburdalnică iubire?
Cine va-nturna o clipă Întâia pierdere
Vremea gingașă-napoi?
Ah, acele zile clare
Singur stau de-mi zgândăr rana De amor dintâi în pârg,
Și cu lacrămi veșnic noi Cine-mi mai aduce oare
Plâng pierduta fericire. Stropi din timpul minunat?!

Cine va-nturna-n risipă Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,

Vremea gingașă-napoi? Cu sporită jale plâng
Un noroc pierdut, plecat.

2. 1957 Maria Banuș a Ah, cine-mi aduce oare

Înapoi timp minunat?
Întâia pierdere

Cine poate să-nvieze 5. 2014 Patricia Serbac

Dulcea vreme-a primei dragosti,
Cine-un ceas ne-nvie doară Întâia pierdere
Din frumosul timp apus?
Zilele cele frumoase,
Singur rana-mi scurm să doară, Ale dragostei dintâi,
Și-n jelanii veșnic treze Fie și un ceas din ele,
Îmi bocesc norocul dus. Cine le-aduce ’napoi!

Singuratic rana-mi caut Zilele cele frumoase
Și cu veșnică ardoare Cine le-aduce ’napoi!
Plâng norocu-mi dus de ploi.

Anhang 2

Rückübersetzungen ins Deutsche

Allein nage ich an meiner Wunde, damit sie
Erster Verlust wehtut,
Und in ewig wachen Gejammern
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Beklage mein vergangenes Glück.
Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Wer kann […] wieder beleben (2)
Jener holden Zeit zurück! Die süße Zeit, die untergegangen ist?

Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, 3. 1964 Maria Banuș b

Und mit stets erneuter Klage
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück. Erster Verlust

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Wer kann […] wieder beleben
Jene holde Zeit zurück! Die Zeit der ersten Liebe?
Wer belebt nur eine Stunde (2)
Aus der schönen, untergegangenen Zeit (2)?
1. ...1936 Marcel Romanescu
Allein ernähre ich meinen Schmerz,
Erste Enttäuschung Indem ich immer noch mir selbst wehklage
Und beweine mein vergangenes Glück.
Wo sind die Tage in Verschwendung (Aufwand),
Von ausgelassener Liebe? Wer kann […] wieder beleben
Wer wird einen Augenblick rückwärts machen, Die süße Zeit, die untergegangen ist?
Die zarte Zeit zurück?

Allein sitze ich und kratze meine Wunde auf 4. 2013 Grete Tartler
Und mit ewig neuen Tränen
Weine ich um das verlorene Glück (2). Erster Verlust

Wer wird […] in Verschwendung rückwärts Ach, jene klaren Tage

machen Von der ersten Liebe (3) in der Reife(zeit),
Die zarte Zeit zurück? Wer bringt mir denn
Tropfen aus der wunderschönen Zeit (2)?!

2. 1957 Maria Banuș a Allein ernähre ich meine Wunde,

Mit zunehmendem Jammer weine ich
Erster Verlust Ein verlorenes, weggegangenes Glück.

Wer kann […] wieder beleben (2) Ach, wer bringt mir denn
Die süße Zeit der ersten (2) Liebe (2), Schöne Zeit (2) zurück?
Wer belebt uns denn eine Stunde
Aus der schönen, untergegangenen Zeit (2)?

5. 2014 Patricia Serbac
Einsam suche ich meine Wunde
Erster Verlust Und mit ewiger Innbrust
Weine ich um mein von den Regen
Die schönen Tage weggetragenes Glück.
Der ersten Liebe,
Sei es auch nur eine Stunde daraus, Die schönen Tage
Wer bringt sie zurück! Wer bringt sie zurück!

Anhang 3


Goethe XxXxXxXx XxXxXxX_ XxXxXxX_ XxXxXxX_

XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx _ _ _
XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx
XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX
XxXxxXxXx XxXxXxX
XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx
XxXxXxX XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxX_ XxXxXxXx
XxXxXxX_ XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX
XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx
XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx
XxXxXxX XxXxXxXx XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX XxXxXxX
XxXxXxXx 3. Maria
XxXxXxX Banuș b 4. Grete 5. Patricia
2. Maria Tartler Serbac
1. Marcel Banuș a XxXxXxXx
Romanescu XxXxXxXx XxXxXxXx

Anhang 4

Männliche und weibliche Kadenz

Goethe 1. Marcel 2. Maria 3. Maria 4. Grete 5. Patricia

Romanescu Banuș a Banuș b Tartler Serbac

f f f f f f
f f f m m m
f f f f f f
m m m m m m

f f f f f f
f m f f m f
m f m m m m

f f f f f f
m m m m m m

Anhang 5

Anzahl der Silben in den Verszeile

Goethe 1. Marcel 2. Maria 3. Maria 4. Grete 5. Patricia

Romanescu Banuș a Banuș b Tartler Serbac

8 8 8 8 8 8
7 8 8 7 7 7
8 8 8 8 8 8
7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8
8 7 8 8 7 8
7 8 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8
7 7 7 7 7 7

Anhang 6


Goethe 1. Marcel 2. Maria 3. Maria 4. Grete 5. Patricia

Romanescu Banuș a Banuș b Tartler Serbac

a a a a a a
b a‘ b b b b b
c a“ a c c a c a’
d d d d d d b’

c a“ c c e c e
a d a a e b’ a
d b d d d d b’

a a a a a a
d d d d d d b’

Anhang 7

Fehlende Wörter (Rumänisch)

Goethe Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,

Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Erster Verlust Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde
Jener holden Zeit zurück!

Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Acele zile ale iubirii dintâi,
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück. Ah, cine aduce și numai un ceas
Ale acelei vremi plăcute înapoi!
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Jene holde Zeit zurück! Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,
Și cu plângere mereu reînnoită
Plâng norocul pierdut.
1. Marcel Romanescu
Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Dezamăgirea dintâi Acea vreme plăcută înapoi!

Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,

Acele zile ale iubirii dintâi, 4. Grete Tartler
Ah, cine aduce și numai un ceas
Ale acelei vremi plăcute înapoi! Întâia pierdere

Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana, Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,

Și cu plângere mereu reînnoită Acele zile ale iubirii dintâi,
Plâng norocul pierdut. Ah, cine aduce și numai un ceas
Ale acelei vremi plăcute înapoi!
Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Acea vreme plăcută înapoi! Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,
Și cu plângere mereu reînnoită
Plâng norocul pierdut.
2. Maria Banuș a
Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Întâia pierdere Acea vreme plăcută înapoi!

Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,

Acele zile ale iubirii dintâi, 5. Patricia Serbac
Ah, cine aduce și numai un ceas
Ale acelei vremi plăcute înapoi! Întâia pierdere

Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana, Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,

Și cu plângere mereu reînnoită Acele zile ale iubirii dintâi,
Plâng norocul pierdut. Ah, cine aduce și numai un ceas
Ale acelei vremi plăcute înapoi!
Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Acea vreme plăcută înapoi! Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,
Și cu plângere mereu reînnoită
Plâng norocul pierdut.
3. Maria Banuș b
Ah, cine aduce zilele frumoase,
Întâia pierdere Acea vreme plăcută înapoi!

Anhang 8

Fehlende Wörter (Deutsch)

Goethe Erster Verlust

Erster Verlust
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Jene Tage der ersten Liebe, Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde,
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, Und mit stets erneuter Klage
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Jene holde Zeit zurück!
Jene holde Zeit zurück!

4. Grete Tartler
1. Marcel Romanescu Erster Verlust
Erster Verlust
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Jene Tage der ersten Liebe, Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde,
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, Und mit stets erneuter Klage
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Jene holde Zeit zurück!
Jene holde Zeit zurück!

2. Maria Banuș a 5. Patricia Serbac

Erster Verlust
Erster Verlust
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Jene Tage der ersten Liebe, Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Jener holden Zeit zurück! Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde
Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde,
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde,
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück. Und mit stets erneuter Klage
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück.
Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Jene holde Zeit zurück! Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage,
Jene holde Zeit zurück!
3. Maria Banuș b

Anhang 9

Hizugefügte Wörter

Goethe Cine poate să-nvieze

Dulcea vreme ce-a apus?
Erster Verlust

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, 3. Maria Banuș b

Jene Tage der ersten Liebe,
Ach, wer bringt nur eine Stunde Întâia pierdere
Jener holden Zeit zurück!
Cine poate să învie
Einsam nähr' ich meine Wunde, Vremea dragostei dintâi?
Und mit stets erneuter Klage Cine-nvie doar o oră
Traur' ich um's verlorne Glück. Din frumosul timp apus?

Ach, wer bringt die schönen Tage, Singur îmi hrănesc durerea,
Jene holde Zeit zurück! Tânguindu-mă tot mie
Și-mi jelesc norocul dus.

1. Marcel Romanescu Cine poate să învie

Dulcea vreme ce-a apus?
Dezamăgirea dintâi

Unde-s zilele-n risipă 4. Grete Tartler

De zburdalnică iubire?
Cine va-nturna o clipă Întâia pierdere
Vremea gingașă-napoi?
Ah, acele zile clare
Singur stau de-mi zgândăr rana De amor dintâi în pârg,
Și cu lacrămi veșnic noi Cine-mi mai aduce oare
Plâng pierduta fericire. Stropi din timpul minunat?!

Cine va-nturna-n risipă Singur îmi hrănesc eu rana,

Vremea gingașă-napoi? Cu sporită jale plâng
Un noroc pierdut, plecat.

Ah, cine-mi aduce oare

2. Maria Banuș a Înapoi timp minunat?

Întâia pierdere

Cine poate să-nvieze 5. Patricia Serbac

Dulcea vreme-a primei dragosti,
Cine-un ceas ne-nvie doară Întâia pierdere
Din frumosul timp apus?
Zilele cele frumoase,
Singur rana-mi scurm să doară, Ale dragostei dintâi,
Și-n jelanii veșnic treze Fie și un ceas din ele,
Îmi bocesc norocul dus. Cine le-aduce ’napoi!

Singuratic rana-mi caut
Și cu veșnică ardoare Zilele cele frumoase
Plâng norocu-mi dus de ploi. Cine le-aduce ’napoi!

Roxana Cristina TOMA

lector univ. dr., Universitatea Tehnică de Construcţii Bucureşti, ROMÂNIA

Departamentul de Limbi Străine şi Comunicare

Abstract: The present article aims at analyzing from a sociolinguistic perspective

website localization in French-speaking countries, with a view to pointing out their
tendency to standardize the linguistic content or, on the contrary, to preserve local
cultural differences.

Keywords: localization, globalization, diatopic varieties, francophone space

1. Préambule
Un article, paru en 2006 dans la revue Meta: Journal des traducteurs, intitulé
« Localisation et variation linguistique. Vers une géolinguistique de l’espace
virtuel francophone » a constitué le point de départ de cette étude. Cet article
cherchait à « mesurer l’influence de la localisation sur la diversité linguistique en
vérifiant si les sites localisés pour les publics d’expression française tendaient
vers l’uniformisation par l’internationalisation de leur contenu linguistique, ou,
au contraire, vers l’affermissement des différences culturelles locales. »
(Bouffard et Caignon, 2006: 806). L’étude s’arrêtait sur l’analyse de quatre sites
franco-européens et du site canadien-français de l’entreprise Mercedes-Benz et
constatait que la localisation du site canadien-français contribuait au maintien
de la langue française sur la Toile, alors que la localisation des sites franco-
européens tendait plutôt vers l’uniformisation.
Huit ans après, en 2014, la situation a-t-elle changé? Une ré-analyse du même
corpus montre de nombreuses différences. L’examen diachronique laisse
entrevoir plutôt la tendance actuelle vers l’uniformisation lexicale, caractérisée
par la diminution des traits distinctifs existant entre les diverses communautés
d’expression française.
Une question se pose de nos jours: « la mondialisation menace-t-elle les
cultures jusque dans leur expression la plus intime, la langue »? (Bernier,

2. Mondialisation et localisation - Aspects théoriques
La mise en place de technologies de l’information à l’échelle mondiale et surtout
la diffusion du phénomène « Internet », l’établissement de marchés financiers
intégrés au niveau international ainsi que le développement des entreprises
multinationales et transnationales constituent les grandes nouveautés de la
mondialisation du début du XXIe siècle.
La mondialisation (ou globalisation) c’est « le processus d'intégration des
marchés qui résulte de la libéralisation des échanges, de l'expansion de la
concurrence et des retombées des technologies de l'information et de la
communication à l'échelle planétaire »1. La mondialisation économique est
accompagnée d’une mondialisation linguistique qui englobe deux directions:
« d’une part, une tendance centripète caractérisée par l’engouement pour une
langue mondiale, mais d’autre part, une tendance centrifuge caractérisée par la
volonté de maintenir les langues nationales. » (Scarpa, 2010 : 333). Malgré la
domination d'une « langue anglo-américaine », qui se manifeste avec le plus
d'intensité sur internet (connue sous le nom de English as Lingua Franca et
représentant une forme d’anglais utilisée à des fins sociales et commerciales par
des locuteurs n’ayant pas l’anglais comme langue maternelle), c’est la deuxième
tendance qui semble prévaloir.
Même si l’anglais est encore la langue dominante sur la Toile si l’on en juge par
le pourcentage des sites en anglais, on constate que, dès le début du siècle, ce
pourcentage est en baisse, aujourd’hui sa part ne représentant plus de 25% du
total environ. À cela s’ajoute une constante croissance de l’utilisation des
services en ligne chez les non-anglophones.
Selon les statistiques, le nombre d'internautes dans le monde franchira la barre
des trois milliards d'ici la fin de l'année 2014. En 2013, le monde comptait 2,7
milliards d’internautes soit 38,8 % de la population2. Le nombre des internautes
de langue française, la huitième langue la plus importante sur Internet, était de
59,8 millions d’utilisateurs en 2010 selon,3 avec une

1 Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture,

“Mondialisation/globalisation”. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse:
migration/glossary/globalisation/ (consulté le 7 juin 2014).
2, “2,7 milliards d’internautes dans le monde”. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: (consulté le 7 juin 2014).

3 Internet World Stats, “Top Ten Languages in the Internet”. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: (consulté le 7 juin 2014).

tendance de croissance. Devant cette réalité, les entreprises doivent tenir
compte de la spécificité linguistique et culturelle des consommateurs.
Pour pouvoir capter de nouveaux clients sur ce marché en croissance, les
entreprises proposent des sites web spécifiquement localisés, car, « malgré les
pressions de la mondialisation, les clients des marchés régionaux sont de plus
en plus exigeants et s’attendent à ce qu’on s’adresse à eux dans leur langue en
respectant leur culture » (Bouffard et Caignon, op.cit.: 808). Avec la langue
française - parlée par environ 220 millions de personnes à travers le monde en
2010, dans 29 pays - les entreprises peuvent toucher plusieurs pays
francophones qui sont des marchés potentiels intéressants du fait de la force de
leur économie. La localisation d’un site vers le français devient alors un élément
essentiel pour les entreprises pour affirmer leur présence numérique sur les
marchés francophones.
La localisation vise essentiellement à adapter un produit aux spécificités
linguistiques, culturelles et techniques du marché cible. Elle représente en fait, à
côté de l’internationalisation, l’un des deux aspects de la mondialisation. En
effet, le processus a une étape initiale, dans laquelle on neutralise un produit
informatique “pour lui permettre de prendre en charge une multitude de
langues et de conventions culturelles et, ainsi, faciliter le processus de
localisation.” (Dubé, 2007: 31)
Ensuite, dans une seconde étape, on assiste à l’adaptation

des produits, processus, concepts et structures d’organisation à un

public/marché particulier de la planète caractérisé par des modes de
conceptualisation, des raisonnements, des systèmes de valeurs, des
préjugés, mais aussi et surtout par des variétés de langues (ou d’autres
codes) clairement identifiables. (Daniel Gouadec, 2003: 528)

Sur le plan du transfert linguistique, c’est-à-dire le passage d’une langue à une

autre, en localisant on change à la fois la langue et le système culturel.

3. Corpus et cadre d’analyse

À travers cette étude, nous allons essayer d’analyser l’influence de la localisation
sur la diversité linguistique en vérifiant si les sites localisés pour le public
francophone tendent vers une langue uniformisée ou, au contraire, vers une
langue présentant des spécificités linguistiques correspondant à un certain pays.
L’analyse s’appuie sur le modèle utilisé par Paula Bouffard et Philippe Caignon

dans leur article intitulé « Localisation et variation linguistique. Vers une
géolinguistique de l’espace virtuel francophone ».
Pour discuter sur les tendances observées, notre démarche passe par l’étude
comparative de quelques sites de langue française localisés pour des publics
géolinguistiques différents. Les données de notre étude sont fondées sur
l’analyse lexicale et terminologique d’un échantillon de quatre sites localisés qui
appartiennent aux plus grosses entreprises mondiales par leurs profits dans le
secteur de la construction automobile, selon la liste des Fortune Global 5004:
Volkswagen AG (avec la marque Volkswagen), Daimler (avec la marque
Mercedes-Benz), Hyundai (avec la marque Hyundai) et l’Alliance Renault-Nissan
(avec la marque Renault)5.
Une fois ce critère de représentativité établi, le choix des marques de véhicules
sur lesquelles portera l’analyse dépend de leur présence simultanée dans
l’espace virtuel francophone. Notre but étant de sonder la variation diatopique,
nous avons eu recours à des sites de langue française qui desservent des pays
de l’Afrique (L’Algérie, Le Maroc, La Tunisie), de l’Amérique du Nord (le Canada)
et de l’Europe (la Belgique, la France, le Luxembourg et la Suisse). En tenant
compte du fait que l’Internet s’actualise constamment, nous avons établi une
période de temps déterminé, les mois de mai et de juin 2014, pour travailler
sur un corpus fermé.
Le volume textuel et la nature de l’information pouvant varier de façon
considérable d’un site à l’autre, le corpus qui sous-tend ce travail de recherche a
été restreint aux éléments linguistiques qui remplissent une fonction active dans
l’interface utilisateur, se trouvant au premier plan de l’intéraction humain-
ordinateur: les menus, les éléments de navigation, l’envoi d’e-mails. De plus,
grâce à la stabilité de ces éléments – qui peuvent être des termes simples ou
des syntagmes, des expressions ou même des phrases qui appartiennent au
domaine informatique ou commercial, - la comparaison entre les divers sites
web est facilitée.
Les unités lexicales choisies par les localisateurs peuvent s’avérer culturellement
neutres ou culturellement marquées, elles peuvent avoir une valeur
internationale ou locale. La valeur internationale renvoie aux emplois répandus
des unités recensées dans l’ensemble des pays de l’espace francophone; au

4 Classement Global 500 du magazine Fortune de 2013. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: (consulté le 7 juin 2014).
5 La liste des sites Internet sur laquelle s’appuiera cette étude peut être consultée dans la

contraire, leur valeur locale est déterminée par la présence des éléments
spécifiques à une communauté linguistique donnée au sein d’un pays. À cela
s’ajoute évidemment la présence des emprunts à l’anglais. L’analyse permettra
ainsi de dresser un portrait de la variation linguistique de quelques sites web du
domaine de la production et du commerce d’automobiles localisés en français.

4. Analyse du corpus
Le cadre du travail étant posé, nous procédons à l’analyse du corpus. Nous
comparerons au sein des différents sites d’automobiles les notions liées à la
navigation sur les sites web, aux produits et aux services de l’industrie

4.1. Notions liées à la navigation sur les sites web

Etant donné que pendant un certain nombre d’années l’anglais a été la langue
de travail exclusive des informaticiens, ces notions ont d’abord reçu des
appellations anglaises, comme, par exemple Home page, Search, Contact,
Follow us on, Email, Send, Newsletter, News, Legal Statement, Sitemap. Au
cours de cet article, nous exposerons en détail un échantillon de quatre notions

Tableau 1

La notion Home Page


BELGIQUE Page d’accueil Accueil Symbôle Logo Hyundai
Page d’accueil
FRANCE Accueil Accueil Symbôle Logo Hyundai

Page d’accueil
LUXEMBOUR Page d’accueil Logo Symbôle Logo Hyundai
G Volkswagen Page d’accueil
SUISSE Page d’accueil Logo Symbôle Logo Hyundai
Volkswagen Page d’accueil
ALGÉRIE Page d’accueil Logo Symbôle Logo Hyundai
Volkswagen Page d’accueil

MAROC Page d’accueil Accueil Symbôle Logo Hyundai

Page d’accueil
TUNISIE Page d’accueil Logo Symbôle Logo Hyundai
Volkswagen Page d’accueil
CANADA- Page d’accueil Accueil Symbôle Logo Hyundai

FRANÇAIS Page d’accueil


Première page d’un site web, la page d'accueil se distingue par le fait qu’elle
sert généralement de présentation et contient tous les liens, sous forme
d'images et d'hypertextes, pour se diriger à travers les différentes parties du
Si en 2006 les sites de Mercedes-Benz destinés à la Belgique, au Luxembourg et
à la Suisse localisaient en utilisant l’emprunt intégral home6, de nos jours
l’anglicisme, qui est une troncation du terme Home Page a été remplacé
presque uniformément par la structure Page d’accueil (ou tout simplement la
forme Accueil, comme le fait, par exemple, le site de Volkswagen). Ces formes
appartiennent au français international et donc leur présence encourage
l’existence de la langue française dans l’espace virtuel. D’autre part, le site de
Renault a préféré de remplacer le syntagme page d’accueil avec l’affichage du

6 V. Bouffard Paula et Philippe Caignon. (2006). « Localisation et variation linguistique. Vers une
géolinguistique de l’espace virtuel francophone ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: (consulté le 7 juin 2014)

bouton accueil dans la barre d’outils du navigateur, en gagnant ainsi de
l’espace pour la présentation d’autres informations utiles. Une solution similaire
a été adoptée par tous les sites de Hyundai et par les sites luxembourgeois,
suisse et tunisien de Volkswagen, qui ont fait appel à l’utilisation du logo
(symbole de la marque d’autos) à la place de l’onglet page d’accueil. L’interface
est ainsi améliorée et rendue plus intuitive grâce à ces boutons qui sont plus
faciles à sélectionner. L’usage des symboles dans l’interface utilisateur dénote
une certaine modernité et la tendance vers l’uniformisation planétaire.
Tableau 2
La notion Email
BELGIQUE E-mail Adresse E- E-mail; Courriel E-mail

FRANCE Adresse email Adresse email Email Adresse

LUXEMBOUR E-mail E-mail Email E-mail
SUISSE E-mail E-mail E-mail E-mail
ALGÉRIE E-mail Adresse Email E-mail

MAROC E-mail E-mail E-mail E-mail
TUNISIE Email Adresse E-mail Email E-mail de
CANADA- Courriel; Courriel; - Courriel;

FRANÇAIS Adresse Adresse Adresse

courriel courriel courriel

La majorité des sites a déjà adoptée le terme email, un emprunt à l’anglais qui
remplace le terme français courrier électronique. Les sites canadiens - français
se distinguent nettement des autres sites par l’emploi du mot courriel et de la
structure connexe Adresse courriel. Le terme courriel est un mot-valise, formé
par la fusion d’éléments du syntagme courrier électronique, qui est, à son tour,
un calque de l’anglais email. En 2003, la “Délégation générale à la langue
française et aux langues de France”7 a adopté dans les textes officiels cette
appellation d’origine québécoise. Ainsi, les administrations et les services publics

7, (consulté le 2 juin 2014).

français ont l’obligation d’utiliser ce terme de préférence à tout autre. Et
pourtant, malgré les recommandations officielles, un compromis a été préféré
pour la localisation des sites français, c’est-à-dire la création d’une structure
hétérogène par une juxtaposition du français et de l’anglais: Adresse email.
L’anglicisation lexicale dans la majorité des sites analysés témoigne la tendance
vers l’uniformisation.

Tableau 3
La notion Legal Statement
BELGIQUE Mentions Mentions Informations Mentions
légales légales légales légales
FRANCE Mentions Informations Mentions CGU

légales légales légales

LUXEMBOUR Informations Informations Informations Mentions
G juridiques légales légales légales
SUISSE Mentions Impressum Infos légales Legal/ Aspects
légales légaux
ALGÉRIE Legal Notice Mentions Mentions -
légales légales

MAROC Mentions Mentions Informations -

légales légales légales
TUNISIE Droits d’auteur Informations Infos légales Mentions
CANADA- Informations Notes légales - Légal

FRANÇAIS juridiques

Les contenus mis en ligne par l'intermédiaire d'un site web doivent respecter
des règles légales, qui sont condensées dans une rubrique à part. Pour désigner
cette rubrique, les sites localisés pour les pays francophones analysés emploient
avec variation les constructions Mentions légales/ Informations légales, Notes
légales ou Informations juridiques. Les sites suisse et tunisien de Renault
utilisent l’abréviation familière infos dans la structure Infos légales, tandis que le
site suisse de Hyundai préfère, dans deux onglets différents, l’emprunt anglais
legal et la construction française Aspects légaux. Fait intéressant, le site suisse
de Volkswagen intègre le terme à valeur locale Impressum, qui, dans la Suisse
romande, la partie francophone de la Suisse, désigne l’encart dans une
publication périodique, destiné à contenir les mentions légales obligatoires et les

informations administratives concernant la publication. Ce terme d’origine latin
est un emprunt de la Suisse germanophone.

Tableau 4
La notion Sitemap
BELGIQUE Plan du site Plan du site Plan du site Plan du site

FRANCE Plan du site Plan du site Plan du site -

LUXEMBOUR Plan du site Plan du site Plan du site -
SUISSE Sitemap Sitemap Plan du site Sitemap
ALGÉRIE Sitemap Plan du site Plan du site -

MAROC Plan du site Plan du site Plan du site -


TUNISIE Sitemap - Plan du site Plan du site

CANADA- Plan du site Plan du site - Carte du site



L’onglet Sitemap présente la structure du site, la carte visuelle qui sert à aider
les internautes à trouver les informations nécessaires. Trois des sites suisses
analysés, ainsi que les sites algérien et tunisien de Mercedes-Benz font recours
à l’anglicisme sitemap, montrant un affaiblissement linguistique assez fort. Au
contraire, les autres sites franco-européens tendent vers l’uniformisation
linguistique en préférant la construction française Plan du site. Une variante
singulière est présentée par le site canadien de Hyundai qui utilise le calque
Carte du site.
4.2. Notions liées aux produits et aux services de l’industrie
Parmi la multitude d’onglets qui se réfèrent aux produits et aux services de
l’industrie automobile, nous avons choisi les notions Vehicles, Car Configurator
et Dealer Locator; celles-ci représentent les plus utilisés boutons par la majorité
des internautes qui visent l’acquisition d’une voiture.

Tableau 5
La notion Vehicles
BELGIQUE Véhicules neufs Showroom La gamme Modèles
FRANCE Nos modèles Modèles La gamme Gamme

LUXEMBOUR Véhicules neufs Modèles La gamme Modèles
G Renault
SUISSE Véhicules neufs Modèles La gamme Modèles
ALGÉRIE Aperçu des Modèles Véhicules Showroom
modèles particuliers/

MAROC Véhicules neufs Modèles La gamme Gamme
TUNISIE Aperçu des Modèles La gamme Gamme
modèles Renault
CANADA- Achat d’une Modèles - Gamme de

FRANÇAIS Mercedes- Véhicules


Benz; Voitures

La marque Mercedes-Benz préfère le syntagme Véhicules neufs pour la

Belgique, le Luxembourg, la Suisse et le Maroc, à différence du Canada qui le
remplace par Voitures neuves. Le site localisé pour la France adopte la
construction Nos modèles, où l’utilisation de l’adjectif possessif rend le
consommateur plus proche du produit final. Toujours pour la variante Modèles
optent la marque Volkswagen dans la localisation de ses sites de l’Europe, de
l’Afrique et du Canada-français, le substantif suggérant la diversité et
l’adaptabilité aux préférences du client. Ces exemples révèlent une situation de
maintien linguistique dans l’uniformité. La seule exception est la Belgique, qui
fait appel à un emprunt intégral à l’anglais, le terme Showroom, qui donne au
client l’impression de se trouver dans un espace de présentation au sein d’un
magasin. L’anglicisme showroom est préféré par l’entreprise sud-coréenne
Hyundai dans la localisation de son site pour l’Algérie. La même entreprise se
sert du terme Modèles en Belgique, au Luxembourg et en Suisse et du terme
Gamme en France et dans les pays africains le Maroc et la Tunisie pour
désigner l’ensemble des produits proposés par Hyundai et répondant à
différents besoins des clients. Au Canada, Hyundai emploie le syntagme

Gammes de Véhicules. À différence de Hyundai, Renault n’a pas de site au
Canada, mais utilise uniformément la construction La gamme Renault dans la
localisation des sites de l’Europe et de L’Afrique. La seule exception est l’Algérie,
qui présente le même concept en deux rubriques différentes: Véhicules
particuliers et Véhicules utilitaires.

Tableau 6
La notion Car Configurator
BELGIQUE Configurateur Car Configurateur Configurer
configurator votre Hyundai
FRANCE Configurer Configurateur Configurer Configurer
votre votre véhicule

LUXEMBOUR Configurateur - Configurer Configurer
G votre véhicule
SUISSE Configurateur Configurateur Configurateur Configurer
ALGÉRIE - - Configurer Choisissez

votre véhicule votre véhicule

MAROC - - Configurer -
votre véhicule
TUNISIE - - - -
CANADA- Construire Configuration - Construction

FRANÇAIS votre et prix



Le configurateur permet de choisir un modèle de véhicule automobile et ses

options. Utilisé par la majorité des sites des constructeurs d’automobiles, la
fonction configuration permet au client d’arriver au produit le mieux adapté à
ses exigences et dans le même temps d’obtenir le prix correspondant à la
configuration choisie. Pour exprimer la notion, les sites emploient la forme
Configurateur et les variantes Configuration, Configurer votre véhicule. Dans le
langage spécialisé de l’informatique, configurer est un terme utilisé pour
désigner l’action de “régler les paramètres d’un logiciel ou d’un matériel pour le
faire fonctionner dans des conditions données.” 8 Dans ce cas d’uniformisation,

(consulté le 26 mai 2014).

il y a une stabilisation des traits culturels distinctifs de chaque communauté
linguistique. À l’opposé on rencontre deux situations: le site belge de
Volkswagen emploie la forme anglaise Car configurator pour exprimer la notion
tandis que les sites canadiens de Mercedes-Benz et de Hyundai ainsi que le
site algérien de Hyundai privilégient des constructions comme Construire votre
Mercedes-Benz, Construction et prix, respectivement Choisissez votre véhicule.
Dans le premier cas, nous assistons d’une part à l’introduction de traits culturels
étrangers au sein d’une culture d’expression française et d’autre part à une
augmentation des traits culturels différenciateurs entre les communautés
francophones. Les francophones européens se sentent probablement moins
menacés par l’invasion de l’anglais et intègrent des mots anglophones dans leur
français, complètement à l’opposé de ce que font par exemple les Québécois.

Tableau 7
La notion Dealer Locator
BELGIQUE Partenaires Dealer Locator Concessionnaire Réseau /
s Distributeur

FRANCE Où nous Réseau Réseau Renault Réseau /

trouver?/ Trouver un

Trouver un distributeur /
Distributeur Votre
LUXEMBOURG Nos Concessionnaire Concessionnaire Réseau /
interlocuteurs s s Distributeur
SUISSE Interlocuteurs Demande du Concessionnaire Concessionnaire
concessionnaire s s
ALGÉRIE - Réseau des Trouvez un Points de vente
concessionnaires concessionnaire/ /
Dealer locator/ Trouver un
Trouver un distributeur

MAROC Recherche de Réseau de Concessionnaire Votre Points de

distributeur vente/ vente
TUNISIE Nos Concessionnaire Concessionnaire Réseaux /
concessionnaires s s Trouver un
CANADA- Trouvez un Concessionnaire - Recherche de
FRANÇAIS concessionnaire s concessionnaire/

Trouver un

Le même phénomène s’observe pour la notion dealer locator. Le site destiné à
la Belgique, localisé par Volkswagen, utilise cet anglicisme sans équivalent
français mais qui est entré dans l’usage courant, avec une prononciation
adaptée, étant admis par les dictionnaires et les grammaires. Le site algérien de
Renault l’utilise aussi, à côté du terme concessionnaire ou du terme agent.
En fonction du niveau de représentation choisi par les marques d’autos sur les
marchés cibles, nous pouvons remarquer une grande diversité de termes,
comme, par exemple: distributeur, concessionnaire, partenaire, interlocuteur et
agent et de quelques syntagmes: Réseau de vente, Réseau des
concessionnaires, Points de vente.
Le plus favorisé semble être le mot concessionnaire, présent dans tous les sites
francophones de la marque Volskwagen analysés, à l’exception du site belge,
dans les sites localisés pour Renault (outre le site français qui emploie la
construction Réseau Renault) et encore dans les sites suisse et canadien de
Hyundai et dans le site canadien de Mercedes-Benz. En contraste avec les
autres termes mentionnés, seulement le mot concessionnaire renvoie à l’idée de
représentation exclusive d’une marque pour la vente d’un produit.
En étudiant les notions qui se réfèrent aux produits et aux services de l’industrie
automobile, nous pouvons constater la tendance à l’uniformisation dans
l’ensemble des sites. Lorsqu’il y a variation, le plus souvent celle-ci est due au
recours aux emprunts à l’anglais.

5. Conclusions
Devant ces résultats, on constate que les sites canadiens se caractérisent par
leur rectitude linguistique. En effet, les unités recensées appartenant aux
onglets du menu principal évitent toute intrusion linguistique anglaise. Les
formulations sont claires, accessibles et gardent les caractéristiques locales de la
langue française, ce qui contribue au maintien de la culture francophone de la
communauté la plus isolée sur le plan géolinguistique.

Archimag. « 2,7 milliards d’internautes dans le monde ». [en ligne]. Accessible à
l’adresse : (consulté le 7 juin
Bernier, Ivan. (2001). « La Préservation de la diversité linguistique à l’heure de la
mondialisation ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : http://www.diversite-

114 (consulté le 7
juin 2014).
Bouffard, Paula et Philippe, Caignon. (2006). « Localisation et variation linguistique.
Vers une géolinguistique de l’espace virtuel francophon ». [en ligne]. Accessible
à l’adresse : (consulté le 7 juin 2014).
Classement Global 500 du magazine Fortune de 2013. [en ligne]. Accessible à
l’adresse : (consulté le 7 juin 2014).
Dubé, Jean-Sylvain. (2007). « La localisation : examen du concept et analyse sous
l’angle du produit localisé ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :
Gouadec, Daniel. (2003). « Le bagage spécifique du localiseur/localisateur : le vrai
‘nouveau profil’ requis ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : (consulté le 3 juin 2014).
Internet World Stats, « Top Ten Languages in the Internet ». [en ligne]. Accessible à
l’adresse : (consulté le 7 juin
Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture,
« Mondialisation/globalisation ». [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :
sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/globalisation/ (consulté le 7
juin 2014).
Scarpa, Federica. (2010). La traduction spécialisée. Une approche professionnelle à
l’enseignement de la traduction. Ottawa : Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa.
Thibault, André. (2007). « Lexicographie et variation diatopique : le cas du français ».
[en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse : http://andre.thibault.pagesperso- (consulté le 15 mai 2014).
Wolton, Dominique et al. (2008). L’identité francophone dans la mondialisation. [en
ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :
2008.pdf (consulté le 16 mai 2014).

Adresse des sites Web étudiés (mai-juin 2014)

Algérie :
Algérie :
Algérie :
Algérie :
Belgique :
Belgique :
Belgique :
Belgique :
Canada-français :
Canada-français :
Canada-français :
France :
France :
France :
France :
Luxembourg :
Luxembourg :

Luxembourg :
Luxembourg :
Maroc :
Maroc :
Maroc :
Maroc :
Suisse :
Suisse :
Suisse :
Suisse :
Tunisie :
Tunisie :
Tunisie :
Tunisie :

Sorin TOMA

Universitatea Tehnică de Construcţii Bucureşti, ROMÂNIA

Departamentul de Limbi Străine şi Comunicare

Abstract: The paper describes and assesses the main approach of the intercultural
competence concept, starting from nowadays research in the German cultural area. The
debates, that put forward deep conceptual and methodical differences, often
confronting the contenders positions, bring out both the actuality and also the
complexity of the theme. Recent questions such as: in what situations is the
intercultural competence necessary? – which is its purpose? – has it a general or a
specific character? – how is intercultural competence conceptualised? – all these
questions have presupposed not only the redefinition of the concept itself, but they
have implied the re-discussion of some fundamental concepts, for instance, culture and
education, as well as some primary relations, as the one between “self” and “the other”.
Not only is the theoretical relevancy of the concept intercultural competence examined
in the present article, but also the directions and the possibilities of development of this
competence, the various methods of the intercultural learning and the ways of
evaluation of the achieved progress. We have presented from this perspective some
dynamic patterns of the intercultural qualification, together with the assessment of their
efficiency, made according to criteria that stick, necessarily, to the purpose.
Of a particular real value proves to be the assimilation of the intercultural competence
with a general practical competence, now its social component goes with the partial
competences regarding the person who realizes the cultural transfer, the domain and
the strategic context in which he or she operates.
By means of this study, the translator may acquire an overall perspective on the present
stage of the interculturality research area and also methodical suggestions for his or her
own analysis and willing approach.

Keywords: intercultural competence; structure patterns of intercultural competence;

processual patterns of intercultural competence; culture; intercultural learning.

Die nachhaltigst wirkende Debatte um die Frage der „interkulturelle Kompetenz“

löste der Psychologe Alexander Thomas 2003 aus, mit seinem in der Zeitschrift
„Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik“ erschienenen Beitrag „Interkulturelle Kompetenz.
Grundlagen, Probleme und Konzepte“ (Thomas, 2003). Der Autor bemühte sich
um eine kompakte Definition der interkulturellen Kompetenz, die in der
Fachliteratur häufig zitiert wird:

Interkulturelle Kompetenz zeigt sich in der Fähigkeit, kulturelle
Bedingungen und Einflussfaktoren im Wahrnehmen, Urteilen, Empfinden
und Handeln bei sich selbst und bei anderen Personen zu erfassen, zu
respektieren, zu würdigen und produktiv zu nutzen im Sinne einer
wechselseitigen Anpassung, von Toleranz gegenüber Inkompatibilitäten
und einer Entwicklung hin zu synergieträchtigen Formen der
Zusammenarbeit, des Zusammenlebens und handlungswirksamer
Orientierungsmuster in Bezug auf Weltinterpretation und Weltgestaltung
(op. cit.: 143).

Thomas´ Hauptartikel wurde dann im Rahmen der angeführten Fachzeitschrift

von über dreißig Wissenschaftlern aus unterschiedlichen disziplinären
Perspektiven kontrovers kommentiert.
In ihrer Analyse dieser zum Teil heftig entfachten Debatte stellte die Berliner
Professorin für Unternehmensführung und Kommunikation Stefanie Rathje
heraus, dass die kritischen Stellungnahmen hauptsächlich um grundlegende
Fragen wie Ziel, Generik/Spezifik und Anwendungsgebiet des Konzepts
„interkulturelle Kompetenz“ und um den Inhalt des Grundbegriffs „Kultur“
kreisten (Rathje, 2006).
In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden wir zunächst an diese Darstellung
des Forschungsstands des Konzepts „interkulturelle Kompetenz“ und an ihre
Struktur der Hauptfragen anknüpfen; dann sollen die Weiterentwicklung dieser
Ansätze kritisch verfolgt und die neu erarbeiteten Einstellungen zum Thema
differenziert besprochen werden.

1. Was bewirkt interkulturelle Kompetenz?

Unter den Zielvorstellungen interkultureller Kompetenz der untersuchten
Stellungnahmen unterscheidet Rathje solche, die den Erfolg im ökonomischen
Sinn ins Auge fassen von den aus pädagogischer Sicht entspringenden, die ihn
in den Hintergrund schieben zugunsten einer menschlichen Weiterentwicklung.

1.1 Effizienz
Auf Effizienz sind solche Ansätze ausgerichtet, die bei interkulturell kompetenten
Interaktionspartnern einen besonderen Wert auf die Fähigkeit legt, "die
beteiligten Kulturen so zu verstehen, dass sich eine für alle Beteiligten
zufriedenstellende und angenehme Zusammenarbeit entwickeln kann, damit die
vorhandene Diversität [...] optimal für die Erreichung gemeinsamer Ziele
genutzt werden kann" (Michael Schönhuth, zitiert nach Ratje, 2006: 5).

Kritische Positionen zu den erfolgsorientierten Zieleinstellungen der
interkulturellen Kompetenz weisen darauf hin, dass hier eine
Manipulationsgefahr lauert, da die interkulturelle Kompetenz zur Durchsetzung
der Vorteile der mächtigeren Partner missbraucht werden könnte: "Es geht eben
nicht immer nur um das interkulturelle Verstehen im Sinne des Vermeidens von
Missverständnissen. Manchmal werden diese Missverständnisse im Interesse der
Kontrolle und der Macht in der interkulturellen Kommunikation auch bewusst
provoziert" (Wolfgang Frindte, 2003: 171). Einläuchtend stellt Ahmed Aries die
Strategie der Machtausübung durch interkulturelle Kompetenz dar: wenn man
der Versuchung unterliegt, das "Gegenüber als etwas zu betrachten, das durch
Erklärbarkeit manipulierbar wird", sei die Neigung zur Instrumentalisierung der
interkulturellen Fähigkeiten schon wirksam, denn "schließlich will der, der
'versteht', weil er erklären kann, als Verhandelnder zum Erfolg kommen [...]"
(Aries, 2003: 153).
Problematisch wird weiter, wenn man im Zuge der Bestrebungen dem Erfolg-
Kriterium zu genügen, an die interkulturelle Kompetenz übermäßige
Anforderungen dadurch stellt, dass von ihr das Erreichen der Gesamtziele der
interkulturellen Interaktion abverlangt. Nach Werner Herzog sollte deswegen
das Kompetenzziel möglist unabhängig von Erfolgskriterien gesetzt werden: "Die
Anreicherung des Kompetenzbegriffs mit Erfolgskriterien vermehrt [...] die
begriffliche Not, da zwischen Kompetenz und Performanz nicht mehr
unterschieden werden kann." (Herzog, 2003: 179).
In ihren Kommentaren zu diesen kritischen Ansichten (op.cit.: 4), hob Stefanie
Rathje weitere fragwürdige Momente der Begriffsbestimmung „interkulturelle
Kompetenz“ hervor, die dadurch aufkommen, dass man dabei
Erfolgseinstellungen unangemäß miteinbezieht: in der Folge würde von ihr in
einer interkulturellen Kommunikation vieles erwartet, was für sie nicht
konstitutiv sei, sondern von den vielfältigen Rahmenbedingungen der
interkulturellen Interaktion herrühre; die zuletzt genannten Faktoren (Z.B. der
strategische Sinn, das Machtverhältnis der Verhandlungsteilnehmer usw.)
entweder gingen in ihr auf, oder blieben unberücksichtigt. Die interkulturelle
Kompetenz könne innerhalb interkultureller Interaktion nicht jene Hindernisse
beseitigen, die schon im Rahmen intrakultureller Kommunikation von anderen
Interaktionsfähigkeiten nicht aus dem Weg zu räumen seien. Aus diesen
Gründen biete es sich an, ein Konzept 'interkultureller Kompetenz' mit
minimalem Gehalt zu fassen.

1.2 Persönliche Weiterentwicklung
Die interkulturelle Kompetenz kann als Ziel erhalten, den Prozess der
persönlichen Weiterentwicklung zu entfachen, bzw. voranzutreiben. Eine
interkulturelle Interaktion gilt dann als gelungen, wenn die
Kommunikationssubjekte bei sich, unabhängig von objektiver Zielsetzung,
Fortschritte in die Richtung menschliche Entwicklung zu verzeichnen dürfen.
In dem zu besprechenden Diskussionsrahmen wurde diese Orientierung
besonders von Alois Wierlacher vertreten, für den die interkulturelle Kompetenz
die Fähigkeit der Interaktionspartner darstellt, eine„Veränderung ihrer selbst“ in
die Wege zu leiten; in der Folge könne sie bei ihnen die „Konstitution einer
partiellen Gemeinsamkeit auf einer Sinnebene“ verwirklichen (Wierlacher, 2003:
Diese Position wurde von Stefanie Rathje in ihrer Untersuchung positiv
bewertet, mit der Begründung, dass sie ein nicht instrumentalisierbares, nicht
unhaltbar verheißunsvolles Konzept „interkulturelle Kompetenz“ entwerfe (op.
cit.: 6). In seiner Erwiderung, wirft ihr der Autor des Leitartikels jedoch eine
Idealisierungstendenz vor, bei der Vernachlässigung von Handlungszielen –
persönlicher, ökonomischer, politischer oder anderer Art –, die Menschen üblich
sich in interkultureller Interaktion setzen. In der Sicht von Alexander Thomas
sollten deswegen in der Zieldefinition „interkultureller Kompetenz“ pragmatische
Handlungsziele der Interaktionsteilnehmer unverkennbar miteinbezogen
werden, um dadurch ein wirksames Konzept aufzustellen (Thomas, 2003: 223).

2. Ist interkulturelle Kompetenz eher eine kulturspezifische

Kompetenz oder eine universelle Schlüsselkompetenz?
Aus Rathjes Überblicksbetrachtung ergibt sich ein breites Vorstellungsspektrum
von ‚interkultureller Kompetenz’, von einer mit reinen Kulturgehalt, bis zu einer
komplexen, die soziale und Handlungskompetenzen dazurechnet.

1.1 Kulturspezifische Kompetenz

Den Ansatz ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ als von Erfahrungen und Wissen in
Bezug auf mehreren Kulturen ableitbar betrachtet Herzog mit Bedenken:

Anders als die Konzepte der sprachlichen und kommunikativen

Kompetenz, die auf ein generisches Potential verweisen, das sich in
verschiedenen Formen artikuliert [...], fehlt dem Begriff der
interkulturellen Kompetenz eine vergleichbare theoretische Begründung.
So bleibt offen, weshalb eine bikulturelle Kompetenz Ausdruck einer

interkulturellen Kompetenz sein soll bzw. wie aus dem einen das andere
hervorgehen kann. (Herzog, 2003: 179).

Mit Recht bekräftigt Rathje diese Position, indem sie darauf hinweist, dass
‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ nicht mit ‚Kulturkompetenz’ zu identifizieren sei; die
Tatsache, dass die erste eine Existenz in sich genießt, werde auch durch den
Umstand bestätigt, dass Menschen mit fremdkulturellen Erfahrungen sich in
zwischenkulturellen Zusammenhängen unterschiedlich kompetent zeigen. Für
die Definition der ‚interkulturellen Kompetenz’ erweise sich folglich diese
Reduktion schließlich unbrauchbar.

1.2 Kulturübergreifende Kompetenz

Die ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ hat einen selbstständigen Inhalt, wenn ihr Sinn
sich aus dem Verfolgen allgemeinmenschlicher Weiterentwicklungsziele ergibt.
So erweist sich aus der Sicht von Wierlacher ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ als
Fähigkeit „neue Ordnung zwischen Menschen verschiedener Kulturen zu stiften
und fruchtbar zu machen“ (Wierlacher, 2003: 216). Auch für Mechrils
Betrachtungsweise zeigt sich ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ als reinmenschliche
Qualifikation, und zwar „jene Fähigkeit, die Erfahrung von kultureller Differenz
und Fremdheit zu verarbeiten [...]“ (Mecheril, 2003: 198).
Ähnlich entwirft Loenhoff das Konzept ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’
kulturübergreifend als die Fähigkeit „einer reflexiven Haltung gegenüber
Fremdheit und damit als das Vermögen zu einem vernünftigen Umgang mit dem
Umstand, dass sich der andere genau so an seinen wie man sich selbst an
eigenen kulturellen Formvorlagen orientiert“ (Loenhoff, 2003: 193).
In Hinblick auf diese Versuche, dem Begriff ‚interkulturelle Kompetenz’ Gehalt zu
erstellen, können wir Rathjes Einschätzung nachvollziehen, dass die oben
zitierten Autoren in die Richtung ‚Fremdheitserfahrung’ sachdienlich forschen;
gleichzeitig vermissen wir – und die Rezensentin auch – präzisere
Differenzierungen als: „neue Ordnung ... zu stiften“ (Wierlacher, op.cit.: 216),
„Fremdheit zu verarbeiten“ (Mecheril, op.cit.: 198) und „reflexive Haltung
gegenüber Fremdheit“ (Loenhoff, op.cit.: 193).

1.3 Allgemeine Sozialkompetenz

Für die auf Handlungsziele ausgerichteten Ansätze ist ‚interkulturelle
Kompetenz’ aus unterschiedlichen Teilkompetenzen ausgemacht. Das Ergebnis
dieser auf Listen und in Strukturmodellen zusammengestellten Teilkompetenzen
kommt aber, von Fremdsprachen- und Landeskenntnissen einmal abgesehen, in
die Nähe einer allgemeinen Sozialkompetenz. So ist Nový überzeugt, dass „[...]

die soziale Kompetenz ganz bestimmt eine Bedingung der interkulturellen
Kompetenz ist, und die Empfindlichkeit gegenüber dem Phänomen der
Multikulturalität kann also nur ihre qualitative Erweiterung sein“ (Nový, 2003:
206). Und für Linck ist schlicht „keinen Unterschied zwischen sozialer und
transkultureller Kompetenz“ (Linck, 2003: 191) erkennbar.
Dass in einer interkulturellen Interaktion ein nötiges Maß an soziale Qualifikation
erforderlich sei, steht schon außer Frage; die interkulturelle Kompetenz einer
allgemeinen Sozialkompetenz gleichzusetzen, hieße trotzdem bei ihrer
Bestimmung gerade die oft von Interaktionspartnern erfahrene „besondere
Schwierigkeit“ (Hansen, 2000: 318f.) der interkulturellen Interaktionssituationen
übersehen, derer Untersuchung für die zu erarbeitende Definition
vielversprechend wäre.

1.4 Allgemeine Handlungskompetenz

Weitere erfolgsorientierte Ansätze zu einer Zieldefinition der interkulturellen
Kompetenz lassen soziale Kompetenzen durch zusätzliche Qualifikationen aus
individuellen, fachlichen und strategischen Kompetenzgebieten unterstützen;
was dabei hervorkommt, ist eine allgemeine Handlungskompetenz im
interkulturellen Kontext (Bolten, 2006). Ausgehend von der Frage, ob es
„genuin ‚interkulturelle’ Teilkompetenzen [...] überhaupt gibt“, deutet Bolten
interkulturelle Kompetenz als „generelle Handlungskompetenz mit
‚interkulturellem Vorzeichen’“ (Bolten, 2003: 157). Der Autor argumentiert, dass
Leute mit Fremdheitserfahrung, denen aber fachliche Kompetenzen in einem für
die jeweilige interkulturelle Interaktion relevanten Bereich fehlen, erfolglos sein
Zu Recht hebt die Rezensentin hervor, dass auch dieser Versuch, eine
Zieldefinition der interkulturellen Kompetenz unter dem Aspekt der Effizienz zu
erstellen, eben dadurch problematisch wird: Die interkulturelle Kompetenz
werde „folgerichtig zur Transferfähigkeit allgemeiner Handlungskompetenz“
(Rathje, 2006: 9) und damit entziehe sich ihrer Spezifik. Aus diesem Grunde
schlägt Stefanie Rathje einen Wechsel der Perspektive vor, wodurch die
interkulturelle Kompetenz nicht als Summe von Handlungskompetenzen,
sondern als deren Voraussetzung zu betrachten. Ihr Vorschlag verwandelt die
interkulturelle Kompetenz in eine Schlüsselkompetenz, was uns im Hinblick auf
die oben bei Punkt 1.2 aufgezeichneten Überlegungen plausibel vorkommt.

3. Wie wird die interkulturelle Kompetenz konzeptualisiert?
Unterschiedliche theoretische Ansätze zur begrifflichen Auffassung der
interkulturellen Kompetenz haben zu verschiedenen Listen-, Struktur und
Prozessmodellen geführt.
Zunächst wurden aufgrund der Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von erfolgreichen
Beteiligten an kulturellen Interaktionen interkulturelle Teilkompetenzen
abgeleitet, und man verstand die interkulturelle Kompetenz als deren Summe.
Aus der Fülle solcher Listen hat sich mit der Zeit im Rahmen interkultureller
Trainings ein „Merkmalskern“ herausgebildet. Dazu gehören u. a. „empathy“,
„tolerance for ambiguty“, „self-oriented role behaviour“, „cultural awareness“,
„open-mindness“, „respect for cultural differences“, „interaction attentiveness“
und „Anpassungsfähigkeit“ (Bolten, 2007: 22).
Seit den 90er Jahren wurden Strukturmodelle interkultureller Kompetenz
entwickelt, die sich von den oben beschriebenen Listenmodellen abgrenzten.
Sie systematisierten die Persönlichkeitsmerkmale nach Affekt, Kognition und
Konation, wobei
 das affektive Gebilde: geringer Ethnozentrismus,
Unvereingenommenheit, Offenheit und
 das kognitive Gebilde: kulturelles Bewusstsein, self
awareness, Selbsbewusstsein und realistische
Erwartungen, und
 das konative (verhaltensbezogene) Gebilde: Respekt,
Flexibilität, Sprechfertigkeit, Kommunikationsfähigkeit und
Ambiguitätstoleranz umfasst. (vergl. Müller, S. / Gelbrich,
K. , 2004, zitiert nach Bolten, 2007: 23)
Diese kulturellen Teilkompetenzen, die in den Trainings methodisch unabhängig
voneinander entwickelt werden, durchdringen sich in der Praxis der
interkulturellen Handlungen gegenseitig, und bilden nicht eine Synthese,
sondern ein „synergetisches Produkt des permanenten Wechselspiels der
genannten Teilkompetenzen“ (idem: 24). In dem vorliegenden Zusammenhang
habe man, nach Jürgen Bolten, nicht mit einem strukturellen, sondern mit
einem prozessualen Begriff interkultureller Kompetenz zu tun.
Die Prozessmodelle interkultureller Kompetenz entsprechen einer
Handlungskompetenz, wie sie seit den 90er Jahren, als Zusammenwirken von
(a) Personal- oder Selbstkompetenz, (b) Sozialkompetenz, (c) Fachkompetenz
und (d) Methodenkompetenz beschrieben wurde (vergl. John Erpenbeck, 2001,

zitiert nach Jürgen Bolten, 2007: 24). Allerdings ist die auf diese Weise
zusammengesetzte Handlungskompetenz nicht neben den vier genannten
Kompetenzen, sondern als synergetisches Ergebnis ihres
Interaktionsverhältnisses zu verstehen.
Weitere auf das Individuum bezogene Ansätze haben zu situativen und zu
interaktionistischen Modellen geleitet, die wohl die Kompetenz des Einzelnen
einbeziehen, aber darüber hinaus die Rahmenbedingungen der Wechselwirkung
oder Aspekte der Interaktion zwischen dem Einzelnen und der Situation in der
dieser agiert berücksichtigen (vergl. Thomas, 2003: 142ff.)

4. In welchen Situationen wird interkulturelle Kompetenz

Auch in der Frage nach dem Anwendungsbereich interkultureller Kompetenz
gehen die Ansichten auseinander: sollten die Individuen, die in interkulturellen
Situationen wirken, zu unterschiedlichen Nationen bzw. Gesellschaften
angehören, oder darf man schon von Entwicklung interkultureller Kompetenz
sprechen, wenn sie als Mitglieder kleinerer unterschiedlicher Gruppen
entsprechend tätig sind? Bei dieser Alternativmöglichkeit ist jedoch zu
bemerken, dass die erste Variante ein Spezielfall der letzten darstellt.

4.1 Inter-nationale Interaktion

In dem Hauptartikel des besprochenen Sammelbandes ist implizite von
Interaktionen zwischen Nationalkulturen die Rede; wie es in einem ihm
geltenden Kommentar heißt, verteidige damit sein Autor „den Tatbestand
echter, oft gegensätzlicher und prinzipiell unterscheidbarer kultureller Welten“
(Krotz, 2003: 183). Die häufigst geteilte – und dadurch „echte“ – Auffassung
der Interkulturalität als Interaktionsqualifikation zwischen nationalen Kulturen
wird hier sowohl von dem Hauptautor, wie auch von einem seiner
Kommentatoren vertreten. Wie die Rezensentin anmerkt, ist diese Position gut
nachvollziehbar, da sie für die breite Öffentlichkeit „politisch und wirtschaftlich
besonders relevant erscheint“ (Rathje, 2003: 10).
Im Rahmen der analysierten Debatte jedoch kritisieren sie
Erziehungswissenschaftler wegen der zweckorientierten Denkart, die ihr
zugrunde liege (vergl. Georg Auernheimer, 2003: 154) und Soziologen
verbinden sie mit dem unrühmlichen Konzept der „deutschen Leitkultur“ eines
hessischen Ministerpräsidenten (Allolio-Näcke; Kalscheuer; Shimada, 2003:

Rathje verweist dabei auf eine „problematische Inkonsequenz“ des inter-
nationalen Ansatzes, die dadurch entstehe, dass er wohl der Interaktion
zwischen Individuen unterschiedlichen Ländern, ja zwischen Mitgliedern
unterschiedlicher Nationalkulturen angemessen sei, aber im Falle der (z.B. durch
Migration vorkommenden) innengesellschaftlichen Interkulturalität könne er
schon nicht mehr wirksam sein (vergl. Stefanie Rathje 2003: 10).
Wir vertreten die Meinung, dass die von Rathje bemängelnde Inkonsequenz auf
die begrenzte Reichweite des inter-nationalen Ansatzes zurückzuführen ist. Und
dies ist wiederum von der engen tradierten Auffassung des Überbegriffs Kultur
als Nationalkultur herzuleiten. Sobald man den Kulturbegriff nicht mehr durch
nationalstaatliche bzw. sprachliche Grenzen einengt und nach einer
umfangreichen Auffassung der Kultur sucht, kann man hoffen, einen
entsprechend erweiterten Begriff der Interkulturalität erarbeiten zu können.

4.2 Inter-kollektive Interaktion

Ein oft verwendeter den nationalen und sprachlichen Rahmen überspringender
Kulturbegriff lässt kulturelle Interaktionen zwischen Mitgliedern verschiedener
von ihrer eigenen Kultur geprägten Menschenkreisen als Übungsfelder
interkultureller Kompetenz ansehen. So weist Frindte darauf hin, dass schon
„subkulturelle Zugehörigkeiten oder Organisations- und Unternehmenskulturen“
(Frindte, 2003: 169) Wirkungsbereiche interkultureller Interaktion seien. Linck
hebt hervor, dass Fremdheitserfahrungen nicht nur auf inter-nationaler Ebene
angesiedelt seien, das Fremde erlebe man bereits im eigenen Land zwischen
„Mann und Frau, Alt und Jung, Ossis und Wessis, [...]“ (Gudula Linck, 2003:
191). Straub zeigt auf Merkmale kultureller Unterschiede unmittelbar in den
einzelnen Menschen auf, denn „Gehören Differenz-, Pluralitäts, Alteritäts- und
Fremdheitserfahrungen nicht ebenso zum praktischen Fundament ‚unseres’
Selbst wie die fürs alltägliche Handeln notwendigen Schematisierungen,
Typisierungen, [...] und andere Ordnungsleistungen“? (Straub, 2003: 209)
Solche Überlegungen veranlassten die Rezensentin das Anwendungsgebiet
interkultureller Kompetenz jenseits des Rahmens der inter-nationalen
Interaktionen im Sinne eines lebensweltlich ausgestalteten Kulturkonzepts zu
erweitern, sodass es auch die inter-kollektiven Beziehungen einschließe. Seit
dem Erscheinen der analysierten Beiträge fand diese Einstellung immer neue
Befürworter, sie wurde allerdings problematisch empfunden, weil die kulturelle
Spezifik der Kommunikation dabei undeutlich bleibt. Eine Hilfe leistet in dieser
Hinsicht die Bestimmung interkultureller Kommunikation als „denjenigen
Kommunikationsprozess [...], in dem Beteiligte die Eigenschaften dieses

Prozesses einschließlich der auftretenden Probleme und Konflikte auf kulturelle
Differenz zurechnen“ (Loenhoff, 2003: 193).

5. Was wird unter Kultur verstanden?

Die Diskussion um den Anwendungsbereich der interkulturellen Kompetenz
stellte notwendigerweise den tradierten Begriff Kultur infrage, der das Attribut
„national“ in sich trägt. Wegen seiner in dem Hauptartikel der Zeitschrift
vertretenen Kulturauffassung geriet bereits Thomas in dem Kreuzfeuer der
Kritik: Ihm wurde Kulturdeterminismus, „Mystifizierung“, „Eindimensionalität“
oder „Universalismus“ vorgeworfen (z. Allolio-Näcke et al. , 2003: 150f.). Die
teilweise leidenschaftlich geführte Auseinandersetzung weist ausdrücklich darauf
hin, dass diese Problematik unmittelbar den Kern der Debatte betrifft. Es ist aus
diesem Grund zweckdienlich den Kulturbegriff in seiner Beziehung zur
interkulturellen Kompetenz, zu untersuchen.
Der traditionsbeladene Denkansatz, der einen Kulturbegriff der höheren
menschlichen Werte gebildet hat, wird häufig kritisiert aufgrund seiner
voreingenommen elitären Einstellung sowie seiner dogmatischen weil
unhistorischen Orientierung. Diesem „engen“ Kulturbegriff setzt z. B. Jürgen
Bolten den „lebensweltlich orientierten“ erweiterten Begriff der Kultur
entgegen, der „alle Lebensäußerungen umfasst“, und auch die „Hochkultur“
einbezieht (Bolten, 2007: 10). Man kann dem Autor nur zustimmen, dass im
interkulturellen Lernen erst dieser integrative Kulturbegriff anwendbar sei, da er
den vielfältigen Bedingungen der kulturellen Interaktionen gerecht werde; dies
geschehe dank dem breiten Auffassungshorizont, den er ermöglicht, aber auch
dem schwachen Wertungsbedürfnis, das mit ihm einhergeht.
Seinerseits wird der erweiterte Kulturbegriff weiter differenziert, indem man
zwischen einer geschlossenen und einer offenen Auffassung der Kultur
unterscheidet. Die aus geographischen, sprachlichen und/oder
geistesgeschichtlichen Perspektiven vorgenommene Eingrenzung des
Kulturbegriffs (ibidem: 16) erfolgt durch eine auf Effizienz ausgerichteten
Zielsetzung, wie oben bei Punkt 1.1 beschrieben wurde.
Neben diesem pragmatisch geprägten Kulturbegriff, dessen Anwendung in
bestimmten Zusammenhängen (z.B. Marketing) wohl legitim ist, und unterstützt
von der Verbreitung der pluralistischen Weltsichten macht sich eine „offene“
Kulturauffassung immer mehr geltend. Damit erscheinen Kulturen als „soziale
Lebenswelten wechselnder Größe und Zusammensetzung“, worin die

individuellen und kollektiven Identitäten „nicht mehr autonom und kohärent,
sondern kohäsiv zu denken“ sind (ibidem: 18).
In Anlehnung an eine Studie von Stefanie Rathje, die interkulturelle
Fragestellungen vor dem Hintergrund der Entwicklungsbedingungen eines
deutschen Unternehmens in Thailand behandelt (Rathje, 2004, zitiert nach
Rathje, 2006: 12), wird im Weiteren von zwei entgegengesetzten Auffassungen
des Kulturbegriffs ausgegangen.

5.1 Kohärenzbetonter Kulturbegriff

Das traditionelle Verständnis der Kultur, das seinen Ausgang von gemeinsamen
Eigenschaften und Ähnlichkeiten innerhalb einer menschlichen Gruppe nimmt,
bleibt dem Kohärenz-Gedanken verpflichtet, obwohl es dabei Unstimmigkeit, ja
Gegensätzlichkeit doch gelten lässt. Indem er Kultur als „universelles, für eine
Gesellschaft, Organisation und Gruppe aber sehr typisches Orientierungssystem“
(Thomas, 2003: 138) definiert, legt Thomas den Grundbegriff dieser
Betrachtungsweise dar. Unter „Orientierungssystem“ fasst er die Gesamtheit der
von ihm genannten Kulturstandards zusammen, „die von der Mehrzahl der
Mitglieder einer bestimmten Kultur für sich persönlich und andere als normal,
selbstverständlich, typisch und verbindlich angesehen werden“ (Thomas, 2003,
zitiert nach Rathje, 2006: 12).
Die zeitgemäß breiter um sich greifenden Globalisierungstendenzen lassen den
Gedanken einer Zuordnung des Einzelnen zu einer einheitlichen Kultur obsolet
werden, sodass der kohärenzorientierte Kulturbegriff aus der Sicht des
Individuums wie ein abstraktes Konstrukt erscheint. Folglich machte sich
geltend die Notwendigkeit einer „Dekonstruktion der Vorstellung, dass eine
monokulturelle Sozialisation in der heutigen Welt fraglos den Normalfall
darstellt“ (Feldtkeller, 2003: 165). Erst auf dieser Grundlage lässt sich ein
offener Kulturbegriff denken, der dem Charakter gegenwärtiger interkultureller
Interaktionen dadurch angemessen ist, dass er der Verschiedenheit der Kulturen
Rechnung tragen kann.

5.2 Differenzorientieter Kulturbegriff

Für weitere Ansätze zur Bildung des Begriffs Kultur sind nicht Gleichartigkeit in
der Struktur und in den Merkmalen kultureller Erscheinungen primär, sondern
Unterschiedlichkeit, ja Widersprüchlichkeit. So ist z.B. für Mall die Heterogenität
der Kulturen auffallend, sodass er die Überzeugung entschieden äußern kann:
„Eine jede interkulturell tragfähige und kommunikationsfördernde Definition der

Kultur muss [...] die Konzeption der totalen Reinheit einer Kultur als eine Fiktion
zurückweisen“ (Mall, 2003: 196).
Mae schildert die Wirkung der Vorstellung von der Einheitlichkeit der Kulturen
auf die interkulturelle Kommunikation wie folgt: „Geht man [...] vom
‚Eigenkulturellen’ als einer vorgegebenen Identität aus und bestimmt die
anderen nur in ihrer Andersartigkeit, dann schreibt man beiden eine
Homogenität zu, die sie nicht haben“ (Mae, 2003: 194). Unterschiede zwischen
Kulturen sind für viele Autoren deutlich erkennbar (z.B. Allolio-Näcke et al.
2003: 151), ja evident: „[...] sind die Normierungen und Vorstellungen von
Normalität in der Mehrzahl der Alltagsbereiche nicht [...] in hohem Maße
hybrid?“ (Geiger, 2003: 173).
Kulturelle Normen werden aus wirklichen Kulturschienungen abstrahiert und
haben reduktionistischen Charakter; Teilnehmer an den vorhandenen
Kulturformen verwandeln sie wieder in Lebensprozesse, sodass „die Individuen
kulturellen Normen einen je persönlichen Sinn geben und sie in der Anwendung
modifizieren“ (Auernheimer, 2003: 155). Kritiker des Kohärenzgedankens wie
Mae sehen die Quelle der Kontrastmerkmale eher in dem Kulturleben: „Da jede
Kultur in sich heterogen und hybrid ist [...], wird sie von den Einzelnen
unterschiedlich internalisiert [...]“ (Michiko Mae, 2003: 195); oder wie Straub, in
der inneren Ungleichheit des Einzelnen mit sich selbst: „In der Praxis der
aktiven Konstruktion von Divergenz wird das Eigene vom (seinerseits womöglich
vielfältigen) Anderen geschieden und noch das Eigene als differenziert verfasst
ausgewiesen“ (Straub, 2003: 208).
Bei der Betonung von kulturellen Unterschieden innerhalb der Gesellschaften
schrumpft die Grundlage der Interkulturalität, sodass man die Gefahr läuft die
immer wieder eingetretene Tatsache der interkulturellen Kommunikation aus
den Augen zu verlieren. Gerade diese riskierte Möglichkeit lässt Fischer die
Frage nach der kulturellen Spezifik der Interkulturalität zuspizt aufwerfen: „was
macht Einheit in der Vielfalt aus? Was hält die teils konträren, divergierenden
kulturellen Systeme in einer Gesellschaft zusammen?“ (Fischer, 2003: 168). Eine
restlos gültige Antwort auf diese Fragestellung hat jedoch auf sich warten
Deutlicher wird allerdings die historische und soziale Abhängigkeit einer
Definition der Kultur, sodass man nicht mehr in dem Dualismus „wahre-falsche“
Kulturauffassung befangen bleiben darf. Vielmehr ist für das Gelingen einer
kulturellen Interaktion unerlässlich, dass man in dem jeweiligen konkreten

interkulturellen Kontext nach dem entsprechened angemessenen Kulturbegriff

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Dana Sorana URS

Politehnica University of Bucharest

Department of Communication in Modern Languages

Abstract: The author retells the story of Language by resorting to a synthesis of the
ancient Hindu theory of Language, Carl Gustav Jung’s archetypal model and modern
science. The purpose of the paper is to show that Language is an information- vibratory
manifestation underlying the entire cosmos. The old Hindu myth about Creation is in
fact an archetypal pattern meant to enable the human mind to access the contents of
the Collective Unconscious or the Absolute Truth that are, by definition, beyond
representation. That is the reason why the mythical symbols are more and more
frequently confirmed by the scientific discoveries, the purpose of which is to give an
intelligible form to meanings that transcend the capacity of the mind. The paper also
suggests the possibility of bringing to students the subtlety of such truths that should
enlarge their ordinary perspective and make them transcend the limitations of logical

Keywords: Language, archetype, primordial Word, Collective Unconscious, students’


1. Purpose of the paper

The author provides a synthesis of Carl Gustav Jung theory of archetypes and
the ancient Hindu philosophy of grammar with the aim of showing that, in
contrast to the classic theories, Language is a far more complex manifestation.
The paper starts from the fundamental assumption that Language has its origin
in a psychic zone organized in a number of archetypes or primordial patterns.
Having their location in the Collective Unconscious, they govern not only
Language but the entire cosmos.

2. The Origins of Language according to the ancient Hindu

The ancient Hindu grammarians, who were also philosophers, considered that
the Universe was an intelligent Unitary Whole, a cosmic Being organized into
seven centers governing the entire manifestation. This primordial Being without
beginning or end, is an abstract space with an ideal/ archetypal structure that is
real and intelligent. For the Hindu sages, Language was not an arbitrary
convention or a simple communication instrument. During their searching, did

not resort to their logical mind to reach the truth about Language, their
knowledge being the result of a state of contemplation that gave them access
to the information stored in the subtle zones of Reality. That very zone acted
like an infinite source from where they got the cognition that Language plays an
essential role in the existence and evolution of the universe. Patanjali and
Bhartrihari, who lived a couple of centuries before Christ, mentioned this
superior ontological level of Language by the word of “Shabda Brahma”, a term
which denotes both the form and the meaning of language. Shabda Brahma or
the Primordial Word is the matrix or seed of the material world, consciousness
and language as a simultaneous whole. The ultimate reality or Brahma has the
nature of Language because it represents that first “sound sequence” born out
of the primordial “explosion” when the Primordial Whole divided itself into the
Cosmic Self (as the witness of the creation process) and its Creative Power.
Shabda-Brahma contains all significances and is an equivalent of the archetypes
or models whose material equivalents (words, objects, etc.) are imperfect
products in our world of illusion.
The Primordial Word or Power is not essentially different from the word as a
manifestation of the human language where knowledge (recreation of Reality
on a mental level), is possible only through the relationships among the objects
of thinking that are materialized through words or names beyond which one
cannot identify either objects or concepts. Thus, the world is “produced” by
names whose pattern lies in the causal zone of the eternal prints. Each material
object is associated with its name or print and when objects receive names in
the various languages of the world, these words only “appear” to be different in
the illusive plane of concrete manifestation. Actually, however, they do not
differ based on their common origin in the eternal universals/archetypes.

3. The Archetypes
The Concept of “Archetype” is important for defining the relation of language to
the matter-psyche whole. The Archetype is (Carl Gustav Jung), a pattern
equivalent to the collective unconscious. Human consciousness has no direct
access to it because it is of a lower rank. The archetype is prior to conscious
thinking and Language in its conventional meaning. A number of modern
European scientists, who were shocked by the similarity between the
manifestation of archetypes in the human psyche and quantum physics,
concluded that psyche and matter are sides of a single entity or unique Reality
and underlying the psyche-matte axis. Archetypes reach consciousness only

through abstract or symbolic images (dreams, mathematical or chemical
systems etc.).They cannot be analyzed by the ordinary human mind.
The same ancient system assumes that the Primordial Word created human
beings as reflections of the original Model. The energy centers of the human
being are actually “portals” for reaching the Unconscious. There has been
created a modern version of the Hindu spirituality correlating the language
archetypes to man’s energy centers and channels, where each of them controls
language and also the entire physical, intellectual and spiritual manifestation.
Each center, situated along the spinal chord, reflects an archetype i.e. an
energy field that manifests in the gross body as a neural plexus controlling
different parts of the human body. Each archetype is a dimension the human
awareness and of language. The most important archetypes are the following:
The Self – is the organizing principle of the entire creation. The Hindus believed
that it was the initial non manifested Energy beyond knowledge while Jung
considered it to be the power governing man’s entire personality and the
cosmos at large. When it reaches consciousness, it has the form of the circle or
sphere. In language it is the Principle of Maximum Economy.
The Manifestation – It is the manifested energy that, at a certain moment in the
history of the universe, separated from the Self and started creating the
material universes. It is at this level that the names of the archetypes are
correlated with their form, nature and significance. In the human body, it is
located in the sacrum bone in the form of a latent energy that, under certain
conditions ascends along the spinal chord and connects the person with the
universal store of energy/information. The sacred texts call it “the Goddess” and
describe Her as the source of the Sanskrit alphabet, the source of all names,
the form and content of all languages.
The Support - is the power of wisdom and innocence. This archetype is a
prerequisite of the entire Creation because the basic components of physical
energy and matter are endowed with the ability to preserve their identity within
the system. Thus, the” bricks” of the universe are intelligent and wise to the
extent that they “know” their place, strictly “observe” their intrinsic nature and
do not “want” more than they have been entitled to possess. It is in virtue of
this archetypal innocence at all levels that allow universes to be born, be
sustained and eventually be destroyed before a new cycle begins. The language
items “know” what they are and enter those combinations that are allowed by
their valences. Lexical and grammatical items enter into constituent
relationships only according to their potential or intrinsic parameters.

The Action - It is the archetype of creativity based on the subject -object duality
where human attention is directed outwards and returns in the form of
reactions that organize experience into memory/knowledge. This is the moment
in the universal evolution when the Human Observer appears with his/her
powers of knowing, planning, ordering and expressing ideas through language.
In other words, this archetype controls the subtle space of the Logos. The units
of language function through their oppositions, a psychic reality that makes
man to perceive the world objects in contrast to each other. Duality is typical of
the phenomenon of language that is never revealed in its integrated whole but
only as separate compartments. Despite of the various manifestations of
linguistic duality, there is always something else beyond the observed
dichotomies. Regarding the classical dichotomies of sound/form and
meaning/content, linguists attributed their link to an arbitrary, social convention.
The Hindu philosophers however identified the origin of all the names and their
associated meanings in what they called “sphota” correlated with a generic,
phoneme level of sounds that is beyond hearing. For others, the unit of
meaning is the sentence as a non- divisible, compact content. The
nucleus/center of the sentence is the verb that operates through the Inflection
Phrase, an abstract entity which, according to generative grammars, functions
as the center of the projection from the deep structure to surface structure.
The Law- refers to the rules or principles that preserve and sustain the universe.
In language production, it is the wordless thought (Para- Vak, Sanskr.) or the
mute sound of language. The language rule, that becomes operative at this
center, is like a filter that discards chaotic, incorrect structures and blocks them
from reaching surface. The concept of “rule” was created by the Hindu
philosophers who called it “sutra” or thread suggesting the network of meanings
through which objects are placed in order. Generative grammars identified
some of these strict rules like the Structure-preserving Principle that constrains
the possible movements of constituents. According to this principle,” a
constituent can move only to a position already present in the basic structure”
(Avram, 2003: 29).For example, a noun moves from the D-structure object
position to subject position, while leaving behind a “trace”. This empty category
is invisible but it is real and relevant because it can block certain operations that
can generate ill-formed sentences.
The Governance - From the point of view of language production, this
represents the “speech that sees” or that subtle state (Pashianti in Sanskrit)
where the sound is still at its level of auditory impression. Here, the “mute
sound” of the previous level becomes “Pashianti” or the stage where letters are

mentally pronounced without involving phonation organs. This archetype
governs, therefore, the significance as a whole that incorporates the word and
its meaning. It is the intuitive zone where the scheme of the material action is
predominantly associated with the sentence. According to generative grammars,
the semantic core of the sentence is the Verbal Phrase. The verb has the power
and authority to assign a thematic role to each participant/argument in the
event (Agent, Patient, benefactor etc.)
The Play - this archetype operates at the level of Vaikhari in Sanskrit, where
words are formed but not yet uttered. There is no time sequence of language
units but the sound patterns are distinct from their meanings. This is the
archetype of the play, drama or game that is based on rules as “arbitrary”
conventions. These rules are closer to the final manifestation where a multitude
of factors “produce” the wide variety of dialects and languages. The drama of
linguistic diversity is “directed” by this archetype creating the illusion of
language diversity.

4. Conclusion
Language has a unique nature. It is the informational essence of the multi-layer
Reality through which it is revealed like a network of archetypal relationships
that sustain the Whole, thus performing its cosmic ontological role. It
represents the instrument of knowledge from which it cannot be separated
because they both share the same archetypal “pattern”. One could say that
language is one indivisible Whole, the very causal zone of Existence. The
ordinary language is only a copy of the Real Language, a symbolic expression in
the form of a phonetic expression endowed with meaning. The universal
pattern is placed in the individual’s subtle centers, where each center is
associated with a certain archetype, a certain stage in language production and
certain structural peculiarities. Language, therefore, is a complex energy-
information phenomenon situated in the archetypal zone that is reflected onto
the human level. For the students in the philological departments, the
implications of this ancient image would be useful to reveal during lectures and
classes. Essentially, they should be helped to reconsider language to be a
tremendous Power encompassing the entire manifestation and thereby, become
open to creative and operative insights to assist them in their future profession
and life in general.

Avram, Larisa. (2003). English Syntax- The structure of Root Clauses, București: Oscar
Bhartrihari. (1971). The Vakyapadya- Critical Texts of Cantos I and II with English
Translation, Summary of Ideas and Notes by K.Raghavan Pillai, Motilal
Jung, Carl Gustav. (1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (collected
works 91), Princeton University Press.
Goonetilleke, William. (1882). Ed. Panini’s Eight Books of Grammatical Sutras, Edited
with English Translation and Commentary vol. I, Education Society’s Press,
Bombay: Byculla.
Urs, Dana Sorana. (2007). Puterea limbajului, București: Editura Oscar Print.


Drd. Florentina Ramona COIMAN

Université de Craiova, ROUMANIE

Coordination scientifique: Cecilia CONDEI

Abstract: Given that our approach fits into the general perspective of discourse
analysis and theories of enunciation, the goal will be to demonstrate that the political
discourse establishes a specific scenography in which the speaker addresses a pre-
eminent third party who reveals itself to be the true destination of the target speech. In
this paper, we show that in the “dispositif énonciatif” of a political interview, a third
party considered as indirect recipient is added to the relationship speech, the role of the
immediate recipient of the speech being obviously reduced. It is about a third party
which is either present or absent (the audience in the room or the television viewer),
but that is never ignored by the speaker, since it is reactive in position, it has always the
possibility of assessing and must, therefore, be considered "as a full partner” and a
"real" “destination target” of the exchange" (Charaudeau).

Keywords: enunciative instances, political speech, the third discursive strategies

Perspective et but de la recherche

Notre démarche s’inscrivant dans la perspective générale de l’analyse du
discours et dans les théories de l’énonciation, le but sera de démontrer que le
discours politique instaure une scénographie particulière dans laquelle le
locuteur s’adresse à un tiers suréminent qui se révèle le véritable destinataire-
cible du discours.

Objectifs de recherche
Dans cet article, nous montrerons que dans le dispositif énonciatif d’une
interview politique, un tiers envisagé comme destinataire indirect s’additionne à
la relation d’allocution, le rôle du destinataire immédiat du discours étant
visiblement réduit. Il s’agit d’un tiers présent ou absent (le public de la salle ou
le téléspectateur), mais qui n’est jamais ignoré par le sujet parlant puisqu’il se
trouve en position réactive, a en permanence la possibilité d’évaluer et doit, par
conséquent, être considéré « comme partenaire à part entière » et « véritable
“destinataire-cible” de l’échange » (Charaudeau, 2004).

Point de départ
Selon Patrick Charaudeau, dans le dispositif dit de scène, il y a trois partenaires
dont deux sont physiquement présents dans une co-énonciation dyadique
d’alternance de parole, et un troisième (qui peut être physiquement présent
comme le public présent dans la salle, ou présent-absent comme l’auditeur de
radio), lequel est en position d’écoute, de témoin, mais n’a pas droit à prendre
la parole - au mieux peut-il réagir par des rires, sifflets ou applaudissements
(Charaudeau, 2004).

Présentation du corpus
Notre corpus est un extrait d’une émission du 20 novembre 2003, « 100
minutes pour convaincre », diffusée sur France 21. Dans cet extrait, l’invité,
Nicolas Sarkozy (à l’époque ministre de l'Intérieur, de la Sécurité intérieure et
des Collectivités locales) est interrogé par Jean-Michel Thénard (alors directeur
adjoint de la rédaction de Libération). Le ministre de l’Intérieur parle de la
situation des musulmans en France et plaide pour la discrimination positive.

Instances énonciatives. Marqueurs linguistiques

Dans un premier temps, nous procédons à l’identification de chaque instance
énonciative (le sujet parlant, le destinataire et le tiers) et nous analysons leurs
marques linguistiques.
Selon Charaudeau, tout acte de langage est un acte d’échange interactionnel
entre deux partenaires (sujet communicant et sujet interprétant) liés par un
principe d’intentionnalité.
Le sujet communicant, en prenant possession de la parole s’institue en sujet
énonçant, ou énonciateur, et institue du même coup le sujet interprétant en
sujet destinataire.
Dans un échange verbal, le destinataire est donc celui qui reçoit un acte de
langage et tente de l'interpréter.
La notion de tiers présuppose en règle générale l’existence d’un être spécifique
à une structure composée préalablement de deux personnes au moins.
Dans notre corpus, le sujet communicant est Nicolas Sarkozy (à l’époque
ministre de l'Intérieur, de la Sécurité intérieure et des Collectivités locales).

1 Notre corpus peut être consulté à l’adresse


Nous identifions l’allocutaire (destinataire direct du discours) en la personne de
Jean-Michel Thénard (alors directeur adjoint de la rédaction de Libération).
En ce qui concerne le tiers (destinataire indirect du discours), il peut être
représenté soit par le public de la salle ou le téléspectateur, soit par l’adversaire
Le sujet parlant assume son procès locutif et discursif, soit par l'expression de la
singularité lorsqu'il agit verbalement en qualité d'individu (je, moi): « Je pense
que…; Je voudrais…, Eh bien, moi, je crois … », soit en fortifiant et en
légitimant son propos lorsqu'il parle au nom de la communauté française dont il
est le représentant (on =nous, nos, verbes à la première personne du pluriel):
« si on veut que nos compatriotes issus de l’immigration…; Reconnaissons les
échecs de l’intégration, affrontons-les! »2
L’énonciateur identifie le destinataire direct de son discours (l’allocutaire) à
travers le pronom vous, ou bien il le désigne par les termes d’adresse, en
même temps qu’il s’identifie lui-même comme faisant partie de droite: « Et oui,
Monsieur Thénard, vous êtes rédacteur en chef à la Libération et moi qui suis de
droite, je pense que …. » (ibidem).
Le même sujet parlant nous permet d’identifier les deux tiers absents impliqués
dans son discours (marqués linguistiquement par le pronom ils): d’une part, le
tiers téléspectateur qu’il désigne par « nos concitoyens, les musulmans de
France », d’autre part, un tiers qui n’est autre que son adversaire politique
désigné explicitement par « la gauche » (ibidem).

Place et rôle du tiers

Dans un deuxième temps, en partant de la notion d’instance énonciative, nous
abordons la question du tiers pour voir quel est son rôle et la place qui lui est
attribuée par le locuteur dans ce type de dispositif. Nous étudions également le
fonctionnement du jeu de substitution tiers-destinataire direct mis en place par
le sujet parlant.
Alors que le dispositif lui avait assigné a priori le rôle de tiers absent, exclu, en
position d’écoute, le sujet parlant (identifiable dans notre corpus dans la
personne de Nicolas Sarkozy) opère la substitution suivante: l’allocutaire,
destinataire direct du discours, n’est qu’un faux destinataire, tandis que le tiers
devient le véritable destinataire de ses propos.

2 Notre corpus, consultable à l’adresse


Dans notre corpus, le tiers est exclu par le dispositif, puisqu’il s’agit d’un tiers
absent, qui n’a pas le droit de prendre la parole, mais qui est censé écouter.
Autrement dit, tant l’adversaire politique que l’instance citoyenne se trouvent en
position de tiers, position instaurée par le dispositif.
Selon Charaudeau, le rôle se réfère à ce au nom de quoi les protagonistes
pourraient exercer leur droit à la parole. Dans notre cas, le tiers pourrait parler
en tant qu’adversaire ou en tant que citoyen qui consent ou désapprouve les
propos du sujet parlant. Mais ces rôles peuvent être revendiqués ou contestés
dans un mouvement d’exclusion ou d’inclusion. Il s’agit par exemple d’une
exclusion de la part du sujet communiquant lorsqu’il reproche à son adversaire
(la gauche) son incompétence:« Ils savent bien parler de l’intégration, ils savent
pas la faire » (ibidem).
Le sujet parlant met en place certains jeux de substitution. C’est le cas du jeu
avec les places prévues dans le dispositif, lorsqu’il est question de subversion ou
transgression de la place attribuée au tiers.
Nous avons vu que dans l’interview politique analysée, lorsque l’instance
politique s’adresse à son interlocuteur (le journaliste), l’instance citoyenne et
l’adversaire sont, par dispositif, en position de tiers. Un tiers absent qui est
censé écouter et qui peut être convoqué par celui qui parle.
En effet, celui-ci peut attribuer des pensées à ce tiers par le biais d’énoncés
comme: « Les musulmans de France, ils sont capables aussi d’avoir de hauts
fonctionnaires, des chercheurs, des médecins, des professeurs et si on leur
donne pas des exemples de réussite, comment ils vont croire dans la
République ? » (ibidem). Il s’agit d’une variante de discours rapporté puisqu’on
fait comme si un tiers absent avait été, à un moment donné, l’énonciateur d’un
tel jugement.

Le discours politique = discours théâtral

Dans un dernier temps, envisageant le discours politique en tant que discours
théâtral, qui implique une mise en scène où l’on se donne en spectacle, nous
nous occupons des stratégies discursives auxquelles le sujet parlant recourt
pour construire et particulariser son discours.
Dans la conception de Charaudeau, « «le discours politique s’inscrit, de façon
générale et quelle que soit la situation matérielle de sa profération (débat,
interview, déclaration télévisée, meeting, etc.), dans une situation dont la visée
dominante est de persuasion. Il s’agit donc pour le sujet politique, non point

tant de vérité que de véracité, c’est-à-dire d’un « avoir raison contre l’adversaire
» et d’un « savoir séduire son public », ce pourquoi il aura recours à diverses
stratégies de construction d’une image de soi et d’instauration d’une relation
d’affect avec son auditoire » (Charaudeau, 2005: 14).
Selon Charaudeau, tout sujet parlant cherche à faire partager à l’autre son
univers de discours. Il s’agit là de l’un des principes qui fonde l’activité
langagière: le principe d’altérité. Il n’y a pas d’acte de langage qui ne passe par
l’autre, et si cet acte est destiné à construire une certaine vision du monde,
c’est en relation avec l’autre et même, dirons-nous, à travers celui-ci. Pas de
prise de conscience de soi sans conscience de l’existence de l’autre, autrement
dit, comme l’a dit E. Benveniste: pas de Je sans Tu.
Le sujet du discours est maître d’œuvre de stratégies discursives qui ne
prennent sens que dans la mesure où ce sujet doit en même temps respecter
les instructions contraignantes de la situation de communication. Il doit se
positionner par rapport à la problématisation proposée, dire quel est son point
de vue.
En effet, le tiers est un partenaire « à part entière ». L’énonciateur et
l’allocutaire ne sont jamais tout à ai seuls au sens où, en plus de leur existence,
se pose inévitablement celle d’un ou de plusieurs autres.
Kerbrat-Orecchioni disait que « L’émetteur peut se soucier de la présence dans
le circuit de la communication dedestinataires indirects qui, sans être intégrés à
la relation d’allocution proprement dite, fonctionnent comme témoins de
l’échange verbal, et l’influencent parfois de façon décisive (…) » (Kerbrat-
Orecchioni, 2002: 23).
En nous appuyant sur cette lecture, nous avons observé qu’une situation
analogue s’actualise dans le cadre de notre corpus. Nous avons vu que les
appellatifs référant au citoyen ou à l’adversaire politique identifient ces derniers
en tant que tiers qui s’additionnent à la relation d’allocution. Leur analyse nous
a conduit à (re)considérer notre scène énonciative, et remarquer que le
destinataire indirect n’est autre que le téléspectateur ou l’adversaire politique.
De même, le tiers est un véritable destinataire, de sorte que le sujet parlant
recourt à certaines stratégies discursives pour construire et particulariser son
Tout sujet parlant cherche à faire partager à l’autre son univers de discours. Le
discours politique s’inscrit de façon générale dans une situation dont la visée
dominante est de persuasion.

Dans ce sens, le sujet politique de notre corpus s’oppose à son adversaire tout
en cherchant de séduire le téléspectateur afin qu’il adhère à ses propos. Il se
positionne par rapport à la problématisation proposée (la situation des
musulmans en France) et dit quel est son point de vue par rapport à la question
de l’intégration. Il s’engage alors dans une prise de position en défendant l’idée
de discrimination positive, ce qui le conduira du même coup à s’opposer à un
tiers envisagé comme n’ayant la même opinion (son adversaire politique-la
Sarkozy, en tant qu’homme politique se veut la voix de l’intérêt général, veut
convaincre qu’il l’est et que son action va dans ce sens, d’où une tendance
énonciative à l’usage du « on » qui associe « je » et nous, nous et tous, le tiers
dont on parle et nous tous. Exemple:« si on donne pas à tous ces gens de
banlieue des exemples de réussite, comment ils vont croire dans la
République ? » (ibidem).
Sa stratégie consiste à construire son image à des fins de crédibilité et de
séduction en dramatisant la prise de parole à des fins de persuasion pour
provoquer l’adhésion par empathie. Exemple: « La philosophie de ce que je
pense c’est l’action au service de deux idées: la fermeté, parce qu’on sait où on
va et la justice, parce que aucune personne ne doit se sentir humiliée ou
écartée de la politique que j’essaye de construire au Ministère de l’Intérieur »
La mise en scène du discours politique oscille entre l’ordre de la raison d’un
projet politique (logos) et l’ordre de la passion (pathos) en mettant en avant
des valeurs (éthos).
Il y a quelques arguments retenus dans son discours: la présentation des
valeurs auxquelles il adhère (la justice, la fermeté), la nécessité d’agir, la
disqualification de l’autre.
Pour ce qui est des stratégies de l’éthos (construction de l’image de l’homme
politique), il s’agit d’abord d’un ethos de crédibilité puisque Sarkozy parle de
façon à prouver qu’il a le pouvoir de faire. Mais il est également question d’un
ethos d’identification qui vise certains éléments du discours qui vont entraîner
son identification comme étant celui qui va faire ce qu’il dit: énergie, prise de
position forte, courage dans l’adversité, mais aussi capacité d’exprimer des

Dans le dispositif dit de scène, le sujet parlant n’adresse que superficiellement
son discours au destinataire immédiat, mais plutôt à un tiers qui devient un
super-destinataire et que l’on pourrait identifier dans notre corpus comme étant,
d’une part, le téléspectateur-citoyen et d’autre part, l’adversaire politique.
Alors que le dispositif lui assigne a priori le rôle de tiers absent, exclu, en
position d’écoute, le sujet parlant (identifiable dans notre corpus dans la
personne de Nicolas Sarkozy) opère à travers son discours la
substitution suivante: l’allocutaire, destinataire direct du discours, n’est qu’un
faux destinataire, tandis que le tiers devient le véritable destinataire de ses
Cela nous conduit à situer le tiers sur le même pied d’égalité que les autres
figures, l’énonciateur et l’allocutaire.

Charaudeau, P. (1984). « L’interlocution comme interaction de stratégies discursives ».
Verbum, 7.
Charaudeau, P., Mainguenau, D. (éds.). (2002). Dictionnaire d’analyse du discours.
Paris: Ed. du Seuil. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: http://www.patrick-
Charaudeau, P. (2004). « Tiers où es-tu ? ». In La voix cachée du Tiers. Des non-dits du
discours. Paris: L’Harmattan. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse: (consulté le 17 février
Charaudeau, P. (2005). Le discours politique. Les masques du pouvoir. Paris: Librairie
Kerbrat-Orecchioni, C. (2002). L’énonciation: de la subjectivité dans le langage. Paris:
Armand Colin.
Ndoba Makaya, D. (2013). « Bongo, un tiers dans le discours ? ». In Actes en ligne de
DoSciLa 2013 La langue en contexte. Paris, France.

Ana-Maria COMAN

Université de Craiova, ROUMANIE

Faculté des Lettres, Département de langues romanes
Master Langue française, didactique et littératures dans l’espace francophone
Coordination: Cecilia CONDEI, Maître de conférences, HDR

Abstract: Contemporary literary studies highlight the concept of polyphony by

categorizing it as an essential feature of contemporary literature. In reality, few studies
focus on the way the writer, seen as the organizer of the text, builds this effect.
Moreover, the reader, seen as the receiver of the text is hardly worried wondering how
polyphony is conceived or even more so about the hints that the author leaves him in
order to understand message of the text. However, to appreciate the just value of a text
or a writer’s skills it is necessary to take a look at the internal processes that generate
polyphony, so neglected among linguists.
Our study aims primarily to bring up to date the concept of polyphony using a
diachronic presentation that starts with Bakhtine and then to present the main graphic
means used by the authors in order to create the polyphonic effect. In addition, our
analysis of two completely different texts intends to demonstrate the importance of
punctuation for polyphony not only regarding the logical structure of the text but first
and foremost in terms of the consequences that it produces in guiding the reader
amidst the "voices of the text".

Keywords: punctuation, polyphony, text, discursive instances, text distribution

La perspective dans laquelle nous nous plaçons est celle de l’analyse du
discours littéraire. Dominique Maingueneau (2003:15) parle même d’un
« tournant dans les études littéraires » autrement dit d’une « profonde
transformation des conditionnes dans lesquelles on peut étudier les textes dans
les disciplines littéraires » (idem) dans le domaine. Et ce, car: « Les
commentateurs se plaisent à multiplier les ‘éclairages’ des œuvres, avec la
conviction que plus il y en aura, plus l’œuvre montrera qu’elle est une œuvre
littéraire, par nature inépuisable […] Il serait à notre sens réducteur de voir
dans la problématique d’analyse du discours un ‘éclairage’ parmi d’autres. Ce
qui relève du ‘discours’ n’est pas un éclairage de plus, c’est la mise en place

progressive d’un mode d’appréhension du fait littéraire (et pas seulement des
œuvres) qui ne se laisse pas enfermer dans les disciplines et les découpages
traditionnels » (idem: 22-23, italiques dans le texte)
Une telle direction d’étude orientée vers la polyphonie discursive permet de
constater combien le concept de polyphonie a gagné du terrain dans les
analyses littéraires notamment avec la révolution de l’analyse du discours
appliquée à plusieurs domaines, entre autres, à la littérature
Notre position de linguiste, analyste du discours, permet un regard sur
l’œuvre pour distinguer à la manière dont ce phénomène de la polyphonie se
construit. . En fait, c’est Mikhaïl Bakhtine qui avait étudié la pluralité des voix
des personnages de Dostoïevski et en avait tiré la conclusion: « La multiplicité
de voix et de consciences indépendantes et non-confondues, l’authentique
polyphonie des voix pleinement valables est effectivement la particularité
profonde de romans de Dostoïevski » (Bakhtine, 1970:10) car l’auteur « pareil
au Prométhée de Goethe, ne crée pas des esclaves muets (à l’instar de Zeus)
mais des hommes libres capables de prendre place AUX COTEES de leur
créateur, de lui refuser leur accord et même de se dresser contre lui » (ibidem)
Depuis Mikhaïl Bakhtine, les spécialistes s’interrogent sur les voix qui se
manifestent à l’intérieur d’un texte, délimitant les séquences textuelles pour
créer des effets dialogiques.
Notre étude suit la perspective discursive et essaye de mettre en corrélation la
ponctuation et la polyphonie, c’est-à-dire de trouver un rapport entre la manière
de ponctuer un texte et les effets polyphoniques. Après une brève démarche
théorique et la fixation des contenus des principaux concepts nous allons dans
un premier temps mettre l’accent sur la conformité des termes à la grille
d’analyse conçue, pour procéder, ensuite à l’examen des exemples concrets
tirés des œuvres littéraires pour soutenir l’hypothèse de l’implication de la
ponctuation dans la réalisation polyphonique et pour prouver également le
rapport qui existe entre le séquençage textuel et les effets qui en résultent.
Pareillement, notre analyse vise aussi à illustrer la diversité de procédures
d’organisation textuelle à travers la ponctuation.
Le corpus pour notre étude est composé par deux romans: L’Amant par
Marguerite Duras où nous trouvons des effets polyphoniques appartenant à la
même personne, mais dans des époques différentes de sa vie et Belle du
Seigneur par Albert Cohen qui regroupe dans ses pages une multitude des
personnages chacun demandant son tour à la parole. Le corpus nous permettra
d’illustrer notre propos, mais surtout de saisir la richesse de ce phénomène.

Pour faciliter la compréhension de notre démarche, nous avons conçu une étude
linaire qui suit une présentation logique, simple: définitions et exemples:
illustration, effets et enjeux dans les textes littéraires.
Nos questions de recherche sont formulées ainsi:
1. Comment influence la ponctuation les effets polyphoniques dans le texte
littéraire ?
2. Existe-t-il un rapport saisissable entre la manière dont un texte est organisé
du point de vue de la ponctuation et la polyphonie ? Quelles sont les
conséquences d’une telle ou telle ponctuation ?
Deux méthodes de recherche sont convoquées: la méthode quantitative et
la méthode qualitative, autrement dit, l’inventaire des faits et leur interprétation.

1. Actualisation des concepts

1.1 La polyphonie discursive
Premièrement, le terme polyphonie a été utilisé dans le domaine musical pour
décrire le « procédé d'écriture qui consiste à superposer deux ou plusieurs
lignes, voix ou parties mélodiquement indépendantes, selon des règles
contrapuntiques » (CNRS, TLFI). Rapidement, le terme a été emprunté dans
d’autres domaines, mais a été toujours utilisé suivant la même optique:
combinaison de deux choses similaire, appartenant aux sujets différents. À
l’issue des études menées par les formalistes russes, M. Bakhtine touche la
problématique de la polyphonie littéraire dans son travail dédié à Dostoïevski:
« Problèmes de la poétique de Dostoïevski » et l’envisage comme une
relation entre l’auteur d’un livre et ses personnages, notamment sous l’aspect
de la pluralité de voix que l’auteur laisse entendre dans son œuvre. Redécouvert
en France par O. Ducrot, le concept gagne du terrain, notamment dans le
domaine de la linguistique, car les théoriciens essaient d’expliquer les divers
phénomènes qui réalisent cette représentation. D’après Henning Nølke
(Charaudeau&Maingueneau, 2002: 445) c’est O. Ducrot qui fait « une
distinction semblable entre le locuteur et les énonciateurs », car le locuteur,
c’est à dire celui qui performe un énoncé laisse toujours de traces dans son
discours, tracent qui peuvent être repérée par le lecteur d’un roman au moment
où il s’approprie ce discours. Par contre, quand l’émetteur emprunt le discours
d’autres énonciateurs, les marques linguistiques changent et le récepteur
(lecteur) peut être dans la situation de ne pas déchiffrer à qui appartient un
certain point de vue. Autrement dit, la manière dont le lecteur interprète le

discours d’un livre peut varier selon sa capacité de décoder le jeu des voix
opéré par l’auteur.

1.2 La ponctuation
Pour aborder la ponctuation on a plusieurs perspectives. Un article de synthèse
(pour la période d’activité linguistique de 1939 à 2003) réalisé par Jacques Anis
(Anis, 2004:5) met l’accent sur la volonté du scripteur en tant qu’organisateur
du texte en ce qui concerne la ponctuation. Structuré en deux chapitre, l’article
débute sur une partie théorique qui contient de nombreuses définitions
concernant la ponctuation tirées des auteurs titrés comme Riegel, Catach,
Védénina pour signaler que le concept de la ponctuation s’est enrichi et
renferme non seulement les signes usuels comme le point, la virgule, le tiret
mais aussi le blanc entre le mots, le blanc de page ou d’autres arrangements
qui mettent en valeur le texte. Il continue avec la classification des unités de
ponctuation suivant les niveaux du texte (le mot, la phrase) et leur
fonctionnement (pause, insertion ou appel), chacun portant différents noms
selon leurs initiateurs. Nous retenons la citation de Tournier qui associe le signe
de la ponctuation avec le signe linguistique constitué d’un signifiant (le
ponctuant) et d’un signifié (la ponctuance)
Le Dictionnaire d’analyse du discours (2002: 451-452) insiste sur deux aspects:
l’autonomie /vs/ non autonomie du système graphique et le fonctionnement de
la ponctuation en analyse du discours. On souligne la différence entre la langue
orale qui a comme appui l’intonation et la l’écrit où la ponctuation « rejoint et
complète » les informations provenant de la langue orale et donne une forme
cohérente à l’information en la faisant autonome.
Nous adoptons deux directions: l’une plutôt systémique, l’autre penchée vers le
discours, car la ponctuation s’avère « très sensible au statut pragmatique des
textes, en particulier des genres de discours[…] »(Charaudeau&Maingueneau,
2002:451) Selon Martin Riegel (2009:140), la ponctuation est un « système de
signes graphiques qui contribuent à l’organisation d’un texte écrit en apportant
des indications prosodiques, marquant des rapports syntaxiques ou véhiculant
des informations sémantiques. ». Les signes de ponctuation sont fixés, le plus
souvent par l’auteur, au moment de la production brute de l’écriture et
contribuent particulièrement à la structuration du texte, à la transmission
correcte du message. De l’autre côté, le lecteur, en lisant l’œuvre littéraire,
partage le même message que l’auteur et évite l’ambiguïté, le ralentissement de
la lecture ou même une certaine gêne dans la compréhension globale du texte.

Mais les signes de ponctuation nous intéressent surtout pour le rapport qui
existe entre la ponctuation et la situation de la communication présentée, car le
lecteur reçoit à travers les signes graphiques utilisés par l’auteur des indices sur
le moment spécifique abordé dans le cadre du discours. Autrement dit, du point
de vue de la polyphonie, la ponctuation joue un rôle pareil aux indications
scéniques dans une pièce de théâtre étant donné que les deux orientent le
destinataire du message en ce qui concerne la production de la parole car elle
apporte les informations primordiales sur qui parle, comment (intonation) Nous
avons comme exemple l’écriture libre, sans ponctuation, une pratique courante
aujourd’hui qui tend à se généraliser. N’oublions que la ponctuation donne du
relief à l’écriture, l’hiérarchise, facilite la transmission du message et l’accès au
sens intime des phrases en s’appuyant sur des effets inattendus. Nous faisons
appel à l’article d’Annette Lorenceau (1980) qui interprète les résultats d’une
enquête sur la ponctuation telle quelle est vue par quatre-vingt écrivains
contemporains qui en témoigne sur l’importance de la ponctuation dans toute sa
complexité: outil pour l’écrivain et mécanisme de décryptage pour le lecteur.
En ce qui concerne son rapport avec la polyphonie, la ponctuation a un rôle
capital vu que c’est la seule manière de mettre en évidence la voix de l’autrui
dans un discours personnel et comme l’indique Cunha Dóris (Cunha, Arabyan,
2004: 35-45) en supprimant la ponctuation « il devient de plus en plus difficile
de distinguer la voix de (des) personnage(s) et celle du narrateur ». Elle offre
au scripteur la possibilité de structurer en plans d’énonciations distincts suivant
la voix de tel ou tel personnage, de faire la différence entre les différents types
de discours. L’enjeu de cette « machinerie textuelle » (idem).
Nous allons faire un petit rappel des procédées les plus utilisés avec des
exemples tirés des œuvres à analyser.
a. Les guillemets marquent « un changement de niveau énonciatif » (Riegel,
2009: 156) pour encadrer « une citation ou un discours rapporté » (ibidem).
Nous remarquons donc une certaine logique: un texte de base qui est doublé
par l’insertion d’un autre discours appartenant, le plus souvent à un autre
énonciateur. Il s’agit donc de mettre en valeur un certain fragment et, du point
de vue pragmatique de se mettre de la distance entre la voix de l’autrui et son
propre discours. Dans cette optique nous pouvons dire que l’écrivain cherche de
réaliser à travers ce procédée un clivage entre deux pensées.
Exemple: « il m’a dit: « Je vous connais depuis toujours. Tout le monde dit que
vous étiez belle lorsque vous étiez jeune, je suis venu pour vous dire que pour
moi je vous trouve plus belle maintenant que lorsque vous étiez jeune, j’aimais

moins votre visage de jeune femme que celui que vous avez maintenant,
dévasté » (Duras, 2011: 9). Le narrateur marque donc les voix du texte, les
sépare pour permettre au lecteur de saisir non seulement la différence des
opinions mais aussi la spécificité de chacune.
b. Les deux points sont utilisés pour introduire un discours rapporté, parfois
accompagnés par les guillemets. Dans ce cas aussi, nous distinguons une
insertion dans un texte de base et une mise à distance entre deux émetteurs,
mais du point de vue pragmatique, c’est l’attente qui apparait: le lecteur sait
qu’il est en train de lire les paroles d’un autre que l’émetteur. Nommés « signes
de rapport » (Riegel, op. cit.: 153), les 'deux points' entretient un rapport entre
les deux parties qu’ils séparent et impliquent donc, un rapprochement plus
évident que dans le cas des guillemets. En fait, si nous nous interrogeons sur la
différence entre le cas de guillemets et le cas des deux points concernant la
mise à distance de deux voix, nous allons voir que les deux points marquent un
rapprochement entre les deux situations. Pour illustrer notre propos nous
offrons un exemple de Duras (p. 133)
Exemple: « Il disait: je ne peux pas te prendre, je croyais pouvoir encore, je ne
peux plus. Il disait qu’il était mort. Il avait un très doux sourire d’excuse, il disait
que peut-être a ne reviendrait plus jamais ». Nous observons ici comment
l’auteur rapproche les deux voix jusqu’à ce qu’elles se confondent: elle part de
l’utilisation de deux points, puis elle passe à la subordination par « que ».
c. Le tiret utilisé soit au début d’une ligne soit à l’intérieur de celle-ci, introduit,
dans le cadre d’un dialogue, une nouvelle réplique en marquant le changement
d’interlocuteur et donc un échange à voix multiples.
Nous remarquons que, utilisé à l’intérieur du texte, le tiret a plutôt le rôle
d’isoler (comme les parenthèses) « une réflexion incidente, un commentaire »
(Riegel, op. cit.:161) en mettant en relief la structure comme dans l’exemple:
« Hélas, la fille de Judith, mariée en 1554, commit adultère en 1557 ou 1558.
Un adultère, la propre belle-fille de notre réformateur, te rends-tu compte ?-
Oui, c’est affreux ! –Il en éprouva un grand chagrin. – C’est bien triste, en effet.
– Alors, dépêchez-vous, je vais téléphoner pour le taxi. –Oui, je me dépêche,
dit-il, et il sortit de son lit, long en sa longue chemise. » (Cohen, 2011: 631).
Ici, il s’agit d’une opinion morale d’un des personnages secondaires du roman
qui entre en contradiction avec la réalité vécue par le personnage central, Solal.
d. L’isolement graphique ou le blanc permet de séparer les différentes
interventions des voix, de le départager afin que le lecteur puisse percer le
changement opère. Cette pause ne coïncide à aucun phonème, mais à une

rupture dans les pensées du personnage, à un détour, à la carence des mots.
Dans le fragment: « On m’a souvent dit que c’était le soleil trop fort pendant
toute l’enfance. Mais je ne l’ai pas cru. On m’a dit aussi que c’était la réflexion
dans laquelle la misère plongeait les enfants » (Duras, 2011: 12) - le blanc
marque une coupure dans le texte signalée aussi par le nouveau paragraphe.
Ici, il s’agit aussi d’une distance temporelle transposée par la conversion d’un
ancien dialogue en discours rapporté.
e. La virgule introduit, dans le cas de la polyphonie, la proposition incise pour
rappeler qu’il y a dans la phrase des groupes qui ne font pas partie
intrinsèquement de la phrase de base. Dans l’exemple: « Il faut rattraper, disait
ma mère. » (ibidem) la virgule ordonne le discours et indique l’appartenance de
ceux-ci. Ainsi, le lecteur ne se représente seulement la présence d’un autre
émetteur, mais aussi sa voix, sa participation effective dans le cadre d’un
discours, comme dans le cas du dialogue théâtral. Il y a quand même une
différence entre les deux situations concernant la rythmicité de la phrase: le
dialogue rapporte directement les voix des différents personnages, leur
intonation, mais l’incise coupe le rythme de la phrase, marque une pause et en
suspend le cours comme dans l’exemple: « Parfait, nous sommes tous d’accord
dit Solal, et il se mordit de nouveau la lèvre. Maxwell, allez de l’avant.
Messieurs, je vous remercie. » (Cohen, 2011: 331)
Nous avons vu dans cette première section de notre étude les concepts les plus
importants concernant la thématique choisie: la réalisation de la polyphonie à
travers la ponctuation. Ce que nous considérons le plus important ce sont les
exemples donnés pour illustrer notre propos. Nous allons pousser les choses un
peu plus loin et proposer deux extraits appartenant aux livres proposées pour
l’analyse qui vont justifier le rôle que la ponctuation joue dans l’orchestration du
discours du scripteur.

2. Est-ce la ponctuation nécessaire pour la compréhension

de la polyphonie ?
Pour révéler l’importance de la ponctuation dans le cas de la polyphonie nous
proposons une analyse sur deux types de textes qui contient le phénomène
étudier par Bakhtine à partir de l’œuvre de Dostoïevski et théorisé comme une
« révolution dans la littérature » (1970:10) c’est-à-dire la capacité d’un écrivain
de créer des consciences autres que la sienne, de laisser le personnage agir
véridiquement comme un individu libre et non comme le produit d’une vision

Nous avons pris deux exemples de textes complètement différents: un
appartenant au roman l’Amant par Marguerite Duras, reconnu pour son
caractère autobiographie mais qui soulève également la question de la
polyphonie en tant que dialogisme entre les différentes étapes de la conscience
d’un même personnage et le roman Belle du Seigneur, par Albert Cohen étudier
pour sa diversité polyphonique par Claire Stolz dans sa thèse de doctorat
La polyphonie dans Belle du Seigneur
d’Albert Cohen. Pour une approche sémiostylistique sous la direction de
G. Molinié, paru chez la maison d’édition Champion en 1998.
Nous allons analyser le système de la ponctuation dans chaque texte et, à la fin
du chapitre, nous allons faire un point sur l’importance de la ponctuation en
tant qu’organisateur textuel non seulement du point de vu visuel mais surtout
misant sur la logique d’un texte scrupuleusement ponctuer.

Texte no. 1

Je me demande comment j’ai eu la force d’aller à l’encontre de l’interdit

posé par ma mère. Avec ce calme, cette détermination. Comment je
suis arrivée à aller « jusqu’au bout de l’idée ».
Nous nous regardons. Il embrasse mon corps. Il me demande pourquoi
je suis venue. Je dis que je devais le faire, que c’est comme une
obligation. C’est la première fois que nous parlons. Je lui parle de
l’existence de mes deux frères. Je dis que nous n’avons pas d’argent.
Plus rien. Il connait ce frère ainé, il l’a rencontré dans les fumiers du
poste. Je dis que ce frère vole ma mère pour aller fumer, qu’il vole les
domestiques, et parfois les tenanciers des fumeries viennent réclamer
de l’argent à ma mère. Je lui parle des barrages. Je dis que ma mère va
mourir, que cela ne peut plus durer. Que la mort très proche de ma
mère doit être aussi en corrélation avec ce qui m’est arrivé aujourd’hui
(Duras, 2011 : 51)

Une première caractéristique de ce fragment est la polyphonie, c’est-à-dire la

multiplicité des voix que le scripteur insère dans un même récit, le
plurilinguisme mobilisé par l’auteur pour faire une illustration succincte de la vie
menée par le protagoniste. De ce point de vue, le passage est traversé par une
multitude de voix qui fusionnent et qui résument en quelque sort le conflit du
roman. En fait, chaque nom qui réfère aux humaines rapporte le discours
prononcé par la personne en cause: le frère, la mère, les tenanciers des
fumeries et les deux voix des protagonistes du fragment. Ce sont cinq voix qui
conçurent dans un seul récit géré par le scripteur qui à son tour les manie à sa

La première remarque que nous pouvons faire porte sur la distribution du
texte, c’est-à-dire la forme qu’il prend pour relever les effets polyphoniques. Il
s’agit de deux paragraphes: le premier apporte une introspection opère par le
narrateur: « je me demande » et donc une sorte de dialogisme entre les voix
appartenant au même personnage et le deuxième une sorte de résumé d’un
dialogue, lapidaire, concis, qui coule à la manière d’un entretien, d’une
Tout d’abord nous avons les guillemets qui signalent les paroles de la mère
prononcées lors d’une discussion avec sa fille, paroles rapportées aussi par le
syntagme « interdit ». Elles permettent la reproduction telle quelle du discours
maternel, mais placent aussi l’accent sur les mots qui ne peuvent pas être
prononcées, qui provoquent encore des émotions puissantes, l’indicible
Dans le deuxième paragraphe, la polyphonie est réalisée dans une manière
spéciale utilisant une sorte de proposition incise régie par que. La formule est
simple: à partir du verbe « dire » et la conjonction « que », le narrateur ajouté
un syntagme verbal: « Je dis que je devais le faire, que c’est comme une
obligation. » et utilisée par Duras pour ses implications stylistiques: recréer
l’idée de conversation même dans un récit autobiographique.
En fin, le point joue un rôle très important, car il est utilisé
judicieusement séparant les phrases selon leur émetteur d’origine: « Il me
demande … . Je lui dis ». Le mélange des opinions n’est pas possible et renvoie
peut-être à l’incompatibilité des protagonistes de ce passage due aux
différences insurmontables.

Soit le Texte no 2
Notre deuxième choix penche vers un texte dont l’auteur refuse toute forme de
ponctuation. En conséquence le texte se constitue dans un chapitre séparé
(c’est la seule délimitation typographique) où le narrateur, Ariane Deume, un de
personnages principales parle à soi-même pendant qu’elle prend un bain. Nous
sommes en face d’un monologue authentique (qui peut-être prononcé ou non-
prononcé) d’un caractère libéré par l’auteur et qui peut affirmer ses propres
pensées sans aucune relation avec son scripteur.

(…) j’aime pas le tutoyer ça me vient pas naturellement je dois me

forcer la Haggard surement quand dans la grotte oncle Gri bientôt mon
oncle chéri un vrai chrétien la mère Deume c’est assez de l’ersatz oncle
Gri est un saint ne plus les toucher Tantlérie je l’aimais elle était noble

et puis drôle aussi, mais ma fille il n’y a que les athées et les papistes
qui aillent dans le café elle a jamais voulu n’a jamais voulu aller au
théâtre parce que c’est des mensonges les cabotines de théâtre
interviewées à la radio disent toujours exactement au lieu de dire oui
elles pensent que exactement fait plus assuré plus précis plus enjoué
plus spirituel que oui si pas de contracta an vue elles l’avouent jamais
elles disent oh vous savez j’ai avant tout besoin de me reposer à la
campagne ou bien elles disent il y a u grand projet, mais je ne veux pas
le dire parce que je suis superstitieuse ou bien elles disent avec un ton
malicieux coquet coquin ah c’est un petit secret c’est les vedettes de la
chanson les quérulantes passionnées à petite cervelle surement quand
elle a proposé de le raccompagner en voiture surement sont allés dans
son Ritz pour des hommeries femmeries ensemble inquiet pauvre Didi
quand je rentre en retard il va sur la route m’attendre arriver c’est que
chérie j’étais tellement inquiet j’avais peur d’un accident ce m’exaspère
(…) pour le moment encore un peu (…) si on le demande leur rôle dans
la prochaine pièce elles répondent mois je suis l’affreuse épouse
adultère ou bien moi je suis une charmante jeune fille très sage et alors
l’affreux petit rire spirituel c’est fou ce que je me raconte dans le bain le
pire (Cohen, 2011 : 205)

Le texte contient un monologue qualifié par les spécialistes (Stolz, 1996: 51-53)
comme un monologue autonome qui donne au lecteur l’impression qu’il
avance dans sa lecture au fur et à mesure des pensées du personnage.
Autrement dit, le scripteur réel du roman laisse son personnage agir tout seul
et, le plus important, dire ce qu’il veut, donc vivre et assumer le destin ébauché
par l’auteur. C’est comme si nous étions dans la conscience du personnage et
nous prenons part à son un monologue qui avance sans aucune logique
perceptible. Ce type particulier de discours se détache tout d’abord par le
manque de la ponctuation, mais aussi par les nombreux effets polyphoniques.
Nous devons signaler aussi que ce monologue autonome est séparé c’est-à-dire
il est introduit dans un seul chapitre, bien distinct des autres, mais il s’étend sur
une dizaine de pages et le manque de la ponctuation peut soulever des
problèmes sur la compréhension du message du texte. Le seul guide que le
lecteur a c’est la progression par isotopies que l’auteur garde pour ne pas
perdre son « interlocuteur »/lecteur. Cependant c’est aussi nécessaire de
remarquer l’inédit de la technique littéraire en la voyant comme une épreuve
pour un lecteur expérimenté.
Le discours d’Ariane Deume est parsemé des discours d’autres personnes, sans
indications textuelles explicites. L’attitude du lecteur peut être un peu

déconcertée, puisqu’il ne découvre pas immédiatement l’énonciateur. Le
principal élément qui l’aide à repérer qui à qui parle ce sont les noms propres
qui, le plus souvent reflètent l’apparition d’un certain personnage dans la
conscience d’Ariane comme dans l’exemple: « Tantlérie (…) ma fille il n’y a que
les athées et les papistes qui aillent dans le café » qui évoque le discours de sa
tante ou bien «les cabotines (…) oh vous savez j’ai avant tout besoin de me
reposer à la campagne » qui actualise le discours radiodiffusé des actrices.
Au-delà de la technique littéraire adoptée par l’auteur, c’est-à-dire le rejet de la
ponctuation pour simuler le flux des pensées de son personnage et la
nouveauté de celle-ci, on doit s’interroger sur les effets créés concernant la
complexité du personnage. Ariane Deum arrive à adopter les discours de
l’autrui et de les assumer ; elle devient un mélange des personnalités non-
soudées, parfois contradictoires comme les discours qu’elle s’approprie d’où le
destin tragique qu’elle va assumer. Elle n’arrive pas à gérer les voix intérieures
et devient elle-même un conglomérat de personnalités non-soudées,
antinomiques qui vont la détruire en tant qu’individualité. L’exemple de ce texte
est éloquent car, après un bain où Ariane parle à soi-même en accusant les
actrices frivoles, l’adultère d’une femme juive, les amantes de Solal ou bien
l’attitude protectrice de son mari, elle va adopter un comportement pareil: elle
devient l’amante du chef de son mari, va partager l’appartement de Ritz pour
satisfaire son « Seigneur », son mari va accepter en quelque sorte le
comportement d’Ariane pour obtenir des avantages économiques. C’est
justement ce mélange des voix si bien illustré par Cohen à travers le manque de
la ponctuation qui domine la personnalité d’Ariane: elle est toujours soumise à
la volonté de son Seigneur (Solal), elle n’arrive pas à être autonome mais plutôt
une marionnette. Autrement-dit, elle ne se connait trop, elle est faible et se
laisse jugée par les opinions des autres, un véritable lit de Procuste et n’arrive
pas à se réjouir de son amour pour Solal. Leur destin s’inscrit dans la catégorie
des héros tragiques tel que Romeo et Juliette mais plus développées en tant
que consciences et personnalités par leur auteur.

3. Existe-t-il un rapport saisissable entre la manière dont
un texte est organisé du point de vue de la ponctuation et
la polyphonie ?

Quelles sont les conséquences d’une telle ou telle ponctuation ?

Nous avons vu dans ces deux fragments proposés pour réflexion l’importance
de la ponctuation, tout d’abord pour le lecteur en ce qui concerne la polyphonie.
Celui-ci, théoriquement le destinataire du discours romanesque décode ou pas
les intentions du scripteur en tant que metteur en scène de discours des
personnages. Reprenons !
Le premier texte permet au lecteur de saisir les voix du texte et donc le
phénomène de la polyphonie à travers une ponctuation rigide, scrupuleuse.
N’oublions pas qu’il s’agit d’un texte à la première personne et que la tentation
de croire que le protagoniste substitue l’auteur est grande. Mais, le personnage
de la fille reste intact en tant que conscience unique, différente de celle du
scripteur avec un discours authentique. Elle effectue en fait de retours en
arrière et discute avec soi même et on assiste à un phénomène de dialogisme
entre les différents hypostases du même personnage c’est-à-dire entre la
personnalité et la conscience de l’adolescent qui vient d’avoir sa première
expérience érotique et la personnalité mature de la narratrice qui revisite ses
émotions mais cette fois-ci en le passant par le philtre de la maturité. Dans ce
cas, la ponctuation respecte le dédoublement à travers le blanc typographique
qui sépare les deux paragraphes et qui permet au lecteur de distinguer les deux
voix du même personnage. En plus, elle met en évidence les autres voix du
texte, les personnages du roman tels quels sont présentés par la narratrice et
permet au lecteur d’entendre les discours non-mélangés des personnages mais
la fois cohérents grâce à la ponctuation scrupuleuse.
Le deuxième texte, par contre, déconcentre le lecteur en présentant le discours
d’un personnage qui parle à soi même impliquant les voix d’autres personnages
dans un seul chapitre qui contient une seule phrase sans aucune ponctuation.
L’effort du lecteur pour saisir les intentions du personnage est important, le
processus effective de lire peut être ralenti et comme conséquence directe, le
plaisir du lecteur. Ici, on doit contredire A. Lorenceau (op. cit.) qui soutient
entre outre que « la ponctuation est un ‘adjuvant’ de la lecture à haute voix »
et montrer que le rôle primordiale de celle-ci est la transmission du sens, du
message. Comme le prouve l’analyse de notre texte, le manque de la
ponctuation affecte le lecteur en ce qui concerne la réception correcte d’un

personnage et au niveau de la polyphonie il se trouve devant un discours
linaire, sans aucun plan ou la voix d’un personnage se confonde avec une autre.
C’est clair, du point de vue bakhtinien, nous remarquons la polyphonie
(autonomie de la voix d’un personnage par rapport à l’auteur) mais, est-ce que
cette polyphonie sera-t-elle mise en danger par le refus de la ponctuation ?
Nous risque dire oui car le chaos produit au moment de la lecture ne produit
pas un effet polyphonique vue comme harmonie mais plutôt une dissonance
puissante, comme une sorte de tumulte sonore venant de différents instruments

En guise de conclusion
Il est évident, depuis l’apparition du premier signe graphique qui a eu comme
fonction de marquer la fin d’une phrase, que la ponctuation vise tout d’abord
d’organiser le texte écrit pour le rendre plus commode à lire et donc plus facile
à comprendre. Mais l’évolution de la littérature et notamment des techniques
littéraires ont donné à ce phénomène des valences inattendues qui ont généré
des effets tout à fait exceptionnels. C’est le cas de la polyphonie qui joue sur les
rôles de la ponctuation pour apporter devant le lecteur un discours harmonieux
où plusieurs voix résonnent.
Nous avons vu, notamment dans la dernière partie de notre recherche, à
travers les deux exemples de textes proposés pour réflexion que l’importance de
la ponctuation dépasse le domaine de l’organisation textuelle. Elle figure, tout
d’abord l’articulation des pensées symbolisant l’ordre de la conscience et par
contraste, le fonctionnement de l’inconscient.
En ce qui concerne l’organisation d’un récit, la ponctuation est exploitée par les
écrivains pour annoncer ses intentions sur l’orchestration des voix qui
apparaissent dans un même fragment. Comme nous avons vu dans les
exemples proposés, les auteurs peuvent soit faciliter l’expérience de lecture ou
par contre de la compliquer en faisant appel à une écriture décontractée, libre
des rigueurs de la ponctuation et laisser l’imagination et l’expérience du lecteur
de compléter les intentions du scripteur. Dans ce dernier cas, le lecteur devient
un collaborateur qui doit apporter sa propre participation à l’expérience de

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9838_2004_num_102_1_2558 (consulté le 26 avril 2014).
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Charaudeau, Patrick et Dominique Maingueneau. (2002). Dictionnaire d’analyse du
discours. Paris : Editions du Seuil.
Cohen, Albert. (2011). Belle du Seigneur. Paris : Gallimard- Edition Folio.
Cunha, Dóris A.C. et Marc Arabyan. (2004). « La ponctuation du discours direct des
origines à nos jours ». L'information grammaticale. 102 : 35-45. doi :
10.3406/igram.2004.2562. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :
Duras, Marguerite. (2011). L’amant. Paris : Les Editions du minuit.
Lorenceau, Anette. (1980). « La ponctuation chez les écrivains d'aujourd'hui [Résultats
d'une enquête] ». Langue française (45) 45, 88-97.
Maingueneau, Dominique (2003). « Ouverture. Un tournant dans les études littéraires
». In Dominique Maingueneau, Ruth Amossy (eds.). L’analyse du discours dans
les études littéraires. Toulouse : Presses Universitaires du Mirail.
Riegel, Martin, Jean-Christophe Pellat et René Rioul. (2009). Grammaire méthodique du
français. Paris : PUF.
Stolz, Claire. (1996). «La polyphonie dans Belle du Seigneur d'Albert Cohen. Pour une
approche sémiostylistique ». L'information grammaticale. 70 : 51 – 53. doi :
10.3406/igram.1996.2994. [en ligne]. Accessible à l’adresse :

Bianca GEMAN

asistent universitar dr.

Universitatea Tehnică de Construcţii Bucureşti, ROMÂNIA
Departamentul de Limbi Străine şi Comunicare

Abstract: The present paper is a short study of metalexicography aiming to analyze the
types of the alternative definitions of architectural terms registered in DEX and in DEXI.
The hyponymy study concerning the lexicographical definition is a versatile aspect of
linguistics.. Both hyponymy and also the hypernomy are exploited for the wording of the
lexicographical definitions and these become the main lexicographical manner for
defining the terms of architecture in most of the dictionaries.

Keywords: architecture; definition; hyponymy; language; terminology.

Definiţia reprezintă problema centrală în orice fel de terminologie, deoarece

este „procedeul general prin care se explicitează valoarea unui concept” (DSL,
2001: 155). Caracterul interdisciplinar al definiţiei, este dat de coexistenţa mai
multor planuri: planul cunoaşterii (referitor la faptul că prin definiţie se
urmăreşte identificarea referentului), cel lingvistic (mesajele se construiesc cu
ajutorul limbajului) şi cel sociopedagogic (textul definiţiei trebuie să aibă în
vedere categoriile socioprofesionale cărora li se adresează). Rezultă că „definiţia
este o analiză sau o descriere a sensului unei unităţi pe baza căreia să se poată
identifica referentul şi să se poată construi mesajele lingvistice corecte” (Bidu-
Vrănceanu, 2007: 49).
Dată fiind importanţa definiţiei în comunicarea lingvistică, se constată o
multitudine de posibilităţi de clasificare (Stoichţoiu-Ichim, 2001: 126-129). Din
perspectiva cercetării pe care o întreprindem, interesează, în primul rând,
distincţia dintre definiţiile ştiinţifice şi cele preştiinţifice sau uzuale,
distincţie care ne permite să diferenţiem, lexicul specializat de cel comun.
În cazul lexicului specializat din dicţionarele generale, respectiv în cazul
termenilor din domeniul arhitecturii, se observă folosirea acestora atât ca
termeni specializaţi, cât şi ca elemente ale limbajului comun. Astfel, se poate
vorbi, de două sensuri ale aceluiaşi cuvânt: un sens ştiinţific şi un sens

preştiinţific sau uzual şi de existenţa unor definiţii alternative, când termenii
definiţi însumează mai multe tipuri de definiţii – ştiinţifice şi uzuale (Bidu-
Vrănceanu, 2007: 50).
Studiile efectuate au condus la constatarea că DEX-ul, practică definiţii diferite:
 - definiţii strict ştiinţifice;
 - definiţii preştiinţifice (uzuale);
 - definiţii mixte, rezultate din diverse combinaţii ale
 - definiţii mixte în care se combină în grade diferite
definiţia ştiinţifică cu cea uzuală;
 - definiţii mixte care rezultă din combinarea mai multor
metalimbaje (natural şi simbolic);
 - definiţii mixte condiţionate de apartenenţa la mai multe
terminologii sau la lexicul ştiinţific interdisciplinar.
Se consideră că aproximarea definiţiei unui temen poate să apară la două
nivele: cel al definirii (făcută de terminograf şi/sau lexicograf) şi cel al
interpretării (dată de vorbitorul nespecialist) (Bidu-Vrănceanu, 2000: 15).
Aproximarea interpretării sensului specializat de către nespecialist trebuie
admisă, dar ea depinde de factori eterogeni. Aşadar, interesează aproximarea în
definiţia dată de lexicograf. S-a observat că unele definiţii lexicografice le
reproduc în întregime pe cele terminografice, deşi în majoritatea cazurilor,
definiţiile strict ştiinţifice sunt greu de decodat de către nespecialişti, spre
deosebire de definiţiile preştiinţifice sau uzuale care le pot asigura acestora
accesul, uneori parţial, la sensul specializat. Se întâmplă acest lucru pentru că
definiţiile preştiinţifice sau uzuale sunt admise şi preferate numai în
dicţionarele generale, tocmai pentru a favoriza deschiderea codurilor
Când termenul trece de un domeniu strict, interesând în diferite feluri
nespecialiştii, definiţia preştiinţifică sau chiar uzuală este considerată
convenabilă. Definiţiile de acest tip ar trebui să fie preferate pentru termenii
ştiinţifici şi tehnici în dicţionarele generale sau în comunicarea din mass media,
chiar dacă asigură numai o cunoaştere parţială. Decodarea parţială a sensului
specializat de către vorbitorii profani într-un anumit domeniu, este numită în
general determinologizare. Gradul de determinologizare depinde de numeroşi
factori şi de competenţele diferite ale vorbitorilor, de lacunele lor în cunoaştere,
de „lectura” definiţiilor (Bidu-Vrănceanu, 1993: 33).

Din cele spuse, rezultă că deschiderea codurilor ştiinţifice poate fi asigurată mai
ales de dicţionarele generale unde definiţia ar trebui să difere de cea din
dicţionarele speciale tocmai pentru a asigura accesul la sensul specializat (Bidu-
Vrănceanu 2007: 48-52). Se constată însă că in dicţionarele generale, în DEX,
de exemplu, definiţiile termenilor specializaţi sunt inegale sub aspectul
raportului definiţie ştiinţifică/definiţie uzuală. Pentru termenii din
arhitectură, de exemplu, definiţiile sunt preponderent ştiinţifice, şi, prin
urmare, greu de decodat de către vorbitorul obişnuit. Altfel spus, pe de o parte
apar atât definiţii ştiinţifice, cât şi definiţii preştiinţifice şi uzuale, şi pe de
altă parte, apar combinaţii ale acestor tipuri într-o singură definiţie (definiţie
mixtă). Dată fiind posibilitatea coexistenţei mai multor tipuri de definiţie pentru
unul şi acelaşi termen s-a denumit această situaţie ca definiţii alternative
(idem: 62-71).

1. Definiţii strict ştiinţifice

Din punct de vedere cantitativ, definiţiile ştiinţifice sunt foarte bine
reprezentate, aceste definiţii apropiindu-se de definiţiile terminografice. Definiţia
termenului ARHITRAVĂ - „element arhitectonic orizontal (în arhitectura clasică)
aşezat pe două elemente portante (capiteluri ale coloanelor, pilaştri etc.), care
închide în partea de sus o structură de formă pătrată şi susţine greutatea
antablamentului [...]”, asigură o cunoaştere parţială, prin genul proxim accesibil
„element arhitectonic”. În schimb, sunt total inaccesibile, prin stricta
specialitate, datele reprezentând diferenţa specifică: „aşezat pe două elemente
portante (capiteluri ale coloanelor, pilaştri etc.), care închide în partea de sus o
structură de formă pătrată şi susţine greutatea antablamentului [...]”.
În cazul definiţiei termenului CAPITEL - „partea superioară, mai groasă (și
ornată), a unei coloane sau a unui pilastru, care face legătura între fusul
coloanei și arhitravă”, diferenţele specifice, de tipul semelor funcţionale, aparţin
unui cod închis, fiind inaccesibile vorbitorului obişnuit.
Completăm sfera exemplelor care ilustrează definiţia ştiinţifică, prin care se
arată cum codul închis al acestora face imposibil accesul nespecialistului la
sensul termenului definit, cu următoarele definiţii: ABACĂ (arhit.) - „placă
subțire (pătrată) care constituie partea superioară a capitelului unei coloane și
face legătura cu arhitrava”, EPISTIL (arhit.) - „arhitravă”, ECHINĂ - „mulură
convexă, specifică ordinului doric, situată imediat sub abacă”, MERLON -
„fiecare dintre masivele de zidărie care depășeau parapetul și limitau crenelurile
la lucrările de fortificație antice și medievale”.

În cazul definiţiilor ABACĂ şi EPISTIL, clasarea termenilor se face prin marca
diastratică (arhit.), care indică hiperonimul cel mai general, arhitectura,
căruia i se subordonează termenii definiţi. Clasarea „placă subţire (pătrată)” nu
este lămuritoare pentru nespecialist, iar diferenţele specifice, de tipul semelor
perceptibile, „care constituie partea superioară a capitelului unei coloane și face
legătura cu arhitrava”, deşi ar trebui să faciliteze înţelegerea sensului, conţin
date strict specializate. Clasarea „arhitravă”, corelată cu un cvasisinonim al
termenului definit, EPISTIL, aparţine codului închis al arhitecturii.
Termenii ECHINĂ şi MERLON, nu sunt clasaţi prin marcă diastratică. Pentru
termenul ECHINĂ, clasarea „mulură convexă” este generală, iar diferenţele
specifice sunt extrem de specializate: „specifică ordinului doric, situată imediat
sub abacă”, rămânând inaccesibile vorbitorului obişnuit, chiar dacă semele
funcţionale sunt extrem de utile şi necesare specialistului. Definiţia termenului
MERLON este codificată integral, chiar dacă conţine informaţii descriptive
„fiecare dintre masivele de zidărie care depășeau parapetul și limitau crenelurile
la lucrările de fortificație antice și medievale”, păstrează închis accesul la sensul
termenului definit.

2. Definiţii preştiinţifice (uzuale)

Se apreciază că ponderea definiţiilor preştiinţifice (uzuale) în DEX, este
limitată, chiar izolată. Aceste definiţii operează cu elemente total accesibile
oricărui vorbitor, pentru că nu se reflectă, nici măcar parţial informaţii destul de
importante din definiţia ştiinţifică (terminologică).
În definiţia termenului COLOANĂ – „stâlp cilindric de marmură, piatră, lemn
etc., destinat să susțină o parte dintr-un edificiu sau să-l înfrumusețeze”,
sintagma „stâlp cilindric” este un cvasisinonim al termenului definit. Singurul
element specializat din definiţie, frecvent totuşi în limba comună, este „edificiu”.
Alte definiţii preştiinţifice îşi păstrează caracterul accesibil pentru nespecialist,
prin clasări cu un caracter foarte general, ca în cazul termenilor: ALCAZAR –
„palat fortificat, foarte ornamentat, de origine maură, construit în Evul Mediu în
principalele orașe spaniole”, BUCRANIU (arhit.) - „motiv ornamental
reprezentând un cap de bou împodobit cu ghirlande de flori, panglici”, CAPELĂ –
„biserică mică, izolată, fără parohie (într-un cimitir etc.)” CLOPOTNIȚĂ – „turn
de biserică sau construcție în formă de turn (situată lângă biserică), în care sunt
instalate clopotele”.
Aceste definiţii preştiinţifice (uzuale) conţin sintagme cu rol de clasare, care sunt
de folos nespecialistului, în demersul său de a decodifica sensul, precum: „palat

fortificat” pentru termenul ALCAZAR, „motiv ornamental” pentru termenul
BUCRANIU. În acest caz, marca diastratică (arhit.) asigură repartizarea
termenului în domeniul arhitecturii, şi funcţioneză ca hiperonim pentru
termenul definit. Sintagmele „biserică mică” pentru CAPELĂ si „turn de biserică”
pentru CLOPOTNIȚĂ, asigură accesul la sens al profanului, pentru cei doi
termeni specifici arhitecturii bisericeşti.

3. Definiţii lexicografice mixte

Definiţiile mixte din DEX, combină în acelaşi articol, elemente din definiţia
ştiinţifică cu altele din definiţia uzuală .
Exemple elocvente de definiţii mixte, sunt cele ale termenilor: MULURĂ - „profil
arhitectural cu funcție ornamentală”, MEDALION – „element decorativ de formă
circulară sau ovală, folosit în arhitectură, mobilier etc. și cuprinzând un
basorelief, o inscripție, un portret etc.”, TURLĂ – „construcție de formă cilindrică
sau prismatică poligonală, de înălțime relativ mare, care face parte din
complexul arhitectural al bisericilor, înălțându-se deasupra acoperișului”.
În toate cele trei exemple extrase din DEX, clasarea se face riguros ştiinţific:
MULURĂ - „profil arhitectural”, MEDALION – „element decorativ de formă
circulară sau ovală”, TURLĂ – „construcție de formă cilindrică sau prismatică
poligonală”. Acest tip de clasare, asigură repartizarea termenilor definiţi în
domeniul arhitecturii, dar nu ajută decât la decodificarea parţială a sensului
specializat de către vorbitorul obişnuit. Diferenţele specifice oferă informaţii
accesibile, de tipul semelor diferenţiale, pentru MULURĂ- „cu funcție
ornamentală” şi pentru MEDALION – „folosit în arhitectură, mobilier etc. și
cuprinzând un basorelief, o inscripție, un portret etc.”, sau funcţionale pentru
TURLĂ – „care face parte din complexul arhitectural al bisericilor, înălțându-se
deasupra acoperișului”.
Rezultă că acest tip de definiţii mixte, prin combinaţiile diverse ale informaţiilor,
mai exact prin alăturarea unei clasări specializate cu diferenţe specifice,
explicite, accesibile vorbitorului obişnuit, permit cunoaşterea facilă, a sensului
termenului definit.

4. Definiţii alternative
Prin definiţii alternative se admite că un termen poate avea mai multe definiţii,
cu grade de specializare diferite şi cu decodări dependente de utilizatorul
termenului. Utilizarea unor termeni specializaţi de către profani impune definiţii
mai accesibile, capabile să deschidă, fie şi parţial, codurile ştiinţifice, definiţii

oferite de dicţionarele generale. Definiţiile alternative înseamnă, deci,
acceptarea unor definiţii ştiinţifice alături de altele preştiinţifice sau uzuale.
Există definiţii alternative ale unor termeni din domeniul arhitecturii, în care
definiţia ştiinţifică se combină în grade diferite cu definiţia preştiinţifică. Astfel
de exemple, sunt oferite de definiţiile următorilor termeni: AREOSTIL – „sistem
arhitectonic în care coloanele sunt dispuse în grupuri de câte două. ♦
intercolonament spațios și aerat”, ANTABLAMENT- „element de arhitectură
așezat deasupra zidurilor de fațadă sau a coloanelor unei construcții, care
susține acoperișul”, SUBASMENT - „partea inferioară a unei construcții pe care
se sprijină (aparent) toată clădirea; soclu”.
În definiţia termenului AREOSTIL, definiţia ştiinţifică este realizată prin sinonimia
cu o sintagmă specializată pentru domeniul arhitecturii: „intercolonament
spațios și aerat”. În ceea ce priveşte definiţia preştiinţifică, aceasta începe cu o
clasare – „sistem arhitectonic”, ce asigură repartizarea termenului definit în
domeniul arhitecturii, urmată de diferenţe specifice, seme de tip referenţial - „în
care coloanele sunt dispuse în grupuri de câte două”.
În cazul termenului ANTABLAMENT, definiţia ştiinţifică este mai complexă decât
definiţia uzuală, extrem de accesibilă vorbitorului obişnuit - „care susține
acoperișul”. Definiţia ştiinţifică începe cu o clasare – „element de arhitectură”,
continuată de diferenţa specifică – „așezat deasupra zidurilor de fațadă sau a
coloanelor unei construcții”.
În definiţia termenului SUBASMENT, definiţia ştiinţifică este realizată prin
sinonimia cu un alt termen specializat din domeniul arhitecturii, „soclu”, dar şi
prin a doua parte a definiţiei, „partea inferioară a unei construcții, pe care se
sprijină (aparent) toată clădirea”, această informaţie constituind o definiţie
preştiinţifică uzuală, accesibilă nespecialistului.
Adoptarea conceptului de definiţii alternative obligă la respectarea principiului că
definiţia unui termen specializat are un prag dincolo de care nu se poate trece
(în toate tipurile de definiţii), fiind necesară respectarea „nodului dur” sau a
mediei semantice fără de care nu se poate face identificarea termenului
respectiv (Angela Bidu-Vrănceanu 2007: 64). O definiţie uzuală care neglijează
această condiţie nu este convenabilă.
Evoluţia extralingvistică a domeniului arhitecturii impune valori noi, definiţiile de
diferite tipuri realizând dezambiguizarea necesară. Mulţi termeni prezintă un
interes larg, dincolo de domeniul specialiştilor, iar interpretarea lor corectă,
contribuie la o utilizare adecvată în orice tip de comunicare.

5. Concluzii
Analiza definirii termenilor din domeniul arhitecturii la nivelul dicţionarelor
generale, demonstrează importanţa anumitor tipuri de definiţii altenative
pentru deschiderea codurilor ştiinţifice. Terminologia arhitecturii bazată pe o
interconceptualitate strictă, creează probleme în definirea şi decodarea
termenilor, anumite tipuri de definiţii fiind de preferat în dicţionarele generale.
Codul închis al definiţiilor ştiinţifice, pentru termenii din arhitectură, face
imposibil accesul nespecialistului la sensul termenului definit.
Definiţiile alternative, în care se combină în grade diferite definiţia
ştiinţifică cu cea uzuală, reprezintă modalitatea cea mai potrivită în definirea
termenilor din arhitectură, deoarece clasările specializate asigură repartizarea
imediată a termenului definit în domeniul arhitecturii, iar sensul uzual permite
interpretarea corectă a sensului specializat de către vorbitorul obişnuit.
DEX’98 şi DEXI (2007), reprezintă o sursă de referinţă folosită frecvent pentru a
afla sensul unui cuvânt, dar şi a unui termen, aceste dicţionare generale, fiind
instrumente indispensabile atât pentru vorbitorii obişnuiţi, cât şi pentru
specialiştii dintr-un anumit domeniu ştiinţific.

Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (1993). Lectura dicţionarelor. Bucureşti: Editura Metropol.
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (2000). Lexic comun, lexic specializat. Bucureşti: Editura
Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela et al. (2006). Dicţionar de ştiinţe ale limbii. Bucureşti: Editura
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (2007). Lexic specializat în mişcare de la dicţionare la texte.
București: Editura Universităţii Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (1993). Lectura
dicţionarelor. Bucureşti: Editura Metropol.
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (2000). Lexic comun, lexic specializat. Bucureşti: Editura
Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela et al. (2006). Dicţionar de ştiinţe ale limbii. Bucureşti: Editura
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela. (2007). Lexic specializat în mişcare de la dicţionare la texte.
București: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Coteanu, Ion, Lucreția Mareş et al. (1998). Dicţionar explicativ al limbii române. Ediţia a
2-a. Bucureşti: Editura Univers Enciclopedic.
Dima, Eugenia et al. (2007). Dicţionarul explicativ ilustrat al limbii române. Italia:
Editura Arc & Gunivas.
Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, Adriana. (2001). Vocabularul limbii române actuale. Dinamică.
Influenţe. Creativitate. Bucureşti: Editura All.
din Bucureşti.

Coteanu, Ion, Lucreția Mareş et al. (1998). Dicţionar explicativ al limbii române. Ediţia a
2-a. Bucureşti: Editura Univers Enciclopedic.
Dima, Eugenia et al. (2007). Dicţionarul explicativ ilustrat al limbii române. Italia:
Editura Arc & Gunivas.
Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, Adriana. (2001). Vocabularul limbii române actuale. Dinamică.
Influenţe. Creativitate. Bucureşti: Editura All.

Mălina GURGU

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: Higher education financing, strategies for student recruitment, marketing

and advertising have become topics for heated debates in the last 20 years. Adages
such as “university in ruins” (Reading, 1999) and “college for sale”, “commodification of
higher education” (Shumar, 2013) are more than familiar to those who approached the
matter. Good communication – experience and studies have shown – prove to be crucial
in coping with challenges higher education institutions (HEI) are now facing: local and
global competition, demographic changes, attracting funds, keeping up with market
demands, building solid relationships with stakeholders, etc. The main purpose of this
paper is to outline some of the main characteristics of the online communication choices
Romanian HEIs are making on the homepage of their websites for recruiting students,
discussing elements that stand out at a simple web search any candidate would do
when looking for information concerning enrollment. The analysis will be carried out
from a relational marketing and a discourse analysis perspective.

Keywords: online communication, higher education institutions (HEI), student

recruiting, relational marketing, discourse analysis.

Instituţiile de învăţământ superior (IIS) la ora schimbărilor

Apariţia erei postindustriale a adus cu ea schimbări spectaculoase la toate
nivelurile societăţii, învăţământul cunoscând şi el repercusiuni ale acestui
fenomen (pentru detalii referitoare la fenomenele complexe cu care se
confruntă la nivel mondial şi naţional IIS, a se vedea Maftei-Golopenţia, 2012:
17-31 şi 313-321). Astfel, diminuarea resurselor şi probabila lor epuizare au
crescut exponenţial importanţa cunoaşterii ca sursă a utilizării lor raţionale şi a
creşterii competitivităţii şi a productivităţii (Brătianu şi Nicolescu, 2007: 18). IIS,
principale „furnizoare” de cunoştinţe de nivel avansat s-au văzut propulsate într-
un context în care vechile modele de tip iluminist sau de serviciu public
înregistrează un declin net. Dacă în epoci mai mult sau mai puţin îndepărtate li
se asocia în principal componenta morală şi statutul de instituţii ce adăposteau

un corp de elită şi se accentua nobleţea cauzei servite – aflată în serviciul
statelor naţiune – aceea de a păstra şi transmite moştenirea culturală,
intelectuală a unei societăţi, de a asigura producerea unei elite care să poată, la
rândul său ilumina masele, evoluţia postmodernă le-a propulsat în centrul unui
model economic în care latura antreprenorială capătă o importanţă fără
precedent (Shattock, 2005), întrucât „producţia” lor este o marfă ce le poate
asigura prosperitatea.
Modelul humboldtian de sorginte germană (Brătianu şi Nicolescu, op. cit.: 21) a
devenit prioritar în acest context – universitatea nu trebuie să se limiteze la
transmiterea de cunoştinţe, ci trebuie să se angajeze în egală măsură în
activităţi de cercetare ştiinţifică al căror rezultat este permanenta generare de
cunoştinţe noi, contribuind astfel la evoluţia gândirii umane în general.
Această capacitate de a genera cunoştinţe, devenite o marfă în societatea
postindustrială, societatea cunoaşterii, este deci elementul care schimbă rolul
IIS în acest tip de societate, ele devenind implicate în fluxul de relaţii multiple
care susţine economiile globale bazate pe cunoaştere (Välimaa şi Hoffman,
2008: 266) şi căpătând astfel o dimensiune diferită faţă de cea anterioară.
Un fenomen care a potenţat dezvoltarea lor în această direcţie şi le-a apropiat
de modelul de funcţionare a unei firme (Shumar, 2013: 39) a fost schimbarea
relaţiei cu statul – finanţator. Politicile neo-liberale promovate în ţările anglo-
saxone începând cu deceniul al optulea al secolului trecut au adus o nouă
viziune asupra modului de finanţare a IIS în spaţiile geografice respective,
declanşând, prin reducerea cuantumului contribuţiei statului la funcţionarea
acestor instituţii (Peters (1992: 125-127) face referire la opinii care
categorizează această decizie drept „atac” la adresa universităţilor britanice),
nevoia de diversificare a resurselor pecuniare menite să le asigure perenitate şi
au dus la comodificarea lor. Prin urmare, ele au fost obligate să-şi evalueze
diferitele aspecte ale activităţii lor, precum şi poziţia în contextul în care evoluau
şi care de-a lungul anilor a căpătat statutul de piaţă şi să-şi constituie o clientelă
interesată să obţină „produsele” propuse contra cost. Fenomenul acesta nu a
rămas cantonat în zona susmenţionată, evoluţia spre criză a statului providenţă
determinând din ce în ce mai multe guverne să reducă bugetul acordat
învăţământului superior (Teixeira şi Dill, 2011: vii), tendinţă menţinută, dacă nu
accentuată de criza economică din ultimii ani.
Interesant de remarcat este că acest fenomen s-a suprapus cu explozia
numărului de studenţi înscrişi în IIS, ca rezultat al democratizării şi, ulterior, a
industrializării acestei forme de educaţie (Peters, op. cit.). Acest fenomen a

declanşat o creştere fără precedent la nivel global a numărului de IIS înfiinţate
pentru a face faţă sau a preîntâmpina nevoile constatate sau anticipate în acest
sens. Astfel, evoluţia instituţiilor a fost dirijată către statutul de actori într-o
piaţă similară cu cele din domeniul economic – Teixeira şi Dill (op. cit.: xi)
vorbesc despre o „cvasi-piaţă” şi despre IIS ca despre entităţi „cvasi-economice”
-, care trebuie să facă faţă unui climat concurenţial, să dezvolte strategii de
comunicare, de atragere de clienţi (sau părţi implicate) care să producă intrări în
trezorerie, ale cărei performanţe trebuie să fie măsurabile în aşa fel încât ele să
beneficieze de finanţare din cât mai variate surse posibil.
Importanţa dobândită de cunoaştere în era postindustrială a însemnat pentru
IIS coborârea din turnul de fildeş în care savanţi aproape asociali ţeseau cu
migală sisteme filosofice sau descopereau legi al naturii. IIS au înţeles că, în
ciuda tăierilor de fonduri de la statul providenţă, ele produc un bun preţios
pentru societate; astfel ele au învăţat că descoperirile ştiinţifice, invenţiile,
teoriile etc. şi expertiza într-un domeniu sau într-altul au valoare în măsura în
care ele au aplicabilitate practică, deci sunt o sursă importantă de finanţare. De
aceea, deşi în teorie principala lor menire este în continuare educaţia, se
constată la momentul actual că de-a lungul anilor activitatea principală este în
fapt cercetarea ştiinţifică (Major, 1996), multe voci acuzându-le de scăderea
interesului pentru vocaţia lor iniţială. De altfel, suntem de părere că putem vorbi
la momentul actual de o industrializare a cercetării ştiinţifice în cadrul IIS,
această activitate condiţionând multe aspecte ale vieţii academice, începând cu
recrutarea de personal şi continuând, de exemplu, cu indicatorii de performanţă
ce trebuie îndepliniţi anual (între care aceia legaţi de activitatea strictă de
predare având o pondere minimă) etc.
Să menţionăm şi o altă latură a existenţei IIS, aceea de serviciu public,
organizaţii care servesc interesele unui stat care le finanţează şi care, prin
intermediul lor contribuie la evoluţia şi propăşirea propriilor cetăţeni prin accesul
gratuit sau cvasi gratuit la educaţie dar, în acelaşi timp, se asigură şi de
propagarea ideologiilor la putere prin politizarea mai mult sau mai puţin
evidentă a acestor instituţii şi prin exercitarea diverselor mijloace de manipulare
(cf. analizei furnizate de Maftei-Golopenţia, op. cit.: 21).

Situaţia din România

În România evoluţia IIS este cel puţin interesantă, în condiţiile în care actualul
sistem de învăţământ este moştenitorul celui de dinainte de 1989, în care
politizarea şi înregimentarea era începută încă de la formele cele mai precoce de

educaţie şi în care numărul studenţilor era foarte mic raportat la populaţia ţării.
Dispariţia regimului comunist a fost sinonimă cu o evoluţie spectaculoasă a
ofertei educaţionale la acest nivel de pregătire. Aproape de jumătatea anilor
2000 se semnala deja un excedent al IIS şi al specializărilor acreditate
(Mihăilescu, 2003: 189, Buzărnescu, 2004: 249), întrucât din nefericire,
fenomenul a avut loc în condiţiile unei lipse de strategii pe termen mediu şi
lung, care ar fi trebuit să ţină cont şi de situaţia în care se afla învăţământul
superior la începutul anului 1990. Orientarea a fost făcută, în opinia lui
Mihăilescu, „doar după cerinţele imediate ale mediului economic”, iar consecinţa
a fost, pe de o parte, supradimensionarea ofertei în anumite domenii, iar pe de
alta reducerea drastică a interesului pentru zone privilegiate (şi, implicit,
supradimensionate) înainte de 1989 (cum ar fi chimia, construcţiile de maşini
etc.) (op. cit.: 79). În plus, oportunităţile de carieră ale absolvenţilor constituie
un alt element care nu a fost luat în calcul (Buzărnescu, op. cit.: 249), logica
interesului strict instituţional prevalând în deciziile referitoare la dimensionarea
fluxului de studenţi (Mihăilescu, op. cit.: 59), acesta găsindu-se astăzi în
inferioritate faţă de mărimea reţelei care oferă „instituţii şi specializări mult
peste nevoile României” (idem: 213). Însăşi Universitatea din Bucureşti, una
dintre instituţiile far ale învăţământului superior românesc, ar oferi prea multe
programe de diplomă.
Evoluţia legislaţiei care au avut ca obiect învăţământul, începând din 1993 până
în 2011 a presupus creşterea autonomiei IIS, rolul guvernului, prin ministerul de
resort, limitându-se la
- coordonarea strategică a dezvoltării sistemului de învăţământ;
- organizarea unui cadru al competiţiei instituţionale, prin
evaluare academică a calităţii şi performanţelor şi alocarea de fonduri
în funcţie de performanţe şi opţiunile strategice de dezvoltare
- anticiparea blocajelor, prevenirea distorsiunilor, sancţionarea
instituţiilor neperformante. (Mihăilescu, op. cit.: 25),
dar şi crearea unui cadru pentru implementarea unor politici de măsurare a
performanţei academice – , cu consecinţe, în opinia noastră, în caracterul de
industrializare al cercetării ştiinţifice în mediul academic.
Extrem de importantă este şi repercusiunea evoluţiei demografice asupra
situaţiei IIS româneşti la ora actuală. În vreme ce explozia ofertei educaţionale
menţionată mai sus a coincis cu efectele politicii demografice promovate de
regimul comunist, care au durat până în anul 2008 inclusiv, depresia
demografică înregistrată la începutul anilor ’90 a avut consecinţe asupra

numărului de înscrişi începând cu anul 2009, punct de plecare al unei tendinţe
descendente care se menţine şi în prezent (cf. datelor comentate de Drăgoescu,
2013: 21-24 şi ISE, 2011), crescând astfel concurenţa dintre IIS, ba chiar dintre
facultăţile şi specializările unei aceleiaşi instituţii. Două alte tendiţe din categoria
demografică au contribuit la creşterea în importanţă a acestui fenomen – este
vorba pe de o parte despre opţiunea absolvenţilor de liceu, din ce în ce mai
numeroşi, de a urma cursurile unei universităţi din străinătate (datele statistice1
arată că între 1990 şi 2011 numărul acestora s-a multiplicat cu 6 (Manea, 2013:
13)) şi pe de altă parte despre scăderea drastică a procentului de promovare a
examenului de bacalaureat, între 2004 şi 2015 înregistrându-se o diferenţă de
peste 30% (Micu: 2015).
Analizele efectuate asupra sistemului de învăţământ superior din România (vei,
printre altele, Vlăsceanu et al., 2010, Păunescu et al., 2011 etc.) compun un
tablou în care IIS evoluează într-un câmp plin de contradicţii (de exemplu,
remarcă Maftei-Golopenţia, op. cit.: 24 se aşteaptă de la ele „statornicie, al cărei
sens este dat de păstrarea tradiţiei şi de transmiterea acesteia, iar pe de altă
parte, se aşteaptă să fie un vehicul al inovaţiei”), în care provocările sunt
multiple şi de diferite naturi şi la care ele nu par să fi găsit soluţii viabile pentru
a le răspunde pe măsură. Astfel, în ciuda voinţei politice clar exprimată în Legea
1/2011 de a pune bazele unui învăţământ centrat pe student, sistemul
învăţământului superior apare centrat pe sine însuşi, decuplat de la societate, în
care instituţiile prioritizează supravieţuire financiară (Vlăsceanu et al. op. cit.:
19). În condiţiile fenomenului de subfinanţare evidenţiat de CNFIS (Miroiu şi
Murgescu, 2013) şi ştiind că baza finanţării este calculată în funcţie de sistemul
per capita, importanţa studenţilor este în primul rând cantitativă (Vlăsceanu et
al., op. cit.: 19). În acelaşi timp, se constată o diminuare a încrederii în
universităţi (idem: 124), în capacitatea lor de a-şi propulsa absolvenţii către
locuri de muncă satisfăcătoare. De remarcat şi alienarea constatată în relaţia
dintre IIS şi studenţi, prezentă, de exemplu, în formularea obiectivelor
strategice ale primelor - acestea se referă mai degrabă la evoluţia pozitivă de
sine (de exemplu, îmbunătăţirea infrastructurii) decât la bunăstarea studenţilor,
care au interese „post-materialiste” (idem: 20): „căutarea de sensuri,
semnificaţii, obiective, direcţii de dezvoltare personală”.

Să remarcăm, împreună cu Andreea Vass (2007: 85) că datele statistice provin de la organizaţii
internaţionale precum Banca Mondială, Organizaţia pentru Coperare şi Dezvoltare Economică,
EUROSTAT, denotând astfel lipsa de interes a autorităţilor române faţă de fenomenul îngrijorător
al exodului „creierelor” şi, în general, adăugăm noi, faţă de evoluţia sistemului de învăţământ.

Parametrii cercetării
Se înţelege din expunerea contextului în care evoluează la ora actuală IIS din
România că, în ciuda practicilor evidenţiate de analizele menţionate, studenţii
rămân elementul vital al acestor instituţii, de care sunt legaţi printr-un cordon
ombilical al misiunii primare a acestora – predarea, dar prin care fatalmente
trece şi finanţarea (fie că este de la bugetul de stat sau din taxele de şcolarizare
percepute). Studenţii sunt principala parte interesată care trebuie să se bucure
de atenţia IIS, care au tot interesul nu numai să-i atragă, dar să-i şi fidelizeze,
pentru a-şi asigura finanţarea pe toată durata studiilor acestora, pe de o parte şi
pentru a beneficia de potenţiali alţi studenţi la recomandarea clienţilor mulţumiţi
ce vor fi absolvit.
În aceste circumstanţe, printre strategiile ce se pot adopta pentru atingerea
acestui gen de obiectiv, cele care se referă la comunicarea cu publicurile
interesate (am folosit pluralul pentru a-i include şi pe părinţi, un factor de
decizie important în alegerile multora dintre viitorii studenţi) trebuie să capete
un rol cheie în definirea diverselor politici instituţionale. Însă în societatea
cucerită de comunicare, după formula lui Bernard Miège, succesul care
generează notorietate şi o bună poziţionare pe piaţa concurenţială presupune o
interacţiune care să nu se oprească la simpla informare, la exprimarea de sine a
uneia dintre părţi, ci acel pas către celălalt pe care îl presupune un adevărat
dialog, o adevărată comunicare bazată pe luarea în considerare a valorilor,
credinţelor şi aşteptărilor celuilalt (principii expuse de Dominique Wolton, 1997).
Am ales pentru cercetarea nostră să ne îndreptăm atenţia către componenta
online a comunicării IIS din România prin prisma importanţei cantitative şi
calitative pe care a căpătat-o aceasta în ultimul deceniu2 (nu există IIS care să
nu fie prezentă pe web şi, pe de altă parte, evoluţia tehnologică a facilitat
accesul şi contactul dintre părţile interesate), precum şi din cvasi-vidul existent
în ceea ce priveşte studiile despre acest subiect ţintite către spaţiul românesc.
Ne-am propus să investigăm elementele discursive pe care IIS le oferă
potenţialilor studenţi pe internet interesaţi de contactul cu eventuala lor viitoare
şcoală, mărginindu-ne la experienţa paginii de index a sitului web, din
perspectiva importanţei pe care aceasta o are în crearea unei experienţe
pozitive care să-l determine pe vizitator să continue sau nu – Pegoraro (2007:
5) menţionează un interval de câteva secunde pe care este dispus să le acorde
un tânăr pentru a decide dacă vrea sau nu să continue navigarea pe acel sit, de
O sinteză a studiilor ce demonstrează prioritatea Internetului ca sursă de informaţii în
prospectarea pieţii IIS de către potenţialii studenţi este disponibilă în Pegoraro (2007: 32-40).

unde rezultă atenţia care trebuie acordată primei pagini (observaţie valabilă,
desigur, în cazul oricărui sit internet). Una dintre premisele pe care ne bazăm
cercetarea este că în climatul concurenţial schiţat mai sus, în care absolvenţii de
liceu se înscriu la două, chiar trei specializări deodată (dată fiind oferta
educaţională mai mult decât generoasă pe care o au la dispoziţie), toate
elementele interacţiunii dintre IIS şi aceştia capătă o importanţă indubitabilă:
decizia de a alege între o instituţie sau alta poate fi declanşată de o varietate de
factori, deci nimic nu trebuie lăsat la voia întâmplării (detalii despre modul în
care iau decizii elevii români de clasa a XII-a sunt disponibile în Băcilă, 2008).
Abordarea noastră se face dintr-o dublă perspectivă. În primul rând, aceea a
unui tip de interacţiune care îşi are sorgintea în mediul economic – marketingul
de relaţie. Conceptul de aplicare a modelelor economice la universităţi nu este
nou (cf. Teixeira şi Dill (op. cit.)), iar pasul până la aplicarea principiilor de
marketing pentru promovarea IIS, în special în ceea ce priveşte recrutarea
studenţilor a fost făcut cu uşurinţă. Conform afirmaţiilor lui Nicolescu (2009),
punctul de plecare al acestei decizii rezidă în principiul de bază al marketingului,
satisfacerea nevoilor consumatorilor. În ceea ce priveşte recrutarea studenţilor,
o activitate strategică pentru supravieţuirea IIS, Kotler3 (apud Pegoraro, op. cit.:
29) a propus încă din deceniul al optulea al secolului trecut o aplicare a teoriilor
de marketing la acest proces, avansând un model decizional ce urmează şapte
etape, de la hotărârea de a se înscrie şi până la înscrierea propriu-zisă.
Caracteristicile sectorului învăţământului superior, sintetizate de Nicolescu (op.
cit.) presupun aplicarea principiilor marketingului într-un mod similar cu cea din
sectorul serviciilor; de exemplu, în ceea ce priveşte politica de produse, întrucât
acestea sunt rezultatul unor interacţiuni umane (predarea, cercetarea, servicii
de tip terţiar), natura relaţiilor interpersonale (între studenţi şi profesori sau
studenţi şi restul personalului IIS) cântăreşte greu în obţinerea satisfacţiei, ceea
ce explică menţionarea marketingului de relaţie ca o abordare viabilă, acesta
prioritizând crearea unei relaţii orientate către client. Pentru a reveni la aplicarea
sa în comunicarea online pentru recrutarea studenţilor, menţionăm că afirmaţia
lui Hartman (1998: 55) „ţelul suprem al prezenţei pe internet a oricări
universităţi este de a crea un dialog cu potenţialul student” a fost cea care ne-a
ghidat în analiza discursului prezent în corpus.
Cât priveşte această a doua perspectivă a demersului nostru, punctul de vedere
abordat este acela al analizei discursului, aşa cum este ea construită de Norman
Fairclough, pentru care discursul este o practică socială:
(1976). „Applying marketing theory to college admission”. Colloquium on college admissions: A
role for marketing in college admissions. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

In using the term ‘discourse’, I am proposing to regard language use as
a form of social practice, rather than a purely individual activity or a
reflex of situational variables. This has various implications. Firstly, it
implies that discourse is a mode of action, one form in which people
may act upon the world and especially upon each other, as well as a
mode of representation. […] Secondly, it implies that there is a
dialectical relationship between discourse and social structure, there
being more generally such a relationship between social practice and
social structure: the latter is both a condition for, and an effect of, the
former (1992: 63-64).
Discursul ca o formă de acţiune este esenţa perspectivei lui Fairclough, ca un
corolar al teoriilor şcolii de la Palo Alto (Marc şi Picard, 2013: 5), pentru care
absenţa comunicării este imposibilă şi pentru care relaţia comunicaţională între
indivizi este prioritară faţă de aceştia din urmă, întrucât, în viziunea sistemică pe
care au construit-o cercetătorii californieni, absenţa comunicării, a relaţiei între
indivizi înseamnă prăbuşirea sistemului. De aceea în analiza efectuată interesul
nostru s-a îndreptat către acele elemente ale exprimării verbale care construiesc
un dialog cu vizitatorul (pronume personale de persoanele întâi sau a doua,
verbe la o formă de persoana a doua singular sau plural etc.).
Corpusul este format dintr-un eşantion ce cuprinde, deci, paginile de index ale
unor IIS româneşti. Cum această cercetare este o premieră pentru noi, am
utilizat alegerea raţională (Bonneville et al., 2007: 95-97) în compunerea
acestuia, selectând o categorie de IIS pe care am considerat-o suficient de
reprezentativă pentru o primă abordare – universităţile de stat generaliste, sau
care nu se declară specializate într-un domeniu, ce presupune un număr de 21
de instituţii. Eşantionul include şi Universitatea „Petrol-Gaze” din Ploieşti, care
făcea parte înainte de 1989 din categoria universităţilor specializate într-un
domeniu, însă am decis să o includem în cercetarea noastră urmare a
diversificării ofertei sale educaţionale prin adăugarea de specializări din
domeniile filologic şi economic. Demersul de cercetare pe care l-am folosit este
de tip inductiv, propunându-şi să arate modul de funcţionare al comunicării
online a IIS şi nu să demonstreze o teorie referitoare la acest subiect.

Rezultatele cercetării
Analiza efectuată pe corpus a avut rolul în primul rând de a confirma caracterul
judicios al alegerii eşantionului, varietatea constatată atingând cele două
extreme ale manifestărilor posibile: o exprimare cvasi-exclusivă de sine, în cazul
Universităţii din Bucureşti şi un adevărat dialog cu propuneri de interactivitate,

în cazul Universităţii „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca şi al Universităţii
„Transilvania” din Braşov.
Primul caz menţionat prezintă o lipsă aproape exclusivă de verbe, purtătoare de
semnificaţii legate de acţiune, cu excepţia câmpului de căutare în sit, care
conţine imperativul „caută” şi a unui buton ce conduce către un formular care
dă posibilitatea exprimării părerii personale, cu eticheta „Părerea ta contează!”.
Prezenţa acestui buton este lăudabilă, însă este nevoie de o examinare atentă a
paginii pentru a-l descoperi, întrucât dimensiunea caracterelor este inferioară
majorităţii celorlalte elemente, iar butonul este poziţionat nediferenţiat într-o
serie de elemente similare („Bursă acordată de rectoratul UB”, „Referendum
alegeri rector 2015!”, „Posturi vacante”, „Evaluare instituţională IEP” şi „Hartă
site”). Restul elementelor de exprimare verbală este constituit dintr-o înşiruire
de substantive (unele dintre ele derivate din verbe, precum „admitere”). Un alt
exemplu din această categorie este acela al Universităţii din Petroşani, unde
constatăm aceeaşi prezenţă a butoanelor ce dau acces spre meniuri cu etichete
substantivale. Şi aici o excepţie, o frază cu un verb la indicativ prezent,
persoana a treia, referitoare la admiteri, care „încep din 13 iulie”. Alegeri
similare întâlnim şi în cazul Universităţii din Piteşti, „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu,
„Petrol-Gaze” din Ploieşti.
O altă categorie de demers comunicativ este aceea în care exprimarea de sine
conţine fraze complete, însă cu verbe la persoana a treia singular, prezenţa
enunţătorului (instituţia) şi a destinatarului (fiind implicite). Putem exemplifica
aici cu Universitatea „Aurel Vlaicu” din Arad, a cărei pagină de index prezintă
texte cu naraţiuni despre istoricul învăţământului superior arădean sau al
acreditării primite de universitate. Un element interesant îl reprezintă
recomandările şi îndemnurile la acţiune formulate la persoana a treia, subiectul
frazei nefiind nici enunţătorul care face recomandarea sau formulează îndemnul,
nici destinatarul de la care se aşteaptă să facă ceva. De exemplu, Universitatea
„Transilvania” din Braşov precizează „Completarea formularului de înscriere se
poate face din orice loc și de pe orice dispozitiv conectat la internet (computer,
tabletă, telefon)”, sau Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” din Galaţi, care anunţă:
„Candidaţii admişi sunt aşteptaţi să-şi aducă diploma de bacalaureat”. Putem de
asemenea semnala şi cazul Universităţii „Ovidius” din Constanţa care optează
pentru o frază eliptică de verb „De ce student la Ovidius?”, ratând cel puţin
parţial, după părerea noastră, efectul scontat de implicare a vizitatorului
potenţial student.

Un demers comunicativ ce face un pas înainte către dialogul dintre IIS şi
potenţialul student este acela în care fraza, eliptică de verb sau nu, conţine
elemente de persoana întâi plural, care implică o poziţionare faţă de
interlocutor. Semnalăm eticheta „Despre noi” a butoanelor care trimit către
prezentarea instituţiei (Universitatea din Oradea, Universitatea din Suceava), a
frazelor cu formă verbală de persoana întâi plural (Universitatea „Transilvania”
din Braşov – „recomandăm candidaţilor”, Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-
Napoca – prezentarea acţiunii de crowdfunding) şi a formei pronominale „noi”
(Universitatea „1 Decembrie 1918” din Alba Iulia – „Construieşte-ţi un viitor
sigur alături de noi!”). O formă particulară de enunţ la persoana întâi este cea
prezentă pe pagina Universităţii „Eftimie Murgu” din Reşiţa, în care
responsabilitatea enunţării este preluată de câte un personaj prezentat ca
student; într-o succesiune de imagini se pot citi textele următoare, toate
începând cu „Universitatea mea”: „este locul în care învăţ să judec chibzuit”,
„este locul în care pot descoperi lumea”, „este locul în care pot fi eu însămi” etc.
În fine, să menţionăm categoria de enunţuri ce conţin în mod explicit prezenţa
destinatarului, materializate în mod similar ca şi la categoria anterioară, prin
forme verbale la persoana a doua singular sau plural, în general la modul
imperativ - „caută”, „citeşte”, „descarcă”, „construieşte-ţi”, „înscrie-te”,
„descoperă” „poziţionaţi”, „găsiţi”, „aflaţi”, „vizualizaţi”, „bine aţi venit” - , dar şi
forme pronominale – „-ţi” ataşat imperativului „construieşte”, „Universitatea
mea poate fi şi a ta!” (Universitatea „Eftimie Murgu” din Reşiţa), „implică-te şi
tu” (Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca), „Universitatea aproape de
tine” (Universitatea „Vasile Alecsandri” din Bacău), „Părerea ta contează!”
(Universitatea din Bucureşti).
Constatările generale făcute în urma analizei corpusului sunt că discursul
majoritar este o exprimare de sine a IIS ce fac parte din eşantion, asumarea în
diferite grade a enunţării şi a dialogului prin materializarea pronominală sau
verbală a participanţilor la interacţiune neatingând, din punct de vedere
cantitativ o treime din totalul discursului consultat. Chiar şi în cazul paginilor ce
prezintă dialog şi/sau elemente de interactivitate (verbe la imperativ), suntem în
prezenţa unui mix de strategii discursive, cea dialogală fiind minoritară. Salutăm
alegerea Universităţii „Eftimie Murgu” din Reşiţa, a Universităţii „1 Decembrie
1918” din Alba Iulia şi a Universităţii „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca care
prezintă, din punctul nostru de vedere, enunţuri „ideale”, în care prezenţa
enunţătorului şi a destinatarului sunt explicite (după modelul „tu şi noi” sau „eu
cu tine”).

În loc de concluzii - posibilităţi pentru cercetări ulterioare
Analiza efectuată pe paginile de index ale universităţilor din eşantion din dubla
perspectivă a marketingului de relaţie şi a analizei discursului a fost limitată în
primul rând prin decizia noastră de a restrânge eşantionul pe două criterii:
elementul din website analizat şi categoria de instituţii, motivele fiind premiera
pe care această cercetare o reprezintă pentru noi şi spaţiul prezentei lucrări.
Dată fiind importanţa problematicii comuncării IIS în vederea recrutării de
studenţi în contextul dificil expus în prima parte a lucrării, considerăm că
extinderea eşantionului pe cele două direcţii – tip de universitate şi pagini
incluse, precum şi includerea altor tipuri de elemente ar putea contribui la
îmbunătăţirea prezenţei discursive online a instituţiilor interesate. Nu în ultimul
rând, o cercetare în rândul publicului vizat – potenţiali, dar şi actuali studenţi ar
întregi în mod salutar perspectiva şi ar oferi posibilităţi de evoluţie către un plus
de competitivitate.

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Paginile de index consultate (aprilie – iulie 2014, aprilie- iulie 2015)




Virginia POPOVIĆ

Universitatea din Novi Sad, Facultatea de Filosofie

Departamentul de Limba și Literatura Română

Abstract: Tombstones are considered as very complexes acts, emerging as a mixture

of sculpture and architecture. Sometimes they borrow figures from the painting with
religious character. In Seleus, epitaph can be encountered frequently on tombstones
but it often happens when epitaphs in the Romanian language are written with
grammatical errors as consequences of insufficient knowledge of literary Romanian
language and the strong influence of Banat dialect and Serbian language on the speech
of a man who ordered or the man who carved this epitaph. This deviation from the
regular writing epitaphs in Romanian language in Seleus, open the way towards more
thorough studies from the social and ethno linguistic perspective.

Keywords: errors in translation, epitaph, Banat dialect, intercultural relations, ethno-

linguistic research, Seleuš

An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios “a funeral oration”) is a short text

honoring a deceased person which is inscribed on his tombstone or on a
commemorative plaque. Generally, although not always, it consists of one or
more text’s line. An epitaph always have something that will make a strong
impression or it is a usual trick directed to a reader, e.g. to warn about the
meaning of death. Epitaphs are considered to be very complex deeds developed
as a mixture of sculpture and architecture. Sometimes they “borrow” figures
from paintings with religious character. Research on Roman cemetery revealed
that the elements that can be found associate with each other. Three important
features are: correspondence between the grave and the location of a corpse,
the desire to define the personality of the deceased person by inscriptions and
its pictures, and the need to perpetuate the memory of the deceased person.
Earthly dimension of “the survival” of the deceased person among the living is
ensured by epitaph that carries the name of the deceased, marital status, age,
and sometimes social status and profession. In the middle Ages, the inscriptions
and portraits disappear from the cemeteries and they become anonymous. The
belief in the existence of the soul was more significant to the most of population

than the facts during his real life. The exceptions are the tombs of saints and
famous historical figures, which have become the places of pilgrimage over a
In the seventeenth and eighteenth century the attitudes related to death
change, so the more tombstones are erected. Till our days, these monuments
give the monumental aspect of European cemeteries. The most frequent
monument is in the form of rectangular or square shaped panel that contains
the inscription and symbol of the Christian cross. These elements, which are
part of the common Christian fund, depend on the era, state, cultural and
religious traditions, as well as the social and professional status of the
deceased, are followed by other details which only spoil the external
appearance of the monument (for example, monuments are in the shape of
hearts, birds, wings, the Bible, angels, etc.), as well as the image of the
deceased person.
The cross is the main element of traditional Orthodox Romanians tombstones
but it was rarely seen during communist period and in some places it does not
even exist, usually in cases where the deceased was a member of the
Communist Party. At the beginning of the twenty first century, economic,
political and social conditions led to a change in the aspects of Romanian
cemeteries and the emphasis is on the difference in social status of the
deceased. The so-called "Nouveau riche" build trash mausoleums for
themselves that attract attention only because of their size and cheap materials
from which they are made. In most cases the verses that show the character of
the deceased and the circumstances of its death are carved on the tombstones.
Richly decorated and painted monuments have been built for the deceased who
died in accidents, with the verses that vulgarise and replace the folk and
Christian traditions. The tombstones are relevant not only for social change in
the last two decades but also for the institutionalization of Thanatophobia1.

2. One of the possible epitaph classifications

Romanian ethnologists and anthropologists in their studies came to conclusion
that epitaphs can be classified into various groups and the best classification
represent the one based on the type of object on which they were inscribed, i.e.
the one based on technical used for making it:

1 Thanatophobia is a pathological fear of death showed by a healthy person which does not show
signs of any illness, especially the fatal one.

a. Common/general commemorative inscriptions are short and they dominate in
all tombstones. They include the first and the last name of deceased, dates of
birth and death, very often the age of deceased, sometimes precise dates
(including months and days of life). There is often a framed picture of deceased
on the tombstone. Those elements exist from the beginning of the 20th century
and they were present even in the period of communism. Sometimes the family
of the deceased wants to proudly record profession of deceased person in such
a way that they inscribe on the tombstones whether this person was a
professor, physician, engineer, etc. so that it can be different from the others
around him, for example:

În amintirea scumpului nostru / soţ şi tată/ Dr. [...] (1910-1969),/ medic

primar de oncologie/ Fost colaborator al Institutului [...]2 // In the
memory of our dearest husband and father, dr. [...] (1910-1969), Prim
Oncologist, former member of the Institute for…[...]

This second part of the inscription by its structure “communicates” with the
reader and represent common place with these types of the text. Those
common places are characteristic of both titles and texts but less for the titles
and they lessen original value of these epitaphs. The characteristic of title's
structure is duality: one part of the title included common places and the other
part included the most significant biographical information.
b. The epitaphs intended for keeping Christian eschatological messages that
contain biblical quotations or invoking of divine protection - expressions that
show us the victory over death. These epitaphs are rarely seen, most are found
in the tombs of priests. The most common are biblical quotations dedicated to
death and phrases that refer to immortality of the soul.
For example:

Rugăm pe bunul Dumnezeu să binecuvânteze sufletele noastre/ We

pray the God to bless our souls
Veniţi cu mine toţi cei trudiţi şi împovăraţi şi eu vă voi da odihnă/ Come
to me all of you who are tired and troubled and I will give you a rest.
(Мatthew, XI: 28).

2 These examples are taken from the article by Mihaela Grancea, Epitaful românesc ortodox din

perioada regimului totalitar, sursă pentru investigarea atitudinilor referitoare la moarte apud
Oamenii şi moartea în societatea românească,, in „Caiete de Antropologie Istorică”, n. 1-2 (5-6),
January-December 2005, p. 236-243.

Eu sunt învierea şi viaţa. Cel ce crede în mine chiar dacă ar muri, va
trăi/ I am resurrection and life; the one who believes in me – will live –
even if he dies. (Јоhn, XI: 25-26)
Rest in peace and may the Lord gives you eternal peace in Heavenly

c. The epitaphs that include compendious formulas related to the soul's destiny
after the death and beside them there aren`t any other information about the
social life of the deceased:

Odihnă veşnică.../ Eternal peace...

Doamne Isuse Christoase ai grijă de noi/ Our Lord Jesus Christ have
mercy on us...
Primeşte-ne Doamne în împărăţia ta/ Our Lord, take us to your
Heavenly kingdom!

Those epitaphs can often be found beside the name and age of the deceased
but they are often inscribed during the life of the deceased, sometimes made
because of the fear that tombstone's material will be more expensive or that
desirable place for tombstone won`t be available. Because of that a formula:
“Tombstone placed by… in his lifetime” can often be found on tombstones.
Those archaic texts are re-actualized and used by people that wish to take care
of their remains in a discrete manner.
d. The epitaphs, phrases under influence of the folk Christianity are texts that
warn us about the transience of human life and inevitable death. Those texts
are full of rhetoric and restlessness from the fear of coming deterioration or
death. They concentrate on individual coping strategies for his/her death. They
are based on the late antique inscriptions and also something that represents
memento mori, i.e. indicating to the transience of life and lamentation of
deceased on the absence of its mortal life.

Trecător, opreşte-ţi pasul/ şi rosteşte un cuvânt/ Fiindcă moartea

nemiloasă/ m-a răpit (te-a răpit) de pe pământ// You who are passing
by/ stop and say few words to me/because the death is merciless/ and
it took me away from you...
Şi eu am fost ca tine,/ ce calci pe-al meu mormânt/ Şi tu vei fi ca mine,
/ ţărână şi pământ// I was just like you/ you who are standing on my
grave/ And you will be just like me/ the ashes and dust

Or epitaphs on which dominate old motives about transience of life and which
tells about identical destiny of people and call for contemplation on death:

Trecătorule, opreşte-te şi citeşte. Cel care eşti am fost, ce sunt vei fi şi
tu// You who are passing by, stop and read. Once I was like you, and
you will become what I am now

Some epitaphs are concentrated on the idea of useless existence and discomfort
of deceased because he/she is not alive and the life, in this case, is represented
as God's gift.

Scurtă mi-a fost viaţa/ Parcă a fost numai un vis/ Dar în cartea vieţii
mele/ Atâta mi-a fost mie scris.// My life was short/ as it was a dream/
but in the book of my life/ that was my part
N-am vrut să plec de lângă voi/ Să trec în nefiinţă/ Aş vrea să vin iar
înapoi/ Dar nu e cu putinţă// I did not want to leave you/ and go into
emptiness/ I want to goback/ but it is not given to me

Sometimes on the tombstones we can find famous Romanian writer's texts and
poems. The most present are romantic poems from Mihai Eminescu because
they are the most suitable for Romanian sensibility. For example:

De mă găsesc iar singur, cu braţele în jos/ În trista amintire a visului

frumos/ Zadarnic după umbra ta dulce le întind/ Din valurile vremii nu
pot să te cuprind. (M. Eminescu)
With hanging arms and helpless once more I am alone / Before a dream
unending of hours that have gone;/ In vain with arms outstretching my
soul your shadow craves,/ Dear one, I cannot reach you amidst time’s
rolling waves. (M. Eminescu, translated by Corneliu M. Popescu)

e. One group of epitaphs can include grief of those who survived because of the
loss of their loved ones. The most epitaphs like this can be found on
tombstones of people that passed away too soon and they are dominated by an
elegy and eternal remorse.

Ca o stea ai strălucit/ În zorii dimineţii/ Dar moartea crudă te-a răpit/ În

floarea tinereţii// As a star you shone in the dawn/ But cruel death has
taken you away from me/ In the best years of your youth

f. Epitaphs that include archaically inspired theatricality, original afterlife

dialogue between deceased child and his/her discomforted parents. Those
verses are sometimes inspired by Romanian folk stories i.e. Romanian folklore.

De ce te-ai dus şi ne-ai lăsat/ Copilul nostru drag,/ Cu sufletul
nemângâiat?...../ Why did you leave us/ our sweetheart/ and left us/
with emptiness in our souls?...

Related to this group of epitaphs it can be said that epitaphs-clichés also exist,
and that they express the grief for the loved ones in traditional manner; their
frequent presence explain circulation of motives that come from expressed
feelings of deceased's relatives. There are these epitaphs-clichés:

„Ai plecat de lângă noi/ Fără a spune un cuvânt...”/ „You left us/ with
mp words for goodbye...“


Sub această piatră rece/ Şi în acest tăcut mormânt/ Zace ce-am avut
mai drag/ Şi mai scump pe acest pământ// In this quiet grave/ beneath
this cold rock/ lies my dearest and most precious thing in the World
Pe drumul lung al veşniciei/ Plecat-ai prea de timpuriu/ Dar în inimile
noastre/ Vei rămâne veşnic viu// You went too soon/ on the eternal
journey/so you will live in our hearts / for eternity

g. Epitaphs that include formulas or metaphysical meditation themes that got

humorous character as epitaphs.
For example:

„Am făcut-o şi pe asta!”/ „I manage to this, too!”

„Cine se naşte de două ori, / Moare o singură dată / Cine se naşte o
singură dată/ Moare de două ori” „ The one who was born twice/ dies
for just one time/ and the one who was born only once/ dies two times
(it is related to a person who was privileged to be baptized)”

3. The tombstone in Seleuš

The inscriptions are very significant historical sources because they often
provide informations of great value and their existence in certain area provide
different phylological studies. Since they were written on different material that
affected the type of objects used for writing. The inscriptions can also be
classified on material of which they were written and that partially defines their
style and content. Beside these indirect informations, the inscriptions are
significant for providing the direct informations. The language on which the
inscriptions have been written on tombstones represent significant starting point
in phylological studies. The inscriptions are mostly shorter than original text,

both because of limited space of tombstone and writting style (curving,
engraving, building in, fresco-technique).
In Serbian istoriography, texts and inscriptions are often classified in the same
group without emphasizing its values. In the most comprehensive collection, so
far, of these historical sources Old Serbian inscriptions and records, Ljubomir
Stojanović wrote about them. Vladimir Ćorović, Petar Momirović and Božidar
Šekularac also had a similar aproach to those sources. Ćorović emphasized
similarities more than differences between texts and inscriptions. Rade Mihaljčić
emphasized that difference between those historical sources isn't just formal, in
material upon which are they written but also in its content. Because of that,
new histography emphasizes difference between these two groups of sources
and insists on separate studies.
Seleuš, a village with mixed population is almost 600 years old. The historical
names of this village were: Szölös – in 1456, Sелеush – in 1746, Кеvi-Szölös -
in1888. The name Seleuš is used from 1912. This village has existed since 1456.
Since the Turks have been expelled from this area it was inhabited by
Romanians from Romanian Banat region. In the year 1773, there were 93
houses in the village. In 1776, Seleuš was given to the Ilirian-Banat regiment,
and in 1776 to the German-Banat regiment. The Serbs and Romanians have
lived there together and they have learned each others customs and language,
the Serbs have learned Romanian and the Romanians have learned Serbian. In
Seleuš people speak Banatian dialect of Romanian language and that causes
confusion in writings. People are not familiar with the phonetical transcription of
Banatian dialect so it can be found many orthographic mistakes on the
tombstones which are consenquence of insufficent knowledge of literaly
Romanian language and strong influence of Banat dialect and also Serbian
language of the person who is ordering tombstone or the one who is carving an
epitaph. Such deviation of correct writing of Romanian epitaphs opens the new
paths for thorough sociological and ethnolinguistic studies.
In our study of Seleuš tombstones we have found out orthographic mistakes
which aren’t present on the tombstones built at the end of the last century. The
mistakes are more related to ignorance of Romanian language by non-
Romanian stonecutter on one side, and on the other side, by family which gave
text written in local dialect or the epitaph that is not orthographicaly corret has
been dictated over the phone.

For example:

Molumentul îl ridikă soţija copilu nora ši nepoţi/ Споменик подижу

супруга, снајка и унуци /The tombstone has been built by wife,
daughter in law and grandchildren

In this epitaph there are six orthographic mistakes. The correct text should be
like this:

Monumentul îl ridică soţia, copilul, nora şi nepoţii

It can be said with certainty that this epitaph has been dictated over the phone
because Romanians, in Banatian dialect nor in literaly language, do not use the
word molument for the tombstone. Also, the word ridikă, correctly ridică has
been under the influence of Serbian language written with „k“ instead of
Romanian „c“ and also the word soţija is incorrect, again because of the
influence of Serbian language and the pronounciation whereas in Romanian
language letter „j“ is pronounced as „ž“. Written in this way it will be
pronounced as sociža instead of socija. The writing of the next word copilu, is
not related to insufficient knowledge of the stonecutter, but to influence of
Banatian dialect and speach in Banat region. The last letter – „l“ is lost in
prounanciation not only in Banat region but in the whole teritory of nowdays
Romania. Because of that, the family of the deceased didn’t think that they
need to pay attention to the rules of Romanian language and that article –ul
must be put.
Conjuction ši (Romanian - şi) is written with Serbian letter „š“ instead of
Romanian ş, because of insufficent knowledge of the Romanian letters. The last
word nepoţi could be written correctly if there was proposition before the noun,
for example: de nepoţi, cu nepoţi, or the verb, for example: ei sunt nepoţi/ they
are grandchildren, but if there is an object in the sentence, the plural of nouns
must be with two –ii, one „i“ means that the noun is in plural and the other „i“
is the article which is in Romanian language always in the end. In this case the
stonecutter could made a mistake but also the family, the first one because of
the insufficent knowledge of language and the family because of the insufficient
knwoledge of the Romanian language orthographic rules.
The similar can be found on the next epitaph:

Krućia ridikata de Pau ši Kila/ Крст подигнут од стране Паула и Киле

The cross is built by Paula and Kile

The correct version is:

Crucea ridicată de Pau şi Chila

The strong influence of Serbian language can be seen here. In this example
letters of Latin alphabet has been used (ć, š, k instead of c). In our study we
found out inscriptions which on the first sight look like they are written correctly
but if we analyze them we can notice two small but very important mistakes.
For example in the text: „Monumentul este ridicat de fii Dorel şi Josimel” „The
tombstone has been built by sons Dorel and Josimel.“ An expert in Romanian
language can notices that the word fii is written with two, instead of three – iii
and that the name Josimel has been written with letter „J“ instead of „I“ (under
the influence of Serbian language and its pronounciation). Correct version is
Iosimel. Also the names of the deceased Josif and Jon have been written with
the Serbian „J“. In Romanian language, only two words can be written with
three – iii, – copiii and - fiii and one of those words is written on the
tombstone. The third „i“ is the article which is always put at the end of nouns
(masculine) in plural. On this same tombstone it can be found adverb for place
which is more in use in regional speech. That is adverb aicia that is written
without „a“ at the end, aici. But this type of adverb is often not considered as a
mistake. The tombstone that we have previously mentioned
in the group d, and that includes inscripctions which adress passer-by to stop
and read what is written and after that to think about transience of life.

Trecatorule, cand treci aicia, dete opresti rupe din cânp o floricia /
Passer-by, if you pass here, stop and pick a flower...

The correct version is:

Trecătorule, când treci pe aici, de te opreşti, rupe din câmp o floricea....

They didn’t put commas because of the lack of space on which the epitaph
should be written so they thought that commas weren’t important, but the
word cânp that should be correctly written as câmp, has been written under
influence of Banatian dialect in which can it be heard as “н”, not as “м”. In
Romanian language, in front of the labial constonant „p“ and „b“ must be letter
„m“. There aren’t any collocations in the inscription but the word floricea has
been written under the influence of Seleuš’s dialect - floricia.
On the other side of the tombstone it is written:

„...şi punio la crucia mia ca şi eu am fost ca ea Miclia Leonora”/ „...and
put it near my cross because I looked just like it” (as a flower)

The correct version should be:

„... şi pune-o la crucea mea că şi eu am fost ca ea! Miclea Leonora”

In this example, the verb pune wasn’t divided from the pronoun –o, since in
Romanian language verb and pronoun can not form one word. Because of that,
linguists made up the dash (-). The other word (crucia, mia) were also written
by the influence of Banatian speech/dialect.
Contrary to the previous epitaph, the next one is written correctly but the plural
isn’t correct, because of the insufficient knowledge of Romanian language.
For example: „Monumentul este, ridicat de, fiul, lui Bălu ši nepoţi. Anu 1983”
“The tombstone has been built by son Balu and grandchildren. Year 1983“
Correct version is: „Monumentul este ridicat de fiul lui, Bălu, şi nepoţii. Anul
The word nepoţi should be written with two –ii, – nepoţii because of the rule
for plural of nouns. Commas were put after few words that can’t be seperated
with comma because it is the verb. For example este, ridicat instead of este
ridicat/ has been built. The comma has been put between auxiliary verb je, and
the verb. The meaning of the sentence would be different in the other context.
The study of Romanian tombstone in Banatian village Seleuš took us to
conclusion that tombstones built in the last century include the first, the second
and the fourth group of epitaphs, and that grammatical mistakes can be found
on the tombstones without relation to the year in which they were erected.
Because of that we came to conclusion that mistakes weren’t corrected since
the Romanian Academy of Science established rigorous reform of Romanian
orthography in 1992. The strong influences of mother tongue with Banatian
dialect and Serbian language have contibuted that Romanian literaly language
stays aside and that few people use it in Serbian Banat region (the most of
them have finished Universities in Romania) and Romanian linguists can’t agree
about rules of Romanian orthography even today.
Because of that, one part of Romania is still writing upon old rules and the other
one according to the new ones. Seven years ago, the linguists initiated „small
reform“ of Romanian language and brought some new rules, unfamiliar to the
most part of the Romanian inhabitants. If those rules are unfamiliar to

Romanians in Romania, how much are they unfamilar to Romanians in Serbia?
Although social, cultural and political transformations leave visible traces in the
structure of tombstones, there are persistent aspects that are showing the facts
about non-substantial changes in the burial customs and also the discurse in the
meaning of death, in the way it is reflecting in tombstone inscriptions i.e.

Bojin, Aurel. (1990). Seleuş – un secol de activitate culturală. 1884–1984.
Seleuș:Comunitatea Localǎ.
Bubalo Đorđe. (2009). Pisana reč u srpskom srednjem veku. Značaj i upotreba pisanih
dokumenata u srednjovekovnom srpskom društvu. Editura Stubovi kulture:
Grancea, Mihaela. (2004). „Epitaful românesc ortodox din perioada regimului totalitar,
sursă pentru investigarea atitudinilor referitoare la moarte“. In Caiete de
antropologie istorică. Oamenii şi moartea în societatea românească. Seminarului
de Antropologie Istorică (Historical Anthropology Books). No. 1-2, (5-6). Cluj-
Napoca: Ed. Accent: 180-200.
Мihaljčić, Rade. (2001). Izvorna vrednost zapisa i natpisa. Izvorna vrednost stare srpske
građe. V. Belgrade: Srpska školska knjiga i Knowledge.

Lect. Marina-Cristiana ROTARU, Ph.D.

Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: Language is a major element of social life, having a dialogical relationship

with it as language both influences and is influenced by social life. Hence, language
turns into a primary tool for social research, able to reveal aspects of social life which
may not always be identifiable with the naked eye. Language awareness can contribute
to a better understanding of how various social identities or structures are constructed
in language according to their own specificity. The text-based approach to language
that language awareness advocates encourages reflection on language, which may give
the potential reader a better grasp of this or that particular language use.

Keywords: language awareness, discourse analysis, Elizabeth II

As constitutional monarch, Elizabeth II is bound, by constitutional propriety, to

respect the principle of political neutrality and act as arbiter of political life and
not as participant to it. At the same time, she does enjoy the three
constitutional rights coined by Walter Bagehot: the right to be consulted, the
right to warn and the right to encourage (Bagehot, 1966: 111). The way in
which the monarch can manifest these constitutional rights and constraints is
through language. Although, at first sight, Elizabeth II’s speeches may seem
quite platitudinous, they are, in fact, manifestations of the queen’s approach to
her own position in the State architecture and to her role in society.

1. Should monarchs speak their mind?

If constitutional monarchs are expected to comply with the requirements of the
role of political arbiter, how much of the sovereigns’ views should be made
public without infringing on the Crown’s constitutional neutrality? The exercise
of the monarchs’ rights as identified by Bagehot indicates that monarchs are
allowed to have views on various public policies, which they are free to share
with their ministers who form their government, yet these views are not to be
made public and the monarchs are by no means expected to take sides. But to

believe that it is the monarchs’ constitutional duty to remain as quiet as a doll
and have their voices muffled would be a serious misjudgment of the
sovereigns’ constitutional duties.
Elizabeth II is widely regarded as the monarch who has kept her views as
privately as possible setting a new royal standard in this respect which her
ministers and subjects have come to appreciate. And yet, she has managed to
make her views known to her people when she considered it necessary in such
a way as to remain loyal to her constitutional position while indicating that, in
the architecture of the State, she was not a silent figure. It seems that the key
to Queen Elizabeth’s style is, to use her own words, “moderation in all things”
(Elizabeth II, 1992). The following article aims to demonstrate how moderation
is carved in the language of a constitutional monarch.

2. Moderation – the mark of royal discourse

For an inexperienced reader, Queen Elizabeth II’s speeches may seem
commonplace, but a second look helps uncover linguistic particularities that
point to and reveal the queen’s intentions. Such is the “Annus Horribilis”
Speech, delivered on 24 November 1992 at Guildhall, a historic speech not only
due to the fact that it marked the fortieth anniversary of the queen’s Accession
but also due to the way in which the monarch used her right to warn in a
moderate, yet very clear manner.
The political and social context of the speech also contributes to its historic
nature. The queen and her family were under intense public criticism aimed at
the improper conduct of various members of the royal family and their marital
problems which severely eroded the public image of the dynasty as a united,
strong and well-set family. Politically and financially, the country was trying to
recover from the effects of the Black Wednesday (14 September 1992) when
the Pound Sterling was withdrawn from the European Exchange Rate
Mechanism (Crowther, 1999: 58), which led to a decrease in its value that was
to put additional strain on the British tax payer.
Then, on 20 November, Windsor Castle caught fire, which caused severe
damage to the royal residence. As the castle is not the sovereign’s private
property, but the Crown’s, State officials announced that the repairing costs
would be supported by the Government, which proved a public relations faux
pas at a time when the members of the royal family, unlike the common
individual, were exempt from paying income taxes. Little did public opinion
know at the time that one year before the queen herself had privately decided

to pay taxes on her personal income as anybody else. Since the implementation
of the royal decision could not be made over night, it was decided that the
announcement be made some time later in 1993. But the Windsor fire
precipitated things and details of the new financial settlement had to be
released. However, public opinion considered that the queen’s statement came
a bit too late and the sovereign was perceived not as the willing and unhindered
initiator of the decision but as someone reacting to public pressure.
The way in which things turned out saddened the queen, as the title of her
speech indicates. My claim is that the historic significance of this speech is
provided by the manner in which the sovereign relinquishes her customary
reserve and becomes more assertive in an attempt to defend the monarchic
institution against an unprecedented wave of criticism. With the help of a
healthy sense of humour, the queen uses her rights to warn and advise in a
way that allows her own disquiet to be voiced and clearly understood.
The manner in which the sovereign gradually constructs her warning and
depicts those to which the warning is mainly addressed is worthy of
investigation. First, the queen re-contextualizes an anecdote in order, perhaps,
to draw a parallel between the main character of the anecdote and her conduct
on one hand and some of the critics of the monarchy, on the other hand:

Years of experience, however, have made us a bit more canny than the
lady, less well versed than us in the splendours of City hospitality, who,
when she was offered a balloon glass for her brandy, asked for ‘only
half a glass, please’.(Elizabeth II, ibidem: lines 18-21)

Re-contextualization is a particular form of representing a social event which

basically rests on the “transformation of meanings, through de-contextualization
(taking meanings out of their contexts) and re-contextualization (putting
meanings in new contexts)” (Fairclough, 2006: 26). When a social event is re-
contextualized, its elements are selectively filtered and re-combined according
to various recontextualizing principles which “affect how concretely or abstractly
social events are represented, whether and how events are evaluated,
explained, legitimized […]” (Fairclough, 2003: 139). The concrete nature of the
queen’s anecdote and its capacity for generalization provided by its denotative
meaning helps reveal how she evaluates recent criticism triggered by the
restoration of Windsor Castle: the lady of the anecdote may stand for anyone
who, while claiming to be an expert in various fields of knowledge, proves to be
an amateur. The queen may thus point to those who rushed to criticize her and
her handling of the income tax issue without a deeper knowledge of the matter.

In addition, the queen points to the “years of experience” without which sound
opinions cannot be built.
The inclusive meaning of the personal pronoun “us” is also suggestive: it stands
not only for the queen and her consort, but for the representatives of the
Corporation of the City of London, civil servants with a solid working experience.
The manner in which the queen represents herself and her hosts as
knowledgeable social actors, involved in running an institution is also
suggestive. Her choice rests on the adjective “canny”. Drawing on M.A.K.
Halliday (Halliday, 1978: 164-182), Norman Fairclough underlines that there is a
variety of ways of “wording a meaning” (Fairclough, 1992: 190) as far as the
relationship word-meaning is concerned and that each wording points to a
particular intent. When one word is chosen, it is chosen against a multitude of
other options. So, language awareness helps reveal two aspects: why a lexical
item has been preferred and why not others which, at first sight, may have
been considered possible.
According to the dictionary, “canny” means “thinking quickly and cleverly”,
being used “especially in business or financial matters” (Procter, 1995: 189).
The queen could have used other synonyms of “canny” such as “discerning,
discriminating, perceptive”. But her lexical option suggests how she sees
herself: she may not be a financial expert, but years of experience have helped
understand the power of specialized advice. In other words, her decision to pay
income tax was not the outcome of a reaction to public pressure, but a well-
thought judgment.
The queen’s representation of herself as a professional is softened by the use of
hedges, such as the adverb “however” or “a bit”. Generally, hedges represent a
“diffuse range of ways of manifesting various degrees of affinity” (Fairclough,
ibidem: 159) with a particular topic. In the context, they introduce one of the
queen’s values: professionalism. The hedge “a bit of” illustrates the queen’s
attempt to avoid any kind of linguistic extravagance which may have been
understood as an expression of self-appraisal.
The next paragraph of the speech introduces the queen’s motto: “moderation in
all things”. The coherent link with the previous paragraph is established by the
sentence: “It is possible to have too much of a good thing” (Elizabeth II,
ibidem: line 22). The queen’s disapproval of any form of excess is rendered via
a structure characterized by “objective modality”. Drawing on Michael Halliday’s
concepts of “subjective modality” and “objective modality” (Halliday, 1994: 356-
363), Theo van Leeuwen points to the fact that in the case of “objective

modality” the objective truth is linguistically expressed by an “assertion […]
preceded by a frame” that “begins with ‘it is’ or ‘there is’” and ends in ‘that’,
followed by an adjective or a noun that indicates the degree of modality (Van
Leeuwen, 2005: 163). The phrase used by the queen illustrates a low objective
modality which helps the queen express her views objectively, in accordance
with the constitutional propriety that is expected of her. The evidence that
objectifies the royal position is introduced by re-contextualizing another

A well-meaning Bishop was obviously doing his best when he told

Queen Victoria, "Ma'am, we cannot pray too often, nor too fervently, for
the Royal Family". The Queen's reply was: "Too fervently, no; too often,
yes". I, like Queen Victoria, have always been a believer in that old
maxim "moderation in all things". (Elizabeth II, ibidem: lines 22-25)

The fact that the queen re-contextualizes an anecdote from the nineteenth
century could be interpreted as an attempt to create a sense of detachment
from the media turmoil whose target the royal family was. Furthermore, the
parallel with Queen Victoria depicts the queen as the continuator of a long
constitutional tradition according to which the Crown was a symbol of
equilibrium and impartiality.
Next, the speech introduces the queen’s reflection on how the present turbulent
events may be perceived by future generations: “I dare say that history will
take a slightly more moderate view than that of some contemporary
commentators. Distance is well-known to lend enchantment, even to the less
attractive views” (Elizabeth II, ibidem: lines 25-27). The queen’s commitment to
her assertion, expressed in a subjective modality construction is carefully
wrapped in words that aim not at diverting the royal message but at cushioning
the impact of her views. In using the verb “dare”, the queen underlines that,
although she cannot claim to foresee the future, her experience allows her to
make a sensible prediction. Of notice is the manner in which the sovereign
chooses to represent some of the social actors involved, namely the future
generations that may evaluate the present differently. In the speech, these
generations are collectively represented as “history”. This nominal element,
together with the noun “Distance” and the nominalization “enchantment” are
resources for generalizing and abstracting (Fairclough, 2003: 220) which, in the
present context, permit the sovereign to deflate tension.
The following paragraph contains, in my view, the climax of the entire speech:
the sovereign asserts her constitutional right to warn in an unprecedented

manner. Considering the benefits which distance provides, the sovereign states

[…] it can also lend an extra dimension to judgment, giving it a

leavening of moderation and compassion – even of wisdom – that is
sometimes lacking in the reactions of those whose task it is in life to
offer instant opinions on all things great and small. (Elizabeth II,
ibidem: lines 29-31)

Although she uses the demonstrative “those”, thus creating, linguistically, a sort
of distance that builds perspective, the queen nevertheless hints directly and
unmistakably at those who, in the royal view, criticize the monarchy having no
other higher purpose.
For the queen, it is not moderation alone that is regarded as a vital ingredient in
analyzing or evaluating contexts and social actors. One should also add
compassion and wisdom if criticism is meant to have a positive outcome.
Compassion is an intrinsic value of all great religions and for the queen as the
Head of the Anglican Church, such a dimension could simply not be overlooked.
The manner in which wisdom is introduced in the royal formula is worthy of
investigation. The preceding adverb “even” is ambivalent as far as its meaning
is concerned. It does not seem to function as an intensifier. On the contrary, it
conveys the meaning that if wisdom as “the ability to make good and serious
judgements because of one’s experience and knowledge” (Hornby and
Crowther, 1995: 1369) may not be the attribute of any individual, moderation
and compassion should be indispensable if one wants to have a positive
contribution to the world around. At the same time, the adverb “even” may also
manifest a rhetorical force when uttered.
In order to soften her message, the queen continues by stating that “No section
of the community has all the virtues, neither does any have all the vices. […] He
who has never failed to reach perfection has a right to be the harshest critic”.
(Elizabeth II, ibidem: lines 32-34). In paraphrasing Saint John the Apostle, who
is thought to have said that “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast
a stone” (King James Bible, The New Testament, John, 8, 7), the queen
reinforces the role of moderation in all walks of life. The biblical reference
legitimizes the queen’s position and makes it more easily acceptable by those
whose attitude may have been the target of her address.
As a constitutional monarch who is expected to assert the rights to advise, to be
consulted and to warn, Elizabeth II seems to be aware of the benefits which

criticism may bring about and encourages it, but on certain conditions. With a
commonsense that has become the mark of her statements, the queen
maintains that

There can be no doubt, of course, that criticism is good for people and
institutions that are part of public life. No institution - City, Monarchy,
whatever - should expect to be free from the scrutiny of those who give
it their loyalty and support, not to mention those who don't. But we are
all part of the same fabric of our national society and that scrutiny, by
one part of another, can be just as effective if it is made with a touch of
gentleness, good humour and understanding.(Elizabeth II, ibidem: lines

The “touch of gentleness, good humour and understanding” which the

sovereign invokes in her advice represent the ingredients which a constitutional
monarch as head of the nation is expected to wisely combine since it is her
sacred duty to preserve the unity of her nation and foster conciliation within the

3. The role of passivization in the royal discourse

The text under scrutiny is the queen’s Christmas Speech of 2009, the year
which marked the sixtieth anniversary of the Commonwealth of Nations, whose
head the British monarch is. It was an opportunity for the sovereign to
underline the relationship that she has built with the Commonwealth throughout
her reign.

I have been closely associated with the Commonwealth through most of

its existence. The personal and living bond I have enjoyed with leaders,
and with people the world over, has always been more important in
promoting our unity than symbolism alone. The Commonwealth is not
an organization with a mission. It is rather an opportunity for its people
to work together to achieve practical solutions to problems. (Elizabeth
II, 2009: lines 22-26)

Complying with her constitutional neutrality, the queen does not take a direct
part in the policy-making process of the Commonwealth. But her political
neutrality should not be mistaken for impassivity. On the contrary, the queen’s
contribution to strengthening the bonds between Great Britain and its former
colonies on the one hand and among the Commonwealth member states on the
other hand is widely acclaimed. She has carved a vital role in the life of the

Commonwealth by remaining in the background and providing support,
encouragement and conciliation in times of trial.
The passive construction “I have been closely associated with the
Commonwealth” is meaningful in the context. Passives are usually used when
the agent is known or easily implied in the text or when it is not essential to
underline it. In addition, passivization is often encountered in political texts
because, as Fairclough underlines, its purpose is to “leave agency and hence
responsibility vague” (Fairclough, 1992: 76). But here, the sovereign does not
aim to becloud agency and avoid responsibility. Why, then, is passivization used
in this context?
By representing herself in a passivated form, the sovereign underlines that her
role is not to interfere in Commonwealth matters but to advise, warn or counsel
when required. Nevertheless, the adverb “closely” adds a new dimension to the
royal role. Although the sovereign does not participate in the policy-making
process, she is a close observer who does not hesitate to express her views and
use her constitutional rights if need be as was the case in 1986 when she
supported the Commonwealth leaders in their effort to impose sanctions on
South Africa and its apartheid policies, a measure which the queen’s own Prime
Minister, Margaret Thatcher, disagreed with (Bradford, 2002: 378).
Another aspect worthy of emphasis is the choice of the verbal construction
“have been […] associated”. The queen could have used another verbal
expression like “have been involved” but such a choice may have resonated
with political involvement or participation. Therefore, the monarch’s
nonpartisanship may have been linguistically endangered. Moreover, the idea of
presenting herself as an “associate” of the Commonwealth tallies, semantically,
with the notion of “partner”, or “colleague”, being in agreement with the terms
of the London Declaration of 1949 which marked the birth of the
Commonwealth of Nations. According to the Declaration, the members of the
organization pledged to “remain united as free and equal members of the
Commonwealth of Nations” (London Declaration, 1949: line 21). Hence, the
queen’s lexical option was meant to underline that the British monarch remains
faithful to the terms of the London Declaration.
Next, the queen reveals what she considers, and what other also believe to be,
the key to her success in Commonwealth affairs: “the personal and living bond I
have enjoyed with leaders” which “has always been more important in
promoting our unity than symbolism alone”. The choice of the noun “bond” and
the verb “enjoy” may not have been random. “Bond” has various synonyms

such as “affiliation”, “attachment”, “connection”, “link” or “tie” (Spooner, 1992:
54). But the noun “bond” seems to better emphasize the feeling of friendship
which lies at the basis of the queen’s relationship with various Commonwealth
leaders. Furthermore, the noun “bond” collocates with a variety of verbs, such
as “feel, have, create, develop, forge, form, strengthen” (Crowther et al., 2002:
74). By opting for the verb “enjoy” the queen underlines two aspects which are
manifested by the semantic load of the verbal item (Hornby and Crowther,
ibidem: 383). On the one hand, the sovereign may have meant to emphasize
the satisfaction she has got from her contribution to the development of the
Commonwealth. On the other hand, she may have hinted at the advantages
that her magistrature d’influence has given to the Commonwealth as indicated
by the private talks that Commonwealth leaders have with the sovereign during
the biannual Commonwealth conferences as well as on other occasions.
Indeed, Elizabeth II’s role as Head of the Commonwealth is a symbolic one, but
“symbolic” does not mean “decorative”. In fact, the queen’s contribution to the
Commonwealth and the manner in which she has fulfilled her role gives credit
to Walter Bagehot’s conclusion that the Crown, representing the “dignified part
of the Constitution” (Bagehot, ibidem: 61) is that element in the architecture of
the State which brings the Government “force – which attracts its motive
power” (Bagehot, idem). The Government as the “efficient part of the
Constitution” only “employ[s] that power” (Bagehot, idem) which the executive
cannot produce alone. Hence, symbolism alone is unproductive if attached to an
organism that cannot “excite and preserve the reverence of the population”
(Bagehot, idem).

Bagehot, Walter. (1966). The English Constitution. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University
Bradford, Sarah. (2002). Elizabeth. A Biography of Her Majesty the Queen. London:
Penguin Books.
Crowther, Jonathan. (1999). Oxford Guide to British and American Culture. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Crowther, Jonathan et al. (2002). Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English,
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elizabeth II, Queen. (1992). Annus Horribilis Speech, 24 November 1992. London: The
Official Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 7 June 2014 from

Elizabeth II, Queen. (2009). The Queen’s Christmas Speech, 2009. London: The Official
Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 23 September 2011 from
Fairclough, Norman. (2006). “Semiosis, Ideology and Mediation: A Dialectical View”. In
Lassen, Inger, Jeanne Strunck and Torben Vestergaard (editors). Mediating
Ideology in Text and Image: Ten Critical Studies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins,
2006, 19-35.
Fairclough, Norman. (2003). Analyzing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research.
London and New York: Routledge.
Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. London: Polity Press.
Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.
Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Arnold.
Hornby, A. S. and Crowther, Jonathan. (1995). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of
Current English, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
King James Bible, Authorized Version, Cambridge: The Official King James Bible Online.
Retrieved 4 July 2014 from
Procter, Paul. (1995). Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Spooner, Alan. (1992). The Oxford Minireference Thesaurus. A Dictionary of Synonyms.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The Commonwealth. (1949). London Declaration 1949. London: The Official Website of
the Commonwealth. Retrieved 3 July 2014 from
Van Leeuwen, Theo. (2005). Introducing Social Semiotics. London: Routledge.

Raluca Maria TOPALĂ

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department for Communication and Foreign Languages

Abstract: The works aims at investigating certain lexical features of the diplomatic
language. It focuses on the types of collocations used, weasel words, borrowed terms
and terminology. The work addresses topics such as specificity of collocations, the most
typical borrowed terms used- and from which languages and the specific terminology
employed. It also sets the goal to determine whether, from a lexical point of view,
diplomatic language can be considered a type of Language for Specific Purposes.

Keywords: borrowing; collocations; diplomacy; weasel words

This work aims at analysing the diplomatic language from a lexical point of
view. Therefore, for the purpose of this work, we will try to define what
diplomatic language, or the language of diplomacy is.
The etymology of the word is very interesting: as Michael Quinion describes, in
Ancient Greek it meant something that had been folded in two, then, from
Latin, it entered French, where the term of corps diplomatique was initially used
just for archives; it only entered English in 1796, where it was first used by
Edmund Burke (….). Far more interesting, although the term had been coined in
the latter part of the XVIII Century, the British Foreign Service was only
established in the first part of the XIX century, after the Congress of Vienna in
1815 (Nicolson, 1942: 203). In the past, French was the lingua Franca of
diplomacy for centuries. Kappeler notes that, for diplomats, “professional
requirements were merely an excellent general education, […..] and of course
full fluency in French, the only language of diplomacy” (Kappeler, 1998: 49).
French has lost this status in the first part of the XX century, which was
deplored by some authors – Nicolson names it “one of the most precise
languages ever invented by the mind of man” (Harold Nicolson, 1942: 233).
Following the establishment of the League of Nations (the first international
organisation to have English as one of the working languages), of NATO and of
the Bretton Woods organisations, English has gained more and more ground in

international relations. Nowadays, English has become more and more
prevalent in diplomatic relations and, in general, in global communication.
Nowadays, according to working diplomats, English as one of the languages
needed in almost all situations encountered by a diplomat, for both oral and
written communication (Stanko, 2002: 41-43). Moreover, according to David
Crystal, out of 12,500 international organisations active in 1995-1996, around
85% used English as one of the working languages (compared to 49% using
French, and 10% for Arabic, German and Spanish). Around a third of them used
only English as working language. By contrast, around 13% did not list English
as a working language, most of them being Francophone organisations.
(Crystal, 2003: 87-88).
According to a more recent report, out of 1,760,615 pages translated in total by
the EU Directorate General for Translation in 2012, 14.92% were translated into
English (as compared to 8. 25% into French and 6.47% into German).
The corpus was selected so as to reflect a number of situations and instances –
from speeches held in front of a specialized and non-specialized audience, to
treaties signed by two or multiple parties, and to span over a long period of
time – almost 100 years, as the oldest sample dates from 1918 and the newest
from 2013. The samples have been divided into four categories: speeches,
press releases, treaties and UN resolutions.

1. Collocations
Our lexical analysis focuses on two main aspects: collocations – their structure
and the way they are related to the main message, of and borrowings – source,
categories, use and frequency.
One of the first findings was that collocations in speeches are mainly built
around the main theme or message, thus strengthening it, and so are the ones
in press releases, treaties and UN resolutions. Additionally, we have found that
some of them are specific to the language used in one particular piece of corpus
or another.

1.1. Collocations in speeches

The analysis of collocations in speeches can be a very useful instrument in
deciphering the intentions of the speaker. Often, the collocations in our corpus
are built around the meaning theme, or themes, and, in most cases, they are
put to good use in conveying meaning, intentions, ideas and symbols.
Let us consider Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Apart from the collocations specific to
the purpose, time and place when the address was uttered (national policy,

international guarantees, free and secure access), we find two opposing set of
collocations. One the one hand, we have secret understandings and private
international understandings, and on the other hand, open covenants of peace.
The phrase secret understandings, as Kissinger explains, refers to the old way
of conducting diplomatic and international relations – a secretive game played
by the elites. The open covenants is just an incipient name for the future
League of Nations and, further on, for the United Nations Organisations – an
entirely new manner of doing diplomacy, one that Old Europe was hardly used
to (and happy with). (Kissinger, 1994: 218- 246). Indeed, a change of such
proportions justifies entirely the use of the new world collocation at the very
end of the address. For much of its existence prior to the World War I, the
foreign policy United States of America had been relying on the George
Washington’s precepts and on the Monroe doctrine, which provided non-
interference in other states’ affairs. As Kissinger put it, Wilson succeeded in
taking these very two pillars of American diplomacy and turning them into
reasons for doing exactly the opposite, namely becoming involved in
international politics, in the name of spreading the democratic values in which
America believed so much. Moreover, America was the only country whose
status, military power and influence in the world grew considerably after the
World War II (Kissinger, 1994 17-56). Wilson was right, therefore, to speak of a
new world.
As far as Churchill’s addresses are concerned, it is known that his use of
language in general was considered one of the most skilful in the history of
diplomacy. This is applicable to both wartime speeches, when, in the words of
J.F. Kennedy “he mobilized the English language and sent it into battle” and
peace-time speeches. Collocations are no exception. Just as in the previous
example, many collocations are specific to the nature, time, and purpose of the
address - national sovereignty, world institutions (in The Price of Greatness)
and, respectively world power, mutual security, over-all strategic concept (in
The Sinews of Peace), so we will not dwell too much on them. Another type of
collocations are the ones meant to describe the relations between the United
Kingdom and the United States of America; the two states are named good
comrades (which also alludes to the fight that the two sides were taking part in)
who stand shoulder to shoulder1 and, in The Sinews of Peace, he speaks of how
the two kindred nations should pursue and build their special relationships -
1 (a rather common English collocation, which would later be heard in a speech by President Bush

on his first official visit to Romania, in…., and rendered into Romanian in the most uninspired way
as şold to şold – hip to hip, in English, due to the similar sound of the Romanian şold and the
English shoulder)

sometimes named fraternal relationships. In The Price of greatness there are
references to the English language (of the factors binding the two nations) as
an international language, whereas in the Sinews of Peace we have many
references to the past- dark ages, vanished glories. But probably the best-
known collocation in his speeches, one that would become a staple of the Cold
War talk, is the iron curtain: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic,
an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Churchill is largely credited
for having coined the term, but apparently, it had been used before; he does,
however, have the merit of using it in this context, in an address with a large,
international audience, and, thus, of being among the earliest voices to have
warned against the Soviet domination in Eastern And Central Europe, although
these warnings weren’t very well received by everyone - the Time magazine
published a very negative review of the speech, and many Americans believed
that this his words reflected “views that were narrowly British, imperialist,
reactionary, and dangerously anti-Russian.” (Lukacs 2002: 13).
Hillary Clinton’s speeches also reveal a very skilful use of collocations. Both
speeches in our corpus are examples of what is called “soft diplomacy”- they
were held before and, respectively, after her term of office as Secretary of
State, and they do not touch upon matters pertaining to foreign policy stricto
senso; rather, they are an attempt to promote women’s rights at global level, a
cause to which Ms. Clinton dedicated much time and effort; most collocations in
these two addresses fall into one of the following categories:
 collocations describing women: highly successful, hard-working, agents
of change (participants in) peace making and peace-keeping,
(participants and beneficiaries of) grassroots activism, (shut out of)
 collocations related to women, families and related issues: family
planning, baby care, after school;
 collocations describing problems faced by women worldwide: domestic
violence, armed conflict, economic deprivation, minimum wage, child
marriage, sexual violence, weapon of war, violent extremism, official
corruption, gang rape, glass-ceiling index, male-dominated (fields);
The most frequent collocation in her both speeches is human rights - a concept
that has been in existence throughout most of world history, but was only
defined in an „official” manner after the Universal Declaration of Human rights,
in 1948. In 1995, Clinton said that human rights and women’s rights and
women’s rights are human rights. She would resume this statement, at the end

of her 2013 speech: And let’s keep telling the world over and over again that
yes, human rights and women’s rights and women’s rights are human rights,
and in another speech. In 2011, she employed a similar structure when
speaking about gay rights gay rights are human rights, and human rights are
gay rights.
As for Obama’s address on Syria, most collocation fall into the following
 collocations describing the Syrian regime: poison gas, chemical
weapons, weapons of mass destruction;
 collocations related to various solutions/responses, which can be:
o peaceful: humanitarian support, political settlement,
international law peaceful solutions, constructive talks;
o military: military strike, military action, targeted strike,
war-making (power);
Many of them are repeated, strengthening their effect in describing the
atrocities of the Assad regime, or in underlining the need for peaceful,
diplomatic solutions, or the imminence of military strikes.
One of the collocations in the second category, constructive talks, is a staple of
diplomatic lingo. Had David Melinkoff lived in our day and age, he would have
probably included in his list of weasel words, as officials seem to employ this
formula in order to mask the very fact that the respective talks haven’t led to an
agreement. Constructive talks has been one of the most often heard collocation
in the recent events Ukrainian (Obama used the same wording when
mentioning the talks held with the same President Putin), but the reality seems
to contrast its seemingly positive connotation.
As for the speeches of Ambassador Gitenstein, Secretary General Scheffer and
Ambassador Harris, their language is adequate to their position and the venue
of the speeches:
- Ambassador Gitenstein’s address was held as part of an event organized by
AmCham (The Romanian- American Chamber of Commerce). Most collocations
in his speech revolve around economic topics: anti-corruption, command and
control (economy), tax evasion, social assistance foreign investors, professional
capabilities, domestic businesses, business community;
- S.G. Scheffer’s speech was held in the first part of a working lunch of NATO
Defence Ministries. Most collocations pertain to NATO issues and concepts:
security forces, ethnic violence, presidential elections, operational capability;

- Ambassador Harris’ speech was held during the Mass Transport Conference in
2013, and many of the collocations he uses pertain to economy and, in
particular, to the field of transportation: national interest, road infrastructure,
transport infrastructure, transport industry, management consultancy, world
class (development), networking events, business representatives.
1.2. Collocations in Press Releases
The Shanghai communique marks the resumption of American-Chinese
diplomatic ties after many years, and, as such, covers large variety of topics.
Most collocations in this document pertain to fields the fields of foreign policy
and international law (international situation, negotiated settlement, self-
determination, (sovereignty and) territorial integrity, outward expansion, foreign
aggression, international military conflict and domestic policy (social progress,
social systems, internal affairs). Sovereignty and territorial integrity is one of the
most used concepts in international law; we will meet it in treaties and UN
resolutions as well.
As for the three press releases of the US Embassy to Bucharest, their language
revolves around the topic addressed, with collocations following the same line:
the Diversity March release speaks of LGBT rights, civil rights, gay rights
movement, and about how gay people were treated as second-class citizens in
the past; the press release on the changes in the penal code refer to the
respective changes as being a step backward for our country, appealing to
notions such as the rule-of-law and civil society; and the Anti-Semite Carol
urges to condemning such acts in the strongest (unequivocal) terms.

1.3. Collocations in Treaties and UN Resolutions

As it has already been pointed out, both treaties and UN resolutions make
extensive use of legal language. It is no surprise, therefore, that many of the
collocations employed in these documents pertain to the legal field, in particular
to international law, and to the military and domestic policy. The majority of
collocations used by Treaties and UN Resolutions could be divided into the
following categories:
 general law: entry into force, interim period, mechanism of conciliation,
arbitration disputes (Oslo Accord); entry into force, equally authentic
(NATO Protocol); special law (Kiev Agreement); full (and verified)
completion, (UN Res 1441) - some of them confirm Gotti’s statement
on binomial expressions as traditional feature of the legal language
(Gotti, 2008:236).

 international law: (sovereignty and) territorial integrity (Dayton
Agreement), instrument of accession (NATO Protocol); acquisition of
territory, territorial integrity, territorial inviolability, political
independence (UN Res 242);
 military: cease-fire (line);prisoners of war, separation of forces, check-
point (Six Point Treaty); armed forces ( Dayton Agreement);armed
forces (UN Res 242);
 domestic policy: public order (Oslo Accord); national unity government,
constitutional reform, presidential elections (Kiev Agreement);
 other: common interest (Oslo Accord); acts of violence (Kiev
As we have pointed out, the concept of territorial integrity, as described in the
Article 73b of the Charter of the United Nations, is one of the most frequently
met in such documents- to no surprise, as many conflicts have sparked from the
territorial claims of one state over another.

2. Borrowings
As we have seen already, English hasn’t always been the lingua franca of
diplomacy. Latin, and then French were used to this end for purpose, and
therefore, it is no surprise that the diplomatic English uses a series of terms
borrowed from French and, to a lesser extent, from Latin.
Multilateral diplomacy, in particular, uses a series of terms borrowed from Latin:
ad hoc, ad referendum, caucus, in extenso, quid pro quo, quorum, status quo,
casus belli exequatur, ex gracia.
Many of the borrowings from French used in diplomacy fall in one of the
following categories:
 diplomatic titles and positions: Attaché, Chargé d’Affaires, Rapporteur;
 diplomatic documents: aide mémoire, bout de papier, note verbale,
 relations between states: détente, rapprochement, agrément, accord;
 terms and abbreviations used in correspondence: P.C. (used in written
correspondence, with the meaning of "pour condoler" - to express
sympathy); P.F. ("pour féliciter" - to extend congratulations); P.M.
("pour memoire"-to remind). P.P. ("pour présenter" - to introduce);
P.P.C. ("pour prendre congé" to say goodbye); P.R. ("pour remercier" -
to express thanks).

Our corpus does not contain relevant borrowings. This is not a reason, however,
to infer that borrowings are not specific to the language used in diplomacy.

In our corpus, conclusions tend to be structured around the main theme or
topic, highlighting and stressing the main message or messages, in particular in
speeches and in press releases. In the United Nations Resolutions, on the one
hand and treaties and agreements, on the other hand, most of them are specific
to the field the general law, domestic policy and military field. Borrowings,
although present and widely employed in general in diplomatic language, have
not been identified in our corpus.

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Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu is one of the authors who received many

stylistic objections. Too mindful of touching the spiritual senses, the author neglects the
form of the text, using either too many neologisms, loan translation and improper
affected terms, or cacophony and disagreements. Other times, Hortensia Papadat-
Bengescu creates words by changing their gender or she misuses a verbal form. The
critics evaluated all these either with a touch of indulgence, or with a “mischievous
tendency”. Although she doesn’t juggle with stylistic methods, Hortensia Papadat-
Bengescu is now considered a refined prose writer.

Keywords: language, short prose, stylistic methods, loan translation, neologisms.

There is no doubt that in Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s works neologisms are

part of a usage the public was not familiar with, not even the critics, since the
language of her texts caused many “appeals”. E. Lovinescu himself, who admits
to her original talent, does not hesitate to state that Hortensia Papadat-
Bengescu writes in an unlucky language (Lovinescu, 1989: 133), and Șerban
Cioculescu remarks that “Mrs. H. Papadat-Bengescu’s writing has been for a
long time loaded with the residues of abstractions and those of scholarly
neologisms, derived from French” (Cioculescu, 1938: 410). The writer is
accused not only for the neologisms: for instance, the diagnosis given by Tudor
Teodorescu-Braniște is truly incisive; after enumerating a series of excerpts
meant to highlight the author’s clumsiness in language, he adds: “And so on:
the same groping in the Romanian dictionary in search of the right word. […]
Mrs. H.P.-B.’s writing is a threat for Romanian language and a monstrous attack
against literary common sense.” (Teodorescu-Braniște, 1922: 84). There are
also voices, namely Anton Holban, that believe that Hortensia Papadat-
Bengescu “accustomed us with a flood of neologisms that don’t seem flashy at
all now and that have enriched the possibilities of expression and they
established the true face of our city life.” (Holban, 1975: 13). Moreover, in

order to strengthen his demonstration, Holban also brings arguments based on
the author’s texts themselves, where we find no neologisms, namely Pe cine a
iubit Alisia? (Who Did Alisia Love?), saying that “we can’t turn this habit (the use
of neologisms) into a main feature” (ibidem: 32). It’s unbelievable how the
author succeeds in migrating from a scene where she relies on neologisms
(avea darul să mă scoată din răbdare ca și imuabilitatea barometrică a bunei
sale dispoziții – “he had the gift to annoy me like the barometric immutability of
his good humor”, sau poate un lung atavism de existențe simetrice, care își
construiesc edificiul vieții și îl surpă ca pe un joc de cuburi, îi dă această
formulă? – “or maybe a long atavism of symmetrical existences that build their
structure of life and undermine it as if it were a game of cubes gives it this
formula?”, se transformă într-o tragedie mută și inexorabilă – “it turns into a
mute and unrelenting tragedy” ― Femei, între ele/Women, Among
Themselves), to one soaked with almost archaic terms in a text marked by a
certain rural vigour. In extension to this observation, we have chosen some
relevant excerpts: minutul de odinioară (“the aforetime minuteˮ); baba moțăia
într-un ungher (“the old woman was snoozing in a cornerˮ); mi-am făcut
cruce…am pus ivărul greu pe clanță (“I crossed myself… I put up the heavy bolt
on the door handle”); a trecut prin bătătură o umbră necurată (“a cursed
shadow passed through the front yardˮ); mie, bătrânului ei sfătuitor, n-a găsit o
vorbă bună de spus, și a purces în golul necunoașterei, a muțeniei si
nemilostivirei de mine, fiindcă la făpturile gingașe muchile [sic!] răutății pe ele
însele dor mai ales. Când s-a hurduit trăsura din loc eu m-am priponit în
picioare (“she found nothing nice to say to me, her old adviser, and she went
on into the vacuum of ignorance, of silence and of lack of compassion towards
me, because the edges of wickedness of kind creatures hurt them most of all.
When the carriage rumbled off, I fixed my feet into the ground.” – Pe cine a
iubit Alisia?). Broadly speaking, in her writings, the author doesn’t advertise the
type of language she adopts in Pe cine a iubit Alisia?, and that is precisely why
we must notice in addition that for this inventory of terms she had to persevere
in documenting herself; known for her passion for the epistolary genre, she
feels the need to reveal her efforts when working on this text, so that she
confesses to G. Ibrăileanu in a letter from the 19th of February 1914
(Papadat-Bengescu, 1966: 35):

The difficulty does not derive from there, but from the need to handle a
language which is not at hand for me and which is required by the very
small topic, which, besides, came unbidden, which I got used to, and
whose characters, places and atmosphere I see as clear as can be, I

hear them talking, but the execusion confuses me, I stumble against
some difficulty when I want to make them talk like them and like
myself. I didn’t start writing it on paper – I’m waiting for the spring…

It is obvious that this type of language wasn’t familiar to her, since a few
months after she returns to the same topic in a letter she addresses to the critic
(ibidem: 46):

I have one more story on a topic that concerns me, in a form that
someone else dictated. I realize that I found myself using a form,
expressions which were not part of my common vocabulary, that it was
useless for me to look for them some other time, that I didn’t even
understand I knew them and they gave me, as they came, the exact
impression that someone else is dictating them to me; and the prove
that there is something in it is that, stopping at some point, I wasn’t
able to resume anymore and I’m waiting for the wise old adviser of
those times to return.

When she mentions this short story in her notes for the critical edition, Eugenia
Tudor Anton states that: “Here the cadence of the phrase seems different, the
emphasis of some words, their frequency are dissimilar, and there is even a
new syntax, a simplified one. But – what a strange thing! – as it was noticed,
Alisia adds a tint of modernity through the atmosphere of mystery, of
unrevealed secret, through that modern suspension and alternance of the real
level with that of the dream or the supernatural.ˮ (Papadat-Bengescu, 1972:
430). Therefore, it is precisely this counterbalance that adds significance to the
text; in order not to misfire in this “storyˮ, Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu
manages, in 31 pages, to discover a common language, which, as she
confesses, was not familiar to her. On a closer look, we notice that the text
makes use of words from the folk and the colloquial register, abundantly
disposed: cuhnie (“kitchen” or “pantry”), pregură, părete (old form for “wall”),
saga (“saga”), vecinic (old form for “eternal”), stam (“I sat”), încotrova
(“towards an uncertain place”, “somewhere”), sastisit (“troubled”, “confused”),
talere (“thaler”), tipsie (“tray”), pâlpară (a variant for “pârpară” – “pouring
rain”), meteahnă (“defect”), scoborî (“to descend”), buhă (“owl”), năntuț
(“tall”), slove (“words”), aievea (“actual”, “real”), nițel (“a little bit”) and arde-i-
ar aripa (“may his wing be burnt”), nărui-s-ar peste el depărtările (“distances
crumble over him”): Sărut mâinile și ochii, duducuța maichii, că tare ești
crescută năntuț și bine (“Let me kiss your hands and eyes, my child, for you
grew pretty tall and wellˮ), or N-aș vrea să mai trec așa seri pe lume: să vezi tu

un suflet murind și să nu moară, să vezi că se rupe fără să-și desfacă legăturile
traiului; când să sune a sticlă fărămată, când să se prelingă a sânge, când să
țipe ca o vrabie sugrumată să cobească cu buha, să se topească ca seul
fierbinte, să ardă ca pluta (“I should never like to live such nights again: to see
a soul dying without it dying, to see it breaking without it tearing its bounds
with life; now it sounds like breaking glass, then it oozes like blood, then it cries
like a choked sparrow to croak with the owl, then it melts like hot tallow, then it
burns like a raftˮ); Eu stam locului cam sastisit… (“I sat still somewhat
confusedˮ); Și fiindcă Alisia se uita încotrova, m-am uitat și eu să văd cum vine
timpul (“And as Alisia’s glance wandered away, I too started watching how time
The disparition of the “-lˮ consonant in the words putregaiu (“rottenness”),
vârfu (“top”, “peak”), zboru (“flight”), moșneagu (“old man”) represents another
method by which the author tries to give an oral appearance to the text; so, she
is trying to practice writing as if she were talking, although in 1919, when the
short story had been published, this form was also used in the written variants
of the language, as Rodica Zafiu explains in an article related to this topic
(Zafiu, 1999: 10).

From a grammatical point of view, the loss of ‘-l’ in the oral register is
not very important; as it is known, the article’s function is taken over by
the preceding vowel ‘–u’, so that the distinction inarticulate/articulate
(cap/capu’ – “head/the head”) is very well kept. Some Romanian
linguists have been tempted to accept the expansion of the oral
innovation in the written variants of the language. For instance, August
Scriban applied the unifying principle in Dicționaru limbii românești
(1939) (Romanian Language Dictionary), where, as it can be noticed
right from the orthography of the title, the final ‘-l’ was not marked

Surely the reason for which Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu turned to this aspect is
to render a spontaneous live feature of the text.
There are situations in which the author turns to phrases that can be now
perceived as totally unfortunate: “Pe lutul glios un fir își scoate vârfu și întinde
rămurele din sămânța floarei de odinioară, așa și iubirile duse dau în noi ramuri
înverzite” (“On the clay of the field a blade raises its head and it stretches little
twigs from the seeds of the flower of yore; and so it is also with lost loves that
give new green branchesˮ – Pe cine a iubit Alisia?). The Romanian adjective
glios (“of the field”) is an old term which has now disappeared from the

present-day dictionaries, but on a closer look at the root, the term glie (“fieldˮ)
can be found in Dicționarul Explicativ al Limbii Române (The Explanatory
Dictionary of Romanian Language), as well as in the dictionaries from the first
half of the last century, refering to a furrow sown with grass (Șăineanu, 1929) or
to a piece of land with the grass pulled out from one place and put elsewhere in
order to stop the landslide (Scriban, 1939); still, in a glossary (Barbu, 2012: 38)
of the old words from the idiom used in Banat (actually, the one in Uzdin), the
word glios appears with the meaning “land with big clods that remain after
ploughing”, derived from glie – “pieces of land with grass”. The association of
the noun lut (“clay”) with the Romanian adjective glios is now seen as a
linguistic slip or as “an uninspired formˮ (an observation which belongs to
Eugenia Tudor and which appears in a note in the critical edition of Hortensia
Papadat-Bengescu, Opere, volume I, Minerva Publishing House, Bucharest,
1972, page 432), but it is possible that, when using this phrase, the author
might have refered, one way or another, to the blade of grass as a metaphore
of love, and definitely not to the field.
In a detailed analysis, Șerban Cioculescu inventorizes the linguistic faults
present in Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s novels too, “with the faith that the
author’s writing can avoid such errors in the future” (Cioculescu, 1938:413); for
instance, from Rădăcini (Roots) we selected only part of those rendered by the
critic: the misuse of the genitive particle a, al, ai, ale before the noun: “salturi
de paiațe a (instead of ale) spiritului “or “ora de consultație ale (instead of a) lui
Caro”; the wrong declining of the pronouns însumi (“myself” – masculine),
însămi (“myself” – feminine), ele însăși (“them myself”) or ei (plural) însăși
(“they herselfˮ); also, the wrong agreement of the relative pronominal adjective
with the possessed object, and not with the possessor: Madona a cărui (instead
of al cărei) secret. Also frequent are the disagreements between the subject
and the predicate: “tributul nevestelor îi păreau obligatoriu” (“the tribute of the
wives seemed [plural] to him compulsory”) and “de Mari îl lega prea multe”
(“many things connected [singular] him to Mari”), and the misuse of some
Romanian phrases: “amândouă nu făceau sat” (instead of casă) mult” or
“invitații aleși pe unghie” (instead of pe sprânceană) (ibidem: 411-12).
The question rises justly: what stand can we find for the author to explain the
disagreements, the cacophony, the improper or obsolete terms, sometimes the
extravagant neologisms and other times the abundant adjectives? Some critics
think that Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s language faults are derived, in a way,
from her lyrical disposition. Anton Holban notes: “The author’s style is not the
result of long meditations and experiences, but the expression of a lyrical

disposition.ˮ (Holban, 1975: 32). Eugenia Tudor Anton considers that the
author’s specific language forms “evince a confusing verbal genius, concomitant
with a discouraging negligence or spontaneity of the word.ˮ (Tudor Anton,
1972: LXXXI), while Tudor Vianu remarks: “The defects, as well as the qualities
of Mrs. Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s writing are the sign of the same essential
lyricism. To it we owe the lack of objectivity and of restraint on the feelings that
prevents a strong motivation and an epic organization. But also to it we owe the
outstanding power of suggestion that emerges from the whole production of
our writer.ˮ (Vianu, 1920: 356). Slightly exceeding the limits of the topic, we
notice that the writer herself makes a clear analysis of the path that an author
follows in his becoming and she remarks that the literary path is dotted about
with defects too; all we can do is believe that the result is the one that matters:
“In the succession of the literary pilgrimage no one is indifferent and no one can
stay indifferent. That doesn’t mean that this narrow path and these
confrontations are faultless.ˮ (Papadat-Bengescu, 1932:6).
Another “method of enrichingˮ the text that Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu uses is
the loan translation from French: for instance, in the excerpts from Marea (The
Sea) – “spune pudicului tău bărbat, dacă ar avea îndemn să se scandalizeze, că
dezvoltarea fizică e o problemă serioasă a vremilor noi” (“tell your bashful
husband, if he should feel urged to get outraged, that the physical development
is a serious problem of the new ages”), the phrase avoir envie was translated a
avea îndemn (“to feel urged to”), or “Dar era noapte, o jumatate de lumină
roșie, și liniște așa de mare, încât gândul ți se părea încă prea zgomotos!...”
(“But it was dark, half a red light and such a deep silence that a thought
seemed to you too noisy!...”), the phrase ”jumătate de lumină” (“half a light”)
was taken from demi-lumière (Tudor Anton, 1972: 416). Despite this, Eugenia
Tudor Anton points out: “They groundlessly said that the first writings of
Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu are not only clumsy, but entirely without any
stylistic virtues. They passed impermissibly easy from the finding of some
obvious inaccuracies and Gallicisms to a hasty generalization and to the
questioning of the whole. There can be no more inexact process, and neither a
more hazardous statement, which besides can be easily denied by whole pages
from the writer’s early works.” (Tudor Anton, 1977:207).
In the short story Lui Don Juan în Eternitate, îi scrie Bianca Porporata (To Don
Juan to Eternity, Writes Bianca Porporata), the author compares the color of the
sea to the topaz: “She’s the most beautiful woman in the world and the
proudest. She’s unique and eternal. And today she’s blue… I think I should be
crazy to believe she has ever been otherwise. So blue, like crushed topaz”; this

comparison makes Eugenia Tudor Anton point out in a foot note of the critical
edition: “This is obviously an inadvertence, as the topaz is yellow”. It is true
that, starting with Dicționarul Universal al Limbii Române (The Explanatory
Dictionary of Romanian Language) in 1929, by Lazăr Șăineanu, and culminating
with Dicționarul Explicativ al Limbii Române (The Explanatory Dictionary of
Romanian Language – 2012), all the existing dictionaries (although not the
specialized ones) assign to the topaz the color yellow, but on a closer analysis
of the meaning of this word we notice that the topaz mineral can be found in a
variety of colors, including blue. It seems that this aspect was unknown to
Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu, since in the short story Femeia în fața oglinzii
(The Woman in Front of the Mirror) she assigns this mineral the color yellow
too: “An elongated almond pendant, hanging on an invisible silver chain, played
its filigree sparks of diamond powder around a pale topaz, and its clear yellow
was just as bright.”
Too mindful to touch the spiritual senses, the author neglects the form of the
text, either using improper terms: “oamenii omeneau”, with the meaning “they
lived their lives” (Pe cine a iubit Alisia?) or “Adriana de cum intrase, descleștase
în mașina asta stricată simțirea zgomotoasă și neînfrânată” (“As soon as she
entered, Adriana unclenched the noisy and unbridled feeling in this broken
machine.”), where the meaning is clearly “aroused” or “unleashed” (Romanul
Adrianei/Adriana’s Novel), or “Timpul și puterea care trebuiseră pentru a săpa
inseparabil făptura unuia în a celuilalt, și pentru ca unul să se îndureze fibră cu
fibră din celălalt, o lăsară îngândurată adânc” (“The time and strength required
to carve one’s being in the other and for one to last through the other fiber with
fiber had left her deeply musingˮ) (Femeia în fața oglinzii). In connection to
this, Eugenia Tudor Anton noted (Papadat-Bengescu, 1972: 438):

The writer’s capacity to invent terms that, in order to be deciphered,

have surely put the readers in great difficulty it’s astounding. In this
case: pentru că unul să se îndureze în celălalt means “to last through
something, through someone”. Anyway, in order to taste the writing of
this great author, perhaps her first readers needed, if not some kind
of… initiation, at least much patience.

Other times, Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu creates words by changing their

genre or a verbal form that she intentionally misuses: blestemățească for
blestemă (“to curse”): Iar eu socoteam că omu e diavolul – dar încă așa vreunu
al diavolului să-mi blestemățească năframa mea cea curată, n-aș fi gândit să fie
(“And I thought that man is the devil – but even so, I never suspected him to

be one of the devil’s that curses my pure kerchief.ˮ) and răsadă for răsad – Să
nu sădești, Moș Darie, nicio sămânță, să nu lași să crească nicio răsadă…
(“Don’t dibble, Old Darie, not one seed, don’t let any seedling grow…ˮ); she also
creates words by changing the grammatical value: from the noun fundal results
an adjective, in the phrase umbra fundală (“the background shadowˮ); the noun
zadarul, derived from an adverb instead of the noun zădărnicia (“uselessness”),
in the phrase cetatea zadarului (“the city of uselessnessˮ) (Femei, între ele); the
adjective monom in the phrase sticlă monomă (“monomial glassˮ) for monoclu
(“monocle”). In her texts, we also find rare associations, unexpected epithets in
phrases such as: imbecilitate curativă (“curative sillinessˮ), inteligență estivală
(“summer intelligenceˮ), colori neutre și pacifiste (“neutral and peaceful
colorsˮ), vidul ferial (Femei, între ele), pânze subțiri și coraline (“thin cloths and
corallineˮ), răstimpuri searbede și consternate (“dull and astounded timesˮ)
(Vianu, 1956: 268).
Another constant feature of the early prose is the use of “the strong adjective”,
as Tudor Vianu calls it; in this respect, the critic gives relevant examples taken
from the volume Ape adânci (Deep Waters), especially from the short story
Femei, între ele, where the author assigns a string of epithets to the look and
the eyes in order to strengthen her arguments:

Cruel, treacherous, disgusting, perverse, ironic, brutal, shameless – all

the forms of evil were present in that look, when I avoided her and
when, seldom, I gave it what it asked of me, my own; its dark beauty
cannot be described. [...] Thus, countless like a continuous chain of
fireflies on the two sides of my path, I see, when looking for memories,
only “the eyes”. Bold and fleeting, insinuating, inquiring, shy, admiring,
flattering, with promises…

Other times, she misuses the plural forms for accusative and genitive-dative
cases: coturne for coturni [thick sole shoes that the tragedy actors wore in the
Antiquity in order to seem taller], then lunei (“of the moon”), lumei (“of the
world”): Aripi de păsări ca să te ducă vântul și aripi la coturne ca să luneci
drumurile lumei, sau aripi de lumină ca să te soarbă lumina lunei, înseamnă să
fii infirm (“Wings of a bird for the wind to carry you and wings on your shoes for
you to slip on the paths of the world, or wings of light for the light of the moon
to absorb you means to be crippled”) (Lui Don Juan în Eternitate, îi scrie Bianca
Porporata), grumazul hlamei (probably derived of the incorrect singular form
hlamă – “cloakˮ) for hlamidei: Iar Doamna cea mare, luna, când s-a desfășurat
stângaci în broboada ruptă a unui nor, a văzut gura lui ajunsă la grumazul

hlamei albe (“And when awkwardly unfolding inside the torn shawl of a cloud,
the great Lady, the Moon, saw his mouth reaching the neckband of the white
cloakˮ.) (Lui Don Juan în Eternitate, îi scrie Bianca Porporata), or brațe vânje for
brațe vânji, which is in any case an obsolete and a common-language term: Pe
acolo prin depărtari, către unde mintea mea, uneori frântă de uitare, se întorcea
limpede, aveau ades lopătarii pe brațele lor vânje, chipuri și semne felurite, arse
cu fieru (“There, in the distance, where my mind, sometimes outworn by
oblivion, turned clear, the paddlers often had strong arms and various faces and
signs burnt with iron.ˮ – Pe cine a iubit Alisia?).
Many times, the linguistic slips are also visible through disagreements, such as:
Cei din jur [subject in the plural form] o învățase [predicate in the third person
singular] să se ferească de sânge ca de o licoare ermetică (“The people around
her had taught her to avoid blood as if it were a hermetic potionˮ)
(Sânge/Blood), or through useless repetitions of a word and of its synonims
inside the same sentence: Mobilierul de odinioară, de demult, cu desenul
perdelelor… (“The furniture of yore, of long ago, with the design of the
curtains…ˮ – Romanul Adrianei).
A strange situation, to say the least, is created in connection to the noun prânz
(“lunchˮ), which, in the author’s vision, refers to the evening meal: Era noapte
de tot. Luminile electrice clipeau rar sub pomii desfrunziți și nu se vedea niciun
alt trecător. Trebuie să fi fost ora prânzului. (“It was dark everywhere. The
electrical lights were blinking slowly under the leafless trees and not a passer-by
was in sight. It must have been lunch time.ˮ – Romanul Adrianei). In the older
dictionaries (the period 1929-1936), this noun appears as follows: “food eaten
at noontime (or towards evening)ˮ (Șăineanu, 1929) or “food eaten at middayˮ,
with a reference to dinner – also called “the evening lunch”; if we broaden the
filigree of the research, we notice that in the same dictionaries the verb a cina
(“to have supperˮ) makes a reference to the verb a prânzi (“to lunchˮ) (Scriban,
1939). In view of the fact that the short story Romanul Adrianei was first
published in 1920, therefore close to the apparition date of the dictionaries from
the mentioned period, it is not entirely unconceivable that the author “adapted”
to the acceptations of those times.
In a stream of recognition of his disciple, E. Lovinescu gives his endorsement
also with respect to the style of the writer’s texts, reinforcing the idea that
actually the background of a text is not the form (Lovinescu, 1921: 29-30):

In light of the principle of relativity in relation to the background, the

problem of Mrs. H. P.-B.’s style resolves itself. With this author, the

abundance of sensations, but most of all the power of incision of the
observations grow to proportions that influence the form too. Plethoric
by an excess of adjectives, separator by an abuse of neologisms,
obscure by a heap of remarks, pedantic by its scientific nature and
exuberant by lyricism – Mrs. H.P.-B.’s style can lack the common
qualities of clarity and austerity, related however to the abundance of
the background and to the rhythm of the soul; it is not only a necessary
style, but a perfect one too.

Barbu, Vasile. (2012). Cuvinte vechi din graiul bănățean al Uzdinului. Societatea Literar-
Artistică Tibicus (Uzdin).
Cioculescu, Șerban. (1938). „Romanul doamnei Hortensia Papadat-Bengescuˮ. Revista
Fundațiilor Regale. 11: 409-427.
Lovinescu, E. (1921). Critice, vol. VI. Bucharest: „Ancoraˮ Alcalay & Calafateanu
Publishing House.
Lovinescu, E. (1989). Opere, vol. VIII. Edition by Maria Simionescu şi Alexandru George.
Bucharest: Minerva Publishing House.
Papadat-Bengescu, Hortensia. (1932). “’Sburătorul’ văzut de…ˮ. Vremea. 232: 6.
Papadat-Bengescu, Hortensia. (1966). Scrisori către G. Ibrăileanu, vol.I. Edition by M.
Bordeianu et al. Bucharest: Editura pentru Literatură.
Papadat-Bengescu, Hortensia. (1972). Opere, vol. I. Critical edition and notes by
Eugenia Tudor, preface by Constantin Ciopraga. Bucharest: Minerva Publishing
Scriban, August. (1939). Dicționaru limbii românești. Institutu de Arte Grafice “Presa
Șăineanu, Lazăr. (1929). Dicționarul universal al limbii române. VIth edition. Scrisul
Românesc Publishing House.
Teodorescu-Braniște, Tudor. (1922). Oameni și cărți, vol. I. Bucharest: Editura Librăriei
Tudor Anton, Eugenia. (1977). Ipostaze ale prozei. Bucharest: Cartea Românească
Publishing House.
Vianu, Tudor. (1920). “Hortensia Papadat-Bengescuˮ. Sburătorul. 23: 356.
Vianu, Tudor. (1956). Arta prozatorilor români. vol II. Bucharest: Editura pentru
Zafiu, Rodica. (1999). “Păcatele limbii: Articolu’ ˮ. România Literară. 1:10.

Yolanda-Mirela CATELLY

POLITEHNICA University Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Communication in Modern Languages

Abstract: The aim of the study is to raise a challenging question among the community
of ESP professionals who are not only teachers, but also materials designers. One of
their roles is to consistently keep the materials resources up to date, most frequently
against tight constraints of time and financial support. The building up of a framework
of principles underlying the effort of refreshing/modernizing/updating resources
becomes mandatory. It should comprise general views, but also leave room for
personalized options meant to take into account the features of each educational
context. The study attempts to provide some answers to the following issues: why
should we refresh materials; what should we change; when should that happen; and
how should we do it - with a view to generating a supporting skeleton structure allowing
for standardization and, at the same time, inviting further personalization in response to
specific contextual differences.

Keywords: ESP, engineering higher education, teaching resources, updating materials,

pedagogical framework

1. Paper aims and support literature review

The idea underlying this study is that in our contemporary society we are
witnessing a panorama of tremendously rapid changes in all areas: social,
political, economic, cultural etc. which also involves correlated constant dynamic
modifications in the field of science and technology.
These changes also bring about a spate of new relationships on more subtle
planes – and they should be reflected in the materials which are used in the
teaching of a foreign language, such as English, particularly when we discuss –
as our case here goes - tertiary education of the engineering type, more
specifically Computer Science students.
We should probably remark that in the case of ESP materials the choice of skills
and even grammar under focus in most of them tends to modify much more
slowly in time than the lexical component, as well as the content itself of the
input texts used, whose outdatedness is by the mere nature of the field quite

rapid in our era, particularly in the field of IT. Therefore, the main aim of this
study is to analyze the complex aspects connected with the effort to maintain a
high face validity of a course book/other didactic materials against a range of
constraints specific for a certain educational context.
A course book generally has a long term usage, spanning decades in some
cases, and there are numerous examples in this respect. However, with ESP
materials, although the main frame, the concept, the foci and the approach to
teaching and learning underlying them can stay valid in time for quite long, the
need appears to update its elements which ensure its face validity.
Most frequently, out of economic reasons, but also due to more specific causes,
such as the dissolution of the initial authorial team or the lack of training of
some new potential teachers/authors, it becomes quite inefficient to rewrite a
course book entirely. What can be done in response to the demands of the
dynamic of change, though, is, we maintain, to revise/update/modernize in
various ways some flagrantly outdated parts, maintaining the same principles,
and even the same structural building blocks of the initial book, while replacing
expired content with a refreshed one.
A discussion of the applied terminology appears as useful at this stage. What
is, then, modernization? A tentative answer is provided (McGrath, 2002: 74)
by identifying it with parts of the semantic fields of ‘personalising,
individualizing, localising’. We would comment that, behind these decomposing
synonyms, one can decipher the effort of some course book authors, most
probably also the teachers themselves, to take into account the students’ needs
and profile, as well as the wider features of the concrete educational context –
which, particularly for an ESP course book, can be the sources of significant
variability, we believe.
Surprisingly enough, materials development has only recently become a distinct
‘field of academic study’ (Tomlinson, 2012), with modest size literature to be
found about it – and even less can be identified on material resources
refreshing/modernizing/updating principles and approaches. The main stress in
the literature on materials adaptation has been placed on: classroom
management, maximizing the task-based materials, increasing interactivity etc.
Hence the need for teachers/authors who, as the case is here with us, wish to
modernize their materials and to build their own framework of principles along
the paradigms of the: reasons for change (why), content aimed at (what),

appropriate moment for it (when) and, last, but certainly at least equally
important, manner of modernizing materials (how).
It is an advantage many teachers would emphasize to have a course book to
rely on for one’s activity, even if you have to add/select/adapt … or modernize
its content periodically.
In the context discussed here, there are such course books (Blându, M. et al.,
2004; Adam, E. et al. Consultant: Ray Williams, 1996) - which we co-authored -
which generally meet the learners’ needs and have sound objectives,
appropriate to the contextual expectations of most stakeholders. They have
been in use for some time and with good results in terms of increasing the
students’ communicative competence; nevertheless, while preserving most of
them, in time the need has emerged to try to operate some updating surgery
on them in order to render their student-friendliness character in point of
Moreover, we maintain that by so doing, the teacher can include, with chances
of success, certain new components in the course book material, which would
mean a subtle shift of focus towards more modern and very useful aspects, for
instance towards strategies conducive to the learner’s autonomization of study.
Such aspects comprise, among other things: (i) using IT means, (ii) developing
a reflective attitude, and (iii) assuming enhanced responsibility for their learning
process, at a higher level of motivation.
In a comprehensive study on modernizing EFL materials, Cirocki (2010) not only
emphasizes the ‘time-constrained’ character of most materials, but also
establishes some of the criteria to be taken into account in modernizing them,
referring to ‘re-usability’ and ‘compliance with the teaching standards or
programme’s goals’. Moreover, he adds that compliance with students’ needs
and interests and the feature of being ‘enjoyable to learn from’ are also
important. He also speaks about the ‘student-informative’ character of good
materials. Indeed, for a future engineer the feeling that the material
corresponds in terms of technical content is equally important for maintaining
the course book validity, we consider.
To such significant elements to be taken into consideration in materials
modernization, we should also add a ‘relevant and useful’ character of the
materials, which should ‘expose the learners to language in authentic use’,
according to Tomlinson (1998).

The same idea of enjoyment resulting from the use of the materials appears
with Robertson (2002), who stresses the importance for the learning process of
‘engaging’ the students. These should be ‘interested in, involved in and enjoy
what they are studying’ as preconditions for good progress and learning
It appears therefore as natural that, when teachers evaluate the materials they
use, they should suggest some changes, although those materials meet the
class profile and other essential criteria. But, considering the fact that we are
living in the second decade of the 21st century, with science and technology
evolving at fast speed around us, and aware of the fact that they are the object
of our engineering students’ (of the Bucharest Polytechnic) domain of study –
being at the same time a useful tool allowing/inviting them to grasp novelty
wherever they can identify it and to try to internalize and implement it in their
study, and later on in their work, we, teachers/course designers, are called to
carry out certain modifications in the course books we use.
In our opinion, these amendments should be economical and yet efficient on as
long a term as possible, while preserving the positive features of the initial
materials, as well as their capacity of answering the learners’ needs, and
observing the valid context- related principles of construction underlying the
course books that are subjected to change.
To conclude at this point, in teaching both ‘English for Professional
Communication’ and ‘English for Science and Technology’ to bachelor level first
and second year students, respectively, our position is that modernization is
indispensable and desirable, because the necessity to modify parts of an ESP
course book content focused, for instance, on Computer Science is an
imperative one, given the fact that such a material has very high chances of
becoming obsolete quite rapidly, thus decreasing the students’ interest in the
course. Similarly, new terminology has been introduced in the field and the
materials should reflect it, sampling from the most stable and relevant for the
learners in their academic activity and, later on, in their engineering career.
In point of the balance between fluency and accuracy, change is also welcome,
with accuracy being less under focus in secondary education language learning
materials to which the students had been exposed, in favor of a fluency which
might have sometimes been too relaxed – which could later on be detrimental
to the graduates getting employment in multinationals, where the
required/expected language proficiency level is generally C1/C2 in CEFR terms.
Moreover, a more precise sense of the register and style in order to correctly

mark various degrees of formality is equally an emerging need for our students,
as it resulted from errors identified in the pieces of writing produced by them.
The what-to-change question is directly correlated with the why-to-change one
above, particularly in a field such as Computer Science, where quite a lot of
content easily becomes out-of-date. Additionally, learning enhancement means
and materials can be embedded in the course book, focusing on the
development of the students’ language learning and using strategies or the
implementation of IT in their study, with a view to enabling them to be good
autonomous learners after the course in faculty is over and also for a lifelong
approach to developing their language and communication connected skills.
This gets us neatly to the answer in terms of the methodological approach to
implement, which, in our opinion, should go beyond the communicative
viewpoint and embrace a more eclectic view of teaching/learning/evaluating,
within a framework in which there is also room for e- and m-learning, for
attention given to multicultural aspects specific to the students’ learning
environment and especially to their future working environment in today’s
globalized world and in anticipation the changes of tomorrow. Everything has to
be conceived in a manner that should not be detrimental to the basic
conceptual skeleton of the course book (which is a prerequisite for good
standardization at university level), but that should be capable to consistently
renew/rejuvenate the materials so as to guarantee the preservation of a
permanent novel character of the input we use in class with our students.
The time for operating such changes is, we consider, in principle the moment
when we cannot afford replacing the course book entirely for economic and
other reasons, but the students’ recurrently perceived needs and/or their profile
main features ask for it. Needless to underline that an open attentive position
towards the emergence of the need for change should become a consistent
feature describing the teacher’s/course designer’s attitude.

2. Tentative answers - principles and applications

In order to exemplify with some of the resources currently used in the described
educational situation, viz. in the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest at
bachelor level, two course books are very briefly described here, with a view to
creating the necessary background for understanding the proposed
amendments, which are part of a continuous effort of refreshing our materials.
Thus, English for Professional Communication (Blându, M. et al., 2004) is
intended to give the future engineers working in industry but also in business a

range of communication and other soft skills focused abilities, for an appropriate
job connected behavior. The book is the result of team work, with consistency
of unit structure and progression of task chains, as well as with a coordinated
view on the methodological approach, which is basically the communicative one.
However, the need for change has occured for more than one unit, for instance
because of the emergence and wide spreading of the Europass CV, which has
been conducive to necessary amendments in the job search process, reflected
in Units 5 and 6. In the same vein, the Telephoning unit has required
remodelling, with the mobile telephony replacing the traditional one, which
implied a change of focus in the corresponding unit.
Therefore, we propose here a new perspective on Unit 4, dealing with writing
short messages (email messages, letters and memos). Already in 2003, when
the book was being conceived, there was an awareness of the tendency of
replacing letter writing with emailing, which is mirrored in the unit. However, in
time, this trend has become a certainty, imposing a change of approach in the
teaching of emailing as per 2014, which should reflect the new rules-of-the-
game in the envisaged professional environment.
Thus, new tasks have been designed and piloted with the very recent
generations of students, focused on teaching email writing conventions, from
both the linguistic and social/cutural etiquette perspectives, including, in a non-
prioritized order of mentioning them here, the following:
 awareness raising discussions on emailing rules regarding
register, style, social and cultural acceptability in terms of
attitude and behavior, appropriate conventions of writing,
based on quizzes or Dos and Dont’s type of tasks, having the
role of stimulating the learners’ reflective attitude towards the
phenomena characterizing the evolution of their social and
economic environment;
new reading/listening input has been used, in which the
content, by its authenticity and variety, is meant to sensitize
the students as to the permanent changes in emailing etiquette
and conventions;
 role plays developing writing skills were created, with various
goals, such as appropriate choices of register and style, as well
as of grammatical structures and lexical options, the influence
of cultural differences, accepted formal behavior at the working
place etc.
We maintain that such tasks have a good chance to help the learners to become
more analytical and critical, not only in their activity in the ESP class, but also

later on, as, in this way, they may have developed a capacity not only of
detecting new trends in the way emailing is used worldwide, but equally the
ability of adapting their own email writing approach to the newly emerged
In what follows, an example is provided of a chain of tasks introduced with a
view to refreshing the emailing section of the unit. Changes have been operated
at content level and also at lexical level, with the preservation, however, of the
unit format and the skills logical integration pattern: lead-in, reading and/or
listening input for getting the students closer to the topic, models and
awareness raising tasks, discussions and debates based on them, followed by
free production stages, plus a similar approach included in the amended
Revision unit format, in the same vein as the one applied to the unit.
A brief description of the new chain of tasks is given below, together with the
rationale underlying them. The Lead-in is similar in format to the others in the
course book. However, it has the role of getting the students closer to the topic,
by eliciting their previous knowledge and opinions about the topic via a Student
Questionnaire with atemporal items (in that they have the potential of
sensitizing the students at any moment when the task may be assigned). The
questionnaire covers the following aspects: ways of using emails today by them
and by other people they come into contact with, professionals included;
changes they would make in the choice of level of formality; situations in which
they would prefer emailing to letter writing; cases in which emailing has
become the obvious choice for communicating meaning in real life situations,
with concrete examples a.s.o. The resulting class discussions should draw their
attention to the existence of a continuum from very formal to informal email
messages, with the corresponding differences in terms of lexical choices,
stylistic means etc.
The first task, an analysis of content samples, is based on a range of different
reading texts (excerpts of emails from various authentic situations). It requires
the students to sort them on the formality - informality continuum, bringing
arguments in support of their options; it is meant to increase their accuracy in
appropriating the style and register corresponding to each level of formality.
Some of the following can be included, as examples from the future professional
environment of the learners:
1. a proposal of collaboration in research via email;
2. email – field text by which one sends the job application CV and CL
as attachments;

3. an example of the current transactional business type of email –
definitely less formal than the previous two;
4. a post-scientific/business event email (re)connecting with
professional contacts;
5. email with formal document of the legal type.
Alternatively or in a complementary manner, in function of the class profile and
needs, as well as in accordance with the time constraints and the set priorities,
another task is suggested: given five different situations, described for the
students to decide how they would use emailing (text in the email field,
attachment and explanatory text, pdf attached etc.) in each of the cases, they
should be asked to discuss what changes they should make in writing the email
texts in terms of language, style, register, choice of lexis and grammatical
structures, abbreviations and so on. The latter task may give the students some
useful food for thought, as they are asked to identify the types and create
models themselves for the various possibilities, thus reflecting on the changes in
their own approach which they have to refresh regularly, extending their area of
emailing expertise.
At this stage, several language work focused tasks are mandatory, beside the
already existing ones in the unit (paragraph writing and comparison between
letters/memos/email messages). Useful suggestions are those tasks centered on
awareness raising questions of the type: What major differences are there
between email messages and letters/memos? – focused on format, ways of
address, style and register etc.
Checklists of ways of beginning/ending the email message vs letter can be
included, but in our case, as the students are engineering ones, therefore very
much in the habit of using tables, algorithms and clear formats, we prefer to
ask them to create their own graphic matrix comprising types of beginnings
and/or closings vs degrees of formality, from formal, through semi-formal and
to informal, with the specification of the type of email message, e.g. business
transactional email message vs friendly email. Then it is only natural to derive
further tasks such as error correction in terms of formality and appropriacy of
language to it, or turning texts from semi-formal to informal or formal.
Passing toward the production by the students of their own texts, role plays can
be initiated in class, based on a given context. The students start in real time (it
is possible to use e-/m-learning in this case, and get them to write the email
messages on their mobile phone, laptop or tablet in class) and they can
continue outside the class, as projects or portfolio work. Error correction can
start at peer level and only later in class with the teacher.

A useful extension can be that of asking the learners to really write email
messages to entities such as organizations or individuals in the outside world,
therefore authentic ones, for instance to universities, recruitment agencies,
tourist agencies and so on, then forward the correspondence to the class and
have it sent to the teacher for correction via email (accompanied by a field text
explaining what exactly they are sending, and with an appropriate subject line!).
The component of authenticity can contribute to an increase of the students’
enjoyment, as they perceive the tasks as really useful to them in the
present/future as professionals.
A task which can be particularly useful in developing the students’ reflective
attitude towards the phenomena around them in the professional sphere,
internalized as a matter of permanence, is a debate on controversial issues
connected with emailing rules/etiquette today, with questions for debate such
as: the level of control of the emailed texts, moral aspects connected with
contributions on social networks, preference for email writing vs face-to-face
communication in different cases, the newest trends in choice of level of
formality per various situations etc.
As follow-ups, the students can be assigned to identify source input by
searching in (non)electronic resources and bring to class such texts as proposals
for discussion. This is a good manner of enlarging the email writing skills of the
students, who in general tend to transfer the informal approach they are usually
familiar with already towards situations demanding a formal one – sometimes
perhaps they erroneously believe that this is a form of signalling that they are
relaxed and open-minded in their relationships with people such as the
employer, the boss or, in class, the teacher.
Another course book in use in the discussed educational context is English for
Science and Technology – Prosper with English (Adam, E. et al. Consultant: Ray
Williams, 1996) – an older material, definitely more likely to become outdated,
whose main aims were to provide an EST background to engineering students
country wide. I will refer only to the unit on Computers, which I co-authored,
providing a succinct idea of how to refresh such a material.
As I see it, refreshing an EST unit dealing with Computer Science is rather
difficult, mainly because of the speed at which the content on which the
language and skills development activities are based becomes obsolete in this
field. That was a point we were aware of at the time we designed the unit,
when we included topics such as Virtual Reality, which was then mostly wishful
thinking, Compilers – a topic for listening that cannot fade out too quickly, some

aspects concerning the person’s position in front of the computer and the
connected health problems that may occur, in an effort to make the unit endure
well for as many years as possible.
However, the technical product advertisement writing, based as it was on a
model for a Versa computer, as well as the input data given in the unit for the
learners to write their own advert were, from the technical point of view, at the
level of 1995 (!). Consequently, today they surely inspire our current students’
supercilious smiles. So, what can be done in this respect, in a field where
everything is renewed at ultra high velocity?
We advance several possible choices of content that will remain valid in time for
definitely longer than that Versa notebook of the 1990s: history of the
Computer Science field, its main personalities, searches for the-new-and-the-
recent on YouTube and Internet – we maintain that these could successfully
replace such superannuated input.
The task types should not change much; on the contrary, they should be
designed in such a way as to allow for maintaining the skill development focus
while periodically renewing the content.
Moreover, by adding m-learning focused tasks, the unit can increase in terms of
its potential for the learners, showing them how to use their mobile phones for
taping, taking photos, researching or identifying resources – all good ways
conducive in time toward an increased learner autonomy, if consistently used
for any other reason than plagiarizing by copy-paste, which should be fought
against in our educational system.

3. Interim conclusions
As put in the literature (Stout, 2001), the refreshing of already existing
materials should aim to represent a gain for the students, on both cognitive and
affective planes. We agree that such an attitude of the teacher/course
designer/course moderniser has chances to increase the learners’ motivation, as
well as their capacity of reasoning and understanding their priorities.
Therefore, we agree with some authors (Cirocki, 2010; McGrath, 2002), who
draw the attention of teachers who evaluate materials with a view to amend
them that since this is inevitably part of a teacher’s activity, they should
necessarily do it ‘properly and systematically’, with the students’ profile and
immediate/long-term benefit as their main priorities.

The two perspectives that matter cannot be separated in this respect. On the
one hand, it is really useful for the students to have a higher motivation and
develop their strategies of autonomous language learning if they feel they are
exposed to materials that keep pace with the world around them.
On the other hand, teachers who get involved in materials refreshing will
enhance the quality of their professional profile, on condition that the
evaluation/updating process should take place as a result of a principled regular
needs analysis and student profile exploration, as well as with the taking into
account of the permanent contextual changes of the social, political, economic
and cultural type taking place in the society.
These two factors should work together in consistently (re)designing, piloting
and improving the teaching/learning materials, on the basis of their personal
and professional involvement.

Adam, E. et al. Consultant: Ray Williams. (1996). English for Science and Technology –
Prosper with English. Mihăescu, A. (Ed.). Bucharest: Cavallioti Publishing House
& The British Council.
Blându, M. et al. (2004). English for Professional Communication. Bucuresti: Ed.
Cirocki, Andrzej. (2010). “Age is Only a Number: Evaluating and Modernising Dated EFL
Materials”. MATSDA, Folio 14/2. Retrieved 7 Aug 2013 from
McGrath, Ian. (2002). Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Robertson, Calum. (2002). “Planning 1”. BBC, Teaching English. Retrieved 17 August
2013 from
Stout, Julie C. (2001). “Radical Course Revision: A Case Study”. The National Teaching
and Learning FORUM 10(4). Retrieved 17 August 2013 from
Tomlinson, Brian. (1998). Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, Brian. (2012). “Materials development for language learning and teaching”.
Lang. Teach (45)2: 143–179.


Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, NEW ZEALAND

Department of Language Studies

Abstract: International students have been an important contributory element to the

global tertiary student body over the last two decades and have similarly become a
prominent part of the New Zealand education scene since then. In 2012, 47,668
international students comprised 11.3% of the study body enrolled in NZ universities
and higher educational institutions. Whilst this figure may not appear hugely significant
nationally, at Unitec Institute of Technology, international students contributed a higher
proportion (18%) of the total student numbers. However, this figure does not account
for migrant or refugee students, so overall, Unitec has had an even larger increased
intake of international, migrant and refugee students in the last decade which has
impacted on the ESL classroom environment. Lecturers have been confronted with
different learning needs that these students invariably bring with them and accordingly,
it poses a number of communication challenges. Since extant literature has taken a
predominantly student perspective, this article explores how Intercultural
Communicative Competence (ICC) manifests itself in the English language classroom,
specifically in the way lecturers incorporate and use linguistic and cultural knowledge,
awareness, skills, and attitudes to interact appropriately with other cultures in the ESL
classroom. A qualitative approach that incorporated two data collection methods,
namely reflective journal entry and focus group discussions, was used to analyse ICC in
practice in the Department of Language Studies (DOLS) at Unitec. Overall, the findings
indicate the lecturers have a good level of ICC awareness which they view as an on-
going process. This paper concludes with a description of the study’s limitations and
proposes directions for future research.

Keywords: intercultural communication, intercultural communicative competence, ESL

teaching, tertiary education

International students became an important contributory element to the tertiary
student body over the last two decades and have become a prominent part of
the New Zealand education scene. In fact, international student numbers in NZ
peaked in 2003 at 126,503 but in 2008 this figure declined by 27.7%; however,
since then, it has shown a marginal increase (Ministry of Education, 2013:4).

The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (n.d) confirms migrants
and refugees reflect higher numbers in study participation compared to New
Zealand born youth (para.1). The figures during the 2012 calendar year show
that the international student enrolment was 47,668, but this figure does not
account for migrant or refugee students (idem). Subsequently, Unitec Institute
of Technology has had an increased intake of international, migrant and refugee
students in the last decade. The figures in 2012 illustrate that of the overall
10,778 full-time students enrolled at Unitec, 1,065 were English as a second
language (ESL) students enrolled in the Department of Language Studies
(DOLS) (H:/Planning/Enterprise Reports, Unitec, Institute of Technology, 2012).
This proportion of student numbers has had an overall effect on the (ESL)
classroom environment affecting both lecturers and students (Pam Bird & Prue
Holmes, 2005). The statistics indicate that in a classroom environment lecturers
are confronted with different learning needs that these students invariably bring
with them and accordingly, it poses a number of communication challenges.
These challenges can be categorised as language difficulties and cultural
differences resulting in intercultural communication barriers, unfamiliar patterns
of classroom interactions, and a lack of knowledge of New Zealand academic
norms such as referencing skills and autonomous learning strategies, in English
language classes in the NZ tertiary educational environment.
This research is a case study of an English language department in the tertiary
sector in New Zealand. Lecturers from the department participated in this
research. This department was selected for two reasons, one being its high
percentage of multicultural students, who often engage in language learning for
at least one semester prior to enrolment in mainstream courses, and the other
being the lecturer participants’ vast experience in teaching and managing such
cultural diversity. This study investigates comprehension of ICC, use of
methodology and content, display of power dynamics, and non-verbal
communication in the ESL classroom.
My background as an ESL lecturer was a motivating force in engaging in a study
of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC). In the ESL education
environment, intercultural communication is indispensable in daily engagement
in and outside the classroom with the increasingly diverse student cohort. As a
result, a good level of intercultural communication knowledge and skills are
necessary in order to gain familiarity and build a trusting relationship with
students. In my capacity as a lecturer with more than 27 years of teaching
experience in New Zealand and overseas, it was timely to explore my own level
of awareness through open discussions with my peers and discover first of all,

what their perception of ICC is in an ESL classroom situation and how they
interpret it. This topic presents an opportunity for me to explore ICC from my
multi-cultural background perspective - a Singaporean-Indian by birth with an
English-influenced upbringing who converted to New Zealand citizenship.
Hence, involvement in such a study was envisaged as an interesting, relevant,
professional exploration due to the complex nature of intercultural
communication between a diverse range of cultural backgrounds between the
lecturer and student participants. The topic of study has prompted the following
research question:
What are lecturers’ perceptions of their Intercultural Communicative
Competence in the English language classroom context of New Zealand
tertiary education?

Literature Review
Prominent researchers identified key components of ICC as knowledge
/cognitive, skill/ability, and motivation/attitude (Byram,1997; Chen & Starosta,
1996; Gudykunst, 1998; and Wiseman 2003). This study incorporates these key
components and Williams’ (2009) Reflective Model because they relate to and
are most relevant to second language learning and teaching. The
knowledge/cognitive component refers to information that is acquired in a
classroom, for example, to notice and learn about the norms of behaviour,
values and beliefs of another culture (Byram , 1997; Chen & Starosta, 1996).
The skills/affective component is the actual performance of applying this
knowledge, that is, using the new information and knowing to respond
appropriately (Richard Wiseman, 2001). The motivation/ attitude component
may be defined as the set of feelings that drive the actual engagement in
communication, for instance, being committed and enthusiastic in creating a
positive experience. The inference is that ICC is an on-going process, one in
which individuals move from their initial thoughts and feelings as they become
open to incorporate other cultural beliefs.
According to Michael Byram (1997:51), besides linguistic competence (knowing
how to use grammar, syntax and vocabulary), sociolinguistic competence
(knowing how to use language appropriately for specific purpose), and
discourse competence (knowing how to interpret and construct coherent texts),
intercultural communicative competence requires certain attitudes, knowledge
and skills. The attitudes comprise curiosity and openness as well as willingness
to see other cultures and the speaker’s own culture in a non-judgemental way.
The required knowledge is “of social groups and their products and practices in

one’s own and in one’s interlocutor’s country, and of the general processes of
societal and individual interaction”. The final component is skill as it illustrates
how knowledge and attitudes influence the interpretation, the link, the
discovery and the interaction which in turn enhance the development of critical
cultural awareness. Tony Young and Itesh Sachdev (2011), echo the usefulness
of Byram’s model in developing ICC within language education. They believe
interaction involves the affective/cognitive ability to have relationships with
people from other cultures and in the process of mediating between “world of
origin and world of encountered difference”, the learner manages to maintain
self-identity (ibidem:83).
The literature review indicates most ICC studies have focused on mostly Asian
learners (Bird & Holmes, 2005; Campbell & Li, 2008; Chen, 2000; Holmes,
2005, 2006; Ho, Holmes & Cooper, 2004; Gill, 2007; Gu & Maly, 2008; Spencer-
Oatey & Xiong, 2006). The review of the literature has identified three gaps:
first, a lack of lecturers’ perspective in intercultural communicative competence
in the ESL sector as the majority of authors concentrate on ICC among
students; next, a lack of research in the New Zealand tertiary environment
about ICC; and finally, a lack of ICC studies of students from many other
cultural backgrounds. Communication misunderstanding occurs due to
differences in communication styles amongst various cultural groups. To
enhance intercultural communication, it is imperative to have an awareness of
how other cultures operate, especially at the deeper levels which Edward Hall
(1959, 1977) referred to as ‘hidden cultures’. Therefore, studying lecturers’
understanding of ICC and its impact on students from culturally diverse
backgrounds can be seen as important for improving effective ESL classroom
interactions in New Zealand.

Three male lecturers and five female lecturers participated in this study. The
selection was based on the length of teaching experience at a New Zealand
tertiary institution. In this study, ICC is examined to understand human
behaviour and reasons that govern such behaviour (Burns, 2000; Collis &
Hussey, 2009). One main advantage of a qualitative approach for this study is
that it allows for in-depth data collection of participants’ ICC awareness and its
manifestation in an ESL classroom setting. The complex nature of the topic
resulted in a choice of multiple methodologies which according to Lawrence
Frey, Carl Botan, and Gary Kreps (2000:15) should be “complementary…within
a single study” and according to Zina O’Leary (2012:171) to “confirm the

authenticity of other data sources”. Therefore, data was gathered from journal
entries and a focus group discussion. Both methods are complementary for they
allowed the transition from lecturer participants’ written journals to the
discussion in the focus group enabling elaboration and clarification of pertinent
ICC issues. Based on a review of relevant ICC literature, the framework
comprising ICC components such as knowledge /cognitive, skills /ability, and
attitude /motivation was selected.
Journal entries formed the initial data collection source encouraging participants
to consider their experiences in a specified setting, and providing them with an
opportunity to document their experiences. The entries allowed participants to
be reflective through critical evaluation of their own practice and to examine
personal assumptions and individual beliefs. It is particularly suitable in its
attempt to capture ICC development in the education context. The lecturers
were asked to write reflections daily and send them to me by email over a four
week period. In week one, they were asked to write about the meaning of ICC
and about what they did in class. Week two questions looked at other forms of
communication besides verbal communication, asked them to narrate a past
scenario about how they reacted. In week three, they were asked to examine
students’ attitudes, knowledge and skill and its influence on classroom
behaviours and lecturer-student interactions, but the key focus was on how
they managed situations of non-participation and conflict. The question in week
four centred on their initial assumptions of the different cultures in the
classroom. The reflections enabled the identification of themes and issue, which
assisted in preparation and re-definition of questions for the focus group

The data analysis resulted in five emergent themes comprising a reflection on
the importance of ICC, lecturers’ beliefs, teaching styles, class materials and
non-verbal communication displayed in class. In order to investigate if the
dimensions knowledge/cognitive, skills/affective and
motivation/attitude/behaviour form the foundation for ICC, the research started
with evaluating what lecturers understood by the term ICC and how it was
evident in their beliefs, and manifested in their teaching methodology and
teaching materials, and then relayed through their non-verbal communication
with students. Some expected sub-categories revealed in the findings are self-
awareness, overseas experience and respect, but unexpected sub-categories
that emerged were related to power distance and the notion of ‘Western’.

Figure 1 below illustrates the key themes and sub-categories that lecturers and
students believed were important.

Reflection on Beliefs Teaching style Teaching Non-verbal

importance of materials communicatio

 On-going  Self-  Teaching  Textbooks  What is

awareness strategies NVC?
 Learning  Student
from each  Overseas  Silence & contributi  How does it
other experience Conflict ons manifest
 Attempt not  Respect  Current
to offend affairs  How is it
others  Notion of managed?

 Power

Figure 1: Themes and sub-categories

Theme 1: Reflection on the meaning of ICC

Lecturer participants (LP) view ICC as encompassing various components. They
have noted it is a broad term and it is difficult to see what the perspective is but
they know and understand what it is about. LP8 explained that ICC is the
“ability of language learners to use language and sociocultural knowledge to
communicate in a way that is suitable and appropriate both to their own culture
and to the culture(s) of the person or people that they are communicating with
(Reflective Journal 1). It is commendable that this group of lecturers recognise
ICC has a different application dependant on the group of students being
taught, that is, international, migrant, refugee, and New Zealand students
should not be classed as one, and have to be managed appropriately in a given
context. Having an inherent knowledge, an ability to use new knowledge and
displaying respect for other cultures is a commonality shared by the lecturers.
They felt there is the need to be self-aware, which they described as an on-
going process, about other ways of behaviour, thinking and talking, so the
precursor to this is familiarisation with different cultures. In the words of LP1 “I
really like that word on-going. However competent or incompetent I am, I’m

better now than I was a year ago because of the influences on me (Lecturer
Focus Group:2). However, LP4 clearly explains there is no need for specific
cultural knowledge as one could make assumptions about others but rather it is
more important to be respectful, sensitive and unprejudiced to be a good
teacher (ibidem:3). A noteworthy remark LP3 makes is that coming from a
different culture makes this participant more aware and appreciative of
students’ feelings.

Theme 2: Beliefs-Notion of ‘Western’ and Power distance

The research question was not specifically structured to investigate lecturers’
perception and definition of ‘Western’ but it became an important finding as it
reflected lecturers’ perceptions of their own culture including the one lecturer
not from New Zealand.
First and foremost, in defining ‘Western’ most participants alluded to terms
such as “familiarity across a series of countries”, “liken to”, “easier to relate to”,
“more norms”, “several things not difficult and natural”, “common history”,
“industrialised”, and most interestingly “western as against anything else”
(Lecturers’ Focus Group: 7-8). LP1, LP2, LP5, and LP6 explained that the
Industrial revolution in Western countries (predominantly Europe) spanned a
lengthy period which resulted in a shared and common history. They believed
this led to different ways that society was organised and that this was reflected
in educational changes which led to a major shift in values and roles within the
family structure, in contrast to Eastern countries. The inference was that Asia
seemingly had a shorter industrialisation period. The printing press and factories
were cited as examples of this industrialisation. Evidently, according to LP6,
values come from “those narratives and, so it’s the narrative of experience, of
history. We all, kind of, can share similar stories of the world, of the two world
wars” (idem: 9). While the ‘Western’ participants used the expressions as
sharing and familiarity, LP3 used the term ‘cling’ when she explained, “I think
that’s what separates cultures. Cultural values and that’s what it boils down to.
It’s, you know, you cling to your cultural traditions and your culture, and really
it’s all about what you value” (ibidem). LP2 is quite precise in saying “values are
pre-determined by your underpinning beliefs and then they’re expressed
through your cultural networks, your social organisation. We all believe in love
and life and death and, and humility and respect but how it’s expressed
depends on those underpinning beliefs (ibidem).
The response to a question on imposing ‘Western education’ methods on
students sparked lively debate and most participants presented strong

arguments. Some female participants maintained since students opt to study in
the New Zealand environment, they would realise that they are going to learn
‘Western’ academic conventions and norms and do it the ‘Western’ way, as we
would if we were to choose to study in their countries. LP1, LP2, LP5, and LP6
were unanimous in saying that on completion of English language studies, many
students had future plans to pursue tertiary qualifications and hence, language
teachers’ priority is to prepare these students about the reality of academia. LP5
emphasised that students are, “going to continue on in the New Zealand
education, tertiary education manner, so to prepare them, and I think it’s
preparing, as opposed to imposing (Lecturers’ Focus Group:10). On the other
hand, LP6 differed by stating a salient point that students face conflict in that
their image of NZ education would not necessarily equal that of a ‘kiwi’
student’s image. Hence, these non-kiwi students would face various conflicts
manifested in their struggle about their own identity with the new culture in
New Zealand. This would mean a struggle with defining their identity and their
struggle with different learning styles (idem: 10). LP1, LP2 and LP5 were
staunch in their belief and rationalised that ultimately the students do not have
sufficient knowledge of ‘Western’ academic conventions and learning styles but
the lecturers do, so it is in the students’ best interest for the lecturers to train
them for further studies and the workplace, and by the same token inform
students that lecturers recognise the difficulties associated with it.
The findings also revealed cultural aspects of power distance and stereotype.
On the topic of power distance, most participants generally disclose there is an
expectation of students that teachers take charge in the classroom
environment, and it is not to be considered as power per se. Nearly all students
would have faced a classroom situation at some point in their lives regardless of
the learning environment they originally experienced. Be it a dialectic approach
in which the teacher controls and imparts all knowledge (Gill, 2007; Holmes,
2006) or dialogic learning system where student participation and contributions
displaying critical thinking form the norm, teachers would have some degree of
control in the classroom to which students were accustomed to. LP1, LP2, LP5
and LP6 recognised students would be familiar with a teacher-centred
environment but they emphasise it would be far less teacher-centred in the
English language classroom because students are expected to read, think and
discuss topics using critical skills. LP1 wrote, “I think nearly all of them, in my
limited experience in the world, come from a situation in a classroom like that,
so it’s very familiar, and I know the power distance is probably less, much less
in our classrooms then in any other places that they probably experience

(Lecturer Focus Group, p.12). LP5 added that “there’s a lack of safety, if you’re
suddenly overly camaraderie and palsy. I like to know that the facilitator, the
teacher, the coordinator, is well and truly in control and in charge and confident
and I don’t see a huge hierarchy, I just see working with somebody that knows
what they’re doing, and really well (ibidem).
Interestingly, the participants were in agreement in saying that not only does
this ‘taking-charge’ action provide a starting point for what lecturers do best
but that if there was no starting point, students would not know how to
respond. In fact, it was argued it is all part of one’s teaching responsibility;
however, it was stressed they are at liberty to respond and make changes and
thus create a different power dynamic. Not surprisingly, the term ‘living
curriculum’ which is local to Unitec, is alluded to in this instance. The living
curriculum is seen as “conversations with (and among) teachers, students,
[and] self – critical self-reflection” (Unitec, 2009:9). To this end some teachers
reiterated that students appreciate and respect teachers who take charge of the
class for it displays confidence and knowledge in subject matter and
professionalism in teaching expertise but they emphasised that it was not
necessarily power display by nature.
Besides power distance, another aspect is disclosed in the data. All participants
were in agreement that to stereotype is inherent in human nature, so they
believed it is important to firstly, acknowledge and recognise its existence, and
secondly, use this awareness in order to address the pertinent issues that arise.
LP5 wrote that young, Japanese, female students lack of both content and
worldly knowledge is exemplified in their written work. It was explained that
lecturers could conclude that female, Japanese youth do not have general
knowledge about current affairs, yet LP5 also believed that such stereotyping of
students does not necessarily denote a negative perspective. In fact, it is seen
to perform a useful function to address the problem either in the teaching
environment or outside of class hours (Lecturers’ Focus Group: 13). Most
participants agreed it is easier to do this on an individual basis but LP1
remarked, “You just try to hold it in, put them to one side and treat a person as
a person. It’s when you’re dealing with a big group you barely know, that’s
when it’s harder not to be prejudiced” (ibidem).
The findings indicated the lecturer participants were in agreement that while it
was not uncommon to stereotype students, it was essential to have an
awareness of their own stereotyping and respond carefully in the ESL
classroom. LP8 echoed this thought, “As long as you have an awareness that

you’re holding a particular stereotype about a particular group and you have
that self-awareness about it then I think that’s fine, that’s a useful construct”
(idem: 14). This explicitly implies it is erroneous to draw conclusions from
these stereotypes but rather more advantageous if used to inform teaching
practice instead. Additionally, LP6 expressed a salient point about motivation
being the driver to instil a cognitive change in lecturer’s behaviour, yet LP6
asserted it is more common to take the easier option and form judgements from
generalisations whereas the conscious effort required to adopt changes is a
harder and longer process. “[It] takes a lot of cognitive effort, and the
motivation to feel it’s worth taking a harder route, it’s more, to find that
immediate route and just go with your prejudices so you have to have
motivation” (ibidem).
Some participants stated that while it was quite commonplace in the past to
hold prejudices and stereotypes, it is no longer the same situation in
contemporary society. LP4 explains that there are more opportunities to
intermingle with people from diverse cultures and learn new information about
these cultures which provides the impetus for unavoidable, continuing change
(idem: 15).

Theme 3: Teaching Style managing silence and conflict

The lecturer participants aim to provide a safe classroom environment. With
regards to silence, lecturers remarked it is acceptable if students are reticent
and unforthcoming in class and they should not be forced into doing something
they are not comfortable or familiar with. This was justified by the fact that
different learners have different needs and learning styles. As a result, the
teaching style incorporates an inclusive learning style which allows ESL students
to feel comfortable and thereby, more prepared to actively engage in learning.
So how do the participants manage classroom situations when there is silence
or refusal to participate, and conflict occurs?
The findings showed that the participants employ different approaches to
manage silence or non-participation. LP1 revealed “I ask them a lot of questions
about their culture. And telling them that I’m just interested, I’m not judging,
I’m not here to say your culture is better or worse than mine” (Lecturers’ Focus
Group: 4). Other lecturer participants ask questions and either direct them at
students who are likely to know the answers or make sure to ask easy questions
so that all students can understand and be able to respond. The lecturer
participants also maintained it is best not to focus on essential differences
between individuals when mistakes occur but instead recount episodes of their

own cultural and linguistic mistakes from their past. They do this by giving
anecdotes of their own cultural miscommunication in an open and honest way,
thus creating a non-judgemental environment where students feel prepared to
engage and not feel strong emotions such as anger. In other words, normalising
the situation as LP4 put it, “They won’t get angry if they’ve realised, ‘Oh well, if
she’s made that big mistake, you know, my little mistake is nothing and then
they will talk about things or not get so ruffled or sensitive about things”
(ibidem). The emphasis was that making mistakes is not an uncommon
occurrence but one that can actually foster learning. Yet, there was agreement
between all lecturer participants that students would not be placed in a position
where they are forced to participate.
There are a number of other preferred activities that participants use to counter
silence or non-participation. Pair-work and group activities are a part of
teaching style in the ESL classroom to allow students to mingle with peers, to
lessen the feeling of isolation. This is done through spontaneous activities such
as ice-breakers and songs, as well as physical activities like mime and
movement. Many participants establish a classroom agreement/contract from
the onset of semester and remind and refer students to the agreement that the
classroom is a safe environment to practise speaking. This is exemplified in
LP3’s narrative about a Russian student who refused to contribute to a
blackboard activity and when questioned later explained “she said that if she
made a mistake in front of the class she would be embarrassed/loose face”
(Reflective Journal 3). Generally ESL students feel anxious about making
mistakes, so the tendency is for them to avoid participation which could be
attributed to either a personality trait or to what Ting-Toomey (2005) refers to
as ‘face-saving strategy’. It is noteworthy that all participants are convinced
humour is a key element to resolve many issues which arise in the classroom,
particularly that of silence and conflict.
Regarding conflict, most lecturers mentioned it was not a common occurrence
in class and the general consensus was students aim to avoid conflict with
lecturers. In the circumstance when it had happened, the participants
attempted various strategies to confront the problem. They rationalised in the
reflections and focus group that observation gives the opportunity to not only to
reflect on the problem and make sense of it, but also to contemplate possible
scenarios that may cause an incident. A number of conflict situations were
discussed in the reflective journals. These situations were about conflict
between students and the participants as well as conflict between students
themselves. LP5 recounted a rather intense incident. The student, a Russian

youth, displayed unusual behaviour by not interacting with the teacher or with
the students, but preferred to keep earphones on or to snooze in class. Funnily,
this affected the students more than the lecturer participant, as the students
felt the Russian student lacked respect for the lecturer; however, the
participant’s instinctive decision to observe rather than confront proved valuable
because nine weeks later the quiet student had committed a crime (Reflection
Journal 3). This conveys LP5 was not prepared to risk placing the troubled
student or the rest of the class in an uncomfortable and unpredictable situation,
and quite rightly so by the turn of events. Similar observations have been
recorded by other lecturer participants, not as momentous though, but they did
state they would prod the student if they believed a good learning outcome
might be achieved. Participants reiterated such situations could lessen anxiety
and, in turn, produce successful results provided it is enhanced by qualities such
as tolerance and sensitivity.
LP3 recounted an example a lack of sensitivity with the problem of a soft-
spoken Korean versus an overpowering Russian student. After quietly observing
the issue for a few lessons, LP3 approached both students and resolved the
issue by modelling kindness in a quiet and calm manner (Reflection Journal 3).
However, a conflict situation between LP2 and an over-bearing Chinese male
student did not achieve the same success. The student would shout over LP2
and in fact take control of the class. LP2 pursued every avenue to avoid and
reduce the conflict by approaching the student in a quiet discussion after class
on numerous occasions to reiterate the class rules and expectations but the
student disregarded and ignored LP2. LP2 explained that despite every effort
taken to show the student appropriate intercultural behaviour, he was not
prepared to adapt to the New Zealand learning environment (ibidem). These
findings indicated that lecturers attempted not to ignore their students in
conflict situations but waited for the appropriate moment to respond.

Theme 4: Teaching Materials

Related to teaching style, materials used in the English Language classroom is
the next important theme identified by the lecturer participants. There are
prescribed course textbooks for most programmes in the language department
except for the highest level courses which provide a book of readings for
students. However, supplementary materials such as current affairs, and
students’ contributions do feature prominently in these English language
classrooms. In order to fill the void from textbook content, supplementary
material by way of student contributions are regularly used in the classroom. In

asking students to share about their culture and ways of doing things,
participants gave students ample opportunity to explore the similarities and
differences that exist in both their culture and New Zealand culture. The
opportunities encourage students to compare their respective cultures with
other cultures in the classroom. One way some participants did this was through
disseminating information such as hand-outs on culture-specific topics to
discover not only surface features of culture and society, but to go beyond and
to delve into deep features; the other approach was through creating
experience, for instance a class conducted in the Marae, and encouraging
international food days. Students were invited to relay new information in
various ways: informal sharing of ideas in groups, presentations in class, or
teachers using data shows to type student responses as they are volunteered.

Theme 5: Non-verbal Communication

LP1, LP2, LP4, LP5 and LP8 described non-verbal communication as facial
expression, eye-contact, gestures, posture, emotions, sense of motivation, state
of mind, space, energy level and lecturer’s mode of dress (Reflective Journal 2).
LP4 wrote,“ that the more subtle forms of communication observed are still
body language a fleeting expression, a tightness of the mouth, eye movements
and so on” (ibidem). With regards to eye-contact, participants were aware that
direct eye-contact is disrespectful in some cultures. Some cultures would
interpret this non-verbal gesture as a lack of respect. On this note, LP2
comments on the subtle differences in eye contact and revealed that “averting
eyes does not always mean 'shifty' but can mean respect for authority in some
cultures” (ibidem). Moreover, LP5 added that body language cues can be
displayed in a variety of ways from changing seating, lowering the head, eye
movement, facial expressions, shrugging and leaving the classroom (ibidem).
The Reflective Journal entry findings indicated all lecturer participants
consciously notice and react (or refrain) intuitively, and manage NVC in various
ways in the ESL classroom. LP1’s narrative revealed students are known to utter
unusual or strange responses resulting from differing cultural behaviours but
LP1 was careful not to openly display shock and instead, used eye-contact to
create inclusiveness by indicating to specific students they were not alone
(Reflective Journal 2). LP2 educated lower level students about ‘Western’ eye
contact but was conscious that other cultures interpret eye-contact in different
ways and attach different meanings to it and consequently, LP2 raised students’
awareness of body language through various classroom activities. LP8 pre-
empted NVC topics and managed these situations in a planned way.

A valuable comment from a LP6 was that NVC “within a shared culture is
predictable [so] we have to devote far more cognitive effort into communication
with people from other cultural and linguistic backgrounds” (Reflective Journal
2). A good example of this was LP5’s narrative about the behaviour of three
African males in class who would not work together, speak to one another, in
fact not even look at each other, but turned their backs and made hissing
noises. LP5 quietly and thoroughly observed the students’ NVC and later
discovered these men were from warring tribes. The data indicated LP5 was
responsive to classroom dynamics as a result of engaging in research and doing
further study in other courses in order to be kept continually informed and
updated. The lecturers emphasised that it is imperative due attention must be
paid to noticing students’ NVC to ascertain their ease and if they are
comfortable in a class, and with peers.

The three most pertinent components investigated in this study show a
correlation between knowledge, motivation and skill, which undoubtedly have
an impact on ICC. The findings reveal that ICC manifests itself in participants’
beliefs, teaching styles, class materials and non-verbal communication displayed
in class.
The findings suggest that lecturer participants’ believe increasing their
knowledge of other cultures as essential for self-improvement. There is an
impact on ICC as a direct result of learning from their students. Thus, lecturers
consider students as influential in shaping lecturers’ ICC awareness and
knowledge in the classroom. Nonetheless, they acknowledge their teaching
experience and motivation are pivotal to facilitating communication in culturally
diverse classes. The findings also indicate there is a strong correlation between
skill, motivation, and overseas teaching experience, which has influenced
lecturer participants’ ICC in their teaching delivery of content and selection of
class materials. This in turn facilitates a process which I will refer to as the AAA
process whereby they adopt, adapt, and adjust their teaching continually.
Lecturer participants maintain change can occur provided a cognitive willingness
coupled with an open-minded and positive attitude to learning guide their
Important conclusions are drawn from the notion of ‘Western’ and power
distance. Findings indicate the ‘do it our way’ attitude, although it disregards
students’ previous learning styles, is valid. Since ESL students are here to study
in the New Zealand tertiary environment, the lecturers believe they have to help

students adjust to the ‘Western’ learning style. Moreover, lecturer participants
do not perceive power distance as one being ‘in power’ but rather as one who
has an authority on knowledge and skill in taking charge in the classroom. This
provides an important perception of ICC to imply power does exist in the ESL
classroom but it is not overtly demonstrated as hierarchical. This is an indication
of lecturers’ ethnocentricity. However, lecturers are not really aware of it
The findings reveal conflict does not feature prominently in these ESL classes
but it indicates these participants have the experience of knowledge and skill to
manage conflict situations appropriately if they do occur. The use of
supplementary materials suggest lecturer participants are keen to extend
students’ learning beyond textbook content which also often unintentionally
develop into opportunities for ESL students to discover cultural
miscommunication. The findings indicate it is fundamental for ESL lecturers to
have some knowledge of other cultures non-verbal communication in order to
try and avoid causing an embarrassing situation for both lecturers and students
This research has provided valuable insight into the perceptions of ICC and the
findings imply there are obvious similarities in what lecturer participants
understand by the term ICC, and the significance of ICC in establishing effective
interactions. Yet, it must be acknowledged that the complex nature of ICC
requires not only an awareness of cultural similarities but also of cultural
differences in order to enhance effective communication in an ESL classroom

Despite the interesting and informative results produced, there are limitations to
be taken into consideration. A major limitation of this research is its small scale.
Since this research was qualitative, it was more concerned with generalisation
of results rather than with representativeness of the target population. The
lecturer participants’ statements also reflect individual opinions and experiences
which may result in different data with a different group of participants. The
nature of reflective journals as a data collection method is another limitation.
Although reflection journal entries are interesting, data interpretation and
analysis is difficult. This, however, can be resolved by setting goals and setting
time restraints for participants, and reviewing data regularly in a timely manner.
Limitations of this research can also be seen in the researcher’s cultural values,
beliefs and teaching background which may have unconsciously influenced data

analysis. The nature of ICC will undoubtedly be open to subjective
interpretation which means objectivity is limited to a certain degree. Personal
and professional experience can contribute to a different understanding of data
not intended by the participants

Areas for further research

A number of areas for further research have been identified in this study.
Although the research design of this study was useful for data collection, a
recommendation for future research might involve a longitudinal study
replicating the same methodological approach. The research might incorporate
a different blend of lecturers with different teaching and learning experiences
and comprising various other cultural groups. Future research might use
researcher triangulation in order to verify findings. Owing to the small scale of
this research, there were no clear findings that can be presented on the theme
of Euro-centric and “Western’. Future research might take this factor into
consideration to explore the interpretation of these two themes.

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Irina-Ana DROBOT

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to give examples of activities for teaching
students phonetics and phonology using the 1964 film My Fair Lady. The action of the
film is itself concerned with issues of correct pronunciation. The activities proposed are
meant to make students aware of the existence of the difference in pronunciation
between RP English and Cockney English. Such a film is an occasion to make students
aware of phonological processes as well as looking at the differences between RP
English and Cockney English from pronunciation and phonetic transcription. The
activities use fragments from YouTube and from the film script. Some songs teach us
the differences between RP and Cockney, e.g. ‘No one taught him ‘take’ instead of
‘tike’”. The paper will take into account some theories in language teaching
methodology regarding the use of video in class. Does using video make a significant

Keywords: teaching; phonology; vowels; consonants; phonological processes.

1. Motivation
The 1964 film My Fair Lady is a classic for Phonetics and Phonology activities in
class. It is, in fact, about plenty of lessons in pronunciation. Professor Higgins
wishes to teach Eliza proper, Standard English pronunciation. She is a speaker
of Cockney English, a dialect of the working class. In order to pass her as a lady
in high society, Professor Higgins does his best to make her speak RP English.
He gives her pronunciation exercises and he also provides comments on the
proper way to speak English in his view – RP English – and the way speakers of
Cockney dialect pronounce.
By watching this film, the Phonetics and Phonology lesson will become very
interesting. Students will have the chance to hear native pronunciation and will
become aware of the existence of dialect. In this way, they can realize what a
phonological process is: some sounds from RP English change in Cockney
English. What is more, they will hear rapid speech and notice the phonological
processes that occur in such cases as well.

According to Harmer (2001: 282), “one of the main advantages of video is that
students do not just hear language, they see it too. This greatly aids
comprehension, since for example, general meaning and moods are often
conveyed through expression, gesture […], and other visual cues.” This aspect
is related to “seeing language-in-use” (Harmer 2001: 282). Even though this is
a musical, a piece of fiction, students can still make use of it in order to learn
about the English world and in order to deal with words they do not know,
sometimes due to a different pronunciation than that of Standard English, but
which they can guess from the context and body language. The film will have
great impact on the students and will make Phonetics and Phonology lessons
easier to remember. Harmer confirms this idea: “when a class is working on an
area of language, whether grammatical, functional, or lexical – or a mixture of
all three – the lesson can be greatly enhanced by a video extract which shows
that language in operation” (Harmer 2001: 285). Students can use an audio
dictionary for pronunciation and phonetic transcription, but watching and
hearing language in social situations is more vivid and more true to life. The
pronunciation in the dictionary is the correct one, yet Standard English is
spoken only in certain contexts; if students go abroad to England, they will hear
a variety of accents and they should be prepared to understand them.
In this paper, I will present a set of activities for the Phonetics and Phonology
seminar I taught in the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication
in autumn 2010. The students had seen the film on video tape in class and
afterwards I prepared for them these activities, using Youtube clips and the text
from the script.

2. The activities
2.1. The song Why Can’t the English: diphthong alterations and
The first activity asked the students to listen to the song Why Can’t the English
and transcribe phonetically the words in bold in the following fragment from the

Hear them down in Soho Square

dropping "H"s everywhere
Speaking English
any way they like
- Uh, you, sir, did you go to school
- What do you "tike" me for, a fool?
No one taught him "take" instead of "tike"

The song draws their attention to the diphthong alteration /eɪ/ → [æɪ~aɪ]
found in Cockney English: even Professor Higgins states this explicitly in the
song. Another feature they become aware of is the phonological process of H-
dropping, although they are not asked to pay attention to it specifically for this

2.2. The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain: diphthong

For the second activity, the students were asked to spot the difference between
Eliza’s first and second way of pronouncing in the following: “The rain in Spain
stays mainly in the plain.” Their attention was supposed to be drawn to the
same diphthong alteration as in the first exercise and to identify it as a
distinctive feature of Cockney dialect. The pronunciation of the following words
in Cockney English was had in view: rain [raɪn], Spain [spaɪn], stays [staɪz],
mainly [maɪnli], and plain [plaɪn].

2.3. In Hertford, Hereford and Hampshire, hurricanes hardly

ever happen: H-dropping
The third activity is about the drill mentioned in the present subtitle. Eliza is
asked by Professor Higgins to practice good pronunciation by saying: “In
Hertford, Hereford and Hampshire, hurricanes hardly ever happen.” Of course,
unlike Professor Higgins, she cannot pronounce, at first, the sound [h] when
she should in words beginning with this sound. This is the phonological process
of H-dropping, with which students have become familiar starting with the song
in the first activity. However, she illustrates a documented feature of Cockney
English: she inserts the [h] sound as an instance of hypercorrection, in [hevә].

2.4. Just you wait: Diphthong alteration /eɪ/ → [æɪ~aɪ] and H-

The fourth activity asks students to transcribe phonetically the words which
sound differently from Standard English, as Eliza pronounces them in her song
Just you wait. This time professor Higgins no longer draws our attention to
Eliza’s diphthong alteration and to her H-dropping. Students should be familiar
already with these and recognize them on their own while they listen to the clip
and follow on the fragment from the film script. What is more, the respective
words are marked in bold:

Just you wait, Henry Higgins

Just you wait
You'll be sorry, but your

tears will be too late [...]
Just you wait, Henry Higgins
'til you're sick
And you screams to fetch
a doctor double quick
I'll be off a second later
and go straight to the theater
Ha ha ha, Henry Higgins
Just you wait
Just you wait until
we're swimmin' in the sea
And you get a cramp
a little ways from me [...]
Ho ho ho, Henry Higgins
Just you wait
One day, I'll be famous
I'll be proper and prim
Go to St. James so often [...]
One evening
the King will say
Oh, Liza, old thing
I want all of England
Your praises to sing
Next week on
the 20th of May
I proclaim
Liza Doolittle Day

2.5. I Could Have Danced All Night: Long and short vowels and
In activity 5, students are asked to listen to Eliza’s I Could Have Danced All
Night song, look on the script, then make a list of words containing short or
long vowels or diphthongs. The text is the following:

Bed, bed
I couldn't go to bed
My head's too light
to try to set it down
Sleep, sleep
I couldn't sleep tonight
Not for all the jewels
in the crown

I could have danced
All night
I could have danced
all night
And still have begged
For more
I could have
spread my wings
And done a thousand things
I've never done before
I'll never know
What made it so exciting
Why all at once
My heart took flight
I only know
When he
began to dance with me […]

This activity does not have to do with the comparison between Standard English
and Cockney English pronunciation. Instead, it allows students to revise
previous lessons dealing with short and long vowels and diphthongs. Eliza
pronunciation is now Standard English.

2.6. Didn’t I say that?

The last activity asks students to remember Eliza’s way of pronouncing the word
in bold: “Didn't I say that?” They are also asked to find a word which is
pronounced in a similar way in RP but which is spelled differently. In the
respective scene in the film, Professor Higgins does a play upon words on this
diphthong alteration. His answer to Eliza’s question is: “No, Eliza, you didn’t
“sigh” that. You didn’t even say that.” Eliza’s pronunciation of “say” is [saɪ],
which reminds Higgins of the pronunciation of the word “sigh”. Through this
activity, students are also drawn attention to two words that mean something
else, that are spelled differently, but are pronounced in the same way:

3. Conclusions
Of course, Cockney English has more phonological features than those the film
and these activities attract attention to and which distinguish it from Standard
English. The activities are meant for first-year students, who are just learning
how to do phonetic transcription and are just learning about phonological

processes. The features presented in these activities make Cockney dialect
recognizable for any kind of audience, beginners in Phonetics and Phonology
(and non-native speakers of English) included. For these students, their study of
English as a second language is made very attractive with a lesson in English
culture. The film is from 1964 – the way people live, dress and behave has
changed since then. The film brings the past to life. The way English is spoken
has also changed in time. Nowadays, we encounter multicultural London
English; some say that it will or has replaced Cockney English. The cultural
context has changed: there are plenty of immigrants in London nowadays and
they influence the way the language is spoken. We can make students aware by
telling them, briefly, that there are other features of Cockney English as well,
enumerate some of them, and also tell them that in order to recognize certain
sounds we need to use specialized software. Like this, we can make them
aware of Acoustics, another branch of Phonetics. Another issue raised is the
long-debated problem of dialect and social status. The correct pronunciation is,
according to the film, that of English RP, not that of Cockney English. However,
some scenes suggest that we can make fun of those ways of pronunciation that
are regarded as correct. Cockney English pronunciation is sometimes regarded
as more natural, especially when it comes to Eliza’s behaviour. The Professor is
presented in a comic way at times, with his obsession for the perfect English
pronunciation, as he goes about the London streets wishing to correct the
speech of people who are just living their everyday lives. We can also raise
awareness of the existence of other non-standard English varieties, outside
England: African English, Singapore English, Indian English, etc. These varieties
are not wrong English; they are correct where they are used.
The film can be used to combine the teaching of pronunciation and phonetic
transcription with aspects of English culture, history and linguistics. A more up-
to-date film regarding the pronunciation of Cockney English is Last Orders
(2001), made after Graham Swift’s novel with the same title. It does not draw
the differences between RP English and Cockney English and does not include a
character who is a Professor of Phonetics, though. It is just a film about a group
of speakers of this dialect, and students need to have more advanced
knowledge of English and phonological processes to work with it efficiently.

Cukor, George (Director). (1964). My fair lady. [Motion picture]. United States: Warner
Harmer, Jeremy. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Edinburgh Gate,
Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.


University of Ruse, BULGARIA

Faculty of Natural Sciences and Education

Abstract: The paper examines the cognitive aspects of L2 grammar acquisition by

Bulgarian L1 primary school children. To address this issue the first section of the work
discusses several cognitive models that attempt to explain the interplay between L2
processing and acquisition. It places an explicit emphasis on the Processability Theory –
a current theoretical framework that is able to predict the developmental sequences of
English language acquisition by speakers of other languages. The second part of the
paper provides fresh evidence from a 14-month longitudinal study on English verb
morphology processing of Bulgarian children who learn English as a second language.
The empirical evidence discussed reveals the general cognitive processes and
psycholinguistic constraints on L2 acquisition.

Keywords: Cognitive models, Processability theory, L2, young learners.

1. Introduction
The nature of grammars of children acquiring a second language (L2) has been
approached from multiple perspectives discussing a variety of issues among
which the role of Universal Grammar in language development, the critical
period hypothesis and maturational constraints on L2 acquisition, the
interference of the first language (L1) and the developmental sequences of L2.
One essential linein the development of linguistic endeavours in the last
decades of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century is concerned with the
involvement of the cognitive system in the attainment of a second language by
young learners (Bialystock, 1978 and 2006; Birdsong, 1999; O’Malley and
Chamot, 1990; Jackendoff, 2002; Kawaguchi, 2002; Tomasello, 2003; Croft and
Cruise, 2004; Pienemann, 2005 among others). This increased interest of
researchers into the role of the mental mechanisms underlying the capability of
children to develop the linguistic framework of a L2 has been motivated by the
fact that language is a cognitive construct which distinguishes humans from
other species. Moreover, it is the outward manifestation of the neural
connections in our brain which enable us to process the incoming information
when communicating with others and on the basis of it to create new

utterances. L2 acquisition is thus viewed as a process that involves the
processing of the target language grammatical information, the mapping of
forms and functions and the transfer of this to the working memory.
This assumption is represented in the recent theoretical developments in the
fields of second language acquisition and cognitive psychology which tackle the
issue of how linguistic information is acquired and encoded. The current paper,
therefore, is an attempt tolink the linguistic and cognitive approaches to the
study of the developmental paths of L2 grammar in children by reviewing some
of the relevant theories and models that make specific claims regarding the
cognitive content of the target language system. It will also illustrate the
manner in which one of the current theoretical frameworks in the cognitive
paradigm – the Processability theory (PT) explains the acquisition of L2
grammar and will support this with evidence from a 14-month empirical
longitudinal study on English verb morphology processing of Bulgarian children
who learn English as a foreign language.

2. Cognitive Perspectives of L2 Acquisition

The cognitive models of L2 development step upon a range of aspects from
cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics to examine the way in which the
mind “stores and controls linguistic knowledge” (Graham Hall, 2011:113). An
important tenet in these models is the assumption of cognitive psychologists
that the human mind resembles a computer that stores and processes
information which can be easily retrieved when necessary. Consequently, if we
accept the idea of cognitive linguistics that language and mental development
are closely intertwined, and that language learning is not much different from
learning any other type of knowledge, then we can claim that there is an
intrinsic link between language learning and cognition.

2.1 Noticing and information processing

We need to clarify here that in the current paper we do not distinguish between
“language learning” and “language acquisition” as two different processes as
proposed by Stephen Krashen (2009). Rather we accept the cognitive
perspective which states that conscious and unconscious knowledge are
connected, which in the current line of development of this paper, suggests that
“attention” is a central concept in L2 acquisition because L2 learners need to
“notice” certain grammatical features before they can understand them and
subsequently produce them. For Schmidt (1990) acquisition takes place when
“noticing” is conscious, though he claims that both “conscious and unconscious
processes are involved in second language learning” (Richard Schmidt, 1990:

131). In contrast to his opinion, Lightbown and Spada (2006) propose that “…
anything that uses up our ‘mental processing space’, even if we are not aware
of it or are attending to it ‘on purpose’, can contribute to learning” (Patsy
Lingtbown and Nina Margaret Spada, 2006: 45). Whether the noticing of
specific target language forms is conscious or not, it is important to point out
that once a grammatical structure or form is noticed in the input, it can be
acquired. Or said in other words:paying attention and being engaged in a
communicative activity serves as a prerequisite for the deconstruction of the
noticed forms and structures and leads to explicit awareness of L2 grammar
rules. This view of L2 acquisition is central to information processing models of
learning which state that L2 learners need to notice the target language items
(i.e. use their cognitive capacity) before being able to use them with certain
Since the present work addresses the acquisition of a second language (English)
by young Bulgarian L1 learners, it is necessary to emphasize that what Johnson
(2008) claimsabout the limited capacity of people to process information at a
particular time of their development, is particularly relevant to young L2
speakers who usually have a narrower concept of words, meanings and
grammatical structures compared to L2 adults. However, over time and as a
result of the exposure to the target language, child L2 learners manage to reach
a state of language mastery where the understanding of new input and the
produced output become more and more automatic.
The automaticity of L2 processing, thus, entails the acquisition of procedural
skills, which as McLaughlin (1987) suggests, involve the passing from controlled
cognitive processes, which require conscious thought and attention, to
automatic cognitive processes that require less conscious attention and that
characterize with increased control over the necessary linguistic information.
However, this transition from conscious to automatized L2 use, is possible
because of the restructuring of knowledge, which is another procedure that
McLaughlin discusses. It is important to note that restructuring is not simply
adding new information to the already obtained knowledge about the foreign
language structure. It is the reorganization of the already acquired information
so that the procedures included in the processing of the target language
function more efficiently. In fact this illustrates that L2 acquisition is a process in
which the learners form and test new hypotheses about how the language
functions, as a result of which what has been learned changes and fluency in
the target language is reached.

2.2 L2 acquisition – declarative and procedural knowledge
The cognitive perspective of the existence of processing strategies in L2
acquisition has yielded to the emergence of several frameworksin applied
linguistics. One of the most popular of them (Anderson, 1983, 1985; Johnson,
1996) is that which views second language learning as ‘skill learning’ that
includes declarative (i.e. ‘knowing about’) and procedural knowledge(i.e.
‘knowing how to use the language’). According to Anderson (1983) declarative
knowledge is accessed at the early stages of L2 learning when the newly
acquired language knowledge is memorized and when general problem solving
and analogy are used as strategies for decoding the grammatical patterns of the
target language. With the progress of foreign language acquisition it gives way
to procedural knowledge as L2 production becomes more and more
autonomous due to the accumulation of knowledge and skills of how to use the
language being learned functionally. This shift towards proceduralization is
named by Johnson (1996) “DECPRO” and is represented in the following way:
Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge
(Keith Johnson, 2006: 104)
Clearly, the automatization of cognitive procedures involved in L2 acquisition
indicates the need for facilitating the movement from declarative to procedural
knowledge (DECPRO). However, as Johnson (2006) claims the movement from
procedural to declarative knowledge (PRODEC) is equally important because if a
learner is not aware of how the language works, he/she will not be able to use
it successfully.

2.3 The Processability Theory

A different framework in the domain of cognitive psychology and second
language acquisition, which defies the importance of declarative knowledge in
L2 learning, is Connectionism. It views language learning as a result of the
capacity of learners to connect elements and find regular patterns in the input
they perceive. Acquisition of the appropriate form-function mappings is
considered to be dependent on the frequency of occurrence of a specific
language item (MacWhinney, 2001).
The notion of acquisition of the L2 grammatical patterns has also been a focus
of study in a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory
(Pienemann, 2005). According to this theory the acquisition of grammatical
structures follows a fixed hierarchical order of language processing resources–
each structure is learned only when the information obtained in the previous

stages has been processed and acquired. The order of these processing
resources is as follows:

Table1. Hypothetical hierarchy of processing procedures1

Procedure / t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
Time (tn)

S’-procedure - - - - +
S-procedure - simplified simplified + +
Topic – Subj interphrasal
Phrasal - - + + +
procedure phrasal
(head) morphemes
Category - lexical + + +
procedure morphemes
Word / + + + + +

The suggested order of structures is universal as Pienemann (1998, 2011)

claims and can be applied to the learning of any language. He tested empirically
the order of acquisition of L2 English grammar through the application of the
Lexical Functional Grammar (Kaplan and Bresnan, 1982; Bresnan, 2001) – a
psychologically and typologically plausible framework for justifying the predicted
learning outcomes at each stage. He established that English morphology (at
the early stages of language acquisition) is acquired in the following order:
lexical > phrasal >interphrasal(see Table 2).

1Table 1 adapted from Manfred Pienemann, 1988: 79.

Table2. Hypothesized stages of acquisition of English morphology

Description Morphological marker

Lexical Diacritic features of words  Lexical plural -s (dogs, boys)

morphology such as ‘number’ and  Past tense -ed verb form (watched,
‘tense’are included in the played)
lexical entries of words and
can be achieved from

Phrasal Information exchange  Phrasal plural marking (many cars)

morphology between the head and its  AUX have + V -ed
modifier is possible (noun
 Modal AUX + V
phrase morphology) and
between the auxiliary verb  AUX be + V-ing

and the main verb (verb

phrase morphology)

Interphrasal Information unification  3rd person singular -s of verbs

morphology between the noun phrase
and the verb phrase

The important contribution of the Processability Theory in second (English)

language acquisition research is that it not only proposes the developmental
trajectory of L2 acquisition but it also analyzes the language learning process
and the construction of target language grammar by focusing on the
interlanguage of L2 learners and on the way in which they cope with their
deficiencies. Thus in order to get an understanding of the developmental
schedules of young L2 English language learners, it is necessary to provide a
comprehensive description of learners’ interlanguage.

3. Hypothesis
Given the fact that the claims of Manfred Pienemann (1998, 2005, 2011) about
the structural development of English L2 morphology by young learners have
been supported by a number of research findings (Pienemann, 1998; Cox,
2005; Zhang, 2011; Yamaguchi and Kawaguchi, 2014 among others), which

show little cross-linguistic variation, we would put forward the following
hypothesis: The interlanguage of L1 Bulgarian young learners of English as L2
would follow essentially the same developmental path as that of other L2
English child learners when it comes to the processing of English verb

4. The Empirical Study

The present study examines the above made hypothesis using a corpus of data
collected during a 14-month longitudinal case study carried from October 2010
to May 2012 with six L1 Bulgarian speaking young learners of English (three
boys and three girls) aged 9;00 to 11;1 years who attend the same
comprehensive school.

4.1 Methods for data collection

Data collection procedures commenced one month after the beginning of the
2011/2012 school year and included transcripts of the audio recordings of the
informant’s L2 oral production which performed after the regular classes of the
children every 8 months during the study. The data elicitation sessions lasted
from 45 up to 60 minutes and were performed after the regular daily classes of
the study participants. All audio recordings were transcribed subsequently
according to the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES) format.

4.2 Distribution of verb morphology forms

Over 5570 L2 utterances produced by the study informants were
transcribedduring the eight stages of data collection procedure. Repeated
utterances and formulaic expressions were not counted in the analysis,
therefore, the study corpus contained 3740 English language verb forms the
distribution of which in the L2 oral production of the L1 Bulgarian young
learners of English as a foreign language (Fig. 1).

20 16.01

Utterances containing verb

forms, % 7.11
5 0.94
0.59 1.04 1.752.69
0 T1
Data collection sessions

Figure 1. Analyzed L2 utterances containing verb forms in the oral production of the L1
Bulgarian young learners of English

In the following section we will discuss the results of the L2 English verbal
morphology (-ingforms, -ed forms and 3rd person singular -s forms) in the
speech production of the study informants by focusing not so much on the
analysis of the suppliance, lack of suppliance or overgeneralization of the
morphological markers, but on the cognitive aspects of target language
acquisition that come as reliable conclusions.
The analysis of the collected study data proves that the developmental schedule
of acquisition of the English verb morphological markers of L1 Bulgarian
speaking learners of English as L2 is from lexical morphology (V-ing) to the
phrasal morphology (AUX be + V-ing). However, it does not support the claim
of the ProcessabilityTheory that the first morphological marker that is to be
acquired by L2 English language learners is the lexical morpheme V-ing.A
plausible explanation for this phenomenon could be the fact the English is
studied in the realms of the L2 classroom and not in real-life communicative
situations, which suggests that the presence of the V-ing forms and the correct
AUX be + V-ing forms in the L2 speech utterance of the study subjects, is a
result of the systemic error correction on behalf of the English language
teacher, rather than a result of the low level of development of the processing
procedures allowing for the exchange of grammatical information between the
phrase constituents. For example:

(1) @ DIDO: Theyflyinginsky.

(2) @ DIDO: Theyhaveproblem. Enginestop. Theyarefalldown.
(* DIDO, 10;00.13, Session5)

(3) @ MIKI: WandaandWizareflying. Theysittinginplane.
(4)@ MIKI: Theenginestopsandtheyfallingdown.

(* MIKI, 10;04.24, Session 5)

(5) @ ELI: WandaandWizareflyinginplane.
(6) @ ELI: Theenginestops. Theyfallingdown.
(7) @ ELI: WandaandWizareinlake.

(* ELI,10;03.02, Session 5)
Moreover, the error correction techniques applied in the L2 classroom lead not
only to the memorization of individual words and grammatical forms, but also to
the application of cognitive strategies for the acquisition of the morphological
characteristics of the target language. Such strategies, for instance, include
theuse of deduction and integration of grammatical information and are applied
when matching the input to the already existing cognitive schemes for encoding
the grammar patterns of the foreign language.
Some of the examples above (3 and 5) show that the L1 Bulgarian speakers of
English as L2 form correctly the Present Continuous tense forms and unify the
grammatical categories of person and number of the auxiliary verb bewith the
subject of the sentence.
The productivity of forms for marking the Present Continuous tense can be
interpreted as a result of the specialization of the cognitive system of the L2
learners with respect to the morphological markers of the verbs. If we apply the
idea of Dressler (1997) about the acquisition of the morphological
characteristics of the first language (L1) by children to the situation described in
the current study, we can point out that there are certain similarities between
the acquisition of L1 and L2. One such similarity is the existence of a state of
transition (i.e. the Protomorphological stage), which characterizes with the
presence of morphological forms that constitute part of the lexicon of children,
but that have not yet reached a state of independence within the system of the
target language morphology.
The next morphological marker acquired by the Bulgarian young learners who
study English as L2 is the past tense -ed form of verbs. The data collected
during Sessions 6, 7 and 8 of the present study show convincingly that the six
Bulgarian L1 primary school children who study English as L2 pass through a
transitive period in the acquisition of the past tense -ed marker of regular

verbs. This transitive period characterizes with an abundance of morphological
errors that are a result of overgeneralization of the -ed morphological marker
as at the initial stage of L2 acquisition children cannot cope with the irregularity
of the past tense forms of the English verbs. Two developmental patterns are
observed in the L2 utterances of the six study informants:

a) the -edpast tense morphological marker added agglutinatively to the

stem of irregular verbs:
(8) @ DIDO: Тheybuyedthe car two years ago.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(9) @ DIDO: She leaved at 2 o’clock.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(10) @ DIDO: He runned.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(11) @ DIDO: They sitted under tree.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(12) @ ELI: They haved a new car.
(* ELI, 10;06.06, Session7)
(13) @ ELI: Peter drived the bus.
(* ELI, 10;06.06, Session 7)
(14) @ MARTY: I readed a book.
* MARTY,10;08.21, Session7)
(15) @ NIK: It felled from the bed
(* NIK, 10;10.20, Session7)
(16) @ NIK: Wanda flied her plane.
(* NIK, 10;10.20, Session7)
(17) @ NIK: Theyridedon camels.
(* NIK, 10;10.20, Session7)

b) the -edpast tense morphological marker added agglutinatively to the

irregular verb form:
(18) @ DIDO: Hetookedthe child to the doctor.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(19) @ DIDO: The train lefted at 9 o’clock
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(20) @ DIDO: They sawed dolphins.
(* DIDO, 10;04.22, Session7)
(21) @ ELI: Theywasedat the seaside.
(* ELI, 10;06.06, Session7)
(22) @ ELI: She haded a new bike.
(* ELI,10;06.06, Session7)
(23) @ NIK: Jack droved the car.
(* NIK, 10;10.20, Session7)

(24) @ MARTY: Inriver. Hetookedit.
(* MARTY, 10;08.21, Session7)

It is necessary to point out that the L2 utterances produced by the study

subjects contain about 60% of past tense verb forms marked with -ed.
Apossible explanation of this phenomenon can be found in the fact that in the
Bulgarian primary school English language classroom (grade 4) the forms of the
irregular verbs are presented fairly quickly – within several consecutive lessons.
This suggests that the Bulgarian young learners of English need time to process
the L2 input before starting to use it correctly.
The results obtained during Sessions 6, 7 and 8 prove that the study informants
have not mastered the category procedure (according to the hierarchy
presented by the Processability Theory) which accounts for the successful
marking of the diacritic feature of tense to the lexical entries of verbs.
It is necessary to point out that the corpus of the L2 oral productions of the six
study participants shows a variety of verb forms – target language and non-
target language forms. This is suggestive of the fact that the process of L2
acquisition is a creative process in which children use the L2 input to
construct and form hypotheses about the way in which the target language
functions2. Therefore, we can assume that apart from the cognitive factors that
have an effect on the development of the L2 processing procedures, the
creativity of the children is also an important factor in the acquisition of the
foreign language as the young L2 learners not only create hypotheses about the
rules of the target language grammar, but also test them. What is more, the L2
grammatical rules that the young learners create are very often a result of the
combination of different linguistic units – morphemes and words. With regard to
this, we can claim that the data about the acquisition of the Past Tense -ed
morphological marker of English verbs and the presence of irregular verb forms
in the L2 oral productions of the six study informants, convincingly prove that
the mix of two models for the acquisition of the grammatical units of the target
language – the one being morphological and based on the memorizing of a
grammar rule, and the other – lexical, leads to the structuring of grammatical
forms that are deviation forms the norms of the foreign language.

2The idea about the creative construction of the target language is part of the Creative
Construction Hypothesis (see Dulay and Burt, 1974), which develops under the framework of the
Generative transformational grammar created by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s, and which is also
supported by cognitivists who place an emphasis on the link between language and cognitive

The most difficult L2 verbal morphological marker for the Bulgarian young
learners of English as L2 is the 3rd person singular -s form of verbs. Although
this morphological marker is studied in parallel with the past tense -ed form in
the English language lessons in grade 3 of the primary school system in
Bulgaria, the unification of the grammatical categories of person and tense
between the subject and the predicate is the most difficult processing procedure
for the Bulgarian L1 speakers of English as L2.
@ TSVETY: Hegetsupateighto’clock.
@ TSVETY: Henowashface. Heeatsbreakfast.
@ INV: Whatdoesheeat?
@ TSVETY: Heeatssandwich.
@ INV: Whatdoeshedrink?
@ TSVETY: He drink coffee.
@ INV:Does he go to work?
@ TSVETY:Yes, he do. He reads.
(* TSVETY, 10;00.1, Session4)

@ MIKI: Hegetsupatseveno’clock.
@ MIKI: Hedressedupandeatsmybreakfast.
@ INV: Doeshegotowork?
@ MIKI: Hegotowork. … Hehaveslunch.
@ INV: Whatdoesheeat?
@ MIKI: He eat sandwich.
@ INV:Does he drink tea?
@ MIKI:No. He drinks coffee.
(* MIKI, 9;10.24, Session4)
@ ELI: Hegetup.
@ ELI: Hewashherface.
@ ELI: Heeatsbreakfast.
@ INV: Whattimedoeshegotowork?
@ ELI: Yes. He go to work.
@ INV: Whattime? Lookattheclock. (показва часовника на картинката)
@ ELI:He go to work … at ….half past eight.
@ INV:Does he eat lunch?
@ ELI:Yes. He eats lunch. He eats sandwich.
@ INV:Does he drink coffee?
@ ELI: Yes. He drinks.
@ INV: Does he go home?

@ ELI: Yes. Hegohome. Heeatsdinnerandwatch TV.
(* ELI, 9;08.29, Session4)

The presence of marked verb forms for the 3rd person singular and of “bare
stems” in the Present Simple tense, could be interpreted from the perspective of
some theoretical models that focus on the ways in which the different
neurocognitive mechanisms affect the acquisition of the L2 grammatical
characteristics. Three psycholinguistic models are particularly relevant to the
claim of the intrinsic link between the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying
the acquisition of L1 and L2. One of these models is the Declarative / Procedural
Model (Ullman, 2001, 2004, 2005). According to this model, there is a partial
overlap between the neurocognitive mechanisms participating in the L1 and L2
acquisition, but it is the declarative and procedural memory that have a
considerable role in the development of the linguistic competence of L2
Despite the cognitive differences between these two types of memory, they
function cooperatively or competitively when different types of knowledge are
learned. As Ullman (2005) proposes the lexical knowledge in the acquisition of
L1 and L2 is stored in the declarative memory, and the knowledge of
grammatical rules in the L1 is stored in the procedural memory, while the
knowledge of grammatical rules in the L2 is stored in the declarative memory.
This viewpoint on the L2 acquisition process presupposes that the acquisition of
the procedure for unification ofthe grammatical features of the subject and the
predicate in the Present Simple tense is a declarative type of knowledge (e.g.
Krashen, 1982; Ellis 1990 among others). It involves the rote learning of the
principles of functioning of the target language grammar, namely: a/an -s/-es
morphological marker is added to the form of the verb in the 3rd person singular
in the Present Simple tense.
A different opinion is expressed by O’Grady (2006) who proposes that the
unification of the grammatical features of the subject and the predicate in
English is a process in which is involved the procedural memory. He motivates
his claim by stating that the application of morphological rules for marking the
3rd person singular form of verbs in English implies the functioning of specific
procedures for the unification of grammatical features between the sentence
constituents which is performed in the language processor (the so called
“computational system”). This idea is in close proximity with the theoretical
underpinnings of the Processability theory about the existence of a language
processor and procedures for the unification of grammatical information. What

is essential in this case is the view of cognitive linguists that procedural memory
has a significant role in the formation and development of the automatized
morphological operations that are at the heart of the independent structuring of
verb form in the target language.

5. Conclusions
The analysis of the speech corpuses of the six L1 Bulgarian young learners of
English as L2 show that they acquire the morphological models of the English
verb in the suggested by the Processability theory developmental trajectory.
The only exception noticed is related to the acquisition of the -ing
morphological marker for the Present Continuous tense which in the excerpted
L2 utterances of the study informants is used along with the structure AUX be
+ V-ing. This is a result of the fact that the English language is acquired by
the L1 Bulgarian primary school pupils in conditions creating real life
communication in the confines of the foreign language classroom.
Apart from that,not all grammatical markers that are to be masteredat a specific
developmental stage as hypothesized by the Processability theoretical
framework are acquired during it. For instance the -ed past simple tense
morphological marker is acquired much later than the -ingmorphological
marker in the structure AUX be + V-ing.
A common trend in the developmental trajectory of the L1 Bulgarian children
acquiring English as L2 is the presence of a transition period in which all L2
errors can be interpreted as a result of the restructuring of the grammatical
rules of the target language.
In order to provide a detailed analysis of the overall process of the L2
acquisition of English verb morphological markers, it is necessary to undertake a
different study of the acquisition of English of L1 Bulgarian child learners at the
lower and upper-secondary school system. This, however, could be the aim
and focus of research of a follow-up study.

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Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA

Deptartment of Modern Languages and Communication

Abstract: In this paper we aim to re-evaluate the position and role of the languages for
specific purposes as vital linguistic tools for the information exchange in engineering,
business and academic environments, and the students’ command of languages for
professional communication within the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. A number of
factors and ways to maximize the students’ communicative potential as well as the
application of intercultural and interpersonal approaches to language learning and
teaching activities within an academic framework, which is appropriate to the new
requirements to global competitiveness concerning the technical students’
communication competences are discussed. Effective teaching techniques, learning
strategies, and ways of assessing, which can enhance considerably students’
professional communication achievements for their future career are presented.

Keywords: interpersonal communication, learning strategies, interactions,

communication competence.

1. Introduction
With ever-increasing globalization of the technological and business
environments, the number of interactions between people of different
professional specializations and cultural backgrounds in the workplace is
growing exponentially, making the course on ESP communication an important
focus for today’s students in engineering. Social interaction, cultural norms and
numerous environmental factors need to be considered when participants from
different cultures and education systems are engaged in natural communication
in a language that is not a first language to any of the interactants.
The present paper analyses some aspects in conversations and other
professional contexts that require specific communicative strategies, which
should be applied in exchanges with adequate verbal and nonverbal behaviours.
Thus, to prepare our students from the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca for

the new international engineering and technological work-markets we have re-
considered our instructional approach in terms of teaching and learning
strategies that should determine a more effective way for our technical students
to communicate with success in English or other foreign language.

2. Globalization and internationalization in higher

2.1 Defining the concepts
Although closely related, the terms “globalization” and “internationalization” in
higher education refer to two distinct phenomena. Globalization makes
reference to “the broad economic, technological, and scientific trends that
directly affect higher education and are largely inevitable in the contemporary
world.” Internationalization, on the other hand, has more to do with the
“specific policies and programs undertaken by governments, academic systems
and institutions, and even individual departments to deal with globalization”
(Altbach, 2006: 123).
One of the key distinctions between the two concepts is the notion of control.
Globalization and its effects are beyond the control of any one actor or set of
actors. Internationalization, however, can be seen as a strategy for societies
and institutions to respond to the many demands placed upon them by
globalization and as a way for higher education to prepare individuals for
engagement in a globalized world. In fact, internationalization has been
conceived as a necessary “process of integrating an international, intercultural,
or global dimension in the purpose, functions, or delivery of postsecondary
education” (Knight, 2003: 2). This process consists mainly of two spheres of
action, commonly characterized as “internationalization at home” and
“internationalization abroad”.
Internationalization at home consists of strategies designed to lend an
international dimension to the home campus experience, by including global and
comparative perspectives in the curriculum or recruiting international students.
Internationalization abroad, on the other hand, calls for an institution to project
itself out in the world, for example, sending students to study abroad, setting
up a branch campus overseas, or engaging in an inter-institutional partnership.

2.2 Aspects of internationalization

The forces of globalization have exerted an enormous influence over higher
education in the last decade, and internationalization has emerged as the
primary response to this phenomenon. For instance, in Europe international

student mobility has become a central issue in higher education. A study on the
impact of the ERASMUS student-mobility programme indicates that the initiative
“has had a leading role in internationalization policies in higher education at
national, European and international levels” (European Commission, 2008: 4),
and affected a wide range of other policies and practices in European higher
education (e.g. internationalization of the curricula, promotion of academic staff
mobility, international teaching and research networks, encouragement and
support for domestic students to gain international experience, cosmopolitan
campus culture, etc.).
Internationalization presents many new and exciting opportunities for
cooperation within the academic enterprise and can be a powerful tool for the
enhancement of quality and the insertion of innovation across many
dimensions. At the same time, many significant risks and challenges must be
faced in a fast-paced, costly, competitive global higher education environment.
The growing international mobility of students and scholars is helping to drive
the need for a way to evaluate, compare and certify qualifications earned in
different parts of the world. The trend is toward standards that can be
referenced internationally. In other words, there is a need to move toward
mutual recognition and trust so that national programs for quality assurance will
provide international validity. The Bologna process is guiding Europe toward
shared standards that will make it possible to compare qualifications awarded in
all participating countries.

3. Teaching and learning outcomes

3.1 Outcomes-based approach to student learning
Understanding what students take away from the university experience, that is
what and how well they learn and how the skills and knowledge they acquire
serve their individual interests as well as a broader set of societal objectives is
of great importance.
From “outcomes based education” (Miller and Ewell, 2005), which refers to
institutional or systemic outcomes defined for the needs of external audiences
(also to meet accreditation requirements) nowadays a specific concern is
rendered by the notion of “outcomes-based approaches to student learning”
with emphasis on the enhancement of both teaching and learning. “If students
are to learn desired outcomes in a reasonably effective manner, then the
teacher’s fundamental task is to get students to engage in learning activities

that are likely to result in their achieving those outcomes” (Shuell, 1986: 429).
This statement contains two important principles for teaching design:
(1) Knowledge is not transmitted by a teacher but is constructed by students
through their own learning activities;
(2) Outcomes need to be stated upfront and be aligned with both teaching
methods and assessment strategies.
When teaching is based on student learning and involves identifying pedagogy
that will produce stated learning outcomes, it is called “constructive alignment”
(Biggs, 1996; Biggs and Tang, 2007). By articulating in advance intended
learning outcomes, appropriate teaching and learning activities are built,
followed by meaningful assessment tasks. Thus teachers make clear what they
intend their students to learn, using teaching that helps the students attain
those outcomes, and assessing students in terms of how well they attained the
outcomes. At the same time, teachers should remain open to learning outcomes
that emerge during the critical exchange between students and
teachers/instructors. This approach represents a significant shift in teaching,
away from declarative knowledge to functional knowledge.

3.2 Teaching strategies

Students’ performances in learning should be related to the theory of successful
intelligence, which suggests that students’ failures can often result from
teaching that is rigid or narrow not valuing students’ potential and other ability
patterns that can lead to success in university. Successful intelligence
(Sternberg and Grigorenko, 2000) is the use of an integrated set of abilities
needed to attain success in life within one’s sociocultural context. People are
successfully intelligent by recognizing their strengths and making the most of
them at the same time that they recognize their weaknesses and find ways to
correct them. Several implications for university teaching derived from this
theory resulted in us applying those teaching strategies that could effectively
translate such a wide range of needs on the benefit of students’ learning.
We experimented this within our English seminars by providing numerous
examples and topics or subjects of discussion that would cover a wide range of
applications, narrowly or broadly conceived; by giving students multiple and
diverse options in assessment; by grading student work in a way that preserves
the integrity of the course as well as the integrity of the students’ varied life
goals. For example, students can have a term project or paper assignment that
enables them to speak/write about any topic of interest to them as long as it

falls within the purview of the course. Thus, students are asked to find a way to
relate the course to their own personal or professional interests. A civil
engineering student might design or refer to the design of a bridge to handle
heavy cargo, establish stages or explain methods and procedures in bridge
construction, determine the materials used in different types of bridges or
calculate various strength coefficients. Another example is a test that may have
options built into it. Students might have a common multiple-choice section
followed by a selection of essays that ask them to apply concepts in diverse
ways to various issues. It is important that teachers understand and to some
extent share the student goals in preparation of projects or essays.

3.3 Methods of instruction

It is important that students learn to deal with more challenging methods of
instruction as well as with ones that challenge them less. To maximize students’
opportunities for success, we should enable them to capitalize on their strengths
and to correct or compensate for weaknesses. Therefore, a teacher, who varies
teaching techniques and ways of assessing, can enhance considerably students’
All teaching and assessment of English/ foreign languages in our course classes
are balanced in terms of the thinking skills they require. Thinking always
appeals to the knowledge base that is accessed through the use of our
memories. It enables students to analyze, create with, and apply their
knowledge. Consequently, we used experimentally in our seminars techniques
to teach technical English analytically, creatively, and practically to develop in
our students thinking skills.
Teaching analytically (and for critical thinking) means giving the students
activities to analyze, critique, judge, compare and contrast, evaluate. In
instructional terms, a series of activities were developed in our FL seminars with
suitable corresponding tasks, for example: analyze the development of the
automobile industry in Europe; critique the design of several buildings and
structures; compare and contrast the camera and the human’s eye, pointing out
ways in which they are similar and those in which they are different; evaluate
the validity of the following solution to an engineering problem, and discuss
weaknesses in the solution if there are any.
Teaching creatively means encouraging students to create, invent, discover,
imagine, suppose, and predict. It can be stimulated by giving students
instructional activities such as: create an alternative device to accomplish the
same function but using a different energy source; discover the mechanical

principle that underlines all the following problems, each of which differing from
the others in the surface structure of the problem; imagine the information
technology market evolving over the course of the next thirty years; predict
changes that are likely to occur in the vocabulary of spoken Romanian over the
next fifty years as a result of continual interactions between Romanian and
other European languages speakers in the global technological market.
Teaching practically refers to encouraging students to apply, use, put into
practice, implement, and render practical what they know, for example: use
your knowledge of English to greet a research group of engineers at Cluj-
Napoca airport; implement a business plan you have written in a simulated
business environment; employ the formula for the safety factor for a structure
of 30 tonnes, etc.

3.4 Learning strategies

Strategic learning and distributed cognition are the stone concepts of social
constructivism (Brunner, 1990) and situated cognition (Greeno et al., 1996).
Collaborative learning strategies indebted to social constructivism assert that
through interactions with the environment and interpretations of those
interactions, the learner comes to create a worldview consistent with past
experience and present data. Collaboration among learners is a way in which an
individual learner forms an interpretation of the environment and develops
understanding. Situated cognition (situative learning) was initially assimilated to
transfer of learning. It was the difficulty of getting students to transfer what
they had learned in one setting to a new setting. When one attempted to
remove the solution from the context and apply it elsewhere, those cues were
no longer available, and therefore the solution would no longer work unless one
could find analogous cues in the new situation.
In our English seminars we applied with success several instructional strategies
to organize the presentation of new information so that it could be easily stored
in memory:
 Strategies for directing student attention to key points. These refer to
highlighting main ideas, either verbally (“the next main idea is…”) or
visually (with bold or italics print in written text, or visual aids in oral
 Strategies for emphasizing how material is organized. These include
outlines, concept maps, analogies, comparative charts, advance
organizers, and verbal cues that signal structure. We have also made

our students produce the organization of the material for their own by
drawing their own concept maps or outlines.
 Strategies for making information more meaningful for the learner. A
pertinent outcome is that the more associations a learner can make
between new and old information, the easier retrieval will be. To make it
effective, we tried to activate the students’ prior associations, and asked
them to think about what they already knew about the concept/topic,
using examples that might have been part of their personal experiences,
and giving detailed descriptions of instances of the concept/topic.
 Strategies for encouraging active checking of understanding. These
strategies aim at correcting any errors before they become too deeply
ingrained. The activities accomplished with our students in the ESP
seminars included asking frequent questions during the presentation of
material, having students explain their understanding to other students.
These activities provided an opportunity for students to get feedback on
their understanding.
 Strategies that recognize the limitations of the learning system. These
strategies derive from the limited capacity of working memory with
implications for teaching. As we can attend to only a part of what is
going on around us, it is significant for the density of new information
we are delivering to our students and their capability of processing it
rapidly enough. The techniques we applied were stopping talking for a
while after giving an important piece of information, or providing a break
without actually stopping by repeating or rephrasing the point just
With some other strategies used in our seminar work, the responsibility was
turned over to the learner with support from the teacher/instructor, and the
goal of instruction was to raise student awareness of themselves as learners.
 Strategies modeling thinking. We directed students’ own learning by
thinking aloud while solving problems (e.g. grammar problems in
context, or communicative verbal behaviours in different situations) in
front of the class, followed by a discussion with the students, thus giving
them a model to copy in their own thinking.
 Direct teaching of strategies. Some students have limited strategies of
learning languages, especially if they are studying in a content area
outside their specialty field, as English language study is in our Technical
University. Most students when they are under pressure revert to old
inefficient strategies acquired in the earlier stages, but with additional

practice, they may at least come to understand the value of trying
different more effective methods.
 Learning in groups. We encouraged our students to make decisions
about what and how to learn individually, or at least as part of a
collaborative group. Moreover, students have open access to their own
understanding and thinking processes, they get immediate and more
personal feedback to assist in the monitoring process, and they have
more of a sense of personal control of the material. Thus, our students
are motivated better by participating in a community practice.
 The instruction based on authentic problem-solving tasks improves the
potential for transfer of learning, provides the situational cues for
responding and the motivation for putting forth the effort. Students,
usually working in groups, determine the questions to ask, the methods
to gather data, and the ways to interpret the data obtained. These
classroom-based methods, which simulate the problem-solving process
of field professionals, are quite diverse in implementation but common in
purpose and process.

4. Achieving intercultural communication competence

The study of intercultural competence nowadays is motivated by practical
concerns. Lack of intercultural competence means failed business or projects
that have not achieved their objectives, and unsuccessful learning experiences
for students.

4.1 Communicative competence

To understand the key components of the communication competence
approach we started from the definition of competent communication (Brian
Spitzberg, 1988: 69) considered as “the interaction that is perceived as effective
in fulfilling certain rewarding objectives in a way that is also appropriate to the
context in which the interaction occurs.”
A key word in this definition is “perceived” because it means that competence is
best determined by the people who are interacting with each other. The social
perception of this competence suggests that it will always be specific to the
context and interpersonal relationship within which it occurs.
Competent communication also results in behaviours that are regarded as
“appropriate”, i.e. the actions of the communicators, which fit the expectations
and demands of the situation. Appropriate communication means that people
use the symbols they are expected to use in a given context.

Competent interpersonal communication results in behaviours that are
“effective” in achieving desired personal outcomes. Satisfaction in a relationship
on the accomplishment of a specific task-related goal is an example of an
outcome people might want to achieve through their communication with
Thus, communication competence is a social judgment that people make about
others, which depends on the context, the relationship between the
interactants, the goals or objectives that the interactants want to achieve, and
the specific verbal and nonverbal messages that are used to accomplish those

4.2 Intercultural competence

Interacting effectively with people from other cultures and behaving
appropriately in a culturally novel context are indications of the cross-cultural
skills and abilities, which include a wide range of information, interpersonal and
behavioural skills. Whereas intercultural communication involves interactions
among people from different cultures, cross-cultural communication involves a
comparison of interactions among people from the same culture to those from
another culture. Our main interest then is in using these cross-cultural
comparisons to understand intercultural communication competence or
international communication, which refers to interactions among people from
different nations.
From an international business and academic perspective, national culture is
probably the most logical level of analysis from which to begin to understand
the cultural environment. There are factors that influence the way in which
people interact with their environment and each other and thereby condition the
way they think. Thus, nationality has a symbolic value to citizens that influences
how we perceive ourselves. On the other hand, each individual has unique life
experiences that contribute to diversity within the culture.
The search for a universal skill set has led to the development of models that
predict intercultural effectiveness. They contain both general and culture-
specific elements, which focus on the ability to produce appropriate behaviour.
Models of cultural intelligence (Earley and Ang, 2003) focus on how culture-
specific experiences can be converted into general skills that can then be
applied to new cross-cultural structures. These models shift the focus from
specific skills to a culture-general meta-skill, where the central component is an
analytic ability, called mindfulness or cultural metacognition.

The characteristics of effective intercultural interaction can be summarized
(Thomas and Fitzsimmons, 2008) as good personal adjustment (indicated by
feelings of contentment and well-being), development and maintenance of good
interpersonal relationships with culturally different others, and the effective
completion of task-related goals.

4.3 Intercultural training

A valid approach to intercultural training can be seen today, in principle, as the
one moving away from a model-based approach where participants are
encouraged to view behaviour and communication in terms of pre-taught
cultural models. Instead, it should be based on respect for and knowledge of
the learner’s culture and communicative economy with the most focus on
observation, sensitization and the negotiation of identities.
Negotiating reality (Friedman and Antal, 2005: 77) is understood as a strategy
for effectively engaging intercultural interactions and generating a repertoire of
action strategies. Negotiating reality generates the necessary cultural
knowledge for situations as they arise and, from this knowledge, constructs
effective action strategies.
Exchange students from our university or other European universities claimed
that their initial strategies were to be very modest and polite, to ask questions
and to pretend to understand even if they were not satisfied with the response,
insisting in checking their understanding by repeating with their interpretation
of the message meaning. Activities, which were routine in their native country,
required great energy in the new culture. They found conversation partners
responding to them in unexpected ways such as simplifying and slowing their
speech excessively or speaking more loudly, as if to compensate for a loss of
hearing. This situation could cause stress and anxiety. They often say that good
intentions are not always enough, that adaptation is easier said than done, and
that there is a difference between knowing what to do and being able to do it.
We encourage students to analyse their own cultural identities and view
themselves as others might see them. Negotiating reality is more demanding of
personal mastery because individuals must have an active awareness of how
their own cultural backgrounds influence their perceptions and behaviour, an
ability to engage with others in effective personal and professional international
(often intercultural) communicative exchanges.

5. Conclusion
To compete in a global knowledge market, foreign language training within the
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca has had to prioritize teaching and student
learning for enhanced academic performances. The course design and
instruction strategies we used with our engineering students aimed to answer
their willingness to communicate effectively in an interdependent world and,
consequently, to equip our graduates with the international professional skills
and abilities required for a highly competitive engineer.
To be successful in different professional contexts, students should learn to
focus on what occurs in instances of interaction, and analyse in depth the
contextual factors in trying to understand how interactions proceed. By
participating in negotiating reality, professionals improve the quality of
information available to them for constructing their strategies of action in
intercultural situations.

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Effectiveness”. In Charles H. Tardy (ed.). A Handbook for the Study of Human
Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex: 67-105.
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Arlington Heights, III: Skylight.
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communication competence to cultural intelligence”. In P. B. Smith, M. F.
Peterson and D. C. Thomas (Eds.). Handbook of cross-cultural management
research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 201-218.

Marinela Doina NISTEA

Universitatea Tehnică de Construcții București

Departamentul de Limbi Străine și Comunicare

Abstract: The main purposes of the way in which Romanian is taught at the Technical
University of Civil Engineering Bucharest (both as a native language and as a foreign
language) are to diversify the vocabulary used by the students, to identify the
difficulties related to grammar, to highlight the differences between the oral discourse
and the written one, to correctly use the stylistical and rhetorical elements and to
provide cultural contextualization. The ludic component introduced, from time to time,
at the seminar raises the students' awareness on the linguistic and cultural authenticity
and helps them to assimilate more quickly the notions they are taught, to rediscover
and treasure the language they study. Therefore, ludo-linguistics is a working method
chosen for arousing students' interest and motivation; the selected texts have a
memorable content, are amusing both by their humour and by the endless Romanian
imagination and fix the notions taught in a classic way at the corresponding lecture.

Key-words: ludo-linguistic, authenticity, motivation, humour, learning

Rod al unei experiențe de peste cincisprezece ani, materialele pentru predarea

limbii române ca limbă maternă ori ca limbă străină au fost create și adaptate
din dorinţa de a fi cât mai moderne, interactive și, nu în ultimul rând, ludice,
învățarea prin joc fiind o practică pedagogică aplicată cu succes la orice vârstă.
De-a lungul anilor, am observat că, deși la început sunt sceptici în legătură cu
joaca și cu jocul, dacă depășesc bariera preconcepției și sunt încurajaţi să treacă
prin filtrul gândirii proprii orice chestiune prezentată la curs, tinerii sunt capabili
să intre în joc - și chiar le place să o facă - jocul având menirea de a-i ajuta să
se concentreze mai ușor, să lucreze mai bine în echipă și să rețină mai multă
Pedagogia jocului nu este o descoperire a ultimelor decenii, ci o revalorificare a
unor abilități existente dintotdeauna la om prin intermediul motivaţiilor ludice,
astăzi fiind o practică recunoscută la nivel mondial și o componentă aparte a
sistemului ştiinţelor educaţiei. Metoda constă în a plasa studenții într-o situaţie
ludică cu caracter de instruire, putând fi folosită la seminarele destinate
recapitulării, dar și ca moment pentru fixarea cunoștințelor la sfârșitul unei
predări ori ca introducere în atmosfera de început a unui curs/seminar.

Activităţile ludice sunt folosite pentru a dinamiza activitatea de predare-învăţare
şi pot fi combinate și cu alte metode, în funcţie de particularităţile de vârstă şi
de tipul de lecţie. În toate situațiile, pentru ca jocul didactic să aibă rezultate
optime, printre condițiile esențiale ale succesului se numără temeinica sa
pregătire, anunțarea temei și trezirea curiozității, enunțarea regulilor prestabilite
şi obligatorii pentru toţi participanţii, explicarea, demonstrarea şi efectuarea
unui joc de probă, desfăşurarea propriu-zisă însoțită de înregistrarea rezultatelor
și, la final, încheierea activității, aprecieri și recompensarea câştigătorilor
(învățarea ca proces primește, așadar, atributul dirijării sau semi-dirijării).
Lucrarea de față își propune să prezinte câteva activități didactice ludice
experimentate cu succes în anii anteriori, menite să stimuleze interesul
studenților față de disciplina limba română contemporană și să aducă un plus de
valoare în activitatea de învățare a limbii române ca limbă maternă ori ca limbă

Jocul 1: Puzzle România – spune-mi cum vorbești ca să-

ți spun de unde ești
Finalități vizate
Jocul se desfășoară cu participarea efectivă a tuturor studenților din clasă și are
ca scop redescoperirea unor cuvinte existente în vocabularul pasiv ori învățarea
altora noi. Scopul său este conștientizarea frumuseții și bogăției lexicale a limbii
române și evitarea exprimării clișeizate sau, metaforic vorbind, surprinderea
tradiţiei de ieri și a obiceiurilor de azi în materie de limbă. Exercițiul se poate
efectua la seminarul aferent cursului de lexicologie, îndeosebi la dezbaterile
referitoare la masa vocabularului.
Sarcini didactice
Crearea unor liste de cuvinte specifice graiurilor dialectului daco-român și
înregistrarea lor distinctă pe notițe adezive de diferite culori.
Profesorul discută cu studenții despre ce și cum trebuie scris pe notițele adezive
și despre repartizarea acestora pe arii geografice în funcție de cromatică.
Desfășurarea propriu-zisă
Studenții vor trebui să alcătuiască singuri sau în microgrup (cu alți doi-trei colegi
proveniți din aceeași zonă) câte o listă din care profesorul selectează un număr
de cuvinte ce vor fi lipite pe harta României, al cărei contur a fost desenat în

prealabil pe tablă. În timpul desfășurării jocului, profesorul încurajează, dă
indicații atunci când acestea sunt absolut necesare, altminteri lăsându-le
studenților, în cea mai mare parte a timpului, libertatea de decizie și de acțiune.
Evaluarea și finalizarea jocului
La sfârșitul activității, regiunile României vor fi puse în evidență prin diferite
hârtii colorate ce vor conține cuvinte specifice, iar profesorul le va citi. Studentul
capabil să recunoască cele mai multe cuvinte va fi declarat câștigător.
Jocul stimulează atât potențialul intelectiv, cât și sfera afectivă a personalității
studenților prin valorificarea unor cunoștințe pasive ce le amintesc de casă, de
bunici și de vârsta minunată a copilăriei. Un astfel de exercițiu este menit să
surprindă varietatea lexicală limbii române, să redea farmecul local adesea uitat
de tineri din lipsa lecturilor și, totodată, constituie un bun prilej de reflecție
asupra viitorului limbii române în era globalizării. După desfășurarea acestei
activități, am primit de la unul dintre participanți fragmentul rimat pe care-l
redăm mai jos, gestul dovedindu-ne că jocul a fost apreciat, iar problematica
pusă în dezbatere a suscitat interesul și după finalizarea sa:

La bunica în Moldova,
Undeva e încotrova.
Puiul scurmă-n rumeguş,
Iar ardei i-un chipăruş.
Cocostârcul este barză,
Curechi una e cu varză.
Un ciorap e un colţun,
Perjele-s prune din prun.
Şi povidla e magiun
Plapuma, cum zicem noi
E oghial la Dorohoi.
Un copil ce s-a lovit
Plânge fiindcă s-a pălit.
Un cartof i-o barabulă
Ori zici cuşmă, ori căciulă.
Doniţa e cofăiel,
Romaniţa-i muşeţel.
Ce-i basma e şi tulpan,
Iar un mânz de peste-un an,
În Moldova e cârlan.
Fumul iese din hogeag
Şi iaurtul e chişleag.
Păpuşoi zic la porumb

Şi nu nasture, ci bumb.
Nu livadă, ci pomăt,
Nu zăpadă, ci omăt.
- Zi-mi bunică, dacă poţi,
ce-s eu?
- Tu? Un ghilimoţ,
Dar român cum suntem toţi.
(Autor necunoscut)

Jocul 2: Capra crapă piatra... Getuța încalță ghetuța...

Finalități vizate
Exercițiile propuse vizează o dicție cât mai bună, pronunțarea corectă și fermă a
cuvintelor fiind un deziderat în învățarea unei limbi străine și, bineînțeles, în
profesia de interpret. Pe lângă caracteristici de bază cum ar fi prelucrarea vocii,
menținerea contactului vizual cu auditoriul, emiterea unor enunțuri echilibrate
etc., un bun discurs presupune și pronunţarea clară, inteligibilă a cuvintelor, cu
o intonaţie adecvată şi, pe cât posibil, fără ezitări.
Cu o diferențiere clară în funcție de problemele vizate, setul de exerciții ludice
poate fi efectuat în cadrul seminarelor de limba română ca limbă
maternă/străină, în cazul studenților străini insistându-se asupra grafemelor
specifice limbii române, care generează numeroase greșeli: ă, â, î, ș, ț, ce, ci,
ge, gi, che, chi, ghe, ghi, și –i final afonic (asilabic).
Sarcini didactice
Redarea corectă a unor sunete izolate și a sunetelor din componența unor
cuvinte, pronunțarea corectă a propozițiilor, iar în cazul străinilor – scrierea cu
conștientizare semantică, transpunerea grafică a lexemelor în funcție de
contexte specifice.

Profesorul discută particularitățile alfabetului românesc, subliniind faptul că
sunetele se pronunţă şi se aud, iar literele se scriu şi se văd. Din cele treizeci și
una de litere ale alfabetului românesc, nouăsprezece sunt monovalente
(corespund unui singur fonem), iar douăsprezece sunt plurivalente. În cazul
studenților străni, accentul se va pune pe situațiile în care aceeași literă notează
sunete diferite (litera x) ori același sunet este notat prin litere diferite, spre
exemplu: c, k, q noteză pe [k] → kaki; â, î notează pe [î] → mânca, începe; o,

w, u notează pe [u] → oameni, weekend. Se va insista asupra faptului că, deși
româna este o limbă fonetică, nu întotdeauna o literă notează un sunet.
Desfășurarea propriu-zisă
Profesorul împarte fișe printate cu exercițiile ce urmează a fi citite și exersate.
Exerciţiile vor fi pronunţate cât mai clar şi cât mai corect în prima fază, apoi din
ce în ce mai repede şi mai tare ca volum, iar la final se va încerca citirea cât mai
clară şi mai corectă a propozițiilor cu un creion sau pix în gură, aşezate pe
orizontală între maxilare, cât mai în spate posibil.
Pentru studenții străini, dictarea se va efectua ca mijloc de testare și nu de
învățare. Astfel, materialul cuprins în textul dictării va fi cunoscut în prealabil
atât sub aspect oral, cât și grafic, iar subiecții vor trebui să înțeleagă textul
respectiv din punct de vedere semantic. Textul va fi citit integral, va urma
dictarea propriu-zisă, pe unităţi logice - propoziţii sau sintagme, iar la final,
textul va fi recitit de către profesor, pentru ca studenții să poată verifica scrierea
corectă și respectarea semnelor de punctuaţie.
Evaluarea și finalizarea jocului
Obiectivul final este verificarea competenţelor lingvistice, dar și motivarea
studenților români și străini de a vorbi/scrie corect în limba română. În cazul
dictării, corectura trebuie făcută imediat, altminteri existând riscul ca greșelile
făcute în timpul dictării să fie fixate la fel de repede ca formele corecte.
Exemple de activități:
1. Citiți textele, repetați-le și încercați să le pronunțați cât mai repede și cât mai

a. Știu că știi că știuca-i știucă

Și că știuca se mănâncă
Și mai știu că știuca-i pește
Și că știuca se prăjește.

b. - Capra neagră-n piatră calcă,

Cum o calcă-n patru capra!
Crapă capul caprii-n patru,
Cum a crăpat piatra-n patru!
Capra neagră calcă-n clinci,
Crapă capul caprii-n cinci,
Cum a călcat capra-n clinci.
Capra paște lângă casă

Capul caprii crape-n șase!
Capra noastră n-are lapte
Crăpa-i-ar coarnele-n șapte!
Capra-n piatră a călcat
Piatra-n patru a crăpat,
Povestea s-a terminat!

2. Scrieți după dictare următoarele propoziții:

a. Ghioceii gingași au înflorit.

b. Relu schimbă lire sterline în dolari.
c. Castelele vechi par clădite pe veci.
d. Getuţa a încălţat ghetuţa sa.
e. Sânziana învață să țină o conversație.
f. El privește pe ocean cu un ochean.
g. Chinezii beau mult ceai .
h. Chiriac, Cecilia și Xenia au examen chiar acum.

Jocul 3: De la culori... la nume comune

Finalități vizate
Powerpointul care însoțește această activitate îmbină armonios elementul
instructiv cu procedeele ludice, demonstrând că eponimia este o sursă de
înnoire a vocabularului și de îmbogățire a culturii generale. La finanul jocului,
studenții vor ști să definească eponimele și să le conștientizeze importanța din
vedere al conservării și al dezvoltării lor într-o limbă.
Sarcini didactice
Descoperirea etimologiei unor cuvinte (substantive comune) uzuale.
Variantă adaptată temei noastre, jocul este inspirat din Etymos - le jeu dément
du démon des mots, recompensat cu medalia de aur la concursul Lépine, în
anul 2003, în cadrul Expoziţiei Internaționale de Joc şi Jucării din Paris, care va
determina apariția și la București a unei lucrări lexicografice dedicate
eponimelor, semnată Octavian Laiu-Despău. Dicționarul pune în discuție
originea a peste 1200 de cuvinte-titlu, selectate în funcție de circulația și de
pitorescul lor. Potrivit DEX, prin eponim se întelege: termenul „care dă numele
său unui oraş, unei regiuni, etc.”; Magistrat care, în antichitate, dădea numele
său anului. Particularizând, se poate afirma că eponimele sunt „numele proprii

care stau la baza unor nume comune”. Unii autori apreciază, în sens larg, ca
eponim orice apelativ sau termen generic provenit de la un nume propriu.
Desfășurarea propriu-zisă
Vor fi fomate două echipe egale numeric, iar un reprezentant al acestora va
acumula lauri pentru echipa din care face parte, descoperind eponime pe baza
indiciilor primite. Astfel, laurul albastru va simboliza imaginea cuvântului comun;
laurul verde - definiţia; laurul galben - numele de origine; laurul roz - explicaţia
eponimului. Laurii vor fi ilustrați atât pe slide-urile powerpointului aferent
exercițiului, cât și pe cartonașe colorate, în formă de semne de carte, ce vor fi
înmânate studenților care răspund corect.
Evaluarea și finalizarea jocului
La sfârşitul jocului, echipa care a câştigat cele mai multe cartonașe va
împrumuta de la profesor dicţionarul de eponime pentru o săptămână, timp în
care studenții vor putea continua jocul căutând alţi termeni comuni.
Exercițiul poate fi efectuat și în sens invers, mai ales cu studenții străini, adică
descoperind nume proprii provenite de la nume comune prin procedeul
antonomazei - „figura [de substituție] prin care se înlocuiește: a) un nume
propriu de persoană cu unul comun (tratat ca nume propriu) sau b) un nume
comun cu unul propriu (tratat ca unul comun), pe baza unei relații de
interpretare cvasisinonimică: numele (comun sau propriu) trebuie să exprime o
caracterizare a celuilalt.” (Gh. N. Dragomirescu, 1975 : 111.) Astfel, nume
precum Cocoș, Păun, Leu sau Ursu, care scrise fără majusculă fac parte din
categoria numelor comune, au ajuns să facă parte din segmentul numelor
proprii în urma unui transfer la nivel imaginar și spontan, chiar metaforic, al
unei trăsături a animalului păun sau urs, către om. Prin urmare, ceea ce inițial
poate fi doar o poreclă, în timp, prin vocea populară, poate deveni chiar numele
unei persoane, iar acest lucru se dovedește a fi foarte interesant pentru străini.

Jocul 4: Cuvânt, text și context

Finalități vizate
Jocul are la bază învățarea în echipă și pune accent pe tehnica folosirii stilurilor
funcționale ale limbii române, oferindu-le studenţilor posibilitatea de a-şi
verbaliza cunoştinţele învăţate la curs. Activitatea vizează atât dimensiunea
cognitivă a învăţării, cât şi pe cea socio-afectivă.

Sarcini didactice
Redactarea de texte în diferite variante stilistice.
Studenții vor alege un singur obiect aflat în clasă, care va fi subiectul
compunerilor ce trebuie redactate în stilul tehnico-științific (compunere tip
prospect), beletristic-publicistic (compunere articol), administrativ (compunere
proces-verbal). În funcție de criteriile de diferențiere a stilurilor discutate la curs,
studenții vor elabora texte diferite și vor numi caracteristicile generale pentru
nivelurile fonetic, lexico-semantic, morfo-sintactic și stilistico-textual de care au
ținut cont în redactarea acestora.
Desfășurarea propriu-zisă
Vor fi formate grupe eterogene, alcătuite din patru-cinci participanți cu nivele
diferite de pregătire. Obiectul ce urmează a fi supus comentariilor se va alege
prin tragere la sorți, apoi se va purcede la descrierea sa în fiecare dintre
nivelurile stilistice, pe baza observațiilor primite anterior la cursul Stiluri
funcționale ale limbii române. Caracteristicile fiecărui stil funcţional vor fi
determinate de specificitatea situaţiei şi a elementelor de comunicare, de
funcţiile şi finalităţile mesajului scris.
Evaluarea și finalizarea jocului
Fiecare echipă își va desemna un lider care va citi textul produs. Textele vor fi
afișate apoi pe tablă și comentate în funcție de toți parametrii vizați. Observațiile
pertinente vor fi totalizate și vor determina stabilirea echipei câștigătoare. La
finalul exercițiului, se va discuta și despre implicarea studenților în sarcină,
facilitarea învăţării prin cooperare şi colaborare fiind decisivă pentru dezvoltarea
lor personală şi profesională.

Jocul didactic poate fi aplicat la orice vârstă, valoarea sa practică constând în
faptul că participanții au ocazia să fructifice practic cunoștințele dobândite
anterior la curs, seminar sau studiu individual, într-o atmosferă destinsă,
presărată pe alocuri cu surprize și, nu în ultimul rând, competitivă. Generarea şi
menţinerea interesului sunt foarte importante în vederea creşterii motivaţiei
studenţilor pentru învăţare, de aceea scopul didactic al jocului trebuie astfel
formulat încât să facă referire nemijlocit la obiectivele specifice ariei de conținut
în care se înscrie, iar sarcina didactică o reprezintă problemele de gândire și de
acțiune propuse. Gradul de complexitate al sarcinii jocului trebuie să fie optim,

astfel încât cerința acestuia să motiveze și să susțină desfășurarea acțiunii. Dacă
studenţii sunt interesaţi şi motivaţi, ei îşi vor putea menţine concentrarea pe
parcursul întregii activități, iar cei timizi vor căpăta mai multă încredere în
capacităţile lor.

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Sala, Marius. (2005). Aventurile unor cuvinte românești. București: Editura Univers
Zamșa, Eleonora. (1991). Limba română recapitulări și exerciții. București: Editura

Lector dr. Óscar RUIZ FERNÁNDEZ

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, ROMANIA

Department of Foreign Languages and Communication

Abstract: At the beginning of XXI century, the challenge of teaching and learning
Spanish Language to Romanian students has a major advantage of being both
European Romance languages. This is one the explanations for the success of the
Spanish Language among Romanian population in the last decade. However, studying
the History of both languages, it could be noticed that old types of Spanish (from
Medieval age till XVIII century) could be very useful in the process of teaching Modern
Spanish language for Romanian students. The analysis of these common features would
represent a step to improve the level of the knowledge of Spanish language in Romania,
and the quality of the teaching and learning process for the Romanian students.

Keywords: medieval Spanish, modern Romanian, Latin, history, lexicon

1. El español de los siglos XV-XVII

El llamado español medio, español áurico o español del Siglo de Oro
corresponde con el idioma que se habló en España en los siglos XV-XVII,
derivado del castellano medieval y etapa intermedia hasta la evolución final de
la lengua castellana hacia el español moderno1.
Los lazos comunes entre el rumano moderno y el español actual han sido y son
objeto de estudio y análisis lingüísticos debido no sólo a evidente semejanza
entre sí (ambos son lenguas latinas, junto al francés, italiano, catalán o
portugués), sino también al progresivo aumento de las relaciones bilaterales

1 Para la historia de la lengua española, ver Alvar, Manuel (dir). (1996 & 2007). Manual de

dialectología hispánica. El Español de España. Barcelona: Ariel Lingüística; Cano, Rafael (coord.)
(2005). Historia de la lengua española. Barcelona: Ariel Lingüística; Hualde, José Ignacio (2005).
The sounds of Spanish, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Penny, Ralph (1993). Gramática
histórica del español, Barcelona: Ariel; Núñez Méndez, Eva (2012). Fundamentos teóricos y
prácticos de la Historia de la Lengua Española. New Haven & London: Yale University Press;
Lapesa, Rafael (1981). Historia de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Gredos.

entre ambos países desde la década de los 602. En primer lugar, por la
existencia de una comunidad de exiliados comunistas españoles residentes en
Rumanía y apoyados por Nicolae Ceaucescu durante el Franquismo y
posteriormente (Santiago Carrillo era el líder de los comunistas españoles, y la
radio oficial del partido, que emitía desde Bucarest, era Radio Pirenaica)3. En
segundo lugar, por la influencia que la llamada Transición española a la
democracia (1975-1982) ha tenido sobre el proceso político rumano de paso de
un sistema comunista de economía socialista, a otro de signo liberal-demócrata
y de economía capitalista4. En tercer lugar, por el incremento exponencial de la
emigración rumana a España al calor de la expansión económica, burbuja
inmobiliaria y la consiguiente demanda de mano de obra desde principios de la
década del siglo XXI, a lo que ayudó la entrada de Rumanía en la Unión
Europea el 1º de enero de 20075.
Sin embargo, este artículo pretende ser una aproximación a los lazos entre la
lengua rumana moderna y el castellano o español, idioma nacido y evolucionado
entre los siglos X-XVII y procedente del romance visigodo (castellano medieval
y español medio). Esta lengua fue el idioma primigenio nacido en una zona
delimitada del norte de la Península Ibérica, entre el valle de Soba (sur de
Cantabria), las Encartaciones (sur de Vizcaya) y La Bureba (norte de Burgos)
(Lapesa, 1981: 182-189; Bustos Tovar, 2005: 257-290). La razón de ello es
que, debido a una diferente evolución histórica de ambas lenguas, el español
actual es un idioma menos próximo al rumano moderno de lo que lo fue en los
siglos medievales (Ibídem: 220; Iorgan, 1960: 347-438).
El proceso de nacimiento y evolución del castellano desde el siglo X hasta el
siglo XVII ha sido muy particular, ciertamente algo diferente del resto de
lenguas de origen latino de la Península Ibérica (portugués, gallego, catalán).
Tras la caída del imperio romano, en cada territorio del antiguo imperio el latín
vulgar fue tomando un rumbo diferente, deshaciéndose de una particular

2 Madrona Fernández, A & Pisot Díaz, R. (2009). Diferencias de usos gramaticales entre el español
y el rumano. Madrid: Edinumen; Roegiest, E. (1996). “El régimen directo preposicional del
rumano y del portugués en contraste con el español”. En De Kock, J. (ed.), Gramática española.
Enseñanza e investigación. Apuntes metodológicos. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de
Salamanca: 63-97; Iorgan, I. (1965). « Paralelos lingüísticos rumano-españoles », AIH, Actas II:
3 Preston, Paul. (2013). El zorro rojo. La vida de Santiago Carrillo. Madrid: Debate; Eslava Galán,
Juan. (2011). La década que nos dejó sin aliento. Barcelona: Planeta.
4 Monedero, Juan Carlos. (2013). La Transición contada a nuestros padres. Madrid: Catarata;

International Seminar: La transición democrática en Rumanía, 9th of April 2002, Fundación para
las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior, Madrid (Spain).
5 Sobre la inmigración rumana en España, Tamames, Ramón (dir), (2008), Estudio sobre la

inmigración rumana en España. Madrid: Saatchi & Saatchi, CastellanaCien: 1-134.

manera en función de la situación geográfica y política. En el caso de la
Península Ibérica, los pueblos bárbaros llegados fueron suevos, vándalos,
alanos y visigodos (eso sin contar con la presencia bizantina en el sur
peninsular, que no dejó huellas en la lengua). Los visigodos formaron un reino
propio en la Península, con capital en Toledo (como los ostrogodos y lombardos
en Italia, los francos en Galia, o los anglos y sajones en Inglaterra)6.
La lengua que comenzó a surgir, llamada romance, a la altura del año 711
(invasión musulmana), estaba en una fase inicial de formación, con algunos
cambios fonéticos, pero todavía evolucionando de forma similar a la del resto de
lenguas romances en otros antiguos territorios romanos europeos (Ibídem: 157-
161, 195; Berceo, 1236: 4-8)7. Los cambios vendrían a partir de la llegada de
los musulmanes.
Lo que esencialmente provocó la entrada de los musulmanes en la Península
Ibérica en 711, junto con la derrota y desaparición de la monarquía visigoda fue
la ruptura de la unidad política, social, económica, religiosa, cultural y lingüística
del territorio. El territorio se dividiría durante casi mil años en dos mitades, una
musulmana (Al-Ándalus), y otra cristiana (Hispania)8. Ambas padecieron
conflictos políticas y divisiones territoriales, aunque la parte islámica conservaría
una cierta unidad lingüística (emirato, califato, reinos de taifas, periodos de
dominación almorávide, almohade, benimerín), ya que se hablaba árabe, el
dialecto andalusí y los dialectos mozárabes (Lapesa, 1981: 129-133; Ariza,
2005: 207-238; Corriente, 2005: 185-206). Por su parte, en la zona cristiana, a
la división en diferentes reinos correspondió con el nacimiento de otras tantas
lenguas, dialectos del antiguo romance de época visigoda.
A partir del siglo VIII, comenzaron a surgir diferentes dialectos romances:
gallego-portugués (futuro reino de Portugal, reinos de León, Galicia), astur-
leonés (reino de Asturias y León), castellano (condado de Castilla, reino de
Castilla), navarro-aragonés (reino de Navarra, condados aragoneses, reino de
Aragón) y catalán (condados catalanes) (Lapesa, 1981: 176; García de Cortázar,
2005: 239-258). De estos cinco dialectos de los primeros siglos medievales, tres
sobrevivirían como lenguas diferenciadas (gallego-portugués, castellano y
catalán), y una se convertiría en la lingua franca peninsular, el castellano.

6 Arce, Javier. (2007). Bárbaros y romanos en Hispania. 400-507. Madrid: Marcial Pons Historia;
Collins, Roger. (2005). La España visigoda, 409-711. Barcelona: Crítica.
7 Esta primitiva lengua, derivada del latín vulgar y cada vez más alejada de su matriz, era llamada

Romance, Rusticus Sermo, Habla rústica, Román paladino o Latinum circa romancium; Gonzalo
de Berceo (1236). Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos.
8 Monsalvo Antón, José María (2010). Átlas Histórico de la España Medieval. Madrid: Síntesis.

El castellano prevalecería sobre los demás no sólo por el mayor empuje del
reino que tenía detrás (el condado, el reino y la Corona de Castilla), sino
también por ocupar toda franja central de la Península Ibérica de norte a sur
(de forma que había que atravesar ese territorio para ir de oeste a este, y de
norte a sur), por ser la lengua romance más dinámica, que más rápido
evolucionó y encontró soluciones y normas fijas de expresión, por ser la que
más rápido se desarrollo como idioma de cultura y literatura, y también por su
estructura fonética, diferente y más simple que las del resto de lenguas
romances (cinco vocales y cinco sonidos vocálicos, sonidos consonánticos como
las /x/, /r/, /θ/ o /k/) (Ibídem: 182-187; Núñez Méndez, 2012). Era la que
menos se parecía a las otras lenguas fonéticamente, la más simple de articular,
y tal vez por ello, la más utilizada por gentes de otros territorios (Navarra,
Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia, Portugal, Al-Ándalus).
Para ejemplificar estas similitudes entre el castellano medieval (ss. X-XV) y
español medio, áurico o del Siglo de Oro (ss. XV-XVII) y la lengua rumana
moderna, se han escogido tanto dialectismos, arcaísmos (vocabulario desusado
en el español actual), como formas léxicas desaparecidas actualmente, pero que
muestran un origen común con ambas lenguas. Tanto unos como otros han sido
seleccionados de obras literarias del castellano medieval, de las que,
afortunadamente, disponemos en gran número. Para sus correspondientes
rumanos, hemos utilizado diccionarios especializados.
Antes de todo ello, algunas precisiones. El castellano medieval y medio era un
idioma en evolución, y carecía de la fijeza del actual. La Real Academia de la
Lengua no se creó hasta el siglo XVIII (1713-1714), y fue a partir del siglo XV
cuando comenzaron a escribirse tratados sobre gramática castellana (Lapesa,
1981: 237-290)9. En segundo lugar, la herencia latina era más fuerte en los
estadios iniciales de desarrollo del idioma que posteriormente (Ibídem: 163-
167; 204-207). A medida que el castellano se iba haciendo mayor, pasando de
niño a adolescente, y luego a adulto, a su vez iba abandonando esos lazos tan
fuertes que lo unían con su lengua madre, el latín, y que le conferían esos
rasgos arcaizantes (Company y Cuétara, 2007: 243-255; García Aranda,
2006)10. Algo parecido podría ocurrir con el rumano, fuertemente influido por
las lenguas eslavas, el húngaro, el griego y el turco. Por esa misma influencia
latina, podría decirse que el castellano infantil y adolescente se parece mucho

9Real Academia de la Lengua Española,

10Sobre la evolución del español como lengua románica occidental, ver Company Company,
Concepción & Cuétara Priede, Javier (2007). Manual de Gramática Histórica. México: Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México. 243-255.

más al rumano adulto, en la medida en que la influencia latina es mayor en el
rumano que en el español moderno.
El vocabulario presentado pertenece a campos léxicos relacionados con lugares,
animales, el hogar, vestido, alimentos, profesiones, o conceptos relativos a
descripciones y juicios de valor11. Algunos reflejan una sociedad tradicional y
medieval, que es la que produjo esos términos en primer lugar.

2. Espacios, hogar, animales

Aparecen términos como era (campo o prado donde se trillaba el cereal), del
latín arĕa, del que también procede área (espacio comprendido entre ciertos
límites). Su correspondiente rumano es árie, de igual procedencia latina. Lo
que muchas veces rodeaba a las eras en los pueblos y aldeas, el bosque (en
español moderno, del germánico busk, y del catalán y provenzal bosc) o la
selva (castellano antiguo) o silva (en rumano), evolución del latín silva. Donde
hay árboles, hay hojas, o folias (latín folia), o en Rumanía, foaie (cambio
fonético de la /f/ a /h/ en español). Por su parte, en la selva (jungla en español
moderno) viven muchos animales, entre ellos el mono, maimón (sefardí, del
árabe maymún) o maimuta (griego maimú, turco maymun) (Obediente Sosa,
2007: 619-625).
Las casas solían tener tejados formados de tejas (tella en mozárabe, del latín
tegula), lo que en rumano se denomina tigla (del serbio y croata cigla) (op. cit,
1981: 189). Otro concepto espacial es la palabra corte, uno de cuyos
significados es un espacio, cuadra o establo para guardar animales en una casa,
y derivado del latín cors, cortis, o cohors, cohortis. En rumano aparece el
término cúrte, de similar origen latino y del francés cours.
Animales que abundaban en las casas con cuadras y establos eran las palomas
(español moderno), llamadas polombinas (mozárabe), palombas (castellano
de Cantabria) o palombiellas (castellano de La Rioja); en rumano se
denominan porumbel o porumbei, todas del latín palumba (Ibídem: 181 &
187). El lugar donde estos animales reposan hoy día en España se llama
palomar, y donde reposaban en la Edad Media, palombar (castellano de
Cantabria); donde lo hacen en Rumanía, porumbar. Por último, el amigo del

11 Origen de las palabras,; Diccionario de la Real Academia de la

Lengua Española,; Corominas, Joan & Pascual, José
A. (1984). Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Madrid: Gredos, 6 volumes;
VV.AA. (1726-1739). Diccionario de Autoridades. Madrid: RAE, Impresor Francisco del Hierro;
Covarrubias Orozco, Sebastián (1611). Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española. Madrid: Luis
Sánchez; Dictionar explicativ al limbii romane,

hombre por excelencia, el perro (español moderno), can (del latín canis) o
caine (en rumano) (Ibídem: 220). Ínsula, que es isla (derivado del latín
insula), y que tiene su perfecto paralelo en el rumano ínsulă. De manera
similar, lo que rodea a una ínsula, el mar en español moderna, mare en
castellano antiguo y rumano (del latín mare). Y lo que está sobre el mar, un
cielo lleno de estrellas (español moderno) o strelas (castellano antiguo), que
en rumano es stea (ambos del latín stella) (Ibídem: 212 & 234).
Cámara, que en español no moderno significaba cuarto o habitación, está
derivada del latín camara. En rumano tiene su equivalente en cámeră,
procedente del italiano camera, del francés caméra y del inglés camera. Un
lugar con muchas cámaras, que en español moderno es una taberna o mesón,
el sefardí y el rumano realizan han, derivado del turco han (Obediente Sosa,
2007: 619-625). En las habitaciones de cualquier mesón, podrían aparecer la
cama y su cubrecama o colcha, en castellano antiguo cobertor o cobertero
(del latín coopertorium), cuvertura en rumano (del francés couverture).
También podríamos encontrarnos una palangana o vasija, que en castellano
medieval era bacina (del latín medieval bacina), mientras que en rumano
moderno es bazin (francés bassin). En último lugar, los productos de limpieza
no podían faltar en un establecimiento hostelero. Uno era la lejía, en sefardí
leshiya (ambos del latín [aqua] lixiva) y en rumano lesie (op. cit., 2007: 619-
625). El otro, el jabón (del germánico saipon, y del latín sapo, saponis), que en
castellano antiguo se realizaba como xabón, y en rumano sapún (con el
mismo origen) (Lapesa, 1981: 111).
Por último, la palabra ferrería (y sus derivados fierro, yerro), que en español
moderno hace herrería, lugar donde se trabajan los metales, particularmente el
hierro y el acero. Su equivalente en rumano es fierăríe y fier y ambos
proceden del latín ferrum y ferrarius. También podríamos mencionar ferretería
(establecimiento donde se venden productos metálicos), pero es un término de
uso habitual hoy día. Estos casos son significativos, ya que muestran una de las
características del castellano como lengua romance, y es el cambio fonético /f/
a /h/, y que aún hoy mantiene variantes, como en los cultismos (fama, falso),
Fernández y Hernández, fondo y hondo, hacer y satisfacer.

3. Alimentación (comida y bebida)

En este campo semántico, aparece unto (mantequilla), del latín unctum y
ungere. En rumano, unt, con el mismo origen latino. Además, relacionado con
ambos términos, manteca (español) y mantícă (rumano), producto similar a
la mantequilla, y con origen controvertido. Aparentemente, es una palabra con

una raíz indoeuropea menth (mezclar, batir), con derivaciones en el sánscrito
manthaja (mantequilla); cmetaha (smetana, nata amarga) en ruso, búlgaro y
ucraniano; smietanka in polaco; smetana en checo; smotana in eslovaco; y
smântână en rumano. En el caso rumano, la palabra podría haber llegado por
dos vías, mantíca del italiano manteca, y smântână del antiguo eslavo. Sin
embargo, tanto las palabras españolas (manteca, mantequilla) como las
rumanas (mantíca, smantana) provendrían de la misma raíz indoeuropea,
definiendo un producto similar pero hecho en distintas partes de mundo (India,
El producto base de los anteriores, la leche (latín lac, lactis). En rumano es
lapte (con el mismo origen latino), mientras que en algunos dialectos del
castellano antiguo se hacía leite o lleite (op. cit., 1981: 176 & 185).
En cuanto a dos alimentos básicos de la dieta europea, el cereal, la aceituna,
donde el moderno español hace harina, el español medio y medieval farina,
originada del latín farina, al igual que el rumano faina o farina. Es el mismo
proceso fonético que hemos mencionado antes. Y donde hace aceite (del árabe
azzayt, y del arameo zayta), hasta la entrada de los árabes en la Península se
utilizaba la palabra óleo (del latín óleum). En rumano, el concepto utilizado es
ulei, del eslovaco olej, y probablemente del latín.
En rumano, prúnă (del latín pruna) tiene su equivalente en la palabra española
ciruela (del latín cereola), pero también en pruna (de idéntico origen al
sustantivo rumano). Igual caso que en el español sebo (grasa) y el rumano
sebo, del francés sébo y el latín sebum.
Algunos de estos productos eran considerados un manjar (del catalán y del
provenzal manjar, comer), sustantivo de raíz similar al verbo rumano a mancá
(mancare sería el equivalente a comida), que significa comer, y cuyo origen
procede del latín mandicare o manducare. En castellano toma la forma de
sustantivo para hacer referencia a alimentos exquisitos, en rumano y otras
lenguas romances se realiza en forma de verbo como comer.
Por último, varios conceptos relativos a los alimentos, provenientes del dialecto
judeo-español, ladino o sefardí. Este idioma era el castellano del siglo XV que
los judíos se llevaron con ellos tras ser expulsados en 1492 y que acabó influido
por otros idiomas como el griego o el turco (estas comunidades hebreas

acabaron asentadas en los Balcanes, Turquía, Asia Menor, norte de África)
(García Moreno, 2010)12.
Hay varios ejemplos interesantes: chay (español moderno té), en rumano se
hace ceai (del ruso cai); chorba (español moderno sopa, caldo), equivaldría al
rumano ciorba (del turco corba); donde el rumano tiene portocálă (del
neogriego portokáli), el serfadí portokal y el español moderno naranja (del
árabe y persa narang); raki (aguardiente en español moderno), en judeo-
español y turco, equivale al rumano rachiu; Lo que en español hace mejillón
(portugués mexilhao), en ladino es midia y en rumano midie (ambos del
griego mídi); aunque no sea alimento, el tutún (tabaco en español), que en
rumano y turco tienen la misma forma (tutun). Por último, lo que está helado
en español, está yelado en sefardí, y gheata en Rumanía (latín gelare, glacia).

4. Prendas de vestir
En cuanto a léxico relacionado con la indumentaria, existen algunos sustantivos
castellanos y rumanos muy interesantes por sus equivalencias. La palabra
pelerina existe en ambos idiomas, derivada del francés pelerine (llamada en
español moderno capa corta o esclavina). Saco es en castellano antiguo la
chaqueta actual, derivando del germánico sakko y del latín saccus (en rumano
es sacou). En la variante del español rioplatense (Argentina) aún emplea saco
para hablar de chaquetas y abrigos. Del sefardí provienen fusta (en ambas
lenguas derivada del griego fusta), que en español se dice falda. También para
bota existía el término chizme, muy similar al rumano cizma (del húngaro
csizma). Por último, mientras en español moderno realiza algodón (del árabe
alqutún), el judeoespañol hace pambuk y en rumano bumbac, del serbio
bumbak y del búlgaro bubak (op. cit., 2007: 619-625).

5. Tiempo
Un mes (luni) tiene cuatro semanas (en español moderno), o setmanas (en
castellano antiguo), o săptămâni (del latín septimana) (op. cit., 1981: 207). Si
hoy es lunes, mañana es martes, en castellano medieval martes sería man,
mientras en rumano lo sería maine (del latín maine)13.

12 García Moreno, Aitor (2010). El judeoespañol I: conceptos básicos & El judeoespañol II:
características. Madrid: Biblioteca de Recursos Electrónicos de Humanidades E-EXCELLENCE.
Retrieved from
13 Aparece en el famoso cantar de gesta castellano anónimo (1200), Cantar del Mío Cid, versos

325, 425, 1100, 3059.

6. Demostrativos, adverbios y relativos
Con respecto a los demostrativos, en español moderno aparecen tres formas,
según los grados de distancia, cosa que no ocurre con el rumano (en español la
división del espacio es tridimensional). Al primer grado pertenecen los
demostrativos este, esta, estos, estas (más la forma neutra esto, si es
pronombre), procedentes del latín iste, ista, istud, istos, istas. Al segundo, ese,
esa, esos, esas (más la forma neutra del pronombre eso), del latín ipse, ipsa. Al
tercero, aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas (más el pronombre neutro aquello),
también de la formula latina eccum e ille, illa, illud.
En rumano sólo existen dos formas, cercanía (singular acest, acesta,
aceasta; plural acesti, acestia, aceste, acestea) o lejanía (singular acel,
acela, acea, aceea; plural acei, aceia, acele, acelea). Ambos del latín ecce-
istu, ecce-ista, ecce-illu, ecce-illa. En castellano medieval, las formas eran algo
diferentes y más cercanas al rumano. De primer grado había realizaciones del
tipo aqueste, aquesta, aquesto, achest, achesta, achesto (singular); en
plural, aquestos, aquestas. Del segundo grado, las formas en singular
aparecen como aquese, aquesa, aqueso, aqueixa, aquessa. En plural,
aquesas, aquesos. El tercer grado se realizaba igual que en el español
moderno (op. cit., 1981: 202 & 208)14.
En cuanto a algunos adverbios antiguos, aparecen algunas consideraciones
interesantes. En español moderno tenemos adverbios de lugar como arriba
(latín ad ripam) o abajo (latín bassus), muy comunes en la toponimia española,
especialmente con respecto a pueblos vecinos situados en la misma comarca15.
En rumano, su equivalente sería jos (abajo, del latín ad deorsum) y sus (arriba,
derivado también del latín sursum, sussum), también con sus equivalentes en la
toponimia del país16. En castellano medieval, aparecen dos adverbios
emparentados con sus equivalentes en rumano y casi olvidados. Sus formas son
yuso o ayuso (abajo) y suso, desuso o adesuso, (arriba), que tienen el
mismo origen que las formas rumanas. Sus huellas se pueden detectar en la
toponimia del norte de Castilla, lugar primigenio del antiguo condado y reino de
Castilla, antes de la gran expansión territorial hacia el sur peninsular a partir del

14 Ver el anónimo Auto de los Reyes Magos (siglo XII); también en el Cantar del Mío Cid.
15 Por ejemplo, Cilleruelo de Arriba y Cilleruelo de Abajo (Burgos); Padilla de Arriba y Padilla de
Abajo (Burgos), Población de Arriba y Población de Abajo (Cantabria); en Burgos hay otro pueblo
llamado Población de Arreba, forma del castellano medieval Arriba.
16 Por ejemplo, Poienii de Jos y Poienii de Sus (Buntesti, Bihor), Poiana de Jos (Gorj), Poiana de

Sus (Tibana, Iasi), Timisu de Sus y Timisu de Jos (Brasov).

siglo XI (Sánchez Lancis, 1990)17. Otro adverbio de lugar, en español moderno
lejos (del latín laxus, laxius), que en rumano es departe (del latín de+pars,
partis). En castellano medieval, aparece el adverbio de lugar aparte (a+pars,
partis), que también significa lejos (Idem)18.
En adverbios de cantidad e intensidad, casi (español moderno) convive con
cuasi (derivado del latín quasi), forma más antigua, que es casi igual al rumano
cvasi (también del latín y francés quasi). Otro adverbio, nada (del latín [res]
nata), en castellano medieval aparece también con la forma nemigaja
(no+migaja, que es diminutivo de miga, del latín mica). En rumano la palabra
equivale a nimic (con variantes como nimíca, nemíca), del latín nemica
(no+mica) (op. cit., 1981: 213).
En los relativos, las formas modernas en español son qué, quién, cómo, cuándo
y dónde (de las formas latinas quando, quid, qui (quem), quo modo, unde). Sus
formas antiguas se realizaban como qué, qui, commo o cuemo, quando,
onde. Véanse las formas de relativo en rumano: ce, cine, cum, cand y unde,
que son más cercanas al castellano medieval (op. cit., 1990)19.
Por último, dos sustantivos de similar campo semántico (dirección, espacio,
lugar). Por un lado, el sustantivo sentido (del latín sensus, sentire), tiene su
equivalente medieval en sen (del germánico sinn), y en rumano haciendo la
forma sens (aunque parece en rumano proviene del latín sensus y el francés
sens) (Lapesa, 1981: 199)20. Por otro, tenemos el sustantivo derecho o derecha
(latín directus). En lengua rumana se realiza dreapt o dreapta (del latín
directus, francés droit), pero en el Medievo castellano, la palabra en evolución
se realizaba a veces como drecho o drecha (op. cit., 1981: 240)21.

17 Por ejemplo, Campoo de Yuso y Campoo de Suso (Cantabria), Herreros de Suso (Ávila), Heras

de Ayuso (Guadalajara), Melgar de Yuso (Palencia), Melgar de Fernamental (Burgos, llamado en

su fundación Melgar de Suso), Navares de Ayuso (Segovia), Quincoces de Yuso y Quincoces de
Suso (Burgos), Quintanilla de Yuso (León), Villasuso y Villayuso (Cantabria), Población de Suso
18 Sánchez Lancis, Carlos E. (1990). Estudio de adverbios de espacio y tiempo en el español

medieval. Tesis doctoral. Barcelona: Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona; También en el Cantar

de Mío Cid.
19 También aparecen en el Cantar del Mío Cid.
20 Cantar del Mío Cid.
21 De hecho, de tiempos de Alfonso X proviene la expresión castellano drecho, para definir al

deseo de escribir en un castellano correcto.

7. El cuento del caballero
Nuestro caballero castellano tenía por nombre imaginario (nome o nonme;
nume, del latín nomen) Amadís de Gaula (Lapesa, 1981: 187)22. Un caballero
medieval necesitaba ser muy valiente y esforzado; foarte curajos sau
curagios (en rumano, del francés courageux), o ser muy corajudo (del
francés antiguo corages)23. Pero también podría ser un guerrero triste, afligido o
melancólico, en busca de su soñada princesa (fémina, femeie, del latín femina
y familia); en el Medievo se le habría descrito como un caballero desmarrido o
amarrido (del germánico marrjan, y del latín marrire). En rumano, se habría
utilizado la palabra amari