Rossano Brazzi was an Italian actor. Brazzi was born in Bologna, the son of Maria Ghedini and Adelmo Brazzi, an employee of the Rizzoli shoe factory, he was named after Rossano Veneto, where his father was stationed during his military service in World War I. Brazzi attended San Marco University in Florence, where he was raised from the age of four, he made his film debut in 1939. He was propelled to international fame with his role in the English-language film Three Coins in the Fountain, followed by the leading male role in David Lean's Summertime, opposite Katharine Hepburn. In 1958, he played the lead as Frenchman Emile De Becque in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical South Pacific, his other notable English-language films include The Barefoot Contessa, The Story of Esther Costello, opposite Joan Crawford, Count Your Blessings,The Light in the Piazza, The Italian Job. In 1940, Brazzi married baroness Lidia Bertolini to whom he was married until her death from liver cancer in 1981; the couple had no children.
However, he did father a son, George Llewellyn Brady, from a relationship with 20-year-old Llewella Humphreys, the daughter of American mobster Murray Humphreys. Llewella Humphreys changed her name to Luella Brady, an anglicization of Brazzi. In 1984, Rossano Brazzi married Ilse Fischer, a German national, the couple's housekeeper for many years. From Düsseldorf, Fischer had met Brazzi as an infatuated fan in Rome at the age of twenty-four; this marriage was childless. Brazzi died in Rome on Christmas Eve 1994, aged 78, from a neural virus. Rossano Brazzi on IMDb
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana was the mistress of Christopher Columbus and mother of Ferdinand Columbus, Columbus's natural son, whom he recognized. Beatriz was born in the small village of Santa Maria of Trassierra in a family of peasant farmers and small share holders, she was from a noble family of Spain. She had two brothers. According to historian Rafael Ramírez de Arellano, her father or stepfather was Pedro de Torquemada of converso origin and her mother was Ana Núñez de Arana. In his history of Cordoba he explains that she and her brother Peter took the name of their maternal aunt Mayor Enríquez de Arana, she was one of the relatives who took them in when they became orphaned in 1471. The Núñez de Arana families were small landholders of modest means. Beatriz knew how to write, an unusual thing at the time; this indicates. Most historians agree, that the lower social status of Beatriz is the reason why Columbus never married her, he had aspired to come across someone of higher social status to help benefit his ventures.
The history of the relationship of Beatriz and Columbus starts with the reason why Christopher Columbus was in Córdoba in 1487 at the Spanish monarchs' Alcazar. In 1479 Columbus had traveled to Lisbon, to conduct trade. There he met his first wife Filipa Moniz and married about 1479 or 1480, they had a son named Diego. Columbus' first wife died in 1484, according to some historians, he became a widower. In early 1486, Columbus was living in the court of the Spanish monarchs, King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I in Seville, Spain. Columbus was there trying to convince them to finance his "Enterprise of the Indies" — a far-reaching expedition to reach the east by going west. Columbus had knowledge of the Canaries Current and was hoping he could reach the Indias by taking advantage of this ocean phenomenon; the Spanish monarchs were preoccupied at the time trying to unify Spain. They were interested in Columbus's idea but couldn't give it their full attention while the war in Granada was going on against the Moors.
Meanwhile, Columbus was given subsistence and allowed to stay at the monarchs' castle in Cordoba since they thought he might have a good idea that would provide future riches and spread Christianity. While waiting for a decision on his enterprise and another meeting with the Spanish monarchs, Columbus patronized a local apothecary shop, operated by people from Genoa, Italy. Columbus was from that area in Italy and felt comfortable associating with doctors, surgeons, astronomers and others who patronized the Genoese pharmacy. At the pharmacy he became a friend of a young Basque man named Diego de Arana. Diego had two orphaned cousins in his family's household: Beatriz Enríquez de Arana and her brother Pedro Enríquez de Arana, their family was from Arana as was Diego's, a valley of Álava, Spain. Diego introduced Beatriz, a 20- or 21-year-old woman of Basque origin, to Columbus in 1487. Columbus was 35, they became lovers. In August 1488, they had a son named Ferdinand Columbus, they never married.
Diego's family, who adopted Beatriz, had a prosperous wine business. They may have helped Columbus with money for his expeditions; when Columbus left for his first expedition to the New World, the two children and Ferdinand, were turned over to Beatriz. She took great care of them and was congratulated by Queen Isabella I for her outstanding work; some historians think that the award money intended for the look-out man that would be the first to spot land went instead to Columbus's mistress. When Columbus died he left his fortune to her, she never claimed the inheritance. Adam Leon Belden Standridge 1987
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas. Columbus discovered the viable sailing route to the Americas, a continent, not known to the Old World. While what he thought he had discovered was a route to the Far East, he is credited with the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans. Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language, he went to sea at a young age and travelled as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but took a Spanish mistress. Though self-educated, Columbus was read in geography and history.
He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. After years of lobbying, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile. Columbus left Spain in August 1492 with three ships, after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October, his landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies 500 years earlier, he arrived back in Spain in early 1493. Word of his discoveries soon spread throughout Europe. Columbus would make three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use.
He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain. Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world; the transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era. Columbus's legacy continues to be debated, he was venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perceptions have changed as recent scholars have given attention to negative aspects of his life, such as his role in the extinction of the Taíno people, his promotion of slavery, allegations of tyranny towards Spanish colonists.
Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus, his name in Ligurian is Cristoffa Corombo, in Italian Cristoforo Colombo, in Spanish is Cristóbal Colón, in Portuguese is Cristóvão Colombo. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed, his father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood, he had a sister named Bianchinetta. Columbus never wrote in his native language, presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian: his name in the 16th-century Genoese language would have been Cristoffa Corombo.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10. In 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples; some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, from the Aragon region of Spain or from Portugal. These competing hypotheses have been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa, he made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe, he docked in Bristol and Galway, Ireland. In 1477, he was in Iceland. In the autumn of 1477, he sailed on a Portuguese ship from Galway to Lisbon, where he found his brother Bartolomeo, they continued trading for the Centurione family. Columbus based himself in Lisbon from 1477 to 1485.
He married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, daughter of the Porto Santo governor and Portuguese nobleman of
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Massimo Girotti was an Italian film actor whose career spanned seven decades. Born in Mogliano, in the province of Macerata, Girotti developed his athletic physique by swimming and playing polo. While studying engineering, he attracted the attention of Mario Soldati, who offered him a small part in the film Dora Nelson, but it was not until in Alessandro Blasetti's La corona di ferro and Roberto Rossellini's Un Pilota ritorna, that he began to make an impression as a serious actor. In 1943 came a turning point in his career when Luchino Visconti cast him opposite the torrid Clara Calamai in Ossessione, an earlier adaptation of the same novel on which Hollywood's The Postman Always Rings Twice is based; the film marked, in a sense, the birth of Italian neo-realism. Some of his notable post-war films include Caccia tragica by Giuseppe De Santis and In nome della legge by Pietro Germi. In 1950, he starred opposite Lucia Bosé in Michelangelo Antonioni's first full-length feature, Cronaca di un amore.
In 1953, he played Spartacus in an Italian epic film known in the US as Sins of Rome and returned to work again for Visconti, in Senso, giving the finest performance of his career. In the years which followed, he appeared in a large number of Italian films for directors such as Lizzani, Vittorio Cottafavi, but it was not until 1968 that he once again played a role worthy of his talents - that of the father in Pasolini's Teorema with Terence Stamp and Silvana Mangano. Two years Pasolini cast him as Creonte opposite Maria Callas in his Medea. In 1972, he was in Bernardo Bertolucci's Last Tango in Paris; that same year he made a rare appearance in a horror film when he agreed to a supporting role in Baron Blood as a favor to its director Mario Bava. He continued to act in character roles for the next thirty years; some of the films he appeared in have been notable, including Joseph Losey's Monsieur Klein with Alain Delon and Jeanne Moreau, the 1985 television miniseries Quo Vadis?, Roberto Benigni's Il mostro.
He died in Rome of a heart attack after having just completed his last film, Ferzan Özpetek's La Finestra di fronte. Dora Nelson La corona di ferro Le due tigri Pirates of Malaya The Brambilla Family Go on Holiday Un Pilota ritorna Ossessione The Gates of Heaven The Ten Commandments Caccia tragica Un giorno nella vita The Street Has Many Dreams In nome della legge Fabiola Cronaca di un amore Fugitive in Trieste Leathernose Torna! At the Edge of the City Sins of Rome The Love of a Woman Senso La tua donna Desperate Farewell The Goddess of Love La trovatella di Pompei Herod the Great Head of a Tyrant Wolves of the Deep The Cossacks Lettere di una novizia I giganti della Tessaglia Romolo e Remo Venere Imperiale Oro per i Cesari Teorema The Red Tent Medea Last Tango in Paris Baron Blood Monsieur Klein Passion of Love Quo Vadis Il mostro La finestra di fronte Massimo Girotti on IMDb
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1492.
That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, Juana Enríquez, he married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile.
They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile, the purported daughter of Henry IV, were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492. The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.
In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree, a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. It allowed Mudéjar Moors and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon. 1492 was the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas. In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled; some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style.
This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, w
Martín Alonso Pinzón
Martín Alonso Pinzón, was a Spanish mariner, shipbuilder and explorer, oldest of the Pinzón brothers. He sailed with Christopher Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, as captain of the Pinta, his youngest brother Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was captain of the Niña, the middle brother Francisco Martín Pinzón was maestre of the Pinta. The Pinzón family was among the leading families of Palos de la Frontera in the late 15th century. There are several conflicting theories of their name, his grandfather was a diver known as Martín. His father was a sailor named Martín Pinzón. Born in Palos around 1441, it appears that at quite a young age Pinzón shipped out on a locally based caravel as a grumete, his home, now the Casa Museo de Martín Alonso Pinzón, was on the old royal road to the Monastery of La Rábida. Martín's family contracted a marriage with a resident of the locality named María Álvarez, they had five children: two boys—Arias Pérez and Juan, who participated in several expeditions to the Americas—and three girls—Mayor and Leonor.
Leonor, the youngest, suffered frequent attacks of what was called "gota coral" and would now be called epilepsy. A French tradition holds that Alonso Pinzón sailed to the New World with the navigator Jean Cousin, that together they discovered the continent in 1488, four years before Colombus. Back in Dieppe, Pinzón left Cousin in a dispute, is claimed to have left for Spain, from where he advised Columbus on his westward sail. Pinzon is known to have displayed a remarkable confidence in guiding Columbus in his discovery of the New World. No indisputable written records remain, however, his nautical experience and his leadership remained patent in the 1508–1536 lawsuits known as the pleitos colombinos, where the witnesses indicated him as the leader of the comarca. He was famous for his battles against the Portuguese in the War of the Castilian Succession, it is probable that while in Portugal before coming to Spain, Columbus was aware of Martín Alonso, because he was known for his participation in the war, as well as for his incursions into the Afro-Atlantic waters in the wake of the Portuguese, traveling to the Canary Islands and Guinea, with their rich fisheries and the commercial possibility of trade in gold and slaves.
On 23 May 1492 a royal provision was read out to the residents of Palos, by which the Catholic Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand ordered that certain residents deliver two caravels to Columbus and travel with him on his voyage that he was making "by command of Their Highnesses" and that the town should respect the royal decision. The locals did not comply; the sailors of Palos had no confidence in embarking on this adventure with Columbus, unknown to them. Independent of their greater or lesser credence in his ideas, the men of Palos found it difficult to support the Genovese sailor if he was not accompanied by a mariner known and respected in the town; the venture—risky and, above all, of uncertain profit—did not present great attractions. Opposition or indifference to Columbus's project was general. At about this time, Pinzón returned from a routine commercial voyage to Rome; the Franciscans of the Monastery of La Rábida put Columbus in touch with Pinzón. Pinzón's friend Pero Vázquez de la Frontera, a respected old mariner in the town had an important influence on Pinzón deciding to support the undertaking, not only morally but economically.
There is no record of any written agreement between Columbus and Pinzón, the terms of any agreement are lost to history. However, we do have the testimony of some witnesses. According to Fernández Duro, de las Casas says Columbus offered Pinzón equal honors in the voyage and half the profits, Diego Pinzón Colmenero testified the same in the pleitos colombinos; as a strong sign of his commitment to Columbus's plan, Pinzón put up half a million maravedís in coin toward the cost of the voyage, half of the amount, put up by the monarchy. Thanks to his prestige as a shipowner and expert sailor and his fame throughout the Tinto-Odiel region, he was able to enlist an appropriate crew. Signing on, he dismissed the vessels that Columbus had seized based on the royal order and dismissed the men he had enrolled, supplying the enterprise with two caravels of his own, the Pinta and the Niña, which he knew from his own experience would be better and more suitable boats. Furthermore, he traveled through Palos and Huelva, convincing his relatives and friends to enlist, composing of them the best crew possible.
According to testimony in the pleitos colombinos, he "brought such diligence to secure and animate the people as if what were discovered were for him and his sons." Among those he recruited were the Niño brothers from Moguer. At this time, Pinzón and Columbus seemed quite close. In the pleitos colombinos, witness Alonso Gallego from Huelva remembered hearing Columbus say, "Mister Martín Alonso Pinzón, we are going on this voyage which, if we go on with it and God reveals new lands to us, I promise by the Royal Crown to treat you as a brother." On 3 August 1492, the Santa María, Niña left Palos on their voyage