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Languages of Europe

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Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Out of a total European population of 744 million as of 2018, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are Romance , Slavic , and Germanic with more than 200 million speakers each, between them accounting for close to 90% of Europeans. Smaller phyla of Indo-European found in Europe include Hellenic (Greek, c. 13 million), Baltic (c. 7 million), Albanian (c. 5 million), Indo-Aryan (Romani, c. 1.5 million), and Celtic (c. 1 million).

Contents

Of the approximately 45 million Europeans speaking non-Indo-European languages, most speak languages within either the Uralic or Turkic families. Still smaller groups (such as Basque and various languages of the Caucasus) account for less than 1% of the European population between them. Immigration has added sizeable communities of speakers of African and Asian languages, amounting to about 4% of the population, [1] with Arabic being the most widely spoken of them.

Five languages have more than 50 million native speakers in Europe: French, Italian, German, English, and Russian. While Russian has the largest number of native speakers (more than 100 million in Europe), English has the largest number of speakers in total, including some 200 million speakers of English as a second or foreign language. (See English language in Europe .)

Indo-European languages

The Indo-European language family is descended from Proto-Indo-European, which is believed to have been spoken thousands of years ago. Early speakers of Indo-European daughter languages most likely expanded into Europe with the incipient Bronze Age, around 4,000 years ago (Bell-Beaker culture).

Romance

Romance languages, 20th century. Romance 20c en.png
Romance languages, 20th century.

Roughly 215 million Europeans (primarily in Western and Southern Europe) are native speakers of Romance languages, the largest groups including French (c. 72 million), Italian (c. 65 million), Spanish (c. 40 million), Romanian (c. 24 million), Portuguese (c. 10 million), Catalan (c. 9 million), Sicilian (c. 5 million, also subsumed under Italian), Venetian language (c. 4 million), Galician (c. 2 million), Sardinian (c. 1 million), Occitan (c. 500,000), besides numerous smaller communities.

The Romance languages evolved from varieties of Vulgar Latin spoken in the various parts of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Latin was itself part of the (otherwise extinct) Italic branch of Indo-European. Romance languages are divided phylogenetically into Italo-Western , Eastern Romance (including Romanian) and Sardinian . The Romance-speaking area of Europe is occasionally referred to as Latin Europe . [2]

We can further break down Italo-Western into the Italo-Dalmatian languages (sometimes grouped with Eastern Romance), including the Tuscan-derived Italian and numerous local Romance languages in Italy as well as Dalmatian, and the Western Romance languages . The Western Romance languages in turn separate into the Gallo-Romance languages, including French and its varieties (Langues d'oïl), the Rhaeto-Romance languages and the Gallo-Italic languages; the Occitano-Romance languages, grouped with either Gallo-Romance or East Iberian, including Occitan, Catalan and Aragonese; and finally the West Iberian languages (Spanish-Portuguese), including the Astur-Leonese languages, Galician-Portuguese, and Castilian.

Germanic

The present-day distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe:
North Germanic languages
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Icelandic
Faroese
Norwegian
Swedish
Danish
West Germanic languages
Scots
English
Frisian
Dutch
Low German
German
Dots indicate areas where multilingualism is common. Germanic languages in Europe.png
The present-day distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe:
North Germanic languages
   Icelandic
   Faroese
   Norwegian
   Swedish
   Danish
West Germanic languages
   Scots
   English
   Frisian
   Dutch
   German
Dots indicate areas where multilingualism is common.

The Germanic languages make up the predominant language family in Western, Northern and Central Europe. An estimated 210 million Europeans are native speakers of Germanic languages, the largest groups being German (c. 95 million), English (c. 70 million), Dutch (c. 24 million), Swedish (c. 10 million), Danish (c. 6 million), and Norwegian (c. 5 million).

There are two extant major sub-divisions: West Germanic and North Germanic . A third group, East Germanic, is now extinct; the only known surviving East Germanic texts are written in the Gothic language. West Germanic is divided into Anglo-Frisian (including English), Low German, and Low Franconian (including Dutch) and High German (including Standard German).

German

German is spoken throughout Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, much of Switzerland (including the northeast areas bordering on Germany and Austria), northern Italy (South Tyrol), Luxembourg, and the East Cantons of Belgium.

There are several groups of German dialects:

Low German (including Low Saxon) is spoken in various regions throughout Northern Germany and the northern and eastern parts of the Netherlands. It is an official language in Germany. It may be separated into Low Saxon (West Low German) and East Low German.

Dutch

Dutch is spoken throughout the Netherlands, the northern half of Belgium, as well as the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France. The traditional dialects of the Lower Rhine region of Germany, are linguistically more closely related to Dutch than to modern German. In Belgian and French contexts, Dutch is sometimes referred to as Flemish. Dutch dialects are varied and cut across national borders.

Anglo-Frisian

The Anglo-Frisian language family is now mostly represented by English (Anglic), descended from the Old English language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons:

The Frisian languages are spoken by about 500,000 Frisians, who live on the southern coast of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. These languages include West Frisian, Saterlandic, and North Frisian.

North Germanic (Scandinavian)

The North Germanic languages are spoken in Scandinavian countries and include Danish (Denmark), Norwegian (Norway), Swedish (Sweden and parts of Finland), or Elfdalian (in a small part of central Sweden), Faroese (Faroe Islands), and Icelandic (Iceland).

English has a long history of contact with Scandinavian languages, given the immigration of Scandinavians early in the history of Britain, and shares various features with the Scandinavian languages. [3] Even so, especially Swedish, but also Danish and Norwegian, have strong vocabulary connections to the German language.

Slavic

Political map of Europe with countries where the national language is Slavic. Pale green represents West Slavic languages, wood green represents East Slavic languages, and dark green represents South Slavic languages. Slavic europe.svg
Political map of Europe with countries where the national language is Slavic. Pale green represents West Slavic languages, wood green represents East Slavic languages, and dark green represents South Slavic languages.

Slavic languages are spoken in large areas of Southern, Central and Eastern Europe. An estimated 250 million Europeans are native speakers of Slavic languages, the largest groups being Russian (c. 110 million in European Russia and adjacent parts of Eastern Europe, Russian forming the largest linguistic community in Europe), Polish (c. 45 million), Ukrainian (c. 40 million), Serbo-Croatian (c. 21 million),Czech (c. 11 million), Bulgarian (c. 9 million), Slovak (c. 5 million) Belarusian and Slovene (c. 3 million each) and Macedonian (c. 2 million).

Phylogenetically, Slavic is divided into three subgroups:

Other

Distribution of the Baltic languages in the Baltic (simplified). Baltic languages.png
Distribution of the Baltic languages in the Baltic (simplified).
Continental Celtic languages had previously been spoken across Europe from Iberia and Gaul to Asia Minor, but became extinct in the first millennium AD.
  • The Indo-Aryan languages have one major representation: Romani (c. 1.5 million speakers), introduced in Europe during the late medieval period.
  • The Iranian languages in Europe are natively represented in the North Caucasus, notably with Ossetian (c. 600,000).

Non-Indo-European languages

Uralic

Distribution of Uralic languages in Eurasia Oeraals verspreiding-af.svg
Distribution of Uralic languages in Eurasia

Uralic is native to northern Eurasia. Finno-Ugric groups the Uralic languages other than Samoyedic. Finnic languages include Finnish (c. 5 million) and Estonian (c. 1 million). The Sami languages (c. 30,000) are closely related to Finnic.

The Ugric languages are represented in Europe with the Hungarian language (c. 13 million), historically introduced with the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin of the 9th century.

The Samoyedic Nenets language is spoken in Nenets Autonomous Okrug of Russia, located in the far northeastern corner of Europe (as delimited by the Ural Mountains).

Turkic

Distribution of Turkic languages in Eurasia Carte peuples turcs.png
Distribution of Turkic languages in Eurasia

Other

Sign languages

Several dozen manual languages exist across Europe, with the most widespread sign language family being the Francosign languages, with its languages found in countries from Iberia to the Balkans and the Baltics. Accurate historical information of sign and tactile languages is difficult to come by, with folk histories noting the existence signing communities across Europe hundreds of years ago. British Sign Language (BSL) and French Sign Language (LSF) are probably the oldest confirmed, continuously-spoken sign languages. Alongside German Sign Language (DGS) according to Ethnologue, these three have the most numbers of signers, though very few institutions take appropriate statistics on contemporary signing populations, making legitimate data hard to find.

Notably, few European sign languages have overt connections with the local majority/oral languages, aside from standard language contact and borrowing, meaning grammatically the sign languages and the oral languages of Europe are quite distinct from one another. Due to (visual/aural) modality differences, most sign languages are named for the larger ethnic nation in which they are spoken, plus the words "sign language", rendering what is spoken across much of France, Wallonia and Romandy as French Sign Language or LSF for: langue des signes française.

Recognition of non-oral languages varies widely from region to region. [13] Some countries afford legal recognition, even to official on a state level, whereas others continue to be actively suppressed. [14]

The major sign linguistic families are:

History of standardization

Language and identity, standardization processes

In the Middle Ages the two most important defining elements of Europe were Christianitas and Latinitas.

The earliest dictionaries were glossaries: more or less structured lists of lexical pairs (in alphabetical order or according to conceptual fields). The Latin-German (Latin-Bavarian) Abrogans was among the first. A new wave of lexicography can be seen from the late 15th century onwards (after the introduction of the printing press, with the growing interest in standardisation of languages).

The concept of the nation state began to emerge in the early modern period. Nations adopted particular dialects as their national language. This, together with improved communications, led to official efforts to standardise the national language, and a number of language academies were established: 1582 Accademia della Crusca in Florence, 1617 Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft in Weimar, 1635 Académie française in Paris, 1713 Real Academia Española in Madrid. Language became increasingly linked to nation as opposed to culture, and was also used to promote religious and ethnic identity: e.g. different Bible translations in the same language for Catholics and Protestants.

The first languages whose standardisation was promoted included Italian (questione della lingua: Modern Tuscan/Florentine vs. Old Tuscan/Florentine vs. Venetian → Modern Florentine + archaic Tuscan + Upper Italian), French (the standard is based on Parisian), English (the standard is based on the London dialect) and (High) German (based on the dialects of the chancellery of Meissen in Saxony, Middle German, and the chancellery of Prague in Bohemia ("Common German")). But several other nations also began to develop a standard variety in the 16th century.

Lingua franca

Europe has had a number of languages that were considered linguae francae over some ranges for some periods according to some historians. Typically in the rise of a national language the new language becomes a lingua franca to peoples in the range of the future nation until the consolidation and unification phases. If the nation becomes internationally influential, its language may become a lingua franca among nations that speak their own national languages. Europe has had no lingua franca ranging over its entire territory spoken by all or most of its populations during any historical period. Some linguae francae of past and present over some of its regions for some of its populations are:

Linguistic minorities

Historical attitudes towards linguistic diversity are illustrated by two French laws: the Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts (1539), which said that every document in France should be written in French (neither in Latin nor in Occitan) and the Loi Toubon (1994), which aimed to eliminate anglicisms from official documents. States and populations within a state have often resorted to war to settle their differences. There have been attempts to prevent such hostilities: two such initiatives were promoted by the Council of Europe, founded in 1949, which affirms the right of minority language speakers to use their language fully and freely. [21] The Council of Europe is committed to protecting linguistic diversity. Currently all European countries except France, Andorra and Turkey have signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, while Greece, Iceland and Luxembourg have signed it, but have not ratified it; this framework entered into force in 1998. Another European treaty, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, was adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe: it entered into force in 1998, and while it is legally binding for 24 countries, France, Iceland, Italy, North Macedonia, Moldova and Russia have chosen to sign without ratifying the convention.

Scripts

Alphabets used in national languages in Europe:
Greek
Greek & Latin
Latin
Latin & Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Georgian
Armenian Scripts of European national languages.png
Alphabets used in national languages in Europe:
   Greek
   Greek & Latin
   Latin
   Latin & Cyrillic
   Cyrillic
   Georgian
   Armenian

The main scripts used in Europe today are the Latin and Cyrillic.

The Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and Latin was derived from the Greek via the Old Italic alphabet. In the Early Middle Ages, Ogham was used in Ireland and runes (derived from Old Italic script) in Scandinavia. Both were replaced in general use by the Latin alphabet by the Late Middle Ages. The Cyrillic script was derived from the Greek with the first texts appearing around 940 AD.

Around 1900 there were mainly two typeface variants of the Latin alphabet used in Europe: Antiqua and Fraktur. Fraktur was used most for German, Estonian, Latvian, Norwegian and Danish whereas Antiqua was used for Italian, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese, English, Romanian, Swedish and Finnish. The Fraktur variant was banned by Hitler in 1941, having been described as "Schwabacher Jewish letters". [22] Other scripts have historically been in use in Europe, including Phoenician, from which modern Latin letters descend, Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs on Egyptian artefacts traded during Antiquity, various runic systems used in Northern Europe preceding Christianisation, and Arabic during the era of the Ottoman Empire.

Hungarian rovás was used by the Hungarian people in the early Middle Ages, but it was gradually replaced with the Latin-based Hungarian alphabet when Hungary became a kingdom, though it was revived in the 20th century and has certain marginal, but growing area of usage since then.

European Union

The European Union (as of 2016) had 28 member states accounting for a population of 510 million, or about 69% of the population of Europe.

The European Union has designated by agreement with the member states 24 languages as "official and working": Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish. [23] This designation provides member states with two "entitlements": the member state may communicate with the EU in any of the designated languages, and view "EU regulations and other legislative documents" in that language. [24]

The European Union and the Council of Europe have been collaborating in education of member populations in languages for "the promotion of plurilingualism" among EU member states. [25] The joint document, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR)", is an educational standard defining "the competencies necessary for communication" and related knowledge for the benefit of educators in setting up educational programs. In a 2005 independent survey requested by the EU's Directorate-General for Education and Culture regarding the extent to which major European languages were spoken in member states. The results were published in a 2006 document, "Europeans and Their Languages", or "Eurobarometer 243". In this study, statistically relevant[ clarification needed ][ Do you mean "significant"? ] samples of the population in each country were asked to fill out a survey form concerning the languages that they spoke with sufficient competency "to be able to have a conversation". [26]

List of languages

The following is a table of European languages. The number of speakers as a first or second language (L1 and L2 speakers) listed are speakers in Europe only; [nb 1] see list of languages by number of native speakers and list of languages by total number of speakers for global estimates on numbers of speakers.

The list is intended to include any language variety with an ISO 639 code. However, it omits sign languages. Because the ISO-639-2 and ISO-639-3 codes have different definitions, this means that some communities of speakers may be listed more than once. For instance, speakers of Austro-Bavarian are listed both under "Bavarian" (ISO-639-3 code bar) as well as under "German" (ISO-639-2 code de).

Name ISO-
639
ClassificationSpeakers in EuropeOfficial status
NativeTotalNational [nb 2] Regional
Adyghe adyNorthwest Caucasian, Circassian117,500 [27] Adygea (Russia)
Albanian (Shqip)
Arbëresh
Arvanitika
sqIndo-European5,367,000 [28]
5,877,100 [29] (Balkans)
Albania, Kosovo [nb 3] , North Macedonia Italy, Arbëresh dialect: Sicily, Calabria, [30] Apulia, Molise, Basilicata, Abruzzo, Campania,
Montenegro (Ulcinj, Tuzi)
Aragonese anIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian25,000 [31] 55,000 [32] Aragon (Spain) [nb 4]
Aromanian rupIndo-European, Romance, Eastern114,000 [33] North Macedonia (Kruševo)
Asturian (Astur-Leonese)astIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian351,791 [34] 641,502 [34] Asturias [nb 4]
Austro-Bavarian barIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Bavarian14,000,000 [35] Austria (as German)
Avar avNortheast Caucasian, Avar–Andic760,000 Dagestan (Russia)
Azerbaijani azTurkic, Oghuz500,000 [36] Azerbaijan Dagestan (Russia)
Bashkir baTurkic, Kipchak1,221,000 [37] Bashkortostan (Russia)
Basque euBasque750,000 [38] Basque Country: Basque Autonomous Community (Spain, official), Navarre (Spain, official in the Basque-speaking and mixed parts of the region), French Basque Country (France, not official)
Belarusian beIndo-European, Slavic, East3,300,000 [39] Belarus
Bosnian bsIndo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian2,500,000 [40] Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo [nb 3] , Montenegro
Breton brIndo-European, Celtic, Brittonic206,000 [41] None, de facto status in Brittany (France)
Bulgarian bgIndo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern7,800,000 [42] Bulgaria Mount Athos (Greece)
Catalan caIndo-European, Romance, Western, Occitano-Romance4,000,000 [43] 10,000,000 [44] Andorra Balearic Islands (Spain), Catalonia (Spain), Valencian Community (Spain), Aragon (Spain) [nb 4] , Pyrénées-Orientales (France) [nb 4] , Alghero (Italy)
Chechen ceNortheast Caucasian, Nakh1,400,000 [45] Chechnya & Dagestan (Russia)
Chuvash cvTurkic, Oghur1,100,000 [46] Chuvashia (Russia)
Cimbrian cimIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Bavarian400 [47]
Cornish kwIndo-European, Celtic, Brittonic557 [48] Cornwall (United Kingdom) [nb 4]
Corsican coIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian30,000 [49] 125,000 [49] Corsica (France), Sardinia (Italy)
Crimean Tatar crhTurkic, Kipchak480,000 [50] Crimea
Croatian hrIndo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian5,600,000 [51] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia Burgenland (Austria), Vojvodina (Serbia)
Czech csIndo-European, Slavic, West, Czech–Slovak10,600,000 [52] Czech Republic
Danish daIndo-European, Germanic, North5,500,000 [53] Denmark Faroe Islands (Denmark), Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) [54]
Dutch nlIndo-European, Germanic, West22,000,000 [55] Belgium, Netherlands
English enIndo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic63,000,000 [56] 260,000,000 [57] Ireland, Malta, United Kingdom
Erzya myvUralic, Finno-Ugric, Mordvinic120,000 [58] Mordovia (Russia)
Estonian etUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic1,165,400 [59] Estonia
Extremaduran extIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian200,000 [60] Extremadura (Spain)
Faroese foIndo-European, Germanic, North66,150 [61] Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Finnish fiUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic5,400,000 [62] Finland
Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) frpIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance140,000 [63] Aosta Valley (Italy)
French frIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl71,500,000 [64] 135,000,000 [57] Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Monaco, Switzerland Aosta Valley [65] (Italy), Jersey (United Kingdom), El Pas de la Casa (Andorra)
Frisian fry
frr
stq
Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian470,000 [66] Friesland (Netherlands), Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) [67]
Friulan furIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic600,000 [68] Friuli (Italy)
Gagauz gagTurkic, Oghuz140,000 [69] Gagauzia (Moldova)
Galician glIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian2,400,000 [70] Galicia (Spain), Eo-Navia (Asturias) [nb 4] , Bierzo (Province of León) [nb 4] and Western Sanabria (Province of Zamora) [nb 4]
German deIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German97,000,000 [71] 170,000,000 [57] Austria, Belgium, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland South Tyrol, [72] Friuli-Venezia Giulia [73] (Italy)
Greek elIndo-European, Hellenic11,000,000 [74] Cyprus, Greece Albania (Himara, Finiq, Dervican and other southern townships)
Hungarian huUralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric13,000,000 [75] Hungary Burgenland (Austria), Vojvodina (Serbia), Romania, Slovakia, Subcarpathia (Ukraine), Mur region, (Slovenia), northern Croatia
Icelandic isIndo-European, Germanic, North330,000 [76] Iceland
Ingrian izhUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic120 [77]
Ingush inhNortheast Caucasian, Nakh300,000 [78] Ingushetia (Russia)
Irish gaIndo-European, Celtic, Goidelic240,000 [79] 1,300,000 Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
Istriot istIndo-European, Romance900 [80]
Istro-Romanian ruoIndo-European, Romance, Eastern1,100 [81]
Italian itIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian65,000,000 [82] 82,000,000 [57] Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City Croatia Istria County (Croatia), Slovenia Slovenian Istria (Slovenia)
Italiot Greek misIndo-European, Hellenic, Greek, Attic-Ionic20,000 native speakers in 1981 [83] 50,000 Calabria [84] (Bovesia), Apulia [85] (Salento), (Italy)
Judeo-Italian itkIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian250 [86]
Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) ladIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian320,000 [87] few [88] Bosnia and Herzegovina [nb 4] , France [nb 4]
Kabardian kbdNorthwest Caucasian, Circassian530,000 [89] Kabardino-Balkaria & Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Kalmyk xalMongolic80,500 [90] Kalmykia (Russia)
Karelian krlUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic36,000 [91] Karelia (Russia)
Karachay-Balkar krcTurkic, Kipchak300,000 [92] Kabardino-Balkaria & Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Kashubian csbIndo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic50,000 [93] Poland
Kazakh kkTurkic, Kipchak1,000,000 [94] Kazakhstan
Komi kvUralic, Finno-Ugric, Permic220,000 [95] Komi Republic (Russia)
Latin laIndo-European, Italic, Latino-Faliscanextinctfew [96] Vatican City
Latvian lvIndo-European, Baltic1,750,000 [97] Latvia
Ligurian lijIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic500,000 [98] Liguria (Italy)
Lithuanian ltIndo-European, Baltic3,000,000 [99] Lithuania
Lombard lmoIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic3,600,000 [100] Lombardy (Italy)
Low German (Low Saxon) nds
wep
Indo-European, Germanic, West1,000,000 [101] 2,600,000 [101] Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) [102]
Luxembourgish lbIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German336,000 [103] 386,000 [103] Luxembourg Wallonia (Belgium)
Macedonian mkIndo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern1,400,000 [104] North Macedonia
Mainfränkisch vmfIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper4,900,000 [105] Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria & Thuringia (Germany)
Maltese mtSemitic, Arabic520,000 [106] Malta
Manx gvIndo-European, Celtic, Goidelic230 [107] 2,300 [108] Isle of Man
Mari chm
mhr
Uralic, Finno-Ugric500,000 [109] Mari El (Russia)
Megleno-Romanian ruqIndo-European, Romance, Eastern3,000 [110]
Mirandese mwlIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian15,000 [111] Miranda do Douro (Portugal)
Moksha mdfUralic, Finno-Ugric, Mordvinic2,000 [112] Mordovia (Russia)
Montenegrin cnrIndo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian240,700 [113] Montenegro
Neapolitan napIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian5,700,000 [114] Campania (Italy) [115]
Nenets yrkUralic, Samoyedic4,000 [116] Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russia)
Norman nrfIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl50,000 [117] Normandy (France), Jersey (United Kingdom)
Norwegian noIndo-European, Germanic, North5,200,000 [118] Norway
Occitan ocIndo-European, Romance, Western, Occitano-Romance500,000 [119] Catalonia (Spain) [nb 5]
Ossetian osIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern450,000 [120] Georgia North Ossetia-Alania (Russia)
Palatinate German pflIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central1,000,000 [121] Germany
Picard pcdIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl200,000 [122] Wallonia (Belgium)
Piedmontese pmsIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic1,600,000 [123] Piedmont (Italy) [124]
Polish plIndo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic38,500,000 [125] Poland
Portuguese ptIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian10,000,000 [126] Portugal
Rhaeto-Romance fur
lld
roh
Indo-European, Romance, Western370,000 [127] Switzerland Veneto Belluno, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, South Tyrol, [128] & Trentino (Italy)
Ripuarian (Platt) kshIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central900,000 [129] Germany, Netherlands, Wallonia (Belgium)
Romani romIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western1,500,000 [130] Kosovo [nb 3] [131]
Romanian roIndo-European, Romance, Eastern24,000,000 [132] 28,000,000 [133] Moldova, Romania Mount Athos (Greece), Vojvodina (Serbia)
Russian ruIndo-European, Slavic, East106,000,000 [134] 160,000,000 [134] Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Mount Athos (Greece), Gagauzia (Moldova), Transnistria (Moldova), Svalbard (Norway), Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania
Sami seUralic, Finno-Ugric23,000 [135] Norway Sweden, Finland
Sardinian scIndo-European, Romance1,350,000 [136] Sardinia (Italy)
Scots scoIndo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic110,000 [137] Scotland (United Kingdom), Ulster (Republic of Ireland), Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
Scottish Gaelic gdIndo-European, Celtic, Goidelic57,000 [138] Scotland (United Kingdom)
Serbian srIndo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian9,000,000 [139] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo [nb 3] , Serbia Croatia, Mount Athos (Greece), North Macedonia, Montenegro
Sicilian scnIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian4,700,000 [140] Sicily (Italy)
Silesian szlIndo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic522,000 [141] Upper Silesia (Poland, Czech Republic & Germany), Silesia (Poland)
Silesian German sliIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central11,000 [142] Upper Silesia (Poland, Czech Republic & Germany), Silesia (Poland)
Slovak skIndo-European, Slavic, West, Czech–Slovak5,200,000 [143] Slovakia Vojvodina (Serbia), Czech Republic
Slovene slIndo-European, Slavic, South, Western2,100,000 [144] Slovenia Friuli-Venezia Giulia [73] (Italy)
Sorbian (Wendish) wenIndo-European, Slavic, West20,000 [145] Brandenburg & Sachsen (Germany) [146]
Spanish esIndo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian38,000,000 [147] 76,000,000 [57] Spain Andorra, Gibraltar (United Kingdom)
Swabian German swgIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic820,000 [148] Germany
Swedish svIndo-European, Germanic, North11,100,000 [149] 13,280,000 [149] Finland, Sweden
Swiss German gswIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic5,000,000 [150] Switzerland (as German)
Tabasaran tabNortheast Caucasian, Lezgic126,900 [151] Dagestan (Russia)
Tat tttIndo-European, Iranian, Western30,000 [152] Dagestan (Russia)
Tatar ttTurkic, Kipchak4,300,000 [153] Tatarstan (Russia)
Turkish trTurkic, Oghuz12,000,000 [154] Turkey, Cyprus Northern Cyprus
Udmurt udmUralic, Finno-Ugric, Permic340,000 [155] Udmurtia (Russia)
Ukrainian ukIndo-European, Slavic, East32,600,000 [156] Ukraine Transnistria Transnistria (Moldova)
Upper Saxon sxuIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central2,000,000 [157] Sachsen (Germany)
Vepsian vepUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic1,640 [158] Karelia Karelia (Russia)
Venetian vecIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Dalmatian3,800,000 [159] Veneto (Italy) [160]
Võro vroUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic87,000 [161] Võru County (Estonia)
Walloon waIndo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl600,000 [162] Wallonia (Belgium)
Walser German waeIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic20,000 [163]
Welsh cyIndo-European, Celtic, Brittonic562,000 [164] 750,000 Wales (United Kingdom)
Wymysorys wymIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German70 [165]
Yenish yecIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German16,000 [166] Switzerland [nb 4]
Yiddish yiIndo-European, Germanic, West, High German600,000 [167] Bosnia and Herzegovina [nb 4] , Netherlands [nb 4] , Poland [nb 4] , Romania [nb 4] , Sweden [nb 4] , Ukraine [nb 4]

Languages spoken in Turkey, Cyprus, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

There are various definitions of Europe, which may or may not include all or parts of Turkey, Cyprus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. For convenience, the languages and associated statistics for all five of these countries are grouped together on this page, as they are usually presented at a national, rather than subnational, level.

Name ISO-
639
ClassificationSpeakers in expanded geopolitical EuropeOfficial status
L1L1+L2National [nb 6] Regional
Abkhaz abNorthwest Caucasian, AbazgiAbkhazia/Georgia: [168] 191,000 [169]
Turkey: 44,000 [170]
AbkhaziaGeorgia (Abkhazia)
Adyghe (West Circassian)adyNorthwest Caucasian, CircassianTurkey: 316,000 [170]
Albanian sqIndo-European, AlbanianTurkey: 66,000 (Tosk) [170]
Arabic arAfro-Asiatic, Semitic, WestTurkey: 2,437,000 Not counting post-2014 Syrian refugees [170]
Armenian hyIndo-European, Armenian Armenia: 3 million [171]
Artsakh/Azerbaijan: [172] 145,000 [ citation needed ]
Georgia: around 0.2 million ethnic Armenians (Abkhazia: 44,870 [173] )
Turkey: 61,000 [170]
Cyprus: 668 [174] :3
Armenia
Artsakh
Cyprus
Azerbaijani azTurkic, OghuzAzerbaijan 9 million[ citation needed ] [175]
Turkey: 540,000 [170]
Georgia 0.2 million
Azerbaijan
Batsbi bblNortheast Caucasian, Nakh Georgia : 500 [176] [ needs update ]
Bulgarian bgIndo-European, Slavic, South Turkey: 351,000 [170]
Crimean crhTurkic, Kipchak Turkey: 100,000 [170]
Georgian kaKartvelian, Karto-Zan Georgia: 3,224,696 [177]
Turkey: 151,000 [170]
Azerbaijan: 9,192 ethnic Georgians [178]
Georgia
Greek elIndo-European, HellenicCyprus: 679,883 [179] :2.2
Turkey: 3,600 [170]
Cyprus
Juhuri jdtIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, SouthwestAzerbaijan: 24,000 (1989) [180] [ needs update ]
Kurdish kurIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, NorthwestTurkey: 15 million [181]
Armenia: 33,509 [182]
Georgia: 14,000 [ citation needed ]
Azerbaijan: 9,000 [ citation needed ]
Armenia
Laz lzzKartvelian, Karto-Zan, ZanTurkey: 20,000 [183]
Georgia: 2,000 [183]
Meglenian ruqIndo-European, Italic, Romance, EastTurkey: 4–5,000 [184]
Mingrelian xmfKartvelian, Karto-Zan, ZanGeorgia (including Abkhazia): 344,000 [185]
Pontic Greek pntIndo-European, HellenicTurkey: greater than 5,000 [186]
Armenia: 900 ethnic Caucasus Greeks [187]
Georgia: 5,689 Caucasus Greeks [177]
Romani language and Domari language rom, dmtIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, IndicTurkey: 500,000 [170]
Russian ruIndo-European, Balto-Slavic, SlavicArmenia: 15,000 [188]
Azerbaijan: 250,000 [189]
Georgia: 130,000 [188]
Armenia: about 0.9 million [190]
Azerbaijan : about 2.6 million [190]
Georgia: about 1 million [190]
Cyprus: 20,984 [191]
Abkhazia
South Ossetia
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Svan svaKartvelian, SvanGeorgia (incl. Abkhazia) : 30,000 [192]
Tat tttIndo-European, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, SouthwestAzerbaijan: 10,000 [193] [ needs update ]
Turkish trTurkic, OghuzTurkey: 66,850,000 [170]
Cyprus: 1,405 < [194] + 265,100 in the North [195]
Turkey
Cyprus
Northern Cyprus

Immigrant communities

Recent (post–1945) immigration to Europe introduced substantial communities of speakers of non-European languages. [196]

The largest such communities include Arabic speakers (see Arabs in Europe) and Turkish speakers (beyond European Turkey and the historical sphere of influence of the Ottoman Empire, see Turks in Europe). [197] Armenians, Berbers, and Kurds have diaspora communities of c. 12 million each. The various languages of Africa and languages of India form numerous smaller diaspora communities.

List of the largest immigrant languages
NameISO 639ClassificationNativeEthnic diaspora
Arabic arAfro-Asiatic, Semitic> 4 million [198] 12 million [199]
Turkish trTurkic, Oghuz3 million [200] 7 million [201]
Armenian hyIndo-European1 million [202] 2-3 million [203]
Kurdish kuIndo-European, Iranian, Western600,000 [204] 1 million [205]
Bengali–Assamese bn as sylIndo-European, Indo-Aryan600,000 [206] 1 million [207]
Azerbaijani azTurkic, Oghuz500,000 [208] 700,000 [209]
Kabyle kabAfro-Asiatic, Berber500,000 [210] 1 million [211]
Chinese zhSino-Tibetan, Sinitic300,000 [212] 2 million [213]
Urdu urIndo-European, Indo-Aryan300,000 [214] 1.8 million [215]
Uzbek uzTurkic, Karluk300,000 [216] 12 million [217]
Persian faIndo-European, Iranian, Western300,000 [218] 400,000 million [219]
Punjabi paIndo-European, Indo-Aryan300,000 [220] 700,000 [221]
Gujarati guIndo-European, Indo-Aryan200,000 [222] 600,000 [223]
Tamil taDravidian200,000 [224] 500,000 [225]
Somali soAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic200,000 [226] 400,000 [227]


See also

Notes

  1. "Europe" is taken as a geographical term, defined by the conventional Europe-Asia boundary along the Caucasus and the Urals. Estimates for populations geographically in Europe are given for transcontinental countries.
  2. Sovereign states, defined as United Nations member states and observer states. 'Recognised minority language' status is not included.
  3. 1 2 3 4 The Republic of Kosovo is a partially recognized state (recognized by 111 out of 193 UN member states as of 2017).
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Recognized and protected, but not official.
  5. The Aranese dialect, in Val d'Aran county.
  6. Sovereign states, defined as United Nations member states and observer states. 'Recognised minority language' status is not included.

Related Research Articles

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The German language is most similar to other languages within the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, Scots, and Yiddish. It also contains close similarities in vocabulary to Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although they belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Greek language Indo-European language of Greece, Cyprus and other regions

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,500 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Italian language Romance language originating in the Italian peninsula

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian is, by most measures and together with Sardinian, the closest language to Latin, from which it descends via Vulgar Latin. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor), Greece and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Romanian language Romance language

Romanian is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. According to another estimate, there are about 34 million people worldwide who can speak Romanian, of whom 30 million speak it as a native language. It is an official and national language of both Romania and Moldova and is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Spanish language Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe; today, it is a global language with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in Spain and the Americas. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's fourth-most spoken language, after English, Mandarin Chinese and Hindi.

Yiddish is a High German-derived language historically spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic, as well as - later on - Slavic languages, and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish writing uses the Hebrew alphabet. As of the 1990s, there were around 1.5–2 million speakers of Yiddish, mostly Hasidic and Haredi Jews.

Languages of the United States Languages of a geographic region

Although the United States does not have an official language, the most commonly used language is English, which is the de facto national language. Many other languages are also spoken in the United States, especially Spanish. These include indigenous languages, languages brought to the country by colonists, enslaved people and immigrants from Europe, Africa and Asia. There are also several languages, including creoles and sign languages, that developed in the United States. Approximately 430 languages are spoken or signed by the population, of which 176 are indigenous to the area. Fifty-two languages formerly spoken in the country's territory are now extinct.

Uzbek language Turkic language spoken in Central Asia

Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the first official and only declared national language of Uzbekistan. The language of Uzbeks is spoken by some 27 million native speakers in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in Central Asia (2015), making it the second-most widely spoken Turkic language after Turkish.

The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages, is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.

Rhaeto-Romance languages

Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland. The name "Rhaeto-Romance" refers to the former Roman province of Rhaetia. The linguistic basis of the subfamily is discussed in the so-called Questione Ladina. The Rhaeto-Romance languages form a group of Romance languages in the Alps region of northern Italy and Switzerland. Initially studied by Italian Linguist Graziadio Ascoli in 1873, Ascoli found these languages to share a number of intricacies and believed they belonged to a specific linguistic group. What distinguishes Rhaeto-Romance languages from Italian and other Western languages are its phonemic vowel length, consonant formation, and a central rounded vowel series. A few notable examples of these languages are Romansh, Friulian and Ladin, which are officially recognized alongside German, French and Italian, by the Swiss and Italian governments respectively. In total there are about 660,000 speakers of the Rhaeto-Romance languages combined, the vast majority of whom speak Friulian at approximately half a million.

Piedmontese language

Piedmontese is spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. Though considered by many linguists a separate language, in Italy it is often considered an Italian dialect. It is linguistically included in the Gallo-Italic languages group of Northern Italy, which would make it part of the wider western group of Romance languages, which also includes French, Occitan, and Catalan. It is spoken in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy.

The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).

This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the German language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. In addition to the German-speaking area in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.

Baltic Romani is group of dialects of the Romani language spoken in the Baltic states and adjoining regions of Poland and Russia. Half of the speakers live in Poland. It also called Balt Romani, Balt Slavic Romani, Baltic Slavic Romani, and Roma. Romani began as an Indo-European language, which morphed into an Indo-Iranian language, and then into an Indo-Aryan language. After that the Romani language broke down into Balkan Romani and Central Romani. Baltic Romani came from the Central Romani dialect which branches off into other dialects. There are a total of around 35,000 users in all countries.

Languages of Sweden

Swedish is the official language of Sweden and is spoken by the vast majority of the 10 million inhabitants of the country. It is a North Germanic language and quite similar to its sister Scandinavian languages, Danish and Norwegian, with which it maintains partial mutual intelligibility and forms a dialect continuum. A number of regional Swedish dialects are spoken across the county. In total, more than 200 languages are estimated to be spoken across the county, including regional languages, indigenous Sámi languages, and immigrant languages.

Languages of Greece Languages of a geographic region

The official language of Greece is Greek, spoken by 99% of the population. In addition, a number of non-official, minority languages and some Greek dialects are spoken as well. The most common foreign languages learned by Greeks are English, German, French and Italian.

Languages of North Macedonia

The official language of North Macedonia is Macedonian, while Albanian has co-official status. Macedonian is spoken by roughly two-thirds of the population natively and as a second language by much of the rest of the population. Albanian is the largest minority language. There are a further five national minority languages: Turkish, Romani, Serbian, Bosnian, and Aromanian. The Macedonian Sign Language is the country's official sign language.

The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by common genetic ancestry, common language, or both. According to the German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct indigenous peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the ethnic majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. The Russians are the largest European ethnic group, with a population over 134 million. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality and ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.

A world language is one that is spoken internationally and learned and spoken by numerous people as a second language. A world language is characterized not only by the total number of speakers but also by geographical distribution and its use in international organizations and diplomatic relations.

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  86. Judeo-Italian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  87. Judaeo-Spanish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  88. SIL Ethnologue: "Not the dominant language for most. Formerly the main language of Sephardic Jewry. Used in literary and music contexts." ca. 100k speakers in total, most of them in Israel, small communities in the Balkans, Greece, Turkey and in Spain.
  89. Kabardian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  90. Oirat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  91. Karelian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  92. Karachay-Balkar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  93. Kashubian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  94. About 10 million in Kazakhstan. Kazakh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015). Technically, the westernmost portions of Kazakhstan (Atyrau Region, West Kazakhstan Region) are in Europe, with a total population of less than one million.
  95. 220,000 native speakers out of an ethnic population of 550,000. Combines Komi-Permyak (koi) with 65,000 speakers and Komi-Zyrian (kpv) with 156,000 speakers. Komi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  96. Contemporary Latin: People fluent in Latin as a second language are probably in the dozens, not hundreds. Reginald Foster (as of 2013) estimated "no more than 100" according to Robin Banerji, Pope resignation: Who speaks Latin these days?, BBC News, 12 February 2013.
  97. Latvian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  98. Ligurian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  99. Lithuanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  100. Lombard at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  101. 1 2 2.6 million cited as estimate of all Germans who speak Platt "well or very well" (including L2; 4.3 million cited as the number of all speakers including those with "moderate" knowledge) in 2009. Heute in Bremen. „Ohne Zweifel gefährdet“. Frerk Möller im Interview, taz, 21. Februar 2009. However, Wirrer (1998) described Low German as "moribund".Jan Wirrer: Zum Status des Niederdeutschen. In: Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik. 26, 1998, S. 309. The number of native speakers is unknown, estimated at 1 million by SIL Ethnologue. Low German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Westphalian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  102. The question whether Low German should be considered as subsumed under "German" as the official language of Germany has a complicated legal history. In the wake of the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1998), Schleswig-Holstein has explicitly recognized Low German as a regional language with official status (§ 82b LVwG).
  103. 1 2 Luxembourgish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  104. Macedonian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  105. German dialect, Main-Franconian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  106. Maltese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  107. Manx at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  108. Whitehead, Sarah (2 April 2015). "How the Manx language came back from the dead". theguardian.com . Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  109. Mari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  110. Megleno-Romanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  111. Mirandese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  112. Moksha at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  113. "Montenegro". Ethnologue. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  114. Neapolitan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  115. In 2008, law was passed by the Region of Campania, stating that the Neapolitan language was to be legally protected. "Tutela del dialetto, primo via libera al Ddl campano". Il Denaro (in Italian). 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  116. total 22,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census) out of an ethnic population of 44,000. Most of these are in Siberia, with about 8,000 ethnic Nenets in European Russia (2010 census, mostly in Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
  117. Jèrriais at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  118. "Norwegian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  119. Occitan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015). Includes Auvergnat, Gascon, Languedocien, Limousin, Provençal, Vivaro-Alpine. Most native speakers are in France; their number is unknown, as varieties of Occitan are treated as French dialects with no official status.
  120. Total 570,000, of which 450,000 in the Russian Federation. Ossetian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  121. German dialect, Palatinate German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  122. Picard at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  123. Piedmontese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  124. Piedmontese was recognised as Piedmont's regional language by the regional parliament in 1999. Motion 1118 in the Piedmontese Regional Parliament, Approvazione da parte del Senato del Disegno di Legge che tutela le minoranze linguistiche sul territorio nazionale - Approfondimenti, approved unanimously on 15 December 1999, Text of motion 1118 in the Piedmontese Regional Parliament, Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte, Ordine del Giorno 1118.
  125. Polish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  126. Portuguese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  127. Includes Friulian, Romansh, Ladin. Friulian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Ladin at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romansch at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  128. Statuto Speciale Per Il Trentino-Alto Adige (1972), Art. 102.
  129. German dialect, Kölsch at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  130. Romani, Balkan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Baltic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Carpathian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Finnish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Sinte at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Vlax at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Romani, Welsh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  131. Constitution of Kosovo, p. 8.
  132. Romanian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  133. "Româna". unilat.org (in Romanian). Latin Union . Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  134. 1 2 L1: 119 million in the Russian Federation (of which c. 83 million in European Russia), 14.3 million in Ukraine, 6.67 million in Belarus, 0.67 million in Latvia, 0.38 million in Estonia, 0.38 million in Moldova. L1+L2: c. 100 million in European Russia, 39 million in Ukraine, 7 million in Belarus, 7 million in Poland, 2 million in Latvia, c. 2 million in the European portion of Kazakhstan, 1.8 million in Moldova, 1.1 million in Estonia. Russian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015).
  135. mostly Northern Sami (sma), ca. 20,000 speakers; smaller communities of Lule Sami (smj, c. 2,000 speakers) and other variants. Northern Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Lule Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Southern Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Kildin Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Skolt Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Inari Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015).
  136. AA. VV. Calendario Atlante De Agostini 2017, Novara, Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 2016, p. 230
  137. Scots at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  138. Gaelic, Scottish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  139. Serbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  140. Sicilian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  141. Silesian at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  142. German dialect, Lower Silesian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  143. Slovak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  144. Slovene at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  145. Sorbian, Upper at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  146. GVG § 184 Satz 2; VwVfGBbg § 23 Abs. 5; SächsSorbG § 9, right to use Sorbian in communication with the authorities guaranteed for the "Sorbian settlement area" (Sorbisches Siedlungsgebiet, Lusatia).
  147. Spanish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  148. German dialect, Swabian German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  149. 1 2 Swedish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  150. German dialect, Swiss German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  151. Tabassaran at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  152. Tat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Judeo-Tat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) 2,000 speakers in the Russian Federation according to the 2010 census (including Judeo-Tat). About 28,000 speakers in Azerbaijan; most speakers live along or just north of the Caucasus ridge (and are thus technically in Europe), with some also settling just south of the Caucasus ridge, in Transcaucasia.
  153. Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  154. c. 11 million in European Turkey, 0.6 million in Bulgaria, 0.6 million in Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, not including several million recent immigrants to Western Europe (see #Immigrant communities).
  155. Udmurt at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  156. Ukrainian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  157. German dialect, Upper Saxon German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  158. Russian Census 2010. Veps at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  159. Venetian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  160. A motion to recognise Venetian as an official regional language has been approved by the Regional Council of Veneto in 2007. "Consiglio Regionale Veneto – Leggi Regionali". Consiglioveneto.it. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  161. Võro at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  162. Walloon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  163. Highest Alemannic dialects, Walser German at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  164. Welsh at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  165. Moribund German dialect spoken in Wilamowice, Poland. 70 speakers recorded in 2006. Wymysorys at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  166. Yenish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  167. Total population estimated at 1.5 million as of 1991, of which c. 40% in the Ukraine. Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Eastern Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Western Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  168. Abkhazia is a de facto state recognized by Russia and a handful of other states, but considered by Georgia to be ruling over a Georgian region
  169. Abkhazian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  170. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Lewis, M. Paul (ed.) (2009). "Ethnologue report for Turkey (Asia)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2009.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  171. "Armenian 2011 census data, chapter 5" (PDF).
  172. Note: de facto independent republic, Azerbaijan claims sovereignty over it.
  173. Ethno-Caucasus – Население Кавказа - Республика Абхазия - Население Абхазии
  174. Council of Europe (16 January 2014). "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Fourth periodical presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in accordance with Article 15 of the Charter. CYPRUS" (PDF).Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  175. Azeri community in Dagestan excluded
  176. "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  177. 1 2 2014 Georgian census
  178. Censuses of Republic of Azerbaijan 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009 Archived November 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  179. "Cyprus" (PDF). Euromosaic III. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  180. SIL Ethnologue gives estimates, broken down by dialect group, totalling 31 million, but with the caveat of "Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population". Ethnologue estimates for dialect groups: Northern: 20.2M (undated; 15M in Turkey for 2009), Central: 6.75M (2009), Southern: 3M (2000), Laki: 1M (2000). The Swedish Nationalencyklopedin listed Kurdish in its "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), citing an estimate of 20.6 million native speakers.
  181. http://armstat.am/file/article/sv_03_13a_520.pdf
  182. 1 2 "Laz". Ethnologue .
  183. Thede Kahl (2006): The islamisation of the Meglen Vlachs (Megleno-Romanians): The village of Nânti (Nótia) and the “Nântinets” in present-day Turkey, Nationalities Papers, 34:01, p80-81: "Assuming that nearly the total population of Nânti emigrated, then the number of emigrants must have been around 4,000. If the reported number of people living there today is added, the whole Meglen Vlachs population is c. 5,000. Although that number is only a rough estimate and may be exaggerated by the individual interviewees, it might correspond to reality."
  184. Endangered Languages Project: Mingrelian
  185. Özkan, Hakan (2013). "The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims in the villages of Beşköy in the province of present-day Trabzon". Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies. 37 (1): 130–150. doi:10.1179/0307013112z.00000000023.
  186. 2011 Armenian Census
  187. 1 2 Падение статуса русского языка на постсоветском пространстве. Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  188. 1 2 3 Русскоязычие распространено не только там, где живут русские. demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016.
  189. Στατιστική Υπηρεσία - Πληθυσμός και Κοινωνικές Συνθήκες - Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Ανακοινώσεις - Αποτελέσματα Απογραφής Πληθυσμού, 2011 (in Greek). Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  190. Endangered Languages Project: Svan
  191. John M. Clifton, Gabriela Deckinga, Laura Lucht, Calvin Tiessen, “Sociolinguistic Situation of the Tat and Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan,” In Clifton, ed., Studies in Languages of Azerbaijan, vol. 2 (Azerbaijan & St Petersburg, Russia: Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan & SIL International 2005). Page 3.
  192. Population enumerated by age, sex, language spoken and district (1.10.2011) (sheet D1A). CYstat. June 2013.[ permanent dead link ]
  193. "Census.XLS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  194. "International migrant stock: By destination and origin". United Nations.
  195. Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 367, ISBN   1-59884-302-8
  196. France: 4 million, Germany: 500k (2015), Spain: 200k UK: 159k (2011 census)
  197. Arab diaspora, mostly in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, UK, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, current size unknown due to the European migrant crisis of 2015present.
  198. Germany: 1,510k, France: 444k, Netherlands: 388k, Austria: 197k, Russia: 146k, UK: 99k, Switzerland: 44k, Sweden: 44.
  199. See Turks in Europe: only counting recent (post-Ottoman era) immigration: Germany: 4 million, France: 1 million, UK: 500,000, Netherlands: 500,000, Austria: 400,000, Switzerland, Sweden and Russia: 100-200,000 each.
  200. 830k in Russia (2010 census), 100k in Ukraine (SIL Ethnologue 2015).
  201. 1-2 million Armenians in Russia. France 250-750k, Ukraine 100k, Germany 100k, Greece 60-80k, Spain 40k, Belgium 30k, Czechia 12k, Sweden 12k, Bulgaria 10-22k, Belarus 8k, Austria 6k, Poland 3-50k, Hungary 3-30k, Netherlands 3-9k, Switzerland 3-5k, Cyprus 3k, Moldova 1-3k, UK 1-2k.
  202. Germany: 541k
  203. Kurdish population: mostly Kurds in Germany, Kurds in France, Kurds in Sweden.
  204. Sylheti: 300k in the UK, Bengali: 221k in the UK.
  205. see British Indian, Bangladeshi diaspora, Bengali diaspora.
  206. 515k in Russia (2010 census)
  207. Azerbaijani diaspora : Russia 600k, Ukraine 45k, not counting 400,000 in Azerbajjan's Quba-Khachmaz region, technically in Europe (being north of the Caucasus watershed).
  208. France: 500k
  209. Kabyle people in France: 1 million.
  210. Germany 120k, Russia: 70k, UK 66k, Spain 20k.
  211. Overseas Chinese: France 700,000, UK: 500,000, Russia: 300,000, Italy: 300,000, Germany: 200,000, Spain: 100,000.
  212. UK: 269k (2011 census).
  213. Pakistani diaspora, the majority Pakistanis in the UK.
  214. Russia: 274k (2010 census)
  215. see Uzbeks in Russia.
  216. UK: 76k, Sweden: 74k, Germany: 72k, France 40k.
  217. Iranian diaspora: Germany: 100k, Sweden: 100k, UK: 50k, Russia: 50k, Netherlands: 35k, Denmark: 20k.
  218. UK: 280k
  219. see British Punjabis
  220. UK: 213k
  221. see Gujarati diaspora
  222. UK: 101k, Germany: 35k, Switzerland: 22k.
  223. Tamil diaspora: UK 300k, France 100k, Germany 50k, Switzerland 40k, Netherlands, 20k, Norway 10k.
  224. UK: 86k, Sweden: 53k, Italy: 50k
  225. Somali diaspora: UK: 114k, Sweden: 64k, Norway: 42k, Netherlands: 39k, Germany: 34k, Denmark: 21k, Finland: 19k.