The world in the middle ages: an historical geography, with accounts of the origin and development, the institutions and literatures, the manners and customs of the nations in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa, from the close of the fourth to the middle of the fifteenth century. By Adolphus Louis Koeppen. Accompanied by complete historical and geographical indexes, and six colored maps from the historical atlas of Charles Spruner.
The world in the middle ages: an historical geography, with accounts of the origin and development, the institutions and literatures, the manners and customs of the nations in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa, from the close of the fourth to the middle of the fifteenth century. By Adolphus Louis Koeppen. Accompanied by complete historical and geographical indexes, and six colored maps from the historical atlas of Charles Spruner.
Koeppen, Adolph Ludvig, 1804-1873., Spruner von Merz, Karl, 1803-1892.

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Page  [unnumbered] T H El WO!)LD Tl N TlI{E -MIDDLE AGES: A N I II S T 0 J{ AI (C A L E () GRAPHY, WIV TH ACCOUNTS OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT, THE INSTITUTIONS AND LITERATURE, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE NATIONS IN EUROPE, WVESTERN ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA, FROM THE CLOSE OF THE FOURTH TO THE MIDDLE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. BY ADOLPHUS LOUIS K(EPPEN, PROFESSOR OF IIISTORLY AND GERMAN LITERATURE IN FRANKLIN AND MIARSIALL COLLEGE, PENNSYLVANIA, ACCOMPANIED BY COMIPLETE HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAIPHICAL INDEXES, AND SIX COLORED MAPS FROM THE HISTORICAL ATLAS OF CHARLES SPRUNER, LL. D., CAPTAIN OF ENGINTEERS IN THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA, NEW YORK: D. APPL E TON AND COMPANY, 3 46 & 348 B OADWAY. LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. SO.DCCC.LIV.

Page  [unnumbered] ENTEPRED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of Newv York.

Page  [unnumbered] TO GEORGE T I C K N O R THE AUTHOR OF THE E;HISTORY OF SP ANISH LITERATURE n", THE NOBLEST TRIRUTE EVER PAID BY A NEW LITERATURE TO AN OLD, AND A WORK THAT DOES AS MUCH HOnOR TO THE LITERATURE IT ENRICHES AS TO TIIATP WHOSE TIME-TRIED TRIUMPHS IT WORTHILY RECORDS. IS, BY PERMISSION, MOST RESPECTFULLY AND GRATEFUILY D E D I C AT E D.

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Page  1 N introducing a new Work to the Public, it is expect- sketches, and notices of medioaval institutions, with sideed that some account should be given of its incep- glances at the religions, languages, and literatures of the tion, design, scope, and prosecution. different nations. Whilst delivering a course of lectures two years I have endeavored likewise to give that prominence since in Providence, on Mledideval History, I found no to the Scandinavians, the Sclavonians, Tartars, and geographical work in English Literature, illustrating other Eastern tribes which their important influence on that period to which I could refer. This want suggested history demands; but which hitherto has been denied the present work. them. The Geography of the Ancient World presents no In the Geography of Ecclesiastical History, I have such deficiency, having been elucidated since the seven- followed Rev. John E. Wiltsch. I have entered into teenth century by the master-minds of Cellarius, Clu- more than usual detail on the Byzantine Empire, verins, Danville, and still more recently by Ren- Greece, and the Eastern States, both with the hope of nel, Mannert, Heeren, Uckert, and others. 3Much illustrating the brilliant pages of Gibbon and the light has also been thrown on the remote ages of civili- Chroniclers of the Crusades; and in view of the imporzation by the late philological discoveries in Egypt and tant part which these Countries are about to act in the Persia, and the excavations of Nineveh. present crisis that seems to threaten the entire political Yet the no less important period of the Middle system of Europe. Ages, though so thoroughly investigated by the modern I am indebted for the selection of my maps, to 1ProHistorian, has still remained comparatively neglected by fessor George W. Greene's translation of Dr. Spruner's the Geographer. great Historical Atlas. Miedleval Atlases have been published by C. Kruse For my authorities, I refer the reader to the foot(translated into French by Felix Ansart) and by Charles notes, and the list of authors on the closing page of the Spruner; but these being defective in letter-press, con- Work. I have also carefully compiled Historical and taining only scanty notes, and mere dry, historical Geographical Indices, referring to the number of the tables, leave the student to depend on his own re- paragraph in every instance where the name occurs. sources in the explanation of the maps. I would ask the kind forbearance of the Public with Thus no general comprehensive Geography, embra- regard to some occasional foreign expressions or turns cing the medieval times down to the close of the of thought, which possibly may betray the author as a fifteenth century, has yet appeared to supply the want Dane. which must be felt by every student of Gibbon, Hal- If this, my first attempt in the field of Historical lam, Sismondi, Guizot, and the other numerous writers Geography, should be favorably received by the Public, treating of that era. I might perhaps find myself emboldened to undclertake It occurred to me, therefore, that my collectanea, the still more arduous task of preparing an Historical made during my long residence in Italy and Greece, Geography of the lfocdern VWorldc uniform with the pretogether with my notes of travel in the East-partly en- sent. bodied in my Providence Lectures-might furnish me This would embrace, not only the geographical with ample materials for the composition of a work changes anad political revolutions of modern Europe which woulcl supply, at least in part, the wants of the during the last three centuries, but likewise the highly stuclent of Miedi val History. important Colonial Geography of Asia, Africa, and AmeHaving met with encouragement from my publish- rica. Especial attention would then be devoted to the ers, the idea has been carried out, and I now offer to rise, progress, emancipation, and gigantic development the public the " WEorld in the iiddle Ages." of the Republic of the Unitecd States. I have attempted to present an a ccurate geographi- The materials for such an undertaking are in part cal description of the world during the different periods collected, the plan laid clown, the maps selected, and I of tinme from the ultimate division of the Roman Em- only await the encouragement of the Literary Republic pire at the death of Theodosius the Great, A.D. 395, to carry my ideas into execution. down to the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman THE AUTHOR Turlks in the East, and the discovery of America in the WVest. Franklin and lMarshall College, That the dry details of Geography mighl not be- LANCAsTER, PAprllt t, 1S84. come tedious, I have occasionally introduced personal

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Page  3 CONTENTS. C 0 N T E N T So@ PAGE PAG3 CHAPTER IO. XIL Kingdom of the Visigoths, ~~ 123-126. 83 XIII. Kingdom of the Suevi, ~126... $3 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY; THE GREAT HISTO- xv. Kingdom f the, 33 Ric-GE DVISONSOF HATERA XIv- Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, ~~ 127-133.. 33 RICO-GEOGRAPHICAL DIIONS OF TEAT ERA. v. Kingdom of the Vandals, ~ 134.. v 35 xvI. Eastern Roman Empire under Justinian I., ~ 135GENERAL REMARKS, ~ 1 14 7 140... 35 GENERAL DIVISION OF MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY, ~ 2. ~ 7 CHAPTER IV. CHIAPTER IT. EUROPE; ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY AFTER THE INVASION OF TRE T. THE ROMAN EMPIRE. ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY UNDER AR- AVARS AND LONGOBARDS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE oADIUS AND HoNoRIUS, ~~ 3-5... 8 SIXTH CENTIURY, ~ 141, 153... 36 LIMITS AND DIVISION, ~~ 3-5.. 8 I. NORTHERN EUROPE, ~~ 141-144.... 36 1. THE EASTERN EMPIRE, ~~ 6-40 o o o 8:':British Islands, ~~ 141-143.... 36 Limits, Capital, and Division, ~~ 6-8. 8 Scandinavia, ~ 144..... 37 Prmefecture of the Orient ~~ 9-31 9 II. CENTRAL EUROPE, ~~145-150 37 Pr-efecturm of Illyria, ~~ 32-40. 13 Kingdom of the Franks, ~~ 145-148.. 37 II. THE WESTERN EMPIRE, ~~ 41-73 14 Empire of the Avars, ~ 149... 38 boundaries, Capitals, and Division, ~ 41-43. 14 Independent Germany, Finns, and Sclavonians, ~150. 38 Pr-efecture of Italy, ~~ 44-62... 14 III. SOUTIERN EUROPE, ~~ 1561-153. 8 Prefecture of the Gauls, ~~ 63-73... 17 Spanish Peninsula, ~ 151... 38 Kingdom of the Lomnbards, ~ 152... 38 II. THE WORLD OF THE BARBARIANS AT THE CLOSE OF THE Kingdom of the Lobards, ~ 12 38 FOUvTH CENTURY~ 20 Byzantine Empire, ~ 153... 39 GEN.ERAL D-IrvwION, ~ 74... 20 I. NoRTHERN COUNTRIES, ~~ 75-93.. 20 CAPTER. A. Germanin, ~~ 76-84...20 A. Germania, ~~ 76-84.20 EUROPE, WESTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA; B. Scandinavia, ~ 85-86.... 23 THEIR POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY DURING THE REIGNS OF C. Empire of the Huns. Sarmatia and Scythia aaLEMa NE, A.. 68-14, AND OF THE IIROUN24 ~~CHARLEMAGNE, A. D. 7 68-814, AND OF THE IIARoUN-,~ 87-93..... 24 AR-RASCHID, THE ABBASID CALIPH OF BAGDAD, A. D. II. INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES IN ASIA, ~ 94, 96.. 25 786-809. II. BARBARIAN STATES IN AFRICA, ~ 97. ~. 26 I. EMPIRE OF CIIARLEMAGNE... e 9 39 I. Extent of the Frankish Kingdom on the death of CHAPTER III. Pepin-le-Bref, A. D. 768, ~~, 154-156. 39 I. Kingdom of Neustria, ~~ 157-161. 40 EUROPE AND THE ADJACENT PARTS OF AFRICA; THEIR POLITICAL II. Kingdom of Austrasia, ~~ 162-166.. 41 GEOGRAPHY AT THE AcCESSION OF JUSTINIAN I., A. D. 527. II. The Western Empire at the death of Charlemagne, A. D. 814, ~~ 161-169... 41 GENERAL DIVISION, ~ 98.... 26 A. Provinces of the Empire, ~. 170-187.. 48 B. Tributary Nations, ~~188-189... 45 I. NORTHERN EUROPE, ~~ 99-108... 27* W-S I. British Islands, ~~ 99-104 X e * 271 II- INDEPENDENT EUROPEAN STATES ABOUT A. D. 800.. 46 nI. Independent Germany, ~105.... 28 A. The Northmen, ~ 190.... 4 III. Scandinavia, ~106... 29 B. Sclavonic and Turco-Tartar Nations in Eastern Iv. Slavia, ~ 107..... 29 Europe, ~~ 191-193 4q v. Kingdom of the Bulgarians, ~108... 29 III. TEI1 BYZANTINE EMPIRE, ~ 194... 4' VI. Kingdom of the Uturgurian Huns, ~109.. 29 Sclavonian Settlements within its frontiers, ~~ 195II. CENTRAL EUROPE, ~~ 109-122..... 30 vII. Kingdoms of the Franks, ~ 109,... 30 IV. THE 1IOtA!M[EDAN WORLD IN THE PERIOD OF ITS HIGHEST DEConquests of Clovis, A. D. 486, 511, ~~110-112. 30 VELOPMENT UNDER ItAROUN-AR-RASCHID, ~~ 197-198. 48 Division of the Frankish Empire among the Me- A. Caliphate of the Abbasids in Bagdad, ~~199rovingian Princes, ~~ 113-118.. 31 212.....48 vIIL. Kingdom of the Burgundians, ~ 119.. 32 Extent, Boundaries, and Division, 5~ 197-198 49 IS. Kingdom of the Thuringians, ~ 120.. 32 B. Kingdom of the Aglabids in Kairouan, ~ 213. 51 X. Kingdom of the Longobards, ~ 121... 32 C. Kingdom of the Edrisids in Morocco,, 214 52 xl. K~ingdomofthe GepidEe, ~122.... 32 D. Emirate of Cordova, ~~ 215-216.. 2 III. SOUTHERN EUROPE and the adjacent parts of Asia and V. INDEPEND1T CHRISTIAN STATES IN SAIN ABOUT A. D. 800, Afi'ica, ~~ 123-140.... 33 l217 62

Page  4 4 CONTENTS. PAGE PAGE CHAPTER VI. III. SOUTHERN EuROPE BETWEEN 973 AND 1096. EUROPIE, WESTERN ASIA, AND NORTHIERN AFRICA; THEIR POLITICAL ido f Leon an Cstile, 36-31. 9 x.Kingdoms of Araon and Casartil, ~~ 318-319 Os 9 GEOGRAPIHY AT THE DEATHI OF TIE EMiPEROR OTIHO THE xv. idom of Argon and Navrr, 318-319 98 GREAT, A~. D~ 9173. xv. State of Valencia, ~ 320... 99 GEEARAL REMARKS, A.218 D.7xvII. Norman Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and the T. NTORTIIERN EUROPE. Grand County of Sicily, ~ 321-322.. 99 r. Kingdom of Ireland, ~ 219 53 xviii. Italian Republics, ~ 323... 101 11. Kingdom of Scotland, b 220 x., 53 xIx. B3yzantine Empire, ~ 324-325 101 I> r. Kingdom of England, ~ 221... 54 THE MOIIHAMMEDAN WORLD DURING THE ELEVENTII CENTURY. Iv. Kingdom of Denmark, ~ 222... 54 IV. WESTERN ASIA. v. Kingdom of Norway, ~ 232-224.. 5 VL Kingdom of SwedeH, ~ 225. 517 CONQUESTS AND STATES OF TIlE TIURKS, ~ 326 102 vIL. Grand Duchy of Russia, ~ 226-227. ~. 57 xx. Seldjukian Snultanate of Rum, ~ 327... 103 ~I. CENTRAn~ L E~~URn~OP~E. ~~xxI. Sultanates of the Ortokids, ~ 328. 104 XXII. Atabeks in Al-'Djesirah and Persia, ~ 329 104 DImKEMBERENT Of THE CALOVIGIAN EPIE, 22 58 XXII. Seijukian Principalities in Syria, 330. ~ 104 vwu. Kingdom of France, ~ 229-245.. 59 IX. Kingdom of Burgundy, ~ 246... 61 V. NORTHtERN AFRICA AND SOUTHERN SPAIN. x. Romano-Germnianic Empire, ~~ 247-252.. 62 PRINCIPAL STATES, 331... 104 Xr. Kingdom of the Hungarians, ~ 253... 66 105 xxiv. Caliphate of the Fatimids in Egypt, ~ 332. xii. Chanazte of the Pet~chenenes, 254 61 s 0.105 xxv. Kingdom of KaYrouan, ~ 333...!II. SOUTHrERa EURorP. xL. Empire of the Almorvids in Al-Magreb and Spain, XIII. Kingdom of Leon, ~ 255... 67. 105 xIv. County of Castile, ~ 256.... 68 xv. Kingdom ofNavarra, ~ 257... 68 CHAPTER VIII. CHEAPTCER VIII. xvI. Caliphate of Cordova, ~ 258.... 68 xvii. Emirate of Sicily, Sardinia, and the smaller islands, TiE ORIENT; ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ANDETI-INOLOGY DURING ~~ ~~~259..... ~~69 ~ THlE TIMES OF THIE CRUSADES. xviii. Kingdom of Croatia, ~ 260... 69 xix. B3yzantine Empire, ~~ 261-263... 70 A. KINGDOMS AND PRINCIPALITIES FOUNDED BY THE CRUSADERS, Extent, Imperial Capita], Court Administration and BETWEEN A. D. 1096 AND 1291 (1310). Division of the Provinces, ~~ 261-263. 69 HISToRICAL REMARKS AND GENERAL DIVISIoN, ~~ 335-336. 106 A. Themes of the B3yzantine Empire in Asia Minor, r. Kingdom of Jerusalem, ~ 3317-344.. 106 ~ 264-268.... 72 u. County of Tripolis, ~ 345... 110 B. Themes in Europe, ~~ 269-2170. 73 IL. Principality of Antioch, ~ 346. 110 Ducatus Beneventi, ~ 2171... 75 Iv. County of Edessa, ~~ 347-348. 111 Ducatus Venetim, ~~ 272-273.. 75 v. Kingdom of Armenia, ~ 349.112 VI. Kinagdom of Cyprus, ~ 350...112 IV. THE MOHAMMEDAN WORLD IN ASIA AND AFRICA; ITS VI. Kingdom of Cyprus, ~ 350 112 vIi. Latin Empire of Romania, ~ 351-353. 113 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY DURING THE TENTH CENTURY 114 vIII. Kingdom of Saloniki (Mtiacedonia), ~ 355 1 UNTIL TIIE FOUNDATION OF TnE EMPIRE OF THE SELDJU- i. d of san eoia, ~35 114 IX. Duchy of Athens anid Boeotia, ~ 355. 114 KDi ANMB TURK-S, A. TB. 8AINi09-1028. ~16 X. Principality of Achaia and the Morea, ~ 356-358. 115 DISM.IEM~BERSMENT OF TIIE ARABIAN EM~PIRE, 2174.. 76 xi. Oriental Conquests of Venice, ~ 359.. 117 A. Caliphate of the Abbasids in Bagdad, ~ 274.. 76 Small Dynasties of the Ionian Islands, ~ 360 118 B3. Mohammedan Dynasties in Central Asia, ~ 275-277 77 xI Duchy of Naxos or of the Archipelago, ~ 36111 C. Mohammedan Dynasties in Syria, ~ 278.. 179 xIT. Possessions of the Military Order of the Hospital of D. Sects of Mohammedan Htieretics, ~ 279.. 79 Saint John, 362... 11 E. MRoha~mmedla n D~ynazsties in Africa, ~ 280. 7 E. Mohammedan Dynasties in Africa, ~ 280 B. MiOHAAMMEDAN AND SLAVo-GRECIAN STATES DURING TIIE CRUSADES. ~ChAII~PTER VII.~~~~ I GENERAL REMARKS AND DIVISION, ~ 363.. 119 CHtAPTER VII. I. State of the Assassins, ~ 364.... 119 EUROPE, WESTERN ASIA, AND NORTIIHERN AFRICA; THEIR POLITICAL II. Empire of the Enybids and the Mamluke Sultans, GEOGRAPHTY AND ETHNOLOGY DURING THE TIMES OF g~ 365-366..... 119 THE CRUSADES, A. D. 1096, 1291. II. Wallacho-B3ulgarian Kingdom, ~ 367.. 120 CONDITION OF THE CIIRISTIAN AND MOHAMMIEDAN IV. Kingdom of Servia, ~~ 368-369.. 121 WORLD BEFORE TIHE FIRST CRUSADE. G. reek Empire of Nicena and Constantinople, ~ 3170 121 DIVISION, ~281...80 1 Om14Ailfo DrvIsroN, ~ 281.... 80 Republic of Genoa and her Colonies in the NOETRERN EUROPE BETWEEN 913 AND 1096. A gean and the B3lack Sea, 3171.. 121 Empire of Canute the Great, A. D. 1016-1035, vi. Despotate ofEpirns, ~ 312.. 121 ~282.,.... 80 vII. Duchy of Great Wallachia, ~ 373... 121 VIII, Grand Comnenian Empire of Trebizond, ~ 3174. 122 II. Kingdom of Scotland, ~~ 284-286.. 81 Hi. Kingdom of England, ~ 2817-291.. 83 CHAPTER IX. Iv. Kingdom of Denmark, ~~ 292-294.. 86 v. IKingdom of Slavia, or Vendland, ~ 295. 88 EUROPE; ITS PO0LITICAL GEOGRAPHY AND INTERNAL CONDITION DURvI. K~ingdom of Norway, ~ 1296-300..89 INK THE PERIOD OF THE CRUSADES, A. D. 1100-1300. vII. K~ingdom of Sweden, ~ 301... 91 viii. Grand Duchy of Russia, ~ 302-305.. 91 GENERAL REMAKS ~ A 315S, 3,5. 122 I. Kingdom of Denmark, 3176-3178.. 123 IT. CENTRAL EJ~UROPE BwETWEEN 9173 AND 1096. TI. Territories of the Teutonic Order in Prussia and ix. Kingdom of France, ~ 306-308.. 93 Livonia, 379-383... 125 x. The Romano-Germani c Empire, ~ 309-311. 94 in. Grand-Duchy of Lithuania, ~ 384 126 xi. Kingdom of Poland, ~~312-313.. 95 Iv. Empire of the Mongols, ~ 385.... 127 xin. Kingdom of Hungary, ~ 314.... 96 v. Kingdom of France under Philip August and Phixrrr. Chan~ate of the. ITzi nd Kumani, ~ 315. t7 lip le Bel, A. n. 1180-1310, ~~ 386-390 121

Page  5 CONTENTS. 5 PAGE PAGF, Ecclesiastical Division of France after the Crusades III. SOUTHERN EUROPE BETWEEN 1300 AND 1492. against the Reformers in Aquitaine, ~ 390393..... 128 Historical Remarks, ~ 513.... 189 vi. Romano-Germanic Empire under the Dynasty of i Iistorical R~semarks, ~~573.. 189, the I~lohenstaufens, A. D. 1138-1208. 128 A.e Germny,1328123, A.. 139 0 1298 Constitution and Internal Government, ~ 578A. Germany, 1328-1273, ~ 394, 404 129 B. Italy, A. D. 1100-1300, 405-420.. 134 5. 191 579......n fPotga,~~50- 191 vii, Supremacy of the Romish See under Pope Innocent. Kingdom of ga, 58-58 192 III., ~~ 421-422 1.. III., ~5 421-422 140 E5~. 1Kingdom of Algarve, ~ 582-583... 192 Nobility, ~ 584..... 193 viii. Anjou Dynasty in Naples, ~ 423-424,. 141 Ecclesiastical Division, 585 193 Portuguese Discoveries and Colonies in the AtlanCHAPTER X. tie, ~ 586... 193 xi. Kingdom of Castile and Leon. EuRoirE, WESTERN ASIA, AND NORTHERN AFRICA; THEm POLITICAL EUROPE, APHY FROM THE CLOSE, OF THE,-I TiiIRTEENTH CEN- Conquests from the Moors and Internal RelatigriS, ~ 658... 193 TUGR TO THE TIDDLE OF O THE FIFT HTEENTI, A. D. 1300 —51..8 193 Provinces, Court, and Government, &c., ~ 588-592 194 1453. Ecclesiastical Division, 3 593.. 19 5 GENERAiL REMrARKS AND DIVIsIoN, ~~ 425-428. 141 i. NORTIIERN EUROPE BETWEEN 1300 AND 1453. xI. Kingdom of Aragon'. Kingdom of England and Ireland, 429-434. 143 Conquests, Constitution, and Provinces, ~ 594II. Kingdom of Scotland, ~ 435-437.. 146 599... 196 II. Calmarian Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, I. IKingdom of Aragon Proper, 597.. 197 A. D. 1397 —1523, ~~438-545... 148 I. Principality of Catalonia, ~ 597.. 197 iv. K1ingdom of Poland and Lithuania, ~~ 445-455. 151 IL KIingdom of Valencia, 598.. 197 v. Grand Duchy of Moscow, ~~ 456-460.. 154 Iv. Kingdom of Mallorca, 598... 191 I. CPNTrAL EUROPE BETwEEN 1300 AND 1453. v. Kingdom of Sicily and Sardinia, ~ 599 198 HI. CP.NTm~ Eunor~ rr.TW~E~E 1300 ANID 1453. Ecclesiastical Division, ~ 600, ~. 198 vi. Kingdom of France during the wars with England, I Eclingdom of Navarra. 9 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~xIm. Kingdom of Navarra. A. D. 1360-1453. Hitr. c. 1360-14Rmrs3. 46Extent, Government, and Provinces, ~ 601-602. 198 Historical Remarkis, ~5 461-462.. 156 xiv. Mohammedan Kingdom of Granada. I. France at the time of the treaty of Bretig- xen Kno o rna. 19 Extent, Government, and Provinces, ~, 603-604. 199 I France at the death of Charles V., A. D, xv. Italian Principalities and Republics. 1380, t 416-471.. 160 Historical Remarks, ~ 606 200 an. France at the arrival of Jeanne d'Are to States of Northern Italy, ~~ 6071-611 201 the siege of Orleans, A. D. 1429, States of Central Italy, ~ 61-2.. 0 ~4 8-486... 160 xvr. Papal State, ~ 613... 202 iv. France after the expulsion of the English, xvii. Kingdom of Naples. A. D. 145'3, 487... 163 Angevin and Aragonian Dynasties, ~ 614. 202 r. Royal Domains in 1453, ~~ 488-493.. 163 Cities and listorical Sites, ~ 615.. 203 m. Domains of the Great Feudatories, ~~ 494-509 164 Ecclesiastical Division of Italy, ~ 616-617. 203 IlL Ecclesiastical Division of France, ~ 510 168 xviii. Frankish Principalities in Greece, ~5 618-619 2. 03 vir. Romano-Germanic Empire from the downfall of the i. Duchy of Athens, 5 620.. 203 Souabian Dynasty, A. D. 1252, to the close ii. Duchy of Leucas, 621. 204 of the middle ages. ii. Principality of Achaia (Morea), 5 621 204 Germany under the Luxemburgian, Bavarian, Iv. Duchy of Naxos, 5 622 204and Austrian Dynasties, 5 511512. 168 v. Genoese Lordships on the.lEgean Islands, Electorates, 5 513-521.... 169 622.... 204 Austrian Territories and the Duchies, 5 522- vi. Order of Saint John on Rhodes, 5 623 205 535.... 172 ~~~535~..Ifs~... 112 ~(ingdom of Albania, 5 624. 205 Principalities, 55 536-5371... 1716 20 Counties, ~~ 538-54-2.... Counties, 55 538-54-2... 111 xix. Byzantine Empire in 1450, 5 625. ~ 205 The Church, ~54 177... xx. Grand Comnenian Empire of Trebizond, 5 626 206 The Church, 5 54-3.. xx~. Ottoman Empire. Free Imperial Cities. XXI. Ottoman Empire. Historical Remar ks, ~ 62L7. A. Souabian Confederacy, 5 544. Historical Remarks, 62.. 206 Extent and Provinces, 5 628-635. 207 B3. Hanseatic League, ~5 545-546 178 German Constitution under Maximilian I., 5 547 179 I. Ottoman Possessions in Asia, 5 628-631. 2071 viii. Helvetian Confederacy of the Thirteen Cantons, ii. Ottoman Possessions in Europe, 55 632-635 208 5 548-554. M 1 xxin Mongol Empire of Tamerlane. Extent of the Mongol Conquests, 5 636. 209 K~.Iing~dom of lItunmgary. Dynasties and Constitution, 5 555 182 xxna Sultanate of the Mamflukes, 55 640-641 A. Hunngary Proper, 55 556-562.. Mohammedan Dynasties in Al-Magreb.. ~ 211 B3. Dependencies of the Hungarian Empire in General Remarks, 5 642 211 the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 5 563 185 xxiv. Kingdom of Tunis, 5 643. ~ ~ 211 L. Kingdom of Galicia, 5 563... 185 xxv. Kingdom of Tlemsen, 5 644.. 211 im. Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia, 5 563. 165 xxvi. Kingdom of Fez and Morocco. nIL Republic of Ragusa, ~ 564... 186 Dynasties, Extent, and Provinces, ~5 645-646. 212 Iv. Kingdom of Rama (Bosnia), 5 565.. 186 v. Kingdom of Rascia (Servia), ~ 566-561 186 ADDITIO"s TO 55 226, 266, 439, 449, 646.23 VL. Kingdom of Bulgaria, 5 568-569.. 181 LIsT OFATHOR 214 vii. Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, ISTORIcAL IND~x 215 5 5170..... 188 OGEOGRAPHICAL INDEX.221 Ecclesiastical Division of Hungary, 55 511-572 189 CORR~cTIOS. 232

Page  6

Page  7 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHAPTER I. the beginning of the great migration, the successive development of which forms, as it were, the separate periods of medieGENERAL REMARKS ON MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY; THE val geography. GREAT HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS PERIOD II.-The political geography of Europe and the OF THAT PERIOD. adjacent parts of Asia and Africa at the beginning of the sixth century, before the accession of Justinian I. in A. D. 527. It 1. GENERAL REMARKS.-The Middle Age is the period dur- presents the results of the first period of the great migration ing which nearly all the states, at the present day figuring on of the northern nations, and their settlements in the provinces the world's stage, had their origin and development. The of the then no longer existing western Roman empire. study of the political geography of those times, is therefore of PERIOD III.-The political geography of Europe towards the highest importance to the student of universal history, in the close of the sixth century, after the conquest of central order that he may fully understand and bring before his Europe by the Avars, and of Italy by the Lomrbards, forming mind's eye, as it were, the feudal institutions and divisions, the termination of the second period of the great migrations the relations of the nations to one another, and the successive from the north and the east. changes by revolutions and conquests which took place in PERIOD IV.-The political geography of Europe, western every part of the old world. But the details of such an his- and central Asia, and northern Africa, at the beginning of the torical geography, in which we should attempt to follow up ninth century during the reign of Charlemagne, and the every temporary change, extension or diminution of territory, highest development of the Saracenic Emzpire under the in the single states and nations, would not only be immense Abbasid Caliphs of Bagdad and the Ommiyad Emirs of and difficult to combine, but we would often be in want of -the Cordova. necessary materials. From the chroniclers of those remote PERIOD V.-The political geography of all the states in times, we obtain but scanty and very imperfect information; Europe, western Asia and northern Africa, at the death of the they were themselves deficient in the most simple geographical Emperor Otho the Great, about A. D. 973, at the time of the knowledge; the few data, which they furnish here and there, final constitution and consolidation of nearly all the great Euare often erroneous or uncertain, mostly full of wonders and ropean states, which later take a prominent part in the politisuperstitions from the hearsay repetitions of credulous travel- cal events of Europe. lers, pilgrims or crusaders. Sometimes their reports disagree PERIOD VI.-The political geography of the old world, with the physical geography of the countries, or are contra- during the times of the Crusades, from the close of the dieted by the relations of other writers of the same time. eleventh to the beginning of the fourteenth century. We shall therefore limit our manual of medieval geogra- PERIOD VII.-The political geography of Europe and phy, to a general description of the political position of Eu- Asia towards the close of the fourteenth century, at the time rope, and the adjacent parts of western Asia and northern of the feudal wars between the English and French Crowns, Africa, during eight of the most important periods of universal the progress of the Ottoman Turks, and the widest extent history, between the fourth and the sixteenth centuries, which of the Mongol empire of Tamerlane. are illustrated by the annexed six general historical maps. PERIOD VIII.-The political geography of Europe and western Asia towards the close of the fifteenth century, after 2. GENERAL DIVISION OF MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY. the destruction of the Byzantine Emwpire in A. D. 1453, the PERIOD I.-The political geography of the Romarn Em- reorganization of the German Ernpire by Mlaximnilian, the pire, after its final divisionintoeastern and western Rome, be- extinction of the Moorish Kingdom of Granada and the tween the emperors Areadius and Honorius in A. D. 395. It discovery of America in A. D. 1492. exhibits, likewise, the geographical and ethnographical position of all the different Barrbarian nations of the north and These eight general periods are delineated in the accomeast, towards the closeof thefourth century, immediately before panying Atlas of six historical maps. The 1st and 2d Pe

Page  8 8 EASTERN RO(MAN ETMAPIRE. riods are each represented in their proper maps. The 3cd taken possession of the northern part of llledia, Arzmezia, all Period embraces the second and the third maps. The 4th, Assyria, cBa6yionria, and Ac6abia Petrect, and they had com5th, and 6th Periods have each their own maps, while for mnercial establishluents and garrisons along the Red Sea, as the last two Periods, the 7th and 8th, one general map, illus- far as liutza (Mocha), and Athazan (Aden), on the Arabian trating the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, was thought coast. Yet these brilliant acquisitions were already given up sufficient. by the peaceable Hadrian; and the Syrian desert, the EuIn order to facilitate the general survey, and the conlpari- phrates, the upper Tigris, Mount Taurus, and Mount Caucasus son of one map with another, we have carefully given the samye remained henceforth the farthest eastern frontier of the empire, color to all the leading nations in the different succeeding against the Parthians and New Persians. Thus the events of periods. Thus, for instance, the student will find crigzson the time had proved the wisdom of Theodosius, who gave the throughout all the maps for the Greek or Byzantine empire; prudent advice to his successors never to exceed those limits, yelloza for all the Germanic and Scandinavian nations; violet which it seemed that nature herself had assigned for the Roas a general color for the Slavic or Sclavonian tribes; clack man sway:-on the north they were Mount Caaucasus, the green for the Clhudish or Finnish races; lZue for the Saracens Ponztus Emuxiznus or Black Sea, the Danube, the Rhine, the or Arabs; sea greeln for the Ituns; oran-C'ge for the Chazars, North Sea, and, in the island of Britain, the waull of HTadriacn and mniniuln redl for their Tartar brothers, the Turks. Simi- -the Picts' wall —extending from the Tyne across to the lar modifications of color go through all the maps to indicate bay of Solway, near Carlisle. The waves of the Atlantic the subdivisions of Britons, Scots, Picts, Anglo-Saxons, Danes, secured the west, and the burning sands of the great LiSwedes, and others. In the single maps will be found only byan desert, the southern borders of the empire. But these those divisions, cities, battle-fields, &c., which belong to the immense frontier-lines had already been invaded by the Barperiod reviewed; a few names have unhappily been left out, barians in the north; a great part of Gaul lay in ruins, and either by the inattention of the draughtsman, or the want of we shall, in another place, indicate the settlements which space, but they will be mentioned, and their position fixed in the warlike tribes had obtained within the bosom of the emthe text of our manual. Only the most important mountain pire itself. chains, dividing the countries, have been given, because the 4. DivrsioiN. —At an earlier period the Roman state had complete detail of physical geography would have rendered the been divided into Senatorial and I22Eierial provinces. With names less distinct on maps of so small a scale, and the stu- Diocletian, in A. D. 285, begins the time of divisions: first,into dent is therefore requtested to compare our historical maps tetrarchies, then, under Constantine, into dioceses with different with some accurate maps of the common modern geography. modifications, until, at the decease of Theodosius, the final Finally, we have been particularly careful to give the ancient separation into an Easter'n and Westernv empire becomes deGreek, Roman, Arabic or Barbaric names of countries, cities, finitive, and continues until the overthrow of western Rome in mountains, rivers, exactly as they were used at the time, with A. D. 476. their modern name, affixed, and to follow up the progressing 5. SunBDIvSIONs. —Each of the two empires was divided changes faithfully, during every period of the middle ages, into Prcefectures, governed by prmetorial prefects nominated by in order to accustom the attentive student to the gradual the emperor. Every one of these prcefectures was again subdiformation of so many names, the etymology of which, would vided into dioceses —diaceses-unnder vicars-vicarii-or viceotherwise be difficult to understand. For the same reason we priefects, who received their orders from the prsefects. The diohave attempted to enliven our geographical survey by some ceses had again their provinces-,srovincice-and their regions few characteristic sketches of the different nationalities, Seandi- -regionzes-all according to their importance or position, and navian, Sclavonian, and others, and we have paid the most care- were ruled by proconsuls, consulars, presidents or correctors. ful attention to the chronological accuracy of the dates given, that Constantinople and Rome were the capitals; but they enjoyed our essay on political geography might serve at the same time, the privilege of being excluded from the provincial division, and the purposes of act historical Guide through the maze of the had their own peculiar administration and governor, who, UInmiddle ages. der the name of city-prsefect —-prcefectus u)rbis-enjoyed a power similar, at least, to that of the prsetorial prmfects. In -----— owo —------ oall the frontier provinces and garrisoned towns, there were, besides, military commanders, called counts-comites-and dukes-cldces-at the head of the.troops. CHAPTER Ii. T H E R OM M' A N EM M P I R E. I. THE EASTERN EMPIRE. ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY UNDER ARCADIUS AND 6. LIirTS. —It was separated from the western empire EONORIUS. in Europe, by the rivers Dr'i nuZS (nOW the black Drin), a tributary of the Save in Mwcesia and by the Bctalbcaca (now Bojana) which discharges itself into the lake Labeatis (now of ITS GEOGRAPHIICAL ALND ET'HNOGRIAP-IIICAL DIVISIONTS Scutari or Scocdra); in Africa, by the great Syrtis and the BEFORE THIE G-REAT INVATSION, A. D. 376. deserts, extending southwardt into the interior. On the north side of the Pontus Euxinus, the southern coast of the Cher~ I. THE PROMAN EMPIRE. sonesus Tau~rica (now the Crimea), with the towns of Cheerson (now Sevastopol) and lceeodosia (now Cafa), belonged like3. LIMITs. —sVe present in this map the esxtent of the Ro- wise to the eastern empire. man empire in the course of the fourth century. At the death 7. CAPITAL.-CONSTANTINOPLE, founded by Constantine in of Theodosius, in the year 395 of our era, it still had nearly the 330, on the site of Byzantium, in antiquity, a rich and floursame frbntiers as under Augulstus, about 14 B. e. The con- ishing town, which, however, during the civil wars between quests of Trajanl, between A. D. 103-116, extended the empire be- Severus and Gallienus, in A. D. 196, hacd suffered a great desoyond the Danllubebythe sulbjugationofcDacia (the present Tran- lation. The particular adclvrantage and beauty of its situation, sylvania, MIoldaviaancl Wallachia). In the east the Romans had on a projecting triangle, forlmedl by the Bosphorus, the Propon

Page  9 EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. 9 tis, and the magnificent gulf or harbor of the Golden Horn, prefectures, that of the Orient and that of Ill'yria; these were were so great, the communication by water with Asia, Africa, again subdivided into seven dioceses, comprising sixty or sixtyand Europe, so easy, its strong central position so defensible, one provinces, which we shall now describe from records of the the environs so fertile, and the climate so mild and healthy time.i (41~ 1/ 10// northern latitude), that Constantine could not have made a better choice for his new Christian capital, and PRaFECcTuRE OP TIE ORIENT. might well consider it as a divine inspiration. Constantinople 9. EXTENT AND DIvIsIoN.It was much more extensive was built entirely after the model of Rome, and called New than that of Illyria, comprehending all the possessions of the Rome in the beginning. Its circumference was sixteen miles, Eastern Empire in Asia and Africa, and one-third of those but the walls were afterwards extended on the west,' elllbracsituated in Europe; it was divided into five dioceses-Orient, ing, like Rome, seven hills and fourteen regions, of which the Eg it, Asia, Potus, and 17z?~rce-which were subdivided thirteenth, that of Sykena (Pera and Galata), lay beyond the into fifty provinces. 1nto fifty provinces. Golden Horn —rT Kepa% Xpvo'oKepas. The harbor was shut by The harbor was shut by 10. DIOCESE OF THE ORIENT.-This diocese was governed a chain, behind which lay a line of battle-ships for defence. entis-who, on account of the importThe strong walls, the towers, and the castles on the three an- a o so tect,'Aip0woXis, To KVKX4JLOtV or Er (a ~o, ance of his trust, enjoyed the first rank among the vicarii of ales of the city, ~7'AKPO7rOXL,, KwVKXo;fiOw or E7Trraw; P7~ov, nB'igles. brofd t the east, and it consisted of the ancient provinces- Syrica, ancl at BXaXEXpvaL were considered impregnable. A broad r Phlzicici, Palestinze, the northwestern part of 111esolwotainia, avenue-y /juE-q-ran through the city from east to west; several the two Cilicice, Isaucria, and the island of CQyptzs. Of its squares and market-places- Aug'ustceum,, Ch.rysomilim,~2 fifteen provinces, the five first were governed by Consulars; Fora Constantini, Theodosii, Arcadii, Artopoliuzm2, S&,rateio and others-spledid aqueducts, fountains, Nv the other ten less important by Presiclents. Dukes with baths, Aovrd p cisterns, Kto-Tr'pFat; served for ortmert and bodies of troops were placed in Palestine Salutaqris, Phoenicia Libanensis, Syria Euphtratensis, Osrhoene and Arabia, for comfort. Among the mnagnificent public buildings, we mencom fort. Among the magnificent public buildings, we men- the defence of the fiontiers of the empire. These fifteen protion the cireus, 6 IrlroSpoo3; the two theatlres, the great pati tec s, Aooh the twour th e, te geat, vinces of the Oriental diocese were according to their rank: lace, o- AvaKTOpOV, with the court T)nicliniunzm (r XaXK'), the 7- 17 1 7st, PalGestinaza Prima; 2d, Phenicia -Ia'rilinaz; 3d, Chrysotriclinizunt, the Porphyra, the Daphnze, the Trullu.s (so called from its cupola), the Tzycanisterium, or place for mili- Syri; th, Cilicia Prima; 5th, Cyprus; 6th, Palcestina Sa-zutartis 7th, Pialcestinace Secunda; 8th, Phtavnicia Libantary exercises, many other imperial palaces, Mayvopa, ris; h,; th, ia oBOVKOXEovTog, AavptaKoV; -the tribunals or,,ensis; 9th, Syria Eutphratensis; 10th, Syria Salutaris; 1-ow BXCLaEpvdV, i-Oi.ov~oXE'ov~roc~ Ra >. vl t11th, Osqrhotne; 12th, Mesopotamia; 13th, Cilicia Secuncla; palaces for the Senate and State officers, for the Patriarchs a-d Prlaesthasnas rvamntra,r' a 14th, ArabiaG; 15th, Isauria. In our description of these and Prelates; the arsenals, Arnzcamentarai t (Ta Mayyava); -cprovnes we shall follow a more regular geographical order, the immense storehouses; among the numerous and gaudy provin beginning with the south and proceeding toward the north.,1 o, th 1. I. PALmESTINA TErTIA or Salutat'is,6 comprised the mnakaristos, the Holy Apostles, and Sancta Irene; many Ya/convents, mheHony Aposteies, and a regions east and south of the Dead Sea, formerly belonging to convents, monasteries and pious institutions; and finally, on It ex\ / 1 w.................... Arabia Petreea (Ammolonits, Moabitis, and dluinma). It exthe western city walls ( X), the splendid, still pre- tended also across the valley of Arabah westward so as to take served palace of Hebdomon (now Tekiotwr-Serai). Outside ofhe ancient capital of the in.Beersheba and Elutsa. PETrLi, the ancient capital of the the city, along the banks of the Bosphorus, both in Europe Nalbaztheacns, in the deep romantic valley of Mloses —Wady and in Asia Minor, were situated numerous palaces, convents, fMusa —beneath BMount Horeb, was probably the metropolis. country-seats and gardens. The canal from Pera to the PonII. PALASTINA PRmIM, nolthwest of the former, extecnded tus with its shores, was called the Strait, i ro TEVOV o01r O n along the coast of the Mediterranean and eastward across to the KaTa'sEvov. Constantine, to adorn his new creation, plundered g the other cities of Greece and Asia inor of their artistial Dead Sea. Its metropolis was C~ESAREA (now the ruins of Kaistreasures, columns, monuments, and heathen statues, which sarie), which had changed its ancient name, Tus Statois,' *,.. when Herod the Great built his nmagnificent city with its artipart, were transformed into Christian Saints, while their citizens were ordered to inhabit Constantinople, and even the proud Romans were induced, by flattery and privileges, to fol- Aelia Capitolina, the venerable capital of the ancient Jews, low the Imperial Court.' held now only a second rank in the province, and it was not low the Imperial Court.B 8. Dvis.The Eastern Empire was divided into two until one century later, at the Council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451-53, that it was erected into an independent Patriarchate, comprising the three Palestines.s After the first alnost total'The wall of Theodosius II. was constructed in the year 413. It clestruction of the city by Titus in A. D. 70, Hadrian had beembraced the Hebdomon or seventh hill, with the old palace of Con- gun to rebuilcl it as a Roman fortress, when the second terrible stantine still standing in its ruins. The suburb of Blachernle, on the insurrection of the exasperated Jews unler their nysterious northwestern angle, was taken into the city walls by I-Ieraclins, in 620, and strongly fortified vwith towers and ditches by Leo, the Alrmenian, during the Bulgarian war, in 815. population of Judcla. They were, in spite of their desperate 2 The oltden 2ile-stone, at the entrance of the Palace, from which valor, vanquisheld by the sword-A. D. 132-135-and sold by started the principal high-roads of the Eastern Empire, like tihose of the thousands as slaves, or else expelled to the coasts of Africa. Western from Rome. 3 Founded by Constantine, but rebuilt by Justinianl I. in A. D. 532. 4 A thorough knowledge of the localities of Constantinople and its 5 See the Imperitll Register from the time of Theodosius, entitled: environs is necessary, in order to understand thle Byzantine Historians. Notitica'utreque digznitatunz cue Oi'entis twrn Occidentis. Printed at The best descriptions of Constantinople among thle earlier writers, are the end of the Theodosian Code. those of Charles Dufresne (in the collection of Byzantine Historians) This by-name, Seiretary, was given to several plovinces of both and Gyllius; among the moderns, the Kcvstavr tlds, Venice, 1824, by empires, onl account of their thermal springs. a learned Greek prelate (in modern Greekl), and Constacntinopolis untC der d Its name was Ceesarea Palcestina, to distinguish it froml the CapBospnorzes, by von Hammer. Pesth, 1822, 2 Vols. A small but correct palocian Cesarea and the Cesarea Philippi (Paneas) in Trachonitis. plan of medieval Constantinople is found in the excellent Hlstorical At- 8 The Patriarehate of Antioch continued to rule the two Phcnicie las of Doctor Charles von Spruner, under No. 59. a1nd northern Arabia. 9

Page  10 10 EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. Hadrian then established a new Roman Colony on the ruins; (now Famieh), in a strong position on a lake formed by the a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus rose on Mount Moriah, and river Orontes. statues of Venus and other Roman idols, as if in mockery, VIII. SYRIA PRImA or Consular'is, on the northern slope crowned the Calvary and Golgotha; nay, the name of Jerusa- of Mount Lebanon, possessed the largest and most populous lemn was anathematized, and the Roman settlement was named city of the diocese, splendid Antioch (now Andakieh), on the Aelia Capitolina. But with the spread of Christianity, the Orontes, surrounded by gardens, vineyards and olive groves, pilgrims began to flock to Jerusalem; the idols and heathen the seat of all the delights and glitter of the East. It was the temples were destroyed; Constantine and his mother, the pious metropolis of the province, and the residence of the count; Helena, erected splendid churches and hospitals for the recep- and here were the arsenals and military dep6ts of the elmtion of the pilgrims at Jerusalem and Bethlehem in 326. Saint pire. Hilarion brought his hermits with him from the Thebais in IX. SYRIA EUPHRIATENSIS was situated west of the EuEgypt, and then the wilderness of Judah, the shores of the phrates, and contained the ancient Cyrrhestice and Commagene, Dead Sea, and the valley of Jordan, became inhabited by with the metropolis HIErAPOLIS, syr. Bamn6yce (now Mailnthousands of recluses; these austere anchorites lived in the besch), at a short distance from the Euphrates (now Frat). natural grottoes and caverns on the dreary mountains, and 13. X. OSIuOENE, east of the former, on the left bank of united for worship in their common sanctuaries or lauztce, the Euphrates, and the outskirts of the Empire, was then the which afterwards, by Pachymius, were placed under a severer contested battle-field with the Persians. It had formed part of monastic discipline as Kowvo'ta or mnonasteries. At the the ancient Mesopotamia, and was defended toward the Tigris time we speak of (395) Santa Paula, the noble Roman lady, by the two celebrated fortresses of NIsIBis and DARA, which, and her pious daughter Eustochiuml, were building nunneries however, alternately were conquered by the Persians, or rein Bethlehem;9 St. Eusebius had just been buried in the taken by the Romans. EDESSA, called Callirglzo6i, from her sepulchral vault of the grotto of the Nativity, and his disciple pleasant springs (now Orfah), the metropolis, was likewise St. Jerome, was then occupied in his rock-chamber with his strongly fortified, and contained celebrated shield and armor Latin translation of the Sacred Scriptures, while the Goths factories, and the arsenals and depots for the armies on the were devastating Rome and Italy. A century later St. Sa- Persian frontier. On the southeast of Edessa lay Theobas founded his celebrated monastery in the valley of the losiopyolis, the ancient Resain, rebuilt by the emperor whose Kidron.'~ 0name it took, in a rich and well watered region. III. PALESTINA SECUNUA, east of the former, con- XI. MIESOPOTAMIA, on the northeastern frontier, was formprehended Samaria, Galilee, and part of the Decapolis ed of that simall strip of the ancient province of Mesopotamia beyond Jordan. Its metropolis was SCYTHOPOLIS, the ancient called Sopbhene, between the upper Euphrates and Tigris with Bethsheaz (now Tell Beisan), situated in the valley of Jezreel, the metropolis AMIDA (now Diabekir). near the Jordan, with an Episcopal see and a celebrated mo- 14. XII. CILICIA SECUNDA, the eastern part of the ancient nastery. Cilicia cracgmestris, the fertile and beautiful plain between IV. ARABIA, east of the Jordan, consisted of the ancient the high mountain ranges of Ananus and Taurus, with the Iturea, Trachonitis, Auranitis and Batantea, bordering upon metropolis ANAzAr~BUS (now Ak-Sarai), on the river Pyrcznus. the great desert, with the metropolis BOSTRA (now Basra). XIII. CILICIA PRIMA formed the rest, or the western part The governor united the titles of Duke and President, and of the ancient Cilicia camltjest.ris, with the rich and comlmercommanded the troops on the frontier. cial metropolis TArUns on the Cydcrzus. V. PHlCENICIA 3MARITIMA extended along Mount Lebanon XIV. ISURnIA, west of Cilicia Prima, comprised both the and the sea. Its earlier metropolis was the old Phoenician ancient Isauze'ia and Cilicia Trachcea. The mountaineers of TYr —Tyrus — (now Sour), on its peninsula; later, however, this rugged and barren country still retained their old roving under the younger Theodosius, BERYTUS (now Beirut), the seat habits, wherefore a Count at the head of two legions united of the celebrated Roman law-school, obtained that dignity. here the military and civil command. The metropolis was VI. PHUENICIA LIBANI or Libaenesia (Libanensis), on the SELETuCIA TnrACHEiA (now Selefkieh), situated on the coast opcast of Mount Lebanon, consisted of the ancient Ccole-Syria posite to the island of Cyprus. and Palmyrene. Its capital was the magnificent and populous XV. The island of Cyprus, separated from the mainland city of DAMAscus in its fertile plain, at the base of the Anti- I of Asia Minor by the Cilician Straits-Aulown Cilicius-was Lebanon, and already at that period celebrated for its manu- still populous and highly cultivated; and its metropolis Salafactures of arms. Northward on the Orontes lay EMESA (now m is, on the eastern coast, had recently taken the name of one Hems), which had risen on the downfall of Palmyra in the war of the sons of Constantine, and was called CONSTANTIA (now between Queen Zenobia and Aurelian, A. D. 275. The latter Costanza). city, in the desert toward the Euphrates, had lost its wealth 15. DIocESE OF EGYrT.-This diocese, the richest and and splendor, though it still remained the great resting-place umost important of the empire, on account of its immense exfor the caravans from the east. port of grains for the provision of Constantinople, was governed 12. VII. SYRIA SECUNDA or Saluta'ris, the ancient Apa- by a Prefect with the title of Augustalis, and a rank immedirmene, lay north of the former, with its metropolis APAMEA ately following that of the Conmes Orientis; but as he could only be chosen from the order of the Roman Knights-Equites S' Santa Paula cdied in 404. We copied the beautiful inscription on her — thie six provinces under his diocese-Libya superior, Libya selpulchre inl the grotto of the Nativity, during our visit to Betillellein inferior, Thebais, Egypt Proper, Arcadia, and BAugustamnieaAdspicis anlg'ustuaio prcecis a i~ re sejoulc meuirn? were not governed by Consulars, but the five first by PresiJisopitjtio PCaCnic est, coelesti.a r.guey ten.enrtis. ] dents, and the last by a Corrector. A military Count, with two Frc~trem, cognatos, Romnac? potr'ian quoe relinqenZs |Dukes and bodies of troops, was stationed in Egypt proper, D)ivitias sobolen Bethlehemnite codclito anto),. Rio proesepe' teazm, (7liristo, atq e lj Sice Yogi i 7*for the defence of the frontiers of Libya superior and Thebais. JfoeCra portentltes, lorinife qeoDone uol eclerc. 16. I. ATJUCUSTAmINICA or A.tgztstan1ice, formllled tile northO Intelresting details on thile colldition of Jerusalem duriIlng thie early eastern part of Lower Egypt, between the mouthl of the Nile Christian centuries are given in Prof. Rohilnson's Biblical Reseallches arid the fiontiers of Palestine and Arabia, with PLrIsvum (now ill Palestine. Vol. II., page a-i. I Tineh) for its metropolis.

Page  11 EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. 11 II. 2EGYPTUS PROPRIA, on the west of the foregoing, con- Its metropolis, ANTINOE, the ancient Besa, on the right bank sisted of that part of the Delta lying west of the Nile toward of the river, had become a beautiful and flourishing city since Lybia. ALEXANDRIA, the metropolis, and residence of the the great repairs and embellishments which Hadrian underPrceJecttls Ateg'ustalis and the military Count, was still, by its took in commemoration of his favorite Antinoos, who had persplendor, wealth, science and commerce, one of the most ia- ishecl in the Nile. Thebes, which gave namne to the province, portant cities of the civilized world. The circumference of its existed no longer as an inhabited place, but its immense temwalls was twelve Roman miles, within which lived a bustling pie ruins still covered both the banks of the Nile. population of three hundred thousand souls, gathered forom 17. V. LIBYA INFERIOR, the ancient 1aarllnarica, extended every part of the Roman empire. Two lmagnificent avenues westward along the Mediterranean; its metropolis, PArRtTOcrossed in right angles through the length and breadth of the MNIuI (now A1-IBaretun), was situated on the coast opposite to city, dividing the ancient Bruchium, from the Rhacotis. The Rholes. principal of these thoroughfares-the Via Eezesiia —was the VcI. LnI~Y SUPERiorL, the celebrated ancient Greek colony Broadway of Alexandria; it ran from the eastern or Canopian of the five cities-the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, was the most gate westward, between rows of marble columns, for forty western province of the eastern empire. The metropolis, stadia or five miles, to the western gate, that of the 2Necrol ois. CrvENE, a large and flourishing city, in a wonderfully fertile Magnificent public buildings adorned it on both sides; the andl beautiful country, was situated four miles from the coast, Stacli'uqim, the town-hall or Deccaste'2ium1, the Gymntnasium7, on which lay its harbor, Sosuza, formerly Apollonia (now the amphitheatre and the immense,Somza, the mallulsoleuml in lMarza-Susa). which the body of Alexander the Great, the founder of the 18. THrE I)ocESE orF ASIA. —Diccesis Asiana —was formed city, was deposited. At the tleCptacjyi on:, the second street of all the early conquests of the victorious Romans in Asia struckthe first, running firom the Porta Solis on the lake of Minor. It was divided into two parts: the Diocese of Asia MIareotis, northward to the coast where at the Moon gate- Pr'opelr, which was governed by a Vicar, and contained eight Porta Lunce —the leptcastcldiuLz.n, a magnificent dike or provinces, and of the pI'oconsulate of Asia, ruled by a Procauseway, seven stadia in length, united the island of Pharus consul, who was directly subordinate to the Proatorial Praefect with the mainland. Here stood the celebrated beacon-tower of the Orient. It consisted of the three provinces contiguous -the Pharus the wonder of ancient architecture, built by to the Egean. The eight provinces of the diocese were the Sostratius of Cnidus; its height was 360 feet, and its blazing following: Ist, Paz'phylia; 2d, Lydia; 3d, Caria; 4th, fires were distinguishecl at a distance of forty miles on the sea. Lycia; 5th, Lycaonizi; 6th, Pisidia; 7th, Pi/6ygia PacaIt looked down upon the ports —Po'tuss M-ajors on the east, tihan; Sth, Phryg'ia Salutlaris. The two first provinces the EunZostus on the west-smaller ports for the imperial fleets, were governed by Consulars, and the eight latter by Presidents. and for the public granaries, were strongly fortified, and The three maritime provinces depending on the Proconsulate guarded with troops. In the Bruchium stood the Museum, of Asia were Asia pro-ear, governed by the Proconsul himwith the preciouslibrary, and the Sebaste or Temple of Cesarl, self; Hellespont having a Consular; and the islncls of the with two obelisks in front, which latter having during two'geeanz with a President. thousand years seen the downfall of Egyptian superstition at 19. THE PROVINCES OF THE DIOCESE, after their geographiThebes, and then been removecl to Alexandrclia in honor of cal order, and proceeding from east to west, may be ranged in Grecian polytheism, remained now to adorn a Christian church. the following manner: In the same quarter stood-and stands to this day-the lofty I. PAMPHYLIA, west of Isauria, extended along the coast. Its column of Diocletian, with its equestrian statue on the top, I metropolis was PERGE (now Kara-Hissar —Black Castle) at a raised to record the conquering Emperor's humanity, and the short distance on the Pamphylian gulf. Other cities were the gratitude of the citizens of the world's emporium. On the out- beautiful Attalia (now Adaliah), deeper in the gulf, surside of the western gate was the NVecropolis, whose memlorials rounded by its orange-gardens, but of such melancholy memory of the dead, both Pagan and Christian, lined the roadside and fromn the Crusades; and As enzdus (now Manavgat), on the the sea-coast for more than two miles, and harmonized most E.ztymecldoz, in the interior truly with the faded glories of the empire. Near the western II. LYCAONIA, north of the Taurus, extending through irgate also, but within the walls, stood the famed Temple of mense and dreary plains, with the metropolis IcoNium (now Serapis, second to no building in the world but the Roman Konieh), near a lake, on the high-road from Constantinople to Capitol, a glittering monument of the rise and fall of religions, Syria: once the very fortress of paganism, now the Patriarchal III. PISIDIA, the rugged stronghold of the ancient robberCathedral of victorious Christendom.t l hordes, so well known from Xenophon's Anabasis, southwest III. ARCADIA, SO called by Theodosius in honor of his of Lycaonia, with the metropolis ANTIOCHIA PISIDIE (now Akyounger son, Arcadius, was formed of central Egypt, the an- I Sher). cient Heptaz0nomis, and extended froli the point of the Delta 20. IV. PHRYGIA SALUTTARIS, northwest of Lycaonia. The to the border of the Thebai's, in Upper Egypt. Its metropolis metropolis was S~NNADA (now Sidi-Ghazi), at that period so was 3IEMPuIs (now Menf in its ruins), on the left bank of the celebrated on account of the splendid marbles which the pRos Nile. r mans obtained from the neighboring mountains. IV. THEI;sIxIS, south of Arcadia, was subdivided into thle V. PtR~YGIA PACATIANA, which owed its by-name to one first and second Thebais, and comprehended all Upper Egypt. j of its governors. The metropolis was the large and flourishing It was protected by eight legions, stationed on the frontiers. i LAolmIcEa (now Eski-HIissar —Old Castle), on the river Lyeus, n Since the Arabian conquest, A. v. 640 (206), the population of which joins the Mmander. Alexandria has diminished so much that the vhole modern city now VI. LYCTA% with its high projecting mountain-chains formstands on the widened Heptastadium, the causeway that joins to the ing a peninsula on the Mediterranean, had for its metropolis mainland what weas once the island of Phharus. Only the towering the ancient maritime town of MYPR (now Makra). column of Diocletian -commonly called the pillar of Pompey —and the 21. VII. CarmA, on the angle formed by the Karpathian;obelisk of the Sebaste (the needle of Cleopatra), still remain in their s~~~~~Sea and the Egean, with APraoDIsIAs (now Gheira) for its capie place, and serve as guides for the antiquary. —See the attempt of Sir n 1 strip S A.. n..1.. ~~tal. This cityr was situated on the mountains in the interior, Gardiner W ilkinson to cdescribe the localities of ancient Alesandrica in his excellent molrk on Sg'yt.. and had received its nalmle from the worship of Aphrolite

Page  12 12 EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. (Venus); it is unknown when it took the start of the old capital of the small province of that name which formed the Dorian aliicarnasszus (now the ruinous Castle of Budrun) on northeastern corner of Cappadocia. the coast of the Ceramic gulf. 26. V. CAPPADOCIA PRIMA, westward of the two former VIII. LYDIA, north of Caria, embraced only the interior provinces, had formed the central part of the ancient kingdomn of the ancient province of that name, and had for its metropo- of Cappadocia. The metropolis was CIESAREA AD ARGEUMr lis the celebrated SARDES (now the miserable hamlet Sart), at (now Kaisarieh), at the base of the snow-capped Mount Arthe base of mount Tmzolus, in the fertile plain of the river geus. It had been the residence of the Cappadocian kings, flermnu.-s. It had been the capital of the ancient Lydian then called ill/azaca, and was still a thriving town —important Kings, and still possessed imperial mlanufactures of armor and by its excellent fabrication of cuirasses. offensive weapons. VI. CAPPADOCIA SECUNDA had been separated from the 22. TiE PROVINCES orF THE PROCONSULATE were- former by the Emperor Valens. TYANA (now Nikdeh), the I. ASIA PROPRIA, northwest of Lydia, comprised some birthplace of the notorious cheat Apollonius, became then the portion of the ancient kingdom of Pergamus, and the earlier metropolis, an event which caused so violent a contest between Greek maritime colonies of Ionia and ZEolia, with the metro- St. Basile, the Archbishop of Cesarea, and the Bishop of polis EPIESUS (now Aia Soluk), the largest and most important Tyana, who, on account of this division, attempted to grasp city in the western part of Asia Minor. PERGnM1us (now Ber- at the metropolitan rights, that the Council of Cappadocia in gamno), on the Caicus, rivalled ill rank and riches with 372, was obliged to augment the number of bishoprics, in order Ephesus, and surpassed it by its magnificent Macedonian mon- that the two warring prelates might each obtain their suffiagan uments from the times of its kings. churches. II. HELLESPONTUS, along the straits which gave it its name. 27. VII. GALATIA SECUNDA or Salutaris, northwest of Its metropolis was CYzrcus (now Zisik), on a small peninsula Cappadocia Secunda, had been formed by Theodosius from the of the Propontis. ABYDos (now Avido), on the narrowest part southern part of the ancient Galatia. Metropolis, PESSINUS of the straits, near the present castles of the Dardanelles, was (now Bosan), on the Sangariuzs. then one of the most flourishing towns of the province. VIII. GALATIA PRIMA, north of the former, consisted of _II. THE PROVINCE OF TILE ISLES consisted of all the the northern part of the ancient Galatia. Metropolis, ANCYislands in the Egean, and those lying along the coast of Asia RA (now Angora). Minor, such as the Cyclaccdes and Sporcades, Lesbos, C/ioes, Sa- 28. IX. PAPI-ILAGONIA, between Galatia Prima and the mIzos, Pcatzos, Cos, and R/hocles; the beautiful city of the Black Sea, contained the entire ancient province of that name. latter was the metropolis and residence of the governor during Metropolis was GANGRA (now Kiangari), the residence of King winter, while it was his duty in summer to visit all the islands Dejotarus, the friend of Cicero. in their turn. 2 X. HoNorIAS, west of Paphlagonia, on the coast, bad 23. DIOCESE OF PONTUs-Dicecesis Pontica-eimbraced formed the northeastern part of Bithynia, when Theodosius not only the ancient kingdom of Mithridates, but all the nor- the Great formed a new province of it, in honor of his eldest them coast-land of Asia Minor, from the Thracian Bosporus son, Honorius. Metropolis, CLAuDIOPOLIS (now Castomena), and the Propontis on the west, eastward to the frontiers of the near the coast. HEnACLEA (Erakli), on the Pontus Euxiempire on the mountains of Armenia. It was governed by a nus, a thriving commercial place, was second in rank. Vicar, and contained the following eleven provinces: Ist, Ga- XI. BITHYNIA, west of Honorias, embraced a part of the latia; 2d, Bithynia; 3d, iHontorias; 4th, First Cappacdocia; Propontis, but contained, as we mentioned, only the soutll5th, Second Ccappadocia; 6th, -Iellenopon1tus; 7th, Pontzts western part of the ancient kingdom of Bithynia. Valens Polemoniacus; 8th, First Arnenia; 9th, Second Armzenia; had already divided it into Bitthynia Prima, with NICOMEDIA I 0th, Galatia Salutaris; 11th, Pcaphlagonia. The two first (now Nikmid) for metropolis. This city, the splendid capital were governed by Consulars, the eight following by Presidents, of Diocletian, was situated on the gulf of Astacus; it still and the last by a Corrector. Let us review them in their geo- preserved many interesting monumlents of its better days, and graphical order, beginning from the east. lived from its important manufactures of armor and offensive I. PONTUS POLEMONIACUS consisted of the eastern part of weapons. N ICA (now Isnik), on the beautiful lake, was the the ancitnt province of Pontus, and had formed a kingdoml metropolis of Bithynia Secundcla. It became celebrated from under the first Emperors, which took its nanme from its mo- the first general council held there in A. D. 325, then again narchs, the Polemlons. The metropolis was either NEOC2ESA- during the Crusades, and is still a fine oriental town. PRUSA REA (now Niksara), on the river Lycus, or perhaps TRAPEZUS (now Brusa), on a fertile plain at the foot of Mount Olympus, (now Tarabesan), the celebrated Peloponnesian colony on the was the ancient residence of the Bithynian kings, and had the shores of the Black Sea. Other cities, flourishing by fisheries second rank after Nic.Ta. and commerce, were Polemoniumv~ and Cerasus, with its forests DIocEsE OF THRACE.-It was governed by a Vicar, and was of cherry-trees, and in the interior Conacn Pontica. divided into six provinces: 1st, Eur~opa; 2d, Thrace Pr'oper; II. HELLENOPONTUS or POntus of Helena, in honor of the 3d, Ioamimons; 4th, RiGociope; 5th, 3lassia Secundazc; Gtm, mother of Constantine, consisted of the western part of an- ScYthiac. The two first were governed by Consulars, and the cient Pontus, with the metropolis of AMASIA (now Amasiah), following four by Presidents; military Dukes with troops were on the Iris, the old capital of the Pontian kings. moreover placed in Moesia and Scythia, for the defence of tihe 25. III. ARMENIA PRIMA, on thie south, was composed of frontiers on the Danube. the northern part of the ancient Armenia Minor. Its metro- 30. I. EuroPA was situated on the Thracian Bosporlus polls was SEBASTE (now Sivas), the ancient Cabira, on the and the Propontis, and preserved thus its primitive lanlme, river Halys. which afterwards was applied to the whole continent. As IV. ARMENIA SECUNDA, south of the former; metropolis, Constantinople had its own administration, HERAcLEA (110now MELITENE (now Malethija), near the Euphrates, the ancient Erekli), the ancient Perinthus, on the Propontis, was the Ilctropolis of the province.'12 The rest-Tenedos, Lemnos, Imbrus, Somothrace, Thasos, Sciathus II. RHODOPE, west of Europa, took its name folll the Scyros, Scopelos, Cythera and Crete, belonged to the DI)iocese of Mace- mountain range which starts off westward from the central donim. Scardus. Its metropolis was TRAJANOPOLI I (now Arachova),

Page  13 EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. 13 on the Helebrts, one of the cities which Trajan had built il the exertions of the Romans to obtain a firm footing beyond the interior of Thrace. Abclerac (now Djenidje), was a considerable Danube. Dacia became a flourishing province, and remained commercial port on the Egean. for 168 years (between A. D. 106, and 274), united to the III. HITMIMOlOS, or province of Mount Hmnus, north of Roman empire. But on the advance of the Goths toward Rhodope, owed its origin to Theodosius. Metropolis, HADRI- the Black Sea and the lower Danube, and the invasion of the ANOPOLIS (now Adrianople, Turkish Edclenze), a large and Alemanni on the Rhine, the Emperor Aurelian voluntarily strongly fortified city, on the left bank of the Hebrus, with evacuated Dacia in the year 274, and transported the Roman imperial manufactures of arms and military engines, be- inhabitants back across the Danube to AHiasia (the present came important at the period we describe, by the siege which Bulgaria and Servia), where he established themll in a new it so gallantly sustained against the Visigoths, and by the ter- province, Dacia Aur'eliani, which he formed on the Danube, rible defeat and death of Valens, while attempting its relief, in the centre of Mcesia, between the rivers Uitus (now Isker) in August, 378. The battle-field was on the north of the city, on the east, and Margus (now Morava) on the west. Yet the near the village of Skuzta-ion, where the emperor was burnt greater part of the Roman population seems to have remained in a cottage, on his flight. in ancient Dacia under the mild sway of the Visigoths, and IV. TiRACIA PrOPrIA, west of Hmininions, consisted only even afterwards, during the invasions of the Avars and Hunof the western extremity of that region, with the metropolis, garians; they have preserved their Latin language, though PtILIPPOPOLIS (now Filibe), on the upper Hebrus. somewhat corrupted, down to the present day, and form now, 31. V. McESIA SECUNDA or Inferior, north of HMllimons, under the name Wlachs or Ruzmani, one of the many heteroand of Thrace, beyond the ridge of Mount Helmus, along the geneous races of Transylvania. The diocese of Dacia, in the banks of the Danube. Metropolis, MARCIANOPOLIS (now Pra- times of Theodosius, was governed by a Vicar, and was divided wadi), where the Romans suffered the first defeat against the into five provinces: 1st, Dacia Interior or ZJIediteltranect; Visigoths, in 377, after the admission of the latter into the 2d, Dacia RiEpe7nsis; 3d, l/Icesia Ptrina; 4th, -Dardanzia; Roman provinces, the preceding year, 376, to the number of 5th, Pi'cevalitcana, with a part of Z/1facedonia Salutaris. The more than a million of souls. first province was governed by a Consular, and the four others VI. SCYTHIA PAnrVA, northeast of Meesia Secunda, formed by Presidents. In Dacia Ripensis and Masia Prima, both a narrow peninsula between the course of the lower Danube situated along the Danube, dukes and numerous garrisons were and the Black Sea. Metropolis, ToMi (now Baba Dagh), on formerly stationed at the strong fortresses of SingiZclunuZ, the Pontus, well known from the exile of the poet Ovidius. Vinziinaciuvz, and Ratiaria, to prohibit the passage of the Salices, or the village of the willows, of sorrowful memory, river. But since the year 376, the immense swarms of Visifrom another defeat which the Romans suffered there, during goths, with their families and herds of cattle, had already the Gothic war in 377. been admitted, and temporarily settled in Moesia Secunda and Scythia Minor, on the Pontus, whence they soon spread war P~riEFECTvURE, J OFr ILLv'R4i'A. and devastation into the very heart of the sinking empire. We shall now describe these important provinces after their 32. EXTENT AND DIVISIONS. -This prmafecture was often geographical position from north to south. called Jllyria O'ieeztalis, in order to distinguish it from an- 34. I. DACIA RIPENsSI, along the Ister or Danube, opposite other diocese of the Western Empire, which likewise had the to the ancient Dacia, which was situated on the north beyond the nanme of IllyricumGb (45). It embraced most of the European river. RATIARIA (now Widdin), on the banks of the Danube, was possessions of the eastern Empire, and was divided into two the metropolis, and a fortified city, with manufactures of arms. dioceses; that of Dacia on the north, and of ZIcIacedozia, II. DACTA MEDITERTRANEA or IzterZior, suth of the former, which contained all ancient Hellas, on the south. The two extended to the northern base of Mount Hcenzus, and had for dioceses consisted of eleven provinces. It was in this impor- its metropolis, SArDICA or Triaditzta (still the present name), tant praefecture that Alaric, the first king of the Visigoths, by so celebrated by the Ecclesiastical Council held there in the force of arms and intrigue, obtained, in 398, the dignity of time of Constantine, and by the devastations of the Barbarians, Master General of eastern Illyria, which he employed to the who crossed the passes of Mount HaImus south of the city. subjugation of the western Empire. Maximin, the opponent of Licinius, was born in the environs 33. DIocESE OF DACIA.-The ancient province of Dacia of Sardlica, and Constantine the great at Naissus (now Nissa). lay on the north of the Danube, and extended on the north- III. MCsSA PrIMA or Superior, west of Dacia Ripensis, east toward Sarlmatia, from which it was separated by the river after the dismemberment of the two Dacise, contained only the Ty/ras or J)Dazaster (now Dniester). North, it reached the western part of the ancient province, and formed the frontier of Carpathian Mountains, and west, to the river Tibiscus (now the eastern Empire on the Savus and Driztus, which sepaTheiss). The low, swampy plain between that river and the rated it from western Rome. Its metropolis was the strong upper Danube, afterwards the residence of Attila and the fortress VIMINACIUM or BininZaciam7 (now presenting only Huns at Buda, and the conquest of the Avars and Magyars heaps of ruins in the neighborhood of the village Gradistie), (Hungarians) in the 6th and 9th centuries —was never oceu- on1 the Danube. Another bulwark of the Empire was Singipied by the Romans. Its inhabitants were the wilcd, nomading cilallum (nowv the thrice celebrated Belgrade), westward on the Jfazyges of Sarmatian origin, whose descendants may still be conafluence of the Savus and the Danube, where so many distinguished among the many races of modern Hungary. bloody battles have been fought. Roman Dacia thus embraced thepresentBessarabia, Molclavia, 35. IV. DARDAPNIA, south of MIesia Superior, preserved Wallachia, Transylvania, and part of Hungary; its rivers were its nmlne fromn one of the ancient provinces of the Macecdonian the Tibiscus and Mariscus (now Marosh). The ancient Daci kingdoml, andl it extended on both slopes of llount Scar'dzus. had been vanquished by Trajan, during his campaigns in Its metropolis was SCUPI, or Supo2 i (now Uskup), southeast, 103-6, when Dacia was reduced to a Roman province, and on the upper Axius. Northeast of Scupi lay the small repeopled with numerous Roman colonies. The old Dacian village Taturesion (now Giustendil), on the Strymon; the birtlltown, Zarmzizegethutsa was then denominated Ulpia Try'ajcan, place of Justinus and Justinian, which afterwards was enlarged and several ruins in the neighborhood of the modern con- and favored in honor of the Emperor under the pomlpous name vent of Sarnitza, south of Weissenburgh, still attest the great ofUpiana or.Up2ians'o:T2ini. ia PrimCa.

Page  14 14 EASTERN AN')D WVESTERNl ROMAN EMPIREi. V. PRAVALITANA, southwest of Dardania, was formed of ed from the jurisdiction of the vicar of the Macedonian dio. a portion of ancient Illyria, and touched the Adriatic coast at cese, and appealed directly to the prtetorial proefect of Illyria. the mouth of the river Barbana, which formed the western CoRINTHUS, with its strong fortress Acro-Corinzthzts, on the frontier of the Empire toward Dalmatia. It was afterwards Isthmus, connecting the Peloponnesus with the mainland of called Prebalis and Aemathia in Upper Albania. SCODRA northern Greece, was still a thriving city and the metropolis of (now Scutari), on the southern shore of the lake Labea- the proconsulate. Yet a few years later, at the time of the intis (now lake of Scutari or Scodra), at a short distance from vasion of Alaric and his Visigoths in A. D. 396, both Corinth, the Adriatic gulf, was the metropolis. It contained likewise llrgos and Sp'arta were plundered, and the inhabitants slaughthe northern part of another province called Macedonaia Salu- tered or led off in captivity. Eleut.sis, with its proud priesttar'is, which seems, from reasons unknown, to have been divided hood and splendid temples, had already suffered the same fate. between the two dioceses of Dacia and Macedonia. ATHENS, Athzence, alone escaped; Alaric visited the city, 36. DIOCESE OF MACEDONIA.- It embraced the ancient feasted with the jovial Athenians and departed without comkingdom of Macedonia, Epirus and Greece, and was divided mitting any depredations, nor did the magnificent monuments into six provinces, the most important of which, that of Achaia, on the Acropolis suffer any wanton destruction from the wild containing central and southern Greece, formed, on account of Barbarians, or from the still fiercer swarms of Arian monks its importance and ancient glory, a proconsulate by itself, like who followed their camp. that of Asia (18) independent of the Vicar, governing the diocese. The five other provinces, placed under his jurisdiction, I]. WESTERN EMPIRE. were after their rank: 1st, IcIacedonzia Jl/Iinor; 2d, Crete; 3d, Th/essaly; 4th, EEpirus; 5th, Episrus Nova, with the southern 41. BouNDAtRIEs.-The western empire extended from the part of hlalcedonzia Salutaris. The two first were ruled by rivers Drinus and Barbana, in Illyria, and from the great Consulars, and the four others by Presidents. We will de- Syrtis, in Africa, to the Atlantic Ocean. The island of Briscribe them in their geographical order descending from the tain, as far north as the walls of Antonine, formed likewise a north, south through Greece. part of it. 37. I. MACEDONIA MINOR, on the southeast of the dio- 42. CAPITALS.-Ronme had neither lost its splendor nor its cese, formed the ancient Macedonia proper, that is, Edonia, immense population, and it was still considered as the first Chalcidice, Mygdonia;Eordwa, Emathia, Pieria and Elymiotis, capital of the Roman empire; but even before Constantine it and was separated from Thrace by the river Nestus. THES- had ceased to be the only residence of the emperors. By SALONICA (now Saloniki on the Thermaic gulf) was the metro- the building of Constantinople it lost entirely that old privipolis-Edessa and Pella, the ancient capitals of the kingdom, lege, nor did it get it back on the separation of the two states. though woefully decayed since the times of Philip and Alex- MIEDIOLANUMi, Miilan, situated in the vast and fertile plain of ander, were still towns of some importance and movement. Cisalpine Gaul, seemed the most convenient residence for the 38. II. ErRnus NOVA, on the west side of Mount Pindus, succeeding emperors, who, being there in the midst of their armwas formed by Theodosius into a separate province from the nor- aments and military resources, were better enabled to watch the them part of ancient Epirus;and DYrnnACiTlut (now Durazzo), movements of the warlike Germanic nations beyond the on a small bay of the Ionian Sea, was made its metropolis. Danube. Constantine had already, in A. D. 313, made his reThe southwestern part of the dismembered province Macedonia sidenece in Milan memorable by the proclamation of his celeSalutaris (35), was joined to New Epirus. It is supposed that brated edict in favor of the Christians. Afterwards, when the STOBI or Stoboi (now Istib), situated in the depth of the Pela- invasion of the Visigoths under Alaric, 403, had forced the timid gonian Mountains, continued after the dismemberment to remain HIonorius to flee from that city, he found a refuge at RAVENNA, the seat of a governor with the title of President. amidst the swamps of the Adriatic Sea. Thus this unhealthy III. EPIRus VETUS, or atfltitqut, south of E]pirus Nova, and sequestered spot, surrounded by low meadows, morasses, consisted of the southern parts of ancient Epirus as its name and canals, like modern Venice, became now the capital and the indicates, the modern Albania. Metropolis was NiCOPOLIS asylum of the emperors. She enjoyed for a long time the pri(now lying in ruins near Prevesa) on the Ambracian gulf, where vilege of being aln imperial residence, and was the last seat of it had been built 31 B. c. by O0taviall Augustus, in cOnm111elo- Roman111 power in Italy. ration of his naval victory at Actium over Antonius and Cleo- 43. DivisioNS.-The western empire was, like the eastpatra. ern, divided into two prsefeetures, that of Italy on the east, 39. IV. THESSALIA, on the east of Epirus, embraced the and that of the Gautls on the west. These prefectures were whole ancient province of that name. MIetropolis LARISA, 01on again subdivided into seven dioceses, and fifty-eight provinces, the Peneus, at the foot of Mount Olympus. which we shall now describe in their order. V. CRETA (nOW Canclia), south of the Egean, the greatest island of Greece. Metropolis GOrTYrNvA on the fertile plain at PRIEFECTURE OF ITAIy. the base of Mount Ida near the southern coast of the island. The ruins of Gortyna are situated nealr the village of Kainurion, 44. EXTENT AND DIVIsION. —It embraced besides the vast where some travellers have taken the deep qualrries in the Ilesperian Peninsula, all the possessions of the western emneighbouring hills for the celebrated labyrinth of king Minos, pire in Europe between the ridge of the Alps and the Danube, though it was situated on the north of the island near Czossus. and east of the Aclriatic, and moreover that part of Africa runThis beautiful and fertile island had lost part of its population ning along the coast of the Mediterranean, from the Gr eat Sy'by dearth and pestilence, when Helena the mother of Constan- tis to the river nicalva, which formed the western boundary tine, on her return from Palestine in 326,landed on Crete, and toward the Caesarean Mauritania. This praefecture was subdiordered new settlers from Egypt and Syria, Cilicia and the vided into four dioceses, Ronze, Italy, Afjiica, and llyricumn, neighboring islands to repair the loss. which contained together thirty provinces. W;e shall describe 40. TIHE PROCONSULATE OF AcIAIA had already, in the them in their geographical order. times of the Roman Republic, been declared a proconsular 45. DIOCESE OF ILLvRICUM. —This diocese of Illyricum is province by the Clodian law. It had since always preserved distinguished from the praefecture of Illynia, belonging to the that dignity, anad was thus bythe rankof its gorvernor exempt- eastern empire by the special designation, lllyricm,rn Occi

Page  15 WVESTERN ROMANt- EMPIRE. 15 dentale. It embraced all the eastern part of the prefecture of IV. PANNONIA PRIMiAa; or Super'ior, west of the former, Italy, viz.: the regions east of the Adriatic, of the Julian consisted mostly of the ancient province of that name. The Alps, and of the river (Enus (now Inn), which falls into the metropolis was probably SABARIA (now lying in ruins near Danube. Thus it comprehended Illyricumn Proper, together Sarvar, on the Raab). Pcetovium2 (now Pettan), southwest on with Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and was divided into six the Drave, near the border of Noricum, is celebrated by the provinces: 1st, Pannontia Secunda; 2d, Savia; 3d, Pannzo- second great victory which Theoldosius gained over the fleeing nia Prinza; 4th, Noricum Zilediterr'aneum; 5th NTorticumn Ri- troops of Maximus, three days after their first defeat at Sispense; 6th, Dcalmatia. The first was governed by a Consular, cia, in 388. the second by a Corrector,' and the four others by Presidents. -Vindo6ona or VCindomina (now imperial Vienna), and All these provinces, except upper Noricum and IDalmatia, Carnzuntuvm' (now Presburg), both on the Danube, are often were defended by military dukes and their divisions of troops, mentioned in the military history of the emperors. who were stationed along the Danube. It seems that the pro- 48. V. NOruRICUHI RIPENSE, west of Pannonia Prima, from vinces of Savia and Pannonia had their military quarters in a which it was separated by Mount Cetiits (now Kalemberg, particular region called VALERIA, which extended from the hill near Vienna), extended, as its name indicates, along the country near Acincuzwm (Buda) all along the Danube to its banks of the Danube. Metropolis LA:REACuJM (now Lorch), junction with the Drave, near Mursa (Essek), something simi- on the river. A Roman squadron of galleys and armed barks lar, perhaps, to the present Austrian military frontiers of Cro- were stationed here to observe the movements of the Barbaatia, where the troops (frontier regiments) live in permanent rians on the northern bank, and oppose their passage. This camps. The Romans had likewise fortified the hilly country city had manufactures of bucklers. Boiodlerunz or Boitro between the Danube and the Theiss, called the Bacs, by an em- (now Innstadt, opposite to Passau), on the border of bankment with military stations, against the incursions of the Rhbctia, was likewise a town important on account of its roving Jazygian tribes of the plain. W~e shall now describe military position. the provinces of the diocese of Illyricum, after their geographi- VI. NoRIcumr MEDITERRANEUM, south of the former, comcal order, from southeast to northwest. prised the southern part of the ancient province of Noricum. 46. I. DALMATIA, on the coast of the Adriatic, retained its Its metropolis is supposed to have been VIRUNUM (now in ancient name; but it contained, besides, that northern part of ruins near Klagenfurth), on the Drave. ancient Illyria, known by the name of Liburnia, which does 49. DIOCESE OF ITALY.-This diocese, situated north of not seem to have formed a separate province. Its metropolis the country whose name it bore, did not extend much farther was SALONA, in a beautiful plain near the coast. It was the south than the limits of the ancient Cisalpine Gaul; but it birthplace of the Emperor Diocletian, who, after his abdication, embraced besides, all the ancient Rhwttia and Vindelicia, beA. D. 304, retired to the splendid palace which he had built tween the Alps and the Danube. It was governed by a Vicar, near Salona, where he spent the remainder of his active life and divided into seven provinces: 1st, Venetia, with Istria; in rural occupations. The village of Aspcalathzus, and long 2d, En-tilia; 3d, Liguria; 4th,.Flaminia, with PicentzmZ afterwards the provincial town of Spalatrto, have grown out of IAlnonarium; 5th, Alpes Cottice; 6th, Rhicelia 2Prima; the ruins of the imperial asylum, which still, in spite of its ar- and 7th, RAeticia Secut.lda. The four first were governed by chitectural grandeur, exhibits the decline of arts in the third Consulars, and the five latter by Presidents. A military Duke century. was charged with the defence of the two Rhlbtise; only Rhar47. II. SAVIA, north of Dalmnatia, took its name from the tia Secunda touched the frontier line on the Rhine. We folriver Savuzs (Save), which passed through it, and consisted low their geographical order from the north, southward. of the southeastern part of the ancient Pannonia. Metro- 50. I. RILETIA SECUNDA, on the north of the diocese, was pohis, SIscLA (now Sisseek), on an island in the river Colapis formed of the ancient Vindelicia, whose metropolis, AUGUSTA (now Kulpa), near its junction with the Save. It was here VINnDeLIcouTUrI (now Augsburg) on the Licls (Lech), still that Theodosius defeated Maximus in 388. Si'mzizunb (now preserved its pre-eminence in the new province. Sirmich), southeast in the province, on the Save, was one of II. RtHmTIA PRIMA, on the south of the former, consisted the most considerable cities of the empire. It was the birth- of the ancient Rhoetia Propria, which was separated from place of several emperors: important councils were held there, Italy by the Rhaetian Alps-Allpes Rhcetire-metropolis until it was burnt down and destroyed by the Huns in the CURIA (now Chur in the Grisons), at the base of Mount fifth century. Cibalis (now Svilei), northwest, was the battle- Splagen. field where Constantine vanquished Licinius, in 314; and at 51. III. THE COTTIAN ALPS, Allpes Cottice, southwest Miursa, further northwest, on the banks of the Drave, Con- of Rhintia, in the midst of the most towering pinnacles of the stantius defeated Magnentius, A. D. 351, in a tremendous bat- Alps, partly lying in Italy, partly in Gaul, preserved its name tie, which deprived the empire of 54,000 of its bravest warri- from the time of Augustus, who had graciously permitted the ors. Acincum or Aquincumn, so called from its hot springs petty king Cottius to rule in this small country. When (now OldOfen, near Bucla), on the Danube, was the principal Nero afterwards reduced it to a Roman province, it retained city of the military district Valeria (45), and contained arse- the name of its last king. Metropolis, SEGUSIO (now Suza), nals and manufactures of arms, like Sirmium. at the base of Mount Cenis, one of the most important defiles, III. PANNONIA SECUNBA, or Infe;'io', west of Valeria, con- from Gaul into Italy. Charlemagne crossed Mount Celnis, sisted only of the western part of the ancient Pannonia Infe- and defeated the Lombards at Suza in 774. Hannibal had rior, the southern district of which had been dismuembered, inll crossed over 1o/Ions l/Eatrona, farther southwest, and descended order to form the province of Savia. It extended westwarcl, toward the springs of the Padus. to the great lake of Pelissa or Balcaton (now Platten See). IV. LIGuRIA, on the east of the Cottian Alps, was an exBREGETIO (now Szony, near Comorn), on the Danube, tensive, fertile, and beautiful province, which did not only where Valentinian I. died in 375, is supposed to have been consist of the narrow, rugged, coast land of ancient Liguria, the metropolis of the province. hemmed in between the Alps and the sea, but it extended "aIn the western empire, the rank of the corrector (or co-rector) over the central part of Cisalpine Gaul (the present Lomnbardy was superior to that of the president; the contrary was the case in the and Piedmont). MEDIOLANUM (now Milan), was then both eastern empire. the metropolis of the province, and the capital of the western

Page  16 16 WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. Empire, (42), and its archiepiscopal see was independent of 55. I. TuscIA (Tuscany), on the northwest of the diocese, the Patriarch of Rome. Asta (now Asti), on the Tanarus, a held its ancient name and territory. It was divided into Annostrongly fortified town, to which Honorius fled for safety when cnary and Sztburbica'yj; but the limits of the two jurisdictions Alaric and his Visigoths invaded Italy, in 403. At a short are unknown. Tuscia Subuqrbicaria, like Picenum of the distance west of Asta, on the Tanarus, lay Polle)ztia (now same name, were considered as dependences of the city of Pollenza), where the Vandal Stilicho, then Roman general, Rome, and were subjected to her prefect, whose jurisdiction hurrying to the succor of the besieged Emperor, defeated seems to have extended for one hundred miles (adcl celntesimunbw Alaric in a great battle, and drove him back over the Alps. lafpidemz) around the old mistress of the world. FLORENTIA 52. V. VENETIA, On the east of Liguria, and separated (Florence), on the A rnus (Arno), was the metropolis. Fcesufrom the diocese of Illyricum by the Julian Alps, Allies Jitdice, lo (Fiesole), on Mount Apennine, near Florence, where, in the by which the Goths penetrated into Italy, had preserved its valley of ifizacro (now Mugrone), Stilicho surrounded and anniancient name, and comprised, besides, the beautiful peninsula hilated the immense army of Radagaisus, in 406. It was at the of Istbia. Its metropolis was AQUILEIA, at the head of the border of this province, between the Saxa tRubra (Red Rocks) Adriatic gulf, near the mouth of the Sontites (Isonzo). Being and the bridge l2lTilvius, now the well known Ponte Molle, situated at the point where all the roads to Italy unite from over the Tiber, at 6 miles distance from Rome, where Maxeast and northeast, this city obtained the highest importance, entius was defeated and perished in battle against Constantine, and was considered as the bulwark of Italy. Therefore were in 312. so many bloody battles fought beneath its walls. It was here II. UirInIA, or Picenumv Sntbub6icarcium2, between Tuscia that Constantine II. fell, in the war against his brother Con- on the west, and Picenum Annonarium on the east, was formed stance, in 340; Theodosius defeated here Maximus for the of that part of ancient Umbria which extended on the western third time, in 388, and afterwards he gained here another vic- slope of Mount Apennine, and bordered on the ancient Sabini, tory over Eugenius, in 394. Aquileia passed unscathed in the neighborhood of Rome; it formed afterwards, during through all these storms, but at the invasion of Attila and the Middle Ages, the duchy of Spoletium, and was called Suhis Huns in 452, it was taken by assault, after the most des- b1trbicacriznt because it depended on the prefect of the city. perate defence, and levelled to the ground, never to rise again; SPOLETUM or Spoietiuvm7z (now Spoleto), in a strong position its ruins are still seen, near Grado.- Verona:, on the south- on the Apennines, and commanding the fertile valley of the west of the province, in a strong position on the Athesis (now Tinia, seems to have been the metropolis. Adige), beheld the second defeat and flight of Alaric and his 56. III. VaLErIA, south of Picenum Suburbicariulm, conmyriads, by Stilicho, in 403, but on the irruption of the Huns sisted of the ancient Sabini and part of Latium, and received it was ruthlessly destroyed, together with all the neighboring its name from the Valerian military road, Via IValeria, cities, Pataviunt (now Padua), Vicet-ia (now Vicenza), Alti- which passed by Tibeur and Albc Fucentia, to Co/ifniuint, ntmn Concord/ia, and others, but soon rebuilt. The fleeing through the Sabini ito the Peligni, and northward along the inhabitants sought refuge in the midst of the lagunes of the coast of Picenum. This Valeria must not be confounded with Adriatic coast, where they laid the foundation of the proud the other already mentioned as the military frontier of the Republic of Venice, in 452. diocese of Illyricumn (45 and 47). Metropolis, AtMITErNUM 53. VI. EMrLIA, southwest of Venetia, contained the (now Amiternlo, near Aquila), southeast of Spoletium, in the greater part of the ancient Cispadane Gaul, and received its highest range of the Apennines. The ancient Latium-Laname from the Via Enmilia, the great military road, which tiun Vettus-the cradle of Roman power, lay southwest of passed through its territory, and led from Arinminiumt to PLA- Valeria, and was not numbered among the provinces, being adCENTIA (now Piacenza), its metropolis, situated on the right ministered by the praefect of the city. bank of the river Padus (Po). IV. SArINIUiI, east of Valeria, had preserved its ancient VIII. Flaminia, southeast of ~Ermilia, extended along the name, and extended to the coast of the Adriatic. CoRFrINUmus coast of the Adriatic, and contained the southeastern part of (now S. Pelino), near the Aternus, is supposed to have been Gallia Cispadana, toward the mouth of the Po, the greater its metropolis. part of the ancient Umbria, and the coast land of the ancient 57. V. CAxMPANIA, south of Samnium, had likewise retained Picenztm, which at this period, on account of its exuberant its ancient name, and its high reputation for fertility and enjoyfertility and high cultivation, was called Pice'znumz A)nnzona- ment, though it suffered terribly from the Gothic war in 410, -'ivu. The province itself received its new name from the and became then the grave of the Visigoths as it formerly had Flaminian high road, Via Flaminia, which, from the northern been of the Carthaginians under Hannibal.T NEAPOLIS (Nagate of Rome, ran across Mount Apennine to A-iminium, ples), on its splendid bay at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, was the one of its larger cities. The metropolis was the celebrated most important city of the province, and, no doubt, its metroRAvENNA (42). polls. Beneventumte, on the southeast of Naples, had pre54. DIOCESE OF ROME.-This diocese embraced all central served both its rank and population. Since Vesuvius had and southern Italy, and all the islands, great and small, that become a burning volcano, Campania seemed to be more fertile lie off the Italian coast. Though it bore the name of the cap- than before; the exuberant soil of Capua, Nola, and Neapolis, ital of the empire, and was, no doubt, the ordinary residence afforded some consolation for the loss of the cities that lay of the vicar who governed it, yet its admnzinistration was never- buriedl under ashes and lava; the inhabitants were wealthy; theless almost entirely independclent of the Prmfcct of the the commerce flourishing, and the islands on the coast were City of PRome —2'cefectus u/6Sis; the few exceptions we men- adorned with palaces and pleasure houses. tion below (55). The diocese had tell provinces, which, ac- VI. APULIA, northeast of Calmpania, formed one province cording to their rank, followed thus: 1st, CEanpancia;; 2d, together with CALABRPIA, southeast, along the shores of the Tuscia; 3d, Usnbria; 4th, Sicilia; 5th, ApEulia with Calabria; 6th, Bi UttiumZ with Lucania; 7th, Sam-,iu2;m; 8th,'1 "Thle prostrate south to her destroyer yields Sardinia; 9th, Co}sica; 10th, Valerica. The four first were I1er boasted titles and her golden fields; governed by Consulars, the fifth and sixth by Correctors, and With grim delight the brood of winter view the four last by Presidents. Ve describe them in the order bighte da and sies of ze ue, fron^ 1 |~~~~~~~~~~~~Scent thte new fragranc te of the opening rose, fromr north to South. nnd qyuaff thle pendannt ~vintag~e aIs it; grovvs."

Page  17 WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. 17 Adriatic. LucErrA (now Lucera), in the great Apulian plain, 61. I. TRIPOLITANA, the most eastern of the African seems to have been the metropolis. T'arentznz, on the gulf dioceses, on the south and east of the great Syrtis, received its of the same name, was the most flourishing city in Calabria. name from its three principal cities all situated on the coast. VII. BruUTTIUI occupied the western peninsula of southern LEPTIS MAGNA (now Lebida), its metropolis; cZa (now TripoItaly, opposite to Sicily, and formed one province together with lis), east of Leptis; Sacbatla (now Sabart or old Tripolis), west LUCANIA, on the north, between Bruttium and Campania. CON- of CEa. SENTIA (now C(oselza), in Bruttium, may have been the me- II. BYZACENA, west of the lesser Syrtis, with the metropolis; it was here that Alaric, after the pillage of Rome, tropolis BYZACIUM, formerly T'acape (now Kabes), situated died in the midst of his victories, and was buried, with his on the coast opposite to the large island of Meninx (now splendid spoils, in the bed of the small river Buzsentizzs, Gerbe). whose waters the Barbarians had led off, and afterwards re- 62. III. NuMIDIA, west of Africa proper, had retained its stored to their natural channel, A. D. 410. Pm STUM (now a ancient name, but only the eastern part of the old province. swamp, with magnificent temple ruins, near the village of Ca- CONSTANTINA, formerly Cizta, the ancient capital of the Nupaccio), on the Posidonian gulf, was the principal town of midian kings, obtained her modern name from Constantine, and Lucania. was the metropolis of the province. Hippone or Hlippo 58. VIII. SICILIA (Sicily), the most fertile and beautiful Regius (now Bona), a strongly fortified city on the coast, was of the islands of Italy, formed a province which comprehended the archiepiscopal seat of St. Augustine, who died there during likewise the smaller islands situated on its coast. SYnAcusia the siege of the city by the Vandals in 430. (Syracuse), on the eastern coast, though much reduced from IV. MAURITANIA SITIFENSIS, west of Nlumidia, consisted its former splendor and circumscribed to the small island of of the western part of that ancient province and of a small Ortygia, was still the metropolis of the island. LILYmsuI part of Mauritania. Its metropolis was SIFETI (now Setif), (now Marsala), on the western promontory of that name (now in the interior of the country. Cape Boco), was early occupied by the Vandals from Africa. V. MAURITANIA CXzSARIENSIS, west of the former, compreIX. SARDINIA, on the northwest of Sicily, though almost hended the greater part of the ancient province of Mauritania of the same extent and fertility as that island, was yet a pro- Orientalis, and took the name of its metropolis CIESAREA (now vince of little importance; its metropolis was CABALIS (now Vacur), on the coast of the Mediterranean opposite to the BaCagliari), on a gulf of the southern coast; its maritime towns learic islands. were flourishing, but the interior not cultivated. CORSICA, north of Sardinia, was, after Valeria, the small- PRAiFECTURE OF THE GAULS. est province of the diocese. ALERIA, a small town with a port, on the eastern coast, seems to have been the metropolis. 63. EXTENT AND DIVISIONs.-The prefecture of the Gauls The island was celebrated for honey and oysters. comprehended besides the Transalpine Gaul, Ist, Old Spain, 59. DiocESE or ArICeA. —This diocese, whose extent we with the Balearic islands, and Mauritatnia Tingitana in have mentioned above (44), contained, like those of Asia and the northwest of Africa; 2d, the southern portion of the island Macedonia (18 and 36), a proconsulate, consisting of Africa of Britain as far north as the Antoninian Wall. These three proper or Carthage, and, besides, five provinces' 1st, Byza- large countries formed three dioceses-Spain, the Gauls, and cefnca; 2d, Nu21mzidcia; 3d, Tri-politana; 4th, _lfaut'itanica Bretain, which were subdivided in twenty-nine provinces, and Sitifensis; 5th, ll[aursitaniac Cesar'iensis. The two first even thirty, as we shall see below (69). were governed by Consulars, and the three following by Presi- 64. DIocESE OF HISPANIA.-It was governed by a Vicar, dents. The military Count of Africa had two Dukes under and contained seven provinces; 1st, Butica; 2d, Lztsitania; his command, one in Tripolitana, and the other in Mauritania 3d, Gallicia; 4th, Tca?'rraconesnsis; 5th, Carqtlhcaginiensis; Cmsariensis, to keep in check the roving mountaineers on 6th, Tingitana; 7th, Baleeares Insulce. The three first were Mount Atlas. We shall now describe the African provinces governed by Consulars, and the four others by Presidents. in their geographical order from east to west, beginning with We will describe them from south to north. the African Proconsulate.' 65. I. TINGITANA or ZIcIaur^itania Tinzg'itaqna, separated 60. PROCONSULATE OF AFRICA PROPRIA consisted of Car- on the east by the river BMalva, from the Cresarean Mauritania thage and the ancient Zeugitana; it was then the granary of of the Italian prmefecture, extended westward to the Atlantic Rome, as Egypt was that of Constantinople. It was governed Ocean, and owed its name to its metropolis TINmGIS (Tangier), by a proconsul, who did not stand under the jurisdiction of the on the western entrance of the Straits of Gades (now Gibraltar), vicar of Africa, but immediately under the prsetorial proefect of which separated it from Spain. Italy. CARTHAGE, the metropolis, had risen from her ruins, II. BIETICA (afterwards in Arabic: FVandalos, Andclalos, and, though she might yield to the imperial prerogative of now Andalusia), consisting of the southernmost part of Spain,, Constantinople, to the trade of Alexandria or to the splendor received its name from the river B3htis (by the Arabs afterof Antioch, she still maintained the second rank in the west, as wards called Wady-al-Kebir, or Guadalquiver), which flowed the Rome of the African world. She contained thie manufac- through that fertile and beautiful province. HISPILIS (now Setures, arms and treasures of six provinces and schools and gym- ville), on the left bank of the river, was the metropolis. Cornasia of high repute; her ports, public buildings and institu- dubc6a (now Cordova) was the next city in rank. tions were magnificent; but the reputation of the Carthaginians III. LUSITANIA, northwest of Beetica, along the coast of was not equal to that of their country and the reproach of the Atlantic, had for metropolis EmEmTRIrA AUGUSTA (now MePunic faith still adhered to their subtle and faithless char- rida), on the river AnDas (by the Arabs called VWady-Ana, now acter. Their luxury and licentious manners had corrupted Guadiana). their morals and extinguished their courage; and in 439 66. IV. CAIRTIHIAGINIENSIS. northeast of Bcetiea, along the that immense city yielded to the daring and headlong bravery coast of the Meliterranean, obtained its name from CARTHAGO of G-enseric and his Vandals, who soon11 founded a Barbaric king- NOVA (now Carthagena). dom on the ruins of the richest provinces of the western empire. V. TARRACONENSIS, north of the former, with the metroUtica (now in ruins near Porto Farina), on the northern polis TAPRAco (now Tarragona). This was the most inmporcoast; Tiacl'umnetnl (now Hariamet), on the eastern coast. tant city in Spaill during the dominion of the Romans, and no 8

Page  18 18 WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. doubt the residence of the Vicar and the military Count of the vinces toward the close of the fourth century, as we have mendiocese. tioned above (67). Viennensis Prima on the north, with the VI. GALLYrECIA (now Galicia), on the northwest of the Penin- metropolis VIENNA on the Rhone, and Viennensis Secunda in sula, received its name from the warlike people, the Gallmeci or the south, with the metropolis ArELAS or Arlelale (Arles), a Gallaici, who so long had defended their independence against beautiful and populous city, the residence of the Pretorial the Romans. Metropolis, BRtACArA AUGUSTA (now Braga), Prmfect for the Gauls. The poet Ausonius calls it the Gallic north of the Dalurius (Duero). Rome- Gallta Romza Ar elas. VII. INSULiE BALEARES, situated opposite the eastern coast VI. NARBONENSIS SECUNDA, east of Viennensis, with the of Spain. PALMA or Bcalea)'is Mca' jor (now Mayorca), was per- metropolis, AQuVE SEXTI.M (now Aix in Provence), which took haps the metropolis. PorTus MAcGONIS (now Port-Mahon) was its name from its celebrated hot springs. AIcassilia (now Marthe principal town in Balearis Z/Ii2nor (now Minorca). Spain seilles) the ancient Greek colony, and flourishing commercial was the most flourishing province of the empire in the fourth town. ForuYYb Itlaii (now Frejus), on the southeast, served century. Many profound philosophers and poets of bold and as a naval station for the imperial fleets. lofty genius were natives of Spain; and the mechanical arts VII. ALPES MARITIME, east of the former, along the ridge flourished without degrading the high spirit of the nation. It of the Alpine chain. Metropolis EnBvnoDUn UM (now Ermbrun), furnished the empire with brave and hardy warriors, with near the source of the D ruentia (Durance). brass, iron, gold, silver and noble steeds; of wine and oil VIII. ALPES PENNINA ET GRAJI, northeast of the former, there was abundance; in the less fertile parts of the country were, together with the Alpes Maritimhe, considered as one of flax and spartumn were cultivated.'5 the provinces of the Narbonensis. Metropolis DARANTASIA, 67. DIOCESE OF THE GAULs.-This diocese was governed (now Moutier in the valley of the Tarantaise), on the upper by a Vicar, and embraced all Transalpine Gaul between the Isara, in the midst of the highest Alps. Pyrenees, the Mediterranean, the Alps, the Rhine, the British 70. IX. LUGDUN:ENSIS PRIMA, north of Viennensis, so Ocean and the Atlantic; it was divided into seventeen provinces called from its metropolis LUGDUNUM (now Lyons), on the juncafter the notitia imz2perii; but the first of these provinces (69) tion of the Arar' (Saone) and the Rhone, one of the largest was already subdivided into two others at the period of our and most important cities in Gaul. J/latisco (now Macon), on map. These provinces were according to their importance: the Ara?', and Atg',tstodunzu? (now Autun), more north1st, Vie~nnzeusis, towards the close of the fourth century divided west, had imperial manufactures of armor and arrows. The into prinzma anLd sectlda; 2d, L'gOdZ'unezsis Prizma; 3d, Ger'- whole of central Gaul had in the olden time been called Cel-?mania Pr2'imaC; 4th, Ger?'zcznia Seczwzda; 5th, Belgica Prinzma; ticc, afterwards Lugdunensis was substituted, and comprehend6th, Belgica Secznda; 7th, Allpes 1l'IaritiZce; 8th, Alyes ed besides the Prima, the following three provinces: Penniucwe and Gr gce;. 9th, lSliaxizm Sequanzorum; 10th, X. LUGDUNENSIS QUARTA, northwest of the Prima, more Aquitanzia P2rim2a; 1 lth, Aqiuitania Secuzdla; 12tll, Novenz- frequently called SENONImd, froml its lmetropolis SENONES (now populaCncaa; 13th, aCrC'boZnenssis Pria; 14th, Nct2boznenzsis Se- Sens), on the Iccauna (now Yonne). PARISH, earlier Ltltctia cunda; 15th, Lutgdnenzzsis,Secunzda; 16th,.Lg'dzunzeqnsis P(arisiorutmz (now Paris) on tile Sequaznc (Seine), began already Tertia; 17th, Lugdclnensis Qua.rta or Senoniaz. to have great importance from the timne of the residence of the Germania Prima, Belgica Sccunda, and Maxima Sequano- Emperor Julian, the Apostate, in A. D. 355. Of the numerous rum, were occupied by Dukes with their troops for the defence Roman ruins of ancient Paris, only the relies of the palace of of the frontiers; another Duke had the inspection of the north- Julian and the catacombs are left. western sea-coast against the pirates. The entire coast, from XI. LUGDUNENSIS TERTIA, west of the former, embraced the Scaldis on the east, to Gobreumn, Pr'omnontorium-tbythe all the peninsula of Armorica, whose warlike inhabitants during western cape -were divided into two naval districts: Ar'- the distress of the empire threw off the yoke, and recovered zmoricanzus et Ner'icanzts Tr5actus. We shall now shortly de- their indepenclene-Metropolis CEsArODUNUvtm or Tutr'ones scribe these seventeen provinces in their order from south- (now Tours), on the Loire. west to northeast. XII. LUGDUNENSIS SECUNDA, northeast of the former. 68. I. NovrEMPOPULANA, later Vatsconia (now Gascogne), Metropolis ROTOMAGUS (now Rouen), on the Seine. was situated at the base of the Pyrenees, and on the south- 71. XIII. BEIGICA SECUNDA, all along the Fretumz Galliwest of Gaul and Aquitania, whose third province it formed; cum or the Channel. Metropolis DURO-CORTORnum or Renzi and owed its name to the nine Gallic tribes that occupied (now Rheimis), with military dep6ts and manufactures of arnls. it. Metropolis, ELUSA, in the centre of the province; a title -Suessiones (Soissons), and Anzb6iaznumze (Amiens), on the which it surrendered in the ninth century to the town Auzsci Somme, had likewise celebrated manufactures of defensive ar(now Auch), on the southeast. mor and military engines. II. AQUITANIA SECUNDA, north of the formner, along the XIV. BELGIcA PRIMA, east of the forimer. Metropolis coast of the ocean, extencled to the Liger (now Loire), with TREvERmI (now Treves), with mnanufactures of arnis and military BURDIGALA (now Bordeaux), on the Garumna (Garonne) for its engines, had been one of the richest and most considerable mietropolis. cities in Gaul, and the residence of the Prmtorial Prmfect of III. AQUITANIA PRIrIA, east of Secunda, with the lletropolis the diocese, before it had been transferred to Arles during the BurunmIEs or Ava~ricumlz (Bourges), in the north of the province. war with the Franks. 69. IV. NARBONENSIS PrIIIA, south of Aquitania Prima. XV. MAXIM3A SEQUANORUM, southeast of Belgica Prima. ran along the Gallic gulf from the Pyrenees to the Rizoclacnzs Metiropolis VESONTIO (Besanton), on the DzuLis (Dubs). (Rhone). Narbonensis had formerly been a vast province, and XVI. GERImANIA PRInm 01or Stperior, east of Belgica Prigiven its name to the four following provinces. Its metropolis nmia, along the banks of the Rhine. MAGONTIACUI (Mayence), w~as NARBO MARTInS (NLarbonn1e), oni tie coast. on the left bank of that river, was the metropolis. It was proV. VIENNENSIS or Vcrrbonensis 7Tertia, east of the former, tected by the long line of fortifications which Hadrian had extended along the left bank of the Rhone from its mouth till drawn firom the jZlceznus (Mayn) across the present Franconia its esit from Lake Lemnan. It became divided into two pro- to REGIUMa (Ratisbon), on the Danube. Argelztoratuim (now Strasburgh), more south, likewise on the river, was the residence " A kind of broomn for mlaking calles, &a. of a military count, with depots and arsenals. Near the city

Page  19 WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. 19 a great battle took place with the united kings of the Ale- The lAbls (Tyne), divided it from Mailxima Cxsariensis on the manni in 357, in which Julian defeated them gallantly and drove north, the Sabbrziza (Severn), froll Britannia Secunda on the them across the river. west, and the Tacnzesis (Thames)7 from Britannia Prima on XVII. GEnMANIA SECUNDA or Iv.feiior', northwest of the the south. The metropolis must have been either LoNDINformer, extended along the left bank of the Rhine until its IUam (London), on the Tamesis, or VERULAMIUM (St. Albans, discharge in the Gerlmlan Sea. Metropolis CoLoNIA AcGRIPPINA in Hertfordshire), one of the earliest and most important colo(Cologne), on the left bank of the river.-Asciburgiumtn (now nies of the Romans. Asburgh), Bozznac (now Bonn).-Conqe/*entes (now Coblentz), II. BmITANNIA PRIMA elbraced the south of the island, from on the junction of the Moselle with the Rhine.-Borbetonzm- the mouth of the Tamesis westward to the Sabrianun 1E.stua— us or Vormrlaccia (now Worms). All these cities on the Rhine, 9-'im (the Bristol Channel). Metropolis IDURovERNUM (now and those on the upper Danube, such as Ratisbon, Batcva- Canterbury), on the southeast of the province. Venta BelgaCastrC (Passau), and Vienna, had in their origin been Roman -mtn (now WVinchester) was a thriving colony of Belgians, setcamps —caCstmca-stativw -of the sixteen legionls, that, for cen- tled in the island. Dubrce (Dover), on the cliffs of the F'eturies, were stationel on the borders of Germlany. The neigh- tznZ GalliCmtn7 (British Channel), opposite to the Gallic harboring Gallic and German inhabitants had successively settled bor 7titts (now Calais), the nearest passage across. around these bulwarks, for their protection and commerce. BRITANNIA SECUND)A formed the western mountainous porForeign merchants from distant countries had there opened tion of the island, between the Severn and the Irish Channel, their markets and fairs, and thus those wealthy and powerful the miodernl Wales. 3Ietropolis mnay have been IscA SILUmRU1\ cities arose, which later cluring the Middle Ages as free impe- (now Caerleon), onl the mouth of the Severn, the ancient capirial towns — Feie Reiclsscdtdicwere to form their armled tal of the Silures. confecleracies anild bear down on the spear-point the despotism IV. MAXIMA C- (SARnENSIS lay on the north of the of the proud nobility of the Germanic empire. Durinllg the civil Humber (Northumbria)7 as far as the wall of Hacldrian on wars between the wrangling sons of Constantine (340-355), the Tyne. Metropolis 1EsoBtACU,1 (noW York), ill thle centre the Roomanll garrisons had been recalled from the Rhine, and the of the province, the seat of the vicar of Britain. It was a flourishling provinces of Gaul were thus exposecd to the incur- large, well fortified, and flourisling city, the centre of all the sions of the German barbarians beyond the river. Swarmllas Roman military forces and arsenals in the island. Both Sepof Fralnks alnd Alemlanni (77) now crossed and spread levas- timus Severus, and Collst.antius Chlorus, made a long sojourna tation as far as the Loire. Forty-five populous cities, Tongres, in York, andcl both died there. Cologne, Trlves, Worlms, $pire, and Strasburgh, besides a far V. VALENTIA was the nortlhlernlost part of the British dliogreater number of open towns sand villages were pillaged acnd cese, andcl comprehended the whole clistrict inclosed between for the most part reduced to ashes. The Alemanni already the southern wall of Haclrian, and the earlier outer wall of Agribegan to establish themselves on the left bank of thle Rhline, cola on the Forth, between Edinlburgh and Glasgow; thus it andcl the Franks occupied c te islacnd of the Bcataian7s (now comprised thle later county of Northunmberlancd, andc the ScotHollandcl) andcl Toxandrclia (Brabant), when Julian, the young tish Bordcler and Lowlands. It was only a military line, withemperor, appeared witl hhis legions, and in the brilliant campaigns out any regular Roman settlement.7 Thle great Julius Agriof 356-358, defeatel the Alemalnn i at Strasburgh, cdriving them cola, after his brilliant victories against the Caledonians, at heacllong across the Rhine, and making a treaty with the power- the base of the Gramlpians (thle highlands of Perth), built the ful Franlks, permitted them to settle down in the cldepopulatecd first fortification across the narrow interval of forty mlliles, province of Germania Secunda (now Belgium), where they re- which he secured by a line of military stations. Yet it minainecl faithful allies of the Romans in the later wars wTith At- proved but al insecure protection, and Hadclrian, therefore, in tila and the Huns (451), until they, under Clovis, burst forth his enthusiasmi for architecture, built ill 132, the beautiful in 486 to share the spoils of the perishing Empire of the West. double wall, now in its ruins, called the Picts' Wall, running 72. DIOCESE OF BRITAIN. — Roman Britain, which em- for eighty Roman miles, fiom1 the mouth of thle Eden river braced the whole of modern Englandcl, and the Lowlands of and the Frith of Solway, near Carlisle, north of the Tyne, to Scotlandl, as far as the wall of Agricola, between the Frith of Newcastle. It was a magnificent work, with eighty-one strong Forth andl the Clyclde, formed a diocese governed by a Vicar, castles, between which were located numerous smaller towers. and was subdlivicdedl into five provinces, about whose position, Four gates can still be traced. Between the two ranges of borders, andl cities, we have very imperfect informnation. These walls ran a Roman military road of immense flag-stones, lined provinces were, I st, /lIaZxim?~a Ccesarienzsis; 2d, Vcleztic; with extensive baLrracks, quarters for cavalry, and fortified store3d., Br'itannia~ Primza; 4th, Bq-itlnnzia Secuzlda; 5th, houses and arsenals. Interesting inscriptions of the old legions Faivica CCeSCar'iensis. The two first were governedl by Consul- have been found, for instance: Alca Pr'nirza Asto'2zm, andl Alc. lars, and the three others by Presidents. Two military con- Sn'vi~fianzca, Ail JPet~'irtc (all three cavalry), Cobors PYieta auls and a duke were statioonel in this far-off diocese, for its Babtavoet'ut, Coho.s JP~-'i~zca ltng'.ror~', Cozol's Quar'ta tefence against the warlike Caledonians in the unsubduecl GCallorztt%, Covho1's,SecvtvzdCI Dcd~aL? torZt&~, Cobor s 2P~imza Highlands on the north of the island. We begin our clescrip-:/t;lica Dacot'vz%, which show how many cdifferent nationalities tion with the south. were gathered beneath the Roman eagles, and joined company 73. I. FLAVIA CESAmRIENSIS716 which receivecl its imperial together. During the happy reign of Antoninus Pius, the name from Flavius Constantius Chlorus, the father of the great Itomans aclvanacecl ollce more into Caleclonia, andc the earlier Constantine, contained the eastern part of the island, the Mlet- e embankment of Agricola was now restored, by a turf rampart, cia and East Anglia of the Anglo-Saxons ~in the 7th century. erected on solid foundlations of stone. It was consiclerecl as the li~?zes ietz~.reii 7 adcl called FVcdl62,n Antonizi. The dis16 Great doubt exists with regard to the position of Flavia Ctesari- trict was, however, soon invaded by the barbarians fi'om the cnsis, aznd Britannia Prima. We follow here Spruner, in the latest edition of his Medimval Atlas, and in his Atlas Antiquus. Professor An-'* The masters of the fairest ancd most wealthy climates of the sart, in his translation of the Historical Atlas of Krulse (1834), andc Dr. globe, turned with contempt fiom the gloomy hlills, assailed by the Wiltsch, in his excellent Ecclesiastical Atlas (1844), have both placed winter tempest, from lakes concealed in a blue mist, ancd from cold and Flavia Ctesariensis in the south, so that the twvo B3ritannime lie east and lonely heaths, over w~hich the deer of the forest wrere chased by trloops west together. of naked barbarians. —Gibbon, chapter!.

Page  20 20 FIRST PERIOD.-THE WORLD OF THE BARBARIANS. sea-shore, and though Count Theodosius reconquered it, and century, to form large confederacies of kindred tribes: the gave it its name Valentia, in honor of the Emperor Valenti- Franks on the lower, and the Alemanni (all men) on the upper nian, yet it was definitively lost for the empire in 395, when Rhine; the Quadi, Marcomanni, and Boioarii (Bavarians) on the legionaries could hardly defend themselves behind the the Danube; the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Gepide on the still stronger walls of Hadrian; and the daring Picts and Pontus. Like the waves of the tempestuous ocean, against Scots carried their depredations among the peaceful and dis- the opposing dikes, they continued their attacks against the armed Britons on the Humber. weakened and demoralized empire with various success, Such was the state of the Roman Empire, in A. D. 395. until, in the year 376, the Huns, from the Volga, subdued all the eastern Germanic and Sclavonic nations, and uniting with them, fell upon the more western tribes, and forced ~ II. THE WORLD OF THE BARBARIANS, them, by a mighty, simultaneous effort, to cross the rivers, and to seek new settlements in the civilized provinces of the AT THE CLOSE OF THE FOURTH CENTURY. South. Thus the sudden appearance of the, Huns in A. D. 375 is 74. GENERAL DIVISION. —The Barbarian or extra-Roman the signal for the general irruption of the Germans, and the World, during the fourth century, immediately before, or dismemberment of the Roman Empire. during the great migration of the northern tribes across the We shall now attempt to describe the nations of indepenDanube and the Rhine, between A. D. 376 and 410, can, with dent Germany in their seats, immediately before that great regard to the relations of those nations to the Roman Empire, event which changed the whole political position of Europe, be divided into three great parts. 1st. The countries situated and the empire of the Huns, under Balomir and Attila (376 in the centre and north of Europe and the northwest of Asia, -451), at that time embracing the greater past of ancient which were inhabited by Celts, GervzCans, Scazndinavians, Scythia and Sarmatia, from Mount Oural to the Danube, and Slavi, Finns and dins. 2d. The countries in Asia, south to the very heart of Germany. of Mount Caucasus, on the eastern frontiers of the empire, occupied by Chaczaars, Tar'tars, A7r'menians, Persians, and A.-GERMANIA. Sa'razens. 3d. The regions of northern Africa, from Egypt 76. ITS EXTENT. —Aneient Germany extended fiom the to the Atlantic, and extending south of the empire, toward coasts of the Germanic Ocean and the Baltic on the north to the great Libyan desert, with their wild Moorish tribes of Ama- the banks of the Danube on the south. On the west it bordered zirghiz Kabyles, Ber)eres, and other mixed YEthTojrtan, races. on the Rhine-though some Germanic tribes were early seated on the left bank of that river, and there mixed up with the I. NORTHERN COUNTRIES. Belgians. On the east, the Vistula and the Carpathians separated it nominally froml Sarmatia. We say nominally, because 75. REGIONS AND PRINCIPAL N-~ATIONS. -On the north and so early as the third century the Gothic tribes from Scandinavia northeast of the Roman frontiers beyond the Rhine, the Danube, had already begun their muigrations toward the Black Sea, and the Black Sea, and the cha:in of Mount Caucasus, vast plains had after the conquest of Sarmatia, formed those powerful Gerextend to the shores of the ocean and its mlany gulfs, which em- anic es of the Ostrogoths isigoths and Gepid brace thle European Continent on the north. These plains are,xtended the German t ongue from th e Rh in e to the which extended the German tongue from the Rhine to the on the east, bordered by the high range of Mount Oural, which The Romans being almost entirely unonly by a swelling hill country, forming the watershed of numerous riversweli is connected on the southwest with the Carpa- acquainted with the countries north of the Baltic, counted the merous rivers, is connected on the southwest with the Carpa- Jutland - Chersonesus Cimbrica thc large peninsula of Jutland Chersoness Cinb6'ica-the thian and Bohemian Mountains of Central Europe. In the Danish Archipelago, and Scandincvia (Sweden and Nornorth and northwest these plains were then covered with dense and sombre forests. On the southeast, toward the Pontus and be a dreary island, situated in the Northern Ocean-sOctauzls the Caspian, they formed open steppes, with fertile pasture Septentrionalis-and their poets frequently descant upon the grounds along the banks of the rivers, where from times im- horrors of the Uti hu. memorial, Scythian and Sarmatian nations roamed as no- E T t 77. EArLY MmGRATIONS.-Through the dim traditions of mades with their herds and flocks. All these countries were early ages we discover that different nations, descending fro but little known to the ancients. Thl-e Greeks and Rorent nations, descending from the table lands of Mount Caucasus, and the distant Himalaya, were ignorant of their limits; and they designated them con- took a western direction toward Europe. They all contook a western direction toward Europe. They all confusedly under the vague denominations of Germnanila, Sairnzacur to prove that that continent was originally peopled by four tia Etrop~oa, Sa~r'mati~a Asiatica, and Scythica. ]During the great streams of population from central Asia, which followed first two centuries of our era, while the empire still subsisted in its full force, the Roans cared little about the revolu- l anguages clearly separable from one aother, though the o tions of those distant rons, except only those of the Ge- mon root of all is found in the Sanscrit,.the sacred language of mans, who were continually attacking the Roman garrisons the Hindoos. All these nations have, therefore, by modern on the frontier lines of the Rhine and the Danube. Philologians, been called the 2ndo-Gel'~nanzic RCIce. The The conquest of Germany, and the extension of the Ro- earliest of these nations, te Pear man frontiers to the Baltic Sinus Codans or E ifare Sue- meet already in the eighteenth century, u. c., occupying the Hesperian and Illyrian vicum-had been a vorite idea in the times of Augustus. Peninsulas, that is, Italy and Greece, and the islands of the But the terrible defeat of the Roman legions, under Varus, Egean. From the many Pelasgian tribes sprang the Greek, on the banks of the Lzu2ic~ (Lippe), near Parletlorn, in the < v Illyrian, and Italian nationalities, and their languages. Greek year 9 A. c., and the little advantage of the later avenging exediin of. Drsu a nd Germaicus, ad v nae o t he epae-gn and Latin stand as sisters in relation to the ancient Pelasgian mother tongue. The second migration, that of the Cells, and rors give up those fond hopes, and henceforth they cir- ther ne he c n iri, t o then cunscribet themselves to the defence of the river lines and their kindred the Ciri (Cimbi), took more northern the Hadrian walls, between the Mayn and Danube beyond them. direction, and settled in early times both in Spain, France But the Germanic nations, who separately had been vanquish- n This is the reason why some wliters firom the fourth centlury say ed and repelled by Roman discipline, began, during the third that Germany comprised the whole country westward of the Thanais

Page  21 FIRST PERIOD.-GERIIANIA. 21 and in the British Islands, where the Welsh still preserve the ing from the sources of the Danube northward, between the name of Kymri; other Cimbri seem to have taken possession Rhine and Mayn-the present Odenwald and Spessart-and of Jutland, whence they later migrated to Italy, and were de- crossing this river eastward through the whole breadth of Gerstroyecl by Marius (n. c. 101). The third race, the Germznanzic many, north of Bohemia, joining the Carpathian range, and tribes, finding the south and west occupied by Pelasgians and then descending upon the plains of Dacia or Moldau. It emCelts, settled in the centre and continued their conquests north braced thus all the central mountain-ranges of Germany, the against the Finns or Chudes, already firom remote times in- Ertz, Fichtel and Riesen-Gebirge, though it appears that the habiting Scandinavia. In the east the Germnans were, in sev- IRomans had likewise particular names for different parts of eral regions, mixed up with the Sc&-'riatian or Sclcavosnic tribes, it.* Casar describes it as an inmpenetrable and dreary region, who form the fourth race, whose progress westward occurs in through which the reindeer, the elk, and the wild urus ranged much later times, i. e., the fourth and fifth centuries, and con- at liberty, or were chased by the still wilder Souabian. With timnes until the 1lth and 12th, because the Sclavonians followed the change in the climate the former of these useful animals slowly in the track of the Germans, being themselves pushed on have now retired northward to the pole, and constitute the from the east by the Huns, and later by the Chazars and other principal food and wealth of the Laplanders; while the z'rzus fierce Turcoman tribes from beyond the Caspian. Nullerous (our ox) is still met with in the woods of eastern Poland. detached Sclavonic hordes settled in the abandoned lands between "Who would leave the softer climate of Italy, Asia or the Danube and the Baltic, and became the neighbors of the Africa," says the terrified Roman, " or fix his abode in that Germans on the Elbe and the Adriatic. It is from the country where nature offers nothing but scenes of deformity; branches of the German stem that, not only our immediate where the land presents a dreary region, without form or culforefathers the Angles, Saxons and Danes, but also those of ture, and if we except the affection of a native for his mother the other celebrated nations of modern Europe, unquestionably soil, without a single allurement to make life supportable!" have descended. The German race was divided into two na- Yet in open villages, on the outskirts of those green forests, tionalities, the Scacndinacvianz or ormzl)anCz, and the Dutch/ on the banks of those majestic rivers, lived a handsome, (Deutch) or Gothic. To the first belong the Danes, Longo- healthy, noble race, whom the pigmy Romans in their arrobarcls (Lombards), Angles, Jutes, Swedes, Norwegians and gance and envy called BARBARIAN GIANTS; and whom modern Icelanders. To the main German stock the mighty people of classical pedants most injudiciously have compared with the Goths, the Souabians, the Bojoars (Bavarians), the Marko- the savage Rccldsins of the American forests. No the manni in Bohemia, the Thuringians in central Germany, the German Barbarians were made of steel of another tenlper! Franks on the Rhine, the Vandals, Burgundians, Herules, -a race endowed with brilliant qualities of mind and body, Rugians-all on the Baltic, the Vistula and Oder, the Fris- which excited the dread and admiration of the all-conquering ians on the German Sea, and the Saxons on the }Elbe, the Romans themselves; nay, history records no people who pos neighbors of the Angles, Jutes and Danes, and partaking of sessed nobler capacities and qualifications, rule and order, a their dialect, religion and manners. sublime patriotism, fidelity and chastity, in a greater propor All these tribes of the Germanic race resembled each other tion than the Germans. "There," says Tacitus, " no one in their general character, although each had its particular smiles at vice, for in the Germans good morals effect nzore, than virtues or vices: thus to make a distinction, we say that the elsewhere good laws." This moral worth of the Germans, Goth was noble, honest, andcl sober; the Vandal and Herule which beams through all their rudeness, their love of arms and fierce and bloodthirsty rovers; the Aleman and Bavarian strife, had its true basis in the sanctity of marriage and doswaggering and intemperate; the Frank lively, voluptuous and mestic happiness; for these two important features determined treacherous; the Saxon sincere, daring, and always rough andl the morality of the ancient Germans, as they do now that of ready.'9 the modern Americans. The children of the Germans were to 78. DESCRIPTION OF THE CoUNTRY-. — The general aspect of their parents the detarest pledges of love; nor was a trace to be Germany during this period, was very different from what it is found in Germany of the tyrannical power of the cruel Roman at the present day. It was then almost entirely covered with father over his children. impenetrable forests, interspersed with pathless morasses and 79. INSTITUTIONS.-In the institutions of the Gerlans we swamps, which rendered the atmosphere damp and cold. The find already the origin of the Feudal System, which was enbanks of the lower Rhine, the lWVeser, and the Elbe were tirely unknown among the Greeks and Romans of antiquity. marshy, and the entire western coast of Holland, Hanover and The German lord-vedling-lives on his estate with his family, Holstein-which now after the exertions of fifty consecutive occupied with riding, hunting, feasting or fighting; he despises generations, by immense dikes and bulwarks, secure the rich all mechanical pursuits, anci leaves the care of his farms to his pasture lands (mnarsk) against the waves of the Germanic Ocean, lides or serfs, who are personally freemen and well treated, but mwere, at that remote time, exposed to the continual inulcndatiolns furnisl their lord with grain and cattle. They are only vasof the stormy element. The most celebrated of all thile fo-ests sals, while prisoners of war or criminals become real slaves, atof Gerlmany, whilch inspired thile Romans with shuddering and tendant upon their- masters like the servi of the Romans. All dismay, was the Hercynian forest, Htercynius.SaltuZs, extencl- the Germlan xdlings, with shield and lance, accompanied by their vassals, assembled on horseback at their national diet" The langlluage of the Germans formed two distinct dialects, the nza/llmn-where they chose their king (kcOnig) from the most hligh German-IIocAl-dlemmth-andl thle low German-lot-c~c h Of powerful family. The king wears long flowing hair as his the first we possess thie celebrated Gothic translatioll of the Gospels by particlar distinction, t his poer is very circuscribed Bishop Ull tphilas,,. D. 348-88, in tlhe 3{ceso-Gothic mother tongue- Bh opds Upias A. D.z 348-88, inn d thMso otbic l mohr tongue- r.. and if unslzilfiull or unfortunate in war, the nobles had the tile oldiest mollument of the German language, and two highly interesting collections of H-eroic songs-the Book of the Heroes or Heldcenbclh, right to select another leader or herzog to lead them to battle. and the song of the Niebelungen, both from an early period of the From these herzogs sprang afterwards the celebrated mayors middle ages. In the low Saxon, we have the Epic poem of teineke of the palace-mayores donmis —amongthe Franks. At these Fox, the Saxon Mirror (Saclsenspoiegel) and other poems. Inthe 12th mnallc, the young nobles received their arms and steeds, the century the Saxon dialect began to yield to the more polished dialect of Souabia, and thle chivalrous poetry of the mzinnzesnigers (troubadlours) which then rose to become the written language, wvhile the old Saxon 20 f. Mc. 1CCiCsna Silva for the Black forest-thle Scluoa.rtz-. wa(l — dwindled down to a vulgar dialect spoken in Hanover and IIolstein. between the upper Rhine, and thle soulces of the Danube.

Page  22 22 PFIRST PERIOD. —GERMANIA. early origin of the arnming of the knight in later ages. Amoig l beyond the Scheldt between the Samart'a (Sommne) and the Mosa, the Germans the oldest son inherits the paternal estate, the which Julian the Apostate ceded to them at the treaty of 358. younger brothers are provided only with shield, lance and war- 81. THE ALEMANNI, in the southwestern angle of Gerhorse, and then sent off to fight their fortune elsewhere. Here many, on the Upper Rhine (in Baden, Wartemberg and Switwe have the origin of the armed retinue which surrounded the zerland), were the ancient people of the SUEVNI, or Souabians, German nobles; for the young warriors would take military who, in the time of Caracalla (A. D. 211), had formed another service at the estate or court of a neighboring chief, and thus confederacy with their neighbors the Turoni, Hermanbecome his sworn liegemen and follow his banner. The chiefs duri, and other tribes, and, calling themselves Alemanzni or of highestnote received the sword ofjustice, as Counts or Grafen, All-men, invaded the territory behind the Hadrian Wall, in the regions or Gazte, intowhich thevalleys of Germany were where they afterwards obtained permanent seats. This divided, and they were later, after the conquest of the Roman was the most exposed part of the empire, between the upper provinces, rewarded with estates and territories which they Rhine and the springs of the Danube: it was called Stinus held with military tenure, and thus the earliest form of feudal- In7eTerii; and indeed Roome nourished the serpents in her ity is established. The different German tribes were in con- bosom! tinual hostility with one another, and their eternal feuds gave THIE HERMUNDURI, on the east, lived formerly on the upthe greatest security to the Roman empire. Chieftains defeat- per Mayn, toward the Danube (in Franconia). They were a ed at home, fled to the Romans and received aid to return quiet people, who are more known from their brisk commerce sword in hand. Large bands of outlaws flocked together; the with the Romans on the Danube, than by their military exsword gave a support no less than the plough. Thus rose that ploits. After the invasion of the Bojoars, or Bavarians, they celebrated class of warriors by the Germans called Recken or melt away, or mix with the Alemanni. Warc'ge/n (Varoegs,) and by the Danes Ve'inger or armed THE BURGUNDIANS —Brguuzdi or Bu'rgundioncs,-and refugees, who sought their fortune in foreign lands. All these the VANDALS- Cclzdatli-were at the time we speak of (395), homeless warriors formed the flower, the vanguard of those im- the eastern neighbors of the Alemanni. They belong to the mense swarms of armed tribes of a hundred nations,-Ger- same race, and had formerly occupied the shores of the Baltic. mlans, Scandinavians, and Sclavonians, whom we meet at the The Burgundians have left their name in the small island, great migration in A. D. 376. The Germans fought with shield Burgudezl reholn (Bornholm), in the Baltic. The Vandals, and lance, without heavy armor, in deep columns in the form and their fierce companions, the Rtgiances, from the island of of wedges. Their horse was formidable and much feared by the Rigen, and the Ile'rules, being driven west by the Goths, fell Romans on account of the select bodies of young archers, who Iupon the Suevi and Hermunduri, and carved out with their were exercised to keep pace with the cavalry by laying hold of swords new and more pleasant settlements on the Mayn, where the manes of the horses while charging at full career. Caesar we find them preparing for' the great expedition beyond the owed his victory at Pharsalus to such a daring exploit of his Rhine, in A. D. 406. The HIerules and Rugians, however, reauxiliary squadrons of German horse. mained on the Danube, where the country north of Vienna, to80. NATIONS OF GERMANY.-The most celebrated tribes ward Hungary, afterwards was called Rugiland. inhabiting that country immediately before their invasion THE MArnCO;MANs-MdClco0?ann2i-appear for the first time of the Roman empire in the fifth century, were the fol- as the conquerors of the Bojoars —Boii —in their old seats in lowing': Boiohenutn, (Boheim or Bohemia). The vanquished people THE FFRISIANS-F'isii-Friesen —inhabited the north- abandoned their native valley, and were by the Romans perwestern coasts, from the Mosa to the Eider, and higher north, mitted to cross the Danube, and occupy parts of Rhixtia Seto Jutland. The Frisian tribes had, no doubt, been driven cunda, which later received the name of Bojoaria, now Bavatoward the sea by the Saxons; yet on the low, swampy coast ria. The Marcomans in Bohemia, and their allies, the Quadi, and the adjacent islands (now Holland and Friesland), they in Moravia, gave great trouble to the Romans on the Danube; found a refuge, and were left to themselves. The whole na- they even crossed the Alps, and appeared before Aquileja; ture of that country has now changed by the irruption of the but Marc-Ls Aurelius drove them back with so great a loss, sea; the lake Flevo formerly received the northern branch of that they afterwards disappear altogether, mingling up, no the Rhine, but became transformed into the open gulf of Zui- doubt, with I-Ierules or Langobards. der-Sea. The North or Sta-ced Frisians inhabited the coast THE QuADI were divided into two tribes, Bitcaaii inhabitof Schleswig-the West-wold —with its rich pasture lands (the ing the left bank of the Danlube, and Tracazsj',ugitanzi beyond Marsk), and the celebrated island of Helgoland-Heilig'ancl, the mountains in Moravia and Silesia. or Sacred Isle-at the mouth of the Elbe. There those TIE VARINI or VArNI inhabited the shores of the Baltic, hardy pirates had their naval stations, the sanctuaries of their west of the Rugians, in the present Pomerania, where they idols, and their hoarded wealth, which they for centuries de- bordered on the Saxons and Langobarcls. fended at the lance's point, against Danes and Saxons. 82. TIIE SAxoNs- Saxones-formned a powerful confederaTHE FtRANKs-acb-rzi-southeast of the Frisons (in tion of Low-German tribes between the Baltic and the Elbe the Prussian Rhine Provinces, Hassia, Nassau, and Belgium), (in the present Holstein and the territory of Hamburg). But from the Sccldis (Scheldt), and the Mosella to the Viszu'gis when the Franks began to invade Gaul, and settle beyond the (WVeser), formed a powerful confederation of the western Ger- Rhine, the Saxons likewise crossed the Elbe and occupied the man:tribes, the Chamavi, Sicamlbri, Bructeri, Catti, and lancls which they had left. The Saxons thus extended on the others mentioned by Tacitus, in the 1st century.2' The Franks Weser, and as far as the lower Rhine, absorbing the smaller were divided into the Rip6acrii, who remained on the banks of tribes, who yielded to their power; and they soon began, with the Rhine, and westward as far as the llIosa (Meuse), and the their neighbors and cousins the Angles and Jutes, to prepare Salii or Salian Franks, who had advanced and occupied thelands their fleets for their piratic expeditions on the coasts, which half a century later were to carry them across the German 21 Prof. Henry Leo opposes the idea of a Frankic Confederacy. Ac- Ocean, to the shores of Britain. cording to his views the Franks were the masters, and the vanquished tribes stood to them in the relation of subjects, Ledjonen (ignavi, or cowards), who had lost part of their personal liberty.-Hfistory of the the Saxons, in the present Lauenburg and Brandenburg, were Middle Ages. Halle, 1830, p. 85. originally a Scandinavian people from the north of Jutland,

Page  23 FIRST PERIOD.-SCANDINAVIA. 23 beyond the Liinzfiord (the province called Vendila). That their capacity, but boastful, grandiloquent, and selfish. North of language was Danish is sufficiently proved by their historian the Elbe, the country of the Saxons was on account of the Paul NWarnefrid and their laws afterwards in Lombrardy. They forests, called i167z &tchtsen (Holsatia, Holstein), and was received their name-" _Lonz'6ber6?cds — according to tradition, divided into three parts; on the west Ditzctv'si:, with its free from Odin, the All-father himself.2'2 They abandoned their farlllers the Ditnmarskers; on the south Stom'zarn7, and ceast, on dreary home during an inundation of the ocean, and remained for the Baltic WT(7Eg-ic, which afterwards, when the greater part of a length of time on the Elbe. In a subsequent period, after the the Saxons had crossed over to Britain, was occupied by roving first great migration, we find them again in northern Panno- tribes of Sclavonians, the Obotrites and Vendes. nia (Hungary), where they form a powerful and warlike nation. THIE ANGLEs-Ang'li-north of the Saxons and Lango- B.-SCANDINAVIA. bards, beyond the river Eider (in the present Duchy of Schles- S5. SC ANDINAVIA is formed by the Danish islands Sweden wig, where a district is still called Angeln), were of Scandina- and Norway. Denmnark has its name, not from Dan 3Mykilati vian origin, like their neighbors the JUTES or JOTES —Jzutre- (the m1-agnifficent),one of its earliest traditional kings, but from in the northern part of the Chersonzesus Cimvzbica (Jutland). DANER or DANSKIER,, a tribe of the great people of the Goths, " Dayn anzd Anzg-ul " says the historian, Saxo the Grammarian, who in early times occupied the Lowlands or open lands"werq'e brothcrs," a figurative statement of the fact that the DANNE-MAR,, south of the mountains of Gothland, and east of Danish and English people are originally descended fiom the the islands of the Baltic. This open country on the mainland of sae ancestry.23 They soon joined the Saxos in their - Sweden was known as SCANDIA (Skaane) to the Romans. time expeditions, and migrated with them and some of the The Danish islands were called EYE-GOTHLAND, and the PeJutes, to Britain toward the middle of the 5th century. The ninsula of Jutland REIT-GOTHLAND, because the Danish Jute andl the Angle or Sleswiger have in the mass of the eo- Goths would pass through the whole length of it on horseple the same general character and mannlers, except the greater back.24 elasticity which the Angle has acquired by his intercourse "In the farthest north," says Jornandes, the Gothic hiswith the Germans. The Jutlanders are proud of their hardy torian, "a number of hostile tribes dwelt in the country of Scanand enterprising ancestors. Hengist and Horsa, who first set- zi, Scandinavia. This region extends itself to the boundary tied in Britain, were Jutes. Ruric, who in 852 with his north- of the habitable globe, where in the winter a gloomy light ern Vikings laid the foundation of the Russian empire, was covers the earth with darkness during forty days; and in the likewise a Jute, and so was king Gorm the Old, who united summer the sun remains above the horizon for an equal time. all the small principalities of the Danish Islands, and formed to the Goths dwell the Suethones (no doubt the Swedes), the monarchy iln A.. 880. Yet the Jutes, sooner than their who with swift horses chase the wild animals that inhabit neighbors, settled down to the more quiet pursuits of agricul- their woods, and transmit their valuable skins through a hunture and cattle breeding. They are still a brave but peaceful dred different nations to Italy. In the same regions dwell the and slow-speaking people; they are considered as cunning and gentle race of Finns, and in the adjoining country, the Danesclose; the proverb is, " sharp as a Jutature. From this region came the Goths, who, ring, tey can e rosed to the highest tsias ad landing on the Rugian coast, defeated the wandering hordes of are strongly attached to their king and country. The Jutes Vandals, and five generations later occupied the countries conare middle sized, short, fair haired, of a gentle and agreeable tiguous to the Euxine Sea." The homestead of the Danes, physiognomy; their women are lovely, with blue eyes, and rosy therefore, was Zealand, Fyen, the circnjacent smaller islcheeks, but as clumsy as their helpmates, clattering along on ands, and the fertile plains of Skaane, the latter of which wooden shoes. Different is the character and deportment of the remained an integral part of Denmark even after the Middle Saxon or Holsteiner. He is tall and handclsome, with auburn hair. Ages, until the disasters of the Thirty Years' War, in 1648, He is industrious, active, dexterous, ambitious, and quarrelsome; when it was ceded to Sweden. Sweden was called Svca Lacnd he is arbitrary and imperious, witty, lively, but proud and or Svea 2Rie, the kingdom of the SVEAI or SvENSKAr, likeoverbearing towards his inferiors. He is full of talent and wise a Gothic tribe, inhabiting the lands north of their brethren the Danes or Dansker. Norway does not signify 22 Being sorely pressed by the surrounding Saxon and Sclavonian " the way to the north pole," but North, realm, XNord-r'ige, tribes, the Scandinavian emigrants addressed themselves to Frigga, the contracted Norge. THEi NoRSE call themselves lVo'dclC21,cnd wife and sister of Odin, to intercede for them with All-father. The god- (Normans), and speak the same written language as the Danes, dess then told them, says the Saga, to unite in prayers early in the though their pronunciation is as rough as their mountains. morning, with their wives spreading their long, fair hair over face and Z0,~~~,The early history of Scandinlavia is mythical; through the bosom, in order to attract the attention of Odin. Tihe Jutes followed T e h the advice; and when Odin at dawn of day was looking down upon the dim traditions we can discover only the arrival of Odin and his world from ATalhalla, and beh eld the shaggy people below, he turned asars or priests, from Asa-gaarcl (Asow), on the Black toFrigga, and said, "Whoare thoselongbeards?" The goddess quickly Sea, n. c. 70, and the great influence which his religious sysanswered: "Thou hast given thy people a name; give them novw vic- temn and conquests exerted among the Northmen. IIis tory and lands!" And Odin smiled, and said: "I bless their sworls, escdants, the Siioclunger^ in Denmark, and the Ynglinand grant them success." The heathen Angles, Saxons, and Danes, had the sane relo. gar, in Sweden, continued to reign for centuries in dlifferent Their common deities, -Tyr, WVodan (Odin), Tlur (Tor), Frea (Freia), smaller dynasties, until later in the ninth century a new light &c., still survive, and are daily suggested to our memory in the appella- is thrown on the North on the introduction of Christianity by tions of the dcays of the woeek common to both Danes and Anglo-Saxons. missionaries from France. Three great events however rest on The same mystic beings: gud, god; alfar, Wlfe, ylfe, elves; vcetter, a historical basis, the migration of the Langobards ifrom Jutwihte, wvights; dverger, dveorgs, dwvarfs; jotnar, jcmtter, jotnas; troll, land, that of the Goths from Gothland or northern Sweclen, trolde, trolles; hel, hell, &c., were wvorshipped or feared, by both nations, and occur not only in their ancient poetical remains, but also in the popular superstitions and ballads of their still flourishing posterity. Their gods and heroes have likewise the same names: Woden, Odin; 24 Jute is pronounced yoot, and it seems, therefore, a kindredl word Sliiold, Scyld; Halfdan, I-Iaelfdene; Ubbe, Uffo, Offa; Hrolfr, PRolf. with Gotls.

Page  24 24 FIRST PERTOD. —THE 1-TUNNISH EMPIRE. 449, to Britain. Yet if history is silent, the sagas and songs matian races then got a more modern name from their own in the Icelandic edclcas are eloquent testimonials from the language. heroical days of the old Sea-kings and Vi-kings, and the 89. E IPImE OF TI-IE HUNs.-The empire of the Huns, gradual progress of civilization is plainly discernible through — fluini-had not yet obtained, at the time we here describe, the ages of stone, of bronze and of iron, by the interesting dis- the immense extent which it acquired afterwards; but almost coveries made in the sepulchral monuments of these times. immediately on the appearance of the Hunnish monsters on Another proof of the comparative early cultivation in the hoary the Volga, one nation sank before them after the other; they north are the numerous Runic inscriptions found every where, overran the greater part of Sarmatia and Scythia, and penewhich go back to the third, or even second century of our trated into the heart of Gaul. Some have held the Huns to era. be the Chinese tribe Hiongnu,26 but this is erroneous. They 86. THE FiNNs-Finnait/T —were the aboriginal inhabit- were a mighty nomadic people of Mongol race, quite different ants of the north; these;" gentle Finns," the black-haired from the inhabitants of southern Asia (Tartars), and Europe tribe, belonged to the race of the CHUDES, Occupying in those (Pelasgi). They were CHIUNNI (H;unzni), of UGrIAN race, kin early times the greater part of Scandinavia, QUAINLAND (now dred to the HUNGarIANS from Mount Oural. The Ugri are of Lapmark in northeastern Sweden), JOTUNHEIMin (now Finnland), FINNmIS or CHUDISi-r descent, and so are both the Huns and the and BIAMlELAND (the whole northern Russia) on the White Hungarians, with the difference, however, that the iHuns have Sea, as far as Mount Oural. These poor Skrit-Finns, clad in an admixture of the Mongol or Calmluc, while the Magyars skins, dwelling in fur tents, tending their reindeer, and chasing have more Turkish blood in their veins. The IIuns are dclethe wild urus, were subjugated or driven northward by the scribed as the ugliest race of monsters the world ever saw; and proud tribes of the Goths; and it is an interesting fact from the Goth Jornandes says that their horrible deformity and bestithe sagas, that the black-haired race, the Finns, remained;" the ality gained more battles for them than their arrows. At the thralls or serfs, tilling the ground of the fair-haired southern time of their invasion they were divided into two numerous conquerors long centuries after their first conquest of Scandi- tribes —the WHIITE HUN or the eAlqphthaZlttes, on the east of navia." the Caspian, hovering on the frontiers of the Persian empire, where they made desolating incursions; and the BLACK HUNS, EMPIRE O F THE HUN S. the true UGRIANS from Mount Oural. Starting from their dreary table-lands (Siberia) in 374, they suddenly appeared SARMATIA AND SCYTHIA. on the Volga, where they overthrew the Alani, and in a single 87. SAMnXTIm.-The Romans gave the name of SarmatCia battle on the banks of the Thanais, destroyed the mighty enlto all the countries between the Vistula, on the west and the pire of the Ostrogoths. The Goths are sudued; thechiefs iqhta or Volg~a, on the east. It ran north toward the Ocean2us of the proud and princely race of Amali serve the Hunnish SRhptet'rionalis, the distance of which was unknown, though we conqueror; all the lands east of the Theiss and the [Danube have already seen the nations bordering upon the Finnish Gulf are devastated A general panic has taken possession of the and the White Sea were not Sarnatians but Chudes; its limits many Sarmatic, Turkish, Chudish, and Germanic tribes on the on time south, were thme Euxime Pontus and the (Caucasian Ridge; plains of Sarmatia; many flee westward to the Rhine. Alani, it embraced likewise the fertile Chersonesus a'czrqica (now Cri- Suevi, Vandals, and Burgundians, form their immense caups on a) where the oman empire still possessed some towns situthe upper Danube (81); the terrified Visigoths have already mea), where the toman enrllpre still possessed sote towns suturD ated on the coast. The southeastern part of Sartmatia between crossed that river and inhabit cesia; and thus the Runs in the Thzanais (now Dolon) and Caucasus, was then called Asiatic 380 roam victoriously over those immense regions, and live on Sarmatia, and was, before the arrival of the Huns, occupie by the spoils of the Gepidb, Seyri, Ieruli, and other Germanic nations who follow their banner. 2 The borders of their empire the ALANI, renowned for their excellent cavalry. 88. SYTNIIA. -Bo th Greeks and Romans embraced nder under King Balamir seems to have been the river Tibiscus the appellation Scythia all northern Asia, from the Volga to the (Theiss) on the west; how far it reached north is not to be deeastern ocean, of which they knew -no more than of the f'ozen cided. On the south it was bounded by Mount Caucasus, the oceant bordering that continent on the north. On the south it Black Sea, and the Danube; on the east it stretched away far reached to the Oxus, and the high range of Iac'i.i,S (Emodus, in the interior of Siberia. now Himalaya), from which both the Indus and Ganges take 90. NATIons wh OBEYED TiE Iuns-In our enumeration their source. Another chain of mountains running north, of the nations whom the Huns subjected the he yoke on their which they likewise called ictais,.the present Mustag, divided, first invasion, we will follow the order in which their conquests according to their imperfect knowledge, all Scythia into two took place. The AKATZIPI CIIAzAus, KIozAus or Gzzari, parts: Scythia ilntratz Imnamnz qnontein, and Scythia tcra one of the nmost important Tartaric nations during the imiddle l1naum? (onthis side, or on the west, and beyond, or on the east). ages, had with other Tartaric and Turcoman tribes their homeMlore interesting is the question who the Scythians were, and stead on the steppes above the river Oxus and Iaxartes, east what was the difference between them and the Sarmatians, of the Caspian, and bordered, north and east, on the Ugri that is, Sacuromatians, or lizard (green)-eyed people? The andl Mongols. They then advanced oil the Caspian, which. Scythians, no doubt, were the ancient IfaMssa$getce, between the firom them took the name of Klozar~ic Sea, and they began Caspian sea and the ilake of Aral; they were then Turconmans fromu thence terrible inroads on the Persian empire. They and Tartars, and so are the modern Cossacks; while the " green- were long residing on the northern shores of the Caspian beeyed people," the Sauronatce, are the more uodern Slavi, Sola- tweenL the rivers.Yaci (Oural), and the Rhca or Atel (Volga), vonians, Russians and Poles, nay, a century or two later the when, at the sudden irruption of the I-HInns, they were forced Byzantine historians knew nothing more about thie SauLromatm into sublnmission, and carried along with their conquerors. and Sarmatia; but they are constantly occupied with Slavi, The ALINS, AlaZi, a nation of Germanic origin, though Slavini, and Slavia,2s which distinctly proves that the old Sar- mixed with Turkish blood, who with their herds of horses and Et5 et signifies fYotvos, glor iosn.s, glorious, brave; stona, in Sclavo- 25 Desguignes, in his Histoire des Hunus, and Gibbon, chap. xxvi. mie, is snan. The Sclavonian prisoners during the middle ages brought in 27 Compare the small map illustrating the Conquests of the Hluns on use 011'our modern slve, sklav, esclave, sciavo, eslabo. the lower Danube in 3800

Page  25 FIRST PERIOD.-GOTHS AND SCLAVONIANS. 25 cattle roamed on the sandy steppes, which extend north of tribes of Germanic and Sclavonic descent, in Dacia, and along Mount Caucasus. Defeated by the Huns, part of the Alani the outskirts of the Carpathian mountains. fled southward to the mountains, where their descendants, the THE ~TANDALI ASTINGI (80) had marched eastward, toOssetes, a warlike Circassian tribe, still occupy the northern ward the Black Sea, but like the THERWINGI, another Gothic valleys of Mount Kasbeck and the banks of the Terek. Others tribe, they soon gave up their plans and retired, fleeing back hurried westward and joined the Vandals and Suevi, while toward the Theiss, to escape the fury of the Huns. the mass of the Alani enlisted among their victors, and moved THE JAZYGES (33), a brave Sarmatic people, living on off with them to new settlements. horseback, occupied still the open, swampy plain of the MaThe GOTHSI Gothi. —About this, the most celebrated of rosh, with their immense herds of horses and cattle; they prothe Germanic nations, we have already spoken (85-89). They vided the markets of the Greek empire, but they too bowed settled in very early times on the shores of the Baltic, where to the Hiuns. we find a Godoland and Godescolzia (Castle of the Goths), 91. Among the Slavonic nations north of the Carpathians, further, an island of the name of Gothland, and another Goth- who remained independent during this period, we mention in land in central Sweden, between their brethren the Danes and central and northern Sarmatia, Suethones. But about the year A. D. 200, according to Jornan- THE SLAWINI, ANTI and VENETI, in the later principality des, they turned their arms south again, and appear now for of Lithuania. The latter were likewise called VENEDE, or the first time on the scene of history divided in three great na- VINIDI, on the coast of the Sintus Veneclicus (the Baltic), in tions-the OSTROGOTHS or _Easterni Got/ls, on the Borys- which the Vistula discharges itself. After the downfall of the thenes (Dnieper); the VISIGOTIS 0or Testernz Goth/s, west- Gothic empire, the Veneti became, under the name of ]Vendi, ward of that river in Dacia; and the GEPIDI or the Loiterers, the most powerful and celebrated nation in Sarmatia (Slavia), who remained north of the Carpathian range, at the sources of and extended their sway over all the southern coast of the the Vistula, where they still continued independent of the Huns Baltic, and into lHolstein, where they soon came in hostile at the close of the fourth century. The Goths were the most contact with the Danes. civilized of all the Germanic tribes, and they had adopted THE BorusscI (Prussians), on the right bank of the VisChristianity ear nmasse much earlier than the Greco-Roman in- tula, appear somewhat later, as one of the most savage and inhabitants of the empire. Their bishop, the learned Ulphilas, domitable of the Sclavonian races; but they have now, after invented their alphabet, and translated the New Testament (77). long suffering, become Germanized, as the peaceful inhabitants The family of Amali ruled the Ostrogoths as kings (89); the of East Prussia. Baltes (or the Bold) were the presidents or judges of the Visi- THE HESTII, or ESTYI, on the northeast of the Borussei, goths; yet it seems that King Hermanric, of the Ostrogoths, had quietly inhabited the coasts of their fertile province (now enjoyed a supremacy over the other tribes. All the Sarmatian the beautiful, highly cultivated Estland, or Estonia), since the nations of the eastern plains obeyed the sceptre of the gene- first century, when Tacitus mentions them as active merchants rous Hermanric, who has left a great namne in history; yet the and fishermen, who were occupied in gathering the precious onslaught of the Huns was irresistible-the old king perished yellow ambeir on their coast, and thus kept up a continual in battle, and his brave people was forced to follow the camp of traffic with distant Italy. their monstrous masters. The Visigoths had assembled their 92. GOTHI TETruAxITm were a branch of the Gothic stock forcesbehind the Dcanaster (Dniester), but the Huns swam their who occupied the southern part of the beautiful peninsula of horses through the river to attack the rear of the Goths, who 7T'auiica (Crimea). Only the maritime towns, Da7ndaca, suffered a second defeat on the Htierasats (Pruth). Their and Chiersonesos on the east, and Theodosia (Caffa) on the bravest warriors gathering round their chief judge, Athanaric, Taurian Bosphorus, inhabited by Greeks, renmained in connecattempted a stand on the mountains of Czaucalclzd (the Car- tion with the empire. pathians), but the mass of the nation, stricken with terror, THu ZICmis, ZICKHI, a Caucasian people on the ifypanis hurried to the banks of the Danube, imploring the pity of the (Kuban), in the present Abashia, on the coast of the Black Emperor Valens, for an asylum in the territory of the Sea; the LAZI, in the ancient Colchis, on the south of the Roman empire. They were permitted to cross the river, and range; the IBErI, in the present Grusia, on the river Cyrus more than a million of Visigoths were settled in the Aurelian (Kura), and other nations on Mount Caucasus, all warlike, Dacia (34), and the two Mcesim (31 and 34), whence they after- like their modern descendants, preserved their liberty. wards received the name of Zl/Icmso- Goths. Sword in hand they 93. Farther northeast, along the ridge of MIount Oural, apsoon penetrated across Mount HIamus into the heart of Thrace pear already the vanguard of the SLAvo-TUnKIIsH, and TURco(50); and after the battle of Adrianople and the death of Va- TARTARIc TRIBES in their advance upon the Black Sea and lens, it was only by the greatest exertions of the prudent the Danube. These wild and barbarous nations, the Bulg'aTheodosius that the capital could be saved from those dan- eians, the Avars, thIe horrible Petchzenegi and Czumanzi are gerous guests. in a subsequent period to perform an important part in the Among the many nations then inhabiting Sarmuatia, who history of the MRiddle Ages. The 1Iag'yacrs, the Ugri and passed from the yoke of the Goths, under that of the fierce Il.Tgazci or Huzngazcians, all FiNNO-TURKISH TRImES, on the Hlns, we mention the following: northwestern slope of Mount Oural, are still residing in their THE RoxSOLANS, —Roxolani-(the ancestors of the Rus- old home, Ugria, and there we shall leave them for the present. sians, who inhabited the Palus Maeotis (gulf of Azof), between the lower Borysthenes and the Tanais. They became. CoeNTKIEs IN AsIA. later a powerful people, under the sway of Ruric and his Danish Vikings. 94. THEIR NAMIES.-Among the regions of Asia which were TIIE HEKrUL, driven from the banks of the Pa/lzs Z/ImIotis, known to the Romans, and by them accounted in the world of by the Huns, retreated thence toward the Danube, where we the Barbarians, we need hardly count the wild, roving tribes later find them, on the right bank of that river, between Vi- of the SALRAZENI, or SARACENS; Saraceni, the Beclouins of enna and Buda, forming a powerful kingclom, before their the Arabian desert, who already began to appear on the outmarch to Italy, in 476. skirts of the great Syrian desert, where they lay in wait for TEE PEUCINI, TAIFALI and SCYRES-Scyri, were mixed the caravans firom Darnascus crossing by Palmyra, through /4

Page  26 26 FIRST PERIOD-PERSIA. SECOND PERIOD-DIVISION. the desert, to Babylon on the Euphrates. But we must say the recesses of Mount Atlas, whence they later re-appear as the a word about Armenia, on the northeast of the Roman fron- allies of the Vandals in their war against the Romans. tiers, and of the Persian Empire on the southeast. Thus we have finished our picture of the political, geo95. ARMENIA or GREAT ARMENIA, Armzenia Major, by graphical, and ethnographical condition of the ancient world this name distinguished from Armenia Minor, which belonged at the close of the fourth century. A glance at the second to the Roman empire, formed south of Mount Caucasus an map from the beginning of the sixth will at once show the independent state, or rather a confederacy of states, suffi- great events which have taken place since the fall of the Westciently powerful, which the Romans themselves had assisted in ern Roman Empire, and the settlement of the Germanic nathrowing off the Persian yoke. tions in its devastated provinces.a2 ARTAXATA (now Ardek) on the Araxes, was at that time the most important city. 96. THE EMPIRE OF THE PERSIANS was re-established in A. D. 226, on the ruins of the Parthian power. The last Arsacide was dethroned and killed by Artaxerxes Babegan, with CHAPTER III. whom began the dynasty of the Sassanides. The new Persian Empire comprehended all the countries extending from the EUROPE AND THE ADJACENT PARTS OF ASIA Indian Ocean, Erythreumn Mare, in the south, to the river AND AFRICA. Jaxartes in the north, and from the Indus in the east to the THEIR POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY AT THE ACCESSION OF Tigris and the Euphrates in the west. The Persian monarchs, JUSTINIAN I. A. D. 527. ambitious and warlike, laid claims to the eastern Roman empire as part of ancient Persia, and thus the wars on the fron- 98. GENERAL DIVISION.-We have given a detailed descriptiers were almost continual. The empire was divided into tion of the ancient world before the invasion of the Barbafour'Satrapies. The capital was the city of SELEUCIA, rians. To delineate the movement itself on the map, in such west of the Tigris, and CTESIPHON, 011 the opposite bank, a manner as to combine clearness with accuracy,-to exhibit the the residence of the Parthian Kings during their dominion in march of so many nations crossing and recrossing one another in those regions. Al-Madain, or the Two Cities, was the name all directions, and almost at the same time, would be impossible. given to their ruins, with the materials of which the Arabs after- The earlier attempts of Kruse, Ansart, and others to indicate wards built the city of Bagdad. The New Persians, like the the wanderings of the migrating tribes by colored lines, have Parthians, were originally a brave, warlike people; laborious, therefore been failures, because they only augmented the confaithful, devoted to their country, but servile and reserved. fusion instead of clearing it up. We have in consequence preThe kings were despots, vain of their proud oriental titles; ferred to take our stand in the second map at a time when their will or whim was the only law; Cosroes I. permitted, the migrations of the northern Germanic nations were at an singularly enough, a national assembly to sanction his laws, end, with the only exception of that of the Lom6ardnzs, who, at but every remonstrance was punished with death. One re- a subsequent period, some forty years later, entered Italy. volution, fomented in the seraglio, followed another; unheard With regard to the eastern Sclavonian and Turkish races, no cruelties were committed, and even women succeeded to certain period could be fixed, because their invasions from the the throne. The fire-worship of Zoroaster had been re- Caspian continued throughout the course of the middle ages. stored, and the Macgi (Mobeds) had a preponderating influ- By thus comparing the two first maps, the historical student ence. A splendid cavalry was the strength of the Persian will discover, 1st, that the dominion of the Germanic nations armies, and the steed continued still the favorite animal of the extends already from the northern tropics to the deserts of Persian. Against the Chazars on the Caspian, the Persians Africa, and from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean eastward, defended their frontiers by the celebrated walls, forty para- to the frontiers of the Byzantine Empire in Illyricum; 2d, sangs (150 miles) in length, the Bab-al-Abuab at Dervend, on that the numerous Sclavonian nations, in their progress westthe Caspian. The Nestorians found a hospitable reception in ward, have occupied the lands abandoned by the Germans, Persia, and they alone were tolerated among the Christian from the Elbe and the Baltic, to the Danube and the Adriatic; sects. The luxury among the great was promoted by early 3d, that the western Roman Empire has perished in the deluge commerce with India. The city of Ormus at the entrance of of nations, and that eastern Rome or the Greek (Byzantine) the Persian gulf, became one of the most important emporiums Empire, though still surviving, is sorelypressed by the advancing of the East. Learning flourished at court; Greek philosophers Avars, Bulgarians, and the millions of Turco-Tartars already were well received, but the people were kept in ignorance; descending from Mount Oural. We find, therefore, at the the manners were savage, and women held in servitude and time of the accession of Justinian I., fifteen more or less contempt. Agriculture was protected by the Persian kings as important states, founded and organized by the Barbarians worthy servants of Ormuz, and Persia flourished by her manu- who had taken part in the migration. The larger portion of factures of perfumes, splendid clothing and arms. Such was these nations had already been converted to Christianity, and the state of that mighty Persian monarchy which was soon des- they deserve our particular attention, while we may pass more tined to threaten Constantinople and the Eastern Empirewith rapidly over other regions still, at that time, occupied by destruction, but sank herself before the all-conquering fanaticism Barbarians, who were either subdued by the arms of Byzanof the followers of Mohammed. tium, or were suffered to enjoy their wild independence unmnolested. Those fifteen states were distributed throughIII. BARB{ARIANR COUNTRIES IN AFRICA. out Europe in the following manner: Six in northern Eu97, DIFFERENT NATIONs.-The African nations who had 28 Particular attention has been paid in this introductory map to escaped the dominion of the Romans, lived on the outskirts of fix the places which have become important, in the watrs of the last Emthe Great Libyan desert, without any influence on the political pelors against the Barbarians, and as far as the space of the map has movements of the world. Nor are we acquainted with their perm'itted we have with accuracy designated every historical site mentioned b-y Ammianus Marcellinus, Zosimus, the six minor historians, the situation and condition at this period. The MoorIsH tribes, panegyrists, Jornandes, Paul Warnefried, and other northern chroni. BERBERT, KABlYLES and MArruISIaNS had been driyven into clers whose relations go back to those eariy tinmes.

Page  27 SECOND PERIOD.-IRELAND-SCOTLAND. 27 rope and western Asia: 1st, the British Islands, where we _Loch Ttach (Lake Neath), the great centre for the Irish misfind four Saxon kingdoms and several independent re- sions; —MEDIA (Meath), east, with the capital TAMORA, Tearnor gions: II. Independent Germ~nany; III. Slavia; IV. the (now Trim), on the river Boandcus (Boyne), whose chief —Ae States of' Scandinavia; and in the northeast V. the kingdom driagh-or king enjoyed a supremacy over the chiefs-canfinof the Bulgartians or Wolochs, which extended across Mount nies-of the other tribes, and often called them together in pubOural beyond the frontiers of Europe; VI. the kingdom lic assembly. LAGENIA(Lechlinia, Leinster), southeast, withthe of the Utulrgu~rian Huans on the Caspian. Five in central town EBLANA, Din (or ublin); and OMONA (Munster), on Europe: VII. the kingdoms of the Franlks; VIII. that of the southwest. Shortly after this period, in the seventh century, the Bztrgundiazns; IX. that of the Tizuringians; X. that began the piratical incursions of the Ostnannas —the Eastmen of the Lomn6arls; and XI. that of the Gepiidce. Four in or Danes, and their permanent settlement on the east coast of southern Europe and northern Africa: XII. the kingdom Erin, where they, in the ninth century, founded flourishing of the Visitoths; and XIII. that of the Suevians, both in kingdoms. Spain; XIV. that of the Ostrogoths in Italy; XV. that of 101. II. THE KINGDOM OF THE SCOTS, in the northwestern the Vandals, on some of the islands of the Mediterranean and extremity of the island of Britain, and the smaller adjacent the northern coast of Africa; and last of all, as the XVIth, isles. THE SCOTS —ScOti-were the ancient Caledonians, who the eastern Romajn empire, to which during the reign of Jus- descending from their dreary mountains (the Highlands), had tinian, the two preceding, those of the Ostrogoths and Vandals, given the Romans so much trouble behind their fortified lines were reunited by the victorious sword of Belisarius and Nar- on the Forth. They were of Celtic origin, and called themses. These important conquests produced a signal modifica- selves Gaelic, and their mountain-home Galeldoch. The Scots, tion in the political geography of Europe toward the middle like their kinsmen the Erins, were poor and savage; they had of the sixth century. Before we consider their main results, all the features of the Celtic race; their government was feudal, we shall describe these fifteen Barbarian states as they exist- the people were divided into CClans, whose chiefs possessed the ed on the accession of Justinian. control of life and death over their liegemen (Sgolla$gs). Their weapons were the heavy battle-axe (lochaber axe), the broad claymore, the dirk, and the bow; the chase and fishery formed i I. NORTHERN EUROPE. their occupation. Christianity took early root in the Highlands. Saint Palladius had already, since the year 430, spread successfully the faith of Christ among the Scots, as Saint Patrick I. BRITISH ISLANDS. did among the Erins in Ireland, during the time when the An99. DIVISION.-The British Islands, with which we begin glo-Saxons were establishing themselves in Britain. Among out description of northern Europe, exhibit at the beginning' the southern Picts, Christianity is said to have maintained itof the sixth century, four countries which still remained inde- self from the period of their early conversion by the Briton pendent, four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, and some other terri- Nynias in 394. In the year 563, Saint Columba passed over tories occupied by Saxon or Scandinavian pirates. from Ireland to the northern Picts and formed excellent disci100. I. IHIBERNIA-l-andCI Er'in —Ireland, the mlost ples, through whom a pleasing image of pious zeal, deep learnwestern of the two large British islands, was divided into seve- ing, and varied acquirements attaches itself to the memory of the Scottish monks. Saint Colulmba received from the Pictish ral populous kingdoms. Christianilty made a rapid progless. After the first doubtful attempts of Palladius, the disciple of prince the island of Hy, now lona or I-Colm-Kill (the Isle of that devotedmissionary, thegreat Saint Patrick, a native of Scot- the Church, or Cell of Columba), which his name has conseland,i arrived among the Irish in 432, and began the ardulous crated, and which in honor of him continued for ages to be missionary work with such wonderful suclcess, that lhe was en- the burial place of many northern heroes of Scotland, Ireland,:tabled in 472 to found the archbishopric of Ardmacha (A- Norway, anld Northumblia. inagh), which has ever sine remained the metropolitan see of The traditional king Fergus, from Ulster, is said to have the Irish nation. Hence it is that this enlightened and perse- united the Highland Clans about A.. 500, and to have resided vering missionary, though not the first who brought the light among the lakes of Argaticelia (Argyle). of the Gospel among that savage people, has yet been justly entitled the Apostle of the I}rish, and the Father of the HIibernifa, of the former.29 They dwelt on both sides of the Grampian Church, and is still generally acknowledged and revered in Hills, from Inverness and Elgin to Dunbarton, or from the that honorable character. With Christianity, civilization be- Frith of Murray to those of Forth and Clyde, and south toward gan to dawn on those remote regions; churches and schools the border of England. T/e Picts (the present Lowlanders) were built, and the religious order of the C/ldees, instituted in were a dcliferent race from the Scots or Gaelic; they were no the sixth century by Saint Columbla, distinguished itself by its dubt of candinavin origi. The connection of Scandinavi pure and apostolic principles; while many other monasteries with Caledonia, was of a much older date than the conquest arose in which the sciences were studied with enthusiasm and of England by the Anglo-Saxons. The Orkney Islands were, success. The art of writing was introduced, and the monks them- from time ilmumelorial, occupied by the Northmlen, whence they selves invented new alphabets. The old Irish laws (Brehon early obtained a firm footing on the coast of Caledonia. Beda the laws) seem to have been written in a secret language, in order Venerable (A. D. 672-735) says, "that when the Britons, beginto remain intelligible only to the Brehons (the judges and ning at the south, made themselves masters of the greatest lawyers). Ireland was badly cultivated; the chase, cattle- part of the island, it happened that the nation of the Picts, breedingo and fishing, were the principal resources of the poor coming over the ocean from Scythia,30 in long-ships, began to and barbarous Erins; they fought with stones, spears, and inhabit the northern part of that island, the south of which ponderous battle-asxes. They had two arts: music and poetry; for their bards sang to the harp the deeds of the heroes The ame of Picts seems to have been givel tieol by the Romans, the diferent tribes, who were continually hting ith fol teir habit of staining their bodies with colors wlhenll going to battle; they were therefore picti, painted. one another. Among the larger states we find CONNACIA 3o That is, Scandinavia. Jornandes, the Gothic historian, likewise (Conag'ht, Connaught), in the northwest; —ULTONIA (Ulster), calls Scandinavia, the homestead of his Goths, Scythia, and so do other north, with the ancient city of AnnDMACaA (Armagh), south of wlitels in those early times.

Page  28 28 SECOND PERIOD.-WALES-ENGLAND —GERMANY. was already possessed by the Britons (Celts)." Nennius (A. D. 104. KINGDOMS OF THE SAXONS, —The conquest of Britain 688) likewise says, " that the Picts occupied the Orkney by the Angles-Saxons and Jutes (84), under their chiefs, Islands, and took possession of the left or northern coast of Hengist and Horsa, A. D. 449-489, and the later expeditions Britain, where they remained." This interesting fact is proved of Cerdic and Kenric, are too well known to require mention by the heroical poems of the Scottish Highlanders, and by all here. We find, in the beginning of the sixth century, four the philological investigations of modern times. The most re- Saxon kingdoms established in the most fertile parts of the markable affinity, both of language, poetry, names, and tradi- island; they are the following: tions, prevails between the Danish and Scottish ballads, and I. The kingdom of CANTrWARE, Cantia (now Kent), foundevery Danish youth reading the Lowland Scotch dialect in ed in 451, on the southeastern coast of the island, by Hengist Walter Scott's masterly tales, will drop a tear, and hail the after the great battle at Crawford, in which the Britons were familiar tones as an " auld lang syne " of his own. In the routed and forced to abandon the country south of the Thames. south of Scotland, the rustic still points to many a memorial CANTWArABURIt (Canterbury) was the capital. Eag'les-fo'rd of the Picts, consisting of old walls, and fortifications which have (Aylesford), west of the former, was the place where Hengist a great resemblance to those in the Scandinavian north.' The and his Jutes gave the first battle to the Britons. At Stonar, residence of the king of the Picts, was situated at the mouth on the seashore, opposite France, they defeated them again. of the river Tay. Tthanet (Ruithina), the small isle on the eastern coast, at 103. IV. THE KINGDOM OF CABrRIA on KYMRvu, along the mouth of the Stura, near Richborough, where the British the western coast of Britain, emibracing CAMB1IA or ATolrth- chiefs solicited the assistance of the Jutish and Saxon rovers, Wealcts (the present Wales), and DAMrNONIA or West- Weialas and where Hengist fortified his naval station for the subse(now Cornwall), the kingdom of Arthur, the Celtic hero. The quent invasion of the island. inhabitants were those brave Cym2ri (Cimbri), who accoml- II. The kingdom of SUTH-SEAxAs or Suthsaxonia (Suspanied the Celts on their early migration from the East (77). sex), founded by Ella in 477-490, who, after many victories over They received in their mountains the Britons fleeing before the unskilful Britons, at last established his seat in CIssAN*the victorious Anglo-Saxons, and thus the Welsh, headed CEASTER (Chichester), and secured his conquest by continual by the celebrated King Arthur, of Damnonia, became the succors from new Saxon bands. The island of WIHT, Vectis last bulwark of the Celtic race in Britain. The heroical deeds (now Wight), remained, like Kent, a Jutish colony. of King Arthur fall, most probably, about A. D. 520, when he III. The kingdom of WEST-SEAxAS or Westsaxonlia perished in battle in Cornwall. Skeptical historians among (Wessex), was established in 516-19, by the proud Cerdic, the moderns have doubted the existence of the Celtic hero, the descendant of Odin, who extended his conquests westward but his ashes and tombstone were discovered at Glastonbury to Damnonia, and north to the Severn. Winztanccaster (WinAbbey so early as 1189, and poems and traditions have car- chester), was the capital. Cerdicsfordca, on the Afene, where ried his glorious name from the mountains of Wales to the Cerdic, and his son Kenric, totally defeated the Britons, and distant Mediterranean; and from the Middle Ages, the tales secured the possession of their new empire. of King Arthur, and his Knights of the Round Table, have IV. The kingdom of EAsT-SEAxAs, Estsaxonlia (Essex), been the delight of the fair at the fireside, and the emulation north of the Thames, founded in 526-27 by ~Eseewine, the son of the brave on the battle-field. of Offa; while other bands of Angles from Schleswig, under Cambria was then divided into several states: 1, VENEDO- king Ida, landed north, and laid the foundation of the states CIA or Gwynedhl, in the north, whose king was supreme over of EAsT-ANGLIA and NORTHAN,UMBRIA (Northumberland). the other states; his residence was at Abewfraw, on the island The petty kings of Essex resided in LUNDENWYC (London). of Anglesey; 2, DIMETICA (Dyved), or West Wales, on the Thus the eastern and southern coasts of Britain were permasouth; 3, DEHEUBARTH or South T/ ctles, the country of the nently occupied by the Anglo-Saxons (449-530), and thirty warlike Silures, with the royal seat at Caerleonz upon Usk; years later (560), we find one Jutish, three Saxon, and and, 4, MORGANWG (Glamorganshire), on the northern bank three Angle kingdoms established in Britain; Kent, Sussex, of the Severn. Caervzarcdhyn (Caermarthen), southwest, was Wessex, Essex, East-Anglia, Bernicia, and Deira. The poor one of the principal towns of the island. Badon-hill, near Britons, driven westward into the mountain fastnesses of Bath, where King Arthur in battle defeated the Saxon in- Wales, had already long become Christians, while their savvaders in A. D. 516. Bangor or Banchor, the celebrated age conquerors still worshipped Odin, Thor and Freia. It monastery in the north of Wales, opposite to Anglesey, was was not until 596, that Saint Austin appeared with his Roman already established in this early period. Saint Gildas, the monks, and his assistant Mellitus built Saint Paul's Church oldest British historian (A. D. 516-570), lived here as a in London in A. D. 604. monk, and Nennius, who continued his EEulogiuvn Br'i-. I n, * Ace I 1 * nII. INDEPENDENT GEnRMANY. tannice, was bishop of the mnonastery in A. D. 688. The chief tribes of the Britons (Cymry), were distinguished by various 105. PRINCIPAL NATIONS. —The whole northern portion of dialects of their common mother-tongue; it was polished by Germany was, in the beginning of the 6th century, occupied illustrious poets, whose works have been preserved to the with nations who had not yet formed themselves into monpresent time. The Cymlry extended their sway northward archies. to the mouth of the Clyde, through the present lake dis- The FRIsoNs (76), from the mouth of the Rhine along the triet of Cumberland —the kingdom of Curnbria-as far as coast, to the Elbe. Dumfries, Annandale and Galloway-the kingdom of Strath- The SAXONS (78), who, though so many bands had crossed clyde-where they continued their warfare with the Picts over to Britain, had continued to extend themselves between and Scots, as well as with the Anglo-Saxons, until they the Weser, the Elbe, and the Rhine. were expelled in the early part of the tenth century, when The ANGLES (78), on the north of the Saxons, had mostly Cumberland.beeame a Scottish principality under Anglo- departed beyond the sea, and their name was only preserved in Saxon sovereignty. the small district of Anzgeln, north of Schleswig. The WVARNI (80) had crossed the Elbe, and settled on the 31 Compare the interesting dissertation on the origin of the Scottish lower Rhine. Their king, Radiger, had engaged an Anglolanguage in Dr. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, Edinburgh, 1851. Saxon princess, but married a sister of the Frankish king,

Page  29 SECOND PERIOD.-SCA NDINAV IA-SLAVIA-BULGAIRS-HUNS. 29 Theodebert. The Anglo-Saxons landed, to take revcnige for I. The SORABIAN-VENDEs have their seats on the shores of this slight, defeated the Warni, captured their prince, and the Baltic, and extend along the Elbe to the Ertz-Gebirge, on obliged him to flifil his prior matrimonial engagement with the the frontiers of Bohemia. The western Slavi, Sorabi, and Anglo-Saxon lady, which is an interesting event, told us by the Vendes were governed by kings-k1rales-who formed their Greek historian, Procopius, then residing in Constantinople. council of the nobles-;:knccses-and their territory was divided into regions or zIt)paCziLa; they loved liberty with the highest enthusiasin, and could never be brought to permanent subjection. Their character was mild; their women modest; and they 106. DENMriARK AND S\WEDEN. —The Jutes of the peninsula, treated their prisoners of war )vith humanity. The religion and the Danes32 of the islands, and of SIAANE Scandia (in South- of the Vendes consisted in numerous ceremonies. Their ern Sweden), lived still under a great number of petty kings, priesthood exercised a powerful influence; and the great but they acknowledged the supremacy of the S/ioldunger (the temple of Swantewit, on the promontory of AnPCONA, in the descendants of Odin), the kings of Sealand. HLEDRU, or island of PiiLgen, with its idols and wealth, was the great *ational sanctuary of all the western tribes. The Vendes were Leirec, was the ancient capital during this obscure period. The national sanctuary of all the western tribes. The Vendes were town7~~~~~ l t o n p c o a hunters agriculturists, and pirates. VINETA (Wollin), on the town lay oil the Issefiordl, near the present castle of Lelhz} borg'. The valley of HERTHA, in the neighborhood, where in the Baltic, was theil capital. dismal and sombre forest, or sacred gr'ove, stood the stone al- II. The Liorns or Pni (Poles or Poaks),o the second tars, on which the Danes every nine years celebrated theiri, occupied the b I and the Oder and touched on the south the CHPZ.OWATS (Croats). horrible sacrifices. During the month of January, they flocked nd touched on the south the C together in crowds froml the mainland and isles, and with III. The CzEKHo-SLOvAs in Bohemia and Moravia, were a powerful people under the mythical queen, the fair many ceremonies offered up to their gods ninecty-nine men, and were powerfl people under the mythical queen, the fair Libussa; they attained early a certain cultivation. Agriculas mlany horses and cocks, under the certain hope of appeasture, cattle-breeding, and forays on their neighbors, were their ing them by their victims, and conciliating their favor for thIr maritime expeditions in the ensuing spring, occupations; they brought their horses, prisoners, and wax their maritime expeditions in the ensuing spring. SWEDENwas yet a sall country, extending north to the across the mountains to the Germans on the Elbe, where OWEDEN was yet a small country, extendling north io the Dal-elv, and south to Skaane. It was divided according to commerce was flourishing, until in the subsequent period 1the tribe in SUCITHOID, Slcaland, and GAUTPoD, Gotaland. the German Dukes began the military missionary work among thie t~ribes in SUIT1OIDm, Svcczd, atnd GWAUTrIODv, Gotalancd.then. The dynasty of the Ynglingar, the descendants of Odin, re- the east in central sided in UPsALA (Old-Upsal), north of the modern city, where still is seen the celebrated Mora-stone, on which the ancient Russia, and the ANTES on, the lower Dniester, where they heathen kings were crowned, and received the homage of their bordered on the advancing Bulgarians. Large cities in the Suethan and Gothic subjects. At Sightuna, on the frith of interior were already in the possession of an active commerce. A7Iefar,111 stood the large wooden temple, built by Odin and KiEw on the Dnieper, is said to have been built as early as 450, the Asars, called Odens-sala, the revered sanctuary of all the during the dominion of the Huns. SbmOLENSK farther inorth. heathen Northmen, down to the ninth century. The temple NovoGonoD on the Lake of Ihlmen, became, by the activity of its hea~the in silver and gold ornahents, as tehpe inhabitants and its wealth, a mighty republic, and the emporium possessed immense wealth in silver and gold ornaments, as the poseissed s ienseceated to Odin and Thor part of h of Indian commerce during the Middle Ages. sea-kings always consecratedANiNS, a Sltovo-Pinnic race, on the west spoils from their piracies. The statue of Odin represented him standing with a drawn sword in his hand; Thor, with n or FINNIC nations on the Baltic, extending through Finnland his hammer, stood next, and the fair image of Frigga ex- orNN nations the Baltic, extending through inan northward to the Icy Ocean. pressed her mild empire, as the benign goddess of love and marriage. Thor was the favorite god of the Norse, while Odin, Frigga, and the benevolent Balder, were the peculiar V. KINGDOiM OF THE BULGARIANS. deities of the Gothic Danes and Svears at Leire and Upsala. 108. POSITION AND EXTENT.-The Bulgarians appear for Civil wars among the petty princes, still occupied the the first time in the second half of the fifth century on Danes and Swedes at home, while the Norwegians had already the west of Mount Oural. They were then divided into formed settlements on the Or'kn~ey islands. two hordes, the black Bulgars and the Wolochs or white Bulgars, both of Tartar origin; but later umuch mingled with IV. SLAVIA. Sclavonians, whose language they adopted. From the eastern 107. PRINCIPAL NATIONs.-With the year 471, the name frontiers of Europe, the black Bulgarians followed in the trace o, o their'I t h I. In the be&trmvatia dilsappears entirely, and it is replaced in the yan - ofeir march toward the DByzanu. I th betine historians with that of SL.vIA —Sclvonia.v The Slavi ginning of the sixth century they cross the Bulga (Volga), from or S lovent, haeavne.arear. 1h G which some historians suppose themi to have taken their nanze, have advanced westward, in the of the Gem- and they advance upon the Danube, whence they carry devasmans. They extend already over the immense plains of mo- nd sr io the Jsia Em e. de1n Twus~ia, *oland, and: Itus *r. tation and misery into the Justinian Empire. dern Prussia, Polancd, and Russia. -They drive the last German tribes across the Elbe. They occupy the fertile valley of BOJENIHIEIMI (Bohemia), and the Carpathian ridge separates VI. THIE KINGDOM OF THE HUNS orL UTURGUPnI. them fioml the Longobards and Gepids on the Danube. They 109? TEII UTURGURIAN HUNS.- The downfall of the are divided into many kindred nationalities. empire of the Huns had been even more sudden than its rise. The death of Attila on the Danube in 453, was the signal The nme Danus, Dane, appears for the first time n A.*. 580, for all the enslaved nations to break their chains. The most in the Latin eulogy of the poet Venantius on the Frankish iKing Chilperic I., "Quemn Geta, Vasco, tremunt, Daus, Suiltho, Samo, B'itan- frightful disorder spread through the camp at Buda, where was." Eginhardt in his Life of Charlemagne says: "DAN, Suzecones the savage sons of so many various mothlers, sword in hand, qscos Normannos vocamus." This wvas later corrupted into Daci, and in the Chronicles of the Crusades, we find always Daci, for Danes, and "3 The termination ak is a diminutive; thus, Slavbe, Slavak; Serbe, Datia, Dacia, for Denmark. Serbalk; Morlan, Morlak; Russ, Russak.

Page  30 30 - SECOND PERIOD.-HUNS-FRANKS. disputed with one another the inheritance of the world's spoils; pire embraced all modern France, with the exception of the the Ostrogoths, Lombards, Gepidx, and Herules united in alli- ancient province of Narbonensis on the shores of the Mediance against the common oppressor. The tremendous battle be- terranean, which earlier had been occupied by Theodoric, tween all these fierce barbarian nations took place on the river king of the Ostrogoths. The country between the upper.ZVetads (Neutra), in Pannonia. Ellac, the eldest son of At- Loire, the Rhone and the Alps, belonged to the Burguntila fell, after wonders of bravery, and with him 30,000 Huns. dians, who, though vanquished, still remained nomlinally indeHis brother, IDengish, gathered the relies of the still formidable pendent of the Frankish despot. But Clovis had subdued nation, and maintained himself until 470 on the banks of the the southwestern provinces of Germany, inhabited by the lower Danube; but the splendid camp of Attila at Buda, with Alemanni, who after their defeat near Tolbiac in 496, had bethe whole of Dacia and Pannonia, from the Carpathian hills to come subjects, or at least tributary allies of the Franks. We the Euxine, became divided among the victors-the Gepidae, will now review the component parts of this first modern emthe Ostrogoths, and the Lombards. Surrounded and oppressed pire, in the order in which the different provinces were joined by his father's slaves, the kingdom of Dengish was at last con- to the crown of Clovis. fined to the circle of his wagons. He perished on the Danube, and Irnac, the youngest son of Attila, retired with the hordes to the Volga, where we find them in 526 encamped on the plain CONQUESTS OF CLOVIS, A. D. 486-511. of the Kuban river, between the Euxine and the Caspian seas, divided into the two kingdoms of the Kuturgour and Uturgour 110. ProvINcEs AND PRINCIPAL CITIES.-The continual inHuns. From thence they conquered the' whole Tauric cursions of the Franks had already long ago depopulated the Chersonese, with the exception of the important cities of formerly so flourishing Belgian and Germanic provinces of the Cherson and Theodosia, which were bravely defended by their expiring Roman empire. Most of the cities lay in ruins; the Roman garrisons. But the other towns, Repoi and Phanagoris, villages were burnt, and the fields neglected, nor could the indosituated near the Cimmerian Bosporus, were taken by the Bar- lent Franks even by means of their Roman prisoners, now serfs barians, who, uniting with the Bulgarians, recrossed the Danube and subjects, remove the evil they had brought over the country. and appeared under Zaber-Chan, in 558, before trembling Con- COLONIA (Cologne, K6ln), on the Rhine, was the capital of stantinople herself. They passed the long wall of Anastasius the Ripuarian Franks. ToLmBAC (Ziilpich), a few miles off, without opposition; but were routed and discomfited by the was the battle-field on which Clovis prostrated the Alelnannic well-known exploit of old Belisarius. On the return of Zaber- confederacy at a single blow, in 496. SUESSIONES (Soissons), Chan beyond the Danube, the Avars fell upon the Huns, the last city possessed by the Romans. The Roman Praefect, subdued them, or mixed up with them in such a manner Syagrius, was here routed by Clovis, and his fleeing legions that, from the year 572, no mention is ever made in history of gave Clovis an easy victory, by seeking refuge behind the the Huns as a separate nation, though it is both interesting Loire. REMI (Rheims), the archiepiscopal see of Bishop Reand important to know that the Avars are called indifferently migerus, beheld the ceremony of the conversion of Clovis and Huns, or Avars, by all the western chroniclers in the time his Franks; it was there at the baptism of the Barbarian in of Charlemagne, which distinctly proves the union or anmalga- the river, that the prelate pronounced the well-known words mation of those fierce Asiatic nations. which have rung through centuries: ".Mitis deplone collum, Sicamber, adora quod izcendisti —icenzde qzlod adcorasti." " Bow down thy head, oh Sicanmbrian! with humility-adore ~ II. CENTRAL EUROPE. what thou hast burnt, burn what thou hast adored." PARISH (Paris) became soon the capital of the Franks; Clovis reVII. KINGDOMS OF THE FRANKS. sided there, and the ancient church of Saint Sulpice, where he was buried, is still standing. 109. EXTENT OF THE MONARCHY AT THE DEATH OF CLOVIS. 111. GALLIA ARMORICA recognized the supremacy of the -Extraordinary changes have taken place in Gaul since our Franks after the victory of Tolbiac. That province had then last visit in the year 395, at the death of Theodosius the a wider extent than the ancient Roman Ar'oorica pjrop'ia. The Great. The invasion of the Vandals, Suevi, Alani, and Bur- latter consisted only of the Brittanic peninsula, while the Argundians in 406-410, had been followed by the devastating rmorican confederacy for mutual defence, had been formed by campaign of Attila in 451, and after his defeat at Chailons-sur- all the Gallic cities and states between the Seine and the Marne, the Franks under Clovis had crossed the Somme, and Loire, who, having found themselves without protection by the during the lethargic inactivity of the last emperors and the intes- Romans, had armed and united for the salvation of all. These tine troubles of the western empire, occupied in 486 the whole of gallant people had beaten back the Vandals and Suevi, in 406, northern Gaul as far as the Loire. The ambitious and treach- and having been reinforced by fleeing Britons from the Island, erous Clovis then vanquished the Ripuarian Frankish chiefs who sought refuge against the Anglo-Saxons, the Peninsula on the Rhine with the dagger and the axe, and the powerful was called BJ'itanznia M7Zinor, to distinguish it from the invaded nations of the B3urgundians, the Alemanni, and the Visigoths, Br'itannia 1/f~ajor, Great Britain. We cannot, with certainty, with the edge of the sword. He extended the dominion of his determine the extent of this confederacy, but it seems to have warlike and perfidious people over the greater part of modern embraced all the towns between the Loire and the Seine; the France and Germany, and left this immense inheritance to his following cities belonged to it: ROTOuAcGUS (Rouen), on the sons, at his death in the year 511.14 At that period the Frankish Seine; BAJocA (Bayeux); AERINcA (Avranches); CAENOTIS kingdom reached from the mouth of the Rhinc, on the north, (Chartres); REDONES (Rennes); and ANDEGAVI (Anger)to the base of the Pyrenees on the south, and from the At- all between and westward of those rivers. AuaELIANIU lantic Ocean west across the Rhine, to the Wirraha (Wer- (Orleans), a populous and strongly fortified city on the rah) and Almona (Altmiihl) on the east.3s This mighty erm- Loire, had been most heroically defended against Attila by its bishop, Saint Aignan, who commanded the citizens on the 34 Gens Francorum inclyta, fortis in armis, perfida, audax, velox, ferox et aspera! 3 IHenry Ludcn, in his excellent history of the German nation, says page 70.) Prof. Henry Leo supposes the river Neckar, in Alemannia, to that Clovis did not pursue the Alemanmi across the Rhine. —(Vo]. 3, have been the frontier; we have followed the map of Dr. Spruner.

Page  31 -SECOND PERIOD.-KINGDOMS OF THE FRANKS. 31 walls. Turones (Tours), and NAMNETE (Nantes), on the same the splendid capital of the Visigoths, on the Garonne. It river, and VENEDI CASTzRUI (Vannes), on the coast of the ocean, contained besides, on the right bank of the Rhine, Old France, were the most thriving cities in this part of Gaul, which hither- the homestead of the Franks and of the tributary Alemanni. to had escaped the havoc of war. METTIS was the capital; TnEVIRIS (Tryves), rebuilt from its 112. AQUITANIA (Aquitaine), the last and most important ashes. CATALAUNI (Chlilons sur Marne), south of which, on of the conquests of Clovis in Gaul, comprised all the beautiful the Catalaunian plains, was fought that terrible battle beand fertile territory between the Loire and the Pyrenees. It tween Attila with his Huns and allies, and the Roman general had, for one century, been the seat of the Visigoths, who had Aetius, in which 150,000 warriors perished on the field, and already arranged themselves quite comfortably in the country, the power of the Huns was broken for ever (A. D. 451). Other with Toulouse for their capital, thus securing their possessions cities were TnECAE (Troyes), and ARvErnNos or CLARAMONTIS beyond the mountains in Spain. But the Visigoths, being (Clermont). In Aquitania, CADIunCUM (Cahors), RUTENA (RhoArian heretics, were hated by the clergy and the Roman popu- dez), and ALRIGE (Alby). lation of Aquitania, and when their king, Alaric II., fell in 118. GOVERNMIENT AND CONSTITUTION OF THE FRANKS.the battle near Pictavis (Poitiers), 507, against Clovis, they Clovis was only a leader at the head of his Frankish LEUDES lost the whole rich province, and remained only in the doubtful — ete-or followers in Gaul; he had no regular government: possession of Septimania, the narrow coastland between the he depended oft the good will of his fierce companions. But Pyrenees and the Rhone. BITURICX (Bourges) and ARvEa- his continual victories consolidated his power; the Rornish NOS- Clcar s ZIIons-(Clermont), on the Elavcr(Allier); Bun- church gave him pomp and titles, and the Byzantine emperor DIGALA (Bordeaux), and TOLOSA (Toulouse), on the Garumnna purple and dignities - all combined raised him above all (Garonne); ELUSA (Auch), in the south, —all these held the his rivals, who soon perished, one after the other, by his first rank among the Aquitanian cities. dagger. The conquered lands were distributed among the veteran soldiers; the army formed the qnallzum or public assembly, which was called together in spring on the Ch/aqmp:DIVISION OF THE FRANK EMPIRE AMONG THE MEROVINGIAN de ]llarys. The cities continued to be governed by the RoPRINCES. man law with their own municipalities. A royal count or 113. The large empire which Clovis had founded was, at his Grcqf, held the executive power, collected the duties and predeath, in A. D. 511, divided between his four sons-Thierry, sided over the courts of justice, where the Franks had settled Chlodomir, Childebert, and Chlothaire-and it formed still down among the native Romans. In the rural districts the four kingdoms in 527. Every one of the four kings possessed peasantry remained serfs as they had been before the conquest. a portion of his land lying between the Loire and the Rhine, The German division in gCauten was introduced. Ten free -the first conquest of the Franks-and another part in Aqui- estates, allodia, formed a zeklit or community governed by a taine, the new acquisition from the Visigoths, where the Franks Zent tman, or Bailiff. Tel communities again made a mzarkt had not yet obtained firm footing, but which they loved particu- -Anglo-Saxon hundred-of which the governor was a cenlarly for its fertility, and the richness of its wines and other tenarius, or ccet-graf An uncertain number of marks formed productions. a gau or gheve (county), with a gau-graf as military and civil 114. I. Kingdom of SuEssIONEs (Soissons), on the north- commander. The body of the Frankie warriors possessed the west, extended from the capital in the south, northward to the conquered lands, yet they left the vanquished Romans in the sea, and eastward to the Mosa (Meuse) and the Rhine-with enjoyment of 2ssZs fructus as vassals. The Romans formed the cities TouNAcuMi (Tournay), the residence of Chilleric the two classes: 1, Possessors or lids (vassals) having half the father of Clovis; TAlRUENNA (Thdro-uanne) and CAMrAuCU |we tr g'elcd (security money) with which the life of a freeborn (Cambray), the capitals of two Frankishl petty king o Fr was wholsecured; 2, Tributary Romans, with a wehr-geld Clovis had slaugphtered; t AMsBIAN (tAniens), and LAUDUNUM similar to the serf. The Franks formed three classes: I, Sa(Laon). alian Franks, the conquerors or nobles; 2, German freemen, In Aquitaine the king of Soissons possessed the central found in the country; 3, barbarian allies under the Salie law. cities LIMOvIcAs (Linogcs), arnd PETzRAGORIUrM (Pdrigueux). The Salic lands were-held by military tenure, and could not 115. II. The kingdom of PARIsIH (Paris), in the centre, go to the females.s6 The possessor was the baron (wehr or warextended from the river Somme westward beyond the Garonne, man); he held with battle-axe and buckler under the baznumz embracing the coast of Aquitaine. PARISH was the capital, Entirely different was the allodiunA37-SrOs-or lot of land, MELDJNUM (Melun), MCELD.E (Meaux), ROTOIrAG1us (Ronen),| given to those veterans who retired from the retinue or EnnolcA (Evreux), REDONES (Rennes), and NAMNETE (Nantes), from the army; this was real estate, and could be alienated. the principal cities. In Aquitaine, the king held PIcTrAIs |The Mayor Domus (afterwards so important an official) held (Poitiers), three leagues from which, on the banks of the the military cash as the director of the royal Jiscus; he Clinzns (Clain), was the celebrated field of Vouilld- Camnpus was chosen by the warriors, and considered their patron Voeladensis-w here Clovis, by rapidity, skill, and bravery, against the king; thus the influence of this officer arose defeated and destroyed the Visigothic army in 507-SANTO- from his position at the head of the army. The king' NES (Saintes), and BURDIGALA (Bordeaux), were flourishing cities. Salica, not from sala (doanms), but from Terra Sclica, that is, terra 116. III. The kingdom of AURELIANUMt (Orleans), south 2aterna, the Salian Franks being the leading tribe that gave their name and east of the former, of smaller extent, on both banks of the to the pato y.' Od, or odel, in the ancient Teutonic and Scandinavian languages, Loire froma AuTiSSIonDOUM (Auxerre), westward to ANDEGAVI signified riches, property, or landed estate. Al-od is all property, the (Angers). M/EDUANA (Le M}ans), the former residence of a whole free estate, which the Franks rendered in Latin by allodium. Frankish petty king, slaughtered by order of Clovis. In The free peasants in Norway are still called Odels-bonder, freeholders northern Aquitaine, BrTURICcE (Bourges), on the Avarus or yeomen. Feh or feo —in Danish foe —signified cattle, money, and (Evres), belonged to. king Chlodomir. every kind of movable property; it denoted, likewise, the pay of the 7 IV The kingdom of ETT (Metz) the most eten- warrior: thus, fch-od call literally be translated by paid wages, or sive. ofV the fo rbecause it~ all thee r povines acquired income-the rewvarcld. for rendered service. In the Latin of sive of the four, because it comprised all the eastern rovinces the Middclle Ages this was expressed by feodurn and feudurn, of which of the Franks; from Colonia, on the Rhine, to Tolosa, lately we form our fief andi feud.

Page  32 32 SECOND PERIOD.-BURGUNDIANSTHURINGIANS-LONGOBARDS-GEPID. companions in rutest were the Antrustiones, with particular privileges. The other warriors were the leudes, allong whom the estates were distributed. Illlnmense were the IX. KINGDOM OF THE THIUnINGIANS. prerogatives of the Romish clergy. They flatterecl Clovis, 120. POSITION, EXTENT,,ND DOWNFALL. In the centre and shut their eyes to all his enormous erines. The Franks of Germany, south of the Langobarcls and thle Saxons, loved show and glitter, and soon toolk a certain polish, though the terlmundm'i and Turoni, with relies of other Germanic the prouLd Romans still ridiculed their omely dress and untribes, had formled the powerful kingdomn of Thuringia, wieldy arms. Clovis planted the gerln of lawful liberty, by embracing the northern part of the present Franconia and the enfranchisement of the Church and by the bonds of the feuthe Saxon principalities north of the Theringer Wald. This dal system, which united the warring Gerlnanic tribes and prepared the formation of large national states. Clovis nmrched empire became so flourishing toward the middle of the fifth from town to town at the head of his leudes; but his success- century, that the Thuringian king, Basinus, was strong enough frolU tOWnl to town at the beacl of his leuMles * but his success- tlv t t r p s to check the advance of the Sclavonian invaders beyond the ors, the M~el ovingians, lived retired in their rul al palaces, far os,.h Merviniasen tElbe, on the east, and to carry on bloody wars with the Franks away fi'om1 the Roman cities. One hundred and sixty of those villas wer scattered through the provinces of the four kigon the Mayn and Rhbine. Basinus was at last defeated by vilZas were scattered throlg~h the provlrlees of tlle four klngvills; were scattere 1throughthbe ptroncs othe fo ur ki.n - Clovis, andc Thuringia remained subject to the Franks; but his dloms; mostly simple, bult profitable firmls. Tlell~of O sons restored its independence, until, during a civil war between the longhcairecl King was surrounded by barns, courts, stakingg Herinanfried and his brothers in 530, the Frankish king bles for horses and cattle, poultry-yards, and dove-cotes; the Dietrich (Thierry) in alliance with the rapacious Saxons, s1 1 1.. ~~~~~~~~~~~Dietrich (Thierry), in alliance wilth the rapacious Saxons, sIIcgardens were planted with useful vegetables the various ceeded in overthrowing the Thuringian dynasty. Hermnanfried trades and labors of agriculture, even the arts of hunting and s defeted on the iver Unstrt, captured and stbbed; the 111. was defeated on the river Unstrlt, capturecl and stabbed; the fishing were exercised by servile hands for the pleasure of the Sasolls oecupieed all the lancls oll the Elbe and T-76eser llorth king. He lived among his vassals like a farllmer, and the of the forests; and Dietrich united southern Thuringia with whole establishment was conducted on the principle of private the Frankish emlpire, yet the vanquishel nation was permitted economy. To the mallurn, or national assembly, the king and to be governed by their native dukes. ScIDInx GI (now Scheidqueen used to drive in a clumsy cart, drawn by oxen. Tlhe < wLungeen,nearNautmburg), on the Unstrut, was the capital. The Merovingians became the victims of their sloth and their the..igt.hie fot Thuringians were celebrated for their agriculture and studs; crimes-that the Carlovingians nilght shine forth as their their beautiful horses, sent as presents to King Theodoric, exhieroes and successors. cited the admiration of the Goths in Italy. VIII. KINcGDOI oF TIHE BURGUNDIANS. X. KINGDOM OF TiHE LONGOBARDS. 119. EXTENT, DIVISION, AND PRINCIPAL CITIEs. The Burgundians had in A. D. 410, stopped at the foot of the Alps, 121. POSITION.-This Scandinavian nation, whom we left on and occupied the valleys of Helvetia and the Rhone, while the Elbe (82), had continuedtheirmarch southward, and settled their fierce companions, the Vandals, pushed on to Spain. among the Carpathian mountains, where they shared the comGltovis had attempted their subjection, but the Burgundianmn o fate with the other Germanic tribes who were vanquished power did not sinLk until his sons repeated the blow in 534, by Attila and forced to follow his banner. Yet on the death when the Burgundian states were divided clamong the Frankltish of the mighty conqueror in 452, the Longobards, uniting with princes, and the Ostrogoths, under Theodoric, possessed them- their brethren the Ostrogoths, the Gepidse and Herules, broke selves of the coast-lands of Provence. The cities in Bur- their chains, and, driving the Huns back toward Miount Caugundy were flourishing. JANUA (Geneva) on Lake Leman.- casus, tlhey established themselves on the left bank of the BESONTO(Besanqoln) on the Dubis (Doubs).-CABILONUAI (Cha- I)Danube, from the Margus (March) near Vielnna, eastward to lons) on the Arar (Saone)-the capital and the finest city of the Theiss, where they remained until their victory over the Burgundy cluring the period of its indlependence.-VIENNA GepidT, and their descent into Italy under Alboin inl A. D. 568. (Vienne), on the left bank of the Rhone.-AVENIO (Avignon), more south, celebrated for its brave resistance against the vicXL. KINGDOIA OF THE GElPIDX. torious Clovis, who was forced to raise the siege on the approach of the Ostrogoths. The Burgundians had concluded 122. PosITION. —- The Gepidam (90) were kindred to the a compact with the native Romans, by which the latter agreed Goths, and a highly remarkable people. Their King Ardaric, to surrender to the victors two-thirds of their estates, the half uniting with Goths and Longobards, defeated Ellac the son of of their forests, gardens, anl houses, ancl a third of the whole Attila, in the terrible battle on the banks of the river Netad numuber of their slaves. During fifty years, every freeman (Neutra), in Pannonia, ald expelled the Huns beyond the Carobtained this allodium (lot) from his Burgundian lordc T'he pathians. The Gepidse then divxided the rich spoils of their estates were hereditary. Pasture and aggriculture were the victory with their allies, ancl formed a great kingdom in anbusiness of freemen, while all mechanical employments, in- cient Pannonia and Dacia (Hungary and Transylvania), boreluding arts, belonged to the servile class. Thus the ancient dering south and west on the Danube, which separated them Germnanic manners of the Burgundians wvere long luaintainecl in ifrom the Byzantine empire ancd the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. their primitive simplicity. Wives were purchased, and they On the northwest they bordered on their allies. the Longomight be dismissed in case of poisoning or witchcraft. The bards, with whom they soon entered into those hostile relations crimes of the Burgundian dynasty hastened the overthrow of of rivalry and national hatred which a century later (in 567) the nation. The Frankls, to revenge their queen Chlotilda, terminated with the total destruction of the brave and highlaid waste Burgundy with fire and sword. W2hen Gondemar fell minded Gepidian nation. The Carpathian mountains protected in 534, the kingdom became extinct, and the family of Clovis their northern and eastern frontier fi'om the invasions of the governed Burgundy by a duke, anld the eountry on both slopes Bulgarians, Avars, and other Tartaric tribes, who were already of Mount Jura by a patrician. The Burguntdians were the aclvancing from Mount Oural and the Caspian Sea. ]ETZELmost humane and civilized of the barbarian tribes that settled IBUG (Buda-Pesth), on the Danube, the splendid Oriental in the Roman provinces. I camp and capital of Attila, became the resiclence of the Gepio

Page  33 SECOND PERIOD.-VISIGOTHS-SUEVI-OSTROGOTHS. 33 dian Kings, who, like their brethren the Goths and Vandals, 125. GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION.-The constitution of soon yielded to the influence of the milder climate, and chang- the Visigothic empire received a very early development. The ed their austere northern manners for the luxury and indul- kings were elective; but the royal descendants had pretengences of the South. sions to the crown. The kings enjoyed a greater power than among other German tribes. King Leuwigild donned the royal purple, and circumscribed the arrogance of the nobles; but the clergy exercised a most dangerous influence, and XII. KINGDOMB OF THE VISIGOTHIS. intolerance against Arians and Jews already flashed forth in violence and cruelty. Toledo became the capital; the 123. EXTENT AND DIVISION. - The most flourishing of court was splendid; the ceremonials and costumes were the kingdoms founded by the Germanic nations on the ruins of imitations from Constantinople. The Palatines or court the western Roman Empire, was that of the Visigoths in Spain. officials, and the Garclingi or body guards, formed the noAfter the Vandals had abandoned (in 429) the provinces which bility; counts governed the provinces; the Gothic nobles, by they occupied, the Visigoths, under their king Euric, van- the perfect security of Spain, gave themselves up to sport and quished the Romans, subdued the Suevi in 585, and thus re- rural pursuits, and neglected those military exercises by which mained the only conquerors of the Peninsula. The greatest ex- they had subdued the Roman world. The Goths being the tension had their empire under the just mentioned king Euric, few, and the civilized Roman inhabitants the many, it is natuduring the latter half of the fifth century, when they possessed ral that the Goths soon attempted to speak the lingSuc vulg' are besides Spain the entire southwestern part of Gaul as far as of those times: from the curious mixture of Gothic and the Loire, with Aquitania and Narbonensis. The capital of vulgar Latin, arose the noble and beautiful Castilian, perhaps their empire was the populous and beautiful Tolosa (Toulouse), the most sonorous, regular, and elegant of all the modern still glittering with so many monuments of Roman magnifi- Romanic languages. The Visigothic laws were humane and cence. But when on the advance of Clovis with his Franks, the just; they were nearly a copy of the Theodosian code, applied to Roman population of Aquitania broke forth in rebellion, and the now mixed races of Goths, Romans, Suevi and Alani. The the Visigoth King Alaric II. was defeated and killed in the bat- experiment succeeded, because within a century they all formed tie near Poitiersin 507, all the Trans-Pyrenean possessions were only one nationality. Spain, in its secluded position, enjoyed lost to the invaders, with the exception of the coast-land of a great tranquillity during the Visigothic sway. Some ports Septimania. The Ostrogoths from Italy then occupied Pro- on the eastern coast still belonged to the Eastern Roman emvence, which was afterwards incorporated with Burgundy and pire; but the Greeks gave them up, and returned in 624. fell to the Franks. The Byzantine Romans still possessed the The Suevi in the northwest recognized the supremacy of the southeastern coast of Spain on the Mediterranean, where they Visigothic king; yet never was any elective monarchy exposed strengthened their garrisons in the important commercial cities to more terrible convulsions than those which shook the Visiof that region, after the subjection of the Vandals in Africa by gothic throne. The passions of envy and revenge played Belisarius in 534. They even extended the Roman rule inthe their unhappy game on a greater scale than in any other interior as far as Corduba; but the Visigothic kings, Sisebut realm, and at last caused the sudden overthrow of the Gothic and Swinthila, expelled them at last (616-624) entirely from sway in Spain. Spain; nay, the former of these kings even crossed the Straits and occupied the cities Septum and Tingis, in the ancient Ro- XIII. KINGDOM oF TIE SIUEVT. man province of Tingitana. The wild mountaineers in the Cantabrian mountains, the AREVACI, RUCCONES, BEIRONES, and 126. EXTENT AND CITIES.-The kingdom of the Suevi, or VATRDULI, who had so long preserved their old political iude- Alemanni, as they sometimes are called, was founded in A. D. pendence and their native dialects, were subdued by King 409, in the ancient Gallicia, which this people in the beginLeuwigild in 574, and new fortresses were erected to check ning divided with their companions, the Vandals, and some their forays into the lowlands. The Visigoths retained the bands of Alani, who had escaped the Huns, and joined the ancient Roman division of Spain in T4arracona, Carth/agintien- large Germanic armies on the Rhine. The Suevi settled in sis, Bcetica, Emer'itCa, Toletzrn, andc Br-acara. Asturia, Leon, Gallicia, and a portion of the modern Por124. The PRINCIPAL CITIES were, in SEPTIMANIA, the seven tugal. Their frontier was the Durius and Tagus, while the towns which had given the province its name, NARnoNA (Nar- Alani occupied some districts of Lusitania, south of the Tagus, bonne), for a time the new capital of the monarchy, after the where they disappear altogether. When the Vandals crossed loss of Tolosa, in 507. CARCASSONA (Carcassonne), where the over to Africa in 428, the Suevi remained in quiet possession victorious Clovis kept the son of Alaric II., Gesalic, besieged, of northwestern Spain, though they were not strong enough after the battle of Poitiers and the death of his father. ELE- entirely to subdue the native population. On the appearance NA (Elna), at the northern base of the Pyrenees. BITERRAI, of the Visigoths the struggle was renewed, and the Suevian (Beziers), MAGDALONA (MIaguelonne), LODEVA (Lodeve), and king Recchiaris was defeated and beheaded in 456, by King NEMAUSUS (Nimes). In Spain we find the most flourishing Theodoric of the Visigoths. The Suevi still made a stand, cities of the late Roman empire. BAICINONA (Barcelona), on until at last Leuwigild, in 585, united both crowns, and thus the northeastern coast of the 3M[editerranean, where Astol- secured the tranquillity of the peninsula. phus was assassinated, shortly after his arrival in Spain, and where Gesalic was defeated by Ubbas, the Ostrogoth general. XIV. O E OsTooT. TARRACO (Tarragona), CARTHAGO Nova (Carthagena), long in the possession of the Byzantine Greeks; AUGUJSTA EMERITA 127. EXTENSION AND DIvISION.-At the moment when (Merida) on the river Anas; CORDuBA (Cordaova), and HIsPALIs Justinian aseendel the throne of Constantinople, the founder (Seville) onl the Betis, likewise long defended by the Greeks; and of the Ostrogoth monarchy, and its most illustrious sovereign, last of all TOLETUI (Toledo), on the Tagus, the splendid capital, Theoclorie, had just died, leaving his nephew a splendid emand archiepiscopal seat of the later Visigoth empire, where pire, which embraced the coasts of the Adriatic and Tuscan many important councils were held during the 6th and 7th seas, and extended from the banks of the Danube and the Alps centuries. on the north, to the southern promontories of Sicily on the

Page  34 34 SECOND PERIOD.-KINGDOM OF THE OSTROGOTHS. south, and from the banks of the Rhone on the west, to the head of his wandering nation into the plain of the Padus. VEunion of the Save with the Danube on the east, where its RONA, situated on a mountain range, defending the defiles on the limits touched those of the Byzantine empire. Theodoric river Athesis (Adige), was his frequent residence, and he built had, in 489-93, made an easy conquest of Italy, after the there palaces and other public buildings, of which some defeat of Odoacer and his Herules in the battles near Ve- ruins are still seen. PAVIA, on the Ticinus, where the virtuous rona, and the surrender of Ravenna; and by his prudence, and eloquent Boethius was unjustly confined, condemned, and moderation and benevolence, and the brilliant talents of his executed in 525-the only dark spot in the bright buckler of minister, Cassiodorus, he peaceably formed that mighty and Thieodoric. SPOLETIUM, then an important city in central well-organized kingdom, which was destined so soon to crum- Italy. TERRACINA, the ancient Anxur, on its picturesque ble into dust by the incapacity and frailty of his unhappy promontory, still crowned with a fortress, and the ruinous daughter, Amalasuntha. palace of the Ostrogoth king. NAPLES saw again her joyous 128. PROVINCES AND CITIES.-This extensive monarchy days in the residence of the most distinguished Romans and was composed of provinces that had belonged to the Western Goths, statesmen and warriors, Cassiodorus and others, who used Empire, and which Theodoric permitted to preserve their the cure of her hot springs, and revelled in her delicious cliearlier names and limits. These provinces from northwest to mate.'s TARENTUM, on the gulf to which it gave its name. southeast were the following: SCYLLACIUM) in Calabria, with a convent to which Cassiodorus 129. I. PRovINcIA ARELATENSIS, or Province of lIarseille, retired in old age and died, after having served gloriously and at a subsequent period well known under the name of Pro- faithfully Theodoric and his successors. vence. It consisted of the whole part of ancient Gaul con- 131. IV. SIcILIA belonged to the Gothic empire. SYRACUSjE tained between the Rhone, the Durance, the Maritime Alps, was still the capital of the island; second in rank was LILYand the Mediterranean. Theodoric formed of it, in 51 1, a new LEuMii on the western promontory (now Marsala, so celebrated Pre~efectur-e of the Gauls, the metropolis of which was Arelate for its wines). It was by Theodoric given as a dower to the or Arles. Near that city he had surprised and defeated the Vandal king Thrasimund, who married his sister AmaFranks in 507; and the citizens hailed with joy the Gothic lafried. That the Vandals continued to occupy that imrule, which seemed to secure them the important pri- portant fortress is proved by an inscription lately found there, vileges and immunities they had formerly enjoyed under the " Fines inter Gothos et Vandalos." Roman empire. This acquisition was extended, in 523, by 132. V. ILLYR[cUM OCCIDENTALE comprised all theprovinthe cession which the king of Burgundy made to Theodoric ces of the ancient diocese of that name, and formed the eastern of the Provincia Septentrionalis, north of the Durance, with the part of Theodoric's possessions, highly important by its position, rich and flourishing towns of CARPENTORACTE (Carpentras), but dreadfully devastated and depopulated by the wars of ALwUSIO (Orange), DINIA (Digne), and VALENTIA (Valence). the Huns, Lombards, Gepidm, and other barbarian nations, who II. RITETIAT M:ERIDIONALIS, likewise denominated lhcetia were then contending with one another on the banks of the DanOstlrogothica, to distinguish it from Rhhetia Septentrionalis, ube. Theodoric sent colonists; he rebuilt Sirmium and Singiwhich belonged to the Frankish empire-both situated on the dunum on the Savus, and fortified the defences of the Illyrian upper Danube —where the uncertainty of the frontiers between mountains with castles and garrisons. BOIODUoUM (now Innthe two nations gave rise to diverse embassies and military stadt), on the upper Danube at the union of the EZntus (Inn) demonstrations. with that river, became an important city-so likewise SISCIA 130. III. ITALIA, with its ancient subdivisions from the times (Sisseck) on the Save, and SALONA on the Adriatic coast. of the Roman empire. It was conquered by Theodoric, as we 133. Italy had suffered an awful devastation and destruchave mentioned, after three successful battles against Odoacer, tion of its inhabitants during the many different invasions of the Herulian king; the first stood on the banks of the Sontius the fifth century; but the arrival of nearly a million of Goths (Isonzo), a small river that empties into the Adriatic; the in 489, produced a favorable change. Odoacer had distributsecond before Verona in the northeast of Italy, and the third ed one-third of the arable lands of Italy among his Herulian on the banks of the Addua (Adda), whence Odoacer fled to Ra- warriors. These, Theodoric, after his victory, gave to his Osvenna, where he perished. The most important cities during trogoths, who thus obtained landed property, for which they the Ostrogothic period were: RAVENNA, situated in the midst paid the same taxes as the native Romans. It is a well-known of the lagunes or swamps on the Adriatic coast. It had be- fact, that at the close of the fifth century, nearly all the estates come a splendid city, while serving as refuge and capital to the were in the hands of the wealthy senators of Rome; it was, last emperors, and to Odoacer, who kept the whole Ostro- therefore, not the lower classes who suffered by those partigothic nation occupied before its almost impregnable forti- tions of property, but the nobility. The great massof theItalian fications for nearly three years. Ravenna became afterwards the people had no landed property, and they continued as they residencee of the Ostrogothic kings, and the traveller still adl- had clone before to live by their labor, by royal offices, and the mires there the sepulchre of Theodoric, the cupola of which supplies of bread and wine which Theodoric took care to furconsists of a single immense rock, being thirty-four feet inl nish to the idle Romans, as well as the spectacles of the diameter. ROME had already suffered terribly during the two almphitheatre. Yet the division of lands among the invaders sieges and pillages of the Visigoths, under Alaric, in 408-410; seems to have been circumscribed to northern Italy, where we and by the still greater devastation in 455, from the barbarous find the Gothic nation more thickly settled. But the Goths Generic and his Valndals. Poor Rome was afterwards taken had been too much estranged from the quiet occupations of by her own mercenary bands, the Herules; and, a fifth tilme, agriculture, on a sudden to change the ploulgh for the sword. by Theodoric and his Ostrogoths, who, however, treated the They remained principally engaged in military exercises and fallen city with that deference and sympathy which the ancient humting, and left the tilling and gardening of their farms to metropolis of the civilized world merited; nay, he restored their numerous serfs. Nor did the two different nationalities many of its crumbling 1monumuell ts, preserved its senate ancd of Germans and Romnans ever mix; religion, language, habits, municipal acldmiinistration, and won the hearts of its boisterous umultitucle by granting them lanleani ct circen2ses. MI- 3s See the pleasant passages in the letters of Cassiodorus, wherein LAN, the sthongly fortifed anl industrious:llltropolis likewise he describes tile beauty and fertility of Camnpania. In his affected lancuagee, he calls the tiine cruentus liqeeor; pnedaturta potabilis, viole3m n.ecreceived Threodoric with enthusiasml, w hen he descended at the, /.~.~" w~.l 8.~.!, c., 11. 10n 14. 1o 14 1

Page  35 SECOND PERIOD.-OST1ROGOTHS-VANDALS-BYZANTINE GREEKS. 35 all kept them asunder. The Goths had, like mlost of the other and Gothic elements, and secured the permanent happiness of Gerimanic tribes, embraced the abhorred Arian heresy. They the two races. But the incapacity of his successors, and the were continually armed; large bodies united for their regular ambition of Justinian, soon brought on those calamitous wars -drill, and their entire organization was military. Theodoric which terminated thirty years later, with the renewed desolaforesaw that the relaxation of their discipline beneath the tion of Italy, and the total destruction of the Ostrogothic nasunny sky of Italy would become their bane; he commanded tion. their gatherings and manoeuvres; he settled warlike bands of the Alemanni in Rhmtia; Gepids, and the wrecks of the XV. KINGDOM OF THE VANDALS. Herules in Illyricumn and on the banks of the Padus; and lie improved the breed of his war-horses by the establishment 134. TEm I POSSESSIONS IN EUROPE AND AFRICA.-After of large studs in the Apulian plains. He was anxious to the easy conquest of Spain in 428, the Vandals were ininstruct his Barbarians in the arts of Rome, the building of vited by the persecuted Donatist sectarians, to invade Africa fortresses, palaces, aqueducts, and the draining of the Pontine and their enterprising king Genseric, crossing the straits, soon swamps; but he prohibited them the enjoyments of her litera- overran the whole of northern Africa, from the coast of the ture, and said: " That he who trembles at the whip of the Atlantic Ocean eastward to the great Syrtis, and building a schoolmaster, will always flinch at the flashing of the sword." numerous fleet at Carthage, he subjected the islands of the Theodoric, on the other hand, made no alteration in the inter- Mediterranean, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic nal division and organization of the country and its government; isles. His roving Vandals became now as daring corsairs he left the vanquished Romans their privileges and liberties, on the sea, as they formerly had been irresistible cavaliers on as they called the vain names of republic, consuls, senate, and the main land. Genseric sacked Rome in 455, and the Vanmunicipal magistracies. Romans and Ostrogoths lived peace- dals extended their piratical expeditions even to the Peloponfully together on terms of temporary friendship or forbearance. nesus, where they were defeated by the Maniataw, the modern The blue-eyed, fair-haired Goth, so proud of his long, golden Spartans. He undertook no changes in the government of ringlets, hanging down over his shoulders, and the beard that Africa, and Latin was the official language among the Vandals, covered his mouth, continued to dress in skins and furs, wore but they treated the poor African Romans with cruelty and his long sleeves and wvide trowsers tied at the knees and ankles, scorn; they deprived them of the best lands, exacted immense by leather straps, and stalked about in large brogues, with the taxes, and excited the bitterest feelings of revenge in the heavy broadsword at his girdle, and the huge buckler on his bosoms of their serfs. Nor could the Vandals get a firm arm —while his neighbor, the elegant Roman, in his short tu- footing in that extensive country. The Moorish tribes from nic, his knees and arms bare, his hair short cropped, his chin Mount Atlas drove them from the entire coast lands between smoothly shaved, with his large toga gracefully covering his Tingis and Coosarea. The four successors of Genseric did shoulders, regarded with horror his unwelcome hyperborean not inherit his talents. Th-rasamund abandoned Sicily to the guest, though he in silence admired the domestic virtues of the Ostrogoth Theodoric to secure his assistance; only the imporNorthmen, the modesty and chastity of the Gothic women, tant port of Lilyboaum he received back as the dower of the and the affectionate relations between parents and children. Gothic princess whom he married (131). Sardinia was used Nay, the contemporaneous Greek andl Roman writers give the as a place of banishment, and during the violent religious disunanimous testimony, that the quiet and beneficent reign of sensions in the African church, Thrasamund sent two hundred Theodoric might be considered as the most perfect example and twenty bishops in exile to that island. The Vandals were of the happiness which a kind-hearted and generous prince the first among the northern barbarians who became corrupted could spread around him. The precious collection of by the luxuriance of a southern sky, and while they were reoriginal letters and decrees of Theodoric, written and pub- ducing the industrious native Christians to thraldom, and lished by his active secretary Cassiodorus Senator, gives the themselves revelling in their fragrant gardens and shady villas, most detailed and interesting description of the progress and they were suddenly surprisedl prostrated and annihilated by development of the country during this period of unclouded the sword of Belisarius; and the Vandal nation leaves nothing prosperity. We admire the attentive care of the indefatigable behind them in the world except the hateful word Vandalism, Ostrogothic monarch in promoting every branch of political denoting their wanton delight ill destruction.1s economy, and we read with delight the glowing description in Cassiodorus of the cultivation and restored salubrity of Italy. There was abundance of wine, oil, fruit, grain, even for export. XVI. TIE EASTERN EMPIRE. Lie praises thie gardens of Reggio and Squillace, the beauty 135. EXTENT. —At the accession1 of JustinlianL I. tike Byof Bajr, near Naples, the precious wines of Verona, which were duly appreciated at the royal board, and it appears from zantine empire still preserved almost the same limits as it had one hundred and thirty-two years before (395-527), at the his enthusiastic account of the vintage, that greater care was dvsoneo hu d an tir beor. yrs) then taken with the noble wines of Italy than at the present d o the R an em e he sius I Ero time. Theodoric was the greatest character of the sixth cen- e heieDanub the et Irin eB a n tulry, a true practical genius, who went to the point in all his undertakings and did his work thoroughly; and it is inter- the Black Sea the Greco-Romans occupied the southern coast of the TAURIAN C:HERSONESE (Crimea), the interior of which was esting to the philosopher to see how much an intelligent monarch, assisted by such a statesman as Cassiodorus Senator, was able inhabited by a fugitive'Gerlan1 tribe, the friendly TETRAXITAN to create and establish in a reign of thirty-three years. He G s (91), h had refed to follow the banner of Theodofound Italy (489), a desert covered with ruins, swamps ic to Italy, and enjoyed the protection of the Byzantine emaand forests, where the wild beasts were roaming —and he left perors. Nor had the Romans lost territory in the east. Since the cession of 2Visibis, in the war against king Sapor in 363, it (526), a garden, a flourishing country, repeopled with the the eso n fnte r a n ori 3, healthy and active Gothic race, and restored to commerce, agriculture,industry and a higher civilization, which might have with the important castle of AA (13) fourteen miles been of lasting benefit to humanity, if another bright genius 39 Amdalnsia (Vandalos), in Spain, is saidl to have its name fioml the lilke his could have completed the amalgamnation of the Roman Vandals.

Page  36 36 THIRD) PERIOD.-NORTHERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE. west of Nisibis. It was still more strengthened by Justinian, sive battle took place between Narses and the king Totilas, in and became the bulwark of the empire during the bloody wars which the Goths were defeated, with the loss of their king with the Persians (96), which secured the Roman influence and bravest warriors. The spot where the thousands of over Armenia Minor, and the Lazic, Albanian, and Iberian corpses were burnt after the battle, was still for centuries tribes of Mount Caucasus. called.Busta Gothorumn. NAPLES had, at the beginning of 136. PROVINCES AND PRINCIPAL CITIES.-The provincial the war, been taken by Belisarius, by a surprise, through a division of the empire likewise remained the same, and subterranean aqueduct. NOCERA, at the foot of Mount Vesuit still consisted of the three dioceses of Thrace (belonging to the vius, where the desperate Goths, led on by their last king, Prsefecture of the Orient), and those of Dacia and Macedonia, Tejas, made an ultimate effort against Narses, who there terwhich formed the Illyrian Prsefecture. They also preserved minated the war by their total destruction or capture. their seventeen provinces, whose capitals were, after CONSTANTI- SICILY, Scar'clizia, Cor)sica, and the -Balearic isles, had NOPLE, the most important cities in this part of the empire. likewise fallen back to the allegiance of the emperor. We here mention only ADRIANOPLE, PHILIPPOPLE, MARCIANOPLE, in the diocese of Thrace; TIIESSALONICA, DyIRRACIHIUM, 140. In AFRICA, the sovereign of Constantinople had reand CORINTH in Macedonia; and SARDICA, in Dacia. conquered all the possessions of the Western Empire, from 137. FRONTIERS OF THE EMPIRE AT THE DEATH OF Jus- the Great Syrtis to the distant shores of the Atlantic, and TINIAN, A. D. 565.-With the reign of that emperor began the CARTHAGE, which so willingly had opened its gates to the victerrible invasions of the Sclavonic nations from the Danube; torious Belisarius, had again become the metropolis of orthobut although the Bulgarians and the Avars advanced into the dox Christians. TRICOMARUIM, six leagues northwest of Carheart of the empire, and besieged Constantinople herself, they thage, where the battle was fought between Belisarius and were nevertheless successfully repulsed; and at the death of Gelimer, the Vandal usurper, which decided the fate of the the emperor in 565, the Oriental Empire still preserved its Barbarians. The site of Mount PAPPUA, at the extremity of old frontiers on the north, east, and south; while on the Numidia, to which Gelimer after his defeat fled for refuge, is west, the borders had been extended by the glorious conquests not known, and it seems difficult, on the indefinite description of Belisarius and Narses, in Europe, to the Alps and the of Procopius, to fix the place with accuracy. western extremities of the Mediterraneand in Africa, to the After the defeat of the Vandals, some of whom were sent as shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Several ports on the southern soldiers to the Persian frontiers, and the remainder dispersed coast of Spain, from the Straits of tlercules (now Gibraltar) to and lost sight of in the interior of Africa, Justinian had still, the environs of Valencia, were likewise occupied by the garri- during several years, some trouble with the roving mountaineers sons of the empire. The northern frontier, on the Danube, had of Mount Atlas, the Xabyles and llicaurusians, who in vain atbeen strengthened with fifty-two new fortresses, all the ancient tempted from their strongholds on the outskirts of the desert, fortifications had been repaired, so had likewise the celebrated to profit by the change of dominion, and the religious dissenlong waflls, built by the Emperor Anastasius (417), for a sions, in order to recover the fertile country which the ancient length of eighteen miles, from the Propontis, across Thrace, Romans had taken from them. to the Black Sea, and advantageously situated for the defence of Constantinople. 138. ACQUISITIONS IN THIE WEST.-The countries comprised within these limits which, during the reign of Justinian had been added to the empire, were the following: C'HAPTER IV. 139. In EUROPE. I. The southern part of the ancient diocese of ILLYRICUM OCCIDENTALE, along the upper course of the EUROPE. Save, to the Carnian Alps, and the Istrian Peninsula on the Adri*tic. To * 1 15 5 1ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY AFTER THE INVASION ASO atic. RAGUSA, with an excellent har-bor on the coast, was built ITS POLI TICAL GEOGRAPHY AFTER T INVASION during the reign of Justinian, by the inhabitants of the ancient THE AVAS AND THE LONGOBARDS IN THE SECOND city of Epidaurus, which the Sclavonians had destroyed during HALF OF THE SIXTH CENTURY.40 their invasion. The Illyrian Proafecture, to which this newly acquired province was added, received now for metropolis Jus- GENERAL atMAtcs. —ce have seen the position of t TINANA PRIMA (Giustendil), a magnificent city, that rose by old world at the accession of Justinian I., A. D. 527. Half a TNAAPI (Gutn). aagicnciytarey century from that time take place the two last important mithe order of Justinian, on the site of the small village of c TAURESTUM, where that monarch had been born, in the hut grations, those of the Avars and the Longobards, between the Nof a humble shepherd(35). years 568 and 574, which produce so great a change in the II. ITALY, which was conqcuerecd by Belisarius ancl Narses political geography of Europe, that it will be necessary to after a most tremendous war of eighteen years (535553) explain their results. We shall, however, only confine ourduring wich Roe as e times taken by the Greeks, and selves to indicate rapidly the principal revolutions which ocretaken by the Goths. It was during the siege that Belisa- in Europe towards the close of he sixth cetry, as rius built the wall between the present Por ta del Popolo, and |we have already given such full details on the plreceding period. Porta Sa~aria, which is still extant, under the name of l/uro Storto di Belisar'io, and that the Greek defenders of the lMoles Iladriani (Castle of Sant Angelo), hurled the magnificent sta- I NORTHERN EUROPE rues on the heads of the storming Barbarians. MILAN, then the most populous and brilliant city in the west, after Rome, 141. The BRITISH ISLANDS have undergone great political was likewise taken and destroyed by the Frankish auxiliaries changes since the beginning of the sixth century. of the Ostrogoths, in the course of the war. RAVENNA suf- In HImBrRNIA-Erin-(Ireland)~ the different small kingfered likewise all the vicissitudcles of the most barbarous war- doms became more and more flourishing, princially in consefare. TAGINES, Tagira, in Umbria, on the western slope of Mount Apennine, near Spoletium, where the great and deci- 40 Compare Map No. 2, with Map No. 8.

Page  37 THIRD PERIOD.-ANGLO-SAXONS-SCANDINAVIANS-FRANKS. 37 quence of the rapid propagation of Christianity, that had al- piratical expeditions, already begin to desolate the southern ready spread throughout the greater part of the island. Yet and eastern shores of the Baltic. although it contributed generally to soften the character of the people, and to inspire them with ideas of religion and morality, it was not able to curb the military spirit of the Canfinnies, ~ II. CENTRAL EUROPE. or chiefs at the head of their warriors panting for war and glory; and thus the intestine feuds continued in almost every 145. KINGDOM OF THE FnRANKs.-The Frankish empire part of that beautiful island; while the learned monks at Ard- had received a considerable extension since the preceding macha', Benchor, and Killdara, were preparing for their more period (110). The sons of Clovis41 conquered THURINGIA arduous and dangerous missions on the Continent among Saxons, in 531, and BURGUNDY in 534 (119), and, taking advantage Frisians, and Selavonians, who all must with gratitude look of the distress of the Ostrogoths during the wars with back to Ireland for their first instruction in the Christian the Byzantine emperors, they insidiously obtained the cesfaith. sion of PROVENCE from the unhappy king Vitiges in 535. 142. The kingdom of the SCOTS and PICTS, in the north of Chlothaire I., the last of the sons of Clovis, united the Frankish Great Britain, preservedclnearly the same limits. Christianity had kingdoms in 558-561; but, according to the custom of those already penetrated into the mountain regions by the strenuous times, he again divided them between his four sons; and on the exertions of the monks of Saint Columba (101). The an- death of Charibert, there remained the three kingdoms of cient Britons were still in possession of the western coast of the Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy. The limits of these island, and defended themselves bravely in Cumberland, Wales, states were drawn in so absurd a manner, that it is impossible and Cornwall; but new states were founded on the east- to give any clear idea of them. The Merovingian kings did not ern shores in consequence of later invasions from the shores of attempt to round off their states with easily defended frontiers, Denmark. -their only view was to obtain an equal number of royal do143. KINGDOMS OF THIE ANGLES.-While the Saxons mains, many rich cities, and the best vineyards in the south or on founded their states in the south (104), new conquerors, the theRhine. Each brother demanded a duchy in Aquitaine; PaAngles, from Schleswig on the Eider and the Baltic, arrived ris, already an important city, was likewise divided among the on the eastern coast of Britain, where they established three princes, and every one fortified separately his own quarter as new kingdoms between the years 534 and 584. These, together in time of foreign invasion. We can therefore only give a genwith the earlier four Saxon states were henceforth known under eral outline of the provincial division, which soon became perthe name of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. The new settle- manent by the development of the separate nationalities of Germents of the Angles were the following: mans, French, Burgundians and Aquitanians, in the subsequent NORTHANUMBImA (Northumberland), so called from its posi- period of Charlemagne. tion north of the Humber, was founded in 547 by Ida, the 146. The kingdom of SOIssoNs, now already called NEusFirebrand, a powerful chief, who, with his twelve sons and an TRIA, or WESTRIA (Wester-Reich), comprised all the provinces army of Angles, landed on the Cape of Flamborough, and extending along the sea-shore, from the mouth of the Loire to occupied the whole coast from the Humber to the Tweed. It that of the Rhine; only Brittany, the ancient Armorica, consoon split into two states: DEIRA (Deornas), on the south tined still independent. A small portion of Northern Aquiof the Tees, and BERNICIA (Bryneich), on the north of that taine remained with the king of Neustria. Soissons was the river; yet both became, in 560, united again under the same capital, and the heart of France. king. Eoforwic (YORK), was the capital of Deira and of all 147. The kingdom of AUSTRASIA or Ostrzsia (OsterNorthumberland. BE.BBANB URGI-I (Bamnborough), built by Ida, Reich), comprehended eastern France and the new conquests south of the Tweed, was the first Anglican settlement in Ber- beyond the Rhine, and, besides, the city and territory of nicia.'ABRINCATUS (Avranches), on the coast of the kingdom of EAST ANGLIA, on the coast, northeast of Essex, was Soissons, and the entire north and south of Aquitaine; that colonized by Angles from Northumberland, and was erected is, the territories of Turrgones (Tours), of Pictavis (Poitiers), into an independent kingdom by Offa in 571; its capital was and of Limnovicas (Limoges), the entire Arverna (Auvergne), NORTHWYC (Northwich), on the Yerne. the cities and territories of Rutenicus (Rhodez), of AlbingenMERCIA (Myrcna), between Northumbria and Anglia, toward sis (Alby), of Cadurcinus (Cahors), of 7Tolosanus (Tolouse), the mountains of Wales. The victories of the Saxons had of Convenas (Comminges), of Consoransis (Conserans), of Be roused the Northmien on the Baltic; one bandl crossed over nearnia (B6arn), of Atura (Aire), and of Burdigalensis after another, and pressing forward in the interior, Creoda (Bordeaux). Nay, it seems, even, that several towns of Pro(Cridda), the descendant of Odin, founded in 584 Mercia, the venee, such as Avenio (Avignon), Aquce Sextice (Aix), and mark or border state, against the Briton refugees of WVales, and the most powerful kingdom of the Heptarchy. LINDUM 41 GENEALOGY OF THE MEROVINGIAN RACE UNTIL DAGOBEET, A. D. 638. (Lincoln), an ancient Roman colony, was the capital. CLOvIS on CnLoDvsI I. How these Dano-Germans gracdually nnited and formed them- 481-511 selves into cosierble kingdoms, anI how far they respecte ennY I., CIILODOMIR, CHIILDEBERT I., CIILOTHIAIBE I., selves into considerable kingdoms, and how far they respected King of Austrasia. I(ing of Orleans. King of Paris. King of Soissons. the remains of Roman civilization which they still may have found Am-_ o d —-- aughters. Sole King in 558. there, we know not; nor does there exist any written history of TE534-D548. were assassinated the seven kingdoms until the time of their conversion to Christi- at St. Cloud. anity. The poor Britons were at last reduced to the western T54O-B5LD. mountains of Cambria (103), or sought refuge among their Noposterity. _ _____ Celtic brethren on the opposite coast of Armorica (70). CIngo arueo., GONTTRAa,, IGEBERTl Oi eoL Is 144. ScANDINAlvA. -Dar kness still covers the north; the 561-561. 561-593. 561-56. 561-5S4. dynasties of the Ynglingar at Sigtuna in Swuea-Rike (Sweden), \LDEBERT H., Cu.IOTIAIRE II., King of Bm'gundy. 584 —628. and of the Skioldunger at Leire in IDannemzark (Denmark), 576 —596. Sole Kin in 618. begin to extend their dominion over the petty chiefs, the Sea- Tnaonarr I., TnInrr H., DAGoo g.,ABERT II. kings and Vi-kings of the islands; while the Northmcn in their King9 of6Austrasia. ing of B6rgundy. Sole 628-ing68. 628-6q1.

Page  38 38 T:THIRD PElRI OD.-FRANKS-AVARS —VISIGOTHS-L OMBARDS. one-half of llctssZili (Marseille), formed part of the kingdom to secure themselves against the Flranks, they had transformed of Austrasia. Sigebert, king of this country, perceiving the the finest provinces of southern Gernmany to a desert, where necessity of approaching nearer to his possessions beyond the dense forests arose, which separated Bavaria from Avaria. Rhine, removed his royal residence from Rheims, the ancient The more to secure their position on the Danube, they supmetropolis of that part of Gaul, to METTIS (Metz), on the Mo- ported the rebellious Duke Thassilon of Bavaria, against Charselle, which henceforth became the capital of Austrasia. AN- lemagne; but the Frankish armies invaded their country in DELAUS (Andelot), on the frontiers of Burgundy, is important 791, and after several destructive campaigns, Prince Pepin in the history of the Franks, on account of the treaty of 587, subdued all western Avaria as far as the river Raab and the which fixed the limits between Austrasia and Burgundy, and Danube, and forced the defeated Tartars to become Christians. in which we discover the first traces of the hereditary succes- Several times they rose in rebellion, but in 803 the heavy sion in the fiefs. sword of C-harlenmagne smote them with such effect, that the 148. The kingdom of BURGUND~Y, or, as it now was called, Avaric nation vanishes from history, and only the eastern the kingdom of ORLEANS and BUPaRJUNDY, because it embraced tribes found refuge on Mount Caucasus, where they still, to these two kingdoms, extended besides over the territory of M/fe- this day, form a warlike race under the name of AwAns or lodunrzzu (Melun), Pr'ovence, and the western part of Aquita- UARS, and their Khan is the most powerful among the Lesnia (Saintes, Angoulemne, Pkrigueux, and Agen). Gontran, its gianct chieftains. king, took his residence ir ChIALONs sr &Sctone, a position more The Avars, being nomades, had no cities, but strongly forcentral than that of either of the ancient capitals, Orleans or Lyons. tified camps. Their capital was the RINGUs, or fortified cirEBRnEI)vNUM (Embrun), at the foot of the Cottian Alps, and STAn- cular camp at Buda-Pesthb in Pannonia, where the Franks LON (Estoublons), umore south, on the western slope of the mari- made an immense booty of the plundered treasures of so many time Alps, are remarkable places on account of the victories vanquished nations. The Avars were the most talented and which the Frankish general -niummolus here gained, in 569 ingenious of the eastern tribes; they were tall, handsome, and and 570, over the arrogant Lombards and their Saxon allies, excellent archers. They fought in complete armor; their when the former, not satisfied with their easy conquest of Italy, steeds were barbed with chain umail, and the equipment of the attempted to add Provence likewise to their territories, as Avar horsemen was adopted by the Byzantine Greeks, as were having formerly belonged to the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. their long lances, with colored flags. They learned from the Greeks to conduct regular sieges, to throw bridges; but they 149. AvARIA.-The Empire of the Avars occupied for two showed such savage cruelty against their vanquished subjects, centuries the greater part of eastern Europe, and took the that their name, Obri in the Russian, got the signification of place of the kingdoms of the Lomnbards, Gepide, and B3ul- " horrible monster," as the Boug-re (Bulgar), in French, and the ga(-ians, whose position we have described in the beginning of Hiine (I-IHun), in German. The Avars were a brave and warthe century. The Avars were a Tartaric nation, by the like people, but faithless, perfidious, and avaricious. Fromn Russian historians called Obri, and by the Franks, Hung (108), wild nomades, they became cunning tradesmen, who with their there being, no doubt, many Huns following along with theim. caravans, carried the oriental and Grecian wares and costly The Avars had for centuries inhabited the eastern slope of manufactures to the markets of Germany, where they made MIount Oural, when they were defeated by the Turkomans from plenty of money, which they hoarded within the wooden walls the Caspian, and driven westward. They in their turn subdued of the Ringus, on the Danube, and it was then a common saythe Bulgarians on the Euxine, and appeared, to the terror of the ing anmong tthe Franks, that before the conquest of Avaria the Greeks, on the Danube, in 560. Justinian averted the storm Franks had been a poor people, but that afterwards, the prewith rich presents. All Slavia, eastern Germany as far as cious metals found there had made them more wealthy than Franconia, and Bavaria, were devastated by that cruel and any other nation in Europe. restless people, which for more than two centuries proved the 150. GERMANY was thus divided between the Frtznks and scourge of Europe (560-796). They occupied all Bohemia the Avab-s. Among the independent SAXONS, the SCANDINAand subdued the Sorabian Slavi in thlepresent Saxony and VIANS, the FINNS, and NORTHERN SCLAVONIANS, no remarkable Lausitz. In 563 they penetrated into Thuringia, where they changes took place during that period. for the first time came in contact with the Franks. United with the Longobards, they suddenly attacked and destroyed 1 1. SOUTHERN EUROPE. the Gepida, in Pannonia (1 22), and when the Lombards, in 568, marched off for the conquest of Italy, they occupied per- 151. SPANISH PENINSULA.-The only change which here manently the fertile and beautiful lands of Noricum, Panno- attracts our attention is the extinction of the Sztevian kingnia, and all Dacia. Their southern frontier was the Danube,, dom in 585, and the progressive'amalgamation of the different the Euxine Sea, and the western Caucasus. On the east, races which already began to speak the Spanish language, a they touched the Volga, on the northeast they reached to mixture of Latin and Gothic. The only troubles there were modern Moskow, and along the Carpathian range their western caused by the ambition of the princes to succeed to the throne, border ran down the Elbe, from Magdeburg to Bohemia, and the arrogant bearing of the prelates, who, during the leincluding the portion of Austria, east of the Ens, and followed thargic sloth of the Visigothic kings and nobility had made then south, along the Friulian Alps, the river Save to its junction the ecclesiastic influence paramount in the realm. with the Danube. They were a mighty nation, who during the seventh and eighth centuries kept Europe in continual fear. Many 152. KINGDOM OF THE LOMBARDS. —The Ostrogothic emSclavonian tribes were subdued by the Avars; others fled before pire was destroyed by Belisarius and Narses, in the middle of themn, and forcing their wayacross theDanube, inundated Thrace, the 6th century. In 568, Alboin crossed the Alps, with an imand settled in northern Greece and the peninsula of the Morea mense army of Longobards, Saxons, and other Germman au:x(196). In a subsequent period, however, when the Bulgarians, iliaries. He occupied Northern Italy, which henceforth took under their leader, Kuvrat, recovered from their lethargy, and the name of Lomlbardy, and his successors extended their defeated the Avars in the east, and the inhumnan cruelty of sway through the interior as far as Beneventtlm in the south. the latter brought the Bohemians ill their despair to throw Yet the Lombards were unable to conquer the coast, where the off the yoke, then the Avaric power began to sink. In order well-fortified cities were supported by the fleets from Constan

Page  39 THIRD PERIOD.-LOMBARDS-GREEKS. FOURTH PERIOD.-FRANKS. 39 tinople, and thus their kingdoml remained without consolida- superior to that of the Goths and Franks. The Lombards tion, and exposed to attacks on every side except the north, were excellent horsemen; they established studs of an im. The Lombard kingdom was divided into six larger provinces, proved race of war-steeds, on the meadows of the Venetian containing thirty-six dclcatUes (duchies), which were governed coast; they introduced the buffalo from India, and carried by dukes, who, in the course of time succeeded in becoming to perfection the art of falconry. Yet they never succeeded almost entirely independent. in conquering Rome, and the hostility with the Popes and the I. AusTRIA (now the Venetian territory) with the larger maritime cities, contributed to rouse the patriotism of the ItaDuchies of TRIDENTUNI (Trident), FoRnun JULi (Friuli), and lians, and to promote the development of the Italian republics VENETIA or AUSTRIA REGNI, which again comprised a number of later times. of smaller duchies, Ta?-visiz e (Treviso), Vicenztcia (Vicenza), 153. The BXYZANTINE or EASTERN ROMAN EMrPIrPE.-The Pataviunm (Padua), &c. conquest of Italy by the Lombards; deprived the Eastern EmII. NEusTRIA (now Piedmont and Milan), was separated pire of some of the acquisitions which it had made in Italy durfrom Austria by the Miincius (Mincio), and the Lacus Bela- ing the reign of Justinian I.; yet it still possessed the followcus (Lago di Garda), with the duchies of Eboreja (Ivrea), ing provinces, toward the close of the 6th century. Tazctinuntv (Turin), and Neust'ia Regni, in which was the cap- 1. The EXARCHATE, which had its name from its governor, ital of the kingdom, PAPIA, or TiCINUM (now Pavia), on the the Exa'zch (''EaQZXogo), whom the Greek emperor sent over Ticinus. Smaller duchies were those of BergonmunZ, (Bergamo), to administer the imperial possessions of Italy. He resided Br~ixia (Brescia), llecdiola2itu n (Milan), and Insula St. Julii, in Ravenna (42), and had a Greek fleet and troops at his dison the small lake of Orta. posal for the defence of the province. The exarchate consisted III. EiMuILIA, south of the Pcadus (Po), comprised the of Padua, Adria, Ferrara, Commacchio, Bologna, Imola, Fasmall duchies Placentia (Piacenza), Parma, Regiuzins (Reggio), enza, Forli, Cesena, and the maritime province called Pentaand Zltiutina (Modena). polis, because it consisted of the five cities of Rimini, Pesaro, IV. TuscIA (Toscana), divided into, 1, TUscIA REGNI, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona. Venice, situated at four miles with the duchies Lueca (Lucca), Florevtia (Florence), and distance from the mainland in her lagoons, began already to Cliusiumv3 (Chiuso); and 2, TuscIA LANGOBARDORUM with the rise in power and wealth, and though governed almost indeduchy of Castrum. Separated from these territories, were pendently by her military tribunes, was still considered as a for a length of time the southern conquests of the king- dependence of the Greek Empire. dom. 2. The province of the COTTIAN ALPS (51), embraced at V. The duchy of SPOLETUM (Spoleto), with the city of this period the whole range of the Maritime Alps and of Reate. the Apennines, on the fertile coast of LIGURIA, with the city VI. The duchy of BENEVENTUAT, with the gastaldcates, of JANUA (Genoa), which had already become a thriving comor jurisdictions of Capua, Bovianuon, Teate, and smaller mercial port. territories. PAVIA had made a most obstinate resistance dur- 3. The Duci-y OF RoAre, extending from Perugia on the ing a siege of three years. Alboin made it the capital of the north, to Gaeta on the south, was governed by a military duke, kingdom. MILAN had arisen from its ashes, and was again though both the Bishop (Pope) of the Roman See, and the seone of the most populous and important cities. VERONA, the nate of ancient noble families exercised a great influence, and strong fortress on the Adige, where Alboin was assassinated often opposed the despotic measures of the distant and weak by his revengeful wife Rosamund. MONZA, near Milan, with Byzantine Government. the celebrated cathedral and monastery of Queen Teudelinda, 4. THE Duciuy oF NAPLES was divided into two parts, by inwhere the kings were inaugurated with the iron crown of Lomn- tervening Lombard territories. On the north, the beautiful bardy. King Rotharis gave in 644, the Lombard code. All city of NEAPOLIS (Naples), with SORRENTO, PUTEOLI (Pozzuoli), Lombards were nobles, Arizmazni, or warriors; under the and the thriving commercial town of AlvMALF, on theSalerll itan dukes stood the judges, or Gastalci; free Lombards were gulf, and on the south, CALABRIA, with the strongly fortiempanelled as jurymen, to judge their equals; capital punish- fled and important city of TARENTUJI (Taranto). SIcILY, with ment was inflicted only for treachery, conspiracy, and cowardice. its capital, SYRACUSE, SARDINIA, CORSICA, and the BALEAR-T Judicial duels, and ordeals by fire and water were permitted. islands, belonged likewise to the Eastern Empire. Woman enjoyed the highest honor, protection,42 nay, even chivalrous adoration. The king was only the leader of the feudal army; the assembly of dukes decided all political questions. The native Romans were treated with unheard of cruelty; yet the Lombards did not take themselves the landed CIAPTEIR V. property; they exacted one-third part of the revenue. The tributes and taxes of the cities were heavy, but the citizens EUROPE. personally free. The Lolmbarcis, as Arian heretics, clad in skins, had terrified the Romans; yet the natural chivalrous WVESTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA; character of the old Northmen soon took a polish and elegance THEIR POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY DURING THIE REIGNS OF CHARLEMAGNE (A D. 768-814), AND OF HAROUN 42 See the laws of king Rotharis: elopement with a Lombard bride A SCID THE BBSIDE CIP O BDAD (A. without the consent of the bridegroom, was punished with 1800 solidi, or gold pieces (Roth. Legg. 191), while the murder of a Lombard arimen or D. 786-809). noble, could be atoned with only 900 solidi; nay, the taking a single kiss of a Lombard virgin without her permission, was punished with 900 solidi as compensation to the injured fair one, while a worse harm done I. EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. to her Roman maid-servant, was atoned with only three solidi, and the breaking into her fathelr's house by open robbery, with 80 solidi (Roth. Legg., 14, 16, 26, 31, 32). The Lombards, like the Danes, compensated DEATHE OF PEPIN-LE-BREF. D. 768. every injuly on mart or beast, whether premelitated or accidental, with ready money. (See the highly interesting details in Professor Leo's Ge- 154. GENE.AL REMARs. —Great changes have taken place schichte der Itatlienisehen Staoten. Hamburg, 1829, vol. i., p. 114 et seq. in the Frankish empire since the union of the three kingdoms

Page  40 40 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. of Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy, first under Chlotaire II. Thuringia, Souabia, Bavaria, and those portions of western in 613, and then a second time under king ]Dagobert in 628. Saxony and Frisia which were considered as belonging to the The successors of the latter, the idle orfainezans kings of the empire. Aquitania, then almost independent,44 was divided Merovingian race, had given place, in 752, to Pepin-le-Bref, in equal parts between both brothers. From this somewhat the founder of the second dynasty-the Carlovingians. The unsatisfactory account of Eginhard, we discover, howbver, main causes of the downfall of the royal authority in France the insecurity of the frontiers, and the loose connection of the were the impolitic and detrimental divisions of the empire among states among themselves.45 What a work was there on hand for the royal princes, the feuds and disorders which they occasion- such a genius as Charlemagne! ed, and the growing influence of the able and active n2acyo'rs of the palace (118). By the new division of the states, on the I. KINGDOM OF IEUSTRIA. death of Dagobert in 638, among his sons, every one of the petty kingdoms obtained its own 3Mayor Donmus, which increas- 157. I. NEUSTRIA PROPER, between the Atlantic, the ed the confusion; nay, the relations between these military Channel, the Mosa, and the Loire, extended southeast to Burgundy and being the earliest conquest of the Frankish nation, chiefs became the more hostile, the more the different nation-n, alities of German-t Fraanks or Austrasians (Eastlanlers), RPomanz it was thickly settled by them and the centre of their power. ks or Nestrans (Westlanders), and Gallo- or Yet the western peninsula, BRITANNIA (Bretagne)-BrittanyFranks or Neustrians (Westlanders), and Gallo-Romants, or called likewise Armorlica (70), and Corqzu Gallice, answering Aquitanians, developed themselves in language, character, and called likewise Armorica (20), and Gornw Galloe answering manners. In 687 it came to a civil war between the Neustrians andto the similar name Cornonailics (Cornwall), of the opposite Austrasians and their warlike mayors. Pepin of Heristal and his coast in the British island, was inhabited by the pure old Austrasians, gained the bloodybattle at Testri against the Neu- Celtic race, as different firom the Roman inhabitants of Gaul, strians, in consequence of which he was chosen to rule over all as from their conquerors the Franks. The Britons had, unthe kingdomls as Duke and Prince of tile Franks, and established til the death of Pepin-the-Short, preserved their manners, the permanent seat of the executive power at Aix la Chapelle in language, prticular laws, and native princes; and the Austrasia. The son of Pepin, Charles Miartel (the Hammer), French chroniclers of the times distinctly record that it was consolidated still more the new hereditary power of the Mayor Charlemagne who first carried the Frankish arms into that -Domus by his victories over the Saxons, Frisians, and Arabs country. Some of the frontier towns, however, such as NAnfrom Spain, at Tours in 732; and so great was the influence ETES (Nantes), on the Loire, RIDONES (Rennes), and ALETUM of Pepin-le-Bref, the son of Charles Martel, that, with the (Saint Malo), had already been occupied by the Merovingian sanction of clergy and nobility, and the assistance of the Pope liings, and later by Pepin. II. BuRcuNDIm (Bourgogne, Burgundy), on the southeast of Romne, he could put the last miserable Merovingian kling of Neustria, between the Loire, the Cevennes, and the Alps, into a convent, and mount the throne of Austrasia and Neustria of Neustria, between the Loire, the Cevennes, and the Alps,. and bordering south on Provence, was at this period the most in 752. Aquitaine, Saxony, and Bavaria, which had recovered their i ndependence during the troubles, are invad ed by Pepin flourishing portion of the empire, both on account of the inand partly reduced to obedience, when he divides his states be- dustry and activity of the inhabitants, and because the devastattween his two sons, Carloman and Charles, before his death i ing incursions of the Arabs from Spain had hardly touched its frontiers. 768. III. SEPTIMANIA, southwest of Burgundy, extended along the coast of the Balearic sea, or Gallic gulf-Sinus Gallicusnorth and northwest by the Channel and the Atlantic; on the south by the Loire, the mountain chain of the Cevennes and the as the gulf of Lions was then called. This beautiful province had never been completely reduced by the M~erovingians, and Gulf of Lions on the Mediterranean.4 On the side of Italy the luced y the Merovingians, and Franks had extended their empire to the highest range of the was soon re-conquered by th e Moh ammedans. It remained their power until the Gothic count, Ansemandus, surrendered Alps, in which two important passes were situated, which are often mentioned in the chronicles of those times: 1 The several cities-Ninmes, Maguelonne, and Beziers-to Pepin, Eianks' N~arr-ows"-Clusce Pancortm-now the passage of 1who already had crossed the frontiers. NARBONNE, rising in ~ranzks' 2~abrrows" ~ Cuise ~acncortbun z no w the passage of the little Saint Bernard, which opens upon the valley of Aosta rebellion, slaughtered the Mussulman garrison and opened her h Vallis Anug'ustana-and the other defile, more south, called gates to the Frankish prince. Thus encouraged, the Franks the Segusian Valley- Vallis Segusiana or Vallis Sensanca- boldly entered the Pyrenees, and it is related that the Saracen * 1 > n a * * * WIaf of Girona and Barcelona did homage to Pepin, although is the defile of Susa on Mount Cenis, which King Desiderius a lmere show of obeisance could not have been a real subhad fortified in vain, in 774, against Charlemagne, who boldly mission. crossing over by the steeper mountain paths, took the Lombard 158. PRovwNCeA (Provence), south of Burgundy, on both camp in the flank and defeated them totally in the plain of Pavia. Beyond the Rhine the lFrankish territory extended eastward banks of the D entia (Durance), had been overrun by the to the river Saale, where it bordered on the Sasons, Sorabians, Arabs, bt Charles artel defeated them there in A.. 739 as, ad rn sh t te D e ad ag te and the province was henceforth governed by Frankish officers. and Bohemians, and ran south to the Danube and along the 159. V. ALESATIA or Alesacis (Alsace), northeast of BuLrAlniszs (Ens) to the Alps, thus comprising Bavaria, which, however, was more tributary than subdued. On the northeast, between Mount Vogesus and the hin though inthe countries beyond the Rhine, and north of the Thuringian closed within Austrasia, belonged to arloman. It was the mountains, Saxony, and the coast-lands of the Frisians, though first onqest of vis fo the leanni and was afterwards often invaded by the Franks, were still independent. incorporte into the province of Est nce (rncoa), 156. DIVISION MADE BY PEPIN BETVWEEN IIIS SoNs.-C-arlo- beyond the Rhine. 160. VI. ALEMIANNIA or Alamanczia, southeast of Alsace, man, the elder, got Neustria, Burgundy, with Septimania, Provence, Alsace, and Alemannia, that is, western and southern on the right bank of the Rhine, embraced the southern part ~~~~France~. Cals th y e of Sonabia and Switzerland, and extended to the foot of the France. (lharles, thle youtner son, received Austrasia with Alps. A small portion of northern Souabia seems to have 43 During the middle ages it was styled the sen, or gulf of the Lion, 44 Aquitania was in a state of insurrection, and Charlernmagne began because, from the frequency of tempests, it was formidable to mariners. his reign with its complete reduction. To write gulf of Lyons is incorrect. 1 4 In his life of Charlemagne.

Page  41 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. 41 belonged to Austrasia; the Franks were unable scientifically the Mayn on the north, and the Risga (Rechnitz), a tributary to adjust political divisions of territory. After the de- of the Mayn, on the east, formed what at that time began to feat of their duke, Leutfried, in 748, the Alemanni were be called FRANCIA, France, and was under the Carlovingians deprived of their native sovereigns, and governedby Frankish considered as the cradle of the monarchy. It was in itself counts under the supervision of royal commissaries (mnissi subdivided into Hiest Reich, or the Western Kingdom, on the doninici). left bank of the Rhine, comprising Alsace, and Ost Reich, or the 161. VII. Bo3JOARIA (Bavaria), on the east of Alemannia, Eastern Kingdom, on the right bank of that river, the present from which it was separated by the river Lichus (Lech), ex- Franconia in Bavaria. All the ancient Roman cities on the tended between the Danube and the Alps, eastward to the Rhine (71,109) had been rebuilt, and were now flourishing; Anisus (Ens), where it bordered on the empire of the Avars. the hills on the banks of the river were covered with vineyards, The Bavarians, though several times defeated by Pepin, who and the numerous country-seats of the kings and their feudal had penetrated into their country so far as the zEnuts (Inn), retainers, presented the boisterous life and gaudy pomp of preserved still their native dukes and their national habits, those barbarous times. but they did homage to the Frankish kings, followed their 164. IX. THURINGIA or Thoringia (Thiiringen), between banner, and paid a yearly tribute. Bavaria did not yet form the Weser, which separated it from Austrasia on the west, and an integral part of the empire, and is not mentioned in the the Saale, which on the east formed the utmost frontier of the division made by Pepin between his sons. empire, against the Sorabians, and other Sclavonian tribes. After the conquest of this beautiful country by the sons of Clovis in 532 (120), it was considered as an integral part of II. KINGDOM OF AUSTRASIA. their dominions, but during the downfall of the royal authority of the Merovingians, and the feudal wars of the Mayores 162. Pepin gave Austrasia to his second son, Charles. It Domsus in the west, the Thuringians succeeded in rendering was by far smaller than Neustria, but it was nevertheless the themselves independent. They placed their native dukes at principal portion of the empire, and in assigning it to his the head of the government, and bravely defeated the Franks in youngest and most talented son, Pepin manifested the pre- the great battle on the river Unstrut. Pepin-the-Short was dilection he felt for him. Austrasia was the cradle of the therefore obliged to turn his arms against them, and this he Frankish nation; it was the old homestead of those brave did so effectually, that all Thuringia had been completely subclegene (thanes, chiefs), and leudes (warriors), who formed the dued and christianized at the time when Charlemagne mounted feudal armies of the Franks. There, too, was the stronghold of the Austrasian throne. the new dynasty in the hereditary castles of Landen and 1Ae- north of Austrasia and ristal, on the Mosa, surrounded by the estates of the faith- Thuringia. The indomitable Saxons, with their heavy short ful retainers of the family of Pepin-and finally, it was on swords-saxen-still preserved their independence, in spite this exposed frontier that all the assaults of the Germanic, Scla- of the five fatiguing campaigns of Pepin, until at last the Franks vonian, and Tartaric nations were to be opposed, sword in advanced on the Weser, and imposed a yearly tribute of three hand, if the western civilization should not be entirely over. hundred horses on the Saxons, which they took no care to pay. whelmned by new inundations of the barbarous hordes from the Nor did they keep their engagement to permit the Irish and east. Great was therefore the responsibility that rested on British missionaries to prosecute their pious work of converyoung king Charles, but he had the head, heart, and hand, re- sion among them; and many were the zealous and devoted quisite for the mighty task which his father had imposed upon monks, who, in the Saxon forests, gained the crown of him. martyrdom. These remarks are important in order to understand the 166. XI. FRISIA (Holland and Friesland), on the northpolitical and social change of manners, ideas, and language west of Saxony, was separated from Neustria by the lower which already separated the two leading parts of the Frankish Rhine, and extended eastward to the Weser. The Frisians made nationthe Neustrians and Austrasians —at the time of the most desperate efforts to preserve their independence in their Charlem agne. All earlier French writers speak of that great low, swampy coast-lands, and Pepin of Heristal did not sueruler as if he were a Frenchman, a Louis XIV., an absolute ceed in subduing them entirely, during eight fatiguing cammonarch of France, while the more profound modern historians, paigns, for they soon threw off the Frankish yoke again, and Guizot and Thierry, distinctly prove that Karl the Greeat and even the great power of Pepin-the-Short did not restrain them his Austr'asians were genuine Germans, speaking the old Ger- from slaughtering the pious Saint Boniface (Winfried), the man mother-tongue, and still preserving the habits and man- archbishop of Mayence, who, in 755, had dared with cross and ners of the Tudesque race. The Neustrians, west of the Christian banner to enter their wilderness, in order to spread Mosa, on the contrary, had already so far adopted the lan- the light of Christianity among them. guage and customs of the native Romans, that they appear as Frenchmen one century later, at the battle of Fontenay and the treaty of Verdun in 843, where, at the division of the Em- Q II. TuE WESTERN EMPIRE AT THE DEATH OF CHARLEpire, the act of allegiance of the armies is rendered both in MAGNE, A. D. 814. the French an the German language 167. On the premature death of Karloman in 771, the 163. VIII. AIJTRA5IA PROPMA-AuIZSter —-extended on Neustrian Franks placed Karl on the buckler, as their Konig both banks of the Rhine from the Mosac, which separated it and Ilerzog (79), instead of the helpless children of Karlofrom rNeustria on the west, to the Visurgis or TWissera (W7e- man. Karl accepted and hailed this propitious union, as the ser), that formed the eastern frontier line toward Thuringia, a beginning and coner-stone of the mgnificent builing ws the Sclavonian nations on the Elbe. The portion of this pro- going to erect. Charlemagne is the greatest reformer of the vince, lying between the Moselle on the west, the Rhine and M|iddle Ages. Society was then in a ferment; barbarism and civilization were in the most violent contest with each other, 46 See the interesting details on Charlemagne, the ancient'".ee.l~e ieand the latter could only gain the victory by violent mCeans. Franks, and the division of the Carlovingian empire, in Augustin Thierry's Lettres sur l'Histoire de France, Lettre I.-XII., and in Guizot's Providence sends forth mighty individuals, who are destined Histoire de la Civilization en France, Lemons XX-XXV. to lead an entire age with giant steps forward in its develop. 6

Page  42 42 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. ment, and furnishes them with vigor of intellect and strength extreme, and based on earlier Frankish institutions. Charles of will to accomplish their arduous task. Such is Charle- feared and hated the proud Dukes of Aquitania, Bavaria, and magne; he does not follow the beaten track, and while he Lombardy; he dissolved all the duchies, abolished their titles, fixes his eye steadfastly on the distant glittering summit of and divided the whole empire into COUNTIES-p-2agi or gr' fenZthe mountain, many a flower is crushed beneath his foot. He ganten-at the command of which stood a count or g''crf; is a terrible warrior, who for forty-five years leads his ilmmense uniting the functions of judge and military commander. The armies from one frontier of his empire to the other, in constant graf enjoyed his fief only for his lifetime;47 his sons had no herewarfare. The Aquitanians in southwestern France, the Lom- ditary rights; their election depended on the choice of the bards in Italy, the Saxons on the Weser and Elbe, the Danes monarch. Yet in order to keep the most vigilant control over on the Eider, the Sclavonians on the eastern frontiers, the the counts and their jurisdiction in the counties, Charles emAvars on the Danube and the Raab, and the Saracens beyond ployed his important and faithful envoys, or missi lomninici, the Pyrenees, are either repelled or prostrated and subdued by who were chosen from among the most experienced and virtuous dint of his sword. He succeeds in giving Europe an entirely prelates and laymen; they were in continual movement from different, a better regulated and organized form. At Rome one province to another, and woe to the negligent official; he takes the imperial crown in A. D. 800, and thus revives a for Charles himself, like the lightning from the clouds, would modern Romano-Germanic empire, that stood the storms of immedately appear and his look was then withering. The caa thousand years, until it at last perished on the battle-field of pitulars of Charlemagne (still extant) are 300, and the whole Austerlitz in 1805. In all his campaigns Charlemagne showed collection of those of his successors more than 3000-all curihimself an able general; his tactical movements were as ad- ously illustrating the simple and rude manners of the ninth mirable as the rapidity with which he knew how to assemble and century. lead on his unwieldy masses of feudal warriors. His heer-6an, or 168. E]XTENT OF THE FP-ONTrE:rns.-Such was the state feudal militia consisted of troops from various nations, differently of the Carlovingian empire. The fifty years which separate armed and equipped, but kept together by the most severe the death of Charlemagne from that of Pepin-le-Bref, had condiscipline, which could only be enforced by a mind like that siderably extended the dominion of the Franks. The new Roof Charles. His leudes furnished their own arms, horses and man empire of Charlemagne had almost as vast an extent as provisions for three months; to facilitate their march through the ancient, with the exception, however, of Spain, Africa, and the empire, military roads were opened under the supervision the island of Britain; but it embraced many lands in central of the active emperor himself. His fleets protected the mouths Germany, which furnished him with stouter warriors than the of the rivers. He was obeyed and feared from the Eider to more civilized Roman provilces. If within the bounds of the Liris, from the Ebro in Spain, to the Theiss in Avaria. the empire we reckon the tributary nations who were not directly We know little in relation to the organization of the Frankish subjected to his Frankish government, the empire had on the armies. Cavalry is never mentioned, though we can hardly west, the Atlantic; on the south, the lower Ebro in Spain and the doubt that the greater part of his feudal vassals served on Mediterranean. On the coast of Italy it extended to the environs horseback. The age of chivalry had not yet arrived, and what of Gaeta, an important city belonging to the Byzantine empire; the moderns write about the twelve peers or paladins of Charle- and then to the Liris (now Garigliano), which separated it from magne, of his tournaments and knightly pomp and pageantry, the Duchy of Beneventum. The powerful chief of the latter belongs to fiction and romance. Yet Charles did not rely only ruled in the greater part of lower Italy, and recognized the suon his heer-ban, or his liegemen bound to military service; he premacy of Charles, without being his subject. The posseshad another body of select troops, called scara, schaar, bands, sions of Charles embraced besides, all the coast of the Adriatic, or paid household troops, who served throughout the cam- from the mouth of the river Aternmus (Pescara), in eastern paigns, and among them were distributed the royal fiefs of Italy, around the gulf of Venice, as far as Rhausitizn (now RaItaly. They may therefore be considered as the first nobles who gusa), or even beyond that; which, however, together with introduced the Frankish feudality into the lands south of the Jcade'ra (now Zara on the island), Trag'ariuvnb (now Trau), Alps. Having thus secured peace and obedience throughout Aspalathos (Spalatro), and some other smaller ports, belonged the western world, he dedicated the last ten years (804-814) to the Byzantine Greeks (139). On the east, the frontiers of the of his long reign (768-814) to the internal organization and empire ran along the Dalmatian mountains to the river Bosna, development of his empire, and here we behold him in his real a tributary of the Save, and followed that river to its junction glory. It would be impossible to give an account of the nu- with the Danube and the Theiss; along this latter river the merous cities, fortresses, churches, s;hools, bridges, high roads, border ascended the Carpathian ridge, crossed westward to and even canals, and other public buildings and monuments, Bohemia, and along the course of the Oder-or as Eginhard which he caused to be erected in every part of his dominions; he says, in his life of Charlemagne, along the Vistula it touched fully recognized the different nationalities, Franks, Germans, the Baltic, the Eider, and the German Ocean. This immense Lombards, Tartars, Sclavonians, Greeks, and Arabs, who lived estent of compact territory had 300 leagues or 900 miles in peaceably under his protection. In his diets on the Rhine, length from north to south, and 420 leagues in breadth from the clergy, high nobility, and the mass of the freemen (leucles), west to east. assembled in a meadow on the banks of the river, where they 169. Wle have given the utmost extent of the Carlovingian were marshallecl according to their rank around the throne of empire as far as the sword of Charlemagne did reach; and in the great Emperor. Foreign amlbassadors from every part of the map this border is indicated by the light gr een line, leaving, the world were there receivedL, their presents graciously ac- however, the national color to the tributary nations who did not cepted, and hospitality offered on a scale which had not been directly come within the Frankish aclministration. The subject witnessed since the downfall of the ancient Roman empire. provinces of the empire, inwhichthe imperial administration had The comprehensive mind of Charles emlbracedl the most distant been thoroughly established, we have colored with a deeper portion of his empire; nay, even the minute detail of incame green, to distinguish it from that of the merely tributary and expense on the farms of his imperial domains. His capi- countries of the Selavonit and Tartaric tribes on the eastern tularia or laws were discussed in thIe diets, and imperial off- frontiers. cers were hurried off in all directions to superintend their 4 The Count was called Pfalz Graf or Count Palatine, if he resided execution. The admimist ration of the empire was simple in the in any of the many royal mansiens or castles called Pfalz.

Page  43 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. 43 his see to find martyrdom among the savage Frisians (166). INGELIIEItM, on the Rhine, surrounded by a splendid scenery of A.-PROVINCES OF THE EMPIRE. mount and dale, was likewise a favorite residence of Charlemagne, where he built a noble palace and called together the 170. DIFFERENT DIVISIONS. - The great fundamental yearly diets of his states; there, too, in 788, Thassilon, the change undertaken by Charlemagne, was the dissolution of the duke orf Bavaria, was condemned as a faithless vassal to lose duchies and the subdivision of the ancient provinces into the his duchy, and expiate his treachery in the gloomy exile of the above-mllentionled PAGI —congties-gheves org'auenz, which again convent. THEODONIS VILLA (Thionville), on the Moselle, where were subdivided into cecntena (hundreds), mzarken (comlmunes), Charlemagne, in 806, divided his states between his sons. and manses (manors), all with their corresponding officials and WorMATIA (Worms), another favorite place of the Emperor, their military service —heebcan. This division of the pagi, where he had a fine palace, and held frequently his Mayfield which extended throughout Germany and France, is of the assemblies. highest importance, because it was the Gaczgrcfen. or judicial 172. Interesting cities, on the east of the Rhine, were counts, who, during the subsequent period of the dissolution FRANCONOFURT (Frankfort), on the Mayn, WurTZBURGn on of the Empire, by obtaining the hereditary rights of their fiefs, the same river, where Charlemagne began the canal, which and joining these to their allodlia or proper estates, con- was intended to unite the Rhine with the Danube, by distituted that feudal nobility which, in the tenth century, recting the course of the Reg'itz into the Altmuthzl, broke up the institution of the pagi —gautveafctss'uzg —and which discharges itself into the Danube. Yet the difficulties formed their baronial territories on its ruins.48 Charle- of cutting through the intervening morasses, and the renewal magne never intrusted an ordinary official with more than one of the Saxon war, forced the enterprising monarch to abandon county; an exception was made however with regard to the bor- this useful work. der Counts, who were called Dzuces linritis, and sonmetimes pos- 173. FRISIA, whose inhabitants, stubborn as they were, sessed extended powers. In cases of sudden insurrection, yielded like the Saxons to the civilizing sword of the Emperor, Dukes were nominated to quell the rebellion. The Bishops be- and made as rapid progress as they. The demolition of the new gan likewise to obtain worldly influence by being placed as civil built Christian church at l)erventer on the Yssel, in 772, was the officials side by side with the military Counts, or as /llissi signal for the bloody war of Charlemagne against the Saxons. Domziotnici above them; yet they did not yet appear armed in SAxoNIA (Saxony) had been christianized and subdued, the field until the downfall of the Empire.49 It was by this after a terribly protracted struggle of thirty-three years (771minute organization of his gigantic empire, that Charlemagne 804). It had lost great part of its population, been devaswas enabled to investigate the real wants of his subjects, or the tated and plundered; but it rose by the energy of its people, neglect or incapacity of his counts. Temporary and change- and the beneficial influence of Christianity and civilization, to able divisions were those of the legations-legc'ationes-and the become the strongest and best organized state of Germany. The imperial messages -n tissatica. The Church was likewise Saxons, at the time of the war with Charlemagne, were divided divided into archbishoprics (provinces), bishoprics (dioceses), into three great tribes, the WESTPHALI ( Westlplalians), on the archdeaconries, &c., &c.; these only are known with accuracy; west, between the Amnisit (Ems), and the Visurgis (Wethe pagi we know only in general from the capitularia. ser); OSTPHALI (or Ostp/ ctirians), between the Weser and the 171. AuSTRIASIA still retained its ancient frontiers, Elbe, and the ANGARII (or ilAzngar'ians), in the southwest. which were rendered secure by border counties on the Elbe North of the Elbe, toward the frontiers of Denmark, on the and Danube. It had become a flourishing country under Eidora (Eyder), lived the NORLENDI (or ~lor'dcalbigiacns), Charlemagne, with rich and thriving cities. Westwardl of in Wooden Saxony, ltolzctica (Holstein). Celebrated places the Rhine was situated AQUISGRANUJ: - Aquce Grani - were(Achen or Aix-la-Chapelle), built during the reign of the Ema- 174. BOCIOLT (Buehholz), on the junction of the Luppe peror Hadrian by a Ronman governor called Granus, who gave and the Rhine, where the Saxons suffered a defeat in 779. his name to the hot springs and the city. Charlemagne SIGIBRuG, a strong fortress which Charlemagne held garrisoned. making it his favorite residence, erected there the Cathedral BADENFELD, where the brave Wittikind was defeated by the of Saint Mary, in which he was buried. His palace joined Franks. ERESBURG (Stadtbergen), north of Badenfeld, the the church by a wooden gallery; many public buildings first fortress Charlemagne took and garrisoned, to keep the with marbles and sculptures from Italy, adorned the city. Saxons in subjection. There stood on a precipitous height, the METTIS (Metz), southeast of Aix, on the Moselle, was the for- celebrated Irmzinseide, or Irmin's pillar, an object regarded Iner capital of Austrasia, which now saw its splendor darkened with the most sacred veneration by the Saxons, but of which by the new favorite. DUILIA (DIren), on the Rhine, was often we do not precisely know whether it was an image of a god, or the general place of rendezvous for the feudal armies of the perhaps a monument of Arminius (Herman), the conqueror of Franks during the Saxon wars. LANErN, the ancestral castle the Romans, thus revered with divine honors. of the Carlovingians, west of the Mosa. HERISTAL (Herstal), PADERBORN, north of Eresburg, in the heart of Saxon that river, the estate and residence of the elder Pepin, who ony, became its mnost important city, where Charlemagne there had built a strong fortress, where his successors often re- often resided. He held there his diet, in 777; received sided. TRivEs (TnEVIIm), rebuilt and flourishing. MAGON- the homage of the Saxons, and a visit from Pope Leo TIA (Mayence), opposite to the junction of the Mayn with the III. Near this city, at the head source of the Lzppis (Lippe), Rhine, across which Charlemagne threw a wooden bridge on called Lippespring, the Saxons suffered a tremendous defeat in stone pillars. Saint Boniface, the Archbishop of Mayence, left 776, and there Charles opened his Mayfield assembly, in 782, and in 804. MOUNT SUNTEL (Sauenthal), more east, where 48 Some regions in Germany still retain the names of the ancient the generals of Charles were routed by the Saxons in 782. At Gauen; for instance, Breisgau onthe Rhine,Aargau in Switzerland, and OHRIuEInm, on the north, the Saxons were baptized in the river others. See thie beautifulmaps No. 12, 13, 15, 16 in the great collec- Weserby thousands, after their submission. BEmoN(Brenien) tion of I-Iistol-ical Maps by Clarles Spruner. Gotha, 1839-52. r See the 4th Capitular of Charlemagne, A. D. 806, chap. 4th: Epis- the sae river, and a un (Haburg), on the Ee, copi cum comitibus stent, et Comnites cum episcopis, ut uterque pleniter were originally fortresses built by Charles for the protection suum ministerium peragere possit. of the coasts, which soon became flourishing commnercial cities.

Page  44 44 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE. 175. ALSATIA (Alsace), southeast of Austrasia. ARGEN- Pepin the Short had died there, and was buried in Saint Denis, TINA CIVITAS, (Arigentoreatun), Strateburgum, Strasburg, On a splendid abbey, built by the Merovingians, over the tomb of the Rhine, at the union of the roads fromn France to Germany, the Gallic Apostle. SITHIU (now Saint Omer), with a celewas the most important town of the province. brated monastery, in which the last Merovingian king died. 1'76. ALEMANNIA (now Baden, Wiirtemberg and Switzerland), BONONIA (Boulogne), on the coast, had arsenals for the armasoutheast of Alsace. CONSTANTIA (Constance), on the Venetus ment of the coast fortresses, which Charlemagne had built to Lacus, or Bodozma Sea, likewise called Lake of Constance. protect the country from the piratic expeditions of the NorthSANTI GALLI MONASTERIUM, a magnificent convent, built by men. It was likewise the station for one of his fleets. AnSt. Gallus. Curia (Chur), on the upper Rhine, in the high Alps. other squadron was placed at GANDA (Gand), on the junction 177. BOIOARIA (Bavaria), east of Alemannia. Its duke, of the Scaldis (Scheldt), with the Ligeris (Lys). SolssoNs Thassilon, had, in spite of the homage paid to Pepin and still preserved its rank as the ancient capital; it was there Charles, sought the alliance of the Avars, and fomented an that Carloman was crowned, while his brother Charles chose insurrection among the Lombards of Italy. He was therefore LAUDUNUBI (Laon), in Austrasia, for his ceremony. TURONES condemned at the diet of Ingelheim, in 788, had his hair cut (Tours), on the Loire, was still the resort of thousands of piloff, and was exiled to the monastery of Fulda. Bavaria was grims, who thronged to the shrine of Saint Martin. Among then reduced to a province, and governed by Frankish counts. the royal residences we mention VERBERIA, VerberiacZumz (VerRATISBONA (Regensburg), the capital on the Danube, where berie), northwest of Paris, where Pepin held a celebrated diet Charlemagne called together the diet in 792 for the organiza- the first year of his reign, and Charlemagne built a splendid tion of the province. SALtISBURGUI (Salzburg), where Charles palace. CARPTSIAcuS (Quierzy), northeast of the former, on gave a magnificent reception to the Greek ambassadors, sent the [saca (Oise), where Charles often resided, and ATTINIby the Emperor Nicephorus, to settle the frontiers between the ACUM (Attigny), southeast of the former on the Axona (Aisne), two empires. where the brave and unhappy Wittikind, the most distinguished 178. CARENTANUaM, Carinthia (Karnthen), one of the newly of the Saxon leaders, did homage to Charlemagne in 785, and conquered territories, where Charles settled the surviving was baptized in the river. tribes of the vanquished Avars, in 803. VILLACH, the oldest 182. BURGUNDIA (Bourgogne), embraced at that time all town of that territory. ancient HELVETIA (Switzerland). Charlemagne divided Bur179. AVarIA (or Hunnia), on the northeast of Carinthia, gundy between his sons. LYONsandGENEVA were the largest the vast country between the Ens, skirting the Danube, through cities. The latter place, on the Lake Leman, was the rendezthe present Austria and Hungaria, to the Theiss, which at vous of the feudal armies of Charlemagne, in the campaign that time was the seat of the still powerful nation of the Ava- against Lombardy, in 772. res (by Eginhard called Huns). Charlemagne penetrated 183. AQUITANIA (Aquitaine), reached across the Pyrenees with his army into Avaria, in 791, as far as the Ens, and de- to the banks of the Iberus (Ebro). The Aquitanians hated feated the barbarians in several battles. His son Pepin con- the Franks, and were always ready, under their own dukes, tinued the war, and driving them in 796 across the Theiss, de- to take up arms against them. Duke Hunold was vanquished stroyed the camp and capital of their Chaganz, or king-the by Charlemagne in 769, and Aquitania, having become erected RINGUS, or fortified circle near Buda, on the Danube, where into a kingdom, was given to his youngest son, Louis. It conthe Franks made an immense booty. Part of the vanquished tained fifteen counties, the provinces of Vasconia (Gascogne), Avars were forced to adopt Christianity, and settled in Carin- Septimania, the Spanish Marches, Corsica, and the Balearic thia; the mass of the nation, however, fled back toward the Islands. ToLosA (Toulouse), was the capital. BURDIGALA Euxine, where they suffered still worse from their enemies, the (Bordeaux), FRANCIACUAM (Fronsac), on the Dordonia (DorBulgarians, and disappeared altogether. Charles then brought dogne), a strong fortress built by Charles in 770, to check the German settlers into the conquered territory, and formed the Aquitanians..lirarca Orienztalis-Ostric/bi-(Austrian frontier county), a 184. VAscONIA, at the foot of the Pyrenees, south of name it preserves to the present day. Acuitania, did homage to Charles, but its perfidious duke, 180. NEUSTRIA, shut in by the ocean, the Mosa, and the Lupus, taking advantage of the difficult retreat of Charles Loire, could only extend herself toward Brittany, which had through the deep valleys of the Pyrenees, joined with his made a violent effort during the reign of Charlemagne, to re- mountaineers the Saracenic enemy, and cut to pieces the rearcover its independence. The Bretons were again put down by guard of the Franks. But Charlemagne, having captured the the sword in 786; many castles were taken by the Franks, but duke, punished his treachery with the gallows, confiscated his the country still remained so unsettled, that Charlemagne saw duchy, and assigned to King Louis the mountain region of Bihimself obliged to erect a cMarca Andazclmvesnsis, whose mar- gorre, Bearn, and lower Navarre, while the rest of the district grave scoured the country at the head of his horse, and held was placed under the imperial government of the Frankish Frankish garrisons in Namnete, Redanes, and Andegavi. counts. ROSCIDA VALLIS, Roncevalles, Roncevaux (the Briar181. INTERESTING CITIES. -PARIS, on thle Sequana, had Valley), on the uppe r 5ati, a tributaryof the Aragon, is the celelost the distinctionas capital, whichit enjoyed undcler the reign of brated valley where Charlemagne, in 778, after his brilliant the Merovinagians, but figured still as the metropolis of Neus- campaign on the Ebro, and the colnquest of (CIE5ArR-AUGUSTA tria. The city had grown like the monarchy. She was no (Zaragoza), suffered the terrible defeat in which Roland, the longer inclosed, like the ancient Lutetia, within the narrow borler-count of Bretagne, perished with the Frankish rearboundary of the island of JNotre Danze (Our Lady), in the guard, and all the Saracenic spoils were lost. The battle was river Seine; she extended already along the right bank, and fought in the defile of the highest Pyrenees, still called Puerwas fortified with walls, towers, and moats. Pons Macjor led ta de Vtal Clarlos, in commemoration of the only disaster from the island to the city, on the right bank; Poets AL;Iinor to that checked the victorious career of Charles. FromI the plain the extensive suburbs on the left. Here were the palaces of below, Charles was an eye-witness to the clestruction of hlis Julian the Apostate and Clovis, the ancient cathedrals of Saint brave companions, without being able to bring thelm relief.50 Medericus, and of Santa Genoveva, with numerous mnonasteries and convents in the gardens around. Paris and its environs 50 The death of Count Roland at the battle of Iloncevalles, is the formed the Pagtus Par'isiaccus, with its own jurisdiction. only historical fact connected with a name that afterwards becomes st,

Page  45 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE-TRIBUTARY NATIONS. 45 MARCA HISPANICA or Gothice (the Spanish Border), con- did capital of the dukes. CAPUA, the southernmost point to sisted of Septimania (124) and the Conzitatus Barcinonce, which Charlemagne carried his victorious arms during his exthe county of Barcelona, whose southern frontier was the river pedition in 807. LucERIA (Lucera), in the Apulian plain, was Ebro. Zaragoza and upper Aragon were soon reconquered by taken by the Franks in 802. ACERENZA, in the interior, and the Arabs, and the wild inhabitants of the Pyrenees were con- SALERNUM on the Posidonian or Salernian Gulf, both strong tinually wavering in their alliance with the Franks or the fortresses, which Charlemagne considered so dangerous, that Moslemin. BARCINONA (Barcelona) was besieged and taken he ordered Duke Grimoaldus to demolish their walls, when he by King Louis of Aquitaine in 801, and became henceforth granted him the investiture of the duchy. the capital of the Spanish border. AMPuRIuAs and TARRAGONA 187. EASTERN PROVINCES BELONGING TO THE KINGDOM OF on the Mediterranean-TORTOsA, a strong city on the Ebro, ITALY. —The Marquisate of FRIULI, on the northeast of Italy, was taken by Charlemagne in 811, but fell soon back again was governed by Frankish counts after the revolt and death of into the power of the Moslemin. PAMPILUNA (Pamnplona), the last duke in 777. When Pepin became king of Italy, northwest, on the Arqga, was the capital of the district _lfarca FRIULI formed a most important?nar-quisate or border county, Vasconensis, which was lost in 824, after a second defeat of which comprised Istria, Liburnia, and Dalmatia, on the fronthe Franks by the Mohammedans, in the defile of Roncevalles. tiers of the Byzantine empire. (IVITAS AUSTRImE, Forum JuUpon the whole, the conquests of Charlemagne in Spain were lii, or Fryiuli (now Udine), north of Aquileia, was the capital. very precarious, and Could only be held during the civil wars JUSTINOPOLIS (now Capo d'Istria), the capitalof Istria, and among the Ao abs, and the rebellions of the Saracene Wais or among te bs, and the rebellions of the Sracen alis or ll the maritime towns on the Dalmatian coast, belonged to the governors of the Chalif of Cordova, who sought a refuge at the court of Charlemagne. Barcelona, however, was ain- Greeks. The frontier line between the two empires is not the court of (]harlemagne. B arcelona, however, was mainknown. The Sclavonic tribe of the CHuROBATI or Croats, occutained, but its counts made themselves independent towarcd the close l of the 9th century. pying the northeast of Dalmatia, as far south as the river Cetclose of the 9tth century. tic-c r near Spalatro, were subjects of Charlemagne, while the 185. ITALIA or Longobardcia (Lombardy), was conquered a, near Spaatro, were subjects of Charemagne, whie the by Charlemagne in 773-74. The last Lombard king, Deside- SoRABIANS or Serbiats, in the eastern province of SERBIA, be-, dond the mountains acknowledged the supremacy of Byzantium. rius, died as a prisoner in France, and Lombardy was erected yond the mountains, a into a kingdom, and awarded to Pepin, the second son of VENICE, enthroned on her hundred isles, was already an Charles, in 781. It comprised the greater part of the Italian independent republic. King Pepin had in vain attempted to peninsula, from the base of the Alps, on the north, to the ter- attack her with his Frankish army. She had beaten him back ritory of Gaeta and the river Liris (Garigliano), on the south, from her impregnable lagoons, and it was only a mere cerewhich formed the frontier of the tributary duchy of Beneven- mony when she sent her ambassadors in 806 to do homage to turn. Within the kingdom of Italy lay, on the west, the the old Emperor at Aquisgranum. PATRIMTONIUM SANCTI PETRI (the Papal See), consisting of the donations of Pepin and Charlemagne. It comprised, 1, the B-TRIBUTARY NATIONS. duchy of Rtome, from the river lcIar'ta to the Lirgis; 2, Tuscia, from the Iliarta north to the Floris and the duchy of 188. POSITION AND) POLITICAL RELATIONS OF THE SCLAPer'sia (Perugia); 3, Sabina with the duchy of S2)poetuzi; vONIANs. —We have seen (77, 117) the advance of the different 4, The ]Exarchate of Ravenna, with the Penttapcolis (153), Slavic nations westward on the Elbe, and their settlement all along the coast of the Adriatic. ROMuE was the scene of the along the eastern frontiers of the Franks, from the Baltic south coronation of Charlemagne, on1 Christmas day, in A. D. 800, in to the Danube and the Adriatic. With Charlemagne begins the ancient Basilica of St. Peter in Vaticano. RAVENNA was the period of the Slavic wars, which continued almost without still a splendid city. PAvIA had suffered from the long siege, interruption to the thirteenth century, when the Sclavonians were and now lost its prerogative as capital of the Lombard king- either driven back on the Vistula or became christianized, dom. The Lombards of VERONA made the last stand against Germanized, and incorporated in the German Empire. CharleCharlemagne. In that strong position Adalgisa, the brave magne laid the foundation to those eastern mnarches or border son of King Desiderius, attempted in vain to sustain the inde- districts, which somewhat later appear in the history of the Carpendence of the Lombard nation. He fled to Constantinople, lovingian emperors, under the name of Mlalrca Sora6ica, Bohebut Charlemagne, still fearing the conspiracies of the Lombard nzica (Nordgau), Orientalis, Avarica, Windclorumz (Windische dukes in his favor, abolished the old Lombard laws and con- Mark), and extended from the Elbe all along the Carpathian stitution, and introduced the Frankish administration. Only and Bohemilan Mountains to the Theiss, the lower Danube, the the Papal states remained independent, the Emperor reserving Save and the Dalmatian hills on the Mediterranean. Charlefor himself the title of Protector Sancti Petri. inagne himself, in the midst of his multifarious occupations, 186. THE DUCY OF BENErENTUM. —TIe Lombard dukes undertook several expeditions against the OBOTRITES O1 the of this fertile territory remained almost independent of the Baltic, the WILTZES or Welata6bes, between the Elbe and the empire, though the duke did homage to Charles, and paid a Oler, andl the CIIECIs (Czechs), in Bohemia, who all acknowyearly tribute of 25,000 gold pieces. It contained the greater ledged the Frankish supremacy, while the Empire was governpart of the present kingdom of Naples, from the Pescara to ed by so strong an arm. The Slavi even took up German Tarentum. Duke Romualdus had conquered the eastern coast- habits, and they called their native zupanies, Jral (konig), in land of Apulia (now Terra di Bari) from the Byzantine em- imitation of the Germans. The religion of the Slavi was Dualpire, and given it the name Longocbarii a ZMinor. The rivers istic, with some notions of Odin and Walhalla. Their instiSabbatus and Neta separated the duchy from the Italian pos- tutions were as primitive as their manners; their character was sessions of the Greeks.5' good-natured, light-hearted and fickle; they possessed neither BENEVENTUM on the Vulturnus, was the elegant and splen- the bright understanding of the Romanic nations, nor the depth of feeling and the integrity of the Germans, nor the chivalrous celebrated in the romances and epic poems of the Norman-French bearing, the faney, anld the romance of the Northlmen. The Slavi minstrels and the Italian poets Palci, Bojardo, and the divine Ariosto. could only act nuder strong impulses from without; their vir-' The Greek empire, besides Calabria, still possessed in Italy the town and promontory of Otranto, the duchy of Naples, Cajeta (Gaeta), tue consisted in obedience; the world has felt this, and called Sardinia, Sicily, and Malta. the strictest form of serfdom —slavery.

Page  46 46 FOURTH PERIOD.-EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE-DANES. 189. Such was the vast empire which the small nation the body of King Harald is burned with his armor, chariot, of the Franks, in the course of three centuries, had united by and war-horse. King Sigurd, the victor, crosses over the force of arms, and a truly great monarch had extended and Sound to the ]Danish islands, and builds the town of RINGSTED consolidated by his genius. Charlemagne was now an old man; in Sealand, where he lies buried. His son, Regnar Lodbrok, from his beloved Aquisgranum lie directed the government of extends his maritime expeditions to Britain in 794. The so many nations, and secured the tranquillity and progress of ]Danish rovers burn the monastery of Saint Cuthbert on the the European world with adclmirable equity and vigor; but he Isle of Lindisfarne; but they are defeated by King Ella of foresaw that he would be called off before his new creation Northumberland, who throws the Danish Sea-king into the would have attained the vitality and strength necessary for its Snake-tower, where the old lion suffers the most horrible death existence. He feared the ambition or incapacity of his sons, aniong the reptiles, while singing the Lodbr-okar Quzida or and he therefore resolved himself to superintend the approach- Bia'k/e Mlaal, the wildest and most beautiful song of the ing division of his states. A national assembly was called to- Northmen.52 Sigurd Snake-eye (Snogoje), his son, inherited gether in Thionville, in 806, where he proceeded to a general Denmark, but was slain in battle with the Frankish border division of his dominions in the presence of his three sons, counts in A. D. 803, after extending his sway over all ReitCharles, Pepin, and Louis. To Louis, the youngest, he gave Gothland (Jutland), Skaane, Halland, and the southern parts Aquitaine, with Gascogne, Septimniania, the Spanish border, of Norway. Another son, Bjbrn (Bear), ruled in Sweden, while Burgundy, and Provence; to Pepin, Italy, southern Alemannia, the more illustrious third brother, Godfred, King of Jutland, with Bavaria, and the eastern frontier lands, as far as the Da- advanced upon the Eider, where he erected the celebrated wall nube and the upper Rhine; and to Charles, the future Enim- or mound of earth and stones, the DANNEVIRKE, across the peror, France proper, that is Austria (Austrasia), Neustria, peninsula from the bay of the river Schley (Slias-wyk or northern Alemannia, with the iNorthgau of Bavaria, Thurin- Schleswig), westward to the North Eider, to protect his Scangia, Saxonia, and Friesland. He even provided for all the dinavian dominions from the inroads of the conquering Franks eventualities by the demise of the one or the other of his sons, of Charlemagne at that time-A. D. 806-occupied in the subin order that no civilwars might break out after his death, and jugation and conversion of the Saxons. Fleets of the Northdestroy the glorious work of so active and successful a reign. men began already their piratical descents upon the coasts of Yet his prudent designs were not to be fulfilled. Charlemagne Friesland, and at the mouth of the Scheldt and Rhine. In himself lived to see his two most worthy sons die, the one after order to control these dangerous guests, the great Emperor the other, and when he, shortly before his own death in built the Castle of HAMMABURG (Hamburg) on the Elbe, and 814, crowned Louis the Good, his only remaining son, Emperor concluded a treaty with the successor of Godfred, King Hemin Aquisgranum, he gave to this weak and bigoted youth the ming, of Jutland; according to which the Eider should form whole empire, with the exception of Italy, which was awarded the boundary between Denmark and the Frankish Empire, and to his nephew, Bernard, the son of Pepin. The rebellion and the Danes abandon their conquests south of that river. A few death of Bernard, the subsequent civil wars between Louis le years later Christianity was preached in Denmark by AnsgaDebonnair and his own violent and unnatural sons, and the rius, the Apostle of the North (826), and in 883 we find the antipathy of the different nationalities-French, Germian, Aqui- whole kingdom united under King Gorm the Old of Sealand. tanian, and Italian —caused within thirty years (818-843) the SWEDEN was still an almost unknown country. Bjorn eventful treaty at Verdun, which assigned to the great Euro- Ironside, the son of Regnar Lodbrok, inherited Sweaqrike and pean states that extent and those limits which, with few miodifi- Gota-laczld, and resided at Bidrko, on the frith of Mielarn. cations, they still preserve at the present day. In 826, he invited the monk Ansgarius, then preaching the Gospel in Schleswig, to visit Sweden. The courageous missionary followed the call; he and his monks visited the large city ~ HI. INDEPENDENT EUROPEAN NATIONS p of Leire, on Sealand (106), then the capital of the Danish ABOUT A. D. 800. kings, and though captured by the pirates in the Sound, and losing his precious Bibles and missals, the excellent man, neA.-THE NORTHuI EN. vertheless, succeeded in reaching the dreary coast of Halland. Beautiful, romantic Sweden, was then a wilderness. For days 190. SCANDINAVIA. -Ill the north the tardy dawn of day and weeks the poor monks waded through morasses, inhas begun; the sagas become more consistent; we stand at last tersected with copse woods and pine forests, without meeting on a firm historical footing. DENMARK, SWEDEN, and Nor,- a human being: they had to cross the stormy lakes in small WAY, are still divided among petty kings; yet so early as 735 canoes, and while forcing their way through the mountains, we distinguish the Danish Sea-king Harald Gold-tooth (Hilde- they were every moment in danger of falling into the fangs of tand), who, by dint of his sword, united the greater part of some shaggy bear; but protected by an all-ruling Providence, the islands and the mainland of Sweden. On the heath of and by the relics of Saint Cuthbert, —as Ansgarius says,-and BRAAVALLA, in East Gothland, he fought a great battle with by their persevering courage, they at last descended on the his nephew, the Swedish king Sigurd Ring, in A. D. 740, dur- smiling banks of the Mselarn, the only part of the interior of ing the government of Charles Martel in France. At this famous engagement all the petty kings and pirates of the north, 62 In this lament of twenty-five stanzas, King Regnar recounts all and most of the nations bordering the Baltic, Sclavonians, the conquests and cruelties of his wild life, each stanza beginning with Saxons, Livonians, Frisians and others, miet in arms. King the fearful words, "We hewed with swords in deadly strife." The clos Sigurd headed the hosts of northern Sweden and Norway, and ing lines paint admirably the wild faith ofthe heathen Northman: the fairest of the shield-maidens (s/kjofldSmer), Ursina, bore his "Cease ny strain! I hear them call, Who bid me hence to Odin's hall! banner. After the most sanguinary combat, the Danes gave igh-seated in their bless'd abodes, way before the Norwegian archers from Tellemark; the blind I soon shall quaff the cup of gods;old king, Harald, mounted on his battle-car, drives furiously The hours of life have glided by, into the throng of battle; all his chieftains sink around him, and I fall! but laughing will I die!" he dies himself the death of a hero. Both armies then stop the Regnar received his by-name of Lodbrok from the shaggy skin-garments slaughter; they surround the magnificent funeral pile on which he wore over his armor.

Page  47 FOURTAHT PERIOI).-SLAVI — CHAZARS-BYZANTINE GREEKS. 47 Sweden which was permanently settled at that remote pe- in the noble race of the Kadjars (Usbecks), on the east of the riod. Ansgarius was well received by King Bjorn and his Volga, and the Caspian Sea. dr otctars, or chiefs, one of whom built the first Christian church on the MIelarn; and it is a remarkable fact that the Swedes, even at the sanctuary of Odin at Sigtuna, were more. Tuis BYZANTINE EMPIRE. tractable than the Danes of the islands, or the still more savage 194. LiMITS AND VICISTUDES. - Terrible were the mounttainee~rs of Norwtay. storms that broke loose on the Eastern Empire during the NoRwaY was still divided into a great number of smaller latter years of the more brilliant than prosperous reign of states, which were formed by the deep valleys, bays, and Justinian I. His weak successors were threatened with total friths on the mainland, or on the numerous islands off the destruction. Huns, Avars, Slavini, Bulgarians, Tartaric, and coast. Each district had its king. THItnoND, MiERE, FJORD, Turcoman tribes forced the formidable line of the frontier in the north; SOGN, HORDALAND, ROGALAND, WESTFOLD, on fortresses along the Danube, overran the Illyrian provinces, thie coast of the ocean; AGnE, vWIEN, on the south; IADA- and settled at last (during the 7th century) permanently in LAND, TELLEMARK, HEDEMARK, UPLAND, in the interior. All Mcesia, Dacia, Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia, and in the heart of these petty states were united in the kingdom of Norway in Hellas herself. The Lomlbards occupied the greater part of 880, by the heavy sword of sHarald, the fair-haired (Haar- Italy, the reconquest of which, from the Ostrogoths, by' Belifager). sarius and Narses, had cost the empire such waste of blood and treasure. The kings of the Visigoths in Spain drove the B.-ScLAvoNIc AND TURco-TARTARIC NATIONS IN EASTERN Greek garrisons from the cities and posts of Beticea and CarEUROPE. thaginensis, in southeastern Spain, in 619. The brilliant victories of Heraclius over the Persian Kosroes, the subse191. The LJicRS, or POLES, inhabited the upper Odei-a quent destruction of the Persian empire on the Tigris, and re(Oder), and the Vistula. They were still divided into small prin s and. s t av dn hmaetoconquest of Jerusalem and Syria, in A. D. 621-28, served only principalities, and seem to have done homniage to Charlemagne, to weaken the empire, and to kindle the fiery flames of rellsince his historian, Eginhard, says that the sway of the Franks gious dissension. On the first appearance of the M7ioha~cznreached eastward to the Vistula. nedcLan SaraCces, from the Arabian deserts, in 632, the 192. North of the Ljechs, we find the mighty Slavic peo- Christian sectarians embraced the Koran. iDamascus, Jeruple of the WVENDES (107), and the fierce BonussI (Prussians), on salem and Antioch fell, 635-38; Alexandria and Egypt in Salem, and Antioch fell, 635-38; Alexandria and Egypt in the Baltic (91), and bordering eastward on the LITWANI, or _Li640; and the Arabian torrent rolled on through Northern thurntians, raned,WlivTech. On th e n orthern slope of the Africa. Carthage was conquered by Abd-el-Malek, in 684, Carpathian range, lived the BELO-I CHOVATES, Or W/hite Ci oats, and the crescent of Mohammed had already reached the ocean and on the Iuniester the POLmNI and smaller tribes, who in 705, and stood planted on the ruins of the ancient Christian had at that time begun to yield to the Turkilsh hordes of the cities, from the Atlantic on the west, to the distant frontiers of Chazars, rapidly advancing from the shores of the Caspian Cilicia, Armenia, and Lazica, at the base of Mount Caucasus Sea, toward the upper plain of Slavia. 193. THEar CIZARS (91)r laref held. to beanEastGermanon the east. Cyprus was lost in 805, Crete in 823, and Sicily oin 826; and thus, of all the extensive teraritories of the emnation, allied with the Alani, by Ritter and other German eth-.. nationo allied with the lni, by Ritter to oand other Gterman eth- pire, and the recent conquests of Justinian I., there remained nologists, but they seem rather to belong to the true Turco-..n.... ain the era of Charlenagne, only the impregnable capital of Tartar race. They were divided into forty tribes, under their Constantinople, with some parts of Thrace, Macedonia, the hereditary Chiefs —Chans —yet they acknowleclgecd the suprehereditary Egean Islands, Asia Minor, and a few cities on the coasts of macy of a great Chan, or Chacatn, who possessed sovereign authority. The Chazars were a commercial people. Though origi- n of CalabriLa, in Southern Italy. nally Nomades, they soon became agriculturists in the fertile lands on the Kuban and the lower Volga; they raised rice, fruits, corn and wine. From their important fisheries on the Caspian, SCLAYONIAN SETTLEIENTS iN THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. they obtained the sturgeon, their principal nourishment. They ascended the Volga, and brought their skins, fish, and the In- 195. A. KINGDOM OF TIIE BULGARIANS. —In the preceding dian stuffs and luxuries to Constantinople. Fromn the north- maps we have followed the advance of that Sclavo-Tartaric ern MORDwINS and RUSSNIAKS (Russians),they bartered honey, nation, from their early seats on Mount Oural (93), to the wax, and precious furs, which they transported to Africa, shores of the Euxine (108, 149), whence they made devastatSpain, and France. ATEL, or Balcn'giar' (near Astracan), at ing incursions into the Byzantine empire. While roaming on the mouth of thie aolga, was the residence of the Chagan. the plains between the Don, Dneister, and Pruth, the Avars His palace was brick-built, but the Chazaric dwellings were fell upon them and subdued them; yet the cruelty of their clay huts. SARKEL, a Chazaric fortress onm the Don, was built oppressors was so intolerable, that the Bulgars threw off the by Byzantine engineers in their service, to defend the passage yoke in 619, and, under the command of their Chan Kuvrat of the river against the incursions of the Russians. The (149), defeated the Avars, and maintained their independence Chazars maintained their vast empire until the middle of under his successors. The Chan Asparuch crossed the Danthe 10th century; but then it began rapidly to decline, partly jube in 678, and founded the Bulgarian kinmgdom in Moesia, by civil feuds of the clans against the Chagan, and the rebel- between the Hsemus and the Danube —the present Bulgaria. lion of the kindred tribes, the CUMANI and PETCHENEGES (Pat- A great portion of this fertile territory had already been occuzinacks), and partly by the successful attacks of the Russian pied by Sclavonian emigrants, TIvEnzI, SERavERIANS, and Grand Dukes of Kiew, who, uniting with the Emperor Basi- others, who appear to have exterminated the last remains of lius in A. D. 1016, defeated and captured the great (han, the old Thracian race. These Sclavonians were called the George Zoulus, and cdivided the territory, which still for cen- Seen f ii6es. The Bulgarians, although the dominant race, turies preserved its name of Chazcaria. The warlike nation became, afer the conquest, absorbed into the mass of was lost among other tribes on the Caspian; but part of their the Sclavonian population. Thus the original Turco-Tartar descendants seem to have preserved themselves unadulterated, race of the Bulgarians adopted the Sclavonian language, and

Page  48 T4 FOURTH PERIOD. —BULGIARIANS-SERVIANS-SLAVI-SARACENS. gave their name to the country, which it retains at the present The Emperor Leo VI. (886-911), in his important work clay, yet they preserved many traces of their earlier nomadic on the military organization of the Byzantine empire, gives a habits. Like the son of the steppes, the Bulgar is still insep- favorable description of the Sclavonic nations in Greece. The arable from his horse-his aclogon, or mute friend. He is Slavi loved liberty, though they were unable to preserve it; laborious, good-natured, and hospitable. The Bulgarian they disdained the service of foreigners, and preferred the women are kind-hearted, compassionate, and industrious; their severer sway of their native Zupanies to the milder governfigure is slender; their deportment elegant; and they yield, in nment of Byzantium. They were sincere, hospitable, and mild charms, only to the Greek women, the very model of female toward their prisoners. The imperial historian praises the beauty in the East. beauty and modesty of the Sclavonian women, and the faithful They continued their wars with the Byzantine emperors, affection of their husbands, as characteristic virtues of that who were often defeated; the Khan Krumnmus took, in 815, race. Herds and flocks were their riches; agriculture their advantage of the humiliation of the Avars by Charlemagne; occupation, but they neglected mechanical arts and comhe crossed the Danube, prostrated the mortal enemies of the inerce; their wants were few, and they preferred to enjoy Bulgarians, and founded on their ruins the great Bul/Sgarian an independent life, rather than to earn comforts and affluEmzpirie, which toward the middle of the 9th century extended ence to which they were indifferent. from the Theiss, and the Carpathian ridge, south across the Danube, through Macedonia and Epirus to the frontiers of Greece. During this period the Bulgarians were converted to Chris- IV. THE MOHAMMEDAN WORLD. tianity by the Greek missionaries, Methodius and Cyrillus, an ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY DURING THE CALIPHATE OF event of the highest importance, not only because it promoted HAROUN-AR-RASCHID. the civilization of that barbarous people, but because the virulent contest between the Romish Pope and the Patriarch of 197. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES.-Mohammed preached the Constantinople, about the Bulgarian conve-rts, proved the main Islam faith in Mecca. With his flight to Medina, on the 15th cause of the great schism which for ever severed the Latin and July, 622, begins the era of the Arabs. On his death in 632, Greek churches. his religion and his banner extended throughout Arabia, and 196. B. SERBIA or Territory of the Ser'vians.-The Emperor within one century his enthusiastic 3Moslemin had already subjectIeraklius being unable to defend western Illyria and Dalmatia ed to their laws all that part of Asia which extends from the range against the inroads of the Avars, induced some Sclavonic of Mount Taurus eastward to the Himmalaya and the Indus, and tribes from the Carpathian mountains, the SERBS and CHito- from the Indian Ocean on the south, to Mount Caucasus and BATS (Croats), to abandon their ancient seats and move down the river Jaxartes (Sihun) on the north; in Africa, they had south, into the provinces between the Adriatic and the Danube. conquered Egypt and all the northern regions between the The Greek and lRoman population had been driven toward the coasts of the Mediterranean and the great desert of Sahara in sea-coast by the continual forays of the Avars, and these beau- the interior; from thence they had crossed the straits of Calpe tiful and fertile regions were now repeopled by the gallant and in 711, and after the defeat and death of the Visigoth king, chivalrous SERVIANS or Rascians, the noblest, most spirited Roderic, at Xeres, on the Guadalete, they had occupied the and imaginative of the Sclavonic tribes, who, under their na- greatest part of Spain, driving the Goths into the Asturian tive chiefs or Zzupancies, remained faithful in their allegiance mountains; nay, they had even crossed the Pyrenees with to the empire until A. D. 1040, when Stephan Boistlaf made their hundred thousands, and, in 732, advanced upon the himself an independent krcal or king of Serbia. Loire, when the Frankish hero, Charles the Halumer, saved C. SCLAVONIAN TRIBES IN GREECE.-Numerous hordes of France and all Christendom by his memorable victory at Slavi (Slavini, Slavesiani), mixed with Bulgarians and Avars, Tours. At the time when this vast empire was divided into had, during the revolutions on the Danube in the beginning of two, in consequence of the establishment of the Emirate of the 8th century, descended through the pass of Thermopylse, Cordova or of the West, A. D. 756, it stretched from the and settled in Hellas under their native chiefs, almost entirely shores of the Atlantic eastward beyond the Indus, and from independent of Constantinople. They took possession of the African desert and the Indian Ocean on the south, to the Thessaly, Boeotia, and the peninsula of Peloponnesus, which Pyrenees in Europe, the Mediterranean, Mount Caucasus, the at that time already began to be called Illorea (from the mul- Caspian, the deserts north of the Sihun, and Mount Muztag, berry tree, perhaps, introduced there by Justinian in 555). on the borders of China. The Sclavonians occupied Argolis, Arcadia, Elis, Messenia, 198. DIVISION.-The dynasty of the Ommiyad Caliphs and the valley of Laconia, while the native Greeks fled to the perished, under the most terrific civil wars, in the year 750, coasts and the higher mountain-regions, and it was not until a and Abul-Abbas-el-Saffah (the Butcher), the first Caliph of the century later, in 860, that MichaelIII. sent his general, The- Abbasids, transferred his residence from the blood-stained octistos, with an army to the Morea, and succeeded in reducing Damascus to tHiaC, on the Euphrates, in 754. Yet the Omthe Sclavonian princes to the allegiance of the empire. The miyad Abdor-Rhaman had escaped the generel destruction of free Laconians had then retired to the fastnesses of the mount his family, and, fleeing to Spain, had founded the independent Taygetus, and the plains of M3essenia and Laconia were occu- Emirate of Cordova in 755. During the revolutions which pied by two warlike Sclavonian tribes, the Melingi and Eze- followed this political division in the Arabie empire, other rito, who were reduced to pay tribute to the Elllperor.ii chiefs asserted their independence in Northern Africa, and thus we find the MIohamme dan world, at the time of Charle-'3 Even to the present day we find traces of these Sclavomian settle- magne and the Abbasid Caliph Haroun-ar-Rasehid (786-S09), ments on the plains of the MIorea, where the villages still retain the old divided into four large states or dynasties: 1, The Caliphate Selavonic names; as, for instance, Slava, Slavochori, Varsava, Vervitza, of the Abbasids in Asia and Egypt; 2, The Kingdom of KacirVilitza, Kosovo, Tzernagora, Akova, Arachova, Dobrena, —while on rauan, or the dynasty of the Aglalites, in the ancient territory the coast the Hellenic names prevail: —Corinth, Patrr, Arcadia, Meidi; 3, Th ingdom of edon, Coron, Vitylos, Prastos, Argos, laupllia, Epidauros, and others. See, for details on the Sclavonians ill Greece, and their influence on the ines, or the dynasty of the Edrisites, in MIauritania; and 4, manners and language of the modern Greeks, Geo. Finlay's Medinval the Emirate of Cordova, or the dynasty of the younger Greece, Edinburgh, 1861. branch of the Onmniyads, in Spain. In order to give clear

Page  49 FOURTH PERIOD.-MOHAMMEDAN WORLD-CALIPHATE OF BAGDAD. 49 ness to our description of the Saracenic empire toward the mosque stand the tombs of Mohammed, Abu-Bekr, and close of the 8th century, we shall describe the provinces in the Omar. succession in which they were annexed to the Caliphate of Da- 202. BEDR, southwest of Medina, in a valley near the coast mascus, beginning with the mother country, Arabia herself. of the Bahr Kolzom, was the celebrated battle-field on which Mohammed gained the first victory over his inveterate enemies, A.-CALIPHATE OF THE ABBASIDS IN BAGDAD. the Koreishites of Mekka, in 624. DJEBEL OHOD, four miles northwest of Medina, was the scene of the reformer's defeat in 199. LIMITS, DIVISION, AND PROVINCES. -The orthodox 625, which had nearly crushed Mohammedanism in its birth. successors (Caliphs) of the Prophet ruled over the eastern CHAIBAru, northeast of Medina, in the D)jebel Solma, the Mohammedan world, from the great Syrtis eastward to the strongly fortified capital of the Jews in the north of Arabia. Indus, and from the frontiers of Nubia in the south, to Mount It was stormed and taken by Mohammed in 627, and the Jews Caucasus, the river Sihun and Mount Muztag in the north, converted to Islam by the edge of the sabre; it was here and the empire embraced the following provinces: that the Jewish maiden, Zainah, poisoned the Prophet, who 200. I. APAPIA.-Djje' sirah-al-Arab —the Island of Araby died three years later from the effects of the potion. TABUK, — was, from the remotest times, inhabited by populations who the fountain and palm-grove, midway between Damascus and differed from one another in their habits and manners, and Medina, where the old and sick Prophet stopped the march of were divided into a great number of tribes, each governed by his suffering armyin 632, and returned to die in Medina. MUTAH an Emlir or Sheik, the patriarch of the family. We likewise (Mothus), near the eastern shore of Bahr el Luth (the Dead distinguish two principal divisions with' regard to their pur- Sea), where the Mohammedans gained the first victory over the suits: 1st, the lNOmadces, known by the ancients as Scenzitce Greek army in 632. The valley of HONEIN, north of Mekka, (,Kqv-raL) or dwellers in tents, afterwards called the Sons of is celebrated by the important victory of Mohammed over the the Desert, Sa'acens, or Bedawins.54 They were wandering idolatrous tribes of Arabia. DAWMAT AL JANDAL (Dumet el about with their herds of camels and horses in the oasis of Djondol), on the outskirts of the Syrian Desert in the interior, northern Arabia, where the kingdom of the G.assanicdes (or the first Christian city which the fanatic Mussulmans took in of Edom) had been formed on the frontiers of Syria; other 626; but having been lost to the Greeks, it was reconquered by tribes of nomnading Saracens inhabited the dreary table lands Khaled in 631, and its fall secured the Arabs the eastern road of al-Nedjed in central Arabia: 2d, the.Hzicadclesi or seden- to Damascus. AILAH (Akabah), fortress and port on the northtary Arabs, who dwelt in the cities and villages situated along eastern gulf of the Red Sea (Bahr Akabah), the conquest of the coasts of the Red Sea (Bahr Kolzom). They consisted which secured to the Mohammedans the passage through the likewise of two races-the Flagarectns or Ismaelites, the de- valley of Mount Sinai. scendants of Ismael, the son of Abraham and Hagar, who in- 203. In YEMEN, SA'ANAII (Sabah), the capital. MOCHA, habited northern Arabia, and were partly idolaters and partly ADEN (Abin), a port on the Indian Ocean; BAHRE1N on the Jews, while some partook of the Magian worship and adored coast of the Persian Gulf (Bahr Alakdar); the kingdom of the stars. The second race were the Sabeans, who occupied GAssAN, north of Hedjaz; YEMAMAH, a powerful state in centhe southern regions of Arabia-by the ancients called Araby tral Arabia (al Nedjed); which all were subdued by the genethe Blessed. There the _Hiomeirids (Himjarids) had early ac- rals of the Prophet in the years 628-631. cepted the Mosaic faith; but in A. D. 527, they were converted to II. The kingdom of HIRA in Irak-Arabi, northeast of Christianity by the sword of the Christian Kings of Abyssinia Arabia, on the western bank of the Euphrates, was the first in Africa. Yemen, with its flourishing cities, its delightful conquest of Abu-Bekr in 633. This kingdom, the Babylonian climate, rich productions and traffic with India, was consi- Irak, was governed by the Arabian chief Al-Mondar, under dered the gelm of Arabia. At the period which now occupies the sovereignty of Persia. HIRA was the capital, and an importus, all these states had embraced the new faith, and obeyed the ant commercial city not far from the Euphrates. AMnAR, on great Caliph of the Prophet in Bagdad. the north, became the capital of the Abbasidls in 750, before 201. PRINCIPAL CITIES.-MEKKA, an ancient city, situated the building of Bagdad. in a narrow sandy valley fifty-five miles from the coast, and its 204. III. SYRIA (es Sham), the whole region northwest port, Djedclda, on the Red Sea, in the province of EL HEDJAZ. of Arabia, as far as Mount Agnanus, and from the coast of the It was the sacred city of the Arabs, and pilgrims of every Mediterranean to the Euphrates, was the second conquest of creed assembled there at the yearly festival in the great sanctu- the Arabs, who overran that country in 634-38. BOSTRA (11), ary of the Beit Allcah or House of God, with the Ca'acba, and the east of Jordan, was betrayed by its governor to Khaled, the black stone which Adam was said to have brought away from lieutenant of the Caliph. DAMAscus (Dameschk, es-Sham), the the terrestrial paradise. It was here where Mohammed began richest and most populous city in southern Syria, surrendered his preaching in A. D. 610; and after the conquest of the city in after the second defeat of the troops of Heraclius at Aiznaddin. 629, called the 2Zlloslemin (believers), together on the hill of HAMATII (the ancient Epiphania), on the Orontes. SHAIZAR Anafact, and was proclaimed the spiritual and temporal sove- (the ancient Sarina), KINNTESRIN (Chalcis), and other cities reign of the Arabs. DJEBEL HnARAH, southeast of Mekka, surrenderecd voluntarily to the victors. into whose grottoes Mohammed retired to meditate his great On the banks of thile I-lEao.rAX (Yermuk), a river dischargreform. DJEBEL TIOR, northeast, the cavern to which he fled ing into the Jordan below the Lake of Tiberias, was the for safety fromn the pursuit of the Koreishites on the 15th place of the last' decisive battle, where the whole Roman army July, 622, and whence he sped through the desert to Meclina. was cut to pieces ill 636, a disaster which caused all Syria to surYATHREB -Jathrippa —called Medinah-ctl-Teebi, the city of render to the crescent. JvERUSALEM (Beit el Mokkaddas) capithe Prophet (now Melina), where Mohammed found a refuge tulated, after an obstinate defence of four months, to the Caliph after his flight (Hedjra) fromn Mekka in 622, lies 270 miles Omar, who came himself to take possession of the holy city, and north of the latter city, and became the capital and burial- built the splendclidmosque of Omar on MountMoriah. HALEr (the place of lohamlmed and the first Caliphs. In its splendid ancient Beroa), TrIPoLIS (Tarabolos), TYrus (Sur), CrESuREA Saracens is supposed to signify Sc im, natives of the East (Kaisarieh), JorPPE (Yafa), ASCALON, and many other cities, fell and Bedawins or Bedouins to be derived from Badia, desert,-Bar, Broi, all successively into the power of the Arabs, who thus secured Blerbers. their rear for their expedition into Egypt and western Africa.

Page  50 50 FOURTH PERIOD.-CALIPHATE OF BAGDAD. IV. SzoGnuR, that is, the land of defiles, the northern part of (Tigris), were the price of this victory. The proud Arabs es-Sham, with the three celebrated defiles of Syria, of Mount Am- after having plundered the immense riches and treasures of the anus, and of Cilicia-Portce cIItritimce, Avzantides, and Cilicice Persian kings, hoarded in the capitals, set fire to the cities, -which lead from Syria into Cilicia, and across Mount Taurus and left not one stone upon another. Bagdad was afterwards into the plains of Cappadocia. It embraced, likewise, the an- built by the Abbasids, on the Tigris, from the ruins of Alcient Cilicia westward beyond Tarsus. ANTAKIA (Antiochia), Madein. KUFFAH, on the western bank of the Euphrates, on the Orontes, was the capital of all the provinces, and still obtained a great renown, as having for some time become the the wealthiest and most populous eastern city of the Empire. capital of the successors of Mohammed. It was in the mosque 205. V. AL DJuESIAul-Iu-esopotmi a-ica-was likewiselost for of that town that the venerable Ali, the fifth Caliph, was asthe empire immediately after Syria, with all its important cities: sassinated in 651. His sepulchre was then concealed from his EDESSA (Roha, Orfa), KARrEu (Charran), NISIBIS (Nesbin), mortal'enemies, the Ommiyad tyrants of Syria, but in the the celebrated frontier fortress. AMIDA (Diarbekir), afterwards fourth age of the Hedjra, a tomb, a temple, and a city arose the capital, took this name in consequence of the early coloniza- near the ruins of Kufah. Many thousands of Alites-called tion of the three Arab tribes, Bekir, Modlar, and Rabia, among Shiites or heretics-repose in holy ground at the feet of the Vicar which Mesopotamia was divided, and called in its different of God, and the desert around is vivified bynumerous and annual parts Dejar Bekir, Dejar Modar, and Dejar Rabia.55 visits of the Persians, who esteem their devotion at Ali's shrine 206. VI. DEJARP MESR-Egyvpt —one of the most import- not less meritorious than the pilgrimage to Mekka. BASSORxAI or ant provinces of the Caliphate, which was conquered by the Bctasrc, toward the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, general Amer-Ben-Alas in 640, during the war with Persia. was founded by Omar, as a refuge for invalid warriors, and It was subdivided into El Bahcarci (the ancient Delta), Kibi obtained a high reputation on account of its suitable commeror Said (middle and part of upper Egypt), and El WIalat or cial position. Near Bassorah was fought the battle of the camel, the land of the Oasis in the Libyan Desert. FARAMIXAH (Pe- in which Ayesha, the widow of Mohammed, during her rebellusium), on the Mediterranean, north of the Isthmus of Suez, lion, was defeated and taken prisoner on her camel by the was the first town which Amer (Ainru) took, when the Caliph generous Ali in 654. But the most celebrated city of the Omar sent him against Egypt in 640. MIszR, the ancient Saracens in that region was the famous city of BAGDAD Memphis, on the western bank of the Nile, at that time the ZIlohamvzmedia or Mecdicna al Salam, city of peace-founded most ilnportant city after Alexandria. It defended itself by the Abbasid Caliph, E l lUansu'r, in 765, on the western bravely, and could only be taken by treachery, after a fearful bank of the Tigris, at some distance from the earlierParthian siege of seven months; it was so totally destroyed that Omar and Persian capitals, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and Dastagerd, built a new town, El.Fostat, on the eastern bank, and this too then lying in their ruins after their destruction by the Emperor gave place three centuries later to the modern Cairo. ESKAN- Heraclius in 627. Bagdad became the capital of the Arabian DERIAH (Alexandria) was likewise stormed and taken after a Empire, and the Caliphs continued to reside there from El siege of fourteen months, which cost the Arabs 20,000 warriors. Mansur down to the last Caliph, Abdallah Mostassem Billah, who Alexandria never rose to its former splendor. It was then perished in 1258 under the sword of the Mongol Hulagu, that the great library is said to have been destroyed by the Its population was immense, and the wealth of the East was order of the Caliph Omar, although the story is hard to recon- hoarded within its walls. In the western quarter was the cile with the silence of the original historians, or the condition great bazaar El HIact/kh, which, by a bridge, was united to the in which the library had been left at the destruction of the main part of the city. ASKER, EL SELrRAMENRA (the charmtemple of Serapis, where it was placed. All Egypt surrendered ing) was founded by Caliph Motassem Billah (the protected at the fall of Alexandria, which now became the granary of of God) in 842, twelve miles above Bagdad, as a splendid camp Arabia, as it formerly had been that of the Byzantine Empire. for the imperial life-guards, the Turkish mercenaries, who were Its immense export of breadstuffs to Arabia was facilitated by thus kept separated from the mass of the Arabian population. the canal which placed the Nile in communication with the Red The great palace there excited the wonder of the foreign amSea, and which was repaired and restored by the Saracens. bassadors, and many Caliphs wasted their treasures on its emVII. NUPIA was likewise invaded by the Arabs in 651, bellishment. KERBELA, north of Hira, where Hossein, the son under the Caliphate of Othman, who obliged the Christian of Ali, perished in battle against the revengeful Ommiyads in kings of that country to pay annually a tribute of a large 680. A splendid mosque arises on the spot; pilgrims from number of Ethiopian slaves. Persia stream in on the annual festival of his martyrdom, kneel 207. VIII. IRAK-ARABI (the ancient Babylonia), the cen- down at his sepulchre, and abandon their souls to the religious tral seat of the vast empire of the Sassanids, and which ex- frenzy of sorrow and indignation. tended from the banks of the Euphrates to those of the Indus, 208. IX. BELAD LAtrN (Armenia), north of the Kurdistan was the fourth conquest of the Arabs, who began their invasion mountains, extended toward Run'zsv (Asia Minor) on the west, of Persia at the time with that of Syria and the kingdom of and embraced the table-lands of Mount Ararat, and the headclHira (203). KADESIAU, south of Hira, on the vast plain di- waters of the Euphrates. AUZEN RvUx (Erzerum), on the Euviding Arabia firom the banks of the Euphrates, was, in 636, phrates, and the important defile, Kali Kala, the only narrow during three days, a witness to the tremendous efforts of the passage toward the coast-lands of Tarabesonda (Trapezus), on whole Persian power to defend their country and religion the lEuxine (Bahr Nitesh). DEBIL, the capital of the province, against the Mohammedan fanatics. Yet they were defeated at the foot of Miount Ararat, near the modern Bajasid. with fearful slaughter, and the last Persian king, Yezclegerd, be- X. ALAN (now the Russian province of Grusia or Georgia), came a fugitive, and was soon after killed on the banks of the north of Armenia, on the river Kmtr (Cyrus), toward Mount Jaxsartes. The Arabs now inundlclated all Irak-Arabi; AL Caucasus, though divided into the small valley districts of MADEIN, or the two towns, Ctesipylo2 and Sclecica, situ- the Highlands, obeyed the Caliph of Bagdad. SHARVAN or ated over against each other, on the banks of the Didjtfit Shirwalnl on the east, with the Capital BElRDIA'A (Bakavi), on thre B13ahr Chozar, the Caspian Sea. SPl6nm north, near the D Al Djesiral. signifies the islandcl, whiclh answels to the Greek E Mesopotamnia, the region betweenz the rivers. By inattention of thie celebratecl pass of Mount Caucasus, the Ba6 el lbwlab (Derdlraughtsman, Bejar has been placed in the nmap insted of lgiae (re- bend), which had been strongly fortified by the Greek emnperors gion), land. to stem the incursions of the roving Khazars north of the sea.

Page  51 FOURTH PERIOD. —ABBASIDS OF BAGDAD-AGLABIDS IN KAIROUAN. 51 Another pass, Por'tce Ccspice, descended between the highest tween the Caspian, the Jaxartes, and Mount Muztag, which peaks, Elboras and Kasbek, toward TiFLIs, the capital of for centuries remained the frontier against the Chinese empire. KORDSSIIsTAN (Georgia). This was the frontier province bor- ]BUKHARA and SAMARKAND, east of Bukhara, were both stormed dering on the Allani andcl Khazars. and taken by Kotaibah, who built there magnificent mosques, 209. XI. ADJERBEIDJAN (the ancient Atropatene, in Me- and the immense bazaars which remained the centre of the dia), south of Aran, extended to the shores of the Caspian, flourishing traffic of the Arabs with China and India. But and was, after Irak-Arabi, one of the first provinces brought the enthusiastic Mussulmans did not stop here; like Alexaninto subjection by the Mohammnedans, who with fire and der the Great, they continued their march eastward, through sword exterminated the Sabeans here in the centre of their fire XXIII. ZABULISIHAN (now Afghanistan), and crossing the Inworship. SIIz (the ancient Phra'ata), in the south, was the dus (Sind), reduced XXIV. the MULTAN, and 3MANsu RA (Scinmost important city. ORnIJAIH, on the Bcah-? Keclatn —the lake dy), on its eastern banks, in 7 10, when civil disturbances at home, Spauta, was the birth-place of Zer-Dusht (Zoroaster), the the downfall of the Ommiyad dynasty, and the formation of apostle of the Sabai'sm; TABRIZ (the ancient Gandsak), AR- the western Caliphate of Cordova, in Spain, put a stop to DEBIL became in 704 a thriving Mohammedan town. their eastern conquests. Thus then had the Arabs, in less XII. DILEMa (Gilan), on the southwestern shores of the than a century, founded a dominion vaster than that of AlexBahr Chozar. ander, or even that of the Romans. The Caliphs themselves XIII. TABEnuIsTAN with Kom?2s and Damt2glnaZtin the interior, l had taken no part in these conquests; they remained invisible and MAZANDAPiAN on the southern coast of the Caspian, with in the interior of their seraglios, where their early simplicity the cities of Amnol and Asterczbcdcl. and virtue gave way to the corrupting influences of sensuality 210. XIV. ARAK or Belad al Dje6ail (the ancient Media), and sloth. The Arabs, tired of destroying, began to rebuild on the east of Mount Elvend, was conquered by the Arabs in 742. the ruined cities; smiling gardens arose on the slopes of the Here lay HAMAIDAN (the ancient Ekbatana), which was takel mountains; the plains were cultivated and adorned with deby the Arabs on their sudden appearance beyond the mountains. lightful country-seats; the mosques, bazaars, and palaces of the NEHAVEND, south of Hamadan, where the Persians suffered Caliphs, were built in that beautiful style of Saracenic archithe last great defeat, which opened all the easterin countries tecture, which afterwards struck the European crusaders with as far as the Si/lZun (Jaxartes), and the Sizcl (Indus), to their wonder and admliration. The Arab empire reached its culmivictorious arms. ASPAHAN (Aspadana), now Ispahan, south- nating height of political power, cultivation, commerce, literaeast of Hamadan, was built by the Sassanid princes, and be- ture and art, during the age of Charlemagne, and the reign of came afterwards the capital of the modern Persian kingdom. the Caliph Har:-oun-ar-Rascliid (the Just), from 786-809, when RAY or ll/fohamecdia (the ancient Rhagme, where Alexander the great schisms in the Mohalmmedan faith, the rebellions of overtook the expiring Darius), was an important defile opening the provinces, and the rise of different heresies and dynasties, on the immense Parthian plains towards Khorasan. In the first began to threaten the dissolution of the Saracenic empire. mountains of 2nc/lbaC' arose the terrible sect of the Assassizns, and their mysterious chief, the Old Man of the Mountain. B.- KINGDO;U OF THE AGLABIDS IN KAIROUAN. 211. XV. KI-IUSISTAN (the ancient Susiana), east of IrakArabi, was occupied by the Arabs the same year as Arak Ad- 213. The northern coast of Afiica, west of Egypt, had jemi. It touched the Bahr el Fars or the Persian Gulf, and been conquered by the Arabs, between the years 640 and 710, had the important town of SiiusIr, and TUSTER the ancient under continual insurrections of the native Christians. The Susa, which both made a gallant resistance. AUiWAZ on the possession of that extensive country was at last secured by the Choaspes, and Rtalvmonmuz, became flourishing Arabian cities. foundation of KAIRWAN, or Kairouan, in 674, and divided into XVI. FARs —F'carsistanz —the ancient Pars, Persis, the cradle the two provinces, /Io.g'crab tal Atlsac, cnd 1cIagra6 ac A/csa of Cyrus and the conquering Persians. ISTAiKHAR, Persepolis, (the near and distant Aflrica). Musa, the active governor or neaL' the Araxes, the ancient Persian capital, was still a consi- Wali of the Caliph Walid I., sent his general Tarik with caderable city, where the unhappy Yezdegerd in vain made a last valry, across the Straits, and Spain, in 7 11, fell an easy condesperate stand in the impenetrable mountains of his ancestors. quest to the Mohammedan arms. But forty-four years later, the STRAF, on the Persian gulf,56 had an important harbor, and a successful Omumiyacl rebellion in that country, excited the lively trade with India. The more eastern provinces of the Wali of Kairouan, 1rnalb/thim-Ebn-Ag/1ab, to follow the exCaliphate of Bagdad, which are less important for our present ample, and thus arose the kingdom of the Aglabids, who suspurpose, but may easily be found on every modern map of Asia, tained their independence against the Caliphs of Bagdad, by were the following: mercenary armies of negroes and Berbers, until the year 908, 212. XVII. KIHORASAN, northeast of Farsistan; XVIII. when the last Aglabid was defeated by Obeidallah, a deSEBJESTAN, 011on the river Hindc/end, the homestead of the cele- scendant of M]ohammel by his daughter Fatima. This chief brated hero Rustan; XIX. KEuMtAN; XX. MARXRAN, with founded in Egypt the celebrated dynasty of the Fatinicl Caliphs the cities Nic/zaboz/i', Heacat, Balkc (Bactra), and 1erv-al- il Cairo. Rnud, the ancient Alexanadria Margiana. East of the Caspian, and north of the 19/i/zIZ (Oxus), lay XXI. KIrowAnEs Si-Choras- CITIEs. —TArABOLos (Tripolis), on the great Syrtis, was 1mia; and XXII. MAWAR-AL-NAHR, the ancient Sogdiana, be- taken by the Arabs in 642. JAKu I, near Cabes on the smaller yond the Oxus, which the Arabs for a length of time hesi- Syrtis, where the total defeat of the Romans caused the loss tatecl to cross': both provinces were however occupied in 707'- of Carthage, and all the flourishing Christian cities westward to 710, and thus arrived on the frontiers of Turkistan, the Arabs Sebtah(Ceuta),andtheshores ofthe Atlantic Ocean. CAXRTIAGE came in hostile contact with the Tchang, or Chinese, who in had resisted; it was taken by the Arabs in 697; retaken the vain attempted to drive the MIohammedans back over the same yearby the Greeks, then lost again, and in 698 totally leDjihmn. The last Persian king, Yezdegerd, having perished stroyedl by the infuriated Moslems. Carthage never rose from its by the daggers of his faithless mercenaries, the gallant Ko- ashes, and the few ruins left on its desolated coast, prove that taibah (the camel driver) now reduced all the countries be- all the materials for building have been carried away for the erection of KAIROUAN, the new colony and capital of the Sara "' By the Amabs called Bcmhr Alahkdkcr; theGreenSea. cens in Africa. This city is situated in the interior of the

Page  52 5`2 FOURTH PERIOD.-EDRISITES-OMMIYADS-GOTHIA. ancient province of Byzacium, at a distance of one hundred miles (Toledo), MARIDA (Merida), VALENCIA, SARAGOSTHA (Zaragossouth of Carthage, and thirty-six west of Hammamet, its harbor sa), ANDALOS (Andalusia), and NARBUNA (Narbonne); twelve on the sea-shore. Kairouan was quickly peopled with Berbers other walis, all with their viziers, or lieutenants, besides the kaand Moors, who flocked to the banners of the Caliph, and be- dis and mexewares, formed the acduana, somewhat similar to came ready converts to the Mohammedan faith; and it thus the naclln, (79, 118) of the Goths and Franks. The progress of became the great emporium for Northern Africa, during the the Arabs under the active and intelligent Emirs of Cordova, Middle Ages. BIZERTA, the ancient Hippo Zarytos, and Bo- was extraordinary; they crossed the Pyrenees, and added the NA, Hippo Regius, were the last cities in this part of Africa beautiful province of Narbuna to their empire. The battle of which remained in the possession of the Greeks. In the west, Tours, with Charles the Hammer, at last put a permanent Chulun, Coesarea, and some maritime fortresses, offered a still stop to their conquests in 732, and the Gothic chiefs in the longer resistance, but were all at last obliged to surrender. Asturian mountains soon began to extend their dominion to the river Duero. All the plains along that river, then the general battle-field between Christians and Moslems, were C:.-III. KINGDOMI OF TIHE EDRISITES IN MElQUINES. called Cam2pi Gothici, and being left incult, formed a dreary 214. Edris-Ben-Edris, a descendant of Ali, fled from the wilderness between the hostile nations. snares of Haroun-ar-Raschid, and excited a rebellion in the TIOLAITHALA (Toledo), on the Tagus, surrendered, lie the western province, Zl~agcrab-al-A/csa, where the AMohalmlmedan |other cities, to the victorious Arabs, and preserved its priviMoors and Berbers elected him king, in 788. His son built leges as capital of the African Viceroy, until the time when FAZ (FEZ), and MEQUINES (Marokko), the former of which be- COrDHOBA (Cordova), on the Wady al Kebir (Guadalquiver), came a flourishing city, and the latter gave its name to the became the seat of the new Mussulman Caliphate. The Balyoung Mohammedan state. SEPTA or Sebtah (now Ceuta) was ear'ic Islands were likewise occupied by the Arabs, who from thence extended their piracies over all the coasts of Italy and a strong fortress, which the Visigoths of Spain held in possesFrance; nay, they even landed and built a castle at Fraxinetum, sion on the Afriean coast of the Straits. It was so well defended, that it stopped all the efforts of the Arabs to cross the ol the rugged coast between Nizza and Ventimiglia at the strait, until the treachery of Count Julian, as is well knownbase of te Maritime Alps, in 889. They massacred the in-' habitants of the neighborhood, and built a castle upon the opened to the Arabs the passage for the destruction of the habitants of the neighborhood, and built a castle upon the ~~~~~~Gothic Empire. |rocks commanding the entrance of the gulf. This was the origin of the formidable republic of Saracen pirates, who, from the bay of Fraxinetum, extended their incursions throughout:D.-IV. EMIRATE OF CoruovA. Provence and Dauphiny; nay, the Saracens held possession of the passes of the Alps; they united with the Hungarians to 215. TARIC succeeded in landing on the promontory of ravage Helvetia and Valais, of which they remained masters Calpe with only five hundred horsemen, in 710. The bold- for several years. They then crossed the mountains, and inness and success of his enterprise brought their reward in the vading the plain of Piedmont, they burnt Acqui and ravaged name given afterwards to the promontory, Mount of Tarik, or the banks of the Padus; and it was not until the year 975 that Djebel-Taric (Gibraltar). The last Gothic king, Roderic, the Count of Provence at last succeeded in retaking Fraxinehaving gathered the entire host of the Visigoths, but without tum with the immense booty which the Saracens had hoarded receiving any assistance from Europe, attacked the Arabs on up there. the Wacldy-al-Ete (Guadalete), near Sherish (Xeres), where he Islam had arrived at its zenith; it was the time of the fell, and the Goths suffered a total defeat in 711. The nume- brilliant Mohammedan civilization of Spain (in Arabic, Andarous Jews declared for the Arabs, who immediately were fol- los). The palmn of the desert rose at the side of the products lowed by myriads of Moors and Berbers from Africa. Every of the west. Spain became the most populous and industrious where defeated, the dispirited Visigoths fled to the Asturian country in Europe. Cordova was the seat of arts and literamountains. The cities that surrendered were granted capitula- ture; seventy libraries and seventeen academies and colleges tion; those which defended themselves were levelled to the opened abundant sources of instruction; questions of philosophy, ground. Musa came himself, with 26,000 choice troops, and science, or poetry, were discussed in the literary societies. The completed the conquest of Taric. The XWali Ejub, made Cor- large cities, Toledo, Merida, Seville, Zaragoza, Valencia, Eldova the residence of the Arabian government. The only bira (Granada), vied with Cordova in wealth and splendor; Christian prince who made a stand was Theodenmir of Lo-ca, four hundred cities of inferior rank were enriched by coinon the coast of Murcia; he, however, was obliged to pay tri- merce; on the banks of the Guadalquiver alone were scattered bute. Thousands of Christians became Mohammedans; twelve hundred hamlets, embowered in vineyards and oliveand it appeared as if the Moslem would now carry the Koran groves. and the crescent all over Europe. The Arabian government was very simple: the provinces were governed by Walis; under these stood the Alkaldes. The Emir, or general governor, V. INDEPENDENT CHRISTIAN STATES IN SPAIN had a council, or aduana of counsellors —me xewazres. Emir ABOUT A. D. 800. Okba introduced this system in 737. Jcudges (Kadis) were placed in every village, and their judicial activity was most se- 217. KINGDOM OF GOTHIA or Oviedo. —The Saracens and verely controlled. The Wali, in the provinces, had an armed their allies, the Moors, were still strangers on the soil of Spain. body called iKaxiefes, or genclarmes. Schools and mosques were After the death of King Roderic and the defeat of the Visiestablished; roads laid out; and commerce and agriculture soon goths at Xeres, the wrecks of that nation who disdained subbegan to flourish. Abd-er-Rahman, the fugitive Ommiyad, mission to the victorious Moslems, fled to the mountains of raised the banner of rebellion in 755. Seville received him Asturia; these were chiefly the nobles and clergy. From the with joy; he gathered an army, defeated near Musara the Pyrenees, an extensive chain of high and rugged mountains Emir Jusuf, and achieved his independence in 759. (the Mions Findius of the ancients) stretches westward to 216. DIVISION AND CITIES. —The Emirate of Cordova was Cape Ftiniste're, the extreme headland of Gallicia. Auseba, divided into six provinces under military walis, THOLAITHALA one of those towering pinnacles of difficult access, aflorded re

Page  53 FIFTH PERIOD. —IRELAND-SCOTLAND. 53 fuge to the fleeing bands of some thousand Goths who sought hid- giving the Latin names of the French counties, &c., then in ing-places in the caverns of our Lady of Cabadonga, where they use, and their modern appellation; and by delineating the elected Pelayo, a distinguished warrior, as their chieftain, A. D. different nationalities in the duchies of Germany; nor do we 718. The early traditions about the origin of the modern Spanish hesitate to present the student with the names of the later prodynasties are not free from the exaggerations of national vanity; vinces (themnes) of the Eastern Empire, in the Byzantine yet Asturia enjoys, as the ancient asylum of the noble Goths, Greek language, because an accurate description of the East, certain liberties which had no other origin than the achieve- and some etymological hints on the provincial names, may perments of her sons; and the hamlet Gegio (Gijon), on the coast, Ihaps tend the better to explain the annexed map of the tenth scarcely observed by the Moslem enemy, became the cradle of century, and render its study more interesting. a lasting monarchy, which grew to manhood among the mlountains. There, protected by the high range of Auseba, the (. I. NORTHERN EUROPE. Christians began the long and arduous struggle, which, in spite of many reverses, at last, after the vicissitudes of seven cenItU- I. KINGDOMs IN IRELAND. ries, was crowned with complete success, the reconquest of the magnificent peninsula, and the expulsion of the infidels. The 219. INHABITANTS AND REIMARKABLE CITIEs. —Toward the Visigoth nation had become degenerated under the mild climate close of the tenth century we still find Ireland divided into the of Spain, yet the awful political calamities which had befallen four petty kingdoms of ULTONIA (Ulster), CONNACIA (Conthem now steeled their courage and exalted their virtue; and soon naught), MOMONIA (Munster), and LAGENIA (Leinster), which they broke forth from their strongholds. Alfonso I. reconquered recognized the supremacy of the sovereign King of MIDIA Gallicia in 750, and Troila made himself master of Oviedo in (MIeath). The civil feuds among tlle more powerful Canfinnies 759. The expeditions of Charlemagne beyond the Pyrenees, (100) still continued, and the savage manners of the Irish clans and the rebellions of the Saracenic walis or governors on the stood in the mlost singular contrast to the learning and piety Ebro, encouraged the Goths, who then, toward the year 850, of the monks in the numerous convents and monasteries after the brilliant victory over the Arabs at Logrollo, extended which contributed so much to the propagation of Christianity their dominion south of the mountains. in the north. The landed property belonged in the mass to Such was the condition of the world in the era of Charle- the clans, and the Canfinny was the liege-lord; the succesmagne. sion was elective, and never settled without bloodshed. Several clans, such as the O' Connors and O'Neals, had already a preponderating influence. The people were poor and barbarous, and agriculture was still neglected. The Danes and CHAPTERI VI. Norwegians, from their piratical settlements on the Hebrides and Orkney islands in the seventh century, began already their EUROPE, devastating descents upon the eastern coast of Ireland. Nay, they founded several independent states on the southern coast, WESTERN ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA; THEIR POLITI- with WATERFORD and DUESEFORD (Wexford), as their strongCAL GEOGRAPHY AT THE DEATH OF THE EMl[PEROR holds. On the west they occupied LUIMNICT (Limerick), and OTHO THE GREAT, A. D. 973.?7 we read in Snorro Sturleson, the Icelandic historian, the exploits of Thorgils and Frode, the sons of King Harald, the 218. GENEAL DIVISION-D ingf the period from the firhairedl of Norway, who, with their fleets, took possession of coronation of Charlenmagne, A. D. 800, to the death of Otho ther l e s DYFLIN (Dublin), where Thorgils for long years ruled as king, Great toward the close of the tenth century, great changes had until he fell in battle against the Irish.i TEaMoR or Tamor'a, taken place in the institutions, the manners, and the political in the kingdom of Meath, was the rincipal city of the Irish, relations of the states and nations in the old world. The where the clans met i n th eir confederate diets. ArMAGh (100) mighty empires of Charlemagne and of Haroun-ar-Raschid had mighty empires of Charlemagne and wof Haroun-ar-easrhid had continued to be the ecclesiastical metropolis of Ireland. Its been shivered to fragments; and we find in the year 973, in numerous monasteries were celebrated for their learning and Europe, no less than nineteen independent and more or less austere discipline. Hundreds of zealous monks accompanied powerful states; while the Mohammlledan Empire of the Caliphs the Norwegian Prince Olaf Tryggveson in his expedition to had then become divided among a greater numlber of sectarian Norway in 995, where they, under many dangers and privaor heretical dynasties and rebellious Mohammedan tribes, thanthe foudatio of a higher ivilizatio, by the tions, laid the foundation of a higher civilization, by the first we call find space to describe. Of the nineteen states in Eu- introduction of Christianity in Nidaros (Throndhjem). Conrope, seven were situated in the north. They were-I., the cAGIA Chuirke (Cork), in Munster, was already an inportamt kingdoms in Ireland; II., the kingdomn of Scotlacznd; III., coImmercial city. that of the Ang'lo-Saxons in Eng'lacnd; IV., that of Den-?zar'k; V., that of Norway; VI., that of Swedez; and VII., II. KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND. the Grand-Duchy of RRussia. Five in central Europe: VIII., the kingdom of France; IX., that of Burg.Cundy; X., the Ro- 220. EXTENT AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. —The early history qmzano-Germnanic Empire; XI., the kingdom of Iung'aia; of Scotland is enveloped in total clarkness: it would have been and XII., the Chanate of the Petcheneges. Seven in the south interesting to know the historic facts connected with the union of Europe: XIII. the kingdom of Leon; XIV., the county of two so entirely different nationalities as those of the Gaelic or of Castile; XV., the kingdom of Navarac; XVI. the caliph- Celtic Seots, and clthe Scandinavian or Gothic Picts(101), under ate of Cordova; XVII., the emirate of Sicily and the smaller the crown of King Kenneth II.,9 in 843, which is supposed to islands; XVIII., the kingdom of Cr'oatia; and XIX., the Byzantine or eastern Roman empire. "58 See the saga of Haralcl IHaarfager, chap. sxxv., in Samuel Laing's beautiful translation of the Heimns mirzigla or Chronicle of thie Kings of This being the period during which France and Germany Norwlay. London, 1844. Yol. I., page 304. became split into so many almost independent feudal seignio- 59 Fro11 the register of Saint Andrew's we learn that the Scottish ries, we have thought it desirable to go into some detail by IKings, from Kenneth II. down to Edgar, 1098, were buried in Ilyona or I-colm-kill (101). After that period Dunfermline was the place of 57 See Map No. 4. royal sepulture.

Page  54 354 ]TITIII "FIFTH P1EPTIOD. —SCOTLAND — ENGLAND-DENMAPtK. have given birth to the nmore modern kingdom of Scotland. Yet the rapid change its mild doctrines had produced in the ideas and the truth is, that the light of history begins much later to dawn habits of that wild and heathen nation (104). CANTWARABURIi on the misty Highlands of Scotland. Danes were settled on (Canterbury) was the great metropolis of the Anglican Church, the northeastern part of the island called Caithlness. King and its Archbishops knew full well to extend their influence Indulfvanquished them at Cuelen, but could not make them and their privileges amlong the devout Edgars and 2Ethelreds. quit the island. Edinb6m1zAb became early the capital; Scogne OxNAFORD (Oxford) was already celebrated as the seat of on the northwest, where the great battle took place, in conse- learning. EorowvYK (York) was the capital of Northumberquence of which King Kenneth was enabled to unite the two land, the centre of the Danish power. BRu\runru,~I, near realms of the Picts and Scots. His castle was afterwards the Lincoln, where the terrible battle was fought in which AEthel residence of the Scottish Kings, several of whom were crowned stan, in 938, totally defeated the Northumbrian Dane Anlaf there. (Olaf), and his Scottish auxiliaries. CruLaND (Croyland), the celebrated monastery in Mercia, which the savage Danes plundered and burnt in 870, after the defeat of Osgood of II[. —KINuGDO OF ENGLAND. Lincoln.G0 2ZETHLINGA-EIG (Athelney), the Isle of Princes, the fortress E221. ]XTENT, (ONDITION) Ah~U'D RSErAn~LE Cr ~s. — iln Somersetshire, near Taunton, where 2Elfred the Great hid King Egbert of West-Sex had in A. D. 828 subdued the other himself in the forest and the surrounding swamps, and prestates of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy (104). The stool-is pared for his attack on the anes. -INDN (OW Edingp tared for his attack on the Danes.6' ETHANDUN (now Eddingof the old dynasties, sprung from Odin, were extinct, and Eng- ton near WVestbury), where Elfred so brilliantly defeated the land had obtained a unitv and internal tranquillity which was Panes, baptized their sea-king Guthrum, and restored the inessentially favorable to the moral cultivation of the Anglo- dependence of England in 878. The SCILL~ Islands, by the Saxon nation, and the development of their national institu- ancients called Cassite s ancients called Cassite'idces or SVFine Inslc~sz, were during tions. The Britons in North Wales were vanquished, the this period brought under the domininon of the English kings, island of Mona (Anglesa) conquered and only the kings of and what is more important, it was in this quiet retreat of Cumberland and Strathclyde (103) maintained their indepen- monastic seclusion that the Norwegian sea-king Olaf Tryggvedence until about 950, when they were replaced by dependent the history of Engl son, known in the history of England by the name of Anlaf, counts. KIing 2thelstan (924-941) subjected the princes of received baptism in 993, and from thence introduced ChrisWales to a tribute of cattle, which Edgar (959-975), after a tianity into Norway and Iceland, by means of the zealous successful invasion of North Wales, changed into the yearly English missionaries whom he brought along with him. delivery of three hundred heads of wolves. This beneficial The island of MAN-lIonarina, 1TIonapia Insula-in the exaction caused the speedy destruction of these beasts through- Irish Channel, had become the seat of another Norwegian out the island. Edgar armed war-ships, and defeating the sea-king, who united the HEBRIDES on the west coast of ScotDanes in Ireland, he took Dublin, the first acquisition of the land, and the ORKNEY ISLANDS —O'cades Insulce —into a Anglo-Saxon kings beyond their own territory. Thus the whole powerful kingdom, so conveniently situated as naval stations southern portion of the island, northward to the Tweed and Cum- for the daring Norwegian Vi-kings, who thence extended their berland, belonged to the English crown. The last distinction piratical invasions over all the neighboring coasts of Ireland between the old Saxon Seven States disappears entirely under and Great Britain.?Elfred (871-901), and England is forthwith divided into shires and hutndcleds governed by earls and earldcormnen. The Frank pledge-frithlboth-gave a mutual security to the coin- IV. —KiNGDO 01' I)ENOIARK. inunities, and the ancient Roman military roads an easy comn- 2 222. EXrENT, (CorNVRSION, AND CONxSO:IDvTIOi. —-- nunication between the different parts of the state. These reikable high roads were, 1, thle Ernzz St)-Cd f oDuring the 9th century the north of Europe began to pass era ra th rng Std o from the state of fermentation and disorder, which had prever and Canterbury, running north through Stamford to Linver1 and Cainterburyrunomg.n othe through Stamfo toLin- vailed in all its countries, into a more peaceable and orderly coln and Winteringham on the Humber; 2, the Foss-TO c condition. It was the beneficial influence of Christianity (ditch-way), running southwest from Lincoln by Cirencester which mainly contributed to produce this great revolution. to Exeter in Cornwall; and 3, the celebrated [reli~2g'.. tli The Christian religion became the point of union that, like the Stvd~ele, running northwest from London through Tamworth S ernn oh tr Ld to Telectric spark, roused the nations of the north from their long to Shrewsbury and Offa's dike, at the base of the hills of sleep of ignorance. The first authentic information we obtain sleep of ignorance. The first authentic inforlnation we obtain Wales. The latter (Watling-street) was the boundary between fro eark is that of the pious and devoted Ansgar, or from Denmarl k is that of the pious and devoted Ansgar, or the Danes and English, in the treaty between 3Elfred and Guth-. 826 aAnsgarius, the A postle of Scanclinavia, who in A. D. 826 actrun the Dane, in 890, according to whiclh Northumberland. companied the first Christian Dane, Harald Klak, the underand East Anglia were ceded to the Scanciinavian invaders. amd East A.oglia were ceded toking of South Jutland —then an exile at the court of Louis-leThe piracies of the Northmen had begun already, in the Debonnair-back to Penonark and built the church at Schlestime of King Egbert, to become troublesome to the inhabit-'wig'c Ansgar and his monks visited King Biorn in Sweden, ants on the coasts; soon they took the character of regular ants on. tile coasts;. soon where, with thle support of a clistinguished Swede, Hergier, mnaritime expeditions of the daring sea-kings of Scandinavia, they built the first Christian church on the banks of the 11cewho, in spite of the victories of the glorious ZElfred in 897, l am (190). From lis see in Schleswig Ansgar now strengthsucceeded in forming independent states on the eastern coast, ened his missionary army with enthusiastic brothers from and a century later (1016), to bring the whole island under Germany and France and preaching publicly in Danish, he the sway of King IKnud (Canute) of Denmarkl. LUNDENW-YC, London, on the Thames, the capital of the kingdom, was 0~ See thie detailed and characteristic accounit of these events in already a populous, conmmercial, and wealthy city, which had Sharon Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons, Vol. I., page 509 et seq. been enlarged and embellished by lElfred; the old St. Paul's 61 This interesting spot at thle confluence of the Parret river with Church was built in 604, on the first introduction of Chris- thle Tllolle, is exactly known, not only from tradition, but from a goldtian-ity *1ong the Xaxons loy St. Ren enamelled ornament found there, exhibiting the name of A2lfred by tianity among the Saxons by St. Austin, and numerous con- an inscription:'".tlfred hlet meh gemlircan"-Alfrecl ordered mne to be vents and monasteries in every part of the city gave proof of -vrougllt.

Page  55 FIFTH PERIOD. —IENMARK —N ORWAY. 55 gathered multitludes aronlld lhim, lanld secured his spiritual coIn- Northern Jutland, where the Emperor Otho, in the pursuit of cluest by the establishmlent of the iArlchbishopric in iHa6a2bntg' the retirling Danes, found himself stopped by the frith, and in ini 830. Attacked by a fleet of savage Vi-kilngs in 845, he his rage at not being able to cross over, launched his spear retired to Brememc, where he met a deputation of Jutes, who into the water, andcl returned to Germany. ODENSE, in the conducted him safely to Rib6e (Ripen), on the west coast of island of Fyen (Odins-ey), a thriving city, with an episcopal Jutland. There he built and consecrated the cathedral church see. ROE'S KILDE, on the island of Sjolund (Sjelland, Seain 858, and having gloriously fulfilled his mission of laying a land, HI-ferthce Insula), the more modern capital of Denmark, solid foundation for the civilization of the north, he died in. firolm the times of kinig Harald, is situated at a short distance Blemen in 865, revered by all, and later canonized by the fiom the heathen Leire, and the forest of Hertha, with the Pope as the great Apostle of Denmark. A few years later splendid cathedral church, and the Episcopal see for Sealand. King Gorm the Old (Gorm den Gamile) of the Danish Islands, B3urnGNDARIHOLMr (Bornhollll), a fertile island south of Skaane, succeeded in subduing the petty states of Jutland, and secured which during the middle ages became an important emporium the southern frontiers of his united kingdom by extension of of eastern commerce. In a bog on this island was found the Dannevirke (work of the Danes) from the bay of Sehleswig no lessthanhalfa bushel of CGqzc or Arabian coins (207),with the westward to the North-Eider, the boundary of the Carlovin- inscriptions of the Caliphs of Bagdad, from A. D. 698 to 1010, gian empire. The integral parts of Denmark then consisted which were current in the countries through which the Northof 1, JUTLAND, divided by the longecaa (king's river) into men had to pass on their way to Constantinople. LUND, in NORTH JUTLAND (Reit Gothland) and SOUTH JUTLAND (SChles- Skaane, became in 1090 the archiepiscopal see for the Pr'owig), comprising on the east the ancient ANGLEN, the homle- vizcic6 Lundenzsis, embracing all Denmark and Esthland. stead of the Angles in Britain, and on the west NoruTm FRIESLAND, inhabited by the Frisian fishermen; 2, the DANISH V. KINGDOM ISLANDS (Ey Gothland); 3, SKAANE (Scandia, Skaney) in southern Sweden, and divided into the three ancient provinces, 223. EXTENT, DIVISION, AND HISTORICL SITEs.-The ledlazdcl, northwest on the Kattegat; Ble/kinga-cey, north- Icelandic Sagas have thrown a wonderful light on the early east, on the Wlkrcege —Soe, East Sea, or Baltic; and S/caace history of Norway, and the Norwegian Bonde (free landProper, the southern point of the great Scandinavian Penin- owner), can, with the admirable book of Snorro Sturleson besula. All the provinces were divided into Sysl/e (shires), and fore him, at the fireside, during the long winter evenings, folIieqrreder (hundreds), governed by the Jcfrls (earls), who, with low up the events of his forefathers in every valley, on every the B.nde'r (freemen), met the king at the Tinzge (national mountain, where still so many rough monuments of the olden diet), where public affairs were transacted, and the kings and times testify to the historical veracity of the poetical tradichiefs elected by acclamation of the people. King Gorm felt tions of the Skjalds.54 The great Scandinavian peninsula is by himself strong enough to cross the Eider and invade NVordal- a high mountain range, the KfjOlen, divided into two distinct bi7ngia (Holstein), then a province of the duchy of Saxony. countries, SwERGE (Siwedehz), and NORGE (Nor'way). The The Danes were defeated, and Henry I. the Fowler, established centre of both countries is very rugged and mountainous, the Jllfcrrcl or mlargraviate of Sehleswig, between the Eider but in Sweden the mountains slope off southward, to the iamand the Schley-the limes Damniczcs, as it is called by the mense lakes of t/eneren and Wettern, and the fertile plains of chroniclers, which for nearly a century remained the battle- Skaane; while on the contrary, in Norway, the slope lies ground of the hostile Danish and Saxon borderers. Otho the north, terminating with the precipitous promontory of North Great crossed the Dannevirke in 970, overran all Jutland, and Cape. These upper highlands are scantily inhabited by forced King Harald Bluetooth, the son of Gorm, to be bap- the nomadic tribes of Finns and Laplanders, who, by the tized, and grant the monks the liberty to convert his subjects warlike Germanic invaders, were driven northward at the time throughout the kingdom. of the first occupation of Scandinavia by the Goths. (86.) CITIES AND HISTORICAL PLACES.-HADDEBS (Slia-. S-Zvyk/), Though Norway is more mountainous than Sweden, and all its Schleswig, with the first Episcopal church ranging under the coasts are high-sonmetines more than a thousand feet of fearsee of Hamburg. SILnEnSTED, north of Schleswig, where ful precipices, overhanging the deep friths, the islands and the king Bluetooth was defeated by Otho in a great battle, and sea, yet its climate is, on account of the neighborhood of the baptized in the brook, which, after these great events, was ocean, milder than that of the lower coasts of Sweden, called Hellig-bek, or Holy Brook.62 RIPA (Ribe), VIvURPGUM (Viborg), ArnosIA (Aarhuus), and BURGLANTUM (Borgland1l), ~1 See the preface of Snorro limself, to his "Sagas of the Norse became later episcopal sees of the province of Lund. JEL- Kings." "Intllis book," he says, "I have had old traditions written dowvn, as I have heard them told by intelligeint people, concerning chiefs LINGE, with the barrows of king Gorlln, and his Christian L,who have held dominion in the northern countries, and who spoke the queen, Thyra Danebod. The magnificent sepulchral room of Danfish tongue-Daoeske Tsznyge-andl also concerning some of their fainthe queen has lately been exeavated, and highl y interesting ily branchles, accordcling to what has been told me. Some of thlese acantiquities, shrines, silver goblets, and golden figures of birds counts are found in the genealogical tables of our forefathers, wihile thle found.63 rest are tmlken from old songs, wllich at lhe time were recited for the OTTEN SUND (Sound of Otho), a bay on thme Liilnfjord, iln pleasure of the chiefs at their banquets. Thelre were Skjcaldcs (bards) in thie courIt of IHarald the Fair-haired (A. a. 863-931), whose poems the people know by healrt even at tile prlesent day (Snorro wrote this about 2 It wvas on the banks of Hellig-buk, that the Danes, in 1850 tile year 1220), together with all the songs about the kings who have gained tile battle of Idstecl against thie rebellious IHolsteiners. 1ruled in Norway since his time. We rest the foundations of our his63 Tile R]znic inscriptions from these mouncds are among the oldest tory prlincipally upon thie songs which were sung in the presence of the and most important documents of Danmish histolry. The smaller sepul- chieftains themselves, or of their sons, and we confidently adopt as truth cllral stone (Bautasteen), has the following: -Iing Gorsn zacde t/his Ahill and llistolry all the accounts we find in these poetical memorials of their after /sis suife, Thyre Danmarksbod. Thie larger Jelling stone has been feats and battles. Fol although it be the customn with thebard to praise the erected by the son and successor, Harald Bluetooth, to the mem- chief before whom he strings the harp, yet no one would dare to relate ory of his parents:-Kf-ing Baracl reised these hills cafter his father to a chief deedls of glory which all the warriors present, and thie chief corn7 anzd his mnoth.em Th/yre. This acrodld is he mel/o eoes all BDemamnZ':, himlself, woulcl linow to be nothing bmt flirtation and untlrutll; because and Norwam/, oand Ch/ristendom; that is, became a Christian, together that woilnd be moclecry and scorln, instead of adlamiration and praise."with his peolple. (? rmonicle of t/e k[iS cf N7immwoq/, h7/ Si7tes.. Leird.e. Vol i. pp. 211-213.

Page  56 56 FIFTH PERTIOD.-NORWAY. whose winter is extremely cold and dreary; because that Switzerland. The King with his Hir'dc or court, the Jarls and whole region is exposed to the eastern storms, sweeping the Bndcer, appeared at the Tiing or general assembly, where over the snow plains of Northern Siberia and Russia. Swe- they took part in the discussion of state affairs. Another class den has but scanty harvests of grain; but it abounds in were the l'Tcele, thralls or domestic slaves, mostly prisoners iron, copper, and other minerals. Norway lives almost en- captured by the Vikings at sea on piratical cruises; they were tirely on its fisheries, game, and commerce. The extreme private property, but generally so well treated, that Sigurd length of that wild territory, from the southern promontory of Jar], the high-priest of Thor, for instance, enabled his Troelle Sweden to North Cape, is upward of 1100 miles; its breadth to purchase their freedom by giving them the right of fishing from Bergen, in Western Norway, to Stockholm on the east, in the fjords on his estates, or seated them as farmers on his is 450 miles; its superficial dimensions are three hundred uncleared lands. Hakon the Good, the son of IIarald Fairthousand square miles, of which thirty thousand are covered hair, attempted to introduce Christianity, but he found the by lakes and swamps; it is therefore more thinly inhabited Norse too stubborn and devoted to their old heathen gods and than any country in Europe, having only five millions of souls, festivals; and it was not until the energetic rule of King Olaf one million and a half of which are ~Nor'dmncencd, or Norse. Tryggveson in 9a7-1000, and that of the unhappy Saint The mnost singular features in the scenery of Norway are the Olaf, who perished in the battle of Stiklestad in 1030, that the Jjords, or- friths, deep valleys filled by the sea, which often temples of Odin and Thor were at last destroyed, and the run into the interior for several hundred miles. How these Cross of Christ arose at Nidaros (Trondhjem), in the north. immensely deep rifts, sometimes not a gunshot in breadth, NXordenjfjelds, north of the mountains, we have: HIALOGALAND have been furrowed out of the solid prilmary rock, is still a onlthe frontiers of Filnnmaken; NAUMDAL andTnROND or Tronidproblem. It could not be from the action of the sea, for they I je2 (Drontheim), with the capital NIDARos on a deep frith. extend into various branches, starting off in directions which Here the traveller admires the celebrated cathedral built 1033, a never were exposed to the impulse of the ocean; and we can huge structure in the ancient Saxon style, with arches, cloistherefore only explain this phenomenon by the general eleva- ters, and roughly carved ornaments, and the sepulchral vaults tion of the land by volcanic upheavings, as we find it in Ice- of the Norwegian kings. The shrine of Saint Olaf was a place land. In the depth of these land-locked bays, shut in by of pilgrimage for the pious Catholics from every part of Eurocks, woods, and the deep and glassy waters of the distant rope. lctade (the grange), the residence oXf Harald and his ocean, lived the Viking- of old-lives now the happy and successors. Moere where the public assemblies were held, and peaceful farmer or fisherman, with his small and neat dwelling where we still behold the mounds and foundations of heathen leaning against the rocks, a green meadow on the banks for his temples. Stiklestad, north of Nidaros, the bloody battle-field cows and goats, and his little skiff at anchor before his door; where the heathen Norse defeated and slew King Olaf the Saint, where he in sight of his chimney smoke, and the rocky forest in 1030. Rimol, fartherinland, the country-seat of Thora, where around, catches the finest sea-fish, the delight of distant Italy Hakon Jarl was stabbed by his serf Karker, in 997. West of and Greece. Can we wonder, then, that such localities-the Thrond lay NonRDand SOUTI MOErE and NAuMDAL, on the shores deep fjords, and the hundreds of high, rocky islands at their of the ocean. Westenzfjeldls (west of 3Mount Dovre), FJORD, mouths, should have invited the enterprising Norsemen of old, SoGN, HorDALAND, with the rich commnercial city of BJORGto the exciting and lucrative life of the pirate."4 The natural WINN (Bergen), afterwards one of the seventy confederated division of Norway was into regions lying north, west, and south towns of the Hansa. R.OGALAND, where, in the deep bay, I/aof the mountains; and these into thirty-four or thirty-five Fylker, ftrsfjo'Cd, Hakon Jarl, in a most tremendous naval battle, deor districts, having petty kings, who were continually fighting feated the daring Joens- Viking's or pirates, from Jomsborg, in with one another, until Halfdan Swarte (the Black), the king of 996. Snldenfjelcls (south of the mountains), AGDE, 011 the Westfold, about the year 850, began to extend his sway in the southern coast opposite to Jutland. TELLEMARKEN, HALLINsouth and west. His son, the celebrated Harald Haarfager GADAL, VESTFOLD, and VIxEN on the frontiers of Sweden., (the fair-haired), crossed the Dovre-Fjeld, and subdued with OPrsLo (now Christiania), the later capital of Norway. Kongsthe sword all the small sea kings, and stool kings of the north helle, frontier fortress, the scene of many hard-fought battles and west, during his long reign from 863 to 931. with the Swedes. In the uplands, GULDBRANDsDAL, EsTrnIDMany of the vanquished chiefs fled to Iceland, which had DAL, RllO1ErIGE, HEDEMAnREN, and other valleys. Norway just been discovered at that period; others crossed the Kjolen had its own archiepiscopal see in Nidaros. Its jurisdictionand settled in Hjemtelandand Heriedalen, on the frontiers of Provincia Jicdlatrosiclnsis-extended to Iceland, Greenland, Sweden. King Harald reduced the petty kings to the position the Shetland Islands, the Orkneys, Fdiroeer, and Hebrides. of mere governors or judges called.7Jarls, somewhat similar to 224. D)-scovERiE S AnD) Co:rNQUESTS.-Nor are the conquests the Counts of Charlelagne. They never afterwards succeed- of the Norwegians, durilig this brilliant period of their history, ed in throwing off their allegiance, nor did they ever obtain less interesting thain the vents in the mother country herself. any feudal powers. In Norway the full strength of the nation HIALTEnLND (the Shetllhand Islands), OR~ix-rJAR (the Seal rested on the Odeds Boncle, that is, the free lanclldholder or Islands), Orcadles, Omkne-S, SYDERa &(ur (Hebrides or Western husbandman, who was the proprietor of the land-held not Islands), were earlr occupied by the Northllmen, who, in the from the king nor from any feudal superior.6m The equal divi- reign of King IIalTalcl Fairhair, formed a kingdom on the sion of property among the children, a rule extending to the island of lMAN. Everyv group of islands had its bishop as sufcrown itself, prevented the accumulation of power and lands in fi'agans of the province of Niclaros. The FAER-&EER or Sheep individuals. Norway had no fortresses save her snow-capped Islahlds, so callecl on account of the numelrous flocks that make mountains, no feudal castles nor strongholds for arrogant tle principal resource of the islanders, were discovered in 861. nobles; the farm-house of the Bonde, like the manor of the Jarl, ICELAND, or Sneeland (snow country), as it was called by was built of wood, much resembling the pieturesque cottages of the Dane Gardar, who discovered it in 863. Its colonization began in 875 by the Norwegian Ingolf. GEENNLAND was disSee the fine desciption of the ovri costs i Sam. Li covered nearly at the same time, though it was not colonized'See te fineorway.egian coasts in Sam136. Laing until one century later in 973-85, by Erik the Recl, who1 un6 See above note 37, page 31. Laing's beautiful preliminary clis- detook an expedition from Iceland to the western seas. Ayear sertation on Sno.ro, Chap. III. later (986), Biarne Herulfson sailed south from Greenland, and

Page  57 FIFTH PERIOD. —AMERICA-S W\EDEN-RUSSIA. 57 found the east coast of AMiERICA, where Leif Ericson, Thor- dering south on the Danish possessions in Skaane. GOTHLAND wald Ericson, and Thorfinn continued their discoveries, and and EGLAND (Oeland) lay off the coast. SIGTUNA, on the called the fertile woodlands VIINLAND, and the savage inhabit- Mm larn, with its heathen rock-altars and temples, stood already ants s/i,:llil/;c-er or wretches. Some colonies were established in ruins. UPSALA, the later capital of the Swedish Kings, on the coasts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts; but they did north of Sigtuna, became the archiepiscopal see of the ecclenot prosper, and appear to have been abandoned in the thir- siastical province of Upsala-Pr-ovincia Upsaliensis-which teenth century.66 Iceland was soon colonized by dissatisfied embraced all Sweden and Fianland as far as the river Newa in Norsemen, who fled from the sword of Harald Haarfager; they the Kyriala Bottn or Finnish Gulf. B1JorKO (Birka), west of established a republican government, and were, in the year Sigtuna, on the Mselarn, whither the kings had removed their 1000, converted to Christianity. residence during the tenth century, and remained until Jarl Birker, about the middle of the thirteenth century, built STOCKSUND VI. KINnGDOM OF SWIEDEN. on the Stockholm, an island strongly fortified with walls and towers, to protect the offing of the Mselarn against the Vikings. 225. EXTENT, DIVISIONS, AND REATIABRKl-A E CITIEs.-The From this small beginning rose afterward the splendid city of early history of Sweden is more obscure and far less interest- Stockhollll. ing than that of Denark or Norway; nor do the middle ages of Sweden present us with so rich a variety of events, as do VII. GRAND DUCHy OF RUSSIA. the expeditions and conquests of the Danish and Norwegian 226. ORIGIN EXTENT, DivSIONS AND REMARKABLE sea-kings, and the later participation of the Danes and Norse CITIES. — Aaong the many Selalvonian tribes who were driven in the crusades, and their multifarious relations with the south. northard fro the Bl Selavonian tribes who were driven Sweden has no Snorro, no Saxo. But, onl the contrary, Sweden the o has a odern historyfrom the sixteentheenturyto theeighteenth. (91, 193), were the Russniaks, Ross, or Russians,67 who penehas a modern historyfrom the sixteenth century to the eighteenth. trated the Sarmatian forests and subdued and espelled the more brilliant than that of any other nation during the same Finnish tribes of the or, d subdued and expelled the 6innish tribes of the Mordlwens and Muronmens on the upper period. There were continual wars between the different tribes of Goths and Swedes and between dynasties. The Volga; there they settled and founded the great and flourishof Goths aLnd Swedes and between the reiglling dynasties. The. ing cities of Novgorod on the lake of Ilmen, and Kiew on the country was imountainous, covered with forests; the inhabitants Dnieper. To the southward they wagecl continualwar with the were poor. The Norwegians and Danes by possessing the westcoast-nd a ng theBaltiVikenHallandad C(]hazars, and on the Baltic they met the Northmen, who, as ern coast-lallcd along the Baltic, Viken, Hallandcl ancd Skaane, eT WAREGS or VCdiingers (adventurous warriors), infested the excluded the Swedes in a manner from the participation of the western expeditions of their neighbors. Yet the Swedes coasts ith their piracies. ing to the arrels aong their had their own crusades nearer at home; from early imes. own chiefs, which gave the Russians so much trouble, they enllad their own cr:usades llearer at home; from early times tered into an alliance with the more intelligent strangers, and they fought. agailnst the Laplanclers of Jte/sitng'efcnd, in the against the o thus it happened that the Danes in A. D. 852 laid the foundathe north, anld against the Finnish or Chludish tribes in Qinli and Kla- on the east. These obscure tion of the immense Russian Empire, where the descendants ad ot e.of the cdynasty of Rurie held the sway for more than seven hunconquests, and the Swedish settlements on the coast of Finn-n u ndred years. Ain adventurous bancl of Danish Vikings, comland, form the best part of their annals; the rest is blood- d mn aded by Rub'-ic' the Jute, his brothers Sineuts and Th'vor, shed and horrors at home. The Swedes in Swithiod north of mand y ic the Jute, his brothers Sis and vo andl the young prince Gorln of Denmzark> laided on the Finnic the lakes, and the Goths in the more southern Gothland, though and the young prince Gor, Gulf, near the lake of Ilhen. These clhiefs, at the head of the divided by their ruling dynasties, mlet for the same temple ser1, RSS2iCGeCS, soon extenled their conquests azmong the Slavic vice at the great sanctuary of Odin at Upsala; and toward the tribes; they occupied the flourishing city of Novgorod, and middle of the ninth century, Eric Edmundson contrived to unite the warring tribes and to rule Sweden as E ge or advancing boldly into the heart of the country, formed a unite the warrilg tribes ancl to rule Sweden as YEnefbtng'e or zn*~~~~~~~~ t ) * *large empire between the river D ana on thewest and the Volga sole king, with his Jarls and Drots. Christianity.made but. - ) on the cast, and fixed their residence at Kiev oil the Dnieper. little progress among so wild and superstitious a people, who on the east, and fixed the ir residence at Kiew on the Dieper. still clung to Odin and Vallhalla, and it was not until 1157 Pressed, however, bythe numerous tribes of Sclavonians around,'.. and by the Chazars from the south, the stout Danes were obthat Saint Eric, in his zeal, carried the cross to Finnland liged to defend themselves sword in hand behind their foramong the Quains. The power of the Swedish Kings was very circmscribed b the general diets of the free proprietors, the tresses, until new bands of their roving countrymen pouring cirecunscrilbed by the general diets of the free proprietors, the Bonder, and by the pride of the Jarls, who, like the Dukes andd i brhes soon recovered their conquests, and established themselves permanently in A. D. 562 in Counts in Germany and France, arrogated a certain degree of ussia. s log as uric and his descendants ere considerindependence to themselves; nay, very early we find in Sweden Russa. s l ongas Ru e sed t were n sie the Jarl of the Ra -i- i s r r s to te ed aliens and conquerors, they ruled by the sword of the the Jarl of the [Reahlm is-Jor~l —in similar relatioons to the Nortlhmen. They distributed estates and subjects amollg king as the mnayor donmus in the kingdom of the Franks. The their faithful captains, and supplied their numbers by fresh streams of adventurers from the Baltic islands. But when the dignity, they soon aspired to the crown itself in 1250. Scandinavian chiefs had struck a deeper and more permanent nP o~ t e n root in the soil, they minglecd with the native Sarmatians, Russ and east, the southern part of HELSINGALAND as far north as the river ussins in blood Agrn E.y; UPLAND, wit theRusslans, on bloot, habits, and language; and the first WVladiAs'erMEcLzn AND,v; Ub LND, with the arLaNDS island s, Norw mir, who was baptized by the persuasion of his fair Queen, east; V1RMELAND, by the Eda-forest separated from Norway; Olga, in 980 and introduced therk Church servic WEST-MANNA-LAND, SODERMANNA-LAND, and NERIan around O the G Cuc s deepfrith AlN hemni was.RN-D cale JERNIEA a n th.into Russia, disbanded his Danish boly-guard.61 But indeep frith ll/I/cla'n; the mining district was called JEnNr,nmRAxLAND (Iron-producing-land). /7 Thle Russians appear for the first tillle in the Byzantine historians GOTHLAND, south of the large lakes of Wener and WIette', of the ninth century, under the undeclinable name of Pc,, and they was divided into west and east Gothland; and SlMAALAND, bor- have then already their characteristic featllres the whilite skin, the red hair, andcl thle green cat eye. " See for farther del;ails the numerous works published by the So- G" It, is a highly intelresting fatct tllhat the German Chronicler, Ditmar ciety of Northern Antiquaries in Copenhagen, and by several clistin- of Melrceburg, so late as 1018, says: "that Kiew in Russia was then still guished literary gentlemen in this country. guarded by the strength of the Danish arms." 8

Page  58 58 BFIFTH PERIOD. —RUSSIANS-VENDES-FRANKS. stead of returning to the north, the Danes, always fond of bank of the Dnieper, as the second capital of the grand dukes southern scenes and impressions, pushed on to Constantinople, of Russia, became adorned with Byzantine churches and conwhere a great number of their countrymen had already taken vents, and showed signs of its future greatness by its crowded military service among the Greeks. The Byzantine Emperors, population, and active commerce on the Black Sea and Consurrounded by intrigues and treachery, were glad to enlist seve- stantinople. POLOTZK, on the Diina, was the capital of the ral thousands of brave and sober Northmen. They received high tributary Slavic race of the Polotzchani. ZASLAV (now in ruins pay; they wore their bear-skin mantles over their glittering near Wileika), on the Niemen, was the principal city of the armor; and the astonished Greeks hearing their name Vieer- Slovensi.-SmoLENSK, on the Dnieper.-TcnErNmIov, southiznger, pronounced it: Var'anl'hi-Bapayyo t. With their east of Kiew, became an independent principality. PEREnYAheavy broadsword at their side, and the double-edged battle- SLAVL, near Kiew. —MunoI, on the Oka, northeast, was the axe on their shoulder, they attended the Emperor to the capital of the tributary Finnic race of the Muromens. Moskow Santa Sophia, the Senate, the Hippodrome, or the battle-fieldl. herself was yet unborn. He slept and feasted under the guard of his Danish Varanghi; and the keys of the palace and imperial treasury, of the On the southern shores of the Baltic, or the Sea of the towers and gates of Constantinople, were held by the firm and Wczarcs, as it then was called, were still independent the faithful hand of the Scandinavian prince who commanded that savage BOrUSSIANS (Prussians), and the VENDES (in Pomerania), chosen body. They continued to speak their own language, who were fighting hard with the Saxon emperors of Germany, and, on days of great festivals, they offered their congratula- but had not yet succeeded in forming their large Vendic Iingtions and assurances of loyalty to the Emperor in the Danish cown, which we shall describe in the period of the Crusades. tongue. The Scandinavian elements in the government of the early II.-C(ENTRAL EUROPE. Russian states, and the Greek service in their Church, are important facts which gave their peculiar character to the 228. I)ISMEMBERMENT OF THE CARLOVINGIAN EMIPIRE.Russian people. The most intimate relations between the The mighty arm, which had ruled so many warlike nations northern kings and the [Russian grand-dukes continued for cen- of western Europe beneath its peaceful jurisdiction, was now turies. Young Danish or Norwegian princes were educated no more, and the pious, but indolent, Louis-le-Debonnair, who at the court in Gar'cdarike (Russia), and the northern pilgrims could not control his own wife, Queen Judith, was still less and warriors passed mostly through that friendly land on their able to restrain his violent sons, and their ambitious and asroute to the Mediterranean and the Holy Land. Under their piring retainers-both prelates and warriors-nor the then warlike chiefs the Russians reached the shores of the Black awakening feelings of nationality, which, with a higher cultiSea so early as 865. They armed expeditions against Con- vation, began to inspire Gerllans, French, and Italians. The stantinople herself in 904 and 941, and though they were de- Mussulmans in Spain; the Lombards in Italy; the Gallo-Rofeated and driven back, they profited by these visits. They mans in Aquitaine; the half-converted Saxons the heathen returned more civilized; Greek churches and monasteries were Sclavonians and Avars; the proud Neustrian Franks; the built in every part of the country; the Russian clergy obeyed still prouder Austrian Germans, as the countrymen of Karl the Patriarch of Constantinople, and thus the civilization the Great himself; all now fretted beneath the lax and vacilwhich both church and commerce introduced into Russia lating government of the monkish Louis, and all aspired to a had an oriental character. IMany institutions, however, were national independence, which only the penetrating glance and still Norman; the Russian state officers were called gosti. the armies of Charles had been able to restrain. Charles had Wladinlir admitted the nobles —.Boyas — to his council, victoriously repelled the gatherings of other barbaric tribes and the oppressive despotism which was introduced in later along the distant frontiers of his immense empire-but Danes, centuries, after the Mongol invasion, had not yet degraded and Sclavomnians, Tartars, and Saracens, awaited only the death of enslaved the frank and jovial character of the ancient Russians. the great emperor, to take back with usury the tributes which At the time of the death of Otho the Great, 973, the great he had imposed upon their vanquished tribes. The Northmen principality of Russia extended from the Lake of Ladoga, immediately began to infest the coasts with their fleets-the south toward the waterfalls of the Dnieper, the lower Don, Saracens pressed upon the Spanish marches; the Basques and the Black Sea. The Grand Duke Swtartoslav advanced (Vasconi) resumed their liberty in the Pyrenees; Brittany victoriously to the foot of Mount Caucasus in 955-972, where was in commotion; the Obotrites and Sorabians crossed he destroyed the empire of the Chlazars, and subdued the Yassi the Elbe; the Bulgarians invaded Avaria. Within all was and Kasachi, nomadic nations of Turkish origin, on tile steppes disorder; poor Louis gave away his domains to the church; of the Kuban. The Russians even conquerecd and occupied the ihe granted herecitazry estates to his counts and envoys, and in city and principality of TM'uTanKAni N-Mote rrcha-on the Thu- his despair he divided his empire among his heartless and am-ican Bosporu^s (as indicated in the mlap), and entered into bitious sons. Soon the civil war broke out in all its fury; the direct relations to the Greeks in the Crinmea. Only somie fev nations denmanded their independence. Charles of France and relies of the defeated Chazars had saved themselves in the Louis of Germany united against their brother Lothaire (Lunortheastern portion of that peninsula, and others had crossed ther) of Italy, the Emperor, and the bloody battle at Fontathe Volga, retreating eastward. The Finnic nations on the north- netzeUni (Fontenay) near Auxerre in Burguncldy, in July, 841, eastern frontier were likewise expelled into the dreary plains decided the separation of the component parts of the Carloof BIAPnMELANn-Permia-o n the shores of the Ganazclcwy — vingian empire. Lothaire was routed, and forced to relinquish the White Sea —or forced to recognize the Russian rule. A his imperial title. In the treaty at Verdun, 843, France, similar fate awvaitecl the LETTIC and IaTIITUANIAN races on the Germ-any, and Italy became distinct kingdoms, but in order to Baltic, and thus had that active people, in the space of one make an equal division, the two allied bhothers ceded to Locentury (fromi 862 to 973), already formed the largest empire in tllaire the whole tract of country lying between the Rhone, Europe. NovGoron-Ne2~czo~'-adl (New-town)-on the north- 1Mloselle, and Scheldt on the west, and the Rhine and Alps on ern bank of the Lake Ihlmen, the first capital of Russia, was the east, that country in which the nationalities were mixed already a thlriving colmmercial town, KIEnW, south on thie right Frmench and Germani, and the possession of which has after

Page  59 FIFTH PERIOD. —FEUDAL KINGDOM OF FRANCE. 59 ward been the cause of so many desolating wars down to our them, they formed in reality so many small independent states, own day. This country, then called MZ/Iiddle FPrancce, now took the owners of which, under the feudal titles of dukes, counts, the name of its sovereign, LOTHERINGHE-RIIKE, Lothcat'ingia, viscounts, barons, or mere seigniors, had now become possessor Lorraine.69 So far, the independence of the different na- ors of territories, which their fathers only held as removable tionalities had been accomplished, yet the divisions between Gau-graftn, or imperial stewards. At the breaking up of the quarrelsome descendants of Charlemagne did not stop the organization of the counties (pagi or g.anZen), the counts there, and shortly afterward, at the death of Charles-le-Gros, becoming hereditary lords, began to exert their influence and A. D. 888, the three kingdoms split into nine states, separated power in uniting as many districts as possible under their by difference of race, language, or dialect. These were, 1, dominion; and while thus rounding off their territories, by marGermanz'y; 2, Lorrainie; 3, Franzce; 4, Bretagne (Brittany); riage, or by the sword, large estates were founded that might 5, Italy; 6, Tr'anzsynjzrane Burgunzdy; 7, Cisj'urane Butrg'undyc; have bid defiance to royalty itself. The Church had of 8, Aqaitctail'c; and 9, the Slpantish Border'. At the time of course followed the examiple of the nobility, and the bishops Otho the Great, one century later, 951-973, Italy and Lor- and abbots, snugly seated in their cities and monasteries, beraine had become united to Germlany; Brittany and Aquitaine came just as warlike, ambitious, and quarrelsome, as the dukes stood in loose feudal relations to France; and only the two and counts themselves.7' Burgundies, united into one kingdom, and the western Spanish 231. The CARLOVINGIAN DOMAINS in 987, were reduced to March, or the kingdom of Navarre, had preserved their auto- the small COMITATUS LAUDUNENSIS, whose capital,.Lauclud-ntuz n nomy. After many extraordinary vicissitudes, the German (Laon), situated on a steep mountain, was the capital of Louis branch of the Carlovingian house became extinct with Louis- the Idler (le faineant). The town of Compctndliuz z (Conthe-Child in 912, and the French with Louis V., the Idler, in pibgne), on the Oise, was his second possession, where he was 987; in the former state followed first duke Conrad of Fran- crowned and buried. conia, until 919, and then the powerful dukes of Saxony; in 232. FEUDAL TERLRTORIES.-XVe shall here make some histhe latter, the most wealthy and intriguing of the Feudatories, torical remarks on the most important, and only give the name Hugh Capet, Count of Paris. of the rest. They were sixty in number, on the accession of Hugh Capet. 2 I. COMITATUS FLANDRIE, which occupied the whole northVIII.-Tui-E KINGDOM OF FRANCE. er1 part of France. BrtCugce (Bruges), Gan~da (Gand), and Aorrebate (Arras), were the most important towns, though still 229. LIMITS orF FRANCE IN 973. —The modern kingdom of in their infancy. France extended, at the period during which we describe the in their infancy... ~~~~~~~~~II. COMITATUS GuiSN:E (Guilnes). III. C. BOLONIr (Bouposition of Europe, from the mouth of the Scheldt south to the city of Barcelona, whose count still recognized his allegiance logne). IV. PONTIVUS (Ponthieu), were allsitua ted along the to France. Eastward, rance was separated by te rivers coast of the Channel. ABBATIS VILLA (Abbeville), was the to France.'~ Eastw:atrd, France was separated by the rivers Scheldt and* Moselle frolm Lotharingia, and by the S1ane and capital of the latter; it had formerly belonged to the rich Ab*Ihone fromn the kingdom of 1Burgundly. bey of St. Richerii. Hugh Capet had taken possession of the Rhone from the kingdom of Burgundy. I 230. PoLITrICAL DIvwsIo\s. —Feudalism had been repressed town, and fortifying it as a strong bulwark against the Normans, by the, strong hand of Charlemagne who administered his he gave the command of it to his brother-in-law, the count of vast empire by his counts, as his judicial officers; they were Ponthieu. 233. V. COMITATUS VERMANDENSIS (Verimandois), South however entirely dependent on the sovereign will of the Agl 233. V.-FCoeItvA s VRMzsta Vermanduois), (Saint peror. But Louis-le-Debonnair and his successors gave away dignities, counties, domains and all; and thus the eleva- Quentin), which gave its own name to the county,c and took that I'~~~~~~~~ of the saint who had died a martyr within its walls; Agnzinan tion of the third royal dynasty in France, that of the Capets, the in 987, marks the epoch during which feudalism, in its full (Amiens), on the Somme. VI. C.-SUESSIOsES (Soisso). power, prevailed throughout that country, and the greater part of central and southern Europe. In France, feudalism seemed (Crdpi), and the fortress, Vacdumz (Vez), the former residence of the counts. at the beginning of the 1 1th century, already upon the point of 234. VIII. —(OMITATUS REITESTINUS (Rethel), east of crushing the royal authority altogether; but many different con-'.cur.ing ses h e s t rongenr Vermandois, contained the whole northern part of the present curring causes-the strong central position of the Capetian domialns, the prudence and longevity of these chiefs, the security of Champagne. IX. —C. REMENIS (Rheims), and Roceji (Roucy), in the centre of Champagne. X.-C. CAMPANIY their hereditary succession, the protection and encouragement (C hampagne). XI.-C SEOENSIS (Sens, west of CM aithey gave to the cities and free communities, and lastly, the crusales, and time co1nstant feuds amotng the nobles themselvefs pagne. 235. XII. —DUCATUS FRtANCI/E (duch8 de France), con1contributed to the slow yet progressive extension of thie royald ae oi prerogative, whicil ultiumately, in the beginning f the 14th prised the whole country between the Loire andl the Seine, century, gained the most signal victory. At the time of the 7' The bishops had obtainecd thle jurisdiction of the ancieint counts, downfall of the Carlovingian line, we mLake a distinction be- or Count Pnlatines, intlhe cities of the emlpirc-; butas they were pmelates, tween the royal domrzains and the Jiefs. Tihe former were the and could not themselves wield tle swold of justice, they rulecl by means immediate possessions under the crown, and they were at that of their military viscount, zeice-coiaes, or bailiff. Thus tile poor citizens, intimme reducecl to a mere trifle, wvhile a considerable numlber of stead of one master, had now got two, who were often quarmelling with olle anothler, and disturbing the tl-anqmuillity of the town with tiheir vieofiefs, more or less important, still belonged to the king. Yet lelt feud. though he was considered the,9zze'raizn, or parlamount lord of 72 The scale of our map did not perlmit ms to fix tlhe names of all the counties, viscounties, and smaller seigniories, but the historical student n' The kingdom of Chlamles the Bald was then called FRANCIcA NOVA will easily be able to follow us on any geographical map of amodeal - WiTest or Veet Francke-lmthe ancient NCeustria and Aquitamnia, and that France. We likewise give both the Latin name then in muse, and the of Louis the Gelmnlan, east of thie Rhine, FRANcra ANTIQUA —Ost or Alt modern French, because we know, flom oum- own experience, how illmFm-aemkem —tthe ancient Austrasia; an appellation which is still preserved portant the medinval denominations are, im order to understand ilnot only inl the Bavarian province of Franconia. the chronicles and documents of tile time, but even the fiequent Latin 70 Borreli, the ninth count of Barcelona, declared himself indepen- citations which we meet with on every page in modern wvorks on French dent sholtly after the accession of Hugh Capet. ihistory.

Page  60 60 FIFTH PERIOD.-KINGDOM OF FRANCE. froml the borders of Normandy and Brittany, to those of Bur- language, arid not being crannmmed with the pedantic Latin of gundy. The duchy contained the above-mentioned counties that period, they boldly took up the vulgar French dialect, of Chanmpagne, and the following: —ComlMTATUS PAreSIS (Paris), which their bards, within a century, raised to the rank of a the most important of all; because the city of Paris, its capital, polished and poetical language. The Norman chroniclers became on the accession of Hugh Capet, again the residence and poets are the fathers of the present French-not of that of the French king. soft andl love-breathing tongue of the tirouladours in southAURELIANUMI (Orl6ans), on the Loire, formeid likewise anl ern France, beyond the Loire-the PE'ovenlacl-which after a important county, dependent on the duchy of France. Smaller short brilliant sway during the age of the crusades, was stopped feudal possessions following its banner, were BELVACUar, in its progress by the terrible religious wars against the Wal(Beauvais), C. CARNUTINUS (Chartres), C. TunoNENSiS (Tours), denses, and soon yielded to the proud Castilian in the southand others. XIII.-C. COrUBOLII (Corbeil), southeast of Paris. west, and the wonderfully developed and harmonious speech of XIV.-C. MELLENTI (Meulan), northeast of Paris. XV.-C. Dante, Petrarch, and Boccace in Italy. It was the Norman poets VUCASSINUS (Vexin), with the capital, Polntesia, (Pontoise), on the -the trouv'res —who, in the znor'the'n FIrench dialect, wrote Oise. The count was the vassal of the archiepiscopal see of the conquest of England and Jerusalem, the deeds of King Arthur Saint Denis, and raised his own banner. and his knights of the round table. They introduced the taste for 236. XVI. DUCATrs NORMAZNNILE (Normandy) extended the romances of chivalry, and the celebrated allegorical tales of along the coast of the Channel, from the river Br'esle on the Alexander the Great, which, with ingenuity and secret flattery, northeastto the Cozesnon on the southwest, and was divided from described the life and deeds of King Philip Augustus of the county of Vexin by the river GIptc, so celebrated by the France, and at last decided the character and structure of our treaty between Charles the Simple and Rolf Ganger, the Nor- modern French. Nor was their political and military influence man hero, in 911, at the town of Saint Clair-sulr-Epte, where- less remarkable than that of their poetry and art; and it is in the whole fertile province was ceded to the Normans. These mainly to the Normans that we must ascribe the brilliant fierce warriors had, during the latter part of the ninth century, success of the French arims in the great crusade in 1099. continued their invasions on the coasts of'France, burning and RoDonIAGUS (Rouen), on the Seine, was the ducal capital. destroying the cities on the banks of the Seine, Loire, and AltcavillZ (Hauteville), in the viscounty of Coutances on the twice besieging Paris itself. But their settlement in Nor- coast, the patrimlonial seat of the noble race of the HIauteville, mandy in 912, was of imlmense consequence for the develop- from whom sprung the world-known Robert Guiscard, Roger, ment, not only of the French kingdom as a power, but for that Drogo, Bohemund, and Tancred —the former, the conquerors of the language and literature of France, and the introduction and founders of the Normnan kingdom of Naples and Sicily, of those chivalrous ideas and manners by which the French, and the two last, the heroes of the first crusade. XVII. Cornlater, outshone all the nations of Europe. Those Danish and TATUS DnocAE (Dreux), southeast of Normandy, at the period Norwegian Vikings were, by the effeminate Carlovingian we describe, occupied by Duke Richard I. XVIII. and XIX., Princes, considered as unwieldy barbarians; but they appear, C. ALENCIONIS (Alencon), and C. BELLISMUTM (Bellesme), south on the contrary, to have been a highly endowed race of men, of Normandy, possessed by lords who followed the ducal who, by their intelligence, daring courage, activity, and perse- banner of Normandy. verance in every enterprise, were the true prototypes of 237. CorMITATus BRlTANNLI (Bretagne) occupied the whole their still more successful descendants, the Americans. The ancient peninsula of Armorica, whose count often appears as Normans took up the plough as nimbly as the sword. The vassal of the Dukes of Normandy..Redones (Rennes) was fertile lands of Normandy were divided by the line among the the capital. The Bretons were of British origin; they spoke conquerors, who became the lords of towns and hamlets, and their own Celtic language, and hated the French, as their thus the native serfs changed masters; but from a wilderness brethren beyond the water their Anglo-Saxon oppressors. They the country within twenty years became the garden of France. were a brave and quarrelsome people, and gave the Dukes of It suddenly rose to wealth and civilization, being peopled by Normandy continual trouble, until Duke William I. brought thousands of Normans from Denmark and Norway, who con- them to allegiance with the broadsword. XXI. DoMINIuMI FULtinued to pour in and settle on the coast-lands of Bayeux and GERIE (Fougieres), northeast of Brittany. Coutances, where their language, the Danish tongue-Danske 238. XXII. COMITATUS CENOMANIIE (Maine), capital JIaiatTnge —predominated for centuries, and is still distinguished tzum (le Mans). XXIII. C. ANDEGAVENSIS (Anjou), capital in many words of the Normanic dialect of the present day.73 Anzlegavi (Angers), on the Loire. XXIV. C. VINDOCINENThe wild, fantastic religion of Odin; the adventurous life of sis (Vend6me), at the time possessed by the Count of Anjou. the sea-rovers; their sudden conversion to the Roman Catholic XXV. C. BLESEN-SIS (Blois). XXVI. VIcE-COwIITATUS faith, with its pomp and solemnity-all combined, gave a cer- BITURRICX (Bourges) consisted of the city of that name, the tain religious and romantic turn to their character, their ideas, capital of Berry, with its territory and the Abbey of Scainzt and manners, which we discover in their chivalrous institutions, Gonlom-su',?Loire. XXVII. DOMINIUMr BOBoRONENSE, (Seigatheir literature, and arts. Every church built by the Normans iory of Bourbon) southeast of Berry, with the capital Boar'bon, in France or Italy bears evidence of their fanciful taste for called Archamlbaud, after the lords who ruled this region for dragons, monsters, and supernatural beings.74 The Normlan several centuries. knights mnarrying native Frenchwomen, soon forgot their native 239. XXVIII. DUCATUS BUPRGUNDL,, cdifferent froml the kingdom of that name, or of Arelate, which latter lay south be=' The Norlmnians ale still the best lmariners of France, and allir tween the Rhoe and theilps. The dhy bordered north on most distinguished Admirals welre of Norman descent. We discern, Champagne and France, east on Lorraine and the kingdom of likewise, this Scandinavian influence in the naval expressions of the Arelate, south on the Sa6ne, and west beyond the Loire on French language, such as, for instance: essif, bolines, rlins, gard- Bourbonnois and Nivernois. Burgundy was held by Henry the inshes, ibaler, sigler, stesnass, and many others-all of Danish origin. Great as a fief of the French crown; he obtained it afterwards 74 The most curious Norman monumemt of those times is the immense in full property from his brother, Hugh Capet, when the latter tapestry in the Church of Bayeus, two hundred and foulrteen English feet in length, which represents the expedition of William the Conqueror workmanship. It was embroidered by the fair hands of Queen Mathilca to England, the battle of Hastings, and other military exploits, exhi- and her court ladies, and nlust have given the industrious wolllen ccibiting the alrmature and costumes of the eleventh century in a beautiful pation for years.

Page  61 FIFTH PERIOD.-FEUDAL FRANCE —BURGUNDY. 61 mounted the throne of France in 987. DIVIONA (Dijon), on I the high valleys of the Pyrenean mountains, with the capital the Ouche, was then the capital of the duchy; but the princes Ta4'bes on the Adour. XLIX. C. CONVENIE (Cominges), east generally resided in the castle of Poulli, on the Sa6ne. Fon- of Bigorre, with the capital St. Bert'andi (Saint Bertrand). tcancttnns (Fontenay), west near the river Icauna (Yonne), 243. L. COMITATUS TOLOS,]: (Toulouse), east of Guyenne, where, on the 25th of June 841, was fought the bloody battle with which it held the first rank in southern France, comprisbetween the sons of Louis le Debonnair, which cost the empire ing besides, 1, the COMITAT. CAorcJNI (Quercy), north of the thousands of brave warriors, and decided its final dismenmber- Garonne, with Caorciumt (Cahors), on the river Oltus (Lot)' ment. Autstunum, the ancient Augustodunum (Autun). Au- 2, V. C. ALrINGENSIS (Albigeois), with the capital Albigce tissiodorum (Auxerre), with splendid ruins from the Roman (Alby), on the Tarzzus (Tarn); and 3, the COmIITAT. SANCTI times. The PALATINATUS BUPrGUNDIE (county of Burgundy, LEGIDII (Saint Gilles), at the mouth of the Rhone. This afterwards the Frcanche Contted) formed at this period part of small county belonged properly to the county of Nen7auszus the Arelate kingdom, and was divided among several counts, (Nimes), and had its name from the old Abbey of that name, whose feudal territories cannot be given in detail. XXIX. situated on the banks of the Rhone. LI. COMITATUS RODECOMITATUS TERNODOnrENSIS (Tonnebre), northwest of Burgundy. NENSIS (Rovergue), east of Quercy, belonged to the younger XXX. COMITATUS NIVERNENSIS (Nevers), on the east of the house of the counts of Toulouse. The capital was Rodes (Roduchy. XXXI. C. CA4mLoNEnsIs (Chalons), southeast on the dclz), on the Aveyron; LII. DOMINIUM MONTIS PEssuLANI Saone. XXXII. C. MATIscENSIS (Macon), south of the for- (Seigniory of Montpellier). LIII. C. MELGORII (Mergueil), mer, on the Saole, on the frontier of the Arelate kingdom. eastof Montpellier. LIV. V. C. NArBONENSIS (Narbonne). LV. In the territory of this count, Willianm the Pins, Count of C. CArncAssEssI (Carcassonne), west of the former, and then in Auvergne and Aquitaine, founded in A. D. 910 the celebrated possession of COMITATUS Fuxi (Foix), south in the valleys of the monastery of Cluni- Clzuniacenzse qzonzaste riuzm-in a beauti- Pyrenees. LVI. C. ROSSILLONENSIS (Rousillon), southeast of ful valley on the river Graona (Grbne). As he dedicated it Carcassonne. The capital was Elzna (Elne), and afterwards to the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, the Abbey was Perinziaun)um (Perpignan). placed under the immediate dependence of the Roman Pontiff. 244. LVII. COMITATUS BARCINONiE (Barcelona), or the 240. XXXIII. CoMITATus ALVERNI2E (Auvergne), west Spanish Border-County, which still belonged nominally to of the Rhone, and south of Bourbonnois, in the higl mlloun- France, from the time of the conquest of Charlemagne (184), tains. Clarus l3/Ios-the celebrated Gergovia of Julius Cm- but soon declared itself independent. Later, it played a brilsar (now Clermont), on a splendid site at the foot of Mount liant part in history under the sway of its warlike counts, who Puy de Dome, was the capital. XXXIV. V. C. LEMOVICEN- in the year 1137, by the marriage of Count Raymond BerensIs (Viscounty of Limoges), which embraced the Haut-Limo- gario IV. united Barcelona with the kingdom of Aragon. LVIII. sin on the north; and XXXV. V. C. TORENN Y (Turenne) on C. AMPURITANENSIS (Ampurias), in the passes of the Pyrenees. the south, both west of the Auvergnian Mountains. XXXVI. LIX. C. CEREDANI2E (Cerdagne), and C. BISULnENsIS (B6zaCOMITATUS MARCHELE (county of the Basse l/ariche, or the low- lu), west of Ampurias, onl the southern slope of the mountains, land county of Limosin) westward, with the capital Bell/ac onl and LX. COMITATUS URGELLENSIS (Urgel), in the deep valley the Gartempe River. XXXVII. C. VArACTENSIS (county of of Andorra. the Uzaute l]Iafache or highland march), east of the former, on 245. With the accession of the third race-the Capetians the western slope of the mountains, with VaC'wactu)nz (Gueret) or Capetingians-in 987, the history of the Franz/s is at an for its capital. At the time we describe, this county was end, and that of the IFrench begins. The Germanic elements united to C. PETrAGoRIS (Perigord), with the capital Petr'ago- in the former have been entirely absorbed in the Romanic lan9'a (Perigueux) on the Ille (Isle). Lying on the southwest, guage, character, and habits of the latter. Yet the Aquitatoward the Garonne, WPrigord was separated from the hill nianlls, south of the Loire, and the Burgundians on the Rhone, county by the Basse Marche. XXXVIII. C. ENCOLISMBENSIS still preserve their distinct nationalities. Burgundy had al(Angouleme) northwest of Perigord. XXXIX. C. PICTAVEN- ready, a century ago (888), formed an independent kingdomSIS (Poitiers), north of the Angoumois, was at that period pos- and the feudal bonds by which Aquitaine is still attached to sessed by William II., Duke of Aquitaine. France are so slight, that when Hugh Capet, in 990, with his 241. XL. DUCATUS AQUITANIYE] (Aquitaine or Guyenne), feudal army advanced upon Tours on the Loire, then besieged south of P6rigord and Limosin, and to which belonged then, by Count Aldebert of Perigueux, and sending his heralds, not only the county of Poitiers, the COTMITATUS XANTONENsIs asked the Aquitanian, " TV/ho qnacle thee count? "-he received (Saintonge), and ALNETENSIS (Aunix), on the coast of the At- the proud answer: " Who mnade th.ee ing? " 75 Thus we lantic, but also the greater part of Limosin. Burldigalct find France at the close of the 10th century ruled by sixty (Bordeaux), on the Garonne, was the largest and most flourish- almost independent princes, and a still greater number of powing city of Guyenne, but it belonged in 987, with its county, erful prelates, who considerecl Duke Hugh Capet of Paris their to the clduchy of Gascogne. chosen king, only as a }n-'incus intcer p2aoes, yet we shall soon, 242. XLI. DUCATUS GUASCONIxI (Gascogne), south of Guy- in our nexst historical picture, at the close of the sabsecquent enne. —El/sa (Auch) the principal city, capital of XLII., the century, discover with what prudence and perseverance the Co2nitatus Ar'nmaniaci (Armagnac), in a central position, and Capetian kings have employed their household power for the the most important county of Gascogne. XLIII. v. C. extension of their territory and the consolidation of their hlefAqlensis (Albret), on the coast of the Gulf of Biscay, with the reditary dynasty on the throne of France. capital Aquce (Dax) on the river Atzuris (Adour). XLIV. C. Fidentiaci (Fezenzac), east of Armagnac. XLV. V. C. Leol XF. —KI:cNDOM oF BUREGUNI)Y (AR~ELATE). zmaniac (Lomagne), with V. C. Lectorce (Lectoure), northeast of Fezenzac, on the Garonne. XLVI. C. ASTARACI (Astrac), 246. ORIGIN, EXTENT, AND PRINCIPAL CITIES.-Duliln with the capital Mirande. The count possessed likewise the the disturbances which followed in France on the death of neighboring COMITAT. PARlDIACI (Pardiac). XLVII. V. C. Louis the Staulmerer (son of Charles the Bald), in 879, the BENEARINE (Viscounty of Bearn), south at the base of the Pyrenees, with the capital Pchnt (Pau), on the river Gavac 7 See the important work of Augustin Thierry: Lettres sur l'His(Gave). XLVIII. C. BlGoRRA (Bigorre), east of Bearn, in toirel de France. Lettre Xli., page 220, of the Bruxelles edition.

Page  62 62 FIFTH PLERIOID.-BURGUNDY- ROMANO-GERMAINIC EMPIRE. intelligent and active iDuke Boson, his brother-in-law and gov- possession of Rome, the imperial capital of the west, received ernor in Burgundy, was unanimously elected king by the the proud name of the,Sacrcld RB-oman Elmpire of the Germzan Burgundian diet at MIontaille, and took the crown at Lyons. NatioTn —(dcas heiqige RcP Wvische Reich DeutschlenT Volkes.) The young kingdom —Reqgnuinr Bzurgtu-di-li-comprised at During the middle ages it preserved its preponderating influthat time a portion of the French duchy of Burgundy (Chalon ence on the political relations of Europe; and it was considered and Macon), the Franche-Comnlt, Vienne and Lyons, the as the principal empire in the world, a rank which, however, southeast part of Languedoc west of the Rhone and the Pro- was disputed by the Byzantine emperors of the east. It ocvence. Arelate (Arles) became the capital, and gave it the cupied the whole central part of Europe, from the banks of name ]Reg'2 um Arelate. Burgundy was recognized by King the Scheldt, and the Meuse, and from the Alps and the MediCharles the Simple of France as an independent state, but after terranean on the west, to the Vistula, and even far beyond the death of King Boson, in 887, Count Rudolphus, his gov- that river, to the Bug, the Carpathian mountains, and the ernor of the provinces beyond Mount Jura, in High Burgundy Adriatic on the east. On the north, Germany extended from (Switzerland), rebelled against his son and successor, Louis, the Schley, near the Dannevirke (190), north of the Eider, to and established another kingdom in Wallis and Savoy. Bur- the Gulf of Tarentum and the Tuscan Sea in the south. After gundy was thus split in two-Burgundia Transjurana and the battle of Fontenay and the treaty of Verdun, in 843 (162), Cisjurana (219)-which, however, after different revolutions, the nations had broken the chains which linked them to the were united again under Rudolphus II., in 933. But being at- unwieldy Carlovingian Empire. The west Franks had become tacked by France, Rudolphus III. transmitted the succession of Frenchmen —Prangais; the east Franks, Germans —Deutsche; his crown to the Emperor Henry II. of Germany; the imperial whose five leading tribes, the Saxons, Thuringians, Frankoforces took possession of the county in 1032, and then Bur- nians, Suabians, and Bavarians, at once appear in their disgundy remained in feudal relations to Germany for two and a tinct national development, and with the extinction of the half centuries. Charles IV. is the last emperor who was German branch of the Carlovingian dynasty in 911, the hiscrowned king of Arelate in 1364, and proudly called Mar- tory of the Germtan, Ncation begins. Charlemagne had colnseilles and Toulon his Ger-man p2orts. Yet the whole was a centrated the whole government of the different German tribes mere ceremony. Provence had long ago been united to Ara- under his powerful rule, by the abolition of the ducal dignity, gon. (1166), and to France (1245), and the latter power succes- and the strict dependency of his imperial officers, the counts sively incorporated the small, almost independent states into of thepagi (gaug~'rafen), and the envoys, (nzissi clominici),who which the Arelate kingdom, in the course of time, had become controlled them (170). But after his death, the invasion of divided. the frontiers was begun by Danes, Hungarians, Sclavi and SaraThe Burgundian kings were elective, and entirely dependent cens; his weak successors were unable, like the great emperor on the nobility and clergy; their revenues were insignificant, himself, to fly from one end of the empire to another, to repel and they could only secure their equivocal position by enrich- the enemy; they therefore placed border counts —margrcaves ing the church, and distributing their royal domains among -with ducal powers, at the head of the armies: soon the jucounts and cavaliers. The kingdom of Burgundy extended risdiction of the provinces passed into their hands too; and from the Sa6ne and the Rhone on the west, to the Alps on the during the reign of the last Carlovingians, towards the close east, and from Basle on the Rhine to the Mediterranean. It of the ninth century, we find that these warriors reappear as was divided into HIGH BURGUNDY or TRANSJURANUE BURGUNDY dukes of Saxony, Thuringia, Franconia, Bavaria, Souabia, and -comprising Western Switzerlacnd, the Aarg'au, Oechtlanzd, Lorraine. They were not yet, it is true, regarded as lords of Valais, le Pcays-de- Tcaucl and the county of Genzeva, together their people and lands, but as ministers and representatives of with the Franclwhe Comtd, and part of the Duchy of Barguncly their king, in whose name they regulated, in peace the affairs - and ARELATE or CISJURANE BuRGuNDY, with Sacpanzcdia of justice and order, and in war, led the army of their tribe to (Savoy), Coinitatus Lug(dunensis, and Prqovence. LYoNs was battle. But soon becoming large landed proprietors, and beceded in 955 by King Louis IV., as a dower for his daughter, ing no longer under the surveillance of the royal envoys, the who married Conrad, third king of Burgundy, and was for dukes took advantage of the weakness of the kings. By desome time his capital. Besanvon, Geneva, Lausanne, Gre- grees they arrogated to themselves an increase of power, and noble, Valence, Avig'nonz, Emnbrzn, For'calquier, Aix, and brought the lesser vassals under their donminion;-nay, they MZVarseille. VIENNE (122), was the capital of a county under even gradually made their dig'nity, granted them only as imnthe allegiance of France. The origin of the celebrated house perial crown officers, heerelitary in their families, as well as of SAvoY is from this time. Their oldest possessions were the revenues of the crown lands, which they had only received on the lakes of Annecy and Geneva, and in the Lower Valais, as the reward for their service. Like the great dukes, the infrom Saint lIfzaerice to the castle of Chillon, situate on the lake. ferior imperial officers, the counts, palatines, margraves, and Afterward Count Odo married Adelaide, heiress of the mar- others, established themselves more and more firmly in thleir quisate of IPoREnmA (Ivrea). From these parents Amadeus dignities, and the estates attached to their jurisdictions. The inherited, together with Savoy, the valley of AosTA, the plain whole ancient division of districts —gauenz-and the principles of PIE-DI-MONTE (Piedmont), and a number of fortresses on which they were founded, fell gradually into decay, and reaching to the Mediterranean. the lands became seigneurial territories. The spirituallords, archbishops, bishops, and abbots, were like the temporal lords, members and vassals of the empire, and like them, they augX. THE ROMANO-GERMAINIC NEMPIRE. mented their secular power and possessions by means of military tenures; and thus all these dignitaries became in the 247. FRONTIERS, EXTENT, CHANGE OF DYNASTY AND course of the tenth century, from mere deputies of royal auCoNsTITuTIoN. -The entire eastern moiety of the Carlovingian thority, independent princes of the German nation. The anempire, with Lotharingia, Bohemia, Moravia, the eastern cient military organization of Charlemagne, was the arrieremarches on the I)anube,theSclavonian states east of the Elbe, ban-heer-b6ann —the gathering of the freemen, who, with the duchy of Poland, and the kingdom of Italy, was, during shield and lance followed the emperor on his expeditions for the memorable reign of Otho the Great (936-973), formed the short term of six months. But in the succeeding wars into the Romano-Germnanic Empire, which, on account of the with the Hungarians and Poles, victory could only be secured

Page  63 FIFTH PERIOD.-ROMANO-GERMANIC EMPIRE. 63 by a skilful and daring cavalry. Knights' service on horse- of Otho the Great in 959. Lorraine was then divided into two back, in full armor, was therefore required from the nobility dukedoms: DUCATUS LOTHERINGIUE INFERaIOlIS —R/iGUaCF' iaiand their vassals; the chivalrous spirit of the age prompted or lower Lorraine, on the Z/ieuse (Maas) and the sea-coast, and the larger proprietor to take his estate as a fief of the nobility, DUCATUS LOTHErINGI2E SUPEIORnIS —llIosellance-or upper and become their liegeman. Thus arose the Ritte'rschaft — Lorraine, on the Mloselle, and extending eastward to the mounthe order of the knights-while the common freeman being tain range of the Vosges. The two duchies were divided by exempted from his military duty in the arlrie'e-ban, and for- the celebrated forest of the Ardennes or Silva Arduzennca; bidden the use of sword and lance, was oppressed with contri- and the political separation by Otho dissolved the alliance butions and taxes, and sunk back into the despised condition of their nobility, thus securing these important provinces to the of the peasant and the serf. In the wild times of thefist law, empire. AQUiE or Aix-la- Chaipelle, where Charlemagne died the poorer class of freemen called lids —leute —gave them- in 814, and Otho I. was crowned in 936 with great solemselves up, both in body and possessions, to the guardianship nity, continued to be considered as the capital of the emof the church, or as tenants to the nobles, and thus they and pire. Colo..ne, thie archiepiscopal seat of Bruno, the emperor's their descendants became bound to the soil, and the property brother. Leuva (Louvain), on the Tilia (Dyle), where the of their lord. The rude manners of the Germans were how- Normans, during their devastating incursions, had erected a ever softened by the early dawn of chivalry. Arms, and the fortified camp, but were totally defeated by the valiant King chase remained their favorite occupations; the sword and the Arnulfin 889. Those invincible Panes, who never had been falcon their best treasures. Tournaments and jousts were in- known to fly before an enemy, were here borne down by the troduced by Henry the Fowler, to exercise his German knight- edge of the sword; their camp and fleet with immense booty hood for the equestrian warfare against the Hungarians. The were taken, and the joyful event spread like wildfire throughhunting f6tes of the German nobility were superb, and in- out all Germany. METTlS (Metz), on the Moselle, was the caeluded among the highest festivities of life. Ladies, from Ipital of upper Lorraine. TZllurt (Toul), ITiinodonuzt (Vergorgeously ornamented tents, beheld the animated scenes of dum), Conjnleentes (Coblentz), on the Rhine, and Treviris the chase. In the evening, they feasted under tents in the (Trives), on the Moselle, were flourishing cities. LUCELINforest, and the jovial company, with their suites, returned by BunRG or Luzfilinbu)'rc (Luxemburg), a strong fortress on the torchlight, amidst the music of the hunting horns. Large Alsuntia (Alzette), was ceded by the monks of Treves to tracts of land were left waste for the sake of the chase, and Count Sigfried, who was the first of the powerful Counts of kings and nobles preferred on this account the residence in Luxemburg, that later mounted the imperial throne of Gertheir castles, and despised the quiet dwelling in cities. We many. have spoken of the flourishing cities on the Rhine (71, 163); II. DUCATUS FPESrIE (Holland and Friesland) extended in the interior of Germany the rise of fortified towns com- from the north of the Weser along the shore to the Scheldt. menced during the Hungarian wars, in the beginning of the The Counts of Holtlandia possessed the low coast-land of motenth century. In order to protect the open country against dern Holland. Ult'ajecttrn (Utrecht) and Dcvent-'e (Derthe desolating incursions of the Hungarian hordes, Henry the venter) were the principal towns. Fowler built a number of castles, or bur'g/hs, to serve as 249. III. DUCATUS SAxoNIY, on the east of Friesland, places of refuge for the inhabitants of the environs. Merse- was, in the tenth century, the most powerful and important burg, Meissen, Dresden, Nordhausen, Quedcllingburg, and state of Germany. The unruly, heathen Saxons, whom many other fortified cities and castles in Saxony and Thurin- Charlemagne had converted to Christianity and civilization gia, arose at this time. The citizens-buzrg'hers —were en- by the sword, had in the course of the ninth century, bedowed with privileges; they formed free municipalities, ex- come the bravest and most cultivated people in Germany, who, empt from the jurisdiction of the bishops or secular nobility, under the native chiefs, King Henry the Fowler, and his great and became the safeguards of social and political liberty in son, Otho I. of Saxony, delivered Germany from the insupportGermany. After the extinction of the German branch of the able yoke of the Hungarians, and united the imperial crown of Carlovingian dynasty, with Louis the Child, in 911, Conrad, Italy to that of the mother country. The duchy extended from duke of Franconia, was chosen king. Though he found great Friesland to the Oder, and north from Schleswig to the Thuopposition among the unruly dukes of the different German ringian mountain ridge on the south. All the lands eastward principalities, he bravely defended the country against the HuInn- of the Elbe were conquests from the Sclavonian tribes of the garians, secured the possession of Lorraine beyond the Rhine, Viltzes, Sorabi, and Daleminzii, on the Limzes Sorabicns, which and on his death, in 919, proposed Henry, duke of Saxony, now became the Ostaq'lrk or eastern frontier, strongly protectas the mnost worthy chief to succeed him on the throne. The ed by castles and border-settlers. Osneb-rugge (Osnabruck), Saxon house then followed, from 919 to 1024, under Henry I. Padacabr'anna (Paderborn), Al~idnster, Goslac', HlilclesheiMz, (the Fowler), thie three Othos, andl Ienry II., one of the most all cities with cathedral churches. l/Iagacdebur'g (Magdeburg), brilliant periods in Germanl history. on the Elbe, became an archbishopric under Otho. Quidilin248. DIvIsioNs AND PRINCIrAL CiTIEs.-Tihe Ronmano- g'abug (Quedlinburg), built by H-enry I. The remains of tihe Germanic empire, though apparently so vast in extent, waas in great king lie buried in the Church of Saint Peter. /lfInmlebez, reality not very powerful, because composed of many scat- where he died on the 2d of July, 936. M/erIsebz7arg, where he tered nations —Germnans, Selavonians, and Italians, who clif- gained the celebrated victory over the Hungarians, in whose ered firom one another in origin, manners, language, and camp thousands of Germanprisoners, womeln and children,were laws, and were governed by turbulent dukes and arrogant pre- liberated from the most terrible fate, and Germany secured against lates, who were continually in arms against the emperors. We the yearly invasions of those barbarians. This memorable battle shall here give a short description of the nine great subdivi- took place in 933. Near Gosla'r, at the base of the Ilartes-Berg sions of the empire during the reign of Otho the Great. (Mount Hartz), the richest silver mines in Europe were discoI. The kingdom of LOTHru INmaI or Lorr'aine, on the north- verecl during the reign of Otho, and worked to the great prospewest, between the Scheldt, the Meuse, and the Rhine, formed rity of Saxony. Hatt? zaburC'g'umZ (Hamburg), on the Elbe, and a portion of Germany; but its position on the frontiers of B~rena (Bremen), on the Weser, both archbishoprics, which France made it easy for the nobles to maintain a state of al- sent their missionaries into the north for the conversion of the most entire inclependence, which continued until the conquest heathen Scandclinavians. ll/Icarea SliaszwykA was the border dis.

Page  64 64 FIFTH PERIOD. —ROMANO-GERIMANIC EMPIRE. trict beyond the Eider, which Henry I. established as a bul- of the Franks, and remained henceforth nnited to the Gerlmanic wark against the incursions of the Danes from beyond their Empire. German missionaries spread the light of Christianity fortified lines-the Danevirke-between the frith of the Sehlei among the Czekhs, and in the year 972 an archbishopric was and the North Eider (222). THURINGIA, in the south, was erected in Prague, which exerted its beneficial influence over during thisperiod united with the duchy of Saxony. the eastern provinces of the empire. Pr''cga (Prague), the capIV. DUC2rTUS FRANCONIjlI consisted of the ancient Frankish ital of Bohemia, on a magnificent site on the Moldau, became lands on the central Rhine, Hassia, the country west of the soon a populous and thriving city. Olomuc (Olmintz), in MoThiiringer-wald, and extended east to Bohemia-; it was divided ravia, was the strong border fortress against the Hungarians. into Frantcia uhetenensis, on both sides of that river, and VIII. IDUCATUS POLONIIE, north of Bohemia, stood only in Francia Orientalis, at the foot of the Fichtel-gebirge, on thle more distant feudal relations to Germany. The Ljcachs or Poupper Mayn. In Franconia the duceal title appeared later, be- lani (107), the present brave and cruelly down-trodden Poles, cause the country, as long as the kings continued of the formed early a large number of small principalities on -the Carlovingian family, was considered as kin2zg's lanzcl; it was, extensive and fertile plains of the Vistula and the Oder., however, administered by powerful counts; and the celebrated The licastri, Wislctnti, l'Mielzunzani, and other Ljcechislh families of the Babenbergers in eastern Franconia, and the COn1- tribes, terminated their internal feuds in' the year 842, and radinians at Worms on the Rhine, divided the power, until chose a Nvirtuous freeholder by the name of Piast for their duke. they broke out into a deadly dispute and fight, in which the During the reign of his descendants, the Piasts, Christianity Babenbergers were completely defeated. Count Conrad soon was introduced into Poland by Greek missionaries from Conafterwards in 911 mounted the throne as Conrad I., and pos- stantinople. Duke Mieezislav dismissed his seven heathen sessed the cluchy with full ducal power; and his brother and wives, was converted, baptized, and married the Bohemian successor, Eberhard, obtained the ducal dignity firom Henry I. princess, Dombrowka; many nobles followed the example of of Saxony. Large ecclesiastic territories included in Fran- their dclke and the erection of the episcopal see of Posen in conia, were the following: The archbishopric of Mainz, the 970 soon gained the victory against the Greeks, and brought bishoprics of Wartzburg, Bamlberg, Wornms, Spire, and the Poland back to the allegiance of the iRoman Pontiff. At that wealthy and powerful abbeys of Fulda and Lorch. Trinun, time Otho I., at the head of his feudal army, appeared on the on the Rhine, celebrated for the frequent diets of the empire Vistula, and the timid Mieczislav did homage to the Emperor, held there. MAGoNTIlX-Mainz-(Mayence), on the junction paid yearly tribute, and followed the imperial banner with his of the PMayn and the Rhine. Franconovu?'t (Frankfort), on Polish cavalry. Yet the Poles were too powerful and too the Mayn. Wi'cibuZrg' (Wartzburg), on the upper Mayn. Ba- warlike a people to remain under the yoke of the haughty Gerbenbeqg (Bamberg), on the Regnitz. man border-counts, and already the son of Mieezislav, Boles250. V. DUCATUS ALEMANNIzE (Souabia), south of Fran- lav the Brave (Chrobry), restored, in 1 000, the independence conia, eumbraced the present Baden, Woirtemberg, and eastern of his country, and took the royal crown. The Poles were a Switzerland, the Aargau, Ziiriegau, and Turgau. In Souabia, handsome, active, sincere, and valiant people. The farmerswhere the defence of the frontiers was not so necessary, the km?cetons —servecl on foot with lance and shield; the richer producal dignity was but gradually acquired through the power of prietors-sziachzie-appeared on horseback in full armor, and the in2)mpeial envoys (167, 170), and developed itself later. Con- formed thle strength of the feudal army of Poland-p2osjpolite rad I. made the brave warrior, Burchard, Duke of Souabia. runsczien. Otho and his German knights were astonished at the Augstbzur.g (Augsburg), on the Lech. It was south of this city, imlnense wealth and abundance they discovered all over the on the Lech field, where Otho I., with his Germans divided country; and learned that the commerce between the Baltic and into eight squadrons, surrounded and totally defeated the the Black Sea and Constantinople, at that time passed mostly Hungarians, thousands of whom found their grave in the river, on the commercial roads through Poland, who protected the A. D. 955. merchants and contributed her own active part in the general VI. DucATUs BAVARIIE, southeast of Souabia, was bordered traffic by her grains, furs, cattle, and excellent horses. The west by the rivers Lech and Ratezna (Regnitz), and east by government was still patriarchal; and the life of kings and the BOhmter'-wal(l and the river Anisus (Ens); north it touched cavaliers divided between agricultural pursuits, the chase of the Thuringian mountains, and south the high chain of the the urns and bear, or equestrian forays against the Russians. Alps. Bavaria was one of the oldest duchies of Germany, and LusAcIA (Lausitz), on the Elbe, and the duchies of SILESIA we have already seen how her duke, Thassilon, of the ancient and POMErAlNIA were provinces of Poland. WtI5aslaw (Bresrace of the Agitolfingi, by his alliance with the Avars, excited lau), on the Oder; Cr'atkow on the Vistula; Posen, Plotzlk, the anger of Charlemlagne, and lost his duchy at the diet of and Gniesno (Gnesen), were the principal cities. Otho III. Ingelheim in 788 (177). Bavaria became then, like the other established an archbishopric in the latter city in the year 1000. Franlkish countries, ruled by imperial counts. But her eastern 251. IX. REcONUT ITAIIE. - Charllemallgle was crownled frontiers were so much exposed to tile incursions of the Sclavoni- Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, in St. Peter's, in the year ans from Bohemia, and the Hungarians f'oml Pannonia, that 800, andcl he governed Italy, with his other vast states, forty the dueal dignity was restorecd as early as 901, and her firontiers years establishing the reign of the laws and a flourishing civiliwere even extended by placing the whole clduclly of Cai izlthia zationl. Eight kings of the Carlovingian dynasty ruled in Italy (Kairnthen), and the l/Ia'cace Orienztalis (Osterichi or modern but when Charles-le-Gros was deposed in 888, Italian or BurAustria), under the control and protection of the Duke of Ba- gundian princes disputecl for seventy years the crown of Italy varia. RATISBONA-S-Reg'anesb~'rg (now Regensburg), Pazza- and the imperial title. Powerful feudatories arose on the wzc (Passau), and Anisipz-rg (Ens), on the Danube. &Sclzlum.t, downfall of the royal authority. These were the clldukes of in the beautiful plain on the Salza, was, by (Char!emagne, Spoleto andl Tuscany, the marquises (margraves) of Ivrea, Susa, erected into an archbishopric over all Bavaria. and Friuli. The great Lombard duchy of B13enevento, which VII. I)ucATrs BOuEmuII, northeast of Bavalria, comprised had only rendered feudal homage to Charlemagne, a':d cointhe eastern frontier province of Moravia, and estended to the prised more than half the present kingdom of Naples, had now Carpathian mountains. The Bohemians were Selavonians be- fallen into decay, andc split into the small principalities of Canlonging to the tribe of the Czekho-Slovak;s (107), who, in the pua, Salerno, and Gaeta. Berengar, the marquis of Friuli, times of Charlelmagne, voluntarily recognized the supremacy reigned for thirty-six years, but with continually disputed pre

Page  65 FIFTH PERIOD.-LOMBARDY-ROME —SOUTHERN ITALY. 65 tensions. The calamities of Italy were then aggravated by 9Spoleto, Perugzia, and a part of the ancient Exacrchate on the foreign invasions. The Hungarians pouring in through the de- coast of the Adriatic. Rome had still preserved her municifiles of the Julian Alps, devastated Lonibardy; the Saracens, pal government, with all the august but idle titles of antithen masters of Sicily (fromp 826), infested the southern coasts quity. She extended at that time already beyond the Tiber, and settled on Mount Gargano, at Lucera in the Apulian Pope Leo IV. having, in 849, built and fortified the Civitas plain, and on the Gulf of Tarento. Plunged in an abyss from Leonizna, around the cathedral of Saint Peter on the Vatican which her wrangling native princes could not save her, Italy Hill, in order to protect the sanctuary of the apostle against sought her salvation in the sword of the Saxon Otho the Great. the piratical expeditions of the Saracens.67 During the tenth It is a well-known fact that it was the tears of a beautiful century the august capital of the world became the prey to the woman, Adelheid of Burgundy, then besieged in the castle of most violent dissensions between the contending nobles of Canossa, on Mount Apennine, by the revengeful Berengar, Spoleto and Tusculum. The papal chair was obtained by open whiich determined the chivalrous German king to cross the bribery, by violence and assassination, and the meretricious inAlps in 951, to win his lovely bride and the imperial crown of fluence of the beautiful countess Theodora, and her still more Italy; an event of the utmost importance, because it henceforth dangerous daughter Mariuccia, who both swayed pope, predrew the almost entire attention of the German kings to the lates, church and all —gave rise to the singular tale about affairs of Italy, and hindered them fromn consolidating their afeazcle Pope —the Popess Joan X., about 930! Consul power in their native country. The German army found no Crescentius, a noble patriot, attempted to restore the ancient opposition south of the Alps. Berengar II., the sovereign of Roman republic, but Otho III. descended into Italy, stormed Italy, submitted, and when he later attempted to raise the the castle of Sant Angelo, and the Roman hero perished as a banner of independence again, Otho descended from the Alps martyr for Italian independence, in 998. How forcibly do a second time, deposed the Italian prince, and received the these remote events remind us of those of our present day! imperial crown at the hands of Pope John XII., in 961, in Rome in her ruins was still the most beautiful city in the Rome, and the iron crown of Lombardy the following year in western world, and the young emperor, in his enthusiasm for Milan. The greater part of Italy recognized the German su- southern civilization, resolved already to make her again the premacy; only the Greeks sustained themselves in the south. capital of.his modern Rolman empire, when he, in 1002, fell Otho sent the bishop Luitprand to Constantinople, to obtain the the victim of his attachment to Stephania, the injured widow cession of the Greek territories from the Emperor Nicephorus; of Crescentius. and when the embassy proved unsuccessful, he entered in 969 the Greek provinces sword in hand. But a revolution at the The sword of the German emperors did not reach into imperial court of Constantinople restored the friendly relations Southern Italy. The Greeks having united with the Saracens between the two empires. The Greek princess, Theophania, fromll Sicily, defeated Otho II. near Basentello, on the gulf of gave her hand to young Prince Otho, the successor of his Tarento, in 981; the German army was cut to pieces, and the father, Otho I., who died immediately after his return to Ger- German emperor himself escaped only by half a miracle. In many in 973. the course of time, the Greek cities of Naples, Amzafi, and 252. DIVISION AND CITIES OF ITALY IN 973. —In the Gaeta, succeeded in the same manner as Venice, in detachnorth, the marclquisate of M1ilazn, between the Alps, the upper ing themselves from the Byzantine empire, and in gradually Padus, the Apennines, and the lake of Garda, with the archi- enlarging their dominion. The principalities of Benevento, episcopal see of Mediolanum, a large number of counties and Capua, and Salernco, were then the only remains of the kingflourishing cities, who began already, under the protection of dom of the Lombards. Apulia and Calabria, the last possesthe German king, to augment their privileges and immunities, sions of the Byzantine emperors in Italy, were governed by cataand to give a republican form to their municipal govermnent. pans, or vice-regents, who were continually engaged in hostiliOn the west of Milan lay the marquisates of Ivrea, SZusa, ties with the Italian princes and republics, and the Saracenic Mizontfeerrate and Savonaz; and on the east, the county of emirs of Sicily, until the appearance of Robert Guiscard and'Tridentunz (Trent), in the Alps; themarch of Verona, and the his Norman warriors, in the beginning of the eleventh century, county of Foruz Jzulii (Friuli), with the Istrian peninsula. Ve- at once changed all the political relations of that terrestrial rona and Friuli were by the emperor united with the duchy of paradise. Bavaria, in order that the German feudatories might keep the passes of the Alps open for the passage of the imperial armies. It is in the times of the Saxon emperors-961-1024 In central Italy, we find the wealthy and powerful counts or — that we discover the first formation and early development marquises of TSCIA, or TuscaZny, extending from the march of the celebrated ITALIAN REPUBLICS, which later perform so of Verona, across the Padus by Feerra-ra and Zlloclna, through brilliant a part in the History of the Middle Ages. The cities Tuscany, to the frontiers of the Papal States. This vast and of Italy, like those of Germ]nany (245, 216) sought security rich territory became, a century later, the celebratedl patri- behind their walls, against the incursions of the Magyars and mony of Countess Matthildis, and the cause of the violent Saracens; their power increased rapidly; the oppressed from feuds between the Emperor and Pope. Florenetica (Florence), all parts found in them a refuge from their tyrants. These the seat of a count, was yet a small town on the Arno. Pisa, exiles carried with them their industry and their arms, to pIroflourishing by her commerce; Sena (Siena); Canzossa, on the teet the hospitable community that received them: thus every northern slope of Mount Apennine, the strong and celebrated where Adelheid, the Burgundian princess, sought re- 7 The many pilgrims from the west and north who visited the shrine..fortress, whr Aeli t Brndi pics of thle Apostle, hacd alreadycl formed the large and populous suburb of fuge against king Berengar, and was rescued by Otho thle the Vatican, and their various habitations were distinguished in the Great. Gaclda, on the lake of the same name, another castle, language of the times as the scholce or vici of the Lombards, Saxons, or where Berengar, with great cruelty, had kept the lovely woman Greeks. This open town was then inclosed within the fortifictalions of a prisoerB, ulntil she most ingeniously, with the assistance of a the Castle of Sant Angelo, and called in honor of the enterprising Pope, clergyman, escaped in disguise, and threw herself into Canossa. the Leonine city. Great ceremonies took. place at tie inauguration. The P mouu SNTI PTI, eubrae b s te "The walls were besprilnkled with holy water; the young community dia~te envr.onsof Rome (Ltium Sabini, an Campaia,)e was placed underthei guardian care of the Apostles and the Angelic diate environs of Romne (Latilum, Sab8ii, and C:ampania,) hosts, that both the old and the new Rome might ever be preserved Southern Tuscany, as far as the river IJmbrone, the cluehy of prosperous and impregnable." 9

Page  66 66 FIFTH PERIOD.-ROMANO-GERMANIC EMPIPRE-HUNGARY. village became a fortress, and vied with its neighbor in efforts they remained on the lower Volga and the Caspian Sea, but to augment the means for its defence. The dukes, marquises, having been dislodged by the Petcheneges, and defeated by counts, and prelates, who considered these cities as their pro- the Russians under Ruric, in their attempt to ascend that perty, and the citizens as their vassals, soon perceived that river, they were obliged to turn westward.7s Their wild hordes they had already broken their chains. The nobles then left of cavalry, followed by trains of carts with their families, their residences in the towns, which had become disagreeable crossed the Dniester and Dnieper, and spreading through the to them, and retired to their castles. But they became sensi- open plains of Dacia, they united there with the relies of the ble that to defend these castles they had need of men devoted vanquished Avars. Thus strengthened in number, and led on to them; that notwithstanding the advantage which their by their new allies, they penetrated through the defiles of the heavy armor gave them when fighting on horseback, they were Carpathian mountains, fell suddenly upon the newly settled the minority, and they hastened to enfranchise the rural popu — Bulgarians, whom they forced quickly to recross the Danube, lation, to give them arms, and to gain their affections, by granting and advanced westward, occupying all the country between the them protection and lands. The effect of this change of system mountains and the Theiss. There, on the plains between that was rapid, and soon produced in Northern Italy a new state of river and the Maros, were seen the filthy camps of nearly a society: the Lombard free towns, and the landed nobility, who, million of unknown barbarians. The ancient Magyars, like in pursuing their opposite interests, sided, the former with the the IHuns, whom they resembled in ferocity, were divided into Italian pope, and the latter with the German emperor, and divisions or swarms, each consisting of thirty thousand horsereappear two centuries later, in the protracted struggle of the mnen, commanded by Voivods, who had elected the brave and Guelphs and Ghibellines. experienced Arpad as their g'reat C/han or commander-in-chief. The Hungarians, though Finns by descent, were a handDuring the period of the Saxon and Franconian dynasties some race, possessed of excellent qualities; but their first ap(973-1039) it became the CUStOIm for the German kings, at pearance in Europe inspired a terror and disgust hardly less the head of their feudal armies, to undertake a visit or cam- than that of the Huns themselves. They were a nomadic peopaign into Italy (der R2Oner-zug',), to take the imperialwcrown at ple; they fed on horseflesh; they were covered with skins of Rome, and call together the states of Lombardy at Roncaglia, wild animals, though they wore heavy armor made of iron from on the banks of the Po, near Placentia. There the emperors re- the mines of Mount Oural. Like the Tartars, they adorned their ceived the homage from their Italian feudatories, had their laws long lances with streamers or flags of brilliant colors, which, when for their Italian government promulgated, and their treasury whirled in the air, and accompanied by their piercing yells, spread filled with Italian gold pieces. But the diets orplacita of Ron- panic and dismay among the German cavalry who were daring caglia became in the course of time a mere formality: after a enough to oppose their progress. Yet theirmost terrible weapons stay of some months, occupied with tournaments and festivals, were bows and arrows. They fought only on horseback. Their the Germans recrossed the mountains; the Italian nobles retired rapidity, impetuosity, and cruelty, rendered them irresistible, to their castles, the prelates and magistrates to their cities. and almost incredible were the devastation, bloodshed, and misThese acknowledging no authority superior to their own, and cry which this nation for one entire century, from 855 to being left to themselves, must necessarily come into collision- 955, brought over every part of central and southern Europe. a collision occasioning a continual petty warfare between the pre- The nobler qualities of the Magyar character have developed lates, supported by the cities on the one side, and the nobles aided themselves later, after their conversion to Christianity in A. D. by their vassals on the other. Italy remained in this state 1000. Yet even in their heathen darkness, they were not entireuntil 1039, when Conrad the Salic put an end to these troubles ly devoid of principles of justice and faith in their plighted word. by that constitution, which became the basis of the feudal law They possessed remarkable talents for mechanics, manufacturing, during the following century. By this the inheritance of the and arts; agriculture soon began to flourish on the fertile plains of fiefs was protected from the caprices of the lords, and of the the Theiss and the Danube, and they distinguished themselves in crown; the heer-bact of the seven banners, who were to follow different directions from all the other Turkish tribes of the east. the emperor, was instituted on less oppressive conditions; the The warlike disposition and natural ferocity of the Magyars remaining slaves of the land were set free; and Italy began to never left them in after times, but they served mlost happily to enjoy a comparative tranquillity until it was involved in the mnake that nation a bulwark for Germany and Europe on the great contest about the investitures between Gregory VII. walls of Belgadle against the Ottoman Turks. and Henry IV. towards the close of the century. Suddenly arriving in Avaria-by themselves called Jlfagyar Or'szag, the present Hungary —they immediately subdued the XIT.-KINGDOMi OF TI-E I-INGARIANS. Bulgarian and Sclavonian tribes. On the banks of the Theiss they made a halt, no doubt afraid of invading the civilized 253. TIEmIR ORIGIN AND CONQuESTS-The great empire Carlovingian empire beyond that river. Here, to their asof the Avars (149) had been dissolved partly by the defeats tonishment, embassies from thie Greek emperor in Constantithey suffered from the Franks under Charlemagne in 799-803, nople, requested their aid against the Bulgarians south of and partly by the invasion of the Bulgarians, who occu- the Danube. Nay, envoys from the German emperor himself, pied their seats in Pannonia, when, about the year 855, and from his rebellious border-counts, the Mloravian maranother rbarbarous nation from the distant east, the Ugri, Hun- graves, implored their assistance the one against thie other. gri, or, as they called themselves, Magyars, made their appear- Terrible was the responsibility of the Carlovingian emperor ance on the Carpathian mountai.ns. They were originally an Arnulf, in calling in the Hulngarians; they came; they spread eastern Finnish tribe, whose home was Ugria on Mountl devastation, not only in Moravia, where they exterminated Oural.77 During the great migration of the Tartaric Selavo- the inhabitants, but they hurried south through the defiles nian nations in the fifth century, they followed their neighbors, of the Alps, and defeated the Italian counts on the plains of the Bulgarians, on their marceh southwardcl. For a length of time, Lormbardy. Returning again through Bavaria, thie burn77 t7fgiac, ia tile hclavonic lanlguage, signifies fallow lalnd, untilled 7 Constantine Porphyl-og-enitus gives some intermesting details on the soil, steppe, or prairie; thus the nomadic inhabitants on Moulmt Oumal first settlement of the Hungarians in Avaria (Pannonilia), but he knows were called Uhloli, Ugri, Ungri, o- Hunggi, and by the monkish writers them only by the name of Turks, and calls their country Turkey.-LDe of the time, Hilnogari. tlhat ic, no:niades, or vagrammts. AMctl.imislst'a-.ido Imem~io, cap. 38.

Page  67 FIFTH PERIOD.-HUNGARY-PATZINAKIA-LEON. 67 ing villages along the Rhine, and in the heart of Lorraine ture lands on the east of the Dnieper; the otherfour onthewest.79 beyond that river, proclaimed in flaming characters the degra- Their chiefs were hereditary chans, their nobles were called dation of Germany. It was not until the reign of the brave icangars. They extended on the north to the waterfalls of the Henry I. of Saxony, in 936, that the Magyars were checked Dniester, where they carried on a continual war with the Rusin the terrible battle at Merseburg, and their army at last de- sians; on the south they crossed the Danube, and devastated every feated and destroyed in so thorough a manner by the great part of Macedonia and Thrace; the Greeks were in despair; Otho, on the Lech-field in 955, that the seven fugi- they attempted topay them off, but by their glittering Byzants tives who returned to Hungary to tell the woful tale, excited their thirst for gold still more; a civil war among the caused the Magyars to relinquish their inhuman warfare, and Barbarians saved Alexius; Chan Kegen, a distinguished Petchnever again to invade Germany. The thousands of men, enege, fled the country, was converted, and, at the head of the women, and children taken prisoners by them, contributed Greek army in 1050, he defeated his countrymen, and settled much to their civilization; Christianity advanced it stillfarther; part of them at Moglena in Macedonia. Yet other hordes and here it was again a woman-the celebrated Hungarian Prin- still continued their incursions, until in 1122 they were attackcess Sarolta, who wielded her sword and mounted her steed ed at the same time by the Kumani and Uzi, their ancient rias boldly as the best Magyar-that was converted and per- vals on the Volga, and by Kalo-Johannes, the great emperor. By suaded her yielding husband, King Geisa, in 973, to be bap- well concerted manoeuvres, the monsters were entrapped at last; tized in the C(hristian faith. King Stephen I. (997-1038) ef- there was no help for them; they were exterminated with the fectedl-after great opposition however-the general introduc- edge of the sword, and never appear again in history. The tion of Christianity among those barbarians. STrIGONIUM Petcheneges are described as the most beastly and disgusting (Gran), on the Danube, became the archiepiscopal see for the wretches that ever lived; they were faithless and perfidious; ten dioceses which were established. The Latin language was their avarice was insatiable; their passions brutish; their adopted by the king and nobility, and a regular government favorite food the raw flesh of cats, rats, foxes, wolves; they wore soon effected a change in the manners and character of the long hair and beards, and flowing garments, like the Tartars, Magyars. The kingdom became then divided into seventy- whose language they spoke. The Petcheneges never quitted two comnitatus or counties, and the feudal system, with mili- their steeds; they formed myriads of cavalry, and were as rapid tary tenures, was introduced. The Magyars formed the army; in their charges as the arrows they shot off; no spark of humathe poor Sclavonian subjects were treated like serfs, and kept nity, no ray of cultivation ever reached them; their detested in degrading subjection. The Magyars occupied the whole of name appears on every page of the Byzantine historians from modern Hungary; on the north they bordered on Poland and the eleventh century; and the German monks, in their chroniM\Ioravia, on the west their confines reached the Austrian cles, never omit, when speaking of them, to add the epithets of marches; on the south the Danube separated them from the pessigni and vilissizi. Their villages or hut-built towns, were great Bulgarian kingdom, and on the east the Carpathian range called katcai; they had some agriculture on the Danube, and a protected them against the still more terrible Petcheneges, lively trade with Cherson, Theodosia, and other Greek cities on then in their nlost formidable power. The Magyars lived mostly the Black Sea. They sold their cattle to the Russians, and barin villages, and few cities were founded during this period. tered their plunder for all sorts of Eastern luxuries, such as BUDA-PESTH, the ancient Acincum (35, 179), onboth banks of purple vestments, silken dresses, precious furs, and aromatics. the Danube, once the site of the camp of Attila and of the After the dispersion of their hordes, some Petchenege stragAvars, became the capital of the Arpadian dynasty of Hungary. glers were incorporated into the Greek armies of the ComnOn the plain east of the Danube, the Magyar nobility on horse- nenian emperors, in which they rendered good service; and back in complete armor, assembled at their national diet, where King Zultan of Hungary formed a colony of these monsters on the laws were sanctioned, and all political questions decided. his western frontiers, in order to frighten the Germans. This was the celebrated FIELD OF IRAKOS. WISSEGRAD and ColuouN were strong fortresses on the Danube. ALBA REA2LIS (Weissenburg), on the southwest. PosoNY,.Preciburg, Presburg, on the Austrian frontiers. The Carpathian defiles were | III. SOUTHERN EUROPE. protected by the Magyar tribe of the SZEKLErPs, that is, bowle — XIII. THE KINGDOM OF LEON. wza'-dens, who still, to this day, are the fiercest hussars in the world. 255. EXTENT AND PRINCIPAL CITIEs.-The kingdom of XII. CHANATE OPF TH'I.E PETCHENEGES. Leon was, in the tenth centuriy, one of the four Christian states which had formed themselves in the north of the Spanish penin254. THEIR TEPurITOFY, CONQUESTS, AND DESTRUCTION.- sula. It occupied the northwestern angle of Spain, and extended The PETCHENEGES-_Patzitnaks, Pcatzinakitce, Or Bitchenaza, along the Durius (Duero) eastward to the Piseorica (Pisuerga), as the Byzantine historians call them, were a Tartaric tribe a tributary of that river, and the eastern frontier toward Casfrom the steppes between the Yazk and the Volga. Having been tile. North of the Asturian ridge the border ran west of driven from their home by their eastern neighbors, the IKunani, the Deba to the promontory San Prieto, on the Gulf of Biscay, they, about the middle of the ninth century, fell upon the Mag- Mare Cantarbiclmm.a The southern frontier was very unsettled, yard themselves the subjects of the Chazars, whoml they on account of the continual wars with the Saracens; the banks varnquished, and forsed to fee westward. The Petcleneges of the Duero were protected by numerous castles, and the pursued them across the Dniester, rnnieper, and Pl uth, to the foot pursued them acrss.he ieterDnepeadPutht Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in his lively description of their of the Carpathian mountains. Here they stopped: other tribes country which he calls Patzinakia, mentions the barbarous names of joined the first, and for more than two centuries this disgusting their tribes, such as.Bulat-zosjon, Giazi-clhopon, Sy'ukclupCtse, and Gylcc, people occupied the whole immense territory fiom the Don and between the Danube and the Don, and defines their frontiers as borthe Donetz all along the shores of the Black Sea, throughout the dering westward on the Turks (Hungarians), north on the Slavic tribes Walachian plains to theAluta. This territorythey divided among of the Leuzenzi, Delblenioss (Drewliani), and Russin.s, and east on their eight. numerous hordes, whh the I(umani and Uzi in Chazaria, beyond the Atil (Volga), and on tile their eigt uAeros hordes which were sbdivied into forty ans still residing in the plains on the Kuban north of Mount Cansmaller clans. Four of the Petchenege hordes occupied the pas- casus.

Page  68 68 FIFTH PERIOD.-SPANISH KINGDOMS-CALIPHATE OF CORDOVA. Christian knights extended their conquests south to the Meon- and most elegant Gothic churches in Spain. Oximaz (Osma) dego, nay, they reached even the Tagus; they occupied ternm- and Kla'at-Anosor, celebrated by victories which the Chrisporarily Lissabon, and descended the Djebal Scharrat (Gua- tians here gained over the Moslems. darama) to the plain of 1/Iedchellet (Magerita), now Madrid, then a small Arabian town; but they could not get any firmNDO O N A. XV. KINGDOM OF rNAVARRA. footing, and the uncertainty of the occupation caused this region to be called extr'emza -Durii, which is the origin of 257. ORIGIN, EXTENT, AND DIVISION.-The realm of _athe present appellation of Estremadura. The descendants of varraC' or Pampiluna, which comprised Biscaya (Viscaya), on Pelayo had transferred their capital from Gijon on the sea- the north, and Arag'on on the east, extended along the Gulf coast to Oviedo (217). Their small territory extended with of Biscay and the Pyrenees, somewhat south of the sources of their victories, and under the valiant Ordofio II., the four- the Ebro, to those of the river Aragon, a tributary of the former. teenth king of Gothia, Leon became, in 918, the royal resi- Though the Arabs, at the time of their settlement in Spain, did denuce. During this period Gallicia, Asturia, Leon, and Old not succeed in subduing the Visigoths in their northwestern Castile became united; but the danger of the approaching strongholds of the Asturian mountains, they soon appeared on storm roused the Arabs to renewed activity. Al Manzor, the the Ebro, occupied Ccsa'rauuztzsta (Zaragoza), and forcing the vizier of Caliph Hashem II. entered the mountains, in 990, with northeastern defiles of the Pyrenees invaded France, and seta numerous army; the city of Leon and even the venerated shrine tled in Septillania (158). Yet the Saracen cal'is or goverof Santiago de Compostela were burnt to the ground, and the nors, in their rebellions against the Ommiyad emirs of CorMoors planted their crescent-banner on the Asturian coast. But dova, called to their assistance the victorious arms of Pepinthis effort of the Mohammedans was the last; they were totally le-Bref and Charlemagne, who, as we have seen (184), formed routed in the chivalrous battles of Kula'at-Anosor in 998, and the border province of the Spanish marches south of the mounat Osmua in 1001; and the subsequent union of the kingdom of tains. It consisted of the MInarca Nava'-rezsis, the ConziLeon with the independent county of Castile in 1038, by the tetzats faTccensis (Jaca), Ripacturcice (Ribagorza), and Ba'-cimarriage of Don Fernando of Castile with Doria Sancha, the clonce (Barcelona), which did not extend south to the valley of sister of King Bermudo III. of Leon, secured henceforth the the Ebro, still in the possession of the Arabs. During the frontier line of the Duero. OVETUTI (Oviedo), the ancient disorders which disturbed the Carlovingian empire in the ninth capital, on a steep hill that rises in the midst of an undulating century, the border counts in the Pyrenees made themselves plain between the Nora and the Nalon. Cangcas dle Onis, on the independent of the French crown. Garsias Arista took, about Cella, stands at a short distance from the Abbey of our Lady 850) the royal title; his successors ruled until the year 1000, of Cavadonga, which occupies the site where Pelayo in 712 first and in successful wars against the Moors, they extended their planted the standard of'independence. Sanztiag'o de Comtpos- territory over the greater part of Aragon. Sancho III.,elllazyor, tela, with its magnificent cathedral, its saints, treasury, pilgri- an excellent chief, divided his kingdom between his four sons mages, and superstition. Asturtica (Astorga). Braga. Zamzorna in 1033; and we find at that time the following provinces unon the northern bank of the Duero, where, on the Caszpi Go- der the crown of Navarra: thiai, north of the city, so many bloody battles were fought be- I. The kingdom of PAMPILUNA (Pamplona, with CANTAtween Christians and Moslems during the tenth century. BRIA (Najara, Rioja), south, on the Ebro. PAaMPLONA, on Carrion, on the river of the same name, where King Bermudo the Arga, was the capital. Logroio, on the Ebro. II. The III. fell in battle against his brother-in-law, Don Fernando of county of ArAGoN on the east, with the strong city of Jacca Castile, in 1037. The ancient Visigothic institutions were still commanding the plains. III. SOBRARBE, farther east, under preserved in their antiquated forms, although the frequent the highest pinnacles of the Pyrenees. IV'. RIBAGORZA, with wars had given extension to the royal authority, The diets the county of Pallars, which had been wrested from the French. continued to be assembled in Oviedo; the habits of the people V. VISCAYA (Vascongadas), on the west of Navarra, divided were still austere and warlike, yet a chivalrous character was into the three Basque provinces, BIscAYA, ALAVA, and IPuscoA, perceptible, which communicated itself to the Saracens on (Guipuzcoa). This was the rugged home of the old Cancztabri, the frontiers, and produced the most romantic instances of bril- who made such a gallant stand against the Romans, and preliant valor, tender love, and religious fanaticism. served their independence until the time of Augustus. Their descendants, the Basques, are still distinguished by their activity and bravery, and have found in their unfruitful soil the XIV. COUNTY OF CASTILE. palladium of their liberty. VICTORIA (Vitoria), the capital, was the place where King Sancho defeated the Arabs; it lies 256. ORIGIN, EXTENT, AND CITIEs.-Castile is said to in a fertile plain surrounded by magnificent scenery. The have been so called from the great number of castles —castillos Vascongadas and Rioja fell to Castile in 1200. — which were its means of defence against the Mioors, andl the residences of petty princes whom ambition armed against one The Counts of BARCELoNA ill Catalonzia (Gotholaunia) another. Many Goths had retreated into the mountains north had become independent of France toward the close of the of the Tagus, where, in the beginning of the tenth century, ninth century. The Catalonians were early distinguishecl by the Counts of Burgos extended their power, and though they, commerce and warlike adventures through the whole Mediterfor a while, acknowledged the supremacy of the neighboring ranean Sea; their history is very interesting, and they became Kings of Leon, they soon after their victories over the Moors, a powerful nation when their Count IRaymond Berengar ohdeclared themselves inclependlcnt. King Ordloio II. assassi- tainel by marriage the throne of Aragon, A. D. 1137. nated the haughty Count NuTio Fernandez of Castile, but this clriminal act produced a revolution among the Castilians, XVI. CAIPHTE OF oUov. who, in 933, maintained their independence. The wars with the Moors continued; the Duero became the permanent frontier, 258. EXTENT, DIVISION, AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. —Since and in 1038, Castile was united with Leon to the great advan- the establishment of the emirate of Cordova by the Ommiyad, rage of both. B'urgos, a dark, old-fashioned city, abounding Abd-er-Rlaman, in 755, the Arabs had suffered many defeats in convents and sanctuaries; the cathedral is one of the oldest by the Asturian heroes; but they soon recovered the lost ter

Page  69 FIFTH PERIOI). —CALIPHATE OF CORDOVA-CILY —SIL-CROATIA. 69 ritory, and during the whole of the ninth century, the Duero menced, which continued for many years, and terminated with and the valley of the Ebro remained clthe contestedfrontier line the conquest of Palermo ancd Syracuse by the Aglabid warbetween the two races. Nineteen caliphs of the Olmmiyad riors of Tunis, who changed the whole splendid island into an dynasty rulecl in Spain (Andalos) from 755 to 1038, when Arabian emirate;s0 yettheinhabitants retained cltheir old rights that fimily became extinct on the death of Hashem IV. It and privileges, and soon acquired an affection for their Moslem was thle most brilliant period in the annals of the Arabian na- conquerors on account of their just and creditable governiaent tion, and the Spanish cities were then adorned with those andunusualliberal views in religious matters. Beneath the mlild master works of Saracenic architecture, mosques, alcazars, sway of the Aglabids and Fatimidcl chiefs (caliphs), a multitude aqueducts, baths, and other public builclings, the ruins of which of Arabic cities and castles rose in the island; splendid mlanuare still the admiration of the present day. The reign of Abd- factures were established, ancl the rich soil was earefully cultier-Rhaman III. (912-961) is the period of the highest clvel- vated. The sugar-cane was tranasplantecl from Egypt, manna opment of Arabian civilization, literature, and art in Spain from Persia, and cotton from Asia Min.or. The olive-tree was and the Caliph was as distinguished for his brilliant valor sedulously tended, and propagated all over the island; comagainst the Gothic princes in the battles at Zamora on the merce flourished; numbers of merchant vessels daily arrived D)uero, as for the amiable qualities of his mind and heart. His or departed from the different Sicilian ports laden with rich worthy son, Al-Hakim II., followed (961-976) in the steps cargoes. The objects of magnificence and luxury which cornof his father; with him the enthusiasm for books, science, merce brought together, served in part to embellish the Sarapoetry, history, and natural philosophy, became a violent pas- conic castles, which were besides enriched with the treasures sion. WVe read with astonishment in Concle of the seventy and precious booty carried home by the Arabic corsairs from libraries, seventeen Mohanmmedan universities and high schools their predatory excursions on all the Italian coasts. of learning; of the sisx large and flourishing capitals of the Walis: Korthoba (Cordova), Elbica (Grenada), Ischbilia (Se- SARDInNIa, CORSICA and the BALEARIC Islands were at the ville), Tholaithala (Toledo), SCtra/ostha (Zaragoza), and same time occupied by the Zeirites, who had formed another Djesh-Szukacr (Valencia); of eighty cities of a second rank; powerful empire-A. D. 960-ruling the extensive coasts of of the three hundred smaller towns, and the twelve thousand Africa, after the concentration of the Fatimid caliphs in Cairo hamlets situated on the charming banks of the Guaclalquiver in Egylpt alone. In Korthoba were six hundred nmosques, fifty hospitals for benevolent purposes, nine hundred public baths; the yearly revenues of the caliphate amounted to twelve millions of gold XVIII. KINGOOM OF CROATIA. pieces without the contributions of the aclcabala and alzojari- 2. EXTENT ND P L CITIEs.The Sclaonic nas.... S~~~~~~~~~60. EXTENT AND) PP~INCImAL CITIES. —The Scls3vonsic hafazcgo. Agriculture, irrigation, and gardening progressed equally * 5 a 1- 5 1 *1 1- 1 1 * * n 1. 1tion of thx3 Chrobats (Croa/ts) had occupied the Goast lancls of with the literature and plhilosophical cultivation of that period. ti i 6 (6, he oude the oans o Dnlma~tia in 628 (196), where tlley, undel their Zupallies3 or The bravery, piety, and romantic amours of the Spanish knights cie i 8 s, veret, o he 18i 1.. ~~~~~~~chiefs, recognized the sovereigllty of (Sharlemagne (1871). But excited the noblest emulation almong the 3Moslem cavaliers, van- quished the prejudices of the Koran, and raised the Saracen about the year 970, during the reign of the emperor Otho the quished the prejudices of tlle KCoran, and raised tlle Saracen won to a standard of estee. and adiration which she never Great, they suddenly appear-as a powerful nation, under the sway womlan to a stand ard of esteem and admiuration whiceh she nlever,., of a Weliki Zu~pacn or Grand Duke, who could muster 150,000 enjoyed in the East. It was during this period, when were horse and foot in the field, and extended his conquests along called forth those warlike virtues which will ever glitter in its a the coast and the numerous isles of the Adriatic Gulf. Every beautiful ballads and romances, that on the frontiers of the contending Christian and Mohammedan nations, two singular Croat was a born soldier Christianity soon spread among races of mien arose-the M{oslem ~abnites and the Christian them, and brought them into friendly relations with the islandAz vas. They were arriors (gerillas) or borderers, ers. Yet the great Croatian kingdom did not maintain itself; Ahn,,uggctvares. They were warriorss (gulerillas) or borderers,. the different Croatian tribes quarrelled amlong themselves. who lived by the sword as wardens of the frontiers, and, in their armature, tactics, and manners, formed the most cr'tlous The sly and active Venetian republicans planted the banner thei aratue, actcsandmannrsfored he ostcurousof Saint M4arc on the towers of Yaldra (Zara), Sebenigo, and contrast. During their alternate hostility and friendly inter- of Saint arc on the towers of ~adra (Zara), Sobenirc, an...other citiex; tllev lade Spalatro their commercial empocourse with each other, those fantastical ideas of politics, reli-, * - 1 * 1 lb~~~~iulzl alld when King I~olon~al appearedl with his Hungcarian gion, and customs originated, which we, a century later, meet rium, and when King Koloan appeared with his Hungarian.*avalry in 1102, the CroatLians were speedily brought to that again on the shores of Palestine azLmong thle crusading Templars, the Syrian Pulani, and the Circassi m Mamlooks. 80 Of the capture of Syracuse we have an interesting account from an eye-witness (A. D. 8,80): " Theodosius, the monk, sends his salutation to Leo, the archdeacon. We have held out ten months, during which XVII. EMIRATE OF SICmIL AND THE SMA/LLElR ISLArNDS. timzo me whare fought often by day andc many times by nlight, by watel, 259. THE hGLABID DY)NASTY ON THE ISLANDS. At the by land, and under the grou n d. The grass which growsupon the roofs -was our food, anld wve caused the bones of animals to be pow derel, in beginning of the niuth century, most of the larger islalcs of older to use them for meat. At length children +rere entell, ands terithe Mediterranean were occupied by Staratcen corsairs —Crete, ble diseases were the consequence of famine. Confiding ill the secuCyprus, Rhodes, Salrdinia, the Baleares, Corsica, fell into their rity of our towers, we hoped to hold out until wve received succor; the powersyet none became so flourishing as SIKmlxIAH (Sicily), strongest of our towers was overthrown; and we still resisted for thlee whieh, in 826, was invaded by the Aglabid king, Ziacle-tallah weeks. In an instant mhen, exhausted by hest, our TVariOl'S tool espite, a general stolm was made on a sudden by the Mlaugrebin, anld the I., of Magrab, in northern Africa,? ancl remanlaled undlcer the town was t~aken. We fled into the church of St. Salvator; the enemy sway of the Fatimid dynasty, which succeeded in 940, until followed us, and bathed his sword in the blood of oulr mnagistrates, the conquest of the island by Count Roger, the Norman, in priests, monks, old men, wvomen, and childlen; a thousand in nuimber 1069. Sicily had already for a long time been exposed to the were put to death before the town; the govellnor, Nicetas of Tarlsus, piratical descents of the Arabs, before they were invited as was tortured; the hlouses were burnt, the acropolis destroyed. Onthe auxiliaries of the G-reek general, Emlpedocles, in the year 826, d|ay when they celebrated Abraham's sacrifice (Bairam), thle monsters wished to burn uts vith the bishop; but an old emir of great aluthority during~ his rebellion againzst the Emperor MR~ichael the Stiam- saved us. This is written at Palermo, fourteen feet under ground, metere. The Arabs answered readily to the appeal. H~assan- ualong ilmumerable captives-Jews, Afi'icans, Lombards, Christian and Ben-el-Terath landed on the island, and a bloody war com- unchristian people, whlites and Moors."

Page  70 70 FIFTH PERIOD. —THE BYZANTINE EMIPIRE. subjection under the Magyar rod, from which we have seen ar-Raschid in BSagdad. Byzantine princesses are given in them make a desperate effort to deliver themselves, so late as marriage to foreign princes; Theophania, the daughter of the 1848. Emperor Rolmanus II., marries Otho II. of Germany; and her The great Zj9antzate of CROATIA com111prised the regions sister Anna, as the wife of the Grand-Duke Wladimir, carries situated between the coast of the Adriatic Gulf, the Drave, civilization to Russia. All the Sclavonian tribes, which, durand the Danube, until its junction with the Save. POSE:GA illn ing the storlms of the seventh and eighth centuries, had settled Sclavonia, and Dresnec southwest, were the most important in Greece —in the peninsula of Peloponnesus (Morea), and in cities. NAr~ENTA, on the coast, was inhabited by a band of in- Northern Hellas —lhave been christianized, hellenized, and dependent corsairs, who, in the earlier period mnadcle their nlame brought to the allegiance of the empire (198) and so have the feared all along the coasts of the Adriatic. Bulgarians in Macedlonia, and the Servians in western Illyricuni. Treaties of commerce are contracted with the flourishing cities in Italy; the Sclavonie nations on the Danube XIX. BYZANTINE EMPIrE. carry the precious Byzantine silk and wool manufactures to the markets of Germany, while (herson, on the Taurian penin261. EXSTENT, IMPERIAL CounT, AnND ADMINISTRATION.- sula, becomes the great emporium for the exports of the south The latter years of the reign of Otho the Great —963-973- to Russia ancl the distant countries on the Baltic. present some of the most brilliant pages in the annals of the 262. CONSTANTINOPLE was still the most magnificent city eastern Roman empire. The warlike Nieephorus Plhocas had in Christenclom; she still possessed the civilization and wealth crossed Mount Taurus, and reconquered Antioch and northern of the ancient Roman Empire, and was the great emporium of Syria fi'om the Arabs in 968, and his murderer and successor, eastern commere.8' The influence of the Greek Church, and of the orafty,but talented John Tzimisces, vanquished the Rus- the Justinian legislation had, however, rendered the imperial sians, reduced the powerful kinagdom of Bulgaria to a depencl- government a perfect despotism. The emperor had the title of ent province of the empire, and led his victorious army beyond avroKpadrp; the princes or co-regents were called Autgttsti, or the Euphrates, to the distant plains of Mesopotamia, while the refiao-rro. The ilmperial costume was splendid —purple and helpless Caliph fled trembling to his sanctuaries in Bagdad. gold; the entire court officials were dressed in white. The seThe greater part of these extensive conquests were soon lost nate had lost its prerogatives and power; or XoydaSe, or the after the return of the mighty warrior; but Antioch, with the elect, formed a committee of its members, sometimes called cities of Cilicia and the isles of Cyprus and (Crete, remained a together on pompous occasions. The imperial council, consispermanent and important accession to the Roman Empire. to'iutlnprizcipis, or in the corrupt Greek of that period, To WVe find its frontiers, A. D. 973, almost the same as in the PaotXtK0'v:EKPETov) was arbitrarily nominated by the emperor second period, on the accession of Justinian in 527: on the among his confidential friends and favorites. The strictest north the Euxine Sea, the Danube, the Save, and the Drinus; etiquette was observed among the courtiers and officials in on the west and south the Mediterranean; and on the east the their different subordinate ranks.' The sons-in-law of the elupper Euphrates, the Tigris, the Araxes and Mount Caucasus; peror had the supervision of the numerous imperial palaces, as thus embracing within the eastern Roman frontiers part of czuropalcttes, or &rfTpoVroL; thirty sileztiarii took care of the northern Syria, part of Mesopotamia, Great Armenia, Iberia, internal order, in which they were assisted by the loathsome Lazica, and the coast lands of Mount Caucasus. Constantino-e eunuchs-(-o Kapr~/~.~3~es —who already had obtained so banepie had passed through the most frightful vicissitudes since ful an influence, that they ranlked among the patricianswe left her toward the close of the sixth century. She had seen o; 7trapWt<,o eb,'ofXotL and aspired to the highest dignities hn the immense armies of the Persian Chosroes encampedl along the the state; nay, these wretches even entered the church, they Bosphorus in 616-621; she had heroically repelled the Saracens became patriarchs, and the eunuch monks paraded as 7rpwfrom her walls in 668-675, and burnt their entire armada with rofaArTal) or choristers, at the pompous religious festivals. The her Greelk fire in 716. Her sufferings had been increased by the emperors were fettered down to the most ridiculous ceremointernal disturbances between the fanatic imncqgee-zuwoshsi2e e's — nial, which necessarily must have crushed their noblest dispoetsoVo8Otgl —and ivtag'e-brectke's —EKovoKXacrrTaL, and by the sitions and talents; but it was only by thus shrouding themloss of nearly allher European provinces through the continual selves from the mass of the people, and mlaking a pompous invasions of the Sclavonian and Tartaric hordes folom the Da- show of their wealth and power to the foreign nations, that nube; while the bigotry and arrogance of her hierarchy, the sloth they still could be regarded as the legitimate rulers of the civor incapacity of several of her emperors, and the general luxury ilized world.82 Charlemagne they recognized as Emperor of and degeneracy of her inhabitants at different periods, would, to a distant observer, have seemed to forebode a speedy catastrophe. 81 Benjamin de Tudela, the celebrated Jewish travellelr, who visited Yet her splendid position and impregnable walls, the wonderful Corstantilople il the twelfth cedtury, bullts forth in rapture at the pliancy and vitality of the Greek ri, e~ and the many distinguished of the Ryzantine iher "It is here," he s~zys "il the queen of cities, that the tributes of the Eastel'n Empire arle annually deposited, and minnds which successively appeared in the moment of danger, < C 7 ~~~~~~~~~the lofty towers ale filled witht preciouls deposits of silkc, purple, and carried her victoriously through all these vicissitudes. Brighter gold. It is here that the sovereign evelry day receives twenty thousand days began to dawn on the venerable metropolis of the civ- gold pieces, which are levied on the stores, taverns, and bazaars, on the ilized world, on the accession of Basilius the Macedonian, in merchants of Pelsia and Egypt, of Russia and Hungary, of Italy and 867. During the sway of the Macedonian dynasty —867-1056 Spain, who fiequent the brilliant capital by sea and land. sa Tile ceremony of the reception of foreign ambassadors, took — active and enlightened monarchs, brave and daring generals. vplace in the gorgeous hall of the Chrysotricinilum, forming part of andl intelligent statesmen, -restoredl and strengthen~edl the tle great Augusteum palace, between the Cathedral of Sancta Sophia sinking empire. The ancient Roman ideas, language, and insti- and the Hippodrome. There, the emperor, on his golden throne, in his tutions have now vanished; the Byzantine-Greek period has s snow-white tunic, purple mantle, and purple buskins, receives the fobegun, and a general amelioration, a greater activity in the reignam bassadors, who, passing through endless files of body guards administration, a stricter economy in the treasu y, a bet~ter or- and household officers, all dressed in the most brilliant variety of armor and court-dresses, beneath colonnades hung with trophies, embroidered ganization of the army, and a more liberal cdiplomacy with drapery and waving banners, on a road covered with PersiLan carpets, foreign states, becomes distinctly perceptible. Friendly em- or strownl over with roses, myrtle, and oleander, at last enter the golden bassies are sent to Charlemagne and the great caliph Haroun- | paace of the Empress and imperial princesses. Sweet perfumes breathe

Page  71 FIFTH PERIOD.-THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. 71 the West; but Otho the Great they treated disdainfully, as a were scouring the environs of the camp. The baggage barbarian usurper, until the Germlan sword swept away their was called rovA8ov; the pay, dloya; their exercises and manceupossessions in Italy. The support of such a court required vres were superintended by the mZg'cnztus drungacris. Constanthe most exorbitant taxation; and, indeed, never was a gov- tinople had excellent manufactures of arms, and the crusaermnent known so ingeniously to oppress the poor toiling ders, two centuries later, were astonished at the pomp of the nation as the Byzantine, with its tolls, collections, gifts, duties, Byzantine armies; but the weapons of the Greek warriors were customs, house-taxes - TO Ka0rvLKOV -- income-assessments - of a better temper than their courage.84 The high admiral of the 7repTcrroirpKrTta —stamp duties-xaprta TLKv, and fifty others. fleet, the grand duke —' o yas 8ov-cominanded the numerThegold byzants —-vre-'prepa-pbyzcan tini-ruled the world then, ous divisions of battle ships and galleys-aypapta, and 8po&o'vEs as a century ago, the Spanish doubloons, and at the present day, — which were distributed in the magnificent ports on the Euxthe American eagles. The financial administration seems to ine, the Bosphorus, and the islands of the Mediterranean.85 have been the most complex and important branch of the pub- Yet the greatest art, ingenuity, and excellence did the Byzanlic service. The emperors always reserved to themselves the tine Greeks display in their fortifications, and the artillery or immediate direction of this department; but they did not omit engines by which they were defended. It was the terrible to give their full attention to the army, as is proved by the in- Greek fire —ro -vypov 7rp —the invention of the Syrian engiteresting work of Leo VI. on that subject. Many reforms had neer, Kallinikos, which in 668, and 718, had saved Constantibeen undertaken in the organization of the Greek armies, since nople, during the sieges of the fanatic Saracens. This naphtha, the time of Belisarius and Narses under Justinian I. The most or liquid bitumen, a light, tenacious, and inflammable oil, select bodies of troops consisted of the imperial life-guards, the mingled with sulphur and pitch, they launched through iron celebrated bands of the northern warriors: the Vcaranghi (226), tubes, from the walls or ships, with the most destructive efto whose care the person of the emperor, and the guard of the feet, on the works or shipping of the terrified enemy. That palace and treasury were intrusted.8 Then followed in rank the invention has perished with the middle ages, but we still adPersarnmenian, Chaza', and Avcr guards, all in their national mire at the present day the solid and magnificent walls, towcostume and armor. The throne being thus protected by ers, sally-gates and subterraneous passages, aqueducts, and cisforeign swords, the Byzantine army itself was organized for terns, reared on hundreds of columns, in Constantinople, Anthe defence of the frontiers of the empire. The native troops tioch, and many other places. raised in the provinces were formed into one hundred and 263. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE PROVINCES AND FRONthirty-two legions or themzes —.9 ir-aza —each of a thousand or TIERS OF THE EMPIRE.-The changes which the Byzantine fifteen hundred men. The most celebrated of the European government had undergone since the times of Justinian, renthemes were the Thracian, Macedonian, and Illyrian, whose dered a new provincial division necessary; and we find in the ranks were filled with Sclavonian, Wallachian, Bulgarian, and tenth century the empire divided into twenty-nine districts, Albanian mountaineers. The Greek cavalry which had theines —~cEmara —with regard to administration and military adopted the armature of the Avars (149) was numerous, defence. The exact period when the ancient Roman prefecon account of the continual equestrian warfare with the Tar- tures and provinces were superseded by the themes, is not tars on the Danube, and with the Saracens in the east. The known; yet it appears certain that these existed in part already Byzantine conmmanders and officers had pompous and barbarous in the seventh century, during the reign of Heraclius (610titles; generals, o-rpaTeyo —colonels, IeotpcpXaL, 3povyyaptoL — 641). The emperor Constantine VII., Porphyrogenitus (914ensigns, or dragon-bearers, 3palcov-re/oqopon —d'lacoinarii. The 959), an author like his father, Leo VI. Philosophus (886foot was marshalled in eight lines, the horse in four; their 911), describes that institution as having already long existed, flanks were covered with rear-guards-wraXayLoqSoXac E; squad- and undergone several changes, before his own times. Every rons of light horse —;-repKepdca-TaT —were sent round to outflank theme was governed by a st'rategos, who held the civil governthe enemy; skirmishers-Kovpo-pes, and spies-0-covXKaropes — ment and the command of the troops in the district somewhat similar to that of an ancient Roman proconsul, though placed in a flagrance around; and wlhenl the astonished barbarians ascend the last smaller province. I-Ie enjoyed the first rank in the seven marble stairs of the audience hall, and at the signital of the master of rble tais of te ience l, and at te sil of te ster of classes of the Byzantine court-dignitaries, and was assisted in ceremonies the curtains and hangings disappear on high, and they behold tieiadommeon ilis beautifu quemsmr-omhis functions by subordinate officers, such as the border-wardens the hliancisome emperor and his beantiful queen, surrounded by a glittering court, they almost involuntarily kneel down in admiration. -KXELaOrppXa —the commanders of the cavalry —lX pXat — But a new surprise awaits them. The silver and golden lions, ToVpj/pXaoL) and many others. Every theme contributed to gigantic beasts, adorning the flanks of the throne, spring forward on the defence by a national guard, by contributions of horses, their hind legs, and begin to roar furiously, while thousands of artifi- arms, and provisions for the imperial army. We shall now cial birds of various colors and plunmage flit about on the branches of an give a short description of the themes, in the order in which immense golden palm-tree overshadowing the imperial throne, and maingle their songs with the clangor of the trumpets and the roaming of we find them mentioned by the emperor.8m the lions. 8s In spite of all the show and glitter of their anmies, the Greeks The poor' barbarians, Tartars, Sclavonianlls or Chazars, lie now plos- enjoyed but little credit with the knights of western Europe. The trate on their faces, and have entirely lost their wvits. Even the bold envoy of Otho the Great, Bishop Luitpmand, of Cremona, who has left German knights, who hitherto have despised all the pomp, begin to us an interesting description of his embassy to the Court of Nicephotremble, and what is worse, forget their speeches. Howo the merry ern- irus Phocas, says: "that the emperor was surrounded by dastard sycopress and her lively Greek court ladies enjoy the embarrassmlent and phants and parasites; that the whole city floated in voluptuousness; awkward superstition of those barbarians, who, if not kept at bay by that the strength of the imperial government rested on the battlethe tricks, the ingenuity, and superior civilization of Constantinople, axes of the Northmen of the body-guard; for I firmly believe," says might arise in their might, and with one blow dash tmhe whole firagile the lively Bishop-Envoy, "that four hundred German knights, in the vessel of the empire into a thousand fragments. open field, would put the whole Greek army completely to flight." s3 The Varanghians, who wvere the leading colrps of the imperial 5 During the reign of Leo VI., the Byzantine fleet consisted of 60 guards, suffered none but Scandinavians in their ranks; while the less dromones, each manned by 230 rowers and 70 warriors. favored corps were composed promiscuously, of Franks, Russians, and 86 Constantini Porphyrogeniti de thenctibus et de cdsinistrendo other Sclavonians. It was not until after the battle of Hastings, in 1066, imnperio liber, forms the 3d volume in the Bonn edition of the Byzanand thie subjection of England under thie iron rod of William the Con- tinie hiistorians. 1840. See interesting details by Johnb W. Zinkeisen, in queror, that numbers of Anglo-Saxons, fleeing the oppmession at home, his excellent "Geschiclhte Griechenlands," Leipzig, 1832, vol. i. p. p791emigrated to (Colnstantinople, where they, as brethlren of the Northuen, 803 —the best work Ilitelmto published onm Medimval Greece, thouglh un were permitted to eniter time ranks of thle V\anlmnhlmi. happily still untfiis!l(d.

Page  72 72 FIFTH PERIOD.-THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. IX. THIEMA iMEsoPOTAMIEa-A O-~ a Meo-ororalasb —the ancient Armenia Quarta, and the northwestern part of Sophene, lay A-TSHEM:ES 0o TH:E BYZANTINE EnIrPnIE IN AsIA MINeo. south of Chaldia, and extended beyond the Euphrates. It was a 264.. I. TJEM{A ANlToLIrcIUY-~Ea'AvroXu,&v-embraeed,1small border province, which had been surrendered by the Ara portion of the ancient Lycaonia, Phrygia, Galatia, and menian chief, Pangkratukas, and his brothers, together with Pisidia, north of Mount Taurus. IcoNIUmr was perhaps the tleir castles, to Leo VI., Philosophus. The emperor gave it metropolis; other cities were the Phrygian Antioch, Synnada, the organization of a theme, and sent a st'ateg'os with troops and Pessinus.87 for the defence of the defile-KcXco-eopa-on the headspring of II. THIEnIA AIqMENIIACU M —0CLa'Apc1EvtaK0v —north of the the Tigris, leading into the Saracenic province of Mesopotamia. The cities were lfithca'izon on the eastern Euphrates, Ronazformer, on the shores of the Pontus Euxinus, comprised part of the ancient Paphlagonia, Galatia, and Pontus, with the 0iooflis, Ascamzoscat, Z/l'4zarcta, and Kolchis. cities Agnacsia, lXeokaccisceareica, and Si9nope. The emperors, X. TEIA COLONIAs-~Dua KoXwvEtas-lorthwest of the inl tiheir vanity, gave this district the na~me of fArmezianz, at former, on the table-lands of Armenia, took its name from the a time when the important. border-province of the industri- strong fortress Koloneia, situated on a precipitous rockon theupous and commercial Armenian Christians had been lost to the per Lykos. NE0oKAISAnEIA, on thelower Lykos, was the metropoSaracens. lis, and the birth-place of Gregorius, the great tLtaurnatu.lg'os, III. T~HEMA TI-nIAcEssIoouu;i-OEJua 3pplc0o-Lav —wfe st of or moiracle-worker. fc-2,V/rike —TEXPoK- (now Divrigni) —in a Anatolikon, consisted of the interior parts of Caria, Lydia, and deep valley between the towering lloultai-ranges of Skoidises and Anti-Taurus was the centre and principal stronghold of Phrygia, on the rivers Maiandros, Heros, and Kaikos, wit nti-urus, s the centre d principal stronghold of the well-known cities of Saclldeis, Plzhiadellcia, AphrOdisias, the early Protestants of the East —the calunmiated and perseAlanda, Thyatira, olossai (Cloai), and Laodikei. This te phrikeAU LIcIAN —e the avscene of the bloDuriody tware s winth century, district received its name from the Thracian legion quartered Tephrie became the scene of tile bloody wars which Michael there. Thracian colonies were likewise settled in the interior.s I., the Mace IV. THEMAr OBns-EQcIui —0a'Oi/cKLov —nolrth of the lightened and more philosophical sect, so hated and feared by former, took its name from the household officers or satellites, the bigoted clergy of the Greek church. Tle Panlicians, Xwho surrounded the emperor. It extended from the Dasky- mnlmaddened to despair by the cruel execution of the intolerant laion pronontody on the enlopontis, exsteaeld to thue Sanario-, decrees of the Empress Theodora, rushed to arms; they fortilaion promontory on the Propontis, eastward to the Sangarios, and south to MIounts Dindylmon and Icla, thins elubracing p- fled themselves in the impervious mountain-fastnesses of Tetions of ancient Troy, Mysia, Phrygia, and Bithynia. It was phrike and Koloneia. They received powerful support from one of the richest and best cultivated provinces of the east, the Saracens beoncl the Euphrates-Unitarians like themwith ten flourishing cities. NIKAIA was the metropolis; Dory- selves-and under the commlland of Korbeas, their enthusiastic laion, Ilidaion, Apaczeia, lkTyrleia, Prusa, DrCg-otha, KLydis- preacher and skilful general, they defeated in several battles sos, and clApolloia. After the defeat of the Bulgariansin9 71, the dastard Michael III., whom Theodora, the mother, had John Tzimisces transported large bodies of that people into Asia sent against them. Having thus organized their revolt, ChryMinor, where they settled in the valley of Rhyndakos, near socheir, the successor of Korbeas, carried the arms of the H>ot yaioln (Ktutayah). eastern Protestants to the shores of the ~Egean. Nicoea, Ni265. V. THIEMA OPTIM:ATIITI-(~ a'O7rrmaov —northl of conledia, and Ankyra, were captured and pillaged. The Panthe former, is the ancient Bithynia, was governed by an officer licians stabled their horses in the cathedral of Ephesus, and called donestilcos, who commanded a select body of Palatine they vied with their auxiliaries, the Saracens, in their contempt troops —tKava',ro. NIKOOMEDIA was the metropolis: Ilflenzopo- and abhorrence of images and relics. At last Basilius the is, Astakos, and Pathelnq2jolis. Justiniai had built a mag- Macedonian led, in 873, all the forces of the empire against nificent bridge across the Sangarios. them. Chrysocheir was surprised and slain, and' with him VI. THIEAUA BUCELILAtRIORUAs-~Za BovueXhtapwv-received the glory of the Paulicians faded and withered." The empeits curio:us name from the sutlers-fwovKEXXtpmom-of the Greek ror penetrated through the Anti-Taurus; the impregnable army, who furnished the soldiers with bread and provisions Tephrike, deserted by its defenders, was levelled to the (/3oKiEXXot) during their campaigns. It was formed of the ground, and the Paulician republic destroyed; but the spirit northern part of Bitllynia and the western portion of Galatia, of religious independence still survived in the mountains on and extended to the river Halys. The metropolis was AN- the Euphrates.88 KYRA; with Ilera/cleia and Teon on the Pontus, flaudccliopolis XI. THEMA SEBASTIE. -~E/a:E,8ao-rTEas —west of the and tKrateia in the interior. formler, in the ancient Armenia Prima and Secunda. It took VII. THEMA PAPHLAGONUIr —f~a IHaiXayovwv —the an- its name f iom Julius Cesar Augustus, or Sebastos. Its princient province of that name, along the shores of the Black cipal city, SECASTEIA, lay on the I-alys. Sea, between the rivers Billakos and Halys. The Paphlago- XII. Ti-IEMA LYCA1NUDI-~O4a Avavod —t;lle frontier pronians, like the Cappacdocians and Cilicians, hlad a very bad vince on the western slope of Mount Taurus, hlad been anlmost reputation as scamps and charlatans. The metropolis was entirely depopulatedl ancd devastated during the wars with tile GANGRA (Germnanikopolis), on the mountains in the interior. Arabs, but lately restored by Leo Philosophus, tlle father of Soracb, Dalibra, fonopolis, Poinpeiopolis, and Amzas/tra, were Constantimle VII., wilo sent the Armenian Melias with colonies ~othi~er cities on the sea-coast. ~~8 John Tzimlisces tralnsplorted the Paulician sectarians fr'Oll the Ar266. VIII. TIHEMA Cn(ALnIiu —~4a XaoLXas-east of the menian frontiers to Thrace, where they settled in the valleys of M.Jount Armenian thema, the ancient Pontus, all along the sea; it ex- I-aemus. Their doctrines spread thence to Bulgaria and Italy, and they tended southeast to the upper valley of thke Euphrates. TRA- are supposed to have ]indlecl the first spark of refornmaticn aimoong the PEZUS (Trebizond), was the metropolis; the Greek colonies Oil Lolbards anlld Albigenses in the twvelfth century. ~osiheiml treats tihe the coast were still commercial and flourishing. Theoclosiopo- uicin ih severity; Gibbon hs done te justice in te t chapter of his brilliant history. In spite of some maystical extravagan-'st (Erzerum), on the western branch of tile Euphrates, ear they were certainly a virtuous sect; their scriptulres were pure; the frontiers of Great Armenia. they condemned the idolatry of thie Eastern Church, and nalnfully denounced the errors and crimes maliciously imputed to them by the E7 We follow here the Greek orthography. Greelks.

Page  73 FIFTH PEIPIOD.-THE BYZiANTINE EMPIRE. 73 of shepherds and flocks to the rich pasture lands of Mount Until the times of the crusades, we hear little about the Taurus. The theme embraced the ancient Melitene, and part inhabitants of the beautiful islands of the 2Egean-AryaLoreof Armenia Tertia. XayraL —as the Greeks call them; they suffered severely from XIII. THIEMA SELEUCIzE-~-E/,a l:EXEVKEltas-southeast, was the piratical expeditions of the Saracens. Earlier, they were formed of the ancient Cilicia and Isauria, on the Gulf of Issos, fanatic image worshippers, and when Leo the Isaurian conopposite to Cyprus. A border-count —KXEctrovpapX —com- demned the idolatry of the images, and ordered the churches manded here a colony of stout Bulgarians, who were settled in Constantinople and all the empire to be cleansed from that on Mount Amanus, to defend the important defiles, and op- abomination, the fire of rebellion spread from Athens throughpose the forays of the Saracens from the Euphrates. The out the ZEgean; the Greek islanders, arming a fleet, sailed to memory of these colonists is still preserved in the mod- the Bosphorus under the command of Stephanos and Agelliern name of the Cilician pass-Bolghagr-Dagh. Leo VI. anos, with the intention to depose the iconoclastic emperor and formed this thema, and made SELEUKIA, on the coast, its me- raise the pious prophet Kosmas to the throne. But all their tropolis. Tblsos, Ap/hrodisias, Dclisanzclros, Lacuzcados, blustering terminated with their total defeat before the city; Adcanca, and other eities, enjoyed a splendid climate and a their fleet was burnt with the Greek fire; their fanatic leaders fertile soil, but were much exposed to the piratical landings of were captured, and suffered capital punishment. the Mfohalmmedans. XVIII. EPARCHIA CrETm-'E7r-apXta Kp'Trmq. This fer267. XIV. THEnMA CInvyrxmorTARUMu-OE4a KtLvppatwrtv tile and important isle is not mentioned by Constantine, because — west of the former, ran along the whole southern coast of it was still in possession of the Saracens. During the period Asia Minor, westward to Miletos on the AEgean. Protected of their early enthusiasm, some daring bands of Spanish Arabs by the snow-capped ridge of Mount Taurus on the north, it was landed in open barks on the island, and after the most heroical the most smiling and cultivated portion of Asia Minor, with a exploits they succeeded, in 823, in subduing the Christian popugreat number of cities. It took its name from the small and lation, and the large island, in sight of the whole Greek empoor town of KIBvrRItHA, as if in mockery, says Constantine. pire. Crete became entirely Mohammedan, and it was not /ylctassa, Hatlidcr'znassos, Xcathos, T'Seissos, Patclra, Atta- until the downfall of the creed and the virtue of the Arabs, leit, Perg'e, Side, Selge, and many others. RH-ODEs, and the that Nlicephorus Phocas, in a brilliant campaign, A. D. 961, smaller islands, Kos, iyctlymbnna, I-Visyros, and Telos, belonged captured Candia and the other cities, subdued the island, and likewise to this thema. The Saracens had invaded Rhodes in forced the Mohlammedan population to accept baptism. 651. The colossal statue of Phoebus Apollo, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world which adorned the entrance of the great port, had long ago been overthrown by an earthquake, B.-THEMES OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE IN EUROPE. but its massy trunk and heaps of fragments were still scattered about the lmouth of the harbor, where they were gathered by 269. I. THEMA THRACIUM-~nca ~paKcfov-embraced the the greedy children of the desert, and sold to a Jewish mer- greater portion of ancient Thrace, and reached northward to chant from Edessa. The money-man got them shipped over to Mount Hlmus, at that time the frontier-line of the weakened the continent, and the precious brass was then loaded on ei$hz, empire. The country beyond the range toward the Danube hz/ndried camels, and carried away into Mesopotamia. was inhabited by Mavro-Bulgari, or Black Bulgarians, who XV. THEMA or PuRTEFECTURA CYPnI —()Eka KVr7rpov-the were reduced to subjection in 971, by the arms of John beautiful island of that name, which was governed by a consu- Tzimisces. Westward, the theme did not extend beyond lar-K-ovo-oXdpLos;. The metropolis was KoNsTANTIA, on the Mount Despotos and the river Strymon. Thrace was a fertile eastern coast. Kitionz, AncathZus, Paphos, Leukosia, Ti-imy- and beautiful region, but it had been sadly devastated during thos, the birthplace of Saint Spyridon, and other towns, were the Bulgarian wars, and was already inhabited by a mixed still flourishing. The Saracens having invaded Cyprus in 805, Sclavo-Grecian population. It was subdivided into five EPARunder Haroun-ar-Raschid, were expelled again by Leo the chrE' I. EUROPE, on the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, and ProArmenian in 816; but they yearned after that terrestrial par- pontis, with the cities Ar/kadiopolis, Ifieracleeia, and iLallipolis, adise, and soon obtained possession of the island again. To on the Thracian Chersonese. CONSTANTINOPLE, the Imperial the great regret of Constantine, " the infidel Hagareans" still capital, had its own government. II. RHIODOPE, west of occupied Cyprus in his day (950), but in 964, the brilliant Europe, in the mining district of Mount Pangkaion; cities Nicephorus Phocas finally recovered that gem of the eastern were Philipoip i Trajatojolis, AilZOS, Se?'tai, Partthiko2o/is, empire. and others. III. HEMIIMo NTrS, on the north, at the base of 268. XVI. THEMA SAMI INSUL: - E~4a a/kov-consisted the mountains, with Adrialnopolis and Ancthialos. IV. THRtAnot only of that large island, whose city was the metropolis of iKIA, northwest, in the interior, with P/hilipp)opolis, Berde, and the theme, but it extended along the Ionian coast from Jassos says Constantine, the islands of Thasos, Samzot/h'ake, and Innorthlward to the Adramyttian Gulf, with the beautiful cities bros. V. MvSIA, by which the imperial geographer undlerEphesos, Smzyr'na, lLa'zgnesia, Jfiiletes, Tra/les, Pergcam~on, stands the lately conquered Bul/gcaria-the ancient Moesia, Lebedos, and others. Its governor commanded the Thracian north of MIount Hmenlus, which had been transforlmed into the cavalry, which, on account of their quarters in that theme, fifth eparchy of Thrace, with the cities Tozis andl Constanzwere divided into the Ephesian and Adramyttian squadrons; tianca on the Pontus; Dionyso2polis, Icfapidaba, Ist'os, and the islands of the coast, such as Patmos and l-eabos, belonged others, in the valley of the Danube. The frontier districts likewise to the Samian theme. were governed by strategoi, almd the others by consularste. XVII. THEMA ZJEGEUIM PELAGUS —~eOa Aiya~om IIUXa)yoF II. TIHErmA MACEDONIIE. —~/a Malce(ovlas-was imhabited — embraced all the islands of the iEgean, the Cyclades, and by a great number of different Selavonian tribes formllemly unSporades, together with the coast land of Troy, all along the der the sceptre of the Bulgarian kings; but after their defeat Hiellespont and Propontis, as far as the rivers Rhyndakos and in 971 rendering homage to the Byzantine emperor. Tihe more Daskylion, north of Mount Olympus. Cities on the mainland numerous tribes were the Bu.r,;'dariotee in the upper regions of were Asses, lionz, IDarcanzos, Abydos, La7mpascakos, Pal-ion, Molunt Scardus, Belegezitzo, and Scadaztclte, in the plains of Kyzi/cos, and the large island P2rokonzzesos on the Pro- Macedonia, which already began to be called Blacl/ia. More pontis. east, on the Strymon, sat another Selavonic tribe, the Dr-gn10

Page  74 74 FIFTH PERIOD.-THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. bitce; Byzantine officials were placed in the districts, but their live in a barren region, difficult of access, without water, and power was nought; yet the vain and tasteless Emperor gives producing nothing but olive trees.""' In the time of the ima pompous description of ancient MIacedonia with her Philip perial historian, these Maniates paid to the royal treasury an and Alexander, but does not say a single syllable about the annual tribute of four hundred gold Byzants. The Greeks condition of that unhappy country during his own reign. The likewise occupied the cities on the coast. The general who con-1Thema was divided into three eparchise: mandecl the theme resided in Korinth; Patce e was a thriving I. CONSULAR MAIKEDONIA on the east, with Edessa, Pela, city, which had gallantly beaten back an attack made in 807 K~elle, Ajpollonict, Itlqcpolis, and Alqz29/hipoisis. II. IEGEMIoNIC by the forces of the Sclavonian hordes in the interior, united MAKEDONIA, commanded by a military officer —,iyEqobv-with with a Sarcenic fleet, cutting off all communication between the the cities Stoloi, Pelagoniac, Hctartzonia, and Zal)ar'a. III. peninsula and continental Greece. The beautiful plains of TIHESSALIA, with the metropolis NEAI PATRAI, (Hypata), in the Elis and Messenia, the table-lands of Arkadia, with the large valley of the Sperchios, and the cities Larissca on the Peneus, Sclavonic settlements at Nikl/i and Veligoszi, and the deep valTrikfe, Pharssalos and fatisareia. Denzetrias, on the Pa- ley of Lakonia, remained for centuries in the possession of gasetic Gulf, was a populous and flourishing commercial Sclavini, Melingi, Ezeritse, and other tribes. We shall find town in A. D. 896, when it was surprised, besieged, and them there again two centuries later at the invasion of the captured by a Saracenic army, that slaughtered its inhab- Frank crusaders in 1205. And yet the Greek race has suritants, and carried off its wealth, leaving nothing behind but vived all these disasters; it has impressed its own powerful smoking ruins and mouldering corpses. Lamnzi~a, on Mount nationality on the barbarians who, numerous as they were, Othrys, opposite to Thermopylxe; Gonzl/ti, and the islands yielded to the higher genius of the Jellenes; and while, during Skciathos,. Peparethos, and Skjepila (S/kopelos). the Middle Ages, the complete fusion of the Roman and Ger-!II. THIEIMA STrYomTNs — ~4 ta:~rpiowvo —in the upper manic races was effected in western Europe, the small Greek navalley of that river, beneath the highest peaks of Mount Sear- tion withstood the shock of the millions of Sclavonians who dus (35), was entirely occupied by Sclavonian hordes, and oppressed them, and preserved their religion, language, and governed by a border count, or Kfiszuriarctkc. nationality. But they naturally enough adopted some SelavoIV. TI:EMA THESALONTIC~ E-~E4.a ~Ea-craXovtlKj —was cir- nic expressions, and terms in their language, and some of cumscribed to the Chalkidicln Chersonese. Its metropolis was their customs and peculiarities. We therefore find a reTmreSSALONICE (Saloniki), on the Thermaie Gulf, the richest markable resemblance in the dress, habits, and even superand most commercial city of the empire during the ninth cen- stitions among the Greco-Slavic tribes of modern Turkey. The tury; but in 904 it was attacked by a numerous army of Wallachian and Servian are the herdsmen of the hill; the BulgaArabs who carried the city by storm, and after having plunder- rian, the ploughlan of the plain; the Albanian, the klepht and ed it of its wealth, brought thousands of its unhappy citizens warrior of the nmountain; and the Greek, the merchant, meaway for the slave markets of the East. Other towns in the chanic, and mariner of the coast and the island. The mild and peninsula were the celebrated Olynfthos, lKassandreia, and spirited Wlach, the robust and laborious Bulgarian, the idle and Staqgeira. The magnificent promontory tlag'ioln Oros (Athos), fanciful Servian, the crafty and haughty Arnaut, the brilliant, called the Sacr'ed Iliounzt, on account of the many monasteries ingenious, and bustling Greek —all mix together in their daily splendidly situated on the slopes of the mountain. There thou- intercourse like countrymen and brethren; as co-religionists, sands of nmonks and hermlits were occupied in copying Greek they all alike hate and despise the stupid Turk. The same manuscripts, and painting those Byzantine images that caused hope of inldependence and resurrection pervades them all, and the violent religious commotions during the eighth century. if they did not succeed in uniting their noble exertions for -— V. THEMA HELLAs —~0'Ia "EXXac-embraced the ancient liberty, it was the Russian giant who opposed a union so deprovinces, Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, and Ldcris, as far as the de- trimental to his own ambitious views in the Levant. file of the Thermopylhe, at the base of Mount Oeta; farther 270. VII. THEMA CEPHIALLENIlE —~OEa KeakaXkrJvas —em~Etolia and Acarnania, north to the Ambracian Gulf, and the braced the Ionian islands, Itepjhallenia, ife1rkyra- c (Corfu), Zaislands Euboea and AEgina. Constantine gives Hellas seventy- kynthos (Zante), Leukas (Santa Maura), Itzakcta,Jythera (Cenine cities, forty of which, however, seem to have belonged to rigo), and others smaller. the Peloponnesian theme. The only cities he mentions are, VIII. TIHE\IA NICOPOLIS —~E/ta NTLKOiroXrS-consisted of Skar'phia, Eleutsis, Dautlion, Chactironeia, Natupaktos, Delphi, the ancient Epirus from -.the Ambracian Gulf northward to Amphzissca, and Chalkis, on Euboea. Apollonia on the river Aozts (Laos); it had twelve cities, of VI. THEMA PELOPONNESUS-~'/oa HEIXor0dVVros —with the which NIKOPOLIS was the metropolis, and it was governed by metropolis KORINTHOS; among its forty cities were Sikyon, a general. Argos, and Lakedaiznonia (Sparta). The greater part of the IX. THEMIA PvRACI-IIUMI —'eia AvppaXtrov-was called interior of the peninsula was inhabited by Sceavonians, who, in NeT Ep2iZs, and consisted nonminally of the ancient Dacia, 860, cduring the reign of Michael III., had been brought back Dardania, and part of Illyria, with the metropolis DYvRACeIUI,, to the allegiance of the Emperor (196). The only larger district thie ancient Epicdamnus. But only the southern part of the that remained in the possession of the Greeks was the moun- province belonged to the Byzantine Empire. The Servians tainous region of Mount Taygetos —the present laIcuzi or Maina. In that retired corner of Lakonia, a small remmnant of "~'Irr7iov OT, oio To Cdopov Ma'h'jm olcropes oaK etFOlV &a-l T7,s Yyeeias, the Greek race survived, living in a state of isolation, poverty, vpPP?1'iV'@ EK)dB5v, aAA' ic rc' waAaLo7pv'PwcPawe ol Kai /Xp' roD and barbarism. So comnpletely ad they been separated from yV 7rCpa 7WZj eV0T7rLwV EAAJvES arporayOpEt0vvat ol -b iv roiS wpoaaAarois XP)'vo's e~cwoxcoxcpas evat Lal 7rporacu.vXTas TC'Z esIoAwv trr'roa wa-ratall connectioin with thie rest of the nation, and secluded from ois'EXXAevas. Constant. Porphyr. de administ. inaper. cal,). L.Bonne, 1840, -the influence of the Greek Church, that the rural population page 224. This interesting passage gives us full evidence tlhat the around the fortress of MIaima, on the western promontory of present ~faniatce (Mainotts), are the dlescendants of the ancient Llkonians, Tainaron, had remnained pagans until the reign of Basilius I., andl not Sclavonians, as has been stated by Chateaubrialnd and other suthe iMacedonian, A. D. 861-886, when the Greek nionks attend- perficial writers. See, moreover, Zinleisen, vol. II. pages 769-171. * conversion-. LThese mountaineers are not Schavo- Collstnlltin-le confounds, howrever, the eastern promontory Mlealea with the western Tainasron, on which the castle oef Maima is situated; but nians," says Constantine, "but descendants of the ancient this makes nio difference as to the main historical fact, and the inferHellenes, who had sought refuge on the promontory, where they ences drawil from it.

Page  75 FIFTH PEPIODI.-BENEVETENTO —ITALO-BYZANTINE REPUBLICS. 75 and Croats occupied the whole country north of the Drinus, and IV. DucarTUS CAJET/E, the dLclhy of Ga/ta, on its strongthe Bulgarians were settled in the interior. ly fortified promontory, north of Naples, recognized the soveX. TIEMA SICILLE-~/tJa LneU/cVas —had been conquered reignty of the Byzantine emperor, but enjoyed a republican;by the Aglabid warriors from Africa during the years 826-88 government, like the neighboring cities of Naples and (259), andcl was still in the possession of the Arab emirs. Amalfi. XI. TImEmMA LO-NGOBA aRDnIE-~Ema OAiAoyyoafap8o5s -consi,,ted of the last rellnants of the Greek possessions in lower Italy. XII. THEMINA CMI-EsRso m:TS —~05a Xepo-iO(Ios-'the'twentyThis themle embraced nominally four distinct parts, which ninth, and the last of thle themes, composed the western part of were separated by the almost independent Lombard duchy of the Taurian Chersonese (Crimea), and the opposite coast of the Beneventum, and the Arabic settlements on the Gulf of Ta- mainland, to the mouth of the Dnieper. The only cities in rentull. I. LoNGoAnDIA, on the southeastern coast, extended possession of the Greeks were Chzerson and B3ospozrus, imfirom the river Azfidcus (Ofanto), to the promontory of Otranto, portant on account of the commerce on the Don, Volga, and comprised the two provinces of Cctaitaanata-KKa7reTavdrov and the Caspian. Some few wrecks of the great Chaza-andl Basilic(a.tC —fr-apXa Bao-,wLK' —both east of Moun-t ric nation were still settled in the eastern part of Crimea; Apennine. BA1RIUlr (Bari), a strongly fortified city on the but the northern shores of the Black Sea, westward to the coast, was the metropolis of the theme, and the residence of Danube, formed then the Chanate of the horrible Petcheneges, the Byzantine governor-K arE7rOw. Brucldusisunz (Brundisi), who gave so great all anxiety to the Greek emperors, durI-iydr.untum (Otranto), Kallis2olis (Gallipoli), and Ta4'-eitwzni ing the later period of the tenth century. (Taranto), were important cities, with excellent ports, in constant coimmunication with Constantinople. Basanteellum (Ba- 27 1. DUCATUS BENEVENTI-The Lombard duchy of Benesantello), west of Tarentunm, on the small river Basentius, vento, embracing the interior provinces of Lower Italy —had where the emperor, Otho II., in 982, suffered a signal defeat been divided into the principalities of BeneCvento and Salerno, from the united Greeks and Arabs. The imperial troops and the county of Capztu, under different dynasties of Loinrushed with the greatest impetuosity upon the Greeks, who bard dukes, almost incessantly fighting against one another, fell back in good order,, and allured the headlong German but always recognizing thle sovereignty either of the German knights into an ambuscade of the Arabs, hitherto concealed emperor, when he was approaching at the head of his army, or behind the mountains. The heavy-armed Germans were of the Byzantine empire, when her catlapanr had received respeedily surrounded on every side by innumerable hordes of inforcements fiom the East, and defeated the Saracens. those swift horsemen. They were scattered and cut to pieces; These fluctuating politics continued until Duke Pandulph, Ironthe emperor galloped to the shore, and plunging into the sea, Head, in 974, succeeded in uniting the entire duchy, and by mounted as he was on his trusty steed, swam towards a Greek his alliance with the Greeks, was enabled to defend himself vessel. The greedy crew supposing the imperial fugitive t6 against the invasions of the Sicilian emirs. be a distinguished knight, sailed to the city of Rossazno, the German head-quarters, in order to receive the proffered ran- 272. DUCATUS VENETI, —the duchy of Venice, together som. But tile youthful German hero, springing boldly from with the peninsula of Istria, and all the islands on the Dalmathe ship, swam ashore, to the amazement of the Greeks, and tian eoast, belonged likewise nomuinally to the Eastern Emafter safely reaching land, he entered the city, and was there pire; but the homage rendered by the doges, or dukes, conjoyfully received by his queen and retinue, 13th July, 982. sisted nmore"0 in some public ceremony than in any subjection II. CALABIIA, o11 the southwestern peninsula, opposite to Si- to the imperial governor Of the Italian provinces. Venice had cily, with the cities Rtoscicdtnutm (Rossano), Sqtuilatiumb (Scuil- n maintained her independence under the administration of her lace), on the gulf of that namne (130). Rueg-itutn (Reggio), t'ri6uneS, nanied by an assembly of the people in each of the and Bisisznicanz?2u in the interior. The Saracens had taken separate isles. Yet powerful families began to influence the B zrunzdtsiun aund Bat'i, and driven the Greeks into Mount elections; jealousies arose in the small communities of the Apennine; but by agreat effort under the Emperor, Basilins I., islands; the tribunes themselves disagreed. To put an end and with the co-operation of Louis II. and his Franks, the inva- to these factions, the citizens of every island met in a single ders were defeated and expelled in 868, and the Greek cccta2ans assembly at Heraclea, in 697, and elected a chief of -maritime ruled the province until Robert Guiscard and his Normans, after Venice, whom they, in imitation of the Greeks called Duxthe brilliant conquest of all lower Italy in the year 1071, be- rloge-or duke, and who was considered as the lieutenant of sieged and took Bari, the last possession of the Greeks in Italy. the emperor of Constantinople. During the Lombardic wars III. DUCATUS NEAPOLs-The duchy of Naples, with the in Italy, thousands of refugees found an asylum in the islands flourishing cities, NEAPoLIs (Naples), the metropolis, SZr-''en2tumz of the young republic. She began to extemd her commerce Sorrento), ~uzcen'iac (Nocera), and Amatnahlis (Amalfi, Malfa). ancd political importance. Pepin, king of Italy (18'7), attacked Naples, with its elective duke, who often was a bishop, its her with a large army in 809; and the Emperor Constantine consuls, nobility, and popular assembly, had already become gives a pleasant account of thle awkward position of Pepin, an independent republic, and stood only in distant relations to who attemlptel in vain to irnvade the isles with his cavalry, by tile Byzantine empire. AmlALvI, consisting of the city of thinowing beams across the narrow inlet of 1'IadZrmau12azzc2 Amnlalfi, and quite a number of populous boroughs and castles, (MIalamoeco). Attacked onl all sides by tlme Venetians fiom imm stmong and bDeautiful positions on the Gulf of Salerno, was their ships, tile son of Chalrlemagne was obliged to retire clisthen one of the most wealthy and enterprising maritime re- gracefully, to the manlaind, after a heavy loss.l The Venepublics of Italy. The Amalfians, undcler their native dukes, tians then made choice of tlie largest island, the RImv ALTa made colmmercial treaties with the Saracens, who respected — Ricito-in the centre of the Lagoons, where they hIad setheir flag: they occupied all the smaller islands in the Gulf of' Naples, their mnerchllant vessels visited the distant coasts of the Genoa ammd Pisa preserved theil relations mitl Constatuinople, East, wlmene they brought the Indian products to the ports after they had been occupied by the LombLards. They sent every year a pwlhli'tG2 Ol silken balnel to tble rough the I n d ian Codcstatinople hrhics of France and Spainl. They were the rivals of the Venetians, a pclin, or silken bannert timte emperors, in Constant inople, which was consideredi as a sort of tribute. Venice, G~ata., Naples and Amnalfi, and the pride of Italy, uLntil their disastrous war witl Pisl, advanced more openly to independence. and tile capture and destruction of their city in the year 1137. 1 Constantini Porphylr. de Adrnizistrando Jimmp. cap. xxviii., p. 124.

Page  76 G76 IFIFTH PERIOD. —GREEK EMPIRE-CALIPHATE OF BAGDAD. cured their -families a-nd wealth, and there they built the city those valuable writings, from which we have gathered these of elzice, the capital of their republic. Solme years later) pages on the Byzantine Geography of the tenth century. they transported thither from Alexandria, in Egypt, the body of Saint Mark, the Evangelist, whom they chose patron of their state. His winged lion figured in their arms; and under his victorious banner they afterwards raised their great colo- OBiED-N ORI SA ANDC nial empire of the East. Thus strengthened by devotion andfRI: union, the bold Venetians, in 997, set sail for the Dallnatian ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPI-IY DURING THE TENTH CENtslands, where they were received with open arms by the TURY, UNTIL TIHE FOUNDATION OF TIHE EMPIRE OF Christian population. With their aid, they defeated the bar- THE SELDJUXIAN TUrKS. A. D. 809-1028. barons Croatian hordes who dared to descend on the coast, and the still more troublesome pirates of Narenta (260). A. —TIE CALIPHATE OF THE ABBASIDS IN BAGDAD. Istria, and all the Dalmatian islands hoisted the banner of A. D. 809 —1258. Saint MIark; they received their governors and judges from Venice, whose dloge front that year —997-toolk the title of 274. DiS3IEMiBERrENI oF THE ARABIAN EPIRE. —The DUX VENETIYE ET DALMATIUE. vast extent of countries which the first caliphs had united by the Koran and the scimitar of Mohammed, received no regular 273. Such was the political and military organization of the interior organization. The victorious Saracens permitted the Byzantine Empite, from the sixth to the thirteenth century, vanquished nations to remain mostly in the same condition as when the storms of the crusades swept away the enpire and its they found them at the time of the conquest. They urged institutions. Many of its provinces were then entirely lost; them to accept Islamism, but treated them generally with reliothers were, together with the capital, reconquered by the Pa-gio tolerance. others were, ~~~~~~~~~~~gious tolerance. livologi (1261), but the old divisions could not be renewed in The caliphs considered themselves as the lord possessors a state which thenceforth was circumscribed almost to the of the soil. Extensive tracts of land were reserved for their walls and environs of Constantinlople. With all the defi- domains; others were distributed among the Moslemn conciencies of its government, Byzantimn mrwas still the best or- querors, who paid only the tenth part of theproduce —aschz — ganizecl state of mediseval Europe. No state ever possessed while the nativepopulation were taxedwiththe fifth, and even the such a long succession of able rulers, and of brave and skilful third part of theirs for the lands they were suffered to retain. generals, competent to direct all branches of the adlministra- The Christian and Jewish inhabitants paid besides an onerous tion, and to beat back the attacks of foreign invaders, as the income tax —ta'aclil-and the degrading poll-tax —chag-atch. Eastern Empire. The talents of the emperors, as well as the The revenues were in part leased out to the highest bidsystemnatic order of the administration, held together their ex- der; and the poor subjects became thus exposed to the avatensive dominions long after the tendencies of medieval socie- rice, and the arbitrary extortions of the tax-gatherers. Abdty had urged the different nationalities to separate. In (on- el-Melek established the mint in the city of Wcasit, on the stantinople it was a constant object of the imperial attentionto Tigris, near Kufah (207), where gold-Cicainars-and silverprevent too great an acunmulation of power in the hands of dirrheqzs-were coined (222), under the direction of the any single official; and yet it was absolutely necessary to in- Jewswho were there quite in their own element. The Moslemin trust the generals and provincial governors with extensive au- were exempted from all personal exactions, except military thority, for they were called upon incessantly to resist the service. At their first appearance on the outskirts of the lebarbarian invaders, and to quell internal insurrections. Never sert, the Arabs had astonished the world as mruch by the did sovereigns perform their complicated duties with subch pro- squalid aspect of their Bedouin hordes, as by the rapidity of ounmd ability and perseverance as the Byzantine monarchs. their movements. Their cavalry was excellent; their foot, No mayors of the palace ever circumscribed their power; no too, was numerous, and rode on camels during the mlarell. pope ever made them bow down in the dust; nor were they re- The incredible activity of such an army, no less than their re. duced to become the puppets of their mercenaries, likethe caliphs ligious fanaticism, opened them the path to continual victory of Bagdad."3 A vivid and interesting picture of Byzantine po-and cocnquest. A century later, we find the Saracens admiralitics and masterly statesmanship, we shall see exhibited by bly armed with those flexible coats of mail, and peaked hel. the emperors of the Conmnenian dynasty during the following mets, which the crusaders afterwards considered as superior period of the crusades. to their own armature of Italian or French workmanship. The The Greek empire afforded during this period all asylum Saracenic scimitar a, bucklers, and lances, were as well tempered to the remains of literature and culture, preserved from the as they were beautiful; and nowhere in the world could sword ages of antiquity, which were destined to affordc abundant blades be brought to such a perfection of temper as among the sources of investigation and research for the learned in after Saracens, in Toledo, Damascus, or Persia. But after the times. C(esar Bardas, the brother of Theodora, kept the conquest, the Arabs neglected their tactics. Their principal state in excellent order during the reign of his unworthy he- strength' consisted only in cavalry and archers; their battle phew, Michael III[. (856-866), and raised Photius, a prelate array was formed of large squares, in double lines, of w^rhich the of eminent talents and profound learning, to the patriarchate archers occupied the first, and the horse the second; the nuof Constantinople. Basilius I. began the revisal of the Jus- meroes herds of cattle which they carried along with them, rentinian Code, which his son Leo VI. Philosophas, completed in dered their stay at one place impossible, andl they were therethe Basifica —?j ry ovr/tc3LtX os rev Bao-;X;Kxv. ILeo wrote an fore in continual movement. important work on Byzantine military science —r raKraKd — The splendor of the rapid conjquest could not destroy the and his son, Constantine VII. Porphyrogenitus, entirely de- seeds of decay which the faith, ideas, and manner s of the voted to the works of classical antiquity, and the study of the Arabs had sown in the lands under their dominion. The reliconstitution and political relations of the empire, has left us gious enthusiasm which had been so powerful an instrnment of'a See for interesting details, chap. liii. in Gibbon. compare Zink- conquest, became a source of disorcler when the victory was eisen andl Finlay in their worlks on mediseval Greece, previously men- won. The same fanaticism and amlbition which had built up tioned. the empire, were soon to destroy it again. Even under the

Page  77 FIFTH PERIOD. —MOIAMMEDAN DYNASTIES IN ASIA. ci7 reign of Aaron the J'ust-Haroun-ar-Raschid-the happiest the different leaders of influential families now begin the contest in the annals of the caliphate, rebellions had commenced in the about the dignity of the emirate (154). Mighty dynasties had West (214, 215), which showed the real weakness of so ex- in the mean time arisen throughout the broad lands of the Abtensive a dominion, intrusted to the fidelity and devotion of basid empire, whose frontiers soon became circumscribed within military governors. Haroun was the last Emzir al aZlluzenin, the walls of the city of Bagdad. The powerful chief of the who performed in person the pilgrimage to the sacred cities, Buids, Emed-ed-Daula (pillar of the empire), secured the digwhere Islamism had taken its rise. His successors, for the most nity in his family; but during the quarrel of the mock caliph, part shut up and inaccessible in their palaces, were living sur- Abdallah V. Kaim-Beamrillah (watching the will of God), with rounded by women and literary men, indifferent to the politi- his great emir, Malek-al-Rahim (compassionate prince), in 1035, cal affairs of their empire, which fell under the power of their the former called to his assistance the Seldjukian chief, Togril viziers and court-favorites. Haroun, like Charlemagne, his Bei, who, at the head of his Turkomans, destroyed the dynasty contemporary, divided his realm between his sons in such a man- of the Buids, and, as Turkish sultan, soon swept away all the ner, that the oldest, Mohammed IIo al-Amin, should possess the countries west of the Euphrates. A new and terrible power dignity of Caliph over the whole empire; while his younger bro- thus arose in the East, that of the Seldjukian Turks; yet the ther, Al-Mamun, obtained the government over the provinces poor Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad breathed more freely; the of the east, rLan, Kfer'mant, lKhor'asan, Tcabaristam, and the conquering sultans cared little about the domestic administrarest, as far as the frontiers of India-and his youngest brother, tion, the pomp and prayers in Bagdad; and the spiritual comMohammed III. Motassem was endowed with the provinces in omanders of the faithftul were now relieved fronm the ignothe north, Armaencia, Geor'ia., and Caucasus, both with extensive iminious vexations to which they had been exposed by the prepowers; yet as u2nder-kings, who were to obey the orders sence of their own arrogant servants, the Buids. Thus the of the Caliph. Civil wars between the brothers immediately Abbasids, succeeding from father to son, lingered on obscurely began to shake the empire; and a few years later, with Mo- in seraglio and mosque, during the eventful period of the hammed III. Motassem, the eighth caliph of the Ab- crusades on the shores of Syria, until the Mongolie invasion of basid family, the glory of that dynasty, and of the Arabic na- Hulagu in 1258, buried the last miserable caliph, Abdallalr tion, expired for ever. The Saracens having spread through- Mostassem Billah (guiltless through God), under the smoking out the splendid countries they had conquered, began to turn ruins of his capital. their attention to the quiet occupations of agriculture, commerce, and literature. " The courage of the South," says B.-/MOIHAIIMEDAN DYNASTIES IN CENTRAL ASIA. Gibbon, "' is the artificial fruit of discipline and prejudice; the active power of enthusiasm had decayed, and the merce- 275. I. The TAErIrEs-872. Smaller dynasties nary forces of the caliphs were recruited in those climates of arose early in the fertile Mawar-al-Nahr, beyond the Oxnus the north, of which valor is the hardy and spontaneous pro- (212), Sedjestan, so rich by her mines of gold ore, and in duction." Motassenm formed an army of fifty thousand Turks, Khorasan. The founders of these dynasties pretended to be defromn the warlike race of Tartars who lived beyond the Oxus scendants of the Sassanid kings of old, and they obtained a great and Taxartes. With their powerful aid, lie succeeded in influence on the inhabitants who continued to speak some diaquelling the rebellions which had sprung up around him, yet leet of the Persian language, and still secretly adhered to the the weakness of a throne founded on opinion, and supported by fire-worship of the Magi. Thus Taher, a brave general of Alforeign arms, was soon discovered by the proud Emirs who Mamnun, the second son of Haroun-ar-Rasehid, who had defeatcommanded the body-guard. The Turks stood in arms around ed the older brother, the caliph, Mohammed-al-Amin, received the throne of their benefactor, and their chiefs usurped the as a reward for his services, the hereditary government of dominion of the palace and the provinces. Their licentious Khorasan. There he made himself independent of Bagdad, conduct provoked the public indignation, and the hostilities and his sons ruled in Nischabmhr till the year 872. between the Arab population and the Turkish guards induced the Caliph to retire from Bagdad, and establish his II. The SOFFAnIDS-908. Yacub-Ben-Leit, the son of own residence, and the camp of his barbaric favorites, at a coppersmith-soqfiirs93 —a notorious robber captain, increasAskelr-el-Serramen'ra (207), on the Tigris, about twelve ed his victorious bands, and occupying Balkh in Tokharestan, miles above the City of Peace. Yet new revolutions broke and Cabul in Zabulistan (Afghanistan), captured the last out among the walis of the east; new heresies sprung up in prince of the Tahlerite dynasty, Mohammed, in 872, and the south, while Bagclad herself, became the scene of the most marched directly against Bagdad at the head of a large army. terrible convulsions. Death surprised him on the road, and his brother Amru sueFive caliphs perished by assassination in the course of twenty- ceeded to the government, but was overthrown in 900 by the five years (846-870), and at the end of the ninth century a Samanids. His nephew, Taher, who was elected chief by the general insurrection of the Arabs of the desert —the lKa~ra- leaders of the nation, perished in 908, and with him the family mnathians —gave the last blow to the authority of the Abbasid of the Soffarids. The Arabian language and literature excaliphs. Surrounded by rebellious lieutenants, fanatic here- tended rapidly throughout the East. At Nisehabuhr, there ties, and arrogant merenaries, the unhappy Ahmued IV. were flourishing schools and colleges, wherecelebrated editions Rhadi, in 940, placed his tottering thlrone under the protection of the Koran were published. of a more energetic authority, and conferred upon the valiant lMohammed Abu-Bekr-Ebn-Raik the dignity of an Zmir-al- III. The SAmANIns — 1004. Samans was a wealthy chief Onrah or Emir of the Emirs. This important office embraced of Khorasau. His son Ismael, the governor of Mawr-al-Nahm all the military and executive power as the mayordom of the made himself independent; and after his victory over the Sof palace among the Franks (118). The chief emir, whose name farids, he obtained the title of Pcadisha. The dynasty resided was inserted in the public prayers, obscured entirely the repu- in Bohchar'a; they soon lost their energy and virtue among the tation of the caliphs. He was thus stripped of all his political delights of the harem; they left the direction of the state influence, and nothing was left him but an empty religious affairs in the hands of their Emir-al-Omrah; and the tenth supremacy as apensionecl high-Friest of the mosquze. Thus from the year 940 the caliphs disappear as political chiefs; and 93 The descendants of Yacub were therefore called Soffarids.

Page  78 FIFTH PEIRIOD.-MIOHAMIMI. EDAN DYNASTIES IN ASIA. prince, Montasser, perished in 1004 unllder the sabres of the early in the dreary desert. SC'[Cftya, T/he'ii]-t, KIhowzcnesl, advancing Turks. Jfi pts/taca, on the Oxus. KuPliENOHsI-i-Aor/catchtc-(Alturgens), on the small lakes southwest of Aral, became the capiThe 18.- young Turk, Seec-The- tal and great emporiumi for the transiport across the desert to gin, in Ghasna in Zabulistan, was raised to the throne in 977 the Caspian. Among the native tribes of Turkomans were he and his son, Mohammed Yemin-ed-iDaul~a (the support of the Selljuk Turks, whose emirs early obtained a supremacy y over realm), penetrated into.lindlostan, took Kanodsclse, on the the other hordes; yet, during their conquests in western Asia, Djumna, and almassed an imimense booty from the anent and Kothb-ed-Din, the great Shah of Klhowaresm, founded the wealthy Indian temples. Great exertions were made to con- dynasty of the celebratecl itowzaesmicis in 1096, ncl exteclvert the Hindoos to the Mohalmmiedan faith, and the whole edl his conquests toward Buchara, Khorasan, Cabul, nay, even splendid and highly civilized country, as far as the Ganges, re- into the heart of Persia and Iral themselves. The Ghorids mainedc under the sway of the flourishing dynasty of the asned underBt a of tay rhe flourishing dynasty of the event on the east mustered their Indian forces to avert the rising Ghasnavids. But the Brahmins were watching the events in storm, but they were sept awa, and te hoarsm emGhasna; and when, in 1152, the Mohammledan princes were pire remained the most brilliant in central Asia by its comdefeated in their homes by the Seldjuk Turks, the fanatical pi the most brilliant in central Asia by its comp~mr, t erce, wealth, and military power, until the irruption of priests of Brahma called tihe Hindoos to arms, and drove the Genghis-Khan and his hundred thousand of Mongols in A. D. Arabs out of the country. Surrounded by enemies on all sides, 1219. After a most tremendous war, and the destruction of the last Ghasnavid sultan, Bahram, fell, and was succeeded by millions of men, the Khowaresiian power was annihilated by the powerful and popular family of the Gho'ilds. The princes that savage conqueror. The good Shah, Mohammed, perished of the Ghasnavid dynasty were friends of art and literature, on his flight in a desert island of the Caspian Sea. his valiant and the celebrated Persian poet, Ferdusi, the author of the son, Djelal-edl-Din Mankbernij one of the glorified heroes o admired epic s poem, " The Kings"-S/a/c'ttn ae- was an hon- Oriental poetry, surrounded by his faithful Khowaresmiians, cut his way from the Indus to the Euphrates. Here he fell beneath the dagger of a Kurd assassin but his warlike bands, V. The GiromIns-1212.-In the Ghor, that is, the plain b or fsouthwestern lowlands of Balkh, some vassals of the Ghas- pursuing rapidly their march to Palestine, prostrated Saracens and Ml~amlooks, Templ ars and Crusaders, burnt and destroyed navids had become popular as supposed descendants of the Jerusalem and her sacred sepulchre in 1244, and carried their Sassanid kings of Persia. Bahram, the Ghasnavid, resolved destroying arllms to the fiontiers of Egypt. There they disperstheir destruction. But Hussein defeated himn in a pitched battle, destroying arms to the fr ont iers of Egypt. There they dispersed; their chiefs, as m1lerenary conzdottie~'i, took service among took and destroyed Ghasna, and raised a new empire on the ruins of the G/ccsnavi7ds. Scif-ed-Din crossed tme Indus and the small princes of the Seldjukian Turks, on the Euphrates, and in Asia Minor, and the terrible namne of Khowaresmmia captured Delhi. He conquered Khorasan, and ruled by the Koran and thc sabre. The empire of the Ghorids consisted vanished from the page of history. They were devout MohamKV~oran and the sabre. The empire of the Ghorids consisted o edans; their cavalry was unsurpassed; and they cherished of Ghasn;a (Afghanistan), ]fulltcaz (Lahore), on the Indus, that peculia' affection for their steeds which is the general and Del/ti (Hindostan Proper), on the Ganges; but civil wars affection for their steeds we general characteristic of all the nations of the steppes. soon breaking out among his successors, the race of the Ghorids expired with Mlohammed III.;94 the Ghoricl governors in 277. VII. THE DILEIIDS 01or Ziarls 1080. The lands India made themselves independent, and the Khowaresmian swarms invaded and occupied their western possessions. soGth of the Caspiam Sea, antiqi2cleranR (Tabarestan) anf Ghiclpt, were, from remote antiquity, celebrated for their fer276. VI. The KHOWAruESAIIDSm -123 1.-The southwestern tility and beauty, and the martial character of their inhabitants portion of the ancient Turkistan or the vast region between the -the Mardi, Hyrcanians, and Parthians. The high mountain Caspian Sea, the Oxus, and the lake Aral, was called K/Ltow- ridges of Casplizus and Lcabttta, on the south, protected them acresn or Chorasmia (212). This country is in soime places of froim tile Arabian conquerors; the fleeing 3Magi, as well as thle an exuberant fertility, but encircled with deserts on all sides, persecuted Alite heretics, found a refuge on the secluded shores and of difficult access. The eastern shores of the Caspian Sea of that inland sea. Later, when the country had recognized the present nothing but long gloomy chains of arid downs and sovercignty of tile caliphs, the Saracen governors did not rocks; the plains at the base of the mountains, and the valleys tarry to declare themselves independent. Merdaviclsh ex tended his dominion over Ghila.n Kobean across the Methrough which the Ossa and other rivers flow toward the sea, tencel his inion ove Gil, IoestaC, across tIe Meseem condemned to aridity and solitude. The sea of Aral (sea cian plains to I/'t~ and Fca~s in A. D. 927, and in order to of eagles) or lake of Khowaresm on the east, contains, like the appear as the genuine descendant of the ancient Persian greatCaspian, sturgeons and seals (193), though its waters have kings, he imitated their splendid court and their luxury, and some saline impregnation. The shores of tihe lake are marshy, supported his dignity by the Turkish mercenary bands, who and an elevated ridge of dreary and rocky llills separates it flocked to his banner Order and tranquillity revived in tha fromi the Caspian. And yet was Khowaresm one of the most remote and happy region, under the sway of four princes of important regions of central Asia on account of its position be- the Dilemid dynasty; their residence was Scteristart in Dilem, tween the Oxus and those large inland seas. The great route on tlhe southwest coast of the Caspian Sea; science, literature, of lndian anid Persian comnmerce passed on the OxIus thlouglh and commiierce flourishecd under their protection; their young Khowaresm to the Caspian, and thence by the Volga to Nov- princes enjoyed the most careful cducation; a memorial of gorod and the Baltic, and by the Don to Crimea, Constanti- which is the curious book of Kiekawus: t/e m2irror of the nople, and the MIediterranean. Flourishing emporiums rose wvort/ty soveecig'nz. Kabus Shemsil-al- Mali (sun of highness), was both poet andl historian, but his natural ferocity and his 94 Mohammed fell beneath the daggers of the banditti of laihome, tie relations to his porerful neighbors, the Buids, continually enGCclcem.s, in 1212. The fanaticism of the Brlmllmins, nwho folrmed time tangled him in wars. After his death by the hand of a Turkish plriesthood and nobility of the Hindoos, frustrated all the attempts of soldier, te ram of the Dieids was conquered y the Seldjh the Mohammedan chiefs of the different dylnasties to make Islamism the ruling religion in Ilndia; nor did the Saracens ever succeed in intermix- an the Ismeites, who divided the spoils. ing with the native races; the ancient divisions of castes prohibited the VIII. TIIHE BUCDS-106.O-This remarkable dynasty took amalgamation. The Afghans became later the ruling mation in India. its origin from the warlike sons of the fishermian Bujahl-Ben

Page  79 FIFTH PER IOD.-MOHAMMEDAN DYNASTIES IN ASIA AND AFRICA. 79 Shetsa —Ali, Hassan, and Ahmed, who had served in the army -the Kaeissani&. The Mohammedan mystics-the Ghullat of MIerdavidseh of Dileml. Ali raised the banner of revolt -attributed divine qualities to Ali, and pretended that he in Kerteh, and with the assistance of his brothers he soon sub- stood in the relation to God-Allah —" as a son to the fajeeted IKoma, lasbin, and Ray (Rhagae), the important defile the'; " others again, and those were the most dangerous, betoward Khorasan (210), and ruled over all Persia. His capi- lieved in a second advent of the Prophet, intended to restore tal was SCHIRAS, situate in one of the most delightful valleys virtue, peace and happiness on earth; these were the terrible of the world.95 The caliph of Bagdad recognized his indepen- Kalcraqz athians, fiom the Arabian desert. Babek-Churrami dence and sought his alliance, and already the third Buid sov- preached the reform in Syria during the first half of the ereign, Ahmed Moez-ed-Daula (arm of the realm), had become ninth century. The masses flocked around the enthusiastic so powerful that the intimidated caliph was forced to nominate preacher; the most horrible cruelties were committed; more him Emnqir-al- Ozmrah. The Buids extended their sway victo- than twenty thousand human beings perished in tortures, and riously over all Persia, and ruled from the Euphrates to the the whole country was strewn with corpses and ruins. The fafrontiers of Khorasan, where they came in hostile contact natical spirit having once been excited, Al-Faradsh-Ebn-Osmanwith the Ghasnavids by whom they were repelled in 1039. al-Karmath96 appeared in 890 as the representative of MoBut in Bagdad they maintained their dignity as great emirs hammed, preaching the advent of a seventh and last prophet, and viziers of the caliphs, until, weakened by their own violent Ismael-Ebn-Djafer, in whom all divine secrets would be deposfamily feuds, they became, in 1056, an easy prey to the Sul- ited. He gave a mystic interpretation to the Koran, and emtans of the Seldjuk Turks. ployed a most effectual and cunning deceit by initiated Dais, to spread his fantastical doctrines. These missionaries soon formed in the interior of Arabia a numerous band of followersC. M[O:IAiMuEDAN DYNASTIES IN SYRIA. the Karamathians-who, victorious in the eastern province of 278. IX. THE HAMADANIDS, K ELABI3DS AND OnAILIDS- Bahrain, advanced, sword in hand, to the gates of Bagdad, where 1086-from the tribe of Thaleb, formed, in 892, their petty |the caliph sat trembling on his throne. 9 ecca, Bs'arbed, dynasties in Mesopotamia and Syria. The former were divided Bassra, iaak, were laid in ashes; in 929, iecca shared th into two lines, the Haizadanids of Mossul (A. D. 892-978), same fate. Thirty thousand people were butchered during and those of Ha/c/b, who were vanquished by the Kelabids i the defence; the Beit-A iaimwas desecrated; the black stone the defense the Beit-Allah was desecrated; the black stone 1014. The realm of the latter, on the Tigris and Euphrates, carried off in triumph, and not brought back to Mecca until in 1014. The realm of the latter, on the Tigris and Euphrates, c was overthrown seventy years afterwards (in 1084), by the 950. After having spread devastation and murder over the was overthrown seventy years afterwarcds tin 1084), by the Okailids, who had already possessed themselves of Mossul in Oriental world for nearly a century, the Karamathians were at 996. These small Mohammedan dynasties are more interest- last exterminated in 985, by Samsam-ed-Daula, but their blood ing to us on account of the flourishing state of Arabian litera- sect revived later in the ISIAILIYEH or Ismae/ites, o Mount Lebanon in Syria, alncl the still more terrible ture at their courts, than from the influence they exerted onnd the still more terrible the political events of the times. Several of these princes ASSASSINS, at Rudhar and Lamsir in Dilem, on the shores of such as Seif-ed Daula of Mossul, were themselves poets orthe Caslan Sea. philosophers, and they united around their thrones the most distinguished men in every branch of art and science. at that E.-MMOIIAiIEDAN DyNAsTIEs IN AFrICA. time nore appreciatecl by the Arabs, than aniong the hunting and fighting princes of Christian Europe. 280. XI. TE TULUNIDS IN EYPT.-The governor of Dejacr-.l]essr, or Egypt, Ahmed-Ben-Tulun, declared himself D. —SEcTs OF BMOHAMMIIEDAN IHERETICS. independent of the caliph in 868. He took the title of Sultan, and repelled all the attacks of the Abbasids; but his 279. X. THE KARAMrATIANS IN AAlIA. —The early hereti- successors became weakened by their internal quarrels, and in cal sects which sprung up in the Mohammedan creed, differ in their the year 905, Egypt fell back to the caliphate. character entirely from those which disturbed the Christian XII. Mohammed-al-Ikhshidc, however, imitated the exchurch after its recognition byConstantine in the beginning of the ample of the Tulunids in 935; all was again rebellion and fourth century, because they were not dogmatical, but political; confusion. Abul-Kasem and Abul-Hassan-Ali succeeded him; they arose about the legitimate succession of the Prophet, with- but the Ikhschids were defeated and expelled in 969, by the out touching on the main doctrines or tenets of the Koran itself. intelligent and brave Moez-Ledin-Illah, the Fatimnid. The great schism in the East began as early as the election of Abu-Bekr instead of Ali, the husband of Fatima the daughter XIII. The FATIMIDS pretended to descend fiom Fatima, the of Mohammed, in 632. Later, some sectarians claimed the daughter of Mohammed, and Ali, his faithful vizier. They succession for Hassan and Hossein, the sons of All-the Seid- had destroyed the Aglabicd chiefs of KfaLirottan in Magreb-al/d —others recognized only the third son of Ali as successor Ausah. Moez engaged an army of Berbers, and (213) marched upon Egypt. The defenceless country fell into his power; he 5 Slmiraz in Farsistan, thirty miles southeast of the celebrated Per- established himself at Kchira (Cairo), on the Nile, and took mepolis (now in ruins), has a splendid climate, abundant clrops of rice, the proud title of Caliph and Emir of the faithful His suewheat, and barley, the finest fruits, larger in size and more delicate in cessors aintained themselves by shred politics, against the taste than those of Europe; the grapes, oranges, and apricots of Shiraz a are the pride of the Persians. In spring the air is mild, and perfumed with the odor of the finest flowers, and the eye delights in the rich and of Jerusalem. Hakem Beanlrillah, the third caliph, became varied colors that, like a carpet, cover hilland dale. The garden night- the venerated founder of the religious sect of the Druses, irngale (the bfil-bfl), the goldfinch, and the linnet, unite at this season though he appears to us a madman. Prompted by some sustheir melodious accents. Nor is the beauty and elegance of the Shiraz women less celebrated than the politeness and honesty of its citizens. 96 Al Faradsh took his name from the small town of Karmath, near With so many attractions, Shiraz has become the most desirable resi- Kufah, in Al-Batayeh on the Euphrates, and assumed the lofty title of dence in Persia, and the favored retreat of its poets-a Hafiz, a Sa'adly, the Guide, the Director, the D)emonstration, the WlVord, the Holy Ghost, or a Diamy, who have sung its praise in their tender and harmonious the Camnnel, the ITerald, and the Forerunner of the Prophet and of tlhe strains. Angel Ga'briel,

Page  80 s0 SIXTH PERIOD. —A. D. 973-1096. —EMPIPRE OF CANUTE. picion against the Christians, he ordered the holy sepulchre at Jerusalelm to be demolished in 1010 -an order which was carried into execution by the governor of Ramleh. Tile building was razed to the foundations, and much labor was expended to deface and destroy every trace of the sepulchre of the Saviour itself."7 His laws against zcovlenz were as absurd EUIROPE, WESTERN ASIA, AND NORTHERN as his lectures in his temple of wisdom. Every Monday and AFRICA Wednesday the lembers of the wisdclom-society assembled for theological disputations. They formed c a university partaking THEIR POLITICAL GEOGRAPH~Y AND ETHNOGRAPHY,trongly of Ismnaelitic sectarianism. The house of zoisclont DURlING THIE TIMES OF THE CRUSADES-A. D. 1096was built in Cairo, and furnished with libraries mnathematical 1291. instrumentsi professors, and other officers. All persons were allowed access to the literary treasures storedi therein. The CONDITION OF TIHE CHRISTIAN AND MOHAMMlEDAN caliphs often presided at the lectures; the faculties were clivid- WORLD BEFORE THE FIRST CRUSADE. ed into logic, mnathemnatics, mlecline, and law, and the Mohalmmedan professors dlonned their doetorial mantles, as did their 281. DIvISION. —At this important period in the world's Christian brethren in the medimeval universities of Europe two history, when the great religious movement in the West precenturies later. The successors of Hakeln hid themselves in cipitated Europe upon Asia, we find twenty-six principal and the seraglio; they lost all influence, and on the death of the independent states and nations in Europe and the adjacent eleventh Fatimid, Ahlded-Ledin-Illah, in 1171, the great Kiurd, parts of Asia and Africa, the greater part of which particiSala-ed-Din —the son of Ejub, mountecl the throne of Egypt. pared more or less ardently in those events. Of these states, eight were situated in Northern Europe. I. The kingdom The first Arabian conquerors treated that country with of cl'eand; II. that of ScolaCncl; III. that of Engbarbarity; they did not spare the magnificent monuments of h~,nzrt; IV. that of Denmaq?'k; V. that of Slctvinia~ or Y-e)zdantiquity, and employed the stones of the pyramlids for their /clcld; VI. that of _/ozwcty; VII. that of Swedenz; and buildings. The Fatimids, on the contrary, protected art VIII. the Grand Duchy of Kussimt. Five of these had, at and literature. Cairo was by them adorned with those beau- the beginning of the eleventh century, belonged to the empire tiful mosques which we still admire at the present clay. Their of Canute the Great, and they took, with the exception of sepulchral monuments, likewise, were reared in the noblest style England, no part in the first crusade. In central Europe we of Saracenic architecture. The last caliph, Ahded, possessed find five states, in some of which the movement was responded the largest library that ever had been collected in any Moham- to with enthusiasm; they were, IX. the kingdom of _iPance redan country. Astronomy and chemistry flourished at the X. the Romaqio- Geqzanzic Evzjqli~'e' XI. the kingdom of court of lcdkenz, whose name has been given to the astronom- _Polczdc; XII. that of -tcg'a'-y; and XIII. the Chanates ical tables of the greet Arab astronomer, Ebn-Yunes. Egypt of the Uzi and Kulnani, or Polovtzi. In Southern Europe was then the homne of wealth and prosperity, by the fertility of we behold six states, all with fanaticism, armed against the its soil, by its flourishing industry, and its extensive commerce Mohammeldans of the East and South: these were: XIV. the with India.98 Thus, then, we find toward the mliddle of the kingdoms of Leont and Castile; XV. that of Araoton and eleventh century, the Mohammedan world broken up into Ncatairac; XVI. the small kingdom of Valenzcia, all in quite a number of smaller dynasties in Asia and Africa, while Spain; XVII. the Norman duchy of Puglia, Calafabia, and the two contending high priests, the Abbasid"s in Bagdadl, Sicily; XVIII. the Itacianz republics; and XIX. the Byand the Fatimidcl in Cairo, have lost their spiritual and secular zatilze empire. In Western Asia, four states, or groups of power; and Islam would perhaps already have gone to ruins, states had been forled on the ruins of the caliphate of Bagif its followers had not been roused to a new and more violent dad; they were, XX. the sultanate of Rt.unz, in Asia 3Minor' enthusiasm, by the gigantic invasion of the Christian arms XXI. the sultanates of the Ortokcids in _AcrcZidn and DiS-be' from the WVest. Z ir; XXII. the states of the AttSbeks in Al-Djesirah and Persia, andcl XXIII. the Tukcis? principalities of Anztioch, Such was the state of the East when the rapid conquests |iafeF and YDancascus, in Syria. In Northeril Africa and Southof the Turkish Sultans in Asia Minor began to threaten the ernl Spain, we find three powerful Mohammedan empires; they existence of the Byzantine empire; and their occupation of were, XXIV. the caliphate of the Faticzids in Egypt; XXV. Syria and Palestine at once roused the indignation of the war- the kingdom of IKcLih'o0Z.11 (Mahadia), and XXVI. the empire like and pious Christian nations of Europe, and brought on of the Alzno.ravids, in Magrab-al-Aksa and Andalos (Spain). those migrations and expeditions to the Holy Land, which for almost two centuries —1096-1291, changed the geographical position of nearly all the leading nations in Orient and Occident. I. NORTHERN EUROPE BETWEEN 973 AND 1096. The following chapter, and the accompanying mnap, will serve to exhibit these changes. TE EMPIRnE OF 0ANUTE TIIE GREAT, A. D. 1016-1035.'7 See Professor Robinsonl's Biblical Researches in Palestine, vol. ii.,'252. D)ENnARrC ENGL AND (Bretlancd), and Not. wAY were, p. 46. A clruel and senseless act, which at that time of religious vene- in the beginning bf the eleventh century, united under the ration fol the sanctuaries in Palestine, excited the highest indigfnation, seeptre of Knutd Swenclson or Canute the Great. Szwedes, and the deepest grief all over Europe, and began to prepare the minds Wels], and,Scots rendered homage to that active and successfior the armed occupation of the I-Ioly I;ald —the crllales. | ful monarch, who seemed destined to lay the foundation of a.s The shrewd merchants of Egypt lept allknowledge about India |t mig~hty empire inz the North.'Yet a point of concentraztion secret among themselves, and answered to the inquiries of the Venetians thant the wvind waftedl the precious spices and incense from thle trees of was wanting; the di~fferent nations of the empire were situated tie earthly paradise; that the ieile carried them along fi'om his un- too far off from1 one another, and a reign of nineteen years was known springs, and that it required deep mystical lore, and a particular not suffieieintly long to accomplish the amalgamation. Nor aert, t;o fish them17_ out of the waflter! did Kin~: K~_mud leave any enterprising and talented prince be

Page  81 SIXTH PERIOD) A. ). 973-1096.-IRELAND]-SCOTLAND. 81 hind him to continue and fully to carry through the great idea of the church, the Canfinnies and their vassals met to the numof union. A speedy separation therefore took place on the her of thirty thousand horse and foot, and swore allegiance to death of the Danish monarch in 1035. But the political and their king-elect. Yet the Irish people was not destined to social consequences of this temporary union of all the North- progress by its national development to civilization and happimen under the raven banner of Denmark was nevertheless of ness. Dermod iM'Morliochad, king of Leinster, who, on account great importance. The desolating piracies of the Danish and of an atrocious breach of hospitality and his unchained pasNorwegian Vi-kings terminated for ever with the conquest of sions, had been driven from the island, fled to England, and England, and the well-organized government of an enlightened applied to Henry II. to replace him on his throne, offering to Christian King, and the final introduction of Christianity and hold his kingdom under the English monarch as the price of civilization among the half barbarous Northinenwas then most his restoration. Richard de'Clare (Strongbow) and other warauspiciously accomplished by the strenuous exertions of the like English nobles, at the head of their knights and archers, English bishops and missionaries, who were by K1ing Knud pro- then landed on the coast of Leinster in 1169, and by their sumoted to the episcopal sees in his states.9 IIWe shall now give perior Normnan armnatnure and tactics, defeated the Irish in every a short description of the geographical aud political position of battle. Though only some few hundreds, the Norman-English the northern regions during the eleventh century, before the stormed and took Wexford and Dublin, and routing King beginning of the great crusade to the East, and the military Roderic aind his unwieldy masses in a great battle, Strongbow expeditions of the Danish kings for the conversion of the Scla- remained the master in eastern Ireland. In 1172, King Henry vonian and Lettic nations on the southern coasts of the Baltic. came himself to Ireland with a splendid train of noblemen and troops, and the English thus secured a firm footing in Leinster and Munster, where they built Cacrrick, Kfilkenny, and other I. KINGDOMl OF IRELAND. castles. The petty chieftains did homage to Henry, and re28. INTERNA FES ExPUSION OF TE DANES AND ceived him in Dublin with all the pomp of a sovereign. The 283. i~XT~n~LN Fn1uDs, ]~XUUSrcr rON~ of TIim DANiLESI AXD Pope Adrian had earlier (1154) granted the English king the 0ONQUEST OF H~ENa~~II. —The internal history of the five t and the ce- sovereignty over Ireland, on the condition of reducing it comkingdoms of Ireland (219), during the tenth and eleventh tenpletely under the spiritual authority of the Rtoman see, and turies, is better known than that of Scotland during the same paying the Peter's pence. This title had lain dormant during period. It presents, however nothing but wars mong the the troubles with France; but the ecclesiastical council held at clans, invasions of the coasts by the East-zmen, or confeder- Cashel near Tipperary, now at once recognized the bull and the acies of the Irish princes against those foreigners who already Papal donation. Large tracts of lands were then portioned possessed the whole eastern and southern portions of the island. out among the principal English knights and warriors, the sysout among~ the principal Eng~lish knights and wrarriors, the sys_~n the year 1L014, Brian [Boru~ wiho stands recorded in the a2nIn the year 1014, Brian Boru, who stands recorded in the an- tem of the English feudal laws and tenures was introduced, and nals of Ireland as a model of royal virtues, a valiant hero, and a commencement thus formed for establishing the British domina consumannate statesman, raised himself to the sovereignty of ion throughout the island. During this period the portion of the the whole island. He then gathered the native forces, and ad- island subject to the English laws was called Pale; it extended island subject to the English laws wa~s called _Pale; it extended vancing upon Dablin, the capital of the Danes, defeated them their over the southeastern part of M}unster, Leinster, and the east totally in the bloody battle at Clotaf, where they lost coast of Ulster, and was divided into twelve counties of Dublin, thousand celebrated mai-Zmen, and after another rout of the 1 072, the Northmenwere driven from theirMeath, Kildare, Uiiel (Louth), Cather-lougfl,,:. h (Carlow), HfexDublin Danes in 1072, the Northmien were driven from their' ford Wate,)ford, Cork, Kilkenny, Ierr'y, Limterick, and Ti>last stronghold, and expelled from the island. Brian himself e'Y e h lilly t s efcdbt sd o a fell and the civil wars among the Canfinnies flashed up more Yoregy. Yet the tranqunillity thus effected hy the sword of a foreign invader was Inore nomin~al than Teal. T'he EnSglish violently than ever. The moral and social condition of the on i ves or nin thne Te lis barons themselves soon split into tw~o contending factions~Irish people during the latter half of the eleventh century, was ns lv n sli itw ct d on s ]English by bl~ood and English by births-the old conquetrors as wretched,' says Thomas Moore, in his history of Ireland, and their descendants who, by intermnarriages with the native "as can almost be conceived; and it appears that even the Celts, had acquired the Trish customs, habits, and prejudices; austere discipline of the Church gave way in this general deand the proud barons from En~glandc, Who later came over to generation and confusion. All these disorders made a national and the prod barons from England, who later cae over to the island, with the hope of obtaining grants of castles and synod necessary. It canme together at Kells in Meath in 1152, lucrative situations under the royal government. The former under the presidlency of a:Roinish Car~dinatl. Tithes were here lcaiestain ne h oa oenet h one under the presidene of a Romish Cardinal. Tithes were here gathered their Irish vassals under their banner, and all was introduced for the support of the clergy, ad archiepiscopal again dissension and civil war. The horrors of this state of inaills distributed to the Bishops of Dublin, Cashel, and Tuaam pals distributec to tie Bishops of Aragih, Csheel and Tstica ternal anarchy in Ireland continued throughout the twelfth and unnder the archiepiscopal chair of Ar'vzag'h. The ecclesiastical Ithirteenth centuries, and w ere still incra sed by the Scottish revolution thus tranquilly and speedily effected, was followed irteen cenures, and wer stil increased b the otts invasion of Robert Bruce, who after his glorious victory over by another of a political nature, which might have had bene- Edward II. at Bannockburn in 1314, sent his brother, Edward ~fieial consequences for the Irish nation. Rodlerie O'Clonnor, Bruce, to make a diversion against the English in Ireland. the king of Connaug'ht, was elected sovereign king at the The brilliant Edward for three years kept the field victoriously great convention of Atzboy in 1 167. There, besides the heads against his mortal foes, but perished in 1318, in the battle on the Fcaug~h'acld near DSunclalk, and with him the hopes of "o Canute conferred many bishoprics on English prelates in Skaane, a uion with Scotland. Sealand, and Fyen. St. Olaf of Norway, and King Olaf Skbtkonning of Sweden, also invited priests and monks from England for the conversion of their subjects, as Sigefried, Siegeward, Wulfi-ied, Rodulf, and others. The consecration of these bishops was performed by Ethel- III. KINGDoiM OF SCOTLAND. nothi Archbishop of Canterbury, who strove with all his might to obtain for the English Church the supremacy over that of the north. 284. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND R[ELATIONS TO E~.NGLAND. The Archiepiscopal See of Iamburg, poweifully supported by Rome — The history of Scotland remains still enveloped in darkness with investitures, andby the Benedictine Order with devotion and len- after the unio- of the Picts and the Scots or ialriads, as the mlg, was then zealously engaged in the extirpation of heathenism in the north. See the excellent history of the Anglo-Saxon'Kings by Dr. J. Gaelic tribes of the Highlands were called by Reda. The M. Ltappenberg. L~ondon, 1845. Vol. IL., page 204, et seq. successors of Kenneth II. availed themselves of the confusioll 11

Page  82 82 SIXTH PERIOdD.-A. D. 973-1096. SCOTLAND. which the Danish wars occasioned in England to extend their barons of the plain, in every expedition against the common dominion over the south. Canute entered Scotland with an enemy.'~~00 army in the year 1031, and advancing through the Lowlands, 285. POLITICAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL DIVIsiON. —The reforced King IMalcolm II. to acknowledge himn as his liege noval of the royal government to the Lowlands was followed lord. Malcolmn III., Kenmore, in the subsequent period, gave by results disastrous to the future prosperity of the Highshelter to the Anglo-Saxon refugees who had escaped the lands. The Gaels soon sunk into poverty and neglect; the Norman sword at Hastings. He imarried the sister of Edgar administration of the laws in the hills became inoperative, or ~Etheling, and supported the English in their repeated at- was so feebly enforced, that the Highlanders gave themselves tempts at insurrection against their Norman oppressors. But up to violence and turbulence, and took justice into their own when William the Conqueror crossed the Tweed, in 1073, -hands for those injuries which the laws of the land could no and devastated the Lowlands with fire and sword, the Scot longer redress. It was then that they formed themselves into became so terrified, that he met the invader, and rendered clans and tribes, which elected their chiefs, and became almost him homage as his vassal and liegeman. The proud Wil- entirely independent of the crown. The power of these patriliam retired, satisfied with this humiliation; he fortified archal chiefs was very extensive; they acted as judges and arbiYeewcastle and Carlisle, but permitted his Scottish vas- ters in the quarrels of their retainers and clansmen; and, being sal to retain Cumberlancd, Westmgoreland, and the north- supported by their tribe, they mocked at the royal authority. ern portion of Northumberland, as fiefs of the English The most powerful clans in the west were the Camnbells, the crown. CacGnerons, the I'acdceans, on the peninsula of l'orvenz and The Scots bore this vassalage with impatience; they often in the island of 1&lull; the M12acdozugalls of LoErn, the /Ilacinvaded the northern districts of England, and many an obsti- donalds of Glencarrqy, the Stewarts, 2/lackenzies, and others. nate battle was fought with the Normans on the border. The On the eastern slope of the Grampian hills resided the StewScottish kings continued to protect all emigrants, both out- arts of Athol, with the Robertsons, the Ferguzesons, the Gorlawed Saxons and dissatisfied Norman knights, and gave them dons, the Grcanzts, the 1aIctcctintoshes, the Rosses, and others. estates within the kingdom and important places in their coun- The Sinclai rs were situated on the northern promontory; and oil. The alliance of Malcolm with the Saxon princess, and along the lakes in the interior, the Frazers, a/Iaccphzer'sons, and the establishment of the English patriots on the border, were the JIaccgr'egors. All the tribes scattered on the western coast events of the highest importance for the consolidation of the of Scotland, from the Mull of Ca ntire to the northern cape, Scottish kingdom. The amalgamation of the Saxons and Nor- and in the Hebrides-Innisgail, or the Isles of the Gaelsmans with the native Pictish population was easy, and thus recognized as their supreme chief the LORnD OF TIHE ISLES, who arose that warlike borclder-knightlhood which for centuries be- resided at the castle of Dzunstc/fnage, in a strong position onl came the bulwark of the independence of Scotland. These the western coast of Argyle, the ancient abode of the Celtic fierce warriors-the mzoss-tr'oopers-built their towers or cas- kings. Sometimes he dwelt in the castle of Ar'to'rnish, on the ties in the strongest positions of the Cheviot hills, or in the strait of Mull, or in the isle of Yla (Isla), the finest and best pathless moors; there they gathered their tenants around cultivated of the Hebrides. There were held the courts of their strongholds, and were always in arms, and prepared for judicature, the members of which, like the ancient Areopagites forays into the country of the enemy, or for the defence of on the Mars hill at Athens, sat on seats cut out in the living their own (258). The borderers, high and low, the knights rock. There, too, the chiefs of the island-clans and those of and their tenants, composed small communities, united by the adjacent coast presented their sovereign prince with the military discipline; the common danger brought together the sword of command, while the bishop of Argyle anointed him lord of the castle and the peasant of the hamlet-the crested with pomlpous ceremonies. The sovereign power of the Lord cavalier and the humble pedestrian boor, to whom the spur and of the Isles, however, was more nominal than real; it did not the lance were forbidden in England and Germany (245). In extend over the Hebrides, because he acknowledged the king Scotland they did not form separate nationalities. Each war- of Norway as his superior, and the bishop of that see, who rior was armed as he best could be, in complete armor or in a resided at ionza (I-colm-kill), was suffragan of the ecclesiastical lined doublet; each mounted his war-steed or his pony. The province of Nlidaros in Norway (223). peasant, whom the arrogant Norman disdainfully called villain, The national aversion of the Highlanders for the Scots of was in Scotland styled gude-nzman; and the same language was the Lowlands, tended to maintain this purely Gaelic royalty; then spoken in the castle, the town, and the cottage. The Low- and during the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Lords or lands having thus been divided among military chiefs, the feudal Kings of the Isles, of the family of the MacDonalds, treated system was introduced in its severity; and the power of the with the kings of Scotland as independent potentates;-their king would have been very circumscribed, if the barons had rivals in ordinary times, but their faithful allies against the not been continually engaged in private feuds with one another. Norman dynasty of England, as they proved later, in 1314, A second cause of disorder arose from the hostility of the Gaelic when Angus-Og MacDonald, then the Lord of the Isles, inhabitants of the Highlands. The Celts, or ancient Scots, fought so bravely by the side of Robert Bruce in the battle at had vanquished the Picts (220); but their native kings since BannLockburnll.~ Kenneth II. had allied themselves with the Gothic race, and On the eastern coast lands lay the counties of BuZzzhc2han, taken their residence among them. The proud Highlandcler 21'far~', AngZgus Strcat-leern, Fife, and the viscounty of llernis. despised the men of the plain, and called them indiscrimlinately TIThe southern Lowlands were likewise divided amlong many Sassanzach, because they spoke the Saxon or Scandinavian powerful feudatories, anid every hill was crowned with a firowndialect. The Gaelic considered their hostile descents and 1o For interesting sketches of the life and manners of the Scottish their levying blacck-mactil in the Lowlands merely as reprisals boelelr-knigllts or moss-tl-oopers during the middle ages, see thi.e Mlinof what had belonged to their forefathers. Yet this inter- strelsy of the Scottish Border and tle Border Antiquities of Enylalzd and nal hostility between the two races in Scotland, ceased at Scotladcl by Waltelr Scott, and likewise his admirable poems and tales. once when the blazing beacon-fires on the border-heights an- In ballad poetly all the other nations of Europe must yield to the nounced the approaching invasion of the Anglo-Normans. Thie St See the e to ate Scandinaviott's Load thof te sles, and Augstin Highland clans then gathered with enthusiasml, and descend- Thielry's History of the Conquest of England by the Norsnass. Loning with claymore and target, joyfully joined the mail-clad doll l82s. Vol. IL, page 274, et seq.

Page  83 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. SCOTLAND-ENGLAND. 83 ing castle. The eastern county of /!arch belonged to the slaughter (called c'ro in the ancient Scottish dialect), were sav-,5'tacu.,_'s; the county of Do.r/,.iss, the visounlty of 7Teliot: - a ge. King David placed the cities under a particular law; Ila.,d, and the se;gliory of Galloway to thie Dow'zI/asscs; the the royal officers, the 20o'rlairs, or mayors, had the rank and coau-:ty of (ori') ick/ on the western coast, and the viscounty of ni flueince of the counts in the states of the continent; they Allcabtdc lc on the Scottish border to the.Briutces; the vis- I were called thanes, and held the hereditary jurisdiction, in their co lnty of TLccilale to the _-,lys and others. thancdoms; later, they adopted the English title of barons and The ecclesiastical division of Scotland consisted in two viscounts. The ruling dynasty became extinct in 1288, with a.rchiepiseopacies: I. PaovINCIA SANCTI ANTn\mExE, with the Alexander III. His only son had died, and he nominated his dioceses oi Cttr.lrcnosis (Caithness), i]o.sscotsis (RIoss), a,:nd fMfo- niece, Margareth of Norway, Queen of Scotland with the con2 a2is;aSis (Murray), and the suffragains of Aberl~donoia (Aber- se it of tl:e States. IIer death during the passage in 1291, deenr),. re(/ch/in,2 (3Brechiin), with the splendid monastery of brought on that contention about the succession between the Aber/ 6ro hoc; Dlei/:ecilen on the Tay, and Dtinblcn on the many pretenders to the crown, which forwarded the ambitious Teith. II. PRovINrIA GLASCUENSIS, embracing the western views of King Edward I. of England, and the victorious reign H-ighlandlcls, and the Lowlands, from the Frith of Forth to the of Robert Bruce in our next period. Scottish border, with the single suffragan of CamCdidca casa, Hwiterne, 0i igton, in Galloway. III, KINGuDOM oF ENGLAND. 286. CITIES, CASTLES, AND HISTORICAL SITES. —STIRLING in 287. THE DANISH CONQUEST.-FaI1 ore importalt ae the STIRLINfh287. THwE DANISH CoNQuEST.e-Far more important are the the plain of Carse, on the Forth, at the western extremity of a political and social changes in England since our last visit to high precipitous rock, crowned by the celebrated Stirling Castle, that island during the reign of King Edgar (221). The became an jmportant town from its central situation, its strong great;Elfred had vancuishec the Northumbrian Danes, and fortress, and its comnimanding the passage over the Forth. The secured the tranquillity of the country; and the permanent setScottish kings therefore often chose it for their residence, and tlement of the Northmen in Neustria (France) in 912, gave a it was the scene of several of the most thrilling events in the happy respite of nearly a century to the Anglo-Saxons in Enghistory of Scotland. The view from the battlements of Stir- land. That fertile country was then flourishing like a garden. ling Castle, is, in point of extent, variety, and magnificence, Yet the Saxons, nobles and commoners, living retired on unequaclled by any other in Britain. Eiclmz or Edcwynes- their estates and farms, neglected the military institutions of bhorg'1~h02 (Edinburgh) was still a small unimportant borough. Z~lfred, and gave themselves up to the peaceful occupations The first parliament was held there by Alexander II., in 1215, of agriculture, and the rearing of cattle on a larger scale; and and it did not become the permanent capital of the kingdom thus the Danes, on the renewal of their invasions toward the until 1456. Perth, on the Tay, was, like Stirling, the royal close of the tenth century, found no armed opposition; but residence in the earlier times, and the seat of a considerable every where plenty of provisions, and herds of excellent steeds, trade, which the burgesses carried on in their own vessels with which those indefatigable warriors, as skilful horsemen with Flanders, and the Hanse towns on the Baltic. Fcmanumn upon the land, as daring sailors on the sea, rapidly organized Sa&zcti R]eg'ui —SnLct. Anldreas (St. Andrews) was built by their cavalry, and scoured the country in every direction. They Saint Rule, a Greek missionary from Patrae in Peloponnesus, took possession of Northumberland, Mercia, and East Anglia; on a lofty cliff on the coast of Fife, the archiepiscopal see for and so'sadly had the military spirit sunk among the Angloeastern Scotland, with magnificent churches and monasteries. Saxon kings, that, instead of gathering the strength of the na(lfascuc, (Glasgow), on the Clyde, early a populous and flour- tion for defence, they now raised the oppressive tribute called ishing city, was the archiepiscopal see for western Scotland. Daina-gelt, to satisfy the rapacity of the invaders. The WatIts jurisdiction and revenues extended over the counties of linga street (221) became again the frontier-line between the Lanar c fc, DeufbaewI, D zbar/o e, Ayr, Dumzfrics, Galloway, two hostile nationalities. Yet the Danish sea-kings had left and the western Highlands. /Ice'Iose Abbey, on the Tweed. was the coast with their fleets under the treaty with King 2Ethelred founded by King David I. in 1136, and richly endowed with II. the Unready, in 996; and only small bands of northern lands and privileges; it becamne one of the most magnificent warriors were settled in the ceded districts on the east. Many monasteries of Scotland, though much exposed to the border of the Yarls lived there as guests on the estates of the English forays of the English, and burnt down by Edward II. in 1316. thanes, when suddenly, on the morning of Saint Brice's Day, Its beautiful ruins, in the purest Gothic style of architecture, the 13th of November, 1002, the whole Anglo-Saxon people rose still attract the traveller, not less than the neighboring Ab- in arms against their unsuspecting enemies. The dastard botsford, the late residence of the great Scottish novelist. ~Ethelred had plotted a general massacre of the Danes; the Berwyc (Berwick), on the Tweed, the bulwark of the border, most ruthless crimes were perpetrated all over the island by a often captured by the English and retaken by the Scots, was nation professing Christian faith and integrity. Taken by surfrequently the residence of the Scottish kings, in times of aclan- prise, the Danish Yarls and warriors, their families, merhelauts, ger. Celebrated border-castles and strongholds of the Scot- young and old, men and women, were cowardly assaulted by tish moss-troopers during this and the following period were: the multitude of revengeful Saxons, and put to the sword, after Roxburg]h and Jedb'urg'lh, on the Teviot; Secafort, Ferlmzihur'st the most heroical defence. No place of refuge proved then a and Eg''erstccaile castles on the Cheviot hills; Brc'anXhol I? sanctuary to the doomed Danes. Thousands perished; the and B eec/clchl, in strong positions, in the upper Teviot-dale; Princess Gunhilde, sister to King Swend Fork-Beard, was LCc.n'4/oia, and A.'/mi'z/cOl/Z, protecting the Eskclale; lOdcldorz dragged into the square and beheaded, with her whole famlllily. Calstle in Annandale, and lJa'rnfies in Niddesdale. In the awful moment of the execution the courageous lady exThe ma:lners of the Scots continued abarbarous. They had claimed, in prophetic spirit, " that the slaughter of her chilfew enjoyments of life. David I. collected the hitherto un- dren would cost the heart-blood of all Enlgland;" and her written lawes into a regular code, called Regiron Zl1 ajestatern, word proved true. The most terrible revenge was taken by firom the initial words of the text. Mlany regulations regard- her brother; for fourteen years England was desolated by ing mnarriage and the wel;rc/l, or compensation for man- King Swend, and his more celebrated son tKzud (Canute), 102 This name appears for the first time in the Clarter of Fonnda- who, at, last, in 1016, after the total defeat of the S axons at tioll by King David I., given to the Abbey of Holoo Hose i 1128, made a treaty with the brave, but unhappy Prince in which lie calls thie city "Bergcnunm maeuim de E2dwiizesbrtogh." Eadmund Ironside, according to which the kingdom was divi

Page  84 84 ~SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. ENGLAND. ded between them. ]VTessex, JEa-st Anglcia, Essex, including assembly of the " wise and wealthy mnen," or /Witea-.-'eno0t, Lonldon, remained to Eadilmund, while Ring Knud obtained consisted of the great vassals from Wales and Cumberland, l[erc'icT, and all the north. The sovereignty was preserved to the numerous clergy, the earls, the kings' thanes possessing the Saxon. But after the murder of King Eadmund by the forty hides of land, and the chosen citizens from London traitor Eadric, Knudl of Denmark was acknowledged supreme called lith-nen.. The lsmaller thanes, the knaves and churls, king of all England. The Danish dynasty ruled the island and the whole mass of the nation, were not called to the diet — for twenty-six years; and on the death of King Hardiknud, yet they crowded the doors and the lower end of the hall; they in 1042, Edward the Confessor occupied the throne of his fore- filled the environs with their multitude; and though they had no fathers. Knucl divided England into four large provinces: vote, they still expressed effectively the public opiinion. They Wessex he reserved for his own rule; I6ercia Y East-Anglica, too had their influence, and often was the crowned king, with and Northumber/land, were awarded to his chiefs. He was a his mitred prelates and high-capped earls, obliged to shape his man of great talent, benevolence, and justice, who speedily counsel or conform his sentence according to the roaring shouts took the proper measures for healing the wounds of the bloody of applause or disapproval from the Anglo-Saxon masses outwar. The people became soon reconciled to the new master, side. Woman had in England as high a standing as in Deonand felt more happy under the equitable and energetic rule of mark, though the Saxon women did not appear with shield and the Dane, than they had been under their native sovereigns. lance like their sisters —the shield-maidens-from the Baltic Knud undertook no change in the old Saxon constitution; and (194). The petty kingdoms of Kent, Sussex, Essex, Surrey, his splendid army of regular household troops-the celebrated Anglia, and the conquered Welsh and Cambrian districts, were huls-k/arle-brilliantly equipped in gilt armor, and mounted early formed into scirs or shires (counties) and hluttnd'recs, on magnificent steeds, somewhat in the style of imperial similar to the syssels and herreds of Denmark (222). Elfred Vcerins'eq', in Constantinople (227, 262), secured the tranquil- reduced them to an equal portion in extent, mostly correspondlity of the island. ing to the ecclesiastical division. The executive officer of the 288. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE ANGLO-SAXONs.-The ealdornan and the count was the scir'-geerefac or sheriff; he old Anglo-Saxon kings had sprung from Woden (Odin), and likewise levied taxes and contributions. The Saxon laws were were originally only the he7retogas or army-leaders (79), who mild; the high administration of justice was lodged with the had conquered the island. They were elected by the nobles, lking and the Witena-gemot; the former was continually jourbut became her'editca'ry cyZling's (kings), though the succes- neying through the country to compose differences among the sion sometimes passed to the brothers of the deceased king, quarrelsome warriors and thanes. In the cities gutilds were to the exclusion of his sons. The powers of the German constituted for mutual protection. Several portions of Engprinces were limited; yet they gradually gained authority, land, such as Norfolk, Suffolk, and Ely, were beautifully culbeing strongly supported by the Roman clergy, who always tivated. ~' Anglo-Saxon commerce extended to France, Flansecured the influence to their church through that of the mon- ders, and the North; the English vessels visited Iceland on arch. The manners of the Saxon court were extremely plain; account of the whale-fishing. Saxon merchants travelled to the cyning was surrounded by his folgoth —gefolge-or train Italy; the staple commodity of England was wool, which was of military retainers. The bower thane (chamberlain) was at exported to Flanders and Germany. The rich and happy the same time horldere (royal treasurer). The next officer of farmler lived retired on his estate, surrounded by his gcbulrs rank was the dclisc-thegn, who presented the plates at the royal or peasants, his flocks and cattle, when the clangor of the Norboard, and the nuzndcl-skenlc (cup-bearer), who filled the drink- man trumpets on the battle-field of Hastings, proclaimed the ing-horn. The stallere or horse-thegin was often both marshal impending change in the political and social relations of and banner-bearer. The aethlings or nobles (79) consisted of England. the descendants of the old.sea-kings, among whom the lands 289. INTERESTING CITIES AN:D HISTORICAL PLACES.-LZUt had been distributed with military tenure. The provinces den wyc (London) and SouzthwzarCk extended already on the were governed by an earl or yarl, as in Denmark. The eal- banks of the Thames, and were united by the famous old dormarn was the judge and count or military commander of wooden bridge, the scene of so many a skirmish during the the county. His office was not hereditary; he received his Danish war. The city was strongly fortified by walls and horse and armor from the king as his sworn officer, and they towers, erected on the ancient Roman foundaiions, and the were sent back to the king on his death. The inferior nobles Fleet-ditch filled the moat. Above the low-timbered houses were the tfhanes or knights, who served in mail-armlor on horse- of merchants and mechanics rose still, here and there, the huge back; they were distinguished from the simple freeman, and remains of Roman aqueducts and temples, and the rude, spire possessed estates of from four to forty hides of land; they were less churches of St. Paul, Saint Mlartin-le-Grand, and mnany thus the predecessors of the Norman barons after the conquest others. High-walled, gloomy monasteries and nunneries were in 1066. The squires, or half-freemen of the thanes were called located in every ward of the town. The Tower of Constandcrenge (boys) in IDanish, but had in Anglo-Saxon the unpleas- tine, on the east, was still standing; while another castle (nowT ant, though still harmless name of knaves. These drenge or Temple-bar) protected the mouth of the Fleet-ditch on the shield-boys were bound to render military service to the pro- west. The roofs of the dwellings were tllhatchedC anld ieeded; prietors of the chief manors; they were mnuch employed as the wTinclows had no glass panes, but were closed by linen border-wardens on the Welsh and Scottish frontiers. The siu- blinds. The streets were unpaved and muddy. Large squares pie freeman was called ceorl (churl, villain), or fr'ignman7 when opened in the interior, planted with clusters of trees, and diliving in the country; andl burg'hess when established as a me- vided by low palisades, where th.e motley and picturesque chanic or tracleslman in a town. The last class were the serfs, crowds of skin-clancd Scanclinavians, turbaned and eaftalnel Saracalled thieves, whose forefathers had been British prisoners cens, Lombard bankers in silken gowns, tight-dressed Germnans, of war, or who themselves had lost their liberty as criminals. mail-clad Normans, and eagle-eyed and eagle-beaked Jews in They were few, however, for we find not more than twenty-five thousand thieves in England at the time of the Norman con- 103 G'den occs nog the occupations of the Aglo-Saons. quest. The poor serfs were better treated by the Anglo-Sax- Like the Danes, they called a garden ort-geamd, in Danish mo-tcg/a? d o thanthe 1 class th tralle in Dena f herb-court. that is, orchmald. Vineyards were flourlishing in Gloucesons than the sinilar class, the t'alle, in Denmark; for they tershire and other southern counties; they were attached to evrely had their special wchr-'eld for their protection. The annual - monastic establishment.

Page  85 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. ENGLAND. 85 flowing oriental drapery-all jostling one another-all intent Scotland the enfeoffment of Lothian, which afterwards led to upon business and traffic, already began to foreshadow the fu- the permanent incorporation of the Scoto-Saxon Lowlands with ture minart of the world's commerce. West of the city, on the the Scoto-Gaelic kingdom. Edin (Edinburgh) had already Thames, rose the huge cathedral of Westminster, built in the been evacuated by the Saxons, and fallen into the possession of Saxon style by Edward the Confessor; beautiful vineyards the Scottish king Ingulf. Canute not only received the holncovered Holborn hill and Smithfields; and the monks were age of the Welsh princes, but he undertook in his old age a not only retmarkably expert in working their vile-gardens, but successful campaign into Scotland, and brought speedily King they even knew how to season their sour harvest with pigment, Malcolm and the petty dynasts, Mmelbathe (M1acbeth) and Jehhoney, and odoriferous spices, and they thus produced a very marc, under his sovereign authority. Edward the Confessor palatable beverage. The most interesting place in " Old Lun- maintained his dignity in the north by the heavy sword of Earl nen " was the guil/d-hall, where the burgesses and the neigh- Siwardl of Northumberland; and Harold Godwinson gainled boring thanes and knights, under the presidence of their eal- his knightly spurs in his brilliant battles against the Welsh dormen, formned their brotherhood-tie guild-lbrothecrs-who in invaders of the Saxon plains. In 1063 he subdued North those lawless times gave full security to the lives and property Wales; Griffith, the native prince, fell, and every Welshman of that industrious and enterprising corporation. The London who appeared in arms on the east border of OJia's 1Trench was burgesses ruled there like sovereigns, and were exempted to be punished with the loss of his sword-hand. William of from the jurisdiction of the king's gerejhls or palatine counts. Normandy left the Scottish king in possession of Cumberland, The jolly guild-brothers, with their broadswords at the baldric, but he built the strong fortress of Carl'isle, on the Eden, as a assembled in their hall to feast, to receive their foreign guests, to testimony of his supremacy. The Welsh had, however, during form their funeral processions, and to discuss the measures for the Norman war thrown off the yoke, and remained armed and the conservation of peace and order among the members. L04 independent behind the bulwark of their mountains. O0focld, in Kent, where KIing Eadmuncd Ironside vanquished 291. THE NORMAN CONQUEST, AND POLITICAL REFORM.Canute in a pitched battle, and might have destroyed the While the other Germanic nations of continental Europe adDanish army but for the treachery of Eadric, who by his wiles vanced with giant steps toward a higher civilization, the induced the victor to desist from the pursuit of the retiring Anglo-Saxon people had remained stationary. England, with enemy.-Sceorstane (Sherston), in Wiltshire, where, the year her weak, priest-ridden kings, her indolent and wrangling witbefore the former battle, 1013, Eadric already by his treachery tan-gemote, her mass-singing monks and bluff-faced aethlings, had occasioned the defeat of Edmund and thle Anglo-Saxon had abolished the military institutions of Calnute the Dane, army. In the heat of the struggle, when the Danes began to without substituting any national defence, even against the give way, the yarl struck off the head of one of his own men, light-footed mountaineers of Wales, who, in spite of the heroic who in features and complexion bore resemblance to King Ead- exertions of Harold Godwinson, from their western strongholds, munud, and lifting it on his lance in sight of his warriors, called ravaged the cultivated fields of the Saxons. A peaceful, relialoud that the king had fallen, and that they were to save their gious king and a cattle-breeding nation, without army, fleets, or lives by speedy flight.-Assacndctn (Assingdon), onl the Stugre, fortresses, were for thirty years witnessing the astounding activin Essex, was the battle-field of that last great conflict between ity of their warlike neighbors, the Normans, beyond the ChanCanute and Eadlmund, where the Saxons stood their ground till nel. Edward the Confessor died in 1042, leaving the contested sundown, and continued fighting even by moonlight, when they, succession to the brave and talented Harold Godwinson; who,. at last, were surrounded by the Danes and dispersed in all however, was unable to stem the torrent of events. The battle directions. — Olney, a small island in the Severn, where the two of Hastings decided the downfall of the old Saxon kiingdom, kings met after the battle of Assingdon, in 1016, and divided by the destruction of thousands and the misery of millions of the country between them;-ShcIftesbutry, in Dorsetshire, where good-natured Saxons beneath the sword of the foreign invader. King Canute died, in 1035; and WIinchcester, eastward, in For their time had passed, and a new era, of Norman superiHampshire, where his body was deposited in the burial-vault ority in politics, ideas, arms, and civilization had sprung up. of the West-Saxon kings;-Stam~bforcl-Bricg'ie, on the Dervent, Young nations, brilliant with vigor and enterprise, are always east of York, the place where Harold Godwinson, the last irresistible. So were in antiquity the Greeks, so the RomansSaxon king, vanquished in battle his rebellious brother Tostig so is in our own day the young American republic; though and King Harald Haardraade of Norway; who both perished the influence of religion and civilization always will decide the by the sword in 1066, eight days before the battle at Hastings; character and the means by which the sweeping dominion is —,Selac, near Hastings, in Sussex, on the southern coast. exerted. —The Normans had long ago burnt their piratical There, on the hilly ridge of Battle, where in later times stood dragon-ships (236); they had mnounted their war-steeds, and, the Battle-Abbey, took place the most sanguinary and eventful for the first time, they now brandished the lance of chivalry. struggle in British history, on the 16th October, 1066, in That institution had sprung fl'om the spirit of the age; it was which Harold Gocdwinson and the flower of the Anglo-Saxon hailed with enthusiasm by all the Germanic races of Europe. chiefs and warriors perished, andcl WVilliam the Conqueror andcl But it was still juvenile and ilnexperienced —it had not yet his Normlllan knights with one bl7ow overthrew the Anglo-Saxon gained its golden spurs;-it was on the gory battle-field of kingdlom. Hastings, among heaps of slaughtered thanes and aethlings, 290. ACQUISITIONS OF THIE SAXON ANn DANISH KINGS, FIOiU knaves and churls, who with the ponderous battle-axe of barEADGAR TO WILLIAM. OF NOrhANnrv. —Kilng Eaclgar (959-975) barislm made the vain attempt to stay the ruslh of time-it was had already armed large fleets, with which he reduced the there that chivalry was ducllbbed, strengthenel, and consolidated, Danish sea-kings in Ireland by the conquest of Dablin (219). by the foundation of feuclality in its severest forms in conquered The Britons were driven out of CuZmberlanl and $Strat/- Englancl. Clyde, and both provinces became Scottish principalities under The fall of King Harold, the dispersion of the dismayed English suzerainty (103). Eadgar granted IKing Kenneth of Anglo-Saxons, and the surrender of London, at once secured'o~ London had t;hlen likewise a chief municipal tribunal firom the the conquest of England. Wiiam of Normandy was the man times of King Canute, which swas called with a Dalnlish name, hlts-thing, for so great an undertaking; lie was as prudent a statesman as or jury-assembly of sworn citizens; from this is derived our modern he was a bold and successful warrior. Though hle flatterecl the hustings. English, he riveted their chains by the introduction of the feu

Page  86 8Q6 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. ENGLAND-DENMARK. dal mnilitary system of Normandy. He undertook no change of a large feudal army at its own expense; but he, like Clatlein the internal division of the country; the shires and their imagne, knew the advantage of havih g bodies of /to/sch(ol/l /hiut/d'eds, the dioceses of the church, and the general adminis- troops of his own (167), in whom he mlight put greater trust. tration of the cities, remained Anglo-Saxon, as they had been and of whose services lie could permanrently dislose. 13y t:e allunder the Danish and Saxon kings. But he distributed do- lurement of high pay, Willial therefore gatleredl dveltulous mains, castles, villages, and even entire towns to his Norman bar- warriors froml every part of France, Flanders, aiid BrittaiS-t? ons and knights, while their vassals were again rewarded with even from Germany and Spain, under his lion-banner; andcl lhe smaller portions. Towers and fortified castles arose in every quartered them upon the poor suffering Saxons, according to direction. To overawe the city of Londlon, the conqueror took the proportion of their possessions. \~ith an army so coinup his abode in the Tower, which he enlarged and strength- pletely organized, Willianm was enabled to cruslh every attenipt ened. H-ere he raised his dreaded banner, bearing the three at insurrection among the down-troddenl English, and lie could lions; and similar menacing ensigns floated over several new even venture to punish any encroachlnent of his own arrogant castles on the west of the capital. In the organizatioin of his gov- chiefs from Norimandy. Many of the latter, supposing thenmernment, andc, as his power dependled on the sword alone, all grants selves ill-rewarded for their services, fled to Scotland, where we and fiefs awarded to laymen and ecclesiastics were burdened have seen them well received, and afterwards forming together with the condition of furnishing, whenever required, a certain with the English exiles, the body of the vigilant Scottish mossnumlber of horsemen, completely armied; and by this regula- troopers, or border wardens (284). tion, called Knigdhts' service, the king was enabled to raise, in The spoliation and taxation inflicted on the towns and bora brief space, an army of sixty thousand cavalry. The tenants oughs was as great as- that put upon the Saxon thanes, and of the crown exacted a similar and proportional service froin other landed proprietors; and it is only in the next period, their dependents, and thus the feudal chain was linked, and during the crusades, that we canl discover the slow development held the whole system together. The count or governor of the and final emancipation of the,cities. A large tract of country, province stood next in rank to the king; then followed the vis- extending for thirty miles, between Salisbury in Wiltshire and count, the baron, the knight, the squire, and the sergeant-at- the sea, was laid waste, and converted into wood by the conarmns,-all considered as nobles, and each one of them by his queror. This was the nova fob-estta, or new forest, which did feudal estate dependent on his immediate liege-lord, whose ban- not only serve as a royal chase, but had the special object of nlr or sunmmons he followed. A general survey, ter'?ier, or insuring the Norman recruits a safe place of disembarkation rent-roll, was made of all territory in England, as far north as on their arrival on the coast of England from the continent, the province of York, the particulars of which were inserted where no Saxon enemy could molest them. William secured in the great roll of Winchester, by the Saxons called the book his northern frontiers by fortifying the cities of Newcastle and of the last judgment-the celebrated Doomsday-Boo/c-per- Carlisle; but he was too much occupied in England and Norhaps because it contained their irrevocable sentence of ex-pro- nmandy to molest the Welsh behind their mountains. Haviing priation. From this minute document we learn that seven thus laid the sound foundation of his dominion in England, Wilhundred large estates were awarded to the leaders of the Nor- liam died in 1087, and his successors, William Rufus, Henry I., man army, the Barons; their estates were again subdivided and Stephen of Blois, ruled England and Normaundy until the into sixty thousand two hundred and fifteen ntesnejfiefs, held by year 1154, when the Plantagenet dynasty (1 154-1272) mount-.their valvasors (vavasors) with military tenure; of these, no ed the throne with Henry II. No remarlkable geographical less than twenty-eight thoiusand and fifteen belonged to the changes took place during thlis period, until the marriage of church. The smaller and less important estates were, by spe- Eleanor of Poitiers with Henry the Second at once transferred cial favor, left in the possession of the Saxons; and few were the finest provinces of France to the crown of England, and those who continued to be fiee proprietors, or ten2anzts-iz-ch/ief, gave rise to those pretensions which for three centuries kept the ranging directly under the crown. All the rest of the dis- two rival nations in almost continual hostility towards each persed Saxons were found only in the lowest rank. Some other. names of Anglo-Saxon extraction belonged to farmlers settled IV. KINGDOI Or DENMARn K. on the domains of Norman barons, knights, or servants-atarms.'t~ Thus William the Conlqueror commanded the service 292. DYNASTIES, CONSTITUTION AND MANNERs.-We are now approaching the most brilliant period in the mediaeval his-.05 By this cruel and arbitrary decree, the entire body of the Nor- tory of Denmark. The union of the mainland of Jutland, the manl conquerors, thoughi scatterled and distributed over the vast tellrrito- and Skaane (222) under the islands, and SkaaLne (222) under the sceptre of Kiung Gorm the ry of the vanquished Saxons, remained still united by the link of duty,. r. anld military discipline, and, as it were, marshalled in the same battle- ld, in 883, and the ntroducton of chrstnty ude his amrry as on the field of Hastings. The subaltern warriorl owed faith son, Harald Bluetooth, were auspicious events, which, during and service to his military superior-; and the knight who held lands the reign of King Knud the Great, caused a remarkable fimon the Ibarlon was bound to vault into the saddle at hissummons. 13But change in the ideas, manners, and institutions of the warlike this singular division did not stop helre; the knighlt himself gave a por- Danish nation. Knud, while oceupied in conquering England tionI of his tenure to his squiles, and these,agmin to their servants-atG and Norway, gave his most zealous encouragement to the proarms (semgeants), the lowest order of horsemneno; nay, eveni to thei.valets, or grooms, whlo attended to the baggage, or selrved on foot as light pagation of the Christian i-fth at home, nid it soon supplamted infimntly and bowmen. The rank of the king's vasslls, in thie language the ancient superstition. One half of the nation had still adof the times, ran: duke, coumnmt, viscount, bacron, chevalier, esmqoim-e, seam- hered to the worship of Odin, but churches amid mnonasteries gaclct and vcalet. William the Comiqueror limlloself stood moS Duke of Nor- were then erected, and filled with English and Germnan priests mandcly immediately under the crown of Francee, but in Englanld hle vas nd mols. hielf wet to lome i 1027, acl was a soveleign pmince by the swvold. During a period of va- and spoliation,.ile.loat esrodncr lctuto u \rmatgnificently received both by the German Emmperor and the tion, time most extraourdinay fluctuations would necessar-ily take place in rank and fortune. Talents and bravery, or the chalnces of war, would Pope. Piracy had ceased with the more regular expeditions carry the warrior iapidly fiom the lowest grade to the highest. Many to England; the Northmen began to turn their attention to a poor adventullelr, who crossed the channel in his quilted cassock, with agriculture and the arts of peace. Knud introduced a celrtain a bow in his hand, would afterwards appear to his countlymen, who anne splendor into his court and army, aind the comforts of civilized over after himi mounted on his walr-steed, and blandishing the knighltly lance. Nay, this system of obedience served even to control the haughty estates with military tenure, which would ibe forfeited if they refused bearing of thie churchmen tllemselves, because they likewise held their to send their vassals to the armly.

Page  87 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. DENMARK. 87 life penetrated from the south into the north, among the still 293. EXTENT, PROVINCES, AND CITIES.-In the middle of the rude Scandinavians. The Danes excelled in shipbuilding; twelfth century, Denmark extended from the frontiers of Smaatheir war-ships, or dcra,g'onts, brilliantly painted and gilded, an- land, in Sweden, across the islands to the river Eider, which sepswered the double purpose of swift-sailing vessels and tower- arated it from Germany. It embraced a surface of nearly eight ing fortresses. For the purpose of organizing the naval force thousand square miles, and was inhabited by a more scattered of the kingdom- all the coasts of the islands were divided into population than at the present day, for it did not amount to a districts, each of which furnished a certain number of ships, million of souls. I. SKAANE, with.Hallacnd and Blekinge that were manned by maritime conscription. Yet the conquests (222), was separated from Sweden by lakes, and gloomy forests of that period were of no lasting advantage to Denmark; the of pine and fir, where roamed the bear and the wolf, and the extensive dominions of Knud the Great were, on his death, in still fiercer robbers and outlaws, who, having found a refuge in 1035, partitioned among his sons. The crown of Norway was the wilderness, waged a continual border-war similar to that soon lost to the brave Magnus the Good, the son of Saint Olaf. of the moss-riders, on the moors of Scotland (284, 286), or England, after the short reigns of his sons Harald Harefod the Spaniards and Saracens on the banks of the Duero (258), (light-footed), and Horda-Knud, fell back to Edward the though not softened by the romantic and chivalrous manners Confessor, of the old Saxon dynasty of _Ethelred, while the of the South. Skaane was as distinguished by its splendid national diet in Denmark elected Svend Estridson, son of a beech-woocls, fertile soil, and high cultivation, as by its warlike sister of Knud, whose dynasty, under many vicissitudes and and industrious inhabitants, the Skaintinigers, who, however, civil wars, occupied the Danish throne from 1035 to 1412. fromn their love of liberty, were always ready to rise in arms, The ancient sea-kings and rovers had now become Jals, or and involve the kingdom in dangerous rebellions. The spirit governors, and Higdncenzd, or royalcourt-officers, who, although of the times, the age of church-domlinion and crusades, had without any hereditary rights, began to form an aspiring aris- at last pervaded the North; more than three hundred churchtocracy. The clergy, too, exerted that powerful influenc e s, onasteries, and chapels, adorned the hills and valleys of which later developed itself in a truly hierarchical despotism. Skaane; and in Luntdegaardcl, the northern Vatican, close to They supported the royal authority under the unstable and the magnificent cathedral of Sancti Laurentii, in the city of quarrelling sons of Svend Estridson, whose powers were yet L'und, sat the proud Archbishop of Denmark, who styled himvery limited. All public transactions were decided at the gem- self, " by g'ace of God the prinzacs and legcatc of Scaint Peter eral or provincial diets-idigsnibOdeq or Latndst/zing-held in over Denmnark aned Sweden." Surrounded by his steel-clad different parts of the kingdom. These numerous assemblies vassals and numerous clergy, he vied in splendor and power consisted of the clergy, the IHirdmsend, and the free landhold- with royalty itself. Catholic enthusiasm had at once superers, or Bonder (222)-a fine, independent class of men, who, seded the wild fanaticislm for Odin and the joys of Valhalla. with shield and broadsword, or battle-axe, surrounded the New towns and villages arose around the sanctuaries of piety throne. The king presided, and the mass of the free popula- and peace. The white-cloaked Cistercians, and the blacktion, by acclamation, resolved on peace or war, on taxes, and hooded Benedictines, built their monasteries on the banks of other leading questions of legislation and executive power. the lakes; they opened their schools; they protected the peasThus we distinctly perceive that the German and Norman- antry that crowded around them, for the staff of the Bishop French feuydal systemz, with its crested barons, prancing on had now become a more powerful protection than the sword of their barbed coursers, and disdainfully looking down on the the Yarl; nay, the impulse of religion even sought refuge in Bonder', whom they had reduced to villains and serfs, that the depth of the forests, where the solitary bell of the herpernicious change in the institutions of Central Europe, did mitage assembled the wild hunters, whalers, and fishermen, to not extend to Denmark before the middle of the twelfth cenltu- the worship of the Virgin. Fodlevig, on the western coast, ry, after the feudal chains had been riveted for more than a became the celebrated battle-field during the civil wars in 1034, century over every other part of Western Europe; nor did it where King Niels was defeated, and his treacherous son Prince ever advance farther north than Sweden, and it never got a firm Magnus perished, together with sixty-five bishops and prelates, footing on the rock-bound coast of Norway (223). The first who were found in full armor among the heaps of the slain. written laws of Denmark were the celebrated Vither'lags-Ret, by II. SEALAND (222), with Bornholnr, Lalantd, 2Palsler, ZvIben, Knud, given to the Huuskarle of his regular army. The old and the smaller islands, was then the centre of the kingdom. laws and observances of S/kaane were collected and published Roeskilde, the populous and open capital of Denmark, extendin the beginning of the thirteenth century; those of Sealand ed through gardens, fields, and hedges, along the shores of the and tidland appeared under KingWaldemnar II.; thelatter on issefiord. The interior was occupied by the royal castlethe diet of Vordingborg in 1244. Several parts of Denmark, lKong-sgrcard-fortified with moats and towers, and the splensuch as Skaane, Sealand, and Fyen, were highly cultivated. did cathedral of Sancti Lzucii, built in 1084 by Anglo-Saxon Mechanics find artists were called in from Germany; young architects, in the earlier Gothic style of architecture. In orDanes already visited the newly established universities of der to defend the city against the expeditions of the Vendisl piItaly and France. The Guild, or Brotherhood of Roeskilde, rates, it was surrounded by walls and moats in 1151, and prosecured the coasts against the Vendish pirates; that of Seldes- tected by the Castle of Har'aldshorg, on a promontory in the wig served as a model for those later granted to the rising frith. In the neighboring forest of Har'aclsskov, Prince Magnus cities of Jutland and the islands. Commerce was flourishing of Denmark assassinated the noble-minded Knud Lmavard, the in the earlier period; but during the civil wars of King Niels father of Waldemnar I., and first Duke of Schleswig, in 1131; and his successors, the neglect of the naval establishments and in the royal hall took place the terrific scene of the tourpermitted the Ven2dish~ pirates to annihilate the coumnierce of der of the innocent King Knud V. by his rival, Svend Grathe, Denmark, and to desolate its coasts. Yet the chivalrous race which caused the union of all Denmark under the sceptre of of the Waldemars (1157-1243) soon stimulated the nation to the greatest exertions; and, carrying the banner of the Cross- Baltic. The origin of this impost is unknown, but it seems that it bethe Danzebhrog —victoriously to Vendland, raised the Danish gan to be levied as early as the twelfth century, whenm the Danes, being nation to the highest pitch of conquest and prosperity.li~ masters of both shores, swept the Ballie with their crusading fleets, and probably chose this way to declare their pre-eminence. In the fifteenth,0~ During this period the Danish kings began to exact toll of the century their exaction was already considered to rest upoa a venry anforeign ships which passed through OEresund, oe the Sound, into the cient custom, See the Geography of Maltebrun, Book 149.

Page  88 88 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. DENMARK-VENDLAND. the great WTaldemar I. in 1157. Sealand had already seve- the feuds on the borders with the Vendes and Saxons rendered ral thriving commercial cities: Kroogen, (Elsinore), on the it necessary for the Danish kings to place a commander in Sound, Kallu.dhorgbo, S/'Y/s/j',o', H~ri'no Rionst/c South Jutland, who, with full powers and a strong body of (190), NestvedC. AxeClhes, a strong fortress on the Sound, troops, could secure the tranquil possession of the firontiers. was built in 1168 by Archbishop Axel Absalon, for the The noble-minided Knud Lavard (Lord), the son of King Eric protection of the merchants' ships in the Baltic. A small the Good, was therefore by his father created czlx or hcertlg of town having rapidly grown up around the fortress, it was South Jutland in 1102. Crossing the Eider, Duke Knud, in called KJiIsiANs HAVNd, or l/e'chanzts havenz, from which, many successful campaigns, vanquished and conquered the by contraction, Kiibbnchavzn (Copenhagen), the later capital heathen T.igr'ians, Obotritcs and FiVeldes, who elected him their of Denmark. Sealaud had more than two hundred church- king. This title was recognized by the dukes of Saxoony and es; and its wealthy monasteries, Esronm, on the banks of the counts of Holstein, and soon gave a new direction to the a beautiful lake in the north of the island, Aznverskov and energy of the Waldemars, who for nearly a century became Sor6e, in the interior, were as celebrated for the elegance of engaged in crusading expeditions and conquests on the souththeir architecture, as for the learning and piety of the monks. ern coast of the Baltic. ScLswIC, onil the Scek/y, was then III. FvEN, with Langeacnd, ITacsinge, and its group of a very flourishing conmmercial city, which sent her ships to smaller islands, was called the garden of the North; on the sun- Swveden, Russia, and England. In this city the brotherhood of ny shores of Svendbog', the monks contrived to rear the vine; Saint Knud massacred the murderer of their beloved Knud hops and fruit-trees covered the valleys; splendid forests of Lavard, King Niels of Denmark, who in 1134, after his defeat beech and oak, the hills; the Fyenboer were fiery and sensual, at Fodevig, haughtily entered the guild-hall with the wordslike the Italians. The neighboring islands became dreadfully I "co not fear those twretched ski:nerCs and shoCemakers!" exposed to the incursions of the Vendes, during the civil feuds, On the Schley Duke Abel caused his brother, King Eric, the and many Sclavonic names on the islands of Falster aiid Sea- successor of Waldemar II., to be beheaded in 1250. F/ensland, such as Kor'se/itze, Krantitze, Terr'itze, Ifuditze, seem hborg' on the north, and Tblzder'qn on the west, became thriving to indicate their permanent settlement there. Odense (222), towns. Loczes Dci (Lyguln) and Gulcld/olm were celebrated a handsome, populous city, with the cathedral of Saint Al- convents. On the western coast the ~ort/h Frisians still prebanuzs. It was here that King Knud IV., while equipping an served their independence, and beat back all the attempts of expedition, in 1086, against William the Conqueror, for the the Danish kings to reduce thenm to subjection. recovery of England, was assailed by the discontented multitude, and killed by a stone thrown into the church. By the V. KInonorG OF SLAVIA oR VENDLAND. influence of the clergy, the cruel, but devout king became canon- 295. EXTENT Division AND C E.-REN SLAVINE, or 295. EXTENT, DIVISrON AND (]~T~}S. —RESCNUBI SLXVIa~~, or' ized as martyr and saint, and the miracles performed at Saint SlaGVia~ extended from the river ]~ider, neanr Sehlesw-\ig, on the Knud's shrine raised him to the rank of patron-saint of Denmark. 294. IV. NiE JvLLAND-O/ Jtan-the home west, along the southern coast of the Baltic eastward to the 294. IV. N5~z~~I JYLLAND -2~O~'~h Y~,~,fa~z~f —the homne of the Longobards and te Jutes (80, 222), was a dreary region Oder, and in the interior, to the river Spree and the lakes of of the Longchards and the Jutes (80, 222), was a dreary region,Brn ebg.twsihatdbytepefuSeaoe Brandenburg. It was inhabited by the powerful Sclavonic covered with heath and swamps in the interior; its western nation of the Vendes (91, 1 88, 227), which was subdivided coast was sandy, and its navigation dangerous because of reefs into three principal tribes, on the west, the Obotrites and and shoals; but the deep friths on the east were smiling in Irg'-'ians, the neighbors of the Danes, the Wiltzes or Welabeauty and fertility, and thickly inhabited, while the more open tabes (195), on the Elbe, south toward Magdeburg, and the coast on the Tiattegat and the Baltic remained deserted from P~om7cl'ania~ns, on the east beyond the Oder toward the fear of the Vendish pirates. Splendid cathedrals were built Poeraians, on the east beyon the Oder toward the at V/borg, Aarhnus, Ribe and Borg/and, the four dioceses of Vistula, where they bordered on the savage Borussi or Pinsib~oreg, Aarus, Je orioesssians. The dukes of Saxony began early to wage desolating Jutland, aiid ninny a monastery, such as Vitce Scho/a and Jutlond, and many a monastery, such as Vite Schofc and C I n wars against the Vendes, and erected some bishoprics for the Oxholm, on the Uniffjo ord, Asvi2ild and Clara _ITnsula, in the introduction of Christianity among them, but without any interior, transformed the dreary wilderness into an oasis of great success. A vaiant Obotrite Prince Gottschalk, great success. A variant Obotrite Pr1ince Gottschalk, cultivation and wealth. V. S-JYLN-oUth-J a or.Duchy of Slesw placed himself in 1042 at the head of the nation as king of VoD the Vendes, and extended his kingdom eastward to the (Sehleswig).-Duecats Jntice-wass more fertile, better culti- Vistula. Gottschalk was a very remarkable man; he had rated, and more densely inhabited than North Jutland, from received his education in Denmark where lie married a Danish which it was separated by the brook lfbi'tge-aa (King river).Be mzrrid a 3auis whichl it was separated by the broork Kozg'e-aa (King river). princess. Ife promoted the introduction of Christianity by Its inhabitants were the Angles (82), who in the northern part means of Danish and Saxon missionaries but the violence of of the province spoke the Danish, and in the south the Low Ger- i his reforms excited the native Selavonian chiefs against him, ma~n, or Saxon dialect.107 Canute had obtained the cession of and he fell the victim of a conspiracy plotted in 1066 by his the German margraviate of Sehlesvig (222, 247), from the Gem- own relative, Plusso. The Vendes now rose in a furious insurman emperor Conrad the Salian, during his travels to Ron re reetion against priests and monks, who were ruthlessly slaugho in 1027; and thus the Eider once more formed the boundary tered or driven out of the country. Prince Hcimry, the son of between Denmark and the Romano-Germanic Empire.!08 Vet King Gottschalk entered Slavia with an army of Germvzan 107 In 1801 Danish was spolen unmixed in 116 parishes, with cru. sader's, and succeeded by mildness and prudence, to restore 113,256 inhabitants, situated in the central and northern paris of the order and religion. He built the city of Libeek on the Trave, duchy. In 36 parishes, with 45,460inhabitants, the Danish is generally and encouraged agriculture and commerce; but his death in spolken, but Ger-man is used in school and chnrch. Tlhe former lan- 1121 brought on those intestine feuds among the Sclavonian guage is likewise spoken and understood in Tonmdern, Fleisborg and cmiefs, which in 168-11 73 tcmiiatedl with the commcluest of tile dioceses of Gottomp and Bredsted, with 36,000 souls —so that DanishVy Vendllandi by the kings of Denmnark. is still the mother-tongue for 194,700 Sehieswigers, among the 350,000 wimo inhabit. time duchy, tihus formimng a decided muajority. mileinhbittheducg~ husforing,2 lecclel mljoit~Thte 5rendes and the PruLssians wver~e the wrildest of hie. 108 This cession by the German Enmperor is confirmed by an ancient Selavonian nations. They lived in miserable huts: thseiiiascription-Eidorca Romazni teraminus iamper'ii, which for centuries stood over time old Iolstein gate of IRenmdsborg. That town was then time the Eider. In the fourteenth century Rendsbom-g was ceded to time border-fortress of Denmark, which possessed all thie tolls and duties on counts of Holstein.

Page  89 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. NORWAY. 89 dress was squalid; among the nobles polygamy was frequent, ous period of Norway is that from the accession of King TMagnus and they were the only people among the Sclavonians who the Good, the son of St. Olaf, in 1035, to the death of Hakon treated their womenwith scorn and cruelty. They were equally Hakonson and the conquest of Iceland in 1263,-an epoch savage in their wars, and defended their villages with rude rich in extraordinary events, which aare beautifully recorded in inclosures and ditches. Their religion was a kind of Saba- the Heimskringla of Snorro Sturleson, the Icelandic historian, ism, miixed up with superstitions from the north. They adored and by his continuators. St. Olaf had in the battle of Sticklethe sun, but their principal deity was the horrible monster stad in 1030 sealed his faith with his blood (223). His son Svcantevit (188), with four heads turned toward the four quar- Magnus the Good succeeded in the final introduction of Christers of the world, like the Hindoo Brama. Their priesthood tianity, and the Norse soon became as zealous worshippers of constituted a separate order, of great political influence, and the true God as they formerly had been of the false. They they maintained a splendid worship in the great temple of likewise took an enthusiastic part in the crusades, both in Arcona. Their peculiar rage was directed against the Danish Spain and Palestine, and their heroical king, Harald Haarchurches and monasteries, which they every where, during their draade, as prince or general of the Scandinavian Varanghians piratical expeditions, devoted to the flames, ravaging the coasts, at Constantinople (226, 262), filled the sagas and songs of his and carrying the wretched inhabitants away into slavery. The time with his renown."' Vendes themselves excited that enthusiastic crusading spirit Harald the Stern perished in the battle of Stamford-Bridge, among the Danes in the 12th century, which at once swept against Harald Godwinson of England, in 1066. His son, idolatry and barbarism from the shores of the Baltic. Lu- Olaf Kyrre (the Pacific), attended to the cultivation and comBECCA (Liibeck) was their capital, which afterwards became an fort of the wild mountaineers. He introduced chimneys and Episcopal see, and a flourishing commercial city. ArconA, on glass-windows; he established a commercial emporium at the beautiful island of Ragen, was the central sanctuary of Bergen, and founded several guilds or fraternities of arts and Svantevit, with its priestly palaces, and ilnmmense treasures, trades, which ultimately ripened into municipal corporations. which were carried in triumph to Denmark. The whole island He also promulgated laws to facilitate the emancipation of the remained afterward annexed to the Episcopal see of Roeskilde. wretched t'relle or serfs, and everyfylk/e or district was obliged Wollinz (Julin), on the large island Join (Wollinische Wer- to set fiee annually a certain number of bondsmen. der), at the niouth of the Ocder, was another large city of the Yet the irregular election of the Norwegian princes, supVendes. On the south-eastern promontory of the island, the ported by their parties, kindled the most destructive civil wars, Danish Viking Palnatoke,l~ so celebrated in the traditions of which stained the soil with blood, and produced a general the north, had established in 960 the singular REPUBLIC of demoralization and ferocity of manners at the close of the JoMssBOiG. Palnatoke built his robber's nest upon the severest twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries, when we model of ancient Spartan discipline; the virtues of valor and remark with satisfaction in other countries a more steady procontempt of death were exalted above all other qualities-above gress toward the higher civilization and humanity of our the very laws of nature. The endearing ties of love, and the modern era. The history of the daring and intelligent King society of woman, were sternly forbidden. Corsairs from every Sverre, the natural son of King Sigurd II. (1136-1155), who, part of the north hurried to Jomsborg to enlist among its in- at the head of the warrior faction of the Bir'e6ener',l2n after domitable Vikings. Thus the bravest warriors and the fleetest the most astonishing alternations of victory and defeat, was and best-armed galleys obeyed the command of the pitiless raised to the throne (1186-1202), is in the highest degree exchieftain, and this bold creation of the 10th century con- citing and romantic. Sverre, with all his cruelty and craft, is tinued to flourish, to strengthen itself, and remain the scourge well worthy to figure with his illustrious contemporaries, Freof all the neighboring coasts until the close of the 12th century, derik Barbarossa and Waldemar the Great, and had he acted when it was finally extirpated by King Waldemar I. and his upon the larger theatres of France, Germany or England, he Danish chivalry in the year 1170."T might have become one of the most renowned monarchs of the middle ages. The wild band who with their swords opened his VI. KINGnDO.I OFr ~NolrWAY. path to the throne, consisted of the outcasts of the nation; but 296. VICISSITUDES AND CONSTITUTION. —The most tumultu- by their daring and valor, and the terrible vicissitudes of suf109 Palnatoke is one of the fiercest characters of the heathen Vikings fering and war, they became ennobled, and transformed into a standing on the verge of time when Christianity began to throw its body of chivalrous and high-minded warriors, well deserving of light into the north. His history forms an exact counterpart of that of the love and veneration of the Norwegian nation; and having William Tell in Switzerland. According to Saxo Grammaticus, Palna- thus thrown off the ignominy of the robber, their heroical toke was ordered, by King HIrtald Bluetooth, to shoot an apple off his deeds were immortalized in the songs of the Skjalds.'1 Sverre son's head. The daring archer succeeded under circumstances similar strenuously opposed the encroachments of the Romish Pontiff to those of Tell, and aftewards took revenge by shooting King Hrald, in his supree power, eve at e ris of a general excomun A. D. 991, wThile crossing a dense forest in SealandIlcl. Saxo wote in 1204, and Tell appeared ill ]E~elvetia 1307-a centlny 1at~e; both events nz cation: the prelates possessed extravagant pirixleges; they coinbe true. The Danish story is the subject of (hlensclieger's magnifi- ed money, and rode surroundcledl by nnnelrous bodies of men-atcent tragedy of Palnatolke. arms. The royal council was composed of the chancellor and no The spirit of the times had exerted their influence even on the treasurer-both prelates, together with the constable, stcller, the Vikings of Jomsborg, which at the period of its final demolition had seneschal, tdslien who wer lay-nobles all other ga become a celebrated commercial mart, frequented by the different, traders of the Baltic. Its spacious harbor was filled with the ships of m" See the Saga of King Haalld HIaalrdrLaadce, by Luing-, (and tlhe every nation in Europe. Danes, Swedes, Saxons, Vendes and Russians tragedy of CEhlenschlheger: Vcerinrgerac i Jlfy/car cl. had their separate quarters for residence and business. Yet the naval 112 These fierce warriors were called Birklebener flolll the birch bar/c power of the masked pirates was still too dangerous to Denmark, and which they, destitute and miserable as they were, smwathed aoundcl King Waldemar therefore determined to extirpate this nest of heathen their legs. Their opponents, the BBacglers, got their nick-name fromi freebooters. On the arrival of the formidable armament, the Jomins- their heavy clubs, bagle, bacdlrom. borgers became so terrified that they abandoned their capital in despair. 113 See the highly interesting ling Sverrer's Saga, written by Karl Its ramparts and other fortifications were levelled, the greater part of Jansen, abbot of Thingdme monastery in Iceland, who visited Norway its edifices were laid in tashes; and from this calamity it never recov- in 1185, and collected his lmaterials from communications of K1ing ered, but gradually sunk into the obscure and inconsiderable town of Sverrer himself. 3d Vol. of Jacob Aal's tlranslation of S;lrm9O SturleWollin. son. Christiania, 1839-40. 12

Page  90 90 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. NORWAY. dees of the kingdom. The old national aristocracy of the Jfal7s tricts of the island. The introduction of Christianity into and Hociasers gradually sank into oblivion, and gave place to Norway was a work of the greatest difficulty, for there every the feudal titles of dukes, barons, and knights. The Norwegian valley, every rock was dedicated to its spirit or god, and kings and their hilc-d nclend in complete armor, " glittering like idolatry was thus deeply rooted in the localities of the counice," attempted to imitate the chivalrous manners of southern try and in the traditions of the people. Not so in Iceland; Europe; the officials in their various ranks obtained fiefs with the emigrants had left Odin and Trigga behind them on the military tenure, but without any hereditary rights. The stout fells of Norway, and they did not recognize the voice of Thor Norse yeomanry, the Odels-Bi5nder (223), maintained their in the thunders of Hecla. Irish and Scottish missionaries entire independence long after it had been lost by their breth- found, therefore, a fertile soil, and Christianity was unaniren in Denmark, and they, together with the clergy and chiefs, mously received as the Althing in A. D. 1000, though the took part in all the political transactions of the national chiefs. violent priest Thangbrand, whom Olaf Tryggveson had sent Every man who possessed six mares and a bear-skin cloak was the year before, by his cruelty and arrogance had been forced required to appear in arms at the military gatherings; the to flee for his life, and return to Norway. This happy state booty was equitably divided, and the king himself received only of liberty, though occasionally interrupted by civil feuds, of his portion, according to his skill and bravery. which the life of the great Icelandic historian, Snorro Sturle297. DivisioNs AND REMARKABLE CITIES.-Norway had son, gives us a highly remarkable instance, continued in Iceland become divided into four larger provinces, each of which pos- for nearly four hundred years. During this period not only sessed its own laws and jurisdictions. I. TRONDIIJEM, in the commerce, fishery and colonization in Greenland and Viinland north with its Frostathin.. II. BERGEN, o011 the western (America), but general education, literature, and the refinecoast, with its Gulathitng. III. VIKIEN, on the east, with its ments of poetical fancy flourished among the active and spirited own Vikenskce-Lov: and, IV. AGDE, south, with its Iactndsiva- Icelanders, and nearly all the most beautiful sagas, or tales, Lov. From these codes Magnus Lagaboeter (Law-mender) and epics of the middle ages, were penned and sung by the compiled a general body of civil and criminal jurisprudence Icelanders, before their decline in the fourteenth century. for the entire realm in 1274-the 1iiirds/rcraa. A Law- Thing After the murder of Snorro in 1242, the civil war flashed up was annually held at Bergen and the other chief cities of the fiercer than ever, when, in 1262, Hakon IV. with his Norkingdom, at which the appointed number of jurors were sum- wegian fleet forced the wrangling Icelanders to swear allegiance moned to attend. Trial by battle and other appeals " to the to the Norse kings; yet it was not until the island had been judgment of God," had already been abolished. Tle succes- laid waste by a dreadful eruption of Mount Hecla, in the year sion had become hereditary, and many useful regulations for 1300, that the rough republicans submitted to do homage to the maritime defence were re-established. The proud Arch- Hakon VII. of Norway, as their feudal sovereign. Their bishop of Nidaros (223) ruled the church with ecclesiastic ancient institutions, however, remained untouched; their celedespotism. Scientific cultivation was still very circumscribed brated Law-book, the graygoose- -graac-gaacseen-was still in in Norway, even among the clergy. One of the few literary use, but the muse of history fled southward to Spain and Italy, monuments of this period is the King's Mirror-fiogses1pei- and seldom returned for a short visit among the volcanoes of let-written with excellent spirit, luminous reasoning, and Iceland. a noble aim, by King Sverre himself, to combat the encroach- 299. DIVISION AND SETTLEMENTS.-Iceland was by nature ments of the hierarchy. Trondhijem, Bergen and Tonsbe'g herself divided into four wards or'jor'dungaq', separated by were the most thriving commercial cities of Norway, and the snow-capped mountains and deep friths. I. AUSTFrIDINGA or great emporiums of its export of salt fish for southern Europe. East-fi iths; II. SUNNLENDINGA, or Rrangga (Southland); III. The active trade was entirely in the hands of the G-erman con- NORDLENDINGA, or L'yqfjodcl (Northland); and, IV. VESTfederative Republic of the Hanseatic towns, which enjoyed the FIrDINGA, or Br'i'idffjordl, the deeply indented and more thickly most extensive privileges, exemption from customs and tolls, inhabited coast on the west. In the southern ward lay and kept the whole kingdom, during the fourteenth century, un- Thing/vellir, where the general assembly-Althing-was held der the most tyrannical mercantile subjection, by their power- until the year 1800, when it was abolished by the king of ful fleets and fortified factories in Bergen and other cities on Denmark.ii flolumn, in the north, and S'chaZiholt in the south, the coast. Eid-sAog and the Sevo mountains, on the frontiers were Episcopal sees. Reikciavik', Bessestadir, Melcestadlir, of Sweden, Gaczlaros near Trondhjem, the King's Path, the and Sti/dlesholm, were emporia and commercial towns on the valley of Sverre, and the environs of Bergen and 7'1bsberg, western coast. lCrnam, in the westward, where the great are celebrated scenes of the valor of King Sverre, and his historian Snorro Sturleson was born in 1178. Reiky'aholt, hardy and faithful Birkebener. the castle of Snorro, itm a beautiful region at a short distance 298. ICELAND, having been inhabited in 874, during the from Mount Hecla. Here he was assassinated by his dissatreign of Harald the Fairhaired (224), by Norse exiles, forned isfied relatives on the 22cd Sept. 1241. In the neighborhood since 928 an independent republic. The whole island was are still seen the hot baths of Snorro —Snor'dtlautg —cut out divided into wards, each with three meeting places or tribunals, in the living rock, an interesting monument of his taste and a heathen temple and its priests, godasr. The turbulent war- wealth, and of the skilful worlkmluanship of those times. riors of Niorway formned the aristocracy of the island, while the 300. During this period the kings of Norway possessed Inter emigrants, Danes, Swedes, and even many Scots and GREENLAND, the FirCER, the ORKNEYS, the SIHETLAND islands, Irish, entered into subordinate relations as tenants or serfs to the HEERIDES, the island of MAN and ANGLESEA. Greenland, tle rich Odeds Bdnder, here the yeomanry or gentry, who had like the other tributary possessions, belonged to the Royal dliviced the lands on the first discovery. The natural conse- domains, and foreign traffic was prohibited; thus the navigaquence of such a progressive colonization, under feudal tenure, tion between Norway and the other northern nations decreased would be frequent contentions and feuds between the old Nor- gradually, until it at last stopped entirely, in the year 1481, wegian settlers and the new corners. To obviate the dangers when the last Norsemnen, who were acquainted with the naviof a civil war, a chief, Lcagniacen, was named, under whose guid- gation to Greenland, were assassinated in Bergen by foreign ance the national diet, Althing, assembled every year on the Law-rock, Lovfjellet. Thirteen other provincial tribunals, "4 The Althing has been restored by King Frederick VII. in 1848, with presidents and jurymen, assembled in the different dis- when Demnark became a constitutional kingdom.

Page  91 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. STWEDEN-RUSSIA. 91 merchants.'1l The Hebrides and the island of Man were, Swedes, and the war lasted from 1156 to 1293. The inhabitby King Magnus Lagaboeter, ceded to Scotland in 1266, for ants in after times still retained the grave, intrepid, and indethe sum of four thousand mares sterling. The Orkneys and pendent character of their forefathers. They were capable of Shetland islands were mortgaged to Scotland by King Chris- enduring the severest privations; but their perseverance was tian I. for the dower of his daughter -Margaret, who married little removed firolm obstinacy, and their attachment to their King Jamires III. Stuart, in 1468. national name, customs, and language, rendered them incapable of appreciating the blessings of civilization, which the VII. KINGDOM OF SWEDEN. Swedes were anxious to diffuse among them. The principal Swedish colonies on the coast of Finuland were ]forsholm, 301. EXTENT AND CONQUESTS IN FINNLAND.-SW ede1n, still Bjobrzecborg, D5ystccl, Aabo, the Episcopal see, T]titomg and divided between the two races of Gothis and Svictrs,' or Stwedes,.ifeXhzolfm2 on the Lake Ladoga. was the most insignificant of the Scandinavian nations, and The Swecdish nobility hadl obtained an all-powerful ilfiau exerted no influence on the politics of Europe. "The Swedes,' the Seneshal al the rot divided the place of the ialsays the celebrated Adam, Bishop of Bremen, " are a sober and he ivalous institutions were oftrohe a modest people, addicted to no vice except that of having each t into Sweden: service on horseback and miilitary tenures wvith thr'ee wives; the rich and great have even more, all the chilexemption frlom taxes. Every province, 0stgothlallcl Westdren being regarded as legitimate. They are distinguished, tn.g.... othlancl, Siidermannalacl, Westmanlnaland Helsingsalran, and above all thle Northmen for their hospitality; and the Christian gothlan, Sdermaaand, Westmannaand, elsinaland, and Dalarne, hadl their particular laws and customs. Iinag Birger missionaries are received and cherished by them with affection. Dalarne, had their particular laws and customs. King Birger The bishops assist at the popular assemblies, or Thing. The States of the realmn. Slavery continued until the 14th century. The centre of Swedish commerce was the flourishing city in cavalry and ships. At hom-ne they are all equal, but in..n cavalry an pi.. hi, b of Wisly, on the western coast of the island of Gothlanld; military expeditions they yield obedience to their kingo and ] ~leaders."~~~'l ^0 it was a German colony, and formed at a later time a part of leacders." the great Hanseatic Confederacy of Marlitime Republics.11 The succession of the Folkungar to the throne (1250-1389), marks a new period in Swedish history (225). King Walde- VIII. GRAND DUCHY Fr RUSSIA. nar I. Birgerson, was anl energetic ruler, who did mnuch to 302. EXTENT AND DIVISJONs IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. secure the prosperity of his country. He built andcl fortified secure the prosperity of his co —The dominions of Russia (226) were by the victories of the Stockholm, the capital; he gave new privileges to the Swedish cities, and revised the Lancls Lagc, or the code containing te ward along the ores of the Baltic into Lith15),ex and wsold statutes of the kingdom. No change had taken place in ll; southward along the sh ores of the Euxine, so as to inpa i 6... land; southward along the shores of the Euxine, so as to inthe internal division of the Swedish provinces. More inter-ea and of the Bulgarian territories, clude part of the Crilmea and of the Bulgarian territories, esting are the crusades of Saint Eric against the Finns and esting Hre te carurdes of Saint Ericn against the hFinnsiand whilst on the east they reached to the Oka, the Don, and the Quains. He carried Swedish colonies across the Bothnian Volga. Wladimir resided in Kiew; he encouraged the buildGulf; and flourishing settlements soon arose on the western ing of new cities, and peopled the waste districts of his.iand southern shores of Finuland in 1156-1293. Tcavastc-HI-s, hemense empire with prisoners whom he had taken in the wars. on the aes in the iterior, was built by Jarl Birge in 1249, He not only conducted himself as a sovereign who consulted and the eastern regions, XK-yridalnd (Karelia), were occupied. the welfare of his dominions, but displayed many benevolent The Kyriales possessed all the -countries on the north of the and amiable qualities, that highly endeared him to his sublakes Ladoga and Onega, from the Finnic Gulf to the White Sea. jects. Yet the establishment of the Greek Chu-ch throughThe Finns were a siniple and rude people who seldom cultiva- out the Russiam dominions forms the nost prominent feature ted their fields, and subsisted by hunting, fishing, andcl rearing in his reign, and gives that tr i.. hs reign, and gives that truly worthy monarch a juster cattle. The heads of families exercised a despotic authority, to the title of G. The, claim to the title of G~rcct than his numerous victories. The and the women were treated as slaves. They had some- improvenent which Russia owed to this prince was great and chanical arts; among others, that of working metals; and the permanent. With the Cistian religion e introduced the permanent. With the Christian religion he introduced the most ancient mines in Scandinavia were discovered by the arts and language of Constantinople, which began to flourish Finns. Their mythology was wild and fanciful. Finlland was Fins. Theirythology was wild and fanciful. inandas in the Russian monasteries. But the ill-judclgel division of believed to be the country of giants, gnome-like spirits, and his empire anong his sons in 1015 caused a series of the era a this empire among his sons in I 015 caused a series of the most supernatural beings that haunted the deserts, murnmred in the bloody civil wars between his successors. Yaroslaf at last waterfall, raged in the tempest, and allured tie traveller and obtained possession of his father's dominions, but followed the hunter by a thousand fantastic forms. Magic was con- most indiscreetly his example by a new division of his territonected with the worship and manners of the people, and cUn- ries among his sons in 1054, which remained standing for ningly fostered by the deceitful priests and wizards. Music, centuries. Russia embraced then the following six territories: too, was a powerful instrument in the old superstition. The I. The GAND Duc o Ko (iew), with the sovereign divine minstrel, seized by the power of his magic, fell into title, and the beautiful and populous capital of that name on ecstasies, and his audience partook of his raptures. The te Deper (22). The province extended northard, ad Finnic language is the niost sonorous, and best adapted for compise the uchy or Repblic of Noo ad te ricipoetry, of any in Europe. It has affinity with the Hungarian. plities of skov and Wi, and in the soth all the terr The three leading tribes were tile Qzeains, in the north, border- ing on Laplad; the Yes (Jemes), in te le district tory fron the eastern Carp athians to the waterfalls of the Finnland Proper; and the KTyriales, in the east. The old or w i c h e eiPao. Finnlanders offered an obstinate resistance to the crusadingOV cotied the east5 See time Ancient Geography of time Arctic Lands of Anmeica, ern part of Russia from the Dnieper to the Doll andcl the Oka, from the writings of the Nortlhmen, by Prof. Charles Chr. Rafil. Co- the latter of which separated it from the roving Finnic tribes penhagen, 1845. 116 Adam Bremnensis. De Situ Danie. cap. CCVIJI-CCXX. anld 117 See, for important details, Geijer's History of the Swedes, in the CCXXIX. English translation. Vol. I.

Page  92 92 SIXTH PERIOD. —A. D. 973-1096. RUSSIA. of the llforldwins and Ji1Tu)omens (226.) The southern princi- laws and courts of justice; the manners were still barbarouspality of 7lmzuarcakan, which the Grand-Duke Swiirtoslav in revenge for bloodshed, ordeal by fire, awful servitude, and 972 had united to the empire, belonged likewise to this prin- burning of witches. Russia had yet no coined money; comcipality, but it was lost in 1050, on the advance of the Kuma- merce was conducted by barter, and skins of squirrels and nic hordes towards the Euxine. foxes were used instead of silver and copper money. ThouIII. The PRPINCIPALITY OF PEREJASLAVL extended south- sands of boats were plying on the lake Ilmen, and shipping the ward from the frontiers of Tchernigov, along the Dnieper and rich products of the east on the Wolkof River to the Ladoga, the Donjetz to the steppes of the Petchzeneges (254.) On the where the vessels from the Baltic embarked their cargoes. The east it touched the civilized and pacific ]iamlic Bulgar'ians, produce of the north, on the contrary, was conducted by on the Volga, and the Kliasma, where the concentrated power armed citizens over the low hills to the river beds of the Don, of Russia later arose on the downfall of Kiew. Dneister or Volga, and thence through the whole continent to IV. The PRINCIPALITY OF SMIOLENSK, on the northwest, be- the Caspian Sea, the Euxine, and Constantinople. During tween Pskov and Tchernigov, was continually exposed to the winter thousands of adorned sleighs and sledges were seen sliding invasions of the Poles. rapidly over the hard and level surface of boundless snows and V. The PRINCIPALITY OF POLOTZI, was situated between frozen lakes. Novgorod with its free democratic institutions, the Duena, Niemen and Dnieper. Its princes obtained the its active and warlike population, its commercial wealth-then sovereignty over the Lethic and Finnic tribes on the shores the centre of the world's traffic-was the New-York or New of the Baltic, but in spite of all their exertions they were re- Orleans of the middle ages, and made good the proverb: pelled by the Prussians (227.) That nation, the fiercest of " Who can'resist God anqed the great Novg'orod?" Such was all the Sclavonian tribes of the north, maintained their inde- the state of this remarkable city from the 11th to the close of pendence until the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the 15th century. Novgorod was the terminus of the pilgrims they yielded to the sword of the Teutonic knights and German as well as Jerusalem; it was the rendezvous of the fashionable civilization, in the building of Riga, and other cities on the coast. traveller and the covetous trader. Artists and jugglers, Danes VI. The southern PRINCIPALITY OF WLODomrnz, in the and Dutch, Portuguese Jews and Chinese mandarins, Tarpresent Volhynia, extended south toward the upper Vistula tars and Moors, were thronging its glittering bazaars, each of and the Principality of Halitch (Gallicia). which belonged to a separate nation-with its national tri303. During the twelfth century, several princes of the bunals, its churches or mosques, its store-houses and armed Russian dynasty formed a powerful state in the southwestern guardians. Here all the enjoyments of the east and west conparts of the Grand Duchy of Kiew, which, A. D. 1158, became centrated-nay, the ideas of the luxury and hospitality of the almost entirely independent; it was 1lalitchl or Gallicia, in Novgorodian citizens, the splendor of the Russian princes and flalo-Rtussia, on the northern slope of the Carpathian range, boyars, and thewealth to be earned there, were quite extravagant. the home of Russinians or Ruthenians (Russniaks), whose Art and science, literature and poetry, always follow in the wake prince Roman vanquished the southern Kumani, and rendered of liberty and commerce; we may, therefore, readily believe them tributary. There were in Russia during this period not the Russian historians, in their descriptions of the magnificent fewer than seventeen smaller principalities, though they at buildings of Novgorod and Kiew, built in the Byzantine and length became absorbed into seven, viz.: those of licew, Aov- Gothic style by Greek and German architects, and of the gorod, Smnolensk, Wladivmir', Tver, Iialitch, and Zl'Ioskomt. church paintings and decorations in Mosaic by Saint Olympius, Novgorod and Kiew maintained a certain superiority over the a highly talented monk, a native Russian, whose brilliant cre others until toward the beginning of the thirteenth century, ations are still admired at the present day. Learning, too, had immediately before the Mongol invasion, the northeastern been introduced from Constantinople, and found an encouragprincipality of Susdal or Wlacdimir' took the lead with the ing asylum in the numerous monasteries, where Russian friars two last mentioned states.'1 were engaged in copying and adorning those elegant manuscripts of the Scriptures and the fathers which remain a testimony 304. NovGOROD, on the banks of the Ilmen-Lake, was the of their skill and industry. Russian ecclesiastics, in the seclusion glory of Russia during the middle ages, with its strong walls, of the convent or hermitage, devoted themselves to astronollly its 250 churches and convents glittering with gilt cupolas, and and chemistry; others, returning from their pilgrimages to its 300,000 active citizens, who soon threw off the yoke of the Jerusalem, imparted their knowledge of the East, and the venerwrangling Russian princes, and constituted themselves into the able Nestor, from the depth of his cavern at Kiew, collected celebrated republic. Later (after 1240), it entered the confede- the early traditions of the nation, for his annals of the Russian racy of the Hianseatic cities, and became the great emporium empire; while many other monks wrote the lives of the saints, of Indian commerce for the north of Europe. At the head of its and the chronicles of their convents, in the native Russian executive government stood the Maire, 2posacdnik;, with exten- dialect."9 1Ios/cow, on the Moskwa, a tributary of the Oka, sive power, but changing every year. He had a lieutenant, s 19 The Russians, like all the Sclavonian tribes, delighted in social tysasloi, and a council of senators, 6oyars, consisting of the assemblies, inl music, dancing and national songs. Some few of their wealthy patricians. The merchants, storekeepers, mechanics, ancient ballads have survived tlhe storms oftime, andgive us afavorable and common people formed the popular assembly, that gathlered opinion of the poetical genius of Boian, and other early bards; but the in the large market-place at the deep sound of the clock, the gre:ter palrt have perished in thile general clestlruction of cities and conwitschhrei~-/olokol. All the citizens were splendidly armed, and vents durilng tile Mongolian invasion. Only a single largelr poem, of exmarslallcl under the city banners, according to the five ar- quisite beauty, on the deeds and the death of Ivor the Beve, has been tersofthetovn ad te fe d s of t t. preserved as an interesting monument of the ancient Russian language. ters of the town, and the five districts of the territory. Thle In glowing verses it describes tile mlilitary expeditions of Igor, the prince graind duke possessed a palace in the city, but his bailiff or of the Seversky, against the Polovtzi barbarians; hle attaclks their camp count was obliged to show the citizens the most flattering on the banks of the Don, but after a brilliant action, the Russians ai'e politeness, and he had no real power. The city had its own surrounded by thousands of enemies. "The steppe of Stribog is all stained with gore, and strown over with the dying and the dead' Po18 In the supremacy of these principalities can be traced the divi-lovtzi and Russians engage in fielce enibrace. On the third aurora sion of Russia into Great Russia (the duchy of Novgorod), Little Rus- our banners sink into the dust before the shouting myriads of savage sia (South Russia), as far as the Crimean, White Russia (Wladimir), on foes; for there is not a drop of blood left to be shed. Bold Igor and the east, a.nd Red Russia (I-alitch), 011o the southwest. his generous Russians have perished oI1 the battle-field; they have

Page  93 SIXTH PERIOD. —A. ).-973-1096. RUSSIA -FRANCE. 93 was a small summer residence of the princes of Susdal, when to yield to the missionary attempts of the German knights. Yury (George) Dolgoruki of Susdal, in 1147, laid the founda- Their native chiefs recognized the supremacy of the Russian tions of a large city, which soon became the capital of the grand-dukes, but, taking advantage of the partitiolms and ingrand duchy of Wladimir, and the centre from which the ternal feuds among the princes of that nation, they soon threw Russian czars afterwards extended their conquests. off their allegiance, and conquered, in several campaigns, from During the intestine broils which attended the dismember- 1082-1221, the principality of Polotzk, east of the Dtina. Newment of the Russian monarchy, the neighboring nations, Groldek and all Severia, as far south as the swampy region of Polovtzi, Hungarians and Poles, availed themselves of the the Prypec and the Dnieper. This vast territory was divided weakness of those small principalities, and the party spirit of among many chieftains; in 1235, however, the brave Ringold their chiefs, to take side with the one against the other, or to united all the small Lithuanian states, and took the title of ravage the country, to burn down the cities, and carry off grand prince, veliki-knaz. He maintained himself with brilthousands of captives into slavery. At last, in 1223, when liant success against Russians and Mongols, defeated the Gerthe three sovereigns of WVladimir, Kiew, and Halitch had man KnightsSword-bearers (the successors of the Sword-broformed a confederacy and driven back the Poles and Magyars; thers) in Livonia, and though still a heathen, mlade himself when Novgorod was extending her commerce, and consolidating respected by all the Christian nations on his frontiers. her republican institutions, the innumerable swarms of lliongol and Tarta4 r horsemen from the upper table lands of central II. CENTRAL EUROPE BETWEEN 973 AND 1096. Asia, under Ginghis-Chan marched westward, and pouring in through the defile of Dervend on the Caspian (96), inundated all the lands of the Kuban, and drove the Polovtzi or Kumani 306. CONDITION OF FRANCE; DOMAINS, FEUDAL SOVERETGNin the wildest flight against the Russian frontiers. All the TIES AND FRLEE COMW3IUNES.-France had, during the eleventh princes now armed; but the terrible battle on the banks of the century, preserved nearly the same limits which it had at the KIalka, on the 31st of May, 1224, decided the fate of the Rus- time of the extinction of the Carlovingian Dynasty (229). The sian nation. Batu-Chan defeated them totally; myriads Royal domains, however, had been enlarged by the accession perished in the river; Kiew, Moskow and other cities were of the most powerful feudatory, Hugh Capet, Duke of France laid in ashes, and the greater part of Russia for more than two (987-996), and by the slow, though prudent and persevering centuries and a half-1224-1487-remained subjected to the efforts of his successors'20 in the extension of their household degrading yoke of the great Chans of the Mongolian empire. power, their domains, and the enlargement of their royal prerogative. Several feudal territories had been united with the 305. The Chudish, Lettic and Lithuanian tribes, on the crown: 1. the county of Sens (234. XI.); 2. the county of eastern and southern shores of the Baltic, were still wild Vexin (235. XV.); and 3. the viscounty of Bour'g'es (238 heathens and barbarians. The Eisths and the Lives were XXVI). King Robert I. gave in 1031 the duchy of ButrChudish or Finnic tribes; they inhabited the present Esthland g'undy (239. XXVIII.) to his youngest son Robert, who beand Livonia (Livland) on the Finnic or Rigaic Gulf, and ex- came the ancestor to the elder dynasty of Burgundy and to tended eastward to the lake of Peipus and the Daina. West the kings of Portugal. These acquisitions before the crusades and south of these lived the Lotwazi, Letti, fKouri or Korsi were insignificant, while, on the other hand, the number of the (Kourshani), in tile present Kourland; the Seneg'alli, Sanzo- independent feudal seignories was increased by the erection of gitians, Syamaiti, Lithuanians and Pr'zussians, all kindred several baronies into hereditary sovereignties. These were, to the Sclavonian nation. These tribes resembled one 1. The barony of CovcY, in Champagne;'2 2. The barony another in their institutions, dialects, arms and manners. of MONTFORT L'AMAur v, in the duchy of Isle de France, southThey had the same sanctuaries, where they met to offer sacri- west of Paris; 3. The county of Eu; 4. The county of EvREUux, fices to their gods; at tnomove in Natanga (near Klnigsberg), both in Normandy; and 5. The county of Foix (243), in Gaswas the seat of their pontiff and chief judge-the IKriwe;-dif- cogne. This important duchy, which had been united to ferent classes of priests were subordinate to him. Many and Gzuyenne and the county of Roverg?'e (243. LI.), was possessed horrible were their idols; they had human sacrifices, and con- by the still more independent Count of Touzlousc. In general, secrated woods, lakes and springs. They lived entirely inde- the countries lying between the Loigre and the Pyrecnees, although pendent, occupied with cattle-breeding, hunting and fishing: they recognized nominally the sovereignty of the French montheir agriculture was insignificant; they fed on meat, and arch, were in strictness as alien from him as the kingdoms of drank mares' milk and mead; their weapons were clubs and Burgundy and Arles, or the duchy of Lorraine, which held of maces, which they launched with deadly aim at a great dis- the German Emperor (246, 248). Thus, then, the real sovetance; they were abhorred by the Germans, and ruthlessly reign power of the Capetian kings extended only over the Isle put down with the sword, or kept in the most cruel bondage. |of France and a part of O'lhanais, and yet, small as this disMerchants from Bremen, who were driven on their inhospitable trict was-in breadth ninety miles from east to west, and in coast in 1158, founded the first commercial emporium at Riga, length one hundred and twenty miles from north to southl —it and attempted to introduce Christianity among the Lives; but was far from being wholly subject to the crown, for even so the Pagans burnt the wooden chapels, slaughtered or expelled| late as the twelfth century Louis-le-Gros was arduously enuthe priests, and it was only the sword of the Danish crusaders gaged during the greater part of his reign in reducing to in Esthland, and that of the knights of Christ, or Sword- obedience the petty counts of ChanZmon70 t, and of ClCermont, b6others, in Livonia, who at last succeeded, after many the lords of ll7ontlhe'dry, l/iontfort l'Amaulry, Conccy, ifiontbattles, in building castles and converting the natives. The 0 These Captian monarchs were Robt I., 99-1031. Henry I., Lithuanians, extending from the iMeeel to the Daina, were 1060. PhilipI., 1108. Louis-le-Gros(VI.), 1136. Louis-le-Jeune(VII.) too powerful a nation, and too strongly situated in the interior, 1l180. Under Philip August (1180-1223) the French nation at last stands folth in its full development, consolidated into a mighty monarlchy. yielded their last breath for the salvation of their native country. 0 121 The gigantic towers of thie Chateau of Coucy present still some holy Russia, remember thy sons "-See interesting details on the man- of the finest medieval ruins in modern France. They had the proud ners and institutions of thie ancient Russians in N. MI. Karamsin's iTis- inscription, tory of the Rissimian Empire. French translation. Vols. I. and II., in "Nor kring, nor duke, nor prince, nor count am 1, many places. I am thie lord of Coucy."

Page  94 94 SIXTH PERIOD A. D.-973-1096. FRANCE-GERMANY. szorentcy, Puiset, and numerous other barons, who, within the and Belgium, where Brisg'es, with its thirty thousand armed precincts of the duchy of France and the royal dellesnes-nay, citizens defeated counts and kings on the battle-field, and laid in the very environs of Paris, the capital and residence of the the solid foundations of the republican and commercial granking, refused all obedience to him!'22 In the very heart of deur of the Low Countries in the following centuries. his domains the Capetian was supported only by the Church and by the rising and aspiring bot;geoisie-the cities;-all the 308. In the mean time, the rumor spread throughout rest, both strength and glory, belonged to the proud and wrang- France and Europe that thousands of Christian pilgrims, ling feudatories. princes, bishops, and abbesses, had been surrounded and rutll307. ENFRANCHISEMENT OF THE COMMUNES OnR REPUBLICAN lessly slaughtered at Rasnzla, on the coast of Palestine, by the CITIES IN FRANCE. The oppression of the nobility had become Turkish hordes, and that their sultan, Ortok, had taken posinsupportable to the poor down-trodden people; insurrection session of Jerusalem and of the Holy Sepulchre. Peter the among the peasantry broke out in different places; yet a few Hermit then appeared in France; his eloquence contributed mail-clad knights, with their lances in rest, scoured the county, powerfully to heighten the general enthusiasm for the sacred rode clown and dispersed the disorderly bands of the villacins, war, and the masses began to move. At the Council in Clercut off their hands and feet, and the matter was forgotten. The mont, in November 1095, Pope Urban II. preached the crupeasantry had too little communication or union in the differ- sade, and the following spring large bodies of pilgrims, men ent provinces, so that all their jacqueries or turbulent risings and women, young and old, led on by Peter the Hermit and failed during the middle ages; they were too degraded by Gaultier-Sans-avoir-Walter the Penniless-crossed the slavery, and if they had been successful, they would have used Rhine on their march for Constantinople and Syria. In their victory with brutish wildness and ferocity. It was in August of the same year the unwieldy armies of princes, barthe populous burghs and towns which had risen round the ons, and knights, put themlselves slowly in motion. No king, castles, and particularly round the churches, and in the anll- however, took part in the first crusade, but manly feudatories cient Romanz municipal cities, that the ideas of liberty long more powerful than the kings. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of glimmering at last burst forth in the brightest flames (245, Lower Lorraine, departed at the head of ten thousanid knights 250, 270). Population had been encouraged in the burghs and seventy thousand foot, Lorrainers, Germans, and French, by grants of land from their lay or ecclesiastical lords, who taking his route through Germany and Iunlgary. Another were anxious to increase their strength and the number of large crusading army was commanded by Hugh of Verinantheir vassals. The nobles would encourage the industry of dois, the brother of King Philip of France, the wealthy the townspeople; they would allure skilful artisans, weavers, Count Stephen of Blois, Robert Curt-Hose, duke of Norbutchers, smiths, armorers, and concede them some privileges illandy, and Count Robert of Flanclders-all equals, none chief; to keep them within their territory. Liberty, thus, had its be- they quarrelled on the road, and did but little honor to the ginning in the central towns of France-the free coimmunzeS — crusade. A third army was formed by the enthusiastic French which began by receiving some concessions, and terminated by of the South, the Aquitanians, Gascons, Auvergunacs, anld Proextorting their franchises and immunities sword in hand. The vencals, under the banner of the old Raymond of St. Gilles, greater part of these towns were under the jurisdiction of Count of Toulouse, who traversed the Albanian Mountains bishops or abbots, who wielded the sword of justice by their under endless hardships and dangers, and met the other cruviscounts. Such were the episcopal cities of Beauvais, LYVyon, sading companions at Constantinople in the spring of 1097. Laoom, and St. Riquier; ill others the counts and the prelates The Normans of Italy, with Count Bohemlond of Tarant, and divided the authority, and in their reciprocal rivalry sought to the handsolue and noble-minded Tancred at their head, forced gain the assistance of the citizens against their antagonists by their way, sword in hand, through Epirus and Macedonia. liberal concessions, as was the case in Soissons and Amitiens; Such was the march of the first crusading armies. while in St. Quenztint and Ablbeville the counts alone exercised an absolute power. Le M1lans is the earliest of the free commnliunes X. TImE ROMANo-GERMANIC EmPrE. (1070). Czmhbrai followed the example in 1076. Louis-leGros called the citizens to arms in his feud against the dukies 309. EXTENT, CHANGE IN THE CONSTITUTION, CONTEST JWITH of Normandy; they flocked to his feudal army under the ban- ROME ABOUT THE INVESTITURES. Great changes had taken ners of their respective parishes in 1119, and their demands place in Germany since the times of Otho the Great, in 973. rose with their military success. Church and nobility then Conrad IT. obtained possession of the kingdoml of Burgundy vied with one another to sell the franchises to the citizens, (244), which at that time comprised the beautiful districts of who with hard labor found means to purchase them; to form the southeast of France, afterwards called P-rovence,.Dautheir consular governments, to fortify their towns, and at once phiny, Frcanc-he Comte and Lyons, together with Savzoy, and to display the activity and development of a high-minded de- a portion of Switzerland. Germany was thus placed in conmaocracy.'3 This revolution took place all over the kingdom nection with the Mediterranean by means of the important under a tzhousandc difelzrent forms, and with more or less dis- seaports of Tozlont and 1/Ifa'seilles; an acquisitionll of great turbance; terrible was the struggle of the cities in Flanders import, which, however, afterwards, in the times of intestine disturbances, became neglected, and fell into the power of the 22 The king of France could not ride from Paris to his city of watchful and grasping kings of France. Nor did Germany take Orleans, being interrupted by the frowning towers of Montlh~ry. better care of her other frontier provinces. The margraviate When, therefore, the fierce lord of the castle, who had been defeated of Schleswig was ceded to Denmark, and thus the Eider and humbled in the crusade, consented to give his daughlter in marriage to the kinlg's son, wvith his castle as her dowry, Philip said to his son, saders to sell their estates and rights afterwards, served powerfully to Louis-le-Gros: "Now, Illy son, keep heedful watch over this tower, the promote the release of the cities. Nor was Kiing Lonis-le-Gros the trouble caused me by which, has made my hairs gray with grief, and founder of them, but iather the reverse; for it was the brave citizens througih whose craft and wickedness I have never known peace and of the towns who established the king; without them he would not quiet." What a picture of the times! have beaten off the Nolmans, and these conquerors of Englmnd would 23 It has been wrongly said that the crusades welre the primitive plobably have conquered France too. See, for highly entertaining decause of the enfrainchisemlent of the cities, for we distinctly see that tails on thie history of the communes of Francee, the admirable nalraLe M'cumns, Ccoambrai, and others, obtained their charters long before the tives of Augustin Thie'ly, in hlis Lettu-es stirn l'histoi'e de _i'ccLce. Lettres commencemnlent of that movement, though the readiness of the Cru- XIII-XXV.; comnpare Guizot, Michelet, Sismiondi, and IIenry Ieo.

Page  95 SIXTHE-I PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. GERMAN EMPIRE-POLAND. 95 became again, in 1027, the frontier of the two nations (294). was reinstated on the throne of Germany in 1080.- WelfesThe Vendes in Slavia (295), on the shores of the Baltic, holz, a forest near Hofstedt, in Saxony, where Henry V. sufthrew off their allegiance to the German Empire, and formed fered a fearful defeat from the Saxons, in 1115. In a chapel, an independent state; so did King Boleslav Chrobry, of Po- erected on the battle-field, the victors placed a statue in full land, who, after the rapid conquest of all Silesia and Bo- armor, with helmet, shield, and mace, whom the peasantry in hernia, at last made peace with the emperor Henry II. at after times called Saint Jodut. Bautzen, -in 1018, in which he retained possession of l/Ioravia and Lscsatia, and even obliged the emperor to support 311. In ITALIA, the flourishing cities of Lonzbalady and him with German auxiliary troops in his wars against the Rus- Romaognac were republics in reality, though they still made a sians. The Germans fared worse in Italy, because Robert show of their allegiance to the German emperors on their deGuiscard and his Norman adventurers conquered all lower scent into Italy, to take the imperial crown in Roome. They Italy and Sicily, while northern Italy became more and more defeated Henry II. in Pavia; they drove Henry III. out of republican, and the papal see attained the height of its power Rome; but they took the part of IIenry IV. against Pope on the accession of Pope Gregory VII. Gregory VII. The pope was, however, powerfully supported Conrad II. gave, in 1037, his celebrated conzstitztion qf by the Countess MIathildis, of Tuscany (250). This remarkthe fiyes, according to which the lower vassals, who followed able woman had inherited the immense possessions of her the banner of the empire, obtained the full right of property father, Margrave Bonifacius, in 1052; she governed her states and the hereditary succession of their estates. They thus be- with the spirit of a politician; she appeared in full armor at came the faithful supporters of the emperor against the dukes, the head of her vassals, and devoted her whole active life to aid whom Conrad sought to bring back to their old condition of in elevating the power of the Church. Slander falsely reported mere imperial functionaries. He assigned to his son Henry her to be in love with Gregory, who took refuge in her castle the duchies of Souazbia, Bava'?ira, and Prcznconzia, and, if intel- of Canossa; but her life was as virtuous as her principles were ligent successors had been able to carry through his deep-laid austere. On her death, in 1115, she bequeathed all her states plans, Germany would have become what France ultimately be- to the Church, though many of them were ancient fiefs of the came, an undivided, powerful empire. But the Salic dynasty empire. Another great controversy therefore arose between the was stayed in its mid-career, partly by the faults of Henry IV., pope and emperor, until, after much fighting, the feud at last and partly by the rapid rising of the papal chair, whose author- terminated in a division of her lands, of which the Church ity developed itself with astonishing energy under the great knew how to secure the better half to herself. From this time Pope Gregory VII. The violent contest between these two until the appearance of Barbarossa in Italy, in 1152, the Italian stubborn characters shook the world, strewed Germany and cities enjoyed the most perfect liberty; they became wealthy Italy with corpses and ruins, and was at last only terminated and powerful. Their citizens formed battalions under the with the coneordate of Worms, in 1122, between Henry V. and banners of the different wards of the town, with their consuls Pope Calixtus II.; according to which the emperor consented to and gonfcaloniere at their head. RAVENNA, VERONA, PADOUA, the free election of bishops and abbots, renouncing the invest- PARMA, obtained important privileges. MILAN, in spite of iture of the mitre and the cross, or the ecclesiastical investi- her archbishop, adopted a republican government, and waged ture. This was reserved to the pope, who, on his side, gave up continual wars with her rivals and neighbors, LODI, Comto and to the emperor the investiture by the sceptre of the ecclesias- PAVIA.- Canossa, a strong castle, belonging to Countess Matical domains that were subject to feudal tenure. The politi- thildis, on the Apennine, near Reggio. Here the excommucal unity of Christendom was thus broken for ever. nicated Henry IV. was invited by the countess to meet with 310. CITIES, CASTLES, AND HISTORICAL PLACES. HCamZ- the terrible pope. The German king was treated with the burig, on the Elbe, was taken and burnt by the Vendes in most inhuman cruelty, being left in the outer court of the cas1069, and the archbishop forced to remove his see to Bremen.- tle, barefoot, in a hair garment, exposed to cold, hunger, and Gron2le, a fine castle near Ghttingen, in Saxony, where Henry II. thirst, for three days during January, 1077. Half dead with died, in 1024.-Bothlfeld, near Blakenburg, in the Hartz. humiliation and misery, the guilty monarch was at last admitHere died (1056) the active and severe Henry III. in the ted into the presence of the proud pontiff, who, however, lost flower of his age, amidst the lofty plans he had formed for the best fruits of his victory by thus outstepping all bounds the future organization of Germaniy.-IcKaiserswvert/t, on the of moderation and christian charity. Rhine, where his little son, Henry IV., being carried off on PATRIMONIUKI SANTI PETrI, or the then almost independent board a ship by the intriguing Archbishop Hanno, of Cologne, STATE OF THE CHURCH, extended, as indicated on the map by threw himself into the river, and was saved with difficulty. — the violet color, throughout the greater part of central Italy, Goslar', in Saxony, the residence of Henry IV., whence he while the feudal homage rendered to the pope by the Norcommenced building castles in the mountains of the Hartz and man Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, Calab'iae, and Sicily, Thuringia to curb the freeborn spirit of the Saxons. —Hartz- secured the Church from the south. It embraced the duchy tb/v'~ the splendlicd castle of Henry IV., near Goslar, which of Spolcto, the Mlark of An.ona and Roanazcdiola (ItRomagna. the Saxons stormed and demolished at the beginning of their ROME herself had suffered the most terrible devastation in rebellion, in 1073. Henry fled in disguise to the forests, and 1085. The pope, being besieged by Henry IV. ill the castle narrowly escaped the pursuit of the enraged nation. —Hohlen- of St. Angelo, called the Normnans to his aid. Robert Guiso hero, on thie river Unstrut, in Thuringia, the battle-field on card came with his invincible knights; the Germans fled; whllich the Saxons were defeated by Henry IV., and treated Gregory VII. was delivered; but the entire southern part of with heartless cruelty.-Hohetnstagften, a conical mountain the city, lying between the Late'ran and the Coliseum, was near BzAzrcu, on the Rems, in Souabia, on the pinnacle of destroyed with fire and sword by the Normans, and it has reVwhich Frederick of Buren built the splendid castle from which mained a desert to the present day. the mighlty dynasty of the Hohenstaufen had their origin in,ile twelfth century. —Gera, on the Elster, in Thuringia. In the neighborhood occurred the great battle, in which Rudolplhus, of Soualbia, the rival emperor, perished by the hand 312. EXTENT, PaOVINCES, AND CITIES. Poland, under its of young Godfrey of Bouillon; and the unhappy Henry IV. warlike king, Bole-lav the Great, embraced, in A D. 1025, the

Page  96 i6G SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. POLAND —HUNGARY. following provinces I:. PoloZiCa Propr'ic, bordering east, selves called it, had been definitively constituted toward the on the Bug; south, on the Carpathian Mountains; west, year 1000 (253). The Magyar kings of the Arpadian dynasty, on the Oder; and north, on the N etze, which separated the at the head of their warlike nation, made extensive conquests; kingdom from Pomerania. It was subdivided into 1, M3azo- their territory embraced not only all Trazsylcvalzia (HTungaria viza, east of the Vistula; 2, C'/javiaC; 3, Culmac; 4, CCazuX- Nigra), /cJarvc'arosh, on the north, along the southern base of biac; 5, Kustry)'; 6,.Bcarnin; 7, Lubus; 8, Duchy of Sile- the Carpathian Mountains, and the principalities of Wallachia sica; 9, Slask; 10, Ccracow; 11, Scandonzirz; 12, Sieracdz; and tlalitch beyond them, but they passed the Danube, cap13, Lenczyc; and the conquered frontier provinces, which a tured Sir'-mi'tn and Sintgeedtunun, or Alba Bul/ga'icea (Belfew years later were lost, PoMze-anlzia, Lusatia (Lausitz), grade)-on the junction of the Saave and the Danube, the ll/ilzieni, lioravia, Chro6atia, or North Hungary, as far as ancient bulwark of the Romnan Empire (34), in 1079, subdued the Danube, the principality of Hcalitch and Czerviensk east- the Croatian Zupanate in 1088, and did not stop until they ward as far as the Bug.-CRAcow (Krakou), in a splendid had crossed swords with the Venetians on the Dalmnatian coast and strong position on the upper Vistula, was the capital. of the Adriatic. Here their light cavalry was beaten back, There the ancient kings were crowned and interred. The and all the islands and several cities on the mainland, Zar'a, cathedral is remarkable for its nulerous mausoleums. The Trac, Spalatro, arenztca, and others, remained in the possestomb of Saint Stanislaus is erected in the middle of the church, sion of Saint 3Mlarc. The Hungarian king nevertheless took the where lamps burn by day and night, and masses are continually title of King of Croatia and Dalmatia, under the sovereignty of said over his ashes. The adjacent country is remarkable for the papal see of Rome. The Catholic clergy exercised a great its picturesque beauty- Vislica; Scazdoimirz. The duchy of influence, and nearly all the political forms of the Frankish Silesia was one of the finest provinces of the Polish empire, constitution were introduced. The king formed his council and remained united with it until 1327, when it was ceded to of the prelates and nobles; even deputies fiom the nation were John of Bohemia. —B RESLAU, onl the Oder, the ancient capi- admitted. At the head of the jurisdiction stood the coit.es tal, was burnt by the Mongols in 1241. Leignzitz, where they 2alatin~us-T f dclor Isp)az —of Hungary. The employments at defeated Duke Henry of Silesia, and the Polish and German court and in the administration were the same as in Germany. chivalry, yet with so great a loss, that they immediately re- Every one of the seventy-two comnitatus- Gesrznnschcaften — treated to Hungary. W'carsacv, on the Vistula, was still a small into which Hungary had been divided, was governed by a town.-Posenz- Gnesen, the see of the archbishop —Kalis]. comzes p12arochianuzs, who held the judicial and mnilitary com313. BKing Boleslav the Great, Chrobry (250), accom- mland of the district, and was chosen by the king. The naplished the difficult task of uniting into one monarchy the tive population consisted of, 1, wonds?.sez, who could be sold; different hostile tribes of the Lj chs. 1/Ia[zovians, IKakovi- 2, seqfs, or aziscripti glebce, who were bound to the soil; ans, Silesians, and liforaviains, esteemed and loved him as 3, ro2zyzon.freenzez; the latter were divided into tens and highly as the Poles themselves; he was as generous as he was hundreds, and obeyed their officers, called (lecaci and cevttehumane, brave, and just.24 He organized the brilliant cavalry nzarii. The nobility of the nation consisted of, 1, the vassals, of his feudal army —.pospolit6'uGscenid; he regulated the who obtained feudal estates from the royal domains, and rentaxes-poradibze-and divided his mighty realm into districts- dered service at court and in the army;', the bctaros, the poviaty ziemnid —in which populous boroughs-posada-arose, majority of the Magyars, who had conquered tlme country, and and agriculture, trade and industry, became flourishing. Cas- among whom the districts had been divided at the time of the tles —gocl —were built along the frontiers, which were guarded occupation. The barons still preserved their division into by the armed peasantry, under the command of the border Asiatic tribes or clans. Each family or branch possessed tercounts. High-roads traversed Poland in all directions. Car- ritories, descending by inheritance among its members. All avans from the east crossed peaceably the country on their these noble estates were entirely free of taxes or tributes. route for the great mnarkets —vmessem-of Germany. Tle chase The diets were held on horseback, in the plain of Rakos (253), was the great delight of the Poles; they hunted the elk, buffalo, where a royal herald proclaimed the resolutions taken. The urus, bear, and wild boar, on horseback, with lance and bow; heathen population, even the Magyars who refused baptism, from the German knights, they adopted the more fashionable and criminals, lost their personal liberty and were treated as falconry. Convents and schools were built; and, after a reign slaves; those Selavonians who received baptism, were placed of extraordinary activity, the great ruler died, crowned with under the protection of the Church as coralitionarii. The glory, in 1025. His successors, Boleslav II. and III., ex- laws for the security of property were austere. King Ladislav tended their conquests to the island of Rugen, on the Baltic,- gave, in 1078, the most severe laws to protect the cattle on beyond the Vistula, against the Russians; south into Hungary; the open pasture-lands between the Theiss and the Danube, but the division of Poland, in 1139, among the sons of Boles- which were exposed to the forays of the proud and rapacious lav III., caused, in the course of time, a rapid succession of M3agyar nobles. Neither rank, nor wealth, nor family influcivil feuds, the formation of a powerful aristocracy, and the ellce, could save the robber-baron from the axe or the gallows. oppression of the mass of the people to the degrading state of The Latin language had been introduced tcgether with the hopeless serfdom. Christian religion; soon the court and the tribunals spoke that tongue, and the MIagyar dialect was thns stopped ini its develXIIr. KIonom OF HUNGARY.opment, andl banished among tile lower classes. Civilization XII. KTNotDon OF HUNGArY. made very slow progress in Hungary, and tile breeding of cat314. CONQUESTS, CONSTITUTION, AND DiVISIONS. The king- tle and horses remained for centuries the principal occupation dom of the Hungarians, or MAGYAR-OnszAG, or they them- of the Magyars. At the time of the crusades, we find Hungary a well organizecd kingdom, under the small anid misshapen, "2' Boleslav had the curious custom of inviting thie noble criminal to but high-mindel King Kalmany (Colonman), who offered the dinner. The culprit received, however, first, thle plivate admnoliition of first crusaders a free passage through Hungary. Yet the disthe kIing; heV was then led into an apartment, where he receivel a telri- orderly bands of Peter the Hermit burnt Sellllin on the DaIle flogging; from which the penitent was carried into the bath, diessed for the court, and admitted to the royal table-all performed in good nube, and their rear-guard, unider the priest Gottshalk, was style-and no doubt, the noble sinnel sat down there with the best appe- therefore surrounded and cut to pieces by the Hungarians. mite, after such prepalrative corporeal exelrcise. With Godfirey and the Princes, Kalmany had an interview at

Page  97 SIXTH PERIOD. —A. D. 973-1096. KUMANIA-SPAIN. 97 Tollenburg, on the Leitha, the frontier river, where a treaty Horses were sacrificed on the sepulchres of their chiefs, whose was signed for the passage of the army. King Andcreas II., faithful squires stabbed themselves, to die with their masters. with a large Hungarian armly) passed into the East in 1217, They remained pagans, though they came in constant relations andc lanlel at Acre, but returlned without having assisted the to Constantinople and Kiew; they were nolacles, and lived crusaders, or gained glory for himself. under felt-tents even in Hungary; they were excellent horsemen, and had herds of camels; they shaved off their hair like the Turkss, but wore long beards; they were voracious, and ate XIII. THE UzI AND KUM{AN1. XIII. THEUZI AND KUMAI. rats and mice. The Europeans considered them as monsters 315. THEIPa TERR ITORY, CRONQUESTS, AND MANNERs. —To- in human shape, and many a story was told of their devouring ward the middle of the eleventh century, appear suddenly the human flesh, and carrying pickled children in the saddle-bags numnerous hordes of the Uzi and Kumlani, on the steppes west along with them on their military expeditions. of the Volga. They were wild barbarians, of Tartaric blood, and made themselves feared by their neighbors, the Russians, III. SOUTHERN EUROPE BETWEEN 973 & 1096. who called them Polovzi.-5~ They pressed hard upon the Petcheneges, whom they subdued and ilixed up with; and they XIV. KiINGDOMS OF LEON AND CASTILE. settled as far westward as the river Aluta. Uniting their dif316. TEMPORARY UlNION AND CONQUESTS; OPRIGIN OF ferent hordes, they crossed the Danube in 1065, and began a PORTUGAL. The fall of the Ommniyad caliphs of Cordova, desolating invasion into the Greek empire; yet they were soon and the dis berment of their mpire into a vast number compelled to return by pestilence and hunger. Their wars..... compelle to. return.bypestileut and hunger. T heir warsof petty principalities in 1031, afforded an opportunity for with the Russians continued without interruption on the bor-. the neighboring Christian princes, by successive attacks, duder, which lay north of the waterfalls of the Dnieper. Alexiust iusrehe Aa doi ring nearly two centuries. to circumscribe the Arab dlominKomnenus sent them splendid presents, but it tended only to ion in the Spanish peninsula within the narrow limits of the >.. w.. l~~~on in the Spanish p eninsula within the narrow lllmits of the make them more desirous of plundering the beautiful countries froin which they 1am e. Ann a Tomnena~ in her.lexi kingdom of G1'elzadac. This conquest would even have been from wnlcn ttley came. Anna Isomnena, mn ier Alexiaadn defro which came. Anaiaccomplished in a much shorter time, if the feuds and rivalries scribes the despair Of her father, attacked at the same tllne by scribes the despair of her father, attacked at the same time by between the Christians thelmselves had not retarded the victothe Normans, on the western coasts of Epirus, by the Seldjukian T *s * *i Mino an b th Uz a* Kmn in. ha. rlous progress of their arms, and the African dynasties of the unrks in Asia Mi1nor, atncl y the Uzi and Kumatni in Thrace, Alinoravides in 1094 and of the Almohades in 1147 had not where they besieged Adrianople, and spread devastation to the gats o1 Ce Nr dd ty sp at temporarily restored the Saracen power. The country south g~ates oft @onstaatinople. 1 or cua they stop at the Carlnathian of the Duero, though occupied by the Christians, remained for Mountains; they entered Transylvania, but were at last sura long time an insecure possession, frequently overrun by the rounded and defeated by King Ladislav, in 1089 —who per* 1 ~~~~~~Arabs. Thus, Cotenb6ra Visezc. and Lanzexo, which had been mittedl part of them to colonize the Jazygian plains, between reitthe p artd o the Doaconuze the later plaince ofete. reduced by Alfonso I. and his immediate successors, were rethe Theiss and the Dantlbe —t e later province of }D82zcl7aniCc takren by the great Mohalumedan -general Al-5i~anzor, on his Thus, this terrlble nation extended from the Caspian Sea and-Manzor, on his Ths hstril ain etnd fo th. a pa e n victorious invasion of Galicia (255). Alfonso V., of Leon, fell Mount Cautcasus, along the shores of the Euxine to the mouth on Cacss an.h soe of.h.xn ohmuhbefore Viseu in 1027; but his son-in-law, Fernando I. of Casof the Danube; and the whole of Southern Russia is in the tile, who, after the defecat and cleath of 13ermuclo III., in the annals of the eleventh and twelfth centuries called Kumnania. tile, who, after the defeat and death of Berudo III., in the battle of Carrion, in 1037, ascended the throne of Leon, reOn the approach of the Mongols from the defiles of Dervendc,, covered both Viseu and Lamego in 1057, and the important in 1222, the Kumani got frightened; they fell back o the Coimb'a opened its gates to the Christian knights in 1058. Volga, and demanded aid from the grand dukes of Kiew,Leo, Castle the Astias Galicia and the county of Potu. 1.. ~~~~~~~~_, eovz, CadStitl, the AstPte taGS, GCa'LtCZ'a, and the GOUntY of PortvgWadimir, and Halitch. The Russian princes were suspicious Wad t rq~aidhRaneo Cale (Portugal), remained united during the greater part of of treachery, but when they learned the reality of the danger, the eleventh century, under the enterprising monarhs Ferdi. they came on in full force to the support of their old enemies..nando I. and Alfonso VI:.- 1037 ll09. After a sieg~e of Yet the bloody clay on the river Kalka, in May, 1224, decided the fate both of the Kumani and of the Russians. All bowed three years, Toledo, the ancient capital of the Visigoths, surrendered in May, 1085, and Alfonso advanced rapidly on both beneath the yoke of the MIongols —the Kumnani were never to b0Lanks of thne Tag~us, occupying the fortresses of Mla~drid, Jdcra rise again; only the tribes in Hungary survived, and their cle- an he a oche oy o ar *11 * 1 *.. qte~~~~gzedc(, and Gunctclcyk~arcL; na~y, he approached boldly toward scenldants still inhabit the plains of G~'eat and Little ]~ma- q e aadawhn e aprachennbabl torde,nia. Both the Uzi and the Kuniani resembled in -ugliness, the Guadiana, when he was attaeked by the innumerable hordes th the Uzid the Kumani resembled in ugliess, of the African Almoravids, under their great general, Yussefsqualidness, and bestiality, the Petcheneges, to whom they werBen-Taxfn-l-azr-ed-din-(defende of the faith), inof t he thui t hrno es awre s til f oud. hr lamnguage was sp okun in i, un as.s plain of Zclncn, and totally defeated, with the loss of 24,00c0 gary aseentury ago; thne last ma who understood i1t died isr of his bravest warriors, in 1087. This check put a stop to the 1770; lt s isa~ d to have contained many Tartaric words. The. th... progress of the Castlaanf ling; and as the western conquests names of the Polovtzian clans, whith appear on the Russian were contlneully exposed to the beruptions of the enthusoastic chronkcles, are still found among the Tsbherkassians of Mount... A~~~~~~~~lmoravids, Alfonso conferred the governmellt of Portug~al Cauccasus, and it 1S supposed that this powerful people mnya.-o.h Pl.iot h auadth ih fcreig a irnz 1thmae aln doteTgsperanthe attack of C oimra nd:laid as have vsanqyashed the Kumani, and gcven tlem tleir native fher as the Gradlana on the young heron Henry oS Besansons a _ances, f'mhihs derived the Geurmani word Val~diu, as wild a Burgundsan p thncem whor uge 1072, had married his daughter wel e loathsome. Wihen concluding tl eaties with {lle Russians,,Terescl, and to whose valor he had been indebted for many of they used to GUt open their vemns. and fllng~ a goblet witll.i v. tue..nb~.f..~uda ole aigjie their blood, they mixed it with that of tlle Russian envoys, tnd tebac fCutHny eba ac h loait, wo drank reciprocally, 1ll order to boecome of one blood and faith. * n 1107, mlade a desperate attack on (:oimbra,,znd laid the foundation of the chivalrous MONARCHY OF PORTUGAL,I"G be125 Th e EuIn~garians had lalany wars witll th~e Kumani, and ca-lled them fChuni; the Germsans gave them the nanze VarZartcls) ITta~ves, 0-1'12C See the intcltesting illvestigations about thle orligin of the Portuz:i~ialones, fitom wh~ich is derived the German word Vatand,~ a rvild and g~uese monazrchy, ill the modlernz Portuguzese Historinn, Ippolito JleetlW dlesperate adventurel or swordsman. ]anno. Lzisbon, 1 846i. Vol. I. 1.2t

Page  98 SIXTH PEIRIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. SPAIN. fore his death, in 1112. The disgraceful civil war between sides Navarcra and Sobrarbe, he held the county of AraQueen Urraca and her husband Alfonso-el Batallador —of gon, then confined within the narrow limits of the -valleys Aragon, brought desolation and misery over Castile. Her north of the Ebro. By the marriage of his son Fernando to son, Alfonso VII., Ramundez of Galicia, united the kingdoms the heiress of Leon, he extended his influence over the westagain, 1126-1157, and extended his conquests to Lae 1Iancha; ern states of the peninsula, while his army conquered the lordand the Sier'ra Morena in 1138-1141. The important for- ships of PRibTgorza, and pressed hard upon the French frontress of Calatrava, on the Guadiana, was taken, and became tier line of the Pyrenees. Yet by dividing his dominions, later the seat of the military order of that name. The king in 1033, among his four sons, he impeded the developpenetrated even into Andaltcia, but died in the village of mlent of his people; and it was not until 1076, that VNavaqra, Fresnada, near the steep pass of tltr'adal, in the Sierra Mo- Acragon, Sobrarcbe, Viscaya, Alava, and Rioja, were again rena, on his return from the expedition in 1157. Leon and united under Don Sancho Ramirez (1076-1094), and Castile were now separated for the last time. Fernando II. formed into a kingdom, whose capital was Pamplona, or became king of Leon, and Sancho III., of Castile. This un- Jaca. During the reigns of Don Pedro I. (1094-1104), toward division is indicated in our accompanying m1ap: Cas- and the brilliant Alfonso I. el Batallador (1.104-1134), it tile, green; Leon, violet; and Portugal (already a kingdom was transferred to Zaragoza. Aragon acquired in 1065 since 1139), yellow. The final union of Castile and Leon took the city of Barbastro; in 1083, Grades; in 1085, iTronzon; place in 1230, under Fernando III. el Santo. in 1096, the important Huesca, which opened the fertile 317. CITIES AND HISTORICAL PLACES.-LEON, on the Ben- plain of the Ebro to the Christian arms; and in 1114. esga, a fine ancient Roman city, remained the capital until the the equally considerable Tudela. Zarca'agozca fell in 1114, conquest of Toledo, in 1085; and later again, after the divi- and the fleeing tribes were, in 1119-1121, driven from Calasion in 1157. Its cathedral church, which, for the elegance and tanyud, Dcaroca, and Cotanlda, south of the mountains, toward lightness of its Gothic style, is considered the finest in Spain, was Valencia. Alfonso, the battle-fighter, perished before Fl'aga, begun during this period, but not finished until the fourteenth in 1134; and after the short reign of the Monk Ramliro II., the century. BURGos, in Castella Yet~us, the residence of the warlike and intelligent Raymond Berengar (Berenguer V. Castilian counts, became later the capital alternately with (IV.), Count of Barcelona, was called to the throne of Aragon Toledo, in Castella Nova. Zamora, on the Duero (255), so (257).127 Thus Catalonia remained, henceforth, united to celebrated in the Spanish chronicles and romances, as the scene Aragon, and the brilliant and highly instructive history of of the siege sustained by Dohfa Urraca, against her brother, this well-organized and powerful kingdom begins in 1137, and Don Sancho, and the feats of the Cid Rodrigo IDiaz de Bivar. continues uninterrupted for three centuries, until the final conUclis, in the province of Toledo, where Don Sancho, the son solidation of the Spanish monarchy, in 1479, by the marriage of Alfonzo VI., fell in battle against the Almoravids. Alczn- of Fernando V. of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. On the tara, on the southern bank of the Tagus, near the frontiers of death of Alfonso el-Batallador, the Navarrese, rejected the Portugal, the celebrated castle of the knights of the order of election of Ramiro the monk in Aragon, declared themselves that name. Two cavaliers of Salamanca, Don Suero and Don independent, and chose for their king Don Garcias VI. RaGomez, riding along the banks of the Coales, in search of some mirez, a scion of their old royal dynasty. Both states restrong position, which they intended to fortify on the border, mained henceforth separate. Rioja alid Biseaya fell to the to arrest the forays of the Moors, met with a hermit, who re- crown of Castile (257). It was not only the union with the commended the hermitage of Saint Julian as an excellent site county of Barcelona, which strengthened the kingdom of Arafor a fortress. Being supported by the Bishop of Salamanca, gon; it obtained likewise the extensive and important possesthey erected a castle around the hermitage, where they were sions which the Counts of Barcelona had acquired by purjoined by many other nobles and adventurers, all eager to ac- chase, inheritance, or marriage, beyond the Pyrenees, in quire fame and wealth in this life, and glory in the next. southern France. Count Raymond Berengar I. (II.) el- Virjo, Hence the foundation of the order of St. Jtliacn of Alcczntara, the most distinguished prince and cavalier of his cday, had which rendered signal service to the king and church. In an bought, in 1070, from the Countess of Carcassonne, all her rights era of religious enthusiasm, the knights, anxious to imitate the over the viscounties and lordships of Cozmszinges, Co1fianis, Templars in a life of monastical austerity and military disci- and Rtazdz,ln on the slope of the mountains, and of 31inzer've pline, obtained the rule of Saint Benedict. A third military (Menerboe), Beziers, Agtcldz, and Carccassonne, farther north order, instituted somewhat later, in 1161, was that of Santiago, on the coast; and he had victoriously supported his new acwhich followed the rule of Saint Augustine. It originated with quisitions with the sword against the Counts of Toulouse. The some notorious bandits of Leon, who, touched with contrition lordships of Bezaln and Cer'dafca, south of the Pyrenees, refor their past enormities, resolved to make reparation for them, vertecl to iRaylonld III. (IV.), in 1111-1 17, and in 11 12, he by defending the pilgrims journeying to the sanctuary of San- married Dolce, the only daughter and heiress of Count Giltiago de Compostela (255), whom they themselves formerly so bert of Provence. This mllagnificent country, which nominally often had robbed. King Fernando II. favored this pious fra- belonged to the Gerlman Empire, but, by the neglect of the ternity, who chose the bloody sword of their patron Santiago emperors, had become alienated, remained nowt under the sway as their professional badge. The three powerful orders of Calatrava, Aleuntara, and Santiago, carried the crusading spirit 127 Raymonld Berengar IV. was a pcerfect knigllt, brave, generous, to its height in Spain, and being richly endowed by the succes- active, andl intelligent, lilke his forefathers. i:e owe(l, hlowever, his sive kings of Leon and (Castile, their possessions, like those election to tile seneschal of Catalonia, Guillen de Moeada, wheo, of the Templars and Hospitallers, extencled over every part ll'oug.h unlljustly exiled, stood forward in the Arago.nian Assembly, and of Spain. Life and manners in that country were still simple sspoke so warmly in favor of the chivalrous Count of Barcelona, that he was elected by acclalmation. Yet the prudent Arlagonese, ever and austere; they presented a wonderfill mixture of heroical jealous of their national honor, stipulated that the name of Aragon bravery, religious fanaticism, and romantic love and poetry. should, in the public documents, pIecede that of Bareelolna; that Rayieond should be styled, not king, but Prince of AragonI and Count of XV. IKINGDOMr OF ARAGON AND NAVAPRRA. Barcelona, and that his banner, when he advanced to battle, should be intlalsted to a knigiht of their own nation. 318. Sancho III., el-M/:zayo~', of N Vzarrra —1000-1035 — =s See the classical work of Dr. Ernest Alexsander Schmidt. G'ewras the most powe"rful prine of bis a;ge in Spain (257). Be- sch.ielte Aacro,.ie.s''ins Mifittricitel.'leipzig. 1828, lpae 100., et; seq.

Page  99 SIXTH PERIOD-A. D. 973-1096. SPAIN —NAPLES. 99 of the Aragonian kings, until the year 1245, when Beatrix, myriads of African Moors. The glorious career of the Cid el the daughter of'the last Berengar, brought it as a dower to her Campeador was closed with the conquest of lluliarbbihe'r,-Murhusband Charles of Anjou, the brother of Saint Louis of viedro, the ancient Saguntum, and the coastland, as far as OfiFrance. Thus strengthened by the rich provinces of south- huela. All attacks of the Arab chiefs were beaten off; and the ern France, and the active and warlike population of Catalonia, hero held Valencia until his death, in 1099. His conquered Aragon, toward the middle of the twelfth century, rose at once territory seems to have embraced Castalona, llurbilher, to a powerful kingdom, and its distinguished monarchs were Xelves, Xativa, Denia, and Xucar. Valencica del Cicd, the now enabled to turn their full attention to the war against the beautiful city in its fertile and highly-cultivated plain-la1 Arabs. Raymond immnediately invested the strongly-fortified.Huerta, or the garden, on the banks of the Guadalaviar, was Tortosa, and carried the city at the point of the sword, by the one of the most important possessions of the Arabs in Spain. fanatic bravery of the Knights Templars; Alme'ia surrendered; Nor did it long remain in the hands of the Christians. After Lerida and Fraga, on the Ebro, which had withstood all the the death of el Cidcl, it was immediately re-occupied by the Almoassaults of Alfonso el-Batallador, yielded to Prince Raymond, ravids; and after their downfall, by the Almohads, until King who finally, in 1153, had the glory to deliver all Catalonia and Jayme of Aragon, at last, after the greatest exertions in 1232Aragon from the dominion of the Mohammedans. 1238, expelled the Moors. Great doubts have been raised 319. CONSTITUTION AND CULTIVATION. The old Visigothic by modern historians about this early conquest of Valencia, laws (123) had hitherto governed Catalonia; they were abol- and the kingdom of Roderigo Diaz, the Cid, and even about ished by Raymond Berengar II., who substituted the usag'es of the existence of that chivalrous character himself; yet we can, Catalonia —usatica —and gave a thorough organization to the with confidence, believe both in the Christian hero and in his different classes of the nobility and knighthood. Commerce conquests, though these exercised but little influence on the was flourishing; Barcelona and the cities of Provence rose in geography of the middle ages, on account of their short duwealth and comfort, while the nobility enriched themselves with ration.'29 the spoils of the Moslemin. The Counts of Barcelona were celebrated for their love of the fine arts and literature. Pro- XVII. THE NORMAN DUCHv OF APULIA AND CALABtIA, vence became, under their mild sway, the home of the roman- AND TIE GRAND COUNTY OF SICILY. tic poetry of the Troubadours. - Those enlightened princes surrounded themselves with minstrels, artists, and philoso- 321. ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT) AND EXTENT. We have dephers. The taste of the nobles soon spread through all classes; scribed the condition of Lower Italy at the beginning of the the Provencal knights no longer considered it beneath their eleventh century (250, 270-72). AYaples, Agman, and Gaeta, dignity to express their sentiments in songs, and to extol in were, like Venice, independent maritime republics; the Loinglowing verses the beauty and virtue of the ladies, whom they bard princes of Benlevento, Capita, and Salerno, recognized defended with their swords. Then arose those tribunals of nominally the sovereignty of the Byzantine emperors, who still love-les cours d'anzour-in which the fair ones were the possessed the Italian provinces of Apulia and Calab~ria. Henry judges, and awarded the prize of excellence, whether a suit of II. attempted to restore the German influence; in 1021, he armor, or a battle-steed, or only a rose from their bosom, no marched into Lower Italy, drove the Greeks easily back to the less to the inspired troubadour of the gay science, than to the most extreme points of their possessions, conquered Benevento, chivalrous victor of the tournament. The amiable manners of Salerno, and Naples, and was during the passage every where Provenee found their way across the Pyrenees, among the greeted as sovereign. But this was the last expedition of the proud and taciturn Aragonese and quarrelsome Catalonians, Germans. On their retreat beyond the Alps, the Byzantine and imparted a rapid development to their language, and a catfapanis or governors reoceupied the lost provinces, and began soaring flight to their nascent literature. to attack the Arab elmirs in Sicily, while Saracen pirates devastated the coasts of Italy. A few years earlier, in 1016, a band XVI. STATE OF VALENCIA. of forty Norman pilgrims, returning from the Holy Land, had 320. ORIUGIN AND EXTENT. This small kingdoim or prin- Ioffered their services to the Prince Guaimar, of Salerno, and had bravely defeated a numerous host of Saracenls, who were cipality, which is supposed to have extended from the Ebro had bravely defeated a numerous host of Sar along the eastern coast of Spain to Oihula, was conquered then beleaguering his city. The Normans returned to their along the eastern coast of Spain to Orihuela, was conquered c from the Moors by the celebrated Roderigo ia. de Bivar el country; but when an Italian embassy later arrived in Norfrom the Moors by the celebrated Roderigo Diaz cde Bivar el Seid (the Cid), 1094-1099. Having been exiled from Castile mandy, and made them brilliant offers on the part of the'Salerman prince, a band of youthful warriors accepted the by King Alfonso, the Cid, with his band of hardy warriors, invitation, pince, a band of youthful warriors accepted the. began his forays on the Moorish dynasty of Al-Itlid in Zara- invitation, passed into Italy, and took service in his army..began ais oray on he n~rsh 6. l oTheir number soon increased to several thousands; and goza, and the Almeerids in Valencia. He took Alcozer, andl mtraking that place his stronglholdj he gathered around himb t i a t bands of patriots or freebooters, with whom he defeated the intriguing court of Salerno, they concluded an alliance with a distinguished Greek chief Melo, an exile from Bari, in Apulia, southern Aragon, he established himself in the strong castle whom they assisted in his feud against t he Byzantine Emcallecd la Peia dele Cid, the Rock of the Cid, on the northern pire But the Normans, being attacked by the superior slope of the mountains of Segura. At Burriana, he met Don l29 See thie doubts in Dunihanli's critical history of Spain. NewPedro I., of Aragon, with whom he concluded an alliance of York, 1852, vol. ii., pages 159, and 272-284; and the historical evifiiendship and support; and learning the murder of Yahya dence in Der Cid nach den Quellen, von Johannes von Miller (1805); Al-Kadir, of Valencia, he suddenly marched against that and te above-cited istory of Aragon, by Dr. Ernest A. Schmidt, populous Moorish city, which he captured after a long siege. pages 49-55. p u A new light has of late been thrown on the early conquests of Thus strengthened and supported by Don Pedro I., and an the Normans in Italy, by the discovery of the highly interesting chrom army of thirty thousand Aragonese, el Cid could meet the icle of a contemporary Benedictine monk, lFather Aim6, from the conpowerful Almnoravids hurrying to the rescue of Valencia. vent of Monte Casino, first published by M. Champollion-Fig6e in The great battle took place near Xativa, south of the city, Paris, 1835. See our article in the New-York American Review, for June, 1848, " On the adventures and conquests of the iVo?~'vcmns ic Italy, where the heroical valor of the Cid and the enthusiasm of his Juring t1e mi"Oe ies, from the Danisd of n. Frederic SchiT rn, profesChristian warriors, gained the most brilliant victory over the sor at the University in Copenhagen.

Page  100 100 SIXTH PERIOD A. D.-973-1096. NAPLES —SICILY. forces of the Greek catapan, were defeated with heavy loss; from the mainland, and they then began to prepare their fleets they effected, however, their retreat, and fortifying themselves for the conquest of the Byzantine Empire. in Anversca la Normnanna, between Naples and Capua, they 322. DIVISION AND CITIES. A. The duchy of APULIA and awaited the arrival of fresh bands of their countrymen from CALABRIA (270-71) embracecl the whole southern part of the Normandy. There they were soon joined by William, Hum- Italian peninsula as far north as Terracitna on the west, and frey, and Drogo, the sons of Tancred of Hauteville; 31 and the river Tronto on the east, which separated it from Marca having surprised the strong city of.Vellzhia, commanding the Ancona; it was divided into twelve larger provinces: 1. The Apulian plain, they, in 1041, began the open war against the principality of Capua —Terra La6oris — with the counties of Greeks. They had now already a firm footing in Italy; for Aquiznun Ftncdi, Capuza, Sora, and Anversa, or Aversa it was not only the most daring valor and persevering forti- (Atella), called la Noormanna, the first stronghold of the tude, but the shrewdest calculations, the cunning and eagle-eye Northmen, near Capua. 2. Duchy of Naples, with Sorrento, of a Hannibal or Ceesar, which distinguished the Normans above Nacples, and A'nmali. These brilliant republics (270) opened all warriors at this period of their glory. In 31elphia, they their gates to the Norman duke, who treated them well, and let were met, in 1047, by Robert and Tancredl, and somewhat later them enjoy their commerce and industry; later, however, when by the younger brothers, Roger, Malger, and Godfrey, of the they renounced their allegiance to Robert, they were recapnoble Hauteville family, whose heavy swords soon drove the tured, and their prosperity destroyed for ever. Salerzno was Greeks out of Italy, and extended their dominion over the the last Lombard city which surrendered to the Normans, in whole of Apulia and Calabria. The victorious Normans then 1077. It still possessed the celebrated Arabic school for luedidivided the territories among themselves, and fortified every cine, physic, and chemistry. Crowds of students, and patients height and defile with impregnable castles, from whose towers of the highest rank, and from every country in the world, visthe blood-red banner of the North waved in proud defiance ited the city. An African Christian, Constantine by name, of Greek emperors and Rnomish popes. Robert Guiscard,/33 had then returned from Bagdad, and being an oriental scholar, however, was the soul of that great enterprise; he was thle he lectured on the practice of the Arabian Avicenna, and the hero of the age, the strongest warrior among the strong, who, improvements of the medical science in the East. Robert in his heavy panoply, sprung up from his fallen steed, and Guiscard protected the useful institute, and Salerno preserved wielded with equal dexterity his broadsword in his right hand its reputation for Arabian learning and literature during the and his lance in the left. He carried his arms and his glory whole period of the Souabian rule in Southern Italy. 3. The across the Ionian Sea to Greece, where his fair enemy, Anna marquisate of Teate. 4. The county of Bojano, with Venafro, Comnena, the purple-clad princess and historian, in spite of San Germanco, and the magnificent and wealthy convent of her anger and terror, expressed the admiration with which ZiMonte Casino. 5. The county of Z/iolissio, northeast from Robert Guiscard inspired her.133 The Normans had become Civitellc and Ferloriu.nt, where Robert Guiscard, in 1051, dethe terror of all Italy. Pope Leo IX., with a large army, feated and captured Pope Leo IX. 6. The province of Capimarched against them; but found himself suddenly surround- tanata with the counties of St. Ang'eli, on Mount Gargano, ed at Civitella. The key-soldiers of Saint Peter were totally Ascculumz, Venosa, Lavelilugn, Canna, Trani, n/Iinerblinrzn, routed; the pope was taken prisoner, but honorably treated Anldria, Conmpsa, on Mount Apennine, and the strong and fine by Robert Guiscard, who received the broad and beautiful city of Melehia (Melfi), the key to the Apulian plain, on the lands of southern Italy as a fief of the Holy See of Rome, and Ofanto, which Rainulf, the first Norman leader, took by stratbecame afterwards the staunchest defender of the popes against agem in 1041. 7. The principality of Bar-i, on the Adriatic the German emperors. Robert, as Duke of Apulia, then sent was the last city occupied by the Greeks. In the cathedral his younger brother Roger with a chosen body of Norman are seen the sarcophagi of Robert Guiscard and his son Boheknights across the Straits of Messina, to Sicily, and after the mund, prince of Antioch. 8. The principality of Taranto, most astonishing feats of valor, the two gigantic brothers had, the inheritance of Bohemund. 9. Province of Basilicata, in 1091, driven every Saracen from the island, every Greek with the counties of Acerenza, Monslilosuzs, Gravina, Matera, Potenza. 10. Province of Principgato, with Avellurn, Acerra,'' The ruins of the castle of Hauteville are still seen in the neigh- and Frequenzto. 11. Veil Cratis, in Calabria, with Polycastro, borhood of Coutences, in Normandy. There lived, in the beginning of Consentia, and Rzussanzunz. 12. Terra Forelana, the souththe eleventh century, among the flower of the Northmen the brave old ernmost point of Calabria, opposite to Sicil with Mielito Baron Tancred, the friend and companion of Duke Richard the Good,. of Normandy. Having spent many years honorably in the service of Reggio, and SquTilllce. his liege lord, Tancred returned to his paternal estate, where, with his B. GRAND (COUNTY OF SICILY. Patierzno —-el-Khalassc, first wife Muriella, he had five sons, Williaml, Di-ogo, Hurmfrey, God- the favorite city of the Arabs, was stormed and captured by frey, and Serlon. After her death, he took another wife, Fredesenda, Robert and Roger on the 10th of May, 1072. Traina and who bore him seven sons, Robert (uscaend iaigere Alfred, W7illian, P'aternct, at the base of Mount Etna, where Roger, with a few Humbert, Tacocred, and Roger, afterwards the celebrated Count of Sicily. All the sons of Tanered were distinguished knights. Serlon hundred Norm knights, victoriously defendedhimselfagainst fought under William the Conqueror at IIastings, and Alfred inherited thousands of Moslemin. Castro- Giovcanzi (Enna), in the inthe paternal estate. The mother, Fredesenda, with her three daugh- terior, the battle-field where Ali-Ben-Na'amh and the Arabic ters, after the death of the old baron, joined her heroical sons in army was totally routed by the Normans. Abuthutz. (Butera), Italy. and Natis (Noto), were the last possessions of the Arabs in 13 Guiscard, or Wiscard, is the Icelandic riske, the nlow obsolete Sicily, which, however, they kept so late as 1090, when they English ziseacre. Robert was called the cunnzing count. Cogntomen TYisca?~cl~es e?~nt qphia cacllictfis; towz Ci'cee~o tarbtcw fuit Alec ver.szctzs were forced by Roger to re-cross to Africa after hal-ving inhabUlysses, says William of Apulia, in his chronicle, page 260. ited that beautiful island for two hundred and sixty-five years 133Though Anna Comnena bitterly complains of his cruelty and -826-1091. Roger followed up his victories; he conquered thirst of conquest, yet she owns that he was "an Achilles in combat the island of Melita (Malta), which then becamle inseparably and an Ulysses in cunning; that he with firmness executed his designs, annexed to the crown of Sicily. His son, King Roger, landed and, above all, aspired to independence and glory:" nay, the image in Africa, took Mcchdia, the capital of the Zeirids, Tunis, of his manly beauty had made such an impression on the imagination of the Greek princess, that when celebrating the noble appearance of a Scfax, Cqpsic, Bona, the islands of Kacr/cis and Gerhe5, and hero, she calls him handlsome like a knight from Normandy." Anna a long tract of the once so celebrated sea-coast of ancient CarCom. Edcl. Bonna,, i. 50. thage; yet, after the first enthusiasm of conquest had passed

Page  101 SIXTH PERIOD. —A. D. 973-1096. ITALIAN REPUBLICS-BYZANTIUM. 101 away, the Sicilian Normlans neglected those transmarine pos- from the disastrous passage of Peter the Hermit, and the first sessions, and they were successively evacuated and lost under crusaders, in 1096, that armed Bulgarian bands occupied the the troubled reign of King William the Bad, in the twrelfth forest lands — Silva Bu/.lgarvzmon' -from n the Danube, along century. the Morava to lcV;isszus and Stew zitza, or Tr)icclitza (now Sofia), at the base of Mount Hmmus, where thousands of pilXVIII. THE ITALIAN REUies. grims perished by the arrows of that fierce people. It was XVTIII, THE ITALIAN REPUBLICS. only at the latter place that ambassadors of the Emperor 323. THEIR COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND CONQUESTS. MI- Alexius Comnenus appeared, who led the perishing crusaders LAN, PAVIA, LODI, Como, and the other populous and wealthy safely through the mountain passes toward Adrianople and the cities of Lonmbardy, had already begun, in 1056, to constitute capital. SERVIA (Serblia), too, had thrown off the yoke under themselves as independent republics, with their consular gov- Stephan Boistlaf, in 1040 (196), and expelled the Byzantine ernlllents, city banners, and militia. PISA and GENOA, long governors. That spirited people maintained their indepellrivals in commercial enterprise and military prowess, succeeded dence, and extended their kingdom beyond the 1Morava on the in driving the Saracens from Sag'clinia, in 1009. They di- east, and to the shores of the Adclriatic on the west, with Scodra vided the island between their republics, and governed it by for their capital."'s Epirus began already to be called Albazia, judges. The Sardinian judicatures were: 1, Galltrca, in the and Thessaly Blachia. All the Italian provinces had been northeast; 2, Tetqres, northwest; 3, Arbo'rea, southwest; and, conquered by the Normans in 1072, and though Alexius with 4, Calan'is (Cagliari), southeast. But soon dissensions and courage and skill beat off the attacks of Robert Guiscard and violent feuds breaking out between their feudatories, the Pisans his son Bohenmund, on Epirus, yet King Roger of Sicily ingained the upper hand, and expelled the Genoese from the flicted, in 1146, by the desolation of Greece, a mortal wound greatel part of the island; the latter could only sustain them- on the prosperity of the country. When we turn our regard selves in the southern Caegiari, and in San BonTfaczio on the to the lately flourishing provinces of Asia Minor, the prospect island of Corsica. This island the Pisans likewise obtained in becomes still more gloomy. There, the Seldjukian sultan, Alp 1092, as a fief of the papal see of Ronme. Both these strong Arslan, had, in 1071, defeated and captured the emperor, Roand flourishing democracies took thenceforth the most active manus Diogenes, at ctlaczer'cl, in Armenia, and both Suleiman and lucrative part in the earlier crusades, until, in the twelfth and his son Kilidj Arslan (Lion with the sword) had, during century, their mercantile envy and bitter hatred produced that the following years, extended the Turkish conquests throughmaritime war, which; after the naval battle near Melloria, off out the finest themes of Asia Minor, and fixed their capital at the coast of Leghorn, in 1282, terminated with the destruction Nicta, almost in sight of Constantinople herself. Of all the of the Pisan fleet and commerce, and the downfall of that re- Asiatic themes, only C]zalclti and Pafplagonon, on the PonpubliC.-VENIC E had, in the mean time, extended her conquests tus, parts of Optimnaton and Opsikion, and those of Thzcr'ealong the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts (272). She occupied sion, Cyy~'os, and Sanos, and the smaller islands, still rethe strong cities of Zana, Sebenzco, Trat, and Spuaat'o, to- nmained to the empire on tlie accession of Alexius Comnenus to gether with the islands Opsar, Ptcgo, Cherso Gi'ossa A'C, the throne, in 1081. B.r'zzac, Lissa, Lesina, and Curzola. At home the rivalry of the proud families, Morosini and Caloprini, retarded the de- 325. His task was a most difficult one; the eastern empire ~elopment of the republic during the greater part of the elev- had become weakened by the incapacity of Constantine, the enth century. Venice, fearing the ambitious plans of Robert rebellion of Bardas Phokas, the extravagancies of the EmGuiscard against the Byzantine empire, formed alliance with press Zo[ and her lover, Michael the Paphlagonian, and the Alexius Comnenus, and defeated the Norman fleet off Corfu; internal feuds between the generals Bryennius and Botoniates, thus preparing herself for the important part she was to occupy after the defeat of the Emperor Romanus. All was disorder in the crusading expeditions which, in the thirteenth century, and misery. The monstrous Petcheneges crossed the Danube., brought her to the height of her influence and power. and swarmed, burning and destroying to the gates of the capital. The Normans attacked the unprotected coasts of Greece, while XIX. THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. the Turkish cavalry swept the plains of Natolia, and planted their banners on the battlements of Nicea and Nikomedia. 324. FRONTJERS AND EXTENT. At the close of the elev- It seemed, in 1081, as if the last hour of Byzantium had enth century, and inmmnediately before the great crusade, the struck. Yet Alexius Comnenus was a prince of extraordinorthern frontiers of the Greek Empire were nominally the nary talents; active, prudent, courageous, cunning and inven. same as at the time of Otho the Great, in 973. They ran tive, he found the arms and the intellect even among the unalong the southern banks of the Danube and the Save, west- warlike, monkish Greeks of the eleventh century, to repel his ward, as far as the river Unznai a tributary of the latter, and perfidious enemies, and restore the integrity of the state. then south to Mount Scardus and the lake of Scodra, still era- Nor can we wonder that the emperor cherished the brightest bracing the southern part of the Dyrrhachian theme (270). hopes from the armaments of chivalrous Europe, and that he Bz-elg~as'ia and Se~'via were thus considered as provinces of the empire. Subdued by Nicephorus Phocas and John Tzimisces, sight; but to one of each hundred a single eye was left, that he might the Bulgarians recognized the sovereignty of the emperors, but conduct his blind company to the presence of their king. Simeon, they attempted repeatedly to break their chains, funder their oppressed with grief and horror, fell down dead at the awful spectacle intelligent chief, Simeon, until they were totally defeated and The Bulgai:Lns were swept away to the north of Mount Ermus, their old province, where thley brooded vengeance until the later tcrribI, prostrated by the heavy sword of Basil II., —BovAtyapoKro'vos, outbreak, in 1186. or, the B~ulgc'a-s fau'/nte'e~'-in 1017-18.T34 Yet we learn> l The Servian kral (king) recognized the supremacy of the pope. like the Duke of Apulia, and divided his kingdom into fifteen bishop 154 Basil made the immense booty of tell thousand pounds weight of' ries, which, however, later, returoned to the Greek Church. The condi gold, or two millions of dollars, at the capture of the Bulgarian capital, tion of the Servians (Raitzi) weas rude; the kral lived like a farmei Achris, on the lake Lychnidus. Having surrounded and cut off the among his cattle; the chase of the bear and the wild boar was his onl), Bulgarian aRrny, he inflicted a most atrocious punlishment on the ifGeen enjoyment; his queen sat with the distaff; and his subjects, in theik thousand captives, who had been taken with arms in their hands for plundering propensity, would not spare the rioclm and herds of the kra the defence of their country. Basil ordered them to be deprived of himself.

Page  102 102 SIXTH PERIO-D.-A. 1). 973-1096. GREEKS-TURKS. sent ambassadors and presents to France to hasten the march of Godfrey, and were punished by the conflagration of the of the crusaders. But how great must have been his disap- beautiful suburbs, palaces, and country-seats on the Bos pointment, on beholding the ragged, emaciated bands of pilgrims phorus. We must not be unjust to Alexius. His position the companions of Peter the Hermit, and later his doubts and was difficult in the extreme. He sent rich presents to the anxiety at the sight of the camps of half a million of mail-clad chiefs, and persuaded them by fealty to swear allegiance semi-barbarians, extending along the unprotected shores of the to the empire for the lands they were going to conquer in Bosphorus."'~ There, among the proud chieftains, Alexius the East.l'3 In return, he furnished those disorderly mlulbeheld his mortal enemy Bohemund, the Norman, who, as a titudes with provisions and vessels for their passage into mere boy with his daring chevaliers, had cut his way into the Asia; he aided them by the superior skill of the Greek engiheart of the empire, and with the lance on his thigh, had gal- neers, d-uring the siege of Nicaa; and we cannot wonder that loped through the whole length of it, despising the feeble he shrewdly planted his imperial banner on the walls to secure attempts of the Greeks to resist his invasion. Nor was there that important city from desolation, and the Turkish prisoners any crowned head to control the wild passions of so many in- from slaughter. Alexius profited by the great crusade. dependent leaders, whose coarse manners and rude accoutre- ATiccc, Niiconmedia, Dorylceon, the greater part of Asia Minor, ments excited the disdain of the polished and elegant Byzan- as far as the plains of Ikonium and all the coast-lands returned tines. The Franks and Greeks were, in conditions of society, once more under the imperial sceptre. By his brilliant victoo dissimilar for them to associate familiarly and friendly tory over the Petchenegian hordes, he intimidated both Bultogether. Political order and civil law were, in the opinion garians and Servians, and the Byzantine eagle banner once more of the Greeks, the true bonds of society; the right of the in- floated from the fortresses on the Danube. The discipline of dividual to redress his own wrongs with his sword, was among the Byzantine armies, which had relaxed during the internal the Franks the most valuable privilege of existence. The feuds, was revived, and a new generation of chiefs and warauthority of the central government, in the well-organized ad- riors was created, with whom his excellent successors, Caloministration of the Byzantine Empire, reduced the greatest johannes and Manuel were enabled to protect the empire durnobles to the rank of abject slaves in the opinion of the feudal ing still more threatening dangers. In his long reign of barons, while the right of every private knight to decide ques- thirty-seven years, Constantinople enjoyed order and trantions of law byan appeal to his sword, was a monstrous absurdity quillity; the strength of the Basilian laws was restored; arts, in the eyes of the Greeks, and seemed to render society among literature, and science were cultivated, and the emperor in his the western nations little better than an assemblage of ban- old age enjoyed the happiness of seeing an eloquent and imdits. The conduct of the Latin clergy did nothing to pro- perishable monument of his reign produced by his lovely mote Christian charity. The contempt of the learned eastern daughter Anna Comnena. prelates for the ignorance of their Latin brethren was even changed into abhorrence, when they beheld men calling themselves bishops, prancing about the streets of Constantinople in coats of mail. The Latin priesthood, on the other hand, IV. THE MOHAMMEDAN WORLD despised both the pastors and the flocks, when they saw men hoping by scholastic phrases to influence the conduct of war- ELEVEIN WESTERN ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA DUING THE riors; and they condemned the Christianity which suffered its priests to submit to the authority of tile civil magistrate in STATES OF TIHE SELDJUKIAN AND ORTOKID TunRIS. the servile spirit of the Greek clergy.l3i Thus the nations 326. ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, AND CONQUESTS OF TH could not understand each other. Both accused their rivals TURIS. We have visited the Mohammedan dynasties of the of falsehood and treachery, and scenes of fearful disorder were Ghaznavids, Ghorids, and Khowaresmids, on the banks of the consequence. The Greeks attempted to suirprise the camlp the Oxus, through Khorasan, on the Indus, and in Hindostan 136 We must not present to ourselves the crusading armies in that (275-76). The scimitar of the Arabs had never entirely sul} pomp and glittering array, in which, two centuries later, we meet the dued the nomadic tribes of the ancient 11fasscGetcze, or Sey. French, English, and Spanish chivalry on the battle-fields of Crecy, thians,139 who, with their herds of horses and cattle, roamled Poitiers, or las Navas de Tolosa. We are yet in the early age of that over the extensive plains of SOGDIANA, the fATCtc1a —lahr institution' we have before us the heroes of Hiomer, in their rude and nstitutioawesus ov the extet plai nnsr simple grandeur, not the brilliant Athenials at iurathon, norAlexan- of the Arabs (212), between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and de atthe hlead of his Macedonianphalanx. The early crusaders are not northeast of the latter river toward the frontiers of China. yet the plumed and crested cavaliers, on their barbed and caparisoned From their chan Oghus, they early took the name of Ogl/insteeds, cased in gilt or burnished plate armor, as described by Froissard and Comines. Godfrey of Bouillon, Tancered, and the other pilgrims of 138 It was in tile splendid palace of Blacherino, now a desolate ruin, rank still wear the clumsy hauberk, or coat of chain-mail, covering the where, in the presence of the glittering court, Godfrey of Bouillon bent lead like the mlonk's cowl, with sleeves, and their mittens, instead of his knee to the emperor, and was adopted his son. The oath of allegauntlets, and falling down to their knees like a cartman's blouse. The giance was repeated by all the clrusadling chieftains, except by the old hose and pointed shoes of mail, with long iron spurs wvithout rowels, Count Raymond of Touloulse, though hIe afterwards showed himself and the low, flat steel cap placed over the mail-hood, wvithoult a visor molre faithful towalrds Alexins than the others. See the lively scenein or beaver, completed the ungraceful costume of the first crusaders. Only Walter Scott's last novel, CouLtt Robert of Paris. the triangular shield or scutcheon, hanging down over the breast, is A graphic picture of the ancient Turkish tribes, and the accurate Lpinted in brilliant colors, and the emblazoned surcoat, lined with dlescription of the Caspian Sea is given alnheady by Ierodotus. "The ermine-vair, is thrown over the hauberk. The war-hlorses are yet Caspian," says the fathllelr of histolry, "is a separate sea of itself, being totally defenceless, and we observe with astonishment how they sink in length a fifteen days' voyage for a lowing-boat; and inl breadth, by tllousands befole the arrows of the skirmishing Turks, until the whlere it is widest, an eight clays' voyage. On the western shore of this Christians afterwards adopted the Saracenic fashion of balrbing their sea, stretches the Caucasus, which is in extent the lalrgest, and in height steeds with a complete cover of horse armor. the loftiest of all mountains; it contains within itself mnany and variSuch is the appearance of the 100,000 mounted knights and squilres, ons nations, who, for the most part, live upon the produce of wild who wvith 400,000 light-armed foot soldiers, of both sexes, says the fiuit-trees. This mountain then bounds the western side of the CasArchbishop of Tyre, prepare to cross the Straits and conquer the Holy pian; and on the east, toward the lising sun, succeeds a plain in extent Land. unboundedl in the prospect. A glreat portion of it is inhabited by the 237 See this interesting passage in Colonel Finlay's MIedineval Greece Massagetne, against wlhom Cyrus, the Persian King, resolved to make (page 80), fron whvich we have borrowed it. war," &c.-Clio. 204-215.

Page  103 SIXTH PERIOD A. D. 973-1096. TURKISH DYNASTIES IN ASIA. 103.sias; and when they, in the tenth century, were converted to Nicmea, where the crusading bands of Peter the Hermit and Islam, they called themselves Tt'rkntaniezh, Turkmans, or Walter the Penniless suffered a dreadful defeat by the Turkfithful (devout) horsemen. Their different tribes had a mili- ish eimir, El-Canes, in 1096. Of twenty-five thousand piltary organization, and they were divided into the three a?'rows grims, only three thousand, with Kuku-Peter escaped to the of the left tving-, and the thrLee breakers of the Eight. The coast of Kiibotlus, whence they were shipped back to Constantithree latter tribes were situated on the west, toward the Cas- nople. The Turks afterwards used the bones of the slain to pian Sea, and to them belonged the celebrated Seldljzkian fence their vineyards in the environs. Dorylce tm —A0opXaLov Turks. They did not from the beginning form a race by that -in the beautiful valley of Gorgoni, at the base of Mount name; they were, on the contrary, young adventurers from all Dag6stenon. in Phrygia, on the river Thymbres, a tributary the tribes of the right wing, who had gathered around the bold of the Sangarios (264), became the battle-field of the greatest and enterprising Emir Seldjuk, and won fame and wealth in cavalry combat of modern history. Sultan Kilidj Arslan, of successful expeditions against the contending Arabian dynas- Iconium, mlore provoked than dismayed by the loss of his capties south of the river Oxus. Soon, the victorious bands of ital Nicexa, had assembled a still larger army, and was hoverSeldjuk were swelled by thousands of Turkman cavaliers. The ing on the flanks of the advancing crusaders; and when he effeminate Arabs offered the brilliant young warriors pay and learned that they had separated into two bodies, while crossing booty for the service of their arm and bow; and thus, we at once the hills of Dago'stenon, he immiiediately resolved to strike a see them form themselves into well-organized squadrons of mler- blow, and advanced rapidly with 150,000 horsemen, without a cenaries, who may be compared to the Varanghians of Constan- single foot-soldier, on the 1st of July, 1097. It was still in tinople (226, 262), the Catalonians and Almugavars of the the gray of the morning, when the Norman scouts, outside the thirteenth century, and the still more celebrated Italican Con- camp of Bohemlund, at Dorylmeum. were startled by a rocking dottieri of the fourteenth and fifteenth. The service of these of the ground, like an earthquake; and soon the trampling, the Turkish hirelings, ever ready for fighting, was eagerly sought neighing, and clattering of advancing horse, announced the apby the petty dynasties in Khorasan and Zabulistan, in their proach of the Moslemin. Bohemund immediately ordered all wars the one against the other; gradually, the Turks became the carriages to drive up in square, on the banks of the Thymso formidable, that the nephew of Seldjuk, Toghrul-Bei was bres, as a protection for the women and sick pilgrims, while proclaimed sultan by his warriors in 1037. Fortune smiled on Robert Curthose of Normandy, formed on the left wing, Tanhis beiraks.l40 He overthrew the Ghasnavid dynasty in Kho- cred on the right, and Bohemund himself, with the Italorasan (275), and extended his conquests throughout Persia, Norman chivalry, covered the rear. Yet, before these dispofrom the Oxus to the Tigris. The Abassid Caliph, Abdal- sitions were executed, the Turkish masses already threw lah V. Kaim-Beamrillah, a captive in the hands of his pow- themselves across the river, and the terrific battle began. The erful emirs, the Buids (277), called Toghrul-Bei and his Christian knights, in their heavy panoply, and unacquainted Turks to Bagdad, and made him emir-al-omrah, in 1063. with eastern warfare, charged full gallop, with couched lances, The new dignity, the impetuous bravery, and excellent tactics into the midst of the Turkminans, who turned bridle to allure of the Turkish sultans, made them irresistible. Alp-Arslan them on, while other squadrons advanced to attack them in and his son Malek Shah, Djelal-ed —Din and Djelal-ecd-Daula the flanks. Thus, Tancred, having lost his steed, was sur(the Glory of Faith and Power), followed up the victories of rounded on all sides, and in imminent danger, until Bohemund their great ancestor; all the lands west of the Euphrates, Ar- burst forward and saved him; yet, overpowered by numbers. menia, Syria, and Asia Minor, bowed beneath the sabre of the and having lost their horses by the arrows of the infidels. the Seldjuks. But, after the death of the great Malek-Shah, in Christians were forced back across the river with severe loss. 1062, the immense empire of the Turks fell to pieces, and This was the first great struggle of the crusades; here, at formed already a number of independent Sultanates on the Dorylumn, the Christians were taught to change their confirst appearance of the crusaders in Asia in 1097. tempt for the unwarlike nations of Asia into admiration at the higher tactics and the impetuous valor of the Mussulmans. Rapidly extending their deeply ranged squadrons in the form SX. SELI)JUSITUAN SULTALNAfTE OsF RQATUM. of an immense semicircle, the Turks instantly outflanked the 0932 7. EXTENT AND CITIEs.- The Sultanate of Rum. (Runit- crusaders, and, sending in volley after volley of arrows, they ili), or coi, consisted of provinces which wer conquered brought them down by hundreds. The Normans, in their i ci), or ncoi2., consisted of provinces which were conqueredround from the Rocnanzs (Greeks) by Sultan Suleiman, the nephew rage, attempted to spur for 7ard, but the Turks wheeled around of Malek-Shah, in 1074. It was the most extensive and pow- them under continual discharges. The forces of the Chris erfal of the Seldjukid Sultanates, and embraced the fertile tians became exhausted; horse and foot mingled in frightful lands between Armenia, the upper Euphrates, tihe Taurus, Ci- disorder, and began tto seek refuge among the carriages; their liia, Cappadocia, Isauria, Phrygia, the southern parts of Peon- total defeat seemed already at hand, when Godfrey of Bouillon tus and Paphlagonia, Galatia, Pamphylia, Lycia, with the cities and Raymond of Toulouse appeared on the southern hills at of Nieea and Doryleum, in Bithynia. Iconiu. (IKoniah), in |the head of 50,000 horse. Godfrey, entirely unacquainted the open Lycaonian plain, was the early capital of the sultans. with the danger of the Normans, had continued his march They soon, however, removed their residence to NIcnE, on the |south, toward the Phrygian city of Antioch, when some NorAskanian lake, which became the scene of the first great event nman knights, spurring after him, announced the danger of of the crusades. That strongly fortified city was closely Bohemund. Godfrey, immediately ordering his infantry to besieged by 500,000 crusaders from May 5th to June 20th| encamp, hurried backl with the French and German chivalry. 1097, when, after the defeat of Sultan Kilidj Arslan before its On his appearance, the Turkish trumpets and kettle-drums gates, it surrendered to Alexius Coomnenus, and became a see- sounded the retreat, and their wild masses recrossed the river, ond time the bulwark of the Asiatic possessions of the Byzan- but formed again on the brow of Mount Dag6stenon. With tine empire. Xeriagordon, a small town, twelve miles from incredible enthusiasm, the Normans now advanced on th right; the fine old Raymondcl of Toulouse took the centre with his Provengals; Godfrey and his brothers, Baldwin and "40 The Turkish banner-beirak-consisted formerly of a silver ores- with Gore and ths Bl ad cent and a horse-tail-tooghi-fixed on the point of a lance. The pres- Eustache, the left, with the Germans; and thus closely massed, ent Tmlkish army have purple standards with the half moom. 80,000 Christian knigl-its; with waving banners, couched lances,

Page  104 104 SIXTH PERIOD.-A. D. 973-1096. ARMENIA-rPESIA-SYRI-o 1A. and the cheering shout, " God willeth it"-" Dieu le veut "- Indus and Mount Muztag, on the frontiers of China. BAGrushed thundering along to the decisive charge. The Turks, DAD, on the Tigris, was still the residence of the caliph, who, on their panting and jaded horses, with empty quivers, still at that time, had lost his political power, and being entirely resolve to regain the victory with the edge of the scimetar. dependent on the Great Sultan, was reduced to the mere perBut, at the first onset of the crusaders, they are borne down formance of preaching, and other religious functions in the and thrown into irrecoverable confusion; and when, at last, mosque. Ispahan soon became the splendid capital of the the brave Bishop Ademar of Puy, with the rear-guard, by a Turks and New Persians, and the seat of their literature and circuitous route, suddenly falls on their flanks, they are sur- choicest architecture. Vishabout'r, the capital of Khorasan, rounded and totally defeated. The pursuit now became ter- with gorgeous monuments of the Gasnavid princes. The Seldrific; for six miles the Christian sword and lance raged among jukid sultans did not learn prudence from the example of the their broken and flying horse; the Moslemin spurred away for caliphs; they likewise intrusted their slaves or officers, and their lives, dispersing over the Phrygian plains, and disappear- principally their teachers and guardians-the Atabeks, or ing, at last, behind the mountains of Angora. Four thousand fathers of the princes-with extensive powers, and the governemirs and sheiks, and twenty thousand Turkman troopers, ment of entire provinces. Thus, several dynasties arose in covered the field; their camp, their herds of horses and cam- Lar'istan, Farsistan, and Irak, which contributed to the total els, and an immense booty, fell into the hands of the victorious dissolution of the Seldjukian empire; civil war raged throughcrusaders. Asia Minor was won at one blow; the road to out the country; the fields were desolated; famine and misSyria lay open; and the Christian sword had humbled the ery prevailed; the cities became abandoned by their inhabitpride of the proudest prince of Islam.-Philownelion (Aksher), ants, who took up arms, or fled to the mountains for protection, in the Pisidian plain, on the road to Iconium, where the Dan- while the wild beasts roamed through the land in search of ish prince Swend, with his bride Florina of Burgundy, and prey. Djelal-ed-Din Mankberni put an end to this state of two thousand Danish and Norwegian knights, were surrounded things in 1225. by the Turkish sultan of Iconiunl, and after the most heroical defence, cut down to a man, in October, 1097, during the siege XXIII. SELDJUKD PRINCIPALITIES IN SYRIA. of Antioch, by the main army of the crusaders."l1 Ta'sus (266), on the Cydnus. iln Cilicia, a thriving city at that time, mostly 330. The sons of Ort6k-Bei had maintained themselves in inhabited by Christians, Greeks, and Armenians, occupied with Syria: Rodwan in Halep, and Dokak in Damzascuts, about commerce and agriculture. Here the retainers of Tancred, the 1095. Yet a few years later, Emah-ed-Din, Zenghi (1121Norman, and of Baldwin, the haughty brother of Godfrey of 1145), the atabek of Mossul, made himself independent, and Bouillon, began an open war about the possession of the city, extended his influence by important conquests from the Ortoin which many lives were lost, and the dispute not settled kids and the crusaders. Zenghi was a distinguished man; he without some difficulty. Cilicia formed afterwards a small in- showed himself indefatigable in his administration, and the exedependent Armenian kingdom under its own dynasty of kings, cution of the laws; he bridled the avarice and arrogance of his who resided in Adana. emnzirs and cadis, to whom he gave an example of mloderation himself; he kept the strictest discipline among his troops; and he shrewdly discovered that the religious enthusiasm of the Frank XXI. THE SULTANATES OF THE ORTOKIDS. crusaders could only be vanquished by his exciting a similar fanaticism among the Moslemin. After the conquest of Edessa, 328. Besides the Seldjuks, other Turkish hordes had in- in 1144, he was stabbed by a domestic slave, and his dynasty vaded the Caliphate, among whom the Ortokids were the most was then divided into different lines. The most important arose distinguished. The founder of their dynasties was Ort6k-Bei, in Halep (Aleppo). There Zenghi was succeeded by the great who settled with his band in Armenia, in 1082, when the Seld- atabek Mohammed Nour-ed-Din (l 145-1174), whose praise filled juks allowed him to occupy Jerusalem. This Turkman tribe the East, and still re-echoes in the chronicles of the crusaders. was more savage than the Seldjuks; they augmented the op- Nour-ed-Din was long considered as the becazt idecal of oriental pression of the Christian pilgrims, whom they insulted and princes; terrible in his continual wars against the Christians, tortured in the most awful manner, until, at last, the Fatimid just and humane in the tribunal, moderate and virtuous in his caliph of Egypt sent an army into Palestine, in 1096, which habits, and in an eminent degree combining the great qualities of drove the Ortokids out of the city; they sustained themselves, the statesman, the general, and the high-priest; he repelled all nevertheless, in 2]iIarcdin, Diarbe/cir, and in Arinwenia (Khelat), the attacks of the Christians, captured several of their most reduring continual feuds with the crusaders; until they were de- nowned heroes, and laid, by his expedition to Egypt at the refeated and extirpated by the Ejubids and the sultans of Ico- quest of the caliph, Mohammed Moktasi Beamrillah, in Bagniuml, toward the close of the twelfth, or the beginning of the dad, the foundation of a large empire, when death suddenly thirteenth century. called hint off, in 1174.'42 His general, Shirkuh, the Kurd, and the cousin of Nour-ed-Din, Salah-ed-Din (Saladin), overturned the Fatimid dynasty, and the latter, after the conquest SXII. THE ATAuEuS IN AL-DJESIcAH AND PERSA1. of Egypt, dispossessed the sons of Nour-ed-Din, and founded, in 329. EXTENT AND CITIEs. The Sultanate of IAN (Per- 1181, the powerful Ejubid dynasty, which proved so fatal to sia), the second in power after that of Iconium, and the prin- the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem. The other smaller lines eipal seat of the Seldjukian princes, extended eastward to the of Nour-ed-Din, in Mesopotamia (1149), remained in obscurity and perished beneath the sword of the Mongols. 141 See the beautiful episode in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered," in which the great poet describes the nocturnal battle, the heroism and 142 The t-rbe or sepulchre of Nour-edDin stands in the great bazaar fall of tile ~Danes. at Damascus. Pilgrims still flock to hlis sanctuary, which is surrounded by elegant arcadles, having a tank in the centie shaded by fiuneral "Gveno del rs sei Dani cdnto figlio, cypresses. The entrance is shut by chains, and as Christians we could Esser tra quei brmo all l pioe consiglio not obtain permission to visit the interlor during our visit to Danmascus, Seguendo hallcinto per GesS le spade;" etc. in 1844. —See the Article "An Excuzrsionz to Daecascus and Ba'albekl," ctanto VIIT. Stnctze f-4. in the New-.York Review for Aupgust andcl September, 1848, p. 1]65.

Page  105 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. 105 repelled by Ruy Diaz de Bivar, el Campeador, and only after V. NORTHERN AFRICA AND SOUTHERN SPAIN his death, in 1099, did they obtain temporary possession of that DURING THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. small kingdom. Their sway in Spain lasted only some fifty years, and in 1180, they were dispossessed by the brilliant 331. PRINCIPAL STATES. The Arabian dynasties in North- Alnzohads-Al-Muahedim —the Arabic Unitarians from Moern Africa, who had more or less influence on the crusades, rocco. The Almoravids were men of capacity; Spain became can be reduced to three: these states were in their order from a flourishing country during their rule. In Europe, they east to west. soon adopted the chivalrous manners of their antagonists, the Christians; but in Africa they remained nomades, and lived XXIV'. THE CALIPHATE OF THE FATIMIDS IN EGYPT. like Bedouins. There were many celebrated colleges and schools in Africa. The greatest Arabic philosopher, Ibn 332. At the time when the Christian army advanced upon Roshd (Averrhoes, from Cordova, who died in 1198), was the Palestine, Jerusalem was held by MIosta Abulkasem, of Cairo, first translator of Aristotle, and taught in the high-school at who had, in 1096, expelled the Ortokid princes and defended Morocco. Poetry was cultivated in Fez, where poetical colnthe Holy City against Godfrey of Bouillon and the first cru- bats were instituted, with rewards for the victorious poet. But saders with an army of thirty thousand troops, under the the uncertainty of property by the continual revolutions, recommand of the brave old Iftikhar-ed-Daulah. The relations tarded all moral progress; the manners were sensual and corbetween the caliphs and the kings of Jerusalem remained alter- rupt, and the mass of the nation were, by their rulers, held in nately hostile or friendly until the final overthrow of the last a degrading bondage. Fatimid, Ahded-Ledin-Illah, in 1171, by Salah-ed-Din (331). Such was the state of the world at the beginning of the crusading wars, toward the close of the eleventh century. XXV. THE KINGDOM OF KAIROUAN OR MAHADIA. 333. Moer-Ledin-Illah (213, 280) had left Yusuf-BenZeiri as governor in Kafrouan, when he marched to Egypt. This dignity passed to the descendants of the latter, who did not tarry to declare themselves independent of the Fatimid court at Cairo. They maintained their position, and foiled CHAPTER VIII. the languid attacks of the Egyptians; but when, in 1070, the enterprising Normans expelled their emirs from Sicily and in- THE ORIENT, vaded Africa, the Zeirids were defeated and lost. The last chief, Hasan, was dethroned by King Roger I.; M3ahadia, ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY AN'D ETHNOGRAPIHY DURING Kairouan, and Tripolis, were captured, and the Zeirid posses- THE TIMES OF THE CRUSADERS. sions, in the interior of-Africa, were soon occupied by the rovA. KINGDOMtS AND PRINCIPALITIES FOUNDED BY T=t CRLling Berbers and the Almoravids of Morocco. Only a lateral line, the Hainmmadids, in Budj6, south of Algiers, were able to. 1096 AND 1291 make a stand for some years longer. | 335. HISTORICAL REMARKs. —The bloody victory at Dorylaum (328), in 1097, had secured the advance of the great XXVI. Tne EMPIRE OF THE ALMORAvIDS IN AL-MAGREB crusading aremy through Asia Minor. After suffering dreadSXXVI. TTHE EMPtRE OF THE ALMORAVIDS IN AL-MAGREB AND SPAIN. fully in the desert plains of Lycaonia, they crossed Mount Taurus, and soon encamped in the rich valleys of Cilicia and 334. Their ORIGIN, PROGRESS, AND SETTLEMENT IN SPAIN. Merash. From. thence Baldwin of Boulogne, the brother of — Beyond Mount Atlas, in the deserts of ancient Getulia, dwelt Godfrey of Bouillon, with a band of knights, undertook the several Arabian tribes, who, from their habit of covering their conquest of Edessa, beyond the Euphrates, while the main faces, were called the Veiled-ZlMlolatlhezizn. Among them body of the Christian army, descending to the banks of the arose a fanatic reformer of Islam, Dshaubar, who preached the Orontes,. laid siege to Antioch in October of the same year. holy war. The whole tribe became frantic with piety, and The strength of this still magnificent city, the valor of its comwere called Mctrlabttes, Morabeths (Al-Moravids), or Zealots. mander, Baghi-Sejan and his numerous garrison, the want of They chose Abu-Bekr for their Emnir-el-Mloslemmin, in 1056, provisions, sickness and misery, prolonged the investment and who, with his followers, crossed Mount Atlas, and conquered decimated the Christian army in the most fearful manner; Morwcco with the sword. His great successor, Yusuf-Ben- many thousands sank into their graves; and when the surTaxfin, formed a mighty empire in Magreb-al-Aksa (214), and, vivors at last, in July 1098, by a secret understanding with following the call of the petty kings of Andclaos (Spain), who Armenian residents, succeeded in capturing the city and takhad risen on the downfall of the Ommiyad caliphs, he ap- ing an awful revenge on the Turks, they immediately found peared beyond the Straits of Gibraltar, in 1086, with an irre- themselves besieged in their new conquest by the immense sistible army of fanatics, and defeated King Alfonso VI. in the army of Kolrboga, the Sultan of Mossul, on the Tigris. Yet, great battle near Zalaca, where thousands of corpses covered despair fired the courage of the Christians, and sallying the battle-field, and the Castilian king only escaped destruc- forth in the highest enthusiasm with Godfrey of Bouillon, tion by the valor of his knights (316). Yusuf is the revered Robert of Flanders, Robert of Normandy, Bohemund, and hero of the Arab historians, who describe his person and char- Tancred, at their head, they brilliantly defeated the Turkish acter in the most favorable colors. All the petty princes, the masses on the 28th of July, 1098, and driving them across Abadids of Sevila, the Beni-Alaftas, in Badajoz, and the the Euphrates, made an immense booty, and returned in others in Cutenza, Xativa, M]Vircia, Almeria, Denia, Leridcla, triumph. Thus miraculously securing their conquests of Tortosa, -IJesca, and TStdela yielded to the new Marabut Edessa, Antioch, and occupying many castles in Mount Lebadevotees. Only the Family Al-Hud, in Zaragoza, maintained non, they prepared for the toilsome march to Jerusalem. The their seat until 1146. The Almoravids turned their arms prudent and generous Godfrey of Bouillon was the soul of the against the hero of Valencia, but all their furious attacks were enterprise, and uniting the warring and jquarrelling chiefs of 14

Page  106 106 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. the different corps of the diminished Christian army, at last II. The Principality of Antioch; III. The County of Tripomoved rapidly along the Syrian coast, supported by the Pisan, lis; and IV. that of Edessa; V. The Kingdom of Armzenia; Genoese, and Venetian fleets. Thus then, at length, in May, VI. The Kingdom of Cyp?'rus; VII. The Lattin empire of 1099, the wearied feet of the staunch crusaders, after so many Romania (Constantinople); VIII. The Kingdom of Salonliki; privations and dangers, trod the cherished soil of that hal- IX. The Duchy of Athens and Baiotia; X. The Principality lowed land, and on the 6th of July, they beheld from the of the Mlloreca (Achaia); XI. The Conquests of the Venctians; western range of Mount Ephraimn the object of their ardent XII. The Duchy of the Archipelago (Naxos); and XIII. The hopes and desires-Jerusalem! One universal shout of joy I Military Republic of the Order of Saint John of Jerzusalenm; filled the air, vibrating in undying echoes from hill to hill, We shall here give a short description of these ephemeral, but, while tears of rapture burst from every eye. On they moved, in an historical view, highly interesting states, the materials and their noble leader could scarcely prevent them fronm rush- for which were mostly gathered during our residence in the ing forward at once, in their wild enthusiasm, to storm the East; and we shall likewise give an account of the most immwalls of the holy city. But Godfrey soon perceived that the portant historical monuments of that age, many of which still conquest of the city was not so easy, and could not be effected exist.'43 by an onset with sword and lance alone-especially as the Egyptian garrison (233), was much stronger in numbers than I. THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. the crusaders, of whom, out of 600,000 only 40,000 were now encamped before the walls. At length, every preparation being 337. LIMITS, FEUDAL DIVISION, CITIES AND CASTLES-The made, and battering-engines, wooden towers, and storming- suzerainty of the king of Jerusalem, as lord-paramount, was ladders provided, in spite of every existing difficulty, by the recognized by the three great feudatories of Syria, yet these effective support of the Genoese engineers and mariners, the princes enjoyed an almost entire independence in their states first general assault was attempted on the 14th of July; but of Edessa, Antioch, and Tripolis. The frontiers of the Latin as the besieged defended themselves with dauntless bravery, settlements in Syria extended, at the death of King Baldthe Christians were driven back with heavy loss. On the fol- win II., the time of their highest prosperity in 1131, from lowing day, however, the whole army renewed the attack from Malatia (Melitene), in Armenia on the north, southward to the north and west. The tower of Godfrey approached the great Arabian battlements, the drawbridge was flung down, and that hero desert-a distance of five hundred and fifty miles, while the was himself one of the first who reached the walls of the breadth west from Tarsus, in Cilicia, eastward to the castle of conquered Jerusalem. Tancred, the Norman, scaled the Senerakc, near Diarbekr, in Mesopotamia, was three hundred northwestern towers at the same time; the Gate of Saint Ste- and forty miles. Yet more south the frontier did not extend phen was thrown open, and in rushed the Christian host. The farther than the ridge of the Anti-Lebanon, a distance of only Saracens, abandoning the walls, sought now their refuge within thirty-five miles from the shores of the Mediterranean. The enthe sacred enclosure of the Mosque of Omar, on Mount Io- tire coast from Tarsus to the borders of Egypt, had been occuriah —but a dreadful scene of massacre began, and even the pied by the crusaders after the reduction of the maritime cities * of Laodicea, Tr4polis 7'yre, Acre, and Ascalon. In this ardugenerous Tancred was not able to save the prisoners who had. In this ardusurrendered to him. Only old Raymond of Toulouse, who ous undertaking the pilgrims were powerfully supported by had early occupied the Tower of David-the ancient Hippi- the fleets of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa, and even by tho: of cus-succeeded in securing the life of the Emir lfhkhar-ed- Flemish and Scandinavian crusaders. Yet, so long and narrow a strip of land was very difficult to defend, because the SaraDaulah and some thousands of the most distinguished Egyp- c w s tians, who, under French escort, were sent off to Ascalon the cens were still lodged in several impregnable strongholds tdia after the con uests. of t o Aan te within the frontiers, and the terrible Assassin fanatics (361) day after the conquests. HIonor to the humane and unpreju- diced Frenchman! Sixty thousand Saracen corpss strewed soon succeeded in fixing themselves permanently on Mount d Lebanon, and even on the rocky coast of the Mediterranean, the streets and dwellings of the city, while the triumphant warrios, thoing aside their lood-tained armor, poceede 111 the very heart of the Christian territory. Farther in the riors, throwing aside their blood-stained armor, proceeded i. bare-headed and bare-footed to the Holy Sepulchre, where interior the States of Halep, Ihamahs, and Daascus re-i mi.Ined in the hands of the Mohalmmedans, who, at any time, Peter the Hermit headed the immense procession, and was I - b Peter the Hermit headed the immense procession, and smight burst forth from their sure retreat on the outskirts of with rapture received by the monks and Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem, to whom he four years before had promised the the desert, and with their myriads assault any exposed point, o wm he fr ys bread p t of the weakened Christian kingdom. But most fortunately armed deliverance of that sacred spot. Thus the city, whichll the el had resounded in every part with the wild shries were the many petty dynasties that had sprung up among the just before had resounded in every part with the wild shrieks Seldjukian Turks and their allies after the death of Sultan of the slaughtered, was now filled with prayers and hymns to Malek-Shah still fighting against one another, and they thus th1 ho or nd glory of GoCI, IiMnalek-Shah still fighting against one another, and they thus the honor and glory of G Gtodf. frey of Bgouillon was soon afterwards elected king of Jerusalem, and the brilliant battle ave the Christins the respite of a few years of comprtive near Asealon, against 140,000 Egyptians and Moors from the peace and prosperity. Arabian allnd African coasts, at once secured the Syrian conquest 338. I. THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM PROPER extended to the Chlristian arllls. The greater part of the crusaders, friom the fiontiers of Egypt on the south, northward to the however, returned to Europe, and the death of King Godfrey, in the midst of his organizations, in August, 1100, was an "'~ In OUr fifth map, which presents the state of the world at the irreparable loss to the new kingdom though his able brother, tile of the crtsades, the nici6un, or red-lead color, indicates the farrBldwin, C>ount of Edessa, soon grasped the reins of govern-.thest extent of the Seldjuklian conquests in Asia Minor, and of the subsecquent empire of Salah-ed-Din, the Ejubicle. The territolries of the ment with a strong andl steady handl. crusaders, on the contrary, are colored yellow; but we have not given 336. The principal kingdoms, feudal principalities, and that color to Constantinople, because it was reconquered from the settlements which, during the first crusade and in the course Franks by the Greeks (1261), before the close of the clrusades. Cyprus of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were formed by thle has its own brozon color, forming an independent kingdom. Several f]ranks in Syria, Cilicia, Greece, on Cyprus, Crete, Rhodes, mpolrtant places in Syria and Palestine could not be given on the map,.d th slas * f 1e 1, me 1a 77.. I~ ~on account of the narrow space; the historical student will, however, and the islands of the ]hgean, were thirteen in number. I. find them all on the maps accompanying Prof. Robinson's Biblical ReT.ime Kingdlom of Jerusalemn, with its feudal dependenies;'..l.ches. ini P,lestine, VTols. II, and III

Page  107 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. 10N Dog-River —N~ahrz-el-Kelb —near Beirut, and embraced the prin- of Sultan Khamil for his gossip the German emperor-they cipality of Galilee together with a number of viscounties, baro- joyfully began anew to build up the walls and to strengthen nies, and smaller seigniories, whose feudal owners, when gathered the more exposed parts of the city. Frederic II. could not under the royal banner of Jerusalem, with their vassals and consolidate the tottering throne of Jerusalem; he was sudthe contingents of the maritime cities, formed an efficient denly recalled to Europe by the hostile aggression of the Pope; army of 10,000 horse and foot. the dissensions between the Teutonic knights, then the guardThe city of JERUSALEM-u -e-cuds (the Holy), or, Beit ians of the Holy Sepulchre, and the Knights Templars and el-Mt1akkcadas (the Sanctuary)-was the capital of the new Hospitallers, brought all into confusion again; and thus the Christian kingdom. In its high and strong position, protected Saracen Emir, Nassir-Daud of Kerak, succeeded, by a sudden on the east by the deep valley of Jehoshcalhat, on the south by attack, in surprising the city. Jerusalem was now, for the that of Ben-Hinnonm, and on the west by the somewhat more third time, taken by the Moslems; the defending knights were shallow valley of Gihon, and the castle of Dacvid,c'4 it could only cut to pieces; and walls, towers, and monuments levelled to be attacked with success from the more level approach on the the ground. The Christian affairs in Syria were in great north. There, throughout the olive-grove, the Christians had disorder, when, in 1243, a new and more terrible storm appitched their camps of diverse nations, Normans, Lorrainers, proached from the East: the irruption of the Khowaresmians and Germans, who extended all westward round the city to the (276). The Ejubid sultan, As-Saleh-Nedjmed, of Egypt, himcastle of David and Mount Zion, on which Count Raymond of self made a treaty with the Christians and offered them the Toulouse and his French had raised their towers, and whence sacred city for the common defence, and as a bulwark for they directed their attack. Godfrey of Bouillon stormed and Egypt. Monks and knights, merchants and mariners, then gained the northeastern corner tower of the city wall, over- hurried from Acre to Jerusalem, to fortify it in haste, and hanging the valley of Jehoshaphat, and the Christians then mnake a stand-but all in vain —the wild Khowaresmian hordes, penetrated by the neighboring gate of Saint Stephen. After after their defeat by the Mongols, and maddened to despair, the conquest, and the establishment of the new kingdom, in had already crossed the Euphrates; they burst upon Jerusa1099, Jerusalem remained the seat and centre of the Latin lem, where, in 1244, Christians and Saracens alike perished government, under eight kings, who followed Godfrey of Bouil- beneath their swords in a general massacre; the Holy Sepullon on the throne of that pigmy state,"4 during eighty-eight chre was sacked and burnt; and, though those fanatics afteryears, until October, 1187, when the city was again wrested wards dispersed and disappeared, Jerusalem has remained ever from the hands of the Christians by Salah-ed-Din, the great since in the power of the infidels. Sultan of Damascus and Egypt. Five years later, during the 339. The great mosque-KItbet-es-Sulk-ht'ah (Domne of third crusade of Philip August and Richard Coeur-de-Lion, in the Rock)-built by the caliph Omar, in 638, on the site of the 1192, when Jerusalem was threatened with another siege by ancient Jewish temple, was converted by the crusaders into a the victorious king of England, the Sultan made the greatest magnificent Christian church in 1099, and richly endowed with exertions in strengthening its fortifications by massy walls and chapters of canons, territories, and all the immunities of the bulwarks, and deep trenches cut out in the living rock on the cathedrals in Western Europe. Farther south, on the Temple northeast side, where they can still be seen at the present area, stood the large and beautiful Church of Saint Mary: day.'14 The Lion-Heart, however, did not come; he returned erected by the Emperor Justinian I. in the sixth century: to Europe in 1192, and Salah-ed-Din died shortly afterwards which by the Saracens had been converted into the highly rein Damascus. The gigantic fortifications of Jerusalem were vered mosque al-Aksca (i. e., the distant from Mecca). During again demolished by Sultan Melek of Damascus, in 1219. the Christian rule these buildings were occupied by the Yet, the Christians, having unexpectedly obtained the restitu- kings of Jerusalem, and called the Royal Palace, or the lkmple tion of the Holy City and the greater part of Palestine, in of Solognon. Baldwin II. assigned the part of it lying toward 1228 —not by the prowess of their armls, but by the friendship the city as a convent for the new order of religious knights, who, at that time, by their extraordinary bravery, began to 144 The castle of David, which dmuring the middle ages is mentioned excite the admiration of the world. It was from this building under the name of the Castle of the Pisans, is the ancient tower of that these monk-warriors took their name, Fi-atres qnilitiw Herodes the Great, of Roman construction and great strength. For its Temnpli, or Knights Templars. There, on the great platform accurate description, see Prof. E. Robinson's Biblical Researches.in Plalof Mount Morlah, the modest brethren in Christ established estine, Vol. I., pages 453-58. The medineval walls and gates of Jerusaletm are described, Vol. I., pages 384-88 and 467-78; the Temple area, their convent, their armory, and stables for a thousand horses; pages 415-52; and interesting details on. the history of the city during and from thence they sallied forth to gain not only laurels or the age of the crusades, are found in Vol. II., pages 43-62. martyrdom from the infidels, but that political and material I4" The successors of Godfrey were: Baldwin I. of Edessa, his bro- influence which, in a few years, raised the Knights of the Temther, 1100-1118; Bacddin I~, of Burgh, his cousin, 1118-1131; _n/lco, ple to one of the most powerful and wealthy orders in Europe. of Anjou (and Melissenda), 1131-1142; Balcdwin ZII, their son, 11421162; Anmalric (Amaury), 1162-1173; Baldwin IV, 1173-1183; Bctcl- Yet, after their defeat at lKii'iin el-Hacttin, and the surrender wtin V;, the Child, 1183-1186; Guy (Guido), of Lusignan, (and Sibylla), of Jerusalem in 1187, the Sultan and his Mamlukes re-entered 1186-1192, when the kings, after the loss of Jelrusalem in 1187, resided the Jiaranm, or sacred inclosure, with pomp and rejoicings, in Acre, or in the island of Cyprus. plurified the sanctuaries with precious rose-water fromn Damasm' The Turkish engineers and sappers from Mossoul labored for eus, raised with triumph the crescent and emblems of the Mosix months in constructing dlefences and raising new lines of w.l. hamedan faith, n destroyed the Cristian palaces and conSevelral thousand Christian prisoners of war were forced to toil nlong' with them. Immense bastions were built on the wveakel side o the vents so effectually, that nothing at the present day appears city, toward the gate of Abrahalm, the present Yafa, or P2ilgfrims' gate. on the extensive area of the Temple save the ancient Saracenic The active sultan rode about, carrying stones on his saddle-bow; and mosques and chapels with their porticos, tanks, and surroundhis valiant brother, MalSk-Addl, the emirs, the cadis, and even the sofis ing orange and cypress groves. This, too, was the fate of nearly and priests themselves, vied in enthusiasm, handling the spade and the every church and convent built in the city or in the environs pick-axe, in order to encourage the thousands of Moslemin who hurried by the crusaders —most of them have disappeared without from the Euphrates to fortify and defend the third gm'eat Sancticamy of their faithl. Richard would have had a hard wolrk if he lhad come on! leaving a trace to indicate their site. Among the few mnlonuThe Arab g-eographe, Mejr-ed-Din (by Von I-Iammer) gives some curl- nerts partially preserved is the oiely Sepnzlchzce itself, which ous details. Funcldem6bem? des Orients, Wien, 1812, Vol. II. pages 118-142. was erected by them in the form of a stately church in tllhm

Page  108 108 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. Gothic style, inclosing the whole of the sacred precincts of doubt the same general appearance as now, and even the streets Calvary and Golgotha. The facade fronting the south was have preserved the same direction.'48 ornamented with marble pillars, and flanked by high towers, which later have been broken off by the Saracens. Inside 340. The environs of Jerusalem present likewise some meof the portals stood the sepulchres of Godfrey of Bouillon and nmorials of the crusaders. At Bethania, on the eastern slope Baldwin I. with their plain inscriptions.147 of Mount Olivet, a massy old tower near the sepulchral vault of Saint Lazarus seems to have belonged to the convent of Opposite to the Church of the Resurrection are seen the Black Nuns of Saint Benedict, built A. D. 1132 by King Fulco ruins of another important establishment of mediseval Jerusa- at the request of his queen, Melissenda, for her sister, the lem, 116osqitiunm Sancti lohaznni, or the convent of the princess Iveta, and of which the latter became abbess. At Knights Hospitallers, who, in piety and bravery vied with the el-Bireh, north of Jerusalem, on the road to Nabulus, stand Templars themselves. Hospitals for sick and disabled pil- the ruins of a fine Latin church that belonged to the Knights grims, under the care of devoted monks, had existed in Pales- Templars. At KIolonzieh, on the route to Yafa and the sea. tine and Egypt centuries before the crusades. The merchants coast is a well preserved Christian church, now used as a stable of Amalfi (270) had established a convent of Benedictines of for the horses of the robber-chief Abu-Gosh, who there ransoms Santa Maria Latina, opposite the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusa- the passing pilgrims. Lycida (Diospolis), on the plain of lem, to which was, later, joined a nunnery of Mary Magdalen Sharon, with the gigantic ruins of the Church of Saint George, and a hospital of St. John, the almoner of Alexandria. There which was destroyed by Salah-ed-Din, in A. D. 1 191, on the apsick pilgrims of all nations and creeds were received, and, proach of King Richard the Lion-Hearted and the crusading being healed, most liberally dismissed; and this truly Christian army. On the east of Jerusalem, the tower at Jericho in the establishment had already acquired so great reputation, that valley of Jordan, called by the pilgrims the house of Zacchceus, Godfrey of Bouillon, after the conquest in 1099, endowed the is a structure of that time, having been erected for the proHospital of Saint John with lands and regular revenues. Yet tection of the rich fields, palm-groves, and gardens, which were it was not until twelve years after the foundation of the mili- irrigated by the plentiful spring of Elisha —Ai-es-Sultantary order of the Templars, that the Monks Hospitallers, near Jericho. The valley of the Jordan, like the environs of changing their patron of Alexandria for the Baptist, resolved Tyre and Tripolis, were in the times of the crusaders planted to imitate the example of the Knights of the Red Cross, and with the sugar-cane; and near the ruins of Jericho are still to arm in defence of -the faith. It was the valor, devotion, seen extensive aqueducts and porticos with pointed arches, and even the noble emulation of the two military orders (to supposed to have been sugar-mills of the Saracens. The many which, during the third crusade was joined a third, that of the momgnificent convents mentioned by early pilgrims as having Teutonic or German Knights of Saint Mary), which mainly con- been situated on the banks of the Jordan, present now nothing tributed to maintain and extend the Latin conquests in the but ruins and heaps of rubbish. East of Bethlehem lies the Levant, while they likewise laid the foundation of all the nu- high, conical hill, called the Mlounzt of the Franks (the ancient merous orders of chivalry in Spain (318), France, England, Herodion), where, according to tradition, the Christian knights Germany, and Denmarkl, which sprung up and flourished in a still defended themselves several years after the loss of Acre, subsequent period. The massive buildings of the hospital now and at last succeeded in cutting their way with the sword to lie in ruins. The spacious court is occupied by a Moham- the coast. medan tannery-el-debcaghah. From the upper platform the 341. The frontiers being exposed to the continual incurpilgrim still looks down into the vaulted refectory, hall, and sions of the Saracen light-horse, the crusaders took care to church, of the once so powerful Hospitallers. The roof has erect strong castles at convenient places on the border, which become a kitchen-garden, from which the view over Jerusalem, were garrisoned by the bravest knights of the two military the Haram with its mosques, and the distant Mount of Olives, orders; thus, the southwestern frontier toward Egypt and is of surpassing beauty. The Teutonic order possessed like- the great desert Et-Tih, was protected by the castle of Gaza, wise a convent in the city called das Deutsche tLaus, but no the border-town which was held by the Knights Templars in trace of it is left. It was principally during the crusade of 1 152-1187, when it fell, after the bravest defence. Later, the the emperor Frederic II. in 1228 and 1229, that the German Christians united to the Egyptian Saracens, lost here the great knights, formerly so disdainfully treated by the other orders, battle in 1244 against the Khowaresmian fanatics, which obtained some influence in the affairs of Palestine. caused the prostration of the Frank dominions and the ultiThe interior of Jerusalem with its bazaars, vaulted streets, mate loss and desolation of Jerusalem. Gibelin (Beit-Gibrin), tanks, baths, and gloomy, castellated dwellings, had then no northeast of the former, the almost impregnable fortress of the Knights Hospitallers, was built in 1134 to control the roving 147 The tombs of the two great crusaders were broken open and Mohammedan bands from the still unconquered city of Ascatheir ashes dispersed by the Khowaresmians in 1244. on. lnh e or llScul (Tell Safih), northeast of The inscription on that of Baldwin runs thus: Theiariptin oathat ofldns thus: Ascalon, was the scene of some of the romantic feats of RichSpes patrie, vigor ecclesie, virtus utriusque, ardcl the Lion-Hearted, on his daring excursions in quest of Querm formidabant, cui dona et tributa ferebaut, Cedar et Aegyptus, Dan ae homicida Damascus, 148 The principal street —ic r'ue de D)avid-ran then, as it does now, Pro dolor, in medico hoc clauditur tumulo from the tower of David near the Yafa gate, on the west, eastward The other Latin insclriptions had already become illegible toward through the lower city to the Temple area. La rue atn Patriarche, thie close of the sixteenth century; they were afterwards daubed over started off northward to the Patriarchate and the Holy Sepulchre; far with plaster by the Greek monks, in order to conceal every historical ther east ran, in the same northern direction, parallel with the former, proof of the pretensions of the Latins. The contest between Greeks the Rua Palrmarioruno (the present Bazaar-street), where pallm-branches and Latins about the supremacy of the Holy Sepulchre is still pending, were sold to the returning pilgrims. There were la rie dot Sepulchre, and has again become the great political question of the day. In the de Mont Zion, des Herbes, dsc Temnple, de Saint Etierne, la rue converte Latin sacristy of the sepulchre the author of this work saw, in 1844, le Maasquimat, la r'ue acx Aleenans, de Jehosaphat, de l'Arc Jicdas, and the sword and spurs of Godfrey of Bouillon, which are exhibited to others, some of which can still be recognized. Thle Latin gold and thle travellers and pilgrims by the monks. The heavy broadsword may silver smiths, the butchers, and every profession, had their own street be genuine, but the long, brazen spurs, Twith rowels, seem to be from a and bazaar. See the mediceval description of the city, cited by Consul latel p eliod, perhaps firom the fourteenth or fifteenth century. Schultz, in his Lecture on Jerusalem, Berlin, 1845, pages 107-120.

Page  109 SEVENTH PERIOD A. D. 1096-1300. KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. 109 adventures among the Saracen swarms. Ascalon itself, in a harbor secured by battlemented moles and the celebrated Flystrong position on the coast, was one of the most important tower, Acre was the last stronghold of Christianity and Eurobulwarks of the kingdom from the time of its conquest by King pean civilization in the East. Stately cathedrals and convents, Baldwin III. in 1 153, until its retaking by Malek-Adel in 1 187, royal palaces, and commercial bazaars, all glittering with the and its total destruction by Salah-ed-Din in 1191. It was a luxuries and riches of the Levant, filled the interior. The desplendid city with immnense fortifications and an active and voted Knights Templars had on the coast their fortified Tenzhappy population, who were ruined by the crusading warfare; plie and palace, the Knights of Saint John their magnificent and even to this day the ruins and dreary solitude of Ascalon Hospital, still to this day; among heaps of ruins, the best pre. present the most mournful spectacle imagination can conceive. served building of the city. Every quarter (barrio) was fortiIt was beneath the walls of Ascalon that Godfrey of Bouillon fied by ranges of walls; Venetians, Pisans, Genoese, Lombards, and the twenty thousand heroes of the first crusade, after the French, English, and Germans, possessed their own wards, capture of Jerusalem, defeated with lance and sword the caliph tribunals, and storehouses. The luxury and ostentation of of Egypt and his hundreds of thousands of Arabs and Moors, the court, chivalry, clergy, and commercial republicans almost on the 12th of August, 1099, and thus secured their glorious passed belief. Silken curtains and canopies were on cords conquest. drawn across the bazaars and streets to protect the grand pre342. On the east the Arabian border was defended by the lates, the Venetian merchants, and Frank cavaliers from the castle of Ailfa, (202), on the gulf of the Red Sea, by Mons scorching rays of the sun, while marble fountains, rich gardens, Reg'alis (Schobek), north of Mount Hor and Petra in Wady and shady groves scented with orange-blossoms and adorned Mousa, and the still stronger Kercak (Krak), on the eastern with beautiful flowers and shrubbery, were distributed in varishore of the Dead Sea, commanding the great caravan route ous parts of the city to compensate the citizens for the delightfrom Damascus to Mecca in Arabia. The roving expeditions ful environs of Mount Carmel, which were rendered insecure of the faithless Reynald, Lord of Kerak, against the Moham- by the continual incursions of the Mamnlukes. To preserve medan pilgrims-haadjies-during the truce, in 1186, gave a this important city had become the great political aim of the pretext to Salah-ed-Din, to invade Palestine and reconquer European nations during the latter half of the thirteenth cenJerusalem. the following year.149 Yafa (Joppe), on the coast tury. Yet the Mamluke sultans of Egypt, then ruling throughwest of Jerusalem, surrounded by magnificent orange-gardens, out the East, had resolved its destruction, and, in spite of the was the landing-place and emporium of the crusaders and immense exertions of Saint Louis in his Egyptian expedition, their Italian auxiliaries, the Venetians, Genoese, and Pisans. and all the enthusiasm and devotion of the Orders of the TernThe seigniories of 2girabel and Ibelin, and the castles of ple and Hospital, Sultan Ashraf Khalil and his myriads carMacen, Ea bakcuk, and Plaicn dbZ Temple, all situate on hills ried the city on the 20th of May, 1291, and by the massacre in the plain of Sharon, secured the passage of the thousands of thousands of Christians and the total destruction of Acre of pilgrims, male and female, who then continually wandered put an end to the crusades in the East. to the Holy Sepulchre or back to the coast. A'szqf (Arsur), 343. The Principality of GALILEE, or of T7iberi(as, had been on the rivulet of that name, north of Yafa, was the battle-field granted by Godfrey of Bouillon to the faithful and generous on which Richard of England, with the flower of the chivalry Tancred, the Norman. That fertile province extended from of England and France, on the 7th September, 1191, in one Mount Carmel through the plain of Esdlreelon- Jezrael-eastof the most tremendous battles on record, routed and defeated ward to the Jordan and the lake of Genezareth. The access his great antagonist, Salah-ed-Din and his Mamlukes. Ajalon?, from the Jordan was protected by the barony of Beisan on Mount Ephraim, in the interior, from which Richard mourn- (Scythopolis) with the large castle of Belvoir-Belvederefully contemplated the distant Jerusalem, which the talent and (Kaukab), belonging to the Knights Hospitallers, who depower of Salah-ed-Din and the treachery of his French auxilia- fended it for many years with their wonted bravery. Other ties did not permit him to approach. It was then that he con- places of strength were the castles of Sanur~' and Gcnin, in eluded the treaty with the Sultan, and returned to Europe in strong positions in the defiles of the mountains of Samaria. 1192. County and city of X1eapolisI-Napulus, Niaplts (the FclaJh (Faba), Forlelet, Buria, and the large fortress on the ancient Sichem), north of Jerusalem, in a beautiful valley, summit of Mount Tabor, were all castles of the Knights Temcovered with olive plantations and orange gardens, between plars protecting the plain of Esdrmlon and the caravan road Mounts Garizim and Ebal, was the seat of several councils from Jerusalem to Damascus by the bridge of Jacob. NJazaand feudal assemblies of the feudatories during this period. reth, the small industrious Christian city in its beautiful valMagnificent ruins of the cathedral of Saint Peter are still ley, was, on the 1st of May, 1187, an eye-witness to the terristanding. The barony of Caesarea, the seigniories of Daronri ble combat near the barn-floor of MTIahel, where a small body and Chailpha, at the foot of Mount Carmel, were important of Knights Templars and Hospitallers, led on by their Grandpossessions on the coast. Atlith, or the Castle of the Pil- Masters, with heroical fortitude withstood the thousands of grims, south of Mount Carmel, was the last refuge of the Mamluklies swarming around them; they all perished, overChristians in Palestine, from which they in May 1291 departed whelmned, but not vanquished. This chivalrous battle was only for Cyprus. The viscounty of Ptoleznis, Accon, or Staint Jean the prelude to the still more tragical events which followed. d'Acre, with the beautiful and strong city on the large bay Sepphoris (Sefurieh), on a copious spring in the delightful north of Mount Carmel, became, duriag the years 1189-1191, valley el-Buttauf, six miles north of Nazareth, where, a month the grand theatre for all the astounding events of the third later, the whole feudal strength of the kingdom, twelve hundred crusade. After the surrender of the city to Richard it became mail -clad knights and fifteen thousand sergeants and archers, the capital of the kingdom and the emporium of eastern traffic. assembled. But King Guy of Lusignan, and the Grand-Master With its triple range of impregnable walls, its deep and broad of the Temple, Thierry of Ridderford, disregardiing the prumoats, fortified barbicans and drawbridges, its inner and outer dent advice of Count Raymond of Tiberias, to await the Sultan in that advantageous position, ordered the march across the 149 An interesting description of Kerakis found in Lieutenant Lyneh's |barren ridge of Tell-Hattin, where, nest day, they were surExploring Expedition on the Dead Sea. The glittering white walls of rounded by the hundred thousands of Salah-ed-Din. The Kerak can be plainly distinguished across the sea from the western battle was fought near Allubiah (Lubieh), between the peaks of heights of Betlhlehem, at a distance of more than fifty miles. Hattin (Kiiriin-el-Hattin), two miles west of the city of Tiberias.

Page  110 110 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. TRIPOLIS-ANTIOCH. There, on the 9th of June, Salah-ec-Din totally destroyed or an active commerce and export of the rich products of Syria. captured the forces of the Christian kingdom. Nearly all the The southern parts of the county, from the Nahr-el-Kelb to the knights of the military orders perished either on the battle- Nahr-el-Kebir,were already at that time inhabited by the Chrisfield or were slaughtered in cold blood before the tent of the Sul- tian sect of the 1/Icaronites, so called from their patron saint, tan; the same fate awaited the perfidious Raynald of Chatillon, Mar Maron, of the sixth century. They retained the opinions the lord of Kerak. The captivity of King Guy of Lusignan of the early Monothelite heretics, with some modifications, unand thousands of his feudatories and vassals; the rapid inva- til the twelfth century, when, abandoning the doctrines of the sion of unprotected Palestine, where burning towns and con- one will in Christ, they were admitted to the communion of the vents and mouldering corpses marked the advance of the Main- Roman church in 1182, and remained faithful adherents of the lukes; the surrender of Acre, Jerusalem, Ascalon, Gaza, and Pope down to the present day. Their language was Syriac; nearly all the cities on the coast and the castles in the interior, they dwelt in open villages on Mount Lebanon, where the great proclaimed the downfall of the Christian power in the East, convent IKanobin, in the valley behind Tripolis, was the see which even the efforts of Barbarossa and Richard the Lion- of their patriarch. In their numerous monasteries and hermitHearted were unable to restore. ages, on the rocky eminences of the mountain, they most rigidly observed the discipline of Saint Anthony. Their priests were 344. The northern frontiers were likewise defended by formerly allowed to marry, and all lived peacefully in the numerous fortresses confided to the knights of the two military bosoms of their virtuous families under a rustic roof, where orders. Safed, on the high range of mountains northwest of the the pilgrim met with a hearty and hospitable reception.15~ lake of Tiberias, was then a splendid castle in the possession The last count of Tripolis was Raymond III., who escaped of the Knights Templars. They defended it heroically against from the defeat at el-Hattin, but died of grief immediately all the forces of the Sultan after the disastrous battle of El- after his return in 1187. Kelawun, the sultan of the Baharite iHattin and the surrender of Shobek and Kerak in 1188. But Mamlukes of Egypt, conquered the county and expelled the it was demolished by Sultan Melek of Damascus in 1220, like crusaders in 1288. the walls of Jerusalem, Banias, and Tibnin, for fear of the 346. III. The PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH, the second Latin announced crusade of the Emperor Frederic II. at the head of all Christendom. Though rebuilt by the Templars and settlement in Syria, had been founded by Bohemund, the Norman prince of Taranto, the son of Robert Guiscard, immedigallantly defended, it was stormed and taken in 1266 by Sul- man prince of Taranto, the son of Robert Gu Jately after the siege and conquest of the city of Antioch, in tan Bibars of Egypt, and its two thousand warriors were, after the surrender, butchered in cold blood. Other castles cle- 1098. It extended from the Nahr-el-Melk on the south to the the surrender, butchered in cold blood. Other castles cele-. Syrian defiles of M~ount Bzanus on the NortlJ and bordered brated in the crusades were those on the Jacob's ford of the Syrian defiles of Mount Amanus on the North an Jordan and of Banias (Paneas, Ceesarea Philippi), at the head eastward on the county of Edessa and the Euphrates at il]anzbedsh. INulerous castles defended the eastern frontier toward springs of Jordan, defending the valley and the defiles of eds Numerous castles defended te eastern frontier toward the Mohammedan states of Halep and Damascus; these were Mount Hermon against Damascus. fTo'on (Tibnin), west of,,il'a, Al-Sc'ed (Sarepta), Actasia, raPremn (Hareng), Bcs'in, Banias, protected Tyre and the sea-coast, and Beaafort, BelRue'ia, Alba'ra, Marra, Chaba' da, Apamea, Cafrtab, and fort (es-Shukif), high on Mount Lebanon, overhanging the Ch, A C rta, and *1a* Shaia (La4issa). Antioch was separated from the coucnty river Litany (Leontes), the defile of Coele-Syria, and Ba/albek. The latter fortress is of Roman origin. After the defeat of of Tripolis by the castles and strongholds of the fanatic Mothe crusaders at Banias in 1179, the Christian armny found hammedan sect of the Ismlaelites or Assassins, who, under the the crusaders at Bahilas in1 1179, the Chlistiall army found sway of the mysterious chief, the Old Manl of the MFountain, refuge in the castle of Belfort. Salah-ed-Din besieged it in of extended from Lalllsir on the shores of Caspian, across the 1189, and could only reduce it after immense exertions andheth *acrific. Te s s of.t B ad Koordistan Mountains by Diarbekr and Mardin to the northsacrifices. The seigniories of 1]Soinfort, Bcfa-c and Scsandtzleern slope of Mount Lebanon and the Mediterranean between lion, were situated north of Acre, protecting with their castles Nahr-el-Mellk and Nahr-el-Ioba. The river Orontes has its and garrisons the mountain defiles along the coast, the Tyrian origin in the upper valley of Ba'albek, and running north turns Ladder, or Ras el-Abial (LeucuLm pi-omontorium), and Tere, Ladd er, or was el-Aliad (Leucim p romontorium), and Tyfre, suddenly west; it then receives the water of the beautiful lake then a large. wealthy and comlnmercial city, strongly fortified ahn inabited byathouands c ofeialian, French, anrd F of Ofrenus, and discharges itself ten miles west of Antioch in and inhabited by thousands of Italian, French, and Flelmish the Mediterranean beneath the projecting promontory of merchants and mariners. The sugar-cane was cultivatedthe projecting promontory of in the plain of Tyre, as it was at Jericho, on the Jordan. The Mount Orontes. There is still a small port or fishing village on in the plain of Tyre, as it was at Jericho, on the Jordan. The the site of the formerly so opulent city of Seleucia. barony of Saisette (Sidon), with the maritime port and emporium of Sidon; the strong fortress of Franche-Garde, built loo Other Christian sects on Mount Lebanon were the Smoiani or by Saint Louis after his defeat and surrender in Egypt in Syrians, the ancient inhabitants, or rather a mixture of Romans, Greeks, 1248, and Beirzut, in its charming position at the base of Mount and Saracens; they had still retained many Mohammedan rites in their Lebanon, took all an important part in the stirring events of the Greel liturgy. The Nestorias believed in two ntur6es in Christ, and had only three sacraments; their priests were married. The Jacobites crusades, and are mentioned on every page of the chronicles of veerated ay an e sints, b the believed only in oe tse in the time. Christ; they circunmcised the children of both sexzes, and gave them a frle-bcptism. Among the heretical Mohllammelan sects of Mount Leba345. II. The COUNTY OF TRIPOLIS, the sovereignty of the non weece the Ismacelites (279, 361) and the Deruses, the most remarkable. brave old Raymond of Toulouse, ran along Mount Lebanon to The latter appealred in the eleventh century, seventy years before the the Nahr-Ioba on the north, and embraced the charmingz crusades, as followers of IHalkim Beamrillah, the Fatimid caliph of Buka/, or the valley of Ba/albek, which, however, the Chris- Egypt, who proclaimned himself to be an incarnation of the Divinity, and ~Buka'a~ o th vleo /ewihhowvr th hrsestablished the sacred lodge or hall of wisdom in Cairo (280). They tians did not clltivate with care on aecount of the perpetual believe in the transmigration of souls, and in a ridiculous mixture of inroads of the Saracen horsemen from Damascus, who carried Christian and Mohammedan traditions; they are likewise accused of off the cattle and inhabitants. This exposed territory was de- licentious orgies in their secret meetings. They alre a handsome people, fended by several celebrated castles, such as Rissr of Ak~ard and they observe a stiict outward decorum. The Druses are hardly (the Koord-Castle), ilions ereranzdues, /liorns. Pelegrinan~1,t mentioned by the historians of the crusades. The tradition about their'T' a 7 7 @ 7 1.. origin from Count Droszs (Drleux), who was said to have occupied the Iliser Sanclshzil, ndc many others. Trip2ois (Tarabolos), Tor- Frankl Mountain, and settled afterwards on Mount Lebanon with a coltosa, Botrion and Byblus (Gibail), were maritime towns with ony of crusaders, is decidedly fabulous.

Page  111 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. ANTIOCJI —EDESSA. 111 ANTIOCH, once greater and richer than Rome and Constan- logne on his approach. Several Turkish chiefs in the neighbortinople themselves (12), was still a magnificent city with a large hood sold their territories to him; others were conquered; and industrious population. On the approach of the crusading and thus this active and daring prince succeeded in extending army in 1097, the city was held by Bagi-Sejan, the lieutenant his principality, with the important cities of M/alatia (Meliof Sultan Borkeiarok, with 37,000 troops, but thousands of tene),Sanzosata and KcIart-Birt in the north; Severak, lHaicmvlin Christian citizens had been ordered to leave their homes. The and tHarcran in the east, and Mlambeds]h and Shaba ctun in valley of the Orontes is bounded on the north by the fertile the south..Elessa (Roha, Orfah), in a strong position with range of Cara D]aglh, or Black Mountains-entirely covered immense walls and an industrious population, was the capital with vineyards and olive-groves-and south by the precipitous of the county and the bulwark of the kingdom of Jerusalem. rocks of Mount Cassius, the last spur of Mount Lebanon on Warriors so able and powerful as the first Count Baldwin of the north. It rises to a height of more than one thousand Boulogne and his successor, Baldwin of Burg, defended the feet, and is divided by a deep dell, from which a wild torrent, county most brilliantly against the efforts of the disunited foaming and chafing, traverses the city in its breadth, and flows Turkish sultans of Mossoul and Halep. But when those chiefs into the Orontes. The view from this summit is magnificent; had successively been called to the throne of Jerusalem; when on it lies the impregnable citadel, which is only approachable the vigilant Count Joseelin of Courtenay had died in 1131, by a narrow path beneath the walls running up the flanks of its and his dissipated son, Joscelin II., dallied away his time in western side. The wall crowning the summit of these high Tell Basher with wine and women, new dangers began to threaten peaks is the gigantic work of Justinian (262), though it is this exposed border province. Zenghi, the celebrated attabek based on still larger constructions of the ancient IRomans. of Mossoul (331) appeared suddenly with a large army before These double ranges of fortifications were sixty feet high, and Edessa in 1144, during the absence of the count, captured the inclosed the entire city; on the north they were washed by the city by treachery, and drove the Franks from all their possesOrontes. A fortified stone bridge crossed the river, on which sions on the left bank of the Euphrates. With the greatest the hardest battles between Christians and Saracens were exertions they were only able to defend Gernzanica, JRuinkala, fought. The former built the castle Maearegard on the east, the the important Tell Basher (Turbassel), lNezib, and some other Bridge Castle on the north, and the Tancreed's Castle on the castles on the west of that river. The untoward news of these west, to cut-off the communication with Damascus and Halep. disgraceful events in Europe caused the French king and GerBy the treachery of Emir Feir (Phirous), an Armenian cuirass- manl emperor to undertake the unsuccessful second great crumaker, a tower called the Sisters, on the west side, was surren- sade in the years 1147-48. dered to Bohemund, who, with his daring Normans scaled the 348. CONSTITUTION OF THE KINGDOMI OF JERUSALEMI. In walls on the night of June 1st, 1098, and thus saved the army the assembly of the great feudatories held by King Godfrey at of the crusaders, The great battle with Korboga of Mossoul Jerusalem, in January, 1100, the constitution of the new kingwas fought twenty days later on the plain north of the city, dom was laid down in the code, or as it was called, the Assize and terminated with the total defeat of the Moslemin. The of Jerusale.m, one of the most precious documents of the feudal principality of Antioch was successively ruled by nine princes of legislation of the middle ages. The knights and other crusathe family of Bohemund; it was temporarily in the hands of the ders who had taken possession of Syria, were natives of the Greek emperors, but was captured after a sanguinary siege, in most different countries of Europe:-of France, Italy, England, 1268, by the Miaamluke Sultan, Bibars I. Bendocdar, who drove and Lorraine. None of them could claim his native laws as the Christians down to the sea-coast, and circumscribed their the groundwork for the new constitution of the conquered dominion to Acre, Tyre, Beirut, and Tripolis. The fierce lands: it was therefore to be established according to the genMamluke did not stop with the slaughter or captivity of one eral leading principles of the fudal system in Europe and to hundred thousand Christians; he ordered the demolition of the urgent necessity of the moment. Thus, the component Antioch, which was executed with Rwanton cruelty. Thus, the political bodies in Jerusalem consisted of the feudal nobility, huge masses of ruined walls crowning the mountain tops, debris the hierarchy, and the corporations of the free burgesses, of churches and palaces here and there looking out from the not yet recognized in Europe as a third estate. The first two vineyards and olive-groves, and a miserable Turkish village on were then engaged in a fierce contest of life and death, while the Orontes, are the only relics of the once celebrated An- the latter had just sprung into existence at the expense of the tioch.'5 Se~lezceia (Sowaida), at the mouth of the Orontes, and former during their struggle. From the combination of these Scanzder5oon (Alexanclretta), northward on the coast, and sepa- heterogeneous elements then, arose the kingdom of Jerusalem, rated from Antioch by the celebrated defile, Beilan Boghas, that ideal medimeval state, the, very caricature of a political were considered as the ports of the capital. Laodicecea (Lata- organization of the eleventh century, in which we find on the kieh) and Gabala (Gibel), south, on the coast; the former was one hand the most suspicious restriction of royal power, and for a length of time occupiecl by the Greeks. Dolakl, Alintcab, on the other all the abses of feudal independence. Jerusa Ravendel, ancd Dowtair, were fortified towns in the interior. lel, accordinag to the Assize, was an indivisible kingdom, hereditary in the male and female lines. When extinct, the election of the successor to the crown belonged to the high clergy and 347. IV. The COUNTY OF EDESSA (13), ill the acisent the barons. The king was crowned by the Patriarch of Jerusaesopoitan iaf-Al-omjezirh of the Arabs (205),9. as the C irst salem, and was obliged to swear to the constitution. The crown itans of EAsa dformae to Cn Bsaldin of. Ban- lands formed only a single barony for the support of the king, who was thus doomed to remain the poorest monarch in Chrisma It would be difficult to describe the melancholy impression which tendcom. The great principalities of Edessa, Antioch, and later is excited in the bosom of the traveller at the sight of the desolate ruins of Tripolis likewise, were considered as baronies, and their of Antioch! Damascus, with its immense population and its splendid princely owners formed the first secular estate of the kingdom, bazaars; Jerusalem, with its churches, convents, and pilgrims; even their vassals the second, and their rear-vassals oar valvasours Sidon, Beirut, Tripolis, and Tarsus, with their commercial life and activity, their ports and shipping, present still moving pictures of oriental manners and prosperity, while the squalid misery of the villagers and the prelates enjoyed the regalia: the right of coinage, and of of the present Andakieh stands in mournful contrast to the univalled feudal warfare' they presided in their own feuldal courts over beauty of the natural scenery around them. their vassals, in time same manner as the king in his suplreme

Page  112 112 SEVENTEH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. ARMbENIA —CYPRUS. court over the barons; like the king, they had their own of the old crusaders with the native women of Syria would viscount as judge of the munieipal courts in the cities. The not they contribute to the prosperity of their mother country? fiefs were hereditary, and minute regulations were laid down Oi no! Instead of inheriting the manly virtues of their fathers, respecting succession, cessions, guarcdianships, and the like. they only combined the vices of the West with tile cunning, the Different again fromn the baronies were the knights' fiefs of the luxury, and selfishness of the East. They were the most concrown lands, which the king distributed as a baron to brave war- temptible race on the face of the earth. They were with scorn riots with military tenure; they ranked only with tile rear- called PoulZati (young mlules), and they themselves, by their vassals of the princes, and depended solely on the crown. arrogance, treachery, and cowardice, were the main cause of There was a high court —hacztte coza' —in which the king sat the early decline and ultimate downfall of the Christian settleas president over the great vassals, and another for the burge- iments inll Palestine, by their thwarting all the noble and geneses-cour des ba5oges. The melmbers of the first were knights rous efforts of the succeeding crusaders, who in vain shled their — and the jurymen of the latter respectable citizens. For the blood for the salvation of Jerusalem. native Syriamns there existed a Syrian tribunal, and the cities enjoyed extensive privileges; but they remained mostly in the'V. THtE K(INGDO~II OF A~t!~IENIA. possession of the republics of Pisa, Amalfi, Genoa, and Venice, who obtained entire quarters in the maritime town, where 349. EXTENT) DYNASTY, AND CITIES. The territory of Arthey built towers and fortified bazaars under their proper laws lnenia Minor (25), whirch later formed the Byzantine themes of and guardians. All these mail-clad merchants often thwarted Lykandos and Seleukeia, and part of that of Kappadlokia (266), or fought with one another, and constantly confounded piracy between the river Halys, the Pontian Mountains, the Euphrates, and commerce. The feudal military service under the crown Commagens, and the Issian Gulf, became, toward the close of was rendered by six hundred and sixty-six knights and two the eleventh century, an independent state, whose kings, by hundred knights under the banner of Tripolis and Antioch. the passage of the crusading armies and by their friendly reEach knight was attended by four mounted squires in light lations to the princes of Antioch and Edessa, were enabled to armature thus forming an array of three thousand five hun- beat back the attacks of Greeks and Turks. Leo II. took) inl dred lances. The cities and churches supplied five thousand 1099, the royal title. The principal strength of the state was sergeants or archers onl foot; the commercial corporations of concentred in Cilicia; yet it seems that it extended llorthward Pisa, G-enoa and Venice some five hundred more; and inll this to the Black Sea at certain periods. About the middle of the manner the regular militia of Palestine amnounted to ten thou- thirteenth century the Armenialn kings did homage to the sand troopsi though this number could be doubled in cases of Turkish sultan of Rum, and joined his banner with three hullngreat danger. After having repressed the arrogance of the dred knights. They enjoyed the protection of the MIongols, priesthood, Godfrey soon regulated the ecclesiastical affairs. but the last king, Leo VI., was captured by the Baharid MainThe canonic law was introduced, and the entire conquered ter- lukes of Egypt, who occupied the countryuntil it in the fifteenth ritory divided into dioceses with suffragan churches, numerous century came under the dominion of the Ottoman Turks. The monasteries, convents, and pious institutes, all dependent on Armenians were a laborious and religious people, but unwarthe Patriarch of Jerusalem. like and intemperate; they possessed great ability in arts and mechanics; their embroidery and silk weaving were celebrated; The crusaders in Palestine attempted to engraft their own they recognized the supremacy of the Romlan pope in the synod fantastical system on a soil where it never could grow; nay, at Sis in 1307, though many of the ceremonies in the Armethey carried it to the highest pitch of exaggeration by the in- nian church were considered as heretical by the Romans. stitution of religious orders of military monks; but they failed, Their patriarch was called Catholicus, and wielded a mighty and, enlightened by the experience of two centuries, their de- influence. The Armenian priests were marriecl, and distinscendants gave up at last the vain contest, and brought more guished for their learning. Their literature is rich, though correct and enlightened views and ideas back to Europe, where still unprinted. By the relations between the Arlmenians and a new period of political and religious emancipation began to the crusaders, the former soon adopted many European instidawn. The first conquest and colonization of Syria by the tutions. The court of the Armenian kingsintroduced Frankish Latins had a brilliant appearance; but in spite of an extraor- costumes and titles, and a seneschal (connedtable) commanded dinary display of religious enthusiasm and military bravery, the army; the nobles were called barons, and every hill of Arthe new kingdom did not prosper; it suffered from an innate menia was crowned with a castle. Yet conmmerce was their debility —a gang'~rene —at its very birth. That long and nar- principal occupation, and their ports were constantly visited by row strip of coast, with barren mountains interspersed with the mercantile squadrons of Venice and Genoa. arid deserts or fertile plains, then almost entirely devastated MAMISTRA (Mopsvestia), on the river Pyramvus, was the and depopulated by war and famine, had become occupied by capital. AzazCa? Sus (Anavarza), higher up on the same river. a number of proud, ignorant warriors, whose whole attention — AdCana and TarCus, in the beautiful plain of Cilicia. The was drawn off to the defence of the castles wich they built for rapid and deep CafYcad.;zus (Seleph) formed the frontier tothe security of their conquest; they were all equals; they de- ward the Turkish provinces. The Emperor Frederick Barbafied obecliene, and could only be reduced by the sword; the tossa was drowned while swinmming his horse through that river prelates were as warlike, and often more haughty and quarrel- on his march to Syria, in 1191. Ajas, by the Italians called some than the knights themselves; they peopled monasteries G-iazza was the principal harbor of export. Sis, on Mount andl convents with thousalllds of monks and nuns. WThile thus Amanus, the later capital, strongly fortified, was the patrisecular and ecclesiastical bigots formed the ruling classes, the archal see. There the synod was held in 1307. native Syrians and Greeks were oppressed; their lands were occupied by the chivalrous aristocrats, anld they were stripped of their commercial profit by the Venetian and Genoese republicans. WThat wonder, then, that they soon became hostile to 350. ORIGIN, CONSTITUTION, AND CITIES. Richard the Liontheir Latin masters and renewed their relations to the Greek Hearted concquered the island from the tyrant Isaac Comneemperors, and even to the Mohammedans themselves. But nus, in 1191, and surrendered it to the Knights Templars. the young and rising generation, sprung forth from the union But the order being unable to overcome the hatred of the

Page  113 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. CYPRUS-CONSTANTINOPLE. 113 Greeks and their continual conspiracies, gave it back to Guy By the conquest of Constantinople the absolute Greek of Lusignan, whose descendants ruled the island for two cen- monarchy had been transformed into the feudal Empire of turies wl en Catherina Cornara brought it to Venice in 1486. Romania. After the coronation of Baldwin of Flanders, the Cyprus took an important part in the crusades; it served as a chiefs of the crusading army began to carry into execution the refuge for the Syrian Christians on the loss of Acre in 1291; act of partition as arranged by the joint consent of the Franks and became afterwards the great naval station for Templars and Venetians. But their ignorance of geography, and the reand Hospitallers, whence they directed all their expeditions to sistance offered by the Greeks in Asia Minor, and by the Walthe Syrian coast. The constitution of the kingdom was an lachians and Albanians in Europe, threw innumerable difficulimitation of the assize of Jerusalem (346); the number of the ties in the way of the proposed distribution of the fiefs. The barons was one hundred and twenty-seven; they formed the emperor received for his portion only the city of Constanztihigh council; the whole island was divided into twelve dis- nopZle, with Thrzace in Europe, the opposite coast in Asia, and tricts (contade). The kings established a particular order of a few of the islands, Lesznos, Sasnothrace, Thasos, Imnbros, knighthood of the Sword. The court language was French; Telnedos, and Lesbos, while the Venetian republic and the barthe army consisted of the feudal chivalry and some bodies of ons of France were to share the rest under the suzerainty of light Albanian mercenaries. The native inhabitants are a fine the Empire. Every feudatory had himself to find the means race of men; the women are beautiful, and by the vivacity of of conquering the Grecian territory assigned to him. Thus, their large dark eyes, seem to declare how faithful they still the treaty could only be executed in part, as many barons were are to the worship of Venus. At the time of the crusades, unable to put themselves in possession of their portion. The the Cypriots were either, 1, Freemen or Eleutheri (XEAS-9Epo0), powerful and crafty Venetians, however, began immediately to who paid half the income of their fields, and Perperii (7rcprE'ptot), occupy the islands and to purchase entire provinces at the cheapwho paid fifteen Perpers (gold Byzants); and, 2, serfs or Pa- est cost. From the Marquis Boniface of Montferrat they purriks (-rapoZKoL), who belonged as property to their masters. chased the island of Crete; they abandoned the maxims of Agriculture and commerce were flourishing, but the latter their suspicious government, and permitted their nobles to fit mostly in the hands of the rapacious Genoese, who, from their out expeditions and make conquests among the Greek islands, fortified port, Famaguzn sta, on the eastern coast, tyrannized with the single obligation of rendering homage to Saint Mark. both over the king and the people. The island produced the Thus, within a few years, Venice formed a chain of factories, finest firuits, timber, wool, silk, cotton, oil, wine, sugar, grains, and castles on the islands along the coast from Dalmatia to the madder, honey, wax, corals, all sorts of minerals, copper, and Hellespont and Bosphorus. But the Greek nation, though excellent salt. Hyacinths, anemones, ranunculuses, and the betrayed by their princes and borne down by the impetuous single and double narcissus, grow here without cultivation; bravery of the fierce crusading adventurers of the West, soon they deck the mountains, and give the country the appearance recovered from their dismay. Theodore Lascaris maintained of an immense flower-garden. himself at Brusa in Bithynia, and fixed the residence of his NIcosIA (Leucosia), north of Mount Olympus, in the centre Greek empire at N2iccea. Alexis and David Comneni held of the island, on a magnificent site, was the capital and the 2Paphiagonia and Pontuts, where they established the small seat of government; many ruins still attest its former splen- but vigorous state of Trebizond; while Michael Angelos lifted dor. Constaztia (267), now in ruins. Famnag'usta and his banner in Arta as Greek D)espot or Ruler of Epirtus and Larncaca were ports possessed by the Genoese. Limisso or Etolia. Thus, surrounded by enemies and weakened by the Limasol (lamathus), on the southern coast, with the strong insubordination and open feuds of its haughty feudatories, the castle Colosso, belonged to the Order of the Hospital. On Empire of Romania, without union, talent, or vitality, became the western coast in a romantic scenery lay Baffo (Paphos), the very caricature of feudality; like that of Jerusalem, with the ruins of the temple of Venus and the castle Diezu suffering from its origin an infirmity and wretchedness which d'Amnozq. caused its early destruction. The geographical division of the Empire, however, becomes an important fact in the history of VII. LATIN EMPIRE OF RoMANIA. the middle ages on account of the many independent states which formed themselves in Greece and on the islands, of the 351. THE FOURTH CRUSADE, CONQUEST OF BYZANTIUM. rapid development of eastern commerce and colonization by During the brilliant reign of Calo-Johannes and Manuel Com. the Venetian and Genoese republics, and the formation of the neni (1118-1180) the frontiers of the Greek Empire had again Comnenian Empire of Trebizond, which, under the most exbeen extended to Mount Taurus and the plains of Cappadocia, traordinary vicissitudes maintained its independence, though the Turks in Asia Minor and the Peteheneges (254) on the bordering on Mongols and Turks, for two centuries, and outDanube had been defeated, the Sicilian Normans beaten back lived even Constantinople herself. from Greece, and the Empire strengthened. [But the heartless adventurer, Andronicus Comnenuls, who, after the most 352. THE EMPIRE OF ROW:ANIA AND ITS FEUDAL DEPENDwonderful vicissitudes of fortune had swung himself from the ENCIES. prison on the throne, caused terrible revolutions in the ilnterior, while the Bulgarians and Servians broke their chains and I. TIE CROWVNLANDS embraced Thrace as far north a constituted independent kingdoms. The monster himself fell a victim to the popular fury in 1195. The family of the tion of Isaac. Conspiracy of Mursuphlos. Division of the Empire Angeli was raised to the throne, but Isaac was soon dethroned among the crusaders. by his brother Alexius, hile his so, another Alexius, fed to 12th April. General assault. The city stormed and taken from the galleys in the Golden Horn. Old Henry Dandolo on the walls. Twenty Europe and called to his aid the French and Venetian crusa- thousand Latin adventurers overpower a population of five hundred ding army, then preparing in Venice for a new expedition to thousand Greeks. Conflagration and spoliation of the imperial city. the East.152 New division of the Empire. Count Baldwin of Flanders chosen Emperor. 5 A.D. 1203. Arrival of the crusaders at Constantinople. They A.D. 1205.-15th April. Battle of Adrianople. Baldwin defeated take possession of Galat& and encamp at Saint Cosmas, opposite the and captured by the Bulgarians. See for these extraordinary events, palace of Blachernm. Gibbon, chap. LX. TLXI., and Raumer's Gesclichte der IJohr.erstanfess?a:zr. A. n. 1204. Revolutions ill the city. Flight of Alexius. Restora- i/her Zeit., Vol. III. pages 40-98. 15

Page  114 114 SEVENTH PERIOD A. D.-1096-1300. SALONIKI —ATHENS. Adrianople and Agathopolis on the coast of the Black Sea, Venetians in securing their conquests. They remained stranand west as far as the river Strymon. North of this line the gers in the country, garrisoning the fortresses and living on Bulgarians were in open rebellion, having called John Asan or the industry of the Greeks, taking no measures to occupy and Johanitza to the throne of the New Bulgarian kingdom. In cultivate the soil. They were, therefore, easily expelled. the East the Latin Empire extended along the coast of the Hellespont, through part of Bithynia to the river Sangarios, IX. TEE DUCiH OF ATHENS, i205-1456. together with the islands Prokonnesos, Lesbos, Chios, Lemnos, Skyros, and several smaller islands in the ~Egean. 355. III. EXTENT, DYNASTY, AND MANNERS.-Attica and 353. CONSTANTINOPLE had suffered dreadfully during the Boeotia were for ever separated from the Byzantine Empire; siege. The crusaders having set fire to some houses, the con- they fell to the share of the Burgundian nobleman, Otho flagration spread with rapidity, traversed the whole breadth de la Roche, who accompanied the Marquis of Montferrat on of the city from the port of the Golden Horn (7) to the Pro- his expedition to Greece. The family de la Roche 154 held pontis, and laid every building in ashes for the distance of a likewise Corinth and Argos as tenures of the principality of mile and a half. The wealthiest quarter, including the richest the Morea. Otho had the title of Grand Sire —McEyas KipLo~ warehouses and the most splendid palaces of the Byzantine — and his successor Guy de la IRoche obtained from Saint nobility, filled with works of art, oriental manufactures, and Louis of France the ducal dignity in 1254. In this period, classic manuscripts, was destroyed. During the assault, the towards the close of the thirteenth century, the Chronicles Venetians, to protect their advance into the city, laid waste give us lively and interesting details of the flourishing condithe whole quarter extending from the hill of Blachernse to the tion of Athens and almost every part of Greece. The Latin monastery of the Evergetes and the quarter of Devteron. The Archbishop of Athens ruled over fifteen suffragans, among cathedral of Santa Sophia, the noblest church in Christendom, whom were the Bishops of Thebes, Thze7rnzopyke, and the narrowly excaped the flames, but was stripped of all its rich islands of Euboea, Aegina, Keos, and Skyr'os. Latin churches ornaments by the sacrilegious hands of the crusaders.,3a The and convents arose, the ruins and inscriptions of which are Latin clergy, of course, eagerly joined in plundering relics still extant. The Counts of Soula (Salona) in Phocis, of from the altars, and they made as little scruple in desecrating Bodonitza in Locris, and the Lords of Euboea, together with Byzantine churches and monasteries as the most licentious a thousand French barons and their vassals, followed the ducal among the warriors. The handsomer palaces were taken pos- banner, while the Greek levies formed the light-armed infantry session of by the chiefs; the emperor himself occupied the or carchwery of the time. The dukes resided either at Athens magnificent church and convent of the Pantokrator, and the or in the strong and beautiful castle of Saint Omzer' (SantoVenetians fortified themselves permanently in GalatA, on the meri) at Thebes.115 Their court vied in splendor with those north of the port. So miserable a government as that of the of Western Europe. At the magnificent tournaments which six Latin emperors of Constantinople could not last. On the dukes frequently held in the plain of Athens or at Thebes, the 25th of July, 1261, Alexius Strategopulos, the general of princes, knights and nuinstrels met from the most distant Michael Palaeologus, the emperor of Niema, was secretly in- countries. Both the prelates and the respectable classes of troduced into the city through a subterranean passage; the the Greeks appeared at these festivals, and all were the guests Golden Gate was then opened, and when the trmunpets sounded of the liberal dukes. Many brave but indigent knights who the alarm, the Greek inhabitants flew to arms, expelled the came to Athens to make their fortune, were hospitably received Latin emperor Baldwin II. with his patriarch, prelates, and and their service rewarded with military commands, estates, knights, and restored the city and the imperial crown to their and the fair hand of some noble lady; nay, the Duke Guy native prince. ADRIANOPLE, on the Ilebrus (Maritza), where II. himself condescended to receive the accolade from Sir Baldwin I. was defeated and captured by the Bulgarians in Boniface of Verona, a brave Italian knight at a tournament 1205. Tzut'ullzm, Byzia, Tymnotiko,, Ainzon, Philipzpopolis, near Thebes. Even the humble squires, minstrels and jonzg]losyntopolis, and Rhodostos, were the most remlarkable cities leurs were not forgotten, and it is curious to observe in the in Thrace during this period. old records the gifts and largesses distributed among " les mn&zestrezux etjog?''leur~s " of the ducal court at Athens. NuVIII. KINGIDOM OF SALONIKI. nmerous towers and castles rose all over the country; many of them are still seen, and some even in so good a state of preser354. II. The province of THESSALONICA (Saloniki) had, vation that they served the Greeks as strongholds in the late together with Greece, been awarded to the warlike Marquis war of independence against the Ottomans. Such are, for Boniface of Montferrat, with the royal title. It comprised instance, the castles of Er'imokastro, Koroneia, Livadia, Bodlothe greater part of ancient Macedonia, and Boniface carried nitza, Pat)rachilk, Lcatmia, and the larger fortresses of Oreos, his victorious arms into Greece, where he every where divided the conquered territories among his knights; but having per- 134 Otho de la IRoche, Grand Sire, 1205-1225. Guy I. de Ray, Duke ished in a skirmish with the Bulgarians, in 1207, his kingdom of Athens, 1225-1264. John, son of Guy, 1264-1275. William, brothewas invaded by the Greek despot, Theodore of Epirus, who of John, 1275-1290. Guy II., son of William, 1290-1308. The duchy was received with open arms by the Greeks, ancl crowned em- then passed to a cousin of Guy II., WaVlter de Brienne, who soon after at Th c i. (1311) fell in the battle on the Cephissus against the Grand Company peror at Thessaloniea in 1222. This feudal state bore within the Catalans. itself the seeds of its own destruction. The Lombard war- 1m The high Gothic tower on the western ascent of the Acropolis riors, by wholll it was founded, were less able than the subtle at Athens was erected by Otho, or by his successor Guy de ]a Roche; the ducal pialace extended along the Propylcea eastward to thie Erechi*a Nicetas, the Byzantine historian, recounts with g-ief and indig- theion, where its vaulted prisons still can be seen. The late lamentecl nation the desecmation of the sanctuary, so venerable in the eyes of the J. A. Buchon discovered in 1841 the sepulchral vault of the dukes in Greeks, by the orgies of the northern warlriors and their female com- the ruinous convent of Daphni, at a distance of six miles from Athens, panions, and how "one of these priestesses of Satan" seated herself on oln the Sacred Road to Eleusis. Two sarcophagi were found in tilhe the patriarchal thlrone, sang ribald songs through her nose, in imitation sepulchral chamber of the interior narthex of the church, the one of of the Greek sacred music, and then danced up and down before the which by its sculptured escutcheon, the cross with the fleur-de-lis in high altar. This gives us an idea of the sufferings and humiliations of tile upper corners of the cross, was proved to have been that of Tulue the wretched Greeks, Guy de nla Roche.

Page  115 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300..ATHENS-ACHAIA. 115 Chalkis, Destos, and Karystos in Euboea. The proud French to defend their possessions and maintain the capitulations. To barons chose their brides among the high-born maidens of the existence of this struggle for a long period, without any France; and the Catalonian chronicler, Ramon Muntaner, party venturing openly to disregard the principles of justice who visited Athens at that time, says," that the French barons and the force of public opinion, we must in a great measure formed the noblest chivalry in the world, and that the French attribute the prosperous state of Athens and Thebes, under tongue was spoken at Athens with as much grace and elegance the government of the house of de la Roche and the long as at Paris itself." The cities of Greece were large and duration of the Frankish domination in Attica."' wealthy-the country thickly covered with villages, of which the ruins may still be traced in spots affording no indications X. PRINCIPALITY OF ACHAIA AND THE MOREA. of ancient Hellenic sites. Aqueducts and cisterns then gave fertility to land unproductive at the present day; olive, almond, 356. IV. CONQUEST AND CONSTITUTION. The peninsula of and fig trees, intermingled with vineyards and orchards, covered Peloponnesus or the Morea had, in the general partition of the ground now reduced, by want of irrigation, to yield only scanty empire (349), been assigned to Robert de Champlitte, Count of pasturage to flocks of nonlade Wallachians. The Valonia oak, Dijon in Burgundy, who, with the assistance of Geoffrey de Vilthe cotton, the silk and leather of Attica, then supplied native lehardoin and a large body of knights and men-at-arms, soon took manufactories, and the surplus commanded high prices in the possessionof the greater partof the open country. Five thousand European markets. The trade of Athens was considerable, Greeks, consisting of the armed citizens of the towns of Lacedmandl the condition of the Greek subjects of the dukes less op- mon, Veligosti, and Nikli, and the Selavonian mountaineers, pressed than at subsequent periods. Civilization had there the Melingi, on Mount Taygetus (196), attempted to mae a penetrated deeper into the social relations than in other parts stand near the olive-grove of Komndomtra, in the Messenian of Europe. Otho de la Roche secured to the Greeks of Athens plain, but they were immediately ridden down and dispersed; all the privileges which they had enjoyed under the Byzantine the cities of Patrae, Andcravida, Iloron, Kalamiata, and Aqgovernment, with much greater freedom from financial oppres- kadia, surrendered, and the Burgundian conqueror was prosion. The feudal conquerors of Greece soon perceived that it claimed Prince of the Morea in the subjected districts. The was greatly for their interest to respect the terms of the conquest became the more easy since the Byzantine nobles, capitulations concluded with their Greek subjects, and to gain the archons and the priests crowded around the crusaders in their good will. The grand feudatories found in the Greeks order to obtain terms for themselves and preserve their estates useful allies in opposing the exorbitant pretensions of their and churches, thus abandoning the mixed Grecian and Sclaown imniediate vassals and lmilitary followers, and in restrain- vonian population to their fate. William de Champlitte held ing the avarice of the Latin clergy, the ambition of the pope, in 1205 a general diet at Andravida in Elis, where a highly and the pretensions of the Emperor of Romania. The peculiar remarkable constitution was drawn up, similar to the Doomscondition of the Greek landed proprietors taught their princes day book of William the Conqueror in England (291), and the the necessity of alleviating the natural severity of the feudal feudal code or assize of Jerusalem (346) adopted as the funsystem and modifying the contempt it inculcated for the indus- damental law of the principality. According to this charter trious and unwarlike classes of society. The high value of of Andravida, the entire Peloponnesus (though hardly onesome of the productions of Greece, before the discovery of third part of the peninsula had yet been conquered) was divided America and the route to India by the Cape of Good Hope, into twelve great baronies, seven bishoprics, and three conmplaced the landed proprietors of Attica and Boeotia in receipt manderies of the military orders of the Temple, of Saint John of considerable money-revenues. They were enabled to pay and of Saint Mary (the Teutonic knights), which were assigned their dukes an amount of taxation which many monarchs in to the chiefs, prelates, and knights of the expedition, with rich Western Europe were unable to extract from numerous cities allotments for churches and convents. Each barony and and burghs, whose trade depended on slow and expensive land- bishopric was subdivided into a certain number of knights' communications, and from cultivators without capital, who fiefs, in all 138. The barons, the military orders, and the raised little but grain and cattle. An alliance of interest was church, held their possessions by feudal tenure, andwere bound thus formed between the Frankish princes and their Greek to keep their rear-vassals armed in the field for the prosecution subjects; the taxes paid by the latter supplied their sovereign of the conquest. A large number of single knights' fiefs and with the means of hiring more obedient military followers than sergeants' lands were likewise distributed among the troops, the array of the vassals of the fiefs. It became consequently who were all bound to personal service. Domains were assigned an object of importance to the Frankish barons in Greece to to the Prince, and Andravida, situated in the Elian plain, and protect the natives as allodial proprietors, or, at least, as hold- protected by the strong fortresses of Glarenza, Castro-Toring their lands directly from the prince, on payment of a nese, and Belvoir, became the new capital of the Franks. money-rent corresponding to the amount of taxation they had The ee archons eem to have been admitted at the previously paid to the Byzantine Empire, instead of distributing diets as representatives of the city population, to secure the the land among the invaders as military fiefs. Interest, there- observance of the capitulations and watch over the interests of fore, preserved to the Greek proprietors the richest portions the conquered nation. But they gradually lost both in posof the conquered territory in the immediate vicinity of the sessions and influence, and were thus punished for their want towns; while the crusaders generally received the territorial of patriotism and bravery, while the Greek clergy were now domains, for which they were bound to pay personal military to witness, with horror, the introduction of the Latin rites service, in the more distant valleys and retired districts-a fact and worship, the canonical law and the sovereign dominion of which is still proved by the existing divisions of property and the Pope of Rome.17 The conduct of the Latin clergy was by the ruins of the feudal strongholds on the frontiers. Out "o6 See Colonel Finlay's Medinval Greece (fronl which these interof this state of things there can be no doubt that a constant esting detail are taken), Edinburgh, 1851, pages 153-169. struggle arose between the dukes, who desired to extend their "5 This was indeed an astonishing victoly of the proud, heartless authority and increase their revenues-the Frankisli mlilitary Innocent III., over the Greek Church. By this unjust and sacrilegious vassals, w~ho demanded the comlplete division of the whole conquest of Constantinople and Greece, the Pope extended the R.oman Catholic sway over thirty-two arlchiepiscopal provinces, with more than conquered country, in order to increase the numbers and power onze hundred end twenty new bishoprics and nnmberless monasteries and of their own class —-and the Greeks, who labored and intrigued missions. Blt the triumph of alrogant Rome was not of long duration.

Page  116 116 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. )D. 1096-1300. PELOPONNESUS uncharitable and rapacious. The Pope himself was obliged to William of Villehardoin, by a lawsuit, in which that prince, interfere to save the poor Greek bishops from being expelled in 1270, before the high feudal court at Andravida, defrauded from their episcopal sees; nay, the violent conduct of the the orphan maiden, Margaret of Neuilly, of the inheritance ecclesiastical fortune-hunters who flocked to Greece, compelled of her uncle, Walter de Rossieres, baron of Akova. Kairlthe barons to become the defenders of their Greek subjects, tena, on a high precipitous mountain, commanding the upper and the enemies of clerical abuses. valley of the Alpheus, and the plain of Megalopolis, in ArkaOnly the western portion of the peninsula had been sub- dia, the seat of one of the bravest and most turbulent knights. dued by Count Robert de Champlitte. On his return to The walls of the castle and towers are still standing, and the France soon after the diet of Andravida, his bailiff, the brave view from the battlements is magnificent. Karitena Was the and intelligent Geoffrey Villehardoin, extended the Frankish birthplace of the late Kolokotronis.'59 Veligosti, on the site of dominion over all Arcadia and Laconia, and succeeded, by his the present Leondari, protected the roads from Messelia and popularity and valor, no less than by his duplicity and fraud, in Sparta to Megalopolis and Tegea. G-atlzina, And.roussa, obtaining the hereditary sovereignty of the entire principality and Ialamata, secured the fertile plains of Messenia. The of the Morea.iss His able successors, with the assistance of latter fortress, situated at the foot of Mount Taygetus, near Venetian fleets, occupied the strong Byzantine fortresses of the Messenian -gulf, was the hereditary fief of the VilleharArgos, NZuplion, Corintha, and I1'oneneb6asica on the coast, doins; William, called Kalamatas, the third Prince of Morca, and they thus found themselves, in 1250, in quiet possession was born and died there in 1277. The.strong castle of PaIsof that magnificent country. sava, on the Laconic gulf, was an advanced post, established in 357. FEUDAL DIVISION OF THE PRINCIPALITY. I. BARo- the heart of Zllaina (Mani), to tame the Greek mountaineers NIEs.-The twelve great Barons (Bannerets) were those of (196) of the wild and barren range that runs out into the sea, Kfalamdta, Akova, Karitena, Pat,'as, Vostitza, Chalandclritza, to the south of the highest sunimits of Taygetus. This imlKctldvrita, ATikbl, Veligost'i, Gritzena, Gercki and Pcissava, portant border-castle was intrusted to the Baron of PAssava, in all containing ninety-four knights' fiefs. II. The EcCLESI- the hereditary marshal of Achaia, who held it occupied by a ASTICAL POSSESSIONS belonged to the Archbishop of Patras as permanent body of troops. Leftro (Leuctron), on the Messeprimate of the principality, and his six suffragans, the bishops nian gulf, and Zl1ani, near the Tmenarian promontory, were of Olenos or Andr'avida, /IVodonz, oron, C Veligosti, Ni/cli castles built in 1248, by Williamll Villehardoin, to complete and Lacedtcmno,, containing thirty-two knights' fiefs; and III., the subjection of the Maniotes. Thus cut off from all conlthe three COMMANDERImES of the military orders of the Hospital nmunication with their brethren, the Tzakonians, on the eastof Saint John, in Jerusalem, the Temple, and St. Mary, with ern range of Mount Malea, and with the Sclavonian Melingi twelve knights' fiefs. and Ezeritae of the Laconian valley, by the garrisons of the 358. CITIES, CASTLES, AND HISTORICAL SITES. Andravida, three fortresses, and by the galleys of the Prince, and exposed in the fertile plain of the Peneios, in Elis, was the capital of to starvation on their barren rocks, the Maniotes submitted the Princes of the Morea, where they held their diets and to the Frankish dominion; they offered to pay tribute and to high courts of justice. It is now a large, populous village, furnish a contingent of light-armed troops; but they demandwith well furnished markets; above the low houses rise the ed and obtained exemption from the feudal service, and it lofty columns of the Gothic Churches of Santa Sophia, and St. was stipulated that no Frankish barony should be established Stephen. The third ruinous church of this period is that within their limits. of Saint James, which belonged to the Knights Templars, The crusaders, on their first advance into Laconia in 121.0, and contained the sepulchral vaults of the Villehardoin dy- had met with serious resistance at Lacedcemon, the populous nasty. Glarenza, on the coast, was the port of Andravida, and strongly fortified Byzantine city, situate near the Eurotas, as Kyllene, in the same situation, had been of the ancient on the site of the ancient Doric Sparta. After the most vioHellenic city of Elis. Castro Tornese, or Chlomutzi, a strong lent assaults during five days, the French knights at last fortress on the promontory of Chelonatas, where the princes broke into the city, sword in hand, and the humane Geoffrey had established their mint acnd treasury. Some of the most of Villehardoin, the bailiff of the principality had some diffiimportant baronial castles of the Frankish feudatories, were culty in putting a stop to the slaughter of the brave and unearly built in strong and commanding positions, whence they happy citizens. could control the Greek and Sclavonian population in the Struck with the beauty of the scenery and the strength of valleys around. Such were Akova, called 11Cate- GroJon, or the position, William of Villehardoin, the third Prince of MoStop-Greek, on a precipitous ridge, south of the river Ladon. rea, some years later (1248), after the complete subjugation Akova still presents some beautiful ruins, with walls and tow- of the peninsula, chose his residence in the neighborhood of ers, near the village Vytitza. On the east the access was Sparta, on a high rock in the most picturesque situation, at guarded by another castle, Galactc. The barony of Akova, the base of Mount Taygetus. There he built a large and the first in rank and importance, embraced the valleys of the strong castle, with all the gothic magnificence of turretted Ladon and the Alpheus, and kept in check the Sclavonians of walls, extensive courts, and a high central fortress donjon Skorta (Gortys), in the high ranges of the Arkaclian Moun- I(keep), where he took up his permanent habitation. It was tains. The barony became celebrated during the reign of cealled Zlisithr'a, or Mistras, by the Greeks, who, following the example of their sovereign, removed from the low hills of 15s The dynasty of Villehardoin possessed the principality of Achaia old Sparta, and built their new central city around the protectand Morca for longer than a century. William de Champlitte, 1205- ing castle of Mistras. From the precipices and deep chasms 1210. Geoffrey I., Villehardoin, 1210-1218. Geoffrey II., 1218-1246. of Mount Taygetus, several copious springs descend toward William Villehardoin (Kalamatis, younger son of Geoffrey I.), 12461217. Isabella, 1271-1311. Maud of iainault, 1311-1311. The fiaud by which Geoffrey I. obtained the sovereignty of the MIorea is pleasantly 15s On appelroit de loin l'Alphde et le chateau de Caritena, fief du told in the modern Greek poem on? the conquests of the Franks in, the chevaleresque baron de Caritena, assis sur la montague comrne une couMorec, published in Greek and French by Buchon. Paris, 1840. See ronne de comte, avec ses crdneaux pour fleurons. Ce chateau a un aslikewise Buchon's Hi3toire des Conquetes et de l'etablisseanent des Franz- pect fier et fdodal; il a conservy jusqu'd ces derniers tenmps la renomfats dans les itaets de tlancienne Crece soss les Villehardoin, Paris, 1846, me de sa force; car Ibrahim-Pasht n'a pas cs8 entreprendre d'y attaVol. 1. pages 179-184; and our third article one Sparta and the Dositns quer Colocotroni qui s'y Stait rdfugid. Buchon: Grece Continentale et ill the Tcw-Yollrk Qua-terly, Vol. III., No. 1, for October, 1854. la lfMop&e; Paris, 1844; pages 476, 47.,

Page  117 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. MOREA-V-ENI:CE. I..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1 the plain, where they irrigate the orange and lemon gardens, zation of the Franks; but it soon disappeared during the the olive and mulberry groves, for miles, extending through storms of the Turkish wars, and thus the ruinous castles, the the valley of the Eurotas, and render the hollow Laconicz popular traditions, and a few chronicles and dialectical forms one of the most beautiful and fertile regions in Greece."'1 Xo- in the modern Greek language, are at present the only relics dot (Methone), in southern Messenia, belonged to Venice, ac- that have survived the conquests of the crusaders in Greee. cording to the treaty of Constantinople, and WVilliam of Ville- William of Villehardoin imprudently joined the Despot of hardoin ceded Coron, on the Messenian gulf, to those grasp- Epirus, Michael II., in his war against the Greek Emperor ing republicans, on their furnishing him with four war- of Nicasa. With his whole feudal force he entered the highgalleys to support the siege of Nauplion and Monembasia, the lands of Macedonia, where, abandoned by the Epirote and his only maritime cities still in the hands of the Greeks. Their light-footed Albanians, the French chivalry was surrounded surrender, and the submission of the mountaineers, completed by the Greek army of Michael VIII. Paloeologus and his the final conquest of all Peloponnesus by the Franks, ill 1248. allies the Kumans, and saffered a total defeat in the defiles of At that period, William of Villehardoin was the most re- Perlepi (Prilapon). The Prince of'Iorea fled in disguise, spected and powerful prince in the East. He not only pos- but being captured at Castoria, was carried in triumph to sessed with sovereign sway the Peninsula, but on the north, Nicsea, and could only obtain his release by surrendering the Dluke of Athens, by the cession of Argos, Nauplia and three of the most important fortresses of his principality — (orinth, acknowledged himself his liegeman, while the Count Monembasia, Misithra, and M3aina —into the hands of the of Bodonitza at Thermopylse, and the feudatories of Euboea, Emperor Mlichael, who, in the mean time, had reconquered followed his banner, and the Duke of Naxos, with his fleet, Constantinople, and put an end to the Frankish Empire of protected the Aegean and the coasts of Morea froin the piracies Iomania. As soon as the Imperial standard appeared on of the Turks. Order and tranquillity reigned in the interior the coast of M[orea, the Greeks arose against their foreign of his fertile and beautiful dominions. The Greeks were masters, and though the knights defended every inch of busily occupied with their commerce and agriculture; the ground with the most exalted valor, and often routed the Sclavonians of Skorta and Selavoehori were pacified and taken disorderly bands of the Greeks, they could not defend their into pay by government. The French barons and knights, isolated castles in so mountainous a region, and were driven comfortably established in their castles beneath the beautiful into the western and northern parts of the Peninsula. There, sky of Greece, soon found there a new and pleasant home, in the plain of Elis, and in the strongholds of Achaia and which made them even so far forget the old that they called Argolis, they still maintained themselves under the suzerainty themselves after the Greek names of their estates; thus, of the Kings of Naples during the fourteenth century, until for instance, Hugh de Brienne became Lord of Caritena; the Osmanli Turks, in the fifteenth, put an end to their doRobert de Tremouille, Lord of Chalandritza; Ralph, Lord of minion in the Morea.1T Kalavryta; John, Lord of Passava, and so others. Geoffrey II. married Agnes, the daughter of the Latin Emperor, Peter XI. ORIENTAL CONQUESTS OF'VENICE. of (ourtenay, and the barons imitating the example of their sovereign, sent to France for their brides, sisters and families, 359. EXTENT AND ORGANIZATION OF HER COLON;IES. and soon old Peloponnesus became so changed that it was Towards the middle of the thirteenth century the Venetian called " la jeuzne Fqance." Not only the French crusaders Republic (272-323) had extended her conquests in the Archifound a new field for activity in the East; even the Greeks pelago, and possessed the following colonies and territories:themselves began to take up chivalrous habits; they became I. A fortified quarter in the city of CONSTANTINOPLE, with familiar with French minstrelsy, they tuned their harps to the the suburbs of Pera and Galata on the northern shore of the songs of daring deeds, and lady-love, and their chroniclers Golden Horn.?12 II. The Duchy of KALLIPOLIS, CompriSing sang in artless but spirited verses the wars of the crusaders the Thracian Chersonese, with the cities of Kacllipolis, Rhoin the Morea. dclostos, He'akleiac, and several ports on the opposite coast of The prosperous state of the French principality in the Asia Minor. III. The southwestern district of the PELOPeninsula was, however, of short duration. The feudal PoNNESUS, with the strongly-fortified cities of Kforon and system, and the warlike manners of western Europe, could not A~odon. IV. The Duchy of CRETE (Candia), with the cities strike deep roots in the East. Without the slightest know- of Caneac Rettigno, Candia, Sjklia, and Mirabella on the ledge of the classical antiquity of Greece, or any sympathy coast, and San Boni~azio in the interior. This splendid islfor its modern Greco-Selavonian population, the Latin barons and had been purchased of the Marquis of Montferrat, and considered the country as a conquest, which bould only became an important settlement for the Venetian nobility. be maintained by dint of the sword; while the Greeks, op- The rich lands were divided into one hundred and thirty-two pressed by the continual civil feuds of their masters; soon knights' fiefs, and four hundred and eight sergeants: tenures, discovered the real weakness of the foreign government, and all held with military tenure. The Venetiasn Nobil formed turned their hopes towards the rising Empire of Nietea. Some the High Council, at the head of which stood the Captainfew Romanic elements had penetrated the mixed population General of the army. V. The County of NEGPROPOrTE (island of 3orea% and the Moreotes had taken a tincture of the civili- of Eubcea), with the strong fortress of Chatalis on the strait of E~rz'ipos —opposite to Boeoti%, and the cities of 0Ore&s,.~o After the defeat and capture of William Villehardoin, at Perlepi, in Macedonia, in 1259, and the surrender of Laconia to Michael 1 History of the ll~orec duzezg the itiddle Ages, by Prof. Falmerayer, Palaeologus, Mistras became the seat of the renewed Greek govern- Vol. II., and the admirable sketch of the FLankish dominion in the ment in the Morea, and several beautiful Byzantine churches and con- Peninsula, by Prof. Ernst Curtius, in his Pelopo-wneso, Vol. I., Goha, vents, builttthttime, attest to the tasteful rchitectureoftheGrees, 1851. Important hints and topographical descriptions are likewise during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and the wealth and importance of Mistras, the residence of the Palaeologian princes, or _Des-1841. pots of the Morea. In 1837, while some repairs were undertaken in the lG2 This important certll emporinm for their commerce the VereFrench castle, a complete suit of almor, with iron greaves, and a knlight's tians lost, when, in 1281, Michael Palaeologus, with the aid of the helmet, w~as discovered, which was presented by the modern Spartans to Genoese, expelled the:Fr anks from Constantinople, and granted to that King Otho, during a subsequent visit of the Royal Couple to thle city. hated rival of AIeniee the ports and privileges which he formerly il possessed in Greece.

Page  118 11& SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. NAXOS -RIODES. AstuL-a and Kar'ystos. Under the government of Negroponte It would appear strange that the reviving Greek Empire ranged the smaller islands Skyr'os, Skiathos, Sk/opelos, Chzeli- of the Palaeologi, who reconquered the greater part of Greece dromi, Keos (Zia), on the southern coast of Attica, together from the Franks and Asia Minor from the Turks, should have with'4Egina and Scalamnis in the Saronic Gulf, and Cerigo permitted the Dukes of Naxos to sit quietly on their usurped (Cythere) under the frowning promontory of Cape Malea, in throne of the 2Egean islands; yet we can discover the cause of the Morea.l"6 this remarkable longevity of the Frankish principality, not only At the time of the Latin conquest of Constantinople, the in the great talents and native valor of the dukes of the fanliVenetian Republic was not populous and strong enough to lies of Sanudo and Dalle Carceri, but likewise in the powerful take possession of the numerous islands which had been as- protection awarded them by the Pope, and the Venetian Resigned to it in the partition of the Greek Empire. The public, who with her fleets sustained the monopoly of her Senate, therefore, permitted the Venetian nobles to fit out eastern commerce for two centuries victoriously against expeditions for the occupation of the islands, reserving only Genoese, Greeks, and Turks.'65 the sovereignty to the mother state. In consequence of this permission many mlaritime expeditions took place; thus XIII. PossEssIoNs OF THE MILIrA Y ORDER O THE HosStampalia was occupied by the Quirini; Andros, by Marino PITAL oF SAINT JOHN) 1310-1522. Dandolo; Tinos, 1Iykoni, Skyros, Lemnzos, Chios and &Samos, by the Ghisi; Keos, by Giustiniani; but the most brilliant 362. CONQUESTs. The Mamlukes of Egypt having obtained conquest was that of the Cycladian Islands, by the distin- possession of the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291, the Knights guished nobleman Mark Sanudo, in 1207, who, as Duke of the Archipelago, soon became in de t oof Saint John sought a refuge in Cyprus, where the Knights Archipelago, soon became independent of the Republic of Teplars already had large estates and castles; and ing Templars already had large estates and castles; and King Saint M1ark. IHenry II. of Lusignan now likewise invested the former with 360. The ONIAN Islands belonged during this period to the town and castle of Limisso (348). Yet the enterprising 360.small dynasties of Frankish nobles w h o had sprung up during warriors, less corrupted than the Templars, who at that time ~~small~~~~~~ d t o a h lw a r u i returned to Europe only to meet destruction, sought a new the crusades, and claimed the protection either of the Kings of Naples or the Despots of Epirus. Zante (the ancient sphere of activity by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310. That Zakynthlos), Cehatonia, Itaka, and Santa Z /laue a (Lcent delightful island had remained in the possession of the Genoese Zakrynthos), Cephanlon~zia, Itakan, and Santa _ 31aurae (Leu- family of Gavala during the thirteenth century, and then dekadia), were, during the fourteenth century, held by the vfamly of Gavaa during th Emperors of Constntury, and then deBeneventine family of Toeco, which, by narriage into the ing the Greek Emperors of Cndronstantnople. But durGreek dynasty of Arta, had inherited Akarnania, ZEtolia, and ing the weak and turbulent reign of Andronicus the Younger, Greert of southern Epirusta, and cainherited Akariathemselves Dukes of eia, and Turkish and Arab corsairs from the coasts of Asia Minor and part of southern Epirus, and called themselves Duhces of dLeu- Syria had established themselves on the island, united with kadia and! Despots of ABeta. Charles Toco was the last despoti; the Tursp do him f. ChmrlosnTina wan ~tolas i14, the Greek inhabitants, and extended their piratical expeditions pot; the Turks drove him from IoAnnina and ZEtolia in 1431, and his son, Leonardo II., lost Leukadia and Cephalonia in over the adjacent islands of the Egean. Thus the Knghts 1469. Corfni (Corcyra), t ost n Ism Hospitallers found it easy, with the support of the Pope, to 1469. Corffu (Corcyra), the most important of the Ionian Islands, both on account of its fertility and position at the mouth assemble a l arge crusading army of G erm an and Italian warof the Adriatic Gulf, remained long under the supremacy of riors at Brindisi, whom they transported to the East on the Kings of Naples, until it, in 1386, was conquered by the a Neapolitan fleet. The Crusaders united with the Knights Venetians. of Napes, ntil it in 186, ws conqered y Dheof Saint John, and, defeating the Saracens on the sea, landed suddenly at Rhodes. They then stormed gallantly its strongly XII. DUCHY oF NAxoS ORt OP THE ARCHIPELAGO, 1207-1566. fortified capital under the command of the Grand Master Fulco de Villaret, and carried it, sword in hand, on the day 361. EXTENT, CONSTITUTION AND DYNASTIES. The easy con- of the Virgin-August 15th, 1310. Linclos and the other quest of Naxos by Mark Sanludo and his Venetian adventurers cities in the island surrendered; but it was not until after in 1207 was followed by that of the other Cycladian islands. an obstinate warfare of four years, that the order could exParos, Antiparos, Amtor~gos, Siphnos, Kinnolos, Milos, Polikan- tend its dominion over the surrounding Archipelago of smaller dros, Nio, Santorini (Thera), and Anaphi recognized his sway isles, Syme, Chalkis, Lero, I~isyros, Kalyminos, IKos, and the and were distributed as fiefs among his knights. Naxos, the fortress of Btlerzun (Halicarnassus) on the mainland of Caria. gem of the Grecian islands, became the ducal residence; the The knights of Rhodes held likewise the fortress Ak-Liman opposite Paros, with its excellent harbors of Scanta lc4/Ian and and the island of Daanl, on the coast of Isauria, and their of Parecchidc, was the naval station for his galley fleet. In castles in CypruIs, which they furnished with garrisons, and Naxos the active and intelligent Mark Sanudo built a mlagni- defended gloriously against the attacks of the Ottoman Turks, ficent castle, with twelve strong towers, on the high hill above for more than two centuries remaining the bulwark of Christenthe Greek metropolis on the northwestern coast. The natives dom in the Levant.'6 obtained favorable terms from their conqueror; he guaranteed them the possession of their property and lands, and they con- These were the States of LATIN ORGANIZATION which arose tinued to enjoy their privileges and the exercise of the Grecian rites of their Church. Sanudo received the dueal title firom Dalle Caieri fi-onl Negopolnte then inhe-ited the duchy by marliage. the Latin Emperor of Constantinople, which he left, together But the third duke, Niccol6 Dalle Carceli, lost the duchy and his life with his consolidated and beautiful duchy, to his successors, in revenge of a terrible clime he had committed on an innocent Greek in 1220.'M.maiden. The Greek Archons, led on by the intmiguing nobleman FraLncesco Crispo, sulprised and stabbed the dulke at his hunting castle, o63 The smaller isles Poros (Kalauria), Idra (Hydrea), and Spetsa Paertrecho, in 1381, aind the thilrd dynasty of the Crispi maintained (Typarenos), under the coast of Argolis, seem not to have been per- their independence until the Turkish conquest in 1566. manently occupied by the Venetians. They served as a refuge to the in Colonel Finlay's zlediceieal Greece and'rebizonzd, pp. 320-50. Albanians (Arnauts), when their country, after the death of George 166 See the desciption of all those islands in Prof. Louis Ross's Castriotis, was invaded by Mohammed II., in 1470. See the femooir Inselt'eisen, Tiibingen, 1840-50, Vol. 1.-V. (we quote from memory); on Hydra, by Antonios Mianlis, Munich, 1834 (in modern Greek). and for the conquest of Rhodes our articles, A day on Rhodes, in the 16 Six dukes of the family Sanudo followed until 1307. The fmily New-Yolrk Knickelrbocker, October and November, 1846.

Page  119 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. ASSASSINS-MAMLUKES. 119 in the East during the period of the crusades. The Latin almost incredible, were the secret murders of the devoted Asempire of Romania, the kingdoms of Thessalonica and Jeru- sassins. The ministers, the viziers in Bagdad, in Cairo, the salem, and the principalities of Antioch, Edessa and Tripolis, chieftains in the mountains, the Kaliphs, the Sultans surwere short-lived, and perished during the thirteenth century. rounded by their courtiers and life-guards,-Counit Raymond Of the rest, the kingdom of Armenia and the principality II. of Toulouse before Tripolis in 1151-the Marquis Conof Achaia (Morea) became extinct in the following century, and rad of Montferrat in Acre in 1192, several kings, distinguished only the states under Venetian protection and the duchy of prelates, and knights-not only in Palestine, but even in Athens survived the destruction of the Byzantine empire in Europe-fell beneath the dagger or by the poison of the invis1453. ible Old Manl of the Mountain. The terror was so great that every demand of the mysterious chief was immediately complied B. MOHAMMEDAN AND SLAVO-GRECIAN STATES DURING with, for the secret members of this Mohammedan Temple were every where. Their principal castles were Alavzut or 363. GENERAL REMARKS. We shall here give a glance Vulture's Nest, situated to the north of Casbin on the frontier at the Mohammedan, Grecian, and Slavonian States which rose mountains of Dilem, the seat of the Oldl 11an. Rundbar on in the East during the Crusades and on the expulsion of the the west, and Lamsir and Kirdkulh on the northeast of AlaLatins from their short-lived conquest. These were seven, mut, were impregnable fortresses, held by the fanatics. Tabviz.: I. The State of the Assassins. II. The Empire of sinz (Tubbus), Tun and Kanain, Assassin castles of Kuhisthe Eyubids and the Bahar'id Mamlukes in Syria and Egypt. tan in Persia, secured his influence in the east, while the forIII. The Kingdom of Bulg'ar-ia. IV. The Kingdom of tresses of Shadeir (Schadiz), near Ispahan, Di-rkul and KalServia. V. The renewed Byzantine Emnpire of Niccea and endshan, farther south, extended his authority toward the Constantinople. VI. The Despotat of Epirus. VII. Duchy west. Thus a chain of strongholds brought the Sheik in comof Wallachia. VIII. The Comnenian Empire of 7'9ebizond. inmunication with his most important possessions, those of the district of the Ismaelites (279) on Mount Lebanon between the I. STATE OF TIHE ASSASSINS. principality of Antioch and the county of Tripolis. Here the 364. ORIGIN, ORGANIZATION AND EXTENT. The enthu- treacherous Assassins or Ismaelites possessed the castles of Al/assiasm of the crusaders was met in the East by a similar ex- yad, IKehlef, KadmZus and Szcfita, in the highest range of the citement, which gave birth to societies formed in the spirit of mountain, and the still more important Balanea, Banias (VaMohammedanism, and springing directly from the desire of lenia) on the sea-coast, which in its strong position among presustaining the cause of Allah and his prophet by the extreme cipitous rocks cut off the communication between the Christian of religious fanaticism. Hassan-Ben-Sahab is the mysterious States. At Alamut and Masyad were the luxuriant gardens reformer-dai-of Islam. He appeared on Mount Lebanon concealed by high walls, where the young fedavies, intoxicated after the middle of the eleventh century, preaching the re- with hashish,l8 were carried to taste the joys of paradise (as form with extraordinary eloquence; but his fiery ambition urged they were made to believe), and were thus rendered willing to enhim forward beyond the bounds of his mission. As the Imam counter death in order to secure a permanent seat in that abode of Mohammed, he proclaimed the second advent of the Pro- of bliss. Under the Sheik stood, 1st, the three Dais al-K-cbir phet; li he enraptured the masses with his vehement exhortations (grand priors of the order); 2d, the Dais or initiated masters; of the austerest observances of Islamnisml; he formed a body- 3d, the Refeeks, or companions; 4th, the Fedlavies, or devoguard of Fedavies or initiated in the mysteries of the advent, ted; 5th, the Laseeks, aspirants or novices, and lastly the muland occupied Alamlut, in the mountains of Dilem. Urged on by titude of the profane people. The fundamental maxim of the his ambition, he boldly changed the creed, and proclaimed that creed, which separated the secret doctrines of the initiated As" T/hee was no God beut God, and thalt Hassan was the Pr'o- sassins from the austere public tenets of the mass of the comphet of God," and at the head of thousands of fanatical follow- mon people, was most carefully preserved, and the people were ers built up his empire extending frotm the frontiers of Persia held to the strictest injunctions of the Koran. The East did to the coast of the Mediterranean. Yet it was not a state not detect the motive power of the Assassins' Chief; the tremwith a united territory. It was only an order of fanatics called bling multitudes only saw the poniard strike those who had of ilatsheshim, or as the crusaders pronounced it, Assassins, who, fended the Envoy of the invisible Ivnza~m himself, the forerunfrom their numerous strongholds all along the mountains, obey- ner of the Great Prophet, who was expected to arrive in power ed the commands of the terrible Prophet, the Sheik al Djebal, and glory to assert his dominion on earth. The eastern the Ancient of the Mountain, and kept the people in the most branch of the Assassins was destroyed by the Mongols during fearful subjection to his invisible power. Hassan, in his snow- the invasion of Hulagu in 1258. In Syria they continued to white caftan and turban, the emblem of purity, was the grand alarm the crusaders for fourteen years longer; until their master of his order of Saracen Knights or Fedavies, who, under strongholds, Masyad and Banias, were besieged and taken by their three Dais al-Kebir,l67 or grand priors, were trained to Bibars, the Manluke Sultan of Egypt, and the rest of the Asthe most extraordinary obedience and self-sacrifice. Fearful, sassins fled into the higher ranges of the mountain, where they * IMalek-ShaLh, the Sultan of Mlossoul, astonished at this far-spreading stillpossess a mystical religion and live under the name o heresy, marched his army against Hassan and sent his envoy to the cas- the Isnailiyeh, tle of Alamut to enforce submission. The old Sheik of the MoImuntains, surrounded by his Assassins, received the Turk, and beckoning one of II EMPIRE OF THE EvUBmDS AND MAMLIJE SU.TANS, his followvers said: "Stab thyself," —and to another: "Throwv thyself down from the battlements "-and before the words were pronounced 365. EXTENT AND DYNASTIEs.The great Salah-ed-Din, his disciples had obeyed him and lay expiring-the one at the feet of the the son of Eyub (1137-1192), laid in 1174 the foundation of Turk-tle othe, lacerated at the bottom of the precipice not only as the vast empire of the Eyubids, on the ruins of the Latin king. willing but asjoyful martyrs to their faith. The terrible old man thenom of Jesalem The pious and generous Sultan discover turned to the trembling envoy: "Go tell thy master what thou hast seen, and add, that seventy thousand heroes like these obey my nod." ed that the Christian fanaticism could only be vanquished by The Sultan still advanced, but on seeing, the next morning, a mysterious a similar enthusiasm among the Mohammedans. But his chivdagger sticking in his pillow, in the most retil-ed part of his tent, he be- alrous heart despised the dagger of the Assassins, and he joycame 0so frightened that he ordered the retreat of his army, and left the old monster of thai mountnin to himself. sis w n intoxicating beverage distilled from linseed,

Page  120 120 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. EGYPT —BULGARIA. fully brandished the scimetar of the ManIluke. Both Turks or Egypt, were circulated throughout Europe, and gave rise and Arabs had become degenerated; they could no longer re- to those ill-planned expeditions of the Hulngarians in 1218, sist the flower of European chivalry. It was the hardy sons and of Saint Louis in 12.48, which terminlated in the deof Mount Caucasus and of Koordistan, who, by a particular struction of thousands of brave but ignorant Christian wardrill, were to form the strength of his army. Carried away riors. Egypt was then divided into, I. MIssR DAKHILIAT, from their home in tender age by Syrian merchants, the young Inner or Upper Egypt, with the cities, Kosuzs, Ash/22zuni, DenCireassians were trained to arms under the proud name of tlera, EsheAl, Assuagn, and Kosetr, on the coast of the Red Mlliaazlu/ke. Without relatives or a native country they form- Sea; II. RIF, or Middle Egypt, with KAmIrA-the Victorioused the body-guard of their chief, with the brightest hopes of Cai'ro, or Babylon, on the eastern bank of the Nile, the capirank and advancement; they mounted the fleetest steeds of tal of the Kaliphs and Eyubid Sultans; l1i.enf (Memphis), Arabia; the finest armor, the best tempered weapons adorn- Bulak, Belbeis, and Ain-Shacnes (Heliopolis), where the ed their handsome persons, and beneath their yellow standards crusaders, as auxiliaries of the Kaliph, in a brisk battle, for the the Mamllukes became the most formidable cavalry of Eastern first time crossed swords with the brilliant young Salah-ed-Din warfare. At the head of these troops Salah-ed-Din extended his and the Koordish warriors, the Manmlukes; III. DscHUFempire from the frontiers of Armenia along the Euphrates to GARBIEH, the Delta, or Lower Egypt, surrounded by the Arabia, Egypt and westward along the sea-coast to Barka, three branches of the Nile and the Mediterranean. On the on the outskirts of the Libyan desert. Dazmascus was his coast were situated the thriving cities, Schant('eroon (Alexancapital, and there he died in 1192.'69 His vast dominions dria), Rashicd (Rosetta), and DamanlhZur, on the Alexandrian were again divided, and underwent many revolutions, until the canal. Eastward, on the Fctimeltic branch of the Nile, and the revolt of the Baharid Mamlukes against the last Eyubid Bah/' Tenis (Lake of Menzaleh), lay the celebrated Daimiat Sultan, in 1250, brought the power into the hands of these (Damietta), the bulwark of Egypt, a mile from the sea-coast. wild and homeless warriors. Sultan Bibars reconquered The city was then the great emporium of Eastern traffic, with Antioch, Tripolis, and the greater part of Syria, in 1260- splendid mosques, rich bazaars; and a numerous popula1277, and Sultan Chalil (1290-1294) expelled the Christians tion. It was surrounded by triple walls, and towers of great from their last possessions in Acre, Beirut and Tyre. Thus strength. Other towers in the river defended the approach began in the East the long, barbarous, and lawless rule of from the Nile. Yet the valor and enthusiasnm of the Christhe Caucasian adventurers; Syria and Palestine were totally tians vanquished all these obstacles, and the desperate resistdevastated, the Christian monuments burned and destroyed, ance of the Saracens. Damietta was taken, after a siege of and misery brought over the decimated population, while seventeen months, in 1219, and an immense booty made; but Egypt became prosperous by her manufactures and commerce. it was soon lost again by the arrogance of the Cardinal PelaSultan Kelawun concluded treaties of commerce with Aragon gius and the superior tactics of Sultan TMelik Khamel, who and Venice in 1289. The Genoese had their consuls and em- totally destroyed or captured the Christian army among the poriurn in Alexandria. Egyptian industry consisted princi- swamps of Mansourah, and forced them to purchase their repally in paper, carpets, and excellent linen. Agriculture was lease by the surrender of Damietta and the evacuation of flourishing and occupied three hundred thousand fe/lahs (peas- Egypt. The same fate awaited Saint Louis, of France, and ants). his brilliant army, in 1248; and the unhappy city, after so The Mamlukes did not degenerate; new bands of gallant many vicissitudes, was finally razed by the Mamlukes for fear youths from Mount Caucasus replenished their numbers every of a third invasion, in 1250.7~0 year; they formed a military aristocracy, whose chiefs were the counsellors of the Sultan and his vizier; the gr'eat CKadi III. WALLACrO-BULGARIAN KINGDO-M. administered justice, assisted by the kadis of the principal sects, who all united in electing the Sultan. The revolutions 367. EXTENT, CONSTITUTION, AND CITIES. During the reof the throne were frequent; seldom did a son follow his fa- volutions of the Byzantine Empire, under the Angeli, the Bulther, generally the handsomest or the bravest of the Manmluke garians threw off the yoke in 1186, and sustained their indecavaliers; their life was entirely military; they lived merrily pendence for two centuries, until they, together with their on the fat of the land, without any foreign war until the storm neighbors the Servians, were defeated by Sultan Murad at of the Mongol invasion of Tamerlane in 1400, and the reduc- Kossowa, in 1389, and became incorporated in the Turkish tion of Egypt, by Sultan Selim and his Osmanli Turks, in empire in 1392. The Wallacho-Bulgarian kingdom ex1517. tended along the Danube, from the shores of the Black Sea 366. DIVISsmos, CITIES, AND HISTORICAL PLACES. Egypt- westward to the river Timok, and was on the south bordered l//lissr-performed an important part during the crusades. The by Mount HMemus. The principal cities were: TgERNOWow (sitKings of Jerusalem were alternately enemies or allies of the ated on a hill, surroundeld by gardens, on the banks of the Fatimid Kaliphs against the Turks; and it was in the luxury river Jantra, the residence of the Bulgarian kings, and the see and voluptuousness of Cairo, that the Templars, during the cm- of the pinate of the Latin church), Nicopolis, Bidin (Vidpaign of King Amalric, for the first time laid aside the auster- din), Dista (Silistria), on the Danube, Tiarna and Salta ity of their deportment, and contracted those eastern viceson the Pontus, and Triaditza (Sofi), beneath the celebrated which later, fostered within their convent walls, caused the defile, ClaUSZraC SanCti Basilii, on Moult Hmmus. The accusation and destruction of their order. By the general igno- Bulgarians extended their sway south of that mountain, along rance of geography in that time, the most exaggerated ac- the river Ilebrus, but without permanent possession. The counts of the wealth and splendor of the Great Soltan of Khans obtained the royal title from the Pope, yet their power Ba6ylon (the Kaliph of Cairo), and the fertility of Babylonia was restrieted by the council of the Boyars or nobles. Diets, 169The sepulchral monument of Salah-ed-Din, forms a large irregular oelzitia, were held; the country was divided into thirty Stabuilding of wvhite and black marble,with many cupolas andcllofty arched rosties, each defended by fortresses and castles. While the windows covered with gllt inscriptions. It stands in the Derwzs/m street, on the caravan;route to Jerusalem and Mecca; but though it is still 70Tme molem- city lies sevelal miles in the interior For these devoutly visited by the Moslem pilgrims it is rapidly falling in ruins, events, see the graphic description of the sieges in iMichaud's Histoire See our articles "An Excursion to D)amnascus and Baaibek," in the des Croieades, livres XII. and XIII., and Mills, pages 197-218, in tile American Review for August and Septembelr, 1848. Philadelphia edition.

Page  121 SEVENTH PERIOD A. D. 1096-1300. SLAVO-GRECIAN STATES. 121 Bulgarians followed the Greek Church they had a patriarch close of the century, Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and the and ten bishops; later, when they passed over to the Latin southeastern parts of the Morea with the reviving Byzantine ritual, their Primas resided in Ter-zowa, and their prelates re- Empire. ceived the pcalliumb in Rome. Among the many heretical sects were the Bog'o)niles, the Beloved of God, whose do- 3. GENOA, the Ligurian coast, had in her rivalry trines spread through the West, where they were called Bzul- with Venice given as strenous an aid to the Greek Emperor ga'i (Bougres). The laws of the Bulgarians were cruel, and of Niceea, as Venice had done to the Latin conquerors of their manners barbarous, though Christianity exerted its influ- Constantinople. Genoa.therefore was rewarded by the Greek ence, and their kings, by frequent marriages with Byzantine emperor with important privileges, exemption from duties, and princesses, became more polished and kept a brilliant court. the cession of the suburbs of Pera and Galata, which were forThe Bulgarians fought mostly on horseback (195), with bows tified by double lines of wall, and that high central tower which and arrows, sabre and lance. Their banners were horse-tails still forms so conspicuous an object in the scenery of Constanfixed on spears, until the Pope gave them the Christian stan- tinople at the present day. Nay, the Genoese even tookl possesdard of the cross. They wore the flowing Eastern garments, sion of every promontory on the Bosphorus, and thus sought and large turbans, and their general gatherings, headed by their to exclude their competitors from the commerce on the Black Boyars, made a brilliant show. King Assan II. built a fleet Sea. They occupied the eastern coast of the Crimea, where they on the Danube, which placed him in direct communication fortified Cafct, Chemrcz, Ciherson, Bosphorus, and Cem)bbalo, and with the Russians. The Bulgarian merchants enjoyed pecu- established their commercial depots in Azow at the mouth of liar privileges in Constantinople, where they had their own the Don. Having by extraordinary exertions become the bazaars and depots. Some of their princes were men of domineering nation on the Pontus, they began to arm for that, learning. Alexander (1330-1353) published a Slavic trans- tremendous maritime struggle with Venice, which from the lation of the Byzantine historian, Constantine Manasses, with year 1252 continued almost without interruption to 1382, elegant -paintings; but the Boyars, with all their pomp and and terminated only with the debilitation and decline of both. luury, remained uninstrueted, an. the clergy only made lmuch In the following century Genoa put herself into the possesluxury, remained uninstructed, and the clergy only mnade nmch progress in learning. sion of great part of the Asiatic islands of the i1gean, such as Samnos, Nicar'ia, Chios, Psara, Metellino (Lesbos), Stalimvene (Lemnos), Imrbros, Tenedos, Sanzothrace, Thasos, and IV. KINGDOM OF SERVIA. the smaller groups. 368. The G2'eat Zup)an of Servia had received the royal VI. DESPOTAT or EpInus. crown from the Pope in 1222 (325), and ruled his spirited and handsome people, the Servians and Rascians (Raitzi), as an 372. EXTENT AND PRINCES.-The portions of the By independent king or lr~9al. Servia contained, 1, Br'anizowa, zantine Empire situated to the west of the range of Pindus, on the Danube; 2, Slhu2pc, on the cast, in the valley of the all Epirus, Acarnania and JEtolia, as well as Lower Macedonia Morava; 3, lKossotva, on the south, in the upper valley of Mount and Thessaly (Megali-Vlachia), were saved from the feudal Scardus; 4, Rascia, northwest, on the frontiers of Bosnia dominion by Greek princes, who there maintained themselves (Rama); and 5, Zenta, the coast-land on the Adriatic, from the against the French Crusaders. Epirus was, immediately after Drinus and the Lake of Skodra, northward to the Republic of the conquest of Constantinople in 1204, occupied by the intelRagusa. The brilliant period of the Servian nation, their ligent Michael Angelos, who, boldly assuming the direction of conquests, political influence, laws, and poetry, was the middle the government of the whole country friom Dyrrachium to of the fourteenth century, under their great king, Stephen Naupactus, on the Corinthian gulf, and gathering a large Douschan (1333-1356). RAssA (Novi Bazar), at the foot of military force, secured the mountainous frontier against the the Dinarian Alpes, was the residence of the Kral. Franks, and established his residence at Joannina or Arta. The civil government of the Despot of Epirus was a continuation 369. RAGUSA (139) in its advantageous position had be- of the Byzantine forms. Michael ruled as of right inheriting come a thriving commercial republic, which under a strong the province; it was a mere change in the name of the governaristocratic government already rivalled Venice in trade and ment, not a revolution in the conitioIm of the people. It was manufactures; it possessed the Dalmatian and Bosnian mines, modifie, however, by the military character of the wild Aland its citizens were active, wealthy and chivalrous. Rag'usa banian Highlanders, who were taken in pay by the Despots, produced poets, engineers, painters and historians, and merited and now for the first tine make their appearance on the world's the title of the Slavo-Jlllyian? Athens. stage as mercenary soldiers. The Despots extended their conquest to Thessalonica, where they easily defeated the Lombard V. TiHE GREEKI EMPIRE or NIci3A AND CONSTANTINOPLE. fendatories of the Marquis of Montferrat, and obtained even the imperial title. This however was, later, given back to the 370. LIMITS, RESTORATION OF THE CAPITAL AND CON- great Vatatzes of Nicticea andl the short-lived empire of ThesQUESTS. —Theodore Lascaris had saved the Greek Empire by salonica ceased to exist in the year 1234. Epirus was divided hoisting his banner in Prusa as a rallying point for all the in 1308; the greater part fell to the share of Thomas Tocco, faithful. A victorious reign of eighteen years expanded his Count Palatine of Cephalonia, and in 1358 King Stephen of principality to the magnitude of an empire. Lascaris recon- Servia (364) succeeded in conquering all Epirus, Macedonia quered and united again Bithynia, lllysia, Lydia, Jonia, and part of Thessaly. parts of Phrygia, Carli and Pap2hlagoniCa, together with the islands, Lemznos, mlni26os, Tenedos, Lesbos, Chios, and VII. DUCHY Or GREAT WALLACHIA. Samos, from which he expelled the Ghisi, and other Venetian nobles. His successor, the admirable John Dukas Vatatzes 373. OmRIGcIN AND EXTENT. The Duchy of GREAT WALLA(1222 —1255), drove back the Turks and pressed hard upon CIAm —MEyciX BXaX/a-or 1Neo-Pat'as, consisted of all Thesthe Latin Knights in Constantinople. That city fell at last in saly, Phthiotis, Doris, and part of Phocis. Its capital was 1261, and Michael VIII. Palaeologus reunited, toward the HYRPATA- Veai-Patrai (Patrachik), in a strong position onl tlhe 16

Page  122 122 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1-300. TREBIZOND. Sperchius. Zeituni (Lamia), on a spur of the Othrys, with a unruly Lazi, on the river Phasis, were subjects of the Cornfortress still standing, though in ruins, protected the defile of Ani- nenian Emperors, though they often rose in open rebellion. cdinitza into Thessaly. Armnyros, -Dentetrias (269) and Volo, On the west lay the cities of Kierasos (23-226), Tripolis, Zewere cities on the coast of the Pagasetic gulf; Thaiznaka, Bel- phyrion, Oinaion, and Amzisos. In the interior the realm exestina, FIrsala (Pharsalus), Larcissa, and Trikke, all situated in tended over the rich plains of Side, 7Themeiskyre, and JfIesothe fertile plain of the interior. lIetzovo, on Mount Pindus, chlcldion, southward to Zigana, Pylai, and the important protected the passage into Epirus, and Thbalasona that into Ma- pass of Baibe'urd, where the high mountain range of Paryades cedonia. This small duchy was founded by John D)ukas, who separated it from the territories of the Seldjukian Turks of proved a traitor to his own brother, Michael II. of Epirus, Iconium. The Emirs of the Turkmans, the warlike tribes on and the Frankish Prince of the Morea, in the battle of Perlepi, Mount Caucasus, and the Greek Emperor, at Nicsea, were 1259. At the head of his roving Wallachians this daring chief thus the natural enemies of the young Comnenian Dynasty, obtained full possession of Thessaly; he claimed entire iude- while, on the contrary, the crusading barons of Constantinople pendence, and stood at the time of his death, 1290, on equal became its allies in their simultaneous efforts against Nicma. terms both with the Greek Emperor and the French Princes The approaching invasion of the Mongols brought new danin Greece. The Catalan Freebooters conquered the valley of gers, yet, though both Andronicus I. and Johannes I. Sperchius, which they united to the duchy of Athens; but (1222-1238) were obliged alternately to seek the friendship Thessaly reverted to the Byzantine Empire, and was govern- of the Turkish Sultans or Mongol Great Khans, and even to ed by imperial lieutenants, who afterwards were, by the em- pay tribute and render military service to the latter, yet, by peror, honored with the title of Despots. their prudence, they escaped invasion, and being considered more as active chiefs of a mercantile establishment, than purVIII. CJOMNENIAN E-ImPHR E OF TREBIZOND, 1204-1461. ple-born Princes of an Empire, they were enabled for nearly two centuries to maintain their independence, and to contri374. ORIGIN, LIMITS, CONSTITUTION, AND CITIES.-At the bute their part to the peaceful extension of the world's conmtime of the downfall of the Comnenian family in Byzantium, in merce, and the civilization and happiness of their subjects, and time of the downfall of the Comineiian family in Byzalntium in the numerous Greek emigrants, who, driven from their Eu1 185, Thamar, a daughter of the tyrant Andronicus (349), saved two of his nephews, Alexius and David Comneni, and fled with ropean home by the advance of the Ottoman Turks, found a the children to the coast of Colchis, in Pontus, on the Black hospitable reception on the beautiful shores of Trebizond. Sea. There the young princes were hospitably received by the Such was the state of the Eastern, World during Greeks, and when, in 1204, the Byzantine Empire sank before the times of the crusades, when at the middle of the fourthe sword of the crusaders, Alexius Comnenus, then a hand- teenth century, the appearance of the Ottoman hordes in Eusome and spirited youth, at the head of his Colchian Greeks, rope brought on new geographical divisions of territory, and a conquered Trebizond, Sinope, and all the coast-lands of Paph- change in the political relations of all the lands that came lagonia, as far west as the Sangarius, and laid the foundation within the reach of their swords. of the Comnenian Empire of Trebizond. This prosperity, however, did not last; Sinope was soon lost to the Sultan of Iconium, and the more distant conquests on the Sangarius, Ancastris, Tios, and I-Ierak/eit, were reoccupied by the Palaeologi of Constantinople. The small Trebizontine State thus became circumscribed to the ancient Themes of CHAPTER IX. Chaldia, Koloneia, and part of that of Armenia (264-266). Trebizoncl (Trapezus), on the coast, was the capital. Inl a magnificent situation, with a fertile country around, it wanted only a secure port to make it one of the greatest empo- ITS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY AND INTERNAL CONDITION riums of eastern traffic."' Its exports consisted in the rich ING TE PERIOD OF TE CRUSADES, A.D. 11100. DUSIRING ifTTE PERIOD OF T:HE CRUJSADES, A. 1). 1100-1300. products and manufactures of Asia Minor, the copper of Tokat, the brilliant dye-stuffs of Caesarea, variegated carpets, cloth of hair and wool, which in the ships of the Ita- 375 GENERAL REMAaxS. -Grea t changes,not only in the lian Republics were conveyed to Alexandria, Marseilles, ald geographical limits but in the institutions, manners, ideas, Spain; and along the Danube, and to the Tauric Chersonesus, and religious views, had taken place in almost every State of from whence they were transported by different routes through Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, while the ~Russia and Germany to the north of Europe. The citAy of energies of its most prominent nations were directed to those Trebizond, with its extensive suburbs, was strongly fortified conquests and settlements in the East which we have recorded by several ilmpregnable castles, separated by deep ravines. in the preceding chapter Several states, however, took no The interior of the town was filled with palaces, public ba- direct part in that movement. Ireland, Scotlnc, \Torw.ay, zaars, the magnificent churches and convents St. Ezg'enios, Sweden, Poland, Ihtungay, and RBtssia were almost entirely the Pancalghiat Chrtiso IKe/palcos, and the great catheclral of occupied with those internlal organizations, domestic feuds, and Santca Sop 2hia, in a delightful site on the sea-shore. A wars with their neighbors, to which allusion has already been numerous population inhabited the city and the environs all made; whilst the revolutions among the states of the Spanis along the coast, where Genoese, Pisans and Venetians had their magazines and commercial depots. On the eastern coast were on every side. There arle few spots on earth richer in picturesque situated. the. flo g c.. o beauty, or abounding in more luxuriant vegetation than the south7~ t~ f g c R eastern coast of the Euxine. The magnificent country that extends Sotir'opolis, at the foot of tile Mingrelian mountains. The froml tIle mouth of the HIalys to the snowy range of MIount Caucasns is formned of a singular union of rich plains, verdant hills, bold rocks, m7 The city has its name froml the racpezoicl, or tabular form of the wooded nlountains, primeval forests, and rapid streams. In this fertile rocky coast on which the first settlels had e tablished themselves. and majestic region Trebizondcl has been for more than six centuries the "'The southern shores of the Black Sea offer every advantage folr main- noblest and finest city." See the detailed History of the Trebizontine taining a numerous population, and tile physical configuration of the sEmperors in Prof. Fallmerayer, and the later work of Col. Finlay, page country supplies them with exoellent natlural barriers to defend tlhem 354-498. The modern city has fifty thousand inhabitants.

Page  123 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. DENMIARK. 12 123 Peninsula remained without political influence on the nationLs 377. DANISH CONQUESTS ON THE ELBE AND THE BALTIC. beyond the Pyrenees. Our synopsis of the struggle be- I. THE COUNTY OF NORDALBINGIA or Holstein, reached tween Islamism and Christianity there, and the triumph of from the Eider, on the border of the duchy of South Jutland the latter, may properly be reserved for the closing chapter. (Schleswig), to the Elbe, and included the free imperial cities In consequence, we shall, in the present, draw the atten- of Ltibeck and Hamburg. The county was then divided into tion of the student only to those revolutions which promoted I. VAclIA, on the Baltic, inhabited by the Sclavonian tribes the extension of religion, civilization and commerce among of the Obotrites and Vagrians, who had been subdued by Knud the leading nations of Europe, as the direct consequences of Lavard, the first duke of Schleswig (294). II. STORMARIA, their religious wars and the threatened invasion of the south of Vagria, on the Elbe; and III. THIETBMARSIAMongols. Ditnczarskent-the low lmarshy coast-lands on the west, whose The principal events which will occupy us in Eulrope, while inhabitants, the hardy and brave Ditmarskers, founded a small the crusades were still continuing with unabated fury in the republic under the protection of the archiepiscopal see of Levant, were the following:-I. The introduction of the Bremenl. Holstein had belonged to the old duchy of Saxony, feudal system into the North, and the crusades of the Sxon and was erected into a county by the emperor Lothaire IT. who dukes and Danish kings on the coast of the Baltic. II. The gave it to the Counts of Schlauenburg on the Weser, a fanlily conversion and conquest of Pru'ssiia by the T'eutonzic order. alike distinguished by the great statesmen and warriors who III. The formation and extension of the Grand Duchy of descended from it. Yet the Danish arms prevailed and Litzhuania. IV. The subjugation of tussia by the Mon- Holstein remained during thirty years united with the kinggols. V. The feudal relations and contests between -Fr'ance dolm.-H a'nb0u, on the Elbe (174), and LUiec' (225) on the and Etgland, and the crusades against the Reformzing, Se- Trave, welre already commercial cities of great activity. The tarinns of Southern France. VI. The struggle between the latter was occupied by Henry the Lion as a stronghold against Ger, na, Emperors and the LohZabce d! Republics; and VTII. the Sclavonians; bult it had a greater destiny to fulfil than that The conquest of NTqlles by the House of Anjou. of becoming a Danish fortress. Its much-lauded constitution, or Law of Lfibeck —Libsche Recht —was adopted by a number of Low German cities; and it was after having expelled the I. THE KINGDOM OF DENMA]RK, 1157-1 37 5. E I, 1 5.. Danish bailiff and garrison by a stratagelm, in 1225, that Ltibeck founded the celebrated Confederacy of the Hanse 376. LIM~ITS AND POLITICAL C]O~NDITION. —The spirit o)f.I towns inl 1241.; —2Reeinholdcsbu~;g' (Rendsborg) castle on an feudalism, chivalry, and crusading wars moved slowly towardston in.4"-Piztocst,-q R d gcalen a.. island in the Eider, where Waldenar the Victorious built a the North, where it produced a total change in the political bidge to cilitate and secure the rch of his ies into bridge to facilitate and secure the marchl of his armies into and social relations of Denmark toward the middle of the Gcrmany. —Chiliana, K yl (now Kiel), situated on a beautwelfth century. The influence of the clergy rose with thatG my-CiiaaKl(ow ie)stuedoabau of the.kg av. nobility,.andtheoldpblicasseblis tiful bay of the eastern coast, was the most ancient city in of the king and nobility, and the old public assemblies — aHolstein, and became, later, a member of the Hanseatic Thitgew —here all the freemen, high and low, used to meet for League. Segeberg, with a castle on a high chalk-rock, consultation, became now tranlsformled into diets —tter?'edac —e.'colasulfafion, beanenm r was one of tile strongest positions of the Danes in Holstein, in which only the clergy and the feudal nobility appeared to decideh o.. the legslaiv and po litica xusoftheda. Fo and the fortress served them as a state prison for their decid e the legislative and political qestions of the clay. rom unruly feudatories. BornhFved, a small borough on the outon elective king~dom, Denmark in course of time became an srkirts of the iacnm2 or dreary heath-covered plain eight miles hereditary monarchy. The king being still too powerless tosrt of teian odreyathc dpanegtml north of Segeberg~ was the battle-field on which the fate of keep standing armies, formed an efficient cavalry, in imitatioll no f g w t tid on wihtefeo D~ellnmark waCs dlecided 011 July 22, 1227. Hamburlg and of the Germans, by granting estates to barons and knights for Dnlarw ed o Ju 2 17 anbu and Labeck, the Counts of Holstein and Schwerin, prelates and feudal service on h orseback~_Rosstjeneste. The larger pro- feudatories, were here marshalled under the German banner prietors, desirous of partaking the rank and honors of beltedfedtrewreheasalduerheermnbne aglainst King W~aldemar the AVictorious. After a stoutly conknights, began to take their allodial possessions as fiefs of the C stKigWle v ictor iu.Atrasolycn.. tested field, when victory again seemed to favor the Danish crown, while the smaller landholders sank back into a conditionteedflwhnvcoya insemdtfao th a arms, their rear-guard, consisting of Dittmarskers, turned of poverty and subjection little differing from the serfdom treacherously upon them, and they were defeated with fearful of Germany. But this change was gradually introduced and of Germany~..u.i Xae wslaughter. Four thousand Danes covered the plain; the old during the brilliant reign of the first kings of the Walde- King Wldemar, ro down with his steed, and badly.. ~~King Waldemar, fthrown down with his steed, and badly marian dynasty (I 157-1227), the naval expeditions and cruwounded was salved by an unknown German knight, who sades of the Danes on the southern coasts of the Baltic still carried him safely to Kiel. rom that day the downfall sustained the warlike and independent genius of the nation. of Denmark followed with fearful r apidity..of Deninark followed with fearful rapidity. At that time of victory and conquest, the Danish monarchy. THE DUCHY OF PoERI comprehended all the ferrapidly extended from the frontiers of Sweden to the Lower tile lands on the Lower Elbe, eastward to the Vistula, with the Elbe and the Vistula, embracing the whole of ttolstei,- z counties of ]catzeburzg5 Lauterlbwrg, on the Elbe,,~cweAin7?%, Vendlcenc, tpomerania, the P~russian coast-landls, Esthlancl,..7~endk~nd,.oneep~anzcL, th _~Ulklxhinbu'Lg (Mecklenburg), the principalities of Ritgen, and the important islands of 2gi?.,gen and Oesel. The dismemWerle, andl the lordships of R~ostock and Pats'chimt. The strong berment, of the duchy of Saxony, by Frederic Barbarossa,'Cacstle of Schw~e?'in, on the lake, was the lresiden~e of the (founts. and the subsequent struggle between the WVells and the Ho-... ~~~~~~There (Count Henry, after the surprise and capture of King Walhenstaufens in Germany, facilitated these invasions; yet a de.ur II. at Lye, kept his liege-lord in the most dismal triensmall nation, like the Danes, could not permanently support nial prison, 1223-1226, in spite of all the exhortations of erthese vast and distant expeditions, from which they received peror and pope to procure his release. At 2kJill% west of the no material benefit, since they were not able to engraft their former, Count Albert of Orlamande, at the head of the Danish nationality on the Selavonian tribes in the same manner as the e * 0 0 @ rl~~~~~~l1To An old chroniclers says about; /iubeek, that J)ennmiark caressed Germans did by civilization and numerous colonies. Theone thee Ahent which laid it a golden, egg woithout forebodingj that a basilisk treacherous capture of King Waldenmar II., at Lyoe, in l2a 3, moould be hatched from it." —The name of 122ns3 —am See —signifying and the defeats of the Danes at Molln and Bornhoved, soon commercial alliance among maritime towns, is older than the league. turned the political scale, and the downfall of Denmark was It appears in privileges granted by John Lackland of England to thl then more rlpid thaln her rise. Hamburgers in the twelfth century.

Page  124 124 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. DANISH CONQUESTS._ feudal army, was totally defeated by the Count of Holstein, castles, in which the Esthonians defended themselves against and carried a prisoner to his unhappy king in the dungeon of the Danes and the Teutonic knights, still remain. Esthland Schwerin. Joznsborg, on the coast of WVollin, at the mouth of was an important acquisition. Its ecclesiastical province the Oder, the celebrated stronghold of the Joms-vikinger ranged under the see of Llund; but during the civil wars in (295), was reduced and dismantled by King WValdemar I. in Denmark, which followed on this glorious period, the country, the year 1 170. The principality of the beautiful island of in 1346, was mortgagecld to the Teutonic Order, and lost for RU;GEN, with its numerous creeks and bays, dleep narrow gulfs, ever. high picturesque mountains, boldly projecting prolontories, 378. Of all the acquisitions south of the Eider, only the island and forest-clad valleys, became an important and permanent of Rit'gc, the cities of St'ctsunct.Cf,'Tibsees, Bactt, Gnoyen, conquest of the Danish arms. Waldemar I. stormed Arcona, Sidltz, and 1i1/farlow, in Vendland, remained in the possession and destroyed the monstrous idol of Swantevit. Churches and of the Danish crown. WValdemar II., though now old and vanschools were built, and the Bishop of Rltigen was made suffra- quished, was an active prince; he turned his attention to gan of Roeskilde, in Sealand. All the Vendic coast-lands the internal organization of his realm, and caused a general soon made a remarkable progress toward civilization by the survey of the kingdom to be taken, not unlike the Doomscday introduction of Christianity, and the thousands of Germlan Boolc of William the Conqueror, and containing a complete colonists, who, by Henry the Lion, were settled on the fertile account of the royal domains and feudal revenues of the plains of Pomerania. The German nationality gradually got crown. This curious statistical docunment-Lihb6rzmn ce'nstls the upper hand; the Slavic tribes became Germanizedcl, and, Danice —throws much light on the internal economy of Denafter a century and a half, disappeared altogether. Yet, though mark during the thirteenth century. The whole kingdom was the Danes made frequent descents on the Prussian coast, to the divided into small maritime districts, called Styr)eshavtwc, east of the Vistula, and took a firm footing in Courland and which furnished each one or more vessels, and a certain proLivonia, they did not penetrate into the interior, but left the portion of men for the defence of the coasts, and the equipment conversion of the fierce Prussians to the sword and the cross of expeditions against the Vendish pirates or other public of the celebrated military order of the Teutonic knights (339), enemies. hTo)'t/ Jztl/acZd thus furnished 450 ships. SchA/eswi/.' who, after their departure from the coast of Syria, in 1229, supplied an equal number; Fye)n and the smaller adjacent made their appearance on the Vistula, where they continued the islands, Lca/aclnc and La'cgelcad, were rated at 100 sail; great work of conversion during the greater part of the thir- Sec/atnd, 11ilenl, lFalster, and R.iuenz, under the see of Roesteenth century. kilde, contributed 120 mlanned vessels; and Skaccane, IH-iIII. The province of ESTHONsA (Esthland) extended along /land, and Blekinge, subject to the Archbishop of Lund, sent the Finnic gulf —Kyriala-Bottnz —eastwarcl to the Lake of 150 ships. This excellent institution went to decay during Peipus, and was divided into the districts of Ha'rrien, Rlotala, the civil wars between kings, clergy, and nobility, which enVirClandcl, Jer'vene, NTr'eguncdl, and Ung'annzia, with the sued, and the coasts were again at the mercy of the pirates, islands of Oesel and Dagcie. The Esthonians belonged to the or the still more dangerous encroachments of the powerful Finnic or Chudish race. They were strong and active, league of the Hanse towns.' For at the death of Waldecheerful and patient; and they fought for their heathen god, mar Seier (Victory)," says the Chronicle of King Eric, "perTharapilla, and their independence, with undaunted bravery. ished Denmark's crown of glory. From that time, wasted by King Waldemar II. first occupied the islands in 1210, and intestine wars and mutual dissensions, she became the scorn carried the banner of the cross to the coast of Reval, in 1219. of surrounding nations. Her sons not only lost the lands Merchants and priests from Bremen, had already begun to their forefathers had nobly won with sword and lance, but insettle at Uxkul/l, on the river Datna, where they attempted to flicted deadly wounds upon their poor, distracted country, convert the savage Livonians, and built the strongly-fortified mliserably embroiled in the quarrels of six contending city of Riga in 1168. But they found great opposition. Mein- princes." The duchy of Schleswig became now the subject hard, the first bishop of Livonia, therefore gathered a body of of contest between the royal brothers Eric and Abel, the German knights-die Sch.wvertr'itter-who extended the Chris- sons of Iing Waldemar II. Abel, Dule of Schleswig, captian religion by their conquests, when King Waldemar II., tured his brother in Schleswig, during a visit, and ordered with a fleet of 1400 vessels, in 1219, landed on the coast of him to be beheaded on a boat in the River Schley, and the Harrien, in Esthonia, and built the castles of Reval and body sunk. The treacherous Abel fell in battle against the iVaarva.' In the neighborhood of Reval, at Lyndinissa, the free fishermen of the western coast, the Strand-Frisons, in Danish camp was surprised, on a dark night, July 15, 1219, by 1252, and thus one scene of violence followed another, until the myriads of furious heathens, who penetrated, with fearful reign of the weak King Christopher II., when Denmark became slaughter, to the royal tent. Overwhelmed by numbers, the divided among foreign feudatories; Count Geert (Gerhard), of Danes began to retreat; but the courage of King Waldemar Holstein, obtained Schleswig as a Danish fief, and all Jutland soon restored the battle, which terminated with the defeat and as a m:ortgage, while Count Johm of Itzehoe, occupied the isl subjection of the Esthonians.l'3 Reval, the capital, became a ands, and Sweden claimed the provinces on her firontiers. flourishing city, and a member of the Hanseatic League. Gerhard, the Great Holsteiner, marched a German army into Ilabsal derived its name from the great Absalon, the Arch- Jutland, in 1340, with the intention of forming a German mobishop of Lund, who erected there the first catlmedral, in the narchly on the ruins of Denmark, but he fell beneath the diocese of Oesel, the ruins of which are still seen. At Wcar- sword of a Jutislm nobleman, Sir Niels Ebbeson of Nbrreriis. bola, in Harrien, massive granite walls of one of the ancient This event, so celebrated in the Danishl annals, took place at Randers, where Sir Niels, with sixty-five trusty followers) 73It was at the batl;tle of Lyndinissa (Wolmalr), the legend tells during night, entering the castle, slew the hated tyrant, and, us, that a red icelner withl a white cross, thle DaLelrogle, dropped donwn escaping in full gallop through the midst of the Germans, from the sky to encom-age the letr eating Danes. The fact seems to he, called the Jutes to arms. They flocked to the banner of their that the Pope, Innocent III., had sent King Waldemar a consecrated banner to be used ill the holy war. The Ordelr of the Knights of the delveer, nd, thoug he fell the battle of S derbog i)aneblog Lwas instituted after the conquest of Esthonia; but thle against Iron-Henry, the son of Count Geert, the Danes suesacrecd standard was lost three centuries later, at the defeat of the ceeded in driving the invaders out of the country. The esDalnes in Ditmalmsken, in A. D. 1500. iled Prince Waldemuar, then returning to his native countlry,

Page  125 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. DI. 1096-1300. PRUSSIA. 125 ascended the throne of his forefathers, which, after a glorious GOVERNMuENT.-A. PRUsSIA consisted of I. Poneerellen, or reignl of forty years, —1334-1375,-he left strengthened, and W estern Prussia, between the left bank of the Vistula, the consolidated to his great daughter, Queen Margaret, the Semi- sea and the frontiers of Poymevania; II. (C'u/h on the south; ramlis of the North. III. Pomnesaia, on the right bank of the river; IV. Pogesanta; V. Gcalindia; VI. Ervzelancd; VII. Nlatca)nzge;,; V*III. II. TETRRITORIES OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN PRUSSIA nac; I. A; X. Scalce; XI. rtia, an Samnlanzd; IX. i1ied'raue~h; X. Scha/atuen; XI. Buzrris and AND LIVONIA. XII. Sudauen -all the latter in Eastern Prussia. B. SzA379. LIMrITS ANt) TRIBES. —Ancient Prussia extended MAITIA, on the east, was conquered from the Lithuanialns, after a fi'om the frontiers of Pomerania, west of the Vistula, east- bloody war, in 1382. C. COURLAND, a fertile and beautiful ward to the Niemen; and bordered south on the kingdomn country, northeast on the Baltic. D. LIvorNIA, in the interior, of Poland and the Upper Vistula. The soil of Western with I. Seing'alli66, II. the archiepiscopal see of R'a'L, exPrussia is sandy; heaths are succeeded by marshes, and the tending far into the interior with the suffragan bishoprics of coast on the Baltic is terminated by downs which, on the DoryGat, Oesel, Reval, and Coupland; III. the territory of outskirts of immense pine forests, unite with those in Pome- the Knights Sword Bearers-Scbhwerlt-9itter'-in Central Livorania. But the country between the Vistula and Memel, nia. After the union of this order with that of the Teutonic on the east, is more fertile-it is wood-clad, or studded with Knights, A. D. 1236, the province of Livonia was governed by lakes; the highest hill is only 506 feet above the level of their own general —teermeister-who ranged under the Grand the Baltic. Very remarkable are the large estuaries, the Master of the United Order in Marienburg. Frisic iricf, and the CGugic Haf, which by narrow strips of E. ESTaoNIA (Esthland), the old Danish conquest, (376) land are separated froml the Baltic, with which they, however, sold by King Wtaldemar IV. to the order in 1346. Dcagoe stand in communication by shallow straits. That low and was likewise ceded to the knights, but the larger island of dreary region is inhabited by fisherlmen, who still call them- Oesel remained with Denmark. selves Czu'cs. The elimate is tempestuous, and the frail cot- F. The island of GOTHLAND, on the eastern coast of tages of this suffering race are often buried under heaps of Sweden, with the commercial city of Wiisby, which the order sand. The ancient Boi-ussi, P)'ztczi, or Prussians (91, 227), obtained in 1398 from the light-headed Albrecht of Meeklenwere of the Lettic tribe, fierce, warlike, but hospitable and burg after his defeat and ilprisonment of Queen Margaret. honest; they were clad in furs and coarse linen garments; horse G. The NEUMARKI, a part of Brandenburg, east of the flesh and marle's milk were their food; they loved strong Ode)-, mortgaged to the order by the penniless emperor Siliquors, alnd fought with javelins and lances. In their sacred gismoncl in 1402. groves they worshipped the sun, the moon, and the stars, with horrible rites; their priests were all-powrerful, and their wo- 381. All these territories were divided into thirty Commen, serfs, arlms, and horses, were generally burned oln the same manderies- C'omthu'?e-several of which were so large that pile with the deceased chief. None of the Chudish or Lettic they again became subdivided into Convents of Knights. tribes made so obstinate a resistance against the Christian in- The permanent settlement of the whole order in Prussia vaders as the Prussians. Supported by the Livonlians, they by the Grand BMlaster Siegfried von Feuchtwangen-t1312defeated the Knights Sword Bearers in 1224, and destroyed mo- imparted vigor and consistency to this singular religious and nasteries and monks; they invaded Poland, and Duke Conrad military society. The general ehtpter of the order possessed of Mazovia then invited the Order of the Teutonic knights to the highest legislative power. The Grand Commanders,occupy the frontier province of Culmln, on the Vistula, against Gzosscovztw~tte, —the Priors and other officials ranged immethe heathens. The active Grand Master Hierman von Salza sent diately underl the Grand 31aster. The commanders held the Herman von Balk, with a division of one hundred knights and sway in the principal castles of the commanderies. The squires, to Polancd, where these military monks commenced the Knights of the Order formed the first state, the native landed subjugation of Prussia with a degree of courage thlatt was only nobility the second, and the citizens —Birg-e' —of the towlns equalled by their cruelty. They fortified Cuhlm; built Thorn the third. The German colonists, who during the fourteenth in 1230, and after the most ruthless war and wonlderful vicissi- century flocked to Prussia, Poland and Hungary in the same tudles of victory and defeat, the military genius of their leaders, manner as in the present nineteenth to America and Australia, during fifty-threeyears, —1228-128 1, —completedthisastonish- introduced their agriculture and industry; the Prussians ing conquest of a few thousand knights over the entire Prus- themselves were a cattle-breecling people; peace and prossian nation, that for four centuries had resisted the arms of perity prevailed for long periods throughout the land; and, Poland. In 1238, the Teutonic Order united with the under the severe and vigorous administration of able grand Sword Knights of Livonia, and in 1309, the Grandcl Master masters, it soon presented the appearance of a beautiful garden Siegfried von Feuchtwangen transferred the seat of the order interspersed with hamlets, castles and the delightful counfrom Venice to Marienburgh, on the Nogat. Strong castles try-seats of the knights. Prussia alone numbered, about were built in every subdued district, and the poor vancquished A. D. 1400 (ten years before the fatal defeat of the order at barbarians were comlpelled to furnish the workmen. Churches, Tannenberg), four bishops, four great commanders, twentymonasteries, anad schools were likewise erected, and the Get- eight comman ders, forty-six priors —Tcrlscomnt/~wre-thi rty. man language was introduced; thousands of heathens were eight. convents of knights; a vast host of subordinate officials, converted; while others fed for protection into Lithutania. The canons and priests, three thousanlld one hundred and sixty-two Prussian chiefs were admitted to the order of nobility, while knights —Vetscaie si thotlsadtwohundredsquires, the people exchanged their state of licentious freedom for sergeants-Mar'ig'eri —light horsemen and valets. The number the most rigid serfdom. Numerous German colonies were set of fortified.ities was ffty-fve, of castles forty-eight, of tied by the order; they built flourishing towns, to which al- boroughs and hamlets eighteen thousaad three hundred and most republican privileges were granted. Thus were gradu- sixty-eight. The regular and permanent revenues from the ally formed the three orders of the provincial states, of p'ovince were eight hundredtlousand Rhenish guilders, withwhich the diets were composed, the sovereignty remnaining ill out counting the more irregular receipts from the fisheries, the the hands of the Teutonic Knights. regalia of the amber, the custom-duties ancl the perquisites and fees of the tribunals. The flom'ishing comnmereial cities were 380. DIVISION OF THE TERRITORIES) CONSTITUTION, AND mostly situated o01 the Baltic and the banlks of the X istulll.

Page  126 126 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. PRUSSIA-LITHUANIA. 382. CITIES AND CASTLES.- Gd(ansk-Danzig, an old Dan- Poles advanced toward the sea-shore; one province after ish colony at the mouth of the river, surrounded by immense the other surrendered; Marienburg, the impregnable capital, fortifications that have supported many a siege, was enlarged fell; Danzig, Elbing, and Thorn, broke their chains in 1440; and strengthened by the knights, who granted its indclstrious western Prussia revolted in 1454, and placed itself under the inhabitants important privileges and immunities. But be- protection of king Casimir IV., and when peace was concluded comling wealthy and possessing the exclusive navigation of in 1466 all western Prussia became incorporated into Poland, the Vistula and the maritime commerce of Poland, the and the Teutonic Order, deprived of their finest provinces Danzigers would not submit tamely to the exactions of the and their wealth, became themselves vassals of the Polish haughty order; they revolted in 1454 and put themselves crown. under the protection of the King of Poland. MAXIIENEURG, on the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, was the capital and III. THE GrAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA. seat of the order from 1309 to 1466. The magnificent ruins of the Palace —clas Deutsche Jaus —with its porticoes, halls, chapels, armories and refectory, in the noblest style of ANIANS.-OIn the downfall of the Russian power by the invathe Gothic architecture of the age, remains in its ruins as sion of the Mongols in the first half of the thirteenth century, a monument of the wealth and luxury of the order. Other the Lithuanian tribes between the lViemnen and the Dana fortified cities were Elbing, Thorn,, Cuimtl, Al/rienwercder, at once entered upon the world's battle-field as a conquering.Kn;igsber, built in 1255, a~nd lfzeln, w~hich being~ in pos- nation. Their history is very remarkable, and presents a most session of the herring fisheries on the Finnic Gulf, became extraordinary instance of a nation which, after having remained rich and populous, and, like Danzig, importoant mlerbers of the F for centuries in a state of utter insignificance (226, 305), atHanseatic League. Cities in Livonia and Esthonia were ed by its con, in a comparatively Liebau, Pilten, Reva, Dolpca, Nw-va, and Rui.gca on the )tlna, short time (1235-1386), a station which rendered it for about the carc'hiepiscopal see of the Priovinlcia Jzigensis. a century the most formidable power in the north, while Russia herself was at the mercy of her Tartar oppressors. The 383. Such was the organization of the mighty State of home of this Slavic nation was the fiat and marshy territory the Warrior-Monks of Saint Mary at the time (1309) when between the ]?Wij'a and the Swiecta, tributaries of the Niemen, their unhappy brethren, the Knights Templars were groaning where they had recognized the supremacy of the Russian grand in the dungeons or expiring on the piles as heretics and dukes, and paid a tribute answering to the rudeness and sons of Belial-and the Hospitallers, still residing in the poverty of the people. But their chiefs soon took advantage East, fought the battles of Christ against Mamlnlukes and of the internal dissensions among the Russian princes (302); Turks. Yet the quiet prosperity of the Teutonic Order be- they extended their conquests (1082-1221), to J~ovogrodek, came soon the chief cause of the pride, depravity and licen-d their neighbors, the tiousness of its members; indeed, the same vices characterize Livonians and Prussians, in repelling the Knights Sword all societies of the same sort, composed only of the nobles Bearers, the warrior-monks, who were converting them to of every nation, for the most part united by religions fanati- Christianity with the broadsword. Yet Lithuania was still cut cism. or love of war and dominion. The order becalme insolent up into many small principalities, until the brave Ryngold, and corrupt-in the beginning the disorders were, of course, having united under his dominion all the conquered terricovered with the broad cloak of hypocrisy. The knights tories, assumed the title of G'ranz Dltke of Lithuania in A. D. revelled and caroused within their castles, and made a show 1235. His son Mindag, under the pretence of becoming a of their demure priestly mien and piety without, —and there received from Pope Inocent IV. the royal diaden, remained of the pilgrim and the monk nothing but the cross and was crowned at Novogrodek, the capital of Lithuania (now and cowl. They forgot their vows —and, retired on their a small village south of the Niemen), by the Archbishop of beautiful estates, they began to dream of domestic happiness; Riga."'5 A new dynasty of Lithuanian grand dukes ascended the they contracted secret alliances of the heart, which gave rise throne A. D. 1283, with Witenes, whose descendants, all talented to scandal against the order and undermined its influence. princes, ruled with eminent success until the union of Lithuania This forgetfulness of duty created accusations and feuds with- with Poland, under Jagellon, in 1386.76 Ghedymin, the son of in the order itself; then quarrels with the secular prelates in the cities, and complaints of the young turbulent republics, cOu'Ses of the choicest dainties wele served in dishes of gold and who chafed and fretted beneath the iron rod of the military silver; all the goblets were likewise of gold, and each guest was permy itted to carly away his cup and plate after the feast. T~his glittering priesthood. The tyranny of the gaand roastels became so army was totally routed by the Lithuanians, and forced in a few insupportable that both the native Prussians and German months afterwards to cross the Niemen, like that of Napoleon in 1812. colonists chose rather to submit to the government of the in the most deplorable condition; while an epidemic disease soon cut frank and generous Poles. This warlike nation had in 1382 off all those who had escaped the lance of the enemy. See, for the formned a political union withi the Lithuanians by the mar- complete history of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, the excellent works i'e ~of their prines elevig with the ith ania nd of John Voigt. Geschiclte Preosseus, K6nigsbelrg, 1828, Vol. IT.-IV. alnd Geschichte cler Stacdt flcaientbhuc/, Konigsbelrg, 1824. Duke, Jagellon. And when the orlder, foreseeing the storm,'75The Lithuanians were obstinate Pagans; they abhorred the broke the peace in 1414, it was totally defeated in the terrible priest-knights and their bloody baptism, and woe to the sword-monks battle near Tannenberg (Grunwald) in southern Prussia, who fell into theit hanlds! They remained idolaters till the end of the where the Grand Master Ulrich of Jungingenr perished with fourteentlh century. Theilr chief deity was Perkunes, the god of thunthe greater part of the knights and thirty thiousand of their der, besides some other divinities presiding over seasons, elements, and vassals and merlcenaies.l74 From that day began the rapid particular occupations. They possessed sacred gloves and fountains, dece of and wvorshipped the fire and sacred serpents. The Lithuanian language decle of the etsch-ttes. Jagellow with his victoious as divided into two principal dialects, the Lithuanian Proper and the Lettian or Livonian. The formner was the old Prussian language, which 74 Thme luxury and extlravagance of the knights plepaled their the Knights of the Teutonic Older tlied all means to extirpate, though ruin. The Grand Master Wallenrode had assembled a large army on it was still spoken in the time of the Refommation. It is said to bear a the banks of the Niemen in 1394 for the conquest of Lithuania. There he stronger resemblance to the Satlscit of India than ally other known invited the knights to a magnificent enter-tainment. Waiting-blrothers lnnguage. held canopies of cloth of gold above evelry knight at the table; thirty1 76 1,iteese, G.a..l.i Dlke el Kingr of Lithnania, 1...3-131; (T..C.1d..i..

Page  127 SEVENTH PERIOD. —-A. D. 1096-1300. GOLDEN HORDE-FRANCE. 127 Witenes, was a great prince. He made extensive conquests in after the defeat of the Russian princes on the river Kalcka in southwestern Russia, and consolidated his power by insuring 1224 (304), overrun that unhappy country as far as the perfect protection to the religion, language and property of the sources of the Volga and the Dnieper. Kfiew, Resan, lLo6scou, Christiai inhabitants of the conquered lands, though himself Smolensk, and many other flourishing cities, were laid in a worshipper of Perkunas, and his sacred snakes! His mild ashes, the Russians enslaved, and the Mongol Chanate of the sway was preferred to that of the Mongols, whom he defeated; Golden Horde, of Trcptcha/c, founded by Batu-Chan in 1230. and the Greek Russians and Latin Russinians alike blessed his This empire extended westward to Lublin and Crakau on the reign. Ghedymin built Wilna, which then became the capi- upper Vistula, in Poland, along the Carpathian range to the tal, and fell in battle against the Teutonic knights in 1328. Black Sea and the Crimea, and eastward across Mount Oural, His son Olgerd extended his conquests to the Black Sea, sub- along the Caspian and Aral Seas, toward the Siberian lakes and dued the Tartars of the Crimea, and presented himself thrice Mount Muztag, on the borders of Tshagatai. The citizens of in triumph before the gates of Moscow in 1368, 1370 and'73. Novogorod beheld, trembling, the approach of the ruthless With the reign of his son, Jagellon, begins a new period in the hordes towards the banks of the Twertza; but on a sudden the history of Lithuania. At the time of the union with Poland, Tartars wheeled westward, crossed the Vistula and the Oder, the grand duchy consisted of the following principalities: I. and vanquished the Poles and the Knights of the Teutonic WILNO (Wilna), on the Wilja, with the new capital of that Order, at Liegnitz, in Silesia, in 1241. Batu-Chan, after name; II. POLOTCz, and III. PSKow, formerly independent desolating Hungary with fire and sword, and defeating the States; IV. WITEPSK; V. DRUECZ; VI. 3MSCISLAW; VII. Hungarians on the plain of M)ohi, returned victorious, and SEVERIA, with the large city lYovogorod-Seversky, on the gorged with spoils, to organize his conquests in Russia. Desma; VIII. KIEw (Kijof), with the celebrated city of that Novogorocld was saved; she became the asylum of prince name on the Dnieper, then much sunk from its former splen- and serf; she joined the great Hanseatic Confederacy of the dor (302) by the devastations in the wars of the Mongols; Baltic cities, and was soon placed in so excellent a state of deIX. BRACLAU, southeast of Kiew; X. PoDOLIA% or CAMIJE- fence that she alone remained flourishing, while the rest of NIEC, on the frontier of the independent duchy of Halitch Russia smarted under the iron rod of the Tartar for more than (303); XI. WLODOMIPmEZ, on the Bug; XII. WOLEYNIA, or two centuries-from 1224-1487. While these barbarians occuLuCK; XIII. CZERNTGOW (303.); XIV. Tunow; XV. pied all the forest-lands toward Mount Oural, and fortified thenmPINSK; XVI. SLUCK; XVII. MINsK; XVIII. NovoGRo- selves permanently in Kasan, the Poles and Lithuanians inDEKI; XIX. GRODNO (Troki); XX. BERZESIK, and XXI. SAM- vaded and conquered Simolensk and the southwestern provinOGITIA, in the north, the contested territory on the borders of ces. Batu-Chan was alike great as a statesman and as an enterPrussia and Livonia, exposed to the continual forays of the prising conqueror. But neither the Mongols nor their faithful Teutonic knights and the swarms of crusading adventurers from companions, the steeds of the steppe, could enjoy or live in thi Germany who fought under their banners. These provinces cold and dreary regions of Moscou, on the Upper Volga. The appear later under the more familiar names of Black, White, Chan therefore retired, with all his army, to the smiling banki: and Red Rtessia (303), Samog'itia, Volhynia, Podolia, Pod- of the Caspian Sea and the Yaik; there he built his immensc lesia, and U/kraine. Lithuania is generally a flat and low coun- camp-town of S'arai; and his Golden Tent gave the name te try, the northwestern part (Samogitia) is very fertile, and so are the ruling Horde of the Kaptchlk. The trade on the Caspiay, the banks of the Niemen, which, moreover, present a beautiful was restored, and the Mongols even became a conlmlercia\ scenery. But the greater part of the interior is covered with people. Batu-Chan left the Russian serfs their shadows of sand, marshes and fens, of terrible memory, from the campaigns tributary princes, and the cunning Tartar fomentedc their petty of Charles XII. in 1709, and of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812. jealousies and internal feuds: he ordered them down to th, The principal rivers are the Niemen, Dnieper, Berezina, Wilja, golden tent of Sarai, where he sat to decide their suits as t Bug, and many smaller tributaries. sovereign judge, and to punish every attempt at insurrectioi with the string or the scimitar. IVT. E.APIIRE OF TIHIE MONGOLS. V. THE KINGDOMI OF FRANCE UNDER PHILIP AuGUS 385. EXTENT OF THEIR CONQUESTS.-At Karakorum, AND PHILIP-LE-BEL. 1 180-1310. on the southern slope of Mount Altai, in Mongolistan, arose, 386. ITS FEUDaL RELaTIONS TO ENGLANrD. — lhe conque,~. in A. nD. 1216, the wild and gigantic conqueror Dshingis-Chan of England by Duke vWilliam of Normandy in 1066 became (Chimkhis-(han), who, within eleven years, carried the arls Cof themk n), who, wthi elvntyers, Carried the the origin of the protracted struggle between France and of the Mongols from the frontiers of China, over the eruins of nmberless cities and nations, westward tl~ Im England, which for nearly three centuries formed -the turning ruins of numberless cities oand nations, westward through on point of the most important political and geographical changes Tangut, Tshagatai (Tibet), and Iran (Persia), to the foot of Mount Caucasus, and the shores of the MIediterranean. Not the French liege-lord and the Norman vassal did not reach a spark of noble fire was perceptible in the deds of the the height of its violence until the middle of the twelfth censavage and brutal Mongols, the descendants of the ancient tury during the reigns of Louis VII. and Henry II. of Plan Huns (89); desolation, bloodshed, and sensuality were their aenet and of Richard Cur-de-Lion and Philip August only delight; whole nations they swept from the face of when the Eglish heoes i spite of all their valor ere ~the earth by their iee pssage & ~cmarand Bok/ara, defeated by the cunning politics of the French statesmen. The Otrac5,.Ballih Nicha~our, the Mohammedan seats of comcatastrophe in this earlier part of the contest for supremacy, merce, literature and art, were destroyed. Djelah-ed-Din, the took place in 1200, the epoch of the humiliation of John brave Khowaresmian Prince attempted resistance, but being Ssee (Lacklan) and te conscation of rmady by overwhelmed, was forced to flee westward (276). Thus the the King of France. The relations between William the Con. torrent came on. Battu-Chan, the nephew of Dshingis-Chan., queror and King Philip I. were already sufficiently hostile 1315-1341; Olgerd, 1341-13177; Jayellon, 1377-1434. He marries He- Robert Court-hose of Normandy was supported by France in devig, of Poland, 1386, unites the two crowns, and defeats the Older his feud against his brother Henry I. of England; but afte of the Teutonic Knights at Tannenbelrg, 1410. the chivalrous battle of Tincheb'rccy in 1 1 06, Norniandy wars

Page  128 128 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. FRANCE. again united to England. Under Louis VII. the danger for Switzerland), from Mount Jura on the west to Mount Saint France became still greater. Immediately after the return Gotthard on the east, stood under the vicariate of the of the pious king from the disastrous second crusade, his queen Souabian Counts of Zahringen. III. The counties of ALBONT Eleanor, the heiress of Poitou and Guyenne, escaped from the (afterwards the Dauphiny) and of LYONS. IV. The counties arms of her silly husband, and married the young Count of TARAILANTAISE and MAURIENNE in the Pennine Alps, which Henry Plantagenet of Anjou and Maine. Called to the throne belonged to the powerful and warlike counts of the house of England in 1153, Henry II. thus by inheritance and marriage of Savoy. V. Several smaller districts on the Rhone, such as the obtained the better half of France. The orange-colored line counties of Genzdve, the Seigneuries of Filar's, La Toar and in our map, dividing the Kingdom of France from north to others. south, indicates these important feudal relations of the twelfth 390. THE ECCLESIASTICAL DIVISION OF FRANCE AFTElL THE CRUSADES AGAINST THE REFORMERS IN AQUITAINE.-Until 387. ENGLISH POSSESSIONS IN FRANCE.-The whole western the year 1322 the French Church was divided into the folportion of the kingdom from the British Channel to the Pyre- lowing ten archbishoprics: I. PRovINCIA REMENSIS, with the nees, including Normzantly, Brittany, Anjou, Tozuraine and archiepiscopal see at RHEIMS, and eleven suffragan bishoprics; Maine, Poito1.tu, Aquitaine with Auvcrgne and Gascogne be- 1, Lauclunumb (Laon); 2, Suessio (Soissons); 3, BeZvacumc2, longed to the English kings of the house of Planttagenbt either as (Beauvais); 4, Anbiavnumv (Amiens); 5, Tornaczum (Tourimmediate tenures or as mesne-feofs —arriref-iefs. Ajou, TZou- nay; 6, Cnaeraczmtn (Cambray); 7, Noviomicagis (Noyon); raine and 0Zlaine they held as their paternal inheritance'; Nor- 8, Arrfe6ate (Arras); 9, Tar'ueznna (Terouanne); 10, Si/vazandycl and the feudal supremacy over Brittany they obtained zectce (Senlis); and 11, Catalaun.um (ChMlons sur Marne). as heirs of the Norman English kings, and Poitozt, Aquitaine Ancient monasteries, celebrated for the learning and piety of and Gascogne by the marriage of Henry II. with Eleanor,- the monks, were Corbeja (Corvey), between Arras and Peterritories, the most fertile and flourishing in France, which ronne, from which went forth Ansgarius, the apostle of Denin extent, population and wealth, far surpassed their posses- mark, the Abbey of Sancti I iczherii, near Abbeville (232), sions in the British Island beyond the Channel. Vallis Clara, near LIon, and many others. II. PROVINCIA ROTOMIAGENSIS, embracing all Normandy, 388. The immnediate possessions of the FRENCH C:aowN with the metropolitan see at iRoUEN, and the six suffragan were thus again reduced to the duchy of Isle-de-Fr-ance, with churches: 1, Ebroica (Evreux); 2, Lexovicunm (Lisieux); 3, its component counties of Cler'?zont, Dreutx, llecuZant, Valois, Ba(joca (Bayeux); 4, Constantia (Coutances); 5, Abrinca.Pa'ris, CorbSei, Orlszans and Vexin, and the viscounties of (Avranches); and 6, Sagittz (Sfez), on the borders of Maine. Gatinois, S/es, Estamnpes and l!1elhtn. The Bishops of Laon, Among the numerous monasteries were renowned for the Beau, vais and Noyon held likewise their districts directly of austerity of their descipline and the beauty of their architecthe kiug, but the cities themselves formed already free coin- ture: Bel/osana and Val/is Beatee alacice, near Rouen; La munes (307), supporting, however, the royal cause. To the Trappe, in a wild and secluded valley, among the dreary crown lands belonged, besides, Bourg'es, which King Philip I. mountains of Evreux, where the austerity of the Trappist had bought in 1095, and the districts of Vassy and Attignzy Monks almost surpassed the bounds of nature, but gathered in Champagne. In the north of France the Counts of Flan- penitents from the remotest regions; Bella Stella, of a softer ders, as great feudatories of the crown, but almost independent, name and, no doubt, a more reasonable discipline; Fontanzetlu extended their donminion over all the territories between the and Blancalandca, on the charming hills of the Cotintin, in Scheidt and the German Sea; they possessed likewise tenmpora- western Normlandy. rily the counties of Amiens and Vernzandlois, and held the impor- III. PROVINCIA TUImONENSIS, emlbracing Touraine, Maine, t.ilt commlercial republic of Ghent and the cities on the Scheldt Anjou, and Brittany, with the ancient and venerable see of under the suzerainty of the Romano-German Empire. On Tounrs, on the Loire, already so well known from Old Gregory the east of the French crown lands we find the powerful of Tours, the earliest French historian in the sixth century, families of the Counts of Veermacnndois (Chanmpagne) and Troyes and eleven bishoprics: CeJnozcannis (Le-Mans); 2, Andeg'avi subdivided among the Seven Peers of Champagne and the (Angers); 3, Vamnzetce (Nantes); 4, Venetia (Vannes); 5, Archbishop of Rheims. Southwest, on the Loire, lay the Coriosopitce (Quimper); 6, Sanwcti Pauli LeonenZsis (Saint counties of Char'lres, Blois and cSancerre, and the viscounty Paul de Leon), on the northern sea-coast; 7, 7Trecocra (Treof Chdcteaz-DMun. The duchy of BuGUNDYv belonged to the guier); 8, lfacloviuzn (Saint-Malo); 9, Do/us (Dol); 10, younger branch of the Capetians; this first dynasty of the Redones (Rennes); and 11, Sacwti Brioci (Saint Brieue). Burgundian dukes became extinct in 1361, when John the Bold, Among the large number of pious institutions, we shall only the youngest son of King John the Good of France, after the record SanVct. Gild1asius in eE1zorc, and Saint Jaccues de battle at Poitiers, began the second and more celebrated Montfort, in the hills near Rennes; Gczaudizm Sanctee aliice line of the Duecs de Bouwrgogne. The frontier lands at the (La Joye), on the coast of Vannes, and Beata Macriac de MIcei/northern base of the Pyrenees, Septinania (158), Toulouse, lerio, north of Nantes, were celebrated nunneries in Brittany. C(arcassonlne and Rasiz had by marriage passed to the (Counts of Barcelona and the crown of Aragon on the union 391.. PROVINCI BDEGLSIS enrLng Poitou, * 1 1 r Saintone Angoumois, Ptrigord, and [Bordelais. The archieof those states in 1137 (318), and we have therefore given, n those districts the crimson color of the kingdom of Aragron. piscopal see was in BODEAUXn ve ifagan bishops ere ranged nunder it: 1, Pictcaviun (Poitiers); 2, Sanctonumz 389. The kingdom of Arelate, east of the Rhone, be- (Saintes); 3, Incolismna (Angoulime); 4, Pets-ocoriusn (Phrilonged during the twelfth century still to Germany (244), gueux), and 5, Aginnum (Agen); Area yVallis, Grcatic Dei, though French manners, language and interests were already Sel/ca, and Zllisericoordia Dei, were monasteries near Poitiers. predomninant. It consisted of the following provinces: I. The V. PRovINcIA AUXITANA, in Gaseogne with the see of Palatinate of BURGUNDy between the Sitone and Jura, which AUCH, on the Adour, and ten suifragan churches: 1. Vasat/e had passed to the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa by his mar- (Bazas); 2, AtZurumz (Atre); 3, Lactora (Lectoure); 4, Tarriage with Beatrix of BurgunCdy (395). II. The duchy of ba (Tarbes); 5, Convece Sancti Ber't?'andi (Saint Bertrand); L4E:ssmn BUT.UTJNDY (comprehending Western and Southern 6, Consoranum Sancti Licerii (Saint Lizier); both, in the

Page  129 SEVENTH PERIOD. —A. D. 1096-1300. FRANCE-GEIERMANY. 129 valley of the Pyrenees; 7, Lascawra (Lescar); 8, Olero tinuzm (Trois-Chateaux); 2, Vasio (Vaison); 3, Arausio (Oleron); 9, Bayona (Bayonne); and 10, Aquae (Dax). (Orange); 4, Avenio (Avignon); 5, Carpentoracte (Carpen. VI. PROvINCIA BITURICENSIS, embracing Berry, Bourbon, tras); 6, Z/Icassilia (Marseilles); 7, Toloniumz (Toulon). Limosin, and Auvergne, with the archiepiscopal see in BITU- XII. PROVINCIA AQUENSIS, with the celebrated see of RICA (Bourges), and seven suffragans: 1, Limovica (Limoges); AQuoE (Aix), and the suffragans; 1, Vaplincuns (Gap); 2, 2, Cacdurcum~ (Cahors); 3, Albig'a (Alby); 4, R'utena Sistar'icumg (Sisteron); 3, Apte (Apt); 4, Regii (Riez); and (Rhodez); 5, 1lhemate (Mende); 6, Vellava, Aniciunm (Puy); 5, Forumn Julii (Flrjus). and 7, Clarus /1/Ions (Clermont). Monasteries in the Limosin XIII. PROVINCIA EBREDUNENSIS, comprising the valleys were Palatiumn Beatce Mearice, and Vallis Lceta in Auvergne; of the Cottian and Maritime Alps, with the metropolitan see Mons Petroszls, Vallis Lucida, and Monasteriun? Sancti Petqri of EMBRUN, and the suffragans; 1, Dinia (Digne); 2, Sanide Casis. tiztu (Senez); GlanLateva (Glandeve); Vinztia (Vence); and VII. PROVINCIA SENONENSIS, with the ancient see of 5, G~rassa ( Grasse), formerly Antipolis or Antibes. In the SENONES (Sens) and the central bishoprics of, 1, Pa~risii last of these ecclesiastical provinces on the Alps and in (Paris); 2,.l/lelclce (Meaux); 3, T'ecac (Troyes); 4, Carmaututm Switzerland, were situated the two provinces of Besanqon and (Chartres); 5, Augrelianum (Orleans); and 6, Autissiocldeugz Tarantaise, comprehending all the country from the Jura (Auxerre). to the high Alps, with Savoy and the valley of Aosta, which, however, still ranged under the German empire. 392. VIII. PROVINCIA LUGnDUNENSIS, embracing the duchy of Burgundy, and the Lyonnais, with the archiepisco- 393. Such was the general territorial division of France pal chair of Lyons, on the Rhone and Saone, and the five toward the close of the twelfth century. Philip Augustus subordinate bishoprics: 1, Lingones (Langres); 2, Aug'usto- compelled the sly and dastard John Lackland to relinquish duznumn (Autun); 3, Cabillonuvm (Chalons sur Sa6ne); 11ia- all his feudal possessions in France except Guyenne. By the tisco (Maqon); and 5, Belica (Belley), on the Upper Rhone, in consolidation of these large provinces, the crown of France obthe gorges of Mount Jura. Among the celebrated convents tained an influence infinitely greater than that possessed by its were, Clar'avallis (Clairvaux), in Burgundy, of the order of numerous vassals individually. The crusades against the the Cistercians, where Saint Bernard was the first abbot, in Waldenses and Albigenses, in southern France, contributed, 11 15, and whence he sallied forth to rouse the world for the likewise, powerfully to the extension of' ti'h royal prerogative, second great crusade. There, too, he gave the rule to the and though Saint Louis gave back some provinces (Liqnosin, Knights Templars, whom he considered as combining the Quer'cy, Pdrigord, and Ag'nois) to Henry III. of England, in most exalted virtues of the knight and the monk. The dis- 1258, in order to secure peace at home, while prosecuting his graced Abailard built his abbey of the Pacraclete near Troyes, crusades in the East, yet he succeeded in alienating the valin 1121. He gave it later to Heloise, and was buried in the vasours from their liege-lords, the great feudatories, and chapel at her side."' The convent was destroyed, like so favored the partitions of the large fiefs by divisions in the many others, during the French Revolution; but the beautiful succession. But no other event was so favorable to the reGothic sepulchre of the faithful lovers stands now as one of union of the territories in France as the crusades, in the camthe most touching monuments in the burial grounds of Pdre paigns of Acre, in 1189-1191; of Egypt, 1248-1249, and of la Chaise, near Paris. Tunis, 1271. Hundreds of barons, knights, and signors perIX. PROVINCIA VIENNENSIS, with the archiepiscopal see of ished by the sword of the infidels or the pestilence of the VrENNE; on the Rhone, and the suffragans of, 1, Geneva, on the climate, and Philip le Bel appears already in 1310, as the lake Leman; 2, Sancti fohanni in Mlcaurianga (Saint Jean powerful monarch of united France.'78 de Maurienne); 3, Gratianopolis (Grenoble); 4, Valentia (Valence); 5, Vivariumn (Viviers); and 6, Dia (Die). X. PROVINCIA NARBONENSIS, embracing the ancient Sep- NAS THE OMANHOHE NSTAUFENS, A. D. 1138 —1268 - NASTY OF THE HOHENSTAUFEXNS, A. D. 1138 —1268. timania, along the shores of the Mediterranean, with the metropolitan see of NARBONNE and nine suffragans: 1, Tolosa A, GERMANY, 1139-1273. (Toulouse), on the Garonne; 2, Carcasso (Carcassonne); 3, Biter-a (Beziers); 4, Agathia (Agde); 5, Lutera (Lodeve); 394. LIMITS, PRINCELY FAMILIES, AND FEUDAL DIVI6, ltagalona, (Magalonne, and, after the year 1323, in Mont- sIoms.-During the earlier part of the reign of the Hohen pellier); 7, itcetia (Uzes); 8, Ntemausus (Nimes); and 9, staufen, or Souabian dynasty, the most brilliant period in the Elena (Elne), in Roussillon, on the frontier of Spain. annals of the empire, the frontiers and the influence of GerXI. PROVINCIA ARELATENSIS, with the metropolitan see many extended even farther on the east and the south than at ARE.LATE (Arles), so celebrated on account of its splendid they did in the preceding reigns of the Saxon and Franconian churches and monasteries, with the episcopacies, 1, Tricas- emperors. In the north, the Baltic, the river Eider, and the German Ocean or the North Sea, formed the ancient boundIn this beautiful, but solitary retreat, Heloise, with her compa-'1s The crown acquired Alenron, 1195; Aulve'gyne, 1198; Artois, panions, fleeing the world in the bloom of youth, sought an asylum in,,, ~~~her u~~nahappy lov1~e. 1199; Evreuz,, 1203; So'uraine, ifaine, and Anjom, 1203; Noremandy, 1205; Poitou, 1206; Vermaendois and Valois, 1215; the portion of AhI think at least thy flock deserves thy care, Toulouse west of the Rhlone, 1229; Perchle, 1240; Mayoan, 1245; BouPlants of thy hand. and children of thy prayer; logne, 1261~ the rest of Tolouse, 1272; Chartres, 1284; la Miarche By thee to lmountains, wrilds, and deserts led; and Fou#gres in Brittany, 1303; Alsgoullme, 1307; Cchampagne, 1328; vou raised these hallow'd walls; the desert smiled, Guyenne, 1472; AzAnjou and Mlaine, for the last time in 1481; the And paradise was open'din the wild. Archbishop of Lyons surrendered the secular jurisdiction to the king Abailard died in 1142, at St. Marcel, near Chalons sur Saune; but in 1311. Dauplsini escheated to the crown in 1343, and the duchy of tHeloise demanded his ashes, and obtained them for her chapel in the Bgundy, after the fall of Charles the Bold in 4. Fnders, wit Paraclete. its important maritime cities, was incorporated so early as 1299, and the path seemed opened for the possession of all the Low Countries; GAm id that scee, if some welen or ol aesle but the tyranny and arrogance of the French inflamed the brave FiemGlance on the stone where our cold ashes lie, Devotion's self shall steal a thoug ht from neaven, ish citizens to the heroical resistance which saved tlheir old constituOne human tear shall drop-and be forgiven. tion at the peace of 1304, 17

Page  130 130 SEVENTH PERIOD.-A. D. 1096-1300. GERMAN EMPIRE. ary. In the west, we follow again the line of the Scheldt, the I adversity, he was rewarded by that unhappy monarch with the Mosa, the Cote d'Or, the Saone, and the Rhone, to its dis- hand of his daughter Agnes and the duchy of Souabia as chargeinto the Mediterranean. In the south, the imperial dower. This sudden elevation of an obscure warrior immnesceptre of Frederic Barbarossa still extended over northern diately caused the outbreak of protracted feuds between the Italy, in spite of